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Cornell University Library 
4»^611.B94 1908 

The cicerone:an art guide to Pa'ntJUS j" 

3 1924 016 330 940 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 













Translated from the Gennan 
of Dr Jacob Jurokhardt by 
Mrs A. H. Olough. A new 
and illustrated impression, with 
a preface by P. G. Eonody. 





A.t'«^^i-5 7 



Halp-a-Centuey has gone by since Dr Jacob Burckhardt 
first published his Art Guide to Painting in Italy, and 
nearly a quarter of a century since the appearance of the 
last English edition, revised and corrected by J. A. Crowe. 
The years that have passed since then have witnessed a 
revolution in the methods of Art criticism ; and the game 
of re-attribution — first so successfully played by Morelli, that 
shrewdest and most reliable of all connoisseurs — has been 
taken up eagerly by hundreds of experts and would-be 
experts, with the result that, whilst on the one hand the 
catalogues of the public galleries of Europe have been 
cleared of many time-honoured blunders, and Art criticism 
has become a more exact science, on the other hand the 
ordinary amateur, who takes an intelligent aesthetic pleasure 
in the contemplation of pictures, without being able or 
willing to devote his life to this fascinating study, finds 
himself confronted by such a mass of conflicting theories 
and attributions, that he is apt- to lose the anchorage of 
his solid beliefs and to drift about helplessly at the mercy 
of every gust of wind. If he is told, for instance, by one 
expert that the EuceUai Madonna, which in his youth he 
has learnt to admire as Cimabue's masterpiece, is really 
not by Cimabue at all, but by a Sienese painter, is this 
not almost tantamount to the destruction of a cherished 
illusion with all the romance attaching to it? No doubt, 
the suggestion, with all the arguments that may be adduced 
for or against it, is supremely interesting to the professional 
student, but for the amateur it means the first violent tug 

vjii Preface. 

at the anchor. He has been accustomed to regard this 
picture as the chief stepping-stone in Florentine Art from 
Byzantinism to Giotto. How is he now to fill the gap? 
Whether the Rucellai Madonna be by Cimabue or by a 
Sienese, there can be little doubt that it is painted in the 
manner in which Cimabue must have painted, and there- 
fore the amateur may safely label it with the generic 
name "Cimabue." Personally, I am firmly convinced of 
the correctness of the Sienese attribution, and yet, were I 
called upon to instruct a beginner in the rudiments of Art 
history, I should tell him to judge Cimabue's style from 
the Rucellai Madonna. 

And thus the scientific expert may hold Dr Burckhardt's 
Cicerone to be old-fashioned and superseded. As an intro- 
duction to the study of Italian Art it still holds its own place 
and fully justifies a reprint. More than that, it occupies a 
unique place ; for the overwhelming mass of literature on 
Italian Art, pi^inted during the last two decades, includes 
ilot a single volume that can vie with Dr Burckhardt's, 
as regards terse completeness and practical arrangernent. 
It is the only book on the subject that combines the 
qualities of a useful guide-book with those of a chrono- 
logical history of the entire Art of Italy — an achievement - 
that would be impossible without an ingenious and elaborate 
system of sub-divisions, cross-references and indices. Dr 
Burckhardt's history is indeed a Cicerone — a guide and 
instructor, and it fulfils in the fullest sense of the word the 
function claimed for it by the sub-title of the first German 
edition : An Introduction to the Enjoyment of the Art 
Treasures of Italy. P. G. KONODY. 



— ' « 


' PA8K 

Antique Painting .1-8 

Paintiag on Pottery— WaU-Paintings. 


MEDi.a;vAL Painting 8 — 17 

Cataoomba — The Byzantine Style.' 

Romanesque Painting . y . . . . . 18—24 

Cimabue — Duocio da Siena, ^ 


The Gothic Style 24 — 57 

Giotto and the Giottesques — Sienese School — North 
Italian Schools — Fra AngeUco. , 

.^.. , OHAPTBE V. 

Painting oe ■" e XVth Century 57 — 111 

" The Renaissance" — Florentine School — Paduan School 
—The Bresoiana and other Schools — The Venetians ; the 
Vivarini, the Bellini — Umbrian, Bolognese, and Nea- 
politan Painters — German and Flemish Masters — Paint- 
ing on Glass. 

^ Contents. 



Painting of the XVIth Century Ill— 22C 

Lionardo da Vinci and MUanese School — Michelangelo 
— Fra Bartolommeo — Andrea del Sarto— Raphael — Bolo- 
gnese and Ferrarese Painters — Sodoma, and the Sienese — 
Veronese Painters — Correggio — Titian and his Contem- 
poraries — Tintoretto and his Contemporaries — The 

Painting of the XVIIth Oenttjrt 220—253 

The Eclectic and Naturalistic Schools — Landjscape 

INDEX 259-305 

*** To facilitate the use of the book, references a/re made not only to 
the page, but also by means of letters, a, h, c, <fcc., to the very 
sentence vn the page which contains the nmne of the place ■ 


Holt Family (Michelangelo) 

Virgin and Child (Botticelli) 

The Dream of St Ursula (Carpaccio) 

"Virgin and Child (Fra Angelico) . 

Virgin and Child (Luini) 

Descent prom the Cross (Fra Bartolommeo) 

The Vision of Ezbkiel (Eaphael) . 

The Dance of Apollo with the Muses 

(G-iulio Romano) 
The Zingarella (Correggio) . 
The Concert (Giorgione) 
Sacred and Propane Love (Titian) 
I The Eapb of Europa (Paolo Veronese) 
St&EOPATRA (Guido Reni) 
Venus and Adonis (Rubens) 
The Drinkers (Velasquez) . 
Diana Hunting (Domenichino) 

ETid Poiper 


. Frontispiece 

To face 

pctge 54 


























— ♦ — 



Antique painting is only known 
to us by poor and scanty remains ; 
yet the fragments which have been 
preserved enable us to measure the 
power and discern the purpose of 
the G-reeks and Romans in this 
field of culture. The well-known 
anecdotes of Parrhasius, Zeuxis, 
and other great masters of anti- 
quity, might lead us to believe 
that the sole object of Greek 
painters was to create illusion ; 
yet to think so would be a serious 
mistake ; for to represent a subject 
or an incident worthily, they con- 
' sidered it sufScient to combine the 
' utmost possible clearness with the 
simplest possible means. In com- 
position, execution, and colour, 
their system differed entirely from 
that of the Moderns, but the pro- 
duct was not the less the highest 
and best of its kind. 

Greek art, in its elementary 
phase is illustrated by paintings 
on numberless vases chiefly found, 
and still being discovered, in the 
sepulchral monuments of Attica, 
Sicily, Southern Italy, and Etru- 
ria. The most important collec- 
tion of these is to be found in the 
a JWiiseum of Naples. But there are 
others of considerable value, and 
for Italy quite remarkable, in the 
S gallery of the Vatican at Rome, 
sand the Miiseo Egiziaco (Vid Fa- 
enza) at Florence. 

The whole of this immeasurable 
store is now generally accepted as 
the work principally of Greeks, 
who were immigrants in Etruria, 
or employed by Etruscan makers. 
It illustrates Greek customs, myths 
and dress exclusively, belongs 
mostly to the period lying between 
the sixth and third century before 
Christ, and precedes the date of 
Roman conquest in Italy. When 
South Italy became Roman this 
style was already extinct, and no 
vases of the Etruscans are found 
in the ruins of Pompeii. 

But few of the known vases were 
apparently used for the kitchen, 
the table, or the bedroom. They 
were intended for festal purposes, 
as prizes for combats, marriage 
gifts, and the Hke ; if they had 
adorned a man's dwelling in life, 
they accompanied him in death to 
his tomb. But many of the most 
important were produced entirely 
for the decoration of the tombs of 
ancient Italy. They are usually 
found placed round the corpse in 
the sepulchral chambers, unhappily 
almost without exception shattered 
into fragments, wMch cannot al- 
ways be successfully put together 

There are vases of every species 
and form, from the massive am- 
phora to the smallest cup. And as 
they were not intended for com- 
mon use, the makers were able in 
every form — amphora, urn, pot, 

Antique Painting. 

saucer, or drmking-horn — to give 
scope to their own ideas of what 
was beautiful and expressive. 

The eye dwells with the keenest 
satisfaction even on the shape and 
outlines given by the potter to the 
vessel. Plastic decorations as found 
in ornamented marble vases would 
have been misplaced, but any sim- 
ple forms which could be combined 
with the work of the potter's wheel, 
were freely employed, whilst the 
free-hand work of the carved 
handles was often beautiful and 
pleasing, and the painted orna- 
ments contributed not a little to 
enliven the vases, as they were 
designed exactly for given purposes 
and defined spaces. 

The lower limb of the handles 
was often adorned with clusters of 
palmetto leaves, and particularly 
with an oval-pointed leaf accom- 
panied by curling side leaves, in 
which superabundant elasticity was 
absorbed. A waving pattern of 
flowers symbolic of the contents, 
ran round the upper edge of the 
vase, whilst simpler palmetto forms, 
or vertical flutings, covered the 
neck and swelled into richer orna- 
ment as they crept over the wider 
curve below it. Above, beneath, 
and between the figure ornament 
were garlands of waving flowers, 
meanders, or rows of shells ; at 
the narrow, near the base, thin- 
pointed leafage; the whole fitly 
resting on a plain and unadorned 

These may seem but immaterial 
details ; yet they show that the 
aim was to produce a vase, and not 
a, mere piece of ornament ; a fact 
which seems to have been for- 

fotteu by the makers even of the 
nest Sfevrea porcelains. 
The painters, too, one might 
think, would make things easy by 
repeating ornament with the help 
of pouncing or stencilling ; but the 
merest glance suffices to prove that 
the whole was produced by light 

and clever hands, though not fr^ 
at times from breaks or defectivl 
curves. . ' 

As with ornament, so it was 
with the figures. The paintej 
knew them in part as the commotj 
property of Greek art ; in part he 
invented or composed them afresi 
for every new subject he thougM 
out. Great artists did not conde- 
scend to this class of work ; and it 
is but a mediocre and even humble 
vein of the inexhaustible Gree|| 
capacity for art, which here comes 
to the surface. Yet even with 
these extremely limited means, 
with but two, or at most three, 
colours, how much that is admir- ] 
able did they not produce. 

We distinguish, first of aU, the 
older form with black figures on a 
red ground. The style of these, 
though possessing much elegance, 
is as yet stifij and corresponds 
more or less to the elder GreeK 
style of sculpture. 

The more mature and, as regards 
Apulia, the more declining art of 
vase painting shows the figures, 
left of the natural reddish tint of" 
the baked clay, relieved upon a 
dark painted ground. To these, 
which are also the most numerous, 
we must give our chief attention. 

The subjects represented in one, 
two, or even three rows of figures, 
and on the paterte on the under 
side round the foot, and also inside 
in the centre, have become the 
subject of very voluminous scien- 
tific investigation. Very rare 
myths, not represented in any baa- 
reliefs nor in any Pompeian pic-S 
ture, are here found. A very cur- 
sory account of their artistic treat- 
ment IS all that we can here allow 

In general, the style foUows that 
of the Greek bas-reliefs. They are 
similar in the development of the 
perspective of the figure, in the 
principle of markings, and in the- 
manner of telling the story. The 

Wall Paintings. 


figures are mostly single, and so far 
as possible speaking in pose and 
gesture. In draped figures the 
limbs were first hastily sketched, 
and then the drapery over them 
indicated, giving just as much of 
the folds as would serve to distin- 
guish the figure itself and the flow 
of the garment. The heads are 
treated in a very general manner, 
without any aim at particular ex- 
pression or peculiar beauty. Space 
is suggested simply and by symbols 
on the customary black ground. 
One star stands for night, a small 
curtain for a room, a couple of 
shells or dolphins for the sea, a 
curving row of dots for the uneven 
earth. A column with a vase for 
the palsestra, and so on. Thus all 
furniture, as, for instance, tables, 
chariots, and so forth, are only in- 
dicated by a few lines, to leave the 
eye at liberty for the more essen- 
tial parts. 

The mythical subjects with many 
figures usually afford less artistic 
pleasure than a number of single 
figures, often recurring, which, on 
account of their recognised excel- 
lence, were constantly repeated. 
The visitor will soon discover them 
in any collection of importance ; 
we shall only call attention to a 
few of the subjects which present 
themselves, for instance, in a walk 
a through the Museum of Naples. 

Male figures, seated in a leaning 
position. — Dancing Satyrs. Youths 
of the wrestling school, nude or 
wrapped in mantles, and often 
leaning. — Hovering winged Genii. 
— Beautiful dancing Bacchantes. — 
A man speaking, nude, one foot on 
a piece of rock. — Sitting female 
figures, the upper half of the body 
undraped, with one foot behind the 
other, often of great beauty. — Fly- 
ing goddesses of victory. — Veiled 
female dancers. — Msenads. — The 
toilette of a lady or bride, seated, 
and putting on or taking off the 
veil — among the attendants who 

are bringing ornaments, baskets, 
&c., sometimes a, very beautiful 
naked figure in a cowering attitude. 
— A female figure speaking, draped, 
bent forward, one foot resting on a 
stone, gesticulating with the right 
hand. — A mourning veiled woman 
seated. — EfiveUers of both sexes. — 
The horses inaccurately drawn, but 
always fuU of life. — A Quadriga 
standing still or in rapid move- 
ment, repeated hundreds of times. 
— A rider in splendid action. 

Such and other conceptions of 
Greek art, which these unpretend- 
ing memorials present in great 
number, would alone suffice to in- 
spire eternal admiration for the 
genius of the Greek people. 


The richness of what is left 
makes us grieve over what is lost. 
Not a line, not a pencil-mark, 
nothing but the mere names re- 
main to us of Polygnotus and the 
ancient Athenian school, of Zeuxis, 
Parrhasius, and the rest of the 
lonians, of Pausias and Euphranor, 
or of the great ApeUes, and a hun- 
dred other Greek painters, who 
were stiU known to Pliny and Quin- 
tilian. It is hopeless to form an 
idea of the style of these artists 
from the casual remarks of early 
writers, and it is always hazardous 
to try to discover amongst existing 
Pompeian and other paintings sub- 
jects taken perchance from parti- 
cular ancient masters. 

As a general rule, it is certain 
that in the best things we possess 
in ancient painting, the invention 
far surpasses the execution. The 
great painters of antiquity still live 
on in copies, though but a nameless 
and shadowy life ; they were saved 
to us by the practice characteristic 
of all ancient art, the repetition of 
what had once been recognised as 

This is especially true of the re- 
B 2 

mains preserved in a room of the 
a VaMcam, Library built out towards 
the garden. Both the Aldobran- 
dini Marriage, a work which even 
since the discovery of Pompeii re- 
tains a great, even unique value, 
and the five pictures of mythical 
female personages, point to originals 
of the best time. All else that 
J exists in Kome, in the Baths of 
Titus, iu private collections, in the 
c Golumbaria of the Via Latina, and 
d of the Tilla Pamfili and elsewhere, 
appear to be either much injured 
or of inferior value. Any other spe- 
cimens of antique paintings than 
those of Eome come chiefly from 
Pompeii. Some newly discovered 
e rooms behind the Baths of Cara- 
aalla and in the French excavations 
/on the Palatine are worthy of atten- 
g tion. At Cortona {Museo) there is 
an apparently genuine easel pic- 
ture, a halt-length figure of a Muse, 
painted upon slate. 

By far the most important places 
for the study of antique painting 
are the buried cities of Vesuvius 
hand the Museum of Naples. The 
paintings are placed all together on 
the right on the ground floor. The 
principal ones stand in a gallery ; 
and in five rooms, of which the 
furthest back is counted as the 1st, 
all to the right of the entrance. 
{ Some wall-pain tings in the far- 
thest room, which were found in 
sepulchral chambers in Southern 
Italy, especially at Psestum, repre- 
senting riders, dances of women, 
etc., belong to an earlier period of 
Greek painting. Instead of any 
well-executed colouring or plastic 
modelling, we have only the simple 
illuminated outline drawing, living 
and often noble, corresponding to 
the spirit of the elder Greek time. 
In the treatment of the profile we 
recognise the method of the Greek 
relief, which so turns the bust as 
to show it in all its beauty. (Com- 
pare the good copies of Etruscan 
sepulchral paintings of both earlier 

and later style, in the Mitseo Et-j 
rusco of the YaMca/ii). 

The Pompeian paintings and Mo- 
saics show us that ancient art iu 
some sort had reached a high point, 
with two limitations, which must 
be noted ; in the first place we have . 
here the painting of a not very im- 
portant provincial town of Koman * 
times ; secondly, it is only wall- J 
decoration, which neceasanly fol- ' 
lows a different principle from easel 
painting. The latter, especially in 
the best period, was doubtless more 
fully developed in all that concerns 
illusion, fore-shortening, light, re- 
flections, etc. In mosaics, accord- 
ing as they were intended for pave- 
ments or for wall-pictures, and also 
as to whether they are composed 
only of stones or with the help of 
vitreous pastes, there is a complete 
series to be gone through, from the 
simplest to the most refined treat- 
ment of colour, such as we find, for 
instance, in the theatrical scenes of 

Considering these remains gene- 
rally, we may assume, as we have 
said, that the best are everywhere 
formed upon Greek originals, which 
the artist learnt by heart, and 
reproduced more or less literally. 
There was no question of tracing or 
stenciBiug ; any one who could 
paint off a single part in so bold 
and masterly a manner needed no 
assistance for the whole form. The 
paintings demonstrably of Roman 
composition (e. g. the scenes of Pom- i 
•peian town life, iu the 4th room on 
the right wall, and the two Feasts 
oflsis, 3rd room, 392—396) are farj 
below the rest in invention, even 
granting their inferior sUghtness of 
execution to be merely accidental. 

If we take as fair examples the 
larger mythological subjects (espe- 
cially those in the five rooms at the 
entrance) we may describe the 
mode of treatment as follows. 
Special details are generally neg- 
lected, but essentials are indicated 

WalJ Paintings. 

by a few lines with great force. 
In the heads, along with very 
striking traits, we find much that 
is quite general in character, which 
may, however, be laid to the ac- 
count of the workman and of his 
technical method. The execution 
long considered a secret, but now 
acknowledged to be fresco, is gene- 
rally free and bold. The [space is 
always arranged with a view not 
to the realization of external ob- 
jects, but to the higher claims of 
composition ; the delineation of the 
architectural or landscape back- 
ground does not go beyond a mere 
indication. (The Sacrifice of Iphi- 
genia, in the 4th room, on the 
pier.) By a conventional treat- 
ment of perspective depth, the 
more distant figures appear as if 
they stood on a higher plane. 
(Eecognitiou of Achilles.) The 
light faUs consistently from one 
side. The artificial grouping of 
modem art, with its transitions in 
the forms and its contrasts of light 
and shadow, is entirely wanting ; 
the chief object is to give expres- 
sion to the figures, and for this 
purpose to keep them separate. 
In large groups the figures ap- 
pear in stages above each other 
(the poet teaching his drama to 
the players in the passage to the 
5th room). Generally, in all these 
and in the other larger composi- 
tions, the execution is very un- 
equal. Some are good, as in the 
a 2nd room. Mars and Venus, Bae- 
i ckus and Ariadne ; 4th room, The- 
seus rescuing the Children of the 
Athenians ; in the left passage to 
the 4th room, Medea ; in the right 
c passage to the 5th room, the Pun- 
ishment of Dine, two Goddesses 
with Cupids : also the Music Les- 
son of the young Fauns ; Perseus 
and Andromeda; Chiron and 
Achilles, Hercules with the Cen- 
taurs, Achilles and Briseis, etc. 
Yet in others, side by side with the 
very best, and with single subjects 

assignable only to the greatest of 
ancient masters, we find some 
very poor tilling indeed. We can- 
not but conjecture that here we 
have before us, sometimes crowded 
together, sometimes in single frag- 
ments, a number of different parts 
taken from various compositions of 
great merit. In Pompeii some of 
the larger pictures remain in their 
place : Diana and Actseon (in the 
Oasa di Sallustio) ; a Hero prepar- d 
ing for the Bath {Casa di Mele-e 
agro) ; Venus and Adonis (Oasaf 

To this judgment, the so-called 
Battle of Alexander, the most beau- 
tiful antique mosaic known, makes 
a splendid exception (found in the 
Casa del Fauno at Pompeii, now on 
the floor of the Hall of Flora in the g 
Museum at Naples). It represents 
a battle between Greeks or Komans 
and Barbarians ; probably the vic- 
tory of Alexander over Darius at 
Issus. I nowise blame the extreme 
enthusiasm latterly expressed for 
this work, but we must interpret 
the meaning rightly, and not, for 
instance, insist on regarding the 
man in the chariot as the Barbarian 
king, whilst the whole composition 
points to the horseman clad with 
regal splendour, who is overthrown 
and pierced through by the enemy. 
The merit of this unique work does 
not consist so much in faultless 
drawing, or in the expressiveness 
of each single figure, as in the 
power with which a momentous 
crisis is presented to us with the 
slightest possible means. On the 
right, by the turn given to the 
chariot and horses, and by some 
telling attitudes and gestures, a 
picture of helplessness and conster- 
nation is given which could not be 
more significant, or save in an out- 
ward sense, more complete. On 
the left (unhappily much defaced) 
the victors press forward with 
confident and resistless force. 
Whether the whole was composed 


Antique Painting. 

to be executed in mosaic, or was 
rather copied from a wall-painting, 
remains to be decided. 

With this exception, the little 
genre scenes are usually to be pre- 
ferred to the larger heroic pictures. 
Pompeii has yielded some precious 
and -costly works, such as the two 
delicate mosaics bearing the artist's 
"5 name, Dioscorides, representing 
their favourite subject of theatrical 
rehearsals. Yet to these we must 
prefer some lightly-executed paint- 
ing. Few things can equal the 
quiet charm of the group of three 
women conversing, with a column 
and foliage in the back-ground. 
Raphael was on this path when he 
designed the second series of the 
story of Psyche. Certain reddish- 
brown drawings on marble slabs 
seem to be the work of an uncer- 
tain amateur hand; beneath this, 
the genre-picture of the maiden 
playing at bones points to a splen- 
did original. Close by a small uu- 
obtrusive picture, of the beautifully 
conceived scene, "Who buys Cu- 
pids ? " The lovers reveUing and 
reposing, also carry us back to a 
beautiful Greek idea. 

Many, also, of the smaller myth- 
ological pictures which formed (and 
in part do stiU form) the centres on 
the walls of ordinary Pompeian 
houses, possess a special separate 
value as complete and harmonious 
works ; for instance, the best of 
the pictures of Narcissus, the Bac- 
chus and Ariadne, several Bacchus 
scenes, and Venus as a fisher- 
woman (several times repeated). 
The injured picture of Hylas and 
the Nymphs is very happily con- 
ceived. In the Galleria degU og- 
getti osceni is a, Faun kissing a 
Nymph, besides several other ex- 
cellent scenes, not more repulsive 
than many that are exhibited in 
the lower rooms. 

But, according to my feeling, it 
is not the complete pictures which 
give the strongest and most harmo- 

nious impression of Greek genius, 
but the numerous single figures 
and groups, employed for decora- 
tion, which stand partly on a 
ground of one colour, and partly 
serve to enliven the pointed archi- 
tecture of little temples, paviHous, 
balustrades, and so forth. The best 
of these can only belong to the 
highest period of Greek art, and 
were handed down for centuries 
from one to another, till they too 
found their place in the little town 
under Vesuvius. The painter, 
doubtless, learnt them by heart, 
and reproduced them quite natu- 
rally. They are so constantly em- 
ployed in our modem decoration 
that the visitor is sure to meet a 
number of familiar forms, and pro- 
bably will be astonished at the un- 
pretendingappearauce andthedimi- 
nutive proportions of the originals. 
The most important specimens of 
this kind are the following : — De- 
meter with the torch and basket ; — 
Zeus and Victory, on a red ground ; 
— the Niobids, in gold colour, distri- 
buted about on the feet and the 
upper connecting bands of two 
white tripods, quite different from 
the well-kuown Florentine statues ; 
— the famous Female Dancers, on a 
black ground ; — unconnected with 
each other, of exquisite beauty in 
action, and the easiest expression 
of floating both in their attitude 
and their drapery ; the splendid 
Centaurs in movement, on a black 
ground : amongst whom is the 
female Centaur playing cymbals 
with the young Satyr, and the 
Centaur bound, whose back a wild 
Bacchante is spurning with her 
foot; this last perhaps one of the 
most beautiful creations of ancient 
art ;— the no less famous series of 
Dancing SatjTS, small figures on a 
black ground (contrasted with the 
collection of Amorioi of Roman 
creation), who are represented as 
engaged in all sorts of prosaic em- 
ployments, even as shoemakers ;— 

Wall Paintings; Landscapes. 

a head of Medusa, on a yellow 
ground ;— Tritons, Nereids, Sea- 
monsters, etc. ; — Nereids on Sea 
Horses and Sea Panthers, feeding 
them ; — the female figure with the 
style to her lips, a h5f-length, set 
in a circular border (several times 
repeated) ; — Bacchantes, Silenus, 
etc., in circular settings; — a small 
fragment, a half-length figure of a 
Flute-player and his companion. 
Besides these, the following objects 
of merit : — a number of dancing 
floating Satyrs, in the divisions of 
a vault ; as, also, beautiful floating 
Genii or Amorini ; — another series 
of Amorini, with the attributes of 
divinities, all wonderfully com- 
posed, in a round setting ; — Victory 
and a Greuius with divinities hover- 
ing above, perhaps Koman of a 
good time ;— Bacchus ; — a beautiful 
Priestess with vessels for sacrifice, 
a youth with a sword and shield ; 
— a floating draped figure with a 
sacrificial vase; — the seated girl 
leaning her chin on her hand, on a 
black ground;— a Youth sitting 
with feet crossed (fine, and often 
repeated) ; — a beautiful floating 
Bacchante with a thyrsus and cup, 
on a black ground. These instances 
are selected only to call attention 
to some of the finest pieces; any 
one who remains long in these 
rooms will be attracted by many 
others also. If we ask. Could the 
figure before us be more beautifully 
conceived, more clearly expressed, 
or more gracefully set ? we invari- 
ably find that all, be it finished or 
merely sketched, is perfect and 


Especial attention should be paid 
to the landscapes and architectural 
views of which there exist a great 
number in the museum as well 
as the ruins of Pompeii. The ar- ' 
chitectural views give an interest- 
ing picture, not only of the general 

style of the buildings of that time, 
but more especially of those which 
gave a special character to the 
coast between Cumae and Sorrento 
in Roman times : they are of course 
somewhat fancifully exaggerated, 
giving not merely a picture of what 
really existed, but of what the 
artist desired to see built. Villas 
reaching out into the sea, the most 
splendid country houses surrounded 
with halls, temples, and palaces, 
and above all, the most ornamental 
harbour buildings, are fully dis- 
played in bird's-eye perspective. 
The chief impression we gain from 
these views is that of architectural 
richness. Lately very interesting 
architectural views have been dis- 
covered in the French excavations a 
on the Palatine. 

The landscapes again are dif- 
ferently treated. They too unite 
many objects looked at from a high 
perspective point, and have no idea 
as yet of the scheme of lines com- 
mon to modern landscape painting. 
Many are nothing more than lively 
representations of pleasing or re- 
markable objects, little temples, 
pleasure-houses, ponds with open 
courts, monuments with trophies, 
Hermes, semicircular walls, bridges, 
and so forth, in undulating country 
interspersed with trees ; the pic- 
tures of gardens with symmetrical 
arbours and fountains come pro- 
perly under the head of architec- 
tural pictures. On the other hand 
in the better landscapes an idyllic 
character appears, a distinct at- 
tempt to express a particular senti- 
ment, though it sometimes fails for 
want of better means of expression. 
Round a lonely little sacred haunt 
of the nymphs, or the Paphian 
goddess, we see shepherds and 
flocks or a country sacrifice, over- 
shadowed by olive trees ; some- 
times, too, personages out of the 
Greek myths enliven the rocky 
landscape. Of this last kind are 
the scenes out of the Odyssey 


Antique Painting. 

whicli were found in Rome, and 
are now to be seen in the rooms 
a belonging to the Vatican lAirary, 
where is also the Aldobrandini mar- 
riage. The impression is of the 
same kind as that made by the 
Bucolic poets, and it is not impos- 
sible that the painter may have 
been inspired by them. 

The subserviency of this whole 
style to decorative purposes is 
shown, among other things, by the 
subordination of the whole to a 
particular colour of the wall. Many 
landscapes, for instance, are painted 
brown on brown, green on green, 
sometimes also, for a strong con- 
trast, greenish white on a red wall. 
There is no special character in the 
details of the landscape, as for ex- 
ample iuthe foliage ; theolive alone, 
on account of its peculiar growth, 
retains a certain character. Also 
where garlands and leaf work ap- 
pear as part of the decorations, 

only the most necessary part of 
the special form of the leaf is in- 
dicated with bold effect. 

In the numerous pictures of still 
life (including kitchen utensils and 
dead animals) we recognise an art 
capable of creating illusion, yet 
seeking to produce that effect in 
wall paintings, at least in a very 
limited measure. The painter in- 
deed was required to delineate 
those objects, but he was not 
asked to reproduce them in the 
finest and most idealized form by 
means of groups, backgrounds or 
light and atmosphere, as de Heem 
was expected to render them by 
his Dutch contemporaries. The 
most graceful antique mosaic of 
Eome, the Vases with the doves 
(Museo Capitolmo: vase room) is/ 
perhaps one of the most instructive 
examples of the degree of illusion 
attempted in the most precious ma- 


The history of Christian painting 
begins with the wall paintings of 
the Catacombs, which contain me- 
morials of this art dating from the 
second to the eighth century. Nu- 
merous fresh excavations in Rome 
enable the traveller to gain for him- 
self an idea of this art, the know- 
ledge of which but a few years ago 
was only to be obtained from old 
and not very accurate copies. The 
collection of (fairly good) copies in 
J the Museo Cristiano of the Zateran, 
and the excellent publications of de 
Eossi"^nd Perret give, after a visit 
to a single catacomb, a good insight 
into the general contents of those 
remarkable places. The oldest and 
best pictures in Rome are to be 
(. found in the Catacombs of S. Nereo 
^amd Achilleo, S. Galisto, S. Pris- 
geilla, S. Prcetemtatiis, S. Ponziano, 
and S. Agnese: those of S. Sebas- 

tiano, which are always accessible, 
are nearly destroyed. 

Of inferior interest to the Roman 
Catacombs are those near S. Oen- 
naro dei Poveri at Naples, where gi 
also are found considerable remains 
of both ancient Christian and Pa- 
gan paintings, though the greater 
number are figures of Saints, dating 
from about the eighth century 
backwards, already strongly Byzan- 
tine in character. 

The style of the Catacomb pic- 
tures in the older works closely 
resembles antique painting in form 
and feeling, following step by step 
its gradual degeneracy into stiff- 
ness and want of form. Most im- 
portant and characteristic for the 
primitive relations of Christianity 
to art are the conception and selec- 
tion of subjects. 

We find united with the forms 



and types of antique paintings, as 
■we have become acquainted with 
them in Pompeii and elsewhere, 
the first traces of an artistic mode 
of thought, which, after a long 
period of entire degeneracy in art, 
reappears in the movement which 
revi-vified Christian art in the thir- 
teenth century, and is not there- 
fore to be found in the scTere and 
narrow forms of the Mosaics. 

Pre-eminent here stands Sym- 
bolism : which is often but an out- 
ward combination of incidents and 
scenes, the true relations of which 
must be known to the spectator 
beforehand, being here without any 
more necessary affinity than the 
fish with the designation of Christ, 
the initial letters of which repre- 
sent the IX0T2 : (so the story of 
Jonah or the raising of Lazarus as 
the type of the Resurrection) ; at 
other times it is a truly artistic 
combination, which, with the aid 
of antique themes, creates a beau- 
tiful form for an ethical or religious 
idea, through the characteristics of 
the figures and their action, as in 
the well-known figure of the Good 
Shepherd in S. Calisto, S. Nereo 
and AchUleo and elsewhere. Chris- 
tian art also tries its powers in the 
creation of typical images, of which 
the special variations from the an- 
tique are the same as those seen in 
the oldest Christian sculptures of 
the sarcophagi. Associated with 
the first pictures of the Madonna 
(J (S. Calisto, S. MarceUino e Pietro, 
J S. PrisoiUa) are the earliest at- 
g tempts at a portrait of Christ {S. 
Nereo and AchUleo) ; the Apostles 
also are first represented with the 
characteristics by which they have 
been identified through all after 
times (same place, chapel of the 
Evangelists). The artistic treat- 
ment of the action and expression 
does not go beyond what ancient art 
supplied to the Christian painter ; 
incidents like the Adoration of the 
Magi, the Last Supper, the Miracle 

of the Loaves, only appear as figures 
standing in a row, with some slight 
expression'in the attitudes, and the 
signs of life here apparent soon 
stiffen into a purely conventional 

The ancient Christian sarcophagi 
serve to complement the Catacomb 
paintings, though they express 
another set of ideas ; the figured 
ground of drinking glasses (Vase 
in Museo Oristiano of the Vatican) a 
may also help to complete the pic- 
ture of the oldest practice of 
Christian art. 


In church mosaics we have an 
almost uninterrupted and authen- 
ticated series of Christian paintings 
from the time when Christianity 
became a state institution. We 
must here give a short account of 
the influences under which they 

Art here is fettered by rules 
more strict and rigid than those 
of any earlier time. Ecclesiasti- 
cal pomp and monumental effect, 
and a firm conviction that work 
once done must last eternally, 
prompt the use of materials which 
exclude the artist from participa- 
tion in any labours but those of 
drawing cartoons or choosing 
glass pastes. The Church desires 
or only permits what Church pur- 
poses storictly demand. Her re- 
quirements must be satisfied in an 
imposing manner. The subject 
being all in aU is set in just 
so much accessory scenery as 
suffices to explain the theme 
without an appeal to sensual 
beauty. The Church has other 
means of affecting the imagina- 
tion than those of artistic con- 
trast in action, shape, or colour. 
She provides quite a different feel- 
ing for harmony than that derived 
from beautiful formal contrasts. 
The artist no longer invents ; he 
has only to reproduce what the 


Mediceval Painting. 

Church has discovered for him. 
For a time art still keeps up some 
remains of the joyoua spirit in- 
herited from aacient times, and 
within its narrow limits still cre- 
ates single forms that are grand 
and lifelike. But gradually it 
sinks and falls back at last into 
mere mechanical repetition. 


This repetition of something 
learnt by heart is the essential 
characteristic of what we call the 
Byzantine style. Thus, in Con- 
stantinople, where in course of 
time the practice of almost all the 
best art of the Christian world was 
concentrated, after about the time 
of Justinian, there grew up a system 
adopting a certain arrangement of 
the scenes-to be represented, a par- 
ticular manner of depicting single 
figures according to their import- 
ance and their rank, and a special 
treatment of every detail. Every 
one learnt this system by heart, 
as far as his natural capacity al- 
lowed, and then reproduced it, for 
the most part without any reference 
to nature. Therefore it is that we 
find in this style so many almost 
identical Madonnas ; therefore the 
various representations of the same 
scene so nearly resemble each other, 
while the single sacred figures of 
the same person are exactly alike. 
It is astonishing to observe this 
complete dying out of individual 
character,* which is gradually sup- 
planted by a uniform type, similar 
in every detail. We have to com- 
pare it with the art of ancient un- 
progressive nations (^Egyptians, 
Chinese, &c. ) to conceive how form 
could be subjected to an uniform 

• It takes refuge in illuminating, or at 
least shows itself there in the reproduc- 
tion of better ancient originals. But 
gradually it died quite out, and when 
new subjects, e. g., stories of martyr- 
doms, have to be represented, it is only by 
a new combination of familiar elements. 

traditional law. The Byzantine sys- 
tem was indeed partly founded on 
reminiscences of antiquity, but so 
stiff as hardly to be recognisable. 
The expression of holiness always 
takes the shape of moroseness, 
since art was not permitted to 
arouse the thought of the super- 
natural by producing forms that 
were free as well as grand. Even 
the Madonna becomes stdky, 
though the small lips and thin 
nose seem to make a certain at- 
tempt at loveliness ; in male heads 
there is often a repulsive malig- 
nant expression. The drapery, 
arranged in a particular number of 
conventional modes, has a special 
way of falling into delicate stiff 
folds and breaks; when the type 
requires it, it is merely a surface 
of ornaments, gold, and jewels ; in 
other places, in easel pictures con- 
stantly, and often in mosaics, gold 
serves to represent the high lights. 
The movements and positions be- 
come more and more lifeless, and 
in works of the eleventh century, 
like the old mosaics of S. Marco, a 
they preserve hardly a trace of 

This style now gained great in- 
fluence in Italy also. Not only 
did many important countries and 
towns, Eome among the number, 
remain for quite a thousand years 
in an apparent and partially real 
dependence on the Greek empire, 
but Byzantine art likewise pos- 
sessed special qualities, which for 
a time assured its predominance 
over all Italian art. In both 
countries the religious feeling was 
the same ; it was not till the mid- 
dle of the eleventh century that the 
ecclesiastical breach between Kome 
and Byzantium was once for all 
decided. Nothing, therefore, es- 
sentially checked its influence. 
Thus the broken and impoverished 
life of Italian art could not but be 
overshadowed by that of Byzan- 
tine culture, now entirely unri- 

Byzantine Style. 


vailed in the metropolis at least, 
even had the latter style possessed 
no advantage beyond the tradition 
of its artistic method. This, how- 
ever, was a decisive point in those 
times ; the Church which only 
thought of creating an eiiect by 
splendid materials and the richest 
possible treatment of them, found 
her purposes better answered 
by the artists and works of art 
brought from Constantinople than 
by the native artists. Thus the 
Italian painter, from the seventh to 
the thirteenth century has but the 
choice, either to exercise his un- 
tutored pencil in meaner tasks, or 
humbly to act as assistant to the 
Byzantine artists. In particular 
towns like Venice, whole colonies 
of Greeks settled round a church 
as Mosaic workers, even for a cen- 
tury or more. It was a grand mo- 
ment in Italian life when they 
were dismissed, because a native 
creative spirit had awakened 
afresh, and was again capable 
of representing sacred things inde- 
pendently. The Byzantine influ- 
ence lasted on a long time here 
and there (in Venice, Lower 
Italy, &c.), and even now has not 
quite died out, because the Byzan- 
tine style was so closely connected 
in the popular mind with the sa- 
cred types. 

The Italian mosaics can be di- 
vided into two tolerably marked 
classes ; the ancient Christian, up 
to the seventh century, in which the 
antique ideas, more or less dying 
out, can still be traced ; and those 
produced under the Byzantine in- 
fluence after the seventh centu^jy. 
This influence varied in degree ; 
there is a great difference between 
the works of the Greeks themselves 
who had colonized, and what was 
afterwards more or less copied 
from them, but for centuries we 
find no single figure in Church 
Mosaics quite unaffected by the 
Byzantine style. 


The ancient Christian Mosaics 
have for two reasons great histo- 
rical value. They show the form 
which the ideas of that time gave 
to the biblical characters, especially 
those of the New Testament. The 
type of Christ may have been 
partly created out of an old tradi- 
tion, but not so deiinitely as is often 
assumed. The costume of Christ, 
of his followers and Apostles, is an 
ideal one adopted chiefly from 
Koman art. Other personages are 
characterized by a costume belong- 
ing to their rank, often very splen- 
did. In the heads there is un- 
questionably an attempt at an 
ideal (though not sensuously beau- 
tiful) but the average of physical 
form had sunk so low that hardly 
any but peculiarly ugly faces 
could be produced. In the second 
place, we see here a system of reli- 
gious modes of expression and 
trains of ideas, created less by art 
than by the Church, and forining a 
historical memorial of the highest 
value. And in truth it is mostly 
the Ecolesia triumphans which here 
speaks : the principal subject is 
not the earthly wanderings of 
Christ and the Saints, but their 
Apocalyptic glorification. These 
forms seem te exist without sur- 
roundings, in infinite space, repre- 
sented by a blue ground, and also 
often, latterly always on a gold 
ground : the earth provided for 
them is either a simple fiat surface, 
or adorned with fiowers, with the 
river Jordan in addition, or the 
rivers of Paradise. Their atti- 
tudes are composed and solemn ; 
they seem to exist rather than to 
act. In order to understand the 
cycle of ideas here developed, we 
must put ourselves into the same 
point of view. The mere choice of 
position for instance, in placing 
Apostles and Prophets opposite 
each other, stands for an expres- 


MeMceval Painting. 

sion of Promise and Fulfilment ; 
the simple action of stepping for- 
ward, a bowing of the knee, suffice 
as symbols of worship ; the raising 
of the arms signifies speaking, pray- 
ing or declaration of power, accord- 
ing to the circumstances. The 
spirit of the time is so strong that 
it takes the slightest hint as a com- 
plete expression, and is ready to 
follow it without requiring any 
expressions in the features corre- 
sponding with the incident, or any 
external explanation. As we have 
said above. Art was never more 
restricted; the public of the day 
have never been disposed to con- 
cede more or to require less of it. 


It would lead us very far, if we 
attempted here to describe this 
particular cycle of art ; of the Ro- 
man Mosaics Platner's description 
of Rome gives an exact account ; 
those in Ravenna contain much 
that is not to be found in Rome, 
but here too the subject can be 
guessed at. Our enumeration in- 
cludes only the more important 
works. Crowe and CavalcaseUe 
give a most complete description. 

a After the mosaics of S. Coslanza * 
at Borne, of the time of Constantine, 
mentioned before in connection 
with ancient ornamentation, those 
of the orthodox Baptistery, S. Cfio- 

tvaimi in Fonte, in Kavenna, are 
the earliest masterpiece (ante 430), 
indeed the only one in which the 
full decorative richness (settings, 
ornamental figures, alternations of 
stucco, relief and mosaic) of late 
Roman work is combined with 
good and lifelike drawing ; it is 
also one of the most splendid spe- 
cimens of ensemble of colour in the 
whole of art. 

* The rude and insignificant mosaics on 
tile niclies of tlie side door heloug to tlie 
seventli century. — R. 

The biblical stories whicli are 
represented in S. Maria Maggiore at 
Borne, on the upper walls of thej 
central nave, and on the arch of 
triumph (earlier than 450, but 
many of them much altered, or 
quite modem) wUl stand as spe- 
cimens of the picture Bible then in,, 
use. In many compositions there.'' 
are subjects taken from Trajan's 

In the monumental chapel of 
Galla, Plaoidia, now S. Nazwro e , 
Celso, at Eavenna, the beautiful^ 
coloured ornaments on a dark blue 
ground are better than the figures 
(about 450). Of the same date 
(432^40?) is the Mosaic ornamen- 
tation in the Vestibule of the Bap-t 
tistery of the Lat&ram,. So also 
the two female figures of the church 
of the Jewish Christians and Pagan 
Christians in 8ta. Sabina at Bome./ 

Under L.eo the Great (440—461) 
were produced the front mosaics of 
the Aroh of Triwmph in St. Paul at j 
Bome, which have now again been ; 
restored by means of fragments 
and copies. They are the first ob- 
tainable prototypes of a representa- i 
tion, which afterwards became com- 
mon, of the twenty-four Elders (out 
of the Apocalypse); also the gigantic | 
half-figure of SShrist in the centre 
was one of the most remarkable in 
ancient Christian art. The mo- 
saics of the tribune appear to have 
been madein the thirteenth century, 
after an original of the fifth ; they 
contain, Uke nearly all tribune 
mosaics, Christ enthroned with 
various Saints, and underneath 
them the Saints of the Church and 
also the Founders. Elsewhere 
Christ is represented standing on a 
hill or on clouds, not floating as 
in the modern manner. 


This last position we find in the 
most beautiful mosaic in Rome, 

Mosaics of Fifth and Sixth Centuries. 


% that of SS. Gosmas cmd Damian in 
the Forum (526—530). Though 
much restored, especially in the 
part on the left, this grand work 
embodies in a form already some- 
what stiff, one of the last free 
inspirations of Christian art. The 
execution is still beautiful and 

The mosaics at Kavenna in the 

jArian Baptistery (or S. Maria in 
Gosmedin about 550 ?) are a mere 
imitation of the painting in the 
dome of the other Baptistery. Of 
the same date (526 — 547) are those 
of the niches of the Choir in 8. 

c Vitale, which comprise among 
others the splendid ceremonial pic- 
tures of Justinian and Theodora, 
works far more remarkable for the 
subjects which they illustrate than 
for execution ; on the walls next to 
them are the bloody and bloodless 
sacrifices of the Old Testament (the 
Sacrifice of Abel, Abraham's Re- 
ception of the Three Angels, the 
Sacrifice of Isaac, the Keception 
of Melchisedek) ; the History of 
Moses ; Prophets. The two great 
friezes with processions of Saints 

dio. S. ApolUnare Nuovo, on the 
upper parts of the walls of the 
central nave (553 — 566) are for 
size the most important pieces of 
mosaic in the continent of Italy. 
Of the two cities, Kavenna and 

^. Classis (the ancient harbour of 
Ravenna), from which the pro- 
cessions are seen to issue, the for- 
mer is represented by a most re- 
markable view of the palace of the 
Ostrogoth kings, now all but com- 
pletely destroyed. * Apparently of 
the sixth century are the mosaics 
of the chapel of the archiepiscopal 
palace, buUt presumably 439 — 450 ; 
the prevailing architectural orna- 
mentation of which is grand in 

• Still more ancient are the Adoration 
of tlie Kings and the Christ Entombed, 
at the sides of the choir, the twenty-six 
scenes from the New Testament, and the 
single figures between the windows. — R. 

character, whilst the method of 
execution and a certain barbaric 
richness of costume indicate the 
growing Byzantine influence. 

In the cathedral of Trieste, thee 
side tribune on the left contains in 
the niche two good figures of Apos- 
tles in the same style. (The Ma- 
donna in the central semi-dome 
and all the mosaics of the side- 
tribune on the right belong to the 
advanced Byzantine school.) 

In Milan, in the Cappella S.f 
Aquilino, an octagonal building, 
annexed to S. Lorenzo, are two 
semi-domes with mosaics, repre- 
senting Christ between the Apos- 
tles, and the announcement of the 
birth of Christ to the Shepherds, 
moderately good works of the sixth 
or even fifth (?) century. There 
also are the newly restored mosaics 
of the Chapel of S. Satire, in S. g 
Ambrogio ; fifth century. 

The origin of the mosaic in S. h 
Pudenziana at Eome is disputed ; 
it must have been executed after 
an original of the fourth century, 
and in spite of a great deal of 
restoration, it may represent a 
composition of the time of Con- 
stantino. The tribune of S. Teo-t 
doro at Eome (seventh century) 
contains a partial repetition of the 
mosaic of the SS. Gosmas and Da-j 
mian. The mosaics of the inner 
church of S. Lorenzo fuori (578 — Jc 
590) over the Arch of Triumph 
have been lately entirely renewed. 

The transition to the Byzantine 
style was, as may be imagined, a 
gradual one ; a stony stiffening in 
traditional types is in point of fact 

In Ravenna this transition is 
seen in the large and very remark- 
able mosaic of the tribune of S. 
ApolUnare in Olasse (671 — 677) ; I 
besides the repetition of the Sacri- 
fices of the Old Testament (from 
S. Vitale), there is also here a ce- 
remonial picture of the Empire. 
The spandrils of the arches over 


Mediceval Painting. 

the columns of the nave are deco- 
rated with a most complete collec- 
tion of ancient Christian emblems 
(in modern copies) ; the series of 
portraits of the archbishops, which 
surmount them like a frieze, is 
almost the only specimen (pre- 
served at least by a copy) of the 
series of portraits of the early me- 
dieval churches. * 

Here, too, we must mention the 

05 mosaics of the tribune of S. Agnese 
fuori (625—638), in Some, and in 
one of the adjoining chapels of the 
Lateran Baptistery, the so-called 

6 Oratorio di S. Venamio (640 — 642). 
It is clear in this last work that the 
artist has quite lost all freedom of 
mind, all pleasure and interest in 
his work. No wonder that he no 
longer understands what he merely 
repeats. Some smaller fragments 
are found in the little Tribune of 

aS. Stefano Rotondo — also on one of 
d the altars on the left in S. Pietro in 
Vincoli (S. Sebastian as a votive 
picture for the plague of 680, here 
clothed and represented as an old 
man), and others. 

We find traces of a last though 
unsuccessful effort against the By- 
zantine spirit in the (much-restored) 
e mosaics of the Choir of St. Ambro- 
gio at Milan (?832), though here 
also the inscriptions are partly 
Greek. The features are rudely 
sketched, the drapery given in a 
harsh, iris-hued colour (of white, 
green, and red), the distribution of 
the figures (very uneq^ual in size) is 
quite unartistic, and yet there is 
much more Kfe in it than in con- 
temporary Koman works of the 
period, t 

* In S. Paul at Rome a series of new 
mosaic portraits replace the old. Compare 
the heads of the Popes used as consoles 
in the cathedral of Siena. 

t Also interesting as containing all the 
patron saints of Milan of that time. 
Christ enthroned under a glory, sur- 
rounded by Michael and Gabriel, and 
next to them S. Gervasius and S. Pro- 
tasius, below in round settings S. Can- 
dida, S. Satyrus, and S. Marcellina ; on the 

After the beginning of the ninth 
century, the Koman mosaics sink to 
a degree of rudeness for which it is 
not easy to find a historical reason 
in the civilization of the time: 
since Byzantine art, the influenci 
of which is here everyTvhere visiblaj 
shows less elegance in execution 
here than anywhere else. 

The most remarkable of these 
mosaics, as to subject, that from 
the Triclimium of Leo III. (about/ 
800) having been moved to the 
chapel of Sancta Sanctorum (or 
Scala Santa), has been subjected to 
recomposition, though copied ex- 
actly from the old. (The two iu- 
vestitures at the side of the semi- 
dome : Christ giving the keys to 
S. Silvester, and a banner to the 
great Constantino ; St. Peter giving 
a stole to Leo III., a banner to 
Charlemagne ; the portraits of the 
latter have some semblance of au- 
thenticity, but are iu very bad 
condition.) Under the next Popes 
mosaics grow ruder and more life- 
less and become distorted to an 
inconceivable degree. So we find 
it in and above the Tribunes of SS. 
Nereo and AchilUo, S. Maria dellas 
Namcella (817—824), S. Cecilia and* 
S. Prassede — the last three, buEd-» 
ings of the time of Paschal I. (817— 
824). S. Prassede has an Arch of 
Triumph in mosaic, with the ex- 
traordinary representation of the 
heavenly Jerusalem and the little 
chapel (on the right), "Orto del 
Paradise, " the interior of which ia 
all iu mosaic. In the semi-cupola 

left the town of Tours, and 8. Ambrose at 
the burial of S. Martin ; on the right the 
town of Milan and S. Ambrose and S. 
Augustine seated at desks.— There is in- 
deed a great interval to be traversed be- 
tween such elementary beginnings and 
Haphael's Madonna di Foligno and Santa 
Cecilia, or the Saute Conversazione of 
Titian. .> 

In an adjoining chapel on the right o^ 
the church the cupola contains the halfSj 
length figure of S. Satyro on a gold 
ground, somewhat earlier than the mo- 
saics of the tribune. 

Mosaics of Ninth Century. 


J of the tribune of S. Marco (827— 
844), are some others, mere carica- 

Id Venice, where there was a 
closer connection with Byzantium 
and greater wealth than in Eome, 
mosaics show not only the mode of 
conception, but the neat and elegant 
execution of the Byzautines. The 

b church of S. Mark's, with its 40,000 
square feet of mosaics, is by far the 
richest monument of this Oriental 

Among these, we note as inte- 
resting for the subject, the re- 
ceived, conventional representa- 
tions of gospel history in the 
Byzantine manner (especially on 
the vaultings and many wall sur- 
faces of the interior); — the coUeo- 
tion of numerous single figures of 
saints (chiefly on the piers and in 
the curves of the arches) ; — the 
legendary method of narration (in 

'^ the Gapella Zeno, with the story of 
S. Mark, and in one of the five 
semicircular niches of the fa9ade, 
the story of his dead body) ; — here 
among others the picture of the 
church ; — another history of the 
body of the Saint, in the right 
transept (on the wall to the right) ; 
— the baptism of the AJiostles and 
the Angels of various ranks, dis- 
tinguished by their various em- 
ployments (shallow cupolas of the 
Baptistery chapel) ; — lastly, in the 
chief cupolas of the church, the 
feast of Pentecost, where strangers 
of various nations are distinguished 
by their costume and appearance 
(front cupola); — Christ, with four 
archangels, attended by the Virgin 
and the Apostles, and surrounded 
by the only complete series in 
mosaic of the Christian virtues 
(central cupola) ; — the miracles of 
the Apostles, &c. (left cupola). 

Judging from the style, these 
works are of very various dates ; 
though, for convenience sake, we 
mention them here together. The 
severe, lifeless Byzantine school is 

represented in the mosaics of aU 
the cupolas (eleventh and twelfth 
century), except those to the right ; 
the Christ between the Virgin and 
John, inside above the inner door, 
is the earliest, and considered to 
belong to the tenth century. The 
mosaics above mentioned of the 
Capella Zeno, also those of a wall(i 
niche of the fagade, as well as 
many others, are Byzantine in 
style, though somewhat modified 
and more lifelike, and very dehoate 
in their details. In striking con- 
trast with these are the mosaics of 
the vestibule, both before the three 
doors and on the left side of the 
church, importantworksof thewest- 
ern romanesque style of the thir- 
teenth century (except some obvi- 
ouslymodern additions), the history 
of the creation as far as Moses, given 
in a naive narrative manner. Again 
more Byzantine, althoughnotearher 
than the end of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth century, are the mosaics 
before mentioned and others in the 
Baptistery. Those of the chapel ^ 
of S. Isidoro, in the left transept f 
(about 1350), are unskilfully Giot- 
tesque. About 1430, those in the 
Cappella di Masooli, by Michiel „ 
(fiambono, * but only the left-hand 
half of the vaulting ; the right 
shows a much better hand (per- 
haps not Venetian) of the end of 
the fifteenth century. Scattered 
over the whole church are composi- 
tions by the Vivarini, Titian, and ft 
many later painters. (The cupola 
on the right. Paradise on the vault 
in front, most of the semicircles of 
the facade, &c.) None of these 
mosaics, not even the earlier ones, 
presuppose a distinct plan with 
subordinate detail, nor do they 
reveal an,y apparent progress in the 
development of poetic or dogmatic 
thought. Even round the High 
Altar, the sacrifice of Cain and 

* Perhaps father and son of the same 
name, the latter of whom execated the 
right-hand half.— Mr. 


MedtcBval Painting. 

Abel is the only instance of the 
system of Old Testament allusions 
to the sacrifice of the Mass such as 

a we found in the Choir of S. Vitale. * 
The churches of Palermo and its 
neighbourhood contain the prin- 
cipal monuments of Byzantine mo- 
saic painting, chiefly practised by 
Greek artists, under Norman rule. 
In the work on Architecture we 
have indicated how slight is the 
organic connection between this 
rich ornamentation and the archi- 
tecture which it adorns. The 
selection of types, and the skill 
with which scenes are enriched 
with numerous figures, as well as 
technical knowledge, reveal the 
practised Byzantine school, though 
some mosaics display the hand of 
native artists ; but we must not 
regard the Greek and Latin inscrip- 
tions as the criteria of this. The 
order to be followed in the most 
important monuments is, according 
to Crowe and Cavalcaselle : the 

5 Choir of the Cathedral of Cefalu 
(after 1148) ; contemporary, but of 
inferior workmanship, the Cappella 

c PalatiTia, at Palermo ; fragments in 

g, the Martorana (S. Maria delV Am- 

e miraglio) ; the Cathedral of Mon- 
reale, finished 1182, nearer the 

f decline ; the Cathedral of Messina, 
thirteenth century. On the main- 
land we must mention here the 
much-injured mosaics of the new 

a side tribune ia the Cathedral of 
Salerno (after 1084) ; and compare 
with them the very rude wall 

^paintings of S. Angela in Formis, 
a few miles from S. Maria di 
Capua,')* executed about the same 

* The Mosaics in tlie Cathedrals of 
Murano and Torcello are still entirely 
Byzantine. — It [In S. Donate of Murano 
an Assumption with the Four Evangelists 
is a good example of the art of mosaics at 
Venice in the twelfth century.— Ed.] 

t These paintings, deacrihed as early as 
1862 ty Crowe and C. were, according to 
Neapolitan puhlications, discovered in 
1868, and were to be " restored," without 
delay, which, according to general ex- 
pectation in South Italy, would he eiiui- 

time ; the latter being almost the 
only monument remaining in paint- 
ing of the movement in art pa- 
tronised by Abbot Desiderius, of 
Monte Cassino [and the wall paint- 
ings of Saut' Elia of Nepi, completed 
in the beginning of the eleventh 
century by John, Stephen, and 
Nicholas of Kome.— Ed.] We looki 
in vain in any of these works for 
signs of real artistic development ; 
the chief impression is that of a 
high degree of splendour in deco- 
ration. Where the representation 
of the action does become really 
lifelike, the violent movement of 
figures, which in general are con- 
ceived in a symmetrical arrange- 
ment, and the realism of many in- 
dividual gestures, becomes almost 
comic, as, for instance, on the walls 
of the central nave of the Cathedral 
of Monreale ; and the best things^ 
done by this style of art will always 
be the architecturally-severe figures 
in repose in the niches of the Choir. 

Taken as a whole, these careful 
late Byzantine Mosaics and wall 
paintings of Venice and Southern 
Italy are wonderful evidence of the 
conditions imposed on art by the 
church of Gregory VII. The cor- 
poreal presentment of Christ and 
the Saints shrivels to a mere 
emblem, but this emblem is brought 
before us with a lavish expenditure 
of costly materials and laborious 
execution. The greatest possible 
honour is to be paid to religion ; 
but it is superfluous to suggest 
personality or beauty, since devo- 
tion can be excited strongly enough 
without either. 

The panel pictures on wood in 
the Byzantine style now to be 
found in Italy are innumerable, 
especially pictures of the Madonna. 
Very few date from before 1000 ; 
for the greater number are copies 

valent to destroying them. [They have 
been restored, and in one or two pieces 
above the portal completely renewed. — 

Byzantine Easel Pictwes. 


from special miraculous pictures of 
the Madonna, and were produced 
either towards the end of the 
middle ages, or in quite modern 
times; besides this, we must re- 
member that Greek communities 
appear here and there in Italy 
amongst which the Byzantine mode 
of representation has remained 
consecrated. The peculiar colours 
of the varnish, the green flesh- 
shadows, the raised gold of the 
hatchings, make these paintings 
easily recognizable. I cannot say 
with any approach to certainty, 
whether in the type of theMadonna, 
there are varieties to be distin- 
guished ; it is difficult to trace this 
back to such old originals as we 
possess of the type of Christ. The 
so-called Black Virgin is not a real 
type, but rose from the mistaken 
repetition of Madonnasgrowu brown 

a with age. The picture in S. Ma/ria 
Maggiore (chapel of Paul T.) was 
certainly once (IXth century) 
painted light ; but later copies, 
particularly when darkened by age, 
will give the impression of a deep 
brown complexion. 

Some especially instructive By- 
zantine easel pictures are to be 
found in the collection at the Mioseo 

i Cristiano of the Vatican, which 
was founded by the late Monsig. 
Laureani, and contains a great 
number of small pictures, some of 
them very valuable, of the school 
of Giotto and the beginning of the 
fifteenth century. As Rome pos- 
sesses few examples of monumental 
art of this period, these are a wel- 
come supplement. There, among 
others, is the death of S. Ephraim, 
painted in the eleventh century by 

cthe Greek Umanuel Tzanfurnari. 
There are also many Byzantine 

d pictures in the Naples Museum. 

In conclusion, we have still to 

mention two works of art, of which 
one was undoubtedly and the other 
probably produced in Constanti- 
nople itself. The altar-piece {Palae 
d' Oro) in the ireasury of St. Mark's, * 
at Venice (ordered in 976?), con- 
sists of gold plates, lately put 
together again, containing a con- 
siderable number of figures, and 
whole scenes in enamel. The style 
is much the same as that of the 
last-named mosaics ; the execution 
exquisitely delicate ; in the absence 
of gradations of tints, which were 
unknown to the enamel work of 
that time, the lights and the folds 
of the drapery are expressed by the 
most delicate gold hatchings. The 
other is the so-called Dalmatica of 
Charlemagne, to be seen in the 
treasury of St. Peter, at Borne. Itf 
is a deacon's robe, apparently of 
the twelfth century, which several 
emperors wore at their coronations. 
On a ground of deep blue silk, 
numerous groups of figures are 
worked in gold, silver, and a few 
colours ; in front, Christ in glory, 
with angels and saints ; behind, 
the Transfiguration on Mt. Tabor ; 
on the sleeves, Christ as the dis- 
penser of the Sacraments. It is a 
remarkable relic of the time when 
not only the Church, but the offi- 
ciating priest was considered a 
symbol, a theory expressed under 
the veil of the most costly mate- 
rials possible. Besides this, in the 
Opera del Duottw at Florence is agr 
piece of wax mosaic in miniature 
dimensions, of the most delicate 
execution, a marvel of minute 

* Where I saw it in 1846. In the year 
1854 there was [as there now is, 1879] a 
covered altar-piece on the High altar 
itself, with a back painted in the year 
1345 [by Paolo, Luca, and Lorenzo of 
Venice.— Ed.] 


Romanesque Painting. 


With the eleventh century paint- 
ing enters as it were upon a new 
life, and forms for itself a new style, 
which we may call the Romanesc[ue. 
Ill-conceived repetitions of the an- 
tique are gradxially remodelled in 
the spirit of modern times. 

Alongside of the Byzantine style 
which had become dominant in 
Italy, there had always existed a 
species of uneducated national art, 
chiefly employed in the ornamenta- 
tion of inferior churches which 
could not afford the expense of 
either mosaics or Greek artists. It 
was from among the workers in 
this style, which, in contradis- 
tinction to the Byzantine, may be 
called Old Lombardic, that the new 
movement arose. The earliest mo- 
numents of note are the waU-paint- 
ings, mostly of legendary subjects, 
in the reputed temple of Bacchus, 

a S. Urbano alia OaffarcUa, at Some, 
nominally of the year 1011. Simi- 
lar fragments are to be found in 

J the Lateran Museum, whither they 
were taken from S. Agnese. The 
chief characteristics of the new 
style, marked action, and appropri- 
ate, if not quite easy, gesture, are 
already here in embryo. In spite 
of incomplete execution, the sym- 
pathy of the beholder is aroused ; 
art begins to invent anew, after 
long centuries of repetition and 
combination. There is naturally a 
mixture of acquired Byzantinism 
even in this simple narrative wall- 
painting ; and two later works, the 
frescoes of the entrance into S. 

eZorenzofuoH {-post A.TI. 1217, hardly 
recognisable through modern resto- 
ration), and those of the chapel of 

dS. Silvestro in the front court of 
SS. Quattro Coronati, both of the 
beginning of the thirteenth century, 
relapse again into a still more By- 
zantine manner. Rude works like- 
wise are the paintings of uncertain 

date discovered in 1858, in the 
lower church of S. Olemente, though « 
in them we find occasional living 
touches, as, for instance, a mother 
embracing a child. But meantime 
the new impulse had grown strong 
enough to make itself felt even in 
most monumental mosaic painting. 
In S. Maria in Trastevere the semi-/ 
dome of the Tribune and the curve 
of the Arch of Triumph, contain 
the first important creations of the 
Romanesque style in Italy (1139 — 
1153) ; in spite of the rudeness of 
the forms in these mosaics, we re- 
cognise with pleasure a germ of 
individual life in the appearance 
of new incidents ; Christ and the 
Virgin enthroned together are un- 
Byzantine even in conception. The 
Virgin between the Five Wise and 
the Five Foolish Virgins, on 
the fa9ade is of the same time, 
extremely stiff. For the later 
mosaics of the apse, ascribed to J 
CavalKni, see below. The mosaics 
of the choir, also, of S. Olemertteh 
(before 1150) are, in their figures, 
quite Romanesque ; the leaf orna- 
ment in the semidome resembles 
the splendid ornament in the Late- 
ran, only in other colours and with 
the addition of many little figures. 
The mosaics in the niche in S. 
Franeesca Bomana is merely a re-i 
petition of older types, and ugly in 

Still, either from historical causes 
or because the right artist had not 
yet appeared, this new Romanesque 
movement produced, for some time, 
no considerable result. The only 
inspiration in art which can be 
claimed for the time of Innocent 
III. and his immediate successors 
is found in the better works of the 
Cosmati. Painting makes no ad- 
vance. A relapse into the old By- 
zantinism shows itself, for instance, 
in the details of the large apsidsl 

Rome — Venice — Parma. 


a mosaics in 8. Paul (after 1216), 
which appears to be a new arrange- 
ment of what was placed there in 
the fifth century; also in the mural 
paintings just mentioned (p. 18). 
In the mosaics [now completely 
renewed] of the fagade of the Ca- 

b thedral of Spoleto, which were exe- 
cuted in 1207 by a painter named 
Solsemus, the Byzantine is found 
combined with a certain freedom 
and dignity, especially in the ges- 
tures of the Virgin and St. John ; 
Christ appears again in the youth- 
ful form for which the Byzantines 
had substituted that of an old man. 
The struggle between the two 
styles took quite a different course 
in diflferent districts. In Venice 
the Romanesque, as we have seen, 
came out splendidly in the mosaics 

(5 of the vestibule of St. Mark,- al- 
though at times falling back into 
Byzantinism. In Parma the frescos 

(2 of the Baptistery (excepting the 
lower ones, which are unimportant 
Giottesques) are among the most 
remarkable early specimens of the 
Romanesque style ; the work of 
various hands, during the first half 
of the thirteenth century, they 
exhibit, especially in the narrative 
parts at the edge of the cupola, the 
characteristics of life and move- 
ment, the passionate gestures pe- 
culiar to this style, which is as yet 
incapable of physiognomical ex- 
pression. On the fa9ade of the 

^Cathedral of Heggio (twelfth or 
thirteenth century) are single fig- 
ures of saints, mostly in repose, in 
fresco, belonging indiscriminately 
to both styles ; — also on the walls of 

jS. Zenone at Verona, showing out 
from behind half-ruined paintings 
of the fourteenth century ; — in the 

-vestibule of S. Ambrogio at Milan 
(of various dates) ; and elsewhere. 

I In the Saiyro speco at Snbiaco, its 
picturesque interior derives a pecu- 
liar charm from some inferior wall- 
paintings of the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries, with the artists' 

names inscribed. There is here a 
possibly genuine portrait of S. 
Francis (the youthful monk with- 
out the stigmata, on the right as 
you enter the chapel of S. Gregorio), 
which has indeed undergone fre- 
quent repaintings. 


Before we begin to speak of Tus- 
cany, let us reconsider the position 
of art, as it was then developing 
itself. A youthful style, which 
has much to tell, but only a limited 
capacity of expression, grows up 
alongside of the style traditionally 
hallowed by its devotion to reli- 
gious purposes. It does not yet 
aim at beauty and grace, but 
neither is it confined to the severe 
and ascetic ; almost unintentionally 
the figures take a youthful form. 
Nor does this style of art recognise 
any peculiar sanctity in the well- 
known sequence of Byzantine po- 
sitions and dresses, in the fixed 
types of sacred myths, etc. ; it gives 
all according to its own impulses, 
and forms for itself positions more 
harmonious with Nature, flowing 
garments, fresh, lively traits of 
life. At first it is allowed its way 
here and there on church walls, 
with its simple few colours in dis- 
temper. Next the workers in mo- 
saic, who considered their method 
inseparable from the Byzantine 
manner, by and bye discover that 
the new style has taken possession 
of one of the patriarchal churches 
in Rome, and is beginning to work 
also in mosaic. From this point a 
real struggle seems to have begun ; 
the Byzantine party sometimes vi- 
gorously uphold their old custom, 
sometimes attempt to divert the 
new style, mix it with their own, 
and seek to take from it its true 
bold character. In the works 
above named at Parma and Venice, 
it appears again quite uncontrolled, 
yet alongside of it Byzantinism 


Romanesque Painting. 

asserts itself, botli in its stiff forms 
as well as in its occasional conces- 
sions to tlie new ; its complete de- 
struction was brought about by the 
school of Giotto. Its connection 
with the most distinguished, most 
traditionally sacred form of art, 
mosaic, kept it up beyond its natu- 
ral term. It was not till this art 
had irrecoverably lost, not its per- 
manence, but its predominance, till 
all Italy was awake to the charm 
of fresco, that then, too, the By- 
zantine style perished. 


At the beginning of the thirteenth 
century, when the highest art of 
the country, excepting in Pisa, 
first arose, the Byzantine style was 
undeniably supreme in Tuscany. 
The merit of the Tuscan painters 
of the time immediately succeeding, 
with whom, following the lead of 
Vasari, we used once to begin the 
history of art, consisted less in the 
immediate overthrow of the style, 
than in the new life they brought 
into it ; with a genera] Byzautinism 
of conception, individual parts yet 
became freer, more lively, and more 
beautiful, till at last the old bonds 
were altogether broken. 


The importance of Siena's share 
in the very early development of 
art has become more doubtful since 
a the date 1221 in the large Madowna 
of Guido da Siena, in S. Domenico 
(second chapel left of choir), has 
been regarded as the falsification of 
a date later by some fifty years. 
The first beginning of beauty, and, 
in the position of the child espe- 
cially, of a feeling for lines, and a 
life likeness in drawing, could only 
have been a merit in Italy as op- 
posed to the Byzantinism prevail- 
ing in Siena, which one sees in the 
oldest works of the Academy there. 

(Crowe and Cavaloaselle moreover 
consider the flesh parts of this pic- 
ture to have been painted over in 
the fourteenth century.) The con- 
temporary pictures in the churches > 
there and in the Academy are de- 
cidedly inferior to the Madonna of 
Guido. The student will find in 
the painted covers of the account 
books of the thirteenth century i 
(Academy), works bearing the 
names of artists of merely local 


In Arezzo and Pisa also, Mwrga- 
ritone of Arez^o (born about 1216) 
and Oiunta da Pisa, who is said to 
have painted in Assisi from the 
year 1220, both mentioned by Va- 
sari as the earliest examples of the 
new movement, can claim no higher 
place in the development of art. 
GiwntaHs repulsive Crucifix va. 8.^ 
Bamieri e Leonardo, the thoroughly 
feeble paintings of the same date in 
S. in Grado, a few miles (j 
nearer the sea than Pisa, and others 
of a similar kind, show that the 
advance made by the great sculptor 
Niccolo Piscmo was no mere imi- 
tation nor was it stimulated by 
the painting of his immediate pre- 
decessors at Pisa. We shall speak, 
in their place, of the works as- 
cribed to Giv/nta in S. Francesco 
at Assisi. ' 


In Florence, the ornamentation 
of the Baptistery was the principal 
work of the first half of the twelfth 
century and for a considerable time 
later. The niche in the choir, the 
mosaics of which were made after 
1225 by a monk named Jmiolus, 
contains an excellent and important 
innovation ; kneeling figures on 
Corinthian capitals are employed as 
supporters of the central picture, 
one of the first purely artistic con- 



ceptiona, for even though these 
supporters may have a symbolical 
sense, still their chief purpose is the 
proper division of the space, a point 
to which Byzantine art, devoted 
simply to the subject, had paid no 
attention ; they are the originals of 
the figures supporting the arches 
a and filling the niches of the Sistine. 
In the cupola itself, the great 
Christ by the Florentine Andrea 
Tafi (born after 1250, died after 
1320), though keeping to the By- 
zantine outlines, is yet a very 
remarkable figure, dignified yet lite- 
like. The species of friezes in con- 
centric lines, containing biblical 
stories and groups of angels, which 
occupy the rest of the dome, show 
the work of four or five different 
hands ; some is purely Byzantine, 
and should most probably be attri- 
buted to the Greek Apollonius, who 
came, according to Vasari, from 
Venice; some is pure Romanesque, 
and reminds us of the Baptistery at 
Parma; other parts again are of 
mixed styles. (A great part has 
lost its original character by restora- 
tions.) Besides this, mosaic here 
begins to serve the purposes of 
architecture in friezes, balustrades, 
and other details of building. 

In the time of the crisis which is 
commemorated by this monument 
of art, fell the early years of the 
Florentine [Cenui di Pepi, com- 
monlyoalled.— Ed.] Cimaiwe (1240? 
tUl after 1302). There is no trace 
in his works of decided opposition 
to the Byzantines ; even in his last 
and greatest work, the Christ be- 

fttween the Virgin and the Baptist, 
in the niche in the choir of the 
Cathedral at Pisa, he follows the 
usual arrangement almost entirely. 
But within the traditional limits 
there is a movement towards beauty 
and life. His two great pictures 
of Madonnas made an epoch in 

c Christian art. One now in the 
Acadeimy at Florence does not in- 

deed equal Guido of Siena in the 
freedom and skilful arrangement of 
the principal figures ; but it shows, 
especially in the angels' heads, that 
the master had a clear perception 
of the causes and elements of 
human grace. The other, in ;S. M. , 
Novella (Cap. Ruccellai, in the right ^ 
transept), is far superior, and more 
unconscious; here we see the be- 
ginning of a proper feeling for 
nature, which can never again be 
satisfied with the conventional re- 
presentation of a narrow series of 
facts. We fully comprehend, on 
seeing this great picture, the over- 
powering impression which it made 
on its contemporaries, as though it 
was a vision from above. There is 
in it so little that is displeasing to 
modern feeling, even the unpre- 
pared and uninitiated eye, that 
hardly any altar-piece of later times 
can compare with this in solemnity 
of impression and a touching mix- 
ture of dignity and grace.* 

Bat Cimabue first displayed his 
whole capacity in the frescos of 
the upper church of S. Francesco 
at Assisi. These are unfortunately 
much injured, so that each indi- 
vidual picture requires a special 
effort of imagination. Following 
the very careful researches of Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle, we have before 
us in the wall pictures of Assisi, a 
continuous series in which the 
advance of art from Oimabiie's im- 
mediate predecessors up to Giotto 
can be observed. They divide the 
pictures into the following groups : 
( 1 ) in the nave of the Lower Church, « 
the life of Christ and S. Francis (in 
Vasari erroneously attributed to 
Cimahue), by a rude hand some- 
what like the painter of S. Piero in 
Grade : in the Upper Church ; (2) 
the southern transept, on the west- 

* No other pictures ascribed to dmainie 
are now regarded as genuine. The S. 
Cecilia, with the scenes of her martyrdom 
Ufa^i, No. 2), is far too free for him. 


Romanesque Painting. 

em wall, the Crucifixion, appa- 
rently by Qivmta Pisamo, and in 
the same antique feeble style the 
other remains on this and the south 
wall ; here are the scanty traces of 
a Crucifixion of Peter, and a fanci- 
ful scene of Simon Magus driven 
about in the air by demons ; (3) 

<''t\ie paintings in the choir, Scenes 
out of the life of the Virgin, of 
uncertain authorship, forming the 
link with the better paintings, 
those most resembling Cimabite in 
the northern transept ; the remains 
of a Christ enthroned, of a throne 
with the symbols of the Evangelists 
and winged skeletons ; (4) by Ci- 

^mdbm himself: there are a. Ma- 
donna with four angels among the 
Giottesque pictures on the west 
wall of the southern transept of 

"the Lower Church; (5) the three 
ceiling paintings, with figures, of 
the Upper Church ; in the transept, 
the four Evangelists with angels, 
aU seated writing, bending towards 
a tower-crowned city, much in- 
jured, in the style of the northern 
transept ; in the 3rd compartment 
of the curved ceiling, counting 
from the door, the painting men- 
tioned in the volume on architec- 
ture, on account of its decorative 
effect ; circular pictures of Christ, 
of the Virgin and two Saints, sup- 
ported by angels represented as 
Victories, encircled by festoons 
issuing from vases, borne by naked 
Genii; in the first arch from the 
door the four Fathers of the Church 
dictating to their copyists ; the two 
last arches in a more advanced 
style, bright colouring, and con- 
ceived in a manner which recals 

^ the Roman Mosaics of Rusutti and 
Gaddo Oaddi (born about 1259, died 
after 1333). Next (6) come the 
two upper series of wall pictures 
in the body of the buUding, with 
sixteen histories of the Old and 
sixteen of the New Testament ; 
then the entrance wall with the 
Ascension and the Feast of Pente- 

cost, under the medallions of SS. 
Peter and Paul. These almost en- 
tirely ruined works, the latest of 
which Vasari espeoiaUy extols as 
the production of Oiinabue, are 
probably the work of various hands 
under the influence of Cimabue. 
Energetic gestures, a fresh and 
lively treatment of incidents, with 
a telling arrangement of groups, 
strike us as forcibly as do parti- 
cular trivial and coarse traits which 
one usually expects only in the 
school of Oiotto. Lastly (7), the 
lower series of wall pictures in the e 
body of the building, the Life of 
S. Francis, one of the most detailed 
cyclical representations of the mar- 
vellous legend. In the beginning 
of this series of pictures (not in- 
cluding the first picture/ we recog- 
nise in the technical execution as 
well as in the artistic conception, 
an immediate connection with the 
upper cycles ; in the continuation 
of the narrative, the transition to 
the method of Giotto, to which the 
five last and the first pictures of 
the series approach so nearly, that 
we must attribute them to him as 
their author, though certainly in 
the period of youthful effort and 
comparatively imperfect technical 

Great diversity of feeling existed 
among the immediate contempo- 
raries of Cir/nibue, as to their ac- 
ceptance of the new element intro- 
duced by him. The unknown 
author of the mosaics of the Tri- 
bune of S. lliniato at Florence/ 
(1297 ?) is a stiff Byzantine ; the 
only beginning of any feeling for 
nature is in the figures of the ani- 
mals, which people the green 
meadow ground of his picture (now 
entirely renewed so that the origi- 
nal character ia quite destroyed). 
On the other hand Gaddo Oaddi' s 
Lunette, with the Coronation of 
the Virgin within, above the prin- g 
eipal entrance of the Cathedral, 
shows, in spite of the full splendour 

Buccio da Siena. 


of the Byzantine method, the deep 
impression which Oimahuis Ma- 
donnas had produced. The mosaics 
of the pulpits in the transepts of 
" the Cathedral of Pisa are still more 
in Giotto's style. (Annunciation 
and Madonna with angels.) 


About this same time the Sienese 
school also shows its future ten- 
dency. Contemporary with Dioti- 
salvi was Duccio [living 1282 to 
1339], whose great altar-piece (1308 

6 — 1310), now divided, is set up in 
the Cathedral (at the two ends 
of the transept), on the left the 
Madonna with angels and saints ; 
on the right the stories of Christ in 
many smaller pictures.* If to 
produce individually beautiful ob- 
jects were the highest purpose of 
painting, Duccio would have ex- 
celled all the thirteenth and four- 
teenth century, not even excepting 
Orcagaa. Great must have been 
his ]'oy, when he found himself 
capable of reproducing for his asto- 
nished contemporaries the beauty 
of the human countenance and the 
balanced grace of lovely movements 
and attitudes by his own methods 
(and not by following antique 
models, like Niccolo Pisano). Yet 
his method is still Byzantine, and 
in his historical compositions he 
rather, strictly speaking, gave life 
to the traditional subjects of the 
school than introduced any new 
ones. Whether he produced much 
or little else besides this altar- 
piece, he undoubtedly gave the 
tone to the school of his native 
city during a whole century. By 
his contemporary Tlgolino there is 
nothing authentic to be seen in 
Italy, since the altar-piece in Or- 
sanmichele is declared not to belong 
to him. By Segna there is an altar- 

c piece at Castiglione Piorenti/no. 

* The predella pictures are in the sa- 


Borne was about this time the 
scene of a remarkable and original 
movement, which suggests the idea 
that the history of art might have 
followed quite a different course 
but for the catastrophe which re- 
moved the Papal chair for seventy 
years to the banks of the Rhone. 

Between 1287 and 1295 the monk 
Jaedbus Torriti completed the great 
mosaic of the Tribunes of the 
Altars in the Lateran and S. Ma/ria d 
Maggiore. The former is stiU mo- 
notonous and faulty as to grouping, 
but remarkable for its expression 
of enthusiastic adoration. [Crowe 
and CavalcaseUe regard it as an 
older work merely restored by Tor- 
riti ; and the narrow parts between 
the windows also as the work of a 
master (the monk painted on the 
left) before Torriti's time.] The 
latter is one of the grandest pro- 
ductions of the pre-Giottesques, 
especially the circular picture in 
the centre in blue starred with 
gold; the Virgin, while being 
crowned by Christ, lifts up her 
hands in an adoring, and, at the 
same time, modestly deprecating at- 
titude. In addition to the beauty 
and the sense of motion expressed 
in the forms, there is, especially in 
the angels, which remind us of 
Cimabue, a truly lovely expression, 
and in the arrangement of the 
whole, the ground and decoration, 
fuUness and freedom which Cima- 
bue had awakened anew in full 
force. Especial attention also 
should be given to the mosaics of 
the Oosmati, whose work in archi- 
tecture and sculpture likewise is of 
great excellence. By Jacob there e 
exists a half-length picture of the 
Saviour, simple in its line, over the 
right-hand side-door in the vesti-/ 
bule of the Church at Civita Cas- 
tellana, and the small picture of the 
Saviour between two slaves, refer- 
ring to the order of the Trinita- 


The Gothic Style. 

rians, on the porch now belonging 
a to the Villa Mattei on the Ooelian ; 
by Johamms is the Madonna on the 
SDurand Monument in S. Ma/ria 
esopra Miiierva, and of the Cardinal 
Consalvo in S. Maria Maggiore, 
equally noble and graceful Out 
of the School of the Cosmati must 
have arisen Fietro Gavallmi, to 
whom Vasari attributes the lower 
mosaics in the Tribune of S. Maria 
in Trastevere, the single figures 
from the story of Christ and the 
Virgin. Here, as in the Tribune, 
similar in style, of S. Grisogono 
d(tihe fragment of a Madonna be- 
tween S. Chrysogonus and S. 
James), we recognise the transition 
to the manner of Giotto. The 
narrative mosaics of the old fajade 
e of S. Maria Maggiore (conveniently 
seen from the upper loggia of the 
new one), completed about 1300 by 
Filippo Busutti, are, in truth, not 
very full of invention, but are re- 
markable for their free arrangement 

as architectural decoration, remind- 
ing us here of the Pompeian work. 
The lower series are perhaps by 
Oaddo OoMi, to whom Vasari at- 
tributes the whole. Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle consider them related 
to the pictures in the vaulting in 
the Upper Church at Assisi. 

While in these works at Home 
the Byzantine style appears to be 
nearly conquered, at Naples it still 
predominates. The beautiful mo- 
saic of a Madorma with two saints/ 
in S. Restituta (one of the chapels 
on the left), is a specimen of this 
style (about 1300), resembling Ci- 
mabue in its feeling of dignity and 
lifelikeness. A chapel in the Ca- 
thedral (C. Minutoli, in the right; 
transept) is said to have been 
painted by a contemporary of the 
latter, Tommuiso degli mtefam 
(1230-1310?); but ancient and 
modern repaintings have quite de- 
stroyed the character of the work. 


Italian painting, in this its first 
great development, which moves 
parallel with Gothic art generally, 
and which in this branch also we 
designate as the Gothic style, has 
one great external advantage over 
painting in the north, that here it 
is not merely the servant of archi- 
tecture, but possesses its own inde- 
pendent life. Wall surfaces are 
placed at its disposal, such as 
are never granted to it in the 
north, at least in large churches, 
and its assistance is counted upon 
as an essential means of decora- 
tion. Painting, as a special art, 
attracts to itseli the greatest genius 
of the time, Giotto. The position 
which it holds in relation to the 
other arts, even in the thirteenth 
century, is wonderfully elevated 
by his performances ; the taste for 

fresco in large series of pictures, 
which he and his followers did so 
much to strengthen, laid the firm 
foundation, without which Michael 
Angelo and Raphael would never 
have accomplished the works in 
which their greatness was most 

Giotto lived 1266-1337. Among 
his most important pupils and im- 
mediate followers, chiefly Floren- 
tine, we may name Taddeo Gaddi 
(born about 1300, died 1366) ; Gi- 
ottino, or (? Tommaso di StefaTw), 
1324, tiU after 1395 (?) ; * Giovanni 
da Melano [of Milan, but born at 
Caverzaio, near Como, and a resi- 

• [Under the name of Giottino Vasari 
seems to have confounded two painters, 
Maso di Banco (134S-60) and Giotto dl Ste- 
fano, of whom there are records as late 
as 1369. See Qaet. MUanesi, new ed. of 
Vas., Svo, Hor. 187S, tom. i. p. 622.— Ed.] 

Giotto — Florence. 


dent at Florence in 1365 and 1366.— 
Ed.] ; Atidrea Orcagna (or Orgagna, 
either a special surname, money 
changer, or else contracted from 
Aroagnuolo, properly Andrea di 
Cione), bom about 1308, died in or 
soon after 1368 ; his brother, Nardo ; 
then Agnolo Oaddi (died 1396) ; 
Spindlo Aretmo (born about 1333, 
died 1410) ; [Jacopo da Gasentino 
(flourished in the middle of the 
fourteenth century) ; Bernardo 
JDaddi (born about 1300, died about 
1350). — Ed.] ; Antonio Yeneziano, 
Framcesco da VoUerra (both of these 
worked in the Campo Santo at 
Pisa towards the end of the four- 
teenth century) ; Niccolb di Pietro, 
and others. We may also provi- 
sionally include among these the 
painters who worked with them in 
the Campo Santo at Pisa, the Sie- 
nese Ambrogio and Pietro di Lo- 
renso, whom we shall come back 
to when we treat of the school of 
their native city. 

We proceed to enumerate the 
most important works according 
to the places where they are found, 
always giving the name of the 
master to whom they are attributed 
by tradition. When it is necessary 
to be acquainted with the contro- 
versies concerning these names, they 
will be alluded to as briefly as may 
be. Some of the more important 
altar-pieces are mentioned here 


a The chapel of S. Maria delV 
Arena; the interior entirely co- 
vered with the frescos of Qiotto 
(of 1303, therefore his earliest 
great work). The Life of the Vir- 
gin, and the History of Christ in 

' many pictures ; on the skirting, 
done in grey on grey, the allego- 
rical figures of the Virtues and 
Vices ; on the front wall, the Last 
Judgment. [The wall-paintings in 
the choir by a feeble follower : in 
the Last Judgment also some parts 

by the hand of scholars — Crowe 
and CavalcaseUe] (Best light in the 
morning). Remains of paintings 
by Qiotio in a hall near the Sa- b 
cristy of II Santo. — In the dead 
house of the Eremitani, a Madonna c 
in the Giottesque style. 

S. Giovcmni Evangelista. The<^ 
vaulting of the 4th chapel on the 
left ; in each of these divisions a 
Father of the Church and an Evan- 
gelist seated at large desks (accord- 
ing to Crowe and C. by Qiotto). 


S. Oroce. In the choir: Agnolo^ 
Qaddi, Legends of the True Cross ; 
[on choir arch Saints and Prophets 
by Agnolo Gaddi. — Ed.]. 

In the ten chapels on the two 
sides of the choir : 

1st chapel on the right (the 
smaller CappeUa Bardi) [outer side, 
in a recess, St. Francis receiving 
the Stigmata. — Ed.] : inside. Story 
of S. Francis, by Qiotto. Upon the 
altar, always covered, the figure of 
S. Francis attributed to Cimdbue 
[more probably by Margheritone 

2nd chapel on the right (G. Pe- 
ruzzi) : the Story of John the Evan- 
gelist (on the right) and John the 
Baptist (on the left), quite cleared 
of whitewash since 1863, by Qiotto. 

3rd chapel on the right : half 
eifaced representation of the Fight 
of St. Michael and the heavenly 
host with the Dragon, fipely con- 
ceived ; author unknown. 

[Ist chapel on the left, of old 
Tosinghi, in a recess above the 
entrance : Virgin in a Mandorla, 
by Qiotto.— Ed.]. 

4th chapel on the left (C. dei 
Pulci) : Bernardo Daddi, Martyr- 
dom of S. Stephen and S. Lawrence. 

5th chapel on the left (C. S. 
Silvestro) : Qiottino, on the right, 
three miracles of S. Silvester; on 
the left, niches over a tomb with 


The Gothic Style. 

somewhat remarkable frescos of a 
Last Judgment and a Deposition. 
[Probably by Maso di Banco.] 

At the end of the right transept 
the great BaronceUi chapel [the 
entrance wall of which is covered 
with frescos by Taddeo Gaddi 
(recovered from whitewash in 
1868-9).— Ed.]: AltarpieoebyGJoito. 
Frescos with the Life of the Virgin 
by Taddeo Gaddi; the figures on 
the ceiling by the same. (The 
Madonna deUa Cintola on the wall 
to the right is by Basticmo Main- 
ardi.) The paintings by Taddeo 
are among the best of the school ; 
the treatment of the grouping and 
the drapery here is especially re- 
markable for its boldness and its 

In the C. del Sagramento, or 
Castellani, the last on the right; 
on the ceiHng the Evangelists and 
the Doctors of the Church (very 
much like Agnoh Gaddi, Cr. and 
Cav.) ; on the walls, only cleared 
from whitewash in 1868-69 ; on the 
right, scenes from the Life of S. 
Nicolas and John the Baptist ; on 
the left, S. John the Evangelist 
and S. Antony; according to Va- 
sari, by Stamina (really by Agnolo 
Gaddi.— m.). 

In the passage before the Sa- 
cristy, among other things, a 
carved crucifix attributed to 

In the C. Medici at the end of 
the passage, a number of altar- 
pieces of the end of the fourteenth 
century. [Amongst them one by 
Orcagna, and parts of another by 
his pupil, Niceola Tonvmasi, and a 
coronation of the Virginj by Lo- 
renzo di Niccolo. — Ed.] 

In the Sacristy, on the wall 
to the right, the Scenes of the 
Passion, probably by Niccolb di 
Pietro Gerini; the lower ones 
seem to be by an energetic, but 
somewhat rude Giottesque ; above, 
the kneeling disciples and angels, 
round the risen Christ, very beau- 

tiful. In the altar chapel (Rinuo- 
cini) of the Sacristy, the Life of 
the Magdalen and of the Virgin, 
and as well as paintings on the 
ceiling and the altar picture, date 
1379, of the school of the Gaddi 
(ascribed by Vasari to Taddeo) 
[commissioned of Giovanni da 
MeXano in 1.S65]. 

In the former refectory of the 
cloister adjoining (now a ware- 
house for the offices established in 
the cloisters) a large, and, on the 
whole, well preserved Last Supper 
of Giotto. One of the purest and 
most powerful works of the four- 
teenth century, which has always 
made me wonder why Giotto's au- 
thorship should be so persistently 
refused to it, while no other can be 
named. Above are the Crucifixion, 
the pedigree of the Franciscans, 
and some scenes from the legend of 
S. Francis and S. Louis, by inferior 
hands. [Crowe and C. ascribe the 
Last Supper to Taddeo Oaddi; 
the Crucifixion to Niccolb di Pieiro 

Almost all these frescos can be 
best seen by morning light. 

S. Maria Novella. CappeUa" 
Strozzi, at the end of the left tran- 
sept ; the Last Judgment (at the 
back). Paradise (on the left) and the 
altar-piece (1357) by Andrea Or- 
cagna : Hell (on the right) by hia 
brother Nardo. The Paradise is 
remarkable as giving the highest 
form of beauty and grace in the 
shapes of the faces attained by the 

Chiostro verde : The history of i 
Genesis painted in green on green, 
by Paolo Vccello and Dello Delli. 

Adjoining the cloister, the cele- 
brated Oappella degli Spagnuoli,e 
painted 1322-1355, according to 
Vasari by Taddeo Gaddi and Si- 
mone di Martina of Siena, which 
is now denied. According to 
Crowe and C. the ceiling pictures 
of the ship of the Apostles, the 

Giotto — Florence. 


Kesurrection and the Descent of 
the Holy Ghost, are probably exe- 
cuted by Antonio Veneziamo, from 
a composition of Taddeo; the As- 
sumption, by a feeble contempo- 
rary of the same school, showing a 
resemblance to the Saviour in 
Limbo on the northern wall, as- 
cribed by Vasari to Simone. The 
wall-pictures appear to indicate a 
combination of Florentine and Sie- 
nese influences, and resemble the 
paintings attributed to Simone in 
the Campo Santo at Pisa (the 
upper series of the life of S. Ra- 
nieri), probably by Andrea da Fi- 
renze. It is a masterpiece of the 
school, considering the general ar- 
rangement, the richness of the com- 
position in the Biblical scenes, and 
the allegorical meaning of the two 
pictures on the side walls ; the 
Triumph of S. Thomas Aquinas, 
and the Church Militant and Tri- 
umphant. (Best light : between 

Besides less important remains 
in difierents parts of the Cloister : 
in the so-called old refectory, a 
Madonna enthroned with four 
saints, more Sieuese than Floren- 
tine in character, and 

In a little vaulted room of the 
Farmacia, some rude frescos of 
the Passion by Spimello Aretino. 
(Entrance from the Via Scala. ) 

In the Vault of the Strozzi 

family underneath the OappeUa 

degli Spagnuoli : the Crucifixion, 

Adoration of the ChUd, Evange- 

a lists and Prophets by Oiottino. 

h San Miniato al Monte. Besides 
several unimportant remains on 
the walls of the church. 

The Sacristy planned by Spinello 
with the story of S. Benedict 
(about 1385). 

C Carmine. In the cloister : a 
Madonna between saints ; the 
founders underneath, a beautiful 
fresco, probably by G-iovanni da 
Melano. In the Sacristy : some- 

what slight wall-paintings of the 
Life of S. Cecilia, in the style of 
the Bicci. 

Sam Felice [above the lodge of the d 
nuns and facing the high altar, a 
fine crucifix by Giotto. — Ed.]. 

S. Felicitd,. Some buildings at- « 
tached to the back of the church 
on the right ; in an old chapter- 
room, Christ crucified, with his 
disciples ; in a passage near, an 
Annunciation ; the last almost 
worthy of Orcagna. 

5th altar to the right : Ma- 
donna, enthroned between saints, 
altar-piece in 5 parts by T. Gaddi. 

In the Sacristy, a large Crucifix, 

Ognissanti : [a crucifix by Giotto. / 
• — Ed.] In the Sacristy: Fresco [pro- 
bably by Niccolb di Pietro Gevini. — 
Ed.], Christ crucified, with angels, 
saints, and monks. [In the choir. 
Madonna with saints, by B. Daddi. 

S. Ambrogio. Second altar ong 
the right. Madonna nursing the 
child, with two saints, by Agnolo 
Gaddi (?). 

3rd altar on the right : Descent 
from the Cross, by Oiottino (?). 

Bigallo. In the steward's room : h 
Frescos by three different hands, 
below it a Misericordia by Oiot- 
tino (?) [a triptych of the Madonna, 
with gospel scenes, dated 1333, 
by Taddeo Gaddi. — Ed.]; the naive 
picture of the Orphans is by a 
late Giottesque of the fifteenth 
century, Yentv/ra di Mora. * 

Cathedral. The Apostles audi 
saints under most of the windows 
of the whole circle of chapels, like- 
wise by a late Giottesque, Lorenzo 
di Bicci. On one of the ^ont pil- 
lars the beautiful S. Zenobius [of 
1367-8, by Orcagna.— Ed.]. 

* Fiero Chelini was the painter of the 


The Gothic Style. 

"■ S. Maria la mujva. Outside, 
near the door, the two ceremonial 
pictures by the son of Lorenzo Bicoi, 
Biccd (U Lorenzo, much restored. 

i Orsanmichele. In the tabernacle 
of Orcagna the very beautiful votive 
Madonna, formerly ascribed to 
Ugolmo da Siena, more Florentine 
than Sienese in character. (Fiiat 
half of the fourteenth century.) [Ac- 
cording to Crowe and 0. more likely 
Don Lorenzo Monaco, though docu- 
ments discovered by Sign. G. Mi- 
lanesi suggest the authorship of 
Bernardo Daddi.Y 

" Palaso) del Podestd, (BargeUo), 
now Museo nazionale. In the 
Chapel : the frescos of Criotto ; on 
the side walls scenes from the le- 
gends of Magdalen, over the en- 
trance the picture of Hell, opposite 
to it Paradise with the celebrated 
portraits of Dante, Brunetto Latini, 
and Corso Donati. All very much 
injured by former whitewashing 
and the introduction of a mezzonin. 
The restoration is older and not so 
good as what has been done since 
for the decorative paintings of the 
Palazzo ; Dante's portrait, for in- 
stance, is quite ruined. 

Single remains of frescos, also 
easel pictures in various churches ; 

d several of the latter in the Gertosa 
(older side-church). 

The most important of the large 

e altar-pieces in the TJfHzi : No. 6, 
Christ on the Mount of Olives, 
Griottesque, perhaps Lorenzo Mon- 
aco. No. 7, Mourners round the 
body of Christ, apparently by the 
painter of the Orphans in the 
Bigallo. Without a number, the 
valuable altar-piece of Giovanni da 
Melano from the Ognissanti. 

f Jn the Accademiadelle belle Arti: 
E,. Sala dei quadri grandi. No. 4 
et seq. ; the doors of the shrine 

* These documents, though clear in 
themselves, are not proved to refer to the 
Madonna in question,— Ed. 

in the Sacristy, from S. Croce, by 
Taddeo Gaddi, after Giotto's com- 
positions. No. 15, A Madonna 
enthroned, by Giotto. No. 31 
(called Taddeo Qaddi), the great 
Deposition, by Niccolh di Pietro 
Qerimi. No. 30, the Annunciation, 
by Lorenzo Monaco. No. 33, Ma- 
donna with Angels and Saints, by 
Agnolo Gaddi. (Crowe and Cav.) 

The Camipo Santo. Beginning from j 
the chapel at the eastern small end, 
there follow in order : — 

The Ascension, Kesurrection, and 
Passion, much painted over. Ac- 
cording to Vasari, by Buffalmacco, 
a painter [whose existence as early 
as 1351 at Florence is proved by 
records.- — Ed.], but to whom Vasari 
ascribes the most diverse works, 
among others, Pietro di Puccio's 
pictures from Genesis. Crowe and 
C. consider them the work of a 
feeble hand of the end of the four- 
teenth century, in style closely 
resembling the Sienese pictures on 
the south wall. 

South mall. Triumph of Death, h 
Last Judgment, and HeU. The 
famous pictures ascribed to Orcagna 
and his brother Nan-do. According 
to Crowe and Cav. by a Sienese 
artist, impossible to distinguish 
from the Lorenzetti. 

The Hfe of the hermits in the 
Thebaid (about 1340-50), by Pietro 
Lorenzetti and Ambrogio (also called 
di Lorenzo, erroneously by Vasari 
Laurati), of Siena. 

The three upper pictures of the 
legends of S. Ranieri, according to 
Vasari, by Simone da Siena, com- 
pleted, according to documents, in 
1377, by a certain A ndrea da Firenze, 
whose style, however, shows essen- 
tial resemblances with that of the 
Sienese master ; thus we find 
single heads of angels and women 
altogether Sienese in style ; so is 
perhaps also the want of skill in 
the arrangement. 

Giotto and the Giottesques. 


Antonio Veneziano. The three 
lower pictures (1386-87). 

Spinello Aretirw. Three pictures 
with the legends of SS. Ephesus 
and Potitus (1391). 

Francesco da VoUerra (formerly at- 
tributed to ffioSo). The remarkably 
spirited Story of Job (1370 et seq.). 
a North wall. Pietro di Puccio, 
formerly attributed to Buffalmacco, 
certainly not by the painter of the 
Passion mentioned above : God as 
Preserver of the World, and the 
stories of Genesis as far as Noah's 
sacrifice : also the Coronation of 
the Virgin over the entrance of a 
chapel 00 the same side. (The re- 
maining stories from the Old Testa- 
ment, by Benozzo Gfozzoli, will be 
mentioned later. ) 
b In S. Francesco: the ceiling of 
the choir, with the Saints floating 
in pairs opposite each other, and 
the allegorical figures of the Virtues, 
by Taddeo Oaddi (1342). 

In the chaptSr-house the much- 
injured but remarkable scenes of 
cthe Passion, by Niccolb di Pietro 
Gerini (1392); on the roof, half- 
length figures in medallions. 
7 In S. Caterina: third altar on 
the left, a Glory of S. Thomas, by 
Francesco Traini, whom Vasari 
calls Orcagna's best pupil [but 
whose practice from 1322 to 1345 
shows that he was the contem- 
porary rather than the disciple of 
Orcagna. — Ed.]. 
g In S. Martina: Frescos of the 
fourteenth century, in a side chapel 
on the right, and over the choir of 
the nuns. 
f Old pictures in S. Sanieri, in the 
collection of the Academy {Traini' s 
S. Dominic) and in private hands. 

a In S. Francesco al Prato, on the 
vaulted roof of the Sacristy, are 
painted four saints between the 
richly-adorned groining of the 
arches, somewhat in the style of 
Niccolb di Pietro. 


The adjoining chapter-house con- h 
tains frescos by various hands, 
among others by Puccio Capanna 
[admitted a member of the Floren- 
tine guild in 1350. — Ed.] : the vault 
is altogether occupied by the Beati- 
fication of S. Francis ; on the 
principal wall, Christ on the Cross, 
which spreads out into branches, 
with figures of saints, &c. 


In the Cathedral (Pieve) the first i 
On the left is the Cappella della 
Cintola, painted by Agnolo Gaddi, 
1365, with the Life of the Virgin 
and the legend of the Girdle. Chef- 
d'oeuvre of the school. 

Chapel on the left next the choir : 
rude legends of fourteenth century. 

Chapel on the right next the 
choir : Life of the Virgin and 
legends of St; Stephen, insignificant 
productions of the fourteenth cen- 
tury ; painted over. [Crowe and 
Cav., on the contrary, declare them 
to be interesting works perhaps 
begun by Stamina and completed 
by Antonio Vite.'] 

In S. Francesco : what was ior-j 
merly the chapter-house, painted 
by N. di Pietro Gerini, the Passion 
and Legends of S. Matthew and S. 
Antony of Padua. A Crucifixion 
and the ceiling certainly by Lorerao 
di Niccolb. Cr. and Cav. 


In the Cathedral, a niche of the k 
right side aisle, painted by Spinello, 
but much painted over. (The Christ 
Crucified with Saints. ) 

In S. Agostino, in a former chapel, I 
high up on the wall : Madonna, by 
Spinello, part of an Annunciation. 

In S. Domenieo : frescos, much m 
painted over, by Parri Spinelli, son 
of the former, near the door ; the 
Christ Crucified with Saints, and 
two Apostles, both pictures sur- 
rounded by martyrdoms with 
smaller figures. 

In the first court of the Cloister n 


Ths Gothic Style. 

of 8. Berna/rdo .- the legends of this 
saint, in monochrome, reminding 
us of the earlier painters in the 
Chiostro verde in S. M. Novella ; 
ascribed to Vccello. 
a In S. Francesco: Cappella di S. 
Michelangelo : remains of wall- 
paintings by Spmdlo, St. Michael's 
Combat with Lucifer. In the choir, 
on the ceiling, the Evangelists, pro- 
bably by Bicci di Lorenzo. 

What else is to be found in other 
towns in Tuscany is, to judge from 
all we know, not important. We 
shall speak later of Siena, which 
developed a style peculiar to itself ; 
for the present we must mention 

bSpmello's frescos in the Palazzo 
puhblico, Sala di Balia : the history 
of the Emperor Frederick Barba- 
rossa and Pope Alexander III. The 
procession of the Pope, whose rein 
is held by the Emperor, is one of 
the best ceremonial pictures of 
Giotto's school ; for some of the 
other scenes it is less easy to 
answer ; the rest clearly shows 
itself to be the work of an inferior 
painter (1 407-8). 

c In the Academy at Siena are a 
few smaU pictures by Spinello ; 
among others, No. 245, a Death of 
the Virgin, which shows the supe- 
riority of the school of Giotto in 
composition compared with the 

^ S. PUro a Megognano at Poggi- 
bonzi : in the Sacristy a remarkable 
picture [Virgin and Child with 
Angels] by Taddeo Gaddi (1355). 


S. Francesco. For the Upper 
Church, comp. pp. 21-2. 
e The Lower Church. — On the prin - 
cipal vaulted roof over the tomb 
the Allegories of Poverty, Chastity, 
and Obedience, along with the 
Beatification of S. Francis. Chef- 
d'ceuvre of Giotto. 

In the northern transept, remains 
of a large and very rich Cruci- 

fixion, given to Pietro Cavallini,f 
who, however, in the mosaics men- 
tioned p. 24, shows himself too 
stiff to be capable of this work 
[according to Crowe and Cav., by 
Pietro Lorenzetti] ; farther on, the 
Descent from the Cross, the Depo- 
sition, and S. Francis receiving 
the Stigmata ; on the vaulting, 
small pictures of the Passion (per- 
haps by Puccio Oapanna). [In the 9 
neighbouring chapel of Napoleon 
Orsini, next to the sacristy, half 
lengths of the Virgin and Child, 
between S. Francis and S. John 
the Baptist, by Pietro Lorenzetti. h 

In the southern transept the pic- 
tures from the story of Christ, and 
S. Francis, on the east and west 
wall, attributed by Rumohr to 
Giovanni da Melano, by Crowe andi 
Cav. to Giotto. 

In the Cap. del Sagramiento {a,-pBej 
of the southern transept), the his- 
tory of S. Nicolas and the Apostles, 
by Giottino (?) ; [altar-piece of the 
Virgin and Child, between S. Fran- 
cis and S. Nicholas, by Pietro 
Lorenzetti. — Ed.] ; in that of the 
Magdalen (in the 3rd chapel onii; 
the right) the lite of the Magdalen 
and S. Mary of Egypt, attributed 
to Buffalmacco [according to Crowe 
and Cav. by Puccio Gapanna] ; in 
the Cap. Albornoz, southern apse 
of the vestibule, mechanically exe- 
cuted frescos of the fourteenth 
century, also erroneously called 

In the chapel of S. Martin (IstZ 
chapel on left), the legends of the 
Saints, in ten pictures, one of the 
best works of the Sienese school, 
by Simone di Martino. Crowe and 

Over the chancel : the Corona- 
tion of the Virgin, by Giottino, who 
is also the author of several other 
single figures here.* 

* I advise every lover of art, if he have 
the good fortune to come to Assist on 
such a wonderful spring day as I had iu 

Characteristics of the CHottesque Style. 


I In S. Chiara ; on the four divi- 
sions of tlie ceiling of the central 
dome, female Saints arranged two 
and two, surrounded by angels, by 
CHottino (?) According to Crowe and 
Cav. more feeble than the frescos 
of the Cap. del Sagramento in S. 

i In S. Peter, on the inside of the 
fa9ade, the Navioella, originally a 
composition of Giotto, although now 
quite changed into a modern form 
by repeated renovations, and even 
new arrangement of the mosaics. 

c In the Stanza Oapitolare of the 
Sacristy : separate panels, taken 
out of an altar-piece by Giotto. 
Probably the Ciborium of Cardinal 
Stefaneschi {1298, Crowe and Cav.). 

d In the Vatican, the collection of 
old pictures in the Miiseo Oristiano. 

e In S. Giovanni in Laterano : on 
one of the first pillars of the outer 
side aisle to the right, a fragment 
preserved of a fresco by Giotto : 
Boniface VIII. proclaiming the bull 
of Indulgence of the Jubilee of 1 300 : 
with two followers. 

/ In the little church of the Jneo- 
nomta, (not far from the Fontana 
Medina) ; the paintings in the cen- 
tral dome over the gallery to the 
left of the present entrance (an- 
ciently the vaulted roof of the west- 
ern side-aisle), formerly ascribed to 
Giotto : his authorship is contested 
on account of several heads re- 
garded as portraits (Marriage of 
Louis of Tarentum and Joanna of 
Naples, 1347), which certainly 
would chronologically be a diffi- 
culty : more than this, the church 

the year 1848, to make his observations 
hetimes. A second viait in 1853, in pour- 
ing rain, made me bitterly regret all I 
had formerly neglected. The lower church 
was dark as night, only the golden robe 
of S. l^VanciB gleamed down from the 
vault above. 

was not founded until 1352. Crowe 
and Cav. suggest a second-rate pupH 
of Giotto, the Neapolitan Bobertus g 
de Oderisio, by whom there is a 
Crucifixion in the chuch of S. Frarir- 
cesco at Eboli. In seven divisions 
of the ceiling the administration of 
the Seven Sacraments ; in the 
eighth (apparently) an allegory of 
Christ and the Church . A master- 
piece in the telling of the story by 
a few incisive traits and truly dra- 
matic clearness of representation. 
Tolerably preserved (lately much 
altered in tone by laying on of 
varnish) and convenient to look at. 
(Best view in the morning.) In 
the same church there are various 
remains of the fourteenth century; 
as in the chapel left of the choir on 
the vaulted ceiling ; the frescos on 
the walls of the same chapel, of the 
fifteenth century. 

In S. Ohiara the miraculous pic- h 
ture on the 3rd pier on the left, by 
Giotto (?), perhaps the only remains 
of his extensive frescos. In the 
Municipio, but once in S. Antonio 
Abate, St. Anthony enthroned, by 
Niccolo Tommasi (1371). 

In the large refectory adjoining, i 
now Piazza S. TrinitE Maggiore, 
Nos. 19-20, a, large wall-picture of 
Christ enthroned between Saints, 
Giottesque in style, [not improbably 
by Cavallini. — Ed.] j 

We may not seem justified after 
this brief enumeration, in passing 
on and endeavouring to describe 
the general characteristics of the 
School rather than to point out the 
special peculiarities of individual 
masters. But setting aside the 
necessity to be brief, we reaUy can 
hardly deal otherwise with artists 
whose highest aim seems to have 
been to perpetuate the peculiar 
forms of their school. No painter 
as yet had dreamt of freedom. The 
school was destined to carry out 


The Gothic Style. 

fully and entirely its course of 
thought and of painting in a given 
form for a century, without essen- 
tial advance or change in its 
method of representation before it 
broke down altogether under the 
awakening spirit of the fifteenth 
century, which gave free scope to 
individual character. The school 
only makes its full impression when 
taken as a whole ; but then it 
claims to rank amongst the greatest 
monuments of our age. 

It does not indeed move half-ab- 
sent or satiated eyes ; but the mind 
must go half-way to understand it. 
No especial " Connoisseurship " is 
needed, but a certain amount of 
labour. Let us take, for instance, 
the first work of the school which 
meets the eye of the visitor to the 
<s TJffizi at Florence, the Qethsemane 
(No. 6, in the first gallery near the 
door). Severe, apparently without 
effects of light, individual character 
or expression of feeling, this pic- 
ture repels thousands of visitors at 
once. Even when examined with 
the glass it does not become more 
beautiful. But perhaps some one 
may remember other representa- 
tions of the same subject, where 
the three sleeping disciples are cer- 
tainly arranged as to colouring and 
effect of light according to all the 
rules of refined art, but still they 
are only three sleepers in idealised 
drapery. Here it is clear that they 
have fallen asleep while praying. 
And many such traits of deep 
meaning are to be found in the 
works of this school, but only by 
him who looks for them thought- 
fully. We will now treat of some 
special points. 

Griotto's great merit did not lie 
in the aim to express ideal beauty, 
in which he was surpassed by the 
Sienese (p. 23, b), nor in the power 
of realistic execution carrried to 
the point of illusion, in which the 
most inferior modern painter can 
surpass him, and in which the 

sculptor, Giovanni Pisano, had ad- 
vanced far beyond him in spite of 
his far narrower scope. Single de- 
tails are only given as far as is 
necessary to express the whole. 
Therefore we have as yet no de- 
fining of the materials of which the 
objects consist, no difference of 
texture is given in drapery, archi- 
tecture, flesh, etc. Even the 
colouring follows a certain conven- 
tional scale rather than the reaUty. 
Red, yellow, and blueish horses, 
for instance, in Spinello's frescos at i 
the Gampo Santo of Pisa ; yellow 
ground among other things.* In 
general the colouring is fight, as 
fresco requires, with clearer tints 
for the light parts : the deep, rather 
dull than transparent, tone of the 
Byzantines was very properly given 
up. (The most delicate execution 
in fresco, on the whole, is that of 
Antonio Veneziano, in the Campoc 
Santo.) The drawing of the human 
figure is carried out as far as is 
required for the free expression of 
mental and bodily action ; but the 
latter is not yet represented for the 
sake of its beauty and grace, but 
for the sake of the subject. (The 
very remarkable group of nude 
figures in the Hell of the Oampod 
Santo shows a naturalism of which 
the first sign is to be looked for in 
Griovanno Pisano. Similar, but less 
free, is the history of the first 
human beings by Pietro di Puceio, e 
also there. The type of the heads 
does indeed differ somewhat with 
individual painters, and according 
to the subjects of their pictures ; 
but very much less than in later 
painters who worked through con- 
trasts and gradations of expression, 
Giotto himself has a type always to 
be recognised in men and women, 
not unpleasant, but without any 
attractiveness. The great Madonna 
in the Academy at Florence is a/ 

* The dark i«d of much of the atmo- 
sphere is only grounding, from which the 
hlue has come off. 

Charactenstics of the Giottesque Style. 


good example of liis manner of 
giving form and expression, especi- 
ally in the profiles of the heads of 

a angels. Also the picture in S. 
Oroce. He individualises most, 
perhaps, in his earliest great work, 
the frescos of the Arena. In the 
two Oaddis we constantly meet 

6 with the same heavy chin. {Gap. 
BaroTuxUi in S. Grace.) Andrea 
Orcagna is the first to aim at real 

c grace (Gap. Strozzi in S. Maria 
Novella) ; in the Last Judgment 
there the forms are more harsh and 
decided. Individual character is 
sometimes less, sometimes more dis- 
tinctly marked ; has most accent 
perhaps, in Antonio Veneziano. Spi- 
nello, whose drawing is often coarse, 
and who in parts of less importance 
becomes entirely inanimate, has 
little that is attractive in his heads. 
The feeling for beauty, for melody 
as one might say, is chiefly de- 
veloped in the drapery, which, in 
saintly personages, is essentially 
ideal, just as the middle ages had 
adopted it from the ancient Chris- 
tian tradition. Not only does it 
follow the pose and the movements 
of the figures, but it posseses a 
special, often unsiirpassable, beauty 
of line, which essentially increases 
the feeling of dignity and holiness. 
The Last Supper in the ancient 

d Befectory at S. Grace, contains some 
of the best examples of this. 

The scene is invariably ideal, and 
suggested rather than realised iu 
accordance with nature, not be- 
cause art is in its infancy, for here 
it already solves the most difiicult 
problems, but because the painters 
were quite aware that no men such 
as they depicted, could really move 
under such low-arched church 
porches, between such small town 
walls, doors, and trees, or on such 
steep incMnes as they represented. * 

* As regards perspective, their feeling 
for the direction of lines was correct, but 
they were not acquainted with its laws, 
especially as to the necessity of assuming 

But they gave what was needed to 
make the story clear, simply and 
beautifully (the Cathedral of Flo- 
rence as the symbol of a church, in e 
the G. degli Spagnuoli in S. M. 
Novella) mostly in lines which har- 
monised with the setting of the 
whole picture ; so, for instance, the 
plants and trees in a straight row 
(Cap. degli Spagmtoli, Trionfo dellay 
Morte, Ga/mpo Santa) ; the rocks 
shaded oflf to make different planes, 
and sharply marked, to divide the 
different subjects. In the last 
named picture there is a singular^ 
contrast between the carpet, im- 
f oreshortened and without any per- 
spective, under the group in the 
garden, and the ground under the 
party of riders, which is realistic- 
ally represented, t But in another 
sense also the feeling for space is 
ideal. For Giotto space exists to be 
filled as much as possible with rich 
life, not for the sake of picturesque 
effect ; it is merely a scene for ac- 
tion . With him, as with Giovanni 
Pisano, every action is developed 
or imaged forth by the greatest 
possible number of figures, so that 
merely as regards space there is no 
place for accessories. The school 
is so rich in the best things that it 
hardly knows what to do with its 
wealth, and does not feel the need 
of what is secondary. Again, the 
close connection of the school with 
architecture affords it far greater 
freedom than in the North, and 
larger surfaces to work on. In the 
decoration of the lines of the 
vaulted ceflings, in giving them 
settings of ornaments and half- 
length figures, painter and architect 
so work together that they seem to 

a definite distance of the spectator from 
the picture, which discovery first enabled 
the masters of the 10th century to achieve 
a consciously correct perspective in their 

t It is a peculiarity of the Sienese 
school, to represent all the patterns of the 
drapery, in which they display remarkable 
delicacy, quite flat, without any regard to 
perspective and modelling, 



The Gothic Style. 

be but one person. In ceiling 
paintings, by the way, we find as 
yet no idea of f oresbortening. ( J»- 
coronata at Naples : the master 
fills the converging angles of his 

« eight S-cornered lunettes, each with 
a hovering angel, whose golden 
garments harmonise splendidly with 
the dark blue ground.) 

Such were the oonditious out of 
which the new conception of cha- 
racter and action grew ; and this 
is the great merit of the Giot- 
tesque school. In feeKng it is not 
more saintly or exalted than the 
Byzantine, which sought to express 
the supersensual and the eternal in 
mummies. But the intention is 
brought much more home to the 
beholder, inasmuch as it is clothed 
in a new and living expression. 
Even for single figures, like the 
Evangelists in the four corners of a 
vaulted ceiling {e.g., the chapel of 
the Madonna in the Cathedral of 

b Prate), theGiottesques are no longer 
satisfied with a symmetrical ar- 
rangement, a book or an attitude ; 
the lofty character of the subject is 
given in the lite-like and noble turn 
of the figure and the head, in the 
expressive features, in the free and 
yet solemn folds of the drapery. 
How, for instance, can there be a 
grander conception of the Apostle 
John than that of this school, as a 
venerable old man, gazing in deep 
meditation, while his eagle glances 
shyly up to him ? 

Before going on to the larger com- 
positions, it must be acknowledged 
that in this school subject, incident 
and action are repeated as in ancient 
art. (Comp. e. g. the three lives of 
the Virgin in the Cap. BaronceUi 

cin S. Grace, in the Choir of the 
Sacristy there, and in the Chapel of 
the Madonna in the Cathedral at 

d Prato. ) The painters of this school 
were not on this account plagiarists, 
nor did they regard each other as 
such ; it was the common property 
o£ the school, which each artist re- 

produced according to his capacity, 
not slavishly, but in a lifelike 
manner, and with additions of his 
own. There was a demand in 
churches and cloisters for such re- 
presentations of the Passion, the 
Life of the Virgin, the Story of S. 
Francis, &c., as were familiar, and 
no other. As the artist was only 
asked for the object itself, not for 
a treatment of it which should ex- 
press his personal genius ; the 
wish was for something that was 
beautiful and easy to understand, 
not for anything individual. Never- 
theless, as we shall shortly see, 
there remained a vast field open 
for independent creation in the 
spirit of the age. 

How much of this common pro- 
perty belongs to CHotto himself? 
The question is not unanswerable, 
for any one who carefully examines 
all the works of the school one 
after another ; but this we cannot 
attempt. This much is certain, 
that he is the original source of a 
stream of fresh invention and crea- 
tiveness. Probably no other painter 
ever so completely transformed and 
gave a new and healthy direction 
to his art. 

His youthful work, the fresco in 
Madonna delV Arena, at Padna, ise 
especially characteristic of him, 
and in every action the most im- 
portant point is chosen out for 
representation. We select only a 
few incidents of secular, often 
quite every-day life; their merit 
Hes in what seems to be self-evident, 
yet Giotto's Byzantine predeces- 
sors had not understood, and could 
not represent it in their works. 

Deep grief wrapt up in itself; 
Joachim with the Shepherds; he 
comes towards them walking as 
in a dream. — The loving meeting ; 
Joachim's return to Anna, who 
takes his head in both hands quite 
sweetly and kisses him.— Intense 
expectation; the suitors of the 
Virgin kneeling before the Altar, 

GHotto's Style of Narration. 


some in earnest prayer, some in 
the highest tension of feeling ; a 
most dignified group without any 
display of emotion. — Silent ques- 
tioning and guessing ; the wonder- 
ful group of the Temptation. — The 
divided action of the central figure 
in the raising of Lazarus ; he 
stretches out his right hand towards 
Christ, to whom he appears a 
moment before to have been kneel- 
ing in entreaty ; now he turns 
towards Lazarus, with a gesture of 
intense emotion. — The secret mes- 
sage ; the treaty of Judas with the 
Priest, whose two hands (as is often 
the case with Giotto) appear to 
speak.— Christ mocked; in the 

froup of scoffers the approaching 
gure bowing ironically is especially 
masterly. — The lofty moderation in 
pathos ; in the group under the 
Cross, the Virgin fainting yet stiU 
upright, is supported in the arms 
of her friends ; their sorrow is not 
(as in the painters of the seven- 
teenth century) for the fainting 
itself, but for her terrible agony. — 
A dialogue in gestures ; the soldiers 
with the robe of Christ ; one fancies 
one hears them speaking. — The 
lamentation round the dead Christ 
has nothing extravagant ; * the body 
is as it were wrapt round in love 
and grief ; the shoulders and back 
lie on the knees of the mother, who 
embraces him ; a female saint sup- 
ports his head, another holds up 
his right hand, another the left ; 
the penitent Magdalen, holding the 
feet on which her eyes are fixed. 
Everywhere the subjects are con- 
ceived in a higher and more intel- 
lectual manner than by many of 
the greatest of Giotto's successors. 
Observe how the inferior painter of 
flthe wall-pictures in the choir has 
gone beyond the mark ; in the As- 
sumption of the Virgin the Apostles 
fall to the earth not only in devo- 

* Unless it is going too far that John 
should endeavour to throw himself on the 

tion but struck by the rays which 
issue from her glory. 

What here we feel to be great in 
a monumental work of the highest 
rank, is not less so in the small, 
almost slightly sketched histories 
of the life of Christ in the Flo-b 
rentime Academy. (These, as weU 
as the stories of S. Francis treated 
as parallels, are taken from the 
shrine of the Sacristy of S. Croce ; 
of the original twenty-six, six are 
wanting.) Here, too, the narrative 
is most telling and fuU of spirited 
touches. (Compare with the gate 
of Andrea Pisano. ) 

The beholder must come to 
Giotto's creations with the intention 
to seek for these immortal ideas. 
The schools inherited them from 
him and made use of them. But 
where they speak to us with such 
glorious directness as in the works 
above mentioned and in the Last 
Supper in the Eefectory of S. Croce, 
there we feel ourselves in the very 
presence of the Master himself. 

The bystanders who enliven par- 
ticular scenes by their presence are 
not mere filling, such as modern 
art has often added merely with a 
view to picturesque effect, to please 
the eye, but always really useful 
for the explanation of the story, 
reflections without which the action 
would be less speaking. Look at the 
resurrection of John the Evangelist, 
by Giotto, in the C. Fervxzi at S. 
Croce; here the miracle is first 
realised by the action of the ter- 
rified and astonished spectators, 
which is given with fuH dramatic 
effect. Opposite, in the history of 
the Baptist, the scene where his 
head is brought in receives its full 
effect from the two spectators, who 
press against each other full of 
horror. Innumerable other in 
stances might be given. 

Occasionally, single figures and 

groups stand apart from the action, 

because they are only intended to 

give definiteuess to a locality or a 

D 2 


The Gothic Style. 

person ; they are in reality mere 
genre-figures. So the fisherman in 

a Giotto's Navicella ( Vestibule of S. 
Peter) ; although we may also con- 
sider him as a sjnnbolio counterpart 
to the Christ standing on the right ; 
a complete fishing scene hj Antonio 

J Venezicmo (Ccmipo-Scmto, legend of 
S. Ba/imri), &c. The Campo Santo 
contains in the " Life of the Her- 
mits," by the Sienese Pietro di 

c Lorenzo, or Lorenzetti, a great col- 
lection of single subjects, of which 
the best, most happily treated, may 
be defined as genre ; they are mo- 
tives of repose, work done while 
seated, quiet talking, fishing, &c. 
The Sienese genre painter was far 
better qualified to represent sub- 
jects of this kind, than those involv- 
ing the powerful expression of 
changing emotion. 

The more deeply pathetic scenes 
sometimes overstep the true limit, 
as certain pictures of the Passion 
win show. The doubtful compo- 
sition in the Campo Santo, attri- 

(^buted to Buffalmacco, contains 
amongst splendid groups of specta- 
tors, one that is painful to cari- 
cature, of the Virgin sinking lifeless, 
and her attendants; one of the 
executioners lifts up his arm with 
the most violently strained action, 
to break the limbs of the wicked 
robbers. (The finest Crucifixion of 
the Giottesque school, most rich in 
beautiful touches, is probably that 

ein the 0. degli Spagnuoli; one of 
the most important series of the 
Passion anywhere was formerly in 

/the Chapter-house of S. Francesco at 

With these exceptions inner emo- 
tion often comes out most beauti- 
fully aud truly. See (Campo Santo, 
gPr. da Volterra) the gestures of 
dignified reproach with which Job 
speaks to God, while pointing to 
his lost flocks ; or the deep feSing 
with which S. Kanieri (in the upper 
series of pictures) makes his vow to 
the holy Monk. Most powerful is 

the effect which the author of the 
TrivMiph of Death (Campo Samto) 
has produced in the group of 
cripples and beggars vainly crying 
to Death to relieve them; their 
parallel gesture with their muti- 
lated arms is most telling, taken 
together with the expression of 
their features. It is a case where 
even repulsiveneas appears to be 
fully justified in art. This alone 
gives the fuU meaning of contrast 
to the group in the garden ; it is, 
by the way, the best executed 
picture of worldly life given by the 
Gothic school ; the working out of 
what the miniatures in our Min- 
nesingers' manuscripts only indi- 
cate ; yet with a distinct flavour of 

In the group of riders the deep 
horror of the three corpses is ex- 
pressed with inimitable beauty in 
their cautious approach, their lean- 
ing over and holding back ; pic- 
torially, also, it is an excellent 
composition. In simpler produc- 
tions, for instance in the sacristy 
of S. Mimiato at Florence, Spinelhi 
displays his rude grandeur. The 
subject here is the often-repeated 
legend of S. Benedict, given in the 
simplest manner. Power and cahn 
authority could hardly be better 
represented than here continually 
in the gestures aud form of the 
holy abbot ; the temptation also, 
and the penance of the youthful 
monk, the humiliation of the king 
of the Goths, the group of monks 
round the stone which the devU 
has taken possession of, are among 
the most spirited conceptions of 
the Florentine school. Much he- 
sides is, on the other hand, slightly 
conceived and rudely executed. 
(Also considerably painted over.) 

Each according to their subjects, 
these painters at times attain the 
highest possible expression of men- 
tal feeling. I do not think that 
the scene of Christ showing his 
wounds was ever so perfectly con- 

The Last Judgment. Glories, 


ceived as in the group, only par- 
es tially preserved, in the Oa/m/po Santo, 
attributed to BiiffalTnacco. Instead 
of Thomas alone, there are several 
disciples who recognise the Saviour, 
and, amid worshipping and adoring, 
contemplate his wounds with tender 
sympathy ; together they form one 
of the most beautifully arranged 
groups of the school. (Compare 
with this Guercino'a excellently 
painted and yet so coarsely con- 
6 ceived picture in the Vatican gal- 
lery.) In the picture of the As- 
c cension also, immediately following 
this, the great amount of painting 
over cannot wholly destroy the 
beautiful old conceptions ; we clearly 
recognise how the apostles are 
divided between wonderment, pro- 
testation, and devoted adoration. 
But any one who wishes to see with 
whatsmallmeansagreat, andforthe 
time, overpowering impression, can 
be produced, should contemplate 
d the " Sacrament of Penance " in the 
Incoronata at Naples ; the priest is 
turning away almost in horror from 
the woman in confession, while the 
penitents are moving away, veiled 
and bowed down. In this respect, 
the Incoronata is altogether one of 
the most important of art monu- 

The representation of the celes- 
tial, holy, supersensual is conceived 
on the same principle as in the 
Byzantine period; symmetrical in 
grouping and position, 'it seems to 
descend among earthly things as if 
it was natural and true, and as 
revelation ; in the ideal mode of 
conceiving the space, the outward 
representation also seems the right 
one. (The fifteenth century first 
began to depict the sky by means 
of strata of clouds, and Correggio 
first gives to the clouds the definite 
cubic contents and degree of con- 
sistency which adapt them for 
giving a local support to angels and 
saints.) The same ideas which 
have been traditional in art since 

the early Christian times, and are 
impressive even in the meagre By- 
zantine form, here come forth in 
beautiful freshness. What for so 
many centuries was but sugges- 
tion, at last reaches a sublime 
realisation, in accordance with the 
feeling of the age. 

Here we may take occasion to 
speak of the representations of the 
Last Judgment. Many such had 
existed both in the East and in the 
West before Orcagna [Lorenzetti], or e 
whoever was the author of the work, 
painted his in the Campo Santo. 
But here, for the first time, the 
Judge becomes not merely a func- 
tion, but a personal character, to 
whom the attitude and a celebrated 
gesture give a grand life-likeness. 
The belief of the age gave the Ma- 
donna a place as intercessor in the 
Last Judgment; the painter gave 
her the same almond-shaped glory 
as to Christ; her inferior position 
is only indicated by her attitude 
following his nearly line for line. 
The Apostles are here no longer mere 
inanimate spectators, but they take 
the most lively interest in the 
scene ; we see them lamenting, 
some looking up aghast to the 
Judge, some wrapped in their own 
sorrowful thoughts, some talking 
together. Even one of the herald 
angels crouches trembling upon a 
cloud, covering his mouth with his 
hand. Below, five archangels carry 
out most energetically the duty of 
dividing the souls ; in the two who 
drive back into hell those who are 
struggling out, the most violent 
action is aimed at and attained. 

Even Glories in this school are 
always worthy of attention. The 
traditional symmetrical arrange- 
ment of the principal figure, and of 
the groups of angels is more or less 
preserved, but thoroughly inter- 
penetrated with a grand feeling of 
life. Nothing can be more original 
than the Vision of God with six 
angels {Campo Santo, story of Job)^ 


The Gothic Style. 

in an oval Glory, above a landscape 
with a green sea, yellow earth, and 
red (though doubtless formerly blue) 
sky ; Satan stands upon a rock near 
to God. No effects of light or dis- 
tance could heighten the simple, 
grand character of this Theophany. 
Or (just over the eastern en- 
trance of the south wall) the Asceri- 

asion of the Virgin; three angels on 
either side, and two more powerful 
male angels support and hold the 
border of the Glory in which the 
Virgiu floats towards her son. Do 
we not believe much more genuinely 
that she really floats and has a 
supernatural existence than we be- 
lieve it of those numerous Madon- 
nas of later centuries which rest 
on masses of clouds sown with 
scattered angels, with effects of 
light and landscape below. The 
floating, also, is not seldom in the 
school of Giotto represented with 
such grace and solemnity that one 
seems to see the highest develop- 
ment of art. In the Last Judg- 

h meut (Cwmpo Santo) there are two 
angels whose Uke is hardly to be 
found again before KaphaeL 

Besides the Biblical and legend- 
ary subjects, the school developed 
itself in large, freely-conceived, al- 
legorically symbolic pictures, and 
series of pictures. It was imder 
the influence of a learned, literary, 
and poetical culture, which took 
the lead and was represented by 
the genius of Dante. Even with 
the great poet we ask ourselves 
whether he is great on account of 
his symbolism or in spite of it. Sym- 
bolism did not arise with him, as in 
antiquity, through and along with 
poetry and art, but poetry and art 
had to accommodate themselves to 
it. In Dante, indeed, all is insepa- 
rably woven together ; he is just as 
much a scholar and a theologian as 
a poet. The artist, on the other 
hand, was here employed on some- 
thing lying beyond his sphere ; his 
part was to serve, and he did it 

with solemn earnestness. But we 
are not bound to foUow the line of 
thought of a time fuU indeed of 
aspiration, but not yet in harmony 
with itself, still less to adapt our- 
selves to a strange encyclopaedia of 
various elements of culture; we 
must rather distinguish between 
that which was perishable and 
feeble and that which remains the 
immortal in Giotto's school of art. 
Allegory is primarily the rejire- 
sentation of an abstract conception 
in a human form. In order to be 
intelligible, it must correspond with 
this conception as far as possible in 
character and attributes ; it can not 
always be explained by inscriptions. 
I confess that of aU the allegories 
of the Giottesque school only one 
really impresses me, the figure of 
Death represented as a winged 
woman, " la Morte," in the Trionfo'^ 
della Morte; but Death is, indeed, 
not simply an allegory, but a de- 
moniac power. The Virtues and 
Vices, as they are set forth by 
Giotto in the Arena (lower divisions) * 
only interest us as part of the 
history of culture, as attempts to 
give form to the abstract ; they 
have no place in our mode of 
thought. Any one who has seen in 
Italy some hundred representations 
of the four cardinal virtues, of all 
periods of Christian art, will per- 
haps join with me in wondering 
that so little of them remains in 
his remembrance, while historical 
figures remain strongly impressed 
on his memory. The cause is simply 
that they have not touched oiu- 
souls, but only passed before our 
eyes. The three Christian virtues. 
Faith, Love, Hope, make a deeper 
impression, because they are usually 
characterised not by their essential 
external attributes, (but by an in- 
tensified expression of feeKng, and 
therefore call forth feeling in us. 
The Arts and Sciences set forth in 
a long and complete series in the 
Cappella dcgli Spagnuoli, va S. M.t 

Allegory. — SymhoKsm. 


Novella, and accompanied by their 
representations, would leave us 
quite cold but for the sweet Sienese 
heads : Giotto in hia reliefs on the 
a Campanile, which may be ten years 
later than these pictures, not with- 
out purpose substituted for the alle- 
gorical figure some dramatic action 
expressive of the quality. And 
whence we may ask arose the im- 
pulse towards this allegorising taste 
which pervades the whole (also the 
Byzantine) middle ages? It was 
originally a remnant of antique my- 
thology, which Christianity had 
deprived of its true signification. 
The progenitor was Marcianus Ca- 
peUa, and lived in the fifth cen- 
tury. Art will never quite dispense 
with allegory, and could not do so 
in ancient times, but in its best 
period art will use it moderately 
and give it no over-prominent po- 
sition by laying stress on the 

Figures of this kind wiU, then, 
in the best period be principally 
represented separately, and not in- 
troduced into historical scenes. 
(Compare Baphael, ceiling of the 
h Oa/mera della Segnatv/ra, and Hall 
of Gonstaniine. ) Giotto was bolder, 
he allowed himself to be tempted, 
undoubtedly through Dante, to 
paint in the Lower Chwch at 
<! Assist, among other things, a real 
marriage ceremony between S. 
Francis and a figure which repre- 
sents Poverty ; in the poet the inci- 
dent remains symbolic, and the 
reader is not for a moment de- 
ceived ; but with the painter it is 
really a betrothal, even though he 
throws iu innumerable hints and 
indications, though Christ intro- 
duces Poverty to S. Francis, and 
yet allows two boys to Ul-treat her, 
though her linen garment is falling 
into rags, and so forth. To repre- 
sent the obligation to poverty as a 
marriage witjbi her is a metaphor, 
and a work of art ought never to 
be founded on a metaphor, that is, 

an idea transferred to a new ficti- 
tious reality, which gives a neces- 
sarily false result in a picture. 
When later artists wished, for in- 
stance, to represent Truth come to 
Light through Time, an absurd 
picture was produced of a naked 
winged old man, with hour-glass 
and scythe, uncovering a veiled 
woman. Ab soon as the allegorical 
figures are to be put into action, 
nothing can be done without meta- 
phor, and with it arise simple ab- 
surdities. The remaining allegories 
also of the central dome of the 
Lower Chwch of Assisi, are in ^ 
themselves as quaint as those of 
the seventeenth century. There Pe- 
nitence drives away Profane Love 
with a scourge, and casts Impurity 
down over a cliff. Chastity sits 
well guarded in a tower; Purity 
washes naked people, and Strength 
reaches forth the cloth to dry 
them. Obedience, accompanied by 
double-headed Prudence and Hu- 
mility, lays a yoke upon a monk ; 
one of the angels present drives 
away a centaur which signifies wil- 
fulness, that is, fanciful caprice. 
But for the deep seriousness of 
Giotto, who expresses only what is 
necessary as clearly as possible, 
without any coquettish sweetness, 
these scenes would have a profane 
and wearisome effect.* 

The insufficiency of all Allegory 
could not fail to be felt in art. As 
a complement were produced the 
representations of abstract ideas 
mostly derived from antiquity, and 
used sicglyin connection with allego- 
ries, of which the Capella degli Spag- « _ 
mtoli forms the most perfect speci- 
men. (Dante also makes the greatest 
use of this mode of representation.) 
Such figures, particularly when they 
are not better in style than those 
of Taddeo di Bartolo (ante-room of 
the C.del Palazzo pubblico in Siena), / 

* In the first parts of Yasari many other 
allegories are mentioned in detail, taken 
from works no longer in existence. 


The Gothic Style. 

remain mere curiosities ; they give 
the measure of the naive historical 
knowledge of the age, which set 
up new ideals taken from Valerius 
Maximus and other sources of the 
same kind. 

In Giotto's school the symbolic 
element was far more important 
and more independent than that of 
allegory. There are lofty sublime 
ideas, which cannot be embodied 
in any merely historical composi- 
tion, and yet look to art for their 
highest rendering. A work of 
art which attempts this will be 
impressive in proportion as it 
contains less allegory and more 
living distinct action. Symbolism 
in art is expressed partly by groups 
and series, partly by weU-known 
historical characters. The great- 
est works in this kind least bear 
the mark of purely subjective in- 
vention ; they rather express great 
conceptions proper to a special age, 
which almost force themselves upon 

Everjrthing connected with the 
world beyond the grave, though 
not without limitation, comes into 
this class of subjects. As far as 
the Gospel and the Apocalypse go 
in their prophecies, art still occu- 
pies an equal rank with histoiy. 
Pure symbolism begins with the 
motives which go beyond this. 
The Last Judgment in its three 
parts : the Judgment, Paradise, 
and HeU, has been represented 
three times with more or less suc- 
cess by this school ; the much in- 
jured picture by ffiott(?,*onthefront 
a wall of the Arena at Padua, that 

* Singularly enough, Giotto is in his 
arrangement freer than Orcagna; he repre- 
sents moving groups of figures, di-vided 
from one another by different distances, 
Christ and the Apostles have not as yet 
the momentary expression which Orcagna 
bestowed on them. To judge from the 
neat, sharp, handling, the Last Judgment 
may be the earliest portion of the frescos 
of the arena. [Crowe and Cav. suggest 
that much was done by the hands of 

of the two Orcagnas in S. Maria No- 
vella (Gapella Strozzi), and that in 
the Campo Santo (the lower part* 
of HeU quite changed by the infe- 
rior painter who has retouched it). 
The HeU is in both the latter 
places divided, with an obvious 
aUusion to Dante, into Strata or 
Bolge, on which are arranged the 
various classes of sinners accord- 
ing to their merits. I leave it to 
each person to judge as he will of 
Dante's idea, of his arbitrary im- 
prisonment of the whole past and 
contemporary world in the differ- 
ent reservoirs of his three great 
divisions ; only one cannot but ask 
oneself privately, where would he 
have put me ? It is not difficult to 
point out the different circles of 
Hell in which most of the present 
worshippers of the poet would 
themselves find their place. Too 
often in the poem appears the 
spirit of inexorable, inextinguish- 
able discord, which caused the 
misfortune of Italy. The symbolic 
meaning of the Divina Commedia, 
laboriously and skilfully as it is 
worked out, is only valuable as li- 
terature and history, not as poetry. 
The poetical value rests entirely on 
the lofty artistic representation of 
single incidents, on the measured 
grand style through which Dante 
became the father of later Western 

Only a part of his characteristics 
could be expressed in painting ; 
many beautiful episodes were lost 
in pictures of heU, and the only 
artistically useful element lay in 
the grouping of nude figures in 
their separate divisions. In the 
picture in the Gampo Santo, theii 
one group of souls cowering toge- 
ther, gnawing at each other, is of 
especial significance. The picture 
in S. Maria Novella, on the other* 
hand, which attempts a complete 
representation of the circles of heU, 
and therefore contains only small 
figures, is artisticaUy worthless. 

Allegorical Pictures. 


The Last Judgment itself is obvi- 
ously not influenced by Dante. The 
art of the fourteenth century was 
here grand in its limitation ; it 
practically gave up the attempt to 
represent space pictoriaUy, and to 
make the passive element physi- 
cally and dramatically interesting ; 
in regular layers of heads was 
expressed on one side, joy and 
blessedness ; on the other, grief 
and condemnation, in a collective 
manner ; the episodes are kept in 
the background, but excellently 
chosen ; iu the picture in the CaTnpo 

a Scmto there is a touch of the truest 
symbolism in the picture of women 
clutched by the hands of devils, 
who are carrying oflF other women 
with them, not involuntarily, but 
as companions and fellow sinners ; 
or the intense fervour of John the 
Baptist, who kneels on a cloud at 
the end of a long line of figures ; it 
is a true and beautiful thought 
that the forerunner of Christ should 
thus become a sharer in this high- 
est act of his power. Of the 
heavenly group we have already 

6 spoken. In S. Maria Novella 
there is a peculiar representation 
of Paradise which in the tender 
beauty of its heads surpasses in 
some ways the more powerful pic- 
ture in the Campo Santo. The 
contrast of the life of the Blessed 
with the terrible act of Judgment 
is expressed by placing the heads 
not iu profile looking towards 
Christ, but turned full face towards 
the spectator. With such slight 
means has Art to work. 

The Devils, wherever they ap- 
pear (they are especially numerous 

cin the 0. degli Spagnuoli, where 
Christ appears in Umbo, as well as 
in the pictures above mentioned) 
are pure caricatures ; Satan himself 
most of all. Through sheer devilish- 
ness they have nothing demoniacal 
about them. 

Of the remaining symbolical 
compositions of the school, the 

Trionfo della Morte is far the most d 
important. It needs no further 
explanation, because the symbolic 
thought comes out clearly in the 
picture. The contrasts are dis- 
tinctly enough expressed by the 
different groups. The author, as 
an artist also, was fully equal to 
the whole grand conception. 

This is true, though certainly in 
a far less degree, of the great sym- 
bolical fresco by Ambrogio Loren- a 
zetti in the P. Pubhlico {Sala delle 
Balestre) at Siena, with the repre- 
sentation of the consequences of 
good and of tyrannical government ; 
the Allegory is at least interspersed 
with touches of true and beautiful 

The painters of the GappellaJ 
degli Spagmmli in S. Maria No- 
vella were not wanting in power to 
give form to the grandest subjects. 
Besides the great allegorical picture 
(left waU) where S. Thomas Aqui- 
nas is enthroned in the midst of all 
Sciences and Arts, they have pro- 
duced on the right wall a symbo- 
lical picture; the destination and 
power of the church upon earth 
(details in guide-books). A work 
only too rich iu figures, carefully 
and beautifully executed, but pro- 
duced entirely out of literary not 
artistic fancy, for which reason 
it requires a book to explain it. 
With what a different clearness 
and force does the Trionfo delle 
Morte speak to the mind. How 
far more grand might the picture 
of the church too have been, given 
iu a sjrmbolic manner. It is true 
that in the cloister of S. Maria 
Novella, even an Orcagua might 
have felt himself constrained to 
accept a given Dominican pro- 
gramme without objection. 

This theological tendency has 
more than once injured the 
genuine formative impulse of art. 
See in Pietro di Fuccio {Campo 9 
Santo) God represented as Creator 
and Lord of the World. It is a 


The Gothic Style. 

gigantic figure holding an immense 
shield with the concentric spheres 
of heaven in front of the body; 
the feet appear below. Such a 
representation certainly destroys 
any idea of the immanence of God 
in the world. * 

Or the Glory of S. Thomas Aqui- 
nas above an altar to the left in S. 
' Caterina atFisa, hy Francesco Traini 
(in itself an inferior picture). Here 
the spiritual impression was to 
be represented symbolically, which 
the Saint had received from various 
sides, and exercised upon the faith- 
ful. The painter (or his patrons) 
contrived this by the simple ex- 
pedient of using golden rays. 
From the figure of Christ placed 
above one ray goes out to each of 
the six Apostles and three to St. 
Thomas enthroned in the midst ; a 
ray also goes to the head of Thomas 
from each Apostle, and from the 
heathens, Plato and Aristotle, 
standing far below ; from the book 
of Thomas (the Summa) many rays 
go to the monks assembled below ; 
in the midst, upon the earth, lies a 
convicted heretic. The essential 
idea in this whole picture might be 
expressed with a ruler. 

* How rude this great period could still 
sometimes be appears from the repetition 
of the most absurd symbolic makeshifts of 
the earlier mediseval times. Even Spirtdlo 
ventured, in a fresco now destroyed, to 
paint the four Evangelists as draped human 
figures, but with l^e heads of their em- 
blems. (We find this, among other places, 
represented on the lintel of the side-door 
(of early romanesque architecture) of SS. 
Annunziata at Arezzo.) The too cii-cum- 
stautial connection of the Evangelist with 
the pen is an early mediseval device, which 
BmioU) of Siena, for instance, again adopted 
(Academy of Siena, 1st Gallery, No. 91) : 
Mark cuts his pen, Luke looks at it, Mat- 
thew dips it in the ink, only John writes. 
If any one can find a deeper meaning in 
this, I should be unwilling to destroy his 
pleasure in it. [Tasari praises a St. Luke 
by Buffalmaoco in the Badia di Settimo, 
who blows on the pen in the most natural 
manner to make the ink flow. ] This passed 
along with other peculiarities from Siena 
to the Peruginesque painters and reappears 
in Pinturicchio. 

Traini is not a painter of import- 
ance : but as to greater artists we 
cannot but lament that theology 
should have prescribed their course 
to them, whereas, left to their own 
powers, they would have expressed 
the given fundamental ideas in a far 
more noble and beautiful manner. 

Happily Giotto himself had be- 
come more free, when he painted 
the Glory of S. Francis in his divi- 
sion of the above-mentioned roof of 
the Lower Church at Assist; the 6 
Saint glorified, in a gold in-woven 
deacon's robe, with a banner of 
the Cross, surrounded by choirs of 
angels. This is genuine clearly ex- 
pressed symbolism. The Glory of 
S. Thomas Aquinas, on the other 
hand, had to be compounded of 
allegories, because the subject pre- 
scribed was the triumph of the 
learned Saint over all separate 
sciences and arts. 


It is in frescos and dramatic 
action that the school of Giotto 
displays its full freedom and gran- 
deur. The altar-pieces of this 
school, which are almost entirely 
of a calm and devotional order, 
give a very limited conception of 
its character, but are useful in en- 
abling us to form a judgment as 
to the technical capacity and in- 

The pictures most important in 
art history have been mentioned 
before. Besides this, nearly every 
old church in Tuscany possesses 
some specimen, and also those 
brought together from many 
churches and cloisters in the Aca- 
demy at Florence, form a large and 
complete collection (chiefly in the 
Sala dei Quadri Grandi).* Any one 
who has the time and inclination 
may gradually classify them ac- 

* Besides a number in the Medici chapel 
at 8. Crooe, at the end of the passage be- 
fore the Sacristy. 



cording to the manner and the spe- 
cial masters ; here we can only offer 
a, few general observations. 

The subject is almost invariably 
a Madonna enthroned with angels 
and saints ; next in frequency 
comes the Coronation of the Virgin 
by Christ.* The Saints stand 
sometimes singly, sometimes in 
rows one behind another at the 
sides ; usually each single figure 
divided from the rest by its own 
framing, pillars, or the like. The 
position, mostly a three-quarter 
view, so that the figure may be 
turned as much toward the pious 
beholder as towards the Virgin); 
only those who kneel before her are 
represented quite in profile. There 
are no side glances for the sake of 
variety as yet. The position is 
usually one of repose ; only some- 
times we find John the Baptist 
with his arm raised, or pointing to 
the child. The expression of the 
Virgin is always simple, without 
any touch of especially elevated 
feeling: the child is now, for the 
first time, represented as occupied 
with some innocent pleasure, with- 
out which, in reality, no healthy 
child can sit quiet ; as, for instance, 
playing with a goldfinch. The co- 
louring, on the whole, light, as is 
required by tempera. The chief 
colours used are red, blue, and 
gold. (The circles of cherubs' 
heads are all blue or aU. red. ) In 
the drapery, the splendid patterns, 
represented as worked, are far less 
symmetrically employed than by 
the Sienese,t whQe a noble and 
beautiful fiow of line is more ob- 
viously the principal object. We 
can see how art works out with 

• The assumption and coronation of tlie 
Virgin, who had been bom a mere earthly 
woman, were a testimony and a symbol of 
blessed immortality to every individual. 
On this account this subject appears 
especially often on tombs, in pictures of 
family chapels, &c. 

t For the characteristic difference of 
treatment, see p. 33, d. 

effort a comparatively small num- 
ber of principal points : the mantle 
of the Madonna enthroned, that 
of the figures lying on oue knee, 
the mantle of the standing figure 
caught up with one hand, the 
straight falling cowl of the Monks, 
the thickly embroidered Dalmatic 
of the Deacons, etc. In the heads 
the school expresses its meaning 
more clearly than in most frescos. 
If I do not err, much that is pecu- 
liarly Florentine comes out in the 
oval and in the form of the nose 
and the mouth. The expression of 
passing feeling is not yet to be 
looked for here. 

The altar steps (PredeUas) repeat 
in their histories very much the 
compositions of the frescos ; they 
are thus miniatures of the larger 
pictures. In Northern art, on the 
contrary, the larger pictures are 
often a magnifying of what had 
been conceived in miniature. 

For the proper appreciation of 
the easel pictures by the followers 
of Giotto and the Sienese, we must 
represent to ourselves the altar- 
pieces as wholes, which now are 
met with in galleries, churches, 
and sacristies, usually split up into 
their separate parts, as a rule, be- 
cause, in some alteration of the 
church, they were found no longer 
to suit the baroque style of the 
modern altars, the width of the 
picture all'in one being too great. 
Examples in complete preservation, 
vfith all their appurtenances, are 
very rare : one, for instance, is 
found in the Academy of Florence a 
(tjala dei Quadri Grandi) ; another, 
more perfect, in S. Domenico at J 
Cortona, on the left wall. This 
altar-piece by a not specially re- 
markable master, Lorenzo, son of 
Niccolb di Pietro Gerini, possesses, 
besides the principal picture (Coro- 
nation of the Virgin), all its acces- 
sary pictures, the fillings of frieze 
and gables, the upper subjects, 


The Gothic Style. 

predellas, and on the surfaces of 
the little turrets at the sides aU the 
small pictures with single saints ; 
also all the architectural part, as 
usual the effigy of a church, is well 
preserved. This first explains to 
us for what place and what part of 
a collective work Fiesole, for in- 
stance, painted all the pictures 
now scattered over the world. It 
is not to be expected that an altar- 
piece of this kind, with such a 
number of separate parts, should 
create a grand and quiet impres- 


Lastly, there exist in Tuscany a 
number of painted Crucifixes of the 
13th and 14th centuries, often of 
colossal size. Originally, according 
to the custom of the Catholic 
world, they hung high and free 
above the high altar ; but in the 
baroque period, they had to give 
place to the well-known pompous 
architectural decorations with pic- 
tures, and took up their position, 
perhaps, over the chief entrance, 
and later also in galleries. (Several 
a in the Academy at Siena.) In 
general we shaU find that the older 
they are the less is their value ; 
the attitude is strained, and the 
colour of the body greenish. Qiotto 
first introduced something which 
can be called a Victory over Death ; 
although the Crucifix in the pas- 
sage to the Sacristy in S. Croce can 
hardly be his, yet but for him such 
a work could not have existed. 
(Two others in the Sacristy itself. ) 
On the four ends of the wood are 
commonly the four Evangelists, or, 
on the right and left, the Sun and 
Moon as Persons, veiling their 
heads ; the sinking of the head of 
Christ is usually marked in a naive 
manner by the oblique direction of 
the upper transverse beam 


In the Sienese school, which 
had in the thirteenth century 
under Duccio (p. 23, 6) developed 
such striking elements of beauty, 
the influence of Giotto in the four- 
teenth century goes hand in hand 
with the traditional national ten- 
dency. In the easel pictures, 
altar pieces and single frescos in- 
tended for purposes of devotion, 
this tendency takes a special deve- 
lopment, in which religious fervour 
and exclusiveness are as predomi- 
nant features as is a marked sense 
for flow and symmetry in the Hues, 
richness of colour and delicate or- 
namentation in the architecture, 
the patterns of the dresses, the 
nimbi and the gold grounds. The 
points which the Florentines ruth- 
lessly sacrificed to distinctness of 
expression, the solemn positions 
and turns of the body, the grace- 
ful type of the faces, the gently 
waving folds of drapery, the lines 
of which flow as it were melo- 
diously in harmony with the 
bendings of the limbs, are here by 
preference retained, and repre- 
sented by a careful miniature-like 
delicate method of colouring and 
modelling, which aims rather at a 
beautiful effect of colour and 
roundness than a naturalistic re- 
presentation of the contrasts of 
illuminated and shadowed surfaces. 
The most remarkable works of the 
Giottesque school, to which accord- 
ing to the latest investigations 
belong the pictures of the Last 
Judgment and the Triumph of 
Death, formerly ascribed to Orca-i 
gna, show the special qualities of 
the Sienese school chiefly in the 
form of the face and in an attempt 
to modify the traditional manner- 
ism in position, gesture, and dra- 
pery, by the lively expression of 
action or emotion required by the 
new school. 

School of Siena. 


The most important master of 
the Sienese school in Giotto's 
time, Simone di Martina [born 1283 ; 
died 1344], is best represented in 
Italy by his devotional pictures. 
The frescos formerly ascribed to him 
on Vasari's authority in the Campo 
Santo at Pisa and the Cappella degli 
Spagnuoli are not his, but only dis- 
play Sienese subjects much akin to 
his in style. He worked, as is 
known, in the last years of his life 
at the Papal Court in Avignon, and 
the Giottesque character of the 
wall paintings there appears to 
have given rise to the tradition, 
now contradicted on documentary 
evidence, of Giotto's stay in this 
place. His Madonnas are by the 
splendour of their decoration, and 
their miniature-like delicacy, by 
the flow of their drapery and the 
peculiar beauty of the features, real 
jewels of mefiffival art ; althoiigh 
the conventional form of the eyes 
and mouth which does not strike us 
in Duccio, gives them a character of 
strangeness. Those of undoubted 
authenticity are very rare and 
mostly out of Italy ; by him and 

"• Iiippo Memmi is the great Annun- 
ciation at Florence, first gallery in 
the Uffizi, dated 1333 ; unpleasing 
on account of the attitude of the 

i Madonna.* At Pisa the remains of 
a very remarkable altar-piece ; six 
panek in the Seminario Vescovile, 
the seventh with a predella in the 
Academy. In Siena, Choir of S. 
AgosHno, the representation of the 
Blessed Agostino Novello, by him 
or Lippo Menmii. At Orvieto, 

c Opera del Duomo, a Madonna with 

d Saints ; at Naples, S. Lorenzo, 
seventh chapel to the right, S. 
Louis, of Toulouse, handing the 
crown to his brother, Robert of 

* The awkward drawing down of the 
comers of the mouth gives a fretftll ex- 
pression— "Smorfia," just like what we 
see in an old Byzantine pictme of the 
Academy of Siena (No. 15, the little An- 
nunciation on the right). — Mr. 

Naples. Simone's great /resco about « 
1315, in the Palazzo pubblico at 
Siena (Sala del CousigUo, or Delle 
Balestre), the Madonna surrounded 
by many saints, some of whom 
hold a canopy over her, is as sym- 
metrical and unemotional as any 
altar-piece, but in special points it 
possesses a beauty which the Flo- 
rentines never even attempted. 
There, also, is an equestrian por- 
trait of Guidoriooio de' Fogliaui. 
By his pupil, Idppo Memmi [in/ 
practice 1317 to 1356 ?], there is in 
the Palazzo pubblico of S. Gimi- 
gnano, a "Majestas" of 1317; 
almost exactly copied from one? 
by Simone, of the Madonna of 
the city, at a later period restored 
and finished by Benozzo Gozzoli, 
in the Gathedx-al at Orvieto, a Virgin 
of Mercy. Siena possesses at least 
one other known picture of the 
Madonna in the Church della Con- A 
oezione or de' Servi (fresco in the 
right transept, over the door of the 
passage to the Sacristy) ; the large i 
altar-piece in the Academy (first 
room. No. 94) is only coujecturally 
attributed to him. For the rest, 
the collection in the Academy of 
Siena (1st to 3rd room) gives a sur- 
vey of the painting of the school- 
drawing during the fourteenth cen- 
tury, which on the whole displays 
a remarkable stagnation, a narrow 
adherence to the form of face once 
adopted, and to special Byzantine 
mannerisms (high lights laid on, 
splendid patterns in the drapery 
and grounds, green flesh shadows, 
perhaps become so only through 
the alteration of some mineral 
colours, &c.)i- 

We must leave the special cha- 
racteristics of artists to be studied 
by those who can do so on the 
spot, for we have to occupy our- 
selves not with those who remain 
behind, but with those who are 

t We refer our readers to Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle for the exact analysis of the 
technical Sienese manner of painting. 


The Gothic Style. 

striving onwards. Giotto's manner 
of narration, now become the com- 
mon property of the nation, in- 
evitably spread from Florence and 
all the rest of Italy to Siena also. 
Ambrogio Lorenzetti [practised from 
1324 to 1345] painted in the Sala 
della Pace of the Palazzo pubbUoo, 
1337-39, the three great symbolical 

a compositions in the Qiottesgue 
style, the "Rule" of Siena, with 
an artistic allegory concerning the 
duties of justice, the Procession of 
the dignitaries of the town, an in- 
teresting series of portraits, the 
consequences of Good and Bad 
Government, with numerous genre 
scenes (nearly effaced). He also 
painted a presentation in the 
Temple (1342) in the Florentine 
Academy of Arts, and an annun- 
ciation (1344) in the Academy of 
Siena ; together with his brother 
Pietro [laboured from 1329 to 1348] 

J he produced the great fresco in the 
Gampo Samio at Fisa, of the her- 
mits in the Thebaid, so rich in 
beautiful details ; only that here, 
as in the easel pictures of the 
school, the historical and narrative 
element tates quite a secondary 
place in the composition and draw- 
ing. [If we attribute to them the 
authorship of the Last Judgment 
and the Triumph of Death at Pisa, 
in accordance with the latest in- 
vestigations, they certainly fully 
equal the Florentine pupils of 
Giotto, it they do not excel them. ] 
We need not include the childish 

c chronicle - like Battle pictures, 
painted in brown on brown, in 
the Sola del Cojmg'Mo,, which are, 
perhaps erroneously, ascribed to 
Ambrogio ; they are nevertheless 
of much interest, owing to their 
subjects. [According to Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle, we must now ascribe 
the following pictures to the Loren- 

d zetti ; in Assisi (part of which has 
already been mentioned), the Cru- 
cifixion (formerly attributed to 
CavaHini), as well as scenes of the 

Passion and St. Francis receiving 
the Stigmata, in the northern tran- 
sept of the Lower Gkwrch; in Siena, g 
S. Francesco, some remains of 
frescos, among them a remarkable, 
very expressive Crucifixion, by 
Pietro himself, the "most beautiful 
Madonna of the Sienese school " in 
the little church of S. Anscmo,t 
before the Porta de^ Pispmi at 
Siena ; the Birth of the Virgin in » 
the Sacristy of the Cathedral ; in 
the Pieve [now in the Public Gal- % 
lery], at Arezzo, a large altar-piece, 
a Madonna between saints [in the j 
Uffizi at riorence, a Virgin and 
child ; in 8. Marco at Cortona, a 
Crucifix ; and in the cathedral of 
the same city, a Madonna. — ^Ed.] ; 
a fine fresco of the Coronation of 
the Virgin, in the Misericordia sAj 
Monte Puleiano.] Their best con- 
temporary, Ba/rna da Siena, has 
nothing worthy of mention in his 
paternal city ; the much repainted 
frescos on the Tabernacle of the 
Laieran at Borne appear to havej; 
been formerly very graceful ; his 
works in the Gathed/ral of S. Gimig- 1 
nano (right transept) already contain 
a number of genre touches and ac- 
cessary details, which we are used 
to consider as innovations of the 
Quattro-cento, especially in the 
work of Benozzo Gozzoli at Pisa. 
In the works of this school we 
shall always prefer the purely de- 
votional pictures; thus, for in- 
stance, an assumption by Pietro 
Lorenzetti (Academy, 1st room, No. m 
63) gives at least the deep solem- 
nity, the splendid gold patterns, 
the symmetrical floating groups of 
angels, and so forth, in all their 
early perfection. 

The influence of this style parti- 
ally impressed by the spirit of 
Giotto stretches on to Bartolo di 
Fredi da Siena [1330-1410], and 
his pupils Taddeo di Bartolo [1362- 
1422] and Domemco di Bartolo [in 
practice 1428-1444], till far into 
the fifteenth century. Their devo- 

The Kemaining Italian Hcfiooh. 


ational pictures {Academy) subsist 
on the inspiration of Pietro Loren- 
zetti and others, though they are 
apparently richer. Taddeo's frescos 
in the upper chapel of the Palazzo 

ipubblico are not superior to mode- 
rately good Giottesque productions ; 
those before the grating (the great 
men of antiquity, planet gods, &c. ) 
are even less good. There is more 
merit in Bartolo's frescos in the left 
aisle of the Cathedral at S. Gimig- 

c nano, in Taddeo's wall pictures in 
the central nave of the same church 
and the remains of wall pictures in 

d S. Francesco at Fisa, where is to be 
seen the singular composition of the 
Apostles floating down to visit the 
Virgin. With Domenico the style 
ends, and the realism of the fifteenth 
century comes in, though sometimes 
only in parts, so that on the whole 
the old conception is still retained, 
and very much of the old forms in 
the details. The masters of this 

e marvellous mongrel style (Academy, 
3rd room), a certain Giovanni di 
Paolo, Pietro di Giovanni, Samo di 
Pietro, Pietro di Domenico axe 
not worth mentioning by the side 
of their contemporaries in other 
schools. We shall shortly speak of 
those Sienese artists who embraced 
the new style more decidedly, such 
as Matteo di Giovcmni and others. 
Ugolino di Prete Ilario, who covered 

/ the Chapel del Corporale at Orvieto 
with feeble frescos of legends, is an 
offshoot from the Sienese school. 

The splendid Siena, which in the 
year 1300 seemed to lead in Italian 
painting, lost that position which 
she only regained two centuries 
later, when her painters, secluded 
and almost unknown, raised aloft 
the standard of true art higher 
than any school in Italy except 
the Venetian. 

After enumerating what was 
produced by Giotto himself, and 

under his direct and indirect in- 
fluence, we pass on to observe the 
spreading waves which carried his 
influence over Italian art far 
beyond his own time. Very pro- 
bably there were other contempo- 
rary local schools following a 
course similar to his own, and the 
time which matured him, worked 
on them also, bringing them more 
or less under his dominion. From 
Padua to Naples he left important 
monuments behind him in so many 
places, that his innovations be- 
came everywhere known and fol- 
lowed ; and if the works of his 
school are to be also counted, there 
existed in all Italy no artistic 
power capable of standiag against 
this great mass of grand and new 
ideas. Only the incapable re- 
mained apparently independent. 

Among the Italians of the North, 
the Bolognese were necessarily most 
exposed to the full influence of the 
Florentine school. But their ar- 
tistic work and capacity was in the 
fourteenth century extraordinarily 
imperfect and insignificant. Here, 
early in the middle ages, the art of 
miniature had been brought to some 
celebrity by Oderisio di Guido, of 
Gubbio [living 1268-1271], whose 
skill was celebrated by Dante. He 
was followed at Gubbio and Fa- 
briano by Guido Palmerucci (1280- 
1352), and Allegretto Nuzi (living 
1346-1385), whose painting shows 
the decided influence of Sienese 
traditions in Umbrian art. (Ex- 
amples of Nuzi in the Museo g 
Cristiano at Borne, the Duomo of 
Macerata, and in the gallery of 
Fabriano. ) At Bologna Vitale, a 
contemporary of Giotto, is, to judge 
from a picture in the Pinacotecah 
(1320, a Virgin enthroned with two 
angels), sweet and graceful, in the 
Sienese manner, so as to recall 
Duccio. The remaining semi- 
Giottesque painters are mostly so 
inferior in their easel-pictures that 
in Florence their names would not 


The Gothic Style. 

even be meutiooed. And this same 
mode of treatment and absence of 
talent characterise the school till 
after the middle of the fifteenth 
century. Among these paiaters of 
Madonnas and Crucifixes those 
principally known are — 

{Andrea da Bologna, at Pausola, 
near Macerata, a Virgin and child, 
and a composite altar-piece with a 
Madonna, and gospel scenes in the 
hospital of J?ermo.] 

lAppo di Salmasio, Servi, one of 

a the end chapels behind the choir ; 
Madonna with S. Cosmas and 
Damian ; [a fresco above the gate 
of S. Procolo : a Madonna in S. 
Domenico ;] in the same church 
several old Madonnas by various 

J Simone de' Crocefissi. In the 
fourth of the seven churches of S. 
Stefano (S. Pietro e Paolo), on the 
right, near the choir, a Crucifixion ; 
in the seventh (S. TrinitS.), on a 
pier, S. Ursula with her compa- 
nions. In the first of these churches, 
by the way, are frescos of the 
Bearing of the Cross, on the left of 
the choir, — and of the Crucifixion, 
on the High Altar, by a painter of 
unknown extraction of the fifteenth 
century. In a passage to the 
seventh church, a number of small 
old Bolognese pictures. In S. 

c Giacomo Maggiore, third chapel on 
the right, behind the choir, Simone's 
best Crucifix, dated 1370. Some 
pictures here and there in the 

d Pinacoteca. 

Jacdbo degli Avanzi (not the one 
employed in Padua, who is men- 

«tioned later,) a GriMifixion in the 
Colonna Gallery at Kome ; two 
Crucifixions and a large Altar-piece 

/with biblical scenes in the Pina- 
coteca, No. 159-161. 

Also a certain Jacopo di Paolo. 

g Several pictures in the Pinacoteca ; 
over the great altar in S. Oiacomo 

ji Maggiore, thici chapel, space behind 
the choir, on the right the Corona- 
tion of the Virgin. 

The only church where any large 
number of frescos of this school 
are preserved stands before the 
Porta CastigUone, on the way to 
the Villa A Idvni ; it is the Madonna i 
of the Mezzaratta. Here are to be 
seen, now carefully cleaned and 
made accessible, paintings by Vitale 
(thePresepio); /asco Jits (apparently 
Jac. Pauli, among others the Pool 
of Bethesda and the Story of 
Joseph), Simone (the sick man let 
down through the roof) ; Christo- 
foro or LoreTizo (History of Moses, 
&c.) The average is considerably 
above that of easel pictures. 

In S. PetronAo, the fourth chapelj 
on the left contains unimportant 
wall frescos (somewhereabout 1400), 
ascribed to Buflfalmacoo or Vitale, 
both chronologically impossible. 
The painter desired to be more 
distinct and more real than the 
Pisan master, as, for instance, in 
his Last Judgment ; his Saints sit 
upon twelve rows of benches on 
both sides of Christ, forming as it 
were a council. Latterly attributed 
to Simone or Giovanni da Modeiia. 
[Given by Crowe and Cavalcaselle to 
the Ferrarese Antonio Alberti. ] The 
two frescos in the first chapel on the k 
left are insignificant, like whatever 
of this period is found in the church. 

The painting in Bologna as late 
as 1452-1462 is seen in the Pina- 
coteca in the pictures of Pietro Zia- 1 
nori, Michele di Matteo Lwmbertini, 
and the Blessed Nun, Gaierina 
Vigri. (There is also a better 
altar-piece by Matteo in the Aca- in 
demy at Venice, No. 2. ) 

In Modena I have never seen 
anything either by Thomas or Bar- 
nabas, both painters named after 
the town. The first is interesting 
from his being sent for to Prague, 
and his paintings at the Karlstein, 
after 1357. Ai altar-piece in the 
gallery at Modena (1386), and wall« 
pictures in the church and the 
chapter-house of S. Niccolb at Tre- o 
vise, show him to be a moderately 

The Remaining Italian Schools— Padua. 


a good master. By Barnabas [wbo 
painted from 1367 to 1380], there 
is a picture signed in the Academy 
at Pisa [another, a Virgin and child, 

6 with angels, in S. CHo. Baitista at 
Alba. — Ed.] — Or. and Gaval. 

c At Parma the frescos of that 
time in the Cathedral are some- 
what unimportant. (Fourth chapel 
on the right ; fifth chapel on the 
left ; rooms next the Crypt. ) The 
Baptistery (see p. 19 d). 

d At Ferrara S. Domenico contains 
(fifth chapel on the left) one of the 
more beautiful Madonnas of the 
fourteenth century ; uninfluenced 
by Criotto. 
Bavenna, see above (p. 25 c2). 


By far the most important town 
for painting in North Italy at this 
period is Padua, where Giotto's 
great work (see above) must have 
awakened the feeling for monu- 
mental art. The decoration of the 
Santo, which lasted so long, and 
the love for art in the princely 
House of Carrara, were essential 
advantages in fresco painting. 
Probably not nearly aU has been 
preserved.* The authentic chro- 
nological series begins in 1376 with 
e the Gappella S. Felice in the Santo 
(to the right, opposite the chapel of 
S. Anthony). It appears from re- 
cords that the Veronese AUichieri 
da Zevio was commissioned to exe- 
cute, and received payment for, 
this very striking series of frescos, 
and, as the older local writers all 
name a Jacobo d'Avanzo, pre- 
sumably from Verona, as a con- 
temporary of Altichieri, we must 
see in the difference of hand in 
these paintings the traces of a 
directing master and his assistant. 
The seven first pictures, from the 
Legend of S. James, show an ori- 
ginal and spirited acceptance of the 

* Or it may lie hid under the whitewash, 
for instance in the Santo. 

principles of the style of Giotto. 
The master is one of the best nar- 
rators, draughtsmen, and painters 
of this period. The other pictures 
from the Legend, and the great 
Crucifixion on the wall at the 
back, are works, the painter of 
which has made a great advance 
beyond Giotto and his school. He 
elevates the physiognomical expres- 
sion of his individtial figures as to 
character and action to the utmost 
intensity, so that the rhythm of 
the composition is quite secondary 
to it. In the year 1377, the two 
masters began the painting of the 
Cappella S. Giorgio in the Piazza in 
front of the Santo. (Best light at 
noon.) The separate authorship of 
the two cannot here be entered 
upon. From documents we know 
nothing on this point. The oldest 
writers sometimes mention Alti- 
chieri alone, sometimes both mas- 
ters. Ernst Fbrster, to whom we 
are indebted for the re-discovery 
and restoration of the chapel, found 
" Avancius," in an inscription now 
destroyed ; still it does not follow 
from this that the direction of the 
work belonged to him. In twenty- 
one large pictures are here repre- 
sented the youth of Christ, the 
Crucifixion, the Coronation of the 
Virgin, and the Legends of S. 
George, S. Lucy, and S. Catherine. 
The composition shows throughout 
the good qualities which distinguish 
the best followers of Giotto ; besides 
the telling clearness of the action, 
the grouping is beautiful in itself, 
but the principal point is that here, 
in hundreds of figures, the charac- 
ter of the individual, and of the 
moment, from the highest to the 
lowest of the whole great scale is 
made real, yet without caricature, 
and in accordance with the type of 
the century. In the beauty of 
single heads, the masters surpass 
most Giotfcesque painters. Lastly, 
they excel them in their far more 
accurate modelling, ia the grada- 


The Gothic Style. 

tion of tones, * even (in the last pic- 
ture of S. Lucy), and in remarkable 
attempts at iUusion. (More accu- 
rate architectural perspective, di- 
minution of the more distant figures, 
and even aerial perspective. ) In the 
Capella S. Felice also, the effect of 
perspective is quite striking. 

This great example remained for 
a time without any imitators in 
Padua itself. The very extensive 
frescos subsequently executed be- 
long principally to the weak, even 
to the weakest, works of the style 
derived from Giotto. The frescos 
a of the Baptistery in the Cathedral, 
by the two Paduans, Giovanni and 
Antonio (1380), or, according to 
other accounts, by Giusto Padovano, 
son of Giovanni de' Menabuoi, a 
Florentine by birth, are only of 
value as a very complete and con- 
veniently arranged cycle of the 
sacred personages and scenes proper 
to the place. Also, in comparison, 
at any rate, with the mosaics of the 
orthodox Baptistery in Ravenna, 
the increase of materials in the 
world of church painting during 
1000 years is to be observed. 
Probably by Giusto; the frescos 
J) of the Gapella S. Luca, in the Santo 
(next to the chapel of S. Anthony), 
of the year ] 382, with the histories 
of the Apostles Philip and James 
the Less, certainly rude, but yet 
with some happy and life-like mo- 
tives. Of the fifteenth century 
(probably painted over or copied 
from older paintings in the original 
building destroyed by fire), the 
frescos of the immense hall in the 
c Palazzo delta liagione, by Giovanni 
Miretto and his companions (after 
1420), a gigantic production of 
nearly 400 pictures, representing 
the influence of the Constellations 
and the Seasons on human life (de- 
picted in true genre pictures) fuU 
of inexplicable allusions of all kinds, 
but in artistic thought either feeble 

' Their palette is twice as rich as tha 
the other Giottesques 

and unskilful, or mere reminiscences 
of something better. (Formerly 
the Magician Pietro d'Abano was 
looked on as the inventor, Giotto 
as the painter of this work. ) Also 
the frescos in the choir of the 
Eremitani, related to these in aged 
and style, formerly ascribed (as 
now again by Crowe and Cavalca- 
seUe) to a painter of the fourteenth 
century, Gv/i/riento [1338-64], are 
only remarkable on account of their 
subjects, especially the astrological 
accessory pictures in monochrome. 

For the paintings on tombs at 
Padua, we refer to the vol. on 

At Verona, there exists nothing 
by Altichieri and d'Avanzo. [But 
the primitive art of the place is 
well represented by Turone, whose 
altar-piece of 1360 in the Museum 
shows the influence of Umbro- 
Sienese tradition in Northern 
Italy ; whilst numerous frescos in 
Veronese churches (S. Fermo, S. 
Siro) prove the extent of the mas- 
ter's practice. — Ed.] To the grace- 
ful Stefan^ da Zevio [born 1393, and 
painter of an Epiphany dated 1435 
in the Brera of Milan (No. 281), as 
well as of an altar-piece at lllasi 
near Verona, and a Madonna in 
the P. Colonna at Eome. — Ed.] 
were formerly ascribed the frescos 
over a side-door of S. Eufemia, and e 
in an outside niche of S. Fermo, as 
also, on the wall round the Chancel, 
a number of heads of Saints and 
Prophets, of which a certain Fra 
Martin/} is now said to be the 
author. The inferior lunette over 
the entrance of S. Fermo contains/ 
a good Crucifixion. S. Zenx> i&g 
tolerably rich in single figures of 
Saints (p. 19/.) The greatest num- 
ber are in S. Anastasia ; the lunette A 
over the door, with S. Zeno and S. 
Dominic, who are presenting the 
citizens and the monks of the 
Cloisfe r to the Trinity, devoid of 
style, but touching from the sim- 
plicity of the intention ; also in the 

The Remaining ItaKan Schools. 


second chapel, on the right of the 
choir, a really excellent votive 
piotxire (of the Cavalli family), along 
with smaller things ; in the first 
chapel, to the right of the choir, 
two monumental niches, with good 
Madonnas enthroned, &c. 

In Milan, little or nothing has 
been preserved. The frescos of 
the chapel at the back, in S. Oio- 

" va/nni a Carhona/ra at Naples (with 
the tomb of Caracciolo), are in part 
by a Milanese (Lionardo de Sisuc- 
do, from Bisozzo, after 1433), still 
essentially of the G-iottesque style. 
Remains of genre wall paintings, 
by a jjainter called Michelmo, in 

* Ccisa Borromeo, second court. 

Anything else that may exist 
scattered through Lombardy and 
Piedmont is either without interest 
in style or unknown to the author. 
In Genoa hardly a single painting 
seems to have existed. [The ear- 
liest picture by the Genoese Bar- 
tolommeo de Camulio is a Madonna 
in the gallery of Palermo (1340). — 
Ed.] The two old pictures of the 
beginning of the fifteenth century 

flin S. Maria <U Castello (first and 
third chapel on the left) make it 
seem possible that a German Jiistus 
de AUeTrmgnawaa employed for the 
decoration of the adjoining cloister 
in 1451. 

For the country between Bologna 
and Ancona, I must refer to hand- 
books. [One or two TJmbrian 
artists, however, deserve special 
mention. Ottamano NelU [1403- 
1444] displays the influence of 
Sienese art extending to Gubbio 
and Foligno, a Virgin with Saints in 
fresco (1403) in S. M. Numa of Gub- 
bio ; frescos (1424) in the chapel of 
the government palace at Foliguo. 
But the influence of this master is 
null compared with that of Gentile 
da Fabriano (1370-1450), whose 
principal masterpiece — Ed.] the 
Adoration of the Kings, in the 

Academy at Florence, shows us ad 
change from Giotto's manner, 
which, as it were, introduces us to 
the fifteenth century. Instead of 
giving himself up without restraint 
to what is characteristic, real, in- 
dividual, the pure youthful fancy 
of Gentile takes hold of what is 
beautiful and charming, and creates 
a sort of realism heightened into the 
marvellous (also by external modes 
of ornament : for instance, laying 
on the lights in gold). There are 
few pictures which make us so en- 
tirely understand that the painter 
had in himself the conception of an 
ideal world ; few which give forth 
such an overpowering fragrance of 
poetry. Besides this picture, and 
a Goronaticm of tJie Virgin in thee 
Brera at Milan, next to four beau- 
tiful and delicately coloured single 
figures of Saints (Nos. 75, 102, sq. ), 
the few works to be found in Italy 
are either in out-of-the-way places, 
or hung up in bad lights. Side- 
wing of an Altar in the choir of 
S. NiccoU at Florence, and also an/ 
interesting little picture in the 
sacristy there, or, uncertain, (Coro- 
nation of the Virgin in the Academy 
at Pisa). The only wall-painting, g 
a Madonna, in the Cathedral of A 
Orvieto, with a peculiar play of the 

The Venetian style of art, re- 
stricted, with few exceptions, such 
as the Mosaics in the Cappella S. 
Isidore, and the C de' Mascoli in 
S. Marco (antea), to altar-pieces, 
was the least influenced by Giotto. 
The splendour of the dress, the 
deep colours of the varnish, also 
the greenish shadows in the flesh, 
and the handling of the colours 
distinctly remind us of the long- 
continued predominance of the By- 
zantines ; in the sweetness of cer- 
tain heads there seems to be an 
echo of the Sienese School. [The 
masters who represent this early 
phMe of Venetian art are — Paolo, i 
E 2 


The Gothic Style. 

whose shrine at S. Marco was ex- 
ecuted in 1345, but of whom we 
have altar-pieces, of 1323, in the 
gallery of Vicenza, and of 1358 in 

a Germany. Lorenzo, the painter of 
two Annunciations, of 1357 and 
1371, in the Academy of Venice ; a 
Death of the Virgin, of 1366, in the 
Duomo of Vicenza ; and Christ giv- 
ing the keys to Peter, of 1369, in 

6 the Correr College at Venice. Ste- 
fano. Madonnas, of 1379 and 1381, 
in the Academy and Correr Gal- 

c hry at Venice. Semdteeolo (1351 to 
1400), whose chief works are a Co- 
ronation of the Virgin (1351) and a 
Madonna (1400) in the Venice Aca- 
dem/y, and an Altar-piece (1369) in 

d the Gaihedral of Padua. Jacoiello 
del Fiore (b. 1374, still living in 
1439), whose most characteristic 
piece is a Coronation of the Virgin 
in the Duomo of Ceneda (1430). 

e NegropoTite and Donato, Altar-pieces 
in San Francesco delta Yigna and 
the Venice Academy. These local 
masters had rivals in Oentile da 
Fabriano and Vittore Pisano, who 
painted in the public palace at the 
opening of the fifteenth century. 
These were followed by artists who 
founded the school of Murano, from 
whose workshops then came, towards 
the middle of the century, those 
splendid altar-pieces which show, 
even in the Gothic frames which 
inclose them, the desire to produce 
the most brilliant effect of richness. 
— Ed.] The style of the Muranese 
was modified under the influence 
of two currents of art. There is a 
German influence recognizable in 
the beautiful calm of some of their 
figures ; the tender flesh tints re- 
call Gentile da Fabriano, who lived 
a long time in Venice. * The deep 

* In the S. Glustina of the Altarpiece of 
1443, and the hedge of roses of S, Sahina, 
the influence of the Cologne school is un- 
mistakable; and that of Gentile in the 
youthful S, Icerius and the cherubs on 
each side — a work by the same hand in the 
Brera, No, 114, there erroneously called 
Scuola Fiorentina. — Mr.] 

transparent colour is to be observed 
as contrasted with the easel pic- 
tures of the old Florentines ; it is 
the transition from the Byzantine 
colouring to that of Giovanni Bel- 
lini. The drapery has the solemnity 
of the Gothic style ; but in the 
whole tendency to individualizing 
is felt the approach of the fifteenth 
century, which produces hard and 
gloomy heads and afiected figures. 
[The partnership of Johannes, 
doubtless a German, who calls him- 
self Alamannus, and Antonius, an 
Italian, both established at Mura- 
no, begins in 1440. Joint works : 
Glory of Christ (1440) at the Aca- 
demy; Altar-pieces of 1441, 1443, 
1444, and 1446, in S. Stefamo, S. 
Zaccaria, S. Pantaleone, and the 
Academy at Venice. In 1450 An- 
tonio labours at Ferrara and Bolog- 
na. Here he is no longer associated 
with Johannes, but with Bartolom- 
m£o (Vivarini). Altar-piece of 
1450, in the Pinacoteca of Bologna,/ 
commingling the careful delicacy 
of Antonio with the classic of the 
rising school of Padua. Glory of 
S. Peter (1451) in the GalUry oi9 
Padua. After this Bartolommeo 
paints alone (see postea) ; but An- 
tonio continues in practice till 1470 
(Glory of S. Anthony, in the Mvr 
seum of S. Gio Later ano at Borne, h 
1464). Hia disciple, Quiricio of 
Murano, is known by a Glory of S. 
Lucy (1462) in the Palazzo Silvestri 
a^Eovigo, and aVirgin in Adoration 
in the Academy of Venice — Ed.] i 

Any remains existing in Naples 
of this period, besides the works 
already mentioned, are valuable 
only as a part of the history of 
art. By the mythical Simone Na-j 
poletfOMo there exists no work 
signed. The picture ascribed to 
him in S. Lorenzo (left transept), Ic 
a S. Anthony of Padua surrounded 
by angels, is of 1438 ; S. Louis of 
Toulouse, also there, is by Simone 
di Martina, see above. In S. JDo- 1 

Fra Angelica. 


menico Maggiore (second, Cappella 
Branoaoci, on the right) are the 
legends of S. Magdalen, late Giot- 
tesque frescos of moderate merit, 
much painted over. Sixth chapel 
on the right (del Crocefisso), be- 
sides the Bearing of the Cross, 
a Madonna nursing the child; 
seventh chapel on the right, another 
in the niche of a tomb; in the 
further chapel towards the Strrada 

a dMla Trinita, two old pictures (by 
Stefmwne ?) according to Schulz, 
later than 1456, a combination of 
Sienese and Giottesque elements. 
Oolanionio del Piore, once known 
among the famous artists at Na- 
ples, has no longer any importance 
in the school there. The only 
work [assigned to him is, as before 
observed (p. 31 h), by Niccolo Tom- 

h masi] the Glory of S. Antonius Ab- 
bas, formerly in the choir of S. An- 
tonio. The lunette over the door 

cof S. Angela a Nilo, also ascribed 

to him, is quite invisible from dust. 

For the history of the type of 

the Madonna, see the Madonna 

della Rosa, in a chapel on the left 

aside of the cathedral of Capua; 
severely Gothic, and perhaps of 
the thirteenth century ; the re- 
maining Neapolitan Madonnas of 
that time are still Byzantine. 


Before we enter upon the style 
of the fifteenth century we mftst 
speak of a Florentine master in 
whose works the leading inspira- 
tion of Giotto and the Gothic style 
in general flames forth as in a 
glorious vision, and attains its 
highest and final eminence, the 
Jieaio Fra Giovanni Angelica da 
Fiesole, 1387—1455. 

To the elements of beauty which 
Orcagna introduced into the school 
this master, unique of his kind, 
superadded that of celestial purity 
and intense devotional feeling. 
One of those elements which give 

an ideal grandeur to the Art of the 
Middle Ages shows itself complete, 
full and glorious in his works. 
How the kingdom of heaven, the 
home of the angels, saints, and 
blessed ones was mirrored in the 
devout imagination of that early 
time, we learn most accurately and 
completely through him, so that to 
his pictures is for ever secured the 
position of records of the highest 
worth to religious history. For 
any one whom Fiesole altogether 
repels, mediaeval art can have no 
real attraction; we may acknow- 
ledge the narrow piety of the 
monk, and yet recognize in the 
heavenly beauty of many indivi- 
dual forms, and in the perpetually 
fresh and happy faith which ac- 
companied it, a revelation of the 
highest kind, which has no equal in 
the whole domain of the history of 
art. In the dramatic power of tell- 
ing a story Fiesole is always one of 
the best followers of Giotto ; as he 
was from childhood a great artist, 
he strove his life long to keep up 
an even flow of inspiration in all 
his creations. On closer examina- 
tion we shall find that he is one of 
the first who, in the treatment of 
heads in place of mere general cha- 
racter, always gives a personal life 
of the most tender kind ; only to 
his tone of mind the expression of 
passion or vidckedness was impos- 
sible, and his embarrassment in 
such a case becomes comic in a 
strict Eesthetic sense. 

As his training was originally 
that of a miniaturist (illuminator), 
his smaller pictures executed in the 
miniature style give tis the com- 
plete artist. In the first place come 
the Glories, as for instance the 
splendid picture in the Uffiid (No. e 
1290), also the company around the 
Redeemer, and the reception of 
the Blessed in the pictures of the 
Judgment (the most beautiful in 
the Palazzo Corsini at Eome,/ 
seventh room, 22, 23, 24; another 

Fra Angelica. 


small cells of specially distinguished 
members of the order ; and there- 
fore one seems to feel the inspira- 
tion more clearly in the frescos of 
the cells than in the altar-pieces of 
the master. Seven cells, aU in the 
upper story, were opened to me, 
and I may say that the wall 
paintings on them, as a whole, ap- 
proach the highest possible expres- 
sion of what they attempt, in spite 
of the stiffness and limitation im- 
posed by Fiesole's form of art. 
(Christ in Limbo ; a Sermon on the 
Mount ; the Temptation in the 
Desert ; Christ on the Cross, with 
his Disciples and the weeping S. 
Dominic ; another Christ Cruomed, 
with the Disciples ; the Marys at 
the Tomb ; the Coronation of the 
Virgin ; and the Adoration of the 
Kings, a late and rich work which 
perhaps shows rivalry with Masao- 
cio. ) The superabundant richness 
in these most beautiful and naive 
heads is united with a spirit and 
depth in the conception of the 
events belonging only to the 
greatest masters.* There are in 
the cells, besides those above men- 
tioned, eighteen smaller pictures ; 
a in the passages, the Christ Orucified 
with S. Dominic, nearly corre- 
sponding to the picture in the 
further gallery; the greeting of 
the Angels, one of the most beau- 
tiful of this subject, and a Ma- 
donna enthroned. 

How Fiesole painted for more 
public devotion is seen in the fres- 
cos of the further gallery on the 
ground floor. There are five lu- 
nettes with pointed arches with 
half-length figures, among which 
the Christ with two Saints of the 
order is especially beautiful ; (the 
subject of the Disciples at Emmaus 
is a poetical and characteristic or- 
nament suitable for the Refuge for 
Pilgrims) ; farther on, Christ on the 

* Since 1867 the convent has been trans- 
formed into the **Museo Florentine di S. 

Cross, with S. Dominic, life-size ; 
lastly, the famous fresco of thei 
chapter-house adjoining ; the Christ 
Crucified with the two thieves, his 
Disciples and SS. Cosmas, Damian, 
Lawrence, Mark, John the Baptist, 
Dominic, Ambrose, Augustine, Je- 
rome, Francis, Benedict, Bernard, 
Bernardino of Siena, Eomuald, 
Peter Martyr, and Thomas Aqui- 
nas. It is a mournful lament of the 
whole Church, here assembled at 
the foot of the Cross in the persons 
of its great teachers and founders 
of orders. As long as painting 
exists, these figures will be admired 
for the unequalled intensity of the 
expression, the contrasts of devo- 
tion, of grief, of convulsed feeling 
and calm inward meditation (in S. 
Benedict, who overlooks the group 
of the rest of the founders like a 
father), have never been more finely 
combined for general effect than 

It is a remarkable fact during 
these centuries never to be for- 
gotten in the history of art, that 
several of the greatest artists pro- 
duced most of their works and 
their best at a late period in life, 
at least after their 50th year. Lio- 
nardo was near this age when he 
painted his Last Supper at Milan ; 
Giovanni Bellini's noblest pictures 
dated from after his 80th year(?) 
Titian andMichael Angeloboth pro- 
duced their most wonderful works 
when they were old men. There 
exists a well-known small engraving 
of the sixteenth century, represent- 
ing an old man in a child's wheel- 
chair, with the inscription, " An- 
chora imparo," I stUl learn. And 
this was no mere phrase. The inde- 
structible vital power of these men 
was really united with an equally 
continuous power of appropriation. 

This was also in some degree the 
case with Fiesole ; the quality in 
which he was so especially great, 
the deep, peaceful blessedness of 
the figures of holy personages is 


The Gothic Style. 

expressed in his later works with 
indescribable power and fulness, 
very different in this respect from 
Perugino, who became poor and 
conventional with years. Consider 

a Fiesole's pyramidal-shaped group of 
the Prophets in the vaulting of the 
Chapel of the Madonna in the Ca- 
thedral of Orvieto,*and ask whether 
any work of art on earth, Kaphael 
not excepted, could so represent 
silent devout adoration. (The Judge 
of the World on the waH behind 
has indeed been taken from the 
Last Judgment in the Campo Santo, 
without equalling the original.) 
Still later, after his 60th year (1447, 

6 he painted the Chapel of Nicolas V. 
in the Vatican and the four Evan- 
gelists on the vaulted roof, and one 
or more of the teachers of the 
Church, as, for instance, S. Bona- 
ventura, still appear quite in har- 
mony with these celestial forms. 
And not only did he develop with 
increasing power in his own special 
line, but also he kept his mind 
open to the advance of other con- 
temporaries. The legends of S. 
Stephen and S. Lawrence in the 
last-named chapel prove that the 
now elderly man strove with all his 
strength to keep up to whatever 
Masaccio and others had gained in 
the meantime, as far as was con- 
sistent with his own tendency. 
The graceful narrative manner of 
these frescos shows touches of real 
life and an external truth of colour- 
ing superior to any earlier works of 
the master. Violent actions, even 
merely long strides, never succeed 
with him ; but we find ample com- 
pensation for this in such figures 
as that of the young woman who 
listens with rapt devotion to the 
preaching of S. Stephen, and only 

* The designs of the four divisions of the 
vault in the southern part of the chapel 
are by Fiesole, as we now know from docu- 
ments; only the Prophets and Fathers, 
however, are executed by his hand, while 
I/UAXh SigTiorelU painted the two other parts 
after Fiesole's sketches. 

holds her restless child with her 
hand to keep it stUl. If we go 
through this work scene by scene, 
we shall find in it a treasure of , 

beautiful lively touches of tlfis 
kind. Independently of this, it is 
quite beyond price as a complete 
whole preserved nearly entire from 
the time of the great period of 
early art. 

Fiesole lies buried at Rome in S. 
Maria sopra Minerva. Perhaps 
with a wish to do him honour, the ^ 

vaulted roof of this church was 
painted in our time in his manner. 
We observe apostles and teachers 
of the Church on a blue ground 
starred with gold. But Fiesole 
would neither have approved these 
pictures nor been grateful even for 
the good intention which they dis- 

We may pass by the works of 
Angelioo's brother Fra Benedetto, 
whose miniatures are still in exist- 
ence in the choral books of S. Marco 
and S. M. del Fiore at Florence. 
A contemporary and brother monk, 
the Camaldole friar Don Lorenzo (in 
practice from 1390 to 1413), en- 
tered on the same line as Fiesole, 
but stopped at the first outset. 
We may believe that his very rare 
works cost him great labour and 
thought. In the Annunciation in 
the iS. Trinitd, at Florence (fourth d 
chapel on the right) he finds his 
reward ; the quiet grace and the 
thoughtful character of the two hap- 
pily-placed figures has given a sort 
of typical value to the picture, and 
caused a desire for numerous copies. 
The Adoration of the Kings ( Uffizi, e 
No. 20) is also excellent in arrange- 
ment, and likewise remarkable as 
one of the latest pictures in which 
the drapery of the Gothic style is 
given in its full sweep. His prin- 
cipal work, a Coronation of the 
Virgin, of 1413, from the Badia of/ 
Cerreto, is still (since 1867) in the 
magazine of the Uffizi. A triptych 

" The Renaissance.' 


a at Monte Olvoeto, Annunciation in 
in S. Trinitk, Nativity in S. Luca, 
at Florence, a more feeble Annun- 

i ciation in the Academy, Qu. Grandi, 
No. 30, and several others in the 
collection there. A beautiful Ma- 

donna, with Saints, in the Oolleg: e 
giaia at Empoli; a Coronation of 
the Virgin at Certaldo, [the wings 
of which are still erroneously as- 
signed to the school of TaddeoGad- 
di, in the National Gallery. — ^Ed.]. 

"the renaissance." 


In the beginning of the fifteenth 
century a new spirit entered into 
the painting of the west. Though 
still employed in the service of the 
Church, its principles were hence- 
forward developed without refer- 
ence to merely ecclesiastical pur- 
poses. A work of art now gives 
more than the church requires ; 
over and above religious associa- 
tions, it presents a copy of the real 
world; the artist is absorbed in the 
examination and the representation 
of the outward appearance of 
things, and by degrees learns to 
express all the various manifesta- 
tions of the human form as well 
as of its surroundings (realism). 
Instead of general types of face, 
we have individuals ; the tradi- 
tional system of expression, of ges- 
tures and draperies is replaced by 
the endless variety of real life, 
which has a special expression for 
each occasion. Simple beauty, 
which hitherto has been sought for 
and often found as the highest at- 
tribute of the Saints, now gives 
place to the distinctness and ful- 
ness in detail which is the prin- 
cipal idea of modern art ; and 
wherever it does appear it is a 
different and sensuous beauty, 
which must not be stinted of its 
share in the real and earthly, be- 

cause else it would find no place in 
the modern world of art. 

In this sense a work of art gives 
less than the church requires or 
might require. For a simple rea- 
son, to which few people give a 
thoaght, the religious element can 
only assert itself by claiming abso- 
lute sway. In itself a negative 
quantity, it shrinks to nothiaw 
when brought into contact with 
the profane ; and when profane 
elements are purposely introduced 
into art the picture necessarily 
ceases to be religious. 

If we but think of it for a mo- 
ment, art has but scant means of 
expressing devoutuess. It may 
suggest in a head or a gesture, re- 
pose and tenderness, resignation 
and longing, or humility and 
mourning. All these are essen- 
tially human, and not exclusively 
Christian elements. But they are 
not capable of awaking Christian 
devotion in the Christian mind 
unless we keep them free from 
disturbing causes, by suppressing 
aU but the indication of those sur- 
roundings or parts of the human 
shape which are unfitted for this 
frame of mind. For this purpose 
the general solemnity of drapery is 
very important, which precisely, by 
its contrast with the costume of 
the time, by its want of definiteness 
in the materials (which do not 
distinguish silk from velvet), and 


"The Renaissance." Florentine School. 

still more by a secret association of 
ideas, which we cannot pursue fur- 
ther, helps to strengthen the im- 
pression of something beyond what 
is temporal and earthly. 

Now, on the other hand, begins 
an enthusiastic study of the nude, 
and, in general, of the human figure 
and its action ; in the flow of the 
garments also we note the attempt 
to give the character of the indivi- 
dual and the given moment ; actual 
materials are represented, in easel 
pictures especially, with inimitable 
delicacy : the richest possible 
variety of colours and the pictu- 
resque contrasts of the personages 
in action become the essential 
principle, so that apart from the 
religious even the dramatic im- 
pression suffers from superabund- 
ance. Xiastly, quite a new feeling 
for space grows up ; whereas the 
painters of the fourteenth century 
filled up given wall surfaces as 
much as possible with human 
figures, now the action, and the 
incident is properly developed on 
large surfaces, so that nearness and 
distance, motion backwards and 
forwards, may serve as essential 
means of illustration ; and instead 
of simply indicating the localities, 
as far as is necessary to be intel- 
ligible, we now find a real lands- 
cape and a real architecture given 
more or less in perspective. 

This attention to individual 
forms could not fail before long to 
be followed by the division of paint- 
ing into different kinds : accord- 
ingly, profane painting, chiefly 
taking its subjects from mythology, 
allegory, and ancient history, 
quickly assumes an important po- 

In the north this great transition 
is marked by the immortal brothers 
Tan Eyck, who cast their solitary 
shining light far over the century 
over all German, French, and Spa- 
nish art. They extended the scope 
of painting to such an extent that 

their successors could not keep 
pace with them, and contented 
themselves with a much narrower 
circle of forms. Not for nearly a 
hundred years after them did por- 
traiture, genre pictures, and land- 
scape in the north again reach the 
point where the Van Eycks had left 
them, and then continue to ad- 
vance by their own strength. No 
single painter for several genera- 
tions, north of the Alps, not even 
their best Flemish disciples, under- 
stood the human form even ap- 
proximately so well as they, or 
handled it in so living a manner ; 
a sort of paralysis seems to have 
fallen on them ; and when, too late, 
appeared Dtlrer, Metsys, and Hol- 
bein, they had first to throw off 
the burden of a mass of worn-out 
forms, the product of the fifteenth 

Art in the south early adopted 
what was harmonious with it in 
the widely known works of the 
great Flemings ; no Italian school 
(with the exception of a few Nea- 
politan masters) was essentially 
affected by them, but neither did 
any remain entirely uninfluenced 
by them. The treatment of 
materials in drapery and orna- 
ments, but especially of landscape, 
shows much of the Flemish man- 
ner ; stiU more important was 
painting in oil, confessedly learnt 
from the Flemings (?), that is, the 
new treatment of colours and var- 
nishes, ■which render possible a 
transparency and depth of tone 
hitherto nnthought of, and a most 
enviable durability. 

The influence of antique sculp- 
ture is often regarded as an essen- 
tial advantage possessed by Italian 
painting over that of the north. 
But the evidence of our eyes shows 
us that every advance was gained 
from nature, and with infinite ef- 
fort, which was not the case in the 
north. This is distinctly seen in 
the Faduan school, which alone of 

Florentine Frescos. 


all the schools chiefly occupied it- 
self with the antique, and yet, as 
we shall see, hardly derived from 
it anything beyond the ornamenta- 
tion. It was not natural to an art 
striving onward with such vast 
powers, to accept its ideal from 
without; it must itself discover 
the beautiful, which was to become 
its own. 

It possessed, as an original gift 
from heaven, the tact to foUow out 
external reality not into every detail, 
but only so far as that the higher 
poetic truth might not suffer from 
it. Where it is too rich in details 
it is superabundant in architecture 
and decoration, and in beautiful 
draperies, not in the prosaic acci- 
dents of external life. The impres- 
sion, therefore, is not of weariness, 
but of splendour. Few give the 
essential parts grandly and nobly ; 
many lose themselves in fanciful- 
ness, which is the general tendency 
of the fifteenth century, yet the 
general grandeur of the forms gives 
to their fancies a tasteful and even 
pleasing character. 


The great advance of the new 
period, like that formerly made by 
the school of Giotto, would have 
been impossible if painters had 
been restricted to devotional and to 
easel pictures. Florence, again, is 
the point whence the new hght of 
a grand historical school of painting 
streams forth, covering the walls 
of churches, cloisters, and town 
halla with frescos.* No other 
school can claim equal merit with 
this ; the Lombard remained con- 
fined within the narrow circle of 
ideas of miraculous pictures and 

* Till Giotto's time, according to tie 
present view, they only painted in tempera 
on the walls ; after Giotto, they painted in 
fresco, and painted over al secco ; not till 
the end of the fourteenth century did fresco 
painting proper begin in the special sense. 

pictures of the Passion ; the Vene- 
tian was never really at home in 
fresco, and long confined itself to 
altar pictures and mosaics ; if we 
count the great Andrea Mantegna 
as a Venetian, he, in his wall- 
paintings, (to their detriment) went 
beyond pure fresco, the really solid 
treatment of which is a special 
merit of the Florentines. Eome 
depended almost entirely on foreign 
artists ; Perugia drew her inspira- 
tions first from Florence and Siena, 
and at her highest point did but 
little for the dramatic historical 
element. Naples does not enter 
into consideration. Tuscany alone 
presents a grand style of historical 
painting, carried on in healthy un- 
interrupted development, always 
exercising an indirect influence on 
easel-painting, which else would 
prematurely have degenerated into 
over-refined prettiness. 

With the exception of the addi- 
tion of profane painting, the sub- 
jects remained the same ; the calm 
symmetrical Holy Family, the his- 
tories of the Bible, and the legends 
of the Saints, and, lastly, the pic- 
tures intended for private devotion. 
Only they are aU changed in cha- 
racter. Of the single figures, the 
Christ at the age of manhood pre- 
serves most of the traditional type ; 
the Christ Crucified sometimes is 
very noble and refined in form, and 
has an expression which the schools 
of the seventeenth century vainly 
endeavour to surpass in depth. 
The greatest change is in the Ma- 
donna; she does, indeed, in some 
solemn representations remain the 
Queen of Heaven, but otherwise 
becomes the tender or calmly re- 
joicing mother, and replaces her 
antique ideal costume by the bodice 
and hood of the ItaUan renaissance; 
the family picture is completed by 
giving the lively, even restless 
Child-Christ his long wished-for 
playfellow in the little John. In 
this earthly interpretation of life 


" The Renaissance." Florentine School. 

the foster-father Joseph for the first 
time finds his right place ; a do- 
mestic yet not viilgar tone begins 
to prevail in all the scenes hitherto 
so solemn : the Annunciation, the 
Visitation, the Adoration of the 
Shepherds, the Birth of the Vir- 
gin, the Birth of John, etc. Un- 
doubtedly the story was brought 
nearer and more present to the be- 
holder ; whether devotional feeling 
gained or lost by it, is another 
question. The celestial region also 
is filled with expressive individual 
heads and figures, beginning with 
God the Father, in a robe bordered 
with fur ; the crowd of the blessed 
and the angels are no longer em- 
ployed to give general effect to the 
grand symmetrical glory of the 
whole, but each figure is interesting 
in itself. The grown-up angels 
(often quite Florentine in costume) 
are now divided from the troops of 
little naked winged children (Putti), 
who enliven the works of art of 
this period, as companions of the 
Child- Christ, as singers and musi- 
cians, and useful filling up and de- 
corative figures. 

It was the highest joy of Italian 
artists to take from nature some 
speaking action, some passing event 
full of life, and express it in a 
beautiful manner ; they aimed pre- 
cisely at what the northerners 
avoided. There is as yet but little 
investigation of the anatomy of the 
human form ; but the constant un- 
tiring contemplation of daily ac- 
tions enlightened the artists as to 
the cause of every motion and 
every expression ; the study of the 
nude, and of perspective, which 
had to be created out of nothing, 
did the rest. 

Thus arose a school of painting 
no longer restricted to suggestions 
and indications, but capable of re- 
presenting any kind of action, any 
sensuous form, or intellectual emo- 

In Florence this great innovation 

is connected with the name of 
Masacdo (1401-1428). [But Ma- 
saccio was preceded by Masolino da 
PanicaU, a master of no mean 
capacity, who first commingled the 
devout feeling of Angelico with the 
realism of Angelico's successors. 
Masolino painted between 1428 and 
1435 the frescos of the Church and 
Baptistery of CaMiglione d'Olona, in a 
the earlier series of which (vault- 
ing of the choir of the church) 
the tenderness of Fiesole is com- 
bined with the energy of the earlier 
Giottesques, whilst in the Baptistery 
we note the change produced by 
increased study of detail in the 
human form, without incresise of 
skill in composition or advance on 
the old methods of contrasting 
light and shade. According to the 
testimony of Vasari, Masolino also 
painted in the CappeUa Brancaooi, 
at the Carmine of Florence; and 6 
some judges stiU assign to him a 
part of the pictures of that cele- 
brated chapel. But others again 
think (and I am of this number) 
that if Vasari's statement is correct, 
it can only apply to wall paintings 
which have since been destroyed or 
obliterated. It is most desirable 
that some fresh light should be 
thrown upon the history of this 
great artist, whose life will remain 
obscure so long as we cannot dis- 
tinctly prove that he is identical 
with Tommaso di Cristoforo di 
Fino, who was born in 1383, em- 
ployed at Florence in 1425, in the 
pay of Pippo Spano, at Stuhlweis- 
senburg, in Hungary, about 1427, 
and is supposed to have died in 
Oct., 1447.— Ed.]* 

Masaccio was Masolino's pupil, 
but chiefly formed his style under 
the influence of Ghiberti, Donatello, 

* We should note as of Masolino's time, 
a Virgin and Saints (1426) in S. Miniato, 
a Cmcifixion (1440), and Christ in the 
Tomb, frescos in the rooms of the first floor 
ahove the cloisters in S. AppoUonla at 
Florence, all by Pctoio di Stefano. 

Masacdo — Masolin o . 


and Brunellesco, who represented 
the new principle in sculpture. 
[At an early age he went to JJome, 
where, according to Vasari, he 
painted a chapel in San Clemente, 
with a series of frescos represent- 
ing the Crucifixion, and scenes from 
the legend of St. Catherine.] In 
spite of over-painting, these remark- 
able pictures show how closely 
Masaccio followed the manner of 
his master, and asserted his supe- 
riority over the Giottesques. 

In some of the better preserveu 
heads, life and character are very 
powerfully expressed. * [Equally 
remarkable as art is that other 
work which Vasari ascribes to 
Masaccio, the Virgin in a Mandoria 
and Pope Liberius tracing the 
groimd plan of S. M. Maggiore at 

a Rome, a diptych in the Musev/m of 
Naples, erroneously catalogued as 
by Gentile de Fabriano. It shows 
in a striking manner how deeply 
imbued Masaccio was in his youth 
with the tenderness of Angelico's 
creations. — Ed.] 
Masaccio's genius is fully dis- 

6 played in the Oarmiiie at Florence 
(Brancacci chapel at the end of the 
r. transept), where he continued 
the series of frescos begun (and 
since obliterated) by Masaccio. As 
Eve in the fall of man is one of the 
first really beautiful nude female 
figures of modern art,+ so in the 
Baptism of Peter, we see the first 
reaUylife-like action of malefigures; 
the two nude figures in motion (in 
the Expulsion from Paradise) are 
also perfect in treatment of lines. 
The remaining pictures also are 
enriched by an amount of free and 
noble traits hitherto quite unknown 
in art. Giotto and his school were 

* [The theory of Dr. Von Zahn that these 
frescos are by Masolino, and not by Masac- 
cio, is shared by some critics, but rejected 
by others, amongst whom the writer of 
these lines ventures to take rank. — Ed.] 

t [Dr. Burckhardt thought the Eve a 
work of Masolino, an opinion which no one 
now upholds. — Ed.] 

fond of enlivening their dramatic 
scenes with numerous and sym- 
pathising spectators ; but now Ma- 
saccio introduces the whole of con- 
temporary Florence into the midst 
of the story as actors or spectators 
(Raising of the King's Son, part of 
which is the work of Filippino 
Lippi) : he divides and combines, 
the scenes, groups, and persons no 
longer according to architectonic 
laws, but for pictorial effect, and 
with a naturalistic representation 
of the localities (Finding the Penny 
in the Fish's mouth ; Healing the 
Cripples ; the Giving Alms). But 
in his great success as to pictorial 
effect Masaccio did not overlook 
the principal object ; his chief cha- 
racter, the Apostle Peter, is always 
represented with a dignity and 
force, and his attitude and move- 
ments rendered in a manner only 
possible to a really great historical 
painter. None but a great artist 
fuUy takes in the single idea of the 
whole action ; all his followers up 
to Lionardo revel in their posses- 
sion of vast new opportunities in 
art ; Masaccio alone knows how to 
be moderate, and thus attains the 
impression of a harmonious whole. 
How simply has he given the dra- 
pery which combines the highest i 
nobleness of style with the most 
life-like flow. He does not court 
the difficulties of modelling and 
foreshortening ; but where they 
meet him, he masters them com- 
pletely. (Best light, afternoon at 
four o'clock.) In the parts com- 
pleted by Filippino, very easily to 
be recognized, the exceedingly beau- 
tiful composition is due apparently 
to Masaccio's design. 

The simple grand picture of S. 
Anna with Mary and the Child, in 
the Academy at Plorence (Quadric 
graudi, No. 34), clearly shows the 
realistic painter developedout of the 
ideal idealizing school. The remains 
of a fresco painting of the Trinity, 
much iniured, now on the right of 


" The Renaissance." Florentine School. 

the entrance porob in S. Mwria 
a Novella. The heads ascribed to 
Masaccio in the TJfi^ are not his. 
The lunettes in the little church 
hot S. Martino (FraiemUa de? Buo- 
nomini) at Florence, are justly re- 
garded as the work of an excellent 
scholar of Masaccio : they give a 
grand richness of life without the 
overladen and quaint character of 
the later Moren tines of the fifteenth 
century. I cannot look on them 
as youthful works of FUippino 
Lippi, as there is in them no remi- 
niscence of his master Sandro. 
Crowe and CavalcaseUe assign them 
a later date, and consider them as 
works of the school of Filippiuo. 


The advance made by Masaccio 
is carried still further by Fra Fi- 
lippo lAppi (1406 — 1469), under 
the guidance of a less high and 
severe mind but a rich and playful 
fancy. He lets himself go, but not 
through laziness, but rather in au- 
dacious experiments in what may 
be allowed to art. With what 
freedom and openness he reveals to 
us in the figures with which he fills 
up his scenes, the deepest nature of 
those whom he conceived, with 
what feeling he represents — the 
first to do so — the sensuous loveli- 
ness and exuberant, even wild, play- 
fulness of youth! He is the first who 
heartily enjoyed the fulness of life, 
even in its chance manifestations. 

His greatest works in fresco, the 
histories of John the Baptist and 
S. Stephen in the choir of the 
cGathedral of Prato (1452 — 6 ; best 
light 10-12 ; in winter almost in- 
visible, on account of the low roof 
of the choir — a sort of temporary 
roof of planks, only used in the 
winter months), would already have 
made an epoch in art through their 
method and their colouring. The 
scenes are not all lofty in concep- 
tion ; the artist has so much that is 

new to say in all possible directions 
that the deeper purpose suffers 
under the crowd of often beau- 
tiful, purely pictorial ideas. None 
of his predecessors express attitude 
and motion so beautifully as he 
does in his grand and lifelike 
draperies, several of which {e.g., in 
the Lamentation over the body of 
Stephen) hardly find an equal be- 
fore the time of Raphael. In the 
four Evangelists in the segments of 
the ceiling, Filij)po did not adhere 
to the symmetrical arrangement; 
Fiesole's Evangelists, for instance, 
on the ceiling of the Chapel of 
Nicolas v., win always be pre- 

Towards the end of his life (1466), 
Fihppo painted the apse of the 
choir of the Cathedral of Spoleto. d 
His Coronation of the Tirgin in this 
church is one of the first semi-dome 
pictures that is arranged with free- 
dom ; yet the severe symmetry of 
the earlier style is stiU felt agree- 
ably. The Virgin and Child are 
not equal in earnestness to the 
Giottesques ; but there is compen- 
sation in the lifelike expression of 
accessory groups. Of the three 
lower pictures in the hemioyde, the 
Death of the Virgin is very impres- 
sive, though the result is reached 
by quite different methods from 
those employed by the Giottesques. 

In his easel pictures the predomi- 
nant sentiment is that of pleasure 
in natural beauty, healthy and play- 
ful youth ; the Madonna, a figure 
out of Florentine domestic life, the 
ChUd-Ohrist always very beautifully 
formed. [Remark the peculiar form 
of the head often resembling that 
of a bull, which gives a stubborn 
look to many of his figures, often 
even to those of the Cluld-Christ. 
—Mr.] At Prato, in the Refectory e 
of S. Domenico, a Birth of Christ, 
with S. Michael and S. Thomas 
Aquinas ; — in the Pinacoteca of the/ 
Palazzo del Commune, a Madonna 
della Cintola, a poor feeble Ma- 

Mli/ppo Lippi — Sandro Botticelli. 


doDDa, and a Predella. At 

a Florence, in the Academy (Quadri 
grandi, No. 49), a beautifiJ. Ma- 
donna with four Saints, all under 
an architectural building, the moat 
beautiful of his easel pictures as re- 
gards drapery ; — there also (Quadri 
grandi, Ko. 41) the large Corona- 
tion of the Virgin — late, as is shown 
by his own portrait as an old man, 
and the low toned, but quite clear, 
colouring ; it gives an impression 
of over-fulness, because the subject, 
a Glory, is represented in a definite 
earthly spot ; but along with this 
it is also rich in essentially new 
life ; also the beautiful Predella, 

b Vffizi, No. 1307 ; two angels Hft 
towards the Madonna the child 
that longs for her ; she lingers 
praying [there also, No. 1167, the 
wonderful head of an old man, 
ascribed to Masaccio, fresco. — Mr.] 
Pal. Pitti, No. 338, large circular 

c picture of the Madonna seated (half 
length) ; behind, the Birth of the 
Baptist and the Visitation, a subject 
which naturally led to the union of 
the incidents formerly divided into 
separate scenes by gold lines in one 
picture, converting the family altar 

A into a family picture. Sati Lorenzo, 
in a chapel of the left transept, a 
fine Annunciation of the Virgin 

e (damaged). Pal. Corsmi, several 
pictures. [Pra Klippo's ordinary 
assistants should not be forgotten. 
Fra Diamiamte (b. 1430 at Terra 
Nova, died after 1492, ) was jour- 
neyman at Prato and Spoleto, and 
guardian to Filippino Lippi. Jacopo 
del Sellaio (b. 1442, d. 1493), prac- 
tised at Florence. Crucifixion in 
the church of Cestello. PeseUino ; 
(see postea).] 


Samdro Botticelli (1447—1510) 
the pupil of Fdippo, never tho- 
roughly accomplished what he 
intended. He loved to express life 
and emotion sometimes in even 

vehement movement, and often 
painted with a great deal of hurry. 
He strove after an ideal beauty, 
but remained chained to a type of 
head, always recurring and recog- 
nizable from afar, which he repro- 
duced occasionally in a most lovely 
manner, but which often was rude 
and lifeless. (It is not the head of 
the Bella Simonetta, if the doubtful 
profile picture in the PaL Pitti, 
Sala di Pi-ometeo, No. 353, really 
represents this maiden.) Sandro 
is one of the first of the Florentines 
who showed a constant attachment 
to profane mythological and alle- 
gorical subjects, painted according 
to the feeling of theEenaissance.* 

His most beautiful work is one 
of the two circular pictures (Ma- 
donnas with Angels) in the tTffizi 
(No. 25),t with wonderful angels' 
heads, a real jewel in execution ; 
there also is his best composed his- 
torical picture, an Adoration of the 
Kings (No. 1286), which rivals in 
its noble cast of drapery the best 
works of his master, an interesting 
parallel with Flemish pictures of 
the same subject; then two little 
Stories of Judith (Nos. 1231 and 
36) and the well-known, so often 
painted Allegory of Appelles of 
Calumny (No. 1288), subjects whose 
grand and ideal significance was 
not adequately expressed by his 
here strangely mannered realism; 
also "Strength" (No. 1299) is not 
a happy conception; but at last 
came the Venus floating on a shell 
on the ocean (No. 39) ; for this 
Sandro studied and produced not 
only a really beautiful nude, but a 
most charming, fairy Ukeimpreasion, 
which unconsciously takes the place 
of the mythological one. In the 
Academy (Quadri antichi, No. 24), / 

* Very remarkable symbolical composi- 
tions are found among his engi-avings for 
the edition of Dante of 1481. 

t Perhaps only a repetition of the still 
more beautiful specimen in the possession 
of Count Alessandri. 


" The Renaissance." Florentine School. 

the Garden of Venus, or whatever 
the picture may be called; again 
reaUstically imperfect in the forms 
of the nude figures ; also (in the 
large room, No. 47), a large Coro- 
nation of the Virgin with four 
Saints, in parts insignificant, and 
harsh in colour, and even rude ; 
much better the Madonna with 
four Angels and six Saints (No. 52), 
one of the splendid large pictures 
in which the fifteenth century 
transforms the heavenly sphere 
into a real, earthly, but stiU solemn 
and dignified court ; the angels not 
only mt up the curtain, but they 
also hang it careftilly on the posts 
of the architectural edifice. Other 
a works of his in P. Pitti, P. Oorsini, 
i and elsewhere. In the Ognissanti, 
on the right S. Augustine, counter- 
part to Ghirlandajo's Jerome. The 
e battle-piece in the Turin Gallery is 
more in the style of Ucoello. 


Filippino lAppi (1461 — 1504), son 
of Filippo and pupil of Saudro, 
whom he much excels in spirit, 
fancy, and feeling for beauty. How 
he naturally succeeded Sandro is 
best seen in the large Madonna 
enthroned with the four Saints, in 

dthe Ufflzi, No. 1268 (1485). There 
also, an Adoration of the Kings — 
full of figures (No. 1257), certainly 
inferior to the perhaps contempo- 
rary one by Lionardo, and not devoid 
of the faults of the later works of 
PiUppino (too bright colouring, 
overcrowding, and heavy, puffed- 
out drapery), but unusually beau- 
tiful in its expression of timid 
approach, of adoring devotion. 
The little S. Jerome sitting in the 
niche, named as "Filippo L." is 
certainly by Filippino. His best 

t easel picture, in the Bad/ia, left of 
the door, S. Bernard visited by the 
Madonna and Angels, a work full 
of naive beauty, is certainly of an 
early date (1480): also early, the 

beautiful Altar-piece in S. MicheU,f 
at Lucca, first altar on the right; 
the Descent from the Cross, on the 
other hand, in the Academy sttg 
Florence (Qu. gr.. No. 57), of 
which Perugino painted the lower 
group, as well as the Marriage of 
St. Catherine with Saints in S. Do- 
menieo at Bologna (small chapel im- h 
mediately to right of choir), dated 
1501, belong to his later works, in 
which, with much that is beautiful, 
one misses the harmonious flow of 
inspiration. A few long, narrow 
pictures, with many small figures, 
such as that with the Death of 
Lucretia (P. PiUi, No. 388) audi 
the story of Esther {P. Torrigicmi, j 
at Florence), are evidence of the 
manner of various contemporary 
Florentine artists, representing 
profane history in theatrical scenes 
full of figures. The splendid pic- 
tu e in S. Spirito (coming from the 
nave, the fifth altar of the right 
transept) is attributed also to FiUp- 
pino's pupil, Baffaellino del Ga/rbo;Tc 
it is a Madonna with Saints 
and Donators under a porch, with a 
beautiful view over a city ; some of 
the heads have a melancholy grace, 
like the most beautiful pictures of 
Lorenzo di Credi. Probably by 
him, the fine panel picture with 
four Saints in S. Felice in Piazsa. I 
[In S. Teodoro, at Genoa, a large 
Altar-piece of 1503 ; there also, in m 
P. BalM, a small communion of» 
S. Jerome, of which what is per- 
haps the original belongs to the 
Marchese Gino Capponi at Florence. 
In Venice (Pinacoteca Manfredini, o 
in the Seminary of the Salute), two 
tender little pictures, Christ with 
the Magdalen, and the "Woman of 
Samaria, there called D. Crespi. — 
Mr.] The frescos of Filippino in 
the Carmine at Florence, which areP 
probably the earliest, are also the 
best ; they form a worthy and 
harmonious continuation to the 
work of Masaccio, whose composi- 
tion he may be supposed to have 

Cosimo Rosselli — Paolo Doni Uccello. 


followed. There are two groups 
easily to be recognized as his in the 
representation of the King's Son 
Kaised from the Dead ; also Peter 
and Paul before the Pro-consul 
(here the last head to the right is 
the portrait of the painter by him- 
self, with which compare the por- 
o trait in the Uffiai, wrongly named 
Masaocio in the collection of por- 
trait painters); and Peter visited in 
the dungeon by Paul, and his deli- 
verance by the angel. But also 
in the Miracles of the Apostles 
John and Philip, with which he 

i decorated the Gappella Strozzi, in 
S. M. Novella (the first on the 
right of the choir), I can perceive 
nothing like any diminution in his 
artistic capacity, only that here he 
narrates more in his own manner 
than one of the great dramatic 
painters of the fifteenth century 
would have done. At the same 
time the faults are very obvious, 
such ss overloaded and complicated 
composition, heavy, lumpy, wide 
spread out draperies and conven- 
tional heads, which, however, are 
outweighed by casual traits of 
the greatest beauty. There is a, 
decided inferiority in the frescos in 

cthe Minerva at Rome (Gap. Garafa, 
1488—91), in which he certainly 
attempted a subject no longer in 
harmony with the fifteenth cen- 
tury; the Glory of S. Thomas, as 
an allegorical ceremonial picture. 

dA. beautiful tabernacle at Prato, 
corner of the Strada di S. Mar- 
gherita (1488). 

Parallel with Sandro and Klip- 
pino is Gosiwjo Bossdli (born 1439, 
died 1507), whose best fresco at 

« Florence, in S. Ambrogio, in the 
chapel left of the choir, represents 
a procession with a miraculous cup. 
The heads are beautiful and fuU of 
life, the composition overcrowded 
and somewhat wanting in dignity. 

fin the entrance court of the An- 
numiata at Florence, the Investi- 

ture of S. Klippo Benizzi. In 8. 
M. MaddahTM de' Pazzi (second gr 
chapel on the left), the Coronation 
of the Virgin, formerly ascribed to 
Fiesole ; in S. Ambrogio, an As- 
sumption of the Virgin. In general, 
Cosimo worked on the inspiration 
of others, which, at this time of 
greater individual freedom, was no 
longer so allowable as it had been 
one hundred years earlier. 

Piero cU Cosimo (bom 1462) was 
RosseUi's pupil, and, though he 
lived tin 1521, and was at a later 
period influenced by Lionardo, 
yet he still belongs in his style of 
conception to the fifteenth century. 
His best picture, the Conception A 
with six Saints ( Uffizi, TSo. 1250), is 
remarkably solid in composition and 
character, really a model picture 
of the school. [His next best is the 
Virgin and Saints in the church of 
the In7iocenti.'\ Of the four mytho- 
logical long, narrow pictures, Nos. 
21, 28, 32, 1246, at the Ujffizi, the 
last, Perseus and Andromeda, is 
exquisite in some of its details. 
[The want of proportion in some of 
his heavy, awkward figures is 
striking. — Mr.] 

Paolo Doni Uccello (born in 1397, 
died 1475) should here be interca- 
lated as a precursor of Benozzo. 
The paintings in the Chiostro verde i 
of S. M. Novella, begim, whether by 
him or some one else, in the obso- 
lete Giottesque style, were com- 
pleted by him in two scenes (Flood, 
Sacrifice of Noah), which show a 
very cultivated realism in progress 
towards discoveries in perspective. 
The equestrian portrait painted 
monochrome, of the famous Gap-j 
tain Sir John Hawkwood, in the 
Gathed/ral of Florence, is, like the 
fellow picture painted by Castagno 
(the military leader, Niccolb Mau- 
ruzzo da Tolentino), much restored, 
but better conceived than the latter, 
which represents only a stiff -legged 


" The Renaissance." Florentine School. 

cavalry soldier on a plough horse. 
Besides this, there is by Uccello a 
a very lively battle piece in the UflBzi 
(No. 29). 


Benozzo Oozzoli (bom 1424, died 
about 1498), a pupil of Piesole, 
shows few traces of his master's 

6 spirit. In the Cathedral of Orvieto, 
where he was Fiesole's assistant, he 
was not allowed to complete the 
unfinished work, and his first in- 
dependent productions are found 
in the little Umbrian town of 
Montefalco (S. Francesco, chapel of 

cthe choir, the hfe of S. Prcmds, 
1452, and some wall pictures; S. 

dFortimato outside the town, seve- 
ral paintings). The best things 
here are some graceful figures, 
apparently portraits, and genre 
incidents. In 1463 he painted in the 

e chapel of the Palazzo Riocwrdi at 
Florence (by lamplight) the Pro- 
cession of the Three Kings, which 
extends over three walls, and ends 
at the place for the altar — a won- 
derful work, full of individual 
beautyand tasteful splendour in the 
rich cavalcade moving through the 
fine woody landscape, with two 
fairy-like, graceful choirs of angels 
(reflected light moderately good at 
2). Between 1463—1467 he com- 

/pleted the rich series of frescos in 
the choir of S. Agostino at S. 
Grimignano, the Life of S. Augus- 
tine, the wall picture over the 
altar of S. Sebastian, in the same 
church, an easel picture in the 

g choir of the Collegiate, and a Cru- 

^cifixion at Monte Olweto, near the 
town. A series of frescos, now 

i fast disappearing, in 8. Chiara, at 
Castel-Fiorentino, appears to have 
been executed by pupils after his 
drawings. But in the Campo 

j Scmto at Pisa, almost the whole of 
the northern wall (twenty-three 
pictures), containing the stories of 
the Old Testament, painted 1469- 

85, is his work. Benozzo shows 
complete enjoyment of the simple, 
beautiful motives of life in them- 
selves ; his chief aim is to repre- 
sent figures in repose, or carrying, 
stooping, running, falling, often of 
great beauty and youthful charm, 
with the full force of the action 
of the moment ; on the other hand, 
the story itself interests him com- 
paratively but little. The spec- 
tator feels the charm of this new 
species of life-pictures, and desires 
nothing beyond this endlessly rich 
variety. Benozzo lavishes orna- 
ment on his architectural buildings, 
gardens, landscapes, with fabulous 
splendour ; here, too, he is an en- 
thusiastic discoverer of new sub- 
jects for representation. The two 
bad paintings on the west wall, 
ascribed to Bondmossi, 1666, are 
evidently overpainted compositions 
of Benozzo. 

TTiH e£isel pictures give no idea 
of his excellence. There are seve- 
ral in the Academy at Pisa ; a k 
Madorma della Cintola is in the I 
Lateran at Kome. * [By Benozzo's 
assistant at Pisa, Zanobi Macchia- 
velli, a Madonna and Family, in 
the Acad, of Pisa.] 

[Contemporary with Benozzo, 
but a, follower of Fra Filippo, 
Francesco di Stefano, commonly m 
called Pesellino (bom 1428, died 
1457) gives an impulse to the 
realistic school of Florence, and 
competes with Baldovinetti in the 
effort to introduce oil painting 
into Tuscany. (Annunciation in 
the Spirito Santo ; Predellas in the 
Buonarotti, Allessandri, and Tor- 

* Here should be classed the fresco of 
Lorenzo da Viterbo ui a chapel of 8. Maria 
della Verity, in that place ; a Marriage of 
the Virgin, very rich in figures, of the year 
1469. [In the cathedral, in ijie sacristy, 
is a beautiful picture of the Madonna robed 
in white, with four saints, certainly by 
him. — Mr.] By the same artist are the 
weak legendary pictures, showing the in- 
fluence of Piero della Francesca, in S. 
Francesco at Montefalco. Cr. and C. 

Benozzo GozzoK — GMrlandajo. 


rigiaui collections, and a predella 
at the Academy, Quadri Grandi, 
No. 48, at Florence, also two fine 
pieces of predellas, with scenes 
from the legend of St. Sylvester, 
in the P. Doria at Rome.) Ed.] 
„ Alessio Baldcmmetti [bom 1427, 
died 1499] is the painter of the 
1 Adoration of the Shepherds, in the 
c entrance Court of the Annumiata 
H at Florence ; of a Madonna della 
Omtola over the doors of the sa- 
cristy of S. Niccolo ; of an easel 
picture of a Madonna enthroned, 
e Uffizi (No. 31). The remains of 
/frescos in the C. Alvaro m S. 
Miniato are probably his. A care- 
ful, not unintelligent realist, chiefly 
known as the master of 


Domenico GMrlandajo (1449- 
1494), the greatest of this series. 
He opposes the realism which 
threatens to lose itself in following 
out its own principles in the name 
of the permanent principles of 
art. He, too, feels the charms of 
living beauty, and is fully capable 
of reproducing it, but he makes 
this subordinate to the lofty 
serious character of the holy perso- 
nages, and the higher meaning of 
the moment represented. The 
beautiful figures taken from living 
personages, collected in excellently 
arranged groups, introduced as 
spectators of the incidents, take 
part in the noble and grand con- 
ception of the whole. Of all his 
predecessors, Filippo Lippi, espe- 
g cially in his paintings in the Cathe- 
dral of Prato, seems to have most 
impressed Ghirlandajo ; and al- 
though he has not equalled him in 
the light and noble flow of the 
drapery, nor rivalled either him or 
some others in the representation 
of various materials, or the har- 
mony of colour, yet he surpasses 
them all, both in the lines of the 

composition and in the technical 
execution of the fresco. 

In the church of Ognissanti wiU 
be seen on the left his fresco of 8. h 
Jerome (1480), in which he follows 
the Flemish method in the render- 
ing of the place and the accessories ; 
in the Refectory his Last Supper, 
of which the arrangement is still 
the antique Giottesque. In the 
Refectory of S. Marco is a repeti- i 
tion, not so good. The wall- 
pictures of the Ghapel of S. Fima, j 
in the Collegiata of the little town 
of S. Gimignano, are attractive and 
very beautiful decorative works. 
Of the year 1845 are the frescos of 
the C. Sassetti in S. Trimtcb (thei 
farthest back in the right tran- 
sept), representing the Legend of 
S. Francis, already a mature 
master-piece. (Best light, 9 a.m.) 
Lastly, the frescos* in the Choir of 
5. Maria Novella (1490) with the I 
Ufe of the Virgin, the Baptist, and 
other saints. The most striking 
thing here is not any remarkable 
dramatic motive, but the dignified, 
loftily impressive picture of life, 
which we know to be the glorifi- 
cation of actual life in Florence. 
These graceful, noble, and power- 
ful creations elevate us the more in 
that they approach us so nearly. + 

Among the easel pictures in 
Florence must be named the Ado- m 
ration of the Kings at the back of 
the Choir in the Church of the 
Innocenti [1488 ; inferior to the 
circular picture of 1487 in the 
Uffizi ; the execution somewhat 
wanting in charm, and indeed, in 
general, Ghirlandajo's easel pic- 
tures are not equal in beauty to 
his wall paintings. — Mr.] ; then, in 

* They are always badly lighted. The 
tolerahly good moments, both before and 
after noon, depend on the position of the 
sun, according to the seasons of the year. 

t Is it possible that the fi-esco of a 
Fietd., with John and Magdalen, in a 
corner of the town wall by the Amo, near 
the Porta S. Fiediano, can be by Do- 
menico ? In spite of decay and restoration 
it is still a grand work. 

F 2 


" The Benaisscmee." Florentine School. 

a the Academy, the Madonna with 
four Saints, Quadri Antichi, No. 17, 
and the splendid Adoration of the 
Shepherds (14S5), Quadri gr.. No. 
50, a masterpiece of the time in 
grace of form and beautiful and 
happy arrangement. Two pictures 

b in the Ufisi, the brilliant Madonna 
enthroned (No. 1295), and the 
circular picture of an Adoration of 
the Kings (No. 1297) ; — one in the 

cP. Gorsini. — In the &c«s<i/ of the 

d Cathedral of Lucca, an (early) Ma- 
donna with four Saints. — [A Christ 
in glory with Saints, formerly in 

ethe BaMa at Volterra, now in S. 
Framcesco in the same town (Crowe 
and C). — A very important easel 

/picture in the town-hall of Bltnini 
in excellent preservation. — I con- 

g aider the beautiful altar-piece in S. 
SpiHto, Ploreuce, as a youthful 
work of Ghirlandajo, the Trinity 
with S. Mary Magdalene and S, 
Catherine (Transept on the left, 
fourth altar.) — Mr.] 

Domenico's brothers, Damde and 
Benedetto, have left no independent 
works of any name ; his brother-in- 
law, BastiMno Mainardi (p. 26), has 

ji some frescos at S. Qimignano. His 
pupil, Framcesco Oranacd, painted, 
among other things, an Assump- 
tion of the Virgin with four Saints, 

i Academy, Qu. gr. , No. 75 ; and in 
the Uffizi, No. 1280, a Madonna 
reaching down the girdle to S. 
Thomas, good pictures without any 
very special character. 


Along with these great efforts 
to depict a high and beautiful life 
in a realistic spirit, there arose also 
an exaggerated attempt to repre- 
sent character. The pictures of 
Andrea del Oastagno [bom about 
1390, died 1457] are like painted 
Donatellos, only with less sense 
of proportion, and at times full 
,-of coarse swagger. Academy; S. 

Oroce, after the fifth altar on the 
right, figures in fresco of S. Francis 
and John the Baptist; CathedralTi 
comp. p. 65;). His important fresco 
of heroic male and female figures, 
poets, heroes, sibyls, etc., formerly 
in Casa Pcmdolfini. at Legnaia, now I 
transferred to canvas in the Museo 
Nazionale (Bargello), at Florence. 
A Last Supper, in fresco, in the 
ex-Convent of St. Apollonia, real-m 
istic and grand, and remarkable as 
showing that Castagno was a 
thorough master of linear per- 

Antonio [born 1429, died 1498] 
Pietro [bom 1441, died before 
1496] Pollajuolo at least combine 
similar clearness with splendid 
execution. (Uffizi; Prudentia, No. » 
1306 ; small combats of Hercules, 
No. 1153 ; an altar-piece with SS. 
James, Eustace, and Vicentius, 
No. 1301 ;) Pal. Pitti, a S. Sebastian, <, 
No. 384; Pietro's Coronation of 
the Virgin, in the Choir of the Col- p 
legiata at S. Gimignano [1483], is 
not important. Antonio's master- 
piece of the Martyrdom of S. Se- 
bastian, from the Anm/umidaia, 'vs.q 
now in the NaMonal Gallery in 
London. A set of thirty pieces 
of tapestry, after the compositions 
of the PoUajuoli, in the treasury of 
the Battistero at Florence. Herei- 
should be mentioned : Domenico 
Venesiano, Castagno's partner in 
S. Maria Nuova, whose only exist- 
ing picture, formerly in S. Ludag 
de Bardi, Madonna with four 
Saints, is now in the TJfiB^i, No. 
1305. Domenico was the master 
of Piero delta Francesca, from Borgo 
San Sepolcro, who afterwards 
taught SignoreUi. His frescos in 
the choir of S. Francesco at Arezzo t 
(best light towards evening), repre- 
senting the story of Constantine 
and of the True Cross, show in the 
parts that are preserved such 
energy of character, such move- 
ment, and such luminous colour, 
that one completely forgets the 

Andrea Verrocchio — Lorenzo di Credi. 


want of a higher conception of the 
facts. A Magdalen, near the door 

a of the sacristy in the Oathecl/ral of 
Arezzo is excellent, and in good 
preservation. A little St. Jerome 

bias, landscape, Academy at Venice, 
much injured. Portraits of Fre- 
derick of Montefeltro and his wife 
(No. 1300) at the Vffizi. This 
interesting master must be also 
studied in his birthplace, where 

c the Resurrection of Christ, a wall- 
painMng in the Community, an 

d altar-piece in the Chapel of the 
Hospital, and other things, are 
very remarkable. At Bimini {S. 

e FraMcesco) the fresco of Sigismondo 
Pandolfo Malatesta kneeling before 
S. Sigismund. At Urbino (sacristy 

/of the Cathed/ral) the precious 
miniature-like little picture of the 

g Flagellation. In the Town Oallery 
at this place (taken from S. Chiara) 
an architectural picture, of the 
ideal kind, formerly much liked 
in intarsiatura. 


Arubrea Verrocchio also, the 
teacher of Lionardo, in almost the 
only picture by him now existing, 
the Baptism of Christ, in the 
h Academy, No. 43, has fallen into 
really poverty-stricken forms and 
character, only he finishes them 
most carefully : his modelling is 
conscientious, and endeavours to 
sound all the secrets of anatomy as 
well as chiaroscuro ; but with all 
this it is remarkable how lifeless 
the drapery still remains. The 
angel painted in by Lionardo shows 
a sweeter type of head, which, in- 
deed, was not unfamiliar to us in 
Verrocchio's bronzes.* 


Lorerm) di Credi must here be 

^ "* [The author ia unjust to Verrocchio, 
who is realistic and searching, yet tender 
and ^aceful, and carries the system of 
paintmg in oil to perfection. — EcL 

mentioned among Verrocchio's 
pupils, though ultimately he fell 
under the influence of hia greater 
fellow-pupil. His earnest endeavour 
to master a correct representation 
of objects in perspective was, how- 
ever, first excited by his teacher. 
Every one of his pictures aims at 
accomplishing this in a diflferent 
way : he tries it with the highest 
light, and the most delicate transi- 
tions, as well as with deep shadows. 
His male characters have, as, for 
instance, in the beautiful picture of 
the Madonna with two Saints i 
(Cathedral of Pistoja, chapel near 
the choir on the left), the nervous 
uneasy expression of the Baptism 
of Christ by Verrocchio. On the 
other hand, in his Madonnas, some- 
times (not always ;), and also in the 
child, we find the most delicate 
feeKng for beauty, so that they 
must everywhere be regarded as 
treasures of art (Academy of Flo- 
rence I Uffisi ; Oalleria Sorgh^sej 
at Borne, and elsewhere). Hiafe 
only large composition, an Adora- 
tion of the Child (Academy of Flo- 
rence, Qu. gr.. No. 51), shows in a 
remarkable way how a persevering 
artist, even without the highest 
gifts, could at that time produce 
most excellent things, because his 
sense of grace in form and expres- 
sion was as yet unbiassed by fixed 
theories and types ; because that 
period did not yet aim at the 
pathetic and emotional, in which 
those who are only moderately 
gifted must fail ; because, lastly, 
the essential realistic impulse of 
the time is a safeguard against 
what is tedious, that is to say, 
commonplace and conventional. In 
the picture above named there is 
something of the superfluous senti- 
ment so prominent in the Perugi- 
nesque school (see the youth with 
the lamb), only that one forgets 
this as well as the slightly artificial 
arrangement of the group in the 
enchanting beauty of most of the 


" The Renaissance." Florentine School. 

figures. The small pictures with 

a biblical scenes in the Uffini (Souola 
Toscana, first room) give no idea of 
Lorenzo's artistic capability. (Can 

h the Madonna with two Saints in 
S. Spirito, at the back of the choir, 
the last altm- on the right, be by 
him — it is put down School of 
Sandro ?) [It is too weak for him ; 

c his masterpieces are : a Madonna 
ietween Saints, in the CatTiedral 

d at Pistoja, one of the most perfect ; 
in S. Jbomenico, at Fiesole, the 
Baptism of Christ, very good ; Pal. 

eOolonma, Bome, a charming little 
picture, from which Raphael might 
have borrowed the idea of his Ma- 
donna with the pink. — ^Mr.] 


Unattached to this series stands 
the great I/iica da Cortona, pro- 
perly Signorelli (1441 ?— 1523). He 
was a pupil of Piero della Frau- 
cesca, and had received his 
strongest impressions from Flo- 
rence. The equal of Ghirlandajo 
in the grandeur of his conception 
of actions and personages, he is 
nevertheless less selective in his 
individual forms, and occasionally 
produces very coarse things ; on 
the other hand, the strong feeling 
for the nude is first seen in him as 
an essential point in the representa- 
tion, even in the choice of subjects. 
In this sense he is the most im- 
mediate predecessor of Michel- 
/ His frescos in the Convent of 
Monte Oliveto (south of Siena), 
scenes from the life of S. Benedict, 
eight frescos on the west wall, are 
especially interesting on account of 
particular powerful traits, which 
distinctly recall Lionardo ; the 
"Early German" (!!), in Signorelli, 
comes out in the characteristic 
figures of the warriors, while along 
with this there are also other 
youthful forms of truly Eaf aelesque 

beauty. But his great work is the 
fresco series in the Ohapel of the g 
Madonna, in the Cathedral of 
Orvieto (after 1499), which, to- 
gether with those of Fiesole (from 
whose design SiguoreUi painted on 
the south side of the vaulted roof 
the Apostles and Angels, with the 
signs of the Passion), form a cycle 
of subjects belonging to the Last 
Judgment, Antichrist, the Resur- 
rection of the Dead, Hell, and Para- 
dise ; below, as a decoration, on a 
breast high skirting, are represented 
the poets both of classical and bibli- 
cal antiquity in circular pictures, 
surrounded by numerous allegorical, 
mythological and decorative paint- 
ings in monochrome. Though very 
far from being the most adequate 
or the most striking and real re- 
presentation of these subjects, 
"Paradise" and "Hell" are his- 
torically most valuable, as being 
the first really grand expression of 
the delight of having mastered the 
creation of nude form. This is 
here set before us, not ideally con- 
ceived, but in the fulness of youth- 
ful heroic strength, with most 
energetic modelling and colour. 

Among his easel pictures the 
finest is the one in the Cathedral ofh 
Perugia [1484] (side chapel in the 
right transept), the Madonna en- 
throned with four Saints, and an 
angel playing the lute ; in that 
place a real relief to the eye that 
has been satiated with Perugino's 
sweet ecstaoies. The very inte- 
resting pictures at Cortona are un- i 
fortunately hung, for the most 
part, in an extremely unfavourable 
light. Three (?) powerful pictures 
adorn the choir of the Cathedral ; 
the famous Institution of the Com- 
munion [1512] : Luca boldly aban- 
doned the conventional mode of 
representation,* removed the table, 
and allows us to see Christ moving 

* Justus van ffent however had given a 
previous example of this arrangement in 
his Last Supper at Urbino. See postea. 

Luca Signorelli — Sistine Chanel. 


among the group of Ms disciples, 
all in perfect action; the Descent 
from the Cross [1502], with a 
great number of most beautiful 
heads, especially females, regular 
oval, with almost Greek profiles ; 
the power of colouring and chiaros- 
curo remind us of Seb. del Piombo : 
the Conversion of Thomas is the 
least important ; in the Sacristy is 
a Lunette with a beautiful Ma- 
donna, almost of the tjrpe of Lion- 

oardo. In the Gesii, opposite the 
Cathed/ral, is a (late) Adoration of 
the Shepherds ; and the fellow to 
it a Miraculous Conception, more 
probably by his nephew Francesco. 

h [In the Compagnia, di 8. Nieeolo a 
panel painted on both sides : the 
dead body of Christ at the tomb 
supported by angels, and a Madonna 
betweenS. Peter and S. Paul. B.] — 

c In S. Domenico, third altar, right, a 
Madonna with Saints, 1515. — In S. 

dMedardo at Aroevia the Virgin 
with Saints, an altarpiece in 31 

e parts (1507).— In S. I)o7nenico,a,t 
Siena, an Adoration of the Child, 
said to be begun by Matteo di Gio- 
vanni (last altar to the right in the 
nave), might be a sweet youthful 

/work of Luca (??). — In the Academy 
of Siena, the Escape from the 
Burning of Troy, and the Eansom 
of Prisoners, the latter an excel- 
lent composition of nude figures 
[but clearly by one of SignoreUi's 

jr scholars]. — At Florence the Aca- 
demy contains (Qu. gr., No. 54) a 
large very much mannered picture 
of his later years, a Madonna with 
two Archangels and two Saints. — In 

A P. Corsini are several works of his. 

i — In the Uffizi, lastly [a predella, 
&c.], two remarkable circular pic- 
tures, No. 1291, which fully re- 
presents the serious, unadorned, 
manly style of the master, and 
No. 36, Madonna, in the back- 
ground, undraped shepherds, and 
above the round, figures in relief in 
monochrome. The nude and the 
sculpturesque, the beginning of 

another epoch in art, are here 
combined. Even the excellent 
head of an old man in the Torri-j 
giani Gallery has figures in action 
in the background.- — The Scourging, Js 
No. 306, in the Brera at Milan, 
appears to be an early picture. — 
In the gallery at Arezzo, a large t 
altar-piece from the Convent of S. 
Spirito, somewhat crowded, but 
full of beauties ; [a Madonna with 
Saints from S. Margarita]. — At 
Borgo S. Sepolcro, Church of S. m 
Antonio Abbate the [Crucifixion and 
S. Anthony, a procession standard] 
of striking beauty, truly grand in 
feeling. At TTrbino, in Spirito n 
Santo, Christ on the Cross, with 
the wonderfully beautiful group of 
women round the fainting Virgin, 
only to be compared with the 
altar-piece at Perugia, and the 
Descent of the Holy Spirit. For 
the rest, aU the towns of this 
district, Borgo, Citta di Castello, 
San Domenico : a Martyrdom of S. v 
Sebastian, 1496 ; S. Cecilia : a Ma- p 
donna with Saints ; in the town 
gallery, from S. Qiovamni Decollate : 
a Baptizing of Christ, fresco, and a q 
Madonna enthroned, 1495 ; Palawo 
Mancini : an Adoration of the 
Shepherds, 1494, and a Coronation r 
of the Madonna, 1515 — all of them 
large and important works. — [At 
Volterra, in the Cathedral, the 
Annunciation (1491), and in the 
Town Gallery from S. Francesco a 
large Madonna with Saints. — ^At 
Loretto — and recently admirably 
restored — splendid frescos of the 
Evangelists and Doctors of the 
Church, in the vaulting, 12 Apostles, 
and the Conversion of S. Paul, on 
the walls, of the Sacristy of the 
great Church. — Ed.] 


A splendid coUeotive memorial of 
Tuscan painting of the fifteenth 
century exists in the twelve frescos 


" The Renaissance." Paduan School. 

from the life of Moses and of Christ 
on the walls of the Sistine Ohapel. 
Sixtus IV. (1471-84) had them 
executed by the painters already 
named, Sandro Botticelli, Cosi/mo 
MosselU, Domenico Qhvrlandajo and 
Luca Sigtwrelli, to whom must be 
added also Pietro Perugino. Three 
pictures by the last-named artist, 
on the wall of the altar, the Find- 
ing of Moses and the Adoration of 
the Kings, as well as the Corona- 
tion of the Virgin, which formerly 
helped to render the connection 
more distinct, were removed to 
make room for the Last Judgment ; 
the two on the wall by the door 
are by late and inferior artists. 
The series begins from the altar on 
the wall to the left — 1. Journey of 
Moses and Zipporah, by Perugino 
(not Signorelli) ; 2. Moses's Mira- 
cles in Egypt, by Botticelli ; 3 
and 4. Drowning of Pharaoh, and 
Destruction of the Golden Calf, by 
Eosselli ; 5. Pall of Korah and his 
Followers, by Botticelli ; 6. Publi- 
cation of the Ten Commandments, 
by SignoreUi.* On the wall to the 
right— 1. The Baptism of Christ, 
by Perugino ; 2. The Temptation, 
by Botticelli ; 3. The Calling of the 
Apostles Peter and Andrew, by 
Ghirlandajo ; 4. The Sermon on 
the Mount, by Eosselli ; 5. The 
Investiture of Peter, by Perugino ; 
6. The Last Supper, by RosseUi. 

These works are of great merit, 
and deserve a closer examination 
than is usually accorded them.t 
Those of Sandro, Cosimo, and Pietro 
are among the best works of these 
artists. Pietro moves with a Flo- 

* Apparently assisted ly Don Barto- 
lommeo della Gatta. 

t The light is never favourable for those 
on the south side. On sunny mornings 
between 10 and 12 they have at least a 
strong reflected light. Any one who de- 
sires to enjoy the works of art in the 
Vatican, will do well to spare his eyes on 
the way, that is, on and heyond the Ponte 
S. Angelo, and on the Piazza of S. Peter, 
and rather choose the circuitous way 
behind the Colonnades. 

rentine liveliness not characteristic 
of his later work ; the Fall of 
Korah and his Followers is Sandro's 
most important composition ; in the 
one ascribed to Signorelli there are 
at least some motives of marvellous 
vigour, which could be the work of 
no one but him. But the narrative 
manner of the time, so rich in 
figures, which takes here a broad 
style, more than once so crowds the 
principal action that the eye quite 
attaches itself to the lively details, 
to the pleasing copiousness, for in- 
stance, to the landscape and archi- 
tectural backgrounds. Here, along- 
side the Prophets and Sibyls, close 
to the Stanze and the Tapestry, we 
understand how Paphael and Mi- 
chelangelo were needed, and how 
greatly art, which was losing itself 
in simple delineation of life and 
character, needed to be recalled to 
its highest ideal. 

And yet this highest ideal is 
found realized here and there in 
these paintings. In Ghirlandajo's 
CaUing of Peter and Andrew he 
has given the most striking and 
solemn side of the incident, and 
made it the principal idea ; it is 
like an anticipation of Raphael's 
Miraculous Draught of Fishes and 
Feed my Sheep. 

The splendour of decoration in 
these paintings was quite in har- 
mony with the taste of Sixtus V., 
who loved gilding and the glow of 
colour beyond measure. 


In North Italy, meantime, the 
Paduan School had attained a real- 
istic development in a manner pe- 
culiar to itself, and quite indepen- 
dent of the Florentines.* — Its foun- 

* [Dr. Burckhardt forgot when he wrote 
this sentence that the school of Squar- 
cione, of which Mantegna was the chief 
ornament, was influenced by the Floren- 
tine Donatello and by Jacopo Bellini, a 
Venetian who studied at Florence.— Ed.] 



der, Frcmcesco Sqimrdone (1423- 
1474), had collected in Italy and 
Greece antique statues, reliefs, 
fragments of ornament, from irhich 
artists studied in his atelier with 
great industry, but in a narrow 
and exclusive way. No one at 
this time thought of entering into 
the living principle of ancient 
sculpture, wmch might have been 
instructive, and in some degree 
might have cultivated the sense 
of proportion in painting. Not 
to the simplicity of the general 
conception, nor the ideal so at- 
tained, was value attached, but 
to the richness of details of form, 
which, perhaps, was the quality 
most admired in later over-refined 
sculpture. To render in painting 
the definiteness of the human form 
which they found in sculpture, was 
the object of this school : hence its 
sculpturesque sharpness and hard- 
ness. This most ornament-loving 
school also borrowed a number of 
decorative features from the an- 
tique remains above mentioned, and 
others, especially Roman buildings. 
But at the same time the real- 
istic tendency of the age was espe- 
cially strong here, and combined in 
a very remarkable way with the 
study of the antique. The first 
gave the spirit, the latter only 
partly influenced the mode of ex- 
pression. In the drapery especially 
is seen the combination of the two 
tendencies ; the whole cast and 
arrangement aim at representing 
something antique, but it is made 
real by jewel-like lights, deep sha- 
dows, and somewhat over-detailed 
execution of particular motives. 
Besides this, the deep juicy colour, 
and the much developed chiar- 
oscuro, and the sharp and power- 
ful modelling, are qualities always 
found in the school. 

By Squareione himself there are 

two genuine pictures formerly be- 

a longing to the Lazstara family ; an 

altar-piece with St. Jerome study- 

ing in the centre, with the antique 
delicacy of execution, and some- 
what wanting in character, in the 
Toion Oallery at Padua ; and a 
Madonna, signed, a half-length 
figure under festoons of fruit, more 
resembling the usual character of 
Squarcione's works,* stiU in the 
possession of the Lazzara family, b 
[Contemporary with Squareione, 
•Taoopo Bellini settled at Padua, c 
taking thither some of the Tuscan 
principles which he had acquired 
as a journeyman in the workshop 
of Gentile du Fabriano at Florence 
(1423). His early works. Madonna 
in the Tadini Collection at Lovere, 
are still reminiscent of Gentile. 
But later ones already foreshadow 
the style which was held in com- 
mon by Mantegna and Giovanni 
Bellini in their earliest days. Cru- 
cifixion from the Yescovado, now 
in the Oallery at Verona, frescos 
in CappeUa S. Terasio at S. Zac- 
oaria of Venice. — Ed.] By one of 
Squarcione's immediate pupils, 
Marco Zoppo, altar-pieces in the d 
sacristy of San Giuseppe de' Gapuc- 
cini, outside Bologna ; another in e 
the Collegia di Spagna ; others in 
S. Giovanni at Pesaro, and in the 
National Gallery in London. Zoppo 
is full of character and delicate in 
execution ; though with certain 
traits that are unbeautiful and 
strange. Gregorio Schiavone has 
much of the same character. His 
best works in England, in the Na- 
tional Gallery and Maitland Col- 
lection. [As we write this collection 
is being sold. — Ed.] 

[Dario da Treviso, another dis- 
ciple of Squareione, is better known 
for house decorations in Serravalle 
and Treviso than for pictures. 
Madonna in the Gallery of Bassauo. 

* Crowe and Cavalc, believe both pic- 
tures to be the work of pupils in Squar- 
cione's school. A Madonna, with a white 
monk, praying, in the P. Maufrin at 
Venice (1447), and the 'Sibyl with 
Augustus,' in the Pinacoteca at Verona, 
are not considered genuine. 


" The Renaissance." Padua/n School. 

Qirolamo da Trevico develops the 
same style. Altar-pieces at Seriate, 
near Bergamo, id the Cathedral of 
<»Treviso (1487), and in S. Sahadore 
of Colalto (1494). At Padua, Pa- 
rentmo cultivates Squarciouesque 
art. Allegory in the Gallery of 
Uodena, and frescos in 8. GivMima 
of Padua ; and is surpassed by 
Jacopo MorUagnana, frescos in I^- 
coped Palace at Fadua and St. 
M. di Mont-Ortone. The Oomozzi 
(Lorenzo and Christopher) illustrate 
the same style in tarsias — Library 
of S. Antonio of Padua, and Ca- 
thedrals of Farma and Lucca. — Ed. ] 


At Ferrara, Squarcioue's influ- 
ence was felt through Cosimo Twra 
[in practice 1451-1494, and Galasso 
Galassi (1450-73), Trinity in the 
Gallery and altar-pieces in the Oos- 
tabili Coll. of Perrara.— Ed.] In 
b the Palazzo Schifamoja or Scandiano 
there, the large upper hall was 
painted by Galasso, Tura, and Lo- 
renzo Costa soon after the year 
1470. The paintings were exe- 
cuted between 1471-93, after the 
design of one master, by different 
hands. [The months, March, April, 
and May, lively, clear, and natu- 
ral works of one of the best pupils 
of Piero di Francesca, perhaps the 
elder Ercole da Perra/ra, are easily 
distinguished from the puffed-up 
forms by Cosimo Twra'sh3,nA. — Mr. ] 
A most valuable monument of the 
history of civilization of that age ! 
It is the life of a petty Italian sove- 
reign, Borsod'Este, Dukeof Ferrara, 
illustrated in the way which har- 
monized with the feeling of the 
century. Another series, below, 
represents various actions of Borso, 
very unimportant in themselves, 
with splendid scenery of architec- 
ture, and city Ufe, and rich cos- 
tumes. A second series contains 
the Signs of the Zodiac, with un- 
intelligible allegorical accessory 
figures on a blue ground ; a third. 

gods and allegorical groups on 
triumphal oars drawn by emble- 
matic animals, along with scenes 
from common Ufe, representing all 
kinds of arts and occupations. The 
whole is one of the astrological 
emblematical encyclopeedias (like 
that of Miretto at Padua, p. 50 c), 
of which the cultivated men of that 
time delighted to be in the secret. 
The brilliant execution is so minia- 
ture-like in its delicacy, even up to 
a great height, that one requires a 
movable stage to inspect it with. 
Half of it is lost. There is by Tura, 
in the choir of the Cathedral oic 
Ferrara (formerly the panels of the 
organ), an Annunciation and a S. 
George, with very beautiful youth- 
ful heads; in the Public Oalleryyd 
two figures of S. Jerome standing, 
one of them from S. Girolamo. 

Another pupil of Squarcione was 
Stefano da Ferrara [ (not to be con- 
founded with a younger Stefamo 
Falzagalloni), by whom there are 
several pictures in the Ferrara Gal- e 
lery. — Fr.] At this place one sees 
late works in which, among others, 
he appears to rival Garof alo ( Ateneo ; 
Madonma with two Saints ; twelvey 
heads of Apostles). Earlier works 
in the energetic Faduan style ; two 
Madonnas with Saints in the Brera 
at Milan [No. 172 is by an imitator 
of B.ondinello of Ravenna, if not by 
Rondinello himself ; No. 175 is a 
fine old picture of the Ferrarese 
school.— Ed.]. 

[Of the Paduan school, but more 
distinctly Mantegnesque than Tura, 
is also Ercole Roberti Grandi (in 
practice 1480, died 1513) ; examples 
in the Gallery of Ravenna in the 
lower Gallery at Venice — Ed.]. 

The remaining Ferrarese of the 
fifteenth century are all more or 
less Paduan in style. Like all the 
elder Lombards, they were unable 
to cope with the Florentines, were 
it only because they had not mas- 
tered the lively expression of inci- 
dent, so that their feeling for 

Lorenso Costa. 


space remained imperfectly deve- 
loped. But the seriousness of their 
realism, the distinctness of their 
forms, the precision of their model- 
ling, and the chiaroscuro that they 
attain even in temperapictures, give 
to their works a permanent value. 
This is the case with Francesco 
Cossa. His Madonna with S. Petro- 
nius and S. John the Evangelist 
a (in the Pinacoteoa of Bologna, 1474) 
is in the heads rustic and wanting 
in charm, and yet an excellent 
work, on account of the qualities 
before mentioned. His great mar- 
tyrdom of S. Sebastian (in S. Petro- 
nio at Bologna, fifth chapel on 
the left) [by Lorenzo Oosta. — Ed.], 
displays the same qualities, with 
harmonious, even dignified, and 
beautiful characters. The Italian 
realism only for moments sinks 
down to baseness ; it always re- 
turns to its attraction for the 


Lorenzo Costa (1461-1535), whose 
principal works are all in Bologna, 
went through a singular inter- 
change of character with F. Fran- 
cia, whose pupil he called himself, 
but not with entire justice. He 
entered into this connection already 
a confirmed realist, and with much 
greater knowledge than Francia 
then possessed; he bowed before 
the sense of beauty and the expres- 
sion of feeling in Franoia, but pre- 
served a more healthy tone. The 

b altar-piece in S. Petronio (CappeUa 
Baciocohi, the seventh chapel on 
the left) a Madonna enthroned with 
four saints, and a splendid Lunette 
of Angels performing on musical 
instruments (1492), is worthy to 
be compared with any Francia. 
There also, fifth chapel on the left, 

cthe Twelve Apostles (1495), figures 
without any grandeur of idea, with 
large, well-drawn hands and feet, 
very solemnly conceived. In the 

(i Choir of S. Giovanni in Monte, at 

the back, the Coronation of the 
Virgin with six Saints (1497), who 
here, as usual in the Bologna-Fer- 
rara school, are grouped and not 
merely arranged in a row, as by the 
Peruginesques. In the same church, 
in the seventh chapel on the right, 
is another large picture, a Madonna 
enthroned, with Saints and exqui- 
sitely naive angels performing 
music. The picture in the choir is 
also one of the most excellent speci- 
mens as to treatment of landscape, 
iu which Costa first develops a 
feeling for regular lines, in har- 
mony with the figures, and a re- 
markable mastery over tones of 
colour. The subjects are chiefly 
beautiful rich valleys, and views 
over a smooth, not romantic dis- 
tance. Of the frescos by him in 
S. Oedlia (fourth picture on thee 
left and fourth on the right), the 
landscape is perhaps the best. The 
large tempera pictures painted on 
linen in the C. Bentivoglio at S.f 
Giacomo Maggiore appear partly 
quite painted over, partly con- 
strained on account of the subject, 
which was beyond Costa's capacity 
(the two incomprehensible allegori- 
cal triumphs (1490), partly painted 
apparently unwillingly (the Ma- 
donna with the ugly Bentivoglio 
family in their strange costumes 
(1488). The Assumption of the 
Virgin in S. Martimo (fifth altar to g 
the left) remains uncertain between 
Costa and some Peruginesque. At 
Ferrara, besides a picture of no 
great importance in the Ateneo,Ji, 
there is a celebrated work from the 
Church alle Esposte, much injured, 
in the possession of the Marchese 
Strozzi. At Hantua, where he 
died, a Madonna in .S". Andrea 
(1525), a picture related in style to 
the Court of the Muses by the 
same hand at the Louvre. By his 
pupU JErcole di Giulio Grandi, 
several single figures in the Sacristy 
of S. Maria in Vado : a S. Sebas- i 
tian with two other Saints and the 


" The Renaissance." Padudn School. 

a family of the fouader in S. Paolo, 
on the right near the choir. A 
genuine little picture, signed, S. 

6 George in a landscape in P. Cor- 
smi at Borne, Eoom VIII., No. 12. 
The feeble Domenico PandU re- 
minds us both of Costa and of 
Frauoia. No. 82 and 84 in the 

c Museum of Ferrara, a Visitation, 
and a S. Andrew [from the church 
of S. Maria in Vado. In the Sa- 
cristy of the same church] : the 
passage of the Holy Family across 
the Nile, a pleasing fresco-picture. 

d Choir of S. Andrea : the ancient 
altar — or organ— panels, with the 
Angel's Salutation and two Saints, 
already in the manner of Garofalo. 
Michele Cortellini appears as a mere 
imitator of Francia ; in his Madonna 
enthroned with four Saints (1506), 
formerly in S. Andrea, now No. 25 
in the Ferra/ra, OalUry. Costa's 
most important pupil, Mazzolino, 
will be mentioned under the six- 
teenth century. 

The most distinguished repre- 
sentative of the movement in art 
which arose at Padua [under the 
influence of Squarcione, Jacopo 
Bellini, and DonateUo] is the great 
Paduan, Andrea Mantegna (1431- 

His most important works are 
the paintings of the legends of S. 
James and S. Christopher in the 
/chapel of these saints in the Ere- 
mitani at Padua. (Executed with 
the assistance of Bono, Ansy/imo, and 
Piwolo. ) In the higher conception 
of the event, he does not surpass 
the Florentines ; the entreaty of 
James to be received is not digni- 
fied ; in the Baptism of Hermo- 
genes the grouping is very scat- 
tered ; the carrying of the dead 
body of S. Christopher is a Goliath- 
Itke scene, painted for the sake of 
the foreshortening. But in liveli- 
ness of action and perfect truth of 
character hardly any Florentine 

can rival him. Observe, for in- 
stance, the confused rusMng toge- 
ther of the opponents of S. James, 
when he calls up the demons 
against them ; or how in the 
' ' march to the place of judg- 
ment," the simple stopping of the 
procession is expressed ; or the 
group of people aiming at S. Chris- 
topher, who turn round in lively 
astonishment to gaze at the pre- 
fect struck in the eye by an arrow; 
or that of the converted soldiers. 
In the endeavour to attain the 
most exact, even sharply cut 
execution, Mantegna, like the 
Paduan school in general, as, for 
instance, the painter of the P. 
Schifanoia, was not satisfied with 
fresco, but in one picture after 
another attempted different me- 
thods of painting. Notice the 
richness of distant groups, of archi- 
tectural andlandscapebackgrounds, 
of drapery overloaded with folds, 
bright lights, reflections, and so 
forth. The perspective is more or 
less completely carried out ; the ad- 
herence to one point of sight is quite 
new and special to Mantegna. He 
is, with Melozzo, the only North 
Italian of this period, in whom the 
feeling for space is well cultivated. 
Many of the Florentines already 
named must have learnt from 
him, even though only indireotly(?). 
In general he reminds us much 
of Benozzo, only compared with 
him Benozzo seems like a grace- 
ful improvisatore alongside of an 
artistic poet. 

There are other frescos in Uan- 
tna, Castello di Oorte, in the so-g 
called Camera de' Sposi, or Stanza 
di Mantegna, now the Archivio 
notarile ; scenes from the life of 
Lodovico Gonzaga, in graceful 
landscapes, on the ceiling mytholo- 
gical subjects, painted grey on grey. 
On the same story the charming 
vaultings of a loggia ; Putti, with 
the attributes of hunting, which 
seem to have suggested Correggio's 

Andrea Mantegna — Melosso da Forli. 


medallions in S. Paolo. Among 
his easel pictures, the much re- 
stored figure of S. Eufemia, in the 

a Museum of Naples (1454), is the 
earliest and perhaps grandest con- 
ception of ideal beauty ever at- 
tained by him. In smaller pictures 
his execution becomes exquisite 
miniature. The tripartite small 

b altar-piece in the Uffini (Tribune), 
and a small Madonna in a rocky 
landscape (1025), are in this respect 
perfect jewels, although none of the 
characters are grand, and, except- 
ing the head of the Madonna, are 
hardly even pleasing. Of larger 
altar-pieces one above the high 

c altar of S. Zetume at Verona (Ma- 
donna with Saints) has remained in 
Italy ; a masterpiece as to the 
whole feeling and capacity of the 
school. Another is the St. Luke 
and other Saints, a picture in 12 
parts, Jifo. 187, at the Brera. At 
Turin, a Madonna with five Saints, 
half-length figures. [The so-caUed 

d mortuary chapel of MamUgna in S. 
A-ndrea at Mantua possesses an 
altar-piece of a Holy Family by 

ehim. — ^Mr.]* In the 5rera at Mi- 
lan, No. 1591, the large picture in 
tempera of S. Bernardino with 
angels (1460 ?) remarkable, also, as 
a splendid piece of decoration 
[more probably by Dom°- Morcme. 
— Ed.]. An altar-piece on linen of 
large dimensions (1497) in the P. 

fTrimhi at Milan ; a small, beauti- 
fully conceived and executed Ma- 

q donna in the Berga/mo Gallery. — 
In emotional scenes Mantegna is 
sometimes coarse and unbeautiful, 
as, for instance, is shown in the 

^Pieta in the Vatican Gallery, a 
very vigorous and perhaps genuine 
picture, t 

Many works, undoubtedly, have 
received his name erroneously. 
Three little fanciful pictures of 

♦ [This is rather by Francesco Mantegna. 

t [An early picture of Giovanni Bellini. 

B in the P. Doria at Rome 
appear rather to be the work of a 
Ferrarese artist [probably of An- 
suino, more probably of Parentino. 
Ed.]. Four miniature pictures in 
the P. Adorno at Genoa are atj 
least highly characteristic examples 
of the antique and allegorical ten- 
dency of his school, which here 
turns into an agreeable rococo ; the 
Triumph of Judith; the Triumph 
over Jugurtha ; Love chained by 
the Nymphs ; Love led away cap- 
tive. [More probably Florentine, 
between Botticelli and Ghirlan- 
dajo, a fifth picture belonging to 
these, the Triumph of Chastity in 
the Turm Gallery (No. 587).— Mr.]j 
At this time also lived another 
painter who surpassed even Man- 
tegna in his representations of per- 
spective ; Melozzo da Forli, a pupil 
perhaps of Squaroione [??], certainly 
of Piero della Francesca. There is 
to be seen in Borne, in the staircase- 
porch of the Quirinal, a Christ sur- k 
rounded by Angels, and in the 
Stanza Capitolare of the Sacristy Z 
of S. Peter, some portion of figures 
of angels, very insufficient frag- 
ments of a production of wonder- 
ful beauty, the fresco of the As- 
cension in the semi-dome of the 
choir of the SS. Apostoli ; de- 
stroyed in the last century. The 
foreshortened view from below, 
then regarded with wonder as a 
great novelty, was, after Correggio's 
time, many times surpassed by 
third-rate artists, and has now only 
a historical interest ; a far greater 
quaKty in Melozzo is his perfectly 
free, nobly sensuous feeling for 
youthful beauty which he gives 
manifold with the ease of inspi- 
ration. The fresco in the Yaticanm, 
Gallery, of Sixtus IV. with his 
nephews, among whom it is hard to 
make out the future Julius II., 
and, kneeling in the centre, the 
learned Platina, painted in the 
more severe Paduan style, is very 
interesting on account of the dis- 


" The Itenaissance." Paduan School. 

tinotly marked portraits, the rich 
architecture in perspective; and the 
masterly clear colouring. 

In close connection with Piero 
della Franoesca and Melozzo are the 
artists of the Mark of Ancona and 
the Duchy of Urbino, whose works 
are to be sought beyond the less 
visited localities of their original 
district, especially in the Brera at 

a Milan. Pra Oamevale, properly 
Bwrtolommeo Oorradini, from Ur- 
bino (died 1484) appears to be a 
follower of Piero deUa Francesca. 

b Brera (No. 183), a Madonna with 
Angels and Saints, and, kneeling 
before her, Duke Federigo of Ur- 
bino, in steel armour ; Gallery of 

c Perugia, a tall picture in several 
parts, with the Annunciation, a 
Madonna enthroned and Saints [by 
Piero della Francesca. Ed.] ; in 
the church of S. M. delle Grade at 

d Sinigaglia, an Annunciation. The 
father of Raphael, Oiovamni Samti 
(born before 1446, died 1494), had 
been impressed by similar influ- 
ences. The frescos of the Domi- 

e nican church at Cagli are known as 
his piinoipal work. [But many 
altar-pieces from his hand have 
been preserved : S. Jerome, in the 
Gallery of the Zateram at Rome ; 
Madonna and Saints in Santa 
Grace; Visitation in S. M. Ntoova 
of Fano ; Virgin and Child, with 
Saints and Angels (1484) at Gra^ 
dara ; Buffi votive altar-piece in 
the Gallery of Urbino; Madonna 
and. Saints in MoTiiefiorentimo 
(1489), and Morttefiore, and an An- 
nunciation, No. 184, at the Brera.'] 

f Marco PalmezaaTio, from Forli, is 
Melozzo's especial pupil, though far 
from equal to him. [Fine frescos 
in the CapeUa del Tesoro at 
Loretto, and in S. Biagio of Fori}. 
Ed.] There are at Forll numerous 
examples [14 altar-pieces. — Ed.] of 
— his figures of Saints, with their 
prosaic faces and timid expression ; 
one of the best is at Matelica, S. 
Francesco de' Zocoolanti. In the 

Brera, No. 193, a Nativity (1492) ■,g 
No. 181, a Madonna with four 
Saints (1493), and No. 174, a Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, just the 
same in style are the very late 
pictures (1537) in the Uffiei, No. 
1095, the picture of Christ Crucified 
in a remarkably rocky landscape ; 
in the Museum of the Lateran at 
Borne, a Madonna enthroned with 
four Saiats. [In various European 
galleries, some score of Palmez- 
zano's pictures. — Ed.] Girolamoh 
Genga, from Urbino (1476-1551), 
also a sculptor and architect, pupil 
of SignoreUi and Perugino, is badly 
represented in a later picture in the 
Brera, No. 198, Company of Saints, 
with a glory above them on a black 
ground [the predeUa of which, 
with Christ and the Samaritan at 
the well, is in the Carrara Gallery 
at Bergamo. — Ed.] 

Tvnwteo della Tite, whose youth- i 
ful works should here find their 
place, must be looked for among 
the pupils of KaphaeL 


The painters of Vicenza and 
Verona, 1450-1500, are also essen- 
tially Paduan in their training, al- 
though in a few of them something 
is seen of Giovanni Bellini's in- . 
fluenoe ; they do not much attempt 
the splendid colouring andcharacter 
of the Venetians. 

In Vicenza we must mention the 
morose, but honest and thorough, 
Bartolommeo Montagna [in practice^ 
in 1480, died 1523.— Ed.]. Three 
pictures in the Pinacoteca ; in S. 
Corona, the large picture in -tem- 
pera on linen to the left near the 
door ; in the cathedral, perhaps the 
paintings of the fourth chapel on 
the left ; in the fifth chapel on the 
right, the two Apostles, and per- 
haps also the Adoration of the 
Child. Large altar-pieces in the 
Academy at Venice, and in the 
Brera at Milan. Excellent frescos 

Pisanello — lAberale — Morone. 


by him in S8. Nazaro e Celso at 

a Verona, cap. di S. Biagio, 1493 ; 
four pictures in the choir of the 
same church. In the same church, 
first chapel on the left, two panels, 
each with two very beautiful figures 
of Saints. Large picture of 1500, 
in the church of Monte Berico, at 

i Vicenza. A large altar-piece in 8. 
Oiovarmi Uarione, between Verona 
and Vicenza. A similar one in S. 
Maria in Vamzo by the Seminario at 
Padua. The Sacristy of the Certosa 
at Pavia possesses a good picture. 
[Contemporary with Montagna, 

c Oiova/imi Bv/mconsiglio labours al- 
ternately at Venice and Vicenza ; 
he combines the searching cha- 
racters of Paduan art with the glow 
of colour of Antonello da Messina. 
Altar-pieces in the gallery and 
churches of Vicenza, Carrara Gal- 
lery at Bergamo, Academy and S. 
Spirito at Venice, and Montag- 
nana. — Ed.] 

Of the contemporary painters of 
Vicenza, the chief are Francesco 

d Verlas, an imitator of Penigino, 
altar-pieces, No. 269, at tte Brera j 
and others at Schio, Sarcedo, Velo, 
and Trent ; Gfiovanni Speranza, 
pictures in S. Giorgio of Vfelo, the 
gallery and churches of Vicenza, 
and private collections at Padua 
and Belluno, and Marcello Pogolino; 
pictures in the Pinacoteca and good 
frescos in S. Lorenzo, chapel on the 
left near the choir ; Martyrdom of 
S. Peter, very interesting, but 
nearly destroyed [altar-pieces and 
frescos at Trent. — Ed.] 

e At Verona there remain some 
works of Pisanello, properly Vit- 
tore Pisano (died about 1455), who 
was one of the originators of the 
style of the fifteenth century. 
(Damaged fresco of an Annuncia- 
tion in S. Fermo, wall over the 
choir.) [Other works in S. Anas- 
iasia; on the right, above the 
vault of the choir, a S. George 
killing the dragon. In the Gallery 
of Verona, a Madonna with birds 

and flowers. His pupil OrioU — 
whose portrait of Lionel d' Este is 
in the National Gallery, had a good 
practice at Faenza between 1449 
and 1461.— Ed.] AH the other 
painters were entirely formed under 
Mantegna's influence. In S. Anas- 
tasia there are some anonymous 
frescos, in the chapels right and left 
of the choir. 

Francesco Bonsignori, much re-/ 
sembling Montagna in character ; 
Madonnas with Saints in the Pina- 
coteca at Verona (1488) and in S. 
Fermo, chapel near the left tran- 
sept (1484). Girolamo Benaglio 
(1487) has pictures in the Pima- 

Several of the churches have 
pictures by Liberale da Verona g 
(b. 1451, living 1515); among others, 
in the Cathedral, an Adoration of 
the Kings, with a rich landscape. 
Frescos in S. Anastasia, over the 
third altar to the right, a large 
S. Sebastian in the Brera at Milan, 
hard and sharp, a capital picture 
of action in the Paduan style ; also 
three small panel pictures in the 
chapel of the archbishop's palace. 
[(?. P. Falconetto (b. 1458, d. 1534), h 
a follower of Liberale but imitator 
of Melozzo, painted largely in Ve- 
ronese churches. Frescos in the 
Cathedral, SS. Nazaa-o e Celso, and 
S. Fermo of Verona. — Ed.] By 
Girolamo dai Libri [b. 1474, d. 1556] i 
there is, among others in S. M. in 
Orgamo, on the right of the entrance, 
a beautifiU Madonna with Saints 
under laurels [by Mocetto. — Ed.] 
[a great picture in the church of 
S. Giorgio in Braida. — Mr.] ; in the 
Pinacoteca, a splendid Adoration of 
the (boldly designed) Child with 
Saints, and two Madonnas en- 
throned with Saints, from S.Maria 
delta Vittoria and from S. Andrea. 
Dom^nico Morone (hornl442) painted^ 
in 1503 the refectory of the ancient 
convent of S. Bernardino. His 
celebrated son, Pramcesco Morone 
(1473—1529), teacher ['contempo- 


" The Renaissance." Brescians. 

rary. — Ed.] of Girol. dai Libri, 
from whom it is often difficult to 
distinguish him, greatly resembles 
Giov. Bellmi in two beautiful pic- 
tures in the Pinacoteoa, a Christ in 
Glory standing upon clouds, with 
Mary and John the Baptist, (accord- 
ing to Crowe and Cav., probably 
by Morando,) and a Christ Cruci- 
fied (1498) ; in the noble frescos of 
the sacristy of S. M. in Organo, 
(half-length figures of Saints, and, 
in a central division of the roof the 
Saviour floating with Saints, much 
foreshortened) ; he appears as a 
fully-developed master of the six- 
teenth century. For Ca/roto and 
Mooetto, see below. 


The farther we move towards 
the west, the more we lose the ac- 
curate knowledge of the human 
form, and the enjoyment in sharply 
delineating it which characterise 
the Paduans ; in some Piedmontese 
painters it is really altogether lost. 

u, EventheBrescian Vi/ncenzo Foppa 
the elder [practised 1456 to 1492], 
in his fresco of the Martyrdom of 
S. Sebastian (Brera) no longer at- 
tains the thorough correctness of 
form of the Veronese painters. 
Many of his works are in the 
churches of Brescia; a rich series 
of frescos in the former chapter- 
house of S. Barnabas, now a 
printing-office. His best picture 
in the Oarrwra Academy at Ber- 
gmao is the Crucifixion, painted in 
monochrome in a greenish tone 
(1456). [But of more importance 
is the Madonna with Saints, dated 
1489, in the Cathedral of Savona. 

J [Foppa's pupils were Bernardino 
Jacdbi, commonly called Biittincme 
(1454 — 1507) and Bemardimo Mar- 
tini, called Zenale (b. 1435, d. 1526), 
both nativesof Treviglio. Biittinone, 
a Paduan in style, is seen to less 

advantage in single pieces [Madonna 
of the Castelbarco coU. sold in 1870, 
Virgin and Child with 2 Saints in 
the Borromeo Palace at Isola Bella] 
than in the works which he exe- 
cuted in partnership vrith Zenale : 
frescos in S. M. deUe Grazie and 
S. Pietro in Gessate at Milan, altar- 
pieces of 1485 in S. Martino of 
Treviglio. Zenale shows more affi- 
nity at first to the pure Lombards 
than his partner. He afterwards 
imitates da Vinci : Annunciation 
and Christ crowned with thorns in 
the Borromeo Coll., Madonna at 
the Ambrosia/na, Madonna with 
Ludovico and Beatrix Sforza, and 
other panels in the Brera, and 
frescos in S. Amhrogio, at Uilan. 

Bramamivrw, more properly Bar- c 
tolommeo Suardi (alive between 
1491 and 1529), assistant to Bra- 
mante at Milan, then painter with 
an independent practice at Milan 
and Rome, starts with local pecu- 
liarities. Crucifixion in the Muni- 
dpio, Christ of pity at 8. Sepolaro 
at Mjlan ; then takes something 
of the XJmbriau from Bramante ; 
Martyrdom of S. Sebastian in S. 
Sebastiano ; and finally conuuingles 
the TJmbrianwith theLionardesque; 
Madonna and Saints from S. Mi- 
chele in the Ambrosiana; Flight 
into Egypt at Locarno ; frescos in 
S. M. delle Grazie, and various 
pieces in the Brera at Kilan. 

Vincenzo OivercTdo, who succeeded d 
Foppa as town painter of Brescia, 
oflfers a variety of the Veronese 
style cultivated by Liberale. His 
earliest work is an altar-piece (1495) 
in S. Barnaba of Brescia; hislatest 
the Baptism of Christ (dated 1539) 
in the Tadini coll. at Lovere, dated 
1539. Contemporary with him are 
MoTiiorfano, whose Crucifixion of 
1495 faces the Last Supper of da 
Vinci in the refectory of the Grazie 
at Milan, and Bernardo de Conti, by 
whom we have a Madonna in the 
Carrara Gallery (1501) at Bergamo. 



Bargognone (properly Ambrogio 
Fossano, died after 1524), whose 
paintings were in very great de- 
mand, was very successful in some 
little fresco scenes (paintings at the 

a back in S. Ambrogio : Christ among 
the Doctors ; Christ Risen, with 
Angels ; a PietS, all painted over) ; 
but in large undertakings (the 

i choir of S. Svmpliciano (1524)) the 
attempt to transfer the ideas of 
the sixteenth century to somewhat 
inanimate forms of the fifteenth 
produces a very insipid result. A 

c great Assumption of the Virgin 
(Brera) reminds us of vapid Peru- 
ginesques. Special Madonnas, on 
the other hand, which are met with 
here and there, possess a very great 
charm. Remarkable pictures in 

dthe Certosa at Pavia [where are 
also his earliest and most important 
pictures, the Crucifixion of 1490, 
fourth chapel to the right ; Am- 
brose, with four Saints, sixth chapel 
to the left. Various pictures be- 
longing to the Duca Scotti at 
Milan ; his great picture in the 

cAmbrosicma betrays in its pale 
flesh tones its connection with 
Zenale. — Mr.]. There are many 
pictures of this old school, also in 
the manner of Borgoguone, in the 
/Madonna delle Oranie, at Locarno. 
[Also a fresco in San Satiro (1494), 
and frescos in S. M. delle Passione, 
at Milan, predeUas (1487) at the 
Incoromita of Lodi, and an altar- 
piece in S. Spirito of Bergamo 

[The earliest local form of art in 
the Genoese territory is found in 

J the works of Giovanni Mazone of 
Alexandria, by whom a Nativity 
and Crucifixion with Saints in the 

A hospital of Savona recalls the rude 
works of the Byzantines of Venice, 
whilst a later Nativity in the Louvre 
displays the subsequent influence 
of Foppa. After Mazone, Lodomco 
Brea takes an important place 

amongst Genoese painters : St. 
John Evangelist and other Saints 
(1490) in the hospital; Assumption 
(1495) in the left transept of the 
Cathedral of Savona ; Coronation of % 
the Virgin (1513) in S. M. di Cas- 
tello at Genoa. Brea seems to 
oscUlate between the Flemish style 
of the school of Bruges and that of 
the Peruginesques. Feebler and 
coarser was Antonio Semino : Na-y 
tivities in the town-house and in 
S. Domenico (1535) of Savona; 
and Teramo Piaggia : Virgin of the 
Rosary in S. Domenico of Savona, i 
St. Peter and St. Paul in S. Pan- 
crazio at Genoa. Lorenzo de' Fasoli I 
follows in the steps of Brea : Christ 
taken from the Cross (1508) in S. 
Ghiara of Chiavari, and the family 
of Mary (1513) at the Louvre. Pier. 
Francesco Sacchi (1512—27) takes 
to Genoa a mixture of the Flemish 
and Peruginesque style which for a 
moment captivates the eye : St. 
John leaving Joachim (1512) in 
S. Maria of Genoa ; Glory of the 
Virgin with Saints (1526) in S. M. 
di Oastello ; Christ taken from the 
Cross (1527), in S. Nazarro of Mnl- 
tedo near Genoa. Teramo Piaggia 
imitates Sacchi. — Ed.] 


[In Piedmont no artist of anyra 
talent shewed himself tUl Macrino 
d'AUa came into repute at the close 
of the loth century. Early frescos 
at Ranverso, pointing to Sienuese 
or TJmbrian influence, are better 
than the rude local work of Gio- 
vanni Ca'navesi, or Gcmdoljmi, in 
altar-pieces, at the Turin Miiseum 
(1491 and 1493). Macrino (in prao- n 
tice 1496 — 1508), though a native 
of Alba, seems not to have been 
locally taught. He reminds us at 
different times of SignoreUi, Mon- 
tagna, Borgognone, and Lionardo. 
His style is a mixture of the Umbro- 
Florentine and Lombard, powerful 
and realistic in some measure ; 


" The Renaissance." Venetian School. 

surfaces unadorned with gay colour 
or graceful outline, though deep 
toned, and blended to a nicety ; 
figures unaelect but strong. Of 
Macrino's numerous altar-pieces the 
following deserve mention : Virgin 
and Child and Resurrection (1496), 

a in the Oertosa of Pavia; Virgin and 
ChUd in glory with Saints and 
Angels (1498) ; from the Gertosa of 
Asti, in the Turin Gallery, nu- 
merous fragments of altar-pieces in 
the same museum, and in the 
churches and gallery of Crea, 
Asti, and Alba (1501—8). Con- 
temporary with Maoriuo, but on a 

J lower level, DifemdenU Ferrari of 
Chivasso, is a painter of numerous 
pictures, chief of which are a Pietk 
in the CatJiedral of Chivasso, altar- 
pieces in the Ca&ed/ral of Ivrea 
(1519—21), and a Nativity with 
Saints (1531) in the church of 

cRanverso. Qirolmno Giovenone of 
Vercelli, by whom there are pic- 
tures of 1513—1514 and 1527 in 
the galleries of Vercelli, Turin, and 
Bergamo ; and his relatives Joseph 

<?aud Battista (Turin Gall. No. 60, 
and Vercelli Casa Gattinara). 
Crowe and Cav.] 


At Modena I have, to my regret, 
not met with any works by Cor- 
reggio's master, FruTwesco Biamihi- 
Ferrari. [One picture, the An- 
nunciation (1506—10) in the Gall, 
of Modena, No. 36, is by him, and 
reminds us of Tura. — Ed.] Of 
the old local painters in the Ducal 
Gallery, Bartolommeo Boimsia (a 
e Dead Christ lying in the tomb, with 
Mary and John, 1485) is interesting 
by his powerful colouring, and 
Marco Meloni (a Madonna enthroned 
between two Saints, 1504) by his 
expression, rather in Francia's 
manner. Bernwrdino Losco [b. 1489, 
d. 1540], the sou of Jaoopo Losohi, 
of Carpi (Madonna enthroned with 
two Saints, 1515) is one of the best 
of the old Lombards ; the so-called 

"Gherardo di Harlem," on the 
other hand (a large Crucifixion, 
full of figures), one of the hard old 
(West Lombard?) masters [Ferra- 
rese, a late work of Stefano, or an 
early one of Costa. — ^Mr.]. 

In Parma Correggio had no rivals 
in predecessors like Jacobus de Lusei- 
niis (Jacoho de Imschis, 1459 — 1504), 
Gristofano Caselli, surnamed Tem- 
perello,* liodovico da Parma, and 
Alessandro Araldi (practising be- 
tween 1500 and 1528). There are 
pictures by these painters in the 
Gallery there; by the latter also/ 
small scenes in fresco in the Ga/mera g 
di S. Paolo, and a Madonna with 
two Saints in S. Giovanni, first chapel h 
on the right. Of the artist family 
of Mazzola, who, later on, quite 
attached themselves to Correggio, 
Pierilario was living at this time, 
by whom there is in the Gallery a 
Madonna enthroned with three 
Saints, and the more celebrated 
Filippo Mawola [his pictures, 1491 
to 1504], one of the hardest and 
least graceful of aU the artists pro- 
duced by the Faduan influence, 
but, nevertheless, no mean draughts- 
man. There is by him a very black 
wooden Deposition, of 1600, in the* 
Naples Museum; the altar-piece in/ 
the Baptistery at Parma; a Conver-i 
sion of Paul in the Gallery. [A? 
powerfully modelled portrait of a 
man in the Brera, No. 178; am 
suuUar one in the P. Doria atn 
Eome.— Mr.] The picture which 
is perhaps the most pleasing of this 

* In the sacristy of the Salute at Venice 
is a Madonna enthroned, hy this, hy no 
means contemptible, pupil of Bellini ; an- 
other excellent Madonna with S. Ilario 
and John the Baptist, signed, 1499, in the 
Sala del Consorzio at Parma, an Adoration 
resembling Cima in softness and charm of 
colour, on the third altar to the right in 
S. Giovanni Evangelista. In the Btera, I 
think No. 172 and No. 78 should be 
ascribed to him. — Mr. [But see that No. 
172 is by a pupil of Bondinello, and 78 by 
Zenale.— Ed.] 

The Vimrini. 


school is without aname ; aMadonna 
enthroned with three singing Angels 
a and two Saints, in the Steccata, 
(front corner chapel on the left). 

We distinguish at Venice two 
generations of painters during the 
second half of the fifteenth century. 

The first is altogether derived 
from Padua : the principles of style 
of the painters of Murano are en- 
tirely changed in accordance with 
it. We have already mentioned 
Bartolommeo Vivarmi (paintiag 
from 1450 to 1499), in connection 
with Johannes and Antonius of 
Murano. This painter is essentially 
Paduan in his more characteristic 
works ; in his splendid and accu- 
rate execution he often resembles 
Mantegna, but is colder in colour. 
The personages of his altar-pieces 
are always solemn, sometimes ex- 
ceedingly dignified, sometimes al- 
most fierce, seldom graceful. The 
decorative parts, as is usual with 
the Venetians formed under the 
Paduan influence, are especially 
rich. (Thrones, garlands of fruit, 
leaf-covered espaliers, numbers of 
Putti, &c. ) A Madonna enthroned 
with four Saints standing and four 
half-length figures floating (1465, 

* ? 1469), in the Musewm, at Naples ; 
" at Venice, altar-pieces in the Aca- 
demy (No. 1 of 1464, No. 14 of 

^ 1490) ; in S. Oiovarmi e Paolo, 
St. Vincent on the second altar 
on the right (much resembling 
Mantegna, perhaps in great part 
the work of Lwigi Yivarini* of 
whom we shall speak later) ; in the 
right transept a S. Augustine en- 

* throned (1473); in S. Giovamni in 
Bragora, a Madonna enthroned, 
with side panels (by the first chapel 
to the left, dated 1478) ; in the 

J Prari a later, softer altar-piece 

* This conjecture appears to me correct. 
—Mr. [Probably by several hands, amongst 
which Carpaccio doubtless took the lead 

(right transept, dated 1482), and, 
perhaps quite a late picture, St. 
Mark enthroned with Angels and 
Saints (transept to the left) ; an 
inferior work, in S. M. Formosa g 
(second altar on the right) ; Ma- 
donna, with suppliants under her 

The hardness and severity of 
Bartolommeo is mellowed, partly 
through the influence of Bellini, in 
his younger brother or relation, 
Lwigi Vivarmi, into a really noble 
grace and fulness. Several pictures 
in the Academy — a Resurrection in A 
iS*. Giovanni m Bragora (entrance i 
to the choir on the left, date 1498), 
[two single figures of Saints ascribed 
to him in S. Giov. Crisostomo 
(second altar on the left) I consider 
to be by Girolamo da Santa Croce. 
— Mr.] The splendid large altar-/ 
piece in the Frari (third chapel left 
of the choir), the S. Ambrose en- ft 
throned between other Saints, was 
completed by Basaiti (see below), 
and belongs properly to the next 
generation. On the other hand, a 
Madonna with two barefooted I 
Saints, in the Museiam of Naples, 
is an early picture (1485). A finem 
Adoration in Montefioreniino sa- 
cristy. [Bartolommeo and Luigi 
bequeathed their art to two second- 
rate masters, Jacopo da Valencia 
(1485-1509), pictures at Venice, 
Belluno, and Ceneda ; and Andrea 
da Mwrano, altar-pieces (1501) at 
Trebaseleghe, (1502) at Mussolone. 

Of the works of Carlo Ori-n 
vein the greatest number are in 
the Brera at Milan. Hard and 
severe, like Bartolommeo, splen- 
dour-loving beyond measure, yet 
not without taste, in some specisil 
characters resembling Johannes 
Alamannus, he attains, at least in 
a Madonna enthroned (1482), a very 
high degree of grace. By him is 
perhaps the Pope, St. Mark in S. 
Marco at Rome (chapel right of the o 
choir). [The figures by this master, 
G 2 


" The Renaissance." Venetian School. 

often ugly, but never expressionless, 
full of a strong inward life, are 
distinguished by peculiarly clear 
colouring, as if produced by the 
most transparent vegetable juices ; 
the beautiful garlands of Sowers 
and fruit, in which he takes 
especial pleasure, are remarkably 
good. CrivelU is at home properly 
in the March of Ancona and the 
small places along the coast down 

a to Aacoli. A beautiful MadonTM 
in the Zoccolanti of S. Francesco at 
Ancona. — Mr.] A lovely and ex- 

jpressive Madonna in the Museo 
Cristiano of the Vatican at Borne ; 
a rich Coronation of the Virgin of 

c 1493 in the Brera, Oggione Gallery. 


The second generation of Vene- 
tian painters begins with Gentile 
Bellini (1426? to 1507) and Giovanni 
Bellini (1427 ? to 1516), sons of Ja- 
copo Bellini. The youth and middle 
age of both brothers appear to 
have been passed in a position of 
dependence ; but little exists by 
Gentile; Giovanni's early pictures 
are mostly lost under other names, 
and his numerous authentic works, 
in the manner peculiar to him, 
only began with his sixtieth year. 
Of his numerous pupils or follow- 
ers we name only the following : — 
Fierfrancesco Bissolo, Piermaria 
Pennacchi, Martina da Udine, Giro- 
lamo da Santa Grace* (who worked 

• Here we may mention, in passing, the 
BeTgamasq,ae painter, Girolamo da Santa 
Croce, who formed himself in Venice, but 
chiefly worked at Padua. Best known hy 
his earlier pictures with small figures 
(Martyrdom of St. Laurence, in the 
Museum of Naples), he did not succeed 
later in gaining the freedom of the great 
masters. Glory of St. Thomas d, Becket, 
in S. Silvestro at Venice, first altar on the 
left; large Cenacolo (1549) in S. Martino, 
over the door; in S. Francesco at Padua, 
the frescos of the second chapel on the 
right [Burckhardt here confounds Giro- 
lamo Santa Croce with Girolamo del Santo. 
— Ed.]. His colouring always has the 
Venetian glow. By a fellow-couDtryman, 
Francesco, properly Biazo da Samta Croce, 

chiefly in Padua), Vimcenzo Cate/na, 
of Treviso, Andrea Previtali, Giam- 
battista Ciina da Conegliamo, Gio- 
vanni Mansueti, and others. Not 
belonging to his school, yet in 
various ways affected by it, Marco 
Basaiti, Vittore Carpacdo, Lazzaro 
Sehastiani, Baeacdno da Crenuma, 
Marco Ma/rziale, and others. 

The grandeur of this school, along 
with its narrowness, is so uniformly 
marked in all the individuals (in 
spite of great differences) that it may 
be discussed as a whole. Once more 
in this century of unshackled sub- 
jectivitythe individual subordinates 
himself to the all-prevailing type. 
Clearly the patrons of art, on the 
whole, determine the course of the 

Above aU, the school did not 
deal in narrative painting ; and 
when it did so, in spite of all glow 
of colour and truth of detail, it is 
immensely inferior in idea to the 
Florentines. Even in the great 
" Preaching of St. Mark at Alex- d 
andria" of Gentile Bellini (Brera, 
Milan) we have a crowd of figures 
indifferently collected together, of 
a certain doU-hke sharpness ; and 
it is the same in his "Miracle of < 
the Holy Cross," and in the "Pro- 
cession " with the relic (Academy 
at Venice. )+ Carpacdo, with Mam- 
sueti and Sehastiani, carried on this 
history of the Cross : he may be/ 
said to be the only narrator in this 
school ; in the same collection 
there are by him eight large his- 
tories of S. Ursula, full of figures ; 
and in the Sauola di S. Giorgio 

a Last Supper in S. Francesco della Tigna, 
second chapel on the left [early pictures 
of 1513 in the Academy at Venice; later 
on he imitated Girolamo da S. Croce in 
small pictures with many figures ; among 
others in the Museo Correr and elsewhere. 
—Mr.}. Earliest work, the Annunciation, 
once at Spino, now in the Carrara GalL 
at Bergamo, 1504. Latest, Madonna at 
Chirigna^o, near Mestre, 1541. — Ed. 

t This is undeserved criticism of a great 
master, whose pictures on the organ 
shutters at S. Marco, Dr. BurckhMdt 
appears not to have seen, — Ed. 

Carpaccio — A. da Messina. 


a degli Schiavoni, two series of 
smaller histories of S. George and 
S. Jerome. If namU in details, 
picturesque and easy arrangement, 
with much beautiful architecture 
and landscape, heads fuU of life 
and even exquisite in their youth - 
fulness, lastly, an often remarkable 
power of luminousness in colour, 
could form a historical picture, 
Carpaccio would have succeeded. 
The most interesting point in these 
miracle pictures is always the 
motley delineation of mediaeval 
6 Venice. In the Uffizi, No. 80 — 
Mwnsaeti's Christ among the 
Doctors. Many historical pictures, 
indeed, were destroyed in the con- 
flagrations of the Ducal Palace. 
No frescos or series of frescos are 
to be found. 

The BibUoal events which these 
Venetian painters represent, are 
mostly exquisitely peaceful scenes, 
of which the essential parts could 
be expressed in half-length figures. 
It is not without reason that the 
Supper at Emmaus, for instance, is 
so much in favour ; of which more 

It was in this school that the 
Venetian colouring first was formed. 
Possibly something was due to 
Antonello da Messina [in prac- 
tice 1465-93], who lived long in 

[The most valuablepictures of this 
very remarkable master are, as is 
well known, to be found in foreign 
countries (London, Glasgow, Paris, 
Berlin, Vienna, Antwerp). In 
Italy are a Virgin and Child with 
Saints, in S. Gregorio, of Messina, 

cthe portrait of a man with black 
hair in a fur coat, in the Jjffizi; 

d another in the Academy at Venice, 
No. 255 ; there also the Ecce 
Homo, No. 264, both from the 
Pal. Manfrin. Undoubtedlybyhim, 
and probably a portrait of him- 
self, the speaking-head in the 

e Borghese Gallery at Bome, eleventh 

room, No. 27 ; a good portrait, 
again, that in the Giovanelli Collec- 
tion at Venice.] [A portrait, quite 
corresponding with this, is in the 
Carrara CoUeotion at Bergamo ; 
another belongs to the ManJiesaf 
Trivulzi at Milan ; in the Stabil- g 
mento Malaspina at Pavia is a very h 
interesting picture of a man's face, 
spare in feature, signed, unfortu- 
nately much injured. — Mr.] [It is 
desirable not to forget AntoneUo's 
pupil Pietro da Messina, whose 
pictures (S. M. Formosa, Venice, 
Gallery of Padua, and KospigUosi i 
Palace at Bome), are a mixture of 
the styles of AntoneUo and Cima. 
Sahio d'Antonio, in a Death of^ 
Mary at Messina (Duomo), proves 
himself a painter of the Tuscan, 
not of the Venetian school. Other 
artists of the SiciUan school con- 
temporary with Antonello are : 
Tommaso de' Vigilia (Madonna of k 
1488, in the Convent of the Vergimi, 
at Palermo), Pietro Buzwlone, of 
Palermo (Crucifix in the Chapel 
of Termini), Antonio Crescemsio 
(Triumph of Death in the hospital 
of Palermo), an TJmbrian in style. 
Antonello de Saliba, often con- 1 
founded with AntoneUo himself 
(altar-pieces of 1497 to 1531, in the 
churches of Catania, Palermo, Mes- 
sina, and Milazzo.) — Ed.] The 
painters of Murano, however, were 
the founders of the school. Without 
anywhere losing themselves in re- 
finement of detail, the school now 
discovers the secrets of harmony 
and of transitions, as well as the 
mode of employing single colours 
with the greatest effect of beauty. 
It did not aim at producing illusion 
by the representation of materials ; 
in the drapery it gives a luminous 
transparency, but in the nude it 
achieves that indescribably soft 
and nobly life-like substance which 
is produced by the finest modelling, 
working not in dark shadows but 
only in tones of colour, partly by 
secrets of glazing, and, indeed, in a, 


" The Renaissance." Venetian School. 

liuiidred different ways." By the 
side of these productions everything 
Paduan seems left very far behind. 
The greatest of this school, Gio- 
vanni BeUini, is greatest likewise 
in colouring and in rendering ; 
others retain certain hardnesses 
(Carpaccio, even Cima), or incline 
towards a weak scumbling. (Bel- 
lini himself sometimes aims at a 
hazy transparency. ) 

In richness of incident this school 
is naturally far inferior to the Flo- 
rentine ; but the figures are, as a 
rule, easy, even noble in form and 
action. The representation of S. 
Sebastian as a standing figure keeps 
up the drawing of the nude to a 
remarkable height. The drapery 
indeed follows more the general 
laws of colour than a higher feeling 
for lines ; yet it is freer from trivial 
motives and overcrowding than is 
the case, for instance, with Filip- 
pino Lippi. The characters are the 
principal object with the Venetian 
painter. He puts them together, 
not for the sake of sharp and there- 
fore effective contrasts, but as tones 
of one and the same chord ; neither 
supersensual longing nor sudden 
grief, but the expression of calm 
happiness pervades them : it is this 
which, expressed in energetic and 
well-formed figures, fills the mind 
of the spectator with that inward 
satisfaction which no other school 
produces in the same manner. This 
type of the human race is so near 
reality, that one feels it possible to 
meet such characters and live with 
them. •; Raphael does not lead us to 
expect anything of the sort ; inde- 
pendently of their ideal form, his 
figures seem also removed from 
us by their lofty relations and 

Giovanni Bellini, though occasion- 
ally equalled by most of those we 

* In the UfiQzi is a remarkable drawing 
on a gesso-ground, ascribed to Bellini, re- 
presenting the. dead body of Christ sur- 
rounded by seven persons. 

have named, in their best moments, 
even in the characters, always re- 
mains far the greatest of all. Pro- 
bably to him is owing (in Venice) 
the new arrangement of the altar- 
pieces ; instead of being set in 
separate panels, the single Saints 
are collected in a group round the 
Madonna enthroned, in a "Santa 
Conversazione, "which is beautif uUy 
framed architecturally by a porch 
either open or closed by a niche 
in mosaic ; he constructs his group 
almost with the same severe, beau- 
tifully formed symmetry as Fra 
Bartolommeo. Since the ill-omened 
fire in S. Giovanni e Paolo, which 
destroyed Bellini's greatest altar- 
piece along with the Peter Martyr 
of Titian, there still remain two 
large altar-pieces, of the first rank, 
by him in Venice— in S. Zcuxaria, a 
(second altar on the left, of the year 
1505) and in the Academy. The 5 
mere juxtaposition of the saintly 
figures, without definite emotion, 
or even distinct devotion, gives an 
effect of something supersensual by 
the harmonious union of so many 
free and beautiful characters in a 
blessed state of existence. The 
wonderful angels on the steps 
of the throne, with their singing, 
their lutes and violins, are but 
the outward symbol of this truly 
musical meaning. As this meaning 
could make itself felt even in half- 
length figures, hundreds of these 
were produced, chiefly for private 

But not only in his arrangement 
of the characters for a picture, but 
also in his conception of individuals, 
Giovanni Bellini was the model of 
all the rest, and their deliverer 
from old trammels. The scale on 
which he moved was by far the 
grandest of any. He could be bur- 
lesque in his representation of the 
classical mythological world : the 
priceless (so-called) Bacchanalia in 
the Camuccini collection finished 
by Titian (now in England, in the 

Giovanni Bellini. 


poBsesBion of the Duke of Northum- 
berland) travesties the Carouse of 
Gods into a " Pesta" of Italian 
peasants. When he fell into the 
allegorising of the time, he was 
capable of being as absurd as any 
one; five very deHcate little pic- 

atures in the Academy of Venice, 
somewhat to be compared to Pin- 
turicchio's Allegories in the P. Tor- 
rigiani at Florence. The religious 
pictures, on the other hand, are 
pervaded by a harmonious dignity 
and sweetness. The picture in S. 
Giovanni e Paolo displayed in the 
female Saints a splendid race of 
full-grown maidens, who yet recall 
Mantegna's S. Eufemia. The angels 
by the throne were here, as in all 
his pictures, eagerly devoted to 
their music, and perfectly simple, 
which is not always so, for in- 
stance, in Francia and Perugiuo. 

b His late picture in S. Giovanni 
Grisostomo, first altar on the right 
(1513), almost as free and broad as 
a Palma, contains some of his best 
male characters (in the great altar- 
piece of the Academy some of his 
most beautiful nude forms). In 
the Madonna is seen an advance 
from a severe and somewhat in- 
animate type (for instance, the one 
picture in the Brera at Milan, 
several in Venice) to one of a grand 
beauty, but still silways serious 
and ideal even in costume. This 
perhaps is, for the first time, well 

c carried out in the Madonna of 1487 
(in the Academy), and in the 
splendid picture in the Sacristy of 

dthe Frari (1488). An important 
picture, of the same year, in S. 
Pietro e Paolo at Murano, near the 
second altar on the right, has been 
unfortunately injured by the damp, 
and "restored " in Venice. Among 
several works in the Academy im- 
fortuuately hardly one has been 
untouched, in the Brera at Milan 
(signed, 1510), and elsewhere. The 
" two pictures in the sa,cristy of the 
Kedentore, of which one was for- 

merly a perfect jewel, are nearly/ 
destroyed. Among the Saints, the 
females are generally the best. 

But in Bellini the sublime con- 
ception of the form of Christ is 
the most important thing, which 
through his infiuence was retained 
also through the next generation of 
Venetians. His infant Christ is 
not only well formed, but as 
sublime and impressive in action 
and position as is possible without 
destroying the expression of child- 
hood. In the picture in S. Gio- 
vanni e Paolo, the by no means 
ideal Madonna possessed a solemn 
charm in the repose of her sitting 
figure, and the calm standing po- 
sition of the child giving the bene- 
diction. Also in the altar-piece of 
the Academy the child is serious g 
and grand, in marked contrast 
with the angels playing on musical 
instruments.* Befiini also ven- 
tured to represent the mature 
Christ giving the benediction as a 
single figure, with a background of 
landscape or tapestry, with the 
dignified manliness, the same type 
of head which one finds recurring 
in certain pictures [? ascribed to] 
Giorgione and Titian (gallery at 
Parma). And now follows ' ' Christ ^l 
at Emmaus" (S. Salvadore at 
Venice, chapel on left of choir), 
one of the first pictures of Italy 
[certainly not by BeUini, but by 
Carpaccio],t perhaps the most 
sublime head of Christ in modern 
art, only excepting Lionardo. i 
Lastly, the master seems to have 
had in hia mind the highest eleva- 

* Bellini certainly also painted the 
always insupportable scene of the Cir- 
cumcision (S. Zaccaria, second chapel on 
the left, in the space round the choir), and 
many others followed him. 

t Here and in similar pictures of the 
Supper at Emmaus, "by Palma Vecchio 
Titia/n, etc., the surroundings are quite 
earthly and apparently commonplace, but 
one has only to compare the insolent pic- 
ture of Sontlwrst (Manfrini Gallery) to 
understand that there are two kinds of 


" The Renaissance." Venetian School. 

tion, a Transfiguration on Mount 
Tabor. The picture of this subjeot 

flsin the Naples Miisewm, painted 
with the most sincere endeavour 
after a deeper conception of the 
picture, was perhaps an early at- 
tempt o^ this kind (a copy in S. M. 

b Mater Dommi at Venice, first altar 
on the left). It is possible that 
the sketch of a head of Christ 
looking a little upwards, in the 
Academy, was the first idea of a 

c Trcumfigv/ration that was never ac- 
complished ? (A beautiful Baptism 

d of Christ, in S. Corona at Vincenza, 
fifth altar on the left. ) 
A splendid fresco of Bellini's 

e adorns the church of S. Ntecolo at 
Treviso (in the choir on the left), 
a painted monument of the senator 
Onigo, with two youthful warriors 
standing at the sides, medallions, 
ornaments; also the large picture 
at the high altar.* 

f [In the Town-hall at Bimini th ere 
is an early and severe PietS,, similar 
to the one in the Brera (by Zaga- 
neUi. Cr. andCav.). On the altar 

g of the left aisle of 8. Francesco at 
Fesaro stands forth a grand im- 
portant work of the master (much 
injured by splits and restoring). 

h Palazzo Oiovamelli, the only re- 
maining art collection in Venice, 
possesses a precious little picture, 
signed. The gallery belonging to 

I the town in the Palazzo Gorrer 
must not be passed over. In the 
churches of Venice also much that 
is delightful will meet the visitor. 
The great Eoman coUeotions in the 

j Borghese and Boria palaces also 
exhibit the master. — Mr.] 

The pupils and contemporaries of 
Giovanni Bellini above named are, 
as a rule, excellent, just in propor- 
tion as they approach the master. 

* [The picture at the high altar, now 
attributed to Fra Marco Pensahen, is by 
Savoldo. — Ed.] See in the same church 
the unbelieving Thomas in the early style 
of S. Del Fiombo. 

On the whole, Cima has the supe- 
riority. His Baptism of Christ in 
S. dwoamni m Bragora (at theft 
back of the choir) is, in the dignity 
of the head of Christ, in the beauty 
of the Angels, and the solemn ges- 
ture of the Baptist, incomparable ; 
also the Constantino and Helena 
(at the entrance of the choir to the 
right) are beautiful in expression. 
In the Abbazia (chapel behind the 
sacristy), Tobias with the Angel, I 
where the donors are introduced 
as shepherds; in the Garmmem 
(second altar on the right), the 
wonderful Adoration of file Shep- 
herds and Saints. His Madonna 
is less charming and less life-like 
than that of his master ; but the 
Saints surrounding her, especially 
the old men, are of great spiritusS 
beauty. Excellent pictures of this 
kind : Pmacoteca at Vioenza [Tern- n 
pera, a very early, pleasing picture 
of this master, of 14S9, a Madonna 
under a canopy of vines. — Mr.] ; 
Brera (and Ambrosiana ?) at Milan ; o 
the gallery at Parma, some of the^ 
finest pictures of the master, etc. 
The Madonna with Saints, life size, q 
in the Academy of Venice, shows, 
on the other hand, alongside of the 
masterpiece of BelUni, an extra- 
ordinary stifTness in arrangement, 
as also in some of the figures. 
There also is S. Thomas touching 
the wound of Christ. [One of his 
masterpieces, an altar-piece of 
nearly twelve feet high, very much 
injured, has remained in the cathe- r 
dral of his native place. Any one 
who win undertake the remunera- 
tive journey by Treviso, Conegliano, 
and that neighbourhood, to Friuli, 
will find excellent works of the 
master in various little places ; for 
instance, S. Fior di Sopra, threes 
miles from Conegliano. — Mr.] 

Garpacdo^s merit comes out 
chiefly in the paintings mentioned 
above of the Lite of S. Ursula, and 
those of S. Giorgio dd iScMavom. 

SebasUani — Catena, etc. 


In his smaller pictures he is exqui- 
sitely full of life, yet he does not 
equal Cima in beauty. Besides the 
pictures already mentioned, which 

a are more glowing in colour, I men- 
tion that of the chief altar in S. 
Vitale (1514), a lively conversation 
of saints, who appear partly under 
and partly above a balustrade ; [the 
saint on horseback quite corre- 

6 spends with the Gattamelata of 
Donatello. — Mr.] ; the Coronation 

cof the Virgin in S. Giovanni and 
Paolo (left of the entrance into the 
sacristy) ; the Death of the Virgin 

d (1508) in the Ateneo at Ferrara : in 
these two works he approaches 
most nearly to Cima. His great 

e Presentation in the Temple (1510) 
and the Apotheosis of S. Ursula, 
both in the Academy at Venice, 
show, indeed, that he did not pos- 
sess the capacity for giving full 
life to such forms. In the Presen- 
tation the child is conceived in 
Bellini's manner. 

/ Lazzaro Sebastiani has a picture 
in 8. Donocto at Murano (over the 
side door on the right), a really 
beautiful lively scene of the Ma- 
donna with two Saints, who are 
introducing adoring angels and a 
donor. [By the same weak fol- 

jr lower of the Tivarini is a Pieta, 
signed, in S. Antonino at Venice. 

Andrea Premtali, of Bergamo : 
[Madonna of 1502 in the Gcmalli 
Collection at Padua, Annunciationin 
S. M. del Meseo at Ceneda, Virgin 
and ChUd with Saints in the 
Carra/ra Gallery at Bergamo, Christ 
on the Mount (1512) at the Brera, 
and numerous works with dates up 
to 1525, in the ch. and private 
collections of Bergamo. — Ed.] 

Ji, Catena's masterpiece, inS. M. Ma- 
ter Domini (end altar to the right), 
represents a martyrdom of S. Chris- 
tina, who was drowned with a 

millstone round her neck. Ob- 
serve how the honest old Venetian 
treats this, and reflect a moment 
on the emotional martyrdoms of 
the seventeenth century. The 
heads are most lovely. [Trinity 
in S. Si/rmone, Madonna and Doge 
Iioredano in the Public Palace, the 
Flagellation in the Academy at 
Venice.— Ed.] 

BasaiM is in drawing, colour, and 
characters more slight than Cima 
and Capaccio : his male type often 
repeats itself ; but the whole effect 
is usually more lively. His Calling 
of the Apostles James and Philip j 
(Academy) is certainly distin- 
guished by spirit and 'decision 
(1510) ; the S. Peter enthroned 
with four Saints in S. Pieiro di Oas-j 
tello (third altar on the right) is ex- 
cellent ; the S. George on horseback 
(1520), end of the left aisle) is lovely 
even in its injured condition. — ^Mr. ] 
And sometimes this master rises 
to lofty efforts. In the Assumption 
of the Virgin (S. Pietro and Paolo at k 
Murano, left, near the door of the 
sacristy, injured, but not irredeem- 
ably) he depicted the most beauti- 
ful ecstacy; his S. Sebastian {Sa-l 
lute, chapel on the right in the 
Sagrestia Maggiore, in a wide land- 
scape with a barren tree) is only 
one degree removed from Titian. 
[The Glory of S. Ambrose, begun by 
Luigi Vivarini (p. 83 h, Fran, third 
chapel left of the choir), was appa- 
rently not essentially improved by 
him. — Mr.]. 

Benedetto Diana only acquires the 
BeUinesque form after giving up 
that of the Paduans. Virgin and 
Child and Transfiguration in the 
Academy of Venice, Virgin and S. 
Thomas in S. M. della Groce atm 

Vittor Belli di Matteo, altar- 
pieces at Spinea(1524), and Gallery 
of Bergamo, follows the style of 


" The Renaissance." Venetian School. 

Pier Framcesco Bissolo imitates, 
but does not thorongMy acquire, 
the Bellinesque manner. He some- 
times signs Petrus de Inganuati. 
Best works in the Venice Aca- 
demy, S. Zaccaria, and Cath. of 

Bartolorrvrmo da Venezia (1505 
to 1530) paints portraits chiefly ; 
Gallery of Bergamo and Perego 
ColL at Milan. 

Fier Maria Pemiacchi from Tre- 
viso is author of the half-length 
figures, nearly destroyed, in the 

a soffits of the waggon roof of S. M. 
dei MiracoU, and the roof paintings 
in the vault in the Angeli at 

h Mwamo, thirty-four divisions in 
aU, tolerably restored. A Ma- 

cdoruna in the principal church at 

Oirolamo da Treviso the Tovmger, 
apparently his son, is perhaps the 
d author of a S. Boch in a landscape, 
sacristy of the SaliiU, at Venice. 

Marco Marziale, a pupil of Bel- 
lini's, little known, also painted 
e the Supper at EmTnaus with a very 
pleasing conscientiousness, and with 
something of the genre-like manner 
of Carpaccio (1503, Academy). 

Lastly, Soccaeino da Cremona 
(1467-1525), who, in a Madonna 
enthroned with four Saints, in S. 

fGiuliano (first altar on the left), 
most resembles Cima, shows rather 
the previous influence of L. Viva- 
rini, in a most finished and valu- 

^able picture, in the Academy. It 
is a Madonna with four Saints 
seated in the open air ; one of the 
earliest and most beautiful exam- 
ples of this type of Sante conversa- 
zioni with kneeling and sitting 
figures in a landscape round them, 
for which, later on, Palma and 
Titian showed such strong predilec- 
tion. [This master is little under- 

stood, and must be visited in his 
own native town ; in the Cathedral 
there, the cTwir and the nave were h 
painted by him and his son CamiUo, 
with some other assistants. There 
is, by CamAllo, a Madonna in thei 
Brera, with Saints (1532). 

The insignificant Marco Belloj 
seems all his life to have repeated 
but two compositions — the Mar- 
riage of S. Catherine and the Cir- 
cumcision (example in the town 
collection at Rovigo). To Bellini's 
school belongs also Niceolo Bondi-h 
nelli of Bavenna (two pictures in 
the Palazzo Doria, Kome). — ^Mr.] 


Besides these great art centres in 
Florence and North Italy, no other 
school comes to the front in the 
fifteenth century in which the en- 
joyment of character and living 
form, and the riches of human 
figures, had expressed itself quite 
freely and grandly. The inspira- 
tions issuing from Florence and 
Padua attracted all schools to them, 
but the foundation was wanting — 
the deep and severe studies of form. 

Thus, for instance, the school of 
Siena, from Bomenico di Bartolo 
onwards, thinking it possible to 
follow the new manner without 
this preparation, ended by merely 
copying the external specialities of 
the Florentines on this faulty foun- 
dation with unavoidable exaggera- 
tion. Domenico's frescos in a haU 
of the hospital of the Scala at Siena l 
(histories of the foundation and 
works of mercy) are indeed free 
from coarse awkwardness, but only 
interesting for the sake of costumes 
and architecture. Of the rest, those 
who partially adhered to the old 
way have been mentioned before. 
Among the more decided realists, 
Vecchietta {Lorenzo di Pietro) is 
quite unpleasing as a painter : 
Francesco di Giorgio (Academy atm 
Siena ; Adoration of the ChUd, and 

Pietro Perugino. 


Coronation of the Virgin) ; perhaps 
the moat cultivated is Matteo di 
Giovanni (M. da Siena), but un- 
doubtedly the most repulsive. His 
three treatments of the Slaughter 
a of the Innocents {S. Agostmo, side 
chapel to the right, 1482, Con- 
i cezione, or Servi Si Maria, on the 
eright, 1491, and the Musewm of 
Naples, with a falsified date) are 
among the most ludicrous excesses 
of the fifteenth century ; Matteo 
appears as the Italian Michel Wol- 
gemuth. (Other pictures in the 
Academy, and in S. Domenico, 
second chapel left of choir.) [A 
decidedly graceful picture of this 
master in the (usually closed) 

little church of Madonna della"' 
Neve will probably bring about 
a milder judgment than the fore- 
going in favour of the attempt at 
expression and character evident 
also in the compositions of the 
Murder of the Innocents. — Mr.] 
Some also of the marble " Sgraffiti " « 
on the floor of the Cathedral are by 
his hand. A Christ in a glory of 
Angels among many Saints in a rich 
landscape (1491, Academy), by ' 
Benvenuto di Giovanni, is at least 
painted without the affectation of 
his fellow-pupil, Matteo. 

Of Fungai, Paeehiarotto, &c., we 
shall speak in considering the six- 
teenth century. 


Moving southwards, we come to 
the precipitous town of Perugia, 
enthroned above the valley of the 
Tiber, Assisi and Spelio higher still 
on its mountain steeps, Foligno in 
the plain, Spoleto looking down on 
the vale of the CKtumnus. These 
districts were the home of the 
Umbrian school ; its influence 
reached eastward to the mountain 
towns of the Upper Apennines, 
and beyond them into the March of 

In this, the native country of St. 
Francis, a stronger spirit of devo- 
tion seems to have been kept up 
than elsewhere in the profane 
Italy of the Kenaissance. The 
extraordinary intensity of expres- 
sion in painting found here is 
partly explained by the distance 
from the proper home of the Re- 
naissance ; the distributing of ta- 
lents in various places (before Pe- 
rugino all painting has a local cha- 
racter) ; the more countrified, sim- 
ple feeling of the patrons, whether 
they were inhabitants of the steep 
villages in the wine and oil dis- 
tricts, or of retired convents ; 

lastly, the influence of Siena, whose 
latest idealists, like Taddeo di Bar- 
tolo, worked in Perugia itself. 
[But painting, if intensely tender 
and devotional, was also feeble at 
first, and very partially developed 
even when it was affected by ex- 
ternal influences, ex gr., the works 
and example of Gozzoli, Piero della 
Francesca, or the Vivarini. There 
is little indeed to attract in the 
Sansmerini (pictures and frescos at g 
S. Severino, S. Gio. Battista of 
Urbino, church of Pausola, Sar- 
nano, and Matellica) ; in Giovanni 
Boccati (Virgin and Child with 
Saints (1447) in the Gallery of 
Perugia) ; Oirolamo di Giovanni 
(Madonna with Saints at Monte S. 
Martino, near Fermo) or Barto-h 
lommeo di Tommaso of Foligno 
(practising 1430- 1452) ; Madonna in 
S. Salvadore, Martyrdom of S. 
Catherine, and other frescos in the 
Comune of Foligno ; Matteo da 
Gualdo,^ who chiefly laboured at 
Assisi (1460-1503), was on a lower 
level in art than even Bartolonmieo 
(altar-pieces at S. Pietro, and 
JSTasciano near Assisi, S. Francesco, 


*' The Renaissance." Umhrian School. 

S. Niccolo, and S. Margarita, of 
Gualdo, and frescos at Sigillo). 
His wall paintings (1468) at S. An- 
tonio e Jacopo of Assisi are but part 
of a series continued by Piercm- 
tonio, a pupil of Gozzoli, whose 
frescos at S. M. in Campis near 
Foligno are imitations of older 
Griottesques and Umbriaus (frescos 
in S. Anna, wall paintings from 
S. Lucia, S. Francesco, and S. 
Domenioo in the Comune of Fo- 

Niccolo di Liberatore, better 
known as Alunno of Foligno (born 
circa 1430, died 1502), is the 
pupil of B. diTommaso. — Ed.] He 
is one of those who strikes the 
chord which echoes so powerfully 
in Perugino : it is the expression of 
soul carried to enthusiastic ecstatic 
devotion, in heads of the tenderest, 
purest youthful beauty [??]. Nic- 
colo's drawing of form was in- 
ferior, his paintings sometimes 
coarse, his arrangement awkward ; 
but even now sometimes a painter 
succeeds with as limited external 
means in attaining a high though 
only provincial importance, through 
simple force of expression. Amongst 
his works to be seen in public 
collections (for instance, in the 

aPalazea Colonna at Borne, in the 

b JSrera at Milan, where there is a re- 
markable Madonna with Angels, of 
the year 1485), the most important 
is an Annunciation with a Glory 
and a Keligious Community (from 
S. Maria Nuova) in the Pina^oteca 

cat Perugia (No. 75, Tempera, 
1466) ; the form of the heads of 
Gabriel and the Madonna is won- 
derful ; the devotion of the Angels 

d thoroughly naive. In Foligno : S. 
Maria infra portas; some ruined 

e frescos ; S. Niccolo : large rich 
altar-piece of several panels, his 
best executed masterpiece ; also a 
Coronation of the Virgin with two 

/kneeling Saints. In the Cathedral of 
Assisi, unimportant fragments of an 
altar-piece let into the wall. Other 

pictures at Diruta, S. Severino, 
Gualdo, Nocera, and La £astia,g 
near Assisi. [At La Bastia is one « 
of his latest pictures, a Madonna 
with Angels and Saints, of 1499. 
A remarkable picture in the Itna- i 
coteca at Bologna (No. 360), a 
church standard, painted on both 
sides ; in front the Madonna be- 
tween Saints ; on the back the An- 
nunciation. The painter has here 
employed a gold ground as an 
under-painting • for the whole pic- 
ture. — Mr.] On the whole, Alunno 
employs passionate intensity of ex- 
pression with great moderation, 
and, in some instances, rather re- 
sembles the Paduans. 

[The most important combination 
of the Florentine and Umbrian 
manner, that indeed to which we 
mainly owe the expansion of Peru- 
gino' s style is to be found in the 
works of Benedetto Buonfigli (1453- 
1496), whose education appears to 
have been finished under the joint 
influence of Domenico Veneziano 
and Piero deUa Francesca. Though 
at first BuonfigU showed affinity to 
Matteo da Gualdo'aud Boccati (An- 
nunciation and Epiphany in the 
Gallery of Perugia), he displays ay 
more decided Florentine style in 
the frescos of the Palazzo, where 
he illustrated the legends of St. 
Louis and Ercolanus in a series of 
finished compositions, andnumerous 
altar-pieces in the Gallery of Peru- 
gia which exhibit a gradual expan- 
sion of his powers, till close on the 
opening of the 16th century. He 
was followed at Perugia by 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, whose paintings ]c 
at times so much resemble those of 
Perugino that they might be con- 
founded with them. We note 
several pictures in the Gallery of 
Perugia, amongst others eighty 
panels with scenes from the legend 
of S. Bernardino.— Ed.] No. 29, 
from the sacristy of S. Frances- 
co de' Conventuali, Peter, Paul, 
and a lunette of a Madonna of 

Pietro Perugmo. 


1487, showing the diminished 
energy of N. Alunno, almost a pro- 
totype of Perugino in the grace of 
the movement and forms of the 
faces. The Adoration of the Kings, 
wrongly ascribed to Ghirlandajo, 
No. 39, quite like an early Peru- 
gino. [Virgin and Child with 
Saints and twelve members of the 
Tribunjd of the Eota in the 
Quirinal ; frescos of the legend of 
the Cross in S. Grace in Gerusa- 
lemme at Bome. — Ed.] 

[The art which Piorenzo thus 
took from TJmbria to Rome, he 
bequeathed to Antonio di Benedetto, 
commonly known as Antoniasso 
(1460-1517), whose altar-pieces, in 
S. Antonio of Kieti, the cathedral 
of Velletri, and museum of Capua, 
are curious illustrations of a style 
which combines the tenderness of 
Benozzo with that of the XJmbrians. 

Pietro Perugmo (de Castro Plebis, 
as he calls himself from his native 
city, Citta della Pieve, properly 
VommKoi (1446-1524), is in his 
earlier time essentially Plorentine. 
How far Alunno or Piero deUa 
FranBesca, or in Florence Verroc- 
chio and L. di Credi, individually 
afifeoted him, need not be seriously 
considered ; the chief thing was 
the impression of the artistic world 
then as a whole, which altogether 
decided his course. To this first 
period belong his frescos in the 

aSistine chapel, the Childhood of 
Moses, the Baptism of Christ, and 
the Giving the Keys ; perhaps also 
the Adoration of the Kings, from 

J S. Maria Nuova in the Pinacoteca 
at Perugia (No. 39), works which, 
along with great merit and beauty, 
hardly show any trace of what 
gave life to his later pictures. 
Prom the best period of his life 

c comes the Adoration of the Child- 
Christ in the picture-gallery of the 
Villa Albani (1491), and the beau- 
tiful fresco in the Chapter-house of 

dS. M. Maddalena dei Pazzi at Flo- 

rence.* The life-size Crucifixion, 
assigned to him by Vasari, in the 
church of La Calza at Florence, e 
near the Porta Komana, reminds 
us of Signorelli. Even before 1495 
Pietro settled himself in Perugia, 
and opened his school. Prom this 
point we date the great series of 
pictures in which he seems to 
carry to their deepest depths the 
expression of devotion, of self-sacri- 
fice, of holy grief. 

How much in his works can one 
now look on as pure coin ? In 
Perugia clearly he fell in with the 
already ruling tendency, which he 
carried out with so new a sense of 
beauty, and with far greater art- 
istic talent than his predecessors, 
that even the most mechanical re- 
petition could not destroy it. 
When he discovered that people 
took an inexhaustible pleasure in 
the peculiar expression of his faces, 
and became aware of what they 
exclusively admired in him, he 
abandoned all the rest that he 
knew and could do ; above all, the 
incessant study of life, so remark- 
able in the Florentine schooL He 
left to Pinturicchio subjects rich in 
movement and contrast, instead of 
keeping himself fresh by means of 
them. To the affected heads, 
which people required of him, be- 
long bodies and positions which, in 
reality, look only like appendages, 
and which the spectator very soon 
knows by heart, because it was 
obvious that the painter already 
did so. Yet the same man drew 
capitally as soon as he pleased, for 
instance, in his nude figures. He 
charmed his public also further by 
clear bright colouring and easy 
rich ornamented drapery. The 
power of light in the colouring, 
and the deKcate rendering of detail 

* The pennesso (gratis) to be had in 
the Palazzo del Ministero dell' Instruzione 
Publica, Piazza Firenze. The entrance to 
the Chapter-house is from tile Via della 


" The Senaissance." ZTmhrian School. 

iu many pictures, again show what 
he could do whenever he pleased. 
He places his Saints below side by 
side without any further arrange- 
ment, while all other schools group 
them, and arranges his Glories, Co- 
ronations, and Assumptions above, 
according to one plan. On the 
other hand, the detail, whenever he 
pleased, showed the most delicate 
feeling for lines. In the turn of 
the drapery he seldom rises above 
mechanical conventionality. In the 
Sistine one sees what at an earlier 
time he was capable of producing. 

Of all artists who buried their 
talent and sank into handicrafts- 
men, Pietro is, perhaps, the greatest 
and the most lamentable example. 
He did, it is true, give clearly, 
solidly, completely, what was re- 
quired of him, even iu a late time 
when his powers had diminished, 
and no new idea could any longer 
be expected of him. 

As regards the heads, we must 
recognize that Perugino adopted 
juat the most beautiful motives 
from the Florentine school of art, 
then in a state of fermentation. It 
must have been a heavenly moment 
in his life when, for the first time, 
he filled the loveliest form with the 
expression of the sweetest enthu- 
siasm, longing, and the deepest de- 
votion. This moment was again re- 
peated ; even in later pictures spe- 
cial heads came out as strikingly 
true, among others which only 
render a similar expression with 
the usual stereotyped means. In 
order to feel distinctly about this, 
one must analyse some of his heads 
closely in type and expression, and 
ask oneself how this peculiar oval, 
these melancholy gazing dove-like 
eyes, those small lips trembling 
almost to tears, have been pro- 
duced, and whether in the especial 
place there is any necessity or jus- 
tification for them. Sometimes he 
satisfies us, but in most cases he 
deceives us with an emotion quite 

objectless and aimless. * Why does 
Kesole afiect us quite differently? 
Because there comes in a strong 
personal conviction, which con- 
strains him always to repeat the 
highest expression as powerfully as 
it is possible to him. Why is the 
impression in the Delia Eobbias' 
always fresh and pleasing? Be- 
cause they do not attempt to ex- 
press emotion, and remain in the 
domain of a beautifid tone of feel- 
ing. What is it that connects 
Perugino with Carlo Dolce ? That 
both commemorate an expression 
which is essentially subjective and 
momentary, and therefore belong- 
ing only to one time. 

We shall mention only the more 
important of his later pictures. 

In Bome, Vaiicam Gallery, fourth ^ 
room, No. 28, the Madonna with 
the four Saints (1496) ; fourth room. 
No. 24, the Kesurrection, executed 
in great part by Raphael. [In the 
Sciarra Gallery, a beautiful life-size 
St. Sebastian ; in the Borghese Pa- 
lace, under the name Holbein, a 
remarkably beautiful portrait of 
himself, seventh room, No. 35. — 

In the Ocuthedral of Spello, on the 6 

* We leave out the question altogether, 
whether Pietro himself ever felt as his 
creations feel. It is quite out of place, 
and infringes on the eternal rights of 
poetry. Even as an atheist, as Vasari 
gives Mm out to be, in spite of the in- 
scription with "Timete Deum" on his 
portrait (?) in the Uffizi, Pietro might have 
painted his Ecstacies, and they might 
have heen grand and true ; only he must 
have followed therein an inner poetical 
necessity. Many confused ideas prevail 
concerning the "profession of faith" of 
the artist and the poet, according to 
which it would be required that he should 
constantly carry his heart on his tongue, 
and in every work give out as complete a 
programme as may be of his individual 
thought and feeling. But as artist and 
poet he needs no other sentiment than the 
very strong one which is needed to give 
his work the greatest possible perfection. 
His religious, moral, and political convic- 
tions are personal to himself. Here and 
there they will be felt in his works, but 
will not constitute the foundation of them. 

Pietro Perugmo. 


left, a PieU (signed) of 1521 ; [the 
heads strikingly beautiful and full 
of soul, considering the lateness of 
the date. — Mr.], the expression in 
John pure and beautifully inspired. 

M, In Perugia : the frescos in the 
two rooms of the so-called Cambio, 
painted about 1500, by Perugino, 
with the assistance of dell' In- 
gegno (? ?), a beautiful and careful 
work, which thoroughly illustrates 
Perugino's views of the taste of 
the Perugians ; isolated figures, 
placed alongside, in the same line, 
similarity of character in antique 
heroes, law-givers, and prophets, 
want of true power compensated 
by sentimentality. [The pictures 
out of the churches of Perugia are 
almost all collected in the Piaaoo- 
teca, where the whole school is 
represented. Here is (extremely 
injured) the ruined fresco of an 

b Adoration of the Shepherds, from 
S. Francesco del Monte, a compo- 
sition in a lunette, not of great 
importance, and many others.] In 

c S. Agostino, the eight small panels 
with half-lengths of saints (in the 
sacristy), are more naive than the 

d other pictures. In S. Pietro there 
is a dignified Piet9, (by the first 
altar in the left side aisle) ; in the 
sacristy, a series of small panel pic- 
tures with half-length figures, to 
which also the three in the Vatican 
Gallery once belonged ; in the 
church, several copies, by Sasso- 
ferrato, after similar half-length 

e figures. In S. Severo, Perugino 
had the courage, after Raphael's 
death, in the year 1521, to paint 
saints on the walls underneath his 
fresco picture. [The great fresco 

/of the Adoration of the Kings, in 
S. Maria di Bianchi, in the neigh- 
bouring Citta della Pieve, of 1504, 
is a good composition, with excel- 
lent special qualities, but dull 
colouring. Other works also there 

3 are in the Cathedral, S. Agostino, 
Servi di Maria, near the town.— 

In Florence, the Pitti contains 
the famous Deposition (1495), a 
collection of heads in a state of 
passive emotion, the effect of which 
is heightened by the absence of 
other contrasts ; the head of Christ, 
most unworthy, the whole distin- 
guished more for evenness of exe- 
cution than real depth ; there also. 
No. 219, Madonna adoring the 
ChUd, one of the truly felt pic- 
tures, unfortunately much painted 
over. — Uffizi: Madonna enthroned j- 
with two Saints (1493), already 
conventional ; two portraits. Aca-j 
demy. Great Assumption of the 
Virgin, below, four Saints, of 1500, 
nearly related to the frescos of 
the Cambio, partly conventional, 
but with single heads of the 
greatest exceUenoe ; also a Geth- 
semane (early ?) ; the remaining 
pictures there, even the group be- 
neath, in Filippiuo's Descent from 
the Cross, late, and quite fade in 

In the Pinacoteca at Bologna : a ;j; 
Madonna floating above four Saints, 
a show picture of the rank of the 
Assiunption first named. 

[One of the most faultless of 
Perugino's works is found in. S. i 
Agostimo, at Cremona — a Madonna, 
between Saints, of 1494 — Two 
highly important altar pictures, in 
S. Maria Nv/ma of Fano, Annuncia- ^jj 
tion and Madonna enthroned be- 
tween Saints, of 1497 and 1498. — 

Ajnong Pietro's assistants, In- 
gegno is mentioned by ancient 
writers with especial emphasis. 
However, the more accessible of 
the works attributed to him are 
doubtful, e.g., the excellent fresco ^ 
Madonna, in the chapel of the 
Palace of the Conservatori on the 
Capitol, with its restrained expres- 
sion in the manner of Alunno. [A 
beautiful youthful Archangel Mi- g 
chaM, a fresco picture in the Pa- 
lazzo Gualterio, at Orvieto, appears 
to me decidedly a work of Signo- 

" The Renamance." Umbrian School. 

relU. — Mr.*] We may mention also 
some early anonymous frescos of 
the Umbrian school in Rome : in 
aSS. Yito e Modesto, 1483, S. Cosi- 
mato in Trastevere, &o. 

Now comes Pimiwriochio, 1454 (?) 
— 1513. He was early connected 
with Fietro (e.g., as assistant in 
the works in the Sistine), and in 
the end he became, and continued 
to be, the one painter of that 
school, who, by preference, under- 
took to execute by contract great 
histories in fresco. At first the 
Florentine manner aflfeoted him to 
some extent ; afterwards he adopted 
Perugino's style of stereotyped 
expression. He never studied 
thoroughly; he collects subject 
and incident wherever he finds 
them, repeats them even to the 
tenth time, and often uses the help 
of others. Confessedly a busi- 
ness man and entrepreneur, we 
may be sure with very small pro- 
fits, he has at least this advantage, 
that we expect but little from 
him, and are then surprised, by 
traits of exquisite nameU, beauti- 
ful heads, and remarkable cos- 
tumes, and delighted by the simple 
way in which he uses his histories 
as fillings up of a splendid locality 
(buildings, gay landscapes, in the 
Flemish style). He, too, produces 
what was acceptable to his time, 
especially in the society that sur- 
rounded the Popes. 

Under Innocent VIII. and Alex- 
ander VI. he and others painted 
the lunettes and vaulted roof in 
6 five haUs of the Appartamenio 
Borgia (Vatican). There we have 
prophets, sibyls, apostles, sciences 
enthroned, with attendants, legends 
of various saints ; lastly, stories 
from the New iestament, the 
greater part without any special 
expenditure of ideas. So, too, the 

* Note this fresco, whicli is probaMy by 
Eusebio di S. Giorgio, is now in tlie 
Museum of Leipzig. 

frescos in S. MaHa del Popoloe 
(chapels one, three, and four on 
the right, and the dome of the choir) 
show only the geueral style of the 
school. The remains in S. Pietrod 
m Montorio, and in S. Onofrioe 
(lower paintings of the niches in the 
choir) appear to be by stUl inferior 
Peruginesque hands ; [Crowe and 
CavalcaseUe ascribe the latter to 
Peruzzi, who executed the upper 
part] ; the four evangelists on the 
dome of the sacristy of S. GedUaf 
more probably belong to Pinturic- 
chio. — In the Ara Oeli (firsts 
chapel on the right), the Miracles 
and the Glory of S. Bernardino 
are painted with far greater feel- 
ing ; here the master, though with 
insufficient power, strives after 
Florentine liveliness. In the year 
1601, he painted a whole chapel 
(on the left) in the Cathed/ral at A 
Spello ; the Annunciation, the 
Adoration of the Shepherds and 
Pilgrims, and Christ among the 
Doctors ; on the ceiling are Sibyls. 
Here, in a little country town, he 
laboured quite naturally, and, 
amidst much that is conventional 
and mechanical, he produced a few 
most charming things ; as, for in- 
stance, the reverential approach of 
the Shepherds and Pilgrims, Joseph 
and Mary in the Temple, &c. 
Rich, lofty backgrounds ; gold or- 
nameots laid on. Also, in S. An-i 
drea (side aisle on the right), the 
gigantic large altar-piece of the 
Madonna enthroned, the child- 
like John writing at her feet, of 
1504. In the years 1503-1507 he 
painted, with the help of several 
others, the Libreria (that is, they 
room where the books of the choir 
were kept) in the cathedral of 
Siena. (Best light in the after- 
noon.) The early supposition that 
Raphael gave him all the skeletons 
for this, even, indeed, made the 
drawings, or worked with his own 
hand on it. has been quite aban- 
doned. I have only seen one of 



the very beautiful drawings for 
two of those compositions — the 
Landing in Libya, and the Recep- 
tion of Eleonora of Portugal, in the 
collection of original drawings in 
«the Uffizi; the other is in the 
Casa Baldesohi, at Perugia. I do 
not regard the former as Raphael's 
work, and by no means consider 
that a sketch, however superior it 
may be to the completed work, 
must therefore necessarily be by 
another artist. [The very beautiful 
drawing in Casa Baldeschi is also 
certainly the work of Pinturicohio. 
— Mr.] There is in these scenes 
out of the life of jEueas Sylvius 
(Pius II.) nothing so good, and 
nothing so bad, that it might not, 
some time and mood, have been 
conceived and painted by Pintu- 
ricohio himself; the execution in 
itself is very careful and very even. 
A lofty historical conception, dra- 
matic intensity of expression, in, 
for the most part, ceremonial pic- 
tures, are not to be expected ; 
rather must we be satisfied that 
the characters and forms capable 
of life are here more numerous 
than usual in Pinturicohio. The 
life of the Pope became, under the 
hands of the fortunate painter, a 
graceful fable, a novel, all in the 
dress and character of his own 
time, not in that of fifty years 
before. Even Pius himself shows 
hardly anything like a portrait 
likeness. Frederick III. is "the 
Emperor," as he might appear in 
any tale. This sort of simplicity 
was an essential advantage for 
those painters.* 

There are easel pictures of Pin- 

* The Last Supper, in fresco, which was 
discovered several years ago, in the closed 
convent of S. Onofrio in Florence, now 
Museo Bgiziaco, and given out as the work 
of Raphael, is a Pemginesque production, 
and most probably by Pinturicohio. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle are disposed to 
regard it as a work of Gerino da Pistoja, 
who repeated in it an older composition 
of the school. 

turiochio's n tTn Museum, of J 
Naples (the Assumption of the 
Virgin), in the Pinacoteca of Pe- 
rugia, No. 30, a large and excellent 
altar-piece from S. Maria fra Eossi, 
apparently of 1498 [in S. Girolamo 
(de' Minori osservanti) there is in e 
the choir a Madonna enthroned, 
almost twelve feet high, with 
saints. — Mr.] — Palazzo Borghese, ind 
Borne, (a sort of chronicle of the 
History of Joseph), a fine altar- 
piece in S. Imcchese, above thee 
town of Poggibonzi. 

Among the actual pupils of 
Pietro, after Raphael, Giovarmd di 
Pietro, called Lo Spagna was the 
most distinguished. His Madonna 
with patron saints, in the Townf 
'Sail of Spoleto, is one of the purest 
and freshest of the whole school. 
[There are pictures in two churches 
of the little town of Trevi, lying gf 
on the side of the Eoligno road, in 
Madonna deUe lagrime, second 
chapel on the left, the two especi- 
ally beautiful figures of S. Cathe- 
rine and S. Cecilia, the first hardly 
surpassed by an early Raphael ; 
in S. Martino, a delicate and mild h 
Madonna in the Mandoria with S. 
Francis and S. Antony, of 1511. — 
Mr.] A Madonna with Saints, in 
the lower church of S. Francis at i 
Assist (chapel of S. Louis, first on 
the right). [Doubtless his most im- 
portant work, of 1516 ; the execu- 
tion extremely careful and refined. 
— Mr.] Frescos in the churches 
of Gavelli, Bggi, and S. Jacopo, / 
between Spoleto and FoHgno, 
partly of his bold, mannered time ; 
then, again, an early picture (if it 
be by him), the Coronation of the 
Virgins, in the choir of the church 
of the Zoccolanti at JTarni (but 3,k 
few steps from the road leading to 
Terni) : the elevated tone of the 
figures, especially of the beautiful 
Madonna, still Florentine in con- 
ception, is yet far removed from a 
merely ecstatic emotion. [More 


" The Renaissance." Umhrian School. 

probably by Eidolfo Ghirlandajo 
or Raffaelino del Garbo. — Mr.] 

<*Iii the Vatican Gallery the Na- 
tivity, a counterpart of which, at 
Berlin, has long been attributed to 

^Raphael. In the P. Colonna at 
Rome, an excellent S. Jerome in the 
Desert is attributed to Lo Spagna. 

c[In the P. Pitti, Corridore deUa 
Colonna, there is a tender Marriage 
of S. Catherine, between S. An- 
tony and S. Francis, with youthful, 
innocent heads. — Mr.] There is 

^ also by him a, beautiful Madonna 
enthroned in the Pinacoteca at 
Perugia, No. 25. 

The remaining pupils and fol- 
lowers, Giannicola Marnni, Tiberio 
d'Assisi, Adone Doni, Eusebio di S. 
Giorgio, Simibcddo Ibi, Berto di Oio- 
vamni, Gerino da Pistoia, BertuaA 
da Paenxa. The Oaporali, Melanzio, 
DoTnenico and Orazio Alfani, and 
Bernardino da Perugia, may be 
looked for in the churches of Peru- 
gia and the neighbourhood, and 
especially in the Pinacoteca. By 
Eusebio there are two good and 
characteristic frescos, the Annun- 

BeiaMon and the Stigmata of S. 
Francis, in the cloister in the little 
Capuchin convent of S. Damian at 
Assisi. Of 1507, two years older, 
is the beautiful Adoration of the 
Kings, from S. Agostino, in the 
Pinacoteca, No. 8 ; of 1512, is an 
altar-picture in S. FroMcesco de' 

fZoccolanti, at Matelica, near Fa- 
briano. These scholars are, in 
some of their more distinguished 
works, more original and genuine 
than the master in his average later 
productions ; but for the most part 
they are somewhat weak, and 
when the last of them tried to 
unite the principle of style of the 
Roman school with their own 
faulty rendering of form, they feE 
into a poor manner. 

[Giannicola Marmi. Principal 
? picture, the Conversion of Thomas 

in S. Tommaso at Perugia ; the 
second room of the Camibio is of A 
his later time, with Sienese influ- 
ences. Several excellent single 
Saints on a pier of the Cathedral, i 
Tiberio d'Assisi painted a series of 
frescos from the lite of S. Francis 
in the Cappella della Bosa of S. M.} 
degU Angeli, below Assisi. Among 
Perugino's especial scholars, Simi- 
baldo Ibi deserves mention (Gubbio, 
the principal church ; Rome, S. 
Francesco Smnama). The Alfanih 
must be regarded rather as imi- 
tators of Raphael than as pupils of 
Perugino. The father, JDomenico di 
Paris Alfani (1510-53), received 
from Raphael the cartoon for a Ma- 1 
donna with Saints of 1518 (Pinaco- 
teca, No. 59), and he betrays this 
overpowering influence in aU his 
works. His son Oraxio (1510-83) 
is entirely swayed by models of 
the most different sorts. Adonem 
Doni (1532-75) shows in the Ado- 
ration of the Kings in S. Pietro 
(fifth pier on the left) all sorts of 
foreign influences along with Pera- 
ginesque character. A Last Supper 
of 1573 in the lower church oin 
Assisi ; there, too, the mannered 
frescos of the C. S. Stefano ; an o 
altar-piece in the cathedral of 
Gubbio. Gerino da Pistoja is a 
constrained imitator of Perugino. — 
Mr.J Altarpieee of S. Agostino, 
of Borgo San Sepolcro (1502), and 
Madonna with Saints (1509) in 
S. Pietro, of CittS. di Castello. 
Last Supper (1513) in S. Lucchese, 
near Poggibonsi. [Bertucci or Gio- p 
vamni Battista, of Faenza (1502-16) 
imitates Pinturicchio and Pahnez- 
zano. Most notable his Madonna 
of 1506, in the Gallery of Faenza. 
Jacopo Sicolo, a disciple of Spagna, 
shows well in a Virgin with Saints q 
(1538) in the church of S. Ma- 
migliano, and a Coronation of the 
Virgin (1541) at Norcia. B. Capo-r 
rali combines the Peruginesque 
with something of Fiorenzo and 
Benozzo. Madonna at Castiglione 

Francesco Franda and Ms School. 

« del Lago. <?. B. Owporali, imitator 
of Perugino and Sign orelli. Frescos 
of theViUaPaaseriai, near Cortoua. 

6 Melanzio's works are all in churches 
in Montefalco and its suburbs. 

I' Bernardino da Perugia, a sort of 
double of Pinturicchio, is old- 
fashioned and feeble, and in some 
of his works a copyist of Raphael, 
ex. g.. Marriage of St. Catherine in 
S. Catherine, of Perugia. Other 

d pieces in the Perugia Oallery. 


We return once again to Bologna, 
on account of Francesco Fran/yia 
(born about 1450, died 1518), whose 
feeling is essentially related to that 
of Perugino, or was directly inspired 
by him. In painting, originally a 
pupil of Zoppo di Squarcione (?), or 
rather of Costa, he had, tUl late 
in manhood, especially applied 
himself to the goldsmith's art, and 
also made arcfitectural plans and 
sketches. Afterwards, between 
1480 and 1490, most probably in 
Florence, he might have learned to 
know Perugino in his best time, 
perhaps when he was painting the 
fresco in S. M. de' Pazzi. (It must 
be understood these are but hypo- 
theses.) And accordingly one of 
his earliest known pictures, the 
Madonna Enthroned, with six 
Saints and an Angel playing a lute, 
of the year 1494 (the date has been 
wrongly altered to 1490) (Pinaco- 
eteca of Bologna, No. 78,) is the 
most Peruginesque of all his works, 
splendidly painted, and possessing 
that depth of the partially ecstatic 
expression which only belongs to 
Pietro himself in his best middle 
period. Also an Annunciation 
with two Saints (No. 79 of 1500) 
belongs doubtless to this time. The 
Madonna enthroned between two 
porches, with four Saints, as weU 
as the Adoration of the Child with 
Saints and Donators (No. 80 & 81 

the last of 1499), are no longer in 
their original condition. Later on 
also, he appears constantly to have 
had reminiscences of Perugino. 

But by his connection with Lo- 
renzo Costa there arose a singular 
mixed style, which his pupils also, 
among them Qiulio, his cousin, and 
GiacoTno, his son, as well as Amico 
Aspertimi, adopted. The healthy, 
sometimes even coarse, realism 
which Costa more especially repre- 
sented, and which also existed in 
Francia from the beginning, ap- 
pears in continual opposition to 
the TJmbriau sentimentality. This 
when engrafted on stronger, coarser 
forms assumes an air of peevish- 
ness. Especially the female Saints 
and the Madonnas seem to reproach 
the beholder for having the indis- 
cretion to look at them. Yet 
Francia does not go into heavenly 
languors. On the whole, there is 
much more that is fresh, even 
knightly in him, than in the younger 
Perugino. He drew more carefully, 
and not only placed his figures more 
freely and less conventionally, but 
he knew how to group them in a 
life-like manner, although his feel- 
ing for lines remained very much 
undeveloped. The drapery is al- 
most always natural, and freshly 
conceived for each figure. As an 
old East Lombard, he takes plea- 
sure not in merely ornamental rich- 
ness, but in the real appearance 
and modelling of costumes, armour, 
ornaments, &c. It was his wish 
and his will in those things to equal 
at least Mantegna. Still, narrative 
and action generally is not his 
strong point. 

His most beautiful work in Bo- 
logna is the altar-piece in the C. 
Bentivoglio in S. Oiacomo Maggiore, f 
dated 1490. Of the angels who 
surround the Madonna, those near- 
est to her are especially lovely; 
among the Saints, S. Sebastian is 
one of the most perfect forms of 
the fifteenth century. Other re- 
H 2 


" The Retiaissance." Umhrian School. 

markable pictures, the Madonna 

a enthroned with Saints in S. Mar- 
tmo (first chapel on the left), where 
the landscape is given and treated 
quite in a Ferrarese manner (and 
indeed in Costa's). The altar-piece 
in the great chapel on the left in 

b S. S. Vitale ed Agricola, heautiful 
angels hovering and playing on in- 
struments round an old picture of 
the Madonna ; the frescos on the 
right by Giacomo Prancia, left by 
JSagnacavallo, of a considerably 
later time, but more especially the 
Visitation by the latter, almost 
entirely good and simple; in the 
Virgin, a lofty and touching emo- 
tion. The pictures from the An- 

cnimziata of the year 1500; an 
Annunciation with four Saints, a 
Madonna with S. Paul, Francis 
and the kneeUng Baptist, and a 
Crucifix with Saints in the Pina- 

d The frescos in 8. Cecilia, of 1509, * 
a work of the whole school, should 
not be looked at when the impres- 
sions of Florence are too recent. 
The narrative part of them is felt 
to have been borrowed thence, and 
with considerable constraint. Only 
as far as Francia's own design 
seems to go, the forms are noble 
and full of life; in both his own 
pictures, this is true also of the 
heads and of the whole treatment. 
But why does Cecilia turn away 
with such a fashionable modesty, 
while Valerian puts on the ring ? 
For she is not the less stretching 
out her hand to him. (Costa's 
landscape backgrounds, comp., p. 

Of Francesco's works beyond 
Bologna, the S. Stephen signed in 

« the P. Borghese at Borne (where 

* The arrangement, according to the 
authors, is as follows : — 

(Space for the altar). 
Fr. Francia^ Ft. Fra/nda, 

Lorenzo Costa, Lorenzo Costa, 

Giacorm Frcmda, Giacomo Fra/nd,a (?) 
Chiodarolo, Am. Aspertini, 

4?». A^erti/ni, Arru Aspertmi. 

there are also two Madonnas)might 
be quite an early one ; the Madonna 
enthroned with four Saints in the 
Oallery of Parma has strikingly/ 
symmetrical positions of the heads. 
The Descent from the Cross also, 
one of the earliest examples for the 
efifect of an evening sky. In the 
Ocdlery of Modena is an excellent y 
large Annunciation, early [by Bian- 
chi-Ferrari, see anteap. 82, (i. — Ed.] 
Of the famous picture at Munich 
(Mary in the Bose-garden) a copy in h 
the Pinacoteca at Bologna. A later 
Annunciata in the Srera. Thet 
Deposition in the Turin Gallery, I 
know not how attested, resembles 
one of the best Milanese. [Besides 
these, the Trinity with Saints^ 
adoring, in S. Griov. Evaugelista at 
Brescia [?byPerramola] (Baptistery 
chapel on the left), and an altar- 
piece at S. Frediano at Lucca, de- k 
serve attention. — Fr.] 

Giacomo FramAcCs masterpiece, 
inspired indeed not by his father, 
but by the Venetians, and there- 
fore free from sentimentality, is 
the beautiful Madonna seated with I 
S. Francis, S. Bernardino, S. Se- 
bastian, and S. Maurice, dated 
1526, in the Pinacoteca at Bologna. 
What there and elsewhere remains 
of his shows a reproduction, some- 
times pure, sometimes mixed, of 
his father's thoughts. One of the 
earliest pictures, the Adoration of 
the ChUd, in S. Cristina, the first »> 
altar on the right. Among the 
principal works must be counted 
the Adoration of the Shepherds of 
1519 in S. Giovcmni at Parma, » 
second chapel on the right. A 
beautiful male portrait in the Pitti o 
Gallery, Florence, No. 195 [really 
by Bonsignori. — Ed.] Later pic- 
tures, one of 1544, in the Brera. p 

From time to time the atelier 
became a manufacture of half- 
length figures, and convention- 
ality and absence of thought went 
as far as in the worst moments 

Amico and Guido Aspertini — SimonePapa — Lo Zingaro. 101 

of Perugino. By the ennuy^ 
peevish expresaion, you can tell the 
Madonnas of this period, even at a 

Amico Aspertmi (1475 — 1552) in 
his earliest picture (he calls it his 
Tirocinium), which may have been 
painted about 1495, adopted the 
moat Peruginesque style of Francia. 

a It is a large Adoration of the Child, 
by Madonna, Donors, and Saints, 
in the Pinacoteca at Bologna. The 
frescos of a chapel on the left in 

6 S. Frediaim at lucoa (stories of the 
face of Christ, mUo santo, &o.), 
are delicately and carefully exe- 
cuted, with exquisite special detail, 
betray all varieties of impreasion 
as they were taken up en poisscmt 
by a phantast who never became 
truly formed and independent. 
Once, when he was probably 
inspired by Giorgione, he painted 

cthe picture in S. Ma/rtino at Bo- 
logna (fifth altar on the right) ; 
the Madonna with the holy bishops, 
S. Martin and S. Nicolas, with the 
three maidens saved by the latter. 
By his brother, Bwido Aspertmi, 
there is a good, essentially Ferra- 
rese Adoration of the Kings, in 

<ithe Pinacoteca at Bologna, No. 9. 
[Also Giulio Frcmeia, seemingly 
brother of Giacomo, a certain /a- 
ecobus deBoateriis {Pitti, No. 362), 
and the before-mentioned Giov. 
Maria Chiodwrolo (see note, p. 100) in 
the Pinacoteca at Bologna, (No. 60) 
belong to the followers of Francia. 

At Naples, under the last of the 
Anjoua, Keng, and under Alphonzo 
of Arragon, pictures of the Flemish 
school had attained such a repu- 
tation that several national painters 
formed themselves directly upon 
them. This is true of Simone 
Papa, the elder, whose picture of 
/the Archangel Michael (Naples 
Musewm) shows at least how gladly 

he would have followed the Van 

In the Flemish style there are g 
besides in S. Domenico Maggwre; 
in the sixth chapel on the right, 
or del Crocefisso, the Carrying the 
Cross ; near the altar, a Descent 
from the Cross, and in the first 
chapel left of the entrance, a very 
brown Adoration of the Kings. In 
S. Pietfro Martire, the excellently h 
coloured panel of S. Vincenzo Fer- 
rer, surrounded by small coloured 
representations of his legends ; [in 
the lower church of S. Severino, at » 
the high altar ; above, the Ma- 
donna, below, S. Severino, between 
four Saints. — Fr.] 

At this time appears the artist 
whom the Neapolitans are accus- 
tomed to boast of as the father of 
their painting, Zimgaro{ or Antonio 
Solaria). The entirely iincritical 
Neapolitan history of art attri- 
butes to him, besides a romantic 
history, works of the most various 
origin ; among them, some of those 
above-mentioned ; while, in fact, 
there exists by him no single au- 
thenticated picture. What actually 
comes out is only that along with 
the Flemish influence the school of 
Umbria found acceptance in Na- 
ples ; of any independent character 
in Neapolitan art there can be no 
question. What deserves most at- 
tention among the works ascribed 
to Zingaro, are the twenty frescos 
of one of the courts of a convent 
at S. Severino (best light in the_;' 
forenoon). This is an excellent 
work of the end of the fifteenth 
century, which shows a knowledge 
of the Florentine and Umbrian 
works of the time. Even the cos- 
tumes only belong to this time. 
The life of S. Benedict has never 
been better represented, if we 
except Signorelli's frescoes in Mon- 
te OHveto (Tuscany). The type of 
man here represented is indeed 
inferior to the Florentine, and in 
the nose, expression of eye and 


' The Henaisscmce." Neapolitan School. 

lip, has aomething coarse and low- 
featured. But this is lost sight of 
in the number of living and power- 
fully depicted figures and like- 
nesses ; the forms move with grace 
and dignity on a middle distance, 
behind which the architectural or 
landscape background stands out 
easily and pleasantly. The master 
understood, for instance, as well 
as Griorgione, the delightful eflfect 
of slender stems, thinly clad with 
foliage, which rise up before and 
near steep masses of rock. In 
general, the landscape is treated 
here with complete understanding 
as a scene for important events, 
with the Flemish fancifulnesa and 
overcrowding. One never sees any 
sinking into conceits or heaviness ; 
a harmonious noble style enlivens 
the whole. * The quiet court, with 
the gigantic plane splendid stiU in 
decay, an oasis in. the midst of the 
world of Naples, heightens the im- 
pression (unfortunately badly re- 
stored lately). [Next to this work 
ought to stand the great Madonna 
with Saints named Zingaro in the 

« Musewm (Room 25, No. 6), a com- 
paratively unintellectual work [of 
Umbrian style] ; and the Ascension 
of Christ with Saints at the sides, 

i called Silvestro de' Biumi, in the 
church of Monte OUveto, Cappella 
Piccolomini on the left of the Porch. 
— Pr.] 

[The two DonzeUi are Florentines, 
Piero (born 1451) being older than 
his brother Ippolito (born 1455). — 
Ed.] To them are ascribed some 
pictures by divers hands in the 
Museum of Naples, and a series of 
wall pictures in the ex-refectory of 
OS. M. NvMia ; on the north-east 
wall the Adoration of the Kings 
and the Coronation of the Virgin, 

- Another life of 8. Benedict, in the 
upper story of that double row of Ionic 
columns at the Badia in Florence, always 
seemed to me like an eaiMer work by the 
same master. 

in which Crowe and Cavalcaselle 
trace the hand of an Umbrian 
master, like Francesco da Tolen- 
ti/no : on the south-west wall the 
Bearing of the Cross, in life-size 
figures. This is, according to 
Schulz, by Vincen/io Amemolo. To 
Sihiestro de' Biumi are further at- 
tributed in S. Bestituta in the<i 
Cathedral, Madonna with two 
Saints ; other paintings in the Mu- 6 
seum ; in his manner, Caihedral of/ 
Capua, in a chapel on the right, a 
Madonna with two Saints ; Cathe- 
dral of rondi, in a chapel on the g 
right, a similar picture, signed. We 
should not mention this painter, 
nor his pupU Antonio dl Amaio (a 
picture in S. Severino), but that^ 
among the works of the later Nea- 
politan school the eye rests grate- 
fully on such pictures, in which the 
painters have sought to represent 
lofty subjects with simple methods.* 
In Kome, amongst other places in , 
the Palazzo dei Gonservatbri, and in * 
the Neapolitan States, especially _ 
at Ascoli, appears Cola deW Arrm-3 
trice, an inferior master, also influ- 
enced by the Flemish school, who 
painted in this style [from 1513 to 
1543. -Ed.] 


What impression will be made 
by the old Flemish and old Ger- 
man pictures alongside of those 
products of a strong natural growth 
of artistic talent ? It would be a 
great error to believe that Italy in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth century 
did not esteem them ; the compa- 
ratively large number in which 
they are spread through Italian 
galleries and churches, proves the 
contrary. Even if here and there 
it was esteemed only a luxury to 

* The beautiful Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, in S. Giovanni Maggiore, first 
chapel on the right, might be by a Nea- 
politan follower of Lionanio. 

Justus V. Gent. — Justus de AUemagna. 


possess northern pictures, tlie Ita- 
lians of that time must always have 
felt and prized something special 
in northern art. 

The old Flemish school of the 
brothers Hubert and Jofm Vcm 
EycTc had, ten years earlier than 
Masaccio, fully carried out into 
practice the reaUstio tendency of 
the fifteenth century. Already in 
the lifetime of both brothers some 
of those pictures appear to have 
reached Naples, which afterwards 
had so great an influence upon the 
school there. * 

Subsequently, it was, above all, 
the so-called technical method 
which gave special worth to the old 
Flemish pictures, that is, the deep 
glowing light in the colours, which 
diffuses a poetical charm even over 
the prosaically-conceived characters 
and events. As soon as possible, 
they learnt the methods of the 
Netherlanders. The new vehicle, 
the oil (and the not less essential 
varnish) was not, by any means, 
the chief thing ; much higher pro- 
blems of colouring (of harmony and 
contrasts) must have been silently 
worked out on this occasion. 

They were likewise impressed by 
the delicate completeness which 
makes a perfect jewel out of every 
good Flemish picture. Lastly, the 

• [The S. Jerome with the lion, in hia 
most realistically represented study (Mu- 
seum of Naples) Sala di KaflfaeUe, No. 31, 
can yet lay no claim to the name of 
Suhert v, Myck. The colour, everywhere 
scratched and cracked, as is never the 
case in real Van Eyeks, the half heraldic 
lion, the streaks and lines in place of real 
letters in the inscriptions, hut after all, 
the inferior execution, in spite of 
all authorities, prevent us from giving 
such a name ; and we must ascribe the 
pictxu-e to one of the Neapolitans (??) af- 
fected by Flemish influence— Fr.] The 
Adoration of the Kings in the church of 
the Castello Nuovo, in the choir on the 
left, was also regarded formerly as a work 
of /. V. Eyck ; it is a very weak, dull pro- 
duction, with touches of Eaphael, Lio- 
nardo and the Flemings, and there is no 
question of its being the work of any 
great Master. — Mr. 

Flemish treatment of landscape 
and architecture so true (compa- 
ratively) in linear and agrial per- 
spective, gave a decisive impulse 
to Italian painting. 

As to their conception in general, 
the Flemings gave to the Italians 
nothing which they could not have 
obtained by their own powers, 
though in a difi^erent manner. But 
people felt in the devotional pic- 
tures of the first the more harmo- 
nious seriousness, disturbed by no 
effort after beauty (being quite in- 
different to the object represented). 
In the time of Michael Angelo the 
Flemish pictures were regarded as 
more "pious " than the ItaKan. 

The immediate pupils of the v. 
Eycks, and also those indirectly 
influenced by them, are in some 
ways excellently represented in 
Italy.* [Gristiis is to be studied a 
in two fine portraits, male and 
female. No. 749, in the TJffizi, and 
a Virgin and Child (No. 359) in the 
Gallery of Turin.— Ed.] 

By Justus V. Oent is the chief 
picture out of S. Agata, now No. b 
46 in the town gallery of Urbino, 
the Institution of the Last Supper, 
1474. Among the spectators the 
authentic portraits of the Duke 
Federigo di Montefeltro, with his 
wife and sons, and the ambassador 
of the Shah of Persia. Justus de 
AUemagna, who in 1451 painted a 
great Anamnciation in fresco in the e 
cloister of S. Maria di Castello in 
Genoa, is apparently another Ger- 
man master of that time, as more 
particularly appears in the mild 
rich-blond Madonna. The cir- 
cular pictures with Prophets and 
Sibyls in the vaulting seem to 

* We have paid no attention to the 
names showered on the old Flemish and 
old German pictures still in Italian gal- 
leries, where A. Dure, Olbeno, Luca 
d'Olanda, are mere collective names, and 
the reader must consider all pictures of 
these masters not mentioned here as 
essentially non-genuine. 

104 " The Renaissance." Old German and Flemish Masters. 

belong to a harder but still German 

The most important work of 
Bugo van der Goes, from S. M. 

aNuma in Florence, now in the 
newly-arranged Museum of the 
Arcispedale, beside the church, 
a large Adoration of the Child by 
Shepherds and Angels ; on the 
wings, the Donor, with his sons and 
two protecting Saints; his wife, with 
a daughter and two female Saints. 
The Virgin and the angels display 
the type of V. d. Goes, timid, yet 
not devoid of charm ; but the side 
pictures have aU the striking flem- 
ish individuality. From this and 
similar pictures the old Florentines 
may have learnt the art of por- 
traiture. [At PoUzzi in Sicily a 
Madonna, with S. Catherine and 
S. Barbara, like the Nativity of S. 

h M. Nuova.] In the X7ffi,zi, the beau- 
tiful little picture of a Madonna 
enthroned with two angels, under a 
splendidly ornamental Renaissance 
arch. No. 703. No other contem- 
porary school followed out pre- 
cisely this idea ; no one could have 
produced so brilliantly beautiful 
and tender an easel picture. [Cer- 
tainly by Memling, by whom, like- 
wise, are a portrait of a Man, No. 
769, and S. Benedict, panel of a 
diptych once in S. Maria Nuova. — 
Ed.] Much like H. v. d. Goes is the 
painter of a precious little picture 
of the Death of the Virgin in the 

c Sdarra Gallery at Borne, if it is 
actually not by him. The ema- 
ciated, dreary features of most of 
the spectators go indeed to an ex- 
treme which even Castagno and 
Verocchio did not overstep. [The 
remarkable originjd picture of this 
composition is in the National Gal- 

d lery in London, ascribed to Martin 
Schon. — Mr.] According to 
Waagen, they belong to a. master 
of the Caloar school. 

" In the manner of Roger v. d. 
Weyden " — [surely by Memling. — 
Ed.], so must I designate a Descent 

from the Cross which for several* 
years has been exhibited in the 
Doria Gallery at Rome. Here we 
see northern art at a disadvantage, 
not because of the expression of pain 
carried nearly to grimace— Guido 
Mazzoni, for instance, goes much 
further, and adds pathetic ges- 
tures to it, — but on account of the 
want of beauty in the arrange- 
ment, which is so common in this 
school when it forsakes architec- 
tonic or decorative symmetry, and 
of the faulty form of the body, 
otherwise so carefully executed. 
Another Deposition in the Vffizi,f 
No. 795, ascribed to B.v. d. Weyden, 
raises the question how it could be 
possible that the old Netherlanders 
should observe the details of reaKty 
with so sharp an eye, and copy it 
with such a sure and unwearied 
hand, and yet so misconceive life 
and action as a whole. The delight 
of the Florentines in lively action 
was entirely wanting in them. 
(There is another Deposition after 
Roger v. d. Weyden, in the Musewm 9 
of Naples.*) 

A very famous triptych, said to 
be by Van Eyck, miniature-like in 
delicacy of execution, has lately 
been placed in the gallery at Pa- ^ 

lermo M. H. [Now assigned to 

Memling. — Ed.] 

By Sans Memling there is a 
masterpiece in the gallery at Turin i 
of the greatest value, which sur- 
passes all pictures of a similar 
kind in Italy. The Seven Sorrows 
of the Virgin all combined in one 
picture, the counterpart to the 
Seven Joys of the Virgin, in the 
Pinacothek at Munich. There is an 
old and good copy after the famous 
S. Christopher at Munich, in the 
gallery at Modena. There, too, by 
a painter who may stand between 
Memling and Metsys ; Mary and 

* It is well known that to attribnte 
this and similar pictures to 5. v. d. Wey- 
den the younger has been found to be im- 
posbible by authentic documents 

Brugge. — Wohlgemuth. — Nicola Frmnenti. — B. v. Orley. 105 

S. Anna in the open air, giving 
fruit to the child. 

According to the latest investi- 
gations, another very important 
master of the Van Eyok school, 
a Oerard Damd of Bruges, has been 
declared the author of an excellent 
Madonna, two-thirds of life-size, 
between S. Jerome and a bishop, 
in the conference haU of the town 
palace (formerly Doria Tarsi) at 
Genoa. In the same hall are a 
crucifix with Mary and John, by 
an excellent early Netherlander, 
beautiful and distinct in character. 
Two other old German pictures are 
late and insignificant. — Mr.] 
h In the Oallery at Turin there is 
a great Flemish Adoration of the 
Kings of the end of the fifteenth 
century [in the manner of Hier. 
Bosch. — Mr.] 

The picture of S. Catharine of 

Siena, with a view of a town, in the 

c Academy of Fisa, may be the work 

of an early Dutch painter of the 

fifteenth century. 

Of the work of Germans of the 
fifteenth century there is very little 
to be seen in Italy. Theirworks gave 
just what was most admired in the 
Flemings, but imperfectly and at 
second-hand ; namely, the delicate 
splendid perfection of work, the 
glowing colour, the picture of the 
world in little. StUl, there are in 
d the Museum of Naples various pic- 
tures on folding panels, now di- 
vided, among others, Adoration of 
the Kings, of which one belongs to 
Michael Wohlgemuth. There is 
something touching in these fair, 
helpless-looking creatures in their 
kingly array, when one thinks of 
the decided will and capacity of 
the Italians contemporary with 
them. But we need not especially 
reverence the German school of the 
fifteenth century. It persisted in 
its deficiencies with a composure 
which could hardly be quite faith- 
ful. As it was too troublesome to 
learn to represent the spiritual 

through the corporeal, the expres- 
sion of the soul in the movement 
of the body, there arose a great 
superfluity of unapplied fancy, 
which then turned to what was 
bizarre and extraordinary. One 
sees, for instance, in the Uffizi, a < 
Resurrection of Lazarus, with side 
pictures and (better) outside pic- 
tures, dated 1641, by Nicola Pru- 
menti, whom we may guess to have 
been a master from the district of 
the Colmar school. Who gave 
this (by no means unskilful) painter 
the right to produce his horrible 
grimaces? The life of Durer and 
Holbein, who had the firm and 
noble resolve to attain to the truth, 
was passed for the most part in the 
struggle against such and similar 

It is time to pass on to the great 
masters of the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. Italy possesses 
considerable treasures also of this 
period of northern art. 

First, a masterpiece of one of 
the most distinguished Flemish 
masters, about 1500. In S. Donato,/ 
at Genoa, at the beginning of the 
left aisle ; a rich Adoration of the 
Kings ; on the side wings S. Stephen 
with a Donor and St. Magdalen, 
with a landscape background in the 
manner of Patenier. [Probably by 
Bernard von Orley, with a distinct 
reminiscence of Mabuse. — Mr.] 
Here the severity of the old 
Netherlanders is lost in a mild grace 
of feature and movement ; the 
heads, as if freed from a curse, are 
pale with the smile of recovery ; 
the colours, no longer confined to 
the gemlike brilliancy of the early 
pictures, pass into soft transitions 
and reflections ; but the love of 
brilliant detail seeks for new pro- 
blems — for instance, in special very 
highly finished representations of 
jasper pillars, gold ornaments, etc. 
The double portrait in the collec- 
tion of painters' portraits in the 
Uffizi, signed 1520, which thena 

106 " The Renaissance." Old German and Flemish Masters. 

passed for that of Qtientm Metsys 
and his wife, ought rather, on 
account of the reddish flesh tones, 
to be placed in the school of the 
Master of the Death of the Virgin. 
The portrait of a cardinal in the 

a Gorsini Palace at Eome. Room 6, 
No. 43 ( Albrecht of Brandenburg ?), 
is an excellent work of a similar 
tendency. So, also, the highly 
finished Discovery of a relic, in the 

6 gallery at Turin. A Netherlander 
of the same time, first-rate, errone- 
ously called Holbein, Fitti, No. 
223, a portrait. Of the genre pic- 

ctures of Quentin Metsys and his 
school, which are best described as 
scenes of Antwerp counting-house 
humour, there are several in Italy. 

(2 Among others in the F. Doria at 
Eome, two Misers with two spec- 

Of the contemporary Netherlaud 
landscape painting some idea is 
given by a beautiful picture in the 

eFal. Fallamcini {Str. Carlo Felice) 
at Genoa : it is a Repose during the 
Plight in Egypt, in one of those re- 
tired wood landscapes which set 
before us one of the most beautiful 
poetical sides of northern art of that 
time (not by Fatenier). 

By Herri de Bles there is a beau- 
tiful landscape with a ruin in the 
fUjfld, No. 730; his Tower of 
gi Babel (Academy at Venice) was 
painted for the sake of the figures ; 
A in his PietS [S. Fietro at Modena, 
second altar on the right) the land- 
scape appears to be treated partly 
in a Ferrarese manner. 

[Lucas va/n Leyden, who, as 
" Luca d' Olanda," has become but 
too familiar to Italian custodes,* 
cannot claim with certainty a single 
one of the pictures ascribed to him, 

• See above, note to p. 103. The most 
absnrd is in the catalogue of the Turin 
gallery, of 1857 : Coronation of Henry IV, 
of France, by Lucas Damez of Holland, 
born 1494, died 1533 1— Mr. 

and we must give np the naming 
them as beyond the limits of this 
book. Among the best is the Ecce 
Homo, in the Tribune of the Uffizii 
at Florence, which shows the hard 
hand of H. Hemessen. — Mr.] 

By the elder Breughel there are 
in the Mvseum of Naples, amongy 
others two tempera pictures on 
linen ; one, with the allegory of 
the Penitent deceivedby the World, 
is signed and dated 1565 ; the 
other represents the parable of the 
Blind. [By Sieronymus Bosch is a 
Temptation of S. Anthony (under 
the name Cranach, in the Palanzo k 
Oolonna at Eome. — Mr.] By the 
Plemishcontemporaries of Breughel, 
who had passed over to the Italian 
manner, there are in Italy few 
things worth mentioning, or else 
they bear the Italian names of the 
originals who prompted them. 
Several of these Netherlanders pro- 
duced copies, and pasticcios after 
Lionardo and Raphael, which then 
and later misled people. 

There is a tolerably large cate- 
gory of pictures which, iu the 
absence of more special knowledge, 
I must describe as Flemish — Lower 
Rhenish. This style, recalling 
most the treatment of Qu. Metsys, 
in the years between 1510 — 1530, 
prevailed variously from Flanders 
to Westphalia. To this group 
belong the masters Jan Mabuse 
(Maliodius), Bemhard von, Orley, 
Joachim Fatenier, Herri met de Bles 
(Oivetta), Jan Mostaert, H. Hemes- 
sen, Jan Schoreel, Michel Ooxcie, 
Lambert Lombard, Victor and 
Heimrich JMnwege, from Dortmund, 
and, above all, the anonymous 
Master of the Death of the Virgin, 
whose chief picture, the Adoration 
of the Kings, in the Dresden Gal- 
lery, comes from the neighbourhood 
of Genoa, where many pictures of 
this school are found. The most 
beautiful and richest of these pic- 
tures, in the Museum of Naples, 
Sala di Raffaelle, No. 28, is a great 

Albert JDilrer. 


Adoration of the Kings with Donors, 
Saints, Monks, Nuns, and a num- 
ber of angels, among splendid re- 
naissance-ruins, with a rich view 
seen through, signed 1512. The 
pretended monogram A. D. is not 
to be found. Diirer is not to be 
thought of ; the treatment of the 
black outlined heads is quite pe- 
culiar, and not corresponding to 
that of any known master. * The 

a same musewn contains, in the same 
hall, Nos. 25 and 26, two altar- 
pieces and several other smaller 
pictures likewise valuable of this 

h kind. In the Srera at Milan, No. 
432, a picture divided into three 
parts (Birth, Adoration of the 
Kings, and Repose during the 

Lastly come the German painters 
of the best time. They, too, must 
be mentioned here, because in their 
development they were parallel 
only with the great Italians of the 
fifteenth century. 

By Albert Bij/rer, even after ab- 
stracting all pictures falsely as- 
cribed to "Alberto Duro," there 
are stiU a whole series of genuine 
pictures left. They begin with the 
wonderful portrait of his father in 

cthe Uffizi, of 1490, No. 766 [wbUe 
his own fancifully costumed por- 
trait. No. 498, is only a copy of the 
excellent original in Madrid. — Mr.] 
Then follows a masterpiece of his 
middle time, the Adoration of the 
Kings, Tribune of Uffizi, 1504, and 
an excellent drawing of the Cru- 
cifixion done in green, heightened 
with white, 1505, in the fourth 
room on the right from the tribune 
inclosed in a cover painted by 

d BrewgTiel. In the Borghese Gallery, 
Koom 12, Ho. 37, a beautiful male 
portrait of 1505, according to 
Waagen's conjecture the likeness of 

* According to Waagen, by a Westpha- 
lian, resembling Victor and Heinrich Diin- 

Pirkheimer. A reminiscence of his 
stay in Venice, 1506, is the Christ 
among the Doctors, a half-length 
figure picture, in part truly Vene- 
tian, but in part somewhat gro- 
tesque, in the P. Barherini at Borne. ' 
[Also a portrait in the Palazzo Brig- 
nole at Genoa.] By the way, look 
among the paintings executed by 
Odrpaccio, 1502 — 1511, in the Scuola 
di S. Giorgio degli Schiavoni at/ 
Venice, for the picture of S. Jerome 
in his Study, and compare it with 
Durer's famous engraving of 1514, 
in order to see how, perhaps, the 
first timid attempt of the former 
gave the impulse to produce this 
imperishable work. [Cavaliere S. 9 
Angela at Naples, possessed in 1861 
quite a small picture of 1508 ; a 
weaver of garlands at the window. 
An excellent little Ecce Homo, 
halt-length picture of 1514, in Casa ^ 
Triimlzi at Milan. — Mr.] 

Of the later time are the two , 
Heads of Apostles in the Uffizi i 
(1516 in tempera), which do indeed 
display Durer's whole energy, but 
not the high inspiration which was 
reserved for his last work, the 
picture of the Four Apostles in 
Munich. [And a Madonna of 1518 
in the gallery of Marquess Gino 
Capponi at Florence.] 

The life-size pictures of Adam _ 
and Eve, P. Fitti, which may havei 
been painted about this time, if 
they really are by DUrer, at least 
show not unbeautiful form in 
movement. [These are certainly 
the originals from which the pic- 
tures in Madrid and Mayence are 
copied. — Mr.] His latest work 
existing in Italy, the Madonna of 
the year 1526, in the Vffizi, No. ^ 
851, is already impressed by the 
spirit of the approaching reforma- 
tion, without glory and adornment, 
harsh and domestic. 

These works hang partly in the 
same rooms which contain Eaphael, 
Titian, and Correggio. Can we 
only be just to them in a historical 

108 " The Renaissance." Old German and Flemish Masters. 

spirit, as it were, only "excuse" 
them? In any case DUrer, from 
the point of view of mere work, 
would hardly lose near Eaphael : 
the life and freedom, though but 
comparative, which German art, 
certainly too late, owed him, was 
something immeasurable, which, 
without the lifelong effort of a great 
mind, could never have been 
mastered. But, also, measured 
according to an absolute standard, 
these pictures have a high value. 
The forms, without any ideality, 
but also without vagae abstraction, 
correspond, that is in the pictures 
where the f ancifulness of youth has 
been overcome, in the highest de- 
gree, to what he wished to express 
by them ; they are the fittest robe 
for his kind of ideality. AU gained 
by his very own work, the man 
and the style always identical. 
How many in the sixteenth century 
can boast of this ? How have they 
all through whole schools been 
merely echoes in feeling and in 
expression ? 
Of Diirer'spupilsflas9tSiSc^aM^«Kra 

a is represented in the TJffizi by eight 
pictures, with the legend of Peter 
and Paul, which belong to his best 
works. The pupils again fell into 
the fantastic manner from which 
Diirer had gradually freed himself 
by great effort. In Albrecht Alt- 
dorfer, to whom belong two pretty 

6 pictures of the Academy of Siena, 
signed, this manner takes quite a 
pleasant Romantic form, especially 
in the landscape. 

By George Pencz there is, in the 
c Collection of Painters in the Uffizi, 
No. 436, an excellent youthful 
portrait. [Genuine and signed, 
painted in 1544, therefore not his 
own portrait. — W.] 

By Jmcos Kranach there is an 

early and, one might say, quite 

surprisingly good small picture 

d (1504) in the P. Seiarra at Borne ; 

the Holy Family with many sing- 
ing and dancing Child-angels in 
a fanciful landscape, after the 
manner of the Francouian school 
[now in a private collection atBerUn. 
— Ed.] Also good, one of the so- 
called Veauses (in a red cap with 
a gold chain and a transparent veil) 
with a Cupid Stung by Bees, of 
1531, in the Borghese Gallery ate 
Borne. For the rest there exist no 
works of first-rate merit by him in 
Italy. Adam and Eve in the Tri- 
bune of the Vfitd, Saxon Dukes, and/ 
so forth, in another room. A little 
St. George in a bright landscape. 
No. 751, is worth all of this. One 
of the best examples of the Adul- 
teress before Christ in the Museum g 
at Xaples. 

By anonymous South German 
artists : an excellent, unfortunately 
much washed-out portrait of a Car- 
dinal, in the Museum of Naples, as h 
delicately and intellectually con- 
ceived as any German porta-ait of 
the time ; several portraits of the 
house of Hapsburg (Archduke 
PhOip, Charles v., Ferdinand L), 
partly South German, partly Fle- 
mish, in the same room of the Mu- 
seum of Naples, in the P. Borghese, i 
at Rome, and in other places. [By 
Chrislcpher Amherger : the portrait 
of Charles V. , in the Academy atj 
Siena, Quadri diversi, No. 54 — a 
masterpiece. — W. ] 

By Nicolas Mamiel, Martin 
Schaffner, and Ha/m Baldung, I 
know of no picture. On the other 
hand, the great H. Holbein the 
younger had, like DUrer and Lucas 
van Leyden, the fate to become a 
general name. 

In the Vffizi : (1) The genuine, k 
excellent finished portrait of 
Richard Southwell, aged 33, of 
1537 ; * the portrait of Holbein 
himself, in the Collection of 
Painters (that is a head drawn 

* The inscription bears the 28th year of 
Henry VIIl. 's reign. 

Holbein. — Janet. 


with chalk and pencil, tinted with 
little colour on a sheet of paper, 
which, later enclosed in a larger 
sheet, was provided with a gold 
ground, and completed by the ad- 
ditions of a coarse, clear blue- 
grey smock-frock). Originally, very 
ukely by Holbein, in the style of 
many of the portrait-heads found 
at Windsor ; in spite of all iU- 
treatment and varnishing, the parts, 
for instance, round the left eye and 
the mouth, are stUl excellent. But 
the individual represented with the 
light grey eyes, the square-shaped 
face, and the coarse upper-lip, is 
not Holbein, and the iascription 
not original. [But it is a true copy 
of a genuine one existing there, 
and the portrait must be a likeness 
of himself. — Mr.] 

Of all the other portraits called 
Holbein only two likenesses of 
Erasmus can be accounted genuine ; 

a that in the gallery at Farma, 1530, 

b [and one in the gallery at Turin, 
soft as velvet, and firm also, un- 
fortunately somewhat washed out. 

c — Mr.] The one in the Musev/m 
of Naples is placed in too imperfect 
a light for close examination. [That 
of Parma so repainted as to pre- 
clude quite a safe opinion. —Ed.] 

d \hithe Mamfrimi Palace is agenuine, 
though not interesting, youthful 
picture of the master, of the year 
1513, a young man, with a sUver 
cup rimmed with gold in his right 
hand, the left leaning on a balus- 
trade ; the hands painted over. 
The well-known background, with 
renaissance architecture and orna- 
ments. — In the pubUe gallery of 

e Eovigo, also, a portrait of King 
Ferdinand, which appears quite 
genuine. — Mr.] 

Under the name of Holbein are 
found some of the miniature paint- 
ings of the early French school, in 
the manner of Glouet, named Ja/net. 
The equestrian portrait of Francis 
/I., in the UJfisi, is one of the best; 

others in P. Pitti; also at Genoa, 
in the P. Adorno, etc. 


For my own part, I should 
gladly dissuade persons from the 
study of Italian painting on glass, 
so injurious to the eyes, in order 
that the sight may be reserved for 
the examination of frescos. But 
since there exists a very consider- 
able number of remarkable works 
of this kind, I must not altogether 
pass them over. Especial study of 
the subject is not here to be 

Glass-painting may have been 
practised here and there during 
the whole of the later Middle 
Ages, but on a large scale it only 
came in with the Gothic architec- 
ture of the North. I can recall no 
painted glass of the Komanesque 
style. Even in quite late times 
many of the most important works 
are executed by transalpine artists, 
or, at least, by those who had been 
educated in the North. 

How much of the painted glass 
of Milan Cathedral still belongs to g 
the time of its building I cannot 
state; that of the great windows 
of the choir is modern ; that of the 
south side, which again suffered 
injury in 1848, will have to 
undergo restoration. — The great 
window in the choir in S. Do- h 
menico at Perugia (1441), is attri- 
buted to a certain Fra Bartolom- 
■meo : a series of histories, and four 
rows of saints, somewhat common- 
place in style. A great part of 
the pictures in glass in the Oathe- i 
dral of Florence (since 1436) were 
by a Tuscan educated at Lubeck, 
Francesco di lAm, from Oambassij 
near Volterra; but the greater 
number are ascribed to the famous 
bronze-worker, Lorenzo OMberti, 
especially the three front circular 
windows. Neither one nor the 


" The Renaissance." Painting on Glass. 

other make a striking, overpower- 
ing expression. Far more charac- 
teristic is the Descent from the 
Cross in the front central window 

. of S. Oroce, which is said to be an 
authentic design of Oroagna. Paint- 
ings on glass begin to be more inte- 
resting only after this time, because 
the powerful Italian reaHsm of the 
fifteenth century also interpene- 
trates them; henceforth they are 
distinguished from the contempo- 
rary northern pictures not only by 
the style of drawing and concep- 
tion, but also they serve decorative 
purposes more freely, and at the 
same time attempt much more to 
be real pictures with separate 
meaning than in the North. 

Out of Grerman and Italian real- 
ism was combined the style of the 
preacher and lay-brother, Jacob 
von Ulm (1407-1491), who pro- 
duced the splendid picture in S. 

J Peironio, at Bologna, of the fourth 
chapel on the right, and perhaps 
also that of the fourth on the left 
was constructed under his direc- 
tion. Of the remaining windows 
of this church, the one in the 
seventh chapel on the left (C. Bac- 
ciocchi) is remarkably beautifully 
executed, after the vigorous design 
of Lorenzo Costa; of similar style, 
is that of the fifth chapel to the left. 
That of the ninth chapel on the right 
is supposed to be after a sketch of 
Michelangelo^ s ; but the motives 
of the single saints distinctly re- 
mind us of BandinelWs figures in 
relief in the Florentine shrines in 
the choir; the execution is very 
rich in colour for this later period. 
— Costa, too, is doubtless the author 
of the circular window of S. Gio- 

c vanni in Monte in Bologna. (John 
on Patmos ; the windows next to 
it inferior. ) In S. Giovanni e Paolo, 

d at Venice, the great window of the 
right transept is considered to be 
the composition of B. Vivarini; 
the upper series of figures are more 
in Vivarini's style than the lower. 

[The last are by Qi/rolamo Mbcetto. 
— Fr.] 

The great window of the choir in 
S. M. Novella, in Florence, by 
AlessaTuiro Fiorentimo (?) (perhaps 
Samdro Botticelli 1), of the year 
1491,* is only of moderate excel- 
lence; on the other hand, the 
painted glass of the adjacent 0. 
Strozzi may be called the best in 
Florence ; it seems composed in 
harmony with the frescos of Filip- 
pino lAppi. There are some good 
smaller pieces of work also in & e 
Bpi/riio, in the G. dei Pazzi, in S.f 
Croce, in S. Francesco al Monte, ing 
S. Lorenzo, of a recognisable general 
type which seems to indicate the 
composition of a Florentine, and 
the execution of a Northerner. 

Lucca possesses, perhaps, the 
best thing of this whole style in 
the beautiful windows of the choir 
of the Cathedral; they remind us A 
most of the windows of the C. 
Strozzi. The other painted glass, 
also of this Cathedral, is of the 
best. In S. Paolino, there is some i 
glass in the same style, somewhere 
about the year 1530. — In the Bap-j 
tistery of S. Giova/nni the circular 
window with the figure of the 
Baptist, of the year 1572. 

In Arezzo, the beautiful painted A 
glass of the Annunziata is still of 
the fifteenth century ; but in the 
Cathedral we meet the most famous 
painter of Raphael's time, GuglieVmo 
da Marcilla. He it is who adorned 
both the side windows of the choir 
of S. M. del Popolo at Rome with I 
stories of Christ and Mary — ^in the 
time of Julias II. , apparently after 
compositions of an excellent Um- 
brian master. [The colouring, un- 
like the early French and German 
painting on glass, appears dull, cold, 
and watery. — Mr.] Later, in the 

* [The window was painted from Ghir- 
landaio's designs, during the tenure of 
office of the preetor Alexandrini, whose 
office, indicated by "•ptoris," was inter- 
preted to be that of a painter. — £d.] 

G. da Marcilla. — P. Miccheli. 


a Cailiedral of Arezzo, he may have 
followed other models or ms own 
invention ; at any rate, his style is 
here, on the whole, the same which 
characterises the UTetherlanders 
then working in Italy. The limi- 
tations of this art, which has to be 
subordinate to architectonic sym- 
metry and absence of action, not 
only because it must avoid dis- 
agreement with the vertical de- 
signs of the Gothic windows, but 
more in order to refrain from com- 
plicating its immense resources of 
colouring with other distracting 
elements, of effect ; — these limits 
are here entirely forgotten, as so 
often in the glass painting of the 

sixteenth century ; they are pic- 
tures transferred to glass. * 

In the Gafhed/ral of Siena, the 6 
glass painting of the large front 
circular window — a Last Supper — 
was executed by Pastorino Mic- 
cheli, 1549, after a somewhat 
mannered composition not very 
sidtable for the style by Perim, del 

In reaJity, the whole art found 
little sympathy that could be 
spared from the engrossing interest 
given in Italy to ecclesiastical 
fresco and oil painting ; it has, 
as a rule, the character of an ac- 
cessory of luxury. 


With a conscious knowlege of 
its own strength, and free from 
dependence on any existing types, 
— without even a tendency to imi- 
tate exactly any of the models of ' 
antiquity, art, at the close of the 
fifteenth century attained the 
highest level to which it was pre- 
destined to ascend, and rose new 
born out of the study of life and 
character which had been the 
special aim and purpose of the new 
age. It rose not as a mere indica- 
tion or purpose, but as an accom- 
plished fact ; and not until art in 
the fifteenth century had mastered 
the expression of every kind of life 
did she, simplified and at the same 
time infinitely enriched by her 
achievement, create at last the 
highest form of life. 

Then and there it springs forth, 
suddenly, like a flash of lightning, 
not simply the fruit of persevering 
endeavour, but like the gift of 
heaven, The time had come. Out 
of the thousand elements proved 

to be capable of delineation, out of 
the wide extent of life which had 
formed the domain of art from 
Masaocio to SiguoreUi, out of time 
and nature, the great masters now 
gather eternal truths for imperish- 
able works of art. Each has his 
way, so that one beauty does not 
exclude another, but aU together 
form a multiform revelation of the 
highest. The time of full bloom 
is indeed but short, and even then 
those who failed to reach the goal 
stUl continued to work in their old 
way ; among them some exoeUeut 
and even great painters. We may 
say that the short hfetime of Ra- 
phael (1483-1520) witnessed the 
rise of all that was most perfect, 
and that immediately after him, 
even with the greatest who out- 
lived him, the decline began. But 
this perfect ideal was created, once 
for all, for the solace and admira- 

* In the central window of the fagade 
of the Anima at Rome there is said to be 
still a Madonna of Guglielmo. 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

tion of all time, will Uve for ever, 
and bear the stamp of immortality. 


lAonardo da YvruA (1452-1519), 
the pupil of Verrooohio, ensures to 
the Florentine school the well- 
deserved glory of having given 
birth to its liberating genius. A 
wonderfully gifted nature, whether 
we take him as architect, sculptor, 
engineer, physiologist, or anato- 
mist, always an originator and 
discoverer, and withal in every 
other relation the perfect man, 
strong as a giant, beautiful even 
in old age, and famous as a mu- 
sician and an improvisatore. We 
cannot say that his powers were 
diverted into too many channels, 
for a many-sided activity was in 
his nature ; but we may lament 
that so few of his designs in aU 
branches of art were carried out, 
and that of those few the best part 
has been destroyed or only exists 
in fragments. 

As a painter, again, he combines 
the most opposite gifts. Perpetu- 
ally endeavouring to make clear to 
himself the anatomical causes of all 
physical appearances and move- 
ments, he then turns with admi- 
rably quick and sure rendering to 
the intellectual expression, and 
gives the whole scale from hea- 
venly purity to the depths of ab- 
surdity and corruption. His pen 
sketches, of which many are exhi- 
a bited in the Ambrosiana at Milan, 
give the richest proofs of this. In 
him are united the beautiful soul 
of the enthusiast with the strongest 
power of thought and the highest 
understanding of the conditions of 
ideal composition. He is more real 
than all earlier artists where the 
point is reality, and then again 
sublime and free as few have been 
in any century. 

His earliest preserved works* 

* The head of Medusa in the TJffizi is, 
aa I believe, not only not the youthful 

are portraits, and in those his 
peculiar manner of painting can 
best be traced. A few words con- 
cerning the general style of por- 
trait painting at that time may be 
allowed us here. 

We constantly observe that 
during the fifteenth century and 
through the whole lifetime of 
lionardo and Raphael hardly any 
but very distinguished characters 
were painted separately, at any 
rate, except at Venice, where in 
Giorgioue's time portrait painting 
began to be a luxury considered 
suitable to the rank of aristocratic 

In the rest of Italy the separate 
pictures (not those merely intro- 
duced into wall paintings and 
church pictures) even of princes 
are rare. della Fraricesca's]) 
double portrait, with the especially 
characteristic and graceful allego- 
rical pictures at the back, in the 
Ujflzi, No. 1300, might represent 
a contemporary tyrant and his 
wife [without doubt Federigo di 
Montefeltro, Duke of XJrbino, and 
his wife Batista Sforza], the por- 
traits of the Milanese Bernardino 
de' Oonti in the Gallery of thee 
Capitol, * and in one of the Papal 
dwelling rooms of the Vatican, ^ 
perhaps represent princely chil- 
dren ; so, too, the girl's head called 
P. della JFrancesca in P. Pitti, No. g 
371 [more probably by Bonsiguori 
— Ed.] ; the female head arbitrarily 
named Mantegna [but also by Bon- 
signori — Ed.], in the Uffizi, No.y 
1121, certainly represents a lady of 

work of Lionardo, described by Vasari, 
but not even a copy from it, lather an 
attempt made only after Vasari's descrip- 
tion to produce something of the kind, 
perhaps by one of the Cartaooi. [Clearly 
no tyro, but a ready and determined 
hand, yet less suggesting to my mind 
the Carracci than the Milanese Lomazzo. 

* [There are now no portraits by Ber- 
nardino de' Conti in the Capitol Gallery, — 

Lionardo da Vinci. — Portrait Painting. 


high rank, according to the cata- 
logue, Elizabeth, wife of Guido 
Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua. We 
find more often self-painted por- 
traits of artists, as, for instance, in 
the collection of painters in the 

a Uffiei, those of MHppiTW lAppi 
(still erroneously called Masaccio) 
of PerugiTU), of Qiov. BMmi (ano- 

ither in the Capitolme Gallery),* 
and in the same place in the rooms 
of the Tuscan school, that of a 
Medallist and of [Verrocchio by] 
Lorenzo d/i Oredi (to whom besides 
is ascribed the portrait of a youth, 
almost Peruginesque in expression), 
for the likenesses of prelates of 
rank, even the Popes, we are 
limited up to Raphael's time almost 
entirely to monumental sculpture. 
The remaining portraits are almost 
only memorials, which were exe- 
cuted in honour of literary fame, of 
love, of near and close friendship, 
also of great beauty, and were often 
produced by the artist for the sake 
of preserving the memory of those 
qualities. For the sake of her 
beauty Samd/ro painted La Simo- 

Cnetta, PUti, Ifo. 353 ;t as an old 
friend, Framda, appears to have 
painted the fine portrait of the 

<^Vangelista Scappi in the Uffizi, 
No. 1124.t 

* [The portrait No. 287, called Perugino, 
is now ascertained to l^e the likeness of 
another person. The portrait called Giov. 
Bellini, No. 354, is (luite unlike that of the 
Capitoline Collection. — Ed.] 

t [The portrait of the Pitti is not the 
likeness of La Bimonetta, — Ed.] 

t In this connection we may mention 
the woodcuts. To Distinguished Men, hy 
Paolo Giovio, as the first great collection 
of portraits. The originals of these, col- 
lected from aU quarters, those of the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, cer- 
tainly very much from frescos, were in the 
Palazzo Giovio at Como. There were 
among them (according to Vasari, Life of 
Piero della Francesca), for instance, a large 
number of heads which Raphael had 
copied from the frescoes of Bratnantmo, so 
rich in portraits, in the Vatican chambers, 
before he took them down to make room 
for Heliodorus and the Miracle of Bolsena ; 
by Raphael's beciuest they came through 

In manner of representation these 
works diifer greatly. Massacio, in 
the Brancacd Chapel, already gives e 
a clever three-quarter view. Andrea 
del Gastagno (youthful portrait in 
the P. Pitti) follows him to the best/ 
of his power ; Sandro, on the other 
hand, only gives a profile; excellent 
portraits by him, Palazzo Strozzi, 
Florence. The North Italians also g 
are divided: P. della Francesca 
gives heads in profile, with the 
sharpest and most exact modelling, 
which omits no warts or other de- 
tail, on a pretty landscape back- 
ground ; OoTiii also does profiles ; 
Mantegna and Frcmda (also Peru- 
gino) give the heads quite in a front 
view, and endeavour by beautiful 
landscapes to give them a really 
ideal background. In the so-called 
Mantegna there is a mountain in A 
the last glow of Evening. The pic- 
ture of the Medallist is almost a 
three-quarter view (with a land- 
scape in the manner of Francesca) ; 

Giulio Bomana to Paolo Giovio. In the 
sixteenth century the Medici had the 
whole collection copied by painters sent on 
purpose, and these copies, which still 
possess a higher authority than the wood- 
cuts, now form a part of the great collec- 
tion of portraits in the Ufiizi, ia the pas- 
sage between the two galleries. [Unfor- 
tunately, executed by hasty workera of a 
poor kind, chiefly ClmstofaTW dell' AUis- 
Hmo. — Mr.] 

Another fine old collection, the Man- 
tuan, with works of the excellent Veronese 
painter, Francesco Bonsignori (born 1455), 
seems to have been dispersed after the 
catastrophe of Mantua, 1630. (Comp. 
Vasari, in the Life of il Giocoudo.) [It was 
sold in 1629 to Daniel Nys, who parted 
with it to Charles I. of England — Ed] 

[A sort of ideal collection of painters is 
formed by the twenty-eight half-lengths 
of wise men, poets, learned men, etc., of 
ancient and modem times, which, having 
apparently issued out of the atelier of 
Justus van Gent, who was employed in 
Urbino in 1474, adorned the palace of 
Urbino, where the young Raphael copied 
a number of them (in his Venetian sketch- 
book). Half of these pictures are in the 
P. Barberini at Rome, in rooms very 
difficult of access ; the other half has 
come into the Louvre with the Campana 
collection. — Mr.] 



Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

"' so also Lorenzo Costa (P. Pitti) and 
Gfiovamni Bellini. Lorenzi di Oredi 
follows Lionardo (a fine portrait of 
a man by liiTn in Palazzo Torrigicmi, 

i Florence. 

In conception some of these por- 
traits are noble masterpieces. But 
Lionardo surpasses them all in 
what is peculiar to himself, in the 
modelling, and gives to what be 
represents a breadth of higher life 
which is peculiarly his own and 
goes with his ideal. He too wil- 
lingly uses the help of landscape, 
and thus gives the last touch in the 
portrait of the Gioconda (Louvre) 
to the thoroughly dreamy effect 
produced by this portrait of all 

As he never could satisfy himself 
in his striving towards finished 
modelling, he sometimes employed 
colours which later on brought 
greenish tones into the shadows. 
But the lofty, intellectual grace in 
the head and attitude ; the beauty 
of the hands in the genuine pic- 
tures designate clearly the time 
which uses the gift of character in 
the noblest manner. 

In my opinion Italy possesses 
(not counting the coloured draw- 
ings) but a single genuine finished 
picture by Lionardo — that of Isa- 
bella of Aragon, wife of Giov. 

* Oaleazzo Sforza, near her husband, 
in the Ambrosiana at Milan, Nos. 
152 and 153, formerly called Lu- 
dovioo Moro and his wife. This 
profile picture is beyond all de- 
scription beautiful and charming, 
and of a perfection in the execution 
which excludes the possibility of 
any author but Lionardo. The 
picture of the Duke is unfinished 
and washed out. Among the draw- 
ings is one of a lady with eyes cast 
down, in black and red chalk, es- 
pecially charming. [Italy also pos- 
sesses a picture in which Lionardo 
had a share, the Baptism of Christ 
byVerrocchio, ^oAZin^e Academy 

dsA Florence.— Ed.] 

[The Goldsmith in the P. Pitti' 
(No. 207) appears to me an excellent 
picture from the hand of Lorenm 
di Oredi. The so-called Monaca of 
Lionardo, also there, No. 140, a 
lady draped in black gazing at a 
convent building, is decidedly too 
weak for Lionardo. The head of a 
young man looking straight for- 
ward, with hair brushed back, in 
the Uffizi, No. 1157, is clearly late/ 
(about 1540). Lastly, as to Lion- 
ardo's portrait of himself in the 
collection of portraits of painters, 
we must say boldly that, in spite 
of its great fame, this picture can- 
not now nor ever stand for an 
original work of the great Floren- 
tine. A man like Schidone, like 
Sisto Badalocchio, or a somewhat 
earlier imitator of Correggio, 
might easily have produced such a 
picture.— Mr.] 

His remaining portraits are in 
foreign countries. 

After these works, in which 
there is but the faint aroma of his 
ideal, those smaller works may 
follow in which it reveals itself 
without reserve. It was antici- 
pated in the youthful heads of 
Verrocchio ; but it reaches its full 
charm in Lionardo ; the smiling 
mouth, the small chin, the large 
eyes, sometimes shining with a 
joyousness, sometimes slightly 
veiled by a gentle sorrow. Con- 
ventional expressions appear in all 
the fifteenth century ; but here 
first we have an expression which 
a great master gives as his highest 
effort. It is undeniably one-sided, 
and easily falls into mechanical 
repetition, but thoroughly fasci- 

The Madonnas, Holy Families, 
and other compositions of which we 
are speaking are sometimes naive 
even to a genre character. But in 
them begins that higher feehng for 
lines, that simplicity which reaches 
perfection in Raphael. There is in 
him but an echo of the Florentine 

Luini. — Andrea Salaino. 


domestic character of earlier Ma- 
donnas. Here, again, the most 
remarkahle works are in foreign 
countries ; and of those in Italy 
what are in the private galleries of 
Milan are unknown to me. [There 
are no more genuine paintings by 
Lionardo in private collections at 
Milan. StiU, any one who has lei- 
sure wUl do well to visit the house 
of Duca Scotti, Duca Melzi, Don 
Giacomo Poldi-Pezzoli, etc. By 
Lionardo little will be found, or 
nothing certain, of his school that 
is good and pleasing. — Mr.] Of the 
works now in Italy very few are re- 
cognised as originals : far the greater 
number pass either for works of his 
pupils after sketches and ideas of 
Lionardo, or as direct copies from 
finished works of his hand. 

These pupils, whose own works 
are still interpenetrated with the 
forms and motives of Lionardo, 
had attached themselves to him 
in Milan ; amongst them we must 
first consider Bernardino Lwini and 
Andirm, Salai/iu). 

a First of all, the beautiful fresco 
of the Madonna with a Donor on a 
gold ground is an original work, in 
an upper gallery of the Convent 
of S. Onofrio in Rome (1482); 
chiefly Florentine in character, so 
that the fellow-pupil of L. di Credi 
is felt. The somewhat strange 
bowed-down attitude of the child 
blessing is explained by the fact 
that originally it was held up by 
Mary in a waistband, of which the 
tempera colour has entirely disap- 

J [A Madonna called Scuola di Lio- 
nardo, in the Borghese Gallery, 
first room, No. 65, is, in my opinion, 
by Oiov. Pedrini. — Fr.] 

" Modestia e Vanity," in the Pal. 
Soiarra at Kome betrays, in the 

• [This fresco cannot be accepted with- 
out some further evidence as certainly a 
work of Lionardo's. It reminds us 
strongly for example of Cesare da Sesto.— 

blended character of the modelling 
the hand of Lwi/ni ; to judge from 
the not very beautiful hands ar- 
ranged in parallels and right angles, 
the arrangement of these parts can 
hardly have been given by Lionar- 
do. The characters are infinitely 

Of the half-length of John the 
Baptist {Lwime), with the highly c 
enthusiastic look, none of the 
copies existing in Italy give a sa- 
tisfaotofy idea, not even that in 
Milan. ' 

"Christ among the Doctors," 
a half-length picture ; the original 
in England executed only ^yLwlni ; 
a good copy in the Pal. Spada at 
Rome. Incapable of representing 
the conquest of argument over 
argument. Painting here gave the 
victory to heavenly purity and 
beauty over stiffViess and vulgarity. 
The conquered party are merely re- 
presented by half-length pictures, 
with whom the tellingly prominent 
chief figure hardly occupies itself. 
Too often, in the pictures of this 
subject, we have only a child in 
a large temple hall, lost among a. 
crowd of men who seem as if they 
might show their full age in some 
rough way. 

A Little Christ giving the Bene- 
diction, most probably executed by 
Salaino, in the Borghese OalUry, d 
first room, No. 33, appears to be 
a direct inspiration of the master. 
[Most likely by M. (P Ogionno. — 

There is a small repetition by 
Salaino, in the Ufizi, of the famous e 
picture of S. Anna, on whose knees 
sits Mary, beading backwards to 
the children. In expression as 
sweet as any picture of the master, 
and executed also with great ten- 
derness, it yet shows how much the 
scholars were inferior to their ori- 
ginal in drawing and modelling. 

An original work of Lionardo[??], 
is the sketch-painting in a brown 
tint of an Adoration of the Kings, 
I 2 


Pakiting of the Sixteenth Centwty. 

oin the TJffizi; somewhat crowded, 
part of it only the first sketch, but 
most significant by the contrasts of 
the solemn devotion of these kneel- 
ing in front and the passionate 
longing in those pressing forward. 
It gives great fulness of life with 
a severe and grand foundation. 

Genuine [??] and quite corre- 
sponding in character to this picture 
is the S. Jerome, likewise painted in 
brown in the gallery of the Vati- 
can, second room, No. 1, formerly 
in the Fesch Gallery. The strong 
markings of the limbs in the fore- 
shortened position were clearly the 
problem which interested the master 
in this case. 

[An Annunciation, lately re- 
moved from the Ghv/rch of Monte 

b OUveto, in Florence, to the TJiBzi 
(No. 1288), is described as a youth- 
ful work of Lionardo ; given by 
Crowe and Cav, to Bid. GMrlan- 
dajo, by Miindler decidedly to Z. 
di Credi.] 

Of the work, by which Lionardo 
most strongly impressed his con- 
temporaries, the battle at Anghiari, 
drawn in 1504 and 1505 (for the 
great hall in the Pal. Vecchio, at 
Morenos), nothing survives but a 
single group in an engraving. 

Lastly, before 1499, he had al- 
ready completed the world-famous 
Last Supper, in the Sefectory of the 

c Convent of S. M. delle Grazie. (Best 
light about noon. ) Its ruinous con- 
dition, which was apparent early 
in the sixteenth century, is almost 
entirely caused by Lionardo's hav- 
ing painted the work in oU on the 
walls. (The fresco opposite, by a 

d mediocre old Milanese, Montorfano, 
is well preserved. ) Bad repainting, 
principally of the last century, did 
the rest. Under such circumstances, 
old copies possess a special value. 
They are, especially in the neigh- 
bourhood of Milan, very numerous ; 
one, for instance, io the Ambro- 

esiana, a return to the elder Lom- 
bard style, by Araldi (p. 82 e), in 

the Gallery at Parma. Of the on-/ 
ginal sketches by Lionardo pre- 
served in various places (especially 
at Weimar*), the head of Christ, in 
the Brera, is regarded as undoubted, g 
The picture itself, even as a ruin, 
teaches us what cannot be learnt 
either from Morghen's engraving or 
from Bossi's copy ; apart from the 
general tone of light and colour, 
which is by no means lost, one can 
understand nowhere but here the 
true proportions in which these 
figures were conceived, the locality 
and the light, perhaps also the 
splendour of originality, which 
nothing can replace, pervading the 

The scene which is known in 
Christian art as the Last Supper, 
given usually as a wall picture in 
Eefectories, contains two quite 
difierent actions, both repeatedly 
treated from the earliest times, 
and by great artists. The one is 
the institution of the Sacrament, 
very characteristically treated by 
Signorelli (p. 70 i). The other ac- 
tion is the "Unus Vestrum" — 
Christ expresses his knowledge of 
the betrayal. Here, again, either, 
according to the words of Scrip- 
ture, the pointing out of the traitor 
by taking the sop to be dipped at 
the same time (as in Andrea del 
Sarto, see below. Convent S. Salvi), 
or simply the grieving word of 
Christ may be the distinctive action. 
"With Lionardo it is the last. Art 
can hardly undertake a more diffi- 
cult subject than this, the effect of 
a word on a seated assembly. Only 
one Ught reflected twelvefold. But 
would the spiritual result gain by 
it if the twelve, passionately moved, 
left their places to form richer 
groups, greater dramatic contrasts ? 
The chief purpose, the domination 
of the principal figure which could 
only sit and speak, would, in the 
action of the others, be unavoid- 

* [The heads atWeimar are not yetproved 
to be originals.— Ed.] 



ably lost. Even the table spread 
for the meal, which runs across 
the figures like a light parapet, 
was of the greatest advantage ; 
the essential part of the emotions 
that moved the Twelve could be 
represented in the upper part of 
the body. In the whole arrange- 
ment of the lines of the table and of 
the room, Lionardo is purposely as 
symmetrical as his predecessors ; 
he surpasses them by the higher 
architectonic effect of the whole 
divided into two groups of three, 
on both sides of the isolated prin- 
cipal figure. 

But the divine element in this 
work is that we attain a result in 
which the accidental and limited 
in art is lost in the highest expres- 
sion of eternal and self-developed 

A most powerful mind has here 
opened all his treasures before us, 
and united in one harmony all 
degrees of expression of physical 
form in wonderfully balanced con- 
trasts. The spiritual result has 
been finally summed up by Goethe. 
What a race of men is this, passing 
from the most sublime to the most 
limited, types of all mankind, first- 
born sons of perfect art. And, 
again, from the simply picturesque 
side, all is new and powerful, dra- 
pery, foreshortenings, contrasts. 
If one looks at the hands alone, we 
feel as though painting had but just 
awakened to bfe. 


Of the MUauese pupils, Bernar- 
dino iMini (died after 1530) did 
not know Lionardo at the time of 
his earliest works ; in those of his 
middle time he most faithfully 
reproduced him ; in the later 
ones he produced independently on 
the foundation thus gained, so 
that it is evident that with perfect 
na'iveU he had only taken from the 
master what was natural to him. 

His taste for beautiful, expressive 
heads, for the joyousness of youth, 
found full satisfaction in his mas- 
ter, and was most nobly developed 
by him ; and even his fittest works 
give the finest proofs of this. On 
the other hand, nothing of the 
grand severe composition of the 
master has come down to him ; one 
might believe he had never seen 
the Last Supper (though he once 
imitated it), so faulty in lines and 
ill-arranged are most of his drama- 
tic compositions. His drapery, 
also, is often slight and careless. 
On the other hand, he shows occa- 
sionally what no teacher and no 
school can give — grandly felt inci- 
dent resulting from a most profound 
conception of subject. 

Beyond the neighbourhood of 
Milan, only small single pictures 
by him are to be found. Besides 
those named (p. 115 i), the most 
important is the Beheading of John, a 
in the Tribune of the Uffizi, long 
attributed to Lionardo, although 
the form of the hands, the some- 
what commonplace beauty of the 
king's daughter and her maid, the 
glassy, vaporous surface of the nude, 
clearly indicate the pupil. The 
executioner grinning, and yet not 
caricatured ; the head of the Bap- 
tist very noble. Thus does the 
golden period mark its character. 
In the P. Oapponi, at Florence ; 6 
Madonna kissing the ChUd. In 
the P. Spinola (Strada Nuova), at 
Genoa : an excellent Madmna c 
with the Child giving the Benedic- 
tion along with S. Stephen and 
S. James the Elder, by Luini, or a 
fellow-pupil [most probably by 
Andrea Salaino. — Mr.], employing 
the Eaphaelesque motives of the 
" Eevea de I'Enfant " (Bridgewater 
Gallery.) Other Madonnas in 
various places. 

In Milan, the Amhrosiama, the d 
Brera, and private collection con- 
tain a number of easel pictures by 
him. Thus the Brera has a specially 

118 The Sixteenth Century — Milanese School. 

finished Madonna with the Child 
sitting in front of a bower of roses. 

a In the Cathedral of Coma, two 
great tempera pictures (altars right 
and left), the Adoration of the 
Shepherds and that of the Kings, 
with wondronsly beautiful details ; 
in the right side aisle, another great 
altar-piece, which, unfortunately, 
has suffered very much, and was 
restored in 1857. Here also are 
several others by him. 

6 Frescos: — Before aU others, the 
Church S. Maurizio (the so-called 
Mouastero Maggiore), at Milan, 
divided by a wall into a front and 
a back church, which were both 
entirely decorated by Luini and 
his contemporaries, partly with 
decorative paintings, partly with 
figures and histories of saints ; the 
great part of Luini's own work 
seems to be collected on the two 
sides of the wall and the adjoining 
part. Also a whole collection of 
frescos, by Luini, removed into the 

c Brera : the chief work is a Ma- 
donna enthroned, with S. Antony 
and S. Barbara (1521) ; in quiet 
devotional pictures of this kind, 
where the subjects protected him 
from unsymmetrical arrangement, 
his loveUness is enchanting. The 
remaining frescos here appear to 
be pretty early ; for instance, in 
the somewhat timid mythological 
and genre subjects, the nalveti of 
which quite indicates the coming 
glow of the golden time, and also 
the pictures from the life of the 
Virgin and the well-known simple 
and beautiful composition of the 
Angels carrying the body of S. 

d Catherine. * 

e In the Anibrosiana (side room on 
the ground floor to the right), a 
great and important fresco of the 
Mocking of Christ in presence of 
an adoring religious fraternity is, 

* Av/rdio iMmi, son of Bemardino, 
shows himself here in a great fresco of 
the martyrdom of S. Vicenzino, a man- 
nerist of the style of the Roman school. 

on account of its powerful colour 
and its portraits, of especial value. 
The frescos from the P. Litta are 
in Paris. Finally, the two later 
great works, in the PilgrimageJ 
Chwrch at Saronno (between Va- 
rese and Milan). The nave in the 
pompous early baroque style ; the 
Cupola decorated with a choir 
of angels, by Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
the short drum with statues of 
Andrea Mila/nese, the walls below 
painted with frescos of Lan/i/ni in 
the upper part, and below with 
frescos of Cesa/re da Sesto and 
Luini (SS. Roch and Sebastian) ; 
then, in the passage to the choir, 
the Marriage of the Virgin, and 
Christ among the Doctors, both by 
Luini, although in a different 
colouring and character from the 
rest ; then, in the choir itself, the 
two great frescos, the Adoration 
of the Kings and the Presentation 
in the Temple ; above in the panels 
and the upper part of the walls, 
Sibyls, Evangelists, and Fathers 
of the Church ; lastly, in the little 
offset of the choir, on the right, 
S. Appollonia ; on the left S. Ca- 
therine, each with an angel : these 
last-named paintings belong to the 
most perfect of Luini's creations.* 
Lastly, in S. Maria degli Angeli, g 
at Lugano, on the principal wall 
above the entrance to the choir, 
is the colossal fresco picture of the 
Passion (1529), of which the fore- 
ground includes the Crucifixion, 
with the followers of Christ, the 
thieves, the captains, soldiers, &c. 
Though marked by all the defi- 
ciencies of Luini, this picture is 

* Luini's paintings in Saronno are as- 
cribed generally to the year 1530, but 
they ' might easily belong to different 
periods of the master's life. Tradition said 
that he had taken refuge in the sanctuary 
of Saronno on account of a homicide com- 
mitted in self-defence, and was obliged to 
work under conditions prescribed to him 
by the monks. Saronno and Luganno show 
what a master, full of life and power, could 
do, even in the terrible time after the 
battle of Pavia. 

^4 ■.>^*- 


NX^' tf'^ 

1.% ^ ' 4^ 






To fiice page ii8. 

Marco d'Ogionno — Salaino — Cesare da Sesto. 119 

nevertheless one of the greatest of 
North Italy, and worthy of a visit, 
for the sake only of a single figure — 
that of John, who is giving his 
promise to the dying Christ. On 
several piers of the church are 
beautiful paintings by Luini ; in a, 
chapel to the right, the fresco 
lunette brought out of the Convent 
(which has been altered), of the 
Madonna with the two children, 
the last of perfect lionardesque 
beauty. The Last Supper, for- 
merly in the Refectory of the 
Convent, in three divisions, quite 
independent of Lionardo's compo- 
sition, although showing a distant 
likeness to it, is on the church 
waU to the left. Any one whom 
these treasures have once kept for 
whole days in the beautiful Lugano, 
will perhaps also on this occasion 
become acquainted with the charm- 
ingly idyllic landscape, and wil- 
lingly abandon the brilliant Lake 
Como for it. 

[Another masterpiece of Luini 
is the splendid large altar-piece in 

a the principal church at Leguano 
(Railway Station after Sesto Ca- 
lende), with rich floral decoration 
in the setting. Milan itself pos- 
sesses a picture of his youth which 
reminds us of Cwenhio, Mourning 
over the body of Christ, in the 

i Sacristy of the Church of the 
Passion.— Mr.] [A beautiful Ecce 

cHomo in S. Giorgio in Palazzo. — 

Ma/rco (POgionno (Uggione) is at 
Ms best when he follows Lionardo 
closely, and reproduces his type 
with a pecuhar harsh beauty — the 

d Pall of Lucifer, in the Brera ; the 
frescos there mostly very wild. 

c Altar-piece in fi. Eufcmia [altar- 
piece in six parts. Virgin and Child 
and Saints, in the Casa RoveUi, at 
MHan.— Ed.] 

Andrea Salaino (p. 115 d, e) ex- 
clusively devoted himself to repro- 

ducing Lionardo. A lovely Ma- 
donna in the Villa Albani, at/ 
Borne. Pictures in the Brera and 
Ambrosiana. Not to be confounded g 
with A. Solaria (p. 122). 

Francesco Melzi, an aristocratic 
dilettante, to all appearance chiefly 
a miniaturist. His pictures are 
very rare [The grand fragment of 
a Madonna in the Villa Melzi, at A 
Vaprio, belongs, in my opinion, to 
Lionardo himself. — Mr.]; so like- 
wise are those of Qiov. Ant. Bel- 
traffio. Gallery on, Isola Bella, two i 
portraits. Gallery at Bergamo, 

Cesare da Sesto, who later passed 
into the school of Raphael. His 
best early pictures are in private 
collections in Milan ; a beautiful 
youthful head of Christ in the Am-k 
brosiana. A Madonna in the Turin I 
Gallery (No. 71). In the Brera 
only one indubitably genuine pic- 
ture, the graceful Madonna (No. m 
303) under the shade of a laurel- 
tree. His famous youthful work, 
the Baptism of Christ in the Casa 
Scotti, at Milan, completely exem- 
plifies his characteristic almost 
over-sweet softness. In his later 
great picture, Adoration of the 
Kings, in the Musewn of Naples, n 
there is much useless and oppres- 
sive richness in the accessories, 
also many beautiful incidents quite 
out of place, but therewith an 
absence of reality and of feeling 
tor space. [Of the same class : ' 
Christ between two Saints, in S. 
Prassede at Rome. Better, though 
displaying at once imitation of 
Lionardo, Raphael and Michael- 
angelo, is the Virgin and Child 
with S. Roch and other Saints, a 
triptych in the Melzi Collection at 
Milan. — Ed.] Cesare appears too 
have become later the friend and 
assistant of Raphael at Rome ; a 
large circular picture in the Vati-p 
can, of 1521, shows the melancholy 

120 The Sixteenth Centmy — Milanese School 

decadence into vrMch he fell after 
the death of the master. 

[Girolamo Alibrcmdi, once a com- 
rade of Cesare, is known by pictures 
in which the style of Lionardo is 
mixed with something of the Ferra- 
rese style. Presentation in the 
Temple of 1519, in S. Nicoolo ; same 
a subject in the CatheAral of Mes- 
sina.— Ed.] 

Ga/udensio Vinci. Principal work 
J in the upper church at Arena, the 
altar on right of choir, Madonna 
adoring the Child, after a composi- 
tion of Perugiuo, containing saints 
and legends, besides side and upper 
pictures of 1511. [I look on this 
as the work of Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
with whose youthful painting it 
harmonises, and think it possible 
the two names, on the whole, 
belong to but one and the same 
master. — Mr.] 

Giov. Ant. de Lagaia. Principal 
altar of the church of the Seminwrio 
e at Ascona (Tessin), the centre pic- 
ture. Madonna with Saints and 
well-executed Donors (1519). The 
last especially betray a close con- 
nection with Luini. 

Qavdenzio Ferrari (1484 — 1549), 
one of the most powerful masters 
of the golden time, but widely dis- 
tracted by the opposite teachings 
of the old Lombard and the Pied- 
montese schools, of Lionardo, Pe- 
rugino, and Raphael, all of whose 
studios he must have attended at 
various periods of his Hie. With 
great power and freedom he worked 
up their ideas afresh, while be- 
tween times breaks out his own 
original naturaKsm. The life-like 
movement and intense expression of 
feeling at times is of the highest 
order ; the colouring often some- 
what motley, and only in the later 
frescos now and then harmonious ; 
the composition often overcrowded 

and not beautiful ; the mechanical 
execution seldom thoroughly mas- 
tered. The most beautiful easel 
picture of a Bearing of the Cross, 
with marvellous heads, although 
much overcrowded, on the high 
altar of the church at GcmobHo, d 
on thelago Maggiore (immediately 
under the small cupola ascribed to 
Bramante) ; the great Martjrrdom 
of St. Catherine, in the Brera, ise 
pompous, and not pleasing, except 
in the principal figure ; an ex- 
cellent, very detailed altar-piece, 
from Ferrari's Peruginesque time, 
1514^15, in six panels, in S. Gem- f 
denzio, at Novara, second altar on 
the left ; a very beautiful Baptism 
of Christ, in the right side aisle of 
S. Maria presso S. Gelso, at Milan ; g 
the Marriage of S. Catherine on 
the high altar of the OolUgiata at 
Tarallo ; * two late tempera pic- h 
tures in the Cathedral of Como, i 
improvisations of considerable 
power. [A splendid altar-piece, 
in six divisions. Assumption of the 
Virgin, in the principal church of 
Busto Arsizio, near Milan. — Mr.].y 
The works of Gaudenzio to be seen 
in galleries seldom give the highest 
idea of his talent ; the following 
are the best in the gallery at Turin, ^ 
which is rich in his works : St. 
Peter with Donor, and a Deposi- 
tion, which reminds us of Garofalo, 
who stood to the great masters in 
a similar relation with Ferrari. 
[The allegorical picture in the 
Sciarra Gallery at Rome, interest- ^ 
ing by its unskilful fanciful land- 
scape, does not belong to the 
master.— Mr.] [Cartoons in Acca- 

demia Albertina, Turin Fr.] ™ 

Frescos : Those existing in a rich 
series at Varallo show best his'' 

* He came from a neighbouring village, 
and always called himself, with pride, a 
Valsesian, and between his sojourns in 
Milan and Rome always returned to Va- 
rallo. The place is not difficult to reach, 
either from the Lake of Orta or from 

Gaudenzio Ferrari. — Lanini. 


whole course of development. The 
earliest, some still Lombard ia 
character in two churches outside 

a the town, S. M. di Loreto and S. 

i Marco : also in the IVanoiscan 

c church, S. Maria delle Oratde (at 
the foot of the Sacro Monte), first 
the whole wall ahove the choir is 
filled with a Passion in a centre 
picture, and many single panels, 
essentially a very free and power- 
ful reproduction of a Peruginesque 
inspiration, in which also there is 
a reminiscence of Signorelli ; in the 
chapel, to the left, under this wall 
of the choir, the Presentation in 
the Temple and Christ among the 
Doctors, almost Eaphaelesque in 
its mode of narration, perhaps the 
purest thing produced by him. In 
the forty chapels of the Sacro Monte 
also, much is assigned to Ferrari ; 
with certainty are ascribed to him 
the Procession of the Three Kings, 
painted round the walls, much in- 
jured, in the chapel of that name ; 
also in the chapel of the Cru- 
cifixion, the Procession, painted 
round the wall, of soldiers, 
knights, and ladies of Jerusalem, 
along with about twelve blond 
weeping angels on the dome, a 
late masterpiece of very great ful- 
ness of expression, and most en- 
ergetic breadth of representation. 
On the other hand, the groups in 
terra cotta which occupy the centre 
of the chapel cannot possibly be 
Ferrari's own work, even if he 
undertook them in partnership 
with some one else. 

d In the Pilgrimage Church at 
Saronno ; the Concert of Angels 
filling the Cupola, coarsely power- 
ful, in remarkable contrast with 
the softness of the masterpiece also 

e there by Luini ; in the Brera, 
frescos with the Life of the Virgin, 
in part containing very noble and 
simple- speaking motives ; a really 
grand " Flagellation," imposing 
even in its arrangement, in S. 

f Maria delle Qrazie, at Milan, in a 

chapel of the right aisle, Ferrari's 
last fresco, dated 1542; some ex- 
cellent figures of saints in the 
church of the Islamd of S. Giuliano, g 
in the Lago d'Orta; other things 
inS. Oristqforo, S. Paolo, at Veroelli h 
[Madonna with female founders, in 
a thickly overgrown fruit-garden, 
perhaps the most beautiful picture 
ever painted by Ferrari. There, 
also, colossal frescos, 1532 and 
1534. — Mr.], and elsewhere. 

Of Gaudenzio's followers, Ber- 
nardiTio Lamni, during his good 
time, displayed real energy in 
forms and colours. His later work 
is more mannered. {Brera andi 
various churches in Milan.) [The 
best are the youthful wall-paint- j 
ings of a chapel in the right aisle 
of S. Ambrogio. A late painting, 
the great fresco in S. OateHna. — k 
Mr.] Turin, Gallery; Church oil 
Saronno : [Church of S. Pietro- m 
Paolo at Borgo Sesia: a Madonna ra 
enthroned between Saints, of 1539. 
In Novara and Tercelli, Laninio 
appears in all churches, with Uau- 
denzio and alone. — Mr.]. Chief 
work, a chapel in the left aisle of 
the Cathedral of Novara, with 
scenes out of the Lite of the Virgin, 
from the Annunciation to the 
FUght into Egypt, with angels on 
the ceiUng. Zomazzo and Pigino 
belong to the mannerists proper ; 
the first is valuable as a writer on art, 
less for his views than for import- 
ant facts. [As artists, both are only 
pleasing in their portraits. — Mr.] 

A number of half-length figures, 
with a passive expression (Eoce 
Homo, Mater Dolorosa, Magdalen, 
S. Catherina, &c.), belong partly 
to Aurelio Luini, partly to a cer- 
tain Qian Pedrini, pupil of Lio- 
nardo [Best picture in the sacristy 
of S. Sepolcro, at Milan. Another, p 
of 1521, in the choir of S. Marino, g 
at Pavia. — Fr.], partly to Andrea 
Solaria. Their treatment varies 
greatly in merit ; in parts they are 
excellent (Pedjrini's Magdalen, r 


Painting of the Sixteenth Centwy. 


moved by supernatural aspiration 
or by holy sorrow, begin with 
Peruginoand the Milanese we have 
named, and from time to time be- 
come very common in art. We 
must compare them with those of 
Carlo Dolci, in order to recognise 
their true merit. 

[Andrea Sola/rio (painted 1495 
to 1515) deserves especial attention. 
Of his youthful period, when he 
enjoyed the teaching of Gr. BeULni, 

a the signed picture in the Brera; 
No. 358, of 1495, the clear-coloured, 
very careful half-length figure of a 
Madonna, with S. Joseph and 
another old man in the landscape ; 
there, too, is the very beautiful 
male portrait, No. 300, formerly 
called C. da Sesto. [Also the St. 
Catherine and John Baptist, of 
1499, in the Poldi-Pezzoli Collection 
at Milan.— Ed.] His works of the 
beginning of the sixteenth century 
show the influence of Mantegna, 
as the picture of the Crucifixion 
(1503); less so that of the "Ma- 
donna with the green cushion," 
both in the Louvre. Afterwards 
he appears closely related to Luini 
(an excellent signed picture of this 
kind, of the year 1515, in the pos- 

S session of Don Giacomo Poldi- 
Pezzoli, at Milan). Unsigned pic- 
tures are often not recognised : 
thus, in the Town Gallery, at 

c Brescia, there is a little jewel— a 
monk in adoration before the Christ 
bearing the Cross. Less pleasing 
are the half-length figures of the 
suffering Saviour surrounded by 
coarse executioners, like that of 
the Borghese Gallery at Rome, third 

d room, No. 1. [As a portrait painter 
Solario was very distinguished ; but 
the only accessible work of this 
kind in Italy is the MaximiUan 
Sforza, of the Perego Collection, at 
Milan. — Ed.] An altar-piece at 

e the Certosa of Pavia, is considered 
his last work, said to be completed 

by Giulio Campi. One feels the 
approach of a new jperiod, of which 
the broad and sketchy treatment, 
occasioned by the large size of the 
painting, is opposed to Solario'g 
severity and conscientiousness.— 


Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475 — 
1564). The appearance of Michel- 
angelo, a fateful event for architec- 
ture and sculpture, was not less so 
for painting. He looked on himself 
especially as a, sculptor ; in one of 
his sonnets he says, on occasion of 
the painting of the roof of the 

Sistine, " essendo io non 

pittore." But for the expression of 
that ideal world which he carried 
within himself, painting afforded 
materials so far more various than 
sculpture, that he could not do 
without it. At present the general 
experience is, that he who cannot 
enjoy him in sculpture, seeks him 
again, and finds the way to him on 
the side of painting. 

How he constructed his forms, 
and what he meant by them in 
general, has already been suggested 
in treating of his sculpture. Look- 
ing at his painting, especial points 
of view have to be considered. 
Michelangelo did, indeed, learn his 
manipulation in the school of Ghir- 
laudajo, but in his manner of con- 
ception he is entirely without prece- 
dents. It was against his nature 
to enter into any traditional feeling 
of devotion, any received ecclesias- 
tical type, the tone of feeling of 
any other man, or to consider him- 
self as bound thereby. The accu- 
mulated fund of ecclesiastical art- 
usages of the Middle Ages does not 
exist for him. He creates man 
anew with grand physical power, 
which in itself appears Titanic, 
and produces out of these forms 
a fresh earthly and Olympian 
world. They move and have 

Michelangelo — The Sixtine Chapel. 


their being like a race apart from 
all earlier generations. What in 
painters of the fifteenth century is 
called characteristic, finds no place 
here, because they come forth as a 
complete race — a people ; but where 
personality is required, it is one 
ideaUyformed, asuperhumanpower. 
The beauty of the human body and 
face only comes out clothed, as it 
were, in this expression of force ; 
the master wishes rather that his 
forms should give the highest ex- 
pression of life than that they 
should be charming. 

When we are no longer in pre- 
sence of these works, and have 
taken breath again, we may reoog. 
uise what is wanting in them, and 
why one could not live with and 
under them. Whole vast spheres 
of existence which are capable of 
the highest artistic illustration re- 
mained closed to Michelangelo. 
He has left out all the most beau- 
tiful emotions of the soul (instead 
of enumerating them, we have but 
to suggest Raphael) ; of all that 
makes life dear to us, there comes 
out little in his works. Also the 
style of form which is his ideal, 
less expresses the simply sublime 
and beautiful in nature than the 
exaggeration of certain forms of it. 
No drawing, however grand, no 
expression of power, can make us 
forget that certain extremes of 
breadth of shoulder, long necks, 
and other such forms are arbitrary 
and sometimes monstrous. Cer- 
tainly, when in presence of his 
works we are always disposed to 
allow Michelangelo a right and 
law peculiar to himself, inde- 
pendent of the rules that govern 
all other art. The grandeur of his 
thoughts and cycles of ideas, the 
free creative power with which 
he calls into existence all conceiv- 
able motives of external hfe, make 
the phrase in Ariosto intelligible, 
"Michel piu che mortale angel 

Of his first great work, the car- 
toon produced in competition with 
Lionardo for the Palazzo Vecchio, 
also an episode out of the war with 
Pisa, only faint reminiscences have 
descended to our times. Baccio Ban- 
dinelli cut it in pieces out of envy. 

In the flower of his age Michel- 
angelo imdertook the painting of 
the roof of the Siatiiie Ohapel in a 
the Vatican (1508-1512) [the whole 
of which time was occupied with al- 
ternate periods of rest in executing 
it with help from assistants. — Ed.]. 
(Best light, 10-12. ) The work con- 
sisted altogether in scenes and figures 
from the Old Testament, with 
especial reference to its promises. 
He divided this subject into four 
parts— histories, single historical 
figures, groups reposing, and figures 
giving life to the architecture. 
The histories which require to be 
represented in a space given in 
perspective, not merely ideal, he 
arranged in the centre surface of 
the roof. We must except the four 
corner pictures of the chapel, 
painted on spherical three-sided 
surfaces, which represent the won- 
derful deliverances of the people of 
Israel, the history of the brazen 
serpent, of Goliath, of Judith, and 
of Esther. But wonderfully as 
special parts are conceived and 
painted, especially in the scene of 
Judith, still the eye has difiiculty 
in these places in accommodating 
itself to such a situation for the 
representation of historical events. 
The prophets and sibyls, with the 
genii accompanying them, were 
placed in the curved pendentives; 
the groups of the ancestors of Christ 
partly in the vaulted parts over the 
window, partly in the lunettes which 
surround the windows. These 
parts are all composed according 
to an ideal feeling of space. Lastly, 
those figures which have been 
already weU named " the forces of 
architecture made living and per- 
sonal," he allowed to appear here 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

and there at intervals in the gene- 
ral plan as and when they were 
needed. Under the prophets and 
sibyls there are sturdy figures of 
children in natural colour, who 
lift the tables with inscriptions high 
in their hands, or bear them on 
their heads. On each of the side 
pillars of the thrones of the pro- 
phets and sibyls there are two 
naked children, always a boy and 
girl, in stone colour, imitating 
sculpture. Over the domed cavi- 
ties above the windows, the arch 
is occupied with recumbent or 
leaning athletic figures, in bronze- 
colour. The last arearrangedabnost 
symmetrically two and two, and, 
above all, are conceived with strict 
regard to architectonic efifect. At 
the last, where on both sides the 
colossal entablatures come near 
and leave space for the series of 
central pictures, there comes a series 
of nude male figures in natural 
colours, seated on pedestals, hold- 
ing, two by two, the ribbons at- 
tached to the medallion in bronze- 
colour with reliefs between them ; 
some also carry rich garlands of 
leaves and fruit. Their attitudes 
are most easy and natural; they 
support nothing, because, accord- 
ing to the ideal conception, there is 
nothing more to support, because, 
as a general principle, architectonic 
forces are not to be simply made 
visible, but poetically symbolised. 
(Caryatides or Atlantes, one head 
leaning against another head, would 
have been, for instance, a sensu- 
ous representation. ) These sitting 
figures, considered singly, are of 
such beauty, that one is tempted 
to regard them as the favourite 
work of the master in this place. 
But a glance at the rest shows that 
they only belong to the architec- 
tural framework. 

In four larger and five smaller 
four-cornered spaces, along the cen- 
tre of the roof, scenes from Genesis 
are depicted. 

Michelangelo, first of all artists, 
conceived the creation not as a 
mere word, with the gesture of 
blessing, but as an action. So 
alone were obtained purely new 
motives for the special acts of crea- 
tion. The majestic form soars 
onwards in a sublime flight, at- 
tended by genii, who are enveloped 
in the same mantle ; so rapidly is 
the creation conceived that one 
and the same picture unites two 
acts of creation (the sun and moon 
and the plants). But the highest 
moment of creation, and the high- 
est efibrt of Michelangelo, is the 
giving life to Adam. Supporting 
and supported by a crowd of those 
divine powers, the Almighty ap- 
proaches the earth, and through 
His own stretched-out forefinger 
sends into the extended forefinger 
of the already half -living first man 
the spark of His own l2e. In the 
whole domain of art there is no 
other example of such an intellec- 
tual living expression of the super- 
sensual by a perfectly clear and 
speaking sensuous act. The form 
of Adam, too, is the noblest type 
of humanity. 

All later art has felt itself 
swayed by this conception of God 
the Father, yet without being able 
to attain to it. Raphael (in the 
first picture of the Loggie) entered 
the most deeply into it. 

The scenes following, out of the 
life of the first man, appear the 
more powerful for the simplicity 
with which they represent the 
original state of existence. Sin 
and Punishment are with startling 
unity combined in one picture. Eve, 
in the PaU, shows what an eye to 
beauty lay at the command of the 
master. As a composition with a 
small number of figures, the In- 
ebriation of Noah is the very acme 
of what can be accomplished. The 
Flood (the painting with which the 
work apparently began) contrasts 
certainly not very happily with 

Michelangelo — The Last Judgment. 


the proportion of theotherpictures, 
but is rich in the most marvellous 
single incidents. 

The Prophets and Sibyls, the 
greatest figures of this place, de- 
mand a longer study. They are 
by no means all conceived with the 
lofty simplicity which comes out 
so overpoweringly in some of them. 
The object was to elevate twelve 
living forms by the expression of 
a higher inspiration, above time 
and the world into something su- 
perhuman. The power expressed 
in their figures alone did not 
suffice ; different expressions of 
ideas in action of the highest 
spiritual import, yet at the same 
time externally appreciable, were 
needed. Perhaps this surpassed 
the powers of art. The genii which, 
two and two, accompany each 
figure, do not represent the source 
and spring of Inspiration, but 
servants and attendants ; their part 
is to exalt the figure by their 
presence, to mark it as super- 
human ; they are invariably repre- 
sented as subordinate to it. Jere- 
miah consumed with grief is an in- 
comparable excellence ; or Joel, 
moved while reading with the 
strongest inner feeling; Isaiah 
awaking as from a dream ; Jonah 
with the expression of a powerful 
new-found life ; the Sibylla Del- 
phica, who already seems to see 
before her the fulfilment of her 
prophecy, of all the master's crea- 
tions the one which expresses 
power and beauty in their highest 
union. Apart from the inner mean- 
ing, the drapery is always to be 
carefuUy considered : it differs from 
the ideal drapery of the Apostles 
by an intentional (Oriental) nuance. 
It is exceedingly beautifully hung 
and placed, in the most complete 
harmony with the position and 
movement, so that every fold has 
its reason (perhaps here and 
there too consciously considered). 
(Certain dull flesh tones were pecu- 

liar to Michelangelo, and are 
found again in his only easel pic- 
ture, of which further. ) 

of the ancestors of Christ, those 
in the lunettes show the most 
masterly ease in monumental treat- 
ment of the most disadvantageous 
situation. Without any history, 
as most of them are, they exist 
only in reference to their divine 
descendant, and wear, therefore, 
the expression of calm, collected 
expectation. Here, too, there are 
some wonderfully beautiful simple 
family scenes. But in this respect 
single groups in the three triangular 
curved spaces are stiU more remark- 
able; among those of the parents 
sitting on the ground there is more 
than one motive of the highest 
order, though the expression never 
comes up to deep feeling or any 
active emotion. 

This work was due to Pope 
Julius III. By alternate pressure 
and concession, by contest and by 
kindness, he obtained what per- 
haps no one else could have done 
from Michelangelo. TTi'h memory 
deserved to be blessed by art. 

Many years later — (1534 — 1541), 
under Pope Paul III., Michela/n- a 
gelo painted on the end waU of the 
chapel the Last Judgment. 

The first question must be, 
whether we can in any way con- 
sider this a subject possible and 
desirable to represent. Next, 
whether one can accept any repre- 
sentation which does not captivate 
the imagination by a strong imme- 
diate impression, as, for instance, 
a subtle effect of light (in John 
Martin's manner) : this was here 
impossible, from the work being 
executed in fresco. Lastly, whether 
one possesses the physical strength 
to examine conscientiously all this 
immense picture (in parts greatly 
injured) according to its grouping 
and single motives. It must not 
be judged by the first, but by the 
last impression. 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

The chief defect lay deep in the 
very nature of Michelangelo. 
As he had long severed him- 
self from aU that may be called 
eoolesiaBtical types and religious 
tone of feeling, — as he always 
made a man, whoever it was, in- 
variably with exaggerated physical 
strength, to the expression of 
which the nude essentially belongs, 
there consequently exists for him 
no recognisable difference between 
the saints, the happy, and the 
damned. The forms of the upper 
groups are not more ideal, their 
motions not more noble, than those 
of the lower. In vain the eye 
looks for the calm Glory of angels, 
apostles, and saints, which in other 
pictures of this subject so much 
exalt the Judge, the principal figure, 
even by their mere symmetry, 
and in Oroagna and Fiesole create 
a spiritual nimbus round him by 
their marvellous depth of expres- 
sion. Nude forms, such as Michel- 
angelo chose them, cannot serve as 
exponents of such feelings. They 
require gesture, movement, and 
quite another gradation of motives. 
It was the last at which the master 
aimed. There are, indeed, in the 
work many and very grand poetical 
thoughts : of the upper groups of 
angels with the instruments of mar- 
tyrdom, the one on the left is 
splendid in its rush of movement ; 
in the saved, who are iiying up- 
wards, the struggle of life wrestling 
itself free out of death is marvel- 
lous ; the condemned are repre- 
sented hovering in two groups, of 
which the one, driven back forcibly 
by fighting angels, and dragged 
downwards by devils, forms a grand 
Titanic scene, while the other con- 
tains that figure, the very image of 
utter misery, which is being dragged 
down as by a weight by two evil 
spirits clinging to it. The lowest 
scene on the right, where a demon 
with a lifted oar chases the un- 
happy souls out of the bark, and 

they are received by the servants 
of hell, is, by a magnificent auda- 
city, translated out of the indeter- 
minate into a distinct sensuous 
event. But clearly as this poetical 
intention comes out on nearer con- 
sideration, yet the predominant 
idea was to produce a picture. 
Michelangelo revels in the Pro- 
methean pleasure of calling into 
existence aU the capabilities of 
movement, position, foreshorten- 
ing, grouping of the pure human 
form. The Last Judgment was the 
only scene which gave complete 
freedom for this, on account of the 
floating of the figures. From a 
picturesque point of view also his 
work is sure of undying admiration. 
It were needless to enumerate the 
incidents singly: no part of the 
whole great composition is ne- 
glected in this respect ; every- 
where one may ask for the where 
and how of the position and move- 
ment, and an answer will be ready. 
Although the group surrounding 
the Judge may excite some feeling 
of repulsion by the exhibition of 
the instruments of their martyrdom 
and their brutal cry for revenge ; 
though the Judge of the world is 
only a figure like any other, and in 
truth one of the most constrained ; 
yet the whole work remains alone 
of its kind upon earth. * 

The two ]a,rge waU pictures in 
the neighbouring Cappella PaoUna, a 
the Conversion of Paul and the 
Crucifixion of Peter, of the latest 
time of Michelangelo, have been 
disfigured by a fire, and so 01- 
lighted (perhaps the best in the 
afternoon), that one understands 
them better from engravings. In 

* Of the conditioa of the work before 
it was painted over, which was done hy 
Daniele da Vol terra, hythe order of Pain 
IV., a copy hy Marcello Ven-usti (or Sebas- 
tian del Piomio) in the Museum of Na- 
ples, gives the best description, in spite 
of obvious liberties that have been taken 
with it 


the firs the gesture of Christ ap- 
pearing above is overpowering in 
its force. Paul oast to the earth 
is one of the most excellent motives 
of the master. * 

It is weU known that no easel 
pictures exist by him, with the 
single exception of an early circular 
picture in the Tribune of the 
a Uffizi.-^ The intentional difficulty 
(the kneeling Mary Ufts the child 
from the lap of Joseph, sitting be- 
hind him) is not quite overcome : 
no one ought to paint Holy Fami- 
lies with a feeling of this kind. The 
background is, as in Luca Signo- 
relli, peopled with figures in action 
without any clear connection. The 
little John runs by the stone para- 
pet with a mischievous look. 
b In the Biuyrmrroti Palace at Flo- 
rence there are exhibited a number 
of drawings, among which one of a 
Madonna nursing the Child is espe- 
cially beautiful : an earlier sketch 
of the Judgment ; a large picture 
of the Holy Family, perhaps begun 
by Michelangelo, but which from 
the coarseness and incorrectness of 
the drawing can hardly have been 
c painted by himself. In the Brera 
is the picture found in Biaphael's 
possession (and ascribed to him in 
spite of the inscription in his own 
hand, "Michelle angelobonarota"), 
the pen and ink drawing of the so- 
called Beraaglio de' Dei : here nude 
figures, plunging down from the 
air, drawing their bows aim with 
the greatest passion at a terminus, 

* Between the Michelangelo of the Six- 
tine Chapel (1609) and that of the C. Pao- 
lina (1542), there is so immense a deca- 
dence, that it is no sin against the genius 
of the great master, to feel the last wall- 
paintings unpleasant, even altogether xm- 
enjoyahle. — Mr. 

t In England there are two genuine 
easel pictures, in the National Gallery, 
the (unfinished) Madonna with the Child, 
and four angels, known through the Man- 
chester Exhibition, formerly in the pos- 
session of Lord Taunton, in London ; and 
a lately acquired deposition, also un- 
finished.— Mr. 

protected against their arrows by a 
shield, while Cupid slumbers on 
one side; a splendid group of 
kneeling, running, and flying 
figures, all combined into a won- 
derful picture. Raphael may have 
found it an interesting task to 
have this execnted in fresco by one 
of his pupils (reversed, apparently 
from an engraving ) ; at least, this 
is the subject of one of the three 
frescos which have been trans- 
ported from the so-called Villa of 
Raphael to the Palazzo Borghese at d 
Rome (9th room). 

Other compositions of his only 
exist as executed by pupils. I do 
not know whether the picture of 
the Three Fates in the Palazzo PUti « 
(executed by Rosso Fioremtmo) be- 
longs strictly to this category ; 
Michelangelo would probably have 
conceived such a subject more 
energetically. Several examples 
(e.g., Palazzo Sciarra and Palazzo/ 
Oorsini at Borne) are preserved of a 
Holy Family of peculiarly solemn 
intention ; Mary, sitting on a kind 
of throne, lays aside her book and 
gazes at the child fast asleep lying 
grandly upon her knee; from behind 
look on, listening, Joseph and the 
little John. In the sacristy of the 
Vaticwn, an Annunciation, executed g 
by Manello Venusli ; Christ on 
the Mount of Olives, divided, not 
very happQy, into two incidents 
among others in the Palazzo Doria h 
at Home. Of the Pieta and the 
Crucifixion I can mention no ex- 
ample in Italian collections, nor of 
any of the mythological composi- 
tions, Ganymede, Leda, Venus 
kissed by Love, — of the latter a 
repetition in the Naples Miiseumi 
by Angela Bronzino ;* there also 
is the very beautiful original car- 

* Of the painted portraits of M. An- 
gelo, the one in the Capitoline Gallery 
(according to Platner by Marcello Venmti) 
is certainly the best. That in the Uffizi 
seems to be certainly a work of the 17th 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

toon. A higher value naturally 
attaches to such pictures as Mi- 
chelangelo had executed under 
his own supervision, principally by 
8. del Piomho. The most important 
of these, the raising of Laaarus, is 
a in Loudon ; next comes the Scourg- 
ing of Christ, in S. Pietro m Mon- 
itorio, at Eome (left chapel to the 
right, painted in oUs on the wall) : 
here the painful subject is grandly 
given : the moving executioners 
bring out the suffering principal 
figure into wonderful relief. The 
surrounding paintings are said to 
have been also executed from 
Michelangelo's sketches. (A good 
small repetition in the Palazzo Bor- 
cghese, 3rd room. No. 48.) Lastly, 
is the Descent from the Cross, by 
Damiele da VoUerra in the TrinitA 
d «fe' Monti (1st chapel on the left). 
It is impossible not to suppose that 
Michelangelo designed the best 
things in it, since all the remaining 
works of Daniele (with the single 
exception of the Massacre of the 
e Innocents in the Tribime of the 
Uffizi) are immensely inferior to 
this. The sinking down of the body, 
round which the people standing 
on ladders form as it were an 
aureole, is too wonderfully beauti- 
ful, and their movements are too 
excellently thought out and ar- 
ranged, for us not to believe this is 
Michelangelo's own. The lower 
group also round the fainting 
Madonna is excellent, but already 
sets the pathological interest in the 
place of the purely tragic. The 
whole picture much injured and 

Michelangelo had, properly 
speaking, no school; he executed 
his frescos without assistance.* 
Those who (chiefly in his latest 
time) in some degree attached 
themselves to him we shall meet 
again among the mannerists. His 

* [*' Without assistfvnce." This is one of 
the marvellous statements which modern 
research has proved to he false.— Ed.] 

example was in painting also most 
dangerous. No one would have 
dared to resolve what he did and 
carried through with his gigantic 
power, but every one wished to 
produce such effects as his. After 
his death, aU principle in all the 
different arts was overthrown ; 
everyone strove to reach the abso- 
lute, because they did not under- 
that what in him appeared uncon- 
trolled, in fact, took shape from his 
inmost personality. 


Florentine painting has not yet 
reached its highest bloom in Lio- 
nardo and Michelangelo. The 
manifold impulses of life which 
the fifteenth century awakened 
and formed in these sacred homes 
of art attain a perfection in two 
other great masters, which is spe- 
cial in its kind, and is quite inde- 
pendent of the two first. 

The one is Pra Partolommeo 
(properly JBaceio della Porta, 1475- 
1517), originally a pupil of Cosimo 
Kosselli ; he owed to Lionardo his 
deliverance from the chains of the 
fifteenth century; his positive* 
qualities are his own. He was the 
first painter capable of fuUy con- 
ceiving, and again arousing the 
lofty feeling which springs out of 
the harmonious union of grand 
characters, pure, imposing (h-ape- 
ries, and grouping, not simply sym- 
metrical, but arranged in architec- 

• The two wonderfully beautiful little 
easel pictures in the Ufflzi (Adoration of 
the Child and Presentation in the Temple) 
are regarded as early works, of the time 
hefore the master had entered the convent 
of S. Marco (therefore before 1600). Re- 
peated study of the pictures makes one 
less and less able to agree with this assumed 
date. [Yet these little pictures are alto- 
gether in the style of Pra Bartolommeo.— 
Ed.) The certain series of the works of the 
Frate then begins (exclusive of the Last 
Judgment in S. M. Nuova of 14SS— 99) with 
the Madonna di S. Bernardo, of 1506—7, in 
the Academy. 










Fra Bartohmmeo. 


tonically built-up compositions. 
His personal feeling has not always 
been strong enough fuUy to give 
life to this great framework ; and 
in this he is inferior to Lionardo, 
who always gives beauty, life, and 
character combined. Also he 
would not have been equal to 
dramatic compositions. Bat what 
is wanted, in the stricter sense, 
for an altar-piece has been repre- 
sented by no one with more perfect 

The freedom and grandeur of his 
conception of character can be best 
studied in detail in a number of 
heads of Saints in fresco in the 

a Academy at Florence ; in addition 
to which is a splendid Ecce Homo 

Sin the P. Pitti. Though not pos- 
sessing Lionardo's endless energy, 
they are yet pictures of human 
beings grandly conceived, some- 
times with a truly heavenly ex- 
pression. Two circular fresco pic- 

c tures, also in the FlorcTux Academy, 
Madonnas, are remarkable as pro- 
blems in lines ; obviously his chief 
study was how to arrange the four 
hands and the two feet beautifully. 
For the expression of individual 
faces, his Descent from the Cross, 

dPal. Pitti, is his masterpiece. 
What effect there is in tbe two 
profiles of the nobly formed Christ 
and the all-forgetting Mother, who 
impresses the last kiss on his brow ! 
With what unerring dramatic cer- 
tainty is the grief of John marked 
by the additional element of physi- 
cal straining ! No lamenting out 
of the picture, as in Van Dyck, no 
intentional heaping up of the im- 
pression by crow(Ung the figures, 
as in Perugino. 

His remaining pictures are al- 
most entirely grand constructions, 
severely symmetrical on the whole, 
yet very beautiful and graceful in 
detail. When the characters are 
produced from his own inner feel- 

. ing, they are all works of the first 

Unhappily, the only large scene 
of this kind, the fresco of a Last 
Judgment, in S. M. Nuova, in a e 
partition of the court left of the 
church, is nearly effaced, piaised 
from the wall and removed to a 
safe place inside the convent in 
1871.] Yet one can recognise in 
the beautiful upper half-circle of 
Saints, with a slight perspective 
direction towards the back, the 
same inspiration by which Raphael 
produced tbe fresco of S. Severe, in 
Perugia, and the upper group of 
the Disputa (1508). Originally 
finished in the year 1499, this most 
interesting piece is valuable, as 
being the first work of Italian 
painting in which the Glory unites 
aU the solemn dignity of the most 
earnest creations of the Gothic style 
at its highest and subHmest point 
with the feeling for perspective 
belonging to the fifteenth century. 

Of his altar pictures, the one in 
the Gathed/ral of Lucca (furthest/ 
chapel to the left), a Madonna with 
two Saints, of the year 1609, is 
especially beautiful, and full of 
feeling. On the other hand, there 
is the grand late Madonna deUag' 
Misericordia, in S. Romano, at 
Lucca, of 1 515, on the left, excellent 
in special parts, but as a whole less 
simple. Also, on the first altar to 
the left, the grand figure of God the h 
Father, solemnly floating, adored by 
S. M. Magdalen and Catherine of 
Siena (1509), figures of the highest 
female beauty, standing out most 
effectively against the low horizon 
of the landscape in the clear tone of 
the air. A fine Madonna in fresco, 
framed as an altar-piece, in S. i 
Domenico, at Fistoia. In S. Marco, 
at Florence (second altar on the/ 
right), also an early, very large 
picture, which shows Fra Barto- 
lommeo's style of composition al- 
most in perfection ; the Madonna, 
noble and easy in position ; the 
two kneeling women in profile, 
are types of symmetrical figures, 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

never to be surpassed ; the angels 
still in tlie style of tlie fifteenth 
century, employed in holding up 
the curtain, but showing already 
the higher style of the sixteenth 
century; the colour, when it re- 
mains, is of a deep gold tone. In 

a the convent adjoining is the simple 
beautiful lunette, above the back 
entrance to the Refectory, Christ 
with the two travellers to Emmaus, 
in whom he made portraits of two 
members of the Order. [Now in 
the convent, having been sawn from 
the wall. — ^Ed.] In the chapel of 

b the Oiovcmato there, a, half-length 
of the Virgin ; in the dormitory, 

cfive busts. In the Academy, the 
Madonna appearing to S. Bernard 
(of 1506-7), has something hard in 
the heads ; here the group of angels 
round the Madonna is composed 
with the usual severe symmetry, 
but very beautifully placed in pro- 
file or three- quarter view, while at 
the same time their floating is ex- 
pressed with as much lightness as 
dignity : to be convinced of this 
one has but to compare this with 
the painters of angels immediately 
succeeding in the fifteenth century. 
The most perfect thing which Barto- 
lorameo ever produced is, perhaps, 
the Risen Christ with four Saints 

d (P. Pitti) ; the gesture of benedic- 
tion could hardly be more grandly 
or solemnly represented ; the Saints 
are sublime figures ; the two chil- 
dren, supporting a round mirror, 
with the picture of the world (as a 
landscape), complete in the loveliest 
way this simple and severe com- 
position. There also is a large 
rich altar-piece out of S. Marco 
(where is now a copy), of 1512, 
somewhat commonplace in the 
character, and much darkened by 
the brown painting over in the 
shadows, but a marvel of composi- 
tion ; the angels supporting the 
canopy correspond very exactly to 
the semicircular group below (com- 
pare Raphael's Disputa). In the 

Ufflzi there is a very small, circular e 
picture, No. 1152, the Saviour sup- 
ported in the air, floating upon 
two angels and a cherub, very re- 
markable as construction ; but still 
more so is the large brown under- 
painting of the picture of St. Anna, 
the Virgin and many Saints, hap- 
pily quite finished in the under- 
painting, and also in the thoroughly 
beautiful and striking characters, 
so that the perfect architectonic 
idea is not only everywhere clearly 
set forth in a lively manner, hut 
also filled with the noblest indivi- 
dual life. 

Of single figures, the colossal 
St. Mark (P. Pitti) is the most im-/ 
portant. But here the Frate falls 
into the same perversion which we 
find in Michelangelo ; he creates an 
immense subject for merely artistic 
reasons ; in the head, also, there 
is something falsely superhuman; 
but the drapery, which was really 
the principal object, is a marvel- 
lous work. The two Prophets in 
the Tribime of the Uffizi have alaog 
something not quite simple ; the 
two standing Apostles, in the 
QwiHnal at Borne, which Raphael * h 
finished, I have not seen since the 
preparations for the last conclave, 
in 1846, and then only hastily. 
The figure of S. Vincenzo Ferre- 
rius, in the Academy, Qaadri Grandi, i 
No. 69, is a most splendid picture, 
which combines character, expres- 
sion of the moment, and Titian- 
esque power of colour ; the room of 
sketches likewise contains excellent 
single figures by the Frate. . 

In the Musevm, of Naples is the^ 
great Assumption of the Virgin, 
painted from his sketches, and 
partly executed by himseU ; the 
great Madonna enthroned with 
seven Saints in the Academy at 
Florence, Quadri Grandi, No. 65, 
is only the work of. pupils. So the i 
Pietd,, Qu. Gr. No. 74, by the feeble I 

" This is doubted by Crowe and Cav. 

Andrea del Sarto. 


PlavMlla Nelli, after Pra Bartolom- 
meo'a composition. 

Of his pupils, only Mcmotto Al- 
hertineUi, liT'^lSlS, is important. 
Perhaps before he knew the Frate, 
he painted the beautiful circular 

a picture in the Pal. Pilti, the Ma- 
donna adoring the Child, while an 
angel holds out a cross to it. Then 
follows under the early influence of 
the Frate the altar fresco of Christ 

5 crucified in the chapter-house of the 
Certosa ; lastly, the Visitation in 

cthe Uffizi, with only two figures, 
composed with real feeling for har- 
mony, of his best time, and the 
Madonna enthroned with two kneel- 
ing and two standing Saints in the 

d Academy — works of which only the 
greatest master could be capable. 
In the remaining pictures of the 
same collection he enters with com- 
plete earnestness into the manner 
of construction of Ms master ; with 
the greatest success in the "Tri- 
nity ; " more stifly, but in part with 
the most beautiful and noble ex- 
pression, in the large Annunciation 

«(1510). In the Turin GaJ,lery, No. 
584, the circular picture of a Holy 
Family [according to Cr. and 0. by 
Bugiardmi under the influence of 
Mariotto.] A number of pictures 
of 1510-1512 are the joint work 
of Fra Bartolommeo, Mariotto [and 
others], which generally, besides the 
date, bear the sign of two rings 
joined with a little cross ; in the 

/Siena Academy, Quad. Diversi, No. 

9 91, Sciwrra Qallery, r. 4, No. 1 ; 

"•Borghese Gallery, 2, No. 31; Pal. 

* Cordni ; Madonna with two Saints 

1 of 1512, in S. Caterma at Pisa; others 
also at Florence and elsewhere. — 

The nun Plautilla Nelli is only 
interesting when the forms of the 
Frate (whose drawings she in- 
herited) are clearly visible in her 
pictures. The good Fra Paolino 
da Pistoja usually falls into the 
weak Peruginesque style (Madonna 

ftdeHa Cintola in the Florentine 

Christ Crucified, with 
Saints, in the cloister of S. Spvrito I 
at Siena). [This last is after a draw- 
ing of the master, but weakly ex- 
ecuted, conventional, and without 
feeling ; only endurable for its 
pleasant colouring. — Mr.] 


Along with Fra Bartolommeo, An- 
drea del Sarto (1487-1531) asserts a 
greatness of his own. A wonderful 
mind, though partial in its gifts, 
and one of the greatest discoverers 
in the domain of technical art. 

He is on the whole deficient in 
what we may call souL His im- 
pulses are essentially artistic in 
their nature; he works out pro- 
blems ; hence his indifference to 
the higher beauty of expression, 
the constant adoption of a particu- 
lar type, which makes his Madon- 
nas and his angels so recognizable, 
and is even felt in the character of 
his heads, in the special form of 
the skull, of the eyes, of the chin. 
Where this suits the subject, its 
efieot is sublime ; for instance, he 
gives to the young John the Baptist m 
(Pitti, No. 265) the severe pas- 
sionate beauty which is essential 
to this figure ; sometimes he adopts 
a high sensuous loveliness, as for 
instance is exemplified in the angel 
accompanying Gabriel in one of the n 
three Annunciations in P. Pitti, No. 
97 (unhappily much painted over) ; 
also there are some Putti by him 
which are inferior to none of Cor- 
reggio's in beauty and naiveti, as 
e. g. in the splendid Madonna with 
S. Francis and S. John the Evange- 
list, of 1517, in the Tribune of the o 
TJffizi; they cHng to the feet of the 
Madonna while the merry Christ- 
child climbs up to her neck. 

Andrea is certainly also the 

greatest colourist produced by the 

country south of the Apennines in 

the sixteenth century. As he did 



Painting of the Simteenth Century. 

not work on a method already 
formed in a school, but had each 
time to make out his principles 
afresh by his own effort, and his 
conscientioxisness not seldom failed, 
his works areveryunequal in colour- 
ing ; thus, along with the wonderful 
picture in the Tribune mentioned 
above, with the gold tone of colour, 

a the large Holy Family in the Fa- 
lazzo Pitti, No. 81, the two simple 
and beautiful portraits in which 
light and colour and character are 

5 so fuUy harmonised ; * (P. Pitti, 
Uffizi). [The most beautiful cer- 
tainly is his own portrait, No. 1147, 
in the Uffizi, painted in a masterly 
manner, with liquid medium as in 
distemper on fine canvas ; No. 66, 
in the Pitti, is a repetition not quite 
equal to this, heavy in tone and 
somewhat mistreated, but still 
charming. — Mr.] ; we find, besides 
these, some paintings very motley 
in colour, and yet dull. Never- 
theless Andrea, first of all the 
Florentines, has attained a certain 
harmonious scale, a deep, often lu- 
minous transparency of colours ; 
he also first allowed to colour a co- 
determining influence in the com- 
position of the picture. Not for 
nothing do his draperies fall in 
folds so effective in their breadth. 
One must confess that they are 
enohantingly beautiful in cast and 
contour, and seem unconsciously to 
give us the complete impression 
of the living figures. 

But in the essential points his 
composition is as severely architec- 
tonic as that of Fra Bartolonameo, 
to whom he clearly owed his best 
qualities. Here too there is real 
symmetry concealed under con- 
trasts. But, as he had not the 
feeling of the Frate, the framework 

* Whicli of them represents himself, 
we leave undecided. Tliat with the lady 
(P. Pitti, No. lis) is very stiff for the com- 
paratively late period. The bad drawing 
in the hand, and the llfelessness of the 
head of the lady, make one doubt. 

sometimes remains unfilled. How 
far inferior to that of Fra Barto- 
lommeo is his beautifully paioted 
Descent from the Cross, P. Pitti, a 
No. 58, 1524. The motives, classi- 
cal in lines and colours, are al- 
most nothing as to expression of 
mind — wealth without purpose. 
Also in the beautiful Madonna 
with the four Saints, 307, of the 
same year ; the unsatisfying cha- 
racters contrast with the solemnity 
of the whole. Of the pictures in 
the P. Pitti the Disputa deUa Tri-if 
nitk. No. 172, shows the most 
intellectual life ; it is a Santa Con- 
versazione, more serious and con- 
nected than most of the Venetians, 
and is likewise a grand picture of 
the first rank. The two large As- 
sumptions are both late, resemble 
each other greatly, and have much 
that is conventional, but also great 
beauties (No. 191, left unfinished, 
and No. 225). This want of feeling 
often strikes us, especially in the 
Holy Families, along with the great 
artistic merits j sometimes it seems 
as though the two mothers and the 
two children had no near relation 
to each other. Of these, besides 
the Florentine collections, the P. e 
Borghese at Rome possesses several ; 
also a beautiful and genuine pic- 
ture in S. Giacomo degli Spagnuolif 
at Naples, right of the chief door ; 
one in Turin. [Of the pictures in g 
the Palazzo Borghese I consider only 
one, third room, No. 28, as genuine, h 
Among the Holy Families, No. 81, 
in the P. Pitti, is refined and power- i 
fnl. A genuine replica of it in P. 
Brignole Sale in Genoa.— Mr.] j 

As a historical narrator Andrea 
has produced immortal works. The 
frescos in the entrance-court of the 
Annunziala exhibit indeed partly* 
the same, almost too severely archi- 
tectonic symmetry; in the three 
first pictures to the left, subjects 
from the legend of S. Filippo 
Beuizzi, finished before 1510, the 
group is formed in rows, mounting 

Andrea del Sarto. 


to a pyramid ; there is never any 
sufficient expression of a truly dra- 
matic grand action ; in tlie Ado- 
ration of the Kings (last picture 
on the right), the chief group will 
be found stiff. Nevertheless these 
paintings exhibit the most charm- 
ing variety of new motives of life ; 
the painter gives us the true en- 
joyment of seeing simple expres- 
sions of life very pure and perfect 
in form, noble in proportions, and 
beautifully arranged without any 
feeling of crowding. In consider- 
ing details a number of the figures 
of the first, second, and fifth picture 
impress themselves indelibly; in 
spite of all injury, we recognise in 
the last named (Clothing of the 
Leper), in the form of S. FiHppo, 
one of the highest creations of the 
golden time. The Birth of the 
Virgin (last picture but one on the 
right) is the latest conception of 
this subject in which it seems to 
bloom out into pure beauty ; even 
Domenico Ghirlandajo seems nar- 
row and harsh by the side of this 
wonderful richness. Except the 
pictures of the elder masters {Ales- 
sio Baldovinetti^s Birth of Christ, 
last picture on the left, and Cosimo 
Bossdli's Investiture of S. Filippo, 
the last but one on the left), the 
pupils of Andrea Lionardo have here 
given us the very best. Next 
to him is Francidbigio in the Mar- 
riage of the Virgin (injured by the 
well-known blow with a hammer) — 
a work inspired by careful and in- 
dustrious study of good models. 
In the Visitation by Pontormo, 
which is by far his greatest work, 
the ideal of Andrea and Bartolom- 
meo is elevated by the highest ex- 
penditure of power into a new 
whole. Only the Assumption of 
the Virgin by Rosso certainly shows 
the style of Andrea run wild. 

Besides this, in his later time 
(1516-27), Andrea produced the 
only Last Supper which can be even 
distantly compared with Lionardo 

— the large, in part beautifully pre- 
served, in part much-defaced fresco 
in the Refectory of the former Oon- a 
vent of S. Salvi, at Florence. (Ten 
minutes from the Porta della Croce, 
on the left from the road.) The 
moment chosen is when Christ 
takes the piece of bread to dip it 
into the dish, while Judas, alone 
of them all, has already a piece of 
bread in his hand. The characters 
are noble, and strongly marked 
with life, but far removed from 
the sublimity of those of Lionardo, 
which, each in its kind, represent 
a complete range of expression car- 
ried to the highest conceivable 
point. Andrea also, for the sake 
of the certainly extraordinarily 
powerful picturesque effect, gives 
his personages very various, some- 
times far from ideal, draperies ; a 
variety of which the eye can feel 
the beautiful result long before it is 
aware of the cause of it. Here, as 
with Lionardo, the play of the han ds, 
which alone express the various 
feelings, is indescribably living, 
how Christ soothes the questioning 
John, how Peter laments, how 
Judas is closely pressed. (Best 
light, afternoon.) Francidbigio in 
this subject (Last Supper), in the 
Refectory of <S. Giovanni della b 
Calsa, in Florence, has not nearly 
equalled del Sarto. 

The Madonna del Sacco also, in 
a lunette of the cloister of the c 
Annunziata, 1525, gives the highest 
point of Andrea's colouring and 
rendering in Fresco, except his Last 

Lastly, there is a series of 
monochrome frescos in brown, by 
his hand, in the little court of 
the fraternity dello Scaizo (nearrf 
S. Marco : it is only shown by one 
of the Custodi of the Academy, 
who .must accompany the visitor 
thither). The subject is the life 
of the Baptist. With the excep- 
tion of two early ones, and two 
executed by FroMdabigio, the 


Painting of the Sixteenth Centv/ry. 

whole of these compositions are, 
in spite of their plainness, among 
the most powerful and freest crea- 
tions of the mature time of Andrea. 
The stiffly architectonic character 
of the earlier frescos in the An- 
nunziata is here lost sight of in 
pure spirit and life. The condi- 
tions of monochrome, which ex- 
cluded all more delicate working 
of his faces, all charm of colour, 
appear to have stirred up the 
master to do his very best. Among 
the early ones, the Baptism of the 
People by John is a higher (indeed 
the highest) conceivable grade of 
the well-known fresco of Masaccio ; 
among the later ones, the Visita- 
tion, the Beheading, and the Bring- 
ing in the Head are the best; 
among the allegorical figures, the 
Caritas, which far surpasses the 
picture in the Louvre. [It is re- 
markable that Andrea here adopted 
several figures from A. Durer's 
engravings in his compositions, as 
the Pharisee listening to the Preach- 
ing of John, a woman seated in 
the Baptizing of the People, and 
others.] On this inspiration is 
also painted the spirited little 
PredeUa, with the histories of four 

"Saints, in the Academy (where 
there is nothing else remarkable 
by Andrea except the picture of 
the four Saints). The two Stories 

" of Joseph (P. PiM) give no idea of 
his capacity. 

Beyond the limits of Florence, 
the Cafhed/ral of Fisa, in the choir, 

"contains a number of splendidly 
painted single figures of Saints of 

Of his pupils and followers, the 
best have already been named. 
By Franciahigio (1482 — 1525) there 
are some pieces (long narrow 
pictures), with little figures, in 

dthe UJjfizi and the Pitti ; a good 
portrait of a man in a hat (1517) 

ein the Pal. Oapponi.* Pontormo 

* Apparently a portrait of himself ; also a 
very beautiful portrait of 1614, in P. Pitti, 

{Pwntormo, 1494 — 1557) is only 
prized for his likenesses (P. PitHtf 
Ippolito Medici ; Uffizi, the elder „ 
Cosimo, in profile, admirably recon- 
structed upon a fifteenth century 
portrait). Of his other works the 
earliest are the best, at least in the 
colouring (Uffizi: Leda with the J 
four Children in a landscape ; Cap- { 
pella de' Pittori at the Annunziata; 
fresco of a Madonna with Saints, 
still quite in the manner of the 
master; Pimacoteca at Bologna:,' 
Madonna with the Child, standing 
behind a bench). * The later works 
appear mannered, through the in- 
troduction of forma only for the sake 
of their real or supposed beauty. 
S. Felicitd,, in Florence (first A 
chapel on the right) : Descent 
from the Cross ; P. Pitti, the I 
Forty Martyrs, with histories 
(Uffizi), (very scattered). Domenicom 
Puligo was misled by the effects 
of colour and light of Andrea ; his 
forms became, on this account, >m- 
decided, his drawing faint. Pal. 
Pitti: a holy family j a Madonna ra 
nursing. Pal. Corsini, mYioTence: o 
several paintings. As one of the 
earliest portrait-painters by pro- 
fession, he might, perhaps, lay 
claim to more than one likeness 
which now passes as the work of 
his master. Angela Bronxmo, 1502 — 
1572, pupil of Pontormo, must, as 
an historical painter, be placed 
among the mannerists. But, as a 
portrait painter, he is inferior to 
none of his contemporaries, not 
even the Venetians, far as they 
surpass him in colouring, which in 
him is always somewhat chalky. 
In his manner. Pal. Doria, atp 
Borne : excellent portrait of Gia- 
nettino Doria ; Naples Museum : q 
the two Geometricians ; also, cer- 
tainly by him, P. Pitti, No. 434, r 
the Engineer, grand, after the 

No. 43, with a pleasing calmness of expres- 
sion, and a look full of feeling.— Mr. 

* The latter must belong to Gmliano 
Bugiardvni. — Mr. 

Rossi — Ohirlandajo — Bidolfo — Garho — Sogliani. 135 

majiner of a Sebastian del PiomlDO ; 
a Uffiai ; the young Sculptor ; a 
Lady in a red dress ; a Youth with 
a letter ; a red-bearded Man in a 
porch ; all painted as if for the sake 
of giving their special character- 
istic: the Lady with a Child, on 
6 the other hand, a mere portrait, 
perhaps of a Medici.* Pal. Cor- 
smi : several portraits. Pal. del 
c Commune, at Prato : Medici por- 
traits, of the school of Bronzino. 
Similar inferior ones, with later 
ones, in the passage which leads from 
d the UiEzi to the Ponte Vecchio. 
Bosso de' Bossi (Rosso Fioren- 
timo, died 1.541, in France) ; also a 
follower of Andrea. He very early 
shows the way which the deca- 
dence would take. The forms of 
Andrea are made by him alluring, 
even to sensuality, in order to give 
overpowering effect to the compo- 
sition only by great masses of 
e light and colour. Pal. Pitti : large 
Madonna with Saints. S. Lorenzo, 
f second altar on the right : Mar- 
s' riage of Virgin. ;S. Spirito, on an 
altar, left : Madonna enthroned 
with Saints (copy). 

Some other masters of the earlier 
Florentine schools still continue to 
paint at this time. Bidolfo Qhir- 
la/ndajo, the son of Domenico, and 
later pupil of the Frate, has, in two 
h pictures in the Uffizi (S. Zenobius, 
resuscitating a dead boy, and the 
Burial of S. Zenobius), either given 
proof of a great talent, or made a 
very lucky hit. Movement, group- 
ing, heads, and colour are quite 
equal to the golden time ; never- 
theless some negligences iu the 
drapery betray, by the want of 
seriousness, the future manner- 
ist : an excellent, true, though harsh 
i female portrait, in the Pal. Pitti 
(1509), shows what he could do 
in execution if he chose. + The 

• Probably by his nephew, AUssandro 

t In this and the following year the 
example of Baphael, with whom he was 

frescos in the Sala de Qigli of they 
Palazzo Vecchio (Patron Saints and 
Heroes) already appear to be the 
production of an exhausted fancy, 
which throws itself back on the 
fifteenth century. Other things 
are pure mannerism. Thus, a 
Madonna del Popolo, painted by 
Eidolfo and his uncle Damde, ini 
S. Felice. [His most beautiful 
work known to me in Italy, over 
the entrance of the Cathedral at I 
Frato : the Madonna floating above 
her grave, filled with roses, reaches 
her girdle to S. Thomas ; at the 
side are Angels and Saints. — Mr.] 

By Michele di Bidolfo, among 
others, is the picture of the Thou- 
sand Martyrs, in the Academy; m 
simply a careful study of the nude. 

By Baffaelino del Garho, a 
scholar of Filippino somewhat be- 
hind the time, who later strove 
in vain to acquire the great 
style, there is a Eesurrection 
(Academy), his only early picture?} 
of importance ; in the Sacristy of 
S. Lorenzo, a Birth of Christ. Ino 
the Cappella Caxrafa, in the Minerva, p 
at Home, begun by his master, he 
painted the roof, now much in- 
jured. [We refer the reader to 
C. and C.'s critical investigation of 
the relation of the various Baphaxls 
of Florence. To Baffaelino del 
Garho certainly belongs the Ma- 
donna between Saints, of 1505, on 
the second altar on the left, in the 
left transept of S. Spirito, at Flo- j 
lence. — Mr.] 

Giovanni Antonio Sogliani, a 
pupil of Gredi, has, in hia most 
beautiful picture, on an altar on 
the left in iS*. Lorenzo, representing r 
the Apostles awaiting martyrdom, 
nearly equalled his master and 
almost even Andrea del Sarto. The 
PredeUa also, by thevery rarely seen 
painter Bacchiacca,. is a thought- 
ful work. In the Academy, be-s 

in friendly relations at Florence, exercised 
the most beneHcial inflnence on Bidolfo. — 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

sides inferior pictures, there is a 
Madonna enthroned, with Tobias, 
his Angel, and S. Augustine, also 

a much like Credi ; in the Uffim, a 
Madonna in a landscape, merely 
well painted ; in the sacristy of 

bS. Jacopo, a Trinity with Saints, 
which are good, and in part quite 
noble. [A beautiful picture of 

cS. Catherine in the Torrigicmi 

Gallery, at Florence ^Mr.] 

Cfiuliano Bugiwrdmi, an artist 
who succumbed to very various in- 
fluences, follows D. Ghirlandajo in 

dthe Birth of Christ (Sacristy of S. 
Oroce), and afterwards approaches 
Lionardo in his treatment ; a Ma- 

e donna nursing, in the Uffizi, No. 
213 ; one of his best pictures ; a 
large Madonna enthroned, with S. 
Catherine and S. Antony of Padua, 

/in the Fmacoteca at Bologna. 
At last Michelangelo overset his 
imagination. The well-known 

gr Martyrdom of S. Catherine, in S. 
M. Novella (Cap. RuoceUai, near 
the Cimabue), is really the martyr- 
dom of the conscientious artist him- 
self, and an instructive memorial of 
the fermentation into which certain 
minds were thrown by the master 
of the Last Judgment. We may 
conceive the whole misery of hunt- 
ing for motives. [Still Fra Bartol- 
lommeo is to be mentioned as his 
principal model, for whom, accord- 
ing to Vasari, he used to complete 
pictures begun by himself ; among 

h others, the PietS., in the Pitti, No. 
64. His unsigned pictures often 
bear finer-sounding names ; as the 
Madonna del Pozzo, ascribed to Ra- 

i phael, in the Tribune of the Vffizi, 
undoubtedly his work* ; so, also, the 
circular picture of the Holy Family 
with the Baptist, No. 1224, called 
KidoKo Ghirlandajo. Further : 
John the Baptist, in the right side 

y aisle of S. M. delle Grazie, at 
Milan ; two pictures in the Sor- 

* [The Madonna del Pozzo is clearly by 
Francia Bigio, to whom Vasari assigns it. 

gtiese Gallery, at Some, second i 
room, Nos. 40 and 43 ; in Turin, the I 
great Annunciation, No. 588, and 
a Holy Family, No. 584.— Mr.] 


It might seem almost superfluous 
to speak here of KaphaeL He 
always gives so much that is ever- 
lasting ; unasked, he spreads his 
beauties before us with such direct- 
ness that every one who sees his 
pictures can find his way without 
a guide, and can carry away a 
lasting impression. The following 
suggestions are but intended to 
clear up the sometimes hidden 
reasons of this impression. 

What is usually called fortunate 
in Raphael's life (1483-1520) was so 
only on account of his special cha- 
racter, and because his nature was 
so thoroughly strong and healthy. 
Others might have been wrecked 
in like circumstances. Soon after 
his father's death (Giovanni Santi, 
died 1494), he entered the school of 
Perugino, and worked under him 
till 1504. Thus his youth was sur- 
rounded only by pictures of exag- 
gerated expression of feeling, and 
of almost mathematical symmetry. 
The school might be considered as 
behindhand, and very undeveloped, 
as to any questions of variety of 
drawing and composition, of the 
study of the whole human form; 
and even the expression was then 
passing in the Maestro Perugino 
into a mechanical repetition of what 
was considered as tender and beau- 
tiful. It seems as if Raphael had 
not noticed it. With the most 
wonderfully childlike faith he 
enters into Perugino's (then only 
fictitious) mode of feeling, and en- 
livens and varies the decaying Hfe. 
When he paints as assistant in the 
pictures of the master, one seems 
to recognise the characteristics of 

Raphael — Florentine Period. 


Perugino's own best youthful time,* 
as he ought always to have painted ; 
80, also, is it with Raphael's own 
earlier works. In the Coronation 

a of the Virgin ( Vatican Gallery) we 
see, for the first time, what Peru- 

• gino's style could reach ; how dif- 
ferent, how far superior to his 
master is Raphael in the whole 
result, in the divine purity with 
which he expresses tender devo- 

«»tion, beautiful youth, and inspired 
old age, besides that he is al- 
ready far more refined in drawing 
and drapery. The little PredeUa 

6 pictures of this altar-piece in another 
haU of the same gaUery already 
show a freedom in forms and man- 
ner of narration almost Florentine. 
Also, in the Sposalizio (Milan, 

cSrera), with the date 1504, Raphael 
goes far beyond the composition of 
his school : the most perfect sym- 
metry is picturesquely relieved by 
the most beautiful contrasts ; the 
incidents of the Ceremony and 
those of the action (in the suitors 
breaking their rods), the lively 
group, and the serious lofty archi- 
tectural background, with which 
other Pernginesques, as, for in- 
stance, Pinturiocmo, play so child- 
ishly, produce together an almost 
purely harmonious whole. The 
expression of the heads will, per- 
haps, be found less sweet than in 
many of the engravings. The 
little Madonna Connestabile, now 

din possession of the Emperor of 

* TMs is seen especially in Eaphael's 
shaie in the Adoration of the New-bom 
ChUd, in the Vatican Gallery (4th room 
No. 26, II Presepe delle Spinetta). For 
the head of Joseph is altogether regarded 
as his work , the heads of the angels and 
of the Madonna are certainly either by 
him or by Lo Spagna. [The whole work is 
by Spagna,— Ed.] In the Eesurreotion, 
also to be found there (IV. 24), the sleep- 
ing youth on the right must at least be 
ascribed to him. [In the Sacristy of 8. 
Pietro at Perugia, the John kissing the 
Child Christ is a copy after Perugino's 
large altar-piece in Marseilles, of 1512— 
17, therefore not by Raphael.— Crowe and 

Russia, one of the greatest jewels 
of painting of miniature size, is 
better conceived, in a circular 
shape, and more beautiful and easy 
in attitude than any similar picture 
of the school ; in the perfect charm 
of the two figures, and the en- 
chanting spring landscape with the 
snowy hills, one forgets to com- 
pare. * One may say th at Raph ael, 
when towards the end of 1504 he 
abandoned this school, had not 
only entirely adopted all the good 
sides of it, but in general expressed 
its especial character far more 
purely and loftily in his works 
than any of his contemporaries in 
the school. 


He betook himself to Florence, 
which just then was the gathering- 
place for the greatest artists of 
Italy. Michelangelo and Lionardo, 
for instance, were there, producing 
in their (lost) cartoons the greatest 
wonders of historical composition : 
it was a great moment of fermenta- 
tion in art. Any one wishing to 
understand it should look into the 
left transept of S. Spirito in Flo- e 
renee, on the second altar to the 
left, for the picture with the date 
1505, which is now commonly as- 
cribed to Ingegrw [EafaelUno del 
Garbo, see p. 135 q\; in the Ma- 
donna with Saints our eyes are 
mocked by four or five painters of 
different schools. 

Raphael did not allow himself 
to be distracted. He soon found 
among the Florentine painters, as 
it seems, the one who could most 

• The pictures from S. Trinita at Citta 
di CasteUo (Trinity and Creation of Eve), 
now in a private house, Casa Berioli deUa 
Porta, are much tojured. The Madonna 
in the Casa Alfani at Perugia is a very 
early Peruginesque.— Mr. [It passed from 
the Casa Alfani to the Casa Patrizi at 
Terni, but is only a reduced copy of Peru- 
gino's Madonna at the Vatican, and cer- 
tainly not by Raphael. — Ed.J 


Fainting of the Sixteenth Century. 

help Lim on his way, the great Pra 
Bartolommeo, who not long before, 
after an interval of several years, 
had again returned to painting. 
He was mostly employed on the 
same subjects as the Perugian 
school, namely, votive pictures ; 
only he accomplished pictoriaUy 
what they had left undone ; he not 
only arranged his saints and angels 
symmetrically near and among 
each other, but he constructed real 
groups with them, and enlivened 
them by contrasts and by fine de- 
velopment of physical forms. His 
influence on Baphael was decisive ; 
if we calculated it, the result might 
be that Raphael owed to him his 
strongest impulse towards aseverely 
architectonic and yet quite living 
manner of composition. 

The earliest sign of this influ- 
ence (see p. 123 e, the remarks on 
the Last Judgment in S. M. Nuova) 
is seen in the fresco picture with 
which Raphael adorned a chapel of 

a the cloister of S. Severe in Perugia. 
The perspective foreshortening of 
the half- circle of saints, who are 
enthroned on clouds, goes far be- 
yond the Peruginesque horizon ; 
here we have not only variety of 
character and position, but a 
higher harmony and a grand free- 
dom. ThecontrastoftheupperPeru- 
ginesque and the lower Morentine 
angels clearly express the division 
in the artist's mind at the time. 

In his easel pictures (presumably) 
of the years 1504^1506 he preserves 
more of the old manner ; so in the 

° Madonna del Gran Duca, Pitti Gal- 
lery. This has quite the clumsy, 
stiff drapery of Perugino ; but in 
the noble expression of the head, 
and in the beautiful arrangement 
of the child, is one of the greatest 
expressions of Raphael's power of 
feeling, so that we incline to prefer 
it to many later and more perfect 

Raphael lived from 1506-8 in 
riorence for the second time, and 

this period already was very rich 
in important pictures, of which 
the greater number have gone into 
foreign countries. Yet those re- 
maining in Italy afford at least a 
sufficient clue to his inner develop- 

Now we see him make a choice : 
starting from the firm ground to 
which the Prate had helped him,* 
he attempts with the surest tact 
only what he feels internally suited 
to him. The fulness of life, which 
is the theme of most of the Flo- 
rentines of that time, touches him 
too, but only as far as it does not 
trench upon the highest things— 
the expression of the soul and the 
fundamental principles of pictu- 
resque composition which gradu- 
ally grew in him to a sure form. 

Compare only his Madonna of 
that time with those of the Floren- 
tines ; even those of Liouardo 
{Vierge aux Bookers, Vierge awn 
Balances, in the Louvre) will give 
the feeling that they are less 
loftily conceived, and are busied 
vrith some mundane occupation, to 
say nothing of the rest. Raphael 
has an advantage, to begin with, 
in the careful construction of his 
groups, and stiU more in the lofty 
gravity of his form, which keeps 
him from all mere accidental traitsi 
of life. In intention his Madonna 
is nothing more than a beautiful 

* Tlie just measure between the two 
artists is especially difficult to reach, 
when, on one hand, we consider Ra- 
phael's Holy Family of this period, in the 
Finakothek at Munich, and on the other, 
the two Holy Families of Fra Bartolom- 
meo, in the P. Corsini at Rome, No. 26, 
in the 3rd room, and in the P. Pitti, No. 
266, first of the hack rooms. Did Raphael 
first create the perfectly pyramidal group 
of the Virgin, the two Children, Elizaheth 
and Joseph standing above to complete 
it ; and did the Frate copy it incom- 
pletely, leaving out one figure? Or did 
Raphael complete the incomplete idea of 
the Frate by his addition? The decision 
is doubtful, but the connection of the 
two pictures obvious. I am inclined to 
adopt the first hypothesis. 

Raphael — Florentine Portraits. 


woman and a mother, as also with 
the Florentines : his purpose (except- 
ing in the votive pictures in espe- 
cial) is not more for edification than 
theirs ; if, therefore, one finds the 
highest therein, there must be other 
reasons for it. 

The answer may be found in the 

aMadorma del Cwrdellmo (in the 
Tribune of the Uffizi) ; the simplest 
conceivable pyramidal group, just 
enlivened by the action with the 
goldfinch : perhaps the full value 
of the picture wiU be sought in the 
charming form, the pure expres- 
sion; but these would have less 
effect, they would perhaps be en- 
tirely lost, but for the finely calcu- 
lated harmony of the details in 
form and colour. In Raphael the 
detail strikes so powerfully that 
one thinks it the essential part ; 
yet the charm of the whole is 
infinitely the most distinctive 

The well-known Belle Jardinifere, 
in the Louvre, is a higher step in 
the same line, with the Madonna 
del CardeUino. 

h _ The Madonna del Baldacehmo, 
in the Palazzo Pitti, remains a 
puzzle. Raphael left it unfinished 
on his journey to Rome ; later, 
when his growing fame called fresh 
attention to the picture, the paint- 
ing was continued we know not by 
whom. At last Ferdinand, son of 
Cosmo III., had it touched by a 
certain CassaTia with an appearance 
of finishing chiefly by means of 
brown glazings. The remarkably 
beautiful attitude of the child with 
the Madonna (for instance, that of 
the hands), the figures on the left 
arranged in the grand style of the 
Frate (S. Peter and S. Bernard) 
belong surely to Raphael ; perhaps 
also the upper part of the body of 
the saint on the right, with the 
pilgrim's staff; on the other hand, 
the bishop on the right might be 
composed by quite another hand. 
The two beautifully improvised 

children on the steps of the throne 
belong as much to the style of the 
Frate as of Raphael ; of the two 
Angels above, the more beautiful 
one is obviously borrowed from the 
fresco of S. Maria deUe Pace, in 
Rome, from which it appears that 
the first finisher did not touch the 
picture till after 1514. 


In bis Florentine portraits, Ra- 
phael already stands forth as the 
great historical painter, who can 
distinguish the characteristic from 
the accidental, the permanent from 
the transitory. Here, perhaps, 
alone, we can trace the influence of 
Lionardo on Raphael in the concep- 
tion as well as in the careful 
modelling which regards no detail 
of form as too trifling when it con- 
cerns the general and full charac- 
ter. If we pass over two very beau- 
tiful heads of monks at their devo- 
tions in the Florentine Academy c 
(Sala de' piocoli Quadri), which 
might be of the first Florentine 
period [certainly by Perugino, 
Ed.] the portraits of Angelo and 
Maddalena Doni (in the Pal. Pitti) d 
would be his earliest known works 
of this kind (1505). The one of 
the wife shows an unmistakable 
similarity with the Gioconda of 
Lionardo (in the Louvre) not only 
in outward things, but in its inner 
character. Much is formal ; for in- 
stance, the position of the hands, 
also the colour ; only the concep- 
tion of the character and the posi- 
tion is quite natural. Of all his 
contemporaries, only Lionardo and, 
perhaps, Giorgione could have pro- 
duced anything so good. 

The portrait in the Tribune ofe 
the Uffizi, also called Maddalena 
Doni, resembles the other picture 
like an elder, somewhat invalid 
sister, and might have been painted 
earlier, — perhaps, soon after his 
arrival in Florence, when Raphael 
was stm Peruginesque in his ideas, 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

and had not yet seen the Grioconda. 
It is so beautiful a picture, and 
so characteristic (for instance, in 
the arrangement of the hands), 
that the doubts of its genuineness 

as hardly seem justified. RapliaeVs 
own portrait, in the coUeetion of 
portraits of painters there, is any- 
how undoubtedly genuine (of the 
year 1506 ?), easy and graceful in 
position, and masterly in painting. 
[This picture, which has suffered 
greatly, stUl appears somewhat 
timid in the execution ; also the 
young man looks hardly more than 
twenty-one, and accordingly it 
would be from 1504 or 1505. — Mr.] 

i Lastly, the Pitti (No. 229, Hall 
of the niad) contains the portrait 
of a, lady of about thirty-five, in 
Florentine costume, which is as- 
cribed to Kaphael, and in any case 
is of first rank. It appears to be 
painted by a future master of 
chiaroscuro, which Raphael never 
was ; also the surfaces of the linen, 
and the damask sleeves, show 
rather the manner of Andrea del 
Sarto. The modelling is wonder- 
fully beautiful and careful, such as 
is not seen in Andrea's later works. 
The foreshortening of one hand 
would certainly have been far 
better given by Raphael, who was 
in this respect so advanced. The 
character of the head gives a whole 
story of early life, full of love and 
goodness. [Comparing it with the 
portrait of Maddalena Doni, we 
still can but ascribe the portrait 
just spoken of to Raphael. The 
Ukeness in the hands and the head 
is striking. — Mr.] 

In the year 1507, Raphael also 
painted his first large historical 
picture of action ; it is the Entomb- 
cment, in the Borghese Qallery, at 
Eome — a work of the highest ten- 
sion of all his powers, not yet free 
from certain awkwardnesses (for 
instance, in the arrangement of the 
feet), with special forms of face, 

which point to a fixed ideal, and 
therefore one approaching to a 
mannerism, from which Raphael 
was again to work himself free. 
But it is a never-ending marvel for 
arrangement of lines, for dramatic 
and picturesque contrasts, and for 
expression. It is enough to trace 
the distinctions of physical efibrt 
and intellectual sympathy, to place 
Raphael above all his contempo- 
raries. The body of Christ is, in 
form and foreshortening, entirely 
noble. The Predella belonging toj? 
it, representing in grey colour the 
figures of Faith, Love, and Hope, 
in circular pictures on a greenish 
ground, each with two boy-angels 
at the sides, is in the Vaiican Gal- 
lery. They are apparently mere 
sketches, but in the composition 
and the demeanour there lies an 
expression as telling as could be 
desired. With the least possible 
means, the greatest effect is here 
produced. (The tipper lunette, God e 
the Father with Angels, is stUl 
to be found in S. Francesco de' 
GonvenMuili, at Perugia, where 
once stood the whole work ; but 
not over the copy of it by Arpvno, 
but over an altar-piece on the right- 
hand side, the Birth of Christ, by 
Orazio Alfami. The genuineness of 
this is doubted. In the Pinacotecaf 
there. No. 42, a copy by Amedei. 
Another copy by PraTieesco Penrd, g 
in the Gallery at Turin. ) 

By this distinguishing work Ra- 
phael proved himself the one who 
alone, besides Michelangelo, could 
worthily carry out the ideas of 
Pope Julius II. In 1508, the Pope 
called him to Rome, where, for the 
twelve remaining years of his short 
life, he displayed the inconceivably 
rich productiveness which stands 
alone as a moral marvel. It is not 
the height of genius, but the power 
of will, which is the grandest : the 
first would not have kept him from 
mannerism ; it is the last which 
never suffered him to rest on his 

Raphael — Madonnas, 


laurels, but always urged liiiii to 
higher modes of expression. The 
great number of commissions, the 
fame and the exceeding beauty of 
his works, soon gathered a school 
round Raphael; to this he was 
obliged, in later times, to confide 
the execution even of really great 
undertakings ; they were men of 
most various gifts, sometimes of in- 
ferior character ; but as long as the 
powerful reflection of the character 
of the master rested on them, they 
created in his spirit. Their rapid 
decline, after his death, shows 
again, in a reversed sense, what he 
must have been. 


We begin with the easel pictures 
still existing in Italy, which, in 
spite of the master's becoming gra- 
dually accustomed to fresco during 
this time, fully preserve their spe- 
cial character, so that in them are 
worked out the highest problems 
of oil painting which lay in Ra- 
phael's line. The most conscien- 
tious of artists, he was never satis- 
fied with the technical results of 
what he had done. But if one re- 
quires of him the glowing colour 
of Titian and the chiaroscuro of 
Correggio, this shows an entire 
misunderstanding of his true value. 
None of his pictures would gain 
essentially by the addition of these 
qualities, because none depended 
on them for their success. What 
one must regret is the later dark- 
ening of his shadows, which cer- 
tainly must have beeo much lighter 
at the time when they were com- 
pleted. The proof of this is in 
Andrea del Sarto's copy from the 
a portrait of Leo X in the Naples 
Museum ; executed with colours 
chemically better in the shadows, 
it shows how the original, in the P. 
Pitti, must have been harmonized. 

The Madonnas of this Roman 
time are mostly in foreign parts. 

Of the Madorma di Gasa, cHA Iba, a / 
circular picture, with whole figures 
in a landscape, the Borghese Gal- 
lery, for instance (No. 38), contains 
an old copy, — a charming reminis- 
cence of the Florentine Madonnas, 
only with more action. The Ma- 
donna deUa Tenda, in the Twrme 
Gallery, is a replica, not by him- 
self, of the picture in Munich ; as 
the so-called R^veil de I'Enfant,* 
in the Naples Museum, like that in d 
the Torrigiani Gallery, is only a 
copy of the famous specimen in 
England in the Bridgewater Gal- 
lery. The infinite grace of this 
picture, by which it takes a dreamy 
hold of the imagination of the spec- 
tator, is owing less to the very 
beautiful forms and features than 
to the exceedingly perfect lines, to 
the sweep of the movement of the 
mother and, child, to the disposi- 
tion of the light. 

No single one of these pictures 
directly indicates that the Mother 
of God is intended. It is only the 
pure beauty of the woman and 
child which awakens the thought 
of the supernatural. After 1500 
years, art has again reached a 
height at which its forms of them- 
selves, and without any additions, 
appear something eternal and 

And now Raphael descends and 
paints perhaps merely the most 
beautiful Italian woman in the 
form of the Madonna della Sediae 
(Pal. Pitti). Apart from the charm 
of form, and for composition never 
equalled in the world, the expres- 
sion of maternity here is peculiarly 
striking in connection with the 
beautiful peasant costume. It is 
the favourite picture of women. 

Of the Holy Families, one of the 
best, as it seems, has vanished with- 
out a trace, —the Madonna from 
the shrine of S. Maria del Popolof 

* The name is not suitable ; the child 
is already quite awake, and pulls playfully 
j at the mother's veiL 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

(usually called of Loreto). The one 
in the Louvre is not better than 
some other good school copies, of 

tt which, for instance, the Naples 
Mnsev/m contains one. The best (?) 
is in the possession of the Lawrie 

6 family, in the Palaazo FanciaticM, 
at Florence. The motive is well 
known ; Mary lifts the linen cover- 
ing from the child that Uea on a 
bench and smiles at her, while 
Joseph looks on ; in the background 
a green curtain ; the two principal 
figures hardly less than life-size. 
It is a domestic scene, but free 
from the prosaic detail of the 
northerners, and the showy Re- 
naissance ornament of the Floren- 
tines, expressed in the noblest 
forms and lines. 

g The Madonna deW Imparmata 
(the cloth virindow), in the P. 
Pitti, is also partly composed and 
executed by Raphael. Mary, Eliza- 
beth, the young woman on the left, 
and the child, have been originally 
sketched for a circular picture, 
which would have reached down- 
wards as far as the knee of Eliza- 
beth (in which case, Mary's stand- 
ing on another level from the others 
would not have been so striking), 
or what secret of the studio is here 
hidden ? The whole figure of John 
sitting outside the group is in any 
case a later idea, even if Raphael 
himself preferred it so. There is a 
discussion as to the parts painted 
by him, which I leave to be de- 
cided by others. The incident is 
most charming ; the two women 
have brought the child, and hand 
it to the mother ; and while the 
boy turns, still laughing, after 
them, he takes fast hold of the 
mother's dress, who seems to say, 
"Look, he likes best to come to 
d The scene in the Madonna del 
Divmo Amore (Naples Museum) is 
more solemn. Elizabeth wants the 
child Christ to bless the little John 
kneeling on the left, and leads him 

gently by the hand. Mary prays 
as if confirming it ; she has let go 
her hold of the child on her knee, 
rightly, for, if he is capable of 
blessing, he must also be able to 
sit firm. It is just in traits of this 
kind that later art is so poor. The 
execution must be the work of 
pupils. * 

Close by, hangs Giulio Bmrumo's 
Madonna della Qaita, a repetition, e 
given in his style, of the ' ' Perla " 
of Raphael, which is gone to Ma- 
drid. The additions made by the 
pupil are mere desecrations, such as 
the cat, the transformation of Eliza- 
beth into a gipsy, and various 
other changes. It is the same with 
the Madomna della I/ueertola (P.f 
Pitti) [No. 57, called <?. Ronumo, 
but by the hand of a Fleming. — 
Mr.], only that apparently even the 
original, reputed to be a Raphael, 
also in Ma<frid, was not altogether 
invented by the master. More 
beautifully and carefully painted 
than the Madonna della Gatta, 
still the Florentine picture strikes 
us as a collection of motives (a so- 
caReA. pasticcio) after Raphael. 

But few votive pictures, in 
which the Virgin appears enthroned 
or in glory, exist by Raphael The 
earliest of them, stiU with a recog- 
nizable Florentine tone, is the Ma- 
donna di Foligno, in the Vatican g 
Qallery, of the year 1512. As the 
Mother of God, with Saints, this 
picture accomplishes exactly all 
that the Florentines would will- 
ingly have achieved : a highly 
elevated spiritual life in the saints ; 
the most inward relation to the 
beKeving beholder, as well as to the 
Virgin ; the last, for the rest, only 
as ideal mother, not as the queen 

* The sculptor AUssandro Leopardo has 
also shown correct feeling on this point, if 
the Madonna deUa Scarpa in 8. Marco at 
Venice is by him. The child, sitting on 
her right knee, is just preparing to give 
the Messing, and she lets go her hold of 

Raphael — Madonnas. 


of heaven ; the child with atouch of 
restlessness ; and yet both as much 
above theMadonna delBaldaoohino, 
as the accompanying Saints of the 
picture are above those of the last 
n amed. And what Florentine chQd- 
angel, what earlier child's figure, 
even of Raphael's own, could come 
up to the divinely sweet angel-boy 
who stands with the inscription ta- 
blet infrontbetweenthesaints? The 
kneeling donator, Sismondo Conti, 
is quite worthy of the contempo- 
rary portraits of Kaphael, and also 
touched with a cheerful, solemn 
devotion, which is wonderfully dis- 
tinguished from the ecstacy of S. 
Francis, the excitement of John 
and Jerome. 

Later, in the Sixtine Madonna 
(at Dresden),* Kaphael attained 
and certainly aimed at something 
higher ; the expression of the su- 
pernatural is produced not merely 
by the idealized form, but by the 
visionary treatment of space, the 
advancing forward upon the clouds, 
and the grand, solemn flow of the 
drapery. In the Madonna di Fo- 
ligno even, the principal figure, 
seated, floating, is treated as 
though in a defined space, and aU 
the rest is altogether earthly and 
real. A picture which, from its 
character as a banner for a proces- 
sion, ought to form an exception 
(as is supposed, with some ap- 
parent reason, of the Sixtine Ma- 
donna), cannot, however, be a rule 
for altar-pictures. 

Of the Madomna del Pesce, 
"' which came to Spain from Naples 
with so many masterpieces under 
the Spanish viceroys, there is stiU 
an old copy in S. Paolo at Naples, 
in the passage from the church to 
the sacristy. In this most charm- 

* The copy in S. Sisto at Fiacenza, 
which Is said to occupy the frame of the 
original, but appears incomprehensibly 
small, is by PieranUmio Avanziniy be- 
ginning of 18th century. A very remark- 
able development of the compositions in 
S. Severe at Naples, 7th chapel on left. 

ing composition Mary is again 
thrown back in the midst of the 
saints, as in the Madonna del Bal- 
dacohino ; but the lofty conception 
of form, the pure flow of the com- 
position, show the later, completer 
time of the master. 

Thus Raphael, with the single 
exception of the Sixtine Madonna, 
has in his Virgins always glorified 
the female character with all his 
power, and taken the chance 
whether or not in her should be re- 
cognised the Mother of God, the 
Queen of the Angels, the Mistress 
of Heaven, surrounded with all 
the glow of mysticism. He always 
uses as little symbolism as pos 
sible ; his art does not depend on 
associations which are beyond the 
sphere of form, thoroughly as he 
had mastered the expression of the 
symbolical in its proper place, as is 
shown by the frescos in the Vati- 
can. His child Christ, also, with 
the single exception of the grand 
mysterious boy on the arm of the 
Sixtine Madonna, is animated by 
the purest spirit of infantine 
beauty. Italy is richly gifted in 
this respect, so that the painter 
often finds the choice hard, and, 
since Lippo Lippi and Luca della 
Robbia, art had striven un 
weariedly to give the highest in- 
spiration of the childish form ; 
Raphael came and drew the con- 
clusion. His child Christ and his 
child St. John show, with the ex- 
ception of his earliest Peruginesque 
sentimental pictures, nothing but 
the most beautiful youthful Hfe, 
the healthy expression of which is 
only carried to the border of play- 
fulness, and does not, till Giulio 
Romano (and elsewhere in A. del 
Sarto), pass into the fanciful, fall- 
ing lastly in later generations into 
the sentimental. 

The simple beauty of existence, 
which is the essence of the child, 
ceases with the first exhibition of 
activity. Raphael has no repre- 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

sentation of the twelve-year old 
teacher in the Temple,* but there 
is one of the inspired boy John ; 
among many copies, one at least 

a old, in the TriMme of the Uffizi 
at Florence; one fFlemish) copy 

Jin the Finacoteca at Eologna, 
An original picture of the inspired 
boy John, different in the composi- 
tion from the above, has lately been 
exhibited in the Louvre (No. 368 
bis). The powerful, severe expres- 
sion of the beautiful head, and the 
extremely effective contrast be- 
tween the erect sitting posture and 
the diagonal movement, lead us to 
overlook the mixture of youthful 
with adult forms here apparent. 
On the whole, we shall agree with 
Raphael (even against Titian) in re- 
presenting the Baptist, as a single 
figure, as quite young ; this beauty 
is the only right equivalent for the 
scene of the Preaching of Repent- 
ance, except when by the adcUtion 
of other figures quite a new con- 
sideration is brought in. The 
curved line of the reed cross, to 
which John points, harmonizes the 
whole composition. 


Lastly, there are three works of 
the Roman time which, each in 
their way, are incomparably grand 
in their representation of the su- 

The one is symbolical — ^the vi- 

* Aji unlucky subject, since the pur- 
pose can never come out clearly in tlie 
representation : we learn indeed from the 
Gospel, but never from the picture, why 
the scribes are so disturbed; the argu- 
ments which produced this effect cannot 
be painted. (How Lionardo managed it, 
see antea). We should learn much if 
we could discover what subjects Raphael 
would not paint, in spite of the wish of 
others, and for what reasons he rejected 
them. There are no pictures of martyr- 
doms by him ; the nearest approach to 
this is the Bearing of the Cross (the Spasimo 
di Sicilia), besides the early Crucifixion, 
from the Fesch Galleiy, belonging to Lord 
Dudley (Ward). 

sion of Ezekiel, in the Palazzo e 
Pitti, small, most carefully exe- 
cuted, though not lilte a miniature.* 
The Middle Ages had given a 
symmetrical form to the symbols 
taken out of the Old Testament 
and the Apocalypse, according to 
the words, imposing from the 
reality of the belief, and to our 
feeling overpowering by the asso- 
ciation of ideas, which are com- 
bined with such utterances of the 
ancient church. Raphael under- 
took the subject, and transformed 
it in the spirit of the grandest 
beauty as far as it was possible 
with the coarse symbol. By the 
shifting backwards of the form of 
God the Father he first produces 
distinctly the expression of float- 
ing ; the lifted arms, supported by 
two child-angels, give the feeling 
of an all-powerful blessing: God 
the Father sits enthroned on the 
eagle above, and the lion and bull 
on which His feet rest are only 
subordinately introduced : they 
look up next to the adoring angel 
of Matthew; God the Father only 
looks at the last. We may call 
this different treatment of the four 
sensuous images arbitrary ; would 
that there were more of such arbi- 
trariness ! The picture would be of 
about the time of the first part of 
the Loggie. 

The second work gives the su- 
pernatural by its reflection ia a 
company of saints ; the famous S. 
Cecilia (in the Pinacoteca of Bo- (J 
logna, painted about 1S15). On 
the earth lie the worldly musical in- 
struments, half broken, unstriuged ; 
even the pious organ falls out of 
the hands of the saints ; all are 
listening to the choir of angels 
only indicated in the air above. 
Raphael gave song to this wonder- 
fully improvised upper group, 
whose victory over instruments is 

* Its genuineness has been doubted of 

7o face page 144. 

Raphael — The Transfiguration. 


here substituted for tie conquest, 
itseK impossible to represent, of 
heavenly tones oyer the earthly, 
■with a symbolism worthy of all 
admiration. Cecilia is wisely repre- 
sented as a rich, physically power- 
ful being ; only thus (not, e.g., as a 
nervous, interesting being) could she 
give the impression of full happi- 
ness without excitement. Her 
regal dress also is essential for the 
desired object, and increases the 
impression of complete absorption 
in cahn delight. Paul, inwardly 
moved, leans on his sword ; the 
folded paper in his hand indicates 
that in presence of the heavenly 
harmonies the written revelation 
also must be silent, as something 
that has been fulfilled. John, in 
whispered conversation with S. 
Augustine, both listening, variously 
moved. The Magdalen is, to speak 
openly, made unsympathetic, in 
order to make the beholder rightly 
conscious of the delicate scale of 
expression in the four others, — for 
the rest, one of the grandest, most 
beautiful figures of Raphael. The 
true limits within which the inspi- 
ration of several different person- 
ages has to be represented, are in 
this picture preserved with a tact 
which is entirely foreign to the 
latest painters of the Feast of Pen- 
tecost. (Tolerably preserved and 
restored, with the exception of the 
coarsely over-painted sky. ) 

The third picttire, the last of 
Eaphael which he left unfinished 
(1520), is the Transfiguration, in 
(ithe Vatican Oallery. Here, by a 
dramatic contrast which one may 
call monstrous, the supernatural 
is far more forcibly put before us 
than by all the glories and visions 
of other painters. Two entirely 
diflferent scenes are combined in 
the picture — a piece of audacity not 
to be recommended to every one ; 
it only occurred here, and for this 
end. Below, on the mountain, are 
the people who have brought the 

possessed boy, and the disciples, 
puzzled, compassionate, excited, 
even looking for help in the book, 
and earnestly pointing up to the 
mountain, whither their master had 
gone ; the possessed one himself 
especially remarkable as one of the- 
few forms from the realms of dark- 
ness produced by Raphael, and 
which with the most horrible ex- 
pression, yet showed so strikingly 
his lofty moderation ; the woman 
lamenting on her knees in front is 
as it were a refiection of the whole 

Not one of them sees what hap- 
pens on the mountain, and the 
Bible text did not allow it ; the 
connection of the two scenes exists 
only in the mind of the spectator. 
And yet one would be incomplete 
without the other ; one has to only 
cover the upper or under part with 
the hand to see how much the pic- 
ture forms a whole. Above fioats 
the Christ, and, as if drawn to him 
by a magnetic power, Moses and 
EUas float likewise ; their motion 
is not independent. Below lie the 
dazzled disciples, and on the left 
one sees S. Stephen and S. Law- 
rence, apparently only as patrons 
of the church for which the picture 
was originally intended. The form 
and expression of Christ reveal one 
of the great secrets of art, which 
sometimes elude the endeavours of 
centuries. The conception of the 
Transfiguration on Mount Tabor, 
formed by the imagination of the 
believer, is absolutely incapable of 
representation, for it pre-supposes 
a briUiant self-contained illumina- 
tion of the form, and therefore the 
absence of all shadow, as well as of 
all modelling ; Raphael substituted 
the floating. * Also the Transfigura- 
tion is conceived entirely as an ex- 
pression of power in relation to the 

* Even in Giovanni Bellini, in the re- 
markal>le picture (p. 88 a) of the Naples 
Museum, Christ, Moses, and Elias are still 
represented standing on the mountain. 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

spectators. Raphael, on the con- 
trary, did not aim at expressing the 
greatest possible grandeur, which 
could not but produce a hard effect 
through its cold symmetry, but 
the highest happiness. His Christ is 
all joy, and thereby also in himself 
nobler than he could have been 
made by any expression of power : 
he is so quite independently of 
the colossal' contrasts with the 
frightened disciples and with the 
scene of woe below. An immense 
force is given to his gaze lifted up- 
wards by the enlargement and the 
great distance between the eyes ; * 
Raphael in this went no further 
than the Greeks, with whom the 
normal form was often more or less 
altered to give effect to some charac- 
teristic feature. Let any one who 
is dissatisfied with this figure of 
Christ try to conceive clearly in 
what it faUs, and what it is we 
may require of art. It is possible 
that many minds may feel that the 
Judge of the World in the Campo 
Santo, the Christo deUa Moneta 
of Titian, the Christ in Raphael's 
Dispute, move other and stronger 
feelings, deeper lines of thought ; 
but for this subject, the Trans- 
figuration on Tabor, the master 
has here given it so noble a form 
that we must rejoice to be able to 
follow him in any way. The lower 
half was nearly all executed by 
pupils, but certainly on the whole 
corresponds with Raphael's inten- 
tion, excepting of course the 
blackened shadows. The unusual 
form of colouring combined, at least 
in the upper group, with the 
almost Venetian harmony, shows 
that to the last moment of his life 
Raphael was constantly endeavour- 
ing to master new methods of re- 

* A similar treatment of the eyes ap- 
pears in the Sixtine Madonna, hut per- 
haps nowhere else in Raphael ; he reserved 
such means for extreme cases. In one of 
the Saints in the Transfiguration this form 
iB certainly given by the band of a pupiL 

presentation. As a, conscientious 
artist he could do no less. Those 
who reproach him for it, and 
speak of degeneracy, do not un- 
derstand his inward nature. The 
ever-noble spectacle of Raphael's 
self-development as an artist is 
in itself worth more than any 
adherence to a particular stage 
of the ideal, e. g., such as the 
point of view of the Disputk, could 
be. And, further, in art no one 
can linger behind with impunity ; 
mannerism lies in wait to take 
possession of the inactive artist. 

Of the commission for the picture 
we know nothing special It is 
possible that Cardinal Giulio de' 
Medici required nothing but a 
Saviour with S. Stephen and S. 
Lawrence, and that Raphael added 
the rest. Already Fra Bartolom- 
meo had in his most beautiful 
picture (p. 130 d) represented the 
Saviour with four Saints, as the 
risen Lord ; Raphael went a step 
higher, and represented him glori- 
fied. On the very next page in the 
Gospel stands the story of the 
possessed boy : what a moment 
it was when the artist received 
the thought of combining the two 
scenes ! 


The Portraits of the Roman time 
of Raphael form a series of quite a 
different kind from those of Titian, 
of Van Dyck, and others, who were 
especially famous as portrait- 
painters. Painted in the intervals < < 
while he was producing the greatest 
historical pictures and frescos, 
they are most various in their con- 
ception ; each bears the reflection 
of the tone of feeling which ani- 
mated the historical painter at the 
special moment. It is well known 
that in his frescos also he was 
liberal of portraits. 

Of the portraits existing in Italy 
we must first name Pope Julius it 

Roman Portraits. 


a (in the Pal. Pitti; that in the Tri- 

bhwiie of the Uffizi is considered aa 
an old copy, and is so excepting 
the head, the great excellence of 
which can only be explained by its 
being Raphael's own work). The 
treatment is wonderfully beautiful, 
and rich, in spite of its simplicity ; 
the character so given that this 
picture is the best key to the right 
understanding of the history of the 
powerful old man. 

c Leo X. with the Cardinals de' 
Rossi and Giulio de Medici, in the 
P. Pitti. The copy by Andrea del 
Sarto in the Naples Museum (p. 
141 a) is there always treated as the 
original, while beyond Naples there 
has long been no doubt on this 
question. Somewhat above natural 
size, so that, e. g. , the noble hands 
of the Pope do not appear as small 
aa in proportion they are meant to 
do. The two attendant Cardinals 
can be seen in other early portraits 
of Popes. The character of Leo X., 
here and in the frescos, showa a re- 
markable harmony, which is true 
also of Julias IL By the changes 
of light, and treatment of the ma- 
terials, the four different reds form 
a harmonious scale. There is a 
solemn architectural background. 
The accessories (bell, book, mag- 
nifying-glaas) are slight but essen- 
tial indications of character. 

d Cardinal Bibbiena (in the Palazzo 
Pitti) : the worn and sickly charac- 
ter is grandly and intellectually 
given ; in his aristocratic kindliness 
there ia a parallel to Van Dyck's 
Cardinal Bentivoglio (also there), 
which appears far less simple. 
Fedra Inghirami, a Roman pre- 

e late and antiquarian [Palazzo Pitti). 
The Thersites of Raphael : in this 
case he, Hke all aquinters, wished 
to be painted either in profile or 
with tbe omission of the squint ; * 
but Raphael did not avoid the 

♦ Guercino painted, in his own portrait 
in the UfRzi, one eye in the deepest 

characteristic point, but gave the 
stiff eye a direction and form which 
should expresa intellectual investi- 
gation. The corpulence is given as 
nobly aa may be; the handa are 
only those of an aristocratic priest. 
Probably a memorial of the respect 
of his colleagues, of the time when 
Raphael was studying Roman 
antiquities. * 

"Bartolus and Baldus," more/ 
properly Navagero and Eeazzano 
[Palazzo Doria at Borne). Two 
half-length figures in black dress 
in one picture ; in spite of modern 
doubts, certainly genuine. (? ?) 
Who could induce two remarkable 
men to allow themselves to be 
painted together, unless the artist 
desired to preserve the Hkeness for 
himself or for a greater man, per- 
haps the Pope ? The style of a 
historical memorial is more visible 
here than in other portraits — a free 
grandeur, which seems ready for 
any deed, and would be in its place 
in any historical picture. The exe- 
cution, as far as it is untouched, is 
extremely good. 

The Violin Player [Palazzo g 
SHarra at Eome [now in England] ). 
Raphael certainly painted no Vir- 
tuoso in 1518 as a private com- 
mission. Probably a favourite of 
the music-loving Leo X. Extremely 
interesting, so that the fancy of 
itself imagiuea the life-romance of 
thia unknown peraon. The fur 
worn by the youth is treated with 

Of the portrait of Joanna of 
Aragon all the best examples are 
in the north. [The only original 
is in the Louvre. In the Palazzo 
Doria there is a clearly Flemish A 
copy. — Mr.] 

The improvisatrice Beatrice 

* There is much doubt ahout these two 
paintings. MUndler traces a weaker hand 
also in the head of the Uffizi portraits; 
others believe the Pitti picture to be ijie 
work of a Venetian artist. Tliere is a 
double of it in the collection of the family 
at Volterra. 

L 2 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

(called the Fomarina, in the 
d Tribwie of the UJizi, dated 1512). 
A marvel of finish and colouring, 
of the time, of the Madonna di 
Foligno. Apparently an ideal 
head, till one observes that a not 
quite beautiful relation of the 
mouth and chin is concealed by a 
fortunate adjustment. 

Long ascribed to Sehasticm del 
Piombo [as whose work I still re- 
gard this wonderful production. 
Compare the altar-piece in S. Grio- 
vanni Crisostomo in Venice, and 
especially the Magdalen in it. — 
Mr.] Excellently preserved.* 

The true Fomarina, Raphael's 
beloved. The duplicate recognised 
as original, with much restoration, 
J in the Palazzo Barberim at Eome ; 
elate repetitions in Palazzo-Sciarra 
^ and in the Palazzo Borgliese. 
[Second room, No. 64, the last 
obviously by Sassoferrato. — Mr.] 
In composition obviously a very 
beautiful nude academy picture ; 
the position of the arms and the 
head-dress are arranged by the 
painter, and do not attempt to 
characterise the individual. The 
type, of the long-preserved Roman 
style of beauty is freely employed 
in several historical compositions 
of Raphael, without actually sup- 
posing any special model, f 

• The same woman is clearly represented 
in a beautiful picture which in the Gallery 
of Modena is attributed to Giorgione ; only 
here the hair is golden, with a flower in 
it. To me the picture appeared like a 
Falma Vecchio. On the parapet is the 
initial V. [Whether the picture represents 
the same woman appears to me difficult to 
decide ; it is, for the rest, decidedly Fer- 
rarese, and I consider it a work of B. Garo- 
falo. — Mr.] 

t The very beautiful portrails of the 
Cavaliere Tibaldeo and the Cardinal Pas- 
serini, in the Naples Museum, are now not 
given to Raphael. The Cesaije Borgia, 
wrongly attributed to Raphael, in the P. 
Borghese at Rome, may be a very good 
German picture, [I think it is by Par- 
megianinc— Mr.] [The female portrait in 
the Stanza dell' Educazione di Giove of 
the P. Pitti, No. 2^!'?, is in my opinion an 
undoubted and well-preserved original of 


Among the historical monuments 
which Raphael executed for Julius* 
II. and Leo. X., the paintings in 
the chambers of the Vatican (le 
Stanze) take the first place. The 
inexhaustible richness of these 
works, and the impossibility of ex- 
plaining their subject or their 
value shortly in words, must limit 
us to a series of single remarks, and 
cause us to omit in general what 
is found in all the guide-books and 
what the eye takes in of itself. 

The rooms already existed, and 
were already partially decorated 
(by Perugino, Sodoma, and others) 
when Raphael was summoned for 
the pxirpose. They are far from 

unsurpassable nobleness in the features; 
clearly the model of the Magdalen in the 
S. Cecilia, of the Sixtine Madonna, and, as 
we may well surmise, rendering in a nobler 
form the real features of the Fomarina. 
The drawing of the right hand agrees with 
that of Joanna of Aragon ; the colouring 
shows the warm, local, true, light yellow 
peculiar to Raphael, with shadows of the 
most delicate pearl grey. — Mr.] Of course 
many pictures in the Italian galleries still 
erroneously bear the great name. The 
picture in the P. Pallavicini, at Genoa, is 
an originally good school copy, enlaiged 
with new accessories, of the Madonna of 
the Naples Museum (RSveU. de I'Enfant), 

In the Madonna cLL 3. Luca (collection 
of the academy of that name at Rome), 
only a part of the Luke is regarded as 
Raphael's own, work ; the rest hardly even 
as his own design. Crowe and Cav. say 
Timoteo deUa Vite, The Coronation of 
the Virgin ^ the Vatican Gallery, the 
later picture) is notoriously executed by 
Giulio Bomano and Francesco Penni. The 
first has clearly in the upper part fol- 
lowed, at least in some degree, a sketch of 
Raphael; one recognises touches which 
reveal the Vierge de Francois I. The 
latter, on the other hand, himself de- 
signed the lower group of the Apostle 
[The catalogue wrongly reverses the re- 
lation.] Comparing it with the lower 
group of the Transfiguration, it shows 
most clearly the difference between the 
master and the pupil. [The Raphael in 
Parma is a work of Giulio RomaTio, the 
drawing for which by Raphael is in the 
Louvre.— Mr.] The Raphael in the Gal-- 
lery at Modena is an inferior picture by a 
pupil of Perugino. 

Camera della Segnatura. 


being models as to arrangement, 
irregular (look, for instance, at the 
roof of the Camera deUa Segna- 
tura), and not favourable in point 
of light. They are generally visited 
in the afternoon ; yet the forenoon 
has certain advantages ; and the 
opening of the back window-shutters 
makes an essential difference. 

The technical execution is extra- 
ordinarily various. According to a 
good authority, the Dispute and the 
School of Athens in particular have 
been gone over al secco in very 
many parts, yet they are mainly 
all frescos ; the only two figures 
painted in oil on the walls, of 
Justitia and Gomitas, in the Hall 
of Constantino, were not, as they 
say, by Raphael's own hand, but 
executed after his death. But in 
the frescos, the work of the master 
and the pupil, show the greatest 
difiference of treatment, often in 
the same picture. Raphael was 
never satisfied, and continually 
sought to find some new mode of 
working in the diflScult art of 
painting. Of the four great frescos 
of the Stanza d'Eliodoro, each is 
executed in a dififerent colouring : 
the highest possible point seems to 
be reached in the uninjnred parts 
of the Miracle of Bolsena ; and yet 
no one will say the Heliodorus and 
the Liberation of Peter are in their 
way less perfectly painted. 

The preservation is, considering 
the time, fairly good, except the 
pictures in the basement or skirt- 
ings, which Carlo Maratta had 
really to paint afresh, and some 
ceiling pictures, seriously endan- 
gered by cracks. The greatest 
damage has occurred in the princi- 
pal pictures through partial clean- 
ing, and especially by reckless tra- 
cing over. This has happily been 
latterly forbidden. How far the 
most beautiful modem engravings 
are inferior in impression to the 
original pictures is seen by the first 
glance at the originals. The admira- 

ble photographs from the originals, 
by Braun, at Dornach, give to those 
who have had the good fortune to 
see the originals the most beautiful 
remembrance of them. 


The lofty poetical ideas which 
are the groundwork of the frescos 
of the Camera della Segnatura a 
(finished 1511) were indeed given 
from without to the artist. Apart 
from the fact that Eaphael hardly 
possessed enough learning to place 
and to give the right character- 
istics of the personages of the 
Dispute or of the School of Athens, 
and that here the assistance of 
some important person of the court 
of Julius II. * is clearly felt ; apart 
from this, art had long before lent 
itself to such attempts. The 
master of the Cappella degB Spag- 
nuoli in S. M. Novella at Florence, 
had represented in an architectonic 
setting the allegorical figures of the 
arts and sciences and their re- 
presentatives in strict parallelism. 
Six generations later, hardly fif- 
teen years before Raphael, Fin- 
turicchio, also an Umbrian, had in 
one of the rooms, of which he de- 
corated the roof for Alexander VL 
[Apartamento Borgio, in the Fa- 6 
tican, third room), represented 
allegorical forms enthroned in 
the midst of their disciples, on 
a landscape background, without 
speaking of other attempts. But 
Raphael first had the intelligence 
to transfer the allegorical females 
from the wall pictures to the roof 
in a golden mosaic sky. Here he 
could characterise them in a quite 
peculiar, ideal manner. It is well 
known how a later degenerate style 
of art put its pride in mixing alle- 
gorical and historical personages as 

* Bibljiena, Bembo, Castiglione, Inghi- 
rami are suggested. Also the wbole of 
allegorical art and poetry, from the Trionfi 
of Petmrcli do-wnwards, comes in. 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

variously as possible with each 
other, and how it required the 
whole greatness of a Rubens to 
render such works agreeable to us, 
as, e.g., his life of Marie de Medi- 
cia in the Louvre. 

The remaining figures in the pic- 
tures maybe called historical figures, 
for Godthe Father, the Angels in the 
Dispute., the Muses on Parnassus, 
and similar representations, may be 
counted as such. The upper part 
of the wall, which is devoted to 
Jurisprudence, does indeed contain 
another allegory, but divided off in 
a separate place. All the figures 
could now be treated alike, in 
much the same style. 

Why did not Eaphael in his pic- 
ture of Justice represent an intel- 
lectually Tioved company of fa- 
mous jurists, as he has done in the 
three other pictures with the theo- 
logians, poets, and wise men? 
Why, instead of this, two single 
historical acts of law-giving? 
Because the only subject possible 
for a "Disput3,"of jurists would 
either have been external to the 
picture, that is, unrepresentable, 
or, if made clear by practical con- 
ditions, would have fallen below 
the lofty ideal style. 

After dividing off the allegorical 
part, the historically symbolical 
element remained the principal sub- 
ject of the four large pictures. 

Herein Eaphael has set before us 
a dangerously attractive model. 
A great number of pictures of 
analogous subjects have been pro- 
duced since then, partly by ^eat 
artists ; they all appear derived 
from Raphael, or far inferior to 
him. Why is this? Surely not 
simply because there has been but 
one Raphael. 

He had, to begin with, an advan- 
tage by his freedom in antiquarian 
considerations. Bound to very few 
traditional portraits, he had only 
to produce characteristic figures ; 

in the Disputi, for instance, the 
costume was the only distinguish- 
ing attribute, which indeed was 
quite sufficient. He was not obliged 
to place the heads so and so, that 
they might be identified by learned 
allusions. This freedom was an 
immense advantage in allowing 
the composition to be treated ac- 
cording to purely pictorial mo- 
tives. They are almost entirely 
figures belonging to a past, more 
or less removed, which already had 
ceased to live except in idealizing 
remembrance. * 

The action which gives life to 
these pictures could indeed only be 
represented by the greatest artist. 
But within his subject impossible 
things were not suggested to him, 
as, for instance, the spiritual com- 
munion of a learned congress, an 
academy of painting, or of any 
such persons whose characteristic 
employment never is seen in 
common, and who, if they are 
painted together, always look as if 
waiting for dinner. In the Dispute 
Raphael gave us not a Council, 
but a spiritual impulse which has 
brought suddenly together the 
greatest teachers of divine things, 
so that they have only just taken 
their place round the altar ; and 
with them, some unnamed laymen 
whom the Spirit seized on the way 
and drew hither with them. These 
form the necessary passive portion, 
in whom the mystery realised by 
the teachers of the Church is re- 
flected in their excitement when 
the idea dawns on them. That the 
upper semicircle of the blessed (a 
glorified repetition of that of S. 
Severo) corresponds so entirely in 

* Goncemiog the meaning of the indi- 
vidual passages in all the frescos, Platner, 
in his " Beschreitiung Eoms," p. 113 ff, 
gives an accurate acount. For the in- 
teresting views as to the subject, and 
the date of the execution of these works, 
lately put forward Ijy Dr. Herman Grimm, 
we must refer to his work, " The Life of 

Raphael — Parnassus. 


its contrast to the lower, is the 
simple, sublime expreasiou of the 
relation by which the heavenly 
world overshadows the lower. 
Lastly, the idea of the Church im- 
presses itself here in the grandest 
way ; it is not a picture of neutral 
beauty, but a powerful conception 
of the faith of the Middle Ages. 

The School of Athens is the 
direct contrast to this, without 
celestial groups, without mystery. 
Or is the wonderfully beautiful 
hall, which forms the background, 
not merely a picturesque idea, but 
a consciously intended symbol of 
the healthy harmony between the 
powers of the soul and the mind ? 
In such a building one could not but 
feel happy. However that be, Ra- 
phael has translated the whole 
thought and learning of antiquity 
entirely into lively demonstration 
and earnest listening ; the few iso- 
lated figures, like the Sceptic and 
Diogenes the Cynic, make a con- 
trast as exceptions. That the 
sciences of calculation occupy the 
foreground below the steps is a 
simple idea, full of genius, which 
seems to be understood of itself. 
We find in the picture a most ex- 
cellent arrangement of the teachers, 
listeners, and spectators, easy move- 
ment in the space, richness without 
crowding, complete harmony of the 
picturesque and dramatic motives, 
as (Valuable cartoon in the Ambro- 
siana at Milan. ) 

The Parnassus is the picture of 
existence and enjoyment. Homer 
has the prerogative of loud, 
inspired speech ; Apollo, of sound ; 
all the rest only whisper. (Any 
one who objects to the violin 
must call none but Raphael to 
account ; for this anachronism is 
certainly not a forced homage to 
the fame of a contemporary violin- 
ist, whom some even make into 
the Pope's body-servant.) Pro- 
bably the painter considered the 
instrument a more living, speaking 

motive for his figure than an 
antique lyre would have been. 
The ideal costume is here extended 
with great reason to the modern 
poets, of whom Dante alone wears 
the inevitable hood. The mantle 
and the laurel, common to all, 
elevate the poets above the real- 
istic and historical. The muses 
are not divided among the poets 
for the sake of variety, but col- 
lected, as being their common foun- 
tain of bfe, on the top of the moun- 
tain. Nor are they accurately 
characterised in an antiquarian 
fashion : Raphael painted his own 

Of the two ceremonial pictures 
opposite, the Spiritual Law, that 
is, the Giving out the Decretals, is 
a model of composition and execu- 
tion in this difficult style. The 
number of figures is moderate ; 
the expression of authority does 
not lie in the completeness of the 
following, — above all, not in the 
mass of people. The heads are al- 
most all portraits of contemporary 
personages. It is to be supposed 
that Raphael introduced them vo- 
luntarily, and with an artistic pur- 
pose. The allegory of Prudentia, 
Temperantia, and Fortitude, in the 
lunette (see Platuer's analysis of it), 
is one of the best conceived ; in the 
details, it is not aU very life-like. 

Of the allegorical female figures 
on the ceiling, the Poetry is one of 
Raphael's purest and most charac- 
teristic conceptions. In the others, 
he has, by choice or necessity, very 
distinctly followed the suggestions 
of the aUegorizer who assisted him ; 
thence, perhaps, comes the absence 
of cheerful naiveU. The corner 
pictures of the ceiling, historical 
incidents in a severer style, each 
relate to the subjects on the two 
walls next to them : thus, the 
splendid Judgment of Solomon 
belongs at the same time to Jus- 
tice and Wisdom at once ; the Fall, 
both to Justice, and the relation to 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century, 

God. One is somewhat puzzled by 
Marsyas, and we have to seek a 
distant allusion from Dante to bring 
him into connection with Theology 
as well as Poetry. The Eve in the 
Fall, is an excellent example of the 
form of the nude in Kaphael's mid- 
dle period ; so, also, the executioner 
in the Judgment of Solomon. 

The pictures on the skirting for 
the most part composed and exe- 
cuted by Perino dd Vaga, in the 
place of some intarsiatura that has 
been destroyed, and later quite 
painted over, still show in a general 
way how Kaphael conceived the 
decorative eflFect of the whole hall. 
The composition is, in parts, ex- 
tremely beautiful, but in small en- 
gravings just as enjoyable as in the 
place itself. (Only those under the 
Parnassus are by Kaphael. ) 

Would that we were not so utter- 
ly ignorant of the circumstances 
under which these frescos were pro- 
duced. The great questions, how 
much was prescribed to the painter 1 
what did he add himself ? for what 
parts did he with difficulty gain 
permission? what suggestions did 
he reject ? can never be answered. 
We do not know with whom he 
had to deal personally. But this 
much appears from the works 
themselves, that the purely ar- 
tistic motives in detail usually had 
the upper hand. When one sees 
in othe^ pictures of that time, 
in Mantegno, Pinturichio, Sandro, 
&c., the insatiable taste of his con- 
temporaries for allegories and sjrm- 
bols of all kinds, we feel convinced 
that Kaphael kept his modera- 
tion through his own force, and 
that he selected, arranged, and 
subordinated as he would. What 
struggles the lower half of the 
Dispute may have cost it, for in- 
stance, any theologian desired a 
complete representation of all the 
great teachers of the Church and 

founders of orders ; or if anyone's 
favourite philosopher or favourite 
poet was to be introduced into 
the School of Athens or the Par- 
nassus ! 

Perhaps the only figure that ap- 
pears quite inactive in this haU is 
the young Duke of TJrbino, who 
stands in the middle of the left 
half of the School of Athens. On 
closer inspection, we find that he 
is not only pictorially required with 
his white dress, but is also indis- 
pensable as a neutral figure be- 
tween the upper and lower group. 
And what does the quiet smile on 
this wonderful countenance say? 
It is the victorious consciousness of 
beauty that, along with aU recogni- 
tion of other things, it will maintain 
its place in this motley world. ' 

TSext to the ceiling of the Sixtine 
Chapel, the Camera deUa Segna- 
tura, which was painted almost 
exactly at the same time, is the 
first extensive work of art entirely 
harmonious in form and idea. The 
best Florentines of the fifteenth 
century {with the exception of Lio- 
nardo) had allowed themselves to 
be carried away by the richness of 
accessories (subordinate personages, 
superfluous motives of drapery, 
splendid backgrounds, &c.); their 
figures neutralise each other by 
their niimber ; their marked cha- 
racteristics divide the accents too 
■evenly over the whole. Fra Bar- 
tolommeo, the first great composer 
after Lionardo, moved in a narrow, 
limited circle, and his feeling for 
life was not quite equal to his con- 
ception of form. Baphael is the> 
first in jvhom the form is entirely '^ 
beautiful, noble, and at the same ^ 
time intellectually alive, without 
injury to the whole effect. No 
detail comes forward, is too pro- 
minent ; the artist understands ex- 
actly the delicate life of his great 
symbolical subjects, and knows 
how easily the special interest 

Stanza d'Eliodoro. 


/overweights the whole. And 
1 1 1 1 j nevertheless, his single figures 
have become the most valuable 
study of all after-painting. No 
better advice can be given than 
(when necessary, with the aid of a 
glass) to contemplate them as often 
and as fully as possible, and to 
learn them by heart according to 
one's capacity. The treatment of 
the draperies, the expression of 
movement in them, the gradation 
' of colours and lights, offer an in- 
exhaustible source of pleasure. 


The Stanza SEliodoro, probably 
altogether or almost entirely 
painted by Eaphael himself in the 
years 1511-1514, shows a great 
progress in the historical style. It 
is venturesome, but permissible to 
surmise that he longed for subjects 
fullof dramatic movement. Perhaps 
more allegories would have been 
preferred ; perhaps, on the contrary, 
JuUua II. wished to see his own 
actions represented in full external 
reality, scenes out of the war of the 
Holy League, the entry through 
the breach of Mirandola, and so 
forth. Both would have been out 
of his line, at least for Baphael. 
He now gave contemporary history 
and aUegory together, the first in 
the dress of the last. The Chas- 
tisement of Hehodorus is a symbol 
of the expulsion of the French 
from the States of the Church ; 
the Miracle of Bolsena (the facts of 
which fall in the year 1263) be- 
tokens the victory over heretical 
doctrine at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. After the death 
of Julius II. (1513) Leo X. at once 
accepted this kind of glorified re- 
presentation of his own history ; 
perhaps Eaphael had aheady made 
sketches for the two other walls 
which were then replaced by the 
Attila (Symbol of driving the 
French out of Italy) and by the 

liberation of Peter (Leo X.'s de- 
liverance out of the hands of the 
French in MOan, when he was stUl 
cardinal). It was highly fortunate 
that the jesthetics of that day 
regarded allegory and allusion as 
the same thing, while the latter 
ought probably only to deal with 
historically conceived, individually 
life-like figures. 

However one regards the ques- 
tion, concessions have been made 
here by one side or the other. The 
four actions lie historically too far 
apart, and are too unconnected with 
each other, not to suggest that 
Haphael painted something different 
from what was originally desired. 
Also the complete want of internal 
connection with the four Old Testa- 
ment pictures on the ceiling in- 
dicates a change of intention, that 
must have come in with the new 

On the whole, the subject is one 
that progresses in a uniform style, 
and continues also in the remain- 
ing rooms, though certainly in an 
interrupted manner — the victories 
of the Church under divine protec- 
tion. Lastly, the treatment raises 
aU these subjects, so that we only 
seek the highest in them, and at- 
tribute the highest meaning to 

Raphael makes his entrance into 
the domain of dramatic painting 
with indescribable power and splen- 
dour : his first picture was the Heli- 
odorus. What a fresh impulse after 
the narrower symbolism of the Ca- 
mera della Segnatura ! He never 
produced a group with grander 
action than that of the celestial 
horseman, with the youths (ioating 
at his side like a storm, and the 
overthrown transgressor with his 
followers. Whence the apparition 
came, whither it rushed past, is 
shown by the empty space in the 
midst of the foreground which leaves 
the eye free for the group round 
the altar of the temple. People 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

rightly admire the foreshortening 
in the rider and in Heliodorus ; 
but this is only the masterly ex- 
pression for the essential thing, 
namely, the happy position of the 
figures themselves. The group of 
women and children, which are 
found repeated a hundred-fold in all 
later art, deserves also in this its 
original type to be accurately im- 
pressed on the mind. Lastly, the 
Pope must have his due : enthroned 
on his sedan chair, entirely real 
and actual, he calmly contemplates 
the miracle, as though it was by 
no means unexpected by him. In 
the portrait of Marc Antonio, who 
accompanies as carrier of the sedan 
chair, we have the same proof that 
Baphael introduced his portraits 
sometimes at least according to 

The Miracle of Bolsena was a 
much more limited subject than 
the Heliodorus. The action of the 
miracle is confined to a small spot ; 
it is rather as if a dramatist were 
to make the turning point of his 
piece merely the exchange of a 
ring or some such hardly visible 
incident. But within this limit the 
greatest things have been accom- 
plished. The perception and the 
forefeeling of the miracle goes like 
a spiritual current through the de- 
vout crowd on the left, and the 
reflection of it lights up the women 
and children sitting on the steps 
below ; in the group of the Pope 
and his attendants there is calm 
certainty, as becomes the Prince of 
the Church familiar with thousands 
of miracles, and even the officers 
of the Swiss guard kneeling below 
must not vary too greatly from this 
expression. In themselves they are 
a model of monumental treatment 
of costume. The arrangement near 
and above the window, which is not 
even in the middle, seems to have 
been a real amusement to Raphael ; 
from the irregularity itself the 
most beautiful motives come out 

as of themselves. But closer oh- 
servation will change this view, and 
make us think that there was a 
great deal of trouble and thought 
given to it. The double flight of 
steps, the semicircular shrines, 
the vestibule of the church, form 
in themselves an architectonically 
beautiful picture. 

AttUa and Leo the Great— a 
vigorous scene full almost entirely 
of horsemen —must it not be nearly 
impossible with so much animjil 
life, so much expression of physical 
strength, to give sufiicient promi- 
nence to thehigherspiritual purpose! 
Certainly there was not much space 
left for the celestial apparition, but 
it was made the most of. Instead of 
Apostles enthroned on clouds, they 
are sweeping forward in a threaten- 
ing manner, as it were a superna- 
tural attendance on the Pope calmly 
retiring with his people. Attila, 
alone among the Huns, sees what 
is happening, and shows the most 
lively expression of terror ; among 
his followers the horses have more 
presentiment than the men ; they 
become wild and shy, which gives 
splendid action to the group ; above 
them the sky grows dark, and a 
stormy wind waves the banners. 
In the form of the horses, the 
ideal of our present connois- 
seurs is certainly not attempted. 
Think of the horses of Horace 
Vernet in their steeid ; here they 
would be unendurable, while in 
the Smala, &c., we rightly admire 
them. Attna's black steed is still 
quiet : the terrified gesture of the 
king must not seem to be in any 
way caused by the rearing of his 

The Deliverance of Peter, deve- 
loped in three acts in a highly ori- 
ginal manner. The keepers too are 
not undignified ; confused, indeed, 
but not clownish. In the scene on 
the right Peter is led as in a dream 
by the wonderfully beautiful angel 
The effect of light is treated with 

stanza delV Incendio. 


a grand moderation ; nothing essen- 
tial is sacrificed to it. 

The allegorical pictures on the 
skirting contain, even in their pre- 
sent state, motives from Raphael 
■which cannot be altogether spoiled. 
In the four roof pictures one re- 
cognises a similar, only freer and 
more simple treatment of the same 
style, as that of the corner pictures 
on the ceiling of the former room : 
while these are conceived as mo- 
saics, that is, in architectural 
frames and with imitated mosaic 
gold ground, the former are ar- 
ranged as stretched out tapestries. 


I In the Stanza delV Incendio there 
is perhaps nothing by Raphael'sown 
hand ; on the ceiling he allowed 
the paintings of Perugino to re- 
main, in order not to give pain to 
his master. Besides this, the time 
of severe symbolical large composi- 
tions was past, as the subject of 
the ceiling pictures of the Stanza 
d'Eliodoro proves. 

The connection here is slighter 
than in the pictures of the former 
room. They are the deeds of Leo 
III. and Leo IV. (scenes, there- 
fore, from the eighth and ninth 
century), who are chosen out of all 
church history only on account of 
the similarity of their names to Leo 
X., and represented with his 
features. The Purification Oath 
of Leo VI. is unintelligible ; neither 
Raphael nor the Pope could, one 
would think, have any speoialliking 
for the subject ; and & they wanted 
to symbolise the infallible truthful- 
ness of the Papal word, many other 
incidents would do this better, and 
would be at least as good pictorially. 
Anyhow a splendid ceremonial pic- 
ture arose out of it, which shows at 
least what great power of lifelike 
historical representation of special 
things the scholars who executed 

it then possessed (1517). Here 
Perino del Vaga learned his cha- 
racter-painting, which reappears 
in his Heroes of the House oft 
Doria (in the palace of that name 
at Genoa). 

The Coronation of Charles the 
Great, on the other hand, is clearly 
a picture with a political tendency 
— a pious wish of Leo X., who 
wished to make Francis I. em- 
peror, whose features appear in 
Charlemagne. Here it is really 
painful to see Raphael forcibly oo- 
ciipied with making a ceremony 
interesting : half - naked men 
carry in splendid furniture ; the 
heads of the prelates, seated in a 
row, have to be turned partly 
round in spite of the solemn 
moment, so that the spectator may 
not see nothing but mitres. And 
yet the scene is made what only 
Raphael could make it, and the 
details are often so beautiful, that 
one would willingly attribute it to 
his OWQ hand. 

All his greatness as a historical 
composer comes out again in the 
Siege of Ostia. The fight, the 
conquest, and the taking of pri- 
soners are here in a masterly 
manner united in a most energetic, 
simple, and beautiful picture, 
which strikes us less only because 
of the excellent execution and of 
the defacement it has undergone 
later. Whether the Conquest of 
the Saracens refers generally to 
the invincibleuess of the church, 
or is an allusion to the corsairs of 
Tunis and elsewhere at that time, 
cannot be made out. 

Lastly, the famous picture, I'ln- 
cendio del Borgo, is in its subject 
the most unfortunate of any. Leo 
IV., by the sign of the cross, ex- 
tinguishes a fire near St. Peter's. 
This was to symbolise the supreme 
power of the papal blessing. 
There was nothing to be done with 
the incident itself, because the 
casual connection of the gesture 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

of the Pope with the cessation of 
the fire could not be outwardly 
represented. Baphael, therefore, 
in place of it, created the most 
powerful genre picture that ever 
existed, — the representation of 
various figures flying, escaping, 
and helplessly lamenting. Here 
we have purely artistic ideas 
carried into reality, free from his- 
torical or symbolical considera- 
tions, in the dress of a heroic 
world. The artist must have been 
inspired by the purest enjojonent 
of lively invention ; the single 
motives are one more marvellous 
than another, and their combina- 
tion again incomparable. It is 
certainly true that, as a rule, this 
is not how things appear in a 
conflagration ; but for this heroic 
race of men, the painting of effects 
of light in the style of Van der 
Neer, for instance, would not have 
been the right thing. Properly it 
is not the Borgo that is in flames, 
but Troy ; in place of the legend, 
the second book of the Mneii. is 
the original. Yet the beautiful 
distant group round the Pope must 
not be overlooked. 

The figures on the skirting, 
Princes, who performed various 
services for the Papacy, are very 
happily conceived in their posi- 
tion, and rightly given ; not as 
slavish Caryatides, but as inde- 
pendent princes on thrones. Giulio 
executed them according to Ra- 
phael's designs ; Jforoito later had 
to paint them over afresh. 


In deciding on the Sola di 
a Costantino, Leo X. seems to have 
perceived that it would not do to 
continue to paint in the traditional 
manner. By the allusions to the 
person of the Pope a constraint 
was laid on the artist, which with 
all his greatness he cannot make 
us forget. The subjects ought to 

be conceived from a, higher point 
of view, to give a picture taken 
simply from the history of the 
world. Thus did the first of aU 
historical painters towards the 
end of his life arrive at subjects 
distinctly historical, yet idealized 
by distance of time. Perhaps for 
this he needed the Incendio, in 
which he had relegated the Pope 
to the background. 

Raphael furnished, as it seems, 
besides a sketch not entirely 
finished for the whole of the hall 
— the Cartoons for the Battle, the 
Baptism and the Gift of Constan- 
tine ; also, perhaps, for all the 
Virtues, and for some of the Popes, 
if not for all. lione of the roof is 
his, and only a part of the wall 
by the windows. The pictures on 
the skirting, often very beauti- 
fully conceived, are now princi- 
pally the work of Maratta ; their 
design was 200 years ago ascribed 
to Giulio. Raphael intended to 
paint all in oil, not al fresco. 
This would have been a splendid 
sight at the moment of completion, 
had it been carried out by his own 
hand ; assTiredly he would have 
divided the various kinds of pic- 
tures most markedly in their tone. 
But with time much would have 
grown darker, as the two allegories 
already mentioned {antea) show 
which were executed soon after his 
death, and certainly according to 
his intention. 

What is now existing was prin- 
cipally executed by Giulio Bomano; 
the Baptism was done by Frwncesm 
Penni ; the Gift of Constantino, 
by RaffaelU daV Golle. The ceil- 
ing is a late work of Tommaso 

The Vision of the Cross, with 
which we begin, was not designed 
by Raphael. The group of sol- 
diers has been injudiciously taken 
from the Storming of Jericho in the 
tenth arcade in the Loggie; and 
the rest, in parts rather frivolous, 

Raphael — Sala di Costantino. 


oompoaed to suit it (for instance, 
the dwarf). Examination will 
convince one of this. 

The Battle of Constantino, on 
the other hand, executed by Giulio 
in his best manner, is one of the 
greatest productions of Kaphael's 
life. Let us try to realise to 
ourselves the significance of this 
battle picture. The imagination 
is doubtless more quickly excited 
by a crowd of horsemen with con- 
trasts of colour, and clouds of 
smoke, which gives only life and 
desperate movement, as in Salva- 
tor Eosa and Borgognone ; and we 
are more immediately interested by 
the modern battle-piece, the life of 
which usually consists in a prin- 
cipal episode made as eflFective as 
possible. But Raphael had to re- 
present a turning-point in the his- 
tory of the world and the church. 
It was above all to be the decisive 
moment of victory. Here the most 
brilliant episode is not enough ; the 
whole army must conquer together. 
This is brought out by the even 
and powerful advance of the Chris- 
tian cavalry, and the position of 
Constantine in the very centre of 
the picture, which, in springing 
forward, he is about to overpass. 
On this background the splendid 
episodes of single combat find their 
true significance without falling out 
of their place as parts of the pic- 
ture. Calm, like an irresistible 
principle, the leader of the army is 
enthroned in the midst of his host ; 
the relations of single warriors to 
him, the group of angels above him, 
give meaning to his central posi- 
tion ; a warrior points out to him 
Maxentiussinkinginthewater. The 
succession and choice of the single 
incidents of the fight is of such a 
kind that none destroys the other ; 
they are not only natural in their 
place, but along wdth the greatest 
richness they are dramatically dis- 

The Baptism of Constantine is 

far more than a mere ceremonial 
picture, and stands as to the com- 
position considerably above the 
Oath of Leo VL and the Corona- 
tion of Charlemagne. It is not 
given as a function which depends 
on a ceremonial and on special cos- 
tiuues, but as an ideal historical 
moment. The whole group is in 
movement which is excellently 
modified by the gradation of the 
space in steps. But indeed the two 
figures, additions by Penni, have 
much the effect of side scenes. 

The Gift of Constantine, which 
would have become a ceremonial 
picture in any other hands, is here 
also an ideal historical moment. The 
emperor hands to the Pope S. 
Silvester not a document, in which 
one might suppose the gift of the 
city of Rome to be writen, nor a 
model of the town, with which later 
artists have helped themselves in 
s imil ar cases, but a golden statuette 
of Rome. His kneeling followers, 
who show by their position the 
direction in which they have come, 
consist only of four persons : those 
pressing after are kept back by 
guards. The groups in front, which 
in later artists are often at the best 
only beautiful fillings up, are here 
the essential parts of the picture, 
and give the bfehke expression of 
the joy of the simple Roman 
people. AH the expression of de- 
votion of the o£Scials ranged in a 
row could not replace this expres- 
sion ; the Roman individual feeling 
ought to speak out its own per- 
sonal rejoicing. The architecture 
of the ancient church of St. Peter's 
is free and very well made use of. 

The figures of the Popes and of 
the Virtues are many of them in 
the careless, conventional style of 
the Roman school, and show there- 
fore to a disadvantage, for instance, 
compared with the accessory figures 
on the ceiling of the Sistine, which 
bear on them so markedly the 
stamp of the master's power. Had 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

they been done by Raphael him- 
self, and executed in oils, they 
■would assuredly have had a pecu- 
liarly grand effect. (The head of S. 
Urban reputed to be by Raphael). 

The above remarks, far from 
giving a full account of the con- 
tents of these infinitely rich frescos, 
are only intended to fix in the mind 
some essential points. It must be 
observed then that Raphael was 
only partially free to foUow his 
own plan. All that we can say is, 
in any case, mere guess, but the 
thing itself forces us to it. This 
moral side of the origin of the 
frescos is too often overlooked in 
their excellence. 


In the volume on "Architec- 
a ture " the Vatican Loggie, that is, 
the first row of arcades of the 
second story iu the front great 
court of the Vatican is mentioned 
as the greatest masterpiece of mo- 
dern decoration. We come now 
to the Biblical subjects, which are 
arranged in divisions of four in the 
interior of the cupolas of the first 
thirteen arcades. They were exe- 
cuted after Raphael's drawings by 
Oiulio Bomano, Frcmcesco Penni, 
Pellegrino da Modena, Ferino del 
Vaga, and EaffaelU dal Colle. The 
figure of Eve in the Fall, as is well 
known, is considered as Raphael's 
own work. The size and amount 
of finish of the designs from which 
the pupils worked are not known ; 
probably they varied according to 

The place and the technical ne- 
cessities prescribed the greatest 
simplicity. Effects of light, the 
expression of special heads, refined 
detail of any kind, were never to 
be the foundation and soul of the 
picture. What could not be done 

by distinct references and gestures, 
must be left out. The centre point 
of the scenes, which was to be 
humanly interesting, without any 
distinct oriental character, must be 
wrought into an ideal work of art 
suitable and intelligible to all times 
and lands. Of the Venetian man- 
ner of translating the incident into 
sixteenth century romance there 
could have been no question. Com- 
pare the pictures of the Loggie with 
the sketches of a Giorgione, Raima, 
or Bonifazio, of this kind, and we 
shall feel the difference in idea. 
Eor the rest, in many of the Loggie 
pictures the landscape is as beau- 
ful and important as among the 
Venetians, which here mtist be 
expressly mentioned. (Creation of 
Eve, Adam digging iu the field, 
Jacob with Rachel at the well, 
Jacob struggling with Laban, 
Joseph explaining the Dream to 
his Brethren, the Finding of Moses, 

The excellence of the single mo- 
tives is beyond description : all 
seems to be understood of itself. 
To see the value of each single pic- 
ture, one ought to point out how 
other artists, mostly with greater 
means, have only produced a 
smaller, less intellectual result, or 
else have shot quite beside the 
mark. Only the first pictures, 
those of the Creation of the World, 
are questionable to our feeling. 
Raphael here made use of the same 
type to express the Creator, which 
Michelangelo had called into life 
iu the Sistine : art had now almost 
assumed the right to represent the 
Creation divided into several acts 
as pure motion. Immediately after 
begins the history of the first 
human pair, which here, owing to 
the definiteness of the landscape, 
has an essentially different tone 
from the pictures of a similar sub- 
ject in the Sistine. These four 
pictures alone reveal the greatest 
historical composer, as we must 

Raphael — Loggie and Tapestries. 


concede on thinking over their 
motives. With the four pictures 
of Noah begins a new patriarchal 
heroic life, which is completely 
displayed in the four of the his- 
tory of Abraham, and the four fol- 
lowing with the history of Isaac. 
Abraham with the three angels, 
Lot flying with his daughters, the 
kneeling Isaac, the scene with 
King Abimeleoh, are among Ea- 
phael's most beautiful subjects. 
And yet in the pictures of the his- 
tory of Jacob and those of Joseph 
we feel aa if we had for the first 
time before us the highest in this 
kind,— especially in the scene of 
Joseph before his Brethren inter- 
preting their dreams. Of the eight 
pictures containing the history of 
Moaes, the first are still very beau- 
tiful, and among the later ones, 
the Worshipping of the Golden 
Calf is especially so ; but, between 
these, in Moses on Sinai, and. Moses 
before the pillar of cloud, there is 
a great falling oflf. Apparently the 
subject prescribed was not agree- 
able to the artist ; the last picture 
can hardly have been his own com- 
position. Of the four pictures of 
the conquest of Palestine the 
storming of Jericho is peculiarly 
distinguished ; of the four of the 
history of David, the Anointing ; 
of that of Solomon, the Judgment. 
In the last arcade Raphael began 
the histories of the New Testa- 
ment ; the commencement, especi- 
ally the Baptism of Christ, shows 
what we have lost in the continua- 
tion. (The Last Supper can hardly 
be by Raphael.) 

His treatment of the super- 
natural deserves especial attention. 
The smallness of the scale obliged 
him to seek to give the effect merely 
by gesture and movement. The 
Dividing of Light from Darkness 
(first arc, first picture) is in this 
respect conceived with peouhar 
grandeur ; the movement of the 
tour extremities expresses both the 

driving apart and also the greatest 
power. With the first human 
being God appears as a wise father ; 
the angel who drives them out of 
Paradise shows in his gesture a 
soothing compassion. In a strong 
soaring motion God appears to 
Abraham and Isaac (with a gesture 
of prohibition), and to Moses in 
the burning bush ; with Jacob's 
ladder even Raphael had to do the 
best he could. In the Giving the 
Law on Sinai, where God is repre- 
sented in profile, enthroned, the 
movement is carried on to the 
angels rushing on with their 

These BibUoal pictures have not 
the slightest internal connection 
with the decorations. But this 
system of ornamentation had but a 
neutral meaning, and could have 
afforded no place for religious sym- 
bols and allusions. 


RaphaeVs tapestries * consist of « 
two series, of which in any case 
only the first, with the ten inci- 
dents out of the history of the 
Apostles, strictly belong to him. 
He produced, in the years 1515 
and 1516 (thus at the same time 
with the designs for the Stanza 
dell' Inoendio), the famous car- 
toons, of which seven were formerly 
at Hampton Court, and are now in 
the Kensington Museum in Lon- 
don. They were worked in Flan- 
ders, and a part of them at least 
came to Rome during Raphael's 
lifetime. The workers followed his 
drawing as accurately as people at 
that time usually followed designs 
for works of art ; they take liber- 
ties, for instance, in the treatment 
of single heads and of the landscape 
background which a modem artist 

* At present hung in two places of the 
long gallery of communication between 
the upper Gallery of Antiques and the 
Stanze of the Vatican. 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

would not permit in his assistants. 
The preservation of what remains 
is, considering the various adven- 
tures it has passed through, very 
fair ; still, the colours have faded 
unequally, and the nude has taken 
a cold, dirty tone. The contours 
of the tapestries also can never 
equal the original flow and touch 
of the hand of KaphaeL 

We have already spoken of the 
Arabesque borders to the pictures, 
which have only in a few instances 
been preserved. Besides this there 
are pictures in the skirtings in a, 
low gold colour. Here it is seen 
how Leo X. esteemed his own 
history. Without any connection 
with the Acts of the Apostles 
above, it runs parallel below, and 
including even such incidents as 
were anything but admirable, such 
as his flight in disguise from Flo- 
rence, his capture in the battle of 
Eavenna, &c. The child of for- 
tune thinks all that happened to 
him not only remarkable, but 
worthy to be represented in a his- 
torical picture, and this feature of 
the Medicean mind was made use 
of one hundred years later by 
Rubens and all his school for the 
glorification of the most doubtful 
subjects. (Gallery of Marie de 
Medicis.) These pictures on the 
skirting, depicted in beautiful and 
low relief, required, by-the-bye, to 
make them distinct, the same ex- 
pedient as the relief of the an- 
cients ; namely, the personification 
of rivers, mountains, towns, etc., 
to mark out the localities. Also 
the general ideal costume was quite 
necessary here, where no detaU was 
to be sharply characterised. 

In the principal pictures Raphael 
was free, and could foUow his 
highest inspirations. It is to be 
supposed that he could here choose 
the incidents himself ; at least, they 
are all so well selected that none 
better and more beautifully varied 
can be taken from the Apostolic 

history. The technical method 
according to which he had to cal- 
culate his work allowed him nearly 
as much freedom as fresco. He 
seems to have worked with a calm, 
even delight. The purest feeling for 
lines is combined with the deepest 
intellectual conception of the action. 
How gently and impressively in 
the picture, "Feed my sheep," is 
the power of the glorified Christ 
expressed without any Glories, in 
that the nearer the group of the 
Apostles comes, the more are they 
drawn towards him ; the farthest 
remain calm, while Peter is already 
kneeling. The Healing of the 
Cripple in the Temple, one of those 
subjects which in later pictures is 
usually oppressed by the crowding 
of heads, is here brought out in 
the most beautiful repose by the 
architectonic arrangement and by 
the nobleness of style. The Con- 
version of Paul is here (without 
any effects of Ught) represented in 
the only really noble way, while 
most other painters try to show 
their skill by representing a mere 
tumult. The counterpart to this 
is the Stoning of Stephen. The 
Striking the Sorcerer Flymas with 
Blindness (unfortunately half gone) 
and the Punishment of Ananias are 
the noblest types of the representa- 
tion of solemn and fearful miracles. 
The terrible and mysterious ele- 
ment in the foreground is softened 
by the quiet groups behind. Next, 
there belong together Paul Preach- 
ing at Athens and the Scene at 
Lystra, both of immense influence 
on later art ; thus, for instance, the 
whole style of Poussin would not 
have come into existence but for 
them. One is a picture most rich 
in expression, yet quite subordi- 
nated to the powerful figure of the 
Apostle seen in profile ; the other, 
one of the most beautiful groups of 
a popular crowd in motion, so ar- 
ranged around the ox, which is the 
victim, as to be interrupted by 

Raphael — Cappella Chigi — Farnesina. 


its poBition, which yet conceals 
nothing : we feel how the Apostle 
must be distracted with grief at 
such conduct in the people. Lastly, 
the Draught of Fishes, a picture 
possessing most mysterious charm ; 
the effect of physical straining (in 
two such figures !) is shown in the 
second barque; in the foremost 
Peter kneels before Christ, who is 
seated, and the spectator is not 
distracted by the sight of the 
fishes, which in other pictures 
causes people to forget the princi- 
pal point, the esrpression of entire 
devotion and conviction of the 
a The second series of tapestries, 
already inferior in its execution, was 
worked in Flanders, as a present 
from Francis I. to the Papal court. 
It appears that Flemish artists 
made large cartoons out of small 
designs by Kaphael, which were 
used for these tapestries. Some 
of the compositions, especially 
the grand Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, also that of the Kings, 
the Murder of the Innocents, the 
Eesurrection, show, in spite of 
numerous Flemish additions, the 
inexhaustible invention of the 
master, his strikingly telling mode 
of developing the incident ; in 
others, on the other hand, there 
can be nothing of his own ; it was 
a speculation which took hold of 
the then world-famous name, be- 
fore the fame of Michelangelo had 
overshadowed all else. 

Besides these great Papal com- 
missions, Raphael also undertook 
a number of frescos for churches 
and private persons. 
i The earliest (1512) is the Isaiah 
on a pier of the nave of St. Agos- 
tino, in Rome. (Since an unfortu- 
nate restoration, Raphael is only 
responsible for the outlines. ) The 
impression made by the Sistine 
Chapel, which was completed 

shortly before, must be preserved ; 
but the influence of Fra Bartolom- 
meo is more seen in the picture 
than that of Michelangelo. In the 
beautiful way in which he has 
given the Putti with the Prophet, 
Raphael may be considered supe- 
rior to both. 

Quite a different sort of compe- 
tition with Michelangelo comes 
out in the famous fresco of S. Maria e 
della Pace' (1514). The repre- 
sentation of heavenly inspired fe- 
male forms, which antiquity had 
given quite differently in its 
muses, here belong to the symbol- 
ism of the Middle Ages, as well as 
the effect produced by the intro- 
duction of the Angels, Michel- 
angelo had abandoned this point, 
and had sought to concentrate the 
supernatural altogether in the 
figures of the Sibyls themselves, 
so that the Putti only serve them 
as attendants, and followers ; later 
on, Gueroino and Domenichino 
left out the Angels altogether, 
and their Sibyl looks longingly 
alone out of the picture. Ra- 
phael, on the contrary, ex- 
pressed, by the very combination 
of the Sibyls and Angels, the most 
beautiful enthusiasm both in the 
announcement and the realization. 
It is a long while before one remarks 
that the angels are formed on a 
smaller scale ; just as the Greeks 
made the herald smaller than the 
hero. The disposition of the space, 
the dominant though varied sym- 
metry, the forms of the figures 
and characters, give this work a 
place among the highest creations 
of Raphael, and perhaps of all his 
frescos it wiU soonest gain the 
liking of the beholder. 


In the year 1516 Raphael buUt 
and decorated the Cappella Chigi, 

• Best light abont 10. 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

a in the left aisle of S. Mwria del 
Popolo; from his cartoons, a Ve- 
netian maestro, I/uisaccio, com- 
pleted at the same time the mosaics 
of the cupola. (As Venetian mosaics, 
they are not among the best exe- 
cuted of this time.) The Almighty, 
giving the benediction, surrounded 
by Angels (iutheLantema), exhibits 
in its noblest form the hazardous 
system of foreshortening, di sotto in 
sii, which chiefly through Correg- 
gio's example, had then grown pre- 
valent. Kound about are the seven 
planets, and, as an eighth sphere, 
the heaven of fixed stars, under the 
protection and guidance of divine 
messengers. Here mythology and 
Christian symbolism meet; most ad- 
mirably has Kaphael distinguished 
the figures in character, and united 
them in action. The planet deities, 
powerful, absorbed, impassioned ; 
the Angels protecting and calmly 
controlling. The arrangement of 
the space where, for instance, the 
planet gods only show the upper 
part of their bodies, strikes us as 
so suited to the subject that no 
other could be possible. 

At the same time, the same 
Agostino Chigi (a rich Sienese 
banker), who built this chapel, had 
built for himself the most beautiful 
summer palace in the world, the 
tFarnesina, on the Longara, at 
Home. Baldassare Peruzzi built 
it, and also painted a portion at 
least of several rooms in it. In 
the intervals between the labours 
of the Stanza d'Eliodoro, Raphael 
was persuaded to produce a fresco 
picture for his patron, Agostino, 
and painted, in the anteroom on 
the left, the Galatea, the most beau- 
tiful of all modern mythological 
pictures. Here the allegorically 
employed myth is no mere con- 
ventional opportunity for the pro- 
duction of beautiful forms, but 

Raphael's idea could be rendered 
purely and beautifully only in this 
form. What simply human story 
would have sufficed to represent 
distinctly the awakening of Love in 
his full majesty? The Queen of 
the Sea is pure blissful longing; 
shot at by Amorini, surrounded by 
Nymphs and Tritons, whom Love 
has already joined, she floats on 
her shell upon the tranquil waves ; 
even on the reins of her dolphins a 
wonderful Amorino has suspended 
himself, and lets himself be mer- 
rily drawn along over the waters. 
Here, by the way, we can best con- 
vince ourselves how little Raphael 
was dependent on the antique in 
his feeling for form ; not only the 
conception, but every contour is 
his own. And, in truth, his draw- 
ing is less ideal, more naturalistic, 
than that of the Greeks ; he is the 
child of the fifteenth century. 
There are more " correct " figures 
in the school of David, but who 
would exchange these for them? 

In the two last years of his lifec 
(1518-1520) Raphael made the 
designs for the famous story of 
Psyche, in the lower great hall of 
the Farnesina ; they were executed 
by Giulio Jtomano, Francesco Fermi, 
and (the decorations and the ani- 
mals) by Giovanni da Udine. The 
pupils have rendered the ideas of 
the master in a conventional and 
even coarse style ; to understand 
Raphael's conception, one must try 
to transport one's mind into the 
style of the Galatea. Raphael 
received for the place of his com- 
position a flat ceiling connected 
with pendentives forming arches, 
and showing triangular curved 
faces. On the last he repre- 
sented ten scenes from the story of 
Psyche ; on the vaultings, floating 
genii with the attributes of the 
Gods ; on the central surface, in two 
great pictures, the Judgment of the 
Gods and the feast of the Gods 
at Psyche's marriage. The place of 



delineation is altogether ideal, and 
represented by a olue ground ; its 
divisions not sharply marked ar- 
chiteoturally, but by garlands of 
fruit, in which Giov. da Udine 
showed the mastery he had already 
exhibited in the windows of the 

The space and form of the pen- 
dentives were apparently as Hi- 
adapted as possible for histories 
containing several figures ; but Ra- 
phael only brought forth therefrom 
(as out of the form of the waU in 
the Miracle of Bolsena, the Deli- 
verance of Peter, the Sibyls) op- 
portunities for special beauty. No 
particular definition of the local- 
ity, no distinct costume, could 
appear therein ; that was his ad- 
vantage, as against the immense 
constraint imposed on him by the 
framework. Nothing but nude or 
ideally shaped forms, most beauti- 
ful and distinct in their markings, 
and the happiest selection of the 
most telling moments, could pro- 
duce this wonderful effect. The 
later ones are, indeed, not all alike 
happy, and all assume the know- 
ledge of the myth related by Apu- 
leius* (which at that time every- 
one had by heart). But, taken as 
a whole, they are the highest 
possible achievement in this style, 
especially Cupid showing Psyche 
to the Three Groddesses, the Ee- 
tum of Psyche from the Lower 
Regions, Jupiter kissing Cupid, 
Mercury carrying Psyche. In the' 
two large pictures on the ceiling, 
'onceived as strained tapestries, 
with the Olympian scenes, Raphael 
gave not that kind of Ulusiou which 
seeks to represent heaven by crowds 
of figures on layers of clouds, and 
seen as from below, foreshortened, 
but a conception of space which sa- 
tisfies the eye, and gives a stronger 
impression of the supernatural to 

* Platuer, " Besehreibung Roms," p. 
685, &c., gives an account of the subject. ' 

the inner sense than heavenly scenes 
in perspective. Some of the single 
incidents are among his most mature 
productions (the Jupiter in Con- 
templation and Cupid Pleading, 
Mercury and Psyche ; in the Marri- 
age Feast, especially the bridal pair, 
Ganymede attending, and many 
others), and yet no single detail 
loses its place in the wonderfully 
combined whole. The hovering 
Cupids, with the signs and the 
favourite creatures of the gods, 
are indeed intended as an allegory 
on the omnipotence of Love ; but 
in detail they are figures of children 
of the most lively, human, and the 
most harmonious hovering move- 
ment in a given space. 

Perhaps Raphael regretted in 
this work the many other incidents 
that might have been represented 
in the history of Psyche, which 
could find no place here, because 
they required a distinct locality and 
a larger number of figures. How- 
ever that be, he designed a larger 
series of scenes, which survive, 
unfortunately, only in a later ar- 
rangement by Michel Coxcie, in en- 
gravings and modern copies of en- 
gravings (among others in the col- 
lection of fieveil *). The story is 

* Among other frescos by pupils of 
Baphael (or distant imitators) from his 
designs, there exist in Borne wall deco- 
rations with allegorical representations 
referring to the omnipotence of love, in a 
charmiitgly decorated room of the Vatican 
(the so-called bath-room of Cardinal Bibbi- 
ena), next the third iloor of the Loggie, in 
1868 belonging to an official residence : 
the remains from the so-called Villa di Raf- 
faelle, now in the Borghese Gallery (Alex- 
ander with Koxana, and a marriage scene) ; 
the so-caUed Bersaglio de" Dei is executed 
after a composition of Michelangelo 
(amtea) ; the Planet deities drawn on ears 
by their special sacred animals in the 
ovals of the roof of the great hall of the 
Appartamento Borgia. The twelve Apos- 
tles, which one now sees painted on the 
piers in S. Vincenzo ed Anastasio alle tit 
M 2 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

given as eimply and innocently as 
possible; tlie eye accepts the di- 
vine beauty of most of these com- 
positions and is satisiied by it. 

It is just this that brings Ra- 
phael so much nearer to us than all 
other painters. There is no longer 
any division between him and the 
desire of all past and future cen- 
turies. To him, of all men, is there 
least occasion to forgive anything, 
or to help him out by assuming 
something. He accomplishes tasks 
of 'which the intellectual premises, 
not by his fault, lie far removed 
from us, in a way which seems quite 
natural to us. The soul of the 
modern man has, in the region of 
the beautiful in form no higher 
master and guardian than he is. 
For the antique has only come down 
to us as a ruin, and its spirit is 
never our spirit. 

The highest personal quality of 
Raphael was, as we must repeat in 
conclusion, not aesthetic but moral 
in its nature, namely, the great 
honesty and the strong will with 
which he at aU times strove after 
the beauty which at the time he 
recognised as the highest. He 
never rested on what he had once 
gained, and made use of it as a 
convenient possession. This moral 
quality would have remained with 
him even to his old age, had he 
lived longer. K we think over 
the colossal power of creation of 
his very last years, we shall feel 
what has been lost for ever by his 
early death. 


The pupils of Raphael formed 
themselves in executing the great 
works of his last years. Was it 

Fontane, are only done after engravings by 
Mara Antonio ; the original pictures in the 
now-altered Sala vecchia de' Palaft-enieri 
have disappeared under repaintings by the 
ZuccTiatL Much of the invention already 
belongs to pupils. 

an advantage for their own work 
that they should be from the be- 
ginning under the impression of his 
grand manner of conception ? Could 
they ever look at objects again in 
the same naive manner? And what 
effect could it have on them when 
they gathered from the talk of the 
world wha,t things their master was 
especially admired for? In the 
last resort, it depended very much 
on their character. 

The most important of them 
is Qiulio Somano (died 1546) ; a 
facUe inexhaustible fancy which 
does not despise excursions into 
the region of naturalism, and es- 
pecially loves to take up neutral 
subjects, the myths of antiquity, 
but no longer has any internal con- 
nection with ecclesiastical painting, 
and could not but fall into an endless 
bewilderment and a barren facility 
of production. 

Early decorative paintings : in 
the P. Borghese (three fragments, » 
sawn off, out of the ViUa Lante, 
with ancient Roman histories 
connected with the Janiculum) ; 
in the Villa Madamia (frieze of* 
Futti, candelabra and garlands of 
fruit, in -a, room to the left; 
the volume on architecture) ; in 
the Pamesma (frieze of an upper c 
room). Early Madonnas in P. Bor- d 
gJiese, room 2, No. 7 ; in the P. Co- « 
Im/na, room on the right ; in the f 
Sacristy of S. Peter, in the TnbwMlj 
of the JJffixi; the mother more 
resolute, the children more wUful, 
than in Raphael ; the harmony of 
the lines nearly lost. Perhaps the 
earliest large altar-piece, on the 
high altar of S. M. dell' Anima, in ft 
single details Raphaelesque in beau- 
ty. In the Sacristy of S. Prassede ; i 
the Scourging, merely a study of 
the nude in brick-red flesh tones, 
stm careful in its bravura. [For the 
piotm'es in Turin : see below under 
£. Mantovano.'] Lastly, the prin-^' 
cipal work among the earlier ones, 
the Stoning of Stephen, on the 

2 iso 

Ra/phaeVs Ptipik. 


ohigh altar of S. Stefcmo at Genoa, 
very careful, beautifully modelled, 
in colouring stiU resembling tbe 
lower balf of tbe Transfiguration. 
Tbe lower, eartbly group, composed 
like a balf-circle in sbadow round 
tbe slender principal figure, beau- 
tifully true and youtbf uDy naive, is 
still one of the finest productions 
of Italian art. All bave just 
lifted up tbeir stones, and are ready 
to throw them, one hastily, another 
more deliberately ; buttbespectator 
is spared tbe actual sight of tbe 
horror. In tbe heavenly group 
all Giulio's inferiority appears ; 
tbe architectonic sense is wanting ; 
Christ and the Almighty are half 
covered ; tbe angels, among whom 
is one very beautiful, are occupied 
in drawing aside the clouds. Tbe 
conception of tbe supernatural is 
intentionally trivial. 

Giulio bmlt and painted all tbe 
rest of his life at Mantua, in tbe 
service of tbe Duke. [In tbe ducal 
palace in tbe town : Sala del 

h Zodiaeo, allegorical mythological 
representations of tbe series of 
pictures of animals ; Appartamento 
and Sala di Troja, very unequal 
scenes of tbe Trojan war ; in tbe 
Scalcberia, lunettes with bunting 
scenes representing Diana ; also 
tbe whole pictorial decoration of 
c the Palazzo del Ti, buUt by Giulio 
himself, with purely mythological 
and allegorical subjects. Eemark 
especially the Camera di Psiche, 
with tbe richest and gayest compo- 
sitions in fresco covering the whole 
walls, with distant landscape back- 
grounds, and above them lunettes 
in oil ; tbe ceiling pictures by tbe 
same, by pupils, quite blackened ; 
in the Camera de' Cesari two 
lunette-frescos, a good deal else in 
the smaller rooms ; then tbe noto- 
rious Sala de' Giganti, for tbe most 
part executed by Einaldo Manto- 
vano, with tbe gigantic forms, 
12-14 feet high, in all possible 
attitudes, between enormous masses 

of rock, which, painted over tbe 
wall and ceiling of tbe domed 
ball, without setting, skirting, or 
framing, oppress the beholder 
with tbeir overpowering colossal 
size. Here and there be has 
conceived tbe incidents really 
grandly, but on tbe whole he was 
very careless, and, for instance, 
represented the Fall of tbe Giants, 
against his better knowledge, as 
we see it here. Two elegantly 
executed drawings in colour for 
the history of Psyche, painted in 
the Palazzo del T^, in the picture <i 
gallery at the Villa Albani at 
Rome [in any case, the most re- 
markable work of Giulio, still 
quite penetrated with the spirit of 
Raphael. — Mr.] 

Of the pupils who formed them- 
selves with him at Mantua, Giulio e 
Olovio is famous as a miniature 
painter ; — Binaldo Mantovano is the 
painter of a very unregulated pic- 
ture, a large Madonna with Saints, 
in tbe Brera at Milan (B,eminiscenoe/ 
of tbe Madonna di Foligno) ; [better, 
it really by bim, are the two pic- 
tures 56 and 101 in tbe Turin Oal- g 
lery, the Assumption of the Virgin, 
floating upwards, and a lunette 
with God the Father, both pictures 
containing single angels, quite noble 
and Rapbaelesque in conception. — 
'Hir.l—Primaiicaio. Francis tbe 
First's favourite painter at Fon- 
tainebleau, has almost nothing in h 
Italy; — by bis assistant, Niccolb 
dell' Ablate, there are frescos in the 
Palazzo del Commune (1546), at Mo- i 
dena; others formerly also in the 
Castle of Scandiano. These are 
now in tbe Modena gallery — nine 
ruined wall /rescos with scenes from/ 
tbe jEueid ; better, and once in tbe 
Poggi palace, an octagon with 
figures playing and singing, almost 
like a useful Dosso Dossi. — Mr.] 
Tbe three mythological pictures of 
the Manfrini Gallery in Venice are h 
more probably tbe work of a Ve- 
netian, who was also acquainted 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

with the Koman school — perhaps 
Satista Franco [or Giuseppe Porta 
SaUiati. — Mr.]. 

On the whole Giulio's influence 
on art was very injurious. The 
entire indifference with which he 
(chiefly in various frescos) turned 
bo account the style of form learnt 
fiom Baphael, and yet more from 
Michelangelo for superficial effects, 
gave the first great example of 
eoulless decorative painting. 

Perin del Yoga (1499—1547), 
though less richly gifted, and, in 
his few easel pictures strikingly 
mannered (some in the Palazzo 

a Adorno at Genoa ; the Madonna 
with riaints in the right transept of 

6 the Cathedral of Pisa, more the 
work of Sogliani than Perino), yet 
is closer to Raphael whenever 
decorative limitation and division 
protect his figures and scenes from 
want of form. We see in the 
cathedral of Pisa, in several places 
in the right transept, very beauti- 
ful Putti, painted by experiments 
in fresco. In Genoa all the de- 

c coration of the Palazzo Doria be- 
longs to Perin. Much here re- 
minds us of the Parnesina : in the 
lower hall some of the corner 
figures are unusually beautiful ; the 
small lunette pictures (from Roman 
history), interesting in parts on oc- 
count of their landscapes ; the four 
ceiling pictures (Scipio's Triumph) 
are indeed oppressive through over- 
crowding and realism ; in the 
Galeria again are Putti, lively and 
in good action, but not simple in 
their forms ; splendid decorations 
in the vaulting ; and on the one 
wall the heroes of the house of 
Doria, represented in more than life- 
size ; their sitting position, while yet 
they are in somewhat forced drama- 
tic relations with each other, is not 
happy, but still they are in charac- 
ter almost Raphaelesquely grand ; * 

* I must take this occasion to mention 
a splendid poi-trait in the Uffizl (Sala del 

in the hall on the right, the Contest 
of the Giants, fuU of an unpleasant 
swagger, like most pictures of 
this kind ; of the other rooms, 
the one vnth. the Loves of Jupiter 
and the figures of the Sciences, as 
also that with the histories of 
Psyche, contain the best motives. 
The Genose pupils of Perin belong 
altogether to the mannerists. 
(Later frescos of Perin in Rome: 
S. Marcello, sixth chapel on the(? 

Francesco Penni, called II Fat- 
tore, has left little of note in Eome. 
[In the Turin Gallery an exellent e 
copy of Raphael's Deposition, in the 
Borghese Palace, of the year 1518. 

An unknown painter, of the 
school of Raphael, painted the fifth 
chapel on the right in the TrimUd, 
de' Monte at Eome (Adoration of the/ 
Shepherds, of the Kings, and the 
Circumcision, besides lunette pic- 
tures). Along with Raphaelesque 
touches one observes here the 
degeneracy of the school, very 
clearly in its beginnings ; long- 
extended figures, contorted arms, 
&c. Several other chapels show 
the degeneracy of the imitators of 
Michelangelo. (The third chapel 
on the right, with histories of the 
Virgin, is, for instance, painted by 
Dan. di VoUerra.) 

Of all his pupils, Andrea Sai- 
batini, or Andrea da Salerno, has the 
most of Raphael's spirit. Besides 
the pictures in the Naples Museum g 
(Descent from the Cross, Adoration 
of the Kings, with the Allegory of 
Religion in the upper semicircle of 
seven teachers of the Church, S. 
Nicolas enthroned between those 
saved by him), and some scattered 
about in various churches (Sta. 

Baroccio), which is clearly ty a pupil of 
Raphael; a man of good-humonred yet 
dissipated expression, with a cap, grey 
djimask dress, and tai. 

Contemporaries of Raphael. 


Maria delle Grazie, Lower Church 
oof S. Severino) there are the fres- 
cos in the vestibule of the inner 
i court of 5. Gennaro dei Poveri, 
■which may be unhesitatingly as- 
cribed to him — ^perhaps the most 
intellectual production that Naples 
possesses by her own countrymen 
of the golden period. (History of 
S. Januarius, unfortunately, much 
defaced.) [Virgin and Child with 
Saints in S. Giorgio, PietS, in the 
Duomo, Madonna in S. Agostino, 
of Salerno, Virgin and Child in 
Glory in S. Francesco of Eboli, and 
several canvases in the Monastery 
of Montecassino. — Ed.] Andrea 
conceives beautifully and simply, 
and paints only to express what 
he conceives, not to produce mere 
pictorial effects. One of his suc- 
cessors, Gian Bernardo Lama is 
in successful instances also naive 
and simple, but sometimes also 
very weak and fade. (S. 6ia- 
oeomo degli Spagnuoli, third chapel 
on the left, large Descent from 
the Cross, like a Fleming who had 
studied in Italy ; other things 
din the Museum.) [A delicate, 
studiedly elegant Adoration of the 
Shepherds, with a Glory of Angels, 
signed, 1861 belonged to Mar- 
echese Oagliardi. — Mr.] Antonio 
Amato later adopted the same 
style. Madonna with Angels in 
i the Museum. 

Polidoro da Ca/ramaggio brought 
quite another tendency to Naples 
and Sicily. He is still a follower 
of Raphael in the fajade paintings 
mentioned in the volume on Sculp- 
ture ; perhaps also in those un- 
known to me in the summer-house 

g of the Palazzo del Bufalo. Of the 
Niobe frieze there is a sketch in 

h the P. Oorsini : three pictures, 
grey on grey, are said to be still 

i in the P. Barberini. Later he falls 
into the harshest naturalism, of 
which the great Descent from the 

j Cross [1534] in the Naples Museum 

is a remarkable instance. Here for 
the first time vulgarity is regarded 
as an essential condition of energy. 
His smaller pictures in the same 
collection are partly composed 
in the same style and partly ac- 
cording to a second-hand classicism. 
A pupU of Polidoro, Mareo Oardisco k 
(in the Mziseum, the Contest of St. 
Augustine with the Heretics), has 
rather the appearance of a degener- 
ate scholar of Raphael himself. A 
pupU of this Cardisco, namely 
PietroNegroni (1560 — 156D*), shows 
in the only picture known to me, a 
large Madonna floating on clouds 
with Angels (Museum), a really I 
astonishing beauty and grandeur ; 
one thinks one sees the highest 
conceivable inspiration of Giulio 
Romano before one. Other masters, 
like Oriscuolo, Roderigo Siciliano, 
Oaria, &c., are for the most part 
very little enjoyable {Museum), m 
[A famous picture of Ippolito 
Borghese, the Assumption of the 
Virgin, in the Ohapel of the Monte n 
di PieUt, hardly to be dated before 
1550, is completely smooth in 
execution and unattractive in 
colour, though with points recall- 
ing Raphael and A. del Sarto. —Mr.] 


Several pupils of F. Francia in 
Bologna passed on eventually into 
the school of Raphael, or at any 
rate fell under the determining in- 
fluence of his works. 

The earlier paintings of Timoteo 
della Vite from Urbino (1467— 

* I saw in 1861 at the house of Cardinal 
Santangelo an excellent picture with the 
signature Pietro Negroni, 1594 ; and I do 
not know how the usual statement about 
the date of his life, which would not agree 
with this, is authenticated, — Mr. There is 
another interesting work by P. Negroni 
iu S. Anifllln at Naples, chapel of the 
De Grazia family, a Madonna with Saints, 
signed Pietro de Negroni, p. 1646.— Fr. 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

1523)* are found for the most part 

a in his paternal city of TIrbino and 
the neighbourhood ; [in the Sa- 

bcristy of the Cathedral there are 
SS. Martin and Thomas, sitting 

c figures ; in the town collection the 
half-length figures of S. Sebastian 
and S. Agatha ; these three, as well 
as the picture of an angel in the 

dpublie gallery at Brescia, quite in 
the style of Francia and Perugino. 
— Mr. and Fr.] some later ones in 

e the Brera, No. 191 (Mary between 
two Saints, with a lovely Putto 
flying downwards), and in the Pi/na- 

fcoteca at Bologna (S. Magdalen in 
prayer, standing before her cave, 
a mysteriously attractive figure, 
about 1508). As Raphael's pupil 
he painted the Prophets above the 
Sibyls in the Pace ; but how much 
was prescribed to him is not known, 
and in reality these figures are 
essentially his own, and, but for the 
proximity of the Sibyls, would ap- 
pear a work of first rank. [Of his 
latter years (1521) there is a beau- 
tiful altar-piece in the Cathedral 

gat Gnbbio— St. Mary Magdalen 
surrounded by Angels. Scenes of 
the Legend in a sunny landscape. — 
Mr.] [Noli me tangere in Sant' 
Angelo of Cagli.] 

Another pupil of Francia and 
Kaphael. Sartolommeo jRamenghi 
(Bagnaeavallo), is sometimes grand 
in his delineations of these ideal 
figures (Sacristy of S. Michele in 

hbosco at Bologna; the figures in 
niches ; compare the famous pic- 
ture of the four Saints in Dresden). 
Sometimes too he is somewhat ex- 
aggerated {S. M. delta Face at 

i Borne; two Saints opposite the 
Prophets of Timoteo. His best 

* He was, perhaps after his rettim to 
Urbino in 1495, from the school of Francia, 
Raphael's first teacher, and painted him as 
a hoy of twelve in the little picture of the 
Borghese Gallery, 1st room, No. 35 (Pas- 
savant). Crowe and Cavalcaselle trace in 
this most attractive portrait the manner 
of Ridol/o Ghvrlanda^o. 

composition we have mentioned 
already {awtea) ; but the Madonna 
with Saints in the Pinacoteca atj 
Bologna is only moderately good, 
and the way in which he alters 
Raphael's Transfiguration (in the 
Sacristy above mentioned) is alto-& 
gether bad. (There is a beautiful 
early picture, the Christ Crucified, 
with three Saints, in the Scristy of 
S. Pietro at Bologna.) / 

Innocemo da Imola, on the other 
hand, did not caricature Raphael's 
compositions, but simply worked 
in Raphael's manner. Of his 
numerous works, almost all in 
Bologna, a few are early and naive 
{Pinacoteca, Madoima of the Faith- m 
ful) or freely executed in the 
Raphaelesque spirit {Pinamteca, » 
Madonna with both Children, S. 
Francis and S. Clara) ; most, on the 
other hand, are mere selections from 
Raphael, careful, neat, and as skil- 
ful in the arrangement as one 
can reasonably expect from their 
unconnected character. (Pina- o 
coteca : Holy Family, with Donor 
and Wife ; S. Michael, with other 
Saints. In S. Salvatore, third chapel^ 
on the left ; the Christ Crucified, 
with four Saints, constructed on 
earlier works of Raphael, &c.) Some- 
what freer : S. GHaamw Maggiore, i 
seventh altar on the right ; Mar- 
riage of S. Catherine [one of the 
greatest and most characteristic, 
perhaps the most beautiful picture 
of the master, of most praise- 
worthy solidity of execution for 
the year of its production, 1536. — 
Mr.] — Servi, seventh altar ou the J" 
left, large Annunciation ; lastly, 
the frescos, by no means con- 
temptible, in S. Michele in bosco, » 
Chapel del Coro Notturno, which 
shows how gladly Innocenzo would 
have produced something simple 
and characteristic* 

■* A similar appropriation of motives from 
Raphael, only more from his earlier time, 
is found in a Lucchese, Zacclim it vecclm. 

Tremo. — Cotignok.—MazzoUno. — Qarofalo. 169 

Qirolamo (terrewso [1497— 1544], 
who studied in Venice, and then 

(t worked in Bologna, shows in his 
monochrome scenes of Legends of 
the ninth chapel on the right in S. 
Petronio, studies after Kaphael [and 
several other masters. As mentioned 
before (p. 90), he was the son of 
Pier Maria Pennaochi. A beautiful 
S. Jerome with SS. Rooh and Se- 
bastian, in iixe Sacristy of the Salute 

b at Venice, is probably by him. 
[At Faenza a Virgin and Child 
with Saints in the church of the 
Commeoda ; and a Madonna iu 
S. Maglorio under the name of Gior- 
gione.] His masterpiece is in the 
National Gallery in Loudon. — Mr.] 

By Girolamo Marched da Ootig- 
nola, once pupil of Francia, one 
finds in this district only later pic- 
tures of the freer, already some- 
what mannered style. (A large 
overcrowded Marriage of the Virgin 

c in the Pinacoteca at Bologna ; Justi- 
tia and Fortitude, in S. M. in Vado 

d at Ferrara, furthest chapel in the 
right transept ; this is naturalistic 
in a beautiful Venetian manner.) 
This master is not to be con- 
founded with his two elder bro- 
thers (?), Francesco and Bernardo 
Marchesi called also Zaganelli, from 
Cotignola, who worked under the 
influence of Francia, Bellini, and 

ethe elder Ferrarese in Kavenna. 
There are pictures in S. Niccolb at 

/•Cotignola [the Brera of Milan, the 
gallery of Forlt, and the church of 
the Nunziata at Parma. — Ed.] and 

The Ferrarese painters also fell 
under the influence of Raphael, but 
the speciality of their school was 

In his pictures (Ascension, in S. Salvatore, 
at Lucca; Assumption, in 8. Agostino, 
162V I an Assumption, in S. Pietro So- 
maldi, 1523, &c.) tliere is a feeling of tlie 
Sistine and of Fra Bartolommeo, tut espe- 
cially of Raphael's first Coronation of tlie 
Virgin in the Vatican. 

strong enough to make a counter- 
poise in the scale. 

One of them, Lodmico Masao- 
lino (1478 — 1528), entirely re- 
sisted this influence. He retained 
his old North Italian realism 
along with and in connection 
with glowing Venetian colouring. 
His works mostly small cabinet 
pictures (the smaller the more valu- 
able) are rarely found in Ferrara, but 
here and there in Italy {P. Borghese, g 
2nd room, 58, and P. Doria, 7th A 
room, 9, Capitolime Gallery, No. i 
23 and No. 104, at Eome; V-gizi, j 
1030, 32, 34), Pi«i, No. 129, and A 
more frequently in foreign coun- 
tries. Overladen and deficient in 
ideas without right principles in 
drawing, most extravagant in his 
use of gold relief in ornamenting 
halls, Mazzolino yet impresses us 
by the depth and juicy freshness of 
his colours, which, with all their 
variety, form a sort of harmony. 
They shine out from afar in the 
galleries. In the Ateneo at Ferrara I 
is a somewhat larger picture. Ado- 
ration of the Child, with saints. 

Benvenuto Tisio, called Garofalo 
(1481 — 1559), began under the same 
influences as Mazzolino (small pic- 
tures in Pal. Borghese, 2nd room, m 
1, 2). Later on, having often re- 
sided iu Bome and been in Raphael's 
school, he endeavoured to adopt the 
Roman style as far as he was able. 
He possessed from the first the gift 
needed to make a Venetian painter 
of life in the manner of a Pordenone 
or Palraa ; now he produced eJtar- 
pieces in a more ideal style than he 
ought to have attempted. It is 
hard to judge severely works which 
aim so earnestly at the highest 
things, especially when occasionally 
combined with truly Venetian 
splendour, harmony, and clearness 
of colouring. And yet it is a fact 
that the inner sense is often repelled 
by him, while the eye is delighted. 
He is not a mannerist : even the 


Prdnting of the Sixteenth Century. 

innumerable little pictures particu- 

a larly of the Doria Gallery and the 

i OapitoUne (not less than fourteen) 
are composed and painted with en- 
tire conscientiousness as to the exe- 
cution. But his feeling is not suffi- 
cient to give life to the forms which 
he creates : his pathos is uncertain ; 
Ilia ideal heads, especially the large 
ones, betray an intellectual empti- 
ness. (Thus the beautiful head of an 
Apostle in the P. Pitti, No. 5. ) In 
his few genre pictures (Boar-hunt in 

'" F. Sciarra ; Troop of Horsemen in 

"^the P. Colorma, ascribed to Bag- 
nacavaUo) he is altogether Eerra- 
rese in his naivete and richness of 
colour. In his later works his re- 
lation to Raphael's pupils was the 
same as it had been to Eaphael 
himself, and also his colouring is 
weaker. His principal church pic- 
tures are as follows : — 

« In Home : —Pal. Doria : Visita- 
tion and Adoration of the ChUd, 
early and beautiful (first gallery, 
No. 26; second gallery, No. 69). 

fP. Chigi: Ascension, and a pic- 
ture with Three Saints, also good ; 

g P. Borghese (VI. 8), Descent from 
the Cross, a masterpiece. In the 

h Naples Museum : Descent from 
the Cross, deeper and quieter in 
expression. [Both pictures, which 
stand out most advantageously 
among Garofalo's works, as also an 
Adoration of the Shepherds in the 

iP. Borghese, first room, 67, show 
marks of being the work of Ortolano. 
— Mr.] In the Brera at Milan : a 

j PietS, with several figures, and a Cru- 

k cifix ; early. In the Academy at Ve- 
nice: Madonna in the Clouds, with 
four Saints dated 1518 ; excellent. 

I In the Modena Gallery : two Ma- 
donnas enthroned with Saints, one 
beautiful, of the middle time, and 
one late one. In S. Salvatore at 

m Bologna, first chapel on the left : 
domestic scene with Zacharias. 

n In Ferrara : — In the Ateneo: large 
allegorical fresco picture, the Tri- 
umph of Eeligion, out of the former 

Kef ectory of S. Andrea ; as a whole 
insignificant and unpleasing, pure 
bookish fancy, but with beautiful 
episodes of his middle period 
[Massacre of the Innocents, 1519, a 
very fine example of the Baphael- 
esque ; Eesurrection of Lazarus 
(1532), and Discovery of the Cross 
(1536), both grey and stony. — Ed.]; 
large Adoration of the Kings, of 
1537, and still very brilliant ; Geth- 
semane ; the Death of S. Pietro 
Martire, and several others. In 
the Cathedral: on both sides ofo 
the Portal, good and noble fresco 
figures of Paul and Peter ; third 
altar on the left, Madonna en-p 
throned with six Saints, of the 
year 1524 ; right transept, Peter 
and Paul ; left, Annunciation, late. 
In S. Francesco, frescos of first? 
chapel on left ; the two Donators 
on the sides of the altar, beau- 
tiful early Perrarese ; the Kiss of 
Judas, as well as monochrome 
figures at the side, late. In S. r 
Maria in Vado, fifth altar on the 
left : Ascension, copy by Carlo 
Bonone. In the two exterior 
chapels of the west transept, what 
were formerly the two large doors 
of the organ, containing together 
an Annunciation by a good con- 
temporary or pupU. In S. Spiriio, j 
a large Last Supper. 

Dosso Dossi (1474^1542) was less 
carried away by Raphael, whose 
personal influence he no longer ex- 
perienced [?]. He remained a 
Romanticist on his own respon- 
sibility, and retained (except at the 
latest period) his glowing colouring 
and his own sometimes awkward 
and bizarre but often most charac- 
teristic ideas ; in his characters he 
not seldom equals the greatest 
Venetians, above all, Giorgione. 

The earlier small pictures are 
quite Ferrarese [which is natural 
since he was assistant to Costa in 
1512.— Ed.] Uffizi, Murder of the* 
Innocents; P. Pitti, Repose inu 

Bosso Dossi. — Ortolano. 


Egypt, with a charming landscape. 
Of the altar-pieces, the large one in 

a the Ateneo at Ferrara, consisting of 
a Madonna with Saints, and five 
partitions besides (from S. Andrea, 
where nowisacopyby Aless. Candi), 
is one of the greatest treasures 
of art of North Italy ; severely ar- 
chitectonic in arrangement, strong 
power of colour [reminiscent of 
Moretto Komanino and Garofalo, 
with whom Dosso was once in part- 
nership. — Ed.] There also: a large 
Annunciation and a John in 
Patmos, with a pathetic expression 
not quite successfully given. In 

i the Brera at Milan a Sainted Bishop 
with two Angels (1536). In the 

c Cathedral of Modena, fourth altar 
on the left. Madonna in the Clouds 
with S. Sebastian, S. Jerome, and 
John the Baptist below ; [fine, 

<^1522.] In the gallery at Modena, 
large Adoration of the Shepherds, 
with a landscape, with a fanciful 
arrangement of light ; a large votive 
picture for the Carthusians, with 
the Virgin floating on clouds. [In 
the same gallery, No. 366, the 
Madonna hovering between the 
splendid St. Michael and the equally 
iU-managed St. George. — Mr.] In 

«the Oarmine in the same city, 
third altar on th e right, a Dominican 
Saint treading under foot a beauti- 
ful devilish -lookiog woman. In 

fSan Pietro, third altar on the right, 
Assumption of the Virgin, the 
Apostles (three on the right, three 
on the left, and six behind), ad- 
vance solemnly with their attri- 
butes ; other pictures of this church 
are ascribed partly to his school, 
partly to his brother Battista [(d. 
1548), who was certainly assistant 
to Raphael in 1520.— Ed.] as the 
sweet Predella of the fifth altar on 
the right ; the naively beautiful 
Madonna floating on clouds, with 
two bishops on the seventh altar, 
left ; the Madonna on clouds, with 
S. Gregory and S. George, to which 
belongs a beautiful Predella with a 

landscape, certainly by Battista, 
second altar on the left. 

Dosso Dossi is well represented 
as a genre painter in the Gallery of 
Modena, principally by the ovalg^ 
picture painted half for decorative 
purposes, with people eating, drink- 
ing, and making music, in which 
one may feel the influence of Gior- 
gione ; also a collection of portraits, 
with which fancy can people the 
Court of Ferrara as it was in later 
times. In the Castle of Ferrara, h 
Dosso, with the help of his school, 
decorated several rooms ; they are 
chiefly works of his late already 
mannered time ; even the famous 
Aurora in the Hall of the Four 
Divisions of the Day, morning, 
noon, evening, night ; eJso the three 
Bacchanals, in a small corridor, no 
longer possess the freshness and 
beauty which such subjects require. 
Not mythology, but pure fable, 
would have suited Dosso. We 
see [in the Doria Palace at Rome, a 
Vanossa crying at a window, and] 
in the Borghese Palace (III. 11) i 
Circe in the Wood, using magic 
arts. Here the necromantic novel 
is conjured into life ; it was thus 
Ariosto conceived his personages. 
[This fruitful artist is often repre- 
sented, though unknown, in other 
places. One of his most valuable 
works, much neglected, in the Town 
Gallery at Bovigo (called there^ 
Garofalo) ; in the Brera at Milan, k 
No. 330, as Giorgione, a S. Sebas- 
tian ; in the Ambrosiofiw, there a I 
very careful and elegant Washing 
the Feet, of his Roman time— Mr.] 

A contemporary of Garofalo and 
Dosso, Benvenuto OrfolaTW [in prac- 
tice at Ferrara, 1512-24] has deco- 
rated the organ panels (left tran- 
sept,) in S. Francesco at Ferrara ?n, 
quite excellently in the manner of 
the first, with large figures of 
Saints. (The half-length figures 
on the parapet are partly by Garo- 
falo himself, partly by Bonone). 
[See above, in Garofalo, how much 


The Unibrian 8chool. 

of his works are ascribed to Orto- 
lano— Mr.] 

[Ovrolamo di Tommaso Sellari da 
Carpi, of Perrara [b. about 1501, d. 
before 1561,] is sometimes Ferrarese 
in character, sometimes shows the 
influence of the later Florentines 
after Michelangelo. A Pieta in 

a P. Pitti (No. 115;, very mannered ; 
Christ between Maiy and Martha, 

h Xlfflzi (No. 994) ; small figures in 
the style of Mazzolino. A Vene- 
tian Ferrarese Holy Family in the 

c CapUoline Gallery &t Borne is better ; 
his best work is the portrait of the 
prelate Bartolino Sallmbeni, in the 

dP. Pitti (No. 36) [not to be forgot- 
ten the miracle of S. Anthony in 
the Gallery of Ferrara]. — ffosparo 
Pagano, of Modena, born in 1513, 
left a Marriage of S. Catherine in 

cthe Modena Gallery distinctly af- 
fected by Correggio, yet quite 
original. — Mr.] 


The incapacity and lifelessness 
of the old Sienese school towards 
the end of the fifteenth century, 
must have been very openly ac- 
knowledged as a fact, otherwise Pin- 
turiochio would not have been sum- 
moned from Perugia to paint the 
Libreria and the Chapel of S. Gio- 
vanni in the Cathedral. It seems, 
indeed, that certain Sienese went 
to study at Perugia, as the early 
pictures of Domenico Beooafumi 
prove. This Perugian influence 
shows itself very remarkably in the 
noble, manly Bernardino Fungai, 
who adopted thence their beautiful 
inspiration without their external 
mannerism : his pictures in the 

f Academy (third room and great 
Hall) still have the Sienese con- 
straint ; the Coronation of the 
Virgin, with four Saints, in the 

g Church of FontegivMa (on the 
right), resembles more the Um- 
brians and Florentines ; the Lunette 

there, above the high altar, the 
Assumption of the Virgin, already 
has something of lofty beauty in 
the angels playing on mixsioal in- 
struments ; lastly, the master con- 
tinues to live in a picture of his 
pupU, Girolamo del Pacehia {S. k 
Spirito, third chapel left) ; again, a 
Coronation of the Virgin, with 
three Saints below, kneeling, beau- 
tiful and devotional, serious and 
calm like the Saints of Spagna. 
[The large picture of Fungai, once 
in the Carmine [now in the Aoa-i 
demy]. Madonna with Saints, of 
the year 1512 ; none of his works 
bear a more pleasing stamp of cheer- 
ful piety and internal conviction. 
A beautiful Coronation of the Vir- 
gin, of 1500, in the Conception 
(Servi), in the Choir on the right ;i 
a rich composition of unusually 
clear colouring. — Mr. ] 

But any lasting gain must come 
to theschoolnot from masters of pas- 
sive expression, as were most of the 
Peruginesques, but only through its 
taking part in the great historical 
painting which then reigned tri- 
umphant throughout Italy. And 
indeed it was to be a Lombard, 
Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, of Ver- 
celli, caUed II Sodoma (1477-1549), 
who gave a new, fruitful direction 
to the spirit of the Sienese school 
for more than a century. 

Sodoma had formed himself 
among the Milanese pupils of Lion- 
ardo. Of his youthful period are 
the twenty-foiir frescos, executed 
after 1505, of the legend of St. 
Benedict, in the convent of Monte 
Oliveto, near Buonconvento, where i 
SignoreUi, p. 70/, had begun the 
series. Four of these pictures, the 
first of the east wall near the en- 
trance to the church, S. Benedict's 
departure from Norcia ; the first of 
the south wall, the Presentation to 
S. Benedict of the young Maurus 
and Placidus ; and the last of the 
same wall, the Temptation of the 
Monks by dancing girls ; as well 



as the last picture of the west wall 
(near the entraooe of the Convent 
Court), the attack of the Goths on 
Monte Cassino, — are exceedingly 
well executed representations, full 
of life and beauty : in the last are 
the clearest remimacenoes of lio- 
nardo's Battle of the Standard ; the 
others are more sketchy than they 
ought to be, with special beautiful 
features, mostly on a wide land- 
scape background. Likewise, under 
the full influence of the school of 
IJonardo is the imposing Descent 
from the Cross, from S. Francesco, 
a now in the Academy at Siena (No. 
336). [The youthful Magdalen, 
who supports thefain ting Madonna, 
is a completely Lionardesque head 
of the tinest type ; the old heads, 
the flyingdrapery, and the colouring 
recall Gaudenzio ; the standing 
soldier, seen from behind, looks as 
if borrowed from one of Signorelli's 
compositions in Monte Oliveto ; 
wherefore we should fix the origin 
of this picture in the neighbourhood 
of Signorelli's works there. — Mr.] 
[We may also suppose that Sodoma 
finished before 1505 the Miracle of 
the Loaves and Fishes in the refec- 
tory of S. Anna in Creta near 
Pienza.— Ed.] 

Later on, after many residences 
in Rome, he received, as it appears, 
the impression of Baphael more 
endnriogly than most of his pupils, 
and preserved them when the 
others had long forgotten them.* 

His genius had certainly dis- 
tinct limits, beyond which he never 
reached. Thoroughly penetrated 
with the beauty of the human form, 
which he could represent in the best 
way in graceful figures of the Ea- 
phaelesque type of children (Putti), 
as in persons of every age, both 
nude and draped, he yet had no 
eye for harmony of historical com- 
position. He filled his space to 
such a degree with incident of every 
• [Sodoma may well have made Raphael's 
acf^uaintance at Siena. — Ed.] 

kind, that one always drives out 
another or destroys its effect. Thus 
of the two great frescos in the 
second upper hall of the Farnedna 
(1513-15) at Eome, Alexander, with 6 
Iloxana and the family of Darius, 
the first owing to over richness in 
beauties, the last, also, on account 
of the confused arrangement, are 
not as enjoyable as they deserve to 
be. In iS. Domenico at Siena, c 
Sodoma painted (1526) the Chapel 
of S. Catherine (right), with scenes 
from her life, of which, at least, the 
one most full of figures becomes in- 
distinct in character and movement 
from mere fulness, while so many 
single traits are incomparable for 
character and movement ; the orna- 
mentation of the pilasters and the 
Putti over them belong quite to the 
golden time. * From this it natu- 
rally follows that Sodoma succeeds 
best in his single figures, of which, 
indeed, some will bear comparison 
with the best in the world. One 
feels this most in the Cmifraternita d 
of S. Bernardino (upper oratory), 
where the four single Saints, S. 
Louis of Toulouse, S. Bernardino, 
S. Antony of Padua, and S. Francis, 
are perfect ; while the historical 
compositions, the Presentation of 
the Virgin, the Visitation, Ascen- 
sion, and Coronation (1518), are 
only partially successful, t [Observe 
the beautiful female form on the 
left in the foreground of the "Pre- 
sentation, " incomparable for perfec- 
tion of form and charm of female 
character. — Mr. ] In the PaZ. Pub- e 
hlico the three saints, S. Ansano 
(1534), S. Vittorio (1529), and S. 
Bernardo Tolomei, accompanied 
almost entirely by Putti (in the 
Sala del Consiglio), are as pure and 
grand as anything similar of the 
time, while the Resurrection (Stan- J 
za del Gonfalionere) is only excellent 
in detail. [There also is a beau- 
tiful altar-piece, a Madonna reach- 

* Best light, towards noon, 
t Best light, in the afteraoon. 


Painting of the Sixteenth Centwry. 

ing the Child to S. Lionardo, which 
in its satisfactory effect of colour 
and attractive chiaroscuro shows 
the master at its height. — Mr.] In 

a S. Spirito (first chapel, right) So- 
doma painted round an altar-niche 
S. James on horseback above as 
the conqueror of the Saracens, be- 
low on the right and ou the left 
S. Anthony the Abbot and S. 
Sebastian, another of his finest 
works. [Above this, a semi-round 
with the Virgin, who is investing 
a bishop, and S. BosaUe and 8. 
Lucia ; the latter wonderfully beau- 
tiful. — Mr. ] Of the church frescos 

6 brought to the Acadmiy (fourth 
room), the grand Ecce Homo, the 
typical man of sorrows in a moment 
of rest, will always be preferred to 
the Christ on the Mount of OHves 

c and in Limbo (large room), al- 
though the latter especially pos- 
sesses great special beauties. The 
Birth of Christ, at the Porta 

d Pispini, is very well worth seeing, 
and even iu its ruinous condition 
one of the most important works of 
the master on account of the lovely 
group of floating angels. Other 

c paintings of his in S. Domenico, Pal. 

fPubhlico, Opera del Buomo, the 
tabernacle of a Mater Dolorosa, &c. 
[A beautiful altar-piece in the prin- 

g cipal church of Asinalunga, in Val 
di Chiana (station on the Siena- 
Orvieto line). Madonna with Saints, 
beautiful in colouring. — Mr.] 

Like the greatest artists of his 
time it was only in fresco that 
Sodoma worked with real satisfac- 
tion. Then his hand took the 
freest and surest flight ; one fol- 
lows with high enjoyment the har- 
monious easy lines of the brush 
with which he kept captive the 
forms of beauty. In easel pictures 
he is usually constrained, and em- 
ployed colours which darkened 
unevenly, so that, for instance, 
a picture in any case overcrowded, 
like his Adoration of the Kings in 

liS. Agostino at Siena (side chapel 

on the right), has an uufavourable 
eflfect. Yet in other cases where, 
for instance, the principal figures 
are more isolated, he conquers by 
the very conscientious execution of 
beautiful forms. The Kesurrectioo 
of Christ, in the Musewm at Naples i 
(principal room) ; the Sacrifice of 
Abraham in the Cathedral of Pisa; 
(choir) ; a Madonna enthroned, 
vrith Saints, Academy of Pisa; thei 
S. Sebastian in the Vffzi (Tuscan I 
school), perhaps the most beautiful 
there is, especially when compared 
with the studied representations of 
later schools ; here we have true, 
noble su£E'ering expressed in the 
most wonderful form. [Painted for 
a church standard ; on the back a 
Madonna floating, several saints 
and three Flagellants appearing, 
rich landscape in the background. 

His Madonna is usually serious, 
and no longer quite youthful ; his 
Child Christ seldom equal to the 
free gambolling Putti of his frescos 
in simplicity and excellence. (Pal. ™ 
Borghese and elsewhere). Also his 
Ecce homo (P. Pitti and Uffizi) is n 
not equal to that in fresco. His 
own excellent portrait is in theo 

I must confess to never having 
closely examined the ornameuts and 
small intermediate pictures on the 
roof of the Camera delta Segnaiwra 
in the Vatican, which represent^ 
lively mythological scenes of nude 
flgures, satyrs, horses, painted in 
chiaroscuro imitation of antique 
bas-reliefs. Of the frescos of the P. 
dei Conservatori on the Capitol, the S 
very childish scenes from the Punic 
war in theseveuthroomareascribed 
to Sodoma ; in my opinion some 
figures in the fourth room, that of 
the Fasti more probably belong to r 

[Besides this there is a Holy 
Family by Sodoma at Borne in the 
P. Borghese, under the name of 
Cesare da Sesto; of four genuine ( 

Bresdanino. — Faechia. — Facchiarotto. — Beccafumi. 175 

a pictures of the Twrm Gallery, one 
is called Oian Pedrmo, another 
Oesare da Sesto. — Mr.] 

Afterthis some painters, followers 
of the earlier Sieneae School took 

6 up his style, as Aiidrea del Bresaia- 
nino (baptism of Christ on the Altar 

cof S. Giovanni (1524), the Lower 

d Church of the Cathedral of Siena ; 
Madonna with Saints, Academy, 
great room) [Holy Family with 
St. Dominick, No. 1205, at the 

e Uffizi] ; also very markedly, Giro- 
lamo del Pacchia.* The earlier 
pictures of this latter artist {antea) 
combine, like the best by Fungai, 
the Peruginesque expression with 
a seriously conceived deep feeling 
for character ; of this kind also is, 

/besides the one named in S. Spirito, 
a Madonna with Saints in S. Cris- 
toforo. Later, under the obvious 
influence of Sodoma (also, probably, 
of Fra Bartolommeo and Andrea 
del Sarto), he became one of the 
four historical painters who, during 
the ten years succeeding Raphael's 
death, maintained in a higher 
sense the dignity of historical art. 
Without equalling Sodoma in the 
inspired beauty of individual 
forms, he was considerably superior 

g to him as a composer ; in S. Bernar- 
dino (upper Oratory), the Birth of 
the Virgin and the Salutation of 
the Angel, but especially in S. 
Caterina (lower Oratory) the his- 
tories of the Saints (the two pic- 
tures on the right and the second 
on the left) are but little inferior to 
Andrea del Sarto. The attack ou 
the monks is as a scene excellently 
developed ; the female Saint by 
the body of S. Agnes, a picture 
most beautiful in expression. [A 

A large Salutation, with the Visita- 
tion in the back ground, with boy 
angels above, who draw aside the 

* This master, who has been con- 
founded with Facchiarotto, who in art 
stands much lower, has only lately been 
recognised as he deserves. 

curtains (Academy, No. 308), is in 
part a strict imitation of Marriotto 
Albertinelli. A large Descent from i 
the Cross, with lively traits of 
Sodoma and Fra Bartolommeo, in 
the parish church at Asinalunga, 
called there Facchiarotto. — Mr.] 

By Pacchiarotto, a very restless 
spirit who was more occupied 
with warlike adventures than with 
painting, is the stiffly archaic As- 
cension of Christ, in the Academy, j 
No. 328; there also a Visitation, 
No. 315, and the same subject in 
the Academy at Florence, No. 16, k 
Quadri antichi. 

Doinenico Beccafumi in his long 
life passed through the different 
styles which prevailed in his neigh- 
bourhood. His youthful pictures 
sometimes resemble the Perugin- 
esque school and Perugino himself 
so much as to be mistaken for them. 
In his second and best period he 
stands hardly less well by the side 
of Sodoma than Del Pacchia ; to 
this time belongs the beautiful 
picture in the Academy (Scuole I 
diverse, No. 63), which represents 
several Saints in an architectural 
framing with a Vision of the Ma- 
donna above; above the grand 
compositions in 8. Bernardino, the m 
Marriage and Death of the Virgin, 
besides the altar-piece. In his 
later time the degeneracy and false 
virtuosity of the Roman school took 
possession of him ; frescos of the 
Sola del Gondstoro in the P. Pub- n 
bHco, &c. [The Christ in Limbo, 
Academy, great room. No. 337, o 
with the undraped figures of the 
Patriarchs, which are simply copied 
from weU-known figures by Michel- 
angelo, is an unpleasantly mannered 
work, in spite of the unusually de- 
licate gradation of the tones of 
colour. — Mr.] His feeling was per- 
haps not equal to his talent. Of 
the figured marble floor of the 
Cathedral, the best designs (in the p 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

Choir) are attributed to him — large 
compositions full of figures, already 
considerably Koman in character. 

a In the Uffixi the circular picture of 
a Holy Family (Sala del Baroccio, 
No. 189). 

The ^eat architect, BaMassare 
Peruzzi, is as a painter either more 
especially a decorator, or mannered 
in the style of the fifteenth cen- 
tury (ceiling pictures of the Hall 
of Galatea in the Famesina, where 
indeed everything must look stiff 
by the side of Raphael). Here 
the interesting colossal-sized head 
sketched in black ought to be given 
to him, which is attributed to Mi- 
chelangelo.* The little pictures in 
the decoration of the roof of the 

b Stanza d'EIiodoro, in the Vatican, 
are certainly by him. — Or. andCav. 
On the few paintings of his later 
time, rests the spirit of Raphael 
and of Sodoma. The fresco of the 
first chapel on the left in & Maria 

e delta Face in Borne, a Madonna with 
Saints and a Donor, of 1516, bears 
the trial of being placed opposite 
to Raphael's Sibyl sufficiently for 
us to recognise at the first glance 
the artist of the golden time in the 
beautiful and dearly given cha- 
racters and in the free treatment. 
The Great Presentation of the 
Virgin, above, on the right of the 
choir, is, on the contrary, over- 
laden with useless episodes, and 
has several figures borrowed from 
Raphael, very much ruined by 
over-painting. In the church of 

dPcmtegivMa at Siena (on the left), 
the simple grandiose fresco picture 
of Augustus and the Tiburtine 
Sibyl is, in spite of the bad condi- 
tion it is in, an impressive echo 
from the great period. The paint- 
ings in the choir of S. Onofrio at 

eBome, which are all now ascribed 
to him (see above, Pinturicchio, 
p. 96 e), the mosaics in the under- 

/ground chapel of S. Grace in Gerusa- 

* [Why not to Sebastian del Piombo?— 

lem/me, and the few easel pictures 
by Peruzzi, are especially mannered. 
[His best panel picture (? genuine- 
Ed. ) is the Holy Family in the P. 
Pitti, No. 345, with a peculiar and g 
delicate and noble Madonna ; the 
colour is cool like fresco. — Mr, In 
the Borghese Gallery, second room, h 
No. 28, a Venus, called Giulio Ro- 
mano. In the Villa Belcaro, near 
Siena, a ceiling picture of thei 
Judgment of Paris. — Fr.] 

After the destruction of the Ee- 
pubHc (1557) the artistic glory of 
Siena is also dimmed, yet only for 
a time. The after-bloom of Itahan 
painting, which begins towards 
the end of the sixteenth century, 
has here some of its worthiest re- 

In Verona two painters more 
particularly represent the golden 
period — Gianfrancesco Caroto, pupil 
of [Liberale, and assistant to Man- 
tegna,] and Paolo Morando, named 
Gavazzola, pupU of Fr. Morone, to 
whom we may add Giolfino. 

On account of the altar-pieces 
being covered over because of the 
fasts, the author has been obliged 
to form his judgment entirely from 
the pictures by these artists in the 
Pinacoteca of Verona. Caroto'sj 
picture, dead coloured, in grey of 
an Adoration of the Shepherds, is 
an unpretending yet beautiful crea- 
tion ; the spirit of Lionardo enters 
into the school of Mantegoa ; there, 
also, is another Adoration of the 
Child, a Madonna enthroned on 
Clouds with Saints. By far the 
most important is in 5. Eufemia, k 
Cap. Spolverini. [Caroto enjoyed 
the instruction of Morone (?) before 
that of Mantegna] ; the influence 
of the former appears in two re- 
plicas of a youthful work of 1501, 
one in the Modena Gallery and 
one belonging to Cownt Maldural 
at Padua — a Madonna occupied m 

Cavazzola. — Correggio. 


in sewing a little shirt. The wall 

"' picture of an Annv/ruAoMon of 1508, 
in the former chapel of S. Giro- 
lamo, now in the possession of 
Count Monga at Verona, shows 
grand figures strikingly cold in 
colour. One of the principal works 

, is the large altar-piece in S. Fermo 
Maggiore, of 1528, in spite of the 
late period excellent in execution ; 
the Madonna with S. Anna floats 
on a cloud above four Saints in 
strong action, who are rather given 
like portraits than as ideal figures. 
[A Holy Family (1525), formerly 
belonging to Dr. Bemasconi, shows 
the influence of an external classi- 
cism which originated in Giulio 
Romano's work in Mantua. — Mr.] 
Cavazzola's large master-piece is in 

"^the Pinacoteca, a Passion in five 

.pictures and four half-length 
figures, ^o. 101-109— a marvellous 
transition from the realism of the 
fifteenth century to the noble free 
character of the sixteenth, not to 
an empty idealism ; also small early 
pictures of the Passion, grand half- 
length figures of Apostles and 
Saints ; lastly, a splendid large- 
sized Madonna with Saints (1522), 
which reminds us of the Ferrarese 
painters in the whole treatment, 
and also in the excellent landscape. 
The small landscapes in S. M. 
in Organo are also by him and 
Brusasoroi, with high and beau- 
tiful distances, in tone rather cold 
than either Venetian or Flemish, 
and garnished with Biblical scenes. 
Some beautiful pictures in the Sa- 

*cristy of S. Anastasia (Paul with 
other saints and worshippers, the 
Magdalen borne up by angels) ; and 
in a side chapel on the left of SS. 

f Namro e, Celso (a large Baptism of 
Christ). CHolfino's paintings in the 

9 Pinaooteea are less important than 
the fourth altar on the left in S. 

h Afiastasia, at any rate the acces- 

_ sory paintings there. Frescos in S. 

^M. in Organo. The fagade paint- 
ings of this master, some of them 

especially beautiful, are noticed in 
the volume on sculpture. [The well- 
known engraver, Girolamo Mocetto, 
also belongs rather to this than 
to the elder group of Veronese 
painters ; an excellent altar-piece 
in three parts in S. Nazaro e Cclso, j 
Cap. S. Biagio, with portraits of 
Donors ; the Madonna, signed, in 
the Gallery at Vicenza is weaker, k 
and not pleasing (No. 52 in the 
2nd, north room. ) — Mr. ] 

[We must not omit Michele da I 
Verona — once a partner of Cavaz- 
zola — Crucifixion of 1500, in S. 
Stefano, of Milan. Same subject in 
S. M. in Vanzo, at Padua (1505). 
Altar-piece of 1523 at ViHa di 
VOla, near Este. Fhilippo da Ve- ™ 
rona is more dependent on the 
Venetians than Michele, Fresco, of 
1509, in the Santo of Padua. Ma- 
donna, of 1514, in the Pinacoteca, 
of Fabriano. —Ed.] 


Amid the general extreme ex- 
pansion of art arose a painter who 
conceived the principles and objects 
of his art quite differently from all 
others, Antonio Allegri da Cor- 
reggio (1494(?)— 1534), probably of 
the school of Francesco Mantegna 
and Bianchi Ferrari.* To some 
natures he is absolutely repulsive, 
and they have a right to hate him. 
Nevertheless people should visit 
the scene of his labours, Parma, if 
possible in fine weather, if only for 
the sake of the other art treasures 

Inwardly as little under the in- 
fluence of any ecclesiastical tradi- 
tions as Michelangelo, Correggio, 
never sees in his art anything but 
the means of making his represen- 
tation of life as sensuously charm- 
ing and as sensuously real as pos- 
sible. His gifts in this direction 

* [The probability is that Correggio was 
first taught by a local craftsman, then by 
Lorenzo Costa at Mantua. — Ed.] 



Painting of the Sixteenth Centwry 

were great ; in all that assists 
realization he is an originator and 
discoverer, even when compared 
with Lionardo and Titian. 

But in the highest painting we 
do not want the real, but the true. 
We come to it with open hearts, 
and only wish to be reminded of 
what is best in us, of which we 
expect it to give us the living ex- 
pression. Correggio does not give 
us this ; the contemplation of his 
works excites us to a constant pro- 
test ; one is tempted to feel — I 
myself could have conceived this 
from a higher artistic point of view. 
There is an entire absence of any 
moral elevation : if these forms 
should come to life, what good 
would come out of them, what 
kind of expression of life would 
one expect from them ? 

But the realistic has great power 
in art. Even when it represents 
what is trivial and accidental, even 
vulgar, with all the qualities of 
reality, it exercises over us an over- 
whelming power, even though of a 
repulsive kind. But, if the subject 
is sensuously attractive, the charm 
is immensely increased, and affects 
us with a demoniac force. We 
have already expressed a similar 
feeling with regard to Michel- 
angelo's creation of a newphysically 
elevatedgeueration of human beings ; 
with entirely different means Cor- 
reggio produces an effect which we 
cannot otherwise characterize. He 
is the first to r^resent entirely and 
completely the reality of genuine 
nature. He fascinates the beholder 
not by this or that beautiful and 
sensual form, but by convincing 
him entirely of the actual existence 
of these forms by means of perfectly 
realistic representations (enhanced 
by concealed means of attraction) 
of space and light. Among his 
means of representation, his chiaro- 
scuro is proverbially famous. The 
fifteenth century shows innumer- 
able attempts of this kind, only the 

object is merely to give the model- 
ling of particular figures as per- 
fectly as possible. In Correggio 
first chiaroscuro becomes essential" 
to the general expression of a pioto- 
rially combined whole : the stream 
of lights and reflections gives ex- 
actly the right expression to the 
special moment in nature. Besides 
this, Correggio was the first to re- 
veal the charm of the surface of the 
human body in half-light and re- 
flected light. 

His colour is perfect in the flesh 
tints, and laid on in a way which 
indicates infinite study of the ap- 
pearance in air and light. In the 
definition of other materials he 
does not go into detail ; the har- 
mony of the whole, the euphony of 
the transitions, is his chief object. 

But the most striking point of 
his style is the complete expression 
of movement in his figures, without 
which he cannot conceive either 
life or space, the true measure of 
both in painting being the human 
shape in motion, or rather the 
human shape with the appearance 
of motion, and if necessary vio- 
lently fore-shortened.* He first 
gives to the glories of the other 
world a cubicaUy measurable space, 
which he fiUs with powerful float- 
ing forms. This motion is nothing 
merely external ; it inter-penetratea 
the figures from within. Correggio 
divines, knows, and paints the 
finest movements of nervous Ufe. 

Of grandeur in lines, of severe 

* It ia hardly possible that Correggio 
should not have known the masterpiece of 
his only predecessor in tliis line, the semi- 
dome of the choir of the SS. Apostoli, at 
Rome, hy Jlfetosso da ForK, and should 
therefore have been acquainted with Rome 
generally. He is the first to represent 
entirely and completely what is the living 
characteristic part of nature. 

[There is no proof of this, -wliile the 
paintings of Mantegna in Mantua, espe- 
cially in the Camera de' Spozi and the 
loggia adjoining (see aTttea) give us a sufR- 
cient explanation of the origin of Cor- 
reggio's mode of composition. — Z.] 

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To face page 178. 



architectonic composition, there is 
no question with him, nor of grand 
free beaxity. What is sensuously 
charming he gives in abundance. 
Here and there he shows real 
depth of feeling, which, beginning 
with the real, reveals great spiritual 
secrets : there are pictures of suffer- 
ing by him, which are not indeed 
grand, but perfectly noble, touch- 
ing, and executed with infinite in- 
telligence. (Of his Christ on the 
Mount of Olives there is a good 

o old copy iu the Uffizi. ) But these 
are exceptions. The Vera Icon of 

t> the Turin Gallery is probably by 
a good pupil of Lionardo. 

The Kepose in Egypt in the 
c Tribvme of the VJjizi, with S. 
Bernard, is an early picture, * the 
first transition to the Madonna 
deUa Scodella, to be mentioned 
later. Here for the first time the 
scene becomes a charming genre 
picture, which before this time has 
not been the case with the realists 
of thefifteenth oenturyin spite of all 
the traits taken from reality. There 
is some awkwardness in the unin- 
terested head of the mother, and 
in the hesitation of the child to 
take the dates plucked by Joseph. 
The colouring is unequal, in parts 
wonderfully finished. 

Also there, certainly still early, 
the Madonna in the open air kneel- 
ing before the Child lying on hay, 
no longer adoring him, but laugh- 
ing, and making figures with her 
hands to him ; marvellously painted, 
the child foreshortened in the most 
graceful way ; the mother already 
of that small kind of prettiness 
which is peculiar to her in Correg- 
gio's pictures. + 

* Italy possesses no picture of the kind 
of the Madonna with S. Francis at Dres- 
den (of 1514), in which Correggio in essen- 
tials still follows the traditional ecclesias- 
tical idea in a manner resembling Francia. 
[We should rather say in a manner resem- 
bling Lorenzo Costa.— Ed.] 

t The head of John the Baptist on 

From 1518 onwards, after which 
year Correggio settled in Parma, 
began that series of master-pieces 
of which the best have gone to 
Dresden, Paris, London, Vienna, 
and Berlin. But Italy stiU pos- 
sesses some of the highest value. 

In the Naples Museum, the little d 
picture of the Marriage of St. Ca- 
therine, easily and boldly painted : 
that the child should look up ques- 
tioningly to the mother at the 
strange ceremony is quite a feature 
in the manner of Correggio, who 
would never conceive children 
other than naive. (The Christ on 
the Rainbow, Yaiioan Gallery, can 6 
however only be regarded as a pic- 
ture of the school of the Caracoi. ) 
[Certainly ! — Mr.] 

There also is the Zingarella, the 
Madonna bent over the chUd seated 
on the earth ; above in a cloud 
of palms hover delicious angels. 
Correggio here brings out the ma- 
ternal element, as also not seldom 
elsewhere, with a certain passion, 
as though he felt that he could 
give no higher meaning to his type. 
The execution perhaps somewhat 
earlier, otherwise of the greatest 

Also the large fresco Madonna/ 
in the Gallery of Parma shows 
mother and child closely embrac- 
ing ; one of the most beautiful of 
Correggio's motives ; heads and 
hands wonderfully arranged (which 
is not usually his strong point) ; 
chief example of his ideal female 
head, with the colossal eyelids and 
the little nose and mouth. 

There also is the famous Madonna 
delta Scodella, a scene in the iiight g 
to Egypt. The dreamy lights in 

plate, also there, and the youthful head 
looking down the naked shoulders, of the 
same collection, and an insignificant 
child's head in the P. Pitti, are all spurious, 
and quite unworthy of the master. Also 
the large Bearing the Cross in the Parma 
Gallery, a dry, hard painting, is no longer 
ascribed to Correggio.— Mr. 

N 2 


Fainting of the Sixteenth Century. 

the mysterious wood, the charming 
heads, and the indescribable beauty 
of the whole treatment cause us to 
forget that the picture is essen- 
tially composed for the colour, and 
is exceedingly indistinct in its 
motives. What is the child doing ? 
— or the mother herself? What 
are the angels in great excitement 
doing with the cloud above ? How 
must one conceive of the angel who 
is fastening the beast of burden, 
and the one with the vine branch, 
if they were not fuUy made out? Let 
us not be afraid to put questions 
to Oorreggio which one would do to 
all other painters. He who paints 
such realism is doubly bound to 

In the Madonna di S. CHrolamo 
"also surprising execution hardly 
outweighs great material deficien- 
cies. The attitude of Jerome is 
afi^ected and insecure. Oorreggio 
is never happy in grand things : 
the child who beckons to the angel 
turning over the book, and plays 
with the hair of the Magdalen, is 
inconceivably ugly, as also the 
Putto who smells* at the vase of 
ointment of the Magdalen. Only 
this latter figure is inexpressibly 
beautiful, and shows, in the way 
she bends down, the highest sensi- 
bility for a particular kind of female 

The Descent from the Cross, 
also there, is, above aU, a model 
of external harmony. The head of 
the Ohrist lying down, truly noble 
in its expression of grief ; but the 
others almost trivial, and even 

* So that one can hardly avoid the idea 
of some special purpose. It is our duty 
to acknowledge that iu Toschi's engrav- 
ings the heads are not seldom weakened, 
— without detriment to my high respect 
for the master, whom I had the good for- 
tune to visit in his studio hut a few 
months before his death. Let no one 
neglect to study the water-colour copies 
exhibited in the Pinacoteca at Parma, of 
the frescos of Correggio, partly by Tos- 
chi, partly by his pupils, as a preparation 
for the study of the originals. 

grimacing. The painting is very 
really represented in the Mary, bo 
that one feels, for instance, how 
she loses control over the left arm. 

The counterpart, painted, like 
the last, on linen damask, the 
Martyrdom of S. Placidus and S. o 
Flavia, is not less distinguished in 
picturesque treatment. A fatal 
picture, the worst qualities of which 
have found only too great response 
among the painters of the seven- 
teenth century. Was this scene 
imposed upon Correggio, or was he 
here of his own free will the iirst 
painter of executioners, as else- 
where he is the first quite im- 
moral painter? Most calmly and 
artistically the one executioner 
drags down the hair of the senti- 
mental Flavia and pierces her with 
his sword under the breast; the 
other aims at Placidus kneeling 
devoutly before him : on the right 
one sees two trunks of decapitated 
persons, and even out of the frame 
comes forth the arm of an execu- 
tioner who is carrying a bloody 
head. At the first glance the whole 
appears astonishingly modern. 

Of the frescos of Correggio in 
Farma, those in a room of theiV«n- d 
nery of S. Paolo, now broken up, 
are the earliest. ^ Over the chim- 
ney-piece is seen Diana in her car 
driving upon clouds ; on the vault- 
ing which rises above sixteen lu- 
nettes with mythological subjects, 
excellently painted in monochrome ; 
there is a vine-arbour painted, and 
in the circular openings from it are 
the famous Putti in twos and threes 
grouped in all sorts of ways. They 
are not beautiful in arrangement, 
nor in their lines ; the painter was, 
above all, deficient in the architec- 
tonic feeling which should be at 
the foundation of such decorations ; 
but they are pictures of the gayest 
youth, improvisations fuU of hfe 
and full of beauty. (Good reflected 
light in sunshine, from 10 — 12.) 

Soon after this, 1520-1524, Cor- 

Correggio. — 8. Giovanni. 


areggio painted in S. Giovarmi, and 
probably the first thing was the 
beautiful and severe form of the 
inspired Evangelist in a lunette 
over the door in the left transept. 
Afterwards came the dome. (In Feb- 
ruary the light was most tolerable 
at 12 and about 4. ) It is the first 
dome devoted to a great general 
composition ; Christ in glory, sur- 
rounded by the apostles sitting 
upon clouds, all introduced as the 
Vision of John, seated on the edge 
below. The Apostles are genuine 
Lombards of the noble type, of a 
grandiose physical form ; the old 
ecstatic John (purposely?), less 
noble. The view from below, com- 
pletely carried out, of which this 
is the earliest preserved instance, 
and certainly the earliest so tho- 
roughly carried through (compare 
p. 178, note), appeared to contempo- 
raries and followers a triumph of aU 
painting. They forgot what parts 
of the human body were most pro- 
minent in a view from below, 
while the subject of this and most 
later dome paintings, the glory of 
heaven, would only bear what had 
most spiritual life. They did not 
perceive that for such a subject 
the realization of the locality is un- 
dignified, and that only ideal archi- 
tectonic composition can awaken a 
feeling at all in harmony with this. 
Now here the chief figure, Christ, 
is foreshortened in a truly frog- 
like manner, and with some of the 
Apostles the knees reach quite up 
to their necks. Clouds, which 
Correggio treats as solid round 
bodies of definite volume, are em- 
ployed to define the locality, also as 
means of support and as seats, and 
pictoriaUy as means of gradation an d 
variety. Even on the pendentives 
of the cupola are seated figures, 
very beautiful in themselves, but 
exaggeratedly foreshortened ; an 
Evangelist and a Father of the 
Church on clouds, where Michel- 
angelo in a similar place would have 

given his prophets and sibyls solid 

The semi-dome of the choir of 6 
the same church, with the great 
Coronation of the Virgin, was taken 
down in 1584. But the principal 
group, Christ and Mary, was saved, 
and is at present placed in the 
second great haU of the Library; 
besides this, Anmibale Ga/raeoi and 
Agostino had copied nearly the 
whole in parts (six pieces in the 
Gallery at Parma, several in thee 
Aaples Musev/m), and Gesa/re Aretusi d 
repeated afterwards, on the new 
semi-dome, the whole composition 
according to his capacity. A pas- 
sionate rejoicing pervades the whole 
heaven in the sacred moment ; the 
most beautiful angels crowd to- 
gether into an army. But the 
Madonna herself is neither naive 
nor beautiful ; Christ is a mediocre 
conception. (Both are weakened in 
the copies, and so, doubtless, is 
John the Baptist. ) 

At last Correggio, in 1526—30, 
painted the dome of the Cathedral, e 
and therein gave himself up alto- 
gether, without any limit, to his 
special conception of the superna- 
tural. He makes everything ex- 
ternal, and desecrates it. In the 
centre, now much injured, Christ 
precipitates himself towards the 
Virgin, who is surrounded with a 
rushing crowd of angels and a mass 
of clouds. The impression is cer- 
tainly overpowering ; the confused 
group of numberless angels, who 
here, rushing towards each other 
with the greatest passion, and em- 
bracing, is without example in art : 
whether this is the noblest conse- 
cration of the events represented is 
another question. If so, then, 
the confusion of arms and legs, 
which hasbeeu described in the well- 
known witticism of " un Guazzetto 
di rane" was not to be avoided ; for 
if the scene were real, it must have 
been something like this. Farther 
below, between the windows, stand 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

the Apostles gaaing after the Vir- 
gin ; behind them, on a parapet, 
are Genii busy with candelabra 
and censers. In the Apostles, Cor- 
reggio is not logical ; no one so 
excited as they are could stand 
still in his corner ; even their sup- 
posed grandeur has something un- 
real about it. But some of the 
Genii are quite wonderfully beau- 
tiful; also many of the angels 
in the paintings of the cupola it- 
self, and especially those which 
hover round the four patron saints 
of Parma, on the pendentives. It 
is difficult to analyse exactly the 
sort of intpxicatiou with which 
these figures fill the senses. I 
think that the divine and the very 
earthly are here closely combined. 
Perhaps a younger mind can con- 
ceive it more simply. (Best light 
for ascending the cupola, towards 
noon. ) 

Besides these there are preserved 
in the Annunziata remains of a 
a fresco lunette of the Amrnnciation, 
a most impressive composition. 

Of monumental paintings of my- 
thological subjects, I only know in 
Italy, besides the frescos of S. 
Paolo, the Ganymede carried up 
by an Eagle, now on the ceiling of 
b a hall in the Gallery at Modena. 
Quite different in composition from 
the picture at Vienna, most master- 
ly, though with very little detail. 

Among the easel pictures, the 
cDanae in the P. Borghese must be 
mentioned. Perhaps the most com- 
monplace of Correggio's pictures of 
this kind, because it is not even 
straightforwardly sensual ; still it 
is simply and beautifully painted, 
especially the two Putti, who are 
trying a golden arrow on a touch- 
stone ; the eloquent Cupid is quite 
worthy of the genii in the cathedral 
at Parma. 

The allegory of Virtue, in the P. 
dDcn-ia at Borne, is considered as a 
genuine sketch for one of the Tem- 
pera pictures of Correggio, in the 

collection of drawings in the 
Louvre [and in freedom and life- 
like expression of the heads is far 
superior to the finished picture. — 


If any one admires the dexterity 
with which Correggio, under all 
sorts of pretences, always contrived 
only to give what he especially 
cared for, namely, life and move- 
ment in a sensuously charming 
form, the answer has to be given, 
that such a difference between 
subject and form, if it existed in 
Correggio, always and inevitably 
demoralizes art. The subject ought 
not to be a mere accommodating 
form for purely artistic ideas. 

No master did more harm to his 
pupils. He deprived them of what 
makes masters of the second and 
third rank valuable at all times, the 
serious architectonic intention of 
the composition, the simplicity of 
the lines, the dignity of the charac- 
ters. And what was characteristic 
in him was above the reach of their 
talents, or the time was not yet 
come for it. In fact, his univer- 
sally admired style stood alone for 
above half a century, wlule all his 
scholars threw themselves with a 
kind of despair into the arms of 
the Roman school. 

But meantime grew up the real 
inheritors of his style, the school 
of the Caracci, whose mode of 
conception is essentially derived 
from his. It is because the mo- 
derns have entirely adopted him 
into themselves, that his own 
works so often appear to us mo- 
dern. Even what seems specifically 
characteristic of the eighteenth 
century, is partly foreshadowed in 

The whole school is fuUy repre- 
sented in the Gallery and the 
Charches of Parma. Pomponio Al-e 
legri (son of Correggio), Lelio OrH, 
Bernardino Gaiti [whose princi- 

Mazzola. — Titian's Contemporaries. 


pal work is the altar-piece of the 
a Oathedral at Pavia, Madonna with 
J Founders; others in Cremona. — 
Mr.], have left few things worthy 
of praise. There are good and 
very careful things by Francesco 
cRondami (frescos in the cathedral 
in the fifth chapel on the right), 
and several pleasing works by Mi- 
chelcmgelo Anselmi, and also by 
Giorgio Qandini ; the greatest num- 
ber are by various painters of the 
family of Mazzola, or Mazztwli, 
which in this century quite adopted 
Correggio's style. Girolamo Maz- 
zola sometimes combines a touch 
of antique nalvcti with Correggio's 
manner and that of the Koman 
school, and produces a wonderful 
rococo. On the whole, he is less 
repugnant to one's feelings than 
his more famous cousin ; 

Francesco Mazzola, called Par- 
TnegianiTW (1504 — 1540). His long- 
ed necked Madonna, in the P. Pitti, 
shows, with its intolerable affec- 
tation, how ill the pupils under- 
stood the master in thinking that 
his charm lay in a certain special 
elegance and mode of presenting 
the forms, while really the mo- 
mentary life of the charming form 
is the chief thing. Elsewhere, 
Parmegianino is amusing by the 
air of the great world which he 
introduces into religious scenes. 
His S. Catherine (P. Borghese at 
e Borne) receives the compliments of 
the angels with a deprecating air 
of indescribable ion genre; in the 
pompous court of saints in the 
/wood (Pinacoieca of Bologna), the 
Madonna gives the Child to S. Ca- 
therine, to be caressed only with 
the most aristocratic reserve. 

But in portraits, where the sup- 
posed ideal disappeared, Parmegia- 
nino was one of the best of his 
S'time. In the Museimi at Naples 
his portraits of Columbus and Ves- 
pucci (both arbitrarily so named), 
that of De Vinceutiis, and of the 
master's own daughter, are among 

the pearls of the gallery, while the 
colossal figures of Pythagoras and 
Archimedes are hideous, and the 
Lucretia and the Madonna at least 
unpleasing. So, too, his own por- 
trait in the Uffizi, the real Bell' h 
Uomo of rank, is one of the best 
in the coUeotion of painters, while 
the Holy Family (Tribune) is only 
endurable because of its fancifully 
lighted landscape. In another room 
is a quite small Madonna by him, 
one of the best arrangements, aa to 
Hues, of the school. [As a fresco 
painter, Parmegianino should not 
be forgotten. His two figures of 
St. Lucy and Apollonia in S. Gio. 
Evangeliata of Parma are stiH fairly 
preserved, and well worthy of at- 
tention. — Ed.] 

[An important contemporary of 
Correggio's was Lorenzo Ldon-Brwno 
[born at Mantua, in 1489 ; journey- 
man to Perugino in 1504 ; 1511 
warder of Mantua. Still living in 
1531. — Ed.], who appears partly as 
his follower. The only pictures by 
him are in the possession of Count j 
Rizzini at Turin : a S. Jerome, a De- 
scent from the Cross, and the Con- 
test between Apollo and Marsyas. 
The last [now in the Museum at 
BerUn. — Ed.] the most pleasing. — 


Next we come to the painting 
which gives the greatest pleasure 
to the eye — the Venetian. It is a 
remarkable phenomenon, that it 
does not and cares not to attain 
the higher ideal of human form, 
because this ideal aims at some- 
thing beyond a simply delicious 
existence of enjoyment. But it 
is still more remarkable that this 
school, with its comparatively small 
supply of so-called poetical ideas, 
should from sheer abundance of 


Painting of the Sixteenth Centwy. 

picturesque ideas attain the same 
position in general esteem as all 
other schools, and far surpass the 
greater number. Is this simply 
the consequence of the pleasure of 
the eyes ? or does the empire of 
poetry extend far down into those 
regions which we laymen allow to 
picturesque execution alone? Is 
there not something of the same 
mystic effect which Correggio pro- 
duces by the charm of sensuous 
costume made real by space and 
light ? With the Venetians, who 
were not exempt from his influ- 
ence (even Titian), this is certainly 
the chief object, only without the 
mobility essential to Correggio; 
their types are less capable of sen- 
timent, but in the highest degree 
capable of enjoyment. The sur- 
passing excellence of their colouring 
is proverbial ; even in the painters 
of the preceding generation it had 
attained very high excellence, but 
now it shone forth in perfection. 
The chief study in this department 
was clearly twofold : on one side 
realistic, in as far as aU play of 
light, colour, and surface was 
studied and represented anew from 
nature, so that, for instance, the 
imitation of the materials of the 
drapery is complete ; on the other 
hand, the human eye is accurately 
tested as to its power of charming 
and being charmed. What the 
mere spectator is unconscious of 
is here better known to the painter 
than in other schools. 

Accordingly, it is easy to divine 
what subjects are most success- 
fully treated by these masters. 
The closer they keep to these lines 
the greater they are, the more 
forcible the impressions which they 

Among the pupils of Giovanni 
Bellini, who are the chief ex- 
ponents of the new development, 
Giorgione (properly Barbarelli) 
(1477 (?)— 1511) does this in a pe- 

culiarly impressive though one- 
sided manner. 

The vivifying of single charac- 
ters by a lofty, distinctive concep- 
tion, by the charm of the most 
perfect pictorial execution, had ad- 
vanced so far in the former period 
that a special treatment of such 
characters could no longer be dis- 
pensed with. Just as the preceding 
period was already able to give its 
best in the half-length portraits of 
the Madonna with Saints, so now 
Giorgione gives us pictures of the 
same kind of a profane or poetic 
character, and also single half- 
lengths, which are hardly to be dis- 
tinguished from actual portraits. 
He is the patriarch of this style, 
which, at a later time, played so 
great a part in all modem painting. 
However, he paints costumed half- 
length figures, not because whole 
figures would have been too diffi- 
cult for him, but because in them 
he was able to give a permanent 
life — a complete poetical subject. 
Venice at this time gave little em- 
ployment for narrative and dra- 
matic painting ; we miss the great 
fresco works of Rome and Florence ; 
but the result of superabundance 
in a particular form of art, was to 
produce single figures such as no 
other school produces. Shall we call 
them historical or novelistio cha- 
racters ? (The subjects of Venetian 
pictures are often taken from 
novels. ) Sometimes the free action 
is most prominent, sometimes 
rather beauty of existence. Com- 
binations like the " Concert " lead 
us especially to questions, concern- 
ing the intellectual origin of such 
pictures, in which with very little 
an unfathomable depth is given. In 
certain defiant individual charac- 
ters Giorgione is the true precursor 
of Kembrandt. 

Among the portraits proper we 
meet sometimes with those ex- 
tremely noble Venetian heads, 
which externally, by the long 





parted hair, the bare neck, etc., 
resemble the head of Christ in Bel- 
lini, and also in Titian. 

But further, we divine in Gior- 
gione the master to whom the Vene- 
tian " novel picture " owes its most 
beautiful form. We extend this 
name also to the biblical scenes, 
since these were not painted for 
church or private devotion, but 
only sprung from the impulse to 
represent a rich and beautifully 
coloured existence. They show, in 
a remarkable way, how with the 
Venetian the incident is but the 
pretext for the representation of 
pure existence, on a harmonious 
landscape background. In this 
spirit was painted the Finding of 

a Moses {Brera, at Milan) [by Boni- 
fazio]. Compared with Raphael's 

i picture (Zoggie) the incident, as 
such, will be found represented far 
less clearly and strikingly. But 
what envy possesses the modem 
soul to think that the painter 
could combine such a charming 
evening scene out of the daily life 
that surrounded him, out of the 
enjoying people in their rich 
dresses ! The strongest impression, 
as also with the characters of Bel- 
lini, comes from our regarding 
what is painted as possible and 
still existing. Sometimes these 
pictures are slight improvisations, 
with many inaccuracies (the As- 

ctrologer, in the P. Manfrin) [now 
in the Dresden Museum, and cer- 
tainly not by Gior^one.— Ed.]; 
their charm lies chiefly in the 
great simplicity with which the 
imaginary subject is represented in 
an (to us) ideal costume, and in that 
ideal locale (an open landscape) 
which belongs to the true Italian 

[Of the pictures ascribed to Gi- 
orgione in Italy, very few have in- 
deed any claim to genuineness, and 
one must remember his master- 
pieces in foreign countries to ap- 
preciate the extent of his artistic 

gifts. Only one plotvire is quite 
certain and authenticated by docu- 
ments, the altar-piece of the prin- 
cipal church at Castel Franco d 
(westward of Treviso) very impres- 
sive in spite of all injurious treat- 
ment : the Madonna enthroned be- 
tween S. Francis and S. Liberale, 
a youth of twenty in armour, re- 
puted to be the portrait of the 
master. Regarded by some as 
doubtful, yet worthy of the master 
[probably by Pordenone. — Ed.], 
another altar-piece is now in the 
Monte di PieUi, at Treviso: thee 
body of Christ on the edge of the 
grave borne up by angels, in its 
deeply impressive arrangement, of 
the first rank. The S. Sebastian 
in the Brera, with his arms bound/ 
over his head (No. 330), has before 
been given back to its author, 
Dosso Dossi. 

Among the half-length pictures 
I can only accept as genuine the 
"Concert," in P. Pitti (No. 185), gr 
and perhaps the famUy of Gior- 
gione, in the P. Manfrin [now in h 
the G-iovanelli Collection at Venice. — i 
Ed.], and the Astrologer, also there 
[now at Dresden ; see antea]. The 
Luteplayer, and a Lady in a light 
dress and toque, once in the P.j 
Manfrin, are insignificant and un- 
authentic ; the Saul with Goliath's 
head, in the P. Borghese, room 5, k 
No. 13, is, when rightly examined, 
a Pietro della Vecchia. The Elnight 
in armour, with his squire, in the 
Uffizi (No. 571, said to be the 2 
General Gattamelata), is North 
Italian, by a pupil or follower of 
Mantegna, perhaps Fr. Garoto [or 
yorti^o.— Ed.] 

Of the portraits, the Knight of 
Malta, in the Uffizi, (No. 622), ism 
also a P. della Vecchia, certainly 
better than his usual works. The 
Franciscus Philetus (P. Brignole, n 
in Genoa), a capital picture of a 
student, is most probably by Ber- 
nardino Liainio. 

The three small pictures with 


Fainting of the Sixteenth Century. 

a quite little figures, in the Vffiei, the 
Judgment of Solomon, a story from 
the childhood of Moses, and a 
number of saints above an altar by 
a lake, all painted with Paduan 
hardness and brUliancy (No. 630, 
621, 631), remind us somewhat of 
Basaiti* The Finding of Moses, 
in the Brera, at Milan (No. 257), is 

h distinctly a Bonifazio. 

As to the famous Storm at Sea, 

cin the Academy at Venice, this 
fanciful work,, certainly grand in 
its first sketch, has long been in a 
condition which hardly allows us 
to distinguish anything beyond the 
outlines. Besides this, the name 
in the catalogue (Giorgione) has no 
authority, as it rests on a suppo- 
sition of Zannetti, whUe Vasari and 
other contemporaries and writers 
of the seventeenth century ascribe 
the picture to Palma Vecchio, but 
Sansovino hesitates between Palma 
and Paris Bordone.—'Mi.] 

Among the pupils of Giorgione, 
Sehastiano del Piombo (1485 — 1547) 
is the most important ; we have al- 
ready mentioned him as executing 
Michelangelo's designs (antea). Of 
bis earlier time is the splendid 
picture above the high altar in S. 

d GwvariMi Grisostom,o, at Venice ; the 
Saint of the Church is writing at a 
desk, surrounded by other Saints, 
among whom the females especially 
are to be remarked as most beauti- 
ful types of the school (grand, and 
yet not heavy and fat). [This fine 
altar-piece is considered in Venice 
as a work begun by Giorgione, con- 
sequently conceived and designed 
by him, to which Sebastiano only 
added the last touches. Comp. 
the mention {antea) of the picture 
on occasion of the female portrait 

ein the Tribune ot the l/ffl«i. — Mr.] 
Whether the Presentation in the 

/Temple {Pal. Manfrin) is by him, 
and of the Venetian time, I cannot 

* [Yet the two first are as cleai-ly 
Giorgione's as the last is Bellini's.— -Ed.] 

decide ; but in any case a wonder- 
ful portrait in the Uffizi is of thisy 
time, No. 627 : a man wearing a 
breastplate, cap, and red sleeves ; 
behind him stems of laurel trees 
and a landscape. [I attribute the 
first to Lorenzo Lotto, the last to 
B. Schidone ; the singularly cellar- 
like light, while the surroundings 
indicate the open air, is remark- 
able. — ^Mr.] In S. Niccolb, at A 
Treviso, in the chapel on the right 
of the choir, an altar-piece, the 
Incredulity of St. Thomas, ascribed 
to Giovanni Bellini, is attributed to 
Sebastiano, by Crowe and Cavaloa- 
selle, who believe the altar-piece of 
the choir in the same church, called 
Sebastiano, to be a Girolamo So- 
voldo. Perhaps of the beginning of 
his Eoman time : the Marfyrdom of 
S. Apollonia {P. Pitti); some re- i 
mains of tender Venetian feeling 
inspired him with the thought ot 
not allowing the pincers of the 
executioner to plunge immediately 
into the beautifully modelled body. 
Of the later time : Madonna cover- 
ing up the sleeping Child (Naples] 
Miiseum), grand in the manner of 
the Eoman school, but uninterest- 
ing compared with Raphael's Ma- 
donna di Loreto : the altar-piece 
in the CapeUa Chigi at S. M. del 
Popolo at Eome ; lastly, several 
portraits, all more than life-size, 
which teach us how M. Angelo 
liked to have portraits conceived. 
The most important : Andrea Doria 
{P. Doria at Eome), with a certain k 
intentional simplicity, elderly fea- 
tures beautiful, cold, and false : a 
Cardinal {Maples Mitseimi) : a, man I 
in a fur mantle (P. PiUi, No. 409), m 
with grand features ; this splendid 
picture has unfortunately grown 
dark in consequence of the unfa- 
vourable material of the slate panel ; 
the fur agrees quite with that of 
the Fomarina in the Tribune. 

A grand altar-piece of Sebas- 
tiano's is found in S. Prancesco at» 
Viterbo, left transept, the Body of 

S. del Piomho. — G. da Udine. — Torbido. — Talma. 187 

Ohrist lying on the lap of his 
mother, who, muscular in form, is 
seated in the centre of the picture, 
with tightly-shut mouth, looking 
to the front, a picture of strangely 
powerful effect and most solemn 
tone, of which the composition 
may well have originated with M. 
Angela, as Vasari declares. (Com- 
pare the oriental type of the Virgin 
Mary with the youthful Cleopatra 
among the Michelangelo drawings 

a in the Uffizi.) 

[The visitor to the Farnesina wiU 
have lively pleasure in seeing the 

J lunettes in the Hall of Galatea 
painted with allegorical groups by 
the hand of Sebastiano ; female 
heads of that noble, so to say, 
glorified sensuousness, for which 
Giorgione found in Venice, the 
most beautiful expressions — heads 
of pure Giorgionesque drawing and 
splendour of colouring, clearly the 
first that he painted in Eome, be- 
fore the influence of Michelangelo 
had yet told on the Venetian. In 

cthe Q,mrinal, lastly, there hangs 
an old St. Bernard of Clairvaux, 
the Tempter under his feet, a noble 
head, full of character, with an ex- 
pression of solemn calm, and very 
marked features. — Mr.] 

Sebastiano's only scholar Tirni- 
maso Laureti, in his frescos in the 
second haU in the P. dei Conser- 

d vatori in the Capitol — (scenes from 
Roman history, M. Scsevola, Brutus 
and his Sons, &c.), — shows more 
the type of Giulio and Sodoma ; 
in his later time at Bologna, he 
appears rather as a naturalist in 
the manner of Tintoret ; High 

6 Altar of S. Giacomo Maggiore, &c. 
Oiovanni da Udine is, in the only 
considerable picture of his earlier 
time, a representation of Christ 
among the Doctors along with the 
four teachers of the church {Aca- 

fdemy at Venice), an independent 
Venetian master without obvious 
likeness to his teacher, Giorgione ; 
rather motley in colour, but with 

grand features. A half-length pic- 
ture in the Galleria Mwnfr'vti, Ma- g 
donna with two Saints appears in 
its easy beautiful treatment of the 
heads rather like a glorification of 
Cima than like a picture of Gior- 
gione's school. (Is it rightly named?) 
Neither of the pictures have any 
documentary proof of authenticity. 
Only one single precious little pic- 
ture bears his name, a Madonna 
with Angels and Founders, in the 
collection of Signer F. Frizzoni at A 
Bergamo, of the year 1517. The 
juicy and glowing colour betrays 
the scholar of Giorgione. [In the 
P. Grimani at Venice, there is ai 
ceiling painted by Giovanni da 
Udine on the first story, an arbour 
thick with all possible natural 
growths of the South, richly en- 
livened with birds, most masterly 
in execution. — Mr.] Francesco Tor- 
bido, surnamed il Mora, first car- 
ried the distinct Venetian style 
from this school to Verona. His 
only principal work there, the pic- 
tures from the Life of the Virgin 
in the semi-dome and the upper 
walls of the Choir of the Cathedral, j 
does not belong entirely to himself, 
but was executed after designs by 
Giulio Romano, who was then 
under Correggio's influence, and 
was striving to bring the realiza- 
tion of space of the latter into 
harmony with his own style in a 
manner worthy to be observed. 
[Beautiful altar-pieces of his are 
found in S. Eufemia and S. Fermo k 
there. An excellent portrait, with 
the name of the master, in the 
Naples Museum.* — Mr.] I 

Jacopo Palma YeccJiio (1480 — 
1528) was not a scholar of Gior- 
gione, but he developed and car- 
ried OQ what he had striven after ; 
in him the painting of life seems to 
have attained its highest comple- 
tion. He is essentially the creator 

* [See the Gattamelataat the UfBzi, No. 
571, antea, ascribed to Giorgione, but also 
by Torbido.— Ed.] 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

of those female characters, some- 
what over rich, perhaps, but in his 
pictiires still very nobly formed, 
and awakening feelings of confi- 
dence, which the later Venetian 
school especially affects. He pro- 
duced with effort, and his colouring 
has not the complete freedom of 
several others of his school, but 
the fullest glow and beauty. Where 
he attempts to give a dramatic 

a effect ( Venice Academy : the over- 
crowded half-length picture of the 
Healing of the Possessed Girl; 
there, also, the Assumption of the 
Virgin), one must only look for 
execution and special parts ; he 
succeeded best in the quiet scene 

J of Emmaus (P. Pitti), where cer- 
tainly the Christ has come out 
weak, but the truthfulness and 
beautiful stiU life of all the rest is 
astonishing ; one can see nothing 
more truly naive than the sailor- 
boy waiting on them who looks in 
the face at one astonished apostle. 
[I consider this picture as not 
genuine, as well as the two so- 
called Palmas, Nos. 254 and 414 ; 
but the No. 84 in the same gallery. 
Madonna with Saints and founders 
in the landscape, I think genuine. 
The Resurrection in 8. M-ancesco 

c della Vigna at Venice, second chapel 
left, is by a nameless pupil of Gior- 
gione. — Mr.] 

His principal work is the figure 
of S. Barbara (with less important 
side pictures) iu S. Maria Formosa 

d at Venice, first altar on the right, 
the head of a truly typical Venetian 
beauty, the whole finished with 
the greatest power and knowledge 
of colour and modelling. Only the 
undecided step, the unplastic flow 
of the drapery, the over-delicate 
smallness of the hand which holds 
the palm — all this prevents the 
beholder from being impressed, as 
one is, e, g., by a work of Raphael. 
Of larger altar pictures 1 am only 
acquainted with the ruined one in 

6 S. Zcuxaria (on the wall of the C. 

deU' Addolorata, first side chapel 
on the right), a Madonna enthroned 
with Saints, recognizable by the 
angel with a violin seen in profile, 
formerly very beautiful. [It ap- 
pears to me to have been a Lo- 
renzo Lotto. — Mr.] The remaining 
Sante Conversazioni are partly half- 
length figure pictures, partly long 
narrow pictures, with kneeling and 
sitting figures, for private devotion. 
The tone is always the same, some- 
times simple, at others richer ; here 
on a higher, there on a lower scale 
of colour ; sometimes with a simple 
background, sometimes with a splen- 
did landscape ; the Madonna iu the 
midst, frequently under the sha- 
dow of a tree — Museum of Naples;^ 
others still very beautiful in thej 
P. Adomo at Genoa ; Pal. Oolonna 
at Borne [a Madonna with S. Peter, h 
who receives the kneeling founder. 
In the latter, a young beardless 
man, there is inimitable truth of 
expression, intimate devotion, and 
also a power of tone and a strong 
solid treatment, in which Falma is 
surpassed by no Venetian. — Mr.]. 
A beautifiil altar-piece of five large 
figures (in the centre John the 
Baptist) on the first altar on the 
right, in S. Oassiano at Venice [a t 
genuine Falma. — Mr.]. The por- 
trait of a richly dressed mathema- 
tician (in the Vffizi, No. 650), aj 
head of the grand quality of the 
Knight of St. John.* 

[A village church at Zermaa, k 
near Venice, possesses a large and 
excellent altar-piece by this rare 
master. Perhaps the most im- 
portant piece which Italy possesses 
stOl, besides S. Barbara, is the 
splendid ten-foot high altar-piece 
of the church of S. StefaTU) at 
Vioenza, left transept. The Vir- 
gin seated with the Child, with a 
landscape, S. Lucia and S. George. 
I hardly know a church out of 

» [This portrait is dated 1556 1 1 That is 
twenty-sevea years after Falma's deatli— 

Rocco Marconi. — Lorenzo Lotto. 


Venice which can show so splendid 
a work.— Mr.] 

Bocco Marconi took his ideas 
altogether from the last-named 
painter, but few have equalled his 
colouring in glow and transparency. 
He was very unequal in his cha- 
racters, but once put forth his 
whole strength in a great effort ; 
the Descent from the Cross ( Venice 

a Academy). His half-length figure 
pictures, with the favourite Ve- 
netian subject of Christ with the 
Woman taken in Adultery : S. 

i Pantaleone, chapel to left of 
choir and elsewhere, are buUt up 
in a soulless fashion ; his Christ 
between two Apostles is, in one 

c (Academy, Venice), stiff in arrange- 
ment and characters in another 

d (SS. Giovanni e Paolo, right tran- 
sept), one of the best pictures of 
the school, with the most beautiful 
nuld heads, especially that of 
Christ, which resembles the Christ 
of Bellini. St. Peter's attitude 
expresses the deepest devotion. 
Above him, a choir of angels 
making music. A single half- 

e length figure (in the Academy) is 

Lorenzo Lotto, half Lombard and 
half Venetian, is an excellent mas- 
ter in his pictures of the latter 
style, especially where he resembles 
Giorgioue ; as in the picture at the 

f Carmine, second altar on the left, 
where S. Nicolas, with three Angels 
and two Saints on clouds, floats 
above an ocean bay with the break- 
ing light ; even in its ruined con- 
dition, a noble and poetical work. 
In the right transept of SS. Gio- 

gvanni e Paolo, the S. Antoninus 
surrounded by Angels, while his 
chaplains receive petitions and 
distribute ahns. Madonnas with 
Saints, more in Palma's manner ; 

hPal Manfrin, Uffizi, he. The 
half-length figure picture of the 

i Three Ages, in the Pitti Palace, 
very atttactive, in Giorgione's 

j manner. In S. Qiacomo deW Orio, 

an altar-piece in the left transept, 
a Madonna enthroned with four 
Saints, a work of his old age 

[We owe the highest considera- 
tion to this master, so incredibly 
fertile, and endowed with inex- 
haustible richness of invention, as 
well as with the liveliest power of 
fancy. There are important works 
by his hand at Bergamo, three 
colossal altar pictures of great 
richness in composition and splen- 
did colouring, in S. Spirito, S. ]i 
Bernardino, and S. Bartolommeo, 
the last especially grand in con- 
struction, and all possessing a grace 
of form and charm of colouring ap- 
proaching Correggio. A beautiful 
youthful picture at Becanati (March ' 
of Ancona) of 1509, of the most 
intense expression of feeling and 
wonderful finish. At Castelnuovo, m, 
sacristy of the principal church, a 
Transfiguration. At Loreto, where jj 
the master lived for years, and 
where he died, there are several 
things in the Episcopal palace. A 
gigantic Ascension of the Virgin 
(1550) in S. Domenico at Ancona, o 
altar on the right, near the en- 
trance. A masterpiece of 1531 in 
the little place Monte S. Gfiusto, near^ 
Fermo, a Crucifixion of sixteen feet 
high ; especially in its pictorial 
conception. His unsigned pictures 
are almost always wrongly named. 
The Palazzo Borgliese at Eomej 
contains, along with the excellent 
(signed) half-length figure picture 
of the Madonna between S. Ono- 
frius and a bishop, room 11, No. 1, 
of 1508, in the same room, the pre- 
cious portrait of a young man, 
under the name of Pordenone, 
dressed in black with charming 
chiaroscuro effect. In the Doria^ 
Gallery, second gallery. No. 34, 
apparently the portrait of the 
master painted by himself ; near 
to it, a small S. Jerome, in a laud- 
scape (under the name of Caracci), 
In the Eospigliosi Gallery, ascribed < 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

to Luoa Cambiasi (?), an Allegory, 
the Victory of Chastity, of which 
the charming arrangement of the 
Ught, and the incomparably deK- 
cate execution, betray the hand of 
L. Lotto. A Madonna, signed, 
with Saints, of 1524, in the first 

aToova of pictures at the Qwirmal, 
over the door, and others. In the 

l)Brera at UUan, there have been 
for some years past three excellent 
portraits. — Mr.] 

In the centre of the school stands 
the gigantic figure of Titian Vecelli 
(1477—1576), who in his life of 
nearly a century, either adopted, 
or himself created or gave the ori- 
ginal idea to the younger genera- 
tion of all that Venice was capable 
of in painting. There ia no intel- 
lectual element in the school which 
he does not somewhere exemplify 
in perfection ; he certainly also 
represents its limitations. 

The divine quality in Titian lies 
in his power of feeling in things 
and men that harmony of exist- 
ence which should be in them ac- 
cording to their natural gifts, or 
still Hves in them, though troubled 
and unrecognized ; what in real life 
is broken, scattered, limited, he 
represents as complete, happy, and 
free. This is the universal pro- 
blem of art ; but no one answers it 
so calmly, so simply, with such an 
experience of absolute conviction. 
In him this harmony was pre- 
established ; to use a philosophical 
term, in a special sense he pos- 
sessed a special mastery of aU the 
mechanicid artistic methods of the 
school ; but several painters equal 
him in special instances. His grand 
power of conception, as we have just 
described it, ia more essentially 
characteristic of him. 

It is most easily seen in his por- 
traits, in presence of which people 
certainly forget the question, how 
the master can, out of the scat- 
tered and hidden traits, have called 

into life such grand beings. But 
any one who wishes to pursue this 
subject requires no further expla- 
natory word. Out of the immense 
number of portraits which bears the 
name of Titian in the Italian galle- 
ries, we shall mention only the most 
excellent and certainly genuine; 
any j udgment con cemiug the others 
may be left undecided. 

There are in the P. Pitti, of the c 
first rank and altogether worthy of 
the master, the three-quarter length 
of Ippolito Medici, in Hungarian 
costume. No. 201 (1533), and Philip 
II., a whole length, No. 200 (1553) ; 
in the Uffizi, the Archbishop oii 
Kagusa, of 1552 (Tribune) ; the 
Duke of Urbino, in armour, stand- 
ing before some red plush drapery, 
and the formerly beautiful elderly 
Duchess in the arm-chair, No. 605 
and 597 (1537). [In the NapUse 
Musewm, the weU-knownhalf-length 
figure of Paul III. (1543) sitting in 
an arm-chair ; the same Pope with 
two attendants (1545), a large un- 
finished picture of the master, 
excellent ; farther, the most beauti- 
ful of all, the whole-length stand- 
ing figure of Philip II., which may 
rival the master-piece in Madrid. 
— Mr.] [In the Palazzo Keale at 
Naples the portrait (1543) of Pier 
Luigi Parnese. — Ed.] One may 
again and again educate one's eye 
iu these pictures, and try to enter 
into the infinite mastery of Titian, 
which cannot be described satisfac- 
torily in any words. Further, let 
us not allow criticism to deprive us 
of the enjoyment of the less excel- 
lent and doubtful, or certainly un- 
genuine portraits of the master; 
there is a great deal to admire also 
in these, especially compared with 
modem painting, iu the conception 
of the characters, the simple ar- 
rangement, the fundamental tone 
of the colour. 

Now follow some pictures about 
which we shall always doubt how 
far they were painted as portraits. 



how far out of pure artistic im- 
pulse, and whether we are looking 
at some particular beauty, or a 
problem of beauty grown into a 
picture. First of all, La Bella, in 
a the Pitti : the dress (blue, violet, 
gold, white), apparently chosen by 
the painter, mysteriously harmo- 
nizing with the charming luxuriant 
character of the head ; it is the 
same person as the famous Venus 
of the Uffizi, and also the Duchess 
there. Then the most noble female 
type which Titian has produced. 
La Bella, in the P. Sciarra at Rome 
J (the dress white, blue and red, un- 
doubtedly by Titian, in spite of 
the blacker shadows in the flesh ; * 
below, on the left, the cypher 
[TAMBEND]) ; and the Flora in 
cthe Uffizi with her left hand lift- 
ing up a damask drapery, with her 
right offering roses. HoweTer great 
may have been the beauty of the 
woman who gave the impulse to 
these two pictures, in any case 
Titian first placed her on the height 
which makes this head appear in 
a sense as the counterpart of the 
Venetian typeof the Head of Christ. 
(The so-called Schiava in the P. 
d Barierini at Rome is only the work 
of an imitator [uo less than Palma 
Vecchio. — Ed.].) Perhaps, also, 
the beautiful picture of three half- 
e length figures, in the P. Manfrin, 
which was formerly called Gior- 
gione, is rather by Titian ; a young 
noble, who is turning round to a 
lady, whose features recall the 
Flora, on the other side a boy with 
a feather in his cap. The costumes 
are those of about 1520. [I agree 
with this view.f In the Palazzo 
fStrozzi at Florence is found the 
figure of a fair-haired girl, still a 
child, with pearls round her neck, 
a heavy gold chain round her body, 

* [Thia is certainly by Palma Vecchio.— 

t [Thia picture, now at Alnwick Castle, 
is not worthy of Titian, but might be by 
Rosco Marcone.— Ed.] 

and a lap-dog, with the name of 
the master, of his middle period 
(1543). Beautiful in execution, well 
preserved, and authenticated by 
the receipt of the payment. — 

Titian has also in some of his 
nude figures solved other problems 
of a lofty existence, and at the 
same time achieved a triumph in 
the pictorial representation seldom 
again attained. In the Tribune of 
the Uffl,zi the two famous pictures, g 
the one marked as Venus by the 
presence of Cupid, the other with- 
out any mythological indication, 
yet also Venus. The latter is cer- 
tainly the earliest ; the head has 
the features of the Bella in the P. 
Pitti. t Figures of this kind so 
often mislead modern, especially 
French painters. Why are these 
forms eternal, while the moderns 
so rarely produce anything more 
than beautiful nude studies ? Be- 
cause the motive and the import, 
and the light and colours, and form 
arose and grew together in the 
mind of Titian. What is created in 
this manner is eternal. The deli- 
cious cast of the figures, the har- 
mony of the flesh tints, with the 
golden hair and the white linen, 
and many other special beauties, 
here pass altogether into the har- 
mony of the whole, nothing ob- 
trudes itself separately. The other 
picture, similar in the lines of the 
principal figure, yet represents an- 
other type, and gives a different 
feeling, because of the red velvet 
drapery in place of the linen, as 
well as by its landscape back- 
ground. A third recumbent figure, 
on a couch with a red canopy, in 
the Academy of S. lAica at Rome, ^ 
is described by an inscription as 
Vanitas ; a very beautiful work, 
but one which the author has not 
thoroughly examined. [Too feeble 

* [Now in the Museum of Berlin.— Ed.] 
t The Duchess of Urbino is of the same 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

for Titian. — ^Mr.] In the Naples 
a Miisewm a beautiful Dans (1545). 
In single figures of religious sub- 
jects we hardly can expect in Titian 
the most dignified and suitable 
representation of the objects of 
which they bear the name. In 
general, Titian's characters, how- 
ever grand and, in a certain sense, 
historical, they are in themselves, 
do not easily attain any historical 
significance ; their individual life 

In the well-known Magdalen, for 
instance, the repentant sinner is 
meant to be represented, but in 
the wonderful woman, whose hair 
streams like golden waves around 
her beautiful form, this is clearly 
only accessory. Principal example, 
6 Pal. Fitti, another draped in a 
striped loose garment, also by Ti- 
c tian himself in the Naples Mtisewm 
[which I prefer even to that of the 
P. Pitti.— Mr.]. Inferior examples 
d and copies : Pal. Doria at Borne, 
« Turin Gallery, and in other places. 
In the John Baptist the lonely 
preacher of repentance (Academy, 
/Venice), the severe character of the 
subject is adhered to. A noble 
head, perhaps somewhat nervously 
suffering, with the expression of 
sorrow ; with his right hand he 
beckons to the people (see the John 
of Kaphael, antea). The St. Je- 
rome, of which Italy possesses at 
least one good example (Brera at 
g Milan) is, pictoriaUy, a lofty poeti- 
cal work, energetic in form, beauti- 
ful in lines, a pleasant ensemble of 
the nude, the red drapery, the linen, 
with the steep hollow way as back- 
ground, only the expression of 
the inspired ascetic is not suffi- 
ciently spiritual. In single heads 
of Christ, on the other hand, Titian 
has new-cast Bellini's ideal in a 
thoughtful, altogether intellectual, 
manner. The most beautiful is in 
h Dresden {Cristo della Mbneta) : that 
i in the Pal. Pitti, No. 228, is also a 
noble specimen. The large fresco 

figure of S. Christopher in the 
Doge's Palace (below, on the stepai 
near the chapel) is one of those 
works of Titian's in which there 
seems to shine out a fresh impres- 
sion received from Correggio. 

After what has been said, it can 
no longer be doubted which among 
the large church pictures will 
produce the purest and most com- 
plete impression ; they are the 
calm existence pictures : chiefly 
Madonnas, with Saints and Donors. 
Thus where one tone, one feeling, 
must fill the whole, where the 
special historical intention is in the 
background, Titian is incomparably 
grand. The earliest of these pic- 
tures, St. Mark enthroned between 
four Saints (drca, 1512) in the 
ante-chamber of the Sacristy of the S 
Salute, is a marvel of fulness and 
nobleness in the characters, in tone 
golden and full of light. One 
special Santa conversazione also is 
the grand late picture of the 
Vatican Qallery (1523) : six saints, I 
some of them wearing a moderated 
ecstatic expression, move freely be- 
fore a niche in ruins, above which 
the Madonna appears in the clouds ; 
two angels hasten to bring crowns 
to the cMld, which it throws down 
in a happy playfulness ; farther 
above one sees the beginning of a 
glory of rays (of which the semi- 
circular termination with the dove 
of the Holy Ghost is still visible, 
but must be bent round to the 
back). Lastly, the most important 
and most beautiful of all presenta- 
tion pictures, by means of which 
Titian fixed a true conception of 
subjects of this kind for all future 
time, according to pictorial laws of 
harmony in grouping and colour, 
and free aerial perspective. This 
is the picture in the Frari on one to 
of the first altars to the left 
(1526) ; several saints introduce 
the members of the Pesaro family 
kneeling below, to the Madonna 
enthroned on an altar. A work of 



quite unfathomable beauty, which 
the beholder will perhaps agree with 
me in feeling more personally fond 
of than any of Titian's pictures. 

Of nearly the same importance, 
the Presentation of the donor Aloy- 
sius Gotins to the Madonna, of 1520, 

a signed, in S. Domenico at Ancona. * 
Single Madonnas with the ChOd, 
in the open air or before a green 
curtain, and so forth, are found 
here and there. There is a small 
early and very beautiful one in the 
Pal. Sciarra at Kome. The ex- 
pression does not go beyond a 
mature motherliness, truly of the 
sweetest kind. 

His Biblical and other religious 
scenes are harmonious in proportion 
as the relations represented are 

J simple. In the Academy: — the 
Visitation, the earliest known pic- 
ture of the master. [This picture 
can no longer be assigned to Titian, 
for whom it is too feeble. — Ed.] 
[Of his middle period : an Annun- 

coiation, in the Cathedral {S. Pietro) 
at Treviso (1519) ; the Virgin kneel- 
ing, the angel comes with a stormy 
movement as if flying towards her : 
below, quite small, kneels the 
founder of the family Malchiostri. 

d — ^Mr.] In S. Marcilian at Venice, 
first altar on the left the young 
Tobias with the Angel, a naive 
picture of childlike innocence under 
heavenly protection. (Of the pic- 

e ture of Emmaus of Titian, the Oal- 
lery at Turin possesses at least a 
copy). In S. Salvatore : last altar 

/of the right transept, a late Annun- 
ciation. [We must not pass over 
the large and remarkable altar- 
piece, "La Carit9> di S. Giovanni 
Elemosinario," in the church of 
this saint. Also the church of S. 

g Mo rejoices in the possession of an 
excellent, though unhappily ill- 
preserved, altar-piece, S. James as 
a pilgrim. Among the many 
Titianesque pictures in Venice, we 

* In the same ehurcli a large crucified 
Saviour, high altar ; of T.'s latest time. 

must mention the little St. Jerome 
in the collection of the Prince h 
QiovamelU [by Basaiti. — Ed.] ; a 
youthful work, with a graceful 
landscape, still reminding us of 
Giovanni Bellini. Brescia also pos- 
sesses an important work of the 
master in the church of 8. S. i 
Naza/ro e Celso. It is a large altar- 
piece in five divisions : in the centre 
the Kesurrection of the Saviour 
with two watchers rousing them- 
selves in terror. The side pictures 
contain single saints ; signed, with 
the name and 1522 [and the travel- 
ler in Lombardy wUl find some 
pleasure in looking at the great 
Christ with the Virgin in Clouds 
(of 1554) in the Church of Medole.y 
— Ed. ] A large altar-piece of the 
master is to be seen in the principal 
Church at Serravalle. The namefc 
TITIAN is on it, or else doubts 
might easily arise as to the genuine- 
ness of the picture, in which, be- 
sides the Titianesque element, there 
is almost as much that suggests 
Lanfranco.t Somewhat less step- 
fatherly was the master's treatment 
of his native place, Pieve di Cadore, 
where, in the church of 8. Maria, I 
is an altar-piece by his hand ; the 
Holy Virgin gives the breast to the 
Child, while S. Andrew looks on in 
admiration. On the other side 
kneels St. Titian, to whom the 
painter himself, at least eighty 
years old, all dressed in black, 
holds out a bishop's staff, f In the 
Amirosiana a beautiful Adoration of rn 
the Shepherds and a Deposition.§ 
— Mr.] Of the richer compositions 
the famous Deposition (the one in 
the Pal. Manfrin [sold a few 
years ago. — Ed.] is a copy of the 
extremely splendid original in the 
Louvre) holds the first place. It is n 

t [Who would expect this criticism of a 
picture of admirable execution, finished 
in Titian's grandest style in 1547 ? — Ed.] 

J [Here on the contrary the picture is 
helow the usual level of Titian. — Ed] 

§ [Both these pictures are copies.— Ei * 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

dangerous to make comparisons ; 
but here the Borghese Deposition 
by Raphael is almost unavoidably 
brought to our mind. In dramatic 
richness, in majesty of lines, the 
work of Titian cannot compare 
with the other ; the attitudes also 
of very few of the figures are suffi- 
ciently explained. But the group 
is not only infinitely beautiful in 
arrangement of colours, but also, in 
its expression of mental sorrow, 
equal to the very best. No trait of 
pathos is unconnected with the 
action, none oversteps the limits of 
the noblest expression, as, for in- 
stance, in Correggio, whose Depo- 
sition has one superiority in the 
expression he gives of light and 
space ; but in essentials is far 
below Titian. The large Descent 

a from the Cross in the Academy, the 
last picture by him (1675-6) shows 
in its indistinct forms and some- 
what careless lines, still a tone and 
grand feeling. In the Transfigura- 
tion, likewise, very late {high altar 

J of S. Salvatore), his power was 
equal no longer to it {circa, 1565). 
But in the middle [the picture was 
exhibited in 1518.— Ed.] of his 
career Titian made an effort and 
produced an altar-piece without 
compare : the Assumption of the 

c Virgin {Academy), formerly over 
the high altar of the Frari ; on 
account of the place being so high 
up the Apostles are represented 
somewhat from below. 

The lower group is the truest 
burst of glowing inspiration ; how 
greatly the Apostles long to float 
up to the Virgin ! in some heads 
the Titianesque character is exalted 
to celestial beauty. Above, among 
the joyous bands, the one of the 
full-grown angels, who brings the 
crown, is drawn as a whole splendid 
figure ; of the rest one sees only 
the supematuraUy-beautif ul heads, 
while the Putti, also sublime in 
their manner, are represented as 
whole figures. Though Correggio's 

influence may have assisted to pro- 
duce this, the Celestial nature of 
these figures is far beyond him. 
The Father is of a less ideal type 
than the heads of Christ by Titian ; 
from the girdle down he is lost in 
the glory which radiates from the 
Virgin. She stands light and firm 
on the clouds, which yet are ideally 
conceived, not mathematically real; 
her feet are quite visible ; her red 
robe contrasts with the strongly 
waving dark blue mantle fastened 
in front ; her head is surrounded 
with rich hair. But the expression 
is one of the highest inspirations 
which art can boast; the last 
earthly bonds are burst; she 
breathes celestial happiness. 

Another Assumption, in the Ca- i 
thedral at Verona (1543), first altar 
on the left, is more quietly con- 
ceived ; the Apostles at the empty 
grave gaze full of emotion and 
adoration, look upwards to her 
who is soaring aloft alone. The 
execution also is of high excellence. 

For historical painting proper 
there are frescos of Titian of his 
quite early time (1511), in two 
Scuole (buildings belonging to re- 
ligious fraternities) in Fadua. In 
the Scuola del Santo, the first, « 
eleventh, and twelfth pictures are 
by him. S. Antony makes a little 
child speak as a witness to the 
innocence of its mother ; a jealous 
husband kills his wife ; S. Antony 
restores the broken leg of a youth. 
(His coadjutors were for the fourth, 
eighth, and tenth, Paduans of the 
early school ; for the second, third, 
ninth, and seventeenth, the Paduan 
Dovienico Oampagnola, who displays 
here a remarkable talent, in these 
works rivalling Titian ; for the 
fifth, seventh, thirteenth, four- 
teenth, various scholars of Titian ; 
by Giov. Contarini, the sixth ; by 
later artists, the fifteenth and six- 
teenth. In the Scuola del Carmine,/ 
there is by Titian only the beauti- 



fill picture, Joachim and Anna. 
The first, second, third, fourth, are 
by inferior Paduans of the old 
school ; the seventh, Joachim's ex- 
pulsion from the Temple, by a much 
better hand ; the twelfth, thir- 
teenth, fourteenth (also sixth) by 
Campaqnola ; the ninth is quite 
insignificant, the tenth and eleventh 
by filter painters. ) As special weU- 
known examples in fresco by the 
Venetians of the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, these paintings 
are not to be compared with the 
great contemporary Florentines in 
all that belongs to composition. 
In the Scnola del Santo the subjects 
also have a great internal defect. 
But as lifelike pictures of existence, 
with grand, free characters, with 
picturesque costumes treated with 
perfect beauty, with excellent land- 
scape backgrounds, with colouring 
which in fresco is only equalled 
now and then by Raphael and A. 
del Sarto, the works of Titian are 
of the highest value. His chiaros- 
curo in flesh tints is truly delightful. 
The picture of Joachim and Anna, 
in the beautiful wide landscape, 
belongs without exception to his 
greatest simple masterpieces. * We 
cannot say that in subjects of this 
kind he improved at a later period. 
In his great Presentation of the 
Virgin in the Temple (1539- ?) 
a (Academy of Venice) the real subject 
is nearly overlaid by the crowd of 
accessory motives, which are indeed 
represented with astonishing fresh- 
ness and beauty. 

Two famous altar-pieces of Ti- 
tian are in the highest degree dra- 
matic. It was a necessary though 
dangerous transition in this period 
of art equal to executing anything, 
that they began to give in the altar- 
picture the legend instead of the 
Saint, the martyrdom instead of the 
Martyr. The celebrated S. Pietro 

* [This is a most exaggerated estimate 
of a fresco, wliich if it be by Titian at all is 
one of the poorest of his creations. — Ed.] 

Martire, in SS. Qiovawii e Paolo i 
[finished 1530, destroyed in the fire 
of 1867 ; the following remarks may 
perhaps recall to those who have 
seen the picture the recollection 
of its wonderful impression]. The 
event is here truly overpowering, 
and yet not horrible ; the last cry 
of the Martyr, the lament of his 
terrified attendant, have space to 
rise among the lofty tree stems, 
which one has to cover with one's 
hand in order to see how important 
such a free space is for dramatic 
scenes conceived in a real man- 
ner. The landscape, above all, is 
here first treated with complete 
artistic mastery, the distance in 
an angry Hght, which helps essen- 
tially to characterize the terrible 
moment. The Martyrdom of S. c 
Lawrence (1558) on one of the first 
altars on the left in the church of 
the Jesuits, an unendurable subject, 
but quite grandly treated ; the head 
of the sufferer one of Titian's most 
remarkable characters. The com- 
bination of the various lights on the 
group taken in the fullest move- 
ment is unequal in effect. (Much 

Once Titian seems to have fol- 
lowed Correggio very closely. The 
three pictures on the ceiling in the 
Sacristy of the Salute (1543), thed 
Death of Abel, the Sacrifice of 
Abraham, and the Dead Goliath, 
are, as I believe, the earliest Vene- 
tian pictures taken to give a view 
from below, "di sotto in siL" In 
reality, this mode of representation 
was not according to the nature of 
the Venetian painters, who wished 
to represent real existence, and not 
to astonish by an illusive appear- 
ance of imaginary localities. Be- 
sides this, they are earthly not 
heavenly events, and hence the 
view from below is only of that 
half kind which henceforward pre- 
vails in hundreds of Venetian ceil- 
ing pictures. The forms are con- 
tracted by it in an unbeautiful 
o 2 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

manner (the Kneeling Isaac!), but 
the painting is still excellent. [Later 
still Titian painted in the same 
form (1559) the "Wisdom" in the 
ceiling of the library at Venice. — 

Of profane historical pictures, 
except a large ceremonial picture in 

a the Pi/nacoUax, at Verona (Homage 
of the Veronese to Venice, with a 
number of fine heads ; most of it 
probably by Bonifazio), there exists 
nothing remarkable except the ex- 
cellent little picture of the Battle of 

i Cadore, in the Uffizi [a copy — Ed.] ; 
the hand-to-hand conflict is thickest 
on and near ahigh bridge, from which 
the front scenes stand out happily, 
• — an episode which perhaps gave 
Kubens the impulse to his Battle of 
the Amazons. One must not here 
expect a dramatic central idea, any 
more than complete historical accu- 
racy in the costume, partly antique, 
partly that of the lanzkneohts ; but 
the whole, as well as its details, is 
masterly in its spirit. 

Mjrthological works must, in any 
style that is realistic rather than 
ideal, be more inharmonious in pro- 
portion as their subject is heroic, 
and more harmonious, according as 
they approach the Idyllic and Pas- 
toral. Titian seems to have felt 
this more clearly than most of his 
contemporaries. His chief subjects 
are Bacchanalia, in which beautiful 
and even luxurious existence comes 
to its highest point. The originals 
are in London and Madrid. There 
is an episode from "Bacchus and 
Ariadne" (reputed to be by Titian 
himself, but more probably by a 
non- Venetian of the seventeenth 

c century), in the Pal. Pitti. Of a 
famous picture in the spirit of Cor- 
reggio's Leda, namely, the repre- 

c^sentation of the Guilt of Calisto, 
there are several copies by his own 
hand scattered through Europe. 

e The one in the Academy of S. iJuea 
at Some, of which about a third is 

wanting, appeared to me (on cur- 
sory examination) to be a beautiful 
original work. [It is much spoiled 
and smeared, yet one can stUl clear- 
ly feel the hand of the master in 
it (??). — Mr.] Another well-known 
composition is now only represented 
in Italy, by copies, since the sale 
of the Cwmuccwd Gallery, which/ 
possessed a beautiful original 
sketch [now at Alnwick Castle.— 
Ed. ] ; Venus tries to detain Ado- 
nis, who is rushing to the chase ; 
a beautiful conception as to Knes, 
form, and colour, and also a proper 
episode of xdyDio sylvan life. Also 
in the Pal. Borghese : the late half- g 
length figure picture of the Arming 
of Cupid; wonderfulhr naive and 
beautrful in colour. It is not my- 
thological, but quite poetical, that 
an amorino tries by fair words to 
gain permission to fly away, while 
the eyes of the other are bound. 

Lastly, Titian has painted two 
pictures without any mythological 
conception, simple allegories, it you 
will, but of that rare kind in which 
the allegorical sense which can be 
expressed is quite lost in comparison 
with an inexpressible poetiy. Of 
one, the Three Ages of Man [the on- h 
ginal is in the Bridgewater Gallery 
in London], Sassqf err aid's beautiful 
but less powerful copy is found in 
the Pal. Borghese at Borne. (Aj 
shepherd and shepherdess on a 
sylvan meadow, on one side chil- 
dren, in the distance an old man.) 
The other, in the Borghese Palace j 
at Borne: "Amor sacro ed Amor 
profano," that is, Love and Pru- 
dery [the old Italian title, pro- 
bably a wrong one. Eidolfi (1646) 
calls it, "Due donne vicino ad un 
fonte, entro a cui si specchia un 
fanciullo"], a subject which had 
been already treated by Perugino. 
The meaniog is exemplified in all 
possible ways : the complete cover- 
ing of the one figure,* even with 

* She reminds us of the Flora and the 
Bella in the FaL Sciarra. 











Yecellio, Schiavone, Bonifazio, 


glovea ; the plucked rose ; on the 
sarcophagus of the stream, the bas- 
relief of a Cupid wakened out of 
sleep by Genii with blows from 
their whips ; the rabbits ; the pair 
of lovers in the distance. Both 
pictures, especially the former, ex- 
ercise the dreamy charm over one, 
which one can only describe by 
comparison, and which perhaps is 
only desecrated by words. 

Among the pupils and assistants 
of Titian, we meet first some of his 
relations. His brother Francesco Ve- 
cellio painted, the organ panels in 
aS. Salvatore; inside, the Transfigu- 
ration and Eesurrectiou ; without, 
S. Augustine, who is ordaining some 
kneeling monks, and S. Theodorus 
in a landscape, in the grand, free 
style of drawing, which is seen in 
the frescos at Padua. [At Cadore, 
in the Duomo, a Virgin and Child 
with Saints ; a Madonna at Sedico ; 
Nativity at Fonzaso, near BeUuno ; 
Annunciation and Eepose in Egypt, 
i in the Venice AeadeTny.'] [In S. Yito 
c (Friuli), a large altar-piece of 1524, 
Madonna with Saints, beautiful and 
dignified. — Mr.] By his nephew, 
Marco VecelUo (1545-1611 [?] ), a Ma- 
<2 donna della Miaericordia, glowing 
with colour, in the Pal. Pitti (No. 
484) [strong, full of transparent co- 
louring, along with feeble execution. 
« — Mr. ], and in S. Giovanni Memo- 
fsinario at Venice (on the left), the 
picture of this Saint with S. Mark 
and a Founder. By his son, Orazio 
Yecellio, there exists little of any 
note ; chiefiy portraits. [The bold- 
est and most successful of Titian's 
pupils was Andrea Meldolla, or 
Schiavone (born at the opening of 
the sixteenth century; died, circa, 
1582), an artist of considerable skill, 
assistant to Titian for several years, 
then master of Tintoretto. Schia- 
vone vulgarized Venetian art, but 
his vulgarity was not without 
power. He was one of the first 
independent landscape painters of 

North Italy. A Portrait of 1537 
at the Pitti shows how early he 
had mastered the Titianesque style. 
His numerous canvases at Venice 
would alone suffice to give us a 
perfect knowledge of his manner. 

[The name of Bonifazio was borne 
by at least three painters, all from 
Verona, of whom the eldest and 
most remarkable, a contemporary 
of Titian and Palma, apparently 
came out of the school of Domenico 
Morone. He died in 1540. A se- 
cond died in 1553 (according to re- 
cords). A third was still painting 
in 1579. AU the works of these 
painters resemble each other, like 
those of the Bassani, and their 
number, with the addition of the 
many pictures misnamed and given 
to higher sounding names, is end- 
less. — Mr.] 

If we consider their pictures as 
a whole, we see what in Venice was 
the substitute for frescos, namely, 
the large histories painted on can- 
vas, wmch were hung up in sacred 
and other public buildings at a con- 
siderable height, somewhat above 
the wainscot. It is important f orthe 
whole style of the school that the 
long narrow picture (from reasons 
of space) always had the preference 
over the tall picture ; even the mode 
of narration of Paolo Veronese, 
who was afterwards allowed every 
possible freedom in place that could 
be desired, was originally developed 
under these conditions. Tintoretto 
first broke through this prejudice 
in some degree. 

These masters then exemplify 
brilliantly how and why the Vene- 
tians of the second and third rank 
are so far superior to the Florentines 
and Komans of a corresponding 
grade. The conception of the ac- 
tion, however humbly they take it, 
is at least quite naive. The enno- 
bled naturalism, which is the spring 
of life of the school, drives them 
of itself to an ever new view of 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

indiyidual objects ; but what they 
owe to their masters, the amount 
of charm derived from colour and 
light, posterity accepts most grate- 
fully also at second hand. (The 
Florentines and Komans, on the 
contrary, draw from their masters 
siilgle elements of beauty and 
energy for conventional use, and 
apply themselves to the prodigious 
and the pathetic.) High intellec- 
tual ideas are not to be expected 
from many Venetians, not even 
from the Bonifazios, who some- 
times paint absolutely without 
ideas ; nevertheless, they do not 
disturb us by downright coarseness 
of conception. 

a In the Academy, two splendid 
glowing pictures : an Adoration of 
the Kings, in a beautiful landscape, 
and a Madonna, with both children 
and four Saints ; also apicture, with- 
out much mind, of the Adulteress ; 
several single figures of Saints, who 
seem to long for a niche or some 
such framing ; lastly, the story of 
Dives, most attractive as a romance 
picture, and on the whole a most 
important production. (Similarity 
of the Dives to Henry VIII. ) [There 
also is the Judgment of Solomon. 
These pictures, which we do not 
sonsider equal to the Finding of 

b Moses in the Brera (antea), or the 
Christ among the Disciples at Em- 
maus also in the Brera (a picture, 
in spite of all its faults in detail, 
its incompleteness of execution, and 
want of seriousness, yet standing 
very high), are quite worthy of the 
golden period of Venetian painting, 
and apparently belong to the elder 
(? the second) Bonifazio. The fol- 
lowing, and many others in various 
galleries in Italy, are chiefly works 
of the later artists of this name. — 

Of the two large pictures of the 

cLast Supper, the one in S. Angela 
Raffaelle at Venice (chapel on right 
of choir) contains a number of beau- 
tiful heads. The moment of the 

TJnus Vestrum {antea), is clearly ex- 
pressed. In the other Last Supper, 
in S. M. Mater Domini (left tran- i 
sept), which is still more beauti- 
fully painted, and perhaps for this 
reason has been ascribed to Palma 
Vecchio, the painter no longer con- 
cerned himself with that special 
moment ; the Apostles, in indififer- 
ent talk, are not attending to the 
Christ. In the Pal. Manfrin (? ife 
still there) : a large Madonna with 
Saints ; two pictures whose sub- 
ject forms the "Tabula Cebetis," 
nlvai K€/8^Toj (a description of 
human life under the form of a 
picture, by the Greek philosopher 
Kebes, a scholar of Socrates), alle- 
gories, which properly were utterly 
foreign to this school and should 
have remained so, as it was altoge- 
ther formed to give splendour to 
special things, not to realize general 
ideas. In the ^ ihazia (chapel behind/ 
the Sacristy), two (very much in- 
jured) figures of Apostles. Beyond 
Venice, three pictures are worthy 
of mention : in Pal. Pitti, a Christy 
among the Doctors [No. 405, under 
the name "Bonifazio Bembo, from 
Cremona," a feeble picture by one 
of this group of painters, in which 
but little weight is attached to the 
meaning of the subject. On the 
other hand, in the same gallery are 
hidden, under the name of Paris 
Bordone (Ko. 89), an excellent Bo- 
nifazio ; Repose during the Flight, 
and (No. 257) the Sibyl with the 
Emperor Augustus. In the Bor-h 
gJiese PalcKe at Borne a practised 
eye will recognize in the Venetian 
room (eleventh), three Bonifazios 
(No. 15), the sons of Zebedee, vrith 
their mother, kneeUng before 
Christ; No. 16, the Keturn of the 
Prodigal Son, both excellent, and 
an uninteresting one of the Woman 
taken in Adultery. In the Oolmma i 
Gallery is the beautiful half-length 
picture of a Madonna with Saints, 
easily distinguished by the S. Lucy 
holding her two eyes upon needles, 

School of Titicm. 


certainly by him.— Mr.] In the 

ffl Pal . Brignole at Genoa ; an Adora- 
tion of the Kings [feeble with beau- 

Jtiful details. In the Oallery at 
Modena; three unimportant pic- 
tures, with six allegorical figures 
of the Virtues (also called Bonfiazio 
Bembo) ; much better is one of the 
most perfect of Bonifazio's, the 
Adoration of the Kings, hanging 
next to it. — Mr.] 

Among the scholars of Titian the 
one most comparable to Bonif azio 
is the feebler Polidoro Yenezicmo, 
[The best example of his per- 
petually - repeated Mary adoring 
the Child is attributed to an anony- 

mous Flemish painter, in Pal. Pitti, 
No. 483 ; a Last Supper, signed, 
in the Academy at Venice. — Mr.] 
By Campagnola there are some 
works in Padua, besides the frescos 
mentioned (p. 195). By Oiovanni 
Oariani pictures are found in 

dhis own home, JBergamo, and in 

e the Brera at Milan (Madonna with 
S. Joseph, six other Saints, and 
many Angels), which, in their 
noble, well-marked character, also 
recall his earlier master Giorgione. 
[In the Casa Baglioni at Bergamo 
a Virgin with Donor of 1520, a 
Madonna, and a portrait, in 
the Carrara Gallery. — Ed.] [In 

/the Ambrosiana at Milan a 
Bearing of the Cross, called Luca 

g d'OUauda ; in the P. Borghese at 
Eome the Madonna with S. Peter, 
eleventh room, No. 32 ; a species 
of half-length picture peculiar to 
himself, with male and female 
figures, in the bouse of the Count 
Eoncalli at Bergamo [dated 1519], 
is very attractive from the charm- 
ing fanciful costume of the aristo- 
cratic people and certain delicately 
indicated romantic traits. — Mr.] 
By Galist Piazza of Lodi, a very 
unoriginal artist, greatly influ- 
enced by Romanino, and very flat 
in his later pieces, there are four 
large altar-pictures at Lodi. In- 

hcoronata: first altar to the right, 

the Conversion of Paul ; second 
altar right, the Beheading of John 
(1530) ; second altar left. Descent 
from the Cross, with pictures of 
the Passion (1538); in the Oathe-i 
dral the Massacre of the Innocents. 
Others by him in S. Gelso, Milan -.j 
at Brescia, S. Maria di Galchera, a k 
Temptation of 1525 ; there also, 
in the town gallery, an Adoration, I 
signed, of 1524 ; a large Madonna 
with Saints, No. 338, in the Brera m 
at Milan. Another imitator of 
Titian is also worthy of considera- 
tion — Natalmo da Mwra/rw ; his 
Lunette in S. Salvatore, near Bel- n 
lini's Emmaus, hangs in a dark 
place ; but the Madonna della 
Neve is a really important work, 
with Saints and the Founder, in the 
Cathedral at Ceneda, third altar o 
right. — Mr.] By Girolamo Savoldo, 
from Brescia [1508, member of the 
Guild of Art at Florence ; still 
living in 1548. — Ed.] There is a 
large Madonna on Clouds in the 
Brera at Milan; a Transfiguration^ 
in the Uffizi, which shows the ideas g 
of Giovanni Bellini {amtea) ex- 
pressed in a new style. [In S. M. 
in Organo at Verona, a Virgin in 
Gloiy with four Saints. — Ed.] [In 
Brescia itself there is only the ex- 
cellent Adoration of the Shepherds 
in S. Barnabas ; a similar picture, t- 
much spoiled, in the ante-room 
of the Sacristy of S. CHobbe, in s 
Venice. In the royal collection 
at Turin a Holy Family, erroneously t 
named Pordenoue, and a hard and 
harsh Adoration of the Shepherds, 
wrongly named Titian. [Now 
catalogued under Savoldo's name. 
— Ed.] A very pleasing Repose 
during the Flight, with a View of 
Venice, in the Pal. Albani atu 
TTrbino. In the AmbrosiavM ati; 
Milan, a Transfiguration called 
Lomazzo (!). Jacopo Savoldo, ap- 
parently a brother of the above- 
named, is the painter of the Two 
Hermits in the Academy at Venice, rv 
No. 258, from the Pal. Manfrin, of 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

1510.— Mr.]. [Paolo Pino, the 
author of a dialogue on painting, 
published at Venice in 1548, is a 
pupil of Savoldo. We judge of his 
style by a BeUinesque portrait of 

a 1544, in the Uffizi, and a Virgin 
and Child with four Saints (1465), 

Jin the Gallery of Padua. — Ed.] 
Par more important is another 
Brescian follower of Titian, 

Moretto (properly Alessandro 
Bonvicmo) [born about 1498, died 
about 1554. — Ed.] He appears 
first to have been a pupil of Saochi 
of Pavia [! ?], but afterwards to 
have taken impressions from the 
Roman school more happily than 
any other North Italian painter. 
In the first place, it is a general 
and OTurious remark (first expressed 
and justified by Waagen, and after- 
wards by Schnaase) that the golden 
tone of the Venetians became, in 
most of the painters of the main- 
land, a silver tone. As regards 
Moretto especially, it cannot be 
denied that in loftiness of idea in 
subject and nobleness of conception 
he excels all the Venetians, except 
certain first-rate works of Titian. 
His glories are more dignified and 
majestic, his Madonnas grander in 
form and attitude, his saints, too, 
at times, very grand in character. 
With the exception of Brescia, 
Italy hardly now possesses any 
pictures equal to the best pictures 
in Berlin, Prankfort, and Vienna. 
[Moretto's pictures in Brescia cer- 
tainly are worth a whole gallery. 
The churches of S. Clemente, SS. 
c Nasaro e Celso, S. Eufemia, Duomo 
d Vecchio, S. Faustina m Riposo, 8. 
« Framoesco, S. Maria delle Grazie, S. 
f Giuseppe, S. Oiovmmi Evangelista, 
g S. M. GalcAera, S. M. de' Miracoli, 
h S. Pietro in Oliveto, all present one or 
more pictures of this incomparable 
master. Among the five pictures 
i in S. Olemente the precious Con- 
versazione of Five Holy Virgins, 
also the S. Ursula with her Train, 

give evidence of the master's tender, 
impressible nature, which suc- 
ceeded above all in female charac- 
ters. In the tender, fair figure of 
S. Michael, in SS. Nazaro e Oelso,} 
he accomplishes a marvel of charm. 
A sweet work, S. Nicholas leading 
school chUdreu before the Throne 
of the Madonna, in S. M. d^h 
Miracoli, first chapel right from 
entrance. The S. Jerome (1530) 
in S. Francesco is injured by its I 
unsuitable elegance. — Mr.] 

A very fine picture, a miraculous 
Madonna in white appearing to a 
youth, is at Paikme near Brescia [?]. m 
The large Madonna in the Clouds 
with three Saints in the Brera is a » 
noble picture ; but the principal 
figure has something gloomy about 
it. (There are also several pictures 
with single saints.) The most im- 
portant picture in Venice is found 
in S. Maria della Field, (on theo 
Eiva) in a nun's gallery over the 
door ; it is Christ at the Pharisee's 
House, the scene arranged with 
severe symmetry. In the Aca- 
demy the single figures of Peter 
and John, iu a landscape, early, 
careful pictures, beautiful in ex- 
pression (from the Pal. ManJHiCj.p 
[The pictures called by his name in 
the Uffizi are not his ; but works { 
by him are found in S. And/rea at r 
Bergamo, S. Giorgio Maggiore ats 
Verona, and S. Maria Maggiore at t 
Trent; lately also in the Vaticanil 
collectian at Borne. — Mr.] In the 
Brignole Palace at Genoa the ex-« 
cellent portrait of a Botanist at a 
table with a book and flowers with 
walls behind, dated 1533 [and 
signed. Moretto appears also in 
his portraits as a superior original 
of his scholar Moroni, ex. gr., in 
the beautiful likenesses in the Casa w 
Fenaroli and the tovm gallery sAx 
Brescia. — Mr.] 

The Bergamasque Gio. Battistay 
Moroni [bom early in the 16th 
century, died 1578. — Ed.] was 
scholar of Moretto, a most charao- 

Moroni, Roinanino and School. 


teristio portrait painter. Very far 
from representiBg a person in 
the Venetian manner, in a festal 
exalted tone, he conceives him in 
the most intellectual and true 
manner, but spares him none of 
the wrinkles which fate has graven 
on his countenance. [I should less 
find fault with the timidity and 
smallness of Moroni's conception of 
nature than with the want of spirit in 
his later pictures and their red tone. 
a — Mr.] In the Uffisi a man dressed 
in black, a whole length, with a 
flaming cup (1S63), and the incom- 
parable half-length figure of a 
Student (the scholar par excellence) ; 
the book lying before him is per- 
haps the cause why the man of 
perhaps forty-five already looks 
sixty. Two other not quite equally 
J excellent portraits of Scholars in the 
cPal. Manfrin (?). Other pictures 
dm the Academy at Veniee and 
elsewhere. [An excellent male por- 
trait of 1565 in the Brera, No. 137 ; 
e still finer that of the Canonico Ludo- 
via) M Terzi in the Fenaroli collec- 
tion at Brescia [now in the National 
Gallery]. Several in the public 
f gallery (Gall. Tosi) there. — Mr.] 
[Other pictures by this master in 
the country about Bergamo, at 
Albino, Bondo, Fiorano, Cenate, 
Gorlago, and Pignolo, others again 
in churches and Carrara Gallery at 
Bergamo. — Ed.] 

Girolmno Bomcmino [bom at 
Kumano, near Treviglio, about 
1485, died at Brescia in 1566.— Ed.] 
was educated and worked chiefly 

g at Brescia. With the exception of a 
Deposition of the year 1510 in the 
Pal. Jfa?»/ri» [now the property of Sir 
Ivor Guest.— Ed.] I know but one 
picture by him, which is the most 
beautiful painting in aU Padua. It 

A is a Madonna enthroned between 
two angels and four saints, in front 
an angel with a tambourine ; but 
in this old-fashioned arrangement 

breathes the fuU beauty of the 
sixteenth eentury. Formerly in 
the Chapel S. Prosdicimo or the 
chapter-room at S. Giustina, now 
in the town gallery there. [There 
is also an altar-piece very similar 
to Moretto, of 1521. Equal in 
beauty to the picture from S. 
Giustina is the splendid work on 
the high altar of & Francesco ati 
Brescia, the date 1502 on the mag- 
nificent frame. Before the picture 
in ;S'. Giovammi Ev. there also, they 
Marriage of the Virgin, one may 
compare it with the works of Mo- 
retto exhibited near, and measure 
the almost coarse power and glow- 
ing colour of BiOmanino with the 
tenderness and silver tone of his 
contemporary. Wall paintings of 
the master are found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Brescia ; at Trent the h 
wall paintings of the former episco- 
pal residence are by him. Fre- 
quently his pictures bear wrong 
names, as the Holy Family with 
the little Tobias, in the AmJyrosiana I 
called Giorgione. — Mr.] [Akin to 
Eomanino in style is Girolwmo del 
Santo (1546), a Paduan, by whom 
we have a Crucifixion in S. Gius- m 
tina, and frescos in S. Francesco of 
Padua. — Ed. ] Of Romanino's Bres- 
cian scholars Lattanzio Garribaran 
has been mentioned in the vol. on 
Architecture as a decorator ; Cfiro- 
lamo Muziano, later, at Pome, an 
imitator of Michelangelo, retained, 
even in his mannered works, a 
colouring at least half Venetian, 
most recognizable, perhaps, in the 
" Granting the Charge of the 
Keys," in S. M. degli Angeli ato 
Borne (at the entrance into the 
chief nave on the left). 

[The painters of Cremona appear 
to have received the strongest im- 
pressions from .Pomanino. In the 
cathedral here between 1515 andii 
1520 Oian Francesco Pernio, Alto- 
lello Melcme, Cristoforo Moreto, 
painted with and near Romanino 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

qiiite in his spirit.* His influence, 
combined with that of Giulio Eo- 
mano, impressed also the Campi, 
the chief of whom, Oaleazzo, was 
quite caught by the manner of 
Boccaccmo (p. 90/). Pictures in 

aS. Agata, S. Agostino, tmd S. 

b Abondio. There are in Cremona 
many works, mostly of no great 
charm, by his sons, Giulio and An- 
tonio, as well as by his cousin, 
Bernardino (the teachers of So- 
fonisbe Angiissola) ; of exceptional 

c merit the high altar in S. Abondio 
by Giulio, 1527, Madonna with the 
Saintly Warriors Nazaro e Celso 
— quite Venetian in beauty of 
colouring. The wall paintings of 

d the same artist in S. Margarita, of 
1547, are cold and awkward. In- 
ferior masters, Thomas de Alenis, 
Bernardimo Ricca, are found in 

iS. Pietro and in the cathedA-al. 
The works of the six sisters 
Angiissola are chiefly in foreign 
countries. The portrait of herself 

/by Sofonisbe in the Uffizi, No. 400 ; 
by Luna there is a charming por- 
trait of her sister, Europa, in the 

g Tosi Gallery at Brescia. — Mr.] 

Giovanni Antonio (^Licinio Be- 
gillo da) Pordenone (born about 1483, 
died 1539) was not a scholar, but a 
rival of Titian ; for the rest quite 
as Venetian in his conception as all 
the others. He has been already 
mentioned (in the vol. on Architec- 

h tore) as a fresco painter in S. Stefano 
at Venice ; his frescos in the dome 

i of the Madonna di Ganvpagna at 
Fiacenza I have unfortunately only 
seen by twilight. They are amongst 
the last works of the master (1529 
-30) ; in spite of manifold exagge- 
ration and want of connection still 
grandly conceived and attractive in 
many respects. The wall paintings 

* [Cristoforo Moreto is a Cremonese pain- 
ter of tlie 15th century. The frescos as- 
signed to him in the Cathedral of Cremona 
are properly described by Burckhardt as 
being in the sftAHi of Romanino, since they 
are by Eomanino himself. — Ed.] 

of the Oafhed/ral of Treviso are %j 
splendid work, signed (the artist 
then called himself Oortiodlus), of 
1520. — Mr.] [Of an earlier date, 
and of the utmost importance as 
explaining the master's progress in 
art, are the frescos in the private le 
chapel of the Castle of Colalto near 
Conegliano, and the altar-piece ml 
the neighbouring church of Susi- 
gana. — Ed.] 

To bring out the higher intel- 
lectual meaning of any incident was 
as little in the line of Pordenone as 
of the school in general, but he is 
quite peculiarly fresh and living in 
his conception of external life, and 
has in his flesh tints, especially in 
chiaroscuro, a peculiar warmth and 
tenderness (morbidezza, mellow- 
ness) such as no other of the school 
possesses. His principal work in 
Venice (Academy), S. Lorenzo m 
Giustiniani surrounded by other 
Saints and Friars, produces a some- 
what studied dramatic effect ; the 
Santa Conversazione, in spite of all 
the various looks and gestures, looks 
as if they did not quite know what 
to say to each other ; a Madonna 
with Saints, also there. No. 486, is 
far more satisfactory as a, simple 
and very beautiful picture of life ; 
there also five Putti floating on 
clouds. [No. 110, a Madonna with 
Saints, ascribed to CordeUa^hi, 
appears to me to be a beautiful 
youthful work of Pordenoue's. — 
Mr.] A noble altar-piece, S. 
Catherine, with S. Sebastian and S. 
Eoch, in S. Giovomni Memosirumon 
(chapel right of the choir). [Un- 
fortunately much spoiled.] Several 
pictures in S. Eocco. In the Angeli o 
at Murano, the picture on the high J) 
altar. In the Pal. Doria at J 
Eome, the Daughter of Herodias 
with her Maid, a fine well-pre- 
served half-length picture ; she is 
a lofty Venetian beauty, and withal 
clever and cold ; the head of the 
Baptist also of a very noble Vene- 
tian type. [A repetition of this 

CHov. Antonio and Bernardino de Pordenone. 


picture by the hand of Seb. del 
Piombo or Giorgione is in the 
collection of Mr. Th. Baring in 
London. The picture in the Pal. 
Doria I should rather consider, from 
the pictorial treatment, as a work 
of Romamino, who in his happy 
moments could produce exquisite 

a things. There is also a Holy 
Family with S. Catherine, called 
Prima Maniera di Tiziano, which 
I consider a yoxithful work of 
Pordenone.— Mr.]. In the Pal. 

b Pitti a Santa Conversazione with 
half-length figures, most gorgeous 
and harmonious in colour. [The 

c pictures in the Uffizi, an excelleut 
male portrait and an improvised 
Conversion of Paul, somewhat 
feeble in form hut glowing in colour 
(long narrow picture), are doubtful. 

[Pordenone's most beautiful 
youthful works are to be studied 

d in Friuli, an excursion well worth 

e making. In Conegliano, on a wall 
of the ruined church of S. Antonio, 
a Saint of 1514 ; the Madonna 
under the vestibule of the town-hall 

/at Udine is stUl of incomparable 
beauty, charming in a worldly 
manner, without heing exactly 
sensual ; there also are two organ 
panels with allegorical figures and 

^angels. In Casarsa there are some 
wall paintings in the choir of the 
Cathedral, with the dignified, 
chivalrous, aristocratic character 
proper to Pordenone, and an altar- 
piece painted on the wall. In 

% Spilimbergo, four organ panels in 
distemper with the Assumption of 
the Virgin, the Apostles almost re- 
sembhng Rubens and the Conver- 
sion of Paul, of 1524. In his birth- 

i place, Pordenone, there is a beauti- 
ful severe youthful work, Madonna 
with S. Christopher ; S. Joseph and 
the family of the founder under 
her mantle, in the Cathedral, first 
chapel, and there also behind the 

3 High A Itar, an immense work, but 
much injured ; but the grandest 

thing which Pordenone ever did, is 
an altar-piece from S. Gottardo, k 
now in the town-haU there, three 
Saints with two Angels playing on 
iausical instruments ; you see how 
one gives the note to the other. 
There, too, a frieze, with a dance 
of peasants taken from the wall. 
In the principal church at Torre, a I 
sort of suburb of Pordenone, a 
beautiful Madonna with Saints. 

Cremona also possesses, in the 
Cathedral, in the front, at the en- m 
trance, a charming youthful Ma- 
donna, with the founder dressed 
in black, and Saints. Unfortu- 
nately, a coarse and ugly Cruci- 
fixion, over the entrance of the 
Cathedral, is also certainly by Por- 
denone. Lastly, the beautiful S. 
George on horseback, in the Palace n 
of the Qwirinal at Borne, must be 
mentioned. — Mr. ] 

Giovanni Antonio's relation, Ber- 
nardino lAeinio da Pordenone, [la- 
boured 1524^1541], appears to be 
the author of several family pic- 
tures which represent an artist 
(sculptor or painter ? perhaps Gio- 
vanni Antonio ?) surrounded by his 
family and scholars ; one in the P. o 
Borghese at Eome, another in Eng-^ 
land ; the first-named a remarkable 
specimen of this kind in every 
respect. [There, also, called Vene- 
tian school, room 11, No. 42, Holyq 
Family with Saints. — Mr.] His 
best altar-piece, a Madonna en- 
throned with Saints, mostly monks, 
in the Frari, first chapel left from 
the choir ; without especial noble- 
ness of idea or expression, yet a 
treasure from its gorgeousness of 
colour and fulness of life ; also a 
half-length picture of the Madonna 
with three Saints, the founder, and 
his wife, once in the P. Manfrinr 
[now at Alnwick], is treated like 
the freest and most beautiful Pahua 
vecohio ; there, also, a Holy Family s 
in the open air with a monk pray- 
ing. [In Bome, Pal. Sdcm-a, No, t 


Painting of the Sixteenth Centwry. 

«■ 8, Salome with her mother and the 
ezecutiouer in armour, holding the 
head of the Baptist, called Gior- 

* gione. In the Pal. Dana, room 5, 
No. 22, a Holy Family, with 
touches of Paris Bordone. lu the 

<> Pal. JBalbi-Piovera at Genoa, a large 
Holy Family with Founders, bears 
the name of Titian ; though hesi- 
tating between Bernardino and his 
brother, I should ascribe it to the 
first, whose masterpiece it would 
be, next to the picture in the 

The pupil and son-in-law of Gio- 
vanni Antonio Pordenone ought to 
be mentioned with him. Pomponio 
AmalUo [born 1505, died after 1588. 
— Ed.]. The most important of his 
niunberless works is the painting 

«of the C!hoir in S. Vito, of 1535, 
almost like Pordenone's own work ; 
stories from the childhood of Christ 
and the Virgin given in a genre 

[On this occasion I wiU mention 
some painters in Friuli, who, in 
spite of their obviously Venetian 
character, nevertheless have a na- 
tionality of their own. Of the 
elder ones : [Simmie da Ciisighe, An^ 
tonio JRosso and Gio da Mel, hardly 
deserve mention, though Bx>sso has 
been named as the master of Titian : 
Bellvmello or Andrea di Bertholotti 
of Cividale, master at S. Vito (1462 
-1490) is the author of a Cruci- 

^ fixion at Udine and Madonnas at 
San Vito and Savorgnano. — Ed.]. 
Domenico di Twmetio (da Tolmezzo), 
a picture of 1479, in the style of 
the Tivarini, in the Sacristy of the 

/Cathedral of TJdine. He is followed 
by Gian Francesco da Tolmezzo. 
A better artist is Giovanni di Mar- 
tina da Udine (1498-1535), not the 
famous pupU of Raphael [Ma- 

9 donna of 1498 in the Correr 

^•at Venice. St. Mark {1501) in the 
Cathedral of Udine, Presentation 

iin the Temple at SpUimberg, Glory 

joi St. Ursula, 5rera (1507).— Ed.] 

Pellegrino da San DamieU (properly 
Martmo da Udi-ne) [bom about 
1470, died 1547.— Ed.] : the Capp. 
S. Antonio di Padova at S. Saniele, k 
all decorated by him with histories. 
In the Madonna di Strada, near S. I 
Daniele, a beautiful Virgin in 
fresco ; a large work in S. M. ie' m 
Battuti at Cividale, Madonna with 
Saints, of 1529. A youthful pic- 
ture in the Cathedral at TTdine ; S. n 
Joseph with the Infant Christ and 
the boy John ; in the Monastero 
Maggiore at Cividale, a John theo 
Baptist ; these two last of 1500 and 
1501. A pupU of PeUigrino was 
Sebastiano Florigerio (Academy atp 
Venice, No. 389). Oirolamo da 
Udine appears to be a somewhat 
inferior imitator of Cima ; a Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, in the ante- 
chamber of the tovm-hall at Udine. q 
Francesco Beccaruzzi, of Conegliano, 
also deserves mention ; his large 
altar-piece in the Academy at Ve-r 
nice, S. Francis with Sainte, recalls 
Titian and Giacomo Bassano. — 
Mr.]. [An imitator of Beccaruzzi 
is G. M. Zaffoni, called Calderari. 
TTiH frescos and panels in the cathe- 
dral of Pordenone show that he 
studied the works of P. Bordone 
and Pordenone. Luca Mon/vert of 
the same school, followed the dis- 
cipline of PeUegrino. Virgins and 
Saints in S. M. delU Grazie ats 
Udine. G. B. GrasH (1547-1578) 
is a Michelangelesque of the school 
of Pordenone. Numerous works in 
and about TJdine. — Ed.] 

Paris Bordone (1500-1571), first 
an imitator of Giorgione, and then 
unreservedly of Titian, is, in his 
portraits, sometimes equal to the 
greatest. [His marked individu- 
ality, so hard to describe, distin- 
guishes him from all his prede- 
cessors ; gentle, graceful, and aris- 
tocratic, almost always noble, never 
severe and solemn, he creates 
charming goddesses, rarely saints 
with earnest devotion. His strength 

p. Bordone — Tintoretto. 


does not lie in the nude ; but his 
peach-blossom coloured changing 
dresses combine with the rosy flesh 
tint and the crisply treated land- 
scape of full green to produce the 
most telling general effect. [His 
earliest picture in the style of 

ffl Titian is the Baptism of Christ, 
ascribed to VeceUi, in the gallery 
of the Capitol at Rome. — Ed.] He 
is most remarkable in portraits. 
His most beautiful Kkeness in the 

S Uffitsi is that of a young man, No. 

C607. In the Pal. Pitti, the stout 
"Nurse of the Medici family" is 
excellent. No. 109. The picture 
there ascribed to him, the Repose 
duringthe Flight, No. 89,acharming 
picture, is most probably by Boni- 

dfazio. — Mr.] In the Brignole Pa- 
lace at Cfenoa, the wonderful por- 
trait of a bearded man in a black 
dress with red sleeves, with a table 
covered with red, a letter in his 
hand, a balustrade behind ; in the 
same collection, a lady in a rose- 
coloured petticoat and upper dress 
of gold-coloured stuff. * Large pic- 
tures of religious scenes are not in 
his line ; in the Last Supper, at 

«S. Qiom/imi in Bragora (after the 
first chapel on the right), the ges- 
tures look like mere scraps of 
reminiscences from the works of 
better masters ; the Paradise (in 

/the Academy) is quite a, feeble 
work ; on the other hand, we owe 
to Bordone the most beautifully 
painted ceremonial picture which 

n exists anywhere {Academy at Ve- 
nice), the Fisherman presenting to 
the Doge, in the presence o£ an 
illustrious assembly, the ring which 
has been given him by St. Mark. 
This work is the ripest golden fruit 
of the style of representation be- 
ginning with Carpaccio's historical 
pictures {antea), also on account of 

• Several good Venetian portraits of 
this golden middle period of the school, 
it is to he ohserved, are in the PaL Cap- 
poni at Florence. 

the splendid buildings, among 
which the event takes place. 

[The large Holy Family, in the 
P. JBrignole at Genoa, is very im- h 
portaut, but grossly misused, as is 
also, unfortunately, in the Tii/rini 
Gallery, No. 161, a beautiful 
woman with cherries in her lap, 
and a sqiiirrel with a chain. Paris 
Bordone's paternal city, Treviso, 
possesses a masterpiece in the grand 
Adoration of the Shepherds, in the 
Cathedral, with the procession oij 
the three kings approaching in the 
distance; in the collection of the 
Hospital a Holy Family, stated to ifc 
be Palma Vecchio. In Venice are 
excellent little Madonnas with 
Saints, in the OimanelU OaUery. I 
Four pictures in the Brera at Milan ; m 
in S. Celso there an excellent Holy » 
Family. In Eome, Pal. Oolonna, o 
a Holy Family, with the splendid 
figure of S. Sebastian, a small Holy 
Family, called Bonifazio, with S. 
Anna and S. Jerome, in his best 
style. Lastly, in Pal. Doria there, p 
one of his characteristic half-length 
pictures, Mars with Venus and 

By Paris Bordone's only pupil, 
Francesco de Domi/mcis, a Proces- 
sion, in the Sacristy of the Gathe- q 
d/ral at Treviso, interesting for 
picturesque costumes, and for the 
view of the old Cathedral. — Mr.] 

We have spoken before in the 
volume on architecture, on occasion 
of decorative painting, of Batiista 
Franco, who had also studied in 
Rome, after Michelangelo. 


In the second half of the six- 
teenth century, when all other 
schools had fallen into the deepest 
decay, the Venetian kept itself up 
to a marked height through the 
greater intelligence of the pur- 
chasers, the inexhaustibleuess of 
its naturalism, and the continual 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

practice in the beautiful effects of 
the method of colouring. Never- 
theless it now produces an 
essentially different effect. We 
leave the work of the whole school, 
the decoration of the Doge's Palace, 
to the last, and here will first name 
the other works of the artists con- 

The first who gave a new direc- 
tion to the school was Jacopo Tin- 
toretto (properly .ffiofriisii, 1518-1594). 
Origin^y a pupil of Titian, and 
very richly gifted by nature, he 
seems to have felt quite correctly 
the deficiencies of the school, and 
strove to produce a dramatic 
style of historical painting full 
of movement. He studied Michel- 
angelo, also copied by artificial 
light from casts and models, not in 
order to idealize his Venetian style 
of form, but to render it quite free 
and flexible for all purposes, and 
to give it new force by the most 
telling effect of light. Fortunately 
he remained, with all this, essen- 
tiaUya naturalist. The forced adop- 
tion of the mannerisms of the 
Eoman school was at least spared to 
the good town of Venice. Under 
these circumstances he only sacri- 
ficed the Venetian colouring in 
many of his works as something in 
itself irreconcilable with the dark 
shadows of the modelling, and 
which also, perhaps, must undergo 
some technical alterations in Tinto- 
retto. It is, indeed, to be wondered 
at that in so many cases his colouring 
was saved at all, or that his shadow 
bears any trace of reflex. Much of 
his work certainly often seems quite 
discoloured, dull, leaden. But washe 
in truth a poet self -justified in his 
great innovations? Along with much 
that was grand, there was in him 
a certain coarseness and barbarism 
of feeling ; even his artistic moral- 
ity often wavered, so that he was 
capable of descending to the most 
unconscientious daubing. He fails 
in the higher sense of law, which 

the artist must impose on himself, 
especially in experiments and inno- 
vations. In his enormous works 
which in square feet of painted sur- 
face amount perhaps to ten times as 
much as the fruits of Titian's cen- 
tury of lite, one begins to surmise 
that he undertook such things like 
a contractor, and executed them 
very much as an impromsaiore. 

There are excellent portraits by 
him, which at Venice could not as 
yet be painted carelessly. In the 
Palazzo Pitti: the half-length of a 
an old man in a fur coat, No. 65, 
of dazzling beauty ; [there is also a 
remarkable Crucifixion. — Mr. ] The 
portrait of Jacopo Sansovino, paint- 
ed con amore, and the one of a 
bearded man in a red robe of state, 
&c., in the Uffizi ; others in all J 
sorts of places likewise very re- 
markable. [Splendid Kfesize por- 
trait of a young Durazzo in the 
Palace of the same name at Genoa.] c 
Works of his earlier time also are 
in general, on account of the fuU 
Titianesque golden tone, as valu- 
able as those of any other follower 
of the great master ; as the naive 
picture, Vulcan, Venus, and Cupid, 
in the P. Pitti, the like of which is d 
hardly to be found in Venice. 
[Equally beautiful, painted with 
Titian's golden touch, a canvas 
with one male and three female 
half-length figures rising out of a 
glory of angels, in the P. Colonna e 
at Borne. There is also one of an 
elderly man seated, with a view of 
the Lagoons in the evening light, 
and a Narcissus at the fountain, 
much darkened by time. — Mr.] 
The ceiling pictures also, from 
Ovid's Metaniorphoses, in the Gal-f 
lery at Hodena, are tolerably rich 
in colour. In Venice, the Miracle g 
of St. Mark, saving a tortured 
slave from the hands of the 
heathens (Academy) belongs to 
this time. In this picture Tinto- 
retto, perhaps for the first time, 
goes beyond all the traditional 



Venetian aims in paintiag ; the 
scene is far more living, and rather 
confused ; the artist tries for fore- 
shortenings of the most difficult 
kind, and betrays, for instance, in 
the ugly Saint floating head down- 
wards, that all higher considera- 
tions are nothing to him, as long 
as he has the opportunity to dis- 
play his mastery of external means. 
(Eubens studied much from this 
picture.) Also an equally beauti- 
fully painted, but frivolous repre- 
sentation of the Adulteress, who 
shows that she has no respect for 
the commonplace Christ. Another 
work, in which his palette is stUl 
good, the Legends of the True 
Cross, in the right transept of S. 

a M. Mater Domini. Also the great 

6 Marriage of Cana, in the sacristy 
of the Salute (smaller copy in the 

c Uffizi) ; a magnificent genre pic- 
ture of 3 domestic character (not 
princely, like P. Veronese), in 
•which at least the miracle and its 
effects are in a praiseworthy man- 
ner placed in the foreground. Of 
the fifty-six colossal pictures with 
which Tintoretto filled the whole 

dScuola di S. Socco, the great Cru- 
cifixion (in the so-called-Sala dell' 
Albergo), is more especially still 
beautiful in painting, and partly 
also valuable in ideas. Here one 
first learns to understand Tinto- 
retto's highly important historical 
position ; he first (especially in 
the large upper hall) gives form to 
the sacred history from beginning 
to end in the sense of absolute 
naturalism, perhaps with the object 
of producing immediate effect and 
emotion. For this purpose he 
strives to attract the eye by beauti- 
ful heads ; on the other hand, he 
does not feel how the misuse of 
the accessory figures destroys the 
true grandeur of effect ; in hia 
desire for reality, he falls utterly 
into commonplace ; thus, for in- 
stance, the Last Supper has hardly 
ever been more vulgarly conceived ; 

in the Baptism in the Jordan, 
John presses down the Christ by 
the shoulder ; in the Raising of 
Lazarus, Christ is seated quite 
comfortably in the corner below. 
Most of the pictures, with the 
exception of the Sala dell' Albergo, 
are extremely careless and hastily 
painted. In those of the lower 
hall the landscape must be re- 
marked ; sharp fanciful lights on 
the edges of the trees and hills. 
An unskilful rivalry with Michel- 
angelo is most observable in the large 
central ceiling picture of the upper 
hall, which represents the Brazen 
Serpent. With the pictures of this 
Scuola, Tintoretto gave the tone to 
the whole monumental painting of 
Venice in the following period 
(from 1560 forward) ; he himself 
took part even in the ornamenta- 
tion of the Capella del Mosarioe 
(left in S. Giovanni e Paolo), which 
was erected as a memorial of the 
Victory of Lepanto, but chiefly in 
that of the Ducal Palace. The 
decorative value of these works we 
have, in the volume on Sculpture, 
endeavoured to define. When once 
style has abandoned the only form 
that is possible in fresco, no other 
path is open but this. In one 
Choir of <S. M. dell' Orto, there are/ 
two colossal pictures — the Adora- 
tion of the Golden Calf and the 
Last Judgment — coarse and taste- 
less. In the left transept of S. 
Trovaso, a Last Supper, degraded g 
to the most ordinary banquet. On 
aU the altars of S. Giorgio Maggiore h 
there are daubs which are an 
everlasting shame to Tintoretto. 
[Since this was written, the judg- 
ment on Tintoretto has rather been 
altered in the artistic world, the 
qualities of the master being more 
fully acknowledged. This very 
Last Supper, in S. Trovaso, withi 
the beautflul landscape seen through 
the open window — ^the Temptation 
of St. Anthony — in the same church, 
and a Last Supper in Chiaroscuro 


Painting of the Sixteenth Gentv/ry. 

din S. Giorgio Mctggiore, have met 
with warm admiration. — Norton.] 

Of his pupils, his son Domenico 
is usually a degree more consci- 
entious in his naturalism. The 
Perugian, Antonio Vassilacchi, 
called I'Aliense, carried Tintoret- 
to's style into his home (ten great 
scenes from the Life of Christ 
in the upper wall of the nave of 

6 iS. Pietro de Cassinensi at Perugia. ) 
[Rather to be numbered among the 
pupils of Paolo Veronese.— Z.] 

Next to Tintoretto, the great 
Paolo Veronese (properly Caliwri, 
1528-1588) represents the more 
beautiful side of Venetian painting. 
He sprang from the school of his 
paternal city which had already 
been influenced by Venice, where 
certain local painters, in earlier 
and even later times, produced very 
valuable works. In Verona one 
finds a crowd of works of his 
immediate predecessors and con- 
temporaries. By Torbido's pupU, 
Oiambattista del Moro [in practice 
at Verona about 1550, still living 
in 1610. — Ed. ], for instance ; in 

e S. Nazaro e Gelso, the lunettes over 
most of the altars ; in both the 

(i aisles of S. Stefano, monochrome 
frescos from the Legend of the 
Saint. By Domenico Ricd, called 
Brusasorei [born 1494, died 1567], 

e there are also, in S. Stefano, the 
feeble paintings in the cupola and 
the fresco over the right side door, 
of the Saint surrounded by the 
Innocent children, who, like him- 
self, are designated the first fruits 

fof martyrdom ; in S. M. in Orgcmo, 
the frescos of the chapel left of the 

g choir ; in 5. Fermo, the lunette of 
the first altar on the right, with 
the Beheading of a Bishop. [Any 
one who wishes to connect some 
idea with the name of Domenico 
Brusasorei, and to learn to value 
him, should be careful to visit the 

jiPalazso Ridolfo in Verona, where 
Domenico has represented on the 

walls of the principal hall the 
procession, la Gran CavaJcata of 
Charles V. and Clement VII. at 
Bologna, of the 22nd February, 
1530, and indeed in a way which 
leaves nothing to be desired in in- 
tellectual liveliness, of quite bright 
colouring. — Mr.] By Paolo Pari- 
rudo [born 1522, died 1606], all the 
frescos, some of them very good, 
in the choir of S. Nazaro e Gelso. i 
By Paolo CaHari's immediate teach- 
er Antonio Badile [born 1517, died 
1560] a picture in the Pinacoteca, 
two angels, laying the Dead Christj 
in the tomb, signed 1556 ; [a youth- 
ful work in SS. Nazaro e Oelso; ini 
the Turin Gallery, No. 85 ; an J 
excellent Presentation in the Tem- 
ple, a very instructive picture, in 
which, on one hand, one sees how 
he studied Caroto, Girolamo dei 
Libri, and Mocetto ; on the other 
hand, one cannot mistake the fore- 
runner of P. Veronese, especially 
in the architecture. — Mr.]. But 
Paolo owes his best essentially to 
[Morando and Moretto, and then 
to] Titian and Venice generally. 

Paolo's greatness consists in this, 
that he, recognizing the true genius 
of the Venetian school, did not, 
like Tintoretto, try to graft a dra- 
matic historical style of painting 
on another stem, but raised the 
painting of tranquil existence to 
the highest truly unsurpassable 
point, and was also able to elevate 
the colouring in harmony with his 
marvellous conceptions. 

His characters are not higher, 
more sublime than those of his 
best predecessors, but have the 
advantage of a free, simple, cheer- 
ful life without effort, such as 
no other painter in the world 
gives. * In his Sante Conversazioni, 

* Wto led the Venetians after about 
1540, to give tlie women that often almost 
formless voluptuousness? Even Titian 
in later times is not free from it ; and 
Paolo has most striking forms of this 
kind. Art has often abandoned itself to 

p. Veronese — Banquets. 


he follows the arrangement of the 
laterworksof Titian ; the Saints are, 
for instance, freely grouped round 
the Pedestal on which the Madonna 
a is seated. Academy of Venice ; S. 
Frcmcesco della Vigna, fifth chapel 
on left. The most beautiful of 
these pictures, S. Cornelius, S. 
Antony the Abbot, and S. Cyprian 
along with a Priest and a Page, is 
i found in the Brera at MUau. In 
the narrator's pictures, the general 
Venetian deficiency in the suffi- 
cient development of the figures 
amounts to unintelligibleness. In 
attitude and gesture, they have 
often something strangely uncer- 
tain, and Paolo must have had an 
especial love for certain oblique 
half figures cut off by the frame or 
the architecture. But Paolo has, 
where he exerts himself, nobler 
dramatic ideas than his other con- 
temporaries of the same school, as 
c one sees best of all in S. Sebastiano 
at Venice, which church contains a 
very large number of pictures by 
him, the finest and largest of them 
in the Choir. [Unhappily all of 
them lately restored. The dates 
of these paintings begin with 1550 
[? 1555. — Ed.], whereby it might 
appear that the accomplished 
young master, who, at twenty- 
seven years of age, was summoned 
from Verona, in order to execute 
them, did not owe so much to 
Venice and Titian as was hitherto 
assumed (p. 209 «). Bode.] More- 
over, the high altar pictures of S. 
dCHustina at Padua, and S. Giorgio 
em Braida at Verona, with the 
Martyrdoms of the Saints above- 
named, are masterpieces of the 
first rank ; Paolo always brings 
down the event as much as pos- 
sible to an " existence " picture, 
moderates his pathos most care- 
exciting sensuality, but it is douTDtful 
whetlier with tliis type it satisfied an 
average taste. Rubens, who translated it 
in his own way, perhaps better suited the 
feeling of his own people. 

fuUy, avoids the excesses of natu- 
ralism, and keeps in this way the 
necessary composure to display his 
colouring in triumphant splendour. 
With his secular pictures, it is the 
same ; the famous " Family of 
Darius " (sold to the National Gal- 
lery in London out of the Palazzo f 
Pisano at S. Polo) is so impressive 
in its effect, becaiise the pathos is 
kept in as much as possible, and 
the event is lowered to a simple, 
modest presentation. He chooses 
especially such incidents as ap- 
proach ceremonial pictures, like 
the Adoration of the Kings (Brera g 
at milau), the Queen of Sheba 
(with the features of Elizabeth of 
England), Uffizi ; another of the A 
same subject (in the Gallery at 
Turin) ; his proper ceremonial pic- i 
tures we shall become acquainted 
with in the Ducal Palace. We 
pass over all the weak narrative 
pictures ; the colouring also is 
generally inferior in them. (An 
unfortunate red, for instance, has 
often consumed all the glazing.) 
Paolo never, indeed, becomes rude 
like Tintoretto, but very careless. 
The history of Judith {Pal. Bri-j 
gnole at Genoa) is at least still a 
splendid picture in colour. 

The most famous are Paolo's 
Festivals, of which he has painted 
a number from the smallest size up 
to quite colossal proportions. They 
come out as the necessary and 
highest product of painting of life, 
which here shakes off the last fet- 
ters of the historical picture, and 
only requires the remains of a pre- 
text to celebrate all the splen- 
dour and glory of the earth in 
unrestrained rejoicing ; above aU, a 
beautiful and free human race in 
full enjoyment of their existence. 
If instead of princes' banqueting 
halls Paolo had had to paint Bac- 
chanalia, he might have showed 
himself incompetent in ideal draw- 
ing and composition, as well as in 
feeling ; but as he painted for re- 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

feotories of cloisters, a biblical 
banquet offered itself as a safe 
basis on which he could bring out 
the subject of the ceremony by 
most beautiful enlivenments in de- 
tails. The most gorgeous arohitec- 
turallocalities and perspective views 
form the scene, in which the seated 
company and the lively episodes can 
extend themselves with full rich- 
ness, and yet without crowding. 
The best and largest of these pic- 
tures (in the Louvre) are perhaps the 
first paintings in the world in re- 
gard of so-called pictorial keeping, 
in the perfect harmony of a scale of 
colours,* otherwise for the most 
part unknown ; yet the scale of 
marveEous types of noble person- 
alities, united in one whole, is 
essentially a stiU greater marvel. 
The sacred personages, and the 
events connected with them, re- 
main, indeed, of secondary import- 
ance, t 

Venice possesses one other mas- 
ter-piece of this kind ; the Feast of 
Levi, according to St. Mark, ii. 14, 

a and Luke v. 27 (Academy). A 
Marriage of Cana, in the Brera at 

t Milan. There also, Christ in the 
House of the Pharisee ; in the last 
scene, Luke vii. 31, sometimes the 
feast is quite in the back ground 
compared with the episode of the 
sinning woman who wipes the feet 
of Christ. So in the splendid pio- 

c ture in the Twin Gallery. After 
Paolo's death his heirs made use of 
his motives for similar pictures : a 
large unpleasant feast in the house 

doi the Pharisee ia. iih^ Academy lA 

* The very various partly oriental cos- 
tumes are not introduced for the Bake 
of romantic effect, but in order to have 
greater freedom in working out the im- 
mense problem of colour. 

t How the master had to answer for 
himself for his secular conception of 
biblical subjects before the Tribunal of 
the Holy OfUce, which took objection to 
"fools, drunken Germans, dwarfs, and 
other follies," and how he excused him- 
self, is delightful to read. See Jahrb. der 
Wisaenschaft, 1868. 

Venice. Paolo himself when he 
once depicted the Last Supper {S. e 
GiuKa/no, chapel left of the choir), 
fell almost into the same triviality 
as Tintoretto. 

[An excellent double portrait of 
the year 1557, one of his first works 
in Venice, in the Torrigiam Gallery, / 
at Florence. Masterly frescos in 
the Villa Maser near Treviso, the g 
only ones till now preserved ; alle- 
gories on the ceilings, landscapes 
painted by his scholars on the walls ; 
the whole very interesting. — Bode.] 

[Paolo's immediate pupils and 
followers do not deserve quite to 
be passed over in silence. Besides, 
his brother Benedetto, and his sons 
Oarletto and Gabriele, there fol- 
lowed in his steps Benfatto (called 
dal Friso) his nephew, and his rela- 
tive Mafieo Yerona, but particu- 
larly the far more important Oiam- 
iattista Zelotti, and the excellent 
Fra/ncesco Montemezamo, both from 
Verona; lastly, Antonio Vassilacchi 
from Perugia (seep. 2086),andffi(»i- 
antonio Fasolo from Vicenza. — ^Mr.] 

While Paolo carried out the 
painting of life up to its very high- 
est development, the lower ones 
could not remain absent. The 
genre picture which had already, 
since Giorgione's time, followed 
the romance picture, in numerous 
single cases, becomes a special line 
in Jacopo Bcossano (properly da 
Ponte, 1510-1592), and his sons. 
In colouring, obviously formed 
after the best masters [Bonifazio. — 
Ed.] though very unequal (varying 
from glowing to quite dull), this 
famUy is always delightful through 
their rustic idyls in quiet land- 
scapes, in which a parable of Christ 
on one of the four seasons, or a 
myth, or something of the kind, are 
less the subject than the pretext 
for a picture. The flocks of sheep 
and the implements by which the 
feet of the persona working are 
almost always hidden, are often 

Talma Giovine. 


painted in a masterly manner. But 
a great deal is mere workmanship. 

a In the Uffizi there are some better 
things, such as the Family Concert. 
Two of the sons, Lemid/ro and FraTi- 
cesco, have also painted great pic- 
tures of sacred subjects, sometimes 
naive and touching in expression, 
biit overcrowded, planned with 
harsh effects of light, and coarsely 

b drawn. (Deposition, in the Uffizi ; 
!E{aising of Lazarus, in the Academy 

c at Venice ; Last Supper, in S. M. 

d Formosa, right transept ; Preaching 
of John the Baptist in S. Giacomo 

e deW Orio, right transept, and Ma- 
donna with Saints, there also, near 
the first altar on the left ; Martyr- 

/dom of St. Catharine in P. PUti ; 
Assumption on the high altar of 

g S. Luigi dei Francesi at Borne, 

h Lastly, in the PinaooUca of Vioen- 
za, a large semicircular Presenta- 
tion : S. Mark and S. Laurence 
present two kneeling magistrates to 
the Madonna, an excellent work, 
[by Jacopo Bassauo, 1572. — Ed.]) 

[Any one who wishes thoroughly 
to study the artist family of Da 
PoTiie and follow out their develop- 
ment, should visit their native 
town Bassano at the foot of the 

iCadore Alps. The Town OalUry 
here possesses a large altar-piece of 
the old Francesco da Ponte of 1509, 
with a beautiful landscape ; related 
to B. Montagua, to whose school he 
probably belongs. Also youthful 
pictures of his son Jacopo, who 
brought the name of Bassano into 
renown ; quite different from the 
generally known works of the 
master, large Biblical compositions, 
solemn and dignified, most like 
Bonifazio, A splendid picture of 
Jacopo'smaturesttime, Rest during 
the Flight, with Shepherds ador- 
ning, in the Ambrosiana at Milan, — • 

The decay of the Venetian school 
is represented by Jacopo Pahna 
Giovine (1544 to about 1628), an 
unconscientious painter of great ta- 

lent. His capability is shown by 
his Raising of Lazarus in the Ab- h 
bazia (Chapel behind the Sacristy). 
His remaiuing works, with which 
Venice swarms, are almost entirely 
improvisations. Any one who exa- 
mines them will find along with 
the contemptible mannerisms bor- 
rowed from Tintoretto here and 
there a good idea, and beautiful 
pieces of colour, but, as a whole, 
they do not repay this study. Ales- 
saridro Va/rotari, surnamed Pado- 
vanino, was far more honest (1590- 
1650), really striving after the 
true object of art, but he did not 
get beyond the imitation of Titian 
and Paolo, and mixed with these 
studies a somewhat lifeless idealism. 
Still his Marriage of Cana (Aca- 1 
demy) is a very considerable and 
beautiful work. 

Still later oa some individual 
talents strengthened themselves by 
the example of Paolo, and in happy 
moments produced very pleasing 
works, such are Lazzarini, Angeli, 
Fumiami, also Tiepolo (died 1769), 
when he does not degenerate into 
daubing. Among other things by 
Fumiani (died 1710) the immense 
ceiling-painting in S. Pantaleone is m 
remarkable, which consists no 
longer in many single framed pic- 
tures, but in one large composition 
with a perspective arrangement in 
Pozzo's manner, for the rest not 
painted al fresco but on surfaces of 
linen nailed up ; it contains the Acts 
andtheGloryofS. Pantaloon. Pietro 
Liberi is very much influenced in 
his forms by Pietro da Cortona, 
His pupil was Carlo Lotti (died 
1698). The best of Piazzetta's genre 
pictures, as also of the landscapes 
by the two Canaletti, must be 
sought for out of Venice and Italy. 
(The large view of Turin, by Oana- 
letti's nephew, Bernardo Sellotti, in n 
the Gallery there, ) Of the brilliant 
Orbetto (properly Alessandro Turchi 
from Verona) but little is found in 
I public galleries and churches. 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

Ab the oldest Venetian painting 
has immortalized itself in the 
Church of St. Mark, so the latest, 
that of the followers of Titian, has 
perpetuated itself in the Ducal Pa- 
lace (rooms on the second story). 
The decorative arrangement and 
framing was described above ; here 
the essential question is bow the 
artists conceived the general ques- 
tion, the glorification of Venice. 

a Already, in the Atrio Quadrato, 
Tintoretto meets us with one of 
those votive pictures (on the ceil- 
ing) which represent the Doges 
surrounded witii saints and allego- 
ries, of which below. The perspec- 
tive view from below, which hence- 
forth we shall find carried out in 
the ceiling pictures of all the rooms, 
is even in the floating figures 
usually not real perspective but a 
sort of oblique view. It was a 
puestion whether, on ceilings espe- 
cially, and in general on flat sur- 
faces, figure subjects were suitable, 
or if they were so, and were carried 
out with great richness of compo- 
sition, whether the usual simple 
front view and ideal, severe com- 
position did not deserve to be pre- 
ferred to groups artificially set and 
arranged for purposes of fllusion ; 
natural incidents in any case re- 
main in such ceiling pictures incre- 
dible, and heavenly ones required 
to be considered independently of 
measured space. Apart from this 
question of mistaken conception, 
common to all painters, in the Ducal 
Palace there are still great varieties 
to be observed, and Paolo will at 
times be capable of greatly pleasing, 
even of persuading us. 

h Sola delle Quattro Porte, Titian's 
large, late, still splendidly painted 
Presentation picture, a real memo- 
rial of the counter reformation ; the 
Doge, Antonio Grimani, kneeling 
before Faith appearing in full glory. 
The Battle painters of this and other 
rooms, by their fanciful conception 
and episodes of every kind, threw 

the historical elements in their 
subjects entirely into the shade. 
The Ceremonial pictures, important 
as may be the facts they represent, 
as, for instance, the aUiance with 
Persia (Eeception of the Persian 
Ambassador, by Carh Caliari), are 
dramatically quite empty. So also 
the Reception of Henry IIL by 
Andrea Viceniino. For this sort of 
conception is required the cheerful 
industry of a Carpaccio, in whom 
one willingly forgives the absence of 
the higher dramatic element for 
the sake of beauty of detail. In 
Tintoretto's ceiling picture we are 
enchanted with the ceremonious 
courtesy with which Jupiter coming 
out of Oljrmpus peopled with godi 
raises Venice and leads her down 
to the Adriatic Sea. 

Sala delV Antieollegio. The fourc 
mythological waU-pictures of TMo- 
retto are amongst his best, but are 
cheerlessly conceived, ugly in 
action ; see how Venus flies up in 
the Coronation of Ariadne. Jacob's 
return to Canaan is a typical pic- 
ture from the same psdette with 
which Jacopo Bassano and his 
family painted hundreds of country 
scenes. Paolo Veronese : The Eape 
of Europa, a most beautiful in- 
stance of a Venetian transposition 
of a mythology into splendid, 
gracefully sensuous realism. The 
presentiment of the strange journey, 
the hasty toilet for which the Putti 
bring flowers and garlands, form a 
splendid moment. On the ceihne 
is a Venice enthroned by Paolo, ai 
fresco, the only political picture in 
this room, where the Venetian 
State elsewhere only looks for the 
greatest beauty that lies within 
reach of her artists at that time. 

Sala del Collegio. Tintoretto' siavxi 
large votive pictures of the Doges, 
who, mostly very old, kneel in their 
half Byzantine robes of office before 
the Madonna or Christ, and are 
presented by numerous Saints. 
Their severe ceremonial devotion 

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Ducal Palace. 


would suit mosaics better than the : 
often very emotional and animated 
Sante Conversazioni, in which, 
here and elsewhere, allegorical 
personages move and act. For the 
rest, the long narrow shape is not 
favourable to the supernatural sub- 
jects ; the visions must descend to 
the flat earth. PcmIo Veronese 
shows much greater warmth in 
more grateful subjects (back wall) : 
his Conqueror of Lepanto, Sebas- 
tian Veniero, approaches in lively 
enthusiasm, and is presented to 
Christ floating downwards by his 
attendants, St. Mark, Venezia, 
Faith, Sta. Justina. All the eleven 
pictures, and six chiaroscuri of the 
ceiling are quite among Paolo's 
most beautiful and freshest paint- 
ings : here, among others, is again 
a Venice enthroned, with two other 
goddesses, which show how well 
Paolo could manage the views from 
below ; he gave in a most masterly 
way to his lovely little plump heads 
the charms of grace and chiar- 

a Sola del Senate, or dei Pregadi. 
Here Tmtoretto and Palma Cfiovme 
continue their votive pictures ; 
among others, a Pietk floating down 
on clouds, adored by two Doges. 
Palma's Allegory of the League of 
Cambray is the extreme of absur- 
dity; the woman riding on the 
bull represents "allied Europe." 
Another specimen of orthodoxy, by 
Tommaso Dolabella [pupil of 
Aliense] : the Doge and Procura- 
tors adore the Host, which stands 
on an altar surrounded by priests 
and poor people. 

Tintoretto's ceiling-picture shows 
how Michelangelo misled him ; in 
place of Paolo's naimU and sense 
of perspective, we have a wild con- 
fusion of floating figures. 

J Anti-chiesetta .- good pictures by 
Bonifatdo and Tmtoretto; concern- 
ing Titian's S. Christopher, see 
p. 192/. 

e Sala del Consiglio de' Died : 

Large ceremonial pictures, like 
friezes, by Leandro Bassano, Marco 
Vecellio, and Aliense, in whose 
' ' Adoration of the Kings " the 
Procession, baggage and episodes 
take up two-thirds of the space. 
Many very beautiful details. In 
the ceiling the centre picture is 
wanting ; round about the beauti- 
fully painted allegories which one 
might ascribe altogether to Paolo, 
to whom however only the old man 
with the charming young woman 
belongs ; the rest is by the little 
known Ponchvtw, called Baxzaceo or 
Bozzato. [Very little is by him ; a 
good deal by Paolo himself; and 
for the rest the best is by Oiambat- 
tista Zelotti, frequently confounded 
with P. Veronese. — Mr.] 

Sala delta Bussola : The Surren- d 
ders of Brescia and Bergamo, with 
good episodes, by Aliense. 

In the Sala de' Owpi, inferiors 
allegorical paintings. 

Still we find no Roman history, 
which elsewhere is so unavoidable 
in Italian public buildings. The 
Venetians felt a just and magnifi- 
cent pride, that in the Ducal Palace 
of Venice it should not be needed. 

Sala, del Maggior Consiglio : In T 
historical waU-piotures, the subject 
(almost always ceremonious and 
battles) is overpowered in general 
byaocessories. The throngs of people 
and frays, arranged without feeling 
for lines, and without true simpli- 
city, soon weary the eye. The cor- 
rupter of art, Federigo Zucearo, has 
also introduced himself here. Tin- 
toretto's colossal Paradise, doubt- 
less, was then considered as more 
beautiful than Michelangelo's Last 
Judgment, and is certainly far bet- 
ter than the painting of the Cupola 
of the Cathedral at Florence. Only 
the realism of these figures is quite 
incompatible with their assumed 
coexistence in a given space ; every- 
thing is so crowded, that even the 
farthest depth repeats a tolerably 
near wall of faces. In order to give 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

nothing but what is living, Tinto- 
retto diminished his clouds to the 
utmost, and made his Saints float, 
hang, lean or lie on a mantle, or 
on nothing at aU, in a way that 
makes the beholder feel giddy ; 
the flying angels give really an 
agreeable impression of repose be- 
side them. The composition is 
scattered in mere spots of colour 
and light ; only in the centre it 
takes a better course. But the 
great number of excellent heads 
mostly seen, on the light back- 
ground of their nimbus, always 
give to this work a high value. 
[Velasquez, when in Venice, re- 
garded this work as the best paint- 
ing, and purchased the sketch of 
it, now in Madrid. — Norton.] Of 
the three large ceiling-pictures, 
those of Tintoretto and Palma 
Giovane are far surpassed by that 
of Paolo : Venice crowned by Fame, 
^irst, the view from below, and 
the architectural perspective, are 
far more carefully treated; also 
Paolo has confined the allegorical 
and historical part to the upper 
group, where his cloud-life is 
brought quite harmoniously into 
connection with the architecture in 
lines and colour ; on the lower 
balustrade one sees only beautiful 
women ; farther below, riders 
keeping watch, and a populace, 
spectators of the heavenly cere- 
mony ; most wisely, two great 
pieces of sky are left free, a breath- 
ing space which Tintoretto never 
allows his beholder ; and in fine 
Paolo has given himself up to the 
full enjoyment of his own cheerful 
sense of beauty, the feeling of which 
inevitably affects the beholder. 
a Sola dello Sarutinio : Nothing of 
importance, except the Last Judg- 
ment, by the younger Palma, and 
this only on account of the colour. 
Though obviously produced by 
instalments, this decoration yet 
forms an unique thing in art. 
Whether the spirit which breathes 

therein is altogether wholesome, 
and whether the art of that period 
ought not to have found another 
expression in the name of the mar- 
vellous island-town, is a question 
for individual feeling to decide. 


On the whole, and taking high 
ground, painting, with the excep- 
tion of the Venetian school, had 
clearly degenerated from about the 
year 1530 ; it might even be as- 
serted that after Kaphael's death 
no work of art had been pro- 
duced in which form and sub- 
ject had quite clearly harmo- 
nised ; even the later works of the 
greatest masters owe their effect to 
every other quality rather than 
this, as has already been several 
times indicated. 

The scholars of the great masters 
now entered on this dangerous in- 
heritance. Art came to them under 
perfectly fresh conditions ; all local ' 
and corporate relations had ceased ; 
every grandee, and every church 
authority, required for their build- 
ings some monumental decoration 
of often immense extent, and in the 
grand style. Undertakings for 
which Raphael and Michelangelo 
would have required all their 
powers, now fell into the hands of 
the first comer, and were often the 
objects of ambitious intrigues. 

The more sagacious artistsquickly 
noted the level of taste in their 
patrons. They observed that the 
nobles above all desired to be 
served quickly and cheaply, and 
aimed at rapidity and correspond- 
ing price. They saw quite well 
that people admired in Michel- 
angelo less the grandeur than the 
arbitrary fancy and quite distinct 
outward qualities, and imitated 
them, whether it suited the occa- 

Mannerists — Vasari — Sahiati. 


aion or not. Their painting be- 
comes a representation of effects 
without causes, of movements and 
muscular exertion without neces- 
sity. At last they turn their 
minds to what most people have 
always especially valued in paint- 
ing, the quantity, the brilliancy, 
and the naturalness of it. They 
provide the quantity by stuffing 
the picture fuU. of figures, even 
when quite useless or distracting : 
the brilliancy by a colouring which 
we must not judge of by the pre- 
sent condition of most of the pic- 
tures in question, since formerly 
one pleasing colour with clear or 
changing lights was found placed 
side by side with another. The 
naturalness, lastly, partly attained 
by an entirely prosaic conception 
and realistic realisation of the inci- 
dent, partly by an entirely natural- 
istic treatment of single parts, 
which then stand out considerably 
from the bombast of the rest. The 
greatest pity is that many of the 
artists, as soon as they only wished 
or were allowed it, possessed the 
true naturalism, and even a harmo- 
nious system of colouring, as their 
portraits often show. 

For a time fashion required only 
counterparts to the Last Judgment, 
and then were produced those 
crowds of nude or scautUy clothed 
figures, which rush in and out 
among each other in all possible 
and impossible positions over a 
space which would not hold a third 
part of them. The Murder of the 
Innocents, by Oaniele da VoUerra 
a{Uffizi, at Florence), is especially 
to be mentioned as moderate, pos- 
sible in its arrangement, and in 
part noble. In Bronzino's ' ' Christ 
in Limbo," one must at least regret 
its lounging character and the su- 
perfluity of carefully studied nude 
forms ; but other specimens of the 
kind are quite intolerable, especi- 
ally when they introduce reminis- 
cences from the Last Judgment 

itself.* Of this kind are the Fall 
of the Damned, the Execution of 
the Forty Martyrs,t the Martyr- 
dom of S. Laurence (as the large 
fresco by Bronzino iu the left aisle 
of S. Lozenw at Florence), the h 
representation of the Brazen Ser- 
pent, &c. The sculptor, Bandi- 
nelli, also entered into this competi- 
tion, and had pictures of Paradise 
painted after his sketches (Pal. c 

In consequence a strong impulse 
was given to coarse and bold im- 
provisations of historical subjects, 
both sacred and profane. People 
painted everything that was asked 
for, and mixed up history with 
allegory and mythology without 
any measure. Vasari (1511-1574), 
though possessed of great talent, 
was always pre-oocupied with the 
idea of meeting the taste of his 
patrons ; iu his execution as deli- 
cate and correct as anyone can be 
in such hasty and unconsidered 
productions, he did at least not yet 
intentionally violate the simplest 
laws of art (frescos in the Salad 
Begia of the Vatican; Festival o£e 
Ahasuerus in the Academy at 
Arezzo; Last Sxipper at S. Croce,f 
at Florence, Cap. del Sagramento ; 
other pictures in the same church ; 
several in S. Maria Novella ; num- g 
berless paintings, very deficient in 
ideas, in the great hall of the Pa- h 
lazzo Vecchio). 

His contemporary, Francesco Sal- 
viati (1510-1563), has, with all his 
dreary mannerism (frescos of the 
Sala d' Udienza in the P. Vecchio), i 

* The date, 1523, on the picture of the 
same subject in the P. Colonna at Eome, 
also ascribed to Bronzino, must in any 
case be false, if it be there. It is founded 
on the Last Judgment.— More probably by 
Marco Venusti (?). 

t A subject, for which that lost drawing 
by Perm del Vaga must have excited an 
enthusiastic competition. In the chapel 
del Sagramento in S. Filippo Neri, at 
Florence, is a picture of the kiad by 


Painting of the Sixteenth Centwy. 

a certain sense of beauty which 
keeps him from the lowest depths. 
A m ong the greatest sinners are the 
brothers Zitccaro, Taddeo (1529- 
1566), and Federigo (died 1609), 
since they unite the greatest syste- 
matic arrogance with a carelessness 
of form which, with their educa- 
tion, is really dishonest. In their 
representations of contemporary 
history they are endurable, and 
sometimes surprise us by traits of 
great talent (front rooms in P. 
aPa/rmse at Borne; Sola Begia of 
S the Vatican ; the GobsfU of Capra- 
rola with the family history of the 
Farnese) ; but in their allegories, 
unfathomable, because worked out 
on a literary plan, they become 
comically pitiful. (Casa Bcurfholdy 
c at Borne, and Cupola of the Cathe- 
d dral at Florence. ) Another great 
entrepreneur, chiefly in Rome and 
Naples, in the later part of the six- 
teenth century, was the Oavalicre 
d' Arpino (properly Giuseppe Oesari, 
bom 1560 or 1568, died 1640) ; he 
is not baroque, but infected with a 
soulless common-place beauty or 
elegance, which but rarely gives 
place to a nobler warmth, as in Ca- 
epella Olgiati in S. Prassede at Borne, 
and the peudentives of the Ohapel 
/of Paul V. in S. Maria Maggiore. 
The companions of these much- 
admired masters have, especially 
in Eome, left behind them an in- 
credible number of frescos. The 
elder painters, Tempesta, and Mon- 
calli dalle Ponw/ranxe, for instance, 
have left us the many horrible pic- 
s' tures of martyrdoms in S. Stefano 
Sotondo, remarkable as showing 
what art was burdened with in the 
way of tendency subjects, after she 
had lowered herself. Circigncmi- 
Pomarancio, Paris Nogari, Bagli- 
oni, Saldassare Croce (the two large 
h side pictures in S. Susanna), have 
left in almost every church which 
is old enough something which one 
sees only to forget it again as soon 
as possible. For what has not 

been felt inwardly cannot produce 
feeling in others, and only im- 
presses the memory externally and 
laboriously. Sometimes the more 
decorative part, for instance, the 
filling up and supporting tiguiea, 
makes up in some degree for the 

In Naples, Sinume Papa the 
younger is one of the best man- 
nerists of this time (?) (Frescos ini 
the choir of S. Maria la Nuova.) 
Besides these, the always vigorous, 
though often dreary improvisator, 
Belisario Gorenzio (everywhere), the 
elder Samtafede (ceiUng-picture in 
5. Maria la Nuova, other ceiling-; 
pictures by him, and the whole 
school especially, in the Cathedral), h 
the younger Santafede (Eesurreo- 
tion in the Chapel of the Monte di I 
Pietdb, opposite the Assumption of 
Ippolito Borghese, both important 
pictures) ; Imparato (in the Cathe- m 
dral and S. M. la Nuvoa) aU to- 
gether give the impression of a 
school certainly degenerate, but not 
much infected with the imitation 
of Michelangelo ; in composition 
they are deficient in measure and 
in a higher spirit, but also there is 
no false bravura, and the exaggera- 
tion is not so unworthy as in Borne 
and elsewhere. Arpino, who pro- 
perly belongs also to this class, fell 
into it only too easily. The only 
Michelangelist, Marco da Siena, 
came from another schooL His 
pictures in the Museum are mostly n 
excessively repulsive ; he shows 
his more pleasing qualities, especi- 
ally a brilliant colouring, in the 
' ' Unbelieving Thomas " ( GaChe- o 
dral, second chapel, left) and in 
the Baptism of Christ {S. Domenicop 
3faggiore, fourth chapel, right). 
[The Unbelieving Thomas is signed, 
" Marcus de Pino Senensis faeiebat, 
1573." The master seems to have 
formed himself after PoUdoro, and 
has also resemblances to Sicciolante 
da Sermoneta, but harsher. It is a 
good picture, but there is too muck 

Mannerists — Florentine — tiienese. 


brown in the colouring for it to be 
called brilliant. — Mr.] [The crypt, 
oh. of Montecassiuo, atiE contains 
frescos executed (1557-8) by Marco 
da Siena. — Ed.] 

Before we cross the Apennines, 
we must in justice consider the 
good and even very excellent pro- 
ductions of those painters who have 
already been mentioned, and of 
their contemporaries. These begin 
where the false pompous style 

In this direction there was al- 
ways a stream of light issuing from 
the Florentine school, and especi- 
ally from the great portrait-pain- 
ters, * Bronzino and Pontormo. Some 
portraits by Yasmri (his own house 
(ninArezzo; in the tfffisi and Aca- 
b demy at Florence) and by the two 
c ZiuxciH {P. Pitti and a room in Oasa 
d Ba/rtholdy t at Eome, where all the 
members of the family are painted 
in lunettes al fresco) are almost 
whoUy naive in their conception 
and true in execution. Pederigo 
sometimes succeeds in ideal sub- 
jects in fanciful beautiful composi- 
tions (the Dead Christ, mourned 
over by torch-bearing angels, in the 
P. Borghese in Eome) naturally only 
in a very limited degree. Sanii di 
e Tito remained even as history- 
painter in this time, almost wholly 
without affectation, quite a simple 
human being. (Some altar-pieces 
^signed in S. Grace at Florence ; the 
row of angels over the principal 

• In connection with this we mnst men- 
tion the valuable collection of miniatnre 
portraits in oil, which are found in Flo- 
rence, partly in the Uffizi (rooms to right 
of the Tribune), partly in the Pitti (pas- 
sage to the back rooms of the gallery, 
always several framed together. They give 
a rich survey of this whole branch of art 
from 1660 to 1650. The Germans and Ve- 
netians of the sbcteenth century, the 
Flemings and Florentines of the seven- 
teenth, are clearly to be distinguished 
from the manner most represented of 
Bronzino and Scipio Gaetano. A. small 
collection also in the P. Guadagni. 

t Now Casa Montanti. 

door in the Catftedral; the first gj 
altar in S. Marco on the right ; part h 
of the lunettes of the large court of 
the cloister at S. M. Novella). We i 
shall have to revert to those names 
again at the restoration of the Flo- 
rentine school, which begins after 
the unfortunate period 1550-1580. 
Among the Romans Pasqimle Cati 
of Jesi (a large fresco in S. Lorenzo j 
m PanisperTia at Rome) is in some 
degree a naive Michelangelist- 
[This artist, whose fresco here 
mentioned is laboured in drawing 
and hard in colour, is not nearly 
equal in merit and character to the 
two following painters. — Mr.] Sic- 
oiolante da Sermoneta (Birth of 
Christ in S. M. della Pace at Borne ; k 
Baptism of Clovis in S. lAi/igi, I 
fourth chapel on the right), also 
really true and moderate. Then 
also Sdpione Gaetano, sprung from 
theNeapolitan set mentioned above, 
worked at Home ; he, in spite of 
his narrowness, was so earnest that 
he produced a number of excellent 
naive though somewhat hard por- 
traits ( Vatican Library, Pal. Co- m 
lonna, &c. ) In ideal subjects (Holy 
Family, Pal. Borghese, Marriage of n 
S. Catherine, Pal. Doria, Assump- o 
tion of the Virgin, left transept of 
S. Silvestro di Monte Cwvallo) laep 
shows both the merits and defici- 
encies of his national school, and 
pleases by his juicy colouring. 

One whole school, that of Siena, 
especially remained true and living; 
a noble naturalism, founded on An- 
drea del Sarto and Sodoma, enli- 
vens the better works of Francesco 
Varmi (1565-1609) (in S. Domenico 
at Siena all in the S. Catherine's y 
Chapel which does not belong to 
Sodoma ; in. S. M. di Carignano at r 
Crenoa, altar on the right, near the 
choir, the last Communion of S. M. 
Magdalene, &c. ), of Arcangelo and 
Ventura Salimbeni (frescos in the 
choir of the Cathedral of Siena s; 
with the stories of St. Catherine 
and a sainted bishop ; in the crjfpt. 


Painting of the Sixteenth Century. 

a of S, Catherine, the second picture 
on the right), and oiMutilio Manetfi 
and others. 

Many of the above-named pain- 
ters of various schools were more or 
less influenced by a, remarkable 
master, Federigo Barocoio (1528- 
1612), who chiefly lived apart in 
his home of Urbino. His historical 
importance was, that he zealously 
supported the style of conception 
of Correggio almost alone, when his 
owu school of Parma had given it 
up, until the rise of the Bolognese ; 
certainly his gifts were by no means 
quite sufficient for it, and along 
with real genuine naturalism and 
a true enthusiasm for sensuous 
beauty one must put up with many 
affected expressions and gestures, 
glassy colouring, and a hectic red 
in the light parts of the flesh tints. 
The most beautiful picture that I 
know of his, is the Christ Crucified 
with angels, S. Sebastian, John 

6 and Mary, in the Cathedral oi Genoa 
(chapel right of the choir) ; the most 
careful and largest is the 'Ma- 
donna as intercessor for children 

;and the poor," in the Uffizi, No. 
169, in parts excellent in the genre 
style : the Noli me tangere in the 

dCorsini Gallery at Bome, and a 

e small one in the Uffizi, No. 212, 
has also a true naivete; whereas 

/most pictures in the Vatican Gal- 

g lery and the others in the Uffisi are 
among the affected ones ; in the por- 
trait of the Duke Francesco Maria 
II. of Urbino, Baroccio could exactly 
render the small kind of prettiness 

%and warMke adornment (Vffisi, 
No. 1119). A Large Descent from 
the Cross full of movement in 

fthe Cathedral of Perugia (on the 
right). The new Florentine school, 
of which we shall speak later, was 
essentially influenced by Baroccio. 
In Genoa mannerism was in full 
swing among the pupils of Perin 
del Vaga. Giov. Battista Castello, 
Calvi, the younger Semini, also the 
somewhat better Lazzaro Tavarone 

fell, through perpetual painting of 
fagades, into an utter want of feel- 
ing ; they form a specially unplea- 
sant branch of the Roman school. 
Contrasted with them was the 
solitary Liica Oambiaso (1527-1585), 
who by his own power, without 
knowing Moretto and Paolo Vero- 
nese, attained a similar result : a 
cheerful noble naturalism, which 
was a worthy form for the expres- 
sion of the higher life of the souL 
His colouring is mostly harmonious 
and clear, his chiaroscuro always 
telling, because light and shadow 
are divided in broad masses ; only at 
a later time when his ?iai«i^ failed, 
it became duller. His Madonna 
isagenuine amiable Genoese woman 
with nothing ideal in form, the 
child always naive and beautiful in 
action, the saints full of devout ex- 
pression : altar-pieces of this kind 
are as a rule family scenes, cheer- 
ful without petulance. {OatJiedral of j 
Genoa, altar of the right transept : 
Madonna with Saints, chapel left of 
the choir, six pictures ; third altar 
on the right, St. Gotbardus with 
Apostles and Donors. Fai Ad-T" 
orno : Madonna sitting in the open 
air with two Saints. VJizi : Ma- ' 
donna — as a young mother bending 
downoverthe Child.) ButCambiaso 
put forth his whole strength in the 
large Deposition. (S. M. di Cari-'"'' 
gnano, altar left, under the farthest 
backsidecupolaontheleft.) Calmly, 
and without any wild pathos, with- 
out any crowding, the event is de- 
veloped in noble energetic forms of 
deep inward expression — a fresh 
oasis in this epoch of bravura and 
sentimeutalism. In scenes of action 
the master fails because of his de- 
ficiency in the sense of perspective ; 
also these are mostly of his later 
time. Three pictures in the choir 
of S. Giorgio. (Transfiguration » 
and Resurrection in S. Bartolom-o 
meo degli Armeni.) His mytho- 
logical and other decorative paint- 
ings in the halls of Genoese palaces^ 

Mannerists — Genoese — Ferrarese — Bolognese. 219 

a and in S. Matteo (the olieruba on the 
ceilings) stand at least considerably 
higher than the works of his con- 
temporaries ; two mythological pio- 

S tures in Palazzo Sorghese at Eome. 
Of the beautifully formed group of 
Charity (Berlin Museum), there is 
a copy by the hand of Capuceino in 

cthe Palazzo Brignole at Genoa. 
Any one who wishes to learn the 
noble character of the man, should 

a seek in the Palazzo Spinola (Strada 
Nuova) for the double portrait, in 
which he stands before the easel 
painting the portrait of his father. 
Among the remaining Northern 
Ttahans, we have before mentioned 
(p. 202 a) those members of the 

e painter family Campi of Cremona 
who lived at this time, also Galisto 
Piazzaoi Lodi (p. 199A). Among the 
Milanese themselves, Enea Salmeg- 
gia, called TalpiTio, bomin Bergamo, 
and formed in Kome by the most 
loving study of Eaphael, always 
careful, never mannered, some- 
times beautiful and tender, but 
mostly timid and powerless (pio- 

/tures in the Brera) ;— the three 
elder Procaccini on the other hand, 
JSrcole born 1520, Camillo born 

J 1546 [died 1629], Giulio Cesare 
born 1548 [died 1626], extremely 
resolute, brilliant in detail, in the 
whole much overladen ; they form 
the transition to the Milanese 
school of the seventeenth century, 
which attains its special perfection 
in Ercole Procaccini the younger, 
Nuvolone, and the two Crespi. 

In Ferrara the elder school 
passes into mannerism with £as- 
tianino (1532-1602), aweak imitator 

h of Michaelangelo ; Gertosa^ transept 
on the right, the Raising of the 
Cross ; — Ateneo : Madonna with 

i Saints, Annunciation. Of Dosso's 
pupils, we must mention here Pas- 
tarolo (died 1589) ; pictures in the 

i Gesii, first altar on the right : An- 
nunciation, first altar on the left ; 
the Christ Crucified. Besides him, 
the insipid Niccolo Moselli [living 

1556, died 1580]; altar-pieces in 
the Gertosa. Scarsellino (1551- i 
1620) was the most gifted, some- 
times pleasingly fanciful mannerist 
of Ferrara, by whom there are a 
great number of pictures in 6'. I 
Benedetto, and in S. Paolo the 
frescos of almost all the ceilings : 
in the semi-dome of the choir a 
large interesting Ascension of Elij ah 
in a landscape. In the Uffizi, anwi 
aristocratically treated Nativity, 
probably of Elizabeth, in the man- 
ner of Fr. Franck and M. de Vos. 
Many things in the Gallery of Mo- «■ 
dena. [Others in the Gallery of" 
Ferrara, reminding tis at once of 
Domenichiuo and Paolo Veronese. 

in Bolo^a there is an impor- 
tant development of the practice of 
art, which in quantity is consider- 
ably increased by Bagnacavallo 
and Innocenzo da Imola. There is 
not indeed much to be found of 
this time that has real life ; still 
most of these masters possess a 
neat exactness, which is a valuable 
inheritance for any school, because 
it proves a certain respect in art 
for itself. It may siifiice to name 
some of the better pictures. Lo- 
renzo Sabbatini (died 1577) in the 
fourth church of S. Stefano (called .P 
S. Pietro and Paolo), left near the 
choir : a Madonna with Saints. 
Bartolommeo PassaroUi (born about 
1530, died 1592): in S. Giaamoi 
Maggiore, fifth altar on the right, 
Madonna enthroned with five 
Saints and Donors. Prospero Pon- 
ta'im (1512-1597) : in S. Salvatore r 
the picture of the third chapel on 
the right ; in the Pinacoteca a good s 
Deposition ; in S. Giacomo Maggiore, t 
sixth altar on the right, the Bene- 
ficence of S. Alexius. His daughter 
Lamnia (born 1552, died 1614), has 
a picture in the Sacristy of Sta. u 
Lucia. Dionigi Galvaert, from 
Antwerp [apprenticed at Antwerp, 
1556, to the landscape painter, 
Christian van Queckboru. — Ed.] 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

a (died 1619) : ai Servi, fourth altar 
on the right, large picture of Para- 
dise. Bartolommeo Cesi (1556- 
1629) : pictures at the back of the 

b choir of S. Domenico, and in S. 

c Cfiacomo Maggiore, first altar on the 
left in the passage round the choir. 
The above-named, as well as Sam, 
machini, Naldini, and others, have 

<i pictures in the Pinacoteca. For 
Lwwreti compare p. 187 d. — Pelle- 
grino Tibaldi, mentioned before as 
an architect, surpasses them aU 
(1522 or 1527-1592) : he was recog- 
nised by the Caracci as the true 
representative of the transition 
from the great masters to their own 
epoch. He is one of the few who 
remained faithful to the diligent 
study of nature, and would not 
produce his forms at second hand ; 
his frescos in the lower hall of the 

^ University contain among other 
things those four nude assistant 
figures sitting on garlanded balus- 
trades, the excellence of which 
stands out wonderfully in contrast 
with the mjrthological principal 
subjects ; but the large fresco in S. 

Giacomo Maggiore (chapel on the/ 
right transept) is also almost grand 
in its realization of an important 
symboUcal idea (" Many are called, 
but few are chosen ") : among the 
frescos in the chapel of S. Kemigius 
in S. Luigi de' Francesi at Eomegf 
(fourth chapel on the right), the 
large wall painting on the right 
with the Baptism of Clovis (be- 
sides the three smaller already man- 
nered ceiling pictures), which has 
an excellent effect through the good 
style of the figures, the beauty of the 
architecture, and the golden tone of 
the colouring. The wall paintings, 
with the army of Clovis on the 
march and the taking the oath, are 
by Sermoneta and Cfiacomo del CorUe. 
For Kavenna we must mention 
Liica, Longhi, who sometimes still 
recalls the best period in the man- 
ner of the Bologuese imitators 
of Raphael, but often falls into 
sentimentalism and feebleness. 
{Refectory of the Camaldolen^esJi 
in Bavenna : large Marriage of 




After the year 1580 mannerism 
begins to yield to a new definite 
style, which even as an historical 
phenomenon isofgreatinterest. The 
spirit of the counter-Reformation 
which then produced the spacious, 
.splendid type of church in the 
"Baroque" style, required at the 
same time from painting a treatment 
of sacred subjects as exciting and 
impressive as possible — the highest 
expression of celestial glory and 
pious longing after it, combined 
with popular comprehensibiUty and 
Attractive grace of form. In con- 

sidering sculpture, which fifty years 
later followed the course of paint- 
ing, we called attention in 
passing to the principal methods of 
this modern art : the naturalism 
in form as well as in the whole 
conception of what had happened 
(reality) and the display of emotion 
at any cost. In future we shall have 
to test painting from the Caracci 
to Mengs and Batoni by its intel- 
lectual value, and as a whole, even 
though under many forms. When 
art extends so greatly as here, to 
give the special characteristics of 
each painter would take a capacious 
book ; we must content ourselves 

The Caracci and their School. 


with an introductory survey and 
with naming the more important 
among thousands. Our object must 
he not an introduction to special 
knowledge, but the statement of 
Buggestive points of view applicable 
to this period. In the fragmentary 
remarks following on the survey, at 
least every important work will be 
mentioned in some connection ; cer- 
tainly often in a limiting sense in a 
disadvantageous comparison with 
the works of the golden time. 
That this is not done to awaken 
contempt, or to lead people away 
from considering such works, will 
be perceived in reading through the 
whole. Completeness, either in the 
system or in the substance, cannot 
here be expected. 

The beginners of the new ten- 
dency are partly Eclectics, partly 
Naturalists in the special sense. 
The abandonment of untrue forms 
and conventional expressions ap- 
parently required this double exer- 
tion ; areturn to the principles of the 
great masters of the golden time 
and an entire honesty in representing 
outward appearances. Eclecticism 
contains a contradiction in itself, 
if it is conceived as though the 
special qualities of Michelangelo, 
Raphael, Titian, Correggio, were to 
be united in one work : even the 
copying and imitating of the special 
qualities of single great masters 
had produced the mannerisms which 
people wished to avoid. But, 
conceived in the sense of an ex- 
tended and various study, it was 
highly necessary. 

In the new school of Bologna the 
adoption of the principles of their 
great predecessors is almost always 
harmonious and inteUigent. Some 
of their pictures are painted in the 
manner of Paul Veronese, some of 
Titian, and it is permanently in- 
fluenced by Correggio as well as 
many secondary schools ; but this 
relation only exceptionally becomes 

complete reminiscence, and never 
sinks into soulless appropriation. 

The founders were Zodovico Ca- 
racci (1555-1619) and his nephews, 
Armibale (1560-1609) and Agostimo 
(1557-1602), the last more influen- 
tial by his engravings than by his 
paintings. It was principally An- 
nibale, through whom the new style 
gained its preeminence in Italy. 

The most conscientious of then- 
pupils was Domenichino (properly 
Domenico Zampieri, 1581-1641) ; 
the most gifted was Quido Reni 
(1575-1642) ; also Franoeseo Miami 
(1578-1660); the audacious Gio- 
varmi Lanfranco (1582-1648) ; Qia- 
como Oamedone (1577-1660) ; Ales- 
sandro Tiarimi (1577-1668); the 
landscape painter, Giovairmi Fran- 
cesco Orimaldi, and others. 

Pupils of Albani : Oiovanni Bat- 
tista Mola (1616-1661) ; Fier Fram- 
cesco Mola (about 1612-1668) ; Carlo 
Cigrumi (1628-1719) ; AridreaSacchi 
(1599-1661), who after the middle 
of the seventeenth century founded 
the latest Roman school, and among 
others had Carlo Maratta (1625- 
1713) for his pupU. 

Pupils of Guido Reni ; Simone 
Camtarini, called Simone da Pesaro 
(1612-1648) ; Cfiovanni Andrea 
Sirani (1610-1690) ; and his daugh- 
ter Elizabeth Sirani (1638-1665) ; 
Oessi (1588-1625) ; Canuti (1620- 
1684); Cagnacd (1601-1681), and 

Guercino {Qiovamni Francesco 
BarUeri, born 1591, at Cento, 
where there are still important 
paintings by him, died 1666) was 
only a short time in the school of ' 
the Caracci ; later he combined 
their principles with those of the 
Naturalists. Among his pupils are 
several of the name of Gennari, 
the most remarkable of them was 
Benedetto (1633-1715), {Gallery of a 

In another scholar of the Caracci, 
Lionello Spada (1576-1622), the 
naturalistic manner in a narrower 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

sense predominates (Galleries of 
a Modena and Parma) ; which is 
the case also with Bartolommeo 
Schedone, or Schidone, of Modena 
(born about 1580, died young, 
1615), who had originally formed 
himself especially after Correggio 
(Gallery at Parma). 
i Sassoferrato (properly Cfiov. Bat- 
tista Salm, 1605-1685), indirectly a 
scholar of the Caracci, presumably 
through Domeniohino, is an Eclectic 
in a different sense from all the 
rest. With Oignami and Padnelli 
(1629-1700) the Bolognese school 
falls to the general level which the 
whole of painting retains towards 

No other school in Italy re- 
mained quite unimpressed by the 
Bolognese influence, however much, 
as for instance in Florence, they 
struggled against it. 

Among the Eclectic schools the 
Milanese must first be reckoned. 
Of the family of the Procaccini we 
have Brcole the younger (1596- 
1676) ; Oiovanni Battista Crespi, 
called Ceramo (1567-1633) ; his son, 
Daniele Crespi (about 1590-1630, 
important works in the Certosa at 
c Pavia), Pa/mfilo Nuvolone from Cre- 
mona, and others. 
d Carlo Bonone painted at Ferrara 
(1569-1632), entirely on the inspi- 
ration of the Caracci We shall 
get to know him as one of the most 
refined minds of that time. 

Then the Florentine school, which 
had preserved a higher tone from 
her own better time (Santi di Tito, 
p. 217 e, 1538-1603), fell back 
intentionally on to forerunners 
like A. del Sarto, and afterwards 
received a new impulse from Ba- 
roccio. Its tendency is essentially 
different from that of other con- 
temporary schools : in composition 
it is without principles and often 
crowded, in the colours juicy and 
glowing and somewhat spotty, 
though the best often reach a 

very remarkable harmony ; its 
chief aim is often sensuous beauty; 
on the other hand, there is an 
almost complete absence of feeling. 
As for this reason we shall only 
exceptionally have occasion to 
mention such pictures, we may 
here quote the most important 
church pictures of each painter ; 
of the rest the most valuable will 
be easUy found in the Florentine 

Allessandro Allori (1535-1607), 
nephew of Bronzino, still half a 
mannerist. (In S. Spirito, quite « 
at the back, the Adulteress ; in 
the sacristy, a Saint healing the 
Sick; choir of the Annunziata,/ 
first niche on the left. Birth of the 
Virgin, 1602; S. Niccolb, [now ing 
Uffizi. — Ed.], Sacrifice of Abraham.) 
Also Bernardino Poccetti (1549- 
1612), named in the volume on 
Sculpture as a decorator. He was, 
with Santi di Tito, a chief under- 
taker of the lunette frescos in the 
Florentine Convent Courts, mostly 
of legendary subjects. (Cloister 
of 8. Marco, first court to the A 
right, in the Camaldolensi aglii 
Angeli; first court to the left of 
the Anmimziata, partly by him ; ; 
Chiostro Grande, the farthest back 
to the left, in S. M. Novella, ]c 
partly by him ; larger wall-frescos 
in the court of the Confratemitd.1 
of S. Pietro Martire). In these 
tasks the painters about to be 
mentioned often took part, and 
thereby helped to form themselves. 
Compared with the paintings of the 
Bolognese Chiostri (for instance, S. m 
Francesco or ai Servi in Bologna), 
which were so far better composed, 
so much more easy and masterly 
in drawing, they yet maintain a 
certain advantage through the 
cheerfulness and absence of emo- 
tion, as well as through the greater 
richness of individualisation. (The 
three beautiful lunettes by Dome- 
nichiuo in the outer haU of S. Oaofrio n 

L. Cardi — Guercino — Carlo Bold. 


at Borne must be excepted from this 
remark as most excellent. ) Besides 
this, a whole hall in the former Fa- 

a lazzo Capponi, painted by Poccetti ; 

iia S. FelidUt, first altar to the left, 
the Assumption. Jacopo lAgozw, 
(born about 1548, still living in 
1632) : chief part in the lunettes 

cin the Chiostro of OgnissanU. S. 

dOroce, Cap. Salviati, left of the 
left transept : Martyrdom of S. 
Laurence. S. M. Novella, sixth 
altar on the right. Resuscitation 
of a Child. Jacopo Chi/nwnti da 
Empoli (1554^1640), never of any 
signiQcance in narrative, as the 
paintings in the front hall of the 

tP. Buomxrrotti prove, is in indi- 
vidualising the noblest and most 
worthy of this school. Large pic- 
ture in the right transept of S. 

fDoTmnico at Pistoja: S. Carlo 
Borromeo eis a worker of miracles, 
surrounded by members of the 
EospigKosi family. Several things 

gin the choir of the Cathedral of 

AFiaa. S. Luoia de' Magnoli in 

I Florence, second altar on the left. 
Madonna with Saints ; Annunziata, 
choir, third niche on the right. 
I/udovico Gardi, called Oigoli (1559- 
1613), the best oolourist and de- 
signer of the school, whose works 
have for the most part passed into 
the Florentine galleries. In Sta. 

j Croce, the sixth altar on the right 
is by him, the Entry of Christ into 
Jerusalem ; and the Trinity at the 
entrance into the left transept. 
His pupil, Antonio Biliverti (1576- 
1644), among others, produced the 
great Marriage of St. Catherine, 
together with its side pictures in 

]c the choir of the Annwnziata, second 
niche on the right. Other pupils, 
like Domenico Oresti, called Pas- 
signano (born about 1550, died 
1638), Gregorio Pagam (1550-1605), 
&c., are better represented in the 
galleries. Francesco Currado (1570- 
1661) : his principal work in the 

I choir of S. Frediano, at the back. 
Madonna with many Angels and 

kneeling Saints ; besides this, in 
S. Giovarmino, Francis Xavier'sm 
Preaching in India. Ohristofano 
Allori (1577-1621) has nothing in 
the churches at all equal to his 
famous Judith in the Pal. Pitti. n 
Matteo FosseUi (1578-1650) painted 
the frescos of the first chapel on 
the right in the Armv/nziaia, and a o 
part of the lunettes in the Chiostro ; 
in SS. Michele e. GaetaTW, third ^ 
chapel on the right, and the left 
side picture in the second chapel 
on the left ; his pleasant works in 
the Pal. Pitti, &c. One of thej 
pupils of Matteo, Francesco Furini 
(born about 1600, died 1649), intro- 
duces a new interest into the 
school by his defined tender model- 
ling of the nude. (Qiovanni Ma- 
nozzi) da San Giovamii (1590-1636) 
becomes, however, clearly under 
Bolognese influence, together with 
his contemporary, Ouereino, the 
most determined, decided, charm- 
ing improvisatore of the whole 
school, who, by his rich palette 
and luxuriant fancy, quite forces us 
to forget the want of higher quali- 
ties. We shall have to speak 
again of his frescos, very striking 
within these limits. (Allegories in 
the large lower hall of the Pal. r 
Pitti ; Temptation of Christ in the 
Kefeotory of the Badia at Fiesole ; g 
half-destroyed allegory on the front 
of a house opposite the Porta Ro- 1 
Tnana; story of S. Andrew ia. S. ti 
Groce, second chapel on the right 
of the choir ; in Ognissanti, the v 
paintings of the cupola and part 
of the lunettes of the Cloister ; in 
the passage of the left court of S. 
Maria Nuova, the small figure in«; 
fresco of a Caritas ; at Borne, the 
semidome of S. S. Quattro Ooro-x 
nati.) Lastly, Carlo Dolci (1616- 
1686), also of this school, who again 
introduces the emotion neglected 
by the others in several hundred 
representations of ecstasy, of which 
we shall speak further. He and 
all those above-mentioned, are fully 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

represented in the Corsmi Gallery 
a at Florence. 

The Sienese school at this time 
has Bidilio Manetti (1572-1639), 
whose beautiful Rest during the 
Flight in Egypt, over the high 
b altar of S. Pietro in Castelvecchio at 
Siena, excels everything else. 
Most resembling Guercino. 

Pietro ( Berettini) da Cortona (1596- 
1669), was an immediate pupil 
of Cigoli ; he introduced a shallow 
eclecticism and the general profa- 
nation of painting for purposes of 
hasty and pleasing decoration. 

The modem naturalism, in a re- 
stricted sense, begins in the harshest 
way with Michelangelo Amerighi 
da Cwra/vaggio (1569 (?)-1609), who 
exercised a great influence on Home 
and Naples. It is his delight to 
prove to the spectator that all the 
sacred events of old time happened 
just as prosaically as in the streets 
of the southern towns towards 
the end of the sixteenth century ; 
he cares for nothing but passion, 
and has a great talent for express- 
ing this in a truly volcanic manner. 
And this passion expressed only in 
vulgar energetic characters, some- 
times most striking, forms the fun- 
damental tone of his own school 
(Valentin (1600-1634), Simon Vouet 
(1590-1649), also their follower, 
Carlo Saraceni (1585-1625), of Ve- 
nice), and also of the 

School of Naples. Here the Va- 
lencian, Giuseppe Bihera, called la 
Spcynoletto (born 1588, disappeared 
1656), is the follower, intellectually, 
of Caravaggio in the fullest sense 
of the word, although in his colour- 
ing, as is the case with his master 
in a stiU higher degree, his earlier 
study of Correggio and the Vene- 
tians is distinctly felt. With him 
worked, as well as the painter 
caUed Corenzio (1558 (?)-1643), Gio- 
vanni Battista Caracciolo, who 
attached himself more to the style 
of the Caracci; his great pupU, 

Massimo Stamidoni (1585-1656), also 
adopted as much from Bibera as 
was consistent with his own ten- 
dency. (His most remarkable 
pupil : Domenico Finoglia. ) 

Indirectly followers of Caravag- 
gio among the Neapolitans : Mattia 
Preti, called il Cavalier Calabrese 
(1613-1699), Andrea Vaccaro, and 

Pupils of Spagnoletto : the battle 
painter, Aniello Falcone, and Salvo- 
tore Bosa, who worked in aU styles 
(1615-1673), and his pupil, the 
landscape-painter, Bartolommeo 
Torregiani, the historical painter, 
Micco Spadaro, and others. The 
distinguished Sicilian painter, Pie- 
tro Novelli, called Morrealese, also 
is a follower of Spagnoletto. (Lady 
and Page, Palazzo Oolonna ate 
Eome.) (The expeditious painter, 
Luca Giordano, great in his own 
way, was a pupU of Spagnoletto, 
but still more of Pietro da Cortona 
(1632-1705. ) With him NeapoUtan 
painting fell to a common level, 
which ended in simple decorative 
painting with Giacomo del Po, So- 
limena (1657-1747), Conea (died 
1764), Framcesco di Mv/ra, Bonito, 
and others. 

In Eome, where all tendencies 
crossed each other, certain more 
special styles (1600-1650) gained 
strength particularly. Besides 
landscape (of which further), genre 
painting and battle pieces are well 
represented by a pupU of Arpino 
(and later of the Netherlander 
Pieter vam Laa/r, sumamed Bam- 
bocdo (1603-1675), who was espe- 
cially esteemed in Eome in this 
line), namely, Michelamgelo Cerqiwzzi 
(1602-1660), whose best works are 
found in foreign countries. The 
Jesuit, Jacques Oou/rtois, sumamed 
Bourguignon (1621-1676), was his 
pupil. Mario d£ Fiori was known 
as a flower-painter (died 1673) ; 
Gim. Paolo Pannini (died 1764) as 
an architectural painter. 
After the second half of the 

The Oenoese — The Bolognese. 


seventeenth century, Eome is the 
priucipal seat of the expeditious 
style of simple decorative painting 
derived from Pietro da Cortona, 
against whom Sacchi and Ma/ratta 
(p. 222) make only a weak reaction. 
Here laboured, among others, ©w«- 
framc. ifowtwcZ2i (1610-1662), Oiro 
Feiri (1634-1689), Filippo Lauri 
(1623-1694), and the Florentine, 
Benedetto ImH, also (1666-1724) the 
Pater Pozso, and several others. 

In Genoa the style varies with 
the different influences. Oiovani 
Battista Paggi (1554-1627) recalls 
the contemporary Florentines {S. 

a Pietro in Banchi) : first altar on 
the left. Adoration of the Shep- 

t herds ; Cathedral, second chapel 
on the left. Annunciation. Dome- 
nico Fiasella, surnamed Sarzana 
(died 1669), is more like Guercino. 
Berrmrdo Strozzi, surnamed il Ca- 
puccmo Genovese (1581-1644) [is 
among the followers of Caravaggio 
one of the most remarkable, espe- 
cially in portraits. — Mr.] Bene- 
detto Castiglione (1616-1670), an 
audacious Cortonist [who at times 
tried to imitate "Van Dyck, but 
was especially successful as an 
animal painter. There are excel- 
lent things by him in Genoa ; for 
instance, in the possession of the 

c Marchese Giorgio Doria is the life- 
size figure of a Shepherd and Shep- 
herdess ; the latter is asking, with 
a mischievous expression, whether 
the declaration of love is meant for 
her. — Mr.] Valeria Oastello also, 
but warmer in colour ; Deferrari 
appears to have studied after Van 
Dyok. Only Pellegro Piola, who 
died young (1607-1630), has shown 
a specially beautiful naturalism. 

<i (Pictures in the Pal. BrignoU: 

'Frieze of Angels in Pal. Adomo.) 

The Netherlanders, Germans, 
Spaniards, and French,* by whom 

• Rubens (1677-1640) ; Van Byck (159!>- 
1641); Rembrandt (1608-1669); Hontllarst 
(1590-1656); Blaheimer (1578-1620); of the 

Italy possesses many works, some 
of them of great merit, will, in the 
following pages, be mentioned with 
Italians in their proper places. 


In the school of painting during 
200 years (1580 tiU about 1780) 
there are naturally very great dif- 
ferences of tendency, not to speak 
of the immensely various gifts of 
individuals. Before speaking of 
the common qualities which charac- 
terise the whole great period, we 
must first indicate the differences 
in drawing, conception of form and 

The Bolognese school began as 
a reaction of thorough reality op- 
posed to mannerism, as individual 
acquisition opposed to exclusive 
borrowing from others. Its studies 
in drawing were very valuable : 
in Annibale Caracci we find, besides 
this, a many-sided interest for all 
that is characteristic, as he there 
has painted a number of genre 
figures in life-size. {Pal. Colonnaf 
at Bome, the Lentil-eater ; in the 
Uffizi, the Man with the Monkey, g 
a long series of genre figures on 
copper-plates, &c. ) Nevertheless 
the school is generally satisfied 
with a certain general style of phy- 
sical forms and draperies, and 
indeed the average which is thus 
attained is neither altogether one of 
great beauty nor loftiness ; it is 
taken from Correggio, but without 
his inimitable sense of life, and also 
from the heavy luxuriant Paolo 
Veronese, but without his ^.11- 
harmonising colour. The clearest 
evidence of this lies in the frescos 

BruegTiel family, especially Ja/n, the so- 
caUed Sa/rmnet Brueghel (1568-1625) ; Paul 
Bril (1656-1626). A great number of 
Flemish genre painteis, only to he seen in 
the Dfflzi :— Velasquez (1599-1660) ; Murillo 
(1618-1682); Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665). 
Others will he named as occasion arises. 


Painting of the 'Seventeenth Century. 

a of the Grallery in the Farnese 
Palace at Borne, by ATi/nibale and 
his pupils. How many of these 
Junos, Aphrodites, Dianas, &o., 
would one wish to see alive ? Even 
the most excellent nude figures 
show no higher cultivation. Eich 
as is the school in fresh ideas of 
movement, still in detail it fails in 
giving the beauty of living form. 
Aliomi's mythological frescos in a 

J room of the Pal. Verospi (now 
Torlonia, near the Pal. Chigi) at 
Home, the most striking reminis- 
cence of the Famese Gallery, have 
much that is graceful in detail, but 
the same feelmg of common -plane. 
How various is Chiido Beni, not 
only in different periods of his life, 
but sometimes in one and the same 
work. Of all modern painters he 
sometimes the most approaches 
lofty and free beauty, and his 

Aurora (Casino of the Pal. Bos- 
pigUosi) is certainly, taking all in 
all, the most perfect painting of 
the last 200 years ; only the Hours 
are in their form most unequal in 
merit, and, including the Apollo, 
not to be compared with the mar- 
vellous and unique figure of the 
Goddess of Dawn. The famous S. 

d Michael in the Ooncezione at Some 
(first chapel on the right) is in 
character and position immensely 
below Kaphael's picture in the 
Louvre. In female heads Guide 
often formed himself on antiques, 
especially the Niobidea, but in 
female figures not seldom gives 
way to a sensual luxuriousness. 
(Look at the hands of his Cleo- 

e patra, in the Pitti Palace ; on the 
female characters in the picture of 
EUezar, £ilso there). Domenichino 
also, with his great sense of 
beauty, cannot throw oflf the com- 
monness of the Bolognese forms. 
He is most free from it in the two 
splendid waU-frescos of the C3iapel 

v'of S. Cecilia (second on the right), 

„ in S. Luigi de Francesi, at Rome ; 
also [but here a more servile 

imitator of Raphael. — Ed.] ia 
several of the fresco histories at 
GroUaferrata (Chapel of S. Nilus). j 
In his angels he follows Correggio 
very obviously, as is seen, for 
instance, in the large picture in 
the Brera at Silan (Madonna with; 
Saints). With Guercmo we must 
distinguish certain exquisite figures 
of the most noble form (which was 
quite at his command) from the 
productions of the energetic natu- 
ralist ; so the picture of Hagar 
(Brera at Milan), the Marriage of; 
S. Catherine {Gallery of Modena), k 
also the Cleopatra (Pal. Brignole, I 
at G-enoa), as also the holy nun 
with the chorister boys (Gallery of m 
Turin). Sassoferrato, always care- 
ful, in these relations appears also 
inspired by Baphael, though not 
dependent on him. 

With Caravaggio and the Nea- 
politans drawing and modelling are 
altogether considerably inferior, as 
they think they may rely on quite 
other means for effect. Common- 
place as their forms are besides, 
one cannot the more depend that 
in special cases they are really 
taken from life ; in their vulgarity 
they are only too often vague as 
well. In this school there are, on 
the whole, but few conscientious 
pictures. From Jmca Giordamo 
downwards the drawing of the 
KeapoUtan school falls into the 
most careless extemporization. 
Luca maintains himself by an in- 
born grace at a certain height. 

In Pietro da CorUma it is easy to 
see a pervading indifference to the 
true representation of forms ; as 
also the expression of his heads is 
empty to a degree. We feel at 
once that the moral basis which 
the Caracci (to their lasting honour) 
had given back to art, was again 
deeply shaken. When an artist of 
such talent so openly abandoned 
the best in art, nothing but a 
further degeneracy was to be ex- 
pected. The last great draughts- 

To face pct^e 226. 


Maratta — Roman Mosaic Art. 


man, Oarrlo Mwraita, was too con- 
fined in his imitation of Guido 
Keni, too powerless by his want of 
individual warmth to save himself 
in the long run from destruction. 

a (Single figures of Apostles in the 
upper rooms of the Pal. Barlerini, 
at Eome ; Assumption, vpith the 

4 four teachers of the Church, in S. 
M. del Popolo, second chapel on the 
right. ) Immediately after him fol- 
low several painters, who, in the 
rendering of form, were nearly as 
conscientious as he ; one learns to 
know them, for instance, in the 

cPal. Corsini, at Rome, the Mura- 
tori, GJiezzi, Zoboli, Luti ; also the 
most agreeable of the Cortonists, 
Donaio Greti. Whole churches, 

dUke S. Oregorio, SS. ApostoU, are 
again filled vsdth tolerable con- 
scientious altar-pieces of Imti, Gos- 
tanxi, Qauli, and others (by GauH 
is the ceiling fresco in the Gesti, 
that in S. Gregorio by Costanzi) ; 
the highest bloom of the Roman 
mosaic art — which, in a certain 
way, can hardly be conceived ex- 
cept by the side of good oil paint- 
ing— faUs just in the first ten years 
of the last century. (Altar-pieces 

6 in S. PeUr, put into mosaic under 
the direction of the Cristofani. ) But 
this late, more local than general 
improvement, is the purely ex- 
ternal result of academical in- 
dustry ; we no longer find in them 
a fresh intellectual substance, a 
deeper view of the objects to be 
represented. Pompeo Batoni repre- 
sents the highest point of this kind 
of improvement (1708-1787 ; large 
picture, Fall of Simon Magus, in 

fS. M. degli Angeli, principal nave, 
on the left), in whom individual 
feeling also is somewhat warmer ; 
but his German contemporary, 
Anion Raphael Mengs (1728-1779), 
is perhaps the only one in whom 
the beginnings of a profounder ideal 
view are to be seen, in whom 
single forms gain a higher and 
nobler life. TTia ceiling fresco in 

S. Misebio at Home is, after so g 
many ecstacies of a wild emotion, 
again quite solemn and dignified : 
his dome paintings in the Stanza h 
de' Papin of the Vaticcm Library 
give us again an anticipation of the 
true monumental style ; in the Par- i 
nassus on the ceiling of the prin- 
cipal room of the Villa Albani he 
ventured further than he ought, 
and yet, here at least, one will not 
question the historical fact that he 
first not only replaced the natural- 
istic mode of conception on the 
whole, but also the conventional 
form in detaU by something better 
and nobler. He could, indeed, 
only do this by a new eclecticism, 
and one observes the effort which 
he makes to unite the simplicity of 
Kaphael with the sweetness of Cor- 
reggio. But that he already had 
firm ground under his feet is shown, 
for instance, by his few portraits 
( Uffisi, his own ; in the Brera, thaty 
of the singer Annibali ; in the Pin- k 
acoteca of Bologna that of Clement I 
XIII.). They are grander, truer, 
less pretentious, than any Italian 
portraits of the century. 

Nicolas Poussin had exercised no 
visible influenceon Italian historical 


In colouring, the Venetians and 
Correggio were the types of the 
whole period ; later also is felt the 
influence of Rubens and Van Dyck, 
the chief intellectual inheritors of 
Titian and Paolo ; Salvator Rosa 
was impressed by Rembrandt. 

The Caracci left no picture be- 
hind them which possessed the 
true festive glow and the clear 
depth of a good Venetian. The 
shadows as a rule are dull, the flesh 
tints often dirty brown. I con- 
sider the frescos in the Farnesem 
Palace as far the greatest produc- 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

tion of Aimibale as to colour Un- 
der the influence of Michelangelo's 
paintings of the roof of the Sistine 
(amtea), he has with a masterly 
freedom succeeded in dividing his 
picture into histories and decora- 
tive parts, the last partly stone- 
coloured Atlantes, partly excellent 
sitting nude figures in attitudes, 
partly children, masks, garlands of 
fruit, bronze-coloured medallions, 
&o. The grand harmonious effect 
of colour which the whole pro- 
dices, in spite of particular coarse 
parts, was only to be brought about 
by this gradation according to sub- 
jects. All the better painters of 
the seventeenth century studied 
here for similar undertakings ; 
the inferior ones, at any rate, 
copied. In Bologna the Caracoi, 
for instance, in the frescos of the 

a Pal. Magnani (frieze of the large 
hall), produced simpler but in their 
kind not less excellent decorative 
pictures (stone-coloured Atlantes, 
seated, mocked at by Cupids in 
natural colour, each accompanied 
by two bronze-coloured accessory 
figures of half size), works which 
in style and colouring are far better 
than the subjects to which they 
serve as frames. Even their latest 
followers sometimes produced ex- 
cellent things of this kind, as, for 
instance, Oignam/i's famous Eight 
Cherubs, with a medallion to each 
two, over the doors of the principal 

h nave of S. Michele in Bosco. Such 
models gave even to simple deoora- 

ctors {Oolonna, in S. Ba/rtolommeo a 
Porta Savegnana, and in S. Dome- 

dnico, Capdla del Bosario, on the 

«left; — Franceschmi, in Coryvs JDo- 

fmini; — Oamuti, in S. Michele in 
Bosco, Chamber of the Legates, &c. ) 
a harmony which is less charac- 
teristic of other schools. Unfortu- 
nately perhaps the best frescos as 
to colour of Lodovko and his school, 

g in the octagonal haU which incloses 
a little court of this cloister, are 
miserable ruined ; one cannot look 

at the remains without grief. (The 
compositions, some of them very 
good, are known by engravings.) 

Domenichvno is very unequal in 
his colouring ; of his frescos those 
in S. Andrea deUa Valle at Rome, 
in other ways also masterpieces, 
should have the preference (the 
Pendentives with the Evangelists ; 
the dome of the choir, with the 
stories of S. Andrea and allegorical 
figures ; their merit is best seen by 
comparison with the lower paint- 
ings of the walls of the choir, by 

The greatest colourist of the 
school, when he chose, was Guido 
Eeni. His single figure of S. An- 
drea Corsini {Itnacoteca of Bologna) h 
may be considered unsurpassed in 
delicacy of tone ; perhaps a similar 
perfectness is attained here and 
there in pictures of his silver- toned 
second manner ; for instance, one 
of his nude figures of S. Sebas- 
tian (of which the most beautiful 
is there, others in various places) ; 
his best nude figure in gold tone is 
(also there) the Victorious Samson 
(copy in the Turin Gallery), a pic- i 
ture of Venetian joyousness. (Com- 
pare with the St. Sebastian tended 
by holy women, of his pupU Simonej 
da Pesaro, in the Pal. Oolonna at 
Bome.) Of his frescos the Aurora 
is admired to the utmost on account 
of its harmony of treatment ; but 
the greatest effect of colour is in the 
Glory of S. Dominic (in the semi- 
dome of the Chapel of the Saint at 
S. Dommico of Bologna). h 

Gruerdno is in his colour some- 
times clear like the Venetians, even 
in the deepest, but he often ends 
also with a dull brown. The large 
picture of S. Petronilla {Gallery of I 
the Capitol — see below among the 
Sante Conversazioni), but espe- 
cially the death of Dido {Pal. 
Spada at Rome), display his palette m 
on its strongest side ; the pictures 
mentioned before (p. 226 i) are also 

Caravaggio — Spagnoletto. 


more dignified and moderate in 
colour. Of the frescos those in the 

a Casino of the Villa Zudovisi (Aurora 
on the ground floor, Fame in the 
upper story) are especially power- 
ful in colour ; so also the Prophets 
and Sibyls in the cupola of the 

i Cathedral of Piacenza, including the 
Allegories on the Pendentives. 

Among the tTaturaUsts, the ear- 
liest, Oaravaggio, from whom also 
Gueroino learned indirectly, is cer- 
tainly one of the best colourists. 
The strong cellar light, in which he 
and many of his followers love to 
place their scenes, indeed excludes 
the endless richness of beautiful 
local tones, which can only be con- 
ceived with the assistance of clear 
daylight ; it is characteristic, be- 
sides this, that the Naturalists, in 
spite of all their preference for in- 
closed light, should so little enter 
into the poetry of chiaroscuro.* 
Caravaggio's histories of St. Mat- 
cthew in S. Luigi de' Frcmcesi at 
Home (last chapel on the left) are 
indeed so placed that one can hardly 
judge of the effect of colour, though 
this may have grown very much 
darker ; but it is certain (also from 
his other works) that he inten- 
tionally aimed at the impression 
of harshness and gloom, and that 
• Still we must recall his youthful 
works, which in their clear harmonious 
tone, principally golden yellow, betray the 
study of the Venetians (Griorgione) ; as the 
famous picture, the Gamesters, in the 
P. Sciarra; a Judith with the Maid, for- 
merly in the Scarpa collection at La Motta 
near Treviso, now in England ; also the 
splendid Woman playing on the lute in 
the Lichtenstein Palace in Vienna. Here 
too belongs, though a little later perhaps, 
the Conversion of Paul in figures of life- 
size, in the PaL Balbi-Piovera at Genoa — 
a remarkable instance of his careful choice 
of a noble and ideal subject, which he 
afterwards drags down, con arnore, into 
triviality 'and common-place. But in 
painting it is a master-piece. The chiar- 
osffu/ro has the true artistic feeling, and is 
captivating in its charm — the shadows 
quite transparent, the drawing sharp, the 
execution most careful and irresistibly 
beautiful.— Mr.] 

the absence of reflections is an 
essential means for this. In Rem- 
brandt, on the contrary, in spite of 
all the fastastic figures and cos- 
tumes, there is a cheerful, com- 
fortable tone, because the sunlight 
lights up and makes the whole 
space inhabitable, partly directly, 
partly by the golden vapour of the 

Of Caravaggio's pupUs, the two 
who were not Neapolitans, Carlo 
Saraceni and VaUntm,* had the 
most colour, and were also toler- 
ably conscientious. [By Saraceni : 
Stories of S. Ben no in the Arrnnad 
at Eome, first chapel on the right, 
and first chapel on the left : Death 
of the Virgin in S. M. della Scala e 
on the left : [before his attractive 
bright Eepose in Egypt, in the P. 
Doria at Borne, first gallery, No. / 
32,+ (see below) one is strongly re- 
minded of the beginning of natur- 
alism in painting in modern Ger- 
man art] ; by Valentin : Joseph 
Interpreting the Dreams, Pal. g 
Borgkese ; Beheading of the Bap- h 
tist. Pal. Sciarra ; Judith in Pal. i 
Mamfrin at Venice. 

Spagnoletto is often hard and 
harsh in spite of his Venetian 
associations. He is so already in 
his horrible Bacchus ctf 1626 {Mu-j 
sewm of Naples) ; his S. Sebastian 
(also there) is remarkable as the 
last picture of his painted with 
feeling, of the year 1651. His small 
figure of St. Jerome {Uffizi, Tn-k 
bune) appears to me the most 
Venetian. Stanzioni is much milder 
and tenderer ; of the rest, Sal- 
vator Rosa, when he chooses, has 
the warmest light and the clearest 

* [His name is not Moysi, which ap- 
parently is only the Italian transforma- 
tion Mosiil, from the French "Monsieur." 

+ [This very pictiu-e, weak, flat, and 
uninteresting in its heads, is pretty cer- 
tainly a copy by the hand of Nitxola Cas- 
sana, from the original in Gasa Martelli at 
Florence. — Mr.] 


Painting of the Seventeenth Centwy. 

chiaroscuro (Conspiracy of Cati- 
a line, PaX. Pitti, but else often pale 
and dull). Oalabrese and several 
others have only a very external 
bravura of colour. 

Pietro da CorUma is as great a 
colourist as any one can be without 
any serious conception of the sub- 
ject. His colouring is in a high 
degree pleasing ; in the large ceil- 
ing paintings, intended more for de- 
corations than serious subjects, he 
first aimed at the impression most 
likely to teU upon the thoughtless 
idly wandering eye. The prevail- 
ing qualities are clearness of tone, 
sunny air, easy movement of the 
figures in illuminated space, a super- 
ficial agreeable chiaroscuro especi- 
ally in the flesh tints. Ceiling pic- 

* tures of the Ghiesa Nuova at Borne 
(in the Sacristy, the ABgels with in- 
struments of martyrdom) ; dome of 

cthe colossal principal hall in the 

d Pal. Barherini, a hall in the Pal. 

e Pamfili, in the Piazza Namona ; a 
number of ceilings in the P. Pitti ; 
waU frescos in one of the halls 
there, in which his half-thorough- 
ness is more repulsive than his 
former complete sketchiness. 
Among the easel pictures, perhaps 

/the Birth of the Virgin (Palazzo 
Gorsini) gives the most favourable 
idea of his colouring. 

From him and from Paul Vero- 
nese proceeds the colouring of Zuoa 
Cfiordano, which, because of his 
indestructible cheerfulness, some- 
times rises to a real joyfulness. In 

gthe Tesoro at St. Martino of Na- 
ples he painted the stories of Judith 
and the Brazen Serpent within 
forty-eight hours on the ceiling ; 
his St. Francis Xavier baptizing 

A the Savages {Museum) was com- 
pleted in three days, — both in a 
manner which makes us envy 
something in his palette. His re- 
maining pictures also (of which 
there is a selection in the Museum), 
though without any really firm out- 

line, without any choice in forms or 
motives, yet exercise a great charm, 
chiefly through a certain careless 
absence of pretension (compared 
with the pretensions of Salvator 
and his friends), and through the 
whole pleasing appearance of hfe. 
His foUowers, at the best bril- 
liant decorators with glowing 
colouring : — SoUmena : the frescos 
of the Sacristies of S. Paolo and S. » 
Domemco Maggiore, large historyy 
of HeliodoruB inside above the en- 
trance of the Gesii Nwyvo ; Luigi^ 
Oarzi: frescos on the roof and 
front wall of S. Gaterima A For- ' 
Tnello ; Conca : large centre pic- 
ture of the roof of Sta. Ghiara, '">■ 
David dancing before the Ark of 
the Covenant ; Francesco de Mwrit : 
large picture on the roof in 8. Se- 
verino ; Bonito : smaller picture 
on the roof in Sta. Ghiara, &c. — '"■ 
After the decay of the local schools 
throughout Italy these Neapolitans 
travelled about as virtuosi of the 
expeditious style of painting, and 
also penetrated into Tuscany, 
after Salvator Rosa had already 
passed a great part of his life there. 
For instance, Conca in the Eospital * 
delta Scala at Siena paiated the 
niche in the choir quite grandly 
with the story of the Pool of Be- 
thesda ; Galabrese covered the Choir 
and Cupola of the Oarmine at Mo-i' 
dena with his improvisations, &c. 

Among the ifomans, Sacchi is 
in colouring more powerful and 
more solid than Cortona (the 
Mass of S. Gregory, and S. Eo-9 
muald with his monks, Vaticmi 
gallery ; Death of S. Anna, in S. 
Garlo <t Gatinari, altar on the left) ' 
Maratta with all his carefulness is 
here strikingly duU ; single heads, 
like "la Pittura " in the Pai. Gor- « 
sini succeed best, and are full of life 
and beautiful ; Ids Madonna with 
the Sleeping Child, in the Pa^.DoriOj t 
is also in colour a reproduction of 

Of the Florentines.i'jijmi, already 






mentioned (p. 218) is incessantly 

striving to represent the flesh of Ms 

female nude figures more and more 

a mellow and tender. {Pal. Pitti, Cre- 

h atiou of Eve ; Pal. Oapponi, David 

c and Abigail ; Pal. Corsmi, nude 

figures and mythological subjects. 

The later Venetians (p. 212) at 

best borrow from Paolo; Tiepolo 

studies especially a silver tone. 


After long observation perhaps 
our readers wiU agree with us that 
the greatest master-pieces of colour- 
ing which Italy possesses of this 
period are a few pictures by Ku- 
bens, Van Dyck, and MuriUo. 
Rubens can be followed in Italy 
from his earliest period, that is 
from the time he settled there. 
The earliest one, a Trinity in the 

d library at Mantua with the ducal 
family of Gonzaga as donors (un- 
happily spoilt and cut into two 
pieces), painted 1604-5, still shows 
some remains of his Flemish ap- 
prenticeship, as well as the strong 
influence of Tintoretto. The three 
large pictures in the choir of the 

e Ghiesa Nuova at Kome (painting 
of the Madonna surrounded by 
Angels, and two colossal paintings 
each of three saints) show how his 
pecuhar characters and his colour- 
ing begin to work themselves free 
of the various manners by which 
he was surrounded ; even in the 

/Circumcision on the high altar of S. 
Amhrogio at Genoa he still strug- 
gles with the conception and colour 
of the Caracci : — he comes out 
almost q^uite himself in the S. Se- 
bastian, from whose wounds angels 

g are drawing forth the arrows (Pal. 
Corsini at Borne), and in the idyllic 
naive Finding of Romulus and Ee- 

Amus (CapitoUne Qallery) ; both pic- 
tures with yellowish tones in the 
flesh tints. The twelve half-length 

i figures of Apostles (Casino Bospi- 

gHosi) I look upon as being genuine 
works of his nearly perfect period. 
Then the maturest and most splen- 
did, the Allegory of War \Pal.j 
Pitti), in which colour, form, and 
incident are felt to be inseparable. 
The Holy Family vrith the cradle 
of basket-work there is strikingly 
glassy in colour and wea;k in tone, 
and pretty certainly a copy of the 
remarkable original possessed by 
the Marchese Giacomo Spinola atJi 
Genoa. Two remarkable pictures, 
on the other hand, are in the 
Pal. Adorno at Genoa — Hercules I 
vrith the Apples of the Hesperides, 
and Dejanira with an old woman 
holding the garment of Nessus. 
Mars with Venus and Cupid in the 
Palazzo Brigno-Sale is a fine m 
picture, in spite of all that dis- 
pleases na. —Mr.]. Lastly, the great 
masterpiece on the high altar ton 
the left in St. A mbrogio at Genoa, 
S. Ignatius curing a Possessed 
Person by his Intercession, is in con- 
ception, form, and colour of a re- 
fined noble naturalism which im- 
mensely surpasses the Neapolitans : 
in the Saint, for instance, the 
Spanish nobleman is stiU repre- 
sented ; his expression is im- 
mensely brought out by the cunning 
indifferent character of the priests 
and chorister boys round him The 
two large pictures in the Niobe 
room in the Vffizi, the Battle ofo 
Ivry and Henry IV. 's Entrance into 
Paris, should, as quite genuine im- 
personations of the best time, be 
distinctly preferred to most of the 
pictures of the gallery of Marie de 
Medicis in the Louvre ; they show 
us the Prometheus of colouring as 
it were in the midst of the glow of 
creation. [The gallery of Turin p 
possesses among many doubtful 
things (Holy Family ; copy of the 
Brazen Serpent) a precious, beauti- 
ful sketch for the Apotheosis of 
Henry IV., somewhat smaller than 
that in Munich, and apparently also 
somewhat different from it. In 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

a the sacristy of S. Ma/ria Zobenigo at 
Venice, a Holy Family of his schooL 

6 Later works ; Pal. Pitti, Nymphs 
in a wood, surprised by Satyrs ; 
the second Holy Family, perhaps a 

ccopy. JBrera at Milan, the Last 
Supper [a perfectly genuine picture, 
of excellent colouring, powerful, 
even somewhat coarse. The sub- 
ject and the effect of light at night 
are not attractive. An excellent 
altar-picture, certainly for the most 
part by Ruben's own hand, is the 
Ascension of the Virgin in the Pal. 

d Oolmina at Eome. All the remain- 
ing atelier-pictures, which could be 
cited in dozens, are not worth men- 
tioning. — Mr.] 

Among the portraits, there are 
jewels of the first rank : a lady of 
middle age, the painter's first wife, 
Elizabeth Brant, with a prayer- 

ebook {(/ffizi, No. 197) ; the artist 
himself, bare-headed, aristocratic- 
looking, dressed in black, with 
coUar and golden chain (TJfiizi); 
[better than either, the portrait 
of the painter by himself, in the 
collection of painters there. The 
picture of the so-called Four Law- 

/yers. Pal. Pitti, has something 
puzzling about it, since some parts 
(in the accessories and in the head 
of Grotius) are excellent, and 
others (especially the head of 
Ruben's brother) are weak, even 
coarse. The master may have left 
the picture unfinished. Genuine 
and early in the still hard and 
smooth manner of the master, but 
also unusually warm in the flesh 
tints, is the so-called Confessor of 
Rubens, with a peculiar cross or 

n disdainful expression, Pal, Doria, 
at Borne, second gallery. No. 50. 

ft Philip IV., in fuU length. Pal. 
Durazzo at Genoa, is a distin- 
guished picture of Rubens ; only 
the canvas having been twice 
added to, is disturbing. There 
also is a beautiful half-length pic- 
ture of a Knight of the Golden 

Fleece (round). — Mr.] Concerning 
many other portraits, I do not 
venture to judge. 

Tan Dyck is stiU more richly 
represented in Italy than Rubens ; 
the number of portraits especially, 
left by him, mostly in Genoa, 
borders on the incredible. Except 
the genuine but early Deposition, 
painted in Italy, in the PaX. Bar- i 
ghese at Borne, room 15, No. 7 
[with the very coquettish but 
charming Magdedene and the strik- 
ingly weak Madonna, distinguished 
by powerful colouring and beauti- 
ful light], he has left hardly any 
ideal subjects in Italy besides a few 
heads, — as the Madonna looking 
up (in Pal. Pitti), whose unusual^' 
beauty perhaps betrays the in- 
fluence of Guido. [Two genuine 
Holy Families, one larger and one 
smaller, are possessed by the Pai. 
Palbi-Piovera at Genoa. But farS 
the most beautiful is the Holy 
Fanuly of five half-length figures in 
the Twin Gallery, No. 247, clearly 1 
suggested by Titian, of glowing 
colour. Lastly, Christ with the 
two Pharisees {Pal. Brignole), sim- m 
ply a new edition of Titian's Cristo 
della Moneta ; the head of Christ 
empty ; those of the old men, on 
the contrary, excellent. The Brera, n 
too, possesses a life-size Madonna 
withS. Antony, — byno means an in- 
significant picture ; and the Accade- 
mia S. lAica at Rome, a Holy Family o 
with two Angels playing on musical 
instruments, — originally excellent, 
but unfortunately much injured. 

With regard to Van Dyck's por- 
traits, Turin stands first. Thep 
Prince Thomas of Savoy, on a 
white horse, is one of the grandest 
portraits ever painted ; the three 
children of Charles I. are among 
the best ; also a Clara Eugenia in 
the dress of a nun is excellent 
(No. 300). In Genoa, also, after 
excluding the non-genuine and the 
imitations,'*' the palaces of the old 

* [The name of Van Dyck is borne by 

Van Dyck's Portraits. 


nobility of the Kepublic possess an 
astonishing number of works of his 
hand, unfortunately many of them 
irreparably spoiled ; thus in great 
part the valuable portraits of the 
Pal. Briguole-Sale, of which the 
best are — a young man in Spanish 
costume, with a twisted column ; 
Geronima Sale Brignole, with a 
little daughter ; the equestrian por- 
trait of Antonio Giulio Brignole, 
bowing, with his hat in his right 
hand, his wife with a rose in her 
right hand. (The two female por- 
traits very much injured. In the 

a Pal. Filippo Du/razzo (Strada Balbi), 
three genuine portraits ia one room ; 
among them the most beautiful 
which Genoa possesses, the lady 
seated, in white sUk, with two 
children in blue and gold ; the ex- 
cellent picture of the three chil- 
dren coming quickly forward with 
a little dog ; last, a youth dressed 
in white on a chair, with a parrot, 
monkeys, and fruits (the accesso- 
ries obviously by Pr. Siiyders). In 

b the Pal. Balbi, observe a young lady 
with a peculiarly saucy air, with 
red hair, in which is placed a white 
feather. The Marchese Qiorgio 

cDoria has the beautiful, though 
unfinished, portrait of a "Bride" 
in a cherry-coloured velvet dress, 
with garden background ; and the 
elegant three-quarter picture of a 
young lady with a fan, in black. 

d The Gattaneo family possesses, in- 
deed, in one of their palaces (Casa 
Casaretto), not less than eight 
genuine portraits by Van Dyck, only 
all, for the sake of the frame, some- 
what eiJarged. 

« [In the Brera : three-quarter 
length of a blonde young English- 
woman, excellent. — Mr.] 

/ In the Pitti : Cardinal Bentivo- 
glio, whole-length, seated, ex- 
tremely elegant and aristocratic, a 

pictures of Giov. Bernardo Carhonet Betie- 
detto Castiglione, Micaliele Fiammingo, Cor- 
Tielis WoAl, Giov, RosUt Giov. And/rm Far- 
rari, &c.— Mr.] 

marvel of painting [unfortunately 
the background insufficiently 
worked up, and become very 
brown — ] ; the half-lengths of 
Charles I. and Henrietta of France 
might be repetitions [hardly to be 
ascribed to Janson vanKeulen. — Z.] 
Uffisi: an aristocratic lady, of hisgr 
later paler palette : the equestrian 
portrait of Charles V., elevated by 
beautiful and not obtrusive sym- 
bolism to an ideal historical height. 
[Yet one sees in the head that the 
artist had not nature before his 
eyes. There, also, the half-length 
picture of John de Moutfort. Cer- 
tainly genuine, but dirty and ill- 
favoured.— Mr.] [His portrait, said A 
to be by himself, in the gallery of 
Painter^ Portraits, is not genuine. 
— Z. ] In the Pal. Colonna at Rome : i 
the equestrian portrait of Don Carlo 
Colonna, wherein the symbolism is 
too evident ; and Lucretia Tor- 
naceBi-Colouna, a whole-length. 
[Both insignificant. Better, though 
somewhat tame, Marie de Medicis 
with two roses in her hand, in the 
P. Borghese ; lastly, in the Capita- ■> 
line collection, the splendid double A 
portrait of the poet Thomas Killi- 
grew and Henry Carew (half-length 
figures). — Mr.] 

Numerous portraits of other ex- 
cellent Netherlanders {Framz Sals 1 
Mirevelt!) are divided in the gal- 
leries between these two names ; 
Pal. JDoria in Borne, second gallery, I 
No. 37, and elsewhere [as also 
these masters, Hals, Mirevelt, Pa- 
vestyn Van der Selst, D. Mytens, 
Orebber, Cornelis jansens van 
Keulen, &o., are confounded to- 
gether. — Mr.] 

Single works of Snyders, Jor- 
daens, and other pupils, are found 
in the Uffizi and in the Turin Gal- m 
lery. We wiU linger for a time 
over the portraits : We shall speak 
further on of genre and landscape. 

Sembrandt has some genuine 
portraits, worthy of admiration for 
colour and light ; his own well- 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

flskDown face (Pal. Pitti, between 
the Doni couple, by Raphael ; also 
the old Rabbi (there too), of his 

i latest period : in the uJLi (Por- 
traits of Painters), the portrait in a 
dressing-gown is better than the 
stout half-length with cap and 
chain, which is a mere repetition of 
one of the excellent portraits of old 

cmen in the Musevmi of Kaples. 
[The Brera also possesses a female 
half-length portrait in the well- 
known early manner of Rembrandt, 
signed with his name and the year 
1632. Of other subjects : a genuine 

dHoly Family, in the Uffizi, No. 

e 922. In Turin there is not one 
genuine Rembrandt.] The Saori- 

/fice of Isaac, in Pal. Soria at Borne, 
second gallery, No. 26, is by one of 
his followers, Gerbrand van den 
Eeckhowt. [Undoubtedly by Jan 
Lmena. — Mr.] 

g In the Musevm, at Naples, a 
three-quarter length portrait of a 
young Senator, and a halt-length, 
both excellent, are ascribed to Mi- 

h revelt. In the Pitti, the (probably 
Dutch) portrait of a young man, 

land in the Uffizi the excellent 
head of the sculptor Francavilla, 
are ascribed to the younger Pour- 

jhus. In the Pitti, by Peter Lely 
{Peter van der Paei), Cromwell 
conceived with great depth and 
truth, on the intellectual as well 
as on the coarse side, with a shade 
of anxiety [but yet somewhat 
feeble in drawing, wanting in 
power and tone. — Mr.] ; the other 
portraits by Lely, in the Niobe 

h room in the Uffizi, are not equal to 
this work. 

A glance at the collection of 
painters in the Uffijd is sufficient to 
convince us of the great supe- 
riority of the Netherlanders. The 
Italians of the seventeenth century 
endeavour in their portraits to ex- 
press above all things a certain 
spirit, a certain energy ; and thereby 
fall into showiness or pretentious- 
ness ; the Netherlanders (here in- 

deed we have only inferior exam- 
ples) give the complete picture of 
Ufe, also the moment and its tone 
of feeling ; by means of colour and 
light, they also elevate the portrait 
to the height of a general type. 
(The jPrench portraits, from LSrrni 
onwaids, in this collection are in- 
teresting by their careless and yet 
so good natured and refined expres- 
sion of countenance. ) 

A Fleming, Suatemums of Ant- 
werp (1597 — 1681), passed his life 
at Florence, and produced here 
a number of really excellent por- 
traits, which often approach Van 
Dyck [and stiU. more Velasquez]. 
Many likenesses of the reigning 
family ; also one of the Grand 
Duchess Victoria with the Crown 
Prince, represented as the Virgin 
and the Child : a Banish Prince 
among others in the Pitti/— others, I 
among them Galileo, in the Uffizi ; m 
— also in the Pal. Gorsimi audi 
OvMdagni, &o.). The portraits o 
painted in Florence by Salmaior 
may have been inspired by him, 
or else by Rembrandt ; thus in 
the Pitti his own and the three- 
quarter length of a man in armour, 
which could never have been pro- 
duced but for Rembrandt. Other 
Italians also in their portraits al- 
most openly acknowledge foreign 
models : Cristofano Allori (in the 
portrait of a Canon, Pal. Capponi at? 
Florence), adopts Velasquez ; the 
Venetian Tiberio Tinelli Van Dyck 
or MuriUo as a model ( Uffid ; q 
portrait of an intellectual bon 
vivamt with a laurel branch ; P. r 
Pitti; an elderly noble [somewhat 
weak and watery in the flesh tints, 
but undoubtedly a genuine portrait 
by F'an Dyck. — Mr.] Academy ofs 
Venice : the portrait of the painter ?) 
One has most chance of find- 
ing an original conception among 
the first Bolognese; portraits by 
Domenichino {Uffizi: Pal. Spadat 
at Borne) and Queremo {Gallery of » 
Modena) are free yet dignified and v 






Murilh, — Velasquez. 


a historical. The so-called Cenci, pro- 
fessedly by Ghddo, in the P. Barie- 
rmi, is a pretty head, trhich charms 
us by its mysteriousness. [Much 
romance has been collected round 
this picture. At all eTents the 
head, as ii stUl hangs there, 
quite exemplifies the dexterous 
handling of Guido's pencil. — Mr.] 
A youthful picture of Ga/rh DoUi 

i(Pal. Pitti) 'is one of his best 
works. [Excellent and unusually 
attractive also is Dolci's own por- 
trait at the age of fifty-eight in the 

c collection of the Uffizi. — Mr.] ; also 
the portrait of a priest in the Por- 

^ghese Gallery, by Sacchi. The 
noble, truly historical portrait of 

ePous'sm {Cosmo Mospigliosi) is su- 
perior to all those last mentioned. 
[Copy from the original in the 
Louvre. — Mr. ] 

The great Spaniards, whose co- 
louring and conception were in- 
fluenced by Titian as much as 
were .the Flemings (but less than 
the latter by Paolo) are only 
represented in Italy by single 
scattered works. Murillo's Ma- 

/donua in the P. Corsini at Home is 
not only most simple and pleasing 
in the characters of the Mother 
and Child, but (though in part 
very slight) a marvel of colour. 

g The two Madonnas in the Pitti do 
not attain this loveliness of tone ; 
the one which is most studied (the 
child playing with a garland of 
roses) is also in the painting less 
life-like. By Yelas^v,ez there are 

A only portraits ; in the Uffizi his 
own, almost too obviously intended 
to be noble, and the powerful eques- 
trian portrait of Philip IV., with 
grooms and allegories in an open 
landscape, painted with extraordi- 
nary mastery of colour and tone [the 
latter seems doubtful, and more 
probably the work of some scholar 

*of Rubens. — Z.] ; in the Pitti, a 

fentleman with passionate features, 
is long aristocratic hand on the 
j hilt of his sword ; in the P. Dmia 

at Borne, Innocent X. seated — per- 
haps the best papal portrait of the 
century. [The OapUoline collection k 
possesses a real treasure, far too 
little esteemed, in the half-length 
portrait of a young man with whis- 
kers and moustaches, serious, won- 
derfully living, and modelled as if 
with the breath. AU Velasquez's 
greatness as a portrait-painter is 
shown in this simple head, the 
work of his early years. Less 
striking, but, as it appears to me, 
also genuine, is the female portrait 
at Farma, although it has a certain I 
hardness, black by the side of 
bright lights. But the hand with 
the three rings, which holds the 
white pocket handkerchief , is un- 
equalled in pictorial treatment and 
the brilliant clearness of the tone 
of colour. — Mr.] The MuriUos 
and Velasquez in the Gallery oim 
Parma are hardly to be received ; 
of the two at Turin the haU-length n 
of Philip IV. is most probable. — 
There is a Pieta by Scmchez Ooello 
in S. Giorgio at Genoa, first altar fl 
on the left of the choir. 


In all undertakings of an ideal 
kind this modern painting falls in 
the highest aims, because it at- 
tempts too much direct representa- 
tion and illusion, while yet, as the 
product of a late period of culture, 
it cannot be sublime by simple in- 
genuousness (iiaweti). It aims at 
making all that exists and occurs 
real ; it regards this as the first 
condition of all effect, without 
counting on the inner sense of the 
spectator, who is accustomed to 
look for emotions of quite a different 

The realization of movement in 
space, as it was observed in Cor- 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

reggio and copied from him, had 
already made art indifferent to all 
higher arrangement, to the simply 
grand in construction and the con- 
trast of groups and single figures. 
Guido Herd, through his sense of 
the beautiful, most preserved the 
architectonic impression. His grand 
a Madonna deUa Pieta (Pinacoteca of 
Bologna) owes its strongest effect to 
the symmetrical construction of the 
lower as well as of the upper group ; 
the same is true of the picture 
of the Crucified Saviour and his 
followers : the noble and grand 
treatment, the beautiful expression, 
alone would not suffice to assure 
to those works their quite excep- 
tional position. (Another Cruci- 
fixion by Guido, without the per- 
sons round), but also of great value 
Jin the Gallery of fflodena.) The 
c Assumption at Uunicli, the Trinity 
d over the high altar of S. Trinitd, 
e de' Pellegrini at Bome, give further 
proof of this ; even the sketchy 
work of the second manner, the 
Caritas (Pinacoteca of Bologna). 
Lodovico Carom's Transfiguration 
(also there) and the Ascension of 
^Christ (high altar of S. Cristina 
at Bologna) are really pleasing only 
on account of this architectonic 
element. Annibale's Madonna in a 
niche, on the pedestal of which lean 
John the Baptist and Catherine, 
from the same cause (as well as its 
forcible painting) produces a great 
effect, in spite of the common and 
not very noble forms ; the same ele- 
ments of hfe appear in the similar 
51 large picture of Guereino in the 
Pal. Brignole at Genoa. (Gruercino 
in a beautifully painted picture, S. 
h Vincenzo at Modena, second chapel 
on the right, misses the right thing ; 
his God the Father blessing, a half - 
i length figure, in the Turin Gallery, 
appears to be inspired by Guide's 
Trinity. ) Even the symmetry set in 
movement, the processional parts, 
in short, all that keeps down the 
pathos which in this school so often 

causes confusion, is capable of 
producing most excellent effect ; 
of this kind are the two colossal 
pictures of Lodovico Ca/racd, in 
the Gallery at Parma (formerlysidey 
pictures of an Assumption), espe- 
cially the Burial of the Virgin, 
where the ceremonial, fixing the 
attention chiefly on the masterly 
foreshortening of the body, entirely 
puts the subjective pathos into the 
background. Domenichino also, 
whose composition is so extremely 
unequal in his Death of S. Cecilia, 
S. Luigi at Borne, second chapel on J 
the right, gives a splendid example 
of severe and yet beautifully de- 
veloped symmetry. Of the two 
pictures of the last Communion of 
St. Jeiome {Agostino Caracd; Pina- 1 
coteea of Bologna; — Domenichino ; m 
Vatican Gallery), that of Domeni- 
chino has the great merit, that 
the two groups (that of the Priests 
and that of the Saint), are as it 
were measured trait for trait 
against each other, so that move- 
ment and repose, ornament and 
flowing drapery, giving and taking, 
&c. , mutually bring each other out ; 
besides this, the figure of the Saint 
is as it were imbedded in the piety 
and devotion of his attendants, and 
yet kept quite free before the eye. 
Nicolas Poussin, the greatest admirer 
of Domenichino, often goes too far, 
sothathis groups appear constructed 
on purpose. (Kestduringthe Flight, 
Academy of Venice. ) [A copy, and n 
perhaps not quite exact. — Mr.] 
Sometimes the Milanese surprise 
us, wild as their composition may 
be, by a grandly felt symmetrical 
arrangement. Observe in the 
Brera the large picture of Cerano- 
Orespi (Madonna del Eosario); in 
the P. Brignole at Genoa, the S.p 
Carlo borne to heaven by angels, 
by one of the Procaccini, a striking 
picture, however naturalistic may 
be the struggles of the angels ; 
in the Twin Gallery, the Madonna 2 
adored by S. Francis and S. Carlo, 

Carcmaggio, Alhani, Tiarini, Sassqferrato. 237 

represented in a characteristic man- 
ner as a statue, by Gfiulio Oesare 
Procaccim : — Sassof errata in his 
beautiful Madonna del Kosario 

a (S. Saima at Eome, chapel on right 
of choir) followed the old severe 
arrangement, "with full intention. 

Far the greater number only 
acknowledge the higher laws of 
composition yet in a limited 
degree, and the Naturalists hardly 
at all Even with the best of the 
Bolognese, a fine nude figure (if 
possible, artistically foreshortened 
in the foreground) is sometimes 
worth all the rest of the picture ; 
some of them carefully seek out 
such occasions (Sclddone's S. Sebas- 
tian, whose wounds are gazed at by 

h gypsies, in the Museum at Naples). 
The Naturalists desire really no- 
thing but the moment of passion. 

* Cairamaggio's Deposition ( Yatiican 
Gallery), always one of the most 
important and solid pictures of the 
whole school, is for the sake of the 
unity and force of expression as a 
group made quite on one side. 
How coarsely Caravaggio could 
compose and feel when he did not 
care for expression, the Conversion 
of St. Paul {S. M. del Popolo at 

d Borne, first chapel on the left of the 
choir) shows, where the horse nearly 
fills the whole of the picture. 8pa- 
gnoletto's chief picture, the Descent 
from the Cross, in the Tesoro of 

* S. Marti/no at Naples, is unpleasing 
in its lines, which certainly one may 
pass over for the sake of the colour 
and the impressive, though by no 
means glorified sorrow. 


We must now endeavour to 
examine this question of expression 
and emotion, to which modern 
painting sacrifices so much, accord- 
ing to its subject and its limits. 
We begin with the narrative pic- 
tures of sacred subjects (Biblical or 

legendary), without confining our- 
selves strictly to any particular 
arrangement. Even the altar- 
pieces after Titian often have a 
narrative subject ; everything is 
quite welcome which is in any way 

In S. Bartolommeo ib Portaf 
Savegnama at Bologna (on the 
fourth altar on the right), is one of 
the finest pictures of Aliani, the 
Annunciation ; Gabriel, a beautiful 
figure, flies eagerly towards the 
Virgin. (Compare the colossal 
fresco of Lodovico Garaeci over the 
choir of S. Pietro at Bologna. ) The g 
Birth of Christ, the Presepio, 
formerly always naively repre- 
sented, had, through Correggio's 
"Notte" become a subject for the 
highest degree of expression and 
effect of light. (The last we find 
reproduced, for instance, in two of 
the better pictures of Honthorst in 
the Uffizi, according to his capa-A 
city.) How entirely Tiarini, for 
instance, misunderstood the calm, 
idyllic feeUng of the scene in a 
picture otherwise excellent {S. 
Salvatore at Bologna, left transept), i 
He paints it on a colossal scale, and 
makes Joseph point rhetorically to 
Mary, as if to call the attention of 
the spectators. The adorations of 
shepherds and kings are usually 
treated more indifferently ; among 
others by Cavedone, who, with afl 
his merits, brings the ordinary ele- 
ment very much forward. {S. Paolo j 
in Bologna, third chapel on the right.) 

An Adoration of the Shepherds 
by Sassoferrato (Naples Musenim), k 
gives just the cheerful efiect, which 
is especially his element, — a pecu- 
liar instance in this age of senti- 
ment. Of the stories of the 
personages belonging to the Holy 
Family the pathetic subjects, espe- 
cially deathbeds, are treated in 
preference ; the death of S. Anna 
(by Sacchi, in S. Carlo d, Caimarri I 
at Borne, altar on the left), the 
Death of S. Joseph (by Lotti, in 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

the Ammmziata at Florence, Cap. 
Feroni, the second od the left ; by 

I Frariceschim, in Corpus Domini at 
Bologna, firat chapel on the left). 
Cwra/vaggio, on the contrary, who 
often intentionally represented 
sacred subjects in an every-day 
manner, paints (in a picture in the 

cP. Spada at Eome) two hideous 
seamstresses, which signify the 
education of the Virgin by S. Anna. 

rf in the P. Corsmi ; also a " Weaning 
the Child " in his coarsest manner. 
We feel in the various "Births" 

e{Lodomco Ca/racd, Birth of John, 
Pinacoteca of Bologna, a late reso- 
lute, grand picture), even uncon- 
sciously, the disadvantage which 
they were under since the time of 
Ghirlandajo ; then the principal con- 
ception was ideal, the details indi- 
vidual ; now the principal idea was 
prosaic, the details commonplace. 
(The now rather dull-looking pic- 
tures of Agostmo and Lodovico, in 

fS. Bartolommeo di Seno at Bologna 
(first chapel on the left). Adoration 
of the Shepherds, Circumcision and 
Presentation, must have been pe- 
culiarly impressive.) Among the 
stories of the childhood of Christ, 
which now are much arranged in 
a sentimental point of view, the 
JRest during the ITight always keeps 
the first place, and in this Cor- 
reggio's Madonna della ScodeUa 
(antea) gives the tone. A beautiful 
little sketch by AnnitaU in the 

g Pitti, for example, shows this 
clearly ; also the same thing in 
Bonone's excellent frescos in the 

h choir of S. Maria in Vado at Ferrara. 
Amongst others Sa/raceni again at- 
tains the true idyllic story, though 
in the "baroque" manner. (Pic- 

tture in Pal. Doria at Borne, first 
gallery. No. 32 : the Mother and 
Child are asleep, an angel plays 
the violin, and Joseph holds the 
notes.) With most painters the 
scene becomes a great angelic court 
in a wood ; so it is in the splendid 
picture (mentioned amtea) by 

Butilio Manetti; but it is alto- 
gether amusing to see what a late 
Neapolitan has made out of it. 
(Picture of Giacomo del Po in the 
right transept of S. Teresa at/ 
Naples, above the Museum.) The 
scene takes place on an island in 
the Nile. Joseph awakes ; there is 
a heavenly court ; the Madonna 
speaks to an angel, who offers a 
skiff, and commits the child to the 
admiration and adoration of 
numerous angels of various ranks ; 
the elder among them teach the 
younger, &o, In other scenes of the 
childhood of Christ, Sassoferrato 
alone is almost always naive and 
sentimental : a Holy Family in the 
Pal. Doria at Bome : Joseph's car- it 
pouter's work -shop, where the 
child Christ sweeps the shavings, 
in the Museum at DTapIes. Among I 
the Bolognese sometimes the treat- 
ment properly belonging to Christ 
is transferred to the boy Christ in 
not quite a sound manner, as, for 
instance, in a picture by Oignani 
{S. LuHa at Bologna, third altar m 
on the left), where the Bambino, 
standing at his mother's knee, 
rewards S. John and S. Teresa 
with garlands. In Albani{Madonna'ii 
di Galliera at Bologna, second altar 
on the left) the presentiment of the 
Passion is expressed by the child 
Christ looking up with emotion to 
the cherubs floating above with the 
instruments of martyrdom (like 
playthings) ; at the foot of the steps 
are Mary and Joseph ; above God 
the Father, sad and calm. Of the 
numberless pictures of Joseph one 
by Quercmw is good {S. Giovanni ino 
Monte at Bologna, third chapel on 
the right) ; the child holds out to 
his foster-father a rose to smell. 

A scene such as Christ among 
the Doctors {antea, note) must in the 
naturalistic treatment become still 
more perplexing than it already is 
in itself. Salvator Rosa (Napleap 
Museum) paints the most brutal 
people round the helpless child. 

Luca Giordano, Caravaggio, Caracd, Stanzkmi. 239 

Special pictures of the Baptism and 
the Temptation ■will be mentioned 
later. The miracles of Christ are 
almost entirely replaced by the 
miracles of the Saints ; in the 
Marriage at Cana the miracle is 
very little brought out (a pleasing 
large genre picture of this subject 
by Bonrnie, Ateneo at Ferrara). 
The Driving out the Buyers and 
SeUera from the Temple has been 
represented by Guermw in an in- 
different picture (Pal. Brignole at 

(I Genoa) ; it is more instructive to see, 
in the great fresco representation 
of this scene which liuca Giordamo 
has painted at Naples over the 

6 portal of S. PMUppo d, Oerolomini, 
with what delight the Neapolitan 
depicts such an execution. Of the 
representations of the Eesurrection 

cof Lazarus, that by Caravaggio 
{Pal. Brignole at 6enoa) is one of 
the remarkable productions of 
the less refined naturalism. The 
Last Supper is undignified, whether 
it is treated as a genre picture 
or as an emotional scene. The 
large picture of Alessanch'o Allori 

d, {Academy at Florence) may be 
called a beautifully painted, lifelike 
after-dinner scene. With Domenico 

e Piola {S. Stefano at Genoa, in the 
building joined on on the left) there 
is no want of pathos of aU kinds ; 
but the " Unus Vestrum" is lost in 
a studied effect of light and in the 
additions (beggars, attendants, 
children, also a row of cherubs 
floating down). In the choir of 

/;S. Martina at Naples, besides the 
large Birth of Christ by Ouido, four 
colossal pictures of this species are 
to be found, whose authors, though 
some of them are famous, do not 
here appear at their best : Bibera, 

■ the Communion of the Apostles ; 
Caracaiolo, the Washing of the 
Feet ; Stanzioni, Last Supper with 
many figures ; ffeirs of Paolo 
Veronese, Institution of the Eu- 
charist (so says Galanti, whom, for 
want of clear recollection, I must 

follow) [according to Murray, the 
Eucharist by Carlo Cagliari]. Of 
the scenes of the Passion (apart 
from single figures, like the Ecce 
Homo, the Christ Crucified), it is 
chiefly the moment of emotion in 
the special sense, which is repre- 
presented a thousandfold ; theFietk, 
the body taken down from the 
cross and surrounded by Mary, 
John, Mary Magdalene, and others. 
The original types of Titian and 
Correggio justified them, and excited 
them to the highest climax of feel- 
ing. As with the scene under the 
cross, here also, according to the 
realistic principle, the Madonna is 
almost always fainting ; that is, 
the moral element must be made 
equal with the pathological. Where 
this trait is excluded, as, for in- 
stance, in the pictures which only 
represent the Madonna with the 
dead body on her knees (Lod. 
Ca/racei, in the Pal. Corsini a,tg 
Borne ; Annibale, in the Pal. Doria h 
and in the Naples Musewm), the* 
impression is far purer. The most 
important of these more compli- 
cated representations is certainly 
the Madonna della Pietk of Quido 
{Pinamteca of Bologna), already^ 
mentioned for its arrangement 
(amtea) ; unfortunately, he had not 
the courage to transfer this scene, 
like Raphael his Transfiguration, 
into a distinct upper space arranged 
for a second point of view (as on a 
hiU), but gives it as if painted on a 
tapestry hanging above the kneel- 
ing saints, — a picture within a pic- 
ture, only to keep to the reality of 
the space. The Pietk of Stamzioni, 
over the porch of S. Ma/rtino atk 
Naples, is splendid even in ruin ; 
equal to the most feeling pictures 
of Van Dyck, and in its noble keep- 
ing and foreshortening of the dead 
body excelling all Neapolitans, 
including Spagnoletto (antea). 
Luca GiordAMio (picture in the 
Museum), who here endeavours to I 
be intense, at least does not sur- 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

round the body with Caravaggesque 
gipsies, but with good-natured old 
mariners. Among the Depositions 
those of Caravaggio have abeady 
been mentioned ; a picture of Awni- 

a iale in the gallery at Parma is of 
the time when he entirely followed 
Correggio. Of the scenes after the 
Resurrection GueroiTW painted the 
Thomas, who not only touches the 
wounds of Christ, but thrusts in 

J two fingers ( Tatican Gallery). One 
asks oneself who could be the spec- 
tator who would find pleasure in 
so coarse a realization and such 
ignoble characteristics ? But it is 
possible to be far more vulgar stUl. 
The Oapuccimo Genovese has con- 

cceived the same story (Fal. Bri- 
gnole,) as if the dramatis personce 
were deciding a wager. The Ascen- 
sion of Christ almost always gives 
way to that of Mary, of which we 
shsJl speak further on. 


In the incidents of the lives of 
the Saints the moments of emotion 
and movement are made as promi- 
nent as possible.* A great picture 
of this kind is the Resurrection of 
da. boy by S. Dominic, by Tiarmi 
(chapel of the Saint, in S. Domenico 
at Bologna, on the right) : this is 
filled with all degrees of reverence 
and adoration. Opposite, on the 
left, is the masterpiece of lAonello 
Spada; S. Dominic burning the 
heretical books, an outwardly pas- 
sionate action, the development of 
which in grouping and colour is 
the best that can be got out of so 
decided a naturalist. But historical 
scenes of this kind only take up a 
small space alongside of the prin- 
cipal subjects of this time ; which 
often enough are united in one 

* One especial source of aucli inspira- 
tions was to be found in the frescos, now 
destroyed, in S. Miohele in Bosco, a 

picture, the martyrdoms and the 
heavenly glories. 

For the martyrdoms, which, in 
the mannerist time (anted), had 
decidedly taken a fresh and firm 
hold in art, there existed a glaring 
precedent by Correggio {antea). 
All painters vie with each other in 
being impressive in the horrible. 
Cruido alone in his Massacre of the 
Innocents {Pimacoteca of Bologna) e 
retained some moderation, and did 
not represent actual slaughtering. 
He personified hardness in the exe- 
cutioners, but not bestial ferocity ; 
he softened the grimace of lamen- 
tation, and even by beautiful truly 
architectonic arrangement, and by 
nobly-formed figures, elevated the 
horrible into the tragic ; he pro- 
duced this effect without the acces- 
sories of a heavenly Glory, without 
the doubtful contrast of ecstatic 
fainting at the horrors : his work 
is certainly the most perfect com- 
position of the century as to pathos. 
(The Crucifixion of Peter, in the 
Vaticam Gallery, looks as if painted/ 
against the grain. ) But even Do- 
menickino, usually so mild and 
delicate in feeling, what a butcher 
he becomes in some circumstances. 
To begin with his early fresco of 
the Martyrdom of S. Andrew (in 
the middle one of the three chapels 
near S. Gregorio, at Home), was itg 
choice, or a happy chance, that 
his fellow pupU, Guido (opposite), 
should represent the procession to 
the judgment seat and the splendid 
moment when the Saint sees the 
cross afar off, and kneels down in 
the middle of the procession! 
Domenichino, on the other hand, 
paints the very rack itself, and 
uses, to make this and other similar 
scenes enjoyable, spectators of 
them, especially women and chil- 
dren, obviously taken from Ra- 
phael's Heliodorus ; his Mass of 
Bolsena, Gift of Rome, Death of 
Ananias, Sacrifice at Lystra, 
&c. (wntea) ; from Domenichino 



onwards these motives descend 
to moat of the works of his suc- 
cessors. In his Martyrdom of 
S. Sebastian (choir of 8. M. degli 

aAngeli at Borne, on the right) he 
even makes his horsemen rush 
against these spectators, and there- 
by quite divides the interest. Most 
repulsive, as well as unpleasantly 
painted, are his Martyrdoms in the 

IPmacoUca at Bologna; in the 
Martyrdom of S. Agnes, the stab- 
bing on the pile of wood, with its 
accessories, makes the harshest 
possible contrast with all the vioUn- 
playing, flute-blowing, and harping 
of the angelic group above ; the 
Death of S. Peter Martyr is only a 
new edition of that of Titian ; the 
Institution of the Kosary I confess 
myself to be incapable of under- 
standing at all : among the female 
characters and angels, the nice 
soubrette-like little head with the 
little red nose, special to Domeni- 
chino, is especially prominent. 
Such examples could not but find 
followers in Bologna itself. Canuti, 
an excellent scholar of Guido, has 

Ca painting in S. Oristina (fourth 
altar to the right) of the ill-treat- 
ment of the Saint by her father, 
which one must see, for it is beyond 
description. Maraita also, for- 
merly Guide's faithful admirer, in 
such cases prefers to take his in- 
spiration from Domenichino's S. 
Sebastian (Martyrdom of S. Blasius, 

Aia 8. M di Ga/rignano at Genoa, 
first altar on the right). Gueraino 
is in his martyrdoms more tolerable 
than one might expect. {Gallery of 

eModena: Martyrdom of S. Peter, 
principal picture. Cathedral of 

fJenaxa,, transept to the right : 
Martyrdom of S. Lawrence, well 
worthy of restoration ) By the 
Florentine GigoK there is in the 

S Ujfm a Martyrdom of S. Stephen, 
painted with wonderful technical 
excellence, where he is already 
being stoned and trodden underfoot 
in the presence of calm Pharisaical 

spectators. CawZo Z)oZei's S. Appol- 
lonia {Palamzo Gordni, at Rome) is h 
satisfied with presenting to us the 
pincers with one of her teeth torn 
out in the most deUoate manner 

The Naturalists proper are in 
such cases truly horrible. Gara- 
vaggia himself shows us in one 
single head the whole false ten 
dency of naturalism : we mean his 
Medusa, in the Uffizi. Always i 
desirous of a momentary expression, 
and on this very account indifferent 
to the deeper lasting impression 
(which in his Deposition he did 
succeed in attaining), he paints a 
female head at the moment of 
beheading ; but might not this, for 
instance, look just so if a tooth 
were torn out? The element of 
horror, as it is conceived by this 
school, necessarily rouses rather 
disgust than deep emotion. 

Sometimes he endeavours to ex- 
cite horror by the representation, 
true to nature, of spilt blood : his 
Martyrdom of S. Matthew {S. 
I/aigi, at Borne, last chapel on the/ 
left) becomes almost ridiculous 
through its accessories. His pupil 
VaUntin has too much cleverness 
to follow him in this line : in his 
Beheadingof the Baptist (P. Sciarra 
at Borne), the interest of expression Te 
takes the place of that of horror. 
The same scene, the best picture 
by Bonthorst, in S. M. delta Scala, at 
Borne, on the right, leaves us almost I 
unmoved. Others, on the other 
hand, paint as crudely as possible. 
Subjects Kke the murder of Abel 
(by Spada, in the Naples Musewiri), m 
by Elis. Sirani, Turin Gallery ; the n 
Sacrifice of Isaac (by ffonthorst, P. o 
Sciarra, at Borne), are now treated 
in the true hangman style, but 
especially the heroism of Judith, 
for which a certain Artemisia Gen- „ 
tileschi* possessed a sort of mono- 

* {Artemisia GentilescM, daughter of the 
excellent Orazio GentilescM, with whom 
she lived many years at the Court of 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

a poly {Vffizi; Pal. FUti; Pal. 

b Sdarra) ; the Cavaliere Galabrese 
also did all that was possible in 

csuoh subjects. {Naples Museum). 
We pass over other legendary mar- 
tyrdom scenes. By a singular 
chance the first !Roman commis- 
sion of importance which Nicolas 
Poussin received was the Martyr- 
dom of S. Erasmus, whose bowels 
were torn out of him. (Painted 
for S. Peter's, now in the Vatican 

d Gallery). He produced a work 
which, as regards art, is among the 
best of the century. (A small ori- 
ginal replica [or perhaps more pro- 
bably the original sketch by the 

e master. — Mr.] in the Pal. Sdarra). 


WhUe aU limits of this kind are 
broken down for the sake of giving 
an impression of reality supposed 
to be efifictive, the same painters 
(some of them bearing the title of 
Cavalieri) endeavour to introduce 
into sacred subjects the good style 
and the measured forms of contem- 
porary society. (Comp. Parmegia- 
nino, antea. ) The angels especially 
are now brought up to represent an 
aristocratic attendance, to form the 
court of the sacred personages. In 
/the Sefectoryofthe JBadia at Fiesole 
we cannot see without amusement 
how Christ is waited on by angels 

Charles I. of England, highly honoured 
and favoured especially for her portraits, 
does not deserve such a slighting epithet. 
The choice of the subject is, indeed, re- 
markable, but it is conceiTable that the 
heroism of the widow of Bethulia had 
something attractive in it. We find it 
three times in Florence alone, once in the 
Uffizi, twice in the Pitti, where is also a 
charming figure of Mary Magdalene. The 
century produced little to compare in 
careful and afi'ectionate execution, in clear 
colour and striMng chiaroscuro, with 
the works of Artemisia- The same quali- 
ties distinguish the famous life-size An- 
nunciation of OraeiOf in the Turin Gallery. 
On the other hand, indeed, the merit of 
the composition in both is small, and the 
Characters are decidedly not noble.— Mr.] 

after the Temptation ; but in 
Oimanni da 8. Oiovamm/i, who 
painted the fresco, such things 
always seem naive. The angels in 
the great Baptism of Christ by 
Albani {Pinacoteca of Bologna) are™ 
already much better trained : one 
remembers involuntarily, in the 
midst of their service, how in me- 
diaeval pictures the angels who 
hold up drapery have still time and 
feeling to spare for adoration. One 
sees Cherubs as ]acc[ueys, waiting 
outside the scene, in a "Marriage 
of S. Catherine " by Tiarimi (also j 
there) ; besides the saints above 
named, S. Margaret and S. Barbara 
also assist at the ceremony : the 
good Joseph in the meantime con- 
verses in the foreground with the 
three little messengers who have in 
charge the wheel of S. Catherine, 
the dragon of S. Margaret, and the 
little tower of S. Barbara. A cer- 
tain ceremonial was usual in 
the Venetian presentation pictures 
antea). But now such things appear 
in pictures as a visit of condolence 
by all the Apostles to the mourn- 
ing Madonna : Peter, as speaker, 
kneels and wipes away his tears 
with a pocket handkerchief (painted 
by Zod. Oaracci, as ceiling picture 
in the Sacristy of S. Pietro ati 
Bologna). Or S. Dominic pre- 
sents S. Francis to the Carmelite 
S. Thomas, in which the polite 
curiosity is quite evident which is 
suitable in such circumstances. 
(Lod. Oaracci, in the Pinacoteca.)]' 
How quite differently does the 
XVth century give such a meeting 
of saints. In the Coronation of the 
Virgin by Allesand/ro Allori (agli 
Angeli, Oamaldolese, in Florence, k 
high altar), the Virgin kisses her 
son's right hand most respectfully. 
Also S. Antony of Padua does not 
always receive the child in his 
arms, but it is merely held out to 
him that he may kiss its hand 
(picture by Lod. Oaracci, Pinacoteca I 
of Bologna). 

Single Figures. Ecee Homo, Mater Dolorosa. 243 

We now turn to those pictures 
in which mental expression pre- 
dominates over the narrative ele- 
ment, then to pass into the treat- 
ment of the supersensual. 

The expression of longing ardour, 
ecstatic adoration, of self-forgetful- 
ness in joy and devotion, was by 
the great masters of the golden 
time reserved for a few rare occa- 
sions. Perugino indeed already 
began to make capital out of it, 
but Raphael only painted one 
Christ like that in the Transfigura- 
tion, only one S. Cecilia ; Titian 
only one Assumption like that in 
the Academy of Venice. Now, on 
the contrary, this expression be- 
comes a chief element of the emo- 
tion without which painting seems 
unable to exist. 

Now begins an enormous increase 
in the single half-length figures, 
which were painted by the earlier 
schools for a different purpose ; for 
instance, in Venice, as beautiful Ufe 
pictures. Now their chief value 
lies in the opportunity of producing 
an elevated impression without 
further motive. The half-length 
sentimental figure henceforth be- 
comes a recognised style. (An 
earlier single example with certain 
followers of Lionardo, antea.) 
Next, instead of a simple head of 
Christ, we have always the head 
crowned with thorns, the Ecce 

a Homo. (,Pal. Corsini at Eome, by 
Ghiido, ChM/ramo, and C. Bold; 

J Pinacoteoa at Bologna, the excellent 
chalk drawing of Guido ; Turin 

c Gallery, remarkable Bcce Homo by 
Ouercmo.) The motive, as it was 
given, is originally derived from 
Correggio ; but the reproduction 
may sometimes be called free, ele- 
vated, and thoughtful. Among the 
Madonnas the pictures of the Mater 
Dolorosa become more numerous. 
The many half-length fig<ires of 
Sibyls, of which the best by Guer- 

cmo and Domemichino are scattered 
in and out of Italy, bear mostly the 
expression of heavenly longing, wn- 
tea). For prophets and saints of all 
kinds there were special workshops. 
Spagnoletto"- and Garlo Dolci worked 
at the same things in a very dif- 
ferent manner, and yet very much 
to the same purpose. The first 
may be followed out in the Gal- 
leries of Parma and Naples; thed 
latter in the Pitti, in the Uffizi, and e 
especially in the Pal. Corsini at 
Florence, where also we become/ 
acquainted with his imitator, Onorio 
Ma/rmari. Dolci's sentimentalism, 
his conventional devotion, with 
drooping heads and turned-up eyes, 
his black shadows and smooth 
lights, his over elegant position of 
the hands, &c. , must not make us 
forget a remarkable inborn sense 
of beauty, nor the care and melting 
tone of the execution. Of the Nea- 
politans, AnArea Vaccaro {Naples g 
Musev/m) has the most seriousness 
and dignity in such pictures, as he 
shows by keeping some measure, 
even in his Murder of the Innocents 
(his best picture besides the Christ 
Crucified with his followers, in the 
Trinita de' Pellegrmi). h 

Whether the personages repre- 
sented be sacred or profane, makes 
little difference on the whole. Lu- 
cretia, Cleopatra, also Judith, 
where she looks ecstatically up- 
wards {Ouercimo, in the PaZ. Spada 
at Eome), the victorious David at ai 
similar moment (Gemnari, Pal.j 
Pitti), even Cato stabbing himself 
{Quereino, Pal. Brignole at Genoa], k 
and other such, only display other 
instances of the same feeling. 

Whole length, or nearly whole 
length figures, represented singly, 
become very common, for the sake 
of this expression. S. Sebastian 
stands at their head. I think the 
best pictures have already been 
named (antea), among which the 
Guerdno, P. Pitti, is to be counted. I 
Then come adoring saints in great 
B 2 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

numbers ; the repentant Peter 

as (compare Ouercmo in the Naples 
Musewm, here with the pocket- 
handkerchief ! Gwido and C 

hDold, both in the P. Pitti, Pier- 
framcesco Mola in the P. Cormii at 

c Bome), in all degrees of grief ; re- 
pentant Magdalenes of all kmds, 
from the most vehement protesta- 
tion up to calm contemplation 

d {firistofa/no Allori, in the Pitti; 
Domenico Feti, in the Academy of 

« Venice ; Chiercmo, in the Vatican 

fOallery), explain the emotion of 
the Magdalene by two angels show- 
ing her the naOs of the cross. S. 
Francis in prayer (especially low 

gin character in Oigoli, Pal. Pitti 
and Vffxi). In representing 
monkish devotion the Carthusian 
order has a remarkable superiority 
in simple devotion. What is most 
impressive in Le Sueur's histories 
of S. Bruno (Louvre) is found again 
in Italian Carthusian pictures. 
The circumstances are neither more 
nor less favourable for picturesque 
treatment than those of other 
orders ; they are the same kind of 
visions, penances, actions (especi- 
ally writing), praying, miracle- 
workings by gestures, up to 
death on the hard couch or by 
the hands of murderers. But the 
deep and calm devotion of the soul, 
whether it turns its glaoce up- 
ward or casts it down in humble 
meditation, here seems to forget the 
world and the spectator more than 
anywhere else. In all the Certose 
of Italy one has this feeling ; most 
beautifully perhaps in Stanzioni (in 

Jii S. Martina at Naples, chapel of S. 
Brv/n/me, second on the left, with 
legends and apotheosis of the 
Saint, with which compare his 
" Intercession of S. Emidio " in the 

i Trinitd, de' Pellegrini, as also with 
the picture of his pupil Finoglia in 

ithe Musemn, S. Bruno receiving 
the rules of the order). Chterdrw's 
Madonna with the two Carthusians 

Spraying (Pinacoteca of Bologna) is 

one of his most attractive works. 
The complete renunciation of the 
world gives quite a peculiar type, 
in fact, to the order. For the rest 
also the white garments of the 
members of the order must have 
imperatively required a calm 
solemn demeanour. Several to- 
gether in violent movement would 
no longer make a picture. * There- 
fore is S. Komuald with his Camal- 
dolese friars so calm in the beau- 
tiful picture of Sacchi (in the Vatican ' 


Along with this beautiful and calm 
devotion arises a special painting 
of ecstacies ; above, a Gloria; below, 
the all but swooning male or female 
saint; around, the angels as at- 
tendants and spectators. The 
legend of S. Francis contains a 
moment justified in art, therefore 
also constantly represented, which 
contains the highest degree of 
ecstatic excitement — ^the receiving 
the stigmata. To make pain and 
delight and devotion thus flow into 
each other was the especial gift of 
the painting of the seventeenth 
century (picture by Otierdno, alle 
Stvmmaie at Ferrara, high altar;™ 
another in S. M. di Carignano, at" 
Genoa, left of the entrance. But 
when with other Saints also they 
were no longer satisfied with good 
and true devotion, and in the re- 
presentation of rapture could no 
longer conceive any higher point 
than fainting (comp. ardea), the 
result could not fail to be repulsive 
unreality. One very well painted 
picture of this kind may be named 
in place of aJl — the Swooning of S. 
Stanislas, in the Gesii at Perrara, " 
second altar on the right, by the late 
Bolognese, Giuseppe Maria Crespi, 

* [CarpCKcio, however, represents this in 
the legend of S. Jerome, before whose lion 
the brothers of the order are flying in 
terror (Scuola di S. Giorgio, in Venice), 
which produces a really comic effect — Mr.] 

Ecstasies and Glories. 


surnamedZo Spagnuolo [an artist who 
in his healthy naturalism and pure 
artistic feeling shows an aifinity to 
the great Spaniards. — Mr.] Only 
one thing is wanted to complete 
the desecration, «■ wanton look in 
the angels. Lcmfranco, the Ber- 
nini of painting, supplies even 
this. (Eostacy of S. Margherita 

a da Cortona, Pal. Piiti.) The cen- 
tury was in these things quite 
blind. A beautiful picture of Oave- 

b done (in the Pinacoteca of Bologna), 
a Madonna on clouds, showing the 
child to the saints kneeling below, 
contains both expressions ; in the 
holy Blacksmith (S. Bligius?) the 
conventional ardour, but in S. 
Petronius with his three chorister 
boys there is a cabn ritual devo- 
tion ; did the master divine how 
far more impressive is the effect of 
this last ? 

Now also they prefer to represent 
the Madonna no longer only as an 
object of adoration, but herself 
feeling the supersensual longing, 
the holy grief. The beautiful 
head of Van Dyck (p. 233) already 
shows this ; the Assunta or Mater 
Dolorosa almost always represents 
a higher being than the mere 
mother of the Child, who stiU falls 
into naturalism, without being 
naive as in the beautiful pictures of 
Murillo. There are good Mothers 
and Holy Families by the Garacci, 
especially Armiiale, in the manner 
of Correggio. By Chcercmo there 
are some single figures of the Ma- 
donna with a noble matronly ex- 
pression. Ouido is very unequal ; 
an excellent Madonna with the 

c Sleeping Child, in the Quirinal ; a 
good early Holy Family, in the P. 

d Spinola, Strada Numa, at Genoa ; 
but one of his most important 
Madonnas, which he has treated as 

ea special picture {Turin Oallery, 

/copy in the Brera at Milan, an 
imitation by Elisdbetta Sirami in 

g the Pal. Corsini at Borne), and also 
as a part of the great picture of 

the Vow taken during the Plague 
[Pmacoteca at Bologna) looks into- h 
lerably pretentious, as if she were 
showing the child for money. In 
general at this period the mother 
is too often only an Ol-humoured 
guardian of the child (oval picture 
by Maratta in the Pal. Corsini a,ti 
Eome) ; she often scolds, so that 
the musical children and other at- 
tendants onlyreceive her commands 
quite timidly and with formal sub- 
missiveness, and the little John 
hardly ventures to approach. The 
aristocratic repelling manner that 
is here given to holy personages 
(comp. p. 241) has its parallel in the 
views of the time concerning the 
priestly order (Kanke, Popes, III. 
120). Not without reason is one 
always charmed by Sassoferrato, 
whose mild beautiful carefully 
painted Madonnas without excep- 
tion show a motherly feeling for the 
sake of which one forgets the want 
of grandeur and higher life. (Ex- 
amples in several places, especially 
Pal. Borghese at Borne, room 6,^ 
No. 412 ; Brera at Milan, Turin k 
Gallery; in S. SaMna at Bome, 2 
chapel right of the choir, the only 
large altar-piece ; Madonna del 
Rosario, most excellent in execu- 
tion ; in the Uffizi and in the P. m 
Doria at Eome, room 3, No. 9, n, 
adoring Madonnas without chil- 
dren, looking modestly down, with- 
out the glorified expression by which 
Carlo Doloi, for instance, is essen- 
tially distinguished from Sassofer- 
rato. ) Among the Madonnas of 
the Naturalists, one of the above- 
named (p. 224) pictures of Pellegro 
Piola is among the best and most 
charming ; Oaravaggio, on the other 
hand, transfers this most simple 
subject to his favourite Gipsy 
world. (Large Holy Family in the 
Pal. Borghese, room 5, No. 26.) o 
So with ScMdoTie {Pal. Pallavicini 
at Genoa). Marauds Madonnasp 
again are the echo of Guido. 


Paintmg of the Semnteenth Century. 


The Santa Conversazione (Ma- 
donna with Saints) has now to be 
adapted, as it was by the later Ve- 
netians, to some special emotion 
and moment, so that the Madonna 
and Child are in some special rela- 
tion to one of the Saints, whilst 
the others also take part in some 
way. This occurred frequently, 
for instance, after the example of 
Correggio with the hazardous sub- 
ject of the Marriage of S. Cathe- 
rine. Still more frequently the 
Mother and Child are transplanted 
beyond any earthly locality into 
the clouds and surrounded with 
angels ; the period of glories and 
visions begins, without which, at 
last, hardly any altar-piece is now 
produced. The type therein is not 
a Madonna di FoUgno, but directly 
or indirectly the cupola of the Ca- 
thedral at Parma, with the view 
from beneath, the realization of the 
clouds, the troops of angels. Of this 
kind are several large pictures of 

as the Pmacoteca of Bologna, as for 
instance Gwido's already-mentioned 
picture of the Vow of the Plague, 
in the lower half of which kneel 
seven Saints, some of them with 
the most telling expression which 
he can command ; Qviercmo's In- 
vestiture of S. William of Aqui- 
taine shares with his Burial of S. 

h Petronilla (gallery of the Capitol) 
the fault, that the heavenly group 
remains out of connection with the 
earthly, and yet is too near to 
it ; but also the broad masterly 
energetic treatment is the same 
in both pictures. (Another in- 
stance of the substitution of the 
Santa Conversazione for a momen- 
tary action; properlyonly the Bishop 
Felix, S. William, S. PhiUp and S. 
James ought to be joined with the 
Madonna in one picture). Luca 
Qiordam/) was rightly guided on 

such an occasion by his equable 
temperament; his Madonna del 
Kosario (Naples Musev/m) floats c 
in on clouds under a Baldachin 
borne by angels, while in front S. 
Dominic, S. Clara, and others in 
devotion wait reverently for her; 
this development of the Glory into 
a heavenly procession was quite ac- 
cording to national Neapolitan feel- 
ing, and the detail is of the same 
kind. (Another large picture 
by Luca in the Brera at Milan. )rf 
Ercole Gemnari carries his double 
vision to the extreme (Pimacoteca 
of Bologna) : the Madonna appears e 
on clouds to S. N^iccolo of Ban, who 
is likewise floating upon clouds 
above a stormy sea. The contrast 
also of Glories with Martyrdoms 
(see above), however poetically 
given, has something artistically 
wrong in it. 

But the supernatural comes even 
into the lonely cloister cell, enters 
into the existence of a single holy 
man. Here, in inclosed spaces, the 
local realisation is as a rule very 
disturbing. It would sound like 
mockery if we were to test the best 
pictures of their kind on this point, 
and especially to describe exactly 
the actions of the angels here so 
altogether without g6iie. (Pmaco- 
teca of Bologna, S. Antony of/ 
Padua, kissing the foot of the 
Bambino, by Elisdbetta Sirani; S. 
Qiacomo Ma^giore, at Bologna, g 
fourth altar on the right. Christ 
appearing to Giovanni da S. Fa- 
condo, by Oavedone.) If a ruder 
naturalist, as for instance Spagno- 
letto, altogether leaves out the 
visionary element, there comes out 
at least an innocent genre picture ; 
his S. Stanislas Kostka (Pal. Bor-h 
ghese) is a simple young seminarist, 
who has had a child laid on his 
arm, and is now amiably watching 
how it catches hold of his coUar. 

The Madonna floating upon 
clouds is at this period hardly to 
be distinguished from the Assiuup- 




o s 

Cutpolas and Ceiling Pictures. 


tion, the Virgin mounting towards 
heaven. (How clearly had Titian 
described the Virgin in the As- 
sumption !) Now, besides, certain 
pictures are expressly painted as 
Ascensions into Heaven. So the 
colossal picture by Chiido in S. 

aAmlrogio at Genoa (high altar 
on the right)— one of those mas- 
terpieces which leave one cold. 
Of the Assumptions of Agostmo and 
Aimibale Caracci in the Pinacoteca 

b at Bologna, the first and most im- 
portant is an example of the reali- 
zation in a local space of the super- 
natural : the "upwards" is made 
obvious by making the Madonna 
lie in an oblique position upon a 
beautiful group of angels ; happily 
the head also gives the beautiful 
impression of longing, losing itself 
in delight. The Apostles collected 
below at the tomb seldom rise to 
any pure iospiration. 

Single altar-pieces are also quite 
filled up with the Glory. In S. 

c Paolo at Bologna (second chapel on 
the right) is to be seen one of the 
.excellently painted pictures of Lo- 
dovico Caracci, "U Paradiso"; re- 
markable as a complete specimen 
of those concerts of angels, by 
which the school are involuntarily 
distinguished from their author, 
Oorreggio. His angels have rarely 
time for making music. A pe- 
culiar Glory picture by Bonone 

(^stands in S. Benedetto at Ferrara, 
on the third altar on the left ; the 
Risen Christ is worshipped by nine 
Benedictine Saints grouped round 
him upon clouds, kissed, adored, 
marvelled at ; the Santa Conver- 
sazione becomes a united ecstatic 
glorification. (Compare Piesole's 

« fresco in S. Marco. 

The Glories are in especial the 
chief subjects for paintings of 
cupolas and domes. Correggio's 

hazardous and unattainable type is 
at first taken seriously. It is im- 
possible not to value a work like, 
for instance, the frescos of Lodo- 
mco Caracci on the arch before the 
niche of the choir of the Cathedral 
of Fiacenza; these rejoicing angels,^ 
who hold books and strew flowers, 
have something grand in them, 
and display an almost genuine 
monumental style. Do-menichimo's 
four Evangelists on the penden- 
tives of the cupola of S. Andrea 
delta Valle at Borne are in parts » 
grander than any pendentive 
figure in Parma ; and if he does 
leave us unmoved by his allegorical, 
very beautifully drawn figures of 
the pendentives of S. Carlo & Cati- % 
iiari, if he mixes in an unpleasing 
manner, in the strikingly inferior 
pendentives of the Tesoro in the 
Cathedral of Naples, aUegory, hia-i 
tory, and supernatural things to- 
gether, we lay the blame in one 
place on the allegory as such, and 
in the other on the depressed mood 
of the much ill-used master. Guido, 
in his (much painted over) Concerts 
of Angels in ;S. Gfregorio at Eomey 
(the one on the right of the three 
chapels, by it) produces at least 
quite a naive, cheerful impression 
by the beautiful youthful forms 
without any pathos. In the Glory 
of S. Dominic (semi-dome of the;!; 
chapel of the Saint in S. Bomenico at 
Bologna), the Angels making music I 
certainly turn a conventional glance 
upwards. Christ and Mary are in 
their expression of receiving him 
quite unimpressive : but the Saint 
is most grand, his black mantle 
spread out by angels. To these 
early Glories, painted with elevated 
feeling, belongs also Bonone's beau- 
tiful semi-dome in S. Maria in 
Vado at Ferrara ; of adoring Patri- m 
archs and Prophets. Among the 
Neapohtans, Stanzioni is the most 
conscientious ; in the shallow cu- 
pola of the chapel of S. Bruno, in 
S. Martino at Naples (second on 


Painting of the Seventeenth Centwry. 

left), in spite of the very realistically 
treated view, "di sotto in sti," the 
upward movement of the adoring 
Saint, the cloud of cherubs, the 
concert of full-grown angels is given 
with unusual beauty and grace of 
arrangement ; in the shallow cupola 
of the second chapel on the right, 
a on the other, hand, Starmoni has 
paid his full tribute to the ideas of 
his school in a subject which went 
beyond its power of conception — 
Christ in Limbo. Here, also, we 
must admire an artist from whom 
we are not otherwise accustomed 
to seek for anything superior in 
this kind — il Oaldbrese. In the 
6 transept of S. Piepro d Majella, he 
has painted, in flat ceiling-pictures, 
the stories of Pope Celestine V. 
and S. Catherine of Alexandria, 
this time not only with outward 
energy, but with spirit and thought ; 
his naturalism becomes almost dig- 
nified where the body of Catherine 
is borne upon clouds to Sinai by 
singing angels bearing torches and 
strewing flowers. 

But the painting of ceilings only 
too soon becomes the scene of con- 
tention for every kind of want of 
principle. Under the idea that no 
one often has the physical power to 
examine a ceiling picture long and 
carefully, and that credit is only to 
be gained by the general effect, 
painters fell into the style of which 
we have spoken on the occasion of 
Pietro da Cortona (p. 230). The 
transition is made by the unprin- 
cipled Lanfra/nco, first by his steal- 
ing from Domenichino (pendentives 
of the cupola in the Gesii, Nuovo at 
c Naples, also that in the SS. Apos- 
dtoli there, where likewise all the 
uninteresting, untrue paintings of 
the ceiling, and the somewhat su- 
perior Pool of Bethesda over the 
portal, are by Laufranco), then by 
these more bold improvisations 
(ceiling and wall lunettes in S. 
eMartino; cupola in S. Andrea 
f delta Valle at Kome). The way 

in which he usually attempted 
the supersensual is seen, for in- 
stance, in his S. Jerome with tjie 
angels (Naples Mwsewm). Their gi 
successors had not only cupolas, 
but church ceilings of all kinds to 
fin with Glories, Paradises, As- 
sumptions, Visions ; besides the 
floating groups and figures ho- 
vering in every possible plane 
above the head of the spectator, 
there is on the edge a whole popu- 
lation in groups, standing on balus- 
trades, terraces, &c. ; for these 
Pozm created a new space in the 
form of splendid perspective halls. 
Where do we now find the truly 
supernatural ? With incredible su- 
perficiality painters adopted from 
Correggio the most external part of 
his floating life, his passion, his 
ecstacies, especially his clouds and 
foreshortenings, and thereby com- 
bined out of it the thousands of 
brilliant scenes of light and foam, 
of which the illusory working is 
there enhanced and confirmed by 
the miserable accessories above 
described. Who would wish to 
dwell in this heaven ? Who believes 
in this beatitude ? To whom does 
it give a higher tone of feeling? 
Which of these figures is even exe- 
cuted so as to give us am interest 
in their existence in heaven ? How 
most of them idle about on their 
clouds ; how lazily they lean down 
from them. 

Besides the works of Pozzo and 
others, cited above, the following 
are most worth mentioning. Gauli : 
the large fresco in the nave of the 
Gesii at Borne, with peculiarly^ 
smartly handled colours and fore- 
shortenings ; the painter uses every 
means to make us believe that his 
troups have floated out of the 
empyrean through the frame to 
the high altar. (Sketch in oil in 
the Pal Spada.) In Genoa, thei 
most brilliant are : Qiovam/ni Bat- 
tista Carlone (frescos of S. Si/ro, &o.)j 
and Carlo Baratta {8. M. dellah 

Biblical and Mythological Pictures. 


Pace, transept on the right, As- 
sumption of S. Anne. ) In Venice : 
the bright coloured Giov. Batt. Tie- 
polo, who carries his foreshortening 
from below further than any, so 
that the soles of the feet and nostrils 
are the characteristic parts of his 
figures ; [in their intellectual live- 
liness, however, every pictorially 
cultivated eye will find pleasure. 
(Victory of Eaith, on the ceiling of 

a S. M. delta Pietd, on the Biva ; Glory 
of S. Dominic in SS. Giovam/rd e 

t Paolo, last chapel on the right ; 

cthe same on S. M. del Boswrio, 
ceiling paintings of the Scuola del 

d Garmine ; then, apparently the 
most beautiful thing that Tiepolo 
ever painted, the ceiling of the 

e great haU in the Palazzo LaMAa ; 
the altar pictures in the Chiesa della 

fFava, in S. Alvise, in S. Paolo, and 
elsewhere.) Also the sometimes 
very tolerable mannerist, Giov. 
Batt, Piazzetta, deserves mention 
(Glory of S. Dominic in SS. Qio- 

gvwrmi e Paolo, last chapel on the 
right). In single heads and half- 
length pictures, Piazzetta is very 
attractive by his effective division 
of the masses of light and shadow. — 

How Mengs first entered his soli- 
tary protest against this rank de- 
generacy has been mentioned be- 
fore. The complete reaction 
through a new classic style, which 
we no longer attempt to describe, 
came in with Andrea Appiani. He 
has frescos in S. Ma/ria presso S. 

h Gelso, at UUan. 


Profane painting in the times of 
universally adopted naturalism is 
hardly to be distinguished from 
sacred painting. The histories of 
the Old Testament, especially, 
for instance, in the many pictures 
of haK and whole figures which 
issued from Quercimis workshop, 

do not vary in style from pro- 
fane histories. There are, by 
Guercino, besides the uninte- 
resting histories, some excellent 
ones Eke those mentioned above 
(p. 226), or like his "Solomon 
with the Queen of Sheba." (Sta. 
Croce in Fiacenza, transept on the i 
right.) Histories like that of 
Susanna, or Potiphar's Wife with 
Joseph (large pictures by BiHverti 
in the Pal. Barbermi at Bome andj 
in the Uffiei), or of Lot and his Is 
Daughters, situations like that of 
Judith take nothing from the Bible 
but their occasion. (The Susanna 
of il Capuccino, in the Pal. Spinola, 
Strada Nuova, at Genoa. ) The most I 
beautiful Judith is undoubtedly 
that of Oristofano Allori {Pal. Pitti, m 
a small copy in the Pal. Gorsini at n 
Florence, a much damaged copy in 
the Pal. OmmesUibile at Perugia) ; o 
certainly a woman of whom it is 
doubtful whether she is capable of 
any passion of heart, with swim- 
ming eyelids, full lips, and a de- 
cided corpiilence with which her 
splendid attire harmonises remark- 
ably well. Guide's Judith is occa- 
sionally more noble (for instance, 
in the Pal. Adorno at Genoa), also^ 
that of Guercino (p. 243 i) ; both 
give here and there the expression 
of longing thankfulness. Also the 
Daughter of Herod, as a subject, 
is best mentioned here. (Cold and 
pompous, by Guido, Pal. Corsiniq 
at Rome.) With Domenichino the 
Old Testament histories are, on the 
whole, the weakest. Four ovals in 
fresco, in 5. Silvestro d, Monte Ca- 
vaUo at Bome, left transept ; in the r 
right transept is seen the careful 
large picture of one of his few 
pupils, Ant. Barbalunga, God the 
Father in a glory ; below, two 
Saints ; in the Gasino Bospigliosi, i 
the Paradise and the Triumph of 
David (?) ; Pal. Barberini, the Fall, t 
consisting simply of ideas taken 
from other pictures. David with 
the head of Goliath, the pendant to 


Painting of the Seventeenth Centura/. 

Judith, perpetually repeated ; the 
most vulgar is by Domenico Peti, 
who makes liim actually sit upon 
the head. {Fal. Manfrin at 

(J Venice.) 

The parables of the New Testa- 
ment, which by a noble treatment 
easily suit a BibUoal type, are at 
this time entirely without this con- 
secration, without making up for it 
by charm of the genre kind {as for 
instance in Teniers) or by minia- 
ture-like beauty (as, for instance, 
Mzheimer's "Prodigal son," in the 

b Pal Sciarra). U Oalabrese when he 
painted the Return of the Prodigal 

cSon (Naples Museum), evidently 
regarded the antecedents of his 
principal personage as something 
very pardonable. "He could not 
help it." Domenico Peti (several 

d small parable pictures in the PUti 

«and the Uffizi) is here one of the 
best. [These Parables of D. Feti 
appear in various places ; similar 
ones, ascribed perhaps erroneously 
to B. Schidone, are in the P. 

f Sciarra, Bome. — Mr.] 

Strictly profane painting of a my- 
thological, allegorical, and historical 
kind, in which appear especially a 
number of scenes from Taaso, can 
only be shortly touched on here. 
The Caracci gave the tone on the 
whole by their great work in the 

g Pal. Famese. Just as they con- 
structed ideal forms here without 
real greatness and without any 
really inspiring life (p. 226), but 
with ability and consistency, so they 
also composed the Love Scenes of 
the Gods. What they painted at 
Bologna from Soman history, and 
so forth, in the friezes of halls 

Ti {Pal. Magnani, Pal. Fava) is com- 
pared with these hardly worth 
looking for. [The most important 
things left by the very talented 
AgoStino Caracei, elder brother 
of Annibale, are the frescos in 

ithe Pal. del Oarditu) at Parma 
(not by Lodovico Caracei) — Mr.] 
Of the chimney pictures of the 

school the best have unhappily 
been cut out, so that I have found 
a beautiful improvised figure of 
this kind by Guide for sale in a 
shop. [In the feeling of numerous 
spectators Cfuido's Aurora {aniea)j 
will keep the first place among 
ideal mythological representations.] 
The best and most beautiful is 
foimded on DomenicMno. The pic- 
ture of Nymphs Bathing and Shoot- 
ing (Pal. Borgliese at Eome) shows le 
indeed neither quite pure forms nor 
Venetian fulness of life, but splen- 
did motives, and that truly idyllic 
character which, here as with the 
Venetians (aTiMa), is the happiest 
quality of mythological pictures. 
The frescos removed from the Villa 
Alddbrandini at Frascati (now I 
there) preserve this same character 
by their arrangement in a grand 
landscape. The ceiling frescos in 
the principal room of the Pal. Gos- 
taguti at Bome contain indeed an m 
unfortunate allegory (the God of 
Time helps Truth to raise himself 
to the Sun God), but the forms are 
more beautiful and conscientious 
than with other painters who have 
painted in this palace (Guercino, 
Albani, Lanfranco, &c.) Two small 
very pretty little mythological pic- 
tures in the PUti. The nearest to n 
Domeuichino in his treatment of 
the mythological was Albani, 
whose frescos in the Pal. Verospi at 
Eome (p. 226) have been already o 
mentioned. Of his circular pic- 
tures of the four elements, the one 
larger specimen (Turin Gallery, p 
among others) is one of the very 
best productions of modern mytho- 
logical painting, while the smaller 
(Pal. Borghese, fifth room, No. 11- j 
14) attains at least the greater 
amount of coquettish charm of 
which a Bolognese is capable ; two 
pretty little pictures in the ITffsii ; t 
pretty children on the vault of the 
choir niche in S. M. della Pace at 
Rome. Here too Domenichino must s 
have made the deepest impression 

CeiUng Pictures. 


on Nicholas Foussin. His pictures 
with the faint colours and some- 
what vulgar forms do not charm 
the eye ; but any one who looks at 
art historically, will follow this 
endeavour to remain pure and true 
in a time of false pretensions with 
real interest. And once he is quite 
na'ive and beautiful in the Shep- 
herd's scene or romance scene of the 

a Pal. CoZowwaXcertainly a genuine but 
very early picture of wie master, 
in some parts indeed without style 
and very dark in colour, not to be 
compared with his splendid Bac- 
chanalia in Paris and in London. 
Of aU his mythological pictures in 
Italy, the only one that is genuine 

I is the Theseus at Troezene, Uffizi, 
not remarkable and very dark ; of 

c copies, the Gallery of the Capitol 
possesses the Procession of Mora 
(after the beautiful early picture in 
the Louvre) ; in the P. Manfrim, at 

d Venice the Dance of the Hours, 
whose incomparably beautiful ori- 
ginal has passed from the Pesch 
Gallery into that of Sir. E. Wallace. 
— Mr.] Guercdiw has, besides the 

e frescos of the Yilla Imdovisi 
aiiiea), painted a number of mostly 
uninteresting historical pictures 
(Mucins Scsevola in the Pal. Pallavi- 

fcini at Genoa), among which only 
that called Dido on the Funeral 

g Pile (in the Pal. Spada at Eome) is 
distinguished for beauty of expres- 
sion and unusual power of colour- 

Aing. There is in the Uffizi, left 
gallery, by a little known painter, 
Giacmto Gemmiani, a " Finding of 
the body of Leander," which ap- 
pears to combine in a high degree 
the best inspirations of Gueroino 
and Poussin. Gruido, as a rule, 
leaves us cold in such scenes. His 

ij^ausicaa {Naples Museum) with 
great calm is holding a court of 
her maidens. His Rape of Helen 

j {P. Spada) takes place like any 
other departure in broad day. The 
excellent picture of a Nymph and a 

k Hero in the Dffizi. The fighting 

Genii {Twrm Gallery), a beautiful I 
and happy motive. The Aurora, 
see p. 226. There is by Elisabetta 
Sirani, who is never weary of re- 
producing Guide's second manner, 
a Caritas with three children in 
the P. Sciarra. m 

The Naturalists prefer painting 
sacred subjects in a profane man- 
ner to making the profane ideal ; 
they make up for it by genre 
pictures. SaVoator, who forsook 
the naturalists, and attempted all 
sorts of different manners, repre- 
sented, in his Catiline, a choice 
company (Pal. Ma/rtelli) of evil-m 
natured, vulgar, aristocratically 
attired vagabonds. Carlo Saraceni 
paints Juno, for instance {P. Doria o 
at Rome), tearing oat the eyes of 
the beheaded Argus with her own 
hands to give them to her peacock ; 
the character of the goddess is 
suited to this action. 

With Pietro da Cortona, and with 
Zuca Gfiordano, amongst the Nea- 
politans there begins a period of 
pure decoration for mythological 
and allegorical fresco painting. 
Pietro's immense ceiling fresco, 
which glorifies the fame of the 
Barlerini family and his ceilings 
paintings in the P. Pitti have been q 
already cited ; to guess what he 
exactly means we require a con- 
siderable acquaintance with the 
family history of the Barberini and 
the Medici. The ceiling by Libca in 
the Gallery of the P. Biccardi atr 
Florence, shows how Cardinal Leo- 
pold, Prince Cosimo IIL, and others 
come riding on the clouds as gods 
of light ; round about them is ar- 
ranged the whole of Olympus. 
How gladly one passes from these 
to Qiov. da S. Giovanni, whose 
allegories (in the large lower hall 
of the P. Pitti) are stiU more ab- s 
surdly conceived, but yet are exe- 
cuted with care, feeling for beauty, 
and glow of colouring. Space for- 
bids us from naming again the 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

Cortonists and followers of Luoa, 
scattered as they are through the 
palaces of all Italy. To form an 
idea of the complications of their 
style, one need only, for instance, 
foUow the favourite theme of the 
Eape of the Sabines, and remark 
what are the points always and 
exclusively brought forward in this 
scene. Luca himself is sometimes 
naive in Kubens' style, in smaller 
pictures, as for instance the Galatea 

ffiin the Uffizi. In the seventeenth 
century the above-named Roman 
painters strove also in the pro- 
fane style to produce careful and 
correct pictures without any special 
occasion : in the ceilings of princely 
halls they rather descend to Cor- 
tona's manner both in allegorical 
subjects and in style of painting. 

h (P. Oolonna : in the gallery, the 
Battle of Lepanto allegoricaUy glo- 
rified in honour of Marcantonio 
Colonna ; another ceiling, by lAiti, 
in honour of Pope Martm V.) 


We must not dwell either on the 
genre painting, which especially 
prospered among the naturalists 
proper. Garavaggio, the creator of 
the new style, selects to express it 
in the life-size Venetian half-length 
figure, giving it on a plain dark 
ground a repulsively humorous or 
horribly dramatic purport. His 
c Card Players (P. Seiarra at Borne), 
f^his Fortune Teller (Gapitolme Gal- 
e lery), his Two Drinkers {Gallery of 
Uodena), have a world-wide fame ; 
and his ' ' Tribute Money " and 
" Christ Among the Doctors " pro- 
perly belong to this set. This style, 
sometimes tending more to history, 
sometimes more to family portraits, 
soon met with approval throughout 
all Italy, in spite of its poverty and 
one-sidedness. The pupils of Guer- 
cino painted many things of this 
kind. Sonthorst goes especially 

into this line, only more in bur- 
lesque. (P. JDoria at Eome ; Uffidf 
at Florence, where, among other gr 
things, is his best work, a supper- 
party of doubtful characters : other 
things in all great collections.) 
Other Copyists : Manfredi, Manetti, 
Giov. da S. Giovanni (all in the P. h 
Pitti), Lionello Spada (large gipsy 
scene in the Gallery of Modena) ; i 
some really good things in the 
Academy of Venice — a Lute-player, y 
with wife and bry, a group of three 
Gamblers (perhaps by Ca/rlo Sara- 
ceni, to whom belongs the excellent 
figure of a Lute-player in the P. 
Spimola at Genoa). A picture oik 
Spagnolelto {Turin Gallery) is quite I 
original ; Homer, as a blind im- 
provisatore with a fiddle, along- 
side of him his amanuensis, painted 
with feeling. Others go back into 
innocent existence pictures : il Ga- 
puccino and Liica Giordano paint 
cooks with poultry (P. Brignole at m 
Genoa, P. Doria at Home) ; but n 
U Oalabrese, perhaps, like the last 
named, under Flemish influence, 
made a large grand concert in 
whole-length figures (P. Doria. o 
There is a really good Flemish 
"Music at Table "in the P. Bor-p 
gTtese, room 11, No. 4.) Salva- 
tor's half and whole figures are in 
general only swaggering upholstery 
pictures. (P. Pitti : un Poeta ; S 
un Guerriero). In the Tiurin Gal- f 
lery an excellent genre picture of 
the Bolognese school by Giuseppe 
Maria Grespi, surnamed lo §pa- 
gnuolo (see p. 244 o), not Daniele 
Crespi, as pointed out there : S. John 
Nepomuk, hearing the Queen's Con- 
fession, while a poor man stands 
by waiting. (Whole figures under 

Alongside of this Caravaggio 
genre there existed from the be- 
ginning of the XVIIth century, 
at Eome, another in the proper 
Netherlandish manner. The Dutch 
Peter van Laar, surnamed Bain- 
bocdo, Michelangelo Gerquoszi, 

Animal Painters. — Batik Pieces. 


Jan Miel, and many other northern 
and Italian painters recognized the 
true laws and conditions proper to 
this style, and thereby produced 
much that is excellent. (The 
author has but a fragmentary 
knowledge of these painters. The 
chief collection is P. Gorsmi at 
a Florence ; the best by Cerq[uozzi 
are perhaps in foreign countries ; a 
good small picture of Jan Miel, 
6 the Thorn-Extractor, in the Ufflai). 
Jacques Gallofs paintings have not 
nearly the charm of his etchings : 
many things also are not accurately 
named. [Hardly any artist's name 
is so misused as that of Callot. 
Paintings by his hand are difficult 
to authenticate, and in Italy, for 
instance, certainly are not to be 
found. What is ascribed to him 
(les Malheurs de la Guerre, series 
of pictures in the P. Gordni at 
cEome, views of towns rich in 
iigures and another series of smaller 
d pictures in the Academy of Venice) 
is mostly repulsive unpleasant rub- 
bish, at the best, by the Pisan 
Pietro Ciafferi, surnamed lo Smwr- 
giasso. — Mr.] All this is far sur- 
passed by the number of treasures 
of the proper Dutch and Antwerp 
e schools at Turin and in the Uffizi, of 
which we cannot attempt to speak. 
[The combination of the most re- 
markable paintings of this kind, 
which both the above-named gal- 
leries possess, would alone form a 
collection which would not be far 
behind many larger collections of 
the North. Of first-rate pictures : 
Jan Steen, No. 977, the Painter 
with his family ; G. Metsu, 972 and 
918, the Hunter, the Lute-player ; 
G. Dow, No. 926, Going to School ; 
F. Mieris, No. 834, the Charlatan. 
A fine collection of Dutch paintings 
once belonging to the Grand- 
. Duchess Mary of Kussia, in the 
f Villa Quarto near Florence. Also the 
Brera, P. Borghese, and the A cademy 
h at Venice possess some good things. 
But in the collection of the last the 

catalogue shows the greatest pos- 
sible ignorance and confusion of 
ideas. — Mr.] 

The recognized aesthetical view 
of that time of the Italians alto- 
gether eschewed genre, in so far as 
it did not turn to emotion, like the 
rest of their painting. Hence their 
preference for half-length figure 
pictures without local surroundings 
and without accessories. 

In the smaller divisions OasU- 
glioTie represents animal painting, 
without any very distinct feeling for 
it : he worked in partly Hfe-size 
decorative pictures (P. Golonna at^ 
Borne ; Uffizi) ; while Mario de' j 
Fiori represents flower-painting, 
meant only as decoration (glass 
cabinets in the P. Borghese). Com- 
pare with it the infinite love of 
nature of JRdhel JRuyseh, and the 
certainly more conventional but 
still most elegant palette of Ifuy- 
sum (P. Pitt^. The greatest col- J 
lection of flower pieces among 
which are excellent ones by Be 
Heeim, is m.^&Twn%Qallery. There I 
also is a genuine Potter (four cows) ; 
[perhaps the most valuable Dutch 
picture which Italy possesses any- 
where ; by Snyders and J. Fyt, ex- 
cellent still-life pictures. — Mr.] 

Their battle pictures formed a 
special branch of Italian art of that 
time. Their chief idea was the 
representation of the tumult as 
such, arranged according to colour 
and masses of light. Salvator Rosa 
as well as Cerquozzi gave the tone 
in this, in wMch still there is a 
distinct reminiscence of the Battle 
of the Amazons by Reubens. In 
the Naples Musev/m there are battle ^j 
pieces and popular tumults by him 
and his Neapolitan imitators, Ani- 
ello Falcone and Mieco Spadaro ; 
also there is by him a large and a 
small battle piece in the F. Pitti, ^ 
also some things in the P. Corsini g 
at Florence. By Bourguignon, more 
rich in colour, who combines Cer- 
quozzi and Kosa, the so-called 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

Battle of St. Quentin, in the TvHm 
a Gallery, is considered as genuine ; 
among others, [No. 420, good and 
genuine. — Mr.] two battle pieces 
5 in P. Borghese, a large one in P. 
cPitti, two large ones (apparently 
descriptions of particular events) 
d and two smaller ones in the Ujfflzi, 
«two in the P. Gapponi at Florence, 
/and several in the P. Oordni, where 
also one becomes acquainted with 
the whole school which belonged 
to these artists. Compared with 
the battle pieces of the Mannerists 
(e. g. of Tempesta), once copied 
from the battle of Constantine, and 
now become quite meaningless, 
this new mode of treatment must 
be called a great advance. Still, 
along with excellent episodes which 
are prominent (which are there 
constantly repeated), there is also 
the most empty-minded patchwork. 
In the course of a short period 
people had, as it appears, so com- 
pletely seen and exhausted this 
style, that it died out ; or else the 
unwarlike Italy left it to the Flem- 
ings (Woimermans), the French 
(Van der Meulen), and the Ger- 
mans, among whom Rugendas gave 
them a new and original life. 
(Large series of battle pictures in 
?the Turin Gallery, by Van der 
Meulen and EugTiienbwg, as well 
as excellent things by Philip Wou- 


One of the most beautiful forms 
taken by the European spirit of 
art of this period is landscape 
painting. The most important works 
of this kind are found on Italian 
ground, in Home, mostly by per- 
sons who were not Italians. 

Inspired by the Flemish pictures, 
they had produced the first back- 
grounds according to nature, not 
for their own sakes, but to elevate 

the feeling of the beholder, as far 
as possible, by the view of holy 
scenes {amtea) and faces painted 
with tenderness. Then Haphael 
had employed them for a higher, 
more systematic combination, when 
he had to depict the life of the 
Patriarchs with as few details as 
possible (antea). By Polidoro and 
Matwino there are two fresco land- 
scapes in S. Silvestro a Mordecamallo 
at Borne (in a chapel on the left). % 
At the same time Titian perceived 
the great necessity for them in 
existence painting, and when 
prompted by some decisive mo- 
ment in the story, filled up the 
poetical impression by the character 
of the landscape surroundings. He 
first fully discovered this part of 
the world in its pictorial connec- 
tion, and artistically employed the 
close union of landscape effects 
and tones of feeling [Sohiavone]. 
Tintoretto and the two Bassani 
followed him as far as they could 
(oreiea). Dosso Dossi, perhaps in- 
dependently, came nearly as far as 

From the end of the sixteenth 
century there exists in Italy a 
general desire for landscape, which 
the Mannerists who were stiU in 
power disdained to satisfy. Then 
whole shiploads of pictures were 
ordered from the great Antwerp 
manufactory of Brueghel. Every 
Italian gallery contains more than 
one, often many, of these green, 
bright, overladen, miniature-Kke 
pictures, which are garnished with 
all possible sacred and profane his- 
tories. Many of the most carefully 
painted, and also many by Jan, so 
caHedSammet Brueghel (1568-1625), 
painted for his patron the Cardinal 
Federigo Borromeo, are in the Am- 
brosiama at Milan. [One excellent i 
one in the Brera, ; one very good in^ 
the Gallery at Turin.] One quite ft 
small one in Bome, at the P. Doria, I 
combines, for instance, the follow- 
ing : — Whale-fishing, Oyster-catch- 

Landscape Painting. 


ing, Boar-liunting, and one of the 
Visions of John upon Patmos. The 
same gallery, one of the most valu- 
able for all landscape painting, 
contains also landscapes by the Bas- 
scmi, among others by a not other- 
wise known Appollonio da Bassano, 
a large one by Giovamni Battista 
Dossi, furnished with the scene of a 
princely reception ; and, also, by the 
way, an Orpheus in the Lower World 
and a Temptation of S. Antony, 
by the more rare Peter, the ffdllen- 
Irughel, the brother of Jan. [Pic- 
tures also exist in various collec- 
tions by Jam, the younger son of 
the Sammet BruegheL — Mr.] The 
Antwerp pictures are indeed most- 
ly, on account of their variety of 
colour and the microscopic style of 
their execution, less sympathetic 
than those of the Bassani, who 
make sharp lights and hazy sha- 
dows float over their mountains 
and hUl cities. 

Besides their pictures there came 
also painters from the Netherlands, 
as Matthdus BrU, who painted 
al fresco, e. g. in the Vatican {Sala 

a Sucale and Biblioteca), views and 
imaginary compositions, both equal- 
ly wanting in feeling. (A picture 

J in P. Golonna.) Also his younger 
brother, Paul Bril (1556-1626), the 
important mediator for the combi- 
nation of Flemish and Italian land- 
scape. His early pictures are still 

cover bright (P. Scmrra), and the 
poet only gradually becomes an 
artist and learns how to express 
his feeling for nature grandly. 
Whether he owes more to Aunibale 
Caracci, or the converse, may be a 
question ; in any case he is the first 
Netherlander in whom there ap- 
pears a higher feeling for lines. 
There are pictures of aU his periods 

(^in the Uffizi ; two of the middle 

g period in the P. Pitti. Fresco 
landscapes in the building added on 

^to the right of S. Oecilia at Borne. 
Parallel with him Adam Elsheimer, 
of Frankfort (1574-1620), shows 

real artistic power in his exquisite 
miniatures. Uffizi: Hagar in thegr 
Wood, a scene from the story of 
Psyche, Shepherds with Syrinx. 
His oaks, his beautiful distances, 
his cliffs of rock, give the poetry of 
nature in reaUy beautiful lines. 
What exists in Italy by Vinckebooms, 
by Jodocus Mom/per, and other 
painters of this generation in Italy, 
might, if it were worth the trouble, 
easily be distinguished ; but, when- 
ever the author has the happiness to 
go to Florence, the two landscapes 
of Riibens (P. Pitti) are among his h 
greatest delights. The "Hay Har- 
vest at Mechlin," in the quietest 
landscape lines, gives quite a de- 
lightful sense of air and Ught : while 
the " Nausicaa," with its rich 
landscape of rocks and sea and its 
fanciful effects of light, elevates us 
into the enjoyment of a fabulous 
state of existence. (Not painted as 
pendants to each other, as the un- 
equal size shows clearly.) What 
there is in Italy by Ruysdael (Twrin i 
Gallery, P. Pitti), Backhuyzen, scadj 
other Dutch painters in Italy, 
hardly deserves consideration in 
comparison with the treasures of 
northern collections — the "Little 
Castle in the Moat," by Andr. 
Stalbent (Uffizi) and the gloomy ii; 
landscape of Rembrandt (also there) 
might almost counterbalance it. 
[The last-named picture may be 
ascribed with tolerable certainty to 
Philip KonvncTc. — Mr.] [More pro- 
bably by Hercules Seghers. — Bode.] 
The impulse comes apparently 
from Titian, which had in the 
meantime inspired the Bolognese 
vrith their conception of landscape. 
In opposition to the absence of 
system of the Flemings, they set up 
the laws of composition, the arrange- 
ment and noble form of the objects, 
the sequence of colour. They mean- 
time but rarely give the principal 
place to landscape ; Annibale clearly 
aimed at a, mixed style, in which 
landscape and history should pro- 


Painting of the Seventeenth Century. 

duce a harmonious expression. 
(Several semioiroular pictures with 

a histories of the Virgin, P. Doria, 
third gallery, Nos. 1, 16, 18, 24 ; a 
small Magdalene, there also, first 
gallery, No. 3 ; another in P. Pal- 

i lavidni at Genoa ; a very excellent 
rocky landscape with bathers in 
body colours, by Agostmo, exe- 
cuted with wonderful mastery in 

cP. Pitti.) By Grimaldi, the prin- 
cipal landscape artist of the school, 
one can see but little in Italy ; un- 
fortunately also by Domenichino. 
(A beautiful landscape with bathers 

d in the P. Torrigiani at Florence ; 
two others, much darkened, in the 

« Uffizi ; frescos in the Casino of 

/the Villa Ludovisi.) Francesco Mola 
often has a S. Bruno in a beautiful 
mountain landscape (among others 

g P. Doria). [A great picture in the 

h Louvre. — Mr. ] 

Salvaior Sosa, half self-taught 
in landscape, is more truly and 
powerfully inspired in this style than 
in any other ; he only owes his 
higher cultivation to the works of 
the Bolognese and to the French 
about to be mentioned. Rocky land- 
scapes with evening lights, often 
stormy and precipitous ocean bays 

i{P. Oolonna at Eome), garnished 
with mysterious effects, are, to 
begin with, his chief subjects ; 
There he rises to a calmly grand 
manner, overpowering by remark- 
able forms and streams of light. 
(La Selva de' FUosofi, that is the 

;' Story of Diogenes, in the P. Pitti ; 
the Preaching of John and the Bap- 
tism of Christ in the P. Guadagni 

A; at Florence, principal pictures ; 
others in the P. Oorsini and Gap- 

Iponi, as also in the Uffizi.) In the 
interval, or later, he also painted 
more audacious bravura pictures 
m,(la Pace in P. Pitti), and cold, 
careful, large, crowded sea-pictures 
(also there). Of what date is the 
fanciful landscape with the ghostly 
corpse of Saint Paul the Hermit, I 

n do not venture to decide {Brera at 

Milan). [Others in the P. Maffei 
at Volterra, where there is a large 
collection of letters by Salvator. — 
J.] There are pictures by his pupil 
Bartolommeo Torregiani in the P. 
Doria at Borne, first gallery, So. g 

Of them all the master most con- 
scious of his purpose, the definite 
creator of the laws of landscape, is 
N. Poussin. His more important 
landscapes are nearly aE in St. 
Petersburg or in Paris ; still, one 
finds in the P. Sciarra that beauti-^ 
ful simple water landscape, in 
which St. Matthew with the angel 
sits among ruins [now in the 
Berlin Museum. — Ed.] Gaspard 
Dughet, surnamed Poussin (1613- 
1675), was his pupil and relation. 
With him nature speaks the power- 
ful language which still is heard 
from out the mountains, oak forests, 
and ruins of the neighbourhood of 
Rome; this tone is often heightened 
by stormy wind and tempest, which 
shudder through the whole picture ; 
in the forms the sublime predomi- 
nates ; especially the middle dis- 
tances are treated with a serious- 
ness found in no other artist. In 
both the aisles of S. Ila/rtino a' 
Monti at Borne there are a number q 
of mostly much disfigured land- 
scapes in fresco, with the stories of 
Elijah ; in the P. Oolonna therfe are r 
thirteen landscapes in water-colour, 
and as many in the P. Doria : these s 
series stand the great test whether 
a landscape can be made effective 
only by lines and principal forms, 
vrithout the charm of brilliant 
colour and detail. In the P. Oorsini t 
at Borne, among several hardly less 
good, the Storm and the Waterfall, 
the latter much injured by unfor- 
tunate blackening, especially of the 
green, like many other pictures by 
Gaspard. In the Academia di S.u 
Luca several good pictures. In the 
P. Pitti, four excellent little pic-v 
tures, which have remained un- 
usually clear ; in the Uffizi a small w 

Landscape Painting. 


forest landscape. In the Oallery of 
a Turin two oblong pictures. 

The type of which Annibale had 
given the first idea, the same which 
the two Poussins had carried out, 
remained for a long time the ruling 
type ; so that the Dutch, with their 
more realistic landscape, formed, on 
the whole, a (certainly glorious) 
minority. It represents a virgin 
nature, in which the traces of 
human work only appear as archi- 
tecture, chiefly as ruins of old 
times, also as simple huts. The 
human race which we imagine or 
find represented there belongs 
either to the old fabulous world, or 
to sacred history, or to pastoral 
lite ; so that the whole impression 
is heroic pastoral. 

This type reached its highest 
point in the contemporary of the 
Poussins, Clavde Gelie, snrnamed 
iorrara«, (1600— 1682). He was for 
a long time the assistant of Agostino 
Tassi, a feUow- worker of Paul Bril 
(works of Tassi are found in the F. 
J Corsini at Eome, in the Uffizi, and 
J in the P. Pitti ) ; he reached his 
greatest height after a youth at 
Borne very fuU of trials. His 
landscapes are less powerful in 
their composition than those of 
Poussin, but there is in them an 
inexpressible charm. Claude, as a 
finely attuned sold, hears in Nature 
the voice which is especially quali- 
fied to console the human race, and 
repeats her speech. For him who 
buries himself in his works — their 
smooth, beautiful perfectuess alone 
makes this a gi'ateful work — no 
further words are necessary. In 
(^the P. Doria at Eome, third gal- 
lery, No. 12, il Molino (early pic- 
ture), No. 23, the Temple of ApoUo 
(principal work) ; first gallery, No. 
25, Eepose in Egypt. (In the P. 

Sospigliosi, impossible to see = e 
among others the Temple of Venus. ) 
In the P. Sdarra, Eiders near a/ 
Harbour ; the Flight into Egypt, g 
both little jewels. In the P. liar- 
berini, an excellent small landscape. 
In the Naples Museum, a Sunset A 
on the Sea; the Grotto of Egeria 
(almost too cool for Claude). In 
the Uffizi, evening landscape with^ 
bridges, stream, and mountain; 
evening sea-piece landscape with 
palaces. In the Turin Gallery,.- 
two beautiful pictures forming a 
pair (genuine). 

There is nothing in Italy by his 
foUowere which at all approaches 
him. The pictures of Swanevelt (in 
the P. Doria at Eome and in the P. ^ 
Pitti), hy Johannes Both (also there), ^ 
by Tempesta Molyn (pictures of all 
sorts of places), up to the improvi- 
sations of Orizzonte (with which an 
upper room in the Villa Borghese^ 
is quite filled), and the often very 
careful architectural pictures of 
ParmiMi (P. Corsini at Eome, Turin ^ 
Oallery), only give forth single rays 
of the light which shines out f uU in 
Poussin and Claude. 

Any one who comes across these 
two masters out of Italy will feel 
them awake in him, much more 
strongly even than the most bril- 
liant modern views, the longing 
for Eome, once seen, never to be 
forgotten, which can only slumber, 
and never dies out. The writer has 
had his own experience of this. He 
wishes to those who may read and 
approve him, and take him as their 
companion across the Alps, the calm 
joy of soul which he tasted in Eome, 
the remembrance of which comes 
back to him so powerfully even 
when looking at the feeble copies of 
the grand masterpieces of art. 


S. 6io. Battista 

Bamaba, 49 a 

Macrino, 82 a 

Moroni, 201/ 
8. Somenieo 

L. Lotto, 189 

Titian, 193 a 
S. Francesco 

Crivem, 84 
S. Meiiardo 

Signorelli, 71 d 


Spinello, 29 k 

P. deUa Francesca, 69 a 

Painted Glass, 110 /c, 111 a 
S. Agostino 

Spinello, 29 I 
S. Annwiziata 

Painted GlaBS, 110 k 
8. Bernardo 

School of Giotto, 29 « 
8. Domenico 

Parri Spinelli, 29 m 
8. Francesco 

P. della Francesca, 68 t 

Spinello, Bicci di Lorenzo, 
S. Margarita 

Signorelli, 71 I 
La Fieve 

Lorenzetti, 46 h 
8, Spirito 

Signorelli, 71 I 

Vasari, 215 e 
Ftiblie Gallery 

Lorenzetti, 46 h 

Signorelli,. Ill 
Casa Montauti 

Vasari, 217, note 



(Upper Cliurcli) 
Gaudenzio Ferrari, 120 b 


Cola, 102/ 



Lagaia, 120 c 


Frincipal Church 
Sodoma, 174 g 
Pacohia, 175 i 
8. Francesco 

jper Churoli) 
'riunta Pisano, 20 d, 22 
Cimabue, 21, 22 b, d 
Painters of thirteenth century, 

21 e, 22 c, d 
Giotto, 22 e 
(Lower Church) 
Cimabue, 22 e 
Giotto and his school, 30 e-l, 

38 c, d, 42 * 
Cavallini (P.), 30/ 
Puccio Capanna, 30 g, h 
Gio. da Melano, 30 i 
Giottino, 30/, I 
Buffalmaoeo, 30 k 
Simoni Martini, 30 I 
Spagna, 97 i 
Adone Doni, 98 n, o 
The Lorenzetti, 30 /, h, j, 
46 <? 
8. Antonio 

Ancient Umbrian School, 92 
8. Chiara 

Giottino, 31 « 
8. Damiano 

Eusebio di S. Giorgio, 98 d 
Alunno, 92/ 
Madonna degli Angeli 
Tiberio d' Assisi, 98/ 

s 2 


Index of Places. 


Macrino, 82 a 


Pa^al Palace 
Simone, 45 

Fublie Gfallerv 

Daiio daTreviso, 73 e 

Franc. Bassano, 211 i 
Bastia (La) 

Alimno, 92 g 

Speranza, 79 d 

J. da Talentia, 83 m 

Gariani, 199 
S. Andrea 

Moretto, 200 r 
S. Bartohmmeo 

lotto, 189 * 
8. Sernardino 

Lotto, 189 A 
8. Spirito 

Borgognone, 81/ 

Lotto, 189 k 
Various Chiirches 

Lor. Lotto, 189 k 
fuilic Gallery 

Mantegna, 77 g 

Genga, 78 h 

Euonconsiglio, 79 c 

Foppa, 80 a 

Conti, 80 d 

Glovenone, 82 c 

P. Santa Crooe, 84, note 

Previtali, 89 g 

V. Belli, 89 m 

Bartolommeo da Venezia, 90 

Moroni, 201/ 

Cariani, 199 e 

Antonello da Messina, 83 e 

Beltraffio or Lionardo, 119/ 
Mo. of Signor Frizzoni 

GioT. da Udine, 187 A 
Cou/nt EonoalU 

Cariani, 199 g 
Casa Baglione 

Cariani, 199 e 
8. Fetronio 

Wall Frescos (about 1400), 48/ 

Antonio Alberti, 48/ 

Fr. Cossa, 75 a 

Lor. Costa, 75 a, b 

Painted Glass, 110 b 

Girol. da Treviso, 169 a 

Bologna — continued 
8. Fietro {Cathedra^ 

BagnacaTallo, 168 I 

Lod. Caracci, 237?, 242 « 
8. Bartolommeo a Forta Savegnana 

Colonna, 228 c 

Albani, 237/ 
8. Bartolommeo di Eeno 

Caracci, 238/ 

Zoppo, 73 d 
8. Cecilia 

Lor. Costa, 75 e 

Fr. Francia and pupils, 100 
Corpus Domini 

Franceschini, 228 e, 238 * 
8. Oriatina 

Giacomo Francia, 100 m 

Lod. Caracci, 236/ 

Canuti, 241 e 
8. Domenico 

Filippino, 64 h 

Cesi, 220 b 

Colonna, 228 d 

Guido Eeni, 247 I 

Tiarini, 240 d 

Spada, 240 d 
8. Francesco 

Frescos in the Court, 222 m 
8. Giacomo Maggiore 

Simone de' Crocefissi, 48 e 

Jac. Pauli, 48 h 

Lorenzo Costa, 75/ 

P. Francia, 99/ 

Innocenzo da Imola, 168 q 

Laureti, 187 e 

Passerotti, 219 q 

Pr. Foutana, 219 t 

Cesi, 220 e 

Pell. Tibaldi, 220/ 

Cavedone, 246 g 
8, Giovanni in Monte 

Lor. Costa, 76 d 

Paintings on Glass, 110 c 

Guercino, 238 o 
8. Zucia 

Lavinia Fontana, 219 « 

Cignani, 238 m 
Madonna di Galliera 

Albani, 238 « 
8. Martino 

Lor. Costa, 75 g 

Fr. Francia, 100 a 

Aspertini, 101 e 

Old Bolognese Paintings, 48 e 
8. Michele in bosco 

BagnacavaUo, 168 h, k 

Index of Places. 


BoiiOWSlL— continued 
8. Michele in ioseo 

I. da Imola, 168 s 

Cignani, 228 i 

Canuti, 228/ 

Caracci, 228 ^ 
S. Faolo 

Cavedone, 237/ 

Lod. Caracci, 247 c 
S. Frocolo 

Qiottesques, 48 a 

Lippo Dalmasi, 48 a 
S. Salvatore 

I. da Imola, 168 ^ 

Garofalo, 170 m 

Pr. Fontana, 219 r 

Tiarini, 237 i 
Ai Servi 

Lippo Dalmasi, 48 a 

I. da Imola, 168 r 

CalTaert, 220 a 

Frescos, 222 m 
iS. Stefam 

Simone de' Crocefissi, 48 4 

L. Sabbatlni, 219^ 
S. Vitale ed Agrieola 

Fr. Francia and pupils, 100 i 

Bagnaoavallo, 100 S 
CoUegio di Spagna 

Zoppo, 73 e 

Pell. Tibaldi, 220 e 
tal. Fma 

Caracci, 250 h 
Pal. Magnani 

Caracci, 228 a, 250 h 

Vitale, 47 h 

Simone de' Crocefissi, 48 d 

Jac. Pauli 48 g 

Avanzi, 48/ 

Bolognese of fifteenth century, 

48?, OT 
A. and B. da Murano, 52/ 
Fr. Cosaa, 75 a 
Alunno, 92 i 
Perugino, 95 k 

F. Francia, 99 d, e 
Copy, 100 h 

Giac. Franciaj 100 I 
Am. Aspertini, 101 a 

G. Aspertini, 101 d 
Chiodarolo, 101 c 
Pontormo, 134/ 
Bugiardini, 134/, 136/ 
After Raphael, 144 b 
Eaphael, 144 d 

Tim. d. Vite, 168/ 

BoLo ON A — continued 

Bagnacavallo, 168/ 
I. da Imola, 168 m-o 
Girol. Marcheai, 169 c 
Farmegianino, 183/ 
Pr. Fontana, 219 * 
Contemporaries, 220 d 

E. Mengs, 227 I 

Guide fieni, 228 A, k, 236 a, e, 
239 /, 240 e, 243 *, 245 A, 
246 a 

Lod. Caracci, 236 e, 238 e, 242/, I 

Ann. Caracci, 247 i 

Ag. Caracci, 236 I, 247 * 

Domenichino, 241 d 

Albani, 242 g 

Tiarini, 242 h 

Gueroino, 244 k 

Cavedone, 245 i 

Gennari, 246 c 

Elis. Sirani, 246 g 


Moroni, 201/ 
BoKQo San Sepoloko 
S. Agostino 

Gerino da Pistoja, 98 o 
8. Antonio Abiate 

SignorelU, 71 m. 

F. della Francesca, 69 «, -. 
BoBQO S:e:sia 

8. Fietro Paolo 

Lanini, 121 n 
A.ncient Cathedral 

Moretto, 200 d 
8. Barnaba 

Foppa, 80 a 

Civerchio, 80 d 

Savoldo, 199 r 
8. Clemente 

Moretto, 2C0 c, i 
8. Eiifemia 

Moretto, 200 e 
8. Faustina 

Moretto, 200 d 
8. Francesco 

Moretto, 200 e, I 

Eomanino, 201 i 
8. Giovanni Evangelista 

Francia, 100^ 

Ferramola, 100/ 

Moretto, 200/ 

Eomanino, 201/ 

Moretto, 200/ 
8. Maria di Calchera 
Cal. Piazza, 199 k 


Index of Places. 

Beesoia — contimied 
S. Maria di Galehera 

Moretto, 200 ^ 
8. M. delle Grazie 

Moretto, 200 e 
S, M. dei MiraeoU 

Maretto, 200 g, h 
S, Nazaro e Celso 

Titian, 193 i 

Moretto, 200 c,j 
S. Fietro 

Moretto, 200 h 

The remaining ohurcliea al- 
most all conf^ia pictures by 

Tosi Gallery 

Solario, 122 c 

Timoteo della Vite, 168 d 

Cal. Piazza, 199 I 

Moretto, 200 x 

Moroni, 201/ 

Angussola, 202/ 
Fetmroli Gallery 

Moretto, 200 w 

Moroni, '201 e 
BuSTO Arsizio 

Gaudenzio Ferrari, 120/ 


Titian, 193 I 
F. Yecellio, 197 a 
8. Angela 

Yite, 168 g 
Chwrch of the Dominicans 
GrioTanni Santi, 78 e 
Canobbio, on the Lago Maggiore 

Gaud. Ferrari, 120 d 

Zuccaro, 216 b 

Madonna deUa Bosa, 53 d 
Manner of Buoni, 102/ 

Fiorenzo, 93 
8. Angela informis 

MedisBval paintings, 16 h 

G. A. Pordenone, 203 g 
Principal Church 
Giorgione, 186 d 

Principal Church 

Lor. Lotto, 189 m 

Oaporali, 98 r 
Castiglione Fiorentino 

Segna, 23 c 

B. Gozzoli, 66 i 
Castiglionb d'Olona (near Va. 
Collegiata and Baptistery 

Masolino, 60 a 

Saliba, 85 I 

Mosaics, 16 b 

Moroni, 201/ 

Jaoobello, 52 d 

J. da Valentia, 83 m 

PrevitaU, 89 g 

NataUno, 199 s 

Previtali, 89 g 

Don Lorenzo, 56/ 

D. Lorenzo, 57 e 

J. del Sellaio, 63 « 

FasoU, 81 1 

F. Santa Croce, 84 note 

D. Ferrari, 82 b 
Citita Castellana 

Gosmati, 23/ 


8. Maria de' Bianchi 

Perugino, 95/ 
Other Churches 

Perugino, 95 g 


8anta Cecilia 

SignorelU, "lip 
8. Domenico 

Signorelli, 71 n 
8. Gio. Decollato 

Signorelli, 71^ 
8. Pietro 

Geriuo, 98 o 
Town Gallery 

Signorelli, 71 jO 
Pal. Manevni 

Signorelli, 71 q 

Index of Places. 


CiTTA Di Castello — Continued 
S. Tnnitd 

Eaphael, 137 note 


8. Maria de' Battuti 
M. da TJdine, 204 m 

Monastero Maggiore 

Mart, da tfaine, 204 o 


S. Sahadore 

G. da Trevifio, 74 a 
Pordenone, 202 I 



Gaudenzio Ferrari, 120 t 
Luini, 118 a 


S. Antonio 

G. A. Pordenone, 203 e 

Cima, 88 »• 



Lorenzettl, 46 i 

SignoreUi, 70 i 
S. J)omenico 

Lor. di Nicoolo, 43 b 

FieBole, 54/, k 

SignoreUi, 70 e 

Fiesole, 54 «, m 

SignoreUi, 71 a 
Gompagnia di S. Nicoolo 

SignorelU, 71 b 
Villa Passerini 

Caporali, 99 a 

Antique painting, 4 g 


G. Marchesi, 169/ 

Macrino, 82 a 

Diana, 89 m 

Eoccacino, 90 h 

Romanino, Bembo, and contem- 
poraries, 201 jo 
G. A. Pordenone. 203 m 
8. jigata and other Churches 

Campi, and other Cremonese, 
202 a, e 
S. Agostino 

Perugino, 96 I 


Alunno, 92/ 


E. de Oderisio, 31 g 

Sabattuii, 167 b 

Spagna, 97^ 


Don Lorenzo, 57 e 


A. Nuzl, 47 g 

P. da Verona, 177 m 

Bertucci, 98 p 

Girol. da Treviso, 169 h 

Giorgione, 169 b 
S. Oroce 

Giovanni Santi, 78 « 
S. Maria Jfuova 

Perugino, 95 m 

Gio. Santi, 78 « 

A. da Bologna, 48 
Monte S. Giusto 

L. Lotto, 189 i> 

Cosimo Tura, 74 « 

Garofalo, 170 o,p 

Guercino, 241/ 
8. Andrea 

Panetti, 76 c 

Cortellini, 76 c 
8. Benedetto 

ScarselUno, 219 I 

Bonone, 247 d 

Bastianino, 219 h 

Eoselli, 219 A 
8. Domenico 

Fourteenth century, 49 d 
8. Francesco 

Garofalo, 170 q, 171 m 

Ortolano, 171 m 

Bonone, 171 m 

Bastarolo, 219/ 

Giu8. Crespi, 244 o 
8. Maria in Vado 

Grandi, 75 i 

Panetti, 76 b 

Girnl. Marchesi, 169 d 

Garofalo, 170 r 

Bonone, 170 r, 238 g, 247 m 


Index of Places. 

Fbbeaea — continued 
S. Paolo 

Grrandi, 76/ 

Soarsellino, 219 I 
S. Spirito 

Garofalo, 170 » 
AlU Stimnmte 

Gueroiuo, 244 m 

Dosao and his School, 171 h 
Pal, Schifanoia 

Tura and Costa, 74 b 

Eroole da Ferrara, 74 h 
Ateneo Pictv/re Gallery 

Tura, 74 a, d 

Stefano da Ferrara, 74 e, f 

L. Costa, 75 h 

Panetti, 76 b 

Cortellini, 76 d 

Carpaccio, 89 d 

Mazzolino, 169 I 

Garofalo, 74 e, 170 « 

DoBso, 171 a 

Carpi, 172 d 

Bastianino, 219 i 

Bonone, 239 
Marchese Strozzi 

L. Costa, 75 A 

Tura, 74 a 


S. Domenico 

Fiesole, 54 A, p 

L. di Credi, 64 I, 70 d 

Giov. da S. Giovanni, 223 *, 


Moroni, 201/ 

(Gates and "Walls) 

Frescos by D. Ghirlandajo, 66, 
note 2 

DonzeUi, 102 note 

Glass windows, 109 i 

GaddoGaddi, 22^ 

Lor. Bicci, 27 t 

Orcagna, 27 i 

Giotto, 39 a 

Fra Benedetto, 56 c 

Uoeello, 66/ 

Castagno, 65/, 68 k 

Zucearo, 216 d 

Santi di Tito, 217 g 
(Opera del Duomo) 

Mosaics in Wax, 17/ 

FtORENOE — cmtmued 
iS. Ambrogio 

School of Giotto, 27 g 

Gaddi, 27 g 

Giottino, 27 ff 

C. EosseUi, 65 e 
S. Anmmziata 
(Entrance Court) 

A del Sarto and pupils, 132 k 

Franciabigio, 133 

Pontormo, 133, 134 i 

Bosso, 133 

Eosselli, 65 e, 133 

BaldoTinetti, 67 c, 133 

PoDajuolo, 68 

Lotti, 238 a 

Mess. Allori, 222/ 

Empoli, 223 i 

BiliTerti, 223 k 

Mat. EosseUi, 223 
(CappeUa de' Pittori and Cloister) 

Pontormo, 134 i 

Poccetti, 222/ 
S. Apollonia 

Paolo di Stefano, 60 note 

Castagno, 68 m 

Filippino, 64 e 
Baptistery (5. Qiovamni) 

Mosaics, Jacobus and Tafi, 20 d, 
21 a 

Apollonius, 21 a 

Pollajuolo, 68 r 

Giottino, 27 A 

T. Gaddi, 27 h 

y. di Moro, 27 h 

P. CheHni, 27 note 
Camaldoli (figli AngeK) 

Poccetti, 221 1 

Al. AUori, 242 k 

Masaccio and Masolino, 60 b, 
61 b, 113 e 

Filippino Lippi, 61 b, 64^ 

G. da Melano, 27 c 

Frescos, style of the Bicci, 27 c 
Gertosa {near Porta Pomona) 

Giottesques, 28 d 

Mariotto, 131 b 
iS. Croce 

Cimabue 25 e 

Margheritone, 25 e 

Index of Places. 


Floeenob — continued 
S. Grace 

Daddi, B., 25 e 

Giottino, 25 e 

Maso di Bianco, 26 

Giotto and his School, 25 e, 
26, 33 a, b, 34 e, 35 b, e 

Mainardi, 26 

Gaddi, 25 e, 25, 33 b, 34 c 

Stamina, 26 

Gioranni da Melano, 26 

Castagno, 68 k 

Paintings on Glass, 110, a, g 

Bugiardini, 136 d 

Vasari, 216/ 

Santidi Tito, 217/ 

Ligozzi, 223 d 

Cigoli, 223^ 

Gioyanni da S. Giovanni, 223 
(Passage and Sacristy) 

School of Giotto, 26, 44 a 

School of Giotto, 26, 28/, 35/, 

Niccoia di P. GeriDi, 26 
(Cap. Medici) 

School of Giotto, 26, 42 note 

Oicagna, 26 

Niccola Tommasi, 26 

Lorenzo di NiocolS, 26 
(Former Eefectory) 

Giotto, 26, 33 A 

Niccola di P. Gerini, 26 
(C. Pazzi) 

Windows, 110/ 

Giotto 27 d 

FiUppino, 64 I 

E. Ghirlandajo, 135 A 
S. Felicitd 

School of Giotto, 27 e 

T. Gaddi, 27 e 

Pontormo, 134 k, I 

Poccetti, 223 * 

Giotto ? 27 e 
S. Filippo Neri 

Stradanns, 215 note 
8. Francesco at Monte 

Paintings on Glass, 110 g 
S. Frediano 

Currado, 223 I 
S. Giovanni della Calza 

Perugino, 93 e 

Pranciabigio, 133 b 
S. Qiovannino 

Currado, 223 m 

Florence — eontimied 

P. di Cosimo, 65 A 

D. Ghirlandajo, 67 »» 
S. Jacopo 

SogUani, 136 b 
8. I/uoa 

Don Lorenzo, 37 a 
8. Lorenzo 

F. Lippi, 63 d 

Painted Glass, 110 g 

£osso Florentine, 135/ 

E. del Garbo, 135 o 
Sogliani, 135 r 
Bacchiacca, 135 « 
Bronzino, 215 b 

Sagrestia Vecchia 

E. del Garbo, 135 o 
8, Lucia d^ Bardi 

D. Teneziano, 68 s 
8. Lucia de* Magnoli 

EmpoU, 223 i 
8. Marco 

Fra Benedetto, 66 c 

Fra Bartolommeo, 129 J, 130 

a, b 
Santi di Tito, 217 A 
(First Cloister) 
Fiesole, 64 g, 247 
Poccetti, 222 A 

Fiesole, 65 b, 247 c 
D. Ghirlandajo, 67 i 
Fra Bartolommeo, 130 a 
(Cells and Passages) 
Fiesole, 85 a 
8, M. Maddalena de' Pazzi 

C. Eosselli, 65 g 
Perugino, 93 d 
Painted Glass, 110/ 

8. Maria Novella 
Cimabue, 21 d 
Orcagua, 26 a, 40 b, 41 b 
Masaccio, 62 a 
Filippino,66 b 

D. Ghirlandajo, 67 I 
Painted Glass, 110 d 
Bugiardini, 136 g 
Tasari, 215 g 
Ligozzi, 223 d 

Fiesole, 64 d 
(Chiostro Terde) 

TJccello, 26 b, 66 » 

Dello, 26 * 
(Cap. degK SpagnuoU) 

School of Giotto, 26 a, 33 c, e, 


Index of Places. 

Floeencb — continued 
8. Maria Novella 

f, a, 36 a, 38 c, 39 e, 40 e, 
41 0, c, and <i, f 

T. Gaddi, 26 c, 27, 39 « 

Simone Martini, 26 c, 27 

Antonio Teneziano, 27 

Andrea da Firenze, 27, 39 e 

SpineEo, 27 

Giottino, 27 a 

Santidi Tito, 217 y 

Poocetti, 222A 
S. Maria Niiova 

Biooi di Lorenzo, 28 a 

Hugo T. d. Goes, 104 a 

Fra Barlolommeo, 128 note, 
129 «, 138 

Giov. da S. GioTanni, 223 w 
8. Martino 

School of Masaccio, 62 b 
SS. Micliele e Gaetano 

Mat. Eosselli, 223^ 
8. Miniato al Monte 

Mosaic, 22/ 

Spinello, 27 * 

Masolino, 60 note 

Paolo di Stefano, 60 note 

Baldovinetti, 67/ 
Monte Olweto 

Don Lorenzo, 57 a 

Lionardo da Vinci, 116/ 

E. Ghirlandajo, 116 b 
8. Niceolo 

Gentile da Fatriano, 51/ 

Baldovinetti, 67 d 

Al. AUori, 222 g 

Giottesque, 27/ 

Niocolo di P. Geiini, 27/ 

Daddi, B. 27/ 

S. Botticelli, 64 h 

D. Ghirlandajo, 67 h 

Ligozzi, 223 e 

GioTanni da S. Giovanni, 223 v 
8. Onofrio (Museo Egiziaco) 

Etruscan Tases, 1 c 

Fresco of Last Supper (Peru- 
ginesque), 97 note 

Lorenzo Monaco, 28 b 

B. Daddi, 28 b 

TJgoUno da Siena, 28 b 
8. Sahi 

A. del Sarto, 116 jr, 133 a 
8. Spirito 

Filippino, 64/ 

^jjOR^TfOE— continued 
8. Spirito 

fiafaellino, 64 k, 137 « 

D. Ghirlandajo, 68 g 

L. diCredi, 70S 

Painted Glass, 110 e 

Bosso Fiorentino, 135 g 

R. del Garhn, 135 q 

Ingegno, 137 e 

Al. Allori, 222 e 
8pirito Santo 

PeseUino, 66 m, 
8. Trinitd 

Don Lorenzo, 56 d 

D. Ghirlandajo, 67 k 
Lo Sealio 

A. del Sarto and Franciabigio, 
133 a 
S. Fietro Martire 

Pocoetti, 222 1 
Palazzo Piiti 

(Lower rooms, left) 

GioT. da S. Giov., 223 r, 251 » 
Picture Gallery 

Lippo Lippi, 63 e 

Botticelli, 63 e, 64 a, 113 c 

Fn. Lippi, 64 i 

Pollajuolo, 68 

Perugino, 95 h 

Spagna, 98 c 

G. Fraucia, 100 o 

Bonsignori, 100 o, 112e 

Giul. Francia, 101 e 

Holbein.' 106 J 

A. Durer, 107^ 

Clouet (School of), 109/ 

P. d. Francesca, 112 e 

Castagno, 113 e 

Costa, 114 a 

L. di Credi, 114 e 

Lionardo da Vinci, 114 c 

After M.Angelo, m d 

Kosso, 127 d 

Fra Bartolommeo, 129 b, d, 
130 a,f, 136 h 

Mariotto, 131 a 

A. del Sarto, 131 m, «, 132, 
a, b, c, d, i, 134 b 

Franciabigio, 134 c 

Pontormo, 134,/, I 

PuUgo, 134 « 

Bronzino, 134 r 

Bosso Fiorentino, 135 e 

R. Ghirlandajo, 135 h 

Bugiardini, 136 h 

Raphael, 138 b, and note, 139 b, 
d, 140 b, 141 c, 142 b, 144 c, 
147 a, c, d, e, 148 note 

Index of Places, 


Flokenoh — continued 
Ficture Gallery 

After Eaphael, 142 *,/ 

G. Komano, 142/ 

Mazzoliao, 169 k 

Garofalo, 170 * 

DOSBO, 170 M 

Carpi, 172, a, d 

Sodoma, 174, n 

Peruzzl, 176 g 

Parmegianino, 183 d 

Griorgione, 185 g 

S. del Piombo, 186 i, m 

Pahna Vecohio, 188, a 

L. Lotto, 189 i 

Titian, 190 e, 191 a, 192 b, i, 

196 c 
Marco VeceUio, 197 d 
A. Schiavone, 197/ 
Bonifazio, 198 g, 205 c 
Polidoro Yen., 199 i 
G. A. Pordenone, 203 
Bordone, 205 c 
Tintoretto, 206 a, d 
Bassani, 211 e 
BandinelU, 216 e 
Zucoaro, 217 e 
C. AUori, 223 n 
Mat. EosseUi 223 g 
Guido Reni, 226 e, 244 i 
Salv. Eosa, 230 a, 234 o, 252 q, 

253 M, 256 J, k 
P. da Cortona, 230 e, 257? 
Fnrini, 231 a 

Rubens, 231 y, 232 b,f, 255 A 
Y. Dyck, 232y, 233/234 r 
Rembrandt, 234 a 
Pourbus, 234 y 
Lely, 234y 
Suatermans, 234 I 
TineUi, 234 r 

C. Dolci, 235 b, 243 «, 244 4 
MuriUo, 235^ 
Yelasquez, 235 i 
A. Caracoi, 238 g 
Artemisia GentUescbi, 242 a, 

and note 
Gennari, 243/ 
Gueroino, 243 I 
Crist. Allori, 244 <?, 249 m 
Cigoli, 244^ 
Lanfranco, 245 a 
Feti, 250 d 
Manfredi, 252 h 
Manetti, 252 h 
Gio. da S. Giovanni, h 
Flower Painters, 253 k 
Bourguignon, 254 c 

Florence — continued 
JPicture Gallery 

Paul Bril, 255 c 


Ag. Caracci, 256 b 

G. Poussin, 256 » 

Tassi, 257 b 

Swanevelt, 257 A 

Job. Both, 257 ? 

Cimabue, 21 c 

Giotto Scbool, 28 / 32 / 33 

Giotto, 32/ 33 a 

TaddeoGaddi, 28/ 

Niocolo di P. Gerini, 28/ 

Agnolo Gaddi, 28/ 

Altar-pieces, 42 b, 43 a 

Lorenzetti (A.), 46 a 

Gentile da Fabriano, 51 d 

Fiesole, 54 a, b, c, i, n 

Don Lorenzo Monaco, 28 / 

Masaccio, 61 e 

Lippo Lippi, 63 a 

Botticem, 63/ 

Filippino Lippi, 64 g 

Pesellini, 67 

D. Gbixlandajo, 68 a 

Granacci, 68 i 

Yerrocchio, 69 h, 114 c 

L. diCredi, 69/, k 

SignorelU, 71 ^ 

Perugino, 95^, 139 c 

Fra Bartolommeo, 128 note, 
129 a, c, 130 a, i, i, I 

P. NelU, 130; 

Mariotto, 131 d 

Fra Paolino, 131 k 

A. delSarto, 134 a 

Mich, di Eidolfo, 135 m 

E. del Garbo, 135 » 

SogKani, 135-6 

Eapbael, 139 c 

Pacchiarotto, 176 k 

Yasari, 217 a 

Al. Allori, 239 d 
Palazzo Vecchio 
Sala de' Gigli 

E. Ghirlaudajo, 135/ 
Sala dell' Udienza 

SaMati, 216 i 
(Large Hall) 

Yasari, 215 A 
Fal. del Podestd or Bargello 

Giotto, 28 e 

Gastagno, 63 I 


Index of Places. 

P1.0BENCE — eontkmed 
(Passage towards Ponte Vecohio) 

School of Bronziuo, 135 d 
(Picture Gallery) 

Clmabue, 21 note 

Giottesque, 28 e 

Lorenzo Konaco, 28 « 

GioTanni da Melano, 28 e 

Giotto, 32 a 

Lippo Memmi, 45 a 

Lorenzetti, 46 i 

Sim. di Martino, 45 a 

Piesole, 53 e,5ie,h 

Don Lorenzo, 66 e,f 

Masaccio, 62 a, 65 a, 113 a 

Lippo Lippi, 63 b 

Botticelli, 63 e, 64 

FUippino Lippi, 64 d, 65 u, 
113 a 

P. di Cosimo, 66 h 

TJccello, 66 a 

Baldovinetti, 67 « 

D. GMrlandajo, 67 m, 68 b 

Granacoi, 68 i 

PoUajuolo, 68 n 

D. Yeneziano, 68 s 

P. della Franoesoa, 69 b 

L. di Credi, 69 j, 70 «, 113 * 

Signorelli, 71 i 

Mantegna, 77 b, 113 h 

Marc. Palmezzano, 78 g 

Mansueti, 86 b 

AntoneUo, 85 e 

Giov. Bellini, 86 note, 113 *, 

186 note 
Perugino, 94 note, 95 i, 113 b 
CristuB, 103 a 
Hugo V. d. Goes, 104 b 

E. T. d. Weyden, 104/ 
Memlingj 104 b 

f rumenti, 105 e 
ftn. Metsys, 106 
Master of Death of the Virgin, 

Bles (H. de), 106/ 
L. V. Leyden, 106 i, and note 
A. Durer, 107 e, i, k 
SchaiiffeUn, 108 a 
Georg Pencz, 108 c 
L. Kranach, 108/ 
Holbein, 108 Tc 
Style of Clouet, 109/ 
Lionardo, 112 note, 116 o, d, 

117 a 
After Lionardo, 112 note 
P. d. JFrauoesca, 112 b 
Fr. Franoia, 113 c 

Florence — continued 

Lionardo, or L. di Credi, 114/. 

116 d 
CoUectiou of Portraits, 113 

FiUppino, 64 d, 113 a 
Holbein, 108 *, 109 
Luini, 115 e, 117 a 
Michelangelo, 127 a, note 
DauieledaVolterra, 128 e, 216 a 
Fra Bartolommeo, 128 note, 130 

Manotto, 131 c 

A. del Sarto, 131 0, 132 b 
Franciabigio, 134 c, 136 note 
Pontormo, 134 g, h, I 
Bronzino, 135 a, d 

B. Gbirkndajo, 116 b, 136 h, 
136 »■ 

A. Allori, 135 note 
SogUani, 136 a 
Bugiardini, 136 e, i 
Eaphael, 97 a, 136 i, 139 a, e, 

140 a, 144 a, 147 b, and note, 

148 a, 186 d 
After Eaphael, 144 a 
Guercino, 147 note 
Giulio Romano, 164 g 
MazzoUno, 169 k 
DoBso, 170 t 
Carpi (G. da), 172 * 
Sodoma, 174 I, n, 
Brescianino, 176 e 
Beccafumi, 176 a 
Correggio, 179 a, e, and note 
Parmegianino, 183 h 
Giorgione, 185 I, m, 186 a 
Torbido, 185 I 
Cajoto, 185 I 
P. della Vecchia, 185 m 
Basaiti, 186 a, and note 
Schidone, 186 g 
Falma Tecchio, 188/ 
S. del Piombo, 148 a, g 
L. Lotto, 186 g, 189 h 
Titian, 190 d, 191 a, b, g, 

196 S ' * 

Savoldo, 199 q 
P. Pino, 200 a 
Moretto, 200 j 
Moroni, 201 a 
S. Angussola, 202/ 
G. A. Pordenoue, 203 c 
Bordone, 205 b 
Tintoretto, 206 b, 207 c 
Paolo Veronese, 209 h 
Bassani, 211 a, b 

Index of Places. 


Flobbnob — contmued 

Bionzino, 216 a 

Vasari, 217 * 

Miniature Portraita, 217 note 

Baroccio, 218 c, e, h 

Cambiaso, 218 I 

Scarsellino, 219 m 

Ann. Caracoi, 226 gi 

Mengs, 227y 

Spagnoletto, 229 ft 

Eubens, 231 o, 232 « 

Yam Dyck, 233, g, h 

Eembrandt, 234 b, d, 265 k 

Poiirbus, 234 i 

Lely, 234 k 

FlemiBh Painters, 233 m, 234 

Sustenuans, 234 m 

Tinelli, 234 q 

Domenicblno, 234 1 

Dolci, 236 

Telasquez, 236 h 

Honthorat, 237 h, 262 g 

CigoU, 241^, 244^ 

CaraTaggio, 241 i 

Artemisia Qentileschi, 242 a 

Carlo Dolci, 243 « 

Sassoferrato, 246 m 

Biliverti, 249 k 

Feti, 250 e 

Albani, 250 r 

Pousein, 261 b 

Geminiani, 251 h 

Guide ileni, 251 k 

Giordano, 252 a 

Jan Miel, 253 b 

Dutch Genre Painters, 263 e 

CastigUone, 253 i 

Bourguignon, 254 d 

Paul Bril, 255 c 

Elzheimer, 255/, g 

Stalbent, 266 k 

Ph. Kouinck, 255 k 

Seghers (H.), 256 k 

Salrator Hoaa, 256 k 

G. Poussin, 256 w 

Tassi, 257 b 

Claude Lorraine, 267 i 
Collection of Drawings : 

Eapbael ? or Pinturicchio, 
97 » 
Pal. Alessandri 

Botticelli, 63 note 

Pesellino, 66 m 
Pal. Buonarroti 

Pesellino, 66 m 

Flohenoe — continued 
Pal. Buonarroti 

Michelangelo Drawings, 127 i 

EmpoU, 223 e 
Pal, Capponi ("Fia de' BardiJ 

FiLippino, 64 « 

Diirer, 107 i 

Luini, 117 b 

Franciabigio, 134 e and note 

Poccetti, 223 a 

Furini, 231 b 

Crist. AUori, 234 i> 

Bourguignon, 254 

Salv. Eosa, 256 ft 
Pal, Corsini 

Lippo Lippi, 63 e 

Sandro Botticelli, 64 a 

Ghirlandajo, 68 e 

SignoreUi, 71 h 

Puligo, 134 

Bronzino, 135 b 

Florentines of the seventeenth 
century, 224 a 

Furini, 231 e 

Sustermans, 234 n 

Carlo Dolci, 224 a, 2iSf 

Marinari, 243/ 

Crist. Allori, 249 « 

Genre Painters, 253 a 

Salv. Eosa, 263 o, 256 k 

Bourguignon, 264/ 
Pal. Guadagni 

Miniature Portraits, 217 note 

Sustermana, 234 o 

Salv. Eosa, 266 ft 
Casa Martelli 

SalT. Eosa, 229 note, 251 m 
Pal. Paneiatiohi 

After Eaphael, 142 * 
Pal. Siccardi 
(Upper rooms) 

Giordano, 261 r 

Senozzo, 66 e 
Pal. Strozzi 

Botticelli, 113/ 

Titian, 191/ 
Pal. Torrigiani 

FiLippino, 64 1 

Pesellino, 67 

Signorelli, 71/ 

Credi, 114 a 

Sogliani, 136 e 

Paolo Veronese, 210/ 

Domenichino, 256 d 
Lawrie coll. 

Raphael (?) 142 a 


Index of Places. 



Frescos of the fifteenth century, 
61 e 
S. Caterima 

Barto di Foligno, 91 h 
8. M. in Campis 

P. Ant. da Foligno, 92 

Barto. da FoKgno, 91 h 
S. M. infra Portas 

Alunno, 92 d 
S. Niccolo 

Almmo' 92 « 



Manner of Buoni, 102 g 

F. VecelU, 197 a 


S. Biagio e Girolameo 
Fahnezzano, 78/ 

Villa Aldobrandini 
Domenichino, 250 I 


Spagna, 97/ 

Cathedral (8. Lorenzo) 

Baroocio, 218 a 

Cambiaso, 218/ 

Paggi, 225 b 
8. Ambrogio 

£ubene, 231,/, « 

Guide Eeni 247 a 
8. Bartolommeo degli Armeni 

Cambiaso, 218 o 
8. Donato 

B. V. OrleyC?) 106/ 
8. Giorgio 

Cambiaso, 218 « 

Coello, 235 o 
8. Maria di Carignano 

Franc. Tanni, 217 r 

Cambiaso, 218 m 

Maratta, 241 d 

Guercino, 244 n 
8. Maria di Castello 

Fifteenth century, 61 c 

P. F. Sacchi, 81 1 

Brea, 81 i 

Justus de AUemagna, 51 c, 103 c 
8. Maria della Face 

Baratta, 248 h, 'iAIi 
8. Matteo 

Cambiaso, 219 a 

Genoa — continued 
8. Panerazio 

Piaggia, 81 k 
8. Pietro in Banchi 

Paggi, 225 a 
8. 8iro 

Giov. B. Carlone, 248/ 
8. 8tefano 

Giulio Eomano, 165 a 

Dom. Piola, 239 « 
8. Teodoro 

FUippino, 64 I 
Palazzo Giorgio Doria 

Castiglione, 225 e 

Van Dyck; 232 c 
Pal. Adorno 

Mantegna, 77 i 

Clouet, 109/ 

Perin del Taga, 166 a 

Palma Teoohio, 188 g 

Cambiaso, 218 k 

Eubens, 231 I 

Guido Eeni, 249 h 
Pal. Brignole Sale 

A. del Sarto, 132/ 

B. Pordenone, 186 « 
Bonifazio, 199 a 
Moretta, 200 v 
Bordone, 203 d, h 
P. Veronese, 209/ 
Capuccino, 219 b, 240 c, 249 I 
Pell. Piola, 225 d, e, 245 n 
Guercino, 226 I, 236 g, 239 a, 

243 Ji: 

Eubens, 231 m 

Van Dyck, 232 m, 233 

Procaccini, 236 p 

Carayaggio, 239 c 
Pal. Spinola 

School of Luini, 117 c 

Cambiaso, 219 d 

Eubens 231 k 

G. Eeni, 245 d 

Capuccino, 249 I 

Saraceni, 262 k 
Pal. Doria Tursi 

Ger. David, etc., 106 a 
Pal.-Balbi Piovera 

Filippino, 64 « 

B. Pordenone, 204 c 

Titian, 204 c 

Caravaggio, 229 note 

Van Dyck, 232 k, 233 * 
P. Marcello Dura:zo 

Tintoretto, 206 c 
Pal. Filippo Durazzo 

Eubens, 232 h 

Van Dyck, 233 a 

Index of Places. 


Genoa— <!0«<j««erf 
Pal. Pallcmieini 

Old Flemish, 106 e 

After Eaphael, 148 note 

SoMdone, 245 p 

Guercino, 251/ 

Ann. Caracoi, 266 b 
Pal. JDoria 

Perm del Taga, 166 e 
Caaa Casaretto (Cattamo) 

Tan Dyok, 233 d 


Moroni, 201/ 

G. Santi, 78 e 
Abbey Church 

Domenichino, 226 h, 
S. M. Nuova 

NelU, 51 o 
Ibi, 98/ 
Ad. Doni, 98 o 
Tim. della Tite, 168 g 


M. da Gualdo, 92 
Alunno, 92/ 


Stefano da Zevio, 60 d 
IsoLA Bella 

Buttinone, 80 b 

lionardo or Melzi, 119 i 

D. Ferrari, 82 b 

Principal Church 
Lviini, 119 a 

Casa Pandolfini Ca^tagno, 68 I 
LooAENO (Teasin) 
Madonna delle Grazie 
Bramanttno, 80 c 
Fifteenth century, 81/ 

Cal. Piazza, 199 i 

Borgo^none, 81/ 
Cal. Piazza, 199 h 
Various Churches 

Piazza, Albertino and Martino, 
78 J 



SignoreUi, 71 

LoBETO — continued 

Palmezzano, 78/ 
Bishop's Palace 
L. Lotto, 189 n 


Tadini Gallery 

Jaoopo Bellini, 73 o 
T. Civerohio, 80 d 


Cathedral (S. Martino) 

D. Ghirlandajo, 68 d 

Paintings on Glass, 110 h 

Fra Bartolommeo, 129/ 
8. Agostino 

Zacchia, 169 note 
S. Frediano 

Francia, 100 k 

Frescos by Aspertini, 101 b 
S. Giovanni 

Painted 'Windows, lioy 
S. Paolino 

Painted 'Windows, 110 i 
S. Pietro Somaldi 

Zacchia, 169 note 
S. Romano 

Fra Bartolommeo, 129 g, h 
S. Michele 

Filippino, 64/ 
S. Salvatore 

Zacchia, 169 note 
8. Maria degli Angeli 

Lnini, 118 g, 119 


Alegretto di Nuzio, 47 g 

8. Severini, 91 g 

Titian, 193^ 

Mosaic, 16/ 
Salvo d' Antonio, 867 
Alibrandi, 120 a 

Paintings on Glass, 109 g 
8. Ambrogio 

Mosaics, 13 g^ 14 e and note 
Antique Painting, 19 g 
Zenate, 80 b 
Borgognone, 81 a 
Lanini, 121/ 
8. Caterina 

Lanini, 121 k 


Index of Places. 

MrtAN — continued 
S. Mtfemia 

Oggionno, 119 e 
8. Giorgio in Palazzo 

Luini, 119 c 
S, Lorenzo 

Mosaics, 13/ 
S. Maria presso S. Celso 

Gaud. Ferrari, 120 g 

Cal. Piazza, 199 g 

Bordone, 205 n 

Appiani, 249 h 
S. Maria delta Grazie 

Buttinone and Zenale, 80 h 

Lionardo^ 116 c 

Bramantmo, 80 c 

Montorfano, 80 d, 116 e 

&. Ferrari^ 121/ 

Bugiardini, 136^ 
S. M. della Passione 

Borgognone, 81 b 

Luini, 119 b 
S. Maurizio fMonastero MaggioreJ 

Luini, 118 b 
S. Pietro in Gesaate 

Cirerchio, Buttinone, and 
Zenale, 80 b, d 
S. Satiro 

Borgognone, 81 / 
S. Sebastiano 

Bramantino, 80 o 
S. Sepolero 

Bramantino, 80 e 

Luini and Fedrini, 121 
8. 8impliciano 

Borgognone, 81 b 
8. Stefano 

M. da Verona, 177 I 
Pal. Trivulzi 

Mantegna, 77/ 

Antonello, 85/ 

Durer, 107 h 
Casa Borromeo 

Michelino, 51 b 

Zenale, 80 b 
Duea Scotti 

Borgognone, 81 d 

Cesare da Sesto, 119 m 
Casa Perego 

B. da Tenezia, 90 

Solario, 122 d 
Don Giacomo Poldi 

Solario, 122 a, b 
Pal. Litta 

Luini, 118 e 
Caea Sovelli 

Marco d'Oggione, 119 « 

iiiLAN— continued 
Caaa Melzi 

C. da Sesto, 119 o 

Bramantino, 80 e 

Zenale, 80 b 

Bramantino, 80 c 

Borgognone, 81 e 

Cima, 88 o 

Lionardo, 112 a, 114 c 

After Lionardo, 116 e 

Luini, 117 d, 118, 118 e 

Salaino, 119^ 

C. da Sesto, 119 k 

Baphael, 151 a 

Titian, 193 m 

Dossi, 171 1 

Cariani, 199/ 

SaToldo, 199 v 

GKorgione, 201 1 

Eomanino, 201 1 

Jac. Bassano, 211 j 

Breughel, 254 i 
Brera Picture Gallery 

Stefano da Zevio, 60 d 

G. da Fabriano, 51 e 

SignoreUi, 71 k 

Stefano da Ferrara, 74 g 

EondineUo, 74 g, 82 note 

Dom. Morone, 77 « 

Mantegna, 77 c, e 

G. da Fabriano, 51 e, 52 note 

Fra Camevale, 78 b 

Santi, 78 e 

Marc. PaJmezzano, 78 g 

Girol. Genga, 78 h 

Montagna, 78 7 

Terlas, 79 d 

Zenale, 80 b, 82 note 

Liberale, 79 g 

Foppa, 80 a 

Bramantino, 80 c 

Borgognone, 81 e 

TempereUo, 82 note 

Mazzola, 82 m 

Crivelli, 83 », 84 * 

Gent. Bellini, 84 d 

Gio. Bellini, 87 *, e 

Cima, 88 

Previtali, 89 g 

Boecacino the Younger, 90 s 

Alunno, 92 b 

Fr. Francia, 100 i 

Giao. Francia, 100 jO 

Lower Ehenish, 107 b 

Lionardo, 116 g 

Luini, 118, c, d, and note 

Index of Places. 


MiLAK — continued 
Brera Picture Gallery. 

Ogionno, 119 d 

Salaino, 119 g 

Oesare da Sesto, 119 m, 122 

Gaud. Ferrari, 120 e, 121 c 

Lamiii, 121 i 

Pedrini, 122 

Solario, 122 a 

Michelangelo, 127 e 

Raphael, 137 c 

Einaldo Mantovano, 165/ 

Tim. della Vite, 168 e 

Girol. Marcliesi, 169/ 

Garofalo, 170/ 

Doaso, 171 *, I, 185/ 

Bonifazio, 185 a, 186 i, 198 

Giorgione, 171 I, 185 a, 185 /, 
186 J 

Lor. Lotto, 190 b 

Titian, 192 g 

Cariam, 199 e 

Cal. Piazza, 199 m 

Savoldo, 199 i? 

Moretto, 200 « 

Moroni, 201 d 

Gio. Martini, 204/ 

Bordone, 205 m 

P. Veronese, 209 b, g, 210 * 

Salmeggiaj 219/ 

Bomeniohmo, 226 i 

Gueroino, 226/ 

Mengs, 227/ 

Eubens, 232<! 

Van Dyok, 232 «, 233 e 

Eembrandt, 234 e 

Cerano, 236 

Guido Eeni, 245/ 

SasBoferrato, 245^ 

Giordano, 246 d 

J. Breughel, 254/ 

S. Rosa, 256 n 
JSusto Arsizio (near Milan) 

G. Ferrari, 120/ 
Pal. Bmale 

Giulio Eomano, 165 b 

Rubens, 231 d 
Pal. del Te 

Giul. Romano, 164 e 

Einaldo, 165 c 
Casiello di Corte 

Mantegna, 76/, 178 note 
S. Andrea 

Costa, 75 A 

Mantegna, 77 d 

Matelioa (near Fabriano) 
8. PVanceaco di Zoccol<mti 
Palmezzano, 78^ 
Eusebio di S. Giorgio, 98/ 

SaUba, 85 I 

Mosaic, 16 g 
8. Ghregorio 

Antouello da Messina, 85 b 


Saliba, 86 I 



Dosso, 171 c 
Al Carmine 

Dosso, 171 e 

Calabrese, 230 i» 
8. Pietro 

Herri de Bles, 106 h 

Dosso and School, 171/ 
8. Vineenzo 

Gueroino, 236 A 

Th. of Modena, 48 n 

Parentino, 74 a 

Bianohi-Kerrari, 82 d, 100 y 

Bonasia, 82 e 

Meloni, 82 e 

B. Losco, 82 e 

Gerard of Harlem, 82 e 

Stefano da Ferrara, 82 e 

Costa, 82 e 

Fr. Fraucifl, 100 g 

Memling, 104 » 

Giorgione, 148 note 

Baphael, 148 note 

Palma Vecohio, 148 note 

Niccolo dell' Abbate, 165/ 

Garofalo, 148 note, 170 I 

Dosso, 165/, 171 d, g 

Pagano, 172 e 

Caroto, 176 A 

Correggio, 182 I 

Bonifazio, 199 h 

Tintoretto, 206/ 

Soarsellino, 219 o 

Gennari, 221 a 

Spada, 222 a, 252 i 

Gueroino, 226 A, 234 a, 241 

Guido Eeni, 236 b 

Caravaggio, 252 e 
Pal. Communale 

N. deU' Abbate, 165 « 



Mosaics, 16 e, j 


Index of Places. 


Sabattini, 167 h 
Marco da Siena, 217 


B, Gozzoli, 66 b-d 
Lorenzo da Yiterbo, 66 note 
Melanzlo, 99 b 


Santi, 78 « 


Luigi Yivarini, 83 m 

Santi, 78 e 
Monte Oliveto (South of Siena) 

B. Gozzoli, 66 h 

Signorelli, 70/ 

Sodoma, 172 k 
Monte Oetone 
S. Maria 

Montagnana, 74 a 



Lorenzetti, 46/ 
Monte S. Mab.tino 

Girolamo di Gio., 91 g 

Saochi, 81 b 
MuBANO (near Venice) 

Mosaics, 16 note 

Pennacohi, 90 a 
G. A. Pordenone, 202 i) 
S. Donate 

Mosaic, 16 note 
Sebastiani, 89/ 
SS. JPielro e Paolo 
Giov. Bellini, 87 d 
Basaiti, 89 A, I 


A. da Mnrano, 83 m 


Cathedral {S. Gennaro) 

T. degU Stefani, 24 g 

Santafede, 216 k 

Imparato, 216 m 

Marco da Siena, 216 o 

Bomenichino, 247 i 
S. Eestituta (adjoining building) 

Mosaics, 24/ 

Sil. de' Buoni, 102 d 
8. Angela a Nilo 

Colantonio del Fiore, 53 e 
S. Aniello 

P. Negroni, 167 note 
8. Antonio Abbate 

Niccola Tommasi, 31 h, 63 b 

Colantonio del Fiore, 53 b 

Naples — continued 
88. Apostoli 

Lanfranco, 248 d 
8. Caierina a Formello 

Garzi, 230 I 
8. Chiara 

Giotto, 31 h 

Giottesque, 31 « 

CaTaUini, 31/ 

Conca, 230 m 

Bonito, 230 « 
8. Domenieo Maggiore 

Fourteenth Century, 53 

Stefanone, 53 a 

Flemish eWe, 101 ^ 

Marco da Siena, 216 j) 

SoUmena, 230/ 
8. Filippo (Gerolomini) 

Giordano, 239 b 
8. Gennaro dei Foveri 

Catacombs, 8 g 

Sabbatini (?), 167 * 
Geaii Nuovo 

SoUmena, 230 k 

Lan&anco, 248 c 
8. Giacomo degli Spagnuoh 

A. del Sarto, 132/ 

G. B. lama, 167 c 
8. Giovanni a Carbonara 

Bisuccio, 51 a 
8. Giovanni Maggiore 

School of Lionardo, 102 note 

Giotto and Glottesques, 31 /, 
34 a, 37 d 

Eoberto de Oderisio, 31 g 
8. Lorenzo 

Simone di Martino, 45 d, 52 i 

Simone Napoletano, 62 i 
8, Maria delle Grazie 

Sabbatini, 167 a 
8. Maria la Nuova 

The DonzelK, 102 c 

F. da Tolentino, 102 c 

Ainemolo, 102 e 

Papa the lounger, 216 »' 

Santafede, 216/ 

Imparato, 216 m 
8. Martino 

Giordano, 230 g 

Spagnoletto, 237 e, 239 / 
(Pictures in the Choir), 239/ 

Stanzioni, 239/, 239 k, 244 A, 
247 m 

Carracciolo, 239/ 

C. Caliari, 239/ 

Lanfranco, 248 e 

Guide, 239/ 

Index of Places. 


Naples — continued 

Monte Olweto 

SUt. de' Buoni, 102 J 

Zingaro, 102 b 
Monte di Pietd 

Ippolito Borghese, 167 n 

Santafede, 216 I 
S. Paolo 

Raphael Copies, 143 

Soumena, 230 i 
S. Fietro d Majella 

Calabrese, 248 h 
S. Fietro Martire 

Flemish style, 101 i 
S. Sevenno 

Flemish style, 101 i 

Zingaro, 101 7 

Amato, 102 h 

De Mura, 230 m 
S. Teresa 

Giao. delPo, 238 y 
Trinita de' Felkgrini 

Vacoaro, 243 h 

Stanzioni, 244 i 
Castel Nuovo 

John Van Eyok, 103 note 

Niccola Tommasi, 31 h 
Falazzo Seale 

Titian, 190 e 
Museo Naziondle 

Etruscan Vases, 1 a, 3 « 
(Ground Floor) 

Old Italian Paintings, 3 a, 4 A, 
i,j, k,l,5a, b, c, 6, 7 

Mosaics, Off, 6 a 
(Picture Gallery) 

Byzantine Pictures, 17 d 

Ma«aocio, 61 a 

Gentile da Fabriano, 61 a 

Mantegna, 77 a 

FU. Mazzola, S2J 

Bart. Tivajrini, 83 b 

L. Vivarini, 83 I 

Gir. da S. Croce, 84 note 

GioT. Beffini, 88 a 

Matteo da Siena, 91 c 

Pinturicchio, 97 b 

Simone Papa the Elder, 101/ 

Zingaro, 102 a 

Donzelli, 102 b 

S. de' Buoni, 102 c 

Hubert T. Eyck, 203 note 

E. V. d. Weyden, 104 ff 

■Wohlgemuth, 105 d 

P. Breughel, 106i 

Lower Rhenish, 106 A, 107 

Naples — contvmted 
Museo Nazionale 
(Piot<ire Gallery) 

Lucas Eranach, 108 a 

South German, 108 h 

Holbeia, 109 c 

C. da Sesto, 119 n 

After Michelangelo, 127 «' 

Agnolo Bronzino, 127 i, 134 q 

Fra Bartolommeo, 130}' 

A. del Sarto, 141 a, 142 d, 147 c 

Raphael, 141 a, 147 e, 148 note 

After Raphael, 141 a, d, 142 a 

G. Romano, 142 c 

Sabbatini, 166 g 

Lama, 167 e 

Amato, 167/ 

Cardlsoo, Negroni, etc., 167 A, 
I, n 

Polidoro, 167y 

Garofalo, 170 A 

Sodoma, 174 i 

Correggio, 179, d, e 

Aretusi, 181 d 

Parmegianino, 183 g 

Seb. del Piombo, 186/, I 

Fr. Torbido, 187 I 

Palma Vecohio, 188/ 

Titian, 190 e, 192 a, 

Marco da Siena, 216 « 

Spagnoletto, 229/, 243 d 

Giordano, 230 h, 239 k, 246 e 

Rembrandt, 234 c 

Mirevelt, 234 g 

Schidone, 237 b 

Sassoferrato, 237 fc, 238 I 

Salv. Rosa, 238 p 

Ann. Caracci, 239 i 

Spada, 241 m 

Calabrese, 242 c, 250 

Vaccaro, 243 g 

Gnercino, 244 a 

Fiuoglia, 244/ 

Lanfranco, 248 g 

Guide Reni, 251 i 

Battle Painters, 253 m 

Claude Lon-aine, 257 A 
Casa Borromeo 

Michelino, 51 b 
Cmaliere Santangelo 

Diirer, 107 g 

Negroni, 167 note 

Spagna, 97 Je 

Ghirlandaio, 97 k, 98 

R. del Garbo, 98 

M, da Gualdo, 91 h 

T 2 


Index of Places. 

S. Mia 

Medissval Painting, 16 i 


Alunno, 92/ 


Siculo, 98 r 



Gaud. Ferrari, 120/ 
Lanrni, 121 o 



Simone Martim, 45 c 
Lippo Memml, Id g 
Ugolino di Prete Ilario, 47 e 
Gent, da Fabriano, 61 h 
Fiesole, 56 a 
Benozzo GozzoU, 66 b 
Signorelli, 56 note, 70 g 

Pal. Oualterio 

Signorelli, 95 e 
Eusebio, 96 note 


Campagnola, 199 
San Antonio (H Santo) 

Giotto and Giottesques, 25 6, e 

Aranzo and Altichieri, 49 e, 50 

GioT. and Ant. Padovauo, 50 a 

Giusto, 50 6 

Semitecolo, 62 d 

Canozzi, 74 a 

P. da Yerona, 177 m 
Seuola del Santo 

Titian, 194, 195 

Campagnola, 194 e 
Cappella di S. Qiorgio 

Aranzo and Altichieri, 49 e 

Padovano (Giusto f), 50 o 

Giottesque, 25 e 

Mantegna, 76 e 

Guariento, 50 d 

Ansuino, 76 e 

Bono, 76 e 

Pizzolo, 76 e 
S. Francesco 

Fr. da S. Croce, 84, note 2 

Girol. da S. Croce, 84, note 2 

Gir. del Santo, 201 m 
S. CHustina 

Parentino, 74 a 

Padua — continued 
S. CHustina 

Frescos of sixteenth century, 
195 note 

Glrolamo del Santo, 201 m 

P. Veronese, 209 d 
l^iscopal Falace 

Jacopo Montagnana, 74 a 
Santa M. in Fanzo 

Montagna, 79 i 

M. da Verona, 177 I 
Madonna deW Arena 

Giotto, 25 o, 33 a, 34 e, 35 c, 
38 d, 40 a, and note 
Seuola del Carmine 

Titian, etc., 194/ 
Town Gallery 

A. and B. Vivarini, 52 g 

Sqnarcione, 73 a 

Pietro da Messina, 85 * 

P. Pino, 200 * 

Bomanino, 201 h 
Fal. della Bagione 

Miretto, 50 o 
Fal. Maldwa 

Caroto, 176 I 
Oasa Zazzara 

Squarcione, 73 a, b 
Casa Catialli 


Moretto, 200 m 
S. Maria delV Ammiraglio 

Mosaics, 16 d 
Cappella Falatina 

Mosaics, 16 c 

Camulio, 51 b 

Saliba, 85 I 

Memling, 104 A 
Corment of Virgini 

VigiBa, 85 Ic 

Grescenzio, 85 k 

Fourteenth and fifteenth oon- 

turies, 49 c 
Correggio, 181 e 
Eondani, 183 c 
Anselmi, 183 c 
Gandini, 183 c 

Thirteenth century, 19 d 
Filippo Mazzola, 82 k 
. Annumiata 
Marches!, 169/ 

Index of Places. 


Pabua. — lontinued 
8. Anmmziata 

Correggio, 182 a 
Sola del Consorzio 

CaseUi, 82 note 
S. Giovanni Snangeliata 
Araldi, 82 h 
G. Franoia, 100 « 
Correggio, 181 a, b 
Caraooi, 181 c 
Parmegianino, 183 h 
La Steccata 

School of Mazzola, 83 a 
Camera di 8. Faolo 
(Formerly a convent, front room) 

Correggio, 180 d 
(Second room) 
Araldi, 82 g 
Pal. del Giardino 

AgoBt. Caracci, 2S0 i 
Farnese Palace 
Masters of the fifteenth century, 

Pierilario Mazzola, 82 h 
FQippo Mazzola, 82 I 
GioT. Beffini, 87 h 
Cima, 88 p 
F. Francia, 100/ 
Holbein, 109 a 
After Lionardo, 116 e 
Araldi, 116 e 
After Baphael, 148 note 
Correggio, 179 /, g, and note, 

180, 180 a, b, c 
Pupils of Correggio, 182 c 
Spada, 222 a 
Schidone, 222 a 
Velasquez, 235 I, m 
Lod. Caracci^ 236 j 
Ann. Caracci, 240 a 
Spagnoletto, 243 d 
Correggio, 181 b 
Sala del Consorzio 
Temperello, 82 note 

A. da Bologna, 48 
8. Severini, 91 g 

Gatti, 183 a 

Montagna, 79 S 
Borgognone, 81 d 
Macrino d'Alba, 82 a 
Solario, 122 e 
Crespi, 222 e 

Pabma — continued 
8. Marino 

School of Lionardo, 121 ; 
Stabilmento Malaspina 

Antonello, 85 fi 

Signorelli, 70 h 

Perugino, 95 g 

Manni, 98 i 

Earoccio, 218 i 
S. Agoatino 

Perugino, 95 c, g 
8. Caterina 

Bernardino da Perugia, 99 d 
8. Domenico 

Fiesole, 54 g 

"Windows, 109 h 
8. Francesco de' Conventuali 

Fiorenzo, 92 I 

Baphael, 140 e 
8, Girolamo d^ Minori 

Pinturicchio, 97 o 
8. Pietro de' Cassirtensi 

Perugino, 96 d 

Sassoferrato, 95 e 

Ad. Doni, 98 m 

Copy after Perugino, 137 note 

Aliense, 208 b 
8. 8evero 

Perugino, 95 e 

Eaphael, 129 e, 138 a 
8. Tommaso 

Manni, 98 h 

Fiesole, 64 g 

Fra Camerale, 78 c 

Francesca (P. della), 78 e 

Boccatl, 91 g 

Alunno, 92 b 

Buonfigli, 92/ 

Fiorenzo, 92 %, I, 93 

Perugino, 93 b, 95 a 

Pinturicchio, 97 i 

Spagna, 98 d 

Eusebio di S. Giorgio, 98 d 

Domen. di Paris AKani, 9i 

Bern, da Perugia, 9! 

Amedei, 140/ 
11 Cambio 

Perugino, 95 a 

Manni, 98 h 
Pal. del Commime 

BuonfigU, 92/ 
Pal. Connestabile 

Eaphael, 137 d 

Crist. Allori, 249 o 



Index of Places. 

Pebugia — continued 
Caaa Alfani 

Peruginesjuea, 137 note 
Casa Baldeschi 

Drawings of PinturiccMo, 97 
Servi di Maria 

Perugino, 95 g 
8. Francesco 

Giov. BeUini, 88 g 
8. Giovanni 

Zoppo, 73 « 



Guercino, 229 b 

Lod. Caracci, 247/ 
8. Oroce 

Guercino, 249 i 
Mad. delta Oampagna 

Pordenone, 202 i 
8. 8isto 

After Baphael, 143 note 


8. Anna in Creta 
Sodoma, 173 a 


Moroni, 201/ 


Mosaics, 23 a 

Cimabue, 21 i, 23 a 

A. del Sarto, 134 c 

Perm del Vaga, 166 i 

SogUani, 166 d 

Sodoma, 174 »' 

Empoli, 223 A 
Campo Santo 

Buffalmacco? 28 /, g, 29 a, 
36 d, 37 «, c 

Triumph of Death, Last Judg- 
ment, and Hell, Orcagna, 
Lorenzetfi ? 28 h, 32 d, 33 f, 
36 c, 37 e, 38 a, i, c, 40 c, d, 
41 a, d, 44 b 

Lorenzetti, 28 h, 36 c, 41 e, 46 b 

Simone Martini, 28 A, 45 

Andrea da Firenze, 28 h, 32 d 

Ant. Teneziano, 29, 32 c 

SpineUo, 29, 32 * 

Franc, da Volterra, 29 

Pietro di Puecio, 28 g, 29 a, 32 

Eenozzo Gozzoli, 29 a, 66 j 

Eoudiuozzi, 66^ 
8. Caterina 

Traioi, 29 d, 42 a 

Mariotto and Fra Bartolommeo, 

Pisa — continued 
8. Francesco 

Tadd. Gaddi, 29 b 

Nie. di Pietro Gerini, 29 e 

Tadd. di Bartolo, 47 d 
8. Martino 

Giottesques, 29 e 
8. Banieri 

Giunta Fisano, 20 e 

Giottesques, 29/ 

Traini, 29/ 

Sim. di Martino, 45 b 

Barnabas, 49 a 

Gentile da Fabriano, 51 g 

Benozzo Gozzoli, 66 k 

MaochiaTelli, 66 I 

Old Flemish, 105 c 

Sodoma, 174 k 
8eminario Fescovile 

S. di Martino, 45 b 
8. Fiero in Grado (fiear Fisa) 

Thirteenth century, 20 i^, 21 e 



Lor. diCredi, 69«,70(i 
8. Somenico 

Fra Barto, 129 i 

EmpoK, 223/ 
8. Francesco al Prato 

School of Giotto, 29 g 

Niccolo di P. Gerini, 29 g 

, Puecio Capanna, 29 h 


8. Lucchese 

PinturiccMo, 97 e 

Gerino, 98 p 
8. Fiero a Megognano 

Tad. Gaddi, 30 d 


Hugo V. d. Goes, 104 a 

Old Paintings, 5 d,e,f 

Antique Landscapes, 7 

Cathedral, Town Hail, and Church 
at Torre 

G. A. Pordenone, 203 f, I 

Calderari, 204 r 

T. da Modena, 48 n 

Angelo Gaddi, 29 i,3ib,d 

Stamina, 29 i 

Tite (A.), 29 i 

F. Lippi, 62 c, 67 g 

E. & D. Ghirlandajo, 135 I 

Index of Places. 


Prato — continued 
8. Ilomemco 

F. Lippi, 62 e 
S. Francesco 

Lor. di Niceolo, 29 J 

Nic. di Pietro, 29 J 
Pal. del Commune 

F. Lippi, 62/ 

School of Bronzino, 136 c 
Strada di S. Mar^herita 

Filippiao Lippi, Tabernacle, 
65 d 


Macrino, 81 m 
Ferrari, 82 e 
S. ApolUnare in Glasse 

Mosaics, 13 I 

8. ApoUinare Nuovo 

Mosaics, 13 d 

Longhi, 220 h 
8. Oiov. Eoangelista 

Giotto, 25 d 
8. Maria m Gosmedin 

Mosaics, 13 b, 25 d 
88. Nazaro e Gelso 

Mosaics, 12 d 
8. Titale 

Mosaics, 13 e 
Orthodox Baptistery, 8. Giovanni 
in Fonte 

Mosaics, 12 b 
Archbishop's Falaoe 

Mosaics, 14 e 
Fublic Gallery 

E. E. Grandi, 74r/ 
Eeoanati, near Ancona 

L. Lotto, 189 I 

Tliirteenth century, 19 e 


Antoniasso, 93 


8. Francesco 

Piero della Francesca, 69 d 
Town Hall 

D. GMrlandajo, 68/ 

Giov. Bellini, 88/ 


Baths of Caracalla 

Antique paintings, 4 e 

Baths of Titus and Trajan 
Antique paintings, 4 a 

Colum,baria^ Via Latina 
Antique paintings, 4 b, c 

EoME — continued 
Falaces on the Palatine 

Antique paintings, 4 e, 7 a 

Antique paintings, %bet seq. 
8. Agnese Fuori 

Catacombs, 8 e 

Mosaics, 14 a 

Antique paintings, Wb 
8. Agostino 

Raphael, 161 b 
Alle Tre Fonfane, see 8. Vincenzo 
8. Andrea della Valle 

Domeuichino, 228 g, 247 g 

Calabrese, 228 g 

Lanfranco, 248/ 
88. Apostoli 

Melozzo, 77 I 

Eighteenth century Painters, 
227 d 
8. Calisto 

Catacombs, S dj9 a,b 
8. Carlo d Catinari 

Sacohi, 230 r, 237 I 

Domenichino, 247 h 
8. Cecilia 

Mosaics, 15 h 

Pinturicchio, 96/ 

Paul Bril, 255/ 
Chiesa Nuova 

Cortona, 230 b 

Eubens, 231 e 
8. Clemente 

Antique Painting, 18 e 

Mosaics, 18 h 

Masaccio, 61 

Masolino, 61 note 
8. Cosvmato 

TJmbrian school, 96 a 
8. Gosma e Damiano 

Mosaics, 13 a,j 
8. Costanza 

Mosaics, 12 a 
8. Grisogono 

Mosaics, 24 d 
8. Groce in Gerusalemme 

Fiorenzo, 93 

Penizzi, 176/ 
8, Fusebio 

Mengs, 227^ 
jS^. Francesca Momana 

Mosaics, IS i 

Ibi, 98 k 
n Gesu 

GauU, 248 h 
8. Giov, in Laterano 

Jac. Torriti, 23 d 

Giotto, 31 e 


Index of Places. 

EoMB — continued 
S. CHov in Zaterano 

Baraa da Siena, 46 j 

Benozzo, 66, 1 

Gio Santi, 78 e 

Palmezzano, 78 g 
(Baptistery and adjoining Chapels) 

Mosaics. 12 e, 14 d 
(Cap. Sancta Sanctorum) 

Mosaics, 14/ 
S. Gregorio 

Eighteenth century Painters, 
227 d 
Three Chapels left of Church 

Domenicnino, 240 g 

Guido Eeni, 240 g, 2A1j 
S. Lorenzo Fuori 
(Inner Church) 

MosaicSj 13 k 

Thirteenth century frescos, 18 * 
S. Lorenzo in Fanisperna 

Pasq. Cati, 217/ 
^ccademia di 8. Jjuca 

Baphael, 148 note 3 

Titian, 191 h, 196 e 

Vandyck, 232 o 

Gr. Poussin, 256 « 
8. Luigi rfe' Francesi 

The Bassani, 211 g 

Sermoneta, 217 1 

Pell. Tibaldi, 220^ 

G. del Conte, 220 g 

Domenichino, 22^f,g, 236 k 

Caravaggio, 229 c, 2ilj 
88. Marcellino e Fietro 

Catacombs, 9 a 
S. Marcello 

Perin del Vaga, 166 d 
8. Marco 

Mosaics, 10 a, 15 a 

S. Maria degli An^eli 
(Baths of Diocletian) 

Muziano, 201 o 

Batoni, 227/ 

Domenichino, 241 a 
S. Maria delV 

Paiatings on glass, 111 note 

Giulio Eomano, 164 h 

Saraceni, 229 d 
8. Maria in Ara Celi 

Piuturicchi^ 96 g 
8. Maria delta Concezione 

Guido Eeni, 226 d 
8. Maria Maggiore 

Mosaics, 12 c, 23 d, 24 c, e 

EoME — continued 
8. Maria Maggiore 

Madonna of ninth century, 
17 a 

Jae. Torriti, 23 d 

Johannes Torriti, 23 d 

Eusutti, 24 e 

Graddo Gaddi, 24 e 

Arpino, 216/ 
8. Maria sopra Minerva 

Mosaics of the Co!<mati, 24 c 

FiHppino Lippi, 65 b 

E. delGarbo, 135 jj 
8. Maria delta Navvoella 

Mosaics, 16 o, i 
S. Maria della Pace 

Eaphael, 161 c 

Timoteo della Yite, 168/ 

BagnacavaUo, 168 i 

Peruzzi, 176 c 

Sermoneta, 217 k 

Albani, 250 a 
8. Maria del Fopolo 

Pinturicchio, 96 c 

Painting on glass by Wilhehn 
of Marseilles, 110 I 

Maratta, 227 * 

Caravaggio, 237 d 
(Oapp. Chigi) 

Eaphael, 162 a 

Seb. del Piombo, 186 )' 

Pinturicchio, 96 e 
8. Maria della Seala 

Saraceni, 229 e 

Honthorst, 241 I 
8. Maria in Traetevere 

CaTaUini, 24 e 

Mosaics, 18/, g 
8. Martino a Monti 

G. Poussin, 256 g 
88. Nereo ed Achilleo 

Catacombs, 8c,9 a,c 

Mosaics, 14 g 
8. Onofrio 

Piuturicchio, 96 e 

liionardo, 115 » 

Cesare da Sesto, 115 note 

Peruzzi, 96 e, 176 e 

Domenichino, 222 n 
8. Faolo Fuori 

Mosaics, 12 g, 14 note, 19 a 
8. Fietro in Montorio 

Pinturicchio.' 96 d 

Seb. del Piombo, 128 b 
8. Fietro in Vaticano 

Giotto, 31 b, 36 a 

Index of Places. 


EoMB — eontmrnd 
S. Pietro in Yaticano 

Interior altar-pieces, Seren- 
teenth century, 227 e 
(Chapel of choir) 

Giotto, 31 £, 36 a 

Melozzo, lit 

Giulio Eomano, 164 g 
S. Pietro in Vincoli 

Mosaics, 14 d 
S. Ponziano 

Catacomhs, 8 e 
S. Prcetextatus 

Catacombs, 8 e 
S. Prassede 

Mosaics, 14 i 

Da Sesto, 119 » 

Arpiao, 216 e 

Giulio Romano, 164 i 
8. Priscilla 

Catacombs, 8e,9i 

Mosaic, 13 ^ 
SS. Quattro Coronati 

Thirteenth century, 18 d 
Giovanni da S. GioTanni, 
223 a; 

Mosaics, 12/ 

Sassoferrato, 237 a, 245 I 
8. 8ilvestro d Monte Cavallo 

Scip. Gaetano, 217 p 

Domenichino, 249 r 

Barbalunga, 249 s 

Polidoro, 254 A 
8. Stephano Potondo 

Mosaics, 14 c 

Pictures of martyrs, 216 g 
8. 8uifxnna 

Bald. Croce, 216 * 
8. Teodoro 

Mosaics, 13 i 
SS. Trinitd d^ Monti 

D. daVolterra, 128 c, 166/ 

School of Baphael, 166/ 
88. Trinitd de Pellegrini 

Guido Eeni, 236 d 
8. Vriano 

Eleventh century, 18 a 
SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio, near 
Pontana Trevi 

After Raphael, 163 note 
S8. Vito e Modesto 

Umbrian school, 96 a 

Tase with Mosaic paintings, 

GioT. BeUini, 113 i 

Rome — continued 
Pal. d^ Oonservatori 
(Upper rooms) 

Sodoma? 174 o 

Laureti, 187 a 

Ingegno ? 96 » 
(Picture gallery) 

Cola dell' Amatrice, 102 i 

Conti, 112 c 

Gio Bellini, 113 b 

Venusti, 127 note 

Mazzolino, 169 i 

Garofalo, 170 6 

Carpi, 172 e 

Titiaa, 205 a 

Bordone, 205 a 

Guercino, 228 J, 246 * 

Rubens, 231 h 

Van Dyck, 233 A 

Velasquez, 235 !c 

Mc. Poussin, 251 c 

Caravaggio, 252 d 
Pal. Parberini 
(Picture Gallery) 

Alb. Durer, 107 a 

Justus V. Gent, 113 note 

Raphael, 148 b 

Polidoro, 167 i 

Titian, 191 d 

Palma Veochio, 191 d 

Guido Reni, 235 a 

Biliverti, 249/ 

DomenichinOj 249 t 

Claude Lorraine, 257 g 
(Upper rooms) 

Maratta, 227 a 

Cortona, 230 d, 251 p 
Oasa Bartholdy 

Zuccaro, 216 c, 217 d 
Pal. Borgheae 

Lor. di Credi, 69 k 

Antonello da Messina, 85 e 

Giov. BelUni, 88/ 

Perugino, 94 a 

Pinturicchio, 97 

F. Prancia, 100 e 

A. Durer, 107 d 

South German or Flemish, 108 i 

Lucas Kjanach, 108 e 

Lionardo, or Giov. Pedrini, 

After Lionardo, 115 rf 

Salaino, 115 d 

Ogioue, 115 rf 

Solario, 122 e 

After M. Angelo, 127 d 

S. del Piombo, 128 b 


Index of Places. 

Some — eontimied 
Pal. Borghese 

Fra. Bartolommeo and Maiiotto, 

A. del Sarto, 132 e, h 
Giul. Bugiardini, 136 A 
Raphael, 140