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Full text of "Chess fundamentals"

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GV1445.C2T""""""'"""""^ 
Chess fundamentals, 




3 1924 014 756 724 




The original of this book is in 
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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924014756724 



BY JOSE R. CAPABLANCA 

A PRIMES OF CHESS 




JOSE R. CAPABLANCA 



CHESS 
FUNDAMENTALS 



BY 



JOSfi R. C^PABLANCA 



CHESS CHAMPION OF THE WORLD 




NEW YORK 

HARCOURT, BRACE AND COMPANY 
LONDON: G. BELL AND SON^, LTD, 

URIS LIBRARY 



COPYRIGHT, I921, BY 
HARCOUKT, BRACE AND COMPANY, INC. 

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by 
mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher. 







PKINIED IN THE D. S. A. 



PREFACE . 

Chess Fundamentals was first published thirteen years 
ago. Siace then there have appeared at different times 
a number of articles dealing with the so-called Hyper- 
modem Theory. Those who have read the articles 
may well have thought that something new, of vital 
importance, had been discovered. The fact is that the 
'Hypermodem Theory is merely the application, during 
the opening stages generally, of the same old principles 
through the medium of somewhat new tactics. There 
has been no change in the fundamentals. The change 
has been only a change of form, and not always for the 
best at that. 

In chess the tactics may change but the strategic 
fimdamental principles are always the same, so that 
Chess Fundamentals is as good now as it was thirteen 
years ago. It will be as good a hundred years from now; 
as long in fact as the laws and rules of the game remain 
what they are at present. The reader may therefore 
go over the contents of the book with the assurance 
that there is in it everything he needs, and that there 
is nothing to be added and nothing to be changed. 
Chess Fundamentals was the one standard work of its 
kind thirteen years ago and the author firmly believes 
that it is the one standard work of its kind now. 

J. R. CAPABLANCA 

New York 
Sept. I, ig34 



LIST OF CONTENTS 
PART I 

CHAPTER I 
First Principjles: Endings, Middle-game and Openings 



PAGE 

1. Some Simple Mates 3 

2. Pawn Promotion 9 

3. Pawn Endings- 13 

4. Some Winning Positions in the Middle-game .... 19 

5. Relative Value of the Pieces 24 

6. General Strategy of the Opening 25 

7. Control of the Centre 28 

8. Traps 32 

CHAPTER n 
Further Principles in End-game Play 

9. A Cardinal Principle 35 

10. A Classical Ending 37 

11. Obtaining a Passed Pawn 40 

12. How TO find out which Pawn will be the first 

to Queen 41 

13. The Opposition 43 

14. TfEE Relative Value of Knight and Bishop .... 50 

15. How TO Mate with Knight and Bishop 59 

16. Queen against Rook 62 

CHAPTER m 
Planning a Win in Middle-game Play 

17. Attacking without the aid of Knights 68 

18. Attacking with Knights as a Prominent Force. . . 71 

19. WiNNiNO BY Indirect Attack 73 



LIST OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER IV 
General Theory 

FAQE 

20. The Initiative 77 

21. Direct Attacks bn masse 7* 

22. The Force of the Threatened Attack 82 

23. Relinquishing the Initiative 89 

24. Cutting off Pieces from the Scene of Action ... 94 

25. A Player's Motives Criticised in a Specimen Game . 99 

CHAPTER V 
End-game Strategy 

26. The Sudden Attack from a Different Side 11 1 

27. The Danger of a Safe Position 120 

28. Endings with one Rook and Pawns 122 

29. A Difficult Ending: Two Rooks and Pawns .... 127 

30. Rook, Bishop and Pawns v. Rook, Knight and Pawns 138 

(A Final Example of preserving Freedom whilst 
imposing restraint.) 

CHAPTER VI 
Further Openings and Middle-games 

31. Some Sauent Points about Pawns 143 

32. Some Possible Developments from a Ruy Lopez 

(showing the weakness of a backward Q B P; the 
power of a Pawn at K s, etc.) 146 

33. The Influence of a "Hole" 150 



XIST OF CONTENTS 
PART II 

ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 

GAME PAGE 

1. Queen's Gambit Declined ( Match, 1909) 159 

White: F. J. Marshall. Black: J. R. Capablanca. 

2. Queen's Gambit Declined (San Sebastian, 1911). . 163 

White: A. K. Rubinstein. Black: J. R. Capablanca. 

3. Irregular Defence (Havana, 1913) 169 

White: D. Janowski. Black: J. R. Capablanca. 

4. French Defence (St. Petersburg, 1913) 174 

White: J. R. Capablania. Black: E. A. Snosko-Borovski. 

5. RuY Lopez (St. Petersburg, 1914) 181 

White: Dr.E. Lasker. Black: J.R. Capablanca. 

6. French Defence ( Rice Memorial Tournament, 1916 ) 189 

White: O. Chajes. Black: J. R. Capablanca. 

7. RuY Lopez (San Sebastian, 1911) 197 

White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: A. Bum. 

8. Centre Game (Berlin, 1913) 201 

White: J. Mieses. Black: J. R. Capablanca. 

9. Queen's Gambit Declined (Berlin, 1913) 209 

White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: R. Teichmann. 

10. Petrofp Defence (St. Petersburg, 1914) 215 

White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: F. J. Marshall. 

11. RuY Lopez (St. Petersburg, 1914) 221 

White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: D. Janowski. 

12. French Defence (New York, 1918) 225 

White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: 0. Chajes. 

13. RuY Lopez (New York, 1918) 231 

White: J. S. Morrison. Black: J. R. Capablanca. 

14. Queen's Gambit Declined (New York, 1918). . . . 238 

White: F. J. Marshall. Black: J. R. Capablanca. 



CHESS FUNDAMENTALS 



CHESS FUNDAMENTALS 

PART I 

CHAPTER I 

First Principles: Endings, Middle-Game 
AND Openings 

The first thing a student should do, is to famiUarise 
himseK with the power of the pieces. This can 
best be done by learning how to accomplish quickly 
some of the simple mates. 

1. SOME SIMPLE MATES 

Example 1. — The ending Rook and King against 
King. 

The principle is to drive the opposing King to the 
last line on any side of the board. 




4 SOME SIMPLE MATES 

In this position the power of the Rook is demon- 
strated by the first move, R— R 7, which immediately 
confines the Black King to the last rank, and the 
mate is quickly accomplished by: iR — R 7> 
K— Kt i; 2 K— Kt 2. 

The combined action of King and Rook is 
needed to arrive at a position in which mate can be 
forced. The general principle for a beginner to 
foUow is to 

keep his King as much as possible on the same 
rank, or, as in this case, file, as the opposing King. 

When, in this case, the King has been brought to 
the sixth rank, it is better to place it, not on the same 
file, but on the one next to it towards the centre. 

2...K— B i; 3 K— B 3, K— K i; 4 K— K 4, 
K-Qi; sK-Qs, K-B i ; 6 K-Q 6. 

Not K — B 6, because then the Black King will 
go back to Q I and it will take much longer to mate. 
If now the King moves back to Q i, R — R 8 mates 
at once. 

6...K— Kti; 7R— QB7,K— Ri; 8K— B6, 
K— Kt I ; 9 K— Kt 6, K— R i ; 10 R— B 8 mate. 

It has taken exactly ten moves to mate from the 
original position. On move 5 Black could have played 
K — K I, and, according to principle. White would 
have continued 6K— Q6, K — Bi (the Black King 
will ultimately be forced to move in front of the White 
King and be mated by R— R8); 7K— K6, 
K— Kt i; 8 K — B 6, K — R i; 9 K— Kt 6, 
K— Kt i; 10 R— R 8 mate. 



SOME SIMPLE MATES 



Example 2. 



m 



^ 



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!^/<e^ 



^. 



V 



i^ 

^^: 






Since the Black King is in the centre of the board, 
the best way to proceed is to advance your own King 
thus: I K— K,2, K— Q4; 2 K— K 3. As the 
Rook has not yet come into play, it is better to 
advance the King straight into the centre of the board, 
not in front, but to one side of the other King. Should 
now the Black King move to K 4, the Rook drives 
it back by R — R 5 ch. On the other hand, if 2. . . 
K — B 5 instead, then also 3 R — R 5. If now 3. . . 
K — Kt s, there follows 4 K — Q 3; but if instead 
3...K — B 6; then 4 R — R 4, keeping the King 
confined to as few squares as possible. 

Now the ending may continue : 4 . . . K — B 7 ; 
5 R-B 4 ch, K-Kt 6; 6 K-Q 3, K-Kt 7; 
7 R— Kt 4 ch, K— R 6; 8 K— B 3, K— R 7. It 
should be noticed how often the White King has moved 
next to the Rook, not only to defend it, but also to 
reduce the mobihty of the opposing King. Now 



6 SOME SIMPLE MATES 

White mates in three moves thus: 9 R— R 4 ch, 
K— Kt 8; 10 R— any square on the Rook's file, 
forcing the Black King in front of the White, K— B 8; 
II R — R I mate. It has taken eleven moves to mate, 
and, imder any conditions, I beheve it should be done 
in under twenty. While it may be monotonous, it 
is worth while for the beginner to practice such 
things, as it will teach him the proper handling of 
his pieces. 

Example 3. — Now we come to two Bishops and 
King against King. 




Since the Black King is in the comer, White can 
play iB — Q3, K— Kt 2; 2 B — K Kt 5, K— B 2 ; 
3 B — B s, and already the Black Eang is confined 
to a few squares. If the Black King, in the origmal 
position, had been in the centre of the board, or away 
from the last row, White should have advanced his 
King, and then, with the aid of his Bishops, restricted 



SOME SIMPLE MATES 7 

the Black King's movements to as few squares as 
possible. 

We might now continue: 3. . .K — Kt 2 ; 4K — B 2. 
In this ending the Black King must not only be driven 
to the edge of the board, but he must also be forced 
into a corner, and, before a mate can be given, the 
White King must be brought to the sixth rank and, 
at the same time, in one of the last two files; in this 
case either K R 6, K Kt 6, K B 7, K B 8, and as K R 6 
and K Kt 6 are the nearest squares, it is to either of 
these squares that the King ought to go. 4. . .K — 
B 2; s K— Kt 3, K— Kt 2; 6 K — R 4, K— B 2; 
7 K— R s, K— Kt 2; 8 B — Kt 6, K — Kt i; 
9K — R6, K — Bi. White must now mark time and 
move one of the Bishops, so as to force the Black 
King to go back ; loB — Rs, K— Kti; iiB — K7, 
K — R I. Now the White Bishop must take up a 
position from which it can give check next move 
along the White diagonal, when the Black King 
moves back to Kt i. 12 B — K Kt 4, K — Kt i; 
13B — K6 ch, K— R i; 14 B — B 6 mate.' 

It has taken fourteen moves to force the mate 
and, in any position, it should be done in imder 
thirty. 

In all endings of this kind, care must be taken 
not to drift into a stale mate. 

In this particular ending one should remember that 
the King must not only be driven to the edge of the 
board, but also into a comer. In all such endings, 
however, it is immaterial whether the King is forced 



8 



SOME SIMPLE MATES 



on to the last rank, or to an outside file, e.g. K R 5 
or Q R 4, K I or Q 8. 

Example 4. — We now come to Queen and King 
against King. As the Queen combines the power of 
the Rook and the Bishop, it is the easiest mate of all 
and should always be accompUshed in under ten moves. 
Take the following position: 




A good way to begin is to make the first move with 
the Queen, trying to Ihnit the Black King's mobility 
as much as possible. Thus: i Q — B 6, K— Q 5; 
2 K— Q 2. Already the Black King has only one 
available square 2...K — K 4; 3 K — K 3, K — B 4; 
4 Q— Q 6, K— Kt 4. (Should Black play K— Kt 5, 
then Q-Kt 6 ch) ; 5 Q-K 6, K — R 5 (if 
K — R 4, K — B 4 and mate next move); 
6 Q-K Kt 6, K— R 6; 7 K— B 3, K moves; 
8 Q mates. 

In this ending, as in the case of the Rook, the Black 
Kmg must be forced to the edge of the board; only 



PAWN PROMOTION 



9 



the Queeii being so much more powerful than the 
Rook, the process is far easier and shorter. These 
are the three elementary endings and in all of these 
the principle is the same. In each case the co-opera- 
tion of the King is needed. In order to force a mate 
without the aid of the King, at least two Rooks are 
required. 

2. PAWN PROMOTION 

The gain of a Pawn is the smallest material advantage 
that can be obtained in a game ; and it often is sufficient 
to win, even when the Pawn is the only remaining 
unit, apart from the Kings. It is essential, speaking 
generally, that 

the King should be in front of his Pawn, with at least 
one intervening square. 

If the opposing King is directly in front of the Pawn, 
then the game cannot be won. This can best be ex- 
plained by the following examples. 



Example 6. 




lo PAWN PROMOTION 

The position is drawn, and the way to proceed is 
for Black to keep the King always directly in front 
of the Pawn, and when it cannot be done, as for in- 
stance in this position because of the White King, 
then the Black King must be kept in front of the 
White King. The play would proceed thus : i P — K 3, 
K-K 4; 2 K-Q 3, K-.Q 4. This is a very 
important move. Any other move would lose, as 
will be shown later. As the Black Kmg cannot be 
kept close up to the Pawn, it must be brought as far 
forward as possible and, at the same time, m front 
of the White King. 

3 P — K 4 ch, K— K 4; 4 K— K 3, K— K 3; 
5 K — B 4, K— B 3. Again the same case. As the 
White King comes up, the Black King must be kept 
in front of it, since it cannot be brought up to the 
Pawn. 

6 P — K 5 ch, K-K 3; 7K— K4, K-K2; 
8 K— Q s, K— Q 2; 9 P — K 6 ch, K— K 2; 
loK— Ks, K— Ki; II K— Q6, K— Qi. If now 
White advances the Pawn, the Black King gets in 
front of it and White must either give up the Pawn 
or play K — K 6, and a stale mate results. If instead 
of advancing the Pawn White withdraws his King, 
Black brings his King up to the Pawn and, when 
forced to go back, he moves to K in front of the Pawn 
ready to come up again or to move in front of the 
White King, as before, should the latter advance. 

The whole mode of procedure is very important 
and the student should become thoroughly conversant 



PAWN PROMOTION 



II 



with its details; for it involves principles to be taken 
up later on, and because many a beginner has lost 
identical positions from lack of proper knowledge. At 
this stage of the book I cannot lay too much stress on 
its importance. 

Example 6. — In this position White wins, as the 
King is in front of his Pawn and there is one intervening 
square. 




The method to follow is to 

advance the King as far as is compatible with the safety 

of the Pawn and never to advance the Pawn until it is 

essential to its own safety. 

Thus: 

I. K— K 4, K— K 3. 

Black does not allow the White Kmg to advance, 
therefore White is now compelled to advance his Pawn 
so as to force Black to move away. He is then able 
to advance his own King. 

2. P-K3,K-B3; 3. K-Qs,K-K2. 



12 PAWN PROMOTION 

If Black had played 3. . .K— B 4, then White would 
be forced to advance the Pawn to K 4, smce he could 
not advance his King without leaving Black the 
opportunity to play K— K 5, winning the Pawn. 
Since he has not done so, it is better for White not 
to advance the Pawn yet, since its own safety does 
not require it, but to try to brmg the King still fur- 
ther forward. Thus: 

4. K-K5,K-Q2; 5. K-B6,K-Ki. 

Now the White Pawn is too far back and it may be 
brought up within protection of the King. 

6. P — K4, K— Q2. 

Now it would not do to play K— B 7, because 
Black would play K— Q 3, and White would have 
to bring back his King to protect the Pawn. There- 
fore he must continue. 

7. P-Ks,K-Ki. 

Had he moved anywhere else, White could have played 
K — B 7, followed by the advance of the Pawn to 
K 6, K 7, K 8 ; all these squares being protected by 
the King. As Black tries to prevent that, White must 
now force him to move away, at the same time always 
keeping the King in front of the Pawn. Thus : 

8. K— K6:' 

P- K 6 would make it a draw, as Black would then 

play K— B, and we would have a position similar 

to the one explained in connection with Example 5. 

8...K-B i; 9K-Q7. 



PAWN ENDINGS 



13 



King moves and the White Pawn advances to K 8, 
becomes a Queen, and it is all over. 

This ending is Uke the previous one, and for the 
same reasons should be thoroughly imderstood before 
proceeding any further. 



3. PAWN ENDINGS 

I shall now give a couple of simple endings of two 
Pawns against one, or three against two, that the 
reader may see how they can be won. Fewer explana- 
tions will be given, as it is up to the student to work 
things out for himself. Furthermore, nobody can 
learn how to play weU merely from the study of a 
book ; it can only serve as a guide and the rest must 
be done by the teacher, if the student has one; if 
not, the student must realise by long and bitter ex- 
perience the practical appUcation of the many things 
explained in the book. 

Example 7. 



^ 



i 



14 



PAWN ENDINGS 



In this position WMte cannot win by playing 

1 P — B 6, because Black plays, not P X P, which 
would lose, but i. . .K— Kt i, and if then 2 P X P, 
K X P, and draws, as shown in a previous case. If 
2P — B 7 ch, K— B I, and White will never be 
able to Queen his Pawn without losing it. If 

2 K— K 7, P X P ; 3 K X P, K— B I, and draws. 
White, however, can win the position given in the 
diagram by playing: 

I K— Q 7, K— Kt i; 2 K— K 7, K-R i; 
3P — B6,PXP. If 3...K— Kt i; 4 P — B 7ch, 
K— R i; s P — B 8 (Q) mate. 

4 K — B 7, P — B 4; S P— Kt 7 ch, K— R 2; 
6 P — Kt 8 (Q) ch, K— R 3; 7 Q— Kt 6 mate. 




Example 8. — In the above position White can't win 
by I P — B 5. Black's best answer would be P — Kt 3 
draws. (The student should work this out.) He 
cannot win by i P — Kt 5, because P — Kt 3 draws. 
(This, because of the principle of the "opposition" 



PAWN ENDINGS 15 

which governs this ending as well as aU the Pawn- 
endings already given, and which wiU be explained 
more fully later on.) 

White can win, however, by playing: i K — K 4, 
K-K3. (If i...P-Kt3; 2K-Q4,K-K3; 
3K-Bs,K-B3;4K-Q6,K-B2;5P-Kt5, 
K— Kt 2; 6 K— K 7, K— Kt i; 7 K— B 6, 
K— R 2; 8 K — B 7 and White wins the Pawn.) 

2 P-B 5 ch, K-B 3; 3 K-B 4, P-Kt 3. 
(If this Pawn is kept back we arrive at the ending 
shown in Example 7.) 4 P — Kt 5 ch, K— B 2; 
5 P — B 6, K— K 3 ; 6 K — K 4, K — B 2 ; 7 K— K 5, 
K — B I. White cannot force his Bishop's Pawn 
into Q (find out why), but by giving his Pawn up he 
can win the other Pawn and the game. Thus: 

8P— B7, KxP;9K— Q6, K— B i;ioK— K6, 
K— Kt 2; II K— K 7, K— Kt i; 12 K— B 6, 
K— R2; 13 K— B7, K — R i; 14 K X P, 
K— Kti. 

There is still some resistance in Black's position. 
In fact, the only way to win is the one given here, 
as will easily be seen by experiment. 

15 K— R 6 (if K— B 6, K— R 2; and in order 
to win White must get back to the actual position, 
as against 16 P — Kt 6 ch, K — R i draws), K — R i ; 
16 P— Kt 6, K— Kt i; 17 P — Kt 7, K— B 2; 
18 K — R 7, and White queens the Pawn and 
wins. 

This ending, apparently so simple, should show the 
student the enormous difficulties to be surmounted. 



i6 



PAWN ENDINGS 



even when there are hardly any pieces left, when 
playing against an adversary who knows how to use 
the resources at his disposal, and it should show the 
student, also, the necessity of paying strict attention 
to these elementary things which form the basis of 
true mastership in Chess. 

Example 9. — In this ending 




White can win by advancing any of the three Pawns 
on the first move, but it is convenient to follow the 
general rule, whenever there is no good reason against 
it, of advancing the Pawn that has no Pawn opposing 
it. Thus we begin by — 

I. P — B 5, K— K2. 

If P — Kt 3, P — B 6 ; and we have a similar ending 
to one of those shown above. If i...P — R 3; 2 
P-Kt s. 

2. K-Ks,K-B2; 3. P-Kt 5, K-K 2. 



PAWN ENDINGS 



17 



If 3...P-Kt 3; 4 P-B 6, and if 3-.P-R 3', 
4 P — Kt 6 ch, and in either case we have a similar 
ending to one of those already shown. 

4. P-R5, 
and by following it up with P — Kt 6 we have the 
same ending previously shown. Should Black play 
4...P— Kt 3, then R P X P, PxP; P — B 6 ch 
with the same result. 

Having now seen the cases when the Pawns are 
all on one side of the board we shall now examine 
a case when there are Pawns on both sides of the 
board. 

Example 10. — In these cases the general rule is 
to act immediately on the side where you have the su- 




perior forces. Thus we have : 
I. P — KKt4. 



i8 PAWN ENDINGS 

It is generally advisable to advance the Pawn that is 
free from opposition. 

I P-QR4. 

Black makes an advance on the other side, and now 
White considers whether or not he should stop the 
advance. In this case either way wins, but generally 
the advance should be stopped when the opposing 
King is far away. 

2.P-QR4,K-B3; 3.P-R4,K-K3. 

If 3. . .K — Kt 3, then simple coimting will show that 
White goes to the other side with his King, wins the 
P at Q R 4, and then Queens his single Pawn long 
before Black can do the same. 

4. P— Kt s, K— B 2; S-'K — B s, K — Kt 2; 
6.P — R s, K— B 2. 

If 6...P — R 3; 7 P — Kt 6, and then the two 
Pawns defend themselves and White can go to the 
other side with his King, to win the other Pawn. 

7. K-Ks. 

I 

Now it is time to go to the other side with the King, 
win the Black Pawn and Queen the single Pawn. 
This is typical of all such endings and should be worked 
out by the student in this case and in similar cases 
which he can put up. 



SOME WINNING POSITIONS 



19 



4. SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLE- 
GAME 

By the time the student has digested all that has 
been previously explained, he, no doubt, is anxious 
to get to the actual game and play with all the pieces. 
However, before considering the openings, we shall 
devote a little time to some combinations that often 
arise during the game, and which will give the reader 
some idea of the beauty of the game, once he becomes 
better acquainted with it. 

Example 11. 




It is Black's move, and thinking that White merely 
threatens to play Q — R 6 and to mate at K Kt 7, 
Black plays i. . .R — K i, threatening mate by way 
of R — K 8. White now uncovers his real and most 
effective threat, viz. : 

I...R— Ki; 2QxPch,KxQ; 3R— Rsch, 
K— Kt i; 4 R— R 8 mate. 



20 



SOME WINNING POSITIONS 



This same type of combination may come as the 
result of a somewhat more complicated position. 

Example 12. 




White is a piece behind, and miless he can win it 
back quickly he wiU lose ; he therefore plays : 

I. KtX Kt B — Kt4 

He cannot take the Kt because White threatens mate 
by Q X P ch followed by R — R 3 ch. 

2.^ Kt — K7ch Qx Kt 

Again if B x Kt; Q X P ch, K X Q; R — R 3 ch, 
King moves; R — R 8 mate. 

3. RxQ BxR 

4. Q-Q7 

and White wins one of the two Bishops, remains 
with a Q and a B against a R and B, and should 
therefore win easily. These two examples show the 



IN THE MroDLE-GAME 



21 



danger of advancing the K Kt P one square, after 
having Castled on that side. 

Example 13. 




This is another very interesting type of combina- 
tion. Black has a R for a Kt and should therefore 
win, imless White is able to obtain some compensa- 
tion immediately. White, in fact, mates in a few 
moves thus: 

1. Kt— B 6ch PxKt 
Forced, otherwise Q X P mates. 

2. Q— Kt3 ch K — Ri 

3. B X P mate. 

Example 14. — The same t)^e of combination oc- 
curs in a more complicated form in the following 
position. 



22 



SOME WINNING POSITIONS 




1. B X Kt Q X B. 
If...BxKt; Q — B 3 threatens mate, and there- 
fore wins the Q, which is already attacked. 

2. Kt — B6ch PxKt 

3. R— Kt3ch K— Ri 

4. B X P mate. 

Example 15. — A very frequent type of combina- 
tion is shown in the following position. 




IN THE MIDDLE-GAME 



23 



Here White is the exchange and a Pawn behind, 
but he can win quickly thus : i B X P ch, K X B. 
(If I...K-R i; 2 Q-K R 5, P-KKta; 
3 Q — R 6, and wins.) 

2 Q— R 5 ch, K— Kt i; 3 Kt — Kt 5, and Black 
cannot stop mate at K R 7 except by sacrificing the 
Queen by Q— K 5, which woidd leave White with a 
Q for a R. 

Example 16. — This same type of combination is 
seen in a more complicated form in the following 
position. 




White proceeds as follows : i Kt X Kt ch (this 
clears the line for the B) ; B X Kt (to stop the Kt 
from moving to Kt 5 after the sacrifice of the B) ; 
2 RxB, KtxR best; 3 BxP ch, K X B. (If 
3...K-R1; 4Q-RS,P-KKt3; sBxPch, 
K— Kt 2; 6 Q— R 7 ch, K— B 3; 7 P — Kt 5 ch, 
K— K3; SBxPch, RxB; 9 Q— K 4 mate.) 
4 Q— R 5 ch, K— Kt i; 5 Kt — Kt 5, R — B i; 



24 RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES 

6 Q— R 7 ch, K — B i; 7 Q— R 8 ch, Kt— Kt i; 
8 Kt — R 7 ch, K— K 2; 9 R— K i ch, K— Q i; 
10 Q X Kt mate. 

This combination is rather long and has many vari- 
ations, therefore a beginner will hardly be able to 
fathom it; but, knowing the type of combination, 
he might imder similar circumstances undertake and 
carry out a brilliant attack which he would otherwise 
never think of. It will be seen that all the combina- 
tions shown have for a foundation the proper co-ordi- 
nation of the pieces, which have aU been brought to 
bear against a weak point. 

5. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES 

Before going on to the general principles of the 
openings, it is advisable to give the student an idea 
of the proper relative value of the pieces. There is 
no complete and accurate table for all of them, and 
the only thing to do is to compare the pieces sep- 
arately. 

For all general theoretical purposes the Bishop and 
the Knight have to be considered as of the same value, 
though it is my opinion that the Bishop will prove the 
more valuable piece in most cases ; and it is well known 
that two Bishops are ahnost always better than two 
Knights. 

The Bishop will be stronger against Pawns than 
the Knight, and in combination with Pawns will also 
be stronger against the Rook than the Knight 
will be. 



RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES 25 

A Bishop and a Rook are also stronger than a Ejiight 
and a Rook, but a Queen and a Knight may be stronger 
than a Queen and a Bishop. 

A Bishop will often be worth more than three Pawns, 
but a Knight very seldom so, and may even not be 
worth so much. 

A Rook will be worth a Knight and two Pawns, 
or a Bishop and two Pawns, but, as said before, the 
Bishop will be a better piece against the Rook. 

Two Rooks are sUghtly stronger than a Queen. 
They are slightly weaker than two Knights and a 
Bishop, and a Uttle more so than two Bishops and 
a Knight. The power of the Knight decreases as 
the pieces are changed off. The power of the Rook, 
on the contrary, increases. 

The King, a purely defensive piece throughout the 
middle-game, becomes an offensive piece once all the 
pieces are off the board, and sometimes even when 
there are one or two minor pieces left. The handling 
of the ELing becomes of paramount importance once 
the end-game stage is reached. 

6. GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING 

The main thing is to develop the pieces quickly. 
Get them into play as fast as you can. 

From the outset two moves, iP— K4oriP — Q4, 
open up lines for the Queen and a Bishop. Therefore, 
theoretically one of these two moves must be 
the best, as no other first move accompUshes so 
much. 



26 GENERAL STRATEGY 

Example 17. — Suppose we begin: 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. Kt— KB3 

This is both an attacking and a developing move. 

Black can now either reply with the identical move or 

play 

2 Kt-QBs 

This developing move at the same time defends 
the King's Pawn. 

3. Kt-B3 Kt-B3 
These moves are of a purely developing nature. 

4. B — Kts 

It is generally advisable not to bring this Bishop 
out until one Knight is out, preferably the King's 
Knight. The Bishop could also have been played 
to B 4, but it is advisable whenever possible to combine 
development and attack. 

4 B — Kt 5 

Black replies in the same manner, threatening a pos- 
sible exchange of Bishop for Knight with Kt X P to 
foUow. 

S- 0-0 

an indirect way of preventing s...BxKt, which 
more e:q)erience or study will show to be bad. At 
the same time the Rook is brought into action in the 
centre, a very important point. 



27 



OF THE OPENING 

5 0-0 

Black follows the same line of reasoning. 

6. P-Q3 P-Q3 

These moves have a two-fold object, viz. : to pro- 
tect the King's Pawn and to open the diagonal for the 
development of the Queen's Bishop. 

7- B-Kts 




A very powerful move, which brings us to the middle- 
game stage, as there is already in view a combination 
to win quickly by Kt — Q 5. This threat makes it 
impossible for Black to continue the same course. 
(There is a long analysis showing that Black should 
lose if he also plays B — Kt 5.) He is now forced to 
play 7 ... B X Kt, as experience has shown, thus 
bringing up to notice three things. 

First, the complete development of the opening 
has taken only seven moves. (This varies up to ten 
or twelve moves in some very exceptional cases. As 
a rule, eight should be enough.) Second, Black has 



28 CONTROL OF THE CENTRE 

been compelled to exchange a Bishop for a Knight, 
but as a compensation he has isolated White's Q R P 
and doubled a Pawn. (This, at such an early stage of 
the game, is rather an advantage for White, as the Pawn 
is doubled towards the centre of the board.) Third, 
White by the exchange brings up a Pawn to control 
the square Q 4, puts Black on the defensive, as experi- 
ence will show, and thus keeps the initiative, an xmques- 
tionable advantage.^ 

The strategical principles expounded above are the 
same for all the openings, only their tactical appli- 
cation varies according to the circumstances. 

Before proceeding further I wish to lay stress on 
the following point which the student should bear in 
mind. 

Before development has been completed no piece should 
be moved more than once, unless it is essential in order 
to obtain either material advantage or to secure freedom 
of action. 

The beginner would do well to remember this, as 
well as what has already been stated : viz., bring 
out the Knights before bringing out the Bishops. 

7. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE 

The four squares, K 4 and Q 4 on each side respec- 
tively, are the centre squares, and control of these 
squares is called control of the centre. The control of 
the centre is of great importance. No violent attack 
can succeed without controlling at least two of these 

* The value of the initiative is explaiaed in section 20, p. 77. 



CONTROL OF THE CENTRE 29 

squares, and possibly three. Many a manoeuvre in 
the opening has for its sole object the control of the 
centre, which invariably ensures the initiative. It is 
weU always to bear this in mind, since it will often be 
the reason of a series of moves which could not other- 
wise be properly understood. As this book progresses 
I shall dwell more fully on these diEferent points. At 
present I shall devote some time to openings taken 
at random and explain the moves according to general 
principles. The student will in that way train his 
mind in the proper direction, and will thus- have less 
trouble in finding a way out when confronted with a 
new and difficult situation. 

Example 18. 

1. P— K4 P — K4 

2. Kt— KB3 P — Q3 

A timid move. Black assumes a defensive attitude 
at once. On principle the move is wrong. In the 
openings, whenever possible, pieces should be moved in 
preference to Pawns. 

3. P-Q4 

White takes the offensive inunediately and strives 
to control the centre so as to have ample room to 
deploy his forces. 

3 Kt-Q2 

Black does not wish to relinquish the centre and also 
prefers the text move to Kt — Q B 3, which would 
be the more natural square for the Kt. But on prin- 



30 CONTROL OF THE CENTRE 

ciple the move is wrong, because it blocks the action 
of the Queen's Bishop, and instead of facilitating the 
action of Black's pieces, tends, on the contrary, to 
cramp them. 

4. B — QB4 P— KR3 

Black is forced to pay the penalty of his previous 
move. Such a move on Black's part condemns by 
itself any form of opening that makes it necessary. 
White threatened Kt — Kt 5 and Black could not stop 
it with 4. . .B — K 2, because of 5 P X P, Kt X P 
(if S-PXP, 6 Q-Q 5); 6 KtxKt, PxKt; 
7 Q — R 5, and White wins a Pawn and has besides a 
perfectly safe position. 

5. Kt-B3 KKt-Bs 

6. B — K3 B — K2 

7. Q-K2 

It should be noticed that White does not Castle yet. 
The reason is that he wants to deploy his forces first, 
and through the last move force Black to play 
P — Q B 3 to make room for the Queen as |White 
threatens R— Q i, to be followed by P x P. Black's 
other alternatives would finally force him to play 
P X P, thus abandoning the centre to White. 

7 P-B3 

8. R— Qi Q-B 2 

9. O - O 

With this last move White completes his development, 
while Black is evidently somewhat hampered. A simple 
examination will suffice to show that White's position 



CONTROL OF THE CENTRE 31 

is unassailable. There are no weak spots in his armour, 
and his pieces are ready for any manoeuvre that he 
may wish to carry out in order to begin the attack on 
the enemy's position. The student should carefully 
study this example. It will show him that it is some- 
times convenient to delay Castling. I have given the 
moves as they come to my mind without following 
any standard book on openings. Whether the moves 
given by me agree or not with the standard works, I 
do not know, but at the present stage of this book 
it is not convenient to enter into discussions of mere 
technicalities which the student will be able to imder- 
stand when he has become more proficient. 

Example 19. 

1. P — K4 P— K4 

2. Kt— KB3 P— Q3 

3. P-Q4 B-Kt5 

A bad move, which violates one of the principles set 
down, according to which at least one Knight should 
be developed before the Bishops are brought out, and 
also because it exchanges a Bishop for a Knight, which 
in the opening is generally bad, unless there is some 
compensation. 



4. PxP 


BxKt 


P X P loses a Pawn. 




5. QXB 


PxP 


6. B — QB4 


Q-B3 



If Kt — B 3 ; Q— Q Kt 3 wins a Pawn. 



32 



TRAPS 



7. Q-QKt3 P-QKt3 

8. Kt-B3 P-QB3 

To prevent Kt— Q 5. 




Black, however, has no pieces out except his Queen, 
and White, with a Bishop and a Knight ahready devel- 
oped, has a chance of obtaining an advantage quickly 
by playing Kt — Q 5 anyway. The student is left 
to work out the many variations arising from this 
position. 

These examples will show the practical application 
of the principles previously enunciated. The student 
is warned against playing Pawns in preference to pieces 
at the beginning of the game, especially P — K R 3 
and P — Q R 3, which are moves very commonly in- 
dulged in by beginners. 

8. TRAPS 

I shall now give a few positions or traps to be avoided 
in the openings, and in which (practice has shown) 
beginners are often caught. 



TRAPS 



33 



Example 20. 




White plays: 

1. P X P Kt X P 
Black should have recaptured with the Pawn. 

2. Kt Kt B X Q 

3. BxPch K— K2 

4. Kt — Q 5 mate. 



Example 21. 



/ 






/ J 






'h 






34 TRAPS 

Black, having the move, should play P — K 3. But 
suppose he plays Kt — KB 3 instead, then comes — 

1. BxPch 

Kt — K 5 would also give White the advantage, the 
threat being of course ifBxQ; aBxP mate. Nor 
does B — R 5 help matters, because of 2 Q X B, i . . . 
B — K 3 leaves Black with the inferior position. But 
White's move in the text secures an immediate material 
advantage, and the beginner at any rate should never 
miss such an opportunity for the sake of a speculative 
advantage in position. 

I KxB 

2. Kt — K 5 ch K moves 

3. KtxB 

and White has won a Pawn besides having the better 
position. 

There are a good many other traps — in fact, there 
is a book written on traps on the chess board; but 
the type given above is the most common of all. 



CHAPTER II 

Further Prtnciples in End-Game Play 

We shall now go back to the endings in search of a 
few more principles, then again to the middle-game, 
and finally to the openings once more, so that the ad- 
vance may not only be gradual but homogeneous. In 
this way the foundation on which we expect to build 
the structure will be firm and solid. 

9. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE 



^ ^ # 



V y *■ 









Z _¥/"> 



W ^^ 



i 



l1 



m^ 



k 



fm 



In the position shown above, White can draw by 
playing P — Kt 4 according to the general rule that 
governs such cases, i.e. to advance the Pawn that is 
free from opposition. But suppose that White, either 
because he does not know this principle or because he 

35 



36 A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE 

does not, in this case, sufficiently appreciate the value 
of its application; suppose, we say, that he plays 
I P — Q R 4. Then Black can win by playing i . . . 
P — Q R 4, applying one of the cardinal principles of 
the high strategy of chess — 

A unit that holds two. 

In this case one Pawn would hold two of the op- 
ponent's Pawns. The student cannot lay too much 
stress on this principle. It can be applied in many 
ways, and it constitutes one of the principal weapons 
in the hands of a master. 

Example 22. — The example given should be suffi- 
cient proof. We give a few moves of the main vari- 
ation : — 

1. P — R4 P — QR4 

2. K— Kt 2 K — B 5 
(Best ; see why.) 

3. P — Kt4 PXP 
(Best.) 

4. P— Rs P — Kt6 

5. P — R6 P — Kt 7 

6. P — R7 P — Kt8(Q) 

7. P-R8(Q) Q^Ksch 

8. QxQ KxQ 

This brings the game to a position which is won by 
Black, and which constitutes one of the classical 
endings of King and Pawns. I shall try to explain the 
guiding idea of it to those not familiar with it. 



A CLASSICAL ENDING 



37 



10. A CLASSICAL ENDING 




Example 23. — In this position White's best line 
of defence consists in keeping his Pawn where it stands 
at R 2. As soon as the Pawn is advanced it becomes 
easier for Black to win. On the other hand, Black's 
plan to win (supposing that White does not advance 
his Pawn) may be divided into three parts. The first 
part will be to get his King to K R 6, at the same time 
keeping intact the position of his Pawns. (This is 
all important, since, in order to win the game, it is 
essential at the end that Black may be able to advance 
his rearmost Pawn one or two squares according to 
the position of the White King.) 



K-Kt3 
K— Kt2 



K — K6 



If 2 K— Kt 4, K— B 7; 3 P — R 4, P— Kt 3 wiU 
win. 



38 



A CLASSICAL ENDING 



t 




K-B5 
K— Kt5 


3- 


K — B2 


4- 


K— Kt2 


K-Rs 


5- 


K-Kti 


K— R6 



The first part has been completed. 




The second part will be short and will consist in 
advancing the R P up the K. 

6. K— Ri P — R4 

7. K— Kt I P — Rs 
This ends the second part. 



m 



^ 



9& 



A CLASSICAL ENDING 39 

The third part will consist in timing the advance of 
the Kt P so as to play P — Kt 6 when the White 
Ejng is at R I. It now becomes evident how neces- 
sary it is to be able to move the Kt P either one or 
two squares according to the position of the White 
King, as indicated previously.^ In this case, as it is 
White's move, the Pawn will be advanced two squares 
smce the White Kmg will be m the comer, but if, it 
were now Black's move the Kt P should only be ad^ 
vanced one square since the White King is at 
Kt I. 



8. K— Ri 


P — Kt4 


9. K— Kti 


P-KTs 


10. K— Ri 


P-Kt6 


II. PxP 




Kt I, P — Kt 7. 




II 


PxP 



If K- 



12. K— Kt I P — Kt 7 

13. K— B 2 K — R7 

and wins. 

It is in this analytical way that the student should 
try to learn. He will thus train his mind to follow a 
logical sequence in reasoning out any position. This 
example is excellent training, since it is easy to divide 
it into three stages and to explain the main point of 
each part. 

The next subject we shall study is the simple oppo- 

1 See page 37. 



40 



OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN 



sition, but before we devote our time to it I wish to 
call attention to two things. 

11. OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN 

When three or more Pawns are opposed to each 
other in some such position as the one in Example 24, 
there is always a chance for one side or the other of 
obtaining a passed Pawn. 






:/y. 



i iT ^f <^* 



/A 



y^^ 






y .. '>''■■ 



^ 



^ 



^/ y .../.^y. 



^ 



'/. 



y 



>€> ^ I 



V 



M 






Example 24. — In the above position the way of 
obtaining a passed Pawn is to advance the centre 

Pawn. 

1. P — Kt6 RPxP 
If B PxP; P-R 6, 

2. P — B6 PxBP 
3- P-R6 

and as in this case the White Pawn is nearer to 

Queen than any of the Black Pawns, White will 



WHICH PAWN FIRST TO QUEEN 41 

win. Now if it had been Black's move Black could 

play 

I P-Kt3 

2. BPxP BPxP 

It would not be advisable to try to obtain a passed 
Pawn because the White Pawns would be nearer to 
Queen than the single Black Pawn. 

3- PXP PxP 

and the game properly played would be a draw. The 
student should work this out for himself. 



12. HOW TO FIND OUT WHICH PAWN WILL 
BE FIRST TO QUEEN 

When two Pawns are free, or will be free, to ad- 
vance to Queen, you can find out, by counting, which 
Pawn will be the first to succeed. 

Example 25. — In this position whoever moves first 
wins. 




42 WHICH PAWN FIRST TO QUEEN 

The first thing is to find out, by counting, whether 
the opposing King can be in time to stop the passed 
Pawn from Queening. When, as in this case, it cannot 
be done, the pomt is to coimt which Pawn comes in 
first. In this case the tune is the same, but the Pawn 
that reaches the eighth square first and becomes a 
Queen is m a position to capture the adversary's 
Queen when he makes one. Thus : 

1. P — R4 P — KR4 

2. P-Rs P-R5 

3. P — Kt6 PxP 

Now comes a little calculation. White can capture 
the Pawn, but if he does so, he will not, when Queen- 
ing, command the square where Black will also Queen 
his Pawn. Therefore, instead of taking, he plays: 

4. P — R6 P — R6 

5. P-R7 P-R7 

6. P — R8 (Q), andwms. 

The student would do weU to acquaint himself 
with various simple endings of this sort, so as to ac- 
quire the habit of coimting, and thus be able to know 
with ease when he can or caimot get there first. Once 
again I must call attention to the fact that a book 
cannot by itself teach how to play. It can only serve 
as a guide, and the rest must be learned by experience, 
and if a teacher can be had at the same time, so much 
the faster will the student be able to learn. 



THE OPPOSITION 



43 



13. THE OPPOSITION 

When Kings have to be moved, and one player can, 
by force, bring his King into a position similar to the 
one shown in the following diagram, so that his adver- 
sary is forced to move and make way for him, the 
player obtaining that advantage is said to have the 
oj)i)osition. 




£^ample 26. — Suppose in the above position White 
plays 

I. K-Q4 

Now Black has the option of either opposing the 
passage of the White King by playing K— Q 3 
or, if he prefers, he can pass with his own King 
by replying K — B 4. Notice that the Kings are 
directly opposed to each other, and the nimiber of 
intervening squares between them is odd — one in 
this case. 
The opposition can take the form shown above, 



44 



THE OPPOSITION 



which can be called actual or close frontal opposition; 
or this form: 




which can be called actual or close diagonal opposition, 
or, again, this form : 




which can be called actual or close lateral opposition. 
In practice they are all one and the same. The 
Kings are always on squares of the same colour, there 
is only one intervening square between the Kings, 
and the player who has moved last "has the opposition.^' 



THE OPPOSITION 



45 



Now, if the student will take the trouble of moving 
each King backwards as in a game in the same frontal, 
diagonal or lateral line respectively shown in the dia- 
grams, we shall have what may be caUed distant frontal, 
diagonal and lateral opposition respectively. 

The matter of the opposition is highly important, 
and takes at times somewhat complicated forms, all 
of which can be solved mathematically; but, for the 
present, the student should only consider the most 
simple forms. (An examination of some of the examples 
of King and Pawns endings aheady given will show 
several cases of close opposition.) 

In all simple forms of opposition, 
when the Kings are on the same line and the number 
of intervening squares between them is even, the player 
who has the move has the opposition. 




Example 27. — The above position shows to advan- 
tage the enormous value of the opposition. The 



4b THE OPPOSITION 

position is very simple. Very little is left on the 
board, and the position, to a beginner, probably looks 
absolutely even. It is not the case, however. Who- 
ever has the move wins. Notice that the Kings are 
directly in front of one another, and that the number 
of intervening squares is even. 

Now as to the procedure to win such a position. 
The proper way to begin is to move straight up. 
Thus: 



I. K— K2 


K— K2 


2. K-K3 


K-K3 


3- K-K4 


K-B3 



Now White can exercise the option of either playing 
K — Q 5 and thus passing with his King, or of playing 
K — B 4 and prevent the Black King from passing, 
thereby keeping the opposition. Mere counting wiU 
show that the former course will only lead to a 
draw, therefore White takes ;the latter course and 
plays : 

4. K— B4 K— Kt3 
If4...K— K3; s K— Kt s will wm. 

5. K— K5 K— Kt2 

Now by coimting it will be seen that White wins by 
capturing Black's Knight Pawn. 

The process has been comparatively simple in the 
variation given above, but Black has other lines of 



THE OPPOSITION 47 

defence more difi&cult to overcome. Let us begin 
anew. 

I. K— K2 K— Qi 

Now if 2 K— Q 3, K — Q 2, or if 2 K— K 3, K — K 2, 
and Black obtains the opposition in both cases. (When 
the Kings are directly in front of one another, and the 
number of intervening squares between the Kings 
is odd, the player who has moved last has the 
opposition.) 

Now in order to win, the White King must advance. 
There is only one other square where he can go, B 3, 
and that is the right place; Therefore it is seen that 
in such cases when the opponent makes a so-called 
waiting move, you must advance, leaving a rank 
or file free between the Kings. Therefore we 
have — 

2. K— B3 K— K2 

Now, it would be bad to advance, because then Black, 
by bringing up his King in front of your King, would 
obtain the opposition. It is White's turn to play a 
s imila r move to Black's first move, viz. : 

3- K-K3 

which brings the position back to the first variation 
shown. The student would do weU to famiharise him- 
self with the handling of the King in all examples of 
opposition. It often means the winning or losing of 
a game. 



48 



THE OPPOSITION 



Example 28. — The following position is an excellent 
proof of the value of the opposition as a means of 
defence. 




White is a Pawn behind and apparently lost, yet he 
can manage to draw as follows : 

I. K— Ri! 

The position of the Pawns does not permit White 
to draw by means of the actual or close opposition, 
hence he takes the distant opposition : in effect if 

1 K — B I (actual or close opposition), K — Q 7; 

2 K — B 2, K — Q 6 and White cannot continue to 
keep the lateral opposition essential to his safety, 
because of his own Pawn at B 3. On the other hand, 
after the text move, if 



1. . . , 

2. K- 

3. K- 



R2 
R3! 



K-Q7 
K-Q6 
K— K7 



THE OPPOSITION 49 

4. K-^Kt2 K— K6 

5. K-Kt3 K-Q5 

6. K— Kt4 

attacking the Pawn and forcing Black to play 6... 
K— K 6 when he can go back to Kt 3 as already 
shown, and always keep the opposition. 
Going back to the original position, if 

1. K— Ri P — Kts 

White does not play P X P, because P— K 5 will 
win, but plays : 

2. K— Kt2 K— Q7 

If 2...PXP ch; 3 KxP, foUowed by K— K 4, 
win draw. 

3. PxP P— K5 

and mere counting will show that both sides Queen, 
drawing the game. 

If the student wiU now take the trouble to go back 
to the examples of King and Pawns which I have 
given in this book,^ he wiU realise that in all of them 
the matter of the opposition is of paramount impor- 
tance ; as, in fact, it is in nearly all endings of King 
and Pawns, except in such cases where the Pawn- 
position in itself ensures the win. 
1 See page 13. 



so 



THE RELATIVE VALUE 



14. THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 
Before turning our attention to this matter it is 
well to state now that two Knights alone cannot mate, 
but, under certain conditions of course, they can do 
so if the opponent has one or more Pawns. 




Example 29. — In the above position White cannot 
win, although the Black King is cornered, but in the 
following position, in which Black has a Pawn, 




White wins with or without the move. Thus ; 
I. Kt— Kt6 P — R5 



OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 



SI 



White cannot take the Pawn because the game will 
be drawn, as explained before. 

Kt— K5 P — R6 

Kt — B6 P — R7 

Kt— Kts P — R8(Q) 
Kt — B 7 mate 



2. 

3- 
4- 
5- 



The reason for this pecuUarity in chess is eviaent. 
White with the two Knights can only stalemate the 
King, unless Black has a Pawn which can be moved. 

Example 30. —Although he is a Bishop and a Pawn 
ahead the following position cannot be won by White. 




It is the greatest weakness of the Bishop, that when 
the Rook's Pawn Queens on a square of opposite colour 
and the opposing King is in front of the Pawn, the 
Bishop is absolutely worthless. AH that Black has to 
do is to keep moving his King close to the comer 
square. 



52 



THE RELATIVE VALUE 




Example 31. — In the above position White with or 
without the move can win. Take the most difficult 



variation. 






I. 




K-R7 


2. 


Kt— Kt4ch 


K— R8 


3- 


K-Bi 


P-Kt4 


4- 


K— B2 


P — R7 


S- 


Kt-K3 


P-Kts 


6. 


Kt — B I 


P — Kt6ch 


7- 


Kt X P mate 





Now that we have seen these exceptional cases, we 
can analyse the different merits and the relative 
value of the Knight and the Bishop. 

It is generally thought by amateurs that the Knight 
is the more valuable piece of the two, the chief reason 
being that, unlike the Bishop, the Kjiight can command 
both Black and White squares. However, the fact is 
generally overlooked that the Knight, at any one time, 



OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 



53 



has the choice of one colour only. It takes much longer 
to bring a Knight from one wing to the other. Also, 
as shown in the following Example, a Bishop can 
stalemate a Knight ; a compliment which the Knight 
is unable to return. 



Example 32. 




The weaker the player the more terrible the Knight 
is to him, but as a player increases in strength the 
value of the Bishop becomes more evident to him, and 
of course there is, or should be, a corresponding decrease 
in his estimation of the value of the Knight as compared 
to the Bishop. In this respect, as in many others, the 
masters of to-day are far ahead of the masters of former 
generations. While not so long ago some of the very 
best amongst them, like Pillsbury and Tchigorin, pre- 
ferred Knights to Bishops, there is hardly a master of 
to-day who would not completely agree with the state- 
ments made above. 



54 



THE RELATIVE VALUE 



Example 33. — This is about the only case when the 
Knight is more valuable than the Bishop. 




It is what is called a "block position," and aD. the 
Pawns are on one side of the board. (If there were Pawns 
on both sides of the board there would be no advantage 
in having a Knight.) In such a position Black has 
excellent chances of winning. Of course, there is an 
extra source of weakness for White in having his Pawns 
on the same colour-squares as his Bishop. This is a 
mistake often made by players. The proper way, 
generally, in an ending, is to have your Pa\ras on 
squares of opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. 
When you have your Pawns on squares of the same 
colour the action of your own Bishop is limited by 
them, and consequently the value of the Bishop is 
diminished, since the value of a piece can often be 
measured by the number of squares it commands. 
While on this subject, I shall also call attention to the 



OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 



55 



fact that it is generally preferable to keep your Pawns 
on squares of the same colour as that of the opposing 
Bishop, particularly if they are passed Pawns sup- 
ported by the King. The principles might be stated 
thus : 

When the opponent has a Bishop, keep your Pawns 
on sqiMres of the same colour as your opponent's 
Bishop. 

Whenever you have a Bishop, whether the opponent 
has also one or not, keep your Pawns on squares of the 
opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. 

Naturally, these principles have sometimes to be 
modified to suit the exigencies of the position. 

Example 34. — In the following position the Pawns 
are on one side of the board, and there is no advantage 
in having either a Knight or a Bishop, The game 
should surely end in a draw. 




S6 THE RELATIVE VALUE 

Example 35. — Now let us add three Pawns on 
each side to the above position, so that there are 
Pawns on both sides of the board. 




It is now preferable to have the Bishop, though 
the position, if properly played out, should end in a 
draw. The advantage of having the Bishop lies as 
much in its ability to command, at long range, both 
sides of the board from a central position as in its 
ability to move quickly from one side of the board 
to the other. 




OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 



57 



Example 36 — In the above position it is un- 
questionably an advantage to have the Bishop, because, 
although each player has the same number of Pawns, 
they are not balanced on each side of the board. Thus, 
on the King's side. White has three to two, while on 
the Queen's side it is Black that has three to 
two. Still, with proper play, the game should end 
in a draw, though White has somewhat better 
chances. 

Example 37. — Here is a position in which to 
have the Bishop is a decided advantage, since not 



/;; 



/ 



i i*' i 



/ z 



41 h ^„ J 






4, 



/ 



^ 



/A 



only are there Pawns on both sides of the board, 
but there is a passed Pawn (K R P for White, 
Q R P for Black). Black should have extreme 
difl&culty in drawing this position, if he can do it 
at all. 



S8 VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 

Example 38. — Again Black would have great diffi- 
culty in drawing this position. 




The student should carefully consider these posi- 
tions. I hope that the many examples wiU help him 
to understand, in their true value, the relative merits 
of the Knight and Bishop. As to the general method 
of procedure, a teacher, or practical experience, wiU 
be best. I might say generally, however, that the 
proper course in these endings, as in all similar end- 
ings, is: Advance of the King to the centre of the 
board or towards the passed Pawns, or Pawns that 
are susceptible of being attacked, and rapid advance 
of the passed Pawn or Pawns as far as is consistent 
with their safety. 

To give a fixed line of play would be foUy. Each 
ending is different, and reqtiires different handling, 
according to what the adversary proposes to do. 
Calculation by visualising the future positions is what 
will count. 



MATE WITH KNIGHT AND BISHOP 59 

15. HOW TO MATE WITH A KNIGHT AND A BISHOP 

Now, before going back again to the middle-game 
and the openings, let us see how to mate with Knight 
and Bishop, and, thpn, how to wia with a Queen 
against a Rook. 

With a Kjiight and a Bishop the mate can only he 
given in the corners of the same colour as the Bishop. 




Example 39. — In this example we must mate either 
at Q R I or K R 8. The ending can be divided into 
two parts. Part one consists in driving the Black 
King to the last liue. We might begin, as is generally 
done in aU such cases, by advancing the King to the 
centre of the board : 

I. K— K2 K — Q2 

Black, in order to make it more difl&cult, goes towards 
the white-squared comer: 

2. K-Q3 K-B3 

3. B-B4 K-Q4 



6o 



HOW TO MATE WITH 



4. 


Kt — K2 


K — B4 


5- 


Kt-B3 


K-Kt5 


6. 


K-Q4 


K— R4 


7- 


K-B5 


K-R3 


8. 


K-B6 


K-R2 


9- 


Kt-Qs 


K — Ri 



The first part is now over ; the Black King is in the 
white-squared corner. 




The second and last part will consist in driving the 
Black King now from QR8toQRiorKR8in 
order to mate him. Q R i \dll be the quickest in this 
position. 

10. Kt— Kt6ch K — R2 

11. B — B 7 K— R3 

12. B — Kt8 ^ K — R4 

13. Kt-Qs K-Rs 

Black tries to make for K R i with his King. White 
has two ways to prevent that, one by 14 B — K 5, 



A KNIGHT AND BISHOP 6i 

K — Kt 6 ; IS Kt — K 3, and the other which I give 
as the text, and which I consider better for the student 
to learn, because it is more methodical and more in 
accord with the spirit of all these endings, 6y using 
the King as much as possible. 



14. 


K-B5! 


K- 


-Kt6 


IS- 


Kt — Kt4 


K- 


-B6 


16. 


B — B4 


K- 


-Kt6 


17- 


B-Ks 


K- 


-Rs 


18. 


K-B4 


K- 


-R4 


19. 


B-B 7ch 


K- 


-Rs 


20. 


Kt-Q3 


K- 


-R6 


21. 


B-Kt6 


K- 


-Rs 


22. 


Kt-Kt2ch 


K- 


-R6 


23- 


K-B3 


K- 


-R7 


24. 


K— B2 


K- 


-R6 


25- 


B — B sch 


K- 


-R? 


26. 


Kt-Q3 


K- 


-R8 


27. 


B — Kt4 


K- 


-R7 


28. 


Kt — B I ch 


K- 


-R8 


29. 


B — B 3 mate 







It win be seen that the ending is rather laborious. 
There are two outstanding features : the close follow- 
ing by the King, and the controlling of the squares of 
opposite colour to the Bishop by the combined action 
of the Knight and King. The student would do well 
to exercise himself methodically in this ending, as it 
gives a very good idea of the actual power of the pieces, 
and it requires foresight in order to accompUsh the 



62 



QUEEN AGAINST ROOK 



mate within the fifty moves which are granted by 
the rules. 

16. QUEEN AGAINST ROOK 

This is one of the most difficult endings without 
Pawns. The resources of the defence are many, and 
when used skilfully only a very good player wiU prevail 
within the limit of fifty moves allowed by the rules. 
(The rule is that at any moment you may demand 
that your opponent mate you within fifty moves. 
However, every time a piece is exchanged or a Pawn 
advanced the counting must begin afresh.) 

Example 40. — This is one of the standard positions 
which Black can often bring about. Now, it is White's 
move. If it were Black's move it would be simple, as 




he would have to move his Rook away from the King 
(find out why), and then the Rook would be compara- 



QUEEN AGAINST ROOK 63 

tively easy to win. We deduce from the above that 
the main object is to force the Black Rook away 
from the defending King, and that, in order to compel 
Black to do so, we must bring about the position in 
the diagram with Black to move. Once we know 
what is required, the way to proceed becomes easier to 
find. Thus: 

I. Q— Ksch 

Not I Q— R 6, because R— B 2 ch; 2 K— Kt 6, 
R — B3ch; 3KXR. Stalemate. (The beginner 
will invariably fall into this trap.) 



I 

2. Q— Ri ch 
3- Q-Rs 



K to R I or to R 2 
K— Kt I 



In a few moves we have accomplished our object. 
The first part is concluded. Now we come to the 
second part. The Rook can only go to a White square, 
otherwise the first check with the Queen wiU win it. 
Therefore 



^. 




R— Kt6 


4- 


Q-Ksch 


K — Ribest 


5- 


Q — R8ch 


K — R2 


6. 


Q— Ktych 


K-Ri 


7- 


Q— Kt8ch 


R-Kti 


8. 


Q — R 2 mate 





Cite student should find out by himself how to win 
when 3...R— Kt 8; 4 Q— K 5 ch, K— R 2.) 



64 



QUEEN AGAINST ROOK 



^ ^ 



% U t 



^ 



^Mr 



/ 



^ ^^ ?^ 



K 



y^y/. 



/ 



^ 



y _ 



Example 41. — The procedure here is very similar. 
The things to bear in mind are that the Rook must 
be prevented from interposing at Kt i because of an 
immediate mate, and in the same way the King must 
be prevented from going either to R 3 or B i. 

Example 42. — We shall now examine a more diffi- 
cult position. 




QUEEN AGAINST ROOK 65 

Many players would be deceived by this position. 
The most likely looking move is not the best. Thus 
suppose we begin 

1. Q— Ksch K— B I 

2. K— Kt6 R— Q2 

The only defence, but, unfortvinately, a very effective 
one, which maikes it very difficult for White, since he 
cannot play 3 Q — K 6 because of 3 . . .R — Kt 2 ch ; 
4 K — B 6, R — Kt 3 ch draws. Nor can he win 
quickly by 3 Q — Q B 5 ch because 3...K — K i, 
4 K— B 6, R— Q 3 ch! driving back the White 
King. 

Now that we have seen the difficxilties of the situa- 
tion let us go back. The best move is 

1. Q— Kt sch! K — Ri 

IfK— R2; 2Q— Kt6ch, K— Ri; 3K— R6! 

2. Q— Ksch! K— Rabest 

3. K— Kts R — R2!best 

If 3 . . .R— Kt 2 ch ; 4 K— B 6 leads to a position 
similar to those in Examples 40 and 41. 



'4. 


Q— K4ch 


K-Kti 


5- 


Q— B 4ch 


K-R2 


6. 


K-B6 


R — KKt2 


7- 


Q— R4ch 


K-Kti 


8. 


Q-Rs 





66 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK 

and we have the position of Example 40 with Black 
to move. 
Let us go back again. 

1. Q— Ktsch K— B I 

2. Q— Q8ch K— Kt2 

3. K— Kts R — B6 

The best place for the Rook away from the King. 
3...K— R2; 4 Q— Q 4, R— Kt 2 ch; 5 K — B 6 
would lead to positions similar to those already seen. 

4. Q— Q4ch K— B I 

5. K— Kt6 

5 Q— Q 6 ch, K— Kt 2; 6Q— Ks ch, K— B i; 
7 K — Kt 6 would also win the Rook. The text move, 
however, is given to show the finesse of such endings. 
White now threatens mate at Q 8. 



5- 
6. 






R- 
R- 


- Kt 6 ch 


K 


-B6 


B6ch 


7- 


K 


-K6 


R- 


KR6 


White threatened mate at K R 8. 


8. 


Q- 


-B4ch 






and the Rook 


. is 


lost. 







Note, in these examples, that the checks at long 
range along the diagonals have often been the key to 
all the winning manoeuvres. Also that the Queen and 



QUEEN AGAINST ROOK 67 

King are often kept on different lines. The student 
should carefully go over these positions and consider 
aU the possibilities not given in the text. 

He should once more go through everything already 
written before proceeding further with the book. 



CHAPTER III 

Planning a Win in Middle-Game Play 

I SHALL now give a few winning positions taken from 
my own games. I have selected those that I believe 
can be considered as types, i.e. positions that may 
easily occur again in a somewhat similar form. A 
knowledge of such positions is of great help; in fact, 
one cannot know too many. It often may help the 
player to find, with little effort, the right move, which 
he might not be able to find at aU without such 
knowledge. 

17. ATTACKING WITHOUT THE AID 
OF KNIGHTS 




ATTACKING WITHOUT KNIGHTS 69 

Example 43. — It is Black's move, and as he is a 
Kt and P behind he must win quickly, if at all. He 
plays : 

I QR— Kt i! 

2. R— B 2 

If, Q X Q, R X P ch ; K— R i, B — Q 4 and mate 
follows in a few moves. 

2 R X P ch 

3. K— B I B — B s ch 

4. KtxB R— KtSmate 




Example 44. — Black's last move was P — K 6, 
played with the object of stopping what he thought 
was White's threat, viz. :R— Q R 5, to which he 
would have answered Q — B 5 ch and drawn the game 
by perpetual check. White, however, has a more 
forceful move, and he mates in three moves as 
follows : 



70 



ATTACKING WITHOUT 



1. RxPch 

2. R-QRs 

3. White mates 



QxR 
Black moves 




Example 45. — White has a beautiful position, but 
still he had better gaia some material, if he can, before 
Black consolidates his defensive position. He there- 
fore plays: 

1. RxKt! PxR 

2. BxPch K— K2 

If Kt X B ; R x Kt and Black would be helpless. 

3. Q— R7ch K— Ki 



4. Q X Kt ch 

5. Q-R7ch 

6. B — B8 

7. R X Q ch 

8. RxR 



K— Q2 
Q— K2 
QXQ 
K— Ki 

Resigns 

In these few examples the attacking has been done 
by Rooks and Bishops in combination with the Queen. 



THE Am OF KNIGHTS 



71 



There have been no Knights to take part in the attack. 
We shall now give some examples in which the Knights 
play a prominent part as an attacking force. 

18. ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A 
PROMINENT FORCE 




Example 46. — White is two Pawns behind. He 
must therefore press on his attack. The game con- 
tinues : 

I. Kt (B s) X Kt P Kt — B 4 

Evidently ■ an error which made the winning easier 
for White, as he simply took the Rook with the Knight 
and kept up the attack. Black should have played: 
i...KtxKt. Then would have followed: 2 Kt — 
B 6ch, K— Kt3; 3 Kt X B, P — B 3 (best) ; 4 P — 
K 5, K— B 2 ; s Kt X P, R — K 2 ; 6 Kt — K 4, 
and Black should lose.^ 

* Full score and notes are given in My Chess Career, by J. R. 
Capablanca (Game No. ii). 



72 



ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS 



mm ^mim J^ * ^ * 



% 



/ 



^ 2* 



/ ^ 






Example 47. — The student should carefully ex- 
amine the position, as the sacrifice of the Bishop in 
similar situations is tj^pical, and the chance for it is 
of frequent occurrence in actual play. The game 
continues : 



1. BxPch 

2. Kt — Kt sch 



KxB 
K-Kt3 



Best. If 2. . .K— R 3 ; 3 Kt X P ch wins the Queen, 
and if 2 . . .K— Kt i ; 3 Q — R 5, with an irresistible 

cLLLclCiv.* 

3. Q-Kt4 P-B4 

4. Q-Kt3 K-R3 

White finally won.' 

• This position is elaborated under Example 50 (p 80.). 



WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 73 

19. WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 

We have so far given positions where the attacks 
were of a violent nature and directed against the 
King's position. Very often, however, in the middle- 
game attacks are made against a position or against 
pieces, or even Pawns. 

The winning of a Pawn among good players of even 
strength often means the winning of the game. 

Hence the study of such positions is of great im- 
portance. We give below two positions in which the 
attack airns at the gain of a mere Pawn as a means of 
ultimately winning the game. 




Example 48. — Black is a Pawn behind, and there 
is no violent direct attack against White's King. 
Black's pieces, however, are very well placed and free 
to act, and by co-ordinating the action of aU his pieces 
he is soon able not only to regain the Pawn but to 
obtain the better game. The student should carefully 



74 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 

consider this position and the subsequent moves. It 
is a very good example of proper co-ordination in the 
management of forces. The game continues: 

I R — Ri 

2. P-QR4 

White's best move was P — Q Kt 3, when would 
follow Kt X B ; 3 Q X Kt, R — R 6 and Black would 
ultimately win the Q R P, always keeping a slight 
advantage in position. The text move makes matters 
easier. 

2 Kt X B 

3. QxKt Q-Bs 

4. KR— Qi KR— Kt I 

Black could have regained the Pawn by playing 
B X Kt, but he sees that there is more to be had, 
and therefore increases the pressure against White's 
Queen side. He now threatens, among other things, 
R X Kt P. 

5. Q-K3 R-Kts 

Threatening to win the exchange by B — Q 5. 

6. Q— Kts B — Qsch 

7. K— Ri QR — Kt I 

This threatens to win the Kt, and thus forces White 
to give up the exchange. 

8. R x B Q X R 

9. R-Qi Q-Bs 

Now Black will recover his Pawn. 



WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 75 




Example 49. — An examination of this position will 
show that Black's main weakness lies in the exposed 
position of his King, and in the fact that his Q R 
has not yet come into the game. Indeed, if it were 
Black's move, we might conclude that he would have 
the better game, on accoimt of having three Pawns to 
two on the Queen's side, and his Bishop commanding 
the long diagonal. 

It is, however. White's move, and he has two courses 
to choose from. The obvious move, B — B 4, might 
be good enough, since after i B — B 4, QR — Q i; 
2 P — Q Kt 4 would make it difi&cult for Black. But 
there is another move which completely upsets Black's 
position and wins a Pawn, besides obtaining the 
better position. That move is Kt — Q 4 ! The game 
continues as follows: 



1. Kt— Q4! 

2. RxB 



PxKt 
Kt — Kts 



76 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 
There is nothing better, as White threatened B — B 4. 



3- 


B — B 4ch 


K— Ri 


4- 


R— K6 


P-Q6 


5- 


RXP 





And White, with the better position, is a Pawn 
ahead. 

These positions have been given with the idea of 
acquainting the student with different types of com- 
binations. I hope they will also help to develop his 
imagination, a very necessary quality in a good player. 
The student should note, in all these middle-game 
positions, that — 

once the opportunity is offered, all the pieces are thrown 
into action "en masse" when necessary; and that all 
the pieces smoothly co-ordinate their action with machine- 
like precision. 

That, at least, is what the ideal middle-game play 
should be, if it is not so altogether in these examples. 



CHAPTER IV 

Geneeal Theory 

Before we revert to the technique of the openings 
it will be advisable to dwell a Httle on general theory, 
so that the openings in their relation to the rest of the 
game may be better understood. 

20. THE INITIATIVE 

As the pieces are set on the board both sides have 
the same position and the same amoimt of material. 
White, however, has the move, and the move in this 
case means the initiative, and the initiative, other 
things being equal, is an advantage. Now this ad- 
vantage must be kept as long as possible, and should 
only be given up if some other advantage, material 
or positional, is obtained in its place. White, according 
to the principles already laid down, develops his pieces 
as fast as possible, but in so doing he also tries to 
hinder his opponent's development, by applyirig pres- 
sure wherever possible. He tries first of aU to control 
the centre, and failing this to obtain some positional 
advantage that wiU make it possible for him to keep 
on harassing the enemy. He only relinquishes the 
initiative when he gets for it some material advantage 
under such favoxirable conditions as to make him feel 

77 



78 DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE 

assured that he will, in turn, be able to withstand his 
adversary's thrust; and finally, through his superi- 
ority of material, once more resvune the initiative, 
which alone can give him the victory. This last 
assertion is self-evident, since, xa. order to win the 
game, the opposing King must be driven to a position 
where he is attacked without having any way of escape. 
Once the pieces have been properly developed the 
resulting positions may vary in character. It may 
be that a direct attack against the King is in order; 
or that it is a case of improving a position already 
advantageous; or, finally, that some material can be 
gained at the cost of relinquishing the initiative for 
a more or less prolonged period. 

21. DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE 

In the first case the attack must be carried on with 
sufficient force to guarantee its success. Under no 
consideration must a direct attack against the King 
be carried on a outrance imless there is absolute cer- 
tainty in one's own mind that it will succeed, since 
failure in such cases means disaster. 

Example 50. — A good example of a successful direct 
attack against the King is shown in the following 
diagram : 

In this position White could simply play B — B 2 
and still have the better position, but instead he pre- 
fers an immediate attack on the King's side, with 



DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE 79 

the certainty in his mind that the attack will lead to 
a win. The game continues thus: ^ 




12. B X P ch 

13. Kt— Kt 5ch 

14. Q— Kt4 



KxB 
K-Kt3 
P— B4 



Best. P — K 4 would have been immediately fatal. 
Thus: 14...P— K 4; 15 Kt— K 6 ch, K— B 3; 
16 P — B 4! P — K s; 17 Q— Kt 5 ch, KxKt; 
18 Q— K 5 ch, K— Q 2; 19 K R— Q i ch, Kt — 
Q6; 20 KtxP, K — B 3 (if K— K i, Kt— Q6ch 
wins the Queen) ; 21 R x Kt, Q X R ; 22 R— B i ch, 
K— Kt 3 (if K— Q 2 mate in two) ; 23 Q— B 7 ch 
and mate in five moves. 

1 We give, from now on, games and notes, so that the student 
may familiarise himself with the many and varied considerations 
that constantly are borne in mind by the Chess Master. We must 
take it for granted that the student has already reached a stage 
where, while not being able fuUy to understand every move, yet he 
can derive benefit from any discussion with regard to them. 



8o 



DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE 



15. Q-Kt3 K-R3 

16. Q— R4ch K— Kt3 

17. Q— R 7 ch K— B3 

If K X Kt ; Q X Kt P ch and mate in a few moves. 



18. P— K4 

19. PxP 

20. QR— Qi 

21. Q-R3 

22. Q— Kt3 

23. KR— Ki 



Kt - Kt 3 

PxP 

Kt— Q6 
Kt(Q6)-Bs 
Q— B 2 
Kt— K7ch 



This blmider loses at once, but the game could not 
be saved in any case ; e.g. 23. ..B — K3; 24RXB 
ch, Kt X R; 25 Kt— Q 5 mate. 



QxQ 
K — B2 
R — Ri 
K-B3 

Resigns 

Example 51. — Another example of this kind; 



24. R X Kt 

25. Kt — R 7 ch 

26. R P X Q 

27. Kt — Kt sch 

28. P — B 4 




DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE 8i 

In the above position the simple move Kt X P 
would win, but White looks for compHcations and 
their beauties. Such a course is highly risky imtil a 
wide experience of actual master-play has developed 
a sufficient insight into all the possibilities of a position. 
This game, which won the brilliancy prize at St. 
Petersburg in 1914, continued as follows : — 





21. 


B- 


-R4 




Q- 


-Q2 






22. 


Kt XB 




Q X R 






23. 


Q- 


-Q8ch 




Q- 


-Ki 




If K- 


-B 


2; 24 Kt — Q 6 ch. 


King 


moves; 25 


mate. 




24. 


B- 


-K7ch 




K- 


-B2 






25. 


Kt- 


-Q6ch 




K- 


-Kt3 






26. 


Kt- 


-R4ch 




K- 


-R4 





If 26...K — R 3; 27 Kt (Q6) — B s ch, K-R 4; 
28 Kt X P ch, K— R 3 ; 29 Kt (R 4) — B 5 ch, K — 
K^t 3 ; 30 Q — Q 6 ch and mate next move. 



27. 


KtxQ 


RXQ 


28. 


Kt X P ch 


K-R3 


29. 


Kt(Kt7)-B5ch 


K-R4 


30- 


P — KR3! 





The climax of the combination started with 21 B — 
R 4. White is still threatening mate, and the best way 
to avoid it is for Black to give back all the material 
he has gained and to remain three Pawns behind. 

The student should note that in the examples given 
the attack is carried out with every available piece, 



82 THE FORCE OF THE 

and that often, as in some of the variations pointed 
out, it is the coming into action of the last available 
piece that finally overthrows the enemy. It demon- 
strates the principle already stated: 

Direct and violent attacks against the King must be 
carried en masse, with full force, to ensure their success. 
The opposition must be overcome at all cost; the attack 
cannot be broken of, since in all su£h cases that means 
defeat. 

22. THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED 
ATTACK 

Failing an opportunity, in the second case, for 
direct attack, one must attempt to increase whatever 
weakness there may be in the opponent's position; 
or, if there is none, one or more must be created. It 
is always an advantage to threaten something, but 
such threats must be carried into effect only if some- 
thing is to be gained immediately. For, holding the 
threat in hand, forces the opponent to provide against 
its execution and to keep material in readiness to meet 
it. Thus he may more easily overlook, or be xmable 
to parry, a thrust at another point. But once the 
threat is carried into effect, it exists no longer, and 
your opponent can devote his attention to his own 
schemes. One of the best and most successful ma- 
noeuvres in this type of game is to make a demon- 
stration on one side, so as to draw the forces of your 
opponent to that side, then through the greater 
mobility of your pieces to shift your forces quickly 



THREATENED ATTACK 



83 



to the other side and break through, before your 
opponent has had the tune to bring over the neces- 
sary forces for the defence. 

A good example of positional play is shown in the 
following game: 

Example 52.— Played at the Havana Interna- 
tional Masters Tournament, 1913. (French Defence.) 
White : J. R. Capablanca. Black : R. Blanco. 



I. 


P — K4 


P-K3 


2. 


P-Q4 


P-Q4 


3- 


Kt-QB3 


PXP 


4- 


KtxP 


Kt — Q2 


5- 


Kt-KB3 


KKt — B3 


6. 


Kt X Kt ch 


KtxKt 


7- 


Kt-Ks 






This move was first shown to me by the talented 
Venezuelan amateur, M. Ayala. The object is to 



84 



THE FORCE OF THE 



prevent the development of Black's Queen's Bishop 
vid Q Kt 2, after P — Q Kt 3, which is Black's usual 
development in this variation. Generally it is bad 
to move the same piece twice in an opening before 
the other pieces are out, and the violation of that 
principle is the only objection that can be made to 
this move, which otherwise has everything to recom- 
mend it. 

7 B-Q3 

8. Q-B3 




B — K Kt 5 might be better. The text move gives 
Black an opportimity of which he does not avail 
himself 

8 P-B3 

P — B 4 was the right move. It would have led to 
complications, in which Black might have held his 
own; at least. White's play would be very difficult. 
The text move accomplishes nothing, and puts Black 



THREATENED ATTACK 85 

in an altogether defensive position. The veiled threat 
B X Kt; followed by Q — R 4 ch; is easily met. 

9. P — B 3 0—0 

10. B — KKts B — K2 

The fact that Black has now to move his Bishop 
back clearly demonstrates that Black's plan of devel- 
opment is faulty. He has lost too much time, and 
White brings his pieces into their most attacking 
position without hindrance of any sort. 

11. B — Q3 Kt— Ki 

The alternative was Kt — Q 4. Otherwise White 
woidd play Q — R 3, and Black would be forced to 
play P — K Kt 3 (not P— K R 3, because of the 
sacrifice B X P), seriously weakening his King's side. 

12. Q— R3 P — KB 4 

White has no longer an attack, but he has compelled 
Black to create a marked weakness. Now White's 
whole plan will be to exploit this weakness (the weak 
K P), and the student can now see how the principles 
expounded previously are applied in this game. Every 
move is directed to make the weak King's Pawn im- 
tenable, or to profit by the inactivity of the Black 
pieces defending the Pawn, in order to improve the 
position of White at other points. 

13. BxB QxB 

14. 0—0 R— B3 

15. KR— Ki Kt— Q3 

16. R— K2 B — Q2 



86 



THE FORCE OF THE 



At last the Bishop comes out, not as an active attack- 
ing piece, but merely to make way for the Rook. 

17. QR — Ki R— Ki 

18. P — QB 4 Kt — B 2 

A very clever move, tending to prevent P — B 5, 
and tempting White to play Kt X B, followed by 
B X P, which would be bad, as the following varia- 
tion shows: 19 Kt X B, Q X Kt; 20 B X P, Kt — 
Kt 4 ; 21 Q— Kt 4, R X B ; 22 P — K R 4, P — 
KR4; 23QxR,PxQ; 24RxRch,K — R 2; 
25 P X Kt, Q X P. But it always happens in such 
cases that, if one line of attack is anticipated, there 
is another; and this is no exception to the rule, as 
will be seen. 




19. P — Qs! KtxKt 

Apparently the best way to meet the manifold threats 
of White. B P X P would make matters worse, as 
the White Bishop would finally bear on the weak 
King's Pawn vid Q B 4. 



THREATENED ATTACK 



87 



20. R X Kt 

21. Q— R4 

22. Q-Q4 



P — KKt3 
K — Kta 
P — B4 



Forced, as White threatened P x K P, and also Q X P 

23. Q-B3 P-Kt3 

Q — Q 3 was better. But Black wants to tempt 
White to play P X P, thinking that he will soon after 
regain his Pawn with a safe position. Such, however, 
is not the case, as White quickly demonstrates. I 
must add that in any case Black's position is, in my 
opinion, untenable, since all his pieces are tied up for 
the defence of a Pawn, while White's pieces are free 
to act. 

24. P X P B — B I 




25- 



B — K2! 



The deciding and timely manoeuvre. All the Black 
pieces are useless after this Bishop reaches Q 5. 



88 FORCE OF THREATENED ATTACK 

25 BxP 

26. B — B3 K— B 2 
27- B-Q5 Q-Q3 

Now it is evident that all the Black pieces are tied 
up, and it only remains for White to find the quickest 
way to force the issue. White will now try to place 
his Queen at K R 6, and then advance the K R P 
to R 5 in order to break up the Black Pawns defend- 
ing the King. 

28. Q— K3 R— K2 

If 28...P — B s; 29 Q— K R 3, P — K R 4; 
30 Q-R 4, R-K 2; 31 Q-Kt 5, K-Kt 2; 
32 P-K R 4, Q-Q 2; 33P-K Kt 3,PXP; 
34 P — B 4, and Black will soon be helpless, as he has 
to mark time with his pieces while White prepares 
to advance P — R 5, and finally at the proper time 
to play R X B, winniug. 



29. 


Q-R6 


K— Kti 


30- 


P-KR4 


P-R3 


/3I- 


P-RS 


P-Bs 


32. 


PXP 


PxP 


33- 


RXB 


Resigns. 



Commenting on White's play in this game. Dr. E. 
Lasker said at the time that if White's play were 
properly analysed it might be foimd that there was 
no way to improve upon it. 

These apparently simple games are often of the most 
difficult nature. Perfection in such cases is much 
more difficult to obtain than in those positions calling 



RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 89 

for a brilliant direct attack agaiast the King, involving 
sacrifices of pieces. 

23. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 

In the third case, there is nothing to do, once the 
material advantage is obtained, but to submit to the 
opponent's attack for a while, and once it has been 
repulsed to act quickly with all your forces and win 
on material. A good example of this type of game 
is given below. 

Example 53. — From the Havana International 
Masters Tournament, 1913. (Ruy Lopez.) White: 
J, R. Capablanca. Black: D. Janowski. 

1. P-K4 P-K4 

2. Kt— KB3 Kt-QB3 

3. B-Kts Kt-B3 

4. 0-0 P-Q3 

5. B X Kt ch P X B 

6. P— Q4 B — K2 

7. Kt-B3 

P X P might be better, but at the tune I was not 
fa mili ar with that variation, and therefore I played 
what I knew to be good. 



7. 

8. 




Kt-Q2 


PxP 


PxP 


9- 


Q-K2 


0-0 


10. 


R— Qi 


B-Q3 


II. 


B-Kts 


Q— Ki 


12. 


Kt-KR4 


P-Kt3 



90 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 

Black offers the exchange in order to gain time and 
to obtain an attack. Without considering at all 
whether or not such a course was justified on the part 
of Black, it is evident that as far as White is concerned 
there is only one thing to do, viz., to win the exchange 
and then prepare to weather the storm. Then, once 
it is passed, to act quickly with all forces to derive 
the benefit of munerical superiority. 

13. B — R6 Kt — B4 

14. R— Q2 R — Kt I 

15. Kt — Qi R— Kt 5 

To force White to play P — Q B 4, and thus create a 
hole at Q 5 for his Knight.^ Such grand tactics show 
the hand of a master. 





16. P-QB4 


Kt-K3 




17. BxR 


QxB 




18. Kt— K3 




Kt- 


- K B 3 was better. 






18 


Kt-Qs 
P-QB4 




19. Q-Qi 



In order to prevent R X Kt giving back the exchange, 
but winning a Pawn and relieving the position. 
20. P - Q Kt 3 R - Kt I 

In order to play B — Kt 2 without blocking his Rook. 

* A "hole" in chess parlance has come to mean a defect in Pawn 
fonnation which allows the opponent to establish his forces in wedge 
formation or otherwise without the possibility of dislodging hiTti 
by Pawn moves. Thus, in the following diagram, Black has two 
"holes" at K B 3 and K R 3, where White forces, e.g. a Kt or B, 
could estabUsh themselves, supported by pieces or Pawns. 



RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 91 

Black's manceuvring for positional advantage is ad- 
mirable throughout this game, and if he loses it is 
due entirely to the fact that the sacrifice of the exchange, 
without even a Pawn for it, could not succeed against 
sound defensive play. 




21. Kt — B 3 

22. PXP 




The position begins to look really dangerous for White. 
In reality Black's attack is reaching its maximimi 
force. Very soon it wiU reach the apex, and then 



92 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 

White, who is weU prepared, wiU begin his counter 
action, and through his superiority in material obtain 
an undoubted advantage. 

23. Kt — B I P — B 5 

24. Kt X Kt B P X Kt 

25. Q — Rs B — Kt2 

26. R-Ki P — B4 

He could not play R— K i because of R X Q P. Be- 
sides, he wants to be ready to play P — K 5. At pres- 
ent White cannot with safety play R X K P, but 
he will soon prepare the way for it. Then, by giving 
up a Rook for a Bishop and a Pawn, he will completely 
upset Black's attack and come out a Pawn ahead. 
It is on this basis that White's whole defensive ma- 
noeuvre is foimded. 

27. P — B3 R-Ki 

28. R (Q2) — K2 R — K3 




Now the Black Rook enters into the game, but White 
is prepared. It is now time to give back the exchange. 



RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 93 



29. 
30- 
31- 
32- 
33- 
34- 



RXP 

RXB 

Q-K8 

RxQch 

R— K5 

Kt-Q2 



BxR 
R — KR3 
QXQ 
K— B 2 
R-QB3 



R — B 5 ch might have been better. The text move 
did not prove as strong as anticipated. 
34 K — B3 

35. R— Qs R— K3 

36. Kt — K4ch K— K2 
R X Kt would lose easily 

37. RxBP P-Q6! 

Very fine. White cannot play R B 7 ch because 
of K— Q I ; R X B, R X Kt wmning. 

38. K — B 2 B X Kt 

39. PXB RxP 

40. R— Qs R— K6 

The ending is very difficult to win. At this point 
White had to make the last move before the game 
was adjourned. 




94 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM 



41. 


P-QKt4! 


R-Ks 


42. 


RXP 


RxP 


43- 


R-KR3 


RxP 


44. 


RxPch 


K-B3 


45- 


RxP 


K-B4 


46. 


K-B3 


R-Kt7 


47- 


R-RSch 


K-B3 


48. 


R — R4 


K— Kt4 


49. 


RxP 


RXRP 


SO. 


P — R4ch 


K — R4 


51- 


R— Bsch 


K-R3 


52. 


P-Kt4 


Resigns 



I have passed over the game Ughtly because of 
its difficult nature, and because we are at present 
concerned more with the openiag and the middle- 
game than we are with the endings, which will be 
treated separately. 



24. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE 
OF ACTION 

Very often in a game a master only plays to cut 
ofif, so to speak, one of the pieces from the scene of 
actual conflict. Often a Bishop or a Knight is com- 
pletely put out of action. In such cases we might 
say that from that moment the game is won, because 
for all practical purposes there wUl be one more piece 
on one side than on the other. A very good illustration 
is furnished by the following game. 



THE SCENE OF ACTION 95 

Example 54. — Played at the Hastings Victory 
Tournament, 1919. (Four Knights.) White: W. 
Winter. Black: J. R. Capablanca. 



I. 


P — K4 


P-K4 


2. 


Kt - K B 3 


Kt-QB3 


3- 


Kt-B3 


Kt-B3 


4. 


B-Kts 


B-Kt5 


5- 


0-0 


0-0 


6. 


BxKt 





Niemzowitch's variation, which I have played suc- 
cessfully in many a game. It gives White a very solid 
game. Niemzowitch's idea is that White will in due 
time be able to play P — KB 4, opening a line for his 
Rooks, which, in combination with the posting of a 
Knight at K B 5, should be sufficient to win. He 
thinks that should Black attempt to stop the Knight 
from going to K B 5, he will have to weaken his game 
in some other way. Whether this is true or not remains 
to be proved, but in my opinion the move is perfectly 
good. On the other hand, there is no question that 
Black can easily develop his pieces. But it must be 
considered that in this variation White does not 
attempt to hinder Black's development, he simply 
attempts to build up a position which he considers 
impregnable and from which he can start an attack 
in due course. 

6 QPXB 



96 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM 

The alternative, Kt P x B ; gives White the best of 
the game, without doubt.^ 

7. P-Q3 B-Qs 

8. B — Kts 

This move is not at all in accordance with the nature 
of this variation. The general strategical plan for 
White is to play P — K R 3, to be followed in time 
by the advance of the K Kt P to Kt 4, and the bringing 
of the Q Kt to K B s via K 2 and K Kt 3 or Q i and 
K 3. Then, if possible, the K Kt is linked with the 
other Kt by placing it at either K R 4, K Kt 3, or K 3 
as. the occasion demands. The White King sometimes 
remains at Kt i, and other times it is placed at K Kt 2, 
but mostly at K R i. Finally, in most cases comes 
P — KB 4, and then the real attack begins. Some- 
times it is a direct assault against the King,^ and at 
other times it comes simply to finessing for positional 
advantage in the end-game, after most of the pieces 
have been exchanged.' 

8 P — KR3 

9. B — R4 P — B4 

• See game Capablanca-Kupchick, from Havana International 
Masters Tournament Book, 1913, by J. R. Capablanca; or a game 
in the Carlsbad Tournament of 191 1, Vidmar playing Black against 
Alechin. 

' See Niemzowitch's game in the All Russian Masters Tourna- 
ment, 1914, at St. Petersburg, against Levitzki, I believe. 

' See Capablanca-Janowski game, New York Masters Tourna- 
ment, 1913. 



THE SCENE OF ACTION 



97 




To prevent P — Q 4 and to draw White into playing 
Kt — Q 5, which woxild prove fatal. Black's plan is 
to play P — K Kt 4, as soon as the circumstances 
permit, in order to free his Queen and Knight from 
the pin by the Bishop. 

10. Kt-Qs 

White falls into the trap. Only lack of experience 
can account for this move. White should have con- 
sidered that a player of my experience and strength 
could never allow such a move if it were good. 



10. 



P-KKt4 




98 



CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM 



After this move White's game is lost. White camiot 
play Kt X Kt P, because Kt x Kt will win a piece. 
Therefore he must play B — Kt 3, either before or 
after Kt X Kt, with disastrous results in either case, 
as will be seen. 



II. 
12. 

13- 

14. 

IS- 



Kt X Kt ch 

B-Kt3 

P-KR3 

QXB 

PXQ 



QxKt 

B-Kt5 

BxKt 

QXQ 

P-KB3 




A simple examination will show that White is minus 
a Bishop for all practical purposes. He can only free 
it by sacrificing one Pawn, and possibly not even 
then. At least it would lose time besides the Pawn. 
Black now devotes all his energy to the Queen's side, 
and, having practically a Bishop more, the resiilt 
cannot be in doubt. The rest of the game is given, 
so that the student may see how simple it is to win 
such a game. 



THE SCENE OF ACTION 99 



16. 


K-Kt2 


P-QR4 


17- 


P-QR4 


K— B2 


18. 


R-Ri 


K-K3 


19. 


P-R4 


K R — Q Kt I 



There is no necessity to pay any attention to the 
King's side, because White gains nothing by exchang- 
ing Pawns and opening the King's Rook file. 

20. P X P R P X P 

21. P — Kt3 P — B 3 

22. R— QR2 P — Kt4 

23. KR — R I P — B 5 

If White takes the proffered Pawn, Black regains it 
immediately by R — Kt 5, after P X B P. 



24. 


RPXP 


P X P (Kt 6) 


25- 


BPxP 


RxP 


26. 


R-R4 


RXP 


27. 


P-Q4 


R — Kt4 


28. 


R— B4 


R-Kts 


29. 


RxBP 

Resigns 


RxP 



25. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A 
SPECIMEN GAME 

Now that a lew of my games with my own notes 
have been given, I offer for close perusal and study 
a very fine game played by Sir George Thomas, one 
of England's foremost players, against Mr. F. F. L. 
Alexander, in the championship of the City of London 
Chess Club in the winter of 1919-1920. It has the 



100 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED 

interesting feature for the student that Sir George 
Thomas kindly wrote the notes to the game for me at 
my request, and with the imderstanding that I would 
make the conunents on them that I considered ap- 
propriate. Sir George Thomas' notes are in brackets 
and thus wiU be distinguished from my own comments. 

Example 55. — Queen's Gambit Declined. {The 
notes within brackets by Sir George Thomas.) White : 
Mr. F. F. L. Alexander. Black: Sir George Thomas. 



I. 


P-Q4 


P-Q4 


2. 


Kt-KB3 


Kt-KB3 


3- 


P — B4 


P-K3 


4- 


Kt-B3 


QKt — Qa 


S- 


B-Kts 


P-B3 


6. 


P-K3 


Q-R4 




(One of the objects of Black's method of defence is 
to attack White's Q Kt doubly by Kt — K s, followed 
by P X P. But 7 Kt — Q 2 is probably a strong way 



IN A SPECIMEN GAME loi 

of meeting this threat.) There are, besides, two good 
reasons for this method of defence; first, that it is 
not as much played as some of the other defences 
and consequently not so well known, and second that 
it leaves Black with two Bishops against B and Kt, 
which, in a general way, constitutes an advantage. 

7. B X Kt Kt X B 

8. P-QR3 Kt-K5 ( : 

9. Q— Kt3 B-K2 

This is not the logical place for the B which should 
have been posted at Q 3. In the opening, time is of 
great importance, and therefore the player should be 
extremely careful in his development and make sure 
that he posts his pieces in the right places. 

10. B — Q 3 Kt X Kt 

11. P X Kt P X P 

12. BxBP B — B3 

(I did not want White's Kt to come to K 5, from 
where I could not dislodge it by P — K B 3 without 
weakening my K P.) The same result could be ac- 
complished by playing B — Q 3. Incidentally it bears 
out my previous statement that the B should have 
been originally played to Q 3. 

13. 0-0 

The alternative was P — K 4, followed by P — K 5, 
and then O — 0. White would thereby assmne the 
initiative but would weaken his Pawn position con- 
siderably, and might be compelled to stake aU on a 



102 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED 



violent attack against the King. This is a tiiming 
point in the game, and it is in such positions that 
the temperament and style of the player decide the 
course of the game. 

13 0-0 

14. P— K4 P — K4 






//// 



'y// 






k 



'A 



IS. P-Qs 

(White might play 15 K R— Q i, keeping the option 
of breaking up the centre later on. I wanted him 
to advance this P as there is now a fine post for my 
B at Q B 4.) By this move White shows that he does 
not understand the true value of his position. His 
only advantage consisted in the imdeveloped condition 
of Black's Q B. He should therefore have made a 
plan to prevent the B from coming out, or if that 
were not possible, then he should try to force Black 
to weaken his Pawn position in order to come out with 
the B. There were three moves to consider: first, 



IN A SPECIMEN GAME 103 

P — Q R 4, in order to maintain the White B in the 
dominating position that it now occupies. This 
would have been met by Q — B 2 ; second, either of 
the Rooks to Q i in order to threaten 16 P X P, B x P ; 
17 Kt X B, Q X Kt ; 18 B X P ch. This would have 
been met by B — Kt 5 ; and third, P — K R 3 to pre- 
vent B — Kt 5 and by playing either R to Q i, followed 
up as previously stated to force Black to play 
P — Q Kt 4, which would weaken his Queen's side 
Pawns. Thus by playing 'P — K R 3 White would 
have attained the desired object. The text move 
blocks the action of the White B and facilitates Black's 
development. Hereafter White wiU act on the defen- 
sive, and the interest throughout the rest of the game 
wiU centre mainly on Black's play and the manner in 
which he carries out the attack. 

IS Q— B 2 ^ 

16. B-Q3 

(This seems wrong, as it makes the development of 
Black's Queen wing easier. At present he cannot 
play P— Q Kt 3, because of the reply P X P followed 
byB-Qs.) 



16 


P-QKt3 
B-Kt2 


17. P-B4 


18. KR-Bi 





(With the idea of Q R— Kt i and P — B 5. But it 
only compels Black to bring his B to Q B 4, which he 
would do in any case.) 



I04 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED 

i8 B-K2 

19. R — B 2 B — B4 

20. Q— Kt2 P — B3 

(It would have been better, probably, to play 
20 . . . K R — K I, with the idea of P — B 4 presently.) 
Black's play hereabout is weak; it lacks force, and 
there seems to be no weU-defined plan of attack. It 
is true that these are the most difficult positions to 
handle in a game. In such cases a player must conceive 
a plan on a large scale, which promises chances of 
success, and with it aU, it must be a plan that can be 
carried out with the means at his disposal. From 
the look of the position it seems that Black's best 
chance would be to mass his forces for an attack 
against White's centre, to be followed by a direct 
attack against the King. He should, therefore, play 
Q R— K I, threatening P— K B 4. If White is able 
to defeat this plan, or rather to prevent it, then, once 
he has fixed some of the White pieces on the EJng's 
side, he should quickly shift his attack to the Queen's 
side, and open a line for his Rooks, which, once they 
enter in action, should produce an advantage on ac- 
count of the great power of the two Bishops. 

21. QR— Kt I QR— Qi 

22. P — QR4 B — R3 

23. R-Qi 

(White has clearly lost time with his Rook's moves.) 

23 KR — Ki 

24. Q-Kt3 



IN A SPECIMEN GAME 105 

(To bring his Queen across after Kt — R 4 and B — K2.) 
24 R-Q3 



25. Kt — R4 

26. B — K2 



P-Kt3 




26. 



PxP 



(I thought this exchange necessary here, as White 
is threatening to play his Bishop via Kt 4 to K 6. 
If he retook with the Bishop's Pawn I intended to 
exchange Bishops and rely on the two Pawns to one 
on the Queen's wing. I did not expect him to retake 
it with the King's Pawn, which seemed to expose 
him to a violent King's side attack.) Black's judg- 
ment in this instance I beUeve to be faulty. Had 
White retaken with the B P, as he expected, he would 
have had the worst of the Pawn position, as White 
would have" had a passed Pawn well supported on the 
Queen's side. His only advantage would he in his 
having a very well posted Bishop against a badly 



io6 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED 

posted Knight, and on the fact that in such posi- 
tions as the above, the Bishop is invariably stronger 
than the Knight. He could and should have pre^ 
vented all that, by playing B — B i, as, had White 
then replied with Q— Kt 3, he could then play 
P X P, and White would not have been able to retake 
with the B P on account of B X P ch winmng the 
exchange. 

27. KPxP P — K5 

28. P — Kt3 P— K6 

I do not like this move. It would have been better 
to hold it in reserve and to have played P — B 4, to 
be followed in due time by P — K Kt 4 and P — 65^ 
after having placed the Q at Q 2, K B 2, or some other 
square as the occasion demanded. The text move 
blocks the action of the powerful B at Q B 4, and 
tends to make White's position safer than it should 
have been. The move in itself is a very strong attack- 
ing move, but it is isolated, and there is no effective 
continuation. Such advances as a rule should only 
be made when they can be followed by a concerted 
action of the pieces. 

29. P — B4 B — Bi 

30. Kt— B 3 B — B4 

31. R— Kt2 R— Ks 

32. K— Kt2 Q — B I 

33. Kt— Kt I P — KKt4 



IN A SPECIMEN GAME 107 

(If now 34 B-B 3, PXP; 35 BXR, BXB ch, 

with a winning attack.) 

34. PxP PxP 

35. R-KBi P-Kts 

R— R 3 was the alternative. White's only move 
would have been K— R i. The position now is evi- 
dently won for Black, and it is only a question of 
finding the right course. The final attack is now 
carried on by Sir George Thomas in an irreproachable 
manner. 

36. B-Q3 R-KB3 

37. Kt — K2 Q— B I 




(Again preventing B X R, by the masked attack 
on White's Rook. White therefore protects his Rook.) 
If Kt — B 4, P-K 7!; 39 KtxP, RxKt ch; 
40 R X R, B — K 5 ch ! ! ; 41 B X B, best, R X R and 
White is lost. If, however, against 38 Kt — B 4, Black 
plays Q— R 3, and White 39 Q— B 2, I take pleasure 



io8 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED 

in offering the position to my readers as a most beau- 
tiful and extraordinary win for Black, beginning with 
39... Q — R 6 ch!!! I leave the variations for the 
student to work out. 

38. R(Kt2)-Kti Q-R3 

39- Q-B2 

(Making a double attack on the Rook — which still 
cannot be taken — and preparing to defend the K R P.) 
If either the Rook or Bishop are taken White would 
be mated in a few moves. 



39- 
40. 



K-Ri 



Q — R6ch 
RXP!! 



^ /^*^ 
^ ^ i 



^ 






^..y ^5^1 



^^^^/ 






\% 



(If 40...R-R3; 41 Kt — Kt I, QxKtP; 42 Q — 
K Kt 2. Black therefore tries to get the Queen away 
from the defence.) A very beautiful move, and the 
best way to carry on the attack. 



41. QxR 



IN A SPECIMEN GAME 109 

(The best defence was 41 R X B, but Black would 
emerge with Queen agamst Rook and Knight.) 

41 BxB 

(Again, not R — K R 3 ; because of P — Q 6 dis. ch.) 

42. R X R 

(If 42 Q X B, then, at last, R— R 3 wins.) 

42 B X Q 

43. Kt— B4 P— K7! 




(The Queen has no escape,, but White has no time 
to take it.) 

44. R— KKti Q-B8 

White resigns. A very fine finish. 



CHAPTER V 

EnD-GAME STRATEGy 

We must now revert once more to the endings. Their 
importance will have become evident to the student 
who has taken the trouble to study my game with 
Janowski (Example 53). After an uneventful opening 

— a Ruy Lopez — in one of its normal variations, 
my opponent suddenly made things interesting by 
offering the exchange; an offer which, of course, I 
accepted. Then followed a very hard, arduous struggle, 
in which I had to defend myself against a very danger- 
ous attack made possible by the excellent manoeu- 
vring of my adversary. Finally, there came the time 
when I could give back the material and change off 
most of the pieces, and come to an ending in which 
I clearly had the advantage. But yet the ending 
itself was not as simple as it at first appeared, and 
finally — perhaps through one weak move on my part 

— it became a very difficult matter to find a win. 
Had I been a weak end-game player the game would 
probably have ended in a draw, and all my previous 
efforts would have been in vain. Unfortunately, that 
is very often the case among the large majority of 
players ; they are weak in the endings ; a failing from 
which masters of the first rank are at times not free. 



END-GAME STRATEGY 



III 



Incidentally, I might call attention to the fact that 
all the world's champions of the last sixty years have 
been exceedingly strong in the endings: Morphy, 
Steinitz, and Dr. Lasker had no superiors in this 
department of the game while they held their titles. 

26. THE SUDDEN ATTACK FROM A 
DIFFERENT SIDE 

I have previously stated, when speaking about 
general theory, that at times the way to win consists 
in attacking first on one side, then, granted greater 
mobility of the pieces, to transfer the attack quickly 
from one side to the other, breaking through before 
your opponent has been able to bring up sufficient 
forces to withstand the attack. This principle of the 
middle-game can sometimes be applied in the endings 
in somewhat similar manner. 

Example 56. 




112 THE SUDDEN ATTACK 

In the above position I, with the Black pieces, 
played : 

I R— Ksch 

2. R— K2 R— QR5 

3. R— R2 P-KR4 

The idea, as will be seen very soon, is to play P — R 5 
in order to fix White's King's side Pawns with a view 
to the future. It is evident to Black that White 
wants to bring his King to Q Kt 3 to support his 
two weak isolated Pawns, and thus to free his Rooks. 
Black, therefore, makes a plan to shift the attack to 
the King's side at the proper time, in order to obtain 
some advantage from the greater mobility of his 
Rooks, 

4. R-Qi R(Q4)-QR4 

in order to force the Rook to Rook's square, keeping 
both Rooks tied up. 

5. R(Qi)-Ri P-Rs 

6. K— Q2 K— Kt 2 

7. K-B2 R-KKt4 

Black begins to transfer his attack to the Eing's side. 

8. R— KKt I 

A serious mistake, which loses quickly. White should 
have played 8 K — Kt 3, when Black would have 
answered 8...R(R5) — R4; 9P — B3, and Black 
would have obtained an opening at K Kt 6 for his 
ELing, which in the end might give him the victory. 

8 R-KBs 



FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE 113 

Now the King cannot go to Kt 3, because of R— 
Kt 4 ch. 

9. K— Q3 R — B6ch 

10. K— K2 
If P X R, R X R ; followed by R— K R 8 winning, 

10 RXRP 

and Black won after a few moves. 

Example 57. — Another good example, in which 
is shown the advantage of the greater mobiUty of 
the pieces in an ending, is the following from a game 
Capablanca-Kupchick played at the Havana Masters 
Tournament, 1913. The fuU score and notes of the 
game can be fovmd in the book of the tournament. 




White's only advantage in the above position is that 
he possesses the open file and has the move, which 
wiU secure him the initiative. There is also the shght 
advantage of having his Pawns on the Queen's side 
imited, while Black has an isolated Q R P. The 



114 THE SUDDEN ATTACK 

proper course, as in the previous ending, is to bring 
the Rooks forward, so that at least one of them may 
be able to shift from one side of i the board to the 
other, and thus keep Black's Rooks from moving 
freely. What this means in general theory has been 
stated already; it really means: keep harassing the 
enemy; force him to use his big pieces to defend Pawns. 
If he has a weak point, try to make it weaker, or create 
another weakness somewhere else and his position will 
collapse sooner or later. If he has a weakness, and he 
can get rid of it, make sure that you create another weak- 
ness somewhere else. 

From the position in question the game continued 
thus: 

1. R-K4 KR-Ki 

with the object of repeating White's manoeuvre, and 
also not to aUow White the control of the open file.. 

2. QR-Ki R-K3 

3. QR-K3 R(Bi)-Ki 

4. K-B I K-B I 

Black wants to bring his King to the centre of the 
board in order to be nearer to whatever point White 
decides to attack. The move is justified at least on 
the general rule that in such endings the King should 
be in the middle of the board. He does nothing after 
all but follow White's footsteps. Besides, it is hard 
to point out anything better. If4...P — Q4; sR — 
Kt 4 ch, followed by K — K 2, would leave Black in 
a very disagreeable position. If 4. ..P — KB 4; sR— 



FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE 115 

Q4! RxR? 6PxR,RxP; 7K-B2,R-K2; 

8 R — Q R 4, winning the Q R P, which would prac- 
tically leave White with a passed Pawn ahead on the 
Queen's side, as the three Pawns of Black on the 
King's side woidd be held by the two of White. 

5. K-K2 K-K2 

6. R-QR4 R-QRi 

The student should note that through the same ma- 
noeuvre Black is forced into a position similar to the 
one shown in the previous ending. 

7. R-Rs! 

This move has a manifold object. It practically fixes 
aU of Black's Pawns except the Q P, which is the only 
one that can advance two squares. It specially pre- 
vents the advance of Black's K B Pawns, and at the 
same time threatens the advance of White's K B 
Pawns to B 4 and B 5. By this threat it practically 
forces Black to play P — Q 4, which is aU White desires, 
for reasons that will soon become evident. 

7 P-Q4 

8. P-QB4! K-Q3 

Evidently forced, as the only other move to save a 
Pawn would have been P X P, which would have left 
aU Black's Pawns isolated and weak. If 8 . . . P — Q 5 ; 

9 R-K 4, K-Q 3; 10 P-Q Kt 4! R-K 4; 
1 1 R — R 6, and Black's game is hopeless. 

9. P-B sch K-Q2 

10. P-Q4 P-B4 



ii6 THE SUDDEN ATTACK 

Apparently very strong, since it forces the exchange 
of Rooks because of the threat R— R 3 ; but in reality 
it leads to nothing. The best chance was to play 
R-K K I. 

11. RXR PxR 

12. P-B 4 

Up to now White had played with finesse, but this 
last move is weak. R ^ R 6 was the proper way to 
continue, so as to force Black to give up his Q R P 
or Q B P. 

12 K-B I 

13. K-Q2 

Again a bad move. 13 R — R 3 was the proper con- 
tinuation, and if then 13. . .R — Kt i ; 14 P — Kt 3, 
K-Kt 2; IS P-Kt 4, K-R i; 16 R-Q Kt 3, 
with excellent winning chances; in fact, I beUeve, a 
won game. 




13 K-Kt 2 

Black misses his only chance. R — Kt i would have 
drawn. 



FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE 117 



14. 


R-R3 


R-KKti 


15. 


R-R3 


R^Kt2 


16. 


K-K2 


K-R3 


17- 


R^R6 


R-K2 


18. 


K-Q3 


K-Kt2 



He goes back with the King to support his K P, and 
thus be able to utilise his Rook. It is, however, use- 
less, and only White's weak play later on gives him 
further chances of a draw. 

19. P-KR4 K-B I 

20. R-Rs 

To prevent the Black Rook from controlling the open 
£Ie 

20 K-Q2 

21. R-Kt 5 R-B 2 

22. K-B 3 K-B I 

He must keep his King on that side because White 
threatens to march with his King to R 6 via Kt 4. 



23- 


K-Kt4 


R-B3 


24. 


K-Rs 


K-Kt 2 


25- 


P-R4 


P-QR3 


26. 


P-R5 


R-R3 



He can do nothing but wait for White. The text 
move stops White from moving his Rook, but only 
for one move. 

27. P-Kt4 R-B 3 

The only other move was K — R 2; when White 
could play R— Kt 7, or even P — Kt 5. 



Ii8 



THE SUDDEN ATTACK 






28. P - Kt 5 

A weak move, which gives Black a fighting chance. 
In this endiag, as is often the case with most players, 
White plays the best moves whenever the situation 
is difficult and requires careftd handling, but once 
his position seems to be overwhelming he relaxes his 
efforts and the result is nothing to be proud of. The 
right move was 28 R— Kt 7. 



08 




RPXP 


29. 


PXP 


R-B i! 


30- 


R-Kt7 


R-Ri ch 


31- 


K-Kt4 


PXP 


32- 


KxP 


R-R7 


33- 


P-B6ch 


K-Kti 


34. 


RXRP 


R-Kt 7ch 


35- 


K-Rs 


R-R7ch 


36. 


K-Kt4 


RXP 



Black misses his last chance: R — Kt 7 ch, forcing 
the King to B 3, in order to avoid the perpetual, 



FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE iig 

would probably draw. The reader must bear in mind 
that my opponent was then a very yoimg and inex- 
perienced player, and consequently deserves a great 
deal of credit for the fight he put up. 

37. R-K7 RxP 

R— Kt 7 ch; followed by R — K R 7, offered better 
chances. 

38. P-R6! RxPch 

39. K-Kt5 R-Q8 

40. P-R7 R-KtSch 

41. K-B s R-B Sch 

42. K-Q4 R-Q8ch 

43. K-Ks R-K8ch 
44- K-B6 R-KR8 

45. R-K8ch K-R2 

46. P-R8(Q) RxQ 

47. RxR K-Kt3 

48. KxP KxP 

49. KxP K-B 4 

50. K— K 5 Resigns. 

This ending shows how easy it is to make weak moves, 
and how often, even in master-play, mistakes are 
made and opportimities are lost. It shows that, so 
long as there is no great advantage of material, even 
with a good position, a player, no matter how strong, 
cannot afford to relax his attention even for one 
move. 



I20 



THE DANGER OF 



27. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION 

Example 58. — A good proof of the previous state- 
ment is shown in the following ending between Mar- 
shall and Kupchick in one of their two games in the 
same Tournament (Havana, 1913). 




It is evident that Marshall (White) is imder great 
difl&culties in the above position. Not only is he 
bound to lose a Pawn, but his position is rather poor. 
The best he could hope for was a draw unless some- 
thing altogether unexpected happened, as it did. No 
reason can be given for Black's loss of the game except 
that he felt so certain of having the best of it with a 
Pawn more and what he considered a safe position, 
that he became exceedingly careless and did not con- 
sider the danger that actually existed. Let us see 
how it happened. 



I. P-Kt4 



RXRP 



A SAFE POSITION i2i 

The mistakes begin. This is the first. Black sees 
that he can take a Pawn without any danger, and 
does not stop to think whether there is anything 
better. R — B 7 ch was the right move. If then 
K- Kt 3, R X P. If instead White played K- K 4, 
then R- K 4 ch followed by R X R P. 

2. R-Qi R-Rsch 

Mistake nmnber two, and this time such a serious 
one as to almost lose the game. The proper move 
was to play P — B 4 in order to break up White's 
Pawns and at the same time make room for the Black 
King, which is actually in danger, as will soon be seen. 

3. R-Q4 R(Rs)-R4 
Mistake number three and this time fatal. His best 
move was R (Kt 4) — R 4. After the text move there 
is no defence. Black's game is lost. This shows that 
even an apparently simple ending has to be played 
with care. From a practically won position Black 
finds himself with a lost game, and it has only taken 
three moves. 

4. R(Q4)-Q8 R-Kt2 

If4...P-B4; sR-R8ch, K-Kt3; 6R(B8)- 
Kt Sch, K- B 3 ; 7 R X P ch, R- Kt 3 ; 8P- Kt 5 ch, 
K-K2; 9 R (R 6)xR, PxR; 10 R-Kt 7 ch, 
K— K I ; II R X Kt P, and wins easily. 

5. P-R4 P-R4 

6. R-R8ch Resigns. 

The reason is evident. If 6. . .K — Kt 3 ; 7 P x P ch, 



122 



ENDINGS WITH ONE 



RxP; 8RxR, KxR; 9 R-R 8 ch, K-Kt 3; 
10 P — R 5 mate. 



28. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS 

The reader has probably realised by this time that 
endings of two Rooks and Pawns are very dif&cult, 
and that the same holds true for endings of one Rook 
and Pawns. Endings of two Rooks and Pawns are 
not very common in actual play ; but endings of one 
Rook and Pawns are about the most common sort 
of endings arising on the chess board. Yet though 
they do occur so often, few have mastered them thor- 
oughly. They are often of a very difl&cult nature, and 
sometimes while apparently very simple they are in 
reality extremely intricate. Here is an example from 
a game between Marshall and Rosenthal in the Man- 
hattan Chess Club Championship Tournament of 
1909-1910. 

Example 59. 




ROOK AND PAWNS 123 

In this position Marshall had a simple win by 
R — B 7 ch, but played P — B 6, and thereby gave 
Black a chance to draw. Luckily for him Black did 
not see the drawing move, played poorly, and lost. 
Had Black been up to the situation he would have 
drawn by playing R— Q 3. 

I. P-B6 R-Q3! 

Now White has two continuations, either (a) P — B 7, 
or (6) R — B 7 ch. We have therefore : 

(a) 2. P-B 7 R-Qi! 
3. R-Rsch K-Bs 

and White will finally have to sacrifice the Rook for 
Black's Pawn. Or — 

(b) 2. R-B 7ch K-Qs! 

3. P-B 7 R— Kt3ch! 

a very important move, as against R — KB3, R — K7 
wins. 

4. K-B I R-KB 3 

5. R-Kt7 K-B 6 

and White will finally have to sacrifice the Rook 
for the Pawn, or draw by perpetual check. 

If there were nothing more in the ending it would 
not be of any great value, but there are other 
very interesting features. Now suppose that after 
I P-B 6, R-Q 3; 2 P-B 7, Black did not 
realise that R — Q i was the only move to draw, 



124 ENDINGS WITH ONE 

We would then have the following position : 




Now there would be twojpther moves to try : either 
(o) R — Kt 3 ch, or (b) R — K B 3. Let us examine 

them. 

(a) I R-Kt3ch 

2. K-B 3 R-B3ch 

3. K-K3 R-K3ch 

IfP — Kt6; R — Rs ch wins, because if the King 
goes back, then R — R 6, and if the King goes up, then 
R— R 4 ch, followed by R— K B 4 wins. 

4. K-Q3 R-KB3 
If R-Q 3 ch; K-K 4 wins. 

5. R — Rsch K moves 

6. R — R 6 wins 

(&) I R-B3 

2. R-Kt7! K-B 5 

If P - Kt 6 ; R - Kt 3, and White will either capture 
the Pawn or go to K B 3, and come out with a winning 
ending. 



ROOK AND PAWNS 



I2S 



3. P-R4 P-Kt6 

4. R — Kt 4 ch K moves 
5- R-Kt3 

and White will either capture the Pawn or play R — 
K B 3, according to the circumstances, and come out 
with a winning ending. 

Now, going back to the position shown on page 122, 
suppose that after iP — B6, R — Q3; 2R — B7ch, 
Black did not reaUse that K— Q 5 was the only move 
to draw, and consequently played K — Kt 3 instead, 
we would then have the following position: 




Now the best continuation would be : 

1. P - B 7 R- Kt 3 ch (best) 

2. K-B I 

3. R-K7! 
White threatened to check with the Rook at K 6. 

4. K-K2 P-Kt6 



R-KB3 
K-B 4 (best) 



126 



ENDINGS WITH ONE 



Best. If K-B 5; both P-R 4 and K-K 3 will 
win; the last-named move particularly would win 
with ease. 



5- R-K3 

6. R-QKt3 

7. RxP 

8. R-Q2 

9. K-K3 



P-Kt 7 (best) 
RxP 
R-KR2 
RxP 




This position we have arrived at is won by White, 
because there are two files between the opposing 
King and the Pawn from which the King^ is cut off 
by the Rook, and besides, the Pawn can advance to 
the fourth rank before the opponent's Rook can begin 
to check on the file. This last condition is very im- 
portant, because if, instead of the position on the 
diagram, the Black Rook were at K R x, and Black 
had the move, he could draw by preventing the ad- 



ROOK AND PAWNS 127 

vance of the Pawn, either through constant checks 
or by playing R — K B i at the proper time. 

Now that we have explained the reasons why this 
position is won, we leave it to the student to work 
out the correct solution. 

The fact that out of one apparently simple ending 
we have been able to work out several most unusual 
and difficult endings should be sufficient to impress 
upon the student's mind the necessity of becoming 
well acquainted with all kinds of endings, and espe- 
cially with endings of Rook and Pawns. 

29. A DIFFICULT ENDING: TWO 
ROOKS AND PAWNS 

Following our idea that the best way to learn end- 
ings as well as openings is to study the games of the 
masters, we give two more endings of two Rooks and 
Pawns. These endings, as already stated, are not 
very common, and the author is fortimate in having 
himself played more of these endings than is generally 
the case. By carefully comparing and studying the 
endings aheady given (Examples 56 and 57) with 
the following, the student no doubt can obtain an idea 
of the proper method to be followed in such cases. 
The way of procedure is somewhat similar in all of 
them. 

Example 60. — From a game, Capablanca-Kreym- 
borg, in the New York State Championship Tourna- 
ment of 1910. 



128 



A DIFFICULT ENDING: 




It is Black's move, and no doubt thinking that 
drawing such a position (that was all Black played 
for) would be easy, he contented himself with a waiting 
poUcy. Such conduct must always be criticised. It 
often leads to disaster. The best way to defend such 
positions is to assume the initiative and keep the opponent 
on the defensive, 

I QR-Ki 

The first move is already wrong. There is nothing 
to gain by this move. Black should play P — Q R 4 ; 
to be followed by P — Q R s; unless White plays 
P — Q Kt 3. That would fix the Queen's side. After 
that he could decide what demonstration he could 
make with his Rooks to keep the opponent's Rooks 
at bay. 

2. R-Q4 

This move not only prevents P — B 5 which Black 
intended, but threatens P — Kt 3, followed, after 



TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 129 

P X P ch, by the attack with one or both Rooks 
against Black's Q R P. 

2 R-B3 

probably with the idea of a demonstration on the 
King's side by R- Kt 3 and Kt 7. 

3. P-Kt3 PxPch 

4. PXP K-B2 
5- K-Q3 

R — Q R I should have been played now, m order to 
force Black to defend with R — K 2. White, however, 
does not want to disclose his plan at once, and thus 
awaken Black to the danger of his position, hence 
this move, which seems to aim at the disruption of 
Black's Queen's side Pawns. 

5 R-K2 

6. R-QRi K-K3 

This is a mistake. Black is unaware of the danger of 
his position. He should have played P — Kt 4 ; threat- 
ening R — R 3, and, by making this demonstration 
against White's K R P, stop the attack against his 
Queen's side Pawns, which will now develop. 

7. R-R6 R-QB 2 

He could not play K — Q 3, because P — Q B 4 would 
win at least a Pawn. This in itself condemns his last 
move K — K 3, which has done nothing but make his 
situation practically hopeless. 

8. R(Q4)-QR4 P-KKt4 
Now forced, but it is a little too late. He could not 
play 8. . .K R — B 2, because P — K B 4 would have 



130 



A DIFFICULT ENDING: 



left his game completely paralysed. Black now finally 
awakens to the danger, and tries to save the day by 
the coimter-demonstration on the King's side, which 
he should have started before. Of course, White 
cannot play R x R P, because of R X R, followed 
by R — R 3, recovering the Pawn with advantage. 

9. P-KR4! P-Kt s 

Black is now in a very disagreeable position. If he 
played 9. . .P X P ; 10 R X P would leave him in a 
very awkward situation, as he could not go back 
with the King, nor could he do much with either 
Rook. He practically would have to play 10. . .P — 
K R 3, when White would answer 11 P — Kt 4, threat- 
ening to win a Pawn by P — Kt 5, or, if that were 
not enough, he might play K — Q 4, to be followed 
finally by the entry of the King at B 5 or K 5. 

10. K-K2 




TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 131 

10 PxPch 

Again he cannot play P — K R 4, because P— K B 4 
woxild leave him paralysed. The advance of his K R P 
would make White's K R P safe, and consequently 
his K R would have to retire to K B 2 to defend the 
Q R P. That would make it impossible for his King 
to go to Q 2, because of the Q R P, nor could he advance 
a single one of his Pawns. On the other hand, White 
would play P — Kt 4, threatening to win a Pawn by 
P— Kt 5, or he might first play K— Q 4, and then 
at the proper time P — Kt 5, if there was nothing better. 
Black meanwhile could really do nothing but mark 
time with one of his Rooks. Compare this bottling- 
up system with the ending in Example 57, and it 
will be seen that it is very similar. 

11. KxP R(B3)-B 2 

12. K-K2 

Probably wrong. P — Kt 4 at once was the right 
move. The text move gives Black good chances of 
drawing. 

12 K-Qs 

13. P-Kt4 R-QKt2 

This could never have happened had White played 
12 P — Kt 4, as he could have followed it up by 
P-Kt 5 after Black's K-Q 3. 

14. P-Rs 

Not good. P — K B 4 offered the best chances of 
winning by force. If then 14...R— Kt 2; 15 P- 



132 



A DIFFICULT ENDING: 



RS,R-Kt7ch; i6 K-Q 3, R-K R 7; 17 R X P, 
,RxR; i8RxR,RxP; 19 R - R 6, with winning 
chances. 




14. 



P-R3 



Black misses his last chance. P — B 5 would draw. 
If then IS P X P, R (Kt 2) — K 2 ch! ; 16 K — B i, 
RXP; 17 RXP, R-K 6! 

R-Kt2 

R (K Kt 2) - K 2 

R-Kt2 

R-Kt 7 

R (Kt 2) - Kt 2 

R (Kt 7) — Kt 2 would have offered greater resistance, 
but the position is lost in any case. (I leave the stu- 
dent to work this out.) 



IS- 


P-KB4 


16. 


K-Q3 


17- 


R-Ri 


18. 


K-Q4 


19. 


R(R6)-R2 



20. K-Q 3! 

21. RxR 



RXR 
R-K2 



TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 



133 



Nothing would avail. If 21 . . .R - Kt 8 ; 22 R - R 6 ! 
R-Q 8 ch; 23 K-B 2, R-K R 8; 24 P-Kt 5, 
R X P ; 25 R X P ch, K- Q 2 ; 26 R- Q R 6, and 

White will win easily. 

22. R-KKt2 R-K 3 



23. R-Kt7 




R-K2 


24. R-Kt8 




P-B4 


Black is desperate. He sees 


he 


can no longer defend 


his Pawns. 






25. R-Kt6ch 




R-K3 


26. P X P ch 




K-Q2 


27. R-Kt 7ch 




K-B3 


28. R X P 




KxP 


29. R-KB 7 




Resigns. 



Example 61. — From the game Capablanca-Janow- 
ski, New York National Tournament of 1913. 



k i 



E 



E 



t i 



^ 



Black's game has the disadvantage of his double 
Q B P, which, to make matters worse, he cannot 



134 A DIFFICULT ENDING: 

advance, because as soon as Black plays P — Q Kt 3, 
White replies P — Q Kt 4. It is on this fact that 
White builds his plans. He will stop Black's Queen's 
side Pawns from advancing, and will then bring his 
own King to K 3. Then in due time he will play 
P-Q 4, and finaUy P-K 5, or P-K Kt 5, thus 
forcing an exchange of Pawns and obtaining in that 
way a clear passed Pawn on the King's file. It will 
be seen that this plan was carried out during the course 
of the game, and that White obtained his winning 
advantage in that way. The play was based through- 
out on the chance of obtaining a passed Pawn on the 
King's file, with which White expected to win. 

1. P-KKt4 

already preparing to play P — K Kt 5 when the time 
comes. 

I P-QKt3 

Black wants to play P — Q B 4, but White, of course, 
prevents it. 

2. P-Kt4! K-Kt2 

This King should come to the King's side, where the 
danger lurks. 

3. K-B 2 P-QKt4 

With the object of playing K— Kt 3 and P — Q R 4, 
followed by P X P, and thus have an open file for 
his Rook and be able to make a coiuiter-demonstration 



TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 135 

on the Queen's side in order to stop White's advance 
on the right. White, however, also prevents this. 

4. P-QR4! R-Qs 

Of course if P X P ; Black will have all his Pawns on 
the Queen's side disrupted and isolated, and White 
can easily regain the lost Pawn by playing either 
Rook on the QR file. 

5. R-Q Kt I R-K4 

He still wants to play P — Q B 4, but as it is easy 
to foresee that White wiU again prevent it, the text 
move is really a serious loss of time. Black should 
bring his King over to the other side immediately. 

6. K-K3 R-Q2 
7- P-RS 

The first part of White's strategic plan is now accom- 
plished. Black's Pawns on the Queen's side are fixed 
for aU practical pxuposes. 

7 R-R3 

If R X R ; Kt P X R would have given White a very 
powerful centre. Yet it might have been the best 
chance for Black. 

8. R(Kt)-KBi R(Q2)-K2 

9. P-Kts PxP 
10. RXP 



136 



A DIFFICULT ENDING: 



^ i 




1 A 


k k 






k 

1 


// 

'kr 


— 




/ 


i» 



The second part of White's strategical plan is now 
accomplished. It remains to find out if the advantage 
obtained is sufficient to win. White not only has a 
passed Pawn, but his King is m a commanding position 
in the centre of the board ready to support the advance 
of White's Pawns, or, if necessary, to go to Q B 5, or 
to move to the right wing in case of danger. Besidek, 
White holds the open file with one of his Rooks. Al- 
together White's position is superior and his chances 
of winning are excellent. 



10. 
II. 



R-Kt3 



R-R3 

R(R3)-K3 



to prevent P — Q 4. Also Black fears to keep his 
Rook in front of his two King's side Pawns which he 
may want to utilise later. 



12. P- 
13- R- 



.R4 
-Kts 



P-Kt3 
P-R3 



TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 137 

White threatens P — R 5, which would finally force 
Black to take, and then White would double his 
Rooks against the isolated Pawn and win it, or 
tie up Black's Rooks completely. The text move, 
however, only helps White; therefore Black had 
nothing better than to hold tight and wait. 
R — K 4 would not help much, as White would 
simply answer R — B 8, R-K i; R (Kt 5) X R, 
and whichever Rook Black took. White would have 
an easy game. (The student should carefully study 
these variations.) 



14. 


R-Kt4 ^ 


R-Kt 2 


IS- 


P-Q4 ' 


K-B I 


16. 


R- B 8 ch 


K-Kt 2 



K — Q 2 would not help much, but since he made the 

previous move he should now be consistent and play 
it. 

17. P-K5 P-Kt4 

18. K-K4 R(K3)-K2 

19. PxP PXP 

20. R-B 5 K-B I 

21. R(Kt4)xP R-R2 

22. R-R5 K-Q2 

23. RxR RxR 

24. R-B 8 R-R5ch 

25. K-Q3 R-R6ch 



138 ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS v. 

26. K-Q2 P-B4 

27. KtPxP R-QR6 

28. P — Q 5 Resigns. 

The winning tactics in all these endings have merely 
consisted in keeping the opponent's Rooks tied to the 
defence of one or more Pawns, leaving my own Rooks 
free for action. This is a general principle which 
can be equally appUed to any part of the game. It 
means in general terins — 

Keep freedom of manoeuvre while hampering your 
opponent. 

There is one more thing of great importance, and 
that is that the winning side has always had a general 
strategical plan capable of being carried out with the 
means at his disposal, while often the losing side had 
no plan at aU, but simply moved according to the 
needs of the moment. 



30. ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS v. ROOK, 
KNIGHT AND PAWNS 

We shall now examine an ending of Rook, Bishop 
and Pawns against Rook, Knight and Pawns, where 
it will be seen that the Rook at times is used in the 
same way as in the endings already given. 

Example 62. — From the first game of the Lasker- 
Marshall Championship Match in 1907. 



ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS 139 




In this position it is Black's move. Tct a beginner 
the position may look like a draw, but the advanced 
player will realise immediately that there are great 
possibilities for Black to win, not only because he has 
the initiative, but because of White's undeveloped 
Queen's side and the fact that a Bishop in such a posi- 
tion is better than a Knight (see Section 14). It will 
take some time for White to bring his Rook and Knight 
into the fray, and Black can utilise it to obtain an 
advantage. There are two courses open to him. The 
most evident, and the one that most players would 
take, is to advance the Pawn to Q B 4 and Q B 5 
immediately in conjimction with the Bishop check 
at R 3 and any other move that might be necessary 
with the Black Rook. The other, and more subtle, 
course was taken by Black. It consists in utilising 
his Rook in the same way as shown in the previous 
endings, forcing White to defend sbmethrng all the 
time, restricting the action of White's Knight and 



I40 ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS v. 

White's Rook, while at the same time keeping freedom 
of action for his own Rook and Bishop. 

I R-Kt I 



This forces P — Q Kt 3, which blocks that square 
for the White Knight. 

2. P-Kt3 R-Kt 4 

bringing the Rook to attack the King's side Pawns 
so as to force the King to that side to defend them, 
and thus indirectly making more secure the position 
of Black's Queen's side Pawns. 





3- 


P- 


■B4 


R 


-KR 


4 








4- 


K- 


-Kt I 


P- 


-B4 








Note 


that the White Knight 


's sphere 


of 


action 


is 


very 


limited, 


and that after Kt- 


-Q 2 


White's own 


Pawns are in 


his 


way. 














5- 


Kt 


-Q2 


K 


-B2 










6. 


R- 


-B ich 













This check accompUshes nothing. It merely drives 
Black's King where it wants to go. Consequently 
it is a very bad move. P — Q R 3 at once was the 
best move. 

6 K-K2 

7. P-QR3 R-R3 

Getting ready to shift the attack to the Queen's side, 
where he has the advantage in material and position. 

8. P-KR4 R-R3 



ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS 141 

Notice how similar are the manoeuvres with this Rook 
to those seen in the previous endings. 

9. R-Ri B-Kts 

Paralysing the action of the Knight and fixing the 
whole King's side. 

ID. K-B2 K-K3 

White cannot answer Kt — B 3, because B X Kt 
followed by K — K 4 wUl win a Pawn, on account of 
the check at K B 3 which cannot be stopped. 



II. 


P-R4 


K-K4 


12. 


K-Kt2 


R-KB3 


13- 


R-Ki 


P-Q6 


14. 


R-KB I 


K-QS 



Now the King attacks White's Pawns and aU will 
soon be over. 

15. RXR PxR 

6. K-B 2 P-B3 

Merely to, exhaust White's move, which wiU finally 
force him to move either the King or the Knight. 



17- 


P-QRs 


P-QR3 


18. 


Kt-B I 


KXP 


19. 


K-Ki 


B-K7 


20. 


Kt-Q2ch 


K-K6 


21. 


Kt-Kt I 


P-B4 


22. 


Kt-Q2 


P-R4 


23- 


Kt-Kt I 


K-B6 


24. 


Kt-B 3 


KxP 



142 ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS 



25. Kt-R4 


P-B5 


26. KtxP 


P-B6 


27. Kt-K4ch 


K-Bs 


The quickest way to win. 


White should resign, 


28. Kt-Q6 


P-B4 


29. P-Kt4 


PXP 


30. P-Bs 


P-Kt6 


31. Kt-B4 


K-Kt6 


32. Kt-K3 


P-Kt7 


Resigns. 





A very good example on Black's part of how to con- 
duct such an ending. 



CHAPTER VI 

Further Openings and Middle-Games 

31. SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS 

Before going back to the discussion of openings and 
middle-game positions, it might be well to bear in 
mind a few facts concerning Pawn positions which 
will no doubt help to understand certain moves, and 
sometimes even the object of certain variations in 
the openings, and of some manoeuvres in the middle- 
games. 




Example 63. — In the position of the diagram we 
have an exceedingly bad Pawn formation on Black's 
side. Black's Q B P is altogether backward, and 
White could by means of the open file concentrate 

143 



144 



SOME SALIENT POINTS 



his forces against that weak point. There is also the 
square at White's Q B 5, which is controlled by White, 
and from where a White piece once established could 
not be dislodged. In order to get rid of it, Black 
would have to exchange it, which is not always an 
easy matter, and often when possible not at all con- 
venient. The same holds true with regard to Black's 
K P, K B P and K Kt P, which create what is called 
a "hole" at Black's K B 3. Such Pawn formations 
invariably lead to disaster, and consequently must 
be avoided. 




Example 64. — In this position we might say that 
the White centre Pawns have the attacking position, 
while the Black centre Pawns have the defensive 
position. Such a formation of Pawn occurs in the 
French Defence. In such positions White most often 
attempts, by means of P — K B 4 and KB 5, to obtain 
a crushing attack against Black's King, which is gen- 
erally Castled on the King's side. To prevent that, 



ABOUT PAWNS 145 

and also to assume the initiative or obtain material 
advantage, Black makes a counter-demonstration by 
P - Q B 4, followed by P X P (when White defends 
the Pawn by P — Q B 3), and the concentrating of 
Black's pieces against the White Pawn at Q 4. This 
in substance might be said to be a determined attack 
against White's centre in order to paralyse the direct 
attack of White against Black's King. It must be 
remembered that at the beginning of the book it was 
stated that control of the centre was an essential condi- 
tion to a successful attack against the King. 

In an abstract way we may say that two or more 
Pawns are strongest when they are in the same rank 
next to one another. Thus the centre Pawns are 
strongest in themselves, so to speak, when placed at 
K 4 and Q 4 respectively, hence the question of ad- 
vancing either the one or the other to the fifth rank 
is one that must be most carefully considered. The 
advance of either Pawn often determines the course 
the game will follow. 

Another thing to be considered is the matter of one 
or more passed Pawns when they are isolated either 
singly or in pairs. We might say that a passed Pawn 
is either very weak or very strong, and that its weakness 
or strength, whichever happens to be in the case to 
be considered, increases as it advances, and is at the 
same time in direct relation to the number of pieces 
on the board. In this last respect it might be generally 
said that a passed Pawn increases in strength as the 
number of pieces on the board diminishes. 



146 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS 

Having all this clear in mind we will now revert 
to the openings and middle-game. We will analyse 
games carefully from beginning to end according to 
general principles. I shall, whenever possible, use 
my own games, not because they will better illustrate 
the point, but because, knowing them thoroughly, I 
shall be able to explain them more authoritatively 
than the games of others. 

32. SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS FROM 
A RUY LOPEZ 

That some of the variations in the openings and 
the manoeuvres in the middle-game are often based 
on some of the elementary principles just expounded 
can be easily seen in the following case: 



Example 65. 




I. P-K4 


P-K4 


2. Kt-KB3 


Kt-QB3 


3. B-Kts 


P-QR3 


4. B-R4 


Kt-B3 


5- 0-0 


KtxP 


6. P-Q4 


P-QKt4 


7. B-Kt3 


P-Q4 


8. PXP 


B-K3 


9. P-B3 


B-K2 


10. R-Ki 


Kt-B4 


II. B-B 2 


B-Kts 


12. QKt-Q2 


0-0 


13. Kt-Kt3 


Kt-K3 



FROM A RUY LOPEZ 



147 



So far a very well-known variation of the Ruy 
Lopez. In fact, they are the moves of the Janowski- 
Lasker game in Paris, 1912. 

14. Q-Q3 P-Kt3 

Let us suppose the game went on, and that in some 
way White, by playing one of the Knights to Q 4 
at the proper time, forced the exchange of both Knights, 
and then afterwards both the Bishops were exchanged, 
and we arrived at some such position as shown in the 
following diagram. (I obtained such a position in a 
very similar way once at Lodz in Poland. I was play- 
ing the White pieces against a consulting team headed 
by Salwe.) 




Now we would have here the case of the backward 
Q B P, which will in no way be able to advance to 
Q B 4. Such a position may be said to be theoretically 
lost, and in practice a first-class master will invariably 
win it from Black. (If I may be excused the reference, 
I will say that I won the game above referred to.) 

After a few moves the position may be easily thus : 



148 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS 




The Black pieces can be said to be fixed. If White 
plays Q — Q B 3, Black must answer Q — Q 2, other- 
wise he wiU lose a Pawn, and if White returns with 
the Queen to Q R 3 Black wiU have again to return 
to Q Kt 2 with the Queen or lose a Pawn. Thus Black 
can only move according to White's lead, and under 
such conditions White can easily advance with his 
Pawns to K B 4 and K Kt 4, until Black wiU be forced 
to stop P — B 5 by playing P — K B 4, and we might 
finally have some such .position as this: 

Example 66. 




FROM A RUY LOPEZ 149 

In this situation the game might go on as follows: 

I. P X P, P X P; 2. Q - K B 3, Q - Q 2 

White threatened to win a Pawn by Q X P, and Black 
could not play 2. . .R — K B i, because 3 R X B P 
would also win a Pawn at least. 



3. R(Bs)-B2,R-Kt3; 

5. R (B i) - K Kt I, 

6. Q - R 5, R X R; 

8. K X R, Q - Kt 2 ch; 



4. R-Kt2,K-Ri; 

R(Bi) - KKti; 

7. R X R, R X R; 

9. K-R2, Q-Kt3; 



lo.QXQ, PXQ; II. P- Kt 4, and White wins. 

Now suppose that in the position in the preceding 
diagram it were Black's move, and he played R — K B i . 
White would then simply defend his K B P by some 
move like Q — K B 3, threatening R X Q B P, and 
then he would bring his King up to Kt 3, and when 
the time came, break through, as in the previous case. 
White might even be able to obtain the following 
position: 




ISO SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS 

Black would now be forced to play R — B i, and 
White could then play Q — B 2, and foUow it up with 
K B 3, and thus force Black to play P X P, which 
would give White a greater advantage. 

A careful examination of all these positions wiU 
reveal that, besides the advantage of freedom of 
manoeuvre on White's part, the power of the Pawn 
at K 5 is enormous, and that it is the commanding 
position of this Pawn, and the fact that it is free to 
advance, once aU the pieces are exchanged, that con- 
stitute the pivot of all White's manoeuvres. 

I have purposely given positions without the moves 
which lead to them so that the student may become 
accustomed to build up in his own mind possible 
positions that may arise (out of any given situation). 
Thus he will learn to make strategical plans and be on 
his way to the master class. The student can derive 
enormous benefit by further practice of this kind. 

33. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 

The influence of a so-called "hole" in a game has 
already been illustrated in my game against Blanco 
(page 81), where has been shown the influence exer- 
cised by the different pieces posted in the hole created 
at White's K 5. 



THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 151 

Example 67. — In order to further illustrate this 
point, I now give a game played in the Havana Inter- 



national Masters Tournament of 1913. 


(Queen's 


Gambit DecUned.) White: 


D. Janowski. 


Black: 


A. Kupchick. 






I. P-Q4 


P-Q4 




2. P-QB4 


P-K3 




3. Kt-QB3 


Kt — KB3 




4. B-Kts 


B — K2 




5- P-K3 


QKt — Q2 




6. B-Q3 


PxP 




7. BxP 


Kt — Kt3 





Of course the idea is to post a Knight at Q 4, but as 
it is the other Knight which wiU be posted there this 
manoeuvre does not seem logical. The Kiiight at 
Kt 3 does nothing except to prevent the development 
of his own Q B. The normal course O — O, followed 
by P — Q B 4, is more reasonable. For a beautiful 
illustration of how to play White in that variation, 
see the Janowski-Rubinstein game of the St. Peters- 
burg Tournament of 1914. 

8. B-Q3 

B — Kt 3 has some points in its favour in this position, 
the most important being the possibility of advancing 
the King's Pawn immediately after 8. . .K Kt — Q 4; 
9 BxB, QxB. 

8 KKt-Q4 

9. BxB QxB 
10. Kt — B3 



152 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 

Had WMte's Bishop been at Q Kt 3 he could now play 
P — K 4 as indicated in the previous note, a move 
which he cannot make in the present position, because 
of Kt — KB s threatening, not only the K Kt P, 
but also Kt X B ch. As White's King's Bishop should 
never be exchanged in this opening without a very- 
good reason White therefore cannot play P — K 4. 

10 — 

11. — B — Q2 

12. R— B I 






4ll 



iz 



fi 



// 









M 



wsm 



White is perfectly developed, and now threatens to 
win a Pawn as follows : Kt X Kt, Kt x Kt ; P — K 4, 
followed by R X P. 

12 P-QB3 

The fact that Black is practically forced to make 
this move in order to avoid the loss of a Pawn is suffi- 
cient reason in itself to condemn the whole system 
of development on Black's part. In effect, he plays 
B — Q 2, and now he has to shut off the action of his 



THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 153 

own Bishop, which thereby becomes little more than 
a Pawn for a while. In fact, it is hard to see how this 
Bishop will ever be able to attack anything. Besides, 
it can be easily seen that White will soon post his 
two Knights at K 5 and Q B 5 respectively, and that 
Black win not be able to dislodge them without seriously 
weakening his game, if he can do it at all. From all 
these reasons it can be gathered that it would probably 
have been better for Black to play Kt X Kt and thus 
get rid of one of the two White Knights before assum- 
ing such a defensive position. In such cases, the 
less the number of pieces on the board, the better 
chances there are to escape. 

13. Kt — K4 P — KB4 

This practically amounts to committing suicide, since 
it creates a hole at K 5 for White's Knight, from where 
it will be practically impossible to dislodge him. If 
Black intended to make such a move he should have 
done it before, when at least there would have been an 
object in preventing the White Knight from reach- 
ing B 5. 

14. Kt — B 5 B — Ki 

15. Kt-Ks 

The position of White's Knights, especially the one 
at K 5, might be said to be ideal, and a single glance 
shows how they dominate the position. The question 
henceforth wiU be how is White going to derive the 
full benefit from such an advantageous situation. 
This we shall soon see. 



154 THE INFJ.UENCE OF A "HOLE" 




IS- 



R— Kti 



There is no object in this move, unless it is to be fol- 
owed by Kt — Q 2. As that is not the case, he might 
have gone with the Rook to B i, as he does later. 



16. 


R— Ki 


R-B3 


17- 


Q-B3 


R-R3 


18. 


Q-Kt3 


R — B I 



White threatened to win the exchange by plajdng 
either Kt — B 7 or Kt— Kt 4. 



19- P-B3 


R-B2 


20. P — QR3 


K-Ri 


21. P-R3 





Perhaps all these precautions are imnecessary, but 
White feels that he has more than enough time to 
prepare his attack, and wants to be secure in every 
way before he begins. 



THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 



I5S 



21 

22. P— K4 

23. Q— B 2 

He had better have played Kt — B 3 ; and tried later 
on to get rid of White's Knights by means of Kt — Q 2. 



P — Kt4 
P-Bs 
Kt — K6 




24. R X Kt 

with this sacrifice of the Rook for a Knight and Pawn 
White obtains an overwhelming position. 

24 PXR 

25. QxP Kt — B I 

Kt — Q 2 was better in order to get rid of one of the 
two White Knights. There were, however, any number 
of good repUes to it, among them the following: 
Kt(Bs)xKt,BxKt; QxP,QxQ; Kt— B7ch, 
K — Kt 2; Kt X Q, and with two Pawns for the 
exchange, and the position so much in his favour, 
White should have no trouble in winning. 



156 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 

26. Kt — Kt4 R— Kt3 

27. P-K5 R-Kt2 

28. B — B4 B — B2 

All these moves are practically forced, and as it is 
easily seen they tie up Black's position more and 
more. White's manoeuvres from move 24 onwards 
are highly instructive. 

29. Kt — B 6 Kt — Kt3 

This wandering Knight has done nothing throughout 
the game. 

30. Kt(B5)-K4P-KR3 

31. P-KR4 Kt-Q4 

32. Q-Q2 R-Kt3 

33. PXP Q-Bi 

If P X P; K — B 2, and Black would be helpless. 

34. P — B 4 Kt — K2 

35. P — KKt4 PxP 

36. PxP Resigns. 

There is nothing to be done. If B — Kt i ; Q — R 2 ch, 
K— Kt 2; B xP. 

The student should notice that, apart from other 
things, White throughout the game has had control 
of the Black squares, principally those at K 5 and 

QBs. 

From now on to the end of the book I shall give a 
collection of my games both lost and won, chosen so 
as to serve as illustrations of the general principles 
laid down in the foregoing pages. 



PART II 



PART II 



White 



GAME 1. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 


(Match, 


1909) 


: F. J. MarshaU. 


Black : J. R. Capat 


I. P-Q4 


P-Q4 


2. P-QB4 


P-K3 


3. Kt-QB3 


Kt — KB3 


4. B — Kt 5 


B — K2 


5. P-K3 


Kt-Ks 



I had played this defence twice before in the match 
with good results, and although I lost this game I 
stUl played it imtil the very last game, when I changed 
my tactics. The reason was my total lack of knowl- 
edge of the different variations in this opening, coupled 
with the fact that I knew that Dr. E. Lasker had been 
successful with it against Marshall himself in 1907. 
I thought that since Dr. Lasker had played it so often, 
it should be good. The object is to exchange a couple 
of pieces and at the same time to bring about a position 
full of possibilities and with promising chances of 
success once the end-game stage is reached. On 
general principles it should be wrong, because the 

159 



i6o GAME I 

same Knight is moved three times in the opening, 
although it involves the exchange of two pieces. In 
reality the difficulty in this variation, as well as in 
neariy aU the variations of the Queen's gambit, Ues 
in the slow development of Black's Queen Bishop. 
However, whether this variation can or cannot be 
safely played is a question still to be decided, and it 
is outside the scope of this book. I may add that at 
present my preference is for a different system of devel- 
opment, but it is not imlikely that I shoidd some 
time come back to this variation. 

6. BxB QxB 

7- B-Q3 

P X P is preferable for reasons that we shall soon see. 

7 Kt X Kt 

8. Px Kt Kt — Q2 

Now P X P would be a better way to develop the 
game. The idea is that after 8...PxP; gBxBP, 
P — Q kt 3, foUowed by B — Kt 2, would give Black's 
Bishop a powerful range. For this variation see the 
eleventh game of the match. 

9. Kt — B3 0—0 

No longer would 9. . .P X P ; 10 B X P, P — Q Kt 3 
be good, because 11 B — Kt 5 would prevent B — Kt 2 
on accoimt of Kt — K 5. 



QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 

10. PxP PxP 

11. Q-Kt3 Kt-B3 



i6i 



Kt- 

12. P— QR4 P — B 4 
Played with the intention of obtaining the majority 
of Pawns on the Queen's side. Yet it is doubtful 
whether this move is good, since it leaves Black's 
Queen's-side Pawns disrupted in a way. The safer 
course would have been to play P — B 3. 

13- Q-R3 P-QKt3 




This exposes Black to further attack by P — R 5 
without any compensation for it. If I had to play 
this position nowadays I would simply play 13 . . . 
R— K I. Then after 14 Q X P, Q X Q would follow, 
and I believe that Black would regain the Pawn. 
If, instead. White played 14 P X P then B — Kt 5 
would give Black an excellent game. 

14. P — Rs B — Kt2 

15. 0—0 Q— B 2 

16. KR— Kti Kt— Q2 



l62 



GAME I 




Black's position was bad and perhaps lost in any 
case, but the text move makes matters worse. As a 
matter of fact I never saw White's reply B — B 5. 
It never even passed through my mind that this was 
threatened. Black's best move would have been 
16. . .K R — Kt I. If that loses, then any other move 
would lose as well. 

17. B — B 5 KR — B I 

From bad to worse. Kt — B 3 offered the only hope. 



18. 


BxKt 


QXB 


19. 


P-R6 


B-B3 


20. 


PXP 


PxP 


21. 


QxP 


QR-Kti 



The game was lost. One move was as good as another. 

22. R X R R X R 

23. Kt-Ks Q-B4 

24. P — KB4 R— Kt3 

25. Q X R ! Resigns. 



QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 163 

Of course, if 25 Kt X B, R — Kt 8 ch would have 
drawn. The text move is pretty and finishes quickly. 
A well-played game on Marshall's part. 



GAME 2. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 
(San Sebastian, 191 1) 

White : A. K. Rubinstein. Black : J. R. Capablanca. 



I. 


P-Q4 


P-Q4 


2. 


Kt — KB3 


P-QB4 


3- 


P-B4 


P-K3 


4- 


PxQP 


KPxP 


5- 


Kt-B3 


Kt-QB3 


6. 


P — KKt3 


B-K3 



Kt — B 3 is the normal move in this variation. White's 
development was first introduced by Schlechter and 
elaborated later on by Rubinstein. It aims at the 
isolation of Black's Q P, against which the White 
pieces are gradually concentrated. In making the 
text move I was tr3iTng to avoid the beaten track. 
Being a developing move there should be no objection 
to it in the way of general principles, except that the 
Knights ought to come out before the Bishops. 

7. B — Kt2 B — K2 

8. 0—0 R — B I 

In pursuance of the idea of changing the normal 



164 



GAME 2 



course of this variation, but with very poor success. 
The move in theory ought to be unsound, since Black's 
K Kt is yet undeveloped. I had not yet learned of 
the attack founded on Kt — Kt 5 and the exchange 
of the B at K 3. Either Kt — B 3 or P — K R 3; 
to prevent either B or Kt — K Kt 5, was right. 




9- 


PxP 


BxP 


10. 


Kt— KKts 


Kt-B3 


II. 


KtxB 


PxKt 


12. 


B-R3 


Q-K2 


13- 


B-Kts 


0-0 



This is a mistake. The right move was R — Q i in 
order to get the Rook away from the line of the Bishop 
at R 3 and at the same time to support the Q P. Inci- 
dentally it shows that White failed to take proper 
advantage of Black's weak opening moves. Against 
the text move White makes a very fine combination 



QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 165 

which I had seen, but which I thought could be 
defeated. 

14. BxKt QxB 

I considered P X B, which it seemed would give me 
a playable game, but I thought White's combination 
imsound and therefore let him play it, to my lasting 
regret. 




15. KtxPI Q-R3 




i66 GAME 2 

i6. K— Kta! 

This is the move which I had not considered. I thought 
that Rubinstein would have to play B — Kt 2, when 
I had in mind the following winning combination: 
16 B — Kt 2, Kt— K 4! 17 Kt — B 4 (if R — B i, 
QXR!! QXQ, BxPch wins), Kt — Kt 5 ; 
18 P — K R 3 (if Kt — R 3, B X P ch wins the ex- 
change), Kt X P ; 19 R X Kt, B X R ch ; 20 K X B, 
P — K Kt 4, and Black should win. It is curious that 
this combination has been overlooked. It has been 
taken for granted that I did not see the 17th 
move Q — B i. 

16 QR— Qi 

After White's last move there was nothing for me to 
do but submit to the inevitable. 



17- 


Q— B i! 


PxKt 


18. 


QXB 


Q-Q7 


19. 


Q-Kts 


Kt-Q5 


20. 


Q-Q3 


QxQ 


21. 


PxQ 


KR — Ki 


22. 


B — Kt4 





This gives Black a chance. He should have played 
KR— Ki. If then Kt — B 7; RxR ch, RxR; 
R— QBi,R — K7; K — Bi,Kt — Qs(ifR— Q7; 
B — K6ch,K — Bi; B X P would win) ; R— B 8 ch, 
K— B 2; R— B 7 ch, R — K 2; R— B 5 wins. 



QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 167 



?? 




R-Q3 
RxR 


23- 


KR— Ki 


24. 


RxR 


R-QKt3 


25- 


R-Ks 


RxP 


26. 


RXP 


Kt-B3 


27. 


B — K 6 ch 


K — B I 


28. 


R— B 5ch 


K— Ki 


29. 


B — B 7 ch 


K— Q2 


30- 


B-B4 






30- 



P-QR3 



A bad move, which gives away any legitimate 
chance Black had to draw. It loses a very important 
move. In fact, as the course of the game will show, 
it loses several moves. The proper way was to play 
K— Q 3. If then R— Q Kt 5, RxR; B x R, 
Kt— Q 5; foUowed by P — Q Kt 4; and White 
would have an exceedingly difficult game to draw on 
accovuit of the dominating position of the Knight at 



i68 



GAME 2 



Q 5 in conjunction with the extra Pawn on the Queen's 
side and the awkward position of White's King. (See 
how this is so.) 

31. R-B7ch K-Q3 

32. RxKKtP P — Kt4 

33. B-Kt8 P-QR4 

34. RXP P-Rs 

35. P-R4 P-Kt5 

36. R — R6ch K — B4 

37. R-Rsch K-Kt3 
38- B-Q5 

With these last three moves White again gives Black 
a chance. Even before the last move B — B 4 would 
have won with comparative ease, but the text move 
is a downright blunder, of which, fortunately for him, 
Black does not avail himself. 




38 P — Kt6 

R X P would make it practically impossible for 
White to win, if he can win at all. White's best con- 



QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 169 

tinuation then would have been : 39 B — B4, R — B7; 
40 R— Kt 5 ch, K — B 2; 41 B — Kt 8, P — R 6; 
42 P — R 5, P — R 7 ; 43 B X P, R X B, and if there 
is a win it is very difficult to find it, as against 
44 P — R 6, R — R 3! offers excellent chances for a 
draw. 

39. PxP P — R6 

40. B X Kt R X Kt P 

If 40...P — R 7; 41 R— Kt 5 ch, K— R 3; 
42 R— Kt 8. 

41. B-Qs P-R7 

42. R — R 6 ch Resigns. 

As an end game, this is rather a sad exhibition for 
two masters. The redeeming feature of the game is 
Rubinstein's fine combination in the middle game, 
beginning with 14 B X Kt. 

GAME 3. IRREGXJLAR DEFENCE 
(Havana, 1913) 
White : D. Janowski. Black : J. R. Capablanca. 



I. 


P-Q4 


Kt— KB3 


2. 


Kt— KB3 


P-Q3 


3- 


B-Kt5 


QKt — Q2 


4. 


P-K3 


P — K4 


5- 


Kt-B3 


P-B3 


6. 


B-Q3 


B — K2 


7- 


Q— K2 


Q-R4 


8. 


0-0 


Kt— 'B I 


9- 


KR-Qi 


B-Kts 



I70 GAME 3 

At last Black is on his way to obtain full develop- 
ment. The idea of this irregular opening is mainly 
to throw White on his own resources. At the time 
the game was played, the system of defence was not 
as well known as the regular forms of the Queen's 
Pawn openings. Whether it is soimd or not remains 
yet to be proved. Its good features are that it keeps 
the centre intact without creating any particular weak- 
ness, and that it gives plenty of opportunity for deep 
and concealed manoeuvring. The drawback is the 
long time it takes Black to develop his game. It is 
natural to suppose that White wiU employ that time 
to prepare a well-conceived attack, or that he wiU use 
the advantage of his development actually to prevent 
Black's complete development, or failing that, to 
obtain some definite material advantage. 



lO. 

II. 

12. 



P-KR3 
PXP 
Kt— K4 



B — R4 

PxP 




IRREGULAR DEFENCE 171 

12 Kt X Kt 

A very serious mistake. I considered castling, which 
was the right move, but desisted because I was afraid 
that by playing 13 B x Kt, P x B ; 14 Kt — Kt 3, 
B — Kt 3; 15 Kt— B s. White would obtain a win- 
ning position for the end game. Whether right or 
wrong this shows how closely related are all parts of 
the game, and consequently how one wiU influence 
the other. 

13. BxB KxB 

14. B X Kt B — Kt 3 

Not good. The natural and proper move would have 
been Kt — K 3, in order to bring aU the Black pieces 
into play. B X Kt at once was also good, as it would 
have reUeved the pressure against Black's King's Pawn, 
and at the same time have simplified the game. 

Here it is seen how failure to comply with the ele- 
mentary logical reasons, that govern any given posi- 
tion, often brings the player into trouble. I was no 
doubt influenced in my choice of moves by the fear 
of B — B 5, which was a very threatening move. 

15. Q— B4 Kt — K3 

16. P— QKt4 Q — B 2 

17. BxB RPxB 

18. Q— K4 K-B3 



172 



GAME 3 




19. R-Q3 

P — K R 4, to be followed by P — Kt 4, might have 
been a more vigorous way to carry on the attack. 
Black's weak point is imquestionably the Pawn at 
K 4, which he is compelled to defend with the King. 
The text move aims at doubling the Rooks, with the 
ultimate object of placing one of them at Q 6, sup- 
ported by a Pawn at Q B 5, Black could only stop 
this by playing P — B 4, which would create a "hole" 
a^t Q S ; or by playing P — Kt 3, which would tie the 
Black Queen to the defence of the Q B P as well as 
the K P, which she already defends. Black, how- 
ever, can meet aU this by offering the exchange of 
Rooks, which destroys White's plans. For this reason 
P — K R 4 appears the proper way to carry on the 
attack. 

19 QR— Qi 

20. QR— Qi P — KKt4 

This move is preparatory to P — K Kt 3, which would 



IRREGULAR DEFENCE 



173 



make Black's position secure. Unfortunately for Black, 
he did not carry out his original plan. 



21. P — B 4 



RXR 



P — K Kt 3 would have left Black with a perfectly 
safe game. 

22. RxR R— Qi 

A very serious mistake, which loses a Pawn. P — 
K Kt 3 was the right move, and would have left Black 
with a very good game. In fact, if it should come to 
a simple ending, the position of the Black King would 
be an advantage. 



23. RxR 



KtxR 




24. P— KR4 

This wins a Pawn, as will soon be seen. Black cannot 
reply 24...Kt — K 3 ; because 25 P X P ch, Kt X P; 
26 Q — R 4 wins the Knight. 



174 GAME 4 



24. 

25- 


QXPch 


* 


PxP 

K-K3 


26. 


Q-Kt4 


ch 


K-B3 


27. 


Q-Kt5 


ch 


K-K3 


28. 


QxP 




Q-Q3 


29. 


P-Bs 




Q-Q4 


SC- 


P — K4! 




Q— Q8ch 


SI- 


K— R2 




P-B3 


32. 


Q-Kt4 


ch! 


K— K2 


33- 


KtxP 




QxQ 


34. 


KtxQ 




Kt-K3 


35- 


P-Ks 




PxP 


36. 


KtxP 




Kt-Qs 



The game went on for a few more moves, and, 
there being no way to counteract the advance of 
White's two passed Pawns, Black resigned. 



GAME 4. FRENCH DEFENCE 
(St. Petersburg, 1913) 

White: J.R.Capablanca. Black: E. A. Snosko-Borovski. 

1. P-Q4 P-K3 

2. P — K4 P — Q4 

3. Kt-QB3 Kt-KB3 

4. B — Kt s B — Kt 5 

This constitutes the McCutcheon Variation. It aims 
at taking the initiative away from White. Instead 



FRENCH DEFENCE 175 

of defending, Black makes a counter demonstration 
on the Queen's side. It leads to highly interesting 
games. 

5. PxP 

At the time this game was played the variation 5 P — 
K 5 was in vogue, but I considered then, as I do now, 
the text move to be the stronger. 

s QxP 



This is considered superior to P X P. It has for its 
object, as I said before, to take the initiative away 
from White by disrupting White's Queen's side. White, 
however, has more than ample compensation through 
his breaking up Black's King's side. It might be 
laid down as a principle of the opening that the breaking 
up of the King's side is of more importance than a simi- 
lar occurrence on the Queen's side. 

6. B X Kt B X Kt ch 

7. PxB PxB 

8. Kt— B3 P — QKt3 

The plan of Black in this variation is to post his 
Bishop on the long diagonal so as to be able later on, 
in conjxmction with the action of his Rooks along 
the open K Kt's file, to make a violent attack against 
White's King. It is, of course, expected that White 
wiU Castle on the King's side because of the broken-up 
condition of his Queen's side Pawns. 



176 GAME 4 

9. Q— Q2 B — Kt2 

10. B — K2 Kt — Q2 

11. P — B4 Q— KB4 

12. 0—0—0 

An original idea, I believe, played for the first time 
in a similar position in a game against Mr. Walter 
Penn Shipley, of Philadelphia. My idea is that 
as there is no Black Bishop and because Black's 
pieces have been developed with a view to an attack 
on the King's side, it will be impossible for Black to 
take advantage of the apparently miprotected posi- 
tion of White's King. Two possibilities must be con- 
sidered. Firstly: If Black Castles on the Queen's 
side, as in this game, it is evident that there is no danger 
of an attack. Secondly : If Black Castles on the King's 
side, White begins the attack first, taking advantage of 
the awkward position of Black's Queen. In addition 
to the attacking probabilities of the text move, White 
in one move brings his King into safety and brings 
one of his Rooks into play. Thus he gains several 
moves, "tempi" as they are called, which will serve 
him to develop whatever plan he may wish to 
evolve. 

12 0—0—0 

13. Q— K3 KR— Kt I 

14. P-Kt3 Q-QR4 

Unquestionably 'a, mistake, overlooking White's fine 



FRENCH DEFENCE 



177 



reply, but a careful examination will show that White 
already has the better position. 

15. R-Q3! K-Kti 

16. KR— Qi Q— KB4 




17. Kt — R4 

This move has been criticised because it puts the 
Knight out of the way for a few moves. But by forc- 
ing Q — K Kt 4 ; White gains a very important move 
with P — B 4, which not only consoUdates his position, 
but also drives the Queen away, putting it out of the 
game for the moment. Certainly the Queen is far 
more valuable than the Knight, to say nothing of the 
time gained and the freedom of action obtained thereby 
for White's more important pieces. 

17 Q-KKt4 

18. P — B4 Q— Kt2 

19. B-B3 



178 



GAME 4 



In such positions it is generally very advantageous 
to get rid of the Black Bishop controlling his Q R 3 
and Q B 3, which form "holes" for White's pieces. 
The Bishop in such positions is of very great defensive 
value, hence the advantage of getting rid of it. 



KR— Ki 

KxB 

P-B3 

White threatened P — B 6 ch. 



19 

20. B X B 

21. P — QB5! 



22. Kt — B3 



Q-Bi 



To prevent the Knight from moving to Q 6 via Q 2 
and K 4 or Q B 4. It is self-evident that White has a 
great advantage of position. 




23. Kt — Q2? 

I had considered R — Kt 3, which was the right 
move, but gave it up because it seemed too slow, and 



FRENCH DEFENCE 179 

that in such a position there had to be, some quicker 
way of wiiming. 

23 PxP 

24. Kt — B4 

Kt— K 4 or Kt— Kt 3 would have brought about 
an ending advantageous to White. 

24 Kt— Kt3 

25. Kt— Rsch K— Ri 

26. PxP Kt — Q4 
27- Q-Q4 R-Bi 

If R — Kt I ; 28 Kt X P, R (Kt i) — B I ; 29 Kt X 
P would win. 



m '^ ** -■Ira / i 
^/^ i i i -fc 



¥4. 



S^y ^ 



1^ / 
/ 



28. P— B4 

Kt — B 4 was the right move. I was, however, still 
looking for the "grand combination," and thought 
that the Pawn I would later on have at Q 6 would 
Win the game. Black deserves great credit for the 
way in which he conducted this exceedingly difficult 



i8o GAME 4 

defence. He could easily have gone wrong any num- 
ber of times, but from move 22 onwards he always 
played the best move. 



-'8 




P — K4! 
P-K5 


29. 


Q-Kti 


30- 


PxKt 


PXR 


31- 


P — Q6 


R— K7 


32- 


P-Q7 


R-B7ch 


33- 


K— Kti 


R— Kt ich 


34- 


Kt-Kt3 


Q-K2 




35. RXP 

The position is most interesting. I believe I lost 
here my last chance to win the game, and if that is 
true it would vindicate my judgment when, on move 
28, 1 played P — B 4. The student can find out what 
would happen if White plays Q — Q 4! at once. I 
have gone over the following variations : 35 Q — Q 4, 
R X K R P (of course ifRxBP, P — Q8 wins) ; 



FRENCH DEFENCE i8i 

36QXQP! R— Q i; 37 Q— R6, K— Kt I best 
(if Q— Q S ch ; K — R I, K— Kt i ; R— Q Kt i wins) ; 
38 Q X B P and White will at least have a draw. 

R— K7 



35 
36 
37 
38 



Q-Q4 
Q-R4 
Q-R6 



R— Qi 

Q-K5 

K— Kti 



There is nothing to be done against this simple move, 
since White cannot play Kt — Q 4, because Q — R 8 
mates. 



39. K-Bi 

40. Kt-Q4 
Resigns. 

A very interesting battle. 



RxQP 
R— K8ch 



GAME 5. RUY LOPEZ 

(St. Petersburg, 1914) 

White : Dr. E. Lasker. Black : J. R. Capablanca. 

1. P — K4 P — K4 

2. Kt— KB3 Kt— QB3 

3. B-Kts P-QR3 

4. B X Kt 

The object of this move is to bring about speedily 
a middle-game without Queens, in which White 



i82 GAME s 

has four Pawns to three on the King's side, while 
Black's superiority of Pawns on the other side is 
somewhat balanced by the fact that one of Black's 
Pawns is doubled. On the other hand, Black has 
the advantage of remaining with two Bishops while 
White has only one. 



4- 

5- 


P-Q4 


QPxB 
PxP 


6. 


QxP 


QxQ 


7- 


KtxQ 


B-Q3 



Black's idea is to Castle on the King's side. His 
reason is that the King ought to remain on the weaker 
side to oppose later the advance of White's Pawns. 
Theoretically there is very much to be said in favour 
of this reasoning, but whether in practice that would 
be the best system would be rather difficult to prove. 
The student should notice that if now all the pieces 
were exchanged White would practically be a Pawn 
ahead, and would therefore have a won ending. 

8. Kt — QB3 Kt— K2 

A perfectly sound form of development. In any other 
form adopted the Black Kt could not be developed 
either as quickly or as well. K 2 is the natural position 
for the Black Kt in this variation, in order not to 
obstruct Black's Pawns, and also, in some event- 
ualities, in order to go to K Kt 3. There is 



RUY LOPEZ 



183 



also the possibility of its going to Q 5 via Q B 3 after 
P-QB4. 



9. 0-0 
ID. P— B 4 



0-0 



This move I considered weak at the time, and I do 
still. It leaves the K P weak, unless it advances to 
K 5, and it also makes it possible for Black to pin the 
Kt by B — Q B 4. 



10. 



R— Ki 



Best. It threatens B — B4; B — K3, Kt— Q4. 
It also prevents B — K 3 because of Kt — Q 4 or B 4. 

11. Kt — Kt3 P — B 3 

Preparatory to P — Q Kt 3, followed by P — Q B 4 
and B — Kt 2 in conjimction with Kt^-Kt 3, which 
would put White in great difficulties to meet the 
combined attack against the two centre Pawns. 

12. P — B 5 




i84 GAME s 

It has been wrongly claimed that this wins the game, 
but I would like nothing better than to have such a 
position again. It required several mistakes on my 
part finally to obtain a lost position. 

P-QKt3 



12 

13. B-B4 




13- 



B — Kt 2 



Played against my better judgment. The right move 
of course was B x B. Dr. Lasker gives the follow- 
ing variation: 13. . .B X B ; 14 R X B, P — B 4; 
15 Q R— Q I, B — Kt 2; 16 R— B 2, Q R— Q i; 
17RXR, RxR; 18R— Q'2, RxR; 19 Kt x R, 
and he claims that White has the best of it. But, 
as Niemzovitch pointed out immediately after the 
game, 16. . .Q R— Q i given in Dr. Lasker 's varia- 
tion, is not the best. If 16... Q R — B i! then 
White will have great difficulty in drawing the game, 



RUY LOPEZ i8S 

since there is no good way to stop Black from playing 
Kt — B 3, followed by Kt — K 4, threatening Kt — 
B 5. And should White attempt to meet this ma- 
nceuvre by withdrawing the Kt at Kt 3 ; then the 
Black Knight can go to Q 5, and the White Pawn at 
K 4 will be the object of the attack. Taking Dr. 
Lasker's variation, however, whatever advantage there 
might be disappears at once if Black plays 19. . .Kt — 
B 3, threatening Kt — Kt 5 and also Kt — Q 5, neither 
of which can be stopped. If White answers 20 Kt — 
Q 5, Kt — Q 5 for Black will at least draw. In fact, 
after 19. . .Kt — B 3 Black threatens so many things 
that it is dif&cult to see how White can prevent the 
loss of one or more Pawns. 

14. BxB PxB 

15. Kt-Q4 

It is a curious but true fact that I did not see this 
move when I played 13 ... B — Kt 2, otherwise I would 
have played the right move 13 . . .B x B. 

15 QR-Qi 

The game is yet far from lost, as against the entry 
of the Knight, Black can later on play P — B 4, fol- 
lowed by P — Q 4. 

16. Kt— K6 R— Q2 

17. QR-Qi 



i86 



GAME 5 



« I fi -i^;^ I 

*k • & ^f. _1 ^ 



^ 



vm^-m 



I now was on the point of plajdng P — B 4, to be 
followed by P — Q 4, which I thought would give me 
a draw, but suddenly I became ambitious and thought 
that I could play the text move, ly.-.Kt — B i, 
and later on sacrifice the exchange for the Knight 
at K 6, wiiming a Pawn for it, and leaving White's 
K P still weaker. I intended to carry this plan either 
before or after playing P — K Kt 4 as the circmnstances 
demanded. Now let us analyse: 17...P — B 4. If 

18 Kt— Q 5, Bx Kt; 19 P x B, P — Q Kt 4; and a 
careful analysis will show that Black has nothing to 
fear. Black's plan in this case would be to work his 
Kt around to K 4, via Q B i, Q Kt 3, and Q B s or 
Q 2. Again, 17...P — B 4; 18 R— B 2, P -Q 4; 

19 P X P, B X P ; 20 Kt X B (best, since if R (B 2) — 
Q 2, B X Kt give Black the advantage), RxKt; 
21 R X R, Kt X R; and there is no good reason why 
Black should lose. 

Kt — Bi 



17 

18. R— B2 



P — QKt4 







RUY 


LOPEZ 




19. 


KR-Q2 


R 


(Q2)- 


20. 


P- 


QKt4 


K 


-B2 


21. 


P- 


QR3 


B 


-Ri 



187 

K2 



Once more changing my plan and this time without 
any good reason. Had I now played R X Kt; P X R ch, 
R X P; as I intended to do when I went back with 
the Knight to B i, I doubt very much if White would 
have been able to win the game. At least it would 
have been extremely difficult. 

22. K — B 2 R — R2 

23. P-Kt4 P-R3 

24. R-Q3 P-QR4 

25. P — KR4 PxP 

26. P X P R (R 2) — K 2 

This, of course, has no object now. Black, with a 
bad game, flotmders aroimd for a move. It would 
have been better to play R — R 6 to keep the open 
file, and at the same time to threaten to come out 
with the Knight at Kt 3 and B 5. 

27. K — B3 R— Kt I 

28. K — B4 P — Kt3 

Again bad. White's last two moves were weak, since 
the White Kling does nothing here. He should have 
played his Rook to Kt 3 on the 27th move. Black 
now should have played P — Kt 4 ch. After missing 
this chance White has it all his own way, and finishes 
the game most accurately, and Black becomes more 



i88 GAME 5 

helpless with each move. The game needs no further 
comment, excepting that my play throughout was of 
an altogether irresolute character. When a plan is 
made, it must be carried out if at aU possible. Regard- 
ing the play of White, I consider his loth and 12th 
moves were very weak ; he played well after that up 
to the 27th move, which was bad, as well as his 28th 
move. The rest of his play was good, probably 
perfect. 



29. 


R-Kt3 


P — Kt4ch 


30. 


K-B3 


Kt-Kt3 


31- 


PXP 


RPXP 


32. 


R-R3 


R — Q2 


33- 


K-Kt3! 


K— Ki 


34- 


QR— KRi 


B — Kt2 


35- 


P-K5 


QPXP 


36. 


Kt — K4 


Kt-Q4 


37- 


Kt(K6)-Bs 


B — B I 


38. 


KtxR 


BxKt 


39- 


R— R7 


R— Bi 


40. 


R-Ri 


K— Qi 


41. 


R — R8ch 


B — B I 


42. 


Kt-Bs 


Resigns. 



FRENCH DEFENCE 189 

GAME 6. FRENCH DEFENCE 
(Rice Memorial Tournament, 1916) 

White : O. Chajes. Black : J. R. Capablanca. 

1. P — K4 P — K3 

2. P-Q4 P-Q4 

3. Kt-QBs Kt-KB3 

4. B — Kt 5 B — Kts 

Of aU the variations of the French Defence I like 
this best, because it gives Black more chances to 
obtain the initiative. 

5. P-Ks 

Though I consider P X P the best move, there is much 
to be said ia favour of this move, but not of the vari- 
ation as a whole, which White adopted in this game. 



5- 





P-KR3 


6. 


B — Q2 


BxKt 


7- 


PXB 


Kt-Ks 


8. 


Q-Kt4 


K — Bi 



The alternative, P — K Kt 3; leaves Black's King's 
side very weak. White by playing P — K R 4 would 
force Black to play P— K R 4 ; and later, on White's 
Bishop- by going to Q 3, would threaten the weakened 
K Kt P. By the text move Black gives up Castling, 
but gains time for an attack against White's centre 
and Queen's side. 



iQO GAME 6 

9. B — B I P — QB4 

Threatening Q — R 4 and stopping thereby White's 
threat of B — R 3. It demonstrates that White's 
last move was a complete loss of time and merely 
weakened his position. 



10. 


B-Q3 


Q-R4 


II. 


Kt-K2 


PxP 


12. 


0-0 


PxP 


13- 


BxKt 


PXB 


14. 


QXP 


Kt-B3 




Black has come out of the opening with a Pawn 
to the good. His development, however, has suffered 
somewhat, and there are Bishops of opposite colour, 
so that it cannot be said as yet, that Black has a 
won game ; but he has certainly the best of the posi- 
tion, because, besides being a Pawn to the good, he 
threatens White's K P, which must of course be de- 



FRENCH DEFENCE 191 

fended, and this in turn wUl give him the opportunity 
to post his Knight at Q 4 via K 2. When the Black 
EJiight is posted at Q 4, the Bishop will be developed to 
B 3 via Q 2, as soon as the opportunity presents itself, 
and it will be Black that will then have the initiative, 
and can consequently decide the course of the game. 

15- R-Qi 

To prevent Kt — K 2 ; which would be answered by 
Kt X P, or still better by B — R 3. The move, how- 
ever, is strategically wrong, since by bringing his 
pieces to the Queen's side. White loses any chance 
he might have of making a determined attack on the 
King's side before Black is thoroughly prepared for it. 

IS P-KKt3 

16. P — B4 K— Kt2 

17. B-K3 

Better would have been P — Q R 4, in order to play 
B — R 3. The White B would be much better posted 
on the open diagonal than here, where it acts purely 
on the defensive. 

17 Kt — K2 

18. B — B 2 Kt — Q4 

This Kjiight completely paralyses the attack, as it 
dominates the whole situation, and there is no way 
to dislodge it. Behind it Black can quietly develop 
his pieces. The game can now be said to be won 
for Black strategically. 



192 







GAME 6 




19. 


R-Q3 




B-Q2 


20. 


E:t-Q4 




Q/R— QBi 


21. 


R-Kt3 




K— R2 


22. 


P — KR4 




KR-Kti 


23- 


P-R5 




Q-Kt5 



In order to piri the Knight and be ready to come back 
to either K 2 or B i. Also to prevent Q R — Kt i. 
In reality nearly all these precautions are unnecessary, 
since White's attack amounts to nothing. Probably 
Black should have left aside all these 'considerations, 
and played Q — R 5 now, in order to follow it up with 
P — B 4, as he did later, but under less favoiurable 
circumstances. , 

24. R-R3 




24. 



P — B4 



Not the best, as White will soon prove. Q — B i 
would have avoided everything, but Black wants to 
assimie the initiative at once and plunges into com- 



FRENCH DEFENCE 



193 



plications. However, as will soon be seen, the move 
is not a losing one by any means. 

25. P X P e.p. Kt X P (B 3) 

26. PxPch RxP 




27. RxP ch 
This wins the Queen. 

27 KxR 

28. Kt — B 5ch PxKt 

29. (^XQ 




194 GAME 6 

The position looks most interesting. I thought it 
would be possible to get up such an attack against 
the White King as to make it impossible for him to 
hold out much longer, but I was wrong, unless it 
could have been done by plajdng B — B 3 first, forcing 
P — Kt 3 and then playing K — R 4. I followed a 
similar plan, but lost a very important move by play- 
ing Q R — K Kt I ; which gave White time to play 
R — Q I. I am convinced, however, that B — B 3 
at once was the right move. White would be forced 
to play P — Kt 3, and Black would reply with either 
K — R 4; as already indicated, which looks the best 
(the plan, of course, is to play R — K R i ; and foUow 
it up with K — Kt 5 ; threatening mate, or some 
other move according to circumstances. In some 
cases, of course, it wiU be better first to play K — Kt 5), 
or Kt — K 5, which wiU at least give him a 
draw. There are so many possibilities in this posi- 
tion that it would be impossible to give them 
all. It wUl be worth the reader's time to go 
carefully through the lines of play indicated above. 

29 QR— KKti 

As stated B — B 3 was the best move. 

30. P-Kt3 B-B3 

31. R— Qi K — R4 

The plan, of course, as explained above, is to go to 
Kt s in due time and threaten mate at K R 8, but 
it is now too late, the White Rook having come in 



FRENCH DEFENCE 195 

time to prevent the manoeuvre. Instead of the text 
move, therefore, Black should have played Kt — K 5 ; 
which would have given him a draw at the very least. 
After the text moves the tables are turned. It is now 
White who has the upper hand, and Black who has 
to fight for a draw. 

32. R-Q6 B-K5 

Kt — K 5 was stiU the right move, and probably 
the last chance Black had to draw against White's 
best play. 

33. Q'xBP Kt-Q4 

34. RxR KxR 

Kt X Q ; R X R, Kt X P was no better. 



35- 


Q- 


-Ks 


K — B2 


36. 


p- 


-B4 


R— Ki 


37- 


Q- 


-Kt2 


Kt-B3 


38. 


B- 


-Q4 


R— KRi 


39- 


Q- 


-Kts 


R — R8ch 


40. 


K- 


-B 2 


P-R3 


41. 


Q- 


-Kt6 


R — R7ch 


42. 


K- 


-Ki 


Kt— Q2 


43- 


Q- 


-Q6 


B-B3 


44. 


p- 


-Kt4 


PXP 


45- 


P- 


-KB s 


R— R8ch 


46. 


K- 


-Q2 


K-Ki 


47. 


P- 


-B6 


R — R2 


48. 


Q- 


-K6ch 


K-B I 


49. 


B- 


-K3 


R-B2 


50. 


B- 


-R6ch 


K— Kti 



196 GAME 6 

Most players will be wondering, as the spectators 
did, why I did not resign. The reason is that while 
I knew the game to be lost, I was hoping for the fol- 
lowing variation, which Chajes came very near playing : 
5iQxPch,K-R2; S2Q-Rs,RxP; 53 B- 
Kt 5 ch, K — Kt 2 ; 54 B X R ch, K X B; and while 
White has a won game it is by no means easy. If 
the reader does not believe it, let him take the White 
pieces against a master and see what happens. My 
opponent, who decided to take no chances, played 
51 B — Kt 7, and finally won as shown below. 



SI- 


B — Kt 7 


P — Kt6 


52. 


K— K2 


P-Kt7 


S3- 


K — B 2 


Kt — B I 


S4- 


Q-Kt4 


Kt— Q2 


SS- 


K— Kti 


P — R4 


S6. 


P — R4 


BxP 


57- 


Q-R3 


RxP 


58. 


BxR 


KtxB 


59- 


QxPch 


K— B I 


60. 


QXP 





and after a very few more moves Black resigned. 

A very fine game on Chajes' part from move 25 
on, for while Black, having the best of the position, 
missed several chances, White, on the other hand, 
missed none. 



RUY LOPEZ 197 

GAME 7. RUY LOPEZ 
(San Sebastian, 191 1) 
White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: A. Bum 

1. P — K4 P — K4 

2. Kt— KB3 Kt— QB3 

3. B-Kts P-QR3 

4. B — R4 Kt — B3 

S- P-Q3 
This is a very solid development, to which I was 
much addicted at the time, because of my ignorance 
of the multiple variations of the openings. 

s P-Q3 

6. P — B3 B — K2 

In this variation there is the alternative of developing 
this Bishop via Kt 2, after P — K Kt 3. 

7. QKt — Q2 — 

8. Kt — B I P — QKt4 

9. B — B 2 P— Q4 

10. Q— K2 PxP 

11. PxP B — QB4 

Evidently to make room for the Queen at K 2, but 
I do not think the move advisable at this stage. B — 
K 3 is a more natural and effective move. It develops 
a piece and threatens B — B 5, which would have 
to be stopped. 

12. B — Kt 5 B — K3 



198 GAME 7 

Now it is not so effective, because White's Q B is out, 
and the Knight, in going to K 3 to defend the square 
Q B 4, does not block the Q B. 

13. Kt — K3 R— Ki 

14. 0—0 Q— K2 

This is bad. Black's game was already not good. 
He probably had no choice but to take the Knight 
with the Bishop before making this move. 




15. Kt — Qs BxKt 

16. PxB Kt — Kt I 

in order to bring it to Q 2, to support the other Knight 
and also his King's Pawn. White, however, does not 
allow time for this, and by taking advantage of his 
superior position is able to win a Pawn. 

17. P — QR4 P — Kt 5 

Since he had no way to prevent the loss of a Pawn, 
he shotdd have given it up where it is, and played 
Q Kt — Q 2, in order to make his position more solid. 



RUY LOPEZ 



199 



The text move not only loses a Pawn, but leaves 
Black's game very much weakened. 



18. 


PxP 


BxP 


19. 


BxKt 


QxB 


20. 


Q-K4 


B-Q3 


21. 


QxPch 


K-Bi 




With a Pawn more and all his pieces ready for action, 
while Black is stUl backward in development, it only 
remains for White to drive home his advantage before 
Black can come out with his pieces, in which case, 
by using the open K R file. Black might be able to 
start a strong attack against White's King. White 
is able by his next move to eliminate all danger. 

22. Kt — R4 Q — R3 

This is practically forced. Black could not play 
P — Kt 3 because of B X P, and White meanwhile 
threatened Q — R 8 ch followed by Kt — B 5 ch and 
QxP. 



200 





GAME 


7 


23- 


QXQ 


PxQ 


24. 


Kt-B5 


P-KR4 


25- 


B-Qi 


Kt-Q 2 


26. 


BxP 


Kt-B3 


27- 


B — K2 


KtxP 


28. 


KR— Qi 


Kt-Bs 


29. 


B — B4 


KR— Qi 


3°- 


P — R4 


P — R4 


: lose time assuring 


the safety of 


31- 


P-KKt3 


Kt-K3 


32. 


BxKt 


PXB 


33- 


Kt-K3 


KR— Kti 


34- 


Kt — B4 


K— K2 



Black fights a hopeless battle. He is two Pawns down 
for all practical purposes, and the Pawns he has are 
isolated and have to be defended by pieces. 

35. QR — B I R— R2 

White threatened Kt X B, followed by R — B 7 ch. 

36. R— Ki K— B 3 

37. R-K4 R-Kt5 

38. P— Kt4 R— R3 

IfRxRP; KtxBof course would win a piece 

39. R-B3 B-B4 

40. R— B 3ch K— Kt 2 

41. P-Kt3 B-Qs 

42. K— Kt 2 R— Ri 



CENTRE GAME 201 



43- 


P-Kt5 


R-R3 


44. 


P-RS 


RxKt 


45- 


PXR 


R-B3 


46. 


P — Kt6 


Resigns. 



GAMES. CENTRE GAME 
(Berlin, 1913) 

White: J. Mieses. Black: J. R. Capablanca. 

1. P— K4 P — K4 

2. P — Q4 PxP 

3. QXP Kt-QB3 

4. Q-K3 Kt-B3 

5. Kt-QB3 B-Kts 

6. B — Q2 0—0 

7. 0—0—0 R— Ki 

In this position, instead of the text move, P — Q 3 
is often played in order to develop the Q B. My idea 
was to exert su£5cient pressure against the K P to win 
it, and thus gain a material advantage, which would, 
at least, compensate whatever shght advantage of 
position White might have. The plan, I think, is 
quite feasible, my subsequent difficulties being due 
to faulty execution of the plan. 



8. 


Q-Kt3 


KtxP 


9- 


KtxKt 


RxKt 


10. 


B — KB4 





202 



GAME 8 




lo Q-B3 

White's threat to regain the Pawn was merely with 
the idea of gaining time to develop his pieces. Black 
could have played P — Q 3 ; opening the way for his 
Q B, when would have followed, iiB — Q3, R — Ki; 
12 Kt — B 3, and White would soon start a powerful 
direct attack against Black's King. With the text move 
Black aims at taking the initiative away from White 
in accordance with the principles laid down in this 
book. 

II. Kt — R3 

If B X P, P— Q 3; and White's Bishop would be 
completely shut off, and could only be extricated, 
if at all, with serious loss of position. The text 
move aims at quick development to keep the initiative. 

" P-Q3 

This now is not only a developing move, but it also 
threatens to win a piece by B X Kt. 



203 



CENTRE GAME 

12. B-Q3 Kt-Qs 

This complicates the game unnecessarily. R — K i 
was simple, and perfectly safe. 

13. B-K3 




13- 



B-Kts 



This is a serious mistake. The position was most 
interesting, and though in appearance dangerous for 
Black, not so in reality. The right move would have 
been 13. . .R — Kt 5, when we would have 14 B X Kt, 
RXB; isP— QB3,BxP; 16P x B,R— KKt 5; 
17 Q— K 3 (best), QxP ch; 18B — B2, QxQ; 
19 P X Q, R X P, and Black has the best of the game 
with four Pawns for a Kjiight, besides the fact that 
all the White Pawns are isolated. 

14. Kt— Kt s! RxB 



There was nothing better. 
15. QXB! 



Kt— Kych 



204 



GAME 8 




i6. 


BxKt! 


RxB 


17- 


Kt — K4! 


RxKt 


i8. 


QxR 


Q— Kt4ch 


19. 


P— KB4 


Q-Kt4 


20. 


P-B3 


B-B4 


21. 


KR— Ki 


Q-B3 


?2. 


R-Qs 





Q X Q would have given White a decided advan- 
tage, enough to win with proper play. Mieses, however, 
feared the difficulties of an ending where, while having 
the exchange, he would be a Pawn minus. He pre- 
ferred to keep the Queens on the board and keep up 
the attack. At first sight, and even after careful 
thought, there seems to be no objection to his plan; 
but in truth such is not the case. From this point 
the game will gradually improve in Black's favour 
until, with the exchange ahead, White is lost. 



?? 




Q-Q2 

P-QB3 

P-Q4 


23- 
24. 


P-Bs 

R— Q2 



205 




My plan for the moment is very simple. It will 
consist in bringing my Bishop around to B 3. Then 
I shall try to paralyse White's attack against my 
King by playiag P — K R 3, and also prevent White 
from ever playing P — K Kt 5. Once my King is 
safe from attack I shall begin to advance my Queen's 
side Pawns, where there are four to three; and that 
advantage, coupled with the enormous attacking power 
of my Bishop at B 3, will at least assure me an even 
chance of success. 



25- Q-B3 

26. QR— K2 

27. Q-RS 

28. P — KKt4 



B — K2 
B-B3 
P-KR3 
K — R2! 



2o6 GAME 8 

To prevent P — K R 4, which I woxild answer with 
P — K Kt 3, winning the Queen. It can now be 
considered that my King is safe from attack. White 
will have to withdraw his Queen via R 3, and Black 
can use the time to begin his advance on the Queen's 
side. 

29. K— Kt I R— Qi 

30. R— Qi P — B4 

Notice that, on assuming the defensive, White has 
placed his Rooks correctly from the point of view of 
strategy. They are both on white squares free from 
the possible attack of the Black Bishop. 

31. Q-R3 Q-Rs 

This gains time by attacking the Rook and holding 
the White Q at R 3 for the moment, on account of 
the K Kt P. Besides, the Queen must be in the middle 
of the fray now that the attack has to be brought 
home. White has actually more value in material, 
and therefore Black must utilise everything at his 
command in order to succeed. 

32. R(K2) — Q2 Q— Ksch 

33. K-Ri P-QKt4 

threatenmg P — Kt 5; which would open the line 
of action of the Bishop and also secure a passed Pawn. 

34. Q-Kt2 Q-R5 

indirectly defending the Q P, which White cannot 
take on account of Q X R ch. 



CENTRE GAME 



207 



35. K-Kti 



P-Kts 

The attack increases in force as it is gradually brought 
home directly against the King. The position now 
is most interesting and extremely difficult. It is 
doubtful if there is any vahd defence against Black's 
best play. The variations are nxunerous and difficult. 




36. PxP 



QxP 



Black has now a passed Pawn, and his Bishop exerts 
great pressure. White cannot very well play now 
37 R X P because of R X R ; 38 R x R, B x P ; 
and White could not take the Bishop because Q — 
K 5 ch woxild win the Rook, leaving Black a clear 
passed Pawn ahead. 

P-QR3 Q-Rs! 

RXP R-QKti 

R(Qi) — Q2 P — B5 

Q-Kt3 R-Kt6 
Q-Q6 



37- 
38. 

39- 
40. 
41. 



208 



GAME 8 




41. 



P — B6 



B X P would also win, which, shows that White's 
game is altogether gone. In these cases, however, 
it is not the prettiest move that should be played, 
but the most effective one, the move that wiU make 
your opponent resign soonest. 



42. 


R — QB 2 


PXP 


43- 


R-Q3 


Q-Ks! 


44. 


R— Qi 

Resigns. 


R— QB6 



Of course White must play Q — Q 2, and Black then 
plays R X P. 



QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 209 

GAME 9. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 
(Berlin, 1913) 

Wliite: J. R. Capablanca. Black: R. Teichmann. 



I. 


P-Q4 


P-Q4 


2. 


Kt-^KB3 


Kt-KBs 


3- 


P-B4 


P-K3 


4- 


B-Kts 


B — K2 


5- 


Kt-Bs 


QKt— Q2 


6. 


P-K3 


0-0 


7- 


R — B I 


P-QKt3 


8. 


PxP 


PxP 


9- 


B-Kts 





An invention of my own, I believe. I played it 
on the spur of the moment simply to change the normal 
course of the game. Generally the Bishop goes to Q 3, 
or to R 6, after Q — R 4. The text move is in the 
nature of an ordinary developing move, and as it 
violates no principle it cannot be bad. 



9- 

ID. 




B — Kt 2 


0-0 


P-QR3 


II. 


B — R4 


R — B I 


12. 


Q— K2 


P-B4 


13- 


PxP 


KtxP 



If P X P; K R— Q'l, and White would play to win 
one of Black's centre Pawns. The drawback to the 



2IO GAME 9 

text move is that it leaves Black's Q P isolated, and 
consequently weak and subject to attack. 

14. KR— Qi KtxB 

The alternative would have been 14. . .P — Kt4; 
15 B — B 2, P — Kt s; 16 Kt— QR 4, Kt (B 4) — 

15. KtxKt P — Kt4 

16. RxR QxR 

17. Kt-B3 Q-B5 

Black aims at the exchange of Queens in order to 
remain with two Bishops for the ending, but in this 
position such a course is a mistake, because the Bishop 
at Kt 2 is inactive and cannot come into the game 
by any means, unless Black gives up the isolated 
Queen's Pawn which the Bishop must defend. 

18. Kt— Q4 

Not, of course, R— Q 4, because of Q X Q; Kt X Q, 
R — B I ; and there would be no good way to prevent 
R— B 7. 

18 QxQ 

19. Kt(B3)xQ! 

Notice the co-ordmation of the Knights' moves. 
They are manoeuvred chain-like, so to speak, in order 
to maintain one of them, either at Q 4 or ready to go 
there. Now White threatens to take the open file, 
and therefore forces Black's next move. 

19 R— B I 



QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 211 




The student sholild examine this position carefully. 
There seems to be no particular danger, yet, as White 
win demonstrate. Black may be said to be lost. If 
the game is not altogether lost, the defence is at least 
of the most difficult kind; indeed, I must confess 
that I can see no adequate defence against White's 
next move. 

20. Kt — B s! K — B I 

If2o...B — Qi; 21 Kt — Q6, R — B 2; 22 Kt X B, 
R X Kt ; 23 B X Kt, B X B ; 24 R X P, R— B 2 ; 
25 R — Q 2, and White is a Pawn ahead. If 20. . .B 
moves anywhere else, then B X Kt, doubling the 
K B P and isolating all of Black's King's side Pawns. 

21. Kt X B K X Kt 

22. Kt — Q4 P — Kt3 

This is practically forced, as White threatened Kt — 
B 5 ch. Notice that the Black Knight is pinned in 
such a way that no relief can be afforded except by 
giving up the K R P or abandoning the open file 



212 GAME 9 

with the Rook, which would be disastrous, as White 
would immediately sieze it. 

23. P-B3! 




23- 



P-R3 



Black could do nothing else except mark time with 
his Rook along the open file, since as soon as he moved 
away White would take it. White, on the other 
hand, threatens to march up with his King to K 5 
via K B 2, K Kt 3, K B 4, after having, of course, 
prepared the way. Hence, Black's best chance was 
to give up a Pawn, as in the text, in order to free his 
Knight. 

24. B X P Kt — Q 2 

25. P — KR4 Kt— B 4 

26. B — B 4 Kt— K3 

Black exchanges Knights to remain with Bishops of 



QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 273 

opposite colours, which gives him the best chance to 
draw. 

27. Kt X Kt K X Kt 

27. . .P X Kt would be worse, as White would then 
be able to post his Bishop at K 5. 

28. R— Q2 R — KRi 




Black wants to force B — Kt3. P — KKt3 would 
be bad, on account of P — Q 5 ; which would 
get the Black Bishop into the game, even though 
White could answer P— K 4. The text move is, 
however, weak, as will soon be seen. lEs best chance 
was to play P — Kt 5 ; and follow it up with P — R 4 
and B — R 3. White meanwhile could play P — Kt 4 
and R 5, obtaining a passed Pawn, which, with proper 
play, should win. 

29. R— QB 2! R— QB I 

30. R X R B X R 

There are now Bishops of opposite colour, but never- 
theless White has an easily-won game. 



214 



GAME 9 
31. K— B2 



i i 






f- 



k 



31- 



P-Qs 



Practically forced. Otherwise the White King would 
march up to Q 4 and then to B 5 and win Black's 
Queen's side Pawns. If Black attempted to stop 
this by putting his King at Q B 3 then the White King 
would enter through K 5 into Black's King's side 
and win just as easily. 



32. 


PXP 


K-Q4 


Zl- 


K^K3 


B-K3 


34- 


K-Q3 


K-B3 


35- 


P-QR3 


B-Bsch 


36. 


K-K3 


B-K3 


37- 


B-R6 





It is better not to hurry P — K Kt 4 because of P — B 4 ; 
for although White could win in any case, it would 
take longer. Now the White King threatens to help 
by going in through K B 4 after posting the Bishop 



QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 215 

at Kt 7, where it not only protects the Q P, but indi- 
rectly aJso the Q Kt P. 

37- ••, K-Q4 

38. B — Kt 7 Resigns. 

The student ought to have reaUsed by this time 
the enormous importance of playing well every kind 
of ending. In this game again, practically from the 
opening, White aimed at nothing but the isolation 
of Black's Q P. Once he obtained that, he tried for 
and obtained, fortimately, another advantage of posi- 
tion elsewhere which translated itself into the ma- 
terial advantage of a Pawn. Then by acciu-ate playing 
in the ending he gradually forced home his advantage. 
This ending has the merit of having been played against 
one of the finest players in the world. 



White; 



GAME 10. PETROFF DEFENCE 


(St. Petersburg, 1914) 


J. R. Capablanca. 


Black: F. J. MarshaU, 


I. P-K4 


P-K4 


2. Kt-KB3 


Kt — KB3 


3. KtxP 


P-Q3 


4. Kt — KB3 


KtxP 


5- Q-K2 


Q-K2 


6. P-Q3 


Kt-KB3 


7. B — Kts 





2l6 



GAME lo 



Played by Morphy, and a very fine move. The point 
is that should Black exchange Queens he will be a 
move behind in development and consequently will 
get a cramped game if White plays accurately. 

7 B-K3 



Marshall thought at the time that this was the best 
move and consequently played it in preference to 
QxQch. 

8. Kt — B3 P — KR3 

9. B X Kt Q X B 

' 10. P — Q4 B — K2 

11. Q— Kt sch Kt— Q2 

12. B — Q3! 




It is now time to examine the result of the opening. 
On White's side we find the minor pieces well posted 
and the Queen out in a somewhat odd place, it is true, 
but safe from attack and actually attacking a Pawn. 



PETROFF DEFENCE 217 

White is also ready to Castle. White's position is 
evidently free from danger and his pieces can easily 
manoeuvre. 

On Black's side the first thing we notice is that 
he has retained both his Bishops, unquestionably an 
advantage ; but on the other hand we fimd his pieces 
bunched together too much, and the Queen in danger 
of being attacked without having any good square to 
go to. The Bishop at K 2 has no freedom and it 
blocks the Queen, which, in its turn, blocks the Bishop. 
Besides, Black cannot Castle on the King's side be- 
cause QxP, R — Kti; Q — K4 threatening mate, 
wins a Pawn. Nor can he Castle on the Queen's side 
because Q — R 5 would put Black's game in imminent 
danger, since he cannot play P — R 3 because of B X P ; 
nor can he play K — Kt i because of Kt — Kt 5. 
Consequently we must conclude that the opening is 
all in White's favour. 

12 P — Kt4 

To make room for his Queen, threatening also P — 
Kt 5. 

13. P — KR3 0—0 

giving up a Pawn in an attempt to free his game 
and take the initiative. It was difficult for him to 
find a move, as White threatened Kt — K 4, and should 
Black go with the Queen to Kt 2, then P — Q 5, B — 
B 4; Kt X P ch, followed by B x B. 



2l8 



GAME lo 



14. QXP 
IS- Q-K4 
16. P-QKt3 



QR— Kti 
Q— Kt2 
P-QB4 



In order to break up White's centre and bring his 
Knight to B 4 and thus lay the foundation for a violent 
attack against White's King. The plan, however, 
faUs, as it always must in such cases, because Black's 
development is backward, and consequently his pieces 
are not properly placed. 



17. 0—0 

18. Kt— Qs! 



PXP 



A simple move, which destroys Black's plan utterly. 
Black will now have no concerted action of his pieces, 
and, as his Pawns are all weak, he wiU sooner or later 
lose them. 




18 B — Qi 

19. B — B4 Kt — B4 

20. QxP QxQ 



PETROFF DEFENCE 219 

The fact that he has to exchange Queens when he is 
a Pawn behmd shows that Black's game is lost. 

21. Kt X Q B X Kt 

22. B xB B — B 3 

23. QR-Qi BxKt 

The Knight was too threatening. But now the 
ending brought about is one in which the Bishop 
is stronger than the Knight; which makes Black's 
plight a desperate one. The game has no further 
interest, and it is only because of its value as a study 
of this variation of the Petroflf that I have given it. 
Black was able to fight it out until the sixtieth move 
on account of some poor play on White's part. The 
rest of the moves are given merely as a matter of form. 



24. 


RxB 


K — Kt2 


25- 


B-B4 


R-Kt3 


26. 


R — Ki 


K-B3 


27. 


P-B4 


Kt-K3 


28. 


PxPch 


PxP 


29. 


R— B ich 


K-K2 


30- 


R — Kt4 


R-KKti 


31- 


R-B5 


R-B3 


32. 


P— KR4 


KR— QB I 


33- 


PxP 


R — B4 


34- 


BxKt 


PXB 


35- 


RxR 


RxR 


36. 


P — Kt6 


K-Bi 


37- 


R-QB4 


R— QR4 



220 





GAME 10 


38. 


P-R4 


K— Kt2 


39- 


R— B6 


R-Q4 


40. 


R-B7ch 


KxP 


41. 


RXP 


R-Q8ch 


42. 


K— R2 


P-Q4 


43- 


P-R5 


R— QB8 


44. 


R-B7 


R— QR8 


45- 


P — QKt4 


R-RS 


46. 


P-B3 


P-QS 


47- 


R — B6 


PxP 


48. 


RxP 


RxKtP 


49- 


R-QR3 


R— Kt2 


50. 


P — R6 


R— QR2 


SI- 


R-RS 


K-B3 


52. 


P-Kt4 


K— K2 


S3- 


K-Kt3 


K-Q3 


54- 


K — B4 


K — B 2 


55- 


K-Ks 


K-Q2 


56- 


P-Kts 


K— K2 


57- 


P— Kt6 


K-B I 


S8. 


KxP 


K— Ki 


59- 


P— Kt7 


RxP 


60. 


P-R7 


R— Kt3ch 


61. 


K-Bs 


Resigns. 



RUY LOPEZ 221 



White; 





GAME 11. RUY LOPEZ 






(St. Petersburg, 1914) 




. R 


. Capablanca. 


Black: D. 


Janowski. 


I. 

2. 

3- 
4- 

5- 


P — K4 
Kt— KB3 
B-Kts 
BxKt 
Kt-B3 


P — K4 
Kt-QB3 

^ P-QR3 
QPxB 





I played this move after having discussed it with 
Alechin on several occasions. Alechin considered it, 
at the tune, superior to P — Q 4, which is generally 
played. He played it himself later on in the Tourna- 
ment, in one of his games against Dr. E. Lasker, 
and obtained the superior game, which he only lost 
through a blunder. 

5 B-QB4 

P — B 3 is probably the best move in this position. 
I do not like the text move. 

6. P — Q3 B — KKt 5 

7. B — K3 BxB 

This opens the K B file for White, and also reinforces 
his centre, but Black naturally did not want to make 
a second move with this Bishop. 

8. PxB Q— K2 

9. — 0-0-0 

Bold play, typical of Janowski. 



222 GAME II 

lo. Q— Ki Kt— R3 




The problem for White now is to advance his Q Kt P 
to Kt 5 as fast as he can. If he plays P — Q Kt 4 
at once, Black simply takes it. If he plays first P — 
Q R 3 and then P — Q Kt 4, he will still have to protect 
his Q Kt P before he can go on and play P — Q R 4 
and P — Kt 5. As a matter of fact White played a 
rather unusual move, but one which, imder the cir- 
cimistances, was the best, since after it he could at 
once play P — Q Kt 4 and then P — Q R 4 and P — 
Kt 5. 

11. R— Kt i! P — B 3 

12. P — Kt4 Kt — B 2 

13. P — QR4 BxKt 

He simplifies, hoping to lighten White's attack, which 
wiU have to be conducted practically with only the 
heavy pieces on the board. He may have also done 
it in order to play Kt — Kt 4 and K 3. 



RUY LOPEZ 
14. RXB 



223 



Taking with the Pawn would have opened a possi- 
bility for a counter attack. , 

14- P-QKt3 

He is forced to this in order to avoid the breaking up 
of his Queen's side Pawns. The only alternative 
would have been P — Q Kt 4 ; which on the face of 
it looks bad. 



15. P-Kts 

16. P X P 

17. Kt-Q5 

18. P — B4 



BPxP 

P-QR4 

Q-B4 




The White Knight is now a tower of strength. Be- 
hind it White will be able to prepare an attack, 
which wiU begin with P — Q 4, to drive away the 
Black Queen and thus leave himself free to play P — 
B 5. There is only one thing to take care of and that 



224 GAME II 

is to prevent Black from sacrificing the Rook for the 
Knight and a Pawn. 



i8. ... 




Kt — Kt4 


19. R- 


-B2 


Kt-K3 


20. Q- 


-B3 


R— Q2 



Had White on his 19th move played K R — B i in- 
stead of R — B 2, Black could have played now 
instead of the text move, R X Kt ; K P X R, Q X P ch ; 
followed by Kt — B 4 with a winning game. 

21. R— Qi K— Kt 2 

It would have been better for Black to play K — Q i. 
The text move loses very rapidly. 



22. 


P-Q4 


Q-Q3 


23- 


R — B 2 


PxP 


24. 


PxP 


Kt-Bs 


25- 


P-Bs 


Kt XKt 


26. 


PxKt 


QxQP 


27. 


P — B6ch 


K— Kti 


28. 


PXR 


Q X P (Q 2) 


29. 


P-Qs 


R— Ki 


30- 


P— Q6 


PxP 


31- 


Q-B6 


Resigns. 



FRENCH DEFENCE 



225 



GAME 12. FRENCH DEFENCE 
(New York, 1918) 
White: J. R. Capablanca, Black: O. Chajes. 



1. P— K4 

2. P-Q4 

3. Kt-QB3 

4. B-Q3 



P — K3 
P-Q4 
Kt — KB 3 



Not the most favoured move, but a perfectly natural 
developing one, and consequently it cannot be bad. 

4 P X P 



P — Q B 4 is generally played in this case instead of 
the text move. 



5- KtxP 

6. Kt X Kt ch 

7. Kt-Bs 



^Kt — Q2 
KtxKt 
B — K2 




226 



GAME 12 



8. Q— K2 

This is played to prevent P— Q Kt 3, followed by 
B — Kt 2, which is the general form of development 
for Black in this variation. If Black now plays 8 . . . P — 
Q Kt 3 ; 9 B — Kt 5 ch, B — Q 2 ; 10 Kt— K 5 and 
White obtains a considerable advantage in position. 

8 0-0 

9. B — KKts P — KR3 

Of course Black could not play P — Q Kt 3 because 
of B X Kt, followed by Q— K 4. 

10. B X Kt B X B 

11. Q— K4 P— KKt3 

This weakens Black's King's side. R — K i was 
the right move, 

12. P— KR4 




12. 



P-K4 

This is merely giving up a Pawn in order to come 
out quickly with his Q B. But as he does not obtain 



FRENCH DEFENCE 227 

any compensation for his Pawn, the move is bad. 
He should have played Q — Q 4 and tried to fight 
the game out that way. It might have continued 
thus: 13 Q — B 4,B — Kt 2; i4QxBP,BxP; 
IS Kt X B, Q X Kt ; 16 O— O— O with considerable 
advantage of position for White. The text move 
might be considered a mild form of suicide. 

13. PxP B-B4 

14. Q— KB4 BxB 

15. — 0—0 B — Kt 2 

16. RxB Q— K2 
17- Q-B4 

In order to keep the Black Queen from coming into 
the game. 

17 QR— Qi 

18. KR— Qi 

A better plan would have been to play R— K i, 
threatening P — K 6. 

18 RxR 

19. RxR R— Ki 

20. P — B3 P — QB3 

Of course if B X P ; Kt X B, Q X Kt; R— K 3. 
Black with a Pawn minus fights very hard. 

21. R— K3 

The Pawn had now to be defended after Black's 
last move, because after B x P; Kt x B, Q x Kt; 



228 



GAME 12 



R — K 3, Black could now play Q — Kt i defending 
the Rook. 

21 P— QB4 

22. K— B 2 P — Kt3 

23. P-R4 

White's plan now is to fix the Queen's side in otder 
to be able to manoeuvre freely on the other side, where 
he has the advantage of material. 



23- 

24. 


R-Q3 


V— y 2 

Q— B I 


25- 


Q-K4 


Q-K3 


26. 


R-Qs 


K — B I 


27. 


P— B4 


K-Kti 




Black sees that he now stands in his best defensive 
position, and therefore waits for White to show how 
he intends to break through. He notices, of course, 
that the White Knight is in the way of the K B P, 
which cannot advance to K B 4 to defend, or support 
rather, the Pawn at K 5. 



FRENCH DEFENCE 



22g 




Black persists in waiting for developments. He sees 
that if P — K R s, P X P; P X P, the Queen goes 
to R 6, and White will have to face serious difficulties. 
In this situation White decides that the only course 
is to bring his King to K Kt 3, so as to defend the 
squares K R 3 and K Kt 4, where the Black Queen 
might otherwise become a source of annoyance. 



35- 


K — K2 


K— Kti 


36. 


K — B I 


K— B I 


37- 


K— Kt2 


K— Kti 


38. 


K-Kt3 


K— B I 



230 



GAME 12 



Now that he has completed his march with the King, 
White is ready to advance. 




39. P — KR5 *PXP 

39... P — K Kt 4 would be answered by Q — B 5, 
with a winning game. 

40. PxP Q— K2 

Against K — Kt i; White would play Q — Kt 4, 
practically forcing the exchange of Queens, after 
which White would have Uttle trouble in winning the 
ending, since Black's Bishop could not do much damage 
in the resulting position. 

41. Q-B5 K-Kti 

Black overlooks the force of 42 R — Q 7. His best 
defence was R — Q i; against which White could 
either advance the King or play Kt — R 4, threaten- 
ing Kt— Kt 6 ch. 

42. R— Q7 BxPch 



FRENCH DEFENCE 231 

This loses a piece, but Black's position was altogether 
hopeless. 

43- K— Kt4 Q— B3 

44- KtxB Q— Kt2ch 

45- K — B4 Resigns. 

The interest of this game centres mainly on the 
opening and on the march of the White King during 
the final stage of the game. It is an instance of the 
King becoming a fightmg piece, even while the Queens 
are stiU on the board. 



GAME 13. RUY LOPEZ 

(New York, 1918) 

White: J. S. Morrison. Black: J. R. Capablanca. 



I. 


P-K4 


P-K4 


2. 


Kt — KB3 


Kt-QB3 


3- 


B-Kts 


P-Q3 


4- 


Kt-B3 


B — Q2 


5- 


P-Q4 


PxP 


6. 


KtxP 


P-KKt3 



In this form of defence of the Ruy Lopez the devel- 
opment of the K B via Kt 2 is, I thmk, of great im- 
portance. The Bishop at Kt 2 exerts great pressure 
along the long diagonal. At the same time the posi- 
tion of the Bishop and Pawns in front of the King, 
once it is Castled, is one of great defensive strength. 
Therefore, in this form of development, the Bishop, 



232 GAME 13 

we might say, exerts its maximum strength (Compare 
this note with the one in the Capablanca-Bum game 
at San Sebastian, page 197.) 

7. Kt — B3 B — Kt2 

8. B — Kt 5 Kt — B3 

Of course not K Kt— K 2; because of Kt — Q 5. 
The alternative would have been P — B 3; to be 
followed by K Kt — K 2; but in this position it is 
preferable to have the Kt at K B 3. 

9. Q-Q2 P-KR3 

10. B — KR4 

An error of judgment. White wants to keep the 
Knight pinned, but it was more important to prevent 
Black from Castling immediately. B — K B 4 would 
have done this. 

10 0—0 

11. 0-0-0 

Bold play, but again faulty judgment, unless he in- 
tended to play to win or lose, throwing safety to 
the wmds. The Black Bishop at Kt 2 becomes a 
very powerful attacking piece. The strategical dis- 
position of the Black pieces is now far superior to 
White's, therefore it will be Black who will take the 
offensive. 

II R— Ki 

12. KR— Ki 



RUY LOPEZ 



233 




White wanted to keep his Q R on the open file, and 
consequently brings over his other Rook to the centre 
to defend his K P, which Black threatened to win by 
P — K Kt 4, foUowed by Kt x P. 

12 P — Kt4! 

Now that the K R is in the centre, Black can safely 
advance, since, in order to attack on the King's side. 
White would have to shift his Rooks, which he cannot 
do so long as Black keeps up the pressure in the centre. 

13. B — Kt3 Kt— KR4 

Uncovering the Bishop, which now acts along the 
long diagonal, and at the same time preventing P — 
K 5, which would be answered by Kt X B ; P X Kt, 
Kt X P ; etc., winning a Pawn. 

14. Kt-Qs P-R3 

Black drives the Bishop away so as to unpin his 
pieces and be able to manoeuvre freely. 



234 GAME 13 

15. B-Q3 B-K3 

Preparing the onslaught. Black's pieces begin to bear 
against the King's position. 

16. P — B3 




With the last move White not only blocks the action 
of Black's K B, but he also aims at placing his Bishop 
at Q Kt I and his Queen at Q B 2, and then advancing 
his K P, to check at K R 7. 

16 P — B4! 

Initiating an attack to which there is no reply, and 
which has for its ultimate object either the winning 
of the White Q B or cutting it off from the game. 
(Compare this game with the Winter-Capablanca 
game at Hastings.) 

17. P — KR4 P — B 5 

The Bishop is now out of action. White naturally 
coimter attacks violently against the seemingly ex- 



RUY LOPEZ 



235 



posed position of the Black King, and, with very good 
judgment, even ofEers the Bishop. 




i8. PxP! 



PXP! 



Taking the Bishop would be dangerous, if not actually 
bad, while the text move accompUshes Black's object, 
which is to put the Bishop out of action. 



19. R— Ri 

20. K— Kt I 



B — B2 



This move tmquestionably loses time. Since he would 
have to retire his Bishop to R 2 sooner or later, he 
might have done it immediately. It is doubtful, how- 
ever, if at this stage of the game it would be possible 
for White to save the game. 



20 

21. Kt X Kt 



Kt— K4 
RX Kt 



It was difficult to decide which way to retake. 1 



236 GAME 13 

took with the Rook in order to have it prepared for 
a possible attack against the Kiag. 

22. B — R2 Kt — B3 

Now that the White Bishop has been driven back, 
Black wants to get rid of White's strongly posted 
Knight at Q s, which blocks the attack of the Bishop 
at B 2. It may be said that the Knight at Q 5 is 
the key to White's defence. 




23. P-KKt3 

White strives not only to have play for his Bishop,* 
but also he wants to break up Black's Pawns in order 
to counter-attack. The alternative would have been 
23 Kt X Kt ch, Q X Kt; and Black would be threat- 
ening R — R 4, and also Q — K 3. The student should 
notice that Black's drawback in all this is the fact 
that he is playing minus the services of his Q R. It 
is this fact that makes it possible for White to hold 
out longer. 



23- 
24. 

25- 


RUY 


LOPEZ 
KtxP 


BxKt 

PxP 


RxB 
P-B3 



237 




26. Kt — K3 

Kt — Kt 4 was the alternative, but in any event 
White could not resist the attack. I leave it to the 
reader to work this out for himself, as the variations are 
so numerous that they would take up too much space, 
26 Q — R4 

27. P-B4 QxQ 

28. R X Q PxP 

29. Kt — Kt4 B — Kt3 

This forces the King to the corner, where he will be 
in a mating net. 

30. K— Ri QR — Ki 

Now at last the Q R enters into the game and soon 
the battle is over. 

31- P-R3 
If RXP, R-K 8 ch; R-Q i, R (K i)-K 7. 



238 GAME 14 

31 R— K8ch 

32. RxR RxRch 

33. K — R2 B — B 2 

34. K-Kt3 P-Q4 
the quickest way to finish the game. 

35. BxP PxPch 

36. K— Kt4 P — B6 

37. PxP R— Ksch 

38. P — B4 RxPch 

39. K-Rs RxB 

40. R— Q8ch K — R2 

41. R-Q 7 B-K 3 
Resigns. 

A very lively game. 

GAME 14. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 
(New York, 1918) 
White : F. J. Marshall. Black : J. R. Capablanca. 

1. P-Q4 P-Q4 

2. Kt — KB3 Kt — KB3 

3. P-B4 P-K3 

4. Kt — B3 QKt — Q2 

5. B — Kt5 B — K2 

6. P — K3 — 

7. R — B I P — B3 

This is one of the oldest systems of defence against 
the Queen's Gambit. I had played it before in this 
Tournament against Kostic, and no doubt Marshall 
expected it. At times I change my defences, 



QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 239 

or rather systems of defence; on the other hand, 
during a Tournament, if one of them has given me 
good results, I generally play it all the time. 



8. 


Q— B 2 


PXP 


9- 


BxP 


Kt-Q4 


10. 


BxB 


QXB 


II. 


0-0 


KtxKt 


12. 


QxKt 


P-QKt3 



This is the key to this system of defence. Having 
simplified the game considerably by a series of ex- 
changes, Black will now develop his Q B along the 
long diagonal without having created any apparent 
weakness. The proper development of the Q B is 
Black's greatest problem in the Queen's Gambit. 

13. P — K4 B — Kt 2 

14. KR— Ki KR— Qi 




The developing stage can now be said to be complete 
on both sides. The opening is over and the middle- 
game begins. White, as is generally the case, has 



240 GAME 14 

obtained the centre. Black, on the other hand, is 
entrenched in his first three ranks, and if given time 
will post his Q R at Q B I and his Knight at K B 3, 
and finally play P — Q B 4, in order to break up 
White's centre and give full action to the Black Bishop 
posted at Q Kt 2. In this game White attempts to 
anticipate that plan by initiating an advance on the 
centre, which, when carefully analysed, is truly an 
attack against Black's K P. 



IS- P-Qs 



Kt — B4! 



Against Kostic in a previous game I had played 
Kt — B I. It was carelessness on my part, but Mar- 
shall believed differently, otherwise he would not have 
played this variation, since, had he analysed this move, 
he woidd, I think, have realised that Black would 
obtain an excellent game. Black now threatens not 
only B P X P ; but also Kt X P ; followed by B P x P. 
The position is very interesting and full of possibilities. 




QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 
i6. P X K P Kt X P (K 3) 



241 



17. B X Kt Q X B 

played under the impression that White had to lose 
time in defending his Q R P, when I could play P — 
Q B 4, obtaining a very superior game. But, as will 
be seen, my opponent had quite a little surprise for 
me. 

18. Kt — Q4I 




18 Q— K4! 

Of course, if 18. . .Q x R P; 19 R — R i would win 
the Queen. The text move is probably the only satis- 
factory move in the position. The obvious move would 
have been Q— Q 2 to defend the Q B P, and then 
would have come 19 Kt — B 5, P — B 3; 20 Q — 
K Kt 3 (threatening Q R— Q i), K — R i ; 21 Q R — 
Q I, Q — KB 2; 22 P — KR4, with a tremendous 
advantage in position. The text move, on the other 
hand, assiures Black an even game at the very least, 
as will soon be seen. 



242 GAME 14 



19. KtxP 


QXQ 


20. R X Q 


R-Q7 


21. R— Kt I 





A very serious error of judgment. White is under 
the impression that he has the better game, because 
he is a Pawn ahead, but that is not so. The power- 
ful position of the Black Rook at Q 7 fully com- 
pensates Black for the Pawn minus. Besides, the 
Bishop is better with Rooks than the Knight (see pages 
48-56, where the relative values of the Knight and 
Bishop are compared), and, as already stated, with 
Pawns on both sides of the board the Bishop is superior 
because of its long range. Incidentally, this end- 
ing wiU demonstrate the great power of the Bishop. 
White's best chance was to take a draw at once, thus. 
21 Kt — K 7 ch K — B i; 22 R — B 7 R — K i 
(not B X P; because P — B 3 would give White the 
best of it); 23 R X B (best; not Kt — Kt 6 ch, be- 
cause of B P X Kt; followed by R X K P), R X Kt; 
24 R — Kt 8 ch, R — K i; 25 RxR ch, KxR, 
and with propyer play White wUl draw. 

It is curious that, although a Pawn ahead, White 
is the one who is always in danger. It is only now, 
after seeing this analysis, that the value of Black's 
1 8th move Q — K 4 can be fuUy appreciated. 

21 R— K I 

With this powerful move Black begins, against White's 
centre, an assault which will soon be shifted against 



QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 24^ 

the King itself. White is afraid to play 22 P — B 3 
because of P — B 4. 

22. P-Ks P-KKt4 

To prevent P — B 4. The White Knight is practicaUy 
pmned, because he does not dare move on account 
of R X K P. 



A k 






mz 



a 



t 



23. P— KR4 

This is a sequel to the previous move. White expects 
to disrupt Black's Pawns, and thus make them weak. 



23- 



PXP 



Though doubled and isolated this Pawn exercises 
enormous pressure. Black now threatens R — K 3; 
to be followed by R — Kt 3 and P — R 6 and R 7 at 
the proper time. 

24. R— K I 

White cannot stand the slow death any longer^ 



244 GAME 14 

He sees danger everywhere, and wants to avert it 
by giving up his Queen's side Pawns, expecting to 
regain his fortunes later on by taking the initiative 
on the King's side. 

24 R-K3! 

Much better than taking Pawns. This forces White 
to defend the Knight with the Rook atK i, because 
of the threat R — Kt 3. 

25. R(Ki) — QB I K— Kt2 

Preparatory to R — Kt 3. The game is going to be 
decided on the King's side, and it is the isolated double 
Pawn that will supply the finishing touch. 

26. P — QKt4 P — Kt4 

To prevent P — Kt 5, defending the Knight and lib- 
erating the Rooks. 

R-Kt3 
R— R7 



27. P-R3 

28. K — B I 




QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 245 

Notice the remarkable position of the pieces. White 
cannot move anything without incurring some loss. 
His best chance would have been to play 29 P — K 6, 
but that would only have prolonged the game, which 
is lost in any case. 

29. K— Kt I P — R6 

30. P-Kt3 P-QR3 

Again forcing White to move and to lose something 
thereby, as all his pieces are tied up. 




31. P-K6 



RxKP 



Not even now can White move the Knight because 
of P — R 7 ch; KxP, R— R 3 ch; K— Kt i, 
R— R 8 mate. 

32. P — Kt4 R— R3 

33- P-B3 
If 33 P — Kt 5, P — R 7 ch; 34 K — R i, RxKt; 
35 R X R, R X P, winning easily. 



246 GAME 14 



33- 
34. 




R-Q3 
R(Q3)-Q7 


Kt-K7 


35- 


Kt — B sch 


K-B3 


36. 


Kt — R4 


K— Kt4 


37- 


Kt-Bs 


R— Kt7ch 


38. 


K-Bi 


P-R7 


39- 


P — B4ch 


KxBP 


40. 


Resigns. 





An ending worth very careful study. 



Finis