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L'espurgatoire Seint Patriz 

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— JHstichs of Cktto 


I. Intboduction : The Legend in Literature. 

Latin Original of Marie de France. Date 
of the Espurgatoire. Order of Marie's 

II. The Manuscript. 

III. Dialect of Marie de France. 

IV. Language of the Espdboatoibb: 

A. Hiatus, Contraction, Elision. 

B. Vowels. 

C. Consonants. 

D. Substantives. 

E. Adjectives. 

F. Pronouns. 

G. Verbs. 

H. Additional Anglo-Norman Traits in 
the Manuscript. 

V. Text. 

VI. Notes and Additions. 


mv. ^, jaarsfjall lElUott 






C^is lEsgag is l^jspertfullg ISjtiicatcti 


In the summer of 1892, when I began the work 
which has now reached completion, I had no larger 
aim than a critical publication of the text of the 
poem which is herewith ofiered to students of the 
origins of the French and English literatures. But 
the unfortunate death of Prof. Dr. Edouard Mall, 
of Wurzburg, having left the whole subject of the 
Purgatory legend as it were in suspenso, and the 
fundamental question of the dialect of Marie de 
France being unsettled, it seemed desirable to add 
studies upon these subjects, as well as to present the 
new material as to the language of the author gath- 
ered in an examination of the hitherto unstudied 
manuscript of the Espurgatoire. 

My aim has been to restore as nearly as possible 
(with the usual concessions to facilitate reading) the 
text of the poem as it came from the hands of its 
author. The means relied upon to reach this end 
have been the edition by Dr. K. Warnke of the 
Lays of Marie de France (an excellent work, though 
not entirely free from errors) ; the manuscripts of 
Marie's Fables which, for several years, have been 
before the Romance Languages Seminary of the 
Johns Hopkins University ; and, finally, the Latin 
Tradatus of Henry of Saltrey (of which the Espurga- 
toire is a translation) especially that version of it 
contained in the British Museum MS. Arundel 292. 

Even with these aids, the restoration of the text 


of Marie's poem from tte single Paris manuscript, 
which, from indications, is two or three removes from 
the original, and somewhat carelessly written, has 
been a task not without obstacles. However short I 
may have fallen of the full attainment of my aim, I 
am glad to have been able to promote a closer ac- 
quaintance with an interesting figure in literary his- 
tory, and with a legend which embodies so well the 
religious ideas of western Europe in the twelfth 

The latitude which I have permitted myself in the 
matter of orthography seeks its main justification in 
my belief that, Marie's poem being a translation of a 
Latin treatise upon a Church subject, a tendency to 
Latinization was inevitable. 

T. A. J. 
Philadelphia, Christmas, 1894. 


The history of the legends connected with the 
Purgatory of Saint Patrick in Ireland was first made 
known to a wide circle of modern readers by the 
eminent English scholar, Thomas Wright,' just fifty 
years ago. Briefly described, the so-called " Purga- 
tory" was a cavern which was situated upon an 
island in Lough Dearg (County Donegal), and 
which, according to the general belief, furnished to 
men a veritable entrance to the world beyond the 
grave. Various alleged descents into this cavern 
during the twelfth and following centuries gave rise 
to a considerable body of literature, in which nearly 
all the languages of modern Europe are represented. 
Some of these works, mainly through the instru- 
mentality of the Church, acquired an extraordinary 
popularity, especially in England and France. 
Spreading thence to Spain and Italy, the legend 
furnished the subject of a drama to Calderon, and 
almost certainly formed part of that common circle 
of contemporary ideas from which Dante drew the 
imperishable conceptions of the Divina Commedia. 

The first mention of the Purgatory legend in 
literature is made by the monk Jocelin of Furness, 
in his VitaSmieti Pairicn (about 1183).^ This writer 

'^St. Patrick's Purgatory. An Essay on the Legends of 
Purgatory, Sell and Paradise current during the Middle 
Ages. London, 1844. 

> Jocelin's Vita was translated by L. E. Swift, The Life 
and Acts of St. Patrick, etc. Dublin 1809. The passage 
on the Purgatory occurs Chap. 172, p. 229. 


attaches the legend not to the island in Lough Dearg, 
but to a mountain in another locality. Certain 
people, he says, having passed the night on this sum- 
mit, and having been (as they reported) grievously 
tormented, have believed themselves purged of their 
sins and so saved from the gates of hell. Whence, 
he adds, comes the name " Purgatory." 

Substantially the same form of the legend, but 
now connected with Lough Dearg, is that given by 
Giraldus Cambrensis in his Topographia Hibernica 
(1185-1187). 1 Giraldus adds some particulars and 
explains that the torments are inflicted by malign 
spirits, and that people say that penance thus under- 
gone exempts the penitent from suffering for his sins 
after death. 

Neither Jocelin nor Giraldus had the idea that 
the Purgatory was an entrance to the other world. 
This noteworthy development of the legend appears 
first in the now famous Tractatua de Purgatorio Saneti 
Patricii, written in Latin by a monk, Henry (?)'* 
belonging to Saltrey, a Cistercian abbey in Hunting- 
donshire. This work was probably written about 
1188 (see below). It narrates the experiences of an 
Irish " knight'' (miles) named " Owein," who de- 
scended into the cavern to do penance for his sins 
and was led in turn through hell and the terrestrial 
paradise, and was finally permitted to look upon the 
glowing portals of the celestial paradise. 

Henry's Tractatus laid the foundation of the fame 

^ Opera Oiraldi Cambrensis, ed. Dimoek, Vol. V., p. 82. 
In Distinctio II., cap. v. 

The MSS. have only the letter " H." 


of the Purgatory throughout Western Europe, and 
formed the basis of nearly all the numerous notices 
and brief descriptions of the place and its wonders 
which are frequent in mediseval writers. Moreover, 
it attracted to Ireland other penitents, whose de- 
scents were in turn written about and no doubt 
believed in. Such was the descent of Raymond de 
Perilhos (1397), described in proven9al ; ' that of 
William Staunton (1409) written in English^ ; and 
that of Laurentius Ratold (1411) written in Latin.' 
Two other important reworkings of the legend — cer- 
tain chapters in the older versions of the Italian 
romance, Guerino il Meschino* and the drama of 
Calderon' — seem to derive from Henry's Tractatus 
only, and not to be based upon any fresh pilgrimages 
to the sacred place. 

At this point, it may be interesting to inquire 
what was the strong attraction which led the in- 
telligent minds of this period to follow with such 
eager interest the accounts of visits to the other 
world ? It was, no doubt, the conception of human 
life which the Church of Rome upheld and which went 

1 Cp. Stimming, in Grober's Orundriss der Romanischen 
PUlologie II., p. 63. 

^Cp. Ward's Catalogue of Romances in the Department of 
MSS. in the British Museum II., p. 484 ff. Wright, op. 
cit., p. 140 ff. 

'Ward II., p. 489 ff. 

* Gaspary, Letteratura Italiana I., pp. 244 and 360. Cp. 
also Modem Language Notes VII., col. 397. 

5 Printed in the Bihlioteca de Autores Espanoles VII., 
p. 149 ff. Madrid, 1849. 


far to determine the intellectual and moral atmos- 
phere of the time. Man's chief care in this world, 
it was taught, was to so act as to insure his safety in 
the next. To avoid sin, to atone for sin, to escape 
hell and attain paradise, these were the concerns 
which lay most constantly and heavily upon the gen- 
eral consciousness. Add to this the absence of faith 
in the fixedness of Nature's laws, resulting in a 
ready belief in miracles and wonders of all kinds, 
and one can in some degree feel the force of the 
ardent interest which seized with avidity upon 
works like the Tractatus, which were believed to be 
the narratives of those who had actually seen and 
tasted either the frightful sufferings which awaited 
the confirmed sinner, or the untold felicities which 
were prepared for the elect. 

It is the Tractatus of Henry, — one of the most 
striking works in the large mediaeval literature which 
deals with the state of the soul after death, — enlarged 
by several additions, that Marie de France rendered 
into Old French verse " that it might be intelligible 
to lay folk."' In doing this, she adopted the metre 
and many of the stereotyped conventions of the court 
poetry of her time, which in turn had taken its color 
from the troubadours.^ The manuscript, of which 
a copy is published herewith, is the only one 
of Marie's poem now known to exist, although un- 
doubtedly there have been others which are now lost. 
Marie, however, was not the only writer to translate 

' EspurgcUoire, 1. 2299. 

'Op. 11. 16, 189, 1919 ff., 2119 ff. 


Henry's Tractatus into old French verse. M. P. 
Meyeri has collected the scattered notices of six other 
versions in Old French, four of which are anonymous. 
M. Meyer has also printed extracts from two of 
these, — the translations of Geofroi de Paris and of 
Berol ; of three others, Mr. Ward has given liberal 
extracts^ ; of the sixth, the beginning and end have 
been printed, also by M. Meyer'. 

As might be expected, the Latin MSS. of the 
Traetatus which have been preserved do not present 
a uniform text. Dr. E. Mall gave^ the results of 
his examination of the MSS. of the Traetatus owned 
by the British Museum, and of two others on the 
continent, and published three of these texts, viz. : 
(a) that of Bamberg (denoted ^by "A"), (b) that 
printed by Colgan^ (denoted by " C "), (c) that of 
the British Museum, Arundel 292 (denoted by 
"K"). No one of the MSS. examined by him, 
according to Mall, presents a version which could 

^Notices et Extraits des MSS. de la Bibliothique National e 
et autres Bibliothiques, T. XXXIV., p. 239 ff. 

' Cat. of Romances II., pp. 468, 471, 474. 

' In Romania VI., p. 154. 

* Zur Geschichte der Leggnde vom Purgatorium des heil. 
Patricius, Somanische Porschungen VI., p. 141 ff. 

*In his Trias Thaumaturga, Louvain, 1647. Appendix 
VI., p. 273. This text, according to the Catalogue of 
the MSS. of Cambridge II., 328 and V., 594, was taken 
from a Cambridge MS. numbered P. f. 1. 27, fo. 568 (or 
570). But Hardy, Descriptive Catalogue of Materials re- 
lating to the History of Great Britain and Ireland I., p. 72 
ff., says Colgan's text is that of a MS. at Lincoln College 
Oxford, No. 28, fo. 75-98. 


have been used by Marie in making her translation. 
It will be useful for us now to substantiate this con- 
clusion of Mall's. 

According to Ward,' the British Museum MSS. fall 
into two groups^ : a) eight MSS. represented by Royal 
13 B. viii. (I shall denote this MS. by " R ") and 
that printed by Colgan ("C"); /3) three MSS. : 
Arundel 292, Harley 3846, and Cotton, Tiberius E. i. 
To class i? also belong : (a) the Bamberg MS. ("A") ; 
(b) the abridgment in the Chronica Majora of Mat- 
thew Paris' ; (c) the original of the version made by 
Jean Belet.'' 

We have thus made accessible to us good repre- 
sentatives of class /3 in MSS. A and K, and of class 
a in MS. C. (That Ward is correct (p. 451) in class- 
ing A with K, and C with R, appears from a com- 
parison of the passages which he quotes from R (pp. 
446-449) with the corresponding passages in C. 
The two texts agree nearly word for word, while A 
and K show constant important variations in which 
they usually agree. Further: in Chap. XXI., KA 
employ (three times) the word abhada, while CR just 
as consistently read monasterimn). 

Of which class, now, was the Latin MS. which 
lay before Marie ? In the passage just referred to, 
Marie agrees with KA in all three cases ; she trans- 
lates (11. 1947, 1960, 1975) the word by abbeie. In 

' Catalogue II., p. 445. 

^Not including two texts much abridged, viz., Egerton 
1117 and Additional 33957. 
"Ward, Catalogue II., p. 461. 
•Ibid., p. 477. 


general, barring cases where A has undergone re- 
working, we shall find that Marie has regularly fol- 
lowed the readings of KA as against those of C (=R). 
This will be sufficiently shown by the following pas- 
sages : 

First case : Marie=K, as against C ; A is re- 
worked. At 1. 717 Marie has : Qui a si bon pur- 
posement Mis en tun quer, . . corresponding 
to K's (Cap. v., 1. 33) : qui in corde tuo bonum 
propositum misit, while C has : qui in corde tuo con- 
firmavit propositum, and A shows reworking : qui 
cordi tuo tantum et tarn salubre inspiravit propositum. 
Again, Marie (1. 884) has : Ne volt un mot parler a 
els, corresponding to K's (Cap. VI., 1. 72) : nee vel 
unum verbum eis respondit, while C has : nihil peni- 
tus respondens, and A : labiis suis indicit silencium 
nee respondet. Again, Marie (1. 967) : II retint 
bien en sun pensi Cum Deus I'aveit ems delivre, 
which reproduces K's (Cap. VII., 1. 56 ff.) : lUe 
vero mente retinens qualiter alibi ab eis deus liber- 
avit, while C has omitted the passage ; A reads : Ac 
ille misericordie dei non immemor. 

Second case : Marie=KA, as against C. Marie 
(1. 708) has : Res e tundu novelement, and A (Cap. 
v., 1. 27 ff.) : barbis nuper rasis, and K : et nuper 
rasi. C has nothing corresponding. Again, Marie 
(1. 1671) says : Li ereevesque le menerent Un poi en 
sus . . corresponding to KA (Cap. XVI., 1. 
146 ff.) : Pontifices . . ab aliis seorsum subtra- 
hentes, while C has nothing at all answering to this 
clause. Again, Marie (1. 2017) : Creiez mei qui 
de mes oeilz vi, for which K reads (Cap. XXII., 1. 


15) : crede saltern quod ab oculis meis vidi, and A : 
credo [error for crede] saltern quod oculis meis vidi, 
while C is much fuller : et oculis meis harum rerum 
non valde dissimile multique mecum conspexere. 

Third case : Marie=K, as against AC. Marie 
(1. 970) has : Einz les despist e sis hdi, as in K 
(Cap. VII., 1. 66 ff.) : Hos omnino contempsit. The 
sentence is wanting in AC. Again : Marie (1. 1166) : 
quant il deceit avaler, for which K (Cap. XI., 1. 
27 flf.) : in descenscione rote. . . Nothing cor- 
responding in AC. Again, Marie (1. 1649) : Ghas- 
cune aveit a grant plenty La eelestiene clarti, answer- 
ing to K's (Cap. XVI., 1. 126 ff.) : Erant singule 
magnitudine lucis replete. In AC the sentence is 

It follows from the foregoing that Marie translated 
a text which belonged to class /?, and one which, as 
Mall had already seen,' stood very near to MS. K. 
MS. A, owing to thorough reworking which appears 
chiefly in the descriptions of hell and the terrestrial 
paradise, offers comparatively little aid in the estab- 
lishment of Marie's text. 

That neither A, nor yet K, can be the original 
from which Marie drew is sufficiently shown by the 
fact that K does not contain the lengthy prologue 
(Marie U. 17-188) nor the Chaplain's tale of the 
Second Hermit (11. 2117-2184).-'' 

On the other hand, A omits the story of the Irish- 

'op. cit., p. 142. 

^ At 1. 2190, Marie has quAnze salmes while in K the 
number is SCTe« (p. 196). 


man (Marie 11. 215-264). Neither will fl"ar% 3846, 
which, as we have seen, also belongs to class /3,' 
answer the requirements, since the account of Floren- 
tianus and all subsequent matters are not found in 
it (Marie 11. 2071-2296). 

We can conclude, therefore, that the MS. which 
Marie used (which, if it exists, has not yet been made 
accessible to us), stood very near to B. M. Arundel 
292, but differed from it in that it contained the pro- 
logue, the first homily (Marie 11. 1401-1484) in a 
form somewhat longer than that in A but shorter 
than that in R, the episode of the two abbots, and 
the Chaplain's tale. 

It so happens that the Espurgatoire of Marie con- 
tains most of the reliable evidence which we possess 
as to the time in which its author lived and wrote. 
Before this evidence was examined, it was believed 
that Marie's floruit should be placed in the reign of 
Henry II., (1154-1189)^ but according to later in- 
vestigations it is more probable that her active period 
should be taken as just beginning about the time of 
the death of this king, and as continuing even into 
the next century. In order to place some fresh evi- 
dence in its proper connection, it will be useful to 
summarize here the reasons which have led to this 

1 Ward, Catalogue II., p. 464. 

2 So G. Paris, IMt. Fr^e au Moym Age,^ p. 248, and 
Warnke, Zeits. f. Rom. Phil. IV., p. 226; Lays, Introd., 
p. XLIII. 


These are best set forth in an essay by Dr. S. 
Eckleben, which appeared in 1885. ^ The appear- 
ance of this essay forestalled the publication of a 
study on virtually the same subject by Dr. E. Mall^ 
but the results of the independent investigations of 
both scholars are the same in all essential points.^ 

1. Jocelin of Furness, writing about 1183 at the 
request of Thomas, Archbishop of Armagh, in men- 
tioning the Purgatory^ says nothing of Owein's des- 
cent, although this was said to have taken place long 
before, in Stephen's reign (1135-1164).^ 

2. Giraldus Cambreusis, who in 1185 accom- 
panied Prince John Q ' Lackland " ) to Ireland, also 
says nothing of the descent of Owein. Giraldus 
being a churchman and a learned man for his day, 
as well as an indefatigable and somewhat credulous 
collector of miscellaneous information, it is very diffi- 
cult to account for his silence if the Tractatus of 
Henry was written at this date.' 

Mr. Ward on this point is ' ' inclined to surmise 
that Giraldus had heard an inaccurate report of the 
present [Henry's] work, but that its popularity was 
not yet strong enough to impel him to name Sir 
Owen." It has been noted above, however, that 
Girald's account contains no idea of a visit in bodily 

' Die dlteste Schilderung vom Fegefeuer des hell. Patricms. 
Halle, 1885. 

^ Cp. Romanische Forschungen VI. , p. 140. 

^ See above p. 1. 

'Eckleben, pp. 20-25, 45, and cp. Ward, II., p. 438. 

5 Eckleben, pp. 26, 46, and Ward, II., p. 440. 


person to the other world, and his ideas of the Pur- 
gatory have all the air of having been gathered from 
oral sources only, during his stay in Ireland, and of 
representing the current talk at some distance from 
the locality itseif It has not been noted in this con- 
nection that in treating the folk-tales current in Ire- 
land about St. Brandan, Giraldus, after repeating 
the tales about the marvellous voyage of the Saint 
which had reached him, refers the reader for further 
information to the book {"libellum") which had 
been written on the life of St. Brandan. ^ That he 
would at least have mentioned so remarkable a work 
as Henry's, had he then known of it, can hardly be 

3. Bishop Florentinus O'Cherballan, who, accord- 
ing to all the evidence, is the person named as such 
in the Tractatus (and by Marie, 1. 2075) did not 
reach the dignity of a bishopric until 1185. ^ 

4. Malachias (died 1148) who is twice mentioned 
in the Tractatus, (and by Marie, 11. 299, 2074), has 
always the title of " Saint," but he is not so named 
in the Life of him written by his friend, the great St. 
Bernard, nor was he formally canonized until 1189.' 
Mr. Ward^ considers it beyond doubt that " popular 
opinion had pronounced him a saint long before 
1190." Dr. Eckleben claims, on the other hand, 
that a learned monk such as Henry certainly was, 
would be very careful in the application of such a title. 

' Topog. Hibem., Distinctio II., cap. 43. 
= Eckleben, p. 56 ; Ward, II., p. 443. 

' Eckleben, pp. 54, 56. 
* Catalogue II. , p. 443. 


It is easy, indeed, to account for the addition of 
the title to Malachias' name, either as Mr. Ward has 
done, or by supposing that the movement towards his 
canonization had been begun long before and was a 
matter of common knowledge among the Cistercians, 
or finally, by ascribing the "Sanctus" to the writers 
of the later MSS. (the original MS. not having come 
down to us). It is not so easy to account for the state 
of affairs in Marie's Espurgatoire. The first time 
Malachias is named is in a passage which undoubt- 
edly reproduces a part of the original Tractatus ; the 
second time is in a passage which probably was added 
by another hand than Henry's, since it is preserved 
only in certain of the MSS., and these, according to 
Mall,' are not the oldest or best. The first passage 
in Marie reads (1. 299) : 

f nm mmtre Malachias 
En sa Vie, nel dutez pas. 

and the second (1. 2074) : 

Nevuzfu al tierz Seint Patriz 
Qui cumpainz ert Seini Malachiz. 

If, now, in the first passage, " Sanctus Malachias " 
stood in the Latin MS. which lay before Marie, it is 
extremely difficult to see why she should have 
omitted the title, especially as she is always careful 
to add those of Gregory (11. 32, 151, etc.), Augus- 
tine (1. 143), and Patrick (cp. 11. 7, 190, 302, etc. In 
all nine times ; in 481 its omission is therefore proba- 
bly an error). It would have been easy to have 
written Qo nus dit, etc. without material change in 

^ Mom. Porsch. VI., p. 142. 


the sense. It is therefore extremely probable that 
at the first passage, Marie's original bore the name 
Malachias without the title and that it consequently 
was written before 1189. The addition of the 
title in the second passage, on the other hand, gives 
us less basis for a conclusion for the reasons given at 
the beginning of the preceding paragraph. It is 
further probable that as Marie uses a different spell- 
ing in the two passages, the identity of the names 
escaped her. 

As far, then, as the evidence on this point can be 
trusted, it gives us a terminus ad quern for the com- 
position of the Tractatus eight years earlier than that 
furnished by the Chronicle of Johannes Brompton 
(1197)' which mentions Henry's work, and narrows 
the period during which it could have been composed 
to the years between 1185 (composition of Giraldus' 
Topographia) and 1189 (canonization of Malachias). 

Marie de France, as is well known, was the author 
of two other works, — a collection of Lay^ and a 
larger collection of Fables, of which as yet we possess 
no critical text.' What indications are there as to 

1 Cp. Eckleben, pp. 28, 48. 

^ Ed. Warnke, Die Lais der Marie de France, Bihliotheca 
Normannica III. Mit vergleichenden Anmerkungen von 
R. Kohler. Halle, 1885. 

'A critical edition by Dr. A. M. Elliott, Baltimore, was 
announced as in progress in 1891. See Mod. Lang. Notes 
VI., 7, col. 442. 


the relative order of these compositions ? Mall says' : 
"diese Schrift [the Espurgatoire] aus sprachlichen 
wie sachlichen Griinden als das alteste der erhaltenen 
Werke der Marie gelten muss," but unfortunately 
he postponed the promised publication of the basis 
for this conclusion. It is necessary, therefore, to see 
how far we may be able to supply the omission. 

1. The Espurgatoire shows a grade of literary skill 
distinctly inferior to that displayed in both the Lays 
and the Fables. To be convinced of the truth of 
this assertion, we have but to glance at the frequent 
employment in the former of stereotyped phrases 
where the meaning gains nothing by their use. Such 
are: nel dutez pas (11. 300, 734) go li est vis (11. 1008, 
1579, 1593, etc.) e'en est la sume (11. 54, 703, 2132) 
bien le sachiez (11. 245, 1739) sans dutanee (1. 128). 
The repetition of whole lines is not uncommon (line 
1037 recurs at 1201 and 1599 ; also 983 at 1225), 
and a certain poverty of vocabulary is observable in 
the not infrequent use of the same word as the rime- 
word of both lines of the couplet.^ These character- 
istics are almost unknown in the Lays and Fables. 

2. Marie, in the Prologue to the Lays, distinctly 
abandons the practice of translating tales from the 
Latin. She says (1. 28 if.) : 

Pur ceo comengai a penser 
d'alhiine bone estoire faire 
e de Latin en Romanz traire ; 
maw ne me fwt guaires de pris : 
itant s'en sunt oMre entremis. 

' Zeitschrift f. Roman. Philologie IX., p. 163. 
^ For examples, see Note to 1. 1369. 


That is to say, as little distinction was to be won in 
the field of translating Latin stories, Marie turns to 
a more difficult task : 

Des lais pensai qa' diz aveie . . etc. 

If, as M. G. Paris thinks,' Marie wrote the Lays 
from hearing them related in her presence, to pass 
from the almost servile translation of the Espurgor 
toire, with its appendix of irrelevant tales, to such an 
enterprise as the composition of these Lays, is a dis- 
tinct rise in grade of literary work. 

3. While Marie dedicates the Lays to the king 
himself (Richard Coeur-de-Lion, according to Dr. 
Mall), and the Fables to William Longsword, an 
influential noble (Marie styles him " leplus vaillant 
de oest reialme") in the Espurgatoire she has not 
yet attained to such a degree of confidence in her 
own powers as to venture upon making a dedication 
to such high personages. 

4. It would be remarkable if any great difierences 
appeared in the language of succeeding works of the 
same author, yet indications do not wholly fail that 
the Espurgatoire represents a slightly older type of 
speech than the Lays or Fables : a) certain ferns, of 
Decl. II. show no s in the n. sg. write rl83^ gent 
rll28. In the Lays the s appears in all words of 
this class. ^ b) nvint (occurs 11 times) is always two 
syllables ; the Lays occasionally permit its contrac- 

' Cp. Romania XIV., p. 605. 

^An r before a number indicates that the word discussed 
is assured by the rime at the line named. 
Cp. Introd., p. XXXIV. 2. 


tion to one syllable.^ c) rimes sucli as meroier : 
chier {Lays, Chaitivel, 27) are wanting in the Espurg? 
d) final 4 persists in the Espurg. in deit digitum r2047 
and in s'eavanit r328, while to the Lays the consonant 
has been lost in both cases. The usage as to elision 
or retention of e from Lat. -at, furnishes no basis 
for a conclusion.^ Again, the frequent replacing of 
the nominative by the accusative is no indication of 
age, inasmuch as this replacing is observed in the 
earliest Anglo-Norman texts ; it can only be viewed 
as evidence of the Anglo-Norman coloring of the 
language. * 

What evidence there is, therefore, goes to confirm 
Dr. Mall's conclusions : 1) that the Espurgatoire is 
the earliest of the works of Marie which are known 
to us ; 2) that as the Latin original of the Espurga- 
toire is to be referred to a date not long previous to 
1189, Marie's active period could not have begun 
before the closing decade of the twelfth century. 

»Cp. Introd., p. XXVI. 2. 
2 See below, IV., B. s.v. ie. 

' Contrary to Warnke's assertion, in Zeits.f. Rom. Phil. 
IV., p. 242 ; see below, IV., A. Hiatus. 
* See below, IV. D. 


A SINGLE manuscript containing the Espurgatoire of 
Marie de France is now known to exist : Fds. 6:9. No. 
25407 of the Bibliotheque Rationale at Paris (form- 
erly marked Notre-Dame 277). It is written on 
vellum, with two columns to the page, and evidently 
dates from the end of the thirteenth or the early 
fourteenth century. 

As is well known, the text of this MS. was pub- 
lished nearly seventy-five years ago by B. de Roque- 
fort. * Roquefort aimed only at an intelligible text 
and even with this uncritical aim, failed to repro- 
duce the original in many important particulars, 
often through errors in transcription or in solution of 
abbreviations, often through mistaken emendations 
or failure to recognize unusual words. His scanty 
prefatory notice is not free from serious errors.^ 

The MS. contains the following pieces : 

1. fo. la-lOld. The Jmagfe du Monde of Gautier 

de Metz. In a different hand from that of 
the rest of the MS. 

2. fo. 102a-122d. The Espurgatoire. 

3. fo. 122d-138d. The Moralitez, a translation of 

the Moralium Dogma of Gautier de Lille. 
Begins : Talent me esteit pris he jo recontasse. 
Ends : Bien ait qi co comanz fist qi le fi»t 
escrivre e qui lesorit. 

' Poisies de Marie de France, etc., 2 vols. Paris, 1820 and 
2Cp. Eckleben, p. 37. 


4. fo. 139a-156d. The Romanz des Romanz. 

5. fo. 167a-160d. A Credo, Paternoster and 

seven peticions in prose. 

6. fo. 160d-172d. PrologusRegineSibille, printed 

from this MS. by P. Tarb6, in his Collection 
des Poltes de Champagne XII., pp. 106 ff. 
Keims, 1851. 

7. fo. 173c-196a. The Secrez des Secrez, inverse. 

Begins : Primes saciez he icest trectez Est le 
secre de secrez numez. . . Ends : Ke le 
regne pussum merir Ke done a suens a sun. 

8. fo. 197a-212d. The Distichs of Cato, Latin 

text with French translation after each para- 
graph. Printed from this MS. by Leroux de 
Lincy, Ldvre des Pr over bes frangais (2nd. ed.) 
II., p. 439 ff. , whence it is copied in Stengel's 
Ausgaben und Abhandlungen XLVII., p. 
111. ff. Leroux de Lincy' s text is not trust- 

9. fo. 213a-244d. The Tomoiemenz Antecrlt of 

Huon de M^ry, published by P. Tarb^, in 

his work just cited, and republished from this 

and six other MSS. by G. Wimmer, in Ausg. 

und Abhand. LXXVI., Marburg, 1888. 

At the bottom of this last folio (244) are the 

words, in the hand of the MS., Alnun de deu qui od 

nm seit which is the first line of the Espurgatoire. 

The pages of the MS. have evidently been transposed 

and renumbered. There is a blank page at fo. 

196cd, and the MS. may have formerly ended here ; 


the Dietichs of Cato and the Torn. Antecrit must 
then have immediately preceded the Egpurg. 

The MS. offers no means for the determination of 
its date within narrow limits. The Torn. Antecrit 
was written between 1234 and 1249 ; according to 
P. Meyer {Romania XV., p. 287) the Secrez de» 
Seorez dates from the middle of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. The Image du Monde dates from 1245, but, 
as already noted, this piece, being in a different hand, 
may have originally formed part of another MS. 
From these indications, the MS. belongs to the 
second half of the thirteenth century (so Wimmer, 
op. cit. , p. 2) or the beginning of the fourteenth. 

Fortunately, we are able to control the writing 
habits of the scribe of the MS. by comparing with 
its original his copy of the Tornoiemenz Antecrit. Of 
this composition, Wimmer, in the work cited, collates 
seven MSS., which, according to his investigations, 
fall into two groups deriving from a and /J respec- 
tively. MS. "A" (that is, Paris B. N., f. f. 1593-- 
one of the best MSS.) and MS. " D " (the one con- 
taining the Espurg. ) derive from a ; and five others 
from /?. It is evident that where the reading of A is 
the same as that of O (that is, the original text as 
established by collation of all the MSS.) we can 
assume with entire safety that this reading was the 
reading of a from which A was copied. But D was 
also copied from a, and readings of D which differ 
from those common to A and O, are therefore due to 
the scribe of D, and the character of these variants 
will furnish some hints as to his habits of writing, 
his dialect, the extent of his knowledge, etc. When, 


for instance, at 1. 1991 of the Torn. Ant, OA (and 
hence a) read : C'orent Cliges et Lancelot, wliile D 
has C'orent gigles et sauselot, it is not too much to say- 
that the scribe was ignorant of the familiar names of 
the Breton romances. In the same way, other char- 
acteristics of the scribe's work appear, among them 
the following : he was evidently a Churchman, as 
the theological character of the contents would first 
lead us to suspect. This is confirmed by the frequent 
church words or Latinisms which he has introduced 
into the text of the Torn. Ant. E. g. heresie for the 
erege of the other MSS. ; angles for angres ; puplican 
for popelican, etc. The scribe is also careless of the 
requirements of metre ; he frequently changes the 
tense, and substitutes senseless words or expressions, 
his attention wandering to neighboring words. Nice- 
ties of thought and expression are often lost through 
carelessness. Examples abound on every side and 
need not be quoted. They indicate with tolerable 
certainty that little confidence is to be placed in the 
readings of MS. 25407 in matters of detail, and we 
are therefore able to proceed to the correction of 
errors with a certain confidence. 

The abbreviations in the MS., though numerous, 
are none of them unusual, and with the aid of Prou's 
Manual,' present practically no difiiculty in their 

^Manuel de PaUographie, Paris, 1890, p. 59 ff. For a 
few special cases see the Notes on the text. 


The determination of the dialect in which Marie 
de France wrote has been made to turn upon the 
question whether her language shows the development 
of (=Lat. free 6, tt) into the diphthong pu. The 
presence of this diphthong in Marie's speech, — a 
diphthong which, as is well known, is a specifically 
French, as distinguished from Franco-Norman and 
Anglo-Norman characteristic' — has been affirmed 
by Prof. H. Suchier in his recently published Alt- 
franzosisohe 6rammatik.^ Upon the basis of this 
conclusion he has removed Marie from among the 
Franco-Norman writers with whom she had been 
classed previously,' and has placed her among the 
French writers. 

Judged by the other tests of French as difierent 
from Franco-Norman, namely (1) the mixture of 
-6)1- and -an- ;* (2) the absorption of the Imperfect 
-abat by the -ebat terminations' ; (3) the change of 
ei to oi,^ — Marie is distinctly a Franco-Norman 

' Cp. Suchier, Altfr. Gram. I., l^ 12c. d., 19a ; Schwan, 
Altfr. Gram.,' I? 98,292. 

' Halle, 1893. Theil I. Die Schrifisprache, pp. 2 and 29. 

'Warnke concludes from an investigation of Marie's 
language in the Zeitschriftf. Ram. Phil. IV. , p. 248 : ' ' Marie 
hat Franco-Normannisch . . geschrieben," and his 
edition of the Lays of Marie is based on this conclusion. 

'Cp. Warnke, Zeits. IV., p. 239 and Lays, Introd., p. 
xxviii. 3. 

*Cp. Warnke, Zedis. IV., p. 232 and Lays, Introd., p. 
xxix. 6. 

' Cp. Warnke, Lays, Introd. , p. xxix. 6 . 


writer, since all these phenomena are unknown to 
her language. It is thus apparent that Prof. 
Suchier's belief (so far as made public) rests solely 
upon the evidence in favor of the existence of the 
diphthong qu in her language. For the discussion 
which follows, new material has been collected and 
the attempt has been made to examine this evidence 
more closely than has been done heretofore. 

Marie in the Lays (Lanval 3.S9) rimes suls (solus) 
with -us (-osus) and in the Fables (No. 82, 11) the 
same suffix -osus occurs in rime with the word answer- 
ing to Latin lupus. It is Prof Suchier's view, if I 
have correctly understood it, that first in suls (pho- 
netic sous') and secondly in Iqus lupus (and also in dous 
duos) the diphthong qu is certain, and hence for the 
suffix -osus, -qus is assured, and the diphthong qu 
must be allowed for Marie. That -osus in four cases 
rimes with the atonic pronoun ims (vos), in which, 
for this period, the diphthongization would be un- 
heard of, necessitates the conclusion^ that Marie wrote 
now -us (=-os) now -qus; and, in other words, em- 
ployed a double orthography according as the exigen- 
cies of rime impelled her. 

It will be useful to have before us a complete list 
of the rimes in question. They are : 

a) in the Lays: -us (-osus) .-cms (ciicus) Ouig. 216 
•.vus Ouig. 343, 501 ; Dous Ainanz 95 :suls Cfuig. 
393 ; Lanval 339. 

b) in the Fables: -u^ :lus (lupus) 2,5 82,7^ 82, 

' See the Altfr. Gram. I., p. 30. 

' Roquefort's text is here to be transposed, as Warnke 
points out, Zeits. IV., p. 241. 


11 :dous 5,7. Lus :dous 4,11 79,9 :suk 42,3 56,1. 
Nus :dous 56,53. Bus :vus 94,29 and 59. 

c) in tie Espurgatoire : -us:vus 1895. 

Did the diphthong qu exist in Marie' s word answer- 
ing to Latin solus ? Fortunately, material does not 
wholly fail us for the answer to this question. 

I. o + L-f dental. Marie, in the ^spMrgr. (1. 1207) 
places genuz (*genuculos) and tuz (*tuttos) in rime. 
As the diphthong qu in tuz is, at this period, not to ' 
be thought of, we see from this rime that not only 
had the palatal quality of the I been lost at this time 
before the s (z) of flexion, but also that I, in Marie's 
time, was vocalized to u between u (=o) and a 
dental stop-sound, and then had united with the 
preceding u to form a single vowel. That such a 
union is to the highest extent reasonable, appears from 
the character of the articulations of the two sounds. 
Meyer-Lubke says' : ' ' Pour remission de I [velar or 
" barred " Z] la racine de la langue occupe la m^me 
position que pour remission de u: le premier pho- 
neme ne se distingue du second que par I'occlusion 
que forme la pointe de la langue . . " It will 
be readily seen that in the word genuz, and in any 
similar phonetic group, the point of the tongue, after 
the articulation of u, has still to make a closure in 
order to articulate z (=ts) ; so that all the essential 
features of velar I are here present in the preceding 
vowel and the following consonant. In such a posi- 
tion, it is obvious that the I could with difficulty per- 
sist, and in Marie's time it evidently had been ab- 

' Grammaire des Langues Romanes I., ? 476. 


sorbed into the contiguous articulations and had en- 
tirely disappeared from pronunciation. 

Virtually the same phonetic group is found in suh 
(solus), so that for this word we are justified in 
believing the pronunciation to have been ai^s, and 
that in rimes of this word with -us (-osus) the rime 
was exact. That the word (to my knowledge) is 
never so written, may be explained by the desire to 
avoid confusion with sus. (susum). 

The comparative rarity of the occurrence of ql+ 
consonant in the Old French vocabulary, will ex- 
plain the scarcity of rimes of this sort in Marie and 
in other authors of the period ; but that the same 
contraction of oZ-)- dental into single q also holds good 
for Marie's contemporary, Benoit de Sainte-More, is 
placed beyond reasonable doubt by the following 
rimes from the Soman de Troie^ : sols (solus) :nos 
417, 3961 :vos 1437, 12863 .•-os(-osus) 14101, 
19171, 21023 dolz :toz 20719. And from the 
Chronique des Dues de Normandie :- temute (tumul- 
tum) :gute 19704. 

II. diios. How did Marie pronounce the French 
word answering to Latin duos ? It rimes with -osus 
{Fables 5,7), and with nus (^Fables 56,53). The 
latter rime points strongly toward a phonetic dus. 
Bohmer^ has arranged most of the material from the 
older monuments in regard to this word. His in- 
quiry culminates in the sentence : ' ' Die Verfasser 
der o-u Denkmaler sprachen gewiss dus.' ' It is my 

'Ed. Joly, 1870. 

' Romanische Studien III., p. 603. 


belief that we have in this word a literary orthogra- 
phy doMS by the side of a pronunciation dus — dqs be- 
longing to the folk-speech. If this view be correct, 
it would be strange if the orthography dus — dos 
failed to appear in texts which show folk-speech in- 
fluences. Dos, in effect, appears in rime with vos, in 
Chrestien de Troyes' Eree and Enide. ' This poem 
is distinguished from the other works of Chrestien 
by its free admission of popular and dialectic ele- 
ments.^ Elsewhere the orthography dus, dos is not 
rare. KnoseP has collected a considerable number 
of examples from which I quote the MS. of the 
Roman de Troie, edited by Joly. (11. 9764 and 

These facts support the conception of a Folk- 
Latin dos, which appears in the Passion as dos (71 
b c) parallel with siios — sos (1 e, 11 d) and tflos — tos 
(14 b, 16 a), and which, in the West, exhibits the 
game development as the suffix -osus. This was evi- 
dently the view of Schwan," who wrote dos as the 
Folk-Latin etymon. 

A phonetic dqs is likewise to be ascribed to Benolt. 
Cp. Roman de Troie :- dos :vos 12729, 18247 .resplen- 

' 1. 3438. Ed. Forster. Cp. Note p. 320. 

'Op. Introd., p. xi. 

3 Ueber Altfrz. Zahlivorter, Gott. Diss., 1883, pp. 10 
and 30. 

* The other texts quoted by Knosel are : the Roman de 
Joufroi, Floire et Blanchefleur (ed. Du M6ril), Ogier le 
Danois (ed. Barrels), Parise la Duchesse, and Villehar- 
douin, Conquite de Constantinople. 

^Altfr. (?ram.,Ȥ386. 


dors 14581 :rescos 6395 :-os (-osus) 5529, 6089, etc. 
(13 times). 

AVhence, then, the orthography (dous) of most of 
the older monuments ? Bohmer suggests that doua 
was written to avoid confusion with dm (dux), doa 
(dorsum), and deus (Deus). As more motives than 
one may lie behind such a phenomenon, it is to be 
noted that this numeral seems peculiarly susceptible 
to Latinization. ' The Vie de St. Leger shows duos 
(20e and 2b) and duaes (106a). According to Gro- 
ber^, the Old Italian duo, dua, duoi are Latinisms. 
There is then some ground to believe that the Old 
French forms uns, dous, treis may have been mod- 
elled closely upon the Latin unus, duo(s), tres. 

III. lupus. This word rimes in Marie as follows : 
with -osus, Fables 2,5 82,7 82,11 :duos4,ll 79,9 
:solus42,3 56,1. 

Here I must have recourse to the readings of the 
MSS. of Marie's works, inasmuch as the phonetic 
history of the word has not yet been made entirely 
clear. First, however, should be remarked the ap- 
pearance of Iqs in rime with nos in Chrestien's Eric 
and Enide, 1. 4412 :rqs Yvain 301, and in Benoit's 
Roman de Troie in rime with -osus 11. 9105, 21077.' 

' This tendency reappears later in the forms of other 
numerals. Op. cinq, dx, sept, lingt, etc. 

' Archiv fiXr Latein. Lexicog. II., p. 107. 

' The very frequent appearance, in the Roman de Troie, 
of -osus in rime 1) with atonic o, and 2) with o in Latin 
checked position (where qu had certainly not yet ap- 
peared) make it permissible to use these rimes in evi- 


For Ills we have the readings of the Hwley and 
York MSS. of the Fahles (the Cambridge MS. has 
louB) in all cases the word appears ; so also in Cotton 
Vespasian B. xiv. to Fables 2,5 and 56,1- Lus, 
again, is the reading of the London Brandan 1. 1282, 
of the Roland 1. 1751 (ed. Miiller). I look upon 
lus, therefore, as the regular western form, corre- 
sponding to the eastern lous — leus. 

IV. cucus, ^biicus, (jtigum). As stated above, 
clicus' occurs in rime with -osus (MS. cous) in the 
Lays, Guig. 216 ; *bucus (modern French boud') in 
rime with vua, Fables 94,29 and 59. The rarity of 
the appearance of these words presents an obstacle to 
the determination of their Norman forms ; but that 
the true Franco-Norman development demands (in 
the cus, bus is shown by the (in all respects 

dence. The Roman de Troie shows 12 cases of -osus in 
rime with nos ; 22 cases in rime with vos. Also -os :ros 
6449. .-rescos 8511, 8767, 15641, 21481, 23463, 26190. .-tros 

The orthography of the MS. edited by Joly is remarka- 
bly rich in variations. For -osus occur : -os, -ous, -ox, -oh, 
-«MS, -eos. -eus (-osus) : -eus (illos) 12273, 28569, if genuine 
readings, are doubtless an importation from the East. 

' I am aware that the derivation of 0. Fr. cous from 
cucus (=cugus Du Oange) has as yet not been demon- 
strated, though affirmed by Manage, Littr^, and others. 
It is doubted by G. Paris {Romania XIV., p. 602 ff.) and 
hy Tobler (Zeits.f. R. P. X., p. 164). I expect to publish 
before long a study of these Latin substantives in -cus 
(-gus) in French, which, I trust, will put this etymology 
beyond dispute. 

' Cp. Mackel, Die Germanischen Elemente, etc., p. 21. 


parallel) development of jugum, wMcli appears as 
jus, ju in the Four Books of the Kings {juh in the 
Mont6bourg Psalter.)^ 

To resume briefly, sufiicient evidence has been 
brought forward to show that the Franco-Norman 
(and Anglo-Norman) forms of the words treated are 
phonetic sus (written suk), phonetic dus (written 
dous) lus, cus, bus, jus, which correspond to the east- 
ern forms sous — seus, dous — deus, etc., and which, be- 
cause they have the same vowel quality as u (=:Latin 
free o, li) are freely placed by Marie in rime with 
the same. 

From this it follows that neither Marie nor Benoit 
(in the Roman de Troie) know the diphthong qu from 
free Latin o, ti, nor in their words answering to Latin 
diios, lupus, ciicus, *biicus, jflgum. The dialect in 
which Marie de France wrote, therefore, was not 
French, but Franco-Norman. 

'Cp. Suchier, Altfr. Oram. I., p. 14. 


Marie's language has undergone some careful in- 
vestigation at the hands of Dr. Warnke in his article 
" Ueber die Zeit der Marie de France, "' as well as in 
the Introduction to his edition of the Lays. In the 
first mentioned work only has use been made of ma- 
terial from the Espurgatoire, and a number of ques- 
tions as to specific traits of the language which Marie 
employed, have remained unsettled. With a few 
exceptions, only material which is either omitted or 
incompletely treated by the editor of the Lays will 
be brought forward in the following pages. 

A. Hiatus, Contraction, Elision. 

Hiatus. In thirteen cases the MS. shows hiatus 
with final atonic e. In four of these (472, 1242, 
1272, 1410) obvious corrections are to be made which 
relieve the hiatus. In 1. 434 the copyist has avoided 
hiatus by adding an s in costumes (n. sg.). For 
Marie, however, the word is a feminine of Decl. I. (cp. 
472,566). The consonant groups preceding the e in 
hiatus are : 1) mute+liquid (reoeivre 226 oevre 518 
vivre 1430 estre 1725 prestre 2296) ; 2) single conso- 
nants (Awme 238,2069 custume AM parfaoe 720). 

In only one case does the Espurg. permit hiatus of 
6 from Latin -at in the Indie, and Sbj. pres. 3, viz., 

' In Zeiis. f. Rom. Phil. IV., p. 223 ff. Dr. Warnke, un- 
fortunately, was compelled to use the Roquefort edition 
of the Espurg., which, as we have seen, is quite untrust- 
worthy. More than once it led him into basing conclu- 
sions upon false readings. E.g. 11. 1104 (p. 246), 1054 (p. 
247), 1991 (p. 237) and 472. 


720 : Parface il par sa hunU. In all other cases the 
e is lost : 614, 1445, 1816, 1859, 1860, 1894, 2281. 
Warnke, in his discussion of this subject,' appar- 
ently overlooked this line, and with consequently de- 
fective material drew the conclusion that the (sup- 
posed) consistent elision of e (-at) in the Espurg. in- 
dicates a date of composition later than that of the 
Lays, where such hiatus is allowed 19 times. In view 
of the line just quoted, and of the scarcity of exam- 
ples of both kinds in the Espurg., it is manifestly 
not permissible to draw such a conclusion. 

Contraction. As in the Lays,^ the metre gives 
us a sure indication that Marie's language did not 
permit the contraction to a diphthong or single vowel 
of two vowels originally in Latin hiatus or separated 
by a consonant. Cp. : -iiln -ionem precius 1495 
pecheur 762 armeure 804 dient 173 grail 1096 
hruir 898 pour 547 rounde 305 heneeigun 785 
aage 260 veu 73 peust 1602 bene'eiz 1679 etc. 

The MS., however, shows the contraction fre- 
quently : juner 578 espenir 531, 613, etc. rancun 
728 purseir 298 beneit 1567 pust 528 dust 104 
henesquirent 1652.' 

It is convenient to add here what is to be said of 
the use of or, ore and cum, cume, etc. The MS. 
shows ore before consonant initial five times. In two 
of these (1312, 1966) it represents two syllables. In 
the other three cases (655, 1667, 1841) it counts as 
one syllable, and following the more carefully writ- 
ten MSS. of the Lays,* I have substituted or. 

As uneor stands before consonant initial 2181, the 
same form has been written 61,291, where the metre 

^Zdts.f. Rom. Phil. IV., p. 242. 
^ See Introd. , p. xxvi. 

' Burguy , Oram, de la. Langiie d' Oil I. , p. 322, reproduces 
Eoquefort's false reading of this line. 
* Cp. Introd. , p. xxvi. 


demands only two syllables ( MS. uncore). On the 
contrary, the e is necessary to the metre in encore 

Cum and cume both occur frequently before conso- 
nant initial. In eight cases (638, 1047, 1233, 1577, 
1620, 1630, 1706, 2224) e is necessary to the metre ; 
in twenty cases e has no worth (4, 126, 327, etc.). 
Two cases remain doubtful : 421, 566. — el for ele 

Elision. As to elision before vocalic initials 
in ne (nee) , que, si se (si) , the Espurg. stands upon 
the same ground as the Lays^, elision being optional : 
ne 1418 ; m' 22, 816, 1110, etc.— gtte 100, 282, 458, 
912, etc. ; qu' 284, 289, 307, etc.— at 238, 240, 1835; 
s' 969, 1138, 1847, etc. 

Jo. As in the Lays, the elision of jo also is op- 
tional ; the Espurg., however, shows only one case 
(2287) where the word retains its syllabic value. 
For elision, cp. 15, 26, 185, etc. Interesting is 2063; 
E puis par lai fa dous abbez. G. Paris^ has quoted 
another case of this elision ; cp. also : apelent Vhume 
for li hums I'apelent in the Computus of Philippe de 
Thaiin', and two similar cases in the Lays, where 
eiision is not permitted.^ 

Qo. Elision of this pronoun is optional. Cp. po 
est 242, 1805, 2144 go iert 1788 go oi (pret. 3) 
2001 ; but e'est 108, 807, 1690, etc. c'ert 248 e'en 53, 
703, 2132 c'esteit 2082. More unusual are : en 
c'esteient 484 pur c'eslirai 535 de g'aveie 2171 
and g'aveient 483. 

si (sic) shows elision before il 2040 (unless we 
have here the enclitic use of neuter le as in 13, 

' Cp. Introd., p. xxvii. 
> De L' Accent Latin, p. 121. 
'1.251. Cp. Mall, Introd., p. 32. 
*Cp. Introd., p. xxvii. 3. 


782, 1912). Otherwise si appears before vocalic 
initial : 746, 1043, 1167, 1134, etc. 

en (inde) loses its vowel after qui : 296, 1114. 

quei before vocalic initial shows elision in 1180 : 
Purqu'il tarjout li demanderent. Likewise 790: Par 
qu'a Deu puisse I'alme rendre ; the transposition Par 
qiieipuisse a Deu, etc., is, however, easy. Cp.l. 614.i 

li n. sg. of the article, shows optional elision : li 
abes 1941 li altre 2124 li airs 1391 li evesques 
541, 549, 2117, 2123 li us 354 li uns 713, 2067, 
2204. But I'evesques 440, 515, 525, 559. li escriz 
421 remains doubtful. 

li (n. pi. of the article) is never elided :- 845, 972, 
1083, 1203, 1791, etc.— Zi (dat. sg. of the pers. pron.) 
may lose its vowel : I'en 2080. Apparently in I'dit 

For supposed elision of qui, see Pronouns. 

For the enclitic use of le and les 1) as article with 
a, de, and en, and 2) as pronoun with ne, qui, si and 
jo, the Espurg. shows no important difference from 
the usage of the Lays? ne se remains uncontracted 
90, 880, 1359, 1416, as is the custom in the Lays,* 
and in the Computus.^ 

B. Vowels. 

a. The nasals -an- and -en- are not rimed. Of 
words which, on account of mixing of sufiix, vary 
between -ant and -ent, the Espurg. offers : aparissanz 
r82 ardanz rl008 covenant r2282 mananz r2125 

' Warnke, Lays, Introd. , p. xxvii. , in discussing an ex- 
actly similar case, has evidently missed the two examples 
just given, and his expression "derartige Erscheinungen 
sich bei Marie sonst nicht flnden " is therefore to be 

»Cp. Lays, Introd., p. xxvii. ; Zeits. IV. pp. 238, 239. 

'Op. Introd., p. xxviii. 


5 e. g. 11. 83, 271. 


mobediens rl695 orient rS'ii servant r845 talent 
r2136 penitence r362. — essample occurs witliaonly. 

g. -eria : the regular development appears inma- 
tire (-.dire 1492). miseire miseria 1710 is learned. 
Since -eals -fellus is assured by rime for Marie,' I 
have restored this reading consistently : 1673, 1891, 

.'^ short. Appears regularly in clerc 47 -esce -itiei 
350, 1655, etc. messe 1443 nes nitidus 319 chevels 
rl078 eels r470 etc. 

The Espurg. shows no cases of mixing in rime of 
short e with long e or with i. In estencgles (movgles 
1269) the suffix -glla has replaced the proper Latin 
ending (scintilla).^ 

Short ? and g before nasals, however, form for 
Marie, as for other authors of the period, an excep- 
tion to this rule, both being represented by nasal e : 
Cp. venz ventum :em mtus 1049 suvent :gent 1998, 
2115 turmenz -.dedeuz 1071 purpens dens 2203. 

e long. The suffix -al -alis is frequent, by the side 
of the phonetically regular -el : bestial 203 enfernal 
r358 leial 1981 ; but corporel rl26 espiritel 165 
celestiel i'1812 mortel t1358. 

remist remansit 329, 787, etc., and remistrent 604 
appear for remest remeMrent.^ An Anglo-Norman 
trait is ie for e in piere patres 16,401 and in siet 
sapit 545. — I]or -'ier for ier, see under ie. 

g. appears for q as usual in the learned words 
gloire (:me7noire 772) victoire (:gloire 1568) Espurga- 
toire (.-gloire 1641). 

' Cp. Lays, Introd., p. xxxi. 

' Cp. Lays, Lnnml 118; Colin, Siiffi.rmmdlung p. 49 ; 
Sucliier, Altfr. Gram. I., p. 19. 
'Cp. Suchier, Altfrz. Gram. I., p. 23. 



0. Before oral consonants, the MS. presents the 
greatest inconsistency in the representation of o 
(Lat. 6, u ', in tonic, as well as in atonic, position. 
Words frequently occur here with o, there with u, and 
again with ou (the last is comparatively rare). This 
mixture of forms especially characterizes the latter 
half of the text (from about 1. 1087 on). In the 
first half, is of quite rare occurrence for tonic o ; 
in the second half, the proportion of o to u is nearly 

If we seek the explanation of these facts, we are 
at once led to ascribe the writing o (and ou) to a 
French copyist who has substituted (inconsistently) 
his native forms for those of his copy. The verbal 
endings -ons, -ont, for instance, become the rule in the 
second half of the text, ,and here also occur the 
French Impf. endings -oit, -oient, as well as the 
writing ou. 

As further evidence of a general substitution of o 
for u, may be adduced a number of words in which 
has been made to replace a u which is not u (=o) 
but M (Lat. ii) :- coWose^e 1429 plosurs 1647 chascon 
1198, 1743, 1813 ehaseone 1197, and, vice versa, u 
is written where only o can stand in puur pavorem 

1. u appears for q (Lat. 6, u) in tonic free and 
checked position, as well before oral and nasal con- 

'It may be a question here whether the forms like 
chascon may have been introduced by Anglo-Norman 
copyiststo whom u (Lat. u) has the s^me value as « 
(=Lat. 0, u) Cp. Suchier, AUfrz. Gram. I., p. 12.c. Clm- 
con, for example, is a frequent reading of the Lincoln jMS. 
of the Computus: 1098, 1104, 2912, etc. Such a question 
does not admit of certain decision ; yet, in view of the 
fact that all these forms occur in that part of the MS. 
where o for u is most frequent, and that the opposite con- 
fusion occurs [puur for poilr), it seems more probable that 
we are deaHng with a simple oversight of the copyist. 
Inconsistent substitution is no doubt hkewise responsible 
for rimes hke aume : prodome 53, and cp. 1279, 1717. 


sonants: -»s -osus -»n -onem -ur-6ren\ p lu?- rlOS6 
hure 1831 aillurs 143 curt cttrtum r932 mu7it 
miindum r825 munde (adj.) 2302 etc. 

2. u for pretonic o has survived the general sup- 
pression of u in the MS. with sufecient frequency for 
us to believe that it represents Marie's usage : aurer 
adorare 2200 buterent 891 nurice 2223 duter 20 
reduta 649 diitanee 128 custus 129 custume 434, 
472,566 returner 12%^ furmage 2158 mustrerl, 
73, 123, 164, 210, etc. mustrance 173 mustier 668 
plurer 1016, 1859 sermunant 32 parfiindesce 2048 
purveil 2211 pwrpos 719 etc. On the contrary, o only 
in so^ei; 926, 931, 1522, 1577, 1821 and in sohmc 59, 
68, etc. {selunc 1726, 1778). Following the ten- 
dency to write o before and after v, ?{ is of rare oc- 
currence : covint 924 covent 1603 nevoz 2073 voiz 
408, etc. coveitent 93 estoveit 1392 movent 205, etc. 
descovrir 30 ; but grevvs 130 estiwra 726 avuiit^ 
vus, etc. On the basis of these latter readings, I 
have not hesitated in reading i( in all these cases (ex- 
cept voiz). 

3. u further appears for Latin o before nasals, in 
both tonic amd pretonic position : 7nunt mCntem rl224 
?mm<er 1780 cunta 224 cunte 91 Mm homo r505 
sun sonum {.-maisun 835) dun donum r296 lung 
867 respunt rl245 punt pontem 79 escunse 146 
cuntenir 725 huntus (Germanic mi) 1874. The MS. 
shows only bon, bone (but bunte 720). 

4. More uncertain are those cases where in Nor- 
man texts u appears in pretonic position before oral 
consonants for Latin 6. Of these, the Esjmrg. shows 
a few examples : demurer 316, 577. (Cp. 497, 846 ; 
demuerent 142) turment, turmenter 57, 74, 115, etc. 
surt (:curt curtum 931) *ex6rtit ? espruver 436. 
On the contrary, only o is found in morir 419, 
1995, 1975 oblier 606, 780 obli 2056 soleit 
2217 trover 141, 310, 2071, etc. devorouent 998 
novele 674 ovraigne 623 ovrer 59, 622, etc. 


It is to be noted that in the last five cases, besides 
the tendency of the copyist to replace u by o, the 
custom of allowing only o to stand before and after v 
may have influenced the forms. This of course 
lends an additional uncertainty, and, such being the 
case, they have remained as found in the MS. 

gu in clou elavum out habuit (36 times ; ot 1304) 
-out, -ouent -abat, -abant (but -omi 1018) sout sapuit 
pout potuit {pot 1174, 2041) (porent 603, 1645) 
(orent 11 times). 

It is noteworthy that the MS., with one exception, 
shows -out by the side of orent (not ourent) and 
piorent (not pourent). The same state of affairs is 
met with in the Lays, and, while it may well be a 
question whether in ot, pot, -oent we may not have 
traces of an older speech stratum nearly obliterated 
by later copyists, no study of these forms has as yet 
been made which might furnish us secure basis for 

au occurs : 1) in the learned word autor 1401, 
and 2) in words with a+ vocalized l. (See below 
under Consonants.) 

iu in riulez regulates liu l6cum ciu caecum Juiu 
Judaei. The last word appears only as ieu (jliu 
1916) for which I have written Juiu, since both 
the Lays and the Espurg. have only liu. The form 
substituted, according to Suchier, ' is known in 
French as well as Anglo-Norman texts. ^ 

Mtinpitizputeum eretw nuit nuisir puisse etc. lis 
(not uis) 354, 591. To the A.-N. copyist(s) are to 
be ascribed : fuit for /it 1261 fuissent (9 times) for 

iQp. Altfr. Gram. I., p. 55. 

' The London Brandan has the word in rime with pim. 
See Roman. Studien I., p. 581, 1. 1285. 


fussent (fusent 282} and, vice versa, puz tor puiz 1741. 
null for nului 815. 

gi in poi paucum, as in the Lays (not pou) bloies 

ai in checked position has the sound of g (Lat. e 
checked) maistre :prestre 2255 apres :malvais 633 
mes (10 times) ; mais (5 times) fessier 453 fet facit 
1401 p^es^ 13 trestrent 930. 

ei for ai is especially frequent and is no doubt due 
to Anglo-Norman' copyist(s) : eir aerem 1391 eit 
habeat meis magis neist nascit paleis 687, 695 
vereiment 1608 ireiz 85 treistrent 1175 meistre 
2106 ^6i«< pascit joeisa6fel662 etc. 

e for ai in free position is likewise to be ascribed 
to A.-N. copyist(s) : egle 1410 atrere 1319 fere 
1320 gueres 705, 821 fierur 1508 /eseii 284.-'' 

Before nasals, ai and ei have for Marie the same 
value : cp. certeiiis :meins minus 111 plein :mein 
manum 287, 1211 esfeiwi .-remewii remanet 906.^ 

611 for ein, ain in enz 63, 1141, 1883 and probably 
in enceis 1937.'' 

ei regularly in re i regem aueir habere creire veir 
verum neir nigrum, etc. 

^ Cp. Suchier, Altfrz. Oram. I., p. 49. 

^lhid.,-p. 39. 

^Cp. Warnke, Lays, Introd., p. xxix. 5, and Zeits. f. R. 
P. IV., p. 240. 

*The MSS. indicate that Marie used the form ainceis 
which obviously owes its form to the analofry of ainz antea; 
cp. einceis 2210 and Fables 63, 85 ; Lays, Lanval 543 and 
Eliduc r534. 


e for ei, an A.-N. trait, in crere 864 veer 941 
mover 548 aver 75,870 arder 898 swer 93' 
ermer 76, 99 dretturer 117 fea? 1847, 1981. 

i for ei in ortih 1227. (Also in espenir 531, 613, 
etc., wliere ei is two syllables) . 

oi for ei.- ?-ois 1567 esfoii 1329, 1497 estoient 
1202 and, vice versa, ei for oi in creiz cruces 1532. 

ie. 1) from Lat. S, ae regularly in grief mielz 
vieil siecle piece tierz etc. 2) from Lat. a, by 
Bartsch's law, in pechier (j-ier -erus for -arius^ 118) 
plungier (:-erus 1219) repairier (:-erus 1841) etc. 

Of words which in other texts hesitate between ie 
and e, we have aprimnier Qchevalier 1275) pilier 689 
pitie 813, 1052 (pite 669). 

There are no cases of mixing ie and e in rime, 
though each sound rimes with itself very often. 

Marie's language had already come under the in- 
fluence which caused the development of long f 
(=Lat. tonic a) into ie immediately after an i. Cp. 
preiere :chiere 23 :ariere 492 aoomuniez .pechiez 
313 isegniez 468 esmaiez :pechiez 522 I'ier :olou- 
fiehier 1063 chastier .-mustier 1469 celestiel :ciel 
1811 otrier : chevalier 2015. 

The Espurg. offers no case of this i^ in words where 
t(d) has fallen ; all the examples show the single e ; 
obliez -.apelez 11^ .-hastez 1297 crierent nnenerent 

The Anglo-Norman reduction of ie to e is very 

' saveer 942, 1022 does not indicate any phonetic change ; 
the word in both cases has been reformed on the rime-word 
veer; so maneeir :veeir 1700 and eisKuz :veuz 982. 

Cp. Marchot's satisfactory solution of the problem of 
this suffix in Zeits. f. JR. P., XVII., p. 288 ff. 

^I denote this sound (phonetic -Her, -iiez, etc. ) by i. See 
Suchier, Altfrz. Gram. I., pp. 23 and 45, 3, and see above, 
p. 16. 


frequent iu the MS. : arere 318 brefment 529 cheve- 
ler 787 ert erit 60, 372, etc. feble 391 (fieblesce 
397) gref lei peca 9 venent 259 v e Iz 2SS terz 
1034 pere petrum 1497 ; and further : a2}resmer 
1857 chere 1498 ciilohe 985 conge 2120 pecher 
118 repairer 1841 sache 1069 segnez 468 etc. 

nient (9 times) is always two syllables ; neent 432, 
530, and leez laetus 1896 show ee for ie. 

ie for Lat. long e in fieblesce 397. 

ue'milaecQO, 1121, etc. a^w 1992 demuerent 
142 giter cor puet pueple estuet. oe in nepuroec 
111 and oewe 148, 846, etc. 

for tie, oe is common, an Anglo-Norman charac- 
teristic : nepuroc 1605 estoi 725, 1139 flove 1251, 
1342 >OTie 2049 ovre 112 po< 1596, 2209 poent 
154, 1320 wft 1861 volent 118, 212 w/s 2253. 
To these words I add roe (MS. roue, rove) for ruee 
rota 1123, 1125, etc., oil for oei/ 701, 1085, etc., voil 
for iJoei^ 3, 47, etc., acoille for acueille 14. (See 
Notes to 11. 1123, 1822.) 

C. Consonants. 

1. QU, GU. As to qui, hi and que, he, the MS. 
shows peculiarities which are not easy to explain : 1) 
qui is written 150 times (65 of which are initial to 
the line) and hi only ten times (4 initial). 2) he, on 
the contrary, far outnumbers que : 251 cases of ke 
(62 initial) to 87 of que (63 initial). This is in di- 
rect opposition to the usage in the Lincoln MS. of the 
Computus, and, so far as it goes, agrees but ill with 
the conclusion of Mall (followed by Warnke) that 
the ti, at this period, was already silent in qui but 
not in que, qua-. ' Inasmuch as it is the tendency for 
changes in orthography to lag behind phonetic 

^ Computus, Introd., p. 93 ; Lays, In trod., p. xxxix. 3, 
and liii. 35. 


changes, it seems to me that we are more likely to re- 
produce Marie's orthography by writing qui and que, 
while still leaving open the question of pronuncia- 

The MS. shows a further peculiarity in that que 
belongs almost exclusively to the second half of the 
poem. The proportion of A;e'to que in 11. 1-1052 is 
as 50 to '1 ; in 11. 1070 to end, it is as 1 to 5. As 
noted above, it is the second half of the text which 
shows the continual substitution of o for u and que, 
therefore, may likewise be due to the last copyist. 

qu- stands also for Latin e in quer cor (8 times ; 
cor 1004) quisse coxa 1207 quidier (7 times ; but 
euidout 1601) qui cui (4 times). 

In qu/ir, gua- the u, is mostly kept : quant quart 
but always kar ; guarder (9 times) but garder 145, 
291, etc. guarniz 798 but garniz 330, 1644. 

2. L. Vocalization of I has taken place in genuz 
(:tuz 1207) and hence by inference in duz *dulcus 
1508, 1559 suk 818, 1306 mult 31, 191, etc. The 
MS. often preserves I after ii when it stands at the 
end of a pretonic syllable : sulphre 1081 dulcur 
767, 1300, 1592 culchie 985 tdtre 1699, and 
here it should not be repressed. So after a : salvez 
1782 sahnes 2190 pahyies 1533, 1632 malvais 634, 
748, 2278, and in inflected words like mals, metals, 
beak, etc., where the flexionless accus. sg. and n. pi. 
have apparently protected the I from vocalization. 
No warrant, however, exists in this MS. to suppose 
that ^was not vocalized in /aiw, saut, chaut, haut,faut, 
etc., which offer a phonetic parallel to genuz, duz, etc. 
Otherwise the MS. uniformly preserves the I : volt, 
tolt els, eels cunseilz, soleilz tels, quels, pels vuelt, 
oeilz, vielz, mielz, etc. 

I is crowded out between i (i) and the s (z) of 
flexion: cp. numbriz :piz 1206 and hence, by in- 
ference, in gentilz 1590 and perilz 1351, 1394. In 
view of the close similarity of the articulations, it is 


more probable that nus (nullus) 1354, 1358 is the 
phonetically correct form, and not mils 349, 1043, 

3. N has disappeared injur (.seigmir 332 :hmr 
1577J and hence, by inference, in other words of the 
same class : enfer 133 yver' 932 (yvern 686) and 
cJiar carnem 1709, 2013. 

Final n and final m have the same value : tiun 
nomen :prozdum 505, by the side oi nun :raisun 189 
mentim :trovum 1087.' 

4. s. That s before t was still pronounced is indi- 
cated (negatively) by the entire absence of rimes such 
a,sset:remed or clist :mt, etc., and (positively) by 
the rimes Christ :diit 247 :mid 382 :aprist 807 
:fremist 879 :icist 420. 

The MS. shows traces of the tendency of s to be- 
come silent before 1) m, n :- blama 517, 2201 al- 
mones 1444 (but almosne 1464) meimes 1769, 2071 
(but meisvies 2039) dememre 308, 1361 (des- 2046) ; 
2) before f : defermeient 474 (des- 591) efreie 671, 
but esforcerunt 896. Whether s originally stood in 
hidus 837, 886, etc., is uncertain. 

s and s final are not mixed in rime, s for s in ces 
1407, 1729, etc. nos 596, etc. siixpris 1893 jj/us- 
dom 9. 

5. T. The orthographies /((t^, ad (fid 1695 and -at 
in the Future 3 and Pret. 3 of Conjg. I.) are com- 
mon in the MS. , yet the rime shows that the t(d) was 
no longer pronounced : fu :Jhesu. 1032, ll68 la 
:greva 2090. The final t of the perfects in -it for the 
most part is lost: cp. o'i :issi 2001 fini lohli 2055 

.departi :demi 1984 senti :inerei 899 rendi :di 380, 

etc., but the older form appears in s'esvaiiit :dit 328. 

To those words in which for Marie final t persisted 

in pronunciation (escrit, dit, tid, respit, vit, freit, etc.) 

the Espurg. adds deit digitum. Qatendreit 2047). The 

' Cp. Lays, Introd., p. xxxi. 


Lays, on the contrary, liave dei only (jsei se Elidue 
409 :mei Elidue 4:1%). 

6. CoNSONANTS+s. While the A.-N. writings 
(chaitifs vifs, blancs, bees, etc.) are frequent in the 
MS., the rimes show that such stop-sounds had been 
lost before the s :- gas :pas 442 amis -.pais 464 ene- 
mis :pris 801 vis vivus :empris 1060 chaitis .-pais 
1706. To these are to be added numbriz {:pis 1206) 
peris, etc., and probably nus nullus (see above 
under I). 

7. In a few cases, the fe sound before u is denoted 
by the insertion of an e : recent 220, 256, but recut is 
more common : 568, 583, 1826 decut 814 reeur- 
ent 1558. 

8. w appears in ewe aqua 79, 418, etc. waste 915 
(translating vastam in Latin CK ; cp. gastez 303) 
wandiches (P) 690. 

9. As to the palatal gf-sound before a, o, u, it is note- 
worthy that the MS. nowhere writes j(i) before a 
(except where it is etymological : ja jam) :- alegast 
1474 charga 255 ehanga 1932 mangast 2180 ser- 
ganz 1981, 2202. The two letters were no doubt 
interchangeable in certain positions : cp. plungier 
1219, but p^Mwjoitmi 1258 tarj out ll^Q jetez 2220 
getez 1692 ; gesant %2Q hut jut, jurent 2025, 1039. 
Following Mall' and Warnke,^ I have written j be- 
fore a as well as o and u, although it is possible that 
some writers may not have made the distinction, any 
more than for Hour (o=k) by the side of duleur 
(c=fe) as in this text. 

D. Substantives. 

1. The ferns, of Decl. II. mostly show s in the 
n. sg. Cp. ardurs .furs 1335 colurs duurs (ace. 
pi.) 1625 diversetez drovez 987 mansiuns :serruns 

Computus, Introd., p. 94. 
■"y S; Introd., p. xlix, 24. 


1279, but the older declension appears in verite 
(nnustre) 183 gent rll28. It cannot, therefore, be 
determined with certainty whether poiir 547 mort 
109 chartre 135 had received the s of flexion ; the 
last word occurs already in the inflected form in the 
Reimpredigt 104/. 

2. Masculines of the II. Decl. have no s in the n. 
or voc. sg. Cp. maistre r2255, 2154, etc. frere 411, 
1868 nostre 1812 altre 2128. livre is therefore to 
be read for livres 4,806. Abeshns kept its s : 1935, 
1941. The infinitive estre used substantively shows 
au s :- estres :terrestres 1689. Cp. also 1633, 1973, 
2065. — Masculines of the III. Decl. show no s in 
the n. sg. : her nniistrer 191 :entrer 1524 prestre 
:estre (verb) 2210 sire :dire 615. 

The Espurg. offers only one certain case of the 
employ of a substantive in the accusative for the 
nominative, viz. 1412 Tels sunt . . les mals 
Qenfernals). Such cases are frequent in the Computus, 
e. g. 478 Furent truvet li nuns, the article retaining 
its nom. form.' 

E. Adjectives. 

Adjectives of two endings show no analogical 
feminines in e. grieve 536, on account of the metre 
is to be replaced hj grevuse ; for the same reason, 
ardante 1123 and cruelement 1083, 1215 cannot 
stand. Jole 201 dulce 24 and comunement 1607, 
as is well known, make no exception to this rule, 
since the Folk-Latin had already transferred them 
to the class of adjectives of three terminations.^ 

tels, quels appear for both genders. The MS. has 
tele 823,2155, but the metre shows the reading false, 
and hence tele should be replaced by itels 1539 
where the metre gives no indication, quele 830 is 
likewise to be suppressed. Cp. 1422, 1799, 1926. 

^Cp. Mall, Introfl., p. 98. 
'Cp. Schwan,^^364. Anm. 2. 


veraiment^ 181, 944, 1720 is also corrected by the 
metre, vereiment 1608 stands for veirement. 

F. Pronouns. 

Jo, CO are the readings of the MS. in all cases ex- 
cept Joe 2297. The latter orthography appears to 
be common in A.-N. MSS. : e. g., in the Old French 
version of Henry's Traotatus in Brit. Mus. Cotton 
Domitian A. iv.,^ and coe in MS. C of the Computus 
89, 104 (which has also co 415 and ceo 1650, 1681). 

Atonic li (dative sg. masc. and fern.) is mostly re- 
placed in the MS. by the tonic lui ; but the original 
form is preserved at times, e. g. 302, 1937. Vice 
versa, liior lui 218. 

The reflexive pronoun se, aei may stand before or 
after the verb : Cp. esmerveilla sei 702, 1880, by the 
side of s' esmerveilla 693, 698. 

For the other pronouns, cil, cist, etc. the forms in 
the JEspurg. are the same as those in the Lays.^ 

In four cases (1183, 1338, 1546, 2008) it seems 
necessary to admit either that the nom. qui is subject 
to elision before vowels, or that que has replaced qui 
in the nom. of the relative pronoun. The latter al- 
ternative is preferred by Tobler* and by Mall.' 
This peculiarity of usage is unknown to the Lays. ' 

The neuter que appears in the nom. 78, 610, 1660, 
1865, 2236. 

G. Verbs. 

In the verbal forms, the Espurg. shows close 
agreement with the language of the Lays, and there 

' For the loss of e, Cp. Suchier,<S. Auhan, p. 34. 10. 

^ See extracts in "Ward, Catalogue II., 468 ff. 

' Cp. Introd. p. xxxviii. F. 

* Cp. his VermiscUe Beitrdge, p. 103, Note. 

^ Cp. Introd. to the Computus, p. 34. 

" Cp. Introd., p. xxxix F. 3. 


is consequently little to remark under this head ex- 
cept in way of addition to Warnke's treatment of 
the subject.' 

1- Personal endings. The first person pi. termina- 
tion is -um -uns<. Cp. mentun :trovum 1087 nun :savum 
781 espurgaciun :avum 1726 processiun .-reeevum 
1745 gumfanutu :trovuns 1533. 

The 2d pers. pi. is -ez (or -iez) not -eiz -etis. Cp. 
devez :assez 630 avez :beneurez 412 menez :sentez 
(-etis for -itis) 777 eiitrez rirrez 1846 etc. 

2. Infinitive. Noteworthy are the double forms 
Ivre 2113 and deceveir rl527. 

3. Indie. Present. Verbs of the I. Conjg. show no 
in the first person sg. :- desi7- :venir 17 pri :merci 252 
afi :respundi 612. 

Pres. 4 of dire is diuns 1469 (not dim^es or disuns). 
Double forms appear in the Pres. 3 of aller :- va 
676 and vait (:fait) 2286. 

4. Subj. Present. There is as yet no e in the 3d 
pers. sg. of Conjg. I. :- eimt 815 reeleimt 816 
guart 721 enveit r2. 

5. Imperfect. The few cases where -oit, -oient 
appear in the Impf. (1202, 1213, 1214, 1271, 1329, 
1497) are to be ascribed to the last copyist. Cp. 
Torn. Ant? 1648 portoit doner for the por tot doner 
of his copy (=0A) and estoit 1575 for esiOA. A 
single case of the -ot, -oent flexion appears in flae- 
loent 1018, and -out, -ouent are the usual forms (1305, 
1306, 1802 ; 1155, 1257, etc). The -ot, -oentiorms 
are frequent in the Lays and in the MSS. of the 
Fables, and the question confronts us : is the one 
flexion Franco-Norman and the other Anglo-Nor- 

' Ibid. , p. xxxix ff. 
*See above p. 19 fl. 


man ? (since for this MS. and the Harley MS. of 
the Lays and Fables it can only be a question be- 
tween these two varieties of literary speech). Warnke 
has cut the knot easily enough by regarding them as 
phonetically equivalent (Cp. s' esjorgouent :porto'int, 
Dous Amanz 51) and the possibility of a double or- 
thography is, of course, to be considered. The spo- 
radic appearance of the -ot forms in this MS., having 
all the air of older forms which have survived the . 
substitutions of later copyists, and the fact that -out, 
-ouent are assured for several Anglo-Norman MSS. 
by the writing -owe,' provoke the suspicion that 
in Marie's time there may have been a difference in 
the use of these forms on the part of English and 
Continental writers. 

6. Future. The MS., as a rule, preserves the 
popular forms, ^ except that rr has been reduced to 
r :- enteral 538, 612 enteres 622 (entree, 3 syllables, 
620) entereient 488 musterunt 735 musteruns 1142, 
1324 siifferunt 40 sufferez958. Jferaer in the fut. 
mostly shows assimilation : merruns 963, 1323, 740, 
865; renienruns 1371 and TOe9ira 1898 are doubtless 
later formations. Double forms in larras 728 lerruns 

7. Subj. Imperfect. Noteworthy are the double 
forms peiist 1602, 2134 peussent 897 and pots 1681 
po'ist (.-mansist 1&35) poissent 1385. — aidissiuns 1456 
finds a parallel in trovissiez Lays, Equitan 196.' 

8. Participles. First may be noted the double 
forms beneeiz 1679, etc., and beneescMz 468.'' 

^Cp. Suchier, Altfrz. Oram. I., p. 31. 
^ Cp. Suchier, Eeimpredigt, p. xxx. 49 . 
^Cp. Suchier in Grober's Orundriss I., p. 611. 
*This participle is not quoted by Schwan, Altfr. Oram.'' 


a) To discuss the agreement of predicate partici- 
ples, it -will be found convenient to look first into 
the usage of the Eitpuvf/. in regard to the agreement 
of participles with preceding and subsequent accusa- 
tives, since in several cases it is a choice between the 
non-observance of one or the other rule. For exam- 
ple in 451, Quant edeient a hii venvz, Eil les arreit 
receuz, shall we consider that the ace. has replaced 
the nom. in predicate participles (renuz) or that par- 
ticiples fail to agree with a preceding accusative 
(receu) ? 

1) Preceding Accus. The Lays show no cases of 
non-agreement, and the Espurcj. has 15 cases of 
agreement (8 assured by rime) to three of non-agree- 
ment (184, 1200, 1686). In all of these exceptions, 
however, there is a general or neuter sense in the ac- 
cusatives, and since other examples fail (152 the 
sense warrants Uvre for livrcv) we may say that except 
when the preceding accusative was one of general or 
neuter signification, the Espurg. observes the rule of 
agreement (including /aii rl08). 

2) Folloiving Acctis. With a following accusative, 
the participle may or may not agree, as in the Lays. 
For agreement, cp. 935, 1185 (hence oiz 254 is justi- 
fied). For non-agreement, cp. 822, 907, 1669, 

b) We have just seen that there is good reason to 
admit non-agreement of predicate ptcps. in 1. 451 
(the same case 1310.) How far does the Espurg. 
permit this non-agreement ? With the pred. adj. or 
ptcp. in the nom. sg. , there are no failures to agree : 
cp. r522, r528, r648, etc. When the subject con- 
tains a general (neuter) idea, the usual exception to 
this rule appears :- 59 soluncco qii'eles loit owe, Lur 
ert iluec gueredime ; so 543, 1661, and cp. 676.' 

' Cp. Lays. Introd., p. xxxvii.2, and Coiiijnitus, Introd. 
. 104. 


With the pred. adj. or ptcp. in the n. pi., a con- 
tinual hesitation between the inflected and uninflected 
forms is observed. 1) Adjectives. The forms with- 
out s stand 848 sunt enclin :fin 932 lijur sunt curt 
:surt. So 1368. The inflected form appears: 111 
nus sumes certeins : meins (minus) 122 serrunt sals 
:mals 1011 ei-ent ententis :ehaitis (ace. pi.) 2) Pres- 
ent Ptcps. The nom. stands ' r990, r2004 and less 
certainly rll49, rl234. The ace. appears : r363, 
rl073, r2000. 3) Perfect Ptcps. Forms without s 
are observed : 353 esteient absolu :fu 636 sunt venu 
:eoneu 764: ftirent aturne ■Aniquite (ace. sg.). So 706, 
841, 845, 947, 990, 1033, etc., etc. Forms with s 
are also plenty : 451 esteient venuz -.receuz 1042 
sunt fichiez .^jieg (ace. pi.) 1096 erent rostiz :bruiz 
(ace. pi.) So 154, 428, 444, 946, 1210, 1309, 1603, 
1740, 2094. In the Lays, of the cases where the 
accus. appears in the place of the nom., four are sup- 
ported by two of the MSS., but Warnke, by ingeni- 
ous emendation, suppresses the accus. in all four 
cases, although he is disposed to believe that Marie 
sometimes used the accus. in ptcps. of reflexive 

9. Gerundive. The Espurg. shows the ordinary 
construction with aler :- ala aprismant .-grant 937. 
So 1145, 1378, 1519. More unusual is 795 : bone- 
ment en Deu eqoerant, Atent li quel vendrunt avant. 
Garner has quoted similar examples of this usage.' 

From the foregoing, we may describe the language 
of the Espurg. as substantially the same as that of 
the Lays, difiering, however, from the latter as fol- 
lows : 1) in several particulars attributable to an 
earlier date of composition (see above p. 15. 4.) ; 2) 

' In Modern Langvage Koteti III., col. 188 ft. 


in allowing greater liberty in the matter of elision 
(^go and jo) ; 3) in the substitution of the accusative 
for the nominative in substantives (one case), in the 
relative pronoun, and in predicate adjectives and 
participles. The last of these characteristics imparts 
a distinct Anglo-Norman coloring to the language. 

H. Additional Anglo-Noeman Teaits in 


1. fra 555 freit 465 frons 1340 for fera, etc. 
apella (2 syllables) 894 mandreit 448, 463 guerdun 
2216 revelaciuns (4 syllables) 167. heremites 2142 
is probably learned ; cp. hermite 2097, 2130 sup- 
ported by the metre. 

2. avera 2248 averunt 39, 207 avereit 452, for 
■avra, etc. So overe 622 overaigne 623, 694. This e, 
as is well known, is introduced to indicate that the 
foregoing u is the consonant (v), and is found also in 
French MSS.^ 

3. in for ign as the designation of the palatal n ; 
■esparniez 952, 954 moine 221, 1951, 1991 eha- 
noine 399. 

In baigns 1219 eompaigns 2074 bosoigm 1982, 
the MS. seems to indicate the palatal n before the s 
of flexion. Elsewhere we have loinz (6 times) bainz 
1184. The latter forms indicate that, as in palatal 
l,^ the mouillation at this period had disappeared 
in the inflected forms, and I would see in the forms 

1 Cp. Suchier, St. Auban, p. 33, 9. 
« ibid., p. 41. Lays, Introd., p. xliv. 2. 
5 Cp. Schwan'' I § 262, 1 ; 320, 4. Also Matzke, Publica- 
ions of the Modem Language Ass'n. V., no. 2, p. 102. 


first quoted the A.-N. tendency to remake the nom> 
on the accus. (chaitifs, blancs, etc.) 

4. en (in) loses its syllablic value after e (et) - 
461, 1160, 1342, 1624, 1909.i 

'Op. Suchier, St. Auban, p. 31, 6. 




The figures at the left of the text indicate the folio and 
column of the MS. 

An asterisk (*) in the text refers the reader to the vari- 
ants at the foot of the page. 

Brackets ( [ ] ) in the text indicate that the word or words 
enclosed do not occur in the MS., but are obviously 
to be supplied. 

For the Latin MSS. "A," "C" and "K," which are 
quoted in the variants, see above, p. 5 ff. 

102a A 1 nun de Deu, qui od nus seit, 
AA e qui sa grace nus enveit, 

voeil en Eomanz mettre en escrit, 
Si cum li livre les nus dit, 
En remembrance e en memoire, 5 

Les peines de 1' espurgatoire ; 
Qu'a Seint Patriz volt Deus mustrer 
Le liu u I'um i deit entrer. 
Uns prozdum m' a piepa requise ; 
Pur 90 m'en sui ore entremise 10 

De mettre mei en eel labur, 
Pur reverence e pur s'onur. 
E s'il li plest e il le voeille 
Qu'en ses bienfaiz tuz jurs m'acoeille, 
Dirai 50 que j 'en ai o'i, — 15 

Bel pere, ore entendez ici. 

Ja seit i§o que jo desir 

De faire a grant profit venir 

Plusurs genz e les amender, 

E servir Deu plus e duter, 20 

Ja de 90 ne m'entremesisse, 

N'en estudie me mesisse, 

Si ne fust pur vostre pr'iere. 

Qui en mun quer est dulce e chiere. 

Poi en ai o'i e veii ; 25 

Rejected readings of the MS. Heading : Ci parout des 
peines que sunt en purgatoire. Line 2 enuieit. — 3 Uoil. — 
4 cume liures le. — 6 Des del purgatoire. — 7 Ka dels. — 8 
ou lom. — ^9 prosdom mad peca. — 13 si lui uoille. — 14 Ken 
macoille. — 15 ke io en. — 16 Beau piere. — 17 ke. — 19 els. — 
22 ne inserted wUh caret after estudie. — 24 Ken duce. 

54 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

Pur 90 que j' en ai entendu 
Ai jo vers Deu greignur amur 
De Deu servir, mun creatur ; 
102b Pur quel jo voldrai a ovrir 

Ceste escripture e descuvrir. 30 

Mulz essamples nus met avant 
seinz Gregoires en sermunant 
des espiriz qui sunt es cors, 
E des altres qui sunt defers, 
E des choses qui sunt nuisables 35 

Horribles e espoentables, 
Pur espoenter les corages 
Des pecheurs e des nun sages 
Des tristesces que il avrunt 
E [que] les almes sufferrunt ; 40 

E pur mettre en compuncciun, 
E en greignur devociun, 
Cels qui voelent a Deu plaisir 
E le suen regne deservir. 
Pur 90 plus ententivement, 45 

Pur amender la simple gent, 
Voeil desclore ceste escripture 
E mettre i, pur Deu, peine e cure. 

Seignurs, a I'eissue del cors, 
quant les almes s'en issent fors, 50 

li bon angele i sunt en present ; 

26 Par ke.— 29 Par uodrai. — 30 descourir. — ^32 seint gre- 
goire. — 33 espirez. — 34 autres. — 35 musablea. — 36 espunta- 
bles. — 37 espunter. — 38 pecheur. — 39 kil auerunt. — 40 suf- 
fernnt. — 43 Cest uolent pleisir. — 47 Uoil.— 48 mettri. — 
60 se. — 51 angle. 


Li mal [i] vienent ensement. 
Li bon angele, e'en est la sume, 
Eeceivent I'alme del produme, 
En joie e en repos la mettent ; 55 

E li diable s'entremettent 
102c De males almes turmenter 
E en peril od els mener. 
Solunc 90 qu'eles unt ovr6 
Lur iert iluec gueredunS. 60 

Uncor nus dit apertement 
Que plusurs almes veirement, 
Einz que des cors puissent partir 
Veient que lur est a venir : 
Plusurs par revelaciun, 65 

E d'altres par avisiun, 
U par *lur dreite conscience, 
Solunc 90 que il unt licence. 
Plusurs des almes veirement 
Veient, devant lur finement, 70 

Avisiuns e sunt ravies ; 
Puis repairent as cors en vies, 
E mustrent 90 que unt veil 
U de turment u de salu: 
^o que li bon deivent aveir 75 

E que li mal deivent cremeir. 
II veient espiritelment 
90 que semble corporelment ; 

53 angle — 54 prodome. — 59 Solum keles. — 60 ert ilueke. 
guerdone.— 61 Unkore.— 62 Ke.— 63 Enz ke.— 64 ke.— 
66 Dautres e. — -67 Ou iure. Latin A : ex responsione 
consclencie interioris. — 68 Solum ke. — 70 deuan. — 72 re- 
peirent. — 73 kunt. — 74 Ou ou. — 75 ke auer.— 76 ke cre- 
mer. — 77 ueien. — 78 ke. 

56 l' espurgatoiee seint patriz 

II veient ewe e punz levez, 
Feu e maisuns e bois e prez 80 

E humes de divers semblanz, 
U neirs u blans aparissanz. 
Altres cboses veient plusur : 
Semblanz a joie u a dolur. 
102d Puis lur est avis que trait sunt 85 

Par mains, par piez la u peine unt ; 
Puis sunt pendu e flael^ 
E en ord liu apres jett6. 
Altres mals suefrent veirement 
Qui ne se descordent nient 90 

Al cunte que cunter voluns 
E que nus cumenc6 avuns. 

Plusur cuveitent a saveir 
des almes, ci nus dit pur veir, 
cument eles issent des cors 95- 

E u vunt quant eles sunt hors. 
Pur 90 que nus certeinement 
Ne savuns nul aveiement, 
Devum plus cremeir e duter 
Que enquerre ne demander. 100 

Qui serreit si fols ne desvez, 
Hors de sun sen e afolez, 
Qu'il alast la u ne seiist 

81 homes. — 82 Ou ou. — 83 Autres plusurs. — 84 dolurs. 
Latin AC : vel ad gaudium amari, vel ad tormentum ti- 
meri. — 85 ke treiz. — 87penduz flaelez. — 88 iettez. — 89' 
Autres suffrent. — 90 descorde. — ^91 ke. — 92 ke comencee. 
— ^93 Plusurs coueitent sauer. — 95 Coment eissent. — 9& 
ou uont. — 97 ke. — 98 sauons. — 99 Deuom cremer doter. 
—100 Ke.— 103 Qui ou fust. 


Quels mals avenir li deiist ? 
De Palme est il tut altresi : lO^ 

Nus ne savuns nient ici. 
Puis que ele est hors del cors traite 
C'est solunc I'oevre qu'ele a faite ; 
Mais male mort, ne dutum mie, 
Ne vient pas apres bone vie. IIO 

Nepuroec nus sumes certeins 
Que solunc I'oevre unt plus u meins 
103a Des peines de I'espurgatoire ; 
Mes icil qui atendent gloire 
Poeent a cez turmenz venir, 115 

E travail e peines suifrir. 
Icil qui sunt ci dreiturier, 
E qui meins i voelent pecliier 
Pur aveir parmanable vie, 
La passerunt, ne dutuns mie, 120 

Pur estre espurgiez de lur mals ; 
Puis s'en istrunt, si serrunt sals. 

Ici vus musterruns des peines 
qui de tute dolur sunt pleines ; 
apareilli^es sunt e tels 125 

Cum fussent en lius corporels. 
Tels est de Deu la purveance, 
Li greignur turment, sanz dutance, 

104 dust. — 105 autresi.— 106 sauons.— 107 kele.— 108 
loure kele ad. — 109 Meis mal. — 111 Nepuroeke. — 112 Ke 
loure. — 113 espurgatorie. — 114 cil attendant glorie'. — 115 
pouent ces. — 117 ici dretturer. — 118 uolent pecher. — 119 
auer parmenable. — 120 dotuns. — 121 espurgez. — 123 mus- 
truns. — 124 Ke. — 125 aparillees. — 126Cume fuissent. — 12& 
Les greignurs turmenz. 

58 l' espuegatoiee sbint pateiz 

Sunt plus parfunt e plus custus ; 

E li altre sunt meins grevus, 130 

Pur 90 [qu'il] atendent merci 

E n'ierent pas del tut peri. 

Altresi est d'enfer li lius : 
Desuz terre, parfunz e cius ; 
Si cum chartres est tenebruse, 136 

A eels qui n'issent perilluse. 
En terre a il un parewis, 
Vers orient u Deus I'a mis, 
U les almes sunt amenSes 
Quant de peine sunt delivrSes. 140 

103b Ici trovum en nostre escrit 
Qu'iluec demuerent a delit. 
Aillurs nus dit Seinz Austins, 
Qui prozdum fu e bons devins. 
Que plusurs almes sunt guardees 145 

Par divers lius e escuns6es 
U en repos u en dolur, 
Solunc lur oevre e lur labur ; 
Issi serrunt desqu'a I'asise, 
*Quant Deus vendra al grant ju'ise. 150 

Seinz Gregoires dit altresi. 
En *sun livre qu'avuns o"i, 

129 parfunz. — 130 autres meins is corrected from 'plus. 
— 132 nerent. — 133 Autresi. — 135 cume chartre. — 136 neis- 
sent.— 137 ad.— 138 ou deu lad.— 142 Ke iluek.— 143 seint. 
— 144 prodome fud bon. — 145 Ke gardees. — 147 Ou ou. 
— 149 deska. — 150 Ke uendrat a. — 151 Greg' autresi. — 
152 ses liures kauons. 


Des nun corporels espiriz, 

Que poeent estre ars e bruiz 

El siecle, del feu corporel. 155 

Aillurs trovuns nus altre tel : 

Que les almes qui sunt eslites 

A Deu e par lur bien parfites, 

Vunt el turment de purgatoire ; 

Apres eel mal irrunt en gloire. 160 

Les unes sunt en grief turment, 

Plus que les altres veirement. 

Icist turment sunt escunse, 

A la gent ne sunt pas mustr^, 

Pur 90 qu'il sunt espiritel, 165 

E que li tume sunt mortel. 

Purquant par revelaciuns 

Veient, e par avisiuns, 
103c Plusurs des almes meinz granz signes, 

Solunc 190 qu'eles sunt dignes. 170 

Quant eles sunt des cors ravies, 

Par Deu revienent a lur vies, 

E dient bien — pur la mustrance 

De cele espiritel substance 

Qui semblable est a corporel — 175 

50 qu'il veient espiritel. 

E si nus dit qu' hume mortel 

Unt 90 veil e corporel : 

Si cume en forme e en semblance 

154 Qui poent. — 156 trouons autre. — 157 Ke que. — 159 
Uont purgatorie.— 160 glorie.— 161 gref.— 162 ke autres. 
163 esconse.— 165 kil.— 166 ki home.— 167 Nepurquant.— 
170 keles.— 172 reuenent.— 173 par.— 174 E de.— 175 Ke. 
176 kil.— 177 ke home. 

60 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

D'hume [la] corporel substance. 180 

Qui crerreit §o veraiement 

Si n'en eiist demustrement — 

Ceste chose estre verity 

Que nus avum ici mustre ? 

Si j'ai bien eii en memoire 18& 

Qo que j'ai 01 en I'estoire, 

Jo vus dirrai veraiement 

En ordre le cumencement. 


( eignurs, entendez la raisun : 
uns seinz hum fu, Patriz out nun ; 190 
mult fu religius e ber ; 

Pur la parole Deu mustrer, 

Ala en predicaciun 

En Yrlande od devociun. 

II fu li secunz qui la mist 19& 

La lei Deu e tenir la fist. 
103d Deus fist pur lui vertuz e signes, 

E miracles, kar il ert dignes. 

Mult s'entremist devotement 

De mettre en eels entendement 200 

Qui erent de fole creance ; 

Que jett6 fussent hors raance. 

Lur bestials cors nun estables 

Voleit faire a Deu cuvenables ; 

Mult les espoenta suvent 205 

180 De home sustance.— ISluereiment.— 184Ke auoms. 
— 186 ke io.^187 uerraiment. — 188 commencement. — 
190 Tin seint hom.— 191 flid.— 193 Alad.— 195 fud.— 200 
ceus.— 202 Ke fuissent de ranee.— 204 couenables.— 2O5, 
lespoentat sovent. 



Par I'eiifernal encumbrement, 

E des peines que cil avrunt 

Qui en Jhesu Crist ne crerrunt ; 

E mult suvent [il] les retta 

Des granz joies qu'il lur mustra 210 

U tuit cil deivent parvenir 

Quil voelent amer e servir. 

De 90 les fist il entendanz 

Pur 90 que il fussent creanz. 

^ uant el pais aveit est6 215 

Seinz Patriz, e de Deu mustr^ 
encuntre la Pasche est venuz 

Uns hum a lui, vielz e chanuz ; 

En cunfessiun li conut 

Qu'unques le cors Deu ne re9ut. 220 

Pur 90 que moignes ert e prestre 

Li volt regehir tut sun estre ; 

Cunfes se fist, ne cela mie, 

Einz li cunta tute sa vie, 
104a Pur 90 qu'il volt procheinement 225 

Eeceivre e plus dignement, 

Le cors nostre seignur Jhesu 

Qu'il n'aveit unques receii. 

Pur 90 qu'il ne saveit cumprendre 

Sun language, ne rien entendre, 230 

II fist un latimier venir, 

207 ke ci auerunt. — 209 soueiit reitat. — 210 kil mustrat. 
—211 Ou tuz.— 212 Kil uolent.— 214 Par kil fuissent.— 
217 encontre. — 218 home U ueuz. — 220 Ke unkes receut. 
— 221 ke moines.— 222 Lui tut regehir. — 223 0oiifes celat. 
—224 lui cuntat.— 225 kil.— 228 Kil unkes.— 229 kil comp. 
231 latimer. 

62 l' espuegatoibe seint pateiz 

Pur lui mustrer e a ovrir 

^0 que li vielz hum li diseit, 

E dunt il se regeiseit. 

Tute dist sa cunfessiun, 235 

N'i parla rien d'occisiun ; 

N'ert pas pecHez, 90 li ert vis, 

Se il aveit hume occis. 


I einz Patriz U a mult enquis 
se il en aveit nul occis ; 240 

il respundi : " Cink en. ai morz. 

Quel que 90 est u dreiz u torz, 

E mulz navrez, mes ne sai mie 

Se il turneient puis a vie. 

Ne quidai pas, bien le sachiez, 246 

Que 90 fust dampnables pechiez." 

Li Seinz Deu li mustra e dist 

Que c'ert encuntre Jhesu Crist, 

E que mult en aveit perdu 

Sun creatur e offendu. 250 

Li vielz hum li cria merci : 
"Sire," dist il, " pur Deu vus pri, 
104b Ma penitence me chargiez. 

Ore avez o'iz mes pechiez." 

II li charja mult bonement ; 255 

*I1 la re9ut devotement. 

En eel pais est il en us 

233 ke uelz home. — 236 parlad de oc. — 237 pechie lui. 
—238 Si home.— 239 lui ad.— 242 ke ou ou.— 244 Sil tur- 
nereient. — 245 sachez. — ^246 Ke pechez. — 247 lui. — 248 Ke 
CO ert encontre. — 249 ke. — 251 ueuz home lui criad. — 263 
chargez.— 254 oi. — 255 lui charga. — 256 E il receut. 


Que cil qui mesfunt tut le plus, 

*E sunt plus fier en lur corage, 

Quant il vienent en grant aage, 260 

De grief penitence suifrir 

Pur la Deu grace deservir. 

Cest essample lur volt mustrer 

Li Seinz Deu pur els afermer. 


^ uant Seinz Patriz aveit parM 265 

a cele gent, e demustrl 
de Deu la grant puissance veire, 

N'i aveit nul qui volsist creire 

S'il ne mustra certeinement 

Qu'il veissent apertement : 270 

Les joies dunt il a mustre 

E les peines dunt a parle ; 

S'il les veissent, mielz crerreient 

I90 que dire li orreient. 

Seinz Patriz li bons eiirez 275 

Fu bien de Deu e mult privez ; 
Nuit e jur fu en oraisuns. 
En veilles, en afflicciuns, 
En jeiines e en tristur, 

Pur requerre nostre seignur 280 

104c Del pueple, qu'en eiist merci, 
E que il ne fussent peri. 
En cele entente qu'il esteit, 

258 Ke.— 259 Qui fiers.— 260 {precedes I. 259) uenent.— 
267 Qe. — 269 lur after ne correctly stricken out by Roquefort. 
mustrat.— 270 KiL— 271 ad.— 272 ad.— 273 le.— 274 Ke co 
lui oreient. — 276 Fud.— 277 fud oreisuns.- 278 e en.— 
281 ken.— 282 kil nen fusent.— 283 kil. 

64 l' espuegatoiee seint patriz 

[E] des oraisuns qu'il faiseit, 
Jhesu Crist li vint en present, 285 

Si cum il aveit fait suvent. 
Un tixte d'evangeilles plein 
Li duna e mist en sa mein ; 
E un bastun qu'il dut porter 
Quant al pueple dut sermuner. 290 

Uncor sunt el pais guarde 
Pur reliques, en grant chiert6. 
Pur 90 que le bastun duna 
Deus a sun serf e cumanda, 
Apele I'um icel bastun 295 

" Le bastun Deu " qui'n fist le dun. 
Itels cboses deit cil aveir 
Qui eveschig deit purseeir. 
Qo nus mustre Malachias, 
En sa Vie, nel dutez pas. 300 

Apres cest fait, Deus amena 
Seint Patriz e si li mustra, 
en un desert, — ^uns lius guastez 
Qui de gent n'ert pas habitez, — 
Une fosse tute rounde, 305 

Si ert dedenz grant e parfunde ; 
E sachiez qu'ele esteit obscure, 
Espoentable a desmesure. 

284 oreisuns kil feseit.— 285 lui.— 286 souent.— 287 de 
«u.— 288 Lui donat.— 289 kil dust.— 290 Quant 11 aer- 
moner. — 291 Uncore garde. — 292 cherte. — 293 ke dona. 
— 294 comanda. — 296 kin. — 298 Ki eueaked purseir. — 302 
Seinz.— 303 gastez.— 305 runde.— 307 sachez kele.— 308 
Espun table demesure. 


104d Puis li dist qu'iluec ert 1' entree 

De I'espurgatoire e trov^e ; 310 

E qui fust de ferme creance 

E eiist en Deu esperance, 

E fust cunfes de ses pechiez 

E apres acomuniez, 

Purreit ici dedenz entrer ; 315 

E s'il i purreit demurer 

Un jur e une nuit entiere 

E par ici venir ariere, 

Tut serreit nez de ses pechiez 

E de ses mesfaiz espurgiez, 320 

De quant qu'il out fait en sa vie ; 

E si verreit, n'i faldreit mie, 

E les peines e les dolurs, 

E les turmenz des pecheiirs. 

E les granz joies des esliz 325 

Verreit, s'il fust en Deu parfiz. 

Si tost cum Deus li out 50 dit, 

Devant sa face s'esvanit. 

Li Seinz remest tut repleniz, 

E de la grace Deu guarniz. 330 

Mult fu haitiez de sun seignur, 

Que il aveit veil le jur ; 

E de la fosse veirement 

Qu'il poeit mustrer a [la] gent. 

Pur 90 quida que li plusur 335 

Serreient [mis] hors de I'errur. 

309 lui ke iluek lentre.— 310 purgatoire.— 313 confes.— 
315 E pur.— 318 reuenir arere.— 319 netz.— 321 kil.— 322 
uerreiz faudreit.— 324 de.— 327 cume.— 329 remist.— 330 
garniz.— 331 fud.— 332 Kil.— 333 fose.— 334 Kil.— 335 ke. 


66 l' espurgatoiee seint patriz 

105a En eel liu fist une abbe'ie, 
U il mist gent de bone vie ; 
Chanoignes riulez i a mis, 
Si lur a bien lur ordre apris. 340 

El cimetire veirement 
Est la fosse, vers orient ; 
De mur I'enclost, portes i fist 
E bone fermeiire i mist ; 
Pur 90 qu'um n'i poeit entrer, 345 

Si par lui nun, ne la aler, 
La clef cumanda al priur, 
Si defendi que nuit ne jur 
N'i entrast nuls, si par lui nun, 
E par tuz eels de la maisun. 350 

El tens Seint Patriz par lieence 
pristrent li plusur penitence : 
quant il esteient absolu, 
Si vindrent la u li us fu ; 
Enz entrerent seiirement, 355 

Mult suffirent peine e turment, 
E mult virent I'horrible mal 
De la dure peine enfernal. 
Apres icele grant tristesee 
Virent grant joie e grant leesce. 360 

Qo qu'il volstrent cunter e dire, 
Fist Seinz Patriz iluec escrire. 
De 90 furent la genz creanz 

338 Ou.— 339 ad.— 340 ad.— 341 cimiterie.— 342 fose.— 
345 kum puet. — 347 comanda. — 348 defendit ke. — 349 
Nentrast.— 354 ou.— 357 horible.- 361 kil uoleient.— 362 
iluek escriure. — 363 gent. 


Que Seinz Patriz esteit disanz, 
105b Par eels qui esteient venu 366- 

De eel liu u orent veii 
E les joies e les dolurs, 
Solunc les oevres des plusurs. 
Pur 50 qu'iluec sunt espurgiez, 
Cil qui entrent, de lur pechiez, 370 

A nun cil lius Espurgatoire, 
Qui tuz jurs *serra en memoire ; 
E pur 50 que Deus demustra 
A Seint Patriz e enseigna 
Primes eel liu, est issi diz : 375 

L' Espurgatoire Seint Patriz. 

Rigles a nun, la u fu mise, 

Li lius, e fundee I'iglise. 

Apres cest fait que jo vus di, 

Cist Seinz Patriz s' alme rendi 38(J 

Mult seintement a Jhesu Crist, 

Qui en sa gloire od lui la mist. 

Apres lui *ert en la maisun 

Uns hum de grant religiun, 

De bon estre e de seinte vie ; 385- 

Si fu priurs de I'abbeiie. 

De grant aage esteit ferment : 

Si vielz fu qu'il n'out qu'une dent. 

364 Ke.— 366 ou.— 368 cures.— 369 ke iluek.— 371 Ad 
purgatoire..— 372 ert.— 373 ke.— 374 patric— 377 ad ou 
fud.— 378 le ig.— 379 ke.— 383 out. Lat. K: erat prior 
in eadem ecclesia, homo quidam, etc. — 384 home. — 386 
fud. — 388 uelz fud kil kune. 

68 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

^Nule aieat li vieil maladie, 

Tant cum il sunt en ceste vie ; 390 

Si dit Seinz Gregoires que fieble 

Sunt par lur vieillesce e endieble. 
105c Ici nus dit de cest priur, 

Qu'il fist faire pres del durtur 

Un habitacle u il mansist, 395 

Qu'il a ses freres ne nuisist, 

Ne ne grevast pur sa fieblesce, 

Ses aages, ne sa vieillesce. 

Li chanoigne de la maisun 

Le mistrent suvent a raisun : 400 

■" Beals pere, pur Deu, dites nus 

Cum bien volez vivre entre nus ? ' ' 

Li seinz priurs lur respundi : 
■"Mielz amereie aillurs qu'ici ; 

Ici ai jo peine e dolurs, 405 

Joie e deliz avrai aillurs." 

Icist frere qui a lui vindrent 

La voiz o'irent e retindrent 

Des angel es Deu a lui parlanz, 

Lui e sa dent bene'issanz : 410 

' ' Frere, tu es beneiirez, 

E cele denz que vus avez, 

Qu'unques viande ne mascha, 

Ne ne senti ne n'atucha 

389 Tut naient. Lat. KG : licet senex sanus sit, ipsa 
senectute sua semper tamen inflrmus est. ueil. — 391 seint 
kifeble.— 392 veillesce endeble.— 394 Kil dortur.— 395 
E^hab. ou.— 396 Kil.— 398 veillescesce.— 399 chanoine. 
—400 souent.— 401 Beau piere.— 402 bie.— 404 kici.— 409 
angles. — 412 dent uus auus. — 413 Ke unkes. 


Que al quer venist a delit, 41& 

U tu eiisses nul profit." 

En sa viande n'out il el 

Fors ewe freide, pain e sel. 

Tost apres 90 morut icist : 

S'alme rendi a Jhesu Crist. 420 

105d ^^eignurs, si cum dit li escriz, 

^N plusurs genz el tens Seint Patriz, 

[e] en altres tens altresi, 
Issi cum nus avuns oi, 

Dedenz I'espurgatoire entrerent, 425 

E puis apres s'en returnerent. 
E meinz *ren vit [de] retenuz, 
Qui furent periz e perduz. 
Icil qui revindrent cunterent ; 
Li chanoigne tut embreverent, 430 

Pur edifier altre gent, 
E qu'il ne dutassent nient. 
E si nus dit il alques plus : 
Que 90 fu custume e us : 
Oil qui enz voleient eutrer 435 

E I'espurgatoire espruver, 
A I'evesque durent aler 
E lur cunfessiun mustrer. 
E apres la cunfessiun, 

415 Qui. — 416 Ou. — 417 ta. Lat. KG : Eius enim cibus 
erat, etc. — 419 morust. — 421 cume. 423 autres autresi. — 
424 cume auums. — 427enuit. — 429 Gels ke. — 430 chano- 
ine. — 431 autre. — 432 kil neent. — 433 dist aukes. — 434 
Ke fud custumes. — iSo einz uoleint.— 437 eueske. — 438 
conf. — 1-39 conf. 

70 l' espurgatoire seint patriz 

Lur fereit I'evesques sermun : 440 

" Seignurs, pur Deu, n'i entrez pas ; 
De la aler n'est mie gas. 
Mulz en i a de retenuz, 
Qui jamais nen erent veiiz." 
Mais quant verreit certeinement 445 

Cels tenir lur purposement, 
Par lettres [il] les enverreit 
106a Al priur, si li mandereit 

Qu'il preist d'els e guarde e cure, 

E me'ist en la fosse obscure. 450 

Quant esteient a lui venuz, 

E il les avreit receiiz, 

De lessier eel purpensement 

Les enortereit bonement, 

E qu'il penitence pre'issent, 455 

E en cest siecle la fe'issent. 

Quant il ues purreit tresturner 

Que il n'i volsissent entrer, 

Dedenz I'iglise les mettreit, 

E quinze jurs les i tendreit 460 

En jeiines, en oralsuns, 

En veilles, en afflicciuns. 

Puis mandereit clers del pais, 

E partie de ses amis ; 

Matin fereit messe chanter 465 

440 leueske. — 443 ad. — 444 Ke iameis. — 446 Ces. — 
Line 454 was inserted here by mistake and then stricken 
out. — 448 lur mandreit. — 449 Kil de els garde. — 450 fose. 
—452 auereit.— 453 lesser.— 455 kil.— 458 Kil.— 461 e en 
oreisuns.— 462 e en.— 463 mandreit du.— 465 freit lum. 


E eels desqu'a I'altel mener, 
Pur estre i acommumez 
E beneescuz e segniez. 
L'ewe beneeite sur els 

Jeterent li clerc e [sur] eels ; 470 

Od processiun e od ehant, 
Si [cum] eustume esteit devant, 
A la porte tut dreit menouent, 
Si Fovreient e desfermouent. 
La sermunereit li priurs ; 475 

106b Si lur musterreit les dolurs 

Que dedenz eel liu trovereient, 

E que jamais ne revendreient, 

S'il n'eiissent ferme creance 

En Deu, everaie esperance. 480 

E si dist qu' al tens [Seint] Patriz 

En i aveit il de periz. 

Cil qui 9'aveient purpose, 

E en e'esteient afferme, 

E ne volstrent pur lui partir, 485 

II lur ireit la porte ovrir ; 

Cil fereient la eroiz sur els, 

E enterreient devant eels. 

Puis clorreient pres els I'entree ; 

En I'iglise de Deu am6e 490 

Ireient tuit li elerc ariere 

E fereient pur els pre'iere. 

466 desque al autel. — 468 benescuz segnez. — 469 beneite 
hels.— 473 menereient.— 474 defermeient.— 476 lui mus- 
treit. — 477 Ke. — 478 keiameis. — 480 uerreie. — 481 dit kal. 

482^68. — 486 irreit. — 488 entereient. — 491 Irreient tut 

li dree arrere. — 492 ferreient. 

72 l' espurgatoiee seint patkiz 

El demain vendreient o'ir 

Li quels en purreit revenir. 

Se alcuns en fust revenuz 495 

A joie serreit receiiz ; 

Puis demurreit, el Deu servise, 

Pleinement quinzeine en iglise ; 

Puis cuntereit de s'aventure, 

E serreit mise en escripture. 500 

E oil qui n'en fust revenuz — 

Bien saveient qu'il fu perduz. 

106c 1 ^ 1 tens le rei Estefne dit, 

t^ si cum nus trovum en escrit, 

en Yrlande esteit uns prozdum : 505 
Chevaliers fu, Oweins out nun ; 
De qui nus voluns ci parler, 
E la dreite estoire mustrer. 
A I'evesque de eel pais, 

U li purgatoires ert mis, 510 

Vint Oweins a cunfessiun, 
De ses pechiez querre pardun ; 
Kar mult aveit suvent ovre 
Cuntre Deu en grant cruelte. 
L'evesques pit §o qu'il dist, 515 

E cument il se regehist. 
Mult le blasma qu'il out est^ 
En tel oevre e demur6 : 

494 empurreit. — 495 Si aucuns. — 499 cent, sa av. — 502 kil 
fust. — 504 cume. — 505 Ken un produm. — -506 fud Owens. 
— 507 uolums. — 509 eueske. — 510 Ou. — 511 Owens conf. — 
513 souent. — 514 Centre. — 515 eueskes kil. — 516 cement. 
517 blama kil. — 518 eure demere. 


Par ses pechiez out irascu 
Sun creatur e offendu. 520 

Li chevaliers pur ses pechiez 
Fu mult tristes e esmaiez ; 
Pense que digne penitence 
Fera solunc la Deu consence. 
L'evesques li voleit duner, 525 

Solunc 90 qu'il I'oit parler, 
Penitence de ses pechiez, 
Dunt il peiist estre alegiez. 
Li chevaliers li dist briefment : 
" Sire evesques, nen voeil nient 530 

106d Legierement espene'ir, 
Ne tel penitence suifrir. 
Trop ai forfait a mun seignur, 
E offendu mun creatur ; 

Pur c'eslirai, par Deu licence, 535 

La plus *grevuse penitence : 
A I'espurgatoire en irai 
Seint Patriz, e la enterrai 
Que jo seie de mes pechiez 
E delivres e espurgiez." 540 

Li evesques I'amonesta 
De CO lessier que il pensa : 
' ' N'est pas a aler cuvenable 
La u cunversent li diable ; 
Hum set bien que mult i entrerent 545 

522 Fud. — 523 ke. — 524 solum. — 525 leueskes doner. — 
526 Solum kil.— 528 pust.— 5291ui brefment.— 530 eueske 
uoil neent. — 531 espenir. — 535 co esl. — 536 grieue. — 537 
irrai. — 538 enteral. — 539 Ke. — 541 eueskes. — 542 lesser 
kil. — 543 couen. — 544 ou conv. — 545 Horn siet ke mulz. 

74 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

Qui unques puis ne returnerent." 

Nule poiir de peine aveir 

Ne puet sun corage moveir. 

Li evesques vit sun corage : 

Si I'enorta qu'a moniage 550 

Se mesist entre bone gent, 

U od chanoignes en cuvent ; 

Puis purreit plus seiirement 

Faire le suen purposement. 

II li respunt que nun fera : 555 

Ja altre habit nen recevra, 

Fors tel cume il aveit eu 

Des i qu'il ait eel liu veii. 


107a /^"^uant 1' evesques si fermement 

vit qu'il tint sun purpensement, 560 
priur de eel liu manda, 
Par escrit qu'il li enveia, 
Que eel cbevalier recuillist, 
Al purgatoire le mesist, 
Issi eum il faire deveit, 565 

E cume la custume esteit. 
Li chevaliers vint al priur, 
II le re9ut par grant amur 
E mult li dist e sermuna 

546 ke unke. — 547 aue r (i erased). — 548 mouer. — 549 
■eueskes. — 550 len orat ka. — 551 Si. — 552 Ou couent. — 553 
purreit il. — 555 lui ke fera, {e partly erased) .—556 autre. 
— 557 laueit. — 558 De ci kil. — 559 leueske ferment. — 560 
kil tut. — 562 kil lui. — 563 Ke.— 564 espurgatoire e le. — 
569 lui sermona. 


Qu'il laissast 90 que il pensa. 570 

" Trop ai [jo] grant oppressiun 
D'aler en tel perdiciun." 
Tant ert fervenz en sun desir, 
Ne Ten puet li priurs partir. 
Od lui I'amena en I'iglise, 576 

Si cume custume est assise. 
Quinze jurs I'i fist demurer, 
Urer, veillier e jeiiner. 
Quant i out est6 quinze dis, 
Si manda les clers del pais ; 580 

Matin li firent messe oir, 
E esculter tut a leisir. 
Puis regut od devociun 
Le cors Deu od beneei9un ; 
L'ewe beneeite jetterent 585 

Desur lui, apres I'amenerent 
107b Od letanie, od oraisun, 
E od bele processiun, 
El liu u il deveit entrer ; 
Forment se hasta d'i aler. 590 

Li priurs a 1' us desferme ; 
devant tuz a dit e parle 
al ctevalier, si li mustra 
L'entr^e e puis li sermuna : 
" Amis, certes si tu creeies 595 

570 Kil leissast kil. — 575 lamenad. — 576 costume. — 578 
Orer ueiller iuner.— 579 il.— 581 lui.— 582 escuter.— 584 
beneicun. — 585 beneite. — 587 oreisun. — 589 ou. — 590 le 
<ie. — 591 ad. — 592 ad. — 593 cheualer lui. — 594 le ser- 

76 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

Noz cunseilz, ja n'i enterreies : 
Bien puez ci ta vie amender, 
E Deu servir e honurer. 
Mult i sunt entrfi e perdu ; 
Ne sout hum qu'il sunt devenu 600* 

Kar n'orent pas ferme creance, 
Bone fei, ne dreite esperance ; 
Ne porent suffrir les turmenz, 
Pur 50 remestrent il dedenz ; 
Par les granz turmenz que il virent 605" 

Deu oblierent e perdirent. 
Si vus sur 90 volez entrer 
Que vus m'oiez ici cunter, 
Primes vus ferai ci oir 

Qo que vus est [a] avenir." 610>- 

Li chevaliers li respundi : 
' ' J'i enterrai, en Deu m'afi, 
Pur mes pechiez espene'ir, 
E que jo puisse a Deu plaisir." 
107c Li priurs dist : " Entendez, sire, 615- 

50 que vus vueil mustrer e dire : 

i i T~^ 1 nun de Deu, que vus cr^ez, 
\j en ceste fosse vus mettrez ; 
par le crois de la terre irez 
Tant qu'en un grant champ enterrez ; 620» 
Une grant sale i troverez. 

596 Nos conseilz entreies.— 597 poz.— 599 entree.— 60*" 
horn kil.— 604 remistrent.— 605 kil.— 608 Ke.— 611 cheu- 
alers lui.— 612 J o ienterai.— 613 espenir.— 614 ke pleisir_ 
616 uoil.— 617 creiez.— 620 ken entrez. 


Bien ovr^e, si enterrez. 

Mult sout d'ovraigne qui la fist 

E qui si faitement F asist. 

Dedenz la maisun vus serrez, 625 

Tant de bons messages avrez ; 

De part Deu a vus parlerunt, 

E si vus recunforterunt. 

Si vus enseignerunt assez 

I90 que vus faire devez. 630 

Apres 90 s'en departirunt, 

E a Deu vus cumanderunt. 

Hastivement avrez apres 

Cruels messages e malves. 

^0 nus unt dit e cuneii 635 

Icil qui de la sunt venu : 

Nus le veimes en escrit, 

Issi eume jo I'ai vus dit." 

Li ber mustra mult bel semblant, 
E devant tuz dist en oant : 640 

Qu'il n'out dute de eel peril, 
Qui les altres mist en eissil ; 
107d Kar la force de la dolur 

Des pechiez, dunt il a poiir, 

Despit, qu'il nes voleit o'ir, 645 

Ne sun purpensement guerpir. 

Li grant mesfait de ses pechiez, 

Dunt sis cors ert pleins e cliargiez. 

622 ouere enterez. — 623 de oueraigne. — 624 feitement. 
— 628 reconf. — 632 comand. — 635 coneu. — 638 lai a uus. — 
641 Kil.— 642autres.— 644 ad.— 645 kil.— 648ses chargez. 

78 l' espukgatoire seint pateiz 

Ne reduta mie a sufFrir 

Peine e turment pur Deu plaisir. 650 

Oil qui devant fu bien armez 

D'armes de fer e aturnez, 

E qui aveit grant hardement 

En estur pur veintre la gent, 

Or s'ert armez en tel mesure 655 

Dunt li diables n'eiist cure : 

De fei e de bone esperance, 

E de justise e de creance. 

Par icestes vertuz, sanz faille, 

Veintra le diable en bataille. 660 

II dist a tuz : ' ' Pre'iez pur mei,' ' 

Puis fist la croiz par devant sei. 

Hardiement, od bon semblant, 

En la fosse se mist avant. 

La porte a li priurs ferm^e, 665 

Si s'en departent de 1' entree ; 

Vunt s'en od la processiun 

El mustier, e funt oraisun 

Que Deus ait piti6 e merei 

Del chevalier dunt jo vus di. 670 

108a T i chevaliers pas ne s'esfreie, 

I parmi la fosse tient sa veie ; 

ore hantera, ne dutez mie, 
Novele e fort chevalerie. 
Merveille est qu'il est asseiirs ; 675 

650 pleisir.— 651 fud.— 652 De armes.— 655 Ore.— 661 
preez. — 665 ad. — 666 se dep. — 667 Uont. — 668 muster orei- 
sun. — 669 Keeitpite. — 671cheualers sefreie. — 673 hante- 
rat. — 674 forte. — 675 kil asseur. 


Cum il plus va, plus est obscurs ! 

Tute pert humaine veiie ; 

Altre clartez li est venue ; 

Petite fu, mais nepurquant 

Par cele tint la veie avant. 680 

Tant a erre par desuz terre, 

Qu'il vint al champ qu'il alout querre. 

Une maisun vit bele e grant, 

Dunt il o'it parler devant. 

Tel lumiere a iluec trovee 685- 

Cum est d'yvern en la vespree. 

Icist palais aveit en sei 

Entur, une entiere parei, 

Faite a piliers e a *arclii6es, 

A vulsurs e a wandiches (?) : 690 

Cloistre resemblout envirun, 

Cum a gent de religiun. 

Li chevaliers s'esmerveilla 

De I'ovraigne qu'il esguarda. 

Quant le palais out esguarde 695 

Dehors, e tut entur al6, 

Hastivement dedenz entra ; 

Assez plus [i] s'esmerveilla 

676 obscur.— 678 autre clarte lui.— 679 fud.— 681 ad. 
—682 Kil kil.— 685 lumere ad iluek.— 686 de yv.— 687" 
Icest paleis. — CK : Aula vero parietem non (K : in se- 
non) habebat, sed (K : quoniam) columnis et archiolis 
erat undique constructa (K : -tum). A . Aula enim cir- 
cumvallata erat parietibus, sed in modum claustri mona- 
chorum super columpnas erat fabricata. — 689 Fait ar- 
ches. — 690 uousurs.— 694 oueraigne kil.— 695 paleis. — 
698 A sez. 

80 l' espurgatoiee seint pateiz 

108b De 90 qu'il a dedenz veii. 

A tant s'assist loant Jhesu ; 700 

Ses oeilz turna e sus e jus, 
Esmerveilla sei, ne pout plus ; 
Ne quida pas, e'en est la sume. 
Que oil oevre fust de main hume. 

II n'i aveit guaires este, 705 

quant en la sale sunt entre 
quinze persones, simplement 
Kes e tundu novelement ; 
Blans vestemenz orent vestuz. 
De part Deu li distrent saluz ; 710 

Lez lui s'assistrent envirun 
En semblant de religiun ; 
Tuit se turent, li uns parla, 
Mestre e priurs d'els resembla. 
Al chevalier dist dulcement : 715 

' ' *Beneis Deu omnipotent. 
Qui a si bon purposement 
Mis en tun quer e hardement ; 
Tun purpos e ta volente 
Parface il par sun bunte ; 720 

E si te guart par sun plaisir, 

699 kil ad.— 701 oilz turnat.— 702 Merueillat.— 703 
summe. — 704 Ke cure. — 705 gueres. — 706 K : ecce quin- 
decim viri tanquam religiosi et nuper raai. A : ecce viri 
duodecim in veste Candida et barbis nuper rasis. . . 
708 tunduz.— 709 Blancs.— 710 par lur.— 712 semblance. 
715 cheualer ducement.— 716 Beneit seit deus.— CK : 
Benedictus sit omnipotens deus. A : Benedictus deus 
pater omnipotens. — 717 ad. 


Qu'ariere puisses revenir. 
Ci venez pur vus espurgier 
De voz pechiez e alegier ; 
Barnilment t'estuet cuntenir, 725 

U ici t'estuvra perir : 
108c Cors e alme en perdiciun 

Larras sanz fin de rean9un. 

Ferme creance aies en tei ; 

Retien 50 que tu oz de mei : 730 

Ja endreit quant nus en iruns, 

En cest pais sul te lerruns ; 

Grant multitudine verras 

Des diables, nel dute pas, 

Qui granz turmenz te musterrunt, 735 

De greignurs te manacerunt. 

Si en lur cunseil vus metez 

E si creire les en volez, 

II promettrunt veraiement 

Que hors vus merrunt salvement 740 

A r entree dunt vus venistes, 

Quant dedenz cest clos vus mesistes. 

Si vus quiderunt engignier ; 

De 90 vus vueil bien acointier. 

Si vus creez lur faus sermun, 745 

Si irez en perdiciun : 

Si par manace u par turment, 

U par malvais blandissement 

722 Karere.— 725 testot.— 726 Ou testuurat.— 728 rancun. 
— 729 Femme. — 731 I andreit. irruns. — 735 grant mus- 
terunt.— 737 conseil.— 739 ueirement.— 740 Ke.— 743 en- 
gigner. — 744 uoil acointer. — 746 irrez. — 747 ou. — 748 Ou 

82 l' espurgatoiee seint pateiz 

Estes esma'iez ne vencuz, 
Finablement estes perduz. 750 

S'en Deu avez ferme creance, 
En ses nuas e en sa puissance, 
E ne seiez espoentez 
Des manaces que [vus] orrez, 
108d E les pramesses nun verables 755 

Ne creez (qu'il sunt decevables !) 
Mes despisiez els e lur diz, — 
Si serrez tensez e guariz ; 
Puis serrez de tuz voz pechiez 
E delivres e espurgiez. 760 

Les granz turmenz e la dolur 
U sunt livr6 li pecheiir 
Pur les oevres d' iniquity 
U il se furent aturne, 

Verrez apertement ici ; 765 

E les granz joies altresi, 
E les repos e la dulgur 
U oil cunversent sanz dolur 
Qui Deu servirent e amerent 
E en bones oevres finerent. 770 

E aiez tuz jurs en memoirs 
Deu qui est sire e reis de gloire. 
Quant il vus mettrunt en turment, 
Jhesu Crist reclamez suvent : 
Par I'apel de eel nun puissant 775 

Serrez delivres maintenant. 

751 Si en.— 753 serez (?) espuntez.— 756 klL— 757 des- 
pisez.— 762 Ou.— 763 cures de iniq.— 764 Ou.— 766 autre. 
—768 Ou conv.— 774 souent. 


En quel liu que seiez menez, 
E quel turment que vus sentez, 
Le nun Jhesu Crist apelez ; 
Guardez que vus ne I'obliez. 780 

Delivres serrez par eel nun : 
Par la Deu grace le savum. 
109a Ne poiins plus od vus ci estre : 
Cumandum vus al rei celeatre." 

Apres cele beneeipun 785 

s'en departirent li barun. 
li chevaliers remest sultis, 
Appareilliez e ententis 
De novele bataille emprendre, 
Par qu'a Deu puisse I'alme rendre. 790 

Cil [qui] se cumbati suvent 
Par pruesce cuntre la gent, 
Aprestez s'est e cuvenables 
De cumbatre cuntre diables. 
Bonement en Deu esperant, 795 

Atent li quel vendrunt avant. 
Des armes s'esteit bien armez, 
E bien guarniz e aturnez : 
Halberc de justise out vestu, 
Par quei le cors out defendu 800 

De I'engin de ses enemis ; 
E I'escu de fiance out pris. 

778 ke.— 780 Gardez ke.— 781 deliure.— 783 poums.— 784 
Comandum. — 786 partirent. — 787 cheualers remis sutis. 
— 788 Apparillez. — 790 quei a.— 791 combati souent.— 792 
prouesce centre. — ^793 couenables. — 794 combatre centre. 
—797 sest.— 799 Hauberc. 


84 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

Healme out fait de ferme creance ; 
L'altre armeiire d'esperance — 
Esp^e a del seint espirit ; 
Si cum [li] livre le nus dit, 
C'est la parole Jhesu Crist, 
Qui de sun nun numer I'aprist. 
Mult li fu cil seinz nuns aidables 
Quil rescust suvent des diables 810 

109b Qu'il ne fust periz ne tenuz, 

Ne par lur grant turment vencuz. 

La pitiez de sun [bon] seignur 

Nel de9ut pas en sa tristur ; 

Nun *faut ele nului qui I'eimt, 815 

N'en sa grant bosoig la recleimt. 

Issi armez cum jo vus di, 

Li chevaliers suls attendi 

Les batailles espoentables, 

Qu'il fera encuntre diables. 820 

II n'i aveit guaires est6 
quant a o'i e escult6 
une tel noise e uns tels criz, 
Cum si li munz fust esturmiz ; 
Que si tuit li bume del munt, 825 

803 Haume.— 804 li autre.— 805 Espeie ad.— 806 cume 
liures.^ — 808 Ki nomer. — 8091uifud seint nun eidables. — 
810 Kil souent.— 811 Kil. — 813 pitie. K : Nee eum pietas 
boni ihesu fefellit. — 814 dulcur after sa, and then stricken 
Old. ) — 815 feit null kil. K : quae confidentes in se fallere 
non consueuit. — 816 Ne. — 817 cume. — 818 cheualers. — 
819 espuntables. — 820 Kil ferad encontre. — 821 gueres. — 
822 ad escute.— 823 tele.— 824 Cume.— 825 Ke tut home. 


Oisel e bestes qui i sunt, 
A une voiz criassent tuit, 
N'i eiist mie greignur bruit. 
Si ne fust de Deu la vertuz, 
De laquel il *s'esteit vestuz, 830 

E li cunfort qu'il out euz 
Des seinz baruns qu'aveit veiiz, 
Hors del [sun] sen fust afolez, 
Chaiiz aval e estunez. 

Apres la grant noise e le sun, 835 

Entrerent tuit en la maisun. 
Od hidus embru'issemenz ; 
Sur lui rechinnerent lur denz. 
109c Desur tute altre creature 

Esteit horrible lur figure ; 840 

Trestuit issi desfigure 

L'unt par grant eschar salu6 ; 

Quant il 1' aveient salue, 

Par reproche unt a lui parl6 : 

i iJ i hume qui nus sunt servant, 845 

I ^ e en nostre oevre demurant, 
vienent a nus apres lur fin, 
E sunt a nus de tut enclin. 
E vus estes tut vis venuz : 
Bien devez estre receiiz ; 850 

Greignur lo'ier, greignur merite 
Devez aveir, qu'avez eslite 

826 Oisels ke. — 830 laquele se ert. — 831 les conforz kil. 
— 832 kaueit.— 839 autre.— 841 Trestut desfigurez.— 842 
saluez. — 845 home. — 846 demorant. — 847 Uenent. — 849 
uifs. — 851 louer. — 852 kauez. 

86 l' espurgatoire seint patriz 

Nostre estre e nostre cumpaignie, 
E venistes a nus en vie. 
Grant grace devum rendre a vus, 855 

Que vis estes venuz a nus ; 
Altrement avriuns nus tort, 
Quant vus n' atendistes la mort. 
^a venistes espene'ir 

Voz pechiez par turment sufiB-ir ; 860 

Ci avrez vus assez dolur, 
Miseire, turmenz e tristur, 
Pur 90 que servi nus avez. 
Si noz cunseilz creire volez, 
A la porte sein vus merruns 865 

U entrastes, hors vus mettruns. 
109d Lung tens purrez el siecle vivre, 
E voz deliz faire a delivre. 
Si mielz amez a remaneir 
Qu'ariere aler e joie aveir, 870 

Cruels peines e grief turment 
Avrez od nus finablement." 

Issi faitierement parlouent 
li diable e amonestouent 
le chevalier qu'a els turnast, 875 

E sun purposement laissast : 
Qu'ilvolsist a els cunsentir, 

853 comp.— S56 Keuifs.— 857 Autrement auruns.— 859 
espenir.— 861 asez.— 862 Meserie e (olur after e, utricken 
out).—S63 ke.— 864 conseilz crere.— 865meruns.— 866 0u. 
—868 uos.— 869 melz remaner.— 870 Ke auer.— 871 grefe 
turmenz. — 872 finablemenz. — 873 faiterement. — 875 L 
cheualer ka. — 877 Kil consentir. 


U par manace u par blandir. 

Mais li chevaliers Jhesu Crist 

N'out pour, ne ne se fremist ; 880 

Ne blandissemenz ne manace 

Nel deceit que lur plaisir face. 

En pais se sist, n'out poiir d'els ; 

Ne volt un mot parler a els. 

II virent bien qu'il les despist : 885 

Hidus semblant chascuns li fist. 


' n feu firent de main ten ant 
en la maisun, merveilles grant, 
piez e meins li lient forment ; 

El feu le jettent erralment ; 890 

Od cros de fer enz le buterent, 

Hidusement sur lui crierent. 

Li chevaliers en sa dolur 

Apella le nun *del seignur. 
110a Si enemi qui od lui sunt 895 

S'esforcierent qu'el feu parfunt 

Le peiissent entr'els tenir, 

E sun cors ardeir e bru'ir. 

Quant [il] eel grant turment senti 

A Jhesu Crist cria merci ; 900 

Icil nuns I'a bien defendu 

Del premier turment u il fii. 

878 Ou ou. — 879 cheualer. — 881 blandissement. — 882 ke 
pleisir.— 883 de els.— 885 kil.— 886 chescun.— 889 lui.— 
891 crocs. — 893 cheualers. — 894 Apellat nostra seignur 
OK : pit lesu nomen invocavit. — 896 Sesforcerunt kel. — 
897 entre els.— 898arder.— 900criat.— 901 lad.— 902 ou. 

88 l' espuegatoibe seint patriz 

Apres cele invocaciun 
qu'il fist de eel seintisme nun, 
fu delivres, li feus s'esteint, 905 

E icist granz turmenz remeint. 

Quant li chevaliers a veil 

De Deu la force a la vertu, 

En lui s' afie fermement, 

E atent plus seiirement 910 

Les turmenz u il deit entrer, 

E 90 que il deit trespasser. 

Les diables despit sanz faille, 

E lur turmenz e lur bataille. 

En une -waste regiun . 915 

Le meinent, liors de la maisun, 
Dunt la terre ert neire e obscure. 
N'i vit nule altre creature 
Fors les diables quil menerent, 
E qui tut entur lui crierent. 920 

La out un freid vent e serri 
Qui li parcurt le cors parmi ; 
110b II nel poeit nient oir ; 

Cest turment li cuvint sufFrir. 

Desque la I'unt trait e mene 925 

U li soleilz naist en est6 : 

A la fin del siecle le meinent, 

904 Kil.— 905 fud feu esteint.— 906 grant.— 907 cheua- 
lers ad. — 911 ou. — 912 kil. — 917 {after terre an f ; appar- 
ently the scribe began to write 'fud'). — 918 autre. — 919 
kil. — 920 ki entutr {second t stricken out). — 922 Ke lui par- 
cout. — ^924 couint. — 926 Ou soleil neist. 


90 li fu vis, par tut le peinent. 

Par une veie, grant e 16e, 

Le trestrent en une valee, 930 

Cele part dunt li soleilz surt 

En yver, quant li jur sunt curt. 


'altre part, vers le su, a destre, 
li mustrerent perillus estre : 
u il le meinent a o'iz 935 

Gries pleintes e dolurs e criz ; 

E cum plus ala aprismant. 

Plus o'i pleinte e dolur grant. 

En un grant champ I'unt puis men^, 

Plein de miseire e d'amert^. 940 

Li chevaliers ne pout veeir 

La grandur del champ, ne saveir. 

De tute maniere de gent 

Vit plein cest champ veraiement ; 

A la terre tuz estenduz 945 

Envers, e si esteient nuz. 

Od clous de fer e meins e pi6 

A la terre sunt enfichie. 

Pur I'anguisse de lur dolur, 

Mangierent la terre a tristur ; 950 

110c Suvent diseient od haut cri : 

' ' Espargniez nus ! merci ! merci ! ' ' 

N'i aveit nul quis alejast, 

928 lui fad.— 933 Dautre.— 934 Lui.— 935 Ou ad oi.— 
936 Grefs cri. — 937 cume alat aprimant. — 940 miserie 
de am. — 941 cheualers ueer.— 942 saueer.— 944 plains cist 
ueraiment.— 947 piez.— 948 enflchiez.— 950 mangerent.— 
951 Souent ou.— 952 Esparniez.— 953 aleggast. 

90 l' espurgatoire seint patriz 

Ne qui de rien les espargniast. 
Li diable entr'els alouent, 955 

Sis bateient e turmentouent. 
Al chevalier dient suvent : 
' ' Vus sufferrez icest turment, 
S' a nus ne vus voilliez tenir, 
E a noz cunseilz obe'ir. 960 

Se vus voilliez certeinement 
Laissier vostre purposement, 
Hors vus remerruns seinement ; 
N'i avez nul blemissement. 
S'od nus manez *finablement, 965 

Tuz jurs avrez peine e turment." 
II retint bien en sun pens6 
Cum Deus I'aveit einz delivr6 ; 
Nule rien ne lur respundi, 
Einz les despist e sis bai. 970 

Envers a terre le metteient, 
Tut nu, si cum li altre esteient ; 
E sil voleient cloufichier ; 
Mes il membra al chevalier 
Del nun Deu qui Tout delivre ; 975 

Si a Jhesu Crist reclame. 
Cil turmenz ne li pout nuisir ; 
Li nuns Deu les fist departir. 

954 riens esparniast. — 955 diables. — 957 souent. — 958 
sufferez. — 959 uoillez.— 960 nos conseils. — 961 uoillez. 
— ^962 Laisser. — 965 Si od remanez finement. — 968 Cume. 
—971 E uers.— 972 cume autre.— 973 sis.— 975 ki.— 976 
ad.— 977 lui. 


llOd T~^ 'iluec le traistrent e menerent, 

J J dedenz un altre champ entrerent, 980 

u greignurs turmenz a veiiz 
Qu'en eel dunt il esteit eissuz. 
De chascun eage de gent 
Out en eel champ diversement ; 
A la terre furent culeliig, 985 

Cume li altre e cloufichi6. 
Tels esteit la diversetez 
De eels qu'en eel champ a trovez, 
E des altres qu'il vit devant : 
Sur les ventres erant gesant ; 990 

Li altre geseient envers, 
Cloufiehig a la terre od fers. 
Dedenz eest champ u est venuz, 
Plusurs de eels i a *veuz 
Qui adenz esteient gesanz ; 995 

Sur els veeit draguns ardanz, 
Qui poigneient e turmentouent ; 
Od denz ardenz les devorouent. 
Plusurs i vit qui erent eeint 
E de serpenz ardanz estreint 1000 

E par les cols e par les braz ; 
Mult i aveit dolurus laz. 
Od lur langues, qui sunt fuines. 
Percent lur eors e lur peitrines ; 
Od I'aguesce traient fors, 1005 

979 iluek.— 980 autre.— 981 Ou ad ueu.— 982 Ken eisseu. 
-983 age.— 985 culche.— 986 autre clouflche.— 988 ad.— 
89 autres kil.— 991 Les autres.— 992 Clouflchiez.— 993 ou. 
-994 ces ad uenuz. — 995 gisanz. — 1002 dolereus 

92 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

^0 li ert vis, les quers des cors. 
Ilia Crapuz i vit, merveilles granz, 
^0 li ert vis, trestuz ardanz ; 
Sur les piz des asquanz seeient, 
Od lur fees qu'horribles aveient, lOlO- 

A grant force erent ententis 
De traire les quers des chaitis. 
Cil qui erent ici tenuz 
Es granz turmenz qu'il a veiiz, 
Ne finerent de doluser, 1015- 

De griefment pleindre e de plurer. 
Li diable sur els cureient, 
E flaeloent e bateient. 
Chaitis est cil qui en tel peine, 
Par ses pechiez, se trait e meine ! 102O 

II ne poeit nient veeir 
La grandur del champ, ne saveir, 
Fors de tant qu'il i fu entrez, 
E le de travers fu menez. 
Le chevalier unt apele 1025- 

Li diable, e a lui parle : 
' ' Tuz cez turmenz que vus veez 
Avrez, si vus ne nus creez. ' ' 
II les despit, cil s' entremettent : 
Cum il en cez turmenz le mettent, 1030- 

II apela le nun Jhesu. 
Par eel apel delivres fu. 

1006 lui.— 1007 Crapouz.— 1008 lui.— 1009 seient.— 1010- 
bees que. — 1014 kil ail. — 1015 finerent corrected jrom fu- 
rent.— 1016 grefment.— 1021 ueer.— 1022 saueer.— 1023 kil 
fud. — 1024 lee fud. Lat. K : intransversum campos per- 
transivit.— 1025 apelee.— 1026 parlee.— 1027 ces.— 1030 ces.- 
1031 apelad. 



D'iluec I'unt trait, si sunt ale 
al tierz champ, u il I'unt mene, 
plein de miseires e dolur, 1035 

E de criement e de plur. 
De tute maniere d'ee 
I aveit gent trop grant plente ; 
E jurent adenz e en vers, 
Fichiez en terre od clous de fers 1040 

Ardanz, des chies des i qu'as piez, 
Par tuz les membres sunt fichiez 
Si espes que nuls n'i mettreit 
Sun dei qu'a clou n'i tuchereit. 
En si tres grant anguisse esteient 1045 

Qu'avis unques crier poeient, 
Fors cume genz qui fussent mort ; 
Tant esteient lur turment fort. 
Nuz esteient e li freiz venz 
Les turmentout e hers e enz ; 1050 

E li diable les bateient, 
Que nule pitie n'en aveient. 
Alias, que nuls deit deservir 
Que itel peine deit suffrir ! 
Apres unt li diable dit 1055 

Al chevalier, sanz nul respit : 
Itels peines sufferrez vus, 
Se vus ne cunsentez a nus ; 

1033 Liluek treit. — 1034 terz ou. — 1035 miserie. Lat. 
OK : miseriis plenum.— 1037 de h66.— 1038 plentee.— 1041 
chiefs de ci kas.— 1043 ke.— 1044 ka tichereit.— 1046 Ka- 
Tiisunkes. — 1047 gent fuissent morz. — 1048 turmenz forz. 
—1052 Ke.— 1053 ke.— 1054 Ke tel.— 1056 cheualer.— 1057 
suflFrez. — 1058 cons. 

94 l' espurgatoire seint patriz 

E lessiez 90 qu'avez empris, 
U turmentez serrez tut vis. " 1060 

II desdeigna e si despist 
Lur cunseilz [e] nient ne fist. 
111c II le voleient ferm lier 
E a la terre cloufichier, 
Si cum esteient li pene 1065 

Qui la furent : il a num^ 
Le nun Jhesu Crist dulcement ; 
Si fu delivres erralment. 

Tant I'unt trait e sachi6 entr'els 
qu'el quart champ le meinent od els. 
tute maniere de turmenz 
La vit li chevaliers dedenz : 
Par les piez esteient pendanz 
Plusur, od chaeines ardanz ; 
E par les mains e par les braz 1075 

Li plusur, en dolurus laz. 
E si aveit [il] mulz de eels 
Qui pendirent par les chevels ; 
Li plusur, les testes aval, 
Pendirent en flame enfernal 1080 

Faite de sulphre qui ne funt. 
Par lesjambes Vi€ amunt, 
Li un pendeient cruelment 

1059 lessez kauez.— 1060 Ou.— 1062 cons.— 1065 peine. 
—1066 ad nome.— 1067 ducement (c or r?).— 1068 ftid 
erraiiment. — 1069 sache entreus. — 1070 menerent o eus. — 
1071 tormenz. — 1074 Plusurs chaenes. — 1076 dolereus. — 
1077 mult ceus.— 1078 cheueus.— 1081 sunt (7). —1082 
gambes liez. — 1083 cruelement. 


Od cros ardanz diversement : 
Par oeilz, par nes, e par oreilles — 1085 

De eels i aveit il raerveilles — 
Par col, par buohe e par mentun, 
E par mameles, 90 trovum, 
Par genitailles, par aillurs, 
E par les joes les plusurs. 1090 

llld Cels vit li chevaliers pendanz 
El feu qui est tuz jurs ardanz. 
En vit asquanz qui erent mis 
En furnaises de sulphre espris ; 
Asquanz en vit ars e bruiz, 1095 

Qui sur grailz erent rostiz ; 
Asquanz en vit mis en espeiz, 
E rostiz od sulphre e od peiz. 
Li diable les rostisseient, 
Divers metals sur els fundeient. 1100 

Li altre diable teneient 
Maces de fer, sis debateient. 
Tute maniere de turment 
[I] vit cist Oweins en present. 
De ses cumpaignuns a veiiz 1105 

Plusurs qu'il a recuneiiz, 
Qui el siecle aveient est!, 
Mes malement orent ovre. 

1084 crocs.— 1085 oilz.— 1086 ceus.— 1087 bouche men- 
ton.— 1088 les mam. trouon.— 1090 ioues.— 1091 Ceus.— 
1093 ascans. FoUows I. 1094.-1094 forneises souphre.— 
1095 Asquans.— 1096 grails.— 1097 Asquans.— 1098 rostis 
souphre.— 1100 metaus eus.— 1101 autre.— 1103 torment. 
— 1104 cest.— 1105 compaignons ad.— 1106 kil ad reconeuz. 

96 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

Nuls ne purreit mustrer ne dire 
Les plurs, les criz, n'en livre escrire ! 1110 
Cist chans n'ert mie sulement 
Pleins de la turment^e gent ; 
Einz ert des diables plusur 
Qui'n esteient turmenteiir. 
Entr'els le pristrent, sil voleient 1115 

Turmenter, mes il ne poeient. 
Le nun Jhesu Crist reclama, 
[E] par eel nun se delivra. 
112a Mult est cist nuns bons a numer, 

Par qui ^I'um se puet delivrer. 1120 

Iluec le menerent avant ; 

Un turment vit merveilles grant : 

Une ruee ardant e fuine. 

Desuz ert la flame sulphrine ; 

A la ruee u si rai sunt mis 1125 

Ot cros de fer ardant assis ; 

FicHez furent espessement. 

Sur cez cros pendeient la gent. 

L'une meitiez en terre esteit, 

E I'altre en Fair, qui tute ardeit. 1130 

Li chaitif qui desus pendeient 

En la flame sulphrine ardeient, 

Qui de la terre veneit sus, 

1109 ni porreit mostrer. — 1111 champs solement. — 1112 
torm. — 1113 plusurs. — 1114 Qi en tormenteurs. — 1115 En- 
treus.— 1116 Torm.— 1117 non.— 1118 non.— 1119 nons 
nomer. — 1120 on. — 1122 torm. — 1123 roue ardante. — 1124 
souphrine. — 1125 rove ou. — 1126 Od crocs asis. — 1128 ces 
crocs. — 1130 lautre eir que tote. — 1132 souphrine. 


Si oscure ne poeit plus. 
E li diable apertement 1135 

Li mustrerent icel turment, 
E li dient tut en apert 
Que s'il a els ne se cunvert, 
Cest turment li estoet sufFrir, 
E desur la ruee venir : 1140 

" Einz que desus vus encroiins, 
Apertement vus musterruns 
Cumfait turment oil chaitif unt 
Qui a la ruee pendu sunt.' ' 
Li diable alerent avant, 1145 

Icele ruee avirunant. 
112b Li un de I'une part esteient, 

Li altre encuntre, qui teneient 

Granz pels de fer trestut ardant ; 

De la terra furent levant 11 SO 

Icele ruee encuntre munt ; 

Icels li mustrent qui i sunt. 

Plusurs [i] out d'altre maniere 

Qui la butouent [en] ariere. 

Tant la turnouent cruelment, 1155 

E tant alout isnelement. 

Que nuls ne poeit eels, pur veir, 

Qui pendu i erent, veeir, 

1136 Lui mostr. term. — 1137 lui. — 1138 eus conuert. — 
1139 term, lui estot.— 1140 roue.— 1141 Enz ke.— 1142 mos- 
teruns.— 1143 Cum feit torm. sunt.— 1144 rove.— 1146. 
roue auironant. — 1148 autre encontre. — 1149 Grant 
ardanz. — 1150 leuanz. — 1151 roue encontre. — 1152 Iceus- 
que. — 1153 unt dautre.— 1154 hot.- 1155 torn.— 1157 por. 
— 1158 penduz ueir. 

98 l' espurgatoiee seint patriz 

Pur la flame, e pur I'ignelesee. 

En grant miseire, en grant tristesce 1160 

Furent icil qui la esteient, 

E qui eel turment susteneient. 

Le chevalier unt entr'els pris, 

Si I'unt desur la ruee mis ; 

Cuntre munt le firent lever, 1165 

Mais quant il deveit avaler 

Si a nume le nun Jhesu : 

Tut erralment delivres fu. 


'iluec le traistrent maintenant, 
sil menerent entr'els avant, 1170 

tant qu'il vit loinz une maisun 

Fumuse e de trop grant fa9un. 

Tant fu lee e de tel lungur, 

Nuls ne pot choisir la grandur. 
112c La le traistrent Wdusement. 1175 

Loinz ert de eel herbergement, 

Quant la chalur senti si grant 

Qu'il ne posit aler avant. 

II s'arestut, eil le hasterent, 

Purqu'il tarjout li demanderent : 1180 

" 5o est uns bainz que vus veez ; 

Voilliez u nun, la enz irez. 

Baigniez serrez od eels qu'i sunt, 

1159 ne. — 1160 miserie e en.^1162 term.— 1163 ont entre 
eua. — 1164 lent roue. — 1165 Contre.— 1167 ad nome non. 
— 1168 Tout errant. — 1170 entre eus. — 1171 kil maisoD . 
— 1172 Fumose tro facon. — 1173 fud longor. — 1174 gran- 
dor.— 1175 treistrent.— 1180 Purqil lui.— 1181 bains.— 
1182 uoillez ou non irrez. — 1183 Baignez ceus. 


E qui cez bainz deserviz unt. ' ' 
Mult a de eels dedenz oiz 1185 

[E] granz dolurs e granz pluriz. 
Quant en la maisun fu venuz, 
Mulz i a durs turmenz veiiz. 
Li pavemenz de la maisun 
Fu plains de fosses envirun, 1190 

Durement lees e parfundes, 
Si esteient desuz roiindes. 
Si pres d'altre chascune esteit, 
Qu'avis unques veie i pareit. 
Icez *fosses dunt nus parlum 1195 

Esteient pleines, 50 trovum, 
De chascune licur boillant, 
E de chascun metal ardant. 
Grant multitudine de gent 
I a veil diversement ; 1200 

De tute maniere d'ee 
Iluec esteient turmente. 
112d Tut furent plungie li alquaut 
En eel metal chaut e ardant ; 
E tels i out des i qu'as piz, 1205 

E tels i a desqu'as numbriz ; 

1184 ces. — 1185 ad ceus. — 1186 ploriz. — 1187 maison 
fud.- — 1188 ad torm. — 1189 pauement maison.— 1190 Fui 
plain foses enuiron. — 1192rundes. — 1193dautre chascun. 
— 1194 onques. — 1195 Ices choses dont parlom. Lat. K : 
Erant autem fossae singulae metallis diversis ac liquori- 
bus bullientibus plene. — 1J96 trouom. — 1197 chascon li 
cor.— 1198 chascon.— 1200 ad.— 1201 toute de hee.— 1202 
lluek estoient tormentee. — 1203 Tuz plunge auquant. — 
1205 teus de ci cas. — 1206 tens ad deskas. 

100 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

Tels as quisses, tels as genuz ; 

Grevuse peine i out a tuz. 

Tels as jambes e tels as piez 

El metal esteient fichiez ; 1210 

Tels i *reteneit Tune mains, 

Tels ambedui, de dolur plains. 

A une voiz tuit s'escrioent, 

E pleigneient e dolusoent. 

Li diable mult cruelment 1215 

Li dient qu'en icel turment 

Serra ja mis e turmentez, 

Se il ne fait lur volentez. 

En un des bainz le vunt plungier ; 

Dune remembra al chevalier 1220 

Del nun Jbesu qu'il apela : 

De eel turment se delivra. 

D'iluec le mainent u il sunt, 
tant qu'il vindrent a un grant munt : 
de chascun eage de gent 1225 

Trova iluec asemblement. 
Sur les orteilz des piez esteient, 

1207 Teus teus.— 1208 Greuouse.— 1209 Teus gambes 
teus. — 1211 Teus teneient main. Lat. A: immersi erant. 
. . . hii uno tantum pede,illi utroque, nonnuUi manu 
sola. C : alii uno pede tenebantur, alii utraque manu, vel 
una tantummodo. K : alii unam manum vel utramque 
in eis tenebant.— 1212 Teus ambdui plain.— 1213 tuz ses- 
crioient. — 1214 pleigneient dolusoient. — 1215 diables cru- 
element.— 1216 Lui ken torm.— 1217 torm.— 1218 Sil.— 
1219 E baigns uont plunger.— 1220 au cheualer. — 1221 
non kil.— 1222 torm.— 1223 ou.— 1224 kil.— 1225 age.— 
1227 ortilz. 


Curb6 e nu, grant peine aveient. 
Si grant pueple out desur eel munt, 
Que s'il n'eiist plus gent el munt, 1230 

113a 9° li ert vis, bien sufBreit 
Icist pueples que il veeit. 
Si cume genz mort attendanz. 
Vers aquilun erent turnanz. 
Li chevaliers s'esmerveilla 1235 

De cele gent qu'il esguarda : 
Kar il esteient altresi 
Cum s'il demandassent merci. 
Uns diables 11 demanda 
Pur quei de eels s' esmerveilla, 1240 

Qu'il vit atendre od tel poiir. 
En [tel] peine e en tel labur ? 
"Altretel vus estuet suffrir, 
S'a nus ne vus volez tenir. ' ' 
Li chevaliers mot ne respunt. 1245 

Lever le quident sur le munt. 
Quant devers aquilun [i] vint 
Uns venz qui grant tempeste tint, 
Qui tut ensemble les leva 
Horriblement, puis sis jeta 1250 

En un flueve freit e puant, 
D'altre part le munt guaimentant. 
En eel turment e en eel cri 
Ert li chevaliers altresi. 

1228 Curbes nuz.— 1232 quil.— 1233 gent.— 1234 aquilon 
tornanz.— 1237 autresi.— 1239 lui.— 1240 ceus.— 1243 Au- 
tretel estot.— 1247 aquilon.— 1249 tuz.— 1251 floue.— 1252 
Dautre. — 1253 torm. — 1254 cheualers autresi. 


La lur cuvint grant freit suffrir ; 1255 

Cum il voleient sus venir, 
Li diable les rebutouent, 
Od cros de fer enz les plunjouent. 
113b Li chevaliers se remembra ; 

Le nun Jhesu Crist reclama. 1260 

De I'altre part fu en estant 
Desur la rive maintenant. 

Puis sunt li diable venu 
a lui, sil traistrent vers le su 
tant qu'il vit une flame oscure, x 265 
Sulphrine e puant sanz mesure. 
De cbascun eage de gent 
Vit lever od I'embrasement : 
Homes ardanz cum estenceles 
Qui hors del feu issent noveles. 1270 

En Fair muntoent, puis chairent 
Ariere el feu dunt [il] eissirent, 
El liu ardant e en poiir, 
E en tristesce e en dolur. 
Cum cest liu durent aprismier, 1275 

Si parlerent al chevalier : 
' ' Veez vus cest puiz flambeiant ? 
Cest 1' entree d'enfer ardant. 
Ici est nostre mansiuns ; 
Finablement ga enz serruns. 1280 

1255 couint freif.— 1257 rebot.— 1258 crocs.— 1260 non. 
—1261 lautre fuit.— 1265 kil.— 1266 sans.— 1267 chascune 
age.— 1269 homes.— 1270 eissent.— 1271 montoient.— 1273 
puur. — 1275 aprimier. — 1277 pui flambant. — 12781entre. 
— 1279 mansions. 


Pur 90 que servi nus avez, 
Ensembl'od nus ca enz serrez. 
E tuit cil qui nus servirunt, 
Tuz jurs sanz fin ci remeindrunt. 
Si dedenz cest puiz vus metez, 1285 

E cors e alme perirez. 
llSc Qa enz vus estuvra venir, 
S'a nus ne volez obeir. 
Se mielz amez a returner, 
Ariere vus feruns inener, 1290 

Sein e salf sanz blemissement ; 
Si purrez vivre lungement." 
Tant s'afia en Jhesu Crist 
Que lur cunseil e els despist. 
Dedenz saillent li adversier, 1295 

Od els traient le chevalier. 
Tant fu de eel turment hastez 
Pur poi qu'il ne s'ert obliez 
De numer le nun sun seignur ; 
Puis le numa par grant dul9ur. 1300 

Quant Jhesu Crist out reclame 
La force del feu 1' a leve 
Od les altres en Fair en haut ; 
Mult ot iluec perillus saut ! 
De juste eel puiz avalout ; 1305 

Une piece suls i estout. 

1281 ke. — 1282 Ensemblement ens. — 1284 tous sans. 
—1285 pui.— 1287 ens estoura.— 1289 mieuz.— 1290 Arere 
ferons.^1291 sauf sans. — 1292 porrez longement. — 1294 
conseil eus. — 1295 aduerser. — 1296 eus cheualer. — 1297 fud 
torm.— 1298 klL— 1299 nomei- non.— 1300 noma.— 1302 
lad.— 1.303 autres.— 1305 pui. 

104 l' espurgatoire seint pateiz 

Mult s'esmerveilla u il fu. 
Diable sunt a lui venu 
Qui li erent descuneiiz, 

Altre que cil qu'il out veiiz. 1310 

Al chevalier parlerent si : 
' ' Estes vus ore suls ici ? 

Nostre cumpaignun vus raentirent 
Qui pur veir entendre vus firent 
113d Que r entree d'enfer fu ei : 1315 

Sachiez que il vus unt menti. 
De 90 sunt il bien custumier, 
Pur 90 qu'il voelent engignier 
La gent par mencunge e atraire, 
Quant il par veir nel poeent faire. 1 320 

Ci n' est mie la dreite entree 
D'enfer qu'il vus orent inustree. 
Mes sachiez bien la vus merruns : 
Le dreit enfer vus musterruns.' ' 

Tant le traistrent qu'il *ariverent 1326 
a une ewe qu'il li mustrerent, 
horrible e parfunde e puant : 
La oit criz e noise grant. 
Cele ewe esteit tute embrasee 
De flame sulphrine od fumee ; 1330 

1307 ou.— 1309 Qe lui desconeuz.— 1310 Autres kil.— 
1311 Au.— 1313 compaignon. — 1314 Qi.— 1315 lentre fud 
ici.— 1316 Sachez kil ont.— 1317 costumer.— 1318 kil 
uolent engigner. — 1319 menconge atrere. — 1320 poent 
fere.— 1322 kil.— 1323 sachez.— 1324 mosteriins.— 1325 kil 
leuerent. Lat. CK : pervenerunt ad flumen unum.— 1326 
kil lui most.— 1327 horible parfund.— 1329 estoit toute. 


Cele ewe ert de diables pleine, 
Od lur turment e od lur peine. 
Cil quil menerent distrent tant : 
' ' Veez vus la eel flueve ardant ? 

Des puiz d'enfer ist cele ardurs, 1335 

U nils dampn^ serrum tuz jurs. 
Par desur cele ewe a un punt 
Mult perillus a eels qu'i vunt. 
Sur eel punt te cuvient aler ; 
Nus i feruns le vent sufler 1840 

Qui del grant munt jus portera, 
En cest flueve vus abattra, 
1 14a Tut issi cum il vus ravi 
En I'altre flueve e abati. 
Noz cumpaignun vus recevrunt, 1345 

El puiz d'enfer vus *plungerunt. 
Le punt vus estuet espruver 
Cum vus purrez ultrepasser. " 
II [le] leverent cuntre munt, 
Les piez [li] metent sur le punt. 1350 

Treis periz i aveit trop granz, 
Desur le punt as trespassanz : 
Li premiers ert escolurjables : 
Nuls n'i tenist ses piez estables, 

1331 Cel.— 1332 torment.— 1333 kil.— 1334 flue.— 1335 
eel. — 1336 Ou dampnez serron. — 1337 eel ad pont. — 1338 
ceus qi uont. — 1339 pont couient. — 1340 frons soufler. — 
1.341 Qi mo lit porta.— 1342 E en floue abatta. — 13441autre 
floue. — 1345 Nos compaignons receuront. — 1346 receuront 
( Cf. Note to 1. 1346). —1347 pont esprouer.^1348 porrez ou- 
trep.— 1349 contra mont.— 1350 pont.— 1351 perilz grant. 
— 1352 pont trespassant. — 1353 escolurgables. — 1354 Nus. 


Tut i eiist il grant laiir ; 1355 

Ne fust la force al Creatur ! 
D'altre part li punz esteit tels : 
Si estreiz que nuls hum mortels 
Pur nule rien ne se tenist, 
^0 li fii vis, qu'il ue chaist. 1360 

Li tierz esteit desmesurez : 
Que li punz ert si liaut levez 
Del floeve, qui esteit ardauz, 
Mult ert hidus as trespassanz 
Qu'il ne chaissent cuntre val 1365 

El dolurus puiz enfernal. 
Iluec li dieut li diable 
Qui sunt felun e decevable : 
" E encore te larruus nus, 
Que tut te tenisses a nus. 1370 

114b A la porte te remerruns 

U ta entras, hors te mettruns." 

Al chevalier a remembre 

De quel peril Deus 1' out jetfi : 

Le nun Jhesu Crist reclama ; 1375 

Pas avant altre avant ala. 

Tant cum il plus ala avant, 

Le plus s'ala asseiirant, 

Kar li punz li ellargisseit 

Des dous parz si qu'il le veeit. 1380 

1356 au. — 1357 Dautre ponz teus. — 1358 estreit ke nus 
hom morteus. — 1360 kil. — 1361 terz demesurez. — 1362 lun 
puz.— 1363 floue.— 1365 Qil centre.— 1366 dolrus.— 1367 
lui. — 1368 felon. — 1369 encor loruns. — 1371 remenrons. — 
1372 Ou mettrons.— 1373 ad.— 1375 non.— 1376 autre.— 
1377 alad.— 1378 E plus salad.— 1379 ponz lui.— 1380 
E de pars kil. 


Tost fu li punz si eslaissiez, 
Qu'uns chars i pout aler chargiez ; 
Un poi apres fu si creiiz, 
Si dous chars i eiist venuz 
Bien se po'issent encuntrer, 1385 

E largement ultrepasser. 
Li diable quil la menerent 
Furent el flueve e esguarderent 
Cum il passa seiirement. 
Dune orient tant hidusement 1390 

Que li airs remut e la terre ; 
Greignur peril n'estuveit querre ! 
Greignur poiir out de cez criz 
Que des periz qu'il out sentiz. 
Altres diables vit parfunt, 1395 

Qui jetouent lur cros amunt 
De fer, que crochier le voleient ; 
Mes a lui tuchier ne poeient. 
114c Ultre le punt delivrement 

Passa puis, senz encumbrement. 1400 

Li autors nus fet ci entendre 
que nus devum essample prendre 
del grant turment qu'avez oi, 
Dunt li livre nus cunte ci ; 

1381 pont eslaissiez. — 1383 fud. Lat. K: via erat ita 
larga, ut sibi in ea obviarent duo carra. — 1385 encontrer. — 
1386 outrep.— 1387 qui.— 1388 e floue esgarderent— 1391 
Qe eirs. — 1392 Greignor nestoueit. — 1393 Greignor ces. 
—1394 perilz kil.— 1395 Autres parfont.— 1396 Qi crocs 
amont. — 1397 k (crossed) crok (k crossed) . — 1398 toucher. 
—1399 Outre pont.— 1400 encomb.— 1402 deuom.— 1403 
des tormenz. — 1404 Dont liures. 

108 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

E des miseires qui ci sunt, 1405 

E des granz peines de cest munt. 
Si cez peines esteient mises 
Cuntre les altres e assises, 
N'i avreit il cumparisun. 
Plus de [li] aigle e del pin9un. 1410 

Tels sunt les peines enfernals, 
E les mesa,ises e *li mals. 
Que nuls nes purreit anumbrer 
Plus que gravele de la mer. 
Qui de 90 pensereit suvent 1415 

Ne se delitereit nient 
En la vanit6 de cest munt, 
Ne es delices qui i sunt. 
Mes li cloistrier ne sevent mie, 
Qui quident aveir dure vie 1420 

Pur 90 qu'il sunt enclos dedenz, 
Quels est la peine e li turmenz, 
Qui sunt es lius dunt nus parlum, 
E dunt devant mustrfi avum. 
Se cele vie remembrassent, 1425 

Sur tute rien la lur preisassent ; 
114d Plus est legiere, 90 me semble, 
U cors e alme sunt ensemble, 
Vie senz curiosete 
U dras e vivre a plenty, 1430 

1405 miseries que. — 1407 cea. — 1408 Contre autres. — 
1409 auereit comparison. — 1410 egle pincon. — 1411 Teus 
enfernaus. — 1412 meseises les maus. — 1413 porreit. — 1414 
ke.— 1415 Qi souent.— 1418 qwe.— 1419 cloistrer.— 1420 Qi. 
—1421 kil.— 1422 tormenz.— 1423 Qi parlom.— 1424 mos- 
tre auom. — 1426 preissasent. — 1428 Ou. — 1429 coriosete. 
— 1430OU ad. 


Que n'est cele u tant a mesaise, 

II n'i a rien qui ne desplaise. 

Pur 90 vus voeil amonester 

Que des turmenz *devez penser, 

E si aidiez a voz amis 1435 

Qui laienz sunt en peine mis, 

Si cum fu dit al chevalier. 

Oil qui la sunt pur espurgier 

Serrunt de peines delivre, 

Fors eels qui sunt del tut dampn6. 1440 

Cil que par lius vit en turment 

lerent delivres veirement 

Par messes e par oraisuns, 

E par almosnes e par duns, 

Qu'um dune a povre gent pur els. 1445 

Tuit ierent delivr^ fors eels 

Qui en la buche d'enfer sunt ; 

James de Deu merci n'avrunt. 

Es altres turmenz sunt noz pere. 

Meres, sorurs, parent e frere ; 1450 

Attendanz sunt a noz bien faiz, 

Tant que d'iluec les ait Deus traiz. 

Ses vissiuns corporelment 

Ci entre nus suffrir turment, 

1431 ou ad meseise. — 1432 ad que despleise.^ — 1433 noil. 
— 1434 tormens deles. — 1435 aidez uos. — 1436 Qi lainz. — 
1437 come fud au cheualer. — 1438 espurger. — 1439Serront 
deliurez. — 1440 ceus dampnez. — 1441 Ceus qi torm. — 1442 
Erent. — 1443 oreisons. — 1444 almones dons. — 1445 Quom 
done eus. — 1446 erent for ceus. — 1447 bouche. — 1449 au- 
tres tormenz nos peres. — 1450 sorus parenz freres. — 1451 
nosfeiz. — 1452 ke treiz. — 1453 ueissons. — 1454 torm. 

110 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

115a Trop grant laidesce feriuns, 1455 

Se nus ne lur aidissiuns. 
Greignur mestier en unt il la 
Que s'il fussent entre nus 9a. 

Seinz Gregoires testimonie, 
qui parole de cele vie, 1460 

qu'icil qui de cest siecle vunt 
E en I'espurgatoire sunt, 
Qu'il sunt alegiez par icels 
Qui almosne e bien funt pur els. 
Mult est granz mals quant en I'iglise- 1465 
Devum esculter lur servise. 
Que plus volum a el entendre 
Qu'a Deu pur els pre'iere rendre. 
^0 diuns pur eels chastier 
Qui s'en issent hors del mustier 1470 

Quant hum dit des morz le servise ; 
Ester devreient en I'iglise 
E prier mult devotement 
Que Deus alejast lur turment. 
Tels i a qui deli vres sunt : 1475 

Qo sunt oil qui plus tost s'en vunt ; 
E s'il s'esteient remembre 
De 90 dunt nus avum parlS, 
Icil en eiissent poiir 

1455 leidesce ferions.— 1456 aidissons. — 1457 ont. — 1468 
fiiissent.— 1459 Seint.— 1461 Qicil uont.— 1462 sent.— 1463 
alegez iceus. — 1464 font eus. — 1465 grant. — 1466 Deuom 
escouter. — 1468 Qa eus priere. — 1469 dions. — 1470 Qi 
isent. — 1471 horn mors. — 1474 alegast torment. — 1475 ad. 
—1477 estient.— 1478 auon.— 1479 Cil. 


De la peine e de la dolur 1480 

Que oil chaitif sanz fin avrunt ; 
E des joies u cil irunt 
115b Qui servirent lur creatur 
En dreite fei e par amur. 

Cist chevaliers dunt ai parl6, 1485 

puis qu'il aveit le punt pass6, 
tut delivres ala avant. 
Devant lui vit un mur si grant 
Haut de la terre en 1' air amunt. 
Lea merveilles qui del mur sunt 1490 

Ne purreit nuls cunter ne dire, 
Ne I'ovraigne ne la matire ! 
Une porte a el mur veiie, 
Bien I'a de loinz aparceiie. 
[De] precius metals fu faite, 1495 

E gloriusement purtraite : 
Pursise esteit de bones pieres, 
Mult preciuses e mult chieres. 
Li chevaliers s'esmerveilla 
De la porte qu'il esguarda, 1500 

Pur la clarte qu'ele rendeit 
Qui des chieres pieres eisseit. 
Mult se hasta de la venir ; 
Cuntre lui vit la porte ovrir. 
Demie liue ert loinz e plus ; 1505 

1481 auront.— 1482 ices ou irront.— 1483 Que.— 1485 
•cheualers dont. — 1486 kil pont. — 1489 leir. — 1490 que. — 
1491 porreit. — 1493 ad. — 1496 gloriosement portr. — 1497 
Porsise estoit peres. — 1498 precioses cheres. — 1500 E de 
kil. — 1501 kele.— 1502 — cheres pierres. — 1504 Centre. 

112 l' espuegatoike seint patriz 

Quant vers la porte aprisma sua, 
Si senti une tel odur, 
Taut dulce e si bone flairur, 
Si tutes les riens de cest munt 
Qui unques furent ne qui sunt 1510 

115c Fussent aromatizement 

N'ateindreit il a 90 nient ! 

A la dulgiir que il senti, 

Qui tut le cors li repleni, 

Tut en recuvra sa vertu, 1515 

Del turment qu'il aveit eii. 

Avis li fu par cele odur 

Que tute perdit sa dolur. 

Quant la porte vint aprismant, 
un pais vit resplendissant. 1520 

la enz aveit greignur clart6 
Que li soleilz n'a en est6. 
Mult i cuveita a entrer ; 
Beneiirez esteit oil ber 

Qui tant out fait e deservi 1525 

Qu' *encuntre [lui] tel porte ovri. 
Oil nel volt mie deceveir 
Qui eel estre li fist veeir : 
Bien a empli sun grant desir, 
Qui en tel liu le fist venir. 1530 

1506 aprima. — 1508 douz flerur. — 1510 onques. — 1511 
fuissent. — 1512 natendreit. — 1513 doucur quil. — 1514 Qe 
lui. — 1515 recoura. — 1516 torment. — 1517 fud eel. — 1518 
Qe. — 1520 pas {See Note to this line). — 1522 soleils nad. — 
1523 coueita. — 1526 Que entre. Lat. K : Beatus vero miles 
cui talis venienti patuit porta. — 1528 Qi lui. — 1529 ad. — 
1530 Qi lui. 



^ ncofe esteit loinz de la porte 
quant il veit croiz que Turn aporte, 
palmes orines, 50 trovuns, 

Chandelabres e gumfanuns. 

Genz erent de religiun 1535 

Qui firent la processiun. 

Qo li ert vis qu'en tut le munt, 

De eels qui furent ne qui sunt, 
11 5d Ne fu unques itels veiie, 

Ne si honestement tenue. 1540 

De chascun eage de gent, 

E de chascun ordre ensement 

Vit formes d'humes e semblanz ; 

Mult ert la cumpaignie granz. 

Vestu furent diversement 1545 

Solunc r ordre qu'a els apent : 

JLi un erent cum ercevesque, 

E li altre erent cum evesque ; 

Li un abbe, li altre moigne 

E prestre e diacne e cbanoigne, 1550 

E subdiacne e acolite 

E laie genz a Deu eslite. 

En tel forme e en tel semblant 

Furent vestu aparissant 

Cum il furent, n'en dutez mie, 1555 

1532 uit creiz Ion. Lat. K : egressa est contra eum cum 
crucibus et vexillis . . processio, etc. — 1533 trouons. 
— 1534 gomfanons. — 1535 Gent religion. — 1536 procession. 
—1537 lui ken.— 1538 ces qi.— 1539 fud tele.— 1541 
aage. — 1543 domes. — 1544 comp. — 1545 uestuz. — 1546 
Solum qa eua. — 1547 arceuesque. — 1548 autre. — 1549 
autre.^1552 gent. — 1555 dotez. 

114 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

El Deu servise en ceste vie. 
Cuntre le chevalier alerent, 
Sil re9urent, enz le menerent 
Od dulz chant e od melodie 
E od le sun de I'armonie. 1560 

Quant il orent fini lur chant, 
Dui ercevesque vunt avant, 
Si 11 mustrerent le pais, 
Tuz les estres e le purpris. 
Apres parlerent dulcement 1565 

E distrent al cumencement : 
116a "Beneeiz seit li reis de gloire 
Que il t'a dunfe la victoire, 
Que surmuntfi as les diables 
E lur turmenz nun cuvenables, 1570 

E que si estes ci venuz 
E en tel joie receuz." 
II le menerent sus e jus ; 
Tant i vit bien ne poeit plus. 
En eel pais vit tel clarte 1575 

Qu'a grant peine Fa esguarde : 
Si cume li soleilz le jur 
Tolt as esteiles lur luur, 
Issi toldreit, 90 li ert vis. 
La granz clartez de eel pais 1580 

Al soleil tute sa luur. 

1557 Centre cheualer. — 1559 duz od duz melodie. — 
1560 son la romonie. — 1562 arceuesque uont. — 1563 Se lui 
mostr. — 1564 porpris. — 1565 Pres doucement. — 1566 au 
comen. — 1567 Beneit rois. — 1568 Qui done. — 1569 Qe Bor- 
monte. — 1570 torm. couenables. — 1571 ke. — 1572 E au. — 
1576 Qa lad.— 1577 le soleil.— 1579 lui.— 1580 grant clarte. 
—1581 tote. 


Quant a greignur resplendissur ! 
II ne pot veeir la grandur 
Del pais u tant a dul5ur, 
Fors de la porte u il entra 1585 

En tant, cum hum li enseigna. 
Si cum uns prez fu cist pais, 
De flvirs e d' arbres plenteis : 
Herbes i out de bone odur 
E gentiz fruiz de grant valur. 1590 

Tant aveit le quer repleni 
De la dulgur que il senti. 
Que 90 li esteit bien avis 
Qu'il en poeit vivre tuz dis. 
116b En eel champ a si grant elart6, 1595 

N'i puet aveir nule obscurte. 
La clartez del ciel i resplent 
Nient escolurjablement. 
De tute maniere d'e6 

I vit genz a si grant plente 1600' 

Qu'il cuidout bien que nuls vivanz 
El munt n'en peiist veeir tanz 1 
Par cuven z esteient partiz 
Par lius en joie e en deliz ; 
E nepuroec quant il voleient, 1605i' 

De r un liu a I'altre veneient. 

1582 Quant il ad. — 1583 puet ueer. Lat. CK : ultra vi- 
dere quae vides . . non potuit. — 1584 ou ad. — 1585 
ou.— 1586 hom.— 1587 fust.— 1588 flors de arbres.— 1590 
gentilz.— 1592 quil.— 1593 lui.— 1594 tut.— 1595 ad.— 1596 
pot nul.— 1597 clarte.— 1598 escolurgablement.— 1599 de 
hee. — 1600 gens. — 1601 ke. — 1602 mund ueir. — 1603 
couenz.— 1605 nepuroc— 1606 autre. 

116 l' espurgatoire seint patriz 

Grant joie orent comunement, 

Li un des altres veirement, 

E de la visitaciun 

Qu'entr'els feseient envirun. 1610 

U qu'il fussent, par grant dul9ur, 

Firent loenge al Creatur. 

Si diverseit lur vesteiire 

Cum les esteiles par figure 

Se diversent en lur luur : 1615 

L' une mendre, I'altre greignur. 

Li un F orent tute d'or fin, 

E li altre, vert u purprin ; 

Li un de jacintes colurs, 

Bloies u blanches cume flurs. 1620 

Cist Oweins sout de eele gent, 
par la forme del vestement, 
'^^""" de quel mestier orent este, 

En quel mestier orent fin6. 
Si cum variout la colurs, 1625 

Aveient diverses luurs. 
Colurs de gloire apparisseit 
Sur tuz les dras qu'il i aveit. 
Li un alouent corun6 
Cume rei e si aturn6 ; 1630 

1607 communement. — 1608 autres uereiment. — 1609 uisi- 
tacion. — 1610 fesient enuiron. — 1611 Ou kil fuissent dou- 
cur.— 1613 uesture.— 1614 esteilles.— 1615 Si.— 1616 lautre. 
— 1617 uns. — 1618 autre ou porprin. — 1619 uns iacinte 
€olur. — 1620Bloie ou flur. — 1621 sent genz. Lat. K: For- 
ma enim vestis novit miles. — 1622 des uestemenz. — 1624 
E en.— 1625 come les.— 1626 diuers.— 1627 Oolur.— 1628 
kil. — 1629 uns corone. — 1630 atorne. 


Li un portouent en lur mains 

Palmes orines, flurs e rains. 

Tant fu oil estres delitables 

Al chevalier e si mirables, 

De la dulgur e del repos 1635 

Qu'il vit la enz, dedenz cest clos, 

E des dulz chanz qu'il entendi 

A la Deu loenge e oi. 

Chascuns en sei s'esjo'isseit 

De la joie que il aveit : 1640 

Pur 90 que de I'espurgatoire 

Esteient amen^ en gloire. 


ust pais ert si repleniz 
de la grace Deu e guarniz, 
que bien porent estre peiiz 1645 

E de *tel grace sustenuz. 

Plusurs maisuns [i] out la enz, 

E mulz cumpaignies dedenz ; 

Chascune aveit a grant plenty 

La celestiene clartS. 1660 

11 6d Tuit oil qui le chevalier virent 

Lur Creatur beneesquirent 

Pur lui qui ert entr'els venuz. 

Cum lur frere de mort eissuz. 

La grant leesce a bien veiie 1666 

1631 uns.— 1632 flors.— 1633 fud.— 1637 duz kil enten- 
dit.— 1638 Al oit.— 1639 Chascun.— 1640 kil.— 1641 ke.— 
16-t2 amenez. — 1644 garniz. — 1645 porrent. — 1646 cele. — 
1647 Plosurs maisons. — 1648 compaignies. — 1650 De la. — 
1651 cheualer. — 1652 benesquirent. — 1653 entreus. — 1654 
Cume. — 1655 ad. 

118 l' espurgatoiee seint pateiz 

Que tuit firent de sa venue. 

Li dulz chanz e la melodie 

Des seinz Deu est dedenz o'ie. 

Xia enz n'out trop chaut ne trop freit, 

INe rien qu' amenuiaance seit : 1660 

Quant qu'il i out esteit plaisable 

E paisable e tut acceptable. 

En eel repos beneurfi 

Vit dejoie si grant plenty, 

Que nuls qui ea cest siecle seit 1665 

Saveir ne cunter nel purreit. 

Or nus doint Deus 90 deservir 

Qu'a cez joies puissuns venir ! 


, uant li chevaliers out veil 
cele grant joie e eel salu, 1670 

li ercevesque le menerent 
XJn poi en sus, a lui parlerent : 
" Beals frere, ore as ici veii 
Le desirier qu'avez eii : 

Les granz turmenz e les dolurs 1675 

Avez veil des peclieiirs, 
E les deliz e les repos 
Des bons qui sunt dedenz cest clos. 
117a Beneeiz seit qui te duna 

Cest purpos e si aferma ; 1680 

E que tu po'is endurer 

1657 duz chant. — 1660 que amenusance. — 1661 kil 
pleisable. — 1662 peisable. — 1665 ken. — 1666 center por- 
reit. — 1667 Ore. — 1668 Ka cea puissons. — 1671 erceueske 
li.— 1673 Biau. — 1674 desirer.— 1675 torinenz. — 1679 
Beneiz dona.— 1680 affirma.— 1681 ke. 


Les granz turmenz a trespasser 

De I'espurgatoire u tu fus, 

E par sa grace venis sus. 

Par Deu estes ci amenez : 1685 

Des choses que veii avez 

Nus diruns la segnefiance ; 

Aiez en Deu bone esperance. 

Icist pais e icist estres, 

Sachiez c'est Parais Terrestres, 1690 

Dunt Adams fu pur ses pechiez 

Jetez e si fu eissilliez 

En miseire e en amertS 

El munt u li hume sunt n€, 

Puis qu'il fu inobediens 1695 

E ne tint mie le desfens 

Sun creatur, qui Tout forme, 

E manja le fruit deveh6 ; 

Ultre 50 ne pout il veeir 

Cez granz *joies, ne ci maneir. 1700 

Einz veeit il sun creatur 

E a lui parla par dulpur ; 

Les angeles poeit il veeir, 

Ensemble od els grant joie aveir. 

Hors fu jetez de cest pais 1705 

Par sun pechie, cume chaitis ; 

1682 tormenz. — 1683 ou. — 1687 dirrons senefiance. — 
1689 cist estres. — 1690 Sachez ke 50 paradis. — 1691 Dent 
fud. —1692 Getez fud eissillez. —1693 miserie. —1694 mund 
ou home. — 1695 kil fut. — 1696 nen defens. — 1698 manga. 
— 1700 Ces riues oil maneeir. Lat. K : celica gaudia 
, . ultra videre non potuit. — 1703 angles ueir. — 170-t 
ensemblement. — 1705 fud iete. — 1706 come. 

120 l' espurgatoiee seint pathiz 

117b Aneire perdit la clart6 
Del ciel par sa maleiirt^. 

i i I N e sa char sumes nus tuit n^^ 

I I en miseire, en chaitivet^ ; 1710 

mes par la fei nostre seignur 
Jhesu Crist, nostre creatur, 
Que par baptesme receiimes 
De dreite creance e eiimes, 
Sumes en cest pais venu 1715 

Par la Deu grace e receii. 
Par seint espirit entenduns 
D'altre vie, mes ne poiins 
Saveir le tut certeinement ; 
Adams le sout veraiement. 1720 

Mes pur 190 que nus pecbames, 
E de pecbi^ nus encumbrames, 
Le nus estuet espeneir 
Eiuz que ici puissuns venir : 
Estre en I'espurgaciun 1725 

Solunc igo que fait avum. 
La penitence que preimes, 
Que devant la mort ne fe'imes, 
En cez lius la nus estut faire 
Par unt [vus] eustes repaire. 1730 

Vus ve'istes [tuz] les turmenz 

1710 cheitiuete. — 1715 ueiiuz. — 1716 receuz. — 1717 es- 
perit entendons. — 1718 Dautre. — 1719 certeinment. — 1720 
ueraiment. — 1721 co ke. — 1722 encomb. — 1723 estut es- 
penir. — 1724 ke ci puissons. — 1725 espurgacion. — 1726 
Selunc CO ke auon.— 1727 ke.— 1728 Qe.— 1729 ces feire. 
— 1730 repeire. — 1731 tormenz. 


As chaitis qui furent dedenz : 
Tels as greignurs, tels as menurs, 
Solunc les oevres des plusurs. 
117c Cil qui plus pechierent el munt 1735 

Greignurs turmenz iluec avrunt. 
Tuit cil qui sunt es granz turmenz 
Que vus veistes la dedenz, 
A nus vendrunt, bien le sachiez, 
Quant il ierent tut espurgiez ; 1740 

Fors eels qui el puiz d'enfer sunt — 
James de eel turment n'istrunt ! 
Ctascun jur vienent ci a nus 
Cil qui des peines sunt rescus ; 
A grant joie les recevum 1745 

Od mult bele processiun. 
Puis sunt od nus dedenz cest clos, 
En grant joie e en grant repos. 
Cil qui el munt sunt espurgie 
De lur pechiez e alegi^ 1750 

Trespasserunt legierement 
L'espurgatoire e le turment : 
Hastivement a nus vendrunt, 
Al plaisir Deu i remaindrunt. 
Nuls de eels qui en peine sunt 1755 

Sevent cum bien il i serrunt, 
Ne cum bien il i unt est6 ; 
Cest tut en la Deu volenti. 

1733 menors. — 1734 Solum cures plusors. — 1735 pecche- 
rent. — 1736 tormenz.^1737 en tormenz. — 1739 uendront. 
—1740 erent tuz.— 1741 for cil puz.— 1742 torment.— 1743 
Chascon. — 1745 receuon. — 1746 procession. — 1749 mund 
espurgiez.— 1750 alegiez. — 1752 torment. — 1755 ceus. 

122 l' espurgatoiee seint pateiz 

Quant hum fait pur els oraisuns, 
Messes e almosnes e duns, 1760 

Lur turment sunt amenuisie, 
U del tut en sunt alegie : 
117d U Turn alege lur dolurs, 

U Turn les *remet en menurs. 

Quant il sunt tut hors de turment 1765 

A nus vienent jo'issantment. 

II ne sevent quant il i sunt 

Cum bien il i demurerunt ; 

Ne nus meismes ne savuns 

Cum bien demurer i devuns. 1770 

i i ^^ i cum li chaitif en turment 
^^ sunt travaillie plus lungement 

pur les granz pechiez que il firent, 
Tant cum il el siecle vesquirent, 
Si sunt li altre meins pene 1775 

Qui meins firent d'iniquite ; — 
Si est de nus qui sumes ci : 
Solunc 90 qu'avum deservi, 
Devuns ici plus demurer, 
Einz [a] greignur joie munter ; 1780 

Que tut serruns nus delivre 
De tutes peines e salve. 

1759 hom eus oreisons. — 1760almones dons. — 1761 tor- 
menz amenusez. — 1762 Ou aleggez.— 1763 Ou lorn. — 1764 
Ou lom met. Lat. K : aut de ipsis tormentis in minoribus 
transferuntur. — 1765 torment. — 1768 demorrunt. — 1769 
meimes gauons. — 1770 demorer deuons. — 1771 cume tor- 
ment.— 1772 trauaille longement.^1773 kil. — 1775 autre. 
— 1776 de iniq.— 1778 Selunc kauom.— 1779 Deuors 
demorer. — 1781 seuns deliurez. — 1782 totes saluez. 


Ne poiias nus mie uncore estre 
A la grant leesce celestre. 
Vus veez bien que sanz dolur 1785 

Sumes ici en grant dulpur ; 
En mult greignur joie vendruns, 
Mes quant 90 iert, nus nel savuns. 
Nostre cumpaignie descreist 
Chascun jur, si cumeele creist ; 1790 

118a Li espurgie vienent ici 
E li altre, si cum jo di, 
Vunt de cast para'is terestre 
Des i qu'en para'is celestre." 

Li ercevesque qu'iluec sunt 1795 

le menerent en un haut munt, 
e li dient que il turnast 
Ses oeilz amunt, si esguardast, 
Si lur *desist de quel colur 
Li ciels esteit en sa luur ? 1 800 

II lur respundi maintenant 
Qu'il resemblout or flambeiant. 
De si grant clarte fu espris 
Que tuz ardeit, 90 li ert vis. 
" Qo est I'entree, beals amis, 1805 

Del celestien para'is ! 
Quant alcuns deit de nus turner 

1785 ke. — 1787 uendrons. — 1788 ert sauons. — 1789 com- 
paignie. — 1790 lor. — 1791 espurgiez. — 1792 autre cume 
ioidi. — 1793 Uont. — 1794 De ci ken. — 1795 arceueske qui 
iluec— 1796 Li.— 1797 lui kil tornast.— 1798 oilz.— 1799 Se 
diseit.— 1800 ciel.— 1802 flambeant.— 1803 fud.— 1804 Qe 
lui. — 1805 lentre biaus. — 1806 De. — 1807 aucuns torner. 

124 l' espurgatoiee seint pateiz 

Par cele porte deit entrer. 

Sactiez que par iluec s'en vunt 

Oil qui el ciel muntent amuut. 1810 

De viande celestiel 

Nus peist nostre sire del ciel ; 

Une f iee chascun jur, 

Par sa grace e par sa duljuT. 

Ja gusterez ensemble od nus 181&^ 

La viande qu'il dune a nus." 

Avis unques aveit 90 dit 
quant li fus del seint espirit 
^*"" descendi del ciel, li fu vis, 

E raempli tut le pais, 1820 

E si cum li rai del soleil 

(Bien le puet hum veeir de *l'oeil !) 

Les chies de eels enviruna, 

Dedenz els se mist e entra. 

Li chevaliers, ne dute mie, 1825- 

En re9ut od els sa partie. 

Si grant joie e si grant delit 

Out en sun quer e si parfit 

De eel dul9ur, qu'il ne saveit 

U morz u vis quels il esteit ! 1830 

Mes cele hure est tost trespassee, 

Que tel grace lur est dun6e. 

De tel viande sunt peii 

1809 Sachez ke iluek uont. — 1810 montent amont. — 
1813 fie chascon. — 1815 ensemblement. — 1816 kil done. 
— 1817unkes. — 1819 deacendit co lui fud. — 1820 raampli^ 
— 1821 cume. — 1822 hom ueer defoil. {See Note to this line. ) 
—1823 chiefs entiirona.— 1824 enls.— 1826 eus.— 1829 E. 
kil.— 1830 Ou ou uifs.— 1832 donee.— 1833 peuz. 


Oil qui el ciel sunt receii. 
Li chevaliers, se il po'ist, 1835 

Tuz jurs senz fin i remansist. 
Apres cele tres grant leesce 
Qu'il a eiie, avra tristesce. 
Li ercevesque maintenant 
Al chevalier diseient tant : 1840 

" Des or poez bien repairier. 
Veii avez tun desirier : 
Les granz joies de parais 
E les granz peines des chaitis. 
Par la veie vus en irez 1845 

Dunt vus estes 9a enz entrez ; 
118c S'el siecle vivez leialment, 
Se'iez seiirs certeinement, 
Apres vostre mort [vus] vendrez 
En la joie que vus veez. 1850 

Si vus vivez de male vie — 
Deus doint que vus nel faciez mie — 
A cez turmenz que vus savez 
Pur espurgier repairerez. 
Hastez vus tost aler d'ici ; 1855 

Bien sachiez qu'i li enemi 
Ne vus purrunt mie aprismier, 
Ne par turment nient blescier. " 

1834receuz.— 1835 si.— 1836 sen.— 1838 ad.— 1839 arceu- 
«ske.— 1840 diseint.— 1841 ore repairer.— 1842 Ueu en 
desirer.- 1845 irrez.— 1847 Si el leaument.— 1848 Siez 
;seur. — 1850 ueiez.— 1852 ke ne facez.— 1853 cestormenz. 
— 1854 reperirez.— 1856 sachez ki.— 1857 pornmt apre- 
smer. — 1858 torment blescer. 

126 l' espurgatoire seint patriz 


i chevaliers plure e suspire ; 
as evesques cumence a dire 1860 

qu'il ne s'en volt nient partir, 

Kar ne quids james venir 

Pur les grevus pechiez del munt, 

Qui encumbrent eels qui [i] sunt : 
"Ne sai que me remaint ici, 1865- 

Si cum jo sui, par Deu merci.' ' 

Li dui ercevesque unt parl6 : 
" N'iert pas, frere, a ta volenti." 

Hors a la porte I'unt men6 ; 

A Jhesu Crist I'unt cumande ; 1870 

La porte cloent, il s'en va 

Parmi les lius u il passa. 

Quant li diable le veeient 

Huntus erent, si s'en fueient. 
118d N'aveit dute de nul turment, 1875 

Ne n'en senti blemissement. 

Al palfis vint qui est mirables, 

U il vit primes les diables. 

Dedenz entra, puis s'asist jus ; 

Merveilla sei, ne poeit plus, 1880 

De I'ovraigne de la maisun. 

Apres 90 vindrent li barun. 

Qui einz orent a lui parl6. 

Si I'unt de part Deu salu6 ; 

1860 eueskes comence. — 1861 uont. — 1863 greuous. 
— 1864 encombre ces. — 1865 ke. — 1866 cume. — 1867 
arceueske.— 1868 Nert. — 1870 lun comande.— 1872 ou. — 
1875 doute torment. — 1877 paufis uont. Lat. AK : cum 
intraret in aulam. — 1878 ou. — 1879 sentra. — 1881 ouer- 
aigne maison. — 1882 baron. — 1883 enz. — 1884 par. 


Deu loerent e sa puissance, 1885 

Qui en si ferme parmanance 
L'out fait ester e meintenu, 
Par quei le diable out vencu ; 
E qu'il ert de tuz ses pechiez 
E delivres e espurgiez. 1890 

" Beals frere chiers, or vus hastez, 
Delivrement vus en alez, 
Que vus ne se'iez ci suzpris. 
II adjurne en vostre pais ; 
Li priurs iert encuntre vus, 1895 

Qui de vus iert liez e joius : 
A grant joie vus recevra, 
E en I'iglise vus merra. 
La porte iert apres referm^e 
Par unt vus eiistes I'eutree." 1900 

II re§ut lur beneei9un, 
Si s'en eissi de la maisun. 

119a A la porte vint de cler jur ; 
AA encuntre lui *vit le priur 

qui volentiers I'a receii : 1905 

Mult fu liez quant il Tout veii. 
En I'iglise le fist entrer, 
E quinze jurs la demurer 
En jeiines, en oraisuns, 

1887 Lent.— 1888 11.-1889 kil touz.— 1891 Biau chier. 
— 1883 Qe suspris. — 1894 adiorne. — 1895 priors ert encon- 
tre.— 1896 Qi ert leez.— 1898 menra.— 1899 ert.— 1901 
beneicon. — 1902 issi maison. — 190-1 Encontre uint. — 1905 
lad.— 1906 fud lez.— 1908 demorer.— 1909 e en orelsons. 


128 l' espukgatoiee seint pateiz 

En veilles, en afflicciuns. 1910 

Puis recunta 90 que il vit 

E il le mistrent en escrit. 

En honur Deu, sun creatur, 

Croisier se fist par grant amur : 

Requerre le voleit el liu 1915 

U le dampnerent li Juiu. 

In Jerusalem en ala 

6 [dune] ariere repaira ; 

a sun seignur le rei revint 
E il volentiers le retint. 1920 

Tut en ordre li a cunt6 
De sa vie la verite ; 
Cunseil li quist e demanda 
De sa vie qu'il en loa : 

S'il delist moignedevenir, 1925 

U quel religiun tenir. 
E li reis li a respundu 
Chevaliers seit, si cum il fu ; 
^0 li loa il a tenir, 

En 90 pot il Deu bien servir. 1930 

119b Si fist il bien tute sa vie ; 
Pur altre ne chanja il mie. 

' n icel tens issi avint 
qu'uns des moignes de Cisteusvint 
que lur abes i enveia : 1935 

Par qui a icel rei manda 

1910 e en affliccions. — 1911 reconta kil. — 1913 de deu. — 
1914 Croiser.— 1916 Ou ieu.— 1917 ierlm.— 1919 son— 1921 
lui ad.— 1923 Conseil lui.— 1924 kil.— 1026 Ou reUgion.— 
1927 lui ad respondu.— 1929 lui —1930 poeit.— 1932 autre 
changa. — 1934 Ke. — 1935 Qe enuea. 



D'un liu qu'einceis li out pramis. 
Pur 90 I'aveit a lui tramis 
Pur saveir u li lius serreit 
U I'abbeie fundereit. 1940 

Gervaises out li abes nun : 
Mult fu de grant religiun 
Oil de Cisteus qui enveia 
A eel rei d'Irlande e manda 
Par Gilebert (un suen profes 1945 

Qui fu abes puis sun deces) 
De I'abbeie qu'out pramise, 
U ele devreit estre assise. 
Li reis li fist le liu mustrer 
U rabbeie volt f under. 1950 

Li moignes dist qu'il ne saveit 
Cument il i arestereit : 
II ne saveit ne n'out apris 
Le language de eel pais. 
Li reis li dist : "N'en dutez mie, 1955 

Jo vus metrai en cumpaignie 
Un produme e bon latimier.' ' 
Dune apela le chevalier 
119c Owein, si li preia e dist 

Qu'od lui alast, sil'apresist. 1960 

1937 kenceis.— 1939 ou.— 1940 Ou.— 1941 Gerueises — 
1942 fud.— 1943 qi enuea.— 1944 de Irlande.— 1945 sun.— 
1946 fiid p".— 1947 kout.— 1948 Ou asise.— 1949 lui.— 
1950 Ou.— 1951 moines kil.— 1952 Coment.— 1955 lui dou- 
tez. — 1956 compaignie. — 1957 prodom latimer. — 1958 Don 
cheualer.— 1959 lui peia.— 1960 Kod. 

130 l' espurgatoiee seint patriz 

Bien I'otreia li chevaliers 
e dist al rei que volentiers 
le servireit a sun plaisir, 
Que de 90 faire out grant desir. 
" Veirs est, nel celer ore mie, 1965 

Tant cum jo fu en 1' altre vie 
Vi jo, si I'ai bien en memoire. 
Que cil furent en greignur gloire 
De lur ordre e de lur cuvent. 
Que tut le plus de 1' altre gent." 1970 

Issi remest od Gilebert 
Li chevaliers e bien le sert ; 
Mais ne voleit changier sun estre : 
Moignes ne cunvers ne volt estre. 
En nun de chevalier morra, 1975 

Ja altre abit ne recevra. 
Cil dui funderent 1' abbe'ie 
E mistrent genz de bone vie ; 
Gileberz en fu celeriers, 
E Oweins fu sis latimiers. 1980 

Mult par [li] fu leials serjanz, 
E en tuz ses bosoinz aidanz. 
Ensemble dous anz e demi 
Furent e puis s'en departi. 
Gileberz dit que seintement 1985 

1961 lotrea.— 1962 ke.— 1963 pleisir.— 1966 come fud 
lautre.— 1968 Ke.— 1969 couent.— 1970 tuit autre.— 1971 
remist.— 1973 Meis changer.— 1974 Moigne conuers.— 1975 
non.— 1976 autre nen.— 1979 celerers.— 1980 ses latimers. 
— 1981 leaus serganz. Lat. K : minister fidelis et interpres 
fuit ei devotus.— 1982 bosoigns.— 1983 dimi .—1985 Gil- 
berz ke. 


Viveit e mult honestement 
119d Tant cum li chevaliers i fu ; 

Mult en out grant cunfort perdu. 

Apres 90, par cunfessiun, 

Laissierent tute la maisun : 1990 

Li moigne, altre mansiun querre, 

Vindrent alue en Engleterre. 

Li chevaliers honestement 

Remest e vesqui seintement. 

Quant il morut, a Den rendi 1995 

S'alme, que bien Tout deservi. 

Cist Gileberz cunta suvent 
cez choses devant meinte gent, 
pur edifier les oianz 
E qu'a bien fussent entendanz. 200O 

Un en i out qui §o oi, 
Duta qu'il ne fust mie issi. 
Gileberz en respundi tant : 
" Qu'il n'erent mie bien creant 
Qui dient qu'espiritelment 2O05 

Veient e nun corporelment, 
(Quant il entrent en la maisun 
Qu'est de Deu espurgaciun) 
Les granz peines e les turmenz 
Qui sunt establiz la dedenz. 2010' 

1987 come. — 1989 confession. — 1990 Laisserent toute 
maison.— 1991 moine autre mansion. — 1992 engletterre. 
—1994 remist.-1996ke.— 1997 conta souent.— 1998 Ces. 
—2000 ka fuissent.— 2002 kil.— 2003 respondi.— 2004 Kil. 
—2005 kespiritelment.— 2006 non.— 2007 maison.— 2008: 
Qe espurgacion.— 2009 toimenz. 

132 l' espurgatoiee seint patriz 

Li chevaliers tut 90 desdit, 
Qui tut corporelment le vit ; 
En char e en os las turmenz 
*Su£Frit quant il fu la dedenz. 
120a Se 90 ne volez ottrier, 2015 

Ne ne creez le chevalier, 
Creez mei qui de mes oeilz vi 
90 que jo vus dirai ici : 

i i To fu ja en une maisun 

I u out, de grant religiun, 2020 

un moigne qui mult se pena 
De Deu servir e mult 1' ama. 
Une nuit, entre le cuvent 
El durtur vit apertement. 
Si cum il jut e dut durmir, 2025 

Les diables a lui venir, 
Qui corporelment le ravirent 
E del durtur le departirent, 
Si que li cuvenz nel scut mie. 
Tant orent de *sun [bien] envie, 2030 

Treis jurs e treis nuiz I'uut tenu ; 
Li cuvenz ne sout u il fu. 
Puis le porterent a sun lit, 
Enz le jeterent par despit 

2013 tormenz.— 2014 Suffrir fud. Lat. K : hec se vidisse 
et in corpore corporaliter pertulisse dioit. — 2016 creiez.— 
2017Creiez ke oilz.— 2019 maison.— 2020 Ou religion.— 
2023 couent.— 2024 dortur (the order of II. 2023-2024 is re- 
versed in the MS.).— 2025 dormir.— 2028 dortur.— 2029 ke 
couenz.— 2030 aes. Lat. C : cuius sanctitati Daemones in- 
videbant. (AK griw uo aid).— 20311ont.— 2032 couenz ou. 


Tut flael6 e debatu 2035 

Desqu'a la mort e navrez fu. 
Plaies out parfundes e granz, 
Par tut le cors aparissanz. 
II meismes les me mustra 
Apertement sil me cunta 2040 

(9o sachiez bien) qu'um ne pot mie 
Saner ses plaies, e sa vie 
120b Mult erent horribles e granz, 
Tuz jurs noveles parissanz. 
Tel plaie i out qui fu roiinde 2045 

E desmesuree e parfunde ; 
E me dit qu'a sun plus lung deit 
La parfundesce *en ateindreit. 
E quant il vit la juevne gent 
Gabber desordeneement, 2050 

Tut apertement lur diseit, 
S'il seiissent qu'els atendeit, 
E quels turmenz e quel ennui, 
II ne gabbereient nului. 
Quinze anz apres sis tens fini ; 2065 

Jo ne I'ai pas mis en obli.' ' 

Gileberz cunta icel fait 
A I'autor quil nus a retrait, 

2036 Deska naure.— 2040 conta. —2041 kon.— 2044 iors e 
parissanz. — 2045 que. — 2046 desmesures. — 2047 ka. — 2048 
natendreit. Lat. AK : Fuit autem vulnerum illorum ali- 
quod ita profundum ut (A : quod) longior digitus tuus in 
eo posset intrare usque ad manum. — 2049 ioune. — 2051 
Tuit.— 2052 kels.— 2053 tormenz.— 2054 nullui.— 2055 sun. 
—2057 conta.— 2058 kil ad. 

134 l' espuegatoire seint patriz 

Si cum Oweins li out cunte, 

E li moignes dunt j'ai parle : 2060 

^o que jo vus ai ici dit 

E tut mustre par mun escrit. 

Epuis parlai j'a dous abbez : 
d'Irlande erent bons ordenez. 
si lur demandai de eel estre, 2065 

Si 90 poeit veritez estre. 
Li uns affirma que veirs fu 
De r espurgatoire e seii 
Que plusur hume i entrerent 
Qui unques puis ne returnerent. 2070 

120c "T"' n eel an meismes trovai 

rr un evesque a qui jo parlai. 

nevuz fu al tierz Seint Patriz 
Qui cumpainz ert Seint Malachiz. 
Florenciens aveit a nun ; 2075 

II me cunta en veir sermun 
Que r espurgatoire ert assise 
En e'eveschi^ e la fu quise. 
Ententivement li enquis 
Si 90 fust veirs, que Fen ert vis : 2080 

E il me dist : " Certeinement, 
Que c'esteit veirs," e dist cument : 
" Que plusur [i] entrerent j a 

2059 conte.— 2061 ci.— 2063 io a.— 2064 De Irlande.— 
2067 ke.— 2069 Qe plusurs homes.— 2070 Qi unkes retorne- 
rent.— 2071 meimes.— 2072 eueske.— 2073 Neuoz fiid seinz. 
—2074 compaigns seinz.— 2076 conta.— 2077 Ke.— 2078 E 
sa euesche fud.— 2079 lui.— 2080 ke.— 2082 Qe coment— 
83 Qe plusurs. 


Dunt unques nuls n'en repaira. 

Tels i out qui ariere vindrent 2085 

E qui les [granz] turmenz suatindrent : 

Tuz jurs furent plus en langur 

E perdirent dreite colur, 

Pur les turmenz qu'il orent la, 

E [pur] I'anguisse quis greva. 2090 

Si puia fussent de bone vie, 

Sals serreient, ne dutez mie, 

E delivres de lur pechiez, 

Kar il en furent espurgiez. 

i i "p^res de eel liu a un seint hume 2095 

I que nus tenuns a mult produme ; 
termites est de bone vie. 
Chascune nuit, 90 ne faut mie, 
120d Ot les diables assembler 

Entur sun purpris e parler ; '2100 

Aneire apres soleil culchant, 

A veiie vienent avant 

E si tienent lur parlement ; 

Einz le jur partent veirement. 

En dementiers qu'il iluec sunt, 2105 

Al maistre dient 90 qu'il funt. 

Li seinz les veit apertement, 

E ot lur cuntes mult suvent. 

2084 unkes nul.— 2085 arere.— 2086 tormenz.— 2089 tor- 
menz qil. — 2090 les anguissea kil. — 2091 fuissent. — 2092 
■dotez. — 2093 pechez. — 2094 espurgez. — 2095 ad home. — 
2096 Qe tenons prodome.— 2101 couch ant. —2102 uenent. 
— 2103 tenent.— 2104 ior.— 2105 kil.— 2106 meistre kil.— 
2108 contes souent. 

136 l' espuegatoiee seint patbiz 

A sa celle le vunt tempter, 

Mes ne pueent dedenz entrer. 2110 

En semblance de femmes nues 

Se mustrent qui la sunt venues 

Pur lui deceivre e engignier, 

E faire sun propos lessier. 

Par els entendi de la gent 2115 

La vie des plusurs suvent." 

Quant li evesques ne dist plus, 
uns suens chapeleins leva sus 
e dist : " Sire, jo cuntereie. 
Si vostre cungie en avreie, 2120 

Del seint hume 50 que jo vi, 
E 90 que jo de lui o'i." 
Li evesques li dist : " Cuntez." 
Li altre dist : ' ' Beals sire, oez : 

" La celle u cist seinz est mananz — 2125 

Cent lines loinz, lunges e grauz 
121a I aveit del munt Seint Brandan, 
U uns altre out este meint an. 
Qui aveit cele vie eslite, 
E que Turn teneit pur hermite. 2130 

Jo ving parler a cest seint hume, 
E il me dist, e'en est la sume, 

2109 uont.— 2110 poent.— 2112 mustrerent ke.— 2113 en- 
gigner.— 2114 feire lesser. — 2115 eus. — 2116 de souent. 
— 2117 eueskes. — 2119 contereie. — 2120 conge auereie. — 
2121 home. — 2123 eueskes lui contez. — 2124 autre bel 
oiez.— 2125 ou.— 2126 longes.— 2128 Ou autre.— 2130 ke 
lorn.— 2131 home.— 2132 some. 


Qu'il n'out unques si grant desir 
De rien qui peiist avenir, 
Cum il aveit eii suvent 2135 

D'a lui parler a sun talent. 
Jo demandai purquei 90 fu, 
Que tel desir en out eii ? 
' Pur 90 que j'ai suvent 01 
Les diables cunter ici 2140 

En gabbant. ' (Trestute sa vie, 
Cum hermite ne vit il mie.) 
' Quant il vienent ici les nuiz, 
50 est lur joie e lur deduiz 
De lui e des altres reprendre 2145 

Qu'il funt a lur oevres entendre. 
J'o'i I'altre nuit veirement 
po que jo vus dirai briefment : 

'L'altre nuit furent ajuste 
Li diable e ci assemble, 2150 

E cunterent a lur seignur 
Qo qu'il aveient fait *le jur. 
Avant veneient un e un ; 
Li maistre d'els apela I'un 
121b E li fist une tel demande : 2155 

S' aport6 out point de viande ? 
"Oil," dist il, "pain e ferine, 

2133 Kil.— 2134 qttc— 2135 souent.— 2139 ke souent.— 
2140 center.— 2142 heremites.— 2143 uenent.— 2144 lor 
(deduiz).— 2145 autres.— 2146 Kil.— 2147 lautre.— 2148 
dirra.— 2149 Lautre.— 2150 ici.— 2151 conterent— 2152 kil 
louur.— 2155 lui tele.— 2156 Si aporte. 

138 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

Furmage e bure en ma saisine." 
" E u les purclia9astes vus ? ' ' 
" Jol dirai," fait [il], " bien a vus : 2160 

" ' " 1 — \^'' clerc vindrent a un vilein, 
I I sil demanderent de sun pein 

par cbarit^ e altre bien ; 
II ne lur voleit duner rien ; 
E si out assez guarnisun, 2165 

Pain e viande en sa maisun. 
*Par charity prist a jurer 
Qu'il ne lur out rien que duner ; 
E pur 90 qu'il se parjura, 
Pris 50 qu'il out e perdu I'a ; 2170 

De9'aveiejo poest6. 
Ci devant vus I'ai aport6." 
Apres i9o s'en repairierent 
Li diable e iluec laissierent 
La viande qu'il out embl^e 2175 

Al vilain e la aportee. 
Matin i ving, si la trovai, 
En une fosse la jettai ; 
En dute fui qu'um la trovast, 
S'alcuns venist, si la manjast.' 2180 

" Uncor vus vueil jo plus cunter 
Dunt chascuns se deit amender 

2158 seisine.— 2159 ou le puchac— 2160 dirrai.— 2161 
Dous clers. — 2163 autre.— 2164 doner. — 2165 guarisun. — 
2167 La.— 2168 Kil ke doner.— 2169 kil.— 2170 kil.— 2171 
CO aueie. — 2173 repairerent. — 2174 iluek laisserent. — 2175 
kil.— 2179 kom. — 2180 Si aukuns mangast.— 2181 uoil 


121c E guarder d'engin des diables 
Qui est subtils e decevables." 

Uns prestre esteit de seinte vie, 2185 
de Deu servir ne cessa mie. 
matin levout al Deu servise ; 
Mais einz qu'il entrast en I'iglise, 
El cimetire demurout 

E ses quinze salmes chantout 2190 

Pur les almes dunt li cors sunt 
En eel liu e par tut le munt. 
Chastement se tint e guarda 
E bien e bel endoctrina 
Icels qui en sa guarde esteient, 2195 

E suu cunseil creire voleient. 
Suvent se pleinstrent 11 diable 
De sa vie nun reparnable, 
E que nuls nel poeit turner 
De Deu servir ne d'aiirer. 2200 

Li maistre diables blasma 
Ses serjanz que nuls nel tempta 
E nel osta de sun purpens. 
Li uns li dit : " Mult a lung tens 
Que j'ai entur lui demure ; 2205 

Ore a primes ai tant ovre 
Qu'entre ci e quinze anz I'avrai 

2183 del diable.— 2184 subtil deceuable.— 2188 enz kil. 
— 2189 demorout.— 2193 garda.— 2195 Iceus garde.— 2196 
conseil. — 2197 Souent.— 2199 ke ne.~2201 diable blama. 
—2202 serganz ke.— 2204 ad long.— 2205 demore.— 2206 
primis. — 2207 Que entre. 

140 l' espuegatoiee seint pateiz 

Enfantosm^, sil decevrai 
Par un engin, mes ne puet estre 
Qu'einceis seit deoeiiz li prestre. 2210 

121d Par une femme ai purveii 

Que dune I'avrai *tut deceii." 

Li mestre dist : " Mult avez fait 

S'en eel terme I'avez atrait 

De peehier par temptaciun ; 2215 

De mei avrez bon gueredun." 

Al demain, si eum il soleit, 
leva li presire e ala dreit 
el cimetire e a veil 
Un enfant qui jetez i fu. 2220 

Delez la croiz jetez esteit ; 
Femele fu, il la perneit ; 
Nurice quist si la bailla ; 
Cume sa fille la guarda. 
II la feseit lettres aprendre, 2225> 

Al Deu servise la volt rendre. 
Quant ert en I'ee de quinze anz, 
Mult ert bele e ereiie e granz. 
Li prestre I'esguarda suvent 
Par le diable enortement. 2230 

De sa bealt6 s'esmerveilla 
E en sun quer la cuveita ; 
Cum plus suvent la vit le jur 

2209 pot.— 2210 Ke deceu.— 2212 Qe done tost— 221S 
dit.— 2215 temptacion.— 2216 auerez guerdon.— 2217 {ini- 
tial forgotten).— 2219 ad.— 2226 iiout— 2228 belee.— 222ft' 
souent.— 2231 beaute.— 22.82 coueita.— 2233 souent. 


Tant fu plus espris de s'amur. 

II la requist, el I'otria 2235 

De faire 90 que li plerra. 

La nuit apres, eiDz qu'il feist 

L'ovraigne dunt il la requist, 
122a Furent li diable assemble ; 

Chascuns a sun fait recunte. 2240 

Cil qui entur le prestre fu 

A devant tuz recuneii 

Qo qu'il pramist dedenz quinze anz : 
' ' Or iert li faiz aparissanz ; 

Demain iert li prestre traiz 2245 

E par la femme malbailliz 

Qu'il a pur sa fille tenue, 

Quant a sun lit 1' avra eiie 

Einz [le] midi que chascuns I'oie." 

Mult en firent entr'els grant joie : 2250 

" E lui e li amdous avruns, 

Kar ensemble les decevruns." 

Li mestre dist : ' ' Voels tu aie ? ' ' 
" N'ai en," dist il, "jo n'en quier mie." 

Mult li saveit bon gre sis mestre. 2255 

Or o'iez cum ovra li prestre : 

' 1 demain la meschine apele 
[e] si *diseit tant a li : " Bele, 
la enz culchiez desur muu lit. 


2234 fud.— 2236 lui.— 2237 kil,— 2238 loueraigne dont 
requeist. — 2240 ad reconte. — 2242 Ad reconu. — 2244 art 
fait.— 2245 ert.— 2246 maubailliz.— 2247 ad.— 2248 lauera. 
—2249 ke.— 2250 entreus.- 2251 ambdui aurons.— 2252 
deceurons. — 2253 dit uols. — 2255 ses.— 2258 lui dist ore 
& le. — 2259 cucher. 


Si acumplirai mun delit." 2260 

La meschine delivrement 
Aveit fait sun cumandement. 
Li prestre vint, si I'esguarda, 
Mult durement se purpensa 
De I'ovraigne qu'il deveit faire, 226& 

122b U li diables le volt traire, 

Par quei avreit le bien perdu 
Qu'il aveit fait e meintenu. 
La grace de Deu i ovra : 
Hors s'en eissi, cele i laissa ; 2270 

Un cultel prist que il porta 
E ses genitailles trencha. 
Hors les jeta de maintenant, 
E puis dist as diables tant : 
' ' Oez, espirit malfaisant ! 2275' 

James ne serrez jo'issant 
De la nostre perdiciun 
Par ceste malvaise achaisun." 

La nuit apres que cist faiz fii, 

Sunt li diable revenu ; 2280 

Li maistre d'els apele avant 

Celui qui li out cuvenant 

Que einz midi avreit le j ur 

2260 acomplirai. — 2262 commandement. — 2264 por- 
pensa.— 2265 oueraigne kil.— 2266 Ou uoleit.— 2267 tut 
le bien.— 2268 Kil.— 2270 issi leissa.— 2271 coutel kil.— 
2273 geta.— 2275 espiriz maufeisanz.— 2276 ioissanz.- 2277 
perdicion. — 2278 malueise achaison. — 2279 ke cast fait. 
—2281 meistre de eus.— 2282 lui couenant.— 2283 Ke 


Tra'i le prestre en sa folur. 
Demande lui qu'il en a fait ; 2285 

II respundi : " Malement vait ; 
Tut mun travail jo ai perdu." 
Devant tuz lur a cuneii 
Cument li prestre aveit [ovr6.] 
Assez aveit de tuz mal gre ; 2290 

Lur mestre dit a ses privez : 
" A lui ! " fait il, " sil me batez 
E flaelez mult durement ! " 
Dune s'en partent od eel turment. 
122c La meschine dedenz I'iglise 2295 

Mist li prestre, al Deu servise. 

Jo, Marie, ai mis en memoire 
le livre de 1' Espurgatoire : 
iZ'^a en Romanz qu'il seit entendables 

A laie gent e cuvenables. 2300 

Or preium Deu que par sa grace 
De noz pechiez mundes nus face. 

2285 kil ad feit.— 228fi lui respondit ueit— 2287 iai. 
— 2288 ad conu.— 2289 Coment le {the rime word omitted). 
—2292 AL— 2297 Joe.— 2299 kil.— 2300 genz couenables. 
2301 Ore preiom ke pur.— 2302 nos Amen. 


The heading : Ci parout des peines que sunt en 
purgatoire is to be ascribed to the Anglo-Norman 
copyist(s). Marie uses parole for parabolat (-Es- 
purg. 1460 ; Lays, Milun, 190) while the shorter 
form is common in Anglo-Norman texts (Dew le 
omnipiotent 106b ; other examples in Burguy, I., 
p. 309). 

Line 9. Eckleben (pp. dt, p. 47) supposes that 
the translation begins here, representing the " Jus- 
sistis, pater venerande, ut scriptum vobis mitterem," 
etc., of the Traetatus. Diraigo que j' en ai oi (1. 15) 
is indeed a fair equivalent to " quod de purgatorio 
in vestra retuli presencia." The feminine partici- 
ples (11. 9, 10), however, are decisive evidence that 
Marie is still speaking of herself, and that Roque- 
fort was correct in saying (II., p. 407) : "Marie 
pr^vient qu'elle a traduit ce poeme a la priere d'un 
homme prudent et sage, dont elle a repu des bien- 
faits," etc. 

The translation begins with line 17, which closely 
reproduces the Traetatus : MSS. AC : Licet enim 
utilitatem multorum per me venire desiderem, etc., 
and the "jo " in 11. 17, 26, 29 is therefore Henry 
of Saltrey. 

41. eumpuneeiun. Perhaps in this and like words 
-otiun should be written, an orthography frequent in 
the Computus (cp. 11. 199, 202, 207, and also Intro- 
duction, p. 93). So Lays, Chaitivel 20, destrudiun. 
But as -ckm, in Marie as in- the Computus, tran- 
scribes Latin -tionem (exposieiun, Computus 2679, 
etc. ; devociun 42, 194, 583), the first e is probably 
etymological (learned) and hence the change seemed 
not warranted. 

160. irunt is preferable. So dirai 187. 


202. reance (MS. ranee) is preferable. This substan- 
tive does not appear in Korting nor in Godefroy, but 
IS no doubt to be attached to redimere — reemhre as 
creance to credere (Cp. Cohn, Suffixwandlung, p. 74) . 
The Espurg. shows recunter (not racunter) and hence 
it is preferable to read re-, reangim 728 (MS. ranoun) 
redemptionem, appears to owe its a to reance. 

234. regehisseit is preferable. 

260. eage is preferable ; so at 387, 398. Cp. e6 
aetatem 2227, etc. 

300. This is St. Bernard's Vita Malachiai (Migne, 
Cursus Patrol., clxxi., 1074). Cp. above, p. 11. 

376. From this passage we must conclude that for 
Marie espurgatoire is feminine, since the participle 
miee obviously refers to that word. 2077 has : Que 
r espurgatoire ert assise En s' eveschie e la fu quise. In 
610, however, we have : U li purgatoirea ert mis 
Qpais) where the masculine participle likewise stands 
fast, and where we have the gender we should expect 
from the neuter purgatorium and the mod. Fr. pur- 
gatoire (m.). It is a distinct tendency of the Anglo- 
Norman to make fems. of masc. nouns in final atonic 
e (cp. Suchier, St. Auhan,-^. 49) ; in i\ie Alexis lOld 
adjutorium appears as fem. in MS. A, but as masc. 
in MSS. PL. G. Paris prefers the fem. There 
seems, therefore, no reason to deny that Marie has 
used espurgatoire as fem. and purgatoire as masc. 

540. delivres. This adj. shows an -s in the n. sg. 
throughout the Espurg. See p. 43, 2. 

558. des i que. The MS. has always de ci que. 
With Warnke, in the Lays, I have thought best to 
follow Suchier (Reimpredigt, p. 75), who regards des 
i que as the etymologically correct orthography. 

564. The- metre, as it stands in the MS., de- 
mands el {=e le). This may be paralleled from 
Anglo-Norman texts but not from French. (Cp. 
Suchier, St. Auhan, p. 31, 7.) The single example 


of el (i=e le) cited by Gengnagel (Der Kurzung der 
Pronomina, etc. Halle, 1882, p. 8) is from the 

bll. I'i {le i) for the sake of the sense, though 
li in such cases is not unknown. (Cp. Tobler, Ver- 
misehte Beitrage, p. 168.) The usual construction 
in the Espurg., as in mod. Fr., is the accus. with in- 
trans. verbs : les fist departir 978. (Cp. 1165, 1907); 
the dative with transitive verbs : cp. 581, 1528, 

619. crois. This word translates cavitatem in 
Lat. K. (concavitatem AC) and means no doubt 
'hollow.' Godefroy has not this meaning, unless 
it lies in Si I'enferi le crois del chief (Ogier 3123) 
which G. translates ' sommet de la t^te.' The word 
belongs probably with the adj. erues (cruese, Lays, 
Bis. 93. MS. cr-uose). A word of the same form 
has the meaning ' gnashing ' (Godefroy s. v. and 
Beimpredigt, p. 79). 

690. wandiches (?) The text is here corrupt, and 
I have been unable to identify this word. 

716. Since the contracted form beneiz for heneeiz 
(benedictus) nearly coincided with heneis (benedicis) 
the scribe apparently has failed to recognize the im- 
perative, and, to the detriment of the metre, has 
written seit Deus as in 1567, 1679. 

725. barnilment ^ ' en baron,' according to 
Godefroy, who quotes the Oxford Psalter, xxvi. and 
XXX. (ed. Michel.) There, as here, the word trans- 
lates Latin viriliter. It is evidently baron (with 
shifted accent) +ilis+mente. 

731. Ja endreit quant translates mox in Lat. 
ACK. Cp. Lays, Lanval 436. 

816. bosoing is preferable. 

955. Add this case of hiatus to those given, p. 29. 

1046. avis unques= ' hardly' (cp. 1190, 1817). 
In all three instances this phrase translates Latin 
vix. This French form is wanting in Korting 8798, 


and in Diez/ p. 428. Godefroy quotes examples 
from the Dialogues of St. Gregory and Turpin's 
Chronicle ; of avis alone «. v. the substantive avis 
(*advisum) where, of course, it does not belong. At 
1817, Roquefort printed Puis unhes for which, it 
should be noted, Orelli (Altfr. Gram., p. 371) cor- 
rectly conjectured avis uniques. 

1123. ruee, roee, rota. The MS. has roue (5 times) 
and rove (twice). V is equivalent to u in the MS. 
Cp. ■!; = it aut 84, 112 ; =if ubi 86.) There are in- 
dications that the copyist replaces o in hiatus by ou 
(Cp. Torn. Ant, I. 888, louier for loier OA, ' and 
Espurg. 851, louer for loier locarium : 115 pouent for 
Anglo-Norman poent; 1090 joues gabatas.) This 
points to roe as the reading of the Anglo-Norman 
copy which lay before the scribe. The latter is in- 
deed a common reading in other Anglo-Norman 
MSS. (E. g. Four Books of the Kings 255, Cam- 
bridge MS. of the Reimpredigt 123f). That it re- 
sults from the usual Anglo-Norman reduction of 
Franco-Norman ue (oe) to o, can hardly be doubted 
in view of Anglo-Norman poeni for pueent in Espurg. 
154, 1320 ; Earley MS. of the Lays, Laustic 47 ; Vie 
de St. Auban6&4, 1289 ; Deu le omnipotent 35c, etc. 
If this view be correct, roee or ruee is the proper 
form for Marie, and should be read Lays, Guigetnar, 
639, in place of roe. (Cp. also Reimpredigt, p. 80.) 

1346. ^plungerunt ^demergeris Lat. K ; demer- 
gent Lat. C. The corresponding passage in Jean 
Belet's version (in the British Museum MS., Addi- 
tional 6534) has: te prendront moult tost e te plun- 
geront el plus parfond d' enfer. 

1369. The same use of mis as the rime-word of 
both lines of the couplet occurs 401, 1815 ; and of 
vus 2159 ; of els 1069. Warnke, Lays, Fraisne 341, 
has suppressed a similar case without good ground. 

' See above, p. 19 ff. 


Other rimes of the kind in the Espurg. are : 1229 
munt (montem) : munt (mundum) 2153 un : I'un. 

1397. Croehier. MS. croker (same abbreviation as 
for ke). Whether we have here to do with an Anglo- 
Norman form (as saeker for sachier, cp. Reimpredigt 
p. 108), or with a substitution of the copyist, is un- 

1520. Mall's remark (Romanische Forschungen 
VI., p. 180, Note) that Marie has here misunder- 
stood the Latin text is incorrect. Marie is not trans- 
lating Latin A, as Mall supposed, but Latin K 
which has : vidit patriam =Marie' s un pais vit, a 
reading supported by the metre also, pais recurs at 
1563, 1575, 1580, 1584, 1643. Mall was misled by 
the false reading of Roquefort. 

1707. aneire. Lat. K has : et lumen mentis . . 
ab eo recessit (A has eciam /or et). A second pas- 
sage will throw more light upon the meaning of this 
word, which is of uncommon occurrence. 2101 
Aneire apres soldi culohant corresponds to Lat. K : 
statem post solis occasum. Here the meaning is cer- 
tainly 'straightway,' 'immediately,' which fits the 
sense of the first passage equally well, and also that 
in the Lays, Chaitivel 22 where Warnke has unne- 
cessarily suppressed the MS. reading, and where G. 
Paris (cp. Romania XIV., p. 601) translates the 
word ' aussitot.' Godefroy s. v. 2. erre (p. 329, col. 
3) quotes the Josaphat of Chardri 233 : Aji eires, 
sanz pltis de demurer Fist un paleis. . . and 
translates ' en h^te,' 'sur le champ.' 

1822. *de I'oeil. Unfortunately, the Latin M8S. 
contain nothing at all answering to this line. The 
MS. has desoil, and it is possible that we have here 
Latin ^solium — O. Fr. sueil with the meaning ' from 
the ground.' Cp. Benoit. Chronique II., 23761 (ed. 
Michel) : II chairent par lur orguil Del beau del en 
I'oscur soil, s and I, however, are easily confounded 
in the writing of this MS. (cp. sis for sil 973 : des 


for delUOS, 1622 and leforse 590 ; Ml for Ms 2090) 
and this fact, together with the sense and point of 
the passage (Marie wishes to say that the flame of 
the Holy Spirit was actually visible to the eye) con- 
vince me that de I'oeil is the correct reading. That 
the diphthong oe in Marie has the accent on e, which 
in turn has the quality ^, is indicated with sufficient 
certainty by the rime cek : doels {Lays, Chaitivel 7.) 

Whether the conjectured reading be correct or not, 
the rime at least shows that we are to see in the oil 
(or soil) of this MS. and those of the Lays, the 
Anglo-Norman reduction of oe, ue, to o, and that 
consequently we must class Marie among those 
writers (e. g., the scribe of the Oxford Roland) who 
show diphthongization before I mouillee. Cp. Such- 
ier, Reimpredigt, Introd., p. xvi. ff., and Anger, Vie 
de St. Gregoire (in Romania XII., p. 145 ff.) who 
has the same forms : 1. 31 veil *volio :soleil. Anger's 
work dates from 1212-1214. 

2030. Cp. the Prologue to Ghiigemar, 11. 9-10 : 
Oil M de sun bien unt envie Sovent en dient vileinie. 

2057 . The ' author ' is, of course, Henry of Sal- 
trey, and the li (I. 2059) is Gilbert. The ' monk ' 
(1. 2060) is the one introduced at 1. 2021. At 1. 2063 
begins the work of an anonymous continuator of the 
Tractatus, who speaks in the first person (11. 2063, 
2071, etc.) 

The work of this continuator ends at 1. 2184, at 
the close of the chaplain's speech. The subsequent 
matter is probably from yet another hand. 

2213. The punctuation reproduces Lat. K : Si 
inquid magister infra, xv. annos deiceres magnam 
rem faceres. 

2222. pemeit. This, and not preneit, is to be read, 
since in the MS. the crossed ^ stands only for joar 
and per, never for pra- and pre-. For the form, cp. 
Reimpredigt, p. 80, and the Computus, Introd. p. 97. 


Page 40, 1. 19 : read *dulcius. 

' ' 40, 1. 22, for ' a pretonic syllable,' read : 

syllable in mid- word.' 
' ' 45, 1. 12, read : deceivre. 
" 62. 1. 244 : read turnouent. 
" 88, 1. 908 : for a read e. 
" 109, 1. 1453 : for vissiuns read v&issuns. 


I, Thomas Atkinson Jenkins, was born in Wilmington , 
Delaware, May 24, 1868. I received the Bachelor's degree 
in Arts from Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, in 1887, 
and the same degree in Philosophy from the Wharton 
School of Finance and Economy of the University of 
Pennsylvania, in 1888. My studies at the Johns Hopkins 
University began in October, 1891, with French and 
Italian as my principal and first subordinate subjects. I 
entered the Romance Languages Seminary at New Year's 
1892, and the following summer spent four months in 
Paris, for purposes of study. I continued my studies the 
following year with History as second subordinate subject, 
and held a University Scholarship for that year. In 
June, 1893, I received the appointment of Joshua W. 
Lippincott (Joint) Fellow of Swarthmore College for 
1893-4, and by virtue of the same have been appointed a 
Fellow by Courtesy at this University. I have derived 
the greatest benefit in attending the Romance Seminary 
of Dr. A. M. Elliott, and from having heard the lectures 
of Dr. Matzke on Old French, of Dr. Adams on the 
Germanic Peoples, and of Dr. Bloomfield on Comparative 
Philology, to all of whom I take this opportunity to ex- 
press my thanks. 

Baltimore, May 24, 1894- 


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