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Full text of "Historic houses of South Carolina"

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HISTORIC HOU 

OF 

SOUTH CAROL 




A 




HARRIETTE KERSHAW 
LEIDING 



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College of Architecture Library 
Cornell University 



A 



7i-'i' 



Sr.L^z 



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME 
OF THE SAGE ENDOWMENT 
FUND GIVEN IN 189I BY 

HENRY WILLIAMS SAGE 



Date Due 



HISTORIC HOUSES 

OF 
SOUTH CAROLINA 



NOTES FROM SOUTH CAROLINA ALMANAC 1765 

Berkley County takes in the old Parishes of 
1. St. Philip's Parish, Charleston 



2. 


St. Michaels, Charleston 


3. 


Christ Church 


4. 


St. Thomas and St. Dennis. 


5. 


St. John's 


6. 


St. George (Dorchester) 


7, 


St. James (Goose Creek) 


8. 


St. Andrews (West side Ashley River) 



County To%\'n— Charleston 

Craven Coltnty takes in the old Parishes of 

1. St. James Santee 

2. St. Stephen 

3. Piince George 

4. Prince Frederick 

5. St. Marks 
Count.v Town — Georgetown 

Colleton County contains Parishes of 

1. St. Paul 

2. St. Peter 

3. St. Bartholomew 
County Town — Jacksonborough 

Granville County contains the old Pari.shes of 

1. St. Helena 

2. St. Peter 

3. Purrysburg, (see Peter Purry) 

4. Prince William 
County Town — Beaufort 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Town House of the Bull Family, Whose Country Estate "Ashley 

Hall " Lay in St. Andrew's Parish 204 

St. Andrew's Chapel, in St. Andrew's Parish, on Ashley River, near 

Charleston 208 

" Fenwick Castle," John's Island 210 

" Brick House," John's Island, near Charleston 212 

Vandbr Horst House, Chapel Street, Charleston 214 

Vander Horst House, Kiawah Island 214 

The William Sbabrook House, Edibto Island 218 

The Hopkinson House, Edisto Island 220 

Brick House, Edisto Island 220 

" Bleak Hall," the Townbend House, Edisto Island 222 

Copied by Miss Phoebe Townsend. 
Old House at " Wilton Bluff " 230 

Btiilt by Col. Morris. 
" Prospect Hill," near " Willtown " or " Wilton " 236 

Formerly a Barnwell-Manigault House. 
St. Helena's Church, Beaufort 240 

Established 1712. 

The Rectory, St. Helena's, from the Churchyard 240 

" The Point," the Hamilton House, Beaufort 244 

" The Anchorage," on " The Bay," Beaufort 246 

House in Beaufort, from the Piazza op Which LaFayette Spoke 248 

Kitcecen and Wall Made of "Tabby." The Sams' Home, Beaufort 248 

Now the Crofut House. 

" Woodlands," the Residence op W. G. Simms, Barnwell 248 

House on the Road to Columbia 250 

Built just after the Revolution by the grandfather of Rev. John 0. Willson. 
" Fort Granby," near Columbia 250 

From an old print. 
One of the Kinard Houses, Richland Street, Columbia 266 

Now the Seibel residence. 
The " Tom Wilson " House, Columbia 260 

A boyhood home of Ex-President Woodrow Wilson. 

The Preston Place or "Ainslet Hall," Columbia 264 

Chancellor Johnson's Home, near Mar's Bluff, Old Cheraw 270 

The Joseph McCullough House, Above Greenville 290 

" Fort Hill," Residence op John C. Calhoun, Clemson College 292 

John Ewing Calhoun Home, near Clemson College 292 

" Lowther Hall," the Trescott House, Pendleton 296 

Old Stone Church, Pendleton 300 

Built in 1790. 
The Burt House, Abbeville 302 

Built by a Calhoun. At this house was held the last meeting of the 

Confederate Cabinet. 

jcvii 



HISTORIC HOUSES 

OF 
SOUTH CAROLINA 



THIS LIMITED EDITION HAS BEEN PRINTED 
FROM TYPE AND THE TYPE DISTRIBUTED 



j; j.^ii ijr;iif: au y'lr mt. 



cJI'fi. 



R'H 



THE MARSHALL HOUSE, COLUMBIA, SOMETIMES CALLED THE DE BRUHL HOUSE 



HISTORIC HOUSES 

OF 

SOUTH CAROLINA 



BY 



HARRIETTE KERSHAW LEIDING 



WITH 100 ILLUSTRATIONS 

FROM DRAWINGS BY ALFRED HUTTY, PHOTOGRAPHS 

AND PRINTS 




PHILADELPHIA AND LONDON 

J. n. LIPFINCOTT COMPANY 
1921 






COPTBIGHT, 19«I, BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANT 



/\l^'6l^S\ 






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PRINTED BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY 

AT THE WASHINGTON SQDARE PRESS 

PHILADELPHIA, U. S. A. 






A 



To 
H. G. L. 

THE BEST FBIEND 
A WIFE EVER HAD 



"No fire has touched them, and no flood; 
They stand to-day where first they stood; 
Places that knew them know them still; 
Their doors swing wide, and on each sill. 
In sweet confusion, wilting flowers 
By noon, by night mark children's hours. 
And closer still, like friends well tried. 
The trees crowd up on every side. 
Folding the roof-tree and the walls. 
Each year their gracious shadow falls 
Larger and larger; every spring 
'Neath southern window some new thing 
Lifts up its head and adds its grace 
To sweeten the old Homestead place. 
From every window to the skies 
Women and men lift steadfast eyes. 
Coming and going day by day, 
Leading the life they must, or may .... 
The world is full of open doors; 
Step lightly in on friendly floors; 
And throw thy rusty keys away 
To locks which strange hands lock to-day." 



FOREWORD 



" The Almighty gives dreams to some and realities to 
others. ' ' The dream of the English Empire builders was to dis- 
cover, and found a new civilization in the South, and it was 
out of the reality of the lives of the men and women who 
came and carried out the business of the dreams that South 
CaroUna was formed, her homes erected, her fields tilled, and 
her civiUzation carried forward and outward; for it is a fact 
that from Colonial times South Carolina has been furnishing 
other South Atlantic States mth the backbone of their civi- 
lization, although it is not generally known that she was one 
of the great emigrant States. 

If South Carolina is to be judged by the aphorism that 
" A State is the product of its people," then this little section 
of land, which has stood for so much that is admirable, is 
indeed a great State. Little as it is known. South Carolina, 
geographically isolated in her early days, left to work out her 
own destiny in the following days of the development until 
the Revolutionary days surrounded by enemies on all sides 
(except to the Northward), has not only held its own but has 
led the Southeast in many agricultural, manufacturing and 
mining pursuits, led the Union in the yield per acre of com, 
oats and cotton, and stands second in cotton manufacturing in 
the entire Union. 

From the standpoint of inate abihty, bravery, chivalry, 
purity of character and unselfish patriotism, the sons and 
daughters of Carolina are the equals of any on the American 
Continent and today represent the finest type of American 
citizen ; yet it is difficult to try and tell the story of this people 
of mixed races, several religions, various customs and the 
modifications of these various differentations by climate, 
occupation, wars and the physical conformation of the land on 
the face of which they lived, and moved, and had their being. 

It is an interesting peep into the past to envisage the 
homes in which these pioneer peoples and their descendants 



FOREWORD 



dwelt. These homes were the expression of their individuali- 
ties modified by their occupations and means. The social, 
political and economic significance of these empire builders 
stands revealed in the homes they builded as well as the taste 
that prompted the style. Means were found for overcoming 
distances, securing material, and workmen were either de- 
veloped or imported to carry out the design of the desired 
habitation, while the landscape gardeners were employed to 
decorate and embellish the neighboring grounds. All of these 
factors enter into the kind of house and the type of architec- 
ture found in lowland and highland of South Carohna. 

Undoubtedly it is the sense of a story behind things that 
leads to the writing about the homes of olden times and about 
the inhabitants thereof by one set of people, and the reading of 
story of these houses by another set. Nor need we be afraid 
of being classed amongst those who have, as Eupert Hughes 
expressed it, " Kicked themselves upstairs into that dreary 
attic where the critics go who are what Horace called * the 
praisers of the past, ' " if we seek the human story of the indi- 
vidual homes and their builders. 

If social life reflects the taste and is the measure of 
grandeur in the life of these dead and gone Carolinians, 
we can reconstruct for ourselves a picture of those yesteryears 
which he forgotten in men's memories, but which nevertheless 
hold precisely the same human elements as our own existence 
of Ufe and love, fun and flirtations, women's fears and wo- 
men's tears, and the laughter of little children, all of which 
are held together in the scheme of things by men and their 
deep desires and ambitions. 

Strong-minded persons are apt to think fashion a fickle 
jade and a trivial thing-yet in Carolina, indigo culture was 
introduced in order to dye the home-woven silks of milady 
and it is even whispered that gentlemen were partial to blue, 
the product of their staple indigo, yet indigo eventually 
rivalled rice and yielded to cotton only after the Revolutionary 
War, and became a standard of barter in foreign commerce 



FOREWORD 



So interwoven are social life, agricultural interests, industrial 
evolution with commercial interests, that it is said " The 
lady of a Southern planter will lay out the whole annual 
produce of a rice plantation in silver and gold, muslins, lace 
veils and new liveries, carry a hogshead of tobacco on her head 
and trail a bale of Sea-Island cotton at her heels, while a lady 
of Boston or Salem, will wrap herself up in the net proceeds 
of a cargo of whale oil, and tie on her hat with a quintal 
of cod-fish. ' ' Thus it is that the beautiful old houses in South 
Carolina grew as the external expression of a certain ease, 
grace and dignity of life led by the landed gentry. 

Near the coast the spacious verandas came in response to 
the need for coolness, and shadowy retreats from the brilliant 
sunshine of this sub-tropical climate, tall ceilings, large win- 
dows, and lattice jalousie bhnds were borrowed from the 
neighboring Spanish Indies, while formal gardens and gate- 
ways came over in the inner consciousness of the Cavalier 
stock that settled low- country Carolina and found expression 
in manner fitting the locality. 

Although the first settlers had confined themselves to the 
neighborhood of Charleston, the fact that Georgia was being 
settled (1732-34) protected the Western frontier of the 
State and gave a feehng of security hitherto unknown, so 
that the interior of the State received many immigrants; 
Germans, Scotch (after the battle of CuUoden), and on Brad- 
dock's defeat, refugees from Pennsylvania and Virginia came 
and settled in the Piedmont sections of the State. Besides 
these various additions to the State, Irish Protestants, Swiss 
Colonists, German Redemptionists, Welsh Colonists from 
Pennsylvania, all went to the making up of the total popula- 
tions and were added to the original English settlers, Cavahers 
and gentlemen adventurers as well as the French Hu- 
guenot refugees. 

Thus it is seen that various considerations enter into the 
discussion of the homes of such a mixed people. The homes 
of the Bacon and Rice aristocracy, situated in the low coun- 



FOREWORD 



try, conformed to the English Manor type, being later modi- 
fied to suit the climatic conditions, and becoming as Birge 
Harrison delightfully puts it, " infected by the spirit of the 
West Indian houses as though blown across from the West 
Indies," while the homes of the people in the middle lands 
of the State were builded and furnished to suit another set 
of people and to meet other needs, while the homes in highland 
counties conformed to yet another set of standards and con- 
ditions. So that the houses of Carolina the Province, Caro- 
lina the Royal Ward, when Kings George the First and Sec- 
ond, were said to be " Nursing Fathers " to the infant colony, 
or the homes of Carolina the devastated, by foreign or civil 
strife, all have different meanings and designs, but a spirit 
of high Romance permeates the entire history of the State, 
its people and their homes. 

The present volume has been undertaken as a loving 
tribute to South Carolina, who gave to the writer the three 
beings most dear to her on earth ; and, because the history of 
the houses in South CaroUna is the history of the homes of 
kindred and friends, this effort has been made to give to the 
world a glimpse of the wonderful men and women of the state 
and the homes they builded. 

It has been deemed best, incidentally, to mention a few of 
the first provincial laws in order that the reader may obtain 
some idea of the manner of life contemplated by those in 
authority in primitive Carolina. This is necessary because the 
history of the colony and its various settlements unwinds itself 
like a golden thread from the gleaming web of the history of 
the mother city, Charleston, until the outer threads are 
far from the center, yet connected by invisible and in- 
tangible bonds. 

The houses in the upper part of South Carolina were 
erected at a later date than those in the low country, and so 
have been included in this volume with briefer mention, the 
oldest houses naturally being found along the rivers in the 
lower part of the state. 



FOREWORD 



My thanks are due to Misses Lillian Yates, Mary Von 
Kolnitz and Elsie Kirkland for their efficient and loving help. 
My thaiiks are also due to the many friends and the owners of 
properties throughout the state who so kindly responded to 
letters written to secure information. I have consulted all of 
the standard sources of infoi-mation available, and have 
scanned the De Saussure records (the originals of which are 
o'wned by my aunt, Miss Isabelle De Saussure) and have in 
addition had priceless aid and information given me by my 
mother, Susan Boone De Saussure and my father, Reverend 
John Kei-shaw, D.D. 

Haeeiette Kershaw Leujing 
Chaeleston, S. C. 
Maech 1, 1920 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

NOTES FROM SOUTH CAROLINA ALMANAC 1765 xvi 

I. OLD CHARLESTON AND SOUTH CAROLINA 1 

II. ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON TO THE "TEE".. 12 

III. WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER ABOVE THE "TEE" 36 

IV. EASTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER ABOVE THE "TEE" 74 
V. SANTEE, FRENCH SANTEE, SOUTH SANTEE, NORTH SANTEE 91 

VI. GEORGETOWN AND VICINITY 112 

VII. UPPER, LOWER AND MIDDLE ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 131 

VIII. ST. MARK'S PARISH 155 

IX. FROM DOVER TO CALAIS VIA THE PARISHES OF CHRIST 

CHURCH AND ST. THOMAS 178 

X. ON THE ASHLEY RIVER AND IN ST. ANDREW'S PARISH. . . 188 

XI. JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND. THE PLACES AND 

THE PEOPLE 208 

XII. BEAUFORT. INCLUDING COMBAHEE AND CHEE-HA DIS- 
TRICTS. WITH TWO PICTURES OF WILLTOWN HOUSES 
AND ONE AT BARNWELL, SOUTH CAROLINA 233 

XIII. ON THE ROAD TO COLUMBIA AND COLUMBIA AND ITS 

HOMES 250 

XIV. THE OLD CHERAWS, LAURENS, LANCASTER AND NEW- 

BERRY 268 

XV. JOSEPH McCULLOUGH HOUSE, FORT HILL, LOWTHER HALL, 

TOMASSEE AND THE BURT HOUSE IN ABBEVILLE .... 289 

ADDITIONAL HOUSES OF HISTORIC INTEREST IN SOUTH 

CAROLINA 304 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAtiUl 

The Marshall House, Columbia, S. C, Sometimes Called the De Bruhl 

House Frontispiece 

Mepkin Gate Title Vignette 

Drawn by E. S. Holloway. 

Map op South Carolina of 1715 2 

Miles Brewton House, Charleston 4 

Showing old coach house and slave quarters. 

Judge Heyward's Mansion, Church Street, Charleston 8 

As it was when President Washington was there entertained in 1791. 

" Dictator" Rutledge's Home, Broad Street, Charleston 10 

The Paul House, Broad and Church Streets, Charleston 10 

" Bblvidere," Old Shubrick Home 16 

Now the Charleston Country Club House. 

" Yeamans' Hall," Goose Creek 20 

St. James' Church, Goose Creek 22 

St. James' Church, Interior 22 

" Medway," on Back River above Goose Creek 26 

Otranto Club House, Goose Creek 26 

Thomas Smith, Portrait 30 

" Medway," on Back River, Home op Landgrave Smith 30 

" Dean Hall," Cooper River, below the Tee 32 

Maum Patience and Her Pet Gobbler 32 

" Coming Tee " House on Cooper River 38 

Strawberry Chapel, Cooper River 38 

" Wappahoola," Western Branch, Cooper River 54 

" Mulberry Castle," Western Branch, Cooper River 58 

The Dra wing-Room, Mulberry Castle, Cooper River 62 

" Dockon," Western Branch, Cooper River 64 

" Little Landing " or " Lewisfield " 64 

" Exeter," Near Monck's Corner 68 

" Gippy," Western Branch, Cooper River 72 

Town House of the Ball Family, Charleston 76 

"QuiMBY," Eastern Branch, Cooper River 82 

" Middleburg," Eastern Branch, Cooper River 82 

" Limerick " 84 

A primitive house nearly 200 years old. 

Avenue of Live Oaks, " Limerick " 84 

Pompion Hill Chapel, Eastern Branch, Cooper River 90 

"Fairfield " 94 

The oldest house on Santee. Drawn by Alfred Hutty. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Wambaw Chdech (St. Jambs') Santee 98 

" Hampton," the Home op the Rutlbdges on South Santee 100 

The Dining-Room at " Hampton " 102 

The Portico at " Hampton " 102 

"El Dorado," on the Santee, One op the Pincknet Homes 106 

" Hopseewee " (Lucas House) North Santee 106 

Home of Thomas Lynch, the Signer. 

Wintah Indigo Society Hall, Georgetown 110 

Wintah Inn, Georgetown 112 

The Pyatt-Alston House, Georgetown 114 

Church, Prince George, Winyah, Georgetown 118 

Prospect Hill, Waccamaw River 120 

Prospect Hill, Rear View 122 

Friendfield House, Near Georgetown 124 

The Dra wing-Room, Friendfield House 126 

"Somerset," the Cain House, Pinopolis 132 

StNKLER House, Adjacent to " Belvidere," Eutawvillb 138 

"Belvidere," the Sinkler House, near Eutaw Springs 140 

Chapel in St. Stephen's 152 

" Milpord," West op Pdjewood 156 

" Melrose," Built by Matthew Singleton 158 

Drawn by Alfred Hutty. 

" HiLLCREST," Statesburg 168 

Cornwallis House, the Old Kershaw Homestead, Camden 170 

Handbill Issued in 1794, Advertising Sale op Kershaw Lands 172 

"Lausanne," the DeSaussure Home, Camden 174 

" Mulberry," near Camden 176 

Oakland Plantation, Mt. Pleasant 182 

Front and rear views. 

Christ Church, Christ Church Parish, near Mt. Pleasant 184 

The Gibbes House, Charleston Neck, Sometimes Called the Lowndes 

House 190 

"Archdale Hall," Lambs, near Dorchester, the Baker Homestead, 200 
Years Old 194 

St. George's Church, Dorchester 196 

Designed by Sir Christopher Wren. 
The Perry House at Tongueville (Sometimes Called Tongue Well), 

NEAR Dorchester 198 

" Ingleside " OR " The Haze," Goose Creek 200 

Interior at " Ingleside," Goose Creek 200 

" Drayton Hall," St. Andrew's Parish, on Ashley River 202 

Side View op " Drayton Hall " 202 

xvi 



CHAPTER I 

OLD CHARLESTON AND 
SOUTH CAROLINA 




LD houses resemble cMldren in that 
their characters are greatly affected 
by environment and parentage. In 
deahng with the South Carohna 
homes it must be remembered that 
the state was settled in layers, so to 
speak, the homes of the sea-coast 
people being constructed to suit the 
ideas of people from sea-port towns 
in the old world, while those of the middle and upper parts 
of the state were built to meet the requirements of people who 
had drifted into the interior, or come in from other settlements. 
It is amusing to read one of the early historical writers, 
Oldmixon, who describes Carohna as "lying parallel with the 
Land of Canaan, ' ' which would seem to imply the use of tents, 
and some of the primitive log-cabins erected by the first set- 
tlers were scarcely more than this. A more substantial type of 
primitive house was built of mud and clay — such a house is 
said to exist in Williamsburg county, near Kingstree. An- 
other primitive house of a later period was constructed of a 
native cement composed of lime and oyster shell — called 
"Tabby" — an example of which is found on Fripp's Island, 
near Beaufort. The native marls of South Carolina also fur- 
nished materials with which the first settlers builded their 
homes. The remains of such a house are found on Fairlawn 
Barony on Cooper river. 

Numerous descriptions of the colony were printed and sent 
out in order to induce immigration, many of which are included 
in B. R. Carroll's Historical collection. Some of these were 
printed in London "and to be sold by Mrs. Grover, in Pelican 
Court, in Little Britain, 1682." A small description and a 
map of South Carolina was published by Mr. Richard Blome, 
and printed for Dorman Newman, in the year 1678. Yet an- 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

other map of Carolina was printed by order of the Lords Pro- 
prietors "newly published in one large Sheet of Paper, a very 
spacious Map of Carolina with its Elvers, Harbor's Planta- 
tions, and other Accommodations, from the latest Survey, and 
best Informations, with a large and particular Description of 
the Entrances into Ashly and Cooper Eivers ; this Map to be 
Sold for Is. by Joel Gascoyne, near Wapping Old Stairs, and 
Eobert Green in Budge Eow, London, 1682." 

It will thus be seen that Charleston is the mother of the 
state, and a perusal of the Acts of Assembly published in 
Grimke's Digest will strengthen this belief. The first law- 
makers of the colony were religious men, as is shown by their 
first law, which provided for the observation of the Lord's 
Day. Having taken this step they proceeded to the "sup- 
pressing of idle, drunken and swearing persons inhabiting 
within this state. ' ' Having thus provided for the just and the 
unjust our forefathers proceeded to the laying out of high- 
ways, and so successfully did they accomphsh this latter task 
that the roadway system of South Carolina to-day occupies in 
large measure the highway system as laid out by our pro- 
genitors. One of the first provisions after this was "settfing 
the mihtia. " Then reahzing that all these things would cost 
money they passed an Act for "raising a tax of £400 or the 
value thereof." 

One class of settlers that came to South Carolina and built 
fine homes was of the CavaHer stock of England. Many Acts 
were passed to encourage immigration, among them "an Act 
to suspend prosecution for foreign debts. ' ' Another was for 
"making Ahens free of this part of the country," and "for 
granting Hberty of conscience to all protestants." 

Among the early laws permanency of building was pro- 
vided for ; the residences of Charleston were to be constructed 
of brick, but this was later repealed. Along with permanency 
of building came the desire for preservation of record, and an 
early Act provides for the registering of births, marriages and 
deaths in the colony. Philanthropic and educational enter- 
prises were nurtured, rewards given to inventors of agricul- 
tural machines, and in every way possible a fine type of 

2 



OLD CHARLESTON AND SOUTH CAROLINA 

civilization established. One of the earhest Acts provides for 
a Pro^dncial Library. 

Mr. Langdon Cheves writes of the buildings erected in 
early days, saying: "Fine old Colonial brick houses probably 
did not exist in the up country ; were few in the middle country 
and were comparatively rare anywhere. Most of the fine brick 
houses were built between the years 1710 and 1760, and in the 
neighborhood of Charleston. After 1760 the tradition of stone 
and brick houses faded, masons became scarce, and saw mills 
developed, then wooden houses on brick basements were built." 

Concerning the topography of "Charles Town" (the name 
of the chief city was changed to Charleston by act of Assem- 
bly in 1783), although the first settlement was on the western 
bank of Ashley River the Council journal of date 21st Febru- 
ary, 167i/2> says: 

"Mr. Henry Hughes came this day before the Grand 
Councill and voluntarily surrendered up the one halfe of his 
land nere a place upon the Ashley River knowne by the name 
of Oyster Poynt, to be employed in and towards the enlarging 
of a Towne and common of pasture there intended. . . . " 

The natural advantages of Oyster Point had not escaped 
even the first Governor, for Secretary Dalton tells us that 
"there is a place between Ashley River and "Wando River, 
about 600 acres, left vacant for a town and fort, by the direc- 
tion of the old Governor Coll. Sayle, for that it commands 
both rivers : it is, as it were, a key to open and shut this settle- 
ment into safety or danger. ' ' 

THE HISTORIC HOUSES OF CHARLESTON 
There are only two or three buildings which are discussed 
in this present volume, as the subject has been thoroughly cov- 
ered from an architectural standpoint in the "DwelUng 
Houses of Charleston." But it is not out of place to say that 
in Charleston one sees over and over again houses on the old 
San Domingo model, of a three or four story structure, one 
room deep, that tower tall and narrow, as though turning a 
shoulder to the world. However, a balcony door let in the 

3 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

fagade gives a hint of welcome and provides access to the 
verandas which stretch the entire length of the houses. The 
advantage of this arrangement is that the house faces the 
walled-in garden, while not being set too far back from the 
city street. One writer says that "the arrangement of rooms 
in these houses is much hke that of the average Enghsh house 
in that the drawing room (or with-drawing rooms) parlor and 
dining room are all on the second floor, while the library suite 
and breakfast room are found on the ground floor. On the 
third floor, which affords needed hght and air, are the large, 
spacious bed rooms." 

In 1706 the building of wooden frame houses in the town 
had been declared to be a nuisance and prohibited, later it was 
represented that bricks were not always to be had but at such 
excessive rates as prevented the building up of waste places, 
and the act was repealed. Houses were allowed to be built of 
wood, provided the hearths and chimneys were of brick and 
stone. McCrady says in his "History of South Carolina 
Under Proprietary Government" that "until 1717 there were 
few houses at Charles Town out side the fortifications . . . 
In that year the fortifications on the West, North and South 
sides were dismanteled and demohshed to enlarge the town, 
which now began to spread out on the North across the creek, 
which ran where the market now stands, and on the West be- 
yond what is now Meeting Street. There are but three build- 
ings in the City of Charleston of which there are any historical 
authorities for believing that they were built during the 
Proprietary Government." These are supposed to be found 
on the lower part of Church Street, just below Tradd. None 
of these houses are very large. In this present volume the 
presentation of Charleston houses is confined to several very 
well known establishments of a much later date. 

THE MILES BRBWTON HOUSE 

In " The DwelHng Houses of Charleston " Miss Alice 
Huger Smith and her father have given the history of many of 
the most significant houses in the City, but it has been felt that 
in a book (such as the present one) supposed to be dealing with 

4 



OLD CHARLESTON AND SOUTH CAROLINA 

the historic houses of South Carohna, some mention must be 
made of a few of the Charleston phices. The first discussion 
will be the IMiles Brewton house, now in the possession of Miss 
Mary P. Frost and her sisters, Miss Susan P. Frost and 
Miss Rebecca Motte Frost. 

Miss Mary Pringle Frost has written an attractive Uttle 
booklet called the "Meaning of a House" in which she says: 
"My sister, Susan Frost, and I feel that this house should be 
known and loved by the community and that it should enter 
into the life of the community — it should live side by side with 
smaller houses in its love for what is true and friendly. A 
house needs friends : it needs interchange of human thought : 
it is a human habitation. What would a habitation be without 
an inhabitant 1 It would be lonely ; its spirit would faint. ' ' 

' ' floors that felt our hf e-long tread 
Windows whence babes peeped at their stars 
Thresholds whence passed away our dead 
'er which our brides came from afar ! ' ' 

The South Carolina Gazette and County Journal, August 
22, 1769, gives the names of the men concerned in the design- 
ing and building of the Brewton house, now best known as the 
Pringle house, and occupied by the Misses Frost : 

"Ezra Waite, Civil Architect, House-builder in general, 
and Carver, from London, Has finished the Architecture, con- 
ducted the execution thereof, viz. : in the joiner way, all taber- 
nacle frames (but that in the dining room excepted) , and carved 
all the said work in the four principal rooms, and also calcu- 
lated, adjusted, and draw'd at large for to work by, the lonick 
entablature, and carved the same in front and round the eaves, 
of Miles Brewton, Esquire's House on White-Point for Mr. 
Moncrieff.— If on inspection of the above mentioned work, 
and twenty seven years experience, both in theory and prac- 
tice, in noblemen and gentlemen's seats, be sufficient to recom- 
mend; he flatters himself to give satisfaction to any gentle- 
man, either by plans, sections, elevations, or executions, at his 
house in King Street, next door to Mr. Wainwright's, where 
architecture is taught by a pecuHar method never pubhshed 
in any book extant. 

N B As Miles Brewton Esquire's dining room is ot a new 
construction with respect to the finishing of windows and 

5 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

doorways it has been industriously propagated by some (be- 
lieved to be Mr. Kinsey Burden, a carpenter) that the said 
Waite did not do the architecture, and conduct the execution 
thereof. Therefore the said Waite begs leave to do himself 
justice in this public manner, and assure all gentlemen, that he 
the said Waite, did construct every individual part and drawed 
the same at large for the joiner to work by, and conducted the 
execution therof. Any man that can prove to the countrary, 
the said Waite promises to pay him One Hundred Guineas, as 
witness my hand, this 22nd day of August, 1769. ' ' 

"EzBA Waite." 

The Pringle house is one of the oldest houses in Charleston 
and known as one of the best preserved and most elegant speci- 
mens of Colonial architecture in the country. Miles Brewton, 
for whom the house was built, and his whole family were lost 
at sea. The house then passed to his two sisters, of whom Mrs. 
Eebecca Motte was one. She was living in it at the time of 
the occupation of the city by the British. It Avas seized and 
used by Lord Eawdon and Col. Nesbit Balfour, Commandant 
of Charleston. An interesting item concerning Eebecca Motte 
is that a tablet has been erected to her memory in the vestibule 
of St. Philip's Church, by the Eebecca Motte Chapter of the 
Daughters of the American Eevolution. The marble of the 
tablet erected to her memory was the top of a "pier Table" 
in her home. The first tablet erected to Mrs. Eebecca Motte 's 
memory was also a marble which had served as the top of a 
pier table in her country home, and it was also set up in St. 
Phihp's Church but was destroyed in the burning of the first 
Church on the present site, on February 15th, 1836. 

There are traces of Lord Eawdon 's occupancy still visible 
in the Miles Brewton house, for the portrait so valued of Mr. 
Brewton bears the mark of a sword thrust through it by one 
of his officers, and the marble mantel in one of the parlors has 
a shght sketch made by some sharp instrument, of a burly 
Englishman, with the swords of Sir H. Clinton above it. It 
was in this room that Lord Eawdon gave audience to the little 
sons of Col. Isaac Hayne, who came with a relative to plead 
for their father's life. 

At that time and for long years after, the garden at the 

6 



OLD CHARLESTON AND SOUTH CAROLINA 

back of the house went down to Legare Street, and Lord Raw- 
don is said to have cut a wooden gate in the high brick wall 
that surrounded the premises, that he might have easy access 
through the garden wall to another colonial house in Legare 
Street, where his suite resided. 

The house itself has been altered but very little since it was 
built in 1765, thus preserving its former glory. It is a three 
story brick building, with double piazzas each supported by 
impressive stone pillars. Like most of the houses of this date 
the wide hall has two large rooms on either side. On the third 
floor is to be found the long drawing-room that reaches across 
the front of the house. The beautiful and artistic carvings and 
paneUngs of this old home are of great importance and reflect 
the character of its builder. Miles Brewton. 

HEYWARD HOUSE 

Judge Thomas Hej^ward's house on the west side of 
Church Street, just north of Tradd, was at one time consid- 
ered one of the most splendid homes in Charleston. Although 
not so large, nor the enrichments so profuse, this old home has 
many features in common with the Brewton house. Formerly 
double verandas adorned this three story brick structure. In 
the rear is a long brick building where McLane opened his 
famous billiard parlor and bar about 1830. The Heyward 
house rises to fame, however, in being the place selected to 
house President Washington during his visit to Charleston, 
that being the most prominent event in the annals of the city. 

The President had journeyed by land, stopping at George- 
town, South Carolina, and arrived opposite the city at what 
is now Mt. Pleasant, on the 2nd day of May, 1791. A com- 
mittee consisting of Hon. John Bee Holmes, Recorder, in his 
official robes. General C. C. Pinckney, and Edward Rutledge, 
Esq., had crossed the river to meet him, and accompanied him 
in a barge rowed by the twelve American captains of vessels 
then in port, and commanded by Captain Cochran. A flotilla 
of boats of all sizes and kinds, filled with ladies and gentlemen, 
and two bands of music, attended him over. As he approached 
the town a salute of artillery was fired. The following extract 

7 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

is taken from a paper giving an account of the proceedings of 
the City Council in anticipation of the President's arrival: 

"The Intendant and Committee appointed to make the 
necessary arrangements for the reception and entertainment 
of George Washington, Esquire, President of the United 
States, on his arrival in Charleston, recommended that the 
house of Thomas Heyward, Esq., in Church Street, at present 
in occupation of Mrs. Rebecca Jamieson, be taken for the use 
of the President during his residence in this city, together with 
the furniture, for which the sum of £60 be paid, it being the 
lowest rate at which the said house can be procured. ' ' 

The President spent a week in Charleston, there was a 
series of balls, dinners, breakfasts and other entertainments, 
and every attention that hospitality, public and private, could 
devise was shown him. One of the handsomest entertainments 
given in his honor was a splendid concert and ball at the 
"Exchange,"' on which occasion the ladies wore bandeaux of 
white ribbon interwoven in their hair, with Washington's por- 
trait and the words "long live the President" painted on them. 
The late Mr. Charles Eraser says: "Every hand that could 
hold a pencil, professional or amateur, was enlisted to fur- 
nish them." 

The week spent in the old Heyward home by our first Presi- 
dent is not the only honor of which this dwelling boasts. It may 
well be proud of its first owner. Judge Thomas Heyward, a 
grandson of Captain Thomas Heyward, who served in the 
British Colonial Army. When the Indians surrendered the 
occupation of their lands beyond the Combee River, Captain 
Heyward acquired a portion of these lands and thenceforth his 
descendants became residents of that part of the province. 

In March, 1775, the Provincial Congress enlisted two regi- 
ments, and Judge Thomas Heyward was appointed Captain 
of the first company. A year later he was chosen, with ten 
other men, to report a form of government for the colonies. 
Judge Heyward 's name appears among the Signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, an honor which was conferred 
upon only prominent men of his generation. 

The Heyward family was one of the first to give much 
s 



OLD CHARLESTON AND SOUTH CAROLINA 

attention to the cultivation of rice, owning large bodies of land 
adapted to cultivation of this grain, by the success of which 
they amassed considerable fortune. 

The State of South Carolina has erected a monument over 
the grave of Judge Heyward in Jasper County and his body 
lies buried in a plot on the plantation that belonged to him in 
the Revolutionary days. 

RUTLEDGE HOUSE 

The square brick house on Broad Street, now owned and 
occupied by Mr. R. G. Rhett, was at one time the home of Dic- 
tator Rutledge. It is set upon a tall brick foundation with 
three additional stories above. The main entrance is in the 
form of a portico, which is reached on either side by a double 
flight of marble steps, protected by an ingenious extension 
of the portico. The whole fagade of the building is very hand- 
some and is adorned by this portico on the first two stories and 
a veranda extending across the face of the house on the second 
floor. All of this iron work was added to the house about 1850, 
when it was owned and occupied by Wilham S. Gadsden, father 
of Norman P. and grandfather of Messrs. William and 
Dwight Gadsden. 

The inside of this interesting home is finished with hard- 
wood floors and walls, which latter are adorned with rare 
paintings. The rooms to the right upon entering are con- 
nected and are used as reception rooms, while the correspond- 
ing rooms to the left are used as dining and breakfast rooms, 
the household offices being downstairs in the basement. Up 
stairs a magnificent ball room occupies the entire front of this 
estabhshment, while the wings are used as guest rooms and 
private sitting rooms. The third floor is given over to 
sleeping apartments. 

Mrs. Rhett (nee Blanche Salley) has seen to it that this 
splendid mansion has received the dignified furnishings due 
such a historic house. In addition to the many Rhett heir- 
looms of furniture, paintings, silver, cut glass, etc., she has 
so arranged that their full artistic possibilities are utilized, 
and has produced a home of dignity and delight. 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

John Eutledge was the son of a physician, John Eutledge, 
who came to South Carolina about 1730, and Sarah Hext. The 
young John and his brothers, Edward and Hugh, were sent 
to England to receive an education. They all became lawyers 
in Charleston. John and Edward were members of the Con- 
tinental Congress at Philadelphia in 1774 and also in 1775. 
After a battle fought in the harbor during the Revolution on 
the 12th of November, John Eutledge was made a member 
of the Council of Safety. He was soon afterwards chosen as 
first president of the separate and independent State of South 
Carolina, and was called "Dictator," being allowed absolute 
authority in his efforts for the safety of the State. 

Some of the Eevolutionary scenes which took place in and 
near the home of the "Dictator" are told in the Diary of Cap- 
tain Barnard Elliott : 

"(Gen'l Orders,) 28 March, Parole, Aera. Ordered, that 
Col. Eobert 's regiment of artillery and all the militia now in 
Chas. Town under the conunand of Col. Pinckney do, at 11 
o'clock this morning, draw up two deep in Broad Street, on 
the side opposite St. Michael's Church. The regiment of ar- 
tillery with two field pieces on the right, in order to receive 
the Hon'ble John Eutledge, Esq., constitutionally appointed 
by the Hon'ble the Legislature as President and Commander- 
in-Chief of the same, with the honors due that station. Or- 
dered that should there not be room enough for the militia 
under Col. Pinckney in Broad Street from the State House 
to the Exchange, then that the remainder draw up on the Bay 
two deep as before, with their backs to the houses extending 
themselves from Guerard's corner on their left as far along 
the Bay as may be, in that manner. Col. Eobert 's regiment to 
fire 13 guns when President's appointment has been read, at 
Eutledge House. Two sentries to be placed at Presi- 
dent's door." 

OTHER HOUSES 

East of the Eutledge house on Broad Street stands a sub- 
stantial building of the same type, said to have been erected 
by a Mr. Bellinger as a copy of a house in England. It is 
stated that Mr. Bellinger never lived in this house and 
it is perhaps best known as the residence of Bishop Nor- 

10 




•DICTATOR" RUTLEDGE'S HOME, BROAD STREET 

CHAKLEST(.)N 

Now K (J. Rhelt residence 




THE PAUL HOUSE, liROAD AND CHURCH STREETS, CHARLESTON 

Erom a print 

Another house said to be Dictator Rullcdge's 



OLD CHARLESTON AND SOUTH CAROLINA 

throp a kinsman of the Bellingers. It is now used as the 
Episcopal Eesidence. 

The old Izard house stands next east of the Bellinger house. 
It is said to have been erected previous to 1757 and has escaped 
all the great fires, standing to-day a monument of colonial 
days. This house was for many years the residence of Judge 
George Bryan, the son of Judge George S. Bryan, the son of 
Jonathan Bryan, who was a son of George Bryan, Judge of 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and who was a delegate to 
the First Colonial Congress in 1765. On the maternal side 
the Bryans are connected with the Lathams, Dwights, John- 
sons and Broughtons. 

To the west of the Rutledge house stood St. Andrew's H^-ll, 
which for many years was the favorite place for fashionable 
assembhes and public meetings. It was the home of St. An- 
drew's Society, founded in 1729 by Scotch immigrants. His- 
torically it is famous as the meeting place of the State 
Convention which, December 20th, 1860, there passed the Ordi- 
nance of Secession, the act which inaugurated the great War 
of Secession. When General LaFayette visited the city, ar- 
riving March 14th, 1825, he was assigned, being the guest of 
the city, to St. Andrew's Hall, as his residence. 

A house sometimes spoken of as the Eutledge house, but 
better known as the "Paul House," is a colonial brick struc- 
ture at the southwest comer of Broad and Church Streets. 
Although the first floor has been altered into business offices, 
the upstairs is essentially the same as it was in the olden days. 
Its interior is finished as are all the early Georgian houses, 
with rooms of panelled wood and possesses high decorated cor- 
nices and wainscoating. In this old house is found the char- 
acteristic "Beufet" near the mantelpiece. It is desirable 
that this house should be kept intact on account of its purity 
of style, and as a relic of Colonial days. 



CHAPTER II 

ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLES- 
TON TO THE 'TEE" 



BELVIDEEE AND ITS NEIGHBOES 
COOPER RIVER 




HE handsome estate called Belvidere, 
now in possession of the Charleston 
Country Club, and formerly the resi- 
dence of three Colonial Governors, 
Craven, Johnson and Glen, and of two 
wealthy famihes, the Manigaults and 
Shubricks, is situated on the west side 
of the Cooper River, north of Charles- 
ton, on what is vulgarly called The Neck. The present house 
was built about the end of the 18th or beginning of the 19th cen- 
tury. This home of the Shubrick family has a long and inter- 
esting history, of which space does not permit more than a 
brief mention, connected with Magnolia Umbra and the 
Cartaret Tract, which lies adjacent to the south where the 
old Powder-Horn buildings now are; the former site 
of "Exmount." 

The Shubrick family were wealthy English merchants and 
shipowners who bought the site before the Revolutionary War, 
building thereon and calhng the place Belvidere. General 
WilHam Moultrie mentions this spot in his memoirs by saying 
that at the evacuation of Charleston, "The American Army 
was kept at Shubrick 's farm until the British embarked, to 
avoid collision between the troops." 

Just after the Revolution, one Sunday when the family 
were returning from church, they saw a smoke in the distance, 
and on reaching the farm (then three miles out from town) 
they found the house burned to the ground. The City Gazette 
and Daily Advertiser, in March, 1796, says: "Belvidere, the 

12 



ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

elegant seat of Thomas Shubrick, Esq., three miles from this 
city, was yesterday morning destroyed by fire. We are in- 
formed that all the furniture except what was in the lower 
story was consumed. ' ' 

Tradition has it that this first house was set on fire to cover 
traces of theft by a negro slave girl who was infatuated with 
the handsome Enghsh gardener. He instigated the theft of the 
family jewels, which he duly received, fled the country, and 
left the unfortunate negress to face all consequences. In her 
frantic endeavor to hide one crime she committed another, and 
added arson to theft. She is said to have confessed to both 
of these crimes at her trial, and for them she was hung. Some 
say her ghost haunts the long double avenue where she was 
wont to meet her accomplice and quondam lover. 

The present estabhshment, and second house to occupy this 
spot, is a square wooden structure set on a brick basement 
five feet in height. From this ascends the house which has 
two stories and an attic. The house proper contains eight 
rooms, exclusive of basement offices and attic rooms. Beside 
the main building two tower-like wings project on the north 
and south corners of the house ; these are entirely independent, 
and partake of the nature of "block-houses," evidently erected 
as defences against Indians. The only visible connection these 
two flanking buildings have with the main mansion is found 
in the substantial brick wall connecting all their basements, 
which wall forms a sheltering parapet. 

Belvidere house faces westward, but has an open lawn not 
only to the rear on the east, but to the north and south also, 
where small formal flower gardens lie in the enclosures formed 
by the block-houses, after the manner of old fashioned 
wall-gardens. 

The approach to this staunchly constructed house ^ is 
through a magnificent double avenue of venerable oaks lining 
the semi-circular driveway. Directly in front of the house is 
a grassy sward, bisected by a formal pathway leading up to the 
stone steps and flagstone terrace. This latter forms a rather 
unusual entrance for a southern home, but affords a delight- 
ful promenade from which a scene of rare beauty is enjoyed. 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



This is particularly true on an autumn afternoon when the 
western sky is ablaze with crimson and gold. Then the trunks 
of the great oaks of the avenue show purple-black against the 
flaming sky, while their gnarled branches make perfect gothic 
arches for a leafy roof, through the interstices of which pours 
a mellow haze. In the pathway forming an aisle to this cathe- 
dral of the out-of-doors, the last faint rays of daylight meet 
and mingle with quivering lances of light from the "Sublime, 
Sweet Evening Star. ' ' 

The stone terrace gives direct access, through an arched 
door with carved lintels and intricate fan-hghts, to a front 
hall. From out of this hall open four doors, one of which gives 
access to the large rear room, one to the side hall containing 
the stairways, and one on each side to two delightful airy 
rooms, on the north and south respectively, with high ceilings 
and open fireplaces. The chimneys of Belvidere are so placed 
as to afford warmth to four rooms at one time, front and rear 
on each of the stories. 

Just inside of the front door are to be found latticed 
jalousie blinds, lending an air of enchantment to the otherwise 
plain hall, and producing a mysterious atmosphere as though 
some dark-eyed beauty might here secretly look forth at a 
booted and spurred cavalier as he clattered up the avenue on 
his coal-black charger while the plume from his bonnet waved 
gaily in the breeze. A "Romeo Balcony" over the front en- 
trance adds to, rather than detracts from, the air of discreet 
romancing which the whole house produces. This curved bal- 
cony, with the exception of five well placed windows with solid 
wooden shutters, forms the only break in the straight, plain 
exterior of the house. 

Occupying the rear of the house both up and down stairs 
are two beautifully proportioned rooms which are quite un- 
usually large and command an unobstructed view of the whole 
Belvidere tract to the south, east and north. Further afield 
the view is wonderful, including glimpses of the city and har- 
bor. Cooper and Wando Rivers, Daniel's Island, and the 
mainland beyond in Christ Church Parish. This large room 
downstairs was evidently the state dining-room, and the cor- 

14 



ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

responding apartment upstairs was the ballroom. On the 
lower main floor a flat-roofed piazza forms an agreeable and 
dignified finish to the rear exterior, across the whole width of 
which it extends and from which the same unbroken pano- 
rama as seen from the dining and ball rooms can be enjoyed. 

Some of the special interior architectural features are the 
stairway with its mahogany balustrade and newel post, the 
large arched window on the landing, and the half-window 
found on the stairway leading to the attic. These excite the 
admiration of visitors to Belvidere, and bespeak refinement 
of taste, and abundant means in securing the correct execu- 
tion of detail. 

Perfect simplicity occurs again in the Adam design found 
in the decoration of this house. This is true of the ornamenta- 
tion over the doors of the large ballroom and decoration of 
the mantelpiece. The scenes over the doors are pastoral in 
subject, representing a shepherd piping to his sheep, or wooing 
in rustic style. The mantel is decorated in a way quite out of 
the ordinary, with a sea-weed and sea-shell motif, the use of 
which may be ascribed to sentiment owing to the fact that the 
sons of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Shubrick were all gallant sailors. 

Capt. Templer Shubrick, one of the sons, distinguished 
himself in the war with the Barbary pirates, and was sent 
home with dispatches telhng of victory. He sailed on the 
Sloop-of -war "Hornet" which foundered at sea and was never 
again heard of. Another son, Capt. Edward Eutledge Shu- 
brick, also died at sea, and the officers and sailors of his ship, 
the frigate "Columbia," asked the privilege of erecting his 
monmnent, which now stands in the eastern cemetery of St. 
Philip's Church. 

It was the father of these young men, Thomas Shubrick, 
who built the house. He was a daring soldier of the Revolu- 
tion and for his patriotism his estate was sequestered by the 
British. His wife was a famous beauty. Miss Sarah Motte, 
who was selected, because of her beauty of face and form and 
charm of mind and manner, to sit opposite to President Wash- 
ington at a dinner given to him upon the occasion of his visit 
to Charleston in 1791. 

15 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



In spite of his estates having been sequestered, Thomas 
Shubriek must have either retained or regained Belvidere, 
advertising for a miller in 1806 or 1807. The property was 
inherited by Capt. Templer Shubriek, and after his tragic 
death his widow returned to her northern home, leaving the 
estate in trust for her son Edmund, then an infant. The 
property was later acquired by Capt. Edward Eutledge about 
the year 1834, and according to a deed of marriage settlement 
Capt. Eutledge gave it as a wedding gift to his daughter, Har- 
riet Horry Eutledge, who married St. Julien Eavenel in 1851. 
By various processes the property passed through the hands 
of a Mr. Brewster, the Magnolia Cemetery Company, and Mr. 
C. 0. Witte. From the latter was purchased the present por- 
tion constituting the Country Club and containing the mansion 
house called Belvidere. 

THE RAT TRAP 

Across the Broad Path from "Belvedere," according to 
Judge H. A. M. Smith, and situated on the Ashley river, was 
a plantation known as The Eat Trap, later changed to Dr. 
Harris' Hayfield Farm. 

Near Belvidere lay, says the same authority, the Burnham 
Grant, some acres of which were west of the Broad Path, and 
some east; upon the portion lying east was found Cochran's 
Ship Yard, on Ship Yard Creek, the name then given Long 
Point Creek. This tract was afterwards broken up into small 
farms, and passed into the hands of various persons of note, 
Mr. Joel Poinsette acquiring one portion which was separated 
from Belvidere by Shubriek Avenue. 

THE FOUR MILE HOUSE 
Proceeding to the north, on the Broad Path is found an 
interesting edifice by the roadside. It is commonly called the 
Four Mile House, for many years a noted road-house or tavern 
for travelers on the road to and from Charleston. This inn 
was kept, about the year 1812, by a man named Fischer, and 
his wife, who robbed and murdered many persons who put 
up at this ancient hostelry. These two were finally brought to 

16 



ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

trial for the murder of one of several travelers who mysteri- 
ouslj^ disappeared after taking shelter at their inn, and were 
convicted and hung. An account of their trial, etc., may be 
had from reading "The Dungeon and the Grallows," by John 
Blake White, pubUshed in the "Charleston Book" (1845). 
Mrs. Fischer was said to have been a beautiful woman, who 
expected to be spared on this account ; accordingly she dressed 
for the hanging in her wedding finery, but all of her arts 
availed naught, and she, with her partner, suffered the penalty 
of the Law at Charleston's "Tyburn Hill," then just north of 
the present Line Street. 

BELMONT 

Near the Four Mile House, north of the lands known as 
McLaughhn's Grant, and east of the pubhc road, was Belmont, 
the country seat for many years of Chief Justice Charles 
Pinckney and his descendants, which appears in an old deed 
as being on "Cupar" Eiver. 

The late Mrs. St. Juhen Eavenel, a descendant of Eliza 
Lucas Pinckney, describes the house as "a dehghtful resi- 
dence, a large brick house, standing, as most of the country 
houses did, a few hundred yards from the water's edge, on a 
semi-circular headland making out into a bold creek, a branch 
of the Cooper Eiver." 

Quotations from a letter of Mrs. Pinckney state that "The 
Enemy" was at Belmont in 1780, and "destroyed everything 
in the house." Also Garden, in his anecdotes, states that 
Colonel Montcrief, of the British Army, destroyed certain oak 
trees of remarkable beauty which had been planted by Mrs. 
Pinckney 's deceased husband. Apparently the house was de- 
stroyed sometime between 1780 and 1785. 

STROMBOLI 

A grant to John Pendarvis and the next to John Ladson 
seem to have been the last grants of land which crossed the 
neck from river to river. Upon one of these grants was 
founded Stromboh, north of Behnont on Long Point Creek, 
and east of the public road. 

2 17 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



Some time before 1719, 158 acres of this land became vested 
in Thomas Elliott (Eleott), and his will (1731) mentions a 
house there, it being his residence. 

Some portion of these last grants passed to John Clement, 
who established Clement 's Ferry ; 15 acres of this tract Clem- 
ent apparently called Dover, and 15 acres on the other side 
of the Cooper Eiver bore the name of Calais. On these were 
the respective landings for the ferry, the signs for which read 
"From Dover to Calais." 

In 1817 Adam Tunno acquired the ferry tract containing 
65 acres, a few days later Dover and Calais (15 acres each) 
were sold to Gordon and Spring. Later the portion called 
Dover was returned to the ferry tract which had been sold 
by Tunno to Nathaniel Heyward, who devised it to his daugh- 
ter Elizabeth (wife of Charles Manigault) and the whole tract 
became part of the Manigault farm known as Marshlands, 
conveyed by Dr. Gabriel Manigault in 1880 to Mrs. Cecelia 
Lawton, who conveyed the part containing the residence to 
the Government. This is now embraced in the Navy 
Yard reservation. 

MARSHLAND AND ITS NEIGHBORS 

About four miles above Belvidere, on the same side of the 
Cooper River, stands a fine old house, which, according to Mrs. 
Cecelia Lawton, one of the later owners of Marshlands, was 
built by John Ball, one of the numei*ous Balls, and later ac- 
quired by Nathaniel Heyward, who devised it to his daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth, along with the ferry tract that he had 
purchased from Tunno, which was included in the Manigault 
farm, better known as Marshlands. 

There are many Balls of one family, and to add to the con- 
fusion attendant upon properly placing a Ball in town or 
county there are in South Carolina two families of this name 
absolutely unconnected by ties of blood. Representing the 
smaller family is Mr. Wm. Ball, Editor of The State, pub- 
hshed at Columbia, S. C. 

A clever relation of the "Big Ball" connection, Miss Caro- 
line Moreland, has a delightful way of distinguishing the inter- 

18 



ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

locking branches of the larger family. She differentiates them 
by bestowing titles derived from the names of the streets upon 
which they now reside, as for instance, the "Presidential" 
Balls, who reside on President Street, and the "Kingly" and 
"Queenly" Balls, who hve on King and Queen Streets respec- 
tively. According to her method of nomenclature the "Bully" 
Balls belong on Bull Street in the old house, and the "New" 
Balls have their habitation in a new house on New Street. Nor 
does she omit that charming branch of the family, the Jack 
Balls, who live on Pitt Street. 

Marshlands has been incorporated in the Navy Yard re- 
serve. The building itself is a four story structure including 
its attic and a brick basement that is unusually high from the 
ground. At the time that it was built it was a dwelhng of 
great magnificence, with fine examples of hand-carved wood- 
w^ork inside, and mahogany doors and finishings, the front 
elevation showing a structure of about the same period as 
Belvidere. The tall gabled house, whose windows once over- 
looked a broad domain and commanded a view of the waters 
of the Cooper Eiver, is now used as an office building. If houses 
have thoughts then this old place, modeled after the residence 
of an English country gentleman, must sometimes hark back 
to the good old days when family life went on within its walls. 

In the southwest room upstairs is found in a closet by the 
chimney place a secret passage. It seems that in former days 
many colonial residences boasted of these inclosures, some- 
times said to have been used as retreats in times of danger, and 
as methods of escape during Indian attacks. In some old 
houses these secret stairways were called "Chambermaid 
stairs " ; the most modern building containing a set is that at 
Cote Bas, farther up on the Cooper Eiver, built about 1850. 
Underground passages are found in the remains of Yeamans 
Hall, Goose Creek, and in the structure still standing at Mul- 
berry on Cooper Eiver, and at Fenwick Castle on John's 
Island. Some authorities dispute this fact, but others admit 
the presence of these underground passages, one of which the 
writer has traversed. 

19 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



In the Navy Yard the Headquarters Building was erected 
upon the site of the old TurnbuU mansion, the original stone 
steps of which are yet to be found leading directly to the mag- 
nificent avenue of oaks marking the walk to the river landing. 
Near Marshlands to the north were the plantations "Retreat" 
and "Palmettoes," adjoining Goose Creek. 

QUARTER HOUSE 

West of Marshlands over on the State road just below the 
turn where it divides into two branches, there stands a brick 
pillar marking the entrance of the old race course of the old 
Jockey Club's property. McCrady's "History of South Caro- 
lina Under Proprietary Government" (page 345) says that 
in 1707 "The neck of land between the Cooper and Ashley 
Rivers, about six miles in length was well settled. One passed 
about this time in riding up the road which Archdale described 
as so beautiful, the plantations of Mathews, Green, Starkey, 
Gray, Grimball, Dickerson and Izard on the Cooper ; and fur- 
ther up those of Sir John Yeamans, Landgrave Bellinger, 
Colonel Gibbs, Mr. Schenkingh, Colonel Moore and Col- 
onel Quarr j^. ' ' 

Bearing out the truth of Mr. McCrady's statement in the 
light of later research Judge Henry A. M. Smith, in Vol. XIX 
South Carolina Historical Magazine, traces the titles of land 
grants from Charleston neck north to Yeamans Hall. In this 
article Stock Prior was described as a part of the Christo- 
pher Smith property, later known as "Izard's Quarter 
House plantation." 

On Stock Prior the Broad Path, or country road from 
Charleston, made a fork ; the right hand road at this fork went 
northwardly to St. James, Goose Creek, the Congarees, etc., 
while the left hand road went southwestwardly to the ferry 
across Ashley River, and up along the river to Dorchester. In 
a ditch at the side of the left hand road, by the railway tracks, 
is a granite post marking the parish line. This road leads to 
what is now known as Bee's Ferry, but it was estabhshed by 
Edmund Belhnger, second Landgrave of that name, who mar- 
ried Elizabeth Butler, daughter of Shem Butler and sister of 

20 



g 
> 
2; 



C=3 




ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

Joseph, and lived at Stoney Point (sometimes called Altaraxes 
and Eocky Point) although he owned much property in other 
parts of the low country. "Shem Town" was at one time 
something of a settlement, and Bellinger's Ferry was well 
known, as several Public Acts of the Assembly deal with vest- 
ing the right of the ferry in Mrs. Bellinger and her children. 

Judge Smith states that just south of this fork in the Broad 
Path, and near the point where the road divides on the north, 
on the east side of the public road was an "Ordinary" or 
inn that existed from an early date and was called the 
Quarter House. 

The Quarter House is frequently mentioned in early rec- 
ords. An Act in 1721 directs that "The road from Charles- 
ton to the Quarter House be made 40 feet in breadth," and an 
advertisement in 1731 names the owner. . . . "On Saturday 
the 4th of March nest at the dwelhng house of Mr. Hill Croft, 
deceased, commonly called Quarter House. ' ' Again, Thomas 
Cooper offers a reward for a horse that had strayed or been 
stolen if returned to him in Charles Town or to Mrs. Croft of 
the Quarter House. 

Another advertisement dealing with this locality tells of 
the loss of a snuff-mill; "Lost on Saturday last between 
Charlestown and the Quarter House a Snuff-mill, with a silver 
Hinge and plaits on Top and Bottom. Engi'aven on the Top — 
Quod tibi hoc alteri — , on the Bottom— Non tibi ne alteri — 
John Hay. Whoever brings the said Snuff-mill to James Pain, 
Merchant in Charlestown, shall have 20s Reward." 

The muster ground for the mihtia was here, and Gibbes' 
Documentary History says that in 1761 "Mr. Henry Middle- 
ton, coming from his plantation on Goose Creek met about 
forty Catawba Indians at the Quarter House." This place 
survived for many years, and was long called by the original 
name, even as late as 1832, when Wm. Dry offers to sell pine 
lumber at his "plantation by the Quarter House." 

YEAMANS' HALL 
Yeamans ' Hall is said to have been bought from the heirs of 
Governor Yeamans by Governor Thomas Smith, and presented 

21 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

to his son. Certainly a Governor Smith occupied it about 
1693. Until shattered by the earthquake in 1886 this large 
two-story building set on a liigh basement was fairly well 
preserved.; The surroundings are particularly beautiful, 
and in the family burying ground are found Poyas, Lockwood 
and Smith tombstones. 

GOOSE CREEK SETTLEMENT 

Goose Creek, sometimes spelled "Goose Crick," is one of 
the oldest settlements in the state outside of Charleston. The 
church still standing there was begun in 1714 and completed 
in 1719. Tradition has it that it was spared during the Revo- 
lution because of the fact that above its chancel there are the 
Royal Arms of England. In an historical sketch of this spot 
Judge Henry A. M. Smith says, ' ' There was a very large set- 
tlement in Goose Creek at an early period. The early grants 
date as early as 1672 and 1673, and by 1680 all the lands on both 
sides of Goose Creek as far as Back River and Foster's Creek, 
and even to the headwaters of Goose Creek within five miles 
of the present town of Summerville, were taken up, and taken 
up almost entirely by Church of England people." 

In 1732, according to Mr. Salley, an advertisement ap- 
peared in the Gazette designed ' ' To encourage Tradesmen to 
settle contiguously in the Parish of St. James 's on Goose Creek, 
John Lloyd, Esq., will grant building leases of 64 acres of land, 
viz., 8 Lotts consisting of 8 acres each Lott, all fronting the 
Broad Path, from the Brow of the Hill Mr. Rich Walker now 
lives on, to the Fence joining Mr. Hume 's Land, on the North 
West side of the Broad Path. The Land is all cleared, and 
very proper for either Pasture, Corn or Rice, within 20 miles 
of Charlestown, and four of Goose Creek Bridge; and the 
Trades thought most proper to settle on it are, a Smith, Car- 
penter, Wheel-wright, Bricklayer, Butcher, Taylor, Shoe- 
maker and a Tanner." 

Judge Smith states that at Goose Creek "The only excep- 
tion to the English settlements was a settlement of Hugue- 
nots. . . . One of the first, or rather, the two first to settle 
there were the brothers, Abraham Fleury de la Plein and 




ST. JAMES' CHURfH, GOOSE CREEK 




ST. JAMES' CHURCH, INTERIOR 



ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

Isaac Fleury de la Pleiii, who both received grants which be- 
came the center of a little French settlement. Isaac Porcher, 
the ancestor of the Porcher family in South Carolina, first 
settled in this country at St. James, Goose Creek, where he 
* lived his life' and died." 

THE OAKS 

The beautiful manor house of the Middleton family was 
called The Oaks, and stood where Mr. Edwin Parsons has 
erected his maguiiicent home in colonial period architecture, 
a fitting and dignified successor to the old mansion which stood 
at the head of an avenue of venerable oaks which for nearly 
a quarter of a mile form a continuous arch over the broad 
approach to the house. These live oaks were planted, so it is 
said, in 1680, and the first mansion was built soon afterv\'ards, 
survived the Revolutionary War and was burned in the latter 
part of the nineteenth century. 

With an instinct for what was appropriate, the moving 
picture director who filmed "Little Miss Rebellion" selected, 
for some of the scenes of this story starring Dorothy Gish, 
this house, and used the avenue of giant oak trees as part of 
a scene depicting Juvenile Royalty accompanied by her 
mounted suite. The ensemble of this company in gorgeous 
uniforms and courtly trappings for their mounts revived for 
a few brief moments upon the screen all that colorful and stir- 
ring life of colonial days and flashed into existence the at- 
mosphere of "Courtly knights and Ladies Faire" native to 
this fine old place ; and that this type of fife was by no means 
foreign to the Middleton family the following extract from 
the scrap book of Mr. Frank Hohnes shows : 

"Died at sea on the passage from London to Charleston, 
South Carohna, in October 1789, Lady Mary Middleton, the 
daughter of the unfortunate Earl of Cromartie and rehct of 
the late Henry Middleton of S. C. 

' ' The Earl had been banished from England for holding a 
correspondence with the 'Old Pretender,' who died at Rome 
in 1765 aged 78 years, his son Charles Edward at Florence m 
1788 at an advanced age. His brother the Cardinal of York 
died at Rome aged 82 years. " 

23 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



CROWFIELD 

Crowfield Hall, four miles from the Parish Church, was 
called after family property of the same name in England, said 
by Wm. Middleton as late as 1876 to belong to the family, and 
found in possession of Admiral Sr. G. Brook Middleton. 

When Wm. Middleton, the son of Arthur Middleton who 
first built on Crowfield, returned to England (1758-1784) to 
take charge of the English Crowfield, he neglected very much 
the Goose Creek namesake. Mr. Eawhns Lowndes bought it 
in 1776 and resold it to Thomas Middleton, 1778, who then 
advertised it again for sale in 1786 as "containing 1400 acres 
of land on which stood a very commodious dwelhng house of 
excellent brick, having twelve good rooms with fireplaces in 
each, besides four rooms in the cellar also with fireplaces." 
Crowfield, like Bloomfield, another Middleton place, boasted 
of unusually fine surroundings, comprising lawns, woodlands 
and formal gardens. 

Goose Creek and its vicinity was famous for its scientific 
horticulturists, and the gardens prospered accordingly. "Not 
many miles from this locality," says Mr. J. I. Waring, "was 
situated the botanical garden of Andrew Michaux, the horti- 
culturist. Its site has been located by the broken parts of 
many flower pots." 

Eliza Lucas, in a letter to her friend ' ' Miss Bartlett, ' ' gives 
a long account of an "agreeable tour" to Goose Creek, and 
describes Crowfield as " a seat of the Middleton Family "... 
The tour was designed to show her those parts of the country 
in which are "Several very handsome gentleman's seats, at all 
of wch we were entertained with the most friendly politeness. 
The first we arrived at was Crowfield, Mr. Wm. Middleton 's 
seat, where we spent a most agreeable week. The house 
stands a mile from but in sight of the road, and makes a very 
handsome appearance ; as you draw nearer new beauties dis- 
cover themselves; first the beautiful vine mantling the wall, 
laden with delicious clusters, nest a large pond in the midst 
of a spacious green presents itself as you enter the gate. The 
house is well furnished, the rooms well contrived and elegantly 

24 



ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

furnished. From the back door is a wide walk a thousand feet 
long, each side of wch nearest the house is a grass plat orna- 
mented in a serpentine manner with flowers ; next to that on 
the right hand is what immediately struck my rural taste, a 
thicket of young, tall live oaks, where a variety of airy chor- 
isters poured forth their melody — and my darling the mock- 
ing-bird, joyned in the concert, enchanted me with his har- 
mony. Opposite on the left hand is a large square bowhng 
green, sunk a httle below the level of the rest of the garden, 
with a walk quite round bordered by a double row of fine large 
flowering Laurel and Catalpas — wch afford both shade and 
beauty. My letter will be of unreasonable length if I don't 
pass over the mounts, wilderness, etc., and come to the boun- 
dary of this charming spot, where is a large fish pond with a 
mount rising out of the middle the top of wch is level mth the 
dwelHng house, and upon it is a Eoman temple. On each side 
are other large fish ponds, properly disposed wch form a fine 
prospect of water from the house — beyond this are the smiling 
fields dressed in vivid green. ' ' 

The property was in the possession of Henry A. Middleton 
at the time of his death, and in March, 1876, The Washington 
Chronicle says, Henry Middleton of Asheville, N. C, for- 
merly of Charleston S.C. died yesterday at the residence of 
his brother, Commodore Middleton U.S. Navy, at the age of 
79 ; he graduated at West Point 1816 but shortly after resigned 
his commission to engage in Hterary pursuits, married a niece 
of Sir Henry Pollock, resided for a long time in England and 
France, and was the author of several works of political char- 
acter; his father, the late Hon. Henry Middleton, was Gov- 
ernor of South Carolina and member of Congress in 1816 
where he served until appointed to represent our government 
at St. Petersburg, his residence for 10 years. His grandfather 
was Arthur Middleton, one of the signers of the Declaration 
of Independence, and his great grandfather Heniy Middleton 
was one of the presidents of the first Congress in 1774, the 
father of the latter, Arthur Middleton, was one of the first 
Eoyal Governors of the colony. 

25 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

OTRANTO 

Otranto was another Middleton residence. While Edward 
lived at The Oaks Arthur dwelt at the Otranto plantation, his 
residence being at the spot where the Otranto Club House now 
stands; but Mr. Waring states that "The place now known as 
'Crovatts' was the original Otranto, and was owned by the 
Haniiltons, who constructed a private race track, which started 
in front of the house and ran in a circle for one mile, in order 
that guests could sit on the piazza and have a full view of the 
course and races." 

"From 1796 to 1806 the Reverend Mr. Porgson," says Dr. 
Burgess in his chronicles of St. Mark's Parish, "occupied the 
house known now as the Otranto Club House as a rectory." 
But this is not the first parsonage for Goose Creek church. 
The first one, according to Dr. Burgess, was the old brick par- 
sonage at Goose Creek built about or just after 1714 when the 
present church was built. An old plat represents the form and 
shape of 100 acres of land given by Capt. Benjamin Schen- 
kingh to the parish; "One acre thereof for to build a church 
on, and the rest for ye use of the Rector or Minister of said 
Parish, for ye time being," the conveyance from him, "ye said 
Schenkingh, to the Church Commissioners" being dated 1706. 
At the same time there was donated by Arthur C. Middleton 
four acres upon which the first parsonage was erected. Evi- 
dently something happened to the original parsonage, as Mr. 
Porgson occupied the present club house in 1796, the avenue of 
which tradition says was planted by Captain John Cantey. 

The good parson Porgson was a devoted disciple of Isaak 
Walton, and could not refrain from his favorite sport even on 
Sunday. One Sunday morning while walking to church carry- 
ing his sermon under one arm and his fisMng rod on his 
shoulder he stopped on the bridge to see how the fish were 
biting. He suddenly hooked a large trout, and in his anxiety 
to land his fish he forgot his sermon, which shpped from be- 
neath his arm and fell into the water ; there being a strong ebb 
tide it floated away, and the congregation probably had no ser- 
mon that day even if the minister had his trout. 

26 




"MEDWAY," ON BACK RIVEU, ABOVE GOOSE CREEK 

The home ot Landfrave Smilh and cuw owned by Mr, S. G. Stoney 

The oldest brick house in South Carohna outside of Charleston 




OTRANTO CLUB HOUSE. GOOSE CREEK 



ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

According to Dr. Johnson, tradition has it that the ro- 
mantic marriage of "Mad Archie" Campbell, famous in the 
Revolution, to a young lady of Charleston took place at the 
rectory of St. James, Goose Creek, and that they were married 
by the then rector, the Rev. Mr. Elhngton. "Mad Archie" 
Campbell was a member of the family of the Duke of Argyle, 
to which family the last Royal Governor, who lived on Meeting 
Street in what is now the Huger house, also belonged. 

According to the chronicles of the Brisbane family, com- 
piled by E. Haviland Hillman, F.S.G., from 1801 to 1804 
Otranto was owned by John Stanyarne Brisbane (Born 1773 — - 
died 1850), son of James, and grandson of William the Emi- 
grant. "When John Brisbane's father, James Brisbane, was 
banished from Charleston in 1782 he intended taking John 
with him, but at the last moment, as the vessel was about to 
sail, John got into one of the small boats on which passengers 
had come on board, hid under a seat and returned to shore, 
where he remained with an old aunt, probably Susannah Stan- 
yarne. He married, 19th March, 1795, Maria Hall, the 
daughter of the Hon. George Abbott Hall and Lois Mathews. 
From 1801 to 1804 he owned the plantation on Goose Creek 
called Otranto, where the Otranto Hunting Club now is, and 
later had his country seat at Malona (Acabee Woods), 
Ashley River. ' ' 

At one time Otranto Club was the residence of Dr. Garden, 
well-known botanist and correspondent of Linnaeus, the natur- 
alist, who named our beautiful Gardenia after his correspon- 
dent. "Subsequently," says Mr. Waring, "it was owned by 
Mr. PhiUp Porcher, and was once known as 'Goslington,' 
meaning Little Goose, a name said to have been bestowed upon 
it by the Hon. James L. Petigru on the occasion of a brilhant 
dinner party given in the ancient building, now the Otranto 
Club House. 

It is a low structure with attics and dormer windows ; the 
porch is about one foot from the ground and extends around 
three sides of the building ; its roof is supported by heavy brick 
columns. It is situated on a hill leading down to Goose Creek, 
and is altogether charming in conception and execution. Frank 

27 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



E. Slyde, a man of artistic nature and appreciative of all that 
is fine in these old southern places, connected with the National 
Headquarters of the War Camp Community Service, recently 
visited this place, and speaks of the Club House at Goose 
Creek as a place where "One need but release his imagination 
to see the gay folks at the various parties in the beautiful, 
plain, quaint rooms with the furnishings so odd, and to hear 
the chnk of glasses and the hale and hearty salutation of 
'Heigh-ho, friend, we bid you enter.' " 

THE ELMS 

The intimate daily chronicles of Goose Creek between the 
years 1754 and 1781 may be found in the journal of Mrs. Ann 
Manigault, whose grandson, Gabriel Manigault, married Mar- 
garet Izard, and who is mentioned frequently as "Grandson 
G." This private record deals with the different prominent 
famihes of the settlement, and contains many intimate items 
of people prominent in colonial life, among others the family 
of Izards, who spread out at one time in several branches in 
the neighborhood, and whose home place, "The Elms," was 
on Goose Creek. Mr. Joseph loor Waring, a descendant of 
one of the Waring settlers of the Dorchester and Goose Creek 
neighborhood, says that all that remains of this fine old home 
of a prominent family is "A single tall column of the lofty 
porch, standing hke a monument over its departed glory. ' ' In 
this house Mr. Izard entertained LaFayette very lavishly 
when he made his tour of the comitry, one of the octagonal 
shaped wings of the house being fitted up in great elegance 
for his entertainment ; here he spent a night, and ever after- 
wards this wing was known as LaFayette 's Lodge. ' ' 

Says Mr. Waring, "It is difficult now to find even a path 
leading to the old house. Around the ruins, in the spring of 
the year, amongst wild grasses and weeds, bulbs and garden 
plants still grow, marking the site of the flower garden. " The 
family, like the home, has vanished, but in the Museum of Fine 
Arts in Boston hangs a large double portrait of Mr. and Mrs. 
Ralph Izard, painted by the celebrated artist Copley. This 

28 



ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

picture was found in London for Mr. Charles I. Manigault, a 
grandson of the originals of the portrait. 

The Izard family intermarried, among others, with the 
family of the last Royal Governor, Campbell, but before that 
time the will of Ealph Izard bequeaths (1722-1724) "All that 
my tract of land situate, lying and being on or near the south 
side of Goose Creek in the County of Berkley." A memorial 
tablet to his memory, and his hatchment, may be seen on the 
walls of Goose Creek Church, and his remains are interred 
in the cemetery just outside. 

Part of the northern portion of the Ehns, an Izard estate, 
after passing through several hands, came finally into the pos- 
session of Dr. Eli Geddings, a famous physician of Charleston. 
His property is described as "Bounding north on Crowfield. " 

The city residence of the Izard family is found still stand- 
ing in Charleston ; a square brick building on the north side of 
Broad street one door west of King. 

MBDWAY AND ITS NEIGHBORS 

Medway is sometimes called the Back River Place, and 
"Back River," says Oldmixon, the historian, "falls in Cooper 
River about two miles above Goose Creek. " At the confluence 
of Cooper River with this its second western branch, lying 
between Goose Creek and Back River is a considerable extent 
of arable land separated into several plantations. 

The first of these, lying on the eastern side of Goose Creek, 
is known as Red Bank, and on this place there was formerly 
an extensive pottery for the manufacture of tile, etc. A little 
beyond Red Bank on the western side of Back River is Par- 
nassus, once owned by the Tennent family. Here is a 
beautiful avenue of oaks. Near this avenue is a lonely head- 
stone inscribed : 

"Rose; a faithful servant." 

a mute reminder of the deep affection which existed between 
master and servant in the days gone by. Away out in the 
woods were two more grave stones inscribed respectively 
"Hector" and "Joe." These are said to mark the burial 

29 



ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

many years in the family," but the place is now in possession 
of Mr. Samuel G. Stoney, who is preserving all its quaint and 
rural charm. 

Many ghosts are said to walk inside of these low-ceilinged 
rooms, with their large fireplaces and narrow windows. At a 
certain window, with its small panes of glass, is seen some- 
times a shadowy lady, who sits and watches for the coming of 
the young husband who never returned, having met his death 
while deer hunting. In another room he who is so bold as to 
sleep therein sometimes wakes in the night to see an old gen- 
tleman seated comfortably in front of the fireplace smoking 
his pipe. 

"It was just the place for ghosts to walk, for strange voices 
to be heard, for unusual things to happen," says John Ben- 
nett, who has immortalized the atmosphere of romantic 
mystery mth which Medway is enveloped in his book, "The 
Treasure of Pierre Gailhard," in which he revives the eerie 
sense of desolation and haunting allurement found only in the 
discovery of a well-built brick house in such an isolated spot. 

In an old walled cemetery at Medway on a part of the 
original tract, is a moss-covered slab of marble over the re- 
mains of Eev. Elias Prioleau, a native of Poms and Saintonge, 
one of the Huguenot emigrants who, on the Eevocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, came with others to South Carolina. Accord- 
ing to a mural tablet erected to his memory in the Huguenot 
Church, Charleston, he became a minister of that faith, and 
the stone at Medway also recites this fact, and states that this 
family sprang from one of the Doges of Venice. Miss M. EHse 
Langley, of Charleston, S. C, has in her possession some inter- 
esting documents or mementos of Antoine Prioli, who died in 
Venice 1623, and from whom the family sprang. The Eev. 
Ehas Prioleau died at his farm on Back Eiver on Midway, 
now Medway, in St. James, Goose Creek, and there his re- 
mains repose. 

DEAN HALL 

At what is known as the T, Cooper Eiver divides into two 
branches, to the east and to the west. Many large plantations 

31 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



lie along both banks of both branches. Fronting the Cooper 
Kiver proper, directly opposite to where it branches, stands 
what is known as Coming's Tee plantation on which is found 
a beautiful house. If the reader will picture the capital letter 
T, and place Coming Tee at the place whei'e the shank of the 
letter joins the arms, he will have a working conception of this 
river and the plantations in the vicinity. The left arm of the T 
will correspond to the western branch, and the right arm of the 
T will correspond to the eastern branch. Strangely enough 
each branch divides in turn, or rather is formed by two 
branches joining to form the head-waters of the rivers, those 
of the western or left hand branch of Cooper Eiver being 
Wadboo and Biggon Creeks, and those of the eastern branch 
being Quinby Creek and the river itself. There is another 
peculiar fact to be noted in connection with the two branches 
of this river, and one that will serve to assist the reader in 
visuahzing the lay of the land, and that is that the Colleton 
family (from whom the county derives its name) owned a 
Barony at the head of each main branch of the river. On the 
western bank of the left hand branch lay FairlaAvn Barony, 
and a httle further, on the right of the left hand branch, was 
Wadboo Barony, while the grant of a Barony of 1200 acres, 
called the "Cypress Barony," is situated on the head-waters 
of the eastern branch of Cooper River around Huger 's Bridge. 
Many of the houses on Cooper River still standing are found 
upon portions of land formerly belonging to the Colleton 
family, but now in possession of various other old famihes of 
that section. 

A great curve occurs in Cooper River to the west just before 
it divides at the T, and upon a peninsular, nearly an island, 
formed by this great curve and the turn of the western branch 
is located Dean Hall plantation, an enchantingly situated 
country place. With the handsome house and the outbuildings 
Dean Hall is said to look more like a village than a plantation, 
and is rightly considered one of the show places of the river, 
having been set in fine order by its latest owner, Ben- 
jamin Kittredge. 

32 




■^/- 



'% 



\ i i^r I'm 



i\^^ 






It*;' 



ifii'-i: 






'DEAN HALL," COOPER lUVLR, BELOW THE TEE 




MALM PATIENCE AND HER PET CiOBBLER 



ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

The exact age of Dean Hall and the buildings thereon is 
not known, but a clue is afforded by an advertisement appear- 
ing in the South Carolina Gazette September 2nd, 1757, when 
the place was for sale. It was then the property of Sir Alex- 
ander Nesbit, a Scotch Baronet, and was bought in by his sons. 
Sir John and Alexander. Sir John married a Miss AUston, 
but was, before his marriage, a man of sporting instincts and 
affable manners. He caused many a flutter in the dove-cote if 
an incident taken from Irving 's "History of the Turf in South 
Carolina" is to be beheved. Many of the gentlemen of the 
neighboring plantations were ardent followers of the Sport 
of Kings. Strangely enough this apparently idle hobby was 
destined to have a deep significance at the time of the Revo- 
lutionary war, because the "Swamp Fox," Marion, and his 
men, commanded the use of extraordinarily well-bred horses 
in their guerilla warfare against the British, and other cav- 
alry leaders knew where to apply for a good mount. 

Chief among these men who raised good horses were Daniel 
Ravenel of Wantoot, and the Harlestons. The love of the 
sport, as well as some of the original stock, survived the Revo- 
lution. In February, 1796, a race was run between John Ran- 
dolph, of Virginia, and Sir John Nesbit of Dean Hall. Each 
rode his own horse; Randolph won. Many of the married 
fair ones were heard to confess after the race was over, that 
although Mr. Randolph had won the race Sir John had won 
their hearts, and that they much preferred him in a match to 
his more successful competitor. 

The sporting instinct has manifested itself in a succession 
of owners, and although rice planting was the chief industry, 
hunting has flourished there. This is very natural on account 
of the fact that the plantation rice fields, alternately flowed 
(flooded) and drained, afforded splendid reserves for wild 
duck and deer, in conjunction with the pond-like place where 
the water was compounded for irrigating the rice fields in time 

of drought. 

The house itself is of brick, set six feet from the ground 
upon an arched foundation. A veranda surrounds three sides 
of the lower story, its low, over-hanging eaves imparting a 

33 
3 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

tropical appearance to the entire building. TMs veranda, 
reached by a double flight of stone steps, is also the entrance, 
giving access to the hallway which runs the entire length of 
the square establishment, dividing the house, and affording 
ventilation as well as light. Upstairs, there being no piazza, 
all the rooms look out over the river into the park-like woods 
of the estate. Thus, because of its favorable situation for 
water sports, hunting and inland excursions into adjacent 
fields and woods. Dean Hall has been the scene of much cul- 
tured hospitahty, and during the lifetime of the Nesbits it was 
visited by an EngUsh scientist. Sir Charles Lyell. During the 
occupancy of the Carsons Dean Hall not only housed many 
distinguished visitors, but also had much to show them when 
they arrived in the way of paintings and sculpture, and many 
rare and valuable books. 

Concerning his family, Mr. James P. Carson has this to 
say: "The name Carson is quite common throughout the 
country and frequent advertisements concerning property 
owned by them were seen in the Gazette before and after the 
Revolution. There was a Dr. James Carson who owned planta- 
tions around here, and there are Carsons buried in the church 
yard on Edisto Island, but none of these are my kindred. As 
a small boy at the circus which I attended with my father we 
met Ehsha Carson, who was my father's cousin. There was 
a William Carson, who was also a cousin, and to avoid the 
miscarriage of their letters my father inserted the A in 
his name. 

"James Carson, my grandfather, was bom in 1774, and in 
1816 died at the age of 42, and is buried at Ballston Spa, New 
York. At an early age he came to Charleston and was a factor, 
the firm name was Carson and Snowden, which was dissolved 
in 1797. He then continued the business, and on his retirement 
was succeeded by his clerks, Kershaw and Cunningham, who, 
in their turn, were succeeded by Eobertson and Blacklock. 

"James Carson (1774-1816) married Elizabeth Neyle 
(1764-1848) on May 6, 1796. She was the daughter of Samson 
Neyle, a prominent merchant; she probably had money, was 
ten years older than James, who evidently had the commercial 

34 



ON COOPER RIVER FROM CHARLESTON 

instinct. They had two children, Laura, who married Henry 
Brevoort in 1816, and my father, William A., who married 
Caroline Petigru in 1840. In 1805 James bought the Stuart 
house at the corner of Tradd and Orange Streets, which re- 
mained in the family until about 1850. ' ' 

In 1820 Wilham A. Carson, who married Carohne Petrigru, 
a daughter of Hon. James L. Petigru, the brilliant lawyer, 
bought Dean Hall. This was found to be the most valuable 
piece of his property at the time of his death, which occurred 
during the year 1854, at which time he was a wealthy man and 
left much property to his executors and trustees for the benefit 
of his wife and children. 

The "Ball Book" says that at one time Dean Hall was 
bought by ' ' Ehas Nonus, ' ' who had inherited a fortune from 
his uncle, Hugh Swinton Ball. He married Miss Odenheimer, 
daughter of Bishop Odenheimer, of New Jersey, moved to 
Pennsylvania in 1865, and died there in 1872. 

In writing of the Carson tenure of the property, Mr. James 
Carson says, "My father, Wilham A. Carson, was a rice 
planter who wore out his hfe watching a salty river, and died 
at the age of 56, when I was 10 years old. ' ' The property was 
sold by Mr. James Carson to the present owner, Mr. Benja- 
min Kittredge, of Cahfomia, who married Miss Ehzabeth 
Marshall, of Charleston. 



CHAPTER III 

WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 
ABOVE THE "TEE" 




COMINGTEE AND BEYOND ON THE EASTERN SIDE 

HIRTY miles from its mouth at Charles- 
ton, Cooper River divides into two 
branches, eastern and western, like 
the letter T. On the little peninsula 
thus formed Captain Coming settled, 
and named the place " Coming's Tee." 
The original grant did not cover the 
whole of the present Comingtee planta- 
tion, for the next owner, Elias Ball, purchased and added two 
adjoining tracts in 1703 and 1704, and in 1735 bought a third 
tract, described by his son in 1752 as ' ' lying between the T of the 
river, lands of his own, a creek between Nicholas Harleston 
(then owner of Rice Hope) and the northwestern branch of 
Cooper River. ' ' 

The plantation has always been considered as two tracts, 
' ' Comingtee ' ' and ' ' Stoke. " " Coming 's Tee " was settled by 
Capt. John Coming and his wife, Affra Harleston (a sister of 
John Harleston, of Molhns, Essex County, England). John 
Coming was a half-brother of William Ball, farmer of the 
Devonshire section in England, who never came to America, 
but sent his brother, Elias Ball, in his place at the time of 
Capt. Coming's death. These are the same Charleston Com- 
ings mentioned in Charleston history as owning land at 
"Oyster Point," and as giving "Glebe lands" to St. 
Philip's Church. 

After Capt. Coming's death his half-brother, Elias Ball, 
came over to America to look after the estates of the widow 
Coming. He married Mrs. Coming's sister, Elizabeth Harle- 
ston. Capt. Coming and his wife were childless, and after the 
death of the latter some time in 1698 or 1699 Coming Tee 

36 




a 



o 



p! 

^H a 
a^ 

H 

W 
OS 
H 

a 
o 

□ 

a 

o 

z" 
o 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

passed to Elias Ball, who was hardly more than a youth when 
he took possession of his inheritance; but he was a great 
sportsman and frequently commanded scouting parties after 
Indians. His first wife died about 1720, and 11 months 
later he married Mary Delamere, a girl the age of his 
eldest daughter. 

Of Mary little is known, and nothing remains of her per- 
sonal belongings but two books, a prayer book of the Church 
of England and a collection of quaint old pamphlets bound 
together in one volume. A human touch concerning the life 
of these dead and gone people is found in accounts of the eleven 
months following the death of the first Mrs. Elias Ball, and the 
trouble the bereaved and perplexed widower had with his 
children. It is said that in his memorandum book the name of 
''Mary Delamere" is scrawled across page after page right 
through the daily accounts. The way out of all perplexities 
was beginning to present itself, with the result that Elias 
married Mary. 

There were soon two sets of children, as Mary had by this 
marriage seven, two of whom died young, and two girls died 
at about fifteen years of age, but another daughter, Eleanor 
Ball, lived and married Colonel Henry Laurens, the celebrated 
patriot. The exact date of Elias' death can only be surmised, 
but Eleanor Laurens' name appears in his will in 1750, 
and in a codicil in 1751. His burial place also is a matter 
of conjecture, supposedly in "West St. Philip's Churchyard 
in Charleston. 

The Balls were English people from Devonshire, and in the 
Ball Book's description of the house that Elias Ball built in 
Carolina, a map of Devonshire, England, from Speed's Atlas, 
is shown. This map contains Ball places in England, * ' Stoke, ' ' 
and "Combe-in-tene" settlements near the mouth of the Eiver 
Tyne, and reveals the similar relative positions of the "Stoke" 
and "Coming Tee" tracts on Cooper Eiver in America, to 
their English counterparts. 

The Carolina Stoke had a barn, and negro houses, and was 
where the Brick Mill builded by Elias Ball now stands. The 
name Stoke appears in the will of Elias Ball when he leaves 

37 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

the plantation under discussion to his nephew, John Ball, Jr., 
but the dwelling house was always on Comingtee, which also 
had its own bam, corn house, negro quarters and gang 
of negroes. 

The first owner of Comingtee, Capt. Coming, probably built 
on or near the site of the present dwelhng. It is not known 
whether he or Elias Ball built the brick house now there, and 
there is no clue to the exact date of this building, but it is said 
to be one of the two oldest houses in the Parish (the other being 
Exeter, high up on the Western Branch). 

Tradition has it that the bricks for this structure were 
brought from England, and it is thought that the brick house 
was built by Elias Ball, while the Comings dwelt in a wooden 
cottage which stood on the neighboring slope, opposite the 
large sycamores in the avenue, and which was standing as late 
as the year 1865, at which time it gave evidence of being quite 
an old place. In front of this wooden house were two beautiful 
live oaks which still mark the spot. For many years it was 
used as the overseer's residence, but after the overseers lived 
at Stoke it became the sick-house, or plantation hospital for 
the negroes. Eumor held that, as is the case with most 
old plantations, the family burying ground was near the 
house, and as the graveyard at Comingtee was thought to 
be near the wooden house, it would seem that this was the 
original dwelling. 

A family memorandum book says that there were two 
houses at Comingtee in the day of the first and second Elias ; 
in proof of this an entry in 1736 is made, ' ' To half a days work 
on the old house. ' ' Some house, old or new, underwent repairs 
and alterations after 1731, and in 1738 "something was done" 
to the garret windows of the brick house that took several 
days ' work. In 1743 and 1763 the house was shingled, and was 
repaired at a cost of 400 pounds. 

The Ball Book says: "The old brick house was built, as 
was then customary, without piazzas. This was evidenced by 
the horizontal bands in relief on each side and gable of the 
building (known in architecture as ' lines of relief ') placed 
there for artistic effect. . . . The old house contained origin- 

38 











^ 






'^^^^^^'■^ 



"COMING TEE " HOUSE, ON COOPER RIVER 

Where the ri\-er divides into two bradcjies 




STRAWMERRY CHAPEL, COOPER RIVER 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

ally only two rooms on each tloor, with no passage-way between 
the two lower rooms. Into the larger of these the front door 
opened. The staircase also came down into this larger room. 
At a later day the panelled partition was erected, forming a 
passage-way, and cutting off the South room from the stair- 
way. The rooms on both floors had the old-time wide fire- 
places with high mantels, and heavy cornices around the room. 
Wooden panelhng cut off deep closets on each side of the 
chimneys on both lower and upper stories, with narrow gable 
windows in them for light. When the piazzas were added, the 
lower rooms were so much darkened that it became necessary 
to remove the lower closets and enlarge the gable windows to 
double their original size. . . . The house when built was 
not rough-cast, as it has been for over a hundred years, but 
was of plain brick- work, finished with pointing mortar." A 
wooden addition as large as the original house was added in 
1833 or 1834 by John Ball, the owner at that time. 

Both the house and the wooden addition have deep cellars 
with fireplaces large enough to roast an ox, and no doubt many 
a turnspit has sat here in this corner (himself half roasted) 
when helping to prepare a roast pig or Christmas turkey for 
the guests above. 

Comingtee had a beautiful old-fashioned garden with a 
straight walk down the middle, between flower beds bordered 
with jonquils, snowdrops and sweet old-fashioned roses, while 
crepe-myrtle trees faced each other across this walk. An old 
brass dial in a sunny spot marked the passage of the hours. 

This place is beautifully situated and easy of access. In 
addition to the water front there are two land approaches to 
Comingtee ; one the avenue which comes to the house from the 
north and leads from the public road that goes up the western 
branch to upper St. John's and its settlements; the other 
(called quaintly the "So' Boy Avenue") leads to the house 
from the pubhc road that winds up along the eastern branch, 
leading over Bonneau's Ferry to French Santee. 

On this plantation there is a chain of reservoirs for flooding 
the adjacent rice fields at need, and the one between Coming- 
tee and Fishpond (the Harleston place) has been much dis- 

39 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



cussed and disputed about. It was supposed to belong jointly, 
and the full history of this reserve would embrace the history 
of the entire countryside until 1874 when agreement was made 
concerning the break in the dam which caused the first quarrel. 

The first EUas, called "Eed Cap," Hved at the plantation 
until 1740, then he moved to Charleston, and his son Elias took 
possession. About this time John Coming Ball, second son 
of the first Elias, married; he built and settled at "Hyde 
Park, ' ' a plantation on the eastern branch. EUas, the second, 
was a bachelor, and becoming lonely he built and settled at 
"Kensington," the next plantation to Hyde Park, in order to 
be near his brother. He subsequently married Mrs. Lydia 
Chicken, a widow, and their son, the third Elias, inherited and 
dwelt at Comingtee. Elias the second was buried, by his own 
request, from his old home there. 

The plantation remained continuously in the Ball family, 
and was famous for its hospitality, even when its owner or 
occupant was a bachelor (which happened sometimes during 
the long period that Comingtee was in this family) ; yet so 
perfect were the arrangements made for guests that in every 
sleeping room was to be found the old four-poster, double bed 
and a trundle bed or crib. 

The property rested finally with Alwyn Ball, Jr., of Euther- 
ford, N. J., who removed the wooden annex and restored the 
brick building in the old style ; he recollected and replaced in 
their old places all the family treasures of furniture, plate and 
paintings. A history of the Balls would touch in some vital 
way the lives of most men and women of prominence in the 
early history of the state, and would include a record of many 
interesting events, but space permits of only brief mention of 
the lives of some of them in connection with the homes they 
builded and occupied. Through the courtesy of Mrs. I. G. 
Ball, Jr., (nee Jane Johnson, daughter of Dr. John Johnson, 
D.D., soldier, scholar and priest of God) an unusual oppor- 
tunity was granted for scanning family records and extracting 
and quoting from precious passages of the Ball Book, com- 
piled by Mr. A. Alwyn Ball, of Rutherford, N. J., the last 
Ball owner of Comingtee. 

40 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

CHILDSBURY AND STRAWBERRY CHAPEL 

Dr. Irving, in his "Day on Cooper Eiver," states that it 
was at Childsbury that the British forces in the Keowe expedi- 
tion were landed from their transports and marched under 
Governor Littleton: and that at the same place Col. Wade 
Hampton took fifty prisoners and burned four vessels laden 
with valuable stores for the British Army quartered near 
Biggin Church. 

At Strawberry Ferry — i.e., the plantation of that name — 
says the same writer, the "Strawberry Jockey Club" used to 
hold its annual meetings. The club having been dissolved in 
1882, the race course was ploughed up and converted into 
a corn-field. 

The earhest mention of the name Strawberry appears to 
be in the act of 17th February, 1705, which declares that "y* 
Inhabitants of the Eastern & Western branches of y* T of 
Cooper River are wilhng at their own proper Cost & Charge 
to make a fferry at y^'' Plantation of Mr. James Childs Known 
comonly by y^ name of y* Strawberry Plantation. ' ' 

The old cypress on which the rates of ferrage was painted 
has become mortised into a tree on the Strawberry side — the 
tree had overgrown it at least 100 years ago. From this it is 
safe to conclude that the signboard has been there for several 
generations. The primitive ferry is still in use by those who 
wish to pass across the river. 

The town must have assumed some position during the life 
of James Child, after whom it was called, and in February, 
1723, an Act was passed which recited that James Child had 
by his will given 500 acres for a common, and money for the 
support of a free school, and also a place for a market in the 
town, and that "the inhabitants of Childsbury are very much 
incommoded as well for want of certain market days in each 
week to be appointed for Childsbury town" as for want of 
public fairs to be held there at least twice a year. A beautiful 
little chapel is still in use at Strawberry. 

41 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



MEPKIN 

Mepkin, on Cooper Elver's western branch (eastern side) 
above the "T," consisted of 3000 acres and was the country 
home of the Laurens family, Henry Laurens having bought it 
in 1672 from the John Colleton estate. The entrance gates and 
avenue to Mepkin are still intact, but the fine old house has 
fallen to decay, although it was built of bricks on a high base- 
ment. The edifice was two stories in height, and was con- 
structed after the same general square plan of the Laurens 
town house. 

The diary of Timothy Ford says, "Within sight of Wash- 
ington is the seat & Plantation of his excellency Henry 
Laurens, agreeable prospect of which induces us to visit it 
to-day (Tuesday). Contrary to our expectations he had gone 
to town, we were not however disappointed of viewing the place 
which displays the beauties and advantages of nature no less 
than the ingenious improvements of its owner. He is a rare 
instance of method, whereby his plantation raises itself above 
those of this country in which everything is done immethodi- 
cally by the round about means of force & Labour. ' ' 

Henry Laurens (bom in Charleston 1734, died there 1792) 
was a swarthy, well-knit man, somewhat below middle size; 
a man very much the master of himself and his moods and 
passions. His lips, as shown in the portrait of him by Copley, 
recently discovered in London, were naturally so firm as not 
to need to be compressed. The nose was not long, drooping 
just a little at the end to hide the nostrils, and his eyes were 
very watchful. The whole man looked aggressive and just a 
bit cocksure. The face was roundish and firm about the jaws. 

Henry Laurens was the first son of John Samuel Laurens. 
He was raised as a merchant and the wide general education 
he possessed was obtained after arriving at manhood through 
his habit of extensive reading. In 1744 he was sent to London 
to obtain training as a merchant, and in 1736 he was prominent 
in the organization of the first fire insurance company in the 
United States. In 1739 he closed out his Charleston business 
and returned to London, where for many years he carried on 

42 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER R IjV.E R 

an extensive trade, largely with America. In 1749 he was made 
agent for the colony in England, a position which he held until 
1750. In 1771 and 1774 Laurens was again in London, but as 
a retired Carolina merchant and rich planter. 

Young Laurens is said to have met "the beautiful Eleanor 
Ball, " daughter of Ehas Ball, at a plantation on Cooper River, 
and they were married on July 6, 1750, when he was at the age 
of 26. Of Laurens ' 12 or more children who reached maturity 
only three survived their father. 

While Laurens was a great merchant, he was something 
more. Though keenly engaged in business, he looked upon 
pubHc affairs as vitally a part of his hf e. In the Indian War 
of 1761, in the full tide of his wealth getting, he accepted 
a commission, collected recruits and marched into the Ap- 
palachian Mountains. 

Henry Laurens was first elected to the House of Assembly 
in South Carolina in 1757 and continued to be elected except 
on one occasion until the Revolution. Toward the end of 
October, 1777, Hancock resigned the presidency of the Con- 
tinental Congress, and on November 1, 1777, the position was 
conferred upon Henry Laurens by a unanimous vote. It was 
during his presidency that a strong friendship between 
LaFayette and Laurens developed. When LaFayette was 
wounded Laurens took him in his own carriage to the officers' 
hospital near Yorktown. 

In October, 1779, Henry Laurens was commissioned to go 
to Europe to purchase leather for the use of the colonial army. 
He sailed on the Mercury, which was convoyed by a 16-gun 
vessel, but his vessel was captured by a British ship while off 
the coast of Newfoundland. He carried valuable papers, 
which he endeavored to destroy by casting overboard, but they 
were recovered from the sea and used against him. He was 
first taken before the admiral at St. Johns, N. F. Thence he 
was taken to London and was committed to the Tower of 
London on the charge of high treason. In the beginning of 
December, 1781, his release, owing to the interest of Edmund 
Burke and Franklin, was assured. The release was made 
with the view of exchanging him for General Cornwallis. On 

43 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

the last day of the year 1781, unable to stand except on 
crutches, Laurens was released, and in 1782 was appointed 
Peace Commissioner to Paris. His services, terminating only 
with his departure for America, were of great importance and 
entitled him to be considered the first minister of the United 
States to England. 

This distinguished father had a scarcely less distinguished 
son. John Laurens (bom in South Carolina in 1755, educated 
in England and France) served on the staff of General Wash- 
ington during the Eevolution ; also served with Major General 
Lincoln in South Carolina in 1779, and was wounded at Coosa- 
whatchie Bridge. He was a special envoy to France in 1781, 
returned to America at the end of the year and took part in 
the campaign in South CaroUna in 1782, and was killed in a 
fight with the British at Chehaw Neck, on Combahee Eiver, 
August 27, 1782. 

A portrait of John Laurens is to be found in the State 
House at Columbia, S. C, and through the efforts of Colonel 
John Dargan was only recently pubhcly "unveiled" with suit- 
able ceremonies, as a tardy recognition of the services this son 
of Carolina rendered to his native land. The act of unveiUng 
the picture was done by Laurens descendants of a collateral 
branch of the family, John Laurens having left no "hostages 
to the future." 

In writing to this son during the Revolution Henry Laurens 
once closed his letter with the following lines : 

"My Dear Son 

I pray God protect you 
& add to your knowledge 
& learning, if it be necessary, 
discretion — 

Henky Laueens. ' ' 

Like all rice planters, Henry Laurens possessed a town 
house, situated at the southeast corner of Laurens Street and 
East Bay ; it has only recently been destroyed. As originally 
built the house was of nine-inch-long brick, and so substantial 
from the cellar to the heavily hewn timbers of the spacious 
u 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

attic that even after the many years it stood tirm and true until 
torn doAvn to make room for the Seaboard Air Line R. E. 
With it perished colonial carvings, marble mantels, set-in 
book cases, thick walls, secret doors, and, on the upper floor, 
a wonderful ballroom. It was in this room that Henry Laurens ' 
sister, a young girl, was laid out when she died. She lay 
facing a window, and her love for the garden, which used to 
extend to the river's edge, worked a miracle ; a storm came up, 
and through the open window rain dashed into her face. A 
watcher, noticing that the little maid's eyeHds quivered, called 
help. The maiden revived and lived to be an old lady. 

The incident left such an impression upon her brother that 
his will directed that his body should be burned at death. He 
concluded his will with these words : 

"I come to the disposal of my own person. ... I sol- 
emnly enjoin it on my son as an indispensable duty that as 
soon as he conveniently can, after my decease, he cause my 
body to be wrapped in 12 yards of Tow Cloth and burnt until 
it be entirely and totally consumed and then collect my bones, 
deposit them wherever he shall think proper." 

This request was duly complied with, and his body wrapped 
in tow cloth and burned on his plantation in an iron coffin at 
night. The slaves gathered round the flaming funeral pyre, 
while just below the dark waters of the Cooper Eiver swirled 
and eddied at the foot of Mepldn Bluff. 

ELWOOD 

According to the Ball Book, Alwyn Ball, son of the first 
John, married, early in hfe, Esther McClellan, and lived at 
Elwood plantation, a place situated a Uttle above Comingtee, 
on the same side of the western branch. Alwyn combined a 
passion for hunting with a gift for music. His house was in 
Cordesville, "the summer pineland village." It was after- 
wards purchased by his nephew, Keating Simons Ball. The 
building was quaint in appearance, with an enormous shed 
that made it look like an East Indian bungalow. 

Alwyn Ball died in Charleston in 1835 at the early age of 
28 years, in a house on a part of the lot now occupied by the 

45 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

St. Francis Xavier Infirmary, and was buried at Strawberry 
Chapel, on Cooper River, near his old home. 

His funeral procession was very dramatic, as his remains 
were to be taken up the river on a boat. The cortege wound 
its way through the city streets to the wharf where the boat 
awaited. First went the hearse, behind which was "Josh," a 
faithful servant and huntsman, leading his master's hunting 
horse saddled and bridled; with them were Mr. Ball's favorite 
dogs, a couple of deer hounds. The family followed in proper 
conveyances. When the wharf was reached the coffin was 
placed on its trestle in the bow of the boat, the dogs guarded 
it all the way up the river. When the coffin was being lowered 
into the grave Josh carried out his master's last directions by 
sounding a loud blast on his hunting horn, which was then 
thrown into the grave and buried with the young master who 
so often in hf e had answered its summons to the chase. 

RICE HOPE 

Rice Hope, adjoining Comingtee, was the property of 
"venerable Read," one of the last surviving heroes of the 
Revolution, who became possessed of this property by mar- 
riage with Sarah Harleston, eldest daughter of Col. John 
Harleston. This plantation was banked and cleared in part 
from its native wilderness in 1795 by Dr. Read. The titles 
are as follows : 

John Harleston 's "Will, dated 2 Octo. 1790, devised Rice 
Hope Plantation on the East Bank of the Western Branch of 
Cooper River to his daughter, Sarah Read, with right of sur- 
vivorship to her husband. Dr. Wm. Read, and after their death 
to the issue of the marriage. Dr. Wm. Read survived Sarah, 
his wife, and died in April 1845 leaving I. Harleston Read and 
Ehzabeth A. Parker the only surviving children of the said 
marriage, who thus became entitled to one moiety each. ' ' 

It would seem that Harleston Read bought his sister's 
share from a "Conveyance dated 2 feby. 1846, from Peter 
Parker and Elizabeth A., his wife, to I. Harleston Read of an 
undivided moiety of 'All that certain plantation or tract of 
land called Rice Hope situate lying and being etc. . . . meas- 

46 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

uiiug and containiaig m the whole 1709 aci"es more or less, 
comprising 271 acres of Rice land and Marsh, and the residue 
provision, wood, reservoir, pine and other lands. ' The bounds 
are given as 'to the north partly on Cooper river, the Childs- 
bury Township, and the Strawberry Ferry tract of land be- 
longing to the Estate of Ball, to the east on lands of the Estate 
of Ball and lands of Calhoun, to the south on lands of Cal- 
houn, and Ball, and on Cooper river, and to the west by 
Cooper river. ' ' ' 

Beyond Eice Hope are found the following plantations, 
which do not, however, contain houses : Washington, North 
and South Chacan and Sportsman's Retreat. 

ABOVE THE TEE— THE BLUFF AND BEYOND ON THE 
WESTERN SIDE OF THE WESTERN BRANCH 

The Bluif is opposite Strawberry Ferry, and consequently 
one of the ferry slips is on this plantation once owned by Major 
Isaac Harleston. 

In the Ball Book : ' ' From a letter of Wambaw Elias we 
learn that Ehas of Limerick was not on speaking terms with 
his cousin the gallant Major Isaac Harleston. There is no clue 
to the cause of this quarrel, unless on the principle that — 
'Lands intersected by a narrow frith abhor each other.' " 

The house at the Bluff is a long, low, rambhng old building, 
quaint enough, yet having no particular quality except per- 
manency, but being of deep interest on account of the Moultrie 
family, whose country place it was for many years. It passed 
finally, by marriage, to the, Ball family, and is now used as a 
hunting club. 

Timothy Ford, while visiting at Washington, a neighbor- 
ing place, said in his Diary (1785-1786) : 

"We employ much of our time in sporting with our guns, 
which also give me an opportunity of seeing the different 
plantations in the vicinity of Washington. They are chiefly 
rice plantations & of course there prevails a sameness thro 
the whole— but still there is a variety in regard of buildings, 
avenues, walks & gardens. There is a common taste for im- 
provements of this kind among the planters here about. On 
Wednesday M''"- Edwards being informed that Col"- Moultrie 

47 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



brother of the Governor & Att. Gen. of the State has arrived 
at his seat about 2 miles hence with some company from to^vn 
proposes that we all take tea there in the afternoon by which 
means I have an introduction to him, his Lady, Miss Smith and 
M'- Moultrie his nephew from England. Miss Smith knows 
well that she is thought handsome ; she possesses accomphsh- 
ments, some sense, & a great deal of vanity. . . . 

"M"- Edwards invites the company to dine with her on 
friday. Thursday we spend in romping about the plantation 
Barns &c. & in vie\ving the negroes at work at the rice — On 
Friday the company dine with us & in the evening we attempt 
to dance but find the music so bad that we are obhged to desist. 
I am more confirmed in my opinion of the rattling disposition 
of Miss Smj^th; of the innumerable merits of Miss Beckworth 
& the hospitality, generosity, affability, & goodness of M"- 
Edwards. M''- and M""- Holmes are no less entitled to my high- 
est esteem & gratitude. On Saturday we all received an invita- 
tion to dine on Sunday at Col°- Moultries, where we meet an 
accession of company from Charleston. Dinner is served 
up at 41/2 oClock & the desert by candle light — On Mon- 
day we form a maroon party to visit some saw mills about 
8 miles hence which in this country are considered objects 
of curiosity." 

From a sketch by the late Dr. James Moultrie, with anno- 
tations by A. S. Salley, Jr., we learn that Dr. John Moultrie, 
the Emigrant, and the progenitor of the Moultrie family of 
South Carolina, was born in Culross, Shire of Fife, Scotland. 
He was a physician of eminence and a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. He came to Charles Town, S. G., 
anterior to 1729 in which year his name appears among the 
signatures of the original founders of the St. Andrew's Club, 
now Society. Born 1702. Died in 1771. He married first 
Lucretia Cooper, and, after her death, Elizabeth Mathewes. 
By his first wife he had the following children : John, Royal 
Lieut.-Gov. E. Florida; William, Major-General in American 
Revolution ; James, Chief Justice E. Florida; and Thomas, 
Capt. in American Revolution. By his second wife he had 
one child, Alexander, Attorney-General of South Carolina, 
who married Catherine Judith Lennox, and whose daughter 
Catherine married her cousin, Dr. James Moultrie, fifth son 
of Hon. John Moultrie, M.D., of Charleston, S. C, by his sec- 

48 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

ond \dte, Eleanor Austin, daughter of Capt. George Austin 
of the Eoyal Navy and Ann Ball. Hon. John Moultrie received 
the degree of M.D. at the University of Edinburgh in 1749. 
He returned to Carolina, where he practiced his profession 
until 1767, when he removed to East Florida and was ap- 
pointed Royal Lieutenant-Governor of that Province, which 
office he continued to hold until Florida was ceded to Spain, 
at which time he removed with his family to England. He is 
buried in Sheffnal Church, Shropshire. He had several chil- 
dren, but we are concerned with only two of them, John 
and James. 

In an old book of memoranda by Lydia Child is the fol- 
lowing entry: "January 5th, 1762, Mrs. Eleanor Austin ran 
away with Mr. John Moultrie and was married." Tradition 
hath it that Capt. Austin, her father, was opposed to this 
match. Capt. Austin, who had been a merchant in Charles 
Town, returned to England, where he Uved upon lais estate, 
Aston Hall, in Shropshire. After a lapse of some years the 
Hon. Henry Laurens undertook and effected a reconcihation 
between father and daughter after this manner: "When he 
went to England he took with him a picture of Mrs. Eleanor 
Moultrie and her two sons, John and James, which, in the 
absence of Capt. Austin from home, he hung in the dining 
room at Aston Hall," and upon Capt. Austin's return he was 
much incensed with his servants for allowing a stranger to 
take such a Uberty, but finally the reconciliation was effected 
through Mr. Laurens ' action. 

Mrs. Jane Moultrie, wife of Maj. George Austin Moultrie, 
writing to Mrs. E. A. Poyas in May, 1849, says: "The picture 
you allude to of Mrs. Eleanor Moultrie and her two sons, James 
on her lap and John, my husband's father, standing by her 
knee offering her a rose, still hangs where Mr. Henry Laurens, 
perhaps, first placed it, in our dining room at Aston Hall." 
Capt. George Austin lies buried at Sheffnal Church. He be 
queathed Aston Hall to his grandson, John Moultrie, who 
married in England Catherine Ball, daughter of a Tory, Eli as 
Ball, called "Ehas of Wambaw," formerly of Wambaw 
Plantation, South Carolina, afterwards of Bristol, England, 

A 49 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

and his wife, Catherine Gailliard, a South Carolina woman 
from one of the plantations adjoining Wambaw. 

So John remained in England, but James returned to South 
Carohna, and was evidently the "nephew from England" re- 
ferred to by Timothy Ford as visiting Mr. Moultrie. He was 
a doctor, haAdng received his degree at the University of Edin- 
burgh, and returned to Charleston, the place of his nativity, 
and married in 1790 his cousin Catherine, daughter of Alex- 
ander, fifth son of the Emigrant, as spoken of before. 

The fourth son and fifth child of this marriage was named 
Wilham Lennox, and Uke his father followed the profession of 
medicine. He was twice married, his first wife being Hannah 
Child Harleston, by whom he had seven children, and after her 
death he took for his second wife Juliet Hall Ingraham 
(daughter of Capt. Nathaniel Ingraham) by whom he had two 
children, Mary Louisa and Eleanor Catherine. The latter died 
in infancy, and the former married in her twenty-third year 
Isaac Ball, Esq., Planter. Thus the Bluff passed into the 
hands of the Ball family where for many years Mr. and Mrs. 
Ball and their large and interesting family resided until their 
removal to Charleston, where they are now to be found as 
members of the "Kingly" Balls, their sons having married 
among the Weissenger, Grimke, Jervey, and Porter families, 
while their daughters have married among the Ficken and 
Ehett famiUes. 

The most distinguished member of the Moultrie family is 
Major General William Moultrie, some of whose descendants 
are found in the Brailsf ord family of South Carohna. The life 
and achievements of General Moultrie are too well known to 
be listed, and are briefly told by a memorial tablet to be found 
in the vestibule of St. Philip 's Church, Charleston. 

PIMLICO 

Pimlico, next to the Bluff, has an interesting history, con- 
cerning which the Ball Book has this to say (page 140) : 

One of Alwyn Ball's brothers, Hugh Swinton Ball (1808) 
married "Miss Anna Channing, daughter of Walter Channing, 
of Boston. They had several children, all of whom died very 

50 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

young. His wife and himself both perished in the wreck of 
the steamer Pulaski, on their way from New York to Charles- 
ton. The boiler exploded on the night of the 14th of June, 
1838; the vessel was blown to pieces, and many of the pas- 
sengers were lost. Soon after their death, a lawsuit, which 
lasted several years, arose about the property. As the sur- 
vivor was to inherit the bulk of it, the question was, which one 
was the survivor — a question not easily decided after a scene 
of such confusion and terror. The court finally decided in 
favor of the plaintiffs — Mrs. Ball's family — the evidence (as 
I have heard) showing that Mrs. Ball's voice had been heard 
calling in the darkness for Mr. Ball; and the presumption was, 
that, had he been living at the time, he would have answered 
her. By this decision, not only his wife 's property, which was 
considerable, but more than half of his own, went to the plain- 
tiffs. His intention had been to leave his plantation Pimhco 
to his nephew, Ehas Nonus Ball, son of his brother, Elias 
Octavus ; but the plantation and the negroes had to be sold for 
division. His nephew, however, found himself in possession 
of a very comfortable property on coming of age." After the 
sinking of the Titanic in 1914 this case was cited in court. 

A wonderfully built and well-finished, hipped-roof wooden 
house is found at Pimlico. Its side faces south on the river, 
but Pimhco is approached on the landward side by a famous 
oak avenue that curves in from the public road a mile distant. 
It is now a sportsman's estate, once the home of people who 
not only gloried in the out-of-doors, but who skillfully used 
the beauties of nature as a worthy setting for a southern plan- 
tation residence. According to the present front elevation the 
original plan of the house provided for tall columns within the 
exterior walls, indicating the presence of a portico, but the 
recent addition of a small modern piazza has changed consid- 
erably the perfect simpHcity of the old design. 

Inside the house a cultured atmosphere of fine colonial 
days is immediately restored by the presence of exquisitely 
finished, hand-carved woodwork on the windows, wainscoting 
and mantels. The stairway, a perfect example of its kind, 
rises from the rear of a long entrance hall, adjoining which 

51 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

are two large, perfectly proportioned rooms. The exact date 
of this house is hard to place, but it is of a similar type of house 
found all up and down the river. However little we know of 
the date of the construction of this building, the plantation 
itself was among the grants made to the three sons of Sir 
John Colleton, described as being opposite to Mepkin, near 
Strawberry Ferry and on the other side of the river, on a 
plantation called Mepshew, and now known as Pimlico. 

POINT COMFORT 

Adjoining the plantation of Mepshew (said in Dr. Irving 's 
day to belong to the Ball estate, and only interesting on account 
of the land titles and IndiaJi name) is found Point comfort, 
said by Dr. Irving to belong to E. W. Eoper, now in possession 
of a Charleston family, connections of the Roper family, which 
is to be remembered particularly by the hospital bearing their 
name and which was founded by money left through the estate 
of this particular branch of the family. The house at Point 
Comfort was built by Mr. Eoper, and resembles the Eoper 
house on John's Island. Both are going to ruin. 

On the plantation can be seen the remains of this beautiful 
house built of brick and conforming to the strictest archi- 
tectural code. It is said by Mrs. E. P. Tucker (CorneUa 
Eamsauer) to be the most satisfying situation for and design 
of a home of elegance and beauty, but now gone to ruin, al- 
though Mrs. Tucker states that even yet a student of archi- 
tecture would find a perfect example of early American 
architecture at its best in the front and side elevation of this 
large brick house. 

The house is situated upon a knoll, and is surrounded by 
oak trees draped in moss which give a sombre aspect to this 
once busy plantation home, once well planted, well planned and 
well developed, now the lonely abode of vagrant mnds. 

Underneath the house is a series of large arches acting as 
supports, the enclosed part of which affords space for the 
household offices and constitutes a basement. Over the central 
front arch is built the "grand stairway," after the fasliion of 
French Colonial houses, viz., with a central landing at the 

52 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

piazza level descending on either side. This stairway is of 
marble with iron balustrades. 

The house itself, irrespective of the basement, has two 
stories and an attic. The lower floor has two very large double 
windows, in the French fashion, which are found on either 
side of the house, and lead from the piazza directly into two 
large front rooms, wliich may be at will thrown together. In- 
side there are (so far as the casual inspection possible from 
the outside reveals) splendid examples of paneling and wood- 
work. The house at Point Comfort will soon be a thing of the 
past unless steps are taken to restore to its pristine beauty 
this fine old place worthy of a better fate. 

WAPPAHOOLA 

There stands at Wappahoola, on a creek bearing the name, 
a delightful old house built of black cypress, said to have been 
constructed under the personal supervision of the owner (a 
Mr. Porgson) by slave labor. This property has, of course, 
a set of outbuildings, and is a fine and complete example of an 
artistically planned home of a farm house type. 

It is raised a few feet from the ground, and the front 
elevation shows the usual veranda with its low-hanging eves, 
the second story being without piazzas of any kind. As this 
type of house is met with in a modified form in so many in- 
stances along the Cooper River it must have been adopted 
because found to be absolutely the best for the daily regime 
of plantation fife, while entirely suitable for the residence of 
a gentleman and his family of antebellum days; thus the 
houses at Wappahoola, Pimlico, Quinby and Limerick are all 
modeled on this general plan, with slight variations. 

The house was said to have been built by Mr. Porgson, but 
in Dr. Irving 's book it is ascribed to E. Lucas; it is better 
known as the home of Frank Heyward, whose father's town 
house was that wonderful old brick house on Legare Street 
now owned by Lamb Perry, just south of the Smythe house 
on the eastern side. 

Frank Heyward married Fannie Ferguson, a daughter of 
James Ferguson and Abbie Ann Barker, and Wappahoola is 

53 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

still called the Home of the Heyward family, being the resi- 
dence of a son, and a daughter, Marie, and another daughter,. 
Mrs. G. Cannon, while another daughter, Panchita, Mrs. Wil- 
liam Grimball, resides in Charleston. 

DOCKON 

The plantation nest to Wappahoola is Dockon. Dr. Irving^ 
says Dockon plantation near Wappahoola was originally the 
property of Jacques duBose, and owned in 1742 by Samuel 
and Joseph Wragg, passing to Eopers, Lucas, and Fergusons, 
in whom it was vested a century later. Mrs. Samuel G. Stoney 
gives the information that the Dockon house was burnt, but 
that a beautiful avenue is left, and an unpretentious wooden 
house. According to Mrs. Stoney there was at Dockon a very 
valuable Ubrary at one time. Certainly a literary flavor of a 
spicy quaUty emanates from a famous novel called "Verve 
Cliquot," written by Mrs. General Ferguson, who was a lady 
from New Orleans and visited at Dockon. Mrs. Stoney is 
also the authority for the statement that at one time there 
were three Ferguson brothers well known in Charleston so- 
ceity, Dugue, Tom, and Sam, all being dead now except Major 
Thomas B., who was at one time Minister to Sweden 
and Norway. 

The progenitor of this flourishing family was Thomas Fer- 
guson, who became a man of property and standing in South 
Carolina. "He was," said Dr. Johnson, "born on a piece of 
land seven or eight miles north of Charleston, between the 
Dorchester and Goose Creek roads ; and when an infant was 
removed by his parents, on a pillow, to a ferry of which they 
had become managers, sometimes called Ferguson's but more 
commonly called Parker's Ferry. Young Ferguson grew up 
proficient in all outdoor sports, and Mr. John Parker, then a 
boy and heir to the ferry (afterwards a member of Congress) 
became much attached to young Ferguson. ' ' 

Mr. Ferguson's first outfit was very hmited. It consisted 
of two negroes and a buck saw. He continued, however, to 
work hard, secured the good opinion of his friends and neigh- 
bors, and finally became overseer to several plantations, gen- 

54 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

erally rising from that position to that of manager. He soon 
became independent, wealthy, popular and influential. He 
married happily and advantageously. In fact, if all that Dr. 
Johnson's Traditions tell of him is true, he may be said to have 
married early and often, having had no less than five suc- 
cessive wives. 

It is narrated in Charleston of a certain dignified gentle- 
man who was frequently married, that upon the occasion of 
his last marriage his eldest son, by his first %vife, failed to 
attend the wedding. When asked why he thus absented him- 
self from this ceremony he is said to have replied: "Pshaw! 
I haven't got time to go to all of Pa's weddings." 

"Pa" seemed to have had a short memory also, for a 
lawyer is said to have been handling some property that the 
gentleman had acquired by one of his first marriages and to 
have remarked: "Now this property came to you when you 
were married to Miss So and So." 

The old gentleman protested that he had never married 
that lady, "Only thought of doing so." Finally convinced, 
however, that he actually had married the lady in question, 
he is said to have given in by saying casually, "Oh, yes, so I 
did by the way, and a very good woman she was, too. " 

Be that as it may, Mr. Thomas Ferguson was certainly five 
times married, and, according to Dr. Johnson, his wives were : 
(1st) a Miss Elliott; (2nd) the widow North, of the Perry 
family, by whom he had two children, James and Anne, the 
latter of whom became Mrs. Charles EUiott and subsequently 
Mrs. Richard Berresford; (3rd) Miss Martha O'Reilly, a 
handsome woman, by whom he had four sons who grew up and 
married; (4th) the widow of Andrew Rutledge, and daughter 
of General Gadsden; and (5th) Miss Wragg, who survived 
him, with two sons. 

Col. Ferguson was one of the most influential men in the 
State and gave his best services to the upbuilding of South 
CaroUna. His home in Charleston adjoined the Barker prop- 
erty on Tradd Street. To reach this latter charming place, 
now in the possession of the Manigault family, one has to go 
down a delightful old-fashioned lane which opens into a beau- 

55 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

tiful old garden. To the north and to the west of the Barker 
house were two lots bought in 1762 by James Postelle and 
Charles Pinckney and conveyed within a few months to 
Thomas Ferguson, who erected thereon his dwelling. 

Mr. Ferguson was a large planter of the parish of St. Paul, 
and it is interesting to note in addition to the previous data 
of this family given in the history of Dockon, that Major 
Thomas Barker Ferguson, at present visiting in Charleston, 
says that the first map of Charleston shows a Ferguson house 
built outside of the town limits. Tradition, he says, has it that 
the Fergusons came over with Oglethorpe. There were three 
branches of this family, one settling at Philadelphia, one in the 
West Indies (from which branch the family in South Carolina 
came) and the third in Holland, and when Major Ferguson was 
at a diplomatic dinner in Holland he noticed that he was being 
closely observed by his host, the reason for this observation 
appearing later when Major Ferguson was told that he 
very strongly resembled members of the Ferguson family in 
that country. 

It mil be remembered that Mr. Thomas Ferguson, the 
founder of the family, and the grandfather of Major Thomas 
B. Ferguson, made his start in life near Parker's Ferry, and 
Major Ferguson says that his grandfather was related to the 
Parkers. It is interesting to note in this connection also that 
Mr. Paul Sanders at Eitter says that his brother now owns and 
lives in a quaint old wooden house on a high brick basement 
placed upon land exactly opposite to one of Thomas Fer- 
guson's first plantations. 

As Mr. Ferguson was married five times and had children 
by each marriage he seem^ to have disposed of the difficulty of 
dividing his property by leaving to each set of children the 
property acquired through their mother. There were, it 
appears, twenty-six or twenty-seven children by these 
various marriages. 

Major Ferguson states that, should he live five years 
longer, until 1926, three generations of his family, that is from 
his grandfather's birth in 1726, his father's birth, 1784, and 
his own in 1841 and his life prolonged until 1926, these three 

56 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

generations which should be six generations (as conunonly 
computed) will cover two hundred years; a fact unique in 
American history. 

The Ferguson connection with Cooper Eiver property 
comes in when Mr. Thomas Ferguson married Miss Anne 
Wragg, Dockon being part of the "Wragg property. The 
children of this marriage were Samuel, DuGue, Thomas Bar- 
ker, Joseph Sanford, and Fanny, who married Frank Heyward 
and lived at Wappahoola. (Major Ferguson has this to say 
in regard to Wappahoola, that the house there was built by 
Parson Porgson.) 

The last mention made of the progenitor of this large and 
flourishing family, Mr. Thomas Ferguson, is Avhen he was 
appointed aide to General LaFayette, who visited this country 
in 1821. Thus it will be seen that the dwelhngs, names and 
histories of the Barkers, Broughtons, Fergusons and Fitz- 
simmons are closely interwoven. 

Dr. Sanford Barker was the brother of Major Theo. G. 
Barker, and their mother was a Miss Milhcan, whose father 
was the builder, for the Broughtons, of the house next 
under discussion. 

Thomas Ferguson not only merited, but received the friend- 
ship of the distinguished men of his day, his friendship with 
Christopher Gadsden being a matter of history, where it is 
recorded that ' ' an extrordinary intimacy and attachment ex- 
isted between General Gadsden and Mr. Ferguson, and con- 
tinued to the end of their lives." 

SOUTH MULBERRY 

A discussion of the geographical arrangement of the plan- 
tations on the western side of the western branch of the Cooper 
Eiver shows that the first house situated near the water after 
leaving PimHco is South Mulberry, formerly included in the 
Mulberry tract upon which North Mulberry was built. The 
two Mulberry tracts, north and south, were originally included, 
by error, in Fairlawn Barony, but their history will be dis- 
cussed in connection with the history of Mulberry house. 

57 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

On South Mulberry stands an old wooden house sometimes 
called "Home Place," the chief charm of the place being the 
garden filled with rare shrubs cultivated by Dr. Sanford Bar- 
ker, who married Christina Broughton, of North Mulberry. 
Dr. Barker was a botanist who failed to record his scientific 
achievements, but one who loved to botanize, and with whom 
many noted scientists also botanized on long "visits" to South 
Mulberry extending over many months at a time 

The Barkers, Broughtons, Fergusons and Fitzsimmons 
were all connected by marriage. The first mention of Barker 
in connection with Cooper River is found in Mills' "Statis- 
tics," which tells of the massacre by the Indians of the gar-, 
risen at Schinskins. "A similar act of perfidy on the part 
of the Indians was committed about the same time, a little 
above the Eutaws, at a place called Barker's Savannah. The 
commanding officer. Col. Barker, from whose defeat the scene 
of action acquired its name, was drawn into an ambuscade 
by the treachery of an Indian named Wateree Jack, who pre- 
tended friendship, and lured the white people into a snare. ' ' 

The Barker family residence in Charleston was found on 
the southern part of a lot on Tradd Street nearly opposite 
to Logan Street. 

THE MULBERRY 

Mulberry, also called " The Mulberry," or " Mulberry 
Castle, ' ' was built in 1714. The land on which the house stands 
was purchased from Sir John Colleton by Thomas Broughton, 
afterwards the first Lieutenant-Governor under the Royal 
Government, and one of the Comicil who signed the celebrated 
" Church Act." Mr. Salley says that " at a very early date 
there was a landing at ' The Mulberry ' on Cooper River. Col. 
Thomas Broughton bought the place and built there, in 1714, 
a handsome house which is still standing — onei of the hand- 
somest examples of the provincial architecture of that date 
to be found in Amerioai to-day. ' ' 

According to Mills ' " Statistics," " In the Indian War of 
1715, St. John's and St. Stephen's parishes were the frontiers 
of the province. In or near them were three forts : the first on 

58 



c ^ 




i f 

J. f.» 



5 i Tr'-i''' 






■ •-J .^'if. 





WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

Cooper River, about 3 or 4 miles below Monk's Corner, on 
the plantation of Mr. Thomas Bronghton, called Mulberry ; the 
second on Mr. Daniel Kavenel's plantation, called Wautoot; 
the third on the plantation of Mr. Izard, called Schinskins, on 
the Santee River. The garrisons at Schinskins were all mas- 
sacred in consequence of their own imprudence in pennitting 
a number of Indians to enter the fort under the cloak of peace 
and friendship." 

Dr. Irving declared that as late as 1842 an old cannon, the 
relic of bygone days, was still to be seen in the yard upon an 
ancient mound, which mound was doubtless the remains of the 
old fortifications at Mulberry. 

In the "History of Fairlawn Barony," Judge Smith says: 
"On 6th September, 1679, an additional grant was issued to 
Sir Peter Colleton for 4423 acres on Cooper River, lying ad- 
joining to and south of the Fairlawn Signiory. 

"The tract included in this last grant was afterwards 
known as 'Mulberry,' although it would appear, from 
what subsequently occurred in connection with the sale to 
Thomas Broughton, that the 'first bluff bank,' commonly 
caUed the 'Mulberry tree,' was within the Lines of the Fair- 
lawn Signiory." 

In January, 1708, Sir John Colleton, son of Peter, executed 
a conveyance to Thomas Broughton of the tract of 4423 acres 
granted to his father in 1679, describing it as on the "Westeme 
Branche ' ' of the T in Cooper River, which said plantation is 
now called or known as the Mulberry plantation, a part of 
which continued in the Broughton family for two hundred 
years. The error of misunderstanding about the exact loca- 
tion of "bluff bank" commonly called "the Mulberry tree" 
caused Thomas Broughton to assume that it was on his tract 
purchased from Sir John Colleton, and accordingly he placed 
his settlements upon it only to find that this was a mistake 
and that he had builded upon a southeastern part of Fairlawn 
Barony. This was rectified in a neighborly fashion by Sir 
John transferring to Colonel Broughton 300 acres off that of 
Fairlawn, and receiving in exchange a similar number of acres 

59 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

— ' 

off the northwestern part of Mulberry and a hundred and fifty 
pounds additional in money. 

Long ago when rice was grown at Mulberry "The Meteor" 
says : ' ' The hill at Mulberry was covered with fine oak, cedar, 
elm, catalpa, and other forest trees, which, with luxuriant 
vines of wild grape and supple-jack, made groupings of beau- 
tiful foliage over the Spanish bayonet and fan palmetto that 
grow at will on the graceful grass-covered slopes as they trend 
toward river and forest. From the windows of the house on 
this plantation miles of riceland lie in view, which are in soft 
shades of bro-wm and black when ploughed in spring, bordered 
by the green banks curving with the course of the river, to be 
followed in June by the tender yellow-green of the growing rice 
and in September by a waving expanse of golden grain. 

"The square red brick building stands on this hill, which 
ends abruptly in a bluff thirty-five feet high on Cooper River, 
and slopes towards the forest and ricelands. The exterior is 
like the picture on the Broughton family tree of the house at 
'Seaton' in England, the home of the Broughtons. A Dutch 
roof (now Mansard) with dormer windows, covers the main 
building, at the four corners of which are built detached rooms 
called 'flankers,' which connects with the house by space for 
a door way. These 'flankers' have each a pointed roof, sur- 
mounted by an iron vane six feet high, of light arabesque de- 
sign, upon which swings as weathercock an oblong plate of 
iron, out of which the date 1714 is cut. Above this date the 
vane ends in a royal crown. Seen as these 'flankers' are, from 
some distance across the low-lying rice fields, they give a 
quaint, unusual look to the house, and probably led to its being 
called Mulberry Castle. ' ' 

The bricks at Mulberry are unusually good. They are 
varied in shade, the darker or overburned ones being used at 
the corners and openings as quoins. The entrance to the house 
is from a poi'ch into the large dining "hall," as it was called, 
with high ceiling, large windows and the broad fireplace of the 
time, in front of which stood a heavily built, solid mahogany 
table, the top being near two inches thick. The walls of this 
and the adjoining "parlor" were covered with family por- 

60 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

traits. The foundation of the house encloses a cellar, deep and 
wide enough to contain kitchen and store room, with ample 
space for the wood required to till the wide hearths above. 
Being so much larger and stronger than the neighboring 
houses, it was a refuge for many families, during the troubles 
with Indians first, and afterwards with British scouts. Loop- 
holes for muskets made in heavy window shutters gave means 
of defence from the four sides of the house. Trap doors in the 
floors of each "flanker" lead to shallow cellars paved with 
"French flagstones," in which ammunition was kept. When 
the "Broughton" of the day was at home, during the war with 
England, he was hable to surprise from British scouts. He 
therefore provided a way of escape through a subterranean 
passage from one of the flankers. 

A letter from Mrs. Nath. Broughton, addressed to "Nath. 
Broughton Esqr., In Charles Town, These June y" 15: 1732," 
gives fascinating ghmpses of the domestic life at Mulberry 
and neighboring places : 

"My Dear 

"I sent on Sunday to wassamsaw about the fouls, my father 
having forgot to tell me what you desired till Saturday, there- 
fore could send no sooner M''- Lawson sent me worde his wife 
had none fit for yens as yet, he came down on Tusday and 
tould me had heard of Some at wampee but could not possably 
git them at wassamsaw till last night or this day, and as my 
father thought it was time the things should goe down I have 
done my best, could get but 3 dozen yong fouls in all the nabour- 
hood which I send with 14 young gees, they have bin well fed 

but it is so short a time that be but httle the better, I 

design 2 of them for cosin Manigault if you think well of it 
should have sent her some fouls if they could have bin had but 
hope to make it up another time, pray give my affectionate 
servis to her, I was sorry to hear by M"'- Le Bas she was not 
well and wish her better health . . . nancy being in want of 
gounds desier M^=- La Tour will get withall to make her a 
couple, I desire it may be something that looks well they not 
being for comon wair, my sister Broughton desiers her to 
get her a pair of mens gloves at M"- ceraus (Sereau?) that 
will fit cosin manigault she gives her servis to you and all with 
you, pray give my lo.ve to M"- La Tour I hope she will excuse 

61 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

my not writing to her, I shall be glad to know whether my 
neess mazick is brought a bed desier to be remembered to her 
if you see her, I wish Capt warren a happy voiage, we are all 

as the doct left us, but have heard my has had a bad 

night I hope to hear by the unity you continue mending 

which will be a great Satisfaction to 

Dear Life 
your affectionate wife 
H. Chablotte Broughton. 

I send 4 chairs to be bottomed, since you are likely to 
receive some mony should be glad M"- La Tour would bye me 
a gound as I desired her." 

The town residence of the Broughtons is difficult to locate 
in those early days, but in 1771 the following advertisement 
would seem to place one of them at least on Tradd Street : 

"So. Ca. Gazette, April 4, 1771. Mr. Fournier, Miniature 
Painter, &c. Is removed to Mrs. Rivers in Tradd St., ahnost 
opposite to Mr. Andrew Broughton's: and having now, in a 
great measure, recovered his health, is ready to wait upon 
any Gentlemen or Ladies who may be pleased to favor him 
with their Commands. ' ' 

The Broughtons married into neighboring families on the 
Cooper Eiver, and Mulberry was for many years the residence 
of Major Theo. G. Barker, whose mother was a Miss Millican 
(whose father built the house for the Broughton family). 
After being in the hands of Major Barker, whose wife was 
Miss Louisa Fitzsimmons, the property passed on to other 
owners. The history of the Fitzsimmons family is wrapped up 
in the history of lands belonging to the Fitzsimmons and Ham- 
mond families near the Georgia line. Space does not permit 
of more than a brief mention of the Fitzsimmons family, some 
of whom are now living in Charleston and the vicinity. The 
old family place near Beech Island is in possession of Mrs. 
J. P. Eichards at "Red Cliff," a former home of the Gov- 
ernor Hammond noted in history as using the famous ex- 
pression ' ' Cotton is King. ' ' The Hammond and Fitzsimmons 
families have intermarried, and Christopher Fitzsimmons 
Hammond had in his possession some portraits by Peale of 
ancestors of both branches of his distinguished family. The 

62 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

Fitzsimmons burying ground is found at the Cottage tract on 
the Georgia side of the Savannah River. Beech Island, an- 
other Hammond house, still stands. 

Samuel Barker Fitzsimmons resides at old Wiltown. He 
has in his possession a most exquisite set of Crown Derby 
china and many rare pieces of glassware, along with portraits 
and historic furniture which came to him when the Barker 
estate at Mulberry was broken up. 

Mulberry finally passed into the hands of Mr. Clarence E. 
Chapman, who acquired the property when it was in disrepair, 
having been unoccupied for approximately ten years. He has 
been much interested in restoring this old place, and has kept 
intact all of the original interior furnishings of wood and iron- 
work possible. Mr. Chapman has even dismounted certain 
pieces of ironwork, sending them north. He consulted experts, 
and had the pieces duphcated in order to fully restore the 
original property correctly from an historical standpoint; he 
has also reduplicated the correct furniture for such an estab- 
lishment, and has treated "The Mulberry" with the respect 
and reverence worthy of its lineage, for the Ancient Lady says 
that at Strawberry Chapel "the oldest inscription that is 
legible is 1757, on the stone that covers Mr. Nathaniel 
Broughton, of Mulberry Castle, in St. John," who built the 
house in 1714. 

LEWISFIELD 

Lewisfield, comprising 1000 acres on the river front, ad- 
joining Exeter to the north and Mulberry to the south, was 
transferred by Sir John Colleton, 4th Baronet, on the 15th of 
September, 1767, to Sedgewick Lewis. At the time of sale this 
1000 acres is stated to be known as the "Little Landing," but 
after passing into Lewis' hands it acquired the name of Lewis- 
field, which it has ever since retained. Through intermarriage, 
the place subsequently passed into the Simons family, in whose 
possession it continued for many years. Johnson's "Tradi- 
tions" says that Keating Simons married Miss Sarah Lewis 
in 1774 and "thereby became possessed of a rice plantation 
and negroes, on the western branch of Coopere river, which he 

63 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

called Lewisfield," which still retains that name, and was in 
possession of his grandchildren in 1851. After serving his 
country, when Charleston fell into the hands of the British, 
Keating Simons became a prisoner on parole, and retired, 
as he had a right to do by capitulation, to reside on his plan- 
tation, Lewisfield. 

Many of Simons' neighbors were unguarded in their ex- 
pressions of hatred to the British victors. (Mr. Broughton, of 
Mulberry, was one of these, who for his discipline had a troop 
of horses quartered on his land.) Shortly after this Lord 
Cornwallis, passing down — says Dr. Johnson — from Cam- 
den to Charleston, sent a courier to announce that he and his 
"family" would dine with Mr. Simons the day after. "Accord- 
ingly Mr. Simons provided amply for his reception; killed a 
lamb for the occasion and poultry and other plantation fare 
in abundance, and arranged his sideboard in accordance. But 
his lordship had his cook and baggage wagon with him and was 
well served by those who knew his inchnations. Accordingly, 
they killed the old ewe, the mother of the lamb; and on Mr. 
Simons telhng the Scotch woman, the cook, that this was un- 
necessary, and showing the provisions, she replied that his 
lordship knew how to provide for himself wherever he went." 

The story goes on to show how Mr. and Mrs. Simons were 
invited to sit at their own table as guests, but Mr. Simons, 
while accepting for himself, said that "He could not think of 
his wife becoming a guest instead of presiding at her own 
table," and told his lordship that Mrs. Simons was "other- 
wise engaged." At this dinner a great game was played over 
the wines, Mr. Simons generously providing some of his best, 
but again his lordship "enquired of his aides if they did not 
bring with them some of his old Madeira, and called for a 
bottle or two." His lordship pretended to enquire the history 
of it, whether "London particular, ' ' or imported directly from 
Madeira, and the young gentleman had an answer ready for 
the occasion. It proved, afterwards, that the wine had been 
plundered from old Mr. Mazyck's plantation when it had been 
visited by Cornwallis. 

64 








"DOCKON," WESTERN BRANCH COUPER RIVER 




■LITTLE LANDING" OR "LEWISFIELD." THE STEVENS HOUSE 
WESTERN BRANCH COOPER RIVER 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

Mr. Simons remained on parole at Lewisfield waiting to be 
exchanged, until the middle of July, 1781, when General Greene 
sent his cavalry do^vn into the lower part of the State, even 
within sight of Charleston, and Colonel Wade Hampton com- 
manded part of this expedition. It seems that the gallant 
Hampton was at that time courting Mr. Simons' youngest 
sister, then Hving at Lewisfield. "Love rules the court, the 
camp, the cot," and "Love-directed-Hampton" came near to 
Lewisfield. He galloped up the avenue to see his "lady love," 
but found instead a party of British from two vessels at the 
landing, which vessels were fast aground. Nothing daunted, 
Hampton (being an elegant horseman, in the habit of gallop- 
ing his steed and at this speed stooping from his saddle to pick 
up from the ground his cap, sword, whip or glove) galloped 
back to the main road, vaulted upright in his saddle, waved his 
sword over his head and shouted to his command to return. 

This they did, and engaged the enemy. Some of the Brit- 
ish escaped, although many were taken and the boats burned. 
Suspicion falUng on Mr. Simons as being accessory to the 
surprise and capture, an expedition of Black Dragoons was 
immediately sent out from Charleston with orders to bring 
him in dead or alive, but being warned, he did not await their 
arrival, broke his parole, and joined General Marion in the 
Swamp. Meanwhile his house and plantation were being 
searched for him, but luckily he was away, and remained with 
the old Swamp Fox as an aide, to whom he continued firmly 
attached, not only to the end of the Eevolutionary War, but 
also to the end of his life ; at the death of General Marion, 
Simons' loyalty was transferred to his family, and at the death 
of Mrs. Marion (so says Dr. Johnson, from whom all the above 
narrative is extracted and quoted) she left her plantation and 
negroes to Mr. Simons' eldest son, Keating Lewis Simons. 

Lewisfield is now in possession of Mr. Charles Stevens, 
whose wife was the fascinating Mary Wharton Sinkler, of 
Belvidere. An amusing story is told that at Lewisfield, during 
the Civil War, a clever ruse was employed by the owner's 
family to save their valuables. It was given out that a relative 
had died in Charleston, and that the body would be interred 

s 65 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



upon the plantation. Accordingly a coffin was brought, but 
in it was secretly placed the family silver, plate, etc. An elab- 
orate funeral was held and the valuables buried. As the 
negroes never discovered the ruse employed, raiding parties 
could not extract from them information they did not possess, 
and the valuables remained hidden safely until after the strife 
was over and the former owner returned to his home. One day 
he decided to recover his buried possessions, taking with him 
an old negro man, who had been present at the "funeral" years 
before, to assist him. The owner waxed so hot in the search 
that the old darkey, who was helping to dig up the supposed 
relative, exclaimed: "Lord, Maussa! By dis time you sho mus 
be unjint 'um" (unjoint him). 

The house at Lewisfield is the regulation square pine or 
cypress building, facing the river landing. The estabhshment 
is set up on a high brick foundation, as a precaution against 
the rising of the river in freshet times. From the ground a 
high flight of steps leads to the wide piazza which forms the 
front to the lower story of Lewisfield, and lying along this 
piazza are the two front rooms of the place. There is no " front 
door" proper, but entrance into the house is made (as is often- 
times the case in houses of this section) through long French 
windows opening directly into these rooms. The only other 
entry into the house is at the rear where another flight of 
steps is found leading to the back hall, which penetrates only 
half the depth of the house, and affords space for stairs leading 
to the upper story, while separating the two rooms in the rear. 

In all these old plantation places, which are ringed around 
with rice fields and blue-gum and cypress swamps, the out- 
buildings are set a little way from the main building in order 
to dispense with the household offices going forward in the 
main house. The servants like this arrangement, as it gives 
them greater freedom, and a little domain all their own. Many 
a southern child has looked with delight upon a stolen visit 
to the servants' quarters and there learned folk-lore stories 
akin to those "Uncle Remus" told the "Little Boy." No one 
lives at Lewisfield now, and the name is being changed (against 
history) to "Chacan," an adjoining place across the river, 

66 



WESTERN BRANCH OP COOPER RIVER 

also o\viied by the same Stevens family, the very handsome 
house upon which was unfortunately burned. 

EXETER 

Sir John Colleton, the fourth Baronet, made the following 
transfer of property — "On the 15th September, 1767, to Mary 
Broughton, 988 acres on the river front, adjoining the 511 
acres transferred to Thomas and Nathaniel Broughton. ' ' In 
this deed the 988 acres is styled ' ' Exeter" plantation, by which 
name it has ever since been known. Miss Marie Heyward, of 
Wappahoola plantation, is the authority for the statement 
that the house at Exeter was built by Governor Broughton for 
his daughter. 

Exeter house is two miles north of Mulberry. It is a quaint 
dwelhng of bricks of Enghsh measurement laid in Flemish 
bond. The two houses are in plain sight of each other ; Exeter, 
with the date 1712 engraved in its brickwork on the chimney- 
side, and Mulberry with the date 1714 in its weathervanes, are 
companion houses in historic interest. The plantations of 
Mulberry and Exeter were Broughton residences, but Sir 
Nathaniel Johnson was supposed to have hved at Exeter at 
one time, before he lived at Silk Hope, on the eastern branch 
of the Cooper Eiver. 

A portrait of Sir Nathaniel was at one time in possession 
of Dr. Barker, of South Mulberry, and one of his wife, said 
to be Anne Overton, a descendant of the general of that name 
who served under Cromwell, hung for a time at Exeter along 
with other interesting portraits. Wherever he lived, it is cer- 
tain that Sir Nathaniel Johnson was buried at Silk Hope, in 
St. Thomas' Parish, and from respect to his memory his grave 
was surrounded by a brick wall by Mr. Gabriel Manigault, who 
purchased the plantation, many years after the death of the 
old knight, from his descendants. 

In "Cameos of Colonial Carolina," exquisitely written by 
that most "perfect, pure and gentil" knight of the pen, the 
Rev. P. D. Hay, which Cameo appeared in Harper's, Vol. 
LXVI, No. 391, 5, a full history of Sir Nathaniel Johnson is 
given, and Exeter is described as being his home. 

67 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



"We have but to step over the threshold of one of the old 
houses to cross a chasm of two centuries. Let us, for instance, 
visit Exeter, the country home of Sir Nathaniel. As we enter, 
two cabinet pictures, representing respectively a blonde and 
brunette of the time of Charles II, welcome us, clothed, as to 
their shoulders, in wonderful folds of white and blue and crim- 
son. Their stories and their names are ahke forgotten. 

' ' Skied up over a door of the hall is the portrait of a young 
Huguenot maiden dressed as a shepherdess, and taken in Lon- 
don, it is said, by Sir Peter Lely, as she passed on her way 
from France to Carolina. On the left of the chimney a robust 
English matron appears in heavy bronze satin, while over her 
shoulders is thrown a snowy kerchief of lawn. On the opposite 
side is her daughter as a younger matron, born about 1703, 
with a complexion as fair as the wide band of pearls encircling 
her neck, and a face eloquent of sweet womanly virtues. She 
is dressed in blue silk, cut away from the neck only enough to 
show its slope, the waist just under the arms, wide sleeves held 
open by a fall of lace, a heavy piece of corded silk several 
shades hghter than the dress passing down the entire front, 
looking as straight and stiff as a cuirass of steel. In another 
place we see a boy of five clad in a short-waisted light gray 
surtout reaching almost to the ankles, Avhite stockings, and 
crimson shoes. Into a room with walls so peopled it would 
not seem very strange to see the good Sir Nathaniel himself 
walk, dressed in a shag gown, trimmed with gold buttons and 
twist, silk tops for his legs, and a camlet cloak thrown over his 
martial shoulders. 

"But paintings are not the only art treasures which these 
colonial houses contain. Pieces of old jewelry are here — dia- 
monds and brilhants set in silver; rare specimens of napery, 
which have escaped by successive miracles the accidents of 
great wars and fires, expressing in exquisite damask-work 
legends such as Elijah fed by the ravens ; antique musical in- 
struments, which have by turns shivered to the Cavalier tune 
of 'Green Sleeves,' or pulsated responsive to the rhythm of 
some soft air born among the vine-clad hills of France ; time- 
stained inventories of the furniture once filling a stately Eng- 
lish home in the days of Charles I; and deeds of the same 
period conveying now in their heiroglyphical characters to the 
heirs nothing but doubt and confusion. These, with fragments 
of old lace, moth-eaten letters, vellum-bound diaries of the 
time, and remnants of beautiful china and glass, may yet 
be seen. 
m 




•EXKTER," NEAK MONCK'S CORNER, WESTERN BRANCH COOPER RIVER 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

"With such a treasury to choose from, it would not be 
difficult to furnish forth an old-fashioned tea table on the lavm. 
at Exeter, realistic in its minutest details ; nor would it be hard 
to till the punch bowl again with genuine Barbadoes shrub, if 
Carolinians could be made to agree whether the sweet orange 
and lemon should be used in the brewing or the juice of the 
sour orange alone. 

"Judging from the size of the tea service, genuine Bohea 
must have been a rare commodity in those days, and in looking 
over an old bill I find Dr. Wilham Rind to have been a debtor 
to Alexander Cramahe and Co. ' to I lb. Bohea tea, £4 10s. ' Dr. 
Rind was a gay bachelor, and in case the reader should wish 
to know what was required by a man of fashion during the 
first half of the eighteenth century, I will quote another bill 
against him by the same firm : 

"To 1 Wigg Comb 

To 1 pr. Pumps 

To 1 Thread hose 

To 7 yds. blue silk 

To 1 doz. gold breast buttons 

To 2 bottles treacle water 

To 1 pair glaz'd white gloves 

To V/2 doz. silver breast buttons @ 25s 

To 1 prayer book 

To 1^ cask rum 

"... Sir Nathaniel . . . served the colony as Gov- 
ernor for two terms. He was the first one of these officials who 
set an example of civil service reform by ahenating from hirn- 
self the monopoly of the Indian trade— a perquisite which his 
predecessors had apparently enjoyed without embarrassment. 
"Governor Johnson was at pains during his administration 
to concihate the Indians, and they did him 'yoeman's service' 
when the province was invaded. 

"In the parish register of St. Thomas and St. Denis, one 
of the parishes which he founded, under the date 1712, we may 
now read these words : 

"The Right Hon"" Sir Nathaniel Johnson. 
Buried y° 2'' of July. 
His grave lies on Silk Hope plantation." 

Since the days of Sir Nathaniel Johnson Exeter has passed 
through many interesting adventures, and was near the scene 
of action of some sharp encounters during the Revolutionary 
War. It is now in the hands of Mr. A. J. Jones. 

69 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

The Colleton mansion house stood on Fairlawn Barony at 
a spot about a mile east of the present Monck's Corner station, 
on the Northeastern E. R. (the county seat of Berkeley 
County) between the main pubhc road and Cooper River, and 
about a mile from the river. It presents the remains of the 
most extensive brick mansion house and offices, and adjacent 
buildings in South Carohna of the period. During the war of 
the Revolution, the British turned it into a fort and storehouse 
and when they were compelled to evacuate the post, set it on 
fire, and destroyed it in 1781. 

When the British retreated, states Mrs. Graves, the daugh- 
ter and heiress of Sir John Colleton, "they burned down the 
mansion . . . and destroyed every building, including a 
Town built on the Barony for the residence of several people 
belonging to the estate, with the granaries, mills, &c. On this 
occasion, in addition to the furniture, paintings, and books, 
plate, etc., a large sum of money which was in my father's 
strong bos, and my jewels, were lost, either destroyed or 
plundered." Finding that desolation brooded where plenty 
formerly had revelled in her gayest mood, the mansion at 
Fairlawn was never repaired nor rebuilt ; a crumbling mass of 
broken brick and tile, with fragments of glass and pottery in a 
jungle of weed and shrubs is all that marks its site. 

The account of Mrs. Graves' life is taken from a little pub- 
lication by her, entitled "Desultory Thoughts on Various 
Subjects, by Louisa Carolina, Wife of Rear Admiral Richard 
Graves, of Hembury Fort, Devonshire, and Daughter of Sir 
John Colleton, Baronet, Born Baroness of Fairlawn, Land- 
gravine of Colleton, and Sovereign Proprietress of Bahama. 
Printed at the British Press 1821." The only known extant 
copy of this work in South Carohna was the property of Theo. 
G. Barker, Esq. 

"Mrs. Graves in so entithng herself was under some mis- 
apprehension. She was not the descendant of Landgrave 
Colleton, but of the Proprietor, and was therefore not Land- 
gravine ; nor is the female heir of a baronet a baroness," says 
Judge Smith. Mrs. Graves comes in as a descendant of one 
of the John Colletons, who was twice married. She is the 
70 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

child by his first marriage, his wife being Anne Fulford, 
daughter of Frances Fulford, of Great Fulford. His marriage 
to Anne Fulford having been dissolved by Act of Parliament, 
he married in 1774 Jane Mutter, and died in September, 1777, 
at Fair Lawn and was interred at Biggon Church. By his will 
he left all his property to this daughter (by his first wife), 
Louisa CaroHna, who married Capt. (afterwards Admiral) 
Eichard Graves, of the British Navy, and during her lifetime 
the sale and breaking up of the rest of the Barony took place ; 
although the final sales of the last of it were not had until 
after her death. 

The following sales were made by Admiral Graves and his 
wife, vis.: 1st November, 1815, to A. C. Mazyck— EUery ; 26th 
March, 1816, to M. W. Smith — 416 acres, no name. 

Under a family arrangement the estate had been trans- 
ferred to Samuel Colleton Graves, the son of Admiral and 
Mrs. Graves, and he made sales as follows : to John Wliite — 
Moss Grove ; to Keating Simons — no name to tract ; to John 
White — the tract called Gippy Swamp ; to Samuel G. Barker 
(Trustee)— the tract called the "Old House." 

Fairlawn Barony has furnished the background for a his- 
torical romance of colonial days. The "Story of Margaret 
Tudor," by Miss Annie T. Colcock is drawn from some of the 
Shaftesbury papers. Miss Colcock has made romance fit into 
history better than any other recent writer of fiction deahng 
with colonial history of South Carolina excepting perhaps 
Miss Annie Sloan in her "Carolina Cavalier." 

INLAND PLANTATIONS OF FAIBLAWN BARONY 

GIPPY 
In addition to the plantations lying along the western bank 
of the river were several inland tracts sold subsequent to the 
breaking up of the Barony. The history of these tracts is of no 
special significance, except that one of them, Gippy, originally 
bought by Alonzo White, possessed a river landing. A list of 
these plantations includes Fairfield, Castle Ruin, Bamboretta, 
Moss Grove and Gippy, upon which latter a house still stands, 
and is now found in the possession of Mr. White's descendants. 

71 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

A picture of this shows the southern aspect of the house, 
and gives a fair idea of the plantation home of that period. 
For many years Gippy was the residence of the Stoney family, 
representatives of which are found throughout the State, and 
a direct branch of which is located in El Paso, Texas. 

FAIRFIELD, CASTLE EUIN AND BAMBORETTA 

Behind Mulberry, having no river landings, lie the three 
places known as Fairfield, Castle Ruin and Bamboretta, all 
originally part of one tract. 

On July 26th, 1769, John Mitchell, of SaUsbury, North 
Carolina, acquired 1004 acres of Fairlawn Barony, "not situ- 
ate on the water front, but bounding to the East on the public 
road to Moncks Corner." He died, leaving two sons, John 
Mitchell and William Nesbit Mitchell, and by his will his 
plantation, which he styles "Fairfield," is left to his son 
John, who died in 1800 and left it to his son William, with 
remainder over to his brother, William Nisbet Mitchell, should 
his son die before twenty-one years of age, without children. 
The child must have so died, as we find William Nisbet Mitchell 
in possession of the whole, which at his death appears to have 
been divided into two plantations, one called by the original 
name of Fairfield, containing some 470 acres, and the other of 
some 521 acres, on which William Nisbet Mitchell lived, called 
Castle Ruin and Bamboretta. 

"This William Nisbet Mitchell directs, in his will on rec- 
ord, that the burial ground at Fairfield, in which his brother 
and his children were buried, and in which his own body was 
to be deposited, should, by his executors, be enclosed with a 
substantial brick wall." The foregoing is quoted from an 
article in the South Carolina Historical Magazine dealing with 
Fairlawn Barony. 

Showing how tradition in some instances differs greatly 
from actual facts, an extract from Dr. Irving 's "Day on 
Cooper River" says: "Mitchell directed in his will that his 
body should be burned. He died in 1826 ; many years before his 
death he purchased an iron chest or coffin, he used it during 
his lifetime as a cupboard or bin. After his death his body 
72 



WESTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

was burned and ashes put in this iron chest and locked and 
key thrown into Cooper River. In his will he directed that 
his remains were not to be buried, but placed above ground in 
the woods on two brick piles ^^^.th brick enclosure around it. 
This wish was compUed with, and body placed near his former 
residence about two miles West of the 28 mile stone on the 
Moncks Corner road, where it may be seen to this day. The 
burning of his body was conducted by Thomas Broughton, 
Esq. " It is said that the old iron coffin is in use as a drinking 
trough for horses. 

Beyond FairlaAvn Barony lay Wadboo, Keithfield, Somer- 
ton and several other plantations of great historical signifi- 
cance and interest, but as no houses now stand upon these 
places we pass them over with this bare mention. 



CHAPTER IV 

EASTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 
ABOVE THE "TEE" 




WESTERN SIDE OF EASTERN BRANCH OF 
COOPER RIVER 

FISH POND AND THE HUT 

^ CROSS the river from Dean Hall, 
and near Comingtee on the western 
side of the eastern branch, are Fish 
Pond and The Hut. At the time 
Irving wrote his '* Day On Cooper 
River " they were owned by John 
Henry Ingraham. These planta- 
tions were originally the property of 
=c) the Harlestons, who settled there to 
be near their sister, Mrs. Affra Comings, at Comingtee. The 
plantations on this part of the river front were not large, and 
were in comparatively close proximity so as to form a social 
neighborhood of society, the members of which were in easy 
circumstances and more or less connected by ties of blood or 
marriage or early association. 

According to Theodore D. Jervey, the Harlestons were 
identified with the history of South Carolina from the settle- 
ment of the Province. They were descended from an old and 
illustrious family of the county of Essex, England, and bore 
a conspicuous part in the Wars of the Roses, being adherents 
of the house of York. One member of the family. Sir John 
Harleston, was governor of Havre du Grace in the reign of 
Edward IV, another was Vice-Admiral Richard Harleston. 
In the family records John Harleston is described as of South 
Ossenden, while his son is later described as of Mailing. More 
than one hundred years prior to this — about 1532 — we find the 
same name and place in the County of Essex, England. 

The first of the name to come to Carolina was Affra, who 
married in 1672 Captain John Comings, the mate of two ves- 

74 



EASTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

sels, The Carolina and The Blessing, plying between this prov- 
ince and England, and Avhose Carolina home was the plantation 
at Comingtee, which she later left to Ehas Ball, who had mar- 
ried her sister. 

Affra Comings was a woman accustomed to wealth and 
refinement. "Her father's 'inventorie' shows the furniture 
of her early home MoUyns from 'the seller, the parlour, the 
Inner parlour, the hall, the kitchen, the larder, ye great Cham- 
ber, the hall chamber, the painted chamber, the nurserie, 
the buttrie chamb' the back chamb'" the gallerie' to 
'the garretts'. " 

Mrs. Comings died in 1699 ajid as she had no children she 
devised all her estate, at her husband's request, in "joint 
tenancy " to the aforementioned Elias Ball, and her nephew, 
"John Harleston in the Kingdom of Ireland, the son of John 
Harleston late of Malhng in the county of Essex in the King- 
dom of England." The family tradition places the arrival of 
John Harleston in America at 1699 or 1700. From letters to 
him and his rephes to same soon after his marriage to Eliza- 
beth Wilhs in 1707 it is apparent that he was a person of im- 
portance in the province and that he must have occupied close 
personal relations with its rulers at that time. A letter of 
John Harleston to John Page (subsequently Lord Mayor of 
Dubhn) displays the position they held in the colony: 

"The Chief Justice M"'- Nicholas Trott, who is my Perticu- 
ler Friend in Carolina . . . Invited him & his wife to my 
Weding & set him at table with the Governor & Cap' of men 
a ware that lay in oure harbor that saime time, & with the best 
of the Country. ' ' 

Perhaps the most distinguished pubUc member of the fam- 
ily of Harlestons was Isaac Child Harleston, who had a notable 
record during the Revolution, mnning the title of Major, and 
being elected a member of the first Provincial Congress. He 
was a great horseman, and upon the death of his cousin John, 
son of Edward, by a provision in John's will, he became sole 
owner of the celebrated imported stallion Flimnap. The will 
reads as if this cousin had a deep respect for the Almighty 
even though he was a thorough sportsman. It states : 

75 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



"Also my moiety of the above mentioned stud horse Flim- 
nap as also my wearing gold watch and the old-family watch 
I give unto my cousin Isaac Harleston, son of John Harles- 
ton, deceased." 

Speaking of Flimnap, a celebrated visitor to South Caro- 
hna in 1773, Sir Joshua Quincy, witnessed a race between 
this horse and Little David, in which £1000 were won and lost. 
He writes : 

"At the races I saw a fine collection of excellent, though 
very high-priced horses, and was let a little into the ' singular 
Art and Mystery of the Turf.' " 

Isaac Harleston was a great favorite with his brother- 
officers of the Revolution, as the following letter will show : 

"Dear Isaac 

The Genl: & Col: if I remember were not determined to 
dine with you, when invited — I was there last Night — and they 
then, upon my taking leave — s" they sh*^ see me at your Quar- 
ters at dinner to-day — this hint I give that you may exert 
yourself for Eels & fresh butter of which the Genl : & Col : are 
very fond — Shubrick is to land at your wharf — Eemind me 
when I see you of a small anecdote of Col : Wigf all 

Mond''morg— " Y"''' R. Smith. 

BONNE AU'S FERRY, PRIOLI AND THE VILLA 

As there are few old houses left on this particular part of 
Cooper River it is best to briefly mention the places in their 
order, so that the continuity of the sketches will be preserved. 
Anyone interested in land titles will find all of this definite 
information thoroughly discussed by Judge Smith in the South 
Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, and no effort 
is made in the present volume to re-cover that ground, the 
human-interest story being featured in these accounts of the 
old houses. 

Early in 1712, when Charles Craven was governor, Bon- 
neau's ferry was in existence. When a courtship was taking 
place in the neighborhood the ferrjonan prospered, and 
one of the Ball account-books has item after item put down 
to ferriage. 

76 



EASTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

Prioli, next to the Hut, was sometimes called Bomieau's 
Ferry, while it was the property of Dr. T. G. Prioleau. This 
arose from the fact that Samuel Bonneau had lived there at one 
time. He left two daughters, one of whom married John Ewing 
Calhoun, and the other Zekiel Pickens. The latter sold to Mr. 
Prioleau and moved to Brick Yard, a plantation on the other 
side of the river. 

The Villa, next to Prioli, was originally called Gerard's 
Plantation. It was once owned by John Harleston, Jr., son of 
Edward Harleston, who married the daughter of Thomas 
Lynch. After Harleston 's death his widow married Major 
James Hamilton, and their son was the General Hamilton of 
"Nulhfication" days. They resided for a time at the Villa, 
then sold it to Frederick Rutledge, who married Miss Harriet 
Horiy, and it was then called "Harriet's Villa." 

RICHMOND, FARMFIELD AND BOSSIS 

Richmond and Farmfield, the two plantations next above 
the Villa, were Harleston places, Richmond being for a long 
time the seat of Colonel John Harleston, who had purchased 
a large tract of land comprising both Riclmiond and Farmfield 
from Dr. Martine. In the subsequent division of property 
Richmond fell to Colonel Harleston 's daughter Jane, who mar- 
ried Edward Rutledge, and Farmfield to his daughter Ehza, 
who married Thomas Corbett. 

On the first of these plantations there formerly stood a 
noble mansion, placed on the brow of a hill about 200 yards 
from the river side. In 1842 it was owned by Dr. Benjamin 
Huger, who married a Miss Harleston, and their son, Wilham 
Harleston Huger, was one of the best-known physicians of 
Charleston. He married Miss Sabina H. Lowndes, a daughter 
of Charles T. Lowndes. 

Wilham H. Huger attended, as a youth, a private school 
conducted by Mr. Christopher Coates, after leaving which he 
went to the South Carolina College, where he graduated in 
1846, and after a short vacation entered the Medical College 
of South Carolina and studied in the office of Dr. Peter C. 
Gailliard. After completing a course in medicine he went to 

77 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



Paris to continue his studies. He took a course of lectures 
and a hospital course in the French capital, his companions 
there being Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, Dr. Cornelius Kollock and 
his close friends. Dr. Christopher FitzSimons. When he had 
finished this course he returned to Charleston and began the 
practice of his profession, which he continued until his last 
ilbiess in 1906. 

Shortly after his return to Charleston from Paris, while 
a young man, Dr. Huger was elected physician to the Charles- 
ton Orphan House; this position he held to the day of his 
death. During the Confederate War he was stationed first on 
James Island, and later was put in charge of the army hospital 
in Charleston. After that city was evacuated, Dr. Huger was 
sent to the hospital at Cheraw, and afterwards transferred to 
Sumter. Like all of the Harleston people, he was passionately 
fond of horse-flesh, and greatly admired fine stock. He was 
for mauy years a steward of the Old South Carolina 
Jockey Club. 

Richmond plantation has on it an old burying ground ; the 
inscriptions found on the tombstones include Harleston, Cor- 
laett, Read, Withers, and Rutledge names. 

Adjoining Farmfield is Bossis, a plantation once owned by 
Nicholas Harleston the first. It had at one time belonged to 
a Mr. Bosse, hence the name of the property. Mrs. D. S. 
Lesesne, of Charleston, has now in her possession some of the 
old plantation belongings from this place when it was owned 
hy the Harleston family. 

EASTERN SIDE OF EASTERN BRANCH 
OP COOPER RIVER 

THE HAGAN 
Just at the point where the Cooper divides into its two 
branches there is situated, on the eastern bank, a plantation 
known as The Hagan. The first grant covering this was one 
made August 24, 1688, to Samuel Wilson of 1000 acres, de- 
scribed as bounding west on Ahagan Creek, which was the 
Indian name for a creek of considerable size flowing from the 
southward into the eastern branch of the river at the T. It is 

78 



EASTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

variously spelled Ahagan, Hagan and Eliegging Creek. The 
high bluff on the river near the mouth of the creek is called 
Ahagan Bluff. 

In 1748 Daniel Huger bought the Hagan tract from Wil- 
liam Moore, and two other tracts adjoining the same planta- 
tion from Mr. Hull and Bonneau. Wm. Moore had received 
this plantation from his grandmother, Sarah Ehett, wife of 
WilHam Ehett, who acquired the land in 1720 from Henry 
Miller. He had gotten it in 1708 from nieces of Thomas Gun, 
who obtained the property in 1690 from Samuel Wilson, to 
whom it had been granted by the Lord Proprietors. 

Mr. Huger acquired other lands on French Quarter Creek, 
and was also owner of "Limrick" plantation, within the 
Cypress Barony. He was one of the wealthiest landholders 
in the neighborhood, possessing a place as far south as 
Ashepoo. He had much property in the city of Charleston, and 
in his will bequeathes : 

' ' To son Benjamin my corner House in Charles Town front- 
ing the broad Street with my other four Houses adjoining it 
and fronting Church Street. To son Daniel Corner House in 
Charles Town, fronting on Elliott Street and to Son Isaac 
tenement adjoining in Elliott Street." 

John Huger, son of Daniel, was left by Ms father "the 
plantation called the Hagan. ' ' 

In 1782 a battle was fought at Videau's Bridge on Brabant 
plantation between Coffin's cavalry of the British Army and 
a detachment under Col. Richard Eichardson, and although 
the Americans later suffered defeat, the British were the losers 
in the first attack, and "Mad Archie" Campbell was captured 
by two Venning brothers. The horse of one brother refusing 
to carry double, Nicholas Venning took the prisoner behind 
him on his horse. Finding that he was making an effort to 
escape, Nicholas, as ordered, shot him. Mortimer Venning, 
his grandson, recorded the incident, and kept in his possession 
the sword his grandfather had worn, which, however, was 
lost, together with other valuable possessions, after the War 
between the States. The sword was made of a saw-blade 

79 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



bound with wire to a wooden handle, and was used by Nich- 
olas Venning until the close of the Eevolution. 

The old house and residence at Brabant shared the fate of 
so many of the family residences in St. Thomas' Parish; de- 
struction by fire, and abandonment, consequent upon the com- 
plete overturn of private and pubUc fortunes by the war 
of 1861-1865. 

BEYOND FRENCH QUARTER CREEK— PLANTATIONS 

CONTIGUOUS TO THE RIVER 
CHERRY HILL, CEDAR HILL, THE BLESSING, CAMP VERE 

According to Dr. Irving, Cherry Hill was owned by Capt. 
Duncan Ingraham, and Cedar Hill by James Poyas. Both of 
these places had previously been in the Laurens family. He 
also says that the The Blessing plantation, north of French 
Quarter Creek, extending along the river as far as Camp 
Vere, was owned by the late Henry Laurens. 

The history of Blessing and Camp Vere is recited in a 
celebrated law suit in which are quoted several old wills. Ex- 
tracts from that of Margaret H. Laurens, found in the Bill for 
Instruction and Relief, published in the records of the Court 
of Equity in the Charleston district in the case of the executors 
of M. H. Laurens vs. Annie Isabel Laurens and others, show 
that Margaret Laurens was the widow of Frederick Laurens, 
of Camp Vere, and that the said Margaret purchased a plan- 
tation on Cooper River called The Blessing. 

In the suit in which these papers appear a most interest- 
ing story is told. It seems that Margaret Laurens had an 
adopted grandson, Alfred Raoul Walker, to whom she left a 
legacy of $20,000 upon certain conditions. He was the infant 
child of Benjamin Walker, then a resident of Canada. The 
boy, apparently, was a minor at law, living in Charleston with 
Ms godmother. Miss Susan Quash, when Mrs. Laurens' will 
was probated. The adopted grandmother being dead, the 
question arose as to how Raoul was to be supported and edu- 
cated, and as to what would become of the legacy if he should 
die under 21 years of age, or should fail to comply with the 
■conditions prescribed by the will of Mrs. Laurens, viz.: that 

80 



EASTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

he was to receive none of the capital until he had studied and 
acquired a profession. The will naively reads, "I earnestly 
recommend him not only to acquire a profession, but to prac- 
tice it. ' ' She also recommended to him to assume the surname 
of his great-grandfather, Mr. Pinckney. The celebrated Dr. 
John D. Irving, who wrote "A Day on Cooper River," was a 
mtness to this will. 

MIDDLEBURG 

On the plantation of Middleburg, situated in old St. 
Thomas and St. Denis' Parish, across the river from Rich- 
mond, stands a fine old wooden house, very difficult to describe 
except as belonging to the farm house type. Here also is still 
standing a rice mill, built in 1800 of black cypress ; one of the 
first toll-mills for rice in operation in South Carolina. Rice 
was sent here from Georgetown and other distant places. 

Middleburg is best identified as the residence of the Simons 
family. Judge Smith says that the plantation of Middleburg 
is in a personal aspect one of the most interesting in the State. 
It was the starting point of the Simons family, one of the most 
prohfic and well known from its character and widespread 
connection in the low-country. The first owner and settler of 
the place was Benjamin Simons, the first immigrant of the 
name. The record does not show exactly when he arrived, but 
he is supposed to have been one of the French Huguenot immi- 
grants. The name Middleburg, which is found attached to the 
plantation from a very early date, is supposed to be after 
Middleburg, the ancient capital of the province of Zeeland in 
Holland; however, any connection, if any, which Benjamin 
Simons might have had with the foreign Middleburg is not 
generally known. 

The first Benjamin Simons took out grants for considerable 
acreage in this parish, and was weU to do. Benjamin Simons 
the second had 13 children, and Benjamin Simons the third, 
who married Catherine Chicken, made large additions to the 
Middleburg tract. The immigrant Benjamin Simons married 
Mary Esther duPre, and the graves of both are found at 
Pompion Hill Chapel. 

6 81 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

After the death of the third Benjamin, Middleburg was 
partitioned among his three daughters. The home place, Mid- 
dleburg, was allotted to Lydia, who married Jonathan Lucas, 
and after her husband's death it was left to their son, Jon- 
athan Lucas. The Lucas family retained it until long after 
1865, so that the part of Middleburg granted to Benjamin 
Simons in 17D4 remained in one family over a hundred and 
sixty years, and passed later, with Horts and Smoky Hill, to 
Mr. John Coming Ball, with whom it now rests. 

A study of the Simons family has revealed the fact that 
Keating, James, Robert, Morris and Edward Simons took up 
arms in the cause of American Independence. Our own time 
shows the names in recent histoiy of Colonel James Simons 
and Dr. Manning Simons as distinguished descendants of these 
no less distinguished ancestors. 

LONGWOOD 

Longwood plantation adjoins Pompion Hill Chapel, which 
stands on land between Middleburg and Longwood on the 
Cooper Eiver front. On June 12, 1738, Longwood was con- 
veyed by Benjamin Simons to Thomas Hasell, who, in 1747, 
conveyed it to John Hasell; the latter in 1750 disposed of it 
to Samuel Thomas, Rector of St. Thomas' Parish as early as 
1738. It afterwards became the property of the vestry, who 
sold it in 1784 to Capt. Thomas Shubrick ; from then it passed 
to Gabriel Manigault. 

Alfred Huger, a former Postmaster of Charleston, once 
owned the property called Pompion Hill; during his owner- 
ship, and presumably by him, the name of the place was 
changed from Pompion Hill to Longwood. The reason for 
this is not known, but the old name fell into disuse as applied 
to the plantation, and was restricted to the bluff on which the 
Chapel stands. The plantation is still called Longwood, and 
after Mr. Huger 's death after the war of 1861-1865 it was 

'^^^ ^^^y- QUINBY 

Quimby, now corrupted to Quinby and sometimes Quenby, 
was originally the ancestral seat of the Ashby family, who 

82 




"QUIMBY," EASTERN BRANCH COOPER RIVER 
The Astibj' home, now a Bull House 




'MIDDLEBURG," EASTERN BRANCH COOPER RIVER 

The auoeatral hume uf the Simoua fumily 



EASTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 



had so named their Carohna pkce, after their place at Quimby, 
England. This plantation is situated opposite Bossis, and 
adjoining Longwood to the northeast, on the east bank of the 
eastern branch. 

Elizabeth Ball, once Mrs. John Ashby, was three times 
married. Upon her tombstone it is recorded that she was a 
woman of rare economy. She was the third daughter of Ehas 
Ball the first, and when she was about the age of sixteen, mar- 
ried in 1727 John Ashby, a mdower with one son, of St. 
Thomas' Parish. His home was Quimby, the Ashby place 
about eight miles up the river from Comingtee, and on the 
opposite side; but Love and Capt. Bonneau's ferry foimd the 
way to bridge the distance, and so Elizabeth and John con- 
sented together in the Holy Estate. 

Their married hfe must have been of brief duration, for 
his will dates 1728. It was generous to his widow of barely 
eighteen, and his plantation is left to his son and heir, John 
Ashby, along with Webdoe on the Santee, but should this son 
die without heirs both plantations were to go to Elizabeth, 
who was to have the right of residence until John became 
of age. 

Eleven months after Mr. Ashby 's will was made, a mar- 
riage contract was signed between his widow and John Vicar- 
idge, a merchant of Charleston. Elizabeth married still a 
third time, becoming Mrs. Eichard Shubrick, of Belvidere. 
She died September, 1746, at the age of 35, and was buried 
alongside of her sister, Ann Ball-Daws- Austin, in St. Philip's 
Churchyard, where her tombstone may still be seen by the 
south door. In 1802 Mr. Roger Pinckney bought Quimby from 
Thomas Shubrick and sold it later to John Bass for his 

son Isaac. 

It was on the plantation of Quinby that Lt. Col. Coates' 
command, of 500 infantrymen and 100 cavalrymen, was at- 
tacked by Lt. Col. Lee with the Legion, and Lt. Col. Hampton 
with the State Cavalry. Marion and Sumter, coming up with 
reinforcements, continued the engagement. The Americans 
killed 40 British and took 140 prisoners, quantities of baggage, 
and about 100 horses. Those who fell were buried by the road- 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

side, lining the road that leads from Quinby Avenue to 
Quinby Bridge. 

LANDS ADJACENT TO HEADWATERS OF EASTERN 
BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER— CYPRESS BARONY 

Landgrave Thomas Colleton, second son of Sir John, re- 
ceived, in addition to the two grants to himself and his two 
brothers, a grant in 1681 of 12,000 acres, called the Cypress 
Barony, situated on the headwaters of the eastern branch of 
Cooper River. 

LIMERICK 

In 1707 the Lords Proprietors permitted the Cypress 
Barony to be aUenated and divided into smaller tracts ; there- 
upon it was parceled out, 5000 acres to Dominick Arthur, and 
3500 a,cres to both John Gough and Michael Mahon, who took 
out new grants for their portions. Michael Mahon was a 
native of Limerick, Irleand, as was also Dominick Arthur, and 
the name of Limerick became attached to the part of their 
shares subsequently sold to Daniel Huger, son of the first 
Huger emigrant, who made Limerick his place of residence. 

With the sale and partition of the Cypress Barony, and its 
plantation equipment, the family of Landgrave Thomas Colle- 
ton lost all touch with the province. In later years all the part 
of the Cypress Barony allotted to Michael Mahon and John 
Gough, with 7341/2 acres off the Arthur portion, had become 
the property of members of the Ball family. 

It is impossible to relate all of the notable achievements of 
the family of Hugers. Daniel Huger the third, to whom 
Limerick had been devised by his father, conveyed it on March 
12th, 1764, to Elias Ball of St. John's Parish, Berkley County, 
as containing 45641/2 acres. It continued to be owned by the 
Ball family for over a century and a quarter, not passing from 
their hands until after 1890. 

There stands to-day on Limerick, the old plantation dwell- 
ing which has attained the venerable age of two hundred and 
odd years. Though slightly run down at the heels, it is cer- 
tainly a quaint and curious old-fashioned affair that has stood 

84 




•LIMERICK," A PRIMITIVE HOUSE NEARLY iOO YEARS OLD 
A Huger bouse 




AVENUE OF LIVE OAKS. •LIMERICK," EASTERN BRANCH COOPER RIVER 



EASTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

the acid test of years. A glimpse of the swamp around the 
headwaters of the Cooper are seen in the background of the 
iUustration. This house is fairly typical of the dwellings of 
that day and time in those isolated regions, as is the mag- 
nificent avenue of oaks which marked the approach to most of 
these plantation residences. 

Elias Ball, of Limerick, was held in high esteem by his 
brother parishioners, who erected a mural tablet to his memory 
in Strawberry Chapel, an honor bestowed on no other layman 
of that parish. He was strong-willed, kind-hearted, clear- 
headed, resolute, generous and affectionate. On his planta- 
tion his word was law, although he was kind to his slaves. As 
an illustration of his undisputed sway the following anecdote 
is told : 

One of the overseers on the plantation was to be married, 
the feast was ready, the company had assembled, minister and 
groom were on hand ; but the bride at the last minute refused 
to be married at all. She would listen to neither coaxing, 
threats nor arguments. Mas 'Lias fortunately happened to be 
on the plantation ; to him a little negro boy was sent. 

"Mas 'Lias, Mis' Katie say she wun't married." 

"Tell Miss Katie I say she 'must married.' " 

Back sped the messenger in hot haste mth the tidings— and 
she was. 

Isaac Ball, second son of John Ball, Sr., came into pos- 
session of Limerick at the death of his uncle a few months 
after (1810). He married his cousin, Eliza Catherine Poyas. 
They settled at Limerick and lived a happy useful life. Hav- 
ing no children they adopted a little nephew of Mrs. Ball's. ^ 

Limerick passed to WilUam James Ball, whose wife, Julia 
Cart, had charm of manner equal to her beauty of face. After 
her death in 1858, near the close of the Civil War, he married 
his cousin, Mary Huger Gibbes, and lived at Limerick, where 
he died in 1891. 

Ebenezer Roche owned and settled Windsor before the 
Revolutionary War. He died in 1783, and his executors sold 
the place to Edward Harleston. In 1786 Edward Harieston 
moved to Fish Pond, and sold Windsor to Joseph Brown, a 

85 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

son-in-law of Eawlins Lo^\Tides, who sold it in 1788 to Evan 
Edwards. The widow of the latter continued to hold it until 
1840, when it was purchased by Dr. Irving. 

The place was in a high state of improvement, with a large 
park well stocked with deer. The fine family mansion on the 
hill was destroyed by fire in 1815, and a httle cottage built, in 
which Dr. Irving lived. 

HYDE PARK AND KENSINGTON 

The present house at Hyde Park, the plantation across the 
river from Silk Hope, was built about 1800 by the second John 
Ball (bom 1760, died 1817), who was living at Kensington 
when it was constructed. The original house, built in 1742, 
by John Coming Ball, younger son of Ehas the first, was 
burned some time after 1772. 

The second John Ball, of Kensington, was kno^vn in the 
family as John Ball, Sr. At the age of 16 he was managing 
his brother EUas' plantation interests. Before he entered the 
army in the Revolution he married his cousin, Jane Ball, 
daughter of John Coming Ball and his wife Judith Boisseau. 
He must have been a thrifty man, for at his death in 1817 he 
owned the plantations of Kensington, Hyde Park, White HaU, 
Midway, Belle Isle, on the Santee River, St. James, or the 
Saw Mill tract. Marshlands, near Charleston, and a large brick 
house in the city at the northeast corner of Vernon Street and 
East Bay. 

On Kensington plantation, which adjoins Hyde Park on 
the western bank of the river, there is an old three-story house. 
It was constructed by slave labor, of cypress from the planta- 
tion. Instead of nails, round wooden pegs are used in the 
construction, while in the outbuildings all of the nails are hand- 
wrought. There are large piazzas downstairs, and old batten 
doors and shutters. Although it was built on the river opposite 
Silk Hope, the dwelUng house fronted on the road which led 
from Bossis and Hyde Park, and was not far from Cordes- 
ville. Kensington passed into the hands of Dr. John Irving, 
and back again into the Ball family. 

86 



EASTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

A plantation in olden times was a community in itself, 
which required thorough organization and complete system; 
and whatever the evils which were inseparable from the insti- 
tution there were many and great compensations, such as the 
present conditions of affairs do not afford, nor have afforded 
since the sudden freeing of slaves worked such hardship upon 
these people by forcing them into an economic struggle for 
which they were absolutely unprepared. 

McCrady writes : 

Though unsuited to the climate, the models of the houses 
were after those of the houses in London and the English 
country seats. The furniture and carriage horses, chaises or 
coaches (of the planters) must all be imported, and tailors and 
milUners often brought out the fashions from London (for the 
use of the well-to-do). Households were organized on the 
Enghsh model, except in so far as it was modified by the insti- 
tution of slavery. 

In every well-organized planter's household there were 
three high positions, the objects of ambition of all the negroes 
on the plantation. These were the butler, the coachman, and 
the patroon. The butler was chief of all about the mansion ; 
his head was often white with age. His manner was founded 
upon that of the best of the society in which his master moved. 
He became an authority upon matters of table etiquette, and 
was quick to detect the slightest breach of it. He considered 
it a part of his duty to advise and lecture the young people 
of the family upon the subject. . . . 

The coachman . . . was scarcely less of a character than 
the butler. He had entire charge of the stable, and took the 
utmost pride in the horsemanship of his young masters, to 
whom he had given the first lessons in riding. The butler 
might be the greatest man at home ; but he had never the glory 
of driving the family coach and four down the great "Path" 
... to town and through its streets. 

The oldest plantations were upon the rivers ; a water front, 
indeed, and a landing were essential to such an establishment, 
for it must have the periago (a colloquialism for a large canoe 
used in those days) for plantation purposes, and the trim sloop 
and large cypress canoes for the master's use. So besides the 
master of the horse — the coachman — there was a naval officer 
too, to each planter's household, and he was the patroon — a 
name no doubt brought from the West Indies. The patroon 

87 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



had charge of the boats and the winding of his horn upon the 
river told the family of his master's coming. He, too, trained 
the boat hands to the oar and taught them the plaintive, humor- 
ous, happy catches which they sang as they bent to the stroke, 
and for which the mother of the family often strained her ears 
to catch the first sound which told of the safe return of her 
dear ones. Each of these head servants had his underlings, 
over whom he lorded it. . . . The house was full, too, of 
maids and seamstresses of all kinds, who kept the mistress 
busy, if only to find employ for so many hands. . . . 
Outside the Overseer was responsible for the administration 
of the plantation. 

The type of life which proceeded at Hyde Park may be 
considered typical of that which went on in all the attractive 
homes and estates up and do\vn the river. These old places 
were extremely beautiful, although the houses were not impos- 
ing from an architectural standpoint ; many of them were situ- 
ated on high bluffs overlooking the Cooper River and its 
tributaries. Before the eye of the beholder stretched out mile 
after mile of rice fields, all under bank. The dwellings were 
surrounded by lawns, gardens and meadows, while extensive 
woodlands formed a background to the rear. 

No one can imagine the fife which went on in these estab- 
lishments. A little glimpse of the country Hfe in South Caro- 
lina in "Ye Olden Tymes" has been preserved in a poem 
written by Catherine Gendron Poyas, a niece of "The Ancient 
Lady," called "Limerick." In this she tells of the neigh- 
boring places : 

' ' Through pleasant fields, on river-banks we stray, 
Where beauteous Cooper winds his placid way, 
Now classic grown, since Irving 's spreading fame. 
Has given it, for aye, a place and name! 

To Richmond hill, or Farmfield, we repair. 
Or Bossis, sylvan spot, where balmy air 
Revels on sunny day, 'mid fragrant flowers, 
Or gently whispers 'round its woody bowers. 
Perhaps, on Hyde-Park's breezy hill, we stand; 
Or Kensington, whose ancient oaks demand 
The admiration that we show before 
The pleasant mansion opes its friendly door. ' ' 



EASTERN BRANCH OF COOPER RIVER 

The sports in which the guests indulged are glowingly de- 
scribed ; then she speaks of childhood days : 

' ' Oh, carping care ! sorrow ! little then 
Dreamt I j'ou waited on the steps of men ; ' ' 

and tells of playing Avhoop-and-hide 

"Beneath the moon's pure, placid silvery ray — 

But one will say, ' some nig-hts there is no moon ; ' 

I'll show you where we passed those evening-s, soon — 

In some old negro's cot, where blazing nigh. 

The ample pine log sent its flame on liigh. 

There would we sit around the chimney wide, 

List'ning the tales of ghosts — of one who died 

In the old war — and still is heard or seen 

At dead of night, upon the road between 

This gate and Kensington, — a neighboring place — 

Sometimes this horrid phantom comes, they say, 
As gallant steed, carparisoned and gay ; 
Anon it changes to a savage dog, 
That fiercely one attacks ; then, as a hog, 
Goes grunting on its way — but oh, most dread ! 
It last appears — a man without a head ! 

But lighter tales sometimes we would require, 
As close we crept around the cheerful fire : 
Of what ' old master ' used to do and say ; 
Of how ' mass Jack a courting went one day ' ; 
And many a pleasant tale of lady fair. 
With rich brocade, and gems, and raven hair ; — 

But turn we now from childhood's joys and cares. 
To the bright dreams of youth 's extatic years ; ' ' 

The day begins with a stag hunt, and the band of gallants 
hoping to catch a ghmpse of the girls before they start : 

' ' They wait, they loiter o 'er each cup of tea, 
In hopes, before they start, the girls to see ; 
To win a smile — to have the old shoe tost^ 
Without this charm, the field, the day were lost ! 

The hunters off, the maidens find the day 
By far too long, and tedious on the way ; 
But now at last the old clock strikes — 'tis two ! 
They fly upstairs to dress themselves anew ; 

Hark ! Hark ! the huntsman's hom^ — they come, are near ; 
The mistress orders — 'bid the cook prepare 
To serve-up dinner in the shortest space ; 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

And good old Joseph, quick, the side-board grace 
With the refreshments, and with generous wine, 
For, weary from the hunt, before they dine 
They must some relish take . . . " 

After dinner the ladies retire to the parlour : 

' ' While still the gentlemen remain around 
The social board, where wit and song abound. 

'Tis Christmas — and the sable train rejoice : 
Now in their humble cottages the voice 
Of song and mirth is heard : . . . 

Nor does the slave alone this season hail : 

What though the Christmas lamp bums dim and pale 

On our domestic altars, yet the day 

Can never pass unheeded quite, away. 

' Call in the rustic fiddler — clear the hall 
Of chairs and carpets, for a mimic ball ; 
For merry Christmas must not pass us by. 
Unless 'er polished floor our light foot fly. ' 

Crowding each door and window, now a throng 
Of negroes press, and join their voice in song ; 
Their cheerful notes, unchecked, increase the rout. 
And help the tune by fiddle old squeaked out ; 
Cotillions, country-dances, gallops, flings. 
In quick succession each is tried — and brings 
At last in turn, the graceful waltz — that dance 
Conceived in Germany — brought up in France ! 

Old Limerick, to my heart forever dear, 

Where are thy merry crowds dispers 'd. Ah ! where ? " 



CHAPTER V 

SANTEE, FRENCH SANTEE, SOUTH 
SANTEE, NORTH SANTEE 



"SANTEE" 

BY KATHERINE DEAYTON MAYEANT SIMONS 

' ' Child of the coasts, by pale-eyed night, 
Where the slim-stemmed lilies lie in white 

And cold ; 
Where the dank, green fennel hangs its wreath, 
And summer 's pulse-beats stir the breath 
Of stagnant-pooled, dull-rainbowed death 

Deep gold; 

Where the stars of the ghost-white dogwood bloom 
Shine pale as pearl in the still night gloom 

Awake ; 
When the woodbine drips its honeyed blood. 
And the spotted adder seeks her food 
From the death scummed bowl of the still swamp flood 

And brake. 

Nurse of the night's lone- woven spells. 
Mother of tales that the Waxhaw tells 

Of thee: 
In reach of thine moss sleeved arms' long quest, 
Where the Waxhaw's campfire, burned to rest. 
And the Waxhaw's grave-mound, scar thy breast; 

Santee! " 

FRENCH SANTEE 

N ORDER to include local history be- 
longing to territory adjacent to the 
headwaters of the eastern branch of 
Cooper River, to show the geo- 
graphical connection obtaining, and 
to knit up the family connections, as 
well as to show why feehng against 
the Tories was so strong, extracts 
^ have been taken from a brief nar- 
rative of the life and services of Francis G. DeLiesline during 
the war of the Revolution, from the year 1777 to the year 1783 
when peace was declared. He says of himself: "I was born 

91 




HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



at my father's plantation at St. James Santee, about 40 miles 
from Charleston. My grand- and great-grandfathers were 
Huguenots who fled from the persecution of Louis XIV at the 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and with many others 
settled there among the Indians about the year 1685, and this 
part of the country has ever since been called French Santee. 

' ' My father died when I was very young, leaving my mother 
a widow with a handsome estate of slaves, lands and other 
property; when the war commenced I had just entered my 
fourteenth year and I volunteered my services in the company 
of Capt. John Barnett and with others to protect the coast, 
from the mouth of the Santee to Sewee Bay and Bull's Island, 
from the EngUsh privateers who were plundering and carry- 
ing off slaves and other property of the inhabitants. Our com- 
pany remained on this service for some time, then marched 
off to Winyah Bay, near Georgetown, at Cat Island Fort, 
where we were enrolled under the glorious old banner of thir- 
teen stripes, commanded by Capt. Davis, a Continental Officer. 
My company, after some time, was marched back to our for- 
mer station at Santee, until Tarleton with his legion took pos- 
session of all the country from Charleston to Santee. Our 
company as well as all others broke up and everyone shifted 
for himself ; my brother and three others and myself encamped 
in the river swamp opposite my mother's plantation, a little be- 
low Santee Ferry, to avoid Tarleton, as well as the Tories." 

When Col. Washington came to aid Gen. Lincoln he found 
the country on the south of the Santee in possession of the 
enemy, and remained on the north side awaiting events, but 
it was not long before they suddenly crossed the river at 
Lenud's (Lanneau's) Ferry, made a foray about twenty miles 
down to Col. Ball's plantation, and surprised a British guard 
of fourteen men who were left with Ball to assist in collecting 
horses for Tarleton as well as to guard him. Tory Ball made 
his escape over the fence into Wamba Swamp near his house, 
where he had stables built for the horses he collected; he 
mounted one of the fleetest and pushed across the country for 
Strawberry Ferry, on Cooper Eiver, the headquarters of CoL 
Tarleton and informed him of the capture of the guard, etc. 

92 



THE SANTEES 



The Huguenot refugees on the Santee settled plantations 
or farms on or near the western bank of the river, northwardly 
from Wambaw Creek, and the community of French Santee, 
as it was known, built their church) about fifteen miles north 
of the creek, giving it the name of the creek. The edifice 
built in 1767 is still standing, and is still known as 
Wambaw Church. 

The point on the north side of the creek, near its mouth, 
wasi settled by Daniel Huger, and was called "Waterhorn. " 
A monument to his memory was recently discovered by Alfred 
Huger, of Charleston, in a field not far from the' chapel. In 
Mr. Lawson's description of his visit in January 1700-1 by 
canoe to this vicinity, he speaks of "Mons. Eugee's house, 
which stands about 15 miles up the river, being the first 
Christian dwelling in that settlement." In the Record of 
Daniel Huger is the following entry : 

"Thursday, August 17th, 1704. My dear daughter Mar- 
garet Huger was married by License of the Hon. Sir Nathaniel 
Johnson, Governor, directed to Mr. Peter Roberts, Minister 
of the Holy Gospel at Santee, to Elias Horiy, bom at Paris 
in France." 

His son, Daniel Huger, married Ehzabeth Gendron; and 
the residence of Philip Gendron was on the Santee River, a 
short distance above the church, at or near Lenud's Ferry. 

Another plantation in this vicinity was on the southern side 
of "Wambaw Creek, nearly opposite Waterhom, and was 
settled by Mr. Elias Horry. It was called Wambaw; and 
although Mr. Horry was not among the first set of immigrants, 
he became thoroughly identified with French Santee. He ar- 
rived in 1690, and married the daughter of Daniel Huger. 
The house, standing untOl a few years ago, and said to have 
belonged to Elias Horry, is described as follows: "It was a 
high and quaint structure. The high basement was of brick 
with two stories above of wood, and a roof with three gables. 
Steps led to the second story, and rested there upon a small 
veranda. This story was 'finished with wooden and rather 
heavy paneling. ' ' ' 

93 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

In 1700 Mr. John Lawson visited the French settlement on 
Santee River, on a tour which he made through the interior 
of this State ajtid North CaroUna. In 1709 he published an 
account of his travels, under the title of "a Journal of a 
Thousand Miles, Traveled Through Several Nations of the 
Indians, &c." Remnants of the Pedee and Cape Fear tribes 
lived in the parishes of St. Stephens and St. Johns. "King 
Johnny" was their chief, -\vith one other called "Prince." 
There were several Indians in the neighborhood of Pineville. 

Associated with French Santee is Jamestown, where there 
is an old church, the site of which is known, and near it 
are graves which are remembered but now obliterated. The 
estate of the late Samuel J. Pahner now owns the land upon 
which Jamestown was laid out. It has long been known as 
Mount Moriah. 

On account of freshets the French settlers moved higher 
up the river, into what afterwards became St. Stephen's 
Parish. This section had been gradually acquiring settlers, 
and had obtained the name of English Santee ; in 1754 it was 
incorporated as a parish under the title of St. Stephens. The 
Parish Church is about 19 miles above the site of Jamestown. 
It will be remembered that the three parishes of St. Johns, St. 
Thomas and St. James Santee corner on Windsor plantation. 

SOUTH SANTEE 
FAIRFIELD 

"Fairfield," the Santee home of the Pinckney family, 
which is the oldest place on the river, now belongs to Cotes- 
worth Pinckney, of Richmond, Virginia. The Pinckneys are 
of English descent, sprung from a family widely scattered 
over England. It is said that the name is of Norman origin, 
and is variously spelled Pincheni, Pinchinge, Pinqueny, 
Pinkeni, Pinkeny, Pinkeney, Pinckeny, showing the changes 
through which the Norman word passed, until it settled down 
into the present form, Pinkney or Pinckney. Though holding 
extensive estates in many parts of England, their names are 
not prominent in political history. 

94 



^■1^ tMW ' 




THE SANTEES 



The only event in the family history which rises above the 
general level is the claim of one of the name to the crown of 
Scotland, in the time of Bruce and Bahol, through his grand- 
mother, Alice de Lyndsay. "Ahce had married Sir Henry de 
Pinkeney, a great baron of Northamptonshire. Her grandson, 
Sir Eobert Pinkeney, claimed the crown of Scotland at the 
competition in 1292, as descended from the Princess Margery, 
through his grandmother, Alice de Lyndsay." 

Three branches of the Pinckney family emigrated to 
America ; one to West Chester, New York, in 1684, one to South 
Carolina in 1692, and one to Maryland about 1750. William 
Pinckney, the jurist and statesman, is the most conspicuous 
figure in this latter branch. The first of the name who came 
to Carolina was Thomas Pinckney, in 1692. His wife was 
Mary Cotesworth, of Durham. He was a man of independent 
fortune, and built a house at the corner of East Bay and Tradd 
Streets, Charleston, S. C, where he Uved and died. The Bay 
was not then encumbered with houses on its water front, but 
commanded a full view of the harbor, as the East Battery 
now does. 

One personal anecdote is recorded of him. In looking out 
of his windows upon the bay, he observed a vessel just arrived 
from the West Indies, landing her passengers. As they walked 
up the street, he was attracted by the appearance of a very 
handsome stranger, and turning to his wife remarked, "That 
handsome West Indian will marry some poor fellow's widow, 
break her heart and ruin her children. His words were in part 
prophetic, for he died of yellow fever shortly after, his widow 
married the gay West Indian, George Evans, and though he 
did not break her heart, as she hved to marry a third husband, 
he often made her heart ache with his extravagance, squan- 
dering the patrimony of her children. Enough, however, was 
saved to enable them to have a hberal education. 

Thomas Pinckney 's three sons were Thomas, an officer in 
the British Army, who died young ; Charles, the Chief Justice, 
and William, the Commissioner in Equity. Charles was edu- 
cated in England, and there married Elizabeth, daughter of 

95 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Captain Lamb, of Devonshire Square, London. Eetuming to 
Carolina, lie became a successful lawyer and accumulated a 
large fortune and served as Speaker of the House and one of 
the King's Councillors. Having been married some years 
without children Charles Pinckney adopted his brother Wil- 
liam's eldest son, Charles, as his prospective heir, and sent him 
to England to be educated; but a romantic incident in the 
family annals interfered with this plan. 

In 1739 Colonel George Lucas, Governor of Antigua, arrived 
in Charleston with his family. The climate of the West 
Indies did not suit Mrs. Lucas ; and her husband brought his 
family to CaroUna, to an estate which he owned on the Stono 
River, ten miles by water and six miles by land from town. 

His young daughter, just twenty years of age, was quite 
in advance of her generation, and that she anticipated, at the 
junction of the Stono and Wappoo Eivers, the cultivation of 
those tropical fruits which are pouring such streams of wealth 
into the once barren lands of Florida. 

A letter written to a friend not long after her father's 
departure gives a vivid ghmpse of the way in which she appre- 
ciated the responsibihty thrust upon her. 

"I have a httle Ubrary in which I spend part of my time. 
My music and the garden, which I am very fond of, take up 
the rest that is not employed in business, of which my father 
has left me a pretty good share ; and indeed was unavoidable, 
as my mama's bad state of health prevents her going thro' 
any fatigue. I have the business of three plantations to trans- 
act, which requires much writing and more business and 
fatigue of other sorts than you can imagine. But lest you 
should imagine it to be burdensome to a girl at my early time 
of hf e, give me leave to assure you that I think myself happy 
that I can be useful to so good a father. ' ' 

Mrs. Lucas and her daughter were cordially received in 
Charleston society, but were especially welcomed in Colonel 
Pinckney 's home. So open was Mrs. Pinckney 's admiration 
for the young lady that, rather than permit her to return to 
Antigua, she declared her readiness to "step out of the way 
and permit her to take her place." This kind intention she 

96 



THE SAN TEES 



actually fulfilled by dying the following year; and her hus- 
band was considei-ate enough to marry the lady his wife had 
chosen for him. 

The marriage certificate issued May 25th, 1744, and signed 
by Governor Glen, authorized Charles Pinckney and Elizabeth 
Lucas to intermarry, and the said Charles Pinckney binds him- 
self by a bond of £2000 to the faithful performance of the con- 
tract. Mr. Pinckney was also considerate enough to construct 
for her another dwelling which stood near the present Sea- 
man's Mission. 

Justice Pinckney bought a whole square on East Bay, and 
built a handsome mansion in the center of it, facing the harbor. 
The house was of brick, two stories high, mth roof of slate. 
There was a wide hall running from front to rear. One of the 
rooms on the second floor was thirty feet long and had a high 
ceiling. The whole house was wainscoted. The mantelpieces 
were high and narrow, with fronts beautifully carved. In this 
house were born the two sons of Charles Pinckney and EUza- 
beth Lucas, his wife ; namely, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 
and Thomas Pinckney, who rendered great service to their 
country during the Eevolution and afterwards. 

"America is indebted," says Bruce Addington, in Smith's 
Magazine, "to women like Eliza Lucas Pinckney — possessed 
of the advantages of wealth and position, ardent, light-hearted, 
high-spirited, but right-minded and earnest and brave. They 
were women of fine ideals and fine achievement. Even when 
their dreams did not come true, when fate was adverse to them, 
they left traditions that have powerfully, however uncon- 
sciously, influenced the thought and point of view of posterity. 
In the South, as on the forgotten plantations of Rhode Island, 
this type of woman was the mistress of noble mansions, and of 
a small army of dependents, they keenly appreciated the duties 
as well as the privileges which this entailed. They cheerfully 
looked after the manifold affairs of household management, 
taught their servants and slaves the domestic sciences, and 
were untiring in work of charity. To their children they were 
the best of mothers." 

7 97 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

From her marriage with Mr. Pinckney came the two gen- 
erals, Charles Cotesworth, born 1746, and Thomas Pinckney, 
born 1750, and one daughter, Harriott, wife of Daniel Horry. 

Charles Pinckney, one of the illustrious sons of Eliza Lucas, 
in his "Draft of Federal Government," which he laid before 
the Convention, included this clause : ' ' The Legislature of the 
United States shall pass no law on the subject of rehgion." 
The clause was omitted in the form of the Constitution actu- 
ally adopted ; but the fact remains that the first step towards 
the removal of rehgious disabilities, and the establishment of 
equal rights, was made by this able son of South Carolina. 

The honor of urging the subject in the Convention is due 
to Charles Pinckney, of South Carolina. His State followed 
his leading, and in 1790, upon a review of the Constitution of 
South Carolina, the clauses excluding Catholics from place 
and honor were stricken out. 

The other son held, among other high offices, that of Gen- 
eral in the Revolutionary War, first American minister ap- 
pointed by Washington to the Court of St. James, and Minister 
to Spain in 1795. "Fairfield" was the Thomas Pinckney 
plantation home and a letter comes from him there in 1791 to 
Mr. Edward Rutledge (brother of Dictator John) concerning 
a communication from Mr. Jefferson asking whether it would 
be agreeable if he (Mr. Jefferson) should nominate Mr. Pinck- 
ney to the Senate as Minister to London. Mr. Pinckney said 
that almost every private consideration appeared against his 
accepting this position, but he writes to Mr. Rutledge : "Pray 
let me have your thoughts on these and any other subjects of 
immediate consideration, by a letter left for me in town, unless 
you should send an express. I am almost ashamed of requiring 
this of you but as you made me a governor, and now insist upon 
my being a minister, you must advise me in this situation, as 
you supported me in the former. ' ' 

Mr. Rutledge advised acceptance, and as soon as he could 
arrange his domestic affairs Mr. Pinckney left home with his 
wife, who had been very ill, stopping over in Philadelphia to 
confer with the President. It has been alleged that Mr. Pinck- 
ney sought this appointment, but the Pinckney point of view 

98 



THE SANTEES 



is fully explained in portions of two letters. ' ' My wife, I thank 
God, mends, though slowly. I have not ventured to open the 
subject to her. It would be too much for the weak state of her 
nerves. Poor Gadsden, too, is gone. My heart is filled with 
anguish, while my head is disturbed with this unfortunate 
appointment. Once more adieu. Your truly affectionate, 
Thomas Pinckney." 

The mission to England does not appear more gratifying 
to Mrs. Pinckney than to her husband, as will appear in this 
letter from Judge Iredell written to his wife in Philadelphia 
under date, Charleston, April 19th, 1792. "Major Pinckney 
(the minister to Britain) and his family sail to-morrow. I 
have received such uncommon courtesies from him and his 
connections that I must earnestly entreat you to wait on Mrs. 
Pinckney soon after her arrival. . . . She is a most amiable 
woman, and none can be more free from any kind of pride or 
affectation. I am told that she has been in tears almost ever 
since her husband 's appointment. ' ' The Pinckney address for 
the next four years was No. 1 Great Cumberland Place 
in London. 

A letter written by Mr. Pinckney to the Secretary of State 
in America show^s that the taint of rebellion still cleaved to our 
country and her representatives. "In my first communication 
I mentioned the ci\Tlity with which I was received at St. James, 
and at the Office of Foreign Affairs. The only circumstance 
worth mentioning in my conference with the king was that 
Lord North's rope of sand appeared not to have been entirely 
effaced from His Majesty's memory; so I infer, from his men- 
tioning the different circumstances between the Northern and 
Southern parts of our country tending to produce disunion. 
... I have been constant in every attendance- at the king's 
levees since the return of the court to St. James, and, placing 
myself in the circle of foreign ministers, his Majesty never 
fails to have a few moments' conversation with me on the 
weather, or other topic equally important ; but notwithstand- 
ing the great variety of incident that has lately occurred in 
Ei°ropean poUtics, he never touches upon that subject with 

0!) 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

me. The Queen also was very gracious but quite as non-com- 
mittal in her attitude." 

America appreciated the service her distinguished son had 
rendered his country. When General Pinckney returned to 
South Carohna in 1799 the City of Charleston gave him a pub- 
lic dinner at the City Hall on Friday, February 8, 1799. The 
City Gazette and Daily Advertiser for the next day contains 
the following in its account of the ceremonies : 

"The Hall, in the evening, was handsomely lighted up, and 
at the upper end was ornamented with the portrait of Gen- 
eral Pinckney, under which the following transparent labels 
appeared, 'il faut de I'argent; il faut beaucoup d 'argent!' — 
'No, No ! not a six-pence. ' In front of the City-Hall was exhib- 
ited a transparent painting ; a female figure appeared seated on 
a rock ; at her side is the American eagle ; at a distance she sees 
a dove returning, with the ohve branch she had sent ; she im- 
mediately seizes hold of several arrows, which lie at the foot 
of the American standard, and seems prepared for war. 
Over her head appears, 'millions for defence, not a cent 
for tribute. ' ' ' 

This traditional utterance is found upon the tablet to his 
memory in St. Michael's Church, and is still thrust upon him, 
though historians contend to the contrary. But if Mr. Pinck- 
ney was not beloved in England, he was properly appreciated 
at home. An intimacy existed between Mrs. Pinckney and 
Mrs. Washington, and a letter from her to Mrs. Pinckney 
(copied from "A Catalogue of Rare Letters") written in 1799, 
in return for Mrs. Pinckney 's "obUg'in favors," thanks her 
for some "mellon seeds" and refers to Mrs. Pinckney 's recent 
stay at Mount Vernon: "A place at which we shall always be 
gratified in seeing General Pinckney, yourself or any of the 
family. In which let me add a hope, if his military duties 
should call him to the State of Virginia, that you will always 
consider us as your headquarters during your abidance in 
it. ... I will with pleasure send you the profiles of the 
General and myself, and feel the compliment of them being 
asked." She then mentions marriage of "Nelly Curtis to Mr. 
Lewis (who you saw here) who is at her mothers or she would 
write in reciprocating wishes of yourself and Miss Ehza and 

100 



THE SAN TEES 



would rejoice to hear of the happiness of her friend, Harriet 
Eutledge. Closed with sentiments of perfect esteem and re- 
gard, I am my dear Madame your most obedient H'ble Ser'vt. 
^lartha Washington." 

Being on the highway between northern cities and Charles- 
ton, General Pinckney's house seldom lacked guests. Unless 
in old Virginia more genuine, habitual hospitality could no 
where be found than in the low country of Carolina. This 
feeling was embodied in the remark of a venerable citizen who 
lived in that vicinity, "if I see no carriageis under the visitor's 
shed when I return from my fields to dinner, I say to myself, 
my friends have not treated me well to-day." An English 
gentleman of fortune, Adam Hodgson, of Liverpool, who spent 
three years in exploring our country, having brought letters of 
introduction, visited General Pinckney at Santee and Eldo- 
rado. His impressions of this visit are recorded in a volume 
of "Travels" which he published in 1824. The first thing 
which struck him as he entered the house was the number and 
size of the A\indows, enough to make an Enghshman shudder 
when he recalled the tax upon each pane of glass to which he 
was accustomed at home. The library was also a surprise. 
"My host had an excellent library, comprising many recent 
and valuable British publications, and a more extensive col- 
lection of agricultural works than I had ever seen before in a 
private library. In works on botany and American orni- 
thology the supply was large. The latter especially interested 
me, not having seen them before. ' ' 

He accompanied his host on his daily visits to the fields, 
the mills, and the hospital, and records his surprise when he 
heard this "benevolent master order wine and oranges for 
some sick negroes." He inspected carefully the houses, the 
food, the clothing of the negroes and admitted that in these 
m.atters our laborers compared favorably with those of 
other lands. 

HAMPTON 

When the Horry tract at Wambaw was divided, although 
the portion upon which the original house stood was sold, yet 

101 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



the eastern moiety remained in the possession of descendants 
of the original settler on the distaff side ; it having passed to 
the late Mrs. Frederick Rutledge, a daughter of Daniel Horry, 
and is now owned and occupied by Col. H. M. Eutledge, a 
grandson of Frederick Rutledge. 

On this eastern tract there stands, a mile east of the 
original Horry house, a large and fine mansion. It was built 
in 1730, of yellow pine and cypress, over a brick foundation, 
by Mrs. Daniel Horry, widow of the French Huguenot who 
came over in 1686 and is buried just north of Hampton at 
AVaterhorn. This house has long been the seat of refined hos- 
pitality, and is well known as ' ' Hampton. ' ' It came into the 
Rutledge family through the daughter of Mrs. Horry, and has 
constantly remained a Rutledge home. 

Of this place Archibald H. Rutledge, son of Col. H. M. 
Rutledge, says it is "one of the great rice plantations (contain- 
ing 1285 acres) that lie along the coast country of South Caro- 
lina. It was the headquarters of the * Swamp Fox, ' the daunt- 
less Francis Marion." 

A mile or more of avenue leads to the massive old colonial 
house on Hampton, opening upon the wide lawn dotted by 
those sentinels of the centuries, which, with the white mansion, 
its lofty portico and its simple, but beautiful pediment sup- 
ported by heavy columns, in its setting of giant oaks hung mth 
Spanish moss, make a charming and impressive picture. Upon 
the occasion of a recent marriage in the family, although the 
guests were obliged to go by automobile, yet as one drove 
through the historic woods one's thoughts went back to olden 
times when the cavaliers and Huguenots, resplendent in cocked 
hats, ruffled shirts, knee breeches and brilUant coats, with 
dames and maidens in gay brocades of silk and satin, hastened 
along this way on similar errand bent. 

Arrived at the house, instead of stately coaches with coach- 
men and outriders in livery, which one naturally would asso- 
ciate with this scene, the equipages of the guests were parked 
in front of the house, about the historic Washington oak, so 
called because the tree was spared from the axe by the request 

102 




THE UINING-ROOM AT " HAMFTUN ' 




THE PORTICO AT "HAiSiPTON" 



THE SANTEES 



of George Washington when he visited Hampton late in 
the century. 

Perhaps the most impressive feature of Hampton is the 
portico which must be traversed in order to gain entrance to 
the house. Once inside the hospitable portals of this colonial 
home the visitors tind themselves in a great reception hall, 
amply supplied with antique furniture and decorated with 
family portraits. Some of the rooms possess landscape wall- 
paper like that found at Friendfield. One of the beauties of 
Hampton is its great ballroom occupying the entire east wing. 
This has an immense carved chimneyplace lined with Dutch 
tiles, in which it is said that five persons can stand. 

Of course, this house has its ghost. The "Ghost-room," 
which is the guest room, is found over the dining-room. No 
one has ever seen there a "horrid spectre," for this ghost 
only makes a sound, and the noise is Uke someone moving a 
carpet stealthily over the floor. 

At Hampton is kept a magnificent pulpit-bible, prayer- 
book, and "Book of the Institutions," presented to Wambaw 
Church by Mrs. Rebecca Motte, who removed to St. James 
Santee after the historic burning of her house at Orangeburg. 
At the time of the Revolution these wei'e captured by the Brit- 
ish and taken to England. Fortunately they were inscribed mth 
her name, and tradition has it that a British officer who had re- 
ceived kindness from Mrs. Motte, seeing the books exposed in 
London on a book-stall, recognized the name of the OAvner, 
purchased the books, and turned them over to Mrs. Motte 's 
son-in-law, General Thomas Pinckney, then Minister at the 
court of St. James, and were by him returned to the parish 
of St. James, Santee, where they are now kept at the Rutledge 
home at Hampton. 

EL DORADO ON THE SANTEE 
El Dorado, on the Santee, was built by, and was the home 
of, General Thomas Pinckney, our "first American Minister 
appointed to the Court of St. James, and Minister to Spain, 
1795." It was the second home of General Pinckney, the first 
having been at Fairfield, not far distant. 

103 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

The house at El Dorado, "situated on a sandy knoll, jut- 
ting out into the rice-fields, embowered by live-oaks with their 
outstretched arms and lofty magnolias with their glittering 
foliage," was a typical Sou,thern home. It was surrounded by 
the native evergreen shrubbery through which ran winding 
walks. "The spacious mansion, which he planned and built 
with his own carpenters, is very suggestive of a French 
chateau, with its wide corridors, its lofty ceilings, and its 
peaked roof of glazed tiles. . . . 

"After his return to America General Pinckney married 
another daughter of Eebecca Motte, Mrs. Middleton, the widow 
of a young EngUshman who had crossed the Atlantic to bear 
ai-ms in the cause of the colonies." He resigned Fairfield and 
purchased the present plantation, which he named Eldorado in 
remembrance of his Spanish mission, and from the golden but- 
tercups which covered the land. 

"The house here was built in conjunction with his mother- 
in-law. Mrs. Motte had sold her plantation on the Congarees, 
and removed to Santee to be near her daughters. . . . The 
large rooms, the lofty ceihngs, the numerous windows, seem 
now unsuitable for a winter home, and suggest a lack of prac- 
tical talent in the builder. . . . The planters in those days, 
however, occupied their homes all the year. . . . 

"The air was redolent of nature's fresh perfumes. The 
yellow jessamine, the sweet-scented shrub, and other native 
plants, which fill our forests with their fragrance, met here in 
rich profusion. The sweet rose of France, the English and 
cape jessamine, mingled with the odors of the orange-blossom 
in perfect harmony. . . . 

"From the windows of his stately home, General Pinckney 
could look out upon his own busy fields, and over many miles 
of rice-lands in the delta of the river. The banks and ditches 
which marked the separate fields, and the long canals which 
intersected the whole ... all were spread out before the 
eye. The quiet of the landscape was often relieved by the 
white sails of a schooner on the river. . . . " 

At the time of the Civil War, Eldorado, being so near the 
mouth of the river, was "exposed to the visits of vessels from 

104 



T H E S A N TEES 



the blockading squadron. . . . The house was shelled by 
gunboats from the fleet in 1863, and bears the scars of war 
upon its face. The mills were burnt by a hostile party, landed 
on the banks, and the house only saved from the torch by the 
timely arrival of a squadron of Confederate Cavalry under 
command of a grandson of its former owner. . . . 

"Mr. Pinckney's love of agriculture was manifest all 
through the period of his English mission. . . . Through his 
second wife a large body of marshlands at the mouth of the 
Santee, adjoining the ocean, came into the possession of this 
noted agriculturist. It was covered alternately by fresh and 
by salt water, and so impregnated with the saline element as to 
he considered entirely unfit for cultivation. When the execu- 
tor of the estate handed General Pinckney the titles to this 
portion of his wife's property, he apologized for offering a 
gentleman anything so worthless. But the new owner remem- 
bered that the rich lands of Holland had been redeemed from 
the sea ; . . . and he imported from Holland a sldllf ul engi- 
neer, who soon succeeded in protecting the land from the salt 
water, and introduced among the rice-planters of the State the 
Van Hassel system of embankment. 

"By repeated experiments the saline nature of the soil was 
rendered fit for the culture of rice, and by enlarging the culti- 
vated area, a large body of inexhaustible fertility was re- 
claimed, so that from this once contemptible estate a crop of 
twenty thousand bushels of rice was sent to market annually. 
Two of General Pinckney 's children received the chief part of 
their inheritance from these lands. ' ' 

In regard to the treatment of his nmnerous slaves, General 
Pinckney carried out the idea of the patriarchal relationship 
which the Southern planter felt towards them, making it pos- 
sible for the slaves to glory in their masters, and to look up 
to them as the Scottish clansmen did to their ancestral chiefs. 

"In the familiar picture of the Washington family by 
Savage, a stately black butler stands behind Washington's 
chair. That is General Pinckney's body-servant, John Riley, 
a freeman, for many years in his employ. His wife was Mrs. 
Pinckney's maid, who accompanied her mistress to England. 

105 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



Not mshing to separate him from his wife during his residence 
abroad, General Pinckney carried Eiley with him to England. 
As the painter who was then engaged on the Washington 
family picture had no black model at hand, he borrowed John 
Riley from the American ambassador to pose as one of "Wash- 
ington's servants. . . . 

"Thomas Pinckney died on the 2d of November, 1828, in 
the seventy-ninth year of his age. The uniform companies of 
the 16th and 17th regiments of South Carolina troops, a 
squadron of cavalry, and a detachment from the United States 
garrison at Fort Moultrie, formed the military escort at his 
funeral. His horse, with its trappings and empty saddle, 
dressed in crape, followed inamediately after the bier, attended 
by his three aides. Colonels James Ferguson, Lewis Morris 
and Frederick Kinloch, then the officers of the United States 
and State of South Carolina. . . . The procession moved 
from his house in Legare Street to St. Philip's Church, on the 
north side of which his remains repose. . . . 

"The three swords which General Pinckney had used in the 
wars of the Revolution and of 1812 he bequeathed by will to his 
three sons, with the injunction that 'they never be drawn in 
any private quarrel, and never remain in their scabbards, when 
their country demanded their service.' In obedience to his 
example and his instructions, fourteen of his descendants 
sei'ved in the Confederate Army. . . ." 

The story of the Life of General Thomas Pinckney, from 
which many extracts have been quoted, was written by his 
grandson, the Rev. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, D.D., presi- 
dent of the South Carolina Historical Society. 

NORTH SANTEE 

The peninsula formed by Winyah Bay on the north, the 
Atlantic Ocean on the east, and the North Santee River on the 
south, with its various deltas, contains rich plantation lands 
adjoining the North Santee River. Many of the houses be- 
longing to these plantations were not built upon the rice-lands, 
but upon the highlands on the other side of the river. Starting 
at the ferry, in order are Hopseewee, Fawnhill, White Oak, 

106 




•EL DOEADO," ON THE SANTEE, ONE OF THE PINCKNEY HOMES 




"HOPSEEWEE," (LUCAS HOUSE), NORTH SANTEE 
Home of Thomas Lynch, Lhc Signer 



THE SANTEES 



Kice Hope, Camp Main and Bcarhill. Behind this latter plan- 
tation are three tracts, Mill Dam, Pleasant Meadow, and The 
Marsh, and on the river again are Green Meadow and 
Cat Island. 

In 1855 the Bishop's Journal states that : 

"Friday, 23rd (March)— At North Santee, preached on 
the plantation of Mr. Ladson. ' ' 

The church at North Santee was then called the Church of 
the Messiah, and the Eev. Thomas J. Girardeau was rector. 

HOPSEEWEB 

Hopseewee on the North Santee River, now o^vned by the 
Lucas family, was built about 200 years ago by Mr. John 
LjTich, who received the land grant from the King of England. 
The house stands on a high bluff on the northern bank of the 
river, and is built of black cypress on a brick foundation. The 
original veranda fell into decay very many years ago, and 
was replaced about 1850 by double piazzas. The floor plan is 
that of the typical square old southern dwelhng ; four rooms on 
each of the two floors, all opening into the center halls, both 
iTpper and lower, which extend the entire length of the house. 
In the back of the lower hall is the stairway. The grounds 
are enclosed with ancient and majestic live-oaks, and beauti- 
ful japonica trees. 

Thomas Lynch, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
was the son of the original owner, John Lynch, and was born 
at Hopseewee in August, 1749. He was educated in England, 
and in 1772 married Elizabeth Shubrick. He was a distin- 
guished poUtical figure in this country from the time of his 
membership in the Provincial Congresses of 1775-1776, until 
his death in 1779 when he was lost at sea. He is spoken of as 
the "Signer," having signed the Declaration of Independence 
during his term "as a sixth delegate" from South Carolina to 
the Continental Congress. 

In 1762 Mr. Lynch sold the property to Mr. Robert Hume, 
a Goose Creek planter, and he in turn gave it to his son, Mr. 
John Hume, who died in 1845. It then came into the posses- 
sion of Mr. Hume's grandson, Mr. John Hume Lucas, who used 

107 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

it as a winter home, and it has subsequently been always owned 
by descendants of the Lucas family. 

A will of Jonathan Lucas, who was probably a famous 
member of the family in former days (dated 1874), speaks of 
" my mill and planting establishments," but there is nothing 
in the will to show where they are located ; he may mean one 
on the plantation, or one that we know of in Charles- 
ton. As E. G. Memminger, Wm. Lucas, and "W. J. Bennett 
were appointed executors of the will it would seem to indicate 
that this is the rice mill commonly called Bennett's Mill. 

The following extracts are taken from the Year Book 
issued by Mayor Courtenay celebrating the Centennial 
of Incorporation : 

" LUCAS ' EICE MILLS 

"The various contrivances for cleaning rice from the crude 
wooden mortar and ligiitwood pestle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, as well as the later inventions of Guerard and others, all 
passed away when Jonathan Lucas introduced here his im- 
proved rice mill run by water-power. 

"To this citizen we are indebted for the admirable 
machinery by which rice is cleaned and prepared for market — 
machinery which in its most improved state has been copied 
and introduced in the North and in Europe, serving materially 
to increase the consumption of the grain by supplying it in the 
most desirable condition to home and foreign markets. . . . 

"He was a thoroughly educated millwright, was born in 
1754 at Cumberland, England. Shortly after the war of the 
Revolution he sailed from England for a more Southern port, 
but through stress of weather the vessel was driven on this 
coast and stranded near the mouth of Santee River. It was 
there that he noticed the laborious process then in use, for 
cleaning rice from its hull, and preparing it for market. His 
was the thought and his the skill which accomplished the won- 
derful economic improvements upon the old 'laborious 
processes' by which the great forces of nature were soon to 
be harnessed to new machines, and the cultivation and prepara- 
tion of this cereal to receive an impetus which subsequently 
resulted in greatly increased rice crops. 

"In the year 1787 the first water mill was erected by Mr. 
Lucas, to whom the credit of the invention is understood to 
be due. This was built for Mr. Bowman on a reserve at his 
Peach Island plantation on Santee River. Jonathan Lucas, 

108 



THE SANTEES 



Jr., inherited his father's mechanical talent and skill, and 
associated with him constructed on Cooper River in 1801 the 
first toll mill for cleaning rice. . . . He yielded at length 
to the invitations of the British Government, and passed the 
remainder of his days in England . . . (in 1822). 

". . . The subsequent erection by Jonathan Lucas, Jr., 
and others of rice mills in Europe had the effect of dramng 
rough rice supplies not only from Eastern countries but from 
Charleston ; under the influence of import duties on clean rice, 
that of Great Britain being equal to $4.00 per tierce of clean 
rice, mills were kept running in London, Liverpool, Copen- 
hagen, Bremen, Amsterdam, Lisbon and Bordeaux, and 
Carolina rough rice was shipped hence in cargoes to those 
distant mills. . . ." 

Other rice mills built on the Santee by Mr. Lucas, Sr., were 
on the reserve at Washo Plantation, for Mrs. Middleton, after- 
wards Mrs. General Thomas Pinckney ; on a reserve of Winyah 
Bay for Gen. Peter Horry ; on the reserve at the Fairfield plan- 
tation of Col. William Alston, on the WaccamaAV River ; and in 
1791-92 Mr. Lucas built on the Santee, for Mr. Andrew John- 
son on his plantation called Millbrook, the first tide mill. A 
year or two later he erected an improved tide mill at the 
plantation of Henry Laurens, called Mepkin, and in 1795, on 
Shem Creek, at Hardell's Point, in Charleston Harbor, he 
erected a combined rice and saw mill driven by water-power. 
This was the first mill erected in the immediate vicinity of 
the city. 

" . . . About 1840, Jonathan Lucas, the grandson, built a 
steam rice mill upon the Ashley, where now stands West Point 
Mill. This mill was burnt, and the pi-esent West Point Mill 
Company built on this site in 1860-1861. ' ' 

This is located at the western end of Calhoun Street, within 
the city limits, and was operated up to the year 1919. 

Hopseewee, at the present time, is the home of T. Cordes 
Lucas and his mother, Mrs. Wm. Lucas, and is in a remark- 
able state of preservation. The residents of the historic old 
place have a deep and thorough appreciation of it, and the 
writer has received much of the foregoing information 
through the kindness of Mrs. Lucas and her sister-in-law, Mrs. 
T. G. S. Lucas, of Charleston. At a recent exhibit of colonial 

109 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

relics at the Charleston Museum, there was displayed an ex- 
quisite wedding veil used by this family over one hundred and 
fifty years ago, loaned by Miss Sarah Lucas. 

WINYAH BARONY 

To the north of these, again, on the remainder of the penin- 
sula occupying the territory between North Santee and Win- 
yah Bay, is that portion known by the name of the Winyah 
Barony, deriving its name from its situation on the large bay. 
The barony was originally laid out to Landgrave Robert 
Daniel, whose ownership continued one day. Landgrave Smith 
being the second owner. It is frequently referred to as 
Smith's Barony. 

Here Thomas Smith had dreams of founding a town, and 
the South Carolina Gazette for the week 16-23 July, 1737, 
carried an advertisement stating the situation of the proposed 
town, and setting forth its advantages. Evidently the lots did 
not sell, and some months later Thomas Smith offered induce- 
ments "to all poor Protestants of any Nature whatsoever, that 
are willing to come and settle" on the Winyah Barony. He 
died the nest year, but before his death gave some of the 
barony to his eldest son, Thomas, who died before his father, 
but who devised 1000 acres of the 3000 given him by his father 
to his sister Justinah Moore. (It is to be noted that the 2nd 
Landgrave was twice married, and that he had by a second 
wife a younger son also named Thomas.) 

The rest of the various tracts were disposed of by the will 
of Landgrave Thomas; it states that he had at the time 31 
grandchildren and great-grandchildren. The land at Winyah 
Barony and other Smith lands in the neighborhood are fully 
traced in Judge Smith's able article on Winyah Barony. 

One of the sons of Landgrave Thomas named his portion 
of the Smith lands The Retreat. It is interesting to note that 
the lines of Winyah Barony as originally laid out encroach 
upon several inland plantations later found in possession of 
other people. 

"On 28th August, 1733, Mr. Thomas Lynch had obtained 
a grant for 4500 acres, lying mainly to the South of the 
no 



THE SANTEES 



Barony. It included, however, the valuable tidal rice swamps 
on Santee River which had been omitted from the barony 
grant. At the date the barony was run out the value of the 
tidal swamps for rice cultivation was not yet known. The 
lines of the new grant overlapped or interfered with the lines 
of the barony, and the result was Utigation between Thomas 
Smith and Thomas Lynch. The exact result of this Htigation 
the available remaining records do not disclose, but appar- 
ently by some settlement the title of the various purchasers 
from Thomas Lynch to so much of their land as was included 
in this 'overlap' was confirmed." 

Among the plantations affected by this overlap were Cat 
Island; Green Meadows; Tidyman's; Annandale; a Hazzard 
place upon which is found a fairly representative old house ; 
The Marsh, and the Eetreat. Cat Island extends completely 
across the peninsula, from North Santee River to Winyah 
Bay. Across the head of this island is found the Estherville 
Canal, for small boats. Cat Island is a Lowndes possession. 

The location of the town called Smiths-Town, apparently 
fronted on Winyah Bay just west of Estherville plantation, 
and east of the east hne of the Retreat plantation, where the 
highland comes to the beach or water's edge, without inter- 
vening marsh or mud flats. 

Phihp Tidyman, M.D., late of Charleston, owned a place 
in Winyah Barony. His will (1843) directs his executors to 
keep his whole estate together during the hfetime of his daugh- 
ter, Susan Tidyman, and to have his plantations cultivated by 
his slaves as they were at the time of his death. After the 
death of his daughter, the executors are directed to sell his 
real estate, including the Cedar Hill plantation in St. James 
Parish. By the breaking out of the C.S.A. and the U.S.A. 
War, and the threatened invasion by the forces of the latter 
upon the plantations mentioned, the executors were compelled 
for the safe keeping of the slaves, to remove them from the said 
plantation and abandon the culture thereof. George A. Tren- 
holm afterwards bought the Tidyman plantations in the Parish 
of Prince George Winyah (North Santee). After various 
legacies the will directs that the remainder of the proceeds of 
sales are to be equally divided between Mr. Tidyman's nieces. 



CHAPTER VI 
GEORGETOWN AND VICINITY 



GEORGETOWN 

^5<_?)HE ground on which Georgetown stands 
was originally granted to Mr. Perry, the 
ancestor of the present family of Kin- 
loch, according to The Ancient Lady; 
through mistake it was granted a second 
time to the Rev. William Screven, the 
first Baptist minister in South Carolina 
and one of the first settlers in the Prov- 




ince, but was later reclaimed and I'ecovered by virtue of the 
earlier grant. The town of Georgetown was projected approx- 
imately in 1732 or 1733, but the land was not granted for the 
purpose until 1734. The following year George Pawley, Wil- 
liam Swinton, Daniel La Roche, and two others were appointed 
Harbor Commissioners to "lay out buoys, errect beacons, and 
regulate pilotage. ' ' 

About the year 1740 the indigo planters of the Parish of 
Prince George Winyah formed a convival club and decided to 
meet on the first Friday of each month in the town of George- 
towm. This was called the Winyah Indigo Society. The old 
Oak Tavern which stood in Bay Street was the scene of these 
monthly reunions. On the first Friday of May, each year, 
the anniversary meeting took place, when the important busi- 
ness of the Society was transacted, and then the annual dinner, 
with its songs and anecdotes, occupied the attention of the 
members for hours, and tradition reports it as a very merry 
function. Fees and contributions Avere paid in the staple crop 
of the section— indigo— and by the year 1753 the club was a 
rich association. A proposal was made that the surplus funds 
be devoted to the establishment of an independent charity 
school for the poor. The meeting rose to its feet. "Every 
glass was turned down without staining the table cloth, ' ' and 
the school of the Winyali Indigo Society was estabhshed and 

112 



GEORGETOWN AND VICINITY 

has continued its good work to this day. The holdings of the 
Society are among tlie most valuable real estate properties in 
the city, embracing the imposing and historic brick building 
■which was used for years as an academy, and later for the 
graded school. It was probably to this building that the notice 
below refers : 

"Charles Gee of the Parish of Prince George, Bachelor, 
and Catherine Bond of the Parish of Prince George, Widow, 
were married in the Public School-House of Prince George, 
b}^ Banns, this Twenty Fourth Day of April in the Year of 
our Lord, 1770, by me S. F. Warren, Rector of St. James 

Santee. 

This marriage was 

Solemnized between us 

In the Presence of Charles Gee 

Catherine Bond X her mark 
Thomas Webb 
Peter Maume (?)" 

An autograph letter of George Washington referring to 
his reception in Georgetown, is greatly prized by the citizens of 
the town. It is in the possession of the Winyah Indigo Society, 
and is as follows : 

"To the Inhabitants of Georgetown and Its Vicinity: 
"Gentlemen — I receive your Congratulations on my ar- 
rival in South CaroUna with real pleasure, and I confess my 
obligations to your affectionate regard with sincere gratitude. 
While the calamities to which you were exposed during the 
war excited all my sympathy, the gallantry and firmness with 
which they were encountered obtained my entire esteem. To 
your fortitude in these trying scenes our country is much in- 
debted for the happy and honorable issue of the contest. 

"From the milder virtues that characterize your conduct 
in peace, our equal government will derive those aids which 
may render its operations extensively beneficial. 

* ' That your participation of every national advantage and 
your prosperity in private life may be amply proportional to 
your past services and sufferings is my sincere and fer- 
vent wish. 

"G. Washington. 

(Signed) 

April 29th, 1791. 

o 113 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

The building which was some years since known as the 
"Winyah Inn" (now used as a Masonic Temple) was the old 
"Colonial Bank of Georgetown," erected before the Revolu- 
tion. It also served as headquarters for the British during the 
war. It is a substantial structure with spacious verandas sup- 
ported by massive white columns. The old rice and indigo 
planters here deposited their wealth, and one of the iron vaults 
is still to be seen in the building. 

THE PYATT OR ALSTON HOUSE 

Mrs. John Hose Parker, now living in one of the few old 
structures remaining in the town of Georgetown, describes the 
place as being the Pyatt or AUston House, situated on the bluff 
in Georgetown directly on the Sampit River. It bears the 
honor of having had George Washington under its roof as a 
guest during his visit to the old colonial town in 1791 while on 
his tour of the South. It is now the home of the Pyatt family, 
direct descendants of Mr. Benj. AUston, who as a lad was with 
Marion's Command during the Revolution, and who made the 
old house his home about the year 1820. The records were lost 
during the war between the States, so that the exact date of 
its erection, and the name of the builder are unknown. It is a 
large brick building and must have been erected before the 
Revolution, as there was very httle building done between the 
years 1783 and 1812. On a window pane in the long dining-room 
wing is the inscription, ' ' J. W. Pawley September 2nd 1815, ' ' 
written twice in parallel lines. The exterior of the house has 
scarce been changed since that period. The land slopes di- 
rectly down to the river in front, and it is quite probable that 
General Washington and his distinguished party landed there. 
Tradition has it that Marquis LaFayette was also entertained 
in this house, and it is of interest to know that the original 
character of a heroine of one of Simm's novels was mistress 
of this venerable house. Dorothy Singleton, widow of Colonel 
Singleton and second wife of Mr. Benj. AUston, was the proto- 
type of the famous "Katherine Walton." 

A handsome silver teapot bearing the monogram of Mr. 
AUston in large letters, is still used in the old dining-room by 

114 






<^ 2. :' 
52.5 



IS 




GEORGETOWN AND VICINITY 

the family, and needless to say is highly prized. The old ma- 
hogany sideboard, a Hepplewhite, and relic of Revolutionary 
times, still occupies its accustomed place in the room. 

The picture accompanying this account of the Pyatt house 
is taken from the rear to show the unusual aspect of the place, 
the front view being more conventional. If one should attempt 
to describe the building they would have to employ the usual 
stereotyped phrases ; a hipped-roof with dormer windows, the 
usual two story and a half plan, and chimneys on either end. 
The wide piazza downstairs is supported by six circular col- 
umns, an interesting feature being the double flight of brick 
steps, to the right and left, with an arched entrance under- 
neath. The basement, in all probability, was built of ' ' tabby, ' ' 
a favorite primitive cement much used by colonial builders 
on the coast. The round wing so prominent in the picture is at 
the rear. Perhaps the most striking feature is the atmosphere 
of dignity and age which this brick structure produces. 

ALL-SAINTS WACCAMAW AND ITS PLANTATIONS 

By Act of Assembly, May 23, 1767, the parish of All-Saints 
Waccamaw was taken off from the parish of Prince George 
Winyah. It was to consist of "all the lands wliich lie between 
the Sea and Waccamaw Eiver, as far as the boundary line of 
North CaroHna." William AUston, Joseph AUston, Charles 
Lewis, William Pawley, Josiah AUston, William AUston, Jr., 
and John Clarke, were appointed Commissioners for building 
a Church, Chapel of Ease, and Parsonage House at such places 
as they should approve within the parish. 

The register now in existence begins in 1819, during the 
rectorship of Eev. Henry Gibbes, which lasted from 1819 to 
1829. When Dalcho wrote in about 1820 he states that neither 
Journals nor Register were extant, but some earher records 
were lost in the storm of 1893, when the house of Dr. Flagg, a 
warden was swept away, for a badly defaced copy of the 
minutes of the vestry was rescued from the sea. 

To show how the plantations are situated in relation to 
each other, extracts from a Missionary Tour, published in The 

115 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Southern Episcopalian of May, 1855, giving an idea of the 
itinerary of the Bishop, are here presented : 

"Thursday 29th.— All-Saints' Parish, Waccamaw, after- 
noon ... at Mr. P. Alston's plantation. At night same 
place. . . . 

"Friday 30th.— At plantation of Mr. Weston. At night, 
same place. . . . 

"Sunday, April 1st.— At All-Saints' Church. . . . Night 
... at the plantation of the late Mr. Francis Weston. 

"Monday 2d. — . . . same place. At 12 o 'clock laid the 
cornerstone'of the Church of 'St. John the Evangelist,' in the 
upper part of All-Saints' Parish. Afternoon, at Mr. Motte 
Alston 's, in Horry district . . . and at night . . . 

"Wednesday 4th. — ... at the lower Church of All- 
Saints' Parish. 

"Thursday 5th.— Georgetown, at Prince George's 
Church. . . . 

"Good Friday 6th.— Forenoon . . . Prince George's 
Church. . . . Night, at Prince Frederick's, Peedee, preached 
on Dr. Sparkman's plantation. 

' ' Saturday 7th.— Night, at the plantation of Mr. J. Harles- 
ton Bead. . . . 

"Easter Sunday 8th.— ... at the Parish Church. 
Afternoon . . . at the plantation of Col. Alston. " 

A different account of the same visit of the Bishop gives 
this information as to the movements of the clerical party : 

"March 28th.— (Wednesday afternoon) Bishop arrived ac- 
companied by Rev. Thomas J. Girardeau, of the Church of the 
Messiah, North Santee. 

"29th. — This afternoon we visited True Blue, the residence 
of Col. T. Pinckney Alston. . . . Soon after 7 o'clock we 
proceeded to the Chapel. . . . 

"30th. — Morning ser\dce in the Parish Church : ... In 
the afternoon we visited Hagley, the residence of Mr. Plowden 
C. J. Weston. ... 

'<31st. — . . . this evening Midway, the residence of 
Chancellor Dunkin . . . (now, in 1921, in the possession of 
the Nesbit family). 

"April 1st (Sunday).— Morning service m the Parish 
Church. . . . In the afternoon we visited the plantation of 
the late Mr. F. M. Weston, Laurel Hill. . . . 

' ' 2d. — Having spent the night at Laurel Hill . . . between 
11 and 12 o'clock we proceeded nearly two miles beyond Laurel 

116 



GEORGETOWN AND VICINITY 



Hill to Wachesaw, one of the few bluffs upon the river. . . . 
From Wachesaw . . . proceeded about five miles up the 
Parish to Longwood, a plantation belonging to the estate of 
the late Col. Ward. Here ... a boat conveyed us three 
miles up the river to Woodbourne, the residence of Mr. J. 
Motte Alston. This plantation is on the West side of the 
Waccamaw, and hes between it and Bull Creek . . ., the 
principal channel of the Great Peedee. We were now in 
Horry District. . . . 

' ' 3d. — . . . returned by boat to Longwood, and thence 
in a carriage to the All-Saints ' Parsonage. 

"4th. — Wednesday in Passion Week: rode down the 
Parish six miles for morning services at the Southern Church 
. . . rode on nearly two miles to Fairfield, the residence of 
Mr. Charles Alston, sen. . . . From this plantation crossed 
Winyah Bay to Georgetown. . . . " 

Oak Hill was the place of the LaBruce family, and was 
opposite the Oaks, an Alston home. Esther LaBruce married 
William Alston, and Ehzabeth Alston married Joseph La- 
Bruce (April 6, 1821). In the Register of St. Thomas and St. 
Denis the name is given as Joseph Marbeut ; the correct name 
seems to have been La Bruce de Marbeuf, the first part being 
the family name and the latter the place name, which was soon 
dropped. Waccamaw neck, according to Mrs. Flora La 
Bruce, was granted to Joseph La Bruce in the reign of George 
the second. He married into the Ward family and into the 
Alston family. The grant was at the head of Waccamaw 
River on Broutons Creek. 

Joshua John Ward, of Waccamaw, was said by Dr. John- 
son to have been probably the most successful rice planter in 
South Carohna. In 1845 he erected a monument to the mem- 
ory of his relative, Colonel Hezekiah Maham, bearing the in- 
scription, "Within this Cemetery /and in the bosom of the 
Homestead,/which he cultivated and embellislied,/while on 
Earth,/he the mortal remains of/Colonel Hezekiah Maham./ 
He was born in the parish of St. Stephens,/and died, A.D., 
1789,/aged 50 years." Maham was a captain in the first rifle 
regiment, a commander of horse in Marion's Brigade, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel of an independent corps of cavalry raised 

117 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

by the authority of General Greene. The Ward place was at 
Brook Green, and is so mentioned on inscriptions. 

THE OAKS 

Mr. William Allston owned several plantations; Clifton, 
where it is claimed George Washington was entertained by 
Mr. Allston at breakfast, was selected as the heritage of his 
son, Washington Allston. 

About fifteen miles from Georgetown, on the Waccamaw, 
and, like Brook Green, in All-Saints Parish, was The Oaks, one 
of the many plantations on this river owned by the Allston 
family. Here, in the year 1801, Joseph Alston, later Governor 
of South Carolina, brought his lovely bride, Theodosia Burr, 
daughter of Aaron Burr. Joseph Alston is buried in the old 
family burying ground at The Oaks, where there is a stone 
placed also to the memory of Theodosia Burr Alston, who was 
lost at sea. (There was another Allston burying ground at 
Turkey Hill plantation, near Waccamaw.) She is thought to 
have been captured by "Bankers" or pirates at the time of the 
war with England in 1812. The life of this poor woman was 
one of many sorrows, and through it all her love and adoration 
of her father was beautiful and unceasing. The monument to 
her memory tells briefly her pathetic story ; it is also inscribed 
Avith the history of her distinguished husband : 

"Sacred to the Memory /of /Joseph & Theodosia Burr 
Alston/and of their Son/Aaron Burr Alston/The last died in 
June 1812, at the age of 10 years/and his remains are interred 
here./The disconsolate Mother perished a few/Months after 
at Sea./And on the lO'" Sep'- 1816 died the Father/when but 
little over 37 years of age whose remains rest here with the 
Son's./The life of this Citizen was no common one to/the 
States, To its service he devoted himself from/his early 
years./On the floors of its Legislature, he was distinguished 
for his extensive information &/his transcendent eloquence in 
the chair of the/House of Representatives, for his impar- 
tial/correct decisions & every where he was/distinguished for 
his zealous attachments to his/republican principles./In the 
capacity of Chief Magistrate of the/State when bothe the 
honour and the responsibility/of the Office were heightened 
by the/difficulties and dangers of the War of 1812/he by his 

118 



GEORGETOWN AND VICINITY 

indomitable activity & his Salutaiy/measures earned new 
titles to the respect &/gratitiide of his fellow citizens./Tliis 
great man was also a good one./He met Death with that forti- 
tude with which/his Ancestor did from whom he received/his 
name & this estate & which is to be found only /in the good 
hoping to rejoin those whose loss had left in his heart an 
'aching void,' that/Nothing on earth could fill." 

An interesting contemporary account of the Burr episode 
is had in a letter from Henry M. Rutledge to Henry Izard, 
which gives a closer view of the alleged conspiracy of Aaron 
Burr. It was obtained from the collection of letters and other 
manuscripts left by the late Dr. Gabriel E. Manigault and his 
brother, Louis Manigault, of Charleston, and was pubUshed 
in the South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine. 
In part it reads : 

Addressed: "Henry Izard Esqu. 
Charleston 

South Carolina. 

Nashville March 25th— 1807 
Dear Izard, 

I arrived at this place, four days ago — after the most dis- 
agreeable journey, that I ever performed — The moment I 
passed the blue ridge, I perceived that I had plunged again 
into the depth of winter, & indeed I have scarcely experienced 
a fair day since. ... I pushed my way however thro' the 
wind & water to Anderson's house, which is 25 miles from 
this — "We set out the next day for this place, & called on our 
way at Genl: Jackson's where we spent an agreeable evening, 
in the course of which he made many enquiries respecting you. 
I found as you may presume, that Colonel Burr, furnished the 
most common topic in this quarter. I have not seen a single 
person, who believes that Burr ever intended to attempt a 
separation of the Western from the Atlantic States, or to 
possess himself of N : Orleans. They are all however per- 
suaded that Wilkinson & himself, were connected in a scheme 
to attack the Floridas & other Spanish possessions, & that with 
the knowledge of the Executive, who expected every moment, 
a declaration of war on the part of Spain. And indeed, except 
Eaton's affidavit, who is supposed to have blended, what was 
said in jest & earnest I do not recollect any other evidence 
which might not be reconciled with this statement. Very little, 
not to say, no credit is here attached to Wilkinson's assertions 

119 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

■ — Indeed there does not appear the slightest sentiment of hos- 
tility of the Atlantic States or to the Government of the Union 
in this quarter. . . . " 

To return to The Oaks, the dwelling on this, one of the 
first places settled on the Waccamaw, has long since been de- 
stroyed, and the property has passed from the hands of the 
Alston family; but the site of the house is well defined and 
marked by a single brick chimney, all that remains of its 
former elegance. 

OATLAND 

A daughter of Mr. Benjamin AUston, grandmother of Mr. 
John S. Pyatt, of Georgetown, S. C, owned a plantation house 
on the AVaccamaw called Oatland. She did not, however, make 
her home there, but once or twice a year remained for a short 
time at the plantation to look after her affairs, take stock of 
her business, and give out clothing to the negroes. 

Her town house was on the southeast corner of Meeting and 
Charlotte Streets in Charleston. It was a handsome structure, 
a tall brick building placed at right angles to the street, with a 
Greek portico to the side, looking out upon formal gardens 
enclosed with high walls. There was about it an atmosphere 
reminiscent of an Italian villa. Up to a year or so ago it re- 
mained as originally designed, having passed from the Pyatt 
family to the Ancrum's, and then to the Edwards', who re- 
cently sold it to the Salvation Army. 

LITCHFIELD 

The Tuckers were a well-known family who owned many 
estates near Georgetown; a Miss Tucker married into the 
Weston family, thus forming a close connection between the 
two. The house most prominently associated with the Tucker 
family is the handsome old residence at Litchfield, which is 
still standing, although it has passed into other hands and 
been altered slightly during the intervening years. 

A Miss Allston married Mr. John Tucker, and one of their 
two daughters married Mr. Frances Weston. After his wife 's 
death Mr. Tucker remarried, and had six sons, all of whom 
were physicians and completed their studies in Paris. There 

120 



GEORGETOWN AND VICINITY 

were three Dr. Tuckers on the Pee Dee, and two on the Wac- 
camaw, and they practiced only on the plantations. 

A Tribute of Eespect adopted by the vestry of St. Paul's 
Church, Eadchffeborough, says of John H. Tucker : 

"Although the larger portion of each year was passed in 
attending to his planting interests on the Waccamaw and Pee 
Dee rivers, yet when he was with us, he ever manifested a deep 
and heartfelt interest in everything connected with the spir- 
itual and temporal welfare of our Church, contributing always 
liberally, in every way, to its advancement." 

The will of this gentleman, who died about 1859, mentions 
as his property the plantations of Will Brook and Litchfield 
on the Waccamaw; Glenmore, Holly Grove and Moreland, or 
Bates Hill, all three situated on both sides of the Pee Dee 
River ; and land on Sandy Island. 

PROSPECT HILL 

The plantation home at Prospect Hill on the Waccamaw 
has been said to be the most interesting house on the river. It 
was formerly owned by three distinguished families of this 
section, the Wards, Hugers and AUstons, and is now the prop- 
erty of the Avell-known "Bromo-Seltzer King," Mr. Emerson. 
The old house is still standing at Prospect Hill, and has had 
within its venerable walls many makers of history and cele- 
brated personages. 

The building itself is a wooden structure, with a double 
flight of stone steps leading from the large veranda. The ar- 
rangement of the iron balustrade is most unique ; there is an 
inner raiUng which, from an opening in the center, runs right 
and left along the front of the piazza, then branches downward 
at either end, forming the outer railing of each flight of steps ; 
the inner raiUng of the steps extends unbroken from the curve 
at the foot of one set of steps, across the front of the veranda 
parallel wdth the other railing, enclosing a small passageway 
a httle below the level of the veranda, and down again as the 
inner raihng of the other flight, all of which is made clearer 
by the illustration. The brick chimneys of the house are un- 
usually tall. 

121 



HISTOEIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



Colonel and Mrs. Benjamin Huger (the latter was previ- 
ously Mrs. Thomas AUston) entertained LaFayette at this ele- 
gant mansion during his celebrated visit to America. An 
account of his reception has been given by a Miss Allston, a 
relative of Mrs. Huger 's, who was present at the occasion. 
The terrace was illuminated down to the river where he landed, 
and a great ball given in his honor at which the gloves worn 
were stamped with the head of LaFayette. The Hugers are 
also said to have entertained Washington at this historic home. 

Colonel Benjamin Huger was a senator from South Caro- 
lina during Madison's administration, and was the brother of 
the Colonel or Major Huger, who attempted to rescue the 
Marquis de LaFayette from the dungeon of St. Olmutz. A 
tablet to the memory of Colonel Huger was destroyed by fire a 
few years ago when the Waceamaw Church, All-Saints, 
was burned. 

Again Prospect Hill was the scene of much brilliancy when 
it was visited by President Monroe in 1825. He was conveyed 
from there to Georgetown in "one of the plantation barges, 
profusely decorated and adorned for the occasion with the 
United States colors proudly floating at its head. Eight negro 
oarsmen dressed in hvery propelled the barge. The party was 
met at Georgetown by her most distinguished citizens ; carpet 
was laid from the landing up to the place of reception. ' ' 

The surroundings at Prospect Hill were in accordance with 
the magnificence of the dwelling. There are evidences of a 
richly cultivated garden, and the walls are hung with ivy, as 
are the raihngs of the old stone stairs. As the property of 
Mr. Emerson the place retains its original charm and distinc- 
tion, and is considered of inestimable value as a true type of 
the colonial southern home. 

The illustrations accompanying are made from descriptive 
drawings, it having been found impossible to secure permission 
from Mr. Emerson to proceed to his property, no reply having 
been received from several letters. This circumstance is un- 
fortunate as it is understood Mr. Emerson has taken great 
delight in his historic home. 

122 






5 -^ 



— > 




GEORGETOWN AND VICINITY 



FRIBNDFIELD AND SOME ALLSTON PLACES 

Friendfield, a plantation about six or eight miles from 
Georgetown, was the old Withers' homestead, once the resi- 
dence of Daniel G. Wayne, grandfather on the maternal side 
of George F. von Kolnitz, of Charleston. It is on the Sampit 
Eiver, and the house, apparently having had many additions 
built on, is most interesting, particularly the interior, a por- 
tion of which is shown in the illustration. At Friendfield is 
found the landscape wall-papering similar to that in the house 
at Hampton. 

In old deeds we find this place frequently mentioned, and 
it seems to have been the scene of many marriages, as the 
following notice, one of several similar announcements, 
would indicate : 

"James Landels of this parish. Bachelor, and Damaris 
Murrall of this parish. Spinster, were married in the Dwelling 
house of Capt. Eichard Withers of this parish by License this 
23rd day of February, in the Year of our Lord 1780 by me 
S. F. Warren of this parish, Clerk." 

One of the Withers family, Frank, o^vned land up and down 
the coast. He seemed to have a passion for trading, and made 
a million dollars when cotton was three cents a pound. An 
interesting anecdote is related of how he rode to to'wn on an 
Indian pony worth twenty dollars, and upon being offered 
eighty dollars for it by some merchant, took off the saddle 
and bridle, sold the pony, and walked home. 

Friendfield was formerly a portion of 1515 acres, sold to 
Benj. Trapier, transferred to William Burnet, and divided in 
1784 into two sections, Friendfield, the upper portion of 7461/^ 
acres was transferred by Burnet to Edward Martin, and the 
remainder subsequently known as Strawberry Hill, to 
Peter Foisseu. 

Benj. Trapier acquired this 1515 acres by various law 
processes from the division of Hobcaw Barony, which took its 
name from the Indian name applied to the point of land op- 
posite the 'town of Georgetown on Winyah Bay, and is not to 
be confused with the Hobcaw on the south bank of the Wando 

123 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



Eiver opposite Charleston neck, now called Remley's Point. 
Hobcaw Barony was one of the ten baronies aggregating 
119,000 acres ; laid out as early as 1711 and divided among the 
Proprietors by lot on November 21, 1718. From John, Lord 
Cateret, afterwards Earl Granville, "one of the first orators, 
purest patriots, brightest classic scholars and most ardent 
convivialists of his time," Hobcaw Barony passed to John 
Roberts, who purchased it for 500 pounds sterling, thence to 
Sir Wm. Baker, Nicholas Linwood, and Brice Baker, who ap- 
pointed Paul Trapier as their attorney. 

Paul Trapier was son or grandson of the ancestor of the 
family of that name, and at the time was apparently a mer- 
chant in Georgetown. It would be interesting to trace the 
different hands into which the Barony passed when divided. 
The Alstons acquired many portions of it, outside of that sold 
to Benj. Trapier. John Alston' (also spelled AUston) was the 
founder of this disting-uished' family of South Carolina, and 
was the son of William Alston, gentleman, of Hammersmith 
(a part of London), Middlesex. He came to South Carolina 
in 1682 with James Jones, a merchant of Charles Town, as 
may be seen on page 123 of a book of miscellaneous records 
of the governor of South Carolina, covering the years between 
1672 and 1692. 

Mr. H. A. M. Smith says that the lower plantations, Mari- 
etta, Friendfield, Strawberry Hill, Fraser's Point, or Calais, 
and Michaux, were in 1860 all owned by the late William Alger- 
non Alston ; and that at one date or another the entire barony, 
with the single exception of Alderly, was owned by an Alston. 

"Fairnfield" (Friendfield) in 1872, belonging to the late 
Joseph Alston, Esq., was advertised as consisting of the fol- 
lowing tracts of land, containing rice, pine, marsh and swamp 
lands; Marietta, Strawberry Hill, Fairnfield, Marsh Island, 
Michaux 's Point, Calais, and Clegg's Point; all lying contigu- 
ous to each other, forming a peninsula with the Waccamaw 
River on the west, and the Atlantic Ocean or its water on the 
east. "A single fence from 2 to 3 miles across the peninsula 
will enclose the entire tract." 

124 



GEORGETOWN AND VICINITY 

Cherokee, another AUstoii place, was the plantation of Gov- 
ernor R. F. W. Allston, and was inherited from his grand- 
father, Benj. Allston. The former was Governor of South 
Carolina in 1857 and 1858. The plantation contains nearly 900 
acres, and there stands on it a house in perfect order after all 
the intervening years from the time of its construction, on a 
very beautiful point overlooking the Pee Dee River, the front 
piazza commanding a view of " a beautiful bend, the glimmer- 
ing waters framed by dark oak branches." Cherokee is two 
miles from a white neighbor, and eight from Casa Bianca, the 
Poinsette-Pringle place. It was afterwards bought by the 
daughter of Governor Allston, who says, "with my horses, my 
dogs, my book and piano my life has been a very full one." 
She speaks of going to church in "our little pineland village," 
dining in the summer house, and then "driving in" to Hasty 
Point, which is named from Marion's hasty escape during the 
Revolution from the British officers. 

Mention must be made, in writing, of the Allston family, of 
that distinguished artist, Washington Allston, one of the great- 
est of the pupils of Benjamin West, whose painting, "A Span- 
ish Girl," is one of the intagho-gravure pictures illustrating 
"Makers of American Art." Several years of his active life 
were spent in England, but he was a native American, having 
been born in the Waceamaw region of South Carolina in 1779. 
His father died when the artist was two years old, and when 
he was seven his mother married Dr. Henry C. Flagg, of New- 
port, chief of the medical staff of General Greene's army dur- 
ing the Revolution. 

After graduating at Harvard in 1800 he studied art for a 
time in Charles Town with Malbone, the particular friend of 
Allston during his entire life, who in after years became known 
as Edward G. Malbone, a noted miniature painter. They went 
to London together, and Allston entered the Royal Academy, 
where he became a pupil of West's. He developed greatly in 
poetic and rehgious fields as well as in art, and the most cele- 
brated of his paintings are of a religious nature. After spend- 
ing many years abroad he returned to America about 1818 
and spent the remainder of his life, until 1843, in Boston and 

125 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Cambridge. In prominent galleries of both England and 
America his paintings are hung. 

CASA BIANCA OR WHITE HOUSE 

Casa Bianca, the home of the famous Joel Poinsett, stood 
on the point of land between the Pee Dee and Black Rivers, 
eight miles south of Chicora. This was acquired by Mr. Poin- 
sett through marriage with the widow of John Julius Pringle, 
formerly a Miss Izard, who spent her summers in Newport and 
her winters in Washington. She was a woman of charm and 
originaUty, and is said to have introduced in New York the 
fashion of wearing smaU, hve snakes as bracelets at the opera. 
That the Izard women were always remarkable is shown by 
the celebrated witticism passed in Washington on one of them 
by a lady who declared, in speaking of the Bee and Izard fam- 
ihes that they were "a proud lot from B to Z." 

In connection with these aristocratic people, it is of in- 
terest that Mary Pringle, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Juhus 
Izard Pringle, whose mother was a Miss Lynch, and whose 
home was Greenfield, on Black River, several miles southwest 
of Chicora Wood, married into nobiUty, her husband being 
Count Yvan des Francs. Another family place was Wey- 
mouth, on Pee Dee River, six miles south of Chicora, the 
residence of Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Izard, the latter having been 
a Miss Pinckney. 

A complete history of Casa Bianca is found in "A Woman 
Rice Planter," by " Patience Pennington." The life of the 
South Santee region is given in detail, and she describes in her 
own inimitable way the life on the rice plantations ; telling of 
the negroes, their loves, hates, works and plays; of teach- 
ing the httle children, and of the birds, beasts and flowers of 
Casa Bianca, where she spent her short married life. The 
tract consisted of 200 acres, which she afterwards bought. 

Joel Poinsett was a Charlestonian of national, or even in- 
ternational reputation. His home had always been in the city 
of Charleston until his retirement from public life. A local 
notice in a Charleston paper in 1732 mentions his father in an 
account of the celebration of St. George's Day by the "Fort 

126 



GEORGETOWN AND VICINITY 

Jolly Volunteers" at the "House of Trooper Pointsett, their 
usual House of Eendezvous." The son's residence was situ- 
ated upon what is now Eutledge Avenue, a few squares above 
Calhoun Street on the east side. The house was a plain wooden 
one with columns in front, having somewhat the exterior ap- 
pearance of a small church. It was recessed some distance 
from the street, and stood in the midst of a grove of live oaks ; 
it was generally known as "Poinsett's Grove," and had prob- 
ably been a farm before the city limits extended so far. 

Mr. Poinsett had traveled much, and had observed in the 
cities of Europe the great usefulness of galleries of paintings 
and statues, their improvement and elevation of the tastes 
of the people, and with the hope of starting such an institution 
in Charleston he obtained land on Broad Street west of Logan, 
from the Methodist Church as the site of his proposed "Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts." This was done in 1833, and he also got 
pictures and statues. If Mr. Poinsett's plan was not per- 
manently successful it was at least a great step forward, 
and is now realized in the Gibbes Memorial Art Gallery on 
Meeting Street. 

He married, as has been said, Mrs. John Julius Pringle, 
who owned a valuable rice plantation near Georgetown, and 
there, for the rest of his days, he passed the mnters, some of 
his summers being spent in Greenville, S. C, where they also 
owned a farm, and for the fall months they sometimes 
went North. 

Mr. Poinsett was rewarded for his great interest in science 
by having a beautiful flower named for him. It was described 
by two botanists, Wildenow and Graham, without its being 
known exactly which one had priority. The first called 
Euphorbia pulcherrima, and the second Poinsettea pulcher- 
rima. It belongs to the family of Euphorbiacse ; is a native of 
Mexico, and was discovered there about the year 1828. It is 
commonly known, however, as the poinsettia. 

The house at Casa Bianca stood on the bank of Black River ; 
a picture of the front porch shows a two and a half story house 
with a piazza downstairs broken by a wing, and on the right a 
set-in gable roof over the steps leading out-of-doors. The pitch 

127 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

of the roof on the attic is also broken by a gable end fronting 
directly in the middle of the house. Sturdy chimneys give an 
air of English rusticity to the whole, which impression is car- 
ried out by the secluded look given the house by the surround- 
ing trees. Patience Pennington speaks of it herself as a 
rambling old house; "even the garret mth its ghostly old oil 
portrait of a whole family in a row and a broken bust of another 
member." In another place she says: "My predecessor at 
Casa Bianca was a woman of immense ability and cleverness. 
She spent much time abroad and was a good friend of the 
Grand Duke of "Weimar to whom she sent an African as a 
present, he having expressed a desire to have one in his suite ; 
in spite of war and turmoil, Tom, son of the gardener, was 
sent. The Grand Duke was delighted with him and treated him 
with great favor. Tom married the daughter of an ' honorable 
Councillor' lived happily and died from over exertion made 
in his efforts to render help when a fire broke out in 
the palace." 

The garden at Casa Bianca Avas planted by Mr. Poinsett 
somewhere between 1830 and 1835. He brought many rare 
plants from Mexico, among others the gorgeous "Flor-de la 
Noche Buena" which in this country bears the name Poinsettia 
in his honor. There is very little left of the original garden, 
only the camelia bushes, the olia fragrans. Magnolia purpuria 
and Pyrus Japonica. The cloth of gold, Lamarque, and other 
roses grew rampantly, but visitors here have almost destroyed 
them, as they have the hedge of azaleas. 

NORTH ISLAND AND THE HUGERS 

An account of the Huger family has been given in connec- 
tion with Limerick plantation on the Cooper River ; a quaint 
old entry in the records of the State says : 

"PM 

August th 12''' This Day Came Daniell Huger of Sante 

1697 Planter & record his mark of Cattell & hoggs &c : 

followeth, the left yeare Cropt the other w* an 

under & upper Keele, his brand mark as (here 

the device is drawn) margent. " 

128 



GEORGETOWN AND VICINITY 

Jolinsoia 's ' ' Traditions and Eeminiscences of the American 
Revolution" relate a most interesting event which transpired 
in 1777 while Major Huger was residing on his plantation near 
Georgetown. He was visited by two strangers, neither of 
whom could speak English, and having spoken French from his 
childhood, Major Huger invited them into his family circle. 
They appeared to be men of distinction, and told him that they 
had left France to visit America and had been put ashore near 
Georgeto"\vn, on North Island, wishing to proceed northwardly. 
One of them announced himself as the Marquis de LaFayette, 
the other as Baron von Steuben. They were hospitably enter- 
tained by Major Huger, introduced to his neighbors and 
friends, and then conveyed, in his own equipage, to Charleston, 
where they were well taken care of by the Governor and 
Council, and provision made for their journey to Philadelphia. 

At the time of Provost's invasion, Major Huger and his 
family "lived in the enjoyment of ease, health and honor, 
in an elegant estabhshment, with all the enjoyments of do- 
mestic and social happiness. When he accepted the commis- 
sion in the newly raised regiment, he had no earthly motive for 
thus devoting himself to the pubhc service, but love of country, 
and his sense of duty to defend her dearest rights." He fell 
in executing his duty, having been Major of the second regi- 
ment of riflemen, in the Provincial service, his commission 
dated the 17th day of June, 1775. 

This Major Benjamin Huger was the fifth son of Daniel 
Huger, a direct descendant of the Huguenot, Daniel Huger. 
In the cultivation of rice his father had prospered, and gave 
his numerous family all the advantages of education that 
America' afforded, sending his sons in succession to Europe 
for the tour which was then considered indispensable to a com- 
plete education. They all profited by their opportunities, 
returning courteous and poHshed gentlemen, who at the com- 
mencement of the Revolution united with great cordiality in 
support of the American rights. John Huger was elected, 
by the Provincial Congress, a member of the council of safety, 
associated with Miles Brewton, Thomas Heyward, Arthur 
Middleton, and others, Henry Laurens being the President. 

129 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

John Huger was afterwards Secretary of State. Isaac Huger 
was elected Lieutenant-Colonel of the first regiment; Daniel 
Huger was for several years a member of the Continental Con- 
gress ; Francis Huger was elected quartermaster-general, and 
Benjamin Huger Major of the second regiment. 

Major Huger 's widow, a sister of Francis and Cleland 
Kinloch, lived to see her children well educated, married and 
honored. Her daughter married the Hon. Hugh Rutledge, 
chancellor of South Carohna; her oldest son, Benjamin, mar- 
ried the widow of Thomas Allston, and was many years a 
delegate to Congress from his own district, Georgetown; and 
her youngest son, after his daring enterprise to rescue 
LaFayette from the prison of Olmutz, was commissioned col- 
onel of artillery, married a daughter of General Thomas 
Pinckney, and held the commission of adjutant general in 
his division of the Southern army in the War of 1812, against 
Great Britain. 

At North Island, in Georgeto^vn County, is erected a stone 
to mark the spot where LaFayette landed when he first came 
to this country to offer Ms service to the Continental Army. 
This enthusiastic young Frenchman who gave his services to 
the United States in their arduous struggle for independence, 
is now named in the history of South Carolina. 

Farther up Winyah Bay from North Island is a plantation 
now owned by Mr. Bernard Baruch, a distinguished financier, 
whose father is a noted physician of New York, who originally 
came from Camden, S. C. Mr. Baruch 's property is believed 
to have been one of the old Huger or Alston places, and indeed 
thought to be the place where LaFayette made his first landing 
at North Island. 



CHAPTER VII 

UPPER, LOWER AND MIDDLE ST. 
JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 




ST. JOHN'S BERKELEY 

(HIS parish was incorporated; by the 
Church Act of 1706, but previously had 
many residents. The French settlers 
removed hither from French San tee and 
Orange Quarter, and it appears that as 
early as 1707 these people banded them- 
selves together into a small congrega- 
tion and in 1710 built themselves a 
church and called a minister. 

"It is known from tradition," says Huguenot Transac- 
tions No. 7, "that this church was a small wooden building 
that stood a httle east of the place now known as Simpson's 
Basin on the Santee Canal, about Midway between the present 
Biggin and Black Oak churches." The use of the church by 
the French was not continued. From Mr. Chastaigner's will 
we learn that after discontinuing the use of the church they 
held worship at Pooshee, a plantation owned by the Emigrant 
Eene Ravenel. 

Concerning the plate owned by this church, Dr. 
Dalcho says: 

' ' The Sacramental Plate, with the exception of the French 
ChaHce, Avas, probably, purchased by the Parish. It has the 
following inscription on each piece: 8t. John's Parish, South- 
Carolina in America. 

"A Chalice of Silver, gilt, was presented to the Parish. It 
had been used by the Protestants in France before the revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantz, and was brought to Carolina by 
the Rev. Mr. Lessou, formerly Minister of a French congre- 
gation in this Province. ' ' 

When the Parish of St. Stephen's became the resort of the 
descendants of the French, chiefly from French Santee, be- 

131 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



eause of the freshets on that river, Upper, and Middle St. 
John's Berkeley became settled by some of the same people 
for the same reason. It is a strange thing to note that there 
are three very arbitrary divisions of St. John's, not easy for 
an outsider to understand. These divisions are known as 
Upper, Middle and Lower St. John's. 

No more puzzling occupation can be devised than to cor- 
rectly place the different famiUes of the same name in their 
correct places. Suffice it to say, that the settlement in Upper 
St. John's was called Eutawville, where several houses are 
still found, and which wiU be discussed later; Middle St. 
John's settlement is called Pinopolis, here is found a Cain 
house, Somerset, a fair type of a St. John's plantation home in 
the nineteenth century. The roof of the house is slate. In 
Lower St. John's were the summer settlements of The Barrows 
and Cordesville. 

The Cordes were another well-known family connected 
with this inland section of South Carolina. About the year 
1665 Anthony Cordes, un medecin, arrived in the colony and 
resided on the French Santee, afterwards St. John's Berkeley, 
where he died in 1712. He came with the French emigrants, 
and is supposed to have accompanied them as their physician. 
His home was Cordesville. There was another Cordes place 
called Upton, but the homestead of this family was Yaughan, 
the residence of an ardent patriot who contrived during the 
Eevolution to vastly annoy the British. Curriboo was the 
home of Thomas C. Cordes, who married Rebecca Jamieson. 
One of their daughters married Jonathan Lucas, Jr., and went 
to live in England. Milf ord, north of Blufort, was formerly 
the residence of Isaac DuBose, who sold it to Samuel Cordes ; 
the latter also owned The Lane plantation. 

What is said concerning the type of house in St. Stephen's 
Parish applies also to the houses in the three St. John's. Per- 
haps, however, the furnishings of the houses in St. John's were 
a little more elaborate than those in St. Stephen's, and in order 
to give a general idea of what was found in the old-time houses 
a few distinctive items will be mentioned. 

132 




"SOMERSET," THE CAIN HOUSE, FINOPOLIS 



ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 

For illumination candles and lamps were used, the former 
being made on the plantations from the wax of the bay or 
myrtleberry plants. The lamps had bases of pressed glass, 
and bowls of cut glass. The wick attached to a double jet 
shows that a very volatile oil was used, probably spirit oil or 
alcohol. They were originally used with whale oil, and in 
many places the people burnt hog-lard. The crystal candle- 
sticks of the period were made with marble bases, the sticks 
being of bronze, and glistening crystal pendants surrounded 
each individual candle-holder. On the hall table of every old 
estabUshment were kept the brightly polished brass candle- 
sticks for the guests to take upstairs upon retiring. 

The rooms in olden days, in these historic dwellings, were 
bright and cheerful and colorful. The artistically woven 
"carpets" were coverings for tables and bureaus, as well as 
for the floors. In summer the floor coverings were painted 
rugs, somewhat resembling our modern linoleum, and some 
were highly decorative. The owners took great pride in these. 
The comer cupboards which came into fashion about 1710 were 
considered as much a part of the house as the windows or the 
mantels. Many of the old houses with commonplace ex- 
teriors contained handsome marble mantelpieces, and rare 
old pieces of EngHsh and French furniture. 

Persons familiar with the history of furniture in America 
would find in these old houses a perfect wealth of such belong- 
ings. There were sofas and settees, sometimes with cane 
seats ; chairs decorated in French imitation of Chinese flower 
sprays ; figures on fans from France ; "what-nots" holding in- 
teresting bits collected by travelers ; and many convex mirrors, 
with candlesticks attached. Among the most interesting things 
about these old houses are the enormous locks and large keys 
which were part of the defence. 

Such furnishings were made possible by the wealth of the 
inhabitants, one of whom was Peter, an ancestor of the present 
Sinkler family. He died in Charleston, a prisoner of the Brit- 
ish. Before he was carried from his plantation near Eutaw- 
ville he witnessed the destruction of the following property; 
"twenty thousand pounds of indigo, one hundred and thirty 

133 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

head of cattle, one hundred and fifty-four head of sheep, two 
hundred head of hogs, three thousand bushels of grain, twenty 
thousand rails, and household furniture valued at £2500"; in 
addition to which the British carried off 55 negroes, 16 blood 
horses and 28 mares and colts. 

Referring to personal belongings, the writer's mother, 
Susan DeSaussure, remembers when the ladies of this neigh- 
borhood wore the old-fashioned Caleche, or "ugly," silk 
shirred, and worn around the front of poke bonnets to protect 
the face from the sun. They were fashioned in the Fifties, and 
somewhat resembled little buggy tops. Each different costume 
had a corresponding caleche. The ladies of that day carefully 
cherished their complexions. 

Besides the Sinklers, the Mazycks, Porchers, Palmers, 
Eavenels, Cordes, Marions, Dwights, Gailliards and Gourdins 
were foimd as original Huguenot settlers of St. John's. It is 
almost impossible to untangle these families, and anyone who 
is interested may read "Olden Times of Carolina," "Ram- 
sey's Sketch of St. Stephen's Parish," Mr. Isaac Porcher's 
article on this section, or Samuel DuBose's "Reminiscences 
of St. Stephen's Parish." For instance, Mr. Mazyck Porcher, 
Carolina's Bourbon, lived at Mexico plantation, his grand- 
father, Peter Porcher, owned plantations called Peru, Ophir 
and Mexico. He lived at Peru and would often leave Ms home 
in the morning, ride to Ophir, a distance of 15 miles, thence to 
Mexico 12 miles, and back to Peru 10 miles, all in the same day. 
All of these men were fond of manly sports and in the Revolu- 
tion Marion and Moultrie depended on them. In the struggle 
for American independence these men made fine cavalrymen. 
A few of the plantations upon which houses are still standing 
will be briefly discussed. 

Old Field plantation was owned by Philip Porcher, who 
died in 1800. He paid taxes on over one-half million dollars 
worth of property, and had 464 slaves ; among other real estate 
was a house in Archdale Street in Charleston, then a fashion- 
able thoroughfare. Another Porcher residence was Indian- 
field, at which the semi-annual meeting of the St. John's Hunt- 

134 



ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 

ing Club is sometimes held even now. Massive moss-draped 
trees and beautiful lawns mark this romantic spot. 

Dr. Isaac Porcher, the Huguenot emigrant, came to this 
country from the Province of Sainte Severe, France. He is 
described (Burke's Peerage) as being Isaac Porcher de Richel- 
bourg, doctor of medicine of the University of Paris, who 
married a Cherigny, of the Province of Touraine. Burke's 
account is incorrect, as has been proved by Mrs. Julia Porcher 
Wickham, a hneal descendant of Isaac Porcher. Mrs. Wick- 
ham made a pilgrimage to France to estabhsh certain facts 
in connection with the Porcher family. Dr. Eobert Wilson, 
President of the Huguenot Society in 1910, has also written 
much concerning Isaac Porcher. He states his ability to give 
with positiveness the origin of Dr. Porcher, from an old manu- 
script found years ago at Ophir plantation in St. John's 
Berkeley, which runs as follows : 

"Isaac Porcher, ne a St'e-Severe en Beny, fils de Isaac 
Porcher et de Susanne Ferre. Isaac, Pierre, Ehzabeth, Made- 
leine, et Claude, leurs enf ants. ' ' 

The emigrant's bible, which is still owned by his descend- 
ants of the pure Huguenot blood in St. John's, at Indianfield, 
contains on the flyleaf the notice of his wife's death written 
and signed by the emigrant himself; the date of this bible 
being 1707. 

The refugee and his wife hved for some time in London, 
as records of the baptism of two of his children there prove, 
but he soon emigrated, and we find from an old document that 
he was in Charleston in the year 1687. He settled on land not 
far from Goose Creek where, in the old Huguenot cemetery 
there, his body is supposed to have been laid. 

Further enumeration of the history of the family in France 
would reveal much of the internal history of that country, as 
the French branch of the Porchers was concerned with all the 
great affairs of that time. The history of Abbe Porcher de 
Lissaunay is closely connected with the Chateau of Cote Per- 
drix, near Sainte-Severe, the only Porcher home in the old 
world of which we have any description. Mrs. Wickham wrote 

155 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



an account of this place which has been published in the 
"Transactions of the Huguenot Society." 

The last historic owner of "Peru" was Peter Porcher, 
whose fourth child, Major Samuel Porcher, had his plantation 
at Mexico, and married Harriot, daughter of Phihp Porcher. 
At the time of the Civil War Mexico was owned by Mazyck 
Porcher, whom Mr. Yates Snowden has immortalized as "The 
CaroUna Bourbon" in his poem of that name. A Missionai-y 
Tour to Upper St. John's and St. Stephen's says: 

"We drove towards Mexico, an old family place now the 
residence of Mr. M. P. The ground about the house is much 
more broken than usual, its slopes being studded with fine 
trees, oaks and cedars ; while the Santee Canal with its hedges 
and locks gives variety to the scene." 

During the days of the stage-coach Hugh Legare often 
visited at the home of Philip Porcher, who had been liis great 
chum at college. The house, which still stands, was built in 
1812 by slave labor, and is of black cypress, the timber having 
been cut on the place. Its roof is of air-dried cypress or long- 
leaf pine shingles. It is called a double-story house, and 
stands on a nine-foot brick foundation the pillars of which are 
about six by three feet. The bricks were had from a brick kiln 
on the plantation; the hole where the clay was dug can still 
be seen on the edge of the woods. The interior decorations 
were done by a slave called Black Washington. 

A most amusing story is told concerning an occurrence 
taking place at one of these houses during the courtship of 
Catherine Porcher (sister of Charles and daughter of Philip) 
by a Mr. Huger. He came a courting the lady, but evidently 
his manner of addressing her did not indicate that he would 
go mateless to the grave if she refused him, intimating that 
he would seek elsewhere. Thereupon she furled her fan and 
bid him begone to seek the other maid — a very proper display 
of spirit upon her part. 

While in Charleston the Porchers occupied the house on 
Pitt Street now owned by Mr. Wm. Cogswell, which is nearly 
opposite to Bethel Methodist Church. 

136 



ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 

On the road between Mexico and Pineville, a distance of five 
or six miles, lies Belle Isle plantation, where are deposited the 
remains of General Marion. The tomb is in a neat enclosure 
which formed a family burying ground ; it is a plain marble 
slab, shghtly elevated upon a brick foundation, and bears a 
simple and most appropriate inscription. The house at Belle 
Isle is still standing, but is not in very good repair, nor is it 
inhabited. To Shirley Carter Hughson, now Superior of the 
Order of the Holy Cross, belongs the credit of properly mark- 
ing Marion's grave. 

Among the most honored and beloved names connected with 
the history of St. John's is that of the Dwight family. Sam- 
uel Dwight, the son of the Rev. Daniel Dwight and his wife, 
who was Christiana Broughton, married Eebecca Marion. 
He was generous enough to allow his son Francis to change his 
name to that of Marion, as General Francis Marion had no 
children and the name would otherwise have been lost 
to posterity. 

Robert Marion, Esq., son of Gabriel Marion, resided at 
Belle Isle, and a part of this plantation was Burnt Savannah, 
where General Marion had his residence. Belle Isle also em- 
braced the homes of Peter Couturier and Dr. James Lynah. 

The Palmers were also connected mth this old parish. 
Webdo was the residence of Joseph Palmer. He had one 
daughter, who married Peter Sinkler. Johnsrun plantation, 
the first settler of which is unknown, but which was once owned 
by a Wilhams, was purchased after 1793 by Capt. John 
Palmer, and in 1858 was the residence of S. Warren Pahner. 
Pollbridge, three miles to the south of Clay Bank, was settled 
by Peter Palmer after 1790. Gravel Hill was the home of 
John Palmer, Gentleman, whose successful enterprise in the 
collection of naval stores earned for him the name of "Tur- 
pentine John." It was his son John who lived at Richmond, 
and Peter who lived at Pollbridge. Ballsdam plantation, near 
the old Santee settlement of St. James, was the property of 
Dr. John Saunders Pahner. 

Charlotte Rebecca, fourth daughter of John Palmer and 
Catherine Marion Palmer, of Cherry Grove plantation, St. 

137 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

John 's Berkeley, married Ellison Capers, who had a brilliant 
war record, and afterwards, in 1893, was unanimously elected 
Bishop of the Diocese of South Carolina. 

"The Fair Forest Swamp is one of the principal features 
of the western branch of the Cooper River, into which it flows 
through Watboo Creek. It rises in the bays, within a few 
miles of Santee Swamp," and there it is, that a close connec- 
tion between St. James, St. Stephens, Eutawville, and the 
headwaters of the western branch of the Cooper River 
is formed. 

BUTAW SPRINGS AND VICINITY 

The road to the "Congarees," on the old map called the 
"Charichy" path, ran directly to Nelson's ferry, over which 
the trade to the interior northwest passed. During the war 
of the Revolution it was the highway for the passage of the 
armed forces of both sides, and it was at Eutaw Springs, near 
this road, that the battle of Eutaw Springs was fought in 1781, 
which practically ended all British occupation of South Caro- 
lina outside of the City of Charleston and its environs, even 
though tactically General Greene and the American Army were 
repulsed. General Greene, in his letters to the Secretary of 
War, says : 

"We have 300 men without arms, and more than 1000 so 
naked that they can be put on duty only in cases of a desperate 
nature. . . . Our difficulties are so numerous, and our wants 
so pressing, that I have not a moment 's relief from the most 
painful anxieties. I have more embarrassments than it is 
proper to disclose to the world. Let it suffice to say that this 
part of the United States has had a narrow escape. 'I have 
been seven months in the field without taking off my 
clothes.' ... 

". . . . The brave men who carried death into the 
enemy's ranks at the Eutaw, were galled by their cartridge 
boxes, while a folded rag or a tuft of moss protected the 
shoulders from sustaining the same injury from the muskets. 
Men of other times will inquire, by what magic was the army 
kept together? By what supernatural power was it made 
to fight?" 

138 



ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 

A monument to these brave men has been placed on the 
Battlefield of Eutaw Springs, which was on the Sinkler tract 
about a mile and a half from the house. 

It is hard to make a distinction between Eutaw place and 
its sister plantation, BeMdere, to which it lies adjacent. Mrs. 
Harriette P. Gourdin, of Eutawville, a lady well over 80 years 
of age and a life-long resident of that section, writes in 1920, 
that "Henry Sinkler 's home is on Eutaw plantation, and the 
house is built near the bank of a portion of Eutaw Creek which 
divides the place from Belvidere, another Sinkler homestead. 
Over this creek stands a narrow foot-bridge for the use of the 
two places. The house at Eutaw place was built by Henry's 
great-grandfather. ' ' 

In Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution we find the fol- 
lowing entry speaking of the action around Eutawville in 1781 : 

"While the British fell back a little, Greene quickly pre- 
pared for battle, and pressing for^vard the action commenced 
with spirit in the road and fields, very near to the present en- 
trance gates to the seat of residence of Mr. Sinkler. . . ." 

Of this place Lossing again speaks in describing his trip to 
the Southern battlefield : 

"At 8 o'clock (Jan. 26, 1849) I arrived at the elegant man- 
sion of WilHam Sinkler, Esq., upon whose plantation are the 
celebrated Eutaw Springs. It stands in the midst of noble 
shade trees one-half mile from the highway. These springs 
are in Charleston district near Orangeburg line, about 60 miles 
north of Charleston." 

The largest spring is at the foot of a hill 20 or 30 feet in 
height, from which it emerges after traversing a subterranean 
passage under the hill for 30 rods, and reappears on the other 
side. There is a tradition that an Indian made the successful 
attempt to follow the spring through the hill. The Santee 
River is reached about two miles below. 

Eamsay says, relating to the battle of Eutaw Springs, that : 

"the British were vigorously pursued, and upward of 500 of 
them were taken prisoners. On their retreat they took post in 
a strong brick house, and in a picquetted garden. ' ' 

139 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Mr. DuBose Seabrook, who is now living, tells of walking 
near the springs with his mother and being told by her that a 
pile of bricks adjacent to the spring which they found there 
were the remains of this house. 

Charles Sinkler resided at Belvidere plantation in Upper 
St. John 's Berkeley. His home life eminently represented that 
splendid type of Southern manhood — the flower of the patri- 
archal slave-holding civilization — which is but a memory to a 
few, and a tradition to the people at large. Mr. Sinkler was 
the grandson of Capt. James Sinkler, of the Revolutionary 
War, whose brother Peter Sinkler, of Marion's Brigade, died 
of typhus fever in the cellar of the Charleston Postofifice, a 
prisoner in the hands of the British. Charles Sinkler was 
bom on Eutaw plantation, which partly covers the sight of the 
battlefield, and he inherited from his ancestors that intense 
love for the State which was the preeminent characteristic of 
the South CaroUnian of the old regime. In March, 1836, he 
entered the United States Navy as a midshipman, was pro- 
moted, and soon after married Miss Emily, daughter of Judge 
Thomas Wharton, an eminent jurist of Philadelphia. While 
serving as sailing master of the United States brig Perry, 
which had just returned from the seige of Vera Cruz, he was 
wrecked on Sombrero Reef, about thirty miles from Key West, 
Florida, on a voyage from Havana to Charleston, and a 
graphic description has been written by a brother officer, Lieut, 
(later Rev.) R. S. Trapier, of the cyclone through which they 
barely escaped with their lives. 

In February, 1847, Mr. Sinkler resigned and came with 
his wife, a lovely young girl, to his estates in South Carolina. 
Here he lived the Ufe of the ideal Southern planter, and for- 
tunately for him and for the many beneficiaries of his bounty, 
the war and its more direful results made no essential change 
in him or his belongings. Belvidere, his beautiful home, was 
the scene of the graceful and bountiful hospitality which had 
characterized the homes of his friends in better days. At his 
death it passed to his son, Charles St. George Sinkler, and his 
wife, Anne W. Porcher. Dr. Wharton Sinkler, of Philadelphia, 
who married a Miss Brock, of that city, was a brother of Mr. 

140 



ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 

Charles Sinkler, and his sisters were CaroUne Sinkler and 
Mrs. Charles Brown Coxe, of Philadelphia, and Mrs. Charles 
Stevens, of Charleston. 

Mr. Sinkler and his wife, Anne Wickham Porcher, have 
three daughters, all of whom have married and moved away, 
but the ancestral home is still the residence of Mr. Sinkler. 
His daughters are Mrs. Dr. Kershaw Fishburne, of PinopoHs, 
Mrs. Nicholas Eoosevelt, of Philadelphia, and Mrs. Dunbar 
Lockwood, of Boston, Mass. Pictures are given of both of 
the Sinkler houses, much alike in construction and detail. 

HANOVER HOUSE 

A primitive wooden house of a type still to be seen in rural 
districts of South Carolina is pictured and described in "Rav- 
enel Records" (intended for private distribution), issued in 
1898 by Henry E. Ravenel, of Spartansburg, S. C, "Attorney 
at law ; Master of Arts ; Alumnus of the College of Charleston ; 
one of the authors of 'Ravenel and McHugh's Digest,' etc.," so 
we may rely upon his work being good. The photograph and 
cut are both very defective, says Mr. Ravenel, but the house is 
very interesting in appearance and stands in a characteristic 
clearing of pine and oak trees, draped with moss. It is still 
in use after two hundred and five years. 

Hanover House was completed about 1716 by Paul de St. 
JuHen. As it is "roomy though small," one is not surprised 
at the fact that difficulty was found in supplying the brick for 
it when the extravagant manner of their use is seen. "The 
basement walls and cross walls are thick enough to hold a 
small Eiffel tower, ' ' and the basement itself is large enough to 
be used as a kitchen and pantry. 

The chimneys to this house are most curiously constructed, 
being really two chimneys at each end of the building, one 
constructed outside of the other from the ground to the top. 
' ' The inside section must be about eight feet wide ; the overlap- 
ping flue somewhat narrower." The legend "Pen a Peu" 
on the north chimney near the top remains perfectly distinct. 
It is deeply cut in the cement, and shows its excellent quality. 
There is, however, no date given. 

141 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Hanover was settled by Peter de St. Julien, third son of 
the Huguenot emigrant, Paul, who died there in 1741. He 
married Mary Amy Ravenel, youngest child of Rene Ravenel, 
the emigrant. Curiously enough there are still Eavenels liv- 
ing near Charleston possessing the characteristic looks, color- 
ing, bearing, manners and achievements of their French 
forbears, and among them is found a Rene. 

It is said that at Hanover "Peter de St. Julien designed to 
build a half story brick house, ' ' on the plan of the North Hamp- 
ton House, so the builder made a kiln of brick to start with. 
When the foundation was completed to its present state, Peter 
discovered that he would not have bricks enough to carry out 
his designs of a brick house, but thought he would have enough 
for chimneys. In this he was again disappointed, owing to the 
curious construction of the chimney wthin the chimney, and 
the building ended by being made of wood, on a brick base- 
ment, three kilns having to be made to supply the bricks for 
even this much, so that "Peu a Peu," or "Little by Little" 
(said to have been put there in 1716) is literally true. 

Hanover descended by inheritance to Mary St. Julien, the 
eldest daughter of Paul, who married Henry Ravenel, son of 
Rene Louis. A small book bound in calf is said to be the diary 
of this latter, and is in the possession of Mr. Thomas P. Rav- 
enel. The following entry is taken from this old record : 

"Henry Ravenel marryed to Mary De St. Julien the 13 of 
September, 1750. We came to live at home, called Hanover, 
the 13 of April, 1751, and went back to Pooshee the 9th of June, 
and my wife was dehvered of a son on the 26th of said June. 
Then we came back home again the second time the 1st of 
October 1751." 

The diary continues until about 1785, in which year Henry 
Ravenel died and was buried at Hanover, at the age of fifty-five 
years. The orchard became the family burying ground, and 
we find from the records that only six out of the sixteen chil- 
dren of Mary St. Juhen and Henry Ravenel lived to maturity. 
Many of the children who died were buried at Hanover in 
the "orchard." 

142 



ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 

Another Henry Ravenel died at Hanover in 1823, aged 
seventy-two years and eight months. His age would indicate 
that he was born in 1751 and was probably the first son of 
Mary De St. Julien and Henry Eavenel, spoken of in the diary 
as having been born on the 26th of June, 1751. He too was 
buried in the family burying ground at Hanover. 

In Ravenel Records it is stated that Stephen Ravenel, of 
Hanover (son of Henry and Mary), was married December 11, 
1800, to Catherine Mazyck, daughter of William and Mary 
Mazyck, at the residence of Mr. Mazyck in Archdale Street. 
This residence still stands, as fine a house as one would wish 
to see. Stephen Ravenel was Secretary of State, but did not 
long continue in public office. Although he Uved in Charleston, 
he spent much of his time hunting at the plantation, being 
devoted to the sport, and is said to have killed many deer. 
Later he hved at Hanover, Avhere he and his wife are both 
buried, and as they had no children, the plantation was left 
to Stephen's brother, Daniel, better known in local circles as 
"Uncle Daniel." 

"Uncle Daniel" was for many years Secretary of the 
famous "St. John's Hunting Club," whose Club House stood 
nearly opposite the Black Oak Church on the north side of the 
road. This Club House was built in 1800 by "Coll Senf, 
Engineer and Superintendent of the Santee Canal which runs 
through Wantoot plantation," and was pulled down by the 
negroes very soon after the first raid of the Yankee Army. 

Rene Ravenel 's Book says : "The original rules of the St. 
Stephen's Club are fair specimens of the rules of such societies 
of that day (1825) and section." These rules gave the name 
of the organization, time and place of meetings, and 
other regulations. Rule 3 specified that "Each member shall 
find a dinner in the order in which he shall become a member," 
and Rule 4 stated that "dinner shall be on table at half -past 
one o'clock." Rule 7 said, "The member finding the dinner 
shall be President of the day." It is to be noted that no sale, 
negro trial or card-playing was permitted at the club house 
on club days. 

143 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Dinner was the great event and as they used spits in those 
days, roasted meat meant that the meat was really roasted. 
The list of edibles suitable for club dinners specified : 

"Eoasted Turkey, Two Ducks, Two fowls or a dish equiva- 
lent to two fowls, one half of a shoat or sheep dressed accord- 
ing to the option of the finder, one ham or piece of salted beef, 
one peck of Eice, Two loaves of Bread, Mustard, Pepper, Salt, 
Vinegar, Eight bottles of Madeira Wine, Two bottles of 
Brandy, one of Gin, one of Whiskey, Twenty -five Spanish and 
Twenty-five American Segars (Cigars), Two dozen each of 
Plates, Tumblers, Wine Glasses, Knives and forks. ' ' 

These club meetings were a prominent feature of the social 
life of the planters, and some lively anecdotes are told in con- 
nection with them. It is said that on one occasion a horse was 
ridden upstairs to the second story of a house, and difficulty 
was experienced in getting him down again. But passing by 
the excesses of those days, the clubs were undoubtedly effec- 
tive in keeping afive the fraternal feeling, and contributed to 
the public spirit of the district. 

Daniel James Ravenel ("Uncle") died at Hanover in 1836, 
leaving Brunswick and about sixty negroes to his nephew, 
Benj. Pierce Eavenel (son of Paul de St. Julien Eavenel and 
his second wife, Abigail Pierce, of Newport, E. I.). He left 
Hanover and about seventy negroes to his grandnephew, 
Henry LeNoble Stevens, a son of Charles Stevens and Susan 
Mazyck Eavenel (daughter of Eene, the son of Henry of Han- 
over). During the Civil War Henry was aide to Col. P. T. 
Stevens (late Bishop of the Eeformed Episcopal Church) and 
was shot at the second battle of Manassas, August 30th, 1862, 
dying seven days later in a field hospital at Warrenton, Va. 
His body was subsequently brought on and interred at Black 
Oak churchyard. This Henry Le Noble Stevens had married 
Henrietta S. Gailliard in 1849 and their children are still large 
landholders in that section. 

The Eavenels have built and occupied many beautiful and 
historic places both in country and town, and the history of 
Hanover has been given in full, because it is closely connected 
with the history of "St. John's," divided so quaintly by the in- 
habitants thereof into Upper, Lower and Middle St. John's. 

144 



ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 

These romantic houses of the past can never be created. 
To own one of them is to be not only the possessor of an his- 
torical house, but also of something entirely unique. In having 
a home of historical associations one is endowed not only with 
a thing of beauty, but mth a possession which has a precious 
quality of its own wrapped up with its glorious history. 

Architecturally speaking, these old houses display sym- 
metry and real dignity; albeit it they are very simply con- 
structed, they have a look of intrinsic power and strength 
which has come to them with the passing of the years. Mellow- 
ness is not to be bought with money. It is the gift of age. 

WANTOOT 

Among the numerous Ravenel properties was a plantation, 
Wantoot, once the home of Daniel Ravenel, who married 
Catherine Prioleau. Their son, Daniel Ravenel (1789-1873), 
was of Huguenot hneage not only through the Prioleaus, but 
through the emigrant, Rene Ravenel, of Bretagne. 

Many of the Ravenels have been men of scientific achieve- 
ment, including Dr. Henry Ravenel, to whom botany was sub- 
ordinate to nothing. It was the constant all-absorbing passion 
of his life, the more so that serious deafness shut him off from 
the academic professions which would otherwise have appro- 
priated him. A biographical sketch and somewhat incomplete 
bibliography of Dr. Ravenel in Professor Wilson Gee's 
"South Carolina Botanists," seem to be all the accessible 
pubhshed information in regard to him. The Charleston 
Museum is endeavoring to get together an interesting collec- 
tion of letters written by him, which it purposes to publish 
from time to time as a contribution towards an ultimate 
biography. The most important are the generous gifts of the 
Misses Gibbes, daughters of Lewis R. Gibbes. 

The Ravenel mycological herbarium, now owned by the 
Museum, was collected before 1853 during Dr. Ravenel 's resi- 
dence at Pooshee and Northampton plantations near the 
Santee Canal. From similarity of labeling, the specimens 
given by Miss Heyward, of Wappaoolah (or Wappahoola), 
seem to belong to the same period, or the Georgia ones possibly 

10 1*5 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

after removal to Aiken, S. C. Dr. Eavenel's later, larger, and 
more valuable collection of fungi was sold to the British 
Museum. Correspondence shoAvs his desire to have it depos- 
ited in the Charleston Museum, but circumstances prevented. 
The Ravenel herbarium of flowering plants from the Santee 
Canal region was rescued and remounted, and with the Stephen 
Elliott herbarium forms the classic basis for botanical work in 
this vicinity. 

On July 5th, 1920, the St. John's Hunting Club, organized 
over a century ago, held one of its semi-annual meetings at 
Wampee plantation, with Mr. Thomas P. Ravenel, of Savan- 
nah, Georgia, in the chair. The semi-annual dinners of the 
club are events at which it is a privilege to be present; the 
delicious dishes, hvely and entertaining table talk, and the de- 
lightful trysts beneath the ancestral oaks are golden Unks in 
the chain of hfe's enjoyments. 

In the South we find a very distinctive style of house ; high 
pitched, with dormer windows set in the roof. The chimneys 
are built at the gable ends of the house, but constructed entirely 
on the exterior of the building, and greatly resemble English 
chimneys in the way they widen at the bottom. Quaint little 
entrance porches are often found in these houses, and the 
materials used vary from native wood to imported brick. The 
gambrel roof is seldom if ever met with in this section. 

Many old wooden houses are found in South Carolina up 
along the eastern branch of the Cooper River and into St. 
John's and St. Stephen's Parish, which all conform to the same 
simple lines of architecture found suitable for our southern 
type of life, and while the possibilities for decoration are never 
great these houses are entirely delightful, plain buildings. 
Generally they are of two and a half stories set on basements, 
and having wide piazzas for use during the long, hot summers. 
The halls are broad, with wide, low windows, lofty ceilings, 
and painted and paneled walls. Having once given a descrip- 
tion of one, you have virtually described all of this particular 
type of Carolina colonial, which in its way is equally as per- 
fect as any Colonial design of other sections. 

146 



ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 

Some one has used the happy expression "The Casual 
Artistry" of the past, and this apphes with peculiar force to 
the old wooden buildings in St. Stephen's and St. John's, 
where time has mellowed their old walls, and the years have 
thrown an air of mystery and enchantment over these dear, 
plain old places, bestowing on them that gift of age and mellow- 
ness ever present in these quaint, old-fashioned homes, with 
their adzed beams, their regular and irregular windows, and 
their "off-center" chimneys. 

But the houses are far from being frowsy or slatternly. 
They are fine and natural and dignified, so well expressing, in 
their old age, the builders ' instinct for what was appropriate 
and fitting. 

Mills' Statistics tell us that the upper and lower parts of 
St. Stephen's Parish were originally distinguished by the 
names of French and English Santee. The latter (what is now 
St. Stephen's) was situated about fifty miles to the northwest 
of Charleston; it was bounded on the northeast by the Santee 
River, on the southwest by St. John 's Parish, and on the south- 
east by St. James Santee, thus St. Stephen's originally was a 
part of St. James Santee, and was divided from it about the 
year 1740. 

The village of Pineville is in this parish. It began to be 
settled in 1794 as a retreat for health in summer and autumn 
by the families of the planters who lived on nearby planta- 
tions bordering on the rivers. In the beginning of 1784 St. 
Stephen's was one of the most thriving parishes in the State, 
and in proportion to its size one of the richest. It was provided 
with an educational institution called Pineville Academy. 

Robert Marion, representative of Charleston district in the 
U. S. Congress, and Theodore Gailliard, formerly speaker of 
the House of Representatives of South Carohna and in 1826 
one of the judges of the circuit court of law, both belong to 
this parish. But John Gailliard was perhaps the best known 
public man. Mr. Lawson speaks of Mons Galliare's (Gail- 
liard) the Elder: 

"who lives in a very curious contrived house, built of brick and 
stone which is gotten near the place. Near here, comes in the 

147 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Eoad from Charleston and the rest of the Enghsh settlements, 
it being a very good way by land, and not above 36 miles, al- 
though more than 100 by water. . . . " 

On a piece of high land about a mile from Pineville there 
is a quarry of hard, brown stone, which is very heavy and has 
the appearance of iron ore. Some of this stone was used by 
Col. Senf, the engineer who constructed the Santee Canal. 
They were great on canals in these days. There was one 
projected from the Edisto to Ashley River, and one constructed 
from the Santee to the headwaters of the western branch of 
the Cooper River. 

At the expiration of the first term of President Monroe and 
Vice-President Tompkins in 1821 John Gailliard of South 
Carohna was president pro-tempore of the sixteenth Congress 
and was duly quahfied to have been acting President of the 
United States from noon on March 4th (the expiration of 
President Monroe's first term) until 1 o'clock the next day 
when Mr. Monroe commenced his second term. Gailliard 's 
term did not expire with the end of the sixteenth Congress, and 
at that time the office of President pro-tempore was not con- 
strued as extending within "the pleasure of the Senate." The 
records of Congress show that Gailliard 's formal reelection 
as President pro-tempore did not take place until February 20, 
1822, thus giving proof of his legal ability to serve as Presi- 
dent for a day. 

Thomas H. Benton, distinguished Senator from Missouri, 
says of John Gailliard, in a book pubhshed in 1856, that this 
gentleman from St. Stephen's Parish in South Carolina (born 
in 1769) had from the year 1804 been continually elected to the 
Senate, the first time for an unexpired term, followed by four- 
teen reelections, in the course of the last of which he died. 
The years for which he had been elected numbered nearly 
thirty; and during this period of service he was elected Presi- 
dent (pro-tempore) of the Senate nine times, and presided for 
fourteen years over the deliberations of that body, the death 
of two Vice-Presidents, and frequent absence of a third making 
long, continued vacancies of the presidential chair which Gail- 
liard was called upon to fill. 

148 



ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 

He is described as being "urbane in manner, amiable in 
temper, and scrupulously impartial ; delicate in manner when 
setting young senators right, facilitating transaction of busi- 
ness while preserving decorum of that body. There was not 
an instance of disorder or a disagreeable scene in the chamber 
during his long-continued presidency. He classed democrati- 
cally in politics, but was as much a favorite of one side of the 
house as the other, and that in the high party times of the war 
with Great Britain, which so much exasperated party spirit." 

Mr. Theodore G. Fitzsimons has in his possession at Wil- 
town a rapier worn with full dress by Mr. Gailliard; it was 
given by John Gailliard to his nephew, Samuel Gailliard Bar- 
ker, who in turn gave it to his nephew, the present owner. The 
name of John Gailliard 's plantation was Hayden Hill, on which 
the dwelling has been burnt. This plantation comprised sev- 
eral tracts, one of which was conveyed by the King to Thomas 
Farr. A list of all the Gailliard places, and there were many 
of them, includes Brush Pond, still used ; the Wilson tract ; the 
St. Julien tract; Newman and Godfrey tracts; the Rhett or 
Thompson tract, and the Oaks, near Eutaw Springs. Wind- 
sor was another Gailliard place, having been the residence of 
John Gailliard 's father. 

Perhaps the best known house in this family was that which 
belonged to Peter Gailliard, which goes by the name of "The 
Eocks. ' ' The register of St. James Santee carries this entry, 
probably in reference to the owner of the first plantation, and 
to The Eocks : 

"David Gailliard of the Parish of St. Stephens, Bachelor, 
and Joanna Dubose of the Parish of St. Stephens, Spinster, 
were married at the plantation of Theodore Gailliard Sen' of 
this Parish, by License, this Twenty-Third Day of September 
in the Year of our Lord 1773. 

This marriage was 

Solemnized between us 

In the Presence of 

David Gailliard 
Joanna Dubose 
James Eivers 
Isaac Dubose." 

149 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

The timber for The Rocks was selected during a freshet by 
Mr. Peter Gailliard, who took a canoe and went as far as 
Santee River, marking which trees he wanted ; these were cut 
by slaves after the freshet, and the cypress allowed to season. 
The house was put up by his own carpenters, near Eutawville. 
It is likely that bricks for the foundation and chimneys, each 
of which give warmth to four rooms, being placed opposite the 
doors, were made on his own plantation. In some of the houses 
in this vicinity there was a queer little closet-like room at the 
rear, entered from the back steps. At The Rocks it was used 
as a store-room for cut glass and such things, and at Walnut 
Grove was used and furnished as a library. 

Ruins of the Chateau Gailliard are in Normandy, placed on 
the summit of a projecting cliff, the castle rises up grandly, 
commanding a view of the River Seine for miles. According to 
tradition it was once the home of Richard Coeur-de-Lion, who 
is supposed to have been his own architect, and the skill shown 
in the construction of this fortress is considered masterly. 
The central donjon tower is of immense strength. It is the 
most perfect remaining part of the castle ; the walls are from 
fourteen to fifteen feet thick. It may be that in some occult 
manner this spirit of engineering passed to Gailliard, the 
engineer who worked so faithfully for the benefit of America in 
making Culebra Cut in the Panama Canal, but whose name has 
been withdrawn and that of Culebra substituted. 

There are several other houses in the vicinity of The Rocks, 
not yet mentioned, which are still standing, and which all con- 
form to the same general plan of construction. Among them 
are Walworth, Belmont, Walnut Grove, and Springfield. 

One of the Gailliards who served in the Revolutionary War 
had under his command a man by the name of Francis Salva- 
dor, who resided at Ninety-Six, and whose remains are interred 
in the old DeCosta burying ground in Hanover Street, Charles- 
ton. Mr. Salvador was a young Englishman who had come 
to Carolina about 1773; the Mesne Conveyance records show 
that he bought lands in this Province in 1774. His home was 
at Corn-acre Creek twenty-eight miles from Major Andrew 
Williamson 's home. He was a member of the Provincial Con- 

150 



ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 

gresses of 1775-1776, being one of the few Up Country repre- 
sentatives who had taken an active part in its proceedings. It 
was Francis Salvador who first brought word of the Indian 
uprisings at the time of the Revolution to Major Williamson. 
He was shot down by Williamson's side while attacking the 
savages, who unfortunately discovered him immediately and 
scalped him alive before he could be found by his friends in 
the dark. 

To return to St. Stephen's and the settlement at Pine- 
ville, Mr. F. A. Porcher gives the following delightful account 
of a Pineville ball. 

"Nothing can be imagined more simple or more fascinat- 
ing than those Pineville balls. No love of display, no vain 
attempt to outshine a competitor in the world of fashion, gov- 
erned the preparations. Refreshments of the simplest char- 
acter were provided ; such only as the unusual exercise would 
fairly warrant, nothing to tempt a pampered appetite. Cards 
were furnished to keep the old men quiet, and the music was 
such only as the gentlemen's servants could give. 

"The company assembled early — no one ever thought of 
waiting until bedtime to go to the ball — and the dancing al- 
ways began with a country-dance. The lady who stood at the 
head of the column called for the figures, and the old airs of 
Ca ira, Money-Musk, Haste to Wedding, and La Belle 
Catherine were popular and familiar in Pineville, even long 
after they had been forgotten in the city. . . . 

"The evening's entertainment was always concluded with 
the Boulanger, a dance whose quiet movement came in appro- 
priately to cool off the revellers before exposure to the chilly 
air. It was a matter of no small importance to secure a proper 
partner for this dance, for, by old custom, whoever danced last 
with a lady had the prescriptive right to see her home. No car- 
riages ever rolled in the village streets after night ; a servant 
with a lantern marshalled the way, and the lady, escorted by 
her last partner, was conducted to her home. And as the 
season drew towards a close, how interesting became those 
walks ! how many words of love were spoken ! ' ' 

ST. STEPHEN'S 
Concerning St. Stephen's Parish, formerly known as 
Craven County, Dalcho's Church History gives the follow- 
ing information : 

151 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

"This Parish was taken from St. James, Santee, and was 
usually called English Santee. It was established by Act of 
the Assembly May 11, 1754. The Chapel of Ease of St. James' 
Church fell within the limits of the new Parish, and was de- 
clared to be the Parish Church by St. Stephen's. 

"The Rev* Alex" Keith, A. M., Assistant Minister of St. 
Philip 's, Charleston, was the first Eector of this Parish. The 
Church had been the Chapel of Ease to St. James', was old and 
unfit for use from its ruinous condition, and became too small. 
The inhabitants petitioned for a new Parish Church. An Act 
was passed 19 May, 1762, appointing James Pamor, Charles 
Cantey, Philip Porcher, Joseph Pamor, Peter Sinkler, Peter 
Porcher, Thomas Cooper, Eene Peyre, and Samuel Cordes 
Commissioners to receive subscriptions, and to build the 
church on any part of the land of St. Stephen's then used for 
a church-yard. The Church is one of the handsomest Country 
Churches in South Carolina, and would be no mean ornament 
to Charleston. It is of brick and neatly finished. It is on the 
main river road and about twelve miles from the Santee 
Canal. Upon a brick on the south side is inscribed 'A. 
Howard, Ser. 1767,' and on another 'F. Villeponteux, Ser. 7, 
1767, ' the names of the architects. 

"The Church was incorporated February 29, 1788. The 
family of the Gailliards lie here interred, as do the other old 
families of the neighborhood." 

Connecting the settlers of English and French Santee 
was the fact that the Echaw, a branch of the Santee River, 
was settled by famiUes of both, Louis Gourdin established 
himself there after his flight from his native place in the 
Province of Artois in France. He was a Huguenot, and like 
many others refugeed to the Province of Carolina in 1685. 
He died in 1716 and a mural tablet is found in the Hugue- 
not church dedicated to him in 1860 by the fourth and fifth 
generations of his descendants. 

Some of the Gourdin family moved over to what was 
afterwards Williamsburg district, among them Peter Gourdin, 
who married a Miss Singleton. Their daughter, Martha 
Gourdin, before her marriage to Wilmot G. DeSaussure, was 

152 . ^ 



ST. JOHN'S AND ST. STEPHEN'S 

kjiowii as "Martha, the Gazelle of the Saiitees." She inher- 
ited one-fifth of her father's estate under Act of the General 
Assembly passed 1791 for the distribution of Intestate Estates ; 
and many interesting deeds bearing on this section of the 
country are now in possession of the family of the writer, a 
granddaughter of Martha Gourdin DeSaussure. 

In investigating Pen Branch plantation, Williamsburg 
County, owned by Eobert E. Eraser, of Georgetown; J. W. 
Hinson and J. D. Cummings, of New York, about to be pur- 
chased by N. T. Pittman, it is interesting to note, in further 
connecting Santee and Wilhamsburg, that this was an original 
grant to a John Gailhard, in three tracts, in 1768, and he trans- 
ferred it to Philip Porcher in 1778. In the examination of 
titles it is stated that this was commonly called Porcher 's Old 
Field h'ing on Pen Branch. Philip Porcher 's father was 
Peter Porcher, of St. Peter's Parish, and the Porchers were 
described as owning land in St. Stephen's Parish in 1808. 
Peter Porcher had two plantations in St. John's Berkeley, 
Oakfield and Laban, and a tract of land in Prince Frederick 
Parish (Craven County), containing 1000 acres, bounded by 
lands of Theodore Gourdin on the northwest and east, and 
by the Santee River on the south. Peter Porcher 's daughter 
Mary married John Corbett. 

Samuel Dubose, Esq., in his Reminiscences of St. Stephen's 
Parish, written in 1858, says : 

"A feature characteristic of this country, and one that 
deserves notice, is the family burying grounds. After the erec- 
tion of St. Stephen's Church, the ground about it was the 
common cemetery, but many persons to this day continue to 
bury their dead in the old homestead, and chose to lie in death 
within the precincts of their ancestor's domain; even though 
perhaps they may have been strangers to it in hf e. The grave 
yard was near the house, usually behind the garden. As a 
precaution against the depredation of wolves, a large hole was 
dug to the depth of about five feet ; a grave was then dug at 
the bottom of this hole, large enough to hold the coflSn— after 
the coffin was deposited in this receptacle, it was covered with 
boards, and the whole then filled up. This practice continues 
to this day. I can hardly enumerate the several grave yards ; 
those which have been latest used are that at Belle Isle for the 

153 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Marion's and their descendants; at Maham's for the descen- 
dants of Col. Maham ; at the Old Field for the family of Philip 
Porcher; at Gravel Hill for the Palmers; at Hanover in St. 
John's for the descendants of the St. Julien's; and those at 
Pooshee and Somerton for the families of the Eavenels and 
Mazycks. It is not unUkely that there are graves on almost 
every old homestead in the country. . . . 

". . . Some distance beyond the St. Stephen's Une, and 
just below the Eutaw Springs, was another settlement, chiefly 
of Huguenot families, viz: the Couturier's, Marion's, Gignil- 
lat's, Chouvenau's, Gourdin's, &c., besides others of EngUsh 
descent, the McKelvey's, Ervine's, Oliver's, Kirk's, &c. All 
of these in the course of time were connected by intermarriage. 
The land was well adapted to the growth of provisions and 
Indigo, and in consequence of the fertility of the high lands, 
they escaped the full measure of the calamities with which their 
neighbors of Stephen's were visited, when the river became 
unsafe. The same picture of a prosperous and happy condi- 
tion with which I have introduced this sketch, may be applied 
to this neighborhood also, and the happiness which is there 
described, continued to be the portion of the people, until in the 
course of the Eevolutionary War, the British got possession 
of the State, and established their military posts over every 
portion of the country." 

According to letters of John Rutledge, published in 
Russell's Magazine for June, 1858, Murray's Ferry was in St. 
Stephen's Parish. 



CHAPTER VIII 
ST. MARK'S PARISH 




T. MARK'S Parish originally in- 
cluded all the northwestern portion 
of the State of South Carolina. A 
list of delegates to Provincial Con- 
gress, 1775, "For District East- 
ward of the Wateree River ' ' named 
Col. Richard Richardson, Joseph 
and Ely Kershaw, Matthew Single- 
ton, Thomas Sumter, Robert Pat- 
ton, William Richardson,Robert Carter and William Wilson. St. 
Mark's Parish was taken off from the western portion of 
Prince Fredericks by Act of Assembly 1757. Richard Rich- 
ardson gave the lands for the church and glebe lands for a 
parsonage. This church was destroyed by the British soldiers. 
It was situated about ten miles from the place now known as 
Wrights Bluff, on the north side of the Santee River. 

Camden, StateSburg and Columbia were in the original 
Parish of St. Mark. The Parish was again divided into Upper 
and Lower St. Mark's. Lower St. Mark's comprises much of 
the land in Clarendon County. One of the oldest homes in the 
Parish is the Col. Warren Nelson house, of which the chimneys 
have the date 1762 cut in them. The house is situated near 
Doughty Lake, a few miles below Nelson's Ferry and was the 
residence of WilHam Doughty, lay reader in Lower St. Mark's. 
The grounds are set with many beautiful trees and the attitude 
of this old home is one of culture and hospitality. An extract 
from a letter of Brig. Gen. Sumter makes a mention of action 
of the armies in St. Mark's Parish. 

". . . before I Return to the Congaree I think to move 
towards Santee — and endeavor to alarm Lord Rawdon to 
prevent his Crossing the River, or Removing the post from 
Nelson 's ferry. ' ' 

155 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

THE SAND HILLS OF SAINT MARK'S 
MILFORD 

The country house of John L. Manning, Governor of South 
CaroHna from 1852 to 1853, was Milford, situated in Clarendon 
County, near Fulton, S. C, in what is called the Sand Hill 
region of old St. Mark 's Parish. The place is sometimes called 
Manning's Folly, because of such magnificence being placed 
in such an out-of-the-way spot. To any one familiar with the 
history of this old settlement, however, the name is not at 
all applicable. 

Laurence Manning, an Irish lad, came to this country with 
his widowed mother before the Eevolution and settled in Vir- 
ginia. He came to South Carolina as a lieutenant in Lee's 
Legion, and was distinguished in many battles and by many 
acts of personal bravery. His exploit of using a British officer 
as a shield for himself at the battle of Eutaw is the subject of 
a painting in the State House at Columbia. The South Caro- 
lina history of the Mannings starts when Susannah Eichard- 
son, daughter of General Richard Richardson and Mary 
Cantey, married this gallant young officer. After the Revolu- 
tion, on the organization of the State mihtia, Laurence Man- 
ning was appointed Adjutant General, and held the office until 
his death in 1804. He also served the State in its legislature. 
The gallant Irishman and his aristocratic bride founded a 
family which has given many public-spirited men and women 
to South Carolina. 

John Laurence Manning, the grandson of the founder of 
the family, and builder of Milford, was twice married, first to 
Susannah Hampton, and then to Sarah Bland Clark, of Vir- 
ginia. The handsome home stands on a commanding slope and 
bluff overlooking a dense swamp, the tops of the trees in the 
swamp below are on a level with the lower sweep of the hill 
which Milford crowns with its massive structure of classic 
proportions and conception. 

Inside, the beautiful woodwork of solid mahogany, and the 
very high ceilings, carry out the idea of elegance and space 

156 



- o 




ST. MARK'S PARISH 



evidenced in the exterior, and an additional architectural fea- 
ture is the handsome circular staircase ascending from the 
front hall. The house is built mth two long wings at the rear 
projecting on each side, so that the house forms a semi-circle, 
in the center of which, behind the main building, is a bell tower. 

A most interesting entrance to the grounds is furnished by 
the porter's lodge from which a broad carriage road sweeps 
in a curve to the door of the mansion. Each outbuilding, in- 
cluding the lodge and spring house, is a miniature, minus 
the wings, of the large estabUshment, and the whole effect of 
Milford and its grounds is one of rare unity. 

In his day Governor Manning was said to be the handsom- 
est man in South Carolina, and he was a man of genial nature. 
His home reflected his taste, several massive statures retain- 
ing their proportion and beauty by reason of the excellent 
arrangement of the house. Entrance is gained directly from 
the portico with its broad columns into a beautifully propor- 
tioned hall, from which the circular stairway ascends, while 
folding doors lead to rooms on either side, giving an air of 
sumptuous spaciousness. On the left is the hbrary, on the right 
the drawing-room, and in the rear the dining-room. In Gov- 
ernor Manning's time great alabaster vases of dazzUng white 
stood in the front hall ; indeed, the whole house enshrined many 
art objects of rarity and beauty. 

Until after the Civil War the settlement around Milford 
comprised the families of Richardson, Brailsford, Manning, 
Nelson, and Cantey, all connected by marriage. Where there 
was once a flourishing community, and a great deal of poHti- 
cal and social activity, there is now nothing but a few shut-up 
houses in the charge of caretakers. This condition has come 
about through the decay of the old slave-holding system, and 
the fact that the farms had to be abandoned for lack of labor, 
and although some of the men have retained their ancestral 
homes and acres, they make their residences in the adjacent 
towns and cities. 

No better illustration can be found of the political sig- 
nificance of this now abandoned section than the history of 
Elizabeth Pierre Eichardson. She married one of the Man- 

157 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

nings, was a niece of Gov. James B. Richardson, an aunt of 
John Peter Richardson, Jr., wife of Governor Richard Irving 
Manning, Sr., mother of Governor John Laurence Manning, of 
Milford, and grandmother of Richard Irving Manning, the 
Governor of South Carohna during the world war. 

Leslie's Weekly, March 16, 1918, in "Our Roll of Honor," 
says : 

"Has any State in the Union more of a 'War Governor' 
than Governor Richard I. Manning, of South Carolina? Not 
only has he contributed in every way possible, officially and 
personally, to the winning of the war, but also every male 
member of his family wears the country's uniform (with the 
exception of his youngest son, a boy of fifteen) " . . . (six 
sons being in service) . . . " Capt. William Sinkler Manning 
is regimental adjutant of the 316 Infantry; Capt. Bernard 
Manning is in the 316 Regimental Field Artillery; Major 
Wyndham Manning is Major of Field Artillery, 156 Brigade ; 
Burrel Deas Manning and John Adger Manning are in the 
Field Artillery, as is Vivian Manning. ' ' 

Major William Sinkler Manning was one of the sons of 
Carolina who "paid the price" that Freedom's flag should 
remain unfurled. Mrs. William Sinkler Manning, who was a 
Miss Brodie, a granddaughter of Alexander Shepherd (former 
Governor of the District of Columbia), who now resides in the 
National Capital, received an official communication from the 
adjutant general of the American Expeditionary Forces say- 
ing that a distinguished service cross had been awarded 
posthumously to her husband. Major Manning, for "extraor- 
dinary heroism in action" near Verdun, France, November 
6, 1918. Thus died gloriously, and for God, a noble son of a 
noble race. 

ON THE CAMDEN ROAD IN ST. MARK'S PARISH 

THE SINGLETONS AND THEIR HOMES IN ST. MARK'S 

PARISH 

The Singletons were an old and honorable family in the 
low-country and were first found in the Scotch-Irish settle- 
ment in the Williamsburg District. They intermarried with 

158 



h 



K 







-5^ > 
>1 






2 




ST. MARK'S PARISH 



the old families, including the Richardsons, Canteys and 
Gourdins, and have been written up many times. "The 
State" for September 24th, 1916, carries a full and de- 
tailed history of them, and one of the most interesting things 
pubUshed in connection with the article is an account of the 
possessions of the family. These include Matthew Singleton's 
Commission issued under the crown, dated May 5th, 1770, his 
commission from the Council of Safety, dated October, 1775, 
his oath of allegiance, June 7th, 1778, and tax receipts reading 
— "1773 rec'd The sum of Four Pounds three shillings and 
lOd, Proclamation money ; being for one years Quitrent due to 
the crown for two thousand and 94 acres of land held by him 
and situated in Craven County. ' ' 

Mrs. Leroy Halsey, who was Decca Singleton, daughter of 
Richard Singleton of "Home Place," has in her possession a 
photograph of a part of a grant of land given to Matthew 
Singleton in 1756. This picture and other family relics are 
among Mrs. Halsey 's most treasured possessions in her 

Charleston home. 

MELROSE 

"Melrose" is the oldest of the Singleton homesteads still 
standing. It is situated just off the public road, known in 
colonial days as the "Great Road from Charleston to Cam- 
den." This road led past the present town of Wedgefield 
through Manchester to settlements beyond. Mr. Thos. E. 
Richardson, Judge of Probate for Sumter County, says : "Man- 
chester was a thriving Uttle town, before the Revolution and 
was the head of navigation on Beech Creek for boats that plied 
between that place and Charleston after 1800. There were no 
places on the northeast side of the Santee and Wateree Rivers 
south of Camden where the river approached the high land 
except at Sumter's Landing near Hagood, and Wrights Bluff. 
Beech Creek unites with Shank's Creek near Manchester and 
this enlarged stream used to be navigable for canal boats ; so 
Manchester was a sea port for this section of the country 
until the Rail Roads broke it up." The Singletons ac- 
quired their vast wealth by shipping indigo and later cotton 
by boat from Manchester. 

159 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

"Melrose" is a small house but exceedingly quaint. A 
small one-story piazza extending across the entire front of the 
house shields two large rooms from the sun. At both gable ends 
are large cliimneys, which are flanked on either side by long 
narrow windows. Through one of these windows James Sin- 
gleton was fed by a faithful slave when the British were in this 
vicinity, he being ill with small-pox. Behind the large front 
rooms are found two smaller apartments with a hall dividing 
them and furnishing access to the rear. The hall contains 
a stairway leading to the rooms above. At the rear end of 
this hall a large arched doorway leads, by way of a " stoop, ' ' 
directly to the yard. 

MIDWAY 

The house on the "Midway" estate was a large one and was 
built by Captain John Singleton, who received the house as a 
wedding gift from his father, Matthew Singleton. It was 
named Midway because it lay midway between Melrose and 
Home Place, two other of the Singleton plantations. On either 
end of the house a large room was added the width of the house, 
the two being connected by a passageway. Tradition has it 
that Captain Singleton took great pleasure in entertaining 
members of the Legislature, who passed the house on horse- 
back during Christmas hohdays. 

John Singleton married Rebecca Richardson, daughter of 
General Richardson. She was the widow of a Mr. Cooper, a 
man whom she had married at the age of sixteen, against the 
wishes of her father. Mary Singleton, daughter of John and 
Rebecca Singleton, married George McDuffie in 1829. Mc- 
Duffie was left a widower with one child a year later. This 
child became the wife of "Wade Hampton, Governor of South 
Carolina. Although George McDuffie died at the Singleton 
home, he owned a house called "Cherry Hill" in Abbeville 
District. McDuffie was one of the most brilliant orators of 
South Carolina. He was Governor of the State in 1834 and 
was a member of the United States Senate in 1842. Mr. Mc- 
Duffie was never strong after his duel with Colonel Cunning- 
ham in 1820, but he did not die until 1851. 

160 



ST. MARK'S PARISH 



SINGLETON HALL 

Irving, in his "History of the Turf in South Carolina," 
says that "Home Place" or "Singleton Hall" is situated on 
the line of the Charleston and Camden turnpike, which is 
skirted for many miles in front of the estate by a beautiful 
hawthorn hedge, the growth of many years. Fronting the 
house is a park of nearly fifty acres, with fine forest trees laid 
out in hues radiating from it to the public road. Nothing can 
surpass the picturesque beauty and effect of the partial views 
obtained through the vista of the trees of the massive columns 
which support the entablature of this splendid mansion, as seen 
from a distance. The approach to it is up through a broad 
avenue shielded on either side by "brave old oaks." Within 
this park the training course is laid out, an exact mile in cir- 
cuit, so that the horses may be seen taking their exercise. One 
straight side of the course running parallel with the house is 
so near that orders can be given the trainers or jockies from 
the piazza. 

"The racing stables are situated immediately in the rear 
of the house, with the paddocks on either side. Everything is 
substantially built and in perfect order, and there is no want 
of room, or convenience of any kind, manifest in the details. 

"The elegant and refined hospitahty of Singleton Hall, a 
noble mansion, as eminent for its beauty and the taste with 
which the extensive grounds are laid out, as for the courtesy 
and considerate kindness which characterizes the proprietor. 
Aside from the interest with which we regard this princely 
estate from its great extent, its high state of cultivation, the 
perfect order and good taste so apparent in its minutest de- 
tails, and the associations connected with it as the time-honored 
seat of the distinguished family of its present owner, it had 
a pecuUar charm as being the nearest approach to an American 
idea of the residence of 

" 'The fine old English Gentleman 
All of the olden time. ' " 

The house at "Home Place" (or as it was later called 
Singleton Hall), was built by Eichard Singleton, son of John 

11 161 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

and grandson of Matthew Singleton. He was a man of ample 
means and entertained royally. It is said that it took him two 
hours to dress in the morning, and that while he was adjusting 
his cravat and combing his hair, a la pompador, his wife read 
the Bible and newspapers to him. Upon being twitted by his 
neighbors for being late to business, he replied, "It did not 
matter when you started, but what you did after starting." 
He was evidently a man of strong personahty and was loved 
by all who knew him. 

Richard Singleton owned several other plantations in addi- 
tion to Home Place, among them were Gihnan's ; Headquarters 
or Kensington, near the Acton station; The Fork; Scott; 
Gadsen; and True Blue, the name of the latter having been 
derived from the fact that this was once an indigo plantation. 

"Home Place" was the scene of the marriage of Angelica 
Singleton, daughter of Richard, to Col. Abram Van Buren, son 
of President Van Buren. At this wedding the rare and beauti- 
ful Singleton silver was used, as was also the glass and china. 
It is said that Richard Singleton was the first to introduce 
silver forks in the family, and that the children always spoke 
of them as "Uncle Singleton's Split Spoons." 

The following interesting story is told of how Angelica 
Singleton met her husband ; " To complete her education, as 
was fitting her station, she was sent to school to Mme. Ire- 
land's in Philadelphia. In 1827 she spent a portion of her 
holiday in Washington with her kinswoman, Mrs. Dolly 
Madison, who took pleasure in introducing her to President 
Van Buren. As she was a girl of rare beauty and charm, she 
at once became a reigning belle and one year later was married 
from her home 'Home Place,' to Major Abram Van Buren, 
eldest son of the President, a graduate of West Point, an officer 
in the army, and who at the time was acting as his father's 
private secretary. Mrs. Van Buren made her appearance as 
mistress of the White House on New Year's Day, shortly after 
her marriage (1838). The newspapers of the day spoke of her 
as bearing the fatigue of the three house levee with patience 
and pleasantry which must have been inexhaustible." Mrs. 
Van Buren was a very beautiful woman, a portrait of her shows 

162 



ST. MARK'S PARISH 



her with her hair piled high, bunches of curls clustered on each 
side of her face, and a number of ostrich feathers towering 
above all this. Her descendant, Mrs. Helen Coles Singleton 
Green, of Columbia, possesses many interesting relics of her 
distinguished ancestress. 

' ' Kensington " or " Headquarters, ' ' was willed by Richard 
Singleton to his son Matthew, who built a home there, which 
is now one of the handsomest places in Richland County. It 
was saved during the Civil War by the intrepid and courage- 
ous appeal of Mrs. Singleton's mother to a young northern 
soldier who had been sent to fire the building. She saved the 
home and possibly the life of the youth, ag Hampton's Scouts 
heard of the proposed burning and came riding hard upon the 
heels of the would-be incendiary. The house is built in the 
shape of a cross, with wings on either end and the wing in 
the rear being balanced by a porte cochere extending from the 
roof of the front porch. 

Matthew Singleton is described as being "a spirited and 
accomplished young gentleman, who inherits a large portion 
of his father's taste for fine horses, and who, we trust, will one 
day succeed him on the Turf. " As Halsey children will in- 
herit Singleton trophies, brief extracts concerning their 
paternal ancestry are given. 

Thomas Olney, the ancestor of the Olneys in America, 
had his birthplace in Hertford, Hertfordshire, England. 
He received a permit to emigrate to New England April 
2nd, 1635, and came to Salem, Mass., by the ship Planter. 
In January, 1636, he was appointed a surveyor, and granted 
40 acres of land at Jeffrey Creek, now known as Manchester, 
near Salem. He was made a freeman the same year and 
early associated with those who accepted the pecuhar 
views of Roger Williams. With a number of others he was 
excluded from the colony March 12th, 1638, and with Roger 
Williams and eleven others formed a new settlement at the 
head of Narragansett Bay which they named Providence, in 
grateful remembrance of their deliverance from their enemies. 
They thus became the "Original Thirteen Proprietors of 
Providence," having purchased their rights from the Indians. 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

George W. Ohiey, son of Captain Olney (named for George 
Washington, under whom his father had served), passed his 
childhood and early manliood on his father's farm at Provi- 
dence. After the war of 1812 he made several business ven- 
tures to Southern ports, which led him to think so favorably 
of Charleston, S. C, that he made it his permanent home. His 
wife was OUve Bartlett, of Williamstown, Mass., and their 
daughter, Maria, married Capt. E. L. Halsey in 1870. 

Concerning Captain Halsey 's ancestors we find among the 
records of the town of Lynn, Mass., which have survived a fire, 
that in 1638 Thomas Halsey was allotted one hundred acres 
of land. His coming to America was apparently connected 
with the colonization enterprizes of which John Winthrop 
became leader. In the history of New England from 1630 to 
1649 Halsey 's name is mentioned frequently in connection 
with the religious upheaval in the colony at the time. 

Captain and Mrs. Halsey had a large family, members of 
which are now identified with Charleston's social and business 
life. One of the sons, Leroy Halsey, married Decca Coles 
Singleton, who has in her possession a decanter which was 
used at Melrose plantation, Sumter County, in 1760, and later 
was in use at Midway, then at Home Place and Black Woods, 
all of which were plantations of the Singleton family. 

ON THE ROAD TO STATEBURG AFTER LEAVING THE 
SINGLETON ESTATES 

After leaving Wedgefield, on the road to Stateburg, the 
following houses are found : The first is Argyle, recently the 
home of Miss Mary McLaurin, where General Greene had his 
headquarters just before the battle of Eutawville. Number 
two is found on the same side of the road, the right, and is 
known by the name of The Oaks. It is a tall wooden house 
set on a hill quite a distance back from the public road, which 
forms a fine approach to the structure and sets off the colonial 
portico that adorns the fagade of this building. The house has 
fine woodwork inside, although very plain. 

The situation of this home is particularly interesting, as it 
is built on the crest of a hill on the watershed of the Santee and 

164 



ST. MARK'S PARISH 



Black Elvers, the waters from the front flowing west to the 
Santee, and those from the back draining east to the Black 
River. Mr. Screven Moore now owns this property, the house 
having been built either by a Bracey or a James, probably the 
latter, as the place was once known as James Hill, but has 
since been changed to The Oaks. 

The next house above The Oaks is built in the same style, 
set on a high brick foundation with two stories above, and 
belongs to Mr. Wilham Flood. In the vicinity of these three 
houses already mentioned, and on the other side of the road, 
was the old Richardson house, at which Dictator Rutledge 
stayed when he made his quarters in the high hills of Santee. 
This place is called Bloomhill, and is now in the possession of 
Mr. Thomas Richardson, Judge of the Probate Court, Sum- 
ter, S. C. ; Mrs. Mary Ellen Alexander, and Mrs. H. Pinckney. 

Continuing the journey from Wedgefield north, there is a 
very interesting house north of the Flood place which was, for 
many years, the home of the Reese family. It is a mellow old 
house, placed close to the ground, the lower rooms being used 
by the family as living-rooms. 

A httle above the Reese house comes in the road from 
Sumter. Upon this road about sis miles distant are found the 
residences of the Nelsons, Andersons and Friersons, a portion 
of the Frierson place being a very old house. The place is 
known by the name of Cherry Dale. The Frierson family 
came to South Carohna about 1730 and formed a part of the 
Scotch-Irish settlement in Wilhamsburg Township. One of 
the locks of the Santee Canal bears the name of John Frier- 
son. Mr. James Nelson Frierson, recently elected dean of 
the University of South Carolina Law School, is a grandson 
of the builder of Cherry Dale. 

Leaving Cherry Dale and returning toward Stateburg, on 
the right-hand side of the road is found the Reynolds house, 
for many years the home of Mr. Mark Reynolds, of Sumter 
Bar. The parsonage intervenes here, a bleak old wooden house 
set on a bare hillside, while to the west of the place stands the 
home which goes by the name of The Ruins, which place very 
much resembles Hopseewee in general appearance. It is the 

165 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

home of the Pinckney family, Mrs. Marion DeVeaux Pinckney 
being the present owner. Mr. Harry Pinckney, a member of 
this family, was also the owner of a handsome old house in 
Stateburg neighborhood, which he left to his godson, loor 
Tupper. This house was built by Colonel John Russell Spann, 
who married the widow Broun (originally Harriet Richardson 
Singleton). Mr. Pinckney inherited the property through the 
Spann connection. 

This brings us again to the Camden road, and at this junc- 
ture the Church of the Holy Cross is found, opposite which is 
Hill Crest, the home of the Anderson family. Beyond Hill 
Crest and the church are the following plantations, none of the 
buildings on which, however, possess any historical interest. 
They are as follows: Marshton, belonging to William Saun- 
ders ; Acton, a Ravenel place ; the house already mentioned as 
belonging to Mr. Pinckney ; and the plantation of Mr. DeSaus- 
sure Bull, adjacent to which is found the Bradley house. 

Just where the road turns eastwardly from the Bull place 
going to the Bradley house is the Sebastian Sumter house. 
Here is to be found a monument erected to General Sumter 
bearing the following inscription : 

West Side 
This stone marks the grave of one of South 
CaroUna's most distinguished citizens, 

THOMAS SUMTER. 

One of the founders of the Republic. 

Born in Va., Aug. 14, 1734. 

Died June 1, 1832. 

South Side 

Erected by the General Assembly of S. C. 

1907. 

East Side 

He came to South Carolina about 1760 

and was in the Indian Service on the 

Frontier for several years before settling 

as a planter in this vicinity. 

Commandant of 6th Regt., S. C. Line, 

Continental Estab., 1776-1778. 

166 



ST. MARK'S PARISH 



Brig. Gen. S. C. Militia, 1780-1782. 

Member of Continental Congress, 1783-1784. 

Member U. S. Congress, 1789-1793, 1797-1801. 

U. S. Senator, 1801-1810. 

North Side 

Tanto Nomini Nullimn 

Par Elogium. 

Beyond the Sebastian Sumter house are a few other old 
plantations, among which is The Terraces, a Boykin residence, 
but the house is of no special note. Eembert Hall, in Sumter 
district, is still standing, and there are also some old, if not 
antique, houses found in the vicinity of Bradford Springs. 
St. Phihp's Church, at Bradford Springs, St. Mark's Parish, 
was built in 1843 through the efforts of Mrs. Esther Holbrook, 
daughter of Theodore Gourdin. Among the contributors were 
John A. Colcolough, William Burrows, John Bossard, James 
Gailliard, Porcher Gailliard, Thomas W. Porcher and Charles 
Sinkler, whose summer homes were in this neighborhood. 

HILLCREST 

"Hillcrest" is at Stateburg, S. C, and is on the old mail 
coach road from Charlotte, N. C, to Charleston, S. C, just 
fifteen miles below Camden. The house is built on the crest 
of a majestic hill amid a bower of trees and is still in a good 
state of preservation and replete with associations, relics and 
legends pertaining to colonial days, the Revolutionary War, 
the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the war between the States 
and now sadly connected with the World War, as it was the 
home of Captain WilUam Harrison Saunders, who was killed 
in an airplane accident in the fall of 1919. Captain Saunders 
was an honor graduate of West Point of the class of April, 
1917, and went to France in July of that year in the aviation 
service. He was the first American in observation aviation 
to go over the German lines on a mission and the first man 
from our army to be both a pilot and an observer. That he 
survived this dangerous service is almost a miracle, for the 
Boches nearly had him twice. It was while he was at Fort Sill, 
after his return from France, that he met his tragic death. 

167 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



The beautiful sweet-scented gardens at "Hillcrest" are a 
tangle of shrubs and groups of pyramidal cypress. There one 
may rest in the portico of the old library, which is a separate 
building in this garden, or Unger beside the old sun dial. There 
is a large oak on the sloping lawn known as the "Spy Oak" 
with the girth of two centuries or more and the gnarled 
"bumps of knowledge" holding fast the secrets of the Tory 
spies who were hanged from its branches, lending a sinister 
air to the place. Here Comwallis established himself, making 
"HiUcrest" his headquarters while in this vicinity, harassing 
that gallant and determined band, which, led by the intrepid 
Sumter (a resident of the high hills of the Santee), carried on 
their guerilla warfare with such telling effect. 

At another period of the Eevolutionary War, the American 
patriot. General Greene was so favorably impressed with the 
charm and healthfulness of these high hills that he selected this 
neighborhood in which to encamp his army when rest became 
necessary, bringing his men here several times to recruit. He 
made his headquarters on one occasion in this same house 
which, a short period before, his enemy had appropriated. 
General Greene left a lasting memorial of his visit by having 
one of his men brand the opposite doors of the large entrance 
hall with the letters "C. A." (Continental Army). One of 
these doors already bore a mark which still remains, which was 
caused by a blow with the butt end of a musket in the hands 
of a British soldier during the occupancy of Lord Cornwallis. 
It was when General Sumter 's home in this neighborhood was 
burned by Tarleton's men that Mrs. Sumter took refuge under 
the roof of HiUcrest. 

Although HiUcrest was for many years the home of the 
Anderson family and is now in the possession of Mrs. William 
Saunders (who was before her marriage Katie Anderson), the 
Eevolutionary owners of this historic home were Thomas 
Hooper, Esq., brother of Wm. Hooper, signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and Mary Heron Hooper, his wife. 
Thomas Hooper died in the year 1795 and his wife in 1820. 
Their niece and adpoted daughter, Mary Jane Mackenzie, was 
the daughter of Elizabeth Heron and John Mackenzie, of 

168 



?^ 




ST. MARK'S PARISH 



Scotland. Her maternal grandfather, Benj. Heron, was for 
twenty years an oflQcer in the royal navy. His fine portfoHo 
of maps bearing the date of 1720 is well preserved among the 
relics in the Anderson family. At the time of his death, 
which occurred in 1770, he was one of his majesty's councilors 
of North Carohna. 

Mary Jane Mackenzie was married January 30, 1818, to 
Dr. Wm. "Wallace Anderson, who was from Montgomery 
County, Md. He was the son of Col. Eichard Anderson of 
Revolutionary fame and Ann Wallace, whose descent traces 
back to a brother of the heroic Scotch commander. Sir 
William Wallace. 

Dr. William Wallace Anderson settled at Hillcrest, prac- 
ticing his profession during a long and honored life. Here was 
born his sons and his daughters, among whom were General 
Eichard Heron Anderson and Dr. Wilham Wallace Anderson, 
respectively the ranking officer and the ranking surgeon from 
South Carolina in the war between the States. Capt. Edward 
Mackenzie Anderson, another son, was killed in the bloody 
battle near Williamsburg, May 5th, 1862, while serving as an 
aid to his brother. General E. H. Anderson. 

General Eichard Heron Anderson, called "Fighting Dick 
Anderson," graduated from the United States Military Acad- 
emy at West Point, July 1st, 1842. He was then sent to the 
cavalry school for practice at Carlisle, Pa., where he remained 
until 1843. In 1850 he married Sarah Gibson, daughter of 
John B. G. Gibson, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania. 

Dr. William Wallace Anderson graduated from the South 
Carolina College in the class of 1846, and later from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1849. In 1855 he married Virginia 
Childs, daughter of Brig. Gen. Thomas Childs, a distinguished 
officer from Massachusetts. 

At Hillcrest died that eminent statesman, diplomat, scien- 
tist and botanist, the Hon. Joel E. Poinsett, LL.D., while on a 
visit (1851) to Dr. Anderson, who was his devoted friend. 
Though LaFayette never visited here, one of the most cher- 
ished possessions of this home is the LaFayette bed, with its 
eagles and flags and stars. It is a quaint old bed in which 

169 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Marquis de LaFayette reposed when he visited Charleston. It 
was afterwards brought to "Hillcrest" where it remained for 
many years, being called by the servants "The King's Bed." 
Speaking of other relics, Mrs. Saunders (writing of her an- 
cestral home) says : "Each child in the family has sipped from 
General Washington's spoon, and viewed the candles, yellow 
with age, taken from the stores of Lord Cornwallis after his 
surrender at Yorktown. The small Bible lost by General 
Childs during the seige of Fort Erie in 1814 and found at Fort 
Niagara in 1816, the gaily embroidered priest's robe (the 
gift of grateful nuns for protection during the Mexican 
War) and the swords and sashes are all valued by us as 
family heirlooms. ' ' 

The fine library contains gems of rare and ancient books, 
which it has been possible to collect, as this home has been for 
years owned by a family of scholars. One of the Dr. Ander- 
sons, who lived at Hillcrest, was the first person on record who 
successfully removed the jaw bone for cancer, his patient living 
for many years in the enjoyment of health and strength. Sur- 
geon WilUam Anderson (son of Dr. Anderson) inherited his 
father's tastes for natural history and science. While sta- 
tioned at posts in Texas and New Mexico he became interested 
in making a collection of rare plants and birds ; his finest speci- 
mens of the latter were sent to the Smithsonian Institute at 
Washington, D. C, where his contributions were appreciated 
as of unusual interest and value. He also discovered and for- 
warded to Washington an entirely new species of bird, and in 
the grounds of the old home in South Carolina still bloom 
fragrant shrubs which he sent there from the West so many 
years ago. As a voluntary observer for many years, his 
meteorological records were of great value and service to the 
Weather Bureau at Washington in its research work. 

"Hillcrest" is a large brick building so constructed that 
the ground floor is nearly level with the outside, and follows 
the colonial plan of placing a building, situated on an eleva- 
tion, low to the ground in order that the view should be unob- 
structed. This house is true to this tradition and the observer 
may stand in the rear door of the living room and on a clear 

170 



B O 







ST. MARK'S PARISH 



day gaze out over the intervening miles, and behold the smoke 
rising from the factory chimneys in the city of Columbia, 
thirty miles away. 

Primitive flagstones still form the flooring to the lower 
piazza of Hillcrest and to several quaint old passages which 
serve to connect the different parts of this delightfully ram- 
bling place, the fitting shrine of so many reUcs of colonial his- 
tory. The adjective of mellowness is one that apphes with 
peculiar fitness to "Hillcrest" and "exclusive," carries with it 
the identical atmosphere produced by this fine old home. 

THE CORNWALLIS HOUSE 

On an elevation south of the town of Camden, South Caro- 
lina, stood a handsome old residence, which was highly prized 
as an interesting relic of the Revolutionary War. The house 
was built with materials imported from England, by Colonel 
Joseph Kershaw, an enterprising pioneer of central South 
Carohna, several years before the Revolution. It was his 
elegant and comfortable residence until shortly after the fall 
of Charleston, in 1780, when the British troops overran the 
State. Lord Cornwallis, upon his arrival in Camden, took pos- 
session of this house for his headquarters. 

Col. Kershaw was at this time a prisoner in the Island of 
Bermuda, and Mrs. Kershaw was subject to the many trials 
and indignities inseparable from the circumstances. Each 
fresh arrival of British officers in Camden, among them the 
merciless Lord Rawdon, brought a repetition of the same in- 
dignities. Mrs. Kershaw, unable to endure these any 
longer, sought refuge in a small house, called "The 
Hermitage, ' ' owned by the family and built in the swamp of the 
"VVateree River. 

The mansion fronted to the west, and immediately south 
of it, only a few hundred yards distant, in the thick pine grove, 
stretched the long fine of American fortifications, the remains 
of which are still to be seen. Tradition says that an American 
sharpshooter, hidden in the thicket aimed at a party of British 
ofiicers, who were playing cards in the southeastern room of 
the second story and killed one. A spot of blood on the floor 

171 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

(said to have been the Englishman's) always remained an 
object of interest to visitors. 

After the evacuation of Camden by the British, the old man- 
sion house was again occupied by its owners. General Greene 's 
wife, who was then passing through the country on horseback, 
protected by a detachment of cavalry, became an inmate of its 
hospitable walls for several days. Upon the slope in front of 
the house General LaFayette was received on his visit to Cam- 
den, in 1825, by a large concourse of citizens ; and upon this 
lawn were held the military reviews on the 4th of July and 
other public gatherings. 

The name of the old residence, ' ' Cornwallis House, ' ' and its 
history, together with the remains of the old Revolutionary 
cannon, which had been planted in front of the house, were ever 
a source of interest to strangers visiting Camden. The Corn- 
wallis House was burned to escape Howard's corps of Sher- 
man's army when these vandals passed through Camden in 
1865 ; it having been fired by John Devereaux, C. S. A. 

To revert to the early history of the house ; it stood on a 
tract of one hundred and fifty acres, which was surveyed for 
William Ancrum on June 12th, 1758. An oil painting in the 
possession of Rev. John Kershaw, rector of St. Michael's 
Church, Charleston, S. C, only son of General Joseph Brevard 
Kershaw, shows the house as commanding a view of the parade 
grounds, while a muster is in progress. Mrs. Royal in her 
"Southern Tours" writing of the place in 1830 says, "One of 
the trees, planted as a stake to direct their center march" 
(reviews of the red coat troops were held in front of the man- 
sion) "is now green and flourishing." Another writer of the 
same time, says, "The very hawthorn trees by which Lord 
Rawdon and Col. Balfours ranged their scarlet lines of war 
are yet among us. ' ' In the dining-room of this old home Corn- 
wallis, Rawdon and Tarleton discussed over their grog their 
wicked schemes and their bloody fingers signed orders for 
needless executions in the nearby prison pens. Many ghostly 
stories gather around this house. It is said that American 
prisoners were hung from the second story windows in the 
northwest room. The tragic tale of the love of Agnes of Glas- 

172 




i 



11 



S A L E, 



<--^ jf%f^ 



or va! 
T 



kiilh':. 



LAND S, 

Among which are (cvera! iniprovcd 

F A p. M S 

A N D ^- ' , 

PLANTA" IONS, 



SITUATED in the diftrias of C^Wr;/, 
Pinchiey and Ninety-Jix, belonoir.g to 
the Eftate of the late Col. yofcph Kcrflowjo : 
Alfo, feveral Houfn and Zo/J in the Tov.'fi 
of Camilcn. ^ ' '''' ".' 

G?//^Viw«>::w«;j«^j.«^^''^de eafy to Purchafcrs, 
and may be known ty applying; to. 

JOHN KEKSHJir. 

Camden, Jlpri/ 20, I7y4- 

WUil fi-- PuBTto lir YorMr. /.nJ FAI'-,T. Cm.' - ^^ 







■A 



V&% 



..Jf 



HANDBILL ISSUED IN 1794, ADVERTISING SALE OF KERSHAW LANDS 



ST. MARK'S PARISH 



gow, a Scotch maiden, is as shadowy as it is haunting. It, too, 
figures in the story of the house that was the headquarters of 
Cornwallis, whom it is said she loved and followed to America 
only to find the grave she now occupies near Camden. 

The furniture in the house at the time of its confiscation 
by the British was pitched out of the windows and broken to 
pieces. The few articles saved had been previously buried, 
among them a grandfather clock, now in the possession of one 
of the members of the Kershaw family. The Kershaws have 
intermarried with the Langs, Shannons, deLoachs and deSaus- 
sures and are descended from the Canteys, Douglas and De- 
bose families. Rev. John Kershaw, of Charleston, and his 
son. Dr. T. G. Kershaw, of North Augusta, South CaroUna, 
and several grandsons are the only descendants of General 
Joseph Brevard Kershaw now bearing the name. 

LAUSANNE 

Lausanne, the old Chancellor DeSaussure homestead, is 
described as being on the Wateree River, near "Camden- 
town," the site of the famous battle of the Revolution where 
Lords Cornwallis and Rawdon led the English forces and the 
gallant De Kalb stuck to his guns until outnumbered and killed. 
Those were stirring times for Camden, and years after, when 
the country was becoming prosperous, the town elected to put 
up a monument to the fallen hero. When the unveiling of the 
monument took place, LaFayette, who was in the country at 
the time, was invited to attend the ceremonies. Lausanne was 
then the show place of the neighborhood; moreover, it had 
sheltered the most distinguished chancellor, and was famous 
for its hospitality as well as for its beautiful rose gardens and 
stately magnolia trees. LaFayette was entertained at Lau- 
sanne mansion, and a certain yellow-thumbed manuscript once 
in the possession of the De Saussure family stated that the 
aide-de-camp was so struck by a famous portrait of Wash- 
ington that hung on the wall, that he exclaimed in French: 
' ' My friend, God guard you ! ' ' 

The history of this portrait concerns Lausanne, the home 
of the DeSaussure, whom Washington appointed director of 

173 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

the mint at Philadelphia, and who afterwards became chan- 
cellor. Under his direction and jurisdiction the first gold 
coins used in the United States were minted. The very first 
gold coin ever issued used to be treasured at Lausanne, and 
was kept in the male line of the family until one day a young 
lady of the family got possession of it and decided to change 
its form. She thought it would be much nicer to have a ring 
than a coin to keep, so the old souvenir was merged into a 
circlet just as the girl's name was afterwards merged into 
another family name than DeSaussure. 

President Washington and Mr. DeSaussure were warm 
personal friends, and when the latter in 1795 resigned his 
directorship and prepared to return to the practice of his pro- 
fession in his native State, he desired a likeness of Washing- 
ton to take with him. He therefore persuaded the great 
general to sit to Eembrandt Peale for a picture, which he 
subsequently carried with him to his South Carolina home. He 
took with him also the younger Peale, who was himself an 
artist, that he might find new patrons in Charleston, the then 
fashionable and prosperous city of the South. This portrait, 
painted but four years before the death of Washington, hung 
upon the walls of Lausanne from that time on, narrowly 
escaping a bayonet stab during the Civil War. Among the 
yellow documents which are laid to its account is Peale 's de- 
scription of the sitter at the time it was painted, as told by him 
in a series of lectures which he delivered in various cities of the 
country in the winter of 1857 and 1858. 

"Washington sat to my father and me together," he says, 
"for the portrait desired by Mr. DeSaussure. He gave us three 
sittings from 7 to 10 in the morning, and by that means I had 
the opportunity of seeing him with his hair arranged in a more 
natural manner than after the barber had arranged it in fash- 
ion later in the day. Washington shaved himself before com- 
ing to me, and when the powder was washed from his whiskers 
and the front of his ears the dark brown showed beneath. ' ' 

The younger Peale goes on to say that there was something 
in the upper part of the original face painted by his father that 
he preferred as a likeness, and an expression about the lower 

174 



2. -^ 




ST. MARK'S PARISH 



part, the mouth and chin, as expressed in his own work, that 
he judged better. Some years afterward he took the two and 
worked out a blended likeness with the conception he had kept 
for years in his own mind as something to aspire to, he having 
always felt that the first likeness which he painted was not as 
perfect as he could make. 

During the war between the states evil days fell upon old 
Lausanne. A company of impetuous and war-hardened sol- 
diers, in no very good humor, tramped over the place and stuck 
their bayonets through such articles of furniture or ornaments 
as could be stuck through without too much inconvenience. 
There were a number of good pictures on the walls, some ideal 
paintings, some portraits, among which was an old gentleman 
with a benign face. A soldier who was idly lunging at every- 
thing on his side of the house, and had let through two or three 
portraits broad streaks of dayUght, felt his arm arrested as he 
was about to let fly at the dignified old man with the powdered 
head and the ruffled shirt front. 

"Hold on there, you fool; don't you see who that is?" ex- 
claimed a comrade. The vandal looked up at the portrait and 
his arm dropped to his side. 

"By jove," he said, "if I wasn't going to slash old George. 
I beg your pardon, mister, ' ' and making a feigned obeisance he 
passed on. Thus was saved the portrait, which was later sold. 

Although the Civil War was over, terrible times prevailed 
in Camden and thereabouts. Eleven years after the war the 
descendants of the old chancellor De Saussure were in sore 
straits. Lausanne was about to be sold; the cherished acres 
and associations aUke had to be parted with. The plantation 
further out in Kershaw County was retained to be planted, 
but the old homestead was given up, and has become a part of 
what is now known as "Court Inn," in the town of Camden. 

MULBERRY 
Mulberry, one of the handsomest homes in South Caro- 
lina, was the home of the Chestnut fajnily, who located 
near Camden. 

175 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Jasper Sutton, who was a member of a company of frontier 
rangers, after Braddock's defeat in 1755 moved to South Caro- 
lina. The Indians devastated Virginia to such an extent that 
many families moved south, and with his wife and family, in- 
cluding the Chestnut stepchildren, Jasper Sutton traveled 
southward. They halted a year in North Carolina, but finally 
landed in South Carohna on "Granny's Quarter Creek," in 
what is now known as Kershaw County. John Chestnut was 
then a lad of thirteen years. About two years later he entered 
upon an apprenticeship under Joseph Kershaw. The year 
1767 found John Chestnut possessed of a considerable amount 
of land, having risen rapidly to an independent merchant and 
land holder. The end of the Revolution found him in posses- 
sion of much property. 

In the Revolutionary War, John Chestnut served as a pay- 
master with the rank of captain, but resigned as unfitted for 
service, suffering from rheumatism after the battle of Purrys- 
burg. Upon his recovery he entered the miUtia and served in 
the Georgia campaign. He commanded the Camden militia in 
Charleston when that city was besieged, and when the British 
occupied Camden, John Chestnut was taken prisoner and put 
in the Camden prison. He was, it is said, chained closely to 
the floor and to the day of his death bore the marks of iron on 
his ankles. 

James Chestnut, brother of John, owned the property on 
which Mulberry now stands. James died unmarried and with- 
out a will, but had intended that the land go to James Chest- 
nut, 2nd, son of John. John Chestnut, thus inheriting it, left it 
at the time of his death to his son James. 

Through purchase and inheritance James Chestnut, at the 
time of his death, was the owner of a vast amount of land, 
an area of about five miles square, extending from the southern 
edge of Camden down to Daniels' Branch and bounding on the 
river all the way. His slaves numbered several hundred. Mr. 
Chestnut not only managed his estates, but he was active in 
public affairs, being for many years a member of the House of 
Representatives, and holding various other public offices. 

176 



ST. MARK'S PARISH 



In 1820 Mr. Chestnut built "Mulberry," two miles south 
of Camden. He used it as a winter residence, the river swamps 
being so near that it was not considered healthy during the 
summer months. He would therefore move his family in sum- 
mer to his Sandy Hill place, three miles east on the uplands. 
Sandy Hill was burned about 1885. The roads between Sandy 
Hill and Mulberry were a bee line and were kept in excellent 
condition, and it is said in order that Mr. Chestnut might ride 
at a swift pace — his coach was always attended with outriders. 

Mulberry, the old manorial hall, is a four-story brick and 
stone mansion. It is approached by an avenue of oaks and is 
surrounded by beautiful laurel trees. The exterior of the house 
is simple, but the interior is quite out of the ordinary, the 
woodwork being particularly interesting. The state and style 
of life proceeding in the South can have no better illustration 
than this old home and the manner in which it was conducted. 
It is said that Mary Cox, the wife of James Chestnut, although 
the mother of thirteen children, found time each day to teach 
her retinue of slaves. The school is supposed to have been 
held in one of the brick outbuildings. 

Mulberry is now the home of Mr. and Mrs. David E. Wil- 
liams, descendants of the Chestnut family. 



CHAPTER IX 

FROM DOVER TO CALAIS VIA THE 

PARISHES OF CHRIST CHURCH AND 

ST. THOMAS 




CHRIST CHURCH PARISH 

SN Christ Church Parish many large 
plantations and interesting places 
are found. On one of these stands a 
brick pillar, one of two, that marked 
the northern boundary of WilUam 
Hort's plantation. Northeast of this 
the corresponding pillar stands and 
is found deep in the woods. In olden 
times there was also a town called 
Tarleton nearby Mr. WilUam Lucas' plantation, which was 
called "Barrack's Old Field," because at one time this place 
contained the remains of some old cavalry barracks built of 
lime and shell such as constitute the remains of the Green- 
wich Village Mills seen in that locahty. 

Out from the town the larger plantation houses are located 
at or near the waters that make this body of land into a penin- 
sula. A few houses have been mentioned in connection with 
the upper reaches of the Wando River as being situated in the 
Parish of St. Thomas. The planters nearer the sea coast de- 
sired and had a parish of their own, with a church building 
erected thereon conveniently placed for the use of themselves 
and famihes. This was called Christ Church Parish and the 
church is about six miles out from Mt. Pleasant village. There 
is nothing very remarkable about it except its age. It is a small 
square brick edifice surmounted by a cupola. It is surrounded 
by graves that are older than the church itself. Miss Mabel 
Webber has published in the South Carolina Historical Maga- 
zine interesting extracts from the Parish Register. The inside 
of the church is in no way remarkable, the chief feature being 
the simplicity of its furnishings. Jacob Motte, Esquire, in 
178 



FROM DOVER TO CALAIS 



1763 gave the comnmnion plate, a chalice and a paten, stiU in 
use at Christ Church. 

This parish was established by Act of Assembly November 
30, 1706 ; and its boundaries defined by an Act of December 18, 
1708, as follows : "to the North east by a large creek or river, 
commonly called Amndaw Creek or Seawee Eiver, being the 
bounds of Craven county, to the South-East by the sea, to the 
"West by Wando River, and to the North-West partly by the 
said River, and partly by a hne drawn from the Cowpen of 
Capt. Robert Daniel, or the Swamp at the head of the Wando 
River exclusive, to the Cowpen of Joseph Wigfal, on the head 
of the said Awindaw Creek or Seawee River inclusive. ' ' 

The first church was begun in 1707, but was not completed 
for some years. This church was accidently burned in Febru- 
arj^ 1724/5, but was almost immediately rebuilt, and was again 
burned by the British in 1782, the present church was built 
after 1800. The following advertisement fixes an approximate 
date for the rebuilding of the church. It is headed: Christ 
Church Parish April 21, 1787, and says, " Whereas the 
Vestry and Church wardens of the Episcopal Church in the 
parish of Christ Church, have resolved to rebuild the church 
and vestry house, as speedily as possible; therefore public 
notice is hereby given to any person or persons that are in- 
cUned to undertake the rebuilding of the same." Signed by 
the Church wardens. 

Near the Church on Wando River side, reached by an ave- 
nue of fine old oak trees, stands Boone Hall plantation which 
contains a quaint old house built in the early eighteenth cen- 
tury. It has been considerably altered during the lapse of 
years, the chief architectural feature, however, being foimd in 
its unusually well constructed slave quarters. The place gets 
its name from the Boone family, and in the family burying 
ground adjacent to the house a Daniel Boone lies buried. 

This plantation passed into the hands of the Horlbeck 
family and Miss Marie Horlbeck (whose father was a nephew 
of Major Horlbeck) is authority for the statement that Boone 
Hall was bought by the Horlbecks on account of the great 
number of slaves the Horlbecks possessed and the capacity 

179 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

tMs plantation had for accommodating them. Color is given 
to the theory by the fact that a description of this place men- 
tions "miles of pasture upon which fine stock is raised, brick 
and tile works on Horlbeck Creek, the gin houses, stables, 
barns and dozens of little cottages where the several hundred 
slaves have their home — not in a negro quarter but dotted 
about over the country, each with its little patch of land for 
the tenant. ' ' 

This description bears out a statement published in The 
New York Sun, concerning negro education, which says : 

"It will perhaps astonish a great many complacent and 
unsuspecting persons in this part of the country to hear it said 
that a very considerable number, if not a majority, of the 
old-time great Southern slave-holders were heartily opposed to 
the 'institution.' Such is the truth, nevertheless, as every one 
familiar with the inner history of that section knows full well 
... To put it briefly, we may say that before 'Uncle Tom's 
Cabin' saw the light, and while as yet the great slave-holding 
magnates of the south regarded slavery as an establishment 
beyond the reach of social agitation or political vicissitude, 
wise and kindly members of the ruling class had conceived and 
set in operation a system whereby slavery could be robbed of 
all its most repulsive aspects and transformed into an agency 
of exaltation. Thus it came about that schools were estab- 
lished on hundreds of plantations; nothing like our modern 
schools, of course, but just plain simple agencies of experiment 
and observation. The idea was to disclose the special gifts 
and tendencies of the pupils and having ascertained them, 
perfect and develop. So it followed that thousands of slaves 
became bricklayers, carpenters, blacksmiths, tailors, engineers, 
sugar boilers, artisans of every kind, even musicians, and were 
permitted to pursue their vocation in perfect freedom, merely 
paying to their masters a small percentage on the assessed 
value of the individual earnings after graduation. ' ' 

Miss Horlbeck stated that there were thirteen Horlbeck 
brothers; that the persons who bought Boone Hall were the 
generation following John and Peter Horlbeck, identified in 
local history as the men in charge of altering the post-office. 

Interesting history is given concerning this family in an 
account of the Fusilliers by John A. Moroso. "Mr. John Horl- 
beck, one of the privates in the original Fusilliers, who did such 
valiant service for America and Charleston during the Revo- 

180 



FROM DOVER TO CALAIS 



lutionary "War, particularly at the siege of Savannah, when 
the corp after heroic action reached home (under the command 
of Lieuts. Strobel aixd Sass) sadly diminished." Soon after 
these events, 1780, Charleston fell into the hands of the British. 
The Continental Fusilhers were compelled to disband and re- 
linquish one hundred superior muskets which had been pre- 
sented to them by the British officers in control. Mr. Horlbeck 
had carried his gun in the seige of Savannah and did not relish 
giving it up, so he hid it by dropping it between the wains- 
coting of his home and the wall. He then surrendered another 
gun and this historic fussee has been in possession of the Horl- 
beck family ever since. As an instance of logevity given in 
Mills statistics is found the name of Mr. John Horlbeck, "born 
in Saxony, lived in Charleston 44 years and never took a dose 
of medicine in his life, died at the age of 80. ' ' 

The last owner of Boone Hall was the late Major Horlbeck, 
whose grandfather had planted a few pecan trees around 
Boone Hall. Finding these to have flourished they were left 
when other trees were cut down. From this small beginning 
and a great expenditure of time, trouble and money, Major 
Horlbeck developed a large industry and had the satisfaction 
of seeing his experiments succeed. In 1904 he was credited 
with owning the largest pecan grove in the world. 

OAKLAND 

Oakland Plantation, in Christ Church Parish, Charlestown 
County, is eight miles out from the village of Mt. Pleasant, on 
the Georgetown road, and was granted in a tract of one thou- 
sand three hundred acres, by the Lord Proprietors in 1696 to 
Captain George Dearsley but was settled by John Abraham 
Motte as agent for John Perrie (a later owner) then of Antigua, 
formerly of Youghal, Ireland. It was named Youghal in honor 
of Perrie 's birthplace and this name was retained through the 
successive ownerships of Cleland, Benison and Barksdale, only 
to be later renamed Oakland. 

As Thomas Barksdale in his will dated July 2nd, 1850, 
refers to "my plantation called Youghal, my residence," the 
name must have been changed to Oakland by his son-in-law, 

181 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

James Macbeth, next owner. This was done in recognition 
of the magnificent avenue of live oaks, which was either planted 
or extended by one of the Mrs. Barksdales, perhaps Mary, wife 
of Thomas the First. An old slave named Cain Bryan, who 
was living on the place when it passed from James MacBeth 
to Philip Porcher, said that in his boyhood he remembered 
going into the woods with his mistress to select the trees to 
transplant from the forest to the avenue. 

At the time that Mr. Porcher came into possession, Oak- 
land was a thoroughly equipped plantation and country estate, 
comprising in its grounds extensive gardens and an orchard. 
The outside buildings included the regulation plantation 
kitchen with brick oven in the side of the chimney, a brick 
smoke-house and a brick dairy (which flanked the house at the 
head of the avenue), a carriage house, a barn and gin house, 
poultry houses, extensive negro quarters, and last but not 
least a day nursery for the Kttle slave children, who were 
left there during the work hours of their mothers in the care 
of an old "Maumer." 

The dwelling house at Oakland is an unpretentious but fine 
example of an eighteenth century plantation home, with quaint 
Dutch roof and large living-rooms, with chimneys in the comer 
of each room, and odd seats in the upstairs dormer windows. 
The timbers of this building are hand-hewn black cypress and 
the woodAvork indicates that it was done by skilled carpenters 
among the slaves. The low foundation on which the residence 
stands is of brick made from oyster-shell lime. The age of the 
house can only be surmised, but it is apparently the oldest in 
the parish and was probably built by George Benison or his 
successor, Thomas Barksdale, about the year 1750, although 
the exact date cannot be announced. The gable end of this 
house, with its Dutch roof, is similar to another Motte place, 
near Monks Corner, which is significant in connection with the 
fact that a Motte settled Oakland for John Perrie. 

The ghost at this fascinating old place is described as a 
gentle wraith who comes to pray at the bedside of those who 
sleep in the "Ghost Eoom," but it is said that she comes very 
rarely and no one knows who she is or was. 

182 





Oakland plantation, mt. pleasant, front and rear views 

A C'jlorjial house now owned \>y A. K. Gret,'nrie 



FROM DOVER TO CALAIS 



An interesting story told of the Eevolutionary days is that 
just as the Barksdales were about to dine, a British soldier 
spurred his horse into the dining-room and carried off from the 
table, on his sword point, a roasted fowl. Another tradition 
connected with this historic house is that General Sherman 
while stationed at Fort Sumter prior to the War of the Con- 
federacy was a welcomed visitor as he was in other homes in 
and around Charleston. The cause of the general's feeling 
against South Carohna is said to have had its origin in an 
affair of the heart. He fell in love with a beautiful Charles- 
ton girl, who did not, however, reciprocate his affections 
but coquetted with liim in an obvious manner. This attitude 
on her part so offended him that he revenged his feelings on 
the entire South. 

The window panes of the dining-room have long been used 
as a guest 's register. Among many other is the signature " I " 
or " S, " Wilham Bull. The oldest inscription is ascribed to 
Thomas Barksdale and is dated December 21, 1802, but the 
most interesting pane of glass is no longer in its place. Joseph 
Pilbnoor, one of John Wesley's Missionaries says in his jour- 
nal that on March 9, 1773, he was at Mrs. Barksdale 's where he 
was kindly received and spent the evening worshipping 
God and rested in peace. Before leaving he wrote on 
one of the window panes at Oakland in very clear and well- 
formed characters : 

"Jos. Pilhnoor, March 10, 1773. 
Exalt Jehovah our God." Followed by the quotation 
repeated in Hebrew. 

This frail memorial went through the perils of two wars 
and survived in its place more than a hundred years. In 
October, 1877, it was presented by Mr. Porcher to Wofford 
College, where it is now framed and hangs in the hbrary. 

During the troublous days of the Confederacy while Mr. 
Porcher was with the army, his young wife and children took 
refuge with her parents and the plantation, being abandoned, 
fell on evil days and the house stripped of its belongings. The 
large waU mirrors were set out on the roadside and used as 

183 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

targets by Union soldiers, while books and book cases were 
carried away with other furniture. Fences around the place 
were used as firewood, and goats and cattle destroyed 
the shrubbery. 

At the close of the war during the Federal occupation of 
the country, Oakland had a narrow escape. Col. Beecher of 
the Union Army and his wife visited the adjoining plantation. 
Laurel Hill, then owned by Dr. Peter Porcher Bonneau, one 
of the signers of the Ordinance of Secession. The house was 
the handsomest in the parish, but they burned it to the ground, 
and it is said that Mrs. Beecher set fire to the place with her 
own hands. Not content with this it is said that they came 
on to Oakland and Mrs. Beecher had lighted her torch to 
serve it in like fashion, when some of the slaves on the place 
begged her to give the house to them to live in instead of burn- 
ing it. Thus she graciously bestowed it on them, and when 
Mr. Porcher returned after the war he found each room occu- 
pied by a negro family. A "meeting" was in progress in the 
dining-room, ' where the sideboard served as a pulpit. The 
negroes refused to give him possession, saying the house was 
theirs and he had to appeal to Gen. Sickles, the Union Com- 
mander in Charleston, then hving in the house on Charlotte 
Street now occupied by Mr. Sottile, who sent soldiers to clear 
the house and restore it to the rightful owner. 

The dwelling survived the poverty-stricken days that fol- 
lowed the war and though building after building subsequently 
went down in ruin until of all the buildings, only the smoke- 
house, dairy and kitchen were left, this dwelling withstood two 
wars, storms and earthquakes. 

In 1917 Mr. Porcher sold Oakland to his daughter Anne, 
Mrs. Ferdinand Gregorie, and it is now, in the possession of her 
family, emerging from ruin, and taking again its rightful place 
as a typical southern home. 

The Porchers of Christ Church Parish are descended from 
Phihp E. Porcher, who came to the parish from St. Stephen 
Parish in 1859, and all of the Porchers are descended from the 
emigrant, Isaac Porcher. 

184 



FROM DOVER TO CALAIS 



St. Thomas' Parish lies above Christ Church Parish and 
adjacent to many of the plantations on the headwaters of the 
eastern branch of Cooper River. The principal settlement in 
the Parish of St. Thomas is Cainhoy. Between Oakland and 
Cainhoy, however, are found several interesting places which 
are briefly mentioned in the following pages. 

ST. THOMAS' PARISH 
At Cainhoy is a large old wooden house, one room of which 
has been converted into a chapel as the few remaining members 
of the old church find it too difficult to reach the ' ' Old Brick 
Church, ' ' which is three miles away in a southeasterly direc- 
tion on the Clement's ferry road that leads from the Cooper 
River to the Santee settlements. Next to the brick church was 
a place owned by the Sanders family. This place, with several 
others, is mentioned in a poem written in 1804 by Edward 
Othmel Gale Brale, describing a trip up the Cooper River, 
via Wando. He says that where : 

" Cainhoy 's stream its silvery waters roll 
Arrive at Williams wharf, with setting day, 
Then to the village soon we bend our way 

***** 

Six Buildings stand that grace this silent place 

And dignify its banks with rural grace ; 

The dwelling first as sailing up the stream 

Is shut now constant to Sol's golden beam ; 

The next just as the other clos'd up fast, 

The Door too fasten 'd likely so to last ; 

The third now open to Sol 's cheering beam 

And near the door a Willow hangs all green ; ' . 

Oft have I seen the master of this house 

Walk near this tree in converse with his Spouse ; 

They seem 'd to live in lonesome, silent love 

With all the fondness of the turtle dove ; 

'Twas he that gave this little Village birth 

And tryd to make it rise to real worth ; 

***** 

The fourth a Mansion Mrs. Pinckney owns, 
'Twas there I first did rest my languid bones ; 
The fifth the house of Mr. L. Wigfall 
Lays open to the Goats and comers all ; 
The Six the property of Miss Gailard 

185 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Out buildings numerous with a spacious yard ; 

(To me this Mansion did she freely lend, 

To her my heart felt gratitude I send 

Accept the loan and thank my unknown friend) ;" 

The poet remained at Cainhoy for four months, when leav- 
ing he waved farewell and, 

' ' Old Saunders quick return 'd it with his cap ; 
His House stands near to Cainhoy Cooling Stream. ' ' 

The Wando River has no prettier spot upon its banks than 
the httle green gem of a peninsula upon which stands the 
buildings of the Beresford Bounty, over which seems to brood 
the very spirit of quietude and calm loveliness, typical of the 
charity which has existed here for nearly two hundred 
years. On March 17, 1721, died Eichard Beresford, Esq., who 
bequeathed the net profits of his estate to the vestry of St. 
Thomas ' Parish in trust until his son, then eight years, should 
reach his majority. One-third of the interest was to be paid 
to schoolmasters and the rest to support and educate the poor 
children of the parish. The sum amounted to £5200. In 1739 
the school was built. In 1763 the Eev. Alex Garden, as rector 
and schoolmaster, reports the school as flourishing. This con- 
tinued until the Eevolution, when the fund had accumulated 
to £12,800, but was reduced by the general bankruptcy that fol- 
lowed. By careful management it had increased to $70,000 in 
1861, when it was again dissipated by the disastrous ending of 
the war. The population of the parish is now much reduced, 
the Legislature has relieved the vestry from the necessity of 
boarding, housing and clothing the children, but instruction 
is still given in the school house, the rector of the parish being 
the principal. The public schools have superseded this 
fine charity. 

Near where School House Creek makes into Cooper Eiver 
stood a two-story house made of cypress cut out of the nearby 
swamps by the slaves. This old mansion was set on a high 
brick foundation arched underneath. The negro quarters and 
outhouses are built of brick, nearby on the Grove plantation is 
the part of an old wine house. 

186 



FROM DOVER TO CALAIS 



There is on the Waiido River only one old house of any 
importance which is still habitable. Most of these plantation 
houses were burned during the Civil War, or have been de- 
stroyed since by fire. Charleywood Plantation, seven miles 
out from Christ Church Parish, immediately adjoins Chantilly. 
The Charleywood property belonged during a period ante- 
dating the Civil War to the Wigf alls, but very little of its early 
history is known. 

Lachicotte's place is foimd near Gruerins Bridge, in 
Berkley County, which bridge crosses a branch of the Wando 
River. This place was near Charleywood and Chantilly, 
nearer in towards Mt. Pleasant. Right back of Daniels Island 
on the mainland in the Parish of St. Thomas on Mt. Pleasant 
side is a Shingler place. On this place used to reside Mr. Elfe, 
who married a Miss Lucas. One of his daughters still lives 
in Charleston. Very little can be ascertained of the history 
of this old home. 

Another old house used as a refuge for soldiers during the 
Revolution stands on the mainland in Berkley County, behind 
Daniels Island, on a plantation called Hartford, owned by W. 
L. Venning, Jr., who resides in the Court House Square in 
Charleston. The house at Hartford has an avenue of oaks 
leading to it that is especially beautiful. A double row was 
set out about one hundred and fifty years ago, says Mr. Ven- 
ning, with spikes driven into the heads to make the trees spread 
out. The limbs now touch the ground. The house is fully as 
old as the avenue. The bricks of which it is built came 
from England. 

Several fine old houses used to be found on Daniels Island, 
a part of the Parish of St. Thomas lying west of the Wando 
River. One place in particular was said to have been built 
by Robert Hazelhurst, (whose town house on Lower Meeting 
Street has recently been remodeled by Dr. A. E. Baker). It 
contained mahogany floors as well as doors, mahogany beams 
and closets and paneling, which dated from the days when 
Robert Hazelhurst traded with the West Indies. Another old 
place found on this islajid is "YeUow House," its name being 
taken from a nearby creek of that name. 



CHAPTER X 

ON THE ASHLEY RIVER AND IN SAINT 
ANDREW'S PARISH 




THE GIBBES HOUSE ON CHARLESTON NECK 

£> COLONIAL place commonly known 
as the Gibbes house on Charleston 
Neck is the house still standing on 
the bank of the Ashley River. Ac- 
cording to Judge H. A. M. Smith, on 
March 2nd, 1701, a grant was made 
to Patrick Scott for one hundred and 
ninety acres on Charleston Neck, 
Tc)the boundaries showing that it in- 
cluded all of the Joseph Dalton grant lying to the west of 
the part held by Joseph Blake. Scott must have there- 
fore acquired from the transferees of Jane Lawson all this 
remainder and taken out a new grant to himself. In addition 
to other legal matters connected with this and other adjoining 
lands in a deed from Patrick Seott to Richard Cartwright 
dated 31st of October, 1710, it is recited that this one hundred 
and ninety acres was a parcel of a greater quantity of land 
formerly granted to Joseph Dalton. 

Some time later, under the will of Richard Cartwright, who 
had acquired a great deal of that land, much of the property 
passed to his three sons, Daniel, Richard and Hugh. A greater 
part of the one hundred and ninety acres, with additional land 
to the north fell to the portion given to Daniel Cartwright, 
who conveyed it in 1738 to John Braithwaite. It then passed to 
John Gibbes, but from whom John Gibbes acquired it has not 
been ascertained. It was certainly in his possession in 1769 
when he obtained a grant of the marsh land fronting on the 
river. Gibbes' property has been generally known as the 
"Grove" farm or plantation and embraces the area between 
Congress Street and the Creek north of the farm lately owned 
by Captain F. W. Wagner and which was long known as 

188 



ON THE ASHLEY RIVER 



Lowndes' Gi'ove and The Rose Farm. Lowndes Grove was 
famous as a field of honor and many famous duels took place 
there, the most noted being a duel with swords between General 
Christopher Gadsden and General Howe. 

Some of the most noted duels of the nineteenth century were 
between Wilson and Simons, Hunt and Ramsey, Craft and 
Boy, Reynolds and Brawley, Robertson and Waring, Cohen 
and Moise, and other encoujiters of a later date well known to 
the old inhabitants of the community. The last duel in the 
State occurred in 1880, but did not take place in Charleston. 
A famous book written by John Lyde Wilson and published in 
Charleston in 1858 was an acknowledged authority in matters 
of honor in the State as long as the practice continued. The 
book is an interesting contribution to the ante-bellum htera- 
ture of the South. 

According to popular tradition a favorite meeting place 
was upon that rise of land now included in Hampton Park just 
to the rear of the new citadel. The Washington race course 
was upon a. portion of this tract and after 1794 the old course 
at " New Market " was abandoned and ,the Jockey Club held 
its races on the new course. The present Hampton Park which 
included the race course is on the ' ' Grove ' ' plantation. At the 
entrance to the old race course stood some interesting brick 
pillars which were taken down in 1902. Replicas of these are 
to be found marking the entrance to Hampton Park Terrace, 
and all of this tract was held by John Gibbes in 1769. 

The John Gibbes who owned the Grove tract was not the 
first man of that name, for it is found on a. highly colored 
memorial tablet on the wall of Goose Creek Church " Under 
this Lyes the late Col John Gibbes/Who deceased on the 7th of 
August 1711/ Aged 40/" 

Col. John Laurens reported that his battalion had been 
posted near this old place during the Revolution to "watch the 
enemy and prevent too sudden an approach. As soon as I 
received notice of their advance I went forward with Major 
(Hyrne) to reconnoitre them. We went rather too near, for 
single' horsemen, to the yagers, who fired from behind trees 
on each side of the road. The Major was unfortunately 

189 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

wounded in the cheek. . . , The violence of the blow dis- 
mounted him, and I had barely time to cover his retreat and 
drive off his horse. A Hessian seized the Major's hat, but did 
not enjoy the trophy long, being killed in the skirmish which 
ensued, and the trophy was recovered. ' ' Other extracts estab- 
lish the fact of a ferry being opposite the house and that 
this place was the scene of several sharp encounters during 
the Eevolutionary War. 

Peter Timothy, who was posted in St. Michael's steeple as 
a lookout for the Americans and who made daily reports of 
what he saw through his spy glasses, had given as his report 
on March 24th that tents had been taken from T. Horry's house 
and carried beyond E. Horry's, and he had kept a pretty strict 
watch for he says that ' ' the redout begun at the latter 's landing 
last night (March 23rd) and was completed by 10 this morning 
and at half-past ten Lord Cornwallis and a Hessian general, 
with the usual attendants, with spy glasses, etc., viewed the 
several works and seemed to pay particular attention to 
Gibbes' place." Later on Gibbes' place is described as being 
"Up the Path," an idiom meaning the main path from the 
city through the forest precincts. 

John Gibbes at the outbreak of the American Revolution 
had extensive gardens and greenhouses and a pinery on the 
Grove, but when the British under Prevost advanced and 
threatened Charleston in May, 1779, they crossed the Ashley 
River at Ashley Ferry and advanced down the Neck to Gibbes ' 
settlement at the Grove, and during the occupation the ter- 
races and greenhouses werei destroyed. 

Mrs. E. H. Pringle, Chairman of the Colonial Exhibits held 
in this building in 1902 at the time of the West Indian Exposi- 
tion, in a contemporary account of exhibits of the ColonieJ 
Dames of America is an authority for the statement that this 
house was built by Mr. Gibbes. 

' ' They have an appropriate background or setting for this 
exhibit in the old colonial house, which will form a part of the 
woman 's building. This house was built before the Revolution 
by Mr. Gibbes and the grounds were beautiful with many rare 
flowers and imported plants. The British soldiers wilfully 

190 




THE GIBBES HOUSE, CHARLESTON NECK, SOMETIMES CALLED THE LOWNDES HOUSE 



ON THE ASHLEY RIVER 



laid waste this lovely garden, and this so affected and dis- 
tressed Mr. Gibbes that he died in consequence. There is no 
trace now of the fine garden, but some old oaks remain near 
the house. . . . Three rooms and a large hall have been 
devoted to the colonial exhibit. These rooms remain as origin- 
ally built, with wainscoting and the old high mantels. A col- 
onial dining-room and bedroom will be represented, with the 
fine old furniture of that date. ... A large committee has 
been formed and Mrs. Drayton-Grimke, with the assistance of 
twelve ladies, will have charge of the furnishing of the draw- 
ing-room. Mrs. Langdon Cheves, with twelve others, will pre- 
sent a picture of the dining-room of our forefathers. Mrs. 
Arnoldus Vander Horst, with a score of helpers, will furnish 
forth the great wide hall. ' ' 

An account of the exhibit given by the Daughters of the 
American Revolution furnishes interesting data concerning 
this place and from it we learn that at the southeast corner of 
the house is one of the handsomest rooms, that the walls are 
beautifully wainscoted with black cypress and that it is in as 
sound a state of preservation as the day it was placed in 
position. The house itself is built entirely of black cypress and 
cedar put together with old-fashioned hand-made nails. The 
paneling in aU the rooms is very beautiful and the house itself 
is built on the square colonial style, having an inclosed loggia 
in the brick basement which forms the first story of the house. 
Big fireplaces with finely carved mantels are found through 
the house. At the time of the Exposition a fine portrait of 
Washington and a portrait of his kinsman. Col. Wilham Wash- 
ington, and one of Col. Joseph Habersham, the first Postmas- 
ter General of the United States, hung over the colonial 
mantels. Among other pictures gathered together at this time 
was a curious engraving showing General Marion inviting the 
British officers to share his dinner of sweet potatoes, and 
another of the General crossing the Pee Dee River with his 
men in flat boats. There was also a copy of the General 
Proclamation of Peace (1783), and one rare engraving showed 
Washington being blessed by his mother before departing 
for battle. 

191 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

In this old house at the time of the Exposition there were 
numerous pieces of historic furniture, duplicates of which will 
only be found in the collection at Mt. Vernon. 

The house is now in the possession of Mr. and Mrs. James 
Sottile, and Mrs. Sottile in restoring this place, which had 
fallen into disrepair, has treated the Gibbes house with the 
respect that its history demands. She has sought to preserve 
in every way the simplicity of the original lines both inside 
and outside the house. Wherever possible, she has left the 
original work, notably in the instance of the rooms on the 
second floor and the beautifid circular stairway and skylight 
above. The massive front door still presents the appearance 
of being able to fulfill its fimction of withstanding attacks 
that it had seen many times in Indian days, as do also the heavy 
wooden shutters to the windows of the lower floor. In the in- 
side lintels of the front door are still to be found the iron rests 
on either side used to hold in place the stout oaken rods 
that barricaded the door. The interior decorations are 
aU of the Adam period, and "The Grove" has been restored 
very carefully, and as far as was possible in exact duplicate 
of its original woodwork and carvings. 

DORCHESTER AND BEYOND 
"About twenty-six miles from the city of Charleston, on 
the north bank of the Ashley River, and about six miles in a 
southwestwardly direction from the railroad depot in the pres- 
ent town of Summerville can be seen an old church tower with 
an overgrown disused graveyard around it, and some two 
hundred paces farther on — on the edge of the river — are the 
walls of an old fort, constructed of that mixture of shells in 
lime mortar formerly called 'tapia' or 'tabby.' These two 
conspicuous objects, with some scattered and shapeless masses 
of brick at irregular intervals, marking the sites of former 
houses, are all that remain of the town of Dorchester, once a 
comparatively flourishing hamlet in the Low-Country of South 
Carolina, but which with the lesser hamlets of Jamestown, 
New London or Willtown, Jacksonborough, Purrysburgh and 
Somerton, and the still lesser, or only projected, villages of 

192 



ON THE ASHLEY RIVER 



Radnor, Ashley Ferry, Childsbury and Chatham, has so long 
been deserted that its story has been nearly forgotten, and its 
very site nearly obUterated." So says an extract from "A 
Sketch of the History of Dorchester," which was published in 
the South Carolina Historical Magazine. 

St. George's Church was built about the close of the Pro- 
prietary Government and commencement of Eoyal Govern- 
ment, 1719. The tower or steeple of this church is built after a 
design by Sir Christopher Wren, "that httle bird who was 
fond of putting up large nests," and on April 9, 1734, an act 
was passed for "repairing and enlarging and pewing the 
Parochial Church of St. George 's Parish in Dorchester, ' ' 

THE VICINITY OF DORCHESTER 

Above and beyond Dorchester, near the road to Bacon's 
Bridge, was Fair Spring, another Izard residence, situated on 
the old grant to Wilham Norman, and sometimes called "Bur- 
tons. ' ' Above this again was the site of the original grant to 
Benjamin Waring, the ancestor of the Waring family and 
during the Revolutionary War was owned by Dr. David 
Oliphant, a member of the Council of Safety and Surgeon- 
General of the Continental forces in South Carolina. Con- 
tiguous to this lay the old grant made to Col. Andrew 
Percival and known as "The Ponds" (the chief pond now 
being "Shulz's Lake"). 

Of all the places in this vicinity, however, that containing 
the best outbuildings, and most pretentious mansion house 
was at "Newington," the old Axtell settlement, which 
descended through Lady Axtell 's daughter. Lady Elizabeth 
Blake, to Col. Joseph Blake. The Newington house was said 
to have been one of the largest brick houses built in lower 
Carolina at that period, and with its double avenue of hve 
oaks and wide gardens was at the time of the Revolutionary 
War one of the "show places" of the countryside. Ralph 
Izard, who married a daughter of Col. Blake, settled, after his 
marriage, about a mile and a half from Newington, and a 
straight avenue led from one house to the other. 

West of Newington, across the swamp and within a few 
13 ''' 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

yards of the public road (now called the Orangeburg road) 
was the brick mansion of "Mount Boone," said to have been 
devised by Lady Axtell to another daughter, Mrs. Joseph 
Boone. By his will in 1733, Mr. Boone directed himself to be 
buried at Mount Boone, and his broken gravestone is still 
there adjacent to the foundations of the house, with inscription 
dated 1733. 

The ruins of " Archdale " axe below Dorchester, but 
" Pinckney Plains " and " Pine Hill " are marked by old 
graves with characteristic cherub face, or else the substantial 
marble slab on a brick foundation. These places were for- 
merly homes of the Waring family of Tranquill Hill, another 
Waring plantation near Dorchester. 

Some land which seems to have been granted originally to 
Peter Slan, from whom Slan's Bridge takes its name, passed 
to Richard Waring in whose family it continued for many 
years. Four hundred acres of that land was sold in 1818 (as 
the property of Thomas Waring, of Pine Hill) to Dr. Fabricius 
Perry and was then known by the name of ' ' Clay Hill. ' ' 

From about 1790, little by little one planter after another 
made a summer settlement and built homes in what is now 
knoAvn as the town of Summerville. They abandoned the 
decaying houses of Dorchester (from which material, and 
especially brick, were removed) forming the basis and furnish- 
ing the foundation of the new town, until nothing but crum- 
bling piles of broken fragments of brick were left to mark the 
site of the old town. But before parting company with this 
charming and once flourishing place, let us copy an advertise- 
ment appearing in the South Carolina Gazette of November 
2nd, 1738, which gives us an idea of the dress of the women 
of that day : 

"Lost on the 17th of last March, between Dorchester and 
Charlestown, a Linnen Bagg with sundry Things therein, viz., 
one Womans Suit of Cloaths of Sattin strip 'd with red, green 
and white, one Suit of all white Sattin, one Yellow Night Gown 
faced with red Tatfety, one yellow Suit of yellow Peihng, and 
one blue Night Gown faced with white, a red Callimanco Night 
Gown faced with Brocade, one child's stiffen 'd Coat of an Ash 
Colour 'd Damask, and sundry other Womans wearing Apparel, 

194 




"ARCHDALE HALL, ' LAMBS. NEAR DORCHESTER 

The Baker homestead, 200 years old 



ON THE ASHLEY RIVER 



with Head Dresses and shifting Linen, one Sampler with the 
Child's Name and Age and Date and Place of her abode, a 
piece of work embroider 'd for a Top of a Table, and two Paper 
Gloves, and a Hatt Band from a Funeral, directed for Wm. and 
Mrs. Mary Baker, and sundry other Things. Any one that 
can give any Inf onnation to me in Dorchester or to Wm. Linth- 
waite in Charleston, or to the Printer so that they may be had 
again shall have from either £10 reward paid on sight." 

There are the remaias of a number of old houses in Dor- 
chester County, particularly in the vicinity of Summerville. 
There is an antebellum residence near Bacon's Bridge and 
two very old houses in Stallsville. It was in the country in and 
around Dorchester, that the legion of "Light Horse Harry" 
during the Revolutionary War was posted when Greneral 
Greene and the American Army occupied the territory around 
Charleston after the battle of Eutaw Springs. 

Lee's legion was for a long time stationed at the "Villa" 
plantation, a portion of the Ketelby grant then owned by the 
Izard family. Lee says that "the first day's march brought 
his detachments to the country settled by the original emi- 
grants into Carohna. The scene was both new and dehghtful. 
Vestiges, though clouded by war, everywhere appeared of the 
wealth and taste of the inhabitants. Spacious edifices, rich 
and elegant gardens, with luxuriant and extensive rice planta- 
tions, were to be seen on every side." He continued later, 
"during our continued marches and counter-marches, never 
before had we been solaced with the prospect of so much com- 
fort. Here we were not confined to one solitary mansion, 
where a few, and a few only, might enjoy the charm of taste 
and the luxury of opulence." 

Long before Lee 's occupany, as far back as the year 1722, 
Susannah Baker, the then owner of the "Villa" tract, filed her 
memorial stating that it was composed of a part of a grant to 
John Cooper, dated 29 September, 1710, and part of a grant 
to Charles Craven dated 9 April, 1714, and had been conveyed 
to her by Thomas Cutliffe in 1722 and then was described as 
being bounded northwest "on lands laid out to Major Edward 
Jukes." But the land on this boundary had been granted to 

195 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Landgrave Ketelby and was included in a vast tract of land 
lying adjacent to Dorchester to the west and called "Ketelby 
Barony." The probable inference is that Landgrave Jukes 
came out to the Province in 1709 ; had lands surveyed out pre- 
paratory to a grant, died in 1710 before any grant was issued 
and his lands were then granted to others. Ketelby Barony 
is now of no particular historic value, except that in this 
vicinity the Wragg family once occupied a homestead and 
owned vast areas of land. The mansion house of this family 
was destroyed in 1865, but the remains of the graveyard are 
still to be found situated on high land between the site of the 
old dwelling and the river. There a broken monument is seen, 
which when pieced together says : 

"Under this Marble 

lieth the Body of Samuel Wragg Esquire 

who 

Having in 1717 purchased the Tract of Land 

called Ashley Barony 

and 

dying day of November 1750 ' ' 

Later the Signiory of St. GrUes was split up into many tracts 
and plantations among which we find Wragg 's, Uxbridge (the 
residence of Hon. John Matthews, Governor of South Caro- 
lina in 1783), Salt Hill, Haggatt Hall, The Laurels, Wampee 
and the Gadsden lands. These plantations remained prac- 
tically intact as estates until the close of the Civil War, that 
cataclysm which completely broke up the landed and labor 
system as well as the feudal form of society previously found 
in the low-country of South Carolina. 

To the north of the Ketelby grant lay the "Westo" planta- 
tion on Westo Savannah near the head of the Ashley River, 
for which a grant (1697) of 1000 acres was made to John 
Stevens, of Dorchester. Under the will of John Stevens the 
lands at Westo Savannah went to his son, Samuel Stevens, 
who with his brother John were directed by the will to be 
brought up "at the Colledge in New England to good learn- 
ing." At the death of Samuel Stevens in 1760 the Westo 
plantation was by his executors in 1762 sold to Henry Smith,. 

196 







~'^:'lii 



ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH, DORCHESTER 

Designed by Sir Christopher Wren 



ON THE ASHLEY RIVER 



a son of the second Landgrave Thomas Smith and by Henry 
Smith was devised to his son Thomas Smith in the hands of 
whose descendants it continued until the war of 1861-1865. 

TONGUEWELL 

The Perr)^ house, called "Tonguewell," after its builder, 
is located at the settlement of Tongueville between the Ashley 
and Edisto rivers, thirteen miles out from the town of Sum- 
merville. According to information obtained from Mrs. Jen- 
nings Wariag Perry, mother of Mrs. J. H. Haskell, and a 
water color owned by Mrs. Hampton Perry of Charleston, 
this old mansion was built m 1789 by Edward Tongue, 
it is said, of pine, cypress and brick, the latter of which 
was imported. The other materials were native and pre- 
pared by the slaves, who buUt the house. The present 
piazza and steps are not the original ones, but were added 
later. The house is square in shape and has a "hipped" roof 
covered by shingles. The building is elevated from the ground 
by a brick basement, which allows space for a cellar beneath 
di^dded into four rooms with cement floors, and there were 
stored in the good old days all the wines, provisions, etc., for 
a plantation home, as well as affording protection in time of 
attack. From the front and back of the house steps lead to 
the grounds ; one set of steps fronts the avenue of oaks, lead- 
ing to a bridge which crosses a creek and an old sun dial that 
stood near the bridge. The steps from the rear lead to a gar- 
den and to the big kitchen and outbuildings, part of the equip- 
ment of a well-constructed place in those days. 

The house at Tongueville was not the only estabhshment 
possessed by the Perry family, for Edward Perry had bought 
from WilUam Wragg a portion of the Ketelby Barony known 
as "Poplar Hill" plantation and he also purchased 620 acres 
from William Bull and another 147 acres which had been 
granted to Bull in 1716. From his three purchases he formed 
the three plantations known as "Mansion House," "Old 
House " and " Poplar Hill, ' ' which places continued in the pos- 
session of himself and family until late in the nineteenth cen- 
tury. It is not certain at which of these places Dr. Benjamin 

197 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



Lucas Perry resided, who died in 1792. At the outbreak of the 
Revolutionary War Dorchester, although still a mere village, 
was, next to Charles Town and George Town, the largest village 
in South Carolina. 

INGLESIDE OR THE HAZE 
Ingieside Hall on Goose Creek, not far from Dorchester, 
was formerly the residence of Hon. John Parker, a member of 
the old Congress (1774-1789) who was born in 1749, married 
Miss Susannah Middleton and died in 1822. It was bought 
afterwards by Professor Francis S. Holmes, a descendant of 
Landgrave Smith, and developer of the phosphate deposits of 
Carolina, and an existing picture presents the interior of the 
house and shows Prof. Holmes in his study. 

Francis Simmons Holmes (1815-) was the son of John 
Holmes and his wife, Anna Glover. While a youth of about 
fourteen years of age he visited England with a maternal 
uncle by marriage, a Mr. Lee, of England. Returning to 
America he engaged for a number of years in mercantile pur- 
suits, in which, however, he was not successful, so removed 
to St. Andrew's Parish and devoted his attention to agricul- 
ture. Experience taught him that a knowledge of the science 
of geology was essential to an intelligent planter. In the pur- 
suit of this study he obtained the friendship of the leading 
geologist of the country, Professor Agassiz, a letter from whom 
is found in the scrap book of F. S. Hohnes, a great-nephew of 
Prof. Holmes. A similar friendship was also formed with 
Count Pourtales, an engineer, who came to this country about 
the same time that Agassiz and Dr. Holmes became intimates. 
He became connected with and was assistant to Prof. Price, 
U. S. Coast Survey, and visited Prof. Holmes for six weeks 
with Agassiz at Ingieside. 

Prof. Holmes is best known in connection with the discov- 
ery of the commercial value of South Carolina phosphate rock 
for fertilizing purposes, and that he was no ordinary man is 
manifested by the fact that the boy who left school at the age 
of fourteen, by his own application, energy and perseverance 
fitted himself for a professor's chair in Charleston College 

198 



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ON THE ASHLEY RIVER 



which he held until the Confederate War, when he was ap- 
pointed to office in connection with coast defenses and became 
cliief of the Nitre and Mining Bureau in South Carohna and 
Georgia. Upon his mthdrawal from the professorship at the 
College of Charleston he generously left in the museum his 
entire collection of fossils, said to be among the largest and 
most valuable in the country. The commercial prosperity of 
Charleston in the field of fertihzer industry rests largely upon 
the scientific achievements of Professor Holmes, whose knowl- 
edge was ungrudgingly given to his fellow-citizens, and who 
received from abroad and at home many marks of appreciation 
of his genius and position. 

Ingleside, a colonial country house, is described by Mrs. 
Deas as being "situated on the crest of a gentle elevation; 
a square, hip-roofed brick dwelhng having two stories and an 
attic ; and sufficiently high from the ground to admit of rooms 
beneath." These rooms, however, did not form a basement, 
as the floor was some steps below the level of the ground and 
really constituted a crude fort. 

The front door opened directly from the porch into a large 
room, and from this a door gave entrance into the other and 
smaller front room. The back rooms were separated from 
each other by a narrow hall, in which the staircase with its 
heavy balusters were placed. Under the stairway was a flight 
of steps leading down to the basement. 

There were four rooms on a floor, those on the first floor 
being connected in pairs by the "Thoroughfare closets" so 
common in old houses. The rooms were wainscoted halfway 
up, and had deep, low mndow-seats ; the window sashes were 
broad and heavy, and the shutters of paneled wood. The back 
door was unusually thick and heavy, being built, so tradition 
says, to resist Indian attacks in the early colonial days. 

The view from the front windows was over a level field 
stretching off to the woods. Near the end of the field a clump 
of trees marked the family cemetery where stands the Parker 
shaft. Ingleside was for many years the property of the 
Parker family, its original name being "The Hays." 

199 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

At the time of the Revolution, when the plantation was 
owned by Mr. John Parker (whose wife was a Miss Middleton), 
the British were marauding near Ingleside one day, and while 
Mrs. Parker was sitting near a window sewing a party of these 
marauders came up the avenue and fired at her. Fortunately 
the ball missed Mrs. Parker, but struck the wall, and the hole 
it made could be seen for many years. 

A gentle slope leads from the back of the house to the 
"lake," where a double row of towering cypresses makes a 
romantic walk on the very edge of the water. The lake was 
used as a reservoir for irrigating the rice field. Following the 
causeway along its banks and crossing a field brings a traveler 
to a giant five oak known in tradition as "Marion's Oak," but 
someone has facetiously remarked that if Marion dined under 
all the oaks under which he was supposed to have given his 
famous sweet potato dinner he would have had no time for 
fighting, but would have spent his time as uselessly as popular 
tradition would have us beUeve George Washington did, viz., 
in sitting in the numberless "Washington Pews" and sleeping 
in the numberless "Washington Beds. " 

The birthplace of General Marion has been disputed by 
many people, but, according to General Irvine Walker, Mr. 
Philip E. Porcher, aged 88 years, of Christ Church Parish, 
was told by his granduncle, Francis Cordes, that Marion was 
born at Goatfield plantation opposite "Chacan gate," not far 
from Cordesville. The remains of Marion repose at Belle 
Isle, a plantation near Ingleside. His grave was for many 
years neglected, but was later cared for through the efforts of 
Shirley Carter Hughson, of Sumter, S. C, uow better known 
as "Father Hughson." 

Another fine old house formerly in this neighborhood was 
Woodstock, a spacious dwelling, with lofty columns support- 
ing the roof of the portico. Still another ' ' low-country ' ' home 
was Fontainebleau, the residence of the late Alonzo J. White. 
This house like most of the others has disappeared. An old 
brick wall encloses two tombs, those of Joseph Hanscom and 
his daughter. And last, but not least. Mount Pleasant on 

200 







'INGLESIDE" OR "THE HAZE." GOOSE CREEK 




INTERIOR AT "INGLESIDE," GOOSE CREEK 
Professor Francis S. Holmes in his library 



ON THE ASHLEY RIVER 



Goose Creek was once the hospitable mansion of Mr. Wm. 
Withers, who died there in 1778. 

BELLINGER'S FERRY OR BEE'S PERRY 

The River Road wliich crosses the Ashley River at Bel- 
linger's Ferry follows the stream along its western bank, just 
west of the plantations lying between the river and the road 
only to recross the Ashley many miles above and enter "Dor- 
chester"; thus there were in those days two ways to get to this 
old town (a river road on either side of the Ashley). It is of 
more than passing interest to note the type of vehicles which 
passed over the ferry and the rates charged in those old days. 
According to the acts published in Grimke's collections there 
were several persons exempted from paying passage money. 
The Public Laws of South Carolina, A. D. 1754, No. 848, tells 
us that the several sums following were to be paid "in proc- 
lamation money, or the value thereof in other money current 
in this Province. 

For every coach, charriot, landau, berlin, chaise, chair, 
calash, or other vehicle drawn by 6 or more horses, the sum of 
3s. proclamation money. 

For every coach, charriot, landau, berlin, chaise, chair, 
calash, or other vehicle drawn by 4 horses, the sum of 2s. 6d. 
like money. 

For every coach, charriot, landau, berlin, chaise, chair, 
calash, or other vehicle vidth 4 wheels, draAvn by less than four 
horses and more than 1 the sum of 2s. like money. 

For every chaise or chair drawn by 2 horses and not having 
4 wheels, the sum of Is. 6d. hke money. 

For every chair or chaise and single horse, Is. like money. 

For every wagon drawn by 4 horses or oxen, the sum of 2s. 
like money. 

For every cart. Is. like money. 

For every horse, mule or ass, laden or unladen, and not 
drawing, 3d. like money. 

For every foot-passenger whatsoever, 2d. like money. 

For every man and horse, 4d. like money. 

For every drove of oxen or neat cattle, the sum of 3d. per 
head, like money. 

For every drove of calves, hogs, sheep or lambs, the sum 
of iy?d. per head, like money. ' ' 

201 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

MAG WOOD'S GARDENS 

Just below St. Andrew's Church is found the Old Magwood 
Gardens which contains nineteen acres of japonicas, azaleas, 
holly, mistletoe, ivy and hundreds of other trees of Japan and 
native to South Carohna. The gardens have passed from the 
possession of the Magwood family, but Bishop Moreland, of 
California, whose grandmother was a Magwood, writes from 
England, while at the Lambeth Conference as a guest of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, that Simon Magwood built as a 
to^vn house the place (now owned by Mr. Henry C. Williams) 
at the southwest corner of King Street and South Battery. 
It was built as a wedding present to his daughter, Susan C. 
Alagwood, upon her marriage to Andrew Moreland, grand- 
father of Bishop Moreland. Simon Magwood was a rich 
Charleston merchant who owned a cotton plantation in St. 
Andrew's Parish as well as the gardens. 

DRAYTON HALL 

Of all the beautiful manor houses which formerly stood on 
the estates lying in St. Andrew's Parish, contingent to Ashley 
River, "Drayton Hall" alone is left. The first site of Charles- 
ton was over in that vicinity and the settlements along the 
Ashley River were made by wealthy cultivated English gentle- 
men and their families. Among them were the Draytons, al- 
though not holding lands originally granted their family, but 
early acquired from former grantees. Like the Bulls they 
acquired valuable properties to the southward in Granville 
County, but continued to make their homes on their estates on 
the Ashley River. Thomas Drayton, son of the Honorable John 
Drayton, toward the end of the eighteenth century largely in- 
creased his holdings on the river, which were again disposed 
of "by his grandson, the late Reverend John G. Drayton, so 
that their present holdings are restricted to the Drayton Hall 
property and a portion of Magnolia. 

The letters of Ehza Lucas abound in reference to festal 
days at Drayton Hall and other mansions on the Ashley, and 

202 




SIDE VIEW OE "DRAYTON HALL' 



ON THE ASHLEY RIVER 



it is said that it was at Drayton Hall that she tirst met the man 
who later became her husband, Chief Justice Pinckney. 

Perhaps the most distinguished of the family of Draytons 
was William Henry Drayton, who was born at Drayton Hall, 
and who became first Chief Justice from the Independent State 
of South Carolina. He went to England when he was a boy, 
in company with Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and Thomas 
Pinckney. These three lads attended "Westminster School in 
London, and afterwards went to Oxford University. Then 
they returned to South Carolina to work and fight side by side 
against that unjust ruler. King George the Third. Concern- 
ing Chief Justice Drayton, a most amusing incident is narrated 
in a letter of Honorable Richard Hutson : 

". . . . New Battery, which General Lee has entirely 
demolished excepting three guns. His first question upon see- 
ing it was, what d d fool planned this Battery? A by- 
stander replied that it had been planned by Mr. Drayton, our 
present Chief Justice. Says he, he may be a very good Chief 

Justice, but he is a d d bad engineer, for if the enemy had 

had the planning of it, they could not have fixed it in a better 
place for the reduction of Fort Johnson. ' ' 

Drayton Hall was built in 1740 by Thomas Drayton, father 
of "WilHam and Henry, and named after the family residence 
at North Hamptonshire, England. This home is built of brick, 
with large columns of Portland marble and is said to have 
cost ninety thousand dollars, much of the fine material having 
been imported from England. The wainscoting, which at a 
later date was repainted, extends from the floor to the ceiling. 
Over the large, massive mantles are frames set in the wainscot 
for pictures or coats of arms. The fireplaces are adorned with 
colored tiles. In one of the cellars there were at one time a 
number of marble columns lying on the ground, this giving rise 
to the story that the old mansion was never completed. 

It is said that Chief Justice Drayton designed one side of 
the great seal of South Carolina, the other side having been 
contributed by Arthur Middleton, his neighbor, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. Drayton died at the early 

203 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

age of thirty-seven, while attending Congress in Phila- 
delphia in 1779. 

A visitor to South Carolina gives the following account of 
Drayton Hall : 

"We stopped to dine with Dr. Drayton, at Drayton Hall. 
The house is an ancient huilding, but convenient and good ; and 
the garden is better laid out, better cultivated and stocked with 
good trees, than any I have hitherto seen. In order to have 
a fine garden you have nothing to do but to let the trees remain 
standing here and there, or in clumps, to plant bushes in front 
of them, and arrange the trees according to their height. Dr. 
Drayton's father, who was also a physician, began to lay out 
the garden on this principle ; and his son, who is passionately 
fond of a country life, has pursued the same plan. The pros- 
pect from the garden is like all other views in this part of 
the country." 

At the death of this last Charles Drayton in 1820 he de- 
vised to his son Charles — another Charles Drayton, M. D. — 
"his place called Drayton Hall situate on the Ashley River," 
and the property still remains in, and is occupied by the 
descendants of the name, viz., the heirs of the late Charles 
H. Drayton. 

MAGNOLIA GARDENS 

At one period Magnolia Gardens and Drayton Hall com- 
prised a single estate, but this property later was divided into 
two tracts, when one of the Drayton brothers acquired Drayton 
Hall and the other Magnolia Gardens. 

Below Ave quote from a description concerning Magnolia 
Gardens on the Ashley, written by Miss Constance Fenimore 
Woolson in Harper's Magazine for December, 1875 : 

"Next above Drayton Hall is beautiful Magnolia. In the 
spring the steamer carries tourists to this enchanting garden, 
where they wander through glowing aisles of azaleas, and 
forget the lapse of time, recalled from the trance of enjoyment 
only by the whistle of the boat which carries them back to the 
city. The old mansion at Magnolia was burned by a detach- 
ment of Sherman's army, as were nearly all the homesteads 
in the parish of St. Andrew's, but a pretty modern cottage has 
been erected on its site. ' ' 

204 




TOWN HOUSE OF THE BULL FAMILY, WHOSE COUNTRY ESTATE, "ASHLEY HALL," 

LAY IN ST. ANDREW'S PARISH 

Now owned and occupied by Mr. H. Ficken 



ON THE ASHLEY RIVER 



Speaking of the gardens, she says : 

"Seven persons touching fingertips can just encircle the 
sylphide rose-tree seventeen feet in height by twenty feet wide. 
There are also many rare trees and shrubs, among them the 
sacred tree of the Grand Lama, Cupressus lusitanica. But the 
glory of the garden is the gorgeous coloring of the azaleas, 
some of the bushes sixteen and seventeen feet through by 
twelve feet high, others nineteen and twenty feet through by 
thirteen feet high, solid masses of blossoms in all the shades of 
red, from palest pink to deepest crimson, and now and then 
a pure white bush, like a bride in her snowy lace. It is almost 
impossible to give a Northerner an idea of the affluence of color 
in this garden when its flowers are in bloom. 

"Imagine a long walk with the moss-draped hve oaks over- 
head, fairy lakes and bridges in the distance, and on each side 
the great fluffy masses of rose and pink and crimson reaching 
far above your head, thousands upon tens of thousands of 
blossoms packed close together, with no green to mar the 
intensity of their color, rounding out in swelhng curves of 
bloom down to the turf below, not pausing a few inches above 
it and shomng bare stems or trunks, but spreading over the 
velvet and trailing out like the Arabian Nights. Eyes that 
have never had color enough find here a full feast, and go 
away satisfied at last. And with all their gorgeousness, the 
hues are delicately mingled ; the magic effect is produced not 
by unbroken banks of crude red, but by blended shades, like 
the rich Oriental patterns of India shawls, which the European 
designers, with all their efforts, can never imitate. ' ' 

Thomas Nelson Page pays the following tribute to this 
magnificent garden of which every South Carohnian should 
be proud: 

"It was the most magnificent display that I have ever seen. 
It cannot be described. It is beyond expression. I have seen 
a great many celebrated gardens, including those at Cintra, 
near Lisbon, and the Kew Gardens in England, and while the 
natural conditions at Cintra, where the gardens placed up a 
mountain, are better and more favorable, there can be no doubt 
at all that the floral display at Magnolia is the more beautiful. ' ' 

Magnoha on the Ashley is now in the possession of Mr. 
Norwood Hastie, whose mother was a Miss Drayton. The 
Hastie family are particularly generous in that they open, for 
a short period in the springtime, these gardens to visitors. 

205 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



RUNNYMBDE 

One of the most beautiful old places on the Ashley 
Eiver is "Eunnymede," which adjoins and is just above 
Magnolia Gardens. 

It was settled before the Revolution, but no incidents of 
historic or romantic interest are, during this period, connected 
therewith. Soon after the Eevolution, it was the home of Hon. 
John JuUus Pringle, who was Speaker of the House of 
Assembly in 1787, and Attorney General of the State for many 
years from 1792. The Duke de la Eochefoucault Liancourt 
spent some time with him as a guest at his home in Charleston, 
and it was with Mr. Pringle he made his trip up the Ashley. 
In his account of this trip he makes the following reference 
to Eunnymede. 

"Hence" (i.e., from Ashley Ferry) "we crossed the river, 
and stopped at a plantation lately purchased by Mr. Pringle, 
the former name of which was Greenville, but which he has 
named Susan's Place, in honour of his lovely wife. This 
plantation is likewise without a house, that of the former 
occupier having been consumed by fire; on the foundation of 
this building, which remains unhurt, the new mansion is to be 
erected, which will be finished this summer. . . . The situ- 
ation is much the same as that of Fitterasso, except that the 
morasses, covered with reeds, lie on the other side. The 
river flows close to the garden, and the ships, which con- 
tinually sail up and down the river may anchor here with 
great convenience. ' ' 

The new mansion was completed in due time and the plan- 
tation was by Mr. Pringle ultimately named "Eunnymede" 
by which name it has ever since continued to be known. 
Thomas Fuller conveyed to John Julius Pringle 637 acres off 
the adjoining plantation which was added to Eunnymede. 
Under the will of John Juhus Pringle who died in 1841, the 
Eunnymede property passed to his son, William Bull Pringle, 
who added an adjoining tract of 450 acres. The entire tract 
was thereafter acquired by the late C. C. Pinckney who for 
years mined off the phosphate deposits. The mansion house 
built by Mr. John Julius Pringle was destroyed by the enemy 

206 



ON THE ASHLEY RIVER 



in 1865. The present residence was built by the late Mr. 
C. C. Pinckney. 

MIDDLETON GARDENS 
Above Runnymede stands the old Pinckney place, which is 
noted for its beautiful formal gardens and velvety lawns. A 
house is found upon this property, said to have been con- 
structed around the remains of the old brick kitchen. 

MILLBROOK 
The name "Millbrook" appears to have been given to the 
place above Eunnymede, now owned by J. Ross Hannahan, 
during the ownership of John AUeyne Walter. By Abraham 
Ladson, to whom a deed for the property had been executed in 
1786, it was conveyed to Honorable Thomas Middleton in 1786. 
The deed does not appear on record but the boundaries in 
deeds of the line of adjoining places show that Thomas Middle- 
ton owned it, and for some reason, probably to fortify his title, 
Thomas Middleton on 17 September, 1786, took out a warrant 
for a new grant which appears to have been issued. He also 
purchased the Vaucluse property lower down the river and 
does not appear to have ever made Millbrook his residence. 
Possibly the residence house had been burned. He died in 
1795 and the property remained in his estate until 1838 when 
it was conveyed by his heirs and representatives to J. Pinckney 
Clements as Millbrook plantation containing 338 acres. 



CHAPTER XI 

JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND, 
THE PLACES AND THE PEOPLE 




ST. ANDREW'S PARISH AND ST. PAUL'S 

N Stono River are found many his- 
toric spots, some of which will be 
subsequently discussed in connection 
with John's Island. On the main- 
land, however, adjacent to Charles- 
ton, was the Eliza Lucas plantation 
conrmonly known as the Bluff, on old 
Wappoo Creek before Elliott's cut 
was made. It was on the trucking 
place lately in the possession of John N. Voorhees. Here Eliza 
Lucas sat in her "little study," and planned such wonderful 
things for South Carolina. 

On the Stono also Lived Martha Ferguson Blake, who mar- 
ried William Washington, and both are buried in the old 
ElUott private cemetery on "Live Oak," St. Paul's Parish, 
not far from Rantowles bridge. There in the sadly neglected 
graveyard are also buried Colonel WilUam Washington and 
his wife, Jane Riley Elliott, and the only inscription on the 
stone which covers them both is "My parents Dear Lie Here." 
This is on the mainland, and is a little above John's Island 
Ferry, which has long been in operation. 

JOHN'S ISLAND HOUSES 
During the Revolutionary War many stirring scenes were 
transacted in the neighborhood of John's Island, and Mrs. 
EUet's Domestic History of the Revolution tells many of the 
most interesting of these, including the incident of a Fenwick 
child being rescued by a Miss Gibbes. A miniature of the 
latter is owned by Miss Anna Gibbes, the subject being Mrs. 
Alexander Garden, nee Mary Anna Gibbes (The Heroine of 
the Stono), who saved the life of an infant cousin during the 

208 



JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 

Eevolution when the British were firing upon the house. The 
infant afterwards became Major Fenwick, of the War of 1812. 

This story is often erroneously ascribed to the house called 
Fenwick Castle, but Mrs. Ellet says that "Fenwick Place," 
still called "Headquarters," was three miles from "Peaceful 
Retreat," the Gibbes home. From the fact that the graves 
of Robert Gibbes and Sarah, his wife, are found in a graveyard 
about three miles beyond Headquarters, it would seem that 
Peaceful Retreat was adjacent to that cemetery. 

Near the Ferry stood the Laurels, built by Mr. TurnbuU, 
on a high bluff now called Simmons Bluff. The house was con- 
structed of black cypress, held together by hand- wrought nails. 
It stood on a high brick foundation, and was three and a half 
stories high, containing 32 rooms. In the old burying ground 
adjacent to the home site are found the names of Mrs. Edith 
Matthews and several of the Simmons family, while another 
graveyard about two miles distant on the roadside contains 
tombstones bearing the names of Barnard Smith ElUott, Bar- 
nard Elliott, Robert Gibbes (died July 4, 1794, aged 64 years) 
and his wife, Sarah Gibbes (died 1825, aged 79 years). 

Letters from Kinsey Burden to Micah Jenkins (of Wood- 
land and Capes plantations), about roads on John's Island, 
speak of the "Old Ridge Road" as a "man and horse way — 
' a foot way for my people to and from Church, ' ' ' and describe 
the east end of the Old Ridge Road, from "your middle gate 
on said road where it enters the pine barren through to the 
lower or River Road. ' ' Kinsey Burden also says that Micah 
Jenkins had attempted to move the public landing from the 
place of Mr. Jenkin's son-in-law, Mr. Gervais. John Louis 
Gervais was an intimate friend and companion of Henry 
Laurens, and his descendants are still extant. 

FENWICK CASTLE 
At what date the first Fenwick came to South Carolina is 
not known, but it was about the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. During the French Invasion in 1706 he commanded 
a company of militia. In South Carohna we find Edward 
Fenwick, sometimes called Honorable, as a member of His 

14 209 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



Majesty's Council in 1747. He was married twice, his first 
wife being Martha Izard, daughter of Honorable Ralph Izard. 
Their only child, Ehzabeth, married John Barnwell, but she 
died within a year and left no issue. 

In 1753 Edward Fenwick married Mary Drayton, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Drayton, and by her had many children. After 
her husband 's death Mrs. Fenwick married William Gerard de 
Brahm, an engineer ofiScer in the service of the colonies of 
South Carolina, and removed to Philadelphia. Her will 
is dated 1805. 

Edward Fenwick 's children were as follows : Edward Fen- 
wick, John Fenwick, Sarah Fenwick, who was twice married, 
first to John MacCartan Campbell, ,of Charleston, 1777. Mr. 
Campbell bought from his brother-in-law (the Hon. Edward 
Fenwick) a residence on Lower Meeting Street in Charleston, 
now known as the Calhoun Mansion. After her husband's 
death Sarah married Dr. George Jones, of Savannah. An- 
other daughter of Edward Fenwick, Mary, married "Walter 
Izard, son of Ralph Izard, but died shortly after her marriage, 
and in 1758 was bom her brother Thomas, of whom very little 
is known, which is true also of Robert, bom 1761. 

Martha Fenwick, another child of Edward, married in 1778 
Thomas Gadsden, a captain in the first regiment South Caro- 
lina Continentals, a son of General Christopher txadsden. 
The daughters seemed to have contracted brilliant marriages ; 
one of them, Charlotte Elizabeth, was twice married, her first 
husband being William Leigh Pierce, of Virginia, a captain in 
the Continental Army, who was voted a sword by Congress 
for his good conduct at the battle of Eutaw Springs. William 
Pierce and his wife settled after the war in Georgia and wje 
find him as a delegate from that State to the Constitutional 
Convention. After his death his widow, Charlotte, married 
Ebenezer Jackson, of Massachusetts, a lieutenant in the 
third Continental artillery. Their daughter, Harriett Jack- 
son, married her first cousin. Commodore Tattnall. 

Of the next two Fenwick children, Selina and Matilda, little 
is known, except that Selina was appointed sole executrix of 
her mother's will and Matilda married Robert Giles. Edward 

210 



JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 

Fenwick seems to have been fond of repeating names in his 
family, or to have followed the fashion of naming a living 
child for one that had died, as we find a Robert WilUam Fen- 
■\vick, born in 1765, as we also find a John Eoger Femvick, born 
in 1773. This John became a second Ueutenant in the Marine 
Corps, rising from that to a captaincy. From this sei-vice he 
resigned to enter another branch of military hfe and died in 
1842 as brevet brigadier general. He is the last child, gene- 
alogically speaking, but his sister Harriett, who was younger 
than himself by four years is more interesting to us. She mar- 
ried Josiah Tattnall, Jr. (second son of Josiah Tattnall and 
Miss Mullrayne), who was born at his grandfather's place, 
Bonaventure, in Georgia. Harriett's husband became Gov- 
ernor of Georgia, and her son, who married his cousin, Miss 
Jackson, became Commodore Josiah Tattnall. 

There was one other son, George Fenwick, of whom we 
learn very little, suffice it to say that when the Hon. Edward 
Fenwick, a member of the King's Council in South Carolina 
died in New York on 7th of July, 1775, his mdow and sons char- 
tered the sloop Commerce for the voyage to Charles Town, 
whither they carried his remains for interment. 

When Edward Fenwick 's will was read Robert Gibbes and 
John Gibbes were found to be quaUfied executors, although 
Robert alone served. There was a close kinship between 
the Gibbes and Fenwick families, the Hon. John Fenwick, 
of South Carolina, who died about 1747, having mar- 
ried Elizabeth Gibbes, a daughter of Gov. Robert Gibbes, of 
South Carohna. Although the Fenwicks elected to drop their 
titles of nobility, the records in England clearly show them to 
have been of noble origin, and it is doubtless due to this fact 
that Fenwick goes by the name of Lord Ripon. A partition in 
the Court of Chancery, the original being in a collection of 
Prof. Yates Snowden, of the University of South Carohna, 
shows that they were a family of immense belongings, and 
much other information is set forth. It is with interest that we 
read in Rice's Digested Index that "in 1796 Miss Fenwick was 
allowed to bring certain negroes into the State." 

211 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



The Fenwick mansion is a beautiful home built of brick 
and erected in a substantial and dignified way. The f agade of 
this building reveals a two-story structure erected over a deep 
brick basement employed as a fort in primitive times. 

Within the basement is found an old well used to supply 
the garrison with water in case of seige, and an underground 
passage which extends about a hundred yards to a little gully 
at the rear of the house. It is a brick passage large enough 
to permit a man to crawl through on hands and knees, make 
his escape, and give the alarm of Indian attacks. In addition 
to these measures for protection the note of defense is again 
struck in the substantial inside shutters of the windows. The 
house has a hipped-roof upon the top of which is erected a 
small observation platform which commanded a view of the 
country for miles around. 

The interior decorations of the building are unusually 
beautiful, the panehng of the up and down stairs rooms being 
of cedar, and the wainscoting of pine. The mantels are very 
highly decorated, the pattern of the wall of Troy occurring 
frequently. The railings of the staircase are of mahogany, 
and the style in which the entire house is finished can be real- 
ized from the fact that the latches of the windows are all of 
solid silver. The rooms measure sixteen by eighteen feet, with 
unusually high ceilings. The carving around the mantel in 
the largest sitting-room is extraordinarily beautiful, being 
a combination of the St. Andrew's Cross with the Greek Key 
and Acanthus leaf. 

Fenwick Castle has many romantic stories connected with 
it, perhaps the most interesting being that concerning the love 
affair of a daughter of the house with one of her father's 
grooms. Fenwick was sometimes called Lord Ripon, and was 
noted for the fact that he had a private race course laid out 
in front of his house. It is doubtless true that one of the girls 
did fall in love with some handsome young Englishman who 
came to bring some thoroughbred racers to her father's estate. 

However, the father would have none of the marriage, and 
we can picture the unhappy scene which transpired in this old 
house with its magnificent furnishings when the girl pleaded 

212 




"BRICK HOUSE" 
The old Roper-Stanyarne Home oo John's Island, near Charleston 



JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 

in vain to be alloAved to marry her lover. Consent being re- 
fused, it is said that the couple ran away and were married, 
whereupon the father pursued them, with very tragic conse- 
quences. He is said to have hung the young man while the 
latter was seated on liis horse, causing the girl to lash the 
horse from under him, resulting in her lover's death and her 
broken heart. 

The same sternness of character was exhibited by Edward 
Fenwick, as he was among the Loyalists in South Carolina, and 
his estates were confiscated. Nothing is known of the life of 
the Fenwick family after the Revolution except what informa- 
tion was found in legal papers pertaining to the estate. Their 
genealogy is given in full in the South Carolina Historical and 
Genealogical Magazine. 

The only other really old place on John's Island is the old 
Eoper place down near Legareville, known as Brick House. 
Although deserted, it is still standing, and is closely connected 
with the history of the Hext and Roper families, while graves 
of Stanyames and Freers are found in the little overgrown 
burying ground not far distant from the house. The place now 
belongs to the wife of Bishop Knight, who came into posses- 
sion of it through her first husband, the gallant Captain 
William Yates. On Kiawah Island stands a handsome house 
belonging to the Vanderhorst estate. 

EDISTO ISLAND AND ITS HOMES 
The first mention concerning Edisto Island is found in a 
history of the baronies of South Carolina when "On the 18th 
March, 1675, a formal grant for 12,000 acres on Ashley River 
was issued to Anthony, Earl of Shaftsbury, but for some 
reason the Earl of Shaftsbury did not seem at first to have 
taken very kindly to his signiory on Ashley River and incUned 
to estabUsh himself elsewhere." On the 23rd of May, 1674, 
the Earl wrote to Maurice Matthews: "My thoughts were to 
have planted on Ashley River, but the people tooke soe little 
care to allow or provide for me any accomodacon neare them 
having taken up for themselves all the best conveniences on 
that river and left me not a tolerable Place to plant on nearer 

213 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

than two Miles from the Water that I am forced to seeke out in 
another place and resolve to take me a Signiory at Edisto 
Eiver. ' ' The place selected by him was on Edisto Island (then, 
called Locke Island), and the person selected to take it up was 
Mr. Andrew Percivall. Percivall seems to have been some sort 
of connection of the Earl of Shaftsbury as in the letter to 
Matthews the Earl describes Percivall as one "Who hath a 
Eelacon to my Family. ' ' 

Percivall was not only to take up a signiory for the Earl, 
but was to make a settlement there for the Lord Proprietors, 
and to be independent of the Government at the settle- 
ment on Ashley Eiver. Mr. Henry Woodward was directed 
to treat with the Indians of Edisto and buy it of them,, 
but this projected settlement of Edisto Island seems to have 
been abandoned. 

In South Carolina until 1716 the Indian trade was con- 
ducted solely under the auspices of individual enterprise. 
Next to the traders were the burden bearers, who frequently 
consisted of boys, under the direction of an experienced 
"voyageur." The place of Peter St. Julien, near Dorchester 
(a town near the head of the Ashley Eiver) was a great camp- 
ing ground for these traders, as from this place the trails to 
the Congaree and Chickasaw diverged. A caravan, for in- 
stance, on the latter route leaving Charleston would stop first 
at St. Julien 's, thence proceed to Wasmasaw, thence to "The 
Ponds" and on to Edisto, thence to Fort Moore, or Savannah 
Town, a short distance below Hamberg, opposite Augusta, 
Ga. Nearly the entire railway system which had been con- 
structed up to 1859 followed almost precisely on the routes of 
the old Indian trails of her infant commerce. 

An Act dated June, 1714, is entitled "An act for continuing 
the road to Edisto Island and making a bridge over Dawhoo 
Creek, and finishing the road to Port Eoyal, and making a 
bridge over the South Edisto Eiver. ' ' Some of the names of 
the inhabitants of Edisto Island are found in an Act dated 
1751 in which commissioners were appointed for "cutting, 
clearing and cleaning 'Watt's Cutt' " and all the male inhab- 
itants, from the ages of 16 to 60 years, living and residing from 

214 




VANDERHORST HOUSE, CHAPEL STREET, CHARLESTON 



immsmaiif t 




VANDERHORST HOUSE ON KIAWAH ISLAND 



JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 

the plantation of Captain William Eddings, to the plantations 
of William Adams and Joshia Grimball, inclusive, and Je- 
hossey Island ' ' shall work on the said Cutt. ' ' 

During the Eevolutionary War Edisto Inlet was particu- 
larly infested by privateers, "refugees' boats," and Eow- 
G-alleys, coming up from St. Augustine, seeking cattle for the 
garrison there, plunder of indigo and rice, and revenge. These 
"refugee boats" were long, low, uncovered pettiaugers, car- 
ried from 40 to 50 men, armed with muskets and boarding 
pikes, and mamied each -with 24 oars, 12 sweeps to the side, 
and carried each a six-pounder in the bow and a four-pounder 
in the stern ; they were rigged with sliding gunter masts and 
latteen sails, very hke the pirate galleys of the Mediterranean, 
and were usually manned by refugee royalists who had fled 
from the State, and by Mediterranean sailors from the Greeks 
at New Smyrna. 

Edisto Island is bounded, roughly speaking, on the north 
by the North Edisto River, spoken of as Edisto Inlet ; on the 
south by the South Edisto River; west by Dawhoo River, 
which connects these two large rivers ; and on the east by the 
Atlantic Ocean. This island has been facetiously called "The 
Independent Republic of Edisto," because, at the time pre- 
ceding the Civil War, she threatened to secede from the State 
of South CaroUna, unless the State seceded from the Union. 

Although the main industry of the island was the planting 
of Sea Island cotton, many of the planters were college gradu- 
ates, and not a few could shoAV university degrees from famous 
European universities, for example, Theodore Gaillard 
Thomas, M. D., who was born on Edisto Island, S. C, 1831, and 
was the son of Rev. Edward Thomas and Jane Marshall Gail- 
lard, daughter of Judge Theodore Gaillard. He received his 
early education at the College of Charleston and was a gradu- 
ate of the Medical College of the State of South Carolina, sub- 
sequently went to Europe and studied medicine in the great 
scientific centres of the world. After serving as interne at 
Belleview Hospital he became professor of obstetrics and dis- 
eases of women in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
New York, and consulting physician to the Nursery and 

215 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Child's Hospital at St. Mary's Hospital, Brooklyn. He was 
also surgeon and one of the founders of the Woman's Hospital 
in New York. He was president of the American Gynaeco- 
logical Society, and an honorary member of the Obstetrical 
Society of Berhn. Dr. Thomas was twice married, his first 
wife being his cousin, Mary Gaillard, and his second wife, a 
Miss Willard, of Willard's Academy, N. Y., one of the noted 
sisters of that name. He was the author of numerous books 
and pamphlets touching subjects connected with his profession, 
of which some have been translated into French, German, 
Italian and Chinese. 

Edisto lands being ill adapted to rice cultivation, the 
islanders early turned their attention to the indigo plant. 
Their product was in great demand and sold for a higher price 
than any other grown and manufactured in the State, but the 
culture of indigo ceased to be remunerative and in 1796 experi- 
ments were made with the cotton plant. 

From a register kept by Mr. Murray, some years previous 
to 1826, it appears that in the course of sixteen years, there 
were among the white inhabitants sixty-six marriages, two 
hundred and twelve births and one hundred and seventy-seven 
deaths. The following are mentioned as owning plantations : 
Rev. McLeod, Ephraim Mikell, James Clark, William 
Eddings, Daniel Townsend, William Seabrook, William C. 
Meggott (Meggett), Dr. Chisolm, Gabriel Seabrook, and 
Norman McLeod. 

Mr. Mills, in his Statistics, says that "It does not appear 
that any establishment similar to that of a tavern was ever 
attempted on the island ; strangers and visitors are hospitably 
entertained in private families and are sent about on horse- 
back, or in carriages as their cimcumstances or exigencies may 
require." Mr. Mills speaks with authority, as many of his 
boyhood days were spent on the island. He goes on to say 
that "two ferries were early established but such was the in- 
frequency of the intercourse that these ferries have been 
discontinued." Contracts were, however, made in Mr. Mills' 
time (1826), for the construction of a causeway and ferry from 
this island to the mainland, which has ever since been in use. 

216 



JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 

Several old homes are found in the interior of the island situ- 
ated near the old public roads, but the ferries were for many 
years abandoned and passage was made only by boat, thus 
most of the old settlements are to be found on the rivers or on 
the three bold creeks that cut deep into the island. The one 
known as Steamboat Creek comes in from the North Edisto 
River. There is a similar large creek sweeping in from the 
South Edisto River, called Pierre's Creek, which divides into 
two branches known as Fishing Creek and Big Bay Creek. 

THE WILLIAM SEABROOK HOUSES 
The Wilham Seabrook House on Edisto, according to 
Judge Smith, the present owner, was built about 1808 by Mr. 
Wilham Seabrook, of Edisto Island, who was a very wealthy 
planter and acquired a great deal of property. He died about 
1837, and the property continued to be occupied by his Avidow 
until after her death, about 1854 or 1855 ; when it was sold, and 
purchased by Mr. J. Evans Eddings, then a very wealthy 
planter, by whom it was sold some time near the year 1875. 

This is a very handsome house. The foundations are of 
brick, and the outside weather-boarding is of cypress, of which 
the greater portion of the house is built. It is a substantial 
three-story dwelling, the eliief architectural feature of which 
is the interior stairway in the rear hall which ascends to the 
second story by a double flight, broken half way up by a landing 
on which a beautiful colonial window with a double arch occurs. 
The only other similar set of steps is in the Brown residence in 
Charleston, on Ashley Avenue. Unhke the majority of 
houses on the island this place does not display the usual 
double piazzas on the front, but has a double portico, up 
and down stairs. 

When the house was bought by Judge Smith there was no 
furniture in it of any value; nothing but a few old broken 
pieces. The tradition is that a raiding party of Northern sol- 
diers, during the Civil War, entered the house, threw nearly 
all of the furniture then inside out of the windows and from the 
upper piazzas, wrecking most of it, and destroyed a great 
many of the banisters and railings of the front stairs 
and piazza. 

217 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Prior to the acquisition of the property by the elder Mr. 
William Seabrook, the land was owned by the Townsend fam- 
ily for many years, which family is fully discussed in connec- 
tion with Bleak Hall, one of the few "dead houses" on 
Edisto Island. 

William Seabrook was, as has been said, a man of large 
means, and the Seabrook family has spread to the surrounding 
islands and to the mainland. Mr. Seabrook was formerly the 
owner of Sea Side plantation on Edisto, part of which, lying on 
the west side of the middle road, joins lands of Mr. Eddings 
the elder. His first will was made in 1836, in which the Charles- 
ton house of the Seabrooks is described as being on the south 
side of Broad Street, and the east side of Logan. In 1837 
Mary Ann and Sarah Seabrook (who married James Legare) 
conveyed this property to Andrew Dibble. 

In this Seabrook home on Edisto, not far from the steam- 
boat landing, LaFayette was entertained at a great ball. Just 
before the affair a female infant three weeks old was brought 
in and christened. LaFayette took her in his arms and named 
her Carolina for the State, and LaFayette for himself. This 
was the lady who subsequently lived in the Hopkinson house, 
having married a Mr. Hopkinson, and it is curious to note 
that she was bom on Washington's Birthday, February the 
twenty-second. The old home of the Seabrook family is at 
present unoccupied, being in the care of E. T. La Roche, who 
married Ruth Seabrook. 

OAK ISLAND 
An interesting old wooden house is found at Oak Island, 
now owned by Mr. E. Mitchell Seabrook, grandson of William 
Seabrook the younger. Judge Smith says that the elder Mr. 
William Seabrook (whose place is now the property of Judge 
Smith, the house on it having been built about 1808), also had 
a son, William Seabrook, who owned a plantation about two 
miles away called Oak Island. There are some very pretty 
photographs of this place and the garden, which were taken, 
it is believed, by some Northerner during the war. Concern- 
ing these pictures Mrs. George E. Hazlehurst, who was Miss 

218 




THE WILLIAM SEABROOK HOUSE, EDISTO ISLAND 

Now owned by Judge H. A. M. Smith 



JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 

Jennie Mikell, of Edisto, relates that upon one occasion a Miss 
Whaley, who was attending a function in Washington, met 
during the evening an officer who had been stationed on Edisto 
Island when it was occupied by the Federal troops. Finding 
that she was from Edisto he went on to describe to her the 
gardens at Oak Island as being the most beautiful he had ever 
seen. He may well have said so then, as the place boasted of 
the finest natural features with which the imported English 
landscape-gardener could wish to work. 

This gardener had been brought over to this country for the 
purpose of laying out the gardens at Oak Island. He utilized 
the lakes and little islands much in the style of a Japanese 
garden of to-day, and connected these charming little retreats 
with rustic bridges. Formal fish ponds were placed at either 
end of the garden, and on several of the islets aviaries were 
estabhshed, while sacred hlies of India were planted in the 
waters of the little lakes. 

Oak Island went to John Edward Seabrook, who married 
Elizabeth Baynard Whaley, and years after the Civil War it 
passed to Mitchell Seabrook, in whose possession is found also 
Seaside, one of the largest plantations on Edisto Island, which 
is situated near Big Bay Creek, and is adjacent to McConkie's 
Beach and Eddingsville Beach. Near this latter place, on 
Frampton's Inlet, an old settlement formerly existed, which 
has now been swept into the sea. 

William Eddings was one of the most prominent men of 
this section, and one of the founders of the Presbyterian 
church on Edisto. The Register of the Circular Church in 
Charleston contains the following entry : 

"William Eddings and Theodora Law, Widow, were Sol- 
emnly Married together Septemb' : 1733, by me, I being well 
assured by a Testimonial to me produced, from under the hand 

of the Rev^ : M'' : Moore, Min"' : of a Congregation at Edisto 

in this Province (where both parties are well known) that the 
purpose of the said Marriage was duly pubHshed in the Meet- 
ing-House, and in the Hearing of that Congregation, on three 
several Sabbath-days, immediately before Divine Service ; and 
no Obiection being made . . ." 

219 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Below Eddingsville Beach, to the south, is McConkie's 
Beach, the last beach on the island. Between McConkie's 
Beach, Big Bay Creek, Fishing Creek (a branch of St. Pierre's 
Creek) and the road which leads around the creeks lies a large 
body of arable land which contains several plantations, Seaside 
being one, and Crawford's (on Store Creek) another. In this 
vicinity is found a splendid old house of the island type, built 
by an Eddings, inhabited by a Whaley, and now occupied by 
Mr. James Whaley. Beyond Big Bay Creek lies Bailey Island, 
the Baileys being a family closely connected by marriage to all 
the Edisto people. Adjacent to Crawford lies a place called 
Freedman's Village, a residence of the freed negroes of 
the island. 

TOM SBABROOK HOUSE 
The Tom Seabrook house is up in the "Burrough," as it is 
called in local parlance, being a name applied by "Ediston- 
ians" to a certain portion of the islaud lying in its center, to 
distinguish it from portions contingent to the North Edisto 
River. The house is now in the possession of Mr. Arthur 
Whaley, a son of William B. Whaley, and grandson of Edward 
Whaley; into whose possession it came by inheritance, the 
house having been built about the year 1780. It was bought 
later (1840) by Edward Whaley for his son William. 

This house is a quaint old-fashioned wooden structure, 
built, like the majority of island houses, rather high up from 
the ground, on a brick foundation. There is a piazza around 
it on three sides, and a hall running through the center with 
rooms on either side, and sleeping rooms in the second story. 
It was at this place, during the Civil War in 1864, that eight 
Confederate soldiers were captured by the Federal forces and 
the house bears marks of the bullets fired at that time by the 
invaders. There are several branches of the Seabrook family 
(to which this dwelling belonged probably at one time, as it has 
always gone by the name of the Tom Seabrook house), all of 
which are connected and presumably descended from one an- 
cestor. As anciently written, the name was Seabrooke ; the 
family at present is widely scattered. 

220 




THE HOPKINSON HOUSE, EDISTO ISLAND 



iW^ 




BRICK HOUSE, EDISTO ISLAND 

Built by the Hamiltons but identified with the Jenkins family 

Used as a fort in olden limes 



JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 



THE HOPKINSON HOUSE 

Of this place Mrs. Julia H. LaRoclie, who was a Miss Hop- 
kinson, says that the Hopkinson house is not over 72 years old, 
and was built by her father, James Hopkinson. He married 
his neighbor, Carolina LaFayette Seabrook, whose christen- 
ing has been described in connection with the history of her 
father, Mr. William Seabrook. On their extensive wedding 
trip, which included a journey to Europe, Mr. and Mrs. Hop- 
kinson were entertained while in Paris by the family of Gen- 
eral LaFayette, the general himself being dead. 

This visit later resulted in an "affaire du coeur," as a 
sister of Mrs. Hopkinson, a Miss Seabrook, met (through the 
acquaintance Mrs. Hopkinson formed on her wedding trip) 
and later married the Count de Lastaigne, thereafter making 
her home in Paris. This connection, and the fact that Mrs. 
Hopkinson was named Carolina LaFayette, seems to have 
exercised a deal of influence over the destiny of herself and 
family, as George LaFayette visited America afterwards and 
stayed at the Hopkinson house on Edisto Island. What excited 
his greatest interest at the time was said to be the existence of 
slavery, and he would say wonderingly to Mrs. Hopkinson, 
who continued to point out to him the advantages these people 
enjoyed, "But, my aunt, they have not hberty." 

The house is described as a wooden building conforming 
to the square colonial type, and set upon a high brick founda- 
tion. Its wide veranda, festooned with rose vines, is reached 
by a hospitable looking set of steps ascending from a circular 
drive cut into the front lawn. 

The term "livable" is one that fairly fits this place, and 
gives in a word the whole atmosphere of the Hopkinson family 
residence. As so much has been told concerning LaFayette 
and his family in connection with this house, it may not be 
amiss to conclude this brief account of the charming place with 
an account of the departure of LaFayette from America upon 
passing Mount Vernon, General LaFayette having expressed 
a desire to see this sacred spot where reposed the remains of 
his foster-father, George Washington. 

221 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

A correspondent of The National Intelligence says that 
when the boat, bearing LaPayette down the Potomac, came 
abreast of Momit Vernon the General went on deck with his 
son, and while the band played Pleyel 's hymn he stood viewing 
the home of Washington, tears coursing down his bronzed 
cheek. With one arm around the neck of his son, and the other 
on the shoulder of Trench Ringgold (then Marshall of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia) he took farewell of Washington's home. 

Concerning the Hopkinson family, little is known in this 
section of the country, but it is eminent in Philadelphia, One 
of this name was a celebrated writer, and his son was the com- 
poser of "Hail Columbia." The former, Francis Hopkinson, 
was born in Philadelphia in 1738. His father, Thomas, was 
an Englishman who emigrated to that city, having secured, it 
is said, government patronage through his marriage with the 
niece of the Bishop of Worchester. Francis Hopkinson mar- 
ried Anne Borden of New Jersey; represented that state in 
the General Congress of 1776, and signed the Declaration of 
Independence. His son, Joseph Hopkinson, who wrote the 
song, "Hail Columbia," was also associated with the City 
of Philadelphia. 

BLEAK HALL 

John Townsend was bom at "Bleak Hall" on Edisto 
Island, the home where generations of his ancestors had lived 
and died. Bleak Hall was so named from the fact that it is 
exposed to the gales and breezes of the Atlantic Ocean. John 
Townsend was the son of Daniel Townsend (styled in the old 
legal family documents "gentleman and planter") and Hepsi- 
bah Jenkins his wife. These ancestors were of Anglo, Norman 
and Welsh descent, the American progenitor being a younger 
son of the Norfolk family of England, of whom the Marquis 
To-^vnsend is the head. 

The boyhood days of John Townsend were spent in the 
regulation plantation life of the South, which gave him a vig- 
orous physique and training, enabling him "to ride and shoot 
and speak the truth. ' ' When fifteen he was sent to the South 
CaroUna College, with "Daddy Sam," the body servant who 



t- 

5 > 
3 W 



« H 










JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 

delighted to enlarge upon his use and importance and would 
say, "I keep all his money and look after tings." In death 
these two were not long parted for in old age they passed away 
near together. 

While at the College of South Carolina, John Townsend had 
a severe illness. After his recovery he entered Princeton Col- 
lege where he graduated in a class said to be of note for the 
brilHant gifts of some of its member. Among them was R. I. 
Breckinridge, of Virginia, his ardent and Ufe-long friend. It 
is said that at a dinner party given to the parties marking the 
line between Canada and the United States, when Breckinridge 
was asked by the English envoy what was his family coat of 
arms, replied, "A gallows erectant, a rope pendant and a man 
at the endant," which showed that American rebels were still 
"persona non grata" in England. Breckinridge is also cred- 
ited with the witty remark, "That stars might fall, moons fail 
to give their hght, ere Townsend ceased to be polite. ' ' 

When Townsend returned home, after his college days were 
over, he studied law in Charleston, but left this to take charge 
of his father's planting interests on Edisto and Wadmalaw 
Islands. He was elected to the State Legislature before at- 
taining his majority and his father had to await the son's 
twenty -tirst birthday to give him the land on which to qualify 
for the office. He represented the Parish of St. John's Colleton 
for many years in the House and Senate, took great interest in 
educational problems, and was trustee for the pubUc schools, 
doing much for their promotion. 

At the age of thirty-five John Townsend married Mary 
Carohne, daughter of Richard and Phoebe Waight Jenkins, of 
Wadmalaw Island. About this wooing it is told that he crossed 
five miles on the North Edisto River and rode eleven miles on 
land through all weathers to visit his "Lady Love," who called 
him the "Knight of the Golden Crest. ' ' She became the guid- 
ing spirit in their home at Bleak Hall. Wlien he would make 
weekly business trips a lamp was placed in the cupola of his 
home by which his boat might find a beacon star on its return. 

During the Civil War Bleak Hall was confiscated and the 
cupola was used as a signal station for the Federal fleet. 

223 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Finally the home was burned and the lands divided among the 
negroes. It is to be noted that the attitude of the negroes on 
Edisto Island toward their masters was remarkable. They 
were content with the "forty acres and a mule" which was 
given them and did not pillage their master's homes as did 
many of the negroes of the other sections of the country. They 
regarded themselves as guardians of their master 's property. 
Bleak Hall became the victim of the flames of the Federal Army 
during the reconstruction days. The house has been rebuilt, 
and is very much like the first one. The picture presented is 
taken by a pastel sketch done by Miss Phoebe Townsend, 
daughter of John Townsend, and by whom the above informa- 
tion was given. 

In the vicinity of Bleak Hall are to be found, on the North 
Edisto, the plantation known as Swallow Bluff, now owned by 
Mr. Julian Mitchell, and "Grimball's Point of Pines," often 
mentioned in the Acts for establishing roads and ferries, the 
GrimbaUs being an old and distinguished family. 

Adjacent to the Townsend plantation, separating it from 
the sea, is found Botany Bay Island, and further south, behind 
Eddingsville Beach, are Shell House plantation. Seaside, and 
several other large places. Sea Cloud is also situated not very 
far distant from this neighborhood ; a quaint old house named 
"Sea" for Seabrook, and "Cloud" for McLeod, when a man 
of the first name wedded a maiden of the last. 

PROSPECT HILL— EDISTO ISLAND 
Prospect Hill house on the South Edisto River is only about 
eighty years old, and was abandoned for many years as a 
wreck, but the present owner now intends to restore it to its 
proper condition. The chief historical interest connected with 
the place is found in the title deeds, which are very old, and 
have been kept in a bank vault in Columbia for a long period 
of time. 

Mr. Mikell Whaley, who moved from Edisto Island to Col- 
umbia, becoming a distinguished physician of that place, was 
the son of Mikell Whaley, of Edisto, and his mother was Miss 

224 



JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 

Baynard, of Prospect Hill. Closely connected with this family 
also is Judge Marcellus Whaley, of Columbia. 

The present owner of this dwelling, P. H. Whaley, a son of 
the late Reverend Percival Whaley, plans many and extensive 
improvements at Prospect Hill. The house is beautifully 
situated on, a little bluff overlooking the waters of the South 
Edisto, and is a three-story structure of fine proportions. An 
entrance on the ground floor leads to a basement, floored with 
flagstones, which contains several beautiful rooms constantly 
used in earlier days by the residents of the establishment. The 
floor of the piazza on the second story is reached by a broad 
flight of steps (in the center) with iron railings, and this 
floor forms an agreeable veranda to the basement. Although 
the house is not a hundred years old, its air of antiquity, com- 
bined with its dignity of construction make it a beautiful 
place in spite of its disrepair. 

Inside the house the ceilings are very high, and the cornices 
very simple. The doors are large, and the wainscoting, and 
the woodwork around the mantelpiece, and above the windows 
are fine examples of the period immediately following that 
known as the Adam period. 

Mr. Whaley, now connected with the "^^Mialey-Eaton Service, 
Washington, D. C, is a brilhant writer, and was for many 
years on the editorial staff of the Philadelphia Ledger. He 
will find no more fitting setting for his reconstructive abilities 
than the renovating and restoration of the spacious and 
gracious house at Prospect Hill on the Edisto. 

There are three houses which bear this name — the present 
house, the house near Georgetown, and Mr. Bissell Jenkins' 
house (formerly Manigault-Barnwell) near Wiltown on Pon 

Pon River. 

LITTLE EDISTO 

Little Edisto Island is owned almost exclusively by Mr. J. 
Swinton Whaley, and his home there is called "Little Edisto." 
Some of the land on the island is owned by Julian Mitchell, but 
it is only a very small portion. The house on Little Edisto 
was built by Mr. J. Swinton Whaley 's father, Mikell Whaley, 

15 225 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



and is a magnificent frame house built on a high brick founda- 
tion. Mr. Whaley is one of the progressive men of the State 
and is a representative of the well-known Whaley family, 
whose genealogy can be traced in the South Carolina Historical 
Magazine files. 

At a recent exhibition in the Charleston Museum, showing 
the life on the plantations, Mr. J. Swinton Whaley, who is one 
of the trustees of the museum, brought from his plantation 
"Little Edisto," the old hand com mill, the log rice mortars, 
and the fanner baskets, which were put into use for what might 
be the last time. A negro over eighty years of age, expert in 
the by-gone industry, demonstrated the work. Corn was 
ground in the mill and separated with the fanner basket into 
the meal, the fine and coarse "grits" or hominy, and the husks. 
South Carolina golden rough rice was pounded in the old log 
mortar and again the fanner basket was used to separate the 
finished rice, the hulls and the rice from flour. These opera- 
tions were a part of the daily routine of the old South Carolina 
plantations in preparing both the food of the master's family 
and that of the hands. There was a corn mill for the use of the 
master's house and another in the plantation street where the 
negroes ground the corn that was issued to them as rations. 
The use of the fanner basket is rapidly becoming a lost art. 
Rice has almost ceased to be planted in South Carolina and 
examples of the old plantation implements are becoming rare. 
The corn mill consists of two very fine French buhr stones that 
have been in the family of Mr. Whaley for many generations 
and that were presented by him to the museum several 
years ago. 

Across Russell's Creek, opposite Mr. J. Swinton Whaley 's 
place, lies the Ephraim Baynard place, now owned by Charles 
Whaley Seabrook (son of E. Barnard Seabrook). The house 
is one of the old landmarks of the island, although it is of no 
particular significance, architecturally speaking. 

Little Edisto and the C. W. Seabrook house, as well as Old 
Dominion are found near a place known to the Edistonians as 
the Borough, the origin of the name being entirely unknown. 

226 



JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 

It is in the interior of the island between St. Pierre's Creek 
and the Dawhoo River. 

FROGMORE 

The Edward C. Whaley house, Frogmore, is exactly oppo- 
site the Edisto school house, on the public road. It is an old 
wooden building on a brick foundation, and was built by Dr. 
Edward Mitchell, of Waccamaw when he married Miss 
Elizabeth Baynard. 

Another nearby place was Brookhnes, the Ephraim Sea- 
brook plantation, which lay inland in the immediate vicinity 
of Frogmore, between it and Laurel Hill. This latter has on it 
a substantial old dwelling which belonged to one of the Edward 
Seabrooks, but the place is now partitioned between Edward 
Bailey and Charles Seabrook by right of purchase. 

PETER'S POINT 

On St. Pierre's Creek there is a fine peninsula formerly 
known as Peter's Point, which for years belonged to the heirs 
of John J. Mikell, and is now owned by Mr. J. Townsend MikeU. 
There is also an old house called Pierre Point House, con- 
structed in 1840. The front piazzas are found on both floors, 
but in the rear these extend only on the lower story. The 
timbers for this place were specially cut, being unusually long, 
to resist the strain and swing caused by storms. The rooms 
are large (18 by 20), there being two on each side of the hall, 
and two smaller ones in the rear. Almost the entire second 
story is enclosed in glass, and resembles a conservatory. There 
is a most interesting double stairway in the rear hall, which 
affords an ascent to the second story and shelters a descent 
into the basement. 

It is a remarkable fact that with but few exceptions the 
old houses on Edisto (and there are many of them) are nearly 
all still standing. 

POPE HOUSE 

Above St. Pierre's Creek, in the same neighborhood as 
Prospect Hill and Laurel Hill, is found a quaint house which 
mav perhaps be considered in some ways the most interesting 

" 227 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

place on Edisto Island. It is called the Pope House, better 
known in history as the Old Middleton Place, it having been 
the home for many years of Ohver H. Middleton. Although 
the house is known in history as the Old Middleton Place, the 
names of John and Joseph Pope are to be found signed as 
"commissioners" in the records of the Episcopal church after 
the year 1792 along with the names Jenkins, Fickhng, Bailey, 
Wilson, Seabrook, Simmons, Grimball, Murray, Hannahan, 
Crawford, Eddings and Beckett. The distinguished jurist, 
Daniel Pope, is of this family. The name of 0. H. Middleton 
does not appear until about 1841, according to Mr. Seabrook 's 
sketch of the Episcopal church on Edisto. 

Ohver Hering Middleton was the third son of Governor 
Henry Middleton. His first venture in hf e was as a midship- 
man in the United States Navy, but presently he resigned this 
office and returned to his estates in South Carohna, where he 
later shared with unbroken spirit the ruin that overwhelmed 
his class during the Civil War. He married Susan Matilda 
Harriet, only daughter and heiress of Robert Frail Chisohn, 
M. D., of Edisto Island, and by her had a son, Oliver Hering 
Middleton, who was killed in the Confederate service at Mata- 
dequin Creek. His second child was Mary JuUa, who married 
Benjamin H. Read, of Rice Hope, on the Cooper River, and his 
third child, Susan Middleton, died unmarried at St. Cathe- 
rines, Canada. His daughter Eleanor married Benjamin 
Huger Rutledge, Esq., colonel of the 4th S. C. Cavalry, C. S. A., 
and his other daughter was Olivia, who married Mr. Frederick 
Rutledge Blake, late captain of the C. S. A. 

It is through this branch of the Middleton family that we 
are interested in this house, although it is of significance also, 
because of the Hamilton holdings on Edisto, that Governor 
Arthur Middleton 's eldest son married Elizabeth Hamilton, 
a daughter of the Honorable James Hamilton. It is of note 
concerning the Chisohn family that Mr. Alexander Chisohn, a 
merchant of Charleston, married a Mrs. Sarali Maxwell, of 
Charleston, who was the widow of WiUiam Maxwell, Esq., 
of Edisto. 

228 



JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 

The building itself is a handsome affair, rather more elab- 
orate than the usual island houses. The rooms are particularly- 
spacious and airy, and the ceihngs unusually high, the col- 
onial idea of square rooms being everywhere evident. The 
lower story of the house displays elaborate haaid-carved cor- 
nices and woodwork over the door and windows. In many 
respects the place differs from the general run of the island 
houses, one strange feature being a circular stairway. In 
some of the rooms the mantels are of Itahan marble, and the 
chimneys are constructed with five flues. The brick basement 
is arched, and the foundation timbers very large and heavy. 

A ghost story concerning the Middleton place is connected 
with the Chisohn owners, and it is said that Mrs. Chisolm's 
spirit is often seen at twiUght down by the big gate ; she stands 
in the shadow of one of the brick posts that separate this old 
domain from the public road. Mrs. John Andell, of John's 
Island, who was a Miss Seabrook and lived in this old house 
for many years, says that the negro tenants refuse to pass the 
place after dark for fear of meeting this "Haunt." 

BRICK HOUSE 

The "Brick House" property was granted to Paul Hamil- 
ton by the Lord Proprietors about the time of the first settlers 
in and around Charleston and vicinity. Mr. Edward J. 
Jenkins has in his possession papers dating back to 1703, which 
prove that Brick House and its outhouses were built before this 
date, though the exact year has not been established. It is 
thought that the house was ereceted some time between the 
years 1670 and 1680. Four hundred and thirty acres of land 
and one hundred and eighty-one acres of marsh were granted 
to Paul Hamilton. The property was bounded on the north 
by Russel Creek, on the south by lands of Capt. William 
Bower, on the east by lands of Thomas Sachwerell, and on the 
west by lands of Lewis Price. With the exception of Paul 
Hamilton, these names are not remembered on the island, there 
being no descendants. 

Concerning the Hamilton family Mr. A. S. Sally, Jr., 
writes : "In the oflSce of the Historical Commission in Colum- 

229 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

bia there is a small manuscript volume, 'A Booke for Record- 
ing of Cattle Markes & others Given by Hono. Thomas Smith 
Esq. Landgrave & Govern 'r in Sept 1694.' " Previous to this 
time a few marks had been recorded at random in other vol- 
imies. Some of the first record of Cattle Markes & others refer 
to "Mr. John Hamilton of Edestoh Island in Colleton County 
& Recorded his marke of Cattle Hoggs. &c : being as f olloweth, 
In each Eare two Half Moones. The Topps of both Eares 
Cropt & Soe Shtt down to bottom of each Eare this Brand 
Marke as per Margent. This day came Mr. John Hamilton of 
Edestoh Island in Colleton County and Recorded ; His daugh- 
ter, Mary Hamilton,. . . his Sonn Paul Hamilton . . . 
and his daughter Anna Hamilton." 

Mr. Edward J. Jenkins, the present owner of "Brick 
House" says, "The property reverted to James and Harriett 
Maxwell and was purchased from them by Joseph Jenkins, my 
great-grandfather, who willed it to his son. Col. Joseph Evans 
Jenkins (my grandfather) from whom the property passed to 
my father, John Micah Jenkins, and from him it came to me. 
As I am the father of four boys and four girls, it probably will 
remain in our possession until the house crumbles into dust." 

The brick from which the house is built came from Holland. 
The house is Dutch colonial, the walls are two feet tliick and the 
facings on the corners and under the windows are of concrete. 
The panelings of the rooms are cypress and some are painted 
in oil by a master hand. All the lumber used was the best and 
was seasoned for years. The work was done by carpenters 
brought from England. 

THE MORTONS AND THE WILKINSONS 

The present Ed. Wilkinson house on Edisto Island was said 
to have been built by one of the Jenkins family. It is a con- 
ventional wooden structure rising upon a high brick founda- 
tion, suitable for the climate of the Sea Islands. Its chief 
architectural feature is its front piazza which has unusually 
large and beautiful columns. The house is adjacent to the 
Murray homestead and has near it the family burial ground. 

230 



JOHN'S ISLAND AND EDISTO ISLAND 



The family of Wilkinsons is a very old and honorable one 
in the State. Landgrave Joseph Morton came to the colony 
about 1681 and is said to have married a Miss Blake. His son 
Joseph Morton married Sarah Wilkinson, who, becoming a 
widow in 1721, married two years later. Honorable Arthur 
Middleton and died in 1765, leaving a long and interesting will, 
the first bequests of which relate to her own kindred. She 
gave Christopher Wilkinson, son of her "Cousin" Francis 
Wilkinson, deceased, a plantation on Wadmalaw Island, 
"Commonly Called Bear-Bluff Ladinwah and Morton Town"; 
gave Edward Wilkinson, son of said ' ' Cousin Francis, ' ' a plan- 
tation or island opposite to Willtown (there are several Wil- 
kinson graves in the burying ground at Willtown on the Bluff) 
and the lots in Willtown which she had bought of her ' ' Cousin ' ' 
Joseph Wilkinson and Robert Yonge, deceased, and the build- 
ings thereon and a tract of land in the upper part of Beech 
Hill, St. Paul's Parish; gave Morton Wilkinson, son of said 
"Cousin Francis" two plantations called Tooboodoo (Too- 
goodoo) and Juniper's in St. Paul's providing that if said 
Morton Wilkinson should die without male issue that the said 
plantation should go to her grandson, John Middleton. 

The Wilkinson family is connected by marriage with the 
Jerveys and with many of the other old low-country families. 
The Morton connection has, however, vanished and we look 
into the records of the past for further facts of interest. One 
of the earliest bits of information concerning Landgrave Mor- 
ton is found in a letter of Edward Randolph to the Board of 
Trade (1698-1699) "In year 1686, one hundred Spaniards, 
with negroes and Indians landed at Edistor (50 miles to the 
Southward of Charles Town) and broke open the house of Mr. 
Joseph Moreton, then Governor of the Province, and carried 
away Mr. Bowell, his brother-in-law, prisoner, who was found 
murdered two or three days after ; They carried away all his 
money and plate, and 13 slaves, to the value of £1500 sterling, 
and their plunder to St. Augustine. ' ' 

An inventory of the estate of Mr. John Morton in 1752 
reveals some choice belongings for these early days, among 
them being ' ' eleven mahogany chairs, two elbow chairs and a 

231 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

couch, a mahogany book case, two long sconce Glasses, card 
table, a round Tea lavee, pictures of the twelve months in 
proper dress and the Bakes and Harlots progress, also a 
harpsi-cord and a pair of Red and Green enameld china bowls ; 
showing culture and good taste. ' ' The inventory included the 
names of many books and carried also a goodly number of 
grms and swords. 

The direct descendants of the Wilkinsons are lineal descen- 
dants of Landgrave Morton. Representatives of the family 
are not only found on Edisto Island but on other adjacent Sea 
Islands. The old homestead is situated on the high road that 
crossed Edisto in a diagonal direction. 



CHAPTER XII 

BEAUFORT-INCLUDING COMBAHEE 

AND CHEE-HA DISTRICTS-WITH TWO 

PICTURES OF WILLTOWN HOUSES 

AND ONE AT BARNWELL 



BETWEEN CHARLESTON AND BEAUFORT 

^ JOURNEY from Charleston to Beau- 
fort in 1785 or 1786 is most delight- 
fully described in the diary of 
Timothy Ford; who begins the 
account thus : 




"Friday 4th Ap. This day set 
out in a chair with Mr. De Saussure 
for Beaufort about 70 miles where 
the circuit court is to be held. We 
rode through very heavy sandy roads with fatigue and diffi- 
culty until we reached Ashley ferry (Bee's ferry), and after 
crossing it had very good roads causways only excepted which 
are frequent in this country & generally bad. As our rout was 
for some distance on the side of the river we were often enter- 
tained with the prospect of country seats of which there is a 
number and some of them fraught with taste and magnificence. 
In the evening we reached the plantation of Mr. Waring. 
... We stay all night at this mansion & are most hospitably 
entertained. In the morning we set off at 8 o 'Clock upon our 
journey. . . . We ride Eleven miles to Pompon ferry. . . ." 
(at Jacksonboro settlement). 

The old places on the Combahee deserve notice, even if 
fragmentary ; there are three men now living who can supply 
probably better than anyone else the history of this once pros- 
perous and now deserted region. One of these is Capt. William 
Elliott, over eighty years of age, who served in the war be- 
tween the States, now of Yemassee, S. C. He Uved many years 
at Ball's, on Chee-Ha, upper Chee-Ha neck, and is famiUar 
with the local history. Another authority on the subject of 
Combahee matters is Mr. Daniel J. Chaplin, now living at 

233 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



Walterboro, whose mother owned Fields' Point, the last plan- 
tation on Combahee, next to the sound. Mr. Ambrose E. Gon- 
zales, of Columbia, S. C, also knows a great deal of the history ; 
he used to live on Chee-Ha, his father having been General 
Gonzales of the "Bluff" plantation, who married Mary ElUott, 
daughter of the Hon. William EUiott of this locaUty. 

Mr. James Henry Rice, Jr., tells us that the only houses 
left below Bonnie Hall are those of Oaklands (Col. Lowndes), 
Rose Hill (Mr. Theodore D. Ravenel), and negro streets at 
Cypress (Col. William C. Heyward), with overseers' houses 
at Paul and Dalton. Combahee had no mansions on it at any 
time, so far as is known, only frame structures ; this was gen- 
erally true of Chee-Ha as well, whose history is infinitely more 
interesting and valuable than Combahee. More has been heard 
of the latter merely because rice continued to be planted on it 
after the war, and still is planted, whereas Chee-Ha was 
allowed to go down. 

Brick House, the present home of James Henry Rice, is on 
Chee-Ha, and belonged at one time to Colonel B. F. Hunt, a 
friend of Petigru, Webster, and other celebrities. It is said 
to have been the first place settled, and to have on it the first 
house built in that part of South Carolina. 

To quote Mr. Rice, "Combahee flows roughly southward; 
to the west are marshes and low islands, dividing it from 
Wimbree Creek and lower down still comes Willimon Creek, 
back of Wilhmon Island; settlements on Combahee, after 
leaving Combahee Ferry (situated on Nieuport plantation — 
Henry Cheves) with the exception of two, one of which belongs 
to Cheves and the other to Dr. Wilson, of Savannah, are on the 
east side. Facing the ferry on the east are Cypress plantation 
(Col. W. C. Heyward before the war) and Oakland, Colonel 
Lowndes; then comes Hickory Hill, Rose Hill (Ravenel), 
Longbrow (F. Q. O'Neill), Paul and Dalton, Magwood, Old 
Combahee (properly Woodbum plantation) Middleton . . . 
Tar Bluff (Fripp family), and Fields' Point, composed of 
two small plantations. Walnut Point, facing Chee-Ha and 
Fields ' Point, facing Combahee. 

234 



BEAUFORT 



"Former Governor Heyward, the irridescent and cloud- 
massing Clinch, occupies with his associates, the Du Fonts, 
the upper stretch of Combahee, where it is formed by the junc- 
tion of Cuckold Creek with Saltkehatchie. . . . 

"The scenery along the river is picturesque, with a haunt- 
ing appeal, such as far countries make when first beheld, much 
as AustraUa and Fatagonia, for example. There is nothing on 
the coast exactly like it. The bold bluff, from Fields ' Point to 
Old Combahee is without parallel in the entire South. 

"It is crowned with magnolias, palmettoes, giant live oaks, 
and with a few large pines that the vandals have not cut yet. 
At intervals sharp and deep ravines cut through it, just as they 
do in the mountains, the sides of which would keep a botanist, 
a mycologist and musicologist busy for months. Far away to 
the southeast the smoke of the Beaufort factories may be seen, 
and, in the immediate foreground, lines of palmettoes look so 
much hke date palms that one fancies the Nile just above Cairo 
when looking toward Ghizeh. ' ' 

In 1768 the third Landgrave BelUnger sold 977 acres he 
had inherited from his sister Elizabeth to Barnard Elliott, in 
whose hands it became known as Bellevue. It was on this 
plantation that Colonel Barnard Elliott erected, before the 
Revolutionary War, the "Temple" of which Mr. William 
ElUott in his Carolina Sports gives an account in the chapter 
"ADayatChee-Ha." 

"The traveller in South Carohna, who passes along the 
road between the Ashepoo and Combahee rivers will be struck 
by the appearance of two lofty white columns, rising among the 
pines that skirt the road. They are the only survivors of eight, 
which supported in times anterior to our Eevolutionary War, 
a sylvan temple, erected by a gentleman, who to the higher 
quahties of a devoted patriot, united the taste and liberaUty 
of the sportsman. The spot was admirably chosen, being on 
the brow of a piney ridge, which slopes away at a long gun- 
shot's length into a thick swamp; and many a deer has, we 
doubt not, in time past, been shot from the temple when it 
stood in its pride— as we ourselves have struck them from 
its ruins." 

235 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

It was at the headwaters of the historic Chee-Ha Eiver, 
which is second only to the Ashley and Cooper, that Colonel 
Barnard Elliott erected the Temple. The next place is put 
do-\vn in Mills' atlas as Marchland, and just below it was 
Hutchinson, named for a noble family. Mr. Hutchinson hired 
a tutor from the North named March, who made the most of his 
opportunities and married Miss Sallie Hutchinson, who had 
long been classed as an old maid (they were considered old 
maids when youthful in those days). On the first visit of the 
newly wedded couple to Beaufort in a rowboat the negroes 
improvised a chorus, thus "Miss Sallie, she got husbon' ; shum 
dar, shum dar." All the way down and back this "epithala- 
mium ' ' resounded. One of their daughters married a physician 
of Philadelphia, but they were later separated, and she after- 
wards married in Paris Count Tedini, an Italian, cousin of the 
King of Italy. For many years she and the Count Uved at 
March plantation, by which name Hutchinson was then known. 
The house there has fallen down, but the grove is one of the 
noblest on the coast, and still remains. 

Stock plantation, which adjoins March plantation, has a 
noble house site, overlooking miles of marsh down Chee-Ha, 
with enough large live oaks left to add all needed picturesque- 
ness. The old house is gone, but it was here that John Laurens 
spent the last night of his hf e. He was buried the next day in 
the graveyard at Stock, but his body was later removed by his 
father, Henry Laurens, to the plantation of Mepkin. The next 
place below, and on the west side of the Chee-Ha, was bought 
by Shaffer, for some time sheriff of Colleton County, and it is 
held by his son, E. T. H. Shaffer, of Walterboro. The adjoin- 
ing plantation is the Baring place, later known as the Farmer 
place, when acquired about the time of the war by a member 
of Judge Farmer's family. Both of these last two places, how- 
ever, were cut from the original Minott tract. The next plan- 
tation on the same side is Whaley, owned formerly by the 
Whaleys of Edisto Island. Then comes Brick House, and 
lastly Riverside, on which there was a frame house, near which 
was the cemetery. Over this cemetery the Savannah Biver 
Lumber Company has erected its saw mill plant. 

236 



BEAUFORT 



On the east side of the Chee-Ha the first place belonged 
originally to Colonel Barnard Elliott and was later bought by 
Mr. Eobert Chisohn. It is at present cut into two places owned 
by a Mr. Boynton and a Mr. Savage. Below this, on both 
rivers (the Chee-Ha and Ashepoo are here close together) 
everything was owned by Thomas Rhett Smith (born 1800) 
whose ancestors had owned it from earliest times. His daugh- 
ter married WilHam Elhott (author of "Carohna Sports"), 
and from her brother, Thomas Rhett Smith, Jr., she inherited 
an additional twenty thousand acres, all of which passed to the 
Elliott descendants. The greater portion was acquired by 
Ambrose Elliott Gonzales, whose mother was Mary Elhott, 
and whose father was General Ambrose Jose Gonzales, one 
of the Confederate and Cuban Annies. 

Thomas Rhett Smith, Jr., was a man of culture and travel. 
He had many visitors from different parts of the world, espe- 
cially from England and France, as did Wilham Elliott, who 
enjoyed a wide acquaintance in those countries. One of the 
most conspicuous names was William Makepeace Thackeray, 
who spent a month at the Bluff, on Social Hall, with Mr. Elliott. 
The lower place was known as Airy Hall, and there was a Con- 
cert Hall above, the exact location of which cannot be deter- 
mined. Mr. Thomas Rhett Smith, Jr., kept a French gardener 
to look after his flower garden and his rosary, the latter con- 
taining ten acres. He had an Enghsh gardener for his vege- 
tables. Mr. Smith had a large library, and a nearby hill where 
he used to retire to study is known as ' ' Study Hill. ' ' Chee-Ha 
neck shows signs of Confederate fortifications from end to 
end, these having been designed by General Pemberton and 
Captain Wilham Elhott, of Yemassee, who has been previ- 
ously mentioned. 

Timothy Ford writes : "The planters all fis (five) at a dis- 
tance from the road with avenues cut through the woods lead- 
ing up to their houses. The negro houses are laid out like a 
camp & sometimes resemble one. ' ' 

Edwin De Leon, writing in The Southern Magazine on 
"Ruin and Reconstruction," says: 

237 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

"One of the most curious and attractive sights on a South- 
ern plantation used to be this negro quarter, with its regular 
rows of small cabins grouped together, with narrow streets 
between, and as fresh and smart-looking as whitewash could 
make them externally, and compulsory scrubbing and sanded 
floors could make them within. Generally remote from the 
planter's mansion and outhouses, contiguous to the fields 
under cultivation, these cabins had allotted to each a small 
patch of land, on which the negroes could raise their own vege- 
tables, poultry and pigs, which were their private property, 
and from which, when industrious, they could earn pocket- 
money by selUng the surplus to the master, or to outsiders, at 
will. Their regular supplies of food, or rations, were regu- 
larly supplied, irrespective of the products of these small 
patches — which were considered and treated as their private 
property — so that the chance even of accumulation was given 
them, of which, however, they seldom availed themselves. At- 
tached to these cabins was always a large hospital or infirmary, 
with a regular physician visiting it at stated intervals ; so that 
the infirm or sick were promptly and properly cared for and 
cured— an advantage shared by no other class of laborers 
anywhere. . . . Disabled or aged slaves were, until death, 
the pensioners of the slaveholders, who could not, if they 
would, shirk the charge. . 

"The negro quarter was the little world wherein the slave 
lived and moved in his hours of leisure. . . . From the 
cabins from nightfall until midnight might be heard the sound 
of banjo, 'bones,' or viohn, the loud laugh or the peculiar 
sounds of negro minstrelsy, and the dance was as frequent 
as the song. With a quick air for music, and sweet, clear, 
though uncultivated voices, the negro race everywhere enjoys 
melody, and used to indulge freely in it, both of a rehgious 
and secular character. The voice of prayer and praise used 
to ascend from those cabins, for the negro women were great 
psalm-singers and the men great exhorters ; and their masters 
encouraged religious exercises among them. ' ' 

But "over master and man the tide has swept," and in the 
great rice planting regions, near Beaufort particularly, 

< ' the eye of the visitor roves over great tracts of 

cultivation, ' semi-tropical in outward aspect, where the 
planter's lordly mansion stands (in some few instances), em- 
bowered among evergreen five-oaks, magnolias and cedars 
whose hedges of Cherokee rose and jessamine fill the air with 

238 



BEAUFORT 



perfume, and the fig, banana and orange are flourishing in the 
open air, laden with their luscious fruits. Long reaches of 
marshlands, as flat and as fertile as those of the Egyptian 
delta, which they strikingly resemble, stretch out as far as the 
eye can reach ; and the great rice-grinding buildings, crammed 
with their costly machinery, tower aloft and give a fictitiously 
busy air to the deserted plantations." 

Concerning Combahee Mr. Langdon Cheves writes briefly. 
"There must have been a good house at Sheldon from early 
times, as the Bulls were one of the leading famiUes of the 
Province and kept some state in their domestic affairs. The 
Yemassee Indians delayed development in this section and 
such plantations as were owned there were held by non-resi- 
dents. It was not until after the Revolution when tide water 
cultivation of rice came in, that large plantations were devel- 
oped by resident owners on both sides of the river and good 
houses built. There were large houses at Bonny Hall, Tomot- 
ley and many other places, down to Clay Hall in later times. 
Although most of these places were burned during the Civil 
War their history is worthy of preservation." Mr. Timothy 
Ford 's diary (1785) tells of his arrival late in the evening at the 
"widow DeSaussure's, where we are regaled with a dish of tea 
and spend the night. This is a very pleasant place but very 
soHtary, no neighbors in less than 4 or 5 miles w*" in- 
duced me to recommend to Miss DeSaussure to get married 
in self defense." 

Daniel DeSaussure, the oldest son of Henry, was born at 
Pocataligo in 1735. His father, of an old French family of 
Lorraine, which left France on account of religion in 1551 and 
moved to Switzerland, came to Carolina in 1731 from Lausanne 
and settled near Coosahatchie. Daniel moved to the town of 
Beaufort and took an early and active part in the Revolution. 
In 1778 in command of a company, he captured, near St. 
Helena, a British transport with troops and two captains. 
During the seige of Charleston, he bore arms and was sent 
a prisoner to St. Augustine and was liberated in 1781. He was 
appointed president of a branch Bank of the United States at 
Charleston, and was president of the Senate of South Caro- 

239 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

lina in 1798, when he died. He lost two brothers in the Eevolu- 
tion and his only surviving son was the distinguished 
Chancellor, Henry Wilham DeSaussure. 

After the visit at the DeSaussure 's, Timothy rides into 
' ' the little village of Beaufort. It consists of about 30 houses — 
stands on an arm of the sea very pleasantly & is stiled a very 
healthy place. The inhabitants are almost all connected by 
marriage." He proceeds to give his impressions of the town, 
which differ but slightly, with the exception of the number of 
houses, from what would be said about it to-day. Beaufort 
has always been famed for the beauty of its women and the 
culture and bravery of its men. 

The earliest mention of the name "Beaufort" in connection 
with the town is found in the minutes of a meeting of the Lords 
Proprietors of the Province held December 20, 1710, where it 
was agreed that a seaport town should be erected at Port 
Eoyal in Granville County to be called Beaufort Town. An 
order was passed on June 6, 1717, by the Council of the Prov- 
ince, that any person taking up any of the front lots in the town 
should be obliged to erect thereon, within two years, a house 
fifteen feet wide and thirty feet long ; those taking up any of 
the back lots were to build houses of similar dimension within 
three years from the date of their grants. 

A map supposed to be either the original or a copy of the 
first map of Beaufort is in the Historical Commission at Col- 
umbia. The street or space along the water front is not desig- 
nated by any name on the plan. In the grants and in some 
deeds giving the boundaries of the front lots this street is 
called Bay Street, or The Bay, and as such it is known to-day. 

In 1785 the commissioners (John Joyner, William Haz- 
zard and Robert BamweU) are directed by an Act passed 
March 24, of that year, "to expose to sale in whole or in lots 
the land commonly known, to be common adjoining the town of 
Beaufort. ' ' The funds secured from the sale were to be used 
for rebuilding the parsonage house on the glebe lands. 

The house which v/as sold to St. Helena's Church as a rec- 
tory is in front of the east gate of St. Helena's Church, and is 

240 




ST. HELENA'S CHURCH. BEAUFORT. ESTABLISHED 17H 

From a hand-colored print 




THE RECTiJRY. ST. HELENA'S, FROM THE CHURCHYARD 

Built long before the Revuliitionary War 



BEAUFORT 



one of the oldest houses in Beaufort. It was the home of John 
Barnwell, who was called "Tuscarora Jack" from having 
driven that powerful tribe of Indians out of Carolina. He 
came to this part of the country in 1701. 

BARNWELL HOUSES IN BEAUFORT 

At the corner of Washington and Cartaret Streets, on the 
Point, stand the ruins of the "old tabby house," once owned by 
John Barnwell, grandson of "Tuscarora Jack." John 
Barnwell married Sarah Bull, the daughter of General 
Stephen BuU. 

Stephen Bull and John Barnwell were the two most promi- 
nent names in the first permanent settlement in the neighbor- 
hood of Port Royal, which, having the finest natural harbor 
in the State, was naturally first selected for settlement. It 
was so difficult to defend, however, that the first two attempts 
failed. The annals of Beaufort County during its first century 
may be said to consist of accounts of these two gentlemen. 

The son and grandson of Stephen Bull were both named 
Wilham, and both were Eoyal Governors of South CaroUna. 
Stephen Bull had unusually large land grants, and was very 
wealthy; he endowed and built Sheldon Church, twice laid in 
ruins (during the Revolution, and again during the Confeder- 
ate War) , and he is buried in a vault under this church. 

Colonel John Barnwell founded the town of Beaufort, which 
at the commencement of the Confederate War was chiefly in- 
habited by his descendants, in families of Elhott, Stuart, 
Rhett, Fuller, etc., and he seems to have been the founder of 
Beaufort Church, near the east end of which he is buried in 
a vault, only a few bricks of which are visible above 
the ground. 

Up to the time of the Confederate War the old tabby house 
of the Barnwells occupied two squares ; that in front was kept 
as an open lawn, on which the boys of the town played ball, 
and the Beaufort artillery drilled. Large oaks festooned with 
moss were on the side. Directly in front of, and on the sides of 
the house was a pretty flower garden, and separating it from 
the yard on the east side of the house was a row of orange 

16 241 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

trees. In this yard was a two-story servant house, constructed 
of the same primitive material as the main dwelling, a com- 
pound of oyster shell and lime called tabby, as was the 
two-story carriage house. To the rear of these was the 
vegetable garden. 

The oldest house in the town was built in 1690 at the north- 
east corner of Mrs. Waterhouse's lot, and it is said that Sen- 
ator John BarnweU, who fought in the Revolutionary War (a 
grandson of "Tuscarora Jack"), was born there in 1748. As 
Mr. Edward Barnwell, a nephew of "General Jack," and 
father of Mr. Osborne Barnwell, was also bom in this house in 
1785, and it is probable that the place belonged to the Barnwell 
family for many years during the early period of the settling 
of Beaufort. It is so constructed with long piercings in the 
foundations, that muskets can be aimed in either direction, and 
underneath them a ledge runs along, on which munitions may 
be stored. This structure was erected when the Temassee and 
Cherokee Indians used to make war on the whites. In those 
days warning signifying uprisings was sent from island to 
island by the waving of a red flag. 

Mr. FickUng bought the house for a school, but it was after- 
wards used as a Masonic HaU, when it received its present 
name of the "Temple of the Sun," the porch with four large 
columns facing the east. Later the house was bought by Mr. 
Zealy, whose family occupied it until 1861. It is now the resi- 
dence of Mr. and Mrs. Richard Van Bray, Jr. 

Beaufort district was for many years known as "Indian 
Land." A discovery was made on Little Island, Beaufort 
County, of a communal dwelling that could have been built and 
used only by a people kindred to the Aztecs, to the tribes who 
owned the stem sway of Powhattan, and to the fierce Iroquois 
and Hurons — the "Mingos" of Cooper's tales, who differed 
racially, and probably radically, from the nations of Algonquin 
stock who inhabited the entire eastern coast from Florida to 
Canada. There are certain Aboriginal mounds on the coast 
of South Carolina. 

On the Bay in Beaufort is an attractive two-story wooden 
house with a hipped roof and large chimneys, which was once 

242 



BEAUFORT 



known as the Calhoun residence, and is now occupied by Mrs. 
O'Dell, mother of Maude O'Dell, the noted actress. It is 
perhaps best known as the home of Edward Barnwell ; and the 
fact that he was married three times, and was the father of 
sixteen children, may account for the substantial wings built 
to the east and west of the house, and the very large piazza 
adorning the entire front of this estabhshment. "With such 
sizeable famihes it is natural that many other quaint and de- 
lightful houses in Beaufort, in addition to the three already 
mentioned, should have been connected with the historic 
Barnwell name. 

HOMES ON THE POINT 

The Paul Hamilton house is rightfully considered one of 
the handsomest places in Beaufort. It occupies a beautiful 
situation on "The Point," to distinguish this section from 
"The Bay," which is noted for its magnificent live-oaks. The 
house overlooks a shghtly terraced garden leading down to 
the water's edge, with a quaint sea-wall on three sides to pre- 
vent the tide from overflowing the flower beds. The building 
is of the usual square style common to the Sea Island dwell- 
ings, which are designed for coolness and airiness. The princi- 
pal features of this low-country architecture are the wide halls, 
rooms with high ceiUngs, and large verandas, all of which make 
for comfort in these southern latitudes. 

The Hamiltons are a distinguished family in South Caro- 
lina history. Paul Hamilton, Comptroller of the State from 
1799 to 1804, showed that, in time of stress and danger South 
Carolina had, during the Eevolution, contributed more than 
five million dollars for the general defense. He also possessed 
a clear and systematic head, and made the first reports on the 
resources, debits and credits of the State ever compiled. His 
reports astonished the legislature, as they then for the first 
time knew their real fiscal condition, and were enabled to deal 
intelligently with the resources of the State. 

From 1804 to 1806 Paul Hamilton was Governor of South 
Carolina, and became Secretary of the Navy in 1809, which 
position he occupied until 1813. Another Hamilton, James, 

243 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

occupied the gubernatorial chair from 1830 to 1832, one 
of the most exciting terms in history, because of the Nullifica- 
tion Movement. 

Miss Mary S. Hamilton, a noted educator of Beaufort, and 
daughter of Colonel Paul Hamilton, now occupies the Ham- 
ilton house, and gives the following account of it: "Colonel 
Hamilton 's house on the point was built in 1856, and planned 
by his wife and himself. We lived there for five years, and 
when the fleet entered the harbor in November, 1861, left the 
house until September, 1866. The story of its recovery may 
be of interest. The United States Government refused to rent 
any property to a former owner. They sold the homes in 
Beaufort for taxes and even when they paid the war tax back 
to the owners they only gave one-half the tax value and five 
dollars an acre for the land. Our home had been retained by 
the government for a hospital. I proposed that my uncle (Dr. 
Gibbes) who was living with us should write and offer to rent 
it, as the war was over and hospitals no longer required. He 
did so, and it was rented at once to him, so that in September, 
1866, we returned in a wagon drawn by mules, and lying on 
mattresses, a happy crowd as we reached our old home after 
an absence of nearly five years. 

"In November the house was put up at auction for sale. 
My father stated to the crowd gathered that it was his wife's 
and her children's and he would bid it to a million against 
another bidder who wanted it as a normal school for negroes. 
It was, however, knocked down to him at fifteen hundred and 
fifty dollars, a fortune in those days. He asked the court to 
allow him three days to visit Charleston and sell several lots 
my mother owned there from her English ancestors. We had 
no railroads to Beaufort then, only steamers, and it required 
three days for the round trip. They consented and he went 
to make the necessary arrangements. On the second day near 
sunset my brother of ten years came running in to tell us that 
at sunset the house was going to be sold. I went downtown to 
see if the Mayor, Colonel William Elliott, could stop the sale. 
While waiting at his home my uncle came in to announce the 
good news that Mr. Simpson, the express agent, and Mr. 

244 



BEAUFORT 



Holmes, a merchant, had heard of the proposed sale, raised the 
money among the business men and just before sunset paid for 
the home in the name of Colonel Hamilton. I had said that I 
would never shake hands with a Yankee, but that night across 
the counter I offered mine in thanks to Mr. Hohnes. My father 
was successful and they were repaid on his return the follow- 
ing day. A Frenchman paid for the Edgar Fripp house back 
of ours, and would not allow the money to be returned, going 
away and leaving no address. ' ' 

The house on the Point now occupied by the Crofuts was 
built by Dr. Barnwell Sams in the latter part of the fifties, and 
was taken during the Confederate War for a hospital. The 
Sams family bought it at the U. S. Tax sale, and sold it to Mr. 
Wilson the sheriff. It passed through many hands and was 
bought finally by the Crofuts. 

This residence has been selected as a good type of the ante- 
bellum residence of Beaufort. Its heavy brick column, sup- 
porting the flat roof to the galleries, give a rather massive 
effect to the establishment. 

Near the Point also is the Christensen residence, a beauti- 
ful type of the conventional house, set upon a high, gracefully 
arched brick basement. Both up and down stairs the house has 
large fine piazzas which extend around the building on three 
sides. The front piazza on the lower story is broken to admit 
of a flight of steps leading into the garden, which is adorned 
with many fine trees and shrubs. The house is supposed to 
have been built by a Mr. Ledbetter, a Methodist minister. It 
was bought by Stephen Elliott, sold to Dr. Louis DeSaussure 
(who married for his second wife Miss Jane Hutson) and the 
house was later acquired by the Christensen family. 

HOMES ON THE BAY 
Beaufort is a place of many historic memories, one of her 
proudest being that she had the honor of entertaining General 
LaFayette on his visit to this country in the early part of the 
nineteenth century. The town extended to him an invitation 
which he accepted, and extensive preparations were made for 
his reception. Upon his arrival, on the evening of March 2, 

245 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



1805, he was conducted through a bower of roses, attended by 
the Beaufort Guards. From the balcony of the John Mark 
Verdier house on Bay Street just opposite the wharf he spoke 
to the crowd gathered to welcome him. This is one of the 
oldest houses now left in the town. 

A great ball was arranged in his honor to be given in the 
"Barnwell Castle," which house was used as a Court House 
after 1866 and accidentally burned about 1879. An authentic 
account taken from an old letter written by a member of the 
Barnwell family, who entertained him, reads : 

"We went into Beaufort last Thursday evening expecting 
LaFayette would come there on Friday. We had lent our 
house to give the ball in. The ball committee requested us to 
dress the rooms, as he was expected at two o'clock. We were 
obliged to leave the rooms half dressed, to go down to the bay 
to see the procession. We had a very good position as we went 
to McNeston's Balcony where the arch was erected, but all our 
trouble was in vain, for after waiting there about an hour we 
returned to our home. We were afraid that he would not come 
at all. However, at about twelve notice was given that he had 
come. We were, of course, deserted by the Guards, who went 
to conduct him to the house. The procession was then so 
handsome that I scarcely regretted his not coming in the day. 
All the boys in the town had lights in their hands, which had 
a beautiful effect, shining on the long, white plumes of the 
Guards. He stayed just long enough to shake hands all around 
and eat supper. As it was the first time that LaFayette had 
entered any place at night at least it had the effect 
of novelty ! ' ' 

After the Civil War every house in Beaufort was sold, and 
the ElUott house on the Bay passed into the possession of 
Admiral Beardsley, who was stationed near there, and who 
gave the place the name of the Anchorage. This house was 
built by one of the Elliotts, Ealph E. Elliott, a brother of Wil- 
liam, who married Phoebe Waight. Phoebe and her husband 
lived at what is now the Anchorage in their younger days, and 
the two magnolias on each side of the house were planted by 
the former, Mrs. William Elliott. An obituary notice pub- 
lished in 1855 follows : 

246 



BEAUFORT 



Died in Beaufort (S. C.) on the 1st of June, 1855, Mrs. 
Phoebe Elliott, in the 84th year of her age. 

This venerable lady, the oldest inhabitant, save one, of her 
native town, has passed the boundary of "four score years": 
yet her strength was not "labor and sorrow." Her eye was 
hardly dim, nor her brow wrinkled. She enjoyed life to its 
close, actively discharging its relative duties. Her spirit was 
bouyant ; her affections ardent ; and her heart filled with kind- 
ness towards her feUow-creatures. She walked before God 
humbly, thankfully, devoutly. She loved His house, and fre- 
quented His courts, and not many days before her death, 
occupied her place at the table of the Lord. A Uberal steward 
of the property God assigned her, she was ready "for every 
good work, ' ' and did her full share in the Missionary efforts of 
the zealous congregation to which she belonged. 

A long line of descendants encircled her with filial love, 
and three generations gathered around her dying bed. Her 
body was borne to the tomb by six of her grandsons, and sur- 
viving friends rejoice, in their sorrow, that God hath granted 
her "long life and good days," and grace to "glorify His 
name," and adorn her Christian profession. 

One son, one grandson, and three nephews (including the 
Bishop of Georgia) are preachers of the everlasting gospel. 

Charleston, June, 1855. 

One of the Mr. Elliotts abandoned law for the gospel. The 
history of the law office which he used is remarkable. Its first 
occupant was the Rev. Dr. Fuller, a distinguished minister of 
Baltimore, who abandoned a lucrative practice in Beaufort 
to devote himself to the ministry. Rev. W. Johnson, late rector 
of a church on Edisto Island, was in this same office, leaving it, 
with Stephen Elliott, to enter the Theological Seminary in 
Virginia ; and C. C. Pinckney, another law practitioner in that 
office abandoned law for the gospel. James Elliott, who finally 
became an Episcopal bishop, was at one time rector of St. 
Michael's Church in Charleston. 

In the year 1790, by William Elliot, Sea Island cotton was 
said to have been first raised — on the exact spot where Jean 
Ribault landed the first colonists. In connection with the El- 
liott family is another place of scientific interest — on Devils 
Elbow barony. Upon this is found the village or summer set- 

247 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

tlement of Bluffton, situated on a bluff fronting the Eiver May. 
It was the scene of much of the botanical work of Stephen 
ElUott, who frequently refers to it in his "Sketch of the 
Botany of South CaroUna and Georgia," and in later years 
it was the field for the botanical observations of Dr. James 
H. Mellichamp. 

Stephen Elliott, the botanist, married Miss Habersham, of 
Georgia, and their child was Stephen Elliott, who afterwards 
became Bishop of Georgia. This Bishop Elliott had a very 
distinguished daughter, Sarah Barnwell Elliott, a leader of 
the suffrage movement in Tennessee, and a well-known writer 
of to-day, some of her best-known works, among other novels, 
being "Jerry," "The Durket Sperret," "The Fehners," and 
"The House on the Marsh. " There have been five bishops in 
the Elliott family, and there have been warriors also, Elliott's 
torpedoes being a notable contribution to the science of 
naval warfare. 

There is as much discussion about the spelUng of the Elliott 
name as there is about the Simons and the Hazzards. One of 
the number, at a recent family reunion, dropped into poetry 
anent the orthography of the name : 

' ' They have doubled the ' 1' ' 
To make it swell ; 
They have added the 't' 
To be odd, you see. 
Some have put a 'y' 
In the place of an ' i, ' 
But still it spells 
E-1-i-o-t." 

Opposite the Anchorage is the building known for years as 
the Sea Island Hotel, which was built by Dr. Stoney and 
occupied for some time by Nathaniel Barnwell Heyward. Im- 
mediately behind the hotel, on Craven Street, was the Thomas 
Rhett house, and immediately behind the Anchorage, on 
Craven Street, were two other Rhett houses, the one now used 
as a rectory, and the Edmund Rhett house, which was the old 
Maxey house, and came into the possession of the Rhett fam- 
ily when Edmund Rhett married the daughter of Mrs. Tom 

248 







«r 






JiT^ 




HOUSE IX BEAUFORT, S. C, FROM THE PIAZZA OF WHICH LAFAYETTE SPOKE 




KITCHEN AND WALL MADE OF "TAIilSY" 
The Sam^' Home, Beiiufurt, now the CrofuL Huude 



BEAUFORT 



Stuart, whose home lay across the street. Mrs. Stuart was a 
Miss Williamson, and was twice married, first to a Mr. Cuth- 
bert, and then to Dr. Tom Stuart. The grounds on which 
the Stuart home stood were extremely spacious, extending to 
the Bay. 

The Onthauk residence, also on the Bay, is an interesting 
brick building with a small square portico. Before the Con- 
federate War it was the home of Mr. H. M. Fuller, and was 
later the dwelling place of the Onthaiik family. While an 
interesting structure, it is by no means historic, except as 
having been connected with the Fuller family. 

The history of this family is associated with lands in St. 
Andrew's Parish, as well as with Beaufort, and the Fullers 
have married among all the old families of the town, Dr. 
Thomas Fuller, a weU-beloved physician of this community, 
being the last to reside there. A distinguished Baptist 
divine of national reputation was also a member of this 
Fuller family. 

At the time of the Civil War the houses in Beaufort were 
deserted; furniture, silver, priceless paintings and valuables 
of all descriptions were left to the mercy of the victor. In one 
case a dinner was left smoking on the table, and was devoured 
by the incoming aiTny. The old homes were not burned, but 
the treasures in them were stolen by the negroes and soldiers, 
and passed into alien hands. During the rest of the struggle 
the Union forces occupied Beaufort and Port Royal. 

At Barnwell, below Beaufort, stands the home of William 
Gilhnore Simms, the noted writer. 



CHAPTER XIII 

ON THE ROAD TO COLUMBIA AND 
COLUMBIA AND ITS HOMES 




THE WILLSON HOUSE 

N the road from Charleston to Colum- 
bia about fifteen miles above Cames 
Cross Eoads, stands a fine old resi- 
dence of the farm house type. The 
material used was of cypress and the 
house has two large brick chimneys 
at either gable end. It was built by 
Dr. John Willson, who came to this 
country from Monaghan, Ireland. 
He resigned as ship surgeon because he opposed the brutality 
of the captain toward his men. He landed at Georgetown, 
went to Indian Town, in WilHamsburg District, married there, 
moved to St. Mark's Parish, Clarendon; and after a few years 
crossed the river and located at this place and built his home. 
Dr. John Willson, 2nd, was born there and so was John 0. 
Willson. The building was constructed by slave labor. 

Dr. John Willson died in 1856, but was well-known as a 
Union man. The Northern troops, spared the house from 
four raids during the Civil War. It seems a little singular that 
these Union troops should have known his opinion when he 
had been dead nine years. Dr. John Willson, the 2nd, was 
distinguished for his remarkable kindness to his slaves and 
the needy around him and for his pubUc spirit. His son, John 
O. Willson D. D., says : "The only times I ever saw my father 
angry were when a patrol punished one of his negroes, and 
when a school-master severely chided his oldest daughter." 
This farm property is still in the Willson family and is now 
owned by John 0. Willson D.D., president of Lander College. 
John 0. Willson Donaldson, a descendant of Dr. John Will- 
son the 2nd, and a grandson of John O. Willson D.D., during 
his service in France in the World War, seems to have upheld 

250 




HOUSE ON THE ROAD TO COLUMBIA 

Biiilt just after the Revolutioaby the gramltather of Rfv. John O.WillaoQ 




'FORT GHANBY," NEAR COLUMBIA 
From an old print 



COLUMBIA 



the record of his progenitors. In Harper's Magazine for July, 
1919, is found an account of Mr. Donaldson's capture by the 
Germans, his escape from prison, his recapture and second 
escape, constituting one of those extraordinary narratives in 
which luck, misfortune and persistent daring have been so art- 
fully ordered by Fate as to seem almost incredible. "John O. 
Willson Donaldson is the son of Brigadier G-eneral T. Q. Don- 
aldson of the Inspector General's Department at Tours, 
France. He received his iustruction in flying at the ground 
school, Cornell University, then with the Royal Flying Corp 
at Thanto, with subsequent gunnery practice in Texas. In 
June, 1918, as a member of the 32nd Royal Flying Corp, Don- 
aldson, Jr., was sent to France, and during the following two 
months he brought down nine German planes, of which he was 
oflBcially credited with five (i.e., witnessed by four observers). 
Lt. Donaldson was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross by 
Field Marshal Haig and has received two citations by General 
Pershing. He has also been recommended for the Distin- 
guished Service Cross." 

GRANBY 

Granby, a settlement about two miles below Columbia, was 
a point of departure from the wilderness and into the Cherokee 
country. In the immediate vicinity of Fort Granby is found a 
primitive wooden house. 

The Reverend Mr. Guignard, whose grandfather surveyed 
the city of Columbia and who is famihar with this section of 
the State, having spent many happy days at Granby, declares 
that the description given of it in Lossing's Field Book of the 
Revolution and the names of the owners are perfectly correct. 
Mr. Guignard says that it is safe to use the description of the 
house as given in Lossing and adds some interesting data, 
which is included in the following account. 

The house of James Cacey, Esq. (pronounced Kazie), the 
Fort Granby of the Revolutionary War, is two miles below 
Columbia on the Congaree River. It is a strong frame build- 
ing, two stories in height and stands upon an eminence near the 
Charleston Road, within three-fourths of a mile of Friday's 

251 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Ferry upon the Congaree. It overlooks ancient Granby, one 
of the forgotten settlements of the State, and the country 
round about. 

The house itself is of the prevailing type in the up-country, 
very similar to the Willson place found on the road between 
Charleston and Columbia and repeated, with sKght variations, 
all over the upper part of the State. It consists of a two-story 
building with a tall pitched roof and has large chimneys on 
either gable end, the peculiarity of the chimneys being the 
enormous flues. The entrance into this establishment is 
directly from the piazza and a hall running through from front 
to rear, but upstairs the arrangement is slightly diiferent, the 
hall being traverse, extending from gable to gable. 

Some gentlemen of Pine Tree of Camden constructed this 
dwelling as a storehouse for cotton and other products of the 
up-country, which they wished to send down the river upon flat 
boats to the domestic and foreign market situated at the sea- 
port towns. When the chain of military posts from Camden 
to Charleston was established, this building, strategically lo- 
cated for defence, was fortified and called Fort Granby. There 
a ditch was dug, a strong parapet was raised, bastions were 
formed, batteries were arranged and an abatis was con- 
structed, all of which transformed the place from a trading 
station into a military post, first occupied during the Revolu- 
tionary War by a garrison of three hundred and fifty men, 
chiefly Loyalists and a few mounted Hessians, under the com- 
mand of Major Maxwell. 

Such was the importance of this place that Sumter made 
a demonstration against Fort Granby, but finding it too strong 
for his small arms, retired. Later Lee arrived in the vicinity 
on the evening of May 14th, 1781, the day on which Sumter 
took possession of Orangeburg, and on the edge of a wood 
within six hundred yards of Fort Granby he began the erection 
of a battery and a dense fog next morning enabled him not 
only to complete it but to mount a six-pounder brought by 
Captain Finley from Fort Motte, before being discovered. 

Wlien the fog rolled away Captain Finley discharged his 
cannon, and, at the same moment, the legion of infantry ad- 

252 



COLUMBIA 



vanced, took an advantageous position, and opened fire upon 
the enemy's pickets. This sudden announcement of the pres- 
ence of an enemy and this imposing display alarmed Maxwell 
excessively so that he consented to receive an American, Cap- 
tain Eggleston (the ancestor of the Winnsboro Eggles- 
tons), who was sent with a flag to demand the surrender of 
Fort Granby. 

After a brief consultation with his officers. Major Maxwell 
agreed to surrender the Fort, on condition that private prop- 
erty of every sort, without investigation of title, should be left 
within the hands of its possessors. This pecuHar condition is 
ascribed by Lee in his Memoirs to Maxwells' desire to fill 
his purse rather than to gather military laurels. With various 
other conditions and after waiving of some of the exceptions 
by Lee (the American commander), capitulation took place. 
Maxwell surrendered and vacated, and Captain Rudolph raised 
the American flag on one of the bastions before noon while the 
captive garrison with its escort marched away. 

The house yet bears "honorable scars" made by the bul- 
lets of Lee's infantry, for in the gable which points toward the 
river, between the chimney and a window, is an orifice formed 
by the passage of a six-pound ball from Finley's fieldpiece, 
and Mr. Guignard says that, as a little boy during his frequent 
visits to Granby, the first thing he did was to investigate the 
cannon-ball hole to make sure that it was still there. Not only 
is this hole still evident, but in one of the rooms are numer- 
ous marks made by an axe, used in cutting up meat for 
the garrison. 

The house is still in the possession of the family of Caceys, 
whose ancestors, with those of his father-in-law, Mr. Friday, 
were the only Whigs of that name in the State, and they often 
suffered insults from their Tory kinsmen. Mr. Friday owned 
mills at Granby, and the Ferry (Friday's) still bears his name. 
The British garrison that occupied Fort Granby paid Mm for 
the flour, poultiy, cattle and other things which it took, so 
that it is evident that Major Maxwell dealt fairly with him in 
this matter at least. 

253 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Among the interesting possessions of Granby is a picture 
of Emily Geiger, a kinswoman of the Caceys, and one of the 
heroines of the Revolution. She lived with her father, John 
Geiger, at his home at the forks of the Enoree and Broad 
Rivers. Although her father was a patriot, he was an invalid 
and unable to bear arms for his country. His daughter who 
served her country well was as ardent a patriot as himself. 
General Greene wished a letter to be carried to General Sum- 
ter. That no man could be found to volunteer for this duty is 
due to the fact that Rawdon was approaching the Congaree. 
Emily Geiger undertook the service, during the execution of 
which she nearly lost her life. General Greene was delighted 
by the boldness of this young girl, not over eighteen years old. 
He accepted her offer of service, but with his usual caution he 
made her memorize the message, so that if she should be com- 
pelled to destroy it, she could repeat it verbally to Sumter. 

Mounted upon a strong and fleet horse Emily then took 
her departure, her aim being to cross the Saluda at Kennely's 
Ferry, the Congaree at Friday's Ferry and to proceed as di- 
rectly as possible to General Sumter, who was then on the 
Wateree River. Nothing of moment happened to her during 
the first day's journey, but on the evening of the second day, 
when more than two-thirds of the distance had been safely 
passed, three men in the British uniform appeared suddenly 
before her in the road. Being unable to escape she was then 
arrested by them and carried before Lord Rawdon, whose camp 
was about a mile distant. His lordship questioned her closely 
as to where she was from and where she was going. Her 
answers not being direct, but evasive, did not satisfy his lord- 
ship, who ordered that she should be locked up in one of the 
upper rooms of the guard house. It was fortunate that she was 
left here alone for a short while, as she had the opportunity, 
which she embraced, to destroy the dispatch. She tore it into 
small bits, chewed and swallowed them. The last morsel was 
scarcely gone when a woman, prepared to search her and her 
clothing, appeared. But as nothing of a suspicious character 
was found upon her, Lord Rawdon, as he was in honor bound, 
permitted her to pursue her journey unmolested. 

254 



COLUMBIA 



Not only did Rawdoa release her, but f urnislied an escort to 
the home of one of her friends a few miles distant, where she 
partook of some refreshments and rested a few hours. Fear- 
ful of further delay she set out with a fresh horse and a guide 
who showed her a shorter and safer way than the one she had 
intended taking. By riding all night Emily found herself far 
from the neighborhood of Lord Rawdon and at sunrise the 
guide left her to pursue her journey alone. On and on she rode 
steadily, hot as it was, until about three o'clock in the after- 
noon of the third day when she suddenly came upon a file of 
soldiers, who from their dress she knew to be her friends. 
By them she was conducted to General Sumter, to whom she 
delivered her message. 

It may be of interest to know that Emily Geiger afterwards 
became the wife of Mr. Thurmits, and is very properly re- 
garded for her service as courier to the Continental Army as 
one of South Carohna's heroines. The picture is justly a 
source of pride to her relatives who reside at Granby. An- 
other interesting relic of this house is a card table said to have 
been used by Lord Cornwallis at his camp. 

There are several old burying grounds in that neighbor- 
hood, but most of them have gone to decay. In the iron gate 
of one is plainly discernible the name of "Hayne. " Upon one 
of the old graves the inscription gravely rebukes the beholder 
in the following quaint words : 

"Stranger, what is this to Thee, 
Ask not my name, but as I am 
So shall you be. ' ' 

The old wooden house at Granby has not only successfully 
withstood for over one hundred and fifty years the assaults of 
its natural enemies, time and weather, but has survived the 
Revolutionary War and escaped in some miraculous way the 
fate of so many houses in the path of Sherman's army. 

COLUMBIA 
Columbia is now the capital of the State of South Carolina. 
Before the Revolutionary War, when the lower part of the 
State was the most important portion, Charleston occupied 

255 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



that position. Just after the Revolutionary War, by an Act 
of General Assembly, commissioners were authorized and re- 
quired "to lay off a tract of land of two miles square, near 
Friday's Ferry, on the Congaree River, including the plane 
of the hill whereon Thomas and James Taylor, Esquires, now 
reside, into lots of half an acre, each." The streets were not 
to be less than sixty feet wide, with two principal streets run- 
ning through the center of the town. The old compass used 
by J. S. Guignard, the surveyor, in laying off the town is now 
in the possession of Mr. Guignard 's great-grandson, Mr. 
James G. Gibbes. 

"Thomas Taylor," writes Mr. Sally, "has been called the 
'Father of Columbia, ' because of the fact that the greater part 
of the city was built upon his former plantation. He was bom 
in Ameha County, Virginia, September 10th, 1743, and came 
with his parents to South Carohna, a few years later; married 
Ann Wyche. He was a member of the Provincial Congress of 
South Carohna in 1775, and was a captain of militia until 1780, 
when he was promoted to colonel ; was wounded at the battle 
of Fishing Creek ; was sometime State Senator for the district 
between the Broad and Catawba Rivers ; was a member of the 
State Convention which adopted the Constitution of the United 
States ; and was one of the Commissioners who laid out Col- 
imabia for the capital of the State ; died November 16, 1833, in 
his 91st year." 

The modern Thomas Taylor house is found at 1112 BuU 
Street. It is an exceedingly handsome and luxuriant modern 
home. This house is Georgian and is constructed of brick. 
Set in the walls of the western porch is an interesting panel 
built of the brick and mortar from the original Thomas Taylor 
home, which was the first house built in Columbia, when the 
city was a great plantation owned by the Taylor family. 

SEIBBLS HOUSE 

One of the oldest, if not the oldest, house in Columbia, 

which was built before Columbia's streets were laid out, is the 

J. J. Seibels house on Richland Street. This home is built 

entirely of hand-hewn timber and was erected by A. M. Hale, 

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COLUMBIA 



and bought some years later by Captain Benjamin Elmore and 
later purchased by the grandfather of the present owner. In 
the cellar of this house was found a beam, hand-hewn, and on 
it the date, 1796, carved, the evident date of the erection of 
this mansion. Concerning this place, The State says, in an 
article written by Miss AHce E. Wilson, a brilliant Columbia 
writer: "The house is largely colonial and reminds one 
strongly of Mount Vernon in its general outline, with its wide 
rambhng spaciousness, and its succession of slender white 
columns. Around three sides of the house, these columns 
support a low, outstanding roof above a quaint paving of Old 
Enghsh tile laid on a level with the street. 

"When Columbia was laid out in streets, it was found that 
the piazza trespassed on the sidewalk, but Capt. Elmore ap- 
plied to the town for permission to lower the floors of the 
piazza to the street level and leave them open. A pavement 
and colonade connect the quaint little brick kitchen with the 
house. The porch on the front is of the very wide old-fash- 
ioned type and is broken at both ends by steps leading to the 
tile pavement from the rooms which are slightly elevated. 

' ' The rooms are built on the old square plan, twc)_on.£iihfir- — — 
end of the hall, 12 by 15. The front rooms, Avith very high 
corniced ceilings are about 24 feet square. Upstairs the 
plan is about the same. The colonial note is adhered to in 
its furnishings." 

The attic of tliis delightful house has lived up to attic 
expectations. Three quaint little dormer windows serve to 
break the Une of its "barn roof. ' ' In this attic, among various 
other curios, was hidden for years a sword of G-eneral Beaure- 
gard 's presented to an aunt of Mr. Seibels, who was a per- 
sonal friend of the general. A still more ancient treasure 
found there was a yellowed docmnent, dated 1786, which was a 
land deed to Mr. Seibels from Richmond and Wade Hampton, 
for the sum of four hundred pounds sterling. 

The Seibels house, in its perfect state of preservation 
stands as a landmark in Columbia. It is a wonderfully artistic 
and beautiful house and one that does credit to both its builder 
and owner. 

j7 257 



HISTORIC HOUSES OP SOUTH CAROLINA 

BOYLESTON HOUSE 

Another old and interesting house in Columbia is that of 
S. S. Boyleston, at 829 Richland Street. The date of the build- 
ing of this home is unknown, but its style indicates that it was 
built some time in the early eighteen hundreds. Its first owner 
and builder was Jack Caldwell, a merchant prince of old days, 
and the father of the well-known Caldwell of Hampton's Cav- 
alry. The house was bought during the Ku Klux days by the 
Misses Hampton, and was later acquired by Mrs. Cotton 
Smith, from whom it was conveyed to the present owner, Mr. 
S. S. Boyleston. 

The house has three floors, including the basement, in 
which are to be found the biUiard and breakfast rooms. The 
drawing-rooms, a dining-room and a guest-room are found on 
the second floor, which in common with many other Columbia 
houses, constitutes the entrance floor. The hall runs the entire 
length of the house, and is broken at the rear by a rather un- 
usual stairway, which reverses the stairs found in some houses 
of its period; these generally start in a double flight and 
coalesce on the half-way landing and finally reach the floor 
above in one fliight, but the stairway in this house reverses this 
order; starting in the center of the hall, it branches at the 
landing and reaches the floor above in two flights. 

The cornicings in this house are conventional dentil design, 
which originated with the Greeks. The chandeKers swing 
from good specimens of bas-relief moulding on the ceilings. 
One chandelier worthy of particular mention is in the dining- 
room, which is finished in white and red velvet and forms a 
fitting setting for the handsome crystal chandelier and its 
countless irridescent pendants. 

This handsome old home is one of the finest specimens of 
Greek Eenaissance architecture in Columbia, the columns 
being especially notable. 

CRAWFORD HOUSE 

Many curious legends and interesting family stories cluster 
around the Crawford house, which is situated on Blanding 

268 



COLUMBIA 



Street and was saved by f aithfid guards of soldiers during the 
burning of Columbia. It was built by John A. Crawford, 
eighty-three years ago, who was then president of the Cona- 
mercial Bank. The premises formerly occupied a full half 
square with its gardens and greenhouse famous for rare and 
foreign plants, of which two South American jujube trees 
stiU stand. 

The house has a high brick basement and is square. It is 
famous for its closets, which are built in most unexpected 
places ; the most interesting one is high in the wall over the 
steps. This is accounted for by the fact that there is no attic 
to this house, the roof being flat and covered with copper. The 
house is built of hand-hewn "heart" timber and is reached 
from the street by a flight of wooden steps. A small entrance 
is formed by a portico with square columns, the lower half of 
which are of glass, used for displaying plants. 

The hall is a veritable ballroom, 12 by 60, which runs the 
length of the house, broken only by the ascending stairway to 
the upper floor. Flanking this hall on the outside and opening 
from it by large French windows is a piazza running the length 
of the house and decorated by iron raihngs with brass knobs. 
Above are two attractive balconies with similar decorations. 
On the left side of the house is a succession of three rooms 
leading one into the other. All are twenty feet square, and 
have beautiful corniced work and elaborate hand carving above 
the massive mahogany doors which join these rooms. The 
original hand- stenciled wall-paper can still be seen on the 
walls of these large rooms and the bronze chandeliers hang 
from moisaic decorations in delicate shades. At one end of 
the center room are tall mirrors, which are so arranged as to 
give the effect of open windows with panes of glass. 

The quaint old-fashioned style of furnishing and decoration 
is artistically carried out by heavy, richly colored draperies 
suspended from elaborately carved gilt cornices. Brass and- 
irons and old-fashioned bellows are found in the fireplaces; 
these with their handsome black marble mantels carrying out 
the scheme of dignity and repose. Colonial furniture and 
china and other possessions are still in the house, over all of 

259 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

which look down from the walls portraits of dead and gone 
Crawf ords, among them the original owner, John A. Crawford. 

MARSHALL HOUSE 

A two-story brick building constructed about 1820 by Jesse 
DeBruhl, now the Marshall house, was designed, it is beheved, 
by Robert Mills, the architect who is responsible for many 
handsome buildings in South Carohna. This house was for 
many years the home of the late Col. J. Q. Marshall, and is now 
in the hands of his daughter, Mrs. James Hammond. It is 
situated on the northeast corner of Laurel and Marion Streets 
and is one of the most imposing residences in the City 
of Columbia. (See frontispiece). 

The wide spacious piazza does not extend the entire length 
of the house, as it did in many of the houses of that date, but 
its massive columns that reach to the gabled roof lend an air 
of dignity to this old brick mansion. An artistic fan-shaped 
transom above the large front doorway furnishes ample hght 
for the wide hall running the entire length of the house. Un- 
Uke the houses of that period, the staircase was hidden from 
view, being concealed in a small back room, known as the stair- 
case room, but of late years this staircase has been removed 
and one is now to be seen in the rear end of the hall. The halls, 
both upstairs and down, are flanked on either side by two big 
square rooms, with high ceihngs and deeply recessed windows. 

It was in this home that the Confederate general, 
James A. Johnstone, made his headquarters in 1865. When it 
was vacated by Johnstone, it seemed good to General 
Sherman's soldiers as fuel for their extensive conflagration and 
was about to be set in flames when Mrs. Wiley, who was a very 
young and beautiful woman, appeared on the scene and begged 
that her home be spared. The soldier's heart softened and 
he ordered that guards be placed around the house. Thus we 
have left to-day one of the most artistic productions of the 
nineteenth century. 

MOORE HOUSE 

Closely related to the Marshall house because of its sim- 
ilarity of architecture and because of the date of its con- 

260 



> H 

5- 33 



^ O 



2. r 

p CI 



o t- 







COLUMBIA 



struction, is the Moore house at 1409 Gervais Street. There 
have been some modem improvements made on the house in 
the past few years. The large ell at the back was added for 
sleeping porches. Charm is given to this old home by its large 
piazzas, both upstairs and down, in the rear and in front. 
It was here that LaFayette was entertained and a large ball 
was given in his honor. 

In later years the house was used as Colonel Stone 's head- 
quarters, and because of this fact it was spared from the 
treacherous flames of General Sherman's army. Prof. Yates 
Snowden, says that it was from the porches of this house, that 
he as a little boy watched the progress of Sherman 's aimy as 
it marched down Gervais Street in February, 1865. 

The place has passed through many hands, having at one 
time been the home of Dr. Leland of the Presbyterian Theo- 
logical Seminary, and after various other owners was acquired 
by Governor John Lide Wilson, and is now in possession of 
E. L. Moore, of Columbia. 

DESAUSSURE HOUSE 

The residence, 1421 Gervais Street, now owned by W. J. 
Powers was built over a hundred years ago by Chancellor 
DeSaussure and was his home for some years. The house 
has passed through many hands. From Mr. DeSaussure it 
went to Judge Wilham Martin, who built the little brick house 
in the yard and used it for his laAV office. Col. Robert Hart 
Goodwin then acquired it and later sold it to the Bauskette 
family, by whom many brilliant balls and other entertainments 
were given. During the Reconstruction period it was bought 
by Judge Willard, a Northern lawyer, who lived there for some 
time in great style. It then passed through the hands of Cap- 
tain Stamley, the Condit family, and Mr. M. C. Heath, of Col- 
umbia, and is now occupied by Mr. W. J. Powers. 

This home, though simple in style and appearance, has 
many stories of interest and bits of tradition connected with 
it. The house stands in the midst of a garden filled with rare 
plants and shrubs. The little brick structure at the rear is 
famous in spring for the clambering wisteria that completely 

261 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



covers it. The house itself is a typical square colonial build- 
ing with its long, wide halls from which two rooms open on 
either side. The lower hall is divided by an arch, behind which 
a massive square stairway leads to the floor above. 

The double verandas are supported by large, square col- 
umns. These verandas stretch the length of the house and lend 
an air of hospitality so characteristic of the Southern homes 
of that period. The massive front doorway is an especially 
fine piece of architecture. 

The most interesting bit of history connected with this 
home is that when LaFayette made his memorable visit to 
Columbia and was entertained at the Moore house next door, 
it is said that the house was not large enough to accommodate 
his entire suite, so the latter were entertained elaborately at 
the DeSaussure residence. The fences were taken down be- 
tween the two premises so as to give convenient access to the 
two homes. 

PRESTON HOUSE 

The land upon which Chicora College for Women is now 
located passed from the commissioners to Judge Thomas 
Waites, and by him was sold to Ainsley Hall, a prominent 
Columbia merchant, who came to America from England in 
1800, settled in South Carolina and married a Miss Hopkins. 
Mr. Hall, with the assistance of Robert Mills, the architect, 
built a handsome home upon his newly purchased property. 
The exquisite white marble mantel in the east drawing-room 
and the weather-beaten fountain in the old gardens reflect 
the talent of one of the greatest sculptors of that day, 
Hiram Powers. 

The house is mostly colonial in style, set on a high brick 
basement, with a broad marble-tiled porch flanking its entire 
front. The corniced roof is supported by beautiful Doric col- 
umns. At either end, as well as in the middle of the porch, 
steps are found leading into the garden. The entrance faces 
the middle steps and leads into a walk which enters from the 
street between massive iron gates. 

262 



COLUMBIA 



The hall within is divided by a beautiful arch, beneath 
which a fine circular staircase leads to the floor above. On 
either side of the front hall are the east and west drawing- 
rooms which are reached by wide swinging doors. These 
doors, with the large French windows, high ceilings and good 
floor space, produce an air of spaciousness that characterizes 
the old Southern homes. The entire front could be thrown 
into one room, and such a house lends itself readily to mag- 
nificent entertainments. 

In the year 1826 or 1828 the property was bought by Gen- 
eral Wade Hampton, of Revolutionary fame. General Hamp- 
ton was the father of Colonel Wade Hampton, who served as 
aide to General Jackson in the battle of New Orleans, and 
grandfather of Governor Wade Hampton, who has endeared 
himself to the hearts of every South Carohnian. General 
Hampton's wife (his third mfe), who was, before her mar- 
riage, Miss Mary Cantey, devoted the remainder of her life 
to the maintenance of the property. The beautiful English 
walks were laid out under her direction, and a landscape gar- 
dener was employed to beautify the grounds. She imported 
and planted rare trees of every description ; a greenhouse was 
built and filled with the choicest plants; hedges of boxwood 
bordered the walks and flowers bloomed at every turn. It was 
an earthly paradise. 

Upon General Hampton's death the property was inherited 
by Mrs. Sally Hampton Preston, the wife of John S. Preston. 
In these days the place was a scene of splendid Southern hos- 
pitality. Fashionable ladies and courtly gentlemen danced in 
the big parlors, promenaded up and down the broad portico 
and sipped tea in the garden under the trees. "A Diary from 
Dixie," telling of one of the balls held at this mansion, gives 
the following description of the mistress of the house: "Mrs. 
Preston was resplendent in diamonds, point lace and velvet. 
There is a gentle dignity about her that is very attractive. Her 
voice is low and sweet, and her will is iron, quiet, retiring and 
reserved. She has chiseled regularity of features, a majestic 
figure, perfectly moulded. ' ' Some of those entertained in the 

263 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Preston home were Winfield Scott, Daniel "Webster, Henry 
Clay, Millard Filmore and Franklin Pierce. 

During the Federal occupation of Columbia General John 
A. Logan and his troops used the house for headquarters. In 
February, 1865, when Sherman was giving orders for the de- 
struction of the Hampton home, the interview was overheard 
by a nun, who reported the news to her Mother Superior. In 
the meantime the convent had been destroyed and the nuns 
were promised instead any building left standing in the city. 
As the Hamptons and Prestons had been true friends of the 
Mother Superior, she immediately resolved to occupy the man- 
sion. She notified Sherman of her plans, and regardless of 
the fact that it was Logan's headquarters, moved over imme- 
diately and took possession. The house owes its preservation 
to its beauty. When the troops came to set fire to it, one of 
the Sisters who longed to save the establishment from the 
merciless flames, caught sight of a face in the crowd, which 
gave her inspiration. The expression on it provided new 
courage and urged her to ask: "Is there no lover of beau- 
tiful architecture, no admirer of Southern furnishings 
among you?" 

The owner of the face, finely cultured and sweet, set on 
very young shoulders, slipped beside the Sister. He was a 
mere boy, perhaps a bugler. The Sister never knew. To the 
guard she said : "Let this boy come with me and see the lovely 
rooms. He shall tell you if there is anything worth saving. 
Then you may burn the place. ' ' 

For some unheard-of reason the men agreed to this sug- 
gestion, laughing and jeering all the while. They desired to 
humor the boy. No harm could possibly be done. It was only 
a matter of time when they should consign the house to flames. 
Why not let him go in 1 

Silently the big door closed. And quite as the Sister ex- 
pected the boy was entranced. He had never seen so wonder- 
ful a mantel, as broad a staircase, nor such lofty ceiUngs. 

' ' My, it is shameful to burn this house. But there 's no stop- 
ping those men ; they are determined, ' ' he said. 

264 



COLUMBIA 



"If I could only do something," sighed the desperate Sis- 
ter; "get word to General Ewing." 

A generous impulse filled the boy. Perhaps 'twas pity. 
Fate guided him. "I'll go," he cried, and shortly afterwards 
the Sister bolted back the doors again. He was gone. Just 
how long it took the boy to find General Ewing no one ever 
guessed. It seemed an eternity. 

Then after an age made interminable by shouts and screams 
and glaring flashes of firelight, a heavy knock was distin- 
guished above the din. Hesitatingly the Sister reopened the 
door, and to her surprise there stood General Ewing. To the 
drunken soldiers who were bent on burning the house he simply 
said, "General Sherman orders those fires out!" Then 
he went. 

Quietly the men slunk away and shortly the streets were 
dark again. The gardens grew greyly mysterious once more. 
But for the golden ghmmer of the hall candle, Preston Manse 
was wrapped in total darkness. The Sister, kneeUng, told her 
beads ; and the boy somewhere in his tent compared a veil of 
darkness to a scarf of flames. ' ' So Preston Manse was saved. ' ' 

In 1889 the building was sold to Rev. W. R. Atkinson for a 
Presbyterian College for Women. Afterwards it flourished 
under the presidency of Dr. Atkinson, Dr. Pell and Miss 
McCHntock, and in 1914 it passed into the hands of the Pres- 
byterian Synod and was consolidated with Chicora College, 
Dr. S. C. Byrd becoming president. The building is used as 
the administration building and is being kept in perfect preser- 
vation by the authorities of the institution. 

KINARD HOUSE 

The Kinard house at 1400 Lady Street was the wooden 
court-house erected about 1716 in Saxe-Gotha, a settlement on 
the opposite side of the Congaree River from the present city 
of Columbia. Later this building was taken down, brought 
to Columbia and erected as a Presbyterian Church. Subse- 
quently it was moved across the street to the present site, and 
used as a Theological School. 

265 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



When Mr. Niersee came to Columbia, about 1830, to build 
the State Capitol, he bought and remodeled the old school into 
a home and lived in this house during the construction of the 
Capitol. It was then purchased by Captain John "Waites, who 
in turn sold it to John Kinard, in whose family it has since 
remained. The exterior of the house is not unusual in appear- 
ance, being rectangular in shape, with old-type piazzas. The 
chief characteristic of the interior is its wide, airy hall with 
square stairway at the rear. This front hall is intersected at 
its center by a small lengthwise haU, which divides the front 
and back rooms on one side of the house and opens on the side 
into a narrow balcony. At the intersection of these halls is 
a high, very beautiful arch, which with the lofty ceilings, elab- 
orate and dehcate cornice work, give the house an imposing 
and dignified atmosphere. This inside work is said to have 
been done by old negro slaves. The hall chandelier is of 
wrought iron, with a plaster decoration above, in the design 
of an inverted Uly. In olden time many slaves were expert 
workmen in interior decoration and the cornicing in the two 
drawing-rooms on either side of the haU is quite heavy. In 
one room they are in the old Greek design of the oak leaf, but 
the opposite room contains beautiful bas-reliefs on walls and 
ceiling, in a garland rose design, bordered with mouldings of 
gold. Long, old-fashioned, gilt-bordered mirrors and antique 
furniture complete the harmonious interior of this house. 

BLANTON DUNCAN HOUSE 

Another Columbia house that escaped the general con- 
flagration of the Federal Army was the Blanton Duncan house. 
Information taken from an official deposition of Wm. Tecum- 
seh Sherman says, ' ' I assisted Mr. Simons, who married a Miss 
Wragg of my acquaintance, to move his family and effects from 
the threatened house up to my own, which was the house of 
Blanton Duncan, then contractor for the manufacture of Con- 
federate money." Many claim for the DeBruhl house this 
doubtful honor of having been Mr. Sherman's Headquarters. 
Mrs. Chestnut in her book, "A Diary from Dixie," calls Blan- 

266 



COLUMBIA 



ton Duncan ' ' A thoroughly free and easy Western man, hand- 
some and clever, more audacious than either, perhaps." 

General Wood's Headquarters were Mrs. Lucy P. Green's 
house, while General Howard's Headquarters were Mrs. 
Louisa S. McCord's house opposite South Carolina Col- 
lege grounds. 

The Federal Army was encamped on the south side of 
Gervais Street in the fields belonging at that time to Col. 
Theodore Stark, just opposite to Mrs. Walker's residence, and 
where "Shandon" is now. The Walkers lived on Gervais 
Street, just east of the bridge on the Charlotte Railroad that 
crosses that street, which bridge was popularly known as the 
"tin bridge." 

General Logan's Headquarters, as has already been stated, 
were estabhshed at the Preston house, from which he removed 
when the Sisters took possession. 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE OLD CHERAWS, LAURENS, 

LANCASTER, AND NEWBERRY 

PRINCIPAL STAGE ROUTES THROUGH SOUTH 
CAROLINA 

(Adcording to " The Geography of South Carolina," by 
William Gihnore Simms, dated 1843.) 

From Columbia by Camden to Cheraw, 88 miles, daily. 

From Columbia by Lexington C. H. to Augusta, Ga., 76 miles, 

daily. 
From Marion C. H. by LeesviUe to Fayetteville, N. C, 77 miles, 

daily. 
From Marion C. H. by China Grove to Georgetown, 60 miles, 

daily. 
From Georgetown to Charleston, 60 miles, daily. 
From Charleston by Jacksonboro to Savannah, 111 miles, 

daily. 
From Cheraw by MontpeUer to Fayetteville, 66 miles, daily. 
From Charleston by the South Carolina Railroad to Augusta, 

135 miles, daily. 
From Charleston to Columbia by Railroad, via Branchville & 

Orangeburg, 124 miles, daily. 
From Yorkville by Laurensville to Abbeville, 104 miles, three 

times a week. 
From Abbeville by Petersburg, Ga., to Milledgeville, 115 miles, 

three times a week. 
From Charleston by Pineville to Camden, 141 miles, twice a 

week. 
From Columbia by Laurensville to Greenville, 115 miles, twice 

a week. 
From Greenville by Merrittsville to Ashville, N. C, 62 miles, 

tmce a week. 
From Greenville by Abbeville to Augusta, Ga., 150 miles, twice 

a week. 
From Columbia by Winnsboro to Yorkville, 79 miles, twice 

a week. 
From Cheraw by Wadesboro, N. C, to Salisbury, 84 miles, 

twice a week. 
From Abbeville to Edgefield C. H. to Cooker's Spring, 63 

miles, twice a week. 
From Pendleton by Carnesville, Ga., Bushville and Gillsville, 

78 miles, once a week. 

268 



THE OLD CHERAWS 




THE CRAIG HOUSE 

HE Craig house in Chesterfield District 
is a valuable contribution from the little 
known section of our State. 

In Gregg's " History of the Old 
Cheraws," the statement is made that 
many of the records of Chesterfield 
County remain in a good state of preser- 
vation, but few are to be found in the 
public offices of Marlboro. Unfortunately for the history of 
justice as administered in the Cheraws District, all the Circuit 
Court records, with those of Darlington County, were de- 
stroyed -with the burning of the Court House about 1804. 

The Court House of Marlboro was first located near Gard- 
ner's Bluff, afterwards removed lower down on the main river 
road above Crooked Creek, and there continued until the ex- 
treme unhealthiness of the locahty rendered a change neces- 
sary, when finally Marlboro Court House was located at the 
present seat, Bennettsville. For Chesterfield the site of the 
present Court House was chosen, and for Darlington also, after 
a great deal of discussion, the present site was selected. 

The District of Cheraws was divided by the celebrated 
County Court Act of 1785 and the Cheraws District became 
the three counties enumerated, which three counties are sup- 
posed to have been named in honor of the Duke of Marlboro, 
Colonel Darhngton, who distinguished himself in the War of 
the Revolution, and the Earl of Chesterfield. 

So sparse were the settlements in the neighborhood that 
a few years before nothing but an old Indian trail led from this 
point to Camden. It has been an interesting task to locate an 
authentic house connected with the history of these primitive 
days and sparse settlements, and this has been successfully 
accompHshed through the kindness of W. D. Craig, of 
Chesterfield, S. C. Further search in history but confirms 
his statements. 

^69 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



In the history of the old Cheraws, the name of Alexander 
Craig appears in the records of Chesterfield during the Eevo- 
lutionaiy War. He was elected County Judge for Chester- 
field in 1793 and we find him as late as 1798 appearing in 
connection with the establishing of the boundary line, accord- 
ing to Gregg. 

The Craig House in Chesterfield was built in 1798 by John 
Craig, a Eevolutionary soldier and the younger of three 
brothers. Gregg's History states that he was still a young 
man at the time of the Revolutionary War and was long after 
known as a worthy man and a useful citizen, having been con- 
nected for many years with the Court of Common Pleas and 
Ordinary for that district. 

The history of the family so far as ascertainable is that 
three brothers, James, Alexander and John, came from the 
TJpsher part of Ireland about 1770. They settled in Chester- 
field County, Virginia, between Richmond and Petersburg. 
John and Alexander moved from there to Cheraws District; 
they lost connection with James, supposing that he either died 
or was killed during the Revolutionary War. John and Alex- 
ander Craig, with others, organized Chesterfield County, S. C, 
as has been previously stated. 

In 1795 John Craig married Sarah Chapman, whose people 
had emigrated from Westmoreland, Va., and whose brother, 
Captain John Chapman, of Revolutionary fame, lived in this 
old home until his death. They reared a large family and their 
descendants yet reside in Chesterfield. 

It was this John Craig who built the old Craig homestead, 
which still stands, a fourteen-room house with a basement 
under the whole foundation. This house was one of a half 
dozen family residences that made up the village of Chester- 
field and is the only one left standing to-day. There were no 
hotels in this little village in those days and this Craig house 
entertained all the great men who visited there. Chesterfield 
being the county seat, many of the most distinguishd men of 
the state stayed under the roof of this house. 

Under the old regime a review was held once a year, called 
the Governor's Review, at which the Governor or one of his 

270 



o 
E 
> 
2 



Z 




THE OLD CHERAWS 



staff inspected the military organizations at the county-seat. 
The great folk were entertained at the Craig place. This gen- 
eral muster far exceeded Christmas or the Fourth of July in 
excitement, for the house was filled from attic to cellar and 
everyone on the plantation, white or colored, was worked to the 
utmost to get ready for this great day. 

In the kitchen, the old Dutch oven, which held half of a 
beef and half a dozen turkeys at one time, was cleaned out and 
filled to the full with good things to eat. The cattle and horses 
were taken away to make room for the equipments of the 
military aides. 

Court time was hardly less exciting and one room in this 
old house is still known as ' ' The Judge 's room, ' ' because it was 
reserved for the chancellors and judges. The room across from 
this room possesses peculiar interest, it is known as "McDuf- 
fie 's room. ' ' A tradition that does not accord with the general 
accepted story of George McDuffie's life has it that McDuffie 
was not born but came up one morning like "Topsy" on the 
old Camden Road near Sugar Loaf Mountain in this county, 
at a spot that is still pointed out by the older citizens as the 
place where McDuflfie was discovered by a philanthropic gentle- 
man going from Cheraw to Camden in his carriage. 

The story goes that he saw McDuffie sitting by the road 
crying and finding out that McDuffie had an aspiration to be 
' ' somebody, ' ' questioned him. He found that McDuffie 's tears 
were caused because he was hedged about by so many obstacles. 
The gentleman decided that he had found a good instrument 
for some of his surplus dollars, so he decided to interest him- 
self in this young man and he started George McDuffie on his 
way to an education. McDuffie's struggles for means with 
which to finish his education at the South Carolina College 
brought him to this old house and here he stopped and occupied 
a room while he taught school in Chesterfield. 

There are many things to support this tradition, among 
them being the fact that James McDuffie who was raised in this 
same section, claimed and was acknowledged to be George 
McDuffie 's nephew. He (James) belonged to the Eighth South 
Carolina Regiment and was killed in the battles around Rich- 

271 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

mond. His widow was on the Confederate pension roll until 
her death a few years ago. 

From this old house have gone soldiers for every war since 
the Revolution and they seem to have adopted the Spartan 
Mother's Motto, either "To bring back the shield or to be 
brought back on it. ' ' 

After the death of John Craig and of his wife, Sarah Chap- 
man, this house came into the possession of their youngest son, 
W. E. Craig. We learn that W. E. Craig married a Miss 
Parke, whose brother. Dr. James Parke, having just finished 
his education as a surgeon in Ireland, went from this house 
to the Mexican War in 1846-48 and was killed. Later on in the 
Civil War another brother of Mrs. Craig, R. D. Parke, having 
had small-pox while studying medicine in Dublin, was put in 
charge of the small-pox hospital in Charlotte, N. C. 

Another warrior connected with this house was General 
Blakeney, a nephew of John Craig and also of his wife. He 
had spent a good part of his boyhood days in this house. He 
was a captain in the Mexican War. The name Blakeney is 
still found in Kershaw County. 

To continue the war record — the morning of April 13th, 
1861, was a memorable time for this household. The news came 
that Fort Sumter had been fired upon. M. J. and J. M. Hough 
(who had been boarding at this house for a considerable time) 
and T. P. Craig (oldest son of the household) proceeded at once 
to Charleston where J. A. Craig (another son) was a student 
at the Citadel Academy. This cadet corps was soon to engage 
in action. 

In 1864 J. A. Craig and W. D. Craig (sons of W. E. Craig) 
after being in service on the Carolina coast, went to Virginia 
not knowing where they would be assigned. This led to a 
peculiar gathering together of the threads of family ties. Upon 
getting off the train at Walthall Junction, the two brothers 
went immediately into a hot skirmish in which W. D. Craig 
received a flesh wound, the scar of which he still bears and 
strangely enough this happened almost on the threshold of the 
old Craig home in Virginia from whence his grandparents had 
departed about a century before. This old Virginia house was 

272 



THE OLD CHERAWS 



then occupied by a Craig family, supposed to be descendanta 
of James Craig, the missing brother. Hagood in Memoirs 
of the War of Secession, mentions this old Craig house 
in Virginia. 

The two Craig brothers did their part and on May 16th, 
1864, J. A. Craig was killed and W. D. Craig received a wound 
inflicted by three minnie balls, again this fatality occurred on 
home ground, happening almost on the Craig farm in Chester- 
field County, Va. 

The war record continues, for James Craig, who was born 
and reared in this house, was captain of one of the companies 
in the Fourth South Carolina Cavalry. 

A curious detail of life connected with the Craig homestead 
concerns London, a colored boy about five years old. Discov- 
ered in a huckleberry patch and brought to the village to be 
taken care of, he was bound to W. E. Craig and Uved there as 
houseboy until he was old enough to join the United States 
Army. He is supposed to be the first colored man from this 
section to join the United States Army. 

The final history of the house is that the only daughter of 
W. E. Craig married W. J. Hanna, and came into possession 
after the death of her mother. Her two sons, W. J., Jr., and 
J. W. Hanna, volunteered and served through the Spanish- 
American War. W. J. Hanna did service during the 
World War. 

The picture of the Craig house shows in thei foreground an 
old tree, quite the most ancient and historic in the county. The 
dwelling is an interesting type of a. two-story house, evidently 
built of primitive materials, the wood being cut upon the hold- 
ings of the builder. No doubt in its day this place constituted 
a mansion. It is evident that the planters evolved their own 
style of architecture for all over the up-country is found the 
same general type of home. Evidently the two-story house 
with hall running through it, and piazzas in front, with kitchen 
in the ell at the rear, was found best adapted for the living 
needs of the family, slaves not being so ordinary to the up- 
country people as to the big rice planters in the low-country. 

18 273 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



LAURENS— TOWN AND COUNTY 
It was in the village of Laurens, S. C, that at one time 
Andrew Johnson worked at the tailor's trade. His residence 
and tailor's shop with signboard have been pointed out with 
much interest to curious visitors. He came to Laurens in 1827, 
from Ealeigh, N. C, where he was born, and remained there as 
a journeyman tailor for two years. During that time he be- 
came engaged to a young lady in the neighborhood, but told one 
of his friends that he saw by her mother's manner that he was 
not favorably looked upon, the mother having told Johnson 
that her daughter should not marry a tailor. He was so mor- 
tified by the rebuff that he left Laurens the next day. 

His father (town constable in Raleigh, messenger of the 
bank, and gexton of the church) died when the son Andrew 
was two years old. The boy never went to school a day in his 
life, and after his marriage he was taught by his wife to read 
and cipher. He continued as a tailor, going from Laurens to 
Greenville, S. C, and thence to Greenville, Tennessee, where he 
married Miss McCarthy of that town. 

Step by step he ascended the political ladder ; first elected 
to town council, then as mayor, in a few years he was elected 
to Legislature. State Senator, Congressman and Governor 
of the State he became in turn, then rose to United States Sen- 
ator, Mihtary Governor of Tennessee by President Lincoln, 
and Vice-President under the same, at whose death he as- 
sumed the Presidency of the country, the highest office in 
the land. 

MTJSGROVE 'S MILL 

Laurens County, so called for Henry Laurens, is rich in 
history. On the Enoree River, near the town of Laurens, 
stands Musgrove 's Mill, now owned by the Thornwell Orphan- 
age. This was the scene, during the Revolution, of a spirited 
action, "one of the hardest fought with small arms." Mc- 
Crady, in his "South Carolina in the Revolution" says: "It 
is remarkable that few American historians have at all noticed 
this important and hard-fought battle. Hill in his narrative 
(Sumter MSS) complains that none of the historians who have 

274 



LAURENS 



written of the Revolution in the State have mentioned it." 
Captain Hammond's account appears in Johnson's "Tradi- 
tions of the Revolution, ' ' and it is briefly described by McCall 
in his "History of Georgia"; Draper gives a full and particu- 
lar account of it in "King's Mountain and Its Heroes." In 
none of the accounts, however, is " Dicey 's Ride" mentioned, 
yet Dicey was as great a heroine as our country produced, and 
her deed deserves recognition. 

An old mill once stood at Milton, in the long ago ; a most 
important spot during stage-coach days, and we might say 
especially interesting as it was just off this old stage road that 
the little band of patriots was massacred by "Bloody Bill" 
(Cunningham). This spot is recorded as Hay's Station, but is 
near Milton. The old stone or rock building still stands. 

"Another old mill over one hundred years old, and still at 
work, is near Chnton. In that time it has not passed out of 
the same family." This description probably refers to Mus- 
grove's Mill, already mentioned; it is given by a resident 
of Clinton. 

McCrady says : 

"In 1780 . . . after the battle at the Old Iron Works, or 
second battle of Cedar Springs, on the 8th of April, Colonel 
Ferguson sent his wounded to Musgrove's Mills on the south 
side of the Enoree River, in what is now Laurens County. 
. . . Ferguson set out (after receiving an express from Col- 
onel TumbuU) . . . pushed on, and marched to Colonel 
Winn's plantation about eight miles west of Winnsboro, where 
he halted and lay, awaiting news from Camden. ' ' 

On the American side, McDowell, having been kept well 
informed of Ferguson's movements, and having learned that 
a party of loyahsts were stationed at Musgrove's Mills, he 
conceived the idea that, as the road was open, the post vul- 
nerable, and the term of enlistment of Col. Shelby's men about 
to expire, a pressing motive presented itself to embrace this 
opportunity of striking the British another blow. 

Colonels Shelby and Clark were appointed to lead, and with 
them were Captains James McCall and Samuel Hammond. 
The day before the expedition started these men were joined 

27S 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

by a Virginian, Colonel James WilKams, who was rough, rash 
and fearless, whose ambition for glory led him to the use of 
means not overscrupulous in the accomplishment of his ends, 
but whose fearlessness led him into the thick of the fight, and 
who here freely poured out his blood and yielded up his hfe 
for his country. Colonel Brandon, Colonel James Stein and 
Major McJunkin joined the party, and recruited the strength 
of the mountain men with a few followers. Shelby attributed 
the valor and persistency of the battle to the great number of 
officers who were with him as volunteers. 

Colonel Innes and Major Eraser, the British officers, had 
their headquarters at Edward Musgrove's residence. The 
Americans, by a clever ruse, drew the British from their post 
of vantage to a rude breastwork they had erected, and although 
the battle was hard fought the British lost 63 killed, 90 
wounded, and 70 prisoners, while the Americans made good 
their escape. During an advance of forty, and a retreat of 
fifty miles, the Americans never stopped to eat, but made use 
of peaches and green corn for their support. In less than three 
days this party of two hundred marched 100 miles, fought a 
battle and brought off with them 70 prisoners. 

ROSEMONT 

In Laurens County there are possibly three or four old 
houses of sufficient note to warrant consideration. The first is 
"Rosemont," the ancestral home of the Cunninghams, a singu- 
lar feature being that though the family were Tories during 
the Eevolution, a later member of the family, Miss Ann 
Pamela Cunningham, was the originator of the idea to buy 
Mt. Vernon and was made the first regent of the Mt. 
Vernon Association. 

The ignorance in regard to Mt. Vernon, the home of Wash- 
ington, is deplorable. It is not generally known that the 
women of America bought Mt. Vernon in 1858, and have re- 
stored and maintained it ever since without a penny from the 

276 



LAURENS COUNTY 



United States or from any State. This great accomplishment 
is strong evidence of woman's administrative and executive 
ability, and the men of America should give recognition and 
acknowledgement to the great fact. 

George Washington died December 14, 1799, and for half 
a century Mount Vernon seemed neglected and forgotten. In 
1854 John Augustine Washington, owner of the estate, made 
repeated efforts to sell the property to the United States and 
to the State of Virginia. Every effort failed. 

At last a noble and patriotic spirited woman of South 
CaroUna, Miss Ann Pamela Cunningham, seeing the adver- 
tisements in a newspaper, was seized with the desire to stimu- 
late the women of America into acquiring and restoring 
Mount Vernon. 

Miss Cunningham was a daughter of Captain Eobert Cun- 
ningham, of Laurens District, a distinguished soldier of the 
War of 1812, and was educated at Brahamville Academy near 
Columbia by Julia Pierpont, of Vermont (then Mrs. Marks), 
at the celebrated school founded by her husband and herself 
at this place, where so many Southern Avomen of culture and 
refinement received their early education, among others the 
mother of President Roosevelt. Miss Cunningham carried her 
ideas concerning Washington's Home into effect after the most 
Herculean efforts. She finally founded "The Mount Vernon 
Ladies' Association of the Union" and became the first regent. 
She appointed as vice-regents one lady from each State. 

The immediate object of this first woman's society was to 
raise funds for the purchase of two hundred acres of the Mount 
Vernon estate, including the mansion and the tomb wherein 
repose the mortal remains of General Washington. The ulti- 
mate design was to teach the people of the United States to 
remember Washington and his great achievements. 

The association appealed to the country for $200,000, the 
price demanded for this portion of Mount Vernon. The pledge 
given was the preservation and restoration of the home of 
Washington. The money was raised by the women of that 
time, their greatest help being the orator of that day, Edward 
Everett, who by his lectures on Washington raised $70,000. 

277 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Miss Cunningham lost her health so completely in her great 
effort of going from place to place, interviewing Senators and 
men of pubUc affairs that she finally was carried about upon an 
invalid's air-bed from which she used only to address influen- 
tial gatherings which might assist in her patriotic enterprise. 

It is needless here to recount the disasters and discourage- 
ments which attended the initiative efforts of this small band 
of devoted women. One formidable cause of opposition, scarce 
credible in our day, was the prejudice then prevaihng against 
women as workers in any public affairs. But inspired by the 
enthusiasm of Miss Cunningham the feat was finally accom- 
plished, and although the Civil War halted the work of the 
association, no vandal hand was raised against this shrine of a 
nation. After the Civil War friends arose on every side, 
material aid flowed in, not only in money, building materials, 
fertilizers, food for the stock, but assistance came in all shapes. 
The press throughout the land stood by the association. The 
Masonic lodges responded to the call to save the great Mason's 
home from destruction. Wall Street's brokers' board sent 
money, while httle children clubbed together to rebuild a gate. 
Others to rebuild the colonnades. The work progressed 
steadily year by year. 

The necessary repairs accomplished, then came the task of 
restoration. In the mansion the replacement of such furniture 
as was owned by Washington has been accomplished where 
possible; when this was not obtainable, furniture of historic 
value and of the past century style has been placed in the 
rooms. The bedstead on which General Washington died 
stands in his room, mirrors are restored to their former posi- 
tions. NelHe Custis' piano stands in the music room again 
and Washington's flute hes upon it. Clocks are returned to 
their mantels, chairs, tables and a sideboard have resumed 
their places. The large silver-mounted plateau, used at Wash- 
ington's state dinners, is now returned to Mount Vernon, a 
recent gift from a vice regent, herself a great-granddaughter 
of Martha Washington. 

There are also many other historic and valuable relics of 
Washington and his time. The garden is as he left it, with 

278 



LAURENS C OUNTY 



the quaint box-wood hedges and borders. The old-time roses, 
pinks, Ulies, mignonette, sweet William, lilacs, magnolia trees, 
and acacias, and even the greenhouses and servants' quarters 
are restored and are as Washington saw them. The lawns he 
loved, the trees he planted, all are there, silent but eloquent. 

The dream of the enthusiastic founder of the Mount Vernon 
Association is reaUzed. The home of Washington is restored, 
and has become the shrine of hberty-loving pilgrims from home 
and foreign lands, and left as a heritage to Americans as is 
shown in this extract from the farewell address of the founder 
of the association to her women associates, given after twenty 
years of service, on June 1, 1874 : 

"Ladies, the home of Washington is in your charge ; see to 
it that you keep it the home of Washington. Let no irreverent 
hand change it ; no vandal hands desecrate it with the fingers 
of progress ! 

' ' Those who go to the home in which he Hved and died, wish 
to see in what he lived and died ! 

"Let one spot in this grand country of ours be saved 
from change. 

' ' Upon you rests this duty. ' ' 

Miss Cunningham's own home, "Rosemont," is located in 
the western part of Laurens County, S. C, five miles south- 
west of Cross Hill, on the east bank of the Saluda River. It is 
the best-known residence in upper South Carohna, and was the 
home of the Cunningham family. It has been said that the 
brick was brought from England, and the inside woodwork was 
of EngUsh oak, also brought over from the old country, but 
this is an error, as Mr. A. S. Salley shows in quoting from a 
journal kept by an old school teacher in the "Up Country," 
Reuben Pyhs, who says that about the year 1790, while a school 
boy in his teens, "I went to a Stephen Herd, who taught on 
Saluda River. Boarded at Patrick Cunningham's, where my 
father was working on a fine new house. ' ' 

This "fine new house" had decorated fireplaces. Much of 
the old furniture is still there, including a handsome secretary 
and large mahogany table, while rare paintings adorn the 
walls of the living-room. In the state drawing-room mirrors 

279 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

are let into panels between the deep-set windows, and these dim 
old looking-glasses give the low-ceilinged room a curious air of 
mystery and enchantment hard to describe — an eerie sense of 
forgotten presences hard to convey in words. A brother of 
Miss Pamela's, Clarence Cunningham, a classmate of Presi- 
dent Wilson at Princeton, lives there alone in this shadowy old 
home of long ago, hidden away in Laurens County, but worthy 
to become a South Carolina shrine in memory of Miss Pamela 
Cunningham and her great work at Mount Vernon. 

STONBT POINT 

Although Eosemont is in Laurens County it is nearer 
Greenwood, S. C, than to the town of Laurens, and not many 
miles from Eosemont, in Greenwood County, so Mr. H. L. 
Watson, the editor of The Index-Journal, of Greenwood, says, 
"is Stoney Point, home of the Smiths, into which family for- 
mer Congressman Aiken married, and I think also former 
Governor Aiken, 1844-1846." 

EDEN HALL 

Mr. Watson is also authority for the interesting informa- 
tion that "in the lower section of the county is a fine old man- 
sion, Eden Hall, built by the late Dr. Wm. Hearst. He was a 
very wealthy man and benefactor of Erskine College. W. E. 
Hearst, the newspaper pubhsher, belongs to this family ; his 
great-grandfather moved from that section to Missouri and 
his father from there to California." 

TUMBLING SHOALS 

Another interesting place is the Tumbling Shoals residence 
in Laurens County, 13 miles east of the town. According to 
the account of Captain William D. SulUvan, Sr., of Gray Court, 
John and WiUiam Arnold built a house for themselves and a 
primitive mill, which they erected at Tumbling Shoals about 
1800. This house is still standing in a good state of preserva- 
tion, and is used as a dwelhng place for an operator in the 

280 



LAURENS COUNTY 



modem power plant which has superseded the mill. The hand- 
hewn shingles and weather-boards were "home-made," no 
doubt cut out with a wliip saw operated by the Arnolds in true 
pioneer style, while the nails with which the shingles and 
weather boards were attached to the frame were made of 
wrought iron by the neighboring blacksmith. 

In 1820 Joseph Sullivan, father of Wm. D. SulHvan, moved 
from Greenville district to Tumbhng Shoals. He bought the 
mill and water power from Henry Barrow, 45 acres of land for 
$1200, and another tract of land containing 1000 acres for $500. 

In 1837 he built a large flour and grist mill, also a saw mill 
and cotton gin, which were operated until sold to the Eeedy 
Eiver power plant about ten years ago. The following year 
(1838) he constructed a two-story dwelhng house on the east 
side of Reedy River, in which house Wm. D. Sullivan was born, 
who has hved there for 82 years. 

Within two miles of Mr. Sullivan's house is the Friend- 
ship Presbyterian Church, which is situated on a high, dry 
ridge between the waters of Reedy River and South Rabun 
Creek, ten miles east of Laurens Court House. It was organ- 
ized by Colonel Samuel Levers in 1820 as a Presbyterian Con- 
gregation, calhng itself Friendship Presbyterian Church. 
James Dorroh (who died in 1820) donated the land on which to 
build the church. This was first a Union Church, having been 
organized in 1809 by the Baptists and Presbyterians jointly, 
and being used by both denominations for eleven years, during 
which time it was known as Rabun Church. In 1820 the Bap- 
tists sold their interests and withdrew, organizing Rabun 
Church a few miles further north. In 1859 the Presbyterians 
replaced this first structure with the church that is now stand- 
ing, and which was used for a centennial celebration in 1920. 
Prominent Scotch-Irish family names are found on the church 
rolls, among them Dorrohs, Simpsons, Averys, McKnights, 
Morgans, SuUivans and Cunningham, who built the church. 

BELFAST 
Another house of some historic interest in this section is 
on the Laurens side of the road that separates Newberry from 

281 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Ijaurens. It was built in the early years of the nineteenth 
century, and is of brick, two stories and a half high, with ex- 
ceptionally large rooms. Tradition has it that the brick, Uke 
the builder, came from Ireland. Colonel John W. Simpson 
came over to this country from Ireland near Belfast, and 
named his home Belfast in memory of that place. He was the 
father of William D. Simpson, who was elected Lieutenant- 
Governor when Wade Hampton was elected Governor in 1878 ; 
became Governor when Hampton went to the Senate ; and was 
later made Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 

The house passed into other hands, and in 1851 or 1852 was 
bought by John Wallace from a Mr. Eichelberger ; it belongs 
now to Robert G. Wallace. The building contains four large 
rooms, about 22 by 28, two small ones, and, in the half-story, 
a long ' ' garret ' ' which seems to be intended for ' ' old plunder. ' ' 
The present owner has added a wooden dining-room and 
kitchen. The plastering on walls and ceihngs is what is known 
as "hard finish" and is without crack, despite the earthquake 
of 1866; the mantels are high and their facings quite orna- 
mental. In the large rooms an elaborate cornice follows a 
curved pattern in several layers on the ceilings ; the side walls 
are exceptionally thick. No nails are used in the flooring 
boards, but round pegs very similar to those used in decking a 
ship, which leads to the belief that Col. John W. Simpson may 
have been a sea-faring man. 

For so large a house the piazza is quite small, but the 
grounds are extensive, including the Wallace family burying 
ground with monuments and tablets. Nearby is Hay's Moun- 
tain, where a massacre of the Whigs by the Tories took place 
during the Revolutionary War, and in olden times when mail 
was carried by postillions on horseback this house was the 
only post-office between Laurens and Newberry. A famous 
Rock Spring is found on the grounds. 

The present owners are of a distinguished up-country fam- 
ily, one of which is W. H. Wallace, father of Professor Wallace, 
of Wafford University, and the well-known editor of the 
Newberry Observer. Although the original builders, the 
Simpson family, no longer reside at Belfast, yet it is repre- 

282 



LANCASTER 



sented in the State by Henry Y. Simpson, of the Laurens bar, 
grandson of the first o^\^ler, and son of the late Chief Justice 
Simpson, who Avas born at Belfast. 

THE SIMS HOUSE, LANCASTER 

James Marion Sims, according to Joseph Wardlaw's 
"Genealogy of the Witherspoon Family," was the son of Col. 
John Sims and Mahala Mackey. He was born in January, 
3813, graduated at South Carohna College in 1832, at Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, 1835, and in 1836 married Ehza 
Theresa Jones, daughter of Dr. Bartlett Jones, a skilful physi- 
cian and a man of renown, decided intelligence and great popu- 
larity. This marriage influenced his hf e greatly. A few facts 
about Dr. Jones are not amiss. 

Dr. Bartlett Jones was born in Prince William County, 
Virginia, in 1787, graduated as M. D. in Philadelphia in 1806, 
and settled at Lancaster, S. C, in 1808. Here, in 1810, he mar- 
ried Eliza Jane Dunlap, a daughter of Dr. Samuel F. Dunlap 
and Mary Crawford (daughter of Major Robert Crawford). 
After his marriage he built a house at the southeast corner of 
Main, or Brown and Arch Streets. The house itself was typi- 
cal of the "up country," being a square two-story building 
with its main entrance opening directly from the piazza into 
the hallway which bisected the establishment. There is noth- 
ing architecturally great to render this house worthy of notice 
in a volume of Historic Houses, but the fact that there the 
great physician, Marion Sims, first received his inspiration 
and love for medicine from his father-in-law, and there first 
engaged in that practice of medicine destined to revolutionize 
modem surgery. 

Many authorities give illuminating glimpses of the early 
struggle of Sims which can be read at leisure, but after moving 
around from "pillar to post" his love of healing prevailed, 
and he set himself to map out new fields of endeavor in his 
chosen profession. 

Gen. B. McCrady, in an address dealing with the history of 
the South Carolina Medical College says : 

283 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



' ' It happened there was sitting on the benches of this first 
class under the new organization of the college a youth from 
the Waxsaws, the native place of Andrew Jackson, who was 
to do more good in his generation than his great compatriot, 
and to surpass even the great French physician and biologist, 
Ravenel, as well in his fame as in his kindness and beneficence 
to the poor and suffering. This was Dr. J. Marion Sims, 
whose name you will find on the roll of the class of 1834. It 
was my fortune to know Dr. Sims, and to know him somewhat 
intimately, and I can bear testimony that amidst all his pro- 
fessional triumphs, in the full tide of his fame, having the 
decorations of the governments of France, Italy, Germany, 
Spain, Portugal and Belgium as a great benefactor of man- 
kind, he looked back with pleasure and affection, and loved to 
talk of the old days when he studied medicine in the college 
with his friend Sparkman, and 'dear old Dick Baker' as he 
used to speak of that excellent physician. Dr. C. R. F. Baker, 
of Clarendon, who died just before him. Let me speak a word 
of Dr. Sims to you, young gentlemen, and before this Charles- 
ton audience, for the applause of strangers, and the honors 
bestowed by Royalty and Courts were not so dear to him as the 
fact that he was a Southerner and a South Carolinian. 

"He was a bold pioneer, opening new pathways; original 
and mth creative genius, he discovered for himself, and made 
his discoveries a gift to the profession. Truly he did so. As 
his writings have been translated into every modern European 
language, so the instruments of inventions of which it would 
require much space to give even a list are found in the con- 
sulting rooms of every surgeon in the civilized world; but no 
royalty or tribute did he ever ask for them. He took no toll 
upon his inventions for the relief of suffering. He took out 
no patent upon the instruments he invented for the benefit 
of humanity. 

"Eventually Dr. Sims' search led him to Montgomery, 
Alabama, where he established a small private hospital for 
negro women ; the protot3^pe of the great Woman's Hospital in 
New York. That grand institution is a monument to a South 
Carolinian on the Atlantic. On the Pacific another Carolina 
physician has left his monument in the Toland Institute. 

"In 1853 Dr. Sims removed from Montgomery, Ala., to 
New York where during the following year he founded the 
Woman's Hospital, the first institution of the kind on this 
continent; as it has been well said: 'If Sims had done nothing 
else, the energy and determination displayed in placing this 
institution in a proper working condition would be sufficient 

284 



LANCASTER 



to entitle him to the gratitude of the public, and to establish 
his claim as a wise philanthropist. ' 

"Dr. Toner, in his biographical sketch of Dr. Sims, recalls 
the account given by the New York newspapers of a 'Lecture,' 
as Dr. Sims called it, in which he first presented to the pubhc 
Ms scheme for a Woman's Hospital in 1854, and cites the 
Tribune as saying: 

" 'He aimed, by the history of a Southern institution with 
which he had been connected, and its results, to show how much 
might be done in this city, and how great was our need. ' 

' ' The story of Sims is the story of a Man Who Triumphed. 
Many men whose minds have carried them as near to great 
things have failed because unable to cUmb the path they saw 
so well ! The flesh will not always do the work the mind con- 
ceives. Fortunately for humanity it was not so with Dr. 
Sims. When he saw that suffering could be relieved it lay on 
him as a call from God. He had a mission, a calling to fulfill, 
which neither weariness, nor sickness, nor poverty could pre- 
vent. In reading the story you will admire the genius, but you 
mil love the man who devoted himself to the task. 

"Failure followed failure, but Sims did not doubt the 
result. Money, labor, health, all he poured into his work, 
while friends and relations pressed him to desist, and appealed 
to him to remember his wife and children, if he cared nothing 
for himself. But in vain, till they began to do as the boys of 
old did to Columbus as he walked the streets filled with the 
vision of the New World, touching their heads significantly as 
they passed him. At last, however, success came. As he was 
walking home one evening, dejected, not because he doubted 
his discovery, but fearing his health and means would all go 
before he could demonstrate it, a little piece of wire on the 
ground struck his eye ; and he took it up scarcely thinking of 
what he was doing. That little piece of wire solved the 
problem, and Sims is famous to-day because he found the 
use of a silver suture and modern methods of surgery were 
made possible. 

' ' The death of Dr. J. Marion Sims carried profound gnef 
to the American profession. Not only in this country, but 
abroad, in whatever land true medicine fives, his departure 
was mourned. Surely South Carolina may well be proud of 
this son who not only became a great pubUc benefactor, but 
is among the rare instances of those who have given dis- 
coveries and inventions of immense value to the world without 
price or reward ." ^^ 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

NEWBERRY 
" COATESWOOD " 

Newberry is one of the old settlements in the upper part of 
the State, but the history of these counties has never been 
written in detail and few records are obtainable, although 
South Carolina is as proud of her sons of the hills as she is of 
her sons of the sea and the dwellers along the rivers. 

One of the oldest public buildings in Newberry is a beauti- 
ful piece of architecture, marred only by a flight of steps which 
breaks the harmony and destroys the unity of this gem carved 
and set in the early days of Newberry. A bas-relief on the 
fagade of the old court house has an interesting story says Mr. 
W. H. Wallace, editor of the Newberry Observer. In 1876, 
just after the redemption of the State, Mr. 0. Wells was given 
the contract to make repairs on the building, which had become 
shabby under radical regimes. In finishing the fagade he con- 
ceived the idea of making an allegory of the State 's downfall 
and its redemption, so that he who ran might read, in the fallen 
palmetto tree with a game-cock standing on its roots crowing 
defiantly, and the American eagle with extended wings grasp- 
ing the top of the tree in the attempt to lift it upright, the story 
of a "prostrate State." 

The most historic house in Newberry is that of the late 
Chancellor Johnstone, who died some fifty years ago. The 
house is still in the family, and is occupied by his daughters, 
Mrs. Clara McCrary and Miss Fannie Johnstone. Senator 
Alan Johnstone is a son of the late Chancellor. Sketches of 
Chancellor Johnstone are found in the "Annals of Newberiy," 
O'Neall and Chapman, second part; in Carwile's "Remini- 
scences of Newberry," and in N. R.Brooks' "Bench and Bar." 
In quoting from a sketch of the house written by Mrs. McCrary, 
a great many of the facts of which were taken from the above- 
named sources, it is stated that 

"Coateswood, the home of Chancellor Job Johnstone at 
Newberry, S. C, was built by him about the year 1835. The 
plan of the building is that of an English basement house. It 
contains twelve rooms and two additional garret rooms, mak- 
ing four stories. The first story is of brick finished with stucco, 

286 



NEWBERRY 



the two upper stories and attic are of frame. The brick wall 
of the first story is solid and is twenty inches thick. The in- 
terior woodwork (mouldings, framings of doors and windows, 
mantels, etc.) is exceedingly tasteful. The carving was all 
done by hand and was the work of the contractor and builder, 
Phillip Schoppert, a citizen of Newberry. His handiwork is to 
be seen in many of the older homes of Newberry. 

' ' The brick in the house was all made upon the place and the 
lumber used was made from timber grown in Newberry 
County. The lime for mortar and plastering was imported 
and brought by wagon from Charleston. In the rear of the 
house and separated from it is the long brick kitchen, having 
a large open fireplace with crane. Another feature which 
dates far back is the Sun Dial between the house and kitchen. 
The house is located on the crest of the hill, which situation 
shows to advantage the good points of the establishment." 

Chancellor Job Johnstone was of Scotch-Irish descent, his 
parents, John Johnstone and Mary Caldwell, emigrating to 
this country and settling in Fairfield District, South Carolina, 
about three miles below Winn's Bridge on Little River. He 
was named for his maternal grandfather. Job Caldwell, of 
Londonderry, Ireland, who was in his day a distinguished 
physician. His early life was spent in Fairfield, Chester and 
Newberry Districts. Graduating at a very early age from the 
South Carohna College in 1810 he studied and practiced medi- 
cine for a short time, reading with Dr. Davis, of Columbia, and 
graduating at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New 
York, in 1815. Finding that profession unsuited to his tastes 
he turned to the law, for which he had always a leaning and to 
which he had previously given some study in the law offices 
of Mr. John Hooker at York and Mr. Clark at Winnsboro. In 
1817 he entered the office of John Belton O'NeaU at Newberry, 
and in the winter of 1818 was admitted to the Courts of Law 
and Equity, and formed a partnership with Mr. 'Neall. This 
partnership existed until 1828. He had in the meantime, in 
November, 1826, been elected Clerk of the Senate, serving until 
November 3, 1830, when he was elected Chancellor. In 1847 
he was made presiding Judge of the Equity Court of Appeals. 
This office he filled through all the changes in the Judiciary 
until 1859 when he was elected Associate Judge of the Court of 

287 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

Appeals. This last position lie accepted, and discharged most 
ahly its duties until his death in 1862. Mr. 'Neall, his partner 
at law and life-long friend, his senior by less than two months 
was closely connected \vith him again when each was elevated to 
the Supreme Bench as Chief Justice and Associate Justice. It 
may not be amiss in this connection to say that Chief Justice 
'Neall survived him by little more than a year, his death 
occurring on December 27th, 1863. 

In the War of 1812 Job Johnstone was appointed and com- 
missioned Quartennaster to the 36th Regiment, Eastern Divi- 
sion, May 26th, 1812, aged nineteen years. 

In 1832 he was a member of the celebrated Nullification Con- 
vention, and it is said that he assisted in drawing up the ordi- 
nance of nullification adopted by that body. He took an active 
part in organizing Aveleigh (Presbyterian) Church at New- 
berry and was made one of its elders. In compliment to him 
the name Aveleigh was given to the church, as that had been 
the name of the church of his forefathers in England. He was 
Commissioner to the first General Assembly of the Southern 
Presbyterian Church which met in Augusta, 6a., December 4th, 
1861, at which time the Southern Church formally withdrew 
from the Northern. 

In closing this sketch of the life of Chancellor Job John- 
stone and the description of his home, it is well to conclude with 
the tribute paid to him by his alma mater in a brief resume of 
his life, "It has been said that during twenty-one years of his 
administration no one lost his right or his estate through the 
maladministration of Job Johnston." 



CHAPTER XV 

JOSEPH McCULLOUGH HOUSE, FORT 
HILL, LOWTHER HALL, TOMASSEE 
AND THE BURT HOUSE IN ABBEVILLE 




THE JOSEPH McCULLOUGH HOUSE 

I HE Joseph McCullough house was built 
nearly a hundred years ago, on the old 
stage-coach road running from Green- 
ville, in the northwestern part of the 
state, to Augusta, Ga. The house, 
which is of brick, is set on a slight ter- 
race formed by a stone coping, the build- 
ing itself being placed about twenty feet 
back from the road, and privacy being insured by a row of fine 
old cedar trees. Although the material from which the house 
is constructed is brick, there is a most curious use of plaster to 
simulate a vari-colored stone. The plaster is applied to the 
bricks in blocks about two by three feet square, giving a beauti- 
ful, mellow effect, as the colors used are soft blue, pink, and 
granite, while the blocks are outlined with a narrow 
white edging. 

Originally the house had a shed room at the rear, as well 
as an upstairs piazza on the front. Each end of this piazza 
was enclosed to form a small room. These details are given 
in order to show how it was possible for this establishment to 
house so many people. 

In the days when there were no railroads in upper South 
Carolina all freight was handled on wagons, and all travel was 
by private conveyance, thus this homestead, which stands in 
the extreme lower corner of Greenville County, was used not 
only as a family residence, but as a public inn, by Joseph Mc- 
Cullough, who was a large landholder, a merchant, and a 
shrewd trader in all kinds of stock. The two latter avocations 
he was able to pursue to advantage by reason of the strategic 
position he had selected for his home. In those days of heavy 

19 289 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



travel from the seacoast to the mountains there was great 
necessity for accommodations for man and beast, including the 
hogs, mules, horses and other cattle that were driven on foot 
from Tennessee and Kentucky to the markets of Carohna. 
These creatures, as well as the traders and drovers accompany- 
ing them, had to be furnished with food and lodgings, and 
Joseph McCuUough prospered by providing them for all con- 
cerned. Thus the old house was, at one time, very much in 
demand as a public inn. 

Upon approaching the house from the road a traveler 
ascends the weather-beaten stone steps leading from the road 
to the terrace, and traverses the remains of an interesting look- 
ing formal garden to the piazza, which is reached by one gran- 
ite step, and from which immediate entrance is had to the 
house. At each gable end of the old place a massive chim- 
ney is found, and at the left side is a long wing, while just a 
few feet from the side steps of this wing is an old-fashioned 
well with the sweep and bucket. 

J. W. McCuUough, a grandson of the original owner, was 
raised at the old home, but had, he said, like most children, 
paid little attention to its history; all that he remembered 
was that the house was built by contract, of brick plastered 
over, and when finished the keys were handed over to 
his grandfather. 

Another relative, Mrs. T. S. McKittrick, of Toney Creek 
neighborhood, whose grandmother was a niece of the original 
o^vner, Joseph McCuUough, writes of the relationship, stating 
that the elder Mr. McCuUough was instrumental in bringing 
her grandparents to this country. She says, in speaking of 
the old inn: "My earliest recollection of the place is when it 
was a well-kept home with many beautiful outdoor shrubs and 
flowers, having also a well-furnished conservatory. To my 
childish mind the beautiful hothouse flowers were things 
of wonder. ' ' 

Still another member of the family is Mr. W. D. SulHvan, 
of Gray's Court, an old gentleman over eighty years of age, 
who takes much interest in such matters, and has written a 
great deal of historical data dealing with this section. His 

290 




THE JOSEPH McCULLOUGH HOUSE, ABOVE GREENVILLE 



JOSEPH McCULLOUGH HOUSE 

sister married one of the McCulloughs, and thus became lady 
of the house. Although still owned by the original family, it is 
no longer occupied by them; from the writer's personal visit 
to the place, however, and from letters of relatives the history 
of the old house has been compiled, the narratives of several 
■widely separated people agreeing as to names and dates. 

Mr. Sullivan suppUes an interesting story about the house 
itself in the following account: "In about 1850 I was at John 
Robinson's circus at McCuUough. We took care of the whole 
outfit. The manager made a great impression on me and I 
now call to mind that he had all the show people registered 
and assigned to rooms just hke a hotel. All the rooms of 
the house were numbered, with signs tacked on the doors on 
white papers. ' ' 

Other interesting anecdotes are told concerning this house 
and its inhabitants. As one of the writers naively says : "Old 
Joseph McCullough, from some of the things I have heard of 
him, was not a reUgious man. ' ' His characteristic as a shrewd 
trader is evidenced in a story told of his having packed a 
grindstone in a bale of cotton to increase its weight, and send- 
ing it to Atlanta to be sold. However, "chickens come home 
to roost," said the narrator of this incident, "and some time 
afterwards my grandfather was at the store when old Uncle 
Joe opened a barrel of sugar and there was the stone, which 
had come back to him. He called his cousin and partner, 'Oh, 
Read, come here,' and holding up the grindstone remarked, 'it 
looks familiar, doesn't it ! ' " 

It seems that old Colonel James McCullough, who inherited 
the house upon the death of his father, Joseph McCullough, 
was an officer in the Confederate Army, being Colonel of the 
16th South Carolina Volunteers. He was also a big planter, 
ran a general store, and ginned for the public. He and his 
wife, who was a Miss SulUvan, had no children, but they 
seemed to have loved young people, and to have been open- 
hearted, as they raised a dozen or more nieces and nephews. 

The original owner had other children than Colonel James 
McCullough, as we glean from the fact that J. W. McCullough, 
a grandson of Joseph (the first), is still Uving, although the 

291 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

house did not remain with him in the direct family Hne, but 
passed to the adopted son of Colonel James McCullough, Hon. 
Joseph A. McCullough, formerly of Grreenville, but now of 
Baltimore, Md. This latter is a prominent and well-known 
lawyer, in whose hands the old place now remains. 

Stirring times indeed must have been witnessed by this 
ancient structure, and one feels that the house and the owner 
thereof fit in very well with the spirit of the poem which says : 

"Let me live in a house by the side of the road 
Where the race of men go by ' ' 

PORT HILL, CALHOUN'S HOME 

"Fort Hill" is best known as the home of John C. Calhoun. 
The oldest part of the building was erected by Eev. James 
McEUienny, who was called to the pastorate of the ' ' Old Stone 
Church" in the present county of Oconee, about 1807. He 
named the place "Old Clergy Hall" and used it as a rectory 
because he and his son-in-law, the Eev. James Archibald 
Murphy lived there together. The Eev. McEIhenny was twice 
married, his first wife was Miss Jane Moore, of York District, 
but the second time he married a widow, a Mrs. Wilkinson, of 
John's Island, who was originally a Miss Smith, of Charleston. 
One of the daughters of this marriage married Lieutenant 
Hamilton Hayne, U. S. N., and her son was Paul Hamilton 
Hayne, the poet. That singer of rare and beautiful songs, so 
little known, was born in Charleston, S. C, in the house now 
standing on Ashley Avenue on the western side (one door 
north of Bull Street), now occupied by Mr. Gibson, superin- 
tendent of the Charleston Water Works. 

When Clergy Hall passed into the hands of the Calhoun 
family the name was changed from "Clergy Hall" to "Fort 
Hill, " and it is evident that at this time the wings to the house 
were added. The house is erected on a gentle slope in sight 
of the Seneca Eiver. It is one of the characteristics of the 
colonial buildings, that wdien a view is to be commanded the 
house is placed flat on the ground, and this house is no excep- 
tion. The building faces southwest and has a porch on that 

292 



r 




•FORT HILL," RESIDENCE OF JOHN C. CALHOUN, CLEMSON COLLEGE 




JOHN EWING CALHOUN HOME, NEAR CLEMSON COLLEGE 
Built by a Harrison, DOW ii residence of the Ravenci family 



FORT HILL 



side, but there are also porches on the north and south sides 
of the house. The present owners, nieces of John C. Calhoun, 
use the north porch as an entrance, but when the house was in 
the possession of John C. Calhoun he used the porch that faces 
east. Much attention is given to these porches because they 
are the best architectural feature of the house. Their columns 
are of brick, plastered over, and the flooring is paved with blue 
and white flagstones. The wood used in the construction of 
the house is probably cedar, because it is very prevalent on the 
estate. The inside woodwork is of red cedar. Formerly in the 
large rooms were a number of pictures that are now in the 
Clemson College library. There are now a great many relics 
in one of the rooms, some very handsome pieces of furniture ; 
among them a broad sofa, on which is carved a large eagle. It 
is said that the design of the eagle on the silver dollar was 
taken from this old sofa. The dining table of John C. Calhoun 
is another piece of furniture of interest in this house and an 
interesting chair, also Calhoun's piano complete the list. 

John C. Calhoun married his cousin, Floride Calhoun. In 
the f oUomng extract from a letter of Mrs. Calhoun, Floride 's 
mother, to Andrew Pickens, Jr., an interesting reference is 
made to this young girl who afterwards married John C. Cal- 
houn. The letter is dated September 2nd, 1800, and post- 
marked at Newport, September 4th. 

"I had the happiness to find my family well and my mind 
relieved of a great deal of anxiety occasioned by a foolish re- 
port which prevail'd in Charleston, that Floride was engaged 
to be married, and indeed so far as to say that the event had 
taken place, but there was not the least foundation for such a 
report . . . what anxiety a Daughter who is growing up 
occasions a Parent, but I have every reason to hope that she 
will be a comfort to me as few girls of her age conduct them- 
selves with more propriety. ' ' 

When at Fort Hill, Calhoun arose at daybreak and walked 
over the hills that made up his plantation. His keen eyes took 
in at a glance the condition of the fields and of the crops. At 
half-past seven he again entered his home and sat down to 
breakfast. Then he worked steadily in his office until three 

293 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



o'clock. The writing of long letters on public questions kept 
him busy. After dinner he read history and books of travel or 
carried on conversation mth distinguished visitors of whom 
he had many. 

It is interesting to note that John C. CaUioun inherited 
many of the characteristics of his pioneer progenitors, as will 
be found in an amusing anecdote of his father, Patrick Cal- 
houn, told by Judge 'Neal : 

"In the debate of a law in the legislature of the colony to 
give a premium of so many shillings for a Wolf's scalp, Patrick 
Calhoun (who settled in 1756 on Lory Cane, Abbeville County, 
the founder in South Carohna of the Calhoun family) is repre- 
sented as saying he would much rather 'gie a poond for a 
lawyer's scalp.' He was the same who, in 1765, was called 
Captain Calhoun, and who at the head of a company of rangers, 
was directed to escort the palatines to their settlement called 
Londonerry. His ^\'ife was Martha, sister to John Caldwell, 
who was an eminent surveyor and located much of the land in 
Newberry District. ' ' 

John Caldwell Calhoun, after a final speech on nullification, 
died on the last day of ]\Iarch. He was the most prominent 
advocate of State sovereigntj", was noted for his keen logic, 
his clear statements and demonstrations of facts, and his pro- 
found earnestness. Webster said concerning him that he had 
"the indisputable basis of high character, unspotted integrity, 
and honor unimpeached. Nothing grovelling, low, or mean or 
selfish came near his head. ' ' His sarcophagus is found in the 
western cemetery of St. Philip's Churchyard, Charleston, and 
a large monument stands on Marion Square. 

A painting in the City Hall at Charleston of John C. Cal- 
houn, executed by Healy, an American artist, is a much ad- 
mired one. It represents CaUioun in his characteristic attitude 
of addressing the Senate, with his left hand, beautifully femi- 
nine in appearance, upon his breast. On the cajivas in the 
background are several faces depicted, said to be of his con- 
temporaries. The painting is the masterpiece of Healy 's art. 

After Mr. Calhoun's death in 1850, Mr. Thomas C. Clemson, 
who married Calhoun's daughter, Anna Maria, sold his farm 
in Edgefield County and moved to Pendleton, his wife's child- 

294 



LOWTHER HALL 



bood home. By -will, Mr. Clemson gave to the State of South 
Carolina, a portion of that property in Pendleton for the pur- 
pose of establishing an agricultural college. On this property 
stands Clemson Agricultural College, which is now one of the 
largest colleges for men in the South. It is located on the divid- 
ing line between Pickens and Oconee Counties in the pictur- 
esque foothills of the Blue Eidge Mountains. It has an elevation 
of about nine hundred feet and commands an excellent view 
of the mountains. The climate is invigorating and healthful, and 
the surroundings are in every way favorable to the best physi- 
cal and mental development. 

One of the most interesting sidelights thrown upon the 
character of John C. Calhoun, is furnished in a book written 
by the late Mr. George W. Williams, describing the behavior 
of Calhoun — a visitor at Nacoochee, the WiUiams' Georgia 
Estate — when news was received that South Carolina had 
"nullified. " Mr. Williams tells of how Mr. Calhoun remained 
silent for several hours and betrayed the utmost agitation, 
walking swiftly up and down the corridor of the house with 
his hands behind his back. He knew the price the South would 
have to pay for the Doctrine of States Rights. 

LOWTHER HALL, PENDLETON 
Pendleton District Records concerning old homes have all 
been destroyed, although the county boasts a handsome Court 
House which is a beautiful piece of architecture, and which was 
formerly the "Farmers' Hall," now used as a Post Office. 
This building has been the scene of many historic gatherings, 
A visitor will be attracted by the old sun dial and the cannon 
in front called the "Red Shirt" cannon — "Red Shirts" being 
the name by which Hampton's men were known during the 
reconstruction days. 

Although the subject matter does not relate directly to 
Pendleton, it is of interest to know of a scene which trans- 
pired in old Oconee, formerly part of the Pendleton District, 
when Hampton was electioneering. One of the men who wit- 
nessed it, Mr. Charles Russell, now in his eighties, said that 

295 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

when Hampton spoke at Walhalla he stood on a little balcony 
outside of the hotel, the crowd being so large that no hall would 
contain it. The dramatic moment arrived when Hampton 
raised his right hand, leaned forward, and said to those rude 
mountain men to whom he was appeahng for support in the 
coming election intended to redeem South Carolina from Radi- 
cal Rule, ' ' Gentlemen, if I am elected to rule in this high office, 
by the Living God I will rule ! ' ' The crowd went wild. Hamp- 
ton was afterwards elected, and the mountain men flashed the 
news from peak to peak ; as in the old days of Grecian history, 
they signaled by fire. 

In speaking of the absence of records. Miss Annie Sloan, of 
Charleston, a descendant of the Sloan family long identified 
Avith the Pendleton district and whose ancestor built and oper- 
ated probably the oldest mill in consecutive use in South Caro- 
lina, said that at one time she visited a house bought by people 
without any regard for history and arrived just after papers 
relating to the Blockade Runners had been burnt. At another 
time her brother, Earl Sloan, rescued the manuscript notes of 
some of the celebrated German chemist, Lieber's, documents 
Avhich were being similarly disposed of. 

The Reverend C. C. Pinckney, at one time rector of the 
Episcopal Church built in 1820, spoke of his congregation- 
then composed of Earls, Calhoims, Hugers, Sloans, Hanckels 
and others — as being representative of the greatest collection 
of wealth and culture in the State. 

An interesting story connected with Pendleton concerns 
"Tommy Dawson," who dwelt vnth his daughter in a pretty 
little place right by the village of Pendleton. His garden was 
so beautiful that it led to the discovery of his story, which was 
that he had been a drummer-boy in the Enghsh army in the 
Battle of Waterloo, and afterwards became one of Queen 
Victoria's gardeners. 

There are some old homes in and around Pendleton, but as 
no records can be found, and few dates and Httle data of any 
special significance the history of this interesting section will 
have to be rather meagre. Tradition says that Lowther Hall 
is the oldest house in the town of Pendleton, but no one knows 

296 



LOWTHER HALL 



beyond the fact that there really was a Lord Lowther, and that 
he built or occupied as a hunting lodge the house now retaining 
his name. Lord Lowther was an Englishman and loved to 
roam. It is said that he perished at sea on his way back to 
America from England. Lowther Hall has been added to and 
almost entirely rebuilt in some parts. It is now in the pos- 
session of Edward A. Trescot. 

The original lodge was built of logs in one day, the founda- 
tion, sills, and all structural timber being of the same material. 
When the house was undergoing repairs the carpenters called 
attention to the massive timber of sohd tree trunks roughly 
adzed on four sides by hand, and in as perfect condition and as 
strong and fine as when first cut. The house was never nailed 
together, but mortised with foot-long oaken pegs. 

The present owner, Mr. Edward Trescot, says that the 
original lodge was said to have been a small two-room house, 
one up and one down, and was built by one of the Sloans, who 
afterwards went to England, taking with him a water color 
view of the Blue Eidge Mountains as seen from the rear of the 
house. Having used up all of his money, Mr. Sloan showed the 
picture to Lord Lowther, who Avas so much taken with it that 
he said he would buy the house as a hunting lodge. 

Whether the foregoing is really true is hard to ascertain. 
But a friend of the Trescot family who was connected with the 
Foreign Office in London made, about 1895, somewhat of an 
investigation of this tradition, and as a result was more than 
inclined to believe that Lord Lowther had owned and used the 
house as a hunting lodge. His letter to Mr. Trescot 's father 
bearing on the subject perished in a fire which destroyed the 
Trescot country home near Pendleton. 

From November, 1768, to January, 1772, there appeared in 
the Public Advertiser in London the celebrated "Junius Let- 
ters." Later these were published separately in two volumes. 
The identity of ' * Junius ' ' has remained forever a mystery. It 
is said that a man named Miller, who assisted in the printing 
of these letters, was forced or induced to leave England in 
order to keep this secret. It is also said that part of his pay 
was the printing outfit on which these political volumes were 

297 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

set up. Whether this latter is true or not, it is certain that 
Miller landed in Charleston with a printing outfit, located later 
at Pendleton, and there issued, from Lowther Hall, The Pen- 
dleton Messenger. It is a curious coincidence that one of the 
first sets of volumes of the "Junius Letters" found a resting 
place at Lowther Hall, where Miller first put up the printing 
press after issuing the letters in London, these volumes having 
been sent to Edward Trescot, great-grandfather of Edward 
Trescot, the present owner. 

The Trescot family were originally from Charleston and 
were wealthy and cultured people. Studying the Abstract of 
Titles will reveal the fact that they possessed, among other 
pieces of property, land in Hampstead, and on East Bay at the 
comer of Broad Street, where the Carolina Savings Bank now 
stands. The will of Edward Trescot, dated in 1818, states 
that he has four sons, John, George, Henry and Wilham, and 
names his grandchildren, Edward, Henry and Elizabeth, chil- 
dren of his late son WilUam. Space does not permit of tracing 
the ramifications of this family, the most distinguished member 
of which is William Henry Trescot, born in Charleston, S. C, 
1822, died in Pendleton, S. C, 1898. After graduation at the 
College of Charleston he studied law in the office of his uncle, 
Edward McCrady. Soon after his admission to the bar he 
married EUza Natalia Cuthbert and settled as a planter on 
Barnwell Island, an island on the coast which came down to his 
wife by Royal Grant of George III, where he lived until the 
plantation was occupied by Federal troops during the Civil 
War. At thirty years of age, in 1852, he was appointed Secre- 
tary of the Legation at London, served two years, returned to 
Charleston, occupying the house where his law office was, and 
reentered upon the practice of law, diplomatic and interna- 
tional subjects. As early as 1857 in Russell's Magazine it 
was said of him : 

"Our readers, we take it, mil scarcely need to be told that 
among the younger prose-writers of the South, Mr. Trescot is 
one of the most vigorous, thoughtful and matured. His two 
elaborate works upon the Diplomacy of the Revolution, and the 
Diplomatic History of the Administrations of Washington and 
Adams, have earned for him a wide and deserved reputation." 

298 



LOWTHER HALL 



Mr. Trescot became Assistant Secretaiy of State in 1860 ; 
during the Civil War not only served in the Legislature of 
South Carolina, but was on the staff of General Roswell S. 
Eipley. Of this period of his life Mrs. Chestnut says in her 
"Diary from Dixie": "Trescot is too clever ever to be a 
bore. . . . Calls himseK 'Ex-Secretary of State of the 
United States,' 'Nothing in Particular' of South Carohna or 
now the Confederate States. ' ' 

A less facetious pen, that of Governor McGraw, deals more 
justly with Mr. Trescot 's perceptions and sentiments, saying 
that with the election of a RepubUcan President, March 4, 
1861, to use the terse and expressive language of Trescot, "a 
circle was to be drawn around the South beyond which insti- 
tutions should not grow, and within which it was the expressed 
desire of an all powerful Government that they should gradu- 
ally perish, and that it should stand, like one of its own oaks, 
rung for slow but certain destruction." 

Mr. Trescot was assistant to the Hon. James L. Petigru in 
codifying the laws of South Carolina. In 1877 he was Consul 
for the United States before the Halifax Fishery Commission, 
and in 1880 he was Commissioner to China to negotiate a 
treaty, which he succeeded in signing. A list of the offices 
he held includes Special Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary to Chili in 1881, Commissioner to negotiate 
a commercial treaty with Mexico in 1882, and Delegate to the 
Pan-American Conference in 1889. 

Mr. Trescot was an able WTiter. His principal pubKshed 
works relate to diplomacy, upon which subject he is universally 
regarded as the highest authority in the South. He is the 
author of "Diplomacy of the Revolution," Appleton & Co., 
1852 ;" Diplomatic History of the Administrations of Wash- 
ington and Adams," Little, Brown & Co., 1857 ; "An American 
View of the Eastern Question," John Russell, 1854; "Address 
Before South Carolina Historical Society"; "Eulogy on Gen. 
Stephen Elliott before South Carolina Legislature," 1866; 
"Memorial of Gen. Johnston Pettigrew," 1870. 

In writing of his death which occurred in 1898, LeRoy F. 
Youmans calls him the "Greatest American Diplomat," and 

299 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

pays a tribute to Mr. Trescot in the News and Courier which 
cannot be quoted on account of its length, but which is illumi- 
nating and instructive. Edward Trescot has this to say of 
his father's death: "At the time of my father's death he had, 
I feel confident, been sent on more diplomatic missions than 
any other man. He was buried in the churchyard of St. Paul's 
Episcopal Church here, and upon the monument which marks 
his grave is a quotation from an address of his before the 
South Carolina Historical Association at Charleston in May, 
1859. It reads as follows: 'South Carolina . . . she will soothe 
the hours of that long twilight when we will creep gladly to 
her bosom, there to rest forever.' " 

TOMASSEE 

"Tomassee," the home of General Andrew Pickens, is of 
interest to the people of South Carolina not because of its 
beautiful architecture and costly equipment, but because it 
was the home of one of the most noted sons of our State. In 
the hills of South Carohna can be found the home that in many 
respects reflects the character of this noted statesman, soldier 
and scholar. 

In 1752, Andrew Pickens, a boy of thirteen years, was 
brought to the Piedmont section of South Carohna by his 
parents, who were in search of a milder climate than that of 
the States farther north from whence they came. As years 
passed on his strong character and undaunted courage made 
him a leader among men. At twenty-one years of age we find 
him a colonel in the expedition against the Cherokee Indians. 
In 1765 he married Miss Rebecca Calhoun, a daughter of Eze- 
kiel Calhoun, a prominent man of the Piedmont section. 

Historians have neglected to emphasize General Pickens' 
service to his country. He was widely kno^vn all through upper 
South Carolina for his piety and fearless bravery, and when 
he declared against George III men everywhere flocked to 
the patriot standard. Gen. Pickens never drew a cent of pay 
for his Revolutionary services, he felt his reward in the love of 
his country. Aside from many other honors bestowed upon 
him he was a member of the convention which formed the State 

300 



TOMASSEE 



Constitution. In 1794 he became a member of Congress, which 
then sat in Philadelphia. The following is quoted from a book 
concerning the Old Stone Church of Oconee County. 

"At that time there were neither railroads nor stage 
coaches. . . . All travel was done on horseback. Picture to 
yourself a man who was approaching his three score years, of 
martial figure and dignified demeanor, mounted on a spirited 
milk-white Andalusian steed, whip in hand, and hostlers filled 
with a brace of pistols, the silver mountings of which ghttered 
in the sunlight ; a three-cornered hat, from beneath the silvery 
gray hair, put smoothly back, and tied in a queue, and undress 
mihtary coat, ruffled shirt, fair top boots, with handsome silver 
spurs ; following at a little distance, on a stout draft house, is 
his African attendant, Pompey, in livery of blue, with scarlet 
facings, carrying a portmanteau, with a consequential and dig- 
nified air shomng in every movement the pride of a body- 
servant to his revered master. Paint tliis in your mind's eye, 
and you have before you a gentleman of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, Avith his servant on his way to Congress ; such was Gen- 
eral Andrew Pickens, as he passed through to Philadelphia 
in 1794." 

After refusing reelection to Congress, General Pickens re- 
tired to his old home, "Tomassee," where he died in peace and 
quiet on the 11th of August, 1871. In the cemetery of the Old 
Stone Church on the road between Pendleton and Fort Hill can 
be found on a simple tombstone this inscription: "General 
Andrew Pickens was bom 13th, September, 1739, and died 
11th August 1817. He was a Christian, a Patriot and Soldier. 
His character and action are incorporated with the history 
of his country. Filial affection and respect raises this stone 
to his memory. ' ' 

The Daughters of the American Revolution have converted 
Tomassee into a school for the mountain children, and it stands 
as a memorial to its owner. Pickens' library, which is very 
complete, is being used in this school. Near Tomassee stands 
a colonial fort, once garrisoned by the British, called 
Oconee Station. 

A little may be said here of General Pickens' younger son, 
Andrew, who afterwards became Governor of South Carolina. 
He was elected Just before the breaking out of the Civil War, 

301 



HISTORIC HOUSES OF SOUTH CAROLINA 

rendered distinguished service in the legislature, in Congress, 
at the Court of St. Petersburg and in the executive chair of the 
State. Governor Pickens' home stands in Charleston at the 
northeast corner of Smith and Beaufain Streets. Governor 
Pickens' son, Francis, was also Governor of South Carolina, 
thus we find that this family has been well represented in the 
poUtical history of the State. 

The family later became identified with the history of Edge- 
field County and in the toAvn of Edgefield is to be found a 
large old rambling wooden house, built and occupied by the 
Pickens family. 

One of the most interesting of the family was the 
daughter of the lovely Lucy Holcome, of Texas, and the 
Andrew Pickens who Avas the Ambassador to Eussia — her 
name being "Duscha." 

Duscha Pickens is said to have been the most fascinating 
woman of upjoer South Carolina. Although she was not beauti- 
ful, she had made, so it is said, a study of man and his moods, 
and could subjugate at a moment's glance the most doughty 
flirt of the opposite sex, and one of her descendants who now 
resides near Washington, D. C, is said to have inherited this 
peculiar quality of fascination. 

THE BUET HOUSE IN ABBEVILLE 

The house in Abbeville, S. C, known as the Burt house 
was built by Mr. David Leslie about the year 1850. The house 
was bought by Eev. T. Hoyt, a Presbyterian minister, who 
left Abbeville. Mr. Andrew Simonds was the next owner of 
this property. He was the president of the First National 
Bank of Abbeville. He married Sarah CaUioun, and with 
his wife later moved to Charleston, being connected with the 
First National Bank of Charleston. It is to be remarked that 
his two sons, Jolrn and Louis, now occupy the positions of 
President and Vice President of this establishment. 

The Simonds ' home in Abbeville came into the possession 
of Mr. Amiistead Burt, who was an intimate friend of Gen. 
George McDuffie, also of John C. Calhoun, and was the asso- 
ciate of Mr. Calhoun for years in Congress, being his nephew 

302 



THE BURT HOUSE, ABBEVILLE 

by marriage. Mr. Burt occupied this place during the Confed- 
erate War, and in this house, on the sixth of May, 1865, was 
held the last cabLaet meeting of the Confederacy, only three 
members being present in. addition to President Davis. 

It may be asked how so strange an historical coincidence 
came to pass, that in Abbeville ia the Burt house, was per- 
formed the last official act of the Confederacy, while hardly 
a stone's throw from the spot was Secession Hill, where four 
years previous was held the first of the Secession meetings, 
at which Judge Wardlaw of Abbeville vainly pleaded for some 
other way to be found for the South to secure her political 
rights than by secession. It may be said in. answer that Armi- 
stead Burt had been in the House of Representatives 
while Davis (afterwards President) was in the Senate, and 
a warm personal friendship had sprung up between these two 
men. It is only reasonable to suppose that when President 
Davis, his cabinet and escort, were retreating through South 
Carolina, after leaving the hospitable home of General M. W. 
Gary in Cokesbury because pursued by Federal forces, the 
thoughts of President Davis should turn to his friend Armi- 
stead Burt, and that he should seek shelter under his hospitable 
roof, there to hold the last meeting of his cabiaet. 

Tradition states that when the last official document had 
been signed and the official seal of the Confederacy impressed 
by Secretary of State Judah P. Benjamin, the great seal of 
the Confederacy was thrown into a well on the premises. Thus 
do we touch upon one of the great mysteries of Southern his- 
tory, the fate of the Great Seal of a Nation that perished. 

The following afternoon, hearing again, the Federal forces 
were only a few miles otf, it was deemed expedient for the 
President's party to push on and across the Savannah river, 
and endeavor to escape into Georgia. About midnight, there- 
fore, the order was given, slowly and wearily the soldiers 
went out of the town. As President Davis was captured and 
incarcerated soon after leaving the Burt house, this place has 
a peculiar significance in Southern history. 



ADDITIONAL HOUSES OF HISTORIC INTEREST 
IN SOUTH CAROLINA 



Below are given names of houses not included in the present volume 
for lack of space. These include the most important. 

A Abbeville — Town and County. 

Cheves Homestead (County). 
Wardlaw Home (Town). 

B Barnwell— Town and County. 

Aldrich Homestead (To^vn). 
Hagood Residence (Town). 
Hagood Homestead (County). 

The Brabham House at Bhrhardt, S. C, Barnwell Co. 
The Ford House (County). 

C Camden. 

Tom Kirkland's House (County). 
The Boykin Home (County). 

Old Cheraw — Town, County, District. 
Kollock (County). 
Duval (Town). 

House near Basterling's Mill where Gen. Winfield Scott stayed. 
Hartwell Edward's Home — Mar's Bluff. 
J. W. Wallace's Home near Mar's Bluff. 
Old Houses at Society Hill (Old Cheraw District) . 
Pegues (Town). 

Chester — Town and County. 
Davie Homestead — Langford Section (County). 
"Red Bank"— The Eberhardt Home, Chester County. 
Arthur Gaston's Residence (Town). 

D Darlington. 

James Homestead (Town). 

B. M. Williamson House (Darlington County). Built in 1812 by 
Jordan Sanders. 

E Edgefield. 

Hammond Houses near Hamburg (Old Edgefield District). 
The Bettiss, Bouknight Place (County). 
The Pickens' Home (Town). 

O Georgetown. 

" Chantilly," Alston Place (County). 
House from which Major James escaped. 
304 



ADDITIONAL HOUSES OF HISTORIC INTEREST 

M Marion. 

Jacob Brawler's Primitive Home (Marion Comity). 

Gen. G. N. Evans' House (Marion Town). 

"Pierre Haven" — Home of Judge C. A. Woods (Town). 

Orangeburg. 

The John Cart Home (Town) . 
The Bull Residence CTown). 
Salley Residences (County). 

S Sumter. 

The Colcalough Homestead. 
The Dick Homestead. 

W Winnsboro. 

The MacMaster Homes, "Winnsboro (Town). 
The James Kincaid House, "Winnsboro (Town). 
Comwallis' Headquarters, "Winnsboro. 

r York. 

The Bratton House (Scene of Huck's defeat). 
The Bratton Homestead (Town). 

It has not been considered needful to include in this list the houses 
in Charleston, S. C, which have received such adequate treatment in 
the "Dwelling Houses of Charleston," by Miss Alice Smith and her 
father, Mr. D. E. Huger Smith. 



20 



INDEX 



Abbeville, 302 

Academy of Fine Arts, 127 

Additional Houses of Historic Interest, 
List of, 304, 305 

Agassiz, Prof., 198 

Agriculture, Pinckney's Lovet of, 105 

Aiken Family, 280 

Ainsley Hall, 262 

All-Saints, 115 

All-Saints, Act of Assembly, 115 

All-Saints, Church Register, 115 

All-Saints, Commissioners for build- 
ing, 115 

All-Saints, Waccamaw, 115 

AUston, Washington, The Artist, 118, 
125 

AUston, Benj., 114 

AUston, R. F. W., Governor, 125 

AUston, Wm., 118 

Alston, Joseph, 118 

Anderson, Dr., 170 

Anderson Family, 165, 168, 169 

" Ancient Lady," 30, 88 

Archdale Hall, 194 

Argyle, 164 

Argyle, Duke of, 27 

Ashby Family, 83 

Ashley Ferry, 193 

Ashley River, 3 

Aston Hall, 49 

Back Kiver, 22 

Bacon's Bridge, 195 

Baker Family, 195 

Balfour, Col. Nesbit, 6 

Ball, Alwyn, 45 

Ball Alwyn, Jr., 40 

Ball Book, 35, 37-40, 45, 47, 50, 76 

Ba;ll, Eleanor, 37 

Ball, Elias, 36-38, 40, 85 

Ball, Elias, (Red Cap), 40 

Ball Family, 18, 36, 37, 47, 49-51, 83, 

85 
BaU, John, 18 
Ball, John Coming, 86 



Ball, Mrs. I. G., 40 

Ball, Wm., 18 

Bamboretta, 72 

Barbary Pirates, 15 

Barker, Abbie Ann, 53 

Barker Family, 57, 58 

Barker, Sanford, 58 

Barker, Theo. G., 57 

Barksdale, Thomas, 181-183 

Barnwell Castle, 246 

Barnwell Family, 241-243 

Barnwell, Founder of Beaufort, 241 

Baruch, Bernard, 130 

Bay, The, 243-245 

Bearhill, 107 

Beaufort, 237, 240-242 

Beaufort Families, 240-241 

Bee's Ferry, 201 

Beech Island, 62 

Belfast, 281, 282 

Bellinger's Ferry, 21, 201 

Bellinger House, 10 

Bellinger, Landgrave, 235 

Bellinger, Mr., 10 

Belle Isle, 137 

Belmont, 17 

Belvideq-e (Charleston Neck), 12-16 

Belvidere (EutawvUle), 139-141 

Benjamin, Judah P., 303 

Bennett, John, 31 

Bearesford Bounty, 186 

Beresford, Richard, 186 

Biggin Church, 41 

Biggon Church, 71 

Black Dragoons, 65 

Blake Family, 193, 208 

Blanton Duncan House, 266 

Bleak Hall, 222 

Blessing, The, 80 

Blome, Richard, 1 

Bloomfield, 24 

BloomhiU, 165 

Bluff, Thei, 47 

Bonneau Family, 77 

Bonneau's Ferry, 76 

307 



INDEX 



Bonneau, Dr. Peter Porclier, 184 

Boone, Daniel, 179 

Boone Hall, 179 

Bosais, 77 

Boyleston House, 258 

Brahamville Acadeimy, 277 

Brailsford Family, 157 

Brewton, Miles, 6 

Brick House, 213, 229 

Brisbane Family, 27 

British Museum, 146 

Broad Path, 16, 21, 22 

Broughton Family, 58, 59, 62 

Broughton, Mary, 67 

Broughton, Mrs. Nath., Letter, 61 

Broughton, Thos., 73 

Bryan, Geo., Judge, 11 

Bryan, Jonathan, 11 

Bull Family, 241 

Bull, Stephen, 241 

Bull, Wm., 241 

Burden, Kinsey, 209 

Burnham Grant, 16 

Burr, Aaron, 118, 119 

Burr, Theodosia, 118 

Burt, Armistead, 302, 303 

Burt House, 302, 303 

Caeey Family, 251-254 

Cainhoy, 185 

Calais, 18 

Calhoun Family, 292-294 

Calhoun, John C, 292-294, 302 

Camden, 161, 171, 172 

Cameos of Colonial Carolina, 67-69 

Campbell, Mad Archie, 27, 77, 79 

Camp Main, 107 

Camp Veie, 80 

Cannon, Mrs. G., 54 

Cantey Family, 159 

Cantey, John, Capt., 26 

Capers, Ellison, Bishop of S. C, 138 

Carolina Bourbon, 136 

Carolina Cavalier, 71 

Carroll, B. R., Historical Collection, 1 

Carson Family, 34 

Carson, Jas. P., 34 

Cartaret Tract, 12 

Casa Bianca, or White House, 126, 127 

308 



Caatle Ruin, 72 

Cat Island, 107, 111 

Catawba Indians, 21 

Cavalier Stock, 2 

Cedar Hill, 80 

Chacan, 66 

Channing Family, 50 

Chantilly, 187 

Chapman, Clarence E., Owner of Mul- 
berry, 63 

Charles Town, 3, 4 

Charleston, Beaufort, 233 

Charleston, College of, 198 

Charleston Country Club, 12, 16 

Charleston, Evacuation of, 12 

Charleston, first site of, 202 

Charleston Museum, 110, 226 

Charleston Neck, 12, 124, 188, 190 

Charleywood Plantation, 187 

Chatham, 193 

Chee-Ha River, Plantations on, 236 

Cheraws District, 269 

Cherokee, 125 

Cherokee Indians, 242, 300 

Cherry Hill, 80 

Chesterfield County, 269 

Chestnut Family, 176 

Cheves, Langdon, 3, 239 

Chicken, Catherine, 81 

Chicken, Mrs. Lydia, 40 

Chicora College, 265 

Child, James, 41 

Child, Lydia, 49 

Childs Family, 169 

Childsbury, 41, 193 

Christ Church, 179 

Christ Church Parish, 14, 178, 179 

Church Act, 58 

Circus, John Robinson's, 291 

City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 
12, 100 

Clay Hill, 194 

Clement, John, 18 

Clement's Ferry, 18 

Cleanson, 294 

Clemson College, 295 

Clemson Family, 295 

Clinton, Sir H., 6 

Coateswood, 286 



INDEX 



Cochran, Captain, 7 

Cochran's Ship Yard, 16 

Colcock, Miss Annie T., 71 

Colleton Family, 32 

Colleton, Sir John, 59, 67, 70 

Colonial Exhibit, 190 

Columbia, 255 

Combahee, 234 

Combahee and its settlements, 234 

Coming, Aflfra, 36 

Coming, Capt. John, 36 

Coming Family, 36 

Coming Tee, 36 

Coming's Tee, 32-36 

Coming Tee Brick House, 38 

Coming Tee, Garden at, 38 

Commg Tee Wooden House, 38 

Comings Family, 74 

Confederacy, Seal of, 303 

Confederate Cabinet, last meeting, 303 

Confederate Cavalry, 105 

Confederate War, 199, 246 

Conscience, Liberty of, 2 

Continental Congress, 43 

Cooper River, 12, 14, 18, 19 

Copley, 28 

Cordes Family, 132 

Cornwallis, 43, 168 

Cornwallis at Hillcrest, 168 

Cornwallis House, 171 

Cornwallis, Lord, 64 

Cote Bas, 19 

Cotton, 123 

Country lifei in S. C, 88 

Court Times, 271 

Courtenay, Mayor, Year Book, 108 

Craig Family, 270-273 

Craig Family in Civil War, 272 

Craig House, 269, 270 

Craven, Governor, 12 

Crawford House, 258, 259 

Croft, Mr. Hill, 21 

Cromartie, Earl of, 23 

Crovatts, 26 

Crowfield Hall, 24 

Cunningham, Ann Pamela, foimder of 

Mt. Vernon Assn., 276-279 
Cunningham Family, 277 
Cunningham House, 276 



Cypress Barony, 32, 84 

Dalcho's Church History, 151 

I>aniers Island, 14, 187 

Darlington County, 269 

Daughters of the Revolution, 191 

Davis, President, 303 

Dean Hall, 31-34 

De Brahm, Wm. Gerard, 210 

De Bruhl House, 260 (See Marshall 

House ) 
Dejamere, Mary, 37 
Delegates to Provincial Congress, 1775, 

St. Mark's Parish, 155 
DeLiesline, Francis 6., Narrative, 91, 92 
DeSaussure, Chancellor, 261 
DeSaussure, Daniel, 239 
DeSaussure Family, 173-175, 239 
DeSaussure House, 261 
Diary from Dixie, 263, 266, 299 
Dicey's Ride, 275 
Dockon, 54 

Donaldson, John 0. Willson, 250, 251 
Dorchester, 192 
Dover, 17 

Dover to Calais, 18 
Drayton Family, 202, 203 
Drayton Hall, 202 
Dress of the women, 1738, 194 
Dry, Wm,, 21 
DuBose, Jacques, 54 
DuBose, Samuel, Reminisences of St. 

Steven's Parish, 153, 154 
Duels, 189 

Dwelling Houses of Charleston, 2, 3 
Dwight Family, 137 

Eddings, Capt. Wm., 214, 219 

Eddings Family, 217, 219 

Eden Hall, 280 

Edgefield County, 302 

Edisto, characteristics of inhabitants, 

215 
Edisto Inlet, 215 
Edieto Island, 213 
Edisto Island, Bounds of, 215 
Edisto Island, Confederate! Soldiers 

on, 220 
Edisto Island, The Burrough, 220 

S09 



INDEX 



Edisto Island, Commissioners, 228 

Edisto Island, Episcopal Church, 228 

Edisto Island, families owning plan- 
tations on, 216 

Edisto Island, Plantations on, 224 

Edisto Island, Spaniards at, 231 

Ellington, Rev. Mr., 27 

Elliott, Capt. Barnard, 10 

Elliott Family, 238, 246-248 

Elliott and Gibbes' Burying Ground, 
209 

Elliott, Mrs. Phoebe, 247 

Elliott, Thomas, 18 

Elliott, Wm., Carolina Sports, 233, 235, 
236 

Elliott, Col. Wm. 244 

Elms, The, 28 

Elwood, 45 

Emerson, Mr., owner of Prospect 
Hill, 122 

England, Church of, 22 

England, Koyal Arms, 22 

English Settlement, 22 

Episcopal Residence, 10, 11 

Eutaw Springs, 138, 139 

Exeter, 67 

Fairfield, 72, 94 

Fairlawn Barony, 1, 32, 57, 70 

Farmfield, 77 

Fawnliill, 106 

Fenwick Castle, or Headquarters, 19, 

209-212 
Fenwick Family, 209-212 
Ferguson Family, 54-57 
Ferguson, Fannie, 53 
Ferguson, James, 53 
Ferguson, Mrs. General, 54 
Ferguson, Thos., 54 
Ferguson, Wives of, 55, 56 
Fej-ry rates in 1754, 201 
Finley, Capt., 252, 253 
Fischer and Wife, 16, 17 
Fishburne, Mrs. K., 141 
Fish Pond, 74 
Fitzsinunons Family, 62 
Fitzsimmons, Samuel Barker, 63 
Fleury de la Plein, Abraham, 22 
Fleury de la Plein, Isaac, 23 
310 



Fontainebleau, 200 

Ford, Timothy, 42, 47 

Ford, Timothy, Diary, 233, 237, 240 

Formal Gardens, 24, 25 

Fort Hill, 292 

Four Mile House, 16 

Freer Family, 213 

Friday's Ferry, 254-256 

Friendfield, 123 

Friendship Presbyterian Church, 281 

Frierson Family, 165 

Frierson, James Nelson, 165 

Frigate " Columbia," 15 

Frogmore, 227 

Frost, Misses, 5 

Fuller Family, 206 

Furniture, St. John's Berkley, 132 

Gadsden, Christopher, 57 

Gadsden, Wm. S., 9 

Gaillard, David, Engineer, 150 

Gaillard Family, 149, 150 

Gaillard, John, 148, 152 

Gaillard, John, President of U. S. for 

24 hours, 148 
Garden, Dr., 17, 27 
Garden, Mrs. Alexander, 208 
Garden, Rev. Alex., 186 
Gascoyne, Joel, 2 
Gazette, 22 
Geddings, Dr. Eli, 29 
Geiger, Emily, 254, 255 
General Muster, Cheraw District, 271 
Georgetown , 112 
Gervais, John Louis, 209 
Gibbes Art Gallery, 127 
Gibbes' Documentary History, 21 
Gibbes Family, 189, 209, 211 
Gibbes House, 188 
Gibbes, John, 189 
Gibbes, Mary Anna, 208 
Gippy, 71 

Girardeau, Rev. Thomas J., 107 
Glasgow, Agnes of, 172 
Glebe lands, 36 
Glen, Governor, 12, 97 
Goose Creek, 19, 22, 24, 29 
Goose Creek Church, 22 
Gourdin Family, 152 



INDEX 



Gourdin, Harriette P., 139 

Gourdin, Martha, 152 

Granby, 251 

Granby, Fort, 251-253 

Graves, Admiral, 71 

Graves, Life of Mrs., 70 

Green, Helen Coles Singleton, 163 

Green Meadow, 107 

Greene, General, 65, 138, 139, 164, 195 

Greene, Gen., at Hillcrest, 168 

Gregorie Family, 184 

Grimball Family, 224 

Grimball's Point of Pines, 224 

Grimball, Mrs. Wm., 54 

Grimke's Digesit, 2 

Grove, The, 188 

Guerard's Corner, 10 

Guerins BridgCj 187 

Guignard Family, 251-253 

Guignard, Rev. Mr., 251-253 

Hagan, The, 78 
Haggatt Hall, 196 
Hall, Ainsley, 262 
Hall, Maria, 27 
Halsey Family, 164 
Halsey, Mrs. Leroy, 159 
Hamilton, 26 
Hamilton Family, 228, 244 
Hamilton, Miss Mary, 244 
Hamilton, Paul, 229, 243 
Hammond, Mrs. James, 260 
Hammonds, 62 
Hampton, 101 
Hampton Family, 263 
Hampton, Gen., 263 
Hampton Park, 189 
Hampton, Col. Wade, 41, 65 
Hampton, Gov. Wade, 160 
Hampton at Walhalla, 296 
Hanover House, 141 
Hanscom, Joseph, 200 
Harleston Family, 33, 36, 74-77 
Harleston, Col. John, 46, 77 
Hartford House, 187 
Hastie Family, 205 
Hay, Kev. P. D., 67 
Hayfield Farm, Dr. Harris', 16 
Hayne, 255 



Hayne, Col. Isaac, 6 

Hayne, Paul Hamilton, 292 

Hazlehurst, Robetrt, 187 

Headquarters, 163 

Hearst, Wm. Randolph, 280 

Hext Family, 213 

Hext, Sarah, 10 

Heyward Family, 8, 53, 54 

Heyward, Frank, 53 

Heyward House, 7, 8 

Heyward, Marie,, 54 

Heyward, Nathaniel, 18 

Heyward, Panchita, 54 

Heyward, Judge Thomas, 7-9 

Hillcrest, 167 

Hillcrest, Library at, 170 

Hillcrest, Treasures at, 170 

Historical Commission in Columbia, 229 

History of the Turf, 161 

Hobcaw Barony, 124 

Hodgson, Adam, 101 

Holmes, Hon. John Ben, Recorder, 7 

Holmes, Prof. F. S., 198, 199 

Home Place, 161 

Hooper Family, 168 

Hopkinson Family, 222 

Hopkinson, Francis, 222 

Hopkinson Houses, 221 

Hopkinson, Mr., 218 

Hopseewee, 106, 107 

Horlbeck Family, 179-181 

Horry, Daniel, 102 

Horry, Elias, 93 

Horry, Harriet, 77 

Howard, Gen., Hdqrs., 267 

Huger, Alfred, 82 

Huger's Bridge, 32 

Huger, Daniel, 79, 84 

Huger Family, 84, 128, 129 

Huger, Dr. Wm. Harleston, 77, 78 

Hughes, Henry, 3 

Hughson, Shirley Carteir, 137, 200 

Huguenot Church, 31 

Huguenot Refugees, 93 

Huguenot Settlement, 22 

Huguenot Seittlers, St. John's, 134 

Huguenot Transactions, 131 

Hut, The, 74 

Hyde Park, 86 

311 



INDEX 



Indian Trade, 214 
Indian Tribes, 94 
Indian War, 58, 59 
Indigo, 114, 133, 159, 215, 216 
Ingleside, 198, 199 
Ingraham Family, 50 
Ingraham, John Henry, 74 
Irving, Dr. J. D., 41, 53, 72, 81 
Irving's History of the Turf, 33 
Itinerary of Bishop, 1855, from South- 
ern Episcopalian, 116 
Izard Family, 28, 126, 195, 210 
Izard House, 11 

Izard, Mr. and Mrs., Portrait, 28 
Izard, Ealph, 28, 29 

Jacksonborough, 192 

Jackson Family, 210 

Jamestown, 94, 192 

Jenkins Family, 223, 230 

Jenkins, Micah, 209 

Jockey Club, 20, 78, 189 

John's Island, 208 

John's Island Burying Grounds, 208, 

209, 213 
Johnson, Andrew, 274 
Johnson, Dr., 27, 54, 55 
Johnson, Govprnor, 12 
Johnson, Sir Nathaniel, 67 
Johnstone Family, (Chancellor), 286- 

288 
Johnstone, J. A., Gen., Hdqrs. of, at 

Columbia, 260 
Jones, A. J., 69 
Jones Family, 210 
Junius letters, 297, 299, 300 

Kensington, 86 
Kexshaw Fam.ily, 171 
Kershaw, Rev. John, 172, 173 
Kershaw, Gen. Joseph Brevard, 172, 173 
Kinard, House, 265, 266 
Kinloch Family, 112 
Kittredge, Benj., 32, 35 
Ku Klux Days, 258 

La Bruce Family, 117 
La Bruce, Joseph, 117 
312 



Lachicottei Place, 187 

Ladson, John, 17 

LaFayette, 11, 28, 43, 57, 114, 122, 129, 

130, 173, 218, 221, 222, 245, ?46, 

261, 262 
Lancaster, 283 
Lander College, 250 
Langley, Miss M. Elise, 31 
Laurel Hill, 227 
Laurels, The, 196 
Laurens County, 274 
Laurejis Family, 43, 44 
Laurens, Henry, 37, 42-44 
Laurens, John, 44, 189 
Laurens, John Samuel, 42 
Laurens, John, Voyage of, 44 
Lausanne, De Saussure Homestead, 173 
Lausanne, Lafayette entertained at, 173 
Law Suit, Laurens vs Laurens, 80 
Lawson, John, 94 
Lawton, Mrs. Cecelia, 18 
Lee, Light Horse Harry, 195 
Legarei, Hugh, 136 
Legareville, 213 
Leland, Dr., 261 
Lely, Sir Fetei, 68 
Lewisfield, 63-66 
Limerick, 53, 84, 90 
Litchfield, 120 
Little Edisto, 225 
Littli^ Miss Rebellion, 23 
Lloyd, John, 22 
Locke Island, 214 
Lockwood, 22 

Lockwood, Mrs. Dunbar, 141 
Long Point Creek, 16, 17 
Longwood, 82 
Lowndes, Rawlins, 24 
Lowther Hall, 295, 297 
Lucas, E., 53 

Lucas, Eliza, 24, 25, 202, 208 
Lucas, Col. George, 96 
Lucas, John Hume, 107 
Lynch, John, 107 
Lynch, Thomas, Signer, 107 
Lynch, Thomas, 110 



INDEX 



Madison, Mrs. Dolly, 162 

Magnolia Cemetery Company, 16 

Magnolia Gardens, 204 

Magnolia Umbra, 12 

Magwood's Gardens, 202 

Maham, Col. Hezekiah, 117 

Manchester, 159 

Manigault, Ann, 28 

Manigault, Charles I., 29 

Manigaulft, Elizabeth, 18 

Manigault, Dr. Gabriel, 18, 28 

Manning Family, 157 

Manning, E, I., War Governor, 158 

Mansion House, 197 

Marion, Gen. Francis, 65, 102, 137, 200 

Marion's Oak, 200 

Marlboro Court House, 269 

Marsh, The, 107 

Marshall House, Sometimes called De 

Bruhl House, 260 
Marshland, 18 
Martin, Judge Wm., 261 
Mathews, Lois, 27 
Matthews, Gov. John, 196 
Mazyek Family, 143, 144 
Medway, 29, 30 
Melrosei, 159 
Mepkin, 42 
Mepshew, 52 
Michaux, Andrew, 24 
Middleburg, 81, 82 
Middleton, Admiral Sr. G. Brook, 24 
Middleton, Arthur, 24, 25 
Middleton, Arthur, Signer, 25 
Middleton, Arthur C, 26 
Middleton, Chas. Edward, 23 
Middleton, Commodore, 25 
Middleton Family, 25, 228 
Middleiton Gardens, 207 
Middleton, Henry, 21, 23 
Middleton, Henry A., 25 
Middleton, Lady Mary, 23 
Middleton, Thomas, 24 
Middleifcon, Wm., 24 
Midway, 160 
MikeU Family, 219, 227 
Miles Brewton House, 4-7 
Milford, 156 
Milford, Manning's Folly, 156 



Mill, oldest in S. C, 296 

Millbrook, 207 

Mill Dam, 107 

Mills, Statistics, 58, 147, 216 

Milton, Old Mill, 275 

Mitchell, John, 72 

Mitchell, Julian, 224, 225 

Monck's Comer, 70 

Monroe, President, 122 

Monjtcrief, Col., 17 

Moore House, 260, 261 

Moreland Family, 202 

Morton, John, Inventory of estate of, 
231, 232 

Mortons and Wilkinsons, 230-232 

Mottei, Jacob, 178 

Motte, Rebecca, 6, 103, 104 

Motte, Miss Sarah, 15 

Moultrie Family, 48-50 

Moultrie, Dr. Jas., 48 

Moultrie, Gen. Wm., 12, 50 

Mount Boone, 194 

Mount Moriah, 94 

Mt. Pleasant, 178, 200 

Mt. Vernon, 276-279 

Mulberry, The, 58-63 

Mulberry, Home of Author of " Diary 
from Dixie," 175-177 

Murray's Register, 216 

Musgrove Mill, Revolutionary Battle- 
field, 275, 276 

Musgrove's Mill, 274, 275 

Muster Ground for Militia, 21 

McCall's History of Georgia, 275 

McCord, Louisa, 267 

McCrady's History, 4, 87, 274, 275, 

283, 284 
McCuUough Family, 290-292 
McDuffie, Geo., 160, 271, 302 
McLaughlin's Grant, 17 

Navy Yard, 18-20 

Negro Education, 180 

Negro Life on Rice Plantations, 238 

Negro Story, 66 

Nelson Family, 157 

Nelson's Ferry, 155 

Nesbit, Sir Aleixander, 33 

313 



INDEX 



Newberry, 286 
Newington, 193 
New London, 192 
Newman, Dorman, 1 
Niersee, Arcliitect, 266 
North Island, 128 
Northrop, Bishop, 10, 11 
North Santee, 106 
Nullification Convention, 288 

Oak Hill, 117 

Oak Island, 218 

Oakland Plantation, 181 

Oaks, Tliei, 23, 118, 164 

Oatland, 120 

Observation of the Lord's Day, 2 

Odenheimer Family, 35 

Old Cheraws, Gregg's History, 269 

Old Dominion, 226 

Old Fashioned Dances, 151 

Old Field, 134 

Oldfield Barracks, 178 

Old House, 197 

Oldmixon, 1, 29 

Old Preitender, The, 23 

Olney Family, 163 

O'Neale's Annals of Newberry District, 

294 
Ordinance of Secession, 11 
Ordinary, 21 
Otranto, 26, 27 
Oyster Point, 36 

Page, Thos. Nelson, 205 
Pain, James, 21 
Palmex Family, 137 
Parker Family, 199, 200 
Parker, Mrs. John Rose, 114 
Parnassus, 29 
Parsons, Edwin, 23 
Paul House, 11 
Peaceful Retreat, 209 
Peale, Rembrandt, 174 
Pecan Trees, 181 
Pendleton, 295 

Pennington, Patience, 126-128 
Perry, Dr. Benj. Lucas, 197, 198 
Perry Family, 194, 197 
Peter's Point, 227 
314 



Petigru, James L., 27, 35, 299 

Phosphate Deposits, 198 

Pickens, Gen. Andrew, 300 

Pickens, Duscha, 302 

Pickens Family, 300-302 

Pierce Family, 210 

Pillmoor, Joseph, 183 

Pimlico, 50-52 

Pinckney at Court of St. James, 99 

Pinckney, Gen. C. C, 7, 96-101 

Pinckney, Rev. Charles Cotesworth, 
D.D., 106, 296 

Pinckney, Charles, Chief Justice, 17 

Pinckney, Cotesworth, 94 

Pinckney, Eliza Lucas, 17 

Pinckney Family, 94-99 

Pinckney, First Minister to London, 98 

Pinckney's Funeral at St. Philip's 
Church, 106 

Pinckney, House of, 97 

Pinckney, Life of, 106 

Pinckney, Mrs. Marion De Veaux, 166 

Pinckney Plains, 194 

Pinckney's Swords, 106 

Pinckney Tablet, St. Michael's Church, 
100 

Pinckney, Gen. Thomas, 98, 103, 106 

Pine Hill, 194 

Pinen'ille, 147 

Pineville Ball, 151 

Plantations Inland, of Fairlawn Bar- 
ony, 71, 72, 73 

Pleasant Meadow, 107 

Poinsett, Joel R., 169 

Poinsett, Joel, 16, 126, 127 

Point Comfort, 51, 52 

Point, The, 243 

Pollock, Sir Henry, 25 

Pope House, 227-229 

Poplar Hill, 197 

Porcher Family, 134-136 

Porcher, Isaac, 23, 184 

Porcher, Philip,, 27, 134, 152, 182 

Porgson, Rev. Mr., 26, 53 

Pottery, 29 
Pourtales, Count, 198 
Powder -Horn buildings, 12 



INDEX 



Poyas, 22 

Poyas, Catherine Gendron, 88-90 

Preston Family, 263 

Preston House, 262-265 

Preston House, distinguished guests 

at, 264 
Preston House, Garden of, 263 
Preston House, Hdqrs. of Gen. J. A. 
Logan, 264 

Preston House, Presbyterian College 

for Women, 265 
Pre,ston House, Saved by Mother Supe- 
rior, 264 

Primitive mill, 280, 281 

Prince George Winyah, 112 

Pringle, John Julius, 206 

Pringle, Mrs. John Julius, 127 

Prioleau, Rev. Elias, 31 

Prioleau Family, 77 

Prioli, 31, 76, 77 

Prospect Hill (Edisto Island), 224, 225 

Prospect Hill (Georgetown), 121, 122 

Provincial Library, 3 

Pulaski, steamer, 5 1 

Purrysburgh, 192 

Pyatt, or Alston House, 114 

Pyatt, John S., 120 

Pylis Reuben, Journal of, 279 

Quarter House, 20, 21 

Quimby, 82, 83 
Quinby, 53, 82-84 
Quinby Creek, 32 

Radnor, 193 
Randolph, John, 33 
Rat Trap, The, 16 
Ravenel, DanieJ, 33, 59 
Ravenel Family, 142-145 
Ravenel Herbarium, 145, 146 
Ravenel, Ren6, 131 
Ravenel, St. Julien, 16 
Ravenel, Mrs. St. Julien, 17 
Rawdon, Lord, 6 
Read, D. Harleston, 46 
Red Bank, 29 
Reese Family, 165 
Re,ese House, 165 



Religious Freedom in S. C, 98 

Reynolds House, 165 

Rhett, R. G., 9 

Rice, 9, 30, 39, 60, 81, 102, 105, 114 

Rice Fields, 33 

Rice Hope, 46, 107 

Rice, James Henry, 234 

Rice, James Henry, Jr., 234 

Rieg Mills, 108, 109 

Richardson Family, 157 

Richmond, 77 

Ripon, Lord, 211 

Roper Family, 52, 213 

Roosevelt, Mrs. Nicholas, 141 

Rosemont, 276, 279 

Ruins, The, 165 

Runnymede, 206 

Russeil, Chas., Pioneer, 295, 296 

Russell's Creek, 226 

Russell's Magazine, 154 

Rutledge, Archibald H., 102 

Rutledge, Edward, 7, 10 

Rutledge, Capt.. Edward, 16 

Rutledge Family, 10 

Rutledge, Frederick, 77, 102 

Rutledge, Mrs. Frederick, 102 

Rutledge, Col. H. M., 102 

Rutledge, Harriet Horry, 16 

Rutledge, Henry, letter concerning 

Burr, 119, 120 
Rutledge House, 9 
Rutledge, Hugh, 10 
Rutledge, John, Dictator, 9, 10, 165 

Salley, A. S., Jr. 22, 30, 48, 58, 229, 
256, 279 

Salt Hill, 196 

Sams Family, 245 

Sand Hills of St. Mark's, 156 

San Domingo Model, 3 

San tee, 91 

Saunders Family, 167 

Saunders, Wm. Harrison, Capt., 167 

Saxe-Gotha Settlement, 265 

Sayle, Governor Coll., 3 

.S'. C Gazette, 33, 110 

8. C. Gazette and Country Journal, 5 

8. C. Historical and Genealogical Mag- 
azine, 76 

315 



INDEX 



S. 0. Historical Magagine, 20, 72, 178, 
193 

S. 0. Historical Magazine, Whaley Fam- 
ily, 226 

Schenkingh, Capt. Benj., 26 

Scotch-Irish Families, 281 

Screven, Rev. Wm., 112 

Seabrook, Carolina LaFayette, 221 

Seabrook Family, 218-220 

Seabrook, Tom, House, 220 

Seabrook, Wm., Houses, 217 

Sea Cloud, 224 

Seal of SoTith Carolina, 203 

Secession, 303 

Secession, Ordinance of, 10 

Secret Passages, 19 

Secret Stairways, 19 

Seibelfl House, 256, 257 

Sheffnal Church, England, 49 

Shem Town, 21 

Sherman's Army, 204, 261 

Sheirman's Army, Howard's Corps, 172 

Sherman, Gen., 183 

Sherman's Orders concerning Blantou 
Duncan House, 266 

Shingler Place, 187 

Ship Yard Creek, 16 

Shubrick Avenue, 16 

Shubrick, Edmund, 16 

Shubrick, Edward Rutledge, Capt., 15 

Shubrick Family, 12, 13, 15, 83 

Shubrick, Capt. Templer, 15, 16 

Shubrick, Thomas, 15, 16 

Shubrick, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas, 15 

Sickles, Gen., 184 

Silk Hope, 67, 86 

Silver forks, 162 

Simmons Bluff, 209 

Simms, Wm. Gilmore, 249, 268 

Simonds Family, 302 

Simons Family, 63-65, 81 

Simons, Col. James, 82 

Simons, Katherine Drayton Mayrant, 91 

Simons, Keating, 63 

Simons, Dr. Manning, 82 

Simpson Family, 282 

Sims House, 283-285 

Sims, James Marion, M.D., 283-285 

Singleiton, Angelica, 162 

316 



Singleton Family, 158-163 

Singleton Hall, 161 

Singleton, Richard, 161, 162 

Sinkkr Family, 134, 139-141 

Sinkler, Peter, 133 

Slann's Bridge, 194 

Sloan, Miss Annie, 71 

Sloan Family, 296, 297 

Sloop-of-War "Hornet," 15 

Slyde, Frank E., 28 

Smith, Alice Huger, 4 

Smith Family, 110, 111 

Smith, Judge H. A. M., 16, 20-22, 59,' 

70, 76, 110, 124, 188, 217 
Smith, Governor Landgrave, 30 
Smith, Thos. Rheitt, Jr., 237 
Smith, Gov. Thomas, 21, 22 
Snowden, Yates, 136, 261 
Somerton, 192 
Southern Architecture, 146 
Southern Magazine, 237 
South Mulberry, 57 
Stage Routes through S. C, 268 
Stanyarne Family, 213 
Stevens, Charlee, 65 
Stevens Family, 196 
Stoke, 36 

Stone Church, Oconee, 301 
Stone, Col., Hdqrs., 261 
Stoney Point, 21, 280 
Stoney, Samuel G., 31 
Strawbeirry Chapel, 41, 46, 63, 85 
Strawberry Ferry, 41 
Stromboli, 17 
St. Andrew's Hall, 11 
St. Andrew's Parish, 202 
St. George's Church, 193 
St. Helena's Church, 240 
St. James, Goose Creek, 23, 27 
St. John's Berkley, 131 
St. John's Hunting Club, 143-146 
St. John's Parish, 94 
St. John's and St. Stephen's, Books on, 

134 
St. Julien Family, 142 
St. Mark's, Division of Parish, 155 
St. Mark's Parish, 26, 158 
St. Michael's Church, 10, 100, 172 
St. Michael's Steeple, 190 



INDEX 



St. Paul's Church, 300 

St. Paul's Parish, 208, 231 

St. Philip's Church, 6, 15, 36, 37, 50, 

83, 106 
St. Philip's Church, Bradford Springs, 

167 
St, Stephen's Church, 152 
St. Stephen's Club, 143 
St. Stephen's Parish, 94, 151 
St. Stephen's, Types of Houses, 132 
St. Thomas' Parish, 94, 185 
St. Thomas' and St. Denis' Parish, 81 
Sullivan Family, 281 
Sullivan, Wm. D., Capt., 280 
Summerville, 22, 194 
Sumter, Gen., Monument to, 166 
" Swamp Fox," Marion, 33 

Tabby, 1, 115, 192, 241 

Tarleton, 172 

Tarleton's Men, 168 

Tattnall, Commodore, 210, 211 

Taylor Family, 256 

Taylor, Thos., 256 

Tennent Family, 29 

Thomias, Theo. Gaillard, 215 

Tidyman, Philip, M.D., 111 

Titanic, 51 

Tomassee, 300 

Tomassee School, 301 

Tongue, Edvrard, 197 

Tonguewell, 197 

Tory, 253 

Townsend Family, 218, 222, 223 

Townsend, John, 222 

Tranquill Hill, 194 

Trapier, Banj., 123 

Treasure of Pierre Gailliard, 31 

Trescot Family, 297, 298 

Trescot, famous writings of, 299 

Trescot House, 297 

Treseott, offices held by, 299 

Trip up the Cooper River, 185 

Trott, Nicholas, 75 

True Blue, 162 

Tucker Family, 120 

Tudor, Margaret, The Story of, 71 

Tumbling Shoals, 280, 281 

Tunno, Adam, 18 



Tuscarora Jack, 242 
Tyburn Hill, 17 

Underground Passages, 19, 212 

Van Buren, Col. Abram, 162 
Vanderhorst House, 213 
Venning Family, 79, 187 
Venning, Nicholas, 80 
Videau's Bridge, Battle at, 79 
Villa, The, 76, 77 

Wadboo, 32 

Wadmalaw Island, 231 

Waite, Ezra, Architect, 5 

Wallaces Family, 282 

Walker, Gen. I., 200 

Walker, Rich, 22 

Walton, Katharine, 114 

Wambaw, 93 

Wambaw Church, 93, 103 

Wampee, 196 . ' 

Wando River, 3, 14, 186 

Wantoot, 145 

Wappahoola, 53 

Ward Family, 117 

Ward, Joshua John, 117 

Waring, Benjamin, 193 

Waring Family, 194 

Waring, J. I., 24, 26, 28 

Washington, George, letter, 113 

Washington Oak, 102 

Washington, Picture by Savage, 105 

Washington, Portrait of, 175 

Washington, President, 7, 8, 15, 44, 114 

118, 122, 174, 200, 221, 222 
Washington Race Course, 189 
Washington, Wm., 208 
Washingtons and Pinckneys, 100 
Watt's Cut, 214 
Wayne, Daniel G., 123 
Webber, Miss Mabel, 178 
Wedding of Margaret Huger and Eliae 

Horry, 93 
Wesley, John, 183 
West Indian Exposition, 190-192 
Westo Plantation, 196 
Whaley Family, 219, 220, 226 
Whaley, J. Swinton, 225 
Whaley, P. H., 225 

317 



INDEX 



Wharton Family, Phila., 140 

Whigs, 253 

White, Alonzo, 71 

White, John Blake, 17 

White Oak, 106 

White Point, 5 

Williamsburg County, 1 

Williams, Mr. and Mrs. David R., 177 

Williams, Geo. W., 295 

Willson House, 250 

Willson Family, 250 

Willtown, 192 

Wilson, John Lide, 261 

Wilson, Samuel, 78 

Wiltown, 63 

Winyah, Barony, 110 

Winyah Bay, 106 



Winyah Indigo Society, 112 
Withers, Frank, 123 
Withers, Wm., 201 
Witt«, C. O., 16 
Wood, Gen., Hdqrs., 267 
Woodstock, 200 
Woodward, Henry, 214 
Wragg Family, 196 
Wragg, Joseph, 54 
Wragg, Samuel, 54 
Wren, Christopher, 193 

Yates, Capt., 213 
Yeamans, Gov., 21 
Yeamans' Hall, 21 
York, Cardinal of, 23 



318