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Cornell University Library 
ND 30.C45 1886 

Cyclopedia of painters and paintings 

3 1924 015 225 182 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


Painters and Paintings 

Volume I 


BOONEN, AENOLD VAN, born at Dor- 
drecht, in 1669, died in 1729. Dutch school; 
portrait and genre painter ; pupil of Gott- 
fried Schalken, imitating the latter in his 
subjects taken by candle-Ught. He painted 
life-size portraits at some of the German 
courts. His younger brother, Jasper Boon- 
en (1677-1729), and his son Kasper Boon- 
en, were por- 
trait paint- /t '/^ 
ers Works: yijrJjOOnUl 
Young Wom- 
an with Lantern (1695), six others, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Anchorite Beading (1695), 
Brunswick Gallery. — Gool, i. 294. 

Eeynolds, Earl of Dudley ; canvas. A little 
girl in a large mob cap, seated out-of-doors. 
Sometimes called the Mob Cap. Painted in 
1788 ; sold in 1851 to B. G. Windus for 
290 guineas ; bought at his sale (1859) 
by Lord Ward for 1100 guineas. Engraved 
by Thomas Park (1789); T. Kirk ; S. Cous- 
ins ; lithographed in Portfolio.— Portfolro 
(1873), 136 ; (1876), 145 ; Athenaeum, Aug., 
1874, 185 ; Dec, 1874, 758. _, 

BOOTT, ELIZABETfi, born in Cam- 
bridge, Mass.; contemporary. Figure paint- 
er ; pupil of W. M. Hunt, of Duveneck, and 
in Paris of Couture. Studio in Boston. 
Works: Head of a Tuscan Ox (1876); Old 
Man Reading (1878); Old Eoman Peasant, 
Girl with Cat (1879); Almond Blossoms, 
Still-Life (1882); Pyrus Japonica (1883). 

at Pau, France ; contemporary. History 
and genre painter ; pupil of Bonnat and 
Cormon. Medal : 3d class, 1884. Works : 
The Concierge is a Tailor (1881); Malague- 
na de Seville (1882); Jour des Cuivres, Breton 
Woman Spinning (1883); Legend of St. Ju- 
lian the Hospitaller (1884) ; Tide at Cayeux 

BORDONE, PARIS, born in Treviso, in 
1500, died in Venice, Jan. 19, 1570. Vene- 
tian school ; of a noble family ; pupil of Ti- 
tian, under whom he gave promise early 
of great ability. Afterward studied the 

works of Giorgione, whom he imitated 
rather than Titian. He excelled especially 
in portraits, his 
heads being 
inferior only to 
those of Titian. 
His flesh tints 
are wonderful- 
ly brilliant, but 
in taste and 
quality of touch 
he was inferior 
to either Titian 
or Paolo Vero- 
nese. His landscape backgrounds are gen- 
erally classical and elegant. In 1538 he 
went to Paris, at the invitation of Francis I, 
or, as some say, in 1559, at that of Francis 
H., and painted the principal personages of 
the court. The most important of his works 
are: The Fisherman presenting the Ring 
of St. Mark to the Doge, and the Tiburtine 
Sibyl, Venice Academy ; Baptism of Christ, 
Brera, Milan ; Altarpiece and Madonna and 
Saints, Berlin Museum ; Diana, ApoUo, and 
Marsyas, Dresden Gallery ; Madonna and 
Saints, Hermitage, St. Petersburg; Daphnis 
and Chloe, National Gallery, London. There 


are portraits by Bordone 
in the Uffizi and Pitti, 
Florence ; and in the Lou- 
vre, Munich, Vienna, and 
other galleries. — Ch. Blanc, 
!^cole vfenitienne; Seguier, 23 ; Siret, 119 ; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., vii. 82, ix. 143, xiii. 
47; Burckhardt, 741; Morelli (Richter), 
195 ; Ltlbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 568. 

BORESUM (Borssem, Borssum), ABRA- 
HAM VAN, flourished about 1600. Dutch 
school ; landscape and animal painter, in 
the manner of A. Cuyp and A. van der 
Neer. Clever painter and able colourist, 
with a firm touch. Works : Village by 
Moonlight, Rotterdam Museum ; Pictures 
in Van Loon Collection, Amsterdam, and 





Arenberg Gallery, Brussels. — De Stuers, 
115 ; Burger, Musees, ii. 215. 

Milan, about 1440-50, flourished from 1485 
to 1523, some say until 1535 ; but probably 
died at Milan, in 1523. Lombardo-Milanese 
school ; real name Ambrogio Stef ani da Fos- 
sano ; perhaps pupil of Vincenzo Foppa and 
of Bernardino Zenale. First manner timid 
and stiff, and never gained much freedom ; 
painted in tempera and then in oil in the 
method of tempera ; flat surface in flesh and 
drapery, and petty detail in landscape dis- 
tances. His best work is in the Certosa, Pavia. 
Used much gilding in his early pictures, as in 
Madonna and Saints, Ambrosian Library, 
Milan ; do., collection of Count Borromeo, 
Milan ; and a triptych in the National Gal- 
lery, London, where are also his Marriage 
of St. Catherine and two family portrait 
pieces. The second style of Borgognone 
shows the influence of Leonardo da Vinci. 
Examples of it are the remains of frescos at 
S. Satire, Milan (1494-95) ; a series of small 
panels at Lodi ; Coronation of the Virgin, in 
choir, and scenes from the legend of S. Si- 
sinius, in portico, of S. Simpliciano, Milan 
(1524) ; Christ after his Eesurrection and 
Christ disputing with a Doctor, S. Ambro- 
gio ; a ceiling in the sacristy of S. M. della 
Passione ; Madonna with Saints (1485), S. 
Eustorgio, Milan. In the Certosa, Pavia, 
are the frescos of the apses, and a Crucifix- 
ion (1490) ; St. Ambrose and Martyrs ; St. 
Sirus in Majesty with Saints ; St. Augustin, 
and many other works completed before 
1494. Other works are : An altarpiece 
(1508), S. Spirito, Bergamo ; Assumption 

bcp^ogponi op; 

(1522), Brera, Milan; Madonna in Adora- 
tion, Munich Gallery ; do., Dresden Gal- 
lery. — Calvi, Dei Professori, etc., 245 ; Eio, 

Art Chretien, iii. 184; C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 
41 ; Ch. Blanc, ificole milanaise ; Morelli 
(Eichter), 419 ; Lttbke, Gesch. itaJ. Mai., i. 

BOEGONA, JUAN DE, died in Toledo, 
about 1533. Spanish school ; enjoyed the 
patronage of Archbishop Ximenes ; painted 
in 1495-99 in the cloisters of the Cathe- 
dral of Toledo works now destroyed, and 
in 1508-11 frescos in the winter chap- 
ter room at Toledo, among which were a 
Nativity of the Virgin and a Last Judgment. 
In 1514 he painted the Conquest of Gran 
on the walls of the Muzarabic Chapel, and 
in 1519 adorned with frescos the Cathedral 
Library. He also painted portraits of all the 
Spanish Primates down to Cardinal de Pon- 
seca. — Stirling, i. 93. 

BOEJESSON, AGNES, born in Sweden, 
May 1, 1827. Genre painter ; pupil of Bok- 
lund ; studied then in Paris, and from 1860 
in Diisseldorf under W. Sohn ; travelled 
afterwards in Italy. Since 1872 member of 
the Stockholm Academy. W^orks : Old 
Eeminiscences, Stockholm Museum ; De- 
parture of the Bridal Pair. 

BOEEACHOS, LOS (The Topers), or 
Bacchus, Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. 5 in. X 7 ft. 3 in. Bacchus, half 
nude, crowned with vine leaves, sits on a 
cask and smiles as he places a crown of 
leaves on head of a soldier kneeling before 
him ; on left, a peasant seated, and another 
reclining on bank with a cup in hand ; on 
right, five jovial peasants looking on ; back- 
ground, landscape. Painted about 1629 for 
Philip IV. Old copy in Naples Museum. 
Sketches : Lord Heytesbury, Wilts ; Eobert 
S. Holford, London. Several etchings and 
lithographs. — Ch. Blanc, ficole espagnole ; 
Art Journal (1852); Gaz. des B. Arts (1879), 
421 : Klass. der Malerei ; Curtis, 17 ; Ma- 
drazo, 596. 

BOEEAS, Fray NICHOLAS, bom at Co- 
centayna, in 1530, died at Gaudia, in 1610. 
Spanish school ; pupil of Vicente Joanes ; 
became, in 1575, a monk in the Jeronymite 
convent at Gandia, where he gave most of 




his life to its embellishment, covering the 
walls of its chapels, chapter-house, cloisters, 
and refectories with pictures. Many of his 
works in the Museum at Valencia, among 
them a Last Supper, Christ bearing his 
Cross, Dead Sa- —.^ 
viour in Arms of /J 
the Father, and /\ 
Archangel Mi- ' '^ 
chael driving Souls to Purgatory. Bermu- 
dez gives a list of his works. — Stirling, i. 
379 ; Cean Bermudez. 

born in Spain ; contemporary. Historical 
genre painter. Medal, 
2d class, Madrid, 1878. 
Works : Seizure of Eiego 
(1878); Dona Maria Pa^ 
checo de PadiUa (1881) ; 
Antonio Perez after Tor- 
ture receiving his Family 
(1884). — La Ilustracion 
(1881), ii. 299 ; (1884), ii. 

at Veszprim, Hungary, 
Dec. 20, 1821. Genre and 
stiU-life painter ; pupil of 
Vienna Academy. Works : 
StiU-life (1850), Vienna 
Museum ; Morning after 
Masked Ball (1850), Por- 
trait of Prince Eszterhazy, 
National Museum, Pesth ; Surprise (1850), 
Wounded Soldier (1853), After the Battle 
(1853), Austrian Art Union. — Wtirzbach, ii. 

BOEZONE, LUCMNO, born in Genoa in 
1590, died there in 1645. Genoese school ; 
pupil of his uncle Fihppo Bertolotto and of 
Cesare Corte. Painted some historical pict- 
ures, but excelled in portraits. Killed by a 
fall from a scaffolding in I'Annunziata, 
Genoa, where he was occupied in painting 
a Nativity. His three sons, Gio. Battista 
(died 1657), Carlo (died 1657), and Fran- 
cesco Maria (born 1626, died 1679), were all 
painters. Francesco M. went to France at 

invitation of Louis XIV. and painted fres- 
cos in the Louvre and at Vincennes. Be- 
turned to Genoa the year of his death. — 
Lanzi, iii. 271 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole genoise ; 
Soprani, 179. 

BOSBOOM, JAJS[, born at The Hague, 
Feb. 18, 1817. Architecture painter ; pupil 
of Van Bree ; Knight of the Order of the 
Lion, of the Crown of Oak, and of Leopold ; 
medals in Paris (1855) and Philadelphia 
(1876). Works : Franciscan Monks singing 
Te Deum (1855) ; Holy Communion in 
Protestant Church ; Hall of the Consistory 
at Nymwegen ; Interior of Church at Alk- 

Los Borrachos (The Topers), Velasquez, Madrid Museu 

maar ; Interior of Rotterdam Cathedral ; 
Protestant Church at Amsterdam, Munich 
Gallery ; Tomb of Engelbert H., Le Buffet 
d'Orgues (1873). 

BOSCH, ERNST, born at Crefeld, Ger- 
many, in 1834. Genre painter ; pupil in 
Wesel, of Schex, then in 1851-56 at the 
Dtisseldorf Academy, under Sohn, Hilde- 
brandt, and Schadow. Works : The Smug- 
gler (1854), Ferry in the Ice, Flying Dutch- 
man, Defence of Log-House against Indians, 
Soldier's Serenade, Gipsy Gang, Faithful 
Watchman, Grandfather and Grandson, 
The Sick Cow, Rogues' School, Autumn 
Evening (1867), Far-Sighted and Near- 



Sighted, Sleeping Savoyard Boy, Tinker, 
Old Shepherd (1873), The Poachers, Eed 
Eiding-Hood, Cinderella, the Favourites, 
Old Shepherd and Granddaughter, Idyl. — 
Mtiller, 67. 

ymus van Aeken), born at Bois-le-Duc, be- 
tween 1460 and 1464, died there in 1516. 
Flemish school ; history and genre painter; 
treated scriptural subjects in a fantastic 
and grotesque spirit ; great brilliancy of 
colour and delicacy of execution. His fame 
spread rapidly over the Netherlands, Italy, 
and Spain. Works : Adoration of Magi, 
Temptation of St. Anthony (3), Fall of An- 
gels, Creation (?), Moral Fantasy, Madrid 
Museum ; Christ crovpned with Thorns, Va- 
lencia Museum ; Temptation of St. Anthony, 
Antwerp Museum ; Fall of Angels, Brussels 
Museum ; Temptation of St. Anthony (2, ?), 
Museum, Vienna ; Last Judgment, Acad- 
emy, ib.; Holy Family, Naples Museum. — 
Allgem. d. Biog. iii. 184 ; Biog. nat. de Bel- 

gique, i. 149 ; Meyer, Ktlnst. Lex., i. 90 ; 
Michiels, iv. 204 ; Eooses (Eeber), 75 ; W. 
& W., ii. 528. 

BOSEE, FEEEDEICH, born at Halbau, 
Silesia, in 1811, died in Dtisseldorf, Jan. 
28, 1881. Genre and portrait painter ; 
pupil in 1831-34 of Dresden, then, till 1836, 
of the Berlin Academy, and, till 1841, of 
the Dtisseldorf Academy. Works : Egmont 
and Clara, Faust and Gretchen, Present to 
the Bride, Brother Sleeps, Wendish Girls at 
Church, Little FIower-Girl, Girl Knitting, 
The Widow, Poor's Box, The Eedeemer 
(1870) ; Shooting at the Shawfowl, Looking 
at the Pictures, Mr. Bocker, New York. — 
Kunst-Chronik, xvi. 343 ; Meyer, Con v. Lex. 
(1874), iii. 550 ; Wolfgang MiiUer, Dtissel- 
dorf K, 291. 

WILLEBEOED, called Willeborts, born at 
Bergen-op-Zoom, in 1613, died in Antwerp, 

Jan. 23, 1654. Flemish school ; history and 
portrait painter ; pupil in Antwerp of Ge- 
rard Zegers, but became afterwards a suc- 
cessful imitator of Van Dyck, to whom some 
of his works are attributed ; master of Ant- 
werp guild in 1636, dean in 1650-51 ; di- 
rector of Academy at Antwerp, 1649. Works : 
The Angels announcing to Abraham the 
Birth of Isaac, Brussels Museum ; St. Sebas- 
tian and the Angel, Munich Gallery ; Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine, BerHn Museum (?) ; 
Mary and St. Francis, Nuremberg Museum ; 
Elijah in the Desert, Vienna Museum. — 
Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 750 ; Kramm, i. 
134, vi. 1865 ; Michiels, ix. 71 ; Eooses 
(Eeber), 328. 

born at Antwerp, baptised Jan. 6, 1681, 
died there, Sept. 8, 1715. . Flemish school ; 
genre and portrait painter; pupil of Gerard 



Thomas. Work: Eeception of Burgomas- 
ter in the Guild of Cross-Bowmen (1711), 
Antwerp Museum. — Cat. du Musee d'Anvers 
(1874), 426. 

BOSSHARDT, KASPAE, born at Pfaffi- 
kon, Switzerland, in 1823. History painter ; 
pupil of Dtisseldorf Academy under Scha- 
dow and Schirmer ; paints chiefly subjects 
from local history. Studio in Munich. 
Works : Halwyl of Bern before Battle of 
Murten (1868), Basle Museum ; Death of 
Sickingen.Wengi of Solothurn placing him- 
self before a Cannon, Confederate Woman 
in Suabian War, The Favourite, Politicians 
in the Monastery (1879).— Kunst-Chronik, 
iii. 66 ; Mtiller, 68. 

BOSSUET, PEANgOIS, born at Ypres, 
East Flanders, Aug. 20, 1800. Architecture 
painter ; pupil of Brussels Academy ; trav- 
elled in the Netherlands, Germany, France, 


Bn-ZieJ hl/'-irtjn. 

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Spain, and North Africa. Professor at 
Brussels Academy. Member of Rotterdam 
and Philadelphia Academies. Officer of Order 
of Leopold; Portuguese Order of Isabella the 
Cathohc. Works : SeviUe Cathedral (1855), 
St. Amand Abbey at Rouen, Brussels Muse- 
imi ; Ruins of Moorish Bridge, Li^ge Muse- 
um ; Gate of Justice at the Alhambra, Mons 
Museum ; Market Halls at Ypres, Ypres 
Museum ; Lions' Court of the Alhambra, 
Court of Honour of the Alcazar at Seville, 
Stuttgart Gallery ; Andalusian Landscape 
(1847), Giralda Procession at SevUle (1853), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Roman Aqueduct 
at Seville, Philadelphia Museum. — La- 
rousse, ii. 1027. 

BOTH, JAN, caUed the Italian, born at 
Utrecht, in 
1610, died 
there after 
1650. Dutch 
school. Jan 
and his broth- 
er Andries 
having learned 
the elements 
of painting 
from their fa- 
ther, Dirck, glass painter, were apprenticed 
by him to Abraham Bloemart. The broth- 
ers travelled in Trance and Italy. At Rome, 
Jan imitated the style of Claude Lorrain and 
painted some excellent landscapes, in which 
Andries, who followed the manner of Van 
Laar, introduced figures and animals. It is 
said that Jan, after his brother was drowned 
at Venice, returned to Utrecht and died 
of grief soon after. But doubt is thrown 
upon this story by the signature of Jan, 
when dean of the guild in 1649 ; he had re- 
turned to Utrecht in 1644. Works : Eight 
landscapes, Madrid Museum; two. Louvre ; 
do., Hague Museum ; four. National Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam ; two, Rotterdam Muse- 
um ; one, Antwerp Museum ; do., Brussels 
Museum ; do., Brunswick Museum ; five, 
Dresden Museum; one (1650), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; do., Munich Gallery ; two, Copen- 

^ y^o/A. 

hagen Gallery ; Baptism of the Eunuch, 
Buckingham Palace, London ; Landscape 
with Muleteers ; do. with figures (by Poe- 
lenburg) rep- 
Judgment of 
Paris, and 
others. National Gallery, London; Land- 
scape, New York 
iyr\ ^ Museum.— Ch. 

^^ landaise ; Cat. du 

Musee d'Anvers (1874), 62 ; Havard, A. & 
A., iv.l71 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 366. 

RaffaelUno, born at Savona, in 1613, died in 
MUan, in 1644. Genoese school ; patro- 
nized by Cardinal Giulio Sacchetti, who 
placed him at Rome in the studio of Pietro 
da Cortona. Sacchetti called him Raffael- 
lino from his happy imitation of Raphael ; 
but his style is rather that of Pietro, who is 
said to have dismissed him and Francesco 
Romanelli, for endeavouring to supplant 
him. Afterwards painted in Naples and in 
Genoa. His Meeting of Jacob and Esau is 
in the Capitol Gallery, Rome. — Lanzi, iii. 
276; Ch. Blanc, ^ficole g^noise; Soprani, 161. 

born at Imgenbroich, Rhine province, Dec. 
9, 1818. Genre and landscape painter ; 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under Hilde- 
brandt and Schadow. Since 1872 professor 
in Academy. Works : Release of Prisoner 
(1848); Schoolmaster and Village Youths 
(1852); Rhenish Village Youths (1856); 
Evening on the Rhine (1860); Rhenish 
Harvest (1861); Summer-Night on the 
Rhine (1872), Cologne Museum ; Evening 
in Black Forest (1863), Leipsic Museum ; 
Starting for the Vintage (1867); Hay-Har- 
vest on the Lahn, Villa on the Rhine, Mar- 
ket-Well in Rhenish City (1870); Return 
from the Fields (1872); Sunday on the 
Rhine (1875). — Wolfg. MtiUer, 69; Diis- 
seldorf K, 257 ; Wiegmann, 326. ■ 

born in Florence, in 1446, died there. 



May 17, 1510. Florentine school; real 
name Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, but 

took name of Bot- 
ticelli from his 
master, a gold- 
smith, to whom 
he was appren- 
ticed. Studied 
painting with Fra 
Filippo Lippi, at 
whose death 
(1469) he was, 
says Vasari, the best master in Florence. He 
is the only contemporary whom Leonardo 
da Vinci mentions by name in his treatise 
on painting. The grace, sympathetic feel- 
ing, and imaginative quality of Sandro's 
work give it a greater hold upon the mind 
than that of many painters who surpassed 
him in technical knowledge and in feeling 
for beauty. Student and illustrator of 
Dante, a reader of Boccaccio, with a taste 
for classical mythology, and of a serious turn 
of mind which brought him under the influ- 
ence of Savonarola, in the latter part of his 
life, this painter poet worked with genuine 
freshness of feeling. His art is. always re- 
fined and elevated, though not altogether 
free from a naive mannerism whose quaint- 
ness gives it a pec^iliar charm. As an ex- 
ample of his Lippesque manner see the 
Madonna with Angels, Uffizi, painted about 
1480, to which year belongs the fresco of 
St. Jerome, Ognissanti, Florence. The 
Adoration of the Magi, and the Fortitude, 
Uffizi, show the influence of PoUajuolo, who 
painted the series of Virtues to which the 
latter belongs, an influence which is also 
perceptible in the Calumny of Apelles, and 
the Birth of Venus, Uffizi. The Allegory of 
Spring, Florence Academy, illustrates the 
poetic side of Botticelli's art. Before 1484 
he was called to Rome by Sixtus IV., and 
painted the frescos of the destruction of 
Korah, Dathan, and Abiram ; Moses smit- 
ing the Egyptian at the Well; and the 
Temptation of Christ, Sistine Chapel. 
Other works are four small pictures attrib- 

uted to Mantegna, Palazzo Adorno, Genoa ; 
Triumph of Chastity, Turin Gallery ; Judith, 
Holofernes found by his Soldiers, Adoration 
of Magi, Uffizi, Florence ; Coronation of 
the Virgin, S. Jacopo di Eipoli, Florence ; 
Coronation of the Virgin, Florence Academy 
(1481-84); Madonnas, Pitti and Corsini Gal- 
leries, Florence, National Gallery, London, 
and Louvre, Paris ; Portraits, the Bella 
Simonetta, Pitti, portrait of a man, attrib- 
uted to Masaccio, Palazzo Corsini, Florence, 
and of Lucrezia Tornabuoni, Berlin ; Pieta, 
Munich; Nude Venus, Berlin; Nativity, Mars 
and Venus, Venus Eeclining, Assumption, Na- 
tional Gallery, London; Adoration of the 
Magi, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Whether 
Botticelli engraved any of the so-called play- 
ing cards which he designed is uncertain, 
but probably they, as well as his illustrations 
^, to the edition of 

W) If • ij/) • Dante with Lan- 
ijOLLUjgJt^ dinisCommen- 

engraved by Baldini. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 
309 ; C. & C, Italy, ii. 413 ; Pater, Studies 
in the History of the Renaissance, 38; Burck- 
hardt, 544 ; Dohme, 2i ; Ltibke, Gesch. ital. 
Mai., i. 350. 

BOUCHER, FRANCOIS, born in Paris, 
Sept. 29, 1703, 
died there. May 
30, 1770. French 
school; history 
and genre paint- 
er, mostly self- 
taught ; attended 
three months the 
school of Le 
Moine, then em- 
ployed in draw- 
ing for engravers from his own compo- 
sitions or Wattelet's. In 1723 he obtained 
the first prize at the Academy and later went 
to Rome with Carle van Loo. Returning to 
Paris in 1731, was received into the Acade- 
my in 1734, became professor in 1737, di- 
rector in 1765, and after the death of Carle 
van Loo was appointed first painter to the 




■/.ir ■J''.-r„p 


king. He painted many mythological and 
religious subjects, landscapes, animals, theat- 
rical decorations, wall and ceihng decora- 
tions,besides making about 10,000 drawings. 
Works : Venus demanding Arms of Vulcan 
(1732), Einaldo and Armida (1734), Diana 
leaving the Bath (1742), Vulcan giving Arms 
to Venus (1757), Vertumnus and Pomona 
(1768), Cephalus and Aurora (1768), Jupiter 
and Callisto, Eape of Europa, Venus asking 
Vulcan for Arms, Neptune and Amymone, 
Amynthus freeing Sylvia, The Goal and four 
landscapes, Louvre ; Keuniou of the Arts, 
Angers Museum ; Aurora and Cephalus, 
Nancy Museum; Painting, Silenus Drunk, 
Lille Museum ; Mercury^ entrusting the In- 
fant Bacchus to the Nymphs of Mt. Nisa, 
Caen Museum ; Amorous Gardener, Educa- 
tion of a Dog, Nimes Museum ; Cupids and 
Flowers, Nude Women Reclining, Toulon 
Museum ; Shepherd and Shepherdess, Bor- 
deaux Museum ; Pan and Syrinx, National 
Gallery, London ; Venus and Adonis, Barker 
Collection ; Young Mother Besting, Due 
d'Aumale ; Leda, Douglas Collection ; Por- 
trait of Mme. de Pompadour, M. Henri Di- 
dier ; do.. National Gallery, Edinburgh ; 
Madonna, M. HoUond ; three mythological 
subjects, Stevens Collection ; Woman Ee- 
cHning, several mythological subjects, Nar- 
vaez Collection; Woman with Straw Hat, 
Chevalier Collection, Paris ; Sunrise, Sunset, 
Lord Hertford ; The Kiss, Egmont-Mass6 
Collection ; Toilet of Venus (1746), The Toi- 
let (1746), Are they thinking of Grapes? 
(1747), Leda and Swan, Venus and Graces 
Bathing, Triumph of Galatea or Birth of 
Venus (1740), Stockholm Museum; Venus 
and Cupid, Berlin Museum ; Peace and 

J. c/uoucf;et 

War, Boston Museum of Fine Arts ; Ees- 
cue of Arion, New York Museum ; Voluptu- 
ary, Winter Scene, Historical Society, New 
York. — Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Dohme, 3; Gon- 

court, i. 177, ii. 516 ; Mantz, Fr. Boucher 
(Paris, 1880) ; Ch. Blanc, £cole frangaise ; 
Houssaye Gal., iii 129 ; Portfolio (1872), 84; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1874), x. 496. 

BOUCHOT, FKANgOIS, born in Paris, 
Nov. 29, 1800, died there, Feb. 7, 1842. 
French school ; history painter, pupil of 
Regnault and Lethi^re ; won the grand prix 
de Rome in 1824 ; and then studied for 
seven years in Rome and Naples, during 
which period he sent several noteworthy 
compositions to Paris. Works : Battle of 
Zurich in 1799, Versailles Museum ; Funeral 
of Gen. Marceau, Mairie, Chartres ; Intoxi- 
cation of Silenus, Lille Museum ; Magdalen 
under the Cross, Madeleine Church, Paris ; 
Portraits of Gen. Jaubert, of Lablache, of 
Grisi, etc. — Ch. Blanc, ficole frangaise. 

FRANS, baptised in Brussels, Oct. 3, 1644, 
died there about 1700. Flemish school ; 
landscape painter, pupil of Ignatius van der 
Stock ; admitted to guUd, Brussels, in 1665. 
About 1670 he went to France; in 1677, 
had returned to Brussels. Painted many 
smaU. landscapes with figures and animals 
by Pieter Bout. Works : Landscapes (9), 
Madrid Museum ; Fish Market at Antwerp, 
Louvre, Paris ; Village Market (1686), Ant- 
werp Museum ; Landscape with Figures and 
Cattle, Rotterdam Museum ; Fish Market, 
Fruit Market, Stockholm Museum; Southern 
Strand View, Brunswick Museum ; Convent 
Gate with Beggars, nine others, Dresden 
Gallery ; Landscapes (2), Museum, Vienna ; 
doi (8), Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; do. (3), 
Uffizi, Florence ; others in Stuttgart, Des- 
sau, and Worlitz Galleries. — Biog. nat. de 
Belgique, ii. 788 ; Cat. du Musee d'Aavers 
(1874), 63 ; Jal, 127 ; Journal des B. Arts 
(1869), 35 ; Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., iii 139 ; 
Michiels, ix. 335. 

BOUDBSr, EUGfiNE, born at Honfleur 
(Calvados); contemporary. Marine painter. 
Medals: 8d class,1881;2d class,1883. Works: 
Fishing (1880) ; The Meuse at Rotterdam 
(1881); On the Meuse (1882) ; L'Entree, La 
Sortie (1883); Low Tide, High Tide (1884); 



CLARENCE), bom in Paris, April 25, 1824. 
History painter, 
pupil of JoUivet 
and of Delaroche ; 
won the prix de 
Rome in 1849 ; re- 
turned from Italy 
in 1856 ; has trav- 
elled in Africa. 
Medals: 2d class, 
1857, 1859, 1863, 
and 1878; L. of 
Honour, 1865; 
Member of Institute, 1882. Works: Ulysses 
recognized by Eurycleia (1849); Caesar at 
the Rubicon; The Choassa, House of the 
Tragic Poet ia Pompeii, Maestro Palestrina 
(1857) ; Arabian Herdsmen, Lucretia, Les- 
bia (1859) ; Hercules at Feet of Omphale, 
Copy of the Flute Player and the Wife of 
Diomed (Prince Napoleon) ; An Arab (1861); 
Caesar at the Head of the Tenth Legion, Ka- 
byles. The Defeat (1863) ; Horsemen of the 
Sahara (1864); Djeid and Rahia, Portrait of 
Hamdy-Bey (1865) ; Catharine I. with Me- 
hemet Baltadji, Woman selling Crowns in 
Pompeii (1866); The Mamillare (1867); El 
Hiasseub, Arabian Story-Teller, Street of 
the Tombs in Pompeii (1869); 'Tisan Emir, 
The Chaouches of the Hakem, Souvenir of 
Old Bhdah (1870); Waiting for their Lord 
and Master (1872); The Search of the Aid 
Srir at Biskra (1873) ; Appian Way in Time 
of Augustus (1874) ; The Gyneceum (1875) ; 
Summer Bath at Pompeii, Roman Comedi- 
ans rehearsing their parts (1876); St. Se- 
bastian and the Emperor (1877); Repast in 
House of LucuUus (1878); Slave with a Fan 
(1882); Source of the Tiber (1883); Captive, 
Woman of the Ouleid-Nahir (1884); Jewish 
Water Carrier in Algiers, Mother of the 

Gracchi (1885); Turkish Justice, Samuel 
Hawk Collection, New York — Larousse ; 
Mttller, 70. 

BOULANGER, LOUIS, born at VercelU, 
Piedmont, March 11, 1806, died at Dijon, 
March 5, 1867. Genre painter, pupil of 
Lethiere and of Achille Deveria; one of 
the leading artists of the romantic school. 
Medals: 2d class, 1827 ; Ist class, 1835; 
L. of Honour, 1840 ; director of the School 
of Art in Dijon after 1860. He exhibited 
in most of the Salons from 1827 to 1866 ; 
has illustrated works of Victor Hugo and 
others. Works : Mazeppa (1827), Rouen 
Museum ; Assassination of Loiiis of Orleans 
by the Duke of Burgundy (1833), Ministry 
of Public Works ; Hymn of Judith (1833), 
Ministry of the Interior ; Eenard the Fox in 
the Gardens of Armida, Death and the 
Woodcutter, Spanish Mule-Drivers (1833) ; a 
series of brUliant water-colours representing 
scenes from Notre Dame de Paris, Beatrice 
Cenci, Lucretia Borgia, Othello, and King 
Lear (Salons of 1833 and 1834) ; Camacho's 
Wedding (1835) ; Triumph of Petrarch 
(1837); Three Women beloved by Poets 
(1840, Dante's Beatrice, Petrarch's Laura, 
Ariosto's Orsolina) ; Virgil's Shepherds, 
Women Bathing (1845) ; Hecuba's Grief 
(1858), Ministry of the Interior ; UgoHno 
and his Sons (1858) ; King Lear and his 
Fool (1853); St. Jerome and the Roman Fu- 
gitives (1855); Gentlemen of the Sierra, Gui- 
tar-Player, Festival in the Castle of Lirias, 
Romeo buying the Poison (1857); Don Quix- 
ote and the Goatherd, Othello, Macbeth, 
The Message (1859); The Revery of Velllda, 
The Sunday Patrol (1861); Virgil's Georgics 
(1863); Holy FamUy (1865), bought by 
State ; Fear Nothing, thou bearest Caesar 
(1865) ; Concert in Pioardy (1866).— La- 
rousse ; Kunst-Chronik, ii. 113 ; L'Ai-t, i. 224 ; 
Portfolio (1875), 178. 

BETH (n6e Blavot), born in Paris in 1810. 
Genre painter ; pupil in water-colour of C. 
Roqueplan, and in oil of Louis Boulanger, 
whom she married ; after his death she mar- 
ried P. Cav6, director of the Beaux Arts. 
Medals: 3d class, 1836; 2d class, 1839. 
Works : Child crying over its Goat, Jean 


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Jacques and the Little Savoyards, The Poor 
Woman, Bernard de St. Pierre at the Village 
(all water-colours), Paul Veronese's Child- 
hood, Battle of Ivry, The First Ennuis, Louis 
Xin., Convalescence, Kings, Triumph of 
Bacchus (1835-1849); Virgin in Tears, 
Rouen Museum ; Children's Tournament 
(water-colour), triptych (belongs to State). 

BOULLONGNE, BON, born in Paris 
in 1649, died 
there, May 16, 
1717. French 
school ; history 
painter ; eldest 
son and pupil 
of Louis B.; 
studied in 
Eome five years 
under the pen- 
sion of the king, 
became a mem- 
ber of the Academy in 1677, adjunct profes- 
sor La 1684, and professor in 1692. He re- 
ceived the favour of Louis XIV., who em- 
ployed him to paint the staircase at Ver- 
sailles, under the direction of Le Brun. He 
also executed frescos in the Church of the 
InvaUdes, in St. Ambroise, and in the Tri- 
anon and the chapel at VersaUles. Works : 
Annunciation, St. Benedict restoring a 
Child, Marriage of St. Catherine, Hercules 
fighting the Centaurs (1677), Juno and 
Flora, Venus and Loves, Louvre ; CaUing of 
Sons of Zebedee, Dublin Gallery. — Villot, 
Cat. Louvre. 

BOULLONGNE, LOUIS, the elder, born 
in Paris in 1609, died there, June 13, 1674. 
French school ; history painter, pupil of 
Blanchard; studied afterwards ia Eome. On 
his return to Paris he executed several vo- 
tive pictures for Notre Dame and decorative 
paintings for public buildings. In 1656 
he was nominated professor at the Academy. 
His daughters, Genevieve (1645-1708) and 
Madeleine (1646-1710), were also painters 
and members of the Academy. 

younger, born in Paris in" 1654, died there. 

Nov. 20, 1733. French school ; history 
painter; brother of Bon de B. Obtained the 
academical prize 
when eighteen, ..:i0-6 

and went in 
1675 to Rome, 
where he made 
copies, full-size, 
of Raphael's Vat- 
ican frescos for 
the Gobelin tap- 
estry manufac- 
tory. In 1680, 
after visiting 
Lombardy and Venice, he returned to 
France, and executed many votive and dec- 
orative paintings for Notre Dame and other 
public buildings in Paris. In 1681 he be- 
came Academician, 1693 professor, 1717 rec- 
tor, and 1722 director of the Academy ; the 
same year he was decorated with the order 
of St. Michael, ennobled in 1724, and ap- 
pointed painter to the king in 1725. — Ch. 
Blanc, ficole fran9aise. 

BOUQUET, MICHEL, born at Lorient, 
(Morbihan), Oct. 17, 1807. Landscape and 
marine painter ; pupil of Gudin. Famous 
as a painter on porcelain. Medals : 3d class, 
1839 ; 2d class, 1847, 1848 ; L. of Honour, 
1881. Works : Sunset ; View on the Blavet 
(1839) ; Shoemaker's House in VaUey of 
Chevreuse ; Halt of Hunters at Fontaine- 
bleau ; View near Palermo ; Danube in Hun- 
gary (water-colour, 1847) ; Evening in Wal- 
achia ; Landscape near the Chevreuse ; Last 
Leaves of Autumn, Souvenir of Normandy 
(water-colour, 1848); Cow-Pond in Brittany 
(on porcelain, 1863) ; Spring and Autumn 
(porcelain, 1866) ; Old Mill by Moonlight 
(porcelain, 1877); View on the Seine (1879); 
Isle of Capri (1882). — Larousse. 

Antwerp in 1826. Genre painter ; pupil 
of the Antwerp Academy, under Wappers ; 
travelled in Holland, Prance, Italy, Ger- 
many, Norway, England, and Scotland. 
Medals : Hague (1857), Brussels and Rotter- 
dam (1863), Amsterdam (1868 and 1876), 



London (1872 and 1873), Vienna (1873). 
Order of Leopold (1869), Officer (1881); 
Studio in Antwerp. Works : Eeturn from 
Vintage (1853); Marie Antoinette taken from 
the Temple, Summer Evening by the Sea 
(1863), Hague Museum ; Empty Cradle 
(1867), Liege Museum ; Sorrowful Tidings 
(1868), Brussels Museum ; Kipe Cherries 
(1874), Ghent Museum ; Day after Storm 
(1875) ; Eeturn from Baptism.— Milller, 71. 
_ pellier, Feb. 2, 

1616, died in 
Paris, May 8, 
1671. French 
school ; history 
painter ; pupil 
of Barthelemy 
at Paris until 
his fifteenth 
year, when he 
went to Bor- 
deaux, where 
he painted in fresco ; and to Toulouse where, 
finding no employment, he enlisted. In 1634, 
having obtained his dismissal, he proceeded 
to Eome, made copies from the old masters 
for a dealer for three years, and then re- 
turned to Paris to escape the Inquisition. 
There during the next sixteen years he 
painted battle pieces, hunts, landscapes, and 
portraits, and the Crucifixion of St. Peter 
for Notre Dame, now in the Louvre. In 
1648 he assisted in founding the Academy, 
and in 1652 went to Sweden, where he be- 
came court painter. Ten years later he re- 
turned to 
Paris, and in 
1665 was ap- 
pointed di- 
rector of the Academy, 


Works : Sacrifice 
^ of Noah, Solo- 

y\ a^ mon sacrificing 

^'^ tion of Shep- 
herds, Eepose of Holy Family, Madonna 
with St. John, Christ and the Children, De- 
scent from Cross, Decollation of St. Protais, 

Martyrdom of St. Peler, Julius Caesar be- 
fore Tomb of Alexander, Halt of Bohemians 
(2), Laban seeking his Idols, Presentation 
in the Temple, Portrait of Descartes, his own 
portrait, and others. Louvre ; Group of Mer- 
chants, Hague Museum ; Bacchanal, Liver- 
pool Institute ; Death of Dido, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Eeturn of the Ark from 
Captivity, National Gallery, London. — Ch. 
Blanc, ficole fran9aise. 

in Paris ; contemporary. Landscape painter. 
Medal, 3d class, 1885. Works : Corner of 
the Forest, Orchard of Flowers (1880); Les 
Graves at Villerville (1881); Little Bridge of 
Gravoteaux (1882) ; Pointe du Grand-Bee, 
Tuilerie de Maurevert (1883) ; Meadow in 
Environs of ViUerville (1884); Le Val at Vil- 
lerville, La Fontaine-Virginie at Pennedepie 

BAIN, born at Nevers, France ; contempo- 
rary. History and portrait painter ; pupil 
of Sebastin Cornu, H. Flandrin, and Caba- 
nel. Medals : 3d class, 1877; 2d class, 1880. 
Works : St. Sebastian (1877) ; Justinian Em- 
peror of the East (1878), Court of Cassation, 
Paris ; Body of St. Vincent guarded from 
Birds of Prey by Angels (1879); Portrait 
of My Little Daughter (1881); Innocence 
(1883); Diana after the Chase (1884), M. J. 

born in London in 1756, died there, Jan. 8, 
1811. Of Swiss descent; pupil of Lou- 
therbourg ; travelled in France, Holland, and 
Italy in 1776, and on his return attained rep- 
utation for his landscapes with cattle and 
figures. In 1791 he was appointed painter to 
the King of Poland and knighted; became an 

A.E.A. in 1787, RA. in 1793, and landscape 
painter to George HI. in 1793. He left his 
fine collection of 350 paintings, bequeathed 




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to him by his friend Noel Desenfans, to Dul- 
wich College, and £12,000 to build a gallery 
for them. Works: Landscapes, etc. (22), 
Dulwich GaUery. — Eedgrave ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole anglaise ; Eichter, Dulwich Gal. Cat.; 
Sandby, 1. 300. 

phonse de NeuvUle, W. H. Vanderbilt, New 
York ; canvas, H. 5 f t. x 8 ft. Episode of the 
Franco-German war of 1870-71. A handful 
of French — eight officers and twenty men — 
barricaded themselves in the village church, 
swearing to die together rather than sur- 
render. " It was necessary," wrote Gen. 
Duroc, "to shoot them through the win- 
dows and to bring up cannon to force a ca- 
pitulation." The dying Lieut. Grison is be- 
ing carried out of the church by two of his 
men. Painted in 1878. — Art Treasures of 
Amer., iii. 103 ; Kunst-Chronik, xv. 387. 

BOTJEGUIGNON, LE. See Gourtois. 

BOUT, PEETEE, baptized in Brussels, 
Deo. 5, 1658, died about 1700. Flemish 
school ; executed with Boudewyns a num- 
ber of pictures, which, Uke those of Velvet 
Brueghel, occupy a place midway between 
landscape and genre, and in which he painted 
the figures. Works : Palace (by Dupont) 
with figures, Ghent Museum ; Figures in 
Winter Landscape by d'Arthois, Brussels 
Museum ; Figures in Landscape by Boude- 
wyns in Madrid, Antwerp, Eotterdam, Bruns- 
wick, Dresden, and Vienna Museums, Uffizi, 
Florence, and Louvre, Paris. — Biog. nat. de 
Belgique, ii. 873 ; Cat. du Musee d'Anvers 
(1874), 68 ; Michiels, ix. 342. 

born at Tarnowitz, Silesia, Feb. 9, 1806, died 
in Paris, Nov. 11, 1867. History painter; 
pupil of Berlin Academy under Kolbe, and 
in 1881 of Delaroche in Paris, where he set- 
tled after visiting Italy in 1834. He received 
23 medals and many orders. His works are 
pleasing in arrangement, clear in colouring, 
and finished in execution. Works : Orestes 
(1833) ; Arabian Sentry, Eomeo and Juliet 
(1836); Patriarchal Eepast (1839); Isaac and 
Eebecca (1840); Neapolitan Scene, Episode 

from Wedding of Camacho ; Jacob and Ea- 
chael (1844); Baptism of the Chamberlain 
(1848) ; Charlemagne in Argenteuil. — AU- 
gem. d. Biogr., iii. 216 ; Eevue artistique 
(1870); Eosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 186. 

born at Buda-Pesth, Hungary, of French 
parents ; contemporary. Genre painter ; 
pupil of Winterhalter. Medal, 3d class, 
1847. Works: Phryne (1868); Susannah 
(1881); Sirens (1883). Works in United 
States : Inquisitive Maid, T. E. Butler, New 
York ; Skating, D. W. Powers, Eochester, 
N. Y. ; Broken Heart, W. Mason, Taun- 
ton, Mass. ; Headers, " Be quiet. Sir ! " A. 
Adams, Watertown, Mass.; Skating, J. T. 
Martin, Brooklyn ; What shall I say to 
Him ? E. B. Warren, Philadelphia ; Travel- 
ling in Switzerland, Mrs. E. L. Stuart, New 
York ; On the Ice, P. Harper, New York. 

Paris ; contemporary. History painter, 
pupil of Cabanel. Medal, 3d class, 1884. 
Works : A Cantonment (1880); Episode of 
the Affair of Quiberon — June 26, 1795 
(1881); Episode of Combat of Bapaume in 
1870 (1882); Pousse-eafe (1883); Boule-de- 
Suif (1884); Attack on the Mill (1885). 

BOUTS, DIEEICK, born in Haarlem 
about 1410-20, died at Louvain, May 6, 
1475. Flemish school. Called sometimes 
Dirk van Haarlem and Dierick de Louvain. 
Settled in Louvain after 1450. History 
painter of great merit, of the Van Eyck 
school, in which he is almost unequalled in 
glowing depth and transparent clearness of 
colouring ; his delicacy of personification 
and tenderness of execution are only marred 
by the exaggerated stiffness and slimness of 
his figures. Best works : Martyrdom of St. 
Erasmus and Las< Supper, St. Peter, Louvain. 
Two wings of this altarpiece. Shower of 
Manna and Abraham before Melchisedec, are 
in the Old Pinakothek at Munich, two others. 
Feast of the Passover and Feeding of Elijah, 
in Berlin Museum. Judas taking our Lord, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Martyrdom of St. 
Hippolitus, Bruges Cathedral ; Funeral of a 


Bishop, Eastlake Collection, London; Le- 
gend of Emperor Otto HI., Last Supper, 
Brussels Museum ; Coronation of the Vir- 
gin, Vienna Museum.— C. & C, Flemish 
Painters, 321 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; 
Dohme, li.; Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 877; 
Michiels, iii. 234 ; iv. 455 ; W. & W-, ii. 40. 

BOWLES, MISS, Su- Joshua Reynolds, 
Sir Eichard Wallace, Bart., Hertford House, 
London ; canvas. A young girl seated on 
the ground, caressing a spaniel; background, 
landscape, with loweiing sky. Called also 
Miss Bowles and her Dog, Girl with Dog, 
and Juvenile Amusement. Painted in 1775 
for 50 guineas; bought by Marquis of 
Hertford for 1,000 guineas. Engraved by 
W. Ward (1798), W. Fry, C. Turner, J. Gro- 
zer, S. Cousins.— Athen., March, 1875, 365. 

BOXALL, Sir WILLIAM, bom at Ox- 
ford, June 26, 1800, died in London, Dec. 
6, 1879. Student of the Eoyal Academy in 
1819 ; visited Italy in 1827 and 1833, and 
repeatedly after he became director of 
the National Gallery. When young he exe- 
cuted a few subject pictures, among them 
Jupiter and Latona (1823), Contention of 
Michael and Satan for the Body of Moses 
(1824), Milton's Eeconciliation with his 
Wife (1829), and Lear and Cordelia (1831), 
but finally devoted himself to portraiture, 
among his sitters being Wordsworth, Lan- 
dor. Lord Coleridge, Gibson, Copley Field- 
ing (National Portrait Gallery), Allan Cun- 
ningham, the Prince Consort, and other 
eminentmen. Became an A.E.A. in 1851 and 
E.A in 1863 ; succeeded Sir Charles East- 
lake as director of the National Gallery in 
1865, retired on account of ill-health in 1874, 
and in 1871 was knighted. — Cat. Nat. Gal.; 
Athenseum, Dec. 13, 1879; Sandby, ii. 

BOYLE, FEEDINAND T. L., born in 
the United States, contemporary. Genre 
painter. Is an associate of the National 
Academy. Studio in New York. Work : 
Gran'ther's Pet (1884). 

BOZACCO or BOZZATO. See Bazacco. 

BEACCHETONE, IL. See Volterra. 


born at Morges on Lake Geneva, June 3, 
1842. Landscape painter; pupil of the 
Carlsruhe Art School, and from 1861 in Diis- 
seldorf, under Gude; gave up painting in 
1864 and was for ten years a cotton broker ; , 
returned in 1875 to Carlsruhe, and has 
since then exhibited some excellent pictures. 
Medal, Carlsruhe, 1877. Works : Idyl from 
Heath of Liineburg ; Giant's Grave on Ltine- 
burg Heath ; Stormy Evening on Eiigen ; 
Shepherd on the Heath ; Sandy Eoad in the 
Heath; Landscape on Eugen(1879). Exhibi- 
ted at Munich (1883), Moonlight Night in 
the Desert, On the Dead Sea.— MtiUer, 72. 

Unity, Me., in 1823. Self-taught; first 
painted portraits and ideal heads, later very 
successful in painting fish. President of the 
Boston Art Club many years. Studio in 
Boston. Works: After the Battle, Earl of 
Dufferin ; A Series of pictures : Eise, Leap, 
Last Struggle, Landed, Sir Eichard Potter, 
London ; Trout Picture, Grisle (1881). 

Guido Eeni, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas. Brada- 
mante, near a fountain, hstens to Fiordas- 
pina, who relates the sad adventure of 
Eoger (Orlando Furioso, Canto I.). Procured 
in 1667 from the Casino Mediceo, near S. 
Marco, Florence.— Soc. Ed. et Paris, PI. 117. 

Bedford, Mass., about 1830. Marine paint- 
er ; self-taught, but influenced by Van 
Beest, whose studio at Fairhaven he shared 
for two years. Began by painting ships in 
the harbour at Lynn, Mass., and on the 
coasts of Labrador and Nova Scotia ; after- 
wards made several Arctic expeditions with 
Dr. Hayes, the explorer, and others, to 
study icebergs and ice-floes, and from the 
sketches painted pictures which were ex- 
hibited in London and bought by the 
Queen, Baroness Burdett-Coutts, and the 
Marchioness of Lome. Elected A.N.A. in 
1874. Studio in New York. Works: 
Steamer Panther among Icebergs in Mel- 
ville Bay under Light of Midnight Sun, 


















(Eoyal Academy, 1875), the Queen ; Fishing- 
Boats in the Bay of Fundy ; Shipwreck off 
Nantucket ; Light-house in St. John Har- 
bour ; Fishing-Boats getting under Way ; 
July Afternoon off Round Hill Light, Fish- 
ing Craft among the Bergs (1882); Fishing 
Craft at Sunset — Coast of Labrador (1883); 
Quiet Afternoon in Straits of Belie Isle, 
Eetum of Labrador Fishing Boats (1884). 
—Art Journal (1873), 225. 

born in Antwerp, Feb. 19, 1792, died there. 
May 16, 1883. History and genre painter ; 
pupil of the Antwerp Academy, and of M. 
I. van Brde ; obtained the great prize in 
1819, and studied three years in Rome, 
where he painted historical subjects in 
the style of David ; after Ms return de- 
voted himself to genre subjects, especially 
family scenes. He has educated many pu- 
pils who have attained fame. Order of 
Leopold ; Member of Antwerp Academy, 
and director of Antwerp Museum. Works : 
Healing of Tobias, Esau and Isaac, Citadel 
of Antwerp, Day after Surrender, Countess 
of Lalaing at Defence of Dornick, Happy 
Domestics, Golden Wedding (Brussels Mu- 
seum), Domestic Quarrel, Matrimonial 
Peace, Jan Steen on the Ice, Love Declara- 
tion, St. Thomas' Day, Village School ; De- 
fence of Antwerp in 1576 (1837), Death of 
Count Frederic de Merode, Antwerp Muse- 
um ; Defence of Antwerp against Due 
d'Alengon in 1583 ; Quarrel after Dinner, 
The Husband's Toilet (1852), National Gal- 

lery, Berlin ; Happy Family, Unhappy Fam- 
ily (1852), Corcoran Gallery, Washington. — 
Larousse, ii. 1186 ; Miiller, 73. 

Antwerp, contemporary. Genre painter ; 
son and pupil of Ferdinandus de B. Medals 
at Brussels (1872), Vienna (1873); honour- 

able mention, Paris (1880) ; Order of Leo- 
pold. Studio in Antwerp. Works : Interior 
of Chapel in St. James' Church, Antwerp ; 
Interior of St. Hubert's Chapel in same 
church; The Tailor; Manufacturer of 
Matches. — Larousse. 

BRAEMAR, Sir Edwin Landseer, C. F. H. 
Bolckow, Marton Hall, Middlesborough, 
England. Scene in Braemar, Highlands, 
Aberdeenshire, Scotland. A magnificent 
stag, with a group of does around him, 
stands in the mist on the brow of a hiU, 
bellowing defiance to the hunter, or to other 
males of his own kind ; a rabbit appears in 
the grass. Royal Academy, 1857. Bought 
for £5000. 

BRAITH, ANTON, born at Biberach, 
Wtirtemberg, in 1886. Animal painter ; 
pupil of Art School, Stuttgart, and from 
1860 of Munich Academy. Gold medal, 
Munich, 1869. Works : Cows in the Woods 
(1865); Cows in Cabbage-Field (1868); Yoke 
of Oxen (1870), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Cat- 
tle returning Home (1871) ; Sheep Resting 
(1871); Flock of Sheep in the Woods (1872); 
Herd at the Brook (1873); Herd overtaken 
by Storm (1874); Flock of Sheep by a Dead 
Hare (1875); Goatherd on Mountain Lake 
(1879); Cattle, W. Mason, Taunton, Mass.; 
Cattle, E. D. Morgan, N. Y.— Muller, 73 ; 
niustr. Zeitg. (1870), ii. 50 ; (1877), i. 201. 

Haarlem, baptized May 22, 1650, died 
there, Dec. 28, 1702. Dutch school ; genre 
painter ; pupil of Hendrik Mommers ; joined 
the guild of Haarlem in 1687. Influence 
of Adrian van Ostade apparent in his pict- 
ures. Works : Tavern Interior (1692), Bor- 
deaux Museum ; Children's Festival (1698), 
Brussels Museum ; Interior with Peasants 
drinking and smoking, Amsterdam Muse- 
um ; Sick-room, Rotterdam Museum ; Com- 
pany in Peasant's Room (1689), Brunswick 
Museum; two pictures (1698), Hanover 
Galleij ; Young Peasant with Bottle, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Party of Jovial Peasants, Fes- 
tival of the Beans (1690), Vienna Museum ; 
Two Artist's Studios, Windsor Castle, Eng- 


land. — Ch. Blanc, !^cole hoUandaise ; 
Kramm, i. 148 ; Van der Willigen, 89. 

BBAMANTINO (Bramantino da MUano), 
born in Milan(?), died there about 1535. 
Lombard school ; real name Bartolommeo 
Suardi ; probably taught in local schools of 
Milan, afterward journeyman to Bramante. 
Among the earliest pictures assigned to 
him are Crucifixion, Municipio, Milan ; Cir- 
cumcision (dated 1491), Louvre ; and Dead 
Christ, S. Sepolcro, Milan. He followed 
Bramante to Rome in the beginning of the 
16th century, and was employed by Julius 
n. in the Camera dell' Eliodoro, but re- 
turned to Milan after the expulsion of the 
French from Lombardy, and painted there 
probably until near 1536, in which year his 
heirs are mentioned. All his later works 
show the influence of Leonardo da Vinci. 
Among his best are : Madonna and Angels, 
Brera, Milan ; Head of St. John the Bap- 
tist, St. Jerome, Madonna and Saints, Am- 
brosiana, Milan ; Flight into Egypt, Church 
of the Madonna del Sasso, Locarno ; Pietk 
over portal of S. Sepolcro ; St. Sebastian, 

S. Sebastiano, Milan. — C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 
14 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., iv. 17, viii. 14 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ificole milanaise ; Burckhardt, 609 ; 
Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 494. 
BEAMER, LEONARD, born at Delft in 
1596, died after 
1667. Dutch 
school ; history 
and allegory 
painter. Went 
to France and 
Italy in 1614, 
returned to Delft 
in 1625, and en- 
tered the guild 
of St. Luke in 
1629. Fond of 
candlelight ef- 
fects, in the manner of Honthorst, and of 

Oriental or Jewish costumes, like Lastman 
and Rembrandt, of whom he became an 
imitator in his later years. Works : Descent 
from the Cross, Rotterdam Museum ; Christ 
among the Doctors, Simon in the Temple, 
Brunswick Gallery ; Christ and the Scoffers, 
Solomon in the Temple, Queen of Sheba 
before Solomon, Dresden Gallery ; Two 
Allegories, Vienna Museum ; Resurrection 
of Lazarus, Turin Gallery ; Hecuba's Grief, 
/■T<" Abraham 

/ X^ visited by 

C>Uy ^JtyCU-nM^ Angels, 

Madrid Mu- 
seum. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole hoUandaise; Bode, 
Studien, 351 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 217. ^ 

Paris ; contemporary. History painter, pu- 
pil of Bouguereau. Won the grand prix de 
Rome in 1879. Medals : 3d class, 1879 ; 2d 
class, 1885. Works: Bashful Love (1879); 
Punishment of Ixion (1882); Compassion 
(1883); Departure of Tobias (1885). 

in Vienna, Nov. 15, 1723, died there, 
June 12, 1795. German school ; landscape 
painter ; son and pupU of Christian Hilfgott 
(bom in Frankfort on the Oder, in 1695, 
died in Vienna, about 1750). He was court 
painter and, from 1771, professor at the 
Vienna Academy, and was considered one 
of the best artists in his line. Works : 
Landscape with Ruin (1741), do. with Peas- 
ants and Herd (1746), Battle of Hochkirch 
(1766), four landscapes (1768, 1771), Vi- 
enna Museum ; ten in Prague Gallery ; 
others in galleries of Germany, France, 
England, and Russia. By his father are 
three Wood Landscapes in the Vienna Mu- 
seum, ten others in the Prague Gallery. — 
Allgem. d. Biog. iii. 236 ; Wurzbach, ii. 110. 

Prague in 1660, died at Kuttenberg, Bohe- 
mia, in 1739. German school ; history 
painter, pupil of the court painter Schroter, 
whom he soon surpassed ; studied then 
after great masters in the galleries of 
Prague. Works : Baptism of Christ, Prague 


Cathedral ; Christ and the Woman taken in 
Adultery, Museum, Vienna ; Joseph receiv- 
ing his Brothers in Egypt, Czernin Gallery, 
ib.; St. Jerome, Schonborn GaUery, ib.; 
Mary Magdalen, Mentz Cathedral. — Wurz- 
bach, ii. 113. 

TAF, Swedish ; born at Predsberg, West- 
Gothland, Oct. 22, 1833. Animal painter, 
pupil of Stockholm Academy ; studied then 
in 1852 at Upsala ; painted in 1856, when 
lieutenant in the army, at Gothenberg, 
many excellent portraits, and studied from 
1857 at the Diisseldorf Academy under 
d'Unker ; then in Paris, where he copied in 
the Luxembourg and after Troyon. Since 
1874, member of the Stockholm Academy. 
Works : Norman Horses ; Soldier's Child at 
the Gate ; Spring in the Woods (1868); 
First Riding Lesson ; Besieged Favourite ; 
The Future Hussar ; Eeturn from the 
Woods ; Adventure on the Promenade 
(1875).— Miiller, 74 

BRANDES, HEINBICH, born at Bort- 
feld, Brunswick, in 1803, died at Brunswick, 
Oct. 6, 1868. Landscape painter ; pupil in 
Brunswick of Barthel, then in 1823-25 at 
the Munich Academy, under Cornelius ; re- 
mained in Munich five years longer, making 
sketching trips into the Tyrolese Alps. In 
1830-31 he visited Italy, especially Eome, 
and after his return settled in Brunswick, 
where, in 1835, he became professor at the 
Carolinum College and inspector of the 
Ducal Gallery. In 1845 he restored, with 
Neumann, the old paintings in the Bruns- 
wick Cathedral. Works : View near Marino ; 
View near Eome; Subiaco; Inundation ; View 
in Oker Valley ; Landscape in the Hartz ; 
several Mountain and Winter Landscapes ; 
Views in Tyrol and in the Hartz Mountains ; 
View near Salzburg, New Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich. — Kunst-Chronik, iv. 21. 

AED, born in Paris, July 3, 1831. Flemish 
school ; genre and history painter, pupil of 
Picot, Montfort, and Corot. Medals, 1865, 
1867. Works: Kissof Moses' Mother (1867); 

Parisian Studio (1868); Exhibition of the 
Pentateuch, Talmud Lesson (1869); The 
Sabbath, Examination (1870); ImiDrovisatore 
in the Campagna, LiUe Museum. 

BRANDT, ELIZABETH, portrait, Bu- 
bens, T. M. Whitehead, England ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. x3 ft.; dated 1622. The artist's first 
wife, in black dress, with ruff and white 
cuffs, and gold brocade corset, seated in an 
arm-chair, with altar in background. Ham- 
ilton Palace sale (1882), £1837 10s.— Acad- 
emy, xxi. 246, 456. 

BEANDT, JOZEF, born at Szczebrzeszyn, 
Poland, Feb. 11, 
1841. History and 
genre painter ; pu- 
pU in Paris of the 
iScole Centrale, and 
in Munich of Franz 
Adam and Piloty. 
Studio in Munich. 
Medals: Munich, < 
1869; Vienna, 
1873; Berlin, 1876. 
Member of Berlin and Munich Academies ; 
Order of Franz Josef; mention honour- 
able, Paris. Works : Attack of PoHsh Cav- 
aliy (about 1865); Polish Peasants before 
an Inn (1870) ; Episode from Eehef of 
Vienna (1870) ; Episode from Campaign in 
Jutland in 1658 (1870); Cossack Camp in 
17th century (1872); Polish Pair (1872); 
Battle of Vienna in 1683 (1872); Polish 
Cavalry on Patrol, Rollicking Quartering 
(1873); Cossacks from Ukraine (1874), 
Konigsberg Museum ; Uhlans in a Village, 
Crossing the Carpathian Mountains, Camp 
Scene at the Fire, Cossacks on Outpost 
(1876), Tartar Battle (1878), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Wallachians fording a Stream, 
J. D. Lankenau, Philadelphia ; Tartars in 
Flight, D. H. McAlpin, New lork ; Critical 
Moment (1884); Czabans caught in the 
Snow in the Ukraine (1885).— MuUer, 74; 
N. illustr. Zeitg. (1879), ii. 539 ; (1880), ii. 

born at Bordeaux, Aug. 30, 1805, died in 



Paris, Feb. 27, 1867. French school ; land- 
scape and animal painter, pupU of Richard 
and of Hersent. Won the second grand 
prize for historic landscape in 1825, and 
went to Eome, where he resided six years. 
He was the first to revive the painting of 
animals, which had fallen into discredit. 
Medals : 2d class in 1827 ; 1st class in 
1831 and 1837 ; L. of Honour, 1837. Mem- 
ber of Institute, 1846. Works : Meleager 
Hunting (1825); Mercury and Argus, Ital- 
ian Views (1827); View of Cassano, Temple 
of Venus at BaisB, Castel Eouge, Landscape 
with Animals, Study of a Dog (1831); 
Cow attacked by Wolves and defended by 
Bulls, BuUs Fighting, Nantes Museum ; 
Animals Eesting (1837) ; The Bull (1842); 
Landscape with Animals (1845), Louvre ; 
Death of the Boar of Calydon, two land- 
scapes vrith animals, Bordeaux Museum ; A 
Pasture, Montpellier Museum ; A Sorceress, 
Toulouse Museum ; Study of Horse, B. 
Wall, Providence. — Larousse ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, ii. 202. 

BEASEN, HANS OLE, born at Hillerd, 
Denmark, Jan. 16, 1849. Genre painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy ; visited 
North Italy in 1874, Tyrol and Paris in 
1879. Works : Geese driven Home (1875); 
Washing Place at Srup (1875); On Way to 
Market, Scenes near Lago di Garda (1877) ; 
Hussars watering Horses, Mare with Colt 
(1879); Domestic Happiness (1880) ; Court- 
ing (1881).— Sigurd Muller, 47. 

BEAUN, ADAM, born in Vienna in 1750, 
died there in 1827. German school ; genre 
and portrait painter, pupU of Vienna Acad- 
emy at the age of twelve ; member in 1789. 
Highly esteemed as a restorer of old 
paintings. Works : Gentleman threading 
Needle for Lady (1785), Maseum, Vienna ; 
Lady resting on Sofa, Liechtenstein Gal- 
lery, ib. — ^Wurzbach, ii. 118. 

BEAUN, AUGUSTIN, horn in Cologne, 
about 1570, died there after 1627. German 
school; history and portrait painter. Works: 
Martyrdom of St. Febronia, Wallraf Mu- 
seum; Seven Scenes from the Passion, St. 

George's Church, Seven Scenes from Life of 
St. Martin, St. Mary's Church, Cologne. — 
AUgem. d. Biog. iii. 264 ; Merlo, Nachrich- 
ten, 58. 

BEADN, LUDWIG, born at Schwabisch 
Hall, Wurtemberg, Sept. 23, 1836. Battle 
painter ; brother of Eeinhold B., pupil of 
Stuttgart Art School ; studied then in Mu- 
nich and Paris. Painted in Nuremberg a 
cycle from the family history of the Counts 
of Hunoldstein ; visited in 1866 and 1870-71 
the battle-fields of those years, and executed 
for the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg sev- 
eral pictures. Studio in Munich. Works: 
Series of water-colour scenes from war in 
Schleswig-Holstein, Tournament at Nurem- 
berg in 1496, Scenes from Campaign of 
1866, Suabian Kirmess (1S69), Episode 
from Battle of Worth, Capitulation of Se- 
dan, Entry of the Mecklenburgers into Or- 
leans, The Germans at Versailles, Entry into 
Paris, Panorama of Battle of Sedan (1880). 
— Mliller, 74 ; Dlustr. Zeitg. (1870), i. 343. 

BEAUN, EEINHOLD, born at HaU, Wiir- 
temberg, April 25, 1821, died in Munich, 
Jan. 22, 1884. Military genre painter ; 
pupil of Stuttgart Art School from 1836, 
then of Munich Academy in 1843-50 ; took 
part in the campaign of 1849 in Baden, at 
the headquarters of the Prince of Prussia. 
Works : Pasture and Market Scenes, Eural 
Festivals, Horses, Manoeuvre Scenes, Sua- 
bian Costumes, etc. — MuUer, 75. 

feld, Prussia, in 1835. History and genre 
painter ; pupil of Konigsberg Academy ; 
travelled in Germany, North Italy, and Eus- 
sia. Works: Eichard IH. (I860), Dantzic 
Museum ; Charon's Bark (1867) ; Ladies at 
a Sculptor's (1868), Konigsberg Museum ; 
Marauders, Bluebeard (1871); After a Long 
Separation (1872); Autumn Morning (1874); 
Gustavus Adolphus before Battle of Ltitzen 
(1876) ; Lansquenets Travelling (1877) ; 
Home Again (1878).— Miiller, 75. 

BEAUWEE. See Brouwer. 

BEAY, JAN DE, born at Haarlem, died 
there, buried Dec. 4, 1697. Dutch school ; 



history and portrait painter ; showed influ- 
ence of Frans Hals, and later of Rembrandt. 
Works: Four portraits in a Group of Syndics 
of St, Luke's Guild (1675), National Gallery, 
Amsterdam ; Initiation of Orphans (1663), 
Regents of Orphanage (1663, 1664), Regents 
of Leper-house (2, 1667), Christ blessing 
the Children, Seleucus (1676), Glorification 
of Frederic Henry (1681), Vulcan (1683), 
Dutch Family, Haarlem Museum ; David 
with the Harp (1674), Brunswick Museum ; 
David with Head of Goliath, Copenhagen 
Gallery; Portrait of Himself and Family, 
Hampton Court Palace. — Bode, Studien, 
109 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 305 ; Van der Wil- 
ligen, 96. 

BRAZACCO. See Bazacco. 

BRAZEN SERPENT, Michelangelo, Sis- 
tine Chapel, Rome ; fresco in corner soffit of 
ceUing. Illustration of Numbers xxi. 6-8. 

By Rubens, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 2 in. x 8 ft. 9 in. Moses and 
Aaron standing to right, the latter pointing 
to an elevated serpent, towards which many 
of the Israelites, suffering from the stings 
of venomous reptUes, are turning for relief. 
Engraved by Bolswert and Galle. Formerly 
in Palazzo Marano, Italy ; Collection of A. 
WUson (1807), £1200 ; Collection of Wm. 
Champion (1810), £1000; belonged to T. 
B. Owen, who sold it to National Gallery 
(1837) for £3000. Duplicates, partly by pu- 
pils, in Madrid Museum and Potsdam Gal- 
lery. Sketch in black and white, Louvre. — 
Smith, ii. 216 ; Cat. Nat. Gal. 

BREA, LODOVICO, bom at Nice about 
1450 (?), died after 1513. Neapolitan school. 
Works, chiefly in churches in Genoa, signed 
and dated from 1483 to 1513. An Annunci- 
ation, etc., attributed to Justus of Ghent, in 
three compartments, in the Louvre, may be 
by him. Brea shows Flemish influences, 
and was perhaps taught by Corrado d' Ale- 
mania, or by Justus of Ghent, who painted 
at Genoa at 1451. Soprani mentions an As- 
cension of Christ in S.M. della Consolazione 
at Genoa, painted for Petrus de' Fazi in 
1483.— C. & C, Flemish Painters, 176 ; Ch. 

Blanc, ficole genoise ; Lanzi, iii. 235 ; So- 
prani, 12. 

in Stockholm in 1759, died in 1818. Por- 
trait painter, pupil in London of Reynolds. 
Became painter to the Swedish court and 
was called the Van Dyck of Sweden. His 
son, Johan Fredrik (born in London in 
1788, died in Stockholm in 1835), was also 
a painter. 


born in Antwerp, March 19, 1683, died 
there, Feb. 19, 1750. Landscape painter; 
grandson of Peeter van B., son and pupil 
of Alexander van B., landscape and genre 
painter (died 1720). He copied success- 
fully paintings of Jan Brueghel and PhiUp 
Wouverman,and later executed original pict- 
ures in their style. Entered guild of St. 
Luke at Antwerp in 1680; master, 1689. 
Went to London with Rysbraek, the sculp- 
tor, and after his return (1725) became di- 
rector of the Academy of Antwerp. Works : 
Mihtary Camp, Louvre; Horse-Shoeing, Fal- 
con Hunt, Dresden Gallery ; Village View, 

Amsterdam Museum. — Biog. nat. de Bel- 
gique, ii. 918 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande. 

Antwerp about 1654, died in Vienna about 
1733. Flemish school ; landscape and battle 
painter, son and pupil of Peeter van. B. ; mas- 
ter of the guild in 1680. Employed by 
Prince Eugene of Savoy, and by the Emperor 
Leopold I., who called him to his court. 
Works : Battle of Peterwardein in 1716, 
Battle of Belgrade in 1717, Falcon Chase, 
Boar Hunt (1717), Vienna Museum.—Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, ii. 917. 

werp in 1630, died in 1719. Flemish school; 
painter of landscapes with figures, in the 
manner of Jan Bmeghel. Entered the Ant- 



werp guild in 1650, lived some years at the 
Spanish court. Works : Two ItaHan Land- 
scapes, Bruges Academy; Landscape, Hague 
Museum.— Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 914; 
De Stuers, 211. 

Copenhagen, June 22, 1841. Architecture 
and landscape painter ; pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy; visited Norway in 1868, Germany 
and Rome in 1869, then Uved in Italy 1871- 
77. Works : Portal of St. Frederic, Copen- 
hagen (1865) ; Street in Christianshavn 
(1867); Street in Bergen, Gate of Frederik- 
berg Portress (1869) ; Mountain Lake in 
Norway, Autumn Landscape (1869); Ascent 
to Ruins of Imperial Palace in Rome (1875); 
Court-Yard of the Lateran (1876); S.Giorgio 
in Velabro, Rome (1880) ; View of Villa d'Este 
(1881).— Sigurd MiiUer, 51. 
born in Antwerp, 
Feb. 22, 1773, 
died there, Dec. 
15, 1839. Flem- 
ish school ; his- 
tory painter, pu- 
pil at the Ant- 
werp Academy 
, -^- V 'i ^ » y \ of Eegemorter, 
I \ \ - A^ I ^ N then in Paris of 
Vincent; ob- 
tained in 1797 the prix de Rome, and studied 
there until 1804. After his return he became 
professor at the Antwerp Academy, and in 
1827 its director. Member of the Academies 
of Amsterdam, Rome, Munich, and New 
York. Works : Patriotism of Burgomaster 
van der Werfft, City Hall, Leyden ; Prince 
of Orange and the League, Ghent Museum; 





Entry of Bonaparte into Antwerp, Versailles 
Museum ; Death of Rubens (1827), Antwerp 
Museum ; Pest Scene in Louvain, Ugolino 
and his Sons ; Death of Egmont, Prince of 

Orange visiting the Inundated in 1825, Na- 
tional Museum, Amsterdam ; Portrait of 
William I., Brussels Museum ; Portrait of 
Pius VH., Vatican, Rome. — Biog. nat. de 
Belgique, ii. 929 ; Cat. du Musee d'Anvers 
(1874), 416 ; Rooses (Reber), 458. 

bom in Antwerp, Jan. 6, 1786, died in Brus- 
sels, Feb. 16, 1871. History painter; brother 
and pupil of Mattheus van. B. ; studied in 
Paris under Girodet, and in Pavia ; visited 
Germany and England. Was conservator 
of the museum at Brussels. Works : Queen 
Blanca, Study of the Flower Painter Dael, 
Barentz on Nova Zernbla, Discovery of New 
Holland, Godfrey de Bouillon at Jerusalem, 
Mary Stuart, Abdication of Charles V., Ant- 
werp Museum ; Procession in Rome, Sixtus 
V. as Swineherd, Brussels Museum. 

BREENBEEGH (Breenborch), BAR- 
born at Deventer, 
in 1599 or 1600, 
died in Rome in 
1663. Dutch 
school; painted 
historical and 
mythological sub- 
jects, but is espec- 
ially distinguished 
by his small land- 
scapes. Supposed pupil of Poelenburg; 
went early to Italy, where and in France he 
is known as Bartolome. He had two styles: 
the first sombre, in which he sought to imi- 
tate Titian and the Carracci, the second more 
clear and transparent. Works : Repose in 
Egypt, Martyrdom of St. Stephen, four views 
in Rome, Louvre ; Monk praying in a Cave, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich; Landscape with 
Ruins, Vienna Museum; Joseph selling Bread 
during the Famine in Egypt (1644), Dres- 

den Gallery ; Elijah's Offering (1645), Ital- 
ian Landscape, Copenhagen Gallery ; Land- 



scape with Figures (by Poelenburg), Schwer- 
in Gallery ; do. and Landscape with Euins 
(1636), View of Tivoli, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. — Bode, Studien, 335 ; Havard, A. & 
A. holL, iv. 69. 

BEEITBACH, KARL, born in Berlin in 
1833. Landscape and genre painter ; pupil 
of the Berlin Academy, and in Paris of 
Couture ; travelled in Germany, France, and 
England. Painted at first only landscapes ; 
later, genre scenes and successful portraits. 
Works : Mill of St. Ouen, near Paris ; Park 
of Trianon ; Huntsman on Stand ; Eest at 
the Chase ; Whestphalian Church ; Noonday 
Prayers ; Kirmess-Joy ; Kirmess-Woe ; Vil- 
lage Parade ; Portrait of the Painter Th. 
Weber ; do. of Intendant General von Hill- 
sen, At the Fortune-Teller's, Female Head, 
Male Head, Man's Portrait (1883).— MuUer, 

BREKELENKAM (Brekhnkam), QUI- 
EYN, bom at Swammerdam, near Leyden, 
died at Leyden in 1668. Dutch school; 
genre painter, probably pupil of Gerard Dou, 
though his works recall both Metsu and Adri- 
an van Ostade. Master of the guild at Leyden 
in 1648. Painted solid, strong, and naive fig- 
ures in warm and harmonious colour. Works : 
Woman feeding her ChUd, Tailor's Shop 
(1661); Interior, The Fireside (1664), A 
Mouse-Trap (1668), National Gallery, Am- 
sterdam ; Monk writiug, Consultation, Lou- 
vre ; Interior (1662), Lille Museum ; Old 
Couple, The Sandwich, Interior, Leyden Mu- 
seum; Saying Grace, Cassel Gallery; Old 
Man with Fish, Old Woman with Vegeta- 
bles, Woman feeding httle Girl, Game of 
Cards (1662), Brunswick Museum; A Brazier 
(1654), Augsburg Gallery ; A Baptism, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Vegetable Vender (1661), Ber- 

Un Museum ; Hermit (1660), Disappointed 
Drinker, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — Chro- 
nique des Arts (1878), 69, 75 ; Havard, A. 

& A. holl., iv. 91 ; Wedmore, Masters of 
Genre Painting, 146. 

Paris in 1807, died March 2, 1868. Genre 
and portrait painter ; pupil of A. Couder 
and of Ingres. Medal of the second class 
in 1833 and in 1863. Principal works: 
Christ (1827); Scene of July Eevolution 
(1830); Miseries of War (1833); Francis I. 
visiting Benvenuto Cellini (1834), Narbonne 
Museum ; Death of the Virgin (1837); Char- 
ity (1838); Church of St. Peter in Carcas- 
sonne ; St. Francis of Assisi (1839) ; Archi- 
tecture, Painting, and Sculpture (1842), a 
fresco ; Leda (1845); Susanna at the Bath 
(1847); Presentiment of the Passion (1848); 
Death of Bailly, Muse of Andre Chenier 
(1849) ; Cartoons for frieze in church of Vil- 
letta, Eaising of Lazarus, Christ healing the 
Blind Man in Jericho, Sermon on Mount 
(1850); Descent from Cross (1852); Victo- 
rious Love (1853); Bohemian, FUght into 
Egypt (1859); Eevery (1861); Slavery and 
Liberty, Caen Museum ; The Butterfly 
(1864) ; Theological Virtues, Cardinal Vir- 
tues (1866), St. Lambert, Vaugirard. — La- 

born in Berlin, June 7, 1827, died in 1878. 
Animal painter; pupil of Berlin Academy, 
under W- Krause, then in Paris of Couture 
and Palizzi ; visited Italy in 1852, and studied 
in Berlin under Stefieck. Lived in Paris in 
1854-64, and at Barbison in the forest of Fon- 
tainebleau in summers of 1864-69. Became 
member of the Berlin Academy in 1868, 
and professor at the Weimar Art School in 
1875. Medals : Paris, 1857-59-61 ; Berhn, 
1861; Nantes, 1861; Munich, 1869; Vi- 
enna, 1873. Works: Interior of Sheep 
Stable, Hamburg Gallery ; Horse Stable at 
Barbison, Normandy Horses, Peasant's 
Farm, Sheep leaving Stable, Eeturn of 
Sheep to the Village, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Don Quixote's Sheep, Pasture in Hol- 
land.— Miiller, 76. 

Fjenneslev, Jutland, May 25, 1812. Land- 



scape painter ; pupil of Copenhagen Acad- 
emy ; visited Portugal in 1839, Rome in 
1847-50 and 1857-61. Member of Copen- 
hagen Academy, and Order of Danebrog 
in 1874. Works: View on Ise Fjord 
(1835); Views near Frederiksvaerk and Eos- 
kilde, do. on Coast of Oresund ; Landscapes 
on Duero Eiver ; do. on the Ehine ; Views 
in Switzerland ; Temple of Vesta at Tivoli 
(1851) ; Villa Poniatowsky outside Porta 
del Popolo ; Italian Landscapes ; Views in 
Denmark. — Sigurd MtiUer, 53 ; Weilbach, 

BEBNNEE, ADAM, born in Vienna, 
Dec. 21, 1800. German school; history 
painter ; pupil of Vienna Academy ; painted 
at first stiU-life and genre ; studied in Mu- 
nich about 1844, after the great modern 
masters of Germany. Works : Tinker fright- 
ening Child, Dead Game (1833), Burial of 
St. Stephen (1835), Vienna Museum; Ees- 
cue of Ferdinand 11. by the Dampierre 
Cuirassiers ; Raising of Siege of Belgrade. — 
Wurzbach, ii. 132. 

SS. Nazaro e Celso, Brescia ; wood, five pan- 
els, figures life-size ; signed and dated 
1522. Middle panel, the Eesurrection ; at 
sides, St. Sebastian, Averoldo with patron 
saints, and the Annunciation in two panels. 
The St. Sebastian is best preserved ; other 
panels injured by repainting. Painted for 
the Papal Legate AltobeUo Averoldo, and 
placed on the high altar of SS. Nazaro e 
Celso, but now between two windows of the 
choir.— C. & C, Titian, i. 236, 247 ; Burck- 
hardt, 717 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole venitienne. 

chio, Vincenzo. 

Marseilles, July 31, 1823. Landscape and 
architecture painter ; pupil of Loubon and of 
Troyon ; has travelled extensively in Turkey 
and Asia. Works: Turkish Coffee-House 
in Constantinople (1857); Walls of Constan- 
tinople (1857); Banks of the Bosporus 
(1861), Luxembourg Museum ; Caravansary 
in Trapezunt (1864); Ceremony of Kissing 

the Hand in Constantinople, Grand Canal 
in Venice (1866); Ponte Rialto in Venice, 
Interior of Pastry-Bakery (1867); Fisheries 
on the Bosporus (1868); Mosque in Trape- 
zunt (1870); Khan of the Sultana Valide at 
Constantinople (1872) ; Bridge of Sighs 
(1874) ; St. John's Church at Beauvais (1877) ; 
Entrance to the Bosporus, The Platane of 
Godfrey de Bouillon (1878).— MuUer, 76; 
Vapereau (1880), 299. 
Courrieres ; con- 
temporary. Land- 
scape painter; 
brother and pu- 
pil of Jules Bre- 
ton. Medals: 
1866, 1867, 1868; 
1st class (1878); 
(1876); Vienna 
(1873); L. of Hon- 
our (1878); Order of Leopold. Studio 
at Courrieres. Works : Morning Light, 
Sunset, Autumn (1861); Twilight in Au- 
tumn, Gust of Wind (1863); Summer Even- 
ing, Twilight (1865) ; A Pond (1866); 
Spring, Snow (1868); Sunset, Entrance of a 
ViUage (1869); Night, Brook of Orchiman 
(1870); Winter Morning, Winter Evening 
(1872); Sunset after Storm, Sunday Morn- 
ing in Winter (1873); Autumn, Twilight, 
Winter's Night (1874); Courrieres Canal, 
Artois Village in Winter, Shepherd's Star 
(1875); Winter, Marine View (1876); Summer 
Morning (1877); Winter, A Church (1879); 
Sunset at Sea before Storm, Snow in Artois 
(1880) ; The old Willows, Frost in Artois 
(1881); Summer Evening, Winter Evening 
(1882); Moonlight in Winter, Sunset in Au- 
tumn (1883); Mill— Artois (1884) ; FaU of the 
Leaves, Evening after the Tempest (1885). 
Works in the United States : Village of Ar- 
tois in Winter, Snow Scene in Holland, 
C. Crocker, San Francisco ; Moonlight after 
Eain, J. G. Fell, Philadelphia ; Stream be- 
tween the Hills, H. E. Bishop, New York. — 
Vapereau (1880), 300. 


■yVVx-1 i , 


Courri^res (Pas-de-Calais), May 1, 1827. 
Genre painter ; pu- 
pil of Drolling and 
Devigne, whose 
daughter he mar- 
ried ; one of the 
best French paint- 
ers of village and 
country Hfe. Med- 
als : 3d class, 1855 ; 
2d class, 1857; 1st 
class, 1859, 1861, 
1867 ; medal of honour, 1872 ; L. of Honour, 
1861; Officer, 1867. Works: Misery and 
Despair (1849); Harvesters' Eeturn (1853); 
The Gleaners, I. Pereire ; The Day after St. 
Sebastian, Little Peasant Girls telling Fort- 
unes (1855); Planting a Cemetery, Lille 
Museum ; Blessing the Harvest (1857), Ee- 
call of the Gleaners (1859), Evening (1861), 
The Gleaner (1877), Luxembourg Museum ; 
The Fire, Weed Gatherers (1861), Comte 
Duchatel ; Consecration of the Church of 
Oignies, M. de Clerq ; Haymaker, Return- 
ing from Fields (1863); Vintage at Chateau 
Lagrange, Comte Duchatel ; Reading, Tur- 
key Keeper (1864); End of the Day, Blue 
Monday, Recall of the Gleaners (1865); 
Spring of Water near the Sea, Harvest-Time 
(1867); Women gathering Potatoes, Helio- 
trope (1868); Plenary Indulgence in Brit- 
tany, Bad Grass (1869); Breton Washer- 
women, Woman Spinning (1870); Girl 
tending Cows, The Fountain (1872); The 
Cliff, When the Cat's away the Mice will 
play (1874); St. John (1875); ViUage Girl 
(1879); Evenmg (1880); Artois Woman 
(1881); Evening at Finistere (1882); The 
Rainbow, Morning (1883); Communicants 
(1884); Last Ray, Song of the Lark (1885). 
Works in the United States : Peasant Girl 
Knitting, Grand Pardon in Brittany, Miss 
C. L. Wolfe, New York ; Gleaner, Samuel 
Hawk Collection, New York ; Harvest, W. 
Rockefeller, New York ; Lookout, R. C. 
Taft, Providence ; Fleur de Sable, J. Carey 
Coale, Baltimore ; Gleaners, H. Probasco, 

Cincinnati ; Tired Gleaner, Hurlbut Collec- 
tion, Cleveland; Sea Bird, D. Cathn, St. 
Louis ; Burning Brushwood, Little Glean- 
er's Rest, Mrs. W. P. Wilstach, Philadel- 
phia ; Departure for the Fields, G. Whitney, 
Philadelphia ; Evening, A. Spencer, New 
York ; Breton Washerwomen at the Sea- 
shore, E. D. Morgan Collection, New York ; 
Gathering Water-Lilies, Peasant Woman, 
J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Tired Gleaner, C. 
S. Smith, New York ; Overdrawn Score, J. 
Hoey, New York ; Close of the Day, Sunny 
Day, Repose, W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; 
Potato Harvest, H. C. Gibson, Philadelphia ; 
Brittany Woman, Rainbow, W. H. Vander- 

bilt. New York ; Reaper's Rest, Wm. Astor, 
New York. — Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 642 ; 
Portfolio (1875), 2. 

BRETT, JOHN, born in England ; con- 
temporary. Landscape and marine painter ; 
studio at Putney. Elected an A.R.A. in 
1881. Works : Spires of Channel Islands 
(1875); Sir Thomas's Tower (1876); Cornish 
Lions (1877); Carnarvon Bay (1878); 
Stronghold of the Seison (1879) ; Britan- 
nia's Realm, Sandy Shallows of Seashore 
(1880); St. Ives Bay, Golden Prospects— 
St. Catherine's WeU (1881); Falling Barom- 
eter, Grey of the Mommg (1882); YeUow 
Sands, Welsh Dragons (1883); Norman 
Archipelago (1885).— Art Journal (1882), 57. 

BREU (Brew, Prew), JORG (Georg), died 
in Augsburg, 1536. German school ; prob- 
ably pupil of Hans Burgkmair, whose 
style his pictures recall, as well as that of 
Altdorfer. The anatomi- T ^ f '■'f 
cal treatment of his figures \ j I ^ 
is defective, but his land- 
scape backgrounds are re- 
markable. Works : Ma- 
donna, Berlin Museum 
(1512); Battle of Zama, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich; Madonna (1523), Ambras Collec- 




tion, Vienna ; Adoration of the Magi, Hos- 
pital church, Coblentz.— Kunst-Chronik, s. 
388; W. &W., ii. 452. 

BEEUGHEL. See Brueghel. 

in Westchester County, N. Y., July 20, 
1832. Landscape painter; pupil of Thomas 
Cummings. Visited Europe in 1873, spend- 
ing seven years abroad, chiefly in Florence; 
has sketched at different times in Switzer- 
land, Holland, England, the Abruzzi moun- 
tains, and about the Italian lakes. Elected 
an A.N.A. in 1861, and N.A. in 1863 ; pro- 
fessor of perspective at National Academy, 
1872. Studio in New York. Works : Scene 
in Holland — near Arnheim, Lake of Como — 
near Varenna (1878); Storm on English 
Moor (1882); May Morning— Lake of Como 
(1883); New England Scene, Morning in 
Early Winter (1884). 

BEEYDEL, KAEEL, called the Cheva- 
lier, born in Antwerp in 1677, died in 
Ghent, Nov. 4, 1744. Flemish school; 
painter of scenes from military life, in imi- 
tation of Van der Meulen, and views of the 
Ehine in the manner of Jan Griffier ; pupil 
of Peeter Ykens, but really formed himself 
in Holland and Germany. He led a very 
erratic life, leaving his wife in Antwerp 
vainly expecting his return. Works : Com- 
bat of Horsemen, Aremberg Gallery, Brus- 
sels; Two Cavalry Skirmishes, Brussels 
Museum; Landscape (2), Cassel Gallery. 
His brother, Frans (1679-1750), was court 
painter at Cassel, and lived for some time 
in London. — Biog. nat. de Belgique, iii. 37; 
Michiels, x. 518. 

bom in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
AprU 10, 1889. Landscape and marine 
painter; self-taught. Began to paint in 
1858; sent first picture to National Acad- 
emy in 1868. Elected A.N.A. in 1879. 
Studio in New York. Works in oil : Mill 
Stream at Newburyport (1868); Ironbound 
Island — Coast of Maine; Baby is King, Day 
Dreams, Last of Flying Cloud (1880); En- 
gagement Eing, Castle Eock — Marblehead 

(1881); At Curzon's Mills — Newburyport 
(1882) ; In my Neighbour's Garden (1883). 
Works in water-colour : Indian Summer's 
Sunset (1869); Maiden's Eock— Lake Pepin 
(1870); Mt. Adams (1871); On the Winding 
Esopus, Time and Tide (1874); Spring 
Morning (1875); Foggy Morning— Grand 
Menan (1876); St. Michael's Mount (1877); 
In a Tide Harbour (1878). — Art Journal 
(1877), 174 ; Sheldon, 144. 

Everett Millais, Wm. H. Vanderbilt, New 
York. Lucy Ashton, recovered from her 
swoon, but not yet from her bewilderment 
and terror, clings helplessly, yet trustingly, 
to the arm of the Master of Ravenswood, 
whose dark and piercing glance indicates 
the approach of Sir Wilham Ashton, who is 
not seen ; background a rocky recess, re- 
lieved by the sparkle of a tiny burn and by a 
growth of ferns and wild-flowers. Painted in 
1878. Engraved by J. O. Barlow.— Builder 
(1878), 449 ; Art Journal (1878), 143. 

BRIDGES, FIDELIA, bom in Salem, 
Mass. ; contemporary. Landscape and flow- 
er painter; pupil of W. T. Richards, in 
Philadelphia ; also studied a year abroad. 
Elected an A.N.A. in 1874. Works in oil: 
Wild Flowers in Wheat (1869); Views on 
the Ausable (1870); Thistles and Yellow- 
Birds (1873); Salt Marshes (1874); Edge of 
Rye Field (1875); Old Grave (1876); Rob- 
in's Bath (1877); Daisies; Banks of an English 
Stream, Old Boat's Last Mooring (1881). 
Water-colours : Pickerel Weed (1871); Lily 
Pond (1874); Mouth of River (1875); By 
the Sea, Flock of Snow Birds, Kingfisher 
and Catkins (1876); Kingbird on the Look- 
out (1878). 

born at Tuskegee, Ala., in 1847. Genre paint- 
er ; pupil of Brooklyn Art Association, and 
in 1866 of L. Gdrome, in Paris. In 1870-72 
he sketched in the Pyrenees, and in 1873-4 
in Algiers, Egypt, and Nubia. Medals: 
Paris, 3d class, 1877 ; 2d class and L. of 
Honour, 1878. Elected N.A. in 1881. Stu- 
dio in Paris. Works : Apollo bearing off 


Gyrene, Interior of a Harem (1875); Moor- 
ish Interior, Donkey Boy of Cairo, Chapel 
in Brittany — 
Noon, Nubian 
(1876); Funeral 
o f a Mu mmy 
(1877), J. G. 
Bennett, New 
York; Market 
Scene in Nubia, 
Kybelian Wo- 
man (1878) ; Al- 
meh, E. G. Dun, N. Y.; Waiting for Orders 
— Souvenir of Constantino, Algeria (1881); 
Interior of Biskra House — Algeria, E. H. 
Keene, New York; Eastern Lady (1882), La 
r-y, D . , Cigale, Af- 

/•/n Dria^man. ternoon 

«^— leQh Hours, At 
the Window— Cairo (1883) ; Caid's Escort 
at Best (1884), Thos. B. Clarke, New York; 
Family Bath at Cairo, My Last Price (1884); 
Summer on the Bosporus (1885). — Sheldon, 

in Paris; contemporary. Landscape painter; 
pupil of Lavieille. Medal, 3d class, 1882. 
Works : Old Trees of Drevant (1881); Even- 
ing in the Cevennes (1882); Oaks in Forest 
of Troncuis, Chateau de la Mothe at Mar9ais 
(1883), Th. Eegnault ; FalUng Eain (1884); 
Le Champ-Eouge at Meaulne (1885). 

at Walworth in 1792, died in London, Jan. 
18, 1844. Began his art studies in 1811 at 
the Eoyal Academy, where he exhibited 
a portrait in 1814 ; was for nearly twenty 
years an exhibitor of historical works, but 
during the latter part of his life his pict- 
ures were chiefly portraits. He became an 
A.E.A. in 1825, and E.A. in 1832. His 
First Conference between the Spaniards 
and the Peruvians in 1531, and his Juliet 
and the Nurse, are in the National Gal- 
lery, London. — Eedgrave ; F. de Conches, 
417 ; Art Union, March, 1844 ; Sandby, ii. 

BEIL (BriU), MATTHEUS, bom in Ant- 
werp in 1550, died in Eome in 1584. Flem- 
ish school. Went when young to Eome, and 
was employed by Gregory XHI. to execute 
works in the Vatican, chiefly landscapes in 
oil and in fresco. Works : Stag Hunt (2), 
Louvre ; Tobias and his Wife, Boar Hunt, 
Dresden Gallery ; Italian Landscape, Bruns- 
wick Museum ; Landscape with Shepherds, 
Ambras Collection, Vienna ; Hunting Scene, 
Naples Museum. — Biog. nat. de Belgique, iii. 
55 ; Fetis, Les Artistes beiges a I'etranger, 
i. 143. 

BEIL, PAUWEL, born in Antwerp in 
1554, died in 
Eome, Oct. 7, 
1626. Flem- 
ish school; 
brother of Mat- 
theus Bril, 
whose success 
in Eome at- 
tracted him 
thither, and 
whom he suc- 
ceeded in the 
Vatican. Pupil of Damien Oortelman, then 
in Eome of his brother ; painted principally 
landscapes, but also executed figures well. 
He left many works in oil and fresco, and ex- 
ercised great influence upon Eabens, Anni- 
bale Carracci,,and Claude Lorrain, becoming 
thereby most important for the development 
of landscape art. Works : Landscapes with 
Figures (4), Madrid Museum ; Duck Hunt, 
Diana and Nymphs, Fishermen (1624), Pan 
and Syrinx, St. Jerome in Prayer (1609), 
three other Landscapes (1617, 1620), Lou- 
vre, Paris ; Prodigal Son, Antwerp Museum ; 
Euins with Figures, National Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Landscapes with Eoman Euins 
(2), Brunswick Museum ; Hilly Landscape 
with Castle, Darmstadt Museum ; Christ 
healing the Possessed (1601), Landscape by 
Seashore, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Land- 
scapes (9, four dated 1600, 1608, 1624, 
1626), Dresden Gallery ; do. (4), Berlin Mu- 
seum; do. (2), Hermitage, St. Petersburg; 



do. (1), Peterhof ; St. Paul in the Desert, 

Boar Hunt, Triumph of Psyche, and others, 

Uffizi, Florence ; Christ on Calvary, Diana 

and CalUsto, three oth- 

\ ><^~>-^ I ers, Palazzo Doria, 

I ^ ^\ Eome ; Baptism of 

' Christ, St. Cecilia, Na- 

POO 1 "I pies Museum. Others 
■*-''•' '"in Milan, Mentz, and 
P> Al/Zl I A Stockholm. — Biog. nat. 
ir\VU L»^ de Belgique, iii. 56 ; Ch. 
D D I I T I Blanc, ficole flamande ; 
Ullll-Ljl j,^^..g^ j^gg Artistes 

beiges k r^tranger, i. 143 ; Michiels, vi. 
156; Booses (Keber), 117. 

at St. Jean d'Angely, April 22, 1817. Fig- 
ure painter ; pupil of Drolling, and of Cabat. 
Medals in 1865, 1869, and 1874. Works : 
Eubens' Studio, Characters from Victor 
Hugo's Poems (1847); Sermon in Provence, 
Visit of the Amateurs, Profession of Arms 
(1857); Eembrandt in his Studio, Messire 
Josue's Pew in Church, Amateurs visiting. 
Page amusing Himself (1859) ; Artist in 
Camp, W. H. Vanderbilt, New York ; Musi- 
cal Party (1861) ; Medicine, Meditation, 
Backgammon (1863) ; Playing Games, The 
Huntsman (1865) ; The Outpost, Officers 
making a Keconnoissance, The Gazette, 
The Host's Portrait, The Patrol (1867); 
Lantara's Quota, CaUot in his Youth (1868); 
Letter of Eecommendation, Book Peddler, 
Bibliomaniac, Man-at-Arms (1869) ; The 
Prince's Education, The Equipment (1870); 
Eural Scene, A Captain (1872) ; Gossip 
(1873); George Dandin's Wedding, Lindor 
Moor and the Marsh (1874); Old Papers, 
Old Pipe, Mandolinata (1875); Profession of 
the Younger Son, Antechamber (1876) ; 
Hunting for Eecruits, Bouquet to Chloe 
(1877); Morning on the Meadows, Storm 
and Eain in the Marshes (1879) ; Peasants 
Eesting, Singing Songs (1880) ; Family 
of a Condemned Man waiting for last Fare- 
well (1881); Woods of Bourboule, Even- 
ing on the Plain of Saintonge (1882) ; His 
Highness in the Trenches, The Commune 

of Piepouzin (1883). — Vapereau (1880), 
BEION, GUSTAVE, bom at Eothau, Al- 
sace, Oct. 24, 
1824, died in 
Paris, Nov. 4, 
1877. Genre 
painter, pupil 
of Gabriel Gu6r- 
in in Strasburg. 
Painted Alsatian 
life with much 
success. Med- 
als : 2d class, 
1st class, 1863 ; medal of honour, 1868 ; 
L. of Honour, 1863; Order of Leopold of 
Belgium. Works: Alsatian Interior (1847); 
Tow-Path (1852); Wood Cutters of the Black 
Forest, Potato Crop in Alsace ; Alsatians 
Threshing (1853); Bretons at the Door of a 
Church during Mass, Funeral on the Ehine 
(1859); Siege of a Town by the Eomans, Al- 
satian Wedding, Wedding Feast, Battery of 
Military Machines (1861), bought by Emper- 
or ; Jesus walking on the Sea ; Pilgrims of 
St. Odile (1863), Luxembourg Museum; End 
of the Deluge, Wolf -Hunting in Spain (1864); 
The King's Day (1865) ; Beading the Bible 
(1867); Funeral in Venice (1868); Dance of 
the Cock (1872); Alsatian Wedding (1874); 
Day of Baptism (1875); First Steps (1876); 
Awakening the Pilgrims to Saint Odile (1877). 
Works in United States : Alsatian Christen- 
ing, Leaving Church, Miss C. L. Wolfe, New 
York; Bouquet, R. C. Taft, Providence; Brit- 
tany Peasants at Prayer, J. W. Garrett, Balti- 
more; Alsatian Peasant Girl, J. Carey Coale, 
Baltimore ; Invasion, C. Parson, St. Louis ; 
Marriage in Alsace, Alex. 
Brown, Philadelphia ; Char- 
coal Furnace, R. L. Stuart, 
New York ; Decking the Vil- 
lage Crucifix, J. Hoey, New 
York ; do., Israel Corse, New York. — Meyer, 
Gesch., 702 ; Montrosier, Artistes modernes. 
BRISPOT, HENRI, born at Beauvais ; 
contemporary. Genre and portrait painter, 



/ ,/v^ 

-- / 


FiiilllL BMIITL, 


pupil of Bonnat. Medal, 3d class, 1885. 
Works : In the Country (1881) ; La Greve 
des Forgerons (1882); Churchwarden's Pew 
(1883); Baptismal Feast, Portrait of Cormon 
(1884) ; Burial of a Farmer in Picardy (1885). 

Paris, Aug. 18, 1810. History and genre 
painter; pupil of Picot, and of the ficole 
des Beaux Arts. Won the grand prix de 
Eome in 1840. Medals, 2d class, 1847, 1855; 
L. of Honour, 1868. Works : Death of Pri- 
am (1840); St. Laurence showing the Treas- 
ures of the Church (1846) ; St. Sebastian 
(1855), ordered by State ; Fishermen enter- 
ing a Church (1865) ; Such is the Way to 
Heaven (1868); Two Sisters of Charity (1876). 
Has executed works in St. Vincent de Paul, 
Paris, and other churches. — Vapereau (1880), 

TUENIN, born at Sens (Yonne); contempo- 
rary. Animal painter, pupil of L. Cogniet. 
Medal, 2d class, 1882. Works : In the Plain, 
The Thicket (1881); Sheep in Meadow (1882); 
Flock of Sheep, Leaving the Park (1883); 
Sheep at Kest, The Eetum (1884); Interior 
of Sheepfold, Eeturn of the Flock (1885). 

Hillsdale, New York, March 14, 1826. Land- 
scape painter ; pupil at Hudson of Henry 
Ary. In 1859 visited Florida and painted 
from his sketches tropical pictures which 
brought him into notice. Elected an A.N. 
A. in 1861, and N.A. in 1874. Studio in 
New York. Works : View of Mt. Oxford 
(1876, medal of honour, Philadelphia) ; On 
the St. John's Eiver — Florida ; Monument 
Mountains ; Mt. Equinox ; View of Lake 
Champlain from Ferrisburg (1878), pui-- 
chased by Directors of Paris Exposition ; As- 
cutney Mountains; Valley of the Housatonic ; 
Delaware Eiver near Port Jervis (1880); Lake 
Placid — Adirondacks (1881); Near Stock- 
bridge, Mass. (1882); Valley of the Connecti- 
cut, Vermont (1883). 

BEITTEN, W. E. F., born in England ; 
contemporary. Exhibits chiefly at Grosvenor 
Gallery. Works : Music (1879) ; Dancing 

(1880); Flight of Helen (1881), one of a se- 
ries painted for Wyfold Court, seat of late 
Edward Hermon, M.P. ; Che sara sara. Ang- 
lers, An Idyl, Baby Ida (1882) ; Boys and 
Dolphins, decorative frieze executed for Earl 
of Leconfield (1883) ; Idyl, Genii of Sport 

Mechlin in 1530 (?), died in Holland about 
1601. Flemish school ; pupil of Frans Flo- 
ris ; entered the Antwerp guild in 1555, be- 
came a citizen in 1559. Was also an archi- 
tect and engraver on both metal and wood. 
Works : Adoration of the Magi, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Last Judgment (1571), Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; do., Brussels Museum ; Holy Family, 
Madrid Museum. — Cat. du Musee d' An vers 
(1874), 428 ; Nagler, Mon., ii. 297. 

born in Antwerp (?) about 1657, died in Am- 
sterdam in 1711. Dutch school ; flower 
painter, pupil of Cornells de Heem ; his pict- 
ures are true to nature and fine in colouring. 
Works: Three pictures of still life. Mu- 
seum, Vienna ; two in Liechtenstein Gallery, 
ib. ; Flowers,Eotterdam Museum. — Michiels, 
X. 444. 

BEOEDEELAM (Brooderlam), MEL- 
CHIOE, born at Ypres. Flemish school ; 
flourished latter part of 14th century, when 
he became painter and valet-de-chambre 
to Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. 
In 1398 he painted Scripture subjects on 
the wings of two shrines sculptured by 
Jacques de la Baerse of Dendermonde, for 
the Carthusian Convent at Dijon, and now in 
the museum of that city. His style has the 
faults of the Westphalian school, tempered 
by the more graceful and tender feehng of 
the school of Cologne. — C. & C, Flemish 
Painters, 19 ; Biog. nat. de Belgique, iii. 78; 
Michiels, ii. 33. 

BEOKEN PITCHEE (Cruche cass^e), J. 
B. Oreuze, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 7 in. x 2 
ft. 9 in. A young girl, in a white dress, with 
a violet ribbon and white flowers in her hair, 
and a gauze fichu which half conceals a 
crushed rose upon her breast, stands holding 



flowers in her robe, and bearing on her 
arm a cracked pitcher. Bought at sale of 
Marquis de Verri (1785) for 3000 fr. En- 
graved by Massard ; A. Leroy. Study in 
National Gallery, Edinburgh. 

Broken Pitcher, Jean Baptiste Greuze, Louvre. 

BEOMEIS, AUGUST, born at Wilhelms- 
hohe, near Cassel, Nov. 28, 1813, died in 
Cassel, Jan. 12, 1881. Landscape painter, 
pupil of the Cassel Academy ; studied in 
1831-33 in Munich, then until 1848 in Eome, 
under Jos. Ant, Koch. After his return lived 
in Cassel and Frankfort, and in 1857 moved 
to Dtisseldorf, principally for the sake of 
being near A. Achenbach. In 1867 he be- 
came professor at the Cassel Academy. 
Member of Berlin Academy. Works : Twi- 
light (1861), View near Olevano, Two Land- 
scapes from the Habichtswald, View in the 
Campagna (1862), Cassel Gallery ; Grave of 
Archimedes, View in Sabine Mountains, 
Moorish Laundry near Palermo, Wood near 
Dtisseldorf, Italian Landscape with Calabri- 
an Shepherd (1869), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Civitella by Moonlight (1866) ; Capri 
(1874) ; Prom the Campagna (1879).— Miil- 
ler, 79 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvi. 296. 

BRONCHOEST (Bronckhorst), JAN 
VAN, bom at Utrecht in 1603, died at Am- 
sterdam in April, 1678 (?). Dutch school; 
genre and landscape painter ; first studied 
glass painting under Jan Verburgh, then at 
Arras under Peter Mathys, and in Paris 
under Chamu ; after his return was induced 
by his friendship with Poelenburg to take 
up oil painting, which he studied by him- 
self. Works : Assembly with Young Man 
playing Guitar (1644), do. with Young Girl ; 
Arcadian Concert, Brunswick Museum ; 
Grotto with bathing Nymphs, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna ; Landscape, Rotterdam 
Museum. — Immerzeel, i. 104; Kramm, i. 
165 ; Eiegel, Beitrage, ii. 185. 

Schadrinsk, Siberia, in 1826. History and 
genre painter ; pupil of St. Petersburg 
Academy, where in 1853 he received the 
great gold medal ; then studied for five 
years in Germany, France, Italy, and the 
East. Studio in Eome. Works : Psetus 
and Arria, Pythagoreans greeting Sunrise, 
Horace reading his Satires to Augustus, 
Alcibiades and Aspasia before the Archon, 
The Outcast, Names' Day, Meeting of the 
Council of Ten in Venice, Christian Doc- 
trine, Peasant Girl of Nemi, A Master in 
Mosaics before the Tribunal of Three in 
Venice (1867).— MuUer, 79. 

BEONZmO, AGNOLO (Angiolo), born 

at Monticelli, 
near Florence, 
in 1502-3, died 
in Florence, 
Nov. 23, 1572. 
school; real 
name Agnolo 
or Angiolo di 
Cosimo Allori, 
but commonly 
called H Bron- 
zino. Pupil of Raffaelino del Garbo and 
later of Jacopo da Pontormo, whom he 
assisted in some of his most considerable 
works. He was a great admirer of Michel- 


!) 2- 



Cum- yriuiLrai' 





angelo, and some of his works show his in- 
fluence, though he was not one of his imi- 
tators. He painted both in fresco and in 
oil, and was a decided mannerist in his his- 
torical pictures. His portraits of members 
of the Medici family, his patrons, and of 
many distinguished men of his time, are by 
far his best works and among the finest of 
the 16th century. His largest work is De- 
scent of Christ into Limbo (1552), Uffizi, 
Florence. Among his best pictures are : 
The Engineer, Pitti, Florence ; Lady, Boy 
with a Letter, Young Sculptor, Uffizi, 
Florence; Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, 
Knight of St. Stephen, Portraits of a 
Lady and of Duke Cosimo I, National 
Gallery, London ; Venus and Cupid, Buda- 
Pesth Gallery ; Dead Christ, Florence 
Academy ; Christ appearing to Magdalen, 


Louvre. — Vasari, ed. - Le Mon., xiii. 159, 
170 ; Ch. Blanc, !ficole florentine ; Burck- 
hardt, 640, 647, 756, 758 ; Meyer, KUnst. 
Lex., i. 494. 

BEOOK, Thomas Gainsborough, National 
Gallery, London; canvas, H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 
11 in. A wagoner, standing at left on a 
rustic foot-bridge, is endeavouring to start 
up his team of four horses tandem, which 
have stopped to drink at a brook. Some- 
times called the Watering Place. Vernon 
Gallery ; purchased in 1838 for £220 10s. 
Engraved by J. C. Bentley in Art Journal. 
—Brock-Arnold, 25 ; Art Journal (1849), 72. 

BEOSAMER, HANS, born probably at 
Fulda between 1480 and 1490, died at Er- 
furt about 1554. German school ; portrait 
painter. One of the Little Masters, and 
more notable as an engraver than as a 
painter. Works : Male Portrait (1520), Vi- 
enna Museum ; others in private galleries 
in Cologne and Vienna. — Scott, Little Mas- 
ters, 121 ; AUgem. d. Biog., iii. 363 ; W. & 
W., ii. 433 ; Kunsi^Chronik, xiii. 494. 

at Charroux (Vienne) ; contemporary. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Ger6me 

and J. P. Laurens. Medal : 3d class, 1884. 
Works: Violation of the Tomb of Urgel 
(1881); Women of Paris going to Versailles 
in 1789 to demand Bread (1882); At the 
Dockyard (1883); Exorcism (1884); Jewish 
Wedding at Constantine (1885), M. Chateau. 

BEOUWER (Brauwer), ADRLyEN, born 
at Oudenarde 
in 1605 or 1606, 
died in Ant- 
werp, buried 
Feb. 1, 1638. 
Flemish school; 
genre painter, 
and one of the 
great masters 
in this line ; in- 
fluenced by 
Pieter Brueghel 
the elder, and by Eubens. Houbraken's 
assertion that he was a pupil of Frans Hals 
cannot be substantiated. If he went to 
Holland at all, it was not until about 1630, 
when he was a finished artist. He was reg- 
istered in the Antwerp guild between Sept. 
18, 1631, and Sept. 18, 1632. Works: 
Tavern Interior (2), Smoker, two others. 
Louvre ; Drinkers at Table, Brawl in a Tav- 
ern, Brussels Museum ; two Peasant Scenes, 
Cassel Gallery ; Surgical Operation and two 
others, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Peasants 
at Cards, Spanish Soldiers at Dice, two 
Surgical Scenes, Fiddler in Tavern, Card 
Players fighting, and three others, Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; Fight of Three Peasants 

j-^ over Dice, Obedient Hus- 

i^V% jr% band. Peasants' Brawl, 
' *^ three others, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Peasant asleep in a Tavern, Old Wo- 

man at Toilet, Smoker, F^ay at Dice, and two 
others, Berlin Museum ; Interior with Peas- 



ants, and four others, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg; others in Liechtenstein, Czernin, Ar- 
taria, and SchBnborn Galleries, Vienna, in 
Schleissheim Gallery in Cologne, Stockholm 
and Madrid Museums, and in private collec- 
tions, England.— Allgem. d. Biog., iii. 366 ; 
Biog. nat. de Belgique, iv. 826 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole hoUandaise ; Bode, Studien, 208 ; 
Dohme, li; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 417; P. 
Mantz, Adrian Brauwer; Michiels, ix. 156 ; 
Schmidt, Das Leben des Malers A. Brouwer 
(Leipsic, 1873). 

Calais, Prance, of English parents, AprU 16, 
1821. Studied in Bruges Academy, at 
Ghent, under Van Hanselaer, and in 1837-39 
in Antwerp Academy ; was in Paris in 1841- 
44, and in Eome in 1845, in which year he 
settled in London. Belongs to the realistic 
school, with a tendency toward Pre-Raphael- 
itism, though he refused to join the Brother- 
hood in 1849. Has exhibited but little at 
the Royal Academy. "Works in oil, water- 
colours, and in fresco. Since 1850 he has 
been painting a series of frescos (each H. 
4 ft. 10 in. X 10 ft. 5 in.) in the Town Hall 
of Manchester, illustrative of the history of 
the city. Subjects : The Romans building 
a Fort at Mancinion (a.d. 60); Baptism at 
York of Edwin, King of Northumbria (627); 
Expulsion of the Danes from Manchester 
(about 910); Establishment of Flemish 
Weavers in Manchester (1330); William 
Crabtree observing the Transit of Venus 
(1639); Defence of Manchester by Bradshaw 
(1642). Works : Wicklif reading his Trans- 
lation of the Bible to John of Gaunt (1848) ; 
Lear and Cordelia (1849); Pretty Baa-Lambs 
(1851); Last of England (1852); Chaucer 
reading at Court of Edward HI. ; Our Ladye 
of Good Children ; Cordelia's Portion ; 
Ehud and Eglon ; Work (1865); Coat of 
Many Colours (1865); Elijah raising the 
Widow's Son ; Jacopo Foscari; The En- 
tombment ; Haydn and Don Juan ; Sardan- 
apalus and Myrrha ; Romeo and Juliet 
(1870).— His son, OHver Madox Brown 
(1855-1874) was a painter and author of 

much promise ; his daughters, Mrs. W. M 
Rossetti and Mrs. F. Hueffer, are also paint- 
ers.— PortfoUo (1870), 81, 119 ; Scribner's 
Mag. (1872), iv. 157 ; Art Journal (1873), 
105; (1881), 262; Eraser's Mag., May, 
1865, 598 ; L'Art (1882), iv. 81, 101, 161 ; 
Ingram, Biog. of Oliver M. Brown (London, 

BROVra", GEORGE LORING, born in 
Boston, Mass., Feb. 2, 1814. Landscape 
painter ; pupil of Washington Allston, and 
in Paris of Eugene Isabey. Visited Europe 
in 1840 and painted in Antwerp, Florence, 
Rome, Paris, and London ; returned to 
America in 1860. Studio in Maiden. 
Works: Bay of New York (1860), Crown of 
New England (1861), Prince of Wales ; Ven- 
ice, Sunset — Genoa, Niagara by Moonlight 
(1876) ; Moonlight Scene in Venice (1877) ; 
Capri (1878); Doge's Palace at Sunset (1881); 
Sunrise — Venice (1882) ; Doge's Palace — 
Venice (1884) ; do. at Sunrise (1885).— Art 
Journal (1880), 370 ; Zeitsch. f. b. K., vi. 61. 

BROWNE, Mme. HENRIETTE, born in 
Paris, 1829. Maiden name Sophie de Bou- 
teiller ; married in 1853 M. Jules Desaux, 
secretary to Comte Walewski, but adopted 
the name of Browne from a maternal ances- 
tor. Genre painter; pupil of Chaplin. Med- 
als : 3d class in 1855, 1857, and 1859 ; 2d 
class in 1861; 3d class for engraving in 1863. 
Has sketched in the East and in North Afri- 
ca. Works : A Brother of the Christian 
School, Poor School at Aix, Mutual Educa- 
tion, The Rabbits (1855) ; Puritans, Cate- 
chism, Grandmother, The Lesson (1857) ; 
Sisters of Charity, The Toilette, A Sister, 
An Apothecary's (1859); Woman of Eleusis, 
A Visit, Harem in Constantinople, Woman 
playing Flute, Consolation (1861); Turkish 
Child (1864) ; Celina and her Sister, The 
Awakening (1868) ; A Court at Damas, Nu- 
bian Dancing Women (1869); The Oranges 
(1870); Alsace (1872); No Matter, The 
Medalhon (1873) ; Portraits, Coptic Poet 
(1874) ; The Parroquet (1875); The Ducat, 
A Bibliophile (1876). — Larousse ; Stephens, 



BROWN, J. APPLETON, born at New- 
buryport, Mass., July 24, 1844. Landscape 
painter ; pupil of B. C. Porter, in Boston, 
and of !fimile Lambinet in Paris. He painted 
his first notable studies in Switzerland dur- 
ing a trip through Europe. Studio in Bos- 
ton. Works : Summer, View at Dives Cal- 
vados — France (1875); Old Eoad near Paris; 
November ; On the Merrimac ; Autumn ; 
Storm at the Isles of Shoals ; Glen Mill 
Brook— Byfield, Mass. (1881); Springtime 
(1884).— Art Journal (1879), 74 ; Sheldon, 

BEOWN, JOHN, born in England, 16th 
century. Was sergeant-painter to Henry 
Vni., with a salary of ,£10 a year. In 1553 
he built Painters' Hall for the company, and 
his portrait is preserved there. — Redgrave. 

BEOWN,- JOHN G., born at Durham, 
England, Nov. 11, 1831. Genre painter; 
studied first at Newcastle-on-Tyne, then at 
Edinburgh Academy, and in 1853 in National 
Academy Schools, New York. Professional 
life passed in Brooklyn and New York. 
Elected an A.N.A. in 1862, and N.A. in 1863. 
Studio in New York. Works : Longshore- 
man's Noon ; Tough Customers ; Country 
Gallants ; Thrilling Moment ; Dress Parade ; 
Three (Scape) Graces ; Left his Money on 
the Piano ; Curling in Central Park (1876); 
Passing Show (1878); Sunny Day (1879); 
Thrilling Moment (1880); Hiding, Long, 
Long Ago (1881); Old Shaver (1883); Merry 
Air and a Sad Heart, Amused (1884) ; Under 
the Weather, Wounded PlayfeUow (1884) : 
A Jolly Lot, The Monopolist (1885)— Shel- 
don, 141. 

BROWN, JOHN LEWIS, born at Bor- 
deaux, Aug. 16, 1829. Genre painter, chiefly 
military and hunting scenes ; pupil of C. 
Eoqueplan and of Belloc. Medals in 1865, 
1866, and 1867; L. of Honour,1870. Works : 
A Drum, Nidjeb (a horse), Colledano Letra- 
do (a horse), Henriot on the 10th of August, 
Custine at Spire (1848); An Outpost, Retreat 
before Wolves, Steeple-Chase, Interior of a 
Stable, Horses on the Turf (1861) ; Dogs 
pausing. One of the Cent-Gardes, In the 

Crimea (1863) ; Hunting Incident, In the 
Woods of Vincennes in 1863, Encampment 
of Spahis at St. Maur (1864); Imperial Mili- 
tary Stud (bought by the Emperor), Pen- 
sioners' Day, At the Outposts (1865); Riding 
School (1866, bought by Emperor); Morn- 
ing in the Camp of Chalons, The Day after 
(1867); two incidents in the War of Inde- 
pendence and in Seven Years' War (1868); 
Battle of Ligny in 1815, Count de Saxe 
(1869) ; HaUali (1870) ; Reichshofen, Dogs 
Running (1872); News of the Defeat of Weis- 
senburg brought to Hagenau, Outposts of 
the First Corps in 1870 (1873); Landscape 
with Animals, Zoological Garden, Incident 
in Battle of Froschwiller (1874) ; Norman 
Jockeys, Interrupted Journey, Officer arrest- 
ing Salt-Smugglers (1875) ; Rising Tide, 
Sentimental Journey (1876) ; Frenchmen 
beating in Game, Visit to the Salt Marshes 
of Croisic, Dutch Horses (1877); Incident in 
the military life of Marshal Conflans, Hunt- 
ing Scene (1878); Officer attacked by Plun- 
derers, Souvenir of the Isle of Wight (1880) ; 
Across Country (1881) ; Relay of Omnibus 
Horses (1884) ; Hallali,Return from the Chase 

in England about 1848. Genre painter ; 
son of Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Brown- 
ing. Studied at Antwerp and Paris. Works : 
Worker in Brass— Antwerp (1878) ; Stall 
in Pish Market at Antwerp, Dinant on 
the Meuse (1879); Still Life, Disturbed 
Life, Tan Garden — Dinant (1881); Vespers 
(1882); Valley of the Meuse (1884); portrait 
of Robert Browning (1885), Baliol College ; 
Landscape, Boston Museum of Fine Arts ; 
Meuse from Bouvigne, New York Museum. 
Exhibited at Grosvenor Gallery (1884) a 
bronze statue and two busts. 

BROZIK, VACZLAV, born at Tzemosch- 
na, near Pilsen, Bohemia, in 1852. History 
painter ; pupil of the Prague Academy, in 
Munich of Piloty, and in Paris of Mun- 
kacsy ; studio in Paris since 1876. Medal, 
2d class, 1878. Works : Farewell of Ottokar 
H. (1874), The Kiss, St. Iria, Dagmar, 



Daughter of Premysl, Ottokar I. taken 
from Convent by Waldemar of Denmark 
(1876); The Good Friend (1876); Em- 
bassy of Ladislaus of Bohemia to Charles 
Yn. of France (1878), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Game of Chess (1879); Meeting of 
Charles IV. with Petrarch and Laura at 
Avignon (1879); Beading the Bible, M. K. 
Jessup, New York ; Condemnation of John 
Huss by Council of Constance in 1415 
(1883) ; My ChUdren (1884) ; First Pres- 
entation (1885).— MtlUer, 82. 

BEUANDET, LAZAEE, born in Paris 
in 1755, died there in 1803. Landscape 
paiater, in style of Buisdael. Painted for- 
est views with success. Work : View in 
Forest of Fontainebleau (1785), Louvre. — 
Siret, 142 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole franjaise. 

BEUCK, LAJOS (Louis), born at Papa, 
Hungary, Nov. 3, 1846. Genre painter ; 
pupil of Vienna Academy ; studied in 1869- 
72 in Italy, especially in Venice, where he 
was for a short time a pupil of the Acad- 
emy ; also pupil in Paris of Munkacsy. 
Works: Unwilling Scholar, D. W. Powers, 
Eochester, N. Y. ; Love Letter, M. K. Jessup, 
New York ; Departure for the City (1877); 
The Letter (1878) ; Forsaken (1879) ; Suit- 
able Outfit (1880); Fruit Girl, H. V. New- 
comb, New York ; Children at Play, J. W. 
Drexel, New York ; Noonday Best (1883) ; 
Foundery (1884) ; L'avare (1885). — MuUer, 82. 

ANDEE, born at EUwangen, Feb. 21, 1806, 
died in Stuttgart, Feb. 9, 1852. History 
and portrait painter ; pupil of Wachter in 
Stuttgart, in 1826, and of H. von Hess in 
Munich, in 1827-29. Li 1829 he went to 
Bome, and returned to Munich in 1833, 
when he painted in the king's bedchamber 
fourteen subjects from Theocritus, partly 
after sketches by Hess, partly after his 
own. From 1840 he painted almost exclu- 
sively portraits, in Stuttgart, temporarily 
also in Ulm, Augsburg, and Zurich. Be- 
came insane in consequence of an accident 
in 1835, and eventually committed suicide. 
Works : Barbarossa's Body taken out of the 

Calycadnus, Women of Weinsberg, Thus- 
nelda in Captivity, Stuttgart Gallery ; The 
Maiden from Afar, Eoyal Castle, Friedrichs- 
hafen ; The Sirens, Eomeo and Juliet^ Birth 
of Venus, St. Lucas, Allegories of the Fine 
Arts. — Allgem. d. Biogr., iii. 397 ; Kaczynski, 
ii. 205. 

BEUEGHEL (Breughel), JAN, called 

Flu weelen 
bom in Brus- 
sels in 1568, 
died in Ant- 
werp, Jan 13, 
1625. Flem- 
ish school ; 
son of Peeter 
B. the elder ; 
painted chiefly landscapes, but also genre 
and mythological subjects, animals and still 
life; pupil at Antwerp of Peeter Goetkint, 
but mostly self-taught; highly gifted and 
versatile. After a sojourn in Italy (1593-96), 
settled at Antwerp, where he was master of 
the guild in 1597, dean in 1602 ; a citizen 
in 1601. Was in Nuremberg in 1616. His 
works are characterized by realism, finish 
to the finest details, brUliancy of colour, 
and correct perspective. Though a con- 
scientious and industrious artist, he was a 
rapid worker ; greatly esteemed by his con- 
temporaries, he had a lasting influence, and 
trained several pupils and followers of re- 
nown ; often worked conjointly with Van 
Balen, Eottenhammer, and Eubens, with 
whom he was allied in close friendship. 
Works : The Five Senses (7), The Four 
Elements (4), Sciences and Arts, Earthly 
Paradise (3), Park of Brussels, thirty-seven 
others, Madrid Museiim ; Landscape (1600), 
Bridge of Talavera (1610), Earthly Paradise 
(1611), The Air (1621), three others, Louvre, 
Paris; Sermon of St. Norbert at Antwerp, 
Autumn, Brussels Museum ; Pieta (figures 
by Eubens), Antwerp Museum ; Earthly 
Paradise (figures by Eubens), Flight into 
Egypt (figures by Eottenhammer), City on 


a Eiver (1624), four others, National Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam ; Christ and the Magda- 
len, Rotterdam Museum ; The Flood, six 
others, Cassel Gallery ; four in Brunswick 
Museum ; Forge of Vulcan (figures by Van 
Balen), Feast of Bacchus (figures by Eot- 
tenhammer), St. Hubert (figures by Eu- 
bens), The Paradise, Still Hfe, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Landscapes (dated 1604, 1605 (3), 
1608 (3), 1611 (2), 1612, 1613), twenty-two 
others, Dresden Gallery ; Flora (figures by 
Eubens), Landscapes (1598, 1599, 1609, 
1610, 1612, 1615, 1616, 1620), eighteen 
others, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Adoration 
of the Magi (1598), The Four Elements 
(1604, figures by Eottenhammer), Bouquet 
(1625), four others, Vienna Museum ; Land- 
scapes (7), Hermitage, St. Petersburg; 
Christ on Lake Genesareth (1595), Land- 
scapes with Hermits (1595, 1596, 1597), 
Abundance (1605), Bouquet (1608), Daniel 
in Lion's Den (1608), Fire and Water 
(1610, 1611), Ambrosiana, Milan. His 
son Ambrosius (born Aug. 10, 1617, died 
Feb. 9, 1675), was a distinguished flower 
painter ; pupil of his brother Jan, the 
younger. —Allgem. d. Biog., iii. 403 ; Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, iii. 26 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole 
flamande ; Cat. du Musee d'Anvers (1874), 
304 ; Dohme, li.; J. yan der Kellen, i. 220 ; 
Michiel, v. 351 ; Eiegel, Beitrage, ii. 40 ; 
Eooses (Eeber), 127. 

BEUEGHEL, JAN, the younger, born in 
Antwerp, baptized Sept. 13, 1601, died after 
1677. Flemish school ; son and pupil of 
Velvet Brueghel ; went to Italy in 1622, 
returned in 1625, little influenced by Italian 
art. Like his father, he remained essen- 
tially Flemish. He was for a long time un- 
justly ignored, as many of his pictures 
were attributed to his father. Eubens, 
Van Diepenbeeck, Van Tulden, and Van Ba- 
len often supplied the figures in his land- 
scapes. Works: Halt in front of an Inn 
(1641), Landscape, Tower on Seashore 
(1642), Dresden Gallery. — Biog. nat. de Bel- 
gique, iii. 34 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole flamande ; 
Dohme, li.; Michiels, v. 370. 

BRUEGHEL, PEETER, the elder, called 
Boeren (Peasant) Brueghel, born at Brue- 
ghel, near 
Breda, about 
died in Brus- 
sels about 
1570. Flem- 
ish school; pu- 
pil of Pieter 
Koeck van 
Aalst, and of 
Cock, and greatly influenced by the works 
of Hieronymus Bosch, whose subjects he im- 
itated ; became master of the guild in Ant- 
werp in 1551, and shortly after went to 
Italy ; after his return lived at Antwerp 
until 1563, then settled at Brussels. Paint- 
ed chiefly scenes from peasant life, which 
he treated from a realistic and humorous 
point of view, not always avoiding coarse- 
ness ; also some scriptural subjects and 
ghost and incantation scenes, in the manner 
of Bosch. Left a great number of masterly 
drawings, and some etchings made on his 
travels. Works : Triumph of Death, Mad- 
rid Museum ; Landscape, Village Dance, 
Louvre, Paris ; Job on his Dunghill, Douai 
Museum ; Village Feast, Nancy Museum ; 
Massacre of the Innocents, Brussels Muse- 
um ; Christ on Lake Genesareth, Seaport, 
two Landscapes, Cassel Gallery ; St. John 
preaching, Basle Museum ; do., and Peas- 
ants' Frolic, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; do., 
and Peasants' Brawl, Dresden Gallery ; Con- 
test between Carnival and Lent (1559), Chil- 
dren's Frolic (1560), Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, Christ bearing the Cross (1563), Tow- 
er of Babel (1563), four others. Museum, Vi- 
enna ; St. John preaching. Dance of Death, 
The Blind leading the Blind, and others, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; The Bhnd leading 
the Blind (1568), Naples Museum ; Christ 
bearing his Cross, Uffizi, Florence. — Allgem. 
d. Biog., iii. 400; Biog. nat. de Belgique, iii. 
19 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole flamande ; Dohme, li. ; 
Michiels, v. 321 ; Eooses (Reber), 75. 



BKUEGHEL, PEETEE, the younger, 
called Hollen (Hell) Brueghel, born in Brus- 
sels in 1564, died in Antwei-p about 1637. 
Flemish school ; son of Peeter B. the elder ; 
pupil of Gilles van Conincxloo ; registered 
as a master in Antwei-p in 1585. He was 
much influenced by the works of his father, 
whose predilection for ghostly and diaboli- 
ical subjects he inherited, but he was his 
inferior in invention, colouring, and techni- 
cal merit. Works : Christ delivering Souls 
from Purgatory, National Museum, Amster- 
dam ; Christ bearing the Cross (1607), Ant- 
werp Museum ; do. (1606) and Peasants' 
Brawl, Berlin Museum ; Hell (1596), Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony (1604), Destruction of 
Sodom and Gomorrah, Dresden Gallery ; 
Eape of Proserpine, Tower of Babel, Con- 
flagrations (2), Landscapes (2), Madrid 
Museum ; Fall of Rebel Angels, Brussels 

Museum. — Allgem. d. Biog., iii. 402; Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, iii. 24 ; Ch. Blanc, ificole 
flamande ; Dohme, li. ; Michiels, v. 343 ; 
Eooses (Eeber), 80. 

VICH, bom in St. Petersburg in 1799, 
died at Marciano, near Rome, June 23, 
1852. History painter, pupil of St. Pe- 
tersburg Academy under Ivanoff; went 
in 1823 to Rome, and after his return be- 
came court painter and professor at 
the Academy. In 1835 he visited Greece, 
Turkey, and Palestine, and later went again 
to Italy. He was member of the St. Peters- 
burg, Milan, and Bologna Academies. 
Works : Narcissus (1819) ; Last Day of 
Pompeii (1833), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Murder of Inez de Castro ; Ascension, Kasan 
Church, St. Petersburg ; fresco paintings 
in Isaac Church, many portrait and genre 
scenes in Hermitage. — Brockhaus, iii. 619; 
Meyer, Con. Lex., iv. 10. 

Eome, June 20, 1805, died in Washington, 
Feb. 19, 1880. History painter; studied in 

Eome and became member of the Academy 
when thirteen years old; painted frescos in 
several palaces of his native city and under 
Gregory XVI. for three years in the Vatican. 
After the occupation of Eome by the French ' 
in 1849, he went to America, where he was 
naturalized in 1852 ; went to Mexico in 1854 ; 
after his return to Washington was made 
captain of cavalry, and afterwards entrusted 
with the decoration of the Capitol. His 
Apotheosis of Washington and scenes from 
American history and allegories in the 
Capitol, Washington, were the first frescos 
painted in America. — Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xviii. 158. 

BEUN. See Lebrun. 

BEUNE, Mme. AIM^E PAGfiS, born in 
Paris, Aug. 24, 1803, died there, Aug. 11, 
1866. Genre and history painter ; pupil of 
Charles Meynier. Medals : 2d class, 1831 ; 
1st class, 1841. Works : Sleep, Awakening, 
Elopement, Undine (1831); Condemnation 
of Anne Boleyn, The Bravo, The Prophecy 
(1833); Sad News (1834); Silvio Pellico 
(1835); Birth in a Fisherman's Family 
(1837); Moses Saved (1841); Jairus's Daugh- 
ter (1842) ; Eaphael introduced to Leonardo 
da Vinci by Bramante (1845); Jephthah's 
Daughter (1846); The Virgin offering Flow- 
ers in the Temple (1853). 

in Milan in 1801, died in St. Petersburg, 
Nov. 1875. History painter ; studied in 
1834 in Rome, became, in 1849, director of 
the painting department at the St. Peters- 
burg Academy, then rector, and iu 1866 
also director of the School of Mosaics. 
Works: Apparition of Virgin (Kasan Church, 
St. Petersburg), Death of Cleopatra, Brazen 
Serpent, Christ on Mount of Olives, Bac- 
chante giving a Child to drink. — Kilnst- 
Chronik, xi. 73. 

BEXJNNEE, HANS, bom in Munich, 
March 2, 1813. Genre and portrait painter; 
pupil of Munich Academy, under Cornelius; 
visited in 1833 the Bavarian Alps and Ty- 
rol ; lived then for some time in Venice. In 
1840 he left Munich and lived until 1865 in 


Salzburg and Southern Tyrol, then went to 
Stuttgart, and in 1869 returned to Munich. 
Works: Legend of the Untersberg near 
Salzburg, Return from the Chase, Gondola 
Sail (1876), Tasting Wine (1877), Fisher 
Maiden, Poachers, Meran, Portraits of Aus- 
trian Noblemen. — Miiller, 83. 

BEUNNEE, JOSEF, bom in Vienna, 
March 14, 1826. Landscape painter; son 
of the court painter, Leopold B. the elder 
(1788-1866); pupil of Zaharadniczek, and 
of Jos. Feid ; travelled in Germany, Italy, 
Switzerland, and Wallachia. Studio in Vi- 
enna. Works : Black Tower near ModHng, 
View in SUesia, Fir-Trees in Twilight, View 
in the Klause near Modling, View near 
Lundenburg, View on the Traun, Mountain 
Lake in Carinthia. — Wurzbach, ii. 175. 

BEUNNEE, LEOPOLD, the younger, 
bom in Vienna, Sept. 14, 1822, died there, 
Dec. 24, 1849. German school; animal paint- 
er, brother of preceding, pupil of Vienna 
Academy. Works : Feeding the Goat (1849), 
Vienna Museum ; others in National Muse- 
um, Pesth; Dog Company (1852); Domestic 
Animals on a Hill (1855). — Wurzbach, ii. 176. 

Lesueur, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, 22 pictures, 
each, H. 6 ft. 4 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. The princi- 
pal events in the life of St. Bruno, founder 
of the Chartreuse, Paris, were painted in 
1645-48 for the spaces between the pilasters 
in the little cloister of that monastery, to re- 
place similar pictures upon canvas painted 
in 1508, which were almost destroyed by 
time, and which had been preceded by fres- 
cos painted in 1350. The designs (146) are 
also in the Louvre. In 1776 they were of- 
fered to Louis XVI. for 132,000 livres, the 
convent to receive copies ; but the Order 
was suppressed soon after, and the pictures 
passed to the crown. After restorations 
they were placed in the Louvre in 1818. 

1. St. Bruno listening to Eaymond Dio- 
cr6s preaching. Filhol, x. PI. 686 ; Landon, 
Mus4e, vii. PI. 70. 

2. Death of Raymond Diocres. Filhol, 
vi PI. 482 ; Landon, Musee, vii. PL 25. 

3. Raymond Diocres responds after 
Death. Filhol, vi. PI. 879 ; Landon, Musee, 
vii. PL 27. 

4. St. Bruno in Prayer. Filhol, vii. PL 
440 ; Landon, Mus6e, vii. PL 30. 

5. St. Bruno teaching Theology at 
Rheims. Filhol, iiL PL 145. 

6. St. Bruno exhorting his Friends to 
give up the World. FUhol, ix. PL 705 ; 
Landon, Mus^e, xviL PL 70. 

7. St. Bruno's Dream. Filhol, ix. PL 693 ; 
Landon, Musee, xviL PL 68. 

St Bruno's Dream, Lesueur, Louvre, Paris. 

8. St. Bruno and his Companions giving 
their Property to the Poor. Filhol, ix. PL 
680 ; Landon, Musee, viii. PL 49. 

9. St. Bruno arrives at Grenoble. Filhol, 
viiL PL 529 ; Landon, Musee, viii. PL 54. 

10. St. Bruno travelling to the Chartreux. 
Filhol, viii. PL 548 ; Landon, Musee, xv. PL 

11. St. Bruno building the Monastery. 



Filhol, viii. PI. 562 ; Landon, Musee, vii. PI. 

12. St. Bruno taking the Monastic Habit. 
Filhol, V. PI. 343 ; Landon, Musee, viii. PI. 5. 

13. Pope Victor HI. confirming the Char- 
treuse. Filhol, ix. PI. 717; Landon, Musee, 
vii. PI. 63. 

14. St. Bruno bestowing the Monastic 
Habit. Filhol, ix. PI. 710 ; Landon, Musee, 
vii. PI. 65. 

15. St.Bruno receiving a Letter from Pope 
Urban II. Filhol, ii. PL 139 ; Landon, Mu- 
see, vii. PI. 34. 

16. St. Bruno before Pope Urban H. Lan- 
don, Mus6e, viii. PI. 37. 

17. St. Bruno refusing the Archbishopric 
of Eeggio. Filhol, vi. PI. 421; Landon, Mu- 
see, viii. PL 41. 

18. St. Bruno in the Deserts of Calabria. 
Filhol, ix. PL 699 ; Landon, Musee, viii. PL 

19. Meeting of St. Bruno and Count Ro- 
ger. Filhol, V. PL 301; Landon, Musi§e, viii. 
PL 28. 

20. Apparition of St. Bruno to Count 
Eoger. Filhol, iii. PL 205 ; Landon, Mu- 
s6e, viiL PL 30. 

21. Death of St. Bruno, Oct. 6, 1101. Fil- 
hol, iv. PL 253 ; Landon, Musee, vii. PL 41. 

22. St. Bruno borne to Heaven. Filhol, 
viii. PL 574 ; Landon, Mus6e, viii. PL 35. 

Series engraved, in reverse, by Chauveau; 
Nos. 15 and 22 by S. le Clerc ; No. 22 by 
F. Poilly. — ^Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Landon, i. 

BEUNO, ST., VISION OF, Guercino, Bo- 
logna Gallery ; canvas, H. 11 ft. 10 in. x 7 ft. 
The Virgin and Child in a glory of Angels ; 
belov?, St. Bruno in Prayer; at right a monk 
with a crucifix in his hand, reading. One of 
Guercino's best works. Painted in 1646 for 
the Church of the Certosa, Bologna ; carried 
to Paris in 1796 ; returned in 1815. En- 
graved by G. Rosaspina. — Pinac. di Bologna, 
PL 21; Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iiL 4; Landon, 
Musee, xii. PL 6 ; Burckhardt, 793. 

BRUSASORCI, the elder,, born in Verona, 
in 1494, died in 1567. Venetian school. 

Real name Domenico Eiccio ; pupil of Ca- 
rotto, according to Ridolfi, or of Niccol6 
Giolfino, according to Lanzi. Studied later 
in Venice the works of Titian and of Gior- 
gione, and learned to imitate their styles, 
though not without some oiiginality. His 
mural and panel works are to be seen chiefly 
in Verona. His excellence as a fresco painter 

Vision of St. Bruno, Guercino, Bologna Gallery. 

is shown in the Entry of Clement VH. and 
Charles V. into Bologna, which he painted 
in a hall of the Casa Ridolfi, Verona. — Ch. 
Blanc, ;ficolev6nitienne; Seguier, 216; Burck- 
hardt, 167, 191, 607, 746 ; Bemasconi, 302. 
BRUSASORCI, the younger, born in 1540, 
died in 1605. Venetian school. Real name 
Felice Riccio, son and pupil of Domenico 
Riccio ; after his father's death, finished 
studies under Jacopo Ligozzi, Florence, and 


returned to Verona master of a refined and 
elegant style. Many of his works are in the 
churches of Verona, among the best of which 
is St. Helena in S. Elena. There is a Holy 
Family by him in the Louvre, and a Victory 
of the Veronese at Desenzano in the Verona 
GaUery. His sister Cecilia, who studied 
under her father, was an excellent portrait 
painter. — Ch. Blanc, ificole v6nitienne ; Ber- 
nasconi, 349. 

Best, Peasant Delegation, The Prince on the 
Promenade, Pilgrims Returning, Visit at the 
Studio, Power of Music, The Petitioner. — 
niustr. Zeitg. (1877), ii. 327; (1878), i. 67. 
BEUTUS, Jean Louis David, Louvre, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 10 ft. 8 in. x 13 ft. 10 in. ; 
signed, dated Paris, 1789. Brutus, returned 
home after the punishment of his sons, is 
seated at left in the shadow of the statue of 
Eoma, holding in his hands the written evi- 

Bruius, Louis David, Louvre, Paris. 

in Shelbyville, Tenn., in 1855. Figure 
painter, pupil of the National Academy; 
member of Society of American Artists ; 
professor of antique class, Art Student's 
League. Studio in New York. Works : 
Mourning her Brave, T. B. Clarke, New 
York ; Portrait of A. C. Brush (1882). 

BRtJTT, FERDINAND, born in Ham- 
burg, July 13, 1849. Genre painter, pupil 
at Weimar art school of Pauwels ; settled in 
1876 in Dusseldorf. Works: Disturbed 

dence of their guilt ; at right, his wife and 
daughters are overcome with grief at the 
sight of the lictors in the background bear- 
ing the bodies of the young men. Painted 
for Louis XVI. Salon, 1789. — Landon, 
Musee, x. PL 37 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By G. G. Lethihre, Louvre ; canvas, H. 14 
ft. 4 in. X 25 ft. Brutus, with CoUatinus, his 
colleague, on his right, sits on a platformo ver- 
looking the place of execution, vnth the sen- 
ators behind him ; in the centre, two lictors 
raise the body of one of the sons, already 



executed, while the other prepares to meet 
his fate ; in background, architecture. Col- 
lection of Louis Xni.; Salon, 1812 ; acquired 
in 1819 for 15,000 fr.— Keveil, x. 659. 

born in Ghent, Belgium, in 1816. Genre 
painter ; pupil of Ghent Academy, and in 
Antwerp of Ferd. de Braekeleer. Gold 
medal in 1860 ; member of Amsterdam 
Academy. Works : Suspicion (1842), Woo- 
ing, Dost Kemember? Hot Shells, Spring 
Day, Old Gardener (1857), The Widow 
(1860), Eeminiscence of Olden Times, Funny 
Idea, Motherly Caresses, Child and Kitten 
(Leipsic Museum), Envy and Distrust. — Art 
Journal (1866), 75 ; Miiller, 84. 

BEIJYN (Brun), BAETHEL, born in Co- 
logne in 1494, died there between 1556 and 
1557. German school ; history and portrait 
painter ; formed himself after Jan Schoreel, 
the painter of the Death of the Virgin, and 
in his portraits resembled Holbein. Later 
he became a weak imitator of the Italian 
masters, especially of Michelangelo. Works : 
Martyrdom of St. Ursula, Adoration of the 
Magi, Burgomaster Browiller, do. and Wife, 
Two Male Portraits, Old Lady of the Ques- 
tenberg Family, Cologne Museum ; Corpus 
Christi, Cologne Cathedral ; St. Catherine 
and 18 others, Munich Gallery ; Madonna, 
Burgomaster Eyth, Berlin Museum ; Por- 
traits in Stadel Gallery, Frankfort, in 
Gotha, Brunswick, and Brussels Galleries ; 
Altarpiece in Sfc Victor's Church, Xanten 
(masterpiece). — AUgem. d. Biog., iii. 456 ; 
Merlo, Nachrichten, 69 ; W. & W., ii. 497. 

BEYES, Greek painter, of Sicyon, father 
and master of Pausias, 4th century, b.c. 

BUCHSEE, FEANZ, born at Feldbrun- 
nen, near Solothurn, Switzerland, about 
1829(?). Genre and portrait painter ; stud- 
ied in Eome, Paris, and Antwerp ; went 
to Spain at the age of twenty-two, and 
thence to England, where for three years he 
painted genre pictures, but more especially 
horses and portraits ; in 1857 he returned 
to Spain, visited Morocco soon after, and 
again, during the Spanish campaign of 1860, 

in the suite of Gen. O'Donnell. Having re- 
turned to Switzerland he went in 1866 to 
America, where he spent five years. Works : 
Three Friends ; Eeturn from Market, Jews 
of Mekiness (1862); Mowers (1867); Mary 
Blanc (1869); Negro Picture (1870); Eesig- 
nation (1867), Negro Soldiers in Streets of 
Washington, Eapids of St. Mary on Lake 
Superior, Basle Museum ; Caught by the 
Tide (1879); Singer of Sudan (1881). Por- 
traits of Generals Lee and Sherman, Secre- 
tary Sherman, etc. — Ulustr. Zeitg. (1873), 
ii. 140 ; Kunst-Chronik, xiv. 605 ; xvi. 657. 

du Sarrasin), Jean Francois Millet, Martin 
Brimmer, Boston. In foreground, a woman 
binding sheaves, which another is packing 
in a pannier ; behind them, several women 
carrying panniers to background, where 
men are threshing. This picture is the 
original pastel, made in 1868, which passed 
from the Garet Collection, Paris, to Mr. 
Brimmer. The oil picture, painted from 
it in 1874 and one of the last pictures on 
which Millet worked, was sold at the Fred- 
eric Hartmann sale, Paris (1881), for 47,000 
francs. Etched by Charles Courtry. — Gaz. 
des. B. Arts (1875), XI. 438. 

born in Antwerp in 1530, died after 1575. 
Flemish school ; genre painter, pupil of 
Pieter Aertszen. Eegistered in the Antwerp 
guild in 1560. His subjects are chiefly 
market and kitchen scenes, also biblical 
events admitting of combination with genre. 
Works : Purveyor, Lille Museum ; Christ 
before Pilate (1561), Fish-Market (1568), 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Christ healing the 
Lame (1575), Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
— Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 382 ; Michiels, 
vi. 304 ; Eooses (Eeber), 73. 

century, died after 1351. Florentine school ; 
real name Cristofani Buonamico. According 
to Vasari, he died in 1340 at the age of sev- 
enty-eight, but his name appears in the list 
of the Florentine Company of Painters of 
1351, and Baldinucci says that he lived later 


fc I 


than 1358. Eumohr doubts, and Kugier de- 
nies, his existence. Vasari says he was the 
pupil of Andrea Tafi and represents him as 
a practical joker, who Hved a merry life and 
died a beggar ; but that he was an excellent 
painter and able to outdo all others when he 
could be persuaded to work. He assigns 
many works to him, but it is doubtful if any 
examples remain. — C. & C, Italy, i. 387 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., i. 499 ; Rumohr, Italien- 
ische Forschungen, 14 

BUGIAEDmi, GIULIANO, born in Flor- 
ence, Jan. 29, 1475, died there, Feb. 16, 
1554. Florentine school ; studied the an- 
tique in the garden of the Medici, where he 
became the friend of Michelangelo and fol- 
lowed him into the workshop of Ghirlandajo. 
Afterward was scholar of and assistant to 
Mariotto Albertinelli with Francia Bigio in 
Florence, and later was employed by Michel- 
angelo on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. 
His usual theme is the Madonna, sometimes 
with the youthful St. John, and sometimes 
with Saints. Among his works, which are 
usually signed Jul. Flor. (Florentinus), are : 
Birth of Christ, sacristy of Sta. Croce ; Weep- 
ing Madonna, Uffizi, Florence ; Martyrdom 
of St. Catherine, S. M. Novella, ib.; Ma- 
donna and Baptist, Leipsic Museum ; Na- 
tivity, Berlin Museum ; Marriage of St. 

IVL» FLO . FAC *- 

Catherine, Bologna Gallery. — C. & C, Italy, 
iii. 494 ; Vasari, ed. MU., vi. 201 ; Ch. Blanc, 
£eole florentine ; Biu'ckhardt, 638 ; Lubke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 176. 

BtJHLMEYER, KONKAD, born in Vi- 
enna, Aug. 18, 1835, died there in Nov., 
1883. Landscape and animal painter, pu- 
pil of Vienna Academy ; studied then several 
years in Dusseldorf, and later in Zurich 
under Koller. Works : Wood-Path ; View 
near Lundenburg ; View in Salzburg ; View 
in the Ramsau ; On Gmunden Lake ; Driv- 
ing the Cattle to the Alp, Vienna Museum ; 
Animals Resting ; Driving Sheep Home ; 
The Ploughman ; Cows on the Water ; Pas- 
ture (1883).— MtiUer, 85. 

BULAND, JEAN EUG£:NE, born in 
Paris ; contemporary. Genre painter ; pupil 
of Cabanel and Yvon. Medal, 3d class, 
1885. Works : Offering to God, Lycenion 
and Daphnis (1880); Annunciation, After 
Two Years' Absence (1881); Jesus with 
Martha and Mary, Singing Lesson (1882); 
Penniless (1883); Marriage innocent. Visit 
on the Day after Marriage (1884); Restitu- 
tion to the Virgin the Day after Marriage, 
Decorative Panel (1885). 

BTJLARCHUS, painter, early period. 
Pliny says (vii. 39 [126], xxxv. 34 [55]) that 
King Candaules of Lydia paid its weight in 
gold for a large picture by him representing 
his battle with the Magnetes. 

Siena in 1378. Sienese school ; called also 
Bolgharini, and by Vasari Bologhini. Pupil 
of Pietro Lorenzetti ; member of the su- 
preme council in 1362, and finally lay- 
brother in the hospital at Siena. Vasari 
says he painted many pictures in Siena, and 
in other parts of Italy, but none exist. Va- 
sari's portrait of Pietro was copied from 
Bulgarini's.— C. & C, Italy, ii. 172 ; Meyer, 
Kunst. Lex., iii. 60 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., i. 477. 

Hartford, Conn., in 1842. Landscape painter; 
pupU of William Hart in New York, Andreas 
Achenbach in Dilsseldorf, and Clays in Brus- 
sels. Lived twelve years in Europe. Studio 
in New York. Works: Venice— Night (1876); 
Venice — Morning, La Luna Veneziana 
(1878) ; Approach to Venice, Paris Exposi- 
tion ; Twilight in Holland, T. B. Clarke, 
New York; Watch Hill— Rhode Island (1880); 
Venetian Boats (1881) ; Satucket Hillside — 
New England, Among the Sails — Venice, Bit 
of Harbour — ^Venice (1882) ; Sun, Sails and 
Sea — Venice, Day in May — Venice (1883) ; 
On the Lagoon, San Giorgio (1884) ; Vene- 
tian Day, Venetian Night (1885). 

BUNEL, JACQUES, born at Blois, 1558, 
died in 1614. French school, pupil in Rome 
of Federigo Zucchero ; was court painter to 
Henry IV.; with Dubreuil decorated the 
small Louvre Gallery, which was burnt in 



1661. Works: Descent of Holy Ghost, 
Assumption, Bordeaux Museum. — Ch. Blanc, 
ficole fran9aise. 

Trumbull, Yale College Gallery, New Haven, 
Conn. ; Fought on Breed's Hill, near Boston, 
June 17, 1775. The British troops have 
just become masters of the field, the Ameri- 
cans sullenly falling back ; in centre. Gen- 
eral Warren, dying, supported by a soldier 
on his knees who wards off with one hand 
the bayonet of a British grenadier ; Colonel 
Small, of the British army, is also seizing 
the soldier's musket ; behind him is Colonel 
Pitcairn, mortally wounded ; Generals Howe 
and Clinton are behind the principal group, 
and General Putnam is ordering a retreat. 

New York, in 1841. Landscape painter ; 
studied five years in Germany, France, and 
Italj'. First exhibited at National Academy, 
New York, in 1867. Elected an A. N. A. , in 
1880. Went to Venice in 1882 and is still 
(1885) living there. Works : Fishing Boats 
on the Maas (1880) ; San Giorgio Maggiore 
— Venice (1881) ; off the Campo Santo, 
Canal dei Mati, II Campiello (1882) ; San 
Giorgio della Salute, La Guidecca, Rio della 
Verona (1883) ; San Andrea, Venetian Gar- 
den (1884) ; Canale San Severo, San Marsil- 
ian, Casa dei Pescatori, Rio del Aqua (1885). 


BUONAMICI. See Tassi. 

BUONAMICO. See Buffalmacco. 

BUONARROTI. See Michelangelo. 

cenza, flourished 1497-1530. Commonly 
called II Marescalco. Probably assistant to 
Speranza, where he felt the influence of the 
Paduan school ; subsequently took Antonello 
da Messina for his model. Painted alter- 
nately in Vicenza, in Venice, and in the 
neighbouring provinces. Style much like 
that of Benedetto Montagna, but while he 
improved by study of Carpaccio, Buoncon- 
siglio formed his style under the influence 
of Antonello and Gio. Bellini. Among his 
best works are the Virgin and Child in San 

Rocco, Vicenza, painted in 1502 ; Christ be- 
tween two Saints, in the Gesuiti, Venice ; 
and the Virgin, ChUd, and Saints, three 
pictures, 1511-1513, much restored, in the 
Duomo of Montagnana (near Vicenza) ; Lam- 
entation over dead body of Christ, Gallery, 
Vicenza; Altarpieces at S. Giacomo dell 
Orto, and S. Spirito, Venice ; Madonna with 
Saints (1497), Venice Academy.— C. & C, 
N. Italy, i. 436 ; Burckhardt, 604. 
BUONFIGLIO. See Bonfigli. 
BUONINSEGNA. See Duccio di Buonin- 

BURCHETT, RICHARD, born at Brigh- 
ton, England, in 1817, died in Dublin, in 
1875. History painter, pupil of School of 
Design at Somerset House, London, of 
which he was assistant master in 1845, and 
head master in 1851. He was the master 
of Elizabeth Thompson Butler, of Luke 
Fildes, and of W. W. Ouless. Works : Ed- 
ward IV. withheld by Ecclesiastics from 
pursuing Lancastrians into a Church, Ex- 
pulsion of Peasants from New Forest by 
William the Conqueror, portraits of Tudors 
in Houses of Parliament. 

BtJRCK, HEINRICH, born in Dresden, 
Nov. 27, 1850. History and genre painter ; 
pupil of Dresden Academy under Theod. 
Grosse, in Antwerp under Pauwels, and in 
Berlin under Karl Gussow ; was in Italy in 
1875-78. Works : Helgi and Sigur (1873); 
In the Abruzzi, In the Woods (1877); Per- 
seus and Andromeda (1880). — Mtiller, 85. 
BURCKMAIR (Burgkmair), HANS, 
the elder, bom 
in Augsburg in 
1473, died there, 
1531. German 
school ; history 
and portrait 
painter; son and 
pupil of Thoman 
B., and pupil of 
though influ- 
enced in some respects by Dttrer. Master 
of the Augsburg guild in 1498. Probably 



visited Italy about 1507. He aimed at 
strong characterization rather than ideal 
form, and ranked among the best masters 
of his time. Works : Basilica Pictures 
(1501, 1502, 1504), Christ and Mary (1507), 
Crucifixion (1519), Battle at Cannse (1529), 
all in Augsbui-g Gallery ; Ursula Altar (be- 
fore 1505), Dresden Gallery ; Saints (1505), 
Madonna (1510), both ia Maurice Chapel, 
Nuremberg; Madonna (1509), Museum, ib.; 
Pieta, Carlsruhe Gallery; Holy Family 
(1511), St. Ulric, St. Barbara, BerUn Mu- 
seum ; John Evangelist (after 1520), do., 
and St. John Baptist (1518), Duke William 
IV. of Bavaria (1526), ^ 
and Wife, Esther be- lo-fiVRCK/AAni- 
fore Ahasuerus (1528), PINGEQAT- IN" 
Old Pinakothek, Mu- AVCVSTA' 
nich ; Portrait of him- n EC'A ' 

self and Wife (1526), 
Vienna Museum. — All- » | \ 1 1 * 
gem. d. Biog., iii. 576; 11*^ 

Ch. Blanc, ificole alle- 
mande ; Dohme, li. ; 
Nagler, Mon., iii. 237 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 
195 ; Lubke, Geschichte der Eenaissance in 
Deutschland, i. 55 ; Woltmann (Bennett), 
Holbein and Ms Time, 87; W. & W., ii. 
446 ; iii. 237. 

BUECKMAIR, HANS, the younger, 
flourished in Augsburg until 1559. Ger- 
man school ; son and pupil of Hans the 
elder. Many of the pictures and wood-cuts 
ascribed to his father, bearing a later date 
than 1531, may be works of his hand. — W. 
& W., ii. 450. 

bom about the middle of 15th century, 
died in Augsburg, 1523. German school. 
The founder of a family of painters that 
flourished through several generations. 
According to his own statement in the Augs- 
burg record of painters, he became an ap- 
prentice in 1460. Figures short, flesh 
tones of a heavy brown, and outlines hard. 
Works : Christ conversing with St. Ulric, 
Virgin with St. Elizabeth (1480), Cathedral, 
Augsburg ; Martyrdom of St. Stephen, St. 

Lawrence, and Scenes from the Passion, 
Augsburg Gallery. — Kugler (Cvowe), i. 144; 
Schnaase, viii. 455 ; W. & W., ii. 116. 

Dordrecht about 1697, died in 1737. 
Dutch school ; portrait painter ; pupil of 
Arnold Houbraken, whom he accompanied 
to Amsterdam. Works: Portraits of the 
seventeen directors of the mint, Dor- 

BUEGEE, ANTON, born in Frankfort 
in 1825. Landscape and genre painter; 
pupU at the Stadel Institute under Jakob 
Becker and Jakob Dielmann ; then for two 
years in Munich, and in 1856 in Diisseldorf ; 
visited Paris, the Netherlands, and Italy. 
Since 1857 settled at Cronberg in the Tau- 
nus. Great gold medal, Munich, 1869. 
Works: Old City, Village Street, Farm- 
house, Beer Garden, Bowling AUey, Village 
Kitchen, Two Winter-Hunts (1879).— Mai- 
ler, 85 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xi. 113. 

BUEGEE, LUDWIG, born in Cracow, 
GaUcia, Sept. 19, 1825, died in Berlin, Oct. 
22, 1884. History painter and illustrator ; 
pupil of Berlin Academy, in 1852 of Ant- 
werp Academy, and in Paris under Couture. 
As illustrator for the Leipsic lUustrirte Zei- 
tung he visited Hungary in 1857, and 
joined the campaigns in Schleswig in 1864, 
and in Bohemia in 1866. Prom 1869 he 
turned to decorative painting, became mem- 
ber of the Berlin Academy, and visited 
Italy in 1872-73. Medal in Vienna, 1873 ; 
Munich, 1876. Works: Wall and Ceiling 
Paintings (1870), City Hall, Berlin ; Colos- 
sal Figures representing Military Virtues 
(1878), School of Cadets, Lichterfelde, near 
Berlin.— Ulust. Zeitg., 1876, ii. 145 ; MuUer, 

London in 1830. Genre painter ; son of 
H. W. Burgess, landscape painter to King 
William IV.; pupil in London of Mr. Leigh, 
and of the Royal Academy. Draws his sub- 
jects largely from Spain and Morocco, 
which he has visited. Elected an AR.A. in 
1877. Works : Castilian Almsgiving (1859) ; 



Benighted (1860); Bravo! Toro ! (1865); 
Spanish Monk (1867); Students of Sala- 
manca (1869); Gi- 
tano Rico (1872); 
Barber's Prodigy 
(1875) ; Licensing 
Beggars in Spain 
(1877); Student in 
Disgrace (1878;) 
Convent Garden 
(1879) ; Genius of 
the Family (1881); 
Spanish Letter- 
Writer (1882); The Meal at the Fountam 
(1883) ; Una Limosnita (1885).— Art Jour- 
nal (1880), 297 ; (1882), 136, 207. 
BUEGKMAIR. See Burckmair. 
Trumbull, rotunda of Capitol, Washing- 
ton ; canvas, H. 12 ft. x 18 ft. General 
Gates, standing, surrounded by his officers, 
near the entrance to his marquee, declines 
to receive the sword of General Burgoyne, 
who surrendered to him at Saratoga, Oct. 
17, 1777 ; in distance, troops marching. 
Painted in 1817-24 for $8,000. Original 
study in Yale College Gallery. 

BtJEKEL, HETNBICH, born at Pirma- 
senz, Rhenish Palatinate, May 29, 1802, died 
in Munich, June 10, 1869. Genre and land- 
scape painter ; pupil of Munich Academy, 
but mostly formed himself, studying and 
copying the Dutch masters in the Munich 
and Schleissheim Galleries. In 1829 he 
went to Rome, and after his return in 1832 
became popular for his humorous genre 
scenes. Was honorary member of the Mu- 
nich,Dresden,and Vienna Academies. Works: 
Peasant with upset Hay Wagon, Return from 
Bear-Hunt, Pontine Swamps, The Cam- 
pagna. Morning in Tyrol, Entry of the Best 
Shot, Muleteer's Rest. — Eunst-Chronik, iv. 
162 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., v. 161. 

Birmingham, England, Aug. 28, 1833. Stu- 
dent at Exeter College, Oxford, with William 
Morris and Swinburne, the latter of whom 
dedicated to him his fii-st volume of poems ; 

went to London in 1856 and became a pupil 
of D. G. Eossetti, whose manner he imitated 
for several years, but 
he soon formed a 
style of his own, in- 
clining more to ideal- 
ism and abstract 
beauty than to real- 
ism, and he is now 
one of the chief ex- 
ponents in England 
^^ ''^ of the romantic 

school. In 1857-58 he was associated with 
Eossetti, Morris, Prinsep, and others, in 
painting the Arthurean frescos on the 
walls of the Oxford Union Debating Eoom. 
In 1861 he was one of the originators of 
the now -sfell-known house of Morris & Co., 
and he has made many designs for stained 
glass windows and other decorative work. 
His studio is at the Grange, Hammersmith 
Eoad, in the house of Eichardson the nov- 
eUst. Elected an A.E.A. in 1885. Works : 
Green Summer (1863) ; Story of Dorothea 
(1866) ; Day, Night, Spring, Summer, Au- 
tumn, Winter (1867-68) ; Wine of Cii-ce 
(1869); Phyllis and Demophoon (1870); 
Chant dAmour, Love among the Ruins, 
(1873); Beguiling of Merlin, Days of Crea- 
tion, Mirror of Venus (1877); Temperantia, 
Fides, St. George, Spes, A Sibyl (1877) ; 
Luna, Pan and Psyche (1878); Story of Pyg- 
malion (4), Annunciation (1879); The Golden 
Stairs (1880) ; Danae at the Brazen Tower, 
Tree of Forgiveness, Earth, Perseus and the 
Graise, Feast of Peleus, The Mill, Cupid's 
Hunting Fields (1882); An Angel, Wheel of 
Fortune, The Hours (1883) ; King Cophetua 
and the Beggar Maid, Wood Nymph (1884); 
Laus Veneris. — Univ. Mag. (1879), iv. 40; 
Portfolio (1870), 17; Scribner's Mag. (1872), 
iv. 748. 

BURNIER, EICHAED,bom at The Hague 
in 1826, died at Diisseldorf, March 17, 1884. 
Landscape and animal painter; studied from 
nature and after the Dutch masters, then 
from 1850 in Diisseldorf under A. Achen- 
bach and Schirmer, and from 1855 in Paris 



after Troyon and the French idyl-painters. 
He then continued his studies in Belgium 
in 1858-61, and in Holland in 1863-67, and 
settled in Diisseldorf. Member of the Am- 
sterdam Academy. Works : After the Storm 
(1857), Li&ge Museum ; Afternoon on the 
Heath (1859), Interrupted Milking (1871), 
Cows on the Strand (1872), Passing Storm 
(1873), Afternoon in the Meadow (1874), 
Autumn Morning, Evening (1874), The two 
Friends (1875), Wood Path (1876), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Wild Bull, Brussels Muse- 
um.— Mtiller, 87. 

BUENITZ, KARL PETER, born in Frank- 
fort in 1824. Landscape painter, self-taught; 
was a lawyer ; went in 1850 to Paris, where 
he painted for ten years; since 1860 in Frank- 
fort. Works: Wood Landscape (1860), Stadel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Stamberg Lake (1871); 
Three Landscapes (1879).— Miiller, 87. 

BUSCH, FEIEDEICH, born in Dussel- 
dorf in 1808, died there, Jan. 6, 1875. Genre 
painter ; pupil of the Diisseldorf Academy. 
Works: Spinning Maiden, Huntsman and 
his Sweetheart, Girl at the Well. — Kunst- 
Chronik, x. 236. 

BUSH, NOETON, born at Eochester, N. 
Y., in 1834. Landscape painter ; pupil of 
James Harris in Eochester, and of Cropsey 
in New York. Lives in San Francisco. In 
1853, 1868, and 1875, sketched in South and 
Central America. Works : Lake Nicaragua ; 
Bay of Panama ; Summit of the Sierras, 
Eiver San Juan — Nicaragua, Crocker GaUery, 
Sacramento ; Mt. Chimborazo ; Volcano of 
Elmisti — Peru; Mt. Meiggs — Andes of Peru; 
Western Slope of Cordilleras ; Cordilleras of 

BUSI, LUIGI, born at Bologna in 1838, 
died there, June 2, 1884. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Bologna Academy, studied afterwards 
in Home, and visited Germany and Prance. 
Professor in Bologna Academy from 1871. 
Order of Itahan Crown. Works : Tasso and 
Cardinal Aldobrandini ; Visit of Condolence ; 
Illegal Marriage ; Visit to Young Mother. 

don in 1804, died there in 1875, Genre and 

history painter; pupil of George Clint. 
Painted theatrical scenes, and executed many 
illustrations for books. His genre pictures, 
many of which were engraved, were chiefly 
humorous. Works : Christmas in Time of 
Queen Elizabeth; Wooden Walls of Old Eng- 
land ; Bitter Morning ; Stingy Traveller ; 
Musical Bore ; Master's Out ; Old Commo- 
dore ; Watt's first Experiment with Steam ; 
Introduction of Tobacco ; Soliciting a Vote ; 
Biter Bit ; Time and Tide wait for no Man. 

Bennemuhlen, near Hanover, July 17, 1810, 
died at Hanover, Feb. 26, 1868. Landscape 
painter; first instructed in drawing by Giese- 
well in Hanover, studied engraving in Dres- 
den, and spent nine years in Italy (1835- 
1844). After his return in 1844 he began 
to paint in oil, and from 1849 exhibited 
almost every year at Hanover with distin- 
guished success. Works : Grove of Diana 
(1849); Euins of Imperial Palace in Eome 
(1850) ; Monte Aventino (1852) ; Wood in 
Albanese Mountains (1853); Euins at Albano 
(1855) ; Lago d'Agnano (1857) ; Euins of 
Lambessa (1861) ; Hermit's Eock and Ear 
of Dionysius near Syracuse (1862) ; Monks 
disputing (1862) ; Lago Trasimene (1863) ; 
Constantine (1865) ; Cefalil (1866) ; View 
near Athens (1867).— Allgem. d. Biogr., iii. 
650 ; Andresen, iii. 230. 

BUSSON, CHARLES, bom at Montoire 
July 15, 182 2. 
pupU of Esmond 
and F r a n 5 a i s. 
Medals: 8d class, 
1855-57-59-63-67 ; 
1st class, 1878 ; L. 
of Honour, 1866. 
Works : View near 
Sassenage (1846)f 
The Loire, View in Auvergne (1852); Woods 
in Touraine, Hay (1853); Environs of Mon- 
toire (1855); Ford near Montoire (1857), 
Tours Museum,; The Heath, Before the 
Storm (1859) ; Evening on the Loire, Sun- 


set, Storm on the Heaths (1863) ; Sunrise at 
Sea, Evening (1864); Autumn Day, Hunting 
in the Marshes (1865), Compifegne ; Game- 
Keeper Eeturning (1866), Luxembourg; Un- 
derbrush (1867) ; Sunset (1868) ; Euins of 
Castle of Lavardin (1869); Eoad near Eed 
Sea (1870); Morning in Venice, Evening in 
Venice (1872); Park of Sainte-Claire (1873); 
Ancient Ditch of Castle of Lavardin (1874); 
After the Eain (1875) ; Before the Storm 
(1876) ; Village of Lavardin (1877) ; Old 
Weir near Montoire (1879) ; Old Bridge of 
Lavardin (1880); Woods of Saint-Martin 
near Montoire, A Stream (1881) ; Fisher- 
man's Hut at Prazay, Euins of Lavardin Ch. 
(1882) ; Before the Eain (1883).— Larousse. 
born at St. Quen- 
tin, Aisne, in 
1838, died in 
Paris, Dec. 9, 
1883. French 
school ; Genre 
painter; pupil of 
Picot and of Pils. 
* Medals: 3d class, 
1875; 2d class, 
1878; L. of Hon- 
our, 1881. Works : Mussel-Beds at Viller- 
ville (1874) ; Saturday at Villerville (1875) ; 
Women at the Capstan (1876) ; Departure 
(1877); Burial of a Sailor at Villerville 
(1878), Luxembourg Museum ; The Mari- 
ner's Wife (1879) ; Votive Offering (1880) ; 
Le Depart (1881, Amsterdam Exposition, 

U Lvs^eJjuli 

in mi 


1883) ; Launching the Boat (1883).— Mon- 
trosier. Artistes modernes. 

THOMPSON, born at Lausanne, Switzer- 
land, about 1844. Her early life was divided 
between Italy and England ; pupil of S. 
Kensington Art School, and of Mr. Standish; 
studied when twenty-two years old in Flor- 
ence, under Bellucci, afterward painted in 

Eome. Eeturned to England in 1870 ; ex- 
hibited in 1873 at Eoyal Academy a picture 
entitled Missing ; the 
next year her Boll Call 
won for her a popu- 
larity almost without 
precedent in English 
art history. It was 
purchased by the 
Queen, and is now at 
Windsor. In 1875 she 
X, exhibited The 28th 
Regiment at Quatre 
Bras, in 1876 Balahlava, and in 1877 Eeturn 
from Inkerman. In 1877 Miss Thompson 
married Major Wm. Francis Butler, C.B., 
aid-de-camp to the Queen. Later works: 
'Listed for the Connaught Hangers, Eem- 
nants of an Army (1879) ; Scotland for Ever, 
Defence of Eorke's Drift (1881) ; Floreat 
Etona, Charge of the Scots Greys at Water- 
loo (1882).— Meynell, 68. 

BUTTI, LOEENZO, born in Austria; con- 
temporary. Marine painter of considerable 
merit, made court painter in 1847. Works : 
Stormy Sea near Malamocco (1846), Marine 
with Sirocco Effect, Vienna Museum ; Agi- 
tated Sea with Vessels, Sunset at Sea, Vene- 
tians trying to set on Fire an Imperial Frig- 
ate (1851).— Wurzbach, ii. 219. 

lio, born probably before 1436, living in 
1507. Lombard school. Proper name, Ber- 
nardino Jacobi ; disciple of Vincenzo Foppa 
the elder, and partner of Zenale, whose work 
so resembles his that it is hard to distin- 
guish between them. Buttinone ranked first 
in the partnership, and so was probably the 
elder. Their best common example is an 
altarpiece in San Martino, Treviglio, ordered 
in 1485. Pictures by Buttinone are a Ma- 
donna and Saints, in the sacristy of S. Am- 
brogio, Milan, do. in the Palazzo Borromeo, 
at Isola Bella, and a Virgin and Child (1454), 
in the Casa Castelbarco, Milan, very early 
work.— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 33, 67 ; Calvi, 
Notizie, P. ii. 103-114; Ch. Blanc, tcole 
milanaise ; Lubke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 491. 



BYLERT, JAN VAN, born at Utrecht, 
died there after 1669. Dutch school ; genre 
painter, pupil of Abraham Bloemaert ; went 
via France to Eome, where he worked for a 
number of years; returned to Utrecht about 
1630 and became master of the guild ; in 
1632 and repeatedly afterward mentioned as 
its dean. His pictures are rare. Works : 
Family Pictures (3), Utrecht Museum ; La- 
ban and Eachel, Young Women with Eing, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Young Woman, Cassel 
Gallery; Pancake Eater,Girl counting Money 
(1626), Girl with Zither, Brunswick Gallery; 
Family Scene, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna; 
St. Sebastian, Harrach Gallery, ib. — Bode, 
Studien, 170 ; Kramm, i. 198 ; Riegel, Bei- 
trage, ii. 183. 

BYSS, JOHANN RUDOLF, born at Solo- 
thum, Switzerland, in 1660, died in Wtirz- 
burg in 1738. German school; history, land- 
scape, and animal painter ; went to Italy 
about 1700, and was called to Vienna in 1704, 
by Leopold I., to paint the ceiling of the 
great audience room. Lothar Franz von 
Schbnborn, Elector of Mayence, and Prince 
Bishop of Bamberg, employed him about 
1712 to paint at Castle Gaibach, and after 
the building of Castle Pommersfelden, made 
him supervisor of its picture gallerj'. After 
his patron's death he lived at Wiirzburg. 
Works : Allegory, Paradise (2) with many 
Birds and Animals, Pommersfelden Gallery. 
Others in Bamberg, Wiirzburg, Schleiss- 
heim, and Vienna. — Allgem. d. Biog., iii. 

MontpeUier, Sept. 28, 1823. Histo- 
ry, genre and portrait painter ; pupil 
of Picot ; won the grand prix de Rome in 
1845 ; medal, 2d class, 1852; 1st class, 1855; 
of honour, 1865, 1867, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 
1855 ; Officer, 1864 ; Commander, 1884 ; 
Member of Institute, 1863. Professor in 
the :6cole des Beaux Arts. He painted pre- 
vious to 1861 in the classical style of David, 
of which no trace is visible in his later work. 

Works : Agony of Christ (1844) ; Death of 
Moses (1852), Corcoran GaUery, Washing- 
ton ; Chapel-Mas- 
ter's Window 
(1859) ; Expulsion 
from Paradise 
(1863), Maximili- 
aneum, Munich; 
Giacomina (1872) ; 
John the Baptist 
(1874); Apotheo- 
sis of St. Louis 
(1855), Death of 
Francesca da Ri- 
mini and Paolo Malatesta (1870), Rape of 
the Nymph, Birth of Venus (1863), Thamar 
(1875), Luxembourg ; Portia in Merchant of 
Venice (1881); Venetian Lady of 6th century 
(1882); portraits of Rouher (1861), Napoleon 
HL (1864), Mr.-Mackay (1879), and others. 
Works in United States : Lucretia and Tar- 
quinius Sextus (1877), Buth and Boaz, Sam- 
uel Hawk Collection, New York ; Shulamite 
(1876), Portrait of a Lady, Miss C. L. Wolfe, 
New York ; Florentine Poet, Desdemona, J. 
H. Warren, Hoosac Falls, N. Y. ; Flor- 
entine Poet, St. Aglaia and St. Boniface, Is- 
rael Corse, New York ; Angel of the Ave 
Maria, D. T. Buzby, Baltimore ; Ginevra 
Amieri, Hurlbut Collection, Cleveland; Pan- 
dora (1873), Portrait of MUe. Nilsson, W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore ; Eve after the Pall, H. 
L. Dousman, St. Louis ; Eve after the Ex- 
pulsion, S. A. Coale, St. Louis ; Penelope, 
Mrs. C. Crocker, San Francisco ; Italian 
Maiden, Mrs. W. P. WOstach, Philadelphia ; 
Evening Star, W. P. Bement, Philadelphia ; 
Phcedra, Mr. Leiter, Chicago; Phsedra (1880), 
J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Magdalen at the 
Tomb, C. P. Huntington, New York ; Echo, 
C. S. Smith, New York ; Samson and Deli- 
lah, Wm. Astor, New York ; Pia de Tolomei, 

hix Cabanel 


W. KVanderbilt, New York; Birth of Venus, 
H. C. Gibson, Philadelphia ; do., J. Wolfe, 
New York ; Marguerite, J. T. Raynor, New 


York ; Ophelia (1883), Calvin S. Brice, New 
York. — Larousse ; Claretie, Peintres (1874), 
170 ; Du Camp, Les B.-Arts, 32 ; Bruno 
Meyer, Stud. u. Krit,, 75 ; Meyer, Gesch., 

CABANEL, PIEEEE, born at Montpel- 
lier; contemporary. History and portrait 
painter ; son and pupil of Alexander Cab- 
anel. Medal, 3d class, 1873. Works: 
FHghtof Nero (1873); Deatli of Abel (1874); 
Nymph surprised by Satyr (1875); Shipwreck 
on Coast of Brittany (1877); Mowers (1878); 
Italians in Paris (1879) ; Prodigal Son 
(1880); Young Neapolitan Girl (1881); Bet- 
tina (1882); Chiffonniers (1884). 

CABAT, LOUIS, born in Paris, Dec. 24, 
1812. Landscape painter, pupil of Camille 
Flers; first exhibited in 1833. Medals: 
2d class, 1834 ; 3d class, 1867 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1843 ; Officer, 1855 ; Member of In- 
stitute, 1867 ; Director French Academy at 
Eome, 1879. Works : View of the Bouzanne, 
Mill of Dompierre, Tavern of Montsouris 
(1833) ; Garden of Beaujon, Pond at Ville 
d'Avray, Woods of Fontenay-aux-Eoses, 
Village of Sarasin, Farmhouse in Calvados 
(1834); Wolf's Gorge, Tavern on the Bou- 
zanne, Festival of Virgin on the Water, 
Bird Catcher (1835) ; Plain of Arques 
(1836) ; Forest of Fontainebleau (1837); 
Eoad in Valley of Nami, View of Lake 
Nemi, Good Samaritan, Young Tobias 
(1840); Lake Bolsena, Pond of Pecquigny 
(1848) ; Autumn Evening (1852); The Ar- 
ques, Hunting Boars, Sunset (1853); Eavine 
of ViUeroy (1855); The Seine, He de Crois- 
sy (1856); Pond in the Woods (1859); Lake 
Nemi, Spring in the Woods (1864); Soli- 
tude (1865) ; Huntresses, Woods of Chante- 
loube (1867); After the Shower (1869); 
Stormy Weather (1872); Pond, Sunset 
(1873); Morning after Shower, Morning in 
Park of Magnet (1877).— Larousse ; Cla- 
retie, Peintres (1874), 294 ; Meyer, Gesch., 

CADOEE, BATTLE OF, Titian, former- 
ly in Hall of Great Council, Palazzo Ducale, 
Venice ; canvas. Battle at a bridge span- 

ning a stream ; in sight of the Castle of Ca- 
dore, where the troops of the Emperor 
Maximilian were defeated by the Venetians. 
Painted in 1537 ; burned in the fire of 
1577, and known only through a contempo- 
rary print by Fontana, a sketch on canvas 
attributed to Titian, in the Uffizi, and a 
drawing of the principal group by Eubens. 
— Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 439 ; C. & C, Titian, 
ii. 5 ; Gilbert, Cadore, 154. 

C^SAE, DEATH OF, Vincenzo Gamuc- 
cini, Palazzo Eeale, Naples ; canvas. Attacked 
by the conspirators in the Senate House, 
Caesar, stretching his left hand toward Bru- 
tus, is falling at the base of Pompey's 
statue ; at right, affrighted senators starting 
from their seats. — Eeveil, xiv. 942. 

By J. D. Court, Louvre, Paris; canvas, 
H. 14 ft. X 17 ft. Mark Antony haranguing 
the populace over the dead body of Csesar ; 
in foregroixad Brutus and Cassius. Salon, 
1827. Formerly in Luxembourg. — Cat. 

By Jean L6on Gerome, J. J. Aster, New 
York ; canvas, H. 3 f t. x 5 ft. The dead 
body of Csesar lying at the foot of Pompey's 
statue in the Senate Chamber, the seats of 
which have just been vacated by the flying 
Senators, one only remaining in his place as 
if in silent protest ; in the background, the 
conspirators brandishing their daggers as 
they repeat the oath which binds them. 
Painted in 1867, bought by John Taylor 
Johnston ; at his sale (1876), $8000. Life- 
size study of dead Csesar (H. 7 ft. 2 in. 
X 10 ft. 5 in.), in Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 
ington. Engraved by J. C. Armytage in 
Art Journal (1874), 68 ; Art Treasures of 
America, ii. 3. 

By Karl von Piloty, Munich Gallery. 
Brutus kneels and presents the petition, 
while the other conspirators crowd around 
Csesar, who is seated in the Senate Chamber 
at the base of Pompey's statue ; one, stand- 
ing behind, is about to strike with his dag- 
ger. Engraved by Alex. Becker. Small 
study in colour, D. H. McAlpine, New 


Hampton Court ; tempera on twilled linen ; 
9 pictures, each 9 ft. sq. ; not properly car- 
toons, but intended to be stretched on 
frames and affixed to the wall as a frieze, in 
a continuous procession 81 ft. long, as now 
arranged. Represent a grand triumphal 
procession of Roman soldiers, captives, and 
spoils ; lastly Csesar in a splendid car, with 
a sceptre in his right hand and a palm 
branch in his left. Painted in 1485-92 for 
Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua, to 
decorate the palace of St. Sebastian. Bought 

352, 355 ; Passavant, Kunstreise durch Eng- 
land (London, 1883), 189. 

C^SARS, TWELVE, Titian, originals 
lost(?). Twelve canvases, eleven by Titian 
and one by Giulio Romano, painted in 1537- 
38 for Federico Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua. 
In Sala di Troja in Castle of Mantua till 
1628, when sold by Vincenzo Gonzaga to 
Daniel Nys, who shipped them to England ; 
in collection of Charles I. till 1636, when 
presented to the Spanish ambassador in 
London ; further history lost. Bernardino 
Campi made five copies in 1562, one of 

Death of Caesar, Camuccini, Palazzo Reale, Naples, 

in 1628 by Charles 1, together with statues 
and other pictures, for £10,500, and placed 
in Hampton Court. Valued at £1000 in 
1651, but reserved by Cromwell and not 
sold, as often stated. They are now greatly 
dilapidated. Tapestries were wrought from 
these designs. Three of the series are at 
Boughton, Duke of Buccleuch. Other sets 
mentioned in the catalogue of effects of 
James H.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 404 ; Waa- 
gen, Art Treasures, ii. 410 ; Sainsbury, 
Orig. Papers, 321 ; Law, Hist. Cat. Hamp- 
ton Court, 256 ; Evelyn, Diary, June 9, 
1662; Geo. Scharf, Hist, of Old London, 

which, formerly in Palazzo del Vasto d'Avar 
los, is now in the Naples Museum. Copies 
by Agostini Carracci were in Palace of Par- 
ma till 1734. Engraved by Sadeler.— Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., vii. 442 ; Gaye, Carteggio, ii. 
264 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 313, iii. 443 ; 
C. & C, Titian, i. 420. 

born in Verona in 1538 (?), died in 1598. 
Venetian school ; brother of Paolo Veronese, 
and his assistant in many of his works. 
After his brother's death he continued to 
paint, showing himself a faithful imitator of 
Paolo's manner, but he did not rise above 


mediocrity. His Last Supper and his 
Christ before Pilate are in the Venice Acad- 
emy. Benedetto, whose specialty was archi- 
tecture, was the principal painter of the 
architectural backgrounds in many of Pao- 
lo's pictures. — Ch. Blanc, ^ficole v^nitienne ; 
Bernasconi, Studii, 336 ; Wornum, Epochs, 

CAGLIAEI, CAELO (Carletto), born 
in 1570, died in 1596. Venetian school ; 
elder son and pupil of Paolo Veronese, 
who, for fear that he would be but an 
imitator of his manner, sent him to study 
with Jacopo Bassano. After his father's 
death (1588), Carletto finished several works 
left incomplete by him, and he had begun 
to give promise of a great career when he 
died at the age of twenty-four. He worked 
generally in collaboration with his younger 
Brother Gabriele (born 1568, died 1631), 
and his uncle Benedetto. Several examples 
by him are in the Venice Academy ; works 
executed in collaboration are in the Palazzo 
Ducale and in several churches in Venice, 

Vicenza, Murano, Brescia, and Treviso. — 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole venitienne ; Baldinucci, ii. 
321 ; Burckhardt, 750 ; Seguier, 34 ; Ber- 
nasconi, Studii, 337. 

CAGLIAEI, PAOLO. See Verone&e. 

born at Castel S. Arcangelo in 1601, died in 
Vienna in 1681. Bolognese school; pupil 
of Guido ; painted historical subjects in his 
master's style, exaggerating a little his soft- 
ness and affectation. His later pictures are 
inferior in colour to his earlier ones. He 
died in the service of the Emperor Leopold 
I. Examples : Tarquin and Lucretia, Accad. 
di S. Luca, Eome ; Assumption of the Mag- 
dalen, -Pitti; Jupiter and Ganymede, Uffizi ; 
Sibyl, Borghese, Eome ; St. John the Bap- 
tist, Louvre ; Jacob and Laban, Liechten- 

stein Gallery, Vienna; Magdalen, St. Jerome, 
Death of Cleopatra, Vienna Museum ; As- 
sumption of the Magdalen, Hermitage, St. 

Petersburg. — Malvasia, ii. 58 ; Lanzi, iii. 
102 ; Ch. Blanc, ;^cole bolonaise. 

CAIN, Femamd Gormon, Luxembourg 
Museum ; canvas, H. 12 ft. 7 in. x 23 ft. 
The first murderer, pale and haggard, fol- 
lowed by his children covered with the skins 
of beasts, and bearing their mother on a lit- 
ter, flees, in the midst of storms, from before 
Jehovah (Victor Hugo).— Salon, 1880. 

Baphael {?), Signor Enrico Basseggio, Eome ; 
wood, H. 8 J in. X 13f in. Abel kneeling on 
left beside an altar with hands raised in 
prayer as he sees a flame descending from 
heaven and firing the wood ; Cain, on the 
opposite side, vainly trying to blow his wood 
into a blaze ; a club in foreground prefigures 
the fratricide. Painted in Perugia in 1504- 
05 (?). Said to have been in Aldobrandini 
collection, Eome ; later, in this century, in 
possession of Mr. Emerson, London. Panel 
injured. — C. & C, Eaphael, i. 202 ; Passa- 
vant, ii. 315. 

CAJESI. See Coxes. 
Taverna, Calabria, 
Feb. 24, 1613, died 
in Malta, Jan. 13, 
1699. Neapolitan 
school; real name 
Mattia Preti; pupil 
of Lanfranco in 
Eome, according to 
Baldinucci, and of 
Guercino in Cento, 
according to Dom- 
enici. He studied the great masters in most 
of the cities of Italy, and visited France, 
Spain, and Flanders, and finally Malta, where 
he executed many works. Generally chose 



gloomy subjects, such as martyrdoms and 
death scenes. He had a fertile invention, 
and his compositions are effective, but his 
design is not always correct, and his chiaro- 
scuro is marked by the strong contrasts 
seen in the works of Guercino and Caravag- 
gio. Among his works are : Frescos in choir 
and cupola of the Carmine, Modena ; His- 
tory of Pope Celestine V., and St. Catherine, 
Transept of S. Pietro a Majella, Naples ; Ee- 
turn of the Prodigal Son, Naples Museum ; 
A Concert, Palazzo Doria, Rome. — ^Lanzi, 
ii. 47 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole napolitaine ; Se- 
guier, 158 ; Burckhardt, 790, 798, 800, 803. 

Solimena, Francesco. 

CALAES GATE, Wm. Hogarth, G. F. H. 
Bolckow, Marton Hall, Middlesborough, 
England. Original title, The Eoast Beef of 
Old England. Painted by 
Hogarth as a satire on the 
French in retaUation for his 
arrest and deportation to 
England. A French soldier 
is arresting the artist while 
sketching Calais gate ; in 
centre a French cook stag- 
gers under an immense 
piece of beef, just landed 
from a British packet, and 
directed to Madame Grand- 
sire, the hotel-keeper in 
Calais affected by the Eng- 
hsh of the day ; a well- 
fed monk (portrait of Pine, 
the engraver) blesses it, 
while several half-starved 
soldiers look wistfully 
on. Painted in 1748, en- 
graved in 1749. Bought by Earl of Charle- 
mont. — Athen., Jan., 1875, 55; Cunning- 
ham ; Dobson, 68. 

CALAIS PIER, Joseph M. W. Turner, 
National GaUery, London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 7 
in. X 7 ft. 10 in. The eastern jetty of the 
harbour ; French fishermen preparing for 
sea ; the English packet arriving. Royal 
Academy, 1803; bequeathed by Turner. En- 

graved by T. Lupton, J. Cousen ; Etched by 
S. Haden. — Hamerton, Life ; Cat. Nat. Gal. 
CALAME, ALEXANDRE, bom at Vevay, 
May 28, 1810, died 
at Mentone, March 
19, 1864. Land- 
scape painter ; pu- 
pil in Geneva of 
Diday, whom he 
succeeded as head 
master of the art 
school. He was 
one of the best 
landscape painters 
of his day, and the best depicter of Alpine 
scenery. Visited Germany and the Nether- 
lands in 1839, England in 1840, France in 
1842, and Italy in 1845. Medals : 2d class, 
1889 ; 1st class, 1840 ; L. of Honour, 1842, 

Calais Gate, Hogarth. 

Member of St. Petersburg and Brussels 
Academies. Works : Mont Blanc, Jungfrau, 
Lake of Brienz, Pass of Monte Rosa, Pass of 
Monte Cerino, Handeck Falls, Bernese Ober- 
land (1838-44) ; Ruins of P^stum, Storm 
in Woods, Leipsic Museum ; Noonday in 
Summer, Autumn Evening, Night in Win- 
ter ; The Four Seasons, Geneva Museum ; 
The Four Divisions of the Day, Lake of the 



Pour Cantons (1842), Schreckhorn and 
Wetterhorn, Basle Museum ; Waterfall near 
Meyringen, Berne Gallery ; Lake of Lu- 
cerne (1853), Mountain Valley (1865), Ber- 
lin Museum. — Ch. Blanc, £cole allemande ; 
Brockhaus, iii. 826 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex. 
(1875), It. 78 ; Larousse. 

born in Geneva in 1843. Landscape paint- 
er ; son and pupil of Alexandre, and in 
1864-66 at the Diisseldorf Academy under 
Oswald Achenbach ; travelled in Italy, and 
paints chiefly Italian landscapes and marine 
subjects. Works : Harbour on Mediterra- 
nean, Coast after Storm, Bay of Naples, Lake 
Lucerne, Coast of Bordighera. — Miiller, 91. 
CALATES, painter of comic subjects in 
little, lived soon after time of Alexander. — 
Pliny, XXXV. 37 [114]; R-R, Schorn, 240. 

CALCAE, JAN VAN. See Kalkar, Hans 

gio, Polidoro da. 

bom at Poitiers, 
France, May 3, 1833. 
Subject and portrait 
painter, of Spanish de- 
scent; pupil of J. M. 
Leigh, London, in 
1850, of Picot, Paris, 
in 1851-52, and of 
Leigh again in 1853- 
54. Exhibited first 
picture. By the Waters of Babylon, at Eoyal 
Academy in 1853. Elected an A.RA. in 
1864, and RA. in 1867. Other works: 
Broken Vows (1857) ; Gaoler's Daughter 
(1858) ; Nevermore (1860) ; Demande en 
Mariage, Releasing Prisoners on the Young 
Heir's Birthday (1861); After the Battle 
(1862); British Embassy in Paris on Night 
of St. Bartholomew (1863); Her Most High, 
Noble, and Puissant Grace (1866); Home 
after Victory (1867) ; Young Lord Hamlet, 
CEnone (1868); Sighing his Soul into his 
Lady's Pace (1869); Spring petting Winter, 
Catherine de Lorraine and Jacques Clement 

(1870); The New Picture (1871); Good 
Night, Moonlight Serenade (1873) ; Queen 
of the Tournament (1874); Toujours Pidele 
(1875); His Reverence (1876); Joan of Arc, 
Constance (1877); La Gloire de Dijon (1878); 
Summer Breezes, Twilight (1879) ; The 
Olive, The Vine, Captives of his Bow and 
Spear (1880); Flowers of the Earth (1881); 
Dymphna, Faithful Heart, Joyous Summer 

(1883); Morning (1885) Meynell, 235; 

Portfolio (1870), 97. 

CALLAEI. See Cagliari. 
Joseph M. W. Turner, National Gallery, 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 8 in. x 8 ft. 2 in. 
Caligula, to confute a prophecy of Thrasyl- 
lus — that he would no more be emperor than 
he could drive his chariot over the Bay 
of Baiae — built a bridge of boats from 
the mole at Puteoli across the bay, about 
three Roman miles, and rode and drove 
over it. Turner has assumed that the 
bridge was constructed on arches. On the 
left are magnificent ruins of Caligula's pal- 
ace, with the bridge across the bay in the 
middleground ; on the right, in distance, 
Baise. Royal Academy, 1831. Engraved by 
E. Goodall in Turner Gallery. 

born at Kensing- 
ton, Feb. 20, 1779, 
died there, Nov. 
25, 1844. Choris- 
ter boy for several 
years in Westmin- 
ster Abbey ; pupil 
of John Hopp- 
ner ; became a 
portrait painter, 
and executed many figure pieces, such as 
Raphael and the Fornarina (1837), and Mil- 
ton with his Daughters (1840). But it is as 
a landscape painter that he will be chiefly 
remembered. As such, he ranks among the 
best contemporaries of Turner and Con- 
stable, though he stands at a respectful dis- 
tance from either in point of originality and 


genius. The surname of the English Claude 
which has been given to him, and the large 
prices obtained for his landscapes since his 
death, as, for instance, £3,097 and £514 paid 
in 1863 at public sales, prove the esteem 
felt for his works, in which English scenery 
is treated with unaffected truth to nature. 
Callcott became an A.B.A. in 1806, and RA. 
in 1810 ; he was knighted in 1837, and in 
1844 he was appointed conservator of the 

school ; history and portrait painter ; ob- 
tained the first prize in 1764 for his Gleobis 
and Biton, now in the :^cole des Beaux 
Arts, and became member of the Academy 
in 1780. Painted many allegorical and 
mythological as well as modem historical 
subjects. Works: Winter or Saturnalia 
(1783), Spring or Worship of Juno Lucina 
(1791), Summer or Fi^te of Ceres (1789), 
Autumn or Fdte of Bacchus (1787), all in 

Calumny, Bottice 

royal pictures. The following pictures by 
him are in the National Gallery : Returning 
from Market (1834), Coast Scene, Landscape 
with Cattle, Wooden Bridge, Benighted 
Traveller, Old Pier at Littlehampton (1812), 
Entrance to Pisa 
from Leghorn 
(1833), Dutch Fer- 
ry (1834), View on 
Coast of Holland. — Cat. Nat. Gal. ; Art Un- 
ion Journal, 1845 ; Art Journal (1856), 9 ; 
Ch. Blanc, ficole anglaise ; Sandby, i. 334. 
in Paris, 1741, died there in 1823. French 


Uffizi, Florence. 

Louvre. — Wiirzbach, Mai. d. xviii. J., 10 ; 
Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

CALLICLES, Greek painter, mentioned 
by Pliny (xxxv. 37 [114]) as having exe- 
cuted some small pictures. Perhaps same 
painter spoken of by Varro (Fragm., p. 236 
Bip.).— Brunn, ii. 260. 

CALLBPHON, painter, of Samos, date 
uncertain. Painted episodes of Trojan war 
on walls of Temple of Diana, Ephesus. — 
Pausan. v. 19, 1 ; x. 26, 127 ; Brunn, ii. 56. 

CALLISTO. See Diana and Callisto. 

CALLOT, GEORGES, born in Paris ; 
contemporary. History and portrait painter, 



pupil of Eugene Adan. Medal, 3d class, 
1882. Works: The Chase (1879) ; Twilight 
(1882); The Doves, Portrait (1883); Infancy 
of Orpheus (1884); Diana (1885). 
CALUMNY, picture. See Apelles. 
CALUMNY, Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi, 
Florence ; wood, figures full length, small. 
A magisterial person, seated at right, at- 
tended by Ignorance and Suspicion, stretches 
out his hand to Calumny, who holds in one 
hand the torch of discord, and with the 
other drags Innocence by the hair ; she is 
preceded by Envy and attended by Intrigue 
and Treachery ; behind her, Eepentance, 
clothed in black, is covered with confusion 
at the sight of Truth. Painted about 1485 
from Lucian's description of Apelles' picture. 
Given by Sandro to his friend, Fabio Segni. 
— Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 324 ; C. & C, Italy, 
ii. 422 ; Molini, Gal. de Firenze, i. 159 ; 
Lasinio, i. PI. 41. 

By Federigo Zucchero, Hampton Court ; 
tempera on canvas, H. 4 ft. 8 in. x 7 ft. 8 in. 
Probably a rendering of Lucian's descrip- 
tion of the celebrated picture by Apelles. 
While employed in the Vatican, Zucchero 
had a difference with the Pope's officers, and 
in revenge painted this picture, in which 
he represented those who had offended him 
decorated with asses' ears. The Pope's dis- 
pleasure was the cause of Zucchero's de- 
parture from Eome. Originally in posses- 
sion of Duke Orsini di Bracciano ; perhaps 
found its way to England in Duke of Man- 
tua's collection, bought by Charles L in 
1628.— Law, Hist. Cat. Hampton Court, 140. 
CALVAERT (Caluwaert), DENIS, born 
in Antwerp about 1540, died in Bologna, 
April 16, 1619. Flemish-Bolognese school ; 
called by the Italians Dionisio Fiammingo 
(the Fleming). Pupil of Christiaan Queck- 
borne ; was a good landscape painter when 
he removed to Bologna, where he studied 
figure-painting under Prospero Fontana 
and Lorenzo Sabbatini. He accompanied 
the latter to Eome, and aided him in the 
Vatican. On his return to Bologna he es- 
tablished a school, and had among his pupils 

Guido, Domenichino, and Albani. He was 
a good designer, but mannered in style. 
His pictures are chiefly in Bologna, in S. 
M. de' Servi, S. Petronio, S. Gregorio, S. 
Giacomo Maggiore, and other churches. 
Works: Assumption, Uffizi, Florence; 
Transfiguration, Parma Academy ; Mary 
Magdalen borne to Heaven by Angels, 
Turin Gallery ; male portrait, Vienna Mu- 
seum. — Biog. nat. de Belgique, iii. 258 ; 
Ch. Blanc, £cole bolonaise ; Fetis, Les Ar- 
tistes beiges a I'etranger, ii. 151 ; Michiels, 
vi. 3 ; Eooses (Eeber), 104. 

CALVAEY. See Christ on Calvary. 
Mignard, Louvre ; canvas, H. 5 f t. x 6 ft. 6 
in. ; signed, dated 1684. Christ, in centre, has 
fallen under the weight of the cross, which 
Simon of Cyrene and others are carrying, 
preceded and followed by soldiers and rab- 
ble, up the mountain ; in foreground, left, 
the Virgin, Magdalen, and St. John ; right, 
women and children. Painted for M. de 
Seignelay, and passed to Louis XIV. En-. 
graved by G. Audran ; Landon. — E^veU, ix. 

By Rubens, Brussels Museum ; canvas, H. 
15 ft. 8 in. X 11 ft. 3 in. The Saviour, in 
grey vest and scarlet mantle, in centre, 
bending under weight of the cross, which a 
man, assisted by Simon of Cyrene, is remov- 
ing from his back ; the Magdalen, kneeling, 
is wiping his brows with a napkin ; behind 
her, the wife of Cleophas, with two children, 
and the Virgin, supported by St. John ; at 
left, another woman with an infant in her 
arms ; below, the two thieves, with hands 
bound, guarded by soldiers ; in front, three 
horsemen and others indicated by spears 
and banners. One of Eubens's grandest 
compositions, but now much deteriorated. 
Painted for the abbey church of Affleghem, 
for 1,600 florins, the work occupying sixteen 
days. Engraved by P. Pontius; Eagot; 
and with variations by Monaco. Sketch in 
Amsterdam Museum. — Smith, ii. 56. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice ; 
canvas. Troops and attendants climbing 


Calvary by a winding path ; Christ in centre 
bearing the cross, the two malefactors being 
on the nearer path. A strong and effective 
picture. — Kuskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 353. 
By Tintoretto, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 2 ft. 4 in. X 2 ft. 7 in. Christ falling un- 
der the weight of the cross, with Simon of 
Cyrene aiding him; behind, the Virgin, Mary 
Magdalen, and St. John ; in front the two 
thieves, bound ; soldiers, mounted and on 
foot, and rabble. — Gal de Vienne, i. PI. 48. 

Euskin, Mod. Painters, v. 230 ; Eidolfi, Ma- 
ra v., ii. 57. 

Subject also treated by Pieter Brueghel, 
the younger, Berlin Museum. 

CATiVT, LAZZAKO, born in Genoa in 
1502, died there in 1587. Genoese school ; 
son of Agostino Calvi, a respectable painter 
of Lombard origin ; pupil of Perino del 
Vaga at same time with his elder brother, 
Pantaleo Calvi (died 1595). The brothers 
painted much in collaboration in Genoa, 

Procession to Calvary, Mignard, Louvre. 

By Paolo Veronese, Dresden Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. 8 in. X 14 ft. 6 in. Christ faUing 
under the weight of the cross, which he is 
carrying amid a troop of mounted men and 
rabble ; St. Veronica, with her handkerchief, 
thrust back by one attendant and struck at 
with a knotted cord by another, is trying to 
reach him ; behind, the Virgin, fainting, is 
sustained by St. John, a portrait of Veronese. 
From the Modena collection. Restored by 
Schirmer in 1857. Engraved by Mitelli ; 
Preisler. — Gal. royale de Dresde, i. PL 16 ; 

Naples, and other places, Lazzaro painting 
the principal parts and Pantaleo the orna- 
mental portions. Lazzaro, vain and envious, 
depreciated the works of others, and even 
resorted to poison to rid himself of rivals. 
Defeated in competition with Andrea Semini 
and Luca Cambiaso, he gave up painting 
and led a seafaring life for twenty years, but 
finally retui'ned to his profession. Among 
his best examples are: Phaeton, Apollo, etc., 
ceiling of hall, Palazzo Grimaldi, Genoa ; 
Glory of Saints, choir S. Catterina, Genoa, 


—Soprani, 71; Baldinueci, ii. 148 ; Lanzi, 
iii. 242; Burckhardt, 759; Ch. Blanc, tcole 

CALVI, POMPEO, born at Milan in 1806. 
Landscape and architecture painter ; pupil 
of Migliara. Works : Old Fish Market in 
Rome (1834), Interior of Monza Cathedral 
(1838), Vienna Museum. — Wurzbach, ii. 

CALYPSO, pictures. See Irene, Nicias. 
CAMBIASO, GIOVANNI, born in the val- 
ley of Polcevera, near Genoa, in 1495. Gen- 
oese school ; pupil of Antonio Semini, but 
imitated Perino del Vaga and Pordenone. 
Painted chiefly in fresco. Was the master 
of his son Luca. — Soprani, 17; Baldinueci, 
ii. 174 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole genoise, Luca Cam- 

CAMBIASO, LUCA, born at MonegHa, 
Oct. 18, 1527, died 
at the Escorial, 
Spain, 1585. Geno- 
ese school. Some- 
times called Luchet- 
to da Genova. Son 
and pupil of Giovan- 
ni Cambiaso ; be- 
came his father's as- 
sistant when fifteen 
years old, and was 
selected when seventeen to paint the ceiling 
of the great hall in the Palazzo Doria. His 
early works border on the gigantesque and 
suggest study of Michelangelo, but he modi- 
fied his style at a later period. He painted 
both in oil and in fresco, and such was his 
fruitfulness of invention and facility of exe- 
cution that he seldom made sketches for his 
works. His reputation reached foreign coun- 
tries, and in 1588 he was invited to Spain by 
Philip IL, who made him court painter and 
gave him a pension of 500 ducats. Cambia- 
so executed many works in the Escorial, the 
most celebrated being the Paradise or As- 
semblage of the Blessed, on the ceiling of 
the church of the Escorial, for which he was 
paid 12,000 ducats. Of his oil pictures the 
iaest are : Madonna and Saints, Duomo, 

mm m tne Jiiscoriai. i'niiip 11. c( 

" (^AirJ>if<Ji his 

Genoa; St. Gottardo with Apostles and Do- 
nors, ib.; Madonna and Saints, Palazzo Ador- 
no, Genoa ; Madonna and ChUd, Uffizi ; En- 
tombment, S. M. di Casignano, Genoa ; two 
mythological pictures, Palazzo Borghese, 
Eome ; double portrait of the painter and 
his father, Palazzo Spinola, Genoa ; Martyr- 
dom of St. George, S. Giorgio, ib.; Eape of 
Sabines, Palazzo Imperiale, Terralba, near 
Genoa. Luca had a son, Orazio, who aided 
him in the Escorial Philip n. continued 

him after 
his father's 
death, but he returned to Genoa in the fol- 
lowing year. — Soprani, 35, 51 ; Lanzi, iii. 
244; Seguier, 35; Burckhardt, 760; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole genoise. 

CAMBON, ABMAND, born at Montauban 
(Drome) ; contemporary. French school ; 
genre and portrait paiater, pupil of Paul 
Delaroche and of Ingres. Medals : 2d class, 
1863; 3d class, 1873. Works : Morning and 
Evening of Life (1874) ; Echo and Narcissus 
(1875); Roland fighting the Ork in Defence 
of Olympia (1876) ; Alcinia and Roger (1880); 
Spring Time of Life (1882). 

noir, Charles Crocker, San Francisco. Illus- 
tration of the story narrated by Polysenus 
(vii. 9), that the Persian monarch captured 
Pelusium almost without resistance from 
the Egyptians, whose religious fears were 
aroused by their being assailed with sacred 
cats. Painted in 1867. Photogravure in 
Art Treasures of America. — Art Treas. of 
Amer. iii. 43. 

CAMEELINGHI. See Madonna with the 

CAMILO, FRANCISCO, born in Madrid 
in 1635, died there in 1671. Spanish school; 
son of Domingo Camilo, a Florentine settled 
in Madrid, whose Spanish widow married 
Pedro de las Cuevas ; pupil of his stepfather; 
painted frescos in the palace of Buen Retire 
and religious subjects for the convents of 
Madrid, Toledo, AlcaM, and other places. 
Best work. Communion of St. Mary of Egypt, 


church of the Capuchins, Alcaic de Henares. 
—Stirling, ii. 714 ; Viardot, 275. 

born in Paris, Dec. 14, 1783, died there in May, 
1862. History and genre painter, pupil of 
David and Merim^e. Medals : 2d class, 
1812 ; 1st class, 1831 ; L. of Honour, 1833. 
Principal works: Plight into Egypt, Marriage 
of the Virgin, Adoration of the Magi, St. 
fitienne du Mont ; The Levite of Ephraim, 
Entry of French into Antwerp, Versailles ; 
St. Theresa receiving the Last Sacrament, 
Notre Dame de Lorette. — Larousse. 

CAMINO, GIUSEPPE, born in Turin, 
Oct. 29, 1819. Italian school ; landscape 
painter, self-taught, studying nature and 
after old masters ; Hved for several years in 
Rome and other cities of Italy, visited Paris 
and London, and settled at Turin, where he 
became professor at the Academy in 1854. 
Works : Primeval Forest ; Storm in the 
Campagna ; Glacier of the Mont-Blanc ; 
Pictures in Museo Civico, Turin. — Miiller, 

Padua about 1490 (?) died after 1564. Ve- 
netian school ; related to Giulio Campagnola, 
but not his son, as is generally said. First 
taught by Giulio, afterward pupil of Titian, 
and his assistant (1511), at Padua and Vi- 
cenza. Probably accompanied Titian to 
Venice, and lived there awhile. Most of his 
works, both in oil and fresco, are in Paduan 
churches. His frescos in the Scuola del 
Santo almost rival those of Titian in the 
same place. Four pictures of Prophets in 
Venice Academy ; David, Palazzo Manfrini ; 
St. Michael and Lucifer, S. Cristoforo e 
Michele, Venice. Had a brother, Francesco, 
also a painter. Domenico was also a fine 
engraver. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 885, 689 ; 
Ch. Blanc, ficole venitienne ; C. & C, Titian, 
i, 127, 132, 140 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), 
xvii. 456, 586 ; Lanzi, ii. 94 ; Bartsch, xiii. 

CAMPAGNOLA, GIDLIO, born in Padua 
about 1480 (?), died after 1513. Lombard 
school ; son and pupil of Girolamo Campa- 

gnola, a noted scholar who had studied paint- 
ing under Squarcione ; painted miniatures 
and several altar-pieces, but best known as 
an engraver. Invited in 1498 to court of 
Hercules I., Duke of Ferrara.^ — Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iii. 885, 639; Lanzi, ii. 177; Ch. 
Blanc, l]cole venitienne ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1862), xiii. 382 ; Bartsch, xiii. 868. 

CAMPANA, PEDEO, born in Brussels in 
1508, died there in 1580. Spanish school ; 
real name said to have been Pieter Van de 
Velde. After spending many years in study 
in Bologna and Eome, went about 1547 to 
Seville, where with Louis de Vargas and 
Torregiano he opened an academy, and 
painted for the church of Santa Cruz his 
famous Descent from the Cross (1548), now 
in the Cathedral, which was a favourite 
study of MuriUo. Other works in Seville 
churches. — Stirling, i. 123 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ificole espagnole ; Cean Bermudez. 

Dtisseldorf, Feb. 
8, 1818, died 
there, June 18, 
1885. History 
and genre paint- 
er, pupil of Dtis- 
seldorf Academy 
under Eethel, 
Sohn, and Schad- 
ow ; one of the ; 
foremost painters 
of battles and 
military life. In 1843-45 he visited Hol- 
land, Belgium, Switzerland, and North 
Italy, made a long tour through Germany, 
and then painted in Diisseldorf mostly 
subjects from the Thirty Years' War and 
the time of Cromwell. In 1864, 1866, 
and 1870-71 he accompanied the German 
armies to the field. Since 1859 professor at 
Dtisseldorf Academy ; member of the Ber- 
lin and Vienna Academies ; Prussian gold 
medal for Art ; medals in Berlin and Vienna 
(1878). Works: Tilly's Plight from Breit- 
enfeld (1841); Morgenroth (1842); Wound- 
ed carried from Battlefield (1838), Prince 


Eugene at Belgrade (1843), Cologne Mu- 
seum ; Godfrey de Bouillon at Ascalon 
(1845) ; Puritans watching the Enemy 
(1846), National Gallery, Berlin ; Storming 
of English Castle by Cromwellians ; Flight 
of Charles IE. after Battle of Worcester 
(1849); Charles I. at Naseby (1851); Puritans 
on Morning Watch (1852), Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Captive English Family escorted by 
Puritans, New Pinakothek, Munich ; Eques- 
trian Portraits of Frederic the Great, of 
Seydlitz at Rossbach, of Ziethen, of Keith at 
Hochkirch, of Schwerin at Prague, of Des- 
sauer ; Frederic U. and Regiment Ansbach- 
Bayreuth at Hohenfriedberg ; Frederic at 
the Parade in Potsdam, Royal Palace, Ber- 
lin ; Bliicher taken Prisoner as Swedish En- 
sign, Prussian Grenadiers after Battle of 
Leuthen, Bliicher crossing the Rhine at 
Kaub, Breslau Museum ; Bliicher meeting 
Wellington at Belle-AUiance, Konigsberg 
Museum ; Equestrian Portraits of Bliicher 
and Gneisenau, Magdeburg Museum ; Dup- 
pel after the Storming (1857), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Fight inside DUppel Earthwork 
n.. Crossing to Alsen (1866), Bremen Gal- 
lery ; Ordnance Ride (1866) ; Capture of 
Austrian Standard at NachOd (1868) ; Meet- 
ing of Prince Fred. Charles and Crown 
Prince at Chlum (1868); King WiUiam.deco- 
rating the Crown Prince with an Order 
(1868); Napoleon at Sedan ; Meeting between 
Bismarck and Napoleon ; Entry of Emperor 
William into Berlin ; Great Elector before 
Battle of Fehrbelliu ; Storming of Konigin- 
hof ; Cavalry Skirmish at Waterloo ; Em- 
peror WilUam on Horseback with Roon, 
Bismarck and Moltke (1872), Cologne Muse- 
um; Emperor William with Moltke (1873); 
Frederic William I. with Dessauer (1879); 
Homage of the Silesian Estates at Breslau 
(1882), Ai-senal, Berlin.— Br ockhaus, iii. 883 ; 
Elustr. Zeitg. (1880), ii. 389 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
XX. 649 ; N. Elustr. Zeitg. (1881), H. 671 ; 
Bruno Meyer, Studien u. Kritiken, 1 ; Rie- 
gel, Kunststudien, 397. 

born at Gorkum in 1586, died at Dokkum, 

in 1626. Dutch school ; painted landscapes 
with figures and animals, and interiors of 
peasant houses. In sunsets and snow effects 
he was particularly successful. In 1604 he 
gave up art to study theology. Works : 
Two moonlight landscapes, Dresden Gallery. 
— LArt (1877), i. 37 

kum in 1624, died in Amsterdam in 1674. 
Dutch school ; son of Dirk ; animal painter 
of vivid conception and great truthfulness 
in his boldly drawn pieces, remarkable for 
details. Made citizen of Amsterdam, March 
16, 1650. His pictures are scarce and some 
of them are probably attributed to Paul 
Potter. Works : Farm Interior (1650), 
Brussels Museum ; Halt of Peasants at an 
Inn, Rotterdam Museum ; Inn with Shep- 
herds and Peasants, Rocky Landscape with 

C^ ChmJi/niUsen. iC<so 

do., Cassel Gallery ; Rustic Interior, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Farm Interiors (2), Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg.— L'Art (1877), i. 37, 

1598, died in 1691. Dutch school ; brother 
of Dirk ; painted moonlight landscapes and 
shepherd pieces. May have been a pupil 
of Paul Potter, but his moonUghts are in 
the manner of Van der Neer. — Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 440. 

CAMPI, ANTONIO, Cavaliere, born in 
Cremona early part of 16th century, died 
about 1591. Lombard school ; son of Ga- 
leazzo, and , brother and pupil of Giulio 
Campi. Painted in the Duomo and in S. 
Sigismondo, Cremona, and in S. Paolo, S. 
Celso, S. Barnaba, and S. Maurizio Mag- 

giore, Milan. He sought to imitate Correg- 
gio. Was also architect, sculptor, engraver, 
and author of Cronaca di Cremona (Cremo- 
na, 1585).— Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 496; Lanzi, 


ii. 435 ; Ch. Blanc, ^ficole lombarde ; Burck- 
hardt, 738 ; Eio, iii. 359. 

CAMPI, BEENAEDINO, born in Ore- 
mona in 1522, died there about 1590. Lom- 
baoi'd school ; son of Pietro Campi, a gold- 
smith, of the same family as Galeazzo ; 
pupil of Giulio Campi, and of IppoUto Costa 
at Mantua, where he studied the works of 
Giulio Eomano, as also afterwards those of 
Correggio in Parma, Modena, and Eeggio. 
After successfully imitating the manner of 
these painters, he formed a vigorous and 
briUiant style of his own. He painted 
many excellent -portraits. Became among 
the Campi what Annibale Carracci was in 
his famUy, and received commissions from 
all the neighbouring cities. His most im- 
portant works are in S. Sigismondo, Cre- 
mona, where he painted (1570-71) in the 
great cupola many figures from the Bible, 
representing the concourse of the blessed. 
His many works are described by his biog- 
rapher Alessandro Lamo. — Lanzi, ii. 437 ; 
Ch. Blanc, £cole lombarde ; Burckhardt, 
738 ; Kugler (Eastlake), 495. 

CAMPI, GALEAZZO, of Cremona, born 
in 1477, died in 1536. Lombard school ; 
style formed on that of Boccaccino. His 
Eaising of Lazarus (1515), now in Casal 
Maggiore, is quaintly treated with senti- 
mental realism. Other pictures of his are 
the St. Christopher (1516), in S. Sigismondo 
and the Madonna in S. Sebastiano, Cremo- 
na ; Portrait of the Artist, Ufl&zi, Florence. 
Galeazzo was the father of Giulio, Antonio, 
and Vinoenzo Campi. — C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 
447 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 496 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole lombarde ; Burckhardt, 738 ; Eio, iii. 

CAMPI, GIUIIO, born in Cremona about 
1500, died there in 1572. Lombard school ; 
son and pupil of Galeazzo Campi, afterwards 
pupil of Giulio Eomano at Mantua, and 
later studied Eaphael and the antique at 
Home. Became the founder of the eclectic 
school of painting at Cremona. Distin- 
guished both as a painter and an architect. 
S. Margherita, Cremona, is almost wholly 

decorated with his pictures. He painted 
also St. Jerome in the Cathedral, Mantua; 
Pentecost (1546), S. Sigismondo, Cremona; 
Christ before Pilate, Cathedral of Cremona ; 
Crucifixion, S. M. deUa Passione, Milan ; 
and Conversion, Baptism, Miracles, and 
Death of St. Paul, S. Paolo, Milan; Ma- 
donna with Saints (1527), high altar, S. 
Abbondio, Cremona ; (Frescos 1547), S. Mar- 
gherita, Cremona, Castelbarco Gallery, Mi- 
lan, picture dated 1530. — Lanzi, ii. 432 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 496 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
lombarde ; Burckhardt, 738 ; Eio, iii. 380. 

CAMPI, VmCENZO, born in Cremona 
before 1532, died Oct. 3, 1591. Lombard 
school ; youngest son of Galeazzo, and 
brother and pupil of Giulio Campi. Good 
painter of portraits and of still life. Aided 
his brothers, in S. Paolo, Milan, and in 
other churches. Pictures in the Brera, 
Milan ; Descent from Cross, Cathedral of 
Cremona. — Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 496 ; Lanzi, 
ii. 436 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole lombarde. 

CAMPUZANO, Don TOMAS; contempo- 
rary. Landscape painter ; Medal, Madrid, 
1883. Works : In the Bay (1881); Beach 
of Vivero (1883); The Tajo at Lisbon ; The 
Tajo at Belem (1884). — La Ilustracion 
(1881), i. 419 ; ii. 65 ; (1883), i. 123; (1884), 
ii. 219. 

CAMUCCINI, VmCENZO, CavaUere,born 
in Eome in 1773-75, died there, Sept. 2. 
1844. Italian school ; history and portrait 
painter ; pupil of his brother Pietro, a pict- 
ure restorer, and of Bombelli the engraver, 
but formed himself chiefly by copying the 
old masters. Stimulated by the amval of 
David at Eome, he painted, in the classic 
manner, a series of pictures illustrative of 
Eoman history, as well as many religious 
subjects, which won him reputation. He 
was also eminent as a portrait painter, 
among his sitters being Pius Vll., the King 
and Queen of Naples, Countess Schouvalofif, 
Countess de Diedrichstein, Due de Blacas, 
and other notable persons. He was inspec- 
tor-general of the pontifical museums, and of 
the factory of mosaics, and of the Neapoli- 



tan Academy of Eome, member of the 
French Institute, and president of the 
Academy of St. Luke. Pius VII. gave him 
the title of baron, and Francis I. the Order 
of the Iron Crown. Works : Horatio Co- 
des, Romulus and Remus, Count de Schiln- 
born; Death of Gcesar, Death of Virginia, 
Continence of Scipio, Palazzo Reale, Naples ; 
Departure of Regulus for Carthage ; Incre- 
dulity of St. Thomas (mosaic in St. Peter's); 
Presentation in Temple, S. Giovanni, Pia- 
cenza ; Death of the Magdalen, Entomb- 
ment (painted for Charles IV. of Spain); 
Mission of Benedictine Monks to England 
(1833) ; Conversion of St. Paul (1834), SS. 
Apostoli, Rome. — Ottley. 

CANALE, ANTONIO. See Canaletto. 
CANALETTO, IL, born in Venice, Oct. 
18, 1697, died 
there, April 20, 
1768. Venetian 
school. Real 
name Antonio 
Canal or Canale; 
in Italy also 
called n Tonino. 
Son of Rinaldo 
Canale, painter 
of theatrical 
scenery ; followed same business for several 
years, and thus acquired great readiness of 
hand and fertility of invention. About 1719 
he went to Rome, where he occupied himself 
in studying the antique, and painted many 
views of its architectural remains. On his 
return to Venice he devoted himself to 
painting picturesque views of that city in 
all its aspects — its canals, bridges, pubKc 
places, palaces, and churches, and carnival 
and festival scenes full of figures. He vis- 
ited England twice, and painted many suc- 
cessful pictures there, examples of which 
are to be seen at Windsor Castle. The gal- 
lery contains some of his finest pictures, 
views in Rome and Venice. He executed a 
great number of works, and there are few 
large collections without examples by him ; 
but many pictures which pass under his 

name are by his pupils, Bellotto and Guar- 
di. Ch. Blanc says Canaletto is unexcelled 
in painting architecture, in aerial perspec- 
tive, and in rendering slightly ruffled water. 
His drawing is always precise and accurate, 
and his colouring is wonderfully beautiful. 
But Ruskin avers that he is "less to be 
trusted for renderings of details than the 
rudest and most ignorant painter of the 
thirteenth century." His figures are not 
always good, and in some of his pictures 
they were put in by Tiepolo. Among his 
most noted works are the Church of S. M. 
della Salute in Venice, Louvre ; and the Re- 
ception of Count Gergi, and the Marriage 
of the Doge with the Adriatic, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. Other excellent examples 
are: View of Ducal Palace, and View in 
Venice, Uffizi, Florence ; View of Venice, 
Turin Gallery ; do., Academia Carrara, 
Bergamo ; Views in Venice (4), BerUn Mu- 
seum ; do. (4), Munich Gallery ; View in 
Venice, View on Grand Canal, Piazzetta of 
S. Mark, Scuola di S. Rocco, Ducal Palace, 
View of Eton College, Landscape with 
Ruins, Regatta on Grand Canal, Grimani 
Palace, and others. National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; and Seaport, GaUeria Estense, Mo- 
dena — Ch. Blanc, ificole venitienne ; Dohme, 
2iii.; Seguier, 86; Burckhardt, 805. 

CANDAULES, KING, Jean Leon G&rdme, 
Paris. Candaules, King of Lydia, proud of 
his wife's beauty, exhibited her unveiled 
charms to Gyges, a favourite officer. The 
Queen, having caught sight of Gyges as he 
was stealing from his place of concealment 
in her chamber, gave him the alternative of 
murdering Candaules and receiving her and 
the kingdom, or of suffering death himself. 
He chose the former alternative, and became 
the founder of the dynasty of the Mermna- 
dse. (Herod., i. 7 ; Just, i. 7). Engraved 
by A. Frangois. 

CANELLA, GIUSEPPE, born in Verona 
in 1788, died in Florence in 1847. Archi- 
tecture and landscape painter ; sketched in 
Prance, Germany, and Switzerland. Among 
his best works are : Views of Paris and the 












en ^ 



2 ^ 
^ 2 














Boulevards ; Cathedral of Milan ; Sta. Croce 
in Florence ; Haven of Honfleur. — Wurz- 
bach, ii. 249. 

CANLASSI. See Gagnacci. 

CANO, ALONSO, born in Granada, March 
19, 1601, died there, 
Oct. 3, 1667. Span- 
ish school. After 
his father, Miguel, 
removed to Seville, 
Alonso, by the ad- 
vice of Juan del 
Castillo, studied 
sculpture under 
Montanes and paint- 
ing under Pacheco ; was painter, sculptor, 
and architect, vrhence sometimes called the 
Spanish Michelangelo. Noted for the man- 
ufacture of retablos or monumental altar- 
pieces, of vsrhich all parts — the v^ood-carv- 
ings and statues as well as the paintings — 
were executed by himself. In 1637 he fled 
from Seville, in consequence of a duel with 
the painter Llano y Valdfe, and went to 
Madrid, where, through the favour of Velas- 
quez, his fellow-pupil under Pacheco, he 
obtained the protection of the Duke de 
Olivares and became painter to the king. In 
1644 he was suspected of the murder of his 
wife, but on being put to the torture was de- 
clared innocent, though the suspicions against 
him were strong. In 1652 Philip IV. appointed 
him a canon in the cathedral at Granada, 
where he passed his last days in practising 
his art and in charitable deeds. Works : 
St. John EvangeHst writing the Apocalypse, 
St. Benedict the Abbot, St. Jerome, Madonna 
in Adoration, Flagellation of Christ, Dead 
Christ and Angel, Gothic King on his Throne, 
and Two Gothic Kings, Madrid Museum ; 
Crucifixion, Academy S. Fernando, Madrid ; 
M _ Madonna, Seville Cathe- 

In} ^j /y^ dral (replica in Hermi- 

IJT \^^r^ tage); Souls in Purgatory, 
^ JLai^iH^ Seville Museum; St. Agnes, 
Berlin Museum ; St. Paul, Dresden Gallery; 
Madonna and St. Anthony, Munich Gallery; 
Dominican painting Portrait of St. Dominic ; 

Madonna and Child ; Child Jesus and little 
St. John ; Portrait of himself and of a 
Knight of the Order of the Golden Spur, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — Cean Bermu- 
dez; Stirling, ii. 779; Viardot, 65; Ch. 
Blanc, ilcole espagnole ; Madrazo, 359. 

CANON, HANS (Johann von Straschi- 
ripka), bom in 
Vienna, March 
13, 1829, died 
there, Sept. 12, 
1885. Genre, 
history and por- 
trait painter; pu- 
pil of Waldmtil- 
ler, then in 1848- 
55 cavalry officer 
in the Austrian 
army ; after that devoted himself entirely to 
art ; greatly influenced by Eahl. Travelled 
extensively in the East, France, and England, 
lived in 1860-69 in Carlsruhe, then in Stutt- 
gart, and finally settled in Vienna, where he 
became professor at the Academy. Imitated 
the Venetian masters, especially Tintoretto 
and Titian ; one of the best portrait painters 
of his time. Works : Fishermaiden (1858) ; 
Modern Judith (1860) ; Cromwell beside 
the Body of Charles I., Lodge of St. John 
(1878), Vienna Museum ; Circuit of Life, 
Museum of Natural History, Vienna ; Hans 
Sachs ; Modern Diogenes ; The Page ; Fruit 
Girl ; Treasure Digger ; Lute Player ; Bac- 
chus Intoxicated ; Bayadere ; Butcher's 
Shop ; Girl with Stereoscope ; Flamingo 
Chase ; Dealer in Arms ; St. Benedict, Pope 
Leo the Great, Cassiodorus, Boethius, Male 
and Female Portrait (1883). — Brockhaus, 
iii. 912 ; Wurzbach, xxxix. 253 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xx. 734. 

CANTAEINI, SmONE, bom at Oropez- 
za near Pesaro in 1612, died at Verona, Oct. 
15, 1648. Bolognese school ; called also II 
Pesarese and Simone da Pesaro. Pupil of 
Giacomo Pandolfi, with whom he went to 
Venice ; studied next with Claudio Bidolfi, 
and afterwards with Guido; exhibited great 
talent, but grew so vain and arrogant that 


he was forced to leave Bologna. After 
studying the works of the great masters in 
Eome he returned to Bologna and opened a 
school in opposition to Guido. Humiliated 
at his want of success in painting a portrait 
of the Duke of Mantua, he went to Verona, 
and died there, some say of poison. Baldi- 
nucci calls him another Guido, but though 
he copied Guido with great success, he had 
little originality. He was an able engraver. 
Works : Eepose in Egypt (2), Louvre ; Mir- 
acle of St. Peter, S. Pietro, Pano ; Assump- 
tion, Bologna Gallery ; Holy Family, Trans- 
figuration, Brera, Milan; Holy Family, 
Madrid Museum ; Joseph and Potiphar's 
Wife, Dresden Gallery ; Holy Family, Ee- 
pose in Egypt, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
— Malvasia, ii. 373 ; Lanzi, iii. 103 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole bolonaise ; Seguier, 37. 

Siothard, National Gallery, London ; wood, 
H. 1 ft. ^ in. X 3 ft. I in. A cavalcade of 
numerous figures, all on horseback and rid- 
ing from right to left, illustrating the per- 
sons described in the prologue to Chaucer's 
" Canterbury Tales.'' Purchased at Leigh 
Court sale (1884). Engraved by the broth- 
ers Schiavonetti and James Heath, 1817. 

CAPANNA, PUCCIO, middle of 14th 
century. Florentine school; disciple of 
Giotto, according to Vasari, who says he 
was a good painter ; but the works assigned 
to him dififer much in style, and are all in- 
ferior. Puccio was admitted to the Floren- 
tine painters' guild in 1350. Among the 
works ascribed to him are frescos in S. 
Francisco, Assisi, S. Maria Novella and S. 
Trinity, Florence, and in the Hall of the 
Capitolo, S. Francesco al Prato, Pistoja, and 
pictures in S. M. Novella and S. Trinity,, 
Florence. — C. & C, Italy, i. 376 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., i. 394 ; Baldinucci, i. 234. 

CAPDEVIELLE, LOUIS, born at Lour- 
des (Hautes-Pyrenees); contemporary. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of A. Millet, 
Bonnat, and Cabanel. Medal, 3d class, 
1882. Works : Knife Grinder, First Prize 
(1876); Pork Scalder (1877); Portraits 

(1878, 1879); Workshop of Seamstresses 
(1880) ; Wedding at Laruns, End of Nana 
(1882); Land-slip in a Quarry, Study of 
Nude Woman (1884); Gratuitous and oblig- 
atory Instruction, A Model (1885). 

CAPELLE, JAN VAN DEE, born in Am- 
sterdam, the freedom of which city he re- 
ceived in 1653. Dutch school ; marine 
painter, pupil of Albert Cuyp. Painted 
quiet seas under warm and bright skies. 
Works : Eiver with Ships, Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; Fishing Boats, Eotterdam Museum ; 
Mouth of the Scheldt with numerous vessels, 
Aremberg Gallery, Brussels ; Marine, Berlin 
Museum ; Strand with Ships, Vienna Muse- 

j ». it -am; Calm at Low Water, 

/ 7 COpCU, National GaUery, Lon- 
/ don ; pictures in the col- 

lections of Messrs. Munro, Baring, and of 
the Duke of Bedford and Lord Overstone. — 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 501 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole 

born in Perugia about 1476, died there 
about 1560. Umbrian school ; son of Bar- 
tolommeo Caporali, an inferior painter of 
Perugia (1472-1521); commonly called Bitte 
or Bitti, an abbreviation of Battista ; errone- 
ously called Benedetto by Vasari. Brought 
up by his father, but went about 1507-8 to 
Eome, where he became acquainted with 
Perugino, Pinturicchio, Bramante, and Sig- 
norelli, and learned to imitate them. On 
his return to Perugia in 1519 he was made 
a decemvir. He was also an architect, and 
built and decorated with frescos the Villa 
Passerini near Cortona. A fresco in S. 
Croce in Gerusalemme, Eome ; Virgin and 
Saints (1492), S. Girolamo, Citta di Castello ; 
Nativity, Duomo, Panicale, and at S. Salva- 
tore, in neighbourhood, are attributed to this 
painter.— C. & C, Italy, iii. 360 ; Ch. Blanc, 
^ficole ombrienne ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 597. 


CAPPUCCINO, IL. See Strozzi, Ber- 

in Naples about 1580, died there in 1641. 



""f.iii' i' J* W : iC ^'i j/\'« j.lvU"^!^''.^ \& 


Neapolitan school ; of good family and edu- 
cation ; pupil of Francesco Imparato, and 
later of Caravaggio when that painter was 
in Naples, about 1606. Boused by the fame 
of Annibale Carracei, he went to Rome, and 
by dUigent study of his works in the Pa- 
lazzo Farnese, became a correct designer in 
that painter's style, still preserving the 
strong contrasts of light and shade that he 
had learned from Caravaggio. Some of his 
pictures are in churches in Naples. He be- 
longed to the infamous Neapolitan Cabal of 
which Spagnoletto was the head. — Lanzi, ii. 
34 ; Ch. Blanc, ]ficole napolitaine. 

CAEAUD, JOSEPH, born at Cluny, 
(Saone-et-Loire), Jan. 5, 1821. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Abel de Pujol and Charles Louis 
Miiller. Some of his pictures have been 
engraved. Medals : 3d class, 1859 ; 2d 
class, 1861 and 1863 ; L. of Honour, 1867. 
Works : Oracle of the Fields (1847); The 
Awakening, Dark and Fair (1849); Dancing 
Lesson, Interrupted Breakfast, A Kitchen 
(1855); Marie Antoinette in the Little Tri- 
anon, Abbe Prevost reading Manon Lescaut 
at an Actress's (1857); Athalie played at 
Saint-Cyr before Louis XIV., Louis XV. 
and Mme. Dubarry (1859); MUe. de la Val- 
li6re taking the Veil, The Sedan Chair 
(1861); The Great Conde's Eeturn after the 
Battle of Senef, Signing the Contract, The 
First- Born (1863); Louis XVI. making 
Locks (1865); Blessing the Bread, The Alert 
(1867); Scenes from Marriage of Figaro 
(1868); Marie Antoinette and Madame 
Eoyale at Versailles (1870); Soubrette Walk- 
ing, Girl holding a Cat (1872) ; Breakfast 
(1878) ; Parroquet (1874) ; Pointed Finger 
(1875); Little Farmer (1876); Spring-Time, 
Pleased Abbe (1877) ; Louis XV. and Mme. 
Dubarry at the Little Trianon, Coflee Mill 
(1878) ; Pouting, Flower-Girl (1879) ; Sou- 
brette Asleep, Two Friends (1880) ; Magpie, 
Gardener (1882); Parroquet, ALetter (1883); 
Fisher-maiden (1884) ; Spinner, Petit De- 
jeuner (1885). 

born at Caravaggio in 1569, died at Porto 

Ercole in 1609. Roman school. Real name 
Michelangelo Amerighi or Merighi ; son of a 
mason ; em- 
ployed in Milan 
to mix plaster 
for fresco paint- 
ers, and learned 
to paint by 
watching them. 
Went to Venice 
and studied 
works of Gior- 
gione; thence to 
Rome, where he aided Cesare d'Arpino in 
painting ornamental parts of his pictures. 
The novelty of his style, an energetic but 
cparse rendering of nature, without selec- 
tion and without taste, soon attracted 
notice, and his works won such public ad- 
miration that other artists were led to imi- 
tate his powerful though corrupt manner. 
After painting many important pictures in 
Rome, he fled to Naples to escape justice for 
the homicide of a companion, committed in 
a moment of anger. After various wander- 
ings he received the Pope's pardon for this 
crime, and was on his way from Naples to 
Rome by sea when he died at Porto Ercole. 
Among his best works are: Entombment,Ya.t- 
ican ; Gamesters, Palazzo Sciarra, Rome ; Ju- 
dith and Holof ernes, Naples Museum; Chess 
Players, Venice Academy; Gupid Asleep, Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, Florence; Christ among the Doc- 
tors, Christ and the Tribute Money, Head of 
Medusa, Uffizi, Florence ; Fortune Teller, 
Capitol Gallery, Rome ; Lute Player, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Fortune Teller, A 
Concert, Death of the Virgin, Portrait of 
Grand Master of Malta, Louvre ; Two Men 
Drinking, Modena Gallery ; St. Sebastian, 
Brera, Milan ; St. Matthew and Angel, Ber- 
lin Museum ; Fortune Teller, Gamesters, 
Dresden Gallery ; Lute Player, Christ 
crowned with Thorns, Martyrdom of St. 
Peter, Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg ; Supper at Emmaus, 
National Gallery, London. — Ch. Blanc, 
;ficole ombrienne ; Seguier, 3 ; Wornum, 



Epochs, etc., 332 ; Burckhardt, 767; Dohme, 

Caravaggio about 
1490 (?), died in 
Messina in 1543. 
Umbrian school. 
Real name PoUdoro 
Caldara ; 'while em- 

*N^ ployed as a mason 
""' in the Vatican when 
Raphael and his pu- 
pils were painting, 
he acquired a taste 
for art, and induced Maturino, a Florentine 
artist, to instruct him. He soon exhibited 
such aptitude that Maturino took him into 
partnership, and they executed conjointly 
many works in black and white, now known 
only by engravings. When Rome was sacked 
(1527), Caravaggio went to Naples,and after- 
ward to Messina, where he acquired fame 
and wealth. When about to return to Rome, 
he was murdered for his money. In his 
earlier works Polidoro shows his training in 
the school of Raphael : e. g. Frieze of the 
History of Niobe on fa9ade of a house in the 
Via della Maschera d'Oro, No. 7, at Rome. 
Later he became an out and out naturalist, 
as in the Christ bearing the Cross, Naples 
Museum. Among his works are : Psyche 
received into Olympus, Louvre ; Passage of 
the Red Sea, Brera, Milan ; St. Luke, Berlin 
Museum ; Pieta, Turin Gallery; 
Meleager, Capitol Museum, 
Rome ; Cephalus and Procris, 
Vienna Museum. — Vasari, ed. 
Mil., V. 141 ; Tassi, Pittura Ber- 
gamaschi (Bergamo, 1708), 76 ; 
Burckhardt, 186 ; Wornum, Epochs, etc., 
235 ; Ch. Blanc, fieole ombrienne ; Dohme, 
2iii. ; Ltlbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 375. 

CARBAJAL, LUIS DE, born in Toledo 
in 1534, died after 1613. Spanish school ; 
pupil of Juan de Villoldo, removed early to 
Madrid, and became, in 1556, painter to 
Philip n. Painted in 1570-82 seven altar- 
pieces for the Escorial, and a Magdalen 


(1570), now in the Madrid Museum. In 
1591 he painted, with Bias del Prado, some 
pictures for the Church of the Minorites, 
Toledo ; Portrait of the Archbishop D. Bar- 
tolome Carranza in the capitular hall of the 
Cathedral at Toledo ; Circumcision, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg. — Stirling, i. 261; Ma- 
drazo, 365. 

born in Albaro, near Genoa, in 1614, died in 
1683. Genoese school ; pupil of Gio. Andrea 
de' Ferrari ; studied composition in Venice. 
Painted historical subjects, but chiefly noted 
for his portraits, in which he imitated Van 
Dyck. Works : St. Louis adoring the Cross, 
I'Annunziata, Genoa ; Madonna and Saints, 
Palazzo Pallavicini, Genoa. — Lanzi, iii. 267; 
Ch. Blanc, ^ficole g^noise; Burckhardt, 779. 

Jean Paul Laurens, Luxembourg Museum ; 
canvas, H. 14 ft. 2 in. x 11 ft. In August, 
1303, the inhabitants of Carcassone and of 
Albi, under the lead of the reformer of Lan- 
guedoc, Jean de Picquigny, released many 
prisoners from the dungeons of the Inquisi- 
tion. Men are engaged in removing the 
stones from the entrance, over which is seen 
the Papal arms, while the reformer is preach- 
ing to people at left. Salon, 1879. 

in Portugal in 1547, died in Madrid in 1606. 
Spanish school ; pupil in Madrid of Alonso 
Sanchez CoeUo ; painted frescos in the clois- 
ters of Convent of Atocha, Madrid ; in 1601 
went to Valladohd, at invitation of Duke of 
Lerma, for whom he painted altarpieces in 
the church and several religious works in 
the cloisters and chapels of the convent of 
S. Pablo. Some of his pictures are in the 
Museum at Valladolid. His son Juan (flour- 
ished 1620), was a painter of fruits and flow- 
ers. — Stirling, i. 432. 


MEO,born in Florence in 1560, died in Madrid 
in 1608. Florentine school; pupil of Federigo 
Zucchero, with whom he went, in 1585, to 
Spain, and was engaged as painter, sculptor, 




and architect under Philip 11. and Philip 
m. Painted frescos in the library of the 
Escorial, and several altarpieces, as well as a 
Descent from the Cross, in S. Felipe el Eeal ; 
also began, in the Pardo, frescos which were 
finished by his brother Vincenzio. Works : 
Descent from the Cross, St. Sebastian, Last 
Sapper, Madrid Museum. — Stirling, i. 212; 
Ch. Blanc, ificole espagnole ; Viardot, 256. 

CARDUCHO, VINCENZO, born in Flor- 
ence in 1578 (?), died in Madrid in 1638. 
Spanish school ; went to Spain in 1585, with 
his elder brother, Bartolommeo, who in- 
structed him in painting. Succeeded his 
brother as painter to Philip in., and finished 
the frescos begun by him in the Pardo. 
"Was also painter to Philip IV. In 1626-32 
he painted fifty-four pictures for the Car- 
thusians of El Paular ; twenty-seven repre- 
senting the life of St. Bruno, and twenty- 
seven representing the Martyrdoms and 
miracles of the Monks of the Order. These 
are all in the Madrid Museum. He painted 
also historical pictures and portraits, 120 of 
which are mentioned by Cean Bermudez as 
in public edifices in Spain, and wrote the 
Dialogos de las Excelencias de la Pintura, 
the best work on painting in the Castilian 
tongue (Madrid, 1633). Works : Battle of 
Fleurus, Eelief of Constance, Capture of 
Rheinfeld (three scenes in Thirty Years' 
War), Birth of the Virgin, Visitation, Pres- 
entation of ^ 
Jesus, As- 
Baptism of 
Christ, Ma- 
drid Muse- 
um ; Infant 
Christ and Christ and Angels, with SS. Gon- 
zalo, Francis, and Bernardino (1630), Dres- 
den GaUery.— StirHng, i. 417 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole espagnole ; Viardot, 258 ; Madrazo, 

gamo, born at Fuipiano about 1480 (?), liv- 
ing in 1541. Venetian school. The earliest 
record in regard to him is a contract of 



1508. He imitated the great Venetian mas- 
ters so closely that his works are often con- 
founded with theirs, and appear under the 
names of Giorgione, Palma, and Pordenone. 
There are but two dated canvases among 
the many works ascribed to him, a group in 
the Eoncalh collection (1519), and a Madon- 
na in the Casa Baglioni, Bergamo (1520). 
Other examples are in the Lochis-Carrara 
Gallery, Bergamo ; the Brera, Milan ; and 
the Dresden Museum.— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 
546 ; Tassi, Pittori Bergamaschi, i. 33 ; 
Burckhardt, 737 ; Lubke, Gesch. ital. Mai., 
ii. 625. 

Genoa about 1594, died there in 1680. 
Genoese school ; son and pupU of Taddeo 
Carloni, painter, sculptor, and architect 
(died 1613) ; studied in Florence under Pas- 
signano and in Eome ; associate of his 
brother Giovanni, and aided him in most 
of his works, especially in the Gesu and in 
the Annunziata del Guastato, Genoa ; also 
finished his frescos in S. Antonio Abate, 
Milan. Painted frescos at S. Siro, Genoa, 
and painted much in private palaces. Had 
by his wife Niccoletta Scorza twenty-four 




children, of whom Andrea or Giovanandrea 
(born 1639, died 1697) and Niccol6 were 
painters. — Lanzi, iii. 263, 278 ; Ch. Blanc, 
£cole genoise ; Burckhardt, 799. 

CAELONI, GIOVANNI, born in Genoa 
in 1591, died in Milan in 1630. Genoese 
school ; son and pupil of Taddeo Carloni, 
and scholar of Pietro Sorri ; finally studied 
in Eome and Florence, where he learned 
fresco under Passignano. Became an able 
fresco painter ; works in del Gesu, I'Annun- 
ziata del Guastato, and S. Domenico, Genoa. 
Was painting the ceilings of S. Antonio 
Abate, Milan, when he died. — Lanzi, iii. 
263 ; Ch. Blanc, ^ficole genoise. 


CAELOS, DON, brother of PhiHp IV., 

portrait, Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 6 ft. 7 in. X 4 ft. 1 in. About twenty 
years old, full-length, standing, black dress. 
Painted about 1627, first manner. Etched 
by J. J. Martinez de Espinosa ; Guerard. — 
Curtis, 60 ; Madrazo, 614. 

CARLSEN, EMIL, born in Denmark in 
1848. Went to America in 1872, and stud- 
ied in Boston, where he has since lived. 
Works : Still Life (T. B. Clarke, New York.) 

Maratti, Carlo. 

CAEMANIDES. See Charmantides. 

Hamburg, Sept. 2, 1810, died in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., June 15, 1867. Landscape painter 
and engraver ; pupil of Dahl in Dresden, 
and from 1834 at the Copenhagen Academy. 
In 1837 was again in Dresden and Leipsic ; 
returned to Copenhagen in 1888, visited 
Sweden in 1841, Munich and Tyrol in 1842, 
and Italy in 1845-1846. Was court painter 
to Christian VHL, until after the German- 
Danish war of 1848. Emigrated to New 
York in 1851 and became one of the found- 
ers of the Brooklyn Academy. Works : 
Lake among High Mountains, ZiUer VaUey 
in Tyrol. — Andresen, iv. 46. 

CAENOVALE, FEA, flourished about 
1456. Umbrian school; real name Bartol- 
ommeo di Giovanni di Bartolo Corradini ; 
entered the Dominican Order, and ia 1461- 
88 was curate of S. Cassiano of Cavallino, 
near Urbino. A Madonna with Saints and 
Angels, in the Brera, MHan, is attributed to 
him. It is in the style of Piero della Fran- 
cesca, and if it be the work of Fra Carno- 
vale, he was probably a pupil of that master. 
Vasari makes Fra Camovale the master of 
Bramante. Other works : St. Michael and 
the Dragon, National Gallery, London ; 
Madonna and Angels, S. M. delle Grazie, 
SinigagHa. — C. & C, Italy, ii. 553 ; Vasari, 
ed. MiL, iv. 147. 

born in Antwerp, Dec. 25, 1814. Genre 
painter; pupil of Eeckhout and of F. de 

Braekeleer, and in Paris (1831-34), under 
E. le Poitevin ; settled in 1886 in Antwerp, 
where he acquired reputation. Works: 
Presentation, Music, Visit at the Studio. — 
Nagler, Mon., iv. 325. 

called, born at 
Lille, July 4, 
1837. French 
school; genre and 
portrait painter ; 
pupil of Souchon ; 
went to Paris, 
where he won a 
prize and a pen- 
sion founded by 
Wicar for his fel- 
low-citizens of LiUe, and went to Italy, after- 
wards to Spain. His work shows traces of 
the influence of both countries. Lately he 
has painted portraits, especially female, with 
great success. Is also a sculptor. Medals 
in 1866, 1869, and 1870 ; 2d class in 1878 ; 
medal of honour, 1879; L. of Honour, 
1872; Officer, 1878. Works: Evening 
Prayer (1865) ; The Murdered Man (1866), 
Lille Museum ; St. Francis of Assisi (1868); 
Dame au Gant (1869), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; portraits only during the next ten 
years, of which 
one of the most P P TV 
noted is MUe. LLrOWAi) UTCHM^ 
Groizette ; Glo- 1^82. 

ria Marise Medi- 

cis (1878, ceiling in the Luxembourg) ; 
Child on the Banks of the Tagus (1868) ; 
portraits in 1879, 1880, 1881 ; A Future 
Doge (1881) ; A Burial (1882) ; A Vision 
(1883). — Larousse ; Montrosier. 

CESCO, born in Verona in 1470, died 
there in 1546. Lombard school ; pupil in 
Verona of Liberale, and in Mantua of Man- 
tegna, of whom he is said to have been so 
perfect an imitator that his works passed 
as those of his master. On his return to 



Verona, previous to 1508, his pictures took 
a local tinge reminiscent of Liberale and 
Giolfino. He executed important works for 
Ant. Maria Visconti, in Milan, and for the 
Marquis of Montferrat, in Casale. Called by 
Maffei the Proteus of Veronese painters, so 
varied are his works in style. Among them 
are : Altarpiece, S. Tommaso, Verona; Christ 
and Saints, S.Caterina,Kesurrection of Laza- 
rus, Virgin and Saints, Verona Gallery ; 
SS. Eoch and Sebastian, S. Giorgio, Vero- 
na ; Madonna and St. Anne, S. Termo Mag- 
giore, ib.; St. Martin on Horseback, S. 
Anastasia, ib.; St. Ursula and the 11,000 
Virgins, S. Giorgio, ib. (1545). Madonna, 
Stadel Institute, Frankfort ; do.. Collection 
of Baron Sternburg, Lutschena. Vasari 
says he was the first Veronese who painted 
landscapes well. Giovan Francesco had a 
brother Giovanni Caroto, probably his as- 
sistant, but much inferior to him. He is 
noteworthy only as the first master of 
Paolo Veronese.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 481 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 288 ; Baldinucci, ii. 44 ; 
Burckhardt, 158, 167, 190; Ch. Blanc, 
ilcole lombarde ; Bemasconi, 292 ; Lermo- 
liefi; 167 ; Ltibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 574. 
CAEPACCIO (Scarpaccia, Scarpaza), VIT- 
TOEE, born in 
Istria about 1450, 
died after 1522. 
Venetian school. 
It is conjectured 
that Carpaccio 
went to Constan- 
tinople with Gen- 
tUe Bellini in 
1479, and it is 
clear that the 
great painter's influence developed his style 
and affected his colour and drawing, but the 
first certain date connected with Carpaccio 
is 1490, when he began to paint the series of 
nine pictures illustrative of the life of St. 
Ursula, Venice Academy. Like Gentile Bel- 
lini's large works, those of Carpaccio preserve 
the features of old Venice, and show the 
variety of costume which gave so much pic- 

turesqueness to her squares and water-ways. 
He had not Bellini's gentleness and sweet- 
ness, but was more energetic in action, hard- 
er and drier in tone. The picture of the 
bleeding Christ adored by Angels (1496), 
Vienna Museum, is painful in subject, and 
stiff in figure action. Between 1502 and 
1508 Carpaccio painted nine small easel 
pictures and an altarpiece for the school or 
refuge of distressed Dalmatian seamen, 
which had been rebuilt under the name of 
San Giorgio de' Schiavoni. These pictures 
represent scenes from the lives of Christ 
and the patron Saints of Dalmatia and Al- 
bania, Jerome, George, and Trifon. East- 
ern costumes and landscapes of an East- 
ern character abound in them, as in the 
Baptism of the Gentiles, and the Combat of 
St. George. The altarpiece represents the 
Virgin and Child between two angels. The 
Annunciation (1504), Vienna Academy, the 
Glory of St. Thomas Aquinas (1507), Stutt- 
gart Museum, and the Burial of the Virgin 
(1508), Ferrara Gallery, show that Car- 
paccio's forte lay rather in treating inci- 
dents of legendary history than religious 
episodes. StUl, we think that his Presenta- 
tion in the Temple (1510), Venice Academy, 
is his masterpiece. Another fine and char- 
acteristic work is the Supper at Emmaus, in 
S. Salvatore, Venice. Other pictures paint- 
ed before Carpaccio began to fail are the 
Vocation of St. Stephen (1511), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; his Sermon at the Louvre, and his 
Dispute with the Doctors (1514), Brera, Mi- 
lan ; and his Martyrdom (1515), Stuttgart. 
The altarpiece at S. Vitale of this year 
shows manifest decline "attributable to 
age, weariness, or much use of assistants." 
Many later works scattered about in Istrian, 


Lombard, and Friulian churches show still 
further decay. The last, of 1519, are two 



altarpieces at S. Francesco of Pirano in Is- 
tria, and of Pozzale near Cadore. — -Vasarij 
ed. Mil., iii. 627, 661 ; C. & C, N. Italy, i. 
195 ; Oh. Blanc, £cole venitienne ; Ltlbke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai, i. 539. 

born at Homer, New York, in 1830. Por- 
trait painter, pupil of Sanford Thayer in 
Syracuse. Professional life passed in New 
York ; elected an A.N.A. in 1852. Works : 
David Leavitt (1852), American Exchange 
Bank, New York ; Asa Packer, Lehigh Uni- 
versity, Pennsylvania ; Lieut-Gov. Woodford, 
Senate Chamber, Albany ; Goldwin Smith, 
Cornell University; Prof. Gibbs, Yale Col- 
lege, New Haven ; Horace Greeley, Tribune 
Association, New York ; Gov. M. H. Clarke, 
President FiUmore, City Hall, New York ; 
Abraham Lincoln (1874), Capitol at Albany; 
President Tyler, President Pierce, Wm. H. 
Seward, Chas. Sumner, and many others. 
His Eviancipation Proclamation (1864,) is in 
the Capitol, Washington. 

da Carpi. 

CAEE, DAVID, born in England ; con- 
temporary. Landscape and genre painter. 
Exhibits at Eoyal Academy and Grosvenor 
GaUery. Works: Weed Burners (1879); 
Watercress Gatherers (1880); A la Fontaine 
— Yport (1881) ; Cliff Ploughing, Violets 
(1882); Waiting, An Old-Fashioned Spring, 
At the Doors of La-Force — Paris, 1792 
CAEEACCI, AGOSTmO, born inBologna, 
Aug. 16, 1557, died 
in Parma, March 22, 
1602. Bolognese 
school; son of a tailor, 
Antonio Carracci, who 
was cousin to Vin- 
cenzo, the father of 
Lodovico Carracci. 
Pupil of Fontana, of 
DomenicoTibaldi, and 
of Cornelius Cort, with whom he studied en- 
graving, to vrhich he devoted more time than 
to painting; afterward studied in Parma and 


in Venice, and on his return to Bologna 
(1589), opened the famous Eclectic school 
of the Carracci with Lodovico and Annibale 
Carracci. He aided his brother Annibale 
(1600), in the Palazzo Farnese, Eome, where 
he painted the Triumph of Galatea and Ceph- 
alus and Aurora, of which his cartoons 
exist in the National Gallery, London ; after- 
ward went into service of Duke Eanuceio 
Farnese in Parma, where he died. Among 
his best works are the Communion of St. 
Jerome, Assumption, Bologna Gallery; Land- 
X~7t\ /^ i"'^ scape with 

■XjI , Aj JQ ^J Bathers, Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, 
Infant Her- 
cules, Lou- 
vre, Paris ; RiruMo and Armida, Naples Mu- 
seum. — Malvasia, i. 263 ; Amorini, Vite, etc. 
(Bologna, 1840) ; Baldinucci, iii. 323 ; Wor- 
num, Epochs, 320; Burckhardt, 699, 784, 
794, 796, 808 ; Ch. Blanc, :ficole bolonaise ; 
Dohme, 2iii.; Seguier, 39; Bartsch, xviii. 31. 
logna, Nov. 3, 
1560, died in 
Eome, July 15, 
1609. Bolognese 
school ; brother 
of Agostino and 
pupil of Lodo- 
vico Carracci. In 
1580 he went to 
Parma to study 
the works of Cor- 

reggio and of Parmigiano ; also visited Ven- 
ice, and after seven years' absence returned 
to Bologna. He aided his cousin and broth- 
er in the academy which they founded there 
until 1600, when he accepted the invitation 
of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese to decorate 
the vaulted ceiling of a gallery in his palace 
in Eome. In this work, which occupied 
him eight years, he was assisted by his 
brother Agostino, and by Domenichino 
and Lanf ranco. It represents various myth- 
ological subjects illustrative of celestial and 

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terrestrial love, and is varied with many or- 
namental figures, some in stucco and some 
in chiaroscuro. It excited the greatest ad- 
miration in Rome,and was declared by Pous- 
sin to excel all other works except those of 
Eaphael. Annibale's pictures are more di- 
versified in style than those of Lodovico and 
Agostino, comprising paintings in the man- 
ner of several of the great masters. Among 
his works are : Annunciation, Assumption, 
Madonna in Glory and Saints, Madonna with 
Saints, Bologna Gallery ; Bacchante, Madon- 
na, Uffizi, Florence ; Last Supper, Ferrara 
Gallery ; Rinaldo and Armida, Pieta, Holy 
Family, Bacchante, Naples Museum ; Pieta, 
Palazzo Borghese, Eome ; St. Boch giving 
Alms, Assumption, Ecce Homo, Madonna of 
St. Matthew, Dresden Gallery; Holy Family, 
Berlin Museum ; St. Sebastian, Magdalen, 
Diana and CaUisto, Besurrection, Entomb- 
ment, Dead Christ, Apparition of the Madon- 
na, Sleep of Infant Jesus, Madonna of the 
Cherries, Nativity, Birth of the Virgin, 
Louvre ; Three Marys, Castle Howard, Eng- 
land ; Christ appearing to Peter, St. John, 

herds, Si- 
1 e n u s. 
Pan and 

Temptation of St. Anthony, National Gal- 
lery, London. — Malvasia, i. 263; Wornum, 
Epochs, 321; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 571; 
Burckhardt, 769, 783 ; Gualandi, Guida, 86, 
44 ; Dohme, 2iii. ; Ch. Blanc, Eeole bolo- 

logna in 1595, died in Eome, June 3, 1622. 
Bolognese school. Nephew of Agostino and 
Annibale, and pupil of Lodovico Carracci. 
Set up a rival academy in Bologna, putting 
over his door, "This is the true School of the 
Carracci," but not succeeding, went to Rome. 
There are a few pictures by him in Bologna, 
such as St. Roch comforted by an Angel, 
Oratory of S. Rocco ; Madonna and Saints, 

S. M. Maggiore. — Malvasia, Felsina Pittrice, 
i. 373 ; Dohme, 2iii. 

logna, April 21, 
1555, died there, 
Nov. 13, 1619. 
Bolognese school ; 
son of Vincenzo 
Carracci, a butch- 
er ; pupil at Bo- 
logna of Prospero 
Fontana, who ad- 
vised him to give 
up painting, while his brother pupils nick- 
named him from his stupidity the Ox. 
Studied chiefly at Venice under Tintoretto, 
who gave him but little more encouragement 
than Fontana. Afterward painted under 
Pasignano in Florence, and studied the 
works of the great masters in Venice, Man- 
tua, Parma, and Padua. By persevering 
labour he acquired a correctness and sim- 
plicity of style which brought him into re- 
pute and enabled him to found in Bologna 
in 1589 an academy of painting which soon 
became the most important school of the 
time in Italy. He called it the Incamminati 
(Right Road), but it is usually known as the 
Eclectic school of Bologna, because the Car- 
racci sought to unite in this system the ex- 
cellences of each of the great masters. His 
cousins Agostino and Annibale soon joined 
him, and the three conducted it imtil 1600, 
after which Lodovico was its head until his 
death. The best pupils of this school were 
Domenichino and Guido. Lodovico ex- 
celled rather as a teacher than as a painter, 
but left some excellent works, both in fresco 
and in oil, such as. Madonna in Glory and 
Saints, Birth of St. John Baptist, Preaching 
of St. John Baptist, Christ crowned with 
Thorns, Madonna with Saints, Calling of St. 
Matthew, Conversion of St. Paul, Transfigu- 
ration, Bologna Gallery; Scenes from lives of 
SS. Benedict and Cecilia, S. Michele in Bos- 
eo, Bologna; Miracle of the Loaves and 
Fishes, Berlin Museum ; Pieta, Palazzo Cor- 
sini, Rome ; Ecce Homo, Palazzo Doria, 





Rome ; Annunciation, Nativity, Madonna, 
Pieta, Vision of St. Hyacinth, Louvre, Paris; 
Susannah and the Elders, National Gallery, 


— Malva- 

I y/ f^J /^ ^^*'^' ^^^' 
l/LLy'^i/tyl Amorini, 

y Vite, etc. 


ci, iii. 302 ; Womum, Epochs, 319 ; Burck- 
hardt, 772 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; 
Dobme, 2iii.; Seguier, 38; Kugler (East- 
lake), ii. 572. 

CARREE, HENDRIK, the elder, born at 
Amsterdam, Oct. 2, 1656, (1658?), died in 
1721. Dutch school ; animal and landscape 
painter, pupil of Juriaan Jacobsz and of 
Jacob Jordaens. One of his sons, bom at The 
Hague, Sept. 27, 1696, died there in 1775, 
and two of his nephews, bore the same name 
and were also painters, either of whom may 
as well be the author of the following works, 
painted about 1710 or later : Cattle among 
Ruins, Cattle and Peasant Woman with 
Basket, Brunswick Museum. — Immerzeel, 
i. 129 ; Kramm, i. 221 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 

CARREE, MICHIEL, born at Amsterdam 
in 1666, died at Alkmaar. Dutch school ; 
animal and landscape painter ; pupil of his 
brother Hendrik C, then of Berchem, but 
followed the style of Gabriel van der Leeuw ; 
resided some time in England, and about 
1698 was invited to Berlin and made painter 
to King Frederick I., after whose death he 
returned to Holland and lived mostly at 
Alkmaar. Works : Mad Bull, Cattle and 
Shepherdess playing Flute, Cattle among 
Ruins, do. by Cottage, Brunswick Museum. 
— Gool, i. 125 ; Hoet, Aanmerkingen, 13. 

born at AvUez, Asturias, March 25, 1614, 
died in Madrid in September, 1685. Of 
noble family. Spanish school; pupil of 
Pedro de las Cuevas, and of Bartolom6 Ro- 
man ; became assistant to Velasquez, whom 

he aided in the Alcazar and other royal 
palaces; painted in Madrid and other 
cities many pictures 
for churches and 
convents, and, with 
Francisco Rizi, the 
cupola of S. Antonio 
de los Portugueses. 
Became one of the 
court painters of 
PhiHp IV. (1660), 
and was honoured 
in the same way by Charles II. (1671). His 
works show correct design and harmonious 
colouring. Painted chiefly portraits and 
religious compositions. Works : Portrait 
Charles H. (2), Queen Mariana, mother of 
Charles II., three others, Madrid Museum ; 
id.. Count Harrach, Vienna ; Don Juan of 
Austria, Sir Wm. Stirling Maxwell, London; 
id., heirs of Infant Sebastian, Pau ; Magda- 
len, Academy S. Fernando, Madrid ; Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Sebastian, St. Anthony feed- 
ing the Fishes, Our Lady of Atocha, Muse- 
um Nacional, Madrid ; Baptism of Christ, 
and St. Damian, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 


FAC ANNO. 1673 

—Stirling, iii. 995 ; Viardot, 220 ; Ch. Blanc, 
;ficole espagnole ; Curtis, 321 ; Madrazo, 

born in Venice, ^j^^ 

Oct. 7, 1675, died 
there, April 15, 
1757. Venetian 
school; daughter 
of Andrea Carri- 
era de Costanti- 
no, chancellor of 
the village of 
Worked with her 
mother at making Point de Venise lace un- 
til it went out of fashion, when she learned 





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Zty 1555 


i.t:La. ZJ >^»aa- /^.T ni.t* i 1 ' ' ^ ^'^ ^ 

F. Aixt l\:z^Z' 


to paint for a livelihood. Studied under 
Antonio Lazzari, Diamantini, Balestra, and 
others, and at the age of twenty-four be- 
came famous for her miniatures and crayon 
portraits. In 1703 she became a member 
of the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, and 
in 1705 of San Luca, Rome. In company 
with her brother-in-law, Antonio Pellegrini, 
she visited Paris in 1720, painted the royal 
family and many other distinguished per- 
sons, and was received into the Academy. 
All the courts of Europe vied in doing her 
honour and in giving her commissions. She 
excelled in painting pretty women, and one 
of her most lovely works is a portrait of 
herself in crayons in the Dresden Gallery, 
where are also many other of her pictures. 
Her heads are especially good, but her arms, 
hands, and busts are often weak in drawing. 
^.^ Many of her pictures are in 

f^/^ the Dresden Museum. She 
^f^S^ I became blind from overwork 
""^ ^ in 1746.— Ch. Blanc, £cole 
venitienne ; Sensier, Journal de Eosalba Car- 
riera (Paris, 1865) ; Seguier, 176; Wessely, 

CARElfiEE, EUGfiNE, born at Gournay- 
sur-Marne (Seine-et-Oise) ; contemporary. 
Genre painter ; pupil of Cabanel. Medal, 
3d class, 1885. "Works: Young Mother 
(1879); The Nymph Echo (1880); Kiss of 
Innocence (1882); Two Friends, Marguerite 
(1884); Sick Infant, The Favourite (1885). 

St. Jurgen, near 
Schleswig, May 10, 
1754, died in Rome, 
May 26, 1798. Ger- 
man school ; history 
painter. Im- 
pressed by the pic- 
tures of Juriaen 
Ovens, pupil of Rem- 
brandt, in the Cathe- 
dral of Schleswig, 
determined to be- 
come an artist, and tried in vain to study 
under Tischbein at Cassel. After five years' 

apprenticeship to a wine-dealer at Eckern- 
forde, during which he drew and painted in 
his leisure hours, went to Copenhagen (1776) 
and took a partial course at the Academy, 
studied in the Museum, and supported him- 
self by painting portraits. In 1783 went to 
Mantua, but was obliged to return to Ltibcke 
for want of funds. For five years lived by 
portrait painting, then went to Berlin (1787), 
and in 1790 became professor at the Acad- 
emy of Arts. Having a pension from the 
King, he went to Rome in 1790, exhibited 
his works there in 1795, and won great ap- 
plause. Had many distinguished pupils, such 
as Koch, Schick, Cornelius, etc., and took 
the position of founder of the new German 
school. Works : Death of .Slschylus ; .3Eo- 
lus and Ulysses ; Fall of the Rebel Angels ; 
Banquet of Plato ; Battle of Rossbach ; 
Homer ; Return of the Megapenthes ; Soc- 
rates saving the life of Alcibiades ; Gany- 
mede and the Eagle ; Battle of Centaurs 
and Lapiths ; (Edipus in Colonus ; (Edipus 
Tyrannus. — Allgem. d. Biogr., iv. 29 ; F. 
von Alten, Der Maler A. J. C. (Schleswig, 
1865); Ch. Blanc, ^ificole allemande ; Brock- 
haus, iv. 21 ; Fernow-Riegel, Carsten's Le- 
ben und Werke (Hanover, 1867) ; Grimm, 
Zehn Essays, 218 ; MuUer - Schuchardt, 
Carstens' Werke (Leipsic, 1869) ; Pecht, iii. 
31 ; Sach, Carsteiis' Jugend und Lehrjahre 
(Halle, 1881); Schone, Beitrage z. Lebens- 
geschichte (Leipsic, 1866); Woltmann, Aus 
vier Jahrhdt., 169 ; Zahn's Jahrbticher, vi. 
99, 208 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., x. 54 ; Zimmer- 
mann, Studien und Kritiken, ii. 273. 

CARTERIUS, painter, about the middle 
of 3d century b. c. His portrait of the phi- 
losopher Porphyrins has preserved his name 
from oblivion. — Porphyr., Vita Plotini, i. 

CARTERON, EUGfiNE, born in Paris ; 
contemporary. History, genre, and portrait 
painter ; pupil of B. Glaize and Leon Glaize. 
Medal, 3d class, 1878. Works: Lazarus 
(1877); Prodigal Son (1878); St. Jerome 
(1879); Creation of Eve (1881); Bone-Setter 
(1882); Journeys of St. Sulpice (1848); The 
Two Processions (1885). 


CARTHAGE, Joseph M. W. Turner, 
National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 
11 in. X 7 ft. 5 in. A river scene, with piles 
of rich architecture on each side. Eoyal 
Academy, 1828. Painted for Mr. Broad- 

W. Turner, National Gallery ; canvas, H. 5 
ft. 7 in. X 7 ft. 11 in. A scene of architect- 
ural magnificence on each side with an out- 
look upon the sea in centre and the sun set- 
ting in a sombre red gloom ; at left, the 
hostages departing for the Roman camp. 
Eoyal Academy, 1817. Engraved by J. B. 
Allen in Turner Gallery. 

CARTHAGE, RISE OF, See Bido build- 
ing Carthage. 

CARTJCCI, JACOPO. See Foniormo. 

born in Valencia, contemporary. History 
and genre painter ; pupil of Academy of 
Madrid, where he won the prize of Rome 
in 1860, and three 1st class medals. He is 
court painter and director of the Spanish 
Academy in Rome. Order of Isabella the 
Catholic. Works: Death of Ferdinand IV.; 
Bernardo del Carpio ; Semiramis ; Goya's 
Studio, J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Zaida, S. 
A Coale, St. Louis ; Beheaded Arabs ; 
Odalisque in Harem ; Flora (1881); Legend 
of King Ramiro, the Monk (1881), National 
Museum, Madrid; In the Boudoir (1882); 
Temptation (1884) ; Laura (1885). — La 
Ilustracion (1879), i. 366 ; (1881), ii. 387 ; 
(1882), i. 83, 347 ; (1884), ii. 315 ; (1885), 
i. 131. 

London in 1727, died at Bruhl, near Vi- 
enna, July 8, 1805. Landscape and bat- 
tle painter ; taken to Venice at the age of 
six and taught by Guardi and Simonini. 
Visited Paris in 1751, and returned there 
after passing four years at Dresden. Became 
member of the Academy in 1763, and was 
employed by Catherine H. of Russia to 
paint her victories over the Turks. Finally 
settled at Vienna. Works : Battle of Fri- 
bourg, Aug. 3, 1644 (1771), Battle of Lens, 

Aug. 20, 1648 (1771); two Landscapes with 
Animals, Louvre ; Battle, Vienna Museum ; 
Turkish Cavalry Marching, Battle, Nantes 
Museum ; MiHtary Halt, Skirmish, Rouen 
Museum ; Starting for the Hunt, The Walk, 


Halt dur- 

t /itjf ing the 


"^ Battle of 
Lens, Battle of Fribourg, Lyons Museum. — • 
Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole fran- 
gaise ; Larousse, iii. 485 ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 
424 ; Wurzbach, ii. 301. 

CASELLI (Casoli, Castelli), CRISTOFO- 
RO, of Parma (1489-1507). Lombard 
school. Sometimes called also Cristoforo 
da Parma and II Temperello. Journeyman 
at Venice in 1489-92, with the Bellini ; 
painted there in 1495 the Madonna and 
Saints, in the sacristy of S. M. della Salute. 
In 1496 he was a master in Parma, where 
he painted (1499) the Madonna and Saints 
now in the Sala del Consorzio, which ex- 
hibits much of the grace of Cima. Other 
works of his are : Madonna and Saints, 
Parma Gallery; God the Father, in the 
Duomo, Parma, and Adoration of the Magi, 
in S. Giovanni, Parma. — C. & C, N. Italy, i. 
587 ; Burckhardt, 588, 603 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., vi. 485. 

CASENTINO. See Jaco-po da Casentino. 

CASILE, ALFRED, born in Marseilles; 
contemporary. Landscape painter. Med- 
al, 3d class, 1885. Works : Cliff in Nor- 
mandy (1879); By the Cliffs (1880); Quaran- 
tine Grounds at Marseilles (1881); Field of 
Mars after the Exposition (1882); Quay on 
the Rh6ne (1883) ; After the Rain (1884); 
View of Paris (1885). 

CASILEAR, JOHN W., born in New 
York, June 25, 1811. Landscape painter ; 
studied in Europe in 1840 and in 1857. 
Elected an A.N.A. in 1835, and N.A. in 
1851. Studio in New York. Works : Swiss 
Lake (1868) ; Genesee Meadows (1871) ; 



September Afternoon (1874); Trout Brook 
(1875) ; Autumn (1876) ; Scene in New 
Hampshire (1877) ; View on Shemung 
Eiver (1878) ; View of the Rocky Mount- 
ains (1881); Scene on Long Island (1883); 
Catskill Twilight. 

CASSANDRA, ancient picture. See Polyg- 
notus, Theodorus. 

CASSIOLI, AMOS, born in Siena, Italy, 
in 1838. Histoi-y painter, pupil of L. Mus- 
sini ; won at Florence, in 1868, first prize in 
historical painting, for his picture of Lorenzo 
de' Medici showing his Art Collection to 
Galeazzo Sforza. Professor at Florence 
Academy. "Works : Battle of Legnano, 
Florence GaUery ; Bianca Capello ; Studio of 
Leonardo da Vinci, Provenzano Solvani re- 
ceiving Gifts for Ransom of a Prisoner, Pa- 
lazzo pubblico, Siena. — MtUler, 97. 

Mugello, near Florence, in 1390, died in 
Florence, Aug. 19, 1457. Florentine school; 
son of a labourer, Bartolommeo di Simone ; 
was observed drawing cattle on flat stones 
by Bernardetto de' Medici, who, struck with 
his talent, took him to Florence and gave 
him opportunity for study. Baldinucci con- 
jectures that he was apprenticed to Masac- 
cio, but he was more probably taught in the 
school which produced Uccello and Pesel- 
lino. He was an intense realist, fuU of 
energy and truth to common nature, but a 
hard and inharmonious colourist. The two 
Crucifixions in the monastery of the Angeli, 
Florence, which were pointed out as among 
his earlier works, are vulgar in type, 
hard in line and drapery, and without feel- 
ing. Better are the colossal portraits of 
Heroes and Sibyls which he painted for a 
hall in the Villa Pandolfini at Legnaja, now 
transferred to canvas and in the Uf&zi. In 
1435, Andrea was commissioned by the 
Florentine government to paint upon the 
walls of the Palace of the Podestsi the Peruz- 
zi and the Albizzi, who were declared rebels 
after the return of Cosmo de' Medici. From 
this he derived his surname of Andrea degli 
Impiccati (of the Hanged), he having so 

represented them. Andrea was employed in 
1444, 1446, and 1455 in the Cathedral, 
Florence, and in 1451 in the hospital of 
S. M. Nuova, where he painted various 
works, a St. Andrew, a Last Supper, and a 
series of frescos in the church choir illus- 
trating the life and death of the Madonna, 
all now destroyed. Vasari accuses Andrea 
of having murdered Domenico Veneziano, 
out of jealousy of the superior talent shown 
by the latter when they worked together at 
S. M. Nuova ; but his innocence is fully es- 
tablished by the certainty that Domenico 
survived him four years. Among the works 
of Andrea are the picture of Niccolo da 
Tolentino on horseback (1456), Duomo, 
Florence ; Crucifixion (fresco). Loggia of 
Hospital adjoining S. M. Nuova ; St. John 
and St. Francis, S. Croce, Florence ; Por- 
trait, Pitti ; Altarpiece, also SS. Jerome and 
John and the Magdalen, Academy, Florence ; 
Last Supper, Refectory of S. Apollonia, 
Florence ; Frescos for the Villa Carducci, 
Uffizi, Florence.— Vasari, ed. Mil., ii. 667 ; 
C. & C, Italy, ii. 302 ; Burckhardt, 535 ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 693 ; Llibke, Geseh. 
ital. Mai., i. 279. 

CASTAN, GUSTAVE, born in Geneva 
in 1823. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Alex. Calame ; paints attractive landscapes 
of briUiant execution. Works : Souvenir 
of Franche-Comte, Storm in Winter, LUle 
Museum ; Forest in Winter, Langres Mu- 
seum ; View near Lancy ; Banks of the 
Creuse ; Entrance to Forest in Autumn ; 
Easter in Winter ; Torrent in the Alps ; 
Lake Lucerne ; Wood-Interior in Autumn 
(1879).— MtlUer, 97 ; Larousse. 

Spain ; contemporary. History and genre 
painter. His Death of ViUamediana (1871), 
Museum Fine Arts, Madrid, was awarded a 
medal at Philadelphia Exposition, 1876. 

CASTELLO (Castelli), BERNARDO, born 
at Albaro, near Genoa, 1557, died in Genoa, 
Oct., 1629. Genoese school ; pupil of 
Andrea Semini and of Luca Cambiaso ; 
travelled through Italy, and formed a grace- 



ii ^ P?. 

ful and correct style. Was the friend of 
Tasso, for whose Gerusalemme he made the 

designs engraved 
in part by Agos- 
tino Carracci, and 
was eulogized by 
him. In 1604 he 
was called to 
Rome and paint- 
ed for St. Peter's 
the CalUng of St. 
Peter, for which 
a picture by Lanfranco was afterward sub- 
stituted. His works are mostly in the 
churches of Genoa and its neighbourhood, 
Had three 
sons, Giovan- 
ni Maria, Ber- 
nardino, and .iC!!^ *y y^ /'"^'*l 
Valerio, all 
painters. — Soprani, 115 ; Lanzi, iii. 250 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole genoise. 

Genoa in 1579, died in Turin in 1649. 
Genoese school ; pupil of Gio. Battista 
Paggi. Painted many pictures for churches 
in Genoa and elsewhere, but most noted for 
his portraits. When Van Dyck visited 
Genoa, he and Castello reciprocally painted 
each other's portraits. In 1647 he was ap- 
pointed portrait painter to the court of Sa- 
voy, and removed to Turin. His son Nic- 
colb, who was living in 1668, inherited his 
ability. — Lanzi, iii. 262 ; Ch. Blanc, lllcole 
genoise ; Soprani, 125. 

CASTELLO, PABEICIO, died in Madrid 
in 1617. Spanish school ; son of Giambat- 
tista Castello (11 Bergamasco) and pupil of 
his elder brother, Nicolas Granelo Castello. 
Painted frescos in the Escorial and the 
Pardo, and became painter to PhiHp IL in 
1584, and also to Philip IH — Stirling, 
i. 192 ; Cean Bermudez. 

CASTELLO, FELIX, bom in Madrid in 
1602, died there in 1656. Spanish school ; 
IDupil of his father Fabricio Castello and of 
Vincenzo Carducho ; painted historical com- 
positions and portraits. Works : Capture of 

a Dutch Fortress by Spaniards, and Disem- 
barkation of Don Fadrique de Toledo at S. 
Salvador, Madrid Museum. — Cean Bermu- 
dez ; Quilliet ; Madrazo, 378. 


died in Madrid in 1593. Spanish school ; 
son and pupil of Giambattista Castello (II 
Bergamasco). Named painter to PhUip II. 
in 1571 ; executed in 1584, with Taboron 
and Cambiaso, in the Escorial, a fresco of 
the Battle of St. Quentin, and in 1587, with 
Taboron, the Battle of Higuemela ; also 
painted other frescos in ducal palace at 
Alba de Tornus. — Stirling, i. 192 ; Cean 

CASTELLO, VALERIO, born in Genoa 
in 1625, died there in 1659. Genoese 
school ; son of Bernardo CasteUo ; pupil of 
Gio. Andrea de' Ferrari and of H Sarzana ; 
studied works of masters in Milan and 
Parma. Formed an excellent style of his 
own ; painted in both oil and fresco, but 
excelled in latter. Subjects chiefly relig- 
ious, but painted also battles. Works in 
churches and palaces in Genoa. His Rape 
of the Sabines is in the Palazzo Brignole- 
Sale, Genoa; a smaller example, somewhat 
varied, in the Uffizi. — Lanzi, iii. 259 ; Ch. 
Blanc, licole genoise. 

portrait, Raphael, Louvre ; wood transferred 
to canvas, H. 2 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. Half- 
length, three-quarters, turned to left, with 
beard and moustaches ; in black vest and 
cap and gray doublet. Painted in Rome 
about 1516 ; passed from Collection of Duke 
of Mantua to Charles I. of England, after 
whose death bought by Lopez of Amster- 
dam. Copied at this time by Rubens ; 
Rembrandt also made a sketch of it, now in 
Albertine Collection, Vienna, and R. Persyn 
engraved it. Passed to Cardinal Mazarin, 
from whose heirs bought for Louis XIV. 
Another j^ortrait by Raphael, bust, painted 
in 1519, probably that in Torlonia Gallery, 
Rome. Louvre picture engraved by J. 


Godefroy ; Nic. Larmessin ; Bautrois ; Sen- 
ter ; Nic. Edelinck.— Villot, Louvre ; Filhol, 
V. PI. 359; Muntz, 534; Springer, 253, 
509 ; Cab. Crozat, i. PI. 13. 

DETTO, born 
in Genoa in 
1616, died in 
Mantua inl670. 
Genoese scliool. 
Called, on ac- 
count of the 
beauty of his 
colouring, II 
Grechetto (Lit- 
tle Greek); and 
in France II 

Benedetto. Pupil of Gio. Battista Paggi 
and of Gio. Andrea de' Ferrari. Soprani 
says he also had lessons of Van Dyck, but as 
he was only nine years old when that paiater 
left Genoa it is probable that he merely 
studied his worts. Castiglione painted in 
Florence, Borne, Venice, Naples, Bologna, 
and Mantua, in which city he entered the 
service of Duke Charles I. about 1654. He 
soon won a great reputation, and received 
orders even from France, England, and Ger- 
many. Though he painted large histori- 
cal works, he is best known by his cabinet 
pictures, especially landscapes and pastoral 
pieces, in which he frequently introduced 
animals. He left about seventy etchings. 
His brother Salvatore and his son Francesco 
were his pupils and imitators. Among his 
best examples are : Nativity, S. Luca, Genoa ; 
Madonna with Saints showing true effigy of 
St. Domenic to a monk of his order, S. M. 
di Castello ; Christ on the Cross and St. Ber- 
^__^ nard, S. Martino, Genoa ; Abra- 
/t\ ham and Melchisedec, Adoration, 
# \J Expulsion from the Temple, Car- 
\L^ avan, Bacchantes and Satyrs, 
Birds and Animals, Louvre, Par- 
is ; Noah entering the Ark, Dresden Gallery, 
Munich Gallery, and Uffizi, Florence. — Bal- 
dinucci, v. 206; Soprani, 223; Lanzi, iii. 273; 
Seguier, 41 ; Ch. Blanc, :ficole g6noise. 

Naples ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter. Lives in Paris. V\^orks: Visiting 
the Cardinal Uncle, The Warrants, Phila- 
delphia Exposition, 1876 ; TeiTace of Pa- 
lazzo Reale at Naples, Duel without Wit- 
nesses (1877) ; Paroquet's Lesson (1878) ; 
Plucking the Rose, W. H. Fosdick, Louis- 
ville ; Prospect, W. B. Bement, Philadelphia ; 
Soldiers of Cromwell in Haddon Hall, Visit- 
ing the Cardinal Uncle, Paris Exposition, 

Seville in 1565, died in Cordova in 1626. 
Spanish school ; pupil of Luis Fernandez ; 
painted in fresco and oil, chiefly in Cordova. 
Works : Adoration of the Magi, Cathedral, 
Cadiz ; Conception, Cathedral, Cordova. — 
StirHng, i. 460 ; Viardot, 185 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole espagnole. 

CASTILLO, JUAN DEL, bom in Seville 
in 1584, died in Cadiz in 1640. Spanish 
school ; younger brother of Augustin del 
Castillo ; pupil of Luis Fernandez. Chiefly 
noted as the master of Moya, of Alonso Ca- 
no, and of Murillo. Works : Marriage of the 
Virgin, Nativity, Assumption, Visitation, An- 
nunciation, Seville Museum. — Stirling, i. 
460 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole espagnole ; Viardot, 

DEL, born in Cordova in 1603, died there 
in 1667. Spanish school ; son and pupil of 
Augustin del Castillo, after whose death he 
studied in Seville under Zurbaran. Became 
a popular portrait painter in Cordova ; also 
executed some religious compositions, good 
in design but faulty in colouring. Vigorous 
style, with effects worthy of Caravaggio. 
Said to have died of despair on seeing Mu- 
riUo's pictures in Seville. Works : Adora- 
tion of Shepherds, Madrid Museum ; others 
ia churches and convents of Cordova, the 
best at the Cathedral and in convents of St. 
Francis and St. Paul ; Visitation, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. — Stirling, ii. 807 ; Viardot, 
187 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole espagnole ; Curtis, 
345 ; Madrazo, 381. 


nich Gallery ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 4 in. x 6 ft. 10 
in. Castor and Pollux carrying oflf Hilseira 
and Phoebe, daughters of Leucippus. One 
of them, mounted on a noble horse, the 
reins of which are held by Cupid, is lifting 

Castor and Pollux, Rubens, Munich Gallery, 

up one of the women, aided by his brother, 
who is holding the other one upon his knee. 
Engraved by Val. Green. — Smith, ii. 63. 

CASUAL WARD, Luke Fildes, HoUoway 
Institute, Egham, near London. A group 
of wretched and deformed creatures waiting 
for admission to a resting place for the 
night. "Wonderfully realistic. Eoj'al Acad- 
emy, 1874 ; Philadelphia Exposition, 1876 ; 
Paris Exposition, 1878; sold to Thos. Tay- 
lor, of Wigan; Taylor sale (1883), £2,205.— 
Art Journal (1874), 201; Portfolio, May, 

CATEL, FRANZ LUDWIG, born in Ber- 
lin, Feb. 22, 1778, died in Rome, Dec. 19, 
1856. German school ; landscape painter. 
Beginning as wood-carver and illustrator of 
books, he practised water-colour, and in 
1806 painted the assassination of Nicholas 
von Bernau, for which he was elected mem- 
ber of the Berlin Academy. Went to Paris 
in 1807, where he commenced oil painting, 
to Switzerland in 1811, where he studied 

Alpine scenery, and to Rome in 1812, where 
his talent developed through intercourse 
with Koch, Overbeck, Sehadow, and Corne- 
lius. With the exception of occasional home 
visits, he remained in Italy, and from 1880 
lived at his country seat near Macerata. 
His landscapes with architectural accessories 
are broadly treated, and effective in chiaros- 
curo. Works : Colonnade of St. Peter's by 
Moonlight ; Storm on Etna ; Monastery near 
Salerno ; Interior of Pantheon ; The Via 
Appia ; View from Cloister at Amalfi ; Gon- 
dolas on the Lagoon ; View of Rome ; Crater 
of Vesuvius ; Ruins of Psestum ; Villa of 
Msecenas at Tivoli. Other pictures in Ber- 
lin, Munich, and Copenhagen Galleries. — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., iv. 70 ; Riegel, 583. 

CATENA, VLNCENZO, born at Treviso 
about 1465, died in Venice, 1531. Venetian 
school ; real name, Vinceuzo di Biagio ; 
known in 1495, when a journeyman in the 
Sala del Gran Consiglio, Venice, as Vincen- 
zo da Treviso. A pupil of the Bellini, he 
copied Giovanni Bellini, without approach- 
ing him in drawing, boldness of treatment, 
or richness of colouring ; but he was a 
painter of great industry and considerable 
reputation, and made friends among the 
wealthy. Among his earlier pictures are a 
Presentation of Christ to Simeon, Commu- 
nal Gallery, Padua ; a Madonna and Saints, 
Liverpool Institution ; and a Trinity, S. 
Simeone, Venice. His skill increased with 
the opening of the 16th century, as is shown 
in his Madonna and Doge Loredano, Palazzo 
Ducale, Venice. His portrait of Loredano, 
Lochis-Carrara Gallery, Bergamo, is as- 
signed to Gentile Bellini, and the copy at 
Dresden to Giov. Bellini. In 1520 Catena 
finished the Glorification of St. Christina, in 


S. M. Mater Domini, Venice. Other pict- 
ures by him are : Madonna and Saints, 
Dresden Gallery ; Circumcision, Leuchten- 



berg Collection, St. Petersburg ; Glory of 
St. Francis, S. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice ; 
and several in the Venice Academy. 

C. & C, N. Italy, i. 247; Ch. Blanc, 
£cole venitienne ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 628 ; 
Burckhardt, 601 ; Ltlbke, Gesch. itaL Mai., 
i. 549. 

CATHERINE, ST., Baphael, National 
Gallery, London ; wood, H. 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 
9^ in. St. Catherine of Alexandria, stand- 
ing, leaning upon the vrheel, one hand on 
her heart, her eyes raised heavenward, 
whence rays of light proceed ; background, 
a landscape with hUls and a lake. Painted 
in Florence in 1507. In the Aldobrandini 
and Borghese collections ; bought from lat- 
ter, end of last century, by Mr. Day, who 
sold it to Lord Northwick for £2,000 ; 
bought from Beckford for National Gallery 
in 1839. Surface injured by cleaning. Copy 
in Trubetzkoy Collection, St. Petersburg. 
Studies in the Louvre and at Chatsworth. 
Engraved by Marc Antonio ; A. B. Desnoy- 
ers ; Leroux. — C. & C, Eaphael, i. 340 ; 
Gruyer, Vierges de Eaphael, iii. 579; Pas- 
savant, ii. 56 ; Miintz, 229 ; Eichter, 55. 

By Quido Eeni, Turin Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. X 2 ft. 6 in. St. Catherine, seated, 
seen to knees, with a lamb in her lap and a 
palm in her hand. Engraved by D. Testi. 
—Gal. di Torino, iii. PI. 86. 

Tiarini, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, H. 7 ft. x 
4 ft. 7 in. St. Catherine of Siena, support- 
ed by two angels, about to kneel before a 
crucifix. Formerly in church of the con- 
vent of S. M. Maddalena. Engraved by N. 
Mellini ; A Marchi. — Pinac. di Bologna, PI. 

Bartolommeo, Louvre ; wood, H. 8 ft. 5 in. 
X 7 ft. 6 in.; signed, dated 1511. The Vir- 
gin, enthroned, attended by SS. Peter, 
Bartholomew, Vincent, and others, holding 
palms, presides at the mystic marriage of 
Jesus with St. Catherine, who kneels before 
her ; behind her, to right, SS. Francis and 
Dominic embracing ; above, angels sustain 

the curtains of the canopy. Painted for S. 
Marco, Florence ; presented in 1512 to 
Jacques Hurault, Bishop of Autun, ambas- 
sador of Louis Xn. to Florentine EepubHc ; 
long in sacristy of Cathedral of Autun ; re- 
moved in 1801 to Musee Napoleon ; be- 
longed to collection of Francis I. — Land on, 

Marriage of St. Catherine, Fra Bartolommeo, Louvre. 

Mus6e, 2d Col., iii. PI. 56 ; Villot, Louvre ; 
C. & C, Italy, iii. 451 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 

By Boccaccio Boccaccino, Venice Acad- 
emy ; wood, H. 2 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 7 in.; 
signed. The Virgin sitting, holding Jesus, 
who gives the ring to kneeling St. Cather- 
ine ; St. Eose, standing ; SS. Peter and 
John Baptist kneeling. — C. & C, N. Italy, 
ii. 445. 

By Gorreggio, Capitol Museum, Rome. 
The Virgin, with Jesus on her knees, seated 
under a tree in a landscape ; at right, St. 
Catherine, kneeling, with a palm in her 
hand, is receiving the ring from the child ; 
at her feet is part of the wheel and a sword. 
E«plica in Naples. — Eighetti, Campidoglio, 
ii. PI. 273. 

By Gorreggio, Louvre ; wood, H. 3 ft. 5 
in. X 3 ft, 4 in. St. Catherine receives a 



ring from Jesus, who is seated on knees of 
Virgin ; behind her is St. Sebastian with 
arrows; in background the martyrdom of 
the two saints. Painted, it is said, on the 
occasion of the marriage of the painter's 
sister, Caterina AUegri, in 1519. In posses- 
sion of Dr. F. Grillenzoni, Modena, in 1530- 
35 ; passed thence to Cardinal Luiji d'Este 
and later to Countess Santa Fiora, and to 
Cardinal Fr. Sforza di S. Fiora, Eome ; in 
1650 belonged to Cardinal Barberini, who 
took it to France and gave it to Cardinal 

Marriage of St. Catherine, Correggio, Louvre. 

Mazarin ; valued in his inventory at 15,000 
livres ; and sold by his heirs to Louis XIV. 
Eeplicas, with variations, in Louvre, Naples 
Museum, and Hermitage. Engraved by 
Picart ; Massard ; CapiteUi ; Duthe ; Folo ; 
H. Dupont (1867).— Meyer, Correggio, 322, 
484 ; Kunst. Lex., i. 432 ; Mus6e Eoyal, i. 
Pt. 1 ; Landon, viii. PI. 20 ; Villot, Louvre ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 116, vi. 471 ; Filhol, vii. 
PI. 439 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 502. 

By Anton van Dyck, Buckingham Pal- 
ace ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 10 in. The 
Virgin seated at right, with infant Saviour 
on her knee, holds in her right hand a 
wreath of flowers to crown St. Catherine, 
who, bowing in adoration, extends her 

right hand to receive the ring, while her 
left, holding a palm branch, rests on a 
broken wheel. The beauty of the Virgin 
gave this picture the title of La plus belle 
des Vierges. Formerly in Collection of 
Chevalier de Burtin, at Brussels, at whose 
decease taken to England in 1820 and sold 
to king for 2,500 guineas. Engraved by 
Lommelin. — Smith, iii. 69. 

By Lorenzo Lotto, Lochis-Carrara Gallery, 
Bergamo ; canvas, figures imder hfe size ; 
signed, dated 1523. St. Catherine kneels 
before the Virgin, and Jesus presses forward 
to give her the ring ; an angel stands with 
folded arms ; at left Nicolo de Bonghi sits 
attentive. Landscape seen through an open- 
ing on right cut out and stolen ; its place 
now filled by a piece of dark canvas. Prob- 
ably painted for Zanin Casotto of Bergamo. 
— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 513 ; Ridolfi, Mara- 
vighe, i. 186 ; Rio, iii. 289. 

By Bernardino Luini, Poldo-PezzoU Mu- 
seum, Milan. The Virgin, standing, sup- 
ports the infant Jesus, who, sitting upon a 
cushion placed upon a table, places the 
ring upon the finger of St. Catherine ; stand- . 
ing at left.— Art Journal (1884), 23. 

By Hans Memling, Hospital of St. John, 
Bruges ; triptych. The Virgin, enthroned 
under a portico, with angels above about to 
crown her, holds the infant Jesus, who 
bends to give a ring to St. Catherine kneel- 
ing ; at right and left, the Baptist, Evange- 
list, and St. Barbara, standing ; an angel 
plays an organ, another holds a missal ; be- 
hind St. Catherine, a monk of St. Augustine, 
and further back another monk with a 
gauge for wine and spirits ; in background, 
episodes in life of St. John. On right wing, 
Salome receives the Baptist's head and 
dances before Herod ; on left. Vision of St. 
John Evangelist. Copy, ovnied by Mrs. 
Davenport, exhibited at Eoyal Academy, 
London, 1884.— C. & C, Flemish Painters, 
251 ; Ai-t Journal (1884), 60. 

By Murillo, Capuchin Church, Cadiz ; 
canvas, H. 13 ft. 9 in. x 10 ft. 8 in. The 
Virgin, seated on a platform in front of two 



columns on right, holds on her lap the In- 
fant Jesus, who is about to place a ring on 
the finger of St. Catherine kneeling; be- 
hind the Virgin, three angels ; behind St. 
Catherine, two angels ; in front, three cher- 
ubs, and a sword and broken wheel ; above, 
angels and cherubs in a gloiy. Painted 
in 1682, the last work of Murillo ; while 
working upon it he stumbled on the scaffold 
and died from the effects of the fall. This 
picture, one of the richest and most grace- 
ful of Murillo's compositions, is the centre 
of an immense altarpiece (20 x 24 ft.) which 
fills the arch at the end of the convent 
church. After Murillo's death, part of the 
glory was finished by Meneses Osorio, who 
also painted the four lateral pictures, prob- 
ably after Murillo's designs. Etched by E. 
St. Eaymond. — Curtis, 221 ; Palomino, iii. 
421 ; Ponz, Viage, xviii. 20. 

By Murillo, Vatican, Eome; canvas, H. 3 
ft. 6 in. X 4 ft. 4 in. The Virgin, seated on 
right, holds Jesus on her lap; he places 
the ring on the finger of St. Catherine, who 
bends reverently forward to receive it. Pre- 
sented in 1855 by ex-Queen Christina of 
Spain to Pius IX.— Curtis, 222. 

By Andrea PreviMi, sacristy of S. Giobbe, 
Venice ; wood, figures half length, a little 
more than half life-size. The Virgin seated ; 
Jesus, on her lap, holds out the' ring to St. 
Catherine ; on other side the Baptist. Com- 
monly attributed to Gio\, Bellini. Replica, 
signed and dated 1504, in Collection of 
Sir Charles Eastlake, London. — Zanotto, 
Pinac. Ven., PI. 25 ; C. & C, N. Italy, i. 
275 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 265. 

By Rubens, Ch. of Augustins, Antwerp ; 
canvas, H. 15 ft. x 11 ft. The Virgin en- 
throned, holding infant Saviour, who is 
bending forward to place the ring on the 
finger of St. Catherine ; behind the Virgin, 
St. Joseph; on her right, SS. Peter and 
Paul ; on her left, St. John with two angels 
and the lamb ; below, SS. Sebastian, Au- 
gustine, Lawrence, Paul the Hermit, and 
George, the last in armour. Sir J. Rey- 
nolds calls it one of the most considerable 

of the works of Rubens. Engraved by Sny- 
ers ; Eynhouedts.— Smith, ii. 24 ; Beechey, 
Reynolds, ii 173. 

By Bubens, Duke of Rutland, Belvoir 
Castle ; canvas, H, 8 ft. 6 in. x 7 ft. The 
Virgin seated, holding Jesus, who bends 
forward to place a crown on the head of 
St. Catherine, who is kneeling ; behind her 
stands St. Agnes, and opposite are St. Chris- 
tina and St. Margaret ; four angels, one 
with a thunderbolt, the others with crowns 
and palms. Sold in 1766 by the Order of 
St. Augustines, Mechlin, to Chevalier Ver- 
hulst, for 9500 florins ; at his sale, 12,705 
florins. Engraved by P. de Jode ; Alex. 
Voei— Smith, ii. 47 ; ix. 256. 

By Pellegrino Tibaldi, Bologna Gallery ; 
wood, H. 6 ft. 8 in. X 4 ft. 5. in. The Vir- 
gin seated, holding the Child, who gives 
the ring to St. Catherine ; at right, St. Jo- 
seph ; background of architecture. For- 
merly in church of the Misericordia, Bo- 
logna. Engraved by Ant. Marchi. — Pinac. 
di Bologna, PL 22. 

By Paolo Veronese, S. Caterina, Venice. 
The Virgin enthroned at left, with Jesus on 
her knees, surrounded by many angels 
singing and playing musical instruments ; 
St. Catherine kneeling to receive the ring ; 
about, at right, a glory of angels and of 
cherubim. Painted in 1572. Engraved 
by Agos. Carracci (1582). — Zanotto, 313 ; 
Bartsch, xviii. 90. 

Subject treated also by Giuliano Bugiar- 
dini, Bologna Gallery ; Alessandro Tiarini, 
Bologna Gallery ; Ludovico Cigoli, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; Domenico Peti, 
Vienna Museum ; Giulio Cesare Procaccini, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Titian, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; Guercino, Galleria Estense, 
Modena; Andrea del Sarto, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Lorenzo Lotto, Munich Gallery ; Par- 
migianino, Parma Gallery ; Michael Wohl- 
gemuth, Munich GaUery ; Jakob Jordaens, 
Madrid Museum ; Ambrogio Borgognone, 
National Gallery, London. 

Guercino, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. The 



Saint, dressed in a yellow tunic and a rich 
red mantle lined with blue, kneels before 
the executioner, who wears a red cap and 
holds a drawn sword ; to left, the wheel ; in 
the sky, an angel with palm and crown ; in 

Conspiracy of Cataline, Salvator Rosa, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 

background, a landscape with bridge and 

NATION OF, Pietro Francesco Bissolo,Yen- 
ice Academy ; wood (?), H. 12 ft. x 8 f t. 3 
in.; signed. St. Catherine kneels before 
Christ, who j)laces the crown of thorns on 
her head ; in attendance are angel Raphael 
and Tobit, Mary Magdalen, and SS. Peter, 
James, and Paul ; above, the Eternal and 
cherubs. Originally in S. Pietro Martire, 
Murano. Bissolo's masterpiece as a compo- 
sition, but repainted. — Zanotto, Pinac. Ven., 
PI. 10 ; C. & C, N. Italy, i. 289. 

Bosa, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvaS, H. 5 
ft. X 5 ft. 11 in. A group of armed men 
standing around an altar ; Lentulus and 
Cethegus, with hands clasped, are mingling 
their blood in a chalice, to strengthen their 
oaths ; the figure in shadow, with a band 
around his hair, is Catiline, near whom 
stands Quintus Curtius. Duplicate in Casa 

Martelli, Florence.— Gal. du Pal. Pitti, i. PI. 
73 ; Eosini, vi. 168. 

CATLBSf, GEORGE, born at Wilkesbarre, 
Pa., July 26, 1796, died in Jersey City, N. J., 
Dec. 23, 1872. Portrait painter, self-taught ; 
began his professional life in 
Philadelphia. In 1832-38 he 
visited the Indians of the 
Yellowstone River, Indian 
Territory, Arkansas, and 
Florida; and in 1852-57 
travelled in South and Cen- 
tral America, after which he 
lived in Europe until 1871. 
Mr. CatUn painted 470 full- 
length portraits of Indians 
and many pictures illustra- 
tive of their Ufe and customs 
which were exhibited in the 
United States and in Europe. 
They are now in the Nation- 
al Museum, Washington. 

Charles Lebrun, Louvre, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 2 in. 
X 4 ft. 4 in. Cato dying on his bed, holding 
in his right hand the Phaedo of Plato, which 
he had read before stabbing himself with 
the sword lying beside him ; in background, 

Death of Cato, Charles Lebrun, Louvre, Paris. 

the heads of a man weeping and of a sol- 
dier. (Plutarch.) Painted at Lyons about 
1645.— Landon, Mus6e, xi. PI. 22. 


CAT'S PAW, Sir Edmn Landseer, Earl 
of Essex, Cassiobury ; wood. A monkey has 
grasped a cat, and notwithstanding her 
struggles is using her paw to remove some 
roasting chestnuts from the top of a hot 
stove ; in background, a table with a kitten 
upon it beside a basket, out of which another 
frightened kitten is peeping. British Insti- 
tution, 1824; sold for £100 and bought a 
few days afterward by Earl of Essex for 
£120. Engraved by C. G. Lewis. — Stephens, 
52 ; Landseer Gallery. 

CATTANIO, COSTANZO, bom in Perra- 
ra in 1602, died in Rome in 1665. Lombard 
school ; pupil of Guido ; was a bravo, often 
in exile or in defiance of the authorities, and 
his pictures frequently bear marks of his 
character. He painted soldiers and ruffians, 
but some of his works are more in keeping 
with the style of his master. Among the 
latter are a St. Anthony in the church of 
Corlo, and a Last Supper in the refectory of 
S. Silvestro, Ferrara. — Lanzi, iii. 220 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole ferraraise. 

Dickleburgh, near Diss, England, Aug. 8, 
1800, died at Clapham Common, July 24, 
1868. History painter, water-colours ; 
studied architecture and became early a 
book illustrator, in which he exhibited much 
archaeological and architectural skill. About 
1830 he began to paint in water-colours, be- 
came a member of the Society of Painters 
in Water Colours, and contributed to their 
exhibitions until 1850, when he withdrew. 
He was awarded one of the two first class 
medals (the other, Landseer) at Paris in 
1855, and was a member of the Eoyal Acad- 
emy of Amsterdam and of the Belgian So- 
ciety of Water Colour Painters. Works : 
Sir Walter Ealeigh witnessing the Execution 
of Essex, Old English Hospitality (1839) ; 
The Castle Chapel (1840); Hamilton of Both- 
wel Haugh preparing to shoot the Eegent 
Murray, After the Battle of Newbury (1843); 
Visit to the Monastery, Benvenuto Cellini 
defending the Castle of St. Angelo (1845); 
The Unwelcome Eeturn (1846). In 1862 he 

exhibited an oil picture, A Terrible Secret, 
at the Eoyal Academy. Charles Cattermole, 
his nephew, paints in both oil and water- 
colours. — Eedgrave ; Art Journal (1857), 
209 ; (1868), 180 ; (1870), 92. 

CAUCIG, FRANZ, born in Goritz, Dec. 3, 
1762, died in Vienna, Nov. 18, 1828. German 
school ; history painter. First taught in Vi- 
enna, then spent seven years in Italy, where 
he studied the Carracci in Bologna and in 
Eome. Eevisited Italy in 1791, and remained 
six years, studying especially Titian in Ven- 
ice. In 1799 he was appointed professor and 
in 1820 director at the Vienna Academy. His 
subjects, taken principally from Greek my- 
thology and the Old Testament, are aca- 
demic in treatment, and though good in 
drawing are weak in colour. Works : Solo- 
mon's Judgment, Museum, Vienna ; others 
at the Academy and in Liechtenstein, Schon- 
born, and Czernin Galleries, ib.; Sappho, 
Prague Gallery ; Death of Portia, Orpheus 
at Eurydice's Tomb, Joanneum, Gratz. — 
AUgem. d. Biogr., iv. 75 ; Wurzbach, ii. 

CAULITZ, PETER, bom in Berlin about 
1650, died there in 1719. German school ; 
landscape and animal painter ; studied in 
Rome ; painted chiefly Italian landscapes 
and animal pieces, in the Dutch style. 
Works : Chicken Yard, Berlin Museum ; Two 

Landscapes with Temple Ruins, and Bridge, 
Brunswick Museum ; others at the Eoj'al 
Castles in Berlin and Potsdam. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., iv. 76. 

CAUSIEES. See Gossiers. 

Morando, Paolo. 

CAVEDONE, GIACOMO, born at Sassu- 
olo in April, 1577, died in Bologna in 1660. 
Bolognese school ; son of a poor apothecary, 
became page to an art amateur, who placed 
him in the school of the Carracci, and after- 
ward in that of Passarotti. Studied in 


Venice the works of Titian, and acquired a 
style of colouring in advance of most of his 
school. Painted in Bologna, for churches, 
works considered almost equal to those of 
Annibale Carracci. In 1610 went to Eome 
and became assistant to Guido, but home- 
sickness soon took him back to Bologna. 
He bade fair to become famous, when family 
afflictions affected his mind, and he died 
a beggar. Among his works are : Madonna 
in Glory and Saints Alo and Petronius, Bo- 
logna Gallery ; Adoration of Shepherds and 
Kings, S. Paolo, Bologna ; Apotheosis of S. 
Benedict, S. Miohele in Bosco ; Madonna 
and Saints, S. M. deUe Laudi ; Nativity, SS. 
Pilippo and Giacomo ; St. Anthony and 
Prophets, S. Benedetto ; Pieta, Angel and 

Dead Christ, Munich Gallery. — Malvasia, ii. 
143 ; Lanzi, iii. 122 ; Burckhardt, 764, 785, 
794, 796 ; Gualandi, Guida, 124, 150 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole bolonaise. 

CAXfiS, EUGENIO, born in Madrid in 
1577, died there in 1642. Spanish school ; 
son and pupil of Patricio Caxes ; employed 
with his father by Philip UI. in the Pardo, 
and in 1612 appointed one of the king's 
painters. Painted many works in churches 
and convents in Madrid and Toledo. Works : 
Disembarkation of English under Lord 
Wimbledon at Cadiz, Virgin and Child, Mad- 
rid Museum ; Fall of Eebel Angels (1605), 
Copenhagen Museum. — Stirling, i. 428; Ch. 
Blanc, ^cole espagnole ; Madrazo, 383. 

CAXfiS, PATRICIO, bom at Arezzo, Italy, 
died in Madrid in 1612. Spanish school ; 
real name Cajesi ; went to Spain with Cinci- 
nato, Spanish ambassador, in 1567, at invita- 
tion of Philip II., and painted frescos in the 
Alcazar and in the Pardo, Madrid. Trans- 
lated into Spanish Vignola's book on the 
Five Orders. Also employed by Philip m., 
in whose service he died. — Stu-hng, i. 195 ; 
Ch. Blanc, ;ficole espagnole. 


Paris in 1676, died there, June 25, 1754. 
French school; history painter, pupil of 
Bene Antoine Houasse and of Bon Boul- 
logne ; became member of the Academy in 
1703, professor 1718, rector 1743, director 
1744, chancellor 1746. Painted many altar- 
pieces for churches in Paris and the prov- 
inces, also historical and mythological scenes, 
in the then prevailing style of conven- 
tional elegance. Works : St. Peter reviving 
^^•>^^ 1 Tabitha, 

^ i . ^Louvre; 

LJKISS n/ Ptaraoh's 

y y Cup found 

'""^ in Benja- 

min's Sack (1698) ; Vision of Jacob in Egypt 
(1699) ; Triumph of Hercules over Achelotls 
(1703).— Ch. Blanc, ficole fran9aise ; Villot, 
Cat. Louvre. 

CAZES, ROMAIN, born at St. B^at, (Haute- 
Garonne), in 1810, died in 1881. French 
school ; history painter, pupil of Ingres. 
Medals : 3d class, 1839, 1863 ; L. of Honour, 
1870. Works : Rebecca at the WeU (1840); 
Infant Christ asleep (1845); Ascension (1846); 
Three Ages of Man (1859) ; Departure of 
the Apostles (1870) ; Three Theological Vir- 
tues (1877); Sappho (1878) ; Well at Fonta- 
rabia, Spain (1879) ; Frescos in St. Francis 
Xavier's, Pai-is, and in the Church at Bagn- 
^res-de-Luchon. — MtiUer, 98. 

CAZIN, JEAN CHARLES, bom at Samer 
(Pas-de-Calais) ; contemporary. History and 
genre painter ; pupil of Lecoq de Boisbau- 
dran. Medal, 1st class, 1880 ; L. of Honour, 
1882. Works: Dock-Yard (1876); FUght 
into Egypt (1877) ; Art (1879) ; Ishmael, 
Tobias (1880) ; Souvenir de F^te (1881) ; 
Judith (1883). 

CECILIA, ST., John Singleton Copley, W. 
S. Appleton, Boston ; signed, dated 1806. 
Portrait of Mrs. R. S. Derby ; dressed in 
white picked out with gold, playing on the 
harp, with angels in the air above. — A. T. 
Perkins, 50. 

By Carlo Dolci, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. 8 in. St. Ceciha, half- 
length, playing the organ. Painted for 


Grand Duke Cosmo III., who presented it 
to the Grand-Treasurer of Poland ; bought 
in 1742 for 1,600 livres from collection of 
Prince Carignan, Paris. Engraved by P. A. 
Kilian.— Gal. Eoy. de Dresde, i. PL 43. 

By Domenichino, Louvre ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 
3 in. X 3 ft. 10 in. St. Cecilia, a little more 
than half-length, standing, singing to the 
accompaniment of a bass viol ; an angel be- 
fore her holds upon his head a book of mu- 
sic. Painted for Cardinal Ludovisi ; taken 

St. Cecilia, Domenicliino, Louvre. 

to France by Sieur de Nogent, who sold it 
to Jabach, from whom it was bought by 
Louis XIV. Engraved by E. Picart ; J. 
Gottard ; Muller. — Musee fran5ais, i. Part 
4 : Filhol, v. 332 ; Landon, Vies, PI. 3 ; Vil- 
lot. Cat. Louvre. 

By Guerdno, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 ft. x 
3 ft. 3 in. Three quarters length, seated, 
playing an organ. Another St. Cecilia by 
Guercino, Dulwich Gallery, England. — Vil- 
lofc. Cat. Louvre. 

By Eaphael, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, H. 
7 ft. 3 in. X 4 ft. 7 in. St. Cecilia, standing 

between SS. Paul and John, and SS. Au- 
gustine and Mary Magdalen, with musical 
instruments at her feet ; she holds in her 
hands an organ, the instrument of religious 
music, and listens with rapture to a choir of 
six angels singing in the heavens above. 
Ordered by Lorenzo Pucci, Cardinal of 
Santi Quattro, in 1513, but not finished 
until 1516-17, when it was placed in the 
chapel of St. CecUia, in S. Giovanni in 
Monte, Bologna, which had been buUt by 
Cecilia Duglioli dell' Oglio, a kinswoman of 
the Cardinal's. Vasari says the musical in- 
struments in the picture were painted by 
Giovanni da Udine. Carried to Paris in 
1796 ; transferred to canvas by Hacquin in 
1803 ; returned to Italy in 1815, recleaned, 
and placed in the Gallery. Much damaged 
by repainting. Many copies : one, by Dio. 
Calvaert, in Dresden Gallery ; another, by 
Guido Keui, in S. Luigi de' JFrancesi, Home. 
Engraved with variations by Marc Antonio. 
Engraved also by Bonasone (1531), Galli 
(1761), Strange (1771), David, Massard, Eo- 
saspina, Beisson, Bovinet, Gandolfi (1835), 
Pelee (1852), Lefebvre (1857), Landon.— 
Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 349 ; Gruyer, Vierges de 
Raphael, iii. 583 : Pinac. di Bologna, PL 1 ; 
Passavant, ii. 148 ; Landon, Mus6e, v. PL 
33 ; Musee fran9ais, i. ; FilhoL iii. PL 193 ; 
Perkins, 174. 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds, Marquis of Lans- 
downe, Bowood. Mrs. Sheridan as St. Ce- 
cilia. Sir Joshua called this the best pict- 
ure he ever painted. Exhibited at Eoyal 
Academy in 1884. — Waagen, Treasures, iii. 

By Rubens, Berlin Gallery ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 
7 in X 4 ft. 3 in. Helena Forman, the paint- 
er's second wife, as St. Cecilia, singing and 
playing on the harpsichord ; attended by 
four angels, one of whom is seated upon the 
back of a sphinx. Collection of Prince 
Carignan ; sold by Due de Tallard (1756) 
for 20,050 florins. Engraved by Witdouc ; 
and, with only two angels, by Panneels ; 
Lommelin. — Smith, ii. 106. 

By Ary Scheffer. Portrait of Mme. Viar- 



dot Garcia ; standing before an organ, with 
one hand resting on the keyboard. 

born ill Stockhohn, April 12, 1845. Genre 
painter ; pupil in Stdckholm of Malmstrom, 
and Winge, then (1876) in Diisseldorf of 
Pagerlin ; went in 1869 to Paris, where 

Poachers ; Eeeruiting under Charles XII. 
(1879). — Miiller, 98 ; N. illustr. Zeitg. 
(1879), ii. 742. 

on the estate of Aryd, SmSland, Sweden, 
June 25, 1843. Genre painter ; cousin of 
preceding; pupil of Diisseldorf Academy 

,^^ _- — . 1 under Albert Baur, and of 

■S^^M. '( \ Weimar Art-School ; trav- 

elled extensively in Europe. 
Medal, London, 1879. 
Works : Dealer in Old 
Clothes ; Spirit of the 
Times (1879). -Miiller, 99. 
born at Lierre, Brabant, 
June 10, 1778, died in 
Brussels in 1859. History 
and portrait painter ; pu- 
pU in Brussels of A. Lens, 
and in Paris of Suvee ; 
went to Rome in 1801, 
and having spent seven 
years in various cities in 
Italy, settled in Antwerp, 
and in 1815 at The Hague ; 
went to Tournay in 1820 
as director of the Acad- 
emy, and settled at Brus- 
sels in 1827 ; visited Eng- 
land in 1836. Member of 
Academy S. Luca, Rome, 
1807. Gold medal, Ghent. 
Works: Descent from 
Cross (1807), Dominican 
Church, Antwerp ; Visita- 
tion (1808), Augustine 
Church, ib.; Martyrdom 
of St. Barbara, Bruges 

St. Cecilia, Raphael, Bologna Gallery. Cathedral' Christ On 

he studied under Bonnat and Meissonier. Mount, figlise des Riches-Claires, Brus- 

Spent a few years in Florence and Rome, 
but settled in Paris. Since 1878, member 
of Stockholm Academy. Works : Early to 
Bed and Early to Rise (1871) ; Mignon 
(1873); Sickbed (1874); Epilogue, Stock- 
holm Museum ; Dark Hours (1875) ; Trans- 
portation of Charles XH. (1878) ; The 

sels. — Biog. nat. de Belgique, iii. 403 ; 
Immerzeel, i. 133; Journal des B. Arts, 
V. 38. 

CENCI, BEATRICE, portrait, Guercino, 
Bridge water House, London ; canvas. Un- 
usually bright and warm in tone for this 
master. Differs from Guido's piotui'e, es- 



pecially in the expression of sorrow. — Waa- 
gen. Treasures, ii. 36. 

Attributed to Ouido Eeni, Palazzo Bar- 
berini, Eome. Three-quarters face of touch- 
ing beauty. Head enveloped in drapery, 
calm but sad expression, lips tremulous 
■with suppressed emotion. K, as is probable, 
painted by Guido, it cannot be the portrait 
of Beatrice Cenci, as she was executed in 

Beatrice Cenci, attributed to Guido, Palazzo Barberini, Rome. 

September, 1599, and Guido did not paint 
at Kome until 1608. Furthermore, the 
picture is not mentioned in the Barberini 
Catalogues of 1604 or 1623, so that it was 
not in the Gallery until after the latter date. 
Engraved by Perfetti. — A. Bertolotti, Fran- 
cesco Cenci e la sua famiglia ; Edinburgh 
Review, Jan., 1879 ; Academy, March 18, 
1878 ; Giornale di erudizione artistica (Peru- 
gia, 1876), V. 276. 

at Colle di Val d'Elsa. Florentine school ; 
end of 14th and beginning of 15th century ; 
disciple for twelve years of Agnolo Gaddi. 
As he was in Padua in 1398, it is not im- 
probable that he left Florence after Agnolo's 

death (1396). His Virgin and Saints, a 
fresco in the Hospital of S. Giovanni Bat- 
tista, Florence, has disappeared, but the 
frescos of scenes in the life of Christ, in the 
church of the Compagnia della Croce di 
Giorno, Volterra, dated 1410 and signed 
Cienni da Firenze, are generally assigned to 
Cennini. He is best known, however, as 
the author of Trattato della pittura, the 
oldest modern work on the technical pro- 
cesses of painting. — C. & C, Italy, i. 
477 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., i. 643 ; Eastlake, Ma- 
terials, etc., 71 ; Baldinucci, i. 308 ; Milane- 
si, H libro dell' arte o trattato della pittura 
(Florence, 1859) ; Quellenschriften, i. 1 ; 
Preface to Mrs. Merrifield's translation of 
Cennini's Treatise (London, 1844); Lilbke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 150. 

CENTAUR FAMILY, ancient picture. 
See Zeuxis. 

BETWEEN, ancient picture. See Micon. 

CEPHALUS. See Bloemen, Norbert van. 

Lorrain, National Gallery, London ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 4 in. X 4 ft. 5 in.; signed, dated 
Eome, 1645. Cephalus receiving from Pro- 
cris the presents of Diana — the hound Le- 
laps and the fatal dart with which she was 
subsequently killed. Liber Veritatis, No. 
91. Engraved by Browne, by Pye, and in 
Jones's National Gallery. Waagen doubts 
the genuineness of this picture. — Cat. Nat. 
Gal. ; "Waagen, Treasures, i. 341 ; Pattison, 
Claude Lorrain, 227. 

By Guercino, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft 7 in. X 8 ft. 3 in. Cephalus weeping 
over the dead body of Procris, whom he has 
accidentally slain with an arrow ; above, a 
Cupid weeping ; at right, two dogs. Painted 
in 1644 for Anne of Austria, Queen of France, 
who presented it to Cardinal Mazarin ; passed 
on his death to the Prince de Carignan, 
from whose collection bought in 1744 for 
4,000 livres. Engraved by L. S. Lempereur; 
Keyl.— Gal. Roy. de Dresde, ii. PI. 22. 

Subject treated also by Polidoro da Cara- 
vaggio, Vienna Museum. 


CEPHISODOEUS, painter, about 420 
B.C. Mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 36 [60]) as 
an able artist. — Brunn, ii. 57. 
CEREZO (Zerezo), MATEO, born at 
Burgos in 1635, died 
in Madrid in 1675. 
Spanish school ; son 
and pupil of Mateo 
Cerezo, a mediocre 
painter ; afterward 
scholar of Carreno 
in Madrid, where he 
painted with consid- 
erable success during 
his short life. Painted chiefly religious 
compositions, choosing tender and agree- 
able subjects, such as Madonnas and Mag- 
dalens, rather than the ordinary sombre 
ones of the Spanish school. His best pict- 
ure, the Supper at Emmaus, is mentioned 
by Palomino as equal to works of Titian and 
Veronese. Works: The Assumption, and 
the Marriage of St. Catherine, Madrid Mu- 

Al Qr 



seum. — Cean Bermudez ; Stirling, iii. 1032; 
Ch. Blanc, ^ficole espagnole ; Madrazo, 386. 

CEEMAK. See Gzermak 

in Eome, Feb. 2, 1602, died there, April 6, 
1660. Eoman school ; son of a jeweller, and 
for three years pupil of a Flemish painter 
in Eome ; then of Pietro Paolo Bonzi, called 
II Gobbo de Erutti, from whom he learned 
to paint fruit and flowers ; but he soon ap- 
plied himself to painting battle-scenes with 
so much skill that he was called Michelan- 
gelo delle Battaglie. Afterward he was sur- 
named "delle Bambocciate," because he imi- 
tated the Dutch painter Pieter van Laar, 
who was called in Eome 11 Bamboccio. Cer- 
quozzi painted with extreme facility, and 
generally without preUminary drawings. 
Among his best works are the Four Sea- 
sons, painted for the Palazzo Salviati, Eome; 

Italian Masquerade, Louvre ; Battle Field, 
Dresden Gallery. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombri- 
enne ; Burkhardt, 768, 804 ; Seguier, 41 ; 
Lanzi, i. 486. 

Lombard school ; flourished about 1550 ; 
pupil of Gaudenzio Ferrari, and master of 
Gio. Paolo Lomazzo. Lanzi speaks of his 
Incredulity of St. Thomas, in S. Lorenzo, 
Milan, as entitling him to high rank in his 
school. — Lanzi, ii. 499 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole 
milanaise ; Lomazzo, Trattato, vi. cap. 37. 
CEEVAEO, GIELS OF (Les CervaroUes), 
Ernest .H26er<, Luxembourg Museum ; canvas, 
H. 9 ft. 5 in. X 5 ft. 9 in. Group of Women of 
theEoman Campagna, life-size. — Salon, 1859. 
Colour study, H. P. Kidder, Boston, Mass. 

CESAEE DA SESTO, born at Sesto about 
1485, died in Milan after 1523. Lombard 
school ; one of the best scholars of Leonar- 
do da Vinci ; afterwards became intimate in 
Eome with Eaphael, a double influence un- 
der which he painted the mannered Adora- 
tion of the Magi, Naples Museum ; and a 
large circular picture in the Vatican Gallery, 
Eome (1523). These pictures are inferior 
to his best and earlier works, the Baptism 
of Christ, Scotti Gallery, Milan ; and the 
Madonna with St. John, Melzi Collection, 
Milan. In this gallery there is also his large 
altarpiece of a later period, the Assumption 
of the Madonna, and in the Brera a ijharm- 
ing Madonna sitting under a laurel tree. — 
Baldinucci, ii. 291; Lanzi, ii. 485 ; Burck- 
hardt, 708 ; Eio, iii. 209 ; Ch. Blanc, ^cole 
milanaise ; Lubke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 447. 

/,, "<^J\, SEPPE, Cavaliere 
d'Arpino, born at 
Arpino in 1568 (or 
1560?), died in 
Eome, July 3, 1640. 
Neapolitan school; 
called sometimes 
Giuseppino (Fr. 
Jos^pin, Little Jo- 
seph), and also II Marino de' Pittori, be- 
cause he was a corrupter in painting as 


Marino was in poetry. Pupil of his father, 
an obscure painter ; went, when about thir- 
teen years old, to Rome, where he was 
employed by several painters engaged in 
decorating the Vatican. His ability in sketch- 
ing attracted the attention of Pope Gregory 
Xin., who took him under his protection. 
Clement VIII. continued his patronage, made 
him superintendent of the decorations in S. 
Giovanni in Laterano, and knighted him. 
He enjoyed a great reputation in his time, 
and was enriched and honoured by the ten 
popes under whom he lived ; but posterity 
has failed to accord him the rank in art 
which he enjoyed when living. The taste 
of the time was for glitter and ostentation, 
and Cesari, who had great facility of execu- 
tion, satisfied the popular expectation with- 
out troubling himself with much study. He 
had a well-attended school at Rome, and 
was at enmity with Caravaggio and Annibale 
Carracci. Among his pupils was his brother 
Bernardino, who assisted him in many of 
his works. Works : Expulsion from Eden, 
Diana and Actseon, Louvre ; Roman Battle, 
Dresden Gallery; Betrayal of Christ,Nymphs 
and Tritons, Cassel Gallery; Perseus and 
Andromeda, Vienna Museum ; Rape of Sa- 
bines, Horatii and Curiatii, Capitol Palace, 
Rome ; Diana, Capitol Museum, ib. ; Annun- 
ciation, Lateran Museum, _ 
ib. ; St. Clara, Hermitage, St. /TV 
Petersburg. The ceiling f res- M/ PTV 
cos in the choir of S. SUvestro *" * * ^^ • 
Monte Cavallo, Rome, are among his better 
works. — Ch. Blanc, £cole napoUtaine ; Lan- 
zi, i. 422 ; Burckhardt, 652, 757. 

CESBRON, ACHTTJiE, born at Oran, Al- 
geria ; contemporary. Flower and fruit 
painter; pupil of Bonnat and Cormon. 
Medal, 3d class, 1884 Works : Fruits and 
Flowers, Vegetables (1879); In the Shade, 
In the Sun (1880); Roses, Poppies (1881); 
Gardener's Daughter, Street Altar (1882); 
In the Packing Room, Blackberry Road 
(1883); Metempsychosis, Peonies (1884); 
Le puits aux roses, Kitchen Garden 

logna in 1556, died there, July 11, 1629. 
Bolognese school ; pupil of Gio. Francesco 
Brizzi, but afterward studied the works of 
Pellegrino Tibaldi. He became a good 
painter, with a manner of his own, marked 
by suavity and elegance, which served Guido 
as a model. He succeeded best in fresco, 
his most noted works being a series of ten 
pictures illustrating the life of JEneas, in 
the Palazzo Favi, Bologna. His paintings 
in oil were only inferior to those of Tibaldi 
and of Annibale Carracci. Among the best 
are the Adoration of the Magi, in S. Do- 
menico. Crucifixion of SS. Paul and Andrew, 
in S. Martino Maggiore, Crucifixion in 
S. Giovanni in Mento, Bologna. — Malvasia, 
i. 239 ; Lanzi, iii. 49 ; Ch. Blanc, ificole bo- 
lonaise ; Gualandi, Guida, 28, 50, 70. 

CESPEDES, PABLO DE, bom at Cor- 
dova in 1538, died 
there, July 26, 
1608. Spanish 
school ; of a noble 
family, educated 
at University of 
Alcala, studied art 
in Rome and be- 
came distin- 
guished there, 
where he was called Paolo de Cordova, not 
only as a painter, sculptor, and architect, 
but also as a poet and scholar. The Pope 
conferred on him a canonry in the Cathe- 
dral of Cordova, and in 1577 he returned to 
Spain to attend to the duties of his office, 
finding time, however, for the pursuit of art 

and literature. 
His most famous 
^ C^ work, the Last 

'■^.^C/g.^^ Supper, is in the 
Cathedral of Cor- 
dova, but much 
faded and injured. — Viardot, Peintres de 
I'Espagne, 119 ; Stirling, i. 321 ; Ch. Blanc, 
^cole espagnole. 

VAN, bom in Amsterdam (?), about 1590, 


died between 1662 and 1664. Dutcli school ; 
probably of German origin, judging from 
his name, Ceulen {i.e., Cologne). First style 
thoroughly Dutch, afterwards mingled with 
Flemish influence, through Van Dyck, with 
whom he painted for eight years at court of 
Charles I. Went to England in 1618, reign 
of James I, and remained until 1648, when 
he settled at Utrecht. Works : Magistrates 
(1647), Hague Museum ; two portraits (1651), 
Dresden Museum ; three (1640, 1655), 
Brunswick Museum ; four portraits, Rotter- 
dam Museum ; one (1660), Lille Museum ; 
Chai-les I., Chatsworth ; Prince Henry, 
Kedleston Hall; Duke of Buckingham, 
Duke of Portland, De Witt and Wife, Luton 
Hall ; Milton, Passmore Edwards, M.P., 
London. — Burger, Musees, ii. 225 ; Kramm, 
iii. 798 ; Eiegel, Beitrage, ii. 229. 

ADEIEN, bom at Charlieu (Loire), in 1815. 
Flower painter, chiefly in water-colour. 
Painted fourteen panels of flowers and fruit 
for the lobby of the Theatre Franyais; 
and decorated a room for the Empress Eu- 
genie. Medals: 3d class, 1845; 2d class, 
1847 ; L. of Honour, 1857 ; professor at 
the GobeUns in 1850. Works : Flowers 
(1842 to 1845); Crown of Flowers around 
the portrait of the Duke of Orleans, Bou- 
quet of Camellias (1846); Springtime (1849); 
Studies of Flowers (1843 to 1852); Virgin 
surrounded by Flowers, Corner of a Vine- 
yard in Autumn (1855); Crown of Flowers, 
Vase of Flowers (1861); Concordia (1878); 
A Eose from my Garden (1879). 

at Bordeaux, died before April 1, 1883. 
Landscape painter. Medal, 3d class, 1879. 
Works : Pic de Clarabide, Heights of La Val- 
liere (1878) ; In the Landes of Gascogne, 
Coast of Saintonge (1879); Isolated Rock at 
VaUifere, In the Month of August (1880); In 
the old Forest of Buch (1881); Euins of 
Thebes (1882); The NUe at Erment, Plains 
of Thebes (1883). 

DE, bom at Chezy (Alher), July 13, 1813. 

French school ; landscape painter, pupil of 
Ingres, Hersent, and Marilhat. Has never 
been a popular painter, and has not exhib- 
ited in the Salon since 1857. Has travelled 
in Italy, the East, and Spain, taking his 
subjects from those countries. Medals : 3d 
class, 1838 ; 2d class, 1844 and 1848. Works: 
Prisoner of ChUlon (1835); Porta Nuova in 
Palermo ; St. Eosahe's Day, Gorges of 
Amalfi (1838); Turkish Bazaar in Cairo, 
Arab Camp at Suez, Irregular Cavalry of 
Ibrahim Pasha, VaUey of Jehoshaphat (1841); 
Factory in the Island of Procida (1842); 
Hourbarych Street in Cairo, Arabian Foun- 
tain, Souvenir of the Villa Borghese (1844); 
Departure of a Caravan, Plane-Trees of Hip- 
pocrates, Syrian Town (1846) ; Turkish 
Family Travelling, Caravan Halting, Arab 
Camp in the Desert, Courtyard in Granada 
(1848); Mosque in Jerusalem (1849); Muez- 
zin's House in Gaza, Shepherds of the 
Eoman Campagna returning from the Fields 
(1852); Arabs at a Cistern (1855) ; Carthu- 
sian Convent in Syracuse, Souvenir of the 
Tiber, BuU-Fight in Valencia (1857).— La- 

CHALDEAN SAGES, Giorgione, Vienna 
Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 5^ in. 
Three astronomers, in Eastern costume, in 
the shadow of a glade. Two of them, an 
old man and one of middle age, stand en- 
gaged in conversation in foreground ; the 
third, seated, examines the heavens and 
places a compass on an angle, as if to meas- 
ure it. Said to have been finished after 
Giorgione's death (1511) by Sebastian del 
Piombo, but there are no signs of it. In 
collection of Taddeo Contarini in 1535. — 0. 
& C, N. Italy, ii. 135. 

Geneva, Switzerland, Feb. 15, 1781, died in 
London, Oct. 3, 1860. Reverses of French 
Eevolution drove family to England in 1789 ; 
Alfred entered, in 1797, schools of Royal 
Academy, became an A.E.A. in 1812, and 
E.A. in 1816. Was for many years the 
fashionable portrait painter in water-colours, 
was the first to paint Queen Victoria, and 



was appointed portrait painter in water-col- 
ours to her Majesty. He also painted fine 
subject-pieces in oil, and had such imitative 
ability that some of his works have been 
attributed to Watteau and Rubens. Works : 
Hunt the Slipper (1831) ; Morning Walk, 
Samson and Delilah (1837) ; Serena (1847); 
John Knox reproving Ladies of Queen 
Mary's Court (1844) ; Seasons (1851) ; So- 
phia Western (1857). — Eedgrave ; Art Jour- 
nal (1862), 9; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole anglaise ; Sandby, i. 

JAMES, bom in Geneva, 
March 27, 1778, died in 
London, Nov. 14, 1854. El- 
der brother of Alfred Ed- 
ward ; student at Eoyal 
Academy in 1796 ; became 
A.R.A. in 1827, and E.A. in 
1841. First exhibited works 
in oil, chiefly landscapes 
and genre subjects, but af- 
terward took also a distin- 
guished position as a water- 
colour painter. Works : 
Napoleon on Board the Bel- 
lerophon, Greenwich Hos- 
pital ; View of Hastings, S. 
Kensington Museum. —Eedgrave ; Ch. 
Blanc, ;ficole anglaise ; Sandby, ii. 167. 
CHAMPAIGNE, (Champagne), PHI- 
LIPPE DE, bom 
in Brussels, May 
26, 1602, died in 
Paris, Aug. 12, 1674. 
Flemish school; his- 
tory and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Bouillon, Michel 
Bordeaux, two ob- 
scure artists, and of 
Fouqui5res. Went 
to Paris in 1621, and worked under Du 
Chesne on the decorations for the Luxem- 
bourg. Eeturned to Brussels in 1627, but 
was recalled to Paris after death of Du 

Chesne (1628), whose daughter he married. 
Painted many pictures for churches and 
palaces. He was received in 1648 into first 
Academy of Painting as professor, and after- 
wards made director. Works : Christ in 
House of Simon, Last Supper, two scenes 
from legend of SS. Gervasius and Protasius, 
portraits of Louis XHI., of Eobert Arnaud 
d'Andilly, of Cardinal Eichelieu, of the archi- 
tects Mansard and Perrault, of himself, and 

Chaldean Sages, Giorgione, Vienna Museum. 

others. Louvre; Finding of EeHcs of St. Ger- 
vasius, Lyons Museum ; ten scenes from le- 
gend of St. Benedict, and others, Brussels 
Museum ; portrait, Hague Museum ; do., 
Rotterdam Museum; Adam and Eve lament- 
ing Abel, Vienna Museum ; Moses with Ta- 
bles of the Law, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
three portraits of Richelieu on one canvas, 

JhiCat Ohcc/iqpcuQ/xe 

National Gallery, London. His nephew, 
Jean Baptiste Champaigne (1645-1693), who 


followed his manner, was also a professor in 
the Paris Academy.— Biog. nat. de Belgique, 
iii. 413 ; Ch. Blanc, Scole francaise ; Im- 
merzeel, i. 134 ; Kramm, i. 228 ; Michiels, 
ix. 279, 330. 

CHAMPIGNY, fidouard Detaille, Henry- 
Hilton, New York. Scene, the kitchen 
garden of a suburban mansion near Paris. 
Gen. Faron, having retaken Champigny, a 
village above the Marne, fortified the hamlet 
and defended, foot by foot, the houses and 
enclosed gardens, Dec. 2, 1870, against the 
return attack of the Saxony and WUrtem- 
burg Divisions. Photogravure in Art Treas- 
ures of America, ii. 51. 

Sceaux (Seine), Sept. 8, 1796, died in Paris, 
March 10, 1860. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Storelli and Regnier ; an excellent water- 
colour painter, and a skilful engraver. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1824 ; 1st class, 1831. Works : 
Coast of Provence from above Nice (1831); 
Souvenirs of the Lignon (1869). — Larousse. 
Boston, Mass., July 16, 1843. Genre painter; 
pupil of Edouard Fr^re at ficouen, France, 
and of the Antwerp Academy in 1867-68. 
Sketched at different times in England and 
on the Continent, Africa, Nova Scotia, South 
America, and in the Southern United States. 
Lecturer on anatomy in the schools of the 
National Academy, New York. Elected an 
AN.A. in 1882. Studios in New York and 
Deerfield. Works : Which is Umpire ? (1871) ; 
Sere Leaf (1874) ; Not so Ugly as he Looks 
(1875) ; Your Good Health, Speak, Sir (1876); 
Where the Two Paths Meet (1880) ; Indian 
Summer (1881) ; Bonny Kilmeny, Boarding- 
school Green-Eoom (1882); Pamela, Hide 
and Seek, Autumn Eeverie, Eunice (1884); 
He loves Me (1885); Water-colours : On the 
Heights, Measuring the Great Elm (1884). 

CHAPEAU DE PAILLE (i. e. Poil— The 
Beaver Hat), Rubens, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; wood, H. 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 9 in. Por- 
trait of a young lady (Mdlle. Lunden?), 
half-length, life-size, dressed in a black vel- 
vet bodice with crimson sleeves, and wearing 

a black Spanish beaver hat with black and 
white feathers, holding her hands crossed 
before her. The hat casts a shadow over the 
upper part of the face, giving the painter 
an opportunity of showing his skill in treat- 
ing transparent shadow. From this it was 
formerly called in Belgium Het Spaansch 
Hoedje (The Spanish Hat). It was in Eu- 

Chapeau de Paille, Rubens, National Gallery, London. 

bens's possession until his death (1640) ; at 
death of his widow passed to family of Lun- 
den, from whom bought (1817) by Baron 
Stiers d'Aertselaer for 50,000 florins ; sold 
at his death (1822) for 32,700 florins, and 
taken to England, where it was purchased 
for £3,500 by Sir Eobert Peel, from whose 
Collection it passed in 1871 to National Gal- 
lery. Engraved by Tayler ; Eeynolds. — 
Smith, ii. 32, 228 ; Kett, 110; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, i. 398. 

at Les Andelys (Eure), June 6, 1825. Fig- 
ure and portrait painter ; pupil of the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts, and employed in 1860 in 
decorating the Tuileries, afterwards the 
rooms of the Empress in the ;filys6e, the 
Hotel Musard, and other public and private 


J.l3. :iiirx.iL.o::i [JIIATil)TT:f 


buildings. He is successful as a teacher,and 
has many pupils. Medals : 3d class, 1851 ; 
2d class, 1852 and 1865 ; L. of Honour, 
1865 ; Officer, 1877. Studio in Paris. Works: 
St. Sebastian (1847) ; Street in Village of 
Lower Auvergne, Woman of Auvergne (1848); 
Evening on the Moors, Bordeaux Museum ; 
Mountaineers of Puy de Dome (1849); Mule- 
teer of Lozere (1851) ; Morning (1855) ; 
First Eoses (1857) ; Aurora, Astronomy, 
Poetry, Diana (1859); Soap-Bubbles, Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Turtles (1864) ; A Dream 
(panel in Prince Demidoff's Palace); Parro- 
quets. Poetry (1867) ; First Ties (1869) ; 
Child, Girl holding a Tray (1870) ; Haydee 
(1873), Miss C. L. Wolfe, New York ; May 
Eose, Broken Lyre (1875) ; Happy Hours 
(1876) ; Sweetheart's Portrait, Love's Mes- 
senger, portrait of Due d'Audiffret-Pasquier 
(1877); Devotion, W. T. Walters, Baltimore; 

Lti- Unnmin 


Prayer, Samuel Hawk Collection, New York; 
Souvenirs (1882). — Larousse, iii. 967; Vape- 
reau (1880), 399. 

Alexandria, Va., in 1808. Subject and land- 
scape painter ; studied in Italy. Is a suc- 
cessful etcher and wood-engraver, and has 
illustrated many books. Elected N.A. in 
1836. Studio in Eome since 1848. Works: 
Etruscan Girl ; Last Arrow ; Baptism of 
Pocahantas (Capitol at Washington) ; Sun- 
set on the Campagna ; Vintage Scene ; 
Stone Pines in the Barberini VaUey ; VaUey 
of Mexico. 

born in Paris, Nov. 2, 1699, died there, 
Dec. 6, 1779. French school ; Genre, in- 
teriors, and still-life painter ; pupil of Cazes, 
and of Noel Nicolas Coypel, who employed 
him to paint accessories and led him to 
adopt the style in which he was destined to 
excel. First attracted attention by a bar- 
ber's sign, then in 1728 by La Eaie (Louvre); 

admitted to Academy in 1728 ; treasurer in 
1755. Long painted still-life, in which he has 
never been excelled. /ru2^- 

In 1787 began to 
paint pictures with 
figures of children. 
Similar domestic 
scenes exhibited in 
1789-40 and 41 es- 
tabhshed his repu- 
tation as the painter 
of middle-class life. 
But one of his oil 
portraits (1773) is known. In the latter 
part of his life Chardin painted in pastel, of 
which the portraits of himself and his wife 
in the Louvre are examples. Works : 
Kitchen Interior (1728), La Eaie, Fruits 
and Animals (1728), Kitchen Utensils, 1731, 
do. (1731), The Industrious Mother (1740), 
The Blessing (1740), Dead Eabbit (1757), 
The Monkey Antiquarian, Art Attributes 
(1765), Louvre ; The Blessing, The Washer- 
woman, Boy's Portrait, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; two Pictures of still-life, Mu- 


'71%. JcHAHDlM 

seum of Fine Arts, Boston. — Ch. Blanc, 
!]Scole frangaise ; Dohme, 3 ; Goncourt, i. 
75 ; Wedmore, Masters of Genre Painting, 
196 ; Wurzbach, Maler des XVHI. Jahr- 
hund., 33 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Portfolio 
(1872), 50. 

EIAL GUAED, Adolphe Schreyer, formerly 
in Luxembourg Museum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 
9 in. X 14 ft. 3 in. Battle of Traktir in the 
Crimea, Aug. 16, 1855. Artillery going to 
the Front.— Salon, 1865. 

CHAEEPHANES, painter. See Nico- 

CHAEIOT A FOm (Hay Cart), Philips 
Wbuverman, Hague Museum; wood, H. 1 ft. 
8 in. X 1 ft, 6 in. A landscape with water and 



boats which men are loading with hay ; on 
the bank, a loaded hay-cart drawn by two 
horses, another by one horse, a man on 
horseback with a peasant woman behind, 
and other figures. Engraved by Dupreel, 
Bovinet. Taken to Paris, but restored in 
1815.— Musee francais ; Filhol, ii. PI. 99 ; 
Smith, i. 323. 

CHAEIOT RA.CE, J. L. Gerome. See 
Circus Maximus. 

CHAEIOT EACE, Alexander Wagner, 
George Kirchner & Co., New York ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft. 6 in. X 12 ft. 6 in. Eace of four- 
horse chariots, driven by Christian slaves, 
in the Circus Maximus, Eome, in time of 
Domitian, a.d. 81, the prize being life and 
freedom. Scene — the end of the race ; the 
winner, the driver of the grays, is about to 
pass the line when he hears the bays com- 
ing up behind at his left, and is for a mo- 
ment startled lest the victory be snatched 
from his grasp. Painted in 1876, by order 
of Messrs. Kirchner & Co., for Philadelphia 
Exposition, where it was awarded a medal. 
Original sketch (1873), medal at Vienna, 
now owned in London. 

CHAEITY, William Adolphe Bougwreau, 
J. W. Drexel, New York ; canvas, H. 9 ft. x 
5 ft. Female figure, draped, seated on a 
marble bench, with architectural back- 
ground, with left foot resting upon an over- 
turned jar, from which coins are escaping ; 
she holds three infants in her arms, and 
two others nestle at her feet. Salon, 1874 ; 
Eeplica, landscape background, Samuel 
Hawk Collection, New York ; Study, Henry 
Hilton, New York. Photogravure in Art 
Treas. of Amer. ii. 30 ; iii. 17. 

By Domenichino, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. X 6 ft. 5 in. Female figure, with 
children. Purchased in 1845 for 600 thal- 
ers from heirs of Inspector Matthei. 

By Guido Eeni, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
canvas, oval, H. 3 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 8 in. A 
woman, half-length, and three children, one 
of which she supports with her right arm 
while nursing a second ; the third takes 
hold of her robe. In Guido's first manner. 

Engraved by I. S. Klauber ; A. Dalco. — 
Wicar, i. Part 9 ; Gal. du Pal. Pitti, ii. PI. 

By WUhelm von Kaulbach, Henry Pro- 
basco, Cincinnati. Originally called Mut- 
terliebe (mother-love). Female figure, seat- 
ed, with several children. Replica, in 
small, Henry C. Gibson, Philadelphia ; 
crayon study, J. P. Morgan, New York ; do., 
E. D. Morgan Collection, New York. Pho- 
togravure in Art Treasures of America, i. 68 ; 
iii. 7. 

By Rubens, Potsdam Gallery (?) ; copper, 
H. 2 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. A beautiful woman 
bending down to caress three infants. En- 
graved by Galle ; Surugue. — Smith, ii. 110. 

By Andrea del Sarto, Louvre ; wood, trans- 

Charity, Andrea del Sarto, Louvre. 

ferred to canvas, H. 5 ft. 11 in. x 4 ft. 6 in. ; 
signed, dated 1518. A woman with three 
children, one at her feet asleep and two in her 
lap, to one of which she is giving the breast. 
Painted in France for Francis I. Copy in 
Nantes Museum. Engraved by P. Audouin ; 
Massard ; Salmon. — Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 30 ; 



C. & C, Italy, iii. 563 ; ViUot, Louvre ; Ch. 
Blanc, jScole florentine ; Pilhol, viii. PI. 505 ; 
Klass. der Malerei, i. PL 30 ; Landon, Musee, 
X. PI. 42 ; Dohme, 2m. 2 ; Mundler, Essai, 
25 ; Musee royal, i. 

By Anton Van Dyck, Earl of Lonsdale, 
Lowther Castle ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 
9 in. A beautiful woman, in a white robe 
and blue scarf, with a scarlet mantle over 
her knees, sitting with a naked infant in her 
lap ; a second child standing at her right, 
and a third behind her. Copies : Dulwich 
GaUery; Hope Collection ; P. Methuen. En- 
graved by C. Caukercken ; W. Eyland. 
Lithographed by Lafosse. — Smith, iii. 118 ; 
Guiffrey ; Waagen, Treasures, iii. 261. 

CHARLATAN, Gerard Dou, Munich Gal- 
lery; wood, H. 3 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. 7 in.; signed, 
dated 1652. A quack doctor, on a stage 
covered with a Turkish carpet and roofed 
with a large umbrella, holding forth on the 
virtues of his drugs to a numerous assem- 
blage of people. One of his most famous 
pictures. Formerly in Dusseldorf Gallery. 
Injured by injudicious cleaning and restor- 
ing. Engraved by "Wille ; C. Hess. — Smith, 
i. 37; Ch. Blanc, jfecole hollandaise. 

in Paris; contemporary. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Rapin. Medal, 3d class, 1885. 
Works: L'Uveaune near Marseilles (1883); 
November (1884) ; The Last Leaves, Road 
of La Souris (1885). 

Raphael, Stanza dell' Incendio del Borgo, 
Vatican ; fresco. H. 15 ft. 11 in. x 21 ft. 4 
in. Leo IH. (portrait of Leo X.), seated in 
foreground, about to place the crown on the 
head of the kneehng emperor (portrait of 
Francis 1), beside whom stands a page (Ip- 
polito de' Medici); on each side, cardinals 
with their trainbearers ; in background, the 
warrior wearing a helmet encircled by a 
crown is supposed to be Pepin, who was 
anointed at same time as his father. Typical 
of the dogma that the temporal power is 
subject to the spiritual. Painted in 1517, 
probably by pupUs from designs of Raphael. 

Engraved by Fr. Aquila, Aloysio Fabri, and 
Landon. — Vasari, ed. MU., iv. 361; Passavant, 
ii. 157; Milntz, 427. 

Ary Scheffer, Versailles Museum ; canvas. 
Wittikind, the heathen King of the Saxons, 
after his defeat in two great battles, surren- 
dered to Charlemagne at Attigny-sur-Seine 
in A.D. 785 and was baptized. Charlemagne, 
mounted, at right, accompanied by soldiers 
and ecclesiastics, receives the submission of 
Wittikind, who, with his family and other 
followers, kneels before him. Subject treated 
also by WUhelm Kaulbach, Maximilianeum, 

Znaim, Moravia, in 1848. Genre and por- 
trait painter ; pupil of the Vienna Academy 
under Engerth, then of Makart, who enabled 
him to visit Italy ; remained some time in 
Venice, and travelled in Germany and 
France ; has recently settled in Paris. 
Works: The Antiquaries (1872); Two Boys 
in Rubens's Costume, Two Scenes from 
Snowdrop, Four Divisions of the Day, Four 
Seasons, Five Continents, Lansquenet (1878). 
— MiiUer, 101 ; N. illustr. Zeitg., (1878), ii. 
602 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xiii. 352. 

CHARLEMONT, HUGO, born at Znaim, 
Moravia, in 1850. Landscape painter ; 
brother of fiduard, pupil of the Vienna 
Academy under Lichtenfels, then under his 
brother and Makart; travelled in 1874 in 
HoUand. Works : Interior of Makart's Stu- 
dio, Still-life with Peacocks.— MuUer, 101; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, x. 384 ; xiii. 353. 

CHARLES I., portrait, Anton van Dych, 
National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 12 ft. 
6 in. X 9 ft. 6 in. Charles I., of England, in 
armour, on a roan charger, attended by his 
equerry, Sii* Thomas Morton, on foot, bearing 
helmet ; in background, a cavalry combat. 
Formerly in Collection of Charles I. ; pur- 
chased in Munich by John, Duke of Marl- 
borough, and long in Blenheim Palace. Sold 
to National GaUery in 1884 for £17,500. 
Copies : Duke of Portland, Earl of Claren- 
don ; study at Buckingham Palace. En- 



graved by Lombart, wbose plate was after- 
ward altered, the head of Cromwell being 
substituted for that of the king.— Waagen, 
Treasures, ii. 3; iii. 129; Smith, iii. 77; 

By Anton van Dyck, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 9 ft. X 6 ft. 11 in.; signed. Full 
length, standing under a tree, head turned 

Charles I., Anton van Dyck, Louvre, Paris, 

three quarters to left, dressed in white satin, 
jacket, scarlet hose, buff boots, broad lace 
frUl, and hat with feathers, and wearing 
sword and spurs, with cane in right hand 
and left hand on hip ; appears to have just 
dismounted from a noble charger behind 
him, held by his equerry, the Marquis of 
Hamilton ; in background, a page carrying 
his cloak. Painted about 1635. Purchased 
at Marquis de Lassay sale (1770) for 24,000 
fr. for Mme. du Barri, who presented it to 
Louis XV. Valued at 100,000 fr. in 1816. 
Engraved by R Strange; Bonnefoy ; Duparc ; 
Panquet ; D. J. Desvachez (1880). Etched 
by Boulard.— Smith, iii. 39 ; Ch. Blanc, iScole 
flamande ; Filhol, i. PL 5 ; Klas. der Malerei, 

PI. xvii.; Guiffrey, 180 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; 
Head, 62. 

By Anton van Dyck, Windsor Castle ; can- 
vas, H. about 10 ft. 6 in. X 8 ft. In armour, 
his head uncovered, mounted on a gray 
charger advancing from under a lofty arch- 
way ; by his side, on foot, his equerry, M. 
St. Antoine, bearing his helmet. Collection 
of Charles I. ; at sale of his effects (1651) 
bought for £200 by Van Leemput, a Dutch 
artist, from whom recovered at Restoration. 
'Copies : Hampton Court ; Apsley House ; 
Warwick Castle ; Lamport Hall, Northamp- 
tonshire ; Lady Warren. Engraved by Bar- 
on (1741); C. Perreri ; Ch. Pye.— Smith, iii. 
57 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 429 ; Guiffrey ; 
Law, Hist. Cat. Hampton Court, 28. 

van Dych, Turin Gallery ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 1 
in. X 6 ft. 7 in. Prince Charles, about five 
years old, standing at right, ia a scarlet 
frock embroidered with silver lace, his right 
hand on head of a brown spaniel ; on his 
left. Princess Mary, in a white satin dress ; 
and on her left, James, Duke of York, in a 
blue silk frock, with an apple in his hand ; 
background, a green curtain and part of a 
landscape. Engraved by G. Thevenin (1863) ; 
etched by Gaujean. Duplicate : Earl of 
Pembroke, Wilton. — Gal. di Torino, iv. PI. 
160 ; Smith, iii. 53 ; Guiffrey, 60 ; Head, 55. 

By Anton van Dj/cfc, Windsor Castle ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. 9 in. X 7 ft. 3 in. ; signed, dated 
1637. Prince Charles, aged seven years, 
standing, with his left hand on the head of 
a large dog ; on his right, the Princess 
Elizabeth and Mary ; and on his left, the 
Princess Anne holding James, Dulje of 
York, on a chair, at the foot of which lies a 
spaniel. Engraved by Baron ; Strange ; 
R. Cooper (1762); H. Bourne ; H. Coussin. 
Etched by Gaujean. Copy in Berlin Mu- 
seum, lithographed by Fr. Jentzen. — Guif- 
frey, 172 ; Smith, iii. 60 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, ii. 428. 

By Anton van Dyck, Windsor Castle ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 4 in. x 5 ft.; dated 1638. 
Prince Charles, about nine years old, stand- 



ing at left, leans left arm on base of a col- 
umn and holds in right the hand of his 
brother James, Duke of York, the latter in 
petticoats ; at right. Princess Mary, with 
her hands crossed at waist ; in fore- 
ground, left and right, two spaniels. En- 
graved by E. Strange ; J. Burnet ; Le 
Blonde; PurceU. Etched by N. Muxell. 
Copy in Dresden Gallery, lithographed by 
Hanfstaengl (1840) ; another, Earl of Clar- 
endon. Sketch, with but one dog, Louvre. 
— Smith, iii. 61 ; Klas. der Malerei, PI. 
xviii. ; Gal. roy. de Dresde; 
Guiffrey ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, ii. 429, 457; Villot, 
Cat. Louvre. 

FAMILY, Anton van Dyck, 
Windsor Castle ; canvas, H. 
8 ft. X 11 ft. The king, in 
royal robes, seated in an 
arm-chair, with his right 
hand on a table on which 
are the regaha of England; 
beside him, Prince Charles, 
standing, with both his 
hands on his knee ; on his 
left, Queen Henrietta Ma- 
ria, seated, with infant 
James in her arms ; in dis- 
tance, the Tower of Lon- 
don. Engraved by Baron 
(1741) ; R Strange ; Mas- 
sard ; F. A. David ; Dennel. Copies : Duke 
of Richmond ; Duke of Devonshire. — Smith, 
iii. 66 ; Guiffrey ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 426. 

SOLDIERS, Paul Delaroche, Bridgewater 
House, London. Charles I. after his con- 
demnation insulted by the soldiers of the 
guard. The resignation of the fallen mon- 
arch contrasts strongly with the rudeness of 
his persecutors, and moves one old soldier 
to tears. Salon, 1836. Engraved by Marti- 
net. — Waagen, Treasures, ii. 54; Larousse, 

in. 1014. 

CHARLES v., portrait, Anton Van Dyck, 
Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 

The Emperor in armour, with a red scarf 
over the left shoulder, mounted on a white 
charger ; his right hand holds a baton, the 
left curbs his spirited steed, whose career 
is arrested by the waves of the sea; the 
wreck of a vessel is tossed on the billows ; 
above, an eagle, with a wreath of laurel. 
Likeness borrowed from Titian's picture. 
One of his best works. Engraved by Gut- 
tenberg (1790) ; C. MogaUi ; Earlom ; Chios- 
sone. — Smith, iii. 47 ; Guiffrey. 

By Titian, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 

Children of Charles I., Anton van Dyck, Windsor Castle. 

6 ft. 4 in. X 3 ft. 8 in. Full length, in gala 
dress ; the right hand playing with a dagger, 
the left on a fawn-coloured Spanish hound. 
Painted in 1583. Titian received for it 
1,000 scudi in gold, and was created by the 
Emperor a Count Palatine and Knight of 
the Golden Spur. Replica in 1536 for Duke 
of Mantua ; another belonged to Charles I. 
of England, and was sold in 1650 to Sir 
Balthasar Gerbier for £150. Titian's first 
sketch of Charles, a bust in armour, was pre- 
served in Bologna until 1856, when it was 
sold to an Englishman. A full-length, paint- 
ed from this, was in the Royal Palace at 
Brussels, and another in that of Madrid, 


where it was burned In 1608. A full-length 
of the Emperor, with an Irish Dog, engraved 
in Madrazo's Gallery of Madrid, and now at 
Hampton Court Palace, once hung in the so- 
called Bear Gallery at Whitehall.— Vasari, 
ed. Mil., vii. 449 ; C. & C, Titian, i. 366. 

By Titian, Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 6 
ft. 4 in. X 3 ft. 9 in.; signed. The Emperor, 
full length, in black and a fur pelisse, seated 

Charles V., Titian, Munich Gallery. 

in an arm-chair in an open gallery. Painted 
at Augsburg in 1548 ; much re-painted. — C. 
& C, Titian, ii. 179. 

CHARLES v., ENTRY OF, Hans Makart, 
Hamburg Gallery ; canvas. Entry of Charles 
V. into Antwerp, in 1520, after his corona- 
tion, as described by Albrecht Dflrer in his 
diary. The Emperor, in armour, with the 
collar of the Golden Fleece across his 
breastplate, and tiding an armour-clad 
horse, is the central figure of a magnificent 
procession of nobles, knights, and prelates, 
preceded by a body of lansquenets, which is 
passing through a narrow street of pictur- 
esque houses, adorned with banners, tapes- 

tries, and flowers, and with balconies and 
windows filled with ladies ; in the fore- 
ground, near the Emperor, several ladies, 
nearly nude or thinly draped, march on 
foot, bearing imperial symbols; at left, 
groups of spectators, men, women, and 
children, with Albrecht Diirer standing be- 
hind them. Painted in 1875-78 ; Universal 
Exposition, Paris, 1878. — Pictorial World 
(1880), 198 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1878), xviii. 

Becker, National Gallery, BerHn ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 11 in. X 5 ft; signed, dated 1866. 
Charles V., just returned from Africa (1532), 
where he had overcome Barbarossa and re- 
stored to liberty many captive Christians, 
visited at Augsburg the banker Fugger, 
who entertained him by burning his bonds 
in a fire of cinnamon and other spices, as a 
thank-offering for destroying pirates and 
making business safer. Engraved by Zim- 
mermann. Eeplica (5 ft. x 7 ft.), John Wolfe, 
New York. — Art Treasures of America, i. 62. 

Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 10 ft. 11 in. x 
9 ft. 1 in. The Emperor, in full armour, 
with spear in hand, is cantering on a brown 
charger towards the Elbe, which runs to the 
right ; tall forest trees to left. Painted at 
Augsburg in 1548 ; once a masterpiece, but 
much damaged by fire in Palace of Pardo, 
Madrid, in 1608.— C. & C, Titian, ii. 178 ; 
Revue Universelle des Arts, iii. 139 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., vii. 440. 

CHARLES XV., King of Sweden, born 
in Stockholm, May 8, 1826, died there, 
Sept. 18, 1872. Landscape painter ; pupil 
of Boklund, and later influenced by Ed. 
Bergh and Ali Wahlberg ; painted Scandi- 
navian views, in which Malmstrijm and 
Winge sometimes supplied the figui-es. He 
X^romoted the development of art in Sweden, 
and founded the Stockholm Museum. 
Works: Wood Interior (1869); On the 
Brook ; Ulriksdal Castle ; Stone of Freya on 
Sognefjord ; St. Sigfrid and the Smalanders ; 
View in Hardanger. 


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Imp L':mcrcier (V C'^ran: 

dapjtjs un biiste ilcAr F,lex 


CHAELET, FEANZ, bom at Brussels ; 
contemporary. Genre painter, pupil of 
G6r6me, J. Lefebvre, and Portaels. Medal, 

Charles V. at Muhlberg, Titian, Madrid Museum. 

3d class, 1885. Works: Winter Morning 
(1882) ; Mowers (1883) ; Passing Funeral, 
Preparations for Market (1884) ; The Spin- 
ners — Morocco (1885). 

born in Paris, Oct. 20, 
1792, died there, Oct. 
29, 1845. French 
school ; genre and bat- 
tle painter, pupU of 
Gros. Supported him- 
self, ■while with Gros, 
by giving lessons in 
drawing. Was inti- 
mate with Gericault, 
with whom he visited England in 1836. His 
lithographs number nearly 2,000. Works : 
The Cure's Visit ; The Antiquary ; Grand- 
papa's Feast ; Burlesque Concert ; The Im- 
provisatore ; Episode in Eussian Campaign 
(1836), Lyons Museum ; Crossing the Ehine 
at Kehl (1837), Versailles Museum ; Convoy 
of Wounded Soldiers, Valenciennes Museum. 

— Ch. Blanc, :ficole fran9aise ; L'Art (1875), 
i. 193, 217; M. de la Combe, Charlet, savie, 
etc. (Paris, 1856); Meyer, Gesch., 469; La. 
rousse, iii. 1021. 

CHAEMADAS, Greek painter, date un- 
known ; one of earliest workers in mono- 
chrome. Pliny, XXXV. 34 [55]; Brunn, ii. 4. 

CHAEMANTIDES (Carmanides), painter, 
third class ; pupil of Euphranor, Theban- 
Attic school, 370-336 b. c. Pliny, xxxv. 40 
[146] ; Brunn, ii. 164. 

CHAENAY, AEMAND, born at Charlieu, 
Paris ; contemporary. Landscape painter, 
pupU of Feyen-Perrin and Pils. Studio at 
Marlotte (Seine-et-Marne). Medal, 3d class, 
1876. Works : Abandoned Lime Kiln 
(1868); AU Souls' Day, Beach at Yport, 
Arrival of Fishing Boats at Yport, Hour for 
Eiding, Back Yard of Castle of Gastellier 
near Charlieu (1874); Casting the Net (1876); 
Butcher's Shop, October (1879); At the End 
of the Park (1880) ; Autumn Eain (1881) ; 
Street in Carcenague, Market (1882) ; Fish- 
ing Party (1883); Evening (1885). 

in Paris, June 1, 1811. Military and genre 
painter, pupil of Gerard and Cogniet ; was 
for twenty-six years professor of designing 
at Versailles. Medals : 3d class, 1841 and 
1857. Works : Bivouac of Cuirassiers (1831); 
Hunters asking the Way (1837); Break of a 
Dutch Dyke (1839); Defence of Aubervil- 
liers-les-Vertus (1841) ; Eobert le Diable 
(1842) ; Capture of the Great Eedoubt at 
Moskowa and Death of Caulaincourt (1843); 
Halt of French Army on Great St. Bernard 
(1844) ; Duke of Orleans in the Trenches 
(1845), Versailles GaUery ; Sedaine compos- 
ing an Opera, Beaumarchais teaching the 
Daughters of Louis XV. (1848); Field Guns 
(1851) ; Pupils of the ficole Poly technique 
in the Battle of Paris, March 30, 1814 (Bou- 
logne-sur-Mer); Battle of Tchernaia (1857), 
Versailles Museum ; Camp of Chalons (St. 
Cloud); Imperial Guard at Magenta (1861); 
Capture of Bomarsund (1863); Death of the 
Vendeean General Bonchamps (1834); Siege 
of Toulon, A Soldier's Alms (1866); The 



Ford, Sharpshooters (1868); On the Koad to 
Valmy, Target of Saint-Chaumont (1869); A 
Courier.Light Artillery (1874); Forge (1875); 
Convoy, Autumn Manoeuvres (1876); A Bat- 
tery (1877); Eetreat from Inkermann, Winter 
Campaign (1878) ; Draught Horses, The 
Wounded (1880); The General Staff (1881); 
Forward! The Forge (1882); Washington's 
Tent, French Cavah-y in 1670 (1883); Wel- 
lington in Spain (1884); Hollow Way, Lime 
Kihi (1885). 

sangon; contemporary. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Cabanel. Won the 
grand prix de Rome in 1877. Medals : 3d 
class, 1877; 2d class, 1881. Works : Angel- 
ica and Eoger (1875) ; Girl of Argos at 
Tomb of Agamemnon, Gentleman of Court 
of Henry H. (1876); St. Satumin (Church 
of Champigny-sur-Marne) ; Martyr in Cata- 
combs at Eome (1877) ; Woman Playing 
Lute (1880) ; The Taper (1881) ; Vision of 
St. Francis of Assisi (1888) ; The Betrothal 

CHASE, HARRY, born in Woodstock, Vt., 
in 1853. Landscape and marine painter, 
studied in Munich, at The Hague, and in 
Paris under Soyer. Elected an A.N.A. in 
1883. Studio in New York. Works : Breezy 
Afternoon off the Battery— New York, T. 
B. Clarke, New York ; P^cheurs Anglais, 
Kullen Point — Sweden, Low Tide — Welsh 
Coast (1878); Herring Fishers of Scheven- 
ingen — Holland (1880) ; Outward Bound 
Whaler, Dutch Boats at Anchor, Dutch 
Trawlers (1881); Bringing the Fish Ashore, 
Departure of a French Brig (1882) ; Coast 
of Holland, Dredging for Scallops near New 
Bedford, Summer Morning — French Coast 
(1883); Near Dordrecht, Battery Park— New 
York (1884); Rising Tide on Dutch Coast, 
New York Harbour (1885). 

Franklin, Indiana, Nov. 1, 1849. Still-Ufe 
and portrait painter ; pupil of B. F. Hayes, 
portrait painter in Indianapolis, of the Na- 
tional Academy, and of J. O. Eaton, New 
York. Studied six years from 1872 at the 

Munich Academy under Wagner and Piloty, 
and painted one year in Venice. Honour- 
able mention 
in Salon, 1882. 
Studio in New 
York. Works: 
Portraits of 
Piloty's Chil- 
dren ; Vene- 
tian Fish Mar- 
ket ; Dowager 
(1875) ; Boy 
Fe e d i ng a 
Broken Jug (1877) ; Ready for a Ride, The 
Apprentice (1878) ; Interior of St. Mark's— 
Venice, Court Jester, Portrait of Duveneck 
(1879) ; do. of Gen. Webb (1880) ; do. of 
Peter Cooper (Paris Salon, 1882) ; Interior 
of Artist's Studio (1883) ; The Coquette 
(1884).— Am. Art Rev. (1881), 91, 135. 

Panama, Sept. 20, 1819, died in Paris, Oct. 
8, 1856. History and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Ingres, but later an imitator of Dela- 
roche. Medals : 3d class, 1836 ; 2d class, 
1844 and 1855 ; L. of Honour, 1849. Works: 
Return of Prodigal Son (1836) ; Ruth and 
Boaz (1837); Susanna, Venus Anadyomene 
(1839); Christ in Garden of Olives (1840); 
Andromeda (1841) ; Descent from Cross, 
Esther preparing to meet Ahasuerus, Cap- 
tive Trojan Women (1842); Caliph of Con- 
stantine (1845) ; Sabbath in Jewish Quarter 
of Constantino (1848) ; Arab Horsemen 
carrying off their Dead, Desdemona, Moor- 
ish Women playing with a Gazelle (1850); 
Baptism of the Eunuch, St. Francis Xavier 
baptizing the Indians and the Japanese, mu- 
ral paintings in a chapel of St. Roch, Paris 
(1850); Christ with Martha and Mary (1852); 
Woman of Mola (1850); The Tepidarium, 
Defense of the Gauls (1855). — Ch. Blanc, 
ficole fran9aise ; Larousse. 

norelli. National Gallery, London ; fresco, 
transferred to canvas, H. 4 f t. x 4 ft. 4 in. ; 
signed. In foreground, Cupid on his knees 


bound by maidens, who have taken his 
darts and broken his bow ; three male fig- 
ures looking on ; in background, two other 
groups of maidens, in one of which Cupid 
is being captured and in the other led away 
with his arms pinioned. — Nat. Gal. Cat.; 
Eichter, 49. 

CHATHAM, DEATH OF, John Single- 
ton Copley, National Gallery, London ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft. 6 in. X 10 ft. 1 in. Scene in old 
House of Lords, April 7, 1778. Earl of 
Chatham fainting in making an effort to re- 

CHAUVIN, AUGUST, born at Liege in 
1810. History painter, pupilof Diisseldorf 
Academy under Schadow ; was for several 
years drawing-master to the Prince of Neu- 
wied, returned to Dusseldorf in 1841, after- 
ward went to Li6ge as professor at the acad- 
emy of which he is now director. Works : 
Departure of Tobias ; Prayer of Moses ; 
Flight into Egypt (1850); Hagar in the 
Desert ; Adoration of the Magi ; Conversion 
of Saul ; Banquet of Pepin of Heristal, Liege 
Museum.— Muller, 102. 

Death of Chatham, John Singleton Copley, National Gallery, London. 

ply to Duke of Eichmond's speech on a mo- 
tion respecting an address to the king, inti- 
mating the necessity of acknowledging the 
independence of the United States. The 
Earl was carried home, and died May 11. 
The fifty-five heads are all portraits — peers 
in state robes. Duke of Eichmond promi- 
nent figure to right. Painted in 1777-80 ; 
presented in 1828 by Earl of Liverpool. Two 
studies in monochrome in National Gallery. 
Engraved by F. Bartolozzi ; and in small in 
Jones's National Gallery. — Cat. Nat. Gal. 

CHAVET, VICTOE, born at Aix (Bou- 
ches-du-Ehone), July 21, 1822. Genre 
painter, pupil of P. Eevoil and C. Eoque- 
plan. Medals : 3d class, 1853 ; 2d class, 
1855 and 1857 ; L. of Honour, 1859. Works : 
Singing Lesson (1847); Charles VH. and 
Agnes Sorel at the Astrologer's, Coming 
out of Bath, Pleasant Idleness (1848); Van 
Dyck and his Mistress (1851); Young La- 
dies looking at a Jewel (1852); Concert 
(1853) ; Honeymoon (1855) ; Playing Domi- 
noes (1857) ; The Amateur (1859), W. T, 



Walters, Baltimore ; Bag-Piper of the 72d 
Highlanders, Woman Asleep (1859), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Jewish Goldsmith at Mous- 
taganem (1859) ; East in the Island (1866) ; 
Difficult Answer (1870) ; Corner of Hearth 
(1872); Young Nobles of Court of Henri 
m. (1873); The Model Besting (1874); Con- 
fidence, Imprudent, Illusion (1875); Wash- 
erwomen (1877); Beading the Paper (1878); 
Woman Beading (1879). 

CHELMmSKI, JAN, born at Brz6stov, 
Poland, Jan. 27, 1851. Genre and land- 
scape painter, pupil of the Munich Acad- 
emy and of Franz Adam. Studio in Mu- 
nich. Works : Stag-Hunt in time of Louis 
XV. ; Starting for the Chase ; Morning 
in the Ukraine ; By a Tavern ; Polish In- 
surgents ; Going to Church ; Huntsman 
on Horseback ; Thawing in the Ukraine ; 
Outposts ; Ordnance and Dragoon ; Stag- 
Hunt in 18th Century (1879), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Corso in 18th Century (1883); 
Carnival in Poland (1884).— Mtlller, 103 ; 
N. illustr. Zeitg. (1880); i. 55 ; (1881), i. 58. 

Wilkie, Apsley House, London; canvas. 
Beading the Gazette of the battle of Water- 
loo. Chelsea pensioners seated around a 
deal table, in front of the Duke of York Inn, 
with Chelsea Hospital in the background. 
A hussar orderly has just ridden up with a 
copy of the Gazette, which one of the old 
heroes is reading aloud ; many other fig- 
ures grouped around. Painted in 1821 for 
the Duke of WeUington, who paid 1200 
guineas for it. Sketch in Baring Collection. 
Engraved by J. Burnet. — Eedgrave, Cen- 
tury, ii. 270 ; Heaton, Works of Sir D. W.; 
Mollett, 61 ; Waagen, Art Treasures, ii. 189, 

in Lyons, Dec. 9, 1808. History painter, 
pupil of Hersent and Ingres ; spent several 
years in Italy. The leaders of the February 
E^volution ordered of him a series of large 
paintings for the Pantheon, which were not 
all finished when the Eevolution ended. 
Medal, 1st class, 1855 ; L. of Honour, 1853. 

Works : Sentence of Louis XVI., Mirabeau 
replying to Marquis of Dreux-Breze (1829), 
Deluge, Death of Zoroaster, Trojan War, 
Death of Socrates, Caesar crossing the Eubi- 
con, Italian Poetry, Age of Louis XIV., Au- 
gustus closing Doors of Temple of Janus, 
Attila stopped before Eome, The Beginning 
of the Reformation (all exhibited in 1853) ; 
Death of Cato and of Brutus, Birth of 
Christ, National Convention (1855) ; Bivina 
Tragedia (1869), Luxembourg Museum. — 
Ch. Blanc, Artistes de mon Temps, 191 ; La- 

CHfiEON, LOUIS, born in Paris in 1655, 
died in London in 1713. French school ; 
history painter and engraver; studied works 
of Raphael and G. Romano in Italy ; re- 
turned to Paris in 1688, but being a Calvin- 
ist was obliged to leave in 1695, and went 
to England, where he was employed in the 
decoration of Bough ton, Burley, and Chats- 
worth. Works : Diana and Nymphs Bath- 
ing (engraved by Baron) ; Marriage of 
Charles I. (engraved by Dupuis). He made 
designs for an edition of Paradise Lost, 
published in 1720. — Bryan (Graves); Red- 

CHfiRY, PHILIPPE, born in Paris in 
1759, died there in 1838. French school ; 
history and portrait painter, pupil of Vien ; 
left France during Revolution ; returned in 
1802, and received prize of 12,000 francs 
in the competition of the year XI. (1803) for 
his Treaty of Amiens. Works : Annuncia- 
tion, Church of GenervUle ; St. Cecilia, Bene- 
dictine Convent, Boulogne-sur-Mer ; Death 
of Father of Louis XVI. (1817); Thrasybu- 
lus reestablishing Democratic Government 
at Athens ; Death of Alcibiades ; Birth of 
Venus ; Toilet of Venus. — Bryan (Graves). 

Petersburg about 1830. Son of a Swiss 
father and a Russian mother; became, 
when eighteen years old, a student in the 
Munich Academy, whence he went in 1851 
to London, and in 1852 exhibited two 
water-colours at Royal Academy. After 
studying two years in Italy, went to Mel- 



bourne, Australia, where he resided from 
1859 to 1867. In 1865, 1866, and 1868, he 
explored a large part of New Zealand, mak- 
ing many sketches, and in 1869 and 1870 
he accompanied the Duke of Edinburgh in 
his visit to the South Sea Islands, Japan, 
China, India, etc. Since then he has resided 
chiefly in England and has executed many 
works, several of them by royal commission. 
Works : Pilgrims at Tivoh, Buffalo Eanges 
(1865) ; Atiamano— Island of Tahiti (1871) ; 
Palace of Deeg— Bhurtpore (1872) ; Thanks- 
giving Procession to St. Paul's (1873) ; Blind 
Musicians of Japan (1874) ; Keview in St. 
Petersburg (1875) ; Opening of Exhibition of 
Vienna in 1873 (1877) ; Eastern Shepherd, 
Eastern Puzzle (1878) ; Hinemoa (1879) ; 
The Convalescent (1882). — Art Journal 
(1879), 121. 

CHEVY-CHACE, Sir Edwin Landseer, 
Duke of Bedford, Woburn Abbey ; canvas. 
Scene from ballad of Chevy-Chace : Earl 
Percy of Northumberland hunting on the 
property of the Scottish Earl of Douglas. 
Eoyal Academy, 1826. Engraved by C. G. 
Lewis. — Art Journal (London, 1876), 116. 

CHIALLI, VINCENZO, born at Citta di 
Castello, Umbria, July 27, 1787, died at 
Cortona, Sept. 4, 1840. History painter, 
pupil in Rome of Camuccini ; painted there 
and in Borgo San Sepolcro, Urbino, Pesaro, 
and Venice, many religious pictures and 
portraits in the style of his master ; lived in 
Eome in 1815-22 ; afterwards in his native 
city, Florence, and other Tuscan and Um- 
brian cities, until 1825, when he settled at 
San Sepolcro, whence in 1835 he moved to 
Cortona as director of the school of paint- 
ing. "Works : Cemetery (1823), Mass (1824), 
Palazzo Pitti ; Dante in the Abbey of Eonte 
Avellana ; Eaphael and Era Bartolommeo in 
Convent of San Marco ; Young Eaphael 
with his Parents (Cartoon). — Fr. Grh. Drago- 
manni, Vita e Opere di V. Ch. (Florence, 

CHIAEI, GIUSEPPE, bom in Eome in 
1654, died there in 1727. Umbrian school ; 
history painter, pupil of Carlo Maratti ; exe- 

cuted many excellent easel pictures and 
wall paintings, also frescos in several 
churches and palaces in Eome. Works : 
Nativity, Adoration of the Magi, San Maria 
del Suffragio, Eome ; four subjects from 
Ovid, Palazzo Spada, Eome ; portrait of 
himself, Uffizi, Florence ; Adoration of the 
Magi, Dresden Gallery ; Holy Trinity, Lord 
Scarsdale, Kedleston Hall ; three pictures at 
Hampton Court ; frescos in Colonna and 
Barberini Palaces and in S. Maria di Monte- 
santo, Eome. 

CHIEEICI, GAETANO, bom at Eeggio, 
Italy, in 1838. Genre painter ; noted for 
humourous interior scenes, with children. 
Works: The Bath, Mother is El (1872); 
Fun and Fright (1874), Corcoran Gallery ; 
Charity ; New Mayor of the Village ; Girl 
and Kitten ; Saturday Frolic ; Sheriff's Ar- 
rest ; First Love ; Old Music Teacher (1873); 
Child's Grief ; Bathing the Baby ; Mother 
is lU (1876); Widow's Dinner (1877). 

Joseph M. W. Turner, National Gallery, 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 8 in. x 8 ft. 2 in. 
Italy — ancient and modern. A mountainous 
landscape at evening, with a winding river ; 
to the right, a broken bridge ; to the left, a 
pile of ruins ; in foreground, a soUtary 
stone-pine, and a party of pleasure seated 
on the river bank. Eoyal Academy, 1832. 
Engraved by J. T. Willmore, in Turner 

Christ and St. John. 

Enaus, National Gallery, Berhn ; Canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 6 in. X 4 ft. 9 in. Children, in the 
costume of the 18th century, feasting at long 
tables spread under the trees of an orchard ; 
in background, parents with grown children 
and a band of music ; in middle-ground, 
yoimger ones, the boys imitating the gal- 
lantry of their elders ; in foreground, the 
little ones, attended by an older girl. 
Painted in 1869. Engraved by Habellmann. 

CHILL OCTOBER, John Everett Millais, 
Sir William Armstrong, London. — A bank 



of willows on the water's brink strikes in 
dark shade against the light of a gray Oc- 
tober sky ; in foreground, thickly-set water- 
reeds. Mr. Millais's first exhibited land- 
scape. Eoyal Academy, 1871. Etched by 
Bruuet Debaines.— Art Journal (1871), 149 ; 
Builder (1871), 380. 


de-Vaux, Ain, May 5, 1814, died at Sep- 
teuil, Seine-et-Oise, Aug. 10, 1873. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Corot ; industrious 
and original, especially skilful in treatment 
of foreground and of sunlight. His pict- 
ures have increased in value since his death. 
Medal, 1867 ; L. of Honour, 1870. Works : 
Valley of Igny (1852); The Moors, Autumn 
Evening (1853) ; The Country in the Morn- 
ing (1855); After the Rain, Eeims Museum ; 
Evening, Angers Museum ; Paths bordered 
with Apple-Trees, Coming out of the Woods 
(1857), Bourg Museum ; The Deer Pond, 
Mende Museum ; Rain (1859) ; The Aube 
after a Stormy Night, Potato Field, Broom- 
Plant in Flower (1861); Fields in the Early 
Dawn, Field of Sainfoin, November (1863, 
rejected by the Salon, but admired by the 
critics) ; Sunset with Ruins, Macon Mu- 
seum ; Meadow (1864) ; Scotch Mist, St. 
Malo Museum ; Vapors of Evening (1865); 
Twilight, Pont-de-Vaux Museum ; Country 
during a Hailstorm (1866), Rodez Museum ; 
Meadows with Oats, Country in Autumn 
(1867); Aurora, Flood (1868); Space, Woods 
in Sunhght (1869); The Moon, A Beam of 
SunHght on a field of Sainfoin (1870); Apple- 
Trees and Broom-Plants in Blossom, Close 
of Day (1872); Rain and SunUght, Low 
Tide, The White Road (1873); Thicket 
with Deer (1873), Luxembourg Museum. — 
Larousse ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), i. 508. 

flourished about 1520. Bolognese school ; 
pupil of Francesco Francia and rival of 
Aspertini, Girolamo da Cotignola, and Inno- 
cenzo da Imola. An Adoration of the Child 
by him is in the Bologna Gallery. — Ch. 
Blanc, :ficole bolonaise; Burckhardt, 585, 586. 

born in Dantzic, Oct. 16, 1726, died in Ber- 
lin, Feb. 7, 1801. 
German school ; 
portrait painter, 
taught drawing 
by his father, an 
amateur ; later 
studied in Berlin 
under Haid, a 
pupil of Rugen- 
das, until 1745, 
when he devoted 
himself to portrait painting in little. Elected 
rector of the Academy in 1764, vice-director 
in 1788, and director in 1797. Works: 
Calas taking Farewell of his Family (1766); 
BUnd Man's Buff, Cock-Throwing (1768), 
Berlin Museum ; Rest- , 

ing Place in the Thier- ©• Cko^tMMWSl^ 
garten, Leipsic Muse- IIOj' 
um. — Allgem. d. Biog., 
iv. 132 ; Brockhaus, iv. , 330 ; Dohme, lii. ; 
Woltmann, Aus vier Jahr hunderten, 147 ; 
Pecht, iii. 51 ; Riegel, 49. 

CHOULANT, THEODOR, born in Dres- 
den, July 18, 1827. Architecture painter, 
pupil of Dresden Academy under Semper ; 
visited Italy and Sicily in 1850-51, lived in 
Rome in 1858-61 and studied again in Venice 
and Florence in 1864 and 1873-74. Saxon 
court-painter in 1868. Works : Castle S. An- 
gelo, Rome, Dresden Museum ; The Eight 
Ancestral Castles of the House of Saxony 
(fresco). Royal Palace, ib. ; Vestibule, Court- 
theatre, ib. — Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii. 202. 
See Woman taken in Adultery. 

Anges), Charles Lebrun, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. 9 in. X 4 ft. 2 in. Angels in the 
air and others kneeling on the ground are in 
adoration before Christ expiring on the cross. 
At foot of cross, the crown of France on a 
blue velvet cushion. Painted in 1686 to 
illustrate a dream of the queen-mother, 
Anne of Austria. Engraved by G. Edeliack, 
P. Drevet. — ViUot, Cat. Louvre. 

S)ii,jQ,isi 'QM-^^mwami^mi 

■/IGlJEEE3,Ed,(' .i,R>)- -U la MormaAc 



CHEIST, BAPTISM OF, Francesco Al- 
bani, Bologna Gallery; canvas, H. 13 ft. 5 in. 
X 6 ft. 10 in. St. John pouring water on 
the head of Christ, who stands in the stream 

Baptism of Christ, Francesco Albani, Bologna Gallery. 

supported by two angels, while the dove is 
descending ; above, in the heavens, the 
Eternal, surrounded by angels and cherubs. 
Formerly in S. Giorgio, Bologna, whence 
removed to gallery in 1823. Engraved by 
G.Mitelli; F. Eosaspina. — Pinac. di Bologna, 
PI. 35. 

By Gheerardt David, Bruges Academy; 
wood, triptych, centre, H. 4 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. 
3 in. In centre, Christ, in a hip cloth, stand- 
ing up to his knees in Jordan ; to left, St. 

John pouring water from the hoUow of his 
hand upon his head ; to right, an angel, in 
a cope of gold brocade, carrying the robe ; 
above, God the Father in benediction. On 
right wing of triptych, Jean des Trompes 
kneels with his son Philip under the protec- 
tion of St. John Evangelist ; on the left, his 
wife, Elizabeth Van der Meersch, is attended 
by her four daughters and St. Elizabeth of 
Hungary. Painted in 1507 for Jan des 
Trompes, after whose death placed in S. 
Basils, Bruges, whence taken to Paris in 
1794 ; restored in 1815. — Kugler (Crowe), 
i. 112 ; C. & C, Flemish Painters, 303 ; Beff- 
roi, i. 966 ; ii. 294. 

By Francesco Francia, Dresden Gallery ; 
wood, H. 6 ft. 6 in. X 5 ft. 7 in. ; signed, dated 
1609. Christ, with hands joined, standing 
in the water ; St. John, kneeling on bank to 
left, with a dish in his right hand and a staff 
in his left ; behind, disciples and angels. 
Formerly at Modena ; damaged in bombard- 
ment of Dresden in 1760. Replica at Hamp- 
ton Court, probably acquired by Charles L 
with Mantuan collection. — C. & C, N. Italy, 
i. 573 ; Law, Hist. Cat. Hampton Court, 97. 

By Guido Eeni, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. 2 in. X 5 ft. 9 in. Christ, standing 
in the water, is baptised by John in the 
Jordan. Three angels hold his vestment ; 
from above, the Holy Ghost descending in 
form of a dove. Engraved by J. Pichler ; 
Steinmiiller. — Gal. de Vienne, ii. ,P1. 66. 

By Murillo, Due de Montpensier, Chateau 
de Eandau, Puy de Dome, France ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. 9 in. X 5 ft. 11 in. The Saviour on 
left, standing with hands crossed ; on oppo- 
site side of rivulet, St. John standing hold- 
ing a reed cross in left and pointing with 
right hand to Christ ; above the Saviour an 
eagle and an inscription ; above St. John a 
winged bull and an inscription. Purchased 
from nuns of S. Leandro by Don A. Bravo, 
who sold it to Louis PhiHppe ; Louis Phil- 
ippe sale (1853), £660. Lithographed by 
Sevestre. — Curtis, 190 ; Univers. Illustr^ Jan. 
14, 1861. 

By Murillo, Seville Cathedral ; canvas, 



arched, figures life-size. The Saviour, with 
only a white drapery about his loins, kneel- 
ing on banks of the river, with hands crossed 
on breast; St. John, partly clothed in rai- 
ment of camel's hair, standing on right, hold- 
ing a reed cross and pouring water from a 
shell on head of Christ ; above, on left, two 
cherubs with garments of Jesus ; above, 
centre, the Dove ; background, landscape 
and river Jordan. Restored in 1875. — Cur- 
tis, 189. 

By Rubens, M. Schamp, Ghent ; canvas. 
Christ nude, except loins, standing in Jor- 
dan, with the Dove descending on his head ; 
St. John, standing on bank, pours water on 
his head from a shell ; to right, three angels 
in air, holding his raiment ; above, three 
more angels ; to left, four men, preparing for 
baptism, and two women, one of whom holds 
a child. Painted in Italy in 1604-6 for S. 
Trinitil, Mantua. 

By Tintoretto, S. Silvestro, Venice ; canvas, 
arched at top, H. about 15 ft. x 10 ft. Christ 
in the water and St. John on the shore, 
without disciples or witnesses ; the Jordan 
represented as a mountain brook, receiving 
a tributary stream in a cascade from the 
rocks. In the arch above is the Father sup- 
ported by angels, not by Tintoretto, the up- 
per part of the picture being an addition. — 
Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 358. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice ; 
canvas. Figures thin and meagre in form, 
and slightly painted ; of the nineteen figures 
in the distance about a dozen are little more 
than sketches. — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, 
iii. 336. 

By Tintoretto, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. X 3 ft. 11 in. Landscape with Bap- 
tism of Christ in the Jordan. ^Cat. Vienna 

By Paolo Veronese, Pitti, Florence ; can- 
vas, H. 6 ft. 4 in. X 4 ft. 4 in. John Baptist 
baptising Christ, who kneels on a rock in 
the Jordan ; three angels near by ; above, 
the Dove, with light emanating from it. 
Engraved by Eosaspina. — Gal. du Pitti, i. 
PI. 14. 

By Andrea del Verrocchio, Florence Acad- 
emy ; wood, H. 5 ft. 9 in. x 4 ft. 8 in. Christ 
standing in the stream with clasped hands, 
while St. John pours water on his head ; at 
left, two angels kneel on the bank, near a 
palm tree. Painted for the brethren of 
Vallombrosa at S. Salvi. Verrocchio was 
aided by his pupil Leonardo da Vinci, who 

Baptism of Christ, Andrea del Verrocchio, Fiorence Academy, 

probably painted the charming angel show- 
ing his full face. Vasari says that the mas- 
ter, seeing himself outdone by the pupil, re- 
solved never again to take pencil in hand. — 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 366 ; C. & C, Italy, ii. 
407; Gall. Accad. di Firenze, PI. 44; 
Jameson, Hist. Our Lord, i. 296. 

Subject treated also by Paris Bordone, 
Brera, Milan ; Pietro Perugino, Perugia 
Gallery ; Pietro Perugino, Vatican, Rome ; 
Joachim de Patinir, Vienna Museum ; Ales- 
sandro Tiarini, Vienna Museum ; Tintoretto, 
Madrid Museum ; Taddeo Gaddi, National 
Gallery, London ; Piero della Francesca, 
National Gallery, London ; Francesco Al- 
bani. Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Cornells 
Corneliszen, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Hendrik Goltzius, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Rogier van der Weyden, Berlin Mu- 


seum ; Pietro Perugino, Vienna Museum ; 
Juan Fernandez Navarrete, Madrid Museum ; 
Lorenzo di Credi, TJfl&zi, Florence ; Vincen- 
zo Civerchio, Louvre ; Vincenzo Carducho, 
Madrid Museum. 

Kiss of. 

CHEIST, BIETH OF. See Nativity. 

cho, Blind men of. 

kacsy, Paris ; canvas, H. 19 ft. x 25 ft. The 
three crosses in foregroimd, at right, against 
a sky black with clouds and illuminated 
with lightnings, the city being just discern- 
ible on the horizon ; Christ, pale and lean- 
ing forward, has just expired ; the Virgin, 
Mary Magdalen, and John are kneeling at 
the foot of the cross, beside which the Cen- 
turion has dropped in terror ; all the re- 
mainder of the canvas filled with the terror- 
stricken-crowd — Jewish men and women, 
the executioners with their implements, rab- 
bis discussing the event, Roman cavalry, and 
in front Judas — all hastening down the hill. 
Painted in 1883-84. 

Calvary, Pi-ocession to. 

thew, viii. 5), Paolo Veronese, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 3 in. x 9 ft. 6 in. 
The centurion kneeling between two soldiers 
on the marble pavement of a spacious edi- 
fice, before Christ, who is accompanied by 
two apostles and others ; background, a 
splendid building of Renaissance architect- 
ure. Placed by Philip IV. in the Escorial, 
whence brought to the Museum. A smaller 
canvas, same subject, in the Museum, from 
Collection of Charles H. — Cat. Museo del 

Granach, the elder. Baring Collection, Lon- 
don. The mothers and the children are in 
quaint, old German costumes. Other treat- 
ments of the subject, which Cranach painted 
several times, are in the Stadtkirche, Naum- 
burg, and the Paulinerkirche, Leipsic. 

By Johann Friedrich Overbec/c, Meyer 
Collection, Hamburg. Christ standing in a 
landscape, with both hands raised, is bless- 
ing the children who are gathered, some 
kneeling, some standing, around him ; at 
sides, the mothers, and in background, dis- 

Subject treated also by Eembrandt (at- 
tributed), National Gallery, London ; Jan 
de Bray, Haarlem Museum ; Sebastien Bour- 
don, Louvre. 



Morando, Verona Gallery. Christ, vdth a rope 
around his body and led by an executioner, 
is bearing the cross on his right shoulder, 
aided by Simon of Cyrene, who is holding 
up the lower end ; background, a rocky 
landscape. — Jameson, Hist. Our Lord, ii. 

By Baphael. See Spasimo di Sicilia. 

By Titian, Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice ; can- 
vas. Four figures : Christ, bending under 
the cross, is dragged by an executioner with 
a cord, while two persons, one at each side, 
look on. Painted before 1517 ; worshipped 
for the miracles it was supposed to perform, 
and attracted such offerings that the breth- 
ren of S. Eocco were enabled to rebuild 
their house from the fortune it brought 
them. Vasari ascribes it both to Titian and 
to Giorgione. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 97 ; vii. 
437 ; Sansovino, Ven. desc, 288 ; C. & C, 
Titian, i. 60. 

Subject treated also by Albrecht Dtirer, 
Bergamo Gallery, Dresden Gallery ; Pie- 
ter Brueghel, the elder, UfSizi, Florence ; 
PoUdoro da Caravaggio, Naples Museum ; 
Garofolo, Palazzo Corsini, Eome, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Pieter Brueghel, the young- 
er, Antwerp Museum ; Titian, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Paolo Veronese, Louvre, Paris ; Luis 
Morales, Louvre ; Eustache Le Sueur, Lou- 
vre ; Lodovico Carracci, Hermitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg ; Andrea da Solario, Palazzo Borg- 



hese, Eome ; Sebastian del Piombo, Dresden 
Gallery, Hermitage, St. Petersburg; Titian, 
Madrid Museum ; Gaudenzio Ferrari, Can- 

Palais de Justice, Paris ; Canvas. A tri- 
umph of naturalistic art. Painted, it is said, 
from a dead body fastened upon an actual 
cross in an inner court of the ficole de 
medecine. The sufferer, in the midst of the 
most horrible pain, seems to strain in a last 
effort ; his muscles contract, his veins swell, 
and the light 'which brings all into pitiless 
relief, clearly defines each swollen limb. It 
is not the Son of God, suffering but re- 
signed ; it is a vulgar man, who has lived a 
common life, and whose body undergoes 
tortures in which the soul does not share. 
Salon, 1874— Claretie (1884), 140. 

By Albrecht Diirer, Dresden Museum ; 
wood, H. 8^ X 6|- in. ; dated, 1506. Christ, 
with eyes upraised and mouth open, about to 
give up the ghost ; the crown of thorns is 
upon his head, and about the loins is a cloth 
with flowing ends ; background, a landscape 
with a black sky. "Eivals the creations of 
L. da Vinci." Formerly in Collection of 
Eudolph II.; bought from Boehm Collec- 
tion, Vienna, in 1865. Engraved by Theo. 
Langer (1868). — Gal. Roy. de Dresde, iii. 
PI. 47 ; C. & C, N. Italy, i. 177 ; Titian, 
i. 117 ; Thausing, i. 356. 

Anton van Dyck, Antwerp Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 9 ft. 10 in. X 7 ft. 8 in. Christ ex- 
piring on the cross ; on the left St. Domi- 
nick, on the right, St. Catherine of Siena ; 
above, two angels, and a third seated at foot 
of cross. Painted in 1629 and presented by 
Van Dyck to Ch. of Dominicans, Antwerp, 
in memory of his father, who died in that 
city, Dec. 1, 1622 ; sold on suppression of 
convents (1785) for 6,000 florins ; carried to 
Paris, and restored in 1815. Engraved by 
Bolswert. — Head, 17. 

By Anton van Dych, Antwerp Museum ; 
wood, H. 3 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. The Saviour ex- 
piring on the cross ; in distance, Jerusalem 
seen faintly. Engraved by Lourie ; Burdet 

(1864) ; Vermeiren (1875) ; E. Corr (1875) ; 
E. Pfeiffer ; L. Lelli. Copy in S. Jacques, 
Antwerp. — Smith, iii. 8. 

By Anton van Dyck, Munich Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft. 4 in. X 2 ft. 1 in. The Saviour 
on the cross, alone ; the heavens marked by 
the effects of a preternatural eclipse. — Smith, 
iii. 21. 

By Anton van Z>i!/c^, Vienna Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 4 ft. 2 in. X 3 ft. 2 in. The Saviour 
expiring on the cross. A solemn and im- 
pressive work. — Smith, iii. 27. 

By Guido Eeni, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 11 ft. 4 in. X 7 ft. 4 in. Christ expiring 
on the cross, the foot of which Mary Magda- 
len, kneeling, embraces ; at left, the Virgin 
in a blue mantle stands looking upward ; 
at right, St John Evangelist ; same position. 
Painted for the church of the Capuchins, 
near Bologna. One of Guido's best pictures. 
Engraved by Giovannini. Pinac. di Bologna, 
PI. 60 ; Ch. Blanc, ^ficole bolonaise. — Lavice, 
13 ; Felsina Pittrice, ii. 22. 

By Guido Eeni, Modena Gallery ; Christ 
on the cross alone, with drapery agitated by 
the storm, indicated by the dark sky. — Kug- 
ler (Eastlake), ii. 580. 

By Pietro Perugino, Convent of S. M. Mag- 
dalena de' Pazzi, Florence ; fresco. Near the 
cross, the Madonna and the Magdalen ; at 
sides, SS. Bernard, John, and Benedict, un- 
der three round arches. One of the master's 
very finest works and in excellent preserva- 
tion.— Burckhardt, 570; Rio, ii. 247. 

By Rubens, Antwerp Museum ; canvas, H. 
6 ft. 11 in. X 4 ft. 1 in. Christ just expiring; 
Jerusalem faintly seen through the gloom. 
Presented by Cornelius de Winter to Ch. 
of the Recollects, Antwerp. Several repeti- 
tions. Engraved by Snyers ; Bolswert. — 
Similar subject in Munich Gallery ; en- 
graved by Bolswert. — Smith, ii. 25, 69. 

By Tintoretto, Turin Gallery ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. X 5 ft. 10 in. Christ, seen to hips, on 
the cross, with the Dove and the Father 
above his head, and many angels around. 
Engraved by Ferreri^ — Gall, di Torino, iii. 
PI. 117. 



By Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. X 5 ft. 6 in. The Saviour fastened 
to the cross, his head falling towards his 
right shoulder, and the hair falling so as to 
cover half the face ; trilingual inscription 
above ; dark background. Painted in 1638 
for Convent of S. Placido ; came into pos- 
session of Countess of Chinchon, who sent 
it to Paris for sale in 1826 ; on her death 
fell to Duke of S. Fernando, who presented 
it in 1829 to Ferdinand VIL Old copy in 
Capuchin church, Madrid ; modem one by 
Pairon in ficole des Beaux Arts, Paris. En- 
graved by Murgnia ; J. A. S. Carmona ; J. 
BaUester ; Allegre y Gorriz, and others. — 
Madrazo, 593 ; QuiHiet ; Curtis, 7; Jameson, 
Hist. Our Lord, ii. 205. 

CHEIST, DEAD, Annibale Carracci, 
Louvre ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 10 in. x5 ft. 11 in. 
The body of Christ on a winding-sheet, the 
head on the Virgin's knees ; near her is the 
Magdalen, leaning against sepulchre ; at left, 
St. Francis, kneeling, with hands crossed, 
looking upon the body, over which two boy 
angels are weeping. Painted for S. Frances- 
co a Eipa, Rome ; one of Annibale's last 
works. Extremely Well composed. Engraved 
by Godefroi ; Aquila. — Villot, Louvre ; Mu- 
s6e fran9ais, i.; Filhol, iii. PI. 181; Landon, 
Musee, xi. PI. 28. 

otto, S. M. dell' Arena, Padua; fresco on 
wall. Christ, on one knee, with a vase of 
water before him, is about to lave one of 
Peter's feet, which he holds in his left hand ; 
behind him, St. John and another disciple, 
standing, the former carrying a water pitcher; 
the other disciples sitting, Judas, at left, tying 
his sandal. — Jameson, Hist. Our Lord, ii. 15. 

By Tintoretto, S. Moise, Venice. Christ 
washing the feet of Peter, at the top of a 
circle of steps, on which the other apostles 
kneel. Much faded and injured. — Buskin, 
Stones of Venice, iii. 315 ; Zanotto, 167. 

chelangelo da Garavaggio, Uffizi, Florence. 
Half-length figures. Engraved by Dennel ; 
T. Verkruys. — Wicar. 

By Albrecht Dilrer, Palazzo Barberini, 
Rome ; dated 1506. Seven figures, life size, 
half length. Christ, surroimded by six doc- 
tors, engaged in discussion. Especially 
noticeable for the contrast in the faces and 
the varied play of the hands, which seem 
almost to speak. Study for head of Christ 
in Albertina Collection, Vienna ; and for 
hands in Hausmann Collection, Brunswick. 
This picture was painted in five days. Thaus- 
ing, i. 349 ; Ephrussi, 118. 

By Holman Hunt. See Saviour in the 

By Spagnoletto, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 1 in. X 5 ft. 6 in. Half-length fig- 
ures. Christ, with left hand on the arm of 
a seat, from which he has just risen, is rais- 
ing his right hand as if speaking ; the doc- 
tors, puzzled at his words, are consulting 
their books. — Jameson, Hist. Our Lord, i. 
279 ; Rosini, vi. 158. 

By Paolo Veronese, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft. 9 in. X 14 ft. Christ disputing 
with the doctors in a sumptuous temple of 
Renaissance architectiu-e ; in background, 
the Virgin and Joseph, with many specta- 
tors. Collection of Charles H. — Cat. Museo 
del Prado. 

By school of Leonardo da Vinci, National 
Gallery, London ; wood, H. 2 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 

Christ among the Doctors, School of Leonardo da Vinci, 
National Gallery, London. 

10 in. Christ surrounded by four doctors, 
half lengths. From collection of Mr. Hol- 
weU Carr ; previously in Aldobrandini Gal- 



lery, Eome, -where it was attributed to Leo- 
nardo da Vinci. Probably by Bernardino 
Luini. — Waagen, Treasures, i. 319. 

Subject treated also by Giovaccbino As- 
sereto, Liverpool Gallery; Bernardino Luini, 
National Gallery, London, Church at Saron- 
no (fresco) ; Lodovico Mazzolino, Palazzo 

Christ and Evangelists, Fra Bartolonnmeo, Palazzo PItti, Florence. 

Borghese, Eome, Berlin Museum ; Leonard 
Bramer, Brunswick Gallery; Charles Adolphe 
Bonnegrace, Toulon Museum ; Pinturicchio, 
S. M. Maggiore (fresco), Spello ; K«mbrandt, 
Munich Gallery ; Gaudenzio Ferrari, S. M. 
delle Grazie, Milan ; Ernest Zimmerman, 

DoM, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 

11 in. X 2 ft. 5 in. Christ, half length, bless- 
ing the bread and wine. Prom Casa Eumieri, 
Venice. Copy in Louvre by Agnese Dolci. 
Engraved by F. Basan. — Gal. Eoy. de 
Dresde, i. PI. 41. 

CHEIST AT EMMAUS. See Supper at 

MENT OF. See Entomb- 

Friedrich Overbeck, Ma- 
rien Kirche, Lubeck ; can- 
vas, H. 6 ft. X 8 ft; signed, 
dated 1824. Christ, riding 
an ass, with his right hand 
raised in benediction, is 
passing through the gates 
attended by a numerous 
concourse of people — men, 
women, and children — 
bearing palms and sing- 
ing ; in foreground a man 
spreads his garment before 
the ass. Begun in Vienna 
in 1809, finished in Eome 
in 1824.— Atkinson, 16. 

Subject treated also by 
Giotto, Arena, Padua ; 
VassUacchi, Church of Be- 
nedictines, Perugia ; Giov. 
Ant. Fassolo, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Pasignano, Pal. Cap- 
poni, Florence ; Sebastian 
del Piombo ; Nicolas Pous- 
sin ; Charles Lebrun, 
Louvre ; Charles Mliller 
(Salon, 1844) ; Edouard 
Dubufe, (Salon, 1845); J. F. Br6mond, 
Church of La Villette, Paris ; Hippolyte 
Plandrin, St. Germain des Pres, Paris. 

tolommeo, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; wood, 
tranferred to canvas, H. 9 ft. 2 in. x 6 ft. 6 
in.; signed, dated 1516. The Saviour, partly 
draped, standing on a pedestal in front of a 
niche, holds the sceptre in his left hand 


while his right is raised in benediction ; on 
sides, SS. Mark and John, SS. Matthew and 
Luke. Below, two little angels seated on 
step holding symbol of the earth. The 
Prophets Jacob and Isaiah, now in the Trib- 
une of the Uffizi, were painted on the wings 
of this altarpiece. Painted for Salvadoi-e 
Bilh, who placed it in SS. Annunziata de' 
Servi ; bought by Carlo de' Medici in 1618 
for his private chapel, a copy by Jacopo da 
Empoli being placed in the church in its 
stead ; on the death of the Cardinal (1663) 
removed to Palazzo Pitti ; carried to Paris 
in 1799 ; returned in 1814. Engraved by 
G. B. Gatti.— Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 190 ; C. & 
C, Italy, iii. 466 ; Marchese, ii. 123, 145 ; 
Landon, Mus6e, 2d Col., i. PL 1 ; Gal. du 
Pal. Pitti, i. PL 31; Ch. Blanc, Ecole floren- 


Velasquez, Sir John Savile Lumley, H. B. M. 
Minister at Brussels ; three figures, full 
length, life size. Christ seated on ground 
with wrists attached by a long cord to a 
column on left ; a ray of light proceeds from 
his head to the heart of a child who, attend- 
ed by an angel kneels behind him ; instru- 
ments of the Passion on the ground. Pur- 
chased in Madrid, carried to England about 
I860.— Curtis, 7. 

saiti, Venice Academy ; wood, H. 7 ft. 3 in. 
X 2 ft. ; signed, dated 1510. Christ, kneeling 
on a hillock, at the foot of which the apostles 
are sleeping, receives the chalice from an 
angel ; foreground, a portico, at the sides of 
which stand SS. Louis, Francis, Mark, and 
Dominic. Painted for S. Giobbe, Venice. 
A very noble picture. — C. & C, N. Italy, i. 

By Gorreggio, Apsley House, England ; 
wood, H. 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. Jesus kneel- 
ing in the foreground, with an angel hover- 
ing over him ; the sleeping disciples and 
Judas with soldiers in background. Painted 
probably about 1525 ; formerly in Eoyal 

Palace, Madrid ; taken from carriage of Jo- 
seph Bonaparte at battle of Vittoria ; restored 
by Duke of Wellington to Ferdinand VH., 
who sent it back to him as a present. Copies 
in National Gallery, London ; Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Madrid Museum ; and in Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. Engraved by Volpato, Cur- 
tius and others. Waagen considers this the 
most beautiful known representation of the 
subject. — Meyer, Correggio, 333,486; Kunst. 
Lex., i. 436 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 275 ; 
Landon, (Euvres, viii. PL 12 ; Kugler (East- 
lake), ii 505. 

By Carlo Dolci, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
wood, H 2 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. Christ kneel- 
ing, with arms folded and head inclined ; 
above, an angel, with cross and chalice. 
Painted for Francesco Quaratesi, Florence, 
from whose heirs passed to Pitti ; carried to 
Paris in 1799 ; returned in 1815. Engraved 
by I. Bonajuti, J. Felsing. — Gal. du Pal. 
Pitti, i. PL 33 ; Landon, Musee, x. PL 11. 

By Oarofalo, Ferrara Gallery ; wood, H. 
5 ft. 11 in. X 4 ft. 2 in. Christ praying on 
a hillock in the garden of Gethsemane, with 
the three apostles sleeping at the foot ; in 
background, Judas coming with soldiers. 
Painted for the church of the suppressed 
convent of S. Silvestro, Ferrara. — Vasari, ed. 
Mil., vi. 465 ; Cat. Ferrara Gal. 

By Guido Eeni, Louvre ; copper, H. 1 ft. 
10 in. X 1 ft. 5 in. Christ kneeling in prayer 
on a rock, while an angel, holding a cross 
and borne on a cloud, presents him the chal- 
ice ; above, other angels with instruments 
of the Passion ; in background, to right, the 
apostles asleep ; in distance, Judas guiding 
the soldiers. Belonged to Cardinal Mazarin; 
after his death given by Due de Mazarin to 
the Duchesse de Chevreuse, from whom 
bought by Louis XIV. in 1668. Engraved 
by Falck.— Landon, Musge, xii. PL 22. 

By Andrea Mantegna, Baring Collection, 
London ; signed. Christ kneeling before 
five angels bringing him the symbols of the 
Passion ; apostles asleep in foreground ; in 
middleground, Judas and Eoman soldiers 
following him ; background, a rocky land- 


scape with a city. Painted about 1549. 
Formerly in Fesch and Coningham galleries. 
— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 382 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, ii 178. 

By Johann Friedrich Overbeck, Hamburg 
Hospital ; canvas, H. 11 ft. x 7 ft. The Savi- 
our kneeling, his head bowed in anguish, 
his hands raised in ecstasy; below, the three 
disciples lying asleep ; above, in a glory amid 
clouds, an angel bearing the cross. ^ — Atkin- 
son, 63. 

By Pietro Perugino, Florence Academy ; 
wood, H. 4 ft. X 4 ft. 3 in. Christ kneeling 
in prayer while an angel brings the cup ; the 
three apostles asleep in foreground, and Ju- 
das bringing the soldiers in background. 
Painted in 1495 for the convent of the Ge- 
suiti, Florence, as a companion to the Pietd 
of Florence Academy. Engraved by Chios- 
sone. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 573 ; C. & C, 
Italy, iii. 199 ; Gall, dell' Accad. di Firenze, 
PI. 52. 

By Raphael, Stanstead House, Sussex, 
Eng.; wood, H. 2 ft. X 2 ft. 3 in. Christ 
kneels upon a hillock, against which lean 
the three sleeping disciples ; above, at left, 
an angel descending with the cup ; in dis- 
tance, at right, Judas with six soldiers ; back- 
ground, a landscape with hiUs and a town. 
Painted for Duke Guidobaldo of Urbino 
about 1504. Formerly in Palazzo Gabrielli, 
Eome, whence stolen in 1820, and sold for 
40 scudi; but recovered and sold to the 
Woodburns for 4000 scudi ; bought from 
Coningham Collection by Mr. Maitland of 
Stanstead House for £787. Engraved by 
L. Grtoer for German edition of Passavant, 
PI. X.— Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 323 ; Passavant, 
ii. 20 ; Waagen, Treasures, iii. 4. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice ; 
canvas. The most hastily painted of all the 
S. Eocco pictures. Christ represented 
sleeping, the angel with the cup appearing 
to him as a dream ; James and John also 
asleep, and Peter wakening and turning his 
head toward Judas approaching with the 
troop. — Euskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 337. 

By Titian, Escorial, Spain; canvas, fig- 

ures haK life-size. Christ, kneeling, looks to 
the left, where an angel is descending, 
while Peter and the sons of Zebedee sleep 
on the grass. Painted in 1562 for Philip 
n. of Spain ; placed in the Sala Prioral of 
the Escorial, where it became nearly ruined 
from neglect. Imitation of similar picture 
by Correggio, now at Apsley House, Eng- 
land.— C. & C, Titian, ii. 320. 

Subject treated also by Giotto, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Gentile da Fabriano, Cluny Museum ; 
Garofalo, National Gallery, London ; Brusa- 
sorci, Louvre ; Schidone, Lyons Museum ; 
Daniele Crespi, Berlin Museum ; Annibale 
Carracci, Madrid Museum ; Anton van Dyck, 
ib. ; Chimenti da Empoli, ib. ; Juan de Juanes, 
ib. ; Fr. Trevisani, Dresden GaUery ; Lan- 
franco, Munich Gallery ; Leandro Bassano, 
Venice Academy ; Jacopo Bassano, ib. ; Mu- 
rillo. Louvre ; Memling, Lilbeck Cathedral ; 
Wohlgemuth, Munich GaUery ; Lucas Cra- 
nach, Berlin Museum, Vienna Museum; Adri- 
an van der Werf, Munich Gallery ; Hans 
Burgkmair, Augsburg Gallery; jfiugfene De- 
lacroix (Salon, 1827) ; Ary Scheffer (Salon, 
1839); Theodore Chass^riau (Salon, 1844); 
M. de Eudder (Salon, 1863). 

Domenico Ghirlandajo, Palazzo Pubblico, 
Volterra. Christ, in a glory of angels, gives 
a blessing from the heavens ; below, SS. 
Eomualdo and Benedict stand looking up- 
ward, and SS. Attinia and Greciniana kneel 
in ecstasy ; in I'ight corner, a Camaldolen- 
sian monk at prayer. Painted about 1486 
by order of Lorenzo de' Medici for the 
Badia or Abbey of S. Giusto, Volterra. In- 
jured by restoring in oil. Engraved (1583) 
by Diana Ghisi. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 273 ; 
C. & C, Italy, ii. 487. 

Murillo, Baron Eothschild, Gunnersbury, 
near London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 5 in. x 3 ft. 6 
in. The Saviour, about six years old, wear- 
ing a sheepskin garment, standing, with a 
crook in his hand, looking up ; on his right, 
a sheep lying down ; on his left, two 
sheep standing, his hand on the head of 


one ; background, landscape. Painted about 
1665-70 ; sold, with its companion St. John 
and the Lamb (National Gallery, London), 
at Comte de la Guiche sale (1771), 12,999 
livres ; Marquis de Presle sale (1779) ; Eo- 
bit sale (1801), to Sir Simon Clarke, £4,200 ; 
Sir Simon Clarke sale (1840), the St. John 
was bought for £2,100 by Lord Ashburton, 
who gave it to the National Gallery, the 
Gdod Shepherd for £3,045 by Baron Eoths- 
child. Engraved by Cooper, MUe. Duclos, 
J. Heath, J. C. Armytage, C. Virten, E. 
Graves, and others. Eepetition : Earl of 
Wemyss, Gosford Hall, 
East Lothian, Perthshire. 
Copy by Grimoux, Duch- 
ess of Bridge water (?). — 
Curtis, 185. 

By Murillo, Comte Hen- 
ri de Greffuhle, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 1 ft. 11 in. X 1 ft. 
4 in. The Saviour, a crook 
in his left hand, walking 
front, resting his hand on 
the head of one of two 
sheep on his right ; on his 
left, another sheep run- 
ning ; background, land- 
scape. Presented by 
Queen Isabella to M. Gui- 
zot for bringing about the 
marriage of her sister to 
the Due de Montpensier ; sold in 1874 for 
120,000 fr.— Curtis, 186. 

By Murillo, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. X 3 ft. 3 in. The Saviour, about seven 
years old, wearing a red tunic and a sheep- 
skin garment, with crook in hand, seated, 
his left hand on the back of a lamb ; be- 
hind him, a rock, a broken cornice, and a 
fluted column. From Isabel Farnese Col- 
lection. Eepetition: Don Manuel Lopez 
Cepero, Seville. Etched by Waltner ; Htho- 
graphed by J. Abrial, A. Lemoine, Lafosse. 
—Curtis, 186; Gaz. des B. Arts, Feb., 
1875. Madrazo, 473. 

Paolo Veronese, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 

H. 3 ft. 2 in. X 4 ft. 3 in. Christ, on the 
steps of the house of Jairus, has his robe 
touched by a woman, who, when he turns 
toward her, falls on her knees ; she is sup- 
ported by two women ; behind them are 
several sick and lame persons, and behind 
Christ are several disciples. — Gal. de Vi- 
enne, i. PI. 44. 

ENTS, John Everett Millais, Frederick 
Arthur Beer, London ; canvas. Sometimes 
called the Carpenter's Shop ; represents 
Joseph in his shop working with another 

Christ in House of Jairus, Paolo Veronese, Vienna Museum. 

half-clad carpenter; in foreground, Jesus 
shows to his mother, who kneels to kiss 
him, a wound in his hand, made by a nail 
which Elizabeth, who stands in background, 
reaches forward to pull out with a pair of 
pincers ; at right, the infant John, with 
water in a bowl ; in background, left, sheep 
look in at open door. Painted in 1849 ; ex- 
hibited at Eoyal Academy, 1850, under fol- 
lowing title : "And one shall say unto him. 
What are these wounds in thine hands ? 
Then he shall answer. Those with which I 
was wounded in the house of my friends." 
(Zech. xiii. 6.) Engraved by Thos. Brown, 
in Art Journal. — Art Journal (1850), 175 ; 
(1883), 92. 


CHEIST, INFANT, Murillo, Matthias 
H. Arnot, Elmira, N. Y.; canvas, H. 2 ft. 1 
in. X 1 ft. 8 in. Infant Christ, sleeping, 
holding a crook, with a skull and a scroU ; 
in background, angels guarding sheep. 
Duke of Hamilton sale (1882), £2,415. In- 
correctly called St. John Baptist by Waagen. 
— Waagen, Treasures, iii. 301 ; Curtis, 248. 

Guido Eeni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 11 ft. 3 in. 
X 10 ft. 2 in. At left, surrounded by Apos- 
tles, Christ gives keys of Church to the 
kneeling Peter. In Guido's second manner. 
Prom Musee Napoleon. — Landon, Vies, 
xxii. PL 10. 

Noli vie tangere. 

hrandt, Buckingham Palace ; vpood, H. 2 
■ft. X 1 ft. 8 in. ; signed, dated 1638. Christ, 
as a gardener, in a v^hite robe and straw 
hat, with a spade in his hand, is worshipped 
by Mary Magdalen, at dawn of morning ; 
in background, the entrance to the sepul- 
chre, in which two angels are seen ; in dis- 
tance, two disciples approaching. Pur- 
chased (1736) by Elector of Hesse Cassel of 
Mad. de Eeuver ; taken in 1806 to Malmai- 
son ; at M. sale (1816) taken to England, 
where bought by George TV. — Waagen, Art 
Treasures, ii. 5 ; Smith, vii. 44. 

Subject treated also by Lorenzo di Credi, 
Uffizi, Florence ; Agnolo Bronzino, Louvre ; 
Fr. Albani, ib.; Simone Cantarini, Munich 
Gallery ; Onorio Marinari, S. M. Maggiore, 
Florence ; Lavinia Fontana, Uffizi, ib.; Ciro 
Ferri, Vienna Museum ; Fr. Bassano, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Aug. Braun, ib. ; Jan van Ma- 
buse, Brussels Museum ; Mariotto Alberti- 
nelli. Louvre ; Eustace Lesueur, ib. 

MantegrwL, Brera, Milan ; wood, tempera, H. 
2 ft. 2 in. X 2 ft. 8 in. The dead Christ be- 
wailed by the Marys. Painted before 1474. 
Long in Palazzo Gonzaga, Mantua, whence 
carried off in 1630 by Bishop of Mantua ; in 
Cardinal Mazarin's palace in Eome in 1696 ; 
bought, beginning of this century, by Giu- 

seppe Bossi and taken to Milan. It is in 
Mantegna's grandest style. — C. & C, N. 
Italy, i. 394. 

GEES, Jakob Jordaens, Louvre, Paris; canvas, 
H. 9 ft. 6 in. X 14 ft. 4 in. At right, Christ 
armed with a scourge ; in centre, a confused 
group, among which are an ass, a dog bark- 
ing, a sheep, a young man with his bench 
overturned, and a woman suckhng her 
child ; at left, a negro holding an ass and 
an old woman putting birds into a cage ; 
in background, publicans and other figures. 
— Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

Subject treated also by Francesco Bassa- 
no, Dresden Museum ; Jacopo Bassano, 
National Gallery, London, Madrid Museum ; 
Peter Bassin, St. Petersburg Academy. 

or Christ at Pool of Bethesda, Anton van 

Christ Healing the Paralytic, Murillo, Orwell Park, 

Dyclc, Buckingham Palace ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 
10 in. X 4 ft. 9 in. Five figures, life-size, 
seen to knees. The paralytic, restored, is 
bending in adoration before Christ, in cen- 
tre of the group ; on his left, John ; on his 
right, two other disciples. Long attributed 
to Rubens, and sold as his work for 8,700 
florins at Brussels in 1758 ; Verhulst sale 
(1779), under Van Dyck's name, 4,777 fl.: 
Panvels sale (1803), 11,666 fl.; Van Alpen 
sale (1810), 19,200 fl.; La Fontaine sale 


(1811), £3,300. Copy in Munich GaUery. 
Engraved by P. de Jode ; C. de Michel. — 
Smith, iii. 21, 70 ; Guiffrey; Gal. de Diissel- 

By Murillo, Geo. Tomhne, Orwell Park, 
Suffolk ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 8 in. x 8 ft. 5 in. 
Christ, standing in centre, with three dis- 
ciples on his right, puts forth his hand to 
raise the paralytic, who, stretched on the 
ground, with a crutch, a jar, and a dish be- 
side him, implores his aid ; on right, a dog 
approaches the pool ; in middle distance, 
many figures grouped in porch of a temple ; 
above, the angel ascending. Companion to 
Prodigal Son's Return, Stafford House. 
Painted in 1670-74 for Hospital of La Car- 
idad ; carried off by Marshal Soult ; sold to 
Mr. Tomhne (1846), 160,000fr. Engraved 
by T. Vernon. Considered by Waagen to 
be the " finest Murillo in England." — Cur- 
tis, 192 ; C. Bermudez, Carta, 74 ; Stirhng, 
ii. 852 ; Waagen, iii. 440. 

See Ecce Homo. 

Tribute Money. 

Honthorst, Stafford House, London. Christ 
with hands bound, standing at right in an 
interior, is interrogated by Pilate, who is 
seated behind a table, on which are books, 
an inkstand, and a candle, the light of which 
illumines the faces of both ; in background, 
right, several soldiers ; left, two attendants. 
Painted at Eome for Prince Giustiniani. — 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole hoUandaise. 

By Mihail Munkacsy, Paris. Christ stand- 
ing before Pilate, who is seated at right upon 
a dais, in a vaulted chamber, into which the 
rabble are pressing with threatening cries 
and gestures ; a Eoman soldier is keeping 
them back from the Saviour with his spear ; 
near Pilate, who appoars much perplexed, 
are several Eabbis. Engraved by A. Mon- 
gin. Etched (1883) by C. Waltner.— Acad., 
May 6, 1882, 328 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1881), 
xxiv. 139. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice ; 

canvas. A very interesting picture, best 
seen on a dark day, when the white figure of 
Christ looks almost like a spirit ; the Pilate 
is very mean, perhaps intentionally, and the 
passionate action of the scribe in lifting his 
hand to dip the pen into the ink-horn is af- 
fected and overstrained. — Euskin, Stones of 
Venice, iii. 352. 

Subject treated also by Michael Wohlge- 
muth, Liverpool Gallery ; Benedetto Cagli- 
ari, Venice Academy ; Luigi Benfatto, S. 
Luca, Venice. 

See Christ Heahng the Paralytic. 


CHEIST AND ST. JOHN, Murillo, Ma- 
drid Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 
The Infant Jesus, standing on left, gives 
water in a shell to St. John, who kneels, 
holding a cross in his left hand ; on left, a 
lamb lying ; above, three cherubs ; back- 
ground, landscape. From Isabel Parnese 
Collection. Engraved by Ledoux ; litho- 
graphed by V. Camaron, Lafosse, Mile. As- 
selinau. Sometimes called Los Minos de la 
Concha (Children of the Shell). — Dohme ; 
Curtis, 188 ; Madrazo, 473. 

M. Zobenigo, Venice ; canvas, H. about 10 
ft. X 8 ft. Christ descending from clouds 
between SS. Justina and Augustine, who 
are kneeling on the sea-shore. Displays 
little power except in general harmony of 
colours. — Euskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 362 ; 
Zanotto, 174. 

Guido Eeni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 11 in. 
X 2 ft. 8 in. The woman of Samaria, stand- 
ing at right, vrith a vase or pitcher in her 
hand, listens to Christ, who sits leaning on 
the curbstone of the well ; in distance, city 
of Samaria. Collection of Louis XIV. En- 
graved by L. Fabri. — Mus^e Eoyal, i.; Pil- 
hol, i. PI. 3 ; Landon, Mus6e, iii. PI. 16 ; 
Ch. Blanc, ficole bolonaise. 

Subject treated also by Annibale Carraeci, 
Brera, Milan ; Guido Eeni, Louvre ; Lorenzo 



Lippi, Vienna Museum ; Biliverti, ib.; Paolo 
Veronese, ib.; Annibale Carracci, ib.; Phi- 
lippe de Champagne, Caen Museum ; also by 
Bonifazio, Noel Coypel, Gaspard de Crayer, 
Garofalo, G. Gimignani, Ulrich Mayer, Nic- 
olas Poussin, Bernardo Strozzi, Federigo 
Zucchero, Alphonse Periu (Salon, 1827), 
Charles Chasselat (Salon, 1838), Jules JoUi- 
vet (Salon, 1839), J. Bellel (Salon, 1841), 
Auguste Leloir (Salon, 1844), C. de Baltha- 
sar (Exposition Universelle, 1855), W. Cooper 
(Exposition Universelle, 1855), Theodore 
MaiUot (Salon, 1863). 

he healed them." (Matt. xxi. 14.) Christ 
standing, with his disciples and many Jews 
behind him ; in foreground, the sick being 
brought in to be cured. Painted for the 
Friends' Hospital in Philadelphia, but sold 
for 3,000 guineas to the Directors of the 
British Institute, who presented it (1826) to 
the National Galleiy. West sent a copy to 
Philadelphia. Engraved by C. Heath ; in 
small by T. PhiUibrown for Jones's National 
GaUery'— Cat. Nat. Gal. 

among the Doctors. 

Christ Healing the Sick, Benjamin West, National Gallery, London 

nese, Pitti, Florence ; canvas, H. 3 ft. x 2 ft. 
2 in. Christ taking leave of his mother before 
the Passion, in the presence of the Magdalene 
and Martha. The wife of Zebedee stands at 
top of the steps leading into the palace, in 
front of which the Virgin sits. Engraved by 
Lasinio.— Gal. du Pal. Pitti, ii. PI. 26. 

min West, National Gallery, London ; can- 
vas, H. 9 ft.xl4 ft. "And the blind and 
the lame came to him in the temple, and 


See Christ and the Money Changers. 

Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice ; canvas. Christ 
and Satan on the mountain. The picture 
owes great part of its effect to the lustre of 
the jewels in the armlet of the latter, and 
to the beautiful colours of his wings. — Eus- 
kin. Stones of Venice, iii. 341. 

Subject treated also by Sandro Botticelli, 
Sistine Chapel; Perugino, Sala del Incen- 
dio, Vatican ; J. Konig, Pommersfelden Gal- 


lery ; Jan Brueghel ; Gerard de Lairesse ; 
M. T. Schmidt (1760) ; Martin de Vos ; Ary 
Scheffer; Edouard Bertin (Salon, 1841) ; Fe- 
lix de Boischevalier (Salon, 1844) ; C. T. 
Lecomte (Salon, 1861). 

Michelangelo da Garavaggio, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg. Two figures half-length. Christ 
seated, crowned with thorns, and holding 
a reed in his bound hands ; behind him an 
executioner, who opens his mouth as if cry- 
ing out. Lithographed by H. Robillard. — 
Gal. Imp. de I'Hermitage, 1845. 

By Lodovico Garracci, Bologna Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 8 ft. 7 in. x 4 ft. 2 in. Christ 
seated in a dungeon, his hands bound be- 

Christ Crowned with Thorns, Anton van Dyck, Berlin Museunn. 

fore him, with three executioners pressing 
the crown of thorns upon his head ; in back- 
ground, two soldiers and a priest. Painted 
for Church of the Certosa, Bologna. En- 
graved by I. Trabalesi ; G. Tomba. — Pinac. 
di Bologna, PL 66. 

By Anton van Dyck, Berlin Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 8 ft. 6 in. X 6 ft. 7 in. The Saviour, 
with hands bound, seated in a prison, sur- 

rounded by seven men, one of whom is 
presenting him a reed, while another fixes 
a crown of thorns upon his head. Camed 
to Paris, and restored in 1815. Engraved 
by Bolswert ; J. Falck ; CI. Drevet ; Campi- 
on ; lithographed byRegnier (1840). Copy 
in Madrid Museum. — Smith, iii. 36 ; Guif- 

By Guercino, Munich Gallery; canvas, H. 
3 ft. 7 in. X 4 ft. 9 in. Figures half-length; 
Christ, with hands bound, holding the reed ; 
at right, a soldier in armour, pressing the 
crown upon his head ; at left, a priest. 
Lithographed by F. Piloty. — Pinac. Mun- 

By Andrea Solaria, Liitschena, near Leip- 
sic ; canvas on panel, H. 2 ft. 4^ in. x 1 ft, 
8 in.; signed. Christ, with fettered hands, 
a rope around the neck, and the crown of 
thorns. Bought from the Friesische Samm- 
lung, Vienna.— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 57. 

By Titian, Louvre ; wood, H. 10 ft. x 5 ft. 
11 in.; signed. Christ struggling on steps 
of the prison, over gateway of which is a 
bust of Tiberius ; his arms, bound at the 
vyrists, held by kneeling soldier, while two 
men with long reeds press the crown of 
thorns on his head. Painted about 1553 ; 
probably taken in 1559 by Orazio Vecelli to 
Milan, where it adorned S. M. deUe Grazie 
until removed to France beginning of this 
century. Duplicate in Venice Academy. En- 
graved by L. Scaramuccia ; V. Lefebre ; Re- 
bault— C. & C, Titian, ii. 264; Pilhol, vii. 
PI. 457 ; Landon, Mus^e, iv. PL 71 ; Mus^e 
fran9ais, i. 

By Titian, Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 8 
ft. 7h in. X 5 ft. 7 in. Differs in some re- 
spects from the picture in the Louvre, the 
scene being laid in the gloom of a passage, 
lighted by a hanging lamp. Supposed to be 
the picture given about 1571 by Titian to Tin- 
toretto, who preserved it in his studio, and 
sold by Domenico Tintoretto to a foreigner. 
Adaptation of it by Rubens, in Berlin Mu- 
seum, and one by Van Dyck in Madrid Mu- 
seum.— Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i. 270 ; C. & C, 
Titian, u. 399. 


Subject treated also by Michelangelo da 
Caravaggio, Munich GaUery; Marten van 
Heemskirck, Nuremberg GaUery. 

Paris. The body of Christ lies upon a flat 
stone covered with a black pall, the right 

Christ Crowned with Thorns, Titian, Louvre. 

arm hanging down, the hand touching a 
copper dish in which are the nails and a 
cloth stained with blood, and beside which 
is the crown of thorns ; at the head sits an 
angel, partly covered with violet drapery, 
who holds a trumpet in his right and raises 
with his left hand the pall ; at the foot, a 
second angel, in a purple tunic, is bent in 
grief over the Saviour's feet. Salon, 1873. 
Etched by Charles "Waltner. — Gazette des 
B. Arts (1873), viii. 42 ; Larousse, xvi. (Sup.), 



See Tribute Money. 

Guido Eeni, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 
11 ft. 6 in. X 8 ft. 1 in. Christ, standing, 
attended by an angel, bearing the banner 
of Redemption, and followed by two dis- 
ciples with clasped hands, appears to the 
Virgin, who kneels at left ; behind her, in 
background, is St. Charles Borromeo, an 
angel, Adam, and Eve ; above, angels with 
palms. From Modena Gallery. Engraved 
by N. Tardieu. — Gal. Eoy. de Dresde, i. PI. 

By Titian, S. Maria, Medole ; canvas, H. 9 
ft. X 6 ft. 6 in. Meeting of Mary and Christ 
after the Ascension ; the Virgin, kneeling on 
the clouds, raises her hands in surprise as 
Christ, in grave-clothes, shows her the stig- 
mata ; behind him are Adam, Eve, and two 
patriarchs. Painted in 1554, and presented 
by Titian to the church when his nephew 
became canon ; damaged by its concealment 
iu a tomb during French Revolution ; unsuc- 
cessfully restored in 1862. — C. & C, Titian, 
ii. 240. 

Copenhagen, July 23, 1845. Landscape 
painter ; pupU of Copenhagen Academy 
under Kiaerschou, where he won prizes 
in 1865 and 1871, went in 1873 to Paris, 
where he was much influenced by the col- 
ouris. Member of Copenhagen Academy in 
1881. Works: Beech Tree (1865); Zealand 
Landscape (1870) ; Fenn in North Zealand 
(1871) ; Highway with WiUows (1873); Him- 
melbjerget (1880), Copenhagen GaUery. — 
Sigurd MiiUer, 61; Weilbach, 111. 


of Religion in Arts. 

OF, Vincenzo Catena, S. M. Mater Domini, 
Venice ; wood, arched at top. Christ, on 
high, gives a blessing to the Saint kneeling 
on a cloud at his feet ; below, in a landscape, 



St. Christina looking up to heaven, surround- 
ed by angels bearing the instruments of her 
martyrdom. A very lovely example of the 
Venetian religious school, but marked by 
want of originality. Painted in 1520 for the 
church where it still hangs. — Euskin, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 312 ; C. & C, N. Italy, i. 251 ; 
Burckhardt, 601. 


fer, Podor Collection, Amsterdam ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft. X 8 ft. niustration of Luke iv. 18. 
Christ seated upon clouds, with his arms 
extended, offers consolation to the poor, the 
blind, the broken-hearted, and those in cap- 
tivity. Salon, 1837 ; purchased by Due 
d'Orleans ; his sale (1853), 52,500 fr. to M. 
Fodor. Engraved by Henriquel Dupont. — • 
Ch. Blanc, ficole franpaise ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1874), X. 565 ; Larousse, iv. 214. 

fer. Christ, standing, turned a Utile toward 
the right, his feet bare, extends his arms 
toward the good and the repentant sinners. 
Painted in 1847. Engraved by A. Blan- 
chard. — Larousse, iv. 214. 

rain, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 11 in. 
X 5 ft. Chryseis, or more properly Asty- 
nome, daughter of Chryses, priest of Apollo, 
had been taken prisoner by AchUles and ad- 
judged to Agamemnon, who was obliged by 
the anger of Apollo to restore her to her 
father. (Homer, II., i. 10, 378). The ship in 
which Ulysses has brought her lies in the 
port ; in foreground, sailors land goods, and 
at left, animals for sacrifice; in second plane, 
left, an Ionic temple, on the peristyle of 
which Chryses, surrounded by attendants, 
is receiving his daughter. Liber Veritatis, 
No. 80. Painted for Prince de Liancourt, 
from whom acquired by Louis XIV. En- 
graved by D. Barriere (1654). — Pattison, 
Claude Lorrain, 59, 241; ViUot, Cat. 

OF, Sebastian del Fiombo, S. Giovanni 

Crisostomo, Venice ; canvas, figures life- 
size. The Saint, attended by one of- the 
fathers, is seated in front of a palace, cor- 
recting a book of homilies on his knee ; on 
one side SS. Mary Magdalen, Catherine and 
Agnes; on the other, SS. John Baptist and 
Liberale ; background, rich landscape. 
Painted in Venice in 1513 ; ascribed to Gio. 
Bellini by Burckhardt.— C. & C, N. Italy, 
ii. 312; Eosini, v. 224; Vasari, ed. Mil., 
V. 566 ; Burckhardt, 597 ; Kugler (Eastlake), 
ii. 512. 

at Hartford, Conn., 
May 4, 1826. Land- 
scape painter ; pupil 
of Thomas Cole at 
Catskill, N. Y., where 
his first pictures were 
painted. Elected N. A. 
in 1849. Made sketch- 
ing tours in South 
America in 1853 and 
1857 ; later, on coast ^' 
of Labrador and in Jamaica, and in 1868 
visited Europe and the Holy Land. Medal, 
2d class, Paris, 1867. Studios in New York 
and in Hudson. Visited Mexico in 1883. 
Works : Andes of Ecuador (1855), WiUiam 
H. Osborn, New York; The Great FaU— Niag- 
ara (1857), Corcoran Gallery, Washington ; 
Heart of the Andes (1859), David Dows, 
New York; Icebergs (1861), Sir Edward 
Watkins, London ; Cotopaxi (1862), Lenox 
Library, New York ; Chimborazo (1864), 
William H. Osborn, ib. ; St. Thomas in the 
Vale — Jamaica (1866), Mrs. Samuel Colt, 
Hartford, Conn.; Niagara (1866), Mrs. A. T. 
Stewart, New York ; Damascus (1869), WiU- 
iam Walter Phelps, ib.; Eainy Season in 
the Tropics (1870), Mrs. M. O. Eoberts, ib.; 
Jerusalem (1870), T. M. AUyn, Hartford ; 
The Parthenon (1871), M. K. Jesup, New 
York ; El Khasna Petra (1872), Mrs. F. E. 
Church, ib.; Tropical moonlight (1874), 
William H. Osborn, ib.; ^gean Sea ^1875), 
William H. Osborn, ib.; Valley of Santa 
Ysabel (1875), John Buckingham, Chicago ; 



El Ayn (The Fountain, 1876) ; Syria by the 
Sea (1876), James F. Joy, Detroit ; Morning 
in the Tropics (1877), William E. Dodge, 
Jr., New York ; The Monastery (1878), Hurl- 
but Collection, Cleveland, O. ; Valley of Santa 
Marta (1879), Charles Parsons, St. Louis. 

CHDECH, F. S., born at Grand Eapids, 
Mich., in 1842. Animal painter; pupil of 
the National Academy and of the Chicago 
Academy. Paints in oil and water-colour, 
and draws in black and white. Elected an 
A.N.A in 1885. Member of Society of 
American Artists. Studio in New York. 
Works in oil : Mad as March Hares ; 
Weirdness ; Solo ; Sea Princess ; Back from 
the Beach (1879); Muskrat's Nest (1880); 
Foggy Day (1881) ; Willing Captive (1883). 
Water-Colours : Hard Times ; Chilly Day 
(T. B. Clarke, New York); Foraging Party ; 
Elfin Tandem ; Phantom ; Ostrich Dance ; 
Awkward Squad ; Pandora, King's Flamin- 
goes (1884); Peacocks in the Snow (1885). 

(MICHEL fiDOXJARD), born in Paris, 
Feb. 11, 1799, died there, Jan. 10, 1877. 
French school ; genre painter, pupil of 
Guerin, of Picot, and of ]tcole des Beaux 
Arts. Painted also historical subjects, 
landscapes, and portraits, and executed fres- 
cos in the Church of St. Leu. Medals : 2d 
class, 1836 ; 1st class, 1843, 1857, and 1863 ; 
L. of Honour, 1863. Works : Judith, Cam- 
bray Museum ; Wounded Mother nurs- 
ing Child, The Sybarites (1827); Christ 
tempted by Satan, Incident in Life of Frede- 
gonda, Louis XV. and Mile, de Humieres, 
Amours of the Angels, Chain Gang (1886) ; 
Indiscreet Visit, Diana painted by Jean 
Goujon before Henri H., Little Conscripts, 
GaUleo at Notre Dame, Eaphael and Peru- 
gino. Young Married Woman, Eegina CcbU 
(1846) ; Nativity, Charity, Valley of Fonte- 
nay-aux-Eoses, Chestnut-Trees of Aulnay, A 
Thicket (1855); Origin of the Sacred Heart, 
St. Luke, Paris ; Funeral of Godfrey de 
Bouillon, Victory of Eaymond Dupuy, De- 
fence of Beauvais, Versailles Museum ; Park 
at Orsay, Spring-Time, Summer, Environs 

of Sceaux (1857) ; The Angel can Sleep, The 
Angel Watches, Environs of Sceaux, First 
Days of May (1859) ; Landscape at Aulnay, 
Chartreux Convent at Sceaux (1861); Val- 
ley of the Brevre, Cliffs at Treport, The 
Sarthe (1863) ; Whirlpool near Seineport 
(1864), Luxembourg Museum ; Soisy-on-the- 
Ecole (1865), Valley of Sceaux, View near 
BeauHeu (1866); View at Eochefort (1867); 
Gravel-Pit, Environs of Paris (1868); Woods 
of Meudon, Chestnut-trees (1869); Vision of 
Ezekiel, Environs of Sevres (1874). — La- 
rousse ; L'Art (1877), viii. 24. 

CIGALE, LA (The Grasshopper), Jules 
Joseph Lefehvre, D. Catlin, St. Louis ; can- 
vas, H. 8 ft. X 3 ft. Illustration of La Fon- 
taine's fable. Female figure, full length, 
nude, standing, biting her fingers and pout- 
ing as the first breeze of autumn whistles. 
— Art Treasures of America, iii. 55. 

CIGNANI, CARLO, Count, born in Bo- 
logna, May 15, 1628, 
died at Forli, Sept. 
6, 1719. Bolognese 
school ; of an ancient 
Bolognese family ; 
most noted pupil of 
Albani ; afterward 
studied works of Cor- 
reggio and of Anni- 
bale Carracci. About 
1658 he painted for 
Cardinal Farnese, in the Palazzo Publi- 
co, Bologna, the two frescos representing 
the Entry of Paul IH. into Bologna, and 
Francis I. of France healing Lepers. His 
most important work was the painting of 
the cupola of the Cathedral at Forli, 
which occupied him nearly twenty years, 
the subject being the Assumption of the 
Virgin. Works: Infant Christ and St. 
John, Mater Dolorosa, Palazzo Corsini, 
Eome ; Charity, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; do., Turin Gallery ; Bacchus and 
Erigone, Nero and the Body of his Mother, 
Achilles and Ulysses, Magdalen, Madonna, 
Cassel Gallery ; Chastity of Joseph, Dresden 



OXc/diL CcbS'tcl/cr a^/ ^trntaria ^/^icrrc'/iti/ia I anno 

I anno luia. - 

isbi. nacni 

\ Lti^c- yJ ar>z, jf''trmrHi cl^l ■ 

JG . ./'^zz^ /coL^ 


Gallery ; Assumption, Infancy of Jupiter, 
Munich Gallery ; Boman Charity, Madonna, 
Vienna Museum ; Death of Cleopatra, Glas- 
gow Gallery ; Venus and Anchises, Berlin 
Museum ; Adam and Eve, Hague Museum ; 
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife, Tarquin and 
Lucretia, Holy Family, Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Magdalen, Dulwich Gallery. Cignani was 
made a Count by the Duke of Parma, for 
whom he 

decorated ^"^^ ^^"^ 

a pavilion. M ^ 

He wasL^^^r^ 1^(7^1 
the found- i 

er of the tf"^^^ 

tine Academy of Bologna. Among his pupils 
were his son. Count ITelice Cignani (1660- 
^»v ^an« 1724), and his nephew, Paolo 
fe\ X4* CJignani (1709-1764).— Mal- 
■* vasia, ii. 198 ; Lanzi, iii. 143; 

Ch. Blanc, £cole bolonaise ; Burckhardt, 
764, 772, 786. 

Salo, near Verona, in 1706, died in Verona, 
Dec. 1, 1770. Venetian school ; history 
painter, pupil in Venice of Santo Prunato, 
and of Balestra, and studied works of P. Ver- 
onese and Correggio. Lived long in Ven- 
ice ; was one of founders and in 1769 director 
of Verona Academy. Was one of the best 
of modern Venetian painters. Works : 
Death of Rachel, Venice Gallery ; replica, 
Lille Museum ; Flight into Egypt, S. An- 
tonio Abbate, Parma ; St. Francis receiving 
Stigmata, Church at PontremoU; Triumph of 
Pomponius, Verona Museum ; Transfigura- 
tion, Verona Cathedral ; Madonna with 
Saints, Vienna Museum ; Assumption, Ma- 
drid Museum. — Bevilagna, Memorie della 
Vita di G. C. 

at Cigoli, near Florence, Sept. 21, 1559, 
died in Rome, June 8, 1613. Florentine 
school. Real name Cardi, but commonly 
called after his native village ; pupil of Ales- 
sandro Allori and of Santi di Tito, but 
formed his style chiefly from study of the 

works of Correggio and Barocci. Some- 
times called the Correggio of Tuscany ; but, 
though some of his works are Correggesque 
in feeUng, he is in no wise to be compared 
with that gTeat painter. After executing 
many important works in Florence he went 
to Rome, where he painted (1606) for St. 
Peter's the Lame Man healed by Peter, no 
longer extant, which Sacchi called the best 
work painted in Rome after Raphael's 
Transfiguration and Domenichino's Com- 
munion of St. Jerome. Cigoli, who was a 
good draughtsman and a pleasing colourist, 
delighted in powerful efiects of light and 
shade. Some of his best works are : Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Stephen, Uffizi ; St. Francis, 
Ecce Homo, Pitti, Florence ; Flight into 
Egypt, St. Francis in Contemplation, and a 
portrait. Louvre ; David with Head of Go- 
liath, Tobias, Marriage of St. Catherine, 
Circumcision, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — 
Ch. Blanc, ifecole florentine ; Seguier, 40 ; 
Burckhardt, 235, 766, 789, 793 ; Baldinucci, 
iii. 230. 

uli about 1460 ; 
according to Ri- 
dolfi, lived till 
1517, but the 
latest genuine 
date on his pict- 
ures is 1508. Ve- 
netian school. X~ 
Real name Gio- / / 
vanni Battista 
da Conegliano ; 
known in his time as II Conegliano, but in 
and since the 17th century as Cima da C. 
Settled in Venice, where he earned a well- 
deserved celebrity as a composer of sacred 
subjects. His early pictures are in tempera, 
but he soon acquired the use of oils, and 
became one of the best of the Bellinesque 
painters. While taking a place by Giovanni 
Bellini's side, he shows some peculiarities 
which recall Antonello da Messina ; and he 
has been called the Masaccio of the Vene- 
tian school. His favourite theme is the 



Madonna witli or without saints, to whom 
he gives an air of calm contentment. 
Among his best works are : Madonna and 
Saints (1492), ConegUano Duomo ; Madonna 
with Saints, in the Louvre; Baptism of 
Christ, S. Giovanni, Bragora (1494); In- 
credulity of St. Thorms, Madonna with 
Saints, Venice Academy ; Madonna with 
Saints (2), Parma Gallery ; St. Marh curing 
Anianus, Berlin Museum ; St. Peter Martyr, 
Brera, Milan. Other examples in the gal- 



1 n ip^cMijlr ^niotlw 

leries of Modena, Munich, etc. — C. & C, N. 
Italy, i. 232 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole venitienne ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iii 645, 663 ; Burckhardt, 
82, 500 ; Ltlbke, GescL. ital. Mai., i. 545. 
ence in 1240, 
died there 
about 1302. 
Plor entin e 
school; of a 
noble Floren- 
tine family, the 
Cimabui ; pu- 
pil, according 
to Vasari, of 
certain Greek 
painters, called 
to Florence by the government to revive 
painting, who worked in the CappeUa de' 
Gondi of S. M. Novella, where Cimabue at- 
tended school. But Florence had painters 
and miniaturists, such as Eustici (1166), 
Marchisello (1191), Fidanza (1224), and 
Bartolommeo (1236), long before Cimabue's 
birth, and a street called the Via de' Pittori, 
which proves that the calling of Greek 
painters to restore art was as unnecessary 

as it is incredible. Also the chapel in S. M. 
Novella, where they are said to have painted, 
is contemporary with the church which was 
erected in 1279, when Cimabue was thirty- 
nine years old. Cimabue's fame is due first 
to his superior gifts, which enabled him to 
begin to cast off the fetters of Byzantinism ; 
second, to the fact that hQ was the master 
of Giotto ; and third, because his name is 
mentioned by Dante. His most certain work 
is his famous Madonna de' EuceUai in the 
Capella EuceUai, S. M. Novella, which Charles 
of Anjou is said to have been taken to see 
(1267), and for which the quarter of the 
city where it was painted is said by Vasari 
to have been named the Borgo Allegri, a 
name given before 1301, but whether in 
honour of the picture or not is uncertain. 
The personage in a white and gold costume 
painted by Simone di Martino in the Cap- 
peUa dei Spagnuoli, whose head we have 
engraved, though designated by Vasari as 
Cimabue, is probably a French cavalier, 
perhaps the so-caUed Duke of Athens, Wal- 
ter de Brienne, whUom tyrant of Flor- 
ence. Among the supposed works of Cima- 
bue are : Madonna with angels, Florence 
Academy ; Crucifix and a Madonna, sacris- 
ty, S. Croce ; Madonna with Angels, National 
Gallery, London ; Madonna with Angels, 
Louvre ; mosaic, Saviour enthroned be- 
tween the Virgin and St. John, properly 
called the Majesty, Duomo, Pisa ; frescos, S. 
Francesco, Assisi, on three waUs, left tran- 
sept, and in choir. Upper Church ; Evan- 
gelists, central ceUing of transept ; Four 
Doctors of the Church, ceiling near portal, 
do.; colossal Madonna with Angels, west 
side over altar of Crucifixion, south transept 
wall. Lower Church. — Vasari, ed. Mil., i. 
247 ; C. & C, Italy, i. 201 ; Seguier, 43 ; 
Burckhardt, 488, 494; Baldinucci, i. 21; 
Ltibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 90. 

OF, Sir Frederick Leighton, Buckingham 
Palace, London. Cimabue's famous picture 
of the Madonna de' EuceUai carried in pro- 
cession through the streets of Florence to S. 


M. Novella. In front of the Madonna walks 
Cimabue, crowned with laurels, with his 
pupil Giotto; behiad it, Arnolfo di Lapo, 
Gaddo Gaddi, Andrea Tafi, Nicolo Pisano, 
Buffalmacco, and Simons Memmi ; in the 
corner, Dante. Painted in Eome ; K. Acad- 
emy, 1855 ; purchased by the Queen. — Univ. 
Mag. (1879), m. 51. 

CIMON, Greek painter, of Cleonse, middle 
of 5th century b.c. He developed the in- 
ventions of Eumarus, and was the first to 
give variety to attitude, to indicate the form 
under drapery, and to draw the eyes cor- 
rectly instead of following the old method, 
as the Egyptians did.— Pliny, xxxv. 34 [55]; 
Aelian, viii. 8. 

ence in 1502, died about 1600. Florentine 
school; history painter, pupil in Eome of 
Francesco Salviati ; invited to Spain by Philip 
n. in 1567; painted there many pictures in 
oU and fresco for the Escorial and the Pa- 
lazzo del Pardo. Works: Two pictures with St. 
Jerome reading, St. Jerome preaching, two 
scenes from life of St. Lawrence, Escorial ; 
Circumcision (1572-73), Academy of S. Fer- 
nando, Madrid ; Transfiguration, St. Peter, 
St. Paul, St. Lawrence (fresco), Madrid 
Academy; Mythological subjects at Infan- 
tado Palazzo, Guadalajara. His sons, Diego 
Eomolo (died in Eome, 1625), and Francis- 
co Eomolo (died in Eome, 1635), were por- 
trait painters. — Cean Bermudez. 

CIONE. See Orcagm. 

CniCE, Dosso Dossi, Palazzo Borghese, 
Eome. The enchantress, in a purple and 
gold robe, and with a rich turban, seated in 
a forest landscape ; in her right hand she 
holds a tablet with necromantic signs ; at 
her feet are a magic circle, a coat of mail, a 
dog, and two birds ; near her, several swine 
bound to a tree ; in distance, three knights 
bivouacking on the grass. — Kugler (East- 
lake), ii. 488. 

By Ouercivo, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 ft. x 
3 ft. 2 in. Wearing a turban ornamented 
with an aigrette and a diamond clasp on her 
head, she holds in one hand a wand, and in 

the other a golden vase ; near her, upon a 
table, are a vase and an open book with 
cabalistic characters. In Guercino's third 
manner. Collection of Louis XIV. En- 

Circe, Guercino, Louvre, 

graved by M. Gandolfi. — Musee royal ; Fil- 
liol, ii. 80 ; Landon, Musee, vi. PL 56. 

ULYSSES, Briton Biviere, London ; canvas, 
H. 2 ft. X 4 ft. The sorceress, having 
changed the companions of Ulysses into 
swine, sits at left on a raised floor under a 
vine-clad wall, with her wand lying beside 
her, calmly contemplating the pigs wallow- 
ing before her or seeking in vain to reach 
her platform. Painted in 1871. Engraved 
by Stacpoole. 

CIECUMCISION, Federigo Barocci, 
Louvre ; canvas, H. 12 ft. 2 in. X 8 ft. 8 in. ; 
sigTied, dated 1580. The Child seated on 
the knees of one of the ofiicers of the temple, 
with priests and assistants standing near; 
behind, the Virgin and St. Joseph, kneeling ; 
above, two angels in adoration. Painted for 
oratory of the brotherhood of the Nome di 
Dio, Pesaro ; carried to Paris in 1799 ; given 
in 1811 to church of Notre Dame, Paris ; 
placed in Louvre in 1862. — Villot, Louvre. 



By Giovanni Bellini, Castle Howard, Eng- 
land ; -wood, figures one-third life-size ; sign- 
ed. Simeon stoops over the Child in the 
arms of St. Joseph ; the Virgin and a male 
and female saint look on. Painted probably 
before 1486 ; formerly in Orleans GaUery. 
Copy, probably by Catena, in Leuchtenberg 
Gallery, St. Petersburg ; another by Marco 
Belli in Museum of Eovigo ; a third at Gros- 
venor House, London ; a fourth in Palazzo 
Doria, Eome, and others in Pavia, Vienna, 
and Venice.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 148; Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 416. 

By Luca Signorelli, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. ; signed. 
Altarpiece with ten figures, life-size ; in cen- 
tre, before altar apse, the priest, looking up- 
ward. In the angles of the semicircular 
picture are two circles with two prophets. 
"One of the most important pictures by 
this great master." Hamilton Palace sale 
(1882), £3,150.— Waagen, Art Treasures, iii. 
299 ; Cat. Ham. Pal. sale, 101; Eichter, 48 ; 
Art Journal (1883), 43, 177. 

By Tintoretto, S. M. del Carmine, Venice. 
Buskin calls it a glorious Tintoret. Canotto 
says here Tintoretto imitated Andrea Schia- 
vone. — • Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 289 ; 
Zanotto, 435. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice. 
The High Priest kneeling with Christ in his 
arms. " Next to the Adoration of the Magi, 
this picture is the most laboriously finished 
of the 56 colossal pictures by Tintoretto in 
the Scuola, and it is unquestionably the high- 
est existing type of the sublimity which may 
be thrown into the treatment of accessories 
of dress and decoration." — Euskin, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 331. 

Subject treated also by Luca Signorelli, 
Vatican, Eome ; School of Eembrandt, Ber- 
lin Museum ; Willem de Poorter, Cassel Gal- 
lery; Marco Marziale, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Lodovico Cigoli, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Luis de Carbajal, ib. 

CIECUS MAXIMUS, Jean L6on G^rdme, 
Mrs. A. T. Stewart, New York. A chariot 
race in the Circus Maximus, Eome, in the 

later days of the empire. Six or seven four- 
horse chariots are abo ut to turn one of the metse 
or goals, behind which, on the spina, is seen 
the obelisk now in the Piazza del Popolo; in 
background, left, the Palace of the Csesars. 
Photogravure in Art Treasures of America. 
— Art. Treas. of Amer., i. 24. 

naso, born at Crema before 1470, died after 
1540. Lombard school ; pupil of Poppa, or 
of Bramantino the elder ; appears in 1493 
as successor of Poppa, at Brescia, whence 
sometimes called Vincenzo Bresciano. Spent 
four years there in adorning the choir of the 
old cathedral, with now destroyed frescos,and 
was honoured with citizenship. About 1507 
he returned to Crema, where he painted the 
SS. Sebastian Rocco and Christoforo (1515), 
in the Duomo, and (1526), fresco portraits 
of great citizens in the town-hall. His latest 
authentic picture is the Baptism of Christ, 
dated 1539, in the Tadini collection. Louvre. 
— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 68 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, iii. 200 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole milanaise ; 
Burckhardt, 608, 610 ; Calin, Notizie, ii. 

CIVETTA. See Bles, Herri de. 

CLAASZ, PIETEE (Claesz van Haarlem), 
Dutch school, born at Steinfurt, Westphalia, 
about 1595 (?), died at Haarlem, buried Jan. 
1, 1661. StiU-life painter, father of Claas 
Berchem ; first mentioned as settled at Haar- 
lem in 1617, when married. Works : Still- 
life (1644), National Museum, Amsterdam ; 
do. (3), Berlin Museum ; Others in Dresden 
(1624), Munich, Schleissheim, Schwerin, Cas- 
sel, and Bamberg Galleries, Wiirzburg Uni- 
versity, AmaUenstift, Dessau; nine (1627- 
53, attributed to Pietro Candido), Palazzo 
Mansi, Lucca ; one (1630), Fitzwilliam Mu- 
seum, Cambridge. — Academy (1882), xxii. 
302, 353 ; Bode, Studien, 224 ; Gaz. des B. 
Ai-ts (1883), xxvii. 183 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
xviii. 167. 

born in Bruges about 1550, died there in 
1613. Flemish school ; history painter ; son 
of Pieter the elder, said to be pupil of Quen- 


tin Matsys, and one of the most excellent 
artists of that period ; entered Bruges guild 
in 1575, and was its dean in 1586, 1590, and 
1601. Works : Two Scenes in Judgment of 
Cambyses (Bruges Academy, ascribed by 
some to Gherardt David); Banquet of Magis- 
trates (1574), Mars sui-rounded by Fine Arts 
(1605), both in Town Hall, Bruges; Triptych 
with Adoration of Shepherds, Triptych 
with Descent from Cross (1609), Legends 
from life of St. Bernard (all in Bruges Ca- 
thedral) ; Consecration of Church in Eome, 
Procession of Corpus Christi (1599), Trip- 
tych with Madonna, aU in Notre Dame, 
Bruges ; Members of Brotherhood of Holy 
Sacrament, St. Jacob's, Bruges ; Last Sup- 
per (1595), St. Egidius, Bruges. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., iv. 269 ; Biog. nat. de Belgique, iv. 
124 ; Michiels, v. 398 ; Nagler, Mon., i. 105, 
119 ; Schnaase, Niederland. Brief e, 331. 

CLAEISSEN, PIETEE, the elder, born 
in Bruges in 1500, died there in 1576. Flem- 
ish school ; history and portrait painter ; pu- 
pil of Adriaan Bekaert ; admitted to guild 
of St. Luke in 1516, master in 1529, dean 
in 1572. Works : Knight kneeling with 
Four Sons, Collection Prince of Orange, 
Brussels ; male portrait, Copenhagen Gallery. 
—Allgem. d. Biogr., iv. 269. 

CLAEISSEN, PIETEE, the younger, born 
in Bruges about 1545, died there, March 17, 
1612. Flemish school ; history painter ; 
brother of Anthony ; entered guild in 1570, 
and was its dean in 1600 and 1606. Works : 
Eesurrection (1585), Triptych with Ecce 
Homo (1609), both in Bruges Cathedral ; 
Triptych with Madonna, Moses and Gideon 
(1606-1608), St. Egidius, Bruges ; Pacifica- 
tion of Ghent, Bruges Academy ; Portraits 
of Charles V. (1609), and PhUip H. (1610), 
Madonna and Almighty with Angela (1608), 
Pottery Hospital, Bruges. — ^AUgem. d.Biogr., 
iv. 270 ; Biog. nat. de Belgique, iii. 126 ; Mi- 
chiels, V. 402. 

born in Paris, Sept. 11, 1848. History paint- 
er ; pupil of Picot and Pils, and of the ficole 
des Beaux Arts. Studio in Paris. Medal 

in 1882. Works : Incident of the Conscrip- 
tion of 1813 (1866) ; Burning Varech in Brit- 
tany, Eobbers of Bay of Trepasses in Brit- 
tany (1868) ; Volunteers of Liberty in Spain 
in 1868 (1869); Massacre of the Abencerrages 
in Grenada, Arab Story-Teller in Tangiers 
(1874); Moses the Sheik's Son (1878); Enter- 

^'t' lair in. 

ing the Harem, W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; 
Froufrou, Women burning Varech (1882); 
Moors in Spain after the Victory (1885); por- 
traits of Sarah Bernhard, Mme. Kraus. 

CLAEA, ST., Velasquez, Dudley House, 
London ; H. 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 1 in. Half- 
length, life-size, with a jewelled crown on 
her head, standing with a palm in her right 
hand and a cup and saucer in her left. 
Thought to be a portrait of Francisca, 
daughter of Velasquez, who married J..B. 
del Mazo. Probably picture sold at Sala- 
manca sale (1867) for 38,000 francs— Ch. 
Blanc, ificole espagnole ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1879) ; Curtis, 10. 

CLAEA, ST., DEATH OF, Murillo, Dud- 
ley House, London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 3 in. x 
14 ft. 4 in. The dying Saint lying on a 
pallet on left, surrounded by monks and 
nuns ; the Saviour and the Virgin approach, 
attended by female saints and martyrs in 
white robes, wearing crowns and bearing 
palms. Painted in 1645-7, one of eleven 
pictures for Convent of S. Francisco, Se- 
ville ; carried to Paris by Gen. M. de Fav- 
iers and sold to M. Aguado ; Aguado sale 
(1865), 75,000 fr.; in Marquis de Salamanca 
sale (1867), 95,000 fr. Copy by Bocanegra 
in Hermitage ; another, varied, D. Eoberto 
Kith, Seville.— Curtis, 223 ; G. de Leon, i. 
59 ; C. Bermudez, Carta, 46 ; Stirling, ii. 
834 ; Gaz. des B. Arts, Jan. 1875 ; L'Elus- 
tration, March 18, 1855 ; Hermitage Cat, 


CLASEN, KARL, born in Diisseldorf in 
1812. History painter; pupil at Diissel- 
dorf Academy under W. Schadow. Painted 
history, sacred and profane, with a pure 
feeling for nature, and careful execution. 
Works : Plight into Egypt (1839); Rudolph 
of Hapsburg giving his Horse to a Sick 
Priest (1840); Pope Sixtus and Deacon Lau- 
rentius (1842) ; Daughter of Jairus (1845) ; 
Discovery of the Springs at Aix-la-ChapeUe ; 
Reconciliation of Queen Catharine with 
Cardinal Wolsey (18S0) ; Allegory of Borus- 
sia (1867).— Brockhaus, iv. 437 ; MuUer, 
106 ; Wiegmann, 178. 

CLASEN, LORENZ, bom in Diisseldorf, 
Dec. 14, 1812. History painter ; cousin of 
Karl ; pupil of Dusseldorf Academy under 
Th. Hildebrandt ; painted at first bibhcal 
scenes, then chiefly subjects from romantic 
history. In 1850 removed to Berlin, 1854, 
to Leipsic. Was also a distinguished writer 
on art. Works : Early Christians ; Annun- 
ciation to the Shepherds (1837); David 
playing before Saul, Conversion of Clovis by 
his Wife Clotilda (1839); Minstrels' Contest 
at the Wartburg ; Conrad 11. (Kaisersaal, 
Frankfort) ; Expulsion of St. Elizabeth 
(1840); Madonna (1841); Blessings of Peace 
and Industry, Entry of Happy Rulers (1844); 
Germania on Guard on the Rhine (City 
HaU, Crefeld); Germania on the Sea, Bish- 
ops of Cologne and Mentz before Conrad H. 
(1847) ; Cycle from History of Families von 
Brandt and von Watzdorf (1865-66).— 
Brockhaus, iv. 437 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1871), 
ii. 175 ; Muller, 106 ; Wiegmann, 204. 

CLAUDE, GEORGES, bom in Paris; 
contemporary. Son and pupil of J. M. Claude 
and pupil of P. Galland. Medal, 3d class, 
1884. Portraits (1879, 1882); Adoration of 
the Cross at Mont Cassin (1884). 

Paris, June 24, 1824. Landscape painter, 
and painter of sporting and hunting scenes ; 
pupil of Galland. Medals : 1866 and 1869 ; 
2d class, 1872. Works : Rendezvous, Re- 
treat (1861); Halloing at the Ponds of Comi- 
elles. Bloodhounds in their Kennel the Day 

before a Hunt (1863) ; Huntsman with 
Hound going to Woods (1864); Morning of 
Beginning and Day of Closing the Hunt 
(1866); Corner of the Kennel (1868); Hunt- 
er's Story (1869); Return from Hunt (1870); 
Antechamber, Souvenir of Rotten Row 
(1872); Returning from Rotten Row (1874); 
Hyde Park (1876) ; These Gentlemen are 
Served, Conversation in Hyde Park (1877) ; 
Sketch on the Cliff, Albert Gate of Hyde 
Park (1878) ; Confidence (1879) ; Sit Up- 
right (1881) ; Sunset, Spring-Time (1882) ; 
At the Rendezvous in Fontainebleau (1883). 
CLAUDE LORRAIN, born in Cham- 
pagne on the Mo- 
selle in 1600, died 
in Rome, Nov. 23, 
1682. Frenchschool; 
landscape painter ; 
real name Gellee ; 
pupil in drawing of 
his elder brother 
Jean, wood engraver 
at Freiburg in Breis- 
gau. Taken to 
Rome in 1613 by a relative, he went 
thence to Naples, where he spent two years 
as pupil of Godfrey Wals, a painter from 
Cologne. From 1619 to April, 1625, he 
lived at Rome, working as apprentice 
and valet to Agostino Tassi, who was em- 
ployed by the Cardinal di Montalto to 
decorate his palace, after which he returned 
to Lorraine by Venice and the Tyrol At 
Nancy he found employment in decorating 
the Chapelle des Carmes, for Duke Charles 
HI., with figures and architectural orna- 
ments, until the middle of the year 1627, 
when he returned to Rome to remain for 
the rest of his life. Here he became inti- 
mate with Sandarrt, Peter de Laar, and 
Poussin, and spent his time in making stud- 
ies in the Campagna, at Tivoli, Frascati, and 
Subiaco. By 1634, Claude had become a 
celebrity at Rome and had painted many 
pictures, although none are known of a date 
earlier than the Village Fete and the Sea 
Port at the Louvre of the year 1639. The 











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"Liber Veritatis," a collection of 200 draw- 
ings, owned by the Duke of Devonshire, 
was begun about 1634, and finished March 
25, 1675, as a record of work projected as 
well as accomplished, and not probably, as 
is generally supposed, to guarantee the 
authenticity of all the pictures which left 
Claude's studio. In the height of his 
fame, the painter was patronised at Rome 
by the King of Spain and the Elector of 
Bavaria, Prince Doria, the Dukes de Be- 
thune and de Crequy, and many other dis- 
tinguished persons. From the church of 
the Trinita, di Monte, where he was buried, 
and where his monument was destroyed by 
the French in 1798, his remains were removed 
in 1840 to the church of S. Luigi in Fran- 
cesi at the suggestion of M. Thiers. Works : 
Marriage of Isaac and Rebecca, Temple of 
Delos, and 2 other landscapes, Palazzo 
Doria, Rome ; The Setting Sun, Palazzo 
Sciarra, Rome ; 2 landscapes, Palazzo Bor- 
ghese, Rome; Landscapes, Naples Muse- 
um ; do., Palazzo, Madama, Turin ; Hagar 
expelled by Abraham, Hagar in the Desert 
(1668), The Herdsman (1656), Morning 
(1674), Old Pinakothek, Munich; Flight 
into Egypt, Polyphemus (1650), Dresden 
Gallery ; ItaUan Coast View (1642), Berlin 
Museum ; Morning, and 11 other landscapes. 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Magdalen Pray- 
ing, and 9 landscapes, Madrid Museum ; 
Return of Ghryseis, Cleopatra landing at 
Tarsus (1647), and 15 other landscapes. Lou- 
vre, Paris ; Marriage of Isaac and Rebecca, 
Gephalus and Procris, Embarkation of Queen 
of Sheha (1648), do. of St. Ursula, Narcissus 
and Echo, and 7 other pictures. National 
Gallery, London ; 6 in Dulwich Gallery ; 
Rape of Europa, Buckingham Palace ; 5 
landscapes, Windsor Castle ; Enchanted 
Castle, Lord Over stone ; Mount Tabor, 
Golden Calf, Grosvenor House ; 2 land- 
scapes, Bridgewater House ; Temple of 
Apollo, Landing of ^neas, Agnew, London ; 
Apollo and Marsyas, Earl of Leconfield ; 
Birth of Roman Empire, Decline of Roman 
Empire, Longford Castle ; Ulysses and Nau- 

sicaa, M. H. Arnot, Elmira, N. Y.— Pattison, 
Claude Lorrain ; Rev. des Deux Mondes, 
Jan. 15, 1884, 365 ; Sandrart, Academy 
Nob. artis picturse (Nuremberg, 1683). 

CLAUSEN, GEORGE, born in England ; 
contemporary. Landscape and genre painter. 
Exhibits at Royal Academy and Grosvenor 
Gallery. Works: Night brings Rest, A 
Study, Women Washing— Zuyder-Zee (1879) ; 
La Pensee (1880) ; Haverstock HiU (1881); 
Gleaners (1882) ; Marie, Hay-Time, Winter 
Work (1883); Labourers after Dinner (1884); 
End of a Winter's Day, Crow Starving 

CLAXTON. MARSHALL, bom at Bolton, 
Lancashire, in 1811, died in London in 1881. 
History painter, pupil of John Jackson, and 
of the Royal Academy; won the first medal in 
painting school in 1834, and gold medal of 
Society of Arts in 1835. He visited Italy in 
1837; won prize of £100 at Westminster 
Hall Exhibition in 1843 for his Alfred the 
Great in Camp of the Danes ; went to Aus- 
tralia in 1850, to India and Egypt in 1855, 
returning with many sketches. Works : 
Christ blessing Little Children, school-room 
at St. Stephens, Westminster ; Spenser read- 
ing the Faerie Queene, Mother of Moses, 
Grandmother, Free Seat, Baroness Burdett- 
Coutts ; Christ at Tomb of Lazarus, View of 
Sydney, Last Queen of the Aborigines, Col- 
lection of the Queen ; Sir Joshua Reynolds 
and his Friends ; Hagar and Ishmael ; Death- 
bed of John Wesley. — Bryan (Graves). 

CLAYS, PAUL JEAN, born in Bruges in 
1819. Marine painter, pupil in Paris of 
Gudin ; lives in Brussels. Medals : Brussels, 
1851; 2d class, Paris, 1867, 1878 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1875 ; Officer, 1881; Order of Leopold. 
Works : After Shipwreck (1852), Ghent Mu- 
seum ; Windy Weather, Portuguese Xebec in 
Sight of French Squadron, Entrance of 
Queen Victoria into Port of Ostend, Coast 
Scene in Flanders (1855) ; Environs of Tre- 
port (1855); Duke of Ostend (1857); The 
Scheldt at Antwerp (1859) ; Entrance to 
Southampton Water, Calm on the Scheldt 
(1868); Morning Light, Dead Calm, Squall 


on the Scheldt (1874); Thames near London, 
View on the Scheldt (1875) ; Bruges, North 
Sea (1876); Zuyder-Zee near Texel, Canal 
in Zelande (1877) ; Canal in the Nieuwe- 
Maas, Saardam (1878); Dutch Vessels in a 
Calm (1863), Dutch Boats in Koads of Flush- 
ing (1870), National Gallery, London ; Be- 
calmed near Amsterdam, Eough Sea on Coast 
of Flanders (1884) ; In Eoadstead of Dun- 
kirk, Fog at Dawn (1885). — Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1867), xxiii. 16 ; L'Art, 1876. 

CLEANTHES, Greek painter, of Corinth, 
early period. According to Pliny (xxxv. 5 
[15]) the invention of line-drawing was as- 
signed both to him and to Philocles the 
Egyptian. The Temple of Artemis Alphse- 
onia, near Olympia, contained his paintings 
of the Eiupersis (taking of Troy) and the 
birth of Athena. — Strabo, viii. 3, 12. Athen- 
agoras Leg. pro Christ., 14 (p. 59, ed. De- 

CLEEP, JAN VAN, bom at Venloo, Guel- 
derland, in 1646, died in Ghent in 1716. 
Flemish school ; history painter, pupil of 
Luigi Primo (Gentile), then in Brussels of 
Gaspard de Craeyer, whom he assisted with 
his numerous works for churches in the 
Low Countries, and on the death of his 
master completed those left unfinished. One 
of the ablest artists of his country. His 
most esteemed works are in the churches 
and in the Museum of Ghent, whither he 
removed in 1681. Works : Assumption, St. 
James's ; Immaculate Conception, St. Mi- 
chael's ; Magdalen at Feet of Christ, St. 
Nicholas ; Sisters of Charity during the 
Plague, Convent of the Black Nuns, all in 
Ghent. — Biog. nat. de Belgique, iv. 141; Mi- 
chiels, ix. 91. 

CLEEP (Cleve), JOOST VAN, called de 
Zotte (crazy) Cleef, born in Antwerp ; flour- 
ished 1530-1550. Flemish school. Painted 
in France and England. One of the best 
portrait painters of 16th century, approach- 
ing style of Hans Holbein, and foreshadow- 
ing Antonio Moro ; great colourist. The 
preference which Henry 'VlH. gave to Ti- 
tian's paintings destroyed Van Cleefs rea- 

son ; he died insane. Some of his best 
pictures are : Portraits of himself and wife, 
"Windsor Castle ; portrait of himself. Earl 
Spencer, Althorp ; twQ male portraits, Ox- 
ford ; SS. Cosmo and Damian, Antwerp 
Cathedral ; Last Judgment, Ghent Cathe- 
dral. — Biog. nat. de Belgique, iv. 135 ; Ch. 
Blanc, £cole flamande ; Eooses (Eeber), 70. 

CLEEF, MAETEN VAN, born in Ant- 
werp, died there about 1570. Flemish 
school ; history painter, pupil of Frans Flo- 
ris ; entered Antwerp guild in 1551; is called 
the Master of the Ape, because he some- 
times introduced that animal as his mark. 
His brother Hendrik (died in Antwerp, 1589) 
supplied the landscapes and backgrounds 
in his and in Frans Floris's pictures, while he 
often painted the figures in the landscapes 
of his brother, of Gilles van Conincxloo, 
and others. His four sons, Gilles, Marten, 
Georges, and Nicholas, were also painters. 
Works : Eoom in Peasant's Cottage with 
Company at Table, Vienna Museum. — Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, iv. 139. 

CLEISTHENES, scene painter and archi- 
tect, of Eretria, about 384 b.c. He was 
the father of Menedemus, the pupil of Plato. 
— Diog. Laer., ii. 125. 

Donzere (Dr&me), May 20, 1826. Genre 
painter ; pupil of Drolling and Picot. Won 
the grand prix de Eome, 1856. Paints 
chiefly Oriental scenes. Medals : 3d class, 
1861 ; medal, 1867. Works : Feast of Bai- 
ram in Cairo, Death of Csesar, Destruction 
of Babylon, March of Eecruits, Arab Wo- 
man weeping over her Husband's Tomb 
(1868); Before the Bath (1874); Sick Child 
(1879) ; Circassian Woman in the Harem 
(1880); Morning (1881); Nymphs Surprised, 
Behold the Great Turk (1883). 

9ois Collet, ificole des Beaux Ai'ts, Paris. 
Sons of Cydippe, priestess of Hera at Argos. 
Once, during the festival of Hera, when 
the oxen which were to draw the chariot of 
the priestess did not arrive in time, Cleobis 
and Biton dragged it with their mother 


(ojvra nee arptflces inter te Mufa Jllebvt 

^emas, vitvurcp non ieue, lufce, aecus . 

Quam provriaj natt tarn feUx arte fuijjes; 

[Manjlnet Janum Ji mifero cereSrum . 

^oiv . Lamjtsatitus . 


forty-five stadia to the temple. The priest- 
ess, moved by their filial love, prayed to 
the goddess to grant them what was best 
for mortals. The brothers went to sleep 
in the temple and never rose again. Herod- 
otus, who tells the story (i. 31), makes So- 
lon relate it to Croesus, as a proof that it is 
better for mortals to die than to hve. Cal- 
let won the grand prix de Rome in 1764 
with his picture, which represents the broth- 
ers dragging the chariot to the temple. 

By Carl von Stetten, WiUiam Schaus, New 
York ; canvas, H. 5 ft. x 6 ft. 6 in. Eepre- 
sents the brothers lying in the sleep of 
death in the temple at the foot of the statue 
of Hera ; near them is the altar of the god- 
dess, covered with flowers ; in background, 
people entering the temple exhibit aston- 
ishment at the sight. Salon, 1884. Sub- 
ject treated also by Primaticcio in the Cha- 
teau de Fontainebleau. 

CLEON, Greek painter, about 300 b.c.; 
noted for his picture of Cadmus. Pliny, 
XXXV. 40. 

Leon Gerdme, D. 0. MUls, New York ; can- 
vas, figures half life-size. Scene : Palace of 
the Ptolemies in Alexandria. Cleopatra, 
determined to gain the favour of Csesar, 
caused herself to be carried into his apart- 
ment concealed in a bale of cloth, which 
ApoUodorus, her attendant, bore as a pres- 
ent to him (Dion Cas., xlii. 35 ; Plut, Csesar, 
xlix.). She is represented standing, amid 
the folds of cloth from which she has just 
emerged, glancing at Csesar, who is writing 
at a table. ApoUodorus kneels behind her, 
and several secretaries, writing in back- 
ground, look around curiously. Photo- 
gravure in Art Treasures of America. En- 
graved by J. C. Armytage in Art Journal 
(1877), 12.— Larousse, iv. 431. 

liam Utty, Lord Taunton, London. Cleo- 
patra, as Venus, attended by maids habited 
as Nereids and Graces, and by boys as 
Cupids, sailing along the River Cydnus in a 
magnificent galley, as described by Plu- 

tarch. Royal Academy, 1821 ; sold for 200 
guineas to Sir Francis Freeling, at whose 
sale bought by Mr. Farrer the dealer, who 
disposed of it to Mr. Labouchere for 1,000 
guineas. — Gilchrist, Life, 93 ; Art Union 
(1849), 116. 

By Henri Pierre Picou, private gallery, 
San Francisco ; canvas. Antony and Cleo- 
patra, surrounded by attendants, in a su- 
perb galley, sailing down the Cydnus. Sa- 
lon, 1848 ; exhibited in New York in 1875. 
Engraved by Gautier. 

9ois Gigoux, Luxembourg Museum, Paris ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 9 in. x 6 ft. 5 in. Salon, 

By Guido Reni, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. 1 in. Cleopatra, 
three-fourths length, putting the asp to her 
bosom. Painted about 1640. In Guido's 
third manner. Engraved by N. Le Mire ; 
L. M. Faentino. Repetitions in Madrid, 
Barcelona, and Nancy Museums, in the 
Balbi and Durazzo Galleries, Genoa, and in 
Windsor Castle and private collections in 
England. — Wicar, i. Part 5 ; Gal. du Pal. 
Pitti, i. PL 66 ; Lavice, 68. 

By Alex. Turchi, Louvre ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 
3 in. X 8 ft. 9 in. In foreground, at left, 
Mark Antony, whom two soldiers have car- 
ried into the tomb where Cleopatra has 
taken refuge, is expiring upon a couch ; in 
the background the queen, sustained by 
two women, puts the asp to her breast ; 
three other attendants grieving. — Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Filhol, i. PI. 31. 

By Paolo Veronese, Munich Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft. 7 in. X 2 ft. 10 in. Natural size, 
seen to knees. 

By Guercino, Palazzo Brignole Sale, 
Genoa. Lying on a couch, nude to waist, 
and the rest of the body covered with a 
white drapery, except the feet. One hand 
looses its hold of the asp which it had 
placed on her bosom, the other falls help- 
lessly at her side. — Burckhardt, 770 ; Lavice, 

By Hans Makart, Stuttgart Gallery ; can- 



vas. Cleopatra, as Aphrodite, reclines on a 
couch covered with cushions and rich robes, 
with her head raised awaiting the sting of 
the adder coiled around her arm. One of 
her women is kneeling at her feet, covering 
her face in despair ; another is asleep on 
the floor. The apartment, which is adorned 
with costly vessels and tropical plants, is 
lighted by a tall candelabrum. Painted in 

Subject treated also by Guido Cagnacci, 
Vienna Museum ; Germann van Bohn, Nan- 
tes Museum ; Eegnault, and others. 

Claude Lorrain, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 3 
ft. 11 in. X 5 ft. 6 in. At right, Cleopatra, 
accompanied by six women, and aided by 
DeUius, an officer of Antony, is landing be- 
fore a palace, the steps of which are washed 
by the sea ; Antony, followed by officers, 
advancing to meet her ; at left, several ves- 
sels, from one of which sailors are unlad- 
ing vases of gold and silver. Painted in 
Eome about 1647, for Cardinal Angelo 
Giorio, from whom passed to Louis XIV. 
Liber Veritatis, No. 63. Similar picture in 
CoUection of Sir J. Reynolds, sold (1795) 
for 250 guineas. — Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Pat- 
tison, Claude Lorrain, 212, 241. 

Brussels in 1570, died in 1629. Flemish 
school ; pupil of Marten de Vos, to whose 
style he adhered ; distinguished for the 
poetic treatment of his pictures. Works : 
Holy Family, Christ and the Children, 
Brussels Museum ; Figures in a landscape 
by Alsloot, Vienna Museum. — Michiels, v. 

CLEVE. See Gleef. 

CLICHY, BAEElfiRE DE, Horace Ver- 
net, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 2 in. x 
4 ft. 3 in. ; signed, dated 1820. Defence of 
Paris in 1814. Marshal Moncey gives orders 
to Chief of Battalion Odiot to prevent the 
Eussians from taking possession of the hill 
of Montmartre. Among the figures are: 
Moncey, Odiot, M. de Marguery-Dupaty, 
and Charles and Horace Vernet. Formerly 

in Luxembourg. Engraved by Jazet.— Cat. 

CLINT, ALFEED, bom in London in 
1807. Landscape and marine painter ; son 
and pupil of Geo. Clint, and studied in Brit- 
ish Institute. Began as a portrait painter ; 
became member of Society of British Ar- 
tists in 1850, was its secretary for several 
years, and elected its president in 1869. 
Paints chiefly coast scenery and sunset 
effects. Works: Lake Scene at Sunset, 
Sunset at Hastings, Philadelphia Exposition, 
1876; Twilight, Paris Exposition, 1878; 
St. Michael's Mount — Cornwall, Entrance to 
Harbour of Little Hampton (1877).— Ott- 

CLINT, GEOEGE, born in London, April 
12, 1770, died there. May 10, 1854. Portrait 
painter ; was a house-painter, from which he 
advanced to miniatures, and finally became 
successful both in water-colours and in oils. 
He painted a valuable series of dramatic pict- 
ures, comprising portraits of the favourite 
actors of the time in their most successful 
scenes, many of which are preserved in the 
Garrick Club. Was elected an A.E.A. in 
1821, but resigned in 1836 and became an 
opponent of the Academy, to the exhibitions 
of which he had contributed 94 pictures. 
Works: Falstaff and Mistress Ford, National 
Gallery, London ; Hamlet and Ophelia 
(1831), Paul Pry (1831), Honeymoon, S. 
Kensington Museum ; Spoilt Child, Lord 
Liverpool, and many portraits in private 
collections. Was also a good mezzotint en- 
graver. — Eedgrave ; Bryan (Graves). 

VICH, Baron, born in St. Petersburg in 1836. 
Landscape painter ; pupil of the St. Peters- 
burg Academy, where he won the first prize 
in 1858 ; professor there since 1864. Works: 
Road in Autumn Rain ; View in Government 
of Orel ; Eeturn from the Field ; Plain with 
Cattle.— Mtiller, 108. 

on, born in St. Petersburg in 1839. Genre 
painter ; pupil of the St. Petersburg Acade- 
my, where he won the first prize in 1861. 


'-. .. 



Works : Sewing-Eoom in a Franciscan Mon- 
astery ; Prayer before Baptism ; The Jews ; 
Birthday Celebration in Eussia.— MfiUer, 

CLOET, JEHA]S[. See Clouet, Jean. 

CLOSS, GUSTAV, born in Stuttgart, Nov. 
14, 1840, died at Prien, on Lake Chiem, 
Aug. 14, 1870. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Funk in Stuttgart Art School. Visited 
Italy in 1863, Munich in 1864, Brussels, Ant- 
werp, and Paris in 1866, and settled in Mu- 
nich. His Italian landscapes are pict- 
uresquely conceived and executed with great 
technical skill. His illustrations of German 
poets show the influence of Dor6. Works : 
VUla of Hadrian, Eoad near Sorrento, Group 
of Cypresses near Tivoli, Campagna near 
Eome, Piazza della Fontana in Olevano, 
Evening at Villa Pamfili, The Lonely Inn, 
Christmas Eve, Autumn Night in the Park. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., iv. 342 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
vi. 124. 

CHILDEEN OF, ^Znia-Tadema, King of the 
Belgians. Clotilda, widowed queen of Clo- 
vis, first Christian monarch of France (6th 
century), seated upon a throne in back- 
ground, is watching her sons, who are 
throwing the battle-axe at a wooden target 
under the superintendence of an old cap- 
tain-at-arms. She is attended by priests 
and women ; at left, soldiers watching the 
play. Painted in 1861. Eeplica, J. H. Steb- 
bins, New York. — Art Treasures of America, 
i. 95. 

CLOUET, FEANgOIS, born in Tours 
about 1500, died between 1570 and 1572. 
French school ; son and probably pupil of 
Jean Clouet ; also called, like his father, Janet 
or Maitre Jehannet. Eeceived letters of 
naturalization from Francis I. in 1541, when 
he succeeded his father as painter and valet 
de chambre to the king ; held same offices 
under Henry H. and Charles IX. Works : 
Portrait of Francis I. (1534), Lord Dudley, 
London ; Portrait of the Dauphin Fran5ois 
II. (1524), Antwerp Museum ; do. of Henri 
II. (1553), Louvre ; do. as a youth, Hampton 

Court ; Portrait of Henri H., do. of Duke 
of Anjou, Berlin Museum ; Equestrian por- 
trait of Henri H. (copy?), Uffizi, Florence; 
do. of Azay le Eideau ; Portrait of Charles 
IX. (1563), Vienna Museum ; copy by Clouet 
in little. Louvre; Elizabeth of Austria (1570), 
Louvre ; Henri HI., Due d'Alengon (1577- 
78), Stafford House, London. There are 
many other doubtful pictures attributed to 
Clouet, as weU as hundreds of crayon draw- 
ings. Among the latter are collections in 
the Bibliotheque d'Bstampes and the Louvre, 
Paris, in the British Museum and Stafford 
House, London, at Castle Howard, York- 
shire, and in the Collection of Archduke 
Albert, Vienna, — ■ Pattison, Eenaissance of 
Art in France, i. 327; Ch. Blanc, £cole fran- 
9aise ; Schnasse, viii. 333 ; W. & W., ii. 527; 
Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Siret, 205 ; Gower, Three 
Hundred Portraits by Clouet at Castle How- 
ard (London, 1875); W. & W., ii. 527. 

CLOUET, JEAN, bom about 1485, died 
in Paris (?) 
about 1541. 
school ; son 
of Jehan 
C 1 o e t, a 
painter of 
who was in 
the service 
of the Duke 
of Burgundy 
about 1475; commonly called Maitre Je- 
hannet or Janet (diminutive of Jehan) ; 
settled in France, first at Tours and after- 
ward in Paris. Became painter and valet de 
chambre to Francis I. in 1518 ; probably 
painted portraits, but no authentic work ex- 
tant, unless the Portrait of Francis I. ? 
(1535-40), Louvre, be one. — Laborde, Ee- 
naissance, etc., i. 1, 79 ; FreviUe, Archives 
de I'Art fran?ais, i. 1, 97, 287, iv. 44 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole fran9aise ; ViUot, Cat. Louvre ; 
Pattison, Eenaissance of Art in France, i. 307. 

at Grizane in Dlyria in 1498, died in Eome, 



Jan. 5, 1578. Lombard school. Eeal name 
Glovicic ; sometimes called II Macedone, be- 
cause bis family was said to have originated 
in Macedonia. Pupil of Giulio Eomano, at 
Mantua,and of Girolamo dai Libri,f rem whom 
he learned the art of illuminating. Went 
to Hungary in the service of Louis n., on 
whose death in 1526 he returned to Italy. 
During the sack of Eome (1527) he was so 
iU-treated by the Spanish soldiers that he 
vowed to take holy orders if he escaped. 
Afterward entered the monastery of San Ru- 
fino, Mantua, but left in a few years on a 
dispensation from the Pope, and entered the 
service of Cardinal Grimani, and on his 
death, that of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese ; 
became the best Italian miniature painter of 
his time ; executed a great number of works, 
some of which are described by Vasari. His 
Office of the Virgin, with twenty-six minia- 
tures now in the library of the Naples Muse- 
um, cost him nine years' labour. Other 
works : Crucifixion, Uifizi ; Pieta, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence. — Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 330, vii. 
557; Lanzi, ii. 337; Ch. Blanc, ificole lom- 
barde ; Waagen, i. 208, ii. 63, 334, iii. 431 ; 
Burckhardt, 682. 

CLOVES, ENTRY OF, Joseph Nicolas Roh- 
ert-Fleury, Versailles Museum ; canvas, H. 
2 ft. 7 in. X 3 ft. Triumphal entry into Tours. 
Clovis, to whom the Emperor Anastasius 
had decreed consular honours, put on the 
purple tunic and the chlamys and placed 
the crovm on his head in the cathedral ; 
then, having mounted his horse, he rode 
through the streets scattering with his own 
hand gold and silver among the people. 

CLUYSENAAR, ALFRED, born in Brus- 
sels, Sept. 24, 1837. History and genre 
painter ; pupil of Brussels Academy, and in 
Paris of the ificole des Beaux Arts and of 
Cogniet ; visited Italy, Holland, and Ger- 
many. Medal, Paris, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 
1878. Order of Leopold. Works : Henry 
rV. at Canossa (1878) ; in fresco : The Age 
of the Roman Empire, Foundation of the 
Christian Dogma, Contest of Papacy against 
Secular Rule, Reformation and Renaissance, 

The French Revolution, University of Ghent. 
— MilUer, 108. 

CLYTEMNESTRA, ancient picture. See 
Tauriscus, Theon. 

By P. N. Ouerin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 11 
ft. 3 in. X 10 ft. 8 in.; signed, dated 1817. 
Clytemnestra, dagger in hand, hesitating 
on the threshold of the apartment in which 
Agamemnon is seen asleep, is urged forward 
by ^gisthus, who pushes her by the shoul- 
ders. Salon, 1817 ; acquired in 1819 for 
12,000 fr. Engraved by A. Johannot ; Sis- 
co.— R6veil, x. 677. 

COBERGHER, (Coeberger,) WENCES- 
LAS, born in Antwerp about 1560, died 
in Brussels in 1635. Flemish school ; 
history painter ; pupil of Martin de Vos, 
1573, from whose studio he went to Italy in 
1579 ; lived in Rome and Naples ; returned to 
Antwerp in 1603, where he then entered 
the guild. Called to Brussels by Archduke 
Albert, who entrusted him with all manner 
of work, Cobergher being also an architect 
and engineer. Works: Constantine adoring 
the Cross, St. Jacob's, Antwerp ; En- 
tombment, Brussels Museum ; Pieta, St. An- 
drew's, Antwerp. — Biog. nat. de Belgique, 
iv. 214 ; Michiels, viii. 326 ; Rooses (Reber), 
154 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole flamande. 

COCCHI, POMPEO, of Perugia ; Roman 
school (1523-1549) ; contemporary of Do- 
menico Alfani, and almost his equal. On 
register of guild in 1523. A Madonna with 
Saints in Cathedral of Perugia is signed and 
dated 1525. A Crucified Saviour in the 
Perugia Gallery, part of a fresco transferred 
to canvas, recalls the Florentine manner of 
the followers of Fra Bartolommeo, stiU with 
a prevailing Umbrian feeling. Cocchi made 
his will in 1544, and was still alive in 1549. 
C. & C, Italy, iii. 371 ; Ch. Blanc, iScole 

COCK, CfeSAR DE, born in Ghent in 
1823. Landscape painter. Medals, Paris, 
1867,1869. Works: Old Mill (1857) ; Hedge 
Corner (1859); Farm-yard (1865); Old Mill 
at Veules, Herring Box (1866) ; Poplars 
(1867); Upon the Heath, In the Woods 



(1868); Morning in the Woods (1869); 
Storm in Normandy, Path at Sevres (1870) ; 
Spring-Time in Woods, Stream in Woods 
(1872) ; Eiver in Woods (1873) ; Eoad to 
Washing Place, Courtyard of Farmhouse in 
Gasny, Brook in the Woods (1874); In 
Spring-Time, Old Mill, Banks of the Ebro 
(1875); Banks of the Ept, Woods on Banks 
of the Ept (1880); Sluice, Old Willow 
(1881); Flock of Sheep (1882); Charbonel 
Manufactory at Gasny (1883). — Larousse ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), i. 511. 

COCK, XAVIER DE, born in Ghent; 
contemporary. Landscape painter. Medal, 
Paris, 3d class, 1857. Works: Autumn, 
Cows and Goats (1872) ; Herd of Cows, 
Sheep in an Autumn Landscape (1873) ; 
Cows, A Forest, Harvesters (1874); A For- 
est, Cows (1876) ; Sheep in Autumn (1878) ; 
Yoke of Oxen (1879) ; Oxen in a Meadow, 
A Cascade (1880) ; Cow at a Drinking-Place 
(1881); Flock of Sheep (1882); Woods in Au- 
tumn, Oxen on the Lowland (1883). — L'Art 

COCK FIGHT (Combat de Coqs), Jean 
Leon Oerome, Luxembourg Museum, Paris ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 7 in. X 6 ft. 6 in. A young 
Greek, nude, kneeling at right on one knee, 
setting two cocks to fighting ; behind, a 
young woman, nearly nude, is seated watch- 
ing the combat. Figures, life-size. — Salon, 
1847 ; medal, 3d class. 

COCX. See Coques. 

COCXIE. See Goxcyen. 

CODDE, PIETEE, born in Amsterdam 
before 1610, died about 1660 (?). Dutch 
school ; genre painter, principally of social 
reunions and military scenes in the style of 
Palamedes ; probably formed himself at 
Haarlem under the influence of Frans and 
Dirk Hals ; spirited conception and fine 
colouring. Painted figures in pictures of 
Dirk van Deelen. Works : Flute Player, 
Haarlem Museum ; The Ball (1636), Game 
of Trictrac, Mauritshuis, Hague ; Peasants 
at Meal surprised by Catchpolls (attributed 
to A. Duck), Copenhagen Gallery ; Company 
of Six (attributed to J. le Ducq), Stockholm 

Museum ; Guard-room, Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
do. Gottingen Gallery; Robber Scene (at- 
tributed to C. Bega), Brunswick Gallery; 
Musical Company (attributed to Cocx), 
Speyer Gallery ; Company at Table (1634), 
Emden Gallery ; do., Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Preparation for Carnival, Berlin Museum ; 
Stable with Soldiers, Musical Company, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Dancing Lesson (1627), 
E. von Sievers, Dorpat ; Soldiers with a 
Girl (1628), Soldiers pilfering Peasant's 
Cottage (attributed to A. Duck), Dresden 
Gallery; Musical Com- ^f^ ^^^ /« 

pany, Liechtenstein Gal- vJ/Ood^/ f^ 
lery, Vienna; Guard-room ' 

(166-), Borghese Gallery, Rome; Seamstress, 
Assembly, FitzwiUiam Museum, Cambridge. 
— Bode, Studien, 141; Havard, A. & A. holL, 
iii. 139. 


COELLO, CLAUDIO, born in Madrid 

about 1635, died 

there, April 20, 
1693. Spanish 
school ; son of 
Faustino Coello, 
a Portuguese 
sculptor ; pupil in 
drawing of Fran- 
cisco Eizi; won the 
friendship of Car- 
reno, who obtain- 
ed for him admis- 
sion to the royal galleries, where he studied 
Titian, Rubens, and other great masters. 
After executing important works in Toledo 
and Saragossa, he returned to Madrid, was 
made painter to the king in 1684, and on the 
death of Carreno succeeded to all his hon- 
ours at court. Coello's masterpiece, the 
Collocation of the Host, in the Escorial, 
cost him two years' labor. In 1691 he was 
appointed painter to the Cathedral of Tole- 
do, but his satisfaction in this and other 
advantages which he enjoyed was counter- 
balanced in the following year by the arrival 
of Luca Giordano, called by the King of Spain 




to decorate the Escorial, and disappoint- 
ment and jealousy finally led to his death. 
Works : Assumption of the Virgin (1669) ; 
do., Portrait of Charles II., Madrid Muse- 
um ; Portraits of Jeanne and Maria of Aus- 
tria, and Marguerite of Parma, daughters of 
Charles V., Brussels Museum ; Portraits of 
Philip IL, Berlin Museum ; St. Peter of Al- 
cantara walking on the Water, Munich Gal- 
lery ; Portrait of 
Coello, The Mag- 
dalen, Hermit- 
age, St. Peters- 
burg. — Cean Bermudez ; Stirling, iii. 1010 ; 
Ch. Blanc, J^cole espagnole ; Viardot, 296 ; 
Madrazo, 387. 

voorden, in 1780, died in Brussels in 1841. 
Flemish school ; history, genre, and land- 
scape painter ; pupil of Hendrik van Assche, 
and in 1809 of Barbiers at Amsterdam ; 
settled afterward in Bnassels, where, in 
1820, he became professor at the Academy. 
Great prize in Ghent in 1808. Works : Ru- 
bens receiving from Charles I. the Sword 
with which he had been Knighted (1808), 
Ghent Museum ; Soldier returning from 
Waterloo (1815), Brussels Museum ; Group 
of Peasants, Haarlem Museum ; View in 
Brussels, Amsterdam Museum. 

Veder-Brekel, East Flanders, in 1798, died 
in Brussels, April 6, 1866. Genre painter, 
pupil of David and J. Paelinck ; lived many 
years in Paris, afterward professor in Brus- 
sels Academy. Exhibited a number of pict- 
ures in the Salon, several of which have be- 
come well known in Prance by lithographs. 
Medal, 2d class, 1837. Works : Misery and 
Honesty (1885); Pastoral Tournament, Fri- 
day the Fasting Day (1837). — Larousse. 

COENUS, painter of genealogical tablets, 
about 300 B.C.— Pliny, xxxv. 40 [140]. 

COFFIN, W. A., born in AUegheny City, 
Pa., 1855. Subject painter, pupil of Bon- 
nat in Paris. Exhibited first in the Paris 
Salon in 1879. Studio in New York. Works: 
After Breakfast, T. B. Clarke, New York ; 

Idyl, Toneur de Mandoline (1881); Brittany 
Inn (1882); Examination, Close of Day, Au- 
gust Day (1883); Lady in Black (1885). 

COGELS, JOSEPH (sometimes caUed 

Cogels Mabilde), born at Brussels in 1786, 

died at Castle Leitheim, near Donauworth, 

in 1831. Landscape and marine painter ; 

pupil of Dusseldorf Academy ; visited France, 

returned to Belgium in 1806 and became a 

member of Eoyal Society of Fine Arts at 

Ghent ; went in 1810 to Munich, where he 

painted for the King and Queen, and the 

Duke of Leuchtenberg, pictures for their 

private collections and the Schleissheim 

Gallery. Member of Antwerp Academy in 

1817, honorary member of the Munich Acad- 

_ emy in 1824. 

'•^3^ J— His paintings, 

fj . ^ principally 

(^_j/^ n[ j^ * landscapes, 

waterfalls, and 
old monuments of his native country, are 
highly esteemed. Works : View of St. Sal- 
vator Platz in Munich (1819), Cassel Gal- 
lery. — Bryan (Graves). 

COGEN, F£LIX, born at St. Nicolas, 
Belgium. Genre and animal painter, pupil 
of F. Devigne. Medal, Paris, 3d class, 1875 ; 
L. of Honour, 1883. Works : Calves and 
Heifers, Cows returning from Pasture (1870); 
Departure for Pishing, Eetum from Fishing 
(1874) ; Shrimp-Fishers on Coast of Flan- 
ders (1875); Varech (Sea-weed) Harvest in 
Holland (1876); Fisherman's Wife on Zuyder- 
Zee (1878); Inundation Scene (1881); Fisher- 
women at Scheveningen (1883). 

gamo, Oct. 4, 1804, died in Rome, April 23, 
1875. History painter, pupil in Bergamo 
of Diotti, and in Rome of Camuccini ; Pres- 
ident of Accademia di S. Luca, Rome. Order 
of St. Gregory the Great. Executed a series 
of decorative compositions in fresco in the 
Palazzo Torlonia, Rome, in the Cathedral, 
and in the Bishop's Palace at Bergamo, in 
the Basilica at Savona, and in the church at 
Porto Maurizio. Works : Presentation, As- 
sumption, Ascension, Condemnation of St. 



^fe- '- 



B^raR^^' ' 


Stephen ; Exploits of Alexander, Villa Tor- 
Ionia ; Battle of Amazons, Triumph of Bac- 
chus, Four Elements, Villa Castel-Gandolfo ; 
Fable of Psyche and Cupid, Parnassus, Tor- 
Ionia Palazzo, Eome ; Fable of Prometheus, 
Apollo followed by the Hours, Basilica of 
Savona. — Brockhaus, iv. 486 ; Larousse ; L'H- 
lustrazione italiana, 1875. 

COGNIET, LfiON, born in Paris, Aug. 29, 
1794, died there, 
Nov. 20, 1880. His- 
tory and portrait 
painter, pupil of Gue- 
rin ; won the prix 
de Eome in 1817. 
Medals : 2d class, 
1824; 1st class, 1855; 
L. of Honour, 1828; 
Officer, 1846 ; Prus- 
sian Order pour le 
mgrite, 1865 ; member of Institute, 1849. 
His first pictures, though classical in style, 
show a realistic tendency. Founder of one 
of the best art schools in Paris. Works : 
Metabus, King of the Volscians (1822); Ma- 
rius at Carthage, Massacre of the Innocents 
(1824) ; Numa in the Grotto of Egeria ; 
Eape of Rebecca ; Napoleon in Egypt, Paris 
National Guard in 1792 (1836) ; Battle of 
EivoH, Episodes in Egyptian Campaign, 
Versailles Museum ; Tintoretto painting his 
Dead Daughter (1843), Bordeaux Museum; 
St. Stephen, St. Nicolas-des-Ghamps ; Mag- 
dalen, Madeleine, Paris. — Claretie, Peintres, 
etc. (1882), 361 ; Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 
439 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1881), xxiii. 33. 

COGNIET, Mme. LfiON, (nee Catherine 
Caroline Thevenin), born in Lyons, Oct. 23, 
1813. History and genre painter ; wife and 
pupil of Leon Cogniet. Medals : 3d class, 
1840 ; 2d class, 1843. Works : A Studio 
(1836); Bad Fellow (1837); Eed Fish (1838); 
Prix de Eome (1840); Sick Girl (1843); Vir- 
ginia (1848); St. Cecilia (1852); St. Genevifeve 
as a Child (1853). 

COIGNAED, LOraS, born in Mayenne 
in 1812, died in 1883. Animal and land- 
scape painter ; pupil of Picot. Medals : 3d 

class, 1846 ; 1st class, 1848. Works: Mary 
in Desert (1838) ; Little Fisherman by Sea, 
Christ and Disciples at Emmaus, Sleep, 
Evening, Cattle in Woods (1842-1845); Cows 
on Borders of a Wood (1846); Bulls Fight- 
ing (1847); Drinking Place, Morning (1848); 
Woman watching Cows, The Bull, Cares of 
a Farmer's Wife, Morning Eest, Henri IV. 's 
Oak (1849-53), bought by State ; Morning 
Eepose (1852), Luxembourg Museum ; Pas- 
ture in HoUand, Valley of the Main (1855); 
During the Storm, Landscape with Animals 
(1857); Grass and Drinking Place in Valley 
of the Auge, Bulls Fighting, The Cow Pond 
(1859); Herd in Pasture (1861); Landscape 
in Normandy (1863); Herd at Edge of Forest, 
Cows in a Marsh (1873) ; Cows in a Belgian 
Forest (1874) ; Flock of Sheep, Morning in 
(1876) ; Cattle Eesting in a Prairie (1877). 

born in Paris, Dec. 2, 1798, died there 
April 1, 1860. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Bertin ; travelled in Italy and the East, and 
painted many pictures marked by poetical 
feeling and delicaeyof light and shade effects. 
Also produced many water-colours and chalk 
drawings, and wrote a work on landscape 
painting. Medals : 2d class, 1842, 1848 ; L. 
of Honour, 1836. His Euins of Temple of 
Psestum, one of his best works, is in the Mu- 
nich Gallery. — Bryan (Graves). 

COL, DAVID, born in Antwerp, April 6, 
1822. Genre painter, pupU of Antwerp 
Academy. His pictures, mostly on a small 
scale, are to be found in nearly all the mu- 
seums and private collections of Belgium. 
Order of Leopold, 1875. Works : Shaving 
Day ; Out with You ! Throwing Snowballs ; 
Canary Fancier; Interrupted Meal; The 
Blusterers (1875).— MtiUer, 109. 

1352 (?) died in 1444 (?) Neapolitan school. 
The question of the existence of this painter 
rests on a letter written in 1524 by Sum- 
monzio the architect, who says that Colan- 
tonio abandoned tempera for oils, which he 
learned from Eene of Anjou, but that he 



failed to attain the skill of his disciple An- 
tonello da Messina. Domenici, who is little 
to be trasted, gives the above dates of his 
bii-th and death, and attributes to him a trip- 
tych, dated 1375, in S. Antonio Abate, Na- 
ples; a second picture La two parts, supposed 
to have formerly been dated 1436, one part 
in S. Lorenzo, Naples, the other in the Naples 
Museum ; and a fresco in S. Angelo a Nilo, 
Naples. C. & C, however, doubt if there 
ever was a Colantonio, and think it possible 
that Summonzio may have confounded him 
with Antonello da Messina. — C. & C, Italy, 
i. 822, 334 ; do., N. Italy, ii. 82 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., ii. 585 ; ed. Le Mon., i. 163, iv. 95 ; 
Lanzi, ii. 4 ; Burckhardt, 523 ; Domenici, 
Vite de' Pittori, etc., Napoletani ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole napolitaine. 

COLAS, ALPHONSE, born at Lille, 
Sept. 24, 1818. French school ; history 
and portrait painter, pupil of Souchon. 
Medals, 3d class, 1849, 1863. Director of 
School of Painting at LUle. Works : Call- 
ing of St. James (1869), St. James's, Douai ; 
Trance in 1870-71 (1872); Portraits (1877, 
1879, 1880, 1883). 

COLE, GEOEGE, born at Portsmouth in 
_ 1810, died in Lon- 

<,?^j^?f!^ <loi^> Sept. 7, 1883. 

Landscape paint- 
er, self-taught; 
began as a por- 
trait and animal 
painter in Ports- 
mouth ; exhibited 
first in London in 
1840 ; member in 
1850 of the Soci- 
ety of British Ar- 
tists, of which he became vice-president. 
Works: Surrey Harvest (1864); Pride and 
Humility ; Loch Lubnaig ; Gunnard's Head 
— Cornwall (1870) ; Eiver Scene — Sussex 
(1874) ; Wheat Harvest— Hampshire (1877); 
MornLag on the Thames — Windsor, Wind- 
sor Castle— Morning, Thirlmere (1878); Tim- 
ber Drag (1880).— Art Journal (1883), 343 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 743. 

Moor, England, Feb. 

bom at Bolton le 

I, 1801, died near 
CatskiU, N. Y., Feb. 

II, 1848. Land- 
scape painter ; in 
1819 his father emi- 
grated to America 
and settled in Ohio, 
where Thomas first 
learned the rudi- 
ments of art from a 
portrait painter 
named Stein. After 

studying nature under great difficulties, he 
went in 1825 to New York, and was first 
brought into notice by his views on the Hud- 
son. He made several visits to England, 
France, and Italy, but passed the greater 
part of his professional life in New York. Ex- 
hibited at Royal Academy, London, View in 
New Hampshire, Tomb of General Brock 
(1830), and View in United States (1831). 
Two of his allegorical series, the Course 
of Empire and Voyage of Life, were very 
popular. Works : Dream of Arcadia ; De- 
parture ; Eeturn ; Garden of Eden (1828); 
Expulsion from Paradise (1828), Lenox li- 
brary. New York ; Titian's Goblet (1833), 
J. M. Falconer, New York ; Mount Etna, 
White Mountains, Wadsworth Collection, 
Hartford ; Angel appearing to the Shep- 
herds, Boston Athenaeum ; Primitive State 
of Man, E. L. Rogers, Baltimore ; View on 
the Thames, Jonathan Sturges, New York ; 
Cross in the Wilderness ; L' Allegro ; II 
Pehseroso ; Mountain Ford, M. K. Jesup ; 
Cross and the World (unfinished), Vincent 
Colyer; Course of Empire, Vale of Segesta, 
Italian Landscape, Moonlight, Conway Peak, 
CatskiU Creek, Summer Sunset, Historical 
Society, New York. ^ — Noble, Life and Works 
(1850) ; Tuckerman, 223. 

COLE, VICAT, bom at Portsmouth, 
England, in 1833. Landscape painter, son 
and pupil of George Cole ; exhibited first 
picture at British Institution in 1851, and at 
Royal Academy in 1854 ; elected an A.R.A. 
in 1870, and E.A. in 1880. Works : Under 



the Greenwood Tree (1860) ; Summer's 
Golden Crown (1866) ; Floating down to 
C a m e 1 o t 
(1869) ; Even- 
ing Rest ; Sun- 
shine Showers 
(1870) ; Au- 
tumn Gold 
(1871); Sum- 
mer Rain 
(1873) ; Misty 
Morning, Heart 
of Surrey 
(1874); Rich- 
mond, Loch 
Scavaig (1875); 
Day's Decline 
(1876) ; Arundel, Summer Showers (1877) ; 
Surrey Pastoral (1878) ; Autumn Leaves, 
Ripening Sunbeams (1879) ; August Days, 
Streatley on Thames, Wargrave (1881) ; 
Sources of the Thames (1882) ; Windsor, 
Autumn Morning (1883) ; Sinodun Hill 
(1885).— Meynell, 33. 

at Buffalo, N. Y., in 1840. Figure and 
still-hfe painter; went to Europe in 1859 
and again in 1866, since which has not re- 
turned to America. Exhibits in New York, 
London, Paris, and Rome. An A.N.A. of 
New York and member of the London Art 
Club. Studio in London in 1883. Works : 
Troubadour, Young Monk, Nuremberg Tow- 
ers (1876); Bronze Horses of St. Mark's— 
Venice (1877), Lady Ashburton ; Decorative 
Panel (1878); Interior of Chapel adjoining 
Sala del Cambia — Perugia ; Venice — An- 
cient and Modern (1880) ; Remote Quarter 
of Paris in 1878 (1881). 

in Paris, Dec. 31, 1798, died there, Nov. 23, 
1875. Genre painter, pupil of Girodet- 
Trioson ; director several years of School of 
Design in Nimes. Medals : 2d class, 1824 
and 1831 ; 1st class, 1840 ; L. of Honour, 
1873. Works : French Fish-market (1832), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Scene in Otaheite, 
Street of Calcutta (1841); Flanders Fisher- 

women(1842); Christopher Columbus (1846); 
Masaniello (1848); Christ on the Cross 
(1850), bought by State; Michelangelo 
watching at his Servant's Bedside (1855); 
Scene in the Roman Campagna, Columbus's 
first Arrival in Spain (1857); Nymphs Bath- 
ing, Breton Peasant (1859) ; Reception of 
Columbus by Ferdinand and Isabella at 
Barcelona, Lorenzo de' Medici and Michel- 
angelo, PubHc Reader on Mole of Naples, 
Encounter in the Desert, Moorish Interior 
(1861) ; Mater Dolorosa, Death of Gessler, 
Suburb of Isel at St. Omer (1863) ; Flan- 
ders Fishermen, Fisherman at Foot of a 
Cliff (1864); Christ in Garden of Olives, 
Gypsies Halting (1865) ; King Candaules, 
Satyr and Bacchante (1866); Joy of the 
Hearth, Who giveth to the Poor lendeth to 
the Lord (1868); Little Sister (1869); Hur- 
ricane on Borders of Sea (1870); Drama of 
the Sea (1873); Before Marriage (1874).— 
Montrosier, Artistes modernes. 

COLIN, PAUL, born at Nlmes in 1838. 
Landscape painter ; son and pupil of Alex- 
andre CoHn and pupil of J. P. Laurens. 
Medal, 3d class, 1875 ; L. of Honour, 1883, 
Works : Farm of Groult, Little Marauders 
(1875); Moat of Hogue, Plateau of Crique- 
bceuf (1876); Road of Yport (1877) ; Two 
Views at Valmont (1879) ; Valley of Yport 
(1880) ; Street in Toledo (1881) ; Pool of 
Criqueboeuf (1882); Pool of Gueville, Apple- 
yard at Loysel (1883) ; Farm Stable, Ducks 
(1884); Mare aux Pigeons (1885). 

Madrid in 1599, died there in 1656. Span- 
ish school ; pupU of Vincenzo Carducci ; 
best known as a landscape painter, though 
he painted also figures, animals, and fruit 
and flowers. Works: Vision of Ezekiel, 
Burning of Troy, St. Wil- 
liam of Aquitaine, 
landscapes, Madrid 
seum ; Burning Bv 
Louvre ; Landscape, Mu- 
nich Gallery ; St. John Baptist, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg.— Viardot, 267 ; Ch. Blanc, 
1 ificole espagnole ; Madrazo, 392. 

It. Wil- 

B, two /T"^ 

i Mu- // 



COLLAET, Mine. MAKIE, born in Bras- 
sels ; contemporary. Landscape painter. 
Medals : Paris, 1870, 3d class, 1878. Works : 
Winter, Autumn (1868); The Source, Bake- 
room (1869) ; Sunday Morning, Orchard 
(1870) ; Old Orchard, Winter Evening 
(1872); Farm Yard at Dunkirk (1873); Peas- 
ant's Garden at Beersel — Belgium, Old 
Beersel Boad in Winter (1874); View at Cal- 
voet near Brussels (1875); Evening, April 
(1879) ; Mill of Calvoet, Canal of Kusbraeck 
(1881); VaUey de la Senne (1882). 

COLLIER, JOHN, born in England; 
contemporary. Figure and portrait painter. 
Works: The AiguiUe verte — from Argen- 
tifere (1877); Last Voyage of Henry Hudson 
(1881) ; Clytemnestra, portraits of the Lord 
Chancellor, Chas. Darwin, and Sir George 
CampbeH (1882); portrait of Huxley (1883); 
Sir George Biddell Airy (1884); Lady Lo- 
raine (1885). His wife, Marion Colher, 
daughter of Prof. Huxley, is also a painter 
of promise. Her Coming Tragedian was ex- 
hibited at Eoyal Academy in 1882. 

bom in Paris ; contemporary. Figure and 
portrait painter, pupU of Cabanel. Medal, 
2d class, 1873 ; L. of Honour, 1884. Works: 
Slumber (1873) ; Venetian Girl ; Young 
Girl of Basle (1874); Idyl (1875); Daph- 
nis and Chloe (1877) ; The Dance (1881); 
Idyl (1882); Portraits (1883); Summer 

born at Versailles, January 19, 1693, died 
in Paris, February 16, 1761. French school. 
History painter, pupil of Jouvenet ; received 
into the Academy in 1725, professor in 1738, 
adjunct rector in 1754. Works : Birth of 
Bacchus (1725), Tours Museum ; Scenes in 
History of Cyrus, Descent from the Cross, 
The Gods cutting the Wings of Cupid, 
Judgment of Solomon (1737) ; Marriage of 
Alexander and Roxana (1745) ; History of 
Cyrus (33 pictures, 1751) ; Presentation of 
the Virgin (1755), St. Louis', Versailles; 
Marriage of St. Catherine, Lyons Museum. 
— BelHer de la Chavignerie, I. 279. 

Greenwich, England, in 1819. Landscape 
painter, water-colours ; pupil of J. D. Har- 
ding ; first exhibited in 1839 ; elected associ- 
ate of Society of Painters in Water-Colours 
in 1855. Paints chiefly mountain scenery 
and interiors. Works : Cloud-Caps from 
Summit of Snowdon, Sunset from the Rigi, 
Sunday at Haddon Hall, Lake of Como, 
Mauvais Pas, Mont Blanc, Ludlow Castle. 
COLLINS, WILLIAM, born in London, 
Sept. 18, 1788,' 
died there, Feb. 
17, 1847. Son 
of a picture deal- 
er ; student at 
Royal Academy 
in 1807-14 ; be- 
came an A.RA. 
in 1814, and R.A. 
in 1820. Paint- 
ed chiefly land- 
scapes with rustic groups. After visit- 
ing France, Holland, and Belgium, spent 
two years in Italy in 1886-38, and gathered 
material for pictures of Italian life. Though 
his art was feeble, his pictures were popular 
on account of the character of his subjects, 
and many of them have been engraved. 
Works: Blowing Bubbles (1810); Weary 
Trumpeter, Young Fifer (1811) ; May Day 
(1812); Sale of Pet Lamb (1818); Bird Catch- 
ers (1814); Shrimp Boys (1816); Sunrise, 
Fishermen coming Ashore (1817); Scene on 
Coast of Norfolk, Bird's Nest (1818); Watch- 
ing for a Bite (1820); Bird Trap (1821); 
Woodcutters, Clovelly— N. Devon (1822); 
Fish Auction (1823); Stirling Castle, Cherry 
Seller (1824); Buying Fish on the Beach, 
Prawn Fishers (1825); Fisherman's Depart- 
ure (1826) ; Frost Scene, Buying Fish 
(1827); Doubtful Weather, Freshwater Bay 
(1828) ; Morning after Storm, Summer 
Moonlight, Prawn Fishing (1829) ; Mussel 
Gatherers (1830); Shrimpers, Morning Bath, 
Nutting Party (1831); Skittle Players, Bustic 
Civility (1882); Stray Kitten (1833); Rustic 
Hospitality, Morning Lesson (1834) ; Mari- 



ner's Widow (1835); Sunday Morning, Hap- 
py as a King, Leaving Home (1836); Scene 
near Subiaco, Young Lazzaroni playing 
Game of Arravoglio (1839); Christ in the 
Temple, Ave Maria, Passing Welcome (1840); 
Disciples at Emmaus, Caves of Ulysses, 
Woodcutter's Eepast (1841) ; Prayer, Welsh 
Guides (1842); Madonna, Windy Day, Sul- 
try Day (1843); Catechist, Morning — Bou- 
logne (1844); Fetching the Doctor, Sunrise 
at Sea (1845); Early Morning, Mead-foot 
Bay (1846). His son, Charles AUston Col- 
lins (1828-1873), who married Charles 
Dickens's daughter, was also a genre painter, 
but turned to literature. — Memoir by his 
son, Wilkie CoUins (London, 1848); Sandby, 
i. 865 ; Art Union Monthly Journal, April, 
1847 ; Art Journal (1855), 141; Eedgrave, 
Century, ii. 410 ; Ch. Blanc, jfecole anglaise. 

COLLINSON, EGBERT, born in Chesh- 
ire, July, 1832. Landscape and genre 
painter, student of Government Schools of 
Design, Manchester ; removed about 1854 to 
London, where he was for many years pro- 
fessor of painting in the S. Kensington 
schools. Works : Hopes and Fears (1862) ; 
Ordered on Foreign Service (1864); Money 
Changer, Leisure Hour (1865); Close of 
Day (1868); Sacred Spot .(1869); Dawn of 
Hope (1870); Absorbed in Eobinson Crusoe 
(1871); To Win or Die (1872); The Escape 
(1873); Leaves from Nature (1874); Sunday 
Afternoon (1875) ; Home, MiU Pool (1878) ; 
Light in the Cottage (1879); English Home 
(1883); The Last MHe (1884). 

COLMAN, SAMUEL, bom in Portland, 
Me., in 1832. Landscape painter, pupil of 
A B. Durand in New York. Visited France 
and Spain in 1860-62 ; went abroad a sec- 
ond time in 1871, and travelled in Switzer- 
land, Germany, North Africa, Italy, France, 
and Spain. Elected N. A. in 1862. Studio 
in New York. Works : Bay of Gibraltar ; 
Andernach on the Ehine; Street Scene 
in Caen — Normandy ; Market Day in 
Brittany — Le Mans ; Arab Caravansary 
(1879) ; Arab Burying-Ground, Genesee 
Eiver at Avon, Dutch Boats off Coast of 

Holland (1880); Evening at Amalfi— Italy, 
Misty Afternoon in Venice (1881) ; Zandam 
—Holland, Euins of Moorish Mosque— Al- 
geria (1882); Tower of Giralda (1884).— 
Sheldon, 72. 

in Como in IGOO, died in Bologna in 1681 
or 1687. Bolognese school ; pupil of Fer- 
rantini and of Dentone, with the latter of 
whom he painted many frescos in Bologna, 
Colonna painting the figures in his master's 
landscapes and architectural pictures. He 
acquired a great reputation as a decorative 
fresco painter. After the death of Dentone 
(1632) he associated with himself Agostino 
Metelli, and the two executed numerous 
works in Bologna, Eavenna, Parma, Modena, 
Eome, and other cities. In 1659 they went, 
at the invitation of Philip IV., to Madrid, 
and decorated several halls in the palace 
of Buen Eetiro. After MeteUi's death Co- 
lonna returned to Italy, and with Giacomino 
Alboresi as his collaborator executed many 
important works in Bologna, Florence, and 
elsewhere. — Malvasia, ii. 345 ; Lanzi,iii. 136 ; 
Ch. Blanc, [ficole bolonaise ; Gualandi, Guida. 
COLOTES, painter, of Teos, about 396 
B.C. He was defeated in a painting contest 
by Timanthes, whose famous picture of the 
Sacrifice of Iphigenia carried off the prize. 
— Quin. ii. 13, 12. 

COLUMBAEIUM, Hector Leroux, Lux- 
embourg, Paris ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 7 in. x 3 ft. 
4 in. A funeral in the Columbarium of 
the Palace of the Csesars, Eome. The pro- 
cession is coming down a steep stairway, 
the upper part of which is illuminated by 
sunlight through an archway; below, at 
right, two musicians. — Salon, 1864. 

COLUMBINE, LA, Bernardino Luini, 
formerly attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; wood, trans- 
ferred to canvas, H. 1 ft. 5^ in. x 1 ft. 2 in. 
A beautiful girl, " en deshabille," sits under 
a rock overgrown with ivy, looking at a 
columbine held in her left hand ; her white 
dress, with yellow ornaments, is held by a 
jewelled brooch, leaving one breast uncover- 


ed ; a blue tunic falls from the left shoulder. 
Believed to be a portrait of one of the mis- 
tresses of Francis I. Called also Flora and 
Vanity. In cabinet of Marie de Medicis in 
1649 ; afterward in Orleans Gallery, whence 
sold (1829) to Mr. Udney for $105, passed 
thence to Banker Walckiers, Brussels, and 
then to gallery of The Hague ; sold at sale 
of WUliam H. (1850) to Hermitage for 

La Columbine, Bernardino Luini, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

40,000 florins. Copy in Stafford House, Lon- 
don, and another at Stratton (Sir Thos. Bar- 
ing). Attributed by C. & C. to A. Solario. 
— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 58 ; Heaton, 258, 296 ; 
Waagen, Ermitage, 35 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 
63 ; Eigollot, Hist, des Arts, etc., i. 292. 

Hermann Freihold Piuddeman, National 
Gallery, Berlin ; canvas, H. 4 ft. x 4 ft. 7 in.; 
signed, dated 1836. Columbus leans against 
the mast with folded hands and upraised 
eyes, while his officers prostrate themselves 
before him in shame and contrition ; near 
the bow, sailors greet the land with passion- 
ate gestures ; others embrace each other. 

derlyn, rotunda of Capitol, Washington ; can- 
vas, H. 12 ft. X 18 ft. The first landing of ■ 
Columbus and his followers in the New 
World — at San Salvador. Painted in 18 — 
for $10,000. Engraved on back of $5 United 
States national bank notes. 

pers, private gallery. Columbus, lying upon 
his bed, places his hand on the head of a 
young man kneeling beside him ; by the 
bedside is a large chest, from which the 
chains Columbus had worn are partly hang- 
ing out. Engraved by D. Devachez. — Art 
Journal (1865), 268. 

COLYEE, VINCENT, born at Blooming- 
dale, N. Y., in 1825. Landscape painter ; 
pupil of John E. Smith and of the National 
Academy. Practised his profession in New 
York many years, exhibiting at the National 
Academy. Elected an A.N.A. in 1849. Stu- 
dio in Eowayton, Conn. Works : Johnson 
Straits — British Columbia, J. N. Steams, 
New York ; Columbia Eiver (1875); Portrait 
of Geo. H. Story, National Academy, New 
York ; Pueblo — Indian Village, Passing 
Shower (1876); Home of the Yackamas — 
Oregon, H. Bigelow, NewYork; Contraband, 
T. Kensett, Baltimore ; Darien Shore — Con- 
necticut, Eainy Day on Connecticut Shore, 
Sunrise (1881) ; Winter on Connecticut 
Shore, Winter Bit (1884); Spring Flowers 

Waterville, N. Y.; contemporary. Landscape 
painter, pupil of James Brevoort, of H. 
Thompson, and in Paris of ifimile Vernier. 
Painted six years in France and Holland. 
Studio in New York. Works : French Vil- 
lage (1876); Sunset at the Seaside— France 
(1877); Near Pontainebleau, Borders of the 
Marne, Peasant Home in Normandy (1878); 
Cottage in Picardy (1881); Old Windmills 
in Holland, Spring Time in Picardy — France 
(1882) ; View near Schiedam — Holland 
(1883); Street in Cernoy La Ville— Prance, 
Farmer's Cottage in Picardy (1884); Poppy 
Field in Normandy (1885).