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Full text of "History of Coshocton County, Ohio: its past and present, 1740-1881. Containing a comprehensive history of Ohio; a complete history of Coshocton County ... a history of its soldiers in the late war ... biographies and histories of pioneer families, etc"

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ITHACA, N. Y. 14583 





Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 







ILIES, Etc., Etc., Etc. 





Entered according to Act of Congress, In the year 1881, by 

A. A. GRAHAM & CO., 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 





This work is presented to the reader with a due sense of its shortcomings, but a hope that it may 
not utterly fail of its mission to please, and satisfy whatever desire may'have been created for a com- 
plete history of Coshocton county. The work has been accomplished with much difficulty and labor, 
but we are not unaware of the criticism that may be in store for it, largely due to the fact that almost 
every reader is personally cognizant of the facts it contains. The student of general history grants 
the truth of its statements without question, for the reason that he personally knows nothing of the 
events themselves; had he this knowledge, he would quickly see the imperfections of the work, and 
at once understand that the production of a county history, if the work be conscientiously done, is a 
most difficult and thankless undertaking. 

The publisher and compiler have labored faithfully to produce a true history, and feel under ob- 
ligations to the people of the county for the generous patronage extended, and especially so to 
Messrs. James E. Johnson, Colonel E. L. Pocock, T. C. Eicketts and Dr. S. H. Lee, of Coshocton ; 
James Le Eetilley, of Eoscoe ; Colonel Pren Metham, of Jefferson township ; J. C. McBane, of Frank- 
lin township; Joseph Love, James Magness, Thomas Piatt and Joseph Heslip, of Linton township, 
and others who freely and generously gave their aid, information and influence in the prosecution 
of the work. To the county officials, Messrs. John Crawford, recorder, John W. Cassingham, auditor, 
Israel Dillon, clerk, John Beaver, treasurer, and William Walker, deputy treasurer, our grateful ac- 
knowledgements are also due for courtesies extended. Among the many publications and other 
printed material used in the compilation, we are indebted to " Historical Collections of Coshocton 
County," by William E. Hunt (a very valuable aid) ; "Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio ; " " His- 
torical Sketches of Coshocton and Vicinity,'' published in 1850, by Eev. H. Calhoun ; " The Practica,! 
Preacher," a Coshocton publication, as well as " Eeid's Ohio in the War,'' and others. The war 
history was gathered largely from the old files of Coshocton papers, and from the lips of the surviving 
veterans, to many of whom the manuscript was submitted prior to publication, and by them pro- 
nounced correct. 

A. A. Graham's history of Ohio occupies the opening chapters, as it seems necessary to a com- 
plete county history, so closely are the interests' and history of State and county connected. The 
early history of the county was largely the work of Hon. Isaac Smucker, of Newark, who has spent 
the greater portion of his long life in historical research, and is especially well versed in the early 
history of Ohio. The chapters on the townships and the town of Coshocton are due to the faithful 
labors of John B. Mansfield, a careful writer, and now a promising attorney, who personally visited 
every portion, of the county and conversed with the citizens, thus gathering from the pioneers facts 
of importance not otherwise attainable. He was ably seconded by Mr. Frank J. Longdon, to whose 
faithful work and general supervision much of the success of the enterprise is due. 

The field of labor has been one prolific of great events, especially in the years immediately pre- 
ceding the white settlement. The valleys of the Muskingum and its tributaries teemed with human 
life in pre-historic times, as the numerous mounds and earth-works clearly attest; and, later, a great 
host of Eed Men were'here; and, at the confluence of these beautiful streams, whose musical names 
will forever perpetuate their memory, stood the capital city of onQ of the most intelligent of these 
tribes of the forest. 

We trust the reader will get from the following pages a faithful account of their occupation, as 
well as the principal facts of the settlement and work of the race that succeeded them. 

N. N. H,Jk. 




CHAPTER I.— Introduction, Topography, Geology, Prim- 
itive Eaces, Antiquities, Indian Tribes 11 

CHAPTER II.— Explorations in the West 19 

CHAPTER III.— English Explorations, Traders, French 
and Indian War in the West, English Possessions 37 

CHAPTER IV.— Pontiac's Conspiracy, Its Failure, Bou- 
quet's Expedition, Occupation by the English 48 

CHAPTER v.— American Exploration, Dunmore's War, 
Campaign of George Rogers Clark, Land Troubles, 
Spain in the Revolution, Murder of the Morovian 
Indians 52 

CHAPTER VI.— American Occupation, Indian Claims, 
Early Land Companies, Compact of 1787, Organiza- 
tion of the Territory, Early American Settlements in 
the Ohio Valley, First Territorial Officers, Organiza- 
tion of Counties 60 

CHAPTER VII.— Indian War of 1795, Harmar's Cam- 
paign, St. Clair's Campaign, Wayne's Campaign, Close 
of the War 73 

CHAPTER Vm.— Jay's Treaty, The Question of State 
Rights and National Supremacy, Extension of Ohio 
Settelments, Land Claims, Spanish Boundary Ques- 
tion 79 

CHAPTER IX.— First Territorial Representatives in 
Congress, Division of the Territory, Formation of 
States, Marietta Settlement, Other Settlements, Set- 
tlements of the Western Reserve, Settement of the 
Central Valleys, Further Settlements in 'the Reserve 
and elsewhere -. 85 

CHAPTER X.— Formation of the State Government, 
Ohio a State, The State Capitals, Legislation, The 
" Sweeping" Resolutions „ 121 

CHAPTER XI.— The War of 1812, Growth of the State, 
Canal, Railroads and Other Improvements, Develop- 
ment of State Resources 127 

CHAPTER XII.— Mexican War, Continued Growth of 
the State, War of the Rebellion, Ohio's Part in the 
Conflict 132 

CHAPTER XIII.— Ohio in the Centennial, Address of 
Edward D. Mansfield, LL. D., Philadelphia, August 9, 
1876 :.. 138 

CHAPTER XIV.— Education, Early School Laws, Notes, 
Institutions and Educational Journals, School Sys- 
tem, School Funds, Colleges and Universities 148 

CHAPTER XV.— Agi-iculture, Aiea of the State, Early 
Agriculture in the West, Markets, Live Stock, Nur- 
series, Fruits, Etc.; Cereals, Roots and Cuourbita- 
^ ceous Crops, Agricultural Implements, Agricultural 
Societies, Pomological and Horticultural Societies . ... 151 

CHAPTER XVI.— Climatology, Outline, Variations in 
Ohio, Estimate in Degrees, Amount of Variability,.., 163 



CHAPTER XVII.— TopoGEPHY and Geology.— Topo- 
graphy— General Geological Structure of the County- 
Local Geology 165 

and Indians— Antiquities— The Different Classes of 
Mounds, Effigies and Inclosures- Lessons Taught by 
These Works — Implements used by the Mound 
Builders and Indians i 180 

CHAPTER XIX.— Indians.— Geographical Location of 
the Various Tribes— The Delawares— Their Towns in 
this County— Brief History of the Tribes of Ohio — 
Ca^itain Pipe— White Eyes— Wingenund and Kill- 
buck— Netawatwees-Manners, Customs, Feasts, etc.— 
Cabins, Wigwams, ■ Food, etc. — Amusements and 
Hunting— Removal Beyond the Mississippi 193 

CHAPTER XX.— Bouquet's Expedition.- The Causes 
Which led to the Expedition— The Pontiac War- 
Bouquet Ordered to the Relief of Fort Pitt— His 
March From Fort Pitt— Incidents of the March- 
Indian Trails— March Down the Tuscarawas— Coun- 
cil with the Chiefs— Bouquet's Camp at the Forks of 
the Muskingum— The Treaty of Peace— The Recovery 
of Prisoners— Sketch of Colonel Bouquet's Life 205 

CHAPTER XXL— Colonel Beodhead's Expedition.— 
Causes of the Expedition— The Objective Point- 
March of the Army— Arrival at the Forks of the Mus- 
kingum— Destruction of Indian Villages— Return of 
the Army— War of Extermination— Col. Brodhead's 
Official Report— Biographical Sketches of Col. David 
Shepherd and Col. Daniel Brodhead : 213 

CHAPTER XXII.— Wetzel and Beady.— Lewis Wetzel— 
His Character— The Wetzel Family— The Murder of 
Lewis' Father— Capture of Wetzel by the Indians— 
His Adventures in the ]^uskingum Valley— Tragedy 
at Indian Spring — The Expedition to the Muskingum 
under McMahon — Wetzel takes a Scalp — The Turkey 
Call — Various Adventures — Imprisoned — Wetzel's 
Personal Appearance and Death. 
Samuel Brady— His Expedition to Walhonding— A Brief 
Sketch of his Life and Services 217 

CHAPTER XXm. — MOEAVIAN Missions. — Establish- 
ment of Lichtenau— Religious Services— Moravian 
Towns on the Tuscarawas— Abandonment of Lich- 
tenau— Biographical Sketches of Rev. David Zelsber- 
ger and Rev. John Heckewelder 228 

CHAPTER XXIV. — FiEST White Occupation.— Mary 
Harris— Christopljer Gist— George Croghan- William 
Trent — James Smith — Bouquet's Army— Chaplain 
Jones— David Duncan — Murder at White Eyes- 
William Robinson- John Leetb— Brodhead's Army— 



John Stllley— The Moravians— The Gertys and Oth- 
ers — Heckewelder's Ride 236 

CHAPTER XXV.— Scraps of History.— Name— Forma- ' 
Hon— First Settlers and Settlements— Population- 
Flora and Fauna— Early Roads and Transportation— 
A Pioneer School-House— Prices for Produce— Early 
Taverns— Starting a Town— Character of the Pioneers 
—Social Gatheringis- Trapping— Wild Pigeons 254 

CHAPTER XXVI.— John Chapman 264 

CHAPTER XXVII.4- Pioneer Times.— Where the Pio- 
neers Came From — Thieir Condition and Character — 
What They^ived On— The " Truck Patch "—Hominy 
Blocks — Mills — Cooking —Cultivation of Domestic 
Animals — Wild Turkeys — Whisky— Superstitions- 
Dress of the Men — The Flax Wheel and Loom — More 
About Clothing—" Kicking Frolicks "—Dress of the 
Women — White Kid Slippers— Dyeing— Fourth of 
July and Militia Musters— Cabins and Their Construc- 
tion-Furniture of the Cabins— Hoosier Poem— Early 
Land Laws — Tomahawk Rights — Hunting — Early 
Weddings— Dancing and ' ' House Warming ' ' — School- 
ing, School Teachers, etc. — Spelling Schools — Conclu- 
sion 267 

CHAPTER XXVIII.— The Canals.— A Great Work— Cel- 
ebration of the Opening of the Ohio Canal at Licking 
Summit — Work on the Canal — First Boat — Walhond- 
ing Canal— Length, Capacity and Business of the 
Canals...., 283 

CHAPTER XXIX.— Railroads.- River Transportation— 
The Pan Handle— Extracts from Hunt's History and 
the Zanesville Courier ■. .-. 288 

CHAPTERXXX.—Agricultuee.— Agricultural Features 
of the County — Present Condition — Crops — Corn, 
Wheat, etc.— Fruit Culture— Stock Raising— Sheep— 
Cattle— Hogs— Horses— County Agricultural Society... 290 

CHAPTER XXXI.— County Buildings and Officers.- 
First Jail — First Court House — The Present Court 
House— Other Public Buildings— List of County Offi- 
cers — Commissioners — -\uditors — Clerks — Treasurer's 
— Recorders — Sheriffs — Prosecuting Attorneys — Sur- 
veyors-Coroners — Infirmary Directors — Representa- 
tives — Congressmen, etc 297 

CHAPTER XXXII.— Bench and Bar.— First Courts- 
Early Judges — Associate Judges — Judge Sample- 
Early Bar- First Lawyers— David Spangler— Present 
Members 306 

CHAPTER XXXIIL— War of 1S12.— Companies Raised 
in Coshocton County— Hull's Surrender— Muster Roll 
of Johnston's Riflemen— March of Colonel Williams' 
Command— Their Services on the Frontier— Defense 
of Fort Meigs— Rev. H. Calhoun's Communication.... 310 

CHAPTER XXXI^'.- War with Mexico.— Causes of the 
War— Muster Roll of Captain Meredith's Company— 
The Third Ohio Regiment— Its Operations in the 
Field— The Fourth Ohio Regiment and its Services- 
Close of the War 314 

CHAPTER XXXV.— War of the Rebellion.— Prepara- 
tions in Coshoctoh— Three Months' Men— Muster Rolls 
—Operations of the Sixteenth Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry 321 


CHAPTER XXXVI. —War op the Rebellion, Con- 
tinued.— Organization of " Given's Rangers "—Their 
Assignment to the Twenty-fourth Ohio, and Depart- 
ure to the Field— Sketch of Josiah Given— Orgoniza- 
tion — Captain W. M. Stanley's Assignment to the 
Thirty-second Ohio, and Departure for the Field — 
Twenty-fourth and 'Thirty-second at Cheat Mountain 
—Twenty-fourth in the Field and Mustered out — 
Thirty-second in the Field and Mustered out 326 

CHAPTER XXXVII — War of the Rebellion, Con- 
tinued.— Fifty -first Regiment— Muster Rolls— Its Ope- 
rations in the Field 337 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. — War of the Rebellion Con- 
tinued.— Eightieth Ohio— Time of Enlistment— Mus- 
ter Rolls of Coshocton Companies— Paducah and Cor- 
inth — On to Vicksburg — Resignation of Captain 
Mathews — Battles of Jackson and Mission Ridge — 
Defense of Resaca— Sherman's March to the Sea- 
Closing Scenes of the Eightieth's History 345 

CHAPTER XXXIX. — War of the Rebellion, Con- 
tinued. — Sixty-ninth Ohio Volunteer Infantry — Mus- 
ter Roll— Services in the Field— Seventy-sixth Ohio- 
Muster Roll and Record '. 356 

CHAPTER XL.— War of the Rebellion, Continued.— 
The Ninety-seventh — Rosters of Companies Hand I — 
Review by John M. Compton — Historical Record of 
the Regiment— Correspondence and Reminiscences... 362 

CHAPTER XLI.— War of the Rebellion, Continued.- 
One Hundred and Twenty-second— Muster Rolls — 
Record of its Services— Seventy-eighth Regiment— Its 
Services in the Field 368 

CHAPTER XLII.— War of the Rebellion, Continued.— 
Fifteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry — Its Operations in 
the Field— Thirty-seventh Ohio— A Record of its Ser- 
vices 379 

CHAPTER XLIII.— War of the Rebellion, Continued. 
—Sixty-ninth Battallion, or One Hundred and Forty- 
second 0. N. G. and One Hundred and Forty-third 
O. N. G.~Review of the Sixty-ninth BattiiUion-Rosters 
of Five Companies— Record of the One Hundred and' 
Forty-second and One Hundred and Forty-third- 
Correspondence from the Front...; 390 

CHAPTER XLIV.— War of the Rebellion, Concluded. 
—Cavalry and Artillery— History of the Ninth Ohio 
Cavalry — Roster of Company M — Correspondence 
from the Front— History of the Twenty-sixth Battery 
—Its Organization from the Thirty -second Infantry- 
Petition of Veterans, and endorsement of Coshocton 
County— Military Committee for New Organization... 396 

CHAPTER XLV.— Early History of Coshocton.— Its 
Site an Indian Village— Early Settlement— Colonel 
Charles Williams— Ebenezer Buckingham- Dr. Sam- 
uel Lee —Tradition of Louis Phillippe — The Cold 
Plague— A Lost Child — The Whoo-whoo Society— 
The Journal of Colonel Williams 4H 

'CHAPTER XLVI.— Growth of Coshocton— Press-Fra- 
ternities. — Location of Tuscarawa — Description of 
Original Plat— Additions to Coshocton— Increase of 
Population — Incorporation — List of Mayors— Post- 
masters— City Hall— The Press— The Coshocton Re- 
publican—Spy—Democratic Whig 421 




CHAPrER XLVII. — Meboantile and Other iNons- 
TBIAL iNiEEEsra.— Eirly Taverns— Present Hotels- 
First Store— Early Merchants — James Calder — Hedge 
and Hammond — James Renfrew" — Benjamin Ricketts 
—Robert Hay— Present Business Directory— Banking 
— The Johnson Brothers— Rioketts Bank— First Na- 
tional' Bank— Commercial Bank— Savings and Build- 
ing and Loan Association— Ferries— Coshootion Iron 
and Steel Works— Paper Mill— Various Other Indus- 
tries— Past and Present 429 

CHAPTER XL VIII. — Schools and Churches of Co- 
shocton.— Early Schools— First School Houses and 
Teachers- Election of Buildings— Progress and Statis- 
tics — Churches — Early Preaching — Presbyterian — 
Methodist Protestant— Methodist Episcopal— Catholic 
—German Lutheran— Baptist— Episcopal 


CHAPTER XLIX.— Adams Township.— Location— Phys- 
ical Features— Its Military Sections— Organization — 
First Officers— Early Justices- Indian Encampments 
—Early White Occupation— Settlers— Mills— Oil— Phy- 
sicians— Schools— Churches— Bakersville 453 

CHAPTER L.— Bedpokd Township.- Location— Organi- 
zation— Name— Topography— Early Settlers— Indians 
-First Road— Schools— Mills — Distilleries — Cannel 
Coal Oil Operations — Churches— West Bedford., 461 

CHAPTER LI.— Bethlehem Township.— Name— Boun- 
daries — Streams — Surface — Soils — ' ' Deuman's Prai- 
rie"— Name of the Killbuck— Legend of the White 
Woman— Hunting Grounds— ..lounds— The Morrisons 
—Mrs. Kimberlyand the Det.— Other Early Settlers 
—Squatters— Saw Mill- Brldgeo .lud Canal— Schools 
—Churches 470 

CHAPTER LII.— Clark Township.— Location— Topo- 
grahical Features— Organization— Name— Early Set- 
tlements— Indians— First Schools- Mills — Helmick— 
Bloomiield — Churches — Population 476 

CHAPTER LIII. — Crawford Township. — Location— 
Survey- Soil — Settlers — Population — First School— 
Industries— Churches— New Bedford— ChlU 486 

CHAPTER LIV.— Franklin Township.— Boundaries- 
Physical Features — Canal and Railroad— Early Set- 
tlers and Settlements— Major Robinson's Captivity- 
Indians— Schools and Churches— Taverns— Distiller- 
ies and MUls—Postofaces— Coal— Oil 491 

CHAPTER LV.— Jackson Township.— Size-Location- 
Organization — Streams — Canals — Settlement — Mills — 
Roscoe— Its Growth— Business— Schools — Physicians 
— Fire Losses, etc.— Fourth of July Celebration — 
Churches 500 

CHAPTER LVI. — Jefferson Township. — Primatlve 
Race — Flint Mining — Other Remains — Topography — 
Organizatien — Early Settlers — Whisky- Mills — Schools 
—Coal Oil Speculations— Warsaw— Mohawk Village— 
Postofflces— Churches .' 510 

CHAPTER LVII.-Keene TOWNSHIP.-Boundary-Streams 
—Springs— Soil— Military Land— Arch£eology— Settle- 
ments — First Pliysicians — Mills and Distilleries- 
Early Schools— " Loud Schools "—Early Preaching— 
Keene—N.ewport— Churches 623 


CHAPTER LVIII.— Lafayette Township.— Organiza- 
tion — Name — First Officers — Location — Topography — 
Early Settlers— School Section— Prominent Men- 
Taverns — Mills — Schools — West Lafayette — Churches 

— Birm.ingham — Bridges — Mounds — War Matter ,, 531 

CHAPTER LIX.— Linton Township.— Location— Name ' 
—Topography— Primative Races-Indians— Doughty 
—Early Settlers and Settlements— Soldiers — Wills 
Creek— Early Navigation— Ferries and Bridges— Mills 
— Distilleries— Salt— Tanneries— Schools— Churches — 

Villages — Population 540 

CHAPTER LX.— Mill Creek Township.— Boundary- 
Streams— Survey— Organization— Settlement — Popu- 

lation-TPostoffices—Mills—Sehools— Churches. 555 

CHAPTER LXI.— Monroe Township.— Boundary Topo- 
graphy-Population — Settlers— Mills — New Prince- 
ton — Spring Mountain — Churches 559 

CHAPTER LXIL— New CaStle Township.— Location 
Physical Features— Scenery— Indian Mound— Indian 
Villages— Eeminisoences— Block House— Early Nurs- 
ery—Thomas Butler Panther Hunt— Robert GifiFen 

-Other Early Settlers— Mills— Distilleries— Other In- 
dustries— Bridges— Schools— Churches-New Castle— 

Walhonding— Mount Airy 565 

CHAPTER LXIII.— Oxford Township.— Location-Phys- 
ical Features — Organization — Settlement— Mills — 
Distilleries— Taverus-Bridges-Schools-Millsville — 

Evensburg— Orange — Postofflces— Churches 576 

CHAPTER LXIV.— Perry Township.— Name— Organiza- 
tion — Physical Features — Early .Settlements — East 

Union— Churches— Schools— Mills 580 

CHAPTER LXV.— Pike Township.— Boundaries— Topo- 
graphy— Settlers— Slab Camp— Bear Story— Distiller- 
ies— Mills— Schools— Chnrchos—West Carlisle 586 

CHAPTER LXVI.— Tiverton Township.— Name— Loca- 
tion— Streams— Physical Features — Aboriginal Re- 
mains—Johnny Appleseed— Early Settlers— Popula- 
tion — First School — Churches Tiverton Center — 

Rochester 594 

ies— Soil— Railroad and Canal— Military Sections- 
Early Settlements- Fulton's Mill— Early Milling- 
Indian History — Bouquet's' Expedition — Indian 
Towns- Burial Ground — Blounds — Murder of the In- 
dian, Phillips— Mining, its Development in the 

Township— Canal LewisviUe— Churches 599 

CHAPTER LXVIII.— Virginia Township.— Surveys — 
Organization— Description— First Settlers— Churches 

— Schools-^Industries — Moscow — Willow Brook 610 

CHAPTER LXIX.— Washington Township.— Early Set- 
tlers—Location-Topography—Early Justices— Indian 
Camp— First Road- Mills and Distilleries— Wakatom- 

ica Postofflce— Schools— Churches 614 

CHAPTER LXX.— White Eyes Township.— Organiza- 
tion and Original Boundaries— Topography— Ancient 
Fort— Settlement— Population— Postofflces- Avondale 

—Mills— Churches 618 

Biographical Sketches 627 

Addenda 825 

Errata 833 



BY -A.. 





THE present State of Ohio, comprising an 
extent of country 210 miles nortli and south, 
220 miles east and west, in length and breadth — 
25,576,969 acres — is a part of the Old Northwest 
Territory. This Territory embraced all of the 
present States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, 
Wisconsin and so much of Minnesota as lies east 
of the Mississippi River. It became a corporate 
existence soon after the formation of the Virginia 
Colony, and when that colony took on the dignity 
of State government it became a county thereof, 
whose exact outline was unknown. The county 
embraced in its limits more territory than is com- 
prised in all the New England and Middle States, 
and was the largest county ever known in the 
United States. It is watered by the finest system 
of rivers on the globe ; while its inland seas are 
without a parallel. Its entire southern boundary 
is traversed by the beautiful Ohio, its western by 
the majestic Mississippi, and its northern and a 
part of its eastern are bounded by the fresh-water 
lakes, whose clear waters preserve an even temper- 
ature over its entire surface. Into these reservoirs 
of commerce flow innumerable streams of limpid 
water, which come from glen and dale, from 
mountain and valley, from forest and prairie — all 
avenues of health, commerce and prosperity. 
Ohio is in the best part of this territory — south 
of its river are tropical heats ; north of Lake Erie 
are polar snows and a polar climate. 

The territory comprised in Ohio has always re- 
mained the same. Ohio's history differs somewhat 
from other States, in that it was never under Ter- 
ritorial government. When it was created, it was 
made a State, and did not pass through the stage 
incident to the most of other States, V. e., exist as 
a Territory before being advanced to the powers of 

a State. Such was not the case with the other 
States of the West ; all were Territories, with Terri- 
torial forms of government, ere they became States. 

Ohio's boundaries are, on the north. Lake Brie, 
and Michigan ; on the west, Indiana ; on the south, 
the Ohio River, separating it from Kentucky; 
and, on the east, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. 
It is situated between 38° 25' and 42° north 
latitude ; and 80° 30' and 84° 50' west longitude 
from Greenwich, or 3° 30' and 7° 50' west from 
Washington. Its greatest length, from north 
to south, is 210 miles; the ^extreme width, from 
east to west, 220 miles. Were this an exact out- 
line, the area of the State would be 46,200 square 
mUes, or 29,568,000 acres; as the outlines of the 
State are, however, rather irregular, the area is 
estimated at 39,964 square miles, or 25,576,960 
acres. In the last census — 1870 — the total num- 
ber of acres in Ohio is given as 21,712,420, of 
which 14,469,132 acres are improved, and 6,883,- 
575 acres are woodland. By the last statistical 
report of the State Auditor, 20,965,3711 acres are 
reported as taxable lands. This omits many acres 
untaxable for various reasons, which would make the 
estimate, 25,576,960, nearly correct. 

The face of the country, in Ohio, taken as a 
whole, presents the appearance of an extensive 
monotonous plain. It is moderately undulating 
but not mountainous, and is excavated in places by 
the streams coursing over its surface, whose waters 
have forced a way for themselves through cliffs of 
sandstone rock, leaving abutments of this material 
in bold outline. There are no mountain ranges, 
geological uplifts or peaks. A low ridge enters the 
State, near the northeast corner, and crosses it in a 
southwesterly direction, emerging near the inter- 
section of the 40th degree of north latitude with 



the western boundary of the State. This " divide " 
separates the lake and Ohio River waters, and main- 
tains an elevation of a little more than thirteen 
hundred feet above the level of the ocean. The 
highest part is in Logan County, where the eleva- 
tion is 1,550 feet. 

North of this ridge the surface is generally level, 
with a gentle inclination toward the lake, the ine- 
qualities of the surface being caused by the streams 
which empty into the lake. The central part of 
Ohio is almost, in general, a level plain, about one 
thousand feet above the level of the sea, sHghtly 
incHning southward. The Southern part of the 
State is rather hilly, the valleys growing deeper as 
they incline toward the great valley of the Ohio, 
which is several hundred feet below the general 
level of the State. In the southern counties, the 
surface is generally diversified by the inequalities 
produced by the excavating power of the Ohio 
River and its tributaries, exercised through long 
periods of time. There are a few prairies, or plains, 
in the central and northwestern parts of the State, 
but over its greater portion originally existed im- 
mense growths of timber. 

The " divide," or water-shed, referred to, between 
the waters of Lake Erie and the Ohio River, is 
less elevated in Ohio than in New York and Penn- 
sylvania, though the difference is small. To a per- 
son passing over the State in a balloon, its surface 
presents an unvarying plain, whUe, to one sailing 
down the Ohio River, it appears mountainous. 
On this river are bluffs ranging from two hundred 
and fifty to six hundred feet in height. As one 
ascends the tributaries of the river, these bluffs 
di mi nish in height until they become gentle undu- 
lations, whUe toward the sources of the streams, 
in the central part of the State, the banks often 
become low and marshy. 

The principal rivers are the Ohio, Muskingum, 
Scioto and Miami, on the southern slope, emptying 
into the Ohio ; on the northern, the Maumee, 
Sandusky, Huron and Cuyahoga, emptying into 
Lake Erie, and, all but the first named, entirely in 

The Ohio, the chief river of the State, and from 
which it derives its name, with its tributaries, drains 
a country whose area is over two hundred thousand 
square miles in extent, and extending from the 
water-shed to Alabama. The river was first dis- 
covered by La Salle in 1669, and was by him nav- 
igated as far as the Palls, at Louisville, Ky. It is 
formed by the junction of the Alleghany and 
Monongahela rivers, in Pennsylvania, whose waters 

unite at Pittsburgh. The entire length of the 
river, from its source to its mouth, is 950 miles, 
though by a straight line from Pittsburgh to Cairo, 
it is only 615 miles. Its current is very gentle, 
hardly three mUes per hour, the descent being only 
five inches per mile. At high stages, the rate of 
the current increases, and at low stages decreases. 
Sometimes it is barely two miles per hour. The 
average range between high and low water mark is 
fifty feet, although several times the river has risen 
more than sixty feet above low water mark. At 
the lowest stage of the river, it is fordable many 
places between Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. The 
river abounds in islands, some of which are exceed- 
ingly fertile, and noted in the history of the West. 
Others, known as "tow-heads," are simply deposits 
of sand. 

The Scioto is one of the largest inland streams 
in the State, and is one of the most beautiful riv- 
ers. It rises in Hardin County, flows southeast- 
erly to Columbus, where it receives its largest 
affluent, the Olentangy ©r Whetstone, after which 
its direction is southerly until it enters the Ohio at 
Portsmouth. It flows through one of the rich- 
est valleys in the State, and has for its compan- 
ion the Ohio and Erie Canal, for a distance of 
ninety miles. Its tributaries are, besides the Whet- 
stone, the Darby, Walnut and Paint Creeks. 

The Muskingum River is formed by the junc- 
tion of the Tuscarawas and Waldhoning Rivers, 
which rise in the northern part of the State and 
unite at Coshocton. From the junction, the river 
flows in a southeastern course about one hundred 
miles, through a rich and populous valley, to the 
Ohio, at Marietta, the oldest settlement in the 
State. At its outlet, the Muskingum is over two 
hundred yards wide. By improvements, it has 
been made navigable ninety-five miles above Mari- 
etta, as far as Dresden, where a side cut, three 
miles long, uiites its waters with those of the Ohio 
Canal. All along this stream exist, in abundant 
profusion, the remains of an ancient civiliza- 
tion, whose history is lost in the twilight of antiq- 
uity. Extensive mounds, earthworks and various 
fortifications, are everywhere to be found, inclosing 
a mute history as silent as the race that dwelt here 
and left these traces of their evistence. The same 
may be said of all the other valleys in Ohio. 

The Miami River — ^the scenes of many exploits 
in pioneer days — rises in Hardin County, near the 
headwaters of the Scioto, and runs southwesterly, 
to the Ohio, passing Troy, Dayton and Hamilton. 
It is a beautiful and rapid stream, flowing through 



a highly productive and populous valley, in which 
limestone and hard timber are abundant. Its total 
length is about one hundred and fifty miles. 

The Maumee is the largest river in the northern 
part of Ohio. It rises in Indiana and flows north- 
easterly, into Lake Erie. About eighty miles of 
its course are in Ohio. It is navigable as far as 
Perrysburg, eighteen miles from its mouth. The 
other rivers north of the divide are all small, 
rapid-running streams, affording a large amount of 
good water-power, much utilized by mills and man- 

A remarkable feature of the topography of 
Ohio is its almost total absence of natural lakes or 
ponds. A few very small ones are found near the 
water-shed, but aU too small to be of any practical 
value save as watering-places for stock. 

Lake Erie, which forms nearly all the northern 
boundary of the State, is next to the last or lowest 
of America's "inland seas." It is 290 miles long, 
and 57 miles wide at its greatest part. There are 
no islands, except in the shallow water at the west 
end, and very few bays. The greatest depth of 
the lake is off Long Point, where the water is 312 
feet deep. The shores are principally drift-clay or 
hard-pan, upon which the waves are continually 
encroaching. At Cleveland, from the first sur- 
vey, in 1796, to 1842, the encroachment was 218 
feet along the entire city front. The entire coast 
is low, seldom rising above fifty feet at the water's 

Lake Erie, like the others, has a variable sur- 
face, rising and falling with the seasons, like great 
rivers, called the "annual fluctuation," and a gen- 
eral one, embracing a series of years, due to mete- 
orological causes, known as the " secular fluctua- 
tion." Its lowest known level was in February, 
1819, rising more or less each year, until June, 
1838, in the extreme, to six feet eight inches. 

Lake Erie has several excellent harbors in Ohio, 
among which are Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky, 
Port Clinton and Ashtabula. Valuable improve- 
ments have been made in some of these, at the 
expense of the Greneral Government. In 1818, 
the first steamboat was launched on the lake. 
Owing to the Falls of Niagara, it could go no 
farther east than the outlet of Niagara River. 
Since then, however, the opening of the Welland 
Canal, in Canada, allows vessels drawing not more 
than ten feet of water to pass from one lake to 
the other, greatly facilitating navigation. 

As early as 1836, Dr. S. P. Hildreth, Dr. John 
Locke, Prof. J. H. Riddle and Mr. I. A. Lapham, 

were appointed a committee by the Legislature of 
Ohio to report the " best method of obtaining a 
complete geological survey of the State, and an 
estimate of the probable cost of the same." In the 
preparation of their report. Dr. Hildreth examined 
the coal-measures in the southeastern part of the 
State, Prof. Riddle and Mr. Lapham made exam- 
inations in the western and northern counties, 
while Dr. Locke devoted his attention to chemical 
analyses. These investigations resulted in the 
presentation of much valuable information con- 
cerning the mineral resources of the State and in 
a plan for a geological survey. In accordance 
with the recommendation of this Committee, the 
Legislature, in 1837, passed a bill appropriating 
$12,000 for the prosecution of the work during 
the next year. The Geological Corps appointed 
consisted of W. W. Mather, State Geologist, with 
Dr. Hildreth, Dr. Locke, Prof J. P. Kirtland, J. 
W. Foster, Charles Whittlesey and Charles Briggs, 
Jr., Assistants. The results of the first year's 
work appeared in 1838, in an octavo volume of 134 
pages, with contributions from Mather, Hildreth, 
Briggs, Kirtland and Whittlesey. In 1838, the 
Legislature ordered the continuance of the work, 
and, at the close of the year, a second report, of 
286 pages, octavo, was issued, containing contribu- 
tions from all the members of the survey. 

Succeeding Legislatures failed to provide for a 
continuance of the work, and, save that done by 
private means, nothing was accomplished till 
1869, when the Legislature again took up the 
work. In the interim, individual enterprise had 
done much. In 1841, Prof. James Hall passed 
through the State, and, by his indentifioation of 
several of the formations vrith those of New York, 
for the first time fixed their geological age. The 
next year, he issued the first map of the geology 
of the State, in common with the geological maps 
of all the region between the AUeghanies and the 
Mississippi. Similar maps were published by Sir 
Charles Lyell, in 1845; Prof. Edward Hitchcock, 
in 1853, and by J. Mareon, in 1856. The first 
individual map of the geology of Ohio was a very 
small one, published by Col. Whittlesey, in 1848, 
in Howe's History. In 1856, he published a 
larger map, and, in 1865, another was issued by 
Prof. Nelson Sayler. In 1867, Dr. J. S. Newberry 
published a geological map and sketch of Ohio in 
the Atlas of the State issued by H. S. Stebbins. 
Up to this time, the geological knowledge was very 
general in its character, and, consequently, errone- 
ous in many of its details. Other States had been 



accurately surveyed, yet Oliio remained a kind of 
terra incognita, of -which the geology was less 
known than any part of the surrounding area. 

In 1869, the Legislature appropriated, for a new 
survey, $13,900 for its support during one year, 
and appointed Dr. Newberry Chief Geologist ; E. 
B. Andrews, Edward Orton and J. H. Klippart 
were appointed Assistants, and T. Gr. "Wormley, 
Chemist. The result of the first year's work 
was a volume of 164 pages, octavo, published in 

This report, accompanied by maps and charts, 
for the first time accurately defined the geological 
formations as to age and area. Evidence was given 
which set at rest questions of nearly thirty years' 
standing, and established the fact that Ohio in- 
cludes nearly double the number of formations be- 
fore supposed to exist. Since that date, the sur- 
veys have been regularly made. Each county is 
being surveyed by itself, and its formation ac- 
curately determined. Elsewhere in these pages, 
these results are given, and to them the reader is 
referred for the specific geology of the county. 
Only general results can be noted here. 

On the general geological map of the State, are 
two sections of the State, taken at each northern 
and southern extremity. These show, with the 
map, the general outHne of the geological features 
of Ohio, and are all that can be given here. Both 
sections show the general arrangements of the 
formation, and prove that they lie in sheets resting 
one upon another, but not horizontally, as a great 
arch traverses the State from Cincinnati to the 
lake shore, between Toledo and Sandusky. Along 
this line, which extends southward to Nashville, 
Tenn., all the rocks are raised in a ridge or fold, 
once a low mountain chain. In the lapse of 
ages, it has, however, been extensively worn 
away, and now, along a large part of its course, 
the strata which once arched over it are re- 
moved from its summit, and are found resting in 
regular order on either side, dipping away from its 
axis. Where the ridge was highest, the erosion 
has been greatest, that being the reason why the 
oldest rocks are exposed in the region about Cin- 
cinnati. By following the line of this great arch 
from Cincinnati northward, it will be seen that the 
Helderberg limestone (No. 4), midway of the State, 
is still unbroken, and stretches from side to side ; 
while the Oriskany, the Comiferous, the Hamilton 
and the Huron formations, though generally re- 
moved from the crown of the arch, still remain 
over a limited area near Bellefontaine, where they 

form an island, which proves the former continuity 
of the strata which compose it. 

On the east side of the great anticlinal axis, the 
rocks dip down into a basin, which, for several 
hundred mUes north and south, occupies the inter- 
val between the Nashville and Cincinnati ridge and 
the first fold of the Alleghany Mountains. In 
this basin, all the strata form trough-like layers, 
their edges outcropping eastward on the flanks 
of the Alleghanies, and westward along the anti- 
clinal axis. As they dip from this margin east- 
ward toward the center of the trough, near its 
middle, on the eastern border of the State, the 
older rocks are deeply buried, and the surface is 
here underlaid by the highest and most recent of 
our rock formations, the coal measures. In the 
northwestern corner of the State, the strata dip 
northwest from the antichnal and pass under the 
Michigan coal basin, precisely as the same forma- 
tions east of the anticlinal dip beneath the Alle- 
ghany coal-field, of which Ohio's coal area forms a 

The rocks underlying the State all belong to 
three of the great groups which geologists have 
termed " systems," namely, the Silurian, Devonian 
and Carboniferous. Each of these are again sub- 
divided, for convenience, and numbered. Thug 
the .Silurian system includes the Cincinnati group, 
the Medina and Clinton groups, the Niagara 
group, and the Salina and Water-Line groups. 
The Devonian system includes the Oriskany sand- 
stone, the Carboniferous limestone, the Hamilton 
group, the Huron shale and the Erie shales. The 
Carboniferous system includes the Waverly group, 
the Carboniferous Conglomerate, the Coal Meas- 
ures and the Drift. This last includes the surface, 
and has been divided into six parts, numbering 
from the lowest, viz.: A glacialed surface, the Gla- 
cial Drift, the Erie Clays, the Forest Bed, the Ice- 
berg Drift and the Terraces or Beaches, which 
mark intervals of stability in the gradual recession 
of the water surface to its present level. 
_ " The history we may learn from these forma- 
tions," says the geologist, " is something as fol- 

" First. Subsequent to the Tertiary was a period 
of continual elevation, during which the topog- 
raphy of the country was much the same as now, 
the draining streams following the lines they now 
do, but cutting down their beds until they flowed 
sometimes two hundred feet lower than they do at 
present. In the latter part of this period of ele- 
vation, glaciers, descending from the Canadian 

9 ly 



islands, excavated and occupied the valleys of the 
great lakes, and covered the lowlands down nearly 
to the Ohio. 

'^Second. By a depression of the land and ele- 
vation of temperature, the glaciers retreated north- 
ward, leaving, in the interior of the continent, a 
great basin of fresh water, in which the Erie clays 
were deposited. 

" Third. This water was drained away until a 
broad land surface was exposed within the drift 
area. Upon this surface grew forests, largely of 
red and white cedar, inhabited by the elephant, 
mastodon, giant beaver and other large, now ex- 
tinct, animals. 

"Fourth. The submergence of this ancient land 
and the spreading over it, by iceberg agency, of 
gravel, sand and bowlders, distributed just as ice- 
bergs now spread their loads broadcast over the 
sea bottom on the banks of Newfoundland. 

"Fifth. The gradual draining-oiF of the waters, 
leaving the land now as we find it, smoothly cov- 
ered with all the layers of the drift, and well pre- 
pared for human occupation." 

" In sis days, the Lord made the heavens and 
the earth, and rested the seventh day," records the 
Scriptures, and, when all was done. He looked 
upon the work of His own hands and pronounced 
it " good." Surely none but a divine, omnipotent 
hand could have done all this, and none can study 
the "work of His hands" and not marvel at its 

The ancient dwellers of the Mississippi Valley 
will always be a subject of great interest to the 
antiquarian. Who they were, and whence they 
came, are still unanswered questions, and may 
remain so for ages. All over this valley, and, 
in fact, in all parts of the New World, evidences 
of an ancient civilization exist, whose remains are 
now a wonder to all. The aboriginal races could 
throw no light on these questions. They had 
always seen the remains, and knew not whence 
they came. Explorations aid but little in the solu- 
tion of the problem, and only conjecture can be 
entertained. The remains found in Ohio equal 
any in the Valley. Indeed, some of them are vast 
in extent, and consist of forts, fortifications, moats, 
ditches, elevations and mounds, embracing many 
acres in extent. 

"It is not yet determined," says Col. Charles 
Whittlesey, " whether we have discovered the first 
or the original people who occupied the soil of 
Ohio. Modern investigations are bringing to light 
evidences of earlier races. Since the presence of 

man has been established in Europe as a cotempor- 
ary of the fossil elephant, mastodon, rhinoceros 
and the horse, of the later drift or glacial period, 
we may reasonably anticipate the presence of man 
in America in that era. Such proofs are already 
known, but they are not of that conclusive charac- 
ter which amounts to .a demonstration. It is, how- 
ever, known that an ancient people inhabited Ohio 
in advance of the red men who were found here, 
three centuries since, by the Spanish and French 

" Five and six hundred years before the arrival 
of Columbus," says Col. Charles Whittlesey, "the 
Northmen sailed from Norway, Iceland and Green- 
land along the Atlantic coast as far as Long Island. 
They found Indian tribes, in what is now New En- 
gland, closely resembling those who lived upon the 
coast and the St. Lawrence when the French and 
English came to possess these regions. 

" These red Indians had no traditions of a prior 
people ; but over a large part of the lake country 
and the valley of the Mississippi, earth-works, 
mounds, pyramids, ditches and forts were discov- 
ered — the work of a more ancient race, and a peo- 
ple far in advance of the Indian. If they were 
not civilized, they were not barbarians. They 
were not mere hunters, but had fixed habitations, 
cultivated the soil and were possessed of consider- 
able mechanical skill. We know them as the 
Mound-Builders, because they erected over the 
mortal remains of their principal men and women 
memorial mounds of earth or unhewn stone — of 
which hundreds remain to our own day, so large 
and high that they give rise to an impression of 
the numbers and energy of their builders, such as 
we receive from the pyramids of Egypt." 

Might they not have been of the same race and 
the same civilization ? Many competent authori- 
ties conjecture they are the work of the lost tribes 
of Israel ; but. the best they or any one can do is 
only conjecture. 

" In the burial-mounds," continues Col. Whit^ 
tlesey, " there are always portions of one or more 
human skeletons, generally partly consumed by 
fire, with ornaments of stone, bone, shells, mica 
and copper. The largest mound in Ohio is near 
Miamisburg, Montgomery County. It is the 
second largest in the West, being nearly seventy 
feet high, originally, and about eight hundred feet 
in circumference. This would give a superficial 
area of nearly four acres. In 1864, the citizens 
of Miamisburg sunk a shaft from the summit to 
the natural surface, without finding the bones 



or ashes of the great man for whom it was 
intended. The exploration has considerably 
lowered the mound, it being now about sixty feet 
in height. 

" Port Ancient, on the Little Miami, is a good 
specimen of the military defenses of the Mound- 
Builders. It is well located on a long, high, nar- 
row, precipitous ridge. The parapets are now 
from ten to eighteen feet high, and its perimeter 
is sufficient to hold twenty thousand fighting men. 
Anothel" prominent example of their works exists 
near Newark, Licking County. This collection 
presents a great variety of figures, circles, rectan- 
gles, octagons and parallel banks, or highw;ays, 
covering more than a thousand acres. The county 
fair-ground is permanently located within an 
ancient circle, a quarter of a mile in diameter, 
with an embankment and interior ditch. Its high- 
est place was over twenty feet from the top of the 
moat to the bottom of the ditch." 

One of the most curious-shaped works in this 
county is known as the "Alligator," from its sup- 
posed resemblance to that creature. When meas- 
ured, several years ago, while in a good state of 
preservation, its dimensions were two hundred 
and ten feet in length, average width over sixty 
feet, and height, at the highest point, seven feet. 
It appears to be mainly composed of clay, and is 
overgrown with grass. 

Speaking of the writing of these people. Col. 
Whittlesey says : " There is no evidence that they 
had alphabetical characters, picture-writing or 
hieroglyphics, though they must have had some 
mode of recording events. Neither is there any proof 
that they used domestic animals for tilling the soil, 
or for the purpose of erecting the imposing earth- 
works they have left. ' A very coarse cloth of 
hemp, flax or nettles has been found on their 
burial-hearths and around skeletons not consumed 
by fire. 

" The most extensive earthworks occupy many 
of the sites of modern towns, and are always in 
the vicinity of excellent land. Those about the 
lakes are generally irregular earth forts, while 
those about the rivers in the southern part of the 
State are generally altars, pyramids, circles, cones 
and rectangles of earth, among which fortresses or 
strongholds are exceptions. 

" Those on the north may not have been cotem- 
porary or have been built by the same people. 
They are far less prominent or extensive, which 
indicates a people less in numbers as well as indus- 
try, and whose principal occupation was war among 

themselves or against their neighbors. This style 
of works extends eastward along the south shore 
of Lake Ontario, through New York. In Ohio, 
there is a space along the water-shed, between the 
lake and the Ohio, where there are few, if any, 
ancient earthworks. It appears to have been a 
vacant or neutral ground between different nations. 

" The Indians of 'the North, dressed in skins, 
cultivated the soil very sparingly, and manufactured 
no woven cloth. On Lake Superior, there are 
ancient copper mines wrought by the Mound- 
Builders over fifteen hundred years ago." Copper 
tools are occasionally found tempered sufficiently 
hard to cut the hardest rooks. No knowledge of 
such tempering exists now. The Indians can give 
no more knowledge of the ancient mines than they 
can of the mounds on the river bottoms. 

" The Indians did not occupy the ancient earth- 
works, nor did they construct such. They were 
found as they are now — a hunter race, wholly 
averse to labor. Their abodes were in rock shel- 
ters, in caves, or in temporary sheds of bark and 
boughs, or skins, easily moved from place to place. 
Like most savage races, their habits are unchange- 
able; at least, the example of white men, and 
their efibrts during three centuries, have made 
little, if any, impression." 

When white men came to the territory now em- 
braced in the State of Ohio, they found dwelling 
here the Iroquois, Delawares, Shawanees, Miamis, 
Wyandots and Ottawas. Each nation was com- 
posed of several tribes or clans, and each was 
often at war with the others. The first mentioned 
of these occupied that part of the State whose 
northern boundary was Lake Erie, as far west as 
the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, where the city 
of Cleveland now is ; thence the boundary turned 
Southward in an irregular line, until it touched the 
Ohio River, up which stream it continued to the 
Pennsylvania State line, and thence northward to 
the lake. This nation were the implacable foes of 
the French, owing to the fact that Champlain, in 
1609, made war against them. They occupied a 
large part of New York and Pennsylvania, and 
were the most insatiate conquerors among the 
aborigines. When the French first came, to the 
lakes, these monsters of the wilderness were engaged 
in a war against their neighbors, a war that ended 
in their conquering them, possessing their terri- 
tory, and absorbing the remnants of the tribes into 
their own nation. At the date of Champlain's 
visit, the southern shore of Lake Erie was occupied 
by the Eries, or, as the orthography of the word is 




sometimes given, Erigos, or Errienous.* About 
forty years afterward, the Iroquois (Five Nations) 
fell upon them with such fury and in such force 
that the nation was annihilated. Those who 
escaped the slaughter were absorbed among their 
conquerors, but allowed to live on their own lands, 
paying a sort of tribute to the Iroquois. This was 
the policy of that nation in all its conquests. A 
few years after the conquest of the Eries, the 
Iroquois again took to. the war-path, and swept 
through Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, even attacking 
the Mississippi tribes. But for the intervention 
and aid of the French, these tribes would have 
shared the fate of the Hurons and Eries. Until 
the year 1700, the Iroquois held the south shore 
of Lake Erie so firmly that the French dared not 
trade or travel along that side of the lake. Their 
missionaries and traders penetrated this part of 
Ohio as early as 1650, but generally suffered 
death for their zeal. 

Having completed the conquest of the Hurons 
or Wyandots, about Lake Huron, and murdered 
the Jesuit missionaries by modes of torture which 
only they could devise, they permitted the residue 
of the Hurons to settle around the west end of 
Lake Erie. Here, with the Ottawas, they resided 
whey the whites came to the State. Their country 
was bounded on the south by a line running 
through the central part of Wayne, Ashland, 
Richland, Crawford and Wyandot Counties. At 
the western boundary of this county, the line di- 
verged northwesterly, leaving the State near the 
northwest corner of Fulton County. Their north- 
ern boundary was the lake ; the eastern, the Iro- 

The Delawares, or " Lenni Lenapes," whom the 
Iroquois had subjugated on the Susquehanna, were 
assigned by their conquerors hunting-grounds on 
the Muskingum. Their eastern boundary was the 
country of the Iroquois (before defined), and their 
northern, that of the Hurons. On the west, they 

* Father Louis Hennepin, in his work published in 1684, thus 
alludes to the Eries: -'These good fathers," referring to the 
priests, " were great friends of the Hurons, who told them that the 
Iroquois went to war beyond Virginia, or New Sweden, near a lake 
which they called ^Erige,^ or 'JErie,' which signifies ^the cat* or 
' nation of the cat^'' and. because these savages brought captives from 
this nation in returning to their cantons along this lake, the 
Hurons named it, in their language, * Edge,' or ' Erihe,* ' (fee lalie of 
, the cat,* and which our Canadians, in softening the word, have 
called ' Lake Erie.' " 

Charlevoix, writing in 1721, says: "The name it brars is that 
of an Indian nation of the Huron (Wyandot) language, which was 
formerly seated on its banks, and who have been entirely destroyed 
by the Iroquois, Erie, in that language, signifies * caf,' and, in 
some acounts, this nation is called the ' cat nation.* This name, 
probably, comes from the large numbers of that animal found in 
this region." 

extended as far as a line drawn from the central 
part of Richland County, in a semi-circular direc- 
tion, south to the mouth of Leading Creek. Their 
southern boundary was the Ohio River. 

West of the Delawares, dwelt the Shawanees, a 
troublesome people as neighbors, whether to whites 
or Indians. Their country was bounded on the 
north by the Hurons, on the east, by the Dela- 
wares ; on the south, by the Ohio River. On the 
west, their boundary was determined by a line 
drawn southwesterly, and again southeasterly — 
semi-circular — from a point on the southern 
boundary of the Hurons, near the southwest corner 
of Wyandot County, till it intersected the Ohio 

All the remainder of the State — all its western 
part from the Ohio River to the Michigan line — 
was occupied by the Miamis, Mineamis, Twigtwees, 
or Tawixtawes, a powerful nation, whom the Iro- 
quois were never fully able to subdue. 

These nations occupied the State, partly by per- 
mit of the Five Nations, and partly by inheritance, 
and, though composed of many tribes, were about 
all the savages to be found in this part of the 

No sooner had the Americans obtained control 
of this country, than they began, by treaty and 
purchase, to acquire the lands of the natives. 
They could not stem the tide of emigration ; peo- 
ple, then as now, would go West, and hence the 
necessity of peaceiuUy and rightfully acquiring the 
land. " The true basis of title to Indian territory 
is the right of civilized men to the soil for pur- 
poses of cultivation." The S3,me maxim may be 
applied to all uncivilized nations. When acquired 
by such a right, either by treaty, purchase or con- 
quest, the right to hold the same rests with the 
power and development of the nation thus possess- 
ing the land. ' 

The English derived title to the territory 
between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi partly 
by the claim that, in discovering the Atlantic coast, 
they had possession of the land from "ocean to 
ocean," and partly by the treaty of Paris, in Feb- 
ruary, 1763. Long before this treaty took place, 
however, she had granted, to individuals and colo- 
nies, extensive tracts of land in that part of Amer- 
ica, based on the right of discovery. The French 
had done better, and had acquired title to the land 
by discovering the land itself and by consent of 
the Indians dwelling thereon. The right to pos- 
sess this country led to the French and Indian 
war, ending in the supremacy of the English. 



The Five Nations claimed the territory in ques- 
tion by right of conquest, and, though professing 
friendship to the English, watched them with jeal- 
ous eyes. In 1684, and again in 1726, that con- 
federacy made cessions of lands to the English, 
and these treaties and cessions of lands were re- 
garded as sufficient title by the English, and were 
insisted on in all subsequent treaties with the 
Western Nations. The following statements were 
collected by Col. Charles Whittlesey, which 
show the principal treaties made with the red men 
wherein land in Ohio was ceded by them to the 
whites : 

In September, 1726, the Iroquois, or Six Na- 
tions, at Albany, ceded all their claims west of 
Lake Erie and sixty miles in width along the 
south shore of Lakes Erie and Ontario, from the 
Cuyahoga to the Oswego River. 

In 1744, this same nation made a treaty at 
Lancaster, Penn., and ceded to the English all 
their lands "that may be within the colony of 

In 1752, this nation and other Western tribes 
made a treaty at Logstown, Penn., wherein they 
confirmed the Lancaster treaty and consented to 
the settlements south of the Ohio River. 

February 13, 1763, a treaty was made at Paris, 
France, between the French and English, when 
Canada and the eastern half of the Mississippi 
Valley were ceded to the English. 

In 1783, all the territory south of the Lakes, 
and east of the Mississippi, was ceded by England 
to America — the latter country then obtaining its 
independence—by »which means the country was 
gained by America. 

October 24, 1784, the Six Nations made a 
treaty, at Fort Stanwix, N. Y., with the Ameri- 
cans, and ceded to them all the country claimed 
by the tribe, west of Pennsylvania. 

In 1785, the Chippewas, Delawares, Ottawas, 
and Wyandots ceded to the United States, at 
Fort Mcintosh, at the mouth of the Big Beaver, 
all their claims east and south of the " Cayahaga," 
the Portage Path, and the Tuscarawas, to Fort 
Laurens (Bolivar), thence to Loramie's Fort (in 
Shelby County) ; thence along the Portage Path to 
the St. Mary's River and down it to the " Omee," 
or Maumee, and along the lake shore to the 

January 3, 1786, the Shawanees, at Fort Fin- 
ney, near the mouth ;of the Great Miami (not 
owning the land on the Scioto occupied by them), 
were allotted a tract at the heads of the two 

Miamis and the Wabash, west of the Chippewas, 
Delawares and Wyandots. 

February 9, 1789, the Iroquois made a treaty 
at Fort Harmar, wherein they confirmed the Fort 
Stanwix treaty. At the same time, the Chi]ppewas, 
Ottawas, Delawares, and Wyandots — to which the 
Sauks and Pottawatomies assented — confirmed the 
treaty made at Fort Mcintosh. 

Period of war now existed till 1795. 

August 3, 1795, Gen. Anthony Wayne, on 
behalf of the United States, made a treaty with 
twelve tribes, confirming the boundaries estab- 
lished by the Fort Harmar and Fort Mcintosh 
treaties, and extended the boundary to Fort Re- 
covery and the mouth of the Kentucky River. 

In June, 1796, the Senecas, represented by 
Brant, ceded to the Connecticut Land Company 
their rights east of the Cuyahoga. 

In 1805, at Fort Industry, on the Maumee, the 
Wyandots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, Shawa- 
nees, Menses, and Pottawatomies relinquished all 
their lands west of the Cuyahoga, as far west as 
the western line of the Reserve, and south of the 
line from Fort Laurens to Loramie's Fort. 

July 4, 1807, the Ottawas, Chippewas, Wyan- 
dots, and Pottawatomies, at Detroit, ceded all that 
part of Ohio north of the Maumee River, with 
part of Michigan. 

November 25, 1808, the same tribes with the 
Shawanees, at Brownstown, Mich., granted the 
Government a tract of land two miles wide, from 
the west line of the Reserve to the rapids of the 
Maumee, for the purpose of a road through the 
Black Swamp. 

September 18, 1815, at Springwells, near De- 
troit, the Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, Wy- 
andots, Delawares, Senecas and Miamis, having 
been engaged in the war of 1812 on the British 
side, were confined in the grants made at Fort 
Mcintosh and Greenville in 1785 and 1795. 

September 29, 1817, at the rapids of the 
Maumee, the Wyandots ceded their lands west of 
the line of 1805, as far as Loramie's and the St. 
Mary's River and north of the Maumee. The 
Pottawatomies, Chippewas, and Ottawas ceded the 
territory west of the Detroit line of 1807, and 
north of the Maumee. 

October 6, 1818, the Miamis, at St. Mary's, 
made a treaty in which they surrendered the re- 
maining Indian territory in Ohio, north of the 
Greenville treaty line and west of St. Mary's River. 

The numerous treaties of peace with the West- 
ern Indians for the delivery of prisoners were — 




one by Gen. Forbes, at Fort Du Quesne (Pitts- 
burgh), in 1758 ; one by Col. Bradstreet, at Erie, 
in August, 1764; one by Col. Boquet, at the 
mouth of the Walhonding, in November, 1764 ; 
in May, 1765, at Johnson's, on the Mohawk, and 
at Philadelphia, the same year ; in 1774, by Lord 
Dunmore, at Camp Charlotte, Pickaway County. 
By the treaty at the Maumee Rapids, in 1817, 
reservations were conveyed by the United States 
to all the tribes, with a view to induce them to 
cultivate the soil and cease to be hunters. These 
were, from time to time, as the impracticability of 
the plan became manifest, purchased by the Gov- 
ernment, the last of these being the Wyandot 
Reserve, of twelve miles square, around Upper 
Sandusky, in 1842, closing out all claims and com- 
posing all the Indian difficulties in Ohio. The 
open war had ceased in 1815, with the treaty of 

" It is estimated that, from the French war of 
1754 to the battle of the Maumee Rapids, in 
1794, a period of forty years, there had been at 
least 5,000 people killed or captured west of the 

Alleghany Mountains. Eleven organized military 
expeditions had been carried on against the West- 
ern Indians prior to the war of 1812, seven regu- 
lar engagements fought and about twelve hundred 
men killed. More whites were slain in battle than 
there were Indian braves killed in military expedi- 
tions, and by private raids and murders ; yet, in 
1811, all the Ohio tribes combined could not mus- 
ter 2,000 warriors." 

Attempts to determine the number of persons 
comprising the Indian tribes in Ohio, and their 
location, have resulted in nothing better than 
estimates. It is supposed that, at the commence- 
ment of the Revolution, there were about six 
thousand Indians in the present confines of the 
State, but their villages were little more than 
movable camps. Savage men, like savage beasts, 
are engaged in continual migrations. Now, none 
are left. The white man occupies the home of 
the red man. Now 

" The verdant hilla 
Are covered o'er with growing grain, 
And white men till the soil, 
Where once the red man used to reign." 



WHEN war, when ambition, when avarice 
fail, religion pushes onward and succeeds. 
In the discovery of the New World, wherever 
man's aggrandizement was the paramount aim, 
failure was sure to follow. When this gave way, 
the followers of the Cross, whether Catholic or 
Protestant, came on the field, and the result before 
attempted soon appeared, though in a different way 
and through difierent means than those supposed. 
The first permanent efibrts of the white race to 
penetrate the Western wilds of the New World 
preceded any permanent English settlement north 
of the Potomac. Years before the Pilgrims 
anchored their bark on the cheerless shores of Cape 
Cod, "the Roman Catholic Church had been plant- 
ed by missionaries from France in the Eastern 
moiety of Maine; and LeCaron, an ambitious 
Franciscan^the companion of Champlain,had passed 
. into the hunting-grounds of the Wyandots, and, 
bound by the vows of his life, had, on foot or pad- 
dling a bark canoe, gone onward, taking alms of the 
until he reached the rivers of Lake 

Huron." This was in 1615 or 1616, and only 
eight years after Champlain had sailed up the wa- 
ters of the St. Lawrence, and on the foot of a bold 
cliif laid the foundation of the present City of 
Quebec. From this place, founded to hold the 
country, and to perpetuate the religion of his King, 
went forth those emissaries of the Cross, whose zeal 
has been the admiration of the world. The French 
Colony in Canada was suppressed soon after its es- 
tablishment, and for five years, until 1622, its im- 
munities were enjoyed by the colonists. A grant 
of New France, as the country was then known, was 
made by Louis XIII to Richelieu, Champlain, 
Razilly and others, who, immediately after the res- 
toration of Quebec by its English conquerors, entered 
Upon the control and government of their province. 
Its limits embraced the whole basin of the. St. 
Lawrence and of such other rivers in New France 
as flowed directly into the sea. While away to 
the south on the Gulf coast, was also included a 
country rich in foliage and claimed in virtue of 
the unsuccessful efforts of Coligny. 



Religious zeal as much as commercial prosperity 
had influenced France to obtain and retain the de- 
pendency of Canada. The commercial monopoly 
of a privileged company could not foster a 
colony ; the climate was too vigorous for agricult- 
ure, and, at first there was little else except relig- 
ious enthusiasm to give vitality to the province. 
Champlain had been touched by the simphoity of 
the Order of St. Francis, and had selected its priests 
to aid him in his work. But another order, more 
in favor at the Court, was interested, and succeed- 
ed in excluding the mendicant order from the New 
"World, established themselves in the new domain 
and, by thus enlarging the borders of the French 
King, it became entrusted to the Jesuits. 

This "Society of Jesus," founded by Loyola 
when Calvin's Institutes first saw the light, saw an 
unequaled opportunity in the conversion of the 
heathen in the Western wilds ; and, as its mem- 
bers, pledged to obtain power only by infiuence of 
mind over mind, sought the honors of opening the 
way, there was no lack of men ready for the work. 
Through them, the motive power in opening the 
wilds of the Northwest was religion. " Religious 
enthusiasm," says Bancroft, "colonized New Eng- 
land, and religious enthusiasm founded Montreal, 
made a conquest of the wilderness about the upper 
lakes, and explored the Mississippi." 

Through these priests — increased in a few years 
to fifteen — a way was made across the West from 
Quebec, above the regions of the lakes, below 
which they dared not go for the relentless Mohawks. 
To the northwest of Toronto, near the Lake Iro- 
quois, a bay of Lake Huron, in September, 1634, 
they raised the first humble house of the Society of 
Jesus among the Hurons. Through them they 
learned of the great lakes beyond, and resolved 
one day to explore them and carry the Gospel of 
peace to the heathen on their shores. Before this 
could be done, many of them were called upon to 
give up their lives at the martyr's stake and re- 
ceive a martyr's crown. But one by one they 
went on in their good work. If one fell by hun- 
ger, cold, cruelty, or a terrible death, others stood 
ready, and carrying their lives in their hands, 
established other missions about the eastern shores 
of Lake Huron and its adjacent waters. The 
Five. Nations were for many years hostile toward 
the French and murdered them and their red 
allies whenever opportunity presented. For a 
quarter of century, they retarded the advance of 
the missionaries, and then only after wearied with 
a long struggle, in which they began to see their 

power declining, did they relinquish their warlike 
propensities, and allow the Jesuits entrance to their 
country. While this was going on, the traders 
and Jesuits had penetrated farther, and farther 
westward, until, when peace was declared, they 
had seen the southwestern shores of Lake Superior 
and the northern shores of Lake Michigan, called 
by them Lake Illinois.* In August, 1654, two 
young adventurers penetrated the wilds bordering 
on these western lakes in company with a band of 
Ottawas. Returning, they tell of the wonderful 
country they have seen, of its vast forests, its 
abundance of game, its mines of copper, and ex- 
cite in their comrades a desire to see and explore 
such a country. They tell of a vast expanse of 
land before them, of the powerful Indian tribes 
dwelling there, and of their anxiety to become an^ 
nexed to the Frenchman, of whom they have 
heard. The request is at once granted. Two 
missionaries, Gabriel Dreuillettes and Leonard 
Gareau, were selected .as envoys, but on their way 
the fleet, propelled by tawny rowers, is met by a 
wandering band of Mohawks and by them is dis- 
persed. Not daunted, others stood ready to go. 
The lot fell to Rene Mesnard.' He is charged to 
visit the wilderness, select a suitable place for a 
dwelling, and found a mission. With only a short 
warning he is ready, "trusting," he says, "in the 
Providence which feeds the little birds of the 
desert and clothes the wild flowers of the forest." 
In October, 1660, he reached a bay, which he 
called St. Theresa, on the south shore of Lake 
Superior. After a residence of eight months, he 
yielded to the invitation of the Hurons who had 
taken refuge on the Island of St. Michael, and 
bidding adieu to his neophytes and the French, he 
departed. While on the way to the Bay of Che- 
goi-me-gon, probably at a portage, he became 
separated from his companion and was never after- 
ward heard of Long after, his cassock and his 
breviary were kept as amulets among the Sioux. 
Difficulties now arose in the management of the 
colony, and for awhile it was on the verge of dis- 
solution. The King sent a regiment under com- 
mand of the aged Tracy, as a safeguard against 
the Iroquois, now proving themselves enemies to 

*Mr. C. W. ButterJeld, author of OraKfarSn Campaign, and 
good autbority, says : "Jolm Nicholet, a Frenchman, left Quebec 
and Throe Rivera in the summer of 1634, and visiteii the Hurons on 
Georgian Bay, the Cbippewaa at the Sault Ste. Marie, and the Win- 
nebagoes in Wisconsin, returning to Quebec in the summer of 1635, 
This was tho first white man to see any part of the Nortliwest 
Territory. In 1641, two Jesuit priests were at the Sault Ste, Marie 
for a brief time. Then two French traders reached Lalse Superior, 
and after them came that tide of emigration on which the French 
based their claim to the country." 




the French. Accompanying him were Courcelles, 
as Governor, and M. Talon, who subsequently fig- 
ures in Northwestern history. By 1665, affairs 
were settled and new attempts to found a mission 
among the lake tribes were projected. 

"With better hopes — undismayed by the sad 
fate of their predecessors" in August, Claude 
Allouez embarked on a mission by way of Ottawa 
to the Far West. Early in September he reached 
the rapids through which rush the waters of the 
lakes to Huron. Sailing by lofty sculptured rocks 
and over waters of crystal purity, he reached the 
Chippewa village just as the young warriors were 
bent on organizing a war expedition against the 
Sioux. Commanding peace in the name of his 
King, he called a council and offered the commerce 
and protection of hLs nation. He was obeyed, and 
soon a chapel arose on the shore of the bay, to 
which admiring crowds from the south and west 
gathered to listen to the story of the Cross. 

The scattered Hurons and Ottawas north of 
Lake Superior ; the Pottawatomies from Lake Mich- 
igan; the Sacs and Foxes from the Far West; the 
Illinois from the prairies, all came to hear him, and 
all besought him to go with them. To the last 
nation Allouez desired to go. They told him of a 
" great river that flowed to the sea, "and of "their 
vast prairies, where herds of buffalo, deer and 
other animals grazed on the tall grass." "Their 
country," said the missionary, "is the best field 
for the Grospel. Had I had leisure, I would have 
gone to their dwellings to see with my own eyes 
all the good that was told me of them." 

He remained two years, teaching the natives, 
studying their language and habits, and then 
returned to Quebec. Such was the account that 
he gave, that in two days he was joined by 
Louis Nicholas and was on his way back to his 

Peace being now established, more missionaries 
came from France. Among them were Claude 
Dablon and Jacques Marquette, both of whom 
went on to the mission among the Chippewas at the 
Sault. They reached there in 1668 and found 
Allouez busy. The mission ^as now a reality and 
given the name of St. Mary. It is often written 
" Sault Ste. Marie," after the French method, and 
is the oldest settlement by white men in the bounds 
of the Northwest Territory. It has been founded 
over two hundred years. Here on the iilhospitable 
northern shores, hundreds of miles away from 
friends, did this triumvirate employ themselves in 
extending their religion and the influence of their 

King. Traversing the shores of the great lakes 
near them, they pass down the western bank of 
Lake Michigan as far as Green Bay, along the 
southern shore of Lake Superior to its western ex- 
tremity, everywhere preaching the story of Jesus. 
" Though suffering be their lot and martyrdom 
their crown," they went on, only conscious that 
they were lajjoring for their Master and would, in 
the end, win the crown. 

The great river away to the West of which they 
heard so much was yet unknown to them. To ex- 
plore it, to visit the tribes on its banks and preach 
to them the Gospel and secure their trade, became 
the aim of Marquette, who originated the idea of 
its discovery. While engaged at the mission at the 
Sault, he resolved to attempt it in the autumn of 
1669. Delay, however, intervened — for Allouez 
had exchanged the mission at Che-goi-me-gon for 
one at Green Bay, whither Marquette was sent. 
While here he employed a young Illinois Indian 
to teach him the language of that nation, and there- 
by prepare himself for the enterprise. 

Continued commerce with the Western Indians 
gave protection and confirmed their attachment. 
Talon, the intendant of the colony of New France, 
to further spread its power and to learn more of the 
country and its inhabitants, convened a congress 
of the Indians at the Falls of St. Mary, to which 
he sent St. Lusson on his behalf. Nicholas Perrot 
sent invitations in every direction for more than a 
hundred leagues round about, and fourteen nations, 
among them Sacs, Foxes and Miamis, agreed to be 
present by their embassadors. 

The congress met on the fourth day of June, 
1671. St. Lusson, through Allouez, his interpre- 
ter, announced to the assembled natives that they, 
and through them their nations, were placed under 
the protection of the French King, and to him 
were their furs and peltries to be traded. A cross 
of cedar was raised, and amidst the groves of mar 
pie and of pine, of elm and hemlock that are so 
strangely intermingled on the banks of the St. 
Mary, the whole company of the French, bowing 
before the emblem of man's redemption, chanted to 
its glory a hymn of the seventh century : 

"The banners of heaven's King advance; 
The mysteries of the Cross shines forth."* 

A cedar column was planted by the cross and 
marked with the lOies of the Bourbons, The 
power of Prance, thus uplifted in the West of 
which Ohio is now a part, was, however, not destined 




to endure, and the ambition of -its monarchs was 
to have only a partial fulfillment. 

The same year that the congress was held, Mar- 
quette had founded a mission among the Hurons 
at Point St. Ignaee, on the continent north of the 
peninsula of Michigan. Although the climate 
was severe, and vegetation scarce, yet fish abounded, 
and at this establishment, long maintained as a 
key to further explorations, prayer and praise were 
heard daily for many years. Here, also, Marquette 
gained a footing among the founders of Michigan. 
While he was doing this, Allouez and Dablon were 
exploring countries south and west, going as far as 
the Mascoutins and Kickapoos on the Milwaukee, 
and the Miamis at the head of Lake Michigan. 
Allouez continued even as far as the Sacs and Foxes 
on the river which bears their name. 

The discovery of the IMississippi, heightened by 
these explorations, was now at hand. The enter- 
prise, projected by Marquette, was received with 
favor by M. Talon, who desired thus to perpetuate 
his rule in New France, now drawing to a close. 
He was joined by Joliet, of Quebec, an emissary 
of his King, commissioned by royal magnate to 
take possession of the country in the name of the 
French. Of him but little else is known. This 
one excursion, however, gives him immortality, 
and as long as time shall last his name and that of 
Marquette will endure. When Marquette made 
known his intention to the Pottawatomies, they 
were filled with wonder, and endeavored to dis- 
suade him from his purpose. " Those distant na- 
tions," said they, " never spare the strangers; the 
Great Kiver abounds in monsters, ready to swal- 
low both men and canoes ; there are great cataracts 
and rapids, over which you will be dashed to 
pieces; the excessive heats will cause your death." 
"I shall gladly lay down my life for the salvation 
of souls," replied the good man; and the docile 
nation joined him. 

On the 9th day of June, 1673, they reached 
the village on Fox River, where were Kickapoos, 
Mascoutins and Miamis dwelling together on an 
expanse of lovely prairie, dotted here and there by 
groves of magnificent trees, and where was a 
cross garlanded by wild flowers, and bows and ar- 
rows, and skins and belts, offerings to the Great 
Manitou. Allouez had been here in one of his 
wanderings, and, as was his wont, had left this 
emblem of his faith. 

Assembling the natives, Marquette said, " My 
companion is an envoy of France to discover new 
countries ; and I am an embassador from God to 

enlighten them with the Gospel." Offering pres- 
ents, he begged two guides for the morrow. The 
Indians answered courteously, and gave in 
return a mat to serve as a couch during the long 

Early in the morning of the next day, the 10th 
of June, with all nature in her brightest robes, 
these two men, with five Frenchmen and two Al- 
gonquin guides, set out on their journey. Lifting 
two canoes to their shoulders, they quickly cross 
the narrow portage dividing the Fox from the 
Wisconsin River, and prepare to embark on its 
clear waters. "Uttering a special prayer to the 
Immaculate Virgin, they leave the stream, that, 
flowing onward, could have borne their greetings 
to the castle of Quebec. 'The guides returned,' 
says the gentle Marquette, 'leaving us alone in 
this unknown land, in the hand of Providence.' 
France and Christianity stood alone in the valley 
of the Mississippi. Embarking on the broad 
Wisconsin, the discoverers, as they sailed west, 
went solitarily down the stream between alternate 
prairies and hillsides, beholding neither man nor 
the wonted beasts of the forests ; no sound broke 
the silence but the ripple of the canoe and the 
lowing of the buffalo. In seven days, ' they en- 
tered happily the Great River, vrith a joy that 
could not be expressed ; ' and the two birehbark 
canoes, raising their happy sails under new skies 
and tQ unknown breezes, floated down the calm 
magnificence of the ocean stream, over the broad, 
clear sand-bars, the resort of innumerable water- 
fowl — ^gliding past islets that swelled from the 
bosom of the stream, with their tufts of massive 
thickets, and between the wild plains of Illinois 
and Iowa, all garlanded with majestic forests, or 
checkered by island groves and the open vastness 
of the prairie."* 

Continuing on down the mighty stream, they 
saw no signs of human hfe until the 25th of 
June, when they discovered a small foot-path on the 
west bank of the river, leading away into the 
prairie. Leaving their companions in the canoes, 
Marquette and Joliet followed the path, resolved 
to brave a meeting alone with the savages. After 
a walk of six miles they came in sight of a village 
on the banks of a river, while not far away they 
discovered two others. The river was the " Mou- 
in-gou-e-na," or Moingona, now corrupted into 
Des Moines. These two men, the first of their 
race who ever trod the soil west of the Great 

* Bancroft. 



River, commended themselves to God, and, uttering 
a loud cry, advanced to the nearest village. 
The Indians hear, and thinking their visitors 
celestial beings, four old men advance with rever- 
ential mien, and offer the pipe of peace. " We 
are Illinois," said they, and they offered the calu- 
met. They had heard of the Frenchmen, and 
welcomed them to their wigwams, followed by the 
devouring gaze of an astonished crowd. At a 
great council held soon after, Marquette published 
to them the true God, their Author. He also 
spoke of his nation and of his King, who had 
chastised the Five Nations and commanded peace. 
He questioned them concerning the Great River 
and its tributaries, and the tribes dwelling on its 
banks. A magnificent feast was spread before 
them, and the conference continued several days. 
At the close of thg sixth day, the chieftains of the 
tribes, with numerous trains of warriors, attended 
the visitors to their canoes, and selecting a peace- 
pipe, gayly caparisoned, they hung the sacred 
calumet, emblem of peace to all and a safeguard 
among the nations, about the good Father's neck, 
and bid the strangers good speed. "I did not 
fear death," writes Marquette; "I should have 
esteemed it the greatest happiness to have died 
for the glory of God." On th^ir journey, they 
passed the perpendicular rocks, whose sculptured 
sides showed them the monsters they should meet. 
Farther down, they pass the turgid flood of the 
Missouri, known to them by its Algonquin name, 
Pekitanoni. Resolving in his heart to one day 
explore its flood, Marquette rejoiced in the new 
world it evidently could open to him. A little 
farther down, they pass the blufis where now is a 
mighty emporium, then sUent as when created. In 
a little less than forty leagues, they pass the clear 
waters of the beautiful Ohio, then, and long after- 
ward, known as the Wabash. Its banks were in- 
habited by numerous villages of the peaceful 
Shawanee^, who then quailed under the incursions 
of the dreadftil Iroquois. As they go on down the 
mighty stream, the canes become thicker, the insects 
more fierce, the heat more intolerable. The prairies 
and their cool breezes vanish, and forests of white- 
wood, admirable for their vastness and height, crowd 
close upon the pebbly shore. It is observed that the 
Chickasaws have guns, and have learned how to 
use them. Near the latitude of 33 degrees, they 
encounter a great village, whose inhabitants pre- 
sent an inhospitable and warlike front. The pipe 
of peace is held aloft, and instantly the savage foe 
drops his arms and extends a friendly greeting. 

Remaining here till the next day, they are escorted 
for eight or ten leagues to the village of Akansea. 
They are now at the limit of their voyage. The 
Indians speak a dialect unknown to them. The 
natives show furs and axes of steel, the latter prov- 
ing they have traded with Europeans. The two 
travelers now learn that the Father of Wa- 
ters went neither to the Western sea nor to the 
Florida coast, but straight south, and conclude not 
to encounter the burning heats of a tropical clime, 
but return and find tbe outlet again. They 
had done enough now, and must report their dis- 

On the 17th day of July, 1673, one hundred 
and thirty-two years after the disastrous journey 
of De Soto, which led to no permanent results, 
Marquette and Joliet left the village of Akansea 
on their way back. At the 38th degree, they en- 
counter the waters of the Illinois which they had 
before noticed, and which the natives told them 
afforded a much shorter route to the lakes. Pad- 
dling up its limpid waters, they see a country un- 
surpassed in beauty. Broad prairies, beautiful up- 
lands, luxuriant groves, all mingled in excellent 
harmony as they ascend the river. Near the head 
of the river, they pause at a great village of the 
Illinois, and across the river behold a rocky prom- 
ontory standing boldly out against the landscape. 
The Indians entreat the gentle missionary to re- 
main among them, and teach them the way of life. 
He cannot do this, but promises to return when he 
can and instruct them. The town was on a plain 
near the present village of Utica, in La Salle 
County, 111., and the rock was Starved Rock, 
afterward noted in the annals of the Northwest. 
One of the chiefs and some young men conduct 
the party to the Chicago River, where the present 
mighty city is, from where, continuing their jour- 
ney along the western shores of the lake, they 
reach Green Bay early in September. 

The great valley of the West was now open. 
The "Messippi" rolled its mighty flood to a south- 
ern sea, and must be sully explored. Marquette's 
health had keenly suffered by the voyage and he 
concluded to remain here and rest. Joliet hasten- 
ed on to Quebec to report his discoveries. During 
the journey, each had preserved a description of 
the route they had passed over, as well as the 
country and its inhabitants. While on the way 
to Quebec, at the foot of the rapids near Montreal, 
by some means one of Joliet's canoes became cap- 
sized, and by it he Ipst his box of papers and two 
of his men. A greater calamity could have 



hardly happened him. In a letter to Gov. 
Frontenac, JoHet says : 

" I had escaped every peril from the Indians ; I 
had passed forty-two rapids, and was on the point 
of disembarking, full of joy at the success of so 
long and difficult an enterprise, when my canoe 
capsized after all the danger seemed over. I lost 
my two men and box of papers within sight of the 
French settlements, which I had lefb almost two 
years before. Nothing remains now to me but 
my life, and the ardent desire to employ it in any 
service you may please to direct." 

When Joliet made known his discoveries, a 
Te Deum was chanted in the Cathedral at Quebec, 
and all Canada was filled with joy. The news 
crossed the ocean, and the French saw in the vista 
of coming years a vast dependency arise in the val- 
ley, partially explored, which was to extend her 
domain and enrich her treasury. Fearing En- 
gland might profit by the discovery and claim the 
country, she attempted as far as possible to prevent 
the news from becoming general. Joliet was re- 
warded by the gift of the Island of Anticosti, in 
the St. Lawrence, while Marquette, conscious of 
his service to his Master, was content with the 
salvation of souls. 

Marquette, left at Green Bay, suffered long with 
his malady, and was not permitted, until the au- 
tumn of the following year (16Y4), to return and 
teach the Illinois Indians. With this purpose in 
view, he left Green Bay on the 25th of October 
with two Frenchmen and a number of Illinois and 
Pottawatomie Indians for the villages on the 
Chicago and Illinois Rivers. Entering Lake 
Michigan, they encountered adverse winds and 
waves and were more than a month on the way. 
Going some distance up the Chicago River, they 
found Marquette too weak to proceed farther, his 
malady having assumed a violent form, and land- 
ing, they erected two huts and prepared to pass 
the winter. The good missionary taught the na- 
tives here daily, in spite of his afflictions, while 
his companions supplied him and themselves with 
food by fishing and hunting. Thus the winter 
wore away, and Marquette, renewing his vows, pre- 
pared to go on to the village at the foot of the 
rocky gitadel, where he had been two years before. 
On the 13th of March, 1675, they left their huts 
and, rowing on up the Chicago to the portage be- 
tween that and the Desplaines, embarked on their 
way. Amid the incessant rains of spring, they 
were rapidly borne down that stream to the Illi- 
nois, on whose rushing flood they floated to the 

object of their destination. At the great town the 
missionary was received as a heavenly messenger, 
and as he preached to them of heaven and hell, 
of angels and demons, of good and bad deeds, 
they regarded him as divine and besought him to 
remain among them. The town then contained an 
immense concourse of natives, drawn hither by the 
reports they heard, and assembling them before him 
on the plain near their village, where now are pros- 
perous farms, he held before their astonished gaze 
four large pictures of the Holy Virgin, and daily 
harangued them on the duties of Christianity and 
the necessity of conforming their conduct to the 
words they heard. His strength was fast declining 
and warned him he could not long remain. Find- 
ing he must go, the Indians furnished him an 
escort as far as the lake, on whose turbulent waters 
he embarked with his two :^ithftil attendants. 
They turned their canoes for the Mackinaw Mis- 
sion, which the afllicted missionary hoped to reach 
before death came. As they coasted along the 
eastern shores of the lake, the vernal hue of May 
began to cover the hillsides with robes of green, 
now dimmed to the eye of the departing Father, who . 
became too weak to view them. By the 19tii of 
the month, he could go no farther, and requested 
his men to land and build him a hut in which he 
might pass away. That done, he gave, with great 
composure, directions concerning his burial, and 
thanked God that he was permitted to die in the 
wilderness in the midst of his work, an unshaken 
believer in the faith he had so earnestly preached. 
As twilight came on, he told his weary attendants 
to rest, promising that when death should come he 
would call them. At an early hour, on the morn- 
ing of the 20th of May, 1675, they heard a feeble 
voice, and hastening to his side found that the gen- 
tle spirit of the good missionary had gone to heav- 
en. His hand grasped the crucifix, and his lips 
bore as their last sound the name of the Virgin. 
They dug a grave near the banks of the stream 
and buried him as he had requested. There in a 
lonely wilderness the pea,cefiil soul of Marquette 
had at last found a rest, and his weary labors closed. 
His companions went on to the mission, where 
the news of his death caused great sorrow, for he 
was one beloved by all. 

Three years after his burial, the Ottawas, hunting 
in the vicinity of his grave, determined to carry 
his bones to the mission at their home, in accor- 
dance with an ancient custom of their tribe. Hav- 
ing opened the grave, at whose head a cross had 
been planted, they carefully removed the bones and 




cleaning them, a funeral procession of thirty canoes 
bore them to the Mackinaw Mission, singing the 
songs he had taught them. At the shores of the 
mission the bones were received by the priests, and, 
with great ceremony, buried under the floor of the 
rude chapel. 

While Marquette and Joliet were exploring the 
head-waters of the "Great River," another man, 
fearless in purpose, pious in heart, and loyal to 
his country, was living in Canada and watching 
the operations of his fellow-countrymen with 
keen eyes. When the French first saw the in- 
hospitable shores of the St. Lawrence, in 1535, 
under the lead of Jacques Cartier, and had opened 
a new country to their crown, men were not 
lacking to further extend the discovery. In 1608, 
Champlain came, and at the foot of a cliff on that 
river founded Quebec. Seven years after, he 
brought four Recollet monks ; and through them 
and the Jesuits the discoveries already narrated 
occurred. Champlain died in 1635, one hundred 
years after Cartier's first visit, but not Tintil he 
had explored the northern lakes as far as Lake 
Huron, on whose rocky shores he, as the progenitor 
of a mighty race to follow, set his feet. He, with 
others, held to the idea that somewhere across the 
country, a river highway extended to the Western 
ocean. The reports from the missions whose 
history has been given aided this belief; and not 
until Marquette and Joliet returned was the delu- 
sion in any way dispelled. Before this was done, 
however, the man to whom reference has been 
made, Robert Cavalier, better known as La Salle, 
had endeavored to solve the mystery, and, while 
living on his grant of land eight miles above 
Montreal, had indeed effected important discoveries. 

La Salle, the nBxt actor in the field of explor- 
ation after Champlain, was born in 1643. His 
father's family was among the old and wealthy 
burghers of Rouen, France, and its members 
were fi-equently entrusted with important govern- 
mental positions. He early exhibited such traits 
of character as to mark him among his associates. 
Coming from a wealthy family, he enjoyed all the 
advantages of his day, and received, for the times, 
an excellent education. He was a Catholic, 
though his subsequent life does not prove him 
to have been a religious enthusiast. From some 
cause, he joined the Order of Loyola, but the cir- 
cumscribed sphere of action set for him in the 
order illy concurred with his independent dis- 
position, and led to his separation from it. This 
was efiected, however, in a good spirit, as they 

considered him fit for a difierent field of action 
than any presented by the order. Having a 
brother in Canada, a member of the order of St. 
Sulpice, he determined to join him. By his 
connection with the Jesuits he had lost his share 
of his father's estate, but, by some means, on his 
death, which occurred about this time, he was 
given a small share; and with this, in 1666, 
he arrived in Montreal. All Canada was alive 
with the news of the explorations; and La 
Salle's mind, actively grasping the ideas he 
afterward carried out, began to mature plans for 
their perfection. At Montreal he found a semi- 
nary of priests of the St. Sulpice Order who were 
encouraging settlers by grants of land on easy 
terms, hoping to establish a barrier of settlemente 
between themselves and the Indians, made ene- 
mies to the French by Champlain's actions when 
founding Quebec. The Superior of the seminary, 
learning of LaSalle's arrival, gratuitously ofiered 
him a grant of land on the St. Lawrence, eight 
miles above Montreal. The grant, though danger- 
ously near the hostile Indians, was accepted, and 
La Salle soon enjoyed an excellent trade in furs. 
While employed in developing his claim, he learned 
of the great unknown route, and burned with a 
desire to solve its existence. He applied himself 
closely to the study of Indian dialects, and in 
three years is said to have made great progress 
in their language. While on his farm his 
thoughts often turned to the unknown land away 
to the west, and, like all men of his day, he 
desired to explore the route to the Western sea, 
and thence obtain an easy trade with China and 
Japan. The " Great River, which flowed to the 
sea," must, thought they, find an outlet in the 
Gulf of California. While musing on these 
things, Marquette and Joliet were preparing to 
descend the Wisconsin; and La Salle himself 
learned from a wandering band of Senecas that a 
river, called the Ohio, arose in their country and 
flowed to the sea, but at such a distance that it 
would require eight months to reach its mouth. 
This must be the Great River, or a part of it: 
for all geographers of the day considered the 
Mississippi and its tributary as one stream. Plac- 
ing great confidence on this hypothesis. La Salle 
repaired to Quebec to obtain the sanction 
of Gov. Courcelles. His plausible statements 
soon won him the Governor and M. Talon, and 
letters patent were issued granting the exploration. 
No peciiniary aid was offered, and La Salle, hav- 
ing expended all his means in improving his 



estate, was obliged to sell it to procure the 
necessary outfit. The Superior of the seminary 
being favorably disposed toward him, purchased 
the greater part of his improvement, and realiz- 
ing 2,800 livres, he purchased four canoes and the 
necessary supplies for the expediti<)n. The semi- 
nary was, at the same time, preparing for a similar 
exploration. The priests of this order, emulating 
the Jesuits, had established missions on the north- 
ern shore of Lake Ontario. Hearing of populous 
tribes still further west, they resolved to attempt 
their conversion, and deputized two of their number 
for the purpose. On going to Quebec to procure 
the necessary supplies, they were advised of La 
Salle's expedition down the Ohio, and resolved to 
unite themselves with it. La Salle did not alto- 
gether favor their attempt, as he believed the 
Jesuits already had the field, and would not care 
to have any aid from a rival order. His dispo- 
sition also would not well brook the part they 
assumed, of asking him to be a co-laborer rather 
than a leader. However, the expeditions, merged 
into one body, left the mission on the St. Law- 
rence on the 6th of July, 1669, in seven canoes. 
The party numbered twenty-four persons, who 
"were accompanied by two canoes filled with 
Indians who had visited La Salle, and who now 
acted as guides. Their guides led them up the 
St. Lawrence, over the expanse of Lake Ontario, 
to their village on the banks of the Genesee, 
where they expected to find guides to lead them 
on to the Ohio. As La Salle only partially under- 
stood their language, he was compelled to confer 
with them by means of a Jesuit stationed at the 
village. The Indians refused to furnish him the 
expected aid, and even burned before his eyes a 
prisoner, the only one who could give him any 
knowledge he desired. He surmised |the Jesuits 
were at the bottom of the matter, fearful lest the 
disciples of St. Sulpice should gain a foothold in 
the west. He lingered here a month, with the 
hope of accoipplishing his object, when, by chance, 
there came by an Iroquois Indian, who assured 
them that at his colony, near the head of the lake, 
they could find guides; and offered to conduct 
them thither. Coming along the southern shore 
of the lake, they passed, at its western extremity, 
the mouth of the Niagara River, where they heard 
for the first time the thunder of the mighty cata- 
ract between the two lakes. At the ^'iUage of the 
Iroquois they met a friendly reception, and were 
informed by a Shawanese prisoner that they could 
reach t^ie Ohio in six weeks' time, and that he 

would guide them there. While preparing to 
commence the journey, they heard of the missions 
to the northwest, and the priests resolved to_ go 
there and convert the natives, and find the river 
by that route. It appears that Louis Joliet met 
them here, on his return fi-om visiting the copper 
mines of Lake Superior, under command of M. 
Talon. He gave the priests a map of the country, 
and informed them that the Indians of those 
regions were in great need of spiritual advisers. 
This strengthened their intention, though warned 
by La Salle, that the Jesuits were undoubtedly 
there. The authority for Joliet's visit to them 
here is not clearly given, and may not be true, 
but the same letter which gives the account of 
the discovery of the Ohio at this time by La Salle, 
states it as a fact, and it is hence inserted. The 
missionaries and La Salle separated, the former to 
find, as he had predicted, the followers of Loyola 
already in the field, and not wanting their aid. 
Hence they return from a fruitless tour. 

La Salle, now left to himself and just recovering 
from a violent fever, went on his journey. From 
the paper from which these statements are taken, 
it appears he went on to Onondaga, where he pro- 
cured guides to a tributary of the Ohio, down 
which he proceeded to the principal stream, on 
whose bosom he continued his way till he came to 
the falls at the present city of Louisville, Ky. It 
has been asserted that he went on down to its 
mouth, but that is not well authenticated and is 
hardly true. The statement that he went as far as 
the falls is, doubtless, correct. He states, in a letter 
to Count Frontenac in 1677, that he discovered 
the Ohio, and that he descended it to the falls. 
Moreover, Joliet, in a measure his rival, for he was 
now preparing to go to the northern lakes and 
from them search the river, made two maps repre- 
senting the lakes and the Mississippi, on both of 
which he states that La Salle had discovered the 
Ohio. Of its course beyond the falls. La Salle 
does not seem to have learned anything definite, 
hence his discovery did not in any way settle the 
great question, and elicited but little comment. 
Still, it stimulated La Salle to more effort, and 
while musing on his plans, Joliet and Marquette 
push on from Green Bay, and discover the river 
and ascertain the general course of its outlet. On 
Joliet's return in 1673, he seems to drop from 
further notice. Other and more venturesome souls 
were ready to finish the work beg-un by himself 
and the zealous Marquette, who, left among the , 
far-away nations, laid down his life. The spirit of 

^ '/'Uad'y ^^/f.7 1. ./juost' 





La Salle was equal to the enterprise, and as lie now 
had returned from one voyage of discovery, he 
stood ready to solve the mystery, and gain the 
country for his King. Before this could be ac- 
complished, however, he saw other things must be 
done, and made preparations on a scale, for the 
time, truly marvelous. 

Count Prontenac, the new Grovernor, had no 
sooner established himself in power than he gave a 
searching glance over the new realm to see if any . 
undeveloped resources lay yet unnoticed, and what 
country yet remained open. He learned from the 
exploits of La Salle on the Ohio, and from Joliet, 
now returned from the West, of that immense 
country, and resolving in his mind on some plan 
whereby it could be formally taken, entered 
heartily into the plans of La Salle, who, anxious to 
solve the mystery concerning the outlet of the 
Great River, gave him the outline of a plan, saga- 
cious in its conception and grand in its compre- 
hension. La Salle had also informed him of the 
endeavors of the English on the Atlantic coast to 
divert the trade with the Indians, and partly to 
counteract this, were the plans of La Salle adopted. 
They were, briefly, to build a chain of forts from 
Canada, or New Francfe, along the lakes to the 
Mississippi, and on down that river, thereby hold- 
ing the country by power as well as by discovery. 
A fort was to be built on the Ohio as soon as the 
means could be obtained, and thereby hold that 
country by the same policy. Thus to "La Salle 
alone may be ascribed the bold plan of gaining the 
whole West, a plan only thwarted by the force of 
arms. Through the aid of Prontenac, he was 
given a proprietary and the rank of nobility, and 
on his proprietary was erected a fort, which he, in 
honor of his Governor, called Fort Prontenac. It 
stood on the site of the present city of Kingston, 
Canada. Through it he obtained the trade of the 
Five Nations, and his fortune was so far assured. 
He next repaired to France, to perfect his arrange- 
ments, secure his title and obtain means. 

On his return he built the fort alluded to, and 
prepared to go on in the prosecution of his plan. 
A civil discord arose, however, which for three 
years prevailed, and seriously threatened his 
projects. As soon as he could extricate himself, 
he again repaired to France, receiving additional 
encouragement in money, grants, and the exclusive 
priviTege of a trade in buffalo skins, then consid- 
ered a source of great wealth. On his return, he 
was accompanied by Henry Tonti, son of an illus- 
trious Italian nobleman, who had fled from his 

own country during one of its political revolutions. 
Coming io Prance, he made himself famous as the 
founder of Tontine Life Insurance. Henry Tonti 
possessed an indomitable will, and though he had 
suffered the loss of one of his hands by the ex- 
plosion of a grenade in one of the Sicilian wars, 
his courage was undaunted, and his ardor un- 
dimmed. La Salle also brought recruits, mechanics, 
sailors, cordage and sails for rigging a ship, and 
merchandise for traffic with the • natives. At 
Montreal, he secured the services of'M. LaMotte, a 
person of much energy and integrity of character. 
He also secured several missionaries , before he 
reached Fort Prontenac. Among them were 
Louis Hennepin, Gabriel Ribourde and Zenabe 
Membre. All these were Flemings, all Recollets. 
Hennepin, of all of them, proved the best assist- 
ant. They arrived at the fort early in the autumn 
of 1678, 4nd preparations were at once made to 
erect a vessel in which to navigate the lakes, and 
a fort at the mouth, of the Niagara River. The 
Senecas were rather adverse to the latter proposals 
when La Motte and Hennepin came, but by 
the eloquence of the latter, they were pacified 
and rendered friendly. After a number of vexa- 
tious delays, the vessel, the Griffin, the first on the 
lakes, was built, and on the 7th of August, a year 
after La Salle came here, it was launched, passed 
over the waters of the northern lakes, and, after a 
tempestuous voyage, landed at Green Bay. It was 
soon after stored with furs and sent back, while 
La Salle and his men awaited its return. It was 
never afterward heard of. La Salle, becoming 
impatient, erected a fort, pushed on with a 
part of his men, leaving part at the fort, 
and passed over the St. Joseph and Kankakee 
Rivers, and thence to the Illinois, down whose 
flood they proceeded to Peoria* Lake, where 
he was obliged to halt, and return to Canada 
for more men and supplies. He left Tonti 
and several men to complete a fort, called 
Fort " CreveccBur "^broken-hearted. The Indians 
drove the French away, the men ■ mutinied, and 
Tonti was obliged to flee. When La Salle returned, 
he found no one there, and going down as far as 
the mouth of the Illinois, he retraced his steps, to 
find some trace of his garrison. Tonti was found 
safe among the Pottawatomies at Green Bay, and 
Hennepin and his two followers, sent to explore 
the head-waters of the Mississippi, were again 
home, after a captivity among the Sioux. 

La Salle renewed his force of men, and the third 
time get out for the outlet of the Great River. 



He left Canada early in December, 1681, and by 
February 6, 1682, reached the majestic flood of 
the mighty stream. On the 24th, they ascended 
the Chickasaw BluflFs, and, while waiting to find 
a sailor who had strayed away, erected Fort Prud- 
homme. They passed seversJ Indian villages fur- 
ther down the river, in some of which they met 
with no little opposition. Proceeding onward, ere- 
long they encountered the tide of the sea, and 
April 6, they emerged on the broad bosom of the 
Gulf, "tossing its restless billows, limitless, voice- 
less and lonely as when born of chaos, without a 
sign of life." 

Coasting about a short time on the shores of 
the Gulf, the party returned until a sufficiently 
dry place was reached to' effect a landing. Here 
another cross was raised, also a column, on which 
was inscribed these words: 

" Louis le Grand, Eoi de Feance et de Navarke, 
B.EGNE; Le Neuvieme, Avril, 1682." * 

" The whole party," says a " proces verbal," in 
the archives of France, " chanted the Te Deum, 
the Exaudiat and the Domine salvum fac Regem, 
and then after a salute of fire-arms and cries of 
Vive le Roi, La Salle, standing near the column, 
said in a loud voice in French : 

"In the name of the most high, mighty, invin- 
cible and victorious Prince, Louis the Great, by 
the grace of God, King of France and of Navarre, 
Fourteenth of tliat name, this ninth day of April, 
one thousand six hundred and eighty two, I, in 
virtue of the commission of His Majesty, which I 
hold in my hand, and which may be seen by all 
whom it may concern, have taken, and do now 
take, in the name of His Majesty and of his suc- 
cessors to the crown, possession of this country of 
Louisiana, the seas, harbor, ports, bays, adjacent 
straights, and all the nations, people, provinces, cities, 
towns, villages, mines, minerals, fisheries, streams 
and rivers, comprised in the extent of said Louisiana, 
from the north of the great river St. Louis, other- 
wise called the Ohio, Alighin, Sipore or Chukago- 
na, and this with the consent of the Chavunons, 
Chickachaws, and other people dwelling therein, 
with whom we have made alliance; as also along 
the river Colbert or Mississippi, and rivers which 
discharge themselves therein from its source beyond 
the Kious or Nadouessious, and this with their 
consent, and with the consent of the Illinois, Mes- 
igameas, Natchez, Koroas, which are the most con- 
siderable nations dwelling therein, with whom also 

* LoniB the Great, King ot France and of Navarre, reigning the 
ninth day of April) 1682. 

we have made alliance, either by ourselves or others 
in our behalf, as far as its mouth at the sea or 
Gulf of Mexico, about the twenty-seventh degree 
of its elevation of the North Pole, and also to the 
mouth of the River of Pahns; upon the assurance 
which we have received from all these nations that 
we are the first Europeans who have descended or 
ascended the river Colbert, hereby protesting 
against all those who may in future undertake to 
invade any or all of these countries, peoples or 
lands, to the prejudice ofthe right of His Majesty, 
acquired by the consent of the nations herein 

The whole assembly responded with shouts and 
the salutes of fire-arms. The Sieur de La Salle 
caused to be planted at the foot of the column a 
plate of lead, on one side of which was inscribed 
the arms of France and the following Latin inscrip- 

Kobertvs Cavellier, cvm Domino de Tonly, Legato, 
R. P. Zenobi Membro, RecoUecto, et, Viginti Gallis 
Primes Hoc Flvmen inde ab ilineorvm Pago, enavigavit, 
ejvsqye ostivm fecit PervivTm, none Aprilis cio ioo 

The whole proceedings were acknowledged be- 
fore La Metaire, a notary, and the conquest was 
considered complete. 

Thus was the foundation of France laid in the 
new republic, and thus did she ^ lay claim to the 
Northwest, which now includes Ohio, and the 
county, whose history this book perpetuates. 

La Salle and his party returned to Canada soon 
after, and again that country, and France itself, 
rang with anthems of exultation. He went on to 
France, where he received the highest honors. 
He was given a fleet, and sailors as well as colon- 
ists to return to the New World by way of a south- 
ern voyage, expecting to find the mouth of the 
Mississippi by an ocean course. Sailing past the 
. outlets, he was wrecked on the coast of Texas, and 
in his vain endeavors to find the river or return to 
Canada, he became lost on the plains of Arkansas, 
where he, in 1687, was basely murdered by one of 
his followers. " You are down now. Grand Bashaw," 
exclaimed his slayer, and despoiling his remains, they 
left them to be devoured by wild beasts. To such 
an ignominious end came this daring, bold adven- 
turer. Alone in the wilderness, he was left, with 
no monument but the vast realm he had discov- 
ered, on whose bosom he was left vrithout cover- 
ing and without protection. 

" For force of will and vast conception ; for va- 
rious knowledge, and quick adaptation of his genius 



to untried circumstances; for a sublime magnani- 
mity, that resigned itself to the will of Heaven, 
and yet triumphed over affliction by energy of 
purpose and unfaltering hope — he had no superior 
among his countrymen. He had won the aflFec- 
tions of the governor of Canada, the esteem of 
Colbert, the confidence of Seignelay, the favor of 
Louis XIV. After the beginning of the coloniza- 
tion of Upper Canada, he perfected the discovery 
of the Mississippi from the Falls of St. Anthony 
to its mouth; and he will be remembered through 
all time as the father of colonization in the great 
central valley of the West."* 

Avarice, passion and jealousy were hot calmed by 
the blood of'La Salle. All of his conspirators per- 
ished by ignoble deaths, while only seven of the six- 
teen succeeded in continuing the journey until 
tKey reached Canada, and thence found their way 
to France. 

Tonti, who had been left; at Fort St. Louis, on 
" Starved Rock" on the Illinois, went down in 
search of his beloved commander. Failing to find 
him, he returned and remained here until 1700, 
thousan(S of miles away from friends. Then he 
went down the Mississippi to join D'Iberville, who 
had made the discovery of the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi by an ocean voyage. Two years later, he 
went on a mission to the Chickasaws, but of his 
subsequent history nothing is known. 

The West was now in possession of the French. 
La Salle's plans were yqt feasible. The period of 
exploration was now over. The great river and 
its outlet was known, and it only remained for that 
nation to enter in and occupy what to many a 
Frenchman was the "Promised Land." Only 
eighteen years had elapsed since Marquette and 
Joliet had descended the river and shown the 
course of its outlet. A spirit, less bold than La 
Salle's would never in so short a time have pene- 
trated for more than a thousand miles an unknown 
vrilderness, and solved the mystery of the world. 

When Joutel and his companions reached France 
in 1688, all Europe was on the eve of war. Other 
nations than the French wanted part of the New 
World, and when they saw that nation greedily 
and rapidly accumulating territory there, they en- 
deavored to stay its progress. The league of Augs- 
burg was formed in 1687 by the princes of the Em- 
pire to restrain the ambition of Louis XIV, and 
in 1688, he began hostilities by the capture of 
Philipsburg. The next year, England, under the 

* Bancroft. 

lead of William III, joined the alliance, and Louis 
found himself compelled, with only the aid of the 
Turks, to contend against the united forces of the 
Empires of England, Spain, Holland, Denmark, 
Sweden and Norway. Yet the tide of battle wa- 
vered. In 1689, the French were defeated at 
Walcourt, and the Turks at Widin; but in 1690, 
the French were victorious at Charleroy, and the 
Turks at Belgrade. The next year, and also the 
next, victory inclined to the French, but in 1693, 
Louvois and Luxemberg were dead and Namur 
surrendered to the allies. The war extended to the 
New World, where it was maintained with more 
than equal success by the French, though the En- 
glish population exceeded it more than twenty to one. 
In 1688, the French were estimated at about 
twelve thousand souls in North America, while the 
English were more than two hundred thousand. 
At first the war was prosecuted vigorously. In 
1689, De. Ste. Helene and D'Iberville, two of the 
sons of Charles le Morne, crossed the wilderness 
and reduced the English forts on Hudson's Bay. 
But ill August of the same year, the Iroquois, the 
hereditary, foes of the French, captured and burned 
Montreal. Frontenac, who had gone on an ex- 
pedition against New York by sea, was recalled. 
Fort Frontenac was abandoned, and no French 
posts left in the West between 'Trois Rivieres and 
Mackinaw, and were it not for the Jesuits the en- 
tire West would now have been abandoned. To 
recover their influence, the French planned three 
expeditions. One resulted in the destruction of 
Schenectady, another, Salmon Falls, and the third, 
Casco Bay. On the other hand. Nova Scotia was 
reduced by the colonies, and an expedition against 
Montreal went as far as to Lake Champlain, where 
it failed, owing to the dissensions of the leaders. 
Another expedition, consisting of twenty-four ves- 
sels, arrived before Quebec, which also failed 
through the incompetency of Sir William Phipps. 
During the succeeding years, various border con- 
flicts occurred, in all of which border scenes of 
savage cruelty and savage ferocity were enacted. 
The peace of Ryswick, in 1697, closed the war. 
France retained Hudson's Bay, -and all the places 
of which she was in possession in 1688; but the 
boundaries of the English and French claims in 
the New World were still unsettled. 

The conclusion of the conflict left the French 
at liberty to pursue their scheme of colonization 
in the Mississippi Valley. In 1698, D'Iberville 
was sent to the lower province, which, erelong, 
was made a separateindependency, called Louisiana. 




Forts were erected on Mobile Bay, and the division 
of the territory between the French and the 
Spaniards was settled. Trouble existed between 
. the French and the Chickasaws, ending in the 
cruel deaths of many of the leaders, in the 
fruitless endeavors of the Canadian and Louisi- 
anian forces combining against the Chickasaws. 
For many years the conflict raged, with unequal 
successes, until the Indian power gave way before 
superior military tactics. In the end. New Orleans 
was founded, in 1718, and the French power 

Before this was consummated, however, France 
became entangled in another war against the 
allied powers, ending in her defeat and the loss 
of Nova Scotia, Hudson's Bay and Newfound- 
land. The peace of Utrecht closed the war 
in 1713. 

The French, weary with prolonged strife, 
adopted the plan, more peaceful in its nature, of 
giving out to distinguished men the monopoly of 
certain districts in the fur trade, the most pros- 
perous of any avocation then. Crozat- and 
Cadillac — the latter the founder of Detroit, in 
1701 — were the chief ones concerned in this. 
The founding of the villages of Kaskaskia, Ca- 
hokia, yincennes, and others in the Mississippi 
and Wabash Valleys, led to the rapid develop- 
ment, according to the French custom of all 
these parts of the West, while along all the chief 
water-courses, other trading posts and forts were 
established, rapidly fulfilling the hopes of La 
Salle, broached so many years before. 

The French had, at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, four principal routes to their 
western towns, two of which passed over the soil 
of Ohio. The first of these was the one followed 
by Marquette and Joliet, by way of the Lakes to 
Green Bay, in Wisconsin ; thence across a portage 
to the Wisconsin River, down which they floated 
to the Mississippi. On their return they came 
up the Illinois River, to the site of Chicago, 
whence Joliet returned to Quebec by the Lakes. 
La Salle's route was flrst by the Lakes to the St. 
Joseph's River, which he followed to the portage 
to the Kankakee, and thence downward to the 
Mississippi. On his second and third attempt, 
he crossed the lower peninsula of Michigan to 
the Kankakee, and again traversed its waters to 
the Illinois. The third route was estabHshed 
about 1716. It followed the southern shores of" 
Lake Erie to the mouth of the Maumee River ; 
following this stream, the voyagers went on to the 

junction between it and the St. Mary's, which 
they followed to the " Oubache "—Wabash— and 
then to the French villages in Vigo and Knox 
Counties, in Indiana. Vincennes was the oldest 
and most important one here. It had been 
founded in 1702 by a French trader, and was, at 
the date of the establishment of the third route, 
in a prosperous condition. For many years, the 
traders crossed the plains of Southern Illinois to 
the French towns on the bottoms opposite St. 
Louis. They were afraid to go on down the 
"Waba" to the Ohio, as the Indians had fright- 
ened them with accounts of the great monsters 
below. Finally, some adventurous spirit went 
down the river, found it emptied into the Ohio, 
and solved the problem of the true outlet of the 
Ohio, heretofore supposed to be a tributary of the 

The fourth route was from the southern shore 
of Lake Erie, at Presqueville, over a portage of 
fifteen miles to the head of French Creek, at 
Waterford, Penn. ; thence down that stream to the 
Ohio, and on to the Blississippi. Along all these 
routes, ports and posts were carefully msftntained. 
Many were on the soil of Ohio, and were the first 
attempts of the white race to possess its domain. 
Many of the ruins of these posts are yet found on 
the southern shore of Lake Erie, and at the 
outlets of streams flowing into the lake and the Ohio 
River. The principal forts were at Mackinaw, at 
Presqueville, at the mouth of the St. Joseph's, on 
Starved Rock, and along the Father of Waters. 
Yet another power was encroaching on them : a 
sturdy race, clinging to the inhospitable Atlantic 
shores, were coming over the mountains. The 
murmurs of a conflict were already heard — a con- 
flict that would change the fate of a nation. 

The French were extending their explorations 
beyond the Mississippi; they were also forming a 
political organization, and increasing their influence 
over the natives. Of a passive nature, however, 
their power and their influence could not with- 
stand a more aggressive nature, and they were 
obliged, finally, to give way. They had the 
fruitful valleys of the West more than a century; 
yet they developed no resources, opened no mines 
of wealth, and left the country as passive as they 
found it. 

Of the growth of the West under French rule, 
but little else remains to be said. The sturdy 
Anglo-Saxon race on the Atlantic coast, and their 
progenitors in England, began, now, to turn their 
attention to this vast country. The voluptuousness 





. of the French court, their neglect of the true 
basis of wealth, agriculture, and the repressive 
tendencies laid on the colonists, led the latter to 
adopt a hunter's life, and leave the country unde- 
veloped and ready for the people who claimed the 
country from "sea to sea." Their explorers were 
now at work. The change was at hand. 

Occasional mention has been made in the his- 
tory of the State, in preceding pages, of settle- 
ments and trading-posts of the French traders,/ 
explorers and missionaries, within the limits of 
Ohio. The French were the first white men to 
occupy the northwestern part of the New World,, 
and though their stay was brief, yet it opened the 
way to a sinewy race, living on the shores of the 
Atlantic, who in time came, saw, and conquered 
that part of America, making it what the people 
of to-day enjoy. 

As early as 1669, four years before the discov- 
ery of the Mississippi by Joliet and Marquette, 

^ La Salle, the famous explorer, discovered the Ohio 
River, and paddled^iown its gentle current as far 
as the falls at the present city of Louisville, but he, 

- like others of the day, made no settlement on its 
banks, only claiming the country for his King by 
virtue of this discovery. 

Early in the beginning of the eighteenth cent- 
ury, French traders and voyagers passed along the 
southern shores of Lake Erie, to the mouth of the 
Maumee, up whose waters they rowed their bark 

■ canoes, on their way to their outposts in the Wa- 
bash and Illinois Valleys, established between 
1675 and 1700. As soon as they could, without 
danger from their inveterate enemies, the Iroquois, 
masters of all the lower lake country, erect a 
trading-post at the moiith of this river, they did 
so. It was made a depot of considerable note, 
and was, probably, the first permanent habitation 
of white men in Ohio. ' It remained until after 
the peace of 1763, the termination of the French 
and Indian war, and the occupancy of this country 
by the English. On the site of the French trading- 
post, the British, in 1794, erected Fort Miami, 
which they garrisoned until the country came 
under the control of Americans. Now, Maumee 
City covers the ground. 

The French had a trading-post at the mouth of 
the Huron River, in what is now Erie County. 
When it was built is not now known. It was, how- 
ever, probably one of their early outposts, and 
may have been built before 1750. They had an- 
other on the shore of the bay, on or near the site 
of Sandusky City. Both this and the one at the 

mouth of the Huron River were abandoned before 
the war of the Revolution. On Lewis Evan's map 
of the British Middle Colonies, published in 1755, 
a French fort, called "Fort Junandat, built in 
1754," is marked on the east bank of the San- 
dusky River, several miles below its mouth. Fort 
Sandusky, on the western bank, is also noted. 
Several Wyandot towns are likewise marked. But 
very little is known concerning any of these 
trading-posts. They were, evidently, only tempo- 
rary, and were abandoned when the English came 
into possession of the country. 

The mouth of the Cuyahoga River was another 
important place. On Evan's map there is marked 
on the west bank of the Cuyahoga, some distance 
from its mouth, the words "French House" doubt- 
less, the station of a French trader. The ruins 
of a house, found about five miles from the mouth 
of the river, on the west bank, are supposed to 
be those of the trader's station. 

In 1786, the Moravian missionary, Zeisberger, 
with his Indian converts, left Detroit ia a vessel ' 
called the Mackinaw, and sailed to the mouth of 
the Cuyahoga. From there they went up the 
river about ten miles, and settled in an abandoned 
Ottawa village, where Independence now is, which 
place they called " Saint's Rest." Their stay was 
brief, for the following April, they left for the 
Huron River, and settled near the site of Milan, 
Erie County, at a locality they called New Salem. 

There are but few records of settlements made 
by the French until after 1750. Even these can 
hardly be called settlements, as they were simply 
trading-posts. The French easily afiiliated with 
the Indians, and had little energy beyond trading. 
They never cultivated fields, laid low forests, and 
subjugated the country. They were a half-Indian 
race, so to speak, and- hence did little if anything 
in developing the West. 

About 1749, some English traders came to a 
place in what is now Shelby County, on the 
banks of a creek since known as Loramie's 
Creek, and established a trading-station with the 
Indians. This was the first English trading-place 
or attempt at settlement in the State. , It was here 
but a short time, however, when the French, hear- 
ing of its existence, sent a party of soldiers to the 
Twigtwees, among whom it was founded, and de- 
manded the traders as intruders upon French ter- 
ritory. The Twigtwees refusing to deliver up 
their friends, the French, assisted by a large party 
of Ottawas and Chippewas, attacked the trading- 
house, probably a block-house, and, after a severe 



battle, captured it. The traders were taken to 
Canada. This fort was called by the English. 
" PickawUlany," from which "Piqua" is probably 
derived. About the time that Kentucky was set- 
tled, a Canadian Frenchman, named Loramie, 
established a store on the site of the old fort. He 
was a bitter enemy of the Americans, and for a 
long time Loramie's store was the headquarters of 
mischief toward the settlers. 

The French had the'faculty of endearing them- 
selves to the Indians by their easy assimilation of 
their hg,bits; and, no .doubt, Loramie was equal to 
any in this respect, and hence gained great influ- 
ence over them. Col. Johnston, many years an 
Indian Agent from the United States among the 
Western tribes, stated that he had often seen the 
" Indians burst into tears when speaking of the 
times when their French father had dominion 
over them ; and their attachment always remained 

So much influence had Loramie with the In- 
, dians, that, when Gen. Clarke, from Kentucky, 
invaded the Miami Valley in 1782, his attention 
was attracted to the spot. He came on and burnt 
the Indian settlement here, and destroyed the store 
of the Frenchman, selling his goods among the 
men at auction, Loramie fled to the Shawanees, 
and, with a colony -of that nation, emigrated west 
of the Mississippi, to the Spanish possessions, 
where he again began his life of a trader. 

In 1794, during the Indian war, a fort was 
built on the site of the store by Wayne, and 
named Fort Loramie. The last officer who had 
command here was Capt. Butler, a nephew of 
Col. Eichard Butler, who fell at St. Clair's defeat. 
While hero with his family, he lost an interesting 
boy, about eight years of age. About his grave, 
the sorrowing father and mother built a substantial 
picket-fence, planted honeysuckles over it, which, 
long after, remained to mark the grave of the 
soldier's boy. 

The site of Fort Loramie was always an im- 
portant point, and was one of the places defined 
on the boundary line at the Greenville treaty. 
Now a barn covers the spot. 

At the junction of the Auglaize and Maumee 
Rivers, on the site of Fort Defiance, built by Gen. 
Wayne in 1794, was a settlement of traders, 
established some time before the Indian war 
began. " On the high ground extending from the 
Maumee a quarter of a mile up the Auglaize, 
about two hundred yards in width, was an open 
space, on the west and south of which were oak 

woods, with hazel undergrowth. Within this ^ 
opening, a few hundred yards above the point, on 
the steep bank of the Auglaize, were five or six 
cabins and log houses, inhabited principally by 
Indian traders. The most northerly, a large 
hewed-log house, divided below into three apart- 
ments, was occupied as a warehouse, store and 
dwelling, by George Ironside, the most wealthy 
and influential of the traders on the point. Next 
to his were the houses of Pirault (Pero) a French 
baker, and McKenzie, a Scot, who, in addition to 
merchandising, fiDllowed the occupation of a silver- 
smith, exchanging with the Indians his brooches, 
ear-drops and other silver ornaments, at an 
enormous profit, for skins and furs. 

Still further up were several other fami- 
lies of French and English; and two Ameri- 
can prisoners, Henry Ball, a soldier taken in St. 
Clair's 1 defeat, and his wife, Polly Meadows, 
captured at the same time, were allowed to live 
here and pay their masters the price of their 
ransom^he, by boating to tbfe rapids of the Mau- 
mee, and she by washing and sewing. Fronting 
the house of Ironside, and about fifty yards from, 
the bank, was a small stockade, inclosing two 
hewed-log houses, one of which was occupied by 
James Girty (a brother of Simon), the other, 
occasionally, by Elliott and McKee, British 
Indian Agents living at Detroit."'^ 

The post, cabins and all they contained fell 
under the control of the Americans, when the 
British evacuated the shores of the lakes. 
While they existed, they were an undoubted 
source of Indian discontent, and had much to do 
in prolonging the Indian war. The country 
hereabouts did not settle until some time after 
the creation of the State government. 

As soon as the French, learned the true source 
of the Ohio and Wabash Rivers, both were made 
a highway to convey the products of their hunt- 
ers. In coursing down the Ohio, they made 
trading-places, or depots, where they could obtain 
furs of the Indians, at accessible points, generally 
at the mouths of the rivers emptying into the 
Ohio. One of these old forts or trading-places 
stood about a mile and a half south of the outlet 
of the Scioto. It was here in 1740', but when 
it was erected no one could tell. The locality 
must have been pretty well known to the whites, 
however; for, in 1785, three years before the 
settlement of Marietta was made, four families 

* Narrative of 0. M. Spencer. 




made an ineffectual attempt to settle near the same 
place. They were from Kentucky, but were 
driven away by the Indians a short time after 
they arrived, not being allowed to build cabins, 
and had only made preparations to plant corn 
and other necessaries of life. While the men 
were encamped near the vicinity of Piketown, 
in Pike County, when on a *hunting expedition, 
they were surprised by the Indians, and two of 
them slain. The others hastened back to the 
encampment at the mouth of the Scioto, and 
hurriedly gathering the families together, fortu- 
nately got them on a flat-boat, at that hour on its 
way down the river. By the aid of the HDoat, 
they were enabled to reach MaysvUle, and gave 
up the attempt to settle north of the Ohio. 

The famous "old Scioto Salt Works," in Jack- 
son County, on the banks of Salt Creek, a tributary 
of the Scioto, were long known to the whites before 
any attempt was made to settle in Ohio. They 
were indicated on the maps published in 1755. 
They were the resort, for generations, of the In- 
dians in all parts of the West, who annually came 
here to make salt. They often brought white 
prisoners with' them, and thus the salt works be- 
came knpwn. There were no attempts made to 
settle hire, however, until after the Indian war, 
which closed in 1795. As soon as peace was as- 
sured, the whites came here for salt, and soon after 
made a settlement. Another early salt spring 
was in what is now Trumbull County. It is Slso 
noted on Evan's map of 1755. They were occu- 
pied by the Indians, French, and by the Americans 
as early as 1780, and perhaps earlier. 

As early as 1761 Moravian missionaries came 
among the Ohio Indians and began their labors. 
In a few years, under the lead of Revs. Fredrick 
Post and John Heckewelder, permanent stations 
were established in several parts of the State, chief- 
ly on the 'Puscarawas River in Tuscarawas County. 
Here were the three Indian villages — Shoenburn, 
Grnadenhutten and Salem. The site of the first is 
about two miles south of New Philadelphia ; Gna- 
denhutten was seven mile's further south, and about 
five miles still on was Salem, a short distance from 
the present village of Port Washington. The first 
and last named of these villages were on the west 
side of the 'Tuscarawas River, near the margin of 
the Ohio Canal. Gnadenhutten was on the east 
side of the river.- It was here that the brutal 
massacre of these Christian Indians, by the rangers 
under Col'. Williamson, occurred March 8, 1782. 
The account of the massacre and of these tribes 

appears in these pages, and it only remains to 
notice what became of them. 

The hospitable and friendly character of these 
Indians had extended beyond their white breth- 
ren on the Ohio. The American people at large 
looked on the act of Williamson and his men as an 
outrage on humanity. Congress felt its influence, 
and gave them a tract of twelve thousand acres, 
embracing their former homes, and induced them 
to return from the northern towns whither they had 
fled. As the whites came into the country, their 
manners degenerated until it became necessary to 
remove them. Through Gen. Cass, of Michigan, 
an agreement was made with them, whereby Con- 
gress paid them over $6,000, an annuity of $400, 
and 24,000 acres in some territory to be designated 
by the United States. This treaty, by some means, 
was never efiectually carried out, and the princi- 
pal part of them took' up their resideilce near a 
Moravian missionary station on the River Thames, 
in Canada. Their old churchyard still exists on 
the Tuscarawas River, and here rest the bones of 
several of their devoted teachers. It is proper 
to remark here, that Mary Heckewelder, daughter 
of the missionary, is generally believed to have 
been the first white child born in Ohio. How- 
ever, this is largely conjecture. Captive women 
among the Indians, before the birth of Mary 
Heckewelder, are known to have borne children, 
which afterward, with their mothers, were restored 
to their friends. The assertion that. Mary 
Heckewelder was the first child born in Ohio, is 
therefore incorrect. She is the first of whom any 
definite record is made. 

These outposts are about all that are known 
to have existed prior to the settlement at Mari- 
etta. About one-half mile below Bolivar, on 
the western line of Tuscarawas County, are the 
remains of Fort Laurens, erected in 1778, by 
a detachment of 1,000 men under Gen. Mc- 
intosh, from Fort Pitt. It was, however, occu- 
pied but a, short time, vacated in August, 1779, as 
it was deemed untenable at such a distance from 
the frontier. 

During the existence of the six years' Indian 
war, a settlement of French emigrants was made 
oil the Ohio River, that deserves notice. It illus- 
trates very clearly the extreme ignorance and 
credulity prevalent at that day. In May or June 
of 1788, Joel Barlow left this country for Europe, 
" authorized to dispose of a very large body of 
land in the West. " In 1790, he distributed pro- 
posals in Paris for the disposal of lands at five 




sHllings per acre, which, says Volney, " promised 
a climate healthy and delightful ; scarcely such a 
thing as a irost in the winter ; a river, called by 
Way of eminence ' The Beautiful, ' abounding in 
fish of an enormous size ; magnificent forests of a 
tree from which sugar flows, and a shrub which 
yields candles ; venidon in abundance ; no military 
enrollments, and no quarters to find for soldiers." 
Purchasers became numerous, individuals and 
whole families sold their property, and in the 
course of 1791 many embarked at the various 
French searports, each with his title in his pocket. 
Five hundred settlers, among whom were many 
wood carvers and guilders to His Majesty, King of 
France, coachmakers, friseurs and peruke makers, 
and other artisans and artistes, equally well fitted 
for a frontier life, arrived in the United States in 
1791-92, and acting without concert, traveling 
without knowledge of the language, customs and 
roads, at last managed to reach the spot designated 
for their residence. There they learned they had 
been cruelly deceived, and that the titles they held 
were worthless. Without food, shelterless, and 
danger closing around them, they were in a position 
that none but a Frenchman could be in without 
despair. Who brought them thither, and who was 
to blame, is yet a disputed point. Some affirm 
that those to whom large grants of land were made 
when the Ohio Company procured its charter, were 
the real instigators of the movement. They failed 
to pay for their lands, and hence the title reverted 
to the Government. This, coming to the ears of 
the poor Frenchmen, rendered their situation more 
distressing. They never paid for their lands, and 
only through the clemency of Congress, who after- 
ward gave them a grant of land, and confirmed 
them in its title, were they enabled to secure a foot- 
hold. Whatever doubt there may be as to the 

causes of these people being so grossly deceived, 
there can be none regarding their sufierings. They 
had followed a jack-o-lantern into the howling 
wilderness, and must work or starve. The land 
upon which they had been located was covered 
with immense forest trees, to level which the coach- 
makers were at a k)ss. At last, hoping to conquer 
by a coup de main, they tied ropes to the branches,, 
and while a dozen pulled at them as many fell at 
the trunk with all sorts of edged tools, and thus 
soon brought the monster to Ihe earth. Yet he 
was a burden. He was down, to be sure, but as 
much in the way as ever. Several lopped off the 
branches, others dug an immense trench at his side, 
into which, with might and -main, all rolled the ■ 
large log, and then buried him from sight. They 
erected their cabins in a cluster, as they had seen 
them in their own native land, thus affording some 
protection from marauding bands of Indians. 
Though isolated here in the lonely wilderness, and 
nearly out of fiinds with which to purchase pro- 
visions from descending boats, yet once a week 
they met and drowned care in a merry dance, 
greatly to the wonderment of the scout or lone 
Indian who chanced to witness their revelry. 
Though their vivacity could work wonders, it would 
not pay for lands nor buy provisions. Some of those 
at Gallipolis (for such they called their settlement, 
from Gallia, in France) went to Detroit, some to 
Kaskaskia, and' some bought land of the Ohio 
Company, who treated them liberally. Congress, 
too, in 1795, being informed of their sufferings, 
and how they had been deceived, granted them 
24,000 acres opposite Little Sandy River, to which 
grant, in 1798, 12,000 acres more were added. 
The tract has since been known as French Grant. 
The settlement is a curious episode in early West- 
ern history, and deserves a place in its annals. 

9 "'V 







AS has been noted, the French title rested on 
the discoveries of their missionaries and 
traders, upon the occupation of the country, and 
upon the construction of the treaties of Ryswick, 
Utrecht and Aix la Chapelle-. The English 
claims to the same region were based on the fact 
of a prior occupation of the corresponding coast, 
on an opposite construction of the same treaties, 
and an alleged cession of the rights of the 
Indians. The rights acquired by discovery were 
conventional, and in equity were good only 
between European powers, and could not affect the 
rights of the natives, but this distinction was dis- 
regarded by all European powers. The inquiry of 
an Indian chief embodies the whole controversy : 
" Where are the Indian lands, since the French 
claim all on the north side of the Ohio and the 
English all on the -south side of it?" 

The English charters expressly granted to all 
the original colonies the country westward to the 
South Sea, and the claims thus set up in the West, 
though held in abeyance, were never relinquished. 
The primary distinction between the two nations 
governed their actions in the New World, and led 
finally to the supremacy of the English. They 
were fixed agricultural communities. The French 
were mere trading-posts. Though the French 
were the prime movers in the exploration of the 
West, the English made discoveries during their 
occupation, however, mainly by their traders, who 
penetrated the Western wilderness by way of the 
Ohio River, entering it from the two streams which 
uniting form that river. Daniel Coxie, in 1722, 
published, in London, "A description of the 
English province of Carolina, by the Spaniards 
called Florida, and by the French called La Louis- 
iane, as also the great and famous river Mescha- 
cebe, or Mississippi, the five vast navigable lakes 
of fresh water, and the parts adjacent, together 
with an account of the commodities of the growth 
and production of the said province." The title 
of this work exhibits very clearly the opinions of 
the English people respecting the West. As early 
as 1630, Charles I granted to Sir Robert Heath 
"All that part of America lying between thirty- 

one and thirty-six degrees north latitude, from sea 
to sea," out of which the limits of Carolina were 
afterward taken. This immense grant was con- 
veyed in 1638, to the Earl of Arundel, and after- 
ward came into the possession of Dr. Daniel Coxie. 
In the prosecution of this claim, it appeared. ,that 
Col. Wood, of Virginia, from 1654 to 1664, ex- 
plored several branches of the Ohio and " Mescha- 
cebe," as they spell the Mississippi. A Mr. Need- 
ham, who was employed by Col. Wood, kept a 
journal of the exploration. There is also the ac- 
count of some one who had explored the Missis- 
sippi to the_ Yellow, or Missouri River, before 1676. 
These, and others, are said to have been there 
when La Salle explored the outlet of the Great 
River, as he found tools among the natives which 
were of lEuropean manufacture. They had been 
brought here by English adventurers. Also, when 
Iberville was colonizing the lower part of Louis- 
iana, these same persons visited the Chixjkasaws 
and stirred them up against the French. It is also 
stated that La Salle found that some one had been 
among the Natchez tribes when he returned from 
the discovery of the outlet of the Mississippi, and 
excited them against him. There is, however, no 
good authority for these statements, and they are 
doubtless incorrect. There is also an account that . 
in 1678, several persons went from New England 
as far south as New Mexico, " one hundred and 
fifty leagues beyond the Meschacebe," the narrative 
reads, and on their return wrote an account of the 
expedition. This, also, cannot be traced to good 
authority. The only accurate account of the 
English reaching the West was when Bienville 
met the British vessel at the "English Turn," 
about 1700. A few of their traders may have 
been ip the valley west of the- Alleghany Mount- 
ains before 1700, though no reliable accounts are 
now found to confirm these suppositions. Still, 
from the earliest occupation of the Atlantic Coast 
by the English, they claimed the country, and, 
though the policy of its occupation rested for a 
time, it was never ftilly abandoned. Its revival 
dates from 1710 properly, though no immediate 
endeavor was made for many years after. That 



year, Alexander Spottswood was made Governor of 
Virginia. No sooner did lie assume the functions 
of ruler, than, casting his eye over his dominion, he 
saw the great West beyond the Alleghany Mount- 
ains unoccupied by the English, and rapidly filling 
with the French, who he observed were gradually 
confining the English to the Atlantic Coast. His 
prophetic eye saw at a glance the animus of the 
whole scheme, and he determined to act promptly 
on the defensive. Through his representation, the 
Virginia Assembly was induced to make an appro- 
priation to defray the expense of an exploration of 
the monntains, and see if a suitable pass could not 
then be found where they could be crossed. The 
Governor led the expedition in person. The pass 
was discovered, a route marked out for future em- 
igrants, and the party returned to Williamsburg. 
There the Governor established the order of the 
"Knights of the Golden Horseshoe," presented 
his report to the Colonial Assembly and one to his 
King. In each .report, he exposed with great bold- 
ness the scheme of the French, and advised the 
building of a chain of forts across to the Ohio, and 
the fcrmation of settlements to counteract them. 
The British Government, engrossed with other 
matters, neglected his advice. Forty years after, 
they remembered it, only to regret that it was so 
thoughtlessly disregarded. 

Individuals, however, profited by his advice. By 
1730, traders began in earnest to cross the mount- 
ains and gather from the Indians the stores beyond. 
They now began to adopt a system, and abandoned 
the heretofore renegade habits of those who had 
superseded them, many of whom never returned to 
the Atlantic Coast. In 1Y42, John Howard de- 
scended the Ohio in a skin canoe, and, on the 
Mississippi was taken prisoner by the French. His 
captivity did not in the least deter others from 
coming. Indeed, the date of his voyage was the 
commencement of a vigorous trade with the In- 
dians by the English, who crossed the AUeghanies 
by the route discovered by Gov. Spottswood. In 
1748, Conrad Weiser, a German of Herenberg, who 
had acquired in early life a knowledge of the Mo- 
hawk tongue by a residence among them, was sent 
on an embassy to the Shawanees on the Ohio. He 
went as far as Logstown, a SJiawanee village on the 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles be- 
low the site of Pittsburgh. Hero he- met the chiefs 
-in counsel, and secured their promise of aid against 
the French. 

The principal ground of the claims of the 
English in the Northwest was the treaty with the 

Five Nations— the Iroquois. This powerful confed- 
eration claimed the jurisdiction over an immense 
extent of country. Their pohey differed considera- 
bly from other Indian tribes. They were the only 
confederation which attempted any form of gov- 
ernment in America. They were often termed the 
" Six Nations," as the entrance of another tribe 
into the confederacy made that number. They 
were the conquerors of nearly all tribes from Lower 
Canada, to and beyond the Mississippi. They only 
exacted, however, a tribute from the conquered 
tribes, leaving them to manage their own internal 
affairs, and stipulating that to them alone did the 
right of cession belong. Their country, under 
these claims, embraced all of America north of the 
Cherokee Nation, in Virginia; all Kentucky, and 
all the Northwest, save a district in Ohio and Indi- 
ana, and a small section in Southwestern Illinois, 
claimed by the Miami Confederacy. The Iroquois, 
or Six Nations, were the terror of all other tribes. 
It was they who devastated the Illinois country 
about Rock Fort in 1680, and caused wide-spread 
alarm among all the Western Indians. In 1684, 
Lord Howard, Governor of Virginia, held a treaty 
with the Iroquois at Albany, when, at the request 
of Col. Duncan, of New York., they placed them- 
selves under the protection of the English. They 
made a deed of sale then, by treaty, to the British 
Government, of a vast tract of country south and 
east of the Illinois River, and extending into Can- 
ada. In 1726, another deed was drawn up and 
signed by the chiefs of the national confederacy by 
which their lands were conveyed in trust to 
England, " to be protected and defended by His 
Majesty, to and for the use of the grantors and 
their heirs."* 

If the Six Nations had a good claim to the West- 
ern country, there is but little doubt but England 
was justified in defending their country against the 
French, as, by, the treaty of Utrecht, they had 
agreed not to invade the lands of Britain's Indian 
allies. This claim was vigorously contested by 
France, as that country claimed the Iroquois had 
no lawful jurisdiction over the West. In all the 
disputes, the interests of the contending nations 
was, however, the paramount consideration. The 
rights of the Indians were little regarded. 

The British also purchased land by the treaty 
of Lancaster, in 1744, wherein they agreed to pay 
the Six Nations for land settled unlawfully in 
Pennsylvania, Virginia and Maryland. The In- 

* Annals of the West. 



dians were given goods and gold amounting to 
near a thousand pounds sterling. They were also 
promised the protection of the English. Had this 
latter provision been faithfully carried out, much 
blood would have been saved in after years. The 
treaties with the Six Nations were the real basis 
of the claims of Great Britain to the West ; claims 
that were only settled by war. The Shawanee In- 
dians; on the Ohio, were also becoming hostile to 
the English, and began to assume a threatening 
exterior. Peter Chartier, a half-breed, residing in 
Philadelphia, escaped from the authorities, those 
by. whom he was held for a violation of the laws, 
and joining the Shawanees, persuaded them to join 
the French. Soon after, in 1743 or 1744, he 
placed himself at the head of 400 of their war- 
riors, and lay in wait on the Alleghany River for 
the provincial traders. He captured two, exhib- 
ited to them a captain's commission from the 
French, and seized their goods, worth' £1,600. 
The Indians, after this, emboldened by the aid 
given them by the French, became more and more 
hostile, and Weiser was again sent across the mount- 
ains in 1748, with presents to conciliate them and 
sound them on their feelings for the rival nations, 
and also to see what they thought of a settlement 
of the English to be made in the West. The visit 
of Conrad Weiser was successful, and Thomas Lee, 
with twelve other Virginians, among whom were 
Lawrence and Augustine Washington, brothers of 
George Washington, formed a company which 
they styled the Ohio Company, and, in 1748, peti- 
tioned the King for a grant beyond the mountains. 
The monarch approved the petition and the gov- 
ernment of Virginia was ordered to grant the Com- 
pany 500,000 acres within the bounds of that 
colony beyond the AUeghanies, 200^000 of which 
were to be located at once. This provision was to 
hold good for ten years, free of- quit rent, provided 
the Company would settle ■ 100 families within 
seven years, and build a fort sufficient for their 
protection. These terms the Company accepted, 
and sent at once to London for a cargo suitable for 
the Indian trade. This was the beginning of 
English Companies in the West ; this one forming 
. a prominent part in the history of Ohio, as will 
be seen hereafter. Others were also formed in 
Virginia, whose object was the colonization of the 
West. One of these, the Loyal Company, received, 
on the 12th of June, 1749, a grant of 800,000 
acres, from the line of Canada on the north and 
west, and on the 29th of October, 1751, the Green- 
briar Company received a grant of 100,000 acres. 

To these encroachments, the French were by no 
means blind. They saw plainly enough that if 
the English gaine4 a foothold in the West, they 
would inevitably endeavor to obtain the country, 
and one day the issue could only be decided by 
war. Vaudreuil, the . French Governor, had long 
anxiously watched the coming struggle. In 1774, 
he wrote home representing the consequences that 
would surely come, should the English succeed in 
their plans. The towns of the French in Illinois 
were producing large amounts of bread-stufis and 
provisions which they sent to New Orleans. These 
provinces were becoming valuable, and must not be 
allowed to come under control of a rival power. 
In 1749, Louis Celeron was sent by the Governor 
with a party of soldiers to plant leaden plates, suit- 
ably inscribed, along the Ohio at the mouths of 
the principal streams. Two of these plates were 
afterward exhumed. One was sent to the Mary- 
land Historical Society, and the inscription* deci- 
phered by De Witt Clinton. On these plates was 
clearly stated the claims of France, as will be seen, 
from the translation below. 

England's claim, briefly and clearly stated, read 
as follows: "That all lands, or countries west- 
ward from the Atlantic Ocean to the South Sea, 
between 48 and 34 degrees of North Latitude, 
were expressly included in the grant of King 
James the First, to divers of his subjects, so long 
time since as the year 1606, and afterwards con- 
firmed in the year 1620; and under this grant, 
the colony of Virginia claims extent so far west 
as the South Sea, and the ancient colonies of Mass- 
achusetts Bay and Connecticut, were by their 
respective charters, made to extend to the said 
South Sea, so that not only the right to the sea 
coast, but to all the Inland countries from sea to 
sea, has at all times been asserted by the Crown of 
England."! ' 

To make good their titles, both nations were now 
doing their utmost. Professedly at peace, it only ' 
needed a torch applied, as it were, to any point, to 
instantly precipitate hostilities. The French were 

'* The following is the translation of the inscription of the plate 
found at Venango : " In the^year 1749, reign of Louis XV, King of 
France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detachment- by Monsieur 
the Marquis of Crailisoniere, Commander-in-chief of New France, 
to establish tranquillity in certain Indian villages in these Cantons, 
have buried this plate at the confluence of the Toraclakoin, this 
twenty-ninth of July, near the River Ohio, otherwise Beautiful 
Eiver, as a monument of renewal of possession which we have taken 
of the said river, and all its tributaries; and of all the land on both 
sides, as far as the sources of said rivers; inasmuch as the preceding 
Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintained it by thpir arms 
and by treaties; especially by those of Byswick, Utrecht, and Aix 
La Chapelle." 

i Colonial Becords of Pennsylvania. 



busily engaged erecting forts from the southern 
shores of Lake Erie to the Ohio, and on down in 
the Illinois Valley ; up at Detroit, and at all its 
posts, preparations were constantly going on for the 
crisis, now sure to come. The issue between the 
two governments was now ftilly made up. It ad- 
mitted of no compromise but the sword. To that, 
however, neither power desired an immediate ap- 
peal, and both sought rather to establish and fortify 
their interests, and to conciliate the Indian tribes. 
The English, through the Ohio Company, sent out 
Christopher Gist in the fall of 1750, to explore the 
regions west of the mountains. He was instructed 
to examine the passes, trace the courses of the 
rivers, mark the falls, seek for valuable lands, ob- 
serve the strength, and to conciliate the friendship 
of the Indian tribes. He was well fitted for such 
an enterprise. Hardy, sagacious, bold, an adept in 
Indian character, a hunter by occupation, no man 
was better qualified than he for such an undertak- 
ing. He visited Logstown, where he was jealously 
received, passed over to the Muskingum River and 
Valley in Ohio, where he found a village of Wyan- 
dots, divided in sentiment. At this village he met 
Crogan, another equally famous frontiersman, who 
had been sent out by Pennsylvania. Together 
they held a council with the chiefs, and received 
assurance of the friendship of the tribe. This 
done, they passed to the Shawnee towns on the 
Scioto, received their assurances of friendship, and 
went on to the Miami Valley, which they crossed, 
remarking in Crogan's journal of its great fertili- 
ty. They made a raft of logs on which they 
crossed the Grreat Miami, visited Piqua, the chief 
town of the Pickawillanies, and here made treaties 
with the Weas and Piankeshaws. While here, a 
deputation of the Ottawas visited the Miami Con- 
federacy to induce them to unite with the French. 
They were repulsed through the infiuence of the 
English agents, the Miamis sending Gist word that 
they would " stand like the mountains. " Crogan 
now returned and published an account of their 
wanderings. Gist followed the Miami to its 
mouth, passed down the Ohio till within fifteen 
miles of the falls, then returned by way of the 
Kentucky River, over the highlands of Kentucky 
to Virginia, arriving in May, 1751. He had 
visited the IMingoes, Delawares, Wyandots, Shawa- 
nees and Miamis, -proposed a union among these 
tribes, and appointed a grand council to meet at 
Logstown to form an alliance among themselves 
and with Virginia. His journey was marvelous 
for the day. It was' extremely hazardous, as he 

was part of the time among hostile tribes, who 
could have captured him and been well rewarded 
by the T^rench Government. But Gist knew how 
to act, and was successful. 

While Gist was doing this, some English traders 
established themselves at a place in what is now 
known as Shelby County, Ohio, and opened a 
store for the purpose of trading with the Indians. 
This was clearly in the limits of the West, claimed 
by the French, and at once aroused them to action. 
The fort orsix)ckade stood on the banks of Loramie's 
Creek, about sixteen miles northwest of the present 
city of Sydney. It received the name Loramie 
from the creek by the French, which received 
its name in turn' from the French trader of 
that name, who had a trading-post on this 
creek. Lorapie had fled to the Spanish country 
west of the Mississippi, and for many years 
was a trader there ; his store being at the junc- 
tion of the Kansas and Missouri, near the present 
city of Kansas City, Mo. When the English 
traders came to Loramie's Creek, and erected 
their trading-place, they gave it the name of Piek- 
awillany, from the tribe of Indians there. The 
Miami confederacy granted them this privilege 
as the result of the presents brought by Crogan and 
Gist. It is also asserted that Andrew Montour, 
a half-breed, son of a Seneca chief and the famous 
Catharine Montour, who was an important fac- 
tor afterward in the English treaties with the 
Indians, was with them, and by his influence did 
much to aid in securing the privilege. Thus was 
established the first English trading-post in the 
Northwest Territory and in Ohio. It, however, 
enjoyed only a short duration. The French could 
not endure so clear an invasion of their country, 
and gathering a force of Ottawas and Chippewas, 
now their allies, they attacked the stockade in 
June, 1752. At first they demanded of the Miamis 
the surrender of the fort, as they were the real 
cause of its location, having granted the English 
the privilege. The Miamis not only refused, but 
aided the British in the defense.^ In the battle that 
ensued, fourteen of the Miamis'were slain, and all 
the traders captured. One account says they were 
burned, another, and probably the correct one, 
states that they were taken to Canada as prisoners 
of war. It is probable the traders were from Penn- 
sylvania, as that commonwealth made the Miamis 
presents as condolence for their warriors that were 

Blood had now been shed. The opening gun of 
the French and Indian war had been fired, and both 




nations became more deeply interested in affairs in 
the West. The English were determined to secure 
additional title to the West, and, in 1752, sent 
Messrs. Fry, Lomax and Patton as commissioners 
to Logstown to treat with the Indians, and confirm 
the Lancaster treaty. They met the Indian^ on 
the 9th of June, stated their desires, and on the 
11th received their answer. At first, the sav- 
ages were not inclined to recognize the Lancaster 
treaty, but agreed to aid the English, as the French 
had already made war on the Twigtees (at Pickar- 
willany), and consented to the establishment of a 
fort and trading-post at the forks of the Ohio. 
This' was not all the Virginians wanted, however, 
and taking aside Andrew Montour, now chief of the 
Six Nations, persuaded him to use his influence 
with the red men. By such means, they were in- 
duced to treat, and on the 13th they all united in 
signing a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in 
its full extent, consenting to a settlement southwest 
of the Ohio, and covenanting that it should not be 
disturbed by them. By such means was obtained 
the treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

All this time, the home governments were en- 
deavoring to out-maneuver each other with regard 
to the lands in the West, though there the outlook 
only betokened war. The French understood bet- 
ter than the English how to manage the Indians, 
and succeeded in attaching them firmly to their 
cause. The English were not honest in their 
actions with them, and hence, in after years, the 
massacres that followed. 

At the close of 1752, Grist was at work, in con- 
formity with the Lancaster and Logstown treaties, 
laying out a fort and town on Chartier's Creek, 
about ten miles below the fork. Eleven families 
had crossed the mountains to settle at Grist's resi- 
dence west of Laurel Hill, not far from the Yough- 
iogheny. Groods had come from England for the 
Ohio Company,' which were carried as far West as 
Will's Creek, where Cumberland now stands ; and 
where they were taken by the Indians and traders. 

On the other hand, the French were gathering 
cannon and stores on Lake Erie, and, without 
treaties or deeds of land, were gaining the good 
will of the inimical tribes, and preparing, when all 
was ready, to strike the blow. Their fortifications 
consisted of a chain of forts from Lake Erie to 
the Ohio, on the border. One was at Presque Isle, 
on the site of Erie ; one on French Creek, on the 
site of Waterford, Penn.; one at the mouth of 
French Creek, in Venango County, Penn.; while 
opposite it was another, effectually commanding 

that section of country. These forts, it will be 
observed, were all in the limits of the Pennsyl- 
vania colony. The Governor informed the Assem- 
bly of their existence, who voted £600 to be used 
in purchasing presents for the Indians near the 
forts, and thereby hold their friendship. Virginia, 
also, took similar measures. Trent was sent, with 
guns and ammunition and presents, to the friendly 
tribes, and, while on his mission, learned of the 
plates of lead planted by the French. In October, 
1753, a treaty was consummated with representa- 
tives of the Iroquois, Delawares, Shawanees, Twig- 
twees and Wyandots, by commissioners from 
Pennsylvania, one of whom was the philosopher 
Franklin. At the conferences, held at this time, 
the Indians complained of the actions of the 
French in forcibly taking possession of the dis- 
puted country, and feo bitterly denounced them 
for using rum to intoxicate the red men, when 
they desired to gain any advantage. Not long 
after, they had similar grounds of c^omplaint against 
the English, whose lawless traders cared for nothing 
but to gain' the furs of the savage at as little ex- 
pense as possible. 

The encroachments of the French on what was 
regarded as English territory, created intense feel- 
ing in the colonies, especially in Virginia. The 
purpose of the French to inclose the English on 
the Atlantic Coast, and thus prevent their extension 
over the mountains, became more and more ap- 
parent, and it was thought that this was the open- 
ing of a scheme already planned by the French 
Court to reduce all North America under the do- 
minion of France. Gov. Dinwiddle determined 
to send an ambassador to the French posts, to as- 
certain their real intentions and to observe the 
amount and disposition of their forces. He selected 
a young Virginian, then in his twenty-first year, 
a surveyor by trade and one well qualified for the 
duty. That young man afterward led the Ameri- 
can Colonies in their struggle for liberty. George 
Washington and one companion, Mr. Gist, suc- 
cessfully made the trip, in the solitude of a severe 
winter, received assurance from the French com- 
mandant that they would by no means abandon 
their outposts, and would not yield unless com- 
pelled by force of arms. The commandant was 
exceedingly polite, but firm, and assured the young 
American that "we claim the country on the Ohio 
by virtue of the discovery of La Salle (in 1669) 
and will not give it up to the English. Our orders 
are to make prisoners of every Englishman found 
trading in the Ohio Valley." 

■3 V 



During Washington's absence steps were taken 
to fortify the point formed by the junction of the 
Monongahela and Alleghany; and when, on his 
return, he met seventeen horses loaded with mate- 
rials and stores for a fort at the forks of the Ohio, 
and, soon after, some families going out to settle, 
he knew the defense had begun. As soon as 
Washington made his repctrt, Gov. Dinwiddle 
wrote to the Board of Trade, stating that the 
French were building a fort at Venango, and that, 
in March, twelve or fifteen hundred men would 
be ready to descend the river with their Indian 
allies, for which purpose three hundred canoes had 
been collected ; and that Logstown was to be made 
headquarters, while, forts were to be built in other 
places. He sent expresses to the Governors of 
Pennsylvania and New York, apprising them of the 
nature of aifairs, and calling upon them for assist- 
ance. He also raised two compaijies, one of which 
was raised by Washington, the other by Trent. 
The one tinder ^rent was to be raised on the 
frontiers, and was, as soon as possible, to repair to 
the Fork and erect there a fort, begun by the Ohio 
Company. Owing to various conflicting opinions 
between the Governor of Pennsylvania and his 
Assembly, and the conference with the Six Nations, 
held by New York, neither of those provinces put 
forth any vigorous measures until stirred to action 
by the invasions on the frontiers, and until directed 
by the Earl of Holderness, Secretary of State. 

The fort at Venango was finished by the French 
in April, 1754. AU along the creek resounded 
the clang of arms and the preparations for war. 
New York and Pennsylvania, though inactive, 
and debating whether the French really had in- 
vaded English territory or not, sent aid to the 
Old Dominion, now all alive to the conquest. The 
two companieshadbeen increased to six; Washing- 
ton was raised to the rank of Lieutenant ColonM, 
and made second under command of Joshua 
Fry. Ten cannon, lately from England, were for- 
warded from Alexandria ; wagons were got ready 
to carry westward provisions and stores through 
the heavy spring roads; and everywhere men were 
enlisting under the King's promise of two hundred 
thousand acres of land to those who would go. 
They were gathering along Will's Creek and far 
beyond, while Trent, who had come for more men 
and supplies, left a little band of forty-one men, 
working away in hunger and want at the Fork, to 
which both nations were looking with anxious eyes. 
Though no enemy was near, and only a few Indian 
scouts were seen, keen eyes had observed the low 

fortifications at the Fork. Swift feet had borne 
the news of it up the valley, and though Ensign 
Ward, left in command, felt himself secure, on the 
17th of April he saw a sight that made his heart 
sick. Sixty batteaux and three hundred canoes 
were 'coming down the Alleghany. The com- 
mandant sent him a summons, which evaded no 
words in its meaning. It was useless to contend, 
that evening he supped with his conqueror ; the 
next day he was bowed out by the polite French- 
man, and with his men and tools marched up the 
Monongahela. The first birds of spring were fill- 
ing the air with their song ; the rivers rolled by, 
swollen by April showers and melting snows ; all 
nature was putting on her robes of green ; and the 
fortress, which the English had so earnestly strived 
to obtain and fortify, was now in the hands of the 
French. Fort Du Quesne arose on the incomplete 
fortifications. The seven years' war that followed 
not only affected America, but spread to all quar- 
ters of the world. The war made England a great 
imperial power ; drove the French from Asia and 
America; dispelled the brilliant .and extended 
scheme of Louis and his voluptuous empire. 

The active field of operations was in the Canadas 
principally, and along the western borders of Penn- 
sylvania. There were so few people then in the 
present confines of Ohio, that only the possession 
of the country, in common with all the West, 
could be the animus of the conflict. It so much 
concerned this part of the New World, that a brief 
resumd of the war will be necessary to fuUy under- 
stand its history. 

The fall of the post at the fork of the Ohio, Port 
Du Quesne, gave the French control of the West. 
Washington went on with his few militia to re- 
take the post. Though he was successful at first, 
he was in the end defeated, and surrendered, 
being allowed to return with all his munitions of 
war. The two governments, though trying to 
come to a peaceful solution of the question, were 
getting ready for the conflict. France went stead- 
ily on, though at one time England gave, in a 
measure, her consent to allow the French to retain 
all the country west of the Alleghanies and south 
of the lakes. Had this been done, what a different 
future would have been in America ! Other des- 
tinies were at work, however, and the plan fell 

England sent Gen. Braddock and a fine force 
of men, who marched directly toward the post on 
the Ohio. His ill-fated expedition resulted only 
in the total defeat of his army, and his own death. 



Washington saved a remnant of the army, and 
made his way back to the coloilies. The En- 
glish needed a leader. They next planned four 
campaigns; one against Fort Du Quesne; one 
against Crown Point; one against Niagara, and 
one against the French settlements in Nova Scotia. 
Nearly every one proved a failure. The English 
were defeated on sea and on land, all owing to the 
incapacity of Parliament, and the want of a sui1> 
able, vigorous leader. The settlements on the front- 
iers, now exposed to a cruel foe, prepared to defend 
themselves, and already the signs of a government 
of their own, able to defend itself, began to 
appear. They received aid from the colonies. 
Though the French were not repulsed, they and 
their red allies found they could not murder with 
impunity. Self-preservation was a stronger incen- 
tive in conflict than aggrandizement, and the 
cruelty of the Indians found avengers. 

The great Pitt became Prime Minister June 29, 
1757. The leader of the English now appeared. 
The British began to regain their losses on sea and 
land, and for them a brighter day was at hand. 
The key to the West raust be retaken, and to Gen. 
Forbes was assigned the duty. Preceding him, 
a trusty man was sent to the Western Indians 
at the head-waters of the Ohio, and along the Mo- 
nongahela and Alleghany, to see if some compro- 
mise with them could not be made, and their aid 
secured. The French had been busy through their 
traders inciting the Indians against the English. 
The lawless traders were another source of trouble. 
Caring nothing for either nation, they carried on a 
distressing traffic in direct violation of the laws, 
continually engendering, ill-feeling among the na- 
tives. "Your traders," said one of them, "bring 
scarce anything but rum and flour. They bring 
little powder and lead, or other valuable goods. 
The rum ruins us. We beg you would prevent 
its coming in such -quantities by regulating the 
traders. * * * These wicked whisky sell- 
ers, when they have got the Indians in liquor, make 
them sell the very clothes off their backs. If this 
practice be continued, we must be inevitably ruined. 
We most earnestly, therefore, beseech you to remedy 
it." They complained of the French traders the same 
way. They were also beginning to see the animus 
of the whole conflict. Neither power cared as 
much for them as for their land, and flattered and 
bullied by turns as served their purposes best. 

The man selected to go upon this undertaking 
was Christian Frederic Post, a Moravian, who had 
lived among the Indians seventeen years, and mar- 

ried into one of their tribes. He was amissionary, 
and though obliged to cross a country whose every 
stream had been dyed by blood, and every hillside 
rung with the death-yell, and grown red with the 
light of burning huts, he went willingly on his way. 
Of his journey, sufierings and doings, his own 
journal tells the story. He left Philadelphia on the 
15th of July, 1758, and on the 7th of August 
safely passed the French post at Venango, went on 
to Big Beaver Creek, where he held a conference 
with the chiefs of the Indians gathered there. It 
was decided that a great conference should be 
held opposite Fort Du Quesne, where there were 
Indians of eight nations. "We will bear you in 
our bosoms," said the natives, when Post expressed 
a fear that he might be delivered over to the 
French, and royally they fulfilled their promises. 
At the conference, it was made clear to Post that 
all the Western Indians were wavering in their 
allegiance to the French, owing largely to the fail- 
ure of that nation to fiilfiU their promises of aid to 
prevent them from being deprived of their land by 
the Six Nations, and through that confederacy, by the 
English. The Indians complained bitterly, more- 
over, of the disposition of the whites in over-run- 
ning and claiming their lands. "Why did you not 
fight your battles at home or on the sea, instead of 
coming into our country to fight them?" they 
asked again and again, and mournfully shook their 
heads when they thought of the future before them. 
" Your heart is good," said they to Post. " You 
aleak sincerely; but we know there is always a great 
number who wish to get rich ; they have enough ; 
look ! we do not want to be rich and take away 
what others have. The white people think we 
have no brains in our heads ; that they are big, 
and we are a handful ; but remember when you 
hunt for a rattlesnake, you cannot always find it, 
and perhaps it will turn and bite you before you see 
it."* When the war of Pontiac came, and all 
the West was desolated, this saying might have 
been justly remembered. After concluding a peace. 
Post set out for Philadelphia, and after incredi- 
ble hardships, reached the settlement uninjured 
early in September. His mission had more to do 
than at first is apparent, in the success of the 
English. Had it not been for him, a second Brad- 
dock's defeat might have befallen Forbes, now on 
his way to subjugate Fort Du Quesne. 

Through the heats of August, the army hewed its 
way toward the West. Early in September it 

* Post's Journal. 



reached Kaystown, whitlier Washington had been 
ordered with his troops. Sickness had prevented 
him from being here already. Two officers were 
sent out to reconnoiter the fort, who returned and 
gave a very good account of its condition. Gen. 
Forbes desired to know more of it, and sent out 
Maj. Grant, with 800 men, to gain more complete 
knowledge. Maj. Grant, supposing not more than 
200 soldiers to be in the fort, marched near it and ' 
made a feint to draw them out, and engage them 
in battle. He was greatly misinformed as to the 
strength of the French, and in the engagement 
that followed he was badly beaten — 270 of his men 
killed, 42 wounded, and several; including himself, 
taken prisoners. The French, elated with their 
victory, attacked the main army, but were repulsed 
and obliged to retreat to the fort. The army con- 
tinued on its march. On the 24th of November 
they reached Turtle Creek, where a council of war 
was held, and where Gen. Forbes, who had been so 
ill as to be carried on a litter from the start, de- 
clared, with a mighty oath, he would sleep that 
night in the fort, or in a worse place. The Indi- 
ans had, however, carried the news to the French 
that the English were as plenty as the trees of the 
woods, and in their fright they set fire to the fort in 
the night and left up and down the Ohio River. 
The next morning the English, who had heard the 
explosion of the magazine, and seen the light of 
the burning walls, marched in and took peaceable 
posse'ssion. A small fortification was thrown up 
on the bank, and, in honor of the great English 
statesman, it was called Fort Pitt. Col. Hugh Mer- 
cer was left in command, and the main body of the 
army marched back to the settlements. It reached 
Philadelphia January 17, 1759. On the 11th of 
March, Gen. Forbes died, and was buried in the 
chancel of Christ's Church, in that city. 

Post was now sent on a mission to the Six Na- 
tions, with a report of the treaty of Easton. He 
was again instrumental in preventing a coalition of 
the Indians and the French. Indeed, to this ob- 
scure Moravian missionary belongs, in a large 
measure, the honor of the capture of Fort Du 
Quesne, for by his influence had the Indians been 
restrained fi:om attacking the army on its march. 

The garrison, on leaving the fort, went up and 
down the Ohio, part to Presque Isle by land, part to 
Fort Venango, while some of them went on down 
the Ohio nearly to the Mississippi, and there, in 
what is now Massac County, lU., erected a fort, 
called by them Fort Massac. It was afterward 
named by many Fort Massacre, from the erroneous 

supposition that a garrison had been massacred 

The French, though deprived of the key to 
the West, went on preparing stores and ammunition, 
expecting to retake the fort in the spring. Before 
they could do this, however, other places demanded 
their attention. 

The success of the campaign of 1758 opened 
the way for the consummation of the gTeat scheme 
of Pitt — the complete reduction of Canada. Three 
expeditions were planned, by which Canada, 
already well nigh annihilated and suffering for 
food, was to be' subjugated. On the west, Prideaux 
was to attack Niagara; in the center, Amherst was 
to advance on Ticonderoga and Crown Point ; on 
the east, Wolfe was to besiege Quebec. All these 
points gained, the three armies were to be united 
in the center of the province. 

Amherst appeared before Ticonderoga July 22. 
The French blew up their works, and retired 
to Crown Point. Driven from there, they re- 
treated to Isle Aux Nois and entrenched them- 
selves. The lateness of the season prevented fur- 
ther action, and Amherst vent into winter quar- 
ters at Crown Point. Early in June, Wolfe 
•appeared before Quebec with an army of 8,000 
men. On the night of September 12, he silently 
ascended the river, climbed the heights of Abra- 
kam, a spot considered impregnable by the 
French, and on the summit formed his army of 
5,000 men. Montcalm, the French commander, 
was compelled to give battle. The British col- 
umns, flushed with success, charged his half-formed 
lines, and dispersed them. 

"They fly! they fly!" heard Wolfe, just as he 
expired from the effect of a mortal wound, though 
not till he had ordered their retreat cut off, and 
exclaimed, " Now, God be praised, I die happy." 
Montcalm, on hearing from the surgeon that death 
would come in a few hours, said, "I am glad of it. 
I shall not live to see the surrender of Quebec." At 
five the next morning he died happy. 

Prideaux moved up Lake Ontario, and on the 
6th of July invested Niagara. Its capture would 
cut off the French from the west, and every en- 
deavor was made to hold it. Troops, destined to^ 
take the small garrison at Fort Pitt, were held to 
assist in raising the siege of Niagara. M. de 
Aubry, commandant in Illinois, came up with 400 
men and 200,000 pounds of flour. Cut off by the 
abandonment of Fort Du Quesne from the Ohio 
route, he ascended that river as far as the Wabash, 
thence to portage of Fort Miami, or Fort Wayne, 




R<S.. tf LEWIS r. BUHT. Res.. •/ j.ettmat-BiiKt.. 




(k)wn the Maumee to Lake Erie, and on to Presqu- 
YiUe, or Presque Isle, over the portage to Le Bceuf, 
and thence down French Creek to Fort Venango. 
He was chosen to lead the expedition for the relief 
of Niagara. They were pursued by Sir William 
Johnson, successor to Prideaux, who had lost his 
life by the bursting of a cannon, and were obliged to 
flee. The next day Niagara, cut off from succor, 

All America rang with exultation. Towns were 
bright with illuminations ; the hillsides shone with 
bonfires. From press, from pulpit, from platform, 
and from speakers' desks, went up one glad song of 
rejoicing. England was victorious everywhere. 
The colonies had done their fiiU share, and now 
learned their strength. That strength was needed 
now, for ere long a different conflict raged on the 
soil of America — a conflict ending in the birth of 
a new nation. 

The English sent Gen. Stanwix to fortify Fort 
Pitt, still looked upon as one of the principal for- 
tresses in the West. He erected a good fortifica^ 
tion there, which remained under British control 
fifteen years. Now nothing of the fort is left. No 
memorial of the British possession remains in the 
West but a single redoubt, built in 1764 by Col. 
Bouquet, outside of the fort. Even this can hardly 
now be said to exist. 

The fall of Quebec did not immediately produce 
the submission of Canada. M. de Levi, on whom 
the command devolve4, retired with the French 
Army to Montreal. In the spring of 1760, he be- 
sieged Quebec, but the arrival of an English fleet 
caused him to again retreat to Montreal. 

Amherst and Johnson, meanwhile, effected a 
union of their forces, the magnitude of whose 
armies convinced the French that resistance would 
be useless, and on the 8th of September, M. de 
Vaudreuil, the Governor of Canada, surrendered 
Montreal, Quebec, Detroit, Mackinaw and all other 
posts in Canada, to the English commander-in- 
chief, Amherst, on condition that the French in- 
habitants should,' during the war, be "protected 
in the full and free exercise of their religion, and 
the full enjoyment of their civil rights, leaving 
their future destinies to be decided by the treaty 
of peace." 

Though peace was concluded in the New World, 
on the continent the Powers experienced some 
difliculty in arriving at a satisfactory settlement. 
It was finally settled by what is known in history 
as the "family compact." France and Spain saw 
in the conquest the growing power of England, 

and saw, also, that its continuance only extended 
that power. Negotiations were re-opened, and on 
the 3d of November, 1762, preliminaries were 
agreed to and signed, and afterward ratified in 
Paris, in February, 1763. By the terms of the 
compact, Spain ceded to Great Britian East and 
West Florida. To compensate Spain, France 
ceded to her by a secret article, all Louisiana west 
of the Mississippi. 

The French and Indian war was now over. 
Canada and all its dependencies were now in pos- 
session of the English, who held undisputed sway 
over the entire West as far as Mississippi. It only 
remained for them to take possession of the out- 
posts. Major Robert Rogers was sent to take pos- 
session of Detroit and establish a garrison there. 
He was a partisan ofiicer on the borders of New 
Hampshire, where he earned a name for bravery, 
but afterward tarnished it by treasonable acts. On 
his way to Detroit, on the 7th of November, 1760, 
he was met by the renowned chief, Pontiao, who 
authoritatively commanded him to pause and ex- 
plain his acts. Rogers replied by explaining the 
conquest of Canada, and that he was acting under 
orders from his King. Through the influence of 
Pontiao, the army was saved from the Indians 
sent out by the French, and was allowed to pro- 
ceed on its way. Pontiac had assured his protec- 
tion as long as the English treated him with due 
deference. Beletre, the commandant at Detroit, 
refused to surrender to the English commander, 
until he had received positive assurance from his 
Governor, Vaudreuil, that the country was indeed 
conquered. On the 29th of September, the colors 
of France gave way to the ensign of Great Britain 
amid the shouts of the soldiery and the astonish- 
ment of the Indians, whose savage natures could 
not understand how such a simple act declared one 
nation victors of another, and who wondered at 
the forbearance displayed. The lateness of the 
season prevented further operations, but early the 
next spring, Mackinaw, Green Bay, Ste. Marie, St. 
Joseph and the Ouitenon surrounded, and nothing 
was left but the Illinois towns. These were se- 
cured as soon as the necessary arrangements could 
be made. 

Though the English were now masters of the 
West, and had, while many of these events na;v 
rated were transpiring, extended their settlements 
beyond the Alleghanies, they were by no means 
secure in their possession. The woods and prairies 
were full of Indians, who, finding the English like 
the French, caring more for gain than the welfare 

-T ® 





of the natives, began to exhibit impatience and re- 
sentment as they saw their lands gradually taken 
from them. The English policy differed very 
materially from the French. The French made 
the Indian, in a measure, independent and taught 
him a desire for European goods. They also 
affiliated easily with them, and became thereby 
strongly endeared to the savage. The French 
were a merry, easy-going race, fond of gayety and 
delighting in adventure. The English were harsh, 
stern, and made no advances to gain the friend- 
ship of the savage. They wanted land to cultivate 
and drove away the Indian's game, and forced him 
farther west. "Where shall we go?" said the 
Indian, despondently; "you drive us farther and 
farther west; by and by you will want all the 
land." And the Anglo-Saxon went sturdily on, 
paying no heed to the complaints. The French 

traders incited the Indian to resent the encroath- 
ment. " The English will annihilate you and take 
all your land," said they. " Their father, the King 
of France, had been asleep, now he had awakened 
and was coming with a great army to reclaim Can- 
ada, that had been stolen from him while he slept." 
Discontent under such circumstances was but 
natural. Soon all the tribes, from the mountains 
to the Mississippi, were united in a plot. It was 
discovered in 1761, and arrested. The next sum- 
mer, another was detected and arrested. The 
offifters, and all the people, failed to realize the 
danger. The rattlesnake, though not found, was 
ready to strike. It is only an Indian discontent, 
thought the people, and they went on preparing to 
occupy the country. They were mistaken — ^the 
crisis only needed a leader to direct it. That 
leader appeared. 




PONTIAC, the great chief of the Ottawas, was 
now about fifty years old. He had watched 
the conflict between the nations with a jealous eye, 
and as he saw the gradual growth of the English 
people, their encroachment on the lands of the In- 
dians, their greed, and their assumption of the soil, 
his soul was stirred within him to do something 
for his people. He had been a true friend of the 
French, and had led the Indians at the defeat of 
Braddock. Amid all the tumult, he alone saw the 
true state of affairs. The English would inevit- 
ably crush out the Indians. To save his race he 
saw another alliance with the French was neces- 
sary, and a restoration of their power and habits 
needed. It was the plan of a statesman. It only 
failed because of the perfidy of the French. Matur- 
ing his plans late in the autumn of 1762, he sent 
messengers to all the Western and Southern tribes, 
with the black wampum and red tomahawk, em- 
blems of war, from the great Pontiac. " On a cer- 
tain day in the next year," said the messenger, "all 
the tribes are to rise, seize all the English posts, 
and then attack the whole frontier." 

The great council of all the tribes was held at 
the river Ecorces, on the 27th of April, 1763. 
There, before the assembled chiefs, Pontiac deliv- 

ered a speech, full of eloquence and art. He 
recounted the injuries and encroachments of the 
English, and disclosed their designs. The French 
king was now awake and would aid them. Should 
they resign their homes and the graves of their 
fathers without an effort? Were their young men 
no longer brave? Were they squaws? The 
Great Master of Life had chided them for their 
inactivity, and had sent his commands to drive 
the "Ked Dogs" from the earth. The chiefs 
eagerly accepted the wampum and the tomahawk, 
and separated to prepare for the coming strife. 

The post at Detroit was informed of the plot 
the evening before it was to occur, by an Ojibway 
girl of great beauty, the mistress of the com- 
mander. Major Gladwin. Pontiac was foiled here, 
his treachery discovered, and he was sternly ordered 
from the conference. A regular seige followed, 
but he could not prevail. He exhibited a degree 
of sagacity unknown in the annals of savage war- 
fare, but all to no purpose ; the English were too 
strong for him. 

At all the other posts, save one, however, the 
plans of Pontiac were carried out, and atrocities, 
unheard of before in American history, resulted. 
The Indians attacked Detroit on the first of May, 





and, foiled in their plans, a siege immediately fol- 
lowed. On tlie 16th, a party of Indians appeared 
before the fort at Sandusky. Seven of them were 
admitted. Suddenly, while smoking, the massacre 
begins. All but Ensign PauUi, the comma.nder, 
fall. He is carried as a trophy to Pontiac. 

At the mouth of the St. Joseph's, the mission- 
aries had maintained a mission station over sixty 
years. They gave way to an English garrison of 
fourteen soldiers and a few traders. On the 
morning of May 25, a deputation of Pottawato- 
mies are allowed to enter. In less than two min- 
utes, all the garrison but the commander are slain. 
He is sent to Pontiac. 

Near the present city of Fort Wayne, Ind., 
at the junction of the waters, stood Fort Miami, 
garrisoned by a few men. Holmes, the com- 
mander, is asked to visit a sick woman. He is 
slain on the way, the sergeant following is made 
prisoner, and the nine soldiers surrender. 

On the night of the last day of May, the wam- 
pum reaches the Indian village below La Fayette, 
Ind., and- near Fort Ouitenon. The commander 
of the fort is lured into a cabin, bound, and his 
garrison surrender. Through the clemency of 
French settlers, they are received into their houses 
and protected. 

At Michilimackinac, a game of ball is projected. 
Suddenly the ball is thrown through the gate of the 
stockade. The Indians press in, and, at a signal, 
almost all are slain or made prisoners. 

The fort at Presque Isle, now Erie, was the 
point of communication between Pittsburgh and 
Niagara and Detroit. It was one of the most 
tenable, and had a garrison of four and twenty 
men. On the 22d of June, the commander, to 
save his forces from total annihilation, surrenders, 
and all are carried prisoners to Detroit. 

The capitulation at Erie left Le Boeuf with- 
out hope. He was attacked on the 18th, 
but kept oflF the Indians till midnight, when he 
made a successful retreat. As they passed Ve- 
nango, on their way to Fort Pitt, they saw only 
the ruins of that garrison. Not one of its immates 
had been spared. 

Fort Pitt was the most important station west 
of the AUeghanies. " Escape I " said Turtle's 
Heart, a Delaware warrior ; " you will all be 
slain. A great army is coming." "There are 
three large English armies coming to my aid," 
said Ecuyer, the commander. " I have enough 
provisions and ammunition to stand a siege of three 
years' time." A second and third attempt was 

made by the savages to capture the post, but all to 
no avaO. Baffled on all ' sides here, they destroy 
Ligonier, a few miles below, and massacre men, 
women and children. Fort Pitt was besieged till 
the last day of July, but withstood all attacks. 
Of all the outposts, only it and Detroit were left. 
All had been captured, and the majority of the 
garrison slain. Along the frontier, the war was 
waged' with ftiry. The Indians were fighting for 
their homes and their hunting-grounds; and for 
these they fought with the fury and zeal of 

Detachments sent to aid Detroit are cut off. 
The prisoners .are burnt, and Pontiac, infusing his 
zealous and demoniacal spirit into all his savage 
allies, pressed the siege with vigor. The French 
remained neutral, yet Pontiac made requisitions 
on them and on their neighbors in Illinois, issuing 
bills of credit on birch-bark, all of which were 
faithftilly redeemed. Though tljese two posts 
could not be captured, the frontier could be 
annihilated, and vigorously the Indians pursued 
their policy. Along the borders of Pennsylvania 
and Virginia a relentless warfare was waged, 
sparing no one in its way. Old age, feeble infancy, 
strong man and gentle woman, fair girl and hope- 
ful boy; — all fell before the scalping-knife of the 
merciless savage. The frontiers were devastated. 
Thousands were obliged to flee, leaving their 
possessions to the torch of the Indian. 

The colonial government, under British direc- 
tion, was inimical to the borders, and the colonists 
saw they must depend only upon their own arms 
for protection. Already the struggle for freedom 
was upon them. They could defend only them- 
selves. They must do it, too ; for that defense is 
now needed in a different cause than settling dis- 
putes between rival powers. " We have millions 
for defense, but not a cent for tribute," s3id they, 
and time verified the remark. 

Gren. Amherst bestirred himself to aid the 
frontiers. He sent Col. Henry Bouquet, a native 
of Switzerland, and now an officer in the English 
Army, to relieve the garrison at Fort Pitt. They 
followed the route made by Gen. Forbes, and on 
the way relieved Forts Bedford and Ligonier, both 
beleaguered by the Indians. About a day's jour- 
ney beyond Ligonier, he was attacked by a body 
of Indians at a place called Bushy Bun. For 
awhile, it seemed that he and all his army would 
be destroyed; but Bouquet was bold and brave 
and, under a feint of retreat, routed the savages. 
He passed on, and relieved the garrison at Fort 




Pitt, and thus secured it against the assauUs of 
the Indians. 

The campaign had been disastrous to the En- 
glish, but fatal to the plans of Pontiac. He could 
not cajjture Detroit, and he knew the gTeat scheme 
must fail. The battle of Bushy Kun and the 
relief of Port Pitt closed the campaign, and all 
hope of co-operation was at an end. Circum- 
stances were combined against the confederacy, 
and it was fast falling to pieces. A proclamation 
was issued to the Indians, explaining to them the 
existing state of affairs, and showing to them the 
futility of their plans. Pontiac, however, would 
not give up. Again he renewed the siege of De- 
troit, and Gen. Grage, now in command of the 
army in the colonies, resolved to carry the war 
into their own country. Col. Bradstreet was or- 
dered to lead one army by way of the lakes, 
against the Northern Indians, while Col. Bouquet 
was sent against the Indians of the Ohio. Col. 
Bradstreet went on his way at the head of 1,200 
men, but trusting too much to the natives and 
their promises, his expedition proved largely a fail- 
ure. He relieved Detroit in August, 1764, which 
had been confined in the garrison over fifteen 
months, and dispersed the Indians that yet lay 
around the fort. But on his way back, he saw how 
the Indians had duped him, and that they were 
still plundering the settlements. His treaties were 
annulled by Gage, who ordered him to destroy 
their towns. The season was far advanced, his 
provisions were getting low, and he was obliged to 
return to Niagara chagrined and disappointed. 

Col. Bouquet knew well the character of the 
Indians, and shaped his plans accordingly. He 
had an army of 1,500 men, 500 regulars and 1,000 
volunteers. They had had experience in fighting 
the savages, and could be depended on. At Fort 
Loudon, he heard of Bradstreet's ill luck, and saw 
through the deception practiced by the Indians. 
He arrived at Fort Pitt the lYth of September, 
where he arrested a deputation of chiefs, who met 
him with the same promises that had deceived 
Bradstreet. He sent one of their number back, 
threatening to put to death the chiefs unless they 
allowed his messengers to safely pass through their 
country to Detroit. The decisive tone of his 
words convinced them of the fate that awaited 
them unless they complied. On the 3d of Octo- 
ber the army left Fort Pitt, marched down the 
river to and across the Tuscarawas, arriving in the 
vicinity of Fredrick Post's late mission on the 17th. 
There a conference was held with the assembled 

tribes. Bouquet sternly rebuked them for then- 
faithlessness, and when told by the chiefs they could 
not restrain their young men, he as sternly told 
them they were responsible for their acts. He 
told them he would trust them no longer. If they 
delivered up all their prisoners within twelve days 
they might hope for peace, otherwise there would 
be no mercy shown them. They were completely 
humbled, and, separating hastily, gathered their 
captives. On the 25th, the army proceeded down 
to the Tuscarawas, to the junction with "White 
Woman River, near the town of Coshocton, in 
Coshocton County, Ohio, and there made prepa- 
rations for the reception of the captives. There 
they remained until the 18th of November; from 
day to day prisoners were brought in — men, women 
and children — and delivered to their friends. Many 
were the touching scenes enacted during this time. 
The separated husband and wife met, the latter 
often carrying a child born in captivity. Brothers 
and sisters, separated in youth, met ; lovers rushed 
into each other's arms ; children found their 
parents, mothers their sons, fathers their daughters, 
and neighbors those from whom they had been 
separated many years. Yet, there were many dis- 
tressing scenes. Some looked in vain for long-lost 
relatives and friends, that never should return. 
Others, that had been captured in their infancy, 
would not leave their savage friends, and when 
force was used some fled away. One mother 
looked in vain for a child she had lost years be- 
fore. Day by day, she anxiously watched, but no 
daughter's voice reached her ears. One, clad in 
savage attire, was brought before her. It could 
not be her daughter, she was grown. So was the 
maiden before her. " Can not you remember some 
mark?" asked Bouquet, whose sympathies were, 
aroused in this case. "There is none," said the 
anxious and sorrowful mother. " Sing a song you 
sang over her cradle, she may remember," suggested 
the commander. One is sung by her mother. As 
the song of childhood floats out among the trees 
the maiden stops and listens, then approaches. 
Yes, she remembers. Mother and daughter are 
held in a close embrace, and the stern Bouquet 
wipes away a tear at the scene. 

On the 18th, the army broke up its encamp- 
ment and started on its homeward march. Bouquet 
kept six principal Indians as hostages, and re- 
turned to the homes of the captives. The Indians 
kept their promises faithfully, and the next year 
representatives of all the Western tribes met Sir 
William Johnson, at the German Flats, and made 




a treaty of peace. A tract of land in the Indian 
country was ceded to the whites for the benefit of 
those who had suffered in the late war. The In- 
dians desired to make a . treaty with Johnson, 
whereby the Alleghany River should be the west- 
ern boundary of the English, but he excused him- 
self on the ground of proper power. 

Not long after this the Illinois settlements, too 
remote to know much of the struggle or of any of 
the great events that had convulsed an empire, and 
changed the destiny of a nation, were brought 
under the English rule. There were five villages 
at this date: Kaskaskia, Cahokia, St. Philip, Vin- 
cennes and Prairie du Roeher, near Fort Chartres, 
the military headquarters of these French posses- 
sions. They were under the control or command 
of M. de Abadie, at New Orleans. They had also 
extended explorations west of the Mississippi, and 
made a few settlements in what was Spanish terri- 
tory. The country had been, however, ceded to 
France, and in February, 1764, the country was 
formally taken possession of and the present city 
of St. Louis laid out. 

As soon as the French knew of the change of 
government, many of them went to the west side of 
the river, and took up their residence there. They 
were protected in their religion and civil rights by 
the terms of the treaty, but preferred the rule of 
their own King. 

The British took possession of this country early 
in 1765. Gren. Gage sent Capt. Stirling, of the 
English Army, who arrived before summer, and to 
whom St. Ange, the nominal commandant, surren- 
dered the authority. The British, through a suc- 
cession of commanders, retained control of the coun- 
try until defeated by George Rogers Clarke, and 
his "ragged Virginia militia." 

After a short time, the French again ceded the 
country west of the Mississippi to Spain, and re- 
linquished forever their control of all the West in 
■ the New World. 

The population of Western Louisiana, when the 
exchange of governments occurred, was estimated 
to be 1.3,538, of which 891 were in the Illinois 
country — as it was called — ^west of the Mississippi. 
East of the river, and before the French crossed 
into Spanish country, the population was estimated 
to be about 3,000. All these had grown into 
communities of a peculiar character. Indeed, that 
peculiarity, as has been observed, never changed 
until a gradual amalgamation with the American 
people effected it, and that took more than a cen- 
tury of time to accomplish. 

The English now owned the Northwest. 


they did not yet occupy but a small part of it, but 
traders were again crossing the mountains, ex- 
plorers for lands were on the Ohio, and families 
for settlement were beginning to look upon the 
West as their future home. Companies were again 
forming to purchase large tracts in the Ohio coun- 
try, and open them for emigration. One thing yet 
stood in the way — a definite boundary line. That 
Hne, however, was between the English and the 
Indians, and not, as had heretofore been the case, 
between rival European Powers. It was necessary 
to arrange some definite boundary before land com- 
panies, who were now actively pushing their claims, 
could safely survey and locate their lands. 

Sir William Johnson, who had at previous times 
been instrumental in securing treaties, wrote re- 
peatedly to the Board of Trade, who controlled the 
greater part of the commercial transactions in the 
colonies — and who were the first to exclaim against 
extending English settlements beyond a limit 
whereby they would need manufactures, and there- 
by become independent of the Mother Country — 
urging upon them, and through them the Crown, the 
necessity of a fixed boundary, else another Indian 
war was probable. The Indians found themselves 
gradually hemmed in by the growing power of the 
whites, and began to exhibit hostile feelings. The 
irritation became so great that in the summer of 
1767, Gage wrote to the Governor of Pennsylvania 
concerning it. The Governor communicated his 
letter to the General Assembly, who sent repre- 
sentatives to England, to urge the immediate set- 
tlement of the question. In compliance with these 
requests, and the letters of prominent citizens, 
Franklin among the number, instructions were sent 
to Johnson, ordering him to complete the purchase 
from the Six Nations, and settle all differences. 
He sent word to all the Western tribes to meet 
him at Fort Stanwix, in October, 1768. The con- 
ference was held on the 24th of that month, and 
was attended by colonial representatives, and by 
Indians from all parts of the Northwest. It was 
determined that the line should begin on the Ohio, 
at the mouth of the Cherokee (Tennessee), thence 
up the river to the Alleghany and on to Kittan- 
ning, and thence across to the Susquehanna. By 
this line, the whole country south of the Ohio and 
Alleghany, to which the Six Nations had any 
claim, was transferred. Part of this land was 
made to compensate twenty-two traders, whose goods 
had been stolen in 1763. The deeds made, were 
upon the express agreement that no claims should 




ever be based on the treaties of Lancaster, Logs- 
town, etc., and were signed by the chiefs of the Six 
jN^ations for themselves, their allies and dependents, 
and the Shawanees, Delawares, Mingoes of Ohio, 
and others ; though thfe Shawanees and Delaware 
deputies did not sign them. On this treaty, in a 
great measure, rests the title by purchase to Ken- 
tucky, Western Virginia and Western Pennsylva- 
nia. The rights of the Cherokees were purchased 
by Col. Donaldson, either for the King, Virginia, 
or for himself, it is impossible to say which. 

The grant of the northern confederacy was now 
made. The white man could go in and possess 
these lands, and know that an army would protect 
him if necessary. Under such a guarantee, West^ 
ern lands came rapidly into market. In addition 
to companies already in existence for the purchase 
of land, others, the most notable of these being the 
"Walpole" and the "Mississippi" Land Companies, 
were formed. This latter had among its organizers 
such men as Francis Lightfoot Lee, Eichard 
Henry Lee, George Washington and Arthur Lee. 
Before any of these companies, some of whom ab- 
sorbed the Ohio Company, could do anything, the 
Revolution came on, and all land transactions were 
at an "end. After its close. Congress would not 
sanction their claims, and they fell through. This 
did not deter settlers, however, from crossing the 
mountains, and settling in the Ohio country. In 

spite of troubles with the Indians — some of whom 
regarded the treaties with the Six Nations as un- 
lawful, and were disposed to complain at the rapid 
influx of whites — and the failure of the land com- 
panies, settlers came steadily during the decade 
from 1768 to 1778, so that by the close of that 
time, there was a large population south of the 
Ohio River; while scattered along the northern 
banks, extending many miles into the wilderness, 
were hardy adventurers, who were carving out 
homes in the magnificent forests everywhere cov- 
ering the country. 

Among the foremost speculators in Western 
lands, was George Washington. As early as 1763, 
he employed Col. Crawford, afterward the leader in 
" Crawford's campaign," to purchase lands for him. 
In 1770, he crossed the mountains in 'company 
with several gentlemen, and examined the country 
along the Ohio, down which stream he passed to 
the mouth of the Great Kanawha, where he shot 
some buffalo, then plenty, camped out a few nights, 
and returned, fully convinced, it seems, that one 
day the West would be the best part of the New- 
World. He owned, altogether, nearly fifty thou- 
sand acres in the West, which he valued at $3.33 
per acre. Had not the war of the Revolution just 
then broken out, he might have been a resident of 
the West, and would have been, of course, one of 
its most prominent citizens. 





MEANWHILE, Kentucky was filling wi^h 
citizens, and though considerable trouble 
was experienced with the Indians, and the operations 
of Col. Richal-d Henderson and others, who made 
unlawful treaties with the Indians, yet Daniel 
Boone and his associates had established a 
commonwealth, and, in 1777, a county was 
formed, which, erelong, was divided into three. 
Louisville was laid out on land belonging to 
Tories, and an important start made in this part 
of the West. Emigrants came down the Ohio 
River, saw the northern shores were inviting, and 
sent back such accounts that the land north of the 
river rapidly grew in favor with Eastern people. 

One of the most important Western characters, 
Col. (afterward Gen.) George Rogers Clarke, had 
had much to do in forming its character. He 
was born November 19, 1752, in Albemarle 
County, Va., and early came West. He had an 
unusually sagacious spirit, was an excellent sur- 
veyor and general, and took an active interest in 
all State and national aff'airs. He understood the 
animus of the Revolution, and was prepared to 
do his part. Col. Clarke was now meditating a 
move unequaled in its boldness, and one that had 
more to do with the success of America in the 
struggle for independence than at first appears. 
He saw through the whole plan of the British, 






who ' held all the outposts, Kaskaskia, Detroit, 
Vineennes and Niagara, and determined to circum- 
vent them and wrest the West from their power. 
The British hoped to encircle the Americans by 
th«se outposts, and also unite the Indians in a 
common war against them. That had been 
attempted by the French when the Enghsh con- 
quered them. Then the French had a powerful 
ally in the person of Pontiac, yet the brave front- 
iersmen held their homes in many places, though 
the Indians " drank the blood of many a Briton, 
scooping it up in the hollow of joined hands." 
Now the Briton had no Pontiac to lead the scat- 
tered tribes — ^tribes who now feared the unerring 
aim of a settler, and would not attack him openly — 
Clarke knew that the Delawares were divided in 
feeling and that the Shawanees were but imperfectly 
united in favor of England since the murder of 
their noted chiefs. He was convinced that, if the 
British could be driven from the Western posts, 
the natives could easily be awed into submission, 
or bribed into neutrality or friendship. They 
admired, from their savage views of valor, the 
side that became victorious. They cared little for 
the cause for which either side was fighting. 
Clarke sent out spies among them to ascertain the 
feasibility of his plans. The spies were gone 
from April 20 to June 22, and fully corroborated 
his views concerning the English policy and the 
feahngs of the Indians and French. 

Before proceeding in the narrative of this expe- 
dition, however, it will be well to notice a few acts 
transpiring north of the Ohio River, especially re- 
laSng to the land treaties, as they were not without 
effect on the British policy. Many of the Indians 
north and south of the Ohio would not recognize 
the validity of the Port Stanwix treaty, claiming 
the Iroquois had no right to the lands, despite 
their conquest. These discontented natives har- 
assed the emigrants in such a manner that many 
Indians were slain in retaliation. This,, and the 
working of the French traders, who at all times 
were bitterly opposed to the English rule, filled the 
breasts of the natives with a malignant hate, which 
years of bloodshed could not wash out. The 
murder of several Indians by lawless whites fanned 
the coal into a blaze, and, by 1774, several retalia^ 
tory murders occurred, committed by the natives 
in revenge for their fallen friends. The Indian 
slew any white man he found, as a revenge on some 
friend of his slain ; the frontiersman, acting on the 
same principle, made the borders extremely dan- 
gerous to invaders and invaded. Another cause 

of fear occurred about this time, which threatened 
seriously to retard emigration. 

Pittsburgh had been claimed by both Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia, and, in endeavoring to settle 
the dispute, Lord Dunmore's war followed. Dr. 
John Connelly, an ambitious, intriguing person,- 
induced Lord Dunmore to assert the claims of Vir- 
ginia, in the name of the 'King. In attempting to 
carry out his intentions, he was arrested by Arthur 
St. Clair, representing the proprietors of Pennsyl- 
vania, who was at Pittsburgh at the time. Con- 
nelly was released on bail, but went at once to 
Staunton, where he was sworn in as a Justice of 
Peace. Returning, he gathered a force of one 
hundred and fifty men, suddenly took possession of 
Pittsburgh, refused, to allow the magistrates to 
enter the Court House, or to exercise the functions 
of their oifices, unless in conformity to his will. 
Connelly refused any terms offered by the Penn- 
sylvania deputies, kept possession of the place, 
acted very harshly toward the inhabitants, stirred 
up the neutral Indians, and, for a time, threatened 
to make the boundary line between the two colonies 
a very serious question. His actions led to hostile 
deeds by some Indians, when the whites, no doubt 
urged by him, murdered seven Indians at the 
mouth of the Captina River, and at the house of 
a settler named Baker, where the Indians were 
decoyed under promises of friendship and offers of 
rum. Among those murdered at the latter place, 
was the entire family of the famous Mingoe chief, 
Logan. This has been charged to Michael Cresap ; 
but is untrue. Daniel Greathouse had command 
of the party, and though Cresap may have been 
among them, it is unjust to lay the blame at his 
feet. Both murders, at Captina and Yellow Creek, 
were cruel and unwarranted, and were, without 
doubt, the cause of the war that followed, though 
the root of the matter lay in Connelly's arbitrary 
actions, and in his needlessly alarming the Indians. 
Whatever may have been the facts in relation to 
the murder of Logan's family, they were of such 
a nature as to make all feel sure of an Indian war, 
and preparations were made for the confiict. ^ 

An army was gathered at Wheeling, which, 
some time in July, under command of Col. Mc- 
Donald, descended the Ohio to the mouth of Cap- 
tina Creek. They proposed to march against an 
Indian town on the Muskingum. The Indians 
sued for peace, but their pretensions being found 
spurious, their towns and crops were destroyed. 
The army then retreated to WilHamsburg, having 
accomplished but little.* 




The Delawares were anxious for peace ; even the 
Mingoes, whose relatives had been slain-at Yellow 
Creek, and Captina, were restrained; but Logan, 
who had been turned to an inveterate foe to the 
Americans, came suddenly upon the Monongahela 
settlements, took thirteen scalps in revenge for the 
loss of his family, returned home and expressed 
himself ready to treat with the Long Knives, the 
Virginians. Had Connelly acted properly at this 
.juncture, the war might have been ended; but 
his actions only incensed both borderers and In- 
dians. So obnoxious did he become that Lord 
Dunmore lost faith in him, and severely repri- 
manded him. 

To put a stop to the depredations of the Indians, 
two large bodies of troops were gathered in Vir- 
ginia, one under Gen. Andrew Lewis, and one 
under command of Dunmore himself. Before 
the armies could meet at the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha, their objective point, Lewis' army, which 
arrived first, was attacked by a furious band of Dela- 
wares, Shawanees, Iroquois and Wyandots. The 
conflict was bitterly prolonged by the Indians, who, 
under* the leadership of Cornstalk, were deter- 
mined to make a decisive effort, and fought till 
late at night (October 10, 1774), and then only by 
a strategic move of Lewis' command — which re- 
sulted in the defeat of the Indians, compelling them 
to cross the Ohio — ^was the conflict ended. Mean- 
while, Dunmore's army came into the enemy's 
country, and, being joined by the remainder of 
Lewis' command, pressed forward intending to an- 
nihilate the Indian towns. Cornstalk and his 
chiefs, however, sued for peace, and the conflict 
closed. Dunmore established a camp on Sippo 
Creek, where he held conferences with the natives 
and concluded the war. When he left the country, 
he stationed 100 men at the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha, a few more at Pittsburgh, and another 
corps at Wheeling, then called Fort Fincastle. 
Dunmore intended to return to Pittsburgh the 
next spring, meet the Indians and form a definite 
peace ; but the revolt of the colonies prevented. 
However, he opened several ofiices for the sale of 
lands in the West, some of which were in the limits 
of the P^nsylvania colony. This led to the old 
boundary dispute again; but before it could be 
settled, the Revolution began, and Lord Dunmore's, 
as well aa almost all other land speculations in the 
West, were at an end. 

In 1775 and 1776, the chief events transpiring 
in the West relate to the treaties with the Indians, 
and the endeavor on the part of the Americans to 

have them remain neutral in the family quarrel now 
coming on, which they could not understand. The 
British, like the French, however, could not let 
them alone, and finally, as a retaliatory measure. 
Congress, under advice of Washington, won some of 
them over to the side of the colonies, getting their 
aid and holding them neutral. The colonies only 
offered them rewards for prisoners ; never, like the 
British, offering rewards for scalps. Under such 
rewards, the atrocities of the Indians in some quar- 
ters were simply horrible. The scalp was enough 
to get a reward, that was a mark of Indian valor, 
too, and hence, helpless innocence and decrepit old 
age were not spared. They stirred the minds of 
the pioneers, who saw the protection of their fire- 
sides a vital point, and led the way to the scheme 
of Col. Clarke, who was now, as has been noted, the 
leading spirit in Kentucky. He saw through the 
scheme of the British, and determined, by a quick, 
decisive blow, to put an end to it, and to cripple 
their power in the West. 

Among the acts stimulating Clarke, was the attack 
on Fort Henry, a garrison about one-half mile 
above Wheeling Creek, on the Ohio, by a renegade 
white man, Simon Girty, an agent in the employ of 
the British, it is thought, and one of the worst 
wretches ever known on the frontier. When Girty 
attacked Fort Henry, he led his red allies in regu- 
lar military fashion, and attacked it without mercy. 
The defenders were brave, and knew with whom 
they were contending. Great bravery was displayed 
by the women in the fort, one of whom, a Miss 
Zane, carried a keg of gunpowder from a cajwa 
to the fort. Though repeatedly fired at by the sav- 
ages, she reached the fort in safety. After awhile, 
however, the effect of the frontiersmen's shots began 
to be felt, and the Indians sullenly withdrew. 
Re-enforcements coming, the fort was held, and 
Girty and his band were obliged to flee. 

Clarke saw that if the British once got con- 
trol over the Western Indians the scene at Fort 
Henry would be repeated, and would not likely, 
in all cases, end in favor of the Americans. With- 
out communicating any of his designs, he left Har- 
rodsburg about the 1st of October, 1777, and 
reached the capital of Virginia by November 5. 
Still keeping his mind, he awaited a favorable op- 
portunity to broach his plans to those in power, 
and, in the meanwhile, carefully watched the exis1> 
ing state of feeling. When the opportunity came, 
Clarke broached his plans to Patrick Henry, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, who at once entered warmly 
into them, recognizing their great importance. 




Through his aid, Clarke procured the necessary au- 
thority to prosecute his plans, and returned at once 
to Pittsburgh. He intended raising men about 
this post, but found them fearful of leaving their 
homes unprotected. However, he secured three 
companies, and, with these and a number of volun- 
teers, picked up on the way down the Ohio River, 
he fortified Corn Island, near the falls, and made 
ready for his expedition. He had some trouble in 
keeping his men, some of those from Kentucky 
refusing to aid in subduing stations out of their 
own country. He did not announce his real inten- 
tions till he had reached this point. Here Col. 
Bowman joined him with his Kentucky militia, 
and, on the 24th of June, 17Y8, during a total 
eclipse of the sun, the party left the fort. Before 
his start, he learned of the capture of Burgoyne, 
and, when nearly down to Fort Massac, he met 
some of his spies, who informed him of the exag- 
gerated accounts of the ferocity of the Long 
Knives that the French had received from the 
Britisb. By proper action on his part, Clarke saw 
both these items of information could be made 
very beneficial to him. Leaving the river near 
Fort Massac, he set out on the march to Kaskas- 
kia, through a hot summer's sun, over a country 
frill of savage foes. They reached the town un- 
noticed, on the evening of July 4, and, before 
the astonished British and French knew it, they 
were all prisoners. M. Rooheblave, the English 
commander, was secured, but his wife adroitly con- 
cealed the papers belonging to the garrison. In 
the person of M. Gribault, the French priest, Clarke 
found a true friend. When the true character of 
the Virginians became apparent, the French were 
easily drawn to the American side, and the priest 
secured the surrender and allegiance of Cahokia 
through his personal influence. M. Gribault told 
him he would also secure the post at St. Vincent's, 
which he did, returning from the mission about 
the 1st of August. During the interval, Clarke re- 
enlisted his men, formed his plans, sent his pris- 
oners to Kentucky, and was ready for future action 
when M. Gibault arrived. He sent Capt. Helm 
and a single soldier to Vincennes to hold that fort 
until lie could put a garrison there. It is but 
proper to state that the English commander. Col. 
Hamilton, and his band of soldiers, were absent at 
Detroit when the priest secured the village on the 
"Ouabache." When Hamilton returned, in the 
autumn, he was greatly surprised to see the Amer- 
ican flag floating from the ramparts of the fort, 
and when approaching the gate he was abruptly 

halted by Capt. Helm, who stood with a lighted fuse 
in his hand by a cannon, answering Hamilton's 
demand to surrender with the imperative inquiry, 
"Upon what terms, sir?" "Upon the honors of 
war," answered Hamilton, and he marched in 
greatly chagrined to see he had been halted by 
two men. The British commander sat quietly 
down, intending to go on down the river and sub- 
due Kentucky in the spring, in the mean time 
offering rewards for American scalps, and thereby 
gaining the epithet " Hair-buyer General." Clarke 
heard of his actions late in January, 1779, and, as 
he says, " I knew if I did not take him l<e would 
take me," set out early in February with his troops 
and marched across the marshy plains of Lower 
Illinois, reaching the Wabash post by the 22d of 
that month. The unerring aim of the Westerner 
was effectual. " They will shoot ' your eyes out," 
said Helm to the British troops. " There, I told 
you so," he further exclaimed, as a soldier vent- 
ured near a port-hole and received a shot directly 
in his eye. On the 24th the fort surrendered. 
The American flag waved again over its ramparts. 
The " Hair-buyer General " was sent a prisoner to 
Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement 
for his cruel acts. Clarke returned to Kaskaskia, 
perfected his plans to hold the Illinois settlements, 
went on to Kentucky, from where he sent word to 
the colonial authorities of the success of his expe- 
dition. Had he received the aid promised him, 
Detroit, in easy reach, would have fallen too, but 
Gen. Green, failing to send it as promised, the capt- 
ure of that important post was delayed. 

Had Clarke failed, and Hamilton succeeded, the 
whole West would have been swept, from the Alle- 
ghanies to the Mississippi. But for this small 
army of fearless Virginians, the union of all the 
tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies 
might have been efi"ected, and the whole current 
of American history changed. America owes 
Clarke and his band more than it can ever pay. 
Clarke reported the capture of Kaskaskia and the 
Illinois country early after its surrender, and in 
October the county of Illinois was estabUshed, 
extending over an unlimited expanse of country, 
by the Virginia Legislature. John Todd was 
appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor. 
In November, Clarke and his men received the 
thanks of the same body, who, in after years, 
secured them a grant of land, which they selected 
on the right bank of the Ohio River, opposite 
Louisville. They expected here a city would rise 
one day, to be the peer of Louisville, then coming 




into prominence as an important place. By some 
means, their expectations failed, and only the 
dilapidated village of Clarkesburg perpetuates 
their hopes. 

The conquest of Clarke changed the face of 
affairs in relation to the whole country north of 
the Ohio River, which would, in all probability, 
have been made the boundary between Canada and 
the United States. When this was proposed, the 
strenuous arguments based on this conquest, by 
the American Commissioners, secured the present 
boundary line in negotiating the treaty of 1793. 

Though Clarke had failed to capture Detroit, 
Congress saw the importance of the post, and 
resolved on securing it. Gen. McCosh, commander 
at Fort Pitt, was put in command, and $1,000,- 
000 and 3,000 men placed at his disposal. By 
some dilatory means, he got no further than the 
Tuscarawas River, in Ohio, where a half-way 
house, called Fort Laurens, for the President of 
Congress, was built. It was too far out to be of 
practicable value, and was soon after abandoned. 

Indian troubles and incursions by the British 
were the most absorbing themes in the West. 
The British went so far as Kentucky at a later 
date, while they intended reducing Fort Pitt, only 
abandoning it when learning of its strength. 
Expeditions against the Western Indians were led 
by Gen. Sullivan, Col. Daniel Broadhead, Col. 
Bowman and others, which, for awhile, silenced 
the natives and taught them the power of the 
Americans. They could not organize so readily 
as before, and began to attach themselves more 
closely to the British, or commit their depredations 
in bands, fleeing into the wilderness as soon as 
■they struck a blow. In this way, several localities 
suffered, until the settlers became again exasper- 
ated ; other expeditions were formed, and a second 
chastisement given. In 1781, Col. Broadhead 
led an expedition against the Central Ohio Indians. 
It did not prove so successful, as the Indians were 
led by the noted chief Brant, who, though not 
cruel, was a foe to the Americans, and assisted the 
British greatly in their endeavors to secure the West. 

Another class of events occurred now in the 
West, civil in their relations, yet destined to form 
an important part of its history — ^its land laws. 

It must be borne in mind, that Virginia claimed 
the greater portion of the country north of the 
Ohio River, as well as a large part south. The 
other colonies claimed land also in the West under 
the old Crown grants, which extended to the 
South or Western Sea. To more complicate mat- 

ters, several land companies held proprietary rights 
to portions of these lands gained by grants from 
the Crown, or from the Colonial Assemblies. 
Others were based on land warrants issued 
in 1763; others on selection and survey and 
still others on settlement. In this state of 
mixed affairs, it was difficult to say who held a 
secure claim. It was a question whether the old 
French grants were good or not, especially since 
the change in government, and the eminent pros- 
pect of still another change. To, in some way, 
aid in setthng these claims, Virginia sent a com- 
mission to the West to sit as a court and determine 
the proprietorship of these claims. This court, 
though of as doubtful authority as the claims 
themselves, went to work in Kentucky and along 
the Ohio River in 1779, and, in the course of one 
year, granted over three thousand certificates. 
These were considered as good authority for a 
definite title, and were so regarded in after pur- 
chases. Under them, many pioneers, like Daniel 
Boone, lost their lands, as all were required to 
hold some kind of a patent, while others, who 
possessed no more principle than "land-sharks", 
of to-day, acquired large tracts of land by holding 
a patent the court was bound to accept. Of all 
the colonies, Virginia seemed to have the best 
title to the Northwest, save a few parcels, such as 
the Connecticut or Western Reserve and some 
similar tracts held by New York, Massachusetts 
and New Jersey. When the territory of the 
Northwest was ceded to the General Government, 
this was recognized, and that country was counted 
as a Virginia county. 

The Spanish Government, holding the region 
west of the Mississippi, and a portion east toward 
its outlet, became an important but secret ally of 
the Americans. When the French revolt was 
suppressed by O'ReUly, and the Spanish assumed 
the government of Louisiana, both Upper and 
Lower, there was a large tract of country, known 
as Florida (East and West), claimed by England, 
and duly regarded as a part of her dominion. 
The boundaries had been settled when the French 
first occupied Lower Louisiana. The Spaniards 
adopted the patriarchal form of rule, as much as 
was consistent with their interests, and allowed the 
French full religious and .civil liberty, save that all 
tribunals were after the Spanish fashion, and 
governed by Spanish rules. The Spaniards, long 
jealous of England's growing power, secretly sent 
the Governors of Louisiana word to aid the 
Americans in their struggle for freedom. Though 



they controlled the Mississippi River, they allowed 
an American ciEoer (Capt. Willing) to descend the 
river in January, 1778, with a party of iifly men, 
and ravage the British shore from Manchez Bayou 
to Natchez. 

On the 8th of May, 1779, Spain declared war 
against Great Britain; and, on the 8th of July, 
the people of Louisiana were allowed to take a 
part in the war. Accordingly, Galvez collected a 
force of 1,400 men, and, on the 7th of September, 
took Fort Manchac. By the 21st of September, 
he had taken Baton Rouge and Natchez.' Eight 
vessels were captured by the Spaniards on the 
Mississippi and on the lakes. In 1780 Mobile 
fell ; in March, 1781, Pensacola, the chief British 
post in West Florida, succumbed after a long 
siege, and, on the 9th of May, all West Florida 
was surrendered to Spain. 

This war, or the war on the Atlantic Coast, did 
not immediately affect Upper Louisiana. Great 
Britain, however, attempted to capture St. Louis. 
Though the commander was strongly suspected of 
being bribed by the English, yet the place stood 
the siege from the combined force of Indians and 
Canadians, and the assailants were dispersed. This 
was done during the summer of 1680, and in the 
autumn, a company of Spanish and French resi- 
dents, under La Balme, went on an expedition 
against Detroit. They marched as far north as 
the British trading-post Ke-ki-ong-a, at the head 
of the Maumee River, but being surprised in the 
night, and the commander slain, the expedition 
was defeated, having done but little. 

Spain may have had personal interests in aiding 
the Americans. She was now in control of the Mis- 
sissippi River, the natural outlet of the Northwest, 
and, in 1780, began the troubles relative to the 
navigation of that stream. The claims of Spain 
were considered very unjust by the Continental 
Congress, and, while deliberating over the question, 
Virginia, who was jealously alive to her Western 
interests, and who yet held jurisdiction over Ken- 
tucky, sent through Jefferson, the Governor, Gen. 
George Rogers Clarke, to erect a fort below the 
mouth of the Ohio. This proceeding was rather 
unwarrantable, especially as the fort was built in 
the country of the Chickasaws, who had thus far 
been true friends to the Americans, and who looked 
upon the fort as an innovation on their territory. 
It was completed and occupied but a short time, 
Clarke being recalled. 

Virginia, in 1780, did a very important thing; 
namely, establishing an institution for higher edu- 

cation. The Old Dominion confiscated the lands 
of " Robert McKenzie, Henry Collins and Alex- 
ander McKee, Britons, eight thousand acres," and 
invested the proceeds of the sale in a public semi- 
nary. Transylvania University now lives, a monu- 
ment to that spirit. 

WhUe Clarke was building Fort Jefferson, a force 
of British and Indians, under command of Capt. 
Bryd, came down from Canada and attacked the 
Kentucky settlements, getting into the country be- 
fore any one was aware. The winter before had 
been one of unusual severity, and game was ex- 
ceedingly scarce, hence the army was not prepared 
to conduct a campaign. After the capture of Rud- 
dle's Station, at the south fork of the Licking, Bryd 
abandoned any further attempts to reduce the set- 
tlements, except capturing Martin's Station, and 
returned to Detroit. 

This expedition gave an additional motive for 
the chastisement of the Indians, and Clarke, on his 
return from Fort Jefferson, went on an expedition 
against the Miami Indians. He destroyed their 
towns at Loramie's store, near the present city of 
Sydney, Ohio, and at Piqua, humbling the natives. 
While on the way, a part of the army remained 
on the north bank of the Ohio, and erected two 
block-houses on the present site of Cincinnati. 

The exploits of Clarke and his men so effectually 
chastised the Indians, that, for a time, the West 
was safe. During this period of quiet, the meas- 
ures which led to the cession of Western lands to 
the General Government, began to assume a defi- 
nite form. All the colonies claiming Western 
lands were willing to cede them to the Government, 
save Virginia, which colony wanted' a large scope 
of Southern country southeast of the Ohio, as far 
as South Carolina. All recognized the justice of 
all Western lands becoming public property, and 
thereby aiding in extinguishing the debts caused by 
the war of the Revolution, now about to close. 
As Virginia held a somewhat different view, the 
cession was not made until 1783. 

The subject, however, could not be allowed to 
rest. The war of the Revolution was now drawing 
to a close ; victory on the part of the colonies was 
apparent, and the Western lands must be a part of 
the public domain. Subsequent events brought 
about the desired cession, though several events 
transpired before the plan of cession was consum- 

Before the close of 1780, the Legislature of 
Virginia passed an act, establishing the " town of 
Louisville," and confiscated the lands of John 



Connelly, wlio was one of its original proprietors, 
and who distinguished himself in the commence- 
ment of Lord Dunmore's war, and who was now a 
Tory, and doing all he could against the patriot 
cause. The proceeds of the sale of his lands were 
divided between Virginia and the county of Jefferson. 
Kentucky, the next year, was divided into three 
counties, Jefferson, Lincoln and Fayette. Courts 
were appointed in each, and the entry and location 
of lands given into their hands. Settlers, in "spite 
of Indian troubles and British intrigue, were 
pouring over the mountains, particularly so during 
the years 1780 and 1781. The expeditions of 
Clarke against the Miami Indians ; Boone's cap- 
tivity, and escape from them ; their defeat when 
attacking Boonesboro, and other places — all 
combined to weaken their power, and teach them 
to respect a nation whose progress they could not 

The pioneers of the "West, obliged to depend on 
themselves, owing to the struggle of the colonies 
for freedom, grew up a hardy, self-reliant race, 
with all the vices and virtues of a border life, and 
with habits, manners and customs necessary to 
their peculiar situation, and suited to their peculiar 
taste. A resume of their experiences and daily 
lives would be quite interesting, did the limits of 
this history admit it here. In the part relating 
directly to this county, the reader will find such 
lives given ; here, only the important events can 
be noticed. 

The last event of consequence occurring in the 
West before the close of the Revolution, is one 
that might well have been omitted. Had such 
been the case, a great stain would have been spared 
the character of Western pioneers. Reference is 
made to the massacre of the Moravian Christian 

These Indians were of the Delaware nation 
chiefly, though other Western tribes were visited 
and many converts made. The first converts were 
made in New York and Connecticut, where, after 
a good start had been made, and a prospect of 
many souls being saved, they incurred the enmity 
of the whites, who, becoming alarmed at their suc- 
cess, persecuted them to such an extent that they 
were driven out of New York into Pennsylvania, 
where, in 1744, four years after their anival in 
the New World, they began new missions.' In 
1748, the New York and Connecticut Indians fol- 
lowed their teachers, and were among the founders 
of Friedenshutten, "Tents of Peace," a hamlet 
near Bethlehem, where their teachers were sta- 

tioned. ■ Other hamlets grew around them, until 
in the interior of the colony, existed an Indian 
community, free from all savage vices, and grow- 
ing up in Christian virtues. As their strength 
grew, lawless whites again began to oppress them. 
They could not understand the war of 1754, and 
were, indeed, in a truly embarrassing position. 
The savages could form no conception of any cause 
for neutrality, save a secret sympathy with the 
English ; and if they could not take up the hatchet, 
they were in the way, and must be removed. Fail- 
ing to do this, their red brothers became hostile. 
The whites were but little better. The old suspi- 
cions which drove them from New York were 
aroused. They were secret Papists, in league with 
the French, and furnished them with arms and in- 
telligence; they were interfering with the liquor 
traffic; they were enemies to the Government, 
and the Indian and the white man combined against 
them. They were obliged to move from place to 
place; were at one time protected nearly a year, 
near Philadelphia, from lawless whites, and finally 
were compelled to go far enough West to be out 
of the way of French and English arms, or the 
Iroquois and Cherokee hatchets. They came 
finally to the Muskingum, where they made a set- 
tlement called Schonbrun, "beautiful clear spring," 
in what is now Tuscarawas County. Other settle- 
ments gathered, from time to time, as the years 
went on, till in 1772 large numbers of them were 
within the borders of the State. 

Until the war of independence' broke out, they 
were allowed to peacefully pursue their way. When 
that came, they were between Fort Pitt and De- 
troit, one of which contained British, the other 
Americans. Again they could not understand the 
struggle, and could not take up the hatchet. This 
brought on them the enmity of both belligerent 
parties, and that of their own forest companions, 
who could not see wherein their natures could 
change. Among the most hostile persons, were 
the white renegades McKee, Girty and ElHott. 
On their instigation, several of them were slain, 
and by their advice they were obliged to leave their 
fields and homes, where they had many comforts, 
and where they had erected good chapels in which 
to worship. It was just before one of these forced 
removals that Mary, daughter of the missionary 
Heck ew elder, was born. She is supposed to be 
the first white female child born north of the Ohio 
River. Her birth occurred April 16, 1781. It 
is but proper to say here, that it is an open ques- 
tion, and one that will probably never be decided. 

i. e. Who was tte first white child born in Ohio ? 
In all probability, the child was born during the 
captivity of its mother, as history plainly shows 
that when white women were released from the 
Indians, some of them carried children born while 
among the natives. 

When the Moravians were forced to leave their 
settlements on the Muskingum, and taken to San- 
dusky, they left growing fields of corn, to which 
they were obliged to return, to gather food. This 
aroused the whites, only wanting some pretext 
whereby they might attack them, and a party, 
headed by Col. David Williamson, determined to 
exterminate them. The Moravians, hearing of their 
approach, fled, but too late to warn other settle- 
ments, and Gnadenhutten, Salem and one or two 
smaller settlements, were surprised and taken. 
Under deceitftd promises, the Indians gave up all 
their arms, showed the whites their treasures, and 
went unknowingly to a terrible death. When ap- 
prised of their fate, determined on by a majority 
of the rangers, they begged only time to prepare. 
They were led two by two, the men into one, the 
women and children into another "slaughter- 
house," as it was termed, and all but two lads were 
wantonly slain. An infamous and more bloody 
deed never darkened the pages of feudal times ; 
a deed that, in after years, called aloud for venge- 
ance, and in some measure received it. Some of 
Williamson's men wrung their hands at the cruel 
fate, and endeavored, by all the means in their 
power, to prevent it; but all to no purpose. The 
blood of the rangers was up, and they would not spare 
"man, woman or child, of all that peaceful band." 

Having completed their horrible work, (March 
8, 1Y82), Williamson and his men returned to 
Pittsburgh. Everywhere, the Indians lamented 
the untimely death of their kindred,* their savage 
relatives determining on their xevenge; the Chris- 
tian ones could only be resigned and weep. 

Williamson's success, for such it was viewed by 
many, excited the borderers to another invasion, 
and a second army was raised, this time to 
go to the Sandusky town, and annihilate the 
Wyandots. Col. William Crawford was elected 
leader ; he accepted reluctantly ; on the way, 
the army was met by hordes of savages on the 5th of 

June, and totally routed. They were away north, 
in what is now Wyandot County, and were obliged 
to flee for their lives. The blood of the murdered 
Moravians called for revenge. The Indians de- 
sired it ; were they not relatives of |the fallen 
Christians ? Crawford and many of his men fell 
into their hands ; all sufi'ered unheard-of tortures, 
that of Crawford being as cruel as Indian cruelty 
could devise. He was pounded, pierced, cut with 
knives and burned, all of which occupied nearly 
three hours, and finally lay down insensible on a bed 
of coals, and died. The savage captors, in demoni- 
acal glee, danced around him, and upbraided him 
for the cruel murder of their relatives, giving him 
this only consolation, that had they captured Will- 
iamson, he might go free, but he must answer for 
Williamson's brutality. 

The war did not cease here. The Indians, now 
aroused, carried their attack as far south as into 
Kentucky, killing Capt. Estill, a brave man, and 
some of his companions. The British, too, were 
active in aiding them, and the 14th of August a 
large force of them, under Girty, gathered silently 
about Bryant's Station. They were obliged to re- 
treat. The Kentuckians pursued them, but were 
repulsed with considerable loss. 

The attack on Bryant's Station aroused the peo- 
ple of Kentucky to strike a blow that would be 
felt. Gen. Clarke was put at the head of an army 
of one thousand and fifty men, and the Miami 
country was a second time destroyed. Clarke even 
went as far north as the British trading-post at the 
head of the Miami, where he captured a great 
amount of property, and destroyed the post. Other 
outposts also fell, the invading army suffering but 
little, and, by its decisive action, practically closing 
the Indian wars in the West. Pennsylvania suf- 
fered some, losing Hannahstown and one or two 
small settlemente. Williamson's and Crawford's 
campaigns aroused the fury of the Indians that 
took time and much blood and war to subdue. The 
Kevolution was, however, drawing to a close. Amer- 
ican arms were victorious, and a new nation was 
now coming into existence, who would change the 
whole current of Western matters, and make of the 
Northwest a land of liberty, equality and union. 
That nation was now on the stage. 

-"^ ® 

<2 »^ 





THE occupation of the West by the American, 
really dates from the campaign of Gen. Clarke in 
1778, when he captured the British posts in the 
Illinois country, and Vincennes on the Wabash. 
Had he been properly supported, he would have 
reduced Detroit, then in easy reach, and poorly de- 
fended. As it was, however, that post remained in 
charge of the British till after the close of the war 
of the Revolution. They also held other lake 
posts; but these were included in the terms of 
peace, and came into the possession of the Ameri- 
cans. They were abandoned by the British as 
soon as the different commanders received notice 
from their chiefs, and British rule and English 
occupation ceased iiji that part of the New World. 

The war virtually closed by the surrender of 
Lord CornwaUis at Yorktown, Va., October 19, 
1781. The struggle was prolonged, however, by 
the British, in the vain hope that they could re- 
trieve the disaster, but it was only a useless waste 
of men and money. America would not be sub- 
dued. "If we are to be taxed, we will be repre- 
sented," said they, "else we will be a free govern- 
ment, and regulate our own taxes." In the end, 
they were free. 

Provisional articles of peace between the United 
States and Great Britain were signed in Paris on 
the 30th of November, 1782. This was followed 
by an armistice negotiated at Versailles on the 20th 
of January, 1783 ; and finally, a definite treaty of 
peace was concluded at Paris on the 3d of the next 
September, and ratified by Congress on the 4th of 
January, 1784. By the second article of the defi- 
nite treaty of 1783, the boundaries of the United 
States were fixed.' A glance at the map of that 
day shows the boundary to have been as follows: 
Beginning at Passamaquoddy Bay, on the coast of 
Maine, the line ran north a little above the forty- 
fifth parallel of latitude, when it diverged southwest- 
erly, irregularly, until it reached that parallel, when 
it followed it until it reached the St. Lawrence River. 
It followed that river to Lake Ontario, down its 
center ; up the Niagara River ; through Lake Erie, 

up the Detroit River and through Lakes Huron and 
Superior, to the northwest extremity of the latter. 
Then it pursued another irregular western course 
to the Lake of the Woods, when it turned south- 
ward to the Mississippi River. The commissioners 
insisted that should be the western boundary, as 
the lakes were the northern. It followed the Mis- 
sissippi south until the mouth of Red River was 
reached, when, turning east, it followed almost a 
direct line to the Atlantic Coast, touching the 
coast a little north of the outlet of St. John's 
River. " 

From this outline, it will be i;eadily seen what 
boundary the United States possessed. Not one- 
half of its present domain. 

At this date, there existed the original thirteen 
colonies : Virginia occupying all Kentucky and 
all the Northwest, save about half of Michigan and 
Wisconsin, claimed by Massachusetts ; and the upper 
part of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and the lower 
part (a narrow strip) of Michigan, claimed by Con- 
necticut. Georgia included all of Alabama and 
Mississippi. The Spaniards claimed all Florida 
and a narrow part of lower Georgia. All the coun- 
try west of the Father of Waters belonged to Spain, 
to whom it had been secretly ceded when the fam- 
ily compact was made. That nation controlled the 
Mississippi, and gave no small uneasiness to the 
young government. It was, however, happily set- 
tled finally, by the sale of Louisana to the United 

Pending the settlement of these questions and 
the formation of the Federal Union, the cession of 
the Northwest by Virginia again came before 
Congress. That body found itself unable to fulfill 
its promises to its soldiers regarding land, and 
again urged the Old Dominion to cede the Terri- 
tory to the General Government, for the good of 
all. Congress forbade settlers from occupying the 
Western lands till a definite cession had been 
made, and the title to the lands in question made 
good. But speculation was stronger than law, 
and without waiting for the slow processes of courts, 



the adventurous settlers were pouring into the 
country at a rapid rate, only retarded by the rifle 
and scaJping-knife of the savage — a temporary 
check. The policy of allowing any parties to obtain 
land jfrom the Indians was strongly discouraged 
by Washington. He advocated the idea that only 
the G-eneral Government could do that, and, in a 
letter to James Duane, in Congress, he strongly 
urged such a course, and pointed out the danger 
of a border war, unless some such measure was 
stringently followed. 

Under the circumstances, Congress pressed the 
claims of cession upon Virginia, and finally in- 
duced the Dominion to modify the terms proposed 
two years before. On the 20th of December, 
1783, Virginia accepted the proposal of Congress, 
and authorized her delegates to make a deed to 
the United States of all her right in the territory 
northwest of the Ohio. 

The Old Dominion stipulated in her deed of 
cession, that the territory should be divided into 
States, to be admitted into the Union as any other 
State, and to bear a proportionate share in the 
maintenance of that Union; that Virginia should 
be re-imbursed for the expense incurred in subduing 
the British posts in the territory; that the French 
and Canadian inhabitants should be protected in their 
rights ; that the grant to Gen. George Kogers Clarke 
and his men, as well as all other similar grants, 
should be confirmed, and that the lands should be 
considered as the common property of the United 
States, the proceeds to be applied to the use of the 
whole country. Congress accepted these condi- 
tions, and the deed was made March 1, 1784. 
Thus the country came from under the dominion 
of Virginia, and became common property. 

A serious difficulty arose, about this time, that 
threatened for awhile to involve England and 
America anew in war. Virginia and several 
other States refused to abide by that part of the 
treaty relating to the payment of debts, especially 
so, when the British carried away quite a number 
of negroes claimed by the Americans. This re- 
fusal on the part of the Old Dominion and her 
abettors, caused the English to retain her North- 
western outposts, Detroit, Mackinaw, etc. She 
held these till 1786, when the questions were 
finally settled, and then readily abandoned them. 

The return of peace greatly augmented emigra- 
tion to the West, especially to Kentucky. When 
the war closed, the population of that county (the 
three counties having been made one judicial dis- 
trict, and Danville designated as the seat of gov- 

ernment) was estimated to be about twelve thousand. 
In one year, after the close of the War, it increased 
to 30,000, and steps for a State government were 
taken. Owing to the divided sentiment among its 
citizens, its perplexing questions of land titles 
and proprietary rights, nine conventions were held 
before a definite course of action could be reached. 
This prolonged the time till 1792, when, in De- 
cember of that year, the election for persons to 
form a State constitution was held, and the vexed 
and complicated questions settled. In 1783, the 
first wagons bearing merchandise came across the 
mountains. Their contents were received on flat- 
boats at Pittsburgh, and taken down the Ohio to 
Louisville, which that spring boasted of a store, 
opened by Daniel Broadhead. The next year, 
James Wilkinson opened one at Lexington. 

Pittsburgh was now the principal town in the 
West. It occupied the same position regarding 
the outposts that Omaha has done for several years 
to Nebraska. The town of Pittsburgh was laid 
out immediately after the war of 1764, by Col. 
Campbell. It then consisted of four squares about 
the fort, and received its name from that citadel. 
The treaty with the Six Nations in 1768, con- 
veyed to the proprietaries of Pennsylvania all the 
lands of the AUeghany below Kittanning, and all 
the country south of the Ohio, within the limits of 
Penn's charter. This deed of cession was recog- 
nized when the line between Pennsylvania and 
Virginia was fixed, and gave the post to the Key- 
stone State. In accordance with this deed, the 
manor of Pittsburgh was withdrawn from market 
in 1769, and was held as the property of the Penn 
family. When Washington visited it in 1770, it 
seems to have declined in consequence of the 
afore-mentioned act. He mentions it as a " town of 
about twenty log houses, on the Monongahela, 
about three hundred yards from the fort." The 
Penn's remained true to the King, and hence all 
their land that had not been surveyed and returned 
to the land office, was confiscated by the common- 
wealth. Pittsburgh, having been surveyed, was 
still left to them. In the spring of 1784, Tench 
Francis, the agent of the Penns, was induced to 
lay out the manor into lots and offer them for sale. 
Though, for many years, the place was rather un- 
promising, it eventually became the chief town in 
that part of the West, a position it yet holds. In 
1786, John Scull and Joseph Hall started the 
Pittsburgh Gazette^ the first paper published west 
of the mountains. In the initial number, appeared a 
lengthy article from the pen of H. H. Brackenridge, 



afterward one of the most prominent members 
of the Pennsylvania bar. He had located in 
Pittsburgh in 1781. His letter gives a most hope- 
ful prospect in store for the future city, and is a 
highly descriptive article of the Western country. 
It is yet preserved in the "Western Annals," and 
is vt^ell worth a perusal. 

Under the act of peace in 1783, no provision was 
made by the British for their allies, especially the 
Six Nations. The question was ignored by the 
English, and was made a handle by the Americans 
in gaining them to their cause before the war had 
fiiUy closed. The treaties made were regarded by 
the Indians as alliances only, and when the En- 
glish left the country the Indians began to assume 
rather a hostile'bearing. This excited the whites, 
and for a while a war with that formidable con- 
federacy was imminent. Better councils prevailed, 
and Congress wisely adopted the policy of acquiring 
their lands by purchase. In accordance with this 
policy, a treaty was made at Fort Stanwix with 
the Six Nations, in October, 1784. By this treaty, 
all lands west of a line drawn from the mouth of 
Oswego Creek, about four miles east of Niagara, 
to the mouth of Buffalo Creek, and on to the 
northern boundary of Pennsylvania, thence west 
along that boundary to its western extremity, 
thence south to the Ohio River, should be ceded 
to the United States. (They claimed west of this line 
by conquest.) The Six Nations were to be secured 
in the lands they inhabited, reserving only six miles 
square around Oswego fort for the support of the 
same. By this treaty, the indefinite claim of the 
Six Nations to the West was extinguished, and the 
question of its ownership settled. 

It was now occupied by other Western tribes, 
who did not recognize the Iroquois claim, and who 
would not yield without a 'purchase. Especially 
was this the case with those Indians living in the 
northern part. To get possession of that country 
by the same process, the United States, through 
its commissioners, held a treaty at Port Mcintosh 
on the 21st of January, 1785. The Wyandot, 
Delaware, Chippewa and Ottawa tribes were pres- 
ent, and, through their chiefs, sold their lands to 
the Government. The Wyandot and Delaware 
nations were given a reservation in the north part 
of Ohio, where they were to be protected. The 
others were allotted reservations in Michigan. To 
all was given complete control of their lands, allow- 
ing them to punish any white man attempting to 
settle thereon, and guaranteeing them in their 

By such means Congress gained Indian titles to 
the vast realms north of the Ohio, and, a few 
months later, that legislation was commenced that 
should determine the mode of its disposal and the 
plan of its settlements. 

To facilitate the settlement of lands thus acquired. 
Congress, on May 20, 1785, passed an act for dispos- 
ing of lands in the Northwest Territory. Its main 
provisions were : A surveyor or surveyors should be 
appointed from the States ; and a geographer, and 
his assistants to act with them. The surveyors 
were to divide the territory into townships of six 
miles square, by lines running due north and 
south, and east and west. The starting-place 
was to be on the Ohio River, at a point where the 
western boundary of Pennsylvania crossed it. 
This would give the first range, and the first 
tbwnship. As soon as seven townships were 
surveyed, the maps and plats of the same were to 
be sent to the Board of the Treasury, who would 
record them and proceed to place the land in the 
market, and so on with all the townships as fast as 
they could be prepared ready for sale. Each town- 
ship was to be divided into thirty-six sections, or 
lots. Out of these sections, numbers 8, 11, 26 and 
29 were reserved for the use of _the Government, 
and lot No. 16, for the establishment of a common- 
school fund. One-third of all mines and minerals was 
also reserved for the United States. Three townships 
on Lake Erie were reserved for the use of officers, 
men and others, refugees from Canada and from 
Nova Scotia, who were entitled to grants of land. 
The Moravian Indians were also exempt from 
molestation, and guaranteed in their homes. Sol- 
diers' claims, and all others of a like nature, were 
also recognized, and land reserved for them. 

Without waiting for the act of Congress, settlers 
had been pouring into the country, and, when or- 
dered by Congress to leave undisturbed Indian 
lands, refused to do so. They went into the In- 
dian country at their peril, however, and when 
driven out by the Indians could get no redress 
from the Government, even when life was lost. 

The Indians on the Wabash made a treaty at 
Fort Finney, on the Miami, January 31, 1786, 
promising allegiance to the United States, and were 
allowed a reservation. This treaty did not include 
the Piankeshaws, as was at first intended. These, 
refusing to live peaceably, stirred up the Shawa- 
nees, who began a series of predatory excursions 
against the settlements. This led to an expedition 
against them and other restless tribes. Gen. Clarke 
commanded part of the army on that expedition. 




but got no farther than Vincennes, when, owing to 
the discontent of his Kentucky troops, he was 
obHged to return. Col. Benjamin Logan, how- 
ever, marched, at the head of four or five hundred 
mounted riflemen, into the Indian country, pene- 
trating as far as the head-waters of Mad River. 
He destroyed several towns, much corn, and took 
about eighty prisoners. Among these, was the 
chief of the nation, who was wantonly slain, 
greatly to Logan's regret, who could not restrain 
his men. His expedition taught the Indians sub- 
mission, and that they must adhere to their con- 

Meanwhile, the difficulties of the navigation of 
the Mississippi arose. Spain would not relinquish 
the right to control the entire southern part of the 
river, allowing no free navigation. She was secretly 
hoping to cause a revolt of the Western provinces, 
especially Kentucky, and openly favored such a 
move. She also claimed, by conquest, much of the 
land on the east side of the river. The slow move- 
ments of Congress; the failure of Virginia to 
properly protect Kentucky, and the inherent rest- 
lessness in some of the Western men, well-nigh 
precipitated matters, and, for a while, serious jresults 
were imminent. The Kentuckians, and, indeed, 
all the people of the West, were determined the 
river should be free, and even went so far as to 
raise a regiment, and forcibly seize Spanish prop- 
erty in the West. Great Britain stood ready, too, 
to aid the West should it succeed, providing it 
would make an alliance with her. But while the 
excitement was at its height, Washington coun- 
seled better ways and patience. The decisive tone 
of the new repubUc, though almost overwhelmed 
with a burden of debt, and with no credit, debarred 
the Spanish from too forcible measures to assert 
their claims, and held back the disloyal ones from 
attempting a revolt. 

New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut ceded 
their lands, and now the United States were ready 
to ftdfill their promises of land grants, to the sol- 
diers who had preserved the nation. This did 
much to heal the breach in the West, and restore 
confidence there; so that the Mississippi question 
was overlooked for a time, and Kentucky forgot her 

The cession of their claims was the signal for 
the formation of land companies in the East ; com- 
panies whose object was to settle the Western coun- 
try, and, at the same time, enrich the founders of 
the companies. Some of these companies had been 
formed in the old colonial days, but the recent war 

had put a stop to all their proceedings. Congress 
would not recognize their claims, and new com- 
panies, under old names, were the result. By such 
means, the Ohio Company emerged from the past, 
and, in 1Y86, took an active existence. 

Benjamin Tupper, a Revolutionary soldier, and 
since then a government surveyor, who had been 
west as far as Pittsburgh, revived the question. 
He was prevented from prosecuting his surveys by 
hostile Indians, and returned to Massachusetts. 
He broached a plan to Gen. Rufus Putnam, as to 
the renewal of their memorial of 1783, which re- 
sulted in the publication of a plan, and inviting all 
those interested, to meet in February in their re- 
spective counties, and choose delegates to a con- 
vention to be held at the " Bunch-of-grapes Tav- 
ern." in Boston" on the first of March, 1786. On 
the day appointed, eleven persons appeared, and 
by the 3d of March an outline was drawn up, and 
subscriptions under it began at once. The leading 
features of the plan were : " A fund of $1 ,000,000, 
mainly in Continental certificates, was to be raised 
for the purpose of purchasing lands in the Western 
country; there were to be 1,000 shares of $1,000 
each, and upon each share $10 in specie were to 
be paid for contingent expenses. One year's inter- 
est was to be appropriated to the charges of making 
a settlement, and assisting those unable to move 
without aid. The owners of every twenty shares 
were to choose an agent to represent them and 
attend to their interests, and the agents were to 
choose the directors. The plan was approved, and 
in a year's time from that date, the Company was 

By the time this Company was organized, all 
claims of the colonies in the coveted territory were 
done away with by their deeds of cession, Connect- 
icut being the last. 

While troubles were still existing south of the 
Ohio River, regarding the navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi, and many urged the formation of a sepa- 
rate, independent State, and while Congress and 
Washington were doing what they could to allay 
the feeling north of the Ohio, the New England 
associates were busily engaged, now that a Com- 
pany was fotmed, to obtain the land they wished 
to purchase. On the 8th of March, 1787, a meet- 
ing of the agents chose Gen. Parsons, Gen. Put- 
nam and the Rev. Mannasseh Cutler, Directors for 
the Company. The last selection was quite a 
fitting one for such an enterprise. Dr. Cutler was 

* Historical Collections. 

— s> y 



an accomplished scholar, an excellent gentleman, 
and a firm believer in ireedom. In the choice of 
him as the agent of the Company, lies the fact, 
though unforeseen, of the beginning of anti-slavery 
in America. Through him the famous " compact 
of 1787," the true corner-stone of the Northwest, 
originated, and by him was safely passed. He 
was a good "wire-puller," too, and in this had an 
advantage. Mr. Hutchins was at this time the 
geographer for the United States, and was, prob- 
ably, the best-posted man in America regarding 
the "West. Dr. Cutler learned from him that the 
most desirable portions were on the Muskingum 
River, north of the Ohio, and was advised by him 
to buy there if he could. 

Congress wanted money badly, and many of the 
members favored the plan. The Southern mem- 
bers, generally, were hostile to it, as the Doctor 
would listen to no grant which did not embody 
the New England ideas in the charter. These 
members were finally won over, some bribery be- 
ing used, and some of their favorites made officers 
of the Territory, whose formation was now going 
on. This took time, however, and Dr. Cutler, be- 
coming impatient, declared they would purchase 
from some of the States, who held small tracts in 
various parts of the West. This intimation brought 
the tardy ones to time, and, on the 23d of July, 
Congress authorized the Treasury Board to make 
the contract. On the 26th, Messrs. Cutler and 
Sargent, on behalf of the Company, stated in 
writing their conditions; and on the 27th, Con- 
gress referred their letter to the Board, and an 
order of the same date was obtained. Of this Dr. 
Cutler's journal says: 

" By this grant we obtained near five millions 
of acres of land, amounting to $3,500,000 ; 1,500,- 
000 acres for the Ohio Company, and the remainder 
for a private speculation, in which many of the 
principal characters of America are concerned. 
Without connecting this peculation, similar terms 
and advantages for the Ohio Company could not 
have been obtained." 

Messrs. Cutler and Sargent at once closed a ver- 
bal contract with the Treasury Board, which was 
executed in form on the 27th of the next Octo- 

By this contract, the vast region bounded on the 
south by the Ohio, west by the Scioto, east by the 
seventh range of townships then surveying, and 
north by a due west line, drawn from the north 

* Land Laws. 

boundary of the tenth township from the Ohio, 
direct to the Scioto, was sold to the Ohio associ- 
ates and their secret copartners, for $1 per acre, 
subject to a deduction of one-third for bad lands 
and other contingencies. 

The whole tract was not, however, paid for nor 
taken by the Company — even their own portion of 
a million and a half acres, and extending west to the 
eighteenth range of townships, was not taken ; and 
in 1792, the boundaries of the purchase proper 
were fixed as follows : the Ohio on the south, the 
seventh range of townships on the east, the six- 
teenth range on the west, and a line on the north 
so drawn as to make the grant 750,000 acres, be- 
sides reservations ; this grant being the portion 
which it was originally agreed the Company might 
enter into at once. In addition to this, 214,285 
acres were granted as army bounties, under the 
resolutions of 1779 and 1780, and 100,000 acres 
as bounties to actual settlers; both of the latter 
tracts being within the original grant of 1787, and 
adjoining the purchase as before mentioned. 

While these things were progressing. Congress 
was bringing into form an ordinance for the gov- 
ernment and social organization of the North- 
west Territory. Virginia made her cession in 
March, 1784, and during the month following the 
plan for the temporary government of the newly 
acquired territory came under discussion. On the 
19th of April, Mr. Spaight, of North Carolina, 
moved to strike from the plan reported by Mr. 
Jefferson, the emancipationist of his day, a provis- 
ion for the prohibition of slavery north of the Ohio 
after the year 1800. The motion prevailed. From 
that day till the 23d, the plan was discussed and 
altered, and finally passed unanimously with the ex- 
ception of South CaroUna. The South would have 
slavery, or defeat every measure. Thus this hide- 
ous monster early began to assert himself. By the 
proposed plan, the Territory was to have been 
divided into States by parallels of latitude and merid- 
ian lines. This division, it was thought, would make 
ten States, whose names were as follows, beginning 
at the northwest corner, and going southwardly : 
Sylvania, Michigania, Cheresonisus, Assenispia, 
Metropotamia, lUinoia, Saratoga, Washington, 
Polypotamia and Pehsipia.* 

A more serious difficulty existed, however, to 
this plan, than its catalogue of names — ^the number 
of States and their boundaries. The root of the evil 
was in the resolution passed by Congress in October, 

* Spark^s Washington. 




1 Y80, wMoh fixed the size of the States to be formed 
from the ceded lands, at one hundred to one hundred 
and fifty miles square. The terms of that resolu- 
tion being called up both by Virginia and Massa^ 
chusetts, further legislation was deemed necessary 
to change them. July 1, 1786, this subject came 
up in Congress, and a resolution passed in favor of 
a division into not less than three nor more than 
five States. Virginia, at the close of 1788, assented 
to this proposition, which became the basis upon 
which the division should be made. On the 29th 
of September, Congress having thus changed the 
plan for. dividing the Northwestern Territory into 
ten States, proceeded again to consider the terms of 
an ordinance for the government of that region. At 
this juncture, the genius of Dr. Cutler displayed 
itself. A graduate in medicine, law and divinity ; 
an ardent lover of liberty ; a celebrated scientist, 
and an accomplished, portly gentleman, of whom 
the Southern senators said they had never before 
seen so fine a specimen from the New England colo- 
nies, no man was better prepared to form a govern- 
ment for the new Territory, than he. The Ohio 
Company was his real object. He was backed by 
them, and enough Continental money to purchase 
more than a million acres of land. This was aug- 
mented by other parties until, as has been noticed, 
he represented over five million acres. This would 
largely reduce the public debt. Jefierson and Vir- 
ginia were regarded as authority concerning the 
land Virginia had just ceded to the General Gov- 
ernment. Jefierson's policy was to provide for the 
national credit, and still check the growth of slavery. 
Here was a good opportunity. Massachusetts 
owned the Territory of Maine, which she was crowd- 
ing into .market. She opposed the opening of 
the Northwest. This stirred Virginia. The South 
caught the inspiration and rallied around the Old 
Dominion and Dr. Cutler. Thereby he gained the 
credit and good will of the South, an auxiliary he 
used to good purpose. Massachusetts could not 
vote against £im, because many of the constituents 
of her members were interested in the Ohio Com- 
pany. Thus the Doctor, using all the arts of the 
lobbyist, was enabled to hold the situation. True to 
deeper convictions, he dictated one of the most com- 
pact and finished documents of wise statesmanship 
that has ever adorned any statute-book. Jefierson 
gave it the term, "Articles of Compact," and 
rendered him valuable aid in its construction. This 
" Compact" preceded the Federal Constitution, in 
both of which are seen Jefierson's master-mind. 
Dr. Cutler followed closely the constitution of Mas- 

sachusetts, adopted three years before. The prom- 
inent features were : The exclusion of slavery from 
the Territory forever. Provision for public schools, 
giving one township for a seminary, and every six- 
teenth section. (That gave one thirty-sixth of all 
the land for public education.) A provision pro- 
hibiting the adoption of any constitution or the 
enactment of any law that would nullify pre-exist- 
ing contracts. 

The compact further declared that " Religion, 
morality and knowledge being necessary to good 
government and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and the means of education shall always be en- 

The Doctor planted himself firmly on this plat- 
form, and would not yield. It was that or nothing. 
Unless they could make the land desirable , it was 
not wanted, and, taking his horse and buggy, he 
started for the Constitutional Convention in Phil- 
adelphia. His infiuence succeeded. On the 13th 
of July, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage 
and was unanimously adopted. Every member 
from the South voted for it ; only one man, Mr. 
Yates, of New York, voted against the measure ; 
but as the vote was made by States, his vote was 
lost, and the " Compact of 1787 " was beyond re- 
peal. Thus the great States of the Northwest 
Territory were consecrated to freedom, intelligence 
and morality. This act was the opening step for 
freedom in America. Soon the South saw their 
blunder, and endeavored, by all their power, to re- 
peal the compact. In 1803, Congress referred it 
to a committee, of which John Eandolph was 
chairman. He reported the ordinance was a com- 
pact and could not be repealed. Thus it stood, 
like a rook, in the way of slavery, which still, in 
spite of these provisions, endeavored to plant that 
infernal institution in the West. Witness the 
early days of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. But the 
compact could not be violated ; New England ideas 
could not be put down, and her sons stood ready 
to defend the soil of the West from that curse. 

The passage of the ordinance and the grant of 
land to Dr. Cutler'and his associates, were soon fol- 
lowed by a request from John Cleve Symmes, of 
New Jersey, for the country between the Miamis. 
Symmes had visited that part of the West in 178G, 
and, being pleased with the valleys of the Miamis, 
had applied to the Board of the Treasury for 
their purchase, as soon as they were open to set- 
tlement. The Board was empowered to act by 
Congress, and, in 1788, a contract was signed, giv- 
ing him the country he desired. The terms of his 

^ a 



purctase were similar to those of the Ohio Com- 
pany. His application was followed by others, 
whose success or failure will appear in the narrative. 

The New England or Ohio Company was all 
this time busily engaged perfecting its arrange- 
ments to occupy its lands. The Directors agreed 
to reserve 5,760 acres near the confluence of the 
Ohio and Muskingum for a city and commons, for 
the old ideas of the English plan of settling a 
country yet prevailed. A meeting of the Direct- 
ors was held at Bracket's tavern, in Boston, No- 
vember 23, 1Y8Y, when four surveyors, and twen- 
ty-two attendants, boat-builders, carpenters, black- 
smiths and common workmen, numbering in all 
forty persons, were engaged. Their tools were 
purchased, and wagons were obtained to transport 
them across the mountains. Gen. Rufus Putnam 
was made superintendent of the company, and 
Ebenezer Sproat, of Ehode Island, Anselm Tup- 
per and John Matthews, from Massachusetts, and 
R. J. Meigs, from Connecticut, as surveyors. At 
the same meeting, a suitable person to instruct them 
in religion, and prepare the way to open a school 
when needed, was selected. This was Rev. Daniel 
Storey, who became the first New England minis- 
ter in the Northwest. 

The Indians were watching this outgrowth of 
afiairs, and felt, from what they could learn in Ken- 
tucky, that they would be gradually surrounded by 
the whites. This they did not relish, by any 
means, and gave the settlements south of the Ohio 
no little uneasiness. It was thought best to hold 
another treaty with them. In the mean time, to 
insure peace, the- Governor of Virginia, and Con- 
gress, placed troops at Venango, Forts Pitt and 
Mcintosh, and at Miami, Vincennes, Louisville, 
and Muskingum, and the militia of Kentucky 
were held in readiness should a sudden outbreak 
occur. These measures produced no results, save 
insuring the safety of the whites, and not until 
January, 1789, was Clarke able to carry out his 
plans. During that month, he held a meeting at Fort 
Harmar,* at the mouth of the Muskingum, where 
the New England Colony expected to locate. 

The hostile character of the Indians did not 
deter the Ohio Company from carrying out its 
plans. In the winter of 1787, Gen. Ruftis Put- 

* Fort Harmar -was built in 1785, by a detachment of United States 
Boldiera, under command of Maj. John Doughty. It was named in 
honor of Col. Josiah Harmar, to whose regiment Maj. Doughty was 
attached. It was the first military post erected by the Americans 
within the limits of Ohio, except Fort Laurens, a temporary struct- 
ure built in 1778. When Marietta was founded it -was the military 
post of that part of the country, and was for many years an impor- 
tant station. 

nam and forty-seven pioneers advanced to the 
mouth of the Youghiogheny River, and began 
building a boat for transportation down the Ohio 
in the spring. The boat was the largest craft that 
had ever descended the river, and, in allusion to 
their Pilgrim Fathers, it was called the Mayflower. 
Jt was 45 feet long and 12 feet wide, and esti- 
mated at 50 tons burden. Truly a formidable affair 
for the time. The bows were raking and curved 
like a galley, and were strongly timbered. The 
sides were made bullet-proof, and it was covered 
with a deck roof Capt. Devol, the first ship- 
builder in the West, was placed in command. On 
the 2d of April, the Mayflower was launched, 
and for five days the little band of pioneers sailed 
down the Monongahela and the Ohio, and, on the 
7th, landed at the mouth of the Muskingum. 
There, opposite Fort Harmar, they chose a locar 
tion, moored their boat for a temporary shelter, 
and began to erect houses for their occupation. 

Thus was begun the first English settlement in 
the Ohio Valley. About the 1st of July, they 
were re-enforced by the arrival of a colony from 
Massachusetts. It had been nine weeks on the 
way. It had hauled its wagons and driven its 
stock to Wheeling, where, constructing flat-boats, 
it had floated down the river to the settlement. 

In October preceding this occurrence, Arthur 
St. Clair had been appointed Governor of the Ter- 
ritory by Congress, which body also appointed 
Winthrop Sargent, Secretary, and Samuel H. 
Parsons, James M. Varnjim and John Armstrong 
Judges. Subsequently Mr. Armstrong declined 
the appointment, and Mr. Symmes was given the 
vacancy. None of these were on the ground 
when the first settlement was made, though the 
Judges came soon after. One of the first things the 
colony found necessary to do was to organize 
some form of government, whereby difficidties 
might be settled, though to the credit of the colony 
it may be said, that during the first three montl^ 
of its existence but one difierence arose, and that 
was settled by a compromise.* Indeed, hardly a 
better set of men for the purpose could have been 
selected. Washington wrote concerning this 
colony : 

"No colony in America was ever settled under 
such favorable auspices as that which has com- 
menced at the Muskingum. Information, prop- 
erty and strength will be its characteristics. I 
know many of the settlers personally, and there 

*" Western Monthly Magazine." 



never were men better calculated to promote the 
welfare of such a community." 
' On the 2d of July, a meeting of the Directors 
and agents was held on the banks of the Mus- 
kingum for the purpose of naming the newborn 
city and its squares. As yet, the settlement had 
been merely "The Muskingum;" but the name 
Marietta was now formally given it, in honor of 
Marie Antoinette. The square upon which the 
blockhouses stood was called Campus Martins; 
Square No. 19, Gwpiiolium ; Square No. 61, (7e- 
ci7m, and the great road running through the 
cover(>way, Sacra Via.* Surely, classical scholars 
were not scarce in the colony. 

On the Fourth, an oration was delivered by 
James M. Varnum, one of the Judges, and a 
pubho demonstration held. Five days after, the 
Governor arrived, and the colony began to assume 
form. The ordinance of 1787 provided two dis- 
tinct grades of government, under the first of 
which the whole power was under the Governor 
and the three Judges. This form was at once 
recognized on the arrival of St. Clair. The first 
law established by this court was passed on the 
25th of July. It established and regulated the 
militia of the Territory. The next day aft«r its 
publication, appeared the Governor's proclamation 
erecting all the country that had been ceded by 
the Indians east of . .the Scioto River, into the 
county of Washington. Marietta was, of course, 
the county seat, and, from that day, went on 
prosperously. On September 2, the first court 
was held with becoming ceremonies. It is thus 
related in the American Pioneer : 

"The procession was formed at the Point 
(where the most of the settlers resided), in the 
following order: The High Sheriff, with his 
drawn sword; the citizens; the officers of the 
garrison at Fort Harmar; the members of the 
bar; the Supreme Judges; the Governor and 
clergyman ; the newly appointed Judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas, Gens. Eufos Putnam 
and Benjamin Tupper. 

"They marched up the path that had been 
cleared through the forest to Campus Martius 
Hall (stockade), where the whole countermarched, 
and the Judges (Putnam and Tupper) took their 
seats. The clergyman. Rev. Dr. Cutler, then 
invoked the divine blessing. The Sheriff, Col. 
Bbenezer Sproat, proclaimed with his solemn ' Oh 
yes ! ' that a court is open for the administration of 

* " Carey's Museum," Vol. 4. 

even-handed justice, to the poor and to the rich, 
to the guilty and to the innocent, without respect 
of persons; none to be punished without a trial of 
their peers, and then in pursuance of the laws and 
evidence in the case. 

" Although this scene was exhibited thus early 
in the settlement of the West, few ever equaled it 
in the dignity and exalted character of its princi- 
pal participators. Many of them belonged to the 
history of our country in the darkest, as well as 
the most splendid, period of the Revolutionary 

Many Indians were gathered at the same time 
to witness the (to them) strange spectacle, and for 
the purpose of forming a treaty, though how 
far they carried this out, the Pioneer does not 
relate. ■ 

The progress of the settlement was quite satis- 
factory during the year. Some one writing a 
letter from the town says: 

" The progress of the settlement is sufficiently 
rapid for the first year. We are continually erect- 
ing houses, but arrivals are constantly coming 
faster than we can possibly provide convenient 
covering. Our first ball was opened about the 
middle of December, at which were fifteen ladies, 
as well accomplished in the manner of polite 
circles as any I have ever seen in the older States. 
I mention this to show the progress of society in 
this new world, where, I believe, we shall vie with, 
if not excel, the old States in every accom- 
plishment necessary to render life agreeable and 

The emigration westward at this time was, 
indeed, exceedingly large. The commander at 
Fort Harmar reported 4,500 persons as having 
passed that post between February and June, 
1788, many of whom would have stopped there, 
had the associates been prepared to receive them. 
The settlement was free from Indian depredations 
until January, 1791, during which interval it 
daily increased in numbers and strength. 

Symmes and his friends were not idle during this 
time. He had secured his contract in October, 
1787, and, soon after, issued a pamphlet stating 
the terms of his purchase and the mode he intended 
to follow in the disposal of the lands. His plan 
was, to issue warrants for not less than one-quarter 
section, which might be located anywhere, save on 
reservations, or on land previously entered. The 
locator could enter an entire section should he de- 
sire to do so. The price was to be 60f cents per 
acre till May, 1788 ; then, till November, $1 ; and 



after that time to be regulated by the demand for 
land. Each purchaser was bound to begin im- 
provements within two years, or forfeit one-sixth 
of the land to whoever would settle thereon and 
remain seven years. Military bounties might be 
taken in this, as in the purchase of the associates. 
For himself, Symmes reserved one township near 
the mouth of the Miami. On this he intended to 
build a great city, rivaling any Eastern port. He 
offered any one a lot on which to build a house, 
providing he would remain three years. Conti- 
nental certificates were rising, owing to the demand 
for land created by these two purchases, and Con- 
gress found the burden of debt correspondingly 
lessened. Symmes soon began to experience diffi- 
culty in procuring enough to meet his payments. 
He had also some trouble in arranging his boundary 
with the Board of the Treasury. These, and other 
causes, laid the foundation for another city, which is 
now what Symmes hoped his city would one day be. 

In January, 1788, Mathias Denman, of New 
Jersey, took an interest in Symmes' purchase, 
and located, among other tracts, the sections upon 
which Cincinnati has since been built. Retaining 
one-third of this purchase, he sold the balance to 
Robert Patterson and John Filson, each getting 
the same share. These three, about August, agreed 
to lay out a town on their land. It was designated 
as opposite the mouth of the Licking River, to 
which place it was intended to open a road from 
Lexington, Ky. These men little thought of the 
great emporium that now covers the modest site of 
this town they laid out that summer. Mr. Filson, 
who had been a schoolmaster, and was of a some- 
what poetic nature, was appointed to name the 
town. In respect to its situation, and as if with 
a prophetic perception of the mixed races that 
were in after years to dwell there, he named it Los- 
antiville,* "which, being interpreted," says the 
" Western Annals," "means m7?e, the town; anti, 
opposite to ; os, the mouth ; L, of Licking. This 
may well put to the blush the Campus Martins 
of the Marietta scholars, and the Fort Solon of 
the Spaniards." 

Meanwhile, Symmes was busy in the East, and, 
by July, got thirty people and eight four-horse 
wagons under way for the West. These reached 
Limestone by September, where they met Mr. 
Stites, with several persons from Redstone. All 

* Judge Burnett, Id his notes, disputes the ahove account of the 
origin of the city of Cincinnati. He says the name "Loaantiviile" 
was determined on, but not adopted, when the town was laid out. 
This version is probably the correct one, and will be found fully 
given in the detailed history of the settlements. 

came to Symmes' purchase, and began to look for 

Symmes' mind was, however, ill at rest. He 
could not meet his first payment on so vast a realm, 
and there also arose a difference of opinion be- 
tween him and the Treasury Board regarding the 
Ohio boundary. Symmes wanted all the land be- 
tween the two Miamis, bordering on the Ohio, 
while the Board wished him confined to no more 
than twenty miles of the river. To this proposal 
he would not agree, as he had made sales all along 
the river. Leaving the bargain in an unsettled 
state. Congress considered itself released from aU 
its obligations, and, but for the representations of 
many of Symmes' friends, he would have lost all 
his money and labor. His appointment as Judge 
was not favorably received by many, as they 
thought that by it he would acquire unlimited 
power. Some of his associates also complained of 
him, and, for awhile, it surely seemed that ruin 
only awaited him. But he was brave and hope- 
fill, and determined to succeed. On his return 
from a visit to his purchase in September, 1788, 
he wrote Jonathan Dayton, of New Jersey, one of 
his best friends and associates, that he thought 
some of the land near the Great Miami " positively 
worth a silver dollar the acre in its present state." 

A good many changes were made in his original 
contract, growing out of his inability to meet his 
payments. At first, he was to have not less than 
a million acres, under an act of Congress passed in 
October, 1787, authorizing the Treasury Board to 
contract with any one who could pay for such 
tracts, on the Ohio and Wabaish Rivers, whose 
fronts should not exceed one-third of their depth. 

Dayton and Marsh, Symmes' agents, contracted 
with the Board for one tract on the Ohio, begin- 
ning twenty miles up the Ohio from the mouth of 
the Great Miami, and to run back for quantity be- 
tween the Miami and a line drawn from the Ohio, 
parallel to the general course of that river. In 
1791, three years after Dayton and Marsh made 
the contract, Symmes found this would throw the 
purchase too far back from the Ohio, and applied 
to Congress to let him have all between the Mi- 
amies, running back so as to include 1,000,000 
acres, which that body, on April 12, 1792, agreed 
to do. When the lands were surveyed, however, it 
was found that a line drawn from the head of the 
Little Miami due west to the Great Miami, would 
include south of it less than six hundred thousand 
acres. Even this Symmes could not pay for, and 
when his patent was issued in September, 1794, it 



gave him and his associates 248,540 acres, exclu- 
sive of reservations which amounted to 63,142 
acres. This tract was bounded by the Ohio, the 
two Miamis and a due east and west Hue run so 
as to include the desired quantity. - Symmes, how- 
ever, made no further payments, and the rest of 
his purchase reverted to the United States, who 
gave those who had bought under him ample pre- 
emption rights. 

The Grovernment was able, also, to give him and 
his colonists but little aid, and as danger from hos- 
tile Indians was in a measure imminent (though all 
the natives were friendly to Symmes), settlers were 
slow to come. However, the band led by Mr. 
Stites arrived before the 1st of January, 1Y89, 
and locating themselves near the mouth of the 
Little Miami, on a tract of 10,000 acres which 
Mr. Stites had purchased from Symmes, formed 
the second settlement in Ohio. They were soon 
afterward joined by a colony of twenty-six persons, 
who assisted them to erect a block-house, and 
gather their corn. The town was named Columbia. 
While here, the great flood of January, 1789, oc- 
curred, which did much to ensure the future 
growth of Losantiville, or more properly, Cincin- 
nati; Symmes City, which was laid out near the 
mouth of the Great Miami, and which he vainly 
strove to make the city of the future. Marietta 
and Columbia, all suffered severely by this flood, 
the gTeatest, the Indians said, ever known. The 
site of Cincinnati was not overflowed, and hence 
attracted the attention of the settlers. Denman's 
warrants had designated his purchase as opposite 
the mouth of the Licking; and that point escap- 
ing the overflow, late in December the place was 
visited by Israel Ludlow, Symmes' surveyor, Mr. 
Patterson and Mr. Denman, and about fourteen oth- 
ers, who left Maysville to "form a station and lay 
oif a town opposite the Licking." The river was 
filled with ice "from shore to shore;" but, says 
Symmes in May, 1789, "Perseverance triumphing 
over difiiculty, and they landed safe on a most de- 
lightful bank of the Ohio, where they founded 
the town of Losantiville, which populates consid- 
erably." The settlers of Losantiville built a few 
log huts and block-houses, and proceeded to im- 
prove the town. Symmes, noticing the location, 
says: "Though they placed their dwellings in the 
most marked position, yet they suffered nothing 
from the freshet." This would seem to give cre- 
dence to Judge Burnett's notes regarding the origin 
of Cincinnati, who states the settlement was made 
at this time, and not at the time mentioned when 

Jlr. Filson named the town. It is further to be 
noticed, that, before the town was located by Mr. 
Ludlow and Mr. Patterson, Mr. Filson had been 
killed by the Mianii Indians, and, as he had not paid 
for his one-third of the site, the claim was sold to 
Mr. Ludlow, who thereby became one of the origi- 
nal owners of the place. Just what day the town 
was laid out is not recorded. All the evidence 
tends to show it must have been late in 1788, or 
early in 1789. 

While the settlements on the north side of the 
Ohio were thus progressing, south of it fears of the 
Indians prevailed, and the separation sore was 
kept open. The country was, however, so torn by 
internal factions that no plan was likely to suc- 
ceed, and to this fact, in a large measure, may be 
credited the reason it did not secede, or join the 
Spanish or French faction, both of which were 
intriguing to get the commonwealth. During 
this year the treasonable acts of James Wilkinson 
came into view. For a while he thought success 
was in his grasp, but the two governments were at 
peace with America, and discountenanced any such 
efforts. Wilkinson, like all traitors, relapsed into 
nonentity, and became mistrusted by the govern- 
ments he attempted to befriend. Treason is al- 
ways odious. 

It will be borne in mind, that in 1778 prepa- 
rations had been made for a treaty with the Indi- 
ans, to secure peaceful possession of the lands 
owned in the West. Though the whites held 
these by purchase and treaty, yet many Indians, 
especially the Wabash and some of the Miami In- 
dians, objected to their occupation, claiming the 
Ohio boundary as the original division line. Clarke 
endeavored to obtain, by treaty at Fort Harmar, 
in 1778, a confirmation of these grants, but was 
not able to do so till January, 9, 1789. Kep- 
resentatives of the Six Nations, and of the Wyan- 
dots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawato- 
mies and Sacs, met him at this date, and confirmed 
and extended the treaties of Fort Stanwix and 
Fort Mcintosh, the one in 1784, the other in 
1785. This secured peace with the most of them, 
save a few of the Wabash Indians, whom they 
were compelled to conquer by arms. When this 
was accomplished, the borders were thought safe, 
and Virginia proposed to withdraw her aid in sup- 
port of Kentucky. This opened old troubles, and 
the separation dogma came out afresh. Virginia 
ofiered to allow the erection of a separate State, 
providing Kentucky would assume part of the old 
debts. This the young commonwealth would not 



do, and sent a remonstrance. Virginia withdrew 
the proposal, and ordered a ninth convention, 
which succeeded in evolving a plan whereby Ken- 
tucky took her place among the free States of the 

North of the Ohio, the prosperity continued. 
In 1789, Rev. Daniel Story, who had been ap- 
pointed missionary to the West, came out as a 
teacher of the youth and a preacher of the Gospel. 
Dr. Cutler had preceded him, not in the capacity 
of a minister, though he had preached ; hence Mr. 
Story is truly the first missionary from the Prot- 
estant Church who came to the Ohio Valley in 
that capacity. When he came, in 1789, he found 
nine associations on the Ohio Company's purchase, 
comprising two hundred and fifty persons in all ; 
and, by the close of 1790, eight settlements had 
been made: two at Belpre (belle prairie), one at 
Newbury, one at Wolf Creek, one at Duck Creek, 
one at the mouth of Meigs' Creek, one at Ander- 
son's Bottom, and one at Big Bottom. ' An ex- 
tended sketch of all these settlements will be found 
farther on in this volume. 

Symmes had, all this time, strenuously endeav- 
ored to get his city — called Cleves City — ^favorably 
noticed, and filled with people. He saw a rival in 
Cincinnati. That place, if made military head- 
quarters to protect the Miami Valley, would out- 
rival his town, situated near the bend of the 
Miami, near its mouth. On the 15th of June, 
Judge Symmes received news that the Wabash 
Indians threatened the Miami settlements, and as 
he had received only nineteen men for defense, he 
applied for more. Before July, Maj. Doughty 
arrived at the "Slaughter House" — as the Miami 
was sometimes called, owing to previous murders 
that had, at former times, occurred therein. 
Through the influence of Symmes, the detach- 
ment landed at the North Bend, and, for awhile, 
it was thought the fort would be erected there. 
This was what Symmes wanted, as it would 
secure him the headquarters of the military, and 
aid in getting the headquarters of the civil gov- 
ernment. The truth was, however, that neither 
the proposed city on the Miami — North Bend, as 
it afterward became known, from its location — or 
South Bend, could compete, in point of natural 
advantages, with the plain on which Cincinnati is 
built. Had Fort Washington been built elsewhere, 
after the close of the Indian war, nature would 
have asserted her advantages, and insured the 
growth of a city, where even the ancient and mys- 
terious dwellers of the Ohio had reared the earthen 

walls of one of their vast temples. Another fact 
is given in relation to the erection of Fort Wash- 
ington at Losantiville, which partakes somewhat of 
romance. The Major, while waiting to decide at 
which place the fort should be built, happened to 
make the acquaintance of a black-eyed beauty, the 
wife of one of the residents. Her husband, notic- 
ing the afiair, removed her to Losantiville. The 
Major followed; he told Symmes he wished to see 
how a fort would do there, but proinised to give his 
city the preference. He found the beauty there, and 
on his return Symmes could not prevafl on him to 
remain. If the story be true, then the importance 
of Cincinnati owes its existence to a trivial circum- 
stance, and the old story of the ten years' war 
which terminated in the downfall of Troy, which 
is said to have originated owing to the beauty of 
a Spartan dame, was re-enacted here. Troy and 
North Bend fell because of the beauty of a wo- 
man ; Cincinnati was the result of the downfall of 
the latter place. 

About the first of January, 1790, Governor St. 
Clair, with his ofiicers, descended the Ohio River 
from Marietta to Fort Washington. There he es- 
tablished the county of Hamilton, comprising the 
immense region of country contiguous to the 
Ohio, from the Hocking River to the Great 
Miami; appointed a corps of civil and mihtary 
officers, and established a Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions. Some state that at this time, he changed 
the name of the village of Losantiville to Cin- 
cinnati, in allusion to a society of that name 
which had recently been formed among the officers 
of the Revolutionary army, and established it as 
the seat of justice for Hamilton. This latter fact 
is certain ; but as regards changing the name of 
the village, there is no good authority for it. With 
this importance attached to it, Cincinnati began at 
once an active growth, and from that day Cleves' 
city declined. The next summer, frame houses 
began to appear in Cincinnati, while at the same 
time forty new log cabins appeared about the 

On the 8th of January, the Governor arrived at 
the falls of the Ohio, on his way to establish a 
government at Vincennes and Kaskaskia. From 
Clarkesville, he dispatched a messene»r to Major 
Hamtramck, commander at Vincennes, with 
speeches to the various Indian tribes in this part 
of the Northwest, who had not ftiUy agreed to the 
treaties. St. Clair and Sargent foUowed in a few 
days, along an Indian trail to Vincennes, where he 
organized the county of Knox, comprising all the 




country along the Ohio, from the Miami to the 
Wabash, and made Vincennes the county seat. 
Then they proceeded across the lower part of Illi- 
nois to Kaskaskia, where he established the county 
of St. Clair (so named by Sargent), comprising all 
the country from the Wabash to the Mississippi. 
Thus the Northwest was divided into three coun- 
ties, and courts established therein. St. Clair 
called upon the French inhabitants at Vincennes 
and in the Illinois country, to show the titles to 
their lands, and also to defray the expense of a 
survey. To this latter demand they replied through 
their priest, Pierre Gibault, showing their poverty, 
and inability to comply. They were confirmed in 
their grants, and, as they had been good friends to 
the patriot cause, were reUeved from the expense 
of the survey. ^ 

While the Governor, was managing these affairs, 
Major Hamtramck was engaged in an effort to con- 
ciliate the Wabash Indians. For this purpose, he 
sent Antoine Gramelin, an intelligent French mer- 
chant, and a true friend of America, among them to 
carry messages sent by St. Clair and the Govern- 
ment, and to learn their sentiments and dispositions. 
GameUn performed this important mission in the 
spring of 1790 with much sagacity, and, as the 

French were good friends of the natives, he did 
much to conciliate these half-hostile tribes. He 
visited the towns of these tribes along the Wabash 
and as far north and east as the Miami village, 
Ke-ki-ong-ga — St. Mary's — at the junction of the 
St. Mary's and St. Joseph's Rivers (Fort Wayne). 

Gamelin's report, and the intelligence brought by 
some traders from the Upper Wabash, were con- 
veyed to the Governor at Kaskaskia. The reports 
convinced him that the Indians of that part of the 
Northwest were preparing for a war on the settle- 
ments north of the Ohio, intending, if possible, to 
drive them south of it; that river being still consid- 
ered by them as the true boundary. St. Clair left 
the administration of affairs in the Western counties 
to Sargent, and returned at once to Fort Washing- 
ton to provide for the defense of the frontier. 

The Indians had begun their predatory incur- 
sions into the country settled by the whites, and 
had committed some depredations. The Kentuck- 
ians were enlisted in an attack against the Scioto 
Indians. April 18, Gen. Harmar, with 100 
regulars, and Gen. Scott, with 230 volunteers, 
marched from Limestone, by a circuitous route, to 
the Scioto, accomplishing but little. The savages 
had fled. 




Cornplanter, Brant, Little Turtle and other noted 
chiefs, and had not the British, as Brant said, 
" encouraged us to the war, and promised us aid, 
and then, when we were driven away by the Amer- 
icans, shut the doors of their fortresses against us 
and reftised us food, when they saw us nearly con- 
quered, we would have effected our object." 

McKee, Elliott and Girty were also actively en- 
gaged in aiding the natives. All of them were in 
the interest of the British, a fact clearly proven 
by the Indians themselves, and by other traders. 

St. Clair and Gen. Harmar determined to send 
an expedition against the Maumee towns, and se- 
cure that part of the country. Letters were sent 
to the militia officers of Western Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and Kentucky, calling on them for militia 
to co-operate with the regular troops in the cam- 
paign. According to the plan of the campaign, 

A GREAT deal of the hostility at this period 
was directly traceable to the British. They 
yet held Detroit and several posts on the lakes, in 
violation of the treaty of 1783. They alleged as 
a reason for not abandoning them, that the Ameri- 
cans had not ftilfilled the conditions of the treaty 
regarding the collection of debts. Moreover, they 
did all they could to remain at the frontier and en- 
joy the emoluments derived from the ftir trade. 
That they aided the Indians in the conflict at this 
time, is undeniable. Just how, it is difiicult to 
say. But it is well known the savages had all the 
ammunition and fire-arms they wanted, more than 
they could have obtained from American and 
French renegade traders. They were also well 
supplied with clothing, and were able to prolong 
the war some time. A great confederation was on 
the eve of formation. The leading spirits were 


\ ©_ 



300 militia were to rendezvous at Port Steuben 
(Jeifersonville), march thence to Port Knox, at 
Vincennes, and join Maj. Hamtramck in an expe- 
dition up the Wabash ; 700 were to rendezvous at 
Port Washington to join the regular army against 
the jMaumee towns. 

While St. Clair was forming his army and ar- 
ranging for the campaign, three expeditions were 
sent out against the Miami towns. One against 
the Miami villages, not far from the Wabash, was 
led by Gen. Harmar. He had in his army about 
fourteen hundred men, regulars and militia. These 
two parts of the army could not be made to affili- 
ate, and, as a consequence, the expedition did little 
beyond burning the villages and destroying corn. 
The militia would not submit to discipline, and would 
not serve under regular officers. It will be seen 
what this spirit led to when St. Clair went on his 
march soon after. 

The Indians, emboldened by the meager success 
of Harmar's command, continued their dcpreda- 
dations against the Ohio settlements, destroying 
the community at Big Bottom. To hold them in 
check, and also punish them, an army under Charles 
Scott went against the Wabash Indians. Little 
was done here but destroy towns and the standing 
corn. In July, another army, under Col. Wilkin- 
son, was sent against the Eel River Indians. Be- 
coming entangled in extensive morasses on the 
river, the army became endangered, but was finally 
extricated, and accomplished no more than either 
the other armies before it. As it was, however, the 
three expeditions directed against the Miamis abd 
Shawanees, served only to exasperate them. The 
burning of their towns, the destruction of their 
corn, and the captivity of their women and chil- 
dren, only aroused them to more desperate efforts 
to defend their country and to harass their in- 
vaders. To accomplish this, the chiefs of' the 
Miamis, Shawanees and the Delawares, Little 
Turtle, Blue Jacket and Buckongahelas, were en- 
gaged in forming a confederacy of all the tribes of 
the Northwest, strong enough to drive the whites 
beyond the Ohio. Pontiac had tried that before, 
even when he had open allies among the Prench. 
The Indians now had secret allies among the Brit- 
ish, yet, in the end, they did not succeed. While 
they were preparing for the contest, St. Clair was 
gathering his forces, intending to erect a chain of 
forts from the Ohio, by way of the Miami and 
Maumee valleys, to the lakes, and thereby effect- 
ually hold the savages in check. Washington 
warmly seconded this plan, and designated the 

junction of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph's Rivers as 
an important post. This had been a fortification 
almost from the time the English held the valley, 
and only needed little work to make it a formid- 
able fortress. Gen. Knox, the Secretary of War, 
also favored the plan, and gave instructions con- 
cerning it. Under these instructions, St. Clair 
organized his forces as rapidly as he could, although 
the numerous drawbacks almost, at times, threat- 
ened the defeat of the capipaign. Through the 
summer the arms and accouterments of the army 
were put in readiness at Port W^ashington. Many 
were found to be of the poorest quality, and to be 
badly out of repair. The militia came poorly 
armed, under the impression they were to be pro- 
vided with arms. While waiting in camp, habits 
of idleness engendered themselves, and drunken- 
ness followed. They continued their accustomed 
freedom, disdaining to drill, and reftised to submit 
to the regular officers. A bitter spirit broke out 
between the regular troops and the mOitia, which 
none could heal. The insubordination of the mi- 
litia and their officers, caused them a defeat after- 
ward, which they in vain attempted to fasten on 
the busy General, and the regular troops. 

The army was not ready to move till September 
17. It was then 2,300 strong. It then moved 
to a point upon the Great Miami, where they 
erected Port Hamilton, the first in the proposed 
chain of fortresses. After its completion, they 
moved on forty-four miles farther, and, on the 12th 
of October, began the erection of Port Jefferson, 
about six miles south of the present town of Green- 
ville, Darke County. On the 24th, the army again 
took up its Hue of march, through a wilderness, 
marshy and boggy, and full of savage foes. The 
army rapidly declined under the hot sun; even the 
commander was suffering from an indisposition. 
The miUtia deserted, in companies at a time, leav- 
ing the bulk f f the work to the regular troops. 
By the 3d of November, the army reached a 
stream twelve yards wide, which St. Clair sup- 
posed to be a branch of the St. Mary of the Mau- 
mee, but which in reality was a tributary of the 
Wabash. Upon the banks of that stream, the 
army, now about fourteen hundred strong, en- 
camped in two lines. A slight protection was 
thrown up as a safeguard against the Indians, who 
were known to be in the neighborhood. The Gen- 
eral intended to attack them next day, but, about 
half an hour before sunrise, just after the militia 
had been dismissed from parade, a sudden attack 
was made upon them. The militia were thrown 



into canfiision, and disregarded tte command of 
the officers. They had not been sufficiently drilled, 
and now was seen, too late and too plainly, the evil 
effects of their insubordination. Through the 
morning the battle waged furiously, the men falling 
by scores. About nine o'clock the retreat began, 
covered by Maj. Cook and his troops. The re- 
treat was a disgraceful, precipitate flight, though, 
' after four miles had been passed, the enemy re- 
turned to the work of scalping the dead and 
wounded, and of pillaging the camp. Through 
the day and the night their dreadful work con- 
tinued, one squaw afterward declaring " her arm 
was weary scalping the white men." The Eirmy 
reached Fort Jeffisrson a little after sunset, having 
thrown away much of its arms and baggage, though 
tl)e act was entirely unneccsbary. After remain- 
ing here a short time, it was decided by the officers 
to move on toward Fort Hamilton, and thence to 
Fort Washington. 

The defeat of St. Clair was the most terrible re- 
verse the Americans ever suffiared from the Indi- 
ans. It was greater than even Braddoek's defeat. 
His army consisted of 1,200 men and 86 officers, 
of whom 714 men and 63 officers were killed or 
wounded. St. Clair's army consisted of 1,400 
men and 86 officers, of whom 890 men and 16 
officers were killed or wounded. The comparative 
effects of the two engagements very inadequately 
represent the crushing effect of St. Clair's defeat. 
An unprotected frontier of more than a thousand 
miles in extent was now thrown open to a foe made 
merciless, and anxious to drive the whites from the 
north side of the Ohio. Now, settlers were scat- 
tered along all the streams, and in all the forests, ex- 
posed to the cruel enemy, who stealthily approached 
the homes of the pioneer, to murder him and his 
family. Loud calls arose from the people to defend 
and protect them. St. Clair was covered with abuse 
for his defeat, when he really was not alone to blame 
for it. The militia would not be controlled. Had 
Clarke been at their head, or Wayne, who succeeded 
St. Clair, the result might have been different. As 
it was, St. Clair resigned ; though ever after he en- 
joyed the confidence of Washington and Congress. 

Four days, after the defeat of St. Clair, the army, 
in its straggling condition, reached Fort Washing- 
ton, and paused to rest. On the 9th, St. Clair 
wrote fully to the Secretary of War. On the 12th, 
Gren. Knox communicated the information to Con- 
gress, and on the 26th, he laid before the Presi- 
dent two reports, the second containing sugges- 
tions regarding future operations. His sugges- 

tions urged the establishment of a strong United 
States Army, as it was plain the States could not 
control, the matter. He also urged a thorough 
drill of the soldiers. No more insubordination 
could be tolerated. General Wayne was selected 
by Washington as the commander, and at once pro- 
ceeded to the task assigned to him. In June, 1792, 
he went to Pittsburgh to organize the army now 
gathering, which was to be the ultimate argu- 
ment with the Indian confederation. Thrftugh the 
summer he was steadily at work. "Train and dis- 
cipline them for the work they are meant for," 
wrote Wasljington, "and do not spare powder and 
lead, so the men be made good marksmen." In 
December, the forces, now recruited and trained, 
gathered at a point twenty-two miles below Pitts- 
burgh, on the Ohio, called Legionville, the army 
itself being denominated the Legion of the United 
States, divided into four sub-legions, and provided 
with the proper officers. Meantime, Col. Wilkinson 
succeeded St. Clair as commander at Fort Wash- 
ington, and sent out a force to examine the field of 
defeat, and bury the dead. A shocking sight met 
their view, revealing the deeds of cruelty enacted 
upon their comrades by the savage enemy. 

While Wayne's army was drilling, peace meas- 
ures were pressed forward by the United States 
with equal perseverance. The Iroquois were in- 
duced to visit Philadelphia, and partially secured 
from the general confederacy. They were wary, 
however, and, expecting aid from the British, held 
aloof. Brant did not come, as was hoped, and it 
was plain there was intrigue somewhere. Five 
independent embassies were sent among the West- 
ern tribes, to endeavor to prevent a war, and win 
over the inimical tribes. But the victories they 
had won, and the favorable whispers of the British 
agents, closed the ears of the red men, and all 
propositions were rejected in some form or other. 
All the embassadors, save Putnam, suffered death. 
He alone was able to reach his goal — the Wabash 
Indians — and effect any treaty. On the 27th of 
December, in company with Heckewelder, the Mo- 
ravian missionary, he reached Vincennes, and met 
thirty-one chiefs, representing the Weas, Pianke- 
shaws, Kaskaskias, Peorias, Illinois, Pottawatomies, 
Mascoutins, Kickapoos and Eel River Indians, and 
concluded a treaty of-peace with them. 

The fourth article of this treaty, however, con- 
tained a provision guaranteeing to the Indians 
their lands, and when the treaty was laid before 
Congress, February 13, 1793, that body, after 
much discussion, refused on that account to ratify it. 



A great council of the Indians was to be held 
at Auglaize during the autumn of 1792, when 
the assembled nations were to discuss ftilly their 
means of defense, and determine their future line 
of action. The council met in October, and was 
the largest Indian gathering of the time. The 
chiefs of all the tribes of the Northwest were there. 
The representatives of the seven nations of Canada, 
were in attendance. Cornplanter and forty-eight 
chiefs of" the New York (Sis Nations) Indians re- 
paired thither. " Besides these," said Cornplanter, 
" there were so many nations we cannot tell the 
names of them. There were three men from the 
Gora nation ; it took them a whole season to come ; 
and," continued he, "twenty-seven nations from 
beyond Canada were there." The question of 
peace or war was long and earnestly debated. Their 
future was solemnly discussed, and around the 
council fire native eloquence and native zeal 
shone in all their simple strength. One nation 
after another, through their chiefs, presented their 
views. The deputies of the Six Nations, who had 
been at Philadelphia to consult the "Thirteen 
Fires," made their report. The Western bound- 
ary was the principal question. The natives, with 
one accord, declared it must be the Ohio River. 
An address was prepared, and sent to the President, 
wherein their views were stated, and agreeing to 
abstain from all hostilities, until they could meet 
again in the spring at the rapids of the Maumee, 
and there consult with their white brothers. They 
desired the President to send agents, "who are 
men of honesty, not proud land-jobbers, but men 
who love and desire peace." The good work of 
Penn was evidenced here, as they desired that the 
embassadors " be accompanied by some Friend or 

The armistice they had promised was not, how- 
ever, faithfully kept. On the 6th of November, 
a detachment of Kentucky cavalry at Fort St. 
Clair, about twenty-five miles above Fort Hamil- 
ton, was attacked. The commander, Maj. Adair, 
was an excellent officer, well versed in Indian tac- 
tics, and defeated the savages. 

This infraction of their promises did not deter 
the United States from taking measures to meet 
the Indians at the rapids of the Maumee " when 
the leaves were fully out." For that purpose, the 
President selected as commissioners, Charles Car- 
roll and Charles Thompson, but, as they declined 
the nomination, he appointed Benjamin Lincoln, 
Beverly Randolph and Timothy Pickering, the 1st 
of March, 1793, to attend the convention, which 

it was thotight best, should be held at the San- 
dusky outpost. About the last of April, these 
commissioners left Philadelphia, and, late in May, 
reached Niagara, where they remained guests of 
Lieut. Gov. Simcoe, of the British Government. 
This officer gave them all the aid he could, yet it 
was soon made plain to them that he would not 
object to the confederation, nay, even rather fav-, 
ored it. They speak of his kindness to them, in 
grateful terms. Gov. Simcoe advised the Indians 
to make peace, but not to give up any of their 
lands. That was the pith of the whole matter. 
The British rather claimed land in New York, 
under the treaty of 1783, alleging the Americans 
had not ftiUy complied with the terms of that 
treaty, hence they were not as anxious for peace 
and a peaceful settlement of the difficult boundary 
question as they sometimes represented. 

By July, "the leaves were fully out," the con- 
ferences among the tribes were over, and, on the 
15th of that month, the commissioners met Brant 
and some fifty natives. In a strong speech. Brant 
set forth their wishes, and invited them to accom- 
pany him to the place of holding the council. The 
Indians were rather jealous of Wayne's continued 
preparations for war, hence, just before setting out 
for the Maumee, the commissioners sent a letter to 
the Secretary of War, asking that all warlike 
demonstrations cease until the result of their mis- 
sion be known. 

On 21st of July, the embassy reached the head 
of the Detroit Eiver, where their advance was 
checked by the British authorities at Detroit, com- 
pelling them to take up their abode at the house 
of Andrew Elliott, the famous renegade, then a 
British agent under Alexander McKee. McKee 
was attending the council, and the commissioners 
addressed him a note, borne by Elliott, to inform 
him of their arrival, and asking when they could 
be received. Elliott returned on the 29th, bring- 
ing with him a deputation of twenty chiefs from 
the council. The next day, a conference was held, 
and the chief of the Wyandots, Sa-wagh-da-wunk, 
presented to the commissioners, in writing, their 
explicit demand in regard to the boundary, and 
their purposes and powers. " The Ohio must be 
the boundary," said he, " or blood will flow." 

The commissioners returned an answer to the 
proposition brought by the chiefs, recapitulating 
the treaties already made, and denying the Ohio 
as the boundary line. On the 16th of August, 
the council sent them, by two Wyandot runners, 
a final answer, in which they recapitulated their 




former assertions, and exhibited great powers of 
reasoning and clear logic in defense of their po- 
sition. The commissioners reply that it is impos- 
ble to accept the Ohio as the boundary, and declare 
the negotiation at an end. 

This closed the efforts of the Grovernment to ne- 
gotiate with the Indians, and there remained of 
necessity no other mode of settling the dispute 
but ■war. Liberal terms had been offered them, 
but nothing but the boundary of the Ohio Riyer 
would suffice. It was the only condition upon 
which the confederation would lay down its arms. 
" Among the rude statesmen of the wilderness, 
there was exhibited as pure patriotism and as lofty 
devotion to the good of their race, as ever won ap- 
plause among civilized men. The white man had, 
ever since he came into the country, been encroach- 
ing on their lands. He had long occupied the 
regions beyond the mountains. He had crushed 
the conspiracy formed by Pontiac, thirty years be- 
fore. He had taken possession of the common 
hunting-ground of all the tribes, on the faith of 
treaties they did not acknowledge. He was 
now laying out settlements and building forts in 
the heart of the country to which all the tribes 
had been driven, and which now was all they could 
call their own. And now they asked that it should 
be guaranteed to them, that the boundary which 
they had so long asked for should be drawn, and 
a final end be made to the continual aggressions of 
the whites ; or, if not, they solemnly determined to 
stake their all, against fearful odds, in defense of 
their- homes, their country and the inheritance of 
their children. Nothing could be more patriotic 
than the position they occupied, and nothing could 
be more noble than the declarations of their 

They did not know the strength of the whites, 
and based their success on the victories already 
gained. They hoped, nay, were promised, aid from 
the British, and even the Spanish had held out to 
them assurances of help when the hour of conflict 

The Americans were not disposed to yield even 
to the confederacy of the tribes backed by the two 
rival nations, forming, as Wayne characterized it, a 
" hydra of British, Spanish and Indian hostility." 
On the 16th of August, the commissioners re- 
ceived the final answer of the council. The 17th, 
they left the mouth of the Detroit River, and the 
23d, arrived at Fort Erie, where they immediately 

* Annals of tho West. 

dispatched messengers to Gen. Wayne to inform 
him of the issue of the negotiation. Wayne had 
spent the winter of 1792-93, at Legionville, in col- 
lecting and organizing his army. April 30, 1793, 
the army moved down the river and encamped at 
a point, called by the soldiers ".Hobson's choice," 
because from the extreme height of the river they 
were prevented from landing elsewhere. Here 
Wayne was engaged, during the negotiations for 
peace, in drilling his soldiers, in cutting roads, and 
collecting supplies for the army. He was ready 
for an immediate campaign in case the council 
failed in its object. 

While here, he sent a letter to the Secretary of 
War, detailing the circumstances, and suggesting 
the probable course he should follow. He re- 
mained here during the summer, and, when apprised 
of the issue, saw it was too late to attempt the 
campaign then. He sent the Kentucky militia 
home, and, with his regular soldiers, went into 
winter quarters at a fort he built on a tributary 
of the Great Miami. He called the fort Green- 
ville. The present town of Greenville is near the 
sits of the fort. During the winter, he sent a de- 
tachment to visit the scene of St. Clair's defeat. 
They found more than six hundred skulls, and 
were obhged to "scrape the bones together and 
carry them out to get a place to make their beds." 
They buried all they could find. Wayne was 
steadily preparing his forces, so as to have every- 
thing ready for a sure blow when tiie time came. 
All his information showed the faith in the British 
which still animated the doomed red men, and 
gave them a hope that could end only in defeat. 

The conduct of the Indians fully corroborated 
the statements received by Gen. Wayne. On the 
30th of June, an escort of ninety riflemen and 
fifty dragoons, under command of Maj. McMahon, 
was attacked under the walls of Fort Recovery by 
a force of more than one thousand Indians under 
charge of Little Turtle. They were repulsed and 
badly defeated, and, the next day, driven away. 
Their mode of action, their arms and ammunition, 
all told plainly of British aid. They also ex- 
pected , to find the cannon lost by St. Clair Novem- 
ber 4, 1791, but which the Americans had secured. 
The 26th of July, Gen. Scott, with 1,600 
mounted men from Kentucky, joined Gen. Wayne 
at Fort Greenville, and, two days after, the legion 
moved forward. The 8th of August, the army 
reached the junction of the Auglaize and Mau- 
mee, and at once proceeded to erect Fort Defiance, 
where the waters meet. The Indians had abandoned 

5 ry 



their towns on the approach of the army, and 
were congregating further northward. 

While engaged on Fort Defiance, Wayne 
received continual and full reports of the Indians — 
of their aid from Detroit and elsewhere ; of the 
nature of the ground, and the circumstances, 
favorable or unfavorable. From all he could 
learn, and considering the spirits of his army, 
now thoroughly disciplined, he determined to 
march forward and settle matters at once. Yet, 
true to his own instincts, and to the measures of 
peace so forcibly taught by Washington, he sent 
Christopher Miller, who had been naturalized 
among the Shawanees, and taken prisoner by 
Wayne's spies, as a messenger of peace, oflfering 
terms of friendship. 

Unwilling to waste time, the troops began to 
move forward the 15th of August, and the next 
day met Miller with the message that if the Amer- 
icans would wait ten days at Auglaize the Indians 
would decide for peace or war. Wayne knew too 
well the Indian character, and answered the mes- 
sage by simply marching on. The 18th, the legion 
had advanced forty-one miles from Auglaize, and, 
being near the long-looked-for foe, began to take 
some measures for protection, should they be at^ 
tacked. A sUght breastwork, called Fort Deposit, 
was erected, wherein most of theu- heavy baggage 
was placed. They remained here, building their 
works, until the 20th, when, storing their baggage, 
the army began again its march. After advancing 
about five miles, they met a large force of the ene- 
my, two thousand strong, who fiercely attacked 
them. Wayne was, however, prepared, and in the 
short battle that ensued they were routed, and 
large numbers slain: The American loss was very 
slight. The horde of savages were put to flight, 
leaving the Americans victorious almost under 
the walls of the British garrison, under Maj. 
Campbell. This officer sent a letter to Gen. 
Wayne, asking an explanation of his conduct in 
fighting so near, and in such evident hostility to 
the British. Wayne replied, telling him he was 
in a country that did not belong to him, and one 
he was not authorized to hold, and also charging 
him with aiding the Indians. A spirited corre- 
spondence followed, which ended in the American 
commander marching on, and devastating the In- 
dian country, even burning McKee's house and 
stores under the muzzles of the English guns. 

The 14th of September, the army marched from 
Fort Defiance for the Miami village at the junc- 
tion of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph Rivers. It 

reached there on the 17th, and the next day Gen. 
AVayne selected a site for a fort. The 22d of Oc- 
tober, the fort was completed, and garrisoned by a 
detachment under Maj. Hamtramok, who gave to it 
the name of Fort Wayne. The 14th of October, 
the mounted Kentucky volunteers, who had be- 
come dissatisfied and mutinous, were started to 
Fort Washington, where they were immediately 
mustered out of service and discharged. The 28th 
of October, the legion marched from Fort Wayne 
to Fort Greenville, where Gen. Wayne at once 
established his headquarters. 

The campaign had been decisive and short, and 
had taught the Indians a severe lessen. The Brit- 
ish, too, had failed them in their hour of need, and 
now they began to see they had a foe to contend 
whose resources were exhaustless. Under these 
circumstances, losing faith in the English, and at 
last impressed with a respect for American power, 
after the defeat experienced at the hands of the 
"Black Snake," the various tribes made up their 
minds, by degrees, to ask for peace. During the 
winter and spring, they exchanged prisoners, and 
made ready to meet Gen. Wayne at Greenville, in 
June, for the purpose of forming a definite treaty, 
as it had been agreed should be done by the pre- 
liminaries of January 24. 

During the month of June, 1795, representa- 
tives of the Northwestern tribes began to gather at 
Greenville, and, the 16th of the month. Gen. Wayne 
met in coiincil the Delawares, Ottawas, Pottawato- 
mies and Eel River Indians, and the conferences, 
which lasted till August 10, began. The- 21st 
of June, Buckongahelas arrived ; the 23d, Little 
Turtle and other Miamis ; the 13th of July, 
Tarhe and other Wyandot chiefs ; and the 18th, 
Blue Jacket, and thirteen Shawanees and Massas 
with twenty Chippewas. 

Most of these, as it appeared by their statements, 
had been tampered with by the English, especially 
by McKee, Girty and Brant, even after the pre- 
Hminaries of January 24, and while Mr. Jay was 
perfecting his treaty. They had, however^ all de- 
termined to make peace with the "Thirteen Fires," 
and although some difficulty as to the ownership of 
the lands to be ceded, at one time seemed likely to 
arise, the good sense of Wayne and the leading 
chiefs prevented it, and, the 30th of July, the treaty 
was agreed to which should bury the hatchet for- 
ever. Between that day and the 3d of August, 
it was engrossed, and, having been signed by the 
various nations upon the day last named, it was 
finally acted upon the 7th, and the presents fi-om 




the United States distributed. The basis of this 
treaty was the previous one made at Fort Harmar. 
The boundaries made at that time were re-affirmed ; 
the whites were secured on the lands now occu- 
pied by them or secured by former treaties ; and 
among all the assembled nations, presents, in value 
not less than one thousand pounds, were distributed 
to each through its representatives, many thousands 
in all. The Indians were allowed to remove and 

punish intruders on their lands, and were permitted 
to hunt on the ceded lands. 

"This great and abiding peace document was 
signed by the various tribes, and dated August 3, 
1795. It was laid before the Senate December 9, 
and ratified the 22d. So closed the old Indian 
wars in the "West." * 

* Annals of the West." 



\ 1 7"HILB these six years of Indian wars were 
VV in progress, Kentucky was admitted as a 
State, and Pinckney's treaty with Spain was com- 
pleted. This last occurrence was of vital impor- 
tance to the West, as it secured the free navigation 
of the Mississippi, charging only a fair price for 
the storage of goods at Spanish ports. This, 
though not all that the Americans wished, was a 
great gain in their favor, and did much to stop 
those agitations regarding a separation on the part 
of Kentucky. It also quieted affairs further 
south than Kentucky, in the Georgia and South 
Carolina Territory, and put an end to French 
and Spanish intrigue for the Western Territory. 
The treaty was signed November 24, 1794. 
Another treaty "was concluded by Mr. John Jay 
between the two governments. Lord Grreenville 
representing the English, and Mr. Jay, the Ameri- 
cans. The negotiations lasted from April to 
November 19, 1795, when, on that day, the treaty 
was signed and duly recognized. It decided 
eiFectually all the questions at issue, and was the 
signal for the removal of the British troops from 
the Northwestern outposts. This was effected as 
soon as the proper transfers could be made. The 
second article of the treaty provided that, " His 
Majesty will withdraw all his troops and garrisons 
from all posts and places within the boundary 
lines assigned by the treaty of peace to the United 
States. This evacuation shall take place on or 
before the 1st day of June, 1796, and all the 
proper measures shall be taken, in the interval, by 
concert, between the Crovernment of the United 
States and His Majesty's Go.vernor General in 
America, for settling the previous arrangements 

which may be necessary respecting the delivery 
of the said posts ; the United States, in the mean 
time, at their discretion, extending their settle- 
ments to any part within the said boundary line, 
except within the precincts or jurisdiction of any 
of the said posts. 

" All settlers and all traders within the precincts 
or jurisdiction of the said posts shall continue to 
enjoy, unmolested, all their property of every 
kind, and shall be protected therein. They shall 
be at full liberty to remain there or to remove 
with all; or any part, of their effects, or retain the 
property thereof at their discretion ; such of them 
as shall continue to reside within the said boundary 
lines, shall not be compelled to become citizens of 
the United States, or take any oath of allegiance 
to the Government thereof; but they shall be at 
full liberty so to do, if they think proper ; they 
shall make or declare their election one year after 
the evacuation aforesaid. And all persons who 
shall continue therein after the expiration of the 
said year, without having declared their intention 
of remaining subjects to His Britannic Majesty, 
shall be considered as having elected to become 
citizens of the United States." 

The Indian war had settled all fears from that 
source ; the treaty with Great Britain had estab- 
lished the boundaries between the two countries 
and secured peace, and the treaty with Spain had 
secured the privilege of navigating the Mississippi, 
by paying only a nominal sum. It had also bound 
the people of the West together, and ended the 
old separation question. There was no danger 
from that now. Another difficulty arose, however, 
relating to the home rule, and the organization of 



tlie home government. There were two parties in 
the country, known as Federalist and Anti-Federal- 
ist. One favored a central government, whose au- 
thority should be supreme ; the other, only a 
compact, leaving the States supreme. The worth- 
lessness of the old colonial system became, daily, 
more apparent. While it existed no one felt safe. 
There was no prospect of paying the debt, and, 
hence, no credit. When Mr. Hamilton, Secretary 
of the Treasury, offered his financial plan to the 
country, favoring centralization, it met, in many 
places, violent opposition. Washington was strong 
enough to carry it out, and gave evidence that he 
would do so. When, therefore, the excise law 
passed, and taxes on whisky were collected, an 
open revolt occurred in Pennsylvania, known as 
the " Whisky Insurrection." It was put down, 
finally, by military power, and the malcontents 
made to know that the United States was a gov- 
ernment, not a compact liable to rupture at any 
time, and by any of its members. It taught the 
entire nation a lesson. Centralization meant pres- 
ervation. Should a " compact" form of government 
prevail, then anarchy and ruin, and ultimate sub- 
jection to some foreign power, met their view. 
That they had just fought to dispel, and must it 
all go for naught ? The people saw the rulers 
were right, and gradually, over the West, spread a 
spirit antagonistic to State supremacy. It did not 
revive till Jackson's time, when he, with an iron 
hand and iron will, crushed out the evil doctrine 
of State supremacy. It revived again in the late 
war, again to be crushed. It is to be hoped that 
ever thus will be its fate. " The Union is insepa- 
rable," said the Government, and the people echoed 
the words. 

During the war, and while all these events had 
been transpiring, settlements had been taking place 
upon the Ohio, which, in their influence upon the 
Northwest, and especially upon the State, as soon 
as it was created, were deeply felt. The Virginia 
and the Connecticut Reserves were at this time 
peopled, and, also, that part of the Miami Valley, 
about Dayton, which city dates its origin from that^ 

As early as 1787, the reserved lands of the Old 
Dominion north of the Ohio were examined, and, 
in August of that year, entries were made. As 
no good title could be obtained from Congress at 
this time, the settlement practically ceased until 
1790, when the prohibition to enter them was 
withdrawn. As soon as that was done, surveying 
began again. Nathaniel Massie was among the 

foremost men in the survey of this tract, and lo- 
cating the lands, laid oiF atown about twelve miles 
above Maysville. The place was called Manchester, 
and yet exists. From this point, Massie continued 
through all the Indian war, despite the danger, to 
survey the surrounding country, and prepare it for 

Connecticut had, as has been stated, ceded her 
lands, save a tract extending one hundred and 
twenty miles beyond the western boundary of 
Pennsylvania. Of this Connecticut Eeserve, so 
far as the Indian title was extinguished, a survey 
was ortiered in October, 1786, and an office opened 
for its disposal. Part was soon sold, and, in 1792, 
half a million of acres were given to those citizens 
of Connecticut who had lost property by the acts 
of the British troops during the Revolutionary 
war at New London, New Haven and elsewhere. 
These lands thereby became known as " Fire lands " 
and the "Sufierer's lands," and were located in the 
western part of the Reserve. In May, 1795, the 
Connecticut Legislature authorized a committee to 
dispose of the remainder of the Reserve. Before 
autumn the committee sold it to a company known 
as the Connecticut Land Company for $1,200,000, 
and about the 5th of September quit-claimed the 
land to the Company. The same day the Company 
received it, it sold 3,000,000 acres to John Mor- 
gan, John Caldwell and Jonathan Brace, in trust. 
Upon these quit-claim titles of the land all deeds 
in the Reserve are based. Surveys were com- 
menced in 1796, and, by the close of the next 
year, all the land east of the Cuyahoga was divided 
into townships five miles sijuare. The agent of the 
Connecticut Land Company was Gen. Moses Cleve- 
land, and in his honor the leading city of the Re- 
serve was named. That township and five others 
were reserved for private sale; the balance were 
disposed of by lottery, the first drawing occurring 
in February, 1798. 

Dayton resulted from the treaty made by Wayne. 
It came out of the boundary ascribed to Symmes, 
and for a while all such lands were not recognized 
as sold by Congress, owing to the failure of 
Symmes and his associates in paying for them. 
Thereby there existed, for a time, considerable un- 
easiness regarding the title to these lands. In 
1799, Congress was induced to issue patents to the 
actual settlers, and thus secure them in their pre- 

Seventeen days after Wayne's treaty, St. Clairs 
Wilkinson, Jonathan Dayton and Israel Ludlow 
contracted with Symmes for the seventh and eighth 





ranges, between Mad E,iver and the Little Miami. 
Three settlements were to be made: one at the 
mouth of Mad Eiver, one on the Little Miami, in 
the seventh range, and another on Mad River. On 
the 21st of September, 1795, Daniel C. Cooper 
started to survey and mark out a road in the pur- 
chase, and John Dunlap to run its boundaries, 
which was completed before October 4. On No- 
vember 4, Mr. Ludlow laid off the town of Day- 
ton, which, like land in the Connecticut Reserve, 
was sold by lottery. 

A gigantic scheme to , purchase eighteen or 
twenty million acres in Michigan, and then pro- 
cure a good title from the Government — who alone 
had s)ich a right to procure land — ^by giving mem- 
bers of Congress an interest in the investment, 
appeared shortly afber Wayne's treaty. When 
some of the members were approached, however, 
the real spirit of the scheme appeared, and, instead 
of gaining ground, led to the exposure, resulting 
in the reprimanding severely of Robert Randall, 
the principal mover in the whole plan, and in its 
speedy disappearance. 

Another enterprise, equally gigantic, also ap- 
peared. It was, however, legitimate, , and hence 
successful. On the 20th of February, 1795, the 
North American Land Company was formed in 
Philadelphia, under the management of such pat- 
riots as Robert Morris, John Nicholson and James 
Greenleaf. This Company purchased large tracts 
in the West, which it disposed of to actual settlers, 
and thereby aided greatly in populating that part 
of the country. 

Before the close of 1795, the Governor of the 
Territory, and his Judges, published sixty-four 
statutes. Thirty-four of these were adopted at 
Cincinnati during June, July and August of that 
year. They were known as the Maxwell code, 
from the name of the publisher, but were passed 
by Governor St. Clair and Judges Symmes and 
Turner. Among them was that which provided 
that the common law of England, and all its stat- 
utes, made previous to the fourth year of James 
the First, shovdd be in filU force within the Terri- 
tory,, " Of the system as a whole," says Mr. Case, 
" with its many imperfections, it may be doubted 
that any colony, at so early a period after its first 
establishment, ever had one so good and applicable 
to all." 

The Union had now safely passed through its 
most critical period after the close of the war of 
independence. The danger from an irruption of 
its own members ; of a war or alliance of its West- 

ern portion with France and Spain, and many 
other perplexing questions, were now effectually 
settled, and the population of the Territory began 
rapidly to increase. Before the close of the year 
1796, the Northwest contained over five thousand 
inhabitants, the requisite number to entitle it to 
one representative in the national Congress. 

Western Pennsylvania also, despite the various 
conflicting claims regarding the land titles in that 
part of the State, began rapidly to fill with emigrants. 
The "Triangle" and the '.' Struck District " were 
surveyed and put upon the market under the act 
of 1792. Treaties and purchases from the various 
Indian tribes, obtained control of the remainder of 
the lands in that part of the State, and, by 1796, 
the State owned all the land within its boundaries. 
Towns were laid off, land put upon the market, so 
that by the year 1800, the western part of the 
Keystone State was divided into eight counties, viz., 
Beaver, Butler, Mercer, Crawford, Erie, Warren, 
Venango and Armstrong. 

The ordinance relative to the survey and dis- 
posal of lands in the Northwest Territory has 
already been given. It was adhered to, save in 
minor cases, where necessity required a slight 
change. The reservations were recognized by 
Congress, and the titles to them all confirmed to 
the grantees. Thus, Clarke and his men, the 
Connecticut Reserve, the Refuge'e lands, the 
FrencTi inhabitants, and all others holding patents 
to land from colonial or foreign governments, were 
all confirmed in their rights and protected in their 

Before the close of 1796, the upper North- 
western posts were all vacated by the British, 
under the terms of Mr. Jay's treaty. Wayne at 
once transferred his headquarters to Detroit, where 
a county was named for him, including the north- 
western part of Ohio, the northeast of Indiana, 
and the whole of Michigan. 

The occupation of the Territory by thp Ameri- 
cans gave additional impulse to emigration, and a 
better feeling of security to emigrants, who fol- 
lowed closely upon the path of the army. Na- 
thaniel Massie, who has already been noticed as 
the founder of Manchester, laid out the town of 
Chillicothe, on the Scioto, in 1796. Before the 
close of the year, it contained several stores, 
shops, a tavern, and was well populated. With 
the increase of settlement and the security guar- 
anteed by the treaty of Greenville, the arts of 
civilized life began to appear, and their influence 
upon pioneers, especially those born on the frontier, 



began to manifest itself. Better dwellings, schools, 
churches, dress and manners prevailed. Life 
began to assume a reality, and lost much of 
that recklessness engendered by the habits of a 
frontier life. 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, the Miami, the Mus- 
kingum and the Scioto Valleys were filling with 
people. Cincinnati had more than one hundred 
log cabins, twelve or fifteen frame houses and a 
population of more than six hundred persons. In 
1796, the first house of worship for the Presby- 
terians in that city was built. 

Before the close of the same year, Manchester 
contained over thirty families ; emigrants from 
Virginia were going up all the valleys from the 
Ohio; and Ebenezer Zane had opened a bridle- 
path from the Ohio River, at Wheeling, across the 
country, by ChUlicothe, to Limestone, Ky. The 
next year, the United States mail, for the first 
time, traversed this route to the .West. Zane was 
given a section of land for his path. The popu- 
lation of the Territory, estimated at from five to 
eight thousand, was chiefly distributed in lower 
vaUeys, bordering on the Ohio River. The French 
still occupied the Illinois country, and were the 
principal inhabitants about Detroit. 

South of the Ohio River, Kentucky was pro- 
gressing favorably, while the " Southwestern Ter- 
ritory," ceded to the United States by North 
Carolina in 1Y90, had so rapidly populated that, 
in 1793, a Territorial form of government was 
allowed. The ordinance of 1787, save the clause 
prohibiting slavery, was adopted, and the Territory 
named Tennessee. On June 6, 1796, the Terri- 
tory contained more than seventy-five thousand 
inhabitant?, and was admitted into the Union as a 
State. Four years after, the census showed a 
population of 105,602 souls, including 13,584 
slaves and persons of color. The same year 
Tennessee became a State, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sharpless erected the Redstone Paper 
Mill, four miles east of Brownsville, it being the 
first manufactory of the kind west of the AUe- 

In the month of December, 1796, Gen. Wayne, 
who had done so much for the development of the 
West, while on his way from Detroit to Philadel- 
phia, was attacked with sickness and died in a 
cabin near Erie, in the north part of Pennsylvania. 
He was nearly fifty-one years old, and was one of 

the bravest officers in the Revolutionary war, and 
one of America's truest patriots. In 1809, his 
remains were removed from Erie, by his son. Col. 
Isaac Wayne, to the Radnor churchyard, near the 
place of his birth, and an elegant monument erected 
on his tomb by the Pennsylvania Cincinnati So- 

After the death of Wayne, Gen. Wilkinson was 
appointed to the command of the Western army. 
While he was in command, Carondelet, the Spanish 
governor of West Florida and Louisiana, made one. 
more eiFort to separate the Union, and set up either 
an independent government in the West, or, what 
was more in accord with his wishes, efiect a 
union with the Spanish nation. In June, 1797, 
he sent Power again into the Northwest and into 
Kentucky to sound the existing feeling. Now, 
however, they were not easily won over. The 
home government was a certainty, the breaches had 
been healed, and Power was compelled to abandon 
the mission , not, however, until he had received a 
severe reprimand from many who saw through his 
plan, and openly exposed it. His mission closed 
the efibrts of the Spanish authorities to attempt 
the dismemberment of the Union, and showed 
them the coming downfall of their power in Amer- 
ica. They were obhged to surrender the posts 
claimed by the United States under the treaty of 
1795, and not many years afl^r, sold their Amer- 
ican possessions to the United States, rather than 
see a rival European power attain control over them. 

On the 7th of April, 1798, Congress passed an 
act, appointing Winthrop Sargent, Secretary of the 
Northwest Territory, Governor of the Territory of 
the Mississippi, formed the same day. In 1801, 
the boundary between America and the Spanish pos- 
sessions was definitely fixed. The Spanish retired 
from the disputed territory, and henceforward their 
attempts to dissolve the American Union ceased. 
The seat of the Mississippi Territory was fixed at 
Loftus Heights, six miles north of the thirty-first 
degree of latitude. 

The appointment of Sargent to the charge of the 
Southwest Territory, led to the choice of William 
Henry Harrison, who had been aid-de-catop to 
Gen. Wayne in 1794, and whose character stood 
very high among the people of the West, to the 
Secretaryship of the Northwest, which place he held 
until appointed to represent that Territory in Con- 



85 I 



THE ordinance of 1787 provided that as soon 
as there were 5,000 persons in the Territory, 
it was entitled to a representative assembly. On 
October 29, 1798, Governor St. Clair gave notice 
by proclamation, that the required population ex- 
isted, and directed that an election be held on the 
third Monday in December, to choose representa- 
tives. These representatives were required, when 
assembled, to nominate ten persons, whose names 
were sent to the President of the United States, 
who selected five, and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate, appointed them for the legislative 
council. In this mode the Northwest passed into 
the second grade of a Territorial government. 

The representatives, elected under the proclama- 
tion of St. Clair, met in Cincinnati, January 22, 
1799, and under the provisions of the ordinance 
of 1787, nominated ten persons, whose names were 
sent to the President. On the 2d of March, he 
selected from the list of candidates, the names of 
Jacob Burnet, James Findlay, Henry Vander- 
burgh, Robert Oliver and David Vance. The 
next day the Senate confirmed their nomination, 
and the first legislative council of the Northwest 
Territory was a reality. 

The Territorial Legislature met again at Cincin- 
nati, September 16, but, for want of a quorum, 
was not organized until the 24th of that month. 
The House of Representatives consisted of nine- 
teen members, of whom seven were from Hamilton 
County, fottr from Ross — erected by St. Clair in 
1798 ; three from Wayne — erected in 1796 ; two 
from Adams — erected in 1797 ; one from Jeffer- 
son — erected in 1797 ; one from Washington — 
erected in 1788 ; and one from Knox — Indiana 
Territory. None seem to have been present from 
St. Clair County (Illinois Territory). 

After the organization of the Legislature, Gov- 
ernor St. Clair addressed the two houses in the Rep- 
resentatives* Chamber, recommending such meas- 
ures as, in his judgment, were suited to the con- 
dition of the country and would advance the safety 
and prosperity of the people. 

The Legislature continued in session till the 19th 
of December, when, having finished their business, 
they were prorogued by the Governor, by their 
own request, till the first Monday in November, 
1800. This being the first session, there was, of 
necessity, a great deal of business to do. The 
transition from a colonial to a semi-independent 
form .of government, called for a general revision 
as well as a considerable enlargement of the stat- 
ute-book. Some of the adopted laws were re- 
pealed', many others altered and amended, and a 
long list of new ones added to the code. New 
oflBices were to be created and filled, the duties at- 
tached to them prescribed, and a plan of ways and 
means devised to meet the increased expenditures, 
occasioned by the change which had now occurred. 

As Mr. Burnet was the principal lawyer in the 
Council, much of the revision, and putting the laws 
into proper legal form, devolved upon him. He 
seems to have been well fitted for the place, and 
to have performed the laborious task in an excel- 
lent manner. 

The whole njimber of acts passed and approved 
by the Governor, was thirty-seven. The most im- 
portant related to the militia, the administration of 
justice, and to taxation. During the session, a bill 
authorizing a lottery was passed by the council, 
but rejected by the Legislature, thus interdicting 
this demoralizing feature of the disposal of lands 
or for other purposes. The example has always been 
followed by subsequent legislatures, thus honorably 
characterizing the Assembly of Ohio, in this re- 
spect, an example Kentucky and several other 
States might well emulate. 

Before the Assembly adjourned, they issued a 
congratulatory address to the people, enjoining 
them to " Inculcate the principles of humanity, 
benevolence, honesty and punctuality in dealing, 
sincerity and charity, and all the social affections." 
At the same time, they issued an address to the 
President, expressing entire confidence in the wis- 
dom and purity of his government, and their 
warm attachment to the American Constitution. 

— r— I 


The vote on this address proved, however, that the 
differences of opinion agitating the Eastern States 
had penetrated the West. Eleven Representatives 
voted for it, and five against it. 

One of the important duties that devolved on 
this Legislature, was the election of a delegate to 
Congress. As soon as the Governor's proclama- 
tion made its appearance, the election of a person 
to fill that position excited general attention. Be- 
fore the meeting of the Legislature public opinion 
had settled down on William Henry Harrison, and 
Arthur St. Clair, Jr., who eventually were the only 
candidates. On ithe 3d of October, the two houses 
met and proceeded to a choice. Eleven votes were 
cast for Harrison, and ten for St. Clair. The Leg- 
islature prescribed the form of a certificate of the 
Nj election, which was given to Harrison, who at once 
resigned his office as Secretary of the Territory, 
proceeded to Philadelphia, and took his seat. Con- 
gress being then in session. 

"Though he represented the Territory but one 
year, " says Judge Burnett, in his notes, " he ob- 
tained some important advantages for his constitu- 
ents. He introduced a resolution to sub-divide 
the surveys of the public lands, and to offer them 
for sale in smaller tracts ; he succeeded in getting 
that measure through both houses, in opposition to 
the interest of. speculators, who were, and who 
wished to be, the retailers of the land to the poorer 
classes of the community. His proposition be- 
came a law, and was hailed as the most beneficent 
act that Congress had ever done for the Territory. 
It put in the power of every industrious man, how- 
ever poor, to become a freeholder, and to lay a 
foundation for the future support and comfort of 
his family. At the same session, he obtained a 
liberal extension of time for the pre-emptioners in 
the northern part of the Miami purchase, which 
enabled them to secure their farms, and eventually 
to become independent, and even wealthy." 

The first session, as has been. noticed, closed 
December 19. Gov. St. Clair took occasion to 
enumerate in his speech at the close of the session, 
eleven acts, to which he saw fit to apply his veto. 
These he had not, however, returned to the Assem- 
bly, and thereby saved a long struggle' between the 
executive and legislative branches of the Territory. 
Of the eleven acts enumerated, six related to the 
formation of new counties. These were mainly 
disproved by St Clair, as he always sturdily main- 
tained that the power to erect new counties was 
vested alone in the Executive. This free exercise 
of the veto power, especially in relation to new 

counties, and his controversy with the Legislature, 
tended only to strengthen the popular discontent 
regarding the Governor, who was never fully able 
to regain the standing he held before his in- 
glorious defeat in his campaign against the Indians. 

While this was being agitated, another question 
came into prominence. Ultimately, it settled the 
powers of the two branches of the government, 
and caused the removal of St. Clair, then very 
distasteftd to the people. The opening of the 
present century brought it fully before the 
people, who began to agitate it in all their 

The great extent of the Territory made the 
operations of government extremely uncertain, 
and the power of the courts practically worthless. 
Its division was, therefore, deemed best, and a 
committee was appointed by Congress to inquire 
into the matter. This committee, the 3d of 
March, 1800, reported upon the subject that, "In 
the three western counties, there has been but 
one court having cognizance of crimes in five 
years. The immunity which offenders experience, 
attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and aban- 
doned criminals, and, at the same time, deters 
useful and virtuous citizens from making settle- 
ments in such society. The extreme necessity of 
judiciary attention and assistance is experienced 
in civil as well as criminal cases. The supplying 
to vacant places such necessary officers as may be 
wanted, such as clerks, recorders and others of 
like kind, is, from the impossibility of correct 
notice and information, utterly neglected. This 
Territory is exposed as a frontier to foreign nations, 
whose agents can find sufficient interest in exciting 
or fomenting insurrection and discontent, as 
thereby they can more easily divert a valuable 
trade in fiirs from the United States, and also have 
a part thereof on which they border, which feels 
so little the cherishing hand of their proper gov- 
ernment, or so little dreads its energy, as to render' 
their attachment perfectly uncertain and am- 

" The committee would further suggest, that 
the law of the 3d of March, 1791, granting land 
to certain persons in the western part of said Ter- 
ritory, and directing the laying-out of the same, 
remains unexecuted; that great ■ discontent, in 
consequence of such neglect, is excited in thote 
who are interested in the provisions of said laws, 
which require the immediate attention of this 
Legislature. To minister a remedy to these evils, 
it occurs to this committee, that it is expedient 




that a division of said Territory into two distinct 
and separate governments should be made ; and 
that such division be made by a hne beginning at 
the mouth of the great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary 
between the United States and Canada." * 

The recommendations of the committee were 
favorably received by Congress, and, the Vth 
of May, an act was passed dividing the Ter- 
ritory. The main provisions of the act are as 

" That, from and after the 4th of July next, 
all that part of the territory of the United States 
northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the 
westward of a line beginning at the Ohio, opposite 
to the mouth of the Kentucky River, .and running 
thence to Port Recovery, and thence north until 
it intersects the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada, shall, for the purpose of tem- 
porary government, constitute a separate Territory, 
and be called the Indiana Territory. 

'' There shall be established within the said Ter- 
ritory a government, in all respects similar to that 
provided by the ordinance of Congress passed July 

13, 1797." t 

The act further provided for i;epresentatives, and 
for the establishment of an assembly, on the same 
plan as that in force in the Northwest, stipulating 
that until the number of inhabitants reached five 
thousand, the whole number of representatives to 
the General Assembly should not be less than seven, 
nor more than nine ; apportioned by the Grovernor 
among the several counties in the new Terri- 

The act further provided that " nothing in the 
act should be so construed, so as in any manner 
to affect the government now in force in the terri- 
tory of the United States northwest of the Ohio 
River, further than to prohibit the exercise thereof 
within the Indiana Territory, from and after the 
aforesaid 4th of July next. 

" Whenever that' part of the territory of the 
United States, which lies to the eastward of a line 
beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, 
and running thence due north to the territorial 
line between the United States and Canada, shall 
be erected into an independent State, and admitted 
into the Union on an equal footing with the orig- 
inal States ; thenceforth said line shall become and 
remain permanently, the boundary line between 
such State and the .Indiana Territory." 

*Amorinan State Papera. 
f Land Laws. 

It was further enacted, " that, until it shall be 
otherwise enacted by the legislatures of the said 
territories, respectively, Chillicothe, on the Scioto 
River, shall be the seat of government of the ter- 
ritory of the United States northwest of the Ohio 
River; and that St. Vincent's, on the Wabash 
River, shall be the seat of government for the 
Indiana Territory." * 

St. Clair was continued as Governor of the old 
Territory, and William Henry Harrison appointed 
Governor of the new. 

Connecticut, in ceding her territory in the West 
to the General Government, reserved a portion, 
known as the Connecticut Reserve. When she 
afterward disposed of her claim in the manner 
narrated, the citizens found themselves without any 
government on which to lean for support. At that 
time, settlements had begun in thirty-five of the 
townships into which the Reserve had been divided ; 
one thousand persons had established homes there ; 
mills had been built, and over seven hundred miles 
of roads opened. In 1800, the settlers petitioned 
for acceptance into the Union, as a part of the 
Northwest ; and,themother State releasing her judi- 
ciary claims. Congress accepted the trust, and 
granted the request. In December, of that year, 
the population had so increased that the county of 
Trumbull was erected, including the Reserve. 
Soon after, a large number of settlers came from 
Pennsylvania, from which State they had been 
driven by the dispute concerning land titles in its 
western part. Unwilling to cultivate land to 
which they could only get a doubtful deed, they 
abandoned it, and came where the titles were 

Congress having made Chillicothe the capital of 
the Northwest Territory, as it now existed, on the 
3d of November the General Assembly met at that 
place. Gov: St. Clair had been made to feel the 
odium cast upon his previous acts, and, at the open- 
ing of this session, expressed, in strong terms, his 
disapprobation of the censure cast upon him. He 
had endeavored to do "his duty in all cases, he said, 
and yet held the confidence of the President and 
Congress. He still held the office, notwithstanding 
the strong dislike against him. 

At the second session of the Assembly, at Chil- 
licothe, held in the autumn of 1801, so much out- 
spoken enmity was expressed, and so much abuse 
heaped upon the Governor and the Assembly, that 
a law was passed, removing the capital to Cincinnati 

* Land Lawa. 



again. It was not destined, however, ttat the 
Territorial Assembly should meet again anywhere. 
The unpopularity of the Governor caused many to 
long for a State government, where they could 
choose their own rulers. The unpopularity of St. 
Clair arose partly from the feeling connected with 
his defeat ; in part from his being connected with 
the Federal party, fast falling into disrepute ; and, 
in part, from his assuming powers which most 
thought he had no right to exercise, especially the 
power of subdividing the counties of the Terri- 

The opposition, though powerful out of the 
Assembly, was in the minority there. During the 
month of December, 1801, it was forced to protest 
against a measure brought forward in the Council, 
for changing the ordinance of 1787 in such a man- 
ner as to make the Scioto, and a line drawn from 
the intersection of that river and the Indian 
boundary to the western extremity of the Reserve, 
the limits of the most eastern State, to be formed 
from the Territory. Had this change been made, 
the formation of a State government beyond the 
Ohio would have been long delayed. Against it, 
Representatives Worthington,Langham, Darlington, 
Massie, Dunlavy and Morrow, recorded their pro- 
test. Not content with this, they sent Thomas 
Worthington, who obtained a leave of absence, to 
the seat of government, on behalf of the objectors, 
there to protest, before Congress, against the pro- 
posed boundary. While Worthington was on his 
way, Massie presented, the 4th of January, 1802, 
a resolution for chobsing a committee to address 
Congress in respect to the proposed State govern- 
ment. This, the next day, the House refused to 
do, by a vote of twelve to five. An attempt 
was next made to procure a census of the Ter- 
ritory, and an act for that purpose passed the 
House, but the Council postponed the considera- 
tion of it until the next session, which would com- 
mence at Cincinnati, the fourth Monday of No- 

Meanwhile, Worthington pursued the ends of 
his mission, using his influence to effect that organ- 
ization, "which, terminating the influence of tyr- 
anny," was to "meliorate the circumstances of thou- 
sands, by freeing them from the domination of a 
despotic chief" His efforts were successful, and, 
the 4th of March, a report was made to the 
House in favor of authorizing a State convention. 
This report was based on the assumption that there 
were now over sixty thousand inhabitants in the 
proposed boundaries, estimating that emigration had 

increased the census of 1800, which gave the Ter- 
ritory forty-five thousand inhabitants, to that num- 
ber. The convention was to ascertain whether it 
were expedient to form such a government, and to 
prepare a constitution if such organization were 
deemed best. In the formation of the State, a 
change in the boundaries was proposed, by which 
all the territory north of a line drawn due east 
from the head of Lake Michigan to Lake Erie was 
to be excluded from the new government about to 
be called into existence. 

The cornmittee appointed by Congress to report 
upon the feasibility of forming the State, suggested 
that Congress reserve out of every township sections 
numbered 8, 11, 26 and 29, for their own use, and 
that Section 16 be reserved for the maintenance 
of schools. The committee also suggested, that, 
" religion, education and morality bfeing necessary 
to the good government and happiness of mankind, 
schools and the means of education shall be forever 

Various other recommendations were given by 
the committee, in accordance with which. Congress, 
April 30, passed the resolution authorizing the 
calling of a convention. As this accorded with 
the feelings of the majority of the inhabitants of the 
Northwest, no opposition was experienced ; even 
the Legislature giving way to .this embryo' gov- 
ernment, and failing to assemble according to ad- 

The convention met the 1st of November. Its 
members were generally Jeffersonian in their na- 
tional politics, and had been opposed to the change 
of boundaries proposed the year before. Before 
proceeding to business, Gov. St. Clair proposed to 
address them in his official character. This propo- 
sition was resisted by several of the members ; but, 
after a motion, it was agreed to allow him to speak 
to them as a citizen. St. Clair ^id so, advising 
the postponement of a State government until the 
people of the original eastern division were plainly 
entitled to demand it, and were not subject to be 
bound by conditions. This advice, given as it was, 
caused Jefferson instantly to remove St. Clair, at 
which time his office ceased.* "When the vote 
was taken," says Judge Burnet, "upon doing what 

* After thia, St. Clair returned to hie old home in the Ligonier 
Valley, Pennsylvania, where he lived with hia children in almost 
abject poverty. Ho had loat money in his public life, as he gave 
close attention to public afTairs, to the detriment of his own buainesa. 
He presented a claim to Congress, afterward, for supplies furnished 
to the army, but the claim was outlawed. After trying in vain to 
get the claim allowed, he returned to his home. Pennsylvania, 
learning of hia distress, granted him an annuity of 8350, afterward 
raised to $610. He lived to enjoy this but a short time, his death 
occurring August 31, 1818. He "was eighty-four years of age. 


he advised them not to do, but one of thirty-three 
(Ephraim Cutler, of Washington County) voted 
with the Grovernor." 

On one point only were the proposed boundaries 
of the new State altered. 

" To every person who has attended to this sub- 
ject, and who has consulted the maps of the West- 
ern country extant at the time the ordinance of 
1787 was passed. Lake Michigan was believed to 
be, and was represented by all the maps of that 
day as being, very far north of the position which 
it has since been ascertained to occupy. I have 
seen the map in the Department of State which 
was before the committee of Congress who framed 
and reported the ordinance for the government of 
the Territory. On that map, the southern bound- 
ary of Michigan was represented as being above 
the forty-second degree of north latitude. And 
there was a pencil line, said to have been made by 
the committee, passing through the southern bend 
of the lake to the Canada line, which struck the 
strait not far below the town of Detroit. The 
line was manifestly intended by the committee 
and by Congress to be the northern boundary of 
our State ; and, on the principles by which courts 
of chancery construe contracts, accompanied by 
plats, it would seem that the map, and the line 
referred to, should be conclusive evidence of our 
boundary, without reference to the real position of 
the lakes. 

"When the convention sat, in 1802, the under- 
derstanding was, that the old maps were nearly 
correct, and that the line, as defined in the ordi- 
nance, would terminate at some point on the strait 
above the Maumee Bay. While the convention 
was in session, a man who had hunted many years 
on Lake Michigan, and was well acquainted with 
its position, happened to be in Chillicothe, and, in 
conversation with one of the members, told him 
that the lake extended much farther south than 
was generally supposed, and that a map of the 
country which he had seen, placed its southern 
bend many miles north of its true position. This 
information excited some uneasiness, and induced 
the convention to modify the clause describing the 
north boundary of the new State, so as to guard 
against its being depressed below the most north- 
ern cape of the Maumee Bay."* 

With this change and some extension of the 
school and road donations, the convention agreed 
to the proposal of Congress, and, November 29, 

* Historical Transactions of Ohio. — Judqe Buenett. 

their agreement was ratified and signed, as was 
also the constitution of the State of Ohio — so 
named from its river, called by the Shawanees Ohio, 
meaning beautiful — forming its southern bound- 
ary. Of this nothing need be said, save that it 
bore the marks of true democratic feeling — of full 
faith in the people. By them, however, it was 
never voted for. It stood firm until 1852, when 
it was superseded by the present one, made neces- 
sary by the advance of time. 

The General Assembly was required to meet at 
Chillicothe, the first Tuesday of March, 1803. 
This change left the territory northwest of the 
Ohio Eiver, not included in the new State, in the ■ 
Territories of Indiana and Michigan. Subse- 
quently, in 1816, Indiana was made a State, and 
confined to her present limits. Illinois was made 
a Territory then, including Wisconsin. In 1818, 
it became a State, and Wisconsin a Territory at- 
tached to Michigan. This latter was made a State 
in 1837, and Wisconsin a separate Territory, which, 
in 1847, was made a State. Minnesota was made 
a Territory the same year, and a State in 1857, 
and the five contemplated States of the territory 
were complete. 

Preceding pages have shown how the territory 
north of the Ohio River was peopled by the 
French and English, and how it came under the 
rule of the American people. THe war of the 
Revolution closed in 1783, and left aU America in 
the hands of a new nation. That nation brought 
a change. Before the war, various attempts had 
been made by residents in New England to people 
the country west of the Alleghanies. Land com- 
panies were formed, principal among which were 
the Ohio Company, and the company of which 
John Cleves Symmes was the agent and , chief 
owner. Large tracts of land on the Scioto and 
on the Ohio were entered. The Ohio Company 
were the first to make a settlement. It was or- 
ganized in the autumn of 1787, November 27. 
They made arrangements for a party of forty-seven 
men to set out for the West under the supervision of 
Gren. Rufus Putnam, Superintendent of the Com- 
pany. Early in the winter they advanced to the 
Youghiogheny Eiver, and there built a strong boat, 
which they named "Mayflower." It was built by 
Capt. Jonathan Devol, the first ship-builder in the 
West, and, when completed, was placed under his 
command. The boat was launched April 2, 1788, 
and the band of pioneers, like the Pilgrim Fathers, 
began their voyage. The 7th of the month, 
they arrived at the mouth of the Muskingum, 



their destination, opposite Fort Harmar,* erected 
in the autumn of 1785, by a detachment of 
United States troops, under command of Maj. 
John Doughty, and, at the date of the Mayflower's 
arrival in possession of a company of soldiers. 
Under the protection of these troops, the little band 
of men began their labor of laying out a town, 
and commenced to erect houses for their own and 
subsequent emigrants' occupation. The names of 
these pioneers of Ohio, as far as can now be 
learned, are as follows: 

Gen. Putnam, Return Jonathan Meigs, Win- 
throp Sargeant (Secretary of the Territory), Judges 
Parsons and Varnum, Capt. Dana, Capt. Jonathan 
Devol, Joseph Barker, Col. Battelle, Maj. Tyler, 
Dr. True, Capt. Wm. G-ray, Capt. Lunt, the 
Bridges, Ebenezer and Thomas Cory, Andrew Mc- 
Clure, Wm. Mason, Thomas Lord, Wm. Gridley, 
Gilbert Devol, Moody Russels, Deavens, Oakes, 
Wright, Clough, Green, Shipman, Dorance, the 
Masons, and others, whose names are now be- 
yond recall. 

On the 19th of July, the first boat of families 
arrived, after a nine- weeks journey on the way. 
They had traveled in their wagons as far as Wheel- 
ing, where they built large flat-boats, into which 
they loaded their efibcts, including their cattle, and 
thence passed down the Ohio to their destination. 
The families were those of Gen. Tupper, Col. 
Iphabod Nye, Col. Gushing, Maj. Coburn, and 
Maj. Goodale. In these titles the reader will ob- 
serve the preponderance of military distinction. 
Many of the founders of the colony had served 
with much valor in the war for freedom, and were 
well prepared for a life in the wilderness. 

They began at once the construction of houses 
from the forests about the confluence of the rivers, 
guarding their stock by day and penning it by 
night. Wolves, bears and Indians were all about 
them, and, here in the remote wilderness, they 
were obliged to always be on their guard. From 
the ground where they obtained the timber to erect 
their houses, they soon produced a few vegetables, 
and when the families arrived in August, they 
were able to set before them food raised for the 

*The outlines of Fort Harmar formed a regular pentagon, 
embracing within the area about three-fourths of an acre. Its 
walls were formed of large horizontal timbers, and the bastions 
of large uprighttimbera about fourteen feet in height, fastened to each 
other by strips of timber, tree-nailed into each picket. In the rear 
of the fort Maj. Doughty laid out fine gardens. It continued to be 
occupied by United States troops until September 1790, when 
they were ordered to Cincinnati. A company, under Capt. Haskell, 
continued to make the fort their headquarters during the Indian 
war, occasionally assisting the colonists at Marietta, Belpre and 
Waterford against the Indians. When not needed by the troops, 
the fort was used by the people of Marietta, 

first time by the hand of American citizens in the 
Ohio Valley. One of those who came in August,- 
was Mr. Thomas Guthrie, a settler in one of the 
western counties of Pennsylvania, who brought a 
bushel of wheat, which he sowed on a plat of 
ground cleared by himself, and from which that 
fall he procured a small crop of wheat, the first 
grown in the State of Ohio. 

The Marietta settlement was the only one made 
that summer in the Territory. From their arrival 
until October, when Governor St. Clair came, they 
were busily employed making houses, and prepar- 
ing for the winter. The little colony, of which 
Washington wrote so favorably, met on the 2d day 
of July, to name their newborn city and its pub- 
lic sqares. Until now it had been known as " The 
Muskingum" simply, but on that day the name 
Marietta was formally given to it, in honor of Ma- 
rie Antoinette. The 4th of July, an ovation was 
held, and an oration dehvered by James M. Var- 
num, who, with S. H. Parsons and John Arm- 
strong, had been appointed Judges of the Terri- 
tory. Thus, in the heart of the wilderness, 
miles away from any kindred post, in the forests 
of the Great West, was the Tree of Liberty watered 
and given a hearty growth. 

On the morning of the 9th of Jidy, Governor 
St. Clair arrived, and the colony began to assume 
form. The ordinance of 1787 had provided for 
a form of government under the Governor and 
the three Judges, and this form was at once put 
into force. The 25th, the first law relating to the 
militia was published, and the next day the Gov- 
ernor's proclamation appeared, creating all the 
country that had been ceded by the Indians, east 
of the Scioto River, into the county of Washing- 
ton, and the civil machinery was in motion. From 
that time forward, this, the pioneer settlement in 
Ohio, went on prosperously. The 2d of Septem- 
ber, the first court in the Territory was held, but 
as it related to the Territory, a narrative of its pro- 
ceedings will be found in the history of that part 
of the country, and need not be repeated here. 

The 15th of July, Gov. St. Clair had published 
the ordinance of 1787, and the commissions of 
himself and the three Judges. He also assembled 
the people of the settlement, and explained to 
them the ordinance in a speech of considerable 
length. Three days after, he sent a notice to the 
Judges, calling their attention to the subject of 
organizing the militia. Instead of attending to 
this important matter, and thus providing for their 
safety should trouble with the Indians arise, the 



Judges did not even reply to the Governor's letter, 
but sent him what they called a "project" of a 
law for dividing real estate. The bill was so 
loosely drawn that St. Clair immediately rejected 
it, and set about organizing the militia' himself. 
He divided the militia into two classes, " Senior" 
and " Junior," and organized them by appointing 
their officers. 

In the Senior Class, Nathan Cushing was ap- 
pointed Captain; George Ingersol, Lieutenant, 
and James Backus, Ensign. 

In the Junior Class, Nathan Goodale and Charles 
Knowls were made Captains ; Watson Casey and 
Samuel Stebbins, Lieutenants, and Joseph Lincoln 
and Arnold Colt, Ensigns. 

The Governor next erected the Courts of Pro- 
bate and Quarter Sessions, and proceeded to ap- 
point civil officers. Rufus Putnam, Benjamin 
Tupper and Winthrop Sargeant were made Jus- 
tices of the Peace. The 30th of August, the day 
the Court of Quarter Sessions was appointed, 
Archibald Cary, Isaac Pierce and Thomas Lord 
were also appointed Justices, and given power to 
hold this court. They were, in fact, Judges of a 
Court of Common Pleas. Return Jonathan Meigs 
was appointed Clerk of this Court of Quarter 
Sessions. Ebenezer Sproat was appointed Sheriff of 
Washington County, and also Colonel of the militia; 
William Callis, Clerk of the Supreme Court; 
Rufiis Putnam, Judge of the Probate Court, and 
R. J. Meigs, Jr., Clerk. Following th^se appoint- 
ments, setting the machinery of government in 
motion, St. Clair ordered that the 25th of Decem- 
ber be kept as a day of thanksgiving by the infant 
colony for its safe and propitious beginning. ^ 

During the fall and winter, the settlement was 
daily increased by emigrants, so much so, that the 
greatest difficulty was experienced in finding them 
lodging. During the coldest part of the winter, 
when ice covered the river, and prevented navi- 
gation, a delay in arrivals was experienced, only to 
be broken as soon as the river opened to the beams 
of a spring sun. While locked in the winter's 
embrace, the colonists amused themselves in vari- 
ous ways, dancing being one of the most promi- 
nent. At Christmas, a grand ball was held, at 
which there were fifteen ladies, "whose grace," 
says a narrator, "equaled any in the East." 
Though isolated in the wilderness, they knew a 
brilliant prospect lay before them, and lived on in 
a joyous hope for the future. 

Soon after their arrival, the settlers began the 
erection of a stockade fort (Campus Martins),, 

which occupied their time until the winter of 
1791. During the interval, fortunately, no hos- 
tilities from the Indians were experienced, though 
they were abundant, and were frequent visitors to 
the settlement. 

From a communication in the American Pioneer, 
by Dr. S. P. Hildreth, the following description of 
Campus Martins is derived. As it will apply, in 
a measure, to many early structures for defense in 
the West, it is given entire ; 

" The fort was made in the form of a regular 
parallelogram, the sides of each being 180 feet. 
At each corner was erected a strong block-house, 
surmounted by a tower, and a sentry box. These 
houses were twenty feet square below and twenty- 
four feet square above, and projected six feet be- 
yond the walls of the fort. The intermediate walls 
were made up with dwelling-houses, made of wood, 
whose ends were whip-sawed into timbers four 
inches thick, and of the requisite width and length. 
These were laid up similar to the structure of log 
houses, with the ends nicely dove-tailed together. 
The whole were two stories high, and covered with 
shingle roofs. Convenient chimneys were erected 
of bricks, for cooking, and warming the rooms. A 
number of the dwellings were built and owned by 
individuals who had families. In the west and 
south fronts were strong gateways ; and over the 
one in the center of the front looking to the Mus- 
kingum River, was a belfry. The chamber beneath 
was occupied by Winthrop Sargeant, as an office, 
he being Secretary to the Governor, and perform- 
ing the duties of the office during St. Clair's ab- 
sence. This room projected over the gateway, like 
a block-house, and was intended for the protection 
of the gate beneath, in time of an assault. At 
the outer corner of each block-house was erected a 
bastion, standing on four stout timbers. The floor 
of the bastion was a little above the lower story of 
the block-house. They were square, and built up 
to the height of a man's head, so that, when he 
looked over, he stepped on a narrow platform or 
" banquet ' ' running around the sides of the bulwark. 
Port-holes were made, for musketry as well as for 
artillery, a single piece of which was mounted in 
the southwest and northeast bastions. In these, 
the sentries were regularly posted every night, as 
more convenient than the towers ; a door leading 
into them from the upper story of the block-houses. 
The lower room of the soTlthwest block-house was 
occupied as a guard-house. 

" Running from corner to corner of the block- 
houses was a row of palisades, sloping outward, 



and resting on stout rails. Twenty feet in advance 
of these, was a row of very strong and large pick- 
ets, set upright in the earth. Gateways through 
these, admitted the inmates of the garrison. A 
few feet beyond the row of outer palisades was 
placed a row of abattis, made from the tops and 
branches of trees, sharpened and pointing outward, 
so that it would have been very difficult for an 
enemy to have penetrated within their outworks. 
The dwelling-houses occupied a space from fifteen 
to thirty feet each, and were sufficient for the ac- 
commodation of forty or fifty families, and did 
actually contain from two hundred to three hun- 
dred persons during the Indian war. 

" Before the Indians commenced hostilities, the 
block-houses were occupied as follows : The south- 
west one, by the family of Gov. St. Clair; the 
northeast one as an office for the Directors of the 
Company. The area within the walls was one 
hundred and forty-four feet square, and afibrded a 
fine parade ground. In the center, was a well 
eighty feet in depth, for the supply of water to the 
inhabitants, in case of a siege. A large sun-dial 
stood for many years in the square, placed on a 
handsome post, and gave note 'of the march of 

" After the war commenced, a regular military 
corps was organized, and a guard constantly kept 
night and day. The whole establishment formed 
a very strong work, and reflected great credit on 
the head that planned it. It was in a manner im- 
pregrfable to the attacks of Indians, and none 
but a regular army with cannon could have reduced 
it. The Indians possessed no such an armament. 

" The garrison stood on the verge of that beauti- 
ful plain overlooking the Muskingum, on which 
are seated those celebrated remains of antiquity, 
erected probably for a similar purpose — ^the defense 
of the inhabitants. The ground descends into shal- 
low ravines on the north and south sides ; on the 
west is an abrupt descent to the river bottoms or 
alluvium, and the east passed out to a level plain. 
On this, the ground was cleared of trees beyond 
the reach of rifle shots, so as to affijrd no shelter 
to a hidden foe. Extensive fields of corn were 
grown in the midst of the standing girdled trees be- 
yond, in after years. The front wall of palisades 
was about one hundred and fifty yards fi-om the 
Muskingum River. The appearance of the fort 
from without was imposing, at a little distance re- 
sembling the military castles of the feudal ages. 
Between the outer palisades and the river were 
laid out neat gardens for the use of Gov. St. Clair 

and his Secretary, with the officers of the Com- 

" Opposite the fort, on the shore of the river, 
was built a substantial timber wharf, at which was' 
moored a fine cedar barge for twelve rowers, built 
by Capt. Jonathan Devol, for Gen. Putnam; a 
number of pirogues, and the light canoes of the 
country^ and last, not least, the Mayflower, or 
' Adventure Galley,' in which the first detach- 
ments of colonists were transported from the shores 
of the ' Yohiogany ' to the banks of the Muskingum. 
In these, especidly the canoes, during the war, 
mostof the communications were carried on between 
the settlements of the Company and the more re- 
mote towns above on the Ohio River. Traveling 
by land was very hazardous to any but the rangers 
or spies. There were no roads, nor bridges across 
the creeks, and, for many years after the war had 
ceased, the traveling was nearly all done by canoes 
on the river." 

Thus the first settlement of Ohio provided for 
its safety and comfort, and provided also for that 
of emigrants who came to share the toils of the 

The next spring, the influx of emigration was 
so great that other settlements were determined, 
and hence arose the colonies of Belpre, Waterford 
and Duck Creek, where they began to clear land, sow 
and plant crops, and build houses and stockades. 
At Belpre (French for "beautiful meadow"), were 
built 'three stockades, the upper, lower and middle, 
the last of which was called " Farmers' Castle," 
and stood on the banks of the Ohio, nearly oppo- 
site an island, afterward famous in Western history 
as Blennerhasset's Island, the scene of Burr's con- 
spiracy. Among the persons settling at the upper 
stockade, were Capts. Dana and Stone, Col. Bent, 
WilUam Browning,. Judge Foster, John Rowse, 
Israel Stone and a Mr. Keppel. At the Farmers' 
Castle, were Cols. Gushing and Fisher, Maj. Has- 
kell, Aaron Waldo Putnam, Mr. Sparhawk, and, 
it is believed, George and Israel Putnam, Jr. At 
the lower, were Maj. Goodale, Col. Rice, Esquire 
Pierce, Judge Israel Loring, Deacon^ Miles, Maj. 
Bradford and Mr. Goodenow. In the summer of 
1789, Col. Ichabod Nye and some others, built a 
block-house at Newberry, below Belpre. Col. Nye 
sold his lot there to Aaron W. Clough, who, with 
Stephen Guthrie, Joseph Leavins, Joel Oakes, 
Eleazer Curtis, Mr. Denham J. Littleton and Mr. 
Brown, was located at that place. . 

"Every exertion possible," says Dr. Hildreth, 
who has preserved the above names and incidents. 




" for men in these circumstances, was made to se- 
cure food for future difficulties. Col. Oliver, IMaj. 
Hatfield White and John Dodge, of the Water- 
ford settlement, began mills on Wolf Creek, about 
three miles from the fort, and got them running; 
and these, the first mills in Ohio, were never de- 
stroyed during the subsequent Indian war, though 
the proprietors removed their familes to Jthe fort 
at Marietta. Col. E. Sproat and Enoch Shep- 
herd began mills on Duck Creek, three miles from 
Marietta, from the completion of which they were 
driven by the Indian war. Thomas Stanley be- 
gan mills farther up, near the Duck Creek settle- 
ment. These were likewise unfinished. The Ohio 
Company built a large horse mill near Campus 
Martius, and soon after a floating mill." 

The autumn before the settlements at Belpre, 
Duck Creek and Waterford, were made, a colony 
was planted near the mouth of the Little Miami 
River, on a tract of ten thousand acres, purchased 
from Symmes by M aj . Benj amin Stites. In the pre- 
ceding pages may be found a history of Symmes' 
purchase. This colony may be counted the second 
settlement in the State. Soon after the colony at 
Marietta was founded, steps were taken to occupy 
separate portions of Judge Symmes' purchase, be- 
tween the Miami Rivers. Three parties were 
formed for this purpose, but, owing to various 
delays, chiefly in getting the present colony stead- 
fast and safe from future encroachments by the 
savages, they did not get started till late in the fall. 
The first of these parties, consisting of fifteen or 
twenty men, led by Maj. Stites, landed at the 
mouth of the Little Miami in Nqyember, 1788, 
and, constructing a log fort, began to lay out a 
village, called by them Columbia. It soon grew 
into prominence, and, before winter had thoroughly 
set in, they were well prepared for a frontier life. 
In the party were Cols. Spencer and Brown, Majs. 
Gano and Kibbey, Judges Goforth and Foster, 
Rev. John Smith, Francis Dunlavy, Capt, Flinn, 
Jacob White, John Riley, and Mr. Hubbell. 

All these were men of energy and enterprise, 
and, with their comrades, were more numerous 
than either of the other parties, who commenced 
their settlements below them on the Ohio. This 
village was also, at first, more flourishing; and, for 
two or three years, contained more inhabitants 
than any other in the Miami purchase. 

The second Miami party was formed at Lime- 
stone, under Matthias Denham and Robert Pat- 
terson, and consisted of twelve or fifteen persons. 
They landed on the north bank of the Ohio, oppo- 

site the mouth of the Licking River, the 24th of 
December, 1788. They intended to establish a 
station and lay out a town on a plan prepared at 
Limestone. Some statements affirm that the town 
was to be called " L-os-a.nti-ville," by a romantic 
school-teacher named Filson. However, be this as 
it may, Mr. Filson was, unfortunately for himself, 
not long after, slain by the Indians, and, with him 
probably, the name disappeared. He was to have 
one-third interest in the proposed city, which, 
when his death occurred, was transferred to Israel 
Ludlow, and a new plan of a city adopted. Israel 
Ludlow surveyed the proposed town, whose lots were 
principally donated to settlers upon certain condi- 
tions as to settlement and improvement, and the 
embryo city named Cincinnati. Gov. St. Clair 
very likely had something to do with the naming 
of the village, and, by some, it is asserted that he 
changed the name from Losantiville to Cincinnati, 
when he created the county of Hamilton the en- 
suing winter. The original purchase of the city's 
site was made by Mr. Denham. It included about 
eight hundred acres, for which he paid 5 shillings 
per acre in Continental certificates, then worth, in 
specie, about 5 shillings per pound, gross weight. 
Evidently, the original site was a good investment, 
could Mr. Denham have lived long enough to see 
its present condition. 

'The third party of settlers for the Miami pur- 
ichase, were under the care of Judge Symmes, 
himself. They left Limestone, January 29, 1789, 
and were much delayed on their downward jour- 
ney by the ice in the river. They reached the 
" Bend," as it was then known, early in February. 
The Judge had intended to found a city here, 
which, in time, would be the rival of the Atlantic 
cities. As each of the three settlements aspired 
to the same position, no little rivalry soon mani- 
fested itself The Judge named his proposed city 
North Bend, from the fact that it was the most 
northern bend in the Ohio below the mouth of the 
Great Kanawha. These three settlements ante- 
dated, a few months, those made near Marietta, 
already described. They arose so soon after, partly 
from the extreme desire of Judge Symmes to settle 
his purchase, and induce emigration here instead 
of on the Ohio Company's purchase. The Judge 
labored earnestly for this purpose and to further 
secure him in his title to the land he had acquired, 
all of which he had so far been unable to retain, 
owing to his inability to meet his payments. 

All these emigrants came down the river in the 
flat-boats of the day, rude afiairs, sometimes called 



" Arks," and then thfe only safe mode of travel in 
the West. 

Judge Symmes found he must provide for the 
safety of the settlers on his purchase, and, after 
earnestly soliciting Gen. Harmar, commander of 
the Western posts, succeeded in obtaining a de- 
tachment of forty-eight men, under Capt. Kearsey, 
to protect the improvements just commencing on 
the Miami. This detachment reached Limestone 
in December, 1788. Part was at once sent for- 
ward to guard Maj. Stites and his pioneers. Judge 
Symmes and his party started in January, and, 
about February 2, reached Columbia, where the 
Captain expected to find a fort erected for his use 
and shelter. The flood on the river, however, de- 
feated his purpose, and, as he was unprepared to 
erect another, he determined to go on down to the 
garrison at the falls at Louisville. Judge Symmes 
was strenuously opposed to his conduct, as it left 
the colonies unguarded, but, all to no purpose; the 
Captain and his command, went to Louisville early 
in March, and left the Judge and his settlement 
to protect themselves. Judge Symmes immedi- 
ately sent a strong letter to Maj. Willis, command- 
ing at the Falls, complaining of the conduct 
of Capt. Kearsey, representing the exposed situ- 
ation of the Miami settlements, stating the indi- 
cations of hostility manifested by the Indians, 
and requesting a guard to be sent to the Bend. 
This request was at once granted, and Ensign 
Luce, with seventeen or eighteen soldiers, sent. 
They were at the settlement but a short time, 
when they were attacked by Indians, and one of 
their number killed, and four or five wounded. 
They repulsed the savages and saved the set- 

The site of Symmes City, for such he designed it 
should ultimately be called, was above the reach of 
water, and sufficiently level to admit of a conven- 
ient settlement. The city laid out by Symmes 
■was truly magnificent on paper, and promised in 
the future to fulfill his most ardent hopes. The 
plat included the village, and extended across the 
peninsula between the Ohio and Miami Rivers. 
Each settler on this plat was promised a lot if he 
would improve it, and in conformity to the stipu- 
lation. Judge Symmes soon found a large number 
of persons applying for residence. As the number 
of these adventurers increased, in consequence of 
this provision and the protection of the military, 
the Judge was induced to lay out another village 
six or seven miles up the river, which he called 
South Bend, where he disposed of some donation 

lots, but the project failing, the village site was de- 
serted, and converted into a farm. 

During all the time these various events were 
transpiring, but little trouble was experienced with 
the Indians. They were not yet disposed to evince 
hostile feelings. This would have been their time, 
but, not realizing the true intent of the whites until 
it was too late to conquer them, they allowed them 
to become prepared to withstand a warfare, and in 
the end were obliged to sufier their hunting-grounds 
to be taken from them, and made the homes of a 
race destined to entirely supersede them in the 
New World. 

By the means sketched in the foregoing pages, 
were the three settlements on the Miami made. By 
the time those adjacent to Marietta were well estab- 
lished, these were firmly fixed, each one striving to 
become the rival city all felt sure was to arise. JFor 
a time it was a matter of doubt which of the rivals, 
Columbia, North Bend or Cincinnati, would event- 
ually become the chief seat of business. 

In the beginning, Columbia, the eldest of the 
three, took the lead, both in number of its in- 
habitants and the convenience and appearance of 
its dwellings. For a time it was a flourishing place, 
and many believed it would become the great busi- 
ness town of the Miami country. That apparent 
fact, however, lasted but a short time. The garri- 
son was moved to Cincinnati, Fort Washington 
built there, and in spite of all that Maj. Stites, or 
Judge Symmes could do, that place became the 
metropolis. Fort Washington, the most extensive 
garrison in the West, was built by Maj. Doughty, 
in the summer of 1789, and from that time the 
growth and future greatness of Cincinnati were 

The flrst house in the city was built on Front 
street, east of and near Main street. It was 
simply a strong log cabin, and was erected of the 
forest trees cleared away from the ground on which 
it stood. • The lower part of the town was covered 
with sycamore and maple trees, and the upper with 
beech and oak. Through this dense forest the 
streets were laid out, and their corners marked on 
the trees. 

The settlements on the Miami had become 
sufficiently numerous to warrant a separate county, 
and, in January, 1790, Gov. St. Clair and his 
Secretary arrived in Cincinnati, and organized the 
county of Hamilton, so named in honor of the 
illustrious statesman by that name. It included 
all the country north of the Ohio, between the 
Miamis, as far as a line running " due east from the 



Standing Stone forks " of Big Miami to its inter- 
section with the Little Miami. The erection of 
the new county, and the appointment of Cincin- 
nati to be the seat of justice, gave the town a fresh 
impulse, and aided greatly in its growth. 

Through the summer, but little interruption in 
the growth of the settlements occurred. The 
Indians had permitted the erection of defensive 
works in their midst, and could not now destroy 
them. They were also engaged in traffic with the 
whites, and, though they evinced signs of discon- 
tent at their settlement and occupation of the 
country, yet did not openly attack them. The 
truth was, they saw plainly the whites were always 
prepared, and no opportunity was given them to 
plunder and destroy. The Indian would not 
attack unless success was almost sure. An oppor- 
tunity, unfortunately, came, and with it the hor- 
rors of an Indian war. 

In the autumn of 1790, a company of thirty- 
six men went from Marietta to a place on the 
Muskingum known as the Big Bottom. Here 
they built a block-house, on the east bank of the 
river, four miles above the mouth of Meigs Creek. 
They were chiefly young, single men, but little 
acquainted with Indian warfare or military rules. 
The savages had given signs that an attack on the 
settlement was meditated, and several of the know- 
ing ones at the strongholds strenuously opposed 
any new settlements that fall, advising their post- 
ponement until the next spring, when the question 
of peace or war would probably be settled. Even 
Gen. Putnam and the Directors of the Ohio Com- 
pany advised the postponement of the settlement 
until the next spring. 

The young men were impatient and restless, and 
declared themselves able to protect their fort 
against any number of assailants. They might 
have easily done so, had they taken the necessary 
precautions; but, after they had erected a rude 
block-house of unchinked logs, they began to pass 
the time in various pursuits ; setting no guard, and 
taking no precautionary measures, they left them- 
selves an easy prey to any hostile savages that 
might choose to come and attack them. 

About twenty rods from the block-house, and a 
little back from the bank of the river, two men, 
Francis and Isaac Choate, members of the com- 
pany, had erected a cabin, and commenced clearing 
lots. Thomas Shaw, a hired laborer, and James 
Patten, another of the associates, lived with them. 
About the same distance below the block-house 
was an old "Tomahawk Improvement" and a 

small cabin, which two men, Asa and Eleazur 
Bullard, had fitted up and occupied. The Indian 
war-path, from Sandusky to the mouth of the 
Muskingum, parsed' along the opposite shore of 
the river. 

" The Indians, who, during the summer," says 
Dr. Hildreth, " had been hunting and loitering 
about the Wolf Creek and Plainfield settlements, 
holding frequent and friendly intercourse with the 
settlers, selling them venison and bear's meat in ex- 
change for green corn and vegetables, had with- 
drawn and gone up the river, early in the au- 
tumn, to their towns, preparatory to going into 
winter quarters. They very seldom entered on 
any warlike expeditions during the cold weather. 
But they had watched the gradual encroach- 
ment of the whites and planned an expedition 
against them. They saw them in fancied security 
in their cabins, and thought their capture an easy 
task. It is said they were not aware of the Big 
Bottom settlement until they came in sight of it, 
on the opposite shore of the river, in the afternoon. 
From a high hill opposite the garrison, they had a 
view of all that part of the bottoni, and could see 
how the men were occupied and what was doing 
about the block-house. It was not protected with 
palisades or pickets, and noue of the men were 
aware or prepared for an attack. Having laid 
their plans, about twilight they crossed the river 
above the garrison, on the ice, and divided their 
men into two parties— the larger one to attack the 
block-house, the smaller one to capture the cabins. 
As the Indians cautiously approached the cabin 
they found the inmates at supper. Part entered, 
addressed the whites in a friendly manner, but 
soon manifesting their designs, made them all pris- 
oners, tieing them with leather thongs they found 
in the cabin." 

At the block-house the attack was far different. 
A stout Mohawk suddenly burst open the door, 
the first intimation the inmates had of the pres-^ 
ence of the foe, and while he held it open his 
comrades shot down those that were within. Rush- 
ing in, the deadly tomahawk completed the on- 
slaught. In the assault, one of the savages was 
struck by the wife of Isaac Woods, with an ax, 
but only slightly injured. The heroic woman was 
immediately slain. All the men but two were 
slain before they had time to secure their arms, 
thereby paying for their failure to properly secure 
themselves, witB their lives. The two excepted 
were John Stacy and his brother Philip, a lad six- 
teen years of age. John escaped to the roof. 



where lie was shot by the Indians, while begging 
for his life. The firing at the block-house alarmed 
the Bullards in their cabin, and hastily barring the 
door, and securing their arms and ammunition, they 
fled to the woods, and escaped. After the slaughter 
was over, the Indians began to collect the plunder, 
and in doing so discovered the lad Philip Stacy. 
They were about to dispatch him, but his entrea- 
ties softened the heart of one of the chiefs, who 
took him as a captive with the intention of adopt- 
ing him into his family. The savages then piled 
the dead bodies on the floor, covered them with 
other portions of it not needed for that purpose, 
and set fire to the whole. The building, being 
made of green logs, did not burn, the fiames con- 
suming only the floors and roof, leaving the walls 

There were twelve persons killed in this attack, 
all of whom were in the prime of life, and valuable 
aid to the settlements. They were well provided 
with arms, and had they taken the necessary pre- 
cautions, always pressed upon them when visited 
by the older ones from Marietta, they need not 
have sufiered so terrible a fate. 

The Indians, exultant over their horrible victory, 
went on to Wolf's mills, but here they found the 
people prepared, an'B, after reconnoitering the place, 
made their retreat, at early dawn, to the great re- 
lief of the inhabitants. Their number was never 
definitely known. 

The news reached Marietta and its adjacent 
settlements soon after the massacre occurred, and 
struck terror and dismay into the hearts of all. 
Many had brothers and sons in the ill-fated party, 
and mourned their loss. Neither did they know 
what place would fall next. The Indian hostilities 
had begun, and they could only hope for peace 
when the savages were effectually conquered. 

The next day, Capt. Rogers led a party of men 
over to the Big Bottom. It was, indeed, a melan- 
choly sight to the poor borderers, as they knew not 
now how soon the same fate might befall them- 
selves. The fire had so disfigured their comrades 
that but two, Ezra Putnam and William Jones, 
were recognized. As the ground was frozen out- 
side, a hole was dug in the earth underneath the 
block-house floor, and the bodies consigned to one 
grave. No farther attempt was made to settle 
here till after the peace of 1Y95. 

The outbreak of Indian hostilities put a check 
on ftirther settlements. Those that were estab- 
lished were put in a more active state of defense, 
and every preparation made that could be made 

for the impending crisis all felt sure must come. 
Either the Indians must go, or the whites must 
retreat. A few hardy and adventurous persons 
ventured out into the woods and made settle- 
ments, but even these were at the imminent risk 
of their lives, many of them perishing in the 

The Indian war that followed is given fiiUy in 
preceding pages. It may be briefly sketched by 
stating that the flrst campaign, under Gen Har- 
mar, ended in the defeat of his army at the Indian 
villages on the Miami of the lake, and the rapid 
retreat to Fort Washington. St. Clair was next 
commissioned to lead an army of nearly three thou- 
sand men, but these were furiously attacked at" 
break of day, on the morning of November 4, 
1791, and utterly defeated. Indian outrages 
sprung out anew after each defeat, and the borders 
were in a continual state of alarm. The most ter- 
rible sufferings were endured by' prisoners in the 
hands of the savage foe, who thought to annihilate 
the whites. 

The army was at once re-organized, Gen. An- 
thony Wayne put in command by Washington, 
and a vigorous campaign inaugurated. Though 
the savages had been given great aid by the Brit- 
ish, in direct violation of the treaty of 1783, Gen. 
Wayne pursued them so vigorously that they could 
not withstand his army, and, the 20th of August, 
1794, defeated them, and utterly annihilated their 
forces, breaking up their camps, and laying waste 
their country, in some places under the guns of 
the British forts. The victory showed them the 
hopelessness of contending against the whites, and 
led their chiefs to sue for peace. The British, as 
at former times, deserted them, and they were again 
alone, contending against an invincible foe. A 
grand council was held at Greenville the 3d day 
of August, 1795, where eleven of the, most power- 
fill chiefs made peace with Gen. Wayne on terms 
of his own dictation. The boundary established 
by the old treaty of Fort Mcintosh was confirmed, 
and extended westward from Loramie's to Fort 
Recovery, and thence southwest to the mouth of 
the Kentucky River. He also purchased all the 
territory not before ceded, within certain limits, 
comprehending, in all, about four-fifths of the State 
of Ohio. The line was long known as " The Green- 
ville Treaty line." Upon these, and a few other 
minor conditions, the United States received the 
Indians under their protection, gave them a large 
number of presents, and practically closed the war 
with the 

^^ it 



The only settlement of any consequence made dur- 
ing the Indian war, was that on the plat of Hamilton, 
laidou^by Israel Ludlow in December, 1794. Soon 
after, Darius C. Orcutt, John Green, William Mc- 
F. Randolph, Benjamin Davis, Isaac Wiles, Andrew 
Christy and William Hubert, located here. The 
town was laid out under the name of Fairfield, but 
was known only a short time by that name. Until 
1801, all the lands on the west side of the Great 
Miami were owned by the General Government ; 
hence, until after that date, no improvements were 
made there. A single log cabin stood there until 
the sale of lands in April, 1801, when a company 
purchased the site of Rossville, and, in March, 
1804, laid out that town, and, before a year had 
passed, the town and country about it was well 

The close of the war, in 1795, insured peace, 
and, from that date, Hamilton and that part of the 
Miami Valley grew remarkably fast. Fn 1803, 
Butler County was formed, and Hamilton made 
the county seat. 

On the site of Hamilton, St. Clair built Fort 
Hamilton in 1791. For some time it was under 
the command of Maj. Rudolph, a cruel, arbitrary 
man, who was displaced by Gen. Wayne, and who, 
it is skid, perished ignobly on the high seas, at the 
hands of some Algerine pirates, 9. fitting end to a 
man who caused, more than once, the death of 
men under his control for minor offenses. 

On the return of peace, no part of Ohio grew 
more rapidly than the Miami Valley, especially 
that part comprised in Butler County. 

While the war with the Indians continued, but 
little extension of settlements was made in the 
State. It was too perilous, and the settlers pre- 
ferred the security of the block-house or to engage 
with the army. Still, however, a few bold spirits 
ventured away from the settled parts of the Terri- 
tory, and began life in the wilderness. In tracing 
the histories of these settlements, attention will be 
paid to the order in which they were made. They 
will be given somewhat in detail until the war of 
1812, after which time they become too numerous 
to follow. 

The settlements made in Washington — Marietta 
and adjacent colonies — and Hamilton Counties 
have already been given. The settlement at Gal- 
lia is also noted, hence, the narration can be re- 
sumed where it ends prior to the Indian war of 
1795. Before this war occurred, there* were three 
small settlements made, however, in addition to 

those in Washington and Hamilton Counties. 
They were in what are now Adams, Belmont and 
Morgan Counties. They were block-house settle- 
ments, and were in a continual state of defense. 
The first of these, Adams, was settled in the winter 
of 1790-91 by Gen. Nathaniel Massie, near where 
Manchester now is. Gen. Massie determined to 
settle here in the Virginia Military Tract — in the 
winter of 1790, and sent notice throughout Ken- 
tucky and other Western settlements that he would 
give to each of the first twenty-five families who 
would settle in the town he proposed laying out, 
one in-lot, one out-lot and one hundred acres of 
land. Such liberal terms were soon accepted, and 
in a short time thirty families were ready to go 
with him. After' various consultations with his 
friends, the bottom on the Ohio River, opposite 
the lower of the Three Islands, was selected as 
the most eligible spot. Here Massie fixed his sta- 
tion, and laid off into lots a town, now called 
Manchester. The little confederacy, with Massie 
at the helm, went to work with spirit. Cabins 
were raised, and by the middle of March, 
1791, the whole town was inclosed with strong 
pickets, with block-houses at each angle for de- ' 

This was the first settlement in the bounds of 
the Virginia District, aqd the fourth one in the 
State. Although in the midst of a savage foe, 
now inflamed with war, and in the midst of a 
cruel conflict, the settlenlent at Manchester suf- 
fered less than any of its cotemporaries. This 
was, no doubt, due to the watchful care of its in- 
habitants, who were inured to the rigors of a front- 
ier life, and who well knew the danger about them. 
" These were the Beasleys, Stouts, Washburns, 
Ledoms, Edgingtons, Denings, Ellisons, Utts, 
McKenzies, Wades, and others, who were fully , 
equal to the Indians in all the savage arts and 
stratagems of border war." 

As soon as they had completed preparations for - 
defense, the whole population went to work and 
cleared the lowest of the Three Islands, and planted 
it in corn. The soil of the island was very rich, 
and produced abundantly. The woods supplied an 
abundance of game, while the river ftirnished a 
variety of excellent fish. The inhabitants thus 
found their simple wants frilly supplied. Their 
nearest neighbors in the new Territory were at 
Columbia, and at the French settlement at Gallip- 
olis ; but with these, owing to the state of the 
country and the Indian war, they could hold little, 
if any, intercourse. 

The station being established, Massie continued 
to make locations and surveys. Great precautions 
were necessary to avoid the Indians, and even the 
closest vigilance did not always avail, as the ever- 
watchftd foe was always ready to spring upon the 
settlement, could an unguarded moment be ob- 
served. During one of the spring months. Gen. 
Massie, Israel Donalson, William Lytle and James 
Little, while out on a survey, were surprised, and 
Mr. Donalson captured, the others escaping at 
great peril. Mr. Donalson escaped during the 
march to the Indian town, and made his way to 
the town of Cincinnati, after suffering great hard- 
ships, and almost perishing ftom hunger. In the 
spring of 1793, the settlers at Manchester com- 
menced clearing the out-lots of the town. While 
doing so, an incident occurred, which shows the 
danger to which they were daily exposed. It is 
thus related in Howe's Collections : 

" Mr. Andrew Ellison, one of the settlers, 
cleared an out-lot immediately adjoining the fort. 
He had completed the cutting of the timber, rolled 
the logs together, and set them on fire. The next 
morning, before daybreak, Mr. Ellison opened one 
of the gates of the fort, and went out to throw his 
logs together. By the time he had finished the 
job, a number of the heaps blazed up brightly, and, 
as he was passing from one to the other, he ob- 
served, by the light of tie fires, three men walking 
briskly toward him. This did not alarm him in 
the least, although, he said, they were dark-skinned 
fellows; yet he concluded they were the Wades, 
whose complexions were very dark, going early to 
hunt. He continued to right his log-heaps, until 
one of the fellows seized him by the arms, calling 
out, in broken English, ' How do ? how do ? ' He 
instantly looked in their faces, and, to his surprise 
and horror, 'found himself in the clutches of three 
Indians. To resist was useless. 

" The Indians quickly moved off with him in 
the direction of Paint Creek. When breakfast 
was ready, Mrs. Ellison sent one of her children 
to ask its fatjier home ; but he could not be found 
at the log-heaps. His absence created no immedi- 
ate alarm, as it was thought he might have started 
to hunt, after completing his work. Dinner-time 
arrived, and, Ellison not returning, the family 
became uneasy, and began to suspect some acci- 
dent had happened to him. His gun-rack was 
examined, and there hung his rifles and his pouch. 
Gen. Massie raised a party, made a circuit around 
the place, finding, after some search, the trails of 
four men, one of whom had on shoes; and the 

fact that Mr. Ellison was a prisoner now became 
apparent. As it was almost night at the time the 
trail was discovered, the party returned to the 
station. Early the next morning, preparations 
were made by Gen. Massie and his friends to con- 
tinue the search. In doing this, they found great 
difficulty, as it was so early in the spring that the 
vegetation was not gro\ra sufficiently to show 
plainly the trail made by the savages, who took 
the precaution to keep on high and dry ground, 
where their feet would make little or no impres- 
sion. The party were, however, as unerring as a 
pack of hounds, and followed the trail to Paint 
Creek, when they found the Indians gained so 
fast on them that pursuit was useless. 

"The Indians took their prisoner to Upper 
Sandusky, where he was compelled to run the 
gantlet. As he was a large, and not very active, 
man, he received a severe flogging. He was then 
taken to Lower Sandusky, and again compelled to 
run th« gantlet. He was then taken to Detroit, 
where he was ransomed by a British officer for 
$100. The officer proved a good friend to him. 
He sent him to Montreal, whence he returned 
home before the close of the summer, much to the 
joy of his family and friends, whose feelings can 
only be imagined." 

"Another incident occurred about this time," 
says the same volume, "which so aptly illustrates 
the danger of frontier life, that it well deserves a 
place in the history of the settlements in Ohio. 
John and Asahel Edgingtoji, with a comrade, 
started out on a hunting expedition toward Brush 
Creek. They camped out six miles in a northeast 
direction from where West Union now stands, and 
near the site of Treber's tavern, on the road from 
Chillicothe to Maysville. They had good success 
in hunting, killing a number of deer and bears. 
Of the deer killed, they saved the skins and hams 
alone. They fleeced the bears ; that is, they cut 
off all the meat which adhered to the hide, with- 
out skinning, and left the bones as a skeleton. 
They hung up the proceeds of their hunt, on a scaf- 
fold out of the reach of wolves and other wild ani- 
mals, and returned to Manchester for pack-horses. 
No one returned to the camp with the Edgingtons. 
As it was late in December, few apprehended dan- 
ger, as the winter season was usually a time of re- 
pose from Indian incursions. When the Edgingtons 
arrived at their camp, they alighted from their 
horses and were preparing to start a fire, when a 
platoon of Indians fired upon them at a distance 
of not more than twenty paces. They had 


> ^-by ITBHaa .i Ss!is 13 Sarclty .ft JTT. 


ELI NICHOLS, late of New Castle township, was bom in Louden county, Virginia, in 1799, 

and died on his farm at Walhonding in 1871. He married Miss Rachel ■■ , born in 

1801, at Cattawissa, Pennsylvania, and she died in 1869. They became the parents of fifteen chil- 
dren: Eebecca N., Jessa, Charles, Jane, Mary, Loyd, Paxton, Eliza, Eugene, Susan, Hortense, 
Lucy, Ellen, Lundy, and Collins. Loyd now owns all of the large knded property formerly 
owned by his father. Eli Nichols resided fourteen years on his floral and nursery farm at Loyd, 
near St. Clairsville, Ohio. ' He practiced at the St. Clairsville bar, and represented Belmont county 
in the Legislature while there. He came to this county in 1844, and moved on his large landed 
estate, the largest in the county, at Walhonding. 

Eli Nichols was a lawyer by profession, and a man not only of eminent learning and ability 
in his profession, but one who devoted much of his time to the study of the government and its 
institutions, and who possessed broad and comprehensive views of the State and National ques- 
tions which entered into the politics of his time. He was always a strong and fearless advocate 
of universal liberty, and of the doctrine of equality before the law. He hated oppression of every 
kind; he early entertained an instinctive and uncompromising hostility to American slavery, 
and for many years, when it cost a man political odium and ostracism to acknowledge himself an 
abolitionist, he gloried in the name, and was one of the few who had the courage and the patriot- 
ism, in those benighted days of the Republic, to stand up and denounce the institution of slavery 
as a national evil, and a crime. When he lived at Xoyd, his home was a depot on the under- 
ground railroad. Once when a negro family, ticketed for freedom, was concealed at his house, a 
slave owner on the track of some runaway slaves, supposed that this family was the one he was 
after, and he, with about fifty sympathizers, prepared to attack the depot. One hundred abolition- 
ists rallied to Mr. Nichols' support. In the meantime the attacking party learned that they were 
on the wrong scent, and abandoned the field, and the frightened colored travelers passed on un^ 
molested. Mr. Nichols was egged several times while making abolition speeches. He made his 
voice heard and his influence felt through the press and from the rostrum against this national 
curse, and perhaps did as much as any other man in Ohio to educate public sentiment in the 
right direction on this subject. In the latter part of his life he retired from his profession and 
moved with his family on a large landed estate at Walhonding, where he resided until his death. 

Eli Nichols had great decision of character, and independence of thought and action ; his con- 
victions were strong, and he was always ready to maintain them, regardless of 'popular opinion; 
dissimulation and sycophancy found no place in his composition, but he was always bold to assert 
what he believed to be right, and was frank, open, undisguised in his intercourse with others. 
He was possessed of a high order of mental faculties ; a clear, comprehensive mind, with quick 
perception. He was energetic, self-reliant, generally a leader, influential, and a fluent and forpi- 
ble public speaker. 

Mr. Nichols was brought up a Quaker, afterward became liberal in his religious views, and in 
the latter part of his life espoused Spiritualism. 

Mrs. Nichols was a highly estimable and intelligent lady, took a deep interest in the effort for 
human liberty, and wrote many meritorious productions for the press. The following poem, 


written by her in 1835, upon the mobbing and killing of Lovejoy, at Alton, Illinois, because of his 
abolitionism, is inserted by request : 

' Fair Alton once, but fair no more, i 

Thy brow witli blood-stained wreaths is bound ; 
Thy days of honor are passed o'er — 
Thy virtues now a grave have found. 

' Late, as a prosp'rous growing tree, 

With goodly branches spreading wide, 
Exultingly we looked on thee,— 
Thy country's promise and her pride." 

' Or as a brightly dazzling star 

The darksome path of evening cheers. 
We hailed thee in thy land afar ; 
Its light and hope of after years. 

' But on thy morning's opening bloom 
Vice has eclipsed thy opening day ; 
Thy sun has set in sable gloom ; 
Oh ! thou hast cast thyself away. 

' Not thy vride prairies' fertile soil. 

Where Nature's hand profusely showers 
Luxuriantly, without thy toil, 
Her richest growth of grass and 'flowers. 

' Not all thy splendor— it is vain— 

Of wealth, of power, thou need not tell ; 
Not all'thy charms, if demons reign ; , 
With thee. Oh ! may we never dwell. . 

' Thy name is numbered with the vile ; 
The clays of earth to thee will cling ; 
No one with them in deeds of guile— 
Thou art a base, polluted thing. 

" The Mississippi rolling by 

In surging majesty with might, 
Can not, with all the floods, supply 
Half that will wash and make thee white. 

' North, by unholy feet are trod 

The dearest rights allotted man — 
Rights guaranteed him by his God^ 
Bights dear to all since time began. 

' For pleading on behalf of these, 

Thy impious hands have dared to shed 
Blood, which, by heaven's just decrees, 
Will be avenged upon thy head. 

' Our Lovejoy 's slain, but yet above, 

More perfect still each accent flows 
Around the mercy-seat of Love, 
Where thou canst never interpose. 

' Yes, angel-like, behold him there. 

Imploring heaven the work to bless ; 
And hear him from yon sky declare 
That God will crown it with success." 

Xmj "< hylBMLl tt ,.,.. .tJJ Umlay SctV 

- ^—1 



evidently found the results of the white men's labor, 
and expected they would return for it, and pre- 
pared to waylay them. Asahel Edgington fell 
dead. John was more fortunate. The sharp 
crack of the rifles, and the horrible yells of the 
savages as they leaped from their place of ambush, 
frightened the horses, who took the track for 
home at full speed. John was very active on foot, 
and now an opportunity offered which required his 
Utmost speed. The moment the Indians leaped 
from their hiding-place, they threw down their 
guns and took after him, yelling with aU their 
power. Edgington did not run a booty race. For 
about a mile, the savages stepped in his tracks al- 
most before the bending grass could rise. The 
uplifted tomahawk was frequently so near his head 
that he thought he felt its edge. He exerted 
himself to his utmost, while the Indians strove 
with all their might to catch him. Finally, he be- 
gan to gain on his pursuers, and, after a long race, 
distanced them and made his escape, safely reach- 
ing home. This, truly, was a most fearftil and 
well-contested race. The big Shawanee chief, Capt. 
John, who headed the Indians on this occasion, 
after peace was made, in narrating the particulars, 
said, " The white man who ran away was a smart 
fellow. The white man run; and I run. He run 
and run ; at last, the white man run clear off from 

The settlement, despite its dangers, prospered, 
and after the close of the war continued to grow 
rapidly. In two years after peace was declared, 
Adams County was erected by proclamation of 
Gov. St. Clair, the next year court was held, and 
in 1804, West Union was made the county seat. 

During the. war, a settlement was commenced 
near the present town of Bridgeport, in Belmont 
County, by Capt. Joseph Belmont, a noted Dela- 
ware Revolutionary officer, who, because his State 
could furnish only one company, could rise no 
higher than Captain of that company, and hence 
always maintained that grade. He settled on a 
beautiful knoll near the present county seat, but 
erelong suffered from a night attack by the In- 
dians, who, though unable to drive him and his 
companions from the cabin or conquer them, 
wounded some of them badly, one or two mortally, 
and caused the Captain to leave the frontier and 
return to Newark, Del. The attack was made 
in the spring of 1791, and a short time after, 
the Captain, having provided for the safety of his 
family, accepted a commission in St. Clair's army, 
and lost his life at the defeat of the General in 

November. Shortly after the Captain settled, a 
fort, called Dillie's Fort, was built on the Ohio, 
opposite the mouth of Grave Creek. About two 
hundred and fifty yards below this fort, an old 
man, named Tato, was shot down at his cabin door 
by the Indians, just as he was in the act of entering 
the house. His body was pulled in by his daugh- 
ter-in-law and grandson, who made an heroic de- 
fense. They were overpowered, the woman slain, 
and the boy badly wounded. He, however, man- 
aged to secrete himself and afterward escaped to 
the fort. The Indians, twelve or thirteen in num- 
ber, went off unmolested, though the men in the 
fort saw the whole transaction and could have 
punished them. Why they did not was never 

On Captina Creek in this same county, occurred, 
in May, 1794, the "battle of Captina," a fa- 
mous local skirmish between some Virginians from 
Fort Baker, and a party of Indians. Though the 
Indians largely outnumbered the whites, they were 
severely punished, and compelled to abandon the 
contest, losing several of their bravest warriors. 

These were the only settlements made until 
1795, the close of the war. Even these, as it will 
be observed from the foregoing pages, were tem- 
porary in all cases save one, and were maintained 
at a great risk, and the loss of many valuable lives. 
They were made in the beginning of the war,and such 
were their experiences that further attempts were 
abandoned until the treaty of Greenville was made, 
or until the prospects for peace and safety were 

No sooner, however, had the prospect of quiet 
been established, than a revival of emigration be- 
gan. ' Before the war it had been large, now it 
was largely increased. 

Wayne's treaty of peace with the Indians was 
made at Greenville, in what is now Darke County, 
the 3d of August, 1795. The number of Indians 
present was estimated at 1,300, divided among the 
principal nations as follows : 180 Wyandots, 381 
Delawares, 143 Shawanees, 45 Ottawas, 46 Chip- 
pewas, 240 Pottawatomies, 73 Miamis and Eel 
RiVer, 12 Weas and Piankeshaws, and 10 Kicka- 
poos and Kaskaskias. The principal chiefs were 
Tarhe, Buckongahelas, Black Hoof, Blue Jacket 
and Little Turtle. Most of them had been tam- 
pered with by the British agents and traders, but 
all had been so thoroughly chastised by Wayne, and 
found that the British only used them as tools, 
that they were quite anxious to make peace with 
the " Thirteen Fires." By the treaty, former ones 




were established, the boundary lines confirmed and 
enlarged, an exchange and delivery of prisoners 
effected, and permanent peace assured. 

In the latter part of September, after the treaty 
of Greenville, Mr. Bedell, from New Jersey, 
selected a site for a home in what is now Warren 
County, at a place since known as " Bedell's Sta- 
tion," about a mile south of Union Village. Here 
he erected a block-house, as a defense against the 
Indians, among whom were many renegades as 
among the whites, who would not respect the 
terms of the treaty. Whether Mr. Bedell was 
alone that fall, or whether he was joined by others, 
is not now accurately known. However that may 
be, he was not long left to himself; for, ere a year 
had elapsed, quite a number of settlements were 
made in this part of the Territory. Soon afler 
his settlement vas made. Gen. David Sutton, Capt. 
Nathan Kelley and others began pioneer life at 
Deerfield, in the same locality, and, before three 
years had gone by, a large number of New Jersey 
people were established in their homes; and, in 
1803, the county was formed from Hamilton. 
Among the early settlers at Deerfield, was Capt. 
Robert Benham, who, with a companion, in 1779, 
sustained themselves many days when the Captain 
had lost the use of his legs, and his companion 
his arms, from musket-balls fired by the hands of 
the Indians. They were with a large party com- 
manded by Maj. Rodgers, and were furiously 
attacked by an immense number of savages, and 
all but a few slain. The event happened during 
the war of the Revolution, before any attempt 
was made to settk the Northwest Territory. The 
party were going down the Ohio, probably to the 
falls, and were attacked when near the site of 
Cincinnati. As mentioned, these two men sus- 
tained each other many days, the one having per- 
fect legs doing the necessary walking, carrying his 
comrade to water, driving up game for him to 
shoot, and any other duties necessary; while the 
one who had the use of his arms could dress his 
companion's and his own wounds, kill and cook 
the game, and perform his share. They were 
rescued, finally, by a flat-boat, whose occupants, 
for awhile, passed them, feai-ing a decoy, but, 
becoming convinced that such was not the case, 
took them on down to Louisville, where they were 
nursed into perfect health. 

A settlement was made near the present town of 
Lebanon, the county seat of Warren County, in 
the spring of 1796, by Henry Taylor, who built a 
mill one mile west of the town site, on Turtle 

Creek. .Soon after, he was joined by Ichabod 
Corwin, John Osbourn, Jacob Vorhees, Samuel 
Shaw, Daniel Bonte and a Mr. Manning. When 
Lebanon was laid out, in 1803, the two-story log 
house built in 1797 by Ichabod Corwin was the 
only building on the plat. It was occupied by 
Ephraim Hathaway as a tavern. He had a black 
horse painted on an immense board for a sign, and 
continued in business here till 1810. The same 
year the town was laid out, a store was opened by 
John Huston, and, from that date, the growth of 
the county was very prosperous. Three years 
after, the Western Star was established by 
Judge John McLain, and the current news of 
the day given in weekly editions. It was one of 
the first newspapers established in the Territoiy, 
outside of Cincinnati. 

As has been mentioned, the opening of naviga- 
tion in the spring of 1796 brought a great flood 
of emigration to the Territory. The little settle- 
ment made by Mr. Bedell, in the autumn of 1795, 
was about the only one made that fall ; others made 
preparations, and many selected sites, but did not 
settle till the following spring. That spring, colo- 
nies were planted in what are now Montgomery, 
Koss, Madison, Mahoning, Trumbull, Ashtabula 
and Cuyahoga Counties, while preparations were 
in turn made to occupy additional territory that 
will hereafter be noticed. 

The settlement made in Montgomery . County 
was begun early in the spring of 1796. As early 
as 1788, the land on which Dayton now stands was 
selected by some gentlemen, who designed laying 
out a town to be named Venice. They agreed 
with Judge Symmes, whose contract covered the 
place, for the purchase of the lands. The Indian 
war which broke out at this time prevented an 
extension of settlements from the immediate 
neighborhood of the parent colonies, and the proj- 
ect was abandoned by the purchasers. Soon after 
the treaty of 1795, a new company, composed of 
Gens. Jonathan Dayton, Arthur St. Clair, James 
Wilkinson, and Col. Israel Ludlow, purchased the 
land between the Miamis, around the mouth of 
Mad River, of Judge Symmes, and, the 4th of 
November, laid out the town. Arrangements were 
made for its settlement the ensuing spring, and 
donations of lots, with other privileges, were ofiered - 
to actual settlers. Forty-six persons entered into 
engagements to remove from Cincinnati to Day- 
ton, but during the winter most of them scat- 
tered in different directions, and only nineteen fiil- 
fllled their contracts. The first families who 




made a permanent residence here, arrived on the 
first day of April, 1796, and at once set about 
establishing homes. Judge Symmes, however, 
becoming unable soon after to pay for his purchase, 
the land reverted to the United States, and the set- 
tlers in and about Dayton found themselves with- 
out titles to their lands. Congress, however, came 
to the aid of aU such persons, wherever they had 
purchased land of Symmes, and passed a pre-emp- 
tion law, under which they could enter their lands 
at the regular government price. Some of the set- 
tlers entered their lands, and obtained titles directly 
from the United States ; others made arrangements 
with Daniel C. Cooper to receive their deeds from 
him, and he entered the residue of the town lands. 
He had been the surveyor and agent of the first 
company of proprietors, and they assigned to him 
certain of their rights of pre-emption, by which he 
became the titular owner of the land. 

When the State government was organized in 
1803, Dayton was made the seat of justice for 
Montgomery County, erected the same year. At 
that time, owing to the title question, only five 
families resided in the place, the other settlers hav- 
ing gone to farms in the vicinity, or to other 
parts of the country. The increase of the town 
was gradual until the war of 1812, when its 
growth was more rapid until 1820, when it was 
again checked by the general depression of busi- 
ness. It revived in 1827, at the commencement 
of tlie Miami Canal, and since then its growth has 
always been prosperous. It is now one of the 
best cities in Ohio. The first canal boats from 
Cincinnati arrived at Dayton January 25, 1829, 
and the first one from Lake Erie the 24th of 
June, 1845. In 1825, a weekly line of stages 
was established between Columbus and Cincinnati, 
via Dayton. One day was occupied in coming 
from Cincinnati to Dayton. 

On the 18th of September, 1808, the Dayton 
Repertory/ was established by William McClureand 
George Smith. It was printed on a foolscap sheet. 
Soon after, it was enlarged and changed from a 
weekly to a daily, and, ere long, found a number 
of competitors in the field. 

In the lower part of Miamisburg, in this county, 
are the remains of ancient works, scattered about 
over the bottom. About a mile and a quarter 
southeast of the village, on an elevation more than 
one hundred feet above the level of the Miami, 
is the largest mound in the Northern States, ex- 
cepting the mammoth mound at Grave Creek, on 
the Ohio, below Wheeling, which it nearly equals 

in dimensions. It is about eight hundred feet 
around the base, and rises to a height of nearly 
seventy feet. When first known it was covered 
with forest trees, whose size evidenced great age. 
The Indians could give no account of the mound. 
Excavations revealed bones and charred earth, 
but what was its use, will always remain a con- 

One of the most important early settlements 
was made cotemporary with that of Dayton, in 
what is now Ross County. The same spring, 
1796, quite a colony came to the banks of the 
Scioto River, and, near the mouth of Paint Creek, 
began to plant a crop of corn on the bottom. The 
site had been selected as early as 1792, by Col. 
Nathaniel Massie* and others, who were so de- 
lighted with the country, and gave such glowing 
descriptions of it on their return — which accounts 
soon circulated through Kentucky — that portions 
of the Presbyterian congregations of Caneridge and 
Concord, in Bourbon County, under Rev. Robert 
W. Finley, determined to emigrate thither in a 
body. They were, in a measure, induced to take 
this step by their dislike to slavery, and a desire 
for freedom from its baleful influences and the un- 
certainty that existed regarding the validity of the 
land titles in that State. The Rev. Finley, as a 
preliminary step, liberated his slaves, and addressed 
to Col. Massie a letter of inquiry, in December, 
1794, regarding the land on the Scioto, of which 
he and his people had heard such glowing ac- 

"The letter induced Col. Massie to visit Mr. 
Finley in the ensuing March. A large concourse 
of people, who wished to engage in the enterprise, 
assembled on the occasion, and fixed on a day to 
meet at the Three Islands, in Manchester, and 
proceed on an exploring expedition. Mr. Finley 
also wrote to his friends in Western Pennsylvania 

* Nathaniel Maasie was bom in Goochland County, Va,, Decem- 
ber 28, 1763. In 1780, he engaged, for a short time, in the Revolu- 
tionary war. In 1783, he left for Kentucky, where he acted as a 
surveyor. He was afterward made a Government surveyor, and 
labored much in that capacity for early Ohio proprietors, being paid 
in lands, the amounts graded by the danger attached to the survey. 
In 1791, he established the settlement at Manchester, and a year or 
two after, continued his surveys up the Scioto. Here he was con- 
tinually in great danger from the Indians, but knew well how to 
guard against them, and thus preserved himself. In 1796, he estab- 
lished the Chillicothe settlement, and made his home in the Scioto 
Valley, being now an extensive land owner by reason of his long 
surveying service. In 1807, he and Ketum J. Meigs were compet- 
itors for the olBce of Governor of Ohio. Meigs was elected, but 
Massie contested his eligibility to the office, on ithe grounds of his 
absence from the State and insufficiency of time as a resident, as 
required by the Oonstitation. Meigs was declared ineligible by the 
General Assembly, and Massie declared Governor. He, however, 
resigned the office at once, not desiring it. He was often Kepre- 
sentative afterward. He died November 13, 1813. 

B "V " 




informing them of tlie time and place of rendez- 

" About sixty men met, according to appoint- 
ment, who were divided into three companies, 
lender Massie, Finley and Palenash. They pro- 
ceeded on their route, without interruption, until 
they struck the falls of Paint Creek. Proceeding 
a short distance down that stream, they suddenly 
found themselves in the vicinity of some Indians 
who had encamped at a place, since called Reeve's 
Crossing, near the present town of Bainbridge. 
The Indians were of those who had refused to 
attend Wayne's treaty, and it was determined to 
give them battle, it being too late to retreat with 
safety. The Indians, on being attacked, soon fled 
with the loss of two killed and several wounded. 
One of the whites only, Joshua Robinson, was 
mortally wounded, and, during the action, a Mr. 
Armstrong, a prisoner among the savages, escaped 
to his own people. The whites gathered all their 
plunder and retreated as far as Scioto Brush 
Creek, where they were, according to expectation, 
attacked early the next morning. Again the In- 
dians were defeated. Only one man among the 
whites, Allen Grilfillan, was wounded. The party 
of whites continued their retreat, the next day 
reached Manchester, and separated for their homes. 

"After Wayne's treaty, Col. Massie and several 
of the old explorers again met at the house of 
Rev. Finley, formed a company, and agreed to 
make a settlement in the ensuing spring (1796), 
and raise a crop of corn at the mouth of Paint 
Creek. According to agreement, they met at Man- 
chester about the first of April, to the number of 
forty and upward, from Mason and Bourbon 
Counties. Among them were Joseph McCoy, 
Benjamin and William Rodgers, David Shelby, 
James Harrod, Henry, Bazil and Reuben Abrams, 
William Jamison, James Crawford, Samuel, An- 
thony and Robert Smith, Thomas Dick, William 
and James Kerr, George and James Kilgi'ove, 
John Brown, Samuel and Robert Templeton, Fer- 
guson Moore, WilUam Nicholson and James B. 
Finley, later a prominent local Methodist minister. 
On starting, they divided into two companies, one 
of which struck across the country, while the 
other came on in pirogues. The first arrived 
earliest on the spot of their intended settlement, 
and had commenced erecting log huts above the 
mouth of Paint Creek, at the 'Prairio Station,' 
before the others had come on by water. About 
three hundred acres of the prairie were cultivated 
in corn that season. 

" In August, of this year — 1796 — ChUlicothe* 
was laid out by Col. Massie in a dense forest. He 
gave a lot to each of the first settlers, and, by the 
beginning of winter, about twenty cabins were 
erected. Not long after, a ferry was established 
across the Scioto, at the north end of Walnut 
street. The opening of Zane's trace produced a 
great change in travel westward, it having pre- 
viously been along the Ohio in keel-boats or canoes, 
or by land, over the Cumberland Mountains, 
through Crab Orchard, in Kentucky. 

" The emigrants brought corn-meal in their pi- 
rogues, and after that was gone, their principal 
meal, until the next summer, was that pounded in 
hominy mortars, which meal, when made into 
bread, and anointed with bear's-oil, was quite pal- 

"When the settlers first came, whisky was $4.50 
per gallon; but, in the spring of 1797, when the 
keel-boats began to run, the Monongahela whisky- 
makers, having found a good market for their fire- 
water, rushed it in, in such quantities, that the 
cabins were crowded with it, and it soon fell to 50 
cents. Men, women and children, with some excep- 
tions, drank it freely, and many who had been 
respectable and temperate became inebriates. 
Many of Wayne's soldiers and camp-women settled 
in the town, so that, for a time, it became a town 
of drunkards and a sink of corruption. There 
was, however, a htde leaven, which, in a few 
months, began to develop itself. 

"In the spring of 1797, one Brannon stole a 
great coat, handkerchief and shirt. He and his 
wife absconded, were pursued, caught and brought 
back. Samuel Smith was appointed Judge, a 
jury impanneled, one attorney appointed by the 
Judge to manage the prosecution, and another the 
defense ; witnesses were examined, the case argued, 
and the evidence summed up by the Judge. The 
jury, having retired a few moments, returned with 
a verdict of guilty, and that the culprit be sen- 
tenced according to the discretion of the Judge. 
The Judge soon announced that the criminal 
should have ten lashes on his naked back, or that 
he should sit on a bare pack-saddle on his pony, 
and that his wife, who was supposed to have had 
some agency in the theft, should lead the pony to 
every house in the village, and proclaim, ' This is 

*Chillicothe appears to have been a favorite name among the 
Indians, as many localities were known by that name. Col. John 
Johnston says ; "Chillicothe is the name of one of the principal 
tribes of the Shawanees. They would say, Ckil-i^cothe-otany, i. 6,, 
Chillicothe town. The Wyandots would say. for Chillicothe town, 
Tai-a-ra-ra^ Do-tia, or town at the leaning of the banlc." 




Brannon, who stole the great coat, handkerchief 
and shirt ;.' and that James B. Pinley, afterward 
Chaplain in the State Penitentiary, should see the 
sentence faithfully carried out. Brannon chose 
the latter sentence, and the ceremony was faith- 
fully performed by his wife in the presence of 
every cabin, under Mr. Finley's care, after which 
the couple made oiF. This was rather rude, but 
effective jurisprudence. 

" Dr. Edward Tiffin and Mr. Thomas Worth- 
ington, of Berkley County, Va., were brothers-in-law, 
and being moved by abolition principles, liberated 
their slaves, intending to remove into the Ter- 
ritory. For this purpose, Mr. Wo'rthington visited 
ChUlicothe in the autumn of 1797, and purchased 
several in and out lots of the town. On one of the 
former, he erected a two-story frame house, the 
first of the kind in the village. On his return, 
having purchased a part of a farm, on which his 
family long afterward resided, and another at the 
north fork of Paint Creek, he contracted with Mr. 
Joseph Yates, a millwright, and Mr. George Haines, 
a blacksmith, to come out with him the following 
winter or spring, and erect for him a grist and saw 
mill on his north-fork tract. The summer, fall 
and following winter of that year were marked by 
a rush of emigration, which spead over the high 
bank prairie, Pea-pea, Westfall and a few mUes 
up Paint and Deer Creeks. 

" Nearly all the first settlers were either regular 
members, or had been raised in the Presbyterian 
Church. Toward the fall of 1797, the leaven of 
piety retained by a portion of the first settlers be- 
gan to diffuse itself through the mass, and a large 
log meeting-house was erected near the old grave- 
yard, and Rev. William Speer, from Pennsylvania, 
took charge. The sleepers at first served as seats for 
hearers, and a split-log table was used as a pulpit. 
Mr. Speer was a gentlemanly, moral man, tall and 
cadaverous in person, and wore the cocked hat of 
the Revolutionary era. 

" Thomas Jones arrived in February, 1798, 
bringing with him the first load of bar-iron in the 
Scioto Valley, and about the same time Maj . Elias 
Langham, an officer of the Revolution, arrived. Dr. 
Tiffin, and his brother, Joseph, arrived the same 
month from Virginia and opened a store not far 
from the log meeting-house. A store had been 
opened previously by John McDougal. The 17th 
of April, the families of Col. Worthington and 
Dr. Tiffin arrived, at which time the first marriage 
in the Scioto Valley was celebrated. The parties 
were George Kilgore and Elizabeth Cochran. The 

ponies of the attendants were hitched to the trees 
along the streets, which were not then cleared out, 
nearly the whole town being a wilderness. Joseph 
Yates, George Haines, and two or three others, 
arrived with the families of Tiffin and Worthing- 
ton. On theii- arrival there were but four shingled 
roofs in town, on one of which the shingles 
were fastened with pegs. Col. Worthington's 
house was the only one having glass windows. The 
sash of the hotel windows was filled with greased 

"Col. Worthington was appointed by Gen. Ru- 
fiis Putnam, Surveyor General of the Northwest 
Territory, surveyor of a large district of Congress 
lands, on the east side of the Scioto, and Maj. 
Langham and a Mr. Matthews, were appointed to 
survey the residue of the lands which afterward 
composed the Chillicothe land district. 

" The same season, settlements were made about 
the Walnut Plains by Samuel McCulloh and 
others; Springer, Osbourn, Dyer, and Thomas and 
Elijah Chenowith, on Darly Creek; Lamberts and 
others on Sippo ; on Foster's Bottom, the Fosters, 
Samuel Davis and others, while the following fam- 
ilies settled in and about Chillicothe : John Crouse, 
William Keys, William Lamb, John Carlisle, John 
McLanberg, William Chandless, 'the Stoctons, 
Gr^gs, Bates and some others. 

" Dr. Tiffin and his wife were the first Metho- 
dists in the Scioto Valley. He was a local preacher. 
In the fall, Worthington's grist and saw mills on 
the north fork of Paint CrSek were finished, the 
first mills worthy the name in the valley. 

" Chillicothe was the point from which the set- 
tlements diverged. In May, 1799, a post office 
was established here, and Joseph Tifiin made Post- 
master. Mr. Tiffin and Thomas Gregg opened 
taverns; the first, under the sign of Gen. Anthony 
Wayne, was at the corner of Water and Walnut 
streets ; andlfce last, under the sign of the ' Green 
Tree,' was on the corner of Paint and Water 
streets. In 1801, Nathaniel Willis moved in and 
established the Scioto Gazette, probably, the sec- 
ond paper in the Territory."* 

In 1800,. the seat of government of the North- 
west Territory was removed, by law of Congress, 
from Cincinnati to Chillicothe. The sessions of 
the Territorial Assembly for that and the next 
year were held in a small two-story, hewed-log 
house, erected in 1798, by Bazil Abrams. A wing 
was added to the main part, of two stories in 

* Recollections of Hon. Thomas Scott, of Chillicothe— Howe's 
Annals of Ohio. 



height. In the lower room of this wing, Col. 
Thomas Gibson, Auditor of the Territory, kept 
his oifiee, and in the upper room a small family 
lived. In the upper room of the main building 
a billiard table was kept. It was also made a re- 
sort of gamblers ai)d disreputable characters. The 
lower room was used by the Legislature, and as a 
court room, a church or a school. In the 
war of 1812, the building was a rendezvous and 
barracks for soldiers, and, in 1840, was pulled 

The old State House was commenced in 1800, 
and finished the next year for the accommodation 
of the Legislature and the courts. It is said to 
be the first public stone edifice erected in the Ter- 
ritory. Maj. William Rutledge, a Revolutionary 
soldier, did the mason work, and William Guthrie, 
the carpenter. In 1801, the Territorial Legislature 
held their first session in it. In it was also held 
the Constitutional Convention of Ohio, which be- 
gan its sessions the first Monday in November, 
1802. In March, 1803, the first State Legislature 
met in the house, and continued their sessions here 
until 1810. The sessions of 1810-11, and 1811- 
12, were held in ZanesvUle, and from there re- 
moved back to Chillicothe and held in the old 
State House till 1816, when Columbus became the 
permanent capital of the State. 

Making Chillicothe the State capital did much 
to enhance its growth. It was incorporated in 
1802, and a town council elected. In 1807, the 
town had fourteen stores, six hotels, two newspa- 
pers, two churches — ^both brick buildings — and 
over two, hundred dwellings. The removal of the 
capital to Columbus checked its growth a little, still, 
being in an excellent country, rapidly filling with 
settlers, the town has always remained a prominent 
trading center. 

During the war of 1812, Chillicothe was made 
a rendezvous for United States aflldiers, and a 
prison established, in which many British prison- 
ers were confined. At one time, a conspiracy for 
escape was discovered just in time to prevent it. 
The plan was for the prisoners to disarm the 
guard, proceed to jail, release the officers, burn the 
town, and escape to Canada. The plot was fortu- 
nately disclosed by two senior British officers, upon 
which, as a measure of secmity, the officers and 
chief conspirators were sent to the penitentiary 
at Frankfort, Kentucky. 

Two or three miles northwest of Chillicothe, on 
a beautiful elevation, commanding an extensive 
view of the valley of the Scioto, Thomas Worth- 

ington,* one of the most prominent and influential 
men of his day, afterward Governor of the State, 
in 1806, erected a large stone mansion,~the wonder 
of the valley in its time. It was the most elegant 
mansion in the West, crowds coming to see it 
when it was completed. Gov. Worthington named 
the place Adena, "Paradise" — a name not then 
considered hyperbolical. The large panes of glass, 
and the novelty of papered walls especially attracted 
attention. Its architect was the elder Latrobe, of 
Washington City, from which place most of the 
workmen came. The glass was made in Pitts- 
burgh, and the fireplace fronts in Philadelphia, the 
latter costing seven dollars per hundred pounds for 
transportation. The mansion, built as it was, cost 
nearly double the expense of such structures now. 
Adena was the home of the Governor till his death, 
in 1827. 

Near Adena, in a beautiful situation, is Fruit 
Hill, the seat of Gen. Duncan McArthur,f and 
later of ex-Gov. William Allen. Like Adena, Fruit 
Hill is one of the noted places in the Scioto Val- 
ley. Many of Ohio's best men dwelt in the valley ; 
men who have been an honor and ornament to the 
State and nation. 

Another settlement, begun soon after the treaty 
of peace in 1795, was that made on the Licking 
River, about four miles below the present city of 
Newark, in Licking County. In the fall of 1798, 
John Ratliff and Elias Hughes, while prospecting 
on this stream, found some old Indian' cornfields, 
and determined to locate. They were from West- 
ern Virginia, and were true pioneers, hving mainly 
by hunting, leaving the cultivation of their small 
cornfields to their wives, much after the style of 

* Got. Worthington was bom in Jeffeison County, Va., about the 
year 1769, He settled in Ohio in 1798. He was a firm believer in 
liberty and came to the Territory after liberating his slaves. He was 
one of the most efGcient men of his day ; was a member of the 
Constitutional Convention, and was sent on an important mission 
to Congress relative to the admission of Ohio to the Union. He 
was afterward a Senator to Congress, and then Governor. On 
the expiration of his gubernatorial term, he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the Board of Public Works, in which capacity he did much 
to advance the canals and railroads, and other public improve- 
ments. He remained in this ofGce till bis death. 

f Gen. Mc.\rlhur was born in DutcheEs County, N. T., in 1772. 
When eight years of age, his father removed to Western Pennsyl- 
vania. When eighteen years of age, lie served in Harmar'a 
campaign. In 1792, he was a very efHcient soldier among the front- 
iersmen, and gained their approbation by his bravery. In 1793, he 
was connected with Gen. Massie, and afterward was engaged in 
land speculations and became very wealthy. He was made a mem- 
ber of the Legislature, in 1806 ; in 1806, a Colonel and in 1808, a 
Major General of the militia. In this capacity he was in Hull's 
surrender at Detroit. On his return he was elected to Congress, 
and in 1813 commissioned Brigadier General. He was one of the 
most efficient officers in the war of 1812, and held many important 
posts. After the war, he was again sent to the Legislature ; in 1822 
to Congress, and in 1830 elected Governor of the State. By an un- 
fortunate accident in 1836, he was maimed for life, and gradually 
declined till death came a few years after. 




their dusky neighbors. They were both inveterate 
Indian-haters, and never allowed an opportunity to 
pass without carrying out their hatred. For this, 
they were apprehended after the treaty; but, 
though it was clearly proven they had murdered 
some inoffensive Indians, the state of feeling was 
such that they were allowed to go unpunished. 

A short time after their settlement, others joined 
them, and, in a few years, quite a colony had 
gathered on the banks of the Licking. In 1802, 
Newark .was laid out, and, in three or four years, 
there were twenty or thirty families, several stores 
and one or two hotels. 

The settlement of Granville Township, in this 
county, is rather an important epoch in the history 
of this part of the State. Fjom a sketch pub- 
lished by Rev. Jacob Little in 1848, in Howe's, 
Collections, the subjoined statements are taken: 

"In 1804, a company was formed at Granville, 
Mass., with the intention of making a settlement 
in Ohio. This, called the Scioto Company, was 
the third of that name which effected settlements 
in Ohio. The project met with great favor, and 
much enthusiasm was elicited, in illustration of 
which a song was composed and sung to the 
tune of ' Pleasant Ohio ' by the young people in 
the house and at labor in the field. We annex 
two stanzas, which are more curious than poetical : 

"'When rambling o'er these mountains 

And rocks where ivies grow 
Thick as the hairs upon your head, 

"Mongst which you cannot go — 
Great storms of snow, cold winds that blow, 

We scarce can undergo — 
Says I, my boys, we'll leave this place 

For the pleasant Ohio. 

" 'Our precious friends that stay behind. 

We're sorry now to leave; 
But if they'll stay and break their shins, 

For them we'll never grieve. 
Adieu, my friends! — Come on, my dears, 

This journey we'll forego. 
And settle Licking Creek, 

In yonder Ohio.' " 

" The Scioto Company consisted of one hundred 
and fourteen proprietors, who made a purchase of 
twenty-eight thousand acres. In the autumn of 
1805, two hundred and thirty-four persons, mostly 
from East Granville, Mass., came on to the pur- 
chase. Although they had been forty-two days on 
the road, their first business, on their arrival, hav- 
ing organized a church before they left the East, 
was to hear a sermon. The first tree cut was that 

by which public worship was held, which stood 
just in front of the Presbyterian church. 

On the first Sabbath, November 16, although 
only about a dozen trees had been felled, they held 
divine service, both forenoon and afternoon, on 
that spot. The novelty of worshiping in the 
woods, the forest extending hundreds of miles each 
way ; the hardships of the journey, the winter set- 
ting in, the thoughts of home, with all the friends 
and privileges left behind, and the impression that 
such must be the accommodations of anew country, 
all rushed on their minds, and made this a day of 
varied interest. When they began to sing, the 
echo of their voices among the trees was so differ- 
ent from what it was in the beautiftil meeting- 
house they had left, that they could no longer 
restrain their tears. They wept when they remem- 
hered Zion. The voices of part of the choir were, 
for a season, suppressed with emotion. 

"An incident occurred, which many said Mrs. 
Sigourney should have put into verse. Deacon 
Theophilus Reese, a Welsh Baptist, had, two or 
three years before, built a cabin, a mile and' a half 
north, and lived all this time without public wor- 
ship. He had lost his cattle, and, hearing a low- 
ing of the oxen belonging to the Company, set out 
toward them. As he ascended' the hills overlook- 
ing the town plot, he heard the singing of the 
choir. The reverberation of the sound from hill- 
tops and trees, threw the good man into a serious 
dilemma. The music at first seemed to be behind, 
then in the tree-tops, or in the clouds. He stopped, 
till, by accurate listening, he caught the direction 
of the sound ; went on and passing the brow of 
the hill, he saw the audience sitting on the 
level below. He went home and told his wife that 
' the promise of God is a bond ' ; a Welsh proverb, 
signifying that we have security, equal to a bond, 
that religion will prevail everywhere. He said : 
' These must be good people. I am not afraid to 
go among them.' Though he could not under- 
stand JEnglish, he constantly attended the reading 
meeting. Hearing the music on that occasion 
made such an impression on his mind that, when 
he became old and met the first settlers, he would 
always tell over this story. The first cabin built 
was that in which they worshiped succeeding 
Sabbaths, and, before the close of the winter, they 
had a schoolhouse and a school. That church, in 
forty years, received more than one thousand per- 
sons into its membership. 

"Elder Jones, in 1806, preached the first ser- 
mon in the log church. The Welsh Baptist 





Church was organized in the cabin of David 
Thomas, September 4, 1808. April 21, 1827, 
the Grranville members were organized into the 
Granville Church, and the corner-stone of their 
house of worship laid September 21, 1829. In 
the fall of 1810, the first Methodist sermon was 
preached here, and, soon after, a class organized. 
In 1824, a church was built. An Episcopal 
church was organized in May, 1827, and a 
church consecrated in 1838. In 1849, there 
were in this township 405 families, of whom 214 
sustain family worship ; 1431 persons over four- 
teen years of age, of whom over 800 belong to 
church. The town had 150 families, of whom 80 
have family worship. In 1846, the township 
fiirnished 70 school teachers, of whom 62 prayed 
in school. In 1846, the township took 621 peri- 
odical papers, besides three small monthlies. The 
first temperance society west of the mountains was 
organized July 15, 1828, in this township; and, 
in 1831, the Congregational Church passed a by- 
law to accept no member who trafficked in or used 
ardent spirits." 

It is said, not a settlement in the entire West 
could present so moral and upright a view as that 
of Granville Township; and nowhere could so 
perfect and orderly a set of people be found. 
Surely, the fact is argument enough in favor of 
the religion of Jesus. 

The narrative of Mr. Little also states that, 
when Granville was first settled, it was supposed 
that Worthington would be the capital of Ohio, 
between which and Zanesville, Granville would 
make a great half-way town. At this time, wild 
animals, snakes and Indians abounded, and many 
are the marvelous stories preserved regarding the 
destruction of the animals and reptiles — • the 
Indians being bound by their treaty to remain 
peaceful. Space forbids their repetition here. 
Suffice it to say that, as the whites increased, the 
Indians, animals and snakes disappeared, until 
now one is as much a curiosity as the other, 

The remaining settlement in the southwest- 
ern parts of Ohio, made immediately after the 
treaty — fall of 1795 or year of 1796 — ^was in 
what is now Madison County, about a mile north 
of where the village of Amity now stands, on the 
banks of the Big Darby. This stream received its 
name from the Indians, from a Wyandot chief, 
named Darby, who for a long time resided upon it, 
near the Union County line. In the fall of 1795, 
Benj amin Springer came from Kentucky and selected 
some land on the banks of the Big Darby, cleared 

the ground, built a cabin, and returned for his 
family. The next spring, he brought them out, 
and began his life here. The same summer he was 
joined by William Lapin, Joshua and James Ew- 
ing and one or two others. 

When Springer came, he found a white man 
named Jonathan Alder, who for fifteen years had 
been a captive among the Indians, and who could 
not speak a word of English, living with an Indian 
woman on the banks of Big Darby. He had been 
exchanged at Wayne's treaty, and, ne^ecting to 
profit by the treaty, was still living in the Indian 
style. When the whites became numerous about 
him his desire to find his relatives, and adopt the 
ways of the whites, led him to discard his squaw — 
giving her an unusual allowance — learn the English 
language, engage in agricultural pursuits, and be- 
come again civilized. Fortunately, he could remem- 
ber enough of the names of some of his parents' 
neighbors, so that the identity of his relatives and 
friends was easily established, and Alder became a 
most usefiil citizen. He was very influential with 
the Indians, and induced many of them to remain 
neutral during the war of 1812. It is stated that 
in 1800, Mr. Ewing brought four sheep into the com- 
munity. They were strange animals to the Indians. 
One day when an Indian hunter and his dog were 
passing, the latter caught a sheep, and was shot by 
Mr. Ewing. The Indian would have shot Ewing in 
retaliation, had not Alder, who was fortunately 
present, with much difficulty prevailed upon him 
to refrain. 

While the southern and southwestern parts of 
the State were filling with settlers, assured of safety 
by Wayne's victories, the northern and eastern 
parts became likewise the theater of activities. 
Ever since the French had explored the southern 
shores of the lake, and English traders had car- 
ried goods thither, it was expected one day to be 
a valuable part of the West. It will be remem- 
bered that Connecticut had ceded a large tract of 
land to the General Government, and as soon as 
the cession was confirmed, and land titles became 
assured, settlers fiocked thither. Even before that 
time, hardy adventurers had explored some of the 
country, and pronounced it a "goo'flly land," 
ready for the hand of enterprise. 

The first settlement in the Western Reserve, 
and, indeed, in the northern part of the State, was 
made at the mouth of Conneaut* Creek, in Ash- 
tabula County, on the 4th of July, 1796. That 

* Conneaut, in the Seneca langaage, signifies " many fish." 




day, the first surveying party landed at the mouth 
of this creek, and, on its eastern hank, near the 
lake shore, in tin cups, pledged — as they drank the 
limpid waters of the lake — their country's welfare, 
with the ordnance accompaniment of two or three 
fowling-pieces, discharging the required national 

The whole party, on this occasion, numbered 
fifty-two persons, of whom two were females (Mrs. 
Stiles and Mrs. Gunn) and a child, and all deserve 
a lasting place in the history of the State. 

The next day, they began the erection of a large 
log building on the sandy beach on the east side 
of the stream. When done, it was named " Stow 
Castle," after one of the party. It was the dwell- 
ing, storehouse and general habitation of all the 
pioneers. The party made this their headquar- 
ters part of the summer, and continued busily 
engaged in the survey of the Reserve. James 
Kingsbury, afterward Judge, arrived soon after 
the party began work, and, with his family, was 
the first to remain here during the winter follow- 
ing, the rest returning to the East, or going south- 
ward. Through the winter, Mr. Kingsbury's 
family sufiered greatly for provisions, so much so, 
that, during the absence of the head of the family 
in New York for provisions, one child, born in his 
absence, died, and the mother, reduced by her suf- 
ferings and solitude, was only saved by the timely 
arrival of the husband and father with a sack of 
flour he had carried, many weary miles, on his 
back. He remained here but a short time, re- 
moving to Cleveland, which was laid out that same 
fall. In the spring of 1798, Alexander Harper, 
WilUam McFarland and Ezra Gregory, with their 
families, started from Harpersfield, Delaware Co., 
N. Y., and arrived the last of June, at their new 
homes in the Far West. The whole population on 
the Reserve then amounted to less than one hun- 
dred and fifty persons. These were at Cleveland, 
Youngstown and at Mentor. During the summer, 
three faiJilies came to Burton, and Judge Hudson 
settled at Hudson. All these pioneers sufiered 
severely for food, and from the fever induced by 
chills. It took several years to become accli- 
mated. SoWetimes the entire neighborhood 
would be down, and only one or two, who could 
wait on the rest "between chills," were able to do 
anything. Time and courage overcame, finally. 

It was not until 1798, that a permanent settle- 
inent was made at the mouth of Conneaut Creek. 
Those who came there in 1796 went on with their 
surveys, part remaining in Cleveland, laid out that 

summer. Judge Kingsbury could not remain at 
Conneaut, and went nearer the settlements made 
about the Cuyahoga. Inthespring of 1798, Thomas 
Montgomery and Aaron Wright settled here and 
remained. Up the stream they found some thirty 
Indian cabins, or huts, in a good state of preserva- 
tion, which they occupied until they could erect 
their own. Soon after, they were joined by others, 
and, in a year or two, the settlement was permanent 
and prosperous. 

The site of the present town of Austinburg in 
Ashtabula County was settled in the year 1799, 
by two families from Connecticut, who were in- 
duced to come thither, by Judge Austin. The 
Judge preceded them a short time, driving, in 
company with a hired man, some cattle about one 
hundred and fifty miles through the woods, follow- 
ing an old Indian trail, while the rest of the party 
came in a boat across the lake. When they ar- 
rived, there were a few families at Harpersburg ; 
one or two families at Windsor, twenty miles 
southwest; also a few families at Elk Creek, forty 
miles northeast, and at Vernon, the same distance 
southeast. All these were in a destitute condition 
for provisions. In 1800, another family moved 
from Norfolk, Conn. In the spring of 1801, sev- 
eral families came from the same place. Part came 
by land, and part by water. During that season, 
wheat was carried to an old mill on Elk Creek, 
forty miles away, and in some instances, half was 
given for carrying it to mill and returning it in 

Wednesday, October 21, 1801, a church of six- 
teen members was constituted in Austinburg. 
This was the first church on the Reserve, and was 
founded by Rev. Joseph Badger, the first mission- 
ary there. It is a fact worthy of note, that in 
1802, Mr. Badger moved his family from BuiFalo 
to this town, in the first wagon that ever came 
from that place to the Reserve. In 1803, noted 
revivals occurred in this part of the West, attended 
by the peculiar bodily phenomenon known as the 
" shakes " or "jerks." 

The surveying party which landed at the mouth 
of Conneaut Creek, July 4, 1796, soon completed 
their labors in this part of the Reserve, and ex- 
tended them westward. By the first of September, 
they had explored the lake coast as far west as the 
outlet of the Cuyahoga* River, then considered 

* Cuyahoga, in the Indian language, signifies "crooked." — 
Hbujfi's Collectiona. 

" The Indians called the river 'Ouyahoghan-uk,' 'Lake Elver.' 
It is, emphatically, a Lake river. It riseB in lakes and empties into 
a lake." — Alwater^a HUtory of Ohio. 




by all an important Western place, and one des- 
tined to be a great commercial mart. Time has 
verified the prophecies, as now the city of Cleve- 
land covers the site. 

As early as 1Y55, the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
Kiver was laid down on the maps, and the French 
had a station here. It was also considered an im- 
portant post during the war of the Revolution, 
and later, of 1812. The British, who, after the 
Revolution, refused to abandon the lake country 
west of the Cuyahoga, occupied its shores until 
1790. Their traders had a house in Ohio City, 
north of the Detroit road, on the point of the hill 
near the river, when the surveyors arrived in 
1Y96. Washington, Jefferson, and all statesmen 
of that day, regarded the outlet of the Cuyahoga 
as an important place, and hence the early at- 
tempt of the surveyors to reach and lay out a town 

The corps of surveyors arrived early in Septem- 
ber, 1796, and at once proceeded to lay out a town. 
It was named Cleveland, in honor of Gen. Moses 
Cleveland, the Land Company's agent, and for 
years a very prominent man in Connecticut, where 
he lived and died. By the 18th of October, the 
surveyors had completed the survey and left the 
place, leaving only Job V. StOes and family, and 
Edward Paine, who were the only persons that 
passed the succeeding winter in this place. Their 
residence was a log cabin that stood on a spot of 
ground long afterward occupied by the Commercial 
Bank. Their nearest neighbors were at Conne- 
aut, where Judge Kingsbury lived; at Fort 
Mcintosh, on the south or east, at the mouth of 
Big Beaver, and at the mouth of the river Raisin, 
on the west. 

The next season, the surveying party came again 
to Cleveland, which they made their headquarters. 
Early in the spring, Judge Kingsbury came over 
from Conneaut, bringing with him Elijah Gunn, 
who had a short time before joined him. Soon 
after, Maj. Lorenzo Carter and Ezekiel Hawley 
came with their families. These were about all 
who are known to have settled in this place that 
summer. The next year, 1798, Rodolphus Ed- 
wards and Nathaniel Doane and their families set- 
tled in Cleveland. Mr. Doane had been ninety- 
two days on his journey from Chatham, Conn. In 
the latter. part of the summer and fall, nearly every 
person in the settlement was down with the bil- 
ious fever or with the ague. Mr. Doane's family 
consisted of nine persons, of whom Seth, a lad six- 
teen years of age, was the only one able to care for 

them. Such was the severity of the fever, that 
any one having only the ague was deemed quite 
fortunate. Much suffering for proper food and 
medicines followed. The only way the Doane 
family was supplied for two months or more, was 
through the exertions of this boy, who went daily, 
after having had one attack of the chills, to Judge 
Kingsbury's in Newburg — ^five miles away, where 
the Judge now lived — got a peck of corn, mashed it 
in a hand-mill, waited until a second attack of the 
chills passed over, and then returned. At oae time, 
for several days, he was too ill to make the trip, 
during which turnips comprised the chief article 
of diet. Fortunately, Maj. Carter, having only 
the ague, was enabled with his trusty rifle and dogs 
to procure an abundance of venison and other wild 
game. His family, being somewhat acchmated, 
suffered less than many others. Their situation can 
hardly now be realized. " Destitute of a physician, 
and with few medicines, necessity taught them to 
use such means as nature had placed within their 
reach. They substituted pills from the extract of 
the bitternut bark for calomel, and dogwood and 
cherry bark for quinine." 

In November, four men, who had so far recov- 
ered as to have ague attacks no oftener than once 
in two or three days, started in the only boat for 
Walnut Creek, Penn., to obtain a winter's supply 
of flour. When below Euclid Creek, a storm 
drove them ashore, broke their boat, and compelled 
their return. During the winter and summer fol- 
lowing, the settlers had no flour, except that 
ground in hand and coffee mills, which was, how- 
ever, considered very good. Not all had even that. 
During the summer, the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany opened the first road on the Reserve, which 
commenced about ten miles south of the lake 
shore, on the Pennsylvania State line, and extended 
to Cleveland. In January, 1799, Mr. Doane 
moved to Doane's Corners, leaving only Maj. Car- 
ter's family in Cleveland, all the rest leaving as 
soon as they were well enough. For fifteen months, 
the Major and his family were the only white per- 
sons left on the town site. During the spring, 
Wheeler W. Wilhams and Maj. Wyatt built the 
first grist-mill on the Reserve, on thj^ite of New- 
burg. It was looked upon as a very valuable acces- 
sion to the neighborhood. Prior to this, each fam- 
ily had its own hand-mill in one of the corners of 
the cabin. The old mill is thus described by a 
pioneer : 

" The stones were of the common grindstone 
grit, about four inches thick, and twenty in diame- 





ter. The runner, or upper, was turned by hand, 
by a pole set in the top of it, near the outer edge. 
The upper end of the pole was inserted into a hole 
in a board fastened above to the joists, immedi- 
ately over the hole in the verge of the runner. 
One person fed the corn into the eye — a hole in 
the center of the runner — while another turned. 
It was very hard work to grind, and the operators 
alternately exchanged places." 

In 1800, several settlers came to the town and 
a more active life was the result. Prom this time, 
Cleveland began to progress. The 4th of July, 
1801, the first ball in town was held at Major 
Carter's log cabin, on the hill-side. John and 
Benjamin Wood, and R. H. Blinn were managers ; 
and Maj. Samuel Jones, musician and master of 
ceremonies. The company numbered aboutthirty, 
very evenly divided-, for the times, between the 
sexes. " Notwithstanding the dancers had a rough 
puncheon floor, and no better beverage to enliven 
their spirits than sweetened whisky, yet it is doubt- 
ful if the anniversary of American independence 
was ever celebrated in Cleveland by a more joyful 
and harmonious company than those who danced 
the scamper-down,, double-shuffle, western-swing 
and half-moon, that day, in Maj. Carter's cabin." 
The growth of the town, from this period on, re- 
mained prosperous. The usual visits of the Indi- 
ans were made, ending in their drunken carousals 
and fights. Deer and other wild animals furnished 
abundant meat. The settlement was constantly 
augmented by new arrivals, so that, by 1814, Cleve- 
land was incorporated as a town, and, in 1836, as 
a city. Its harbor is one of the best on the lakes, 
and hence the merchandise of the lakes has always 
been attracted thither. Like Cincinnati and Chil- 
licothe, it became the nucleus of settlements in this 
part of the State, and now is the largest city in 
Northern Ohio. 

One of the earliest settlements made in the 
Western Reserve, and by some claimed as the first 
therein, was made on the site of Youngstown, Ma- 
honing County, by a Mr. Young, afterward a Judge, 
in the summer of 1Y96. During this summer, 
before the settlements at Cuyahoga and Conneaut 
were made, Mr. Young and Mr. Wilcott, proprie- 
tors of a township of land in Northeastern Ohio, 
came to their possessions and began the survey of 
their land. Just when they came is not known. 
They were found here by Col. James Hillman, 
then a trader in the employ of Duncan & Wilson, 
of Pittsburgh, " who had been forwarding goods 
across the country by pack-saddle horses since 

1786, to the mouth of the Cuyahoga, thence to be 
shipped on the schooner Mackinaw to Detroit. 
Col. Hillman generally had charge of all these 
caravans, consisting sometimes of ninety horses 
and ten men. They commonly crossed the Big 
Beaver four miles below the mouth of the She- 
nango, thence up the left bank of the Mahoning — 
called by the Indians " Mahoni" or " Mahonick," 
signifying the " lick" or " at the lick " — crossing 
it about three miles below the site of Youngstown, 
thence by way of the Salt Springs, over the sites 
of Milton and Ravenna, crossing the Cuyahoga at 
the mouth of Breakneck and again at the mouth 
of Tinker's Creek, thence down the river to its 
mouth, where they had i log hut in which to 
store their goods. This hut was there when the 
surveyors came, but at the time unoccupied. At 
the mouth of Tinker's Creek were a few log huts 
built by Moravian Missionaries. These were used 
only one year, as the Indians had gone to the Tus- 
carawas River. These and three or four cabins at 
the Salt Springs were the only buildings erected 
by the whites prior to 1796, in Northeastern Ohio. 
Those at the Salt Springs were built at an early 
day for the accommodation of whites who came 
from Western Pennsylvania to make salt. The 
tenants were dispossessed in 1785 by Gen. Harmar. 
A short time after, one or two white men were 
killed by the Indians here. In 1788, Col. Hill- 
man settled at Beavertown, where Duncan & 
Wilson had a store for the purpose of trading 
with the Indians. He went back to Pittsburgh 
soon after, however, owing to the Indian war, and 
remained there till its close, continuing in his busi- 
ness whenever opportunity offered. In 1796, 
when returning from one of his trading expeditions 
alone in his canoe down the Mahoning River, he 
discovered a smoke on the bank near the present 
town of Youngstown, and on going to the spot 
found Mr. Young and Mr. Wolcdtt, as before men- 
tioned. A part of Col. Hillman's cargo consisted 
of whisky, a gallon or so of which he still had. 
The price of " fire-water " then was $1 per quart 
in the currency of the country, a deerskin being 
legal tender for $1, and a doeskin for 50 cents. 
Mr. Young proposed purchasing a quart, and 
having a frolic on its contents during the even- 
ing, and insisted on paying Hillman his cus- 
tomary price. Hillman urged that inasmuch as 
they were strangers in the country, civility re- 
quired him to furnish the means for the entertain- 
ment. Young, however, insisted, and taking the 
deerskin used for his bed — the only one he had — 

^ a r^ 



paid for his quart of whisky, and an evening's 
froKc was the result. 

" Hillman remained a few days, when they ac- 
companied him to Beaver Town to celebrate the 
4th, and then all returned, and Hillman erected a 
cabin on the site of Youngstown. It is not cer- 
tain that they remained here at this time, and 
hence the priority of actual settlement is generally 
conceded to Conneaut and Cleveland. The next 
year, in the fall, a Mr. Brown and one other per- 
son came to the banks of the Mahoning and made 
a permanent settlement. The same season Uriah 
Holmes and Titus Hayes came to the same locahty, 
and before winter quite a settlement was to be seen 
here. It proceeded quite prosperously until the 
wanton murder of two Indians occurred, which, 
for a time, greatly excited the whites, lest the In- 
dians should retaliate. Through the efforts of 
Col. Hillman, who had great influence with the 
natives, they agreed to let the murderers stand a 
trial. They were acquitted upon some technicality. 
The trial, however, pacified the Indians, and no 
trouble came from the unwarranted and unfortu- 
nate circumstance, and no check in the emigration 
or prosperity of the colony occurred."* 

As soon as an effective settlement had been es- 
tablished at Youngstown, others were made in the 
surrounding country. One of these was begun by 
William Fenton in 1798, on the site of the pres- 
ent town of Warren, in Trumbull County. He 
remained here alone one year, when he was joined 
by Capt. Ephraim Quimby. By the last of Sep- 
tember, the next year, the colony had increased to- 
sixteen, and from that date on continued prosper- 
ously. Once or twice they stood in fear of the 
Indians, as the result of quarrels induced by 
whisky. Sagacious persons generally saved any 
serious outbreak and pacified the natives. Mr. 
Badger, the first missionary on the Reserve, came 
to the settlement here and on the Mahoning, as 
soon as- each was made, and, by his earnest labors, 
succeeded in forming churches and schools at an 
early day. He was one of the most efficient men 
on the Reserve, and throughout his long and busy 
life, was well known and greatly respected. He 
died in 1846, aged eighty-nine years. 

The settlements given are about all that were 
made before the close of 1797. In following the 
narrative of these settlements, attention is paid to 
the chronological order, as far as this can be done. 
Like those settlements already made, many which 

* BecoUectioDS of Ool. Hillman, — Howe's Annah, 

are given as occurring in the next year, 1798, 
were actually begun earlier, but were only tem- 
porary preparations, and were not considered as 
made until the next year. 

Turning again to the southern portion of Ohio, 
the Scioto, Muskingum and Miami Valleys come 
prominently into notice. Throughout the entire 
Eastern States they were still attracting attention, 
and an increased emigration, busily occupying their 
verdant fields, was the result. All about Chilli- 
cothe was now well settled, and, up the banks of 
that stream, prospectors were selecting sites for 
their future homes. 

In 1797, Robert Armstrong, George Skidmore, 
Lucas Sullivant, William Domigan, James Mar- 
shall, John Dill, Jacob Grubb, Jacob Overdier, 
Arthur O'Hara, John Briekell, Col. Culbertson, 
the Deardorfs, McElvains, Selles and others, came 
to what is now Franklin County, and, in August, 
Mr. Sullivant and some others laid out the town of 
Franklinton, on the west bank of the Scioto, oppo- 
site the site of Columbus. The country about this 
locality had long been the residence of the Wyan- 
dots, who had a large town oh the city's site, and 
cultivated extensive fields of corn on the river bot- 
toms. The locality had been visited by the whites ■ 
as early as 1780, in some of their expeditions, and 
the fertility of the land noticed. As soon as peace 
was assured, the whites came and began a settle- 
ment, as has been noted. Soon after Franklinton 
was established, a Mr. Springer and his son-in-law, 
Osborn, settled on the Big Darby, and, in the sum- 
mer of 1798, a scattering settlement was made on 
Alum Creek. About the same time settlers came 
to the mouth of the Gahannah, and along other 
water-courses. Franklinton was the point to which 
emigrants came, and from which they always made 
their permanent location. For several years there 
was no mill, nor any such commodity, nearer than 
Chillicothe. A hand-mill was constructed in 
Franklinton, which was commonly used, unless the 
settlers made a trip to Chillicothe in a canoe. 
Next, a horse-mill was tried; but not till 1805, 
when Col. Kilbourne built a mill at Worthington, 
settled in 1803, could any efficient grinding be 
done. In 1789, a small store was opened in Frank- 
linton, by James Scott, but, for seven or eight 
years, Chillicothe was the nearest post office. 
Often, when the neighbors wanted mail, one of 
their number was furnished money to pay the 
postage on any letters that might be waiting, and 
sent for the mail. At first, as in all new localities, 
a great deal of sickness, fever and ague, prevailed. 



As the people became acclimated, this, however, 

.The township of Sharon in this county has a 
history similar to that of Granville Township in 
Licking County. It was settled by a " Scioto 
Company," formed in Granby, Conn., in the winter 
of 1801-02, consisting at first of eight associates. 
They drew up articles of association, among which 
was one limiting their number to forty, each of 
whom must be unanimously chosen by ballot, a 
single negative beingsufficienttopreventan election. 
Col. James KUbourne was sent out the succeeding 
spring to explore the country and select and pur- 
chase a township for settlement. He returned in 
the fall without making any purchase, through 
fear that the State Constitution, then about to be 
formed, would tolerate slavery, in which case the 
project would have been abandoned. While on 
this visit. Col. Kilbourne compiled from a variety 
of sources the first map made of Ohio. Although 
much of it was conjectured, and hence inaccurate, 
it was very valuable, being correct as far as the 
State was then known. 

"As soon as information was received that the 
constitution of Ohio prohibited slavery. Col. Kil- 
bourne purchased the township he had previously 
selected, within the United States military land 
district, and, in the spring of 1803, returned to 
Ohio, and began improvements. By the succeed- 
ing December, one hundred settlers, mainly from 
Hartford County, Conn., and Hampshire County, 
Mass., arrived at their new home. Obeying to the 
letter the agreement made in the East, the first 
cabin erected was used for a schoolhouse and a 
church of the Protestant Episcopal denomination ; 
the first Sabbath after the arrival of the colony, 
divine service was held therein, and on the arrival 
of the eleventh family a school was opened. This 
early attention to education and religion has left 
its favorable impress upon the people until this day. 
The first 4th of July was uniquely and appropri- 
ately celebrated. Seventeen gigantic trees, em- 
blematical of the seventeen States forming the 
Union, were cut, so that a few blows of the ax, at 
sunrise on the 4th, prostrated each successively 
with a tremendous crash, forming a. national salute 
novel in the world's history."* 

The growth of this part of Ohio continued 
without interruption until the establishment of the 
State capital at Columbus, in 1816. The town was 
laid out in 1812, but, as that date is considered re- 

*Howe'8 Collections. 

mote in the early American settlements, its history 
wUl be left to succeeding pages, and there traced 
when the history of the State capital and State 
government is given. 

The site of Zanesville, in Muskingum County, 
was early looked upon as an excellent place to form 
a settlement, and, had not hostilities opened in 
1791, with the Indians, the place would have been 
one of the earliest settled in Ohio. As it was, the 
war so disarranged matters, that it was not till 
1797 that a permanent settlement was eifected. 

The Muskingum country was principally occu- 
pied, in aboriginal times, by the Wyandots, Dela- 
wares, and a few Senecas and Shawanees. An In- 
dian town once stood, years before the settlement 
of the country, in the vicinity of Duncan's Falls, 
in Muskingum County, from which circumstance 
the place is often called " Old Town." Near Dres- 
den, was a large Shawanee town, called Wakato- 
maoa. The graveyard was quite large, and, when 
the whites first settled here, remains of the town 
were abundant. It was in this vicinity that the 
venerable Maj. Cass, father of Lewis Cass, lived 
and died. He owned 4,000 acres, given him for 
his militd,ry services. 

The first settlers on the site of Zanesville were 
William McCulloh and Henry Crooks. The lo- 
cality was given to Ebenezer Zane, who had been 
allowed three sections of land on the Scioto, Mus- 
kingum and Hockhocking, wherever the road 
crossed these rivers, provided other prior claims 
did not interfere, for opening " Zane's trace." 
When he located the road across the Muskingum, 
he selected the place where Zanesville now stands, 
being attracted there by the excellent water privi- 
leges. He gave the section of land here to his 
brother Jonathan Zane, and J. Mclntire, who 
leased the ferry, established on the road over the 
Muskingum, to William McCulloh and Henry 
Crooks, who became thereby the first settlers. The 
ferry was kept about where the old upper bridge 
was afterward placed. The ferry-boat was made 
by fastening two canoes together with a stick. 
Soon after a fiat-boat was used. It was brought 
from WheeUng, by Mr. Mclntire, in 1797, the 
year after the ferry was established. The road cut 
out through Ohio, ran from Wheeling, Va., to 
Maysville, Ky. Over this road the mail was car- 
ried, and, in 1798, the first mail ever carried 
wholly in Ohio was brought up from Marietta to 
McCulloh's cabin by Daniel Convers, where, by 
arrangement of the Postmaster General, it met 
a mail from Wheeling and one from Maysville. 

D \' 



McCulloli, who could hardly read, was authorized 
to assort the mails and send each package in its 
proper direction. For this service he received 
$30 per annum ; but owing to his inability to read 
well, Mr. Convers generally performed the duty. 
At that time, the mails met here once a week. 
Four years after, the settlement had so increased 
that a regular post office was opened, and Thomas 
Dowden appointed Postmaster. He kept his office 
in a wooden building near the river bank. 

Messrs. Zane and Mclntire laid out a town in 
1799, which they called Westbourn. When the 
post office was established, it was named Zanesville, 
and in a short time the village took the same name. 
A few families 'settled on the west side of the river, 
soon after McCuUoh arrived, and as this locality 
grew well, not long after a store and tavern was 
opened here. Mr. Mclntire built a double log 
cabin, which was used as a hotel, and in which 
Louis Philippe, King of France, was once enter- 
tained. Although the fare and accommodations 
were of the pioneer period, the honorable guestseems 
to have enjoyed his visit, if the statements of Lewis 
Cass in his " Camp and Court of Louis Philippe" 
may be believed. 

In 1804, Muskingum County was formed by the 
Legislature, and, for a while, strenuous efforts made 
to secure the State capital by the citizens of Zanes- 
ville. They even erected buildings for the use of 
the Legislature and Governor, and during the ses- 
sion of 1810-11, the temporary seat of govern- 
ment was fixed here. When the permanent State 
capital was chosen in 1816, Zanesville was passed 
by, and gave up the hope. It is now one of the 
most enterprising towns in the Muskingum Valley. 

During the summer of 179Y, John Knoop, then 
living four miles above Cincinnati, made several 
expeditions up the Miami Valley and selected the 
land on which he afterward located. The next 
spring Mr. Knoop, his brother Benjamin, Henry 
Garard, Benjamin Hamlet and JohnTildus estab- 
lished a station in what is now Miami County, near 
the present town of Staunton Village. That sum- 
mer, Mrs. Knoop planted the first apple-tree in 
the Miami * country. They all lived together for 
greater safety for two years, during which time 
they were occupied clearing their farms and erect- 
ing dwellings. During the summer, the site of 
Piqua was settled, and three young men located at a 
place known as " Freeman's Prairie." Those who 

* The word Miami in the lodian tongue signified mother. The 
Miamis were the original owners of the valley by that name, and 
affirmed they were created there. 

settled at Piqua were Samuel HUliard, Job Garard, 
Shadrac Hudson, Jonah Rollins, Daniel Cox, 
Thomas Rich, and a Mr. Hunter. The last named 
came to the site of Piqua first in 179Y, and 
selected his home. Until 1799, these named were 
the only ones in this locality ; but that year emi- 
gration set in, and very shortly occupied almost all 
the bottom land in Miami County. With the 
increase of emigration, came the comforts of life, 
and mills, stores and other necessary aids to civil- 
ization, were ere long to be seen. 

The site of Piqua is quite historic, being the 
theater of many important Indian occurrences, 
and the old home of the Shawanees, of which 
tribe Tecumseh was a chief. During the . Indian 
war, a fort called Fort Piqua was buUt, near the 
residence of Col. John Johnston, so long the faith- 
ful Indian Agent. The fort was abandoned at the 
close of hostilities. 

When the Miami Canal was opened through this 
part of the State, the country began -rapidly to 
improve, and is now probably one of the best por- 
tions of Ohio. 

About the same time the Miami was settled, a 
company of people from Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia, who were principally of German and Irish 
descent, located in Lawrence County, near the iron 
region. As soon as that ore was made available, 
that part of the State rapidly filled with settlers, 
most of whom engaged in the mining and working 
of iron ore. Now it is very prosperous. 

Another settlement was made the same season, 
1797, on the Ohio side of the river, in Columbiana 
County. The settlement progressed slowly for a 
while, owing to a few difficulties with the Indians. 
The celebrated Adam Poe had been here as early 
as 1782, and several localities are made locally 
famous by hi^ and his brother's adventures. 

In this county, on Little Beaver Creek, near its 
mouth, the second paper-mill west of the AUe- 
ghanies was erected in 1805-6. It was the pioneer 
enterprise of the kind in Ohio, and was named the 
Ohio Paper-Mill. Its proprietors were John 
Bever and John Coulter. 

One of the most noted localities in the State is 
comprised in Greene County. The Shawanee 
town, " Old Chillicothe," was on the Little Miami, 
in this county, about three miles north of the site 
of Xenia. This old Indian town was, in the an- 
nals of the West, a noted place, and is frequently 
noticed. It is first mentioned in 1773, by Capt. 
Thomas Bullitt, of Virginia, who boldly advanced 
alone into the town and obtained the consent of 



the Indians to go on to Kentucky and make his 
settlement at the falls of the Ohio. His audacious 
bravery gained his request. Daniel Boone was 
taken prisoner early in 1778, with twenty-seven 
others,, and kept for a time at Old Chillioothe. 
Through the influence of the British Governor, 
Hamilton, who had taken a great fancy to Boone, 
he and ten others were sent to Detroit. The In- 
dians, however, had an equal fancy for the brave 
frontiersman, and took him back to Chillicothe, 
and adopted him into their tribe. About the 1st 
of June he escaped from them, and made his way 
back to Kentucky, in time to prevent a universal 
massacre of the whites. In July, 1779, the town 
was destroyed by Col. John Bowman and one 
hundred and sixty Kentuckians, and the Indians 

The Americans made a permanent settlement in 
this county in 1797 or 1798. This latter year, a 
mill was erected in the confines of the county, 
which implies the settlement was made a short 
time previously. A short distance east of the 
mill two block-houses were erected, and it was in- 
tended, should it become necessary, to surround 
them and the mill with pickets. The mill was 
used by the settlers at " Dutch Station," in Miami 
County, fully thirty miles distant. The richness 
of the country in this part of the State attracted a 
great number of settlers, so that by 1803 the 
county was established, and Xenia laid out, and des- 
ignated as the county seat. Its first court house, 
a primitive log structure, was long preserved as a 
curiosity. It would indeed be a curiosity now. 

Zane's trace, passing from Wheeling to Mays- 
ville, crossed the Hockhocking* Eiver, in Fairfield 
County, where Lancaster is now built. Mr. Zane 
located one of his three sections on this river, 
covering the site of Lancaster. Following this 
trace in 1797, many individuals noted the desira- 
bleness of the locality, some of whom determined 
to return and settle. " The site of the city had 
in former times been the liome of the Wyandots, 
who had a town here, that, in 1790, contained 
over 500 wigwams and more than 1,000 souls. 
Their town was called Tarhee, or, in English, the 
Orane-town, and derived its name from the princi- 

* The word Hock -hock -ing in the Delaware language signifies 
aboMe: the Shawanees have it Wea-lha-kagh-qiut sepe, ie; bottle 
river. John White in the American Pioneer says: "About seven 
miles northwest of Lancaster, there is a fall in the Hockhocking of 
about twenty feet. Above the fall for a short distance, the creek 
is very narrow and straight forming a neck, while at the falls it 
suddenly widens on each side and swells into the appearance of the 
body of a bottle. The whole, when seen from above, appears exactly 
in the shape of a bottle, and from this fact the Indians called the 
river Hock-bock-ing.*' — Sowers Collections, 

pal chief of that tribe. Another portion of the 
tribe then lived at Toby-town, nine miles west of 
Tarhe-town (now Royaltown), and was governed 
by an inferior chief called Toby. The chief's wig- 
wam in Tarhe stood on the bank of the prairie, 
near a beautiful and abundant spring of water, , 
whose outlet was the river. The wigwams of the 
Indians were built of the bark of trees, set on 
poles, in the form of a sugar-camp, with one square 
open, fronting a fire, and about the height of a 
man. The Wyandot tribe that day numbered 
about 500 warriors. By the treaty of Greenville, 
they ceded all their territory, and the majority, un- 
der their chief, removed to Upper Sandusky. The 
remainder lingered awhile, loath to leave the home 
of their ancestors, but as game became scarce, they, 
too, left for better hunting-grounds."* 

In AprU, 1798, Capt. Joseph Hunter, a bold, 
enterprising man, settled on Zane's trace, on the 
bank of the prairie, west of the crossings, at a 
place since known as "Hunter's settlement." For 
a time, he had no neighbors nearer than the set- 
tlers on the Muskingum and Scioto Rivers. He 
lived to see the country he had found a wilderness, 
full of the homes of industry. His wife was the 
first white woman that settled in the valley, and 
shared with him all the privations of a pioneer 

Mr. Hunter had not been long in the valley till 
he was joined by Nathaniel Wilson, John and Al- 
len Green, John and Joseph McMullen, Robert 
Cooper, Isaac Shaefer, and a few others, who 
erected cabins and planted com. The next year, 
the tide of emigration came in with great force. 
In the spring, two settlements were made in Green- 
field Township, each settlement containing twenty 
or more families. One was called the Forks of 
the Hockhocking, the other, Yankeetown. Set- 
tlements were also made along the river below 
Hunter's, on Rush Creek, Raccoon and Indian 
Creeks, Pleasant Run, Felter's Run, at Tobeytown, 
Muddy Prairie, and on Clear Creek. In the fall, 
■ — 1799 — Joseph Loveland and Hezekiah Smith 
built a log grist-mill at the Upper Falls of the 
Hockhocking, afterward known as Rook Mill. 
This was the first mill on this river. In the latter 
part of the year, a mail route was established over 
the trace. The mail was carried through on horse- 
back, and, in the settlements in this locality, was 
left at the cabin of Samuel Coates,- who lived on 
the prairie at the crossings of the river. 

* Lecture of George Sanderson. — Rowers Colleetions. 





In the fall of tte next year, Ebenezer Zane laid 
out Lancaster, whicli, until 1805, was known as 
New Lancaster. The lots sold very rapidly, at 
$50 each, and, in less than "one year, quite a vil- 
lage appeared. December 9, the Governor and 
Judges of the Northwest Territory organized 
Fairfield County, and made Lancaster the county 
seat. The year following, the Rev. John Wright, 
a minister of the Presbyterian Church, came, and 
from that time on schools and churches were estab- 
lished and thereafter regTilarly maintained at this 

Not far from Lancaster are immense m,ural es- 
carpments of sandstone formation. They were 
noted among the aborigines, and were, probably, 
used by them as places of outlook and defense. 

The same summer Fairfield County was settled, 
the towns of Bethel and Williamsburg, in Cler- 
mont County, were settled and laid out, and in 
1800, the county was erected. 

A settlement was also made immediately south 
of Fairfield County, in Hocking County, by Chris- 
tian Westenhaver, a German, from near Hagers- 
town, Md. He came in the spring of 1798, and 
was soon joined by several families, who formed 
quite a settlement. The territory included in the 
county remained a part of Ross, Athens and 
Fairfield, until 1818, when Hocking County was 
erected, and Logan, which had been laid out in 
1816, was made the county seat. 

The country comprised in the county is rather 
broken, especially along the Hockhocking River. 
This broken country was a favorite resort of the 
Wyandot Indians, who could easily hide in the 
numerous grottoes and ravines made by the river 
and its afliuents as the water cut its way through 
the sandstone rocks. 

In 1798, soon after Zane's trace was cut through 
the country, a Mr. Graham located on the site of 
Cambridge, in Guernsey County. His was then 
the only dwelling between Wheehng and Zanes- 
ville, on the trace. He remained here alone about 
two years, when he was succeeded by George Bey- 
mer, from Somerset, Penn. Both these persons 
kept a tavern and ferry over Will's Creek. In 
April, 1803, Mr. Beymer was succeeded by John 
Beatty, who came from Loudon, Va. His family 
consisted'of eleven persons. The Indians hunted 
in this vicinity, and were frequent visitors at the 
tavern. In June, 1806, Cambridge was laid out, 
and on the day the lots were ofiered for sale, sev- 
eral families from the British Isle of Guernsey, 
near the coast of Prance, stopped here on their 

way to the West. They were satisfied with the 
location and purchased many of the lots, and some 
land in the vicinity. They were soon followed by 
other families fi-om the same place, all of whom.' 
settling in this locaKty gave the name to the county 
when it was erected in 1810. 

A settlement was made in the central part of the 
State, on Darby Creek, in Union County, in the 
summer of 1798, by James and Joshua 
The next year, they were joined by Samuel and? 
David Mitchell, Samuel Mitchell, Jr., Samuel 
Kirkpatrick and Samuel MeCullough,and, in 1800, 
by George and Samuel Reed, Robert Snodgriiss 
and Paul Hodgson. 

"James Ewing's farm was the site of an an- 
cient and noted Mingo town, which was deserted, 
at the time the Mingo towns, in what is now Logan* 
County, were destroyed by Gen. Logan, of Ken- 
tucky, in 1786. When Mr. Ewing took posses- 
sion of his farm, the cabins were still standing, 
and, among others, the remains of a blacksmith's 
shop, with coal, cinders, iron-dross, etc. Jonathan 
Alder, formerly a prisoner among the Indians; 
says the shop was carried on by a renegade white 
man, named Butler, who lived among the Mingoes.' 
Extensive fields had formerly been cultivated in 
the vicinity of the town."* 

Soon after the settlement was established. Col. 
James Curry located here. He was quite an influ- 
ential man, and, in 1820, succeeded in getting the 
county formed from portions of Delaware, Frank4g 
lin, Madison and Logan, and a part of the old In- 
dian Territory. Marysville was made the county 

During the year 1789, a fort, called Fort Steu- 
ben, was built on the site of Steubenville, but 
was dismantled at the conclusion of hostilities in 
1795. Three years after, Bezaleel Wells and Hon. 
James Ross, for whom Ross County was named, 
located the town of Steubenville about the old 
fort, and, by liberal ofiers of lots, soon attracted 
quite a number of settlers. In 1805, the town 
was incorporated, and then had a population of 
several hundred persons. Jefierson County was 
created by Gov. St. Clair, July 29, 1797, the year 
before Steubenville was laid out. It then included 
the large scope of country west of Pennsylvania*; 
east and north of a line from the mouth of the 
Cuyahoga ; southwardly to the Muskingum, and 
east to the Ohio ; including, in its- territories, the 
cities of Cleveland, Canton, Steubenville and War- 

^ Howe'a Collections. 

















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ren. Only a short time, however, was it allowed 
to retain this size, as the increase in emigration 
rendered it necessary to erect new counties, which 
was rapidly done, especially on the adoption c" the 
State government. 

The county is rich in early history, prior to its 
settlement by the Americans. It was the home of 
the celebrated Mingo chief, Logan, who resid jd 
awhile at an old Mingo town, a few miles below t le 
site of Steubenville, the place where the troo )s 
under Col. WiUiamson rendezvoused on their i i- 
famous raid against the Moravian Indians ; ai d 
also where Col. Crawford and his men met, whf a 
starting on their unfortunate expedition. 

In the Reserve, settlements were often made 
remote from populous localities, in accordance with 
the wish of a proprietor, who might own a tract of 
country twenty or thirty miles in the interior. In 
the present county of Geauga, three families located 
at Burton in 1798. They lived at a considerable 
distance from any other settlement for some time, 
and were greatly inconvenienced for the want of 
mills or^ shops. As time progressed, however, 
these were brought nearer, or built in their midst, 
and, ere long, almost all parts of the Reserve could 
show some settlement, even if isolated. 

The next year, 1799, settlements were made at 
Ravenna, Deerfield and Palmyra, in Portage 
County. Hon. Benjamin Tappan came to the site 
of Ravenna in June, at which time he found one 
white man, a Mr. Honey, living there. At this date, 
a solitary log cabin occupied the sites of Buffalo and 
Cleveland. On his journey from New England, 
Mr. Tappan fell in with David Hudson, the founder 
of the Hudson settlement in Summit County. 
After many days of travel, they landed at a prairie in 
Summit County. Mr. Tappan left his goods in a 
cabin, built for the purpose, under the care of a hired 
man, and went on his way, cutting a road to the 
site 0^ Ravenna, where his land lay. On his return 
for a second load of goods, they found the cabin 
deserted, and evidences of its plunder by the In- 
dians. Not long after, it was learned that the man 
left in charge had gone to Mr. Hudson's settle- 
ment, he having set out immediately on his arrival, 
for his own land. Mr. Tappan gathered the re- 
mainder of his goods, and started back for Ravenna. 
On his way one of his oxen died, and he . found 
himself in a vast forest, away from any habitation, 
and with one dollar in money. He did not faker 
a moment; but sent his hired man, a faithful fellow, 
to Erie, Penn., a distance of one hundred miles 
through the wilderness, with the compass for. his 

guide, requesting from Capt. Lyman, the com- 
mander at the fort there, a loan of money. At 
the same time, he followed the township lines to 
Youngstown, where he became acquainted with 
Col. James Hillman, who did not hesitate to sell 
him an ox on credit, at a fair price. He returned 
to his load in a few days, found his ox all right, 
hitched the two together and went on. He was 
soon joined by his hired man, with the money, and 
together they spent the winter in a log cabin. He 
gave his man one hundred acres of land as a reward, 
and paid Col. Hillman for the ox. In a year or 
two he had a prosperous settlement, and when the 
county was erected in 1807, Ravenna was made 
the seat of justice. 

About the same time Mr. Tappan began his 
settlement, others were commenced in other locali- 
ties in this county. Early in May, 1799, Lewis 
Day and his son Horatio, of Granby, Conn., and 
Moses Tibbals and Green Frost, of Granville, 
Mass., left their homes in a one-horse wagon, and, 
the 29th of May, arrived in what is now Deerfield 
Township. Theirs was the first wagon that had 
ever penetrated farther westward in this region 
than Canfield. The country west of that place 
had been an unbroken wilderness until within a 
few days. Capt. Caleb Atwater, of Wallingford, 
Conn., had hired some men to open a road to 
Township No. 1, in the Seventh Range, of which 
he was the owner. This road passed through 
Deerfield, and was completed to that place when 
the party arrived at the point of their destination. 
These emigrants selected sites, and commenced 
clearing the land. In July, Lewis Ely arrived 
from Granville, and wintered here, while those 
who came first, and had made their improvements, 
returned East. The 4th of March, 1800, Alva 
Day (son of Lewis Day), John Campbell and 
Joel Thrall arrived. In April, George and Rob- 
ert Taylor and James Laughlin, from Pennsylvania, 
with their families, came. Mr. Laughlin built a 
grist-mill, which was of great convenience to the 
settlers. July 29, Lewis Day returned with 
his family and his brother-in-law, Maj. Rogers, 
who, the next year, also brought his family. 

"Much suffering was experienced at first on 
account of the scarcity of provisions. They were 
chiefly supplied from the settlements east of the 
Ohio River, the nearest of which was Georgetown, 
forty miles away. The provisions were brought 
on pack-horses through the wilderness. August 
22, Mrs. Alva Day gave birth to a child" — a fe- 
male — the first child born in the township. 



November 7, the first wedding took place. Jolm 
Campbell and Sarab Ely were joined in wedlock 
by Calvin Austin, Esq., of Warren. He was 
accompanied from Warren, a distance of twenty- 
seven miles, by Mr. Pease, then a lawyer, after- 
ward a well-known Judge. They came on foot, 
there being no road; and, as they threaded their 
way through the woods, young Pease taught the 
Justice the marriage ceremony by oft repetition. 

" In 1802, Franklin Township was organized, em- 
bracing all of Portage and parte of Trumbull and 
Summit Counties. About this time the settlement 
received accessions from all parts of the East. In 
February, 1801, Rev. Badger came and began his 
labors, and two years later Dr. Shadrac Bostwick 
organized a Methodist Episcopal church.* The 
remaining settlement in this county. Palmyra, was 
begun about the same time as the others, by David 
Daniels, from Salisbury, Conn. The next year he 
brought out his family. Soon after he was joined 
by E. N. and W. Bacon, E. Cutler, A. Thurber, 
A. Preston, N. Bois, J. T. Baldwin, T. and C. 
Gilbert, D. A. and S. Waller, N. Smith, Joseph 
Fisher, J. Tuttle and others. 

" When this region was first settled, there was 
an Indian trail commencing at Port Mcintosh 
(Beaver, Penn.), and extending westward to San- 
dusky and Detroit. The trail followed the highest 
ground. Along the trail, parties of Indians were 
frequently seen passing, for several years after the 
whites came. It seemed to be the great aboriginal 
thoroughfare from Sandusky to the Ohio River. 
There were several large piles of stones on the 
trail in this locality, under which human skeletons 
have been discovered. These are supposed to be 
the remains of Indians slain in war, or murdered 
by their enemies, as tradition says it is an Indian 
custom for each one to cast a stone on the grave 
of an enemy, whenever he passes by. These stones 
appear to have been picked up along the trail, and 
cast upon the heaps at different times. 

"At the point where this trail crosses Silver 
Creek, Fredrick Daniels and others, in 1814, dis- 
covered, painted on several trees, various devices, 
evidently the work of Indians. The bark was 
carefully shaved off two-thirds of the way around, 
and figures cut upon the wood. On one of these 
was delineated seven Indians, equipped in a par- 
ticular manner, one of whom was without a head. 
This was supposed to have been made by a party 
on their return westward, to give intelligence to 

* Howe's Collections. 

their friends Ijehind, of the loss of one of their 
party at this place ; and, on making search, a hu- 
man skeleton was discovered near by." * 

The celebrated Indian hunter, Brady, made his 
remarkable leap across the Cuyahoga, in this 
county. The county also contains Brady's Pond, 
a large sheet of water, in which he once made his 
escape from the Indians, from which circumstance 
it received its name. 

The locality comprised in Clark County was 
settled the same summer as those in Summit County. 
John Humphries came to this part of the State 
with Gen. Simon Kenton, in 1799. With them 
came six families from Kentucky, who settled 
north of the site of Springfield. A fort was 
erected on Mad River, for security against the In- 
dians. Fourteen cabins were soon built [near it, 
all being surrounded by a strong picket fence. 
David Lowery, one of the pioneers here, built the 
first flat-boat, to operate on the Great Miami, and, 
in 1800, made the first trip on that river, coming 
down from Dayton. He took his boat and cargo 
on down to New Orleans, where he disposed of his 
load of " five hundred venison hams and bacon." 

Springfield was laid out in March, 1801. Griffith 
Foos, who came that spring, built a tavern, which 
he completed and opened in June, remaining in 
this place till 1814. He often stated that when 
emigrating West, his party were four days and a 
half getting from Franklinton, on the Scioto, to 
Springfield, a distance of forty-two miles. When 
crossing the Big Darby, they were obliged to carry 
all their goods over on horseback, and then drag 
their wagons across with ropes, while some of the 
party swam by the side of the wagon, to prevent 
its upsetting. The site of the town was of such 
practical beauty and utility, that it soon attracted 
a large number of settlers, and, in a few years, 
Springfield was incorporated. In 1811, a church 
was built by the residents for the use of all denom- 

Clark County is made famous in aboriginal 
history, as the birthplace and childhood home of 
the noted Indian, Tecumseh.f He was born, in 

* Howe's Collections. 

tTecumseh, or Tecumahe, was a son of Puckeshinwa, a member 
of the Kiscopoke tribe, and Hethoataske, of the Turtle tribe of the 
Shawanee nation. They removed from Florida to Ohio soon after 
their marriage. The father, Puckeshinwa, rose to the rank of a chief, 
and fell at the battle of Point Pleasant, in 1774, After bis death, . 
the mother, Methoataske, returned to the south, where she died at 
an advanced age. Tecumseh was born about the year 1768. He 
early showed a passion for war, and, when only 27 years of age, was 
made a chief. The next year he removed to Deer Creek, in the 
vicinity of Urbana, and from there to the site of Fiqua, on the 
Great Miami. In 1798 he accepted the invitation of the Delawares 
in the vicinity of White River, Indiana, and from that time made 




the old Indian town of Piqua, the ancient Piqua 
of the Shawanees, on the north side of Mad River, 
about five miles west of Springfield. The town 
was destroyed by the Kentucky Hangers under 
Gen. George Rogers Clarke in 1780, at the same 
time he destroyed " Old Chillicothe." Immense 
fields of standing corn about both towns were cut 
down, compelling the Indians to resort to the hunt 
with mor^ than ordinary vigor, to sustain them- 
selves and their wives and children. This search 
insured safety for some time on the borders. The 
site of Cadiz, in Harrison County, was settled in 
April, 1799, by Alexander Henderson and his 
family, from Washins^on County, Penn. When 
they arrived, they found neighbors in the persons 
of Daniel Peterson and his fiimily, who lived near 
the forks of Short Creek, and who had preceded 
them but a very short time. The next year, emi- 
grants began to cross the Ohio in great numbers, 
and in five or six years large settlements could be 
seen in this part of the State. The county was 
erected in 1814, and Cadiz, laid out in 1803, made 
the county seat. 

While the settlers were locating in and about 
Cadiz, a few families came to what is now Monroe 
County, and settled near the present town of 
BeaUsville. Shortly after, a few persons settled on 
the Clear Fork of the Little Muskingum, and a 
few others on the east fork of Duck Creek. The 

next season all these settlements received addi- 
tions and a few other localities were also occupied. 
Before long the town of Beallsville was laid 
out, and in time became quite populous. The 
county was not erected until 1813, and in 1815 
Woodsfield was laid out and made the seat of 

The opening of the season of 1800— the dawn 
of a new century — saw a vast emigration west- 
ward. Old settlements in Ohio received immense 
increase of emigrants, while, branching out in all 
directions like the radii of a circle, other settle- 
ments were constantly formed until, in a few years, 
all parts of the State' knew the presence of the 
white man. ■ 

Towns sprang into existence here and there ; 
mills and factories were erected; post oflSces and 
post-routes were established, and the comforts and 
conveniences of life began to appear. 

With this came the desire, so potent to the mind 
of all American citizens, to rule themselves through 
representatives chosen by their own votes. Hith- 
erto, they had been ruled by a Governor and Judges 
appointed by the President, who, in turn, appointed 
county and judicial officers. The arbitrary rulings 
of the Governor, St. Clair, had arrayed the mass 
of the people against him, and made the desire for 
the second grade of government stronger, and 
finally led to its creation. 



to be held on the third Monday in December, and 
directed the representatives to meet in Cincinnati 
January 22, 1799. 

On the day designated, the representatives * 
assembled at Cincinnati, ntiminated ten persons, 
whose names were sent to the President, who 
selected five to constitute the Legislative Council, 

SETTLEMENTS increased so rapidly in that 
part of the Northwest Territory included in 
Ohio, during the decade from 1788 to 1798, 
despite the Indian war, that the demand for an 
election of a Territorial Assembly could not be 
ignored by Gov. St. Clair, who, having ascertained 
that 5,000 free males resided within the limits of 
the Territory, issued his proclamation October 29, 
1798, directing the electors to elect representatives 
to .a General Assembly. He ordered the election 

his home with them. He was most active in the war of 1812 
against the Americans, and from the time he hegan his work to 
unite the tribes, his history is so closely identified therewith that 
the reader is referred to the history of that succeeding pages. 
It may not he amiss to say that all stories regarding the manner 
of his death are considered erroneous. He was undoubtedly killed 
in the outset of the battle of the Thames in Canada in 1814, and his 
body secretly hurled by the Indians. 

♦Those elected were: from Washington County, Return Jona- 
than Meigs and Paul Fearing; from Hamilton County, William 
Goforth, William McMillan, John Smith, John Ludlow, Robert 
Benham, Aaron Caldwell and Isaac Martin; from St. Clair County 
(Illinois), Shadrach Bond; from Knox County (Indiana), John 
Small; from Randolph County (Illinois), John Edgar; from Wayne 
County, Solomon Sibley, Jacob Visgar and Charles F. Chabert de 
Joncaire; from Adams County, Joseph Darlington and Nathaniel 
Massie; fromJefferson County, James Pritchard; fromlloas County, 
Thomas Worthington, Elias Langham, Samuel Findley and Edward 
Tiffin. The five gentlemen, except Vanderburgh, chosen as the 
Upper House were all from counties afterward included in Ohio. 




or Upper House. These five were Jacob Burnet, 
James Findley, Henry Vanderburgh, Robert 
OUver and David Vance. On the 3d of Blarch, 
the Senate confirmed their nomination, and the 
Territorial Government of Ohio* — or, more prop- 
erly, the Northwest— was complete. As this 
comprised the essential business of this body, it 
was prorogued by the Governor, and the Assembly 
directed to meet at the same place September 16, 
1799, and proceed to the enactment of laws for 
the Territory. 

That day, the Territorial Legislature met again 
at Cincinnati, but, for want of a quorum, did not 
organize until the 24th. The House consisted of 
nineteen members, seven of whom were from Ham- 
ilton County, four from Ross, three from Wayne, 
two from Adams, one from Jefferson, one from 
Washington and one from Knox. Assembling 
both branches of the Legislature, Gov. St. Clair 
addressed them, recommending such measures to 
their consideration as, in his judgment, were suited 
to the condition of the country. The Council 
then organized, electing Henry Vanderburgh, Presi- 
dent; William C. Schenck, Secretary; George 
Howard, Doorkeeper, and Abraham Carey, Ser- 

The House also organized, electing Edward Tif- 
fin, Speaker ; John Reilly, Clerk ; Joshua Row- 
land, Doorkeeper, and Abraham Carey, Sergeant- 

This was the first legislature elected in the old 
Northwestern Territory. During its first session, 
it passed thirty bills, of which the Governor vetoed 
eleven. They also elected William Henry Harri- 
son, then Secretary of the Territory, delegate to 
Congress. The Legislature continued in session 
till December 19, having much to do in forming 
new laws, when they were prorogued by the Gov- 
ernor, until the first Monday in November, 1800. 
The second session was held in Chillicothe, which 
had been designated as the seat of government by 
Congress, until a permanent capital should be 

May 7, 1800, Congress passed an act establish- 
ing Indiana Territory, including all the country 
west of the Great Miami River to the Mississippi, 
and appointed WiUiam Henry Harrison its Gov- 
ernor. At the autumn session of the Legislature 

* Ohio never existed as a Territory proper. It was known, both 
before and after the division of the Northwest Territory,- as the 
"Territory northwest of the Ohio River." Still, as the country 
comprised in its limits was the principal theater of action, the short 
resume given here is made neceswry in the logical course of events. 
Ohio, as Ohio, never existed until the creation of the State in 
March, 1803. 

of the eastern, or old part of the Territory, Will- 
iam McMillan was elected to the vacancy caused 
by this act. By the organization of this Territory, 
the counties of Knox, St. Clair and Randolph, 
were taken out of the jurisdiction of the old Ter- 
ritory, and with them the representatives, Henry 
Vandenburgh, Shadrach Bond, John Small and 
John Edgar. 

Before the time for the next Assembly came, a 
new election had occurred, and a few chad^es were 
the result. Robert Oliver, of Marietta, was cho- 
sen Speaker in the place of Henry Vanderburgh. 
There was considerable business at this session ; 
several new counties were to be erected ; the coun- 
try was rapidly filling with people, and where the 
scruples of the Governor could be overcome, some 
organization was made. He was very tenacious of 
his power, and arbitrary in his rulings, affirming 
that he, alone, had the power to create new coun- 
ties. This dogmatic exercise of his veto power, 
his rights as ruler, and his defeat by the Indians, 
all tended against him, resulting in his displace- 
ment by the President. This was done, however, 
just at the time the Territory came from the second 
grade of government, and the State was created. 

The third session of the Territorial Legislature 
continued from November 24, 1801, to January 
23, 1802, when it adjourned to meet in Cincin- 
nati, the fourth Monday in November, but 
owing to reasons made obvious by subsequent 
events, was never held, and the third session 
marks the decline of the Territorial government. 

April 30, 1802, Congress passed an act "to 
enable the people of the eastern division of the 
territory northwest of the Ohio River, to form a 
constitution and State government, and for the 
admission of such States into the Union on 
an equal footing with the original States, and for 
other purposes." In pursuance of this act, an 
election had been held in this part of the Territory, 
and members of a constitutional convention cho- 
sen, who were to meet at Chillicothe, November 
1, to perform the duty assigned them. 

The people throughout the country contemplat- 
ed in the new State were anxious for the adoption 
of a State government. The arbitrary acts of the 
Territorial Governor had heightened this feehng ; 
the census of the Territory gave it the lawfiil 
number of inhabitants, and nothing stood in its 

The convention met the day designated and 
proceeded at once to its duties. When the time 
arrived for the opening of the Fourth Territorial 





Legislature, the convention was in session and had 
evidently about completed its labors. The mem- 
bers of the Legislature (eight of whom were mem- 
bers of the convention) seeing that a speedy 
termination of the Territorial government was inev- 
itable, wisely concluded it was inexpedient and 
unnecessary to hold the proposed session. 

The convention concluded its labors the 29th of 
November. The Constitution adopted at that time, 
though rather crude in some of its details, was an 
excellent organic instrument, and remained almost 
entire until 1851, when the present one was 
adopted. Either is too long for insertion here, 
but either will well pay a perusal. The one adopted 
by the convention in 1802 was never submitted 
to the people, owing to the circumstances of the 
times ; but it was submitted to Congress February 
19, 1803, and by that body accepted, and an act 
passed admitting Ohio to the Union. 

The Territorial government ended March 3, 
1803, by the organization, that day, of the State 
government, which organization defined the pres- 
ent limits of the State. 

" We, the people of the Eastern Division of the Ter- 
ritory of the United States, Northwest of the River 
Ohio, having the right of admission into the General 
Government as a member of the Union, consistent with 
the Constitution of the United States, the Ordinance 
of Congress of one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
seven, and of the law of Congress, entitled ' An act to 
enable the, people of the Eastern Division of the Terri- 
tory of the United States Northwest of the River Ohio, 
to form a Constitution and a State Government, and for 
the admission of such State into the Union on an equal 
footing with the oriapnal States, and for other purpo- 
ses ;' in order to establish justice, promote the well- 
fare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves 
and our posterity, do ordain and establish the follow- 
ing Constitution or form of government; and do mu- 
tually agree with each other to form ourselves into a 
free and independent State, by the name of the State 
of Ohio."* — Preamble, Comtitution of 180S. 

When the convention forming the Constitution, 
completed its labors and presented the results to 
Congress, and that body passed the act forming 

* The name of the State is derived from the river forming its 
southern boundai*y. Its origin is somewhat obscure, but is com- 
monly ascribed to the Indians. On this poiut. Col. Johnston says : 
"The Shawanoeae called the Ohio River *Ki8-ke-pi-Ui, Bepe^ L e., ^Eagle 
River.* The Wyandots were in the country generations before tbe 
Shawanoese, and, consequently, their name of the river is the prim- 
itive one and should stand in preference to all others. Ohio may 
be called an improvement on the expression, 'O-fee-ZMft,' and was, no 
doubt, adopted by the early French voyagers in their boat-songs, 
and is substantially the same worfl as used by the Wyandots: the 
meading applied by the French, fair and beautiful ' la belle river^'' 
being the same precisely as that meant by the Indians — ' great, 
grand and fair to look upon.' " — flbwe'a CoUeclione. 

Webster's Dictionary gives the word as of Indian origin, and its 
meaning to be, " Beautiful." 

the State, the territory included therein was di- 
vided into nine counties, whose names and dates of 
erection were as follows : 

"Washington, July 27, 1*788 ; Hamilton, Janu- 
ary 2, 1790; (owing to the Indian war no other 
counties were erected till peace was restored); Ad- 
ams, July 10, 1797; Jefferson, July 29, 1797; 
Ross, August 20, 1798 ; Clermont, Fairfield and 
Trumbull, December 9, 1800; Belmont, Septem- 
ber 7, 1801. These counties were the thickest- 
settled part of the State, yet many other localities 
needed organization and were clamoring for it, but 
ovring to St. Clair's views, he refused to grant 
their requests. One of the first acts on the as- 
sembling of the State Legislature, March 1, 1803, 
was the creation of seven new counties, viz., Gal- 
ha, Scioto, Greauga, Butler, Warren, Greene and 

Section Sixth of the "Schedule" of the Consti- . 
tution required an election for the various officers 
and Eepresentatives necessary under the new gov- 
ernment, to be held the second Tuesday of Janu- 
ary, 1803, these officers to take their seats and as- 
sume their duties March 3. The Second Article 
provided for the regular elections, to be held on 
the second Tuesday of October, in each year. The 
Governor elected at first was to hold his office 
until the first regular election could be held, and 
thereafter to continue in office two years. 

The January elections placed Edward Tiffin in 
the Governor's office, sent Jeremiah Morrow to 
Congress, and chose an Assembly, who met on the 
day designated, at Chillicothe. Michael Baldwin 
was chosen Speaker of the House, and Nathaniel 
Massie, of the Senate. The Assembly appointed 
William Creighton, Jr., Secretary of State ; Col. 
Thomas Gibson, Auditor ; William McFarland, 
Treasurer; Eeturn J. Meigs, Jr., Samuel Hun- 
tington and William Sprigg, Judges of the Su- 
preme Court; Francis Dunlevy, Wyllys Silliman 
and Calvin Pease, President Judges of the First, 
Second and Third Districts, and Thomas Worth- 
ington and John Smith, United States Senators. 
Charles Willing Byrd was made the United States 
District Judge. 

The act of Congress forming the State, con- 
tained certain requisitions regarding public schools, 
the " salt springs," public lands, taxation of Gov- 
ernment lands, Symmes' purchase, etc., which the 
constitutional convention agreed to with a few 
minor considerations. These Congress accepted, 
and passed the act in accordance thereto. The 
First General Assembly found abundance of work 

"e> \i 



to do regarding these various items, and, at once, 
set themselves to the task. Laws were passed re- 
garding all these ; new counties created ; officers 
appointed for the same, until they could be elected, 
and courts and machinery of government put ip 
motion. President Judges and lawyers traveled 
thfeir circuits holding courts, often in the open air 
or in a log shanty; a constable doing duty as 
guard over a jury, probably seated on a log under 
a tree, or in the bushes. The President Judge in- 
structed the officers of new counties in their duties, 
and though the whole keeping of matters accorded 
with the times, an honest feeling generally pre- 
vailed, inducing each one to perform his part as 
effectually as his knowledge permitted. 

The State continually filled with people. New 
towns arose all over the country. Excepting the 
occasional sicknesses caused by the new climate and 
fresh soil, the general health of the people im- 
proved as time went on. They were fiiUy in ac- 
cord with the President, Jefferson, and carefiilly 
nurtured those principles of personal liberty en- 
grafted in the ftindamental law of 1787, and later, 
in the Constitution of the State. 

Little if any change occurred in the natural 
course of events, following the change of govern- 
ment until Burr's expedition and plan of secession 
in 1805 and 1806 appeared. What his plans 
were, have never been definitely ascertained. His 
action related more to the General Grovernment, 
yet Ohio was called upon to aid in putting down 
his insurrection — for such it was thought to be — 
and defeated his purposes, whatever they were. 
His plans ended only in ignominious defeat ; the 
breaking-up of one of the finest homes in the 
Western country, and the expulsion of himself and 
all those who were actively engaged in his scheme, 
whatever its imports were. 

Again, for a period of four or five years, no 
exciting events occurred. Settlements continued ; 
mills and factories increased ; towns and cities 
grew ; counties were created ; trade enlarged, and 
naught save the common course of events trans- 
pired to mark the course of time. Other States 
were made from the old Northwest Territory, all 
parts of which were rapidly being occupied by 
settlers. The danger from Indian hostilities was 
little, and the adventurous whites were rapidly 
occupying their country. One thing, however, 
was yet a ^continual source of annoyance to the 
Americans, viz., the British interference with the 
Indians. Their traders did not scruple, nor fail 
on every opportunity, to aid these sons of the 

forest with arms and ammunition as occasion 
offered, endeavoring to stir them up against the 
America'ns, until events here and on the high seas 
culminated in a declaration of hostilities, and thg 
■War of 1812 was the result. The deluded red 
men found then, as they found in 1795, that they 
were made tools by a stronger power, and dropped 
when the time came that they were no longer 

Before the opening of hostilities occurred, how- 
ever, a series of acts passed the G-eneral Assembly, 
causing considerable excitement. These vpere the 
famous " Sweeping Eesolutions,'' passed in 1810. 
For a few jyears prior to their passage, considerar 
ble discontent prevailed among many of the legis- 
lators regarding the rulings of the courts, and by 
many of these embryo law-makers, the legislative 
power was considered omnipotent. They could 
change existing laws and contracts did they desire 
to, thought many of them, even if such acts con- 
flicted with the State and National Constitutions. 
The " Sweeping Resolutions " were brought about 
mainly by the .action of the judges in declaring 
that justices of the peace could, in the collection 
of debts, hold jurisdiction ih amounts not exceed- 
ing fifty dollars without the aid of a jury. The 
Constitution of the United States gave the jury 
control in all such cases where the amount did not 
exceed twenty dollars. There was a direct con- 
tradiction against the organic law of the land — to 
which every other law and act is subversive, and 
when the judges declared the legislative act uncon- 
stitutional and hence null and void, the Legislar 
ture became suddenly inflamed at then* independ- 
ence, and proceeded at once to punish the admin- 
istrators of justice. The legislature was one of 
the worst that ever controlled the State, and was 
composed of many men who were not only igno- 
rant of common law, the necessities of a State, and 
the dignity and true import of their office, but 
were demagogues in every respect. Having the 
power to impeach officers, that body at once did 
so, having enough to carry a two-thirds majority, 
and removed several judges. Further maturing 
their plans, the " Sweepers," as they were known, ^ 
construed the law appointing certain judges and 
civil officers for seven years, to mean seven years 
from the organization of the State, whether they 
had been officers that length of time or not. All 
officers, whether of new or old counties, were con- 
strued as included in the act, and, utterly ignoring 
the Constitution, an act was passed in January, 
1810, removing every civil officer in the State. 





February 10, they proceeded to fill all these va- 
cant offices, from State officers down to the lowest 
county office, either by appointment or by ordering 
an election in the manner prescribed by law. 

The Constitution provided that the office of 
judge* should continue for seven years, evidently 
seven years from the time they were elected, and 
not from the date of the admission of the State, 
which latter construction this headlong Legisla- 
ture had construed as the meaning. Many of the 
counties had been organized but a year or two, 
others three or four years ; hence an indescribable 
confusion arose as soon as the new set of officers 
were appointed or elected. The new order of 
things could not be made to work, and finally, so 
utterly impossible did the injustice of the proceed- 
ings become, that it was dropped. The decisions 
of the courts were upheld, and the invidious doc- 
trine of supremacy in State legislation received 
such a check that it is not likely ever to be repeated. 

Another act of the Assembly, during this pe- 
riod, shows its construction. Congress had granted 
a township of land for the use of a university, and 
located the township in Symmes' purchase. This 
Assembly located the university on land outside 
of this purchase, ignoring the act of Congress, as 
they had done before, showing not only ignorance 
of the true scope of law, but a lack of respect un- 
becoming such bodies. 

The seat of government was also moved from 
Chillicothe to Zanesvillej which vainly hoped to be 
made the permanent State capital, but the next 
session it was again taken to Chillicothe, and com- 
missioners appointed to locate a permanent capital 

These commissioners were James Findley, Jo- 
seph Darlington, Wyllys Silliman, Reason Beall, 
and William McFarland. It is stated that they 
reported at first in favor of Dublin, a small town 
on the Scioto about fourteen miles above Colum- 
bus. At the session of 1812-13, the Assembly 
accepted the proposals of Col. James Johnston, 
Alexander McLaughlin, John Kerr, and Lyne 
Starling, who owned the site of Columbus. The 
Assembly also decreed that the temporary seat of 
government should remain at Chillicothe until the 
buildings necessary for the State officers should be 

erected, when it would be taken there, forever to 
remain. This was done in 1816, in December of 
that year the first meeting of the Assembly being 
held there. 

The site selected for the capital was on the east 
bank of the Scioto, about a mile below its junction 
with the Olentangy. Wide streets were laid out, 
and preparations for a city made. The expecta- 
tions of the founders have been, in this respect, re- 
alized. The town was laid out in the springof 1812, 
under the direction of Moses Wright. A short 
time after, the contract for making it the capital was 
signed. June 18, the same day war was declared 
against Great Britain, the sale of lots took place. 
Among the early settlers were George McCor- 
mick, George B. Harvey, John Shields, Michael 
Patton, Alexander Patton, William Altman, John 
Collett, William McElvain, Daniel Kooser, Peter 
Putnam, Jacob Hare, Christian Heyl, Jarvis, George 
and Benjamin Pike, William Long, and Dr. John 
M. Edminson. In 1814, a house of worship was 
built, a school opened, a newspaper — The Western 
Intelligencer and Columbus Gazette, now the 
Ohio State Journal — was started, and the old 
State House erected. In 1816, the "Borough of 
Columbus" was incorporated, and a mail route once 
a week between Chillicothe and Columbus started. 
In 1819, the old United States Court House was 
erected, and the seat of justice removed from 
Franklinton to Columbus. Until 1826, times were 
exceedingly " slow " in the new capital, and but lit- 
tle growth experienced. The improvement period 
revived the capital, and enlivened its trade and 
growth so that in 1834, a city charter was granted. 
The city is now about third in size in the State, 
and contains many of the most prominent public 
institutions. The present capitol building, one of 
the best in the West, is patterned somewhat after 
the national Capitol at Washington City. 

From the close of the agitation of the " Sweeping 
Resolutions," until the opening of the war of 1812, . 
but a short time elapsed. In fact, scarcely had 
one subsided, ere the other was upon the country. 
Though the war was national, its theater of opera- 
tions was partly in Ohio, that State taking an act- 
ive part in its operations. Indeed, its Uberty 
depended on the war. 

"< s 






From the organization of (he first civil governmentinthe Northwest Territory (1788 to \%02), of which the State of 

Ohio was apart, until the year 1880. ^ 

(a) Arthur St. Gair 

*Charles Willing Byrd 

(b) Edward Tiffin 

(c) fThomas Kirker 

Samuel Huntington 

(d) Return Jonathan Meigs.. 

jOthniel Looker 

Thomas Worthington 

(e) Ethan Allen Brown 

f Allen Trimble 

Jeremiah Morrow 

Allen Trimble 

Duncan McArthur 

Robert Lucas 

Joseph Vance 

Wilson Shannon 

Thomas Corwin 

(/) Wilson Shannon 

JThomas W. Bartley 

Mordecai Bartley 

William Bebb 

(g) Seabury Ford 

(A) Reuben Wood 

h')^ William Medill 

Salmon P. Chase 

William Dennison 

David Tod 

(k) John Brough 

gCharles Anderson 

Jacob D. Cox 

Rutherford B. Hayes 

Edward F. Noyes 

William Allen 

(1) Rutherford B. Hayes 

(m) Thomas L. Young 

Richard M. Bishop 

Charles Foster 





Washington . 









Champaign ... 
























July 13, 

March 3 
March 4, 
Dec. 12 

April 14, 






April 13 
Dec. 3, 



July 15 
Jan. 14 





March 2 
Jan. 14 
Jan. 14 

, 1803 
, 1807 
, 1808 
, 1810 
, 1814 
, 1814 
, 1818 
, 1822 
., 1822 
', 1826 
', 1830 
, 1832 
, 1836 
:, 1838 
, 1840 
, 1842 
, 1844 
, 1844 
, 1846 
, 1849 
, 1853 
, 1856 
, 1860 
, 1862 
:, 1864 
, 1865 
, 1868 
, 1872 
, 1874 
, 1876 
, 1877 
, 1878 
, 1880 

Tenn Ended. 


March 3 
March 4 
Dec. 12! 

March 25 
Dec. 8 


April 13, 

Dec. 3, 

Dec. 12, 

Jan. 22, 

Deo. 12, 

July 15, 

Jan. 14, 


March 2, 
Jan. 14, 
Jan. 14, 

, 1803 
:, 1807 
1, 1808 
'; 1810 
, 1814 
, 1822 
, 1822 
, 1826 
, 1830 
, 1832 
, 1836 
i, 1888 
, 1840 
, 1842 
, 1844 
, 1844 
!, 1846 
!, 1849 
:, 1850 
, 1853 
, 1856 
', 1860 
, 1862 
:, 1864 
, 1865 
, 1868 
, 1872 
:, 1874 
, 1876 
:, 1877 
, 1878 
, 1880 

(a) ArthurSt. Clair,of Pennaylvania, was Governor of the Nortll- 
west Territory, of which Ohio was a part,from July 13, 1788, when the 
first civil government was established in the Territory, until about 
the close of the year 1802, when he was removed by the President. 

♦Secretary of the Territory, and was acting Governor of the 
Territory after The removal of Gov. St. Clair. 

lb) Resigned March 3, 180V, to accept the office of U. S. Senator. 

(c) Return Jonathan Meigs was elected Governor on the second 
Tuesday of October, 1807, over Nathaniel Massie, who contested the 
election of Meigs, on the ground that "he had not been a resident of 
this State for four years next preceding the election, as required by 
the Constitution,'' and the General Assembly, in joint convention, 
'declared that he was not eligible. The office was not given to 
Massie, nor does it appear, from the records that he claimed it, but 
Thomas Kirker, acting Governor, continued to discharge the duties 
of the office until December 12, 1808, when Samuel Huntington was 
inaugurated, he having been elected on the second Tuesday of 
October in that year. 

(d) Resigned March 25, 1814, to accept the office of Postmaster- 
General of the United States. 

(e) Resigned January 4,1822. to accept the office of United 
States Senator. 

(/) Resigned April 13, 1844, to accept the office of Minister to 

(g) The result of tho election iu 1848 was not finftlly determined in 
joint convention of the two houses of the General Assembly until 
January 19,1849, and the inauguration did not take place until tho 
22d of that month. 

(1) Resigned July 16, 1853 to accept the office of Consul to Val- 

0) Elected in October, 1863, for the regular term, to commence 
on the second Monday of January, 1854. 

ik) Died August 29, 18G5. 
■Acting Governor. 
; Acting Governor, vice Wilson Shannon, resigned. 
li Acting Governor, vice Reuben Wood, resigned, 
6 Acting Governor, vice John Brough, deceased. 
(0 Resigned March 2, 1877, to accept the office of President of 
the United States. 

(m) Yice Rutherford B. Hayes, resigned. 


@ w 

THE WAR OF 1812- 



IN June, 1812, war was declared against Great 
Britain. Before this, an act was passed by Con- 
gress, authorizing the increase of the regular army 
to thirty-five thousand troops, and a large force of 
volunteers, to serve twelve months. Under this 
act, Eeturn J. Meigs, then Grovernor of Ohio, in 
April and May, 1812, raised three regiments of 
troops to serve twelve months. They rendez- 
voused at Dayton, elected their officers, and pre- 
pared for the campaign. These regiments were 
numbered First, Second and Third. Duncan Mc- 
Arthur was Colonel of the First ; James Findlay, 
of the Second, and Lewis Cass, of the Third. 
Early in June these troops marched to Urbana, 
where they were joined by Boyd's Fourth Regiment 
of regular troops, under command of Col. Miller, 
who had been in the battle of Tippecanoe. Near 
the middle of June, this little army of about 
twenty-five hundred men, under command of Gov. 
William Hull, of Michigan, who had been author- 
ized by Congress to raise the troops, started on 
its northern march. By the end of June, the 
army had reached the-Maumee, after a very severe 
march, erecting, on the way. Forts McArthur, Ne- 
cessity and Findlay. By some carelessness on the 
part of the American Government, 'no official word 
had been sent to the frontiers regarding the war, 
while the British had taken an early precaution to 
prepare for the crisis. Gov. Hull was very care- 
ful in military etiquette, and refused to march, or 
do any offensive acts, unless commanded by his 
superior officers at Washington. While at the 
Maumee, by a careless move, all his personal 
effects, including all his plans, number and strength 
of his army, etc., fell into the hands of the enemy. 
His campaign ended only in ignominious defeat, 
and well-nigh paralyzed future effijrts. All Mich- 
igan fell into the hands of the British. The com- 
mander, though a good man, lacked bravery and 
promptness. Had Gen. Harrison been in com- 
mand no such results would have been the case, 
and the war would have probably ended at the 

Before Hull had surrendered, Charles Scott, 
Governor of Kentucky, invited Gen. Harrison, 

Governor of Indiana Territory, to visit Frankfort, 
to consult on the subject of defending the North- 
west. Gov. Harrison had visited Gov. Scott, and 
in August, 1812, accepted the appointment of 
Major General in the Kentucky militia, and, by 
hasty traveling, on the receipt of the news of the 
surrender of Detroit, reached Cincinnati on the 
morning of the 27th of that month. On the 30th 
he left Cincinnati, and the next day overtook the 
army he was to command, on its way to Dayton. 
After leaving Dayton, he was overtaken by an ex- 
press, informing him of his appointment by the 
Government as Commander-in-Chief of the armies 
of the Indiana and Illinois Territories. The army 
reached Piqua, September 3. From this place 
Harrison sent a body of troops to aid in the de- 
fense of Fort Wayne, threatened by the enemy. 
On the 6th he ordered all the troops forward, and 
while on the march, on September 17, he was 
informed of his appointment as commander of the 
entire Northwestern troops. He found the army 
poorly clothed for a winter campaign, now ap- 
proaching, and at once issued a stirring address to 
the people, asking for food and comfortable cloth- 
ing. The address was not in vain. After his 
appointment. Gen. Harrison pushed on to Au- 
glaize, where, leaving the army Under command of 
Gen. Winchester, he returned to the interiorof the 
State, and establishing his headquarters at Frank- 
linton, began active measures for the campaign. 

Early in March, 1812, Col. John Miller raised, 
under orders, a regiment of infantry in Ohio, and 
in July assembled his enlisted men at Chillicothe, 
where, placing them — only one hundred and forty 
in number — under command of Captain Angus. 
Lewis, he sent them on to the frontier. They erects 
ed a block-house at Piqua and then went on to 
Defiance, to the main body of the armv. 

In July, 1812, Gen. Edward W.'Tupper, of 
Gallia County, raised one thousand men for six 
months' duty. Under orders from Gen. Winches- 
ter, they marched through Chillicothe and Urbana, 
on to the Maumee, where, near the lower end of 
the rapids, thSy made an ineffectual attempt to 
drive off the enemy. Failing in this, the enemy 



attacked Tupper and his troops, who, though worn 
down with the march and not a httle disorganized 
through the jealousies of the officers, withstood 
the attack, and repulsed the British and their red 
allies, who returned to Detroit, and the Americans 
to Fort McArthur. 

In the fall of 1812, Gen. Harrison ordered a 
detachment of six hundred men, mostly mounted, 
to destroy the Indian towns on the Missisineway 
River, one of the head-waters of the Wabash. 
The winter set in early and with unusual severity. 
At the same time this expedition was carried on, 
Bonaparte was retreating from Moscow. The expe- 
dition accomplished its design, though the troops 
suffered greatly from the cold, no less than two 
hundred men being more or less frost bitten. 

Gen. Harrison determined at once to retake 
Michigan and establish a line of defense along the 
southern shores of the lakes. Winchester was 
sent to occupy Forts Wayne and Defiance ; Perkins' 
brigade to Lower Sandusky, to fortify an old 
stockade, and some Pennsylvania troops and artil- 
lery sent there at the same time. As soon as 
Gen. Harrison heard the results of the Missis- 
ineway expedition, he went to Chillicothe to con- 
sult with Gov. Meigs about farther movements, 
and the best methods to keep the way between the 
Upper Miami and the Maumee continually open. 
He also sent Gen. Winchester word to move for- 
ward to the rapids of the Maumee and prepare for 
winter quarters. This Winchester did by the 
middle of January, 1813, establishing himself on 
the northern bank of the river, just above Wayne's 
old battle-ground. He was well fixed here, and 
was enabled to give his troops good bread, made from 
corn gathered in Indian corn-fields in this vicinity. 

While here, the inhabitants of Frenchtown, on 
the Raisin River, about twenty miles from Detroit, 
sent Winchester word claiming protection from the 
threatened British and Indian invasion, avowing 
themselves in sympathy with the Americans. A 
council of war decided in favor of their request, 
.and Col. Lewis, with 550 men, sent to their relief. 
Soon after. Col. Allen was sent with more troops, 
and the enemy easily driven away from about 
Frenchtown. Word was sent to Gen. Winchester, 
who determined to march with all the men he 
could spare to aid in holding the post gained. He 
left, the 19th of January, with 250 men, and ar- 
rived on the evening of the 20th. Failing to 
take the necessary precaution, from some unex- 
plained reason, the enemy came ujr in the night, 
established his batteries, and, the next day, sur- 

prised and defeated the American Army with a 
terrible loss. Gen. Winchester was made a pris- 
oner, and, finally, those who were intrenched in 
the town surrendered, under promise of Proctor, 
the' British commander, of protection from the 
Indians. This promise was grossly violated the 
next day. The savages were allowed to enter the 
town and enact a massacre as cruel and bloody as 
any in the annals of the war, to the everlasting 
ignominy of the British General and his troops. 

Those of the American Army that escaped, ar- 
rived at the rapids on the evening of the 22d of 
January, and soon the sorrowful news spread 
throughout the army and nation., Gen. Harrison 
set about retrieving the disaster at once. Delay 
could do no good. A fort was built at the rapids, 
named Fort Meigs, and troops from the south and 
west hurriedly advanced to the scene of action. 
The investment and capture of Detroit was aban- 
doned, that winter, owing to the defeat at French- 
town, and expiration of the terms of service of 
many of the troops. Others took their places, 
all parts of Ohio and bordering States sending 

The erection of Fort Meigs was an obstacle in 
the path of the British they determined to remove, 
and, on the 28th of February, 1813, a large band 
of British and Indians, under command of Proc- 
tor, Tecumseh, Walk-in-the-water, and other In- 
dian chiefs, appeared in the Maumee in boats, and 
prepared for the attack. Without entering into 
details regarding the investment of the fort, it is 
only necessary to add, that after a prolonged siege, 
lasting to the early part of May, the British were 
obliged to abandon the fort, having been severely 
defeated, and sailed for the Canadian shores. 

Next followed the attacks on Fort Stephenson, 
at Lower Sandusky, and other predatory excur- 
sions, by the British. All of these failed of their 
design; the defense of Maj. Croghan and his men 
constituting one of the most brilliant actions of the 
war. For the gallant defense of Port Stephenson by 
Maj. Croghan, then a young man, the army merited 
the highest honors. The ladies of Chillicothe voted 
the heroic Major a fine sword, while the whole 
land rejoiced at the exploits of him and his band. 

The decisive efforts of the army, the great num- 
bers of men offered — ^many of whom Gen. Harrison 
was obliged to send home, much to their disgust — 
Perry's victory on Lake Erie, September 10, 
1813 — all presaged the triumph of the American 
arms, soon to ensue. As soon as the battle on 
the lake was over, the British at Maiden burned 





their stores, and fled, 'while the Americans, under 
their gallant commander, followed them in Perry's 
vessel to the Canada shore, overtaking them on 
the River Thames, October 5. In the battle that 
ensued, Tecumseh was slain, and the British Army 

The war was now practically closed in the West. 
.Ohio troops had done nobly in defending their 
northern frontier, and in regaining the Northwest- 
ern country. Gren. Harrison was soon after elected 
to Congress by the Cincinnati district, and Gen. 
Duncan McArthur was appointed a Brigadier 
General in the regular army, and assigned to the 
command in his place. Gen. McArthiir made an 
expedition into Upper Canada in the spring of 
1814, destroying considerable property, and driv- 
ing the British farther into their own dominions. 
Peace was declared early in 1815, and that spring, 
the troops \^ere mustered out of service at GhUli- 
cothe, and peace with England reigned supreme. 

The results of the war in Ohio were, for awhile, 
similar to the Indian war of 1795. It brought 
many people into the State, and opened new por- 
tions, before unknown. Many of the soldiers im- 
mediately invested their money in lands, and became 
citizens. The war drove many people from the 
Atlantic Coast west, and as a result much money, 
for awhile, circulated. Labor and provisions rose, 
which enabled both workmen and tradesmen to 
enter tracts of land, and aided emigTation. At the 
conclusion of Wayne's war in 1795, probably 
not more than five thousand people dwelt in the 
limits of the State ; at the close of the war of 1812, 
that number was largely increased, even with the 
odds of war against them. After the last war, the 
emigration was constant and gradual, building up 
the State in a manner that betokened a healthful 

As soon as the effects of the war had worn off, 
a period of depression set in, as a result of too 
free speculation indulged in at its close. Gradu- 
ally a stagnation of business ensuejl, and many 
who found themselves unable to meet contracts 
made in "flush" times, found no alternative but 
to fail. To relieve the pressure in all parts of 
the West, Congress, about 1815, reduced the 
price of public lands from $2 to $1.25 
per acre. This measure worked no little 
hardship on those who owned large tracts of 
lands, for portions of which they i-had not fully 
paid, and as a consequence, these lands, as well 
as all others of this class, reverted to the 
Government. The general market was in New 

Orleans, whither goods were transported in flat- 
boats built especially for this pupose. This com- 
merce, though small and poorly repaid, was the 
main avenue of trade, and did much for the slow 
prosperity prevalent. The few banks in the State 
found their bUls at a discount abroad, and gradu- 
ally becoming drained of their specie, either closed 
business or failed, the major part of them adopt- 
ing the latter course. 

The steamboat began to be an important factor 
in the river navigation of the West about this 
period. The flrst boat to descend the Ohio was 
the Orleans, built at Pittsburg in 1812, and in 
December of that year, while the fortunes of war 
hung over the land, she made her first trip from the 
Iron City to New Orleans, being just twelve days 
on the way. The second, built by Samuel Smith, 
was called the Comet, and made a trip as far 
south as Loui^vUle, in the summer of 1813. The 
third, the Vesuvius, was buUt by Fulton, and went 
to New Orleans in 1814. The fourth, built by 
Daniel French at Brownsville, Penn., made two 
trips to Louisville in the summer of 1814. The 
next vessel, the ^tna, was built by Fulton & 
Company in 1815. So fast did the business 
increase, that, four years after, more than 
forty steamers floated on the Western waters. 
Improvements in machinery kept pace with the 
building, until, in 1838, a competent writer stated 
there were no less than four hundred steamers in 
the West. Since then, the erection of railways 
has greatly retarded ship-building, and it is alto- 
gether probable the number has increased but 

The question of canals began to agitate the 
Western country during the decade succeeding the 
war. They had been and were being constructed 
in older countries, and presaged good and prosper- 
ous times. If only the waters of the lakes and 
the Ohio River could be' united by a canal run- 
ning through the midst of the State, thought the 
people, prosperous cities and towns would arise on 
its banks, and commerce flow through the land. 
One of the firmest friends of such improvements 
was De Witt Clinton, who had been the chief man 
in forwarding the " Clinton Canal," in New York. 
He was among the first to advocate the feasibility 
of a canal connecting Lake Erie and the Ohio 
River, and, by the success of the New York canals, 
did much to bring it about. Popular writers of the 
day all urged the scheme, so that when the Assem- 
bly met, early in December, 1821, the resolution, 
offered by Micajah T. Williams, of Cincinnati, 




for the appointment of a committee of five mem- 
bers to take into consideration so much of the 
Governor's message as related to canals, and see if 
some feasible plan could not be adopted whereby a 
beginning could be made, was quickly adopted. 

The report of the committee, advising a survey 
and examination of routes, met with the approval 
of the Assembly, and commissioners were ap- 
pointed who were to employ an engineer, examine 
the country and report on the practicability of a 
canal between the lakes and the river. The com- 
missioners employed James Greddes, of Onondaga 
County, N. Y., as an engineer. He arrived in 
Columbus in June, 1822, and, before eight months, 
the corps of engineers, under his direction, had 
examined one route. During the next two sum- 
mers, the examinations continued. A number of 
routes were examined and surveyed, and one, from 
Cleveland on the lake, to Portsmouth on the Ohio, 
was recommended. Another canal, from Cincin- 
nati to Dayton, on the Miami, was determined on, 
and preparations to commence work made. A 
Board of Canal Fund Commissioners was created, 
money was borrowed, and the morning of July 
4, 1825, the first shovelful of earth was dug near 
Newark, with imposing ceremonies, in the presence 
of De Witt Clinton, Governor of New York, and 
a mighty concourse of people assembled to witness 
the auspicious event. 

Gov. Clinton was escorted all over the State to 
aid in developing the energy everywhere apparent. 
The events were important ones in the history of 
the State, and, though they led to the creation of 
a vast debt, yet, in the end, the canals were a 

The main canal — the Ohio and Erie Canal — 
was not completed till 1832. The Maumee Canal, 
from Dayton to Cincinnati, was finished in 1834. 
They cost the State about $6,000,000. Each of 
the main canals had branches leading to important 
towns, where their construction could be made 
without too much expense. The Miami and Mau- 
mee Canal, from Cincinnati northward along the 
Miami Kiver to Piqua, thence to the Maumee 
and on to the lake, was the largest canal made, 
and, for many years, was one of the most important 
in the State. It joined the Wabash Canal on the 
eastern boundary of Indiana, and thereby saved 
the construction of many miles by joining this 
great canal from Toledo to Evansville. 

The largest artificial lake in the world, it is said, 
was built to supply water to the Miami Canal. It 
exists yet, though the canal is not much used. It 

is in the eastern part of Mercer County, and is 
about nine miles long by from two to four wide. 
It was formed by raising two walls of earth from 
ten to thirty feet high, called respectively the east 
and west embankments ; the first of which is about 
two miles in length ; the second, about four. These 
walls, with the elevation of the ground to the 
north and south, formed a huge basin, to retain 
the water. The reservoir was commenced in 183Y, 
and finished in 1845, at an expense of several 
hundred thousand dollars. When first buUt, dur- 
ing the accumulation of water, much malarial 
disease prevailed in the surrounding country, owing 
to the stagnant condition of the water. The citi- 
zens, enraged at what they considered an innova- 
tion of thair rights, met, and, during a dark night, 
tore out a portion of the lower wall, letting the 
water flow out. The damage cost thousands of 
dollars to repair. All who participated in the 
proceedings were liable to a severe imprisonment, 
but the state of feeling was such, in Mercer County, 
where the offense was committed, that no jury 
could be found that would try them, and the affair 
gradually died out. 

The canals, so efficacious in their day, were, 
however, superseded by the railroads rapidly find- 
ing their way into the West. From England, 
where they were early used/ in the collieries, the 
transition to America was easy. 

The first railroad in the United States was built 
in the summer of 1826, from the granite quarry 
belonging to the Bunker HiU Monument Associa- 
tion to the wharf landing, three miles distant. The 
road was a sHght decline from the quarry to 
the wharf, hence the loaded cars were pro- 
pelled by their own gravity. On their return, 
when empty, they were drawn up by a single 
horse. Other roads, or tramways, quickly followed 
this. They were built at the Pennsylvania coal 
mines, in South Carolina, at New Orleans, and at 
Baltimore. Steam motive power was used in 1831 
or 1832, first in America on the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, and in Charlestown, on a railroad there. 

To transfer these highways to the West was the 
question of but a few years' time. The prairies of 
Illinois and Indiana offered superior inducements 
to such enterprises, and, early in 1835, they began 
to be agitated there. In 1838, the first rail was 
laid in Illinois, at Meredosia, a little town on the 
Illinois River, on what is now the Wabash Railway. 

"The first railroad made in Ohio," writes Caleb 
Atwater, in his "History of Ohio," in 1838, "was 
finished in 1836 by the people of Toledo, a town 




some two years old then, situated near tlie mouth 
of Maumee River. The road extends westward in- 
to Michigan and is some thirty mUes in length. 
There is a road about to be made from Cincinnati 
to Springfield. This road follows the Ohio River 
up to the Little Miami River, and there turns 
northwardly up its valley to Xenia, and, passing 
the Yellow Springs, reaches Springfield. Its length 
must be about ninety miles. The State will own 
one-half of the road, individuals and the city of 
Cincinnati the other half. This road will, no 
doubt, be extended to Lake Erie, at Sandusky 
City, within a few short years." 

"There is a railroad," continues Mr. Atwater, 
" about to be made from Painesville to the Ohio 
River. There are many charters for other roads, 
which will never be made." 

Mr. Atwater notes also, the various turnpikes as 
well as the famous National road from Baltimore 
■vjestward, then completed only to the mountains. 
This latter did as much as any enterprise ever en- 
acted in building up and populating the West. 
It gave a national thoroughfare, which, for many 
years, was the principal wagon-way from the At- 
lantic to the Mississippi Valley. 

The railroad to which Mr. Atwater refers as 
about to be built from Cincinnati to Springfield, 
was what was known as the Mad River Railroad. 
It is commonly conceded to be the first one built 
in Ohio.* Its history shows that it was chartered 
March 11, 1836, that work began in 1837; that 
it was completed and opened for business from 
Cincinnati to Milford, in December, 1842; to Xe- 
nia, in August, 1845, and to Springfield, in Au- 
gust, 1846. It was laid with strap rails until 
about 1848, when the present form of rail was 

One of the earliest roads in Ohio was what was 
known as the Sandusky, Mansfield & Newark Rail- 
road. It was chartered at first as the Monroeville 
& Sandusky City Railroad, March 9, 1835. March 
12, 1836, the Mansfield & New Haven road was 
chartered; the Columbus & Lake Erie, March 12, 

1845, and the Huron & Oxford, February 27, 

1846. At first it ran only from Sandusky to 
MonroeviUe, then from Mansfield to Huron. These 

* Hon. E.D. ManBfield Btates, in 1873, that the " first actual piece 
of railroad laifl in Ohio, was made on the Cincinnati & Sandusky 
Bailroad; but, about the same time wo have the Little Miami Bail- 
road, which was surveyed in 1836 and 1837. If this, the generally 
accepted opinion, is correct, then Mr. Atwater's statement as given, 
is wrong. His history is, however, generally conceded to be correct. 
Written in 1838, he surely ought to linow whereof he was writing, 
aa the railroads were then only in construction ; but few, if any, 
in operation. 

two were connected and consolidated, and then ex- 
tended to Newark, and finally, by connections, to 

It is unnecessary to follow closely the history of 
these improvements through the years succeeding 
their introduction. At first the State owned a 
share in nearly all railroads and canals, but finally 
finding itself in debt about $15,000,000 for such 
improvements, and learning by its own and neigh- 
bors' experiences, that such policy was detrimental 
to the best interests of the people, abandoned the 
plan, and allowed private parties entire control of 
all such works. After the close of the Mexican 
war, and the return to solid values in 1 854 or there- 
abouts, the increase of -railroads in all parts of Ohio, 
as well as aU parts of the ^est, was simply marvel- 
ous. At this date there are more than ten thou- 
sand miles of railroads in Ohio, alongside of which 
stretch innumerable lines of telegraph, a system of 
swift messages invented by Prof. Morse, and adopted 
in the United States about 1851. 

About the time railroad building began to as- 
sume a tangible shape, in 1840, occurred the cele- 
brated political campaign known in history as the 
" Hard Cider Campaign." The gradual encroach- 
ments of the slave power in the West, its arrogant 
attitude in the Congress of the United States and 
in several State legislatures : its forcible seizure of 
slaves in the free States, and the enactment and 
attempted enforcement of the " fugitive slave " law 
all tended to awaken in the minds of the Northern 
people an antagonism, terminating only in the late 
war and the abolishment of that hideous system in 
the United States. 

The " Whig Party" strenuously urged the 
abridgment or confinement of slavery in the 
Southern States, and in the contest the party took 
a most active part, and elected WiUiam Henry 
Harrison President of the United States. As he 
had been one of the foremost leaders in the war of 
1812, a resident of Ohio, and one of its most pop- 
ular citizens, a log cabin and a barrel of cider were 
adopted as his exponents of popular opinion, as 
expressive of the rule of the common people repre- 
sented in the cabin and cider, in turn representing 
their primitive and simple habits of life. He 
lived but thirty days after his inauguration, dying 
on the 9th of Apnl, 1841,when John Tyler, the 
Vice President, succeeded him as Chief Executive 
of the nation. 

The building of railroads ; the extension of com- 
merce ; the settlement of all parts of the State ; 
its growth in commerce, education, religion and 





population, are the chief events from 1841 to the 
Mexican war. Hard times occurred about as often 
as they do now, preceded by " flush" times, when 
speculation ran rife, the people all infatuated with 

an insane idea that something could be had for 
nothing. The bubble burst as often as inflated, 
ruining many people, but seemingly teaching few 




THE Mexican War grew out of the question of 
the annexation of Texas, then a province of 
Mexico, whose territory extended to the Indian 
Territory on the north, and on up to the Oregon 
Territory on the Pacific Coast. Texas had been 
settled largely by Americans, who saw the condi- 
tion of affairs that would inevitably ensue did the 
country remain under Mexican rule. They first 
took steps to secede from Mexico,' and then asked 
the aid of America to sustain them, and annex the 
country to itself. 

The Whig party and many others opposed this, 
chiefly on the grounds of the extension of slave 
territory. But to no avail. The war came on, 
Mexico was conquered, the war lasting from April 
eO, 1846, to May 30, 1848. Fifty thousand vol- 
unteers were called for the war by the Congress, 
and $10,000,000 placed at the disposal of the 
President, James K. Polk, to sustain the army and 
prosecute the war. 

The part that Ohio took in the war may be 
briefly summed up as follows : She had five vol- 
unteer regiments, five companies in the Fifteenth 
Infantry, and several independent companies, with 
her ftiU proportion among the regulars. When 
war was declared, it was something of a crusade to 
many; full of romance to others; hence, many 
more were offered than could be received. It was 
a campaign of romance to some, yet one of reality, 
ending in death, to many. 

When the first call for troops came, the First, 
Second and Third Regiments of infantry responded 
at once. Alexander Mitchell was made Colonel of 
the First; John B. Wellerits Lieutenant Colonel ; 
and Major L. Giddings, of Dayton, its Major, 
Thos. L. Hamer, one of the ablest lawyers in Ohio, 
started with the First as its Major, but, before the 
regiment left the State, he was made a Brigadier 
General of Volunteers, and, at the battle of Mon- 
terey, distinguished himself ; and there contracted 

disease and laid down his life. The regiment's 
Colonel, who had been wounded at Monterey, came 
home, removed to Minnesota, and there died. 
Lieut. Col. Weller went to California after the 
close of the war. He was United States Senator 
from that State in the halls of Congress, and, at 
last, died at New Orleans. 

The Second Regiment was commanded by Col. 
George W. Morgan, now of Mount Vernon ; Lieut. 
Col. William Irwin, of Lancaster, and Maj. Will- 
iam Wall. After the war closed, Irwin settled in 
Texas, and remained there till he died. Wall lived 
out his days in Ohio. The regiment was never in 
active field service, but was a credit to the State; 

The officers of the Third Re^ment were. Col. 
Samuel R. Curtis; Lieut. Col. G. W.'McCookand 
Maj. John Love. The first two are now dead; 
the Major lives in McConnellsville. 

At the close of the first year of the war, these 
regiments (First, Second and Third) were mustered 
out of service, as their term of enlistment had 

When the second year of the war began, the 
call for more troops on the part of the Government 
induced the Second Ohio Infantry to re-organize, 
and again enter the service. William Irwin, of the 
former organization, was chosen Colonel; WilUam 
Latham, of Columbus, Lieutenant Colonel, and 
William H. Link, of Circleville, Major. Nearly 
all of them are now dead. 

The regular army was increased by eight Ohio 
companies of infantry, the Third Dragoons, and 
the Voltigeurs — light-armed soldiers. In the Fif- 
teenth Regiment of the United States Army, there 
were five Ohio companies. The others were three 
from Michigan, and two from Wisconsin. Col. 
Morgan, of the old Second, was made Colonel of 
the Fifteenth, and John Howard, of Detroit, an 
old artillery officer in the regular army, Lieutenant 
Colonel. Samuel Wood, a captain in the Sixth 


s ^ 



United States Infantry, was made Major; but was 

afterward succeeded by Mill, of Vermont. 

The Fifteenth was in a number of skirmishes at first, 
and later in the battles of Contreras, Oherubusco 
and Chapultepec. At the battle of Cherubusco, 
the Colonel was severely wounded, and Maj. Mill, 
with several officers, and a large number of men, 
killed. For gallant service at Contreras, Col. Mor- 
gan, though only twenty-seven years old, was made 
a Brevet Brigadier G-eneral in the United States 
Army. Since the war he has delivered a number 
of addresses in Ohio, on the campaigns in Mex- 

The survivors of the war are now few. Though 
seventy-five thousand men from the United States 
went into that conflict, less than ten thousand now 
survive. They are now veterans, and as such de- 
light to recount their reminiscences on the fields of 
Mexico. They are all in the decline of life, and 
ere a generation passes away, few, if any, will be 

After the war, the continual growth of Ohio, 
the change in all its relations, necessitated a new 
organic law. The Constitution of 1852 was the 
result. It re-affirmed the political principles of 
the "ordinance of 1787 " and the Constitution of 
1802, and made a few changes necessitated by the 
advance made in the interim. It created the 
office of Lieutenant Governor, fixing the term of 
service at two years. This Constitution yet stands 
notwithstanding the prolonged attempt in 1873-74 
to create a new one. It is now the organic law of 

■ From this time on to the opening of the late war, 
the prosperity of the State received no check. 
Towns and cities grew ; railroads multiplied ; com- 
merce was extended; the vacant lands were rapidly 
filled by settlers, and everything tending to the 
advancement of the people was well prosecuted. 
Banks, after much tribulation, had become in a 
measure somewhat secure, their only and serious 
drawback being their isolation or the confinement 
of their circulation to their immediate localities. 
But signs of a mighty contest were apparent. A 
contest almost without a parallel in the annals of 
history ; a contest between freedom and slavery ; 
between wrong and right ; a contest that could 
only end in defeat to the wrong. The Republican 
party came into existence at the close of President 
Pierce's term, in 1855. Its object then was, prin- 
cipally, the restriction of the slave power ; ultimately 
its extinction. One of the chief exponents and sup- 
porters of this growing party in Ohio, was Salmon P. 

Chase ; one who never faltered nor lost faith ; and 
who was at the helm of State ; in the halls of Con- 
gress; chief of one the most important bureaus of 
the Government, and, finally, Chief Justice of the 
United States. When war came, after the election 
of Abraham Lincoln by the Republican party, Ohio 
was one of the first to answer to the call for troops. 
Mr. Chase, while Governor, had re-organized the 
militia on a sensible basis, and rescued it from the 
ignominy into which it had fallen. When Mr. 
Lincoln asked for seventy-five thousand men, 
Ohio's quota was thirteen regiments. The various 
chaotic regiments and militia troops in the State 
did not exceed 1,500 men. The call was issued 
April 15, 1861 ; by the 18th, two regiments were 
organized in Columbus, whither these companies 
had gathered; before sunrise of the 19th the first 
and second regiments were on their way to Wash- 
ington City. The President had only asked for 
thirteen regiments; thirty were gathering; the 
Government, not yet fully comprehending the 
nature of the rebellion, refused the surplus troops, 
but Gov. Dennison was authorized to put ten 
additional regiments in the field, as a defensive 
measure, and was also authorized to act on the 
defensive as well as on the ofiensive. The im m ense 
extent of southern border made this necessary, 
as all the loyal people in West Virginia and Ken- 
tucky asked for help. 

In the limits of this history, it is impossible to 
trace all the steps Ohio took in the war. One of 
her most talented sons, now at the head of one of 
the greatest newspapers of the world, says, regard- 
ing the action of the people and their Legislature: 

"In one part of the nation there existed a grad- 
ual growth of sentiment against the Union, ending 
in open hostility against its integrity and its Con- 
stitutional law; on the other side stood a resolute, 
and determined people, though divided in mindr 
matters, firmly united on the question of national 
supremacy. The people of Ohio stood squarely 
on this side. Before this her people had been di- 
vided up to the hour when — 

" ' That fierce and sudden flash across the rugged black- 
ness broke, 
And, with a voice that shook the land, the guns of Sum- 

. ter spoke ; 

And whereso'er the summons came, there rose the 

angry din. 
As when, upon a rocky coast, a stormy tide sets in.' 

" All waverings then ceased aipong the people 
and in the Ohio Legislature. The Union must be 




preserved. The white heat of patriotism and fe- 
alty to the flag that had been victorious in three 
wars, and had never met but temporary defeat 
then melted all parties, and dissolved all hesitation, 
and, April 18, 1861, by a unanimous vote of 
ninety-nine Representatives in its favor, there was 
passed a bill appropriating $500,000 to carry into 
effect the requisition of the President, to protect 
the National Government, of which sum $450,000 
were to purchase arms and equipments for the 
troops required by that requisition as the quota of 
Ohio, and $50,000 as an extraordinary contingent 
fund for the Governor. The commissioners of the 
State Sinking Fund were authorized, by the same 
bill, to borrow this money, on the 6 per cent bonds 
of the State, and to issue for the same certificates, 
freeing such bonds from taxation. Then followed 
other such legislation that declared the property of 
volunteers free from execution for debt during 
their term of service; that declared any resident 
of the State, who gave aid and comfort to the 
enemies of the Union, guilty of treason against 
the State, to be punished by imprisonment at hard 
labor for life; and, as it had become already evi- 
dent that thousands of militia, beyond Ohio's 
quota of the President's call, would volunteer, the 
Legislature, adopting the sagacious suggestion of 
Gov. Dennison, resolved that all excess of volunteers 
should be retained and paid for service, under 
direction of the Governor. Thereupon a bill 
was passed, authorizing the acceptance of volunteers 
to form ten regiments, and providing $500,000 
for their arms and equipments, and $1,500,000 
more to be disbursed for troops in case of an in- 
vasion of the State. Then other legislation was 
enacted, looking to and providing against the ship- 
ment from or through the State of arms or mu- 
nitions of war, to States either assuming to be 
neutral or in open rebellion ; organizing the whole 
body of the State militia; providing suitable offi- 
cers for duty on the staff of the Governor ; re- 
quiring contracts for subsistence of volunteers to 
be let to the lowest bidder, and authorizing the 
appointment of additional general officers. 

" Before the adjournment of that Legislature, 
the Speaker of the House had resigned to take 
command of one of the regiments then about to 
start for Washington City ; two leading Senators 
had been appointed Brigadier Generals, and many, 
in fact nearly all, of the other members . of both 
houses had, in one capacity or another, entered the 
military service. It was the first war legislature 
ever elected in Ohio, and, under sudden pressure. 

nobly met the first shock, and enacted the first 
measures of law for war. Laboring under difficul- 
ties inseparable from a condition so unexpected, 
and in the performance of duties so novel, it may 
be historically stated that for patriotism, zeal and 
ability, the Ohio Legislature of 1861 was the 
equal of any of its- successors; while in that exu- 
berance of patriotism which obliterated party lines 
and united all in a common effort to meet the 
threatened integrity of the United States as a 
nation, it surpassed them both. 

" The war was fought, the slave power forever 
destroyed, and under additional amendments to her 
organic law, the United States wiped the stain of 
human slavery from her escutcheon, liberating over 
four million human beings, nineteen-twentieths of 
whom were native-born residents. 

"When Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court 
House, Ohio had two hundred regiments of all 
arms in the National service. In the coui'se of 
the war, she had furnished two hundred and thirty 
regiments, besides twenty-six independent batteries 
of artillery, five independent companies of cavalry, 
several companies of sharpshooters, large parts of 
five regiments credited to the West Virginia con- 
tingent, two regiments credited to the Kentucky 
contingent, two transferred to the United States 
colored troops, and a large proportion of the rank 
and file of the Fifty-fourth and Sixty-fifth Massar 
chusetts Regiments, also colored men. Of these or- 
ganizations, twenty-three were infantry regiments 
fiirnished on the first call of the President, an ex- 
cess of nearly one-half over the State's quota ; one 
hundred and ninety-one were infantry regiments, 
furnished on subsequent calls of the President — 
one hundred and seventeen for three years, twenty- 
seven for one year, two for six months, two for 
three months, and forty-two for one hundred days. 
Thirteen were cavalry, and three artillery for three 
years. Of thfese three-years troops, over twenty 
thousand re-enlisted, as veterans, at the end of 
their long term of service, to fight till the war 
would end." 

As original members of these organizations, Ohio 
ftirnished to the National service the magnificent 
army of 310,654 actual soldiers, omitting from 
the above number all those who paid commuta- 
tion money, veteran enlistments, and citizens who 
enlisted as soldiers or sailors in other States. The 
count is made from the reports of the Provost 
Marshal General to the War Department. Penn- 
sylvania gave not quite 28,000 more, while Illinois 
feU 48,000 behind; Indiana, 116,000 less; 


yjrA/lot:<^^'yy^- /j^^iyp^y'r^ ^ 



Kentucky, 235,000, and Massachusetts, 164,000. 
Thus Ohio more than maintained, in the National 
army, the rank among her sisters which her popu- 
lation supported. Ohio furnished more troopg than 
the President ever required of her ; and at the 
end of the war, with more than a thousand men in 
the camp of the State who were never mustered 
into the service, she still had a credit on the rolls 
of the War Department for 4,332 soldiers, beyond 
the aggregate of all quotas ever assigned to her; 
and, besides all these, 6,479 citizens had, in lieu of 
personal service, paid the commutation ; while In- 
diana, Kentucky, Pennsylvania and New York 
were all from five to one hundred thousand behind 
their quotas. So ably, through all those years of 
trial and death, did she keep the promise of the 
memorable dispatch from her first war Grovernor : 
" If Kentucky refuses to fill her quota, Ohio wUl 
fill it for her." 

"Of these troops 11,237 were killed or mor- 
tally wounded in action, and of these 6,563 were 
left dead on the field of battle. They fought on 
well-nigh every battle-field of the war. Within 
forty-eight hours after the first call was made for 
troops, two regiments were on the way to Wash- 
ington. An Ohio brigade covered the retreat from 
the first battle of Bull Run. Ohio troops formed 
the bulk of army that saved to the Union the 
territory afterward erected into West Virginia ; 
the bulk of the army that kept Kentucky from 
seceding ; a, large part of the army that captured 
Fort Donelson and Island No. 10 ; a great part of 
the army that from Stone River and Chickamauga, 
and Mission Ridge and Atlanta, swept to the sea 
and captured Port McAllister, and north through 
the Carolinas to Virginia." 

When Sherman started on his famous march to 
the sea, some one said to President Lincoln, "T hey 
will never get through; they will all be captured, 
and the Union will be lost." " It is impossible," 
replied the President ; "it cannot be done< There 
is a mighty sight of fight in one hundred thou- 
sand Western men.^^ 

Ohio troops fought at Pea Ridge. They charged 
at Wagner. They helped redeem North Carolina. 
They were in the sieges of Vicksburg, Charleston, 
Mobile and Richmond. At Pittsburg Landing, 
at Antietam, G-ettysburg and Corinth, in the 
Wilderness, at Five Forks, before Nashville and 
Appomattox Court House; "their bones, reposing 
on the fields they won and in the graves they fill, are 
a perpetual pledge th^t no flag shall «ver wave over 
their graves but that flag they died to maintain." 

Ohio's soil gave birth to, or furnished, a Grant, 
a Sherman, a Sheridan, a McPherson, a Rosecrans, 
a MoClellan, a McDowell, a Mitchell, a Gilmore, a 
Hazen, a Sill, a Stanley, a Steadman, and others — all 
but one, children of the country, reared at West Point 
for such emergencies. Ohio's war record shows 
one G-eneral, one Lieutenant General, twenty Major 
Generals, twenty-seven Brevet Major Generals, and 
thirty Brigadier Generals, and one hundred and 
fifty Brevet Brigadier Generals. Her three war 
Governors were William Dennison, David Todd, and 
John Brough. She furnished, at the same time, 
one Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, and 
one Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase. 
Her Senators were Benjamin F. Wade and John 
Sherman. At least three out of five of Ohio's 
able-bodied men stood in the line of battle. On 
the head stone of one of these soldiers, who gave 
his life for the country, and who now lies in a 
National Cemetery, is inscribed these words :. 

" We charge the living to preserve that Constitution we 
have died to defend." 

The close of the war and return of peace brought 
a period of fictitious values on^the country, occa- 
sioned by the immense amount of currency afloat. 
Property rose to unheard-of values, and everything 
with it. Ere long, however, the decline came, and 
with it " hard times." The climax broke over the 
country in 1873, and for awhile it seemed as if 
the country was on the verge of ruin. People 
found again, as preceding generations had found, 
that real value was the only basis of true prosper- 
ity, and gradually began to work to the fact. The 
Government established the specie basis by 
gradual means, and on the 1st day of January, 
1879, began to redeem its outstanding obligations 
in coin. The effect was felt everywhere. Busi- 
ness of all kinds sprang anew into life, A feeling 
of confidence grew as the times went on, and now, 
on the threshold of the year 1880, the State is en- 
tering on an era of steadfast prosperity ; one which 
has a sure and certain foundation. 

Nearly four years have elaped since the great 
Centennial Exhibition was held in Philadelphia ; 
an exhibition that brought from every State in the 
Union the best products of her soil, factories, and 
all industries. In that-exhibit Ohio made an ex- 
cellent display. Her stone, iron, coal, cereals, 
woods and everything pertaining to her welfare were 
all represented. Ohio, occupying the middle ground 
of the Union, was expected to show to foreign na- 
tions what the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio 




could produce. The State nobly stood the test 
and ranked foremost among all others. Her cen- 
tennial building was among the first completed 
and among the neatest and best on the grounds. 
During the summer, the Centennial Commission 
extended invitations to the Governors of the several 
States to appoint an orator and name a day for his 

delivery of an address on the history, progress and 
resources of his State. Gov. Hayes named the 
Hon. Edward D. Mansfield for this purpose, and 
August 9th, that gentleman delivered an address 
so valuable for the matter which it contains, that 
we here give a synopsis of it. 



, AUGUST 9, 1876. 

ONE hundred years ago, the whole territory, 
from the Alleghany to the Kocky Mountains 
was a wilderness, inhabited only by wild beasts and 
Indians. The Jesuit and Moravian missionaries 
were the only white men who had penetrated the 
wilderness or beheld its mighty lakes and rivers. 
While the thirteen old colonies were declaring 
their independence, the thirteen new States, which 
now lie in the western interior, had no existence, 
and gave no sign of the future. The solitude of 
nature was unbroken by the steps of civOization. 
The wisest statesman had not contemplated the 
probability of the coming States, and the boldest 
patriot did not dream that this interior wilderness 
should soon contain a greater population than the 
thirteen old States, with all the added growth of 
one hundred years. • 

Ten years after that, the old States had ceded 
their Western lands to the General Government, 
and the Congress of the United States had passed 
the ordinance of 1785, for the survey of the pub- 
lic territory, and, in 1787,the celebrated ordinance 
which organized the Northwestern Territory, and 
dedicated it to freedom and intelligence. 

Fifteen years after that, and more than a quarter 
of a century after the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, the State of Ohio was admitted into the 
Union, being the seventeenth which accepted the 
Constitution of the United States. It has since 
grown up to be great, populous and prosperous 
under the influence of those ordinances. At her 
admittance, in 1803, the tide of emigration had 
begun to flow over the Alleghanies into the Valley 
of the Mississippi, and, although no steamboat, no 
railroad then existed, nor even a stage coach helped 
the immigrant, yet the wooden " ark " oh the 
Ohio, and the heavy w:agon, slowly winding over 

the mountains, bore these tens of thousands to the 
wilds of Kentucky and the plains of Ohio. In 
the spring of 1788 — the first year of settlement — 
four thousand five hundred persons passed the 
mouth of the Muskingum in three months, and 
the tide continued to pour on for half a century in 
a widening stream, mingled with all the races of 
Europe and America, until now, in the hundredth 
year of America's independence, the five States of the 
Northwestern Territory, in the wilderness of 1776, 
contain ten millions of people, enjoying all the 
blessings which peace and prosperity, freedom and 
Christianity, can confer upon any people. Of these 
five States, born under the ordinance of 1787, Ohio 
is the first, oldest, and, in many things, the greatest. 
In some things it is the greatest State in the Union. 
Let us, then, attempt, in the briefest terms, to 
draw an outline portrait of this great and remark- 
able commonwealth. 

Let us observe its physical aspects. Ohio is 
just- one-sixth part of the Northwestern Territory 
— 10,000 square miles. It lies between Lake Erie 
and the Ohio River, having 200 miles of navigable 
waters, on one side flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, 
and on the other into the Gulf of Mexico. Through 
the lakes, its vessels touch on 6,000 mUes of 
interior coast, and, through the Mississippi, on 
36,000 miles of river coast; so that a citizen of 
Ohio may pursue his navigation through 42,000 
miles, all in his own country, and all within naviga- 
ble reach of his own State. He who has circumnavi- 
gated the globe, has gone but little more than 
half the distance which the citizen of Ohio'finds 
within his natural reach in this vast interior. 

Looking upon the surface of this State, we find 
no mountains, no barren sands, no marshy wastes, 
no lava-covered plains, but one broad, compact 





body of arable land, intersected with rivers and 
streams and running waters, while the beautiful 
Ohio flows tranquilly by its side. More than three 
times the surface of Belgium, and ohe-third of the 
whole of Italy, it has more natural resources in 
proportion than either, and is capable of ultimately 
supporting a larger population than any equal sur- 
face in Europe. Looking from this great arable 
surface, where upon the very hills the grass and 
the forest trees now grow exuberant and abundant, 
we find that underneath this surface, and easily 
accessible, lie 10,000 square miles of coal, and 
4,000 square miles of iron — coal and iron enough 
to supply the basis of manufacture for a world ! 
AH this vast deposit of metal and fuel does not in- 
terrupt or take from that arable surface at all. 
There you may find in one place the same machine 
bringing up coal and salt water from below, while 
the wheat and the corn grow upon- the surface 
above. The immense masses of coal, iron, salt and 
freestone deposited below have not in any way 
diminished the fertility and production of the soU. 

It has been said by some writer that the char- 
acter of a people is shaped or modified by the 
character of the country in which they live. If 
the people of Switzerland have acquired a certain 
air of hberty and independence from the rugged 
mountains around which they live; if the people 
of Southern Italy, or beautiftil France, have ac- 
quired a tone of ease and politeness from their 
mild and genial clime, so the people of Ohio, 
placed amidst such a wealth of nature, in the tem- 
perate zone, should show the best fruits of peace- 
fiil industry and the best culture of Christian 
civilization. Have they done so? Have their 
own labor and arts and culture come up to the ad- 
vantages of their natural situation? Let us exam- 
ine this growth and their product. 

The first settlement of Ohio was made by a 
colony from New England, at the mouth of the 
Muskingum. It was literally a remnant of the 
officers of the Eevolution. Of this colony no 
praise of the historian can be as competent, or as 
strong; as the language of Washington. He says, 
in answer to inquiries addressed to him : " No col- 
ony in America was ever settled under such favor- 
able auspices as that which has just commenced at 
the Muskingum. Information, prosperity and 
strength will be its characteristics. I know many 
of the settlers personally, and there never were 
men better calculated to promote the welfare of 
such a community;" and he adds that if he were 
a young man, he knows no country in which he 

would sooner settle than in this Western region.'' 
This colony, left alone for a time, made its own 
government and nailed its laws to a tree in the vil- 
lage, an early indication of that law-abiding and 
peaceful spirit which has since made Ohio a just 
and well-ordered community. The subsequent 
settlements on the Miami and Scioto were made by 
citizens of New Jersey and Virginia, and it is cer- 
tainly remarkable that among all the early immi- 
gration, there were no ignorant people. In the 
language of Washington, they came with " infor- 
mation," qualified to promote the welfare of the 

Soon after the settlement on the Muskingum 
and the Miami, the great wave of migration 
fiowed on to the plains and valleys of Ohio and Ken- 
tucky. Kentucky had been settled earlier, but the 
main body of emigrants in subsequent years 
went into Ohio, influenced partly by the great 
ordinance of 1Y87, securing freedom and schools 
forever, and partly by the greater security of 
titles under the survey and guarantee of the 
United States Government. Soon the new State 
grew up, with a rapidity which, until then, was 
unknown in the history of civilization. On the 
Muskingum, where the buifalo had roamed; on 
the Scioto, where the Shawanees had built their 
towns ; on the Miami, where the great chiefs of 
the Miamis had reigned ; on the plains of San- 
dusky, yet red with the blood of the white man ; 
on the Maumee, where Wayne, by the victory of 
the " Fallen Timbers," had broken the power of 
the Indian confederacy — ^the emigrants from the 
old States and from Europe came in to cultivate 
the fields, to build up towns, and to rear the insti- 
tutions df Christian civilization, until the single 
State of Ohio is greater in numbers, wealth, and 
education, than was the whole American Union 
when the Declaration of Independence was made. 

Let us now look at the statistics of this growth 
and magnitude, as they are exhibited in the cen- 
sus of the United States. Taking intervals of 
twenty years, Ohio had: In 1810, 230,760; in 
1830, 937,903 ; in 1850, 1,980,329 ; in 1870, 
2,665,260. Add to this the increase of population 
in the last six years, and Ohio now has, in round 
numbers, 3,000,000 of people — half a million 
more than the thirteen States in 1776 ; and 
her cities and towns have to-day six times the 
population of all the cities of America one hund- 
red years ago. This State is now the third in 
numbers and wealth, and the first in some of 
those institutions which mark the progress of 




mankind. That a small part of tte wilderness of 
1776 should be more populous than the whole 
Union was then, and that "it should have made a 
social and moral advance greater than that of any 
nation in the same time, must be regarded as one 
of the most startling and instructive facts which 
attend this year of commemoration. If such has 
been the social growth of Ohio, let us , look at its 
physical development ; this is best expressed by the 
aggregate productions of the labor and arts of a 
people applied to the earth. In the census statistics 
of the United States these are expressed in the 
aggregate results of agriculture, mining, manufaet^ 
ures, and commerce. Let us simplify these statis- 
tics, by comparing the aggregate and ratios as 
between several States, and between Ohio and some 
countries of Europe. 

The aggregate amount of grain and potatoes — 
farinaceous food, produced in Ohio in 1870 was 
134,938,413 bushels, and in 1874, there were 157,- 
328,597 bushels, being the largest aggregate 
amount raised in any State but one, lUipois, and 
larger per square mile than Illinois or any other 
State in the country. The promises of nature 
were thus vindicated by the labor of man ; and 
the industry of Ohio has fulfilled its whole duty 
to the sustenance of the country and the world. 
She has raised more grain than ten of the old 
States together, and more than half raised by 
Great Britain or by France. I have not the 
recent statistics of Europe, but McGregor, in his 
statistics of nations for 1832 — a period of pro- 
found peace — gives the following ratios for the 
leading countries of Europe : Great Britain, area 
120,324 miles; amount of grain, 262,500,000 
bushels; rate per square mile, 2,190 to 1; 
Austria — area 258,603 mUes ; aniount of grain, 
366,800,000 bushels; rate per square mile, l,422to 
1; France — area 215,858 miles; amount of grain, 
233,847,300 bushels ; rate per square mile, 1,080 
to 1. The State of Ohio — area per square miles, 
40,000 ; amount of grain, 150,000,000 bushels ; 
rate per square mile, 3,750. Combining the great 
countries of Great Britain, Austria, and France, 
we find that they had 594,785 square miles and 
produced 863,147 ,300 bushels of grain, which was, at 
the time these statistics were taken, 1 ,450 bushels per 
square mile, and ten bushels to each one of the 
population. Ohio, on the other hand, had 3,750 
bushels per square mile, and fifty bushels to each 
one of the population ; that is, there was five 
times as much grain raised in Ohio, in proportion 
to the people, as in these great countries of Europe. 

As letters make words, and words express ideas, so 
these dry figures of statistics express facts, and 
these facts make the whole history of civilization. 

Let us now look at the statistics of domestic 
animals. These are always indicative of the state 
of society in regard to the physical comforts. The 
horse must furnish domestic conveyances; the 
cattle must furnish the products of the dairy, as 
well as meat, and the sheep must furnish wool. 

Let us see how Ohio compares with other States 
and with Europe : In 1870, Ohio had 8,818,000 
domestic animals ; Illinois, 6,925,000 ; New York, 
5,283,000; Pennsylvania, 4,493,000; and other 
States less. The proportion to population in these 
States was, in Ohio, to each person, 3.3 ; Illinois, 
2.7; New York, 1.2; Pennsylvania, 1.2. 

Let us now see the proportion of domestic ani- 
mals in Europe. The results given by McGregor's 
statistics are : In Great Britain, to each person, 
2.44; Russia, 2.00; France, 1.50 ; Prussia, 1.02; 
Austria, 1.00. It will be seen that the proportion 
in Great Britain is only two-thirds that of Ohio; 
in France, only one-half; and in Austria and 
Prussia only one-third. It may be said that, in 
the course of civilization, the number of animals 
diminishes as the density of population increases ; 
and, therefore, this result might have been ex- 
pected in the old countries of Europe. But this 
does not apply to Russia or Germany, still less to 
other States in this country. Russia in Europe 
has not more than half the density of population 
now in Ohio. Austria and Prussia have less than 
150 to the square mile. The whole of the north 
of Europe has not so dense a population as the 
State of Ohio, still less have the States of Illinois 
and Missouri, west of Ohio. Then, therefore, 
Ohio showing a larger proportion of domestic ani- 
mals than the north of Europe, or States west of 
her, with a population not so dense, we see at once 
there must be other causes to produce such a 

Looking to some of the incidental results of this 
vast agricultural production, we see that the United 
States exports to Europe immense amounts of 
grain and provisions ; and that there is manufact- 
ured in this country an immense amount of woolen 
goods. Then, taking these statistics of the raw 
material, we find that Ohio produces one-fifth of 
all the wool ; one-seventh of all the cheese ; one- 
eighth of all the corn, and one-tentk of all the 
wheat ; and yet Ohio has but a fourteenth part of 
the population, and one-eightieth part of the sur- 
face of this country. 




Let us take another — a commercial view of this 
matter. We have seen that Ohio raises five times 
as much grain per square mile as is raised per 
square mile in the empires of Great Britain, France 
and Austria, taken together. After making allow- 
ance for the diflFerences of living, in the working 
classes of this country, at least two-thirds of the 
food and grain of Ohio are a surplus beyond the 
necessities of life, and, therefore, so much in the 
commercial balance of exports. This corresponds 
with the fact, that, in the shape of grain, meat, 
liquors and dairy products, this vast surplus is con- 
stantly moved to the Atlantic States and to Europe. 
The money value of this exported product is equal 
to $100,000,000 per annum, and to a solid capital 
of $1,500,000,000, after all the sustenance of the 
people has been taken out of the annual crop. 

We are speaking of agriculture alone. We are 
speaking of a State which began its career more 
than a quarter of a century after the Declaration 
of Independence was made. And now, it may be 
asked, what is the real cause of this extraordinary 
result^ which, without saying anything invidious of 
other States, we may safely say has never been 
surpassed in any country? We have already 
stated two of the advantages possessed by Ohio. 
The first is that it is a compact, unbroken body of 
arable land, surrounded and intersected by water- 
courses, equal to all the demands of commerce and 
navigation. Next, that it was secured forever to 
freedom and intelligence by the ordinance of 1Y87. 
The intelligence of its future people was secured 
I by immense grants of public lands foi'the purpose 
of education ; but neither the blessings of nature, 
nor the wisdom of laws, could obtain such results 
without the continuous labor of an intelligent 
people. Such it had, and we have only to take 
the testimony of Washington, already quoted, and 
the statistical resultis I have given, to prove that 
no people has exhibited more steady industry, nor 
has any people directed their labor with more in- 

Afl«r the agricultural capacity and production 
of a country, its most important physical feature 
is its miiieral products; its capacity for coal and 
iron, the two great elements of material civiliza- 
tion. If we were to take away from Great Britain 
her capacity to produce coal in such vast quanti- 
ties, we should reduce her to a third-rate position, 
no longer numbered among the great nations of the 
earth. Coal has smelted her iron, run her steam 
engines, and is the basis of her manufactures. 
But when we compare the coal fields of Great 

Britain with those of this country, they are. insig- 
nificant. The coal fields of all Europe are small 
compared with those of the central United States. 
The coal district of Durham and Northumberland, 
in England, is only 880 square miles. There are 
other districts of smaller extent, making in the 
whole probably one-half the extent of that in 
Ohio. The EngUsh coal-beds are represented as 
more important, in reference to extent, on account 
of their thickness. There is a small coal district 
in Lancashire, where the workable coal-beds are in 
all 150 feet in thicknfts. But this involves, as is 
well known, the necessity of going to immense 
depths and incurring immense expense. On the 
other hand, the workable coal-beds of Ohio are 
near the surface, and some of them require no ex- 
cavating, except that of the horizontal, lead from 
the mine to the river or the railroad. In one 
county of Ohio there are three beds of twelve, six 
and four feet each, within fifty feet of the surface. 
At some of the mines having the best coal, the 
lead from the mines is nearly horizontal, and just 
high enough to dump the coal into the railroad 
cars. These coals are of all qualities, from that 
adapted to the domestic fire to the very best qual- 
ity for smelting or manufacturing iron. Recollect- 
ing these facts, let us try to get an idea of the coal 
district of Ohio. The bituminous coal region de- 
eseending the western slopes of the AUeghanies, 
occupies large portions of Western" Pennsylvania, 
West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee. I 
suppose that this coal field is not less than fifty 
thousand square miles, exclusive of Western Mary- 
land and the southern terminations of that field in 
Georgia and Alabama. Of this vast field of coal, 
exceeding anything found in Europe, about one- 
fifth part lies in Ohio. Prof Mather, in his 
report on the geology of the State (first Geologi- 
cal Report of the State) says : 

" The coal-measures within Ohio occupy a space 
of about one hundred and eighty miles in length by 
eighty in breadth at the widest; part, with an area 
of about ten thousand square miles, extending 
along the Ohio from Trumbull County in the north 
to near the mouth of the Scioto in the south. 
The regularity in the dip, and the moderate incli- 
nation of the strata, afibrd facilities to the mines 
not known to those of most other countries, espe- 
cially Great Britain, where the strata in which the 
coal is imbedded have been broken and thrown out 
of place since its deposit, occasioning many slips 
and faults, and causing much labor and expense in 
again recovering the bed. In Ohio there is very 

D ""V 




little difficulty of this kind, the faults being small 
and seldom found." 

Now, taking into consideration these geological 
facts, let us look at the extent of the Ohio coal 
field. It occupies, wholly or in part, thirty-six 
counties, including, geographically, 14,000 square 
miles ; but- leaving out fractions, and reducing the 
Ohio coal field within its narrowest limits, it is 
10,000 square miles in extent, lies near the surface, 
and has on an average twenty feet thickness of work- 
able coal-beds. Let us compare this with the coal 
mines of Durham and NortAimberland (England), 
the largest and best coal mines there. That coal 
district is estimated at 850 square miles, twelve 
feet thick, and is calculated to contain 9,000,000,- 
000 tons of coal. The coal field of Ohio is twelve 
times larger and one-third thicker. Estimated by 
that standard-, the coal field of Ohio contains 180,- 
000,000,000 tons of coal. Marketed at only $2 
per ton, this coal is worth $360,000,000,000, or, 
in other words, ten times as much as the whole 
valuation of the United States at the present time- 
But we need not undertake to estimate either its 
quantity or value. It is enough to say that it is a 
quantity which we can scarcely imagine, which is 
tenfold that of England, and which is enough to 
supply the entire continent for ages to come. 

After coal, iron is beyond doubt the most val- 
uable mineral product of a State. As the mate- 
rial of manufacture, it is the most important. 
What are called the " precious metals " are not to 
be compared with it as an element of industry or 
profit. But since no manufactures can be success- 
fully carried on without fuel, coal becomes the first 
material element of the arts. Iron is unquestion- 
ably the next. Ohio has an iron district extending 
from the mouth of the Scioto River to some point 
north of the Mahoning River, in Trumbull County. 
The whole length is nearly two hundred miles, and 
the breadth twenty miles, making, as near as we can 
ascertain,- 4,000 square miles. The iron in this dis- 
trict is of various qualities, and is manufactured 
largely into bars and castings. In this iron dis- 
trict are one hundred furnaces, forty-four rolling- 
mills, and fifteen rail-mills, being the largest num- 
ber of either in any State in the Union, except 
only Pennsylvania. 

Although only the sevent eenth State in its admis- 
sion, I find that, by the census statistics of 1870, 
it is the third State in the production of iron and iron 
manufactures. Already, and within the life of 
one man, this State begins to show what must in 
future time be the vast results of coal and iron, 

applied to the arts and manufactures. In the 
year 18Y4, there were 420,000 tons of pig iron 
produced in Ohio, which is larger than the prod- 
uct of any State, except Pennsylvania. The 
product and the manufacture of iron in Ohio 
have increased so rapidly, and the basis for 
increase is so great, that we may not doubt that 
Ohio will continue to be the greatest producer of 
iron and iron fabrics, except only Pennsylvania. 
At Cincinnati, the iron manufacture of the Ohio 
Valley is concentrating, and at Cleveland the ores 
of Lake Superior are being smelted. 

After coal and iron, we may place salt among 
the necessaries of life. In connection with the 
coal region west of the Alleghanies, there has in 
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio, a large 
space of country underlaid by the salt rock, which 
already produces immense amounts of salt. Of 
this, Ohio has its full proportion. In a large 
section of the southeastern portion of the State, 
salt is produced without any known limitation. 
At Pomeroy and other points, the salt rock Ues 
about one thousand feet below the surface, but 
salt water is brought easily to the surface by the 
steam engine. There, the salt rock, the coal 
seam, and the noble sandstone lie in successive 
strata, while the green corn and the yellow wheat 
bloom on the surface above. The State of Ohio 
produced, in 1874, 3,500,000 bushels of salt, 
being one-fifth of all produced in the United 
States. The salt section of Ohio is exceeded only 
by that of Syracuse, New York, and of Saginaw, 
Michigan. 'There is no definite limit to the 
underljdng salt rock of Ohio, and, therefore, the 
production will be proportioned only to the extent , 
of the demand. 

Having now considered the resources and the 
products of the soil and the mines of Ohio, we 
may properly ask how far the people have employed 
their resources in the increase of art and manu- 
facture. We have two modes of comparison, the 
rate of increase within the State, and the ratio 
they bear to other States. The aggregate value 
of the products of manufacture, exclusive of 
mining, in the last three censuses were : in 1850, 
$02,692,000; in 1860, $121,691,000 ; 'in 1870, 

The ratio of increase was over 100 per c^nt in 
each ten years, a rate fai- beyond that of the in- 
crease of population, and much beyond the ratio of 
increase in the whole country. In 1850, the man- 
ufactures of Ohio were one-sixteenth part of the 
aggregate in the country ; in 1860, one-fifteenth 




part; in 18Y0, one-twelfth part. In addition to 
this, we find, from the returns of Cincinnati and 
Cleveland, that the value of the manufactured prod- 
ucts of Ohio in 1875, must have reached $400,- 
000,000, and, by reference to the census tables, it 
will be seen that the ratio of increase exceeded that 
of the great manufacturing States of New York, 
Massachusetts and Connecticut. Of all the States 
admitted into the Union prior to Ohio, Pennsylvania 
alone has kept pace in the progress of manufacture. 
Some little reference to the manufacture of leading 
articles may throw some light on the cause of this. 
In the production of agricultural machinery and 
implements, Ohio is the first State ; in animal and 
vegetable oils and in pig iron, the second; in cast 
iron and in tobacco, the third ; in salt, in machinery 
and in leather, the fourth. These facts show how 
largely the resources of coal, iron and agriculture 
have entered into the manufactures of the State. 
.This great advance in the manufactures of Ohio, 
when we consider that this State is, relatively to 
its surface, the first agricultural State, in the 
country, leads to the inevitable inference that its 
people are remarkably, industrious. When, on 
, forty thousand square miles of surface, three mill- 
ions of people raise one hundred and fifty million 
bushels of grain, and produce manufactures to the 
amount of $269,000,000 (which is fifty bushels 
of breadstuff to each man, woman and chUd, and 
$133 of manufacture), it wiU be difficult to find 
any community surpassing such results. It is a 
testimony, not only to the State of Ohio, but to 
the industry, sagacity and energy of the American 

Looking now to the commerce of the State, we 
have said there are six hundred miles of coast line, 
which embraces some of the principal internal ports 
of the Ohio and the lakes, such as Cincinnati, Cleve- 
land, Toledo and Portsmouth, but whose commerce 
is most wholly inland. Of course, no comparison 
can be made with the foreign commerce of the 
ocean perts. On the other hand, it is well known 
that the inland trade of the country far exceeds 
that of all its foreign commerce, and that the larg- 
est part of this interior trade is carried on its 
rivers and lakes. The materials for the vast con- 
sumption of the interior must be conveyed in its 
vessels, whether of sail or steam, adapted to these 
waters. Let us take, then, the ship-building, the 
navigation, and the exchange trades of Ohio, as 
elements in determining the position of this State 
in reference to the commerce of the country. At 
the ports of Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky and Cin- 

cinnati, there have been built one thousand sail and 
steam vessels in the last twenty years, making an 
average of fifty each year. The number of sail, 
steam and all kinds of vessels in Ohio is eleven 
hundred and ninety, which is equal to the number 
in all the other States in the Ohio Valley and the 
Upper Mississippi. 

When we look to the navigable points to which 
these vessels are destined, we find them on all this 
vast coast line, which extends fi-om the Gulf of 
Mexico to the Yellowstone, and from Duluth to 
the St. Lawrence. 

Looking again to see the extent of this vast in- 
terior trade which is handled by Ohio alone, we 
find that the imports and exports of the principal 
articles of Cincinnati, amount in value to $500,- 
000,000; and when we look at the great trade of 
Cleveland and Toledo, we fehall find that the an- 
nual trade of Ohio exceeds $700,000,000. The 
lines of railroad which connect with its ports, are 
more than four thousand miles in length, or rather 
more than one mile in length to each ten square 
miles of surface. This great amount of railroads is 
engaged not merely in transporting to the Atlantic 
and thence to Europe, the immense surpliis grain 
and meat in Ohio, but in carrying the largest part 
of that greater surplus, which' exists in the States 
west of Ohio, the granary of the West. Ohio 
holds the gateway of every railroad north of the 
Ohio, from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, and 
hence it is that the great transit lines of the coun- 
try pass through Ohio. 

Let us now turn from the progress of the arts 
to the progress of ideas ; from material to intellects 
ual development. It is said that a State consists 
of men, and history shows that no art or science, 
wealth or power, will compensate for the want of 
moral or intellectual stability in the minds of a 
nation. Hence, it is admitted that the strength 
and perpetuity of our republic must consist in the 
intelligence and morality of the people. A re- 
public can last only when the people are enlight- 
ened. This was an axiom with the early legislators 
of this country. Hence it was that when Vir- 
ginia, Connecticut and the original colonies ceded 
to the General Government that vast and then un- 
known wilderness which lay west of the Allegha- 
nies, in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi, they 
took care that its future inhabitants should be an 
educated people. The Constitution was not formed 
when the celebrated ordinance of 1787 was passed. 

That ordinance provided that, " Keligion, mor- 
ality,' and knowledge being necessary to good 



government and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and the means of education shall be forever en- 
couraged;" and by the ordinance of 1785 for the 
survey of public lands in the Northwestern Terri- 
tory, Section 16 in each township, that is, one 
thirty-sixth part, was reserved for the maintenance 
of public schools in said townships. As the State 
of Ohio contained a little more than twenty-five 
millions of acres, this, together with two special 
grants of three townships to universities, amounted 
to the dedication of 740,000 acres of land to the 
maintenance of schools and colleges. It was a 
splendid endowment, but it was many years before 
it became available. It was sixteen years after the 
passage of this ordinance (in 180S), when Ohio 
entered the Union, and legislation upon this grant 
■ became possible. The Constitution of the State 
pursued the language of the ordinance, and de- 
clared that "schools and the means of education 
shall forever be encouraged by legislative provision." 
The Governors of Ohio, in successive messages, 
urged attention to this subject upon the people; 
but the thinness of settlement, making it impossi- 
ble, except in few districts, to collect youth in suf- 
ficient numbers, and impossible to sell or lease' 
lands to advantage, caused the delay of efficient 
school system for many years. In 1825, however, 
a general law establishing a school system, and levy- 
ing a tax for its support, was passed. 

This was again enlarged and increased by new 
legislation in 1836 and 1846. From that time to 
this, Ohio has had a broad, liberal and efficient sys- 
tem of pubUc instruction. The taxation for schools, 
and the number enrolled in them at different pe- 
riods, will best show what has been done. In 
1855 the total taxation for school purposes was 
$2,672,827. The proportion of youth of school- 
able age enrolled was 67 per cent. In 1874 the 
amount raised by taxation was $7,425,135. The 
number enrolled of schoolable age was 70 per 
cent, or 707,943. 

As the schoolable age extends to twenty-one 
years, and as there are very few youth in school 
after fifteen years of age, it follows that the 70 
per cent of schoolable youths enrolled in the pub- 
lic schools must comprehend nearly the whole 
number between four and fifteen years. It is im- 
portant to observe this fact, because it has been 
inferred that, as the whole number of youth be- 
tween five and twenty-one have not been enrolled, 
therefore they are not educated. This is a 
mistake; nearly all over fifteen years of age have 
been in the public schools, and all the native 

youth of the State, and all foreign born, young 
enough, have had the benefit of the public schools. 
But in consequence of the large number who 
have come from other States and from foreign 
countries, there are still a few who are classed by 
the census statistics among the "illiterate;" the 
proportion of this class, however, is less in propor- 
tion than in twenty-eight other States, and less in 
proportion than in Connecticut and Massachusetts, 
two of the oldest States most noted for popular 
education. In fact, every youth in Ohio, under 
twenty-one years of age, may have the benefit of a 
public education ; and, since the system of graded 
and high schools has been adopted, may obtain a 
common knowledge from the alphabet to the classics. 
The enumerated branches of study in the pub- 
lic schools of Ohio are thirty-four, including 
mathematics and astronomy, French, German and 
the classics. Thus the State which was in the 
heart of the wilderness in 1776, and was not a. 
State until the nineteenth century had begun, now 
presents to the world, not merely an unrivaled de- 
velopment of material prosperity, but an unsur- 
passed system of popular education. 

In what is called the higher education, in the 
colleges and universities, embracing the classics 
and sciences taught in regular classes, it is the pop- 
ular idea, and one which few dare to question, that 
we must look to the Eastern States for superiority 
and excellence ; but that also is becoming an as- 
sumption without proof; a proposition difficult to 
sustain. The facts in regard to the education of 
universities and colleges, their faculties, students 
and course of instruction, are all set forth in the 
complete statistics of the Bureau of Education for 
1874. They show that the State of Ohio had, the 
largest number of such institutions; the largest 
number of instructors in their faculties, except one 
State, New York ; and the largest number of stu- 
dents in regular college classes, in proportion to 
their population, except the two States of Connect- 
icut and Massachusetts. Perhaps, if we look at 
the statistics of classical students in the colleges, 
disregarding preparatory and irregular courses, we 
shall get a more accurate idea of the progress of 
the higher education in those States which claim 
the best. In Ohio, 36 colleges, 258 teachers, 
2,139 students, proportion, 1 in 124; in Penn- 
sylvania, 27 colleges, 239 teachers, 2,359 students, 
proportion, 1 in 150; in New York, 26 colleges, 
343 teachers, 2,764 students, proportion, 1 in 176 ; 
in the six NewEngland States, 17 colleges, 252 teach- 
ers, 3,341 students, proportion, 1 in 105; in Illi- 



nois, 24 colleges, 219 teachers, 1,701 students, 
proportion, 1 in 140. 

This shows there are more collegiate institutiohs 
in Ohio than in all New England ; a greater num- 
ber of college teachers, and only a little smaller ratio 
of students to the population ; 'a greater number of 
such students than either in New York or Pennsyl- 
vania, and, as a broad, general fact, Ohio has made 
more progress in education than either of the old 
States which formed the American Union. Such 
a fact is a higher testimony to the strength and the 
beneficent influence of the American Government 
than any which the statistician or the historian 
can advance. 

Let us now turn to the moral aspects of the 
people of Ohio. No human society is found with- 
out its poor and dependent classes, whether made 
so ^y the defects of nature, by acts of Providence, 
or by the accidents of fortune. Since no society 
is exempt from these classes, it must be judged 
not so much by the fact of their existence, as by 
the manner in which it treats them. In the civil- 
ized nations of antiquity, such as Greece and 
Kome, hospitals, infirmaries, orphan homes, and 
asylums for the infirm, were unknown. These 
are the tjreations of Christianity, and that must be 
esteemed practically the most Christian State which 
most practices this Christian beneficence. In Ohio, 
as in all the States of this country, and of all 
Christian countries, there is a large number of the 
infirm and dependent classes; but, although Ohio 
is the thiM State in population, she is only the 
fourteenth in the proportion of dependent classes. 
The more important point, however, was, how does 
she treat them? Is there wanting any of all 
the varied institutions of benevolence? How does 
she compare with other States and countries in 
this tespect? It is believed that no State or coun- 
try can present a larger proportion of all these 
institutions which the benevolence of the wise and 
good have suggested for the alleviation of suffer- 
ing and misfortune, than the State of Ohio. With 
3,500 of the insane within her borders, she has 
five great lunatic asylums, capable of accommodat- 
ing them all. She has asylums for the deaf and 
dumb, the idiotic, and the Wind. She has the 
best hospitals in the country. She has schools 
of reform and houses of refiige. She has " homes " 
for the boys and girls, to the number of 800, who 
are children of soldiers. She has penitentiaries 
and jails, orphan asylums and infirmaries. In 
every county there is an infirmary, and in every 
public institution, except the penitentiary, there is a 

school. So that the State has used every human 
means to relieve the suffering, to instruct the igno- 
rant, and to reform the criminal. There are in 
the State 80,000 who come under all the various 
forms of the infirm, the poor, the sick and the 
criminal, who, in a greater or less degree, make 
the dependent class. For these the State has 
made every provision which humanity or justice 
or intelligence can require. A young State, de- 
veloped in the wilderness, she challenges, without 
any invidious comparison, both Europe and Amer- 
ica, to show her superior in the development of 
humanity manifested in the benefaction of public 

Intimately connected with public morals and 
with charitable institutions, is the religion of a 
people. The people of the United States are a 
Christian people.' The people of Ohio have man- 
ifested their zeal by the erection of churches, of 
Sunday schools, and of religious institutions. So 
far as these are outwardly manifested, they are 
made known by the social statistics of the census. 
The number of church organizations in the leading 
States were: In 'the State of Ohio, 6,488; in 
the State of New York, 5,627 : in the State of 
Pennsylvania, 5,984 ; in the State of Illinois, 4,298. 
It thus appears that Ohio had a larger number 
of churches than any State of the Union. The 
number of sittings, however, was not quite as 
large as those in New York and Pennsylvania. 
The denominations are of all the sects known in 
this country, about thirty in number, the majority 
of the whole being Methodists, Presbyterians and 
Baptists. Long before the American Independ- 
ence, the Moravians had settled on the Mahoning 
and Tuscarawas Rivers, but only to be destroyed ; 
and when the peace with Great Britain was made, 
not a vestige of Christianity remained on the 
soil of Ohio ; yet we see that within ninety years 
from that time the State of Ohio was, in the num- 
ber of its churches, the first of this great Union. 

In the beginning of this address, I said that 
Ohio was the oldest and first of these great States, 
carved out of the Northwestern Territory, and that 
it was in some things the greatest State of the 
American Union. I have now traced the physi- 
cal, commercial, intellectual and moral features of 
the State during the seventy-five years of its 
constitutional history. The result is to establish 
fully the propositions with which I began. These 
facts have brought out : 

1. That Ohio is, in reference to the square 
miles of its surface, the first State in agriculture 




of the American Union; this, too, notwithstand- 
ing it has 800,000 in cities and towns, and a large 
development of capital and products in manu- 

2. That Ohio has raised more grain per square 
mUe than either France, Austria, or Great Britain. 
They raised 1,450 bushels per square mile, and 
10 bushels to each person. Ohio raised 3,750 
bushels per square mUe, and 50 bushels to each 
one of the population ; or, in other words, five 
times the proportion of grain raised in Europe. 

3. Ohio was the first State of the Union in 
the production of domestic animals, being far in 
advance of either New York, Pennsylvania or Illi- 
nois. The proportion of domestic animals to each 
person in Ohio was three and one-third, and in 
New York and Pennsylvania less than half that. 
The largest proportion of domestic animals pro- 
duced in Europe was in Great Britain and Russia, 
neither of which come near that of Ohio. 

4. The coal-field of Ohio is vastly greater than 
that of Great Britain, and we need make no com- 
parison with other States in regard to coal or iron ; 
for the 10,000 square miles of coal, and 4,000 
square mUes of iron in Ohio, are enough to supply 
the whole American continent for ages to come. 

5. Neither need we compare the results of 
commerce and navigation, since, from the ports of 
Cleveland and Cincinnati, the vessels of Ohio 
touch on 42,000 miles of coast, and her 5,000 
miles of railroad carry her products to every part 
of the American continent. 

6. Notwithstanding the immense proportion 
and products of agriculture in Ohio, yet she has 
more than kept pace with New York and New 
England in the progress of manufactures during 
the last twenty yeai-s. Her coal and iron are pro- 
ducing their legitimate results in making her a 
great manufacturing State. 

7. Ohio is the first State in the Union as to 
the proportion of youth attending school ; and the 
States west of the AUeghanies and north of the 
Ohio have more youth in school, proportionably, 
than New England and New York. The facts on 
this subject are so extraordinary that I may be 
excused for giving them a little in detail. 

The proportion of youth in Ohio attending 
school to the population, is 1 in 4.2; in Illinois, 1 
in 4.3 ; in Pennsylvania, 1 in 4.8 ; in New York, 
1 in 5.2 ; in Connecticut and Massachusetts, 1 in 

These proportions show that it is in the West, 
and not in the East, that education is now advanc- 

ing ; and it is here that we see the stimulus given 
by the ordinance of 1787, is working out its great 
and beneficent results. The land grant for educa- 
tion was a great one, but, at last, its chief effort 
was' in stimulating popular education ; for the State 
of Ohio has taxed itself tens of millions of dollars 
beyond the utmost value of the land grant, to 
found and maintain a system of public education 
which the world has not surpassed. 

We have' seen that above and beyond all this 
material and intellectual development, Ohio has 
provided a vast benefaction of asylums, hospitals, 
and infirmaries, and special schools for the support 
and instruction of the dependent classes. There is 
not within all her borders a single one of the deaf, 
dumb, and blind, of the poor, sick, and insane, not 
an orphan or a vagrant, who is not provided for 
by the broad and generous liberality of the State 
and her people. A charity which the classic ages 
knew nothing of, a beneficence which the splendid ' 
hierarchies and aristocracies of Europe cannot 
equal, has been exhibited in this young State, 
whose name was unknown one hundred years ago, 
whose people, from Europe to the Atlantic, and 
from the Atlantic to the Ohio, were, like Adam 
and Eve, cast out — " the world before them where 
to choose." 

Lastly, we see that, although the third in pop- 
ulation, and the seventeenth in admission to the 
Union, Ohio had, in 1870, 6,400 churches, the 
largest number in any one State, and numbering 
among them every form of Christian worship. 
The people, whose fields were rich with grain, 
whose mines were boundless in wealth, and whose 
commerce extended through thousands of miles 
of lakes and rivers, came here, as they came to 
New England's rock-bound coast — 

" With freedom to worship God." 

The church and the schoolhouse rose beside the 
green fields, and the morning bells rang forth to 
cheerful children going to school, and to a Chris- 
tian people going to the church of God. 

Let us now look at the possibilities of Ohio in 
the future development of the American Eepub- 
lican Republic. The two most populous parts of 
Europe, because the most food-producing, are the 
Netherlands aild Italy, or, more precisely, Belgium 
and ancient Lombardy ; to the present time, their 
population is, in round numbers, three hundred to 
the square mile. The density of population in 
England proper is about the same. We may 
assume, therejpore, that three hundred to the square 



mile is, in round numbers, the limit of comfortable 
subsistence under modern civilization. It is true 
that modern improvements in agricultural machin- 
ery and fertilization have greatly increased the 
capacity of production, on a given amount of 
land, with a given amount of labor. It is true, 
also, that the old countries of Europe do not 
possess an equal amount of arable land with Ohio 
in proportion to the same surface. It would seem, 
therefore, that the density of population in Ohio 
might exceed that of any part of Europe. On 
the other hand, it may be said with truth that the 
American people will not become so dense as in 
Europe while they have new lands in the West 
to occupy. This is true ; but lands such as those 
in the valley of the Ohio are now becoming 
scarce in the West, and we think that, with her 
great capacity for the production of grain on one 
hand, and of illimitable quantities of coal and 
iron to manufacture with on the other, that Ohio 
wUl, at no remote period, reach nearly the density 
of Belgium, which will give her 10,000,000 of 
people. This seems extravagant, but the tide of 
migration, which flowed so fast to the West, is 
beginning to ebb, while the manufactures of the 
interior offer greater inducements. 

With population comes wealth, the material for 
education, the development of the arts, advance 
in all the material elements of civilization, and the 
still grander advancements in the strength and 
elevation of the human mind, conquering to itself 
new realms of material and intellectual power, 
acquiring in the future what we have seen in the 
past, a wealth of resources unknown and undreamed 
of when, a hundred years ago, the fathers of the 
republic declared their independence. I know 
how easy it is to treat this statement with easy 
incredulity, but statistics is a certain science ; the 
elements of civilization are now measured, and we 
know the progress of the human race as we know 

that of a cultivated plant. We know the resources 
of the country, its food-producing capacity, its 
art processes, its power of eddcation, and the unde- 
fined and illimitable power of the human mind 
for new inventions and unimagined progress. With 
this knowledge, it is not difficult nor unsafe to say 
that the future will produce more, and in a far 
greater ratio, than the past. The pictured scenes 
of the prophets have already been more than ful- 
filled, and the visions of beauty and glory, which 
their imagination failed fully to describe, will be 
more than realized in the bloom of that garden 
which republican America will present to the 
eyes of astonished mankind. Long before another 
century shall have passed by, the single State of 
Ohio will present fourfold the population with which 
the thirteen States began their independence, more 
wealth than the entire Union now has ; greater 
universities than any now in the country, and a 
development of arts and manufacture which the 
world now knows nothing of. You have seen 
more than that since the Constitution was adopted, 
and what right have you to say the future shall 
not equal the past ? 

I have aimed, in this address, to give an exact 
picture of what Ohio is, not more for the sake of 
Ohio than as a representation of the products 
which the American Republic has given to the 
world. A Sta,te which began long after the 
Declaration of Independence, in the then unknown 
wilderness of North America, presents to-day 
the fairest example of what a republican govern- 
ment with Christian civilization can do. Look 
upon this picture and upon those of Assyria, 
of Greece or Rome, or of Europe in her best 
estate, and say where is the civilization of the 
earth which can equal this. If a Roman citizen could 
say with pride, " Oivis Romanus sum" with far 
greater pride can you say this day, "I am an 
American citizen." 

•^ <r" 







WHEN the survey of the Northwest Terri- 
tory was ordered by Congress, March 20, 
1785, it was decreed that every sixteenth section 
of land should be reserved for the "maintenance 
of public schools within each township." The 
ordinance of 1787 — ^thanks to the New England 
Associates — ^proclaimed that, "religion, morality 
and knowledge being essential to good government, 
schools and the means of education should forever 
be encouraged." The State Constitution of 1802 
declared that " schools and the means of instruc- 
tion should be encouraged by legislative provision, 
not inconsistent with the rights of conscience." 
In 1825, through the persevering efforts of Nathan 
G-uilford, Senator from Hamilton County, Ephraim 
Cutler, Representative from Washington County, 
and other friends of education, a bill was passed, 
" laying the foundation for a general system of 
common schools." This bill provided a tax of one- 
half mill, to be levied by the County Commis- 
sioners for school purposes ; provided for school 
examiners, and made Township Clerks and County 
Auditors school officers. In 1829, this county 
tax was raised to three-fourths of a mill ; in 1834 
to one mill, and, in 1836, to one and a half mills. 
In March, 1837, Samuel Lewis, of Hamilton 
County, was appointed State Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools. He was a very energetic worker, trav- 
eling on horseback all over the State, delivering ad- 
dresses and encouraging school officers and teachers. 
Through his efforts much good was done, and 

* From the School Commissioners' Beports, principally those of 
Thomas W. Hurvey, A. M. 

Note 1. — The first school taught in Ohio, or in the Northwestern 
Territory, was in 1T91. The first teacher was Maj. Austin Tupper, 
eldestson of Gen. Benjamin Tupper, both Revolutionary officers. 
The room occupied was the same as that in which the first Court was 
held, and was situated in the northwest block-houseof thegarrison, 
called the stockade, at Marietta. During the Indian war school 
was also taught at Fort Harmar, Point Marietta, and at other set- 
tlements. A meeting was held in Marietta, April 29, 1797, to con- 
sider the erection of a school building suitable for the instruction 
of the youth, and for conducting religious sei-vices. Resolutions 
wore adopted which led to the erection of a building called the 
Muskingum Academy. The building was of frame, forty feet long 
and twenty-four feet wide, and is yet(1878)standing. Thebuilding 
was twelve f'-et high, with an arched ceiling. It stoodupon astone 
foundation, three steps from the ground. There were two chimneys 
and a lobby projection. There was a cellar under the whole build- 
ing. It stood upon a beautiful lot, fronting the Muskingum River, 
and about sixty feet back from the street. Some largo trees were 

many important features engrafted on the school 
system. He resigned in 1839, when the officewas 
abolished, and its duties imposed on the Secretary 
of State. 

The most important adjunct in early education 
in the State was the college of teachers organized 
in Cincinnati in 1831. Albert Pickett, Dr. Joseph 
Ray, William H. McGruffey — so largely known by 
his Readers — and MUo G. Williams, were at its 
head. Leading men in all parts of the West at- 
tended its meetings. Their published deliberations 
did much for the advancement of education among 
the people. Through the efforts of the college, 
the first convention held in Ohio for educational 
purposes was called at Columbus, January 13, 
1836. Two years afber, in December, the first 
convention in which the different sections of the 
State were represented, was held. At both these 
conventions, all the needs of the schools, both com- 
mon and higher, were ably and fully discussed, 
and appeals made to the people for a more cordial 
support of the law. No successftil attempts were 
made to organize a permanent educational society 
until December, 1847, when the Ohio State Teach- 
ers' Association was formed at Akron, Summit 
County, with Samuel Galloway as President; T. 
W. Harvey, Recording Secretary; M. D. Leggett, 
Corresponding Secretary ; William Bowen, Treas- 
urer, and M. F. Cowdrey, Chairman of the Executive 
Committee. This Association entered upon its 
work with commendable earnestness, and has since 

upon the lot and on the street in front. Across the street was an 
open common, and beyond that the river. Immediately opposite 
the door, on entering, was a broad aisle, and, at the end of the 
aisle, against the wall, was a desk or pulpit. On the right and left 
of the pulpit, against the wall, and fronting the pulpit, was a row 
of slips. On each side of the door, facing the pulpit, were two slips, 
and, at each end of the room, one slip. These slips were stationary, 
and were fitted with desks that could be let down, and there were 
boxes in the desks for holding books and papers. In the center of 
the room was an open space, which could be filled with movable 
Beats. The first school was opened here in 1800." — Letter of A. T. 

Note 2. — Another evidence of the character of thn New England 
Associates is the founding of a public library as early as 1796, or 
before. Another was also established at Belpre about the same time. 
Abundant evidence proves the existence of these libraries, all tend- 
ing to the fact that the early settlers, though conquering a wilder- 
ness and a savage foe, would not allow their mental faculties to 
lack for food. The character of the books shows that "solid" 
reading predominated. 




never abated its zeal. Semi-annual meetings were 
at first held, but, since 1858, only annual meetings 
occur. They are always largely attended, and al- 
ways by the best and most energetic teachers. 
The Association has given tone to the educational 
interests of the State, and has done a vast amount 
of good in popularizing education. In the spring 
of 1851, Lorin Andrews, then Superintendent of 
the Massillon school, resigned his place, and be- 
came a common-school missionaiy. In July, the 
Association, at Cleveland, made him its agent, and 
instituted measures to sustain him. He remained 
zealously at work in this relation until 1853, when 
he resigned to accept the presidency of Kenyon 
College, at Glambier. Dr. A. Lord was then chosen 
general agent and resident editor of the Journal 
of Education, which positions he filled two years, 
with eminent ability. 

The year that Dr. Lord resigned, the ex officio 
relation of the Secretary of State to the common 
schools was abolished, and the office of school com- 
missioner again created. H. H. Barney was 
elected to the place in October, 1853. The office 
has since been held by Kev. Anson Smyth, elected 
in 1856, and re-elected in 1859 ; E. E. White, 
appointed by the Governor, November 11, 1863, 
to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of C. 
W. H. Cathcart, who was elected in 1862 ; John 
A. Norris, in 1865; W. D. Henkle, in 1868; 
Thomas W. Harvey, in 1871; C. S. Smart, in 
1875, and the present incumbent, J. J. Burns, 
elected in 1878, his term expiring in 1881. 

The first teachers' institute in Northern Ohio 
was held at Sandusky, in September, 1845, con- 
ducted by Salem Town, of New York, A. D. Lord 
and M. P. Cowdrey. The second was held at Char- 
don, Geauga Co., in November of the same year. 
The first institute in the southern part of the 
State was held at Cincinnati, in February, 1837; 
the first in the central part at Newark, in March, 
1848. Since then these meetings of teachers have 
occurred annually, and have been the means of 
great good in elevating the teacher and the pubKc 
in educational interests. In 1848, on petition of 
forty teachers, county commissioners were author- 
ized to pay lecturers from surplus revenue, and the 
next year, to appropriate $100 for institute pur- 
poses, upon pledge of teachers to raise half that 
amount. By the statutes of 1864, applicants for 
teachers were required to pay 50 cents each as an 
examination fee. One-third of the amount thus 
raised was allowed the use of examiners as trav- 
eling expenses, the remainder to be applied to in- 

stitute instruction. For the year 1871, sixty-eight 
teachers' institutes were held in the State, at which 
308 instructors and lecturers were employed, and 
7,1 58 teachers in attendance. The expense incurred 
was $16,361.99, of which $10,127.13 was taken 
from th^ institute fund; $2,730.34, was contrib- 
uted by members; $680, by county commis- 
sioners, and the balance, $1,371.50, was ob- 
tained from other sources. The last report of the 
State Commissioners — 1878 — shows that eighty- 
five county institutes were held in the State, con- 
tinuing in session 748 days; 416 instructors were 
employed; 11,466 teachers attended; $22,531.47 
were received from all sources, and that the ex- 
penses were $19,587.51, or $1.71 per member. 
There was a balance on hand of $9,460.74 to com- 
mence the next year, just now closed, whose work 
has been as progressive and thorough as any former 
year. The State Association now comprises three 
sections; the general association, the superintend- 
ents' section and the ungraded school section. All 
have done a good work, and all report progress. 

The old State Constitution, adopted by a con- 
vention in 1802, was supplemented in 1851 by 
the present one, under which the General. Assem- 
bly, elected under it, met in 1852. Harvey Rice, 
a Senator from Cuyahoga County, Chairman of 
Senate Committee on "Common Schools and 
School Lands," reported a bill the 29th of March, 
to provide "for the re-organization, supervision 
and maintenance of common schools." This bill, 
amended in a few particulars, became a law 
March 14, 1853. The prominent features of the 
new law were : The substitution of a State school 
tax for the county tax ; creatioft of the office of 
the State School Commissioner; the creation of a 
Township Board of Education, consisting of repre- 
sentatives from the subdistricts ; the abolition of 
rate-bills, making education free to all the youth of 
the State ; the raising of a fund,' by a t^ix of one- 
tenth of a mill yearly, " for the purpose of fur- 
nishing school libraries and apparatus to all the 
common schools." This "library tax" was abol- 
ished in 1860, otherwise the law has remained 
practically unchanged. 

School journals, like the popular press, have 
been a potent agency in the educational history of 
the State. As early as 1838,. the Ohio School 
Director was issued by Samuel Lewis, by legisla- 
tive authority, though after six months' continu- 
ance, it ceased for want of support. The same 
year the Pestalozzian, by E. L. Sawtell and H. 
K. Smith, of Akron, and the Common School 




Advocate, of Cincimiati, were issued. In 1846, 
the School Journal began to be published by A. 

D. Lord, of Kirtland. The same year saw the 
Free School Clarion, by W. Bowen, of MassUlon, 
and the School Friend, by W. B. Smith & Co., 
of Cincinnati. The next year, W. H. Moore & 
Co., of Cincinnati, started the Western School 
Journal. In 1851, the Ohio Teacher, by 
Thomas Kainey, appeared ; the News and Edu- 
cator, in 1863, and the Educational Times, in 
1866. In 1850, Dr. Lord's Journal of Educa- 
tion was united with the School Friend, and 
became the recognized organ of the teachers in 
Ohio. The Doctor remained its principal editor 
until 1856, when he was succeeded by Anson 
Smyth, who edited the journal one year. In 185Y, 
it was edited by John D. Caldwell ; in 1858 and 
and 1859, by W. T. Coggeshall; in 1860, by Anson 
Smyth again, when it passed into the hands of 

E. E. White, who yet controls it. It has an 
iminense circjilation among Ohio teachers, and, 
though competed by other journals, since started, 
it maintains its place. 

The school system of the State may be briefly 
explained as follows: Cities and incorporated vil- 
lages are independent of township and county con- 
trol, in the management of schools, having boards 
of education and examiners of their own. Some 
of them are organized for school purposes, under 
special acts. Each township has a board of edu- 
cation, composed of one member from each sub- 
district. The township clerk is clerk of this board', 
but has no vote. Each subdistrict has a local 
'board of trustees, which manages its school afiairs, 
subject to the ad^ce and control of the township 
board. These officers are elected on the first 
Monday in April, and hold their offices three 
years. An enumeration of all the youth between 
the ages of five and twenty-one is made yearly. 
All public schools are required to be in session at 
least twenty-four weeks each year. The township 
clerk reports annually such facts concerning school 
affairs as the law requires, to the county auditor, 
who in turn reports to the State Commissioner, 
who collects these reports in a general report to 
the Legislature each year. 

A board of examiners is appointed in each 
county by the Probate Judge. This board has 
power to grant certificates for a term not exceed- 
ing two years, and good only in the county in 
which they are- executed ; they may be revoked on 
sufficient cause. In 1864, a State Board of 
Examiners was created, with power to issue life cer- 

tificates, valid in all parts of the State. Since 
then, up to January 1, 18Y9, there have been 188 
of these issued. They are considered an excellent 
test of scholarship and ability, and are very credit- 
able to the holder. 

The school funds, in 1865, amounted to $3,271,- 
275.66. They were the proceeds of appropriations 
of land by Congress for school purposes, upon 
which the State pays an annual interest of 6 per 
cent. The fiinds are known as the Virginia Mili- 
tary School Fund, the proceeds of eighteen quar- 
ter-townships and three sections of land, selected 
by lot from lands lying in the United States 
Military Reserve, appropriated for the use of 
schools in the Virginia Military Reservation; the 
United States Military School Fund, the proceeds 
of one thirty-sixth part of the land in the United 
States Military District, appropriated "for the use 
of schools within the same;" the Western Reserve 
School Fund, the proceeds from fourteen quarter- 
townships, situated in the United States Military 
District, and 37,758 acres, most of which was lo- 
cated in Defiance, Williams, Paulding, Van Wert 
and Putnam Counties, appropriated for the use of 
the schools in the Western Reserve; Section 
16, the proceeds from the sixteenth section of 
each township in that part of the State in which 
the Indian title was not extinguished in 1803; the 
Moravian School Fund, the proceeds from one 
thirty-sixth part of each of three tracts of 
4,000 acres situated in Tuscarawas County, orig- 
inally granted by Congress to the Society of United 
Brethren, and reconveyed by this Society to the 
United States in 1824. The income of these funds 
is not distributed by any uniform rule, owing to 
defects in the granting of the funds. The territo- 
rial divisions designated receive the income in 
proportion to the whole number of youth therein, 
while in the remainder of the State, the rent of 
Section 16, or the interest on the proceeds 
arising from its sale, is paid to the inhabitants of 
the originally surveyed townships. In these terri- 
torial divisions, an increase or decrease of popula- 
tion must necessarily increase or diminish the 
amount each youth is entitled to receive ; and the 
fortunate location or judicious sale of the sixteenth 
section may entitle one township to receive a large 
sum, while an adjacent township receives a mere 
pittance. This inequality of benefit may be good 
for localities, but it is certainly a detriment to the 
State at large. There seems to be no legal remedy 
for it. In addition to the income from the before- 
mentioned funds, a variable revenue is received 

( » ■ ■ r - 




from certain fines and licenses paid to either county 
or township treasurers for the use of schools; 
from the sale of swamp lands ($25,720.07 allotted 
to the State in 1850), and from personal property 
escheated to the State. 

A.side from the ftinds, a State school tax is fixed 
by statute. Local taxes vary with the needs of 
localities, are limited by law, and are contingent 
on the liberality and public spirit of difierent com- 

The State contains more than twenty colleges 
and universities, more than the same number of 
female seminaries, and about thirty normal schools 
and academies. The amount of property invested 
in these is more than 86,000,000. The Ohio 
University is the oldest college in the State. 

In addition to the regular colleges, the State 
controls the Ohio State University, formerly the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, established 
from the proceeds of the land scrip voted by Con- 
gress to Ohio for such purposes. The amount 
realized from the sale was nearly $500,000. This 
is to constitute a permanent ftind, the interest only 
to be used. In addition, the sum of $300,000 
was voted by the citizens of Franklin County, in 
consideration of the location of the college in that 
county. Of this sum $111,000 was paid for three 
hundred and fifteen acres of land near th6 city of 
Columbus, and $112,000 for a college building. 

the balance being expended as circumstances re- 
quired, for additional buildings, laboratory, appa- 
ratus, etc. Thorough instruction is, given in all 
branches relating to agriculture and the mech^inical 
arts. Already excellent results are attained. 

By the provisions of the act of March 14, 1853, 
township boards are made bodies politic and cor- 
porate in law, and are invested with the title, care 
and custody of all school property belonging to 
the school district or township. They have control 
of the central or high schools of their townships ; 
prescribe rules for the district schools ; may appoint 
one of their number manager of the schools of the 
township, and allow him reasonable pay for his 
services ; determine the text-books to be used ; fix 
the boundaries of districts and locate schoolhouse 
sites ; make estimates of the amount of money re- 
quired ; apportion the money among the districts, 
and are required to make an annual report to the 
County Auditor, who incorporates the same in his 
report to the State Commissioner, by whom it 
reaches the Legislature. 

Local directors control the subdistricts. They 
enumerate the children of school age, employ and 
dismiss teachers, . make contracts for building and 
furnishing schoolhouses, and make all necessary 
provision for the convenience of the district schools. 
Practically, the entire management rests with 






" Oft did the harvest to their sickles yield, 

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke ; 
How jocund did they drive their teams afield ! 
• How bowed the woods beneath their sturdy stroke." 

THE majority of the readers of these pages are 
farmers, hence a resume of agriculture in the 
State, would not only be appropriate, but valuable 
as a matter of history. It is the true basis of 
national prosperity, and, therefore, justly occupies 
a foremost place. 

In the year 1800, the Territory of Ohio con- 
tained a population of 45,365 inhabitants, or a 
little more than one person to the square mile. At 

this date, the admission of the Territory into the 
Union as a State began to be agitated. When the 
census was made to ascertain the legality of the 
act, in conformity to the " Compact of 1787," no 
endeavor was made to ascertain additional statis- 
tics, as now ; hence, the cultivated land was not 
returned, and no account remains to tell how 
much existed. In 1805, three years after the ad- 
mission of the State into the Union, 7,252,856 
acres had been purchased from the General Gov- 
ernment. Still no returns of the cultivated lands 
were made. In 1810, the population of Ohio was 
230,760, and the land purchased from the Gov- 




eminent amounted to 9,933,150 acres, of which 
amount, however, 3,569,314 acres, or more than 
one^third, was held by non-residents. Of the lands 
occupied by resident land-owners, there appear to 
have been 100,968 acres of first-rate, 1,929,600 
of second, and 1,538,745 acres of third rate lands. 
At this period there were very few exports from 
the farm, loom or shop. The people still needed 
all they produced to sustain themselves, and were 
yet in that pioneer period where they were obliged 
to produce all they wanted, and yet were opening 
new farms, and bringing the old ones to a productive 

Kentucky, and the country on the Monongahela, 
lying along the western slopes of the Alleghany 
Mountains, having been much longer settled, had 
begun, as early as 1795, to send considerable quan- 
tities of flour, whisky, bacon and tobacco to the. 
lower towns on the Mississippi, at that time in the 
possession of the Spaniards. At the French set- 
tlements on the Illinois, and at Detroit, were 
being raised much more than could be used, and 
these were exporting also large quantities of these 
materials, as well as peltries and such commodities 
as their nomadic lives furnished. As the Missis- 
sippi was the natural outlet of the West, any at- 
tempt to impede its free navigation by the various 
powers at times controlling its outlet, would lead 
at onCe to violent outbreaks among, the Western 
settlers, some of whom were aided by unscrupulous 
persons, who thought to form an independent 
Western country. Providence seems to have had 
a watchful eye over all these events, and to have 
so guided them that the attempts with such objects 
in view, invariably ended in disgrace to their per- 
petrators. This outlet to the West was thought 
to be the only one that could carry their produce to 
market, for none of the Westerners then dreamed 
of the immense system of railways now covering 
that part of the Union. As soon as ship-building 
commenced at Marietta, in the year 1800, the 
farmers along the borders of the Ohio and Musk- 
ingum Eivers turned their attention to the culti- 
vation of hemp, in addition to their other crops. In a 
few years sufficient was raised, not only to furnish 
cordage to the ships in the West, but large quan- 
tities were worked up in the various rope-walks 
and sent to the Atlantic cities. Iron had been 
discovered, and forges on the Juniata were busy 
converting that necessary and valued material into 
implements of industry. 

By the year 1805, two ships, seven brigs and 
three schooners had been built and rigged by the 

citizens of Marietta. Their construction gave a 
fresh impetus to agriculture, as by means of them 
the surplus products could be carried away to a 
foreign market, where, if it did not bring money, 
it could be exchanged for merchandise equally 
valuable. Captain David Devoll was one of the 
earliest of Ohio's shipwrights. He settled on the 
fertile Muskingum bottom, about five miles above 
Marietta, soon after the Indian war. Here he 
built a " floating mill," for making flour, and, in 
1801, a ship of two hundred and fifty tons, called 
the Muskingum, and the brig Eliza Greene, of one 
hundred and fifty tons. In 1804, he built a 
schooner on his own account, and in the spring 
of the next year, it was finished and loaded for a 
voyage down the Mississippi. It was small, only of 
seventy tons burden, of a light draft, and intended 
to run on the lakes east of New Orleans. In 
shape and model, it ftilly sustained its name. Nonpa- 
reil. Its complement of sails, small at first, was 
completed when it arrived in New Orleans.. It 
had a large cabin to accommodate passengers, was 
well and finely painted, and sat gracefully on the 
water. Its load was of assorted articles, and shows 
very well the nature of exports of the day. It con- 
sisted of two hundred barrels of flour, fifty barrels of 
kiln-dried corn meal, four thousand pounds of 
cheese, six thousand of bacon, one hundred sets 
of rum puncheon shocks, and a few grindstones. 
The flour and meal were made at Captain DevoU's 
floating mill, and the cheese made in Belpre, at that 
date one of Ohio's most flourishing agricultural dis- 
tricts. The Captain and others carried on boating as 
well as the circumstances of the days permitted, fear- 
ing only the hostility of the Indians, and the duty 
the Spaniards were liable to levy on boats going 
down to New Orleans, even if they did not take 
it into their erratic heads to stop the entire navi- 
gation of the great river by vessels other than 
their own. By such means, merchandise was car- . 
riedvOn almost entirely until the construction of 
canals, and even then, until modern times, the 
flat-boat was the main-stay of the shipper inhabit- 
ing the country adjoining the upper Ohio and 
Mississippi Rivers. 

Commonly, very little stock was kept beyond 
what was necessary for the use of the family and 
to perform the labor on the farm. The Scioto 
Valley was perhaps the only exception in Ohio to 
thisgeneral condition. Horses were brought by the 
emigrants from the East and were characteristic 
of that region. In the French settlements in Illi- 
nois and about Detroit, French ponies, marvels of 














endurance, were chiefly used. They were impractic- 
able in hauling the immense emigrant wagons over 
the mountains, and hence were comparatively 
unknown in Ohio. Until 1828, draft horses 
were chiefly used here, the best strains being 
brought by the "Tunkers," " Mennonites," and 
" Ormish," — ^three religious sects, whose members 
were invariably agriculturists. In Stark, Wayne, 
Holmes, and Richland Counties, as a general thing, 
they congregated ia communities, where the neat- 
ness of their farms, the excellent condition of 
their stock, and the primitive simplicity of their 
manners, made them conspicuous. 

In 1828, the French began to settle in Stark 
County, where they introduced the stock of horses 
known as " Sehm," " Ilorizel," "Post Boy" and 
" Timolen." These, crossed upon the descents of 
the Norman and Conestoga, produced an excellent 
stock of farm horses, now largely used. 

In the Western Reserve, blooded horses were in- 
troduced as early as 1825. John I. Van Meter 
brought fine horses into the Scioto Valley in 1815, 
or thereabouts. Soon after, fine horses were 
brought to Steubenville from Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania. In Northern Ohio the stock was more 
miscellaneous, untU the introduction of improved 
breeds from 1815 to 1835. By the latter date 
the strains of horses had greatly improved. The 
same could be said of other parts of the State. 
Until after 1825, only farm and road horses were 
required. That year a race-course — the first in 
the State — ^was established in Cincinnati, shortly 
followed by others at Chillicothe, Dayton and Ham- 
ilton. From that date the race-horse steadily im- 
proved. UntU 1838, however, all race-courses 
were rather irregular, and, of those named, it is 
difficult to determine which one has priority of 
date' over the others. To Cincinnati, the prece- 
dence is, however, generally given. In 1838, the 
Buckeye Course was established in Cincinnati, and 
before a year had elapsed, it is stated, there were 
fifteen regular race-courses in Ohio. The efiect 
of these courses was to greatly stimulate the stock 
of racers, and rather detract from draft and road 
horses. The organization of companies to import 
blooded horses has again revived the interest in 
this class, and now, at annual stock sales, these 
strains of horses are eagerly sought after by those 
having occasion to use them. 

Cattle were brought over the mountains, and, 
for several years, were kept entirely for domestic 
uses. By 1805, the country had so far settled 
that the surplus stock was fattened on corn and 

fodder,, and a drove was driven to Baltimore. The 
drove was owned by Greorge Renick, of Chillicothe, 
and the feat was looked upon as one of great im- 
portance. The drove arrived in Baltimore in ex- 
cellent condition. The impetus given by this 
movement of Mr. Renick stimulated greatly the 
feeding of cattle, and led to the improvement of 
the breed, heretofore only of an ordinary kind. 

Until the advent of railroads and the shipment 
of cattle thereon, the number of cattle driven to 
eastern markets from Ohio alone, was estimated at 
over fifteen thousand annually, whose value was 
placed at $600,000. Besides this, large numbers 
were driven from Indiana and Illinois, whose 
boundless prairies gave free scope to the herding of 
cattle. Improved breeds, "Short Horns," "Long 
Horns" and others, were introduced into Ohio as 
early as 1810 and 1815. Since then the stock 
has been gradually improved and acclimated, untU 
now Ohio produces as fine cattle as any State in 
the Union. In some localities, especially in the 
Western Reserve, cheesemaking and dairy interests 
are the chief occupations of whole neighborhoods, 
where may be found men who have grown wealthy 
in this business. 

Sheep were kept by almost every faniUy, in pio- 
neer times, in order to be supplied with wool for 
clothing. The wool was carded by hand, spun in 
the cabin, and frequently dyed and woven as well 
as shaped into garments there, too. All emigrants 
brought the best household and farming imple- 
ments their limited means would aUow, so also did 
they bring the best strains of horses, cattle and 
sheep they could obtain. About the year 1809, 
Mr. Thomas Rotch, a Quaker, emigrated to Stark 
County, and brought with him a small flock of 
Merino sheep. They were good, and a part of 
them were from the original flock brought over 
from Spain, in 1801, by Col. Humphrey, United 
States Minister to that country. He had brought 
200 of these sheep, and hoped, in time, to see 
every part of the United States stocked with Me- 
rinos. In this he partially succeeded only, owing 
to the prejudice against them. In 1816, Messrs. 
Wells & Dickenson, who were, for the day, exten- 
sive woolen manufacturers in SteubenvUle, drove 
their fine flocks out on the Stark County Plains ' 
for the summer, and brought them back for the 
winter. This course was pursued for several years, 
until farms were prepared, when they were per- 
manently, kept in Stark County. This flock was 
originally derived from the Humphrey importation. 
The failure of Wells & Dickenson, in 1824, placed 



a good portion of this flock in the hands of Adam 
HUdebrand, and became the basis of his celebrated 
flock. Mr. T. S. Humrickhouse, of Coshocton, 
in a communication regarding sheep, writes as fol- 

" The first merinos brought to Ohio were doubt- 
less by Seth Adams, of ZanesvUle. They were 
Humphrey's Merinos — ^undoubtedly the best ever 
imported into the United States, by whatever 
name called. He kept them part of the time in 
Washington, and afterward in Muskingum County. 
He had a sort of partnership agency from Gen. 
Humphrey for keeping and selling them. They 
were scattered, and, had they been taken care of 
and appreciated, would have laid a better found- 
ation of flocks in Ohio than any sheep brought 
into it from that time till 1852. The precise date 
at which Adams brought them cannot now be as- 
certained ; but it was prior to 1813, perhaps as 
early as 1804." 

"The first Southdowns," continues Mr. Hum- 
rickhouse," " New Leicester, Lincolnshire and Cots- 
wold sheep I ever saw, were brought into Coshocton 
County from England by Isaac Maynard, nephew 
of the famous Sir John, in 1834. There were 
about ten Southdowns and a trio of each of the 
other kinds. He was offered $500 for his Lin- 
colnshire ram, in Bufialo, as he passed through, 
but refused. He was selfish, and unwilling to put 
them into other hands when he went on a farm, 
all in the woods, and, in about three years, most of 
them had perished." 

The raising and improvement of sheep has kept 
steady tread with the growth of the State, and 
now Ohio wool is known the world over. In quan- 
tity it is equal to any State in America, while its 
quality is unequaled. 

The first stock of hogs brought to Ohio were 
rather poor, scrawny creatures, and, in a short 
time, when left to themselves to pick a livelihood 
from the beech mast and other nuts in the woods, 
degenerated into a wild condition, almost akin to 
their originators. As the country settled, however, 
they were gathered from their lairs, and, by feed- 
ing them corn, the farmers soon brought them out 
of their semi-barbarous state. Improved breeds 
were introduced. The laws for their protection 
and guarding were made, and now the hog of to- 
day shows what improvement and civilization can 
do for any' wild animal. The chief city of the 
State has become famous as a slaughtering place ; 
her bacon and sides being known in all the civil- 
ized world. 

Other domestic animals, mules, asses, etc., have 
been brought to the State as occasion required. 
Wherever their use has been demanded, they have 
been obtained, until the State has her complement 
of all animals her citizens can use in their daily 

Most of the early emigrants brought with them 
young firdt trees or grafts of some favorite variety 
from the " old homestead." Hence, on the West- 
ern Reserve are to be found chiefly — especiaUy in 
old orchards — New England varieties, while, in the 
localities immediately south of the Reserve, Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland varieties predominate ; but 
at Marietta, New England finits are again found, 
as well as throughout Southeastern Ohio. One of 
the oldest of these orchards was on a Mr. Dana's 
farm, near Cincinnati, on the Ohio River bank.. It 
consisted of flve acres, in which apple seeds and 
seedlings were planted as early as 1790. Part of 
the old orchard is yet to be seen, though the trees 
are almost past their usefiilness. Peaches, pears, 
cherries and apples were planted by all the pioneers 
in their gardens. As soon as the seed produced 
seedlings, these were transplanted to some hillside, 
and the orchard, in a few years, was a productive 
unit in the life of the settler. The first fruit 
brought, was, like everything else of the pioneers, 
rather inferior, and admitted of much cultivation. 
Soon steps were taken by the more enterprising 
settlers to obtain better varieties. Israel Putnam, 
as early as 1796, returned to the East, partly to 
get scions of the choicest apples, and, partly, on 
other business. He obtained quite a quantity of 
choice apples, of some forty or fifty varieties, and 
set them out. A portion of them were distrib- 
uted to the settlers who had trees, to ingraft. 
From these old grafts are yet to be traced some of 
the best orchards in Ohio. Israel Putnam waS one 
of the most prominent men in early Ohio days. 
He was always active in promoting tjie interests of 
the settlers. Among his eai-liest efforts, that of 
improving the fruit may well be mentioned. He 
and his brother, Aaron W. Putnam, living at Bel- 
pre, opposite Blennerhasset's Island, began the 
nursery business soon after their ai-rival in the 
West. The apples brought by them from their 
Connecticut home were used to commence the busi- 
ness. These, and the apples obtained from trees 
planted in their gardens, gave them a beginning. 
They were the only two men in Ohio engaged in 
the business till 1817. 

In early times, in the central part of Ohio, 
there existed a curious character known as "Johnny 





Appleseed." His real name was Jolin Chapman. 
He received Ms name from Hs habit of planting, 
along all the streams in that part of the State, 
apple-seeds from which sprang many of the old 
orchards. He did this as a religious duty, think- 
ing it to be his especial mission. He had, it is 
said, been disappointed in his youth in a love 
affair, and came West about 1800, and ever after 
followed his singular life. He was extensively 
known, was quite harmless, very patient, and did, 
without doubt, much good. He died in 1847, at 
the house of a Mr. Worth, near Fort Wayne, 
Indiana, who had long known him, and often 
befriended him. He was a minister in the Swed- 
enborgian Church, and, in his own way, a zealous 

The settlers of the Western Reserve, coming 
from New England, chiefly from Connecticut, 
brought all varieties of fruit known in their old 
homes. These, whether seeds or grafts, were 
planted in gardens, and as soon as an orchard 
could be cleared on some favorable hillside, the 
young trees were transplanted there, and in time 
an orchard was the result. Much conftision 
regarding the kinds of fruits thus produced arose, 
partly from the fact that the trees grown from 
seeds did not always prove to be of the same qual- 
ity as the seeds. Climate, soil and surroundings 
often change the character of such fruits. 
Many new varieties, unknown to the growers, 
were the result. The fruit thus produced was 
often of an inferior growth, and when grafts were 
brought from the old New England home and 
grafted into the Ohio trees, an improvement as 
well as the old home fruit was the result. After 
the orchards in the Reserve began to bear, the 
fruit was very often taken to the Ohio River for 
shipment, and thence found its way to the South- 
ern and Eastern seaboard cities. 

Among the individuals prominent in introducing 
fruits into the State, were Mr. Dille, of Euclid, Judge 
Fuller, Judge Whittlesey, and Mr. Lindley. 
George Hoadly was also very prominent and ener- 
getic in the matter, and was, perhaps, the first to 
introduce the pear to any extent. He was one of 
the most persistent and enthusiastic amateurs in 
horticulture and pomology in the West. About 
the year 1810, Dr. Jared Kirtland, father of 
Prof J. P. Kirtland, so favorably known 
among horticulturists and pomologists, came from 
Connecticut and settled in Poland, Mahoning 
County, with his family. This family has done 
more than any other in the State, perhaps, to 

advance fruit culture. About the year 1824, 
Prof. J. P. Kirtland, in connection with his brother, 
established a nursery at Poland, then in Trumbull 
County, and brought on from New England above 
a hundred of their best varieties of apples, cherries, 
peaches, pears, and smaller fruits, and a year or 
two afl«r brought from New Jersey a hundred of 
the best varieties of that State ; others were ob- 
tained in New York, so that they possessed the larg- 
est and most varied stock in the Western country. 
These two men gave a great impetus to fruit cult- 
ure in the West, and did more than any others 
of that day to introduce improved kinds of all 
fruits in that part of the United States. 

Another prominent man in this branch of indus- 
try was Mr. Andrew H. Ernst, of Cincinnati. 
Although not so early a settler as the Kirtlands, 
he was, like them, an ardent student and propa- 
gator of fine fruits. He introduced more than 
six hundred varieties of apples and seven hun- 
dred of pears, both native and foreign. His 
object was to test by actual experience the most 
valuable sorts for the diversified soil and climate 
of the Western country. 

The name of Nicholas Longworth, also of Cin- 
cinnati, is one of the niost extensively known of any 
in the science of horticulture and pomology. For 
more than fifty years he made these his especial 
delight. Having a large tract of land in the 
lower part of Cincinnati, he established nurseries, 
and planted and disseminated every variety of 
fruits that could be found in the United States — 
East or West — making occasional importations 
from European countries of such varieties as 
were thought to be adapted to the Western climate. 
His success has been variable, governed by the 
season, and in a measure by his numerous experi- 
ments. His vineyards, cultivated by tenants, gen- 
erally Grermans, on the European plan, during the 
latter years of his experience paid him a hand- 
some revenue. He introduced the famous Catawba 
grape, the standard grape of the West. It is 
stated that Mr. Longworth bears the same relation 
to vineyard culture that Fulton did to steam navi- 
gation. Others made earlier effort, but he was the 
first to establish it on a permanent basis. He has 
also been eminently successful in the cultivation of 
the strawberry, and was the first to firmly establish 
it on Western soil. He also brought the Ohio Ever- 
bearing Raspberry into notice in the State, and 
widely disseminated it throughout the country. 

Other smaller fruits were brought out to the 
West like those mentioned, In some cases fruits 



indigenous to the soil were cultivated and improved, 
and as unproved fruits, are known favorably where- 
ever used. 

In chronology and importance, of all the cereals, 
corn stands foremost. During the early pioneer 
period, it was the staple article of food for both 
man and beast. It could be made into a variety 
of forms of food, and as such was not only palata- 
ble but highly nutritious and strengthening. 

It is very difficult to determine whether corn 
originated in America or in the Old World. Many 
prominent botanists assert it is a native of Turkey, 
and originally was known as ' ' Turkey wheat. " Still 
others claimed to have found mention of maize in 
Chinese writings antedating the- Turkish discovery. 
Glrains of maize were found in an Egyptian mum- 
my, which goes to prove to many the cereal was 
known in Africa since the earliest times. Maize 
was found in America when first visited by white 
men, but of its origin Indians could give no ac- 
count. It had always been known among them, 
and constituted their chief article of vegetable diet. 
It was cultivated exclusively by their squaws, the 
mea considering it beneath their dignity to engage 
in any manual labor. It is altogether probable corn 
was known in the Old World long before the New 
was discovered. The Arabs or Crusaders probably 
introduced it into Europe. How it was introduced 
into America will, in all probability, remain un- 
known. It may have heen an indigenous plant, 
like many others. Its introduction into Ohio dates 
with the settlement of the whites, especially its 
cultivation and use as an article of trade. True, 
the Indians had cultivated it in^small quantities ; 
each lodge a little for itself, but no effort to make 
of it a national support began until the civilization 
of the white race became established. From that 
time on, the increase in crops has grown with the 
State, and, excepting the great corn States of the 
West, Ohio produces an amount equal to any State 
in the Union. The statistical tables printed in 
agricultural reports show the acres planted, and 
bushels grown. Figures speak an unanswerable 

Wheat is probably the next in importance of the 
cereals in the State. Its origin, like corn, is lost 
in the mists of antiquity. Its berry was no doubt 
used as food by the ancients for ages anterior to 
any historical records. It is often called corn in 
old writings, and under that name is frequently 
mentioned in the Bible. 

"As far back in the vistas of ages as human 
records go, we find that wheat has been cultivated. 

and, with corn, aside from animal food, has formed 
one of the chief alimentary articles of all nations ; 
but as the wheat plant has nowhere been found wild, 
or in a state of nature, the inference has been 
drawn by men of unquestioned scientific ability, 
that the original plant from which wheat has been 
derived was either totally annihilated, or else cul- 
tivation has wrought so great a change, that the 
original is by no means obvious, or manifest to bot- 

It is supposed by many, wheat originated in 
Persia. Others affirm it was known and cultivated 
in Egypt long ere it found its way into Persia. It 
was certainly grown on the NUe ages ago, and 
among the tombs are found grains of wheat in a 
perfectly sound condition, that unquestionably 
have been buried thousands of years. It may be, 
however, that wheat was grown in Persia first, and 
thence found its way into Egypt and Africa, or, 
vice versa. It grew first in Egypt and Africa and 
thence crossed into Persia, and from there found 
its way into India and all parts of Asia. 

It is also claimed that wheat is indigenous to 
the island of Sicily, and that from there it spread 
along the shores of the Mediterranean into Asia 
Minor and Egypt, and, as communities advanced, 
it was cultivated, not only to a greater extent, but 
with greater success. 

The goddess of agriculture, more especially of 
grains, who, by the Greeks, was called Demeter, 
and, by the Romans, Ceres — Whence the name ce- 
reals — ^was said to have her home at Enna, a fertile 
region of that island, thus indicating the source 
from which the Greeks and Romans derived their 
Ceralia. Homer mentions wheat and spelt as 
bread; also corn and barley, and describes his 
heroes as using them as fodder for their horses, as 
the people in the South of Europe do at present. 
Rye was introduced into Greece from Thrace, or 
by way of Thrace, in the time of Galen. In 
Caesar's time the Romans grew a species of wheat 
enveloped in a husk, like barley, and by them 
called ''Far." 

During the excavations of Herculaneum and 
Pompeii, wheat, in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion, was frequently found. • 

Dr. Anson Hart, Superintendent, at one time, of 
Indian Affairs in Oregon, states that he found 
numerous patches of wheat and flax growing wild 
in the Yackemas country, in Upper Oregon. There 
is but little doubt that both cereals were intro- 
duced into Oregon at an early period by the Hud- 
son Bay, or other fur companies. Wheat was also 






found by Dr. Boyle, of Columbus, Ohio, growing 
in a similar state in the Carson Valley. It was, 
doubtless, brouglit there by the early Spaniards. 
In 1530, one of Cortez's slaves found several grains 
of wheat accidentally mixed with the rice. The 
careful negro planted the handful of grains, and 
succeeding years saw a wheat crop in Mexico, 
which found its way northward, probably into 

Turn where we may, wherever the foot of civil- 
ization has trod, there will we find this wheat 
plant,,which, like a monument, has perpetuated 
the memory of the event; but nowhere do we find 
the plant wild. It is the result of cultivation in 
bygone ages, and has been produced by "progress- 
ive development." 

It is beyond the limit and province of these 
pages to discuss the composition of this important 
cereal ; only its historic properties can be noticed. 
With the advent of the white men in America, 
wheat, like corn, came to be one of the staple prod- 
ucts of life. It followed the pioneer over the 
mountains westward, where, in the rich Missis- 
sippi and Illinois bottoms, it has been cultivated 
by the French since 1690. When the hardy New 
Englanders came to the alluvial lands adjoining 
the Ohio, Muskingum or Miami Rivers, they 
brought with them this "staff of life," and forth- 
with began its cultivation. Who sowed the first 
wheat in Ohio, is a question Mr. A. S. Guthrie 
answers, in a letter published in the Agricultural 
Report of 185Y, as follows: 

" My father, Thomas Gruthrie, emigrated to the 
Northwest Territory in the year 1788, and arrived 
at the mouth of the Muskingum in July, about 
three months after Gen. Putnam had arrived with 
the first pioneers of Ohio. My father brought a 
bushel of wheat with him from one of the frontier 
counties of Pennsylvania, which he sowed on a 
lot of land in Marietta, which he cleared for that 
purpose, pn the second bottom or plain, in the 
neighborhood of where the Court House now 

Mr. Guthrie's opinion is corroborated 'by Dr. 
Samuel P. Hildreth, in his "Pioneer Settlers of 
Ohio," and is, no doubt, correct. 

From that date on down through the years of 
Ohio's growth, the crops of wheat Jiave kept pace 
with the advance and growth of civilization. The 
soil is admirably adapted to the growth of this ce- 
real, a large number of varieties being grown, and 
an excellent quality produced. It is firm in body, 
and, in many cases, is a successful rival of wheat 

produced in the great wheat-producing regions of 
the United States — Minnesota, and the farther 

Oats, rye, barley, and other grains were also 
brought to Ohio from the Atlantic Coast, though 
some of them had been cultivated by the French 
in Illinois and about Detroit. They were at first 
used only as food for home consumption, and, until 
the successful attempts at river and canal naviga^ 
tion were brought about, but little was ever sent 
to market. 

Of all the root crops known to man, the potato 
is probably the most valuable. Next to wheat, 
it is claimed by many as the staff of life. In 
some localities, this assumption is undoubtedly 
true. What would Ireland, have done in her fam- 
ines but for this simple vegetable? The potato is 
a native of the mountainous districts of tropical 
and subtropical America, probably from Chili to 
Mexico ; but there is considerable difficulty in 
deciding where it is really indigenous, and where 
it has spread afler being introduced by man. 
Humboldt, the learned savant, doubted if it had 
ever been found wild, but scholars no less famous, 
and of late date, have expressed an opposite 
opinion. In the wild plant, as in all others, the 
tubers are smaller than in the cultivated. The 
potato had been cultivated in America, and its 
tubers used for food, long before the advent of the 
Europeans. It seems to have been first brought 
to Europe by the Spaniards, from the neighbor- 
hood of Quito, in the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, and spread through Spain, the Netherlands, 
Burgundy and Italy, cultivated in gardens as an 
ornament only and not for an article of food. 
It long received through European countries the 
same name with the batatas — sweet potato, which 
is the plant meant by all English writers down to 
the seventeenth century. 

It appears that the potato was brought from 
Virginia to Ireland by Hawkins, a slave-trader, 
in 1565, and to England by Sir Francis Drake, 
twenty years later. It did not at first attract much 
notice, and not until it was a third time imported 
from America, in 1623, by Sir Walter Raleigh, 
did the Europeans make a practical use of it. 
Even then it was a long time before it was exten- 
sively cultivated. It is noticed in agricu'tural 
journals as food for cattle only as late as 1719. 
Poor people began using it, however, and finding it 
highly nutritious, the Royal Geographical Society, 
in 1663, adopted measures for its propagation. 
About this time it began to be used in Ireland as 



food, and from thebeginningoftheeigliteenth cent- 
ury, its use has never declined. It is now known 
in every quarter of the world, and has, by cultiva- 
tion, been greatly improved. 

The inhabitants of America learned its use 
from the Indians, who cultivated it and other 
root crops — rutabagas, radishes, etc., and taught 
the whites their value. When the pioneers of 
Ohio came to its fertile valleys, they brought 
improved species with them, which by cultiva- 
tion and soil, are now greatly increased, and are 
among the standard crops of the State. 

The cucurbitaceous plants, squashes, etc., were, 
like the potato and similar root crops, indigenous 
to America — others, hke the melons, to Asia — 
and were among the staple foods of the original 
inhabitants. The early French missionaries of 
the West speak of both root crops and cucurbi- 
taceous plants as in use among the aboriginal inhab- 
itants. "They are very sweet and wholesome," 
wrote Marquette. Others speak in thesame terms, 
though some of the plants in this order had found 
their way to these valleys through the Spaniards 
and others through early Atlantic Coast and Mex- 
ican inhabitants. Their use by the settlers of the 
West, especially Ohio, is traced to New England, 
as the first settlers came from that portion of the 
Union. They grow well in all parts of the State, 
and by cultivation have been greatly improved in 
quality and variety. All cucurbitaceous plants 
require a rich, porous soil, and by proper atten- 
tion to their cultivation, excellent results can be 

Probably the earliest and most important imple- 
ment of husbandry known is the plow. Grrain, 
plants and roots will not grow well unless the soil 
in which they are planted be properly stirred, 
hence the first requirement was an instrument that 
would fulfill such conditions. 

The first implements were rude indeed ; gener- 
ally, stout wooden sticks, drawn through the earth 
by thongs attached to rude ox-yokes, or fastened 
to the animal's horns. Such plows were in use 
among the ancient Egyptians, and may yet be 
found among uncivilized nations. The Old Testa^ 
ment furnishes numerous instances of the use of 
the plow, while, on the ruins of ancient cities and 
among the pyramids of Egypt, and on the buried 
walls of Babylon, and other extinct cities, are rude 
drawings of this useful implement. As the use 
of iron became apparent and general, it was util- 
ized for plow-points, where the wood alone would 
not penetrate the earth, They got their plow- 

shares sharpened in Old Testament days, also 
coulters, which shows, beyond a doubt, that iron- 
pointed plows were then in use. From times 
mentioned in the Bible, on heathen tombs, and 
ancient catacombs, the improvement of the plow, 
like other farming tools, went on, as the race of 
man grew in intelhgence. Extensive manors in 
the old country required increased means of turning 
the ground, and, to meet these demands, ingenious 
mechanics, from time to time, invented improved 
plows. Strange to say, however, no improvement 
was ever made by the iarmer himself. Thig,is ac- 
counted for in his habits of hfe, and, too often, 
the disposition to "take things as they are." When 
America was settled, the plow had become an im- 
plement capable of turning two or three acres per 
day. StUl, and for many years, and even until 
lately, the mold-board was entirely wooden, the 
point only iron. Later developments changed the 
wood for steel, which now alone is used. Still 
later, especially in prairie States, riding plows are 
used. Like all other improvements, they were 
obliged to combat an obtuse public mind among 
the ruralists, who surely combat almost every 
move made to better their condition. In many 
places in America, wooden plows, straight ax 
handles, and a stone in one end of the bag, to bal- 
ance the grist in the other, are the rule, and for no 
other reason in the world are they maintained than 
the laconic answer: 

" My father did so, and why should not I? Am 
I better than he?" 

After the plow comes the harrow, but' Uttle 
changed, save in hghtness and beauty. Formerly, 
a log of wood, or a brush harrow, supplied its 
place, but in the State of Ohio, the toothed instru- 
ment has nearly always been used. 

The hoe is lighter made than formerly, and is 
now made of steel. At first, the common iron 
hoe, sharpened by the blacksmith, was in constant 
use. Now, it is rarely seen outside of the South- 
ern States, where it has long been the chief imple- 
ment in agriculture. 

The various small plows for the cultivation of 
corn and such other crops as necessitated their use 
ai'e all the result of modern civilization. Now, 
their number is large, and, in many places, there 
are two or mo»e attached to one carriage, whose 
operator rides. These kinds are much used in the 
Western States, whose rootless and stoneless soU is 
admirably adapted to such machinery. 

When the grain became ripe, implements to cut 
it were in demand. In ancient times, the sickle 




was the only instrument used. It was a stort, 
curved iron, whose inner edge was sharpened and 
serrated. In its most ancient form, it is doubtful 
if the edge was but little, if any, serrated. It is 
mentioned in all ancient works, and in the Bible is 
frequently referred to. 

" Thrust in the sickle, for the harvest is 
ripe," wrote the sacred New Testament, while 
the Old chronicles as early as the time of Moses : 
"As thou beginnest to put the sickle to the 

In more modem times, the handle of the sickle 
was lengthened, then the blade, which in time led 
to the scythe. Both are yet in use in many parts 
of the world. The use of the scythe led some 
thinking person to add a " finger " or two, and to 
change the shape of the handle. The old cradle 
was the result. At first it met considerable oppo- 
sition from the laborers, who brought forward the 
old-time argument of ignorance, that it would 
cheapen labor. 

Whether the cradle is a native of America or 
Europe is not accurately decided; probably of the 
mother country. It came into common use about 
181B, and in a few years had found its way into 
the wheatr-producing regions of the West. Where 
small crops are raised, the cradle is yet much used. 
A man can cut from two to four acres per day, 
hence, it is much cheaper than a reaper, where the 
crop is small. 

The mower and reaper are comparatively mod- 
ern inventions. A rude reaping machine is men- 
tioned by Pliny in the first century. It was pushed 
by an ox through the standing grain. On ite 
front was a sharp edge, which cut the grain. It 
was, however, impracticable, as it ^jiit only a por- 
tion of the grain, and the peasantry preferred the 
sickle. Other and later attempts to make reapers 
do not seem to have been successftil, and not till 
the present century was a machine made that would 
do the work required. In 1826, Mr. Bell, of 
Scotland, constructed a machine which is yet used 
in many parts of that country. In America, Mr. 
Hussey and Mr. McCormick took Out patents for 
reaping machines of superior character in 1833 
and 1834. At first the cutters of these machines 
were various contrivances, but both manufacturers 
soon adopted a serrated knife, triangular shaped, at- 
tached to a bar, and driven through "finger 
guards " attached to it, by a forward and backward 
motion. These are the common ones now in use, 
save that all do not use serrated knives. Since 
these pioneer machines were introduced into the 

harvest fields they have been greatly improved and 
changed. Of late years they have been constructed 
so as to bind the sheaves, and now a good stout 
boy, and a team with a " harvester," will do as 
much as many men could do a few years ago, and 
with much greater ease. 

As was expected by the inventors of reapers, 
they met with a determined resistance from those 
who in former times made their living by harvest- 
ing. It was again absurdly argued that they would 
cheapen labor, and hence were an injury to the 
laboring man. Indeed, when the first machines 
were brought into Ohio, many of them were torn 
to pieces by the ignorant hands. Others left fields 
in a body when the proprietor brought a reaper to 
his farm. Like all such fallacies, these, in time, 
passed away, leaving only their stain. • 

Following the reaper came the thresher. As 
the country filled with inhabitants, and men in- 
creased their possessions, more rapid means than 
the old flail or roller method were demanded. At 
first the grain was trodden out by horses driven over 
the bundles, which were laid in a circular inclosure. 
The old flail, the tramping-out by horses, and the 
cleaning by the sheet, or throwing the grain up 
against a current of air, were too slow, and 
machines were the result of the demand. In Ohio 
the manufacture of threshers began in 1846, in 
the southwestern part. Isaac Tobias, who came 
to Hamilton from Miamisburg that year, com- 
menced building the threshers then in use. They 
were without the cleaning attachment, and simply 
hulled the grain. Two years later, he began 
manufacturing the combined thresher and cleaner, 
which were then coming into use. He continued 
in business till 1851. Four years after, the in- 
creased demand for such machines, consequent 
upon the increased agricultural products, induced 
the firm of Owens, Lane & Dyer to fit their estab- 
lishment for the manufacture of threshers. They 
afterward added the manufacture of steam engines 
to be used in the place of horse power. Since 
then the manufacture of these machines, as well as 
that of all other agricultural machinery, has greatly 
multiplied and improved, until now it seems_ as 
though but little room for improvement remains. 
One of the largest firms engaged in the manufact> 
ure of threshers and their component machinery is 
located at Mansfield — ^the Aultman & Taylor 
Co. Others are at Massillon, and at other cities 
in the West. 

Modern times and modern enterprise have devel- 
oped a marvelous variety of agricultural implements 




— too many to be mentioned in a volume like 
this. Under special subjects they will occasionally 
be found. The farmer's life, so cheerless in pioneer 
times, and so ftill of weary labor, is daily becom- 
ing less laborious, until, if they as a class profit 
by the advances, they can find a life of ease 
in farm pursuits, not attainable in any other 
profession. Now machines do almost all the work. 
They sow, cultivate, cut, bind, thresh, winnow 
and carry the grain. They, cut, rake, load, mow 
and dry the hay. They husk, shell and clean the 
corn. They cut and split the wood. They do al- 
most all ; until it seems as though the day may 
come when the farmer can sit in his house arid 
simply guide the affairs of his farm. 
^ Any occupation prospers in proportion to the 
interest taken in it by its members. This interest 
is always heightened by an exchange of views, hence 
societies and periodicals exercise an influence at 
first hardy realized. This feeling among prominent 
agriculturists led to the formation of agricultural 
societies, at first by counties, then districts, then 
by States, and lastly by associations of States. 
The day may come when a national agricul- 
tural fair may be one of the annual attractions of 

Without noticing the early attempts to found 
such societies in Europe or America, the narrative 
will begin with those of Ohio. The first agricul- 
tural society organized in the Buckeye State was 
the Hamilton County Agricultural Society. Its 
exact date of organization is not now preserved, 
but to a certainty it is known that the Society held 
public exhibitions as a County Society prior to 
1823. Previous to that date there were, doubt- 
less, small, private exhibitions held in older local- 
ities, probably at Marietta, but no regular organi- 
zation seems to have been maintained. The 
Hamilton County Society held its fairs annually, 
with marked success. Its successor, the present 
Society, is now one of the largest county societies 
in the Union. 

During the legislative session of 183^-33, the 
subject of agriculture seems to have agitated the 
minds of the people through their representatives, 
for the records of that session show the first laws 
passed for their benefit. The acts of that body 
seem to have been productive of some good, for, 
though no records of the number of societies or- 
ganized at that date exist, yet the record shows 
that " jnany societies have been organized in con- 
formity to this act," etc. No doubt many societies 
held fairs from this time, for a greater or less 

number of years. Agricultural journals* were, 
at this period, rare in the State, and the subject of 
agricultural improvement did not receive that at- 
tention from the press it does at this time ; and, 
for want of pubUc spirit and attention to sustain 
these fairs, they were gradually discontinued until 
the new act respecting their organization- was 
passed in 1846. However, records of several'; 
county societies of the years between 1832 and 
1846 yet exist, showing that in some parts of the 
State, the interest in these fairs was by no means 
diminished. The Delaware County Society re- 
ports for the year 1833 — ^it was organized in June 
of that year — good progress for a beginnings and 
that much interest was manifested by the citizens 
of the county. 

Ross County held its first exhibition in the 
autumn of that year, and the report of the mana- 
gers is quite cheerful. Nearly all of the exhibited 
articles were sold at auction, at greatly advanced 
prices from the current ones of the day. The en- 
try seems to have been free, in an open inclosure, 
and but little revenue was derived. Little was ex- 
pected, hence no one was disappointed. 

Washington County reports an excellent cattle 
show for that year, and a number of premiums 
awarded to the successful exhibitors. This same 
year the Ohio Importation Company was organ- 
ized at the Ross County fair. The Company began 
the next season the importation of fine cattle from 
England, and, in a few years, did incalculable good 
in this respect, as well as make considerable money 
in the enterprise. 

These societies were re-organized when the law 
of 1846 went into effect, and, with those that had 
gone down a,Txi the new ones started, gave an im- 
petus to agriculture that to this day is felt. Now 
every county has a society, while district, State 
and inter-State societies are annually held; all 
promotive in their tendency, and all a benefit to 
every one. 

The Ohio State Board of Agriculture was organ- 
ized by an act of the Legislature, passed February 
2Y, 1846. Since then various amendments to the 
organic law have been passed from time to time as 

* The Weitem TilUr was published In Cincinnati, in 1 826. It was 
" miecellaneouB," but contained many excellent articles on agri- 

The Farmers^ Record was published in Cincinnati, in 1831, and 
continued for several years. 

The Ohio Farmer was published at Batavia, Clermont County, in 
1833, by Hon. Samuel Medai-y. 

These were the early agricultural journals, some of which yet 
survive, though in new names, and under new management. Others 
have, also, since been added, some of which have an exceedingly ' 
large circulation, and are an influence for much good in the State. 




the necessities of the Board and of agriculture in 
the State demanded. The same day that the act 
was passed creating the State Board, an act was 
also passed providing for the erection of county and 
district societies, under whi<;h law, with subsequent 
amendments, the present county and district agri- 
cultural societies are managed. During the years 
from 1846 down to the present time, great improve- 
ments have been made in the manner of conduct- 
ing these societies, resulting in exhibitions unsur- 
passed in any other State. 

Pomology and horticulture are branches of in- 
dustry so closely allied with agriculture that a 
brief resimie of their operations in Ohio will be 
eminently adapted to these pages. The early 
planting and care of fruit in Ohio has already been 
noticed. Among the earliest pioneers were men of 
fine tastes, who not only desired to benefit them- 
selves and their country, but who were possessed 
with a laudable ambition to produce the best fruits 
and vegetables the State could raise. For this end 
they studied carefully the topography of the coun- 
try, its soU, climate, and various influences upon 
such culture, and by careful experiments with fruit 
and vegetables, produced the excellent varieties now 
in use. Mention has been made of Mr. Longworth 
and Mr. Ernst, of Cincinnati ; and Israel and Aaron 
W. Putnam, on the Muskingum River ; Mr. Dille, 

Judges Fuller and Whittlesey, Dr. Jared Kirtland 
and his sons, and others — all practical enthusiasts in 
these departments. At first, individual efibrts alone, 
owing to the condition of the country, could be 
made. As the State filled with settlers, and means 
of communication became better, a desire for an in- 
terchange of views became apparent, resulting in 
the establishment of periodicals devoted to these 
subjects, and societies where difierent ones could 
meet and discuss these things. 

A Horticultural and Pomological Society was 
organized in Ohio in 1866. Before the organiza- 
tion of State societies, however, several distinct or 
independent societies existed ; in fact, out of these 
grew the State Society, which in turn produced 
good by stimulating the creation of county societies. 
All these societies, aids to agriculture, have pro- 
gressed as the State developed, and have done much 
in advancing fine fruit, and a taste for aesthetic cul- 
ture. In all parts of the West, their influence is 
seen in better and improved fruit ; its culture and 
its demand. 

To-day, Ohio stands in the van of the Western 
States in agriculture and all its kindred associa- 
tions. It only needs the active energy of her 
citizens to keep her in this place, advancing 
as time advances, until the goal of her ambition is 





THE climate of Ohio varies about four degrees. 
Though originally liable to malaria in many 
districts when first settled, in consequence of a 
dense vegetation induced by summer heats and 
rains, it has became very healthful, owing to clear- 
ing away this vegetation, and proper drainage. 
The State is as favorable in its sanitary char- 
acteristics as any other in its locality. Ohio is re- 
markable for its high productive capacity, almost 
every thing grown in the temperate climates being 
within its range. Its extremes of heat and cold 
are less than almost any other State in or near the 
same latitude, hence Ohio sufiers less from the ex- 
treme dry or wet seasons which afiect all adjoining 
States. These modifications are mainly due to the 
influence of the Lake Erie waters. These not 

only modify the heat of summer and the cold of 
winter, but apparently reduce the proftision of 
rainfall in summer, and favor moisture in dry pe- 
riods. No finer climate exists, all conditions consid- 
ered, for delicate vegetable growths, than that por- 
tion of Ohio bordering on Lake Erie. This is 
abundantly attested by the recent extensive devel- 
opment there of grape culture. 

Mr. Lorin Blodget, author of "American Clima- 
tology," in the agricultural report of 1853, says ; 
"A district bordering on the Southern and West- 
ern portions of Lake Erie is more favorable in this 
respect (grape- cultivation) than any other on the 
Atlantic side of the Rocky Mountains, and it will 
ultimately prove capable of a very liberal extension 
of vine culture." 





Experience has proven Mr. Blodget correct in 
his theory. Now extensive fields of grapes are 
everywhere found on the Lake Erie Slope, while 
other small fruits find a sure footing on its soil. 

" Considering the climate of Ohio by isother- 
mal lines and rain shadings, it must be borne in 
mind," says Mr. Blodget, in his description of 
Ohio's climate, from which these facts are drawn, 
" that local influences often require to be considered. 
At the South, from Cincinnati to Steubenville, the 
deep river valleys are two degrees warmer than the 
hilly districts of the same vicinity. The lines are 
drawn intermediate between the two extremes. 
Thus, Cincinnati, on the plain, is 2° warmer than 
at the Observatory, and 4° warmer for each year 
than Hillsboro, Highland County — ^the one being 
500, the other 1,000, feet above sea-level. The 
immediate valley of the Ohio, from Cincinnati to 
GrallipoUs, is about 75° for the summer, and 54° 
for the year; while the adjacent hilly districts, 
300 to 500 feet higher, are not above 73° and 52° 
respectively. For the summer, generally, the 
river valleys are 73° to 75° ; the level and central 
portions 72° to 73°, and the lake border 70° to 
72°. A peculiar mildness of climate belongs to 
the vicinity of Kelley's Island, Sandusky and 
Toledo. Here, both winter and summer, the cli- 
mate is 2° warmer than on the highland ridge ex- 
tending from Norwalk and Oberlin to Hudson and 
the northeastern border. This ridge varies from 
500 to 750 feet above the lake, or 850 to 1,200 
feet above sea level. This high belt has a summer 
temperature of 70°, 27° for the winter, and 49° 
for the year; while at Sandusky and Kelley's 
Island the summer is 72°, the winter 29°, and the 
year 50°. In the central apd eastern parts of 
the State, the winters are comparatively cold, the 
average falling to 32° over the more level districts, 
and to 29° on the highlands. The Ohio River 
valley is about 35°, but the highlands near it fall 
to 31° and 32° for the winter." 

As early as 1824, several persons in the State 
began taking the temperature in their respective 
localities, for the spring, summer, autumn and win- 
ter, averaging them for the entire year. From time 
to time, these were gathered and published, inducing 
others to take a step in the same direction. Not 
long since, a general table, from about forty local- 

ities, was gathered and compiled, covering a period 
of more than a quarter of a century. This table, 
when averaged, showed an average temperature of 
52.4°, an evenness of temperature not equaled 
in many bordering States. 

Very imperfect observations have been made 
of the amount of rainfall in the State. Until 
lately, only an individual here and there through- 
out the State took enough interest in this matter 
to faithftilly observe and record the averages of 
several years in succession. In consequence of 
this fact, the illustration of that feature of Ohio's 
climate is less satisfactory than that of the 
temperature. "The actual rainfall of difierent 
months and years varies greatly," says Mr. Blod- 
get. "There may be more in a month, and, 
again, the quantity may rise to 12 or 15 inches 
in a single month. For a year, the variation may 
be from a minimum of 22 or 25 inches, to a maxi- 
mum of 50 or even 60 inches in the southern part 
of the State, and 45 to 48 inches along the lake 
border. The average is a fixed quantity, and, 
although requiring a period of twenty or twenty- 
five years to fix it absolutely, it is entirely certain 
and unchangeable when known. On charts, these 
average quantities are represented by depths 
of shading. At Cincinnati, the last fifteen years 
of observation somewhat reduce the average of 
48 inches, of former years, to 46 or 47 inches." 

Spring and summer generally give the most rain, 
there being, in general, 10 to 12 inches in the 
spring, 10 to 14 inches in the summer, and 8 to 
10 inches in the autumn. The winter is the most 
variable of all the seasons, the southern part of 
the State having 10 inches, and the northern part 
7 inches or less — an average of 8 or 9 inches. 

The charts of rainfall, compiled for the State, 
show a fall of 30 inches on the lake, and 46 inches 
at the Ohio River. Between these two points, the 
fall is marked, beginning at the north, 32, 34, 36 
and 38 inches, all near the lake. Farther down, 
in the latitude of Tuscarawas, Monroe and Mercer 
Counties, the fall is 40 inches, while the south- 
western part is 42 and 44 inches. 

The clearing away of forests, the drainage of 
the land, and other causes, have lessened the rain- 
fall, making considerable difference since the days 
of the aborigines. 

H* <! 

-» a ""V 






Topography— General Geological Structure of the County- 
Local Geology. 

COSHOCTON county lies wholly in the great 
bituminous coal field, reaching close to its 
western margin. Its surface is, in appearance, 
■very rough and hilly ; yet, there are no ridges, 
and rarely any point of considerable elevation 
above the general summit level. This level; 
which is that of the great plateau of Eastern 
Ohio, and the neighboring country farther east, 
varies little from 1,100 to 1,200 feet above the sea. 
By the excavation of the valleys below it, the sur- 
face has been carved into hills, the slopes of which 
descend to the general depth of 350 to 400 feet. 
That the surface of the great plateau once stood 
considerably higher, is rendered probable by the 
occasional occurrence of a mound of hard strata, 
standing like a Inonument above the general 
level. A very conspicuous one of this .kind, 
rising about 80 ffeet higher than the summits of 
the highlands about it, and composed, apparently, 
of beds of conglomerate (loose pieces of which 
cover its top and steep sides), is seen near Co- 
shocton county, in Tuscarawas, opposite Port 
Washington. Another, of similar appearance, is 
seen in the north-east part of Coshocton county, 
just north of the road between Chili and Bakers- 

As the highlands of the county appear to have 
once been considerably higher than now, so the 
bottoms of the valleys were obviously once much 
deeper than at present; for below the surface of 

*From the State Geological Report of 1878. 

the valleys are frequently accumulations of sand, 
clays and gravels, reaching to the depth of more 
than 100 and sometimes to nearly 200 feet. The 
gravel beds of the rivers, made up of pebbles of 
sienitic, porphyritic basaltic and other more an- 
cient rocks than are found in Ohio, and the same 
class of bowlders in the sand hills and terraces 
bordering the streams, point to the currents of 
the Drift period as the agents of this denudation; 
while the great width of the valleys, which is 
sometimes four to five miles, bear witness to the 
long time these currents must have been in ac- 
tion to have produced such astonishing results. 
Sometimes, indeed, it appears that a broad valley, 
once formed, has been blocked up and deserted, 
while another, as extensive, has been excavated 
in a new direction, and is followed by the river 
of the present day. 

In Coshocton county such an ancient valley is 
seen to the south of West Lafayette, extending 
from the Tuscarawas valley, south south-east to the 
valley of Will's creek. When far enough from the 
Tuscarawas valley not to be confounded with this, 
itis seen, in places, to be full three miles wide, vary- 
ing from this to one mile. It is a valley of dilu- 
vium, somewhat sandy, with hills of sand from 
thirty to forty feet high", the beds of which are 
sometimes seen exposed to this extent in the cut- 
tings of present streams. Hills of the stratified 
rocks of the coal measures project into it from its 
sides, as irregular-shaped peninsulas, or stand in 
its midst as islands.- A remarkable single hill of 
this character is seen directly north from West 
Lafayette, on the edge of the Tuscarawas river, 
opposite the mouth of White Eyes creek. This 
ancient valley is known as White Eyes Plains. 
It is nearly all under cultivation ; and from the 



elevated points that overlook it, especially where 
it blends with the broad valley of the Tusca- 
rawas, it affords views singularly beautiful and pic- 
turesque. Toward the south the White Eyes 
Plains are lost in the valley of Will's creek. By 
these two valleys and that of the Tuscarawas, the 
larger part of the townships of Tuscarawas, La- 
fayette, Franklin and Linton are encircled and 

Opposite this valley, and north of the Tuscarawas, 
a similar valley, but of much smaller dimen- 
sions, extends north-westwardly through the 
south-west part of Keene township, and toward 
the Killbuok, in the center of Bethlehem town- 
ship. Possibly it may be found on further ex- 
amination, that this was an ancient valley of the 

Geological Structure. — Besides the diluvium in 
the valleys of the streams, no other geological 
forrctation is found in Coshocton county, except 
the carboniferous ; and of this the range is lim- 
ited to the lower half of the coal measure (com- 
prising a thickness of some 350 feet), and the 
upper portion of the Waverly group— the lowest 
subdivision of the carboniferous. The lower 
carboniferous limestone, which belongs above 
the Waverly, appears to be wanting; and the 
conglomerate, which, in places, forms the floor 
of the coal measures in massive beds, often 
several hundred feet thick, was seen in place 
only in one locality, and there in a small layer 
not more than two or three feet thick. The al- 
most total absence of any fragments of it, where 
one would look for them, near the base of the 
coal measures, indicates that this stratum is, also, 
generally wanting. The bottom of the coal 
measures is marked by its lowest great bed of 
sandstone, commonlj' about a hundred feet thick ; 
and in places directly under this, the lowest coal 
bed is seen, sometimes of workable thickness, 
and sometimes pinched and insignificant, and 
separated from the well marked Waverly shales 
by only a few feet of clayey strata. 

These beds are all so nearly horizontal, that the 
dip is imperceptible at any locality. It is detected 
only by tracing them for several miles in the 
direction of the dip, which is toward the south- 
east, or in the opposite direction as they rise. 
Owing to this general inclination of the strata, 

the sub-carboniferous group is only seen in the 
northern and western townships of the county; 
and in these, only in the deep valleys, where the 
Waverly shales form the lowest portion of the 
marginal hills, and rise in them sometimes tq,the 
height of over two hundred feet; as on the east 
side of the Mohican rivfer, and on the upper part 
of the Walhonding. The top of the group comes 
down to the level of the canal, near the junction 
of the Killbuck and Walhonding, a little over 
twelve miles, in a straight line, from the Mohican 
river. The canal, in this distance, has descended, 
by nine locks, so that the total fall of the strata is 
over 270 feet, and may, perhaps, be 320 feet in the 
twelve miles; as, on the south side of the Wal- 
honding, toward the town of Newcastle, the top 
of the Waverly is about 250 feet above the level 
of the canal.* 

The brown and olive-colored shales, and light- 
colored sandstones of the Waverly, are seen in 
most of the branches of the Walhonding river, 
and in all the runs in Tiverton township that 
discharge into the Mohican river. In the bot- 
toms of these, the group is exposed within a mile, 
or a little more, to the town of Tiverton, toward 
the south. From Warsaw, it is traced up Beaver 
run into Monroe township ; but the valley rising 
faster than the strata, it is lost to view above 
Princeton. On the other side of the Walhonding, 
the group passes under the valley of Simmon's 
creek, within about a mile of its mouth; and the 
same is true of Mohawk creek, the next branch 
above. It stretches up the valley of the Killbuck 
into Holmes county ; and near ' the mill in the 
great bend of this stream, in Clark township, it 
forms cliflfe of shales and sandstones forty to fifty 
feet high, in which the peculiar fossils of the 
group are found in great profusion. It forms 
here, altogether, perhaps 100 feet of the lower 
portion of the hills. Doughty's Pork, a branch of 
the Killbuck, also runs in the Waverly shales, as 
they were found with their fossils in the bottom, 
two miles south-west from Bloomfield. Over the 
line, in Holmes county, near the north-east cor- 

* Later observations show that Coshocton is near the hot- 
torn of a synclinal trough, the dip, south-east from Tiverton 
to Coshocton, being about 500 feet ; while at Bridgeville, fif- 
teen miles farther on the line south-east, the strata have 
risen 135 feet from the bottom of the basin. 



mer of Tiverton township, the Waverly is exposed 
in the valley of Wolf run. 

This group of the carboniferous formation 
-contains little of economical importance. It 
-affords no coal nor iron ore; Some of its beds of 
.sandstone may prove of . value, especially for 
flagging stones. The coal measures are very de- 
ficient in these, and the want of such stones is 
already felt at Coshocton and the other principal 
towns situated in this formation. The brown 
■«jid olive colored shale produce, by their decom- 
position, soils of great fertility, as is seen every- 
where through the bottoms where they occur. 
Probably no more productive corn fields, for 
their extent, are to be found' in the State, than 
those in the Waverly soils of the western town- 
ship of Coshocton county. 

Small quantities of galena are not unfrequently 
met with in the Waverly, and they have led to 
the conviction that this metal might be found in 
abundance in this and adjoining counties. There 
are, however, no facts yet known that justify this 
belief. The lead of the Waverly forms no con- 
nected veins or beds, but is found replacing fossil 
shell, or, in isolated crystals, scattered in small 
numbers through the rock. Hence, while the 
reports of the existence of lead in Coshocton 
county, are " founded on fact," there is not the 
slightest probability that it will be ever discov- 
ered in sufficient quantity to pay for working. 

That portion of the coal measures found in 
•Coshocton county, comprises, altogether, the 
seven or eight coal beds in the lower half of the 
.series; but only a small number of these occur 
of workable dimensions in the same vicinity; 
and it is not often that more than one bed has 
been opened and mined in the same hill or 
neighborhood. The relative position of these 
-coal beds and of the accompanying strata may be 
seen from the subjoined general section of the 
rocks of Coshocton county, which exhibits the 
■general manner of their arrangement : 

•Sandstone and shale. Limestone and 
mountain ore. Blackband. Coal 
No. 7. Fire-clay. Shale and Sand- 
stone Soto 100 feet. 

Iron ore, local. Coal No. 6. Iron 
ore, local. Sandstone and shale. 
Black limestone, local. Coal, local. 
Fire-clay, local 8 to 25 feet. 

Gray limestone. Coal. Fire-clay 10 to 50 feet. 

Sandstone and shale 20 to 30 feet. 

Limestone, local. Cannel coal, local. 

Fire-clay, local. Sandstone and 

shale 20 to 30 feet. 

Blue limestone. Coal No. 3. Shale, 

with nodular iron ore 10 to 20 feet. 

Shale or sandstone 50 to 80 feet. 

Coal No. I. Fire-clay. Conglomerate, 

local. Waverly 200 feet. 

Every farm in the county, that lies above the 
Waverly strata, contains one or more of these 
coal beds beneath its surface ; and those lo- 
calities that contain the uppermost beds, also 
contain all the lower ones. But while each coal 
bed can almost always be found and recognized 
in its proper place in the column, it does not fol- 
low that it should always maintain the same 
character, even approximately. On the contrary, 
it is not unusual for it to change in the course of 
a few miles — sometimes even in the same hill— 
from a workable bed of several feet, to a worth- 
less seam of a few inches in thickness. Hence, 
there is no safety in figuring up an aggregate of 
so many feet of workable beds in any locality, 
until these beds have there been actually opened 
and proved. The indications afforded by bor- 
ings, are generally of a very uncertain character, 
as respects the thickness of the coal beds and the 
quality of the coal. It is, without doubt, often 
the case that the beds of black shale passed 
through are called coal, and when one occurs as 
the roof of a coal bed, it serves to add so much 
to the thickness of the latter. By remarking, in 
the description of .the townships, how rare it is 
for two workable beds to be found in the same 
locality, and how seldom any bed at all is worked 
below the sixth bed of the series, it can hardly 
be safe to estimate the total average distribution 
of the workable coal in 'the county at much more 
than the thickness of this one bed; and this, 
taking into consideration the probability that 
some of the lower beds will yet be worked below 
the level of the valleys, where their range is un- 
broken. It is to be hoped, that the lowest bed of 
all, about which very little is now known, may 
be found as productive and valuable as it is in 
the counties to the north, in which event the 
estimate given above would prove too low. The 
sixth bed is a very remarkable one for the regu- 



larity it maintains, not only through this county, 
but over several others— even to the Pennsylva- 
nia line, and into that State. It here varies but 
little from four feet in thickness, and is every- 
where depended upon as the most valuable bed 
of the lower coal measures. Throughout its 
great extent, even into Holmes county, and to 
the Ohio river, at Steubenville, it may be recog- 
nized by the peculiar purplish ash. The heaps of 
it seen by the farm houses show to the passer-by, 
almost always without fail, whether it is this coal 
or some other bed that supplies the neighbor- 

Of all the strata, the limestones are the most 
persistent, and serve as the best guides for identi- 
fying the coal beds that accompany them. 

There are two bands of these, in particular, 
that are most useful in this respect. Both are 
fossiliferous, often abounding in crinoids and 
shells. The upper one, called the gray limestone, 
is found varying in thickness from one foot, or 
less, up to six feet ten inches. It lies immedi- 
ately on the coal bed known as No. 4. The lower 
one, called the blue limestone, has about the 
same range of thickness as the gray, and is some- 
times only twenty feet below this. 

In some localities in the county, two other 
beds of limestone make their appearance: one, 
dark gray, or black, above the " gray limestone " 
and coal No. 6 ; the other a local bed, between 
the " blue " or " Zoar " and " gray " or " Putnam 
Hill " limestone. In one place —Alexander Han- 
Ion's farm. Mill Creek township— these lower 
limestone beds seem to run together, forming a 
nearly continuous mass, twenty feet in thickness. 
Usually, the persistent limestone strata — the ' 
"blue" and the "gray"— are fifty to eighty 'feet 
apart. A coal seam (No. 3) generally Ues imme- 
diately under this limesttoe, also, but is rarely of 
any value; and the same may be said of the bed 
above it (No. 3 a), and also of the next below it 
(No. 2), both of which seem to be wanting in 
this county. The limestones in the western and 
central parts of the county are frequently accom- 
panied by large quantities of the hard, flinty 
rock, known as chert. There is often a great 
display of it, in loose pieces, in the roads above 
and below the outcrops of these calcareous strata; 
but natural exposure of it in place are very rare! i 

In several instances, the limestone beds are seen 
intermixed with chert, and it is also noticed that 
chert sometimes takes the place entirely of the 

A few other limestone beds have occasionally 
been noticed at a higher position than the gray 
limestone, and are also between that and the 
blue, but they are of rare occurrence, and have 
only a local interest, except in their relation to 
limestone beds in similar part of the series in 
other counties. 

The sandstone beds are sometiines developed 
to the thickness of 70 to 100 feet of massive lay- 
ers. They are very apt, however, to pass into 
thin bedded sheets, and again into shales. Barely 
do they become even slightly calcareous, and no 
instance was observed of their passing into lime- 
stone. The most persistent of the sandstone 
beds, so far as it could be traced before it disap- 
pears under the overlying strata, is the great bed 
at the base of the coal measures. The bed over 
coal No. 6 is also very uniform. 

No iron ore, in any encouraging quantity, has 
been met with in the county. It is seen scattered 
in kidney-shaped pieces among the shales, but 
never concentrated sufficiently to justify drifting 
for it. There may be one exception to this on 
the farms of James Boyd and W. Hanlon, in 
Keene township, near Lewisville, where an explo- 
ration has developed, just below coal bed No. 6 
(or it may be the one above it) ferruginous lay- 
ers resembling the black-band ore, mixed with 
kidney ore, from three to six feet thick. Kidney 
ore of good quality is also found between Lin- 
ton and Jacobsport, in the southeast part of Lin- 
ton township. 

The gravel beds of the rivers may be men- 
tioned as among the useful mineral products. At 
Coshocton they furnish an excellent material for 
covering the streets of the town, or the clean peb- 
bles might serve well for conc'rete work. 

Local Qedogy. — In describing the localities vis- 
ited, it will be convenient to take them up in the 
order of the townships, beginning at the north- 
west, and attention will be directed chiefly to the 
coal beds as of principal importance. 

Tiverton. — The highest range of the coal meas- 
ures in this township is but little above the gray 
limestone. Its outcrop is seen on the high 



plateau in the neighborhood of the town of Tiv- 
erton, and that of the blue limestone about forty 
feet lower down. The " blossom " of a coal bed 
is occasionally seen in the road to the north of the 
town ; in one instance, about a mile north from 
Tiverton, five feet below a bed of " black marble," a 
black, compact limestone, which has been found 
in the sarne relative position at a few other local- 
ities in the county. This rock appears as if it 
would take a good polish, and be serviceable for 
ornamental purposes. There are coal beds in the 
northern part of the township, but they are small 
and uhimportant, and the coal is of little demand. 
It is probable none of the beds above No. 1 are 
worth working, or there would have been more 
development made. No. 1 might be looked for 
to advant^e at the base of the great sandstone 
bed, and between that and the Waverly shales, 
for about 200 feet above the Mohican river. This 
coal bed is opened, and appears well, so far as it 
could be examined at McFarland's, in Monroe 
township. It is very variable in thickness, often 
being cut out by the sandstone that always over- 
lies it. -In Mahoning county it is known as the 
Brier Hill coal, and is regarded as the most valu- 
able bed in the State for blast furnaces. It should 
be looked for in the deep runs below Tiverton 
Center, and on the slope of the steep hill down 
to the Mohican. 

Monroe. — The coal seams of this township have 
been developed but little more than those of Tiv- 
erton. There is here the same range, of the coal 
measures, with the addition of one higher coal 
bed, the outcrop of which may be recognized 
close to the town of Spring Mountain, which is 
oh as high land as any in the township. The 
■gray limestone is seen about sixty feet lower 
down, half a mile to the south. The only coal 
mines opened in the township, of which we have 
any knowledge, are Cooper's two mines, north- 
west from Spring Mountain, and McFarland's, on 
the south line of the township. Our examina- 
tions of these, as of most of the other coal beda of 
the county, were made under very unfavorable 
circumstances. As they are worked only in the 
winter season, the localities are commonly found 
with difficulty, and when found the drifts are flood- 
ed with water, so that they can not be entered, 
and no one is about to give any information. 

Cooper's bed was found in this condition. The 
coal seam appears to be four feet thick. It is 
overlaid by a confused mixture of fire-clay, shale 
and limestone, the last close to the roof, and sup- 
posed to be the gray limestone. Over these 
strata, which are sometimes more than ten feet 
thick, are massive sandstone rocks, much tum- 
bled, the bed of which is not less than twenty 
feet thick. McFarland's coal mine, as already 
mentioned, is in the lowest bed of the series No. 
1. It appears to be three feet thick, and is over- 
laid by slaty sandstone, of which eight feet are 
visible. The coal seems to be partly cannel. In 
the run, about fifteen feet below the opening, are 
the Waverly shales, recognizable by their fossils. 

Clark. — The principal coal mines of this town- 
ship are in the southeast part, near the line of 
Bethlehem, on the farms of Thomas Elliott, John 
Moore, and J. Shannon, all in coal No. 6. Jas. C. 
Endsley's coal bank in Bethlehem belongs to the 
same group, and is the most important one, hav- 
ing been worked eighteen years, and supplying a 
large part of the two townships with coal. It is 
forty feet above the gray limestone, under which 
is said to be a coal bed two feet thick ; and it is 
about ninety feet below another coal seam eigh- 
teen inches thick, struck near Mr. Endsley's 
house, over which the hill still rises some sev- 
enty or eighty feet The bed worked is three 
feet nine inches thick, less a seam it contains of 
six inches of pyritous fire-clay. The roof is 
black shale, of which five feet are exposed. The 
coal is in good repute for domestic uses, but does 
not answer for blacksmiths. 

Thomas Elliott's coal bed, just over the line in 
Clark township, is probably a continuation of 
Endsley's. It is two feet ten inches thick, under 
a black shale roof, the shales abounding in fossil 
shells, but too fragile for preservation. The coal 
appears to be too pyritous to be of much value. 
The other beds we did not succeed in finding. 
On the highlands northeast from the mill at the 
great bend of the Killbuck, a coal bed is worked 
which, from its elevation, we suppose to be No. 
6. These northern townships seem to be the 
most hilly and uncultivated in the county. They 
lie along the heads of many of the branches of 
the Tuscarawas, and the general course of the 
streams is not far from the dip of the strata. 



The greater elevation of the plateau in this re- 
gion accounts for the occurrence of the higher 
coal beds in the summits. Though unusually 
hilly and rough, the surface exhibits few out- 
crops of the coals and limestones for long dis- 
tances. From the bend of the Killbuck, north- 
east toward Bloomfield, the road ascends 350 
feet to the first mile. The first coal outcrop 
observed is about two miles southwest from 
Bloomfield, just after crossing the small branch 
of the Killbuck, running on the Waverly shales. 
This must be the outcrop of coal No. 1. De- 
scending toward Bloomfield, on the other side of 
the summit, the gray limestone is met with at 
170 feet higher elevation by barometer, with 
large coal outcrop immediately under it. Forty 
feet below this is another outcrop of coal, and 
about seventy-five feet below this a third, and a 
sandstone bed beneath this, with no appearance 
of the Waverly to the bottom of the valley in 
which Bloomfield is situated. This group, how- 
ever, must be very near the surface at this place. 
None of the outcrops noticed above appear to 
have been followed up to ascertain the character 
and thickness of the coals. This neighborhood 
is supplied with coal from beds in the adjacent 
township of Mill Creek. 

Recent explorations disclose the fact that in 
Bethlehem and Clark townships, near the line 
separating them, coal No. 7 is in places four feet 
thick, and of good quality. At Mr. Durr's bank, 
it has this thick vein, is an open, burning, white 
ash coal, containing little visible sulphur, and 
giving better promise of being a good iron-mak- 
ing coal than any other examined in the county. 
A coal was disclosed in a well near Mr. Glover's 
residence, without cover, showing eighteen 
inches of ^ the bottom bench, which may be No. 7 
or perhaps No. 7 a. On the east half of the south- 
east quarter of section 23, Clark township, an out 
crop of coal No. 6 is thirty-seven inches in thick- 
ness, with a heavy body of shale above it. Other 
outcrops in the neighborhood are reported to 
show three feet nine inches of coal. At the open- 
ing examined, the coal increased in thickness as 
the drift was carried into the hill. The coal is 
hard and black, with a brilliant, resinous luster, 
containing a large percentage of fixed carbon, 
and is evidently of excellent quality. At the 

Imley bank, on section 25, Bethlehem township^ 
the coal at an outcrop measures forty-three 
inches, and is reported to reach a thickness of 
four and one-half feet in some of the rooms- 
worked. It is, by the barometer, twenty-five feet 
below the coal on section 23, Clark township, and 
about one-half a mile distant. This coal in Beth- 
lehem township I am inclined to regard as below 
No. 6 and, as that which is disclosed a little 
farther north, capped with the black limestone. 
The coal is of superior quality, and there is quite 
a large territory underlain by it. 

At the place of these openings, all the rocks of 
the coal measures are in their positions, and the- 
horizons of seven coals and two limestones can 
be determined. About one mile north, on Mr> 
Glover's land in Clark township, the following 
section was obtained : 

Coal No 6, loo feet from top of hill. 

Shaly sandstone 30 feet. 

Black limestone 3 feet. 

Coal >.. 2 feet 6 inches.. 

Sandy shale with coal streak at base 20 feet. 

Unevenly bedded, massive, coarse 
sandstone, with steak of coal 
near base 280 feet. 


This section shows that after the deposit of the 
lower coals there was an upheaval of 280 feet, 
and a channel plowed by the water to the base of 
the coal measures. The thin conglomerate in 
this neighborhood is cherty, and from one of 
these fragments of cherts I have obtained a fair 
sized crystal of galena, the best specimen of lead 
ore I have ever seen obtained from Ohio rocks. ' 

Mill Creelc. — Low's coal bank, in the northwest 
corner of this township, one mile east from 
Bloomfield, lies directly under the gray lime- 
stone, a seam of fire-clay, seven inches thick, sep- 
arating the limestone from the upper layer of 
coal. This upper layer is bright coal, five inches 
thick, under it cannel coal seven inches thickr 
and under this two feet five inches of good, 
bright coal. In the next hill west is Evan's coal 
bank, at thirty feet higher elevation. This has 
been opened, but not worked much, and was in 
no condition to enter. The bed is said to be 
three feet thick, the coal to be of good quality. 



It has a good covering of sandstone, making the 
summit of the hill. 

Through the western part of Mill Creek, by 
the " grade road," exposures of strata that can be 
recognized are very rare; and no openings of 
coal are met with. Near the south line of the 
township the blue limestone is seen at- several 
places along the road, sometimes with the " blos- 
som " of coal beneath it. Chert in considerable 
quantity is often associated with it. At one place 
the blue limestone appears .to be seven or eight 
feet thick. Immediately over it is a large bed of 
chert, and about forty feet higher up the blossom 
of coal, but no appearance of the gray limestone. 

In the southeast corner of Mill Creek, and in 
the adjoining lands in the three townships of 
Keene, White Eyes and Crawford, are several coal 
banks, all in coal No. 6, which is recognized both 
by its position (about 100 feet above the gray 
Umestone) and by its peculiar purplish ash. The 
outcrop of other coal beds is seen at several 
places on these lands, but the only bed worked is 
No. 6. The coal is mined only in the winter sea- 
son, and chiefly on the farms of A. Overholts, in 
Mill Creek; of Thomas Davis, adjoining this, in 
Keene; of Scott, Punk, Boyd and Miller in 
White Eyes ; and of Boyd, Graham and Swigert 
in Crawford. The bed where it was accessible 
was found varying from two feet ten inches 
at Davis', and at Overholts' to four" feet three 
inches thick at Scott's; but the openings being all 
deserted, nothing could be determined as to the 
quality of the coal. Some pyrites is seen, one 
seam' of it an inch thick near the floor, but the 
quantity is small. As this group of mines sup- 
plies the demand of a large portion oE the four 
townships, the coal is without doubt, the best the 
county affords. It is, moreover, obtained exclu- 
sively from the bed well known to be the most 
important one in the county. The summit level 
in this vicinity is about 100 feet above the plane 
of. the coal bed ; and immediately over the coal 
is a heavy bed of slaty sandstone, apparently not 
under thirty-five feet thick. On Alexander 
Hanlon's farm, half a mile northwest from Over- 
holts', and also on Oliver Crawford's, nearly a 
mile farther north, are seen a number of expos- 
ures of coal and limestone beds, which, taken to- 
gether, give sections not readily explained in con- 

nection with the barometrical elevations ob- 
tained, and which were verified in part in going 
and returning. Coal No. 6 is opened on the 
south side of the hill, on Mr. Hanlon's farm 
about 120 feet below its summit. A bed of lime- 
stone, about one foot six inches thick, shows it- 
self sixty-five feet above the coal bed. To the 
south about one-quarter of a mile and 200 feet 
below the coal bed, is the top of a great bed of 
gray limestone, which, followed by successive 
steps down the bed of a run, presents a thick- 
ness of about twenty-five feet, as leveled with the 
hand-level. This may be somewhat exaggerated, 
as there is a strong dip to the south, and the ex- 
posure is down the run in this direction for 
nearly 250 feet. Under the upper layers is seen 
some coal smut, and under the whole is a bed of 
coal, said to be two feet thick. The strata for 
twenty feet below are hidden, and then succeeds 
a bed of massive sandstone, from thirty to forty 
feet thick. On Crawford's land, nearly a mile to 
the north, two , coal outcrops are seen in two 
neighboring runs. One is of a coal bed about 
thirteen inches thick, directly under gray lime- 
stone, apparently only two inches thick, and 110 
feet below the level of coal No. 6. In the other 
run at twenty feet lower level, is abed of coal 
three feet thick, of which the upper portion is 
cannel, and the lower partly cannel and partly 
bright coal. No limestone is exposed near the 
coal. It would appear that these two coal out- 
crops are continuations of the beds on the south 
side of the hill, though they are ninety feet 
higher, and nothing is seen of the great mass of 
limestones that there lies between them. The 
coals are probably the representatives of Nos. 
3 and 4, and the limestones that overlie these 
have here run together. The unusual high 
elevation of coal No. 6, on the south side of 
the hill, may be a barometrical error. The dip, 
which is certainly very great here, would account 
for a part, at least, of the discrepancy in the 
height of the coal above the two outcrops of 
limestone on the opposite sides of the hill. 

Crawford. — Beside the coal banks on the edge 
of Mill Creek Township, there • appear to be 
none worked in Crawford. The outcrop of coal 
was observed on the north line of the township, 
near New Bedford, but over all the rough coun- 



try from thence to Chili, through the center of 
the township, no one appears to have given any 
attention to obtaining coal elsewhere than from 
the locality in the southwest corner, already 
described. It is probable that No. 6 disappears 
to the north, rising faster than the surface of the 
country in this direction, and the lower beds 
have not been found worth working. 

Newcastle. — The northern half of this township 
is in the Waverly, excepting only the upper part 
of the hills in the northeast quarter. The 
highest lands, near the town of Newcastle, on the 
south side of the Walhonding, are about 420 feet 
above the bottoms of this river, i. e., 780 above 
Lake Erie. The highest and only coal bed 
worked in the township is No. 4, under the gray 
limestone, and from seventy to eighty feet below 
the highest elevations. Coal No. 1 is seen on 
descending the steep hill from Newcastle to the 
"Walhonding, in a bed only eighteen inches thick, 
beneath the great sandstone bed at the base of 
the coal measures, which is here about thirty feet 
thick. Kidney ore, with a little shale from six 
inches to a foot thick, separates the coal from the 
sandstone. For fifty feet over the sandstone the 
strata are concealed, except that the smut of a 
very small coal seam is observed below the dig- 
gings for fire-clay, at the top of this interval. 
Over the fire-clay, which is three feet to four feet 
thick, is coal (seen here only in the outcrop), and 
over the coal a fossiliferous gray limestone, two 
feet thick, overlaid with blue chert. The fire- 
clay is dug for the supply of a pottery at New- 
castle. Though the gray limestone is met with 
most everywhere near the summit of the town- 
ship, the openings of the coal beds it covers are 
not very numerous. One of these is James 
Smith's, half a mile northeast from Newcastle. 
The limestone is here several feet thick, and forms 
the roof of the coal. This is two and a half feet 
thick, and much mixed with small seams of shale 
and pyrites. 

At Calvin Scott's, one and one-half miles south- 
east from Newcastle, the coal i§ found two and 
one-half fpet thick under six feet of the gray 
limestone. It is here of better quality, compact 
and bright, with not so m.uch. sulphur. 

This bed may be opened in numerous places, 
and is the best the township affords; yet the next 

higher bed may perhaps be found near the line 
of Jefferson, on the road to Jericho. 

The following section, from summit of hills at 
Newcastle to the mouth of Owl creek, will show 
the general geological structure of this portion of 
the county : 

1. Interval covered 45 feet. 

2. Blue chert i " 

3. Gray, rotten limestone 2 " 

4. Blue chert \y^» 

■5. Coal No. 3 : 2^" 

6. Fire-clay worked for pottery 4 " 

7. Slope covered 85 " - 

8. Sandstone 30 " 

9. Iron ore 6 to Sin. 

10. Coal No. I I^ ft. 

11. Waverly shales 225 " 

The cherty limestone over the upper coal is 
traceable several miles along the banks of Owl 
creek into Knox county. It abounds in fossilsi 
which include nearly all the species found in the 
famous locality on Flint Ridge, near Newark. 
The lithological character of the rock is the 
same, a blue, earthy, sometimes cherty limestone 
weathering light brown. The horizon of the two 
loaclities is doubtless the same. The base of the 
section is 300 feet above Lake Erie. 

Jefferson.— The north half of this township is' 
in strata probably too low for any 'of the worka- 
ble coal beds except No. 1, which may be looked 
for with good prospect of success, as it is worked 
just over the line in Monroe, as already described. 
On the south side of the township, coal No. 3 a 
has been opened upon several farms, and being 
found of Jarge size and cannel character, rich in 
oil, large preparations were made to work it for 
the supply of oil distilleries, when the great 
developments of the petroleum wells put a stop 
to the business. On the farm of John Taylor 
(west side of Simmons' creek), the bed is opened 
about fifty feet below the top of the hill. It is 
about five feet thick, sound, cannel coal, with a 
little pyrites scattered through it. The coal 
abounds with impressions of coal plants, and in 
the shaly blocks from the roof are remarkably 
fine specimens of stigmanm, with lateral rootlets. 
On the other side of the same hill (to the west), 
is Lyman's opening in the same bed. The roof 



is here exposed, and consists, next the coal, of 
blue limestone six inches, over this chert eighteen 
inches, and limestone at top, making in all over 
three feet. The coal bed is full six feet thick. 
Sharpless' mine, across the valley, in Bedford 
township, belongs to this group. The gray- 
limestone is found scattered near the top of the 
hill above Lyman's opening, but the coal bed 
under it is not opened. Its outcrop is observed 
in the road toward Newcastle, overlain by a thick 
bed of shale. Chert is very abundant, associated 
with both the limestone beds, and also at higher 
levels than the gray limestone. Descending the 
hill toward the Little Mohawk, the gray lime- 
stone is seen not far below the summit, about 
four feet thick; with coal smut below, and shale 
beds containing kidney ore, above it. The coal 
bed is opened on the farm of James Moore, Sr., 
close by this outi'rop, and was worked for oil, the 
coal yielding forty gallons to the ton. The bed is 
seven feet thick, the lower five feet cannel and 
the upper two feet bright coal, overlaid by gray 
limestone and chert. On the opposite side of the 
road the same bed was worked by Wm. Gibbons. 
The descent from this point to the bridge over 
the Little Mohawk, at Jericho, about a quarter of 
a mile to the west, is 180 feet by barometer. This 
should reach into the Waverly shales. There are 
no exposures of any strata to be seen. The hill 
to the west rises nearly or quite 300 feet above 
the Little Mohawk, beyond the township line, in 
Newcastle, and the next coal bed above the gray 
limestone is probably carried in, an outcrop being 
seen, supposed to belong to this bed. 

Section between Simmons' run and Jericho, 
Jefferson township : 

Gray shale 40 feet. 

Gray limestone 3 to 4 

Coal — 

Fire-clay and shale 50 

Blue limestone 3 to 4 

Cannel coal 5 to 7 

Fire-clay, sandstone and shale 30 

Bituminous coal 2 

Fire-clay and sandstone 70 


Bethlehem. — This township is very largely in 
the Waverly and the lower undeveloped coal 
measures. The coal found to the north was 

noticed in the account of Clark township. It is 
probable that coal bed No. 4 may be found of 
good size and character in the extreme south- 
west corner, as it is worked in the northwest 
corner of Jackson. 

Keene.—The eastern half of Keene township 
has several openings of coal No. 6, which appears 
to be the only bed now worked. That of Thos. 
Davis, in the northeast corner, has been referred 
to in the account of the coal beds of Mill Creek. 
In the southern part of the township, James 
Boyd has worked the same bed to considerable 
extent, by three openings on his farm, about one 
and a half miles north from Lewisville. The bed 
lies about 150 feet above the level of the canal at 
Lewisville, and 100 feet below the summit of the 
hill. The canal is about on the same level as the 
railroad at Coshocton. Fifty feet above this is 
an outcrop of the gray limestone near Lewisville. 
In one of the openings the coal is found three 
feet nine inches thick, with a parting seam of 
either fire-clay or pyrites, three inches thick, 
nine inches above the floor. In another, on the 
west side of the same hill, the bed is four feet 
thick, including four inches of fire-clay, eight 
inches above the bottom. The overlying strata 
are slaty sandstones, thirty feet thick. The coal 
appears to be of excellent quality, is of brilliant, 
jet-black color, and is mostly free from sulphur. 
It is not in demand by the blacksmiths, probably 
from not melting well to make a hollow fire, 
but is sold wholly for domestic uses. 

On the adjoining farm of W. Hanlon another 
coal bed was opened sometime ago, sixty feet 
higher up, and is said to be three feet thick. 
Other coal openings are reported in the south- 
east corner and also about two miles east from 
Keene Center ; they are supposed to be in coal 
bed No. 6. Keene Center, though;_on very high 
ground, does not, apparently, quite reach up to 
the plane of coal No. 6; and no openings are 
made in the lower beds. To the north of the 
town the strata are well exposed, by the side of 
the road, from the top of the hill down into the 
-valley of Mill creek, presenting the following 
section: near the top, at the town, slaty sand- 
stone ; shales, mostly olive-colored, ' forty feet, 
limestone (gray?), coal-smut, and fire-clay, under- 
laid by olive shales, sixty feet; several layers of 



kidney iron-ore, ten feet above the bottom of the 
shales ; coal outcrop under the shales ; five feet 
under this, to top of great bed of chert, associa- 
ted with blue limestone, and coal outcrop beneath. 
A large bed of massive sandstone, supposed to be 
that at the base of the coal measures, lies not far 
below the blue limestone, its upper layers about 
twenty feet below the top of the chert and blue 
limestone. This group of about 150 feet affords 
httle promise of any workable bed of coal; and 
some portions of it occupy the greater part of 
the township. 

WTiite Eyes. — The only coal openings visited in 
this township, are those in the northwest corner, 
noticed with the coal beds of Mill Creek. The 
developments there have had the effect of dis- 
couraging other enterprises of the kind, es- 
pecially as the demand lor coal is so limited. In 
the northeast part of the township, along the road 
from Chili toward Bakersville, the lands lie near 
the plane of the two limestone beds, with no 
promise of workable coal. 

Adams. — Throughout the north part of Adams, 
the coal bed most worked is No. 4, under the 
gray limestone. It is a bed of inferior character, 
both as regards the amount and quality of the 
coal. It is commonly known as the " double 
bed," from a seam of fire-clay, about a foot thick, 
in the middle of the bed. It has been worked 
half a mile west from Bakersville, where the 
whole bed was four feet thick, the upper part 
mixed with cannel coal. About twenty feet 
aboye the gray limestone, which covers the coal 
bed, is a bed of black limestone, of slaty structure, 
perhaps two feet thick. It contains fossil shells, 
but in poor condition. This bed corresponds, in 
position, with the " black marble " found in the 
western part of the county. Near the western 
part of the township, the double bed is worked on 
the farms of Powell, of Fillibaum and of others 
in the neighborhood ; and further east on Zin- 
kon's. At this place, the next upper bed (No. 6) 
is also opened ninety to one hundred feet higher 
up, and too close to the top of the hill to be worked 
to advantage. It is a little over three feet thick, 
contains no slate seams and but little sulphur. 
On Vance's farm, lying next south from Zinkon's, 
the same bed is again opened near the top of the 
hill, and has, so far, been worked by stripping. It 

appears to be about three feet thick, of sound cu- 
bical coal, very black, the upper portion sulphur- 
ous. It is overlaid by black shale, two feet nine 
inches ; sandstone, one foot three inches ; and 
over this shaly sandstone, a thick bed, to the top 
of the hill. The lower part of the bed, and the 
strata below, are hidden. In a run near by, at 
about fifty feet lower elevation, is a bed of chert 
and " black marble," some of the latter of com- 
pact structure, and some of it shelly; and thirty- 
five to forty feet below this, is the outcrop of the 
gray limestone, and coal No. 4 (not opened), the 
strata between being mostly slaty sandstones. 
There are numerous coal openings to the south- 
east of Vance's, all in No. 6 coal bed. 

Perry. — The strata here, as in Newcastle, are of 
the lower part of the coal measures ; and, fre- 
quently, over the surface of the hills, the gray and 
blue limestone are recognized, accompanied with 
chert. They are seen in the neighborhood of 
East Union; but no openings of the coal beds 
usually associated with these, are met with ; and 
it is probable these beds are of little or no value 
in this township. A little to the southeast of the 
'center of the township, near the foot of a long 
hill, and below a great bed of massive sandstone, 
is Crawford's coal bank in bed No. 1. The bed is 
from two and a half to three feet thick, with a 
black shale roof. The coal is of excellent quality, 
mostly in sound blocks, very free from sulphur 
and of " open burning " character. Some of it is 
of slaty cannel structure, with mineral charcoal 
intermixed. This is the only really good display 
of this lowest coal bed met with in the county; 
and it is an encouragement for hoping that a seam 
that has proved so valuable as this has in other 
counties, may be found at many other localities 
in this, of good character. Its low position gives 
it an extensive range ; but there is always uncer- 
tainty about its continuing far without being en- 
croached upon and disturbed by the sandstone 
above it. Its occurrence here indicates that of 
the Waverly group in the bottoms of the runs in 
this township. 

Bedford. — The occurrence of cannel coal in a 
large bed under the blue limestone on Sharpless' 
farm, on the north side of the township, has been 
noticed in describing the coal openings in Jeffer- 
son. In the northwest part of Bedford, at the 




coal openings of John Little and Jos. Preese, a 
greater number of coal beds are seen in one sec- 
tion than at any other locality in the county. At 
the base of the hill, in the road, and under a bed 
of massive sandstone not less than thirty feet 
thick, is the blossom of coal supposed to be No. 1. 
Fifty feet above this is John Little's coal bank 
under a bed of blue shale, the lower layers of 
which are calcareous, and no doubt represent the 
blue limestone. The coal bed (No. 3) is of work- 
able size, but nothing more could be ascertained 
of its character, the opening being flooded with 
water. In the run close by, and seventy feet 
above the base is Jos. Freese's coal opening under 
massive sandstone, of which twelve feet are ex- 
The following is a section near Freese's mine 

in Bedford township : 

Ft. In. 

Soil and drift 

Buff limestone 

Sandstone and shale partly covered loo o 

Coal outcrop 

Shale 30 o 

Gray limestone 5 o 

Coal No. 4 2 4 

Shaly sandstone 30 o 

Coal, J. Freese's (No. 3a?) 3 II 

Blue calcareous shale 20 o 

Coal outcrop (No. 3) 

Space partly covered, mostly sandstone 80 o 

Coal No. I (?) 

Freese's coal is a compound seam, consisting of 

Bituminous coal 18 inches. 

Cannel coal 10 inches. 

Fire-clay 3 to 4 inches. 

Bituminous coal 15 inches. 

Black shale 

At 100 feet elevation the gray limestone appears 
in the run overlying a coal seam twenty-eight 
inches thick, not opened, and at 130 feet is the out- 
crop of another coal bed of cannel character, the 
thickness not known. Over this coal is a heavy bed 
of massive sandstone, and above this to the top 
of the hill, about 100 feet more, no more exposures 
are seen. But in the forks of the road near by, and 
some twenty to thirty feet higher elevation than 
the uppermost coal bed in the section, is an out- 
crop of hard, compact limestone, abounding in 

fossil shells, the stratum probably not over two 
feet thick. It is remarkable, at this place, what a 
change the coals Nos. 8 and 4 have undergone 
from their much larger dimensions in Jeiierson, 
only about three miles distant. No. 3 a also here 
assumes a workable character, not observed any- 
where else in the county. 

No other coal openings are seen between this- 
place and the village of West Bedford. The vil- 
lage stands some fifty feet above the gray lime- 
stone, which is seen a little to the north ; and the- 
range of the strata is, from the summit down 
into the bottoms, about 240 feet. About forty 
feet lower than the gray limestone is a large out- 
crop of coal in the road, which is probably No. 
3 a, the blue limestone being met thirty feet 
lower in a large exposure of massive blocks. At 
the lowest point in the road, about one-half mile 
east from West Bedford, where the road forks, 
is the lower great sandstone bed of the coal 
measures, about 190 feet below the gray lirne- 
stone. Two miles east from West Bedford is 
Sproule's coal bank, three feet thick, the coal very 
sulphury, no cannel in it. Johnson's mine 
farther east, and Marshall's still farther, exhibit 
the same characters. The bed is evidently the 
same at the three places, and is supposed to be 
No. 4, though the gray limestone is not seen near 
it. Coal No. 6, found in the northeast corner of 
Washington township, could no doubt be found 
in the south part of Bedford, as near the school 
house, not a mile south from Sproule's mine, the 
following are observed from the blue limestone up. 
The gray limestone fifty feet higher, four feet 
thick; coal outcrop (No. 6), eighty feet up. 
Above the school house: coal outcrop 124 feet 
up ; top of the hill, 180 feet above the blue lime- 
stone, reddish brown sandstone : 

Section on Sproule's farm, Bedford township : 

Soil and drift 

Gray limestone 

Coal, Sproule's land 3 feet. 


Shales and sandstones, mostly covered 80 feet. 

Blue limestone 8 feet. 

Cannel coal 2 feet. 


Space, mostly covered, sandstone below 100 feet. 

Coal No. I 



Jackson. — In the northwest corner of this town- 
ship coal No. 4 is worked on the farm of Abm. 
Haines, near the summit of the hills. The bed 
is four feet thick, and the coal appears to be of 
good quality; has no cannel seams. Its roof is 
shale, three inches thick, and over this is the 
gray limestone, six feet ten inches thick. From 
the bottom of this limestone it is twenty-four 
feet to the blue limestone, exposed in the- run 
below, mixed with chert, and overlying a cannel 
coal bed, thickness "unknown. As both these 
coal beds attain large dimensions on the other 
side of Simmons creek, in Jefferson and Bedford 
townships, they may be expected to occur in 
other places in the northwest part of Jacksoni 
also, of workable size; but the only locality in 
Jackson where either is opened is in the extreme 
corner of the township. Toward Roscoe, over 
the highlands to the south of the Walhonding 
river, the summits are far above the plane of 
these beds, and between four and one-half and 
five and one-half miles from Eoscoe, the outcrops 
of two coal beds are observed, one of which is 
supposed to be No. 6, and the other the next bed 

In a run near the. road in this vicinity an im- 
perfect section was obtained, showing the blue 
limestone at bottom three feet thick, and thirty 
feet above it the bottom of a bed of massive sand- 
stone full fifty feet thick, with signs of coal six 
feet below it, with shale between the coal and 
sandstone. Near the summit, about seventy feet 
above the top of the sandstone, is the outcrop of 
the uppermost bed. On the next road to the 
south of this, a mile and a half west from Ros- 
coe, the upper part of the great sandstone bed, 
below coal No. 6, forms the pavement of the 
road, and beneath is a cave formed by the over- 
hanging rock and extending entirely across un- 
der the road. The bottom of the s«ndstone is 
fifty-five feet below the road, and down the run 
fifteen feet lower is a fine exposure of the gray 
limestone, two or three feet thick, with an infe- 
rior kind of cannel coal under it. A blue lime- 
stone crops out still further down the run, only 
about twenty feet under the gray limestone- 
shales and slaty sandstones occupying the inter- 
mediate space. The hills in this part of the town- 
ship are quite high enough to catch No. 6 coal, and 

also the next bed in many localities. But No. 6 
is the only bed known in the township as of 
much importance, and is opened at a number of 
places to the south of Roscoe. The bed is from 
three to four feet thick, and the coal is in good 
repute. The most important mines in the town- 
ship are in the southeast part, near the line of 
Virginia, especially those worked on adjoining 
tracts, belonging respectively to the Coalport 
Coal Company and the Summit Coal Company., 
Th^ coal bed is three feet ten inches thick, with 
a seam of shale one to two inches thick, fifteen 
inches above the floor. The roof of the bed is 
blue shale, and in the shale beds above and below 
the beds kidney ore is found. The dip is south- 
east, sixteen and one-half feet in a mile. 

Prosser's coal mine is three miles south from 
Coshocton, and half a mile west from the canal. 
The bed is close upon four feet thick ; contains 
no visible sulphur but what can be easily sorted 
out. The upper part is harder coal than the 
lower, and separated from it by a small seam of 
fire-clay eighteen inches above the floor. The 
following is the succession of strata observed in 
the run below the coal bed: Seventy-five feet 
below is the bottom of a large bed of massive 
sandstone, not less than thirty feet thick, some 
layers of it conglomeritic ; under it shale beds 
(bluish) about twenty feet thick, with balls and 
layers of iron ore ; at ninety-five feet below the 
coal is fire-clay, and, under this, bhie shale and 
kidney ore; at 105 feet black chert, five feet 
thick ; and fifteen feet below this, black shale and 
cannel coal, not distinctly divided— altogether 
about four feet thick. The lowest of these strata 
represent the blue limestone and coal No. 3; and 
the black chert is the representative of a lime- 
stone, which is locally found over the next coal 

Tuscarawas.— 1\ie lowest strata in this township 
are those near the blue limestone. It lies near 
the level of the railroad, and of the canal near 
the aqueduct to the north of Coshocton. Where 
the highway crosses Mill creek, in the northeast 
part of the township, the following section of 165 
feet may be observed : At top of the hill, mas- 
sive sandstone, extending down about 100 feet; 
125 feet below the top of this sandstone, gray 
limestone, four feet thick, with much chert inter- 



mixed and overlying a coal bed, the thickness of 
which is not known, only abiDut fifteen inches 
seen in the outcrop; thence down to the level of 
the bridge over Mill ereek (165 feet below the top 
of the sandstone), is a bed of shales, about thirty- 
five feet thick. The blue limestone was not seen 
in place, but a loose piece of it was found below 
the level of the bridge and of the road. These 
strata produce no workable coal beds. The mines 
to the south and east of Coshocton are altogether 
in coal No. 6. Those of the Home Mining Com- 
pany, a mile southeast from the town, are situated 
on the wesC side of a high hill, near together, and 
are worked by means of twelve separate en- 
trances. The bed is about 150 feet above the 
level of the railroad ; its thickness three feet eight 
inches ; the coal is very free from sulphur, bright, 
hard and compact, and breaks with clear and 
brilliant, smooth faces; is better adapted for 
steam and domestic purposes than for black- 
smith's use, not having the melting and coking 
qualities to the extent they require ; still, it is in 
demand for this purpose, and is, in fact, the best 
this part of the country affords. It is worked by 
large chambers, the roof being strong. A thin 
seam of shale divides the bed into two benches, 
and the upper bench supplies the best coal. It is 
overlaid by gray shales and sandstones ; and 115 
feet above it is the outcrop of another coal bed 
(No. 7)i not opened, overlaid with limestone and 
some iron ore — the position in which to look for 
the black-band iron ore. The gray limestone is 
about sixty-five feet below coal No. 6. 

In the hill northeast from the last described 
locality, toward the coal mines worked on that 
side; and discharged on the railroad, the following 
section is obtained from coal No. 6, down : 

1. Coal No. 6 feet. 

2. Fire-clay 

3. Sandstone 30 " 

4. Black marble 6 " 

j. Gray shale 10 " 

6. Gray limestone 3 " 

7. Coal outcrop.. ■. 

8. Fire-clay 

9. Blue shale 60 " 

10. Blue limestone 7 " 

11. Cannel coal, thin and poor 

12. Fire-clay 

13. Shale to railroad, three miles from Co- 

shocton 30 " 

In the central part of the township, the sum- 
mit level is, for the most part, high above the 
plane of No 6 coal; the tops of the hills full 200 
feet higher. Indications of the black-band ore 
were looked for in these higher strata, but none 
were met with that can be considered encour- 
aging. No. 7 coal must occur considerably below 
the general summit level, but the only bed 
worked appears to be No. 6. 

Sections southeast of Coshocton : 
Nodular calcareous iron-ore. Gray limestone. 
Coal outcrop (No. 7). 

Ft. In. 

Gray shale and sandy shale 115 o 

Coal No. 6 (Home company's) 3 8 

Fire-clay 20 o 

Gray shale 45 o 

Gray limestone. Coal outcrop 3 o 

Shaly sandstone and shale (railroad at Co- 
shocton)., 80 o 

Blue limestone. Coal outcrop 3 o 

Fire-clay 5 o 

Shale, tolowwaterin river 15 o 

Lafayette. — The greats- part of this township is 
alluvial bottom land. No coal openings were 
encountered in the township. The higher parts 
of it; however, must contain what appears to be 
the only important bed of this region, viz : No. 6. 
The ancient valley or river bed, extending 
through it from northwest to southeast, has 
already been noticed. 

Oxford. — A considerable part of this township 
also is bottom land in the broad valley of the 
Tuscarawas. Coal beds, however, are worked in- 
the northwest corner of the township, which 
were not visited. They are probably on the same 
bed (No. 6) as the workings in Adams, not far to 
the north, and those on the same side of the 
river, and as near to 'it at Newcomerstown, in 
Tuscarawas county. The valley of Mill's creek, 
on the south edge of the township, is on the level 
of the blue limestone, and a small seam of cannel 
coal is seen directly under it in this vicinity; and 
under the gray limestone, twenty-five feet higher 
up in the same run, is a coal bed not well exposed, 
the upper part of which is cannel. Coal No. 6 
must be in the hills in the southwest part of the 
township, but no openings of it were seen. 

From Coshocton to the east line of the county, 



the dip has not continued in an easterlj' direction, 
but appears to be reversed. At Coshocton, coal 
No. 6 at the Home company's mine is about 148 
feet above the raih-oad, which is there about 133 
above Lake Erie; and at Newcomerstown, the 
■same bed is 130 feet above the raih-oad, which is 
there 163 feet above the lake, making the bed 
seven feet higher at Newcomerstown. The direc- 
tion is about due east. The effect of this flatten- 
ing of the dip is to keep the same series of strata 
near the surface, and give a monotonous char- 
acter to the geology. There appears to be no 
southern dip, either, in the southeast part of the 
county, judging from the barometrical elevations 
in Tuscarawas and Mill's creek valleys. 

Pike. — This township is altogether near the 
bottom of the coal measures. The gray limestone 
is seen very frequently in the high grounds, ac- 
companied by its coal bed No. 4; and as we see no 
evidence of the coal being worked, it is probably 
of little importance. At West Carlisle, the sand- 
stone just under the gray limestone contains 
numerous specimens of what are probably fu- 
•coidal stems, in a variety*of unusual forms, some 
bearing a curious resemblance to the fossil sau- 
rian foot-prints. On the west side of the village, 
is a large outcrop of slaty cannel coal, probably 
belonging to the gray limestone, but of no value. 
No particular change is observed in the strata 
from this point to the southwest part of the 
township, where the land soon descends down to 
the Waverly. 

No considerable deposit of iron ore was found 
in place in Pike township, but a number of 
nodules of ore, of fine quality, were noticed in 
1;he valleys of the streams, doubtless washed from 
the hills in the vicinity. The excellence and 
abundance of this ore render it highly probable 
that the important deposits of Jackson town- 
ship, Muskingum county, extend northward into 

Washington. — The only coal mine of import- 
ance seen in this township is Parks, in the north- 
east corner. The bed is No. 6, three and a half 
to four feet thick, the coal of superior quality, 
very brilliant, of waxy luster, giving a brownish 
red powder, and purplish ash. It is a good cok- 
ing coal, melting easily. The pyritous seams it 
contains are small and easily sorted out. The 

coal finds a ready sale over a considerable region 
around. The bed lies high up near the top of 
the hill, but probably may be found in many 
other places in the eastern part of the township 
The following is a section of the strata asso- 
ciated with Park's coal : 


1. Slope covered loo 

2. Coal No. 6 (Park's) 3 to 4 

3. Fire-clay 

4. Sandstone 80 

5. Gray limestone 4 

6. Coal No. 4 I 

7. Gray shale 30 

8. Blue shale , 20 

9. Blue lim stone 

10. Coal outcrop, No. 3 

Virginia. — Coal No. 6 is pretty generally 
worked throughout the north and east parts of 
the township — in the northwest part, by Joshua 
Cornell, half a mile north from Moscow. The 
bed is here about three and a half feet thick, the 
coal in sound blocks, with very little waste of fine 
coal, and very little sulphur. When burned it 
shows the purple-colored ash peculiar to this bed. 
This, as well as Park's coal, is in good demand 
through the neighborhood. From Moscow, east 
to Franklin, there are numerous openings worked 
in this coal bed, and thence south nearly to the 
canal and the railroad. At Michael Zimmer's, two 
miles northwest from the canal, the bed is about 
ninety feet below the top of the hill, and overly- 
ing a bed of sandstone ninety feet thick, under 
which is the gray limestone. The roof of the 
coal is black shale. The coal bed is four feet 
thick, the coal very hard, black, compact, highly 
bituminous, melting easily and of excellent qual- 
ity altogether. What sulphur is found is in 
heavy lumps and easily separated. A small seam 
of shale runs through the bed, a foot above the 
bottom. The elevation of this bed above the 
canal is about 170 feet. 

Two miles south from this, and near the south 
line of the township, is the mine of James Scott, 
in coal bed No. 3, under the blue limestone. The 
locality is near the canal and not far above its 
level. The coal bed is four feet thick, divided 
into two benches by fire-clay parting, the upper 
bench from six to twelve inches thick. The 



mine was opened in 1833 and has produced a 
large amount of semi-cannel coal of good quality. 
The roof of the bed is a black, calcareous shale, 
two feet thick, abounding in fossil shells. The 
blue limestone resting upon this is from four to 
five feet thick. The gray limestone is seen about 
forty feet higher up the hill, and under it a bed 
of slaty cannel coal, fifteen inches thick. 

Section of hills, near Scott's coal mine, Vir- 
ginia township : 

Slope covered 90 feet. 

Coal No. 6 (Zimmer's) 4 " 


Sandstone 90 " 

Gray limestone 4 " 

CoalNo.4 — poor I " 

Fire- clay. 

Covered 40 " 

Blue limestone 3 " 

Coal No. 3 (Scott's) 4 " 


FranUin. — The western half of this township 
is chiefly bottom land along the valley of the 
Muskingum. The eastern half rises, for the 
most part, above the plane of coal No. 6, which bed 
is worked near both the northern and southern 
line of the township and in the eastern part. On 
the north line, by the mouth of Rock run, three 
miles below Coshocton, the coal bed is four feet 
thick; the coal in cubical blocks, very black and 
brilliant, with frequent flakes of charcoal scat- 
tered through it. The coal bed is here 110 feet 
.above the railroad, and the railroad 125 feet above 
Lake Erie, which proves the coal to be fifty-one 
ieet lower than at the mines of the Coshocton 
■Coal Company, three miles east of Coshocton. 

Section at Rock run : 

1. Black shale 

2. Coal No. 6 4 to 6 feet. 

3. Fire-clay 3 to 6 " 

4. Massive sandstone 75 " 

5. Spring and probable horizon of coal seam 

6. Shaly sandstone 30 " 

'■7. Black shale and covered space 40 " 

8. Blue limestone 3 " 

9. Covered to river 10 " 

Near the southern line is a coal bank, one mile 
above the bend of Will's creek, on the east side, 

and ninety feet above its level. The bed is four 
and one-half to five feet thick, and yields very 
sound and black coal of apparently excellent 
quality. Near the bottom is a thin seam of sul- 
phury shale, which can be easily separated. It 
has a thin roof of shale, and over this is sand- 
stone. Below the coal is sandstone thirty feet 
thick, and under this a large bed of shale. 

Linton. — E.^cept in the wide bottoms of Will's 
creek, the greater part of the surface of this 
township is above the plane of coal No. 6. The 
road from Coshocton comes down to it near the 
northwest corner of the township, where an old 
opening is seen by the run, to the right-hand side 
of the road. At the school house near by, and 
below the level of the coal, is a display of iron- 
ore in oxydized blocks, that might be supposed 
to indicate a considerable quantity; but these 
outcrops are little to be depended upon. 

The road continues to descend toward the east, 
following the valley of the run, and in the bed of 
this, two miles before reaching Jacobsport, the 
blue limestone is seen, well exposed, over three 
feet thick. At Jacobsport, over the bridge across 
Will's creek, the same rock lies ten or fifteen 
feet above the creek, in a bed measuring four 
feet ten inches thick. Great blocks of it, of rect- 
angular shape and weighing many tons, have 
fallen down and lie by the side of the creek. 
The rock abounds in fossil shells, which, how- 
ever, are obtained with difficulty. A little' seam 
of slaty cannel coal, four inches thick, adheres 
closely to the underside of these blocks. The 
underlying strata down to the creek are shales, 
with nodules of kidney ore. A gray lime- 
stone is twenty-five feet above the blue, and 
under it is a coal outcrop. A mile south from 
the bridge, toward Linton, is an opening in No. 6 
coal ; and others, also, are seen along the road. 
At Linton the same bed is found on the land of 
Mr. Heslip, where it presents its usual features. 
At this place another coal bed is found fifteen 
feet below No. 6, and has been worked to some 
extent, but it appears to be of little value. The 
shales in this neighborhood contain balls of iron- 
ore of good quality, sufficient in quantity to in- 
spire hopes of their being of value, but li.ttle de- 
pendence, however, can be placed upon them. 
They are seen in the road a mile or more north- 



west from Linton. Deposits of bog iron, also, are 
said to occur in the bottom of the creek. 

This locahty is interesting from the discovery 
of bones of mastodons, found in the banks of the 
creek and in the alhivial bottoms. One ' of these 
bones was found a few years ago in excavating the 
bank for the mill dam at Linton. One large 
joint, supposed to be a cervical vertebra, with a 
cavity through it, as large as a man's arm, was 
taken out, and more bones were thought to be be- 
hind it. Search can be made for these whenever 
the water is drawn down at the dam, at Jacobs- 
port. This backs the water up eight feet, which 
is all the rise for fourteen miles by the creek. 
Another discovery was made a mile below Lin- 
ton, at the mouth of White Eyes creek, of a large 
and sound tooth, which now belongs to Mr. W. E. 
Johnson, of Coshocton. 

A third discovery was made about fifty years 
ago, two and a half miles above Linton, near 
• Bridgeville, in'Guernsey county, on the farm now 
owned by George Gay Mitchell. His father, at 
that time, in digging a well on the terrace, fifty 
feet above the creek -bottom, found, at the depth 
of forty-two feet, some large bones in a bed of 
blue mud. Only two of these were taken out, 
one described by Mr. Mitchell to be a hip bone, 
and the other as a shin bone, weighing eight 
pounds. The well was then abandoned, and the 
rest of the skeleton is supposed to be still there. 



Mound Builders and Indians — Antiquities — The Different 
Classes of Mounds, Effigies and Inclosures — Lessons taught 
hy These Works— Implements used hy the Mound Builders 
and Indians. 

THE archseologist has found the territory em- 
braced within the present limits of Coshoc- 
ton county a most excellent one. It is probably 
one of the most interesting fields for the scientist 
and antiquarian in the State. When the wave of 
white emigration reached the Mississippi and 
Ohio valleys, the discovery was made of strange 
looking mounds of earth, here and there, and, af- 
ter a time, learning that these and other similar 

works were of pre-historic origin — the work of an 
unknown race of people — they were called, in a 
general way, " Ancient Mounds," and in time the 
lost race that erected them came to be appropri- 
ately named the " Mound Builders." There is no 
authentic history regarding this people. The 
known records of the world are silent — as silent 
as these monuments that perpetuate their memo- 
ry. There are many theories regarding them, 
but this is all that can be said — nothing of their 
origin or end is certainly known. 

They probably antedate the various Indian 
tribes who anciently occupied and claimed title 
to the soil of Ohio. Probably many centuries 
elapsed between the first occupancy here by the 
Mound Builders and the advent of the earliest In- 
dian tribes or nations, though this is only conjec- 

This county was once, and, peradventure, con- 
tinued to be through many passing centuries, one 
of their most favored localities. The extent, va- 
riety, elaborate, and labyrinthian- intricacies of 
their works, still found in many sections of Ohio, 
clearly indicate the plausibility of this view. 
Here they dwelt for ages, erected their works 
and made a long chapter of history, albeit it is 
yet unwritten — a history whose leading features 
and general characteristics can be gathered only 
from those of their works that yet exist It 
must be collected scrap by scrap, and item by 
item, after a thorough examination and patient 
investigation of their works, and by careful, la- 
borious, faithful study of their wonderful re- 
mains. The principal events and leading inci- 
dents in the strange career of this mysterious 
and apparently now extinct people, can be traced 
out and recorded only so far as they are clearly 
indicated by those of their works which yet re- 
main, but which, it is to be regretted, are, to a 
large extent, in a state of mutilation and partial 
ruin, and rapidly tending to utter extinction un- 
der iconoclastic wantonness, and the operations 
of the plow; also from the devastating effects of 
the elements, and the destructive tendencies of 
the great destroyer— Time. 

There is no reason to believe that the Mound 
Builders ever had a written language, and, if they 
had not, it must be manifest that very few 
authentic facts pertaining to their domestic and 



local history, can be verified by reliable testimony 
■other than that deduced from their works, which 
are the sole memorials left by them from which 
to work out the problems of their origin, their 
.history, habits, manners, cufetoms, general char- 
acteristics, mode of life, the extent of their 
knowledge of the arts of husbandry, their state 
of civilization, their religion and its rites, their 
ultimate fate, and the manner and circumstances 
of their final disappearance, whether by process 
of absorption from intermingling and intermar- 
rying with other and more vigorous races, by 

some data as to the probable history they made 
during the unknown, perchanc,e barren, unevent- 
ful cycles of their indefinitely long career as a 
nation or race. 

As the history the Mound Builders is yet un- 
written, it is certainly a matter, of gratulation 
that so many way-marks, and traces of this "peo- 
ple yet remain within the boundaries of the State. 
Their works in the State, still existing in a toler- 
ably perfect condition, a)?e approximately esti- 
mated at ten thousand, but they doubtless far 
exceeded that number at the time of the first 


-dispersion or'captivity, or by extinction through 
war, pestilence, or famine. 

Although generation after generation of Mound 
Builders have lived and flourished, and, perad- 
venture, reached the acme of their glory, then 
passed through age after age of decadence and 
decrepitude into "the receptacle of things lost 
upon earth," without leaving anything that may 
properly be called history; and though no records 
of their exploits have come down to this genera- 
tion through the intervening centuries, yet their 
•enduring works furnish the laborious student 
some indications, even though they be slight, of 
the characteristics of their builders, and afford 

permanent Anglo-American settlement here, in 

Only such monuments, or remains of ancient 
works can be properly ascribed to the Mound 
Builders as were really regarded by the Indian 
tribes at the period of the first settlement at 
Marietta as antiquities, or as the ruins and relics 
of an extinct race, and " concerning the origin of 
which th^y were wholly ignorant, or only pos- 
sessed a traditionary knowledge." 

These consisted of mounds, effigies and inclos- 
ures, which are known and designated as the 
three general classes of ancient works that can 
be appropriately regarded as belonging to the 



Mound Builders. Mounds are sub-divided into 
sepulchral, sacrificial, temple (or truncated); also 
of observation, and memorial or monumental. 
Effigies are sometimes called animal mounds. 

Under the general title of inclosures, are also- 
walls of circumvallation or ramparts constructed 
for military or defensive works, while others- 
were doubtless walls surrounding the residence-- 


sometimes emblematic, and frequently symbol- 

Inclosures are of several kinds, one class being 
known as military or defensive works ; another 
as parallel embankments or covered ways; and 
the third as sacred inclosures. 

of the reigning monarch; perchance others were 
erected for the performance within them of their 
national games and amusements, and perhaps- 
many also served the purpose in the performance 
of their religious rites and ceremonies, and facil- 
itated indulgence in some superstitious practices.- 



Most of the above named works were con- 
structed of earth, a few of stone, and perhaps 
fewer still of earth and stone combined. The 
title each bears indicates, in a measure, the uses 
they are supposed to have served. 

Sepulchral mounds are generally oonical in 
form, and are more numerous than any other 
kinds. They are of all sizes, ranging from a very 
small altitude, to about seventy feet in height, 
and always contain one or more skeletons, or 
parts thereof, or present other plausible indica- 
tions of having been built or used for purposes 
of sepulture, and were, unmistakably, memorials 
raised over the dead. 

By some archaeologists it is maintained that 
the size of these mounds bears a certain relation 
to the importance, when living, of the person 
over whose remains they were erected. 

element was employed in their burial cere- 

Mica is often found in proximity to the skele- 
tons, as well as specimens of pottery, bone and 
copper heads, and animal bones. 

The name given to this description of tumuli 
clearly indicates that they were >, erected chiefly 
for .burial purposes. They generally contain but 
a limited number of skeletons, indeed, often but 
a single one ; but Professor Marsh, of the Sheffield ' 
Scientific School, connected"with Yale College, a 
few years ago opened a mound in Licking county, 
which contained seventeen skeletons in whole or 
in part. 

The most remarkable of all mounds in the 
State, was one in Hardin county, in which were 
found about three hundred skeletons. A doubt 
has, however, been expressed that these were al 


In this class of mounds are often found imple- 
ments and ornaments, supposed to have been 
buried with the person or persons there interred, 
under the superstitious and delusive notion still 
entertained by some tribes of American Indians, 
who indulge in similar practices, that they might 
be useful to them in the happy hunting grounds 
of the future state. 
•The practice being one common to both the 
Indians and Mound Builders, apparently con- 
nects the former with the latter, and raises the 
presumption that the Indians may have descended 
from the Mound Builders. 

That fire was used in the burial ceremonies of 
the Mound Builders is manifest from the fact 
that charcoal is often, if not always, found in close 
proximity to the skeleton. The presence of ashes, 
igneous stones, and other traces of the action of 
fire in these tombs, renders it quite probable this 

Mound Builders' skeletons — some persons enter- 
taining the belief that they were Indian remains, 
as it is well known that the Indians frequently 
buried their dead on or near the mounds. 

Sacrificial mounds are usually stratified, the 
strata being convex layers of ^lay and loam, alter- 
nating with a layer of fine sand. They generally 
contain ashes, charcoal, igneous stones, calcined 
animal bones, beads, stone implements, pottery 
and specimens of rude sculpture. These mounds 
are frequently found within inclosures, which 
were supposed to have been in some way con- 
nected with the performance of the religious 
rites and ceremonies of the . Mound Builders. 
An altar of stone or burnt clay is usually found 
in this class of mounds. 

These altars, which sometimes rest on the sur- 
face of the original earth, at the center of the 
mounds, are symmetrically shaped, and are among 






the chief distinguishing characteristics of sacri- 
ficial mounds. Upon these altars sacrifices of 
animals, and probably of human beings, were 
offered, the fire being used to some extent in that 
superstitious and cruel performance. Some of 
this class of mounds seem also to have been used 
for purposes of sepulture as well as sacrifice ; the 
presence of skeletons, in some of them at least, 
suggest their sepulchral as well as sacrificial 

In common with sepultural mounds these like- 
wise contain implements of war, also -mica from 

The supposition is that the summits of these 
mounds were crowned with structures of wood 
that served the purposes of temples, all traces of 
which, however, owing to the perishable nature 
of the materials used in their construction, have 
disappeared. They were also used to a limited 
extent for burial -purposes, as well as for uses 
connected with their religion. 

Mounds of observation are generally situated 
upon eminences, and were doubtless "observa' 
tories," " alarm posts,'' " watch towers," " signal 
stations," or "look outs," serving the purposes 


the AUeghenies, shells from the Gulf of Mexico, 
obsidian, and in some instances porphyry from 
Mexico, as well as silver and copper articles, both 
for use and ornament. 

Temple mounds are less numerous and gen- 
erally larger than the preceding classes, and in 
form are oftenest circular or oval ; but, whether 
round, square, oblong, oval, octangular, or what- 
ever form, are invariably truncated, having the 
appearance of being in an unfiiiished condition. 
They are frequently surrounded by embank- 
ments, and many of them have spiral pathways, 
steps or inclined planes leading to their summits. 
They are generally of large base and of com- 
paratively limited altitude. 

indicated by their title. They are said by some 
writers to occur in chains or regular systems, and 
that many of them still bear traces of the beacon 
fires that were once burning on them. They are 
sometimes found in connection with embank- 
ments and inclosures, forming a portion, though 
greatly enlarged, of the banks of earth or stones* 
that compose said, embankments and inclosures. 

One of this description is situated two miles 
west of Newark, Ohio, and though somewhat 
mutilated, is yet about twenty-five feet high. 

This class of mounds is tolerably numerous in 
some portions of the State. 

Memorial or Monumental mounds belong to 
the class of tumuli that were erected to perpetu- 



ate the memory of some important event, or in 
honor of some distinguished character. They 
are mostly built of earth, but some of the stone 
mounds found in some portions of the State 
probably belong to this not numerous class. 

Effigies or Animal mounds are simply raised 
figures or gigantic basso rdievos of men, beasts, 
birds or reptiles,, and in some instances, of inani- 
mate objects. They are on the surface of the 
earth, raised to a limited height, generally from 
one foot to six feet above the natural surface of 
the ground. Mr. Schoolcraft, an authority, calls 
this class of ancient works Emblematic mounds, 
and expresses the belief that they were " totems " 
or " heraldic symbols." Professor Daniel Wilson, 
the learned author of " Pre-historic Man," and 

high ground, and in naturally strong positions,, 
frequently on the summits of hills and steep 
bluffs, and are often strengthened by exterior 
ditches. The walls generally wind around the 
borders of the elevations they occupy, and where 
the nature of the ground renders some points 
more accessible than others, the height of the 
wall abd the depth of the ditch at those weak 
points are proportionally increased. The gate- 
ways, are narrow, few in number, and well 
guarded by embankments placed a few yards 
inside of the openings or gate-ways, parallel with 
them, and projecting somewhat beyond them at 
each end, thus fully covering the entrances, 
which, in some cases, are still further protected 
by projecting walls on either side of them. 


Other writers of distinction, call them symbolical 
mounds, and hold the opinion that they were 
erected as objects of worship, or for altars upon 
which sacrifices were offered, or that they served 
some other purposes connected with the religious 
worship of their idolatrous and superstitious con- 

Of the three most notable examples of Effigies 
in the State, two are situated in Licking county. 
>One is the Eagle mound, near the center of what 
is known as the "Old Fort," near Newark; and 
the other is called the " Alligator mound," and is 
situated on the summit of a hill nearly two hun- 
dred feet high, near Granville. 

Inclosures defensive and sacre'd, have been 
briefly mentioned. Most of them are earth- 
works, though a few are of stone. Defensive in- 
closures are of irregular form, are always on 

These works are somewhat numerous, and in- 
dicate a clear appreciation of the elements, at 
least, of fortification, and unmistakably point out 
the purpose for which they were constructed. 
A large number of these defensive works con- 
sist of a line of ditch and embankments, or sev- 
eral lines carried across the neck of peninsulas 
or bluff head-lands, formed within the bends of 
streams — an easy and obvious mode of fortificar 
tion, common to all rude fieoples: 

Covered ways are parallel walls of earth of lim- 
ited height, and are frequently found contiguous 
to inclosures, sometimes, indeed, connecting 
them by extending from one to another One of 
their purposes, at least, seems to have been the 
protection of those passing to and fro within 

Sacred inclosures are mainly distinguished 



Irom those of a military character by the regu- 
larity of their form, their different construction 
and their more frequent occurrence. They are 
of all shapes and forms, and where moats or 
•ditches exist they are invariably found inside of 
the embankments. They are generally in the 
form- of geometrical figures of surprising accu- 
racy, such as circles, squares, hexagons, octagons, 
•ellipses, parallelograms and of jarious others. 
They are sometimes found within military 
inclosures, and evidently had some connection 
with the religious ideas and ceremonies of their 
"builders. Frequently there is situated in the 
•center of this class of works a mound, or eleva- 
tion, supposed to have served the purpose of an 
altar upon which sacrifices were offered, or which 

many such) within which no central elevation or 
altar occurs, which were erected for the purposes 
last named, and not exclusively (if at all) for pur- 
poses connected with religion, and are therefore 
erroneously called sacred inclosures. 

Other ancient peoples, if indeed not all the 
nations of antiquity, had their national games, 
amusements, festivals and jubilees, and why not 
the Mound Builders ? Without doubt they had, 
and congregated within their inclosures to prac- 
tice, celebrate and enjoy them. 

It is natural to indulge in speculations regard- 
ing these ancient works. Probably none of them 
have been constructed since Christopher Colum- 
bus reached America in 1492. About sixty years 
ago a tree which stood upon the bank of the 


was, at least, in some way, used in conducting 
their religious services. Within these sacred 
inclosures were doubtless celebrated religious 
festivals, and upon those central mounds or altar, 
were undoubtedly performed, by priestly hands, 
the rites and ceremonies demanded by their sac- 
rificial and idolatrous religion. 

The very extensive works near Newark, known 
as the "Old Fort," and situated in the fair 
grounds, evidently belong to this class. Some 
archaeologists, however, maintain that many 
works called sacred inclosures were erected for 
and used as places of amusement, where these 
ancient people practiced their national games, and 
celebrated their great national events, where they 
held their national festivals and indulged in their 
national jubilees, as well as performed the cere- 
monies of their religion. 

It may be that there are those (and there are 

" Old Fort," at a point where the bank was twenty 
feet high, was cut down, and its concentric cir- 
cles numbered five hi^ndred and fifty, thus prov- 
ing conclusively that the said inclosure was con- 
structed more than six hundred years ago. 

Authorities differ regarding many matters con- 
nected with the Mound Builders, but a few facts 
seem to be fully established by their works. 
There can be no doubt that they were a numer- 
ous people. Works so elaborate, so gigantic, 
could not have been erected by a people insignfi- 
cant in numbers. This is the more apparent 
when it is considered that they were probably 
without iron or any suitable metal instruments 
or tools with which to perform their herculean 

It could scarcely have been otherwise thp-n that 
they were also the subjects of a single strong gov- 
ernment, because, under any other, the perform- 



ance of such an immense amount of, probably, 
enforced labor could not have been secured. 
Very likely some sort of vassalage" or servitude 
prevailed. There is abundant evidence that they 
were a war-like people, and probably, like some 
savage nations now existing, they made slaves of 
their prisoners. The number and magnitude of 
their works, and their extensive range and uni- 
formity, prove that they were essentially homo- 
geneous in customs, habits, religion and govern- 

The construction of military works would in- 
dicate that they were, occasionally, at least, at 
war, either among themselves or with some other 
nation or tribe. If another nation, what other T 
Perhaps with the North American Indian to 
whom the country may have belonged before the 
Mound Builders entered it. There are various^ 
scraps of history relating to the antiquity of the 
Indian. For instance, in the annual report of th& 
council of the* American Antiquarian Society 


ment. The general features common to all their 
remains identify them as appertaining to a single 
grand system, owing its origin to men moving 
in the same direction, acting under common irn- 
pulses, and influenced by similiar causes. 

That they possessed military skill, and were 
not without some knoweldge of mathematics, is 
quite evident. 

Building their defensive works in naturally 
strong positions, and constructing many of their 
other works in the form of various geometrical 
figures, show this. 

page 40, occurs this note from Sir Charles Lyell : 

" A human cranium, of the aboriginal type of 
the red Indian race, has been found in the delta 
of the Mississippi, beneath four buried forests, su- 
perimposed, one upon another, implying, as esti- 
mated by Dr. Dowler, an antiquity of 50,000' 

Lyell, himself, estimated the age of the delta 
at 100,000 years. 

It may be conjectured from many historical 
facts, that the Mound Builders were a foreign peo- 
ple who invaded the soil of America, as there is 



but little evidence that they spread themselves 
over the continent, but much, that they passed 
through it from northeast to southwest, covering 
a broad belt, on which they erected their mysteri- 
ous mounds. The time occupied by them in 
crossing the continent can only be conjectured. 
They -probably came in great numbers, attempt- 
ed to conquer the country, found the Indians too 

terest of their religion, shows a strong tendency 
toward a superstitious belief. They doubtless of- 
fered up animals in sacrifice, as a part of their re- 
ligious ceremonies, and it may be that human 
sacrifices were not unknown among them. Pris- 
oners, of war are thus disposed of sometimes by 
peoples and nations who have attained to as. high 
a grade of civilization as that probably reached by 


strong for them, but conquered a certain portion 
of the territory, clung together, moved gradually 
southwest, protecting themselves on the way by 
forts and other earthworks, finally disappearing 
in Mexico, either conquering that country or in- 
termingling with and becoming absorbed by that 
people. • 

The Mound Builders were doubtless a super- 
stitious people, cherishing faith in some religious 
system.- The amount of labor bestowed upon 
those of their works that were erected in the in- 

the Mound Builders. The sacrificial character of 
their religion is clearly established. 

The late Dr. Foster hesitated not to say that 
they were worshipers of the elements; that they 
also worshiped the sun, moon and stars; and that 
they offered up human victims as an acceptable 
sacrifice to the gods they worshiped. He de- 
duced this fact from the charred or calcined 
bones that cover their altars. Other high author- 
ities also unhesitatingly assert that there is con- 
vincing proof that they were fire-worshipers 



It may be well in this connection to notice, 
briefly, the implements made and used by this 
people, especially so far as investigation has re- 
vealed their character in Coshocton county. 

Very few copper implements have been found 
in this part of Ohio, owing partly to the fact of 
the unexplored condition of many of the 
mounds, and to the fact that little, if any, copper 
exists in this part of the United States. What 
does exist is in loose fragments that have been 
washed down from the upper lake region. 
When monnds are explored, great care is neces- 
sary lest these small utensils be lost, as they are 
commonly "scattered through the mass, and not 
always in close proximity to the skeletons^ The 
copper deposits about Lake Superior furnished 
the pre-htstoric man with this metal, and, judg- 
ing from the amount of relics made of this 
metal now found, it must have been quite abun- 
dant. The population of the country, then, must 
have been quite extensive, as occasional copper 
implements, tempered to an exceeding hardness, 
are still found about the country. These imple- 
ments are small, generally less than a half a 
pound in weight, and seldom exceeding three 
pounds. There were millions of these in use 
during the period of the ancient dwellers, which 
may have been thousands of years in duration. 
The copper implements left on the surface soon 
disappeared by decomposition, to which copper 
is nearly as liable as iron. Only a part of the 
dead Mound Builders were placed in burial 
mounds, and of these only a part were buried 
with their copper ornaments and implements on 
and about them. Of those that were, only a 
small part have been discovered, and, in many 
instances, the slight depth of earth over them 
has not prevented the decay and disappearance 
of the coper relics. 

Articles of bronze or brass are not found with 
the builders of the mounds. It is evident they 
knew nothing of these metals in the Ohio va\ley, 
nor did they possess any of the copper that had 
been melted or cast in molds. 

Stone relics are very numerous and well pre- 
served. Stone axes, stone mauls, stone hammers, 
stone chisels, etc., are very plentiful yet, and 
were the common implements of the pre-historic 
man in this part of the west. None were made 

with holes or eyes for the insertion of- a helve or 
handle, but were grooved to receive a withe 
twisted into the form of a handle. Under 'the 
head of axes, archseologists include all wrought 
stones with a groove, a bit and a poll. They are 
found unpolished, partly polished and polished. 
The bit was made sharp by rubbing, and the 
material is hard and tough, generally of trachyte, 
greenstone, granite, quartz or basalt. Most of 
them are straight on one edge. In Ohio, it is 
very rare that stone axes are found in the 
mounds, indicating that they are modern, or 
were not so much prized by the Mound Builders 
as to be objects of burial. Occasionally, axes of 
softer material are found, such as slate, hematite 
and sandstone, but these are small in size and not 
common. They appear to have been manufac- 
tured from small, oblong bowlders, first brought 
into shape by a pick, or chipping instrument, 
the marks of which are visible on nearly all of 
them. They were made more perfect by rub- 
bing and polishing, probably done from time to 
time after they were brought into use. A handle 
or helve, made of a wythe or split stick, was fas- ' 
tened in the groove by thongs of hide. The bit 
is narrower than the body of the ax, which is 
generally not well enough balanced to be of 
much value as a cutting instrument. 

It is very seldom the material is hard enough 
to cut green and sound timber. The poll is 
usually round, but sometimes flat, and rarely 
pointed. It is much better adapted to breaking 
than cutting, while the smaller ones are better 
fitted for war-clubs than tools. As a maul to break 
dry Mmbs, they were very efficient, and this was 
probably the use made of them. .In weight they 
range from half a pound to sixteen pounds, but _ 
are generally less than three pounds. The very 
heavy ones must have been kept at the regular 
camps and villages, as they were too heavy for 
convenient transportation. Such axes are occa- 
sionally found in the Indian towns on the frontier, 
as they were found in Ohio among the aborigines. 
The Mound Builders apparently did not give 
them as much prominence among their imple- 
ments as their savage successors. Double-headed 
hammers have the groove in the middle. They 
were made of the same material as the axes, so bal- 
anced as to give a blow with equal force at either 



end. Their mechanical symmetry is often perfect. 
As a weapon in war, they were, indeed, formid- 
able, for which purpose they are yet used among 
the Indians on the Pacific coast. 
Implements known as "fieshers" and "skin- 

thing without destroying the perfect edge most 
of them now exhibit. The grooved axes were 
much better adapted to this purpose. 

Stone pestles are not plentiful in this county, 
while stone mortars are rare, indicating that they 


j_i jj , _i 


ners," chisel-formed, commonly called "celts," 
were probably used as aids in peeling the skin' of 
animals from the mea,t and bones. For the pur- 
pose of cutting tools for wood, they were not suf- 
ficiently hard, and do not show such use, excepting 
in a few flint chisels. They may have been 
applied as coal scrapers where wood had been 
burned ; but this could not have been a general 

were made of wood, which is lighter and fnore 
easily transported. Most of the pestles are short, 
with a wide base, tapering toward the top. They 
were probably used with one hand, and moved 
about in the mortar in a circle. The long, 
round instrurnent, usually called a pestle, does 
not appear to be fitted for crushing seeds and 
grain by pounding or turning in the mortar. It 



was probably used as a rolling-pin, perhaps on a 
board or leveled log, not upon stone. It is sel- 
dom found smooth or polished, and varies from 
seven to thirteen inches in length. In outline 
they taper toward each end, which is generally 
smooth, and circular in form, as though it had 
been twirled in an upright position. 

There is almost an endless variety of perforated 
plates, thread-sizers, shuttles, etc. They are 
usually made of striped slate, most of ' which 
have tapering holes through them flat-wise, the 
use of which has been much discussed. The ac- 
companying plate exhibits several specimens of 
these ; but there are, doubtless, many other forms 
and styles. They are generally symmetrical, the 
material fine-grained, and their proportions 
graceful, as though their principal use was that 
of ornamentation. Many of them may well have 
been worn suspended as beads or ornaments. 
Some partake of the character of badges or en- 
signs of authority. Others, if strung together on 
thongs or belts, would serve as a coat of mail, 
protecting the breast or back against the arrows 
of an enemy. A number of them vTould serve 
to size and twist twine or coarse thread made of 
bark, rawhide or sinesw. The most common 
theory regarding their use is, however, lacking 
one important feature. None of ' them show 
signs of wear by use. The edges ©f the holes 
through them are sharp and perfect. This objec- 
tion applies equally well to their use as suspended 
ornaments. Some of them are shuttle-form, 
through which coarse threads might have been 
passed, "for weaving rude cloth or bark of fibrous 
plants, such as milk-weed or thistles. There are 
also double-ended and pointed ones, with a cross 
section about the middle of which is a circle, and 
through which is a perforation. 

A great variety of wands or badges of distinc- 
tion are found. They are nearly all fabricated 
from striped and variegated slate, highly finished, 
very symmetrical and elegant in proportion, evi- 
dently designed to be ornamental. If they were 
stronger and heavier, some of them would serve 
the purpose of hatchets or battle-axes. The ma- 
terial is compact and fine-grained ; but the eyes, 
or holes, for handles or staves, are quite small, 
seldom half an inch in diameter. Their edges 
are not sharp, but rounded, and the body is thin. 

usually less than one-fourth of an inch in thick- 

The form of badges, known as "double-cres- 
cents," are the most elegant and expensive of any 
yet brought to notice. They were probably used 
to indicate the highest rank or office. The single 
crescent, perhaps, signified a rank next below the 
double. In the collection of Mr. John B. Matson, 
of Richland county, there is a rough-hewn double 
one in process of construction, the horns of which 
turn inward. In nearly or quite all the finished 
ones the points turn outward. The finish around 
the bore of aU winged badges and the crescents 
is the same, and the size of the bore about the 
same — from two-fifths to three-fifths of an inch. 
On one side of al! is a narrow ridge ; on the other, 
a flat band, lengthwise, like a ridge that has been 
ground down to a width of one to two-tenths of 
an inch. Badges and crescents are invariably 
made of banded slate, generally of a greenish 
shade of color. The other forms of wands or 
badges, such as those with symmetrical wings or 
blades, are also made of green striped slate, highly 
polished, with a bore of about one-half inch in 
diameter, apparently to insert a light wooden rod 
or staff. They were probably emblems of distinc- 
tion, and were not ornaments. Nothing like 
them is known among the modern tribes, in form 
or use, hence they are attributed to. the Mound 

In addition to stpne ornaments, the pre-historic 
man seems to have had a penchant, like his sav- 
age successot-s, to bedaub his body with various 
colors, derived from different colored minerals. 
These compounds were mixed in hollowed stones 
or diminutive mortars — " paint cups," — in which 
the mineral mass of colored clay was reduced to 
poVder and prepared for application to the body. 
Such paint cups are not common ; in fact, are 
quite rare, but one being known to exist in this 
part of the State, that in the collection of Dr. 
Craig, of Mansfield. 

The comparative rarity of aboriginal smoking 
pipes is easily explained by the fact that they 
were not discarded, as were weapons, when those 
by whom they were fashioned entered upon the 
iron age. The advances of the whites in no way 
lessened the demand for pipes, nor did the whites 
substitute a better implement. The pipes were 



retained and used until worn out or broken, save 
the few that were buried with their dead owners. 
What was the ultimate fate of these can only be 
conjectured. In very few instances does an In- 
dian grave contain a pipe. If the practice of 
burying the pipe with its owner was common, it 
is probable that the graves were opened and 
robbed of this coveted article by members of the 
same or some other tribes. 

It only remains to notice the " flints," in addi- 
tion to which a few other archaeological relics of 
minor importance are found about the country, 
but nonfe of sufficient import to merit mention, 
or to throw additional light on the lost tribes of 
America. Arrow and spear : heads and other 
similar pieces of flaked flints are the most abund- 
ant of any aboriginal relics in the United States. 
They are chiefly made of hard' and brittle silice- 
ous materials; are easily damaged in hitting any 
object at which they are aimed, hence many of 
them bear marks of violent use. Perfect speci- 
mens are, however, by no means rare. The art 
of arrow making survives to the present day 
among certain Indian tribes, from whom is 
learned the art practiced that produces them. 

A classification of arrow heads is not within 
the scope of this work; indeed, it is rarely 
attempted by archaeologists. The styles are 
almost as numerous as their makers. In general, 
they are all the same in outline, mostlj- leaf- 
shaped, varying according to the taste of their 
makers. The accompanying cut exhibits a few 
of the common forms, though the number is 
infinite. They may have been chipped — proba- 
bly most were— and some may have been 
ground. Spear heads exhibit as large a variety 
as arrow heads. Like arrow heads, spear heads 
were inserted in wooden handles of various 
lengths, though in many tribes they were fast- 
ened by thongs of untanned leather or sinews. 

Their modes of manufacture were generally 
the sanje. Sometimes tribes contained "arrow 
makers," whose business was to make these im- 
plements, selling them to, or exchanging them 
with, their neighbors for wampum or peltry. 
When the Indian desired an arrow head, he 
could buy one of the " arrow maker " or make 
one himself. The common method was to take 
a chipping implement, generally made of the 

pointed rods^of a deer horn, from eight to six- 
teen inches in length, or of slender, short pieces 
of the same material, bound with sinews to 
wooden sticks resembling arrow shafts. The 
" arrow maker " held in his left hand the flake of 
flint or obsidian on which he intended to operate, 
and pressing the point of the tool against its 
edge, detached scale after scale, until the flake 
assumed the desired form. 

Note.— For more particular intormatlou regarding the 
works of the Mound Builders, in different parts of this county 
the reader is referred to the history of the different townships 
In which such works are located. 



Geographical Location of the Various Trlhes— The Dela- 
wares— Their Towns In this County— Brief History of .the 
Tribes In Ohio— Captain Pipe— White Eyes— Wingenund 
and Klllblick—Netawatwees— Manners, Customs, Feasts, 
etc. — Cabins, Wigwams, Food, etc. — Amusements and 
Hunting— Eemoval Beyond the Mississippi. 

THE next inhabitants in the form of a human 
being to occupy the territory now embraced 
in Coshocton county, after the Mound Builders, 
were the American Indians. At least such is the 
generally received opinion, though whether the 
Indians and Mound Builders were not cotem- 
poraneous is, perhaps, an open question. The 
Indian history, as well as that of the Mound 
Builders, is a good deal involved in obscurity, 
and much of it largely dependent on tradition, 
yet much of it is authentic and reliable. The 
Indians themselves, however, can be allowed 
very little, if any, credit for this preservation of 
their history ; it is almost, or entirely, owing to 
white occupation that they have any history at all. 
The day is not far distant when the Indian 
race, as a race, will become extinct. Supposing 
this extinction had occurred before white occu- 
pation of this 'country, what would the world 
know 'Of the Indian race? Where are their 
monuments ? Where the works that would 
perpetuate their memory ? In what particular 
spot on this great earth have they left a single 
indellible footprint or iraperishable mark to tell 



of their existence? Not so with the Mound 
Builders. They left works of an imperishable 
nature, and from these something of their his- 
tory may be learned, even though personally 
they do not appear to exist anywhere. They 
were evidently workers, and much superior to 
the Indian, viewed from a civilized standpoint. 

It is not an easy matter to define the bound- 
aries of the territory of the various tribes occu- 
pying the Northwest Territory at the date of the 
advent of the whites. Nearly all the tribes were 
more or less migratorj- in their disposition, and 
doubtless during long ages in the dark past they 
all moved about from place to place, continuallj' 
at war with each other; conquering and possess- 
ing each other's territory; driving out and being 
in turn driven out; doubtless occasionally exter- 
minating a weak tribe ; occasionally becoming 
friendly and intermingling and intermarrying, 
thus, perhaps, occasionally consolidating and 
losing their tribal individuality, and during all 
changes in all ages leaving no written record of 
the history they must have made. 

Several tribes were found occupying the terri- 
tory now embraced in Ohio, at the beginning of 
the present century ; among them the Delawares, 
Wyandots, Shawanees, Ottawas, Miamis and some 
others. These tribes were generally leagued to- 
gether for self-protection' and self-defense, all de- 
termined to resist the encroahments of the all- 
powerful white race. They were generally on 
friendly terms with each other and, although 
each tribe occupied permanent camps or homes 
in some particular part of the territory, and 
hunted in particular localities, the exact bound- 
aries of the domain of each was not probably 
known or defined. Each tribe was generally 
camped upon some stream and claimed for a 
hunting ground all the territory drained by that 
stream. Nevertheless they were a good deal 
mixed, and hunted much upon each other's 
territory, often establishing temporary and even 
permanent camps upon grounds outside of the 
domain of their tribe. 

The Muskingum valley was generally claimed 
by the Delawares, though the Shawanese and Wy- 
andots were also found here in considerable 
numbers, camping and roaming over the Dela- 
ware grounds with greajt freedom. 

During the latter half of the last century the 
Shawnees occupied the Scioto country, and some- 
times spread themselves more or less over this 
section; but the Wyandots (also called the 
Hurons) and tlie Delawares mainly occupied the 
country between the Muskingum and Scioto 

In 1785, by the treaty of Fort Mcintosh, it was 
stipulated that the boundary line between the 
United States and the Delaware and Wyandot 
nations should "begin at the mouth of the Cuya- 
hoga river and run thence up said river to the 
portage between that and the Tuscarawas branch 
of Muskingum, thence down said branch to the 
forks (at the present town of Bolivar), thence 
westerly to the portage of the Big IMiami, thence 
along said portage to the great Miami of the 
lakes (Maumee river), and down said river to its 
mouth; thence along the southern shore of Lake 
Erie to the mouth of the Cuyahoga, the place of 
beginning." By this treaty, as will be seen, they 
ceded a large territory-, including Coshocton 
county, to the United States. It is certain, how- 
ever, that^man}' of them continued to occupy 
tljis territory many years after the date of the 
above treaty, wliich they found little difficulty in 
doing, as there were then no white settlers to 
dispute the possession with them. 

To the Shawnees was assigned, by the treaty of 
Fort t"inney, in 1786, the country between the 
Big Miami and Wabash rivers. They also relin- 
quished all claims to whatever territory they had 
m Ohio, but some of them also lingered here, 
even within the limits of this county, until the 
close of tlie centur}-, or later. 

When the English-speaking white man first 
came into the territory now embraced in Co- 
shocton county, it was occupied by the Dela- 
wares. It is quite certain that just before them 
the Shawnee Indians were in the land, retiring as 
the Delawares came in, to the more westerly and 
southerly regions. The French were then claim- 
ing dominion of all the Mississippi valley, and 
the head of the Muskingum, as an interesting 
and favored locality, was not unknown to their 
soldiers, traders and missionaries. 

The Delawares, crowded out by the white set- 
tlers about the Delaware river and in eastern 
Pennsylvania, found a home to their taste in the 



beautiful and fertile Tuscarawas, Walhonding, 
and Muskingum valleys. 

Their language at least will abide in the land 
as long as the names just mentioned, and also 
those of White Eyes, Mohican, and Killbuck 
continue to be accepted as the designations of 
the rivers and creeks to which they are now 
attached. Within the limits of the county as 
now bounded, there were, a hundred years ago, 
at least six considerable Indian towns, the houses 
being built of bark and limbs and logs, and 
arranged in lines or on streets. One of these 
towns was called White Eyes (Koguethagachton), 
and was in the neighborhood of Lafayette. Two 
other towns were located — one three and the 
other ten miles up the Walhonding— and were 
called the Monsey towns, the more distant being 
occupied by a faction of the Delawares under 
control of Captain Pipe, who became disgusted 
with the generally peaceful and Christian policy 
of the nation, and seceded from it, desiring more 
indulgence for his base and bloody passions. 
The lower town was Wengenunds'. The fourth 
town was Goschachgunk, occupying that part of 
the present town of Coshocton (a name said to 
be a modification of the name of the old Indian 
town) tetween Third street and the river. This 
was much the largest town, and_ for many years 
was the capital of the Delaware nation, where 
the grand councils were held and whither the 
tribes assembled. It was the residence of Neta- 
watwees, their great chief, and was often visited 
by the famous councilors, White Eyes and Kill- 
buck, as well as the big captains and braves of 
numerous tribes. The fifth town was situated 
about two miles below Coshocton on the east side 
of the Muskingum river (on the farms since in 
the possession of Samuel Moore and the Tingle 
heirs), and was called Lichtenau ("Pasture of 
Light "). It was occupied by Christian Indians 
under the direction of Rev. David Zeisberger 
(and afterward Rev. Wm. Ed-syards in conjunction 
with him), the famous Moravian missionary. In 
addition to these there was also a small Shawnee 
town in Washington township on the Waka- 
tomica, and perhaps, at various times many 
others, either temporary or permanent, in differ- 
ent parts of the county. One called Muskingum 
was said to be located five miles above Coshocton, 

on the Tuscarawas. A brief history of the prin- 
cipal tribes occupying the soil of Ohio, and of 
their habits and customs, may be of interest here. 
Speaking of the Shawaneese or Shawanoes, Col- 
onel Johnston, a most excellent authority on such 
subjects, says : 

" We can trace their history to the time of their 
residence on the tide- waters of Florida, and, as 
well as the Delawares, they aver that they origin- 
ally came from west of the Mississippi. Black- 
hoof, whp died at Wapaghkonnetta, at the ad- 
vanced age of 105 years, and who, in his day, was 
a very influential chief among the Indians, told 
me that he remembered, when a boy, bathing in 
the salt waters of Florida; also that his people 
firmly believed white, or civilized, people had 
been in the country before them, having found 
in many instances the marks of iron tools upon 
the trees and stumps." 

Shawanoese means " the south," or the " people 
from the south." * After the pea'ce of 1763, the 
Miamis removed from the big Miami river and a 
body of Shawnees established themselves at Lower 
and Upper Piqua, which became their principal 
headquarters in Ohio. They remained here un- 
til driven ofT by the Kentuckians, when they 
crossed over to the St.* Mary's and to Wapaghkon- 
netta. The Upper Piqua is said to have con- 
tained at one period over 4,000 Shawnees. They 
were very warlike and brave, and often were 
quite formidable enemies. 

In the French war, which ended in 1763, a 
bloody battle was fought near the site of Colonel 
Johnson's residence, at Upper Piqua. At that 
time the Miamis had their towns here, which on 
ancient maps are marked as "Tewightewee 
towns." The Miamis, Ottawas, Wyandots, and other 
northern tribes adhering to the French, made a 
stand here, assisted by the French. The Dela- 
wares, Shawnees, Munseys, parts of the Senecas, re- 
siding in Pennsylvania ; Cherokees, Catawbas, and 
other tribes, adhering to the English, with English 
traders, attacked the French and Indians. The 
latter' had built a fort in which to protect and de- 
fend themselves, and were able to withstand the 
seige, which lasted more than a week. Not long 
after this contest, the Miamis left the country, 
retiring to the Miamies of the Lake (Maumee 
river and tributaries), at and near Fort Wayne, 

'•'Howe's Collections. 



and never returned. The Shaw)iees took their 
place, and gave names to many towns in this part 
of Ohio. 

The northern part of Ohio belonged in ancient 
times to the Eries, who were exterminated by the 
Five Nations in some of their wars. The Wyandots, 
who, at the time the French missionaries came 
to America were dwelling in the peninsula of 
Michigan, were allowed by the Five Nations to 
occupy the land of the Eries, sfnd thus came to 
dwell in Ohio. From Howe's Historical Collec- 
tions, it is ascertained that the Wyandots once oc- 
cupied the north side of the St. Lawrence river, 
down to Coon lake, and from thence up the Uti- 
was. The Seneoas owned the opposite side of the 
river, and the island upon which Montreal now 
stands. Both were large tribes, consisting of 
many thousands, and were blood relations, claim- 
ing each other as cousins. 

A war originated between the two tribes in the 
following manner : A Wyandot brave wanted « 
certain woman for his wife; she objected; said 
he was no warrior, as he had never taken any 
scalps. He then raised a party of warriors and 
they fell upon a small party of Senecas, killing 
and scalping a number of them. It is presumed 
the Wyandot brave secured his wife, but this 
created a war between the tribes which lasted 
more than a hundred years, and until both 
nations were much weakened, and the Wyandots 
nearly exterminated. The latter were compelled 
to leave the country, and took up their residence 
on the peninsula of Michigan, as before stated. 
They were often compelled to fight their old ene- 
mies even in this far oflf region, as war parties of 
Senecas frequently went there for that purpose. 
A peace was finally arranged, and the remnan- 
of Wyandots came to reside in Ohio. The Ottat 
was, another conquered tribe, and one allowed 
Bixistence only by paying a kind of tribute to 
their conquerors, the Iroquis, were also part 
occupants of this same part of Ohio. This nation 
produced the renowned chief, Pontiac, who was 
the cause of such wide-spread desolation in the 
West. The Ottawas were often known as "Canada 
Indians " among the early settlers. Their prin- 
cipal settlements were on the Maumee, along the 
lake shore, on the Huron and Black rivers, and 
on the streams flowing into them. These Indians 

were distinguished for their cunning and artifice, 
and were devoid of the attributes of a true war- 
rior. They were often employed as emissaries,' 
their known diplomacy and artifice being well 
adapted for such business. The Wyandots, on 
the other hand, were a bold, warlike people. 
General Harrison says of them : " They were true 
warriors, and neither fatigue, famine, loss, or any 
of the' ills of war could daunt their courage. 
They were our most formidable and stubborn 
enemies among the aborigines in the war of 
1812." They, like all tribes in the West, were 
often influenced by British rum and British gold, 
and found, in the end, as their chiefs so aptly 
expressed it, that they were " only tools in the 
hands of a superior power, who cared nothing 
for them, only to further their own selfish ends." 

Of the Delawares, who were the principal oc- 
cupants of the Muskingum valley and Coshocton 
county upon the advent of the first white settlers, 
Col. John Johnson says : " The true name of 
this once powerful tribe is Wa-be-nugh-ka, that 
is, 'the people from the east,' or 'the sun rising.' 
The tradition among themselves is, that ' they 
originally, at some very remote period, emigrated 
from the west, crossed the Mississippi, and as- 
cending the Ohio river, fought their wa#^ east- 
ward until the^ reached the Delaware river (so 
named from Lord Delaware), near where Phila- 
delphia now stands, in which region of country 
they became fixed. 

" About this time they were so numerous that 
no enumeration could be made of them. They 
welcomed to the shores of the new world that 
great law-giver, William Penn, and his peaceful 
followers; and ever since, this people have enter- 
tained a kind and grateful recollection of them; 
even to this day, in speaking of good men, they 
would say, ' wa-slie-a E-le-ne' — such a man is a 
Quaker; i. e., all good men are Quakers." Col. 
Johnson says : " In 1823, I removed to the west 
of the Mississippi persons of this tribe who were 
born and raised within thirty miles of Philadel- 
phia. These were the most squalid, wretched 
and degraded of their race, and often furnished 
chiefs with a subject of reproach against the 
whites, pointing to these of their people and say- 
ing to us, 'see how you have spoiled them,'— 
meaning they had acquired all the bad habits of 



the white people, and were ignorant of hunting 
a,nd incapable of making a livelihood as were 
other Indians.'' 

5n 1819, there were belonging to Col. Johnson's 
agency in Ohio eighty Delawares, who were sta- 
tioned near the yillage of Upper Sandusljy, in 
Wyandot county, and 2,300 of the same tribe in 
Indiana. They had been driven gradually back 
through Pennsylvania and Ohio. 

Bockinghelas was, for many years after the ad- 
vent of the whites, the principal chief of the Del- 
awares. He was a distinguished warrior in his 
■day. Killbuck, another Delaware chief, whose 
name is fortunately preserved for all time in the 
little stream in this county, was one of the prin- 
cipal chiefs in this valley. He was educated at 
Princeton college, and was prominent among the 
converts of the Moravian missionaries. 

Captain Pipe was a prominent chief ot the 
Wolf tribe, the most warlike of all the tribes of 
the Delaware nation. He was a very artful, de- 
signing man, and a chief of considerable ability 
and influence. Captain Pipe was ambitious, 
bold, and noted for schemes and strategy. He 
was engaged at one time in plotting for a division 
of his nation. His ambitious spirit would brook 
no rival, and he was ever intriguing or engaged 
in plotting some nefarious scheme. He was one 
of the many warriors present at Fort Pitt, in 
July, 1759, at a conference between George Cro- 
ghan (Sir William Johnson's deputy Indian agent), 
Hugh Mercer (Commandant), and the Indians of 
the Six Nations, Shawnese and Delawares. In 
September, 1764, he appeared at Fort Pitt, with 
other warriors, manifestly with hostile purposes, 
and he and two of his warriors were detained as 
Iiostages, and were not released until after the re- 
turn of Col. Bouquet, with his army from the 
Muskingum in the latter part of November. 

In 1765, Captain Pipe was at Fort Pitt, as one 
of the chief warriors of the Delawares, attending 
the conference held with the Senecas, Shawnese, 
Delawares and other tribes. He was also present 
at the great conference held at Fort Pitt in 
April, 1768, under the direction of George Crog- 
han, with the chief warriors of the Six Nations, 
Delawares. Shawnese, Monsies, Mohicans and 
Wyandots. In 1771, Captain Pipe (as a chief ), 
sent " a speech " to Governor John Penn, which 

is printed in the fourth volume of the Pennsyl- 
vania Archives. 

In May, 1774, Pipe, with other chiefs, went to 
Fort Pitt, to confer with Captain John Connolly 
(Governor Dunmore's deputy), George Croghan, 
and other inhabitants of Pittsburgh, in reference 
to recent aggressions— the murder of Logan's 
family, and other outrages; the object of the 
conference being to avert the impending Indian 
war, which soon iollowed. 

When the revolutionary war broke out and 
hostilities had commenced, the Delawares divided ; 
a portion of them under the lead of White Eyes 
and Killbuck (two influential chiefs), making 
common cause with the Colonies against the 
mother countrjr, and Pipe, who espoused the 
cause of the British. Netawatwes, White Eyes, 
Killbuck and Big Cat labored to preserve peace 
and to avert war, but in all their endeavors they 
were always frustrated by the restless, intriguing 
Pipe, who was ever warlike and vengeful, always 
brooding over old resentments. Captain Pipe, at 
this time (1775-6), had his residence fifteen miles 
up the Walhonding, from the " Forks of the Mus- 
kingum (now Coshocton), near or at the point of 
confluence of the Mohican and Owl creek (now 
Vernon river), where, in 1761, was situated an 
Indian town, known as TuUihas, and where was 
located the Indian village named " Owl Town," on 
Hutohin'smap,in Smith's history of the Bouquet 
expedition of 1764, issued the next year. Pipe's 
residence could not have been remote from the 
point above designated, now in Newcastle town- 
ship, this county, if it was not immediately at the 
junction of those streams. There was an Indian 
chief who figured somewhat conspicuously as 
"The Owl," in early-time western history, but the 
impression that he built " Owl Town,'' or that it 
was named by him, or that he ever lived there, is 
not well authenticated. , The Indian name of Owl 
creek, or Vernon river, was, according to Zeisber- 
ger, Heekewelder, and Loskiel, Ook-ho-sing, the 
meaning or interpretation being " habitation of 
owls," and it is more likely that "Owl Town" 
was so called because of the great abundance 
of owls found at that point than from the prob- 
lematical connection of the Indian chief known 
to history as " The Owl," with thattown, or even 
with that locality. 



Captain JPipe, in 1780, removed to Crane's 
Town, an Indian village, situated about two miles 
above the present town of Upper Sandusky. He 
was a prominent leader at the defeat of Colonel 
Crawford in 1782, and at the torturing and burn- 
ing of that officer by the Indians, which was done 
within a mile of his house, on the southeast bank 
of Tymocktee creek, in what is now Crawford 
township, Wyandot county. The town in which 
he lived was sometimes called ".Pipe's Town." 

Butterfield, in " Crawford's Expedition against 
Sandusky, in 1782," characterizes Captain Pipe as 
a famous war-chief of the Delawares, and as one 
of the most implacable of all the savage enemies 
of the Americans in the western wilderness 
during the revolution. He was also a bitter 
enemy of the Moravian missionaries before he 
removed from the Muskingum valley, although 
it is said that he defended Zeisberger, Heoke- 
welder and others that were tried at Detroit in 
1781, on the charge of being spies, and of being 
inimical to the interests of the British. His 
enmity towards the Moravian missionaries, it is 
said, was not on personal grounds, but because 
" he was hostile to all attempts, come from what 
source they might, having a tendency to make the 
Delawares a civilized and an agricultural people." 
That a large majority of the Delaware nation, in 
1780, took up the hatchet against the Americans, 
forming a close alliance with the British, says 
Butterfield, was almost wholly due to the influence 
and machinations of Captain Pipe. 

Captain Pipe was present and signed the treaty 
of Fort Mcintosh, in 1785. He was also at the 
treaty of Fort Finney (mouth of the Great 
Miami), with the Shawanese, in 1786, signing 
that treaty as one of the witnesses. 

Captain Pipe fought against Gen. Harmar in 
1790, and participated actively in 1791, against 
General St. Clair. In 1792, a grand council of 
nearly all the Northwestern tribes assembled at 
the confluence of the Auglaize and Maumee riv- 
ers, (now Defiance,) to take into consideration 
the condition of affairs with the United States, 
at which it was agreed to hold a treaty with the 
Americans during the next summer. Pipe was 
there next summer, an advocate for peace, but 
the Indians declared for war. The result was 
that a large army was sent against them, com- 

manded by General Wayne, who met the confed- 
eracy of Indians on the Maumee, in August,., 
1794, and there fought and won the battle of the 
"Fallen Timbers." 

The death of Captain Pipe occurred a few days- 
before the battle of the "Fallen Timbers" was 
fought. His record is most unsavory — his con- 
duct was seldom commendable — his perfldious- 
ness and treachery were conspicuous — and his 
barbarity and infamous conduct at the burning 
of Col. Crawford, will attach infamy to his fiame' 
wherever and whenever it is uttered. 

Captain White Eyes was a mighty chief of the 
Delawares, who was once prominently identified 
with the territory that now constitutes Coshocton- 
county. He had his residence in " White Eyes- 
Town," which was situated near White Eyes 
Plains, on the Tuscarawas river, in what is now 
Oxford township, Coshocton county. " White Eyes 
Town" was probably situated at or near to the 
mouth of White Eyes creek, a small stream that 
enters the Tuscarawas river from the north, about 
eight miles east of Coshocton. Captain White- 
Eyes undoubtedly gave name to the town. He 
was a warm friend .of the Colonies in their contest 
for independence, and antagonized Captain Pipe^ 
on all occasions, and labored hard to counteract 
his influence. He also heartily and zealously 
favored the efforts made by the Moravian Mis- 
sionaries to enlighten and christianize the Dela- 
ware Indians. 

Captain White Eyes steadily and uniformly 
advocated 'peace measures, and attended a con- 
ference held at Fort Pitt, in 1774, with a view of 
averting the war 4hat was then threatened be- 
tween the whites and Indians, known in history 
as the " Dunmore war." 

On the breaking out of the war of the Revolu- 
tion, the next year, the Delawares of the Mus- 
kingum valley divided into peace and war parties 
—White Eyes and Killbuck heading the former, 
and Captain Pipe the latter, or British party. 
White Eyes attended a conference held at Fort 
Pitt, in October, 1775, where he avowed himself 
the continued and unflinching friend of peace. 
The record made by White Eyes shows him to 
have been "a man of high 'character and clear 
mind, of courage such as became the leader of a 
race whose most common virtues were those of 



the wild man, and of a forbearance and kindness 
as unusual as fearlessness was frequent among 
his people." His achievements had given glory 
to the Delaware nation, and wherever the fires 
of their lodges burned, his fame was rehearsed. 
It was the all-absorbing purpose of his life to re- 
claim the Indian from barbarism and elevate him 
to an equality with the white man. Hence he 
readily and earnestly seconded the efforts and 
labors of the Moravian missionaries made in be- 
half of the red man. 

Captain White Eyes was one of the chiefs 'of 
the Delawares who, in 1778, advocated the scheme 
of admitting the Delaware nation, or at least all 
that had been friendly to the American cause, to 
a perpetual alliance and confederation with the 
United States. 

Gen. Mcintosh, during the year 1778, made a 
requisition upon tht Delaware council for two 
captains and sixty warriors, and White Eyes 
joined his command. Mcintosh, with a small 
force, encamped at Tuscarawas, an old Indian 
town on the river of that name, and built Fort 
Lansing, named in honor of the President of 
Congress. Tuscarawas, the old Indian village, 
was situated on the west banS; of the Tuscarawas 
river, at or near the crossing-place of the trail 
from Port Pitt, and on the line, or very near it, 
that separates Tuscarawas and Stark counties, 
Ohio. And it was here, at Tuscarawas — that 
ancient seat of the aborigines where their old 
men had, for generations, rehearsed their deeds 
of glory — that White Eyes, ofie of the greatest 
and best of the later Indians, finished his career, 
in the midst of an army of white men to whom 
he had ever remained true. 

He died of small-pox on the tenth of Novem- 
ber) 1778. Where his remains are resting no 
man knows ; the plowshare hal^ doubtless often 
furrowed his grave, but his name lives. Few 
men have done more for his race, especially ^f or 
the Delaware nation, and few men labored more 
faithfully or zealously than White Eyes to bring 
•the aboriginal tribes of the Great West under 
the influence of civilization and Christianity. 

The death of White Eyes caused deep sorrow 
throughout the Indian country, and many em- 
bassies were sent from the West to condole with 
the Delawares. 

The Christian Indians of the Tuscarawas 
valley and the Moravian missionaries every- 
where realized that in the death of White Eyes 
they had lost a true friend. And no less did the 
friends of the Ameripan ' cause realize that in 
the death of this noble chief they too had lost a 
valued, unfailing friend ! And lastly, the Dela- 
ware nation had good reason to deplore the 
death of Captain White Eyes, than whom it 
would-be difficult to find one who was more stead- 
ily and heartily devoted to their interests. 

A hundred years ago, there were six or more 
Indian villages within the present limits of 
Coshocton county, all being Delaware towns, 
except a Shawanese village oh the Wakatomika, in 
the present township of "Washington, and Mus- 
kingum, five miles up the Tuscarawas from its 
mouth, which Captain Trent's journal calls a 
Mingo town. The Delawares were divided into 
three tribes, kno\\rn as the Wolf, the Turkey and 
the Turtle tribes. The Wolf and- the Turtle 
tribes were the most numerous here, if indeed 
there were any of the Turkey tribe here at all, 
before the arrival, in 1776, of a chief and ten fam- 
ilies of that tribe from Assununk, a town on the 
Hockkocking. The two villages up the Wal- 
honding (the Monsey towns) were occupied by 
the Delawares of the Wolf tribe. Wingenund, 
the chief at White Womarfs town, like Captain 
Pipe, made himself conspicuously infamous at 
the burning of Colonel Crawford. 

Killbuck, son of Netawatwees, was a chief who 
rendered himself somewhat conspicuous by his 
opposition to the Moravian missionaries. 

Killbuck, grandson of Netawatwees, sometimes 
called Geleleraend, was also prominently identi- 
fied with the interests of the Delawares that for- 
merly occupied the territory now constituting 
Coshocton county. The f orrher was but of small 
importance, but the last named was a man of 
consideration and influence, and of generally 
commendable deportment. He favored the ef- 
forts of the Moravian missionaries ; took a de- 
cided stand in favor of peace, and of the Ameri- 
can cause against the British. Gelelemend was 

wise, sagacious, able chief. He bore an irre- 

roachahle character, and lived an exemplary, 

useful life, adhering to the last to the Christian 

faith as taught by the Moravians. Killbuck, 



(Gelelemend,) was born in 1737, near the Lehigh 
Water-Gap, now in Northampton county, Penn- 
sylvania, and died at Goshen, a Moravian town 
on the Tuscarawas river, situated within the 
present Kmits of Goshen township, Tuscarawas 
county, in the year 1811, at the age of seventy- 
four years. 

While some of the Delaware chiefs of this 
locality acquired infamous notoriety, it can be 
truthfully said of Gelelemend that he attained to 
most honorable distinction, and died greatly 

Netawatwees was the head of the Turtle tribe 
of the Delaware nation. His first capital was 
situated at the mouth of Gekelemukpechunk, 
(Still Water creek,) and bore the unpronounce- 
able Indian name of the creek. It was situated 
on the north bank of the Tuscarawas river, in 
what is now Oxford township, Tuscarawas 
county, and occupied the outlets of the present 
village of Newcomerstown. He was an advo- 
cate for peace, an ardent friend of the colonies, 
and devotedly attached to the cause of Christian 
missions, and to Moravian interests. " His sym- 
pathy with the Moravian cause was manifested 
by large donations of land for the promotion of 
said cause. In 1775, Netawatwees and a grand 
council of the Delawares decided to abandon 
their capital and found a new one farther down 
the river. This decree was carried into effect by 
selecting the junction of the Tuscarawas and 
Walhonding rivers as the site, and by founding 
the town of Goschachunk, which was henceforth 
to be the capital of the Delaware nation. 

Lichtenau, built by the Moravians, was located 
near to the capital of the Delaware nation, in def- 
erence to the repeatedly expressed wishes of 
Netawatwees. He thought that the evil conse- 
quences which had formerly grown out of the 
proximity of heathen villages were not any more 
to be expected, since so large a portion of the 
nation had become christianized; and moreover 
he held it to be his duty to aflford his people 
every opportunity to hear the gospel preached. 
He often visited Lichtenau, taking great interest 
in its progress, and hoped for success. 

But he was not to live to see much more ac' 
comphshed for his people in the valley of the 
Muskingum. Nor did he live long enough to see 

the end of the war waged between the colonies 
and the mother country, in the result of which 
he was so deeply interested. Nor did he live 
long enough to witness the return of that peace 
which he had so zealojisly and perseveringly ad- 
vocated, and so ardently desired. 

This great chief, of the Delaware nation died 
at Fort Pitt before the close of the year 1776; 
and in his death the cause of peace — the cause 
of the colonies — the cause of missions — the 
cause of Christianity lost a true, faithful, devoted 
friend. Few, very few, of the chiefs of the Dela- 
ware nation died more sincerely regretted than 

Many of the Indians of all these tribes were 
friendly to all whites until the breaking out of the 
war with Great Britain, when they left the 
co^ntry to join the forces of the king, and destroy 
the whites who occupied their country. They 
considered them then their enemies, and acted 
accordingly on all occasions, save where personal 
friendship, so strong in the Indian, developed 
itself, and in many instances, saved the lives of 
those in danger. 

The manners, customs, feasts, war parties and 
daily life of these sons of the forest, form inter- 
esting chapters in aboriginal history. The char- 
acter of the Indians was largely the result of 
their lives. They judged and lived by what the 
senses dictated. They had names and words for 
what they could hear, seS, feel, taste and smell. 
They had no conceptions of abstract ideas until 
they learned such from the whites. Hence their 
language was very symbohcal. They could see 
the sun in its brightness, they could feel his heat; 
hence they compared the actions of a good man 
to the glory of the sun, and his fervent energy to 
the heat of that body. The moon in her brightr 
ness, the wind in its fury, the clouds in their 
majesty, or in their slow, graceful motion through 
a lazy atmosphere; the grace and flight of the 
deer; the strength and fury of the bear; the rush 
or ripple of water as it coursed along the bed of 
a river, all gave them words whose expressive-, 
ness are a wonder and marvel to this day. They 
looked on the beautiful river that borders the 
southern shores of our State, and exclaimed, 
" 0-he-zo ! " beautiful ; on the placid waters of the 
stream bordering the western line of Indiana, 



and ejaculated, " Wa-ba," a summer cloud moving 
swiftly; on the river flowing into Lake Erie, and 
said, "Ouy-o-ga" (Cuyahoga), crooked; and so on 
through their entire vocabulary, each name 
expressive of a meaning, full and adtnirably 
adapted to the object. 

The Indians in Ohio, the tribes already men- 
tioned, had learned a iew^ things from their inter- 
course with the whites on the borders of Western 
Pennsylvania, when they were first seen by the 
pioneers of Coshocton county. Their cabins or 
wigwams were of two kinds — circular and par- 
allelogram. The former, the true wigwam, was 
in use among the Ottawas when the whites came 
tq their country. It was made of a number of 
straight poles driven firmly into the ground, their 
upper ends being drawn closely together ; this 
formed a kind of skeleton tent. The squaws 
plaited mats of thongs, bark or grass, in such a 
manner as to render them impervious to water. 
These were spread on the poles, beginning at the 
bottom, and extending upward. A small hole 
was left for the egress of smoke from the fire 
kindled in the center of the wigwam. Around 
this ' fire, mats or skins were spread, on which 
the Indians slept at night, and on which they sat 
during the day. For a door they lifted one end 
of the mat, and crept in, letting it fall down be- 
hind them. These tents were warm and dry, 
and generally quite free from smoke. Their 
fuel was nearly always split by the squaws in the 
fall of the year, and sometimes kept dry by placing 
it under an inverted birch-bark canoe. These 
wigwams were easily moved about from place to 
place, the labor of their destruction and construc- 
tion being always performed by the squaws — the 
beasts of burden among all savage nations. The 
wigwam was very light, and easily carried about. 
It resembled the tents of to-day in shape, and 
was often superior in point of comfort and pro- 

The cabins were more substantial affairs, and 
were built of poles, about the thickness of a small 
sized telegraph pole, but were of various sizes, 
and commonly, about twelve or fifteen feet in 
length. These poles were laid one on the other, 
similar to the logs in a cabin, save that, until the 
Indians learned that notching the point of con- 
tact near the end, from the whites, they were 

held by two stakes being driven in the angles 
formed in the corners, and fastened at the top by 
a hickory or bark withe, or by a thong of buck- 
skin. The pen was raised to the height of from 
four to six feet, when an arched roof was made 
over it by driving at each end a strong post, with 
a fork at the upper end, which stood a conven- 
ient height above the topmost log or pole. A 
stout pole was laid on the forks, and on this was 
laid a small pole reaching down to the wall. On 
these rafters, small lath was tied, and over the 
whole pieces of linn bark were thrown. These. 
were cut from the tree, often of great length, and 
from six to twelve inches in width. They were 
then cut into proper lengths to cover the cabin. 
At the ends of the cabin split timbers were set 
up, so that the entire cabin was inclosed except 
a small aperture at one end, left for a door. This 
was covered by a deer or bear skin. At the top 
of the cabin an opening was left for the smoke 
to escape, for all Indians built their fires on the 
ground'in the center of the cabin or wigwam, 
around which they spread skins and mats on 
which to recline and sleep. The cracks between 
the logs were filled with moss gathered from old 
logs. When made, the cabin was quite comforta- 
ble, and was often constructed in the same man- 
ner by the pioneers, while making improve- 
ments, and used until a permanent structure 
could be erected. 

Most, if not all the villages in this county were 
composed of huts constructed as above de- 
scribed, mingled perhaps with some of better 
construction, as they had learned of the whites 
how to build them. In addition to these huts at 
their capital or central town (Goschachgunk), 
they had, in the center of the village, as was their 
custom, a large council house, used for all public y 
meetings of the tribe. 

In regard to food, the Indians were more care- 
ful to provide for their future needs than their 
successors of the west are to-day. In the spring 
they made maple sugar by boiling the sap in 
large brass or iron kettles which they had ob- 
tained from the French and English traders. To 
secure the water they used \'«ssels made of elm 
bark in a very ingenious manner. They would 
strip the bark in the winter season when it would 
strip or run, by cutting down the tree, and, with 



a crooked stick, sharp and broad at one end, peel 
the bark in wide -strips, from which they would 
construct vessels holding, two or three gallons 
each. They would often make over a hundred 
of these. They cut a sloping notch in the side of 
a sugar-tree, stuck a tomahawk into the wood at 
the end of the notch, and, in the dent thus made, 
drove a long chip or spile, which conveyed the 
water to the bark vessels. They generally selected 
the larger trfees for tapping, as they considered 
the sap from such stronger and productive of 
more sugar. Their vessels for carrying the sap 
would hold from three to five gallons each, and 
sometimes, where a large camp was located and 
a number of squaws at work, using a halt-dozen 
kettles, great quantities of sugar would be made. 
When the sugar-water would collect faster than 
they could boil it, they would make three or four 
large troughs, holding more than a hundred gal- 
Ions each, in which they kept the sap until ready 
to boil. When the sugar was made, it was gen- 
erally mixed with bear's oil or fat, forming a 
sweet mixture into which they dipped their 
roasted venison. As cleanliness was not a reign- 
ing virtue among the Indians, the cultivated taste 
of a civilized person would not always fancy the 
mixture, unless driven to it by hunger. The com- 
pound, when made, was generally kept in large 
bags made of coon skins, or vessels made of bark. 
The former were made by stripping the skin 
over the body toward the head, tying the holes 
made by the legs with buckskin cords, and sew- 
ing securely the holes of the eyes, ears and mouth. 
The hair was all removed, and then the bag blown 
full of air, from a hole in the upper end, and al- 
lowed to dry. Bags made in this way would hold 
whiskey, and were often used for such purposes. 
When they became saturated they were blown 
full of air again, the hole plugged, and they were 
left to dry. Sometimes the head was cut off with- 
out stripping the skin from it, and the skin of 
the neck gathered in folds like a purse, below 
which a string was tied and fastened with a pin. 
Skin vessels are not indigenous to the natives of 
America. All oriental countries possess them, 
where the traveler of to-day finds them the rule. 
They are as old, almost, as time. 

The Indians inhabiting this part of Ohio were 
rather domestic in their tastes, and cultivated 

corn, potatoes and melons. Corn was their prin- 
cipal crop, and was raised entirely by the squaws. 
When the season for planting drew near, the 
women cleared a spot of rich alluvial soil, and dug 
over the ground in a rude manner with their hoes. 
In planting the corn they followed lines, to a certain 
extent, thus forming rows each way across the 
field. When the corn began to grow, they culti- 
vated it with wonderful industry, until it had ma- 
tured sufficiently for use. The cornfields were 
nearly always in the vicinity of the villages, and 
sometimes were many acres in extent,, and in fa- 
vorable seasons yielded plentifully. The squaws 
had entire charge of the work. It was considered 
beneath the dignity of a brave to do any kind of 
manual labor, and, when any one of them, or any 
of the white men whom they had adopted, did 
any work, they were severely reprimanded for 
acting like a squaw. The Indian women raised 
the coi'n, dried it, pounded it into meal in a rude 
stone mortar, or made it into hominy. Corn, in 
one form and another, formed the chief staple of 
of the Indian's food. They had various legends 
concerning its origin, which, in common with 
other stories, they were accustomed to recite in 
their assemblies. 

The Indians were always fond of amusements 
of all kinds. These consisted of races, games of 
ball, throwing the tomahawk, shooting at a mark 
with the bow and arrow, or with the rifle after its 
distribution among them, horse races, and other 
sports incidental to savage life. Their powers of 
endurance were remarkable, and astonishing ac- 
counts are often now told of feats of prowess ex- 
hibited by these aborigines. Of the animals hunt- 
ed by the Indians, none seems to have ehcited 
their skill more than the bear. To slay one of 
these beasts was proof of a warrior's prowess, and 
dangerous encounters often resulted in the hun- 
ter's search for such distinction. The vitaUty of 
bruin was unequaled among the animals of the 
forest, and on this account, and because of the 
danger attached to his capture, made him an ob- 
ject of special hunts and feats of courage. 

The region of the Muskingum, and more es- 
pecially of the Wakatomaka, further south, was 
somewhat famous for bear hunting. Some of 
the pioneers yet surviving can relate astounding 
stories of their exploits in this line. The habit 



of these animals was to search out a hollow tree, 
■or secure a ■warm clump of bushes late in the 
autumn, where they could remain three or four 
months, during the extreme cold of the winter, 
subsisting entirely on the fat of their bodies. 
They would emerge in the spring very lean, and 
when so were exceedingly ferocious. When 
searching out their places of winter solitude, 
they often left the impress of their feet on the 
hark of the tree they ascended, or on the grass 
in the lair they had found. The signs were 
easily discovered by Indians and expert bear 
hunters. They were then very fat, and were 
■eagerly sought by the Indians for their flesh and 
fat. Sometimes they would ascend trees thirty 
or forty feet high, and find a good wintering 
place and take possession. Again they would as- 
cend the tree, if hollow, from the inside, and, 
finding a good place, occupy it. Tl;pn the huntr 
ers would divide forces — one ascend the tree, 
and with a long pole, sharpened at one end,' or 
wrapped with a rag. or dry skin saturated with 
greese and set on fire, thrust the same down on 
the bear, and compel him to descend only to 
meet death at the foot of the tree from the arrow 
or bullet of the hunter below. 

The skin of a fat bear was a great prize to an 
Indian. It made him an excellent couch on 
which to sleep, or a cloak to wear. His flesh 
was supposed to impart bravery to those who ate 
it, hence when dipped in sweetened bear's fat, it 
was considered an excellent dish, and one often 
offered to friends. Venison, prepared the satae 
way, was also considered a dish fit for the most 
royal visitors; a hospitality always extended to 
all who came to the camp, and if not accepted 
the doner was sure to be offended. 

The domestic life of the Indians was very 
much the same in all parts of America. Among 
the Northern Ohio tribes, marriage consisted 
•simplyof two persons agreeing to live together, 
which simple agreement among many tribes was 
never broken. Sometimes the young woman 
oourted the young brave, much after the fashion 
of the white people during leap years. This cus- 
tom was considered quite proper, and favorably 
looked upon by the braves. In some localities 
■the chief gave away the young woman to some 
.brave he considered competent to support her in 

the chase, a part of the domestic economy always 
devolving on the man. When the game was 
killed, the squaw was expected to cut up and pre- 
pare the meat for use, and stretch and tan the 

The marriage relation among the most of the 
tribes was held strictly by all, a variation from it 
on the part of the female meriting certain death. 

The Wyandots and Delawares prided them- 
selves on their virtue and hospitality, and no 
'authenticated case of the misuse of a female 
captive, except to treat them as prisoners of war, 
can now be quoted. They always evinced the 
utmost modesty toward their female captives. 
Eespect for the aged, for parents and those in 
authority prevailed. When one among them 
spoke, all listened — never, under any circumstan- 
ces, interrupting him. When he was done, then 
was the time to reply. 

In theology, the natives were all believers in 
one Great Spirit. They firmly believed in his 
care of the world and of his children, though 
different theories prevailed among the tribes re- 
garding their creation. Their ideas of a divinity, 
as expressed by James Smith, a captive many 
years among them, are well given in the follow- 
ing story, preserved in Smith's Memoirs : 

He and his elder Indian brother, Tecaughre- 
tanego, had been on a hunt for some time, and, 
meeting with poor success, found themselves 
straitened for food. After they had smoked at 
their camp-fire awhile, Tecaughretanego deliv- 
ered quite a. speech, in which he recounted how 
Owaneeyo (God) had fed them in times gone by; 
how he fed the white people, and why they 
raised their own meat; how the Great Spirit 
provided the Indian with food for his use ; and 
how, though the prospect was sometimes gloomy, 
the Great Spirit was only trying them ; and i£ 
they would only trust him and use means dili- 
gently, they would be certain to be provided for. 
The next morning Smith rose early, according 
to the Indian's instructions, and ere long killed a 
buffalo cow, whose meat kept them in food many 
days. This was the occasion of another speech 
from his Indian brother. This trust often led 
them to habits of prodigality. They seldom 
provided for the future, almost literally fulfilling 
the adage : " Let each day provide for its own 




■wants." They hunted, fished and idled away 
their days. Possessed of a boundless inheritance, 
they allowed the white race to come in and pos- 
sess their lands and eventually drive them en- 
tirely away. Their manner of feasts may also be 

The following description is from the pen of 
Dr. Hill, of Ashland, Ohio. The Mr. Copus 
mentioned is the same who was afterwards mur- 
dered by the Indians. 

" The ceremonies took place in the council- 
house, a building made of clapboards and poles, 
about thirty feet wide and fifty feet long. 
When the Indians entered the council-house, the 
squaws seated themselves on one side of the 
room, while the braves occupied the opposite 
side. There was a small mound of earth in the 
center of the room, eight or ten feet in diameter, 
which seemed to be a sort of sacrificial mound. 
The ceremonies began with a sort of rude music, 
made by beating on a small brass kettle, and on 
dried skins stretched over the mouths of pots, 
making a kind of a rude drum. The pounding 
was accompanied by a sort of song, which, as near 
as can be understood, ran : ' Tiny, tiny, tiny, ho, 
ha, ho, ha, ho,' accenting the last syllables, Then 
a chief arose and addressed them ; during the 
delivery of his "speech a profound silence pre- 
vailed. The whole audience seemed to be deeply 
moved by the oration. The speaker seemed to 
be about seventy years of age, and was very tall 
and graceful. His eyes had the fire of youth, 
and shone with emotion while he was speaking. 
The audience seemed deeply moved, and fre- 
quently sobbed while he spoke. Mr. Copus could 
not understand the language of the speaker, but 
presumed he was giving a summary history of 
the Delaware nation, two tribes of which, the 
Wolf and the Turtle, were represented at the 
feast. Mr. Copus learned that the speaker was 
the famous Captain Pipe, of Mohican Johnstown, 
the executioner of Colonel Crawford. At the 
close of the address, dancing commenced. The 
Indians were clothed in deer skin leggings and 
English blankets. Deer hoofs and bears' claws 
' were strung along the seams of their leggings, 
and when the dance comnienced, the jingling of 
the hoofs and claws made a sort of harmony to 
the rude music of the pots and kettles. The men 
danced in files or lines by themselves around the 
central mound, the squaws following in a com- 
pany by themselves. In the dance there seemed 
to be a proper modesty between the sexes. In 
fact, the Greentown Indians were always noted 
for being extremely scrupulous and modest in 
the presence of one another. After the dance, 
■the refreshments, made by boiling venison and 
fcear's meat, slightly tainted, together, were 

handed around. The food was not very palatable- 
to the white persons present, and they were com- 
pelled to conceal it about their persons until they 
had left the wigwam, when they threw the 
unsavory morsels away. No greater insult could 
have been offered the Indians than to have refused 
the proffered refrtshments, hence a little decep- 
tion was necessary to evade the censure of these- 
untutored sons of the forest, whose stomachs 
could entertain almost anything." 

Usually, and as to the great mass of them, the 
Delaware Indians entertained very friendly feel- 
ings for the whites. In their old home in Penn- 
sylvania, froni the day of Willian Penn's treaty 
down, they had received a treatment calculated 
to produce such feelings, and the influence of 
the Moravian missions among them tended to- 
the same end. Far more Indian blood than 
white was shed about the kirks of the Mus- 
kingum, ancj, there is neither dark and bloody 
battle-field nor site of sickening family massacre 
within the limits of the county of Coshocton, so 
far as known. The numerous bullets found in 
after times, in the plowed fields near Coshocton,, 
were doubtless from the volleys fired by the expe- 
ditions, or from the rifles of the- early settlers,, 
with whom shooting at marks was a grand 
pastime. At one time seven hundred Indian 
warriors from the West encamped near the town, 
many with rifles. 

When the Revolutionary War broke out, it was 
a matter of the utmost importance to the colo- 
nists to secure at least the neutrality of the In- 
disiji tribes, and eflbrts were accordingly made.. 
Two treaties were made at Pittsburgh in suc- 
cessive years— 1775 and 1776 — binding to neu- 
trality the Delawares and some of the imme- 
diately adjacent nations. 

At the opening of 1777, the hatchet sent from 
Detroit (the British headquarters), was accepted 
by the Shawnees, Wyandots and Mingoes. Ru- 
mor had it that it was also to be sent to the Dela- 
wares, and if they declined it they were to be 
treated as common enemies, and at once attacked 
by tlie British and their Indian allies. The 
famous chief Cornstalk himself came to Gos- 
chachgunk, reporting that despite his efforts the 
Shawnees were for war, parties were already 
out, and amunition was being forwarded for their 
use from Detroit. Even a portion of the Delawares 



had been already pledged to take up arms. At 
this crisis — so threatening to the colonists— a 
general council of the Delawares met at the 
capital, on the 9th of March, 1777. Some of the 
young warriors appeared with plumes and war 
paint. After earnest discussion and eloquent 
speeches, especially from White Eyes, it was re- 
solved to decline the hatchet should it be offered. 
Three times during that summer it was tendered 
and as often declined. Despite the taunts of 
their own race — against even a faction of their 
own nation — rejecting bribes and spurning 
threats, the people stood, month after month, as 
a mighty wall of protection to the western colo- 
nists. Looking to the plainly discernible natural 
consequences of a different decision in that 
grand council, it is not wi_thout reason, that the 
claim may be made, that one of the grandest 
victories for the colonists in the American Revo- 
lutionary war was won at the Delaware capital, 
at the forks of the Muskingum. Subsequently, 
indeed, by the machinations of renegades like 
Simon Girty (who was several times at the 
capital), and the taunts of the tribes, a part of 
the nation was led to join the British Indians. 
In 1778, the rightful authorities of the nation 
made a complete treaty of alliance with the 
commissioners of the United States, therein pro- 
viding for carrying out a cherished project of 
White Eyes, that the Delaware nation should be 
represented in the Colonial Congress, and be- 
come, as a Christian Indian State, one of the 
United States. By the neighboring tribes the 
Delawares were often taunted with being unduly 
gentle — " women " — and w.ere always remarked 
upon as having too many captives; making exer- 
tions to secure as such those commonly appointed 
by other Indians to the tomahawk or stake. 

Killbuck, aided by the other Christain Indians, 
for a time held the nation very much in hand; 
but by 1780 Captain Pipe got the ascendancy at 
Goschachgunk, and put the people on the side of 
the British^ setting up a new town in the Seneca 
country. Killbuck and those who sided with 
him went over fully to the colonists, and left the 
forks, never to return. In 1795 their country, of 
which Coshocton county forms the central part, 
became by treaty the possession of the United 
States. Until after the war of 1812, a few strag- 

gling members of the nation, especially the Gna- 
denhutten ones, moved about in the country, 
hunting, disposing of pelts, or possibly visiting 
the graves of their ancestors. Fragments of the 
nation are yet recognized in Canada and in the 
Indian Territory, but its power was broken and 
the scepter had- departed when it was turned 
away from its loved haunts in the Tuscarawas 
and Walhonding valleys. 

By the treaty of September 29, 1817, the Dela- 
wares were deeded a reservation on the south of 
the Wyandot reservation, both in Marion and 
Wyandot counties. When this was done, Captain 
Pipe, son of " Old Captain Pipe," was the principal 
Delaware chief. The Delaware Indians remained 
on their reservation until about 1829, when they 
ceded it to the United States for $3,000, and were 
moved, as before stated, west of the Mississippi. 
The Wgandots ceded theirs in March, 1842, and 
left for the far west in July of the next year. At 
that date they numbered about 700 souls, and 
were the last Indian tribe , to relinquish its 
claims to the soil of Ohio. 


bouquet's expedition. 

The causes which led to the Expedition— The Pontiac War- 
Bouquet ordered to the relief of Fort Pitt— His march from 
Fort Pitt^Incidents of the March— Indian Trails— March 
down the Tuscarawas-Council with the Chiefs— Bouquet's 
Camp at the Forks of the Muskingum— The Treaty of 
Peace — The Recovery ol Prisoners — Sketph of Colonel 
Bouquet's Life. 

FOE a full understanding of this great mili- 
tary campaign, which had its terminus in 
this county, i-t is necessary to review, briefly, the 
causes which rendered it necessaxy. 

In 1763, the vgst region from the Alleghenies 
to the Rocky mountains, was mostly in posses- 
sion of the French. Their forts, missions, trad- 
ing posts — the centers, in some cases, of little 
colonies — were scattered throughout the valley of 
the Mississippi and on the borders of all the great 
lakes. They had gained a controlling influence 
over the Indians, and by the right of discovery 
and colonization, they regarded the country as 
their own. . 



When Wolf and Amherst conquered Canada, 
the vast but frail fabric of French empire in the 
west crumbled to the 'dust. 

To the Indian tribes occupying this terri- 
tory, the change was nothing but disaster. They 
had held, in a certain sense, the balance of power 
between the two rival colonies^ of France and 
England. Both had bid for their friendship, and 
both competed for trade with them, but the 
French had been the more sxiccessful, their influ- 
ence among the Indians was great, and they had 
generally gained their good will. 

The English came among them, erected forts, 
■ generally claimed the country, but where they 
came in contact with the Indians only jealousy 
and hatred were engendered. This feeling con- 
tinued until it culminated in the great Indian 
war known as " Pontiac's War." The tribes 
leagued together to drive the English into the 
sea. At one fell swoop all the small posts of the 
interior were captured from the English, and the 
frontiers swept by fire. The two great forts, De- 
troit and Fort Pitt, alone withstood the assailants, 
and these were reduced to extremity. 

Pontiao, himself, beleaguered Detroit, while the 
Dela wares, Shawanese and Wyandots, who occu- 
pied territory now embraced in Ohio, laid siege, 
in their barbarous way, to Fort Pitt. Other 
bands of the same tribes meanwhile ravaged the 
frontiers of Pennsylvania, burning houses, mur- 
dering settlers, and producing indescribable dis- 
tress and consternation. 

This is the point where the history of Bouquet's 
■expeditions properly begins. He was then in 
command at Philadelphia, and was ordered to 
march at once to the relief of the garrison at 
Fort Pitt. It was a desperate and difficult under- 
taking, but Colonel Bouquet was an, experienced 
officer, a man of science, courage and sense, and 
proved himself in every way equal to the emer- 

Of the difficulties he encountered in collecting 
his troops; of their long march over the Alle- 
gheny mountains ; of the fierce and bloody bat- 
tle of Bushy Eun ; of Bouquet's arrival at Fort 
Pitt and relief of that sorely beleaguered garri- 
son, August 10, 1763, it is not within the province 
of this chapter to speak in detail. 

With this introduction the reader will be able 

to understand more clearly the details of the 
campaign of 1764, into the territory embraced 
within the limits of this county. 

The Indians, disheartened by their overwhelm- 
ing defeat at Bushy Run, and despairing of suc- 
cess against Fort Pitt, now it was so heavily rein- 
forced, retired sullenly to their homes beyond 
the Ohio, leaving the country between it and the 
settlements free from their ravages. Communi- 
cation now being rendered safe, the fugitive set- 
tlers were. able to return to their friends, or take 
possession again of their abandoned cabins. By 
comparing notes they were soon able to make out 
an accurate list of those who were missing^either 
killed or prisoners among the various tribes — 
when it was found to contain the names of more 
than 200 men, women and children. Fathers 
mourned their daughters slain, or subject to a 
captivity worse than death ; husbands their wives 
left mangled in the forest, or forced into the em- 
braces of their savage captors — some with babes 
at their breast, and some whose ofifepring would 
first see the light in the red man's wigwam— and 
loud were the cries that went up on every side 
for vengeance. 

Boquet wished to follow up his success and 
march at once into the heart of the enemy's coun- 
try, and wring from the hostile tribes, by force of 
arms, a treaty of peace which should forever put 
an end to these scenes of rapine and murder. 
But his force was too small to attempt this, while 
the season was too far advanced to leave time to 
organize another expedition before winter. He 
therefore determined to remain at the fort till 
spring, and then assemble an army sufficiently 
large te crush all opposition, and finish what he 
had so successfully begun. 

Acting under instructions, he matured during 
the winter all his plans, and soon as spring opened 
set on foot measures by which an- army strong 
enough to render resistance hopeless should be 
placed under his command. 

In the meantime the Indians had obtained 
powder 'from tlie French, and as soon as the 
snow melted recommenced their ravages along 
the_ frontier, killing, scalping and taking prison- 
ers men, women and children. 

Bouquet could muster scarcely 500 men of the 
regular army — most of them Highlanders of the 



4th and 6th regiments — but Pennsylvania, at her 
own expense, furnished 1,000 militia, and Vir- 
ginia a corps of volunteers. With this imposing 
force he was directed to march against the Dela- 
wares, Mohicans and Mingoes ; while Col. Brad- 
street, from Detroit, should advance into the ter- 
ritory of the Wyandots, Ottawas and Chippewas ; 
and thus, by one great simultaneous movement, 
crush those warlike tribes. Bouquet's route, how- 
ever, was without any water communication 
whatever, but lay directly through the heart of 
an unbroken wilderness. The expedition, from 
beginning to end, was to be carried on without 
boats, wagons, or artillery, and without a post to 
fall back upon in case of disaster. The army 
was to be an isolated thing, a self-supporting ma- 

Although the preparations commenced early 
in the spring, difficulties and delays occurred in 
carrying them forward, so that the troops, that 
were ordered to assemble at Carlisle, did not get 
ready to march till the 6th of August. Four 
days after, they were drawn up ,on parade, and 
•addressed in a patriotic speech by the Governor 
of the State. This ceremony being finished, 
they turned their steps toward the wilderness, 
followed by the cheers of the people. Passing 
over the bloody field of Bushy Run, which still 
bore marks of the sharp conflict that took place 
there the year before, they pushed on, unmo- 
lested by the Indians, and entered Fort Pitt on 
the 13th of September. 

In the mean time a company of Delawares 
visited the fort, and informed Bouquet that Col- 
onel Bradstreet had formed a treaty of peace 
with them and the Shawnees. 

Bouquet gave no credit to the story, and went 
on with his preparations. To set the matter at 
rest, .however, he offered to send an express to 
Detroit, if they would furnish guides and safe- 
conduct, saying he would give it ten days to go 
and ten to return. This they agreed to ; but 
unwilling to trust their word alone, he retained 
ten of their number as hostages, whom he de- 
clared he would shoot if the express came to, any 
barm. Soon after other Indians arrived, and en- 
deavored to persuade him not to advance till the 
express should return. Suspecting that their 
motive was to delay him till the season was too 

far advanced to move at all, he turned a deaf ear 
to their solicitations, saying that the express 
could meet him on his march; and if it was true, 
as they said, that peace was concluded, they 
would receive no harm from him. So, on the 
3d of October, under a bright autumnal sky, 
the imposing little army of 1,600 men defiled out 
of the fort, and taking the great ' Indian trail 
westward boldly entered the wilderness. The 
long train of pack-horses, and immense droves 
of sheep and cattle that accompanied it, gave to 
it the appearance of a huge caravan, slowly 
threading its way amidst the endless colonades 
of the forest. Only one woman was allowed to 
each corps, and two for general hospital. 

This expedition, even in early history, was a 
novel one ; for following no water-course, it struck 
directly into the trackless forest, with no definite 
point in view, and no fixed limit to its advance. 
It was intended to overawe by its magnitude— to 
move, as an exhibition of awful power, into the 
very heart of the red man's dominions. Expect- 
ing to be shut up in the forest at least a month, 
and receive in that time no supplies from with- 
out, it had to carry along an immense quantity 
of provisions. Meat, of course, could not be pre- 
served, and SD the frontier settlements were 
exhausted of sheep and oxen to move on with it 
for its support. These necessarily caused its 
march to be slow and methodical. A corps of 
Virginia volunteers went in advance, preceded 
by three scouting parties — one of which kept the 
path, while the other two moved in a line abreast, 
on either side, to explore the woods. Under 
cover of these the axe companies, guarded by two 
companies of light infantry, cut two parallel 
paths, one each side of the main path, for the 
troops, pack-horses, and cattle that were to fol- 
low. ' First marched the Highlanders, in column 
two-deep, in the center path, and in the side paths 
in single file abreast — the men six feet apart ; and 
behind them the corps of reserve, and the second 
battalion of Pennsylvania militia. Then came 
the officers and pack-horses, followed by the vast 
droves of cattle, filling the forest with their loud 
complainings. A company of light horse walked 
slowly after these, and the rear-guard closed the 
long array. No talking was allowed, and no music 
cheered the way., When the order to halt passe^ 



along the line, the whole were to face outward, 
and the moment the signal of attack sounded, to 
form a hollow square, into the center of which 
pack-horses, ammunition, and cattle were to be 
hurried, followed by the light "horse. 

In this order the unwieldy caravan struggled 
on through the forest, neither extremity of which 
could be seen from the center, it being lost amidst 
the thickly clustering trunks and foliage in the 

The first day the expedition made only three 
miles. The next, after marching two miles, it 
came to the Ohio, and moved down, its gravelly 
beach six miles and a half, when it again struck 
into the forest, and making seven miles, en- 
camped. The sheep and cattle, which kept up an 
incessant bleating and lowing that could be heard 
more than a mile, were placed far in the rear at 
night and strongly guarded. 

Tuesday, October 5, the march led across a level 
country, covered with stately timber and with 
but little underbrush ; so that paths were easily 
cut, and the army made ten miles before camp- 
ing. The next day it again struck the Ohio, but 
followed it only half a mile when it turned ab- 
ruptly off, and crossing a high ridge over which 
• the cattle were urged with great difficulty, found 
itself on the banks of the Big Beaver creek. The 
stream was deep for fording, with a rough rocky 
bottom and high steep banks. The current was, 
moreover, strong and rapid ; so that, although the 
soldiers waded across without material difficulty, 
they had great trouble in getting the cattle safely 
over. The sheep were compelled to swim, and 
being borne down by the rapid current landed, 
bleating, in scattered squads, along the steep 
banks, and were collected together again only af- 
ter a long effort. Keeping down the stream they 
at length reached its mouth, where they found 
some> deserted Indian huts, which the Indians 
with them said had been abandoned the year be- 
fore, after the battle of Bushy Eun. Two miles 
farther on they came upon the skull of a child 
stuck on a pole. 

There was a large number of men in the army 
who had wives, children and friends prisoners 
among the Indians, and who had accompanied 
the expedition for the purpose of recovering 
them. To these the skull of. this Httle child 

brought sad reflections. Some one among them 
was perhaps its father, while the thought that 
it might stand as an index to tell the fate of all 
that had been captured made each one shudder. 
As they looked on it, bleached by the winds and 
rain, the anxious heart asked questions it dared 
not answer. 

The next day was Sunday, but the camp broke 
up at the usual hour and the army resumed its 
slow march. Duriag the day it crossed a high 
ridge, from the top of which one of those won- 
drous scenes found nowhere but in the American 
wilderness burst on their view. A limitless ex- 
panse of forest stretched away till it met the 
western heavens, broken only here and there by 
a dark gash or seam, showing where, deep down 
amidst the trees, a river was pursuing its solitary . 
way to the Ohio, or an occasional glimpse of the 
Ohio itself, as in its winding course it came in 
the line of vision. In one direction the tree tops 
would extend, miles upon miles, a vast flooring 
of foliage, level as the bosom of a lake, and then 
break into green billows that went rolling gently 
against the cloudless horizon. In another, lofty ' 
ridges rose, crowned with majestic trees, at the 
base of which swamps of dark flr trees, refusing 
the bright beams of the October sun, that flooded 
the rest of the wilderness, made a pleasing con- 
trast of light and shade. The magnificent scene 
was new to officers and men, and they gazed on 
it in rapture and wonder. 

Keeping on their course, they; came, two daj's 
after, to a point where the Indian path they had 
been following so long divided— the two branches 
leading off at a wide angle. The trees at the 
forks were covered with hieroglyphics, describ- 
ing the various battles the Indians had fought, 
and telling the number of scalps they had taken, 

This point was in the southern part of the 
present county of Columbiana. The trails were 
both plainly marked and much traveled. The 
right hand trail took a general course northwest 
toward Sandusky, and led to that place and on to 
Detroit; the course of the left hand trail was gen- 
erally southwest, and passed through the counties 
of Carroll and Tuscarawas, striking the Tusca- 
rawas river in the latter county, down which it fol- 
lowed, on the south side, to Coshocton, and cross- 



ing the Muskingum a few miles below the site of 
Coshocton, continued down the west side of the 
Muskingum to Dresden, where it crossed the 
Wakatomika and entered Licking county, passing 
across that county to the present reservoir, con- 
tinued on southwest to the Indian towns on the 

Col. Bouquet took the right hand trail, which he 
followed until he reached the Tuscarawas river 
when he left it and turned southward along that 

The path selected by the army was so over- 
grown with bushes that every foot of the way 
had to be cleared with the axe. It led through 
low, soft ground, and was frequently crossed by 
narrow, sluggish rivulets, so deep and miry that 
the pack-horses could not be forced across them. 
After several attempts to do so, in which the an- 
imals became so thoroughly imbedded in the 
.mud that they had to be lifted out with main 
force, they halted, while the artificers cut down 
trees and poles and made bridges. This was 
the hardest day's toil to which they had been 
subjected, and with their utmost efforts they were 
able to accomplish but five miles. On Thursday 
the 11th, the forest was open, and so clear of 
undergrowth that they made seventeen miles. 
Friday, the 12th, the path led along the banks of 
Yellow creek, through a beautiful country of 
rich bottom land, on which the Pennsylvanians 
and Virginians looked with covetous eyes, and 
made a note for future reference. The next day 
they crossed it, and ascending a swell of land, 
marched two miles in view of one of the love- 
liest prospects the sun ever shown upon. There 
had been two or three frosty nights, which had 
changed the whole aspect of the forest. Where, 
a few days before, an ocean of green had rolled 
away, there now was spread a boundless carpet, 
decorated with an endless variety of the gayest 
colors, and lighted up by the mellow rays of an 
October sun. Long strips of yellow, vast masses 
of green, waving lines of red, wandering away 
and losing themselves in the blue of the distant 
sky — immense spaces sprinkled with every im- 
aginable hue, now separated clear and distinct as 
if by a painter's brush, and now shading grad- 
ually into each other, or mingling in inextrica- 
ble, beautiful confusion, combined to form a 

scene that appeared more like a wondrous vision 
suddenly unrolled before them than this dull 
earth. A cloudless sky and the dreamy haze of 
Indian summer, overarching and enrobing all 
this beauty and splendor, completed the picture 
and left nothing for the imagination to suggest 

At length they descended to a small river, 
which they followed till it joined the main branch 
of the Muskingum (Tuscarawas), where a scene 
of a very different character greeted them. A little 
below and above the forks the shores had been 
cultivated and lined with Indian houses. The 
place was called " Tuscaroras," and for beauty of 
situation could nofwell be surpassed. The high, 
luxuriant banks, the placid rivers meeting and 
flowing on together, the green fields sprinkled 
with huts and bordered with the rich auturtmal 
foliage, all basking in the mellow October light, 
and so out of the way there in the wilderness, com- 
bined to form a sweet picture, and was doubly 
lovely to them after having been so long shut up 
in the forest. 

They reached this beautiful spot Saturday 
afternoon, October 13, and the next day being 
Sunday they remained' in camp, and men and 
cattle were allowed a day of rest. The latter 
revived under the smell of green grass once 
more, and roaming over the. fields, gave a still 
more civilized aspect to the quiet scene. 

During the day the two messengers that had 
been sent to Detroit came into camp, accompa- 
nied by Indian guides. The report they brought 
showed the wisdom of Bouquet in refusing to de- 
lay his march till their return. They had not 
been allowed to pursue their joijrney, but were 
held close prisoners by the Delawares until the 
arrival of the army, when, alarmed for their own 
safety, they released them and made them bearers 
of a petition for peace. 

The next day, Monday, the army moved two 
miles farther down the Tuscarawas, and encamped 
on aliigh bank, where the stream was 300 feet 
wide, within the present limits of Tuscarawas 
county, where it remained in camp about a week 
On Tuesday, six chiefs came into camp, saying 
that all the rest were eight miles off, waiting to 
make peace. Bouquet told them he would be 
ready to receive them next day. In the mean- 
time, he ordered a large bower to be built a short 



distance from camp, while sentinels were posted 
in every direction to prevent surprise, in case 
treachery was meditated. 

The next day, the 17th, he paraded the High- 
landers and Virginia volunteers, and escorted by 
the light horse, led them to the bower, where he 
disposed them in the miost imposing manner, so 
as to impress the chiefs in the approaching inter- 
view. The latter, as they emerged from the for- 
est, were conducted with great ceremony to the 
bower, which they entered with their accustomed 
gravity; and without saying a word, quietly 
seated themselves and commenced smoking. 
When they had finished, th'ey laid aside their 
pipes, and drew from their pouches strings of 
wampum. The council being thus opened, they 
made a long address, in which they were profuse 
in their professions of peace, laying the whole 
blame of the war on the young men, whom they 
said they could not control. Bouquet, not wishing 
to appear eager to come to a settlement, replied 
that he would give his answer the next day ; and 
the council broke up. The next day, however, a 
pouring storm prevented a meeting of the coun- 
cil till the day following. Bouquet's answer was 
long and conciliatory, but the gist of it was he 
would make peace on one condition, and no other 
— that the Indians, should give up all the prison- 
ers in their possession within ten days. 

The Indians present at this council were Kiy- 
ash-uta, chief of the Senecas, with fifteen war- 
riors ; Custaloga, chief of the Wolf tribe of Del- 
awares, and Beaver, chief of the Turkey tribe of 
the Delawares, with twenty warriors ; and Keissi- 
nautchtha, as chief of the Shawanese, with six 

Monday, October 22, the army, accompanied 
by the Indian deputies, recommenced its march, 
as Bouquet wished to show that he was determined 
to enforce his demands. They marched nine 
miles down the Tuscarawas, and went into camp. 
This was their fourteenth camp since leaving 
Fort Pitt, and was within a few miles of the east 
line of Coshocton county. The next day (Octo- 
ber 23) the army crossed the present boimdaries 
of this county, marching sixteen miles and 
camping about seven miles east of the present 
site of the town. This camp must have been in 
Lafayette township, very near the line between 

it and Oxford. Here Bouquet remained until the 
25th, when he continued his march a little more 
than six miles, camping within a mile of the 
forks of the Muskingum. 

Judging this to be as central a' position as he 
could find, he resolved to fix himseif here until 
the object of his mission was accomplished. He 
ordered four redoubts to be built, erected several 
store-houses, a mess-house, a large number of 
ovens, and various other buildings for the recep- 
tion of the captives, which, with the white tents 
scattered up and down the banks of- the river, 
made a large settlement in the wilderness, and 
filled the Indians with alarm. A town with 
nearly two thousand inhabitants, well supplied 
with horses, cattle, and sheep, and ample means 
of defense, was well calculated to awaken the 
gloomiest anticipations. The steady sound of 
the ax day after day, the lowing of cattle, and 
all the sounds of civilization echoing along the 
banks of the Tuscarawas within the very heart 
of their territory, was more alarming than the 
resistless march of a victorious army ; and anx- 
ious to get rid of such unwelcome companions, 
they made every effort to collect the prisoners 
scattered among the various tribes. 

Bouquet remained here two weeks, occupied in 
sending and receiving messengers who were 
charged with business relating to the restoration 
of the captives. At the end of this time two 
hundred and six, the majority of them women 
and children, had been received in camp. A 
hundred more still remained in the hands of the 
Indians; yet, as they solemnly promised to restore 
them in the spring, and the leafless forest and 
biting blasts of November, and occasional flur- 
ries of snow, reminded Bouquet of the coming 
on of winter, he determined to retrace his steps 
to Fort Pitt. 

These two weeks, during which the prisoners 
were being brought in, were filled with scenes 
of the most intense and often painful excite- 
ment. Some of the captives had been for many 
years with the Indians, recipients of their kind- 
ness and love ; others had passed from childhood, 
to maturity among them, till they had forgotten 
their native language, and the past was to them, 
if remembered at all, like a half-forgotten dream. 
All of them — men, women and children — were 



dressed in Indian costume, and their hair ar- 
ranged in Indian fashion. Their features also 
were bronzed by long exposure to the weather ; 
so that they appeared to have passed more than 
half way to a pure savage state. As troop after 
troop came in, the eager look and inquiries of 
those who had accompanied the army to find 
their long-lost families and kindred made each 
arrival a most thilling scene. In some instances, 
where the separation had been only for a short 
period, the recognition was ' instantaneous and 
mutual, and the short, quick cry, and sudden 
rush into each other's arms, brought tears to the 
eyes of the hardy soldier. In others, doubt, 
agony, fear and hope, would in turn take posses- 
sion of the heart, and chase each other like 
shadows over the face, as question after question 
was put, to recall some event or scene familiar 
to both, till at last a common chord would be 
touched, when the dormant memory would 
awake as by an electric touch, a flood of fond 
recollections sweep away all uncertainty, and 
the lost one be hurried away amidst cries and 
sobs of joy. Sometiijaes the disappointed parent 
or brother would turn sorrowfully away and, 
with that hope deferred which makes the heart 
sick, sadly await the arrival of another group. 
But the most painful sight was when a mother 
recognized her own child, which, however, in turn, 
persisted in looking on her as a stranger and coldly 
turning from her embrace, clung to its savage 
protector; or when a mutual recognition failed 
to awaken affection on one side, so entirely had 
the heart become weaned from its early attach- 

In these cases the joy of the captors knew no 
bounds, and the most endearing epithets and 
caresses would be lavished upon the prisoner. 
But when they saw them taken away, torrents of 
tears attested their sincere afTection and grief. 
The attitude of intense interest, and the exhibi- 
tions of uncontrollable sorrow of these wild 
children of the ■ forest, on one side, and the 
ecstatic joy of the white mother as she folded her 
long-lost child in her arms, and the deep emotion 
of the husband as he strained his recovered wife 
to his bosom, on the other, combined to form one 
of the most moving, novel spectacles ever wit- 
nessed in the American wilderness. One of the 

captive women had an infant three months old 
at her breast, born in the Indian's wigwam. A 
Virginia volunteer instantly recognized her as 
his wife, stolen from his log-cabin six months 
previous, and rushing forward he snatched her 
to his bosom and flew with her to his tent, where, 
tearing off the savage costumes of both, he 
clothed them in their proper garments. After 
the first burst of joy was over he inquired after 
his little boy, two years old, who was carried off 
the same time she was made prisoner ; but she 
could give no tidings of him. A few days after 
another group of prisoners arrived, in which was 
a child whose appearance answered to the de- 
scriptions of this little fugitive. The woman was 
sent for and the child placed before. She looked 
at it a moment, and shook her head. But the 
next moment the powerful maternal instinct 
triumphed, and recognizing in the little savage 
before her her long-lost child, she dropped her 
babe, and snatching him to her bosom burst into 
a torrent of tear*. The'husband caught the babe 
from the ground on which it had fallen and both 
hurried' away to his tent. The poor Indian 
mother watched their retreating forms, and then 
burying her face in her blanket sobbed aloud. 

A scene equally affecting occurred between an 
aged mother and her daughter, who had been 
carried off nine years before and adopted in a 
distant tribe. Though the latter had passed from 
childhood to womanhood in the forest, and differed 
from other young squaws only in the tint of her 
skin, which her wild life could not wholly bronze, 
the eyes of the parent, sharpened by maternal 
instinct, instantly recognized the features of her 
child in the handsome young savage, and called 
her by name, and rushed forward to embrace her. 
But the latter, having forgotten her native lan- 
guage and name, and all her childhood's life, 
looked on wondering, and turned, frightened, 
from the proffered embrace, to her Indian parent. 
The true mother tried in every way to recall the 
memory of her child and awaken recognition, 
but in vain. At length, despairing of success, 
she .gave way to the most passionate grief. 
Colonel Bouquet had been a silent witness of ■ the 
painful interview, and, raoved at the grief of the 
mother, approached her, and asked if she could 
not recall some song with which she used to sing 



her child to sleep. Brightening at the sugges- 
tion, she looked up through her tears, and struck 
a familiar strain, one with which she used long 
ago to quiet her babe. The moment the ears of 
the maiden caught the sound her countenance 
changed, and as the strain proceeded a strange 
light stole over her features. All stood hushed 
as death, as that simple melody floated out through 
the forest, and watched with intense interest the 
countenances of the two actors in this touching 
scene. The eager, anxious look of the mother as 
she sang, and the rapidly changing expression of 
the captive's face as she Hstened, awoke the pro- 
foundest sympathy of Bouquet's manly, generous 
heart, and he could hardly restrain his feelings. 
Slowly, almost painfully, the dormant memory 
awoke from its long sleep; at length the dark 
cloud that covered the past rent asunder, and the 
scenes of childhood came hack in all the fresh- 
ness of their early spring time, and the half wild 
young creature sunk in joy on her mother's 

Some of the children had been so long with 
their captors that they looked upon them as their 
true parents, and cried bitterly on being sepa- 
rated from them. Stranger still, the young 
women had become so attached to their savage 
yet kind husbands, that, when told they were to 
be given up to their white friends, they refused 
to go ; and many of them had to be bound and 
brought as prisoners to camp. Repelling all ad- 
vances, and turning a deaf ear to entreaties, they 
besought Bouquet to let them return to their for- 
est homes. The promise that they should take 
their half-breed children with them could not 
change their wishes. On the other hand, the 
Indians clung to them with a tenacity and fond- 
ness that made the spectators forget they were 
looking upon savages. It was pitiful to see their 
habitual stoicism give way so completely at the 
thought of separation. They made no effort to 
conceal their grief; and the chieftain's eye that 
gleamed like his own tomahawk in battle, now 
wept like a child's. His strong nature seemed 
wholly subdued, and his haughty bearing changed 
to one of humility as he besought the white man 
to treat his pale-faced wife tenderly. His wild 
life suddenly lost all its charms, and he hung 
round the camp to get a sight of her whom. 

though she was lost to him, he still loved. He 
watched near the log building in which she was 
kept, leaving it only to bring from the forest 
pheasants, wild pigeons, or some delicacy, and 
lay it at her feet. Some of the young captive 
wives refused to be comforted, and using that 
sagacity they had acquired in their long sojourn 
with the Indians, managed to escape from their 
friends, and joining their swarthy lovers fled 
with them to the forest, where they remained in 
spite of all efforts to recover them. 

The American wilderness never presented 
such a spectacle as was here exhibited on the 
banks of the Muskingum. It was no longer a 
hostile camp, but a stage on which human na- 
ture was displaying its most attractive and noble 
traits; or rather a sublime poem, enacted there 
in the bosom of the wilderness, whose burden 
was human affection, and whose great argument 
the common brotherhood of mankind. 

Bouquet and his officers were deeply impressed, 
and could hardly believe their own senses when 
they saw' young warriors, whose deeds of daring 
and savage ferocity had made their names a ter- 
ror on the frontier, weeping like children over 
their bereavement. 

A treaty of peace having been concluded with 
the various tribes. Bouquet, taking hostages to se- 
cure their good behavior and the return of the 
remaining prisoners, broke up his camp on the 
18th of November, and began to retrace his steps 
toward Fort Pitt. The leafless forest rocked and 
roared above the little army as it once more en- 
tered its gloomy recesses; and that lovely spot 
on the banks of the Tuscarawas, on which such 
strange scenes had been witnessed, lapsed again 
into solitude and silence. The Indians gazed 
with various and conflicting emotions on the 
lessening files — some with grief and desolation 
of heart because they bore away the objects of 
their deep affection, others with savage hate, for 
they went as conquerors. 

A few, impelled by their affection for the pris- 
oners, refused to stay behind. Though warned 
by the officers of the danger they incurred in re- 
turning to the frontiers which they had drenched 
in blood — of the private vengeance that would be 
wreaked on them by those whose homes they had 
made desolate — they could not be persuaded to 



•turn back. Thus, day after day, they moved on 
■with the army, leaving it only to hunt for those 
•who had so long shared their wigwams. Among 
.these was a young Mingo chief, who could not be 
iorced to leave a young Virginian woman whom 
he had taken for his wife. Neither persuasions 
nor the prospect of falling a victim to the ven- 
geance of those whose friends he had slain could 
make him remain behind. He treasured the 
joung paje-face in his fierce heart with a devotion 
that laughed at danger. His love was as un- 
tamable as his hate ; and in his bosom the fires of 
passion glowed with an intensity found only in 
those who have never submitted to a restraint, 
and whose highest law is the gratification of their 
own desires. Silent and gloomy he accompanied 
.the army, drawn irresistibly on by one sweet 
face -that shut all . other objects from his sight. 
.She had left his wigwam forever, and he could no 
longer soothe her with caressing words and be 
rewarded by a gentle look; but he could hover 
round her path, and bring her those delicacies 
which he so well knew how to select. No knight 
in the days of chivalry ever exhibited a higher 
gallantry or more unselfish devotion than did this 
haughty young Mingo. 

In ten days the army again drew up in the lit- 
tle clearing in front of Fort Pitt, and were wel- 
comed with loud shouts. The war was over, and 
.the troubled frontier rested once more in peace. 

As a perusal of the details of this interesting 
expedition may have created a desire to know 
more of the man who conducted it, it is thought 
best to add the following personal sketch of Col. 
Henry Bouquet : 

He was born in Eolle, on the. northern border 
of Lake Geneva, in the canton of Berne, Switzer- 
land, in 1719. At the age of seventeen he was 
received as a cadeWn the regiment of Constant, 
in the service of the States General of Holland, 
and two years later obtained the commission of 
ensign in the same regiment. Subsequently he 
entered the service of the King of Sardinia, and 
distinguished himself first as a lieutenant and 
afterward as adjutant in the campaigns conducted 
by that Prince against the combined forces of 
Franch and Spain. He acquitted himself with 
much credit, and his ability and courage coming 
to the knowledge of the Prince of Orange, he en- 

gaged Bouquet in the service of the Eepublic. He 
held rank here as Lieutenant Colonel in the 
Swiss Guards, formed at The Hague in 1748. 

At the breaking out of the war between France 
and England, in 1754, he accepted a commission 
in the Royal American or Sixtieth British regi- 
ment, as Lieutenant Colonel, and embarked 
for America. His operations from this time to 
the date of his expedition against the Indians are 
involved in obscurity; little or nothing having 
been preserved except th8 fact that he was a 
subordinate in the Forbes expedition against 
Fort Du Quesne (Fort Pitt) in 1758. 

After his successful Indian campaign in 1764, 
he went to Philadelphia, where he was received 
with distinguished kindness, and warmly wel- 
comed, especially by thos^ whose friends he had 
rescued from the Indians. The Assembly voted 
him a complimentary address ; while the Home 
Government, as a reward for his services, pro- 
moted him to the rank of Brigadier General, and 
placed him in command of the Southern Depart- 
ment of North America. He did not live long, 
however, to enjoy his honors, for, in the latter 
part of the year 1765, he died of a fever in Pensa- 

COL. beodhead's expedition.' 

Causes of the Expedition— The Ohfective Point— March of 
the Army— Arrival at the Forks of the Muskingum— De- 
struction of Indian Villages— Return of the Army— War of 
Extermination — Col. Brodhead's Official Report- Bio- 
graphical Sketches of Col. David Shepherd and Col. Daniel 

DURING the year 1780, frequent predatory 
incursions were made into the frontier set- 
tlements east of the Ohio river, to the very seri- 
ous detriment of those settlements, whose growth 
was greatly impeded thereby. Naturally the 
people living on the frontiers were constantfly in 
a state of feverish excitement and alarm, and 
would so remain as long as there was good reason 
to apprehend hostile and murderous raids into 
their communities. And of course while that 
condition of things existed but small prosperity 
to the exposed settlements could reasonably be 
anticipated. t 



As ihe winter of 1780-81 wore away the shrewd 
and observing frontiersmen saw but Uttle pros- 
pect of peace, tranquility and prosperity for the 
frontier settlements, and had but slight hopes 
that the savages would be at peace with them, 
unless a sanguinary policy was adopted and rig- 
orously pursued towards tliem, for self protec- 
tion. With the approach of spring there were 
unmistakable indications of an early renewal of 
hostilities, and these apprehensions soon turned 
out to be well founded. During the early spring 
of 1781, as was anticipated, marauding parties of 
hostile Indians crossed the Ohio river at various 
points for purposes of plunder and murder, and 
frequently succeeded in executing their nefari- 
ous and brutal purposes. ' 

Col. Daniel Brodhead was at this time Com- 
mander of the Western Military Department 
with headquarters at Fort Pitt, (now Pittsburgh). 
Learning of the growing disaffection of the un- 
civilized and unchristianized Dela wares on the 
Muskingum toward the white settlers east of the 
Ohio, and also toward the American cause, as 
against Great Britain in the then pending revo- 
lutionary struggle; and knowing the losses the 
frontiersmen had sustained ; the barbarities they 
had endured, the cruelties of which they had 
been the victims at the hands of the savages, and 
also seeing the then exposed condition of the 
weaker frontier settlements, he decided that the 
time had fully come when measures should be 
taken to guard against the future recurrence and 
to avenge the cruelties and atrocious barbarities 
of the savages. Accordingly he organized an ex- 
pedition composed of about 300 men, in part vol- 
unteers, at Wheeling, in April, 1781, to march 
against the Indians on the Muskingum. Col. 
David Shepherd was the second officer in rank. 
The Indian village of Goschachgunk, the second 
capital of the Delaware nation in Ohio, built on 
the site of Coshocton, on the left bank of the 
Muskingum, just below the junction of the Tus- 
carawas and Walhonding rivers, also called the 
"Forks of the Muskingum," was the objective 
point of the expedition. 

Col. Brodhead's force, of 300 efTective men, 
composed to a large extent of experienced Indian 
hunters, rendezvoused at Fort Henry, (formerly 
called Fort Fincastle, its name having been 

changed in honor of Governor Patrick Henry, of 
the colony of Virginia,) situated in the then small 
village of Wheeling. The command was well 
officered. Col. David Shepherd, County Lieutenant 
of Ohio county, Virginia, having command of 
134 men (probably the volunteer portion); the- 
whole force being under the command of Col- 
onel Brodhead, who "was esteemed a successful 
commander in Indian warfare." 

This small army marched from Fort Henry in 
April, 1781, crossed the Ohio, and made a rapid 
march, by the nearest route, to the principal 
Delaware village upon the Muskingum, where 
the present town of Coshocton now stands. The 
army, reached the point of destination by a 
forced march on the evening of the 19th of 
April, 1781, (just one hundred years, ago, at this 
writing,) completely surprising the Indians. 
Owing to high water, however, the Indians on 
the west side of the river escaped, but all on the 
east side were captured without firing a shot 
Sixteen Indian warriors captured were taken be- 
low the town and killed by direction of a coun- 
cil of war held in the camp of Brodhead, being 
dispatched says Dr. Doddridge with tomahawks- 
and spears, and afterwards scalped. The next 
morning an Indian called from the opposite side 
of the river for the " big captain," (as they called 
Brodhead,) saying he wanted peace. Brodhead 
sent himi for his chief, who came over under a 
promise that he should not be killed. After he 
got over it is said that the notorious Indian 
fighter, Lewis Wetzel, tomahawked him ! Some- 
authorities represent that it was an older brother 
of Lewis Wetzel that committed this murder. 

Another village, two and a half miles below, 
was also destroyed. This was Lichtenau, the 
Moravian village, abandoned the year before, at 
this time occupied by some %raggling bands of 
uncivilized Delawares, who had named it In- 
doachaio. A strong determination was mani- 
fested by a portion of the soldiers to march to 
the Moravian towns up the river (Salem, Gna- 
denhutten and Schonbrunn) and destroy them, 
but Colonels Brodhead and Shepherd prevented , 
this contemplated outrage. 

The army then began its return, with some 
twenty prisoners, in charge of the volunteers, 
but it had gone but a short distance, when those 



having the prisoners in charge killed them all 
except a few women and children, who were 
taken to Fort Pitt, and afterwards exchanged for 
an equal number of prisoners held by the Indians. 
On his return march Colonel Brodhead met 
some friendly Delawares, who accompanied him 
to Fort Pitt and placed themselves under the 
protection of the United States. 

Before leaving the valley of the Tuscarawas 
(then called Muskingum), Colonel Brodhead had 
an interview with the Rev. John Heckewelder 
and perhaps other Moravian missionaries who 
had been friendly to the frontier settlers and true 
to the cause of the colonists in their struggle 
with the mother country, and advised them and 
all of the Christian Indians, in view of their 
dangerous position, " between two fires," to break 
up their settlements and accompany him to Fort 
Pitt for protection. This advice they unfortun- 
antely declined to accept, and before the expira- 
tion of a jeax ninety-four oi them were massacred 
in cold blood, at Gnadenhutten, by infuriated 
frontiersmen, under command of Colonel David 
Williamson, many of whose command had been 
of Colonel Brodhead's expedition to the Mus- 
kingum the previous year. 

The settlements on the frontiers had suffered 
greatly from the Indians, and about this time 
the settlers came to the determination to arrest 
in future the marauding and murderous incur- 
sions of the savages. The time had come when 
they must make a vigorous defense of those set- 
tlements or abandon them. They must fight 
efficiently or be exterminated. It was a contest 
for life, for home, for wives and children. It 
was a battle between barbarism and civilization, 
between Paganism and Christianity. It is not 
surprising therefore that the border wars of this 
period were prosecuted on both sides as wars of 
extermination, and that the barbarities perpe- 
trated by the Indians had produced such a malig- 
nant spirit of revenge among the white settlers 
as to make them little less brutal and remorse- 
less than the savages themselves. Some of their 
expeditions against the Indians were mere mur- 
dering parties held together only by the com- 
mon thirst for revenge, and the malignant spirit 
of retaliation ; and it is not likely that any disci- 
pline calculated to restrain that pervading feeling 

could, in all cases, have been enforced, however 
anxious the commander and a minority of his 
men might be. It is certainly unfortunate for 
the reputation of Colonel Brodhead that his 
name is thus associated with the murder of pris- 
oners, but it is highly probably that he never 
sanctioned it, and could not have prevented it. 
It is clear however that the combined influence 
of Col. Brodhead and Col. Shepherd saved the 
Moravian Indians of the Tuscarawas Valley 
from the massacre that disgraced the soldiers of 
Col. Williamson the next year, and which their 
commander and eighteen of his men desired to 
prevent but could not! The killing of prisoners 
by the men of Col. Brodhead's expedition, in 
April, 1781, and the cruel murder of ninety-four 
Moravian Indians by Col. Williamson's com- 
mand, in March, 1782; succeeded in June, 1782, 
by the terrible torture and burning of Col. Craw- 
ford and others of his force, followed in August 
of the same year of the cruelties and barbarities 
of the Indians practiced towards Col. Lochry 
and all his command, ambushed, captured or 
killed, and some of the prisoners murdered in 
cold blood, well illustrate the spirit of the times 
and the sanguinary temper that controlled the 
whites and savages alike, on the fiery arena of 
the western border, at this period of fierce con- 
flicts and desperate deeds — deeds that were in 
such terrible harmony with those wild and 
thrilling days— heroic years on the western, bor- 
der they have been called — years of barbarity, 
massacre, murder they were! 

The following is Col. Brodhead's official re- 
port of his expedition to the Muskingum made 
to President Reed, of the Executive Council of 
Pennsylvania : 

" Philadelphia, May 22, 1781. 

" Sir : — In the last letter I had the jfionor to ad- 
dress to your Excellency, I mentioned my in- 
tention to carry an expedition against the re- 
volted Delaware towns. I have now the pleasure 
to inform you that with about 300 men, (nearly 
half the number volunteers from the county), I 
surprised the towns of Cooshasking and Indao- 
chaie, killed fifteen warriers, and took upwards 
of twenty old men, women and children. About 
four miles above the town I detached a party to 
cross the river Muskingum and destroy a party 
of about forty warriors, who had just before (as 
I learned by an Indian whom the advance guard 
took prisoner) crossed over with some prisoners 



and scalps, and were drunk, but excessive hard 
rains having swelled the river banlc high, it was 
found impracticable. After destroying tlie towns, 
with great quantities of poultry and other stores, 
and killing about forty head of cattle, I marched 
up the river about seven miles, with a view to 
send for some craft from the Moravian towns, 
and cross the river to pursue the Indians; but 
when I proposed my plan to the volunteers I 
found they conceived they had done enough, 
and were determined to return, wherefore I 
marched to Newcomerstown, where a few Indi- 
ans, who remained in our interest, had with- 
drawn themselves, not exceeding thirty men. 
The troops experienced great kindness from the 
Moravian Indians and those at Newcomerstown, 
and obtained a sufficient supply of meat and corn 
to subsist the men and horses to the Ohio river. 
Captain Killbuck and Captain Luzerne, upon 
hearing of our troops being on the Muskingum, 
immediately pursued the warriors, killed one of 
their greatest villains and brought his scalp to 
me. The plunder brought in by the troops sold 
for about eighty pounds at Fort Henry. I had 
upon this expedition Captain Montour and Wil- 
son, and three other faithful Indians who con- 
tributed greatly to success. 

" The troops behaved with great spirit, and al- 
though there was considerable firing between 
them and the Indians, I had not a man killed or 
wounded, and only one horse shot. 

" I have the honor to be with great respect and 
attachment, your Excellency's most obedient, 
most humble servant. Daniel Beodhead, 

"Col. 1st P. E. 
Directed : 

" His Excellency, 

" Joseph Eeed, Esq."* 


Col. David Shepherd came to Wheeling, fr^om 
the South Branch of the Potomac, in 1770. His 
energy, enterprise, courage and other character- 
istics of first-class frontiersmen, soon made him 
" a man of mark." 

In 1776, ,iipon the organization of Ohio county, 
Virginia, Col. Shepherd became the commanding 
officer of the militia of the county ; was also the 
presiding justice of the county court; and be- 
fore the close of the year 1776, he became the 
sheriff of the county of Ohio, that office at the 
time named going to the senior justice of the 
county court, under the laws of the colony, and 
for many years afterward, in pursuance of the 

* PennsylTania Arcliives,\Tol. ix, p. 161. 

laws of the State. Col. Shepherd also presided at 
a notable meeting or convocation held near the 
close of the year, for the purpose of carrying into 
effect certain requirements of the legislature. 

On the 12th of March, 1777, the Governor of 
Virginia (Patrick Henry), authorized the raising 
of a force of 300 men in certain western counties 
of Virginia, " to penetrate the country and inflict 
summary punishment upon certain Indians that 
were characterized as outlaws and banditti," lo- 
cated at " Pluggystown," near the head waters of 
the Scioto, and the command of the expedition 
was tendered to Col. David Shepherd, who had 
previously been appointed , to the position of 
lieutenant of the county of Ohio. 

In September, 1777, Fort Henry (formerly 
called Fort Fincastle), was besieged by a large 
force of Indian warriors, numbering nearly 400, 
but it- was successfully defended by the small 
force within it, under the command of Col.'^David 
Shepherd. He continued to take a leading part 
in arranging for the defense of the frontiers un- 
til 1781, when he was second in command to Col. 
Daniel Brodhead in the " Coshocton Campaign," 
as it was called. 

Col. Shepherd was a prominent man on the 
frontiers, acting in various ways against the hos- 
tile Indians west of the Ohio river. As a civilian 
he long held a position in the front rank of use- 
ful, upright, valuable public officers, and as a just, 
impartial magistrate. 


Col. Daniel Brodhead was a citizen of Berks 
county, Pennsylvania, in 1771, having removed 
there during that year from Ulster county, New 
York. He entered the army as a lieutenant- 
colonel, his commission bearing date July 4, 
1776. Until early in the year 1779 he was en- 
gaged in most of the battles fought by Gen. 
Washington's army, and had attained a colonel's 
commission, commanding the 8th Pennsylvania 
regiment! On March 5, 1779, he was appointed 
to the command of the western military depart- 
ment (succeeding Gen. Mcintosh), with head- 
quarters at Fort Pitt. This position he retained 
until some time after the Coshocton campaign in 
April, 1781, when Col. John Gibson temporarily 
occupied the position, until the permanent ap- 



pointment of Gen. William Irvine, September 
24, 1781. 

Col. Brodhead, in "August and September, 
1779, led an expedition against certain Seneca 
and Muncie Indians, on the Allegheny river, 
his command consisting of 609 men, including 
militia and volunteers, which, however, result- 
ed in little less than the destruction of a num- 
ber of Indian villages and some hundreds of 
acres of corn, and the confiscation of certain 
articles, of the estimated value of 13,000. These 
villages were situated nearly 200 miles above Port 

Colonel Brodhead's administration of affairs 
generally in the Western Military Department, 
during, those two years, was in the main rather 
popular with the frontiersmen, and was so satis- 
factory to Congress in its results as to elicit a 
specially complimentary resolution from that 
body. He was doubtless a meritorious officer, 
and w^as one of four brothers who all rendered 
essential services to their country during the 
perilous years of our revolutionary struggle. 
Colonel Brodhead ultimately attained to the rank 
and command of a brigadier-general, and those 
of his countrymen who have knowledge of his 
history and services, concede to him the reputa- 
tion of a commander of energy, efficiency, and 
undoubted courage and patriotism. 

General' Brodhead remained in retirement 
until November 3, 1789, when he was elected Sur- 
veyor-General of Pennsjdvania, an office which 
he continued to hold until 1799. One of his sons, 
an officer in the revolutionary army, ofTered up 
his young life on the altar of his countrj'. The 
Brodheads were true patriots, gallant soldiers, 
and rendered valuable services to their country 
in its time of peril. 

General Brodhead was married twice. His last 
marriage was with the widow of Governor 
Mifflin, one of the early time Governors of Penn- 
sylvania. His death occurred at Milford, Penn- 
sylvania, November 15, 1809, where and when was 
brought to a close a life that had been so con- 
spicuously and persistently dedicated to the pro- 
motion of the liberty of his countrymen, and- to 
the establishment of free institutions, as to de- 
mand the grateful consideration of posterity, and 
an honorable mention in history. 



Lewis Wetzel — His Character — The WetEel Family — The 
Murder of Lewis' Father— Capture o£ Wetzel by the In- 
dians—His Adventures in the Muskingum Valley— Tragedy 
at Indian Spring — The expedition to the Muskingum 
under MeMahon— Wetzel takes a Scalp— The Turkey Call- 
Various Adventures— Imprisoned— Wetzel's Personal Ap- 
pearance and Ddath. 

Samuel Brady— His Expedition to Walhondlng— A Brief 
Sketch of his Life and Services. 

LEWIS WETZEL, who has been mentioned 
in the preceding chapter as assassinating the 
chief who sought a conference with General 
Brodhead, under promise of protection, stands 
side by side with Samuel Brady, Simon Kenton, 
Daniel Boone and a few others, as a prominent 
leader in the border wars of the time. The single 
act mentioned indicates his somewhat savage na- 
ture and the intense feehng of hatred that then 
existed among the pioneers. Wetzel was, him- 
self, the personification of this feeling, and prob- 
ably outrivaled his cotemporaries, above men- 
tioned, in his intense arid bitter hatred of the 
whole Indian race. 

As Lewis Wetzel was identified with all the 
border wars of the time, and with the numerous 
private expeditions against the Indians in Ohio; 
and as this was not his first or last visit to the 
Muskingum valley, any history of Ohio, or es- 
pecially of the eastern part of it, would seem to 
be incomplete without some account of him. 

He was looked upon, in the neighborhood of 
Wheeling and along the upper Ohio, by the set- 
tlers as the right arm of their defence ; his pres- 
ence was a tower of strength in the infant settle- 
ments, and his name a terror to the fierce and 
restless savages, who, making the Muskingum 
valley their stopping and starting point, waged 
a relentless war of extermination against the 

Although he was fierce and unrelenting in 
his warfare, and always shot an Indian on sight, 
when he could, yet his foe was equally fierce- 
and unrelenting, and the memory of Wetzel 
should be embalmed in the hearts of the people 
of Eastern Ohio, and Western Pennsylvania, for 
his efforts in defence of their forefathers are 
almost without g, parallel. 



Almost always foremost and most devoted, he 
threw into the common treasury a soul as heroic, 
as adventurous, as full of energy and exhaustless 
resources as ever animated a human being. 

Unfortunately for his memory no entirely re- 
liable account of him has ever appeared in print. 
The present generation know little of his per- 
sonal history, save as gathered from the pages of 
romance, or the scarcely less painted traditions 
of the day. 

With many he is regarded as having been little 
better than a savage; a man whose disposition 
was that of an enraged tiger, and whose only 
propensity was for blood. Many of his acts, 
notably the one mentioned, would seem to 
strengthen this belief, yet if the people of to-day 
could but comprehend the state of feeling then 
existing between the belligerents, they would 
look upon his acts in a somewhat different light. 

He was revengeful, it is true, because he had 
suffered deep injuries at the hands of his foes ; 
yet he was never known to inflict cruelty upon 
women and children, or to torture or mutilate 
his adversary. 

He was literally without fear; brave as a lion, 
cunning as a fox, "daring where daring was the 
wiser part; prudent when discretion was valor's 
I'.etter self." He seemed to possess in a remark- 
able degree that intuitive knowledge which can 
alone constitute a good and efficient hunter and 
successful scout,]added to which he was sagacious, 
prompt to act, and possessed an iron frame and 
will to render his acts efficient. 

John Wetzel, the father of Lewis, was one of 
the first settlers on Wheeling creek. He had five 
sons and two daughters, whose names respect- 
i*fely were Martin, Lewis, Jacob, John, George, 
Susan and Christina. 

The elder Wetzel spent much of his time 
locating lands, hunting and fishing. His neigh- 
bors frequently admonished him against expos- 
ing himself to the enemy, who was almost con- 
tinually prowling about, but disregarding advice, 
•and laughing at their fears, he continued to 
widen the range of his excursions, until he 
finally |fell a victim to the tawny foe. He was 
killed near Captina, in 1787, on his return from 
Middle Island creek. Himself and companion 
were paddling slowly along in a canoe, near the 

shore, when they were hailed by a party of In- 
dians and ordered to land. This they refused, 
and they were immediately firfd upon and 
Wetzel shot through the body. Feeling himself 
mortally wounded, he directed his companion to 
lie down in the canoe, while he (Wetzel), so 
long as strength remained, would paddle the 
vessel beyond the reach of the savages. In this 
way he saved the life of his friend, while his own 
was ebbing fast. He died soon after reaching 
the shore, at Baker's station. Not many years 
ago a rough stone, on which was inscribed in 
perfectly distinct characters, " J. W., 1787," still 
marked the last resting place of John Wetzel. 

At the time of his father's death, Lewis was about 
twenty-three years of age, and in common with 
his brothers, swore vengeance against the whole 
Indian race, and terribly was that resolution car- 
ried into effect. From that time forward they 
were devoted to the wood ; and an Indian, whether 
in peace or war, by night or by day, was a 
doomed man in the presence of either of them. 

The first event worthy of record in his life ac- 
curred when he was about fourteen years old, 
when he was taken prisoner. He had just stepped 
from his father's door and stood looking at his 
brother, Jacob, playing in the yard, when he hap- 
pened to see a gun pointing from the corner of 
the corn crib. He sprang quickly to one side, 
just in time to receive the ball upon his breast 
bone, cutting a gash and carrying away a piece of 
the bone. In an instant two athletic warriors 
came up, and making the lads prisoners, hurried 
them away without being discovered. On the 
second day they reached the Ohio, and crossilig, 
near the mouth of McMahon's creek, gained the 
Big Lick, about twenty miles from the river, that 
evening. During the whole of this painful 
march Lewis suffered severely from his wound, 
but bore up with true courage, knowing if he 
complained the tomahawk would be his doom.^ 

That night, on lying down, the Indians, con- 
trary to their usual custom, failed to tie their 
prisoners, and Lewis resolved to escape. While 
the Indians were sleeping they both arose with- 
out disturbing their captors and passed into the 
woods. Finding, however, that they could not 
travel without moccasins, Lewis returned to ■ 
camp and secured two pairs, with which he re- 



turned to his brother. He then went back after 
his father's gun, which the Indians had secured 
in the yard where the lads were taken prisoners. 
Having secured this without awakening the sav- 
ages, they started in the direction of home. Find- 
ing the trail, they traveled on for some time, oc- 
casionally stopping to listen. They soon ascer- 
tained the Indians were in pursuit, but stepping 
aside into the brush the savages passed them, and 
they again resumed their march. They had not 
proceeded far before they heard the Indians re- 
turning, and again avoided them by hiding in the 
"brush. Before daylight they were followed by 
two Indians on horseback, but again resorting to 
a similar expedient, they readily escaped detec- 
tion. The next day, about eleven o'clock, they 
reached the Ohio, at a point opposite Zane's Is- 
land, and lashing two logs together they crossed 
■over and were once more with their friends. 

Space will not allow a complete review of this 
man's adventurous life, as that would, if justice 
were done, make a volume ; but some of his 
more daring deeds may be noticed, that the full 
character of the man may be brought out ; and 
those expeditions in which he was knowii to have 
visited the Muskingum valley, may be referred to 
more in detail. There is no doubt whatever that 
Lewis Wetzel frequently visited the neighbor- 
hood of the Indian towns about the junction of 
the Tuscarawas and Walhonding rivers. Killing 
Indians was his trade, and these towns were the 
nearest ones to his field of operations. 

That he often came to the neighborhood of 
these towns alone, and prowled about in the 
woods until he saw an opportunity to take a scalp 
and return in safety, may safely be inferred from 
the nature of the man and his known mode of 
warfare. Indeed he did not always stop on the- 
Muskingum, but passed on into the heart of the 
Indian country, about the head waters of the 
Sandusky river, in his incessant and tireless 
search for scalps. 

He was a lover of the woods and of solitude, 
and after reaching the years of manhood spent 
most of his time alone in the great wilderness 
west of the Ohio. 

He seemed to worship the grand old trees with 

^ more than pagan devotion, and was delighted 

with every fresh grove, hill, valley, and rippling 

stream. The quiet repose, the moving shadow, 
the song of birds, the whoop of the savage, the 
long, melancholy howl of the timber wolf, were 
sights and sounds that most interested him, and 
made up largely the pleasures of his existence. 
Rising from his couch of leaves beside some 
moss-covered log, the lone hunter made his hur- 
ried meal, and pressed on through the day, care- 
less of 'fatigue or danger, until night again spread 
her mantle over the woods. 

Shortly after Crawford's defeat, a man named 
Thomas Mills, escaping from that unfortunate 
expedition, reached Indian Spring, about nine 
miles from Wheeling, on the present National 
road, where he left his horse and proceeded on 
foot to Wheeling. Thence he went to Van 
Metre's Fort, and after a day or two of rest, 
induced Lewis Wetzel to return with him to the 
Spring for his horse. Lewis was then eighteen 
years old, but skilled in wood-craft, and advised 
Mills not to go, but the latter determined to pro- 
ceed, and the two started. Approaching the 
Spring, they discovered the horse tied to a tree, 
and Wetzel at once comprehended their danger. 

Mills walked up to unfasten the animal, when 
instantly a discharge of rifles followed, and the 
unfortunate man fell, mortally wounded. Wetzel, 
knowing his only chance for life was in flight, 
bounded away at his utmost speed. Four of the 
Indians followed in rapid pursuit, and after a 
chase of half a mile, one of the most active of 
their number approached Wetzel so closely that 
fearing he might throw his tomahawk with 
deadly effect, he turned suddenly and shot the 
savage dead. Wetzel was very fleet on foot, and 
had acquired the habit of loading his gun while 
running, and it was now, as it was many times 
subsequently, of great advantage to him. Keeping 
in advance another half mile, his gun was reloaded, 
and the second savage came so near that, upon 
turning, the Indian caught the muzzle of his gun, 
and the contest became doubtful. At one moment 
the Indian by his great strength and dexterity 
brought Wetzel to his knee, and had nearly 
wrenched the rifle from his hands, when by a 
powerful effort he drew the weapon from the 
hands of the savage, and thrusting the muzzle 
against the side of his neck, pulled the trigger, 
killing him instantly. 



By this time the other two Indians were nearly 
upon him, and he again bounded away, reloading 
his rifle while running. The savages fell behind, 
but Lewis slackened his pace, and even stopped 
once or twice to allow them to come up. When- 
ever he looked around, however, they treed, un- 
willing to expose themselves to his deadly rifle. 
Running on some time, he reached an open 
space in the woods, and, turning suddenly, the 
•foremost savage sprang behind a tree, which did 
not, however, screen his body entirely, and Wet- 
zel fired, dangerously wounding him. The re- 
maining Indian beat a hasty retreat. 

This illustrates Wetzel's mode of warfare; he 
could generally out-run and out-shoot most of 
his enemies. 

The following is related as one of his exploits 
with the Indians about the head waters of the 
Muskingum : 

In the summer of 1786 these Indians killed ^ 
man near Mingo bottom, and a party of fron- 
tiersmen under the famous Major McMahon (who 
was afterward killed in the defense of Fort Re- 
covery), followed them with the intention of get- 
ting revenge. One hundred dollars was offered 
to the man who should bring in the first scalp. 
Lewis Wetzel was one of this party. They 
crossed the Ohio August 5, and proceeded by a 
rapid march to the Muskingum. 

The expedition numbered about twenty men, 
and an advance of five was detailed to recon- 

Approaching the Muskingum, this party re- 
ported that they had discovered a large camp of 
the Indians — so large that it was useless to think 
of making an attack upon it. 

After a long consultation it was decided to re- 

During this'conference Lewis Wetzel sat apart 
upon a log with his gun resting carelessly across 
his knees, silent, but listening to all that was said. 
When the decision was reached and the party be- 
gan to move away Lewis still retained his seat 
upon the log, which McMahon noticing turned 
back and asked if he was not going along. " No !" 
was his sullen reply. " I came out to hunt In- 
dians, and now they are found, I am not going 
home like a fool with my fingers in my mouth. 
I will take a scalp or lose my own." 

All arguments were unavailing, and he was 
left alone in the great woods, surrounded by sav- 
age foes. 

Once alone he gathered his blanket around himr 
adjusted his tomahawk and scalping knife, and 
taking his rifle moved cautiously away. Keep- 
ing away from the larger streams, he crept si- 
lently through the woods like a wild beast of prey- 
keeping his piercing black eyes open for any 
stray Indians that might be strolling or camping 
in limited numbers. 

He stopped freequently and was keenly alive 
to every sight and sound; nothing, however,, 
crossed his path that day. 

The night being dark and chilly it was neces- 
sary for comfort to have a fire, but to show a light 
in the midst of his enemy was to invite certain 
destruction; he therefore constructed a small; 
coal-pit of bark and dried leaves, and covering 
these with loose earth, leaving an occassional air-- 
hole, he seated himself, encircling the pit with 
his legs, and then completed the whole by cover- 
ing his head with a blanket. In this way he kept 
comfortable, without endangering himself by a 

During the following day he roamed the woods- 
without discovering any signs of Indians until 
toward evening, when he discovered a smoke,, 
and approached it cautiously. He found a ten-- 
antless camp. It contained two blankets and a 
small kettle, which Wetzel at once knew belonged 
to two Indians, who were probably out huntings 
Concealing himself in the matted undergrowth, 
he patiently awaited the return of his prey.- 
About sunset one of the Indians came in, made 
a fire and began cooking supper. Shortly after 
the other appeared ; they then ate their supper,., 
after which they smoked their pipes and amused 
themseves by singing and telling comic stories,- 
which at times caused them to indulge in roars 
of laughter. They little dreamed that death was- 
lurking near them, in the dark forest, in the 
shape of the terrible Wetzel. 

About nine o'clock one of the Indians 
wrapped his blanket around him, shouldered his- 
rifle, took a fire-brand in his hand and left the 
camp, doubtless with the intention of watching a- 
deer-lick. | 

The' absence of this savage was a cause of vexa- 



tion and disappointment to Wetzel, who looked 
upon both as his game. He indulged the hope 
that ,the Indian would return to camp before 
day-break, but in this he was disappointed. 
Through the long, still hours of the night he 
waited and watched, like a tiger watching his 
prey. When he heard the birds begin to chirp and 
chatter, and he knew daylight was approaching, 
he determined to delay no longer, and walking 
to the camp with noiseless step, he found his vic- 
tim in profound slumber, lying upon his side. 
He drew his butcher knife and drove the keen 
blade with all his force to the heart of the savage. 
The Indian gave a quiver, a convulsive motion 
and then lay still in the sleep of death. Wetzel 
scalped him, and set out for home, arriving at 
Mingo Bottom but one day after his unsuccessful 

He claimed and received his reward of one 
hundred dollars. 

A most fatal decoy on the frontier was the 
turkey-call. On several different occasions men 
from the fort at Wheeling had gone across the 
hill in quest of turkeys, whose plaintive cries had 
elicited their attention, and on more than one 
occasion the men never returned. Wetzel sus- 
pected the cause, and determined to satisfy him- 

On the east side of the creek, and at a point ele- 
vated at least sixty feet above the water, there is 
a capacious cavern; the entrance at that time 
was almost obscured by a thick growth of vines 
and foliage. Into this the alluring savage would 
crawl, and could there have an extensive view of 
the hill front on the opposite side. From that 
cavern issued the decoy of death to more than 
one uncautious soldier and settler. Wetzel knew 
of the existence and exact locality of the cave, 
and accordingly started out before day, and by a 
circuitous route reached the spot in the rear. 
Posting himself so as to command a view of the 
opening, he waited patiently for the expected 
cry. Directly the twisted tuft of an Indian war- 
rior slowly rose in the mouth of the cave, and 
looking cautiously about, sent forth the long, 
shrill, peculiar "cry,'' and immediately sank 
back out of view. Lewis screened himself in 
his position, cocked his gun, and anxiously 
awaited a re-appearance of the head. In a few 

minutes up rose the tuft. Lewis drew a fine 
aim at the polished hea:d, and the next instant 
the brains of the savage were scattered about the 
cave. That turkey troubled the inhabitants no 
longer, and tradition does not say whether the 
place was ever aftei; similarly occupied. 

DeHass states that this daring borderer was in 
the habit of visiting the Muskingum valley every 
fall, on an Indian hunt, and almost invariably 
went alone. The Indian camps about the forks 
of the Mdskingun were the most accessible and 
suffered more, perhaps, from the stealthy raids 
of this daring hunter than any others. Armed' 
only with his trusty rifle and hunting knife, he 
would enter the Indian country and hiding in. 
thickets and creeping through the woods, would 
sometimes pass days patiently awaiting an oppor- 
tunity to fall upon an unprotected and unsus- 
pecting camp of savages. 

On one of these visits he came upon a camp of 
four Indians. Hesitating a moment whether to 
attack a party so much his superior in numerical 
strength, he determined to ipake the attempL 
At the hour of mid-night, when naught was- 
heard but the long dismal howl of the wolf, 

" Cruel as deatli and hungry as tlie grave, 
Burning lor blood, bony, gaunt and grim," 

he moved cautiously from his covert, and gliding' 
through the darkness, stealthily approached the 
camp, supporting his rifle in one hand and a 
tomahawk in the other. A dim flicker from the- 
camp fire faintly revealed the forms of the 
Indians, wrapped in profound slumber, which, to 
part of them, was to know no waking. There 
they lay, with their dark face's turned up to the- 
night-sky, in the deep solitude of their own wil- 
derness, little dreaming that their most relentless 
enemy was hovering over them. Quietly resting 
his gun against a tree, he unsheathed his knife 
and with an intrepidity that/ could never be sur- 
passed, stepped boldly forward, like the minister 
of death, and quick as thought cleft the skull of 
one of his sleeping victims. In an instant a sec- 
ond one was similarly served, and as a third 
attempted to rise, confused by the horrid yells 
with which Wetzel accompanied his blows, he, 
too, shared the fate of his companions, and sunk 
dead at the feet of this ruthless slayer. The 



fourth darted into the darkness of the wood and 
escaped, although Wetzel pursued him some dis- 
tance. JReturning to camp, he gcalped his vic- 
tims, and then left for home. When asked, on 
his return, what luck, " Not much," he replied : 
" I treed four Indians, but one got away." This 
unexampled achievement stamped him..3s one of 
the most daring, and .at the same time successful 
hunters of his day. The distance to and from 
the scene of this adventure could not have been 
less than 120 miles. ' 

During one of his scouts, in the neighborhood 
of Wheeling, Wetzel took shelter, on a stormy 
evening, in a deserted cabin on the bottom, not 
far from the former residence of Mr. Hamilton 
Woods. Gathering a few broken boards he pre- 
pared a place in the loft to sleep. Scarcely had 
he got himself adjusted for a nap, when six 
Indians entered, and striking a fire, commenced 
preparing their meal. Wetzel watched their 
movements closely, with drawn knife, determined 
the moment he was discovered, to leap in their 
midst, and in the confusion endeavor to escape. 
Fortunately, they did not see him, and soon after 
supper the whole six fell asleep. Wetzel now 
crawled noiselessly down, and hid himself behind 
a log, at a convenient distance from the door of 
the cabin. At early dawn, a tall savage stepped 
from the door, and in an instant Wetzel had his 
finger upon the trigger, and the next moment 
the Indian fell heavily to the ground, his life's 
blood gushing upon the young grass brilliant 
with the morning due drops. The report of his 
rifle had not ceased echoing through the valley 
ere the daring borderer was far away, secure from 
all pursuit. 

When about twenty-five years of Jage, Wetzel 
was employed by General Harmar as a scout. 
While acting in this capacity he shot and killed 
and Indian chief known as George Washington, 
a large, fine looking savage, who possessed much 
influence over his tribe. It was a time of com- 
parative peace, and General Harmar was es- 
pecially anxious to preserve the good feeling then 
existing. He justly regarded the act as an out- 
rage, and caused Wetzel to be arrested and 
placed in close confinement in the fort, heavily 
ironed. The confinement was extremely gallijig 
to one accustomed to the freedom of the woods. 

Being allowed one day to walk on the point at 
the mouth of the Muskingum, under a strong 
guard, he suddenly sprang away from the guards, 
being determined to risk his life in an attempt 
to escape. He was nearly a hundred yards away 
before the guards could recover from their 
astonishment and fire upon him. They missed 
their aim; and being more fleet on foot than 
they, he made his escape to the woods, secreting 
himself in a dense thicket, two or three miles 
from the fort. While here a party of soldiers 
and Indians, sent out by General Harmar in 
search of him, stood for a time upon the log 
under which he lay concealed. They did not 
find him, however, and that night, though still 
hand-cuffed, he swam the Ohio river and took 
refuge among his many friends on the Virginia 

After a time, hearing of his whereabouts, Gen- 
eral Harmar sent a squad of men under Captain 
Kingsbury to the neighborhood of Wheeling 
with orders to take him dead or alive. Kings- 
bury found Wetzel at Mingo Bottom, attending 
a shooting match, but as he was surrounded by a 
large number of his friends, among whom was 
Major McMahon, and as these, headed by Wetzel, 
threatened to annihilate the little squad of sol- 
diers, Kingsbury was pursuaded to return with- 
out effecting his object. 

Soon after this, however, he was arrested at 
Limestone by a squad of soldiers and delivered 
to General Harmar at Fort Washington. 

As the news of his arrest spread through the 
settlement where Wetzel was known and loved, 
the settlers determined to embody and release 
him by the force of arms. It is said that General 
Harmar seeing the storm approaching, set Wet- 
zel at liberty. 

His short life was full of adventure of the 
character already mentioned. He was univer- 
sally regarded as one of the most efficient of the 
scouts and woodsmen of his day. He frequently ac- 
companied Captain Samuel Brady in his expedi- 
tions against the Indians, and was often engaged 
by parties who desired to hunt up and locate 
lands, but were afraid of the Indians. Under the 
protection of Lewis Wetzel, however, they felt 
safe, and he was thus employed for months at a 



Among those who became largely interested in 
western lands was John Madison, brother of 
James, afterward President Madison. He em- 
ployed Lewis Wetzel to go with him through 
the Kanawha region. During the expedition 
they came upon the deserted camp of a hunter, 
in which were some concealed goods. Each of 
them helped himself to a blanket, and that day, 
in crossing the Kanawha, they were fired upon 
by a party of Indians and Madison killed. 

Wetzel was engaged to accompany the Lewis 
and Clark expedition to the Rocky mountains, 
but after traveling with the party three months 
returned home. Shortly after this he went 
down the river to Mississippi, on a visit to a rela- 
tive named Philip Sikes, who lived about twenty 
miles in the interior from Natchez. Here he re- 
mained until the summer of 1808, when he died. 

His personal appearance was somewhat re- 
markable. He was five feet ten inches in height, 
very erect, broad across the shoulders, an ex- 
pansive chest, and limbs denoting great muscular 
strength. His complexion was very daark and 
eyes of the most intense blackness, emitting, 
when excited, such fierce and withering glances 
as to cause the stoutest adversary to quail be- 
neath their power. His hair corresponded with 
his eyes in color, was very luxuriant and reached, 
when combed out, below his knees. The length 
of his hair was his greates't peculiarity, and when 
seen running or stealthily passing through the 
woods, gave him the appearance of a wild man. 
No wonder he became a terror to the Indians; 
he could outrun their fleetest warriors, his gun 
seemed to be always loaded and he made every 
shot count, rarely missing his aim ; they ■v\[ere 
never safe from his vengeance, even in their own 
camp, hundreds of miles from any white settle- 
ment. They could not lay down to sleep about 
their camp fires without the thought that Lewis 
Wetzel might be among them before morning, 
'with his terrible tomahawk and scalping knife. 

Such was the man who probably knew every 
square mile of Coshocton county before the first 
white settler made his appearance. 

Captain Samuel Brady was one of the many 
distinguished characters that figured prominently 
in western history. He made himself pre-emi- 

nently conspicuous in the defense and protection 
of the early-time settlements on the western 
frontiers. The traditionary tales and legendary 
stories current among the border settlers con- 
nected his name with numerous daring adven- 
tures and' gallant exploits. The unwritten history 
of the we^t, with more truth than fiction, coupled 
his name with many heroic achievements — with 
many a valorous deed. Few leaders, during the 
" heroic age on our western borders," could in- 
spire his brave followers with more hope, courage 
and enthusiasm than Captain Brady. Few border 
chieftains commanded public confidence to a 
larger extent, or secured a readier, more cheerful 
or more confident following than he. His name, 
in his generation, was the synonym of courage, 
skill, daring, energy, perseverance, success. And 
probably few men that were prominent actors on 
the fiery theater of war, on which was waged the 
bloody contest for supremacy between barbarism 
and civilization, better deserved the well-merited 
reputation he had acquired than Captain Brady. 
The annals of western border warfare, which re- 
cord the heroic achievements of those who par, 
ticipated therein, present the names of very few 
men, indeed, who bore a more conspicuously gal- 
lant part in said warfare ; and none whose memory 
better deserves to be cherished by posterity than 
Captain Brady's. 

In an address delivered by the late Rev. C. 
Springer, before the Licking County Pioneer 
Society, July 4, 1867, he gave an account of an ex- 
pedition up the Walhonding, or White Woman, 
from its mouth to Owl creek, or Vernon river, 
and up the latter stream, and thence down the 
Licking and Muskingum rivers, which was under 
the command of Captain Samuel Brady. Mr. 
Springer was a venerable pioneer whose removal 
to the Muskingum valley dates back to the early 
years of the century, and he gave the history of 
this expedition as obtained from several reputa- 
ble gentlemen with whom he had been personally 
well acquainted for many years, and who had 
been themselves members of said expedition. 

Mr. Springer stated that he took a special in- 
terest in the campaign, when its history was first 
given him ; its incidents, he said, deeply impressed 
thejnselves upon his memory. The narrative 
may therefore be considered altogether reliable ; 



certainly the venerable author of the address so 
regarded it. 

For the facts presented in the following histori- 
cal sketch, as well as for the language in which 
they are related, credit is due and is hereby given 
to the late Eev. C. Springer, author of the address 
from which they are taken : 

Not long before the defeat of the Indians at 
the battle of the " Fallen Timbers,'' on the banks 
of the Maumee, in August, 1794, by General 
Wayne, Captain Samuel Bradj^'of border fame, 
with a scouting party principally from the " Mo- 
nongahela country," crossed the Ohio river at 
Wheeling for the purpose of ascertaining the 
condition of the Indians, and giving ar^noyance 
in turn to such small hunting or marauding 
parties as might fall in their way. They directed 
their course to the " Forks of the Muskingum," 
passed up the White Woman and Walhonding 
creeks, thence up Owl creek or Vernon river, 
from its mouth up said stream some twenty miles 
or more; then passed over to the head waters of the 
Licking, and down it to the " Falls," four miles 
west of its mouth, now Zanesville. As none of 
the party had ever been there before, they sup- 
posed they were at the "JFalls of Hocking," of 
which they had often heard. 

As game was remarkably plenty, and having to 
procure their subsistence from the forest, the 
company concluded to make a temporary stay at 
this place, and having struck up a fire, most of 
them turned out to hunt, and procure such wild 
meats as were necessary for their comfort. Near 
evening all had returned to their camp-fire except 
Jonathan Evans. After waiting for some time 
in great suspense, they gave their usual signal 
for lost persons — by firing guns — but there was 
no response from Evans. As they had that day 
seen fresh Indian signs, they entertained no 
doubt but that these had captured Jonathan; 
and fearing an attack themselves, they left their 
fires and passed back of the hill, immediately 
southeast of Dillon's old furnace, where they 
remained concealed during the night. In the 
morning they resumed their march down the 
Licking, and soon reached the Falls of the Mus- 
kingum, now Zanesville. Some of the expedi- 
tion having been there before, Ihey understood 
their whereabouts. 

As they had determined to visit the Marietta 
settlement before tlieir return home, they started 
down the river, and before going very far below 
the Falls, to their great astonishment and greater 
pleasure, they met Jonathan Evans, who was 
moving up the river for the purpose of rejoining 
the expedition. The joy on meeting Jonathan, 
who they apprehended had been captured by the 
Indians, was great indeed. Having got lost the 
day before, he lay all night on the banks of a 
creek the Indians called Moxahala, which empties 
into the Muskingum river two or three miles 
below the Falls. The Moxahala has, ever since 
Jonathan Evans lodged upon its banks, as above 
related, been generally called Jonathan's creek, 
in memory of the lost man of Brady's expedi- 
tion. In the morning, after lodging on the banks 
of the Moxahala, he followed ' the creek to its 
mouth, and seeing no signs of the expedition 
having passed down, he moved up the river in 
search of his comrads, when he met them, as 
above detailed. 

In the summer of 1813, the Eev. Cornelius 
Springer was passing the " Falls of Licking," in 
company with a Mr. Simms (his neighbor), who 
was a member of the expedition, and the conversa- 
tion naturally turned upon the foregoing events, 
that being the point where the Brady expedi- 
tion passed the night, after Jonathan Evans had 
strayed away from them unintentionally, and 
passed the night on the Moxahala, " solitary and 
alone.'' After Mr. Simms had circumstantially 
related the history of the expedition, particularly 
as it related to Jonathan Evans, his subsequent 
history was inquired into. In answer, Mr. 
Simms stated that, many years before, Jonathan 
had moved down the Ohio river and located at 
some point unknown, and that he had heard 
nothing from him since his removal. 

Iia 1817, the writer of this sketch was engaged 
as an itinerent minister on a circuit which ex- 
tended many miles along the Ohio river, between 
the Scioto and Hockhocking. In the course of 
his ministrations he found Jonathan Evans, who 
was then a member of one of his congregations, 
hving five miles above "Letart Falls," on the 
Ohio river, and the head of a large family, a 
Christian and a class leader in the Methodist 
church. It was by mere accident, Mr. Springer 



says, that he discovered Mr. Evans to be the Jona- 
than Evans of the Brady expedition. On invi- 
tation he spent an evening with him, enjoying 
his hospitahty. He was rather taciturn and his 
guest was therefore compelled to lead in the con- 
versation. In answer to the question as to 
whether he had ever been up the Muskingum 
valley, he stated that he "passed through it when 
it was a wilderness. It at once occurred to Mr. 
S. that he had probably found the man also who 
gave name to the ci'eek once palled Moxahala. 
" Are you not the man for whom ' Jonathan 
creek,' a tributary of the Muskingum, was 
named ?" was the next question put to him, and 
he smilingly replied in the affirmative, and pro- 
ceeded to give an account of his wanderings 
from the time he left the camp-fire at the " Falls 
•of Licking," until he rejoined his companions 
next day, near the " Falls of the Muskingum." 
As the Eev. Mr. Springer had spent his boyhood 
near " Jonathan creek," he was well acquainted 
with the localities that witnessed that day's wan- 
derings and travels of Jonathan Evans, and 
knew familiarly the point or bluff on which he 
spent the night, amidst the hideous bowlings of 
wolves, as he said ; he was therefore able to trace 
him as he moved from point to point along his 
entire line of travels, while away from his com- 
rades of the expedition. These circumstances 
and facts all tended very much to give increased 
zest to their highly interesting interview. 

Captain Brady while on this expedition, it is 
said, gave name to the Bowling Green, on the 
Licking, four miles below Newark. He had seen 
a place of similar appearance, to this locality, 
somewhere, perhaps in Virginia, hence he gave 
the same name to the beautiful and extensive 
prairie on the Licking, a-nd which it has borne 
ever since. 

The same expedition gave to "Duncan's Palls " 
its name. After Jonathan Evans had rejoined 
the expedition, having now less apprehension of 
the Indians, the men took time to construct ca- 
noes in which to descend the Muskingum to its 
mouth. An Irishman named Duncan, in passing 
over the rapids or falls in the Muskingum, ten 
miles below the mouth of the Licking, (now 
Zanesville,) by some mishap to his canoe, prob- 
ably striking a rock, was plunged into the river. 

and that circumstance gave name to "Duncan's 

One more incident of this. expedition: When 
it had reached a point about half way to the 
mouth of the Muskingum, from the mouth of 
the Licking, it was deemed advisable to come 
to anchor, and take to the forest for game, 
their supply of provisions having been nearly 
exhausted. Their first day's quest for game, not 
having been entirely successful, they encamped 
at night on WoU c^eek, where, after having fallen 
asleep, a large tree fell near their camp, with a 
tremendous crash. All thought it was probably 
a sudden and overpowering attack by Indians; 
at any rate being thus suddenly aroused from 
their slumbers, by such a sudden and fearful 
noise as the falling of a large tree would pro- 
duce, it was a matter of course that great excite- 
ment and trepidation should immediately pre- 
vail in their camp. The temporary confusion 
and alarm that existed around that camp-fire on 
Wolf creek, among the hunters, soldiers, frontiers- 
men, and adventurers of Captain Brady's expedi- 
tion, naturally enough, led to a good deal of mer- 
riment afterward among themselves, when de- 
tailing circumstantially, the effects produced 
upon each and every one of the occupants of the 
camp on Wolf creek. The talents of the dog- 
gerel rhymster, even, were called into requisi- 
tion, in order to give full effect, to descriptions 
of scenes, real and imaginary, that were wit- 
nessed on that memorable night on Wolf creek. 
Captain Brady's men being not only the witnesses 
but also the victims. 

The expedition under consideration was prob- 
ably disbanded or dispersed, at or soon after 
leaving the mouth of the Muskingum, most of 
them, however, likely went up the Ohio in their 
canoes to Wheeling, and there dispersed. 

As has been stated, Eev. C. Springer, on ac- 
credited authority, was the historian of the Brady 
expedition, as above , narrated. And it is emi- 
nently proper to say that his facts are given on 
the authority of four creditable actors in the ex- 
pedition, whose history is given. These were 
Jonathan Evans and three of his neighbors 
named Simms, Hamilton and Darrah, for whose 
veracity he vouches. 

The leader of the foregoing expedition, Capt. 



Samuel Brady, was born at Shippensburg, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1756. His father, John Brady, was 
made a captain in the colonial army, for his 
services in the old French and Indian wars. 
The historian, DeHass, to whom we are in- 
debted for many of the incidents in the life of 
Captain Brady here presented, says that at an 
early day Capt. John Brady, with his family, 
moved to the Susquehanna, 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, Samuel 
Brady joined a volunteer company and marched 
to Boston. The patriotic fervor of the youth 
prompted the commander to offer young Brady 
a commission, but his father objected, thinking 
he was too young, saying : " First let him learn 
the duties of a soldier, and then he will better 
know how to act as an officer." 

But the gallant y Cling soldier's patriotism and 
ability were soon recognized. On the 17th of 
July, 1776, he received a lieutenant's commission, 
and bore himself gallantly through most of the 
principal battles until after the engagement at 
Monmouth, when he was promoted (in 1779) to 
a brevet captaincy, and ordered to the West for 
duty under Col. Brodhead. His father, in 1776, 
had accepted a captaincy in the 12th Pennsylva- 
nia regiment, had been badly wounded at the 
battle of Brandywine, and was then at home. 
Whilst there Captain Brady heard of his brother's 
death, who had been murdered by the Indians on 
the 9lh of August, 1778. Pie remained at home 
until 1779, and then rejnined his regiment at 
Pittsburgh. During the same year his father was 
murdered by the Indians ; and then it was that 
our hero swore vengeance against the whole race. 
Terribly, too, did he keep that vow. 

In 1781, Col. Brodhead sent Captain Brady on a 
secret mission (accompanied by John Williamson 
and one of the Wetzels) to some western Indian 
towns to ascertain their strength and resources. 
On this expedition they reached the Indian town 
at Upper Sandusky, from which it was found ex- 
pedient to make a prompt retreat. The restora- 
tion to their friends of a woman and her child, 
who had been captured by some Indians, one or 
more of whom Captain Brady killed, was one of 
the results of this movement. 

The incursions of the Indians, says DeHass, 
had become so frequent, and their outrages so 

alarming, that it was thought advisable to retaliate 
upon them the injuries of war, and carry into the 
country occupied by them, the same methods 
that they practiced toward the white settlements. 
For this purpose an adequate force was raised 
and placed under the immediate command of Col. 
Brodhead, the command of the advance guard of 
which was confided to Captain Brady. 

The force proceeded up the Allegheny river, 
and had arrived near the Redbank creek, now 
known by the name of " Brady's Bend," without 
encountering an enemy. Brady and his rangers 
were some distance in front of the main body,«B 
their duty required, when they suddenly dis- 
covered a war party of Indians approaching them. 
Relying on the strength of the main body, and if« 
ability to force the Indians to retreat, and antici- 
pating, as Napoleon did in the battle with the 
Mamelukes, that when driven back they would 
return by the same route they had advanced on, 
Brady permitted them to proceed without hin- 
drance, and hastened to seize a narrow pasSr 
higher up the river, where the rocks, nearly per- 
pendicular, approached the river, and a few deter- 
mined men might successfully combat superior 
numbers. Soon the Indians encountered the 
main body under Brodhead, and, as Brady antici- 
pated, were driven back. In full and swift retreat 
they pressed on to gain the pass between the rocks 
and the river, but it was occupied by Brady and his 
rangers, who failed not to pour into their flying 
columns a most destructive fire. Many were 
killed on the bank, and many more in the stream. 
Cornplanter, afterward the distinguished chief of 
the Seneoas, but then a young man, saved him-, 
self by swimming. 

The celebrated war-chief of tliis tribe, Bald- 
Eagle, was of the number slain on this occasion. 
After destroying all the Indians' corn, the army 
returned to Pittsburgh. 

Another movement up the Allegheny river, of 
which Captain Brady was the master mind, was 
successful, the details of which are given by De 

Beaver Valley was the scene of many of Cap- 
tain Brady's stirring adventures. Many interesl^ 
ing localities are there pointed out as Brady's 
theater of action, and which were witnesses- of 
many of his thrilling exploits, and of his daring 



and success, as well as his numerous hair-breadth 
escapes by " field and flood." 

The following, illustrative of Brady's adven- 
tures in the region referred to, we give from a 
published source : In one of his trapping and 
hunting excursions, he was surprised and taken 
prisoner by a party of Indians who had closely 
watched his movements. To have shot or toma- 
hawked and scalped him would have been but a 
small gratification to that of satiating their re- 
venge by burning him at a slow fire, in presence 
of all the Indians of their village. He was there- 
fore taken alive to their encampment, on the 
west bank of -the Beaver river, about a mile and a 
half above where it empties into the Ohio river. 

After the usual exultations and rejoicings at 
the capture of a noted enemy, and causing, him 
to run the gauntlet, a fire was prepared, near 
which Brady was placed, after being stripped and 
with his arms unbound. Previous to tying him 
to the stake, a large circle was formed around 
him of Indian men, women and children, dancing 
and yelling, and uttering all manner of threats 
and abuses that their limited k^iowledge of the 
English language afibrded. The prisoner looked 
on these preparations for death, and on his savage 
foe with a firm countenance and a steady eye, 
meeting all their threats with truly savage forti- 
tude. In the midst of their dancing and rejoicing 
a squaw of one of their chiefs came near him 
with a child in her arms. Quick as thought, and 
with intuitive prescience, he snatched it from het 
and threw it into the midst of the flames. Horror- 
stricken at the sudden outrage, the Indians 
simultaneously rushed to rescue the infant from 
the fire. In the midst of this confusion, Brady 
darted from the circle, overturning all that came 
in his way, and rushed into- the adjacent thicket, 
with the Indians yelling at his heels. He ascended 
the steep side of a hill amidst a shower of bullets, 
and, darting down the opposite declivity, secreted 
himself in the deep ravines and laurel thickets 
that abounded for several miles to the west. 

His knowledge of the country and wonderful 
activity enabled him to elude his enemiep and 
reach the settlements in safety. 

On one of Captain Brady's scouting expeditions 
Into the Indian country, with sixteen scouts or 
spies, they encamped one night at a place called 

" Big Shell Camp." Toward morning one of the 
guard heard the report of a gun, and immedi- 
ately communicating the fact to his commander, 
a change of position was ordered. Leading his 
men to an elevated point, the Indian camp was 
discovered almost beneath them. Cautiously ad- 
vancing toward their camp, six Indians were dis- 
covered standing around the fire, while several 
others lay upon the ground, apparently asleep. 
Brady ordered his men to wrap themselves in 
their blankets and lie down, while he kept watch. 
Two hours were thus passed without anything 
material occurring. As day began to appear 
Brady roused his men and posted them side by 
side, himself at the end of the line. When all 
were in readiness the commander was to touch, 
,with his elbow, the man who stood next to him, 
and the communication was to pass successively 
to the farthest end. The orders then were that 
the moment the last man was touched he should 
fire, which was to be the signal for a general dis- 
charge. With the first faint ray of light six In- 
dians arose and stood around the fire. With 
breathless expectation, the whites waited for the 
remainder to rise, but failing, and apprehending 
a discovery, the captain moved his elbow, and 
the next instant the wild woods rang with the 
shrill report of the rifles of the spies. Five of 
the six Indians fell dead, but the sixth, screened 
by a tree, escaped. The camp being large, it "jvas 
deemed unsafe to attack it further, and a retreat 
was immediately ordered. 

Soon after the above occurrence, says DeHass, 
in returning from a similar expedition, and when 
about two miles from the mouth of Yellow 
creek, at a place admirably adapted for an am- 
buscade, a solitary Indian stepped forward and 
fired upon Brady's scouts. Instantly, on firing, 
he retreated toward a deep ravine, into which 
the savage hoped to lead his pursuers. But 
Brady detected the trick, and in a voice of thun- 
der ordered his men to tree. No sooner had this 
been done, than the concealed foe rushed forth 
in great numbers, and opened upon the whites a 
perfect storm of leaden hail. The brave spies 
returned the fire with spirit and effect; but as 
they were likely to be overpowered by superior 
numbers, a retreat was ordered to the top of the 
hill, and thence continued until out of danger. 



The whites lost one man in this engagement, and 
two wounded. The Indian loss is supposed to 
have been about twenty, in killed and wounded. 

In Howe's Historical Collection, Captain Brady 
is cha:racterized as the Daniel Boone of the north- 
east part of the valley of the Ohio. About the 
year 1780, a party of warriors from the Cuyahoga 
Falls made an inroad into what is now Washing, 
ton county, Pennsylvania, and murdered several 
families and robbed others, and, with their 
" plunder," had recrossed the Ohio river. Brady 
promptly raised a force of his chosen followers' 
and started in pursuit of the niurderers, but 
were, however, unable to overtake them before 
reaching their villages, which were situated in 
the present county of Summit. Brady and his 
scouts arrived in the vicinitj' of their towns, but 
were discovered, and by overwhelming numbers 
compelled to retreat. Brady directed bis men to 
separate and each take care of himself, regarding 
that the better way. A large force of the Indians, 
knowing Captain Brady, pursued him, and aban- 
doned the chase after his men. The Cuyahoga, 
says Howe, here makes a wide bend to the south, 
including a large tract of several miles of surface, 
in the form of a peninsula. Within this tract 
the pursuit was hotly contested. The Indians, 
by extending their line to the right and left, 
forced him on the bank of the stream. Brady, 
knowing the locality, directed his course to the 
river, at a point where it is compressed by the 
rocky cliffs into a narrow channel of only twenty- 
two feet across the top of the chasm, but consid- 
■erably more near the water, the rocks approach- 
ing each other at the top to within the distance 
nanied, at a height of forty feet or more above 
the bed of the river. Being so hemmed in by 
the Indians that he saw no way of escape else- 
where, concentrated all his powers, and made the 
leap successfully, and escaped. The place is still 
known as "Brady's Leap." The Indians kept up 
the pursuit, and Captain Brady made for a pond, 
and plunging in, swam under water some dis. 
tance, and found a hiding place at th^ trunk of a 
large tree which had fallen into it. And this is 
•called " Brady's Pond " to the present day. It is 
■situated in Portage county, near Franklin mills. 

Brady's escape was miraculous. He however 
reached his home at length, (which Howe says, 

was at this time at Chartier's creek), as did also 
his men. Some authority made him at one time 
a resident of Wellsburg, Brooke county, now 
West Virginia, and represented him as tall, 
rather slender, and very active, and of a dark 

Captain Samuel Brady married a daughter, 
(says DeHass), of Captain Swearengen, of Ohio 
county, Virginia, who bore him two children, 
both sons, named John and Van S. 

Such was Brady, the bold leader of the spies, 
on our western frontiers. He died, sa3's the au- 
thor of the "History of the Pan-Handle Coun- 
ties," at West Liberty, Ohio county. West Vir- 
ginia, in the year 1800, and was buried in the 
cemetery at that place ; a smaU stone marks his 



Establishment of Lichtenau— Tteligious Services— Moravian 
Towns on the Tuscarawas— Abandonment of Lichtenau— 
Biographical Sketches of Eev. David Zeisberger and Eev. 
John Heckewelder. 

THE career or life-story of the laborious and 
self-sacrificing Moravian missionaries, and 
the establishment of- Moravian mission stations 
by them in the wilderness, among the savage 
races that, during the latter half of the eighteenth 
century, occupied the Muskingum valley, together 
with the narratives of the zealous, faithful labors 
bestowed upon them, and generally upon the sur- 
rounding tribes and pagan nations, may well "be 
regarded, without drawing largely upon the im- 
agination, as one of the most interesting and 
romantic chapters in our early-time history. 

According to authentic history and the most 
reliable Moravian annals, there was only one 
Moravian village or mission station established 
within the present limits of Coshocton county. 

So great had been the success and prosperity 
of the two Moravian villages of Schonbrunn and 
Gnadenhutten, situated on the Tuscarawas river, 
within the present boundaries of Tuscarawas 
county, that at the close of the year 1775 it was 
found tlieir combined population numbered 
about five hundred; it was therefore deemed ad- 




















, [i 'II! 

SiviilA III ij 

^•' ill ll ll 





..l^'l'*:-, 1 

(' i 5> 






visable, after due deliberation, to establish another 
in the Tuscarawas or Musldngum valley. This 
decision was made by the missionaries in 1776 ; 
accordingly Rev. David Zeisberger and John 
Heckewelder with eight families, numbering 
thirty-five persons, left the aforesaid village and 
passing down the valley, looking out for an 
eligible location, finally encamped on the east 
bank of the Muskingum river, at a point about 
two and a half miles below the "Forks of the 
Muskingum" — now Coshocton — where, upon full 
consideration, they decided to establish the pro- 
posed mission station. This was the 12th of 
April, 1776. A mission house was soon built, and 
the prospective Moravian village was called Lich- 
teuau, that is a "Pasture of Light" — a green 
pasture illuminated by the light of the Gospel — 
as interpreted or explained by the Moravians. 
It is stated by an accredited Moravian authority, 
the " Life and Times of Rev. David Zeisberger " — 
a work entitled to credit for many facts herein 
contained — that the location of Lichtenau was 
made somewhat in deference to the wishes of 
Netawatwees, a friendly Delaware chief of the 
Turtle tribe, whose principal village, called Go- 
schachgunk, and which was subsequently de- 
stroyed by Gen. Brodhead's command in 1781, 
was situated at the junction of the Tuscarawas 
and the Walhonding rivers — now Coshocton — 
the unpronounceable Indian capital occupying 
the site of the lower streets of the present town 
of Coshocton, stretching along the river bank 
below the junction. 

The site of Lichtenau is described by the biog- 
rapher of Zeisberger as a broad level of many 
acres stretched to the foot of the hills, with an 
almost imperceptible ascent, the river bank swell- 
ing out gently toward the stream in the form of 
an arc, covered with maples and stately syca- 
mores. Material for building abounded, and the 
rich soil promised abundant crops. Numerous 
remains showed that the primitive aborigines of 
America had here had a home. 

Rev. Edmund De Schweinitz, author of the 
" Life and Times of Zeisberger," visited the site 
of Lichtenau in 1863, and found it then occupied 
in part by portions of the farms of Samuel Moore 
and Samuel Forker, in Tuscarawas township, 
which were separated by a long lane extending 

from the river to the eastern hills. The town 
began near the residence of Mr. Moore, and the 
church probably stood in his yard, reaching 
across the lane to the land of Mr. Forker, 
Lichtenau covering a portion of his farm. He 
identified the village site by numerous relics, 
and exact correspondence of former landmarks, 
as described by Mr. Moore, with the topography 
set forth in Rev. David Zeisberger's manuscript. 
The relative position of Lichtenau to a Mound 
Builder's enclosure of five acres, and a mound 
three-quarters of a mile further down the river, 
enabled the auther, with Zeisberger's descrip- 
tions and locations before him, to locate Lich- 
tenau with- a good degree of certainty. 

The worship of the Great Creator, by this col- 
ony of thirty-five, closed the day, Ajjril 12, 1776. 
The next morning the sturdy strokes of the ax 
began to ring through the bottoms, and were 
reverberated from the hills near this embryo 
village in the wilderness of the Muskingum, and 
with a great crash tree after tree fell to the