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Full text of "Report of the Canada Food Board. February 11-December 31, 1918"

M3 



ALBERT R. MANN 
LIBRARY 



New York State Colleges 

OF 

Agriculture and Home Economics 




AT 

Cornell University 



Cornell University Library 
HD9014.C2A43 1918 

Report of the Canada Food Board. Februar 



3 1924 013 848 696 




|| Cornell University 
J Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/cletails/cu31924013848696 



Report 



OF THE 



Canada Food Board 




February 11— Decemba- 31 

1918 
OTTAWA 



355211 



To His Excellency the Duke of Devonshire, 

K.G., P.C., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., etc., etc., 

Governor-General and Commander in Chief 

of the Dominion of Canada. 

I have the honour to lay before Your Excellency the Report of 
the Chairman of the Canada Food Board, up to the 1st January, 
1919. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your Excellency's most obedient servant, 
T. A. CRERAR 



Minister of Agriculture. 



Ottawa. 



Canada Food Board, 

Ottawa, January 27th, 1919. 



Dear Sir: 



I beg to submit herewith the report of the Canada Food Board 
during the past year. 

In order to give as complete a view as possible of the work 
it has been necessary to allude to the preliminary work under the 
guidance of the Food Controller. 

It is with great pleasure the Board records its appreciation of 
the excellent work done by the Voluntary Workers, Provincial 
Committees and many organizations of Canada, which, added to 
the untiring efforts of the women of Canada, have largely contri- 
buted to the carrying out of this all-important war work. To the 
Press of the country the Board conveys its thanks for the great 
amount of space contributed in disseminating useful information 
which encouraged increased production and conservation. 

The cost of operating the Board was more than covered by 
license fees and other sources of revenue, as shown in the appended 
financial statement. 

Acknowledgment should also be made of the enthusiastic work 
and loyal support of the staff of the Food Board, who have, without 
exception, given their very best energies and abilities to the work 
in hand. 

I have the honor to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

CANADA FOOD BOARD, 




Honorable T. A. Crerar, Chairman. 

Minister of Agriculture, 
Ottawa, Ont. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Part I. pages 

Letter of Transmittal 

General Report: 

Introductory 1 

Formation of the Board 3 

Canadian Policy 4 

Supplies for the Allies 6 

Non-wheaten Flours 6 

Meats 7 

Fish 8 

Fats 9 

Sugar 10 

A Huge Task , 11 

Prices and Profits 13 

Control of Dairy Products 14 

Cost of Bread Regulated 15 

Sugar Was Steadied . . 15 

Dealers' Profits 16 

How Control was Maintained 17 

Licensing 18 

Enforcement of Orders 19 

Preventing Waste 20 

Good- Will of the Public 20 

Loyal Press Backing 21 

Greater Production Campaign 22 

Tractors 24 

Labor for Farms 25 

Staff and Other Organizations 26 

Finances 28 

Conclusion 29 

Sectional Reports: Part II. 

Financial Statement 33-37 

Mail and Supplies 38 

Licensing 39 

Statistical 40 

Bakers 41 

Canners 42 

Public Eating Houses 43 

Fish 44 

Fruit and Vegetables 47 

Millers 48 

Produce 50 

Sugar and Confectionery 52 



PAGES 

Import and Export 56 

Solicitor's and Enforcement 57 

Information and Conservation Publicity 61 

Domestic Economy and Women's Work 63 

"S.O.S." 65 

Vacant Lot and Home Gardens 66 



Part III. 
APPENDICES: 

1. Inset of Staff Organization (Chart) 71 

2. Cost of the Loaf (Chart) 72 

3. Price of Milk (Chart) 73 

4. Price of Butter (Chart) 74 

5. Canadian Egg Prices (Chart) 75 

6. Chronological Issue of Food Board Orders 76 

7. Allied Buying in the Dominion 78 

8. Retail Prices of Fish 78 

9. Retail Prices of 17 Foods in Canada and the United States .... 80 

10. Canadian Fanners' War Record 81 

11. Canadian Markets During and After War 81 

12. Cana'tPR Imports of Foodstuffs 82 

13. Chief , . aadian Food Exports 84 

14. Memoranda on Pamphlets and Posters 86 



REPORT 

OF THE 

CANADA FOOD BOARD 



INTRODUCTORY 

CANADA'S objective in food control was to supply the 
maximum of exportable foodstuffs to our Empire and 
the Allies during war. The steps successively taken by 
the Canada Food Board to attain this end are shown 
as briefly and clearly as possible in the following review of work 
for the year 1918. The sectional activities of the Board are 
given in more detail in the departmental reports and in the 
appendices at the end. 

A year ago food control in the Dominion was in a transi- 
tion stage. Several months of valuable preparatory work had 
been done under the then Food Controller. This work had 
not to be redone; it was a solid foundation upon which the 
later structure could be built. The general principles of control 
of foodstuffs had been determined. Licensing of dealers had 
been decided upon and partly put into practice. Control of 
profits made by firms dealing in foodstuffs had already been 
started, and some regulations had been made. This work was 
adequately reviewed at the time. 

With the material then gathered, rapid progress was possible 
in the earlier months of 1918. Not only in the Dominion, but 
throughout the whole of the Allied countries, 1918 was the 
year in which food as a war factor was proved to be only less 
mighty than were munitions. 

The seriousness of the Allied food situation at the beginning 
of 1918 cannot be too much accentuated. The late Lord Rhondda, 
British Minister of Food, in a message especially addressed to 
the people of Canada and the United States, said specifically: — 
"The food position of this country and, I understand, in France 
also, can, without exaggeration, be described as critical and 
anxious." It was the period in which compulsory rationing was 
being introduced into Great Britain, and for many months 

1 



afterwards the conditions defined by Lord Rhondda remained 
practically unchanged. 

In France the situation was one of even more gravity. 
The French Minister of Food announced that, at the end of 
December, 1917, there remained only enough wheat and flour 
in the country to supply the civilian population for three days 
— literally a case of their living from hand to mouth. 

The difficulties of framing regulations which would apply all 
over the Dominion can be appreciated when one considers the 
area of the Dominion, which is as great as Europe without 
Russia, and the diversity of conditions of climate and of the 
densely populated areas such as Montreal, Toronto and Winnipeg, 
contrasted with the sparse settlements of Saskatchewan and 
Alberta. 

Food control at the beginning of 1918 was everywhere a 
new knowledge; scarcely more than its rudiments had been 
learned. In the unknown problem of supplying food on an 
unprecedented scale to armies of fighting men numbering millions, 
to munition workers even more numerous, and to civilian popu- 
lations behind both these classes to be numbered only by tens 
of millions, the Dominion authorities had looked for inspiration 
and guidance from outside. 

Canada had, naturally enough, taking the precedent of our 
military organization, turned to the Motherland for her model 
and her information. It soon became apparent that the food 
problem on the other side of the Atlantic was wholly different 
from that confronting the Dominion. For Great Britain just 
then the crux of the proposition lay in the ability of her incom- 
parable Navy to keep trade routes open for imports. But in 
Canada there was more than enough food for our own popula- 
tion. Our objectives were to increase our supplies of foodstuffs 
by stimulating production and by more conservation, so that 
each month would see an addition to the exportable surplus. 
In the United States conditions appeared to be more analogous 
to our own, and it was thought the adoption of their food control 
methods would prove satisfactory and adequate. Yet on in- 
vestigation it became evident that sotaething different from both 
American and European methods would have to be undertaken, 
and hence a distinctively Canadian system was developed. 

While it became evident that a distinct Canadian Food 
policy was necessary it was nevertheless vital that a close co- 
operation be maintained with bodies representing the Allied 



Food Control overseas and especially with the United States 
Food Administration. The following pages will show how the 
work of the Board was co-ordinated with these in the common 
aim of supplying the largest possible amount of food to the 
European Allies from this side of the Atlantic. In this connec- 
tion the Board gratefully acknowledges the help given by Sir 
Wm. Goode, liason officer of the British Ministry of Food, and 
Mr. Wm. F. Fisher, in charge of Canadian Relations, United 
States Food Administration. 



FORMATION OF THE BOARD 

On January 24th the Honorable W. J. Hanna, K.C., 
Toronto, who, since June 21st, 1917, had been Food Controller, 
resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. Henry B. Thomson, Vic- 
toria, B.C. On February 11th a change in designation and form 
of the authority was made. The Canada Food Board was created 
and vested with all the powers of the Food Controller. The 
new Board was directed to report to the Governor-General in 
Council through the Minister of Agriculture. 

The personnel of the Board nominated and the assignment 
of duties were as follows: 

Chairman of the Board and 
Director of Food Conservation.Mr. Henry B. Thomson. 

Director of Food Production. . . .Hon. Chas. A. Dunning, 

M.P.P., Regina. 

Director of Agricultural Labor .. Mr. J. D. McGregor, Bran- 
don. 

Secretary . Mr. S. E. Todd. 

When, in virtue of the War Measures Act, 1914, the office of 
Food Controller had been formed by Order-in-Council 1460, 
June 16th, 1917, the main powers conferred were designed: — 

(1) To ascertain the food requirements of Canada and 
to facilitate the export of the surplus to Great Britain and 
her Allies. 

(2) To make regulations in the public interest govern- 
ing the price of articles of food, storage, distribution, sale 
and delivery; to provide for conservation of food and pre- 
vention of waste; to govern the manufacture, preparation, etc., 
of foods. 



(3) To permit all powers and duties of the Food Con- 
troller to be exercised independently or in co-operation 
with other departments of the Dominion, the provinces or 
of Great Britain and her Allies: powers not to include or 
interfere with those previously granted to the Board of 
Grain Supervisors for Canada; expenses to be paid out of 
the War Appropriation Fund, 1917. 

When, by Order-in-Council P.C. 344, February 11th, 1918, 
the Canada Food Board was created, all powers vested in the 
Food Controller were transferred, and, in addition, it was ordered 
that the Board : — 

"Shall generally direct the production, conservation 
and distribution of foodstuffs in the interests of Canada 
and the other British dominions, as well as the Allied 
nations." 



CANADIAN POLICY 

The middle way in food control was almost invariably 
followed. Rationing under Canadian conditions was inadvisable, 
as with the Dominion's vast area, sparse population and diversi- 
fied conditions it would have proved ineffective, and the results 
of the effort and energy expended in this method of control 
would have been infinitesimal in comparison with the results to 
be secured by the same forces directed to increased production of 
foodstuffs and voluntary saving. Moreover, Canadians would 
have had to pay ten to twelve million dollars annually to meet 
the cost of an equitable rationing system as carried out in Europe. 
Compulsory measures were adopted to regulate the distribution 
of commodities in what might be called their bulk state, but as 
food products found their way from stage to stage, control 
gradually and necessarily lessened, and was replaced by measures 
to secure widely spread voluntary conservation by consumers. 

The method which interfered least with personal freedom 
was the restriction of sale of food by dealers. This left the 
patriotic consumer free from needless disturbance of family life, 
while the less patriotic were controlled by an informed public 
opinion supported by anti-hoarding orders and other regula- 
tions. The British system of food conservation became almost 
entirely mandatory, the American chiefly voluntary. The 
joining of the mandatory with the voluntary method coristituted 
the distinctive character of food control in Canada. 



A DOUBLE SYSTEM.— The working of the double 
system was seen in the fact that while the sale of sugar in bulk to 
dealers without certificates was prohibited by order, conserva- 
tion by families was secured by loyal voluntarism. Restrictions 
in the use of beef and pork in restaurants on specific days was 
carried out under compulsion, but the request to the private 
family depended for effectiveness on an appeal to patriotism. 

Control over supphes was exercised also through governing 
the character of saleable food. The composition of standard 
flour and of bakers' bread with other non-wheaten flours gives 
instances. 



SUPPLIES FOR THE ALLIES 

Tb understand the trend of wartime food it is necessary to 
have a clear conception of what was required by the Allied 
warring nations. Four classes of foodstuffs were found to be 
essential: — 

1. Wheat 

2. Meats 

3. Fats 

4. Sugar 

WHEAT AND FLOUR SUPPLY.— A year ago out of the 
seven chief wheat producing countries of the world Russia and 
Rumania could not be reached for Allied supply because of 
enemy activity. India, Australia and Argentina were so distant 
that, with shipping crippled by submarine sinkings, their crops 
could not be transported to Europe. Therefore there remained 
within the Empire only Canada to which the Motherland could 
turn for large quantities of wheat. 

Millers were ordered to extend the milling "extraction." 
In non-technical language this meant using a larger part of the 
wheat berry for human food. Thus more breadstuffs were got 
out of the same bushel of wheat and the quantity of millers' 
offal was correspondingly reduced. 

By this means millions of bushels were added to the export- 
able surplus. The Canadian problem was materially to extend 
an already existing surplus over domestic needs, to skimp and 
pare where there appeared to be abundance. Mill-saved grain 
was not permitted, figuratively, to go down the ordinary channels 

5 



to the home markets. On the contrary, it was sent straight to 
the Atlantic seaboard. 

In April the "extraction," which had been fixed at seventy- 
four per cent, was raised to seventy-six per cent. This was part 
of the plan first called conservation, but which later was more 
heartily supported under its simpler Anglo-Saxon term of food- 
saving. By the fall even children in the Dominion knew what 
was meant by saving food to share it with the soldiers and the 
Allies. As the war wore on it was realized that even more 
stringent regulations would have to be made. The necessity 
for transporting American troops in large numbers throughout 
April, May, June and July had taken away still more tonnage 
from the longer food routes. How limited were the food supplies 
of the United Kingdom then has since been told by Mr. Lloyd 
George. 

Canada was not merely the nearest British country to the 
heart of the Empire, but one ship engaged in the Canadian trade 
was worth two on the longer voyage to Argentina, and worth 
three or four on the Australasian and Indian routes. The 
problem was one of wheat plus shipping. 



NON-WHEATEN FLOURS.— The factresulted in a decision 
to use wheat flour substitutes in Canada. An immediate diffi- 
culty was met in the fact that in normal times the Dominion was 
largely a one grain land. Wheat had for years been so abundant, 
so cheap and so good that other cereals were used for human 
food in a very small way. Barley, oats, rye and buckwheat 
were the main non-wheaten grains. The stocks of these in 1918 
were small, widely distributed and difficult to obtain. In addi- 
tion, people did not know how to use the flours of barley, oats, 
rye and buckwheat. The Bakery, Domestic Science and Infor- 
mation Sections devoted much attention to making ways and 
means for the use of these better known, and it was a relief in a 
very difficult position when the signing of the armistice made the 
cancellation of the substitute order possible. 

Purchases of wheat and flour and arrangements for financing 
and transporting these overseas were within the activities of the 
Wheat Export Company. The domestic policy which actuated 
the Board might, in a word, be said to consist in directing the 
wheat supply from the farmer to the consumer's table. 



MEATS. — It is impossible in considering control of meats 
in Canada to dissociate from it greater production of livestock 
on farms. A consideration of what would be wanted in Europe 
as the result of the tremendous depletion of food and food-supply- 
ing animals led early to the conclusion that a long-sighted policy 
alone would meet the case. 

In 1916 the value of animal products throughout the 
Dominion was estimated at $111,331,000; in 1917 $157,415,000; 
and in the fiscal year 1918 at $163,488,000. These figures show 
the steady rise in value of our farm animals during three war 
years. The number of food animals on Canadian farms also 
shows an important increase, especially noteworthy as having 
taken place during war. In 1914 the number of milk cows was 
estimated at 2,673,000, and in the fall of 1918 at 3,324,000; 
other cattle in the same period rose from 3,363,000 to 6,507,000; 
sheep from 2,058,000 to 3,037,000, while hogs advanced from 
3,434,000 to 4,289,000. 

Simultaneously with the large increase in exports of beef 
and pork there was a domestic development that, especially now 
at the opening of the world's reconstructive period, will be of 
tremendous monetary value to the Dominion. By prohibiting 
export of feed and by facilitating the importation of special 
feeds the Board and the Dominion Department of Agriculture, 
working through the Provincial Departments of Agriculture, did 
everything possible to encourage the raising of farm stock. 

The following are the values and quantities of beef and 
pork, respectively, exported during 1918; — 

BEEF 

Lbs. Value 

102,537,528, fresh $ 21,341,875 

873,529, pickled 170,570 

BACON 

64,402,615 $ 20,661,270 

HAM 

1,792,548 I 512,318 

PICKLED PORK 

34,193,433 $ 10,951,592 

FRESH PORK 

1,214,843 $ 291,338 



Perhaps the chief factor which controlled meat supplies 
being sent overseas was the provision of refrigerator space for 
the trans-Atlantic voyage — a matter over which the Food Board 
had no power. 

Early in the year the co-operation of the Canadian Railway 
Commission was sought to enable the supplies of beef and pork, 
as well as of wheat from the West, to be transported promptly 
to the seaboard. Every assistance was given, and it is a satis- 
faction to know that there was no instance of delay not attri- 
butable to stress of weather. 

In this connection it is well to explain a circumstance that 
was little understood at the time. It was only through the accu- 
mulation of stocks of food called the "food reserve," that it was 
possible to divert so many ships during the spring and summer 
for the transport of American troops across the Atlantic. When 
the ships were actually being used for the conveyance of troops, 
it was natural that these vast quantities of food, as the flow to 
the seaboard could not be interrupted, should be piled up at 
Atlantic ports. They were accumulating awaiting tonnage. 
There was some criticism at the time in Canada by those who 
saw this accumulation and fancied that the stores should have 
been used to reduce the prices of foods in Canada. But this was 
short-sighted. 

Of the actual control of meg,ts within the Dominion it is 
difficult to speak with the clear-cut definition possible for wheat 
supplies. The first step after the general adoption of a beefless 
day was the control of packing house firms, as the centre through 
which Canadian meat supplies all passed. They were regulated 
with regard to profits by a special Order-in-Council. Their books 
and reports were, in March, made subject to inspection by the 
Minister of Finance. On May 3rd an order of the Food Board 
brought under license practically everybody who slaughtered 
livestock. 

During the earlier months of the year a campaign of pub- 
licity was arranged to draw attention to the opening for pork 
products abroad. Orders were passed by which beef, veal and 
pork were permitted to be seiVed in public eating places only at 
meals and were wholly prohibited on Wednesdays and Fridays. 



FISH. — One of the most interesting chapters in food control 
in Canada deals with fish supply and consumption. Since July, 

8 



1917, propaganda has increased the consumption of fish within 
Canada fully one hundred per cent. Export of Western lake 
fish has been cut down from eighty-five per cent to fifty per cent 
— the difference being consumed at home. An entirely new 
fishery has been established on the Pacific Coast, and two steam 
trawlers are now engaged in fishing for flat fish and cods. Half 
a million pounds a month of these excellent fish are now being 
marketed. 

The Atlantic steam trawling fleet was increased from three 
to five vessels. Haddock, cod, mackerel and herring were 
popularized on the Ontario market, and are now staple lines in 
good demand. Over seventeen hundred wholesale fish dealers 
and twenty-six hundred retailers are under license by the Board. 
A variety of sea fish at reasonable prices is now to be found even 
in country towns. On National Fish Day, October 31st, 1918, 
Montreal and Toronto consumed 577,400 pounds of fish, and it is 
estimated that roundly 2,500,000 pounds were used on that day 
alone in the Dominion. 

This work has led to a vast development of one of the 
country's greatest natural resources. It also had the immediate 
effect of saving large quantities of meat for shipment overseas. 
It is permissible to assume that the new lines of fishing will 
become firmly established industries, not only on the Pacific, but 
on the Atlantic. 

When the supply of fish for home consumption and the 
general success which was secured are compared with what had 
to be accepted in the United States — where very early an elabo- 
rate publicity plan for popularizing fish had to be abandoned 
— the Food Board has every reason to be satisfied with results 
in the war-time fishing industry. 



FATS. — The sub-division of food which, during food control, 
came to be known by the simple name of fats, rather than by the 
old general trade names, affected our shipments of pork, beef, 
lard, butter, cheese and milk. For instance, the fat content of 
pork and beef — and pork fat was one of the chief needs of the 
Allied armies — cannot be estimated and must be included in 
round figures within our exports of these two commodities. 
That they were considerable, however, is obvious from the gen- 
erally accepted opinion of dietitians and food experts that bacon 



contains as high as seventy per cent of the fats most requisite for 
human energy. Comparisons of exports for three typical periods, 
one pre-war and two war yeaj"s, show how vast the change was: — 

April-Dec. 



Article 


1913 


1916 


1918 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Butter 


828,323 


3^441,183 


9,844,721 


Cheese 


155,216,392 


168,961,583 


148,732,418 


Lard . . . 


46,638 


24,998 


136,727 


Bacon 


36,212,190 


144,918,867 


64,402,615 


Beef 


1,570,979 


47,422,564 


103,411,057 


Canned Meats . 


254,937 


11,031,893 


8,103,129 


Ham . . . 


2,476,654 


8,732,857 


1,792,548 


Pork 


521,533 


13,142,196 


35,408,176 


Milk and Cream 








(canned, etc.) 


335,849 


13,247,834 


42,476,726 



One instance in the control of fat in its most palatable form 
may be noted. When in September the stock of butter in Great 
Britain fell abnormally short, and it was found impossible to 
maintain even the small weekly ration of one ounce a head, 
arrangemerHts werfe made to secure for shipment the whole butter 
output of Canadian creameries for five weeks. In this way 
over six and a half million pounds of butter were exported, and 
the British Minister of Food was able to state in a letter of 
thanks to Sir Robert Borden that the maintenance of a one 
ounce ration was attributable solely to the quick action taken 
in the Dominion. 

Meanwhile there were 25,000,000 pounds of butter in cold 
storage which, having been purchased at the market figure, 
could not, under the controlled system of profits, be sold at 
undue advance in price. Thus, by one move, an emergency call 
from the Mother Country was met without causing an appre- 
ciable rise in prices at home. 



SUGAR. — Sugar formed a different problem from the three 
other main foodstuffs. More than in those articles of diet the 
difficulty was that of equal distribution. Its strictest regulation 
was only necessary during a few months, yet during that time it 
took the form of the most intensive control of any one food. 
The nearest approach to rationing was made in the sugar dis- 
tribution. 

10 



The sharing of the world's available supply of sugar among 
the Allies was one of the great food difficulties of the war. The 
great bulk of the raw sugar was imported. The Allied nations 
had to find an adequate method whereby they could equitably 
share with one another the available supplies. For Canada, 
this was accomplished by the establishment of the International 
Sugar Commission of New York, on which the British Govern- 
ment had a representative. It was not possible to have a 
Canadian representative, because Britain would then have had 
greater representation than the other nations. Nevertheless, it 
was necessary to have someone to represent Canadian interests. 
In November, 1917, there was instituted a sugar division of 
Canadian food control and a New York representative was 
appointed who advised on available supplies. He was also 
charged with the exceedingly difficult task of equitably dividing 
supplies allocated to Canada among the sugar refineries in Canada. 

The plan that the International Sugar Commision followed 
was, briefly: — First, they made a survey of the world's supplies. 
These, during the year of 1918, were confined almost entirely to 
the Western Hemisphere, as the supplies in the East Indies and 
other sugar producing countries were taken. Allocations were 
then made to Great Britain, France, Belgium and Italy; quan- 
tities were set aside for neutral countries, and the remainder was 
divided between Canada and the United States. Our domestic 
problem resolved itself into dividing this supply among the 
various sugar refineries, and afterwards establishing a system of 
distribution and control of consumption which would spread the 
available total as equitably as possible, having regard to the vital 
character of the use made of sugar. 

The first survey of the International Sugar Commission 
was made in March, 1918. By May 1 regulations had been put 
into force in Canada designed to meet the situation. About the 
middle of June, however, the International Sugar Commission 
found it necessary to make a complete re-survey. When this was 
accomplished it was calculated that, owing to many new condi- 
tions, there was a total shortage of sugar of about one million 
tons. It became imperative to re-allocate, and by July 15th the 
Sugar Division of the Food Board had new orders in force to meet 
the changed situation. 

Rigorous control of all manufacturers and public eating 
places was instituted, with a system of distribution to wholesalers 
and retailers which, on the whole, proved eminently successful. 

11 



Had it been possible when the International Sugar Commission 
made the first survey to have gauged the situation correctly 
the problem in Canada would have been much easier. As it 
was, the work was accomplished under tremendous pressure and 
under difl&culties which it was impossible for the public then to 
appreciate. One of the marked features of this work was the co- 
operation of the sugar consuming trades and their loyal accept- 
ance of the regulations. 

The sugar representative at New York had, from time to 
time, to assume the responsibility of accepting for Canadian 
refineries quantities of sugar as they became available and to 
arrange for a guarantee of purchase of the total or part of a crop 
of some of the producing countries. The Commission was 
besides faced with the tremendous task of finding shipping 
tonnage, and many times every available port was scoured for 
transportation. Even when sugar was landed, port and railway 
embargoes and many other obstructions to its finail transporta- 
tion had to be oversome. 

The whole problem of sugar supply and control has been 
one of the most strenuous and, considering the almost insuper- 
able difficulties, one of the most successful of Canada's domestic 
war-time food efforts. 

The price of raw sugar and the quantity available for Canada 
were at no time within the control of the Food Board. 

AN ASSESSMENT OF SUGAR STOCKS.— The Inter- 
Allied Sugar Purchasing Committee and the Royal Sugar Com- 
mission, representing Great Britain, the United States, France 
and Italy, when arranging to purchase the 1918-19 crop of raw 
sugar, found it necessary to increase the price to the producers. 
This meant an increase in price of refined sugar. As some of 
the Canadian refineries had considerable stocks of old-crop 
sugar purchased through the Commission at a lower price, and 
as other refineries had very small stocks of old-crop sugar — 
some in fact, not having any old-crop whatever — the refineries 
requested the Food Board to approve an increase in refined sugar, 
effective from the date first deliveries of new-crop sugars would 
be made. The Board, realizing the difficulties, gave permission 
with the understanding that the Board would make an assess- 
ment on refineries, covering the increased value of old-crop 
"raws." The difference between the new product and the old 
was exactly 90 cents per 100 pounds of raw sugar. 

12 



It was necessary to figure this assessment on raw sugars. 
On November 16th, refineries were required to take stock of the 
quantity on hand of old-crop refined sugar and old-crop raw 
sugar. The assessment, based on the increase, $124,614.33, 
was collected by the Board and deposited to the credit of the 
Receiver General. 



A HUGE TASK.— Possibly the best conception of Canada's 
effort to back up the Alhes with food is obtained from a state- 
ment of the value of foodstuffs exported while war continued. 
The totals for fiscal years were — 

1914-15— $187,011,300. 

1915-16— 332,455,900. 

1916-17— 482,619,400. 

1917-18— 710,619,400. 
The values of the three chief sub-divisions of Canadian food 
products show a growth which should have a lasting effect upon 
national prosperity and especially upon the development of its 
agriculture. The periods covered in the table below are the 
twelve months ending September in each year: — 

Fisheries $ 23,274,772 $ 24,993,156 $ 33,670,846 

Animal Products. . . 111,331,332 157,415,287 163,488,362 
Agricultural Products 396,455,537 427,927,335 440,744,430 



$ 531,061,641 $610,335,778 $637,903,638 



PRICES AND PROFITS 

At the time the Board was inaugurated the Government had 
already taken action under Order-in-Council P.C. 2461, Novem- 
ber, 1916, to create machinery through the Minister of 
Labor for the investigation, especially, of retail prices obtaining 
in any community and for the control of profiteering. From time 
to time this order was improved, and is now known as P.C. 3069, 
"Fair Price Commission," action along its lines to be initiated 
by the municipalities. 

As Canada is essentially an exporting country, domestic 
prices for producers and manufacturers of food are controlled 
by the export market. Any control of prices or profits, conse- 
quently, had to be worked out in co-operation with the export 



13 



buyers. Just previous to the organization of the Board the 
various AUied Governments had pooled their buying under one 
organization, known as the Allied Provisions Export Commission, 
with which was associated the British Government Wheat Export 
Company and the Dairy Produce Commission of Canada, both 
formed previously. 

The main cause of the tremendous rise in prices that occurred 
was the increasing scarcity of supplies available to the Allied 
nations, and the wild bidding that occurred for these when each 
country was competing separately for supplies. The Food 
Controller found that control of prices in Canada was absolutely 
impracticable until the Allied Governments had unified their 
methods of purchase. 

, An illustration of this was afforded when a purchase was 
made by the French Government of a commodity at a price 
considerably in advance of the then ruling price. This purchase, 
made without consultation with the Canada Food Board, at once 
affected the price of the domestic supply. The order was a large 
one, and had the Food Board at that time attempted to fix a 
price for the home market the effect of such an order would have 
been to drive the product into a foreign channel, and 
temporarily, at least, to withdraw the product from the 
Canadian market. Because of war conditions information of this 
character was not at the time made public, although now per- 
missible. The unification of the methods of purchase stabilized 
the export market and, as a consequence, the domestic market 
also, and tended to increase the available supply both for export 
and home consumption by securing a steady flow at known 
prices. 

An interesting comparison of the cost of staple foods in sixty 
Canadian cities, compared with forty cities in the United States, 
compiled from data furnished by the Labor Departments in 
both countries, given in the appendices, shows Canadian prices 
to have been 10 per cent lower than those in the United States. 



CONTROL OF DAIRY PRODUCTS.— As a further illus- 
tration, in 1917 the British Government fixed a price for Canadian 
cheese, but did not fix any price for butter or condensed milk. 
The result was that as the need for condensed milk increased, 
the price rose with great rapidity, and not only interfered with 
the supplies of milk for the manufacture of cheese and butter, 

14 



but seriously disturbed the fresh milk market for Canadian 
cities. With the proper organization of the export market, it 
became possible to control the domestic market through normal 
lines of regulation — that is, the price paid for export. 

The Dairy Produce Commission and the Allied Provisions 
Export Commission together worked out a schedule of prices 
that would be paid in Canada for cheese, butter and condensed, 
evaporated and powdered milk for export. This stabilized milk 

prices in Canada. 

* * * * 

FLOUR REGULATIONS.— During May, 1917, the price 
of flour rose to over $15.00 per barrel. As soon as the Board of 
Grain Supervisors had fixed the price for the 1917 wheat crop 
an agreement was reached with the millers that their profits 
should not exceed twenty-five cents per barrel of flour, with sixty 
cents allowed for cost of manufacture. On this basis the price 
paid for flour by the Wheat Export Company was worked out 
from time to time, and domestic prices were based on these 
figures. The same principles were applied to the 1918 wheat 
crop, and the price of flour to the consumer was controlled. 



CONTROL OF PRICE OF BREAD.— The price of bread 
was also directly controlled. The Cost of Living Commissioner, 
in co-operation with the Board, enforced by the license system 
for bakers, secured monthly costs of production of bread, based on 
the known prices of flour and other factors. These costs were 
published from time to time, and showed that the profits being 
made by bakers were at all times reasonable. Whenever a 
movement to increase the price of bread occurred in any part of 
the country steps were taken to investigate the necessity for it. 
This strict control has maintained the price of bread in Canada 
at a rate markedly lower than in the United States. 

Thus, while no prices were actually "fixed" for any of these 
products, the domestic prices based on 1;he agreed price for export 
were at all times directly influenced by the Food Board. 



SUGAR WAS STEADIED.— The same methods of control 
were exercised in regard to prices payable for sugar. When sugar 
became scarce in 1917 the retail price in many places jumped to 

15 



fifteen cents a pound. Action was immediately taken and retail 
dealers were warned that the price must not exceed ten to eleven 
cents a pound. This control was continued throughout 1918 by 
the Board and the price maintained at a fair margin over cost. 
Any increase in pricQ that occurred was based on such factors as 
a rise in price of raw sugar and freight rate adjustments. Had it 
not been for this control consumers during the great scarcity in 
the fall would have paid at least twenty cents a pound. Thus, 
again, while the greatly complicated work and heavy expense of 
fixing prices to meet a multitude of rapidly varying conditions 
were avoided, control of the price to Canadian consumers was 
steadily maintained. 

DEALERS' PROFITS.— Dealers' profits were regulated 
through a number of orders. Order No. 9 fixed the maximum 
"spread" chargeable by distributors of fresh milk in cities. 
Order No. 45 fixed the profits that might be taken by wholesale 
dealers on butter, cheese, eggs, meats, oleomargarine and lard. 
Various orders and agreements with the trade regulated the price 
of fish so that this food became one of the cheapest available in 
any country. Prices of bran and shorts and the profits of dealers 
were also fixed, thus giving the producer the means of producing 
milk at as low cost as possible. Results of regulation of prices 
are such that todaybread, milk, butter, cheese and fish are mark- 
edly lower in Canada than in the United States, or elsewhere 
in Allied countries where subsidizing has not been practised. 
The price of grains entering into the production of foodstuffs 
was not under the control of the Canada Food Board. 

Control of profits on invested capital presents an altogether 
different problem from the control of prices. A very large 
profit may be made upon the capital invested by individual 
manufactiu-ers or dealers in staple food products as a result of 
turnover, but the entire elimination of such profit in many cases 
would not affect the retail prices of these commodities. For 
instance, if the profit of twenty-five cents per barrel of flour had 
been eliminated and the millers had manufactured at cost it 
would not have affected the price of bread. The average Cana- 
dian cosumers about one barrel of flour a year. About 250 pounds 
of bread are made from a barrel of flour; therefore, this twenty- 
five cents distributed over the pounds of food products from a 
barrel of flour would have been one-tenth of a cent per pound. 
This could not be reckoned in price control. It would have been 

16 



a matter of taking the profit from the miller and giving it to the 
baker. On the other hand, on account of the difference in 
manufacturing conditions, costs varied widely and it was neces- 
sary to allow sufficient profit to enable enough mills in Canada 
to produce the flour required. Out of this number some mills, 
because of advantages arising from location and the efficiency of 
their management, were able to make a considerable profit on the 
invested capital. The consideration of public policy involved in 
such profits opens up, if at all, another question which comes 
within the domain of taxation. 



THREE MEANS OF CONTROL 

The means employed to secure the control of war foods may 
be re-stated thus: — 

1. Direct purchase and export by Allied Government 
representatives. 

2. Licensing of all dealers at home and their regulation 
by order issued direct by the Board with personal respon- 
sibility on the part of the licensee. 

3. Import and export permits regulating incoming or 
outgoing commodities not governed by the purchases of Allied 
Governments. 



HOW CONTROL WAS MAINTAINED.— From a con- 
te-oUing point of view, food soon di\aded itself into three broad 
classes: — 

First, there was that produced in excess of our own re- 
quirements, which was bought by the various buying com- 
missions of Allied countries for governmental use, and which 
was sent overseas with as little delay as could be; this 
included wheat, meats and fats. This food, once brought 
together at the elevators or packing houses, went with little 
deviation to the seaboard, and next to munition orders 
formed the mainstay of Canadian trade and prosperity 
during the four and a quarter years of the war. No export 
permit for this was required by the Food Board. 

The second class of food was that for our domestic 

consumption, whose distribution was controlled by license. 

The third class was that exported to private firms or 

persons in Allied or friendly countries, as distinct from 

17 



government purchase. The last named came within the 
scope of the Import and Export Division of the Food Board. 



LICENSING.— The prime instrument of compulsory control 
of domestic trade was the issuance of licenses without which 
trading in foodstuffs was prohibited. This control steadied 
prices and equalized distribution. Home supply in every district 
throughout 1918 was plentiful, yet the quantities of foodstuffs 
exported showed a remarkable increase. By December 31st, 
1918, 78,016 licenses had been issued. 

Exports and imports were controlled by a system of 
"Permits." No one could ship abroad nor receive foreign foods 
without written permission. This system was established in 
November, 1917, and up to December 31st there had been issued 
12,137 import permits and 14,751 export permits. 

The ideas underlying licensing were to make regulations 
easier through securing the direction of supplies from the producer 
down to the consumer's table; to carry out orders for the pre- 
vention of excessive profits; to prevent re-duplicating transactions 
and thus securing a more even flow of distribution; to keep the 
dealers in food on good behavior under penalties of forfeiture of 
license; and to protect the small dealers in carrying out orders 
from being unfairly handicapped by larger and more favorable 
placed competitors. A large office organization and the machin- 
ery for such a novel procedure had to be made with careful 
fore-consideration. In the fall the Board had the satisfaction 
of knowing that not only were practically nine hundred and 
ninety-nine out of every thousand dealers, other than direct 
producers like farmers and market gardeners, under license, 
but that the system was working admirably. 

Licensing presented a delicate piece of social machinery. 
Not the least important part was the unexpectedly prompt 
way in which the machine, so to speak, responded to its guiding 
lever. Under direction centralized at Ottawa, orders restricting 
the sale and use of foods from coast to coast could be made 
effective within a few hours. On the whole, there was little 
opposition to the license in principle; the only suggestions made 
were for its improvement in practice, and these were, when found 
suitable, adopted by the Board. It must be recognized that the 
licensees showed splendid co-operation. The best proof that the 



18 



licensing system succeeded is found in the fact that there is 
frequent reference to its benefit in the correspondence of licensees. 
By the system it was found possible to meet and even to antic- 
ipate trade difficulties and to encourage such foresight as would 
tend to better methods of production and preparation of foods. 



ENFORCEMENT OF ORDERS 

Altogether up to November 11th 70 orders were issued. 
Subsequent orders have been chiefly revokations. This is not 
a large number considering that in the first three months of 1918 
alone over 130 orders were issued by the British Ministry 
of Food. 

It became necessary early in the spring to establish a section 
of the Board for the purpose of enforcing the Orders. Action 
taken by provincial and municipal authorities was neither 
prompt enough nor drastic enough to prevent infractions. In- 
spectors of public eating houses had been appointed, and through 
their reports it was possible to bring about a reduction in the 
number of glaring instances of disregard of orders. A consider- 
able stafi of inspectors was appointed, whose duty it was to watch 
for and prosecute infringements of the regulations in public 
eating places, cold storage, wholesale and retail businesses, 
railway warehouses and other places where food was dealt with 
in bulk. 

Their work did not supplant that of provincial authorities. 
Indeed, it only supplemented it, for the endeavor of the Board 
in each case was to get the local authorities to undertake the 
enforcement of any order and the prevention of infringement. 
To enable this to be done by each municipality a clause was 
inserted in practicallj'^ every order empowering the Police to 
bring summary proceedings before a Police Magistrate or two 
Justices of the Peace when it was believed that food orders were 
being ignored. On conviction, penalties could be imposed up to 
$1,000, with an alternative of imprisonment not exceeding three 
months, or of both fine and imprisonment. 

To encourage this procedure being undertaken by munici- 
palities the clause made the payment of the fine due to the local 
authority. 

Where these means, however, failed the Food Board had to 
adopt the more drastic method of suspension of license, done 

19 



directly through the central office at Ottawa on evidence sub- 
mitted and investigated by the local inspectors. They generally 
had the effect desired, for as time went on open, flagrant violation 
of the regulations grew rare. 

It was not possible for the Board, by the limitation of the 
powers conferred under The War Measures Act, to impose 
" gilded " fines in the form of compulsory contributions to the 
Red Cross or other funds. Yet the Board did not fail to secure 
the control it desired. 

The following telegraphic correspondence is typical of 
the brief but non-spectacular way in which the greater part of 
the Board's business was carried out: — 

"Ottawa, November 9, 1917. 
"Unless you at once reduce retail price of sugar to 
normal and advise by wire what price will be this office will 
take necessary action to stop further supplies of sugar being 
delivered to you. Wire reply." 

"Toronto, Ont., Nov. 10, 1917. 
"Have very little sugar to offer to comply with your 
wishes. Have reduced my price to 11 cents a pound." 



PREVENTING WASTE.— An Order-in-Council in Decem- 
ber, 1917, authorized the Food Controller to deal with carloads 
of foodstuffs held at their destination for a period of longer than 
four days. Previously foodstuffs were frequently permitted 
either to deteriorate or become a total loss while the grievances 
of the interested parties were being adjusted. Whenever it 
was found necessary to seize foodstuffs they were sold at the 
order of the Board. On April 5th the Board was empowered to 
take any measure necessary to prevent, as far as practicable, 
loss or deterioration in foodstuffs. Approximately 1,500 cars of 
foodstuffs were dealt with, made up of the following: Potatoes, 
onions, beans, corn, wheat, molasses, fruits of all kinds, macaroni, 
canned goods, coffee, raisins, butter, cheese, breakfast foods and 
malted milk. 



GOOD-WILL OF THE PUBLIC— Another class of con- 
trol, intangible and hard to define, was the voluntary aid of the 

20 



Canadian people and more especially of the Canadian women. 
How to estimate that aid would probably be the hardest task in 
this report. The service was so immeasurable that it cannot 
be more than alluded to with gratitude and pride in such a 
review as this. It was the pivot on which turned that successful 
voluntarism which has been so marked a feature of food control 
in Canada. 

Active workers in every locality were reached directly by 
the Board through a mailing list, which at the close of the year 
numbered 45,000 names. They were distributed through the 
whole of the provinces. The publications of food laws and 
suggestions for work were forwarded to these workers. 



LOYAL PRESS BACKING.— In order to reach the public 
at large the Board had to rely upon widely extended publicity, 
which was possible only through the ready way in which the 
Press gave prominence to food subjects. Not merely were items 
of news, such as the issuance of orders and rules, given news 
space, but informative articles, specially written by a staff of 
writers engaged in studying the rapidly changing conditions, 
were_ prepared by the Information and Conservation Publicity 
Sections and published in hundreds of newspapers, magazines 
and periodicals from coast to coast. When the perception became 
general that no price fixing could win a victory the field was 
cleared of objections. 

Throughout the campaign for greater farm production the 
Press stood loyally by. Any criticism which found expression 
was usually on some local difficulty. These criticisms when seen 
in proper perspective only touched the fringe of things. The 
especial services of the Canadian Press, Limited, in telegraphing 
the Board's news items should be placed on record. 



MANY ORGANIZATIONS ENLISTED.— Much benefit 
was found through the establishment of Provincial Committees. 
These were formed within the first three months of 1918. They 
were both advisory and executive in character. They studied 
the local needs in food conditions and fm-nished the infomiation 
on which the Board, after consideration, acted in framing its 
orders. 

21 



A notable part of the provincial system was the lead it gave to 
public opinion. Most of the important as well as the routine 
work of replying to local inquiries about food rulings had to be 
carried out by the Committees. The general supervision of 
work in the province fell within their scope. In New Brunswick 
voluntary rationing had been put into practice some weeks before 
the armistice was signed, and plans were so advanced in Nova 
Scotia and Alberta as to be already printed. In Ontario the 
place of a Provincial Committee was taken by the Organization 
of Resources Committee. 

During the spring and early summer much was done to enlist 
the aid of the churches and the clergy of all denominations in 
the Dominion. So far as it was possible, every minister in 
charge of a church was requested to bring the importance of 
food in its bearing on the war plainly before his congregation. 
So far as could be recorded the movement was taken up with 
much enthusiasm from coast to coast and in every province 
without exception. The cumulative effect of these steps cannot 
well be estimated, but it is certain thiat from the time the move- 
ment among the clergy was initiated to supplement the work in 
the Press of popularizing reasons for food control in Canada, 
there was a marked increase in public readiness to carry out the 
Board's Orders with promptitude and thoroughness. The 
churches unquestionably proved one of the most potent means 
of influencing Canadian public opinion. 

In a Section of the Board formed to work among commercial 
travellers also good results were observable, and 8,000 travellers 
were enrolled by means of personal cards as active co-workers 
with the Board. They gave invaluable information on local 
conditions, and by their proverbial ability to talk brought the 
necessity for carrsring out Food Board Orders before hotel-keepers 
and their customers in parts of provinces which otherwise would 
have been difficult to reach. The correspondence on the files 
of the Board shows that commercial travellers took an energetic 
and intelligent interest in helping to control foodstuffs in hotels 
and other public places. 



GREATER PRODUCTION CAMPAIGN 

The added acreage of farm land tilled, the improved methods 
of farming and the adoption of new ways of meeting labor prob- 

22 



lems through local arrangements, and an enhanced appreciation 
generally of agricultural life, will, as a result of the Greater 
Production Campaign, have an effect upon our national agricul- 
ture in the coming years. 

A special word of recognition of the part taken by farmers 
in the war features of food should be uttered. There was not 
the same inducement to tlie farmer, largely acting alone, to 
rhange his methods so as to increase his acreage and, if possible, 
nis production, as there was, for instance, in the case of a muni- 
tion manufacturer who was sure before he installed his plant and 
equipment of the prices he would receive for his products and 
knew the cost of operating his factory. The farmer, naturally 
less able in any case to forecast results and uncertain of food 
prices except in case of wheat, had to take what appeared at 
the beginning of 1918 to be a "long chance" in prices. The 
results of the harvest, however, show that the energy and ability 
which the farmers almost without exception put into their 
work were beyond praise and will stand as an historical record of 
incontestable patriotism. 

This work was carried out in conjunction with the Dominion 
Department of Agriculture, working through the Provincial 
Departments. During the fall of 1917 attention was directed to 
the necessity for a still greater increase in farm production. 
Plans were completed for increased breeding of hogs. Not only 
were farmers encouraged to add to their pens, but the services 
of the boys of the country were enlisted in the formation of pig 
clubs. Everything was done to facilitate the winter feed problem. 
In March a campaign was conducted to increase the number of 
trees tapped for maple syrup to supplement our sugar supply. 
In April back-yard and vacant lot gardening schemes throughout 
the Dominion were encouraged, and it was estimated that the 
production of vegetables through this source alone was at least 
doubled. The movement extended to every farm and into every 
village and hamlet. 

Throughout the sowing season public opinion was directed 
towards encouraging the farmer to increase the acreage of tilled 
crops. This work was under the direction of the Western 
members of the Board, Mr. J. D. McGregor and the Hon. 
C. A. Dunning. In the Eastern Provinces the work was organized 
chiefly by Dr. Jas. W. Robertson. 

In the East where it was impossible commercially to grow 
wheat farmers were asked to increase the acreage of other grains. 

23 



The following table from the Bureau of Statistics shows how ef- 
fectively the acreages of these grains, as well as of root crops, 
were increased over 1917: 

Wheat 

Oats 

Barley 

Rye 

Peas 

Beans . . . . 

Buckwheat. 

Flax 

Mixed Grains 

Corn for Husking 



1918 


1917 


Acres . 


Acres 


17,353 902 


14,755,850 


14,790,330 


13,313,400 


3,153,811 


2,392,200 


555,294 


211,880 


235,976 


198,881 


228,577 


92,457 


548,097 


395,977 


921,826 


919,500 


1,068,120 


497,236 


250,000 


234,339 



TRACTORS. — ^An important contribution to production 
was the an-angement made for the distribution of farm tractors 
at cost to farmers. The allocation of these by provinces was as 
follows: — 

British Columbia 21 




Alberta 

Saskatchewan 

Manitoba ... 


. 334 
382 
149 




Ontario .... 

Quebec 

New Brunswick 

Nova Scotia 


203 
9 
5 

14 




Prince Edward Island 


6 









1,123 
In addition, 15 demonstration tractors were distributed to 

Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. 

In February a satisfactory arrangement was made with 

Henry Ford & Son, Inc., Dearborn, Mich., for the purchase of 

1,000 farm tractors. The price agreed upon was $750 each, f.o.b. 

Dearborn. One of the conditions of the contract read: — 

" The entire arrangement is contingent upon the Govern- 
ment of Canada distributing these tractors direct to farmers 
in Canada at the price specified, plus freight, and with no 
profit allowed." 

24 



Orders were taken from farmers by the Provincial Depart- 
ments of Agriculture and forwarded by them to the Board. 
This measure greatly assisted in the work of larger production 
during the spring of 1918. Caaiadian firms which manufacture 
tractors were engaged at high pressure on other classes of farm 
machinery and their output at that time was not expected to 
exceed 300 tractors a year. The steps taken, therefore, were 
necessary to meet the immediate need. A representative of the 
Board was sent to Detroit to expedite shipments. Twenty-five 
tractors a day had been arranged for. As Dearborn is a way 
station there was a danger of delay and consequent demurrage 
charges, but it is worth noting that the Board only had to pay 
$9.00 car rental on the entire order. With shipments for the 
East much difficulty was experienced, and it was necessary in 
almost every instance to trace cars from Dearborn to Detroit 
through the yards of Windsor to ensure a speedy delivery. 



LABOR FOR FARMS.— Under the direction of the Board 
the Y.M.C.A., co-operating with the Provincial Departments of 
Agriculture, enrolled a large number of boys between the ages of 
15 and 19 to work on farms during the summer months. This 
was known as the "Soldiers of the Soil" movement. The fol- 
lowing table shows the enrollment and the numbers placed : 



Province 

British Columbia . ... 

Alberta 

Saskatchewan. . . 

Manitoba 

Ontario 

Quebec ... 
New Brunswick . 
Nova Scotia . 
Prince Edward Island . 



No. of 


No. of 


Boys 


Boys 


Enrolled 


Placed 


1,800 


1,137 


1,218 


1,132 


1,925 


1,765 


1,650 


1,060 


10,324 


10,324 


1,560 


1,560 


855 


690 


2,298 


2,003 


760 


760 


22,885 


20,431 



26 



In addition to the above 14,800 boys were enrolled in Quebec 
by the Provincial Department of Agriculture. 

Acknowledgement should be made of the Provincial Depart- 
ments of Agriculture, Labor and Education; the National 
Council of Young Men's Christian Associations, whose staff 
was loaned without charge; leaders of Boy Scout Organizations, 
who recognized the importance of the movement and who ren- 
dered efficient service, and to hundreds of volunteer committee 
men. 



Every other method conceivable for securing labor was 
canvassed. An Order-in-Council was passed enjoining that 
every able person between the ages of 16 and 60 should be use- 
fully employed; this was known as The Anti-Loafing Law. It 
was instrumental in directing much labor to the farms. Meetings 
were organized throughout the Provinces to arouse local interest 
and to show the vital character of townsmen supplying labor 
for the farms if the large harvest expected were to be reaped. 
The Provincial Governments took direct measures for organizing 
and for securing labor and in all cases showed the greatest enthu- 
siasm and gave their earnest support. 

Close co-operation was throughout maintained with other 
Departments of the Government and of the Provincial Govern- 
ments. For instance, the heads of the Canners', Fruit and Vege- 
tables' and the Produce Sections were supplied by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture; the head of the Statistical Section by the 
Department of Trade and Commerce; the Board of Railway 
Commissioners gave the services of their expert traffic men; 
the Fishery Section of the Board worked in close touch with the 
Fishery Department, while inspectors of the many Depart- 
ments all through the Dominion were utilized as intelligence and 
information officers in carrying out Food Control. 



STAFF AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS 

The many activities of the Food Board necessitated a highly 
organized staff and an efficient office system. Time in every case 
was an important factor in each step taken; food control was 
first and last a war measure. Every employee recognized the 
importance and urgency of the situation and, animated by patriot- 

26 



ism, often worked far into the night in the solution of problems 
for which there was no precedent to guide them. Only the 
devotion, self-sacrifice, and resourcefulness of the staff, coupled 
with "everlasting teamwork," made possible the carrying out of 
this work. 

Those associated with the office staff included: — 
General Counsel . ... .F.H.Keefer,K.C.,M.P. 

Chief of Staff .F.W.French. 

Assistant Chief of Staff. ... . .K. S. McKenzie. 

Accounting Department. . T. B. Lyons. 

J. F. Waddington. 

L. P. H. Charland. 

Bakers' Section W. H. Linn. 

Canners' Section C. S. McGillivray. 

Confectionery Section C. J. Bodley. 

Conservation Publicity Section . . . F. W. Stewart. 

Ernest B. Roberts. 
Domestic Economy Section . . Mrs. J. Muldrew. 

Enforcement Section ... . Jas. Parker, Solicitor. 

C. W. Baxter. 

C. R. Morphy. 
Files Department ... . Mrs. G. D. Macfarlane. 

T. W. Eadie. 

Capt. Botsford. 

Capt. Billings. 
Fish Section. Capt. F. W. Wallace. 

E. 0. Sawyer, Jr. 

Gardens and Vacant Lots Section F. Abraham. 

Fruit and Vegetable Section J. R. Hastings. 

H. Bertram. 
Import and Export Section . . L L. Healey. 

G. M. Morgan. 

T. C. Brown. 
Information Division . . W. Hamar Greenwood. 

S. Roy Weaver. 

S. H. Howard. 

Miss Ishbel M. Ross. 
Licensing Division C. E. Huston. 

H. Amphlett. 

G. Prang. 

C. Slack. 

27 



Millers' Section E. R. McDonald. 

" " Supervisor Prof. R. Harcourt 

Produce and Packers' Section . . . R. M. Ballantyne. 

J. F. Singleton. 
Public Eating House Section J. S. Byrom. 

G. C. Howell. 

E. M. Gladney. 

Statistical Section . . .Dr. R. J. McFall. 

Stores and Supplies . T. A. Moore. 

Sugar Section . J. R. Bruce, New York 

A. H. O'Neill, New York 

* * * * 

CRAMPED ACCOMMODATION.— The staff, from time 
to time, was seriously impeded in its work through the necessarily 
unsuitable accommodation obtainable. After two previous 
changes, the offices were located in a building where it was very 
difficult to arrange working conditions for a staff of two hundred 
people. Rooms were overcrowded, lack of floor space was so 
marked that correspondence and other files had to be placed in 
narrow passages; and the proper linking of departments was 
impossible. 

¥ * * * 

FINANCES. — The statement of expense and revenue shows 
that the Canada Food Board has a surplus of $39,751.19, due 
chiefly to the balance of revenue from licenses. The total 
expenditure made by the Food Controller from July 1st, 1917, 
to January 31st, 1918, was $131,143.34. During that period no 
money was received as revenue and a large part of the expenditure 
was made for propaganda work imperatively necessary to put 
before the people the then little known policy of food saving. 

To carry out the work of food control in a democratic manner 
many committees were called to Ottawa to advise the Food Con- 
troller on the best methods to secure the largest quantity of 
foodstuffs for overseas shipment, while protecting the domestic 
supply. It was decided to charge fees for licenses in order that 
the cost of administration should be borne by the trades con- 
cerned, rather than by the general public. The statement of 
expenditure and revenue for the period from February 1st, 1918, 
to December 31st, 1918, shows that the desired object was 
attained. During the period, $24,066.70 was expended to pro- 
mote the "Soldiers of the Soil" movement, $4,646.44 in securing 

28 



other labor for farm work, $76,278.46 for educational and in- 
formative work, including advertising, making a total of 
$104,991.60 expended for work other than the general operation 
of the Board. 



CONCLUSION 

This, briefly, is the record of the work done by the Canada 
Food Board since it succeeded to the task assigned to the Food 
Controller. Its sectional activities are amplified in the ensuing 
part of this Report. The regular operation of an organization 
so broad in scope, as shown by the results achieved, justifies the 
statement that food control in Canada has been reduced to a 
working system. 



29 



PART II 



PART II 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

The attached statement shows the total expenditure of the Canada 
Food Board from February 1st, 1918, to December 31st, 1918. It will be 
noted that the operations showed a surplus of $39,751.19, which has been 
deposited to the credit of the Receiver General. 

All accounts paid by this Board have been audited by the Auditor 
General's Department, and no expenditures whatever have been made except 
for legitimate purposes, and vouchers have been secured for all such expendi- 
tures. 

CANADA FOOD BOARD 

STATEMENT OF EXPENSES AND REVENUE FROM FEBRUARY 1st 
TO DECEMBER 31ST, 1918. 



EXPENDITURE 

Ottawa Office, General..! 79,731.37 

License, General 52,674.93 

Canners 2,059.81 

Fruit & Vegetable 5,342.40 

Milling 8,149.11 

Bakers 4,962.53 

Produce 5,082.00 

Wholesale Grocers 2,492.00 

Retail Grocers. . 530.08 

Wholesale Fish . . 17,638.76 

Confectioners . . . 5,868.34 

Miscel. Retail . . 716.26 

Cereal 30.00 

Eating Houses . . 11,275.49 

Packers 118.40 

Wholesale Flour 

and Feed 129.49 

Sugar Refiners . . 5,126.72 

Files Section... . 8,045.16 

Export and Import 9,209.94 



REVENUE 

Fish Licenses $ 19,578.42 

Cereal Licenses 1,345.00 

Bakers' Licenses 19,457.35 

Fruit&VegetableLicenses 23,860.70 

Millers' Licenses 11,169.10 

V/holesale Grocers' 

Licenses 45,857.85 

Retail Grocere' Licenses 89,503.53 

Produce Licenses 17,501.85 

Misc. Retail Licenses . . . 32,444.38 

Eating Houses Licenses. . 53,819.71 

Confectioners' Licenses. . 12,082.90 

W. Flour & Feed Licenses 14,196.55 

Packers' Licenses 11,476.75 

Canners' Licenses 8,564.75 

Sugar Licenses 5,503.35 

Unissued Licenses 8,933.66 

Electro Sales 3,417.28 

Cook Book Sales 7,894.57 



33 



EXPENDITURE 

(Cont'd) 

Toronto Office 824.82 

Milk Committee 328.38 

Nat. Food Res. Com .... 2,289.85 

Legal Division 10,557.33 

Business, Mail & Supplies 7,773.32 

Accounting 5,278.84 

Files 2,441.79 

Clerks & Sten. 7,775.44 
Production and Conserv. 

General 41,256.06 

Domestic Science . . . 4,465.11 

Vol. Advertising 4,116.94 

Garden & Vacant Lot 1,544.84 

Prov. and Local Clubs 2,999.80 

Commercial Travellers 722.90 

Statistical Bureau 9,589.71 

Enforcement 2,274.29 

Labor Div., General 4,646.44 

" S.O.S 24,066.70 

Provincial Offices 47,149.25 

Information 76,278.46 

Moving Picture Advtg . . 2,991.00 

Tractor Expense 21.35 

Electro Expense 215.65 

Cook Book Expense 13,140.65 

Multigraph 41.66 

Surplus 39,751.19 



REVENUE 

(Cont'd) 

Miscellaneous Revenue 145,112.56 
Including Penalty Fund. 



?531,719.76 




$531,719.76 



.34 



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37 



(Certifieate of Auditor General) 

OFFICE OF THE AUDITOR GENERAL 
CANADA 

Ottawa, January 25tli, 1919. 

This is to certify that the accounts covering the Expenditure and Revenue 
of the Canada Food Board to December 31st last have been received. 

It may be observed that so far as this office is concerned the accounting 
work of the Board has been very satisfactory. 

(Signed) E. L. SUTHERLAND, 

Assistant Auditor General. 



When the work of the Canada Food Board was heaviest a staff of 225 
persons was employed, the majority secured through the Civil Service Com- 
mission, which gave every assistance. Promotions were made on merit. 
At all times preference has been given to returned soldiers. The majority 
of the staff have taken a very keen personal interest in the work and have 
given all their time and energy to accomplish the work set before them. 

MAIL AND SUPPLIES AND FILES SECTIONS 

The purchases of all supplies for the office in Ottawa and the Provincial 
Offices, whether made through the regular Government sources, such as 
the Printing and Stationery Department, or from outside firms, have been 
made after securing prices from competitive firms. An endeavor was made 
so far as possible to anticipate wants for a long enough period to purchase 
in fairly large quantities in order to secure the minimum prices. A record 
was kept at all times of all stocks of literature, office supplies, etc., so that 
at the end of any day it was possible to ascertain quantities of supplies on 
hand. In order to keep down the expenses as much as possible a battery 
of multigraph machines was installed, and all circular letters and a consid- 
erable number of forms were printed on the premises, thus effecting a very 
considerable saving in printing expenses. 

General mail was handed to a staff of clerks who removed the enclosures, 
attached and stamped the letters, and distributed them to the various divi- 
sions concerned. Remittances for licenses were checked with the statement 
of the licensee before being listed and passed to the Accounting Department. 
In six months 214,310 pieces of incoming mail and 675,986 pieces of outgoing 
mail were dealt with in the Section. 

The General Files Section contained over 11,000 files, with a card index 
of over, 26,000 references. The License Division had 250,000 files. A maxi- 
mum of 3,500 files per day were handled in the latter. 



38 



LICENSE DIVISION 
Committees were formed late in 1917 from representative men in various 
lines of business in order to secure their co-operation in the adoption and 
enforcement of the regulations governing their respective trades. Regulations 
were passed which required dealers, both wholesale and retail, to obtain 
licenses, as follows: — 

1st Dec. (1917)... Millers, 

1st January (1918). Wholesale Fish Merchants, 

1st January Breakfast Foods and Cereal Manufacturers, 

1st February Fruit and Vegetable Wholesale Merchants, 

15th March Wholesale Produce Merchants, 

1st April Wholesale Grocers, 

3rd May Packers, 

15th May General Retailers, 

1st June Retail Grocers, 

1st June Wholesale Flour and Feed Dealers, 

15h June Canners, 

21st June Manufacturing Bakers, 

1st July Manufacturing Confectioners, 

1st July Public Eating Places, 

15th July Manufacturers using Sugar. 

The licensing system was worked out without precedent. Special 
problems were met as they appeared and an organization was built up. At 
times the work was handicapped through the difficulty in getting a staff and 
proper office space, but, notwithstanding these obstacles, food dealers have 
been^placed under license in the following numbers: — 

Classification 

1. Wholesale Fish Dealers 

2. Cereal Manufacturers 

3. Wholesale Fruit and Vegetable Dealers — 

4. Millers 

5. Manufacturing Bakers 

6. Wholesale Grocers 

7. Wholesale Produce Merchants 

8. Retail Grocers 36,425 

9. General Retail 12,976 

10. Public Eating Places 

11. Confectioners 

12. Wholesale Flour and Feed Merchants 

13. Packers 

14. Canners 

15. Manufacturers using Sugar 



No. of 


Total fees 


Licenses 


received to 


Issued 


Dec. 31, 1918 


1,735 


$ 19,578.42 


115 


1,345.00 


1,774 


23,860.70 


653 


11,169.10 


2,650 


19,457.35 


938 


45,857.85 


1,244 


17,510.35 


36,425 


89,503.53 


12,976 


32,444.38 


16,193 


53,819.71 


1,149 


12,082.90 


460 


14,196.55 


480 


11,476.75 


532 


8,564.75 


692 


5,503.35 



78,016 $366,261.69 



In connection with the issuing of licenses, it was found that certain 
sub-divisions of the staff were necessary. These sections are now given in 
the order the work is carried on:— Mailing; Accounting; General Adminis- 
trative; License Issuing; Card Record and Direx-All. 

39 



WHOLESALE GROCERS, RETAIL GROCERS AND GENERAL 
MERCHANTS' SECTION 

A new section was created to be responsible for the licensing and control 
of the Wholesale Grocer, Retail Grocer and the General Retailer — the last 
including Butcher, Baker (not manufacturing). Produce Dealer, Flour and 
Feed Dealer, Fruit and Vegetable Dealer and Fish Dealer. 
There are at present under license: — 

Fees 
Received 

936 Wholesale Grocers $ 45,857.85 

36,142 Retail Grocers 89,503.53 

12,684 General Retailers 32,444.38 



49,762 $167,805.76 

Regulations were enacted relating to the sale of substitutes, sugar, flour, 
and the hoarding of foodstuffs. The sugar purchases and the sales of the 
wholesale grocer were placed under control, purchase being made from the 
importer or refiner against coupons, issued to the wholesaler upon his furnish- 
ing a sworn declaration of his previous year's purchases. His sales were 
controlled by a weekly sales return. The license number of the purchaser was 
required opposite each sale. Incidentally this brought unlicensed dealers 
under control, as they could not make sugar purchases without having a 
license. 

STATISTICAL DIVISION 

The purpose of the Statistical Division was: (1) To set forth for inform- 
ation statistical data available from many sources, making recompilations 
when necessary; (2) To gather and compile statistical data from reports of 
licensees; (3) To prepare for popular presentation by means of charts, dia 
grams and descriptive matter statistical data. The policy was co-operation 
with the other Departments of the Government, particularly the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics, and the Cost of Living Branch of the Department of 
Labor. With the latter Department joint report forms from the licensees for 
the use of the two Departments have been adopted, inaugurating a system 
which would become of value as market statistics. 

The system of reports was worked out in co-operation with the Board's 
License Division. The reports used at present are the "Stock Form," the 
"Dealings Form," the Forms for "Public Eating Places, Bakeries, Biscuit, 
Candy and Ice Cream Factories," and the "Millers' Form." The "Stock 
Form" shows the stock of staple goods available at all times, the consumption 
of the same and the relation between the holdings of each licensee and business 
requirements. The "DeaUngs Form" is in use for Produce and Fruit and 
Vegetables only. This form is necessary to check up the observance of Order 
No. 45 and, at the same time, is capable of supplying much valuable trade 
information. The "Millers' Report" covers the complete operations of each 
mill, showing stocks on hand, production, sales, coses and profits for each 
month. 

The Report for "Public Eating Places, Bakeries, Biscuit, Candy and 
Ice Cream Factories" similarly covers the operations of bakers, confectioners, 

40 



etc. All these reports, excepting the Millers' Report, are in booklet form, 
admitting ease of handling. Reports being collected from the License Sections 
are sent to the Internal Trade Division of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
for compilation. Delinquents are dealt with through the Enforcement Section. 
Material has been prepared for the Information Division and for the Chair- 
man on various subjects, particularly for poster and chart work. Statistical 
articles on food have also been published in the press. 

BAKERY SECTION 

In the latter part of January, 1918, a meeting of the baking industry 
was held at Ottawa to discuss rules and regulations for the conservation of 
wheat. The first step taken was to require all bakers using five barrels of 
flour or more per month to obtain a license by March 1st. Order 16 compelled 
licensees to use standard flour, limited the ingredients in each barrel of flour, 
standardized the weight of bread in provinces, proh bited the wrapping of 
bread owing to a paper shortage and to conserve labor, and made the exchange 
of bread unlawful. The making of sole bread was abolished, with the excep- 
tion of where thirty-five per cent of rye was used, enabling the industry to 
conserve labor and obtain a large amount of bread from the same amount of 
ingredients used. Discounts or rebates were prohibited, and all licensees 
were compelled to keep books in such a way that same could be inspected by 
the Board at all times. 

On and after March 15th only standard flour was permitted in the 
manufacture of bakery products. Where any baker had larger stocks of 
patent flour than his competitors he pooled it so that all would begin to use 
standard flour at the same time. A detailed report was required each month 
of the ingredients used, the quantity of the output and a summary of stock to 
enable a check to be kept on the amount of sugar and fat used per barrel. 
Bakers were only allowed to have in stock, or in transit, a thirty days' supply 
of flour. 

From the monthly reports it became evident how sadly bakers lacked 
a system of accounting. The Board had to start an educational campaign, 
using the required returns as a means of compelling the installation of a cost 
accounting system. The Section was agreeably surprised with the good 
work accomplished in a short time. 

The Bakery Section had been experimenting with the use of substitutes 
up to twenty per cent with the seventy-six per cent extraction flour, using rye 
flour, corn flour, oat meal, etc., proving that a successful loaf could be made. 
Then order 49 was issued, abolishing the manufacture of sole bread entirely. 

Order 50 compelled the use of ten per cent of substitutes after July 1st, 
and twenty per cent after July 15th. At this time a petition was received 
from bakers in Vancouver and New Westminster asking that no bread should 
be sold in their cities until it was twelve hours out of the oven. Their request 
was complied with in Order 52. Later, the baking trade in British Columbia 
petitioned the Board to have the order apply to the whole of the Prov nee, 
and the request was complied with. When it was found that there were not 
enough substitutes in the country, Order 55 left the amount of substitutes 

at ten per cent. 

It was necessary to formulate a weekly report, showing the amount of 
wheat flour and substitutes in stock, used, and on hand at the end of each week. 

41 



To cover the Dominion and get these records in as quickly as possible, tbe 
baking industry was placed under a system of provincial and local super- 
vision. Appointed delegates of the Bakers' Committee toured the provinces, 
holding meetings where the bakers nominated one of their number to act as 
local supervisor. 

Any infractions were reported by him immediately to the Board, or 
corrected locally with the assistance of the supervisors. It was very gratifying 
to the Board to have these services given gratuitously to assist it in carrying 
out the regulations. In September it was found that every province in the 
Dominion was using in excess of the ten per cent of substitutes required, and 
had used less than the maximum amount allowed of sugar and fats. 

Bakers had never before gone so thoroughly into the question of costs, 
and it was only by educating them to keep a close oversight of their business 
that the price of bread has been kept within reasonable limits, for under 
Food Board control bread remained the cheapest article of consumption in 
the country. This is largely due to educational propaganda endeavoring to 
gst every baker to produce the maximum amount of bread from each barrel 
of flour. The private consumer was supplied with booklets issued by the 
Board, containing recipes for the use of flour and substitutes in the manufac- 
ture of bread, cakes, pies, etc. The trade has been circularized in both French 
and English regarding the use of substitutes in practical bread making. 
At the beginning of October, when it was agreed by the Allied Food Controllers 
that all Allies should "eat at the Allied Table," the baking industry was 
circularized advising them that in the near future twenty per cent of sub- 
stitutes would have to be used, and that the substitutes had been reduced to 
the following: rye flour, corn flour, barley flour and oat products. This largely 
abolished the high priced and very white substitutes such as rice flour corn 
starch, etc., which some of the larger firms were able to procure and use in 
unfair competition with other bakers. 

The baking industry today is only just beginning to realize the benefits 
obtained from regulation. The crude methods employed by the majority in 
the manufacture of products were brought home, and it must have been an 
eye-opener to many when they knew exactly what quantities of ingredients 
they used under the Food Board regulations in comparison with quantities 
previously used. The industry has now started to operate its business on a 
systematic basis. Resolutions sent in to the Section have expressed appre- 
ciation of the benefits derived while under regulation by the Canada Food 
Board. But it is an especial satisfaction to those in touch with the Section to 
know that the greatest result of the work was seen in the large increase of 
wheat gent overseas. 

CANNERS; SECTION 

This section was ogranized on February 15th, 1918. The duty assigned 
was the supervision of the commercial canned foods industry in as far as it 
related to fruits, vegetables and milk. As a first step towards organization 
representatives of the canned fruit and vegetable industry were called in for 
consultation on matters of policy. Later meetings with the jam and jelly 
and the evaporated milk industries were held. Following these conferences 
Order No. 39 was passed. The work of the Canners' Section has been closely 
allied with the Produce, Confectionery, Fruit and Vegetable and Import and 
Export Sections. It rendered material assistance to the Dairy Produce Com- 

42 



mission and to the British Ministry of Pood and co-operated closely with the 
canned foods division of the Health of Animals Branch of the Department of 
Agriculture. In canned fruits and vegetables close attention was given to 
aid production, prevent waste, encourage honest packing and grading to save 
sugar and to govern the spread between cost price and selling price. In one 
or two instances it was found necessary to place restrictions in order to save 
tin. Probably the largest pack of dried fruits and vegetables produced in 
any one year in the history of Canada was packed during 1918, although when 
the first questionnaire on the prospects for a pack of evaporated apples was 
sent out in August the replies indicated that while the apple crop was fair it 
was difficult to get either coal or help, and the operation of many plants was 
not expected. Information was collected from the packers as to their needs 
for coal, coke, etc., and placed before the Federal and Provincial Fuel Con- 
trollers. Through the efforts of the Canners' Section a market for from 80 
to 100 car loads of evaporated apple waste was procured outside Canada at 
a good price, and the British Ministry of Food purchased over 1,000,000 
pounds of evaporated apples at very satisfactory prices. 

In conjunction with the Department of Agriculture this Section super- 
vised the packing of War Orders for 25,000 000 pounds of desiccated vege- 
tables. To make this quantity between 125,000 and 150,000 tons of raw 
potatoes, turnips, carrots, onions, celery, etc., were used. The work of the 
Section as it related to condensed, evaporated and powdered milk was prin- 
cipally to carry out the requests of the Dairy Produce Commission. Regula- 
tions were inforced largely through the inspectors of the Department of 
Agriculture, in conjunction with the discharge of their other duties. Packers 
have shown a praiseworthy spirit of co-operation. 

PUBLIC EATING HOUSE SECTION 
One of the early problems in food control was that of regulating public 
eating places. It was realized that while the saving that could be effected 
would be large, further benefits would be derived since the regulations would 
serve as a guide to householders generally. Reports obtained monthly from 
representative eating places show that as a result of the first order a reduction 
was made in the consumption of beef of forty-nine per cent, bacon fifty-three 
per cent, and white bread twenty-five per cent. Further restrictions in the 
use of these commodities were made as a result of more stringent orders 
passed later. Generally, householders lived up to, and in some cases exceeded, 
the spirit of these regulations. The saving thus effected was undoubtedly 
very large, though it cannot be measured accurately. The Order-in-Council 
dated August 9th, 1917, which made the serving of substitutes with white 
bread compulsory and instituted two meatless days each week, was supple- 
mented by regulations as the food situation became more acute, further 
restricting the use of beef, bacon, pork, white bread, butter and sugar. Waste 
of any food or food product fit for human consumption was prohibited. 
Proprietors of public eating places were required to provide garbage cans for 
the saving of kitchen scraps in order that this food might be made available 
for feeding livestock. 

All places regularly selling or serving meals or refreshments were required 
to obtain a license, and in this way control of all places serving food was ob- 
tained. The majority of such places lived up to the letter and the spirit of 



the regulations, and those who refused to do so were quickly brought into line 
by the suspension or cancellation of their licenses. The clerical work entailed 
was heavy, over 16,000 licenses being issued. Licensees were directly advised 
of all changes in regulations and helped from time to time by pamphlets and 
literature containing suggestions as to the best ways and means of saving 
foodstuffs. 

In July, 1918, further restrictions in the use of sugarwere necessary, and 
the amount was fixed at not more than two pounds of sugar for every ninety 
meals served. Sworn statements of the amount of sugar used during the 
year 1917 were obtained and certificates issued permitting the use of sixty 
per cent of the average monthly consumption during 1917. More than 
12,000 certificates were issued, and although the work in securing these state- 
ments and issuing certificates was very great, the saving of approximately 
6,000,000 pounds of sugar within four months more than justified the action 
taken. 

Reduction in waste has been remarkable. Cooks have become better 
educated in the economical uses of food material. Restrictions com- 
pelled them to seek new methods with results beyond expectations, and 
both eating place managers and housewives have learned what economy may 
accomplish. 

FISH SECTION 

In June, 1917, the Fish Committee of the Food Controller's Office was 
formed to stimulate the consumption of fish within Canada as a substitute 
for meats urgently required overseas. The following members, constituting 
the Committee, immediately set to work to stimulate consumption, organize 
supplies, prevent profiteering and facilitate transportation of fish to inland 
markets: — Mr. G. Frank Beer, Toronto (chairman), Mr. R. Y. Eaton, Toronto 
and Mr. W. S. Wiley, Port Arthur. The Committee found their task an 
arduous one in spite of the fact that Canada possessed enormous fishery 
resources. Scattered over an area 4,000 miles wide, the industry represented 
a huge unorganized activity where striking variations were met with in every 
ten degrees of longitude traversed. The public was apathetic with regard to 
fish as a food. Transportation facilities were inadequate and the care of fish 
in most of the retail stores received but scant attention. The public was 
repelled by unsanitary methods of handling and displaying. For this and 
other reasons the ready market and good prices offered in the United States 
drew the bulk of our fresh fish, and huge quantities were salted and dried for 
export to the Latin countries. 

After much negotiation, a fast freight train known as the "Sea Food 
Special" was placed in service by the Canadian Government Railways to 
transport fish from Maritime Province points to Montreal and Toronto — the 
trip from Mulgrave to Montreal being made in 48 hours. This train was of 
enormous benefit in bringing fresh fish in good condition to the Quebec and 
Ontario markets. Better retail handling was encouraged. The Committee 
successfully carried out the distribution of 300 sanitary fish display cases to 
the retail fish trade for the nominal sum of $10 apiece — half the cost of the 
ease being borne by the Government. A fish recipe book was compiled and 
100,000 copies and 50,000 copies in French were distributed. Advertising 
and publicity were carried out with such good effect that by the end of 1917 

44 



the fish consumption throughout Canada has increased on an average about 
fifty per cent. Two of the largest wholesalers practically doubled their sales 
—one by a million pounds and the other by four million pounds. 

In September, 1917, it was found necessary to fix the maximum prices 
to be paid fishermen for winter caught fish in the provinces of Alberta, Sas- 
katchewan and Manitoba, by Order No. 3, that cheaper priced lake fish might 
be ensured to the citizens of the Western provinces. The spread of producers 
and retailers was also fixed, and whitefish, which formerly cost the consumer 
from 20 to 22 cents per pound, were retailed for not more than 16 cents. The 
Canadian consuming markets were guaranteed a first call upon the fish before 
it could be exported. Regulation of the Western lake winter fisheries cut down 
the export of winter caught fish from eighty-five per cent to fifty per cent, the 
difference being consumed in Canada. 

License regulations were drafted and became effective on January 1st, 
1918. Licensees were required to submit sworn statements monthly showing 
quantities of fish bought, sold and on hand, and the price, high and low, of 
each species. A nominal license fee was charged. Many problems were 
studied. A famine in salt was averted through securing the necessary tonnage 
from the British Ministry of Shipping — work which was carried to a successful 
conclusion by the Food Board in 1918. Gasolene and coal were secured for 
the fishermen at various times and tie-ups averted, and a steam trawler was 
released from Naval Service to engage in fishing through the representa- 
tions of the Committee. By keeping in close touch with the industry the 
Committee was enabled to secure for the public supplies of excellent fish at 
reasonable prices, and the work which they did created a stable foundation 
for further efforts under the Canada Food Board. 

In February, 1918, the Fish Committee was re-organized as the Fish 
Section of the Food Board. The increasingly high price of halibut demanded 
attention. Halibut, produced almost entirely on the Pacific, was in greater 
demand through the four Western Provinces than any other sea fish. The 
high prices caused a host of complaints and interfered very much with the 
Board's request to the public to eat fish as a substitute for meat. The United 
States Food Administration requested the Board to join them in fixing maxi- 
mum prices on halibut. The Fish Section found that owing to the increasing 
scarcity of the fish, the expense of catching them through high cost of labor 
and long steaming distances to fishing grounds, no price fixing would ever 
bring halibut out of the luxury class, and the Section set to work to find sub- 
stitutes. 

Upon the Pacific Coast there were vast quantities of flat-fish — soles, 
brills, plaice, witches and skate, also several varieties of codfish — red, ling 
and grey cods — which were unutilized by the fishermen. Thej? fish could 
only be caught economically by steam trawler. The Chairman of the Food 
Board, while a member of the Salmon Fisheries Commission in 1917, was 
convinced that the fishery for these species should be prosecuted; a new 
fishery established to take the place of the declining halibut fishery, and cheaper 
fish procured for the markets of the four Western Provinces. With the 
assistance of Mr. John P. Babcock, Assistant Commissioner of Fisheries for 
British Columbia, the Canadian Fish and Cold Storage Company, Ltd., of 
Prince Rupert, B.C., were induced to fit out the steam trawler "James Car- 
ruthers" to catch flat-fish and cods, and arrangements were made to market 

45 



these fish, frozen and dressed, at prices which would enable them to be re- 
tailed as far east as Winnipeg at 10 and 11 cents per pound. Order No. 18 
was promulgated on February 21st, 1918, fixing the prices and spreads on 
Pacific flatfish and cods from fisherman to retailer. In order to encourage the 
market and keep the price low, the Department of Marine and Fisheries co- 
operated by offering to pay two-thirds of the transportation charges on these 
fish to all points west of the Manitoba eastern boundary. 

The "James Carruthers" started operations in March, 1918, and the 
Superintendent of the Fish Section made two voyages on her accompanied by an 
expert motion picture photographer. A film of the operations was made 
showing the catching of the fish and the whole process from sea to the con- 
sumer's table. This film was circulated throughout the West as part of the 
propaganda necessary to create a market. The Superintendent made a tour 
of Western cities and secured the assistance of the wholesale and retail trade 
in handling these Pacific fish and calling the attention of the public to them. 
Within a month a demand was created and the Canadian Fishing Company 
and the British Columbia Packers' Association each put a steam trawler into 
operation. 

Advices received in November, 1918, show that since March, 1918, 
3,542,000 pounds of flatfish and about 1,000,000 pounds of codfish have been 
marketed throughout the Western provinces. These fish have become ex- 
ceedingly popular and are now permanently in demand, not only in the West, 
but in Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal. This venture, combined with the 
fixing of prices on the winter caught fish of the Western lakes, ensured a large 
supply of sea and lake fish at reasonable prices to the citizens of the Western 
provinces and, also, in a large measure, to those of Ontario. 

In February, 1918, all retail fish dealers throughout the Dominion were 
brought under license by Order No. 22. In the spring of 1918, the fishing 
industry of the Maritime Provinces was threatened with serious loss owing 
to the difficulty in procuring salt. Through the British Ministry of Food 
having bottoms allocated to bring solar salt from Spain, some 26,000 tons 
were secured and a serious situation averted. 

A plentiful and cheap supply of lake fish to the Western provinces 
during the summer was assured by fixing a maximum retail pri'ce of fifteen 
cents per pound on dressed whitefish. One cent per pound extra was allowed 
for outside points. 

In order to stimulate the greater use of Atlantic sea fish in Ontario 
and Quebec, the Superintendent made a voyage on a steam trawler out of 
Canso, N.S., to Western Bank in June, accompanied by a motion picture 
photographer, and an educational film was prepared. This film was circu- 
lated throughout the Eastern provinces with excellent results. At the Cana- 
dian National Exhibition, Toronto, in co-operation with the Canadian 
Fisheries Association and the Ontario Government Fisheries, an exhibit was ar- 
ranged by the Board. 

In September the winter fishery of the Western Lakes again called for 
attention. After conference with fishermen and dealers in Winnipeg, Order 
No. 65 was drafted fixing the prices on winter caught fish to fishermen and 
dealers. By this, the Canadian consumer was assured of lake fish supplies at 
reasonable prices free from the inflation caused by export competition as before 
permission to export is granted, all Canadian orders must be filled. 



46 



The Food Board co-operated with the Canadian Fisheries Association 
in making Thursday, October 31st, Canada's National Fish Day. The public 
responded loyally and it is calculated that something like 2,500,000 pounds of 
fish were consumed on National Fish Day. The consumption of fish in some 
of the larger centers is given herewith: 

Montreal 355,000 pounds. 

Toronto 222,000 " 

Winnipeg 100,000 " 

Ottawa 35,000 

Quebec 80,000 

Quebec Province consumed 755,000 pounds. 

The Section awards a certificate of commendation to those dealers who 
display and handle fish in an attractive and sanitary manner, issued upon the 
recommendation of the Board's Provincial Secretaries and the Directors of 
the Canadian Fisheries Association. 

During November and December the Fish Section carried on a campaign 
to popularize cod-fish and frozen fish in Ontario and Quebec. 

The value of the Canadian Fisheries as a national resource and of fish 
as an economical and healthful food has been prominently brought forward in 
a manner which has commanded atterttion. Hotels, restaurants, and private 
homes are now using twice the former amounts of fish. Retail fish stores 
are conducted on an improved basis and more varieties of fish are being sold. 
A new and thriving fishery has been established on the Pacific Coast. 
Generally speaking, the fisheries of Canada, in so far as the home market is 
concerned, have been greatly stimulated and the effects will be permanent. 
Transportation of fish and standardization of fish and packages affords several 
problems. Many varieties cheaply procured and excellent in edible qualities 
require to be popularized with the public, and the introduction of fresh and 
frozen fish supplies into centres off the main lines of transportation call for much 
attention. 

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SECTION 

Shortly after the appointment of a Food Controller, the late Mr. D. 
Johnson, Dominion Fruit Commissioner, was asked to take charge of the 
work of fruit distribution. It soon became apparent that detailed considera- 
tion would have to be given to the distribution and sale of fruits and vegetables, 
as well as of other foodstuffs. Mr. Johnson was therefore asked to organize 
a Fruit and Vegetable Committee, whose duties would be: (1) to have fruit 
and vegetables available in as large quantities as possible at reasonable prices 
in order to release wheat and meat; (2) to ensure reasonable prices to the 
producer as a means of encouraging production; (3) to distribute the avail- 
able supply through proper channels; and (4) to control distribution and prices 
whenever such action would appear to be necessary. 

Owing to the embargo which prohibited the export of apples from 
Canada to Great Britain, it was necessary that immediate steps be taken to 
facilitate the marketing of Canadian apples at home. This was particularly 
difficult in the case of Nova Scotia. A very large proportion of the crop in 
the Annapolis Valley had always been sold in Great Britain. It was necessary 
to move this crop, which in 1917 was approximately 750,000 barrels, westward 
in Canada. Working in co-operation with the railway officials, arrangements 

47 



were made to secure an adequate supply of cars for the transportation of Nova 
Scotian apples to western markets. A representative was placed at Kentville, 
N.S. As a result of these efforts practically the entire Nova Scotian crop of 
1917 was marketed at remunerative prices to the growers. 

Wholesale and retail fruit and vegetable dealers from Montreal, Ottawa 
and Toronto were asked to furnish sworn statements showing their cost of 
operation, their net profits, gross profits, amount of capital invested, etc., 
and similar enquiries were held at points in the Prairie Provinces and at Van- 
couver and Victoria. The result was that valuable information was obtained, 
the main revelation of which was that, contrary to expectations, the net profit 
made by the wholesale fruit and vegetable dealers was comparatively small. 
For these reasons no price fixing was considered necessary. It was, however, 
considered advisable to have every wholesale fruit and vegetable dealer under 
register at the office of the Food Board and for them to submit a monthly 
statement showing purchases and sales together with the cost and selling prices. 

Particular attention had been given to the distribution of the potato 
crop of 1917. In regard to grading, it was thought that any compulsory sys- 
tem might have a tendency to interfere with production, which it was absolutely 
necessary should be stimulated. Recommendations were made covering 
two grades of potatoes. The use of these was made optional. These optional 
grades were subsequently embodied in the Fruit Marks Act for enforcement 
by the Department of Agriculture. 

Much work in all classes of trade came under the observation of 
the Fruit and Vegetable Section. The enforcement of the Waste Order, 
which was passed early in 1918, was placed in the hands of the Fruit and 
Vegetable Section until the organization of an Enforcement Section in July. 
During the summer of 1918 a publicity campaign was carried on with the 
object of increasing the consumption cf vegetable foods, the production of 
which had been very large. Altogother the efforts of the Section resulted in 
a valuable saving and prevented any waste of fruits and vegetables which 
might have resulted from the abnormally heavy home production. 

MILLING SECTION 

In October, 1917, plans for the regulation of the flour milling industry 
were formulated by the Food Controller. The general principles of control 
were the stabilizing of flour prices at a level that would limit the profits of 
the milling industry to a maximum average of twenty-five cents upon the 
milling of a barrel of flour and the feed made in connection therewith; the 
fixing of a standard of extraction so that the most economical use of wheat 
would be secured; the conservation of fiour so that, while there might be 
sufficient for the needs of the people of Canada, the greatest possible quantity 
would be available for export to the Allies; the stabilizing of the prices of 
bran and shorts at a low level to assist the development of the livestock and 
dairy industry; and the prohibition of export of these mill feeds. 

A representative committee was appointed which continued to work 
with the Canada Food Board in all matters pertaining to the milling industry 
and which also co-operated with the Board of Grain Supervisors in the 
allocation of wheat to Canadian mills and with the Wheat Export Company 
in the matter of flour exports to the Allies. 

48 



On December 1st all flour mills were brought under license, and since 
that date regulations have been promulgated from time to time for the control 
of the industry. Later a Milling Section of the Canada Food Board was 
organized to check up the operation of the mills and, in connection with the 
Enforcement Division, to see that all regulations were strictly observed. 

On December 17 the prices of bran and shorts were fixed at a low point 
compared with the prices of other feeds. An expert was sent to Western 
Canada to investigate the average of the milling quality of the wheat avail- 
able, and to the United States to examine the standards of extraction there. 
On his recommendation an extraction was set for Canadian mills which mate- 
rially increased the output of flour. By means of reports received, monthly 
or oftener, from all licensed mills, check was kept on the quantity of wheat 
ground and the weight of flour produced therefrom. Mills which, through 
carelessness or ineflScient methods, were not producing the maximum possible 
amount of flour were written to or visited and helped to overcome their diffi- 
culties so that this maximum should be produced. In this way a great many 
mills were brought to a higher standard of efficiency. This educational work 
will doubtless have a lasting effect on the milling industry. 

In April, 1918, the flour extraction was lengthened, an order being 
passed providing that not more than 268 pounds of spring wheat, and not more 
than 268 pounds of winter wheat, should be used to manufacture a barrel of 
flour (196 pounds). These regulations were continued until September 6th. 
Then, on account of the improvement in the prospects of supply of wheat owing 
to the harvesting of the new crop and through the large use of flour "substi- 
tutes," the extraction was again lowered to about seventy-four per cent, at 
which point it has since been maintained. With each change, millers were 
supplied with a sample of flour of the new extraction, selected and tested by 
experts. From time to time samples were obtained from mills and tested to 
ensure a uniform grade for both export and domestic trade. The flour sold 
as Government standard flour has been of high quality and has been well 
received, not only overseas, but by the bakers and housewives in Canada. 
At the same time the ratio of extraction adopted resulted in materially increas- 
ing the quantity of flour produced from the wheat used. This increase and 
the saving in domestic consumption, due to the response to the appeal for 
conservation and to the employment of "substitutes," enabled Canada to 
supply to Allied countries, during the crop year, a very much greater quantity 
of flour than had ever been exported before, the total reaching 10,826,000 
barrels. Prices during the period were successfully stabilized on the principles 
laid down. 

The total amount of wheat milled in Canadian mills during the past 
year was about 84,000,000 bushels. Approximately 20,000,000 barrels of 
flour were produced, an average consumption of 252 pounds of wheat per 
barrel of flour (196 pounds). The amount of wheat flour saved by the longer 
extraction was enormous. 

It was found in June, 1918, that if the Dominion was to continue to 
export the wheat and wheat flour urgently required at the front, bakers, con- 
fectioners, public eating places and private homes would have to use substitutes 
for wheat flour. Action was taken to provide the best substitutes and to ar- 
range for their distribution. This involved a tremendous amount of work, 

49 



since corn, barley, oat and rye flour had not in the past been manufactured 
in large quantities. A number of millers changed their mill plant to produce 
these, and thus a sufficient quantity of non-wheaten flour was made avail- 
able. 

Flour and feed dealers were placed under license. In all, 653 millers' 
licenses were issued, and 460 flour and feed licenses. On January 19 an order 
fixed the amount that might be added to the cost of bran and shorts by feed 
dealers. Thus these necessary feeds continued to be comparatively low in 
price. This had a beneficial effect in encouraging the production of 
livestock, cheese, butter and milk. At the time of writing the price of bran 
and shorts in the United States is from $17.00 to $20.00 per ton higher than 
the price in Canada. So great was the demand for bran and shorts that 
during last winter great difficulty was experienced in dividing evenly the 
limited supply available throughout Canada. Export of these feeds was pro- 
hibited. 

PRODUCE SECTION 

A Produce Committee was named in February, 1918. Meetings were 
held in Ottawa and a report of the findings was published in March. The 
Produce Section was organized under the supervision of Mr. R. M. Ballan- 
tyne. Commodities included as produce under the administration of this 
section were meats, lard, lard compound, cheese, butter, oleomargarine, eggs 
and poultry. The objects were: — (a) To facilitate and incresae the export 
of the different commodities to Great Britain and her Allies; (6) to prevent 
waste; (c) to regulate prices by eliminating speculation and by controlling 
or limiting the profit permissible to wholesale dealers. All persons, firms, or 
corporations dealing wholesale in any of the commodities enumerated above, 
were required to obtain licenses from the Food Board. Packers and whole- 
sale butchers were licensed as such and did not require license as Produce 
Wholesalers, being permitted to carry on a produce business under the Packer's 
License. Wholesale Grocers licensed as such and also operating in produce 
were not required to obtain license as Produce Wholesalers, provided the 
turnover in produce was not excessive as compared with the total turnover 
of the grocery business. 

All persons, firms or corporations operating exclusively in produce were 
licensed as Produce Dealers under the following classifications: — Produce 
Wholesaler; Produce Commission Merchant; Produce Broker; and Produce 
Collector. Altogether 1,244 licenses were issued and 480 Packer's or Whole- 
sale Butcher's licenses. Orders dealing with this section were Nos. 19, 24, 
26, 38, 41, 45, 48, 59, and Order-in-Council 597. 

For the purpose of administering Orders 26 and 45, in conjunction 
with the Statistical Section, all dealers in produce were required to supply 
monthly reports giving particulars of the month's dealings. These reports 
showed the quantities in stock at the beginning of each month, with cost; 
quantities purchased during the month, and cost; the quantities sold during 
the month to wholesalers and "to others not wholesalers" and the selling 
values of each; and the stock on hand at the end of the month. These 
reports have made possible the checking up of the Canadian wholesale trade 
regularly each month, showing the stock held by each dealer, the require- 
ments of each dealer's trade and the loss in the different commodities through 

50 



wastage. In addition to checking up the business of the individual firms, 
the total of Canadian stocks as well as the monthly Canadian trade require- 
ments of the different commodities were thus obtained. 

Under the provisions of Order-in-Council, P.C. 597, and Order 26, a 
considerable quantity of the 1917 crop of cheese, held largely for speculative 
purposes, was secured during March, April and May for export to Great 
Britain, where it was urgently needed. The price paid by the Dairy Produce 
Commission was the price being paid by the Commission at the time this 
cheese was purchased in 1917. In all 14,886 boxes of cheese, which weighed 
approximately 1,262,649 pounds, were secured. This quantity of Canadian 
cheese was secured before the 1918 crop was available for export, and was 
of great assistance in maintaining the food supply of the armies and civilian 
populations overseas. 

Information obtained from reports furnished to the Statistical Section 
during September by a large wholesale produce company at Quebec, P.Q., 
indicated that this firm was carrying for speculative purposes a quantity of 
creamery butter in excess of that allowed. Investigation of the firm's books 
showed that information supplied by them to the Board was inaccurate. 
In this case action was taken by the Board which resulted in the delivery of 
387,381 pounds of creamery butter to the Dairy Produce Commission for 
export to Great Britain at the price being paid by the Commission at the 
time this butter was taken off the market. 

Many other firms at different times were shown to have had excessive 
stocks of different commodities, as fixed by Order 26, and were required to 
dispose of them. The taking over of these excessive stocks at the prices 
paid by the holders entailed a heavy loss and constituted a severe penalty 
on offending licensees. Reports received for July showed that some firms had 
taken a greater margin of profit than was allowable. As July was the first 
month during which the order was operative, these firms were let off with a 
warning. This action proved justifiable, as subsequently they adhered strictly 
to the provisions of the order. 

During June and July complaints were received that some firms were 
not observing Clause No. 16 or Order 41, which reads as follows: — 

"No licensee shall pay or demand payment for bad eggs in excess 
of a margin of allowance of one per cent on the total of each transac- 
tion." 

Investigation showed that two prominent packing houses in Montreal 
had disregarded this clause, and on August 22 these houses were ordered to 
cease buying or selling eggs for a period of thirty days. This action had a 
beneficial effect on the egg trade and no further complaints on the point were 
eceived. Information received during October showed that a wholesale 
produce dealer in Ontario was selling eggs at prices which were higher than 
was possible provided that the provisions of Order 45 were being carried out. 
Examination of the firm's books showed this to be correct and that bad eggs 
had been paid for in excess of the allowed margin of one per cent. The firm 
was ordered to refund to purchasers the amount overcharged and the pur- 
chasers were notified that their selling price must be based on the reduced 
purchase price. The offending firm was also ordered to sell the remaining stock 
of eggs at a price which would comply with the provisions of Order 45. 



51 



Early in December an officer of tlie Section visiting the trade in Winnipeg 
learned that a wholesale dealer in that city had, during the summer, stored 
two thousand one hundred cases of eggs and that some two hundred cases 
had been sold at an excess price. Investigation confirmed this, as the owner 
had no Canadian trade requirements and was holding the eggs for speculative 
purposes. He was ordered to dispose at once of the entire stock at a price 
which would comply with the Board's requirements. The eggs were marketed 
at a price 8J^ cents per dozen less than that at which they were being ofiEered 
before the investigation. 

Some instances were reported of produce being allowed partially to 
spoil. In all such cases orders have been issued requiring the produce to be 
marketed immediately in such channels as would bring it into quick consump- 
tion, and thus avoid further loss. Some 28,000 pounds of cheese of poor quality 
held in St. John, N.B., and Halifax, N.S., spoiling from this cause, were disposed 
of and went into consumption at once, thus avoiding any further loss. 

During the summer months oleomargarine sold very slowly, and some, 
large stocks imported from the United States were in danger of spoiling. 
About 75,000 pounds of this imported product was returned to the United 
States during August. 

A report regarding a London, Ont., wholesale house wasting food re-, 
ceived wide publicity through newspapers. This report was to the effect 
that the firm was holding large quantities of eggs in storage until many of 
the eggs became unfit for food, and that the bad eggs were then dumped on 
farms as fertilizer. An investigation by an officer of the Section showed that 
the story was altogether untrue, and that the eggs and shells which had been 
thrown out were "rots" and shells of broken eggs from current receipts. 
None of the eggs which had been thrown out had been placed in storage. 

Order-in-Council 2402, dated September 30, requisitioned for export to 
Great Britain all creamery butter manufactured in the Provinces of Alberta, 
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec between September 30 and 
November 9, inclusive. Copies of the order with blank report forms and 
instructions regarding shipment were mailed to all manufacturers of creamery 
butter in those provinces. Weekly reports from the creameries were checked 
and any creameries failing to report were written to. The quantity of cream- 
ery butter made in each creamery as shown by the reports received and the 
quantity delivered by each individual creamery for export were totalled. 

Orders of the Board relative to produce have been, on the whole, well 
received and faithfully carried out by those engaged in the wholesale trade. 
The efficiency of the orders is demonstrated by the fact that for several months 
past creamery butter in Canada has been selling at a much lower price than 
in the United States, and, at the beginning of 1919, the Montreal market was 
fully 12 cents per pound lower than the New York market. Eggs also have 
been kept at a price averaging much below that which would have ruled had 
those orders not been in force. 

SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERS' SECTION 
The organization of the Sugar Division became imperative in the early 
months of 1918. Sugar restrictions in the British Isles and European Allied 
countries had been in force for some time. It became evident that the manu- 

52 



facture of candy, chocolate, chewing gum, cakes, biscuits, soft drinks and all 
products in which sugar entered as an ingredient, would have to be regulated. 
The normal consumption of cane sugar in Canada as given in the 1917 record 
of imports was, approximately, 317,000 tons. The allocation for 1918, as 
designated by the International Sugar Commission, was considerably less 
than this amount, with the uncertain prospect of securing transport of the 
allotment. Coupled with the sugar conservation program in the manufacture 
of cakes and biscuits a plan was formulated for the conservation of fats for 
shortening purposes. A meeting held in April of the leading biscuit and 
candy manufacturers was unanimous in its support of the program outlined, 
although it would affect to a serious extent the output of the concerns rep- 
resented. The shortage of sugar for domestic consumption had resulted in 
a demand for the elimination of the candy and ice cream industries. The 
policy of the Board has always been to consider public interests first, but it 
was deemed inadvisable to destroy an established industry. Orders were 
issued against sugar hoarding. It was made an offence to hold more sugar 
than would be required for household purposes, for varying periods defined 
as from fifteen to one hundred and twenty days. Household restrictions were 
placed on the use of sugar for icing cakes and the manufacture of home-made 
candy. In August a second conference was held. This meeting was attended 
by representatives of every province in the Dominion,' excepting Alberta. 
A proposal, in which the Board heartily concurred, was made to establish a 
system of provincial supervision. A leading manufacturer was appointed in 
each province, under whose advice local supervisors were appointed. This 
system enabled the Board to keep in close touch with the situation, and gave 
the manufacturers absolute confidence that everything possible was being 
done to stop the illegal use of sugar. The organization was purely voluntary 
and proved a complete success. 

Following is a summary of the Sugar Regulations issued:— 

Order No. 30, April 25th, 1918, ordered that no person should 
hold more than fifteen days' supply of sugar excepting those Hving at 
greater distances than two miles from nearest dealer. Manufacturers 
under this order were restricted to a supply not exceeding forty-five 
days' requirements. 

Order No. 34, April 30th, 1918, dealt solely with the manufacture 
of biscuit, cake and confectionery products. A uniform basis was deter- 
mined which eliminated certain mixtures to the advantage of both sugar 
and shortening conservation. 

Order No. 35, April 25th, 1918, dealt with restrictions as applied 
to the private homes, making it illegal to use cane sugar in decorating 
cakes or to manufacture candy. 

Order No. 54, July 15th, 1918, affected all manufacturers, other 
than those included in Order No. 34, using sugar in the preparation of 
their products. With its issuance, the Board secured complete control 
of sugar used for manufacturing purposes, including aerated beverages, 
fountain fruits, syrups, jelly powders, and tobacco. The manufacture 
of icing sugar was prohibited. Retail dealers in sugar were prohibited 
from selling to manufacturers of confectionery, etc. Sugar certificates 



53 



were issued to every licensee with the allotment for the period July 15th 
to September 30th, on a seventy-five per cent basis. 

Order No. 60, September 5th, 1918, confirmed Order No 34, 

which was operative only from May 1st to August 31st. The quantity 

of sugar allowed to biscuit and cake manufacturers was reduced from 

100 pounds to 80 pounds per barrel of flour. Public eating places 

were reduced to two pounds of sugar for every ninety meals served. 

A monthly system of reports from all manufacturers was required, to 

ascertain the amount of sugar carried in stock and used. In numerous cases, 

stock was removed under orders and redistributed. By careful checking, 

every manufacturer was required to prove the record previously submitted of 

his 1917 sugar consumption. The penalties imposed were not made public, 

the sugar allotment being reduced in each case to meet the revised figures. 

Immediately following the issuance of Order No. 34, meetings were held 
in Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton, London, Montreal, Quebec, St. John, Halifax 
and Moncton, attended by biscuit, cake and candy manufacturers. Sugges- 
tions were made as to the use of sugar substitute; the use of corn syrup, 
refiners' syrups, maple sugar and honey was urged and subsequent reports 
showed good results from the use of substitutes. The Department did every- 
thing possible to co-operate with manufacturers and to assist in the mainten- 
ance of the industry. 

All raw sugars were allocated to the various refineries pro rata on the basis 
of the 1917 supply. (Canada has six sugar refining companies, viz.: — Acadia, 
of HaUfax, N.S.; Atlantic, St. John, N.B.; Canada, Montreal, P.Q.; St. Law- 
rence, Montreal, P.Q.; Dominion, Chatham, Ont., and the British Columbia, 
Vancouver, B.C.) It was found necessary to formulate plans to obtain a 
system of distribution. In August, 1918, such a system was inaugurated. 
Each refinery submitted a weekly report showing the amount of raw sugar 
received with the total balance of both raw and refined sugar on hand at the 
week end. To complete this plan every wholesale dealer of sugar in Canada 
was put on a coupon sytem, issued on a basis of eighty per cent of the average 
1917 sales, and each dealer provided a weekly statement of his receipts and 
disbursements. 

The following is a statement of sugar used during 1917 by No. 11 
Licensees: — 

Manufacturers of Candy 55,064,574 pounds. 

" Biscuits, etc 12,955,365 " 

" Chocolates 9,267,085 ' 

" Gum 2,297,346 

" Sundries 3,736,008 " 

" Syrups 567,897 

" Cocoanut 300,000 



Total 84,188,275 " 

Monthly Average 7,015,690 " 

Estimated monthly saving of sugar 

fifty per cent 3,507,845 " 

The total sugar imports to Canada for 1917 were approximately 317,000 
tons or 634,000,000 pounds. On this basis, the manufacturers of confectionery 
included in above group used twelve per cent. A reduction to practically 

54 



a fifty per cent basis shows that the manufacturers of this line during the 
period of greatest sugar shortage used only six per cent of a normal supply. 

In addition to the confectionery trade and grouped under another 
restricted class the following trades were affected, as shown in a statement of 
sugar used during 1917 by No. 15 Licensees: — 

Manufacturers of Soft Drinks 13,573,224 pounds. 

" Table Syrups 5,085,374 " 

"Pharmaceuticals... 2,881,681 

'• Jelly Powders 2,902,541 " 

" Tobacco 1,536,026 

" Fountain Syrups . . . 325,852 

" Shortening, etc 150,000 

" H. Glycerine 148,280 " 

" Prepared Chocolate 62,496 

" Cocoanut 45,550 " 

" Extracts 21,415 '• 

" " Caramel and Al- 

mond Paste ... . 17,617 " 

" Mincemeat 12,500 

" Lithographic Paper, 

etc 1,700 

" Silk Yarn 1,000 " 

" Shoe Polish 1,000 " 

" Bird Preparations . 886 

Total 26,767,872 

An average reduction of fifty per cent was secured on the above list 
from July 15th to December 31st, 1918, or a saving equal to 1,115,328 pounds 
per month. 

Viewing the collective results of efforts to control sugar, manufacturers 
as a general rule appreciated the importance of the work. The necessary 
restrictive features of orders were as well observed. The control of the 
distribution of sugar from the refinery to wholesaler and thus to manufacturers 
and consumer was well organized and proved an effective means to spread 
supplies. 

In the spring arrangements were made with the Provincial Departments 
of Agriculture for the issue of certificates to bona-fide bee-keepers to enable 
them to purchase the sugar required for feeding. This arrangement worked 
out satisfactorily. After a conference in the fall, certificates were issued 
enabling bee-keepers to purchase twenty pounds of sugar per colony, and 
where there was "foul brood" the amount was raised to forty pounds. Thus 
1,166 certificates were issued for 882,810 pounds of sugar. By this means the 
bee industry of the Dominion, representing an invested capital of over 
$3,000,000, was protected against serious loss. 

SUGAR DIVISION IN NEW YORK 

Previous to the year 1918 Canada produced less than four per cent of the 
quantity of sugar consumed by its population. The balance, approximately 
317,000 tons, was obtained from Santo Domingo, Venezuela, Surinam, the 

65 



British Colonies in the Atlantic, Peru, Java, Formosa, Fiji and the Islands in 
the Pacific. The tranpsortation of this large quantity of sugar from thousands 
of mUes overseas required the organization and regular operation of a fleet of 
vessels capable of delivering 26,000 tons of sugar monthly at Canadian ports. 

In September, 1917, the Imperial Government, in agreement with the 
Government of the United States, set up the International Sugar Committee 
in New York. On this committee the interests of the Royal Commission on 
the sugar supply were represented by Sir Joseph White-Todd and Mr. J. 
Ramsay Drake. 

By the purchase of the Cuban sugar crop and close co-operation with the 
Allied Shipping Boards the International Sugar Committee controlled the raw 
sugar supply. Pending an agreement for the allotment of sugar to the various 
countries interested, Canada's supply was stopped. The Canada Food Board 
immiediately sought representation on the International Sugar Committee 
and negotiations resulted in a prompt recognition of Canadian requirements. 

To insure that the Dominion supply should be pro rata with other nations, 
and to cope with the intricate technical problems which surrounded shipping 
and purchase, the Sugar Division of the Canada Food Board was established 
in New York. Mr. Joseph R. Bruce, Supervisor of Southern Branches of the 
Royal Bank of Canada, was appointed Canadian representative, and subse- 
quently Mr. Alexander R. O'Neill and Mr. H. Mark Tapley joined the 
division. 

Desirable co-operation was maintained with international authorities; 
ocean shipping was closely followed and its difficulties overcome. In all, 
319,000 long tons of raw sugar, valued at over $37,000,000, were secured and 
delivered at Canadian ports during 1918. On arrival in Canada raw sugar 
was allocated by the Sugar Division to refineries, dealers and manufacturers 
to secure an equitable distribution. The Sugar Division in New York has now 
closed contracts for sugar ample to supply Canadian needs during 1919. 

EXPORT AND IMPORT SECTION 

The Export and Import Section of the Food Board was instituted in 
the middle of November, 1917, under Order-in-Council 3211. The purpose 
of the department was three-fold: — 

1. To regulate the export of surplus articles of food, feeding 
stuffs and other supplies, so that these articles might, by the proper 
channels, reach the Allies and their armies at the front, and generally 
30 to regulate Canadian exports as to secure adequate supplies con- 
jointly with other countries fighting with the same purpose in view. 

2. To confer with the Food Control authorities of other countries 
for the provision of food, feeding stuffs and other articles needed in the 
Dominion. 

3. To regulate the food-stuffs imported and to restrict food- 
stuffs covered by Customs memoranda 2238-B and 2229-B, which had 
been placed in the jurisdiction of the Board. 

All applications for "permits" to import or to export any of the innu- 
merable articles which came within the above categories received individual 
consideration. When it was considered desirable special "permits" were 



66 



granted— written "permits" covering each shipment, with brief description. 
The work of the department covered the whole of the Dominion. The corres- 
pondence formed possibly the heaviset of any section into which the Food 
Board woric was divided. 

The number of "permits" to export, from the inauguration of the 
Board to December 31st, was 14,779, and the number of "imports" 11,354. 

An idea of the vast total of trade transacted under this department 
may be obtained from the following table of a few of the commodities secured 
through the United States Food Administration.: — 

Oleomargarine 1,000,000 pounds monthly 

Corn 2,260,000 bushels 

Oil Cake Meal 35,000,000 pounds yearly 

Cottonseed Oil 60,000,000 

Cottonseed Meal 50,000,000 

Prunes (dried) 10,000,000 

Peaches (dried) 1,000,000 " " 

Carbonate Ammonia 16,000 " monthly 

To take the first mentioned article, oleomargarine, the importation of 
which was covered by Order-in-Council 1772, dated July, 1918, this commodity, 
though under the jurisdiction of the Canada Food Board, was supervised by 
the Veterinary Director General's Branch of the Department of Agriculture, 
because the sanction of the department was by law required for any import 
of oleomargarine, which had to be of Government standard and labelled and 
branded according to the special Order-in-Council, and inspected in manu- 
facture on behalf of the authorities. When the officials of the Veterinary 
Director General's Branch were satisfied on the above points a "permit" to 
import was granted. This had to be surrendered to the Collector of Customs 
before entry was allowed. Such "permit" was secured on invoice shipment, 
one copy of which had to be deposited with the United States War Trade 
Board. Much the same procedure was followed in obtaining an export 
license. 

The following Orders-in-Council cover the activities of the Export and 
Import Section: — 

No. 3211 November 15, 1917. 

No. 3347 December 3, 1917. 

P.C. L193 June 3, 1918. 

Customs Memoranda— 2149-B. 2712B, 2206B, 2216B, 2257B, 
2225B, 2229B, 2238B. 

SOLICITOR'S AND ENFORCEMENT SECTION 

On April 18th, 1918, a solicitor to the Board was appointed and a 
section was opened to direct enforcement of the Board's orders and certain 
Orders in Council such as P.C. 597 for the Prevention of Waste and Order 
in Council P.C. 3430 dealing with the detention of cars. All orders had the 
sara e force and effect as Acts of Parliament. For the violation of any order a pen- 
alty was imposed. The public looked to the Board for enforcement and there was 
some criticism due to a misunderstanding of the Board's duties and functions, 
all of which were embodied in the various enabling orders. Order-in-Council 
P.C. 1460, of 16th June, 1917, authorized the Food Controller to make a sur- 

57 



vey of the available supplies of food, the requirements of Canada, and to 
facilitate the export of the surplus to Great Britain and her Allies. 

On 15th November, 1917, Order-in-Council P.C. 3214 gave the Food 
Controller power to license dealers in food. Section 2 whereof provided as 
follows : — 

"Any such license may be cancelled or suspended by the Food 
Controller (later Canada Food Board by virtue of Order-in-Council 
P.C. 344) for the violation of any of the provisions of these regulations 
or of any amendment thereof, and by any order or regulations made 
by the Food Controller hereunder." 

And Section 8 provided that: — 

"Any person violating any of the provisions of these regulations 
shall be guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a 
fine not exceeding $1,000 or to both fine and imprisonment." 

Penalties were varied in subsequent orders in that the minimum fine 
was fixed at $100 and the maximum fine at $1,000, and the maximum term 
of imprisonment three months. All doubt as to the application of the penalties 
was removed by Order-in-Council P.C. 1542, which made it clear that "regu- 
lations" applied not only to regulations under Order-in-Council, but also to 
regulations in the orders of the Canada Food Board. 

The Canada Food Board, acting by itself, could only cancel or suspend 
existing licenses for the violation of any of the provisions of the regulations 
contained in the various orders. The only other means of enforcement was 
by laying information against the offender, who was guilty of an offence, and 
liable on summary conviction to a fine or imprisonment. These facts should 
be borne in mind when criticism is heard of the branch "folding its hands." 
The Food Board possessed no right to compel an offender to make a contribu- 
tion of money to the Red Cross or Patriotic Funds, or to impose anything in 
the nature of a fine. Powers were limited' to the four corners of the enabling 
Acts. 

Before active enforcement could be commenced, it seemed advisable, 
owing to the fact that what the Board was doing was something absolutely 
new and without precedent, to take advantage of all means of enlightening 
the public and to co-ordinate the efforts of Dominion, Provincial, Municipal 
and other police, and of all officers of a similar nature operating under the 
Federal and Provincial Goverimients. These officials were furnished with 
the Orders-in-Council and of the Board relating to foods and correspondence 
was arranged with all the magistrates throughout the Deminion. 

In some provinces due respect for Food Board orders was obtained 
through the local and provincial police, the enthusiasm of the various Crown 
Attorneys and the interest of the local magistrates. But the full benefit of 
this was obtained only by personal correspondence and conferences. The 
absolute need of conservation was placed before them by circular letter and, 
thanks to the interest of the Secretary of Dominion Police, a meeting of the 
Chief Constables' Association of Canada was addressed on behalf of the 
Board at their annual meeting in Hamilton in June. The meeting soon 
became intensely interested. The result was the hearty co-operation of the 

68 



Chief Constables, who evinced their sympathy, interest and detennination to 
do their part as individuals and as officers and to see that others did their part. 
A list of all the Chief Constables throughout Canada was furnished, and wher- 
ever any irregularities existed, it was necessary only to communicate with the 
Chief Constable of the district to secure prompt and generous assistance. 
The influence soon extended, and in time most of the Provincial and Muni- 
cipal police were rendering every assistance. 

A manual was compiled, setting forth the Orders-in-Council and Orders 
of the Canada Food Board made up to June 22nd. This was distributed widely. 
Interest had to be kept up and a mass of correspondence followed. Com- 
plaints of evasions and offences were received almost every day from all 
over Canada. These had to be considered and placed in hands most com- 
petent to deal with them. 

There were some provinces where little or no assistance was rendered, 
due partly to the small numbers on their forces and due partly to lack of 
sympathy on the part of those who held office. In most of the provinces 
throughout Canada, the provincial police rendered invaluable service, but in 
one or two of the provinces the Board failed absolutely to get any assistance 
from them; not that the officials were opposed to the work of the Board, but 
owing to the limited staff, any further work could not be undertaken. Where 
such a situation existed enforcements had to be done directly by the Board. 
Little difficulty was experienced where the offender was a licensee, for the 
Board could cancel or suspend the offender's license. Where the offence was 
committed by other than a licensed dealer nothing could be accomplished 
without the assistance of the Court, and if the Court failed to act, the offender 
went unpunished. 

Regulations of the Board limiting the spread and profits on foods were 
closely administered. In the distribution of flour and feed many excessive 
charges were collected from the offenders, and paid over to those who had been 
overcharged where the names could be ascertained; and where the names 
could not be ascertained the amounts in each case were paid over to the 
Receiver General of Canada. In the produce trade dealers were limited in 
what they could hold in various seasons of the year and in their profits. Suffi- 
cient information was on hand to show how carefully all such dealers were kept 
under control, and how every offence was dealt with and the offender made 
to return the excessive charges. At first these cases were quite numerous, 
] but as the work of the department advanced dealers came to know that the 
regulations could not be evaded with impunity. One of the regulations, 
perhaps most difficult to enforce, was the one limiting the payment for "loss 
off" on eggs. In one month alone, three large companies had their licenses 
suspended in so far as their egg dealings were concerned. Recently a firm 
; disregarding the regulations relating to the payment for "loss off" on eggs, 
and the limitation of profits, were compelled to return the excess charges and 
(to make due allowance for the "loss off." As to the successful enforcement 
of all the regulations governing the limitation of profits, no greater proof 
existed than the comparative prices prevailing in Canada and the United 
: States. No branch of enforcement has occupied so much time as that 
relating to the limitation of profits. 

i In the spring complaint was made of the quantity of foodstuffs that for 

(Various reasons had become unfit for human consumption. A careful survey 

69 



had to be made as to the causes, and means devised of preventing a recurrence. 
Arrangements were made with officials of the larger cities to send regular 
reports of food that had been condemned as unfit and of the foods received 
at incinerators or destructors, with the names of the persons making delivery. 
When the waste was deemed avoidable, those in fault were prosecuted. Prose- 
cutions and the careful watch kept had a very beneficial effect, for the propor- 
tion of waste, with advancing months, became smaller. Prevention of waste 
was also effected by exercising the powers conferred by Order-in-Coundl 
P.C. 3430, "Detention of Cars." Heretofore, owing to disputes arising 
between the consignor and the consignee, many a car containing perishable 
foods was left on some railway siding and the contents wasted before the 
parties had come to an agreement. In all such cases consideration had to be 
given to the rights of the parties, which in the early months of spring and 
summer occupied a part of every day. Under the old system, when a dispute 
arose between a consignee and consignor, it frequently happened that the 
food was permitted to deteriorate and in many cases become a total loss because 
neither cared to prejudice his case by taking the initiative. 

Order-in-Council No. 3430 required the agent of all carrying companies 
to notify the Canada Food Board when any food was held under load at its 
destination for a period longer than four days. The Food Board communi- 
cated by wire with the consignee and consignor to ascertain the reason for 
delay and endeavored to arrange for the unloading of the car. Failing to effect 
an immediate unloading, the Food Board seized the food and sold it in order 
to prevent waste. Out of approximately 1,500 cars, it was found necessary 
to seize not over one per cent. Hundreds of tons have been saved as a result 
of these orders. 

Urgent demand overseas for wheat flour, and the scarcity of sugar, made 
it necessary to limit holdings. Orders No. 30 and 31, commonly referred to 
as the "Hoarding Orders," were made. Thousands of investigations were 
made, and in one week alone upwards of 600,000 pounds of sugar were seized 
and returned to regular trade channels. 

The final draft of an order represents only a small part of the work of 
preparation. There was no precedent to go by as far as policy was con- 
cerned and constant revision of drafts was inevitable. That the orders ii 
general were clear is evidenced by the limited divergence of opinion regarding 
their fulfilment. In all matters arising out of the general food plans, which 
involved knowledge of Canadian law, this department lent its services. 

Many requests were received from persons, under a mis-understanding 
of the functions and duties of the Board, appealing for redress for wrongs, oi 
fancied wrongs, done them by others in the trade. The Order-in-Councd 
authorizing the Canada Food Board to require any persons dealing in food 
or foodstuffs to obtain a license did not give the Board discretion to withhold 
the license. Many people erroneously thought that any person having ob- 
tained a license must have first satisfied the Board as to his financial standing 
and experience in the trade. 

A matter that demanded much attention was the illegal export of flour 
and sugar from the border towns to the United States. Every pound sent 
out of Canada not only lessened by that much the amount available for use 
in Canada, but interfered with the rationing of sugar in the border states. 

60 



A result of this was the request from the United States Food Administration, 
on account of the interference with their plans, to have the export prohibited. 
Wheat flour was also being illegally exported. Three districts were found to 
contain the chief offenders. In one place long established merchants were 
lending their hands to the export. Several of their businesses were closed 
and licenses suspended for a time. In another district it was necessary to 
put the population on sugar "rations," which were continued up to the signing 
of the Armistice. Here, too, licenses of offenders were suspended, and several 
shipments of sugar seized. In correcting many of the above objections along 
the International Boundary, the local officials of the Food Administration 
rendered every assistance. 

Incomplete records show the following number of fines imposed throughout 
Canada by Provincial authorities and the suspensions of licenses by the 
Canada Food Board's Enforcement Division: — 

Fines 142 

Imprisonments 4 

Suspensions 133 

Confiscations 17 

Forced Sales 8 

INFORMATION DIVISION AND CONSERVATION PUBLICITY 

SECTION 

Without the whole-hearted support of the Press of Canada the work of 
the Canada Food Board would have been infinitely more difficult. News, 
editorials and helpful information thoroughly impressed public opinion with 
the importance of food production and conservation. Newspapers were 
prompt to publish the gist of the orders and regulations the Board found 
necessary to impose, and editorially to support the enforcement of them. 
Helpful, constructive criticism was welcomed, and it was not lacking. 

Educational work was divided into two classes: — 

1. Dissemination of news and information through the medium 
of the press. 

2. Paid advertising and the circulation of pamphlets, literature 
and posters. 

Expenditure was restricted to certain well defined objectives, such as 
putting before the farming class the need and opportunity for increased pro- 
duction; the meaning of the food conservation pledge campaign; and the 
: introduction of new services for fish. Posters were placed without cost 
through the co-operation of the bill-posting companies, the Post Office Depart- 
ment, and Railway Companies. In some cases printing was contributed free. 
In all ?86,422.01 was expended in paid publicity by the food control organi- 
zation since its authorization in June, 1917. Pamphlets, leaflets and reports, 
in both French and English, and special issues of the Canada Gazette, 
totalling 4,000,000 were printed and circulated. Distribution was made 
through the Provincial Committees; at the annual fairs held throughout 
the country; by the large special mailing list within the office; by various 
voluntary agencies, social societies and clubs, and through retail merchants. 
The "Canadian Food Bulletin" was published periodically, giving a 
summary of the food situation, activities of the organizations and news itema 

61 



of interest, with summaries of orders and regulations. The "Bulletin" was 
mailed to legislators, judges, educationalists, clergymen, crown attorneys, 
mayors, chief constables, boards of trade, bank managers, officers of the federal 
and provincial agricultural departments, public libraries, secretaries of labor 
unions, leading business firms, the members of the National Council of Women, 
Daughters of the Empire, W.C.T.U., Women's Institutes, clubs, merchants' 
associations, commercial travellers' associations and other organized bodies, 
and to every newspaper and magazine in the Dominion. Special issues of 
the Canada Gazette containing the Orders-in-Council bearing upon food 
subjects, totalling nearly 500,000 copies, were sent to members of ParUament, 
and Legislatures, crown attorneys, chief constables, police magistrates, 
provincial police officers and officers of the Royal Borth West Mounted 
Police, members of the trades affected and to all newspapers. A French 
edition, the "Bulletin Canadien des Vivres," was similarly distributed, chiefly 
in the province of Quebec. Translation into French was done by the ofiBce 
staff. 

Press publicity was so organized that new developments in connection 
with the Food Board's work and the food situation were transmitted promptly 
by telegraph to daily papers, both French and English, through the Canadian 
Press, Limited. This was supplemented by educational material sent by 
mail each week. 

Rural newspapers were supphed with matter pertaining to agricultural 
production, war gardening, food economy and general news items on the 
food situation prepared in brief paragraph form, summaries of new orders of 
the Board and editorial matter. Special illustrated articles were prepared for 
monthly magazines. A memorandum of publications is given in the appendices. 

Through the Motion Picture Distribution Committee, Messrs. Jule and 
J. J. Allen, Mr. Clair Hague and Mr. Wm. Redpath, the distribution of motion 
picture films was effected without cost. Two food films which were secured 
by the British Ministry of Food were shown throughout Canada, one of them 
In 164 theatres and the other in 115 theatres. 

CONSERVATION PUBLICITY SECTION.— The Conservation 
Publicity Section of the Board was formed in March to enlist the aid of the 
army of retail merchants in the Dominion. It was felt that no class of persons 
possessed more collective influence for directing public sentiment through 
the medium of their store windows, their newspaper advertising and their 
countless hand bills, catalogues and pamphlets. This vast influence was turned 
to account through supplying merchants with phrases for display in every 
possible place and position which would carry the message of the Food Board 
on food saving and avoidance of waste. These went not simply into the homes 
but into the very kitchens of the people. Informative phrases were used by 
thousands in newspaper advertising and in catalogues and pamphlets; food 
window displays by the score were made; over half a million leaflets were 
distributed through stores; employees were given talks to enable them to 
discuss intelligently with customers the why and the wherefore of the regula- 
tions of the Food Board; posters and window cards were placed in stores, 
day schools, Sunday schools, blacksmith shops and other prominent places, 
with much miscellaneous publicity on similar lines which retail merchants 
themselves undertook through the suggestions conveyed to them from the 
Board. 

62 



The Section was almost self-contained, and was independent of all other 
classes of publicity. Its scope widened from month to month throughout the 
spring and summer until by July almost the whole of the special article writing 
for the recognized food trade journals, the more important daily newspapers 
from coast to coast, and the numerous miscellaneous magazines which desired 
particularized information, was done in the Section. The last named class 
included journals specializing in financial, commercial, trade, technical, school, 
educational and municipal fields. In addition, pithy monthly sketches called 
"The Why in Food Board Work" were sent out to retail merchants for 
insertion in the local press, and brief, pointed articles were contributed to the 
numerous house organs published by the larger firms in the Dominion. Thus, 
a varied and various form of activity grew out of the original plan, which had 
the advantage that the information supplied from Ottawa was made of 
intimate family interest to distant readers by the fact that it was published in 
a local organ or magazine linked with the familiar name of a known retailer. 

The work grew directly out of inquiries which were made by firms and 
persons through the instrumentality of this slogan publicity, and was inva- 
riably aimed to give plain guidance and enlightenment on defined points of 
interest in the rapidly extending work of food control. So that the work of 
the Section might be properly carried out, the country v/as divided into 
twenty-five divisions, and a prominent retail merchant in each division was 
asked to accept the appointment of Divisional Representative. A retail 
merchant was appointed by him in each city and town in the division, who, 
in turn, appointed a local committee of retail merchants, covering different 
branches of business, to carry out the work. On this basis the Section was 
definitely represented in about 700 cities and towns throughout Canada, 
assuring the co-operation of approximately 25.000 to 30,000 retail merchants. 
Educational phrases and matter were distributed, and when incorporated in 
advertising space bore the words — "Issued by the Canada Food Board." 
All advertising through the Section was a gift of the retail merchants. Several 
gas and electrical companies installed demonstration equipments. Colored 
posters illustrating production of foreign countries, as compared with Canada, 
were prepared. Pamphlets were sent to retailers as required, making a 
continuous campaign of informative matter being placed before the people 
through the medium of retail merchants. 

The Advisory Publicity Committee was appointed in March for certain 
advertising through newspapers, posters, street cars and other publicity. 
All contracts were placed through advertising agencies at the regular com- 
mercial rate. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY SECTION AND WOMEN'S WORK 

The aims of these sections have been to secure the co-operation of the 
: women in the homes and the sympathy of all those engaged in the handling 
of foods. The Domestic Economy Section also hoped to create a better 
spirit towards general economy in foods and to offset the wastefulness with 
which Canada has been charged. To accomplish this it was necessary to work 
very closely with the Information Department, with the women's organiza- 
tions and with that part of the educational programme of the various provinces 
! directly concerned with home economics. With this in view bulletins were 



prepared urging the use of such special foods as fish, wheat flour substitutes, 
fancy meats, potatoes, vegetables and meat canning. Pamphlets were pre- 
pared on canning, drying and storing of fruits and vegetables. Over 125 
meetings were addressed by the Director of Domestic Economy. These, 
convened by various organizations, were largely for women. Country 
Women's Clubs were reached through conventions in New Brunswick, Prince 
Edward Island, Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta. The Domestic Economy 
Section was represented at annual fairs. Great assistance was given by House- 
hold Science Colleges and schools, particularly of the University of Toronto, 
Guelph and Macdonald College, P.Q. 

Household Science teachers were kept in touch with the Board. They 
emphasized the saving of exportable foods and the avoidance of waste. 
From the stimulation given to saving some citizens report a lessening of garbage 
waste of between fifty and seventy-five per cent of pre-war amounts. There 
now prevails a greater simplification of meals and a lessened number of the 
courses served. Sufficient has been learned during these days of stress and 
strain to show what could be secured were the food problems of the homes 
to be considered a permanent part of the nation's economic policy. 

WOMEN'S WORK. — Food control was started with the message: 
"Remember that the WOMEN are the real Food Controllers of Canada." 
Now that the results of the long months of work are apparent, it may be said 
with equal truth: "The women have been the real Food Controllers of Can- 
ada." To have attempted to control or distribute the country's food sup- 
plies without the whole-hearted assistance of the two million odd house- 
keepers of the Dominion would have been like trying to make bricks without 
straw. By the arts of peace and the practice of simple, homely virtues they 
rendered a service to humanity that will ever redound to their credit. 

It would be well-nigh impossible to mention all the organizations that 
have shared in this work. Women, organized or unorganized, rose to the 
occasion and did what was needed when it was needed. There were times 
when they wondered why they had to do certain things, but looking back in 
thij light of fuller knowledge, it will be seen that they "builded better than they 
knew." Food control was virtually started with the "pledge card" campaign, 
which covered 936,500 English and 143,000 French homes; it was the corner- 
stone of all that came after. Without exception the women's organizations 
stood behind the cause of food conservation, in diffusing information and 
stimulating to best endeavor. They turned to the study of general thrift 
questions. Platform work proved one of the important factors in food control, 
and here, too, they rendered valuable service. 

To the newspaper women of Canada a special tribute is due. Publicity 
has been one of the main stays of food control. The greatest help was given 
by the women writers, all of whom showed initiative and ready spirit. They 
helped to divert the problems of the home from humdrum backwaters to the 
steady stream of live, interesting, reading matter. 

Women whose services cannot be overlooked are the household science 
teachers. For many years they had sought tq improve economic conditiona 
in the home and to raise the standard of household work. Acting in con- 
junction with the colleges from which they graduated, they were a tremendous 
force in spreading the gospel of thrift. Demonstration done by them in the 
Provinces was of the greatest value. 

64 



Home conservation was woman's principal, but not by any means 
her entire contribution to the cause of feeding the Allies and their armies. 
She figured prominently in the production campi.i^n, too. Thousands 
of young girls and women, emulating their British and French sisters, worked 
shoulder to shoulder with men, harvesting, picking fruit, hoeing — in fact, 
doing everything that seemed essential for the success of the 1918 harvest. 
One of the lasting benefits of this outdoor work was the impetus given to garden- 
ing and the keeping of chickens, bees, rabbits or other things which materially 
contribute to the country's food supply. 

Undoubtedly one of the best and most lasting results of food control 
is the community spirit which has been fostered among women and which 
exhibited itself so clearly during the past year through the medium of canning 
and cooking centres. An era of better and more thrifty housewives has dawned. 
Food control has taught them to be more self-contained. Women have come 
to know the value of home-grown foods — to appreciate the fruit and vegetables 
of their own backyards and the fish caught in Canadian waters. It is question- 
able if one woman out of ten could have estimated a fortnight's food supply 
in advance for her household before the food restrictions caused her to figure 
it all out and put her housekeeping on a business basis. Better shopping 
methods, more first-hand buying, more evenly balanced meals, a keener sense 
of food values and better health have all come in the wake of women's efforts 
to comply with the Food Board's rulings and requests. 

"SOLDIERS OF THE SOIL" 

The "Soldiers of the Soil" movement was organized under the direction 
of the Canada Food Board in February, 1918, after consideration by members 
of the Board and consultation with Provincial Premiers and others, who 
realized that older boys could make a definite contribution towards greater 
production. Because of the shortage of farm laborers and the urgent need 
of organized effort in all parts of the Dominion, steps were taken before 
seeding time to enlist this army of teen-age boys. The appeal was launched 
almost simultaneously in each province of the Dominion for all boys 15-19 
years of age, particularly boys of the High Schools, Collegiate Institutes 
and Academies to give up their vacation plans and go out for three months 
or more to help farmers to produce food. It was not entirely an experiment. 
In a few parts of Canada groups had alreay been organized. Results secured 
have more than justified the undertaking. Mr. Taylor Statten was appointed 
National Superintendent-Executive of the movement. Provincial Super- 
intendents were appointed by him for each province after consultation with 
premiers and heads of departments concerned. 

As a result of the enrolment campaign, approximately 25,000 boys 
were enlisted. In certain of the Provinces the Provincial Government had 
already established agencies through which the work of placement could be 
done, and in these cases the boys were officially assigned to farmers through 
that Department. The Ontario Trades and Labor Branch and the Manitoba 
Department of Immigration and Colonization rendered signal service. In 
the other provinces it was necessary to establish practically a new Department 
for the temporary requirements of the "S.O.S." Applications were procured 
from farmers directly. In some parts, at the outset, farmers were sceptical 
of the value of boy labor, and the co-operation of Farmers' Institutes and 

65 



Association had to be sec|ured in order to encourage the use of boy labor for 
more extensive seeding operations than had been originally planned by the far- 
mers. Bronze badges of honor were presented, on behalf of the Food Board, 
to boys who had served three months on the farms. These were greatly 
appreciated. 

The following summary shows the results by provinces:— 

No. of No. of 

Provii.ce Boys Boys 

Enrolled Placed 

British Columbia 1,800 1,137 

Alberta 1,218 1,132 

Saskatchewan 1,925 1,765 

Manitoba 1,650 1,060 

Ontario 10,324 10,324 

Quebec 1,560 1,560 

New Brunswick 855 690 

Nova Scotia 2,293 2,003 

Prince Edward Island 760 760 



22,885 20,431 



The "Soldiers of the Soil" movement in the province of Quebec fell 
naturally into two divisions — that among the French-Canadian boys, under the 
direction of Mr. A. Desilets, B. S. A., Director of Farm Labor for the province, 
and that among the English-speaking boys, under the direction of Mr. Donald 
MacLeod. Fifty-one schools and academies were visited and the movement 
explained to the boys, more than 800 at once expressing their willingness to en- 
gage in farm work for the summer. Under Mr. Desilets and the general 
direction of the Farm Labor Office, some 840 local committees on greater 
production became interested in the work. The number of boys on the farms, 
including those working for relatives and friends, who qualified for the special 
badge of honor runs into several thousands. 

Acknowledgement should be made of the Provincial Departments of 
Agriculture, Labor and Education; the National Council of Young Men's 
Christian Associations, whose staff was loaned without charge; leaders of 
Boy Scout Organizations, who recognized the importance of the movement 
and who rendered efficient service, and to hundreds of volunteer committee 
men. 

VACANT LOT AND HOME GARDEN SECTION 

The vacant lot and home garden movement directed by the Food Board 
gave it an authoritative influence. Mayors and presidents of Boards of 
Trade, executive heads of horticulutral associations, agricultural institutions 
and Provincial Departments of Agriculture were urged to further garden work. 
The clergy, the press, Rotarian Clubs, retail merchants' associations, publicity 
clubs, women's organizations and a score of other public bodies were similarly 
interested. Police and firemen were individually circularized. Many of 
these were known to be expert gardeners, and vacant lots cultivated by them 
proved not only to be models but were an incentive to others in the community. 
School children were reached. A gratifying featre of the movement was the 
patriotic response of the women. 

66 



Railroad corporations were encouraged to release their idle land in urban 
oommunities and to secure the co-operation of their employees in cultivation. 
Retail merchants were asked to feature advertisements of garden products 
and implements. Many church garden clubs were formed as a result of an 
appeal to the clergy. 

Specially written newspaper articles were sent out on gardening. Printed 
matter prepared by horticultural authorities was freely distributed to garden 
v/orkers. Several street car companies gave space in the spring for the 
slogan: "Grow Your Own Vegetables." Four-minute speakers appeared 
before moving picture audiences. Clergymen featured the work in their 
sermons. The policy of central direction was valuable. It was especially 
evident in explaining to new communities how to create an organization, to 
solve such problems as fencing, the supply of tools, the conversion of former 
flower gardens into vegetable plots, fertilization, the growing only of standard 
and nutritive vegetables, and in discouraging amateurs from cultivating too 
large areas. On result attending this movement is worthy of note. Possibly 
five per cent of those who took up the work were uninformed gardeners; a 
season or two found ninety-five per cent of them more or less expert. Attrac- 
tive moving pictures showing methods of backyard gardening, prepared by 
the Ontario Department of Agriculture, were placed at the Board's disposal. 
Reels were secured and widely circulated. 

A trip of inspection to the West was made and a visit paid to every city 
of importance between the Great Lakes and the Pacific Coast. In some 
communities every available vacant lot was brought under cultivation. The 
money value of the garden truck grown is not easily estimated. It was 
practically impossible to get satisfactory returns from isolated communities 
The 1918 growth was possibly twice the total of 1917. 



67 



PART III 



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71 



APPENDIX II.— RELATIVE COST OF THE LOAF 



W 




2. — Diagram showing the cost of one pound of bread in six years. Each vertial bar 
represents actual cost to consumer. The solid black section shows the percentage mid to 
the farmer-producer; the white section the percentage added by the miller; and the iiaded 
section the percentage taken by the baker. In 1913 the farmer-producer received onl; 29% 
(with flour at 90c); in 1918 (with flour at $2.20) he received 48%. In 1916 the bake took 
61%, and in 1918, after food control had been established, the percentage was 45. Iij 1917 
the miller was taking 15% of the total, but under the restricted profits established by the 
Board, the percentage was reduced to 7 — exactly the figure at which it stood before th« war. 



APPENDIX v.— CANADIAN EGG PRICES 




5. — A chart showing the wide seasonal fluctuations of prices in eggs in Canada from the 
beginning of 1914 to the end of 1917. In November, 1916^ the wholesale price of fresh egga 
was actually for a short time higher than the retail price. 



75 



Appendix VI 

[ORDERS OF THE CANADA FOOD BOARD] 

Below is a list given chronologically by issue of the Orders of the Canada 
Food Board to the end of 1918:— 

Order No. Subject Dale 

1. Package Cereals, Breakfast Foods and Flour. . .October 24, 1917. 

2. Importation and Manufacture of Oleomargarine " 25, 1917. 

3. Western Caught Fish November 30, 1917. 

3a. Fruit and Vegetable Dealers' License December 13, 1917. 

4. Breakfast Foods, Cereals (License) " 14, 1917. 

5. Bran, Shorts— Prices (Revoked Order 32) " 17, 1917. 

6. Fish (License) " 19, 1917. 

9. Cost of Milk " 21, 1917. 

11. Manufacture of Flour (Revoked by Order 32). .January 18, 1918. 

12. Fish Prices (Revoked by Order 65) " 18, 1918. 

13. (Replaced by Order-in-Council 180.) 

14. Bran and Shorts— Bags (Revoked by Order 32) " 19, 1918. 

15. Millers' License (Revoked by Order 32) " 29, 1918. 

16. Bakers' License (Revoked by Order 49) February 9, 1918. 

17. Wholesale Gorcers' License " 21, 1918. 

18. Fish Prices — Pacific Fish (Amended by Order 

No. 28) " 21, 1918. 

19. Wholesale Produce (Revoked by Order 41) ... . " 22, 1918. 

20. Bakers, Extension of Time (Revoked by Order 

No. 23) " 25, 1918. 

21. Retail Grocers' License February 25, 1918. 

22. Retail Trades, other than Grocers (License) ... " 25, 1918. 

23. Bakers— re Standard Flour March 4, 1918. 

24. Eggs— Storage " 16,1918. 

25. Eating Places (Revoked by Order 46) " 18, 1918. 

26. Produce, etc. — Hoarding April 4, 1918. 

27. Powers of Canada Food Board " 8,1918. 

28. Fish— Pacific Fish Prices " 11,1918. 

29. Eating Place Licenses (Revoked by Order 46) . . " 15, 1918. 

30. Sugar- Hoarding " 25, 1918. 

31. Flour— Hoarding " 25, 1918. 

32. Millers' License (Also Bran and Shorts, Flour) . . " 26, 1918. 

33. Confectioners' License (51) " 26, 1918. 

34. Confectionery, Biscuits, Cakes and Pastry " 27, 1918. 

35. Private Consumption of Cakes, Candy and 

Icing " 27, 1918. 

86. Flour and Feed Dealers' License " 30, 1918. 

37. Grocers — Extension of Time " 30, 1918. 

38. Packers' License (48-59) May 8, 1918. 

39. Canners' License " 6, 1918. 

40. Flour — Farmers Holding under Order 31 " 17, 1918. 

41. Wholesale Produce License " 17, 1918. 

42. Sardine, Herring (Prices) May 29, 1918. 

43. Eating Place (Extension of Time) « 29, 1918. 



44. Confectioners (Extension of Time) May 29, 1918. 

45. Produce Merchants — Profits June 5, 1918. 

46. Eating Place License (51 and 58) " 5, 1918. 

47. Fish (Western Summer Whitefish) " 5, 1918. 

48. Packers (Amendment to Order 38) " 11, 1918. 

49. Bakers' License (51 and 62) " 21, 1918. 

50. Flour Substitutes (55) " 25, 1918. 

51. Amending Orders 33 — Confectioners 

" " 49— Bakers " 27, 1918. 

" 46— Eating Places 

52. Bread — Vancouver and Westminster (Revoked 

by Order 57) « 

53. Cereal Substitutes July 

54. Manufacturers using Sugar — License " 

55. Flour Substitutes (Amending Order 50) " 

56. Refuse Screenings " 

57. Bread — British Columbia ' 

58. Pork— Removal of Restrictions (46) " 

59. Packers (Amending Order 38) August 

60. Sugar Order for Eating Places, Soda Fountains, 

Ice Cream Parlors and Manufacturers and 
Bakers " 

61. Yukon Territory Regulations " 

62. Bakers — (Revoking Section 8, Order 49) September 

63. Salmon — Prices to British Columbia Fishermen " 

64. Sugar Order — Refiners and Importers September 

65. Fish — Prices for Western Winter Caught (Re- 

voking Order No. 12) October 2, 1918. 

66. Sugar Order — Condensed Milk and Special 

Permits " 7, 1918. 

67. Cereal Substitutes " 10,1918. 

68. Revoking Section 22, Order 49 " 11, 1918. 

69. Permitting Special Stocks of Flour and Sugar 

to Consumers Shut Off by Close of Naviga- 
tion, etc " 21, 1918. 

70. Restricting Substitutes to Oat, Barley, Corn and 

Rye Flours (Revoking Orders 31 and 40) " 

71. Revoking all Orders on Substitutes November 

72. Revoking Order 53 on Cereals " 

73. Revising Regulations for Flour Mills (Revoking 

Orders 32, 68 and 70) 

74. Revising License Fees " 

75. Regulating License Fees of Flour Mills (Revis- 

ing Section in 74) December 

76. Repealing Sugar Restrictions " 

77. Revoking Orders 9, 14, 47 (re "Fair Prices"). . 

{Orders 7, 8 and 10 were not issued) 
77 



28, 


1918. 


10, 


1918. 


12, 


1918. 


13, 


1918. 


17, 


1918. 


24, 


1918. 


31, 


1918. 


8, 


1918. 


31, 


1918. 


30, 


1918. 


6, 


1918. 


6. 


1918. 


25, 


1918. 



21, 


1918. 


14, 


1918. 


21, 


1918. 


27, 


1918. 


28, 


1918. 


4, 


1918. 


13, 


1918. 


18, 


1918. 



Appendix VII 

ALLIED BUYING IN THE DOMINION 
Purchases of various foodstuffs in the Dominion by the British Ministry 
of Food, the Dairy Produce Commission and the Wheat Export Company, 
Limited (official buyers in Canada for the Allied Governments) are shown 
below: — 

BRITISH MINISTRY OF FOOD 

Tons Value 

Bacon and Hams 86,355 $ 62,151,849 

Frozen Beet 60,165 28,586,603 

Preserved Meat 4,535 4,547,762 

Lard 420 260,043 

Salmon 8,174 8,886,614 



159,649 $ 104,432,871 



THE DAIRY PRODUCE COMMISSION 

Quantity Value 

Condensed Milk 582,150 cases $ 3,819,077 

Cheese 1,777,793 boxes 34,626,853 

Butter 159,520 " 4,106,200 

17,621 cases 268,134 



Flour 

Oatmeal . . . . 
Rolled Oats . 
Rye Flour. . 
Corn Meal. . 
Pot Barley . . 



$ 42,820,264 

THE WHEAT EXPORT COMPANY, LIMITED 

Tons of 
2240 lbs. 

768,818 

29,854 

2,837 

1,055 

2,718 

318 



Total 805,600 



Appendix VIII 



RETAIL PRICES OF FISH 



Comparisons of retail fish prices in the principal Canadian cities with 
prices in cities similarly situated in the United States show what has been 
accomplished by the Canada Food Board, in conjunction with the Department 
of Fisheries and with the co-operation of the fish trade, to make ocean fish 
available at moderate prices. Quotations below were secured from Boards 
of Trade in the cities on the list. In most cases Canadian prices are lower 
than the American. In some cases there is a marked difference. This is 
especially true of the moderately priced fish. "Luxury" fish (salmon and 
halibut), it will be noticed, are high priced in both countries. 

78 



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79 



Appendix IX 

RETAIL PRICES OF STAPLE FOODS IN CANADA AND THE UNITED 
STATES, SEPTEMBER 15th, 1918. 

The following table of the cost of staple articles of food, averaged in 
sixty cities in Canada and forty cities in the United States, was compiled 
from data furnished by the Labor Departments of both countries, and is 
revised to terms of quantities consumed by the average family in one week:— 



Bread 15 pounds. 

Flour 10 

Butter 3 

Milk 6 quarts. . 



Cheese 

Eggs 

Bacon 

Beef 

Pork Chops . 



Potatoes 2 



Beans (dry). 

Rice 

Tea 

Coffee 

Sugar 

Lard 



pounds, 
dozen . . 
pound . . 
pounds, 
pound . . 
pecks. . 
pound . . 
pounds, 
i pound. 



... 4 pounds. 
... 2 " 
Prunes 1 pound . . 



Canada 


U.S. 


60 Cities 


IfO Cities 


$ 1.170 


% 1.485 


680 


680 


1.486 


1.776 


744 


1.029 (Imperial Measure) 


643 


720 


1.065 


1.172 


511 


562 


1.363 


1.426 


403 


461 


707 


702 (Imperial Measure). 


169 


169 


238 


274 


303 


332 


114 


076 


472 


384 


740 


672 


183 


174 



$10,991 



$12,094 



In the above comparison five items out of the seventeen are slightly 
lower in the United States than in Canada — lard, coffee, potatoes, sugar and 
prunes. Coffee, sugar and prunes are naturally lower in price in the United 
States than in Canada, which is further from the source of supply. The United 
States is one of the world's greatest producers of lard. 



So 



Appendix X 



THE CANADIAN FARMERS' WAR RECORD 



CROPS 



Winter Wheat . 



Spring Wheat . 



Oats. 



Barley 

Rye 

Buckwheat . 
Potatoes. . . 
Hay 



Flaxseed . 



Acreage 



Acres 

Planted 

1918 



416,615 
16,937,287 
14,790,336 



3,153,711 

555,294 

548,097 

656,958 

8,225,034 

1,068,120 



Per 

Cent of 

1914 



42.8 
181.7 
146.9 
210.8 
499.0 
154.6 
138.0 
102.8 

98.5 



Peodx;ction 



No. of 

Bushels 

1918 



6,960,200 

203,355,400 

456,733,900 

83,262,500 

10,375,500 

11,469,600 

79,892,000 

Tons 

13,684,700 

7,695,000 



Per 

Cent of 

1914 



33.4 
144.7 
145.8 
230.0 
514.4 
132.9 

93.2 
133.8 
107.2 



Acreage final, 
erops estimated. 



Production of Potatoes and Hay final. Yield of other 



Appendix XI 

CANADA'S MARKETS— DURING AND AFTER WAR 

The huge market for all classes of Canada's produce is outlined in the 
following tables. Table A shows the yearly imports into Allied countries in 
the 3-5-year period before the war and requirements in 1917-18. 
shows Canada's exports similarly compared, with precentages. 



Table B 



TABLE A. 



Beef, pounds 

Pork Products, pounds. . . 

Butter, pounds 

Condensed Milk, pounds. 

Eggs, dozen 

Cheese, pounds 

Wheat, bushels 

Barley, bushels 

Oats, bushels 

Rye, bushels 



Allies' 
pre-War 
Imports. 
1,127,655,000 
908,245,000 
481,000,000 
150,000,000 
241,554,000 
257,985,000 
312,684,000 
54,162,000 
97,848,000 
5,549,000 



Allies' 

War 

Requirements 

1,569,356,000 

1,520,000,000 

501,000,000 

250,000,000 

241,554,000 

268,800,000 

525,085,000 

69,145,000 

171,628,000 

28,271,000 



81 



TABLE B. 

Canada's 

pre-War 

Net Exports. 

Beef, pounds 

Pork Products, pounds 3,000,000 

Butter, pounds 6,000,000 

Condensed Milk, pounds 4,405,000 

Eggs, dozen 12,000,000 

Cheese, pounds 140,000,000 

Wheat, bushels 94,686,000 

Barley, bushels 5,508,000 

Oats, bushels 15,552,000 

Rye, bushels 788,000 





Percentage 




of Supply 


Canada's 


to Allies' 


War 


War 


Net Exports. 


Needs. 


35,000,000 


2.23 


130,000,000 


8.55 


7,000,000 


1.40 


15,754,000 


6.30 


3,000,000 


1.24 


180,000,000 


66.96 


222,000,000 


42.28 


9,678,000 


13.99 


64,992,000 


37.87 


1,130,000 


4.00 



Appendix XII 

CANADIAN IMPORTS OF FOODSTUFFS 

The tables below show the chief foodstuffs imported into Canada during 
the year 1913-14, the last full fiscal period before the war disturbed the import 
and export trade. 

BUTTER Lbs. 

Imported from within the empire 6,884,529 

From foreign countries 1,104,740 

7,989,269 

Value $ 2,081,989 

Lbs. 
New Zealand supplies the chief part of these 

imports 6,018,022 

The United States came second, and the United 

Kingdom a good third with 767,131 

CHEESE Lbs. 

Imported frorri within the empire 80,075 

From foreign countries 1,415,683 

1,495,758 

Value $302,153 



The order of importance of countries exporting to Canada was: Italy, 
United States, France, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. 



82 



EGGS 

Dozen 

Imported from within the empire 69,193 

From foreign countries 13,170,918 

13,240,111 

Value $ 2,783,665 

The United States sent in 13,158,558 

LAKD 

Lbs. 

Imported from within the empire 73,623 

From foreign countries 12,086,258 

12,159,881 

Value $ 1,354,442 

Nearly the whole of this came from the United 
States. 

BACON AND HAM 

Lbs. 

Imported from within the empire 51,940 

From foreign countries 13,502,454 

13,554,394 

Value $ 1,946,378 

BEEF — FRESH AND FROZEN 

Lbs. 

Imported from within the empire 422,539 

F^om foreign countries 187,168 

609,707 
Value $ 57,712 

BEEF — SALTED IN BARRELS 

Lbs. 

Imported from within the empire 12,652 

From foreign countries 1,006,207 

1,018,857 
Value ? 69,057 



83 



MEATS (general) 

The accompanjdng table shows the total values in 1913 and 1916 of 
meats imported by various countries from Canada: 

1913 1916 

$ $ 

United Kingdom 6,998,976 33,152,107 

Gibraltar 968,643 

Newfoundland 117,336 100,928 

France 42,111 2,083,727 

Germany 3,099 

Netherlands 60,660 

Italy 151,439 

Portugal 1,000 

United States 85,835 1,639,081 



Appendix XIII 

CHIEF CANADIAN FOOD EXPORTS 

The following tables show the totals of foodstuffs exported from Canada 
to those countries which were best customers in 1913, the year before war, 
and the quantities for 1916, a typical war year. 

BUTTEIB 

1918 1916 

Lbs. Lbs. 

Total 828,323 3,441,183 

United Kingdom 681 1,950,137 

British South Africa 393,634 

British West Indies 86,552 88,066 

Newfoundland 233,372 366,804 

United States 304,503 205,029 

CnJSESE 

1913 1916 

Lbs. Lbs. 

Total 155,216,392 168,961,583 

United Kingdom 153,886,885 167,414,411 

Newfoundland 463,630 287,442 

United States 261,682 103,308 

EGGS 

1913 1916 

Doz. Doz. 

Total 147,419 7,898,322 

United Kingdom 51,294 7,565,884 

United States 9,852 270,978 

84 



LAIiD 

1913 1916 

Lbs. Lbs. 

Total 46,638 24,998 



United Kingdom 34,500 4,809 

BACON 

Lbs. Lbs. 

Total 36,212,190 144,918,867 

United Kingdom 35,963,906 144,150,309 

United States 151,182 615,901 

France 68,691 78,192 

BEEF 

Lbs. Lbs. 

Total 1,570,979 47,422,564 

United Kingdom 782,920 13,912,371 

Gibraltar 8,014,821 

France 13,729,614 

Italy 1,706,407 

United States 19,474 9,433,072 

MEATS, CANNED 

Lbs. Lbs. 

Total 254,937 11,031,893 

United Kingdom 244,732 9,759,909 

France 468,237 

Netherlands 582,336 

United States'. 2,661 119,681 

HAM 

1913 1916 

Lbs. Lbs. 

Total 2,476,654 8,732,857 

United Kingdom 2,423,074 7,367,160 

France 29,650 503,432 

United States 3,455 832,523 

MUTTON 

Lbs. Lbs. 

Total 45,914 99,593 

Newfoundland 9,937 40,553 

United States 34,340 45,978 



85 



PORK 

Lbs. Lbs. 

Total 521,533 13,142,196 



United Kingdom 4,063 10,198,476 

France 29,014 444,471 

Germany 10,810 

United States : 57,411 2,268,989 



Appendix XIV 

MEMORANDUM ON PAMPHLETS DISTRIBUTED FROM THE FOOD 
BOARD OFFICE SINCE AUGUST, 1917 

Distributed 

Pledge Cards— English 936,500 

Pledge Cards — French 143,000 

"War Meals"— English 749,950 

"War Meals"— French 98,600 

Restaurant Cards — English 18,800 

Restam-ant Cards — French 2,500 

"Speaker's Handbook" — English 17,775 

"Speaker's Handbook" — French 2,300 

Canning and Drying Bulletin — English 442,200 

Canning and Drying Bulletin — French 71,200 

"Eat More Fish"— English 100,000 

"Eat More Fish"— French 41,650 

Marine Department Fish Book 1,500 

"One Week's Budget" 75,000 

"Don't Waste Food" 99,000 

Glucose Pamphlet 185,200 

"Food Laws" 31,000 

"What is Food Control?" (Booklet) 10,000 

Jam Making Pamphlet 98,788 

Canon Snowdon's Sermon on Food Saving 28,800 

Recipes for Canning Meat, Poultry and Fish 23,000 

Hon. W. J. Hanna's Report 24,400 

Grocery Trade Report 2,650 

"Suggestions" 49,500 

Report of the Milk Committee 4,000 

"Food Control or Famine?" 10,000 

Report of the Cereal Package Committee 3,750 

Report of the Produce Committee 3,300 

"What Canada Has Done" 145,000 

Dr. Nadeau's Pamphlet 9,500 

"Fish Alive-0!" 115,000 

"How to Handle Frozen Fish" 7,000 

"Hints on Frozen Fish" 7,000 

Garbage Utilization Bulletin 2,000 

" The Need of the Hour" 145,000 

86 



"Potatoes and How to Cook Them" 200,000 

"Use Thrift and Live Better" (Pamphlet) 100,000 

Fancy Meats Booklet 100,000 

Livestock Folder 200,000 

Codfish Pamphlet 100,000 

Food Board Orders 426,000 

Orders-in-Council 162,000 



MEMORANDUM ON POSTERS DISTRIBUTED SINCE AUGUST, 

1917 

6 One-sheet Posters 9,000 

"Save the Food" 33,000 

"Kitchen, Key to Victory" 31,000 

"Soldiers of the Soil" 74,668 

Vegetable Cards 30,000 

Fish Cards 60,000 

"Canada's Pork Opportunity"— English 4,950 

"Canada's Pork Opportunity" — French 4,000 

"Canada's Beef Opportunity" — English 4,950 

"Canada's Beef Opportunity" — French 4,000 

"Canada's Butter Opportunity" — English 4,950 

"Canada's Butter Opportunity" — French 4,000 

"Canada's Egg Opportunity"— English 4,950 

"Canada's Egg Opportunity" — French 4,000 

Fish and Vegetable Meals— English 13,000 

Fish and Vegetable Meals — French 2,500 

"We Must Feed Daddy, Too" 14,000 

Recipe Book Posters 15,200 

"We Are Saving You"— English 18,450 

"We Are Saving You"— French 2,500 

"A Good Butcher"— English 18,450 

"A Good Butcher"— French 2,500 

"Hoarding"— English 23,450 

"Hoarding"— French 1,000 

"Waste Not— Want Not"— English 23,450 

"Waste Not— Want Not"— French 1,000 

Note. — A consignment of posters was destroyed by fire in the Grand 
Trunk freight shed, Ottawa, August 13th, 1918. 



a