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Cornell University Library 
F 3308.161 B6 

Bolivia.Geographical sketch, natural res 

3 1924 019 964 976 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

IntbrnationXi Bureau of the American Republigs, 







Edited and Compiled by the 






International Bureau of the American Republics, 








Edited and Compiled by the 







The Bureau wishes to express its deep obligation to the several sources of informa- 
tion which have aided in the compilation of this book, and especially to Senor Don 
M. V. Ballivian, of the National Bureau of Immigration, Statistics, and Geographical 
Propaganda of La Paz, Bolivia, whose work "Sin6psis Estadfstica y Geogrdfica de la 
Republica de Bolivia" (1903-4) has been exhaustively used for official, statistical, 
and descriptive data. 

While the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications of the Inter- 
national Bureau of the American Republics, no responsibility is assumed on account 
of errors or inaccuracies which may occur therein. 


Chapter I.— Geographical sketch — Area and population — Boundaries — Topog- 
raphy — Orography — Hydrography — Climatology — Seismol- 

ogy^Flora and fauna 7 

II. — Native races, by Dr. J. Hampden Porter 30 

III. — Government and constitutional organization — Law of citizen- 
ship — Eights of foreigners — Guaranties — Religion 54 

IV. — Political divisions — The capital city, its population, resources, 
means of communication, principal buildings, and public insti- 
tutions 62 

V. — Departments and national territory — Brief sketch of each, area 
and population, resources, means of communication, trade, and 

political divisions 67 

VI. — Agriculture: Review of the agricultural wealth of the country — 
Principal products and their cultivation — Facilities for obtain- 
ing Government lands — Forest products — Stock raising 83 

VII. — Mineral wealth — Distribution of minerals — Mines and mining 

laws 94 

VIII. — Manufacturing industries 130 

IX. — Commerce, domestic and foreign — Statistical data — Customs 

laws — Taxes 134 

X. — Financial organization — Revenues — Budget — Debt 156 

XI. — Banking and currency — Banks — Commercial institutions — Ex- 
change 161 

XII. — Means of communication: Interior communication, land and 
water ways, railroads — Communication with foreign countries — 

Mail, telegraph and telephone- service 165 

XIII. — Immigration and colonization — Laws and regulations 184 

XIV. — Education — School system 190 

XV. — Patent and trade-mark laws regulations — Army — Weights, meas- 
ures, and values 193 

XVI. — Bibliography and cartography 206 




San Bartolom^ Mountain Pass, Potosi 16 

Rapids or "Cachuela" on the Yotau River 22 

Pre-Incan Monolithic carvings, Tiahuanaco, department of La Paz 32 

Buildings of the Covendo Mission, on the Beni River 44 

Urubicha, on the Rio Blanco 52 

Cathedral Potosi 60 

Alancha Cascade, near La Paz 66 

Near Challapampa, La Paz 74 

City of Potosi 78 

Sapping the rubber tree 90 

Sucre Park, in the city of Sucre 106 

Government palace, Santa Cruz 122 

Indian coca gatherers. - 136 

Government palace, Sucre - 150 

Cathedral, Sucre 162 

Workshop at Puente Sucre, on the Pilcomayo River 172 

The Cinco Pass, on the Vopi River 182 

Santa Ana Mission, EI Beni 192 

Municipal and Government palaces, Potosi 202 





Geographical position. — The Republic of Bolivia, named in honor 
of its founder, Gen. Simon Bolivar, occupies that portion lying in the 
heart of the South American continent, known during the Spanish 
colonial rule as '"''Alto Peru^'' (Upper Peru). Bolivian territory orig- 
inally extended between 57'^ 30' and 74° west .longitude Greenwich, 
and 6° 30' and 26° 52' south latitude. Before the final settlement of 
the Brazilian boundary, November 17, 1903, by reason of certain 
boundary conventions, the area of the country was generally accepted 
to extend from 57° 30' and 73° 47' 30" west longitude to 7° 6' 5" and 
25° 21)' south latitude. This area, however, is subject to correction 
and readjustment upon the actual demarcation of the Brazilian bound- 
ary line, as provided by the boundary treaty referred to. Bolivia is 
surrounded by Brazil on the north and east, Paraguay on the south- 
east, Argentine on the south, Chile on the southwest, and Peru on 
the west. The country is landlocked, having no seacoast, and with the 
exception of its southwestern extremity belongs to the Torrid Zone. 


The area of Bolivia, as described, measures 1,822,334.75 square 
kilometers, the extreme length of the territory being 2,065 kilometers 
from north to south, while its extreme breadth measures 1,384 kilo- 
meters and extends from east to west. By reason of its area Bolivia 
ranks third among the South American republics, Brazil and Argen- 
tine being the first and second, respectively, while it is larger than 
any European country, Russia excepted. 



The area of Bolivia is politically divided as follows: 


Square kilo- 

National Territory of Colonias . 

La Paz 




Santa Cruz 




Litoral or Atacama 

Total . 

497, 931. 05 

49, .537. 53 

60, 417. 36 

183, 606. 16 

66, 170. 58 


Censu.':!. — Several attempts to make an accurate ceu-'^us of the Repub- 
lic have been made at various times, the figures resulting from such 
work being the following: 




La Paz 


Oruro i 


Santa, Cruz 




Litoral or Atacama 




S4, 100 
22{i, 727 



373, 687 


lt.2, 401 

226, 320 

94. 990 

32, 97.T 

.=., 123 



48, 406 
9.S, 324 

7.i, 627 

243. 263 

4, .520 

693, 779 
114, 922 
;W2, 919 
255, 599 
349. 119 
277, 724 
5, .5*^5 

346, 139 

16, 744 

111 . 372 

176. 760 


237, 755 

123, 347 

62, 854 

1,088,768 ; 1,060,777 1 1,378,896 2,326,126 


" Thf population of Beni is included in that of Santa Cruz. 

Oenms of 1900. — The latest official census of the Republic is that of 
September 1, liMirt, the first of the censuses to be made in future every 
ten years. According to the census returns the population in the 
eight departments and the National Territorj- numbered 1,555,818 
inhabitants. To these returns 5 per cent ha,s been added for omissions, 
bringing the total to 1.633,610 inhabitants, but, as there are about 
91,0(>0 natives leading a tribal life in the northern and eastern fron- 
tiers of the Republic, the grand total is officially estimated at 1.81(^271. 
The following table shows the figures such as given ofEciallv: 


Area in 
square kilu- 
I meters. 

National Territory of Colo- 

La Paz 




Santa Cruz 




Litoral or Atacama 



306, 12'^. 03 
126, 390. 49 

IB, 420. 2S 



Reported. Estimated. 


not eivll- 





86, 081 

326, 163 

171, 592 

325, 615 

196, 434 


Total 1,822,334.75 

1, 633, 610 

18, 000 

10, 000 

49, N20 


15, 000 


^. 000 

25. 000 

Number of 

Total pop- 







31. .S88 


445. S16 


32.1 HI 


8i;, U^l 

1 71 

S2S, 163 


209, 592 


325, 61.-1 



2 98 

102, .KS7 


49, ,S20 


91,000 , 1,816,271 



Percentage of population. — Bolivia, ranking third among the South 
American States as regards territorial area, by reason of its popula- 
tion is the seventh, and the last in the list as regards percentage of 
population per square kilometer. As compared with the nations of 
the world, Bolivia occupies the tenth place by reason of its area, the 
thirty-ninth on account of its population, and the last for its pei'cent- 
age of population per square mile. Tripoli, which is the least popu- 
lated district in the world, has a percentage of 1 inhabitant per squai'e 
kilometer, while Bolivia's rate is only 0.99. This shows the enormous 
difference between the actual population of the country and that which 
could be held within its l)oundaries. 

Ruc.ldl eh'tiieutK. — The population, accoi'ding to racial elements and 
sex, as shown by the National Census reports, is as follows: 





Rate per 
1, 000. 











59, 516 

231, 088 
484, 611 
792, 850 





Not reported 

73 1 


819, 246 



1, 000. 

Foreign population in 1900. — The foreign population in the several 
departmental capitals is shown in the accompanying table: 






59, 014 










20, 687 


20, 602 






Puerto Acre . 

La Paz 



Santa Cruz . . 





60, 031 
15, 898 
18, 335 
20, 910 
20, 907 

The foreign population was represented as follows: Europeans, 
1,163; Latin Americans, 1,691; North Americans, 33, and other 
nationalities, 160. The percentage of Europeans is represented bj' 
Italians, Spaniards, Frenchmen, Germans, and Austrians in the order 
given, while in the percentage of Latin Americans the Peruvians lead, 
followed by Argentines and Chileans. 


Urian andmral population. — The urban or city population reported 
in 357 cities and towns amounted to 438,660 and the country or rural 
population to 1,194,950. Adding to the above figures the estimated 
number of inhabitants not reported and that of the Indians not civil- 
ized, the following is the general census of the Republic: 

City population 438,660 

Rural population 1, 377, 611 

Total - 1,816,271 

the percentage of the city population being about ii5 and that of the 
country or rural population about 75. 


Brazilian 'boundanj. — The United States of Brazil lie to the north 
and east of Bolivia. The boundary between the two Republics has 
been iinally established by the treaty signed at Petropolis, Brazil, on 
November 17, 1903, by Don Fernando E. Guachalla and Don Claudio 
Pinilla, on behalf of Bolivia, and Baron de Rio Branco and Don J. F. 
de Assis Brazil, on the part of Brazil. 

Article 1 of the treaty determines the frontier as follows: 

"1. Starting from latitude 20° 08' 35" south, in front of the outlet 
of Bahia Negra in the Paraguay River, the boundary line shall ascend 
this river to a point on the right bank distant 9 kilometers in a 
straight line from Fort Coimbra— that is, approximately in latitude 
19° 58' 05" south and longitude 14° 39' 14" west of the observatory of 
Rio de Janeiro (57- 47' 40" west of Greenwich), according to the 
frontier map drawn up by the Mixed Boundary Commission of 1S75 — • 
and shall continue from this point, on the right bank of the Paraguay, 
by a geodetic line which shall meet another point 4 kilometers distant 
in the exact location of 37° 01' 22" northeast from the so-called 'bot- 
tom of the landmark of Bahia Negra,' the distance of 4 kilometers 
being accurately measured on the present frontier, so that this point 
shall be approximately in 19- 45' 36.6" latitude and 14'^ 55' 46.7" 
longitude west of Rio de Janeiro (58° 04' 12.7" west of Greenwich); 
thence it shall follow in the same direction determined by the Mixed 
Commission of 1875 as far as latitude 19° 02', and thence to the east 
along this parallel to the brook ConceifSo, which it shall follow to its 
mouth on the southern bank of the outlet of Caceres Lake, also called 
the Tamengos River; thence it shall ascend ])y the outlet to the 
meridian which cuts Tamarineiro point, and thence to the north 
along the meridian of Tamarineiro to latitude 18° 54', continuing 
along this parallel to the west till it meets the present boundarv line. 

"2. From the point of intersection of parallel 18° 54' with the 
straight line which forms the present boundary line it shall follow in 


the same direction as the present frontier line to latitude 18° 14', and 
along this parallel it shall meet to the east the outlet of Tiake Mandior^, 
which it shall ascend, crossing the lake in a straight line to a point on 
the old boundary line equidistant from the two present landmarks; 
thence along this old frontier line to the landmark on the northern 

"3. From the landmark on the northern shore of Lake Mandior^ it 
shall continue in a straight line in the same direction as the present 
boundary line to latitude 17° 49', and along this parallel to the merid- 
ian of the extreme southeastern part of Lake Gahiba; thence follow- 
ing this meridian to the lake, and crossing the latter in a straight line 
to a point on the old boundary line equally distant from the two exist- 
ing landmarks, and thence following the old frontier line to the entrance 
of the Canal Pedro Segundo, also recently called Pando River. 

"4. From the southern entrance of the Pedro Segundo Canal, or 
Pando River, to the confluence of the Beni and Mamor6 the boundary 
shall be the same as that established in article 2 of the treaty of March 
27, 1867. 

"5. From the confluence of the Beni and Mamor^ rivers the fron- 
tier shall follow the course of the Madeira River to the mouth of the 
Abunan, its tributary on the left bank, and shall ascend the Abunan 
to latitude 10° 20'; thence it shall continue westward along parallel 
10° 20' to the Rapirran River, following this river to its main source. 

"6. From the main source of the Rapirran the line shall follow the 
parallel of the source westward till it meets the Aquiry River; thence 
along this river to its source, and from this point to Bahia Creek it 
shall follow the highest elevations of land or a straight line, as the 
Boundary Commissioners of the two countries shall deem most 

"7. From the source of Bahia Creek it shall go down this stream to its 
mouth on the right bank of the Acre or Aquiry River, and thence along 
this river to its source, if the latter is not more to the west than 69° 
west of Greenwich. 

"(a) In the case foreseen — that is, if the longitude of the source is 
less western than the one indicated — the frontier shall follow the 
meridian of the source to its intersection with parallel 11° south, and 
thence it shall continue westward, coinciding with this latter parallel 
until it meets the boundary line with Peru. 

" (h) If, as seems certain, the Acre River should cross longitude 69° 
west of Greenwich and run now north now south of parallel 11°, more 
or less following the latter, the bed of the river shall form the divid- 
ing line to its source, and it shall continue along its meridian to paral- 
lel 11°, and thence westward along the latter parallel to the frontier 
of Peru; but if west of meridian 69° the Acre should run always 


south of parallel 11°, the frontier line shall be continued from this 
river along meridian 69^ west to its intersection with parallel 11^, and 
thence along the latter parallel till it meets the frontier of Peru." 

The treaty further declares, among other provisions, that the trans- 
fer of territories resulting from the demarcation described includes all 
their inherent rights and the responsibilitj' of maintaining and respect- 
ing the rights acquired by citizens and foreigners in accordance with 
the principles of civil law. All claims arising out of executive acts 
or of deeds done in the exchanged territories shall be examined and 
decided bj- an arbitration tribunal, which shall be composed of one 
representative from Brazil, one from Bolivia, and a foreign minister 
accredited to the Brazilian Government. This third arbiter shall be 
the president of the tribunal, and shall be chosen by the two high 
contracting parties soon after the exchange of the ratifications of the 
treaty. The tribunal shall sit for one year in Rio de Janeiro, and shall 
begin to transact business within six months after the exchange of the 
ratifications. Its mission shall be to accept or reject claims, fix the 
amount of indemnity, and designate which of the two Governments 
shall pay the award. Pa^'ments may be made in special bonds at par, 
bearing 3 per cent interest, the sinking fund being 3 per cent per 

There being no equivalence in the areas of the territories exchanged 
between the two nations, the United States of Brazil agrees to pay an 
indemnity of -t'2,(>0u,00(>, which Bolivia accepts with the intention of 
using the same mainly in the construction of railwa5^s or other works 
tending to improve the communications and develop commerce betweeo 
the two countries. The paA'ment shall be made in two installments of 
£1,000,000 each, the first installment to be paid within three months 
after the exchange of the ratifications of the treatv and the second on 
March 31, 1905. 

It is also provided that a mixed commission, appointed by the two 
Governments within one year from the date of the exchange of the 
ratifications, shall proceed to the demarcation of the frontier as stipu- 
lated in Article I of the treaty, beginning its work within six months 
after its appointment. Any controversy arising between the Brazilian 
and Bolivian commissions which can not be settled by the two Gov- 
ernments shall be submitted to the final decision of a member of the 
Royal Geographical Society of London, chosen by the president and 
members of the council of the same. Should the boundary commis- 
sioners appointed by one of the high contracting parties fail to be 
present at the place and time fixed for beginning the work, the com- 
missioners of the other shall proceed to the demarcation, and the result 
of their operations shall be binding on both. 

The negotiation is contemplated within eight months from the rati- 
fication of the treaty referred to, of a treaty of commerce and naviga- 


tion, based upon the principle of the most ample freedom of transit and 
river navigation to both countries, a privilege which they shall enjoy 
perpetually on condition of their respecting the fiscal and police regu- 
lations established, or which ma}' hereafter be established, in the ter- 
ritory of each contracting party, both countries being authorized to 
appoint custom-house agents at certain points in the Bolivian and 
Brazilian Territories, as stipulated. 

The United States of Brazil binds itself to build on Brazilian ter- 
ritory, by itself or by a private company, a railway to extend from 
Santo Antonio on the Madeira River to Guajara-Mirim on the Mamore, 
with a branch running through Villa-Murtinho or another point in its 
proximity, in the State of Matto Grosso, to Villa Bella, at the conflu- 
ence of the Beni and Mamore. Brazil shall endeavor to finish this 
road within four j-ears, and both countries shall use the same with 
right to the same immunities and rates. 

Brazil also declares its intention to negotiate directly with the 
Republic of Peru the boundary in dispute in the territory lying 
between the source of the Javary and parallel 11°, and that it will 
endeavor to reach a friendly solution without responsibility for Bolivia, 
in any case. 

Paraguayan 'boundary. — The boundary with Paraguay, which lies to 
the southeast of Bolivia, remains as originally, no boundary treaty 
having changed its status. From the Apa River, 22° south latitude, 
the line descends to the Pilcomayo and follows the course of the Para- 
guay River. This latter constitutes the natural boundary between the 
two countries. 

Argentine boundary. — Argentine lies to the south of Bolivia, and 
the boundaries of the two Republics as established )jy the treaty of 
May 10, 1889, are as follows: 

"In the territory of Atacama the boundary shall follow the range 
of the same name to the head of the Devils Cieek {quebrada dd Diablo) 
to the northeast along the eastern slope of the same cordillei-a to the 
beginning of the ridge {serrania) of Zapalegui. From this point it 
shall follow as far as the ridge of Esmoraca along the highest peaks 
until it reaches the head of the western branch of Quiaca Creek, 
whence it shall descend by the middle of it to its mouth in the Rio de 
Yanapalpa. From this point it shall run due west and east to the 
summit of the Cerro del Porongal. From this point it shall run to the 
western end of the Rio Porongal, following the middle of the stream 
to its confluence with the Bermejo opposite the town of that name. 
From this point the divisional line shall follow the waters of this same 
river Bermejo to its confluence with the Rio Grande de Tarija, other- 
wise the forks of San Antonio. From these forks it shall follow up 
the waters of the Rio Tarija until it comes to the mouth of the Rio 
Itau, whence it shall follow the course of the latter stream as far as 


the twenty-second parallel, from which point it shall continue to the 
Rio Pilcomayo." 

The work of marking off this boundary has not yet been completed. 
It'has been provided in this treaty that all questions which could not 
be settled by the delimitation commission to be appointed should be 
submitted to arbitration. 

Chilean loundary. — Chile lies to the southwest of Bolivia, and its 
boundary line has been temporarily established by the Treaty of Truce, 
concluded April 4, 1884. From the summit of the Zapaleri the bound- 
ary line starts in a westerly direction to the Licancaur Volcano; thence 
to the Cabana Volcano (extinct), and from this point to the farthest . 
water source south of Lake Ascotan, and crossing this lake to the 
Ollagua Volcano, and thence to the Tua, where the boundaiy ends. 

Peruvian boundary. — Peru is situated to the west of Bolivia, the 
boundary line being the arcifinious fi'ontier of the western Andes and 
its spurs. The line commences at Miscanti, on the Loa River, and fol- 
lows the trend of the summits of the Huasco, Cancoso, and Isluga 
volcanoes, the Tarujiri and Huallatiri peaks, Lake Chungara, and the 
summits of the Colpa and Caracara. Thence following the summits 
of Ancomarca, Llusilla, and Tapara, descends to the headwaters of the 
Yaro, down to the Desaguadero River, and then ascending the waters 
of the latter extends as far as the Winamarca Lagoon. Thence the 
line takes a northwesterly direction across the Isthmus of Yunguyo, 
in the peninsula of Copacabana, and thence diagonally across to Lake 
Titicaca and the Huarapaya Cove. Thence to the Quequerana River 
to its confluence with the Suches River, up the stream of the latter to 
Suches Lake, and following the Coiolo and Apoiabampa ranges to the 
headwaters of the Sina River. From this point the line follows the 
course of this river down to its confluence with the River Madre de 
Dios, and thence to the Jaquirana, which is the source of the Inambari, 
at 7° 6' 55" west of Greenwich. 

By Article VIII of the Brazilian boundary- treat}' Brazil declares its 
intention to negotiate directl}' with Peru the boundary in dispute in the 
territory lying between the source of the Javary River and parallel 
11°, and that it will endeavor to reach a friendly settlement of the 
question, without responsibility for Bolivia in anv case. 


In general terms, the relief of the Bolivian Territory is formed by 
deep valleys to the north, immense plains to the east, and to the west 
by a range of steep mountains, the loftiest peaks of which are ever 
snow clad and surround a wide plateau having two large connecting 

Toward the north there are rich hydrographic basins formed by 
rivers, all navigable for the greater part of their course, while toward 


the east there stretch the llanuras or Ohaco, immense rolling plains 
covered with luxuriant pasture fields and thick wooded lands, irri- 
gated by large rivers flowing toward the northeast and the southeast. 
The climate in this region is a perpetual spring. 

Toward the west there is a mountainous piece of country, having a 
large plateau where the two lakes before mentioned are found, and 
running east and west of this plateau there lies the region of the per- 
petual snow. The extreme length of this plateau is estimated at 835 
kilometers, its mean width at 128 kilometers, while its elevation is 
given at 3,824 meters above the level of the sea. Vegetation is poor 
in this region as there is not sufficient irrigation, the waters from the 
melting snow in the tall mountains surrounding it flowing either to 
the lakes, or else to the marshy or swampy lands to the west. 

Toward the south the table-lands or plateaus are arid and covered 
by salt for a stretch of over 7,760 kilometers. The climate in this 
region is cold, the atmosphere being very clear. To the southwest there 
is a belt formed by sandy plains and a volcanic range. There are no 
large rivers in this region, but at certain points water and vegetation 
are found. Borax and nitrate abound in this plateau in deposits called 
"sa^ares," while copper, silver, and other metals are found in the 
mountainous region. 


There are two main mountain systems in Bolivia, the Andean or 
"Andino," on the^west and that of Brazil on the east. The former 
is represented by lofty peaks, snow-capped mounts, and several 
important mountain ranges with varying altitudes, while the latter is 
formed by low chains, having no particular characteristics. The 
Andean system of Bolivia lies to the west, extending to the east, 
where it becomes a succession of low chains. This system is divided 
into two main branches, called '"'Cordillera Occidental," or Western 
Cordillera, and the '"'' Cordillefra ReaV or Eastern Chain. Between 
these imposing ranges there is a vast table-land or llanada at an 
altitude of about 3,800 meters, measuring an area of 106,950 square 
kilometers, called the '"' Altipla7iicie BoliviMna" or Bolivian Table- 
land, which extends toward the southern boundary of the Republic. 
In the western section of the territory the Andes Range attains but 
a comparatively low altitude until it strikes the southern portion 
of the Titicaca Lake, where it forms a solid mass of mountains 96 
kilometers in breadth. 

South of this region the cordlllera has several ridges, the highest 
being the Huatacondo and Silillica chains. From this point there is a 
depression in the cordillera extending as far as parallel 21°, where it 
rises again forming the Atacama Range, called " Cordillera Occidental 
de Atacama," having the lofty peaks San Pedro, Paniri, Licancaur, 


Miniquis, and the Soronipa and Antofalla volcanoes. This cordillera 
has several secondary ranges, the principal being the ridges of the 
northwest — the Tata Savaya, Silillica, Volcanes, and Huatacondo. 

The "Cordillera Real," or "Oriental," runs in the main from a 
northwesterly to a southeasterly direction, its greatest body lying 
north and east of the Altiplanicie or table-land. It extends from par- 
allel 69°, north of Titicaca Lake, to parallel 67, near the city of 
Oruro. This portion of the cordillera forms a single range of per- 
petual snow-capped peaks, some of them attaining an altitude of 6,500 
meters and over. Three lesser cordilleras start from this main range, 
viz: Cololo, ending at the Callinsani Peak; Illampu, or Ancohuina, 
where the Illampu and Illimani peaks are found, and the Tres Graces, 
which runs north of Oruro, where, due to a depression, it branches 
off in several small ridges. 

Besides this main body of mountains there are many others chains, 
the principal among which are the following: Asanaques, Frailes, 
Corregidores, Lipez, Mosetenes. Tunari, Herradura, Charcas, and 
Chayanta. These cordilleras are the starting point of innumerable 
ridges or t^erranias traversing the countr}' in all directions. 

Grand Phi ten u or ^'' Altiplanicie Occidental.'^ — This immense, lofty 
table-land, at an altitude of 3,842 meters, surrounded by a series of 
snow-capped mountains, stretches from 15° to 22- south latitude, 
and lies between the Andes Occidentales and the Cordillera Real. 
The area of the Altiplanicie measures 17,000 square kilometers, its 
extreme length being 835 kilometers and its mean breadth 128. This 
Grand Plateau is cut into two portions by the Llica and Tahua or 
Salinas Ridge, the upper or northern portion of the plateau containing 
Lake Titicaca, considered the highest body of soft water in the world, 
measuring over 31,000 square kilometers, the Poopo Lake, over 2,790 
square kilometers, and the great Coipasa Marsh or Swamp, 310 square 
kilometers in extent, besides several rivers of potable water. The 
lower or southern portion of the plateau is characterized by a lack of 
streams, by the saline nature of its soil, and a solid deposit of salt 
measuring 750 square kilometers, floating in a subterranean lake. 

The general features of this plateau lead to the belief that it was 
originally an inland sea, the enormous horizontal salt layers and 
deposits, and the large lakes having no visible outlet and considerable 
depth seeming to confirm this view. This system of highlands is 
composed of many smaller table-lands called ^'"pampas,'''' or plains, the 
principal being the Huasco and Chacarilla plains, the latter, measuring 
about 873 kilometers, being notable for its total lack of water, and 
the Empesa and Coposa plain between the Sillilica and the Volcanes 
Range. Tlie soil in the largest portion of these plains is covered by 
a thin layer of salt, sodium, and magnesium, the territory being partly 
arid, although enormously rich by reason of its mineral deposits. 


PEAKS. 17 

The Puna de Atacama, estimated to be over 70,000 square kilometers 
in extent, lies between the Cordilleras Oriental and Occidental. This is 
another important plateau, with deep depressions where salt deposits 
or salares are found in abundance. There are large open plains and 
rich basins covered with luxuriant vegetation toward the northwest. 
One of the most important zones or belts of the Bolivian Territory 
is the region where the basins of the Beni, Madre de Dios, and 
Caupolican plains lie, measuring about 523,647 square kilometers, 
and containing the richest agricultural section in the country. Other 
plains called "^Zanos" extend east and southeast, the most important of 
which being the Mojos, Guarayos, Chiquitos, and Manzo, or upper 
Chaco. These smaller plains are well irrigated and contain thick 
wooded portions, being devoted to agriculture and stock raising, and 
measuring about 400,000 square kilometers. 

"Pawos," or mountain passes. — The several mountain chains of the 
Bolivian system form natural passes or gorges, most of them at an 
imposing height, affording access from one section of the country to the 
other. In the Cordillera Occidental the lowest and most frequently used 
of these passes to descend from the Altiplanicie, or Grand Plateau, to the 
coast are the Sajama Pass, leading to either Tacna or Arica; the Collpa 
Pass, leading to Camina or to the port of Pisagua, and the Iluba, at an 
altitude of 4,702 meters, leading to Tarapaca and other ports in the 
same province. On the Cordillera Oriental the principal passes are 
the Catantica, 4,700 meters elevation, leading from the Altiplanicie to 
the plains on the northwest; the Llachisani, 4,705 meters high, leading 
to the deep valleys of the north and thence to the Amazone; the Undua- 
vi, or La Paz, 4,462 meters altitude; the Challa, 4,239 meters high; the 
Livichuco, the Guasaco, 4,792 meters, and the Santa Fe, at an eleva- 
tion of 4,833 meters. 

Highest peaks. — The following is a list of the principal peaks over 
5,000 meters high: 

Cordillera Occidental: Meters. 

Guallatiri 6, 696 

Miniquis 6,030 

Tacora or CMpicani 5,910 

Sajama - 5,546 

Tahua , 5,300 

Cordillera Real or Oriental: 

Illampu or Sorata - 6,616 

Illimani (Conway, 1,900) - 6,463 

Chachacomani 6,533 

Karkaake 6, 160 

Tres Graces 5,598 

Malmisa 5,453 

Cololo 5,370 

Azanaques ,.,.....-.-..,, 5, 135 

116a— 04 2 


Cordillera de Lipez: Meters. 

Lipez - 5,982 

Nuevo Mundo 5, 949 

Todos Santos 5,902 

Bonete 5,754 

Cuzco, 5,396 meters, Ubina, 5,208. and Chorolque, 5,603, are among 
the most notable peaks in the Porco and Chicas cordilleras. 

Volcanoes. — The volcanic belt lies mainly on the western portion of 
the country, the principal volcanoes being the Isluya, which is always 
active, and Cancoso, on the Andes Occidentales, Chela, Olca, Tua, 
Ollague, Licancaur, Lascar, and Soronipa. Some of these volcanoes 
are constantly active while others are subject to intermittent 

Altitude of certain inhabited places. — Owing to the peculiarly moun- 
tainous formation of Bolivia, there are a number of cities and other 
inhabited localities situated at very high altitudes, among the principal 
being the city of La Paz, 3,630 meters; Oruro, 3,694; Uyuni, 3,660; 
Colquechaca, 4,221; Aullagas (mine), 4,769; Potosi, 4,146; Corocoro, 
4,023; Calamarca, 4,083, and Huanchaca, 4,114 meters high. 

Geological foi'mation. — Silurian rocks and strata are found in the 
Department of La Paz, from lllampu to lUimani. forming the whole 
of the Cordillera Oriental and the eastern portion of the Grand Plateau. 
This formation is also present in several other localities. Devonian 
and Silurian formations are found in the belt through which the 
Madera, Mamore, and Guapore rivers flow, while Carboniferous for- 
mations are common in several parts of the territory, their general 
direction being north-south. Permian stratifications are notable in 
the Grand Plateau, or Altiplanicie, to the south and west of Lake 
Titicaca. Jurassic rocks abound in this same region and in the upper 
section of the Cordillera Occidental. Tertiary formations are found 
to the southwest of river Itenez, and Miocene formations extend 
toward Tarija. At Suches, north of Lake Titicaca, there is a Pliocene 
formation containing certain fossils. The more recent formations are 
diluvial in the largest portion of the central plateau, from La Paz to 
Viacha, the plains west of the Cordillera Occidental, and large sections 
of the Upper Chaco. Alluvial formations are common in the Madidi, 
Alto-Beni, and Madre de Dios basins, while plutonic rocks are repre- 
sented to a large extent — granites, porphyry, and trachytes being most 


Eydn'ograpKic helts. — The territory of the Republic may be divided 
into four hydrographic regions or belts, one lying to the north, 
another to the west, a third to the southwest, and the fourth to the 


Amazon region. — The first or northern belt is also called the Amazon 
region, and is formed by the rivers emptying into the Amazon either 
directly or through their affluents. The principal rivers in this region 
are the Madeira, Beni, Mamore, and Madre de Dios, with their respec- 
tive numerous tributaries. River navigation in this region is carried 
on by means of steamers, steam launches, and special river craft, such as 
large canoes and rafts or catamarans of different kinds. 

The Madre de Dios is navigable by steam launches throughout its 
entire course. The navigable area of this region is estimated at 9,000 
kilometers. The Mamore, Guapore, and Beni rivers and their several 
tributaries form the Madeira River in Brazil. 

There are several river ports along the course of the largest of these 

Western region. — The second hydrographic belt, also called western 
region, embraces the high lakes and other streams flowing toward the 
lower portion of the Altiplanicie Boliviana. As this region is com- 
pletely surrounded by the eastern and western Cordilleras, the course 
of its rivers is necessarily short, the smaller streams generally disap- 
pearing by suction from the soil, while those carrying a larger body 
of water either empty in the lakes of the plateau or form large 
swamps or marshes. The principal rivers of this region are in the 
first place, the Desaguadero, rising on Lake Titicaca and emptying on 
Lake Pampa-AuUagas. The Desaguadero measures about 297 kilo- 
meters in extent, being 8 meters deep at its source and 3 meters deep 
about the middle section of its course. This river is navigable for steam 
launches. Rivers Suches or Escoma, Keka, and Vilaque empty in 
Lake Titicaca; the Corque and Marquez empty in the Pampa-Aullagas 
Lake; the Coipasa Swamp receives the waters of the Lauca, Choque- 
cota, and Lacahauira. The latter has its source on the Pampa- 
Aullagas Lake, flows west for about 6 kilometers, then it disappear 
completely for about 17 kilometers, where it reappears in the shape 
of numerous springs and marshes, and resuming its course flows on in 
a westerly direction until it empties in the Coipasa Swamp. The 
total course of this river from its source to its mouth is estimated at 
97 kilometers. The Rio Grande de Lipez is another of the principal 
streams of this region. 

Atacama region. — The third hydrographic region, or the Atacama 
region, is formed by the streams which ultimately flow into the Pacific 
Ocean, and contains only a few rivers. The only important body of 
water in this region is the Loa River with its several small tributaries. 
There are also a few creeks of slight importance. 

Southeastern region. — The fourth hydrographic belt or southeastern 
region is made up of all the streams emptying into the Paraguay River 
and flowing toward the Plata, the extensive swamps formed by the 


streams of the Chiquitos and Chaco valleys, and those of the central 
southern portion of the territorJ^ As stated, the waters of this hydro- 
graphic division empty, either directly or indirectly through tribu- 
taries into the Paraguay River, the principal affluents of which are 
the Pilcomayo and the Bermejb. 

The former rises in the eastern section of the department of Oruro 
and flows in a southeasterly direction, its principal tributaries being 
the Cachimayo, Mataca, and Pila3'a or Camblaya. From its conflu- 
ence with the Pila3^a, the Pilcomayo empties in the Paraguay River. 
Its width at certain places measures over 1,300 meters, and at times 
becomes extremely narrow. The bottom of the Pilcomayo is very 
irregular, especially toward the middle section of the river, making 
steam navigation throughout its entire course impracticable. Steam 
launches sail up the river for a considerable distance. The Pilcomayo 
has been explored several times and found to be navigable up to about 
700 kilometers from its mouth. Further up navigation is impeded 
by waterfalls or i-apids, called ''' cachuelas" and other natural obstacles. 

The Bermejo rises in the department of Tarija, on the Escayachi 
and Tolomosa ranges, and flows in a southeasterly direction, emptying 
in the Paraguay. Its main tributary is the Tarija or San Lorenzo, 
formed by the Camacho, San Luis or Grande, and Itau rivers. The 
Bermejo, from its confluence with the Tarija, has a tortuous course, 
particularly at a point called Teuco. The length of this river is esti- 
mated at about 1,150 kilometers, its minimum depth at 1 meter, at its 
narrowest point at 50 meters. Navigation is carried on by means of 
steam launches and small steamboats for a distance of about 960 kilo- 
meters, there being a line of steamers plying regularly between the 
ports of Esquina Grande and Rivadavia. 

The Paraguay is also navigable for steamboats and launches as far 
as and beyond Lake Gaiba (17^ 40') and up the Jauru to Puerto 
Alegre. Its minimum depth at this point is about 2 meters, and 
nearly 3 meters at Lake Gaiba. There are regular steamers plying in 
the waters of this river. The Aguarayguazu has a clean bed toward 
its lower course, and navigation is carried on by steam launches up to 
600 kilometers from its mouth during the overflow season. 

Principal lakes. — The principal lake in the Amazon or first hydro- 
graphic region is the Armentia, on the left shore of River Madre de 
Dios, above the confluence of this river and River Heath. This lake 
contains a large island named Figueira. The second lake in importance 
is the Domu or Rogoaguado, in the Department of Beni, between the 
rivers Mamore and Beni, at an elevation of 272 meters above the sea 
level, and measuring 1,500 square kilometers in area. This lake is 
surrounded by several smaller lakes, and has within its shores several 
islands covered with an impenetrable growth. Lake Roguagua lies to 
the southwest and probably empties in the Rio Negro. The Mamore- 

LAKES. 21 

bey is about 10 kilometers wide, while the Itonoma is 11 kilometers 
wide and 27 long, being navigable by the ships plying on the river of 
the same name. Lake Concepcion, in the Department of Santa Cruz, 
measures about 70 kilometers, and is situated at an altitude of 290 
meters above the level of the sea. 

Lake Titicaca. — The principal lakes on the second or Altiplanicie 
hydrographic region are, in the first place, Lake Titicaca, one of the 
largest lakes in South America. All the rivers and large streams 
flowing down from the western, eastern, and southern slopes or water- 
sheds of the Andes empty into this lake. It lies on the northern section 
of the Grand Plateau or Altiplanicie, at an elevation of 3,814 meters, 
its area being estimated at 8,340 square kilometers, its depth at over 
400 meters near the island of Titicaca. Its maximum length is given at 
223 kilometers, and its extreme breadth at 111 kilometers. The shores 
of the lake narrow down toward the southeast, forming the Copacabana 
and the Tiquina peninsulas, between which lies the Tiquina Strait, 500 
meters in width and 150 in depth. The waters of this strait are from 
3° to 4° warmer than the atmospheric temperature in winter and have 
always a very disagreeable taste. 

Titicaca Lake has a large number of bays, coves, islands, and penin- 
sulas, the principal among the former being the bays and coves of 
Escoma, Achacachi, Huata, Puerto Perez or Chichilaya, Aigachi, and 
Guaqui, all affording sufficient depth to the anchorage of the steamers 
plying on the lake. Among the numberless islands found in the lake 
the principal is the island of Titicaca, 10 kilometers in length by 7 in 
width, containing most important archaeological monuments of the time 
of the Incas, the ruins of the Temple of the Sun, the Temples of the 
Sun's Priestesses, the Inca's Palace, and many other remnants of that 
wonderful civilization. There are also several prehistoric monu- 
ments in the island of Coati. Tiquina, Copacabana, and Taraco are 
the only peninsulas worthj' of mention. 

The principal open ports on Lake Titicaca are Escoma, Ancoraimes, 
Huata, Puerto Perez, Carabuco, and Huaqui, this latter connected with 
the city of La Paz by rail. Other lakes in this region are the Suches 
and Ichucota, in the Department of La Paz. There are several rivers 
emptying into the Titicaca, which has but an outlet at the south- 
eastern portion of the lake, forming the river Desaguadero, liter- 
ally " drainage river," which, after a course of 297 kilometers, empties 
into the Pampa-AuUagas or Poopo Lake. 

Poopo Lake. — This lake, also called "Choro"and " Pampa-Aulla- 
gas," lies in the central portion of the plateau, at an elevation of 3,700 
meters, its area being estimated at 1,000 kilometers. Its depth has 
not been accurately ascertained, but it is known to be sufficient for 
navigation purposes, there being a deep current toward the middle 
of the flow. The island of Panza, measuring 15 square kilometers, 


lies about the center of the lake. This island is inhabited by Indians, 
who speak a special dialect. About 33 kilometers from Panza Island 
there is another island called Filomela. There are several rivers 
emptying into the Poopo Lake, the principal being the Desaguadero, 
Sorasora, Sevaruyo, Marquez, and Corque. The lake empties through 
a single outlet, the Lacahahuira, forming a powerful whirlpool. 
Pazna, Sato, and Marquez are the only good coves in this lake. 

The quantity of water running out of the Poopo Lake is by far 
smaller than that poured into it by its several tributaries, the inlet 
being estimated at 6,000 cubic meters per minute, while the outlet is 
only about 56 cubic meters. The Desaguadero River disappears 
shortly after leaving the lake, to reappear 17 kilometers beyond, where 
it empties into the Coipasa marsh, a great swamp 50 square kilometers 
in extent. The other lakes in this region are Vilama, the largest in the 
department of Potosi, and Churagara, Department of Oruro. 

The third or Atacama hydrographic region has no lakes, but a few 
lagoons, the principal being Zoncori, Chiuchiu, and Ascotan, besides 
a few small deposits of brackish water. 

Marshes. — The Plata or southern region contains large swamps or 
marshes called '"''ianados'''' and lakes of a certain importance. Among 
the marshes the most remarkable are the Jarayes, on the upper Para- 
guay River, the Tacuaral, and Bahia Negra south of the Jarayes. 
Puerto Pacheco, through which the import and export trade of the 
department of Santa Cruz is carried on, is situated at the mouth of 
the Bahia Negra swamp, which has depth enough toward its eastern 
section as to allow steam navigation, being considered a good bay. 
Lakes Uberaba, Gaiva or Chavez, Mendiore, and Caceres, all impor- 
tant by reason of their area, lie to the north and south of the Paraguay 
River. Steamboats of very light draft sail on the Caceres Lake as far 
as Suarez, one of the Bolivian ports situated on the southern shore of 
the lake. Corumba, a Brazilian port, is situated at the mouth of the 
Caceres Lake, and farther down a Brazilian shipyard has been estab- 

Floods. — The eastern, northeastern, and northwestern sections of 
the country are subject to periodical floods, seriously affecting com- 
merce and agriculture in the afflicted districts. From November to 
March, and sometimes until Maj^, the flood season lasts, the water 
rising at times as high as 10 meters. This is especially the case in cer- 
tain towns of the Department of Beni, where the streets become chan- 
nels, communication and traffic being possible by boat only. The rivers 
Beni, Madera, Mamore, and Guapore have an outlet of 1.30 cubic 
meters of water for each square league (about 31 square kilometers) of 
tributary area. It is estimated from the mean velocity of the waters 
that from twenty to twenty-one days are necessary for the first flood 
to travel the distance between Exaltacion, Yacuma province, depart- 


ment of Beni, and the Madeira Kiver. The Beni and Mamore rivers, 
due to difference in climate and elevation of the mountains where 
they have their headwaters, overflow long before the Guapore. The 
annual rainfall in these regions has been estimated at 200 centimeters. 
The sudden and excessive overflow of these streams sometimes cause 
the waters of their tributaries to flow backward. 

In the territory of the Gran Chaco the floods take place from 
December to April. 


There are three distinct climatic belts or zones in the Bolivian ter- 
ritory, according to the altitude of the respective regions. These 
regions are called ^'■yicngas" (an Indian word meaning "hot valley"), 
'"'■vccUes,^' or valleys, and ^'- punas" or cold lands, according to their 

The yimga region is that portion of the territory rising from the 
sea level to an altitude of 1,688 meters. The valle region starts at this 
point and continues to an elevation of 3,058 meters, and finally the 
puna commences at this altitude and ends at an elevation of 4,787 
meters. The region of perpetual snow varies from 5,000 to 5,260 
meters, according to the watershed of the mountains. These three main 
climatic divisions are subdivided into intermediate belts. The mean 
annual temperature of the yunga region varies from 22° to 19° C. 
(71.60° to 66.20° F.); that of thevalle region, up to an altitude of 2,500 
meters, from 19° to 16° C. (66.20°to60.80°F.). Cabecera de valle {hes^A. 
of valley) is a subdivision of the latter main division, and rises from 
2,500 meters to 3,058, with a mean annual temperature of 16° to 14° 
C. (60.80° to 57.20° F.). The puTia is also divided in two portions, the 
puna up to 3,614 meters with a mean temperature of 14° to 10° C. 
(57.20° to 50° F.), and \hepuna irava, rising up to 4,787 meters, where 
the annual temperature varies from 10° to 2° C. (50° to 35.60° F.). 

In the yunga region the climate is spring-like. There is no winter; 
humidity is constant, rainfall abundant, and the soil is fertile, produc- 
ing all kinds of tropical fruits. The temperature in the valles is mild; 
rain lasts from November to March; winter is very mild; the climate 
is healthy, and the soil produces cereals, vegetables of all kinds, and 
many fruits of foreign lands. The variation in climate and seasons 
are more marked in the cabecera de valle belt, the products of this 
region being less abundant than those of the 'ualle proper. The funa 
has but two seasons — autumn and winter. The atmosphere is dry and 
cold, the sky diaphanous during the afternoon, and the temperature 
mild. In good weather nights are cold. This region only produces 
good pasture and certain tubers. In the puna hrava the air is always 
cold, dry, and rarefied. The weather is bad and the atmosphere is 
heated through the refraction of the sun rays upon the barren soil. 
This is a region of powerful atmospheric disturbances, particularly in 



the evenings. Rain is unknown in this belt, as the precipitation takes 
invariably the shape of snow or hail. Vegetation is confined to a few 

Temperature. — Although the territory lies within the Torrid Zone, 
the temperature is not that corresponding to such zone, as it varies 
according to altitude, latitude, nature of soil, direction of the winds, 
distance to the cordilleras, and other factors. In the valleys, within 
a few hours, temperature will show a variation from 13° to 17° C. , or 
54° to 62° F., while in the vicinity of the mountains, or cordilleras, 
the change is from 8° to 16° C. , or about 46° to 59° F. At an altitude 
of 3,000 meters the annual mean temperature is 15° C, or 46.40° F., 
while at an elevation of 4,500 meters the temperature is 6° C, or 
42.80^^ F. Sorata, a town at 2,710 meters, and about 9.25 kilometers 
from the region of perpetual snow, is situated in a valley where the 
climate is mild and soft, notwithstanding its proximity to the snows. 

The variation of temperature according to altitude above the sea 
level has been estimated as follows: 


above sea 






° a 



The mean temperature and the production of the several Bolivian 
zones is officially given as follows:" 






Animal life. 

Snow region 









Valerian and other umbil- 

The condor, or Andean 


Llama, vicuila, alpaca, chin- 

Cattle, sheep, horses don- 


Stipa bromus, bacaris, bo- 
lax glebaria.ccsalis tube- 
rose, quenopodium. 

Wheal, vegetables, trees... 

Fruit-bearing trees, com, 

pulse, etc. 
Thick woods, coffee, cacao, 

sugar cane, coca, rubber, 

cinchona bark, and 

Iruits of all kinds. 

Cabecera de Valle 


keys, bears. 

Improved species of the 

same stock. 
All kinds of domestic ani- 

Puma, tapir, and birds of 
beautiful plumage. 

Seasons. — The thermal seasons do not correspond with the astro- 
nomic seasons, the meteorological changes being different from those 

«Sin6psis Estadfstica y Ggogrdfica de la Republica de Bolivia. La Paz, 1903. 
Vol. I. 



taking place outside of the Tropics, because the territory of Bolivia 
is within the Torrid Zone. Spring covers the months of August, 
September, and October; summer lasts from November to January, 
autumn from February to April, while the winter months are May, 
June, and July. Spring is remarkable for its mild temperature and 
occasional high winds. Summer has two distinct periods, one dry and 
hot and the other rainy. Heat is excessive even in the higher regions, 
and the atmosphere is charged with electricity during the first two 
months of the season, before the rainy period commences. During 
autumn, which in reality only lasts through March and April, the 
humidity in the atmosphere tempers the cold weather. In winter it 
snows continuously during the three months the season lasts, there 
being occasional showers. 

In the yunqa or deep valley region winter is unknown, spring being 
prolonged, due to the high temperature and excessive humidity of the 
atmosphere. When rain has been scarce in this region heat is severely 
felt, as it is always felt in the puna region during the months from 
August to November. 

Winds. — The windy season is from July to September. The direc- 
tion of the wind is from the south generally, although in the plains 
high winds from the north are common. The winds that sweep the 
Santa Cruz and Beni plains originate in the Argentine pampas, pro- 
ducing sudden changes of temperature, which has been known to fall 
as much as 20'-' C, or about 36" F., in a few hours. These winds, 
which are called swazos (south blow), are more common during the 
month of September. 

Rainfall. — The rainy season begins, as a general rule, during the 
month of November, lasting until March, though sometimes it com- 
mences in October and ends in February. When rains are late, the 
central section of the country has suffered heavy losses through failure 
of the crops. In the yunqa region and in the wooded valleys rain 
falls in heavy showers. The eastern section of the Republic is the 
one most frequently visited by rains. 

The average annual rainfall in Bolivia is shown in the following 
table, as given in the oflBcial publication before mentioned: 





3.5. 34 
27. 56 


Electric and other phenomena. — Owing to the peculiar topographical 
formation of the country electric and other phenomena are of constant 


occurrence in Bolivia, the principal zone where such disturbances 
take place being the Altiplanicie, or Grand Plateau. As the atmos- 
phere is always heavily charged with electricity, both in summer and 
winter, dry stm-ms or electrical storms are of most frequent occurrence 
both on the plateau and in the valleys. 

Before the rainy season sets in electrical accumulation becomes con- 
siderable on the plateau region, its most violent manifestations taking 
place toward the eastern section of the table-lands. An electrical 
storm in these regions is always a most imposing spectacle, as the 
tremendous force of the wind, almost equal to a hurricane, and the 
heavy electrical accumulation in the clouds produce terrible atmos- 
pheric explosions and violent detonations, while the surface of the 
ground sparkles and crackles with the electrical fluid. When this 
phenomenon takes place men, animals, and inanimate objects give 
forth a sudden glimmering light, and the quivering, stifling atmos- 
phere takes a reddish hue. 

During this season, when there have been no electrical storms for 
several days, large masses of clouds hang over the cordillera covering 
it almost to its base, rising or descending according to the variations 
of the temperature of the lower atmospheric strata. In such case the 
accumulated clouds become phosphorescent at night, shedding a tremu- 
lous bright halo, accompanied by intermittent flashes of most vivid 
light, until every mass of clouds becomes a powerful center of inces- 
sant detonations, producing a constant low, rumbling sound. Some- 
times this phenomenon takes place at a single point, as in 1878, when 
the Illampu Peak, near the town of Sorata, department of La Paz, 
suddenly became brilliantly lighted while its surroundings were in 
total darkness. This phenomenon was accompanied by a heavy rumb- 
ling at the summit of the peak, while the air became hot and stifling 
and there was a constant succession of flashes of lightning from the 
accumulated clouds. The disturbance lasted all night, until the elec- 
trical storm resolved itself into a heavj'^ shower. 

Besides these phenomena, due to an excess of electricity in the 
atmosphere, mirage is also remarkable, being peculiarly clear and 
bright in the Oruro Plains, toward the Atacama Desert, and in the 
upper Chaco, especially during winter. 


The volcanic belt of South America follows the general trend of the 
Andes, on the western coast of the continent. Bolivia, therefore, has 
but a small portion of its territory lying within that belt, as the 
Bolivian Andes do not show any volcanic signs, except in the western 
branch of the cordillera, running parallel to the Pacific coast, the site 
of constant seismic disturbances. Under these conditions the central 


section of the country is comparatively free from violent earthquakes, 
the few shocks experienced being the last vibrations of the seismic 
waves originating in the Andes Chain. The only severe shocks ever 
felt in the central section took place in August, 1892, and July, 1896. 

In general terms, the country is outside the seismic belt of South 
America, and the numerous important geological phenomena that have 
taken place in Bolivia are not all due to seismic disturbances, but to 
internal or external disaggregations, denudations, or the natural level- 
ing of the earth surface in that part of the country. In April, 1582, 
a portion of the plateau south of the city of La Paz suddenly collapsed, 
forming the Achocalla Valley, which covers quite an extensive area. 
At the beginning of the sixteenth century the town of Ancoanco, in 
Tembladerani, a region lying to the southeast of La Paz, disappeared 
entirely, its site being marked at present by a series of small swamps 
and lagoons. In 1837 one half of the Quilliquilli hills, near La Paz, 
collapsed, the other portion remainiiig at its original level. In 1873 
another section of the Tembladerani region suffered a similar depression. 

The great basin where La Paz is situated is nothing but the result 
of a geological depression which changed the course of the Choqueyapu 

In the eastern section of the Republic seismic disturbances are but 
rarely felt. Tradition, however, has it that at the place now called 
Opaburu, department of Santa Cruz, there was once a sudden collapse, 
causing the total destruction of a town and forming the large mineral 
spring now existing at that point. Not very long ago the town of 
Tacuru, in the same department, disappeared under an eruption of 
mud, which eventually formed a lake, the waters of which rose to an 
elevation of 10 meters, the entire population of the town having 
perished by drowning. 

Thermal springs. — Due to the peculiar formation of its soil, thermal 
springs are abundant in Bolivia, their temperature varying from 20° 
to 90° Reaum. (77° to 235° F.). The principal springs are those of 
Urmuri, near La Paz, 300 meters above the level of the valley and 
709 below that of the plateau, the mean temperature being 13° C. , or 
about 55° F. , and the Vizcachani, Calapachi, Ilabaya, and Charavani, 
in the same Department. In the departments of Oruro, Cochabamba, 
Chuquisaca, Potosi, and Santa Cruz several mineral springs are found 
containing many mineral or chemical combinations and claimed to 
possess healing properties for many diseases. 



Altitude of some of the principal cUies and towns. 

City or town. 

above the: 

City or town. 

above the 





Antofagasta rle Mar , 

Antofagasta del la Sierra 




Caiza ' 








Challa (Cochabamba) 








Cot£^aita , 

Garcimendoza (salt mines) 

Guanay , 



Huancane , 


Inambari , 


Estarca , 

Exaltacion (Mamore) 

La Paz (Murillo Square) , 

La Paz (Alto, railroad station) , 

Lagunillas (Oruro) 

Lagunillis (Potosi) 

Lagunillas (Santa Cruz) . . . -* 




4, 132 




Lenas (Potosi) 







Pacheco (port) 

Pampa Aullagas 





Puerto Acre 

QuiiaiTO (port) 

Qui J lac as 

Riberalta (Benl) 

San Cristobal (Potosi) 

San Pablo 

San Pedro f Atacama) 

San Pedro (Lipez) 

Santa Barbara (Atacama) 

Santa Catalina 

Santa Cruz 

Santa Rosa (port) 



Suarez (port) 










Yaciuba - 
















3, 510 



Fauna. — Bolivia's fauna is as varied as it is extensive, embracing, 
in general terms, all the species known to Peru and Brazil. Among 
the mammalia those considered characteristic of the territory are beef 
cattle, sheep, goats, horses, mules, and asses. The vicuna {Camelvs 
vioogna), the alpaca [Auchenla alpaca), and the llama {Camelus lama) 
are highly prized, the first two on account of their delicate, beautiful, 
silky wool and the last both by reason of its wool, which is used for 
coarse or comm^on fabrics, and because the llama is used as a beast 
of burden. Among the other animals the following are well worth 

Chinchilla {Chinchilla laniger), highly prized on account of its fur; 
huanaco {Auchenia huanaco), somewhat similar to the vicuiia; the a/ifa, 
a species of elk; deer; boar; venado {Cerinw campesfri.v); the oiisa, or 
ounce {Felis uncid), and the puma {Fclis concolor). The sloth {Cholo- 
pus clidactylus), the ferret, and the otter are also of value bj^ reason 
of their fur. There exists in Bolivia a species of black bear and 
manv other mammalia useful to man and to industry. There are in 

FLORA. 29 

the country beautiful song birds and birds whose plumage is famed the 
world over on account of its bright and variegated colors. Herons 
and ostriches are plentiful, as well as flamingoes, tucans, and parrots. 
Eagles and condors {Sarcorhampus gryphits), sometimes of great size, 
are found in the Andes. Gallinaceae of all kinds is abundant. There 
are many kinds of fish, turtles, -alligators, and other amphibia. Boas 
and rattlesnakes are very common. Silkworms, cochineal, and bees 
are also found in the country, affording the means of living to many 
native families. 

Flora. — The flora is extremely varied, embracing both the products 
of the cold and the tropical zones. Among the alimentary plants the 
following are the principal : "Wheat, corn, chick-peas ( Clcer arietiniiin), 
beans, manioc, bananas, sweet and white potatoes, quvmm {Kenopodia), 
oca {Ocsalia tuierosa)., barley, rice, peanuts {Arachis hipogaca), olives, 
almonds, cacao, coffee, and nutmeg. Sugar cane is claimed to be of 
an excellent quality, as well as the mate grown in Bolivia. The 
fruit-bearing trees and plants number, among others, pears, peaches, 
oranges, lemons, limes, apples, figs, alligator pears, quinces, dates, 
grapes, and pineapples. 

Among the medicinal plants the following are worthy of notice: 
Quina, or cinchona bark; matico {Artanthe dongata), guarand (the 
fruit of the Paulinea soibilis)., ipecac {Radix disenterica), sarsaparilla, 
jalap {Ipomea purga), copaiba, gentian, cinnamon, valerian, ginger 
castor beans, camphor, and tolu (Myroxylon tuluiferum). Industrial 
plants are also plentiful, the principal being cotton (two varieties, 
white and purple), vegetable silk {tohorochi), tobacco, quillai [Saponaria 
saplndu.i)., taray {Casalpina tara), excellent for tanning purposes, and 
several other tanning barks and plants; vanilla, hemp, mlti, and 
huemie, from which an excellent kind of fiber is extracted for the 
manufacture of cordage. Indigo, saffron, Brazil, and log wood are 
plentiful, as well as many other dye woods and plants. Rubber is 
conceded to be of excellent quality, as well as the inanicoha, which 
yields a fine gum, and many other resinous trees and plants. Coca is 
by far the most important vegetable product of Bolivia on account of 
its medicinal properties. Bolivian forests yield a lax'ge variety of 
timber, the principal being cedar, mahogany, hemlock, walnut, holly 
{Ilex opaca), boxwood, beech wood, storax, cole, a very hard wood not 
affected by moisture; the jacarandu, remarkable by reason of its 
bright colors, and the qv^hracho, species of ironwood, used for railroad 
sleepers on account of its resistance. 



By Dr. J. Hampden Portbb. 

Politically, Bolivia is a unit; but naturally — in topographical fea- 
tures, soil, climate, vegetal productions, zoological species and human 
groups — its boundaries inclose two distinctly different countries. 
One of these — the western highland region, or "Alto Peru" — was a 
conquered province when South American history began; while the 
eastern slopes conterminous with undulating or mountain-ridged plains 
now united in part to Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina, were inhabited 
by unsubdued savages. This whole area, once made part of an imag- 
inary Inca empire, extending from 3-* to 37° south latitude. So far 
as the Bolivian portion of that wide-spread dominion is concerned 
its physiography exhibits many violent contrasts, which have pro- 
foundly affected resident populations. De Leon, writing early in the 
sixteenth century, refers to marked unlikenesses in men and nature 
existing between localities on comparatively low levels and upland 
plateaus also." 

« In the course of these chapters on Native Races, differences not only between 
connected families, but also tribes included in one family, have frequenti}' been 
noticed. Those resemblances which might be expected among members of conge- 
neric groups are often wanting and replaced by striking unlikeness in traits usually 
regarded as original; moreover, the diverse characteristics referred to may associate 
themselves with a structural sameness that can not be attributed to external influ- 
ences operating at such places as groups have occupied during all known periods. 

This is a fact worth taking into consideration, whether it can be explained or not; 
yet very many ethnological generalizations wholly ignore it, and consequently fail 
in exactness. Those exclusively zootechnical theories of classification among human 
varieties, based upon minute anatomical differences whose significance had been 
greatly exaggerated, recently became discredited as biological and psychological fea- 
tures began to assume their proper anthropological importance. Men are now more 
studied with reference to their general fitness; as living beings struggling for exist- 
ence rather than skeletons. It is in this respect that American indigenes vary so 
much. Everything belonging to human capacity and the status or accomplishments 
of mankind finally resolves itself into ultimate questions concerning race and envi- 
ronment. These factors become visible here in their action upon masses; but not so 
with regard to smaller numbers. We should have to know every detail connected 
with these subdivisions before attempting any explanation of their variations. That, 
however, is impossible. Throughout the continent, and especially in its central or 



Speaking generally, an upheaved parallelogram, 14,000 feet high 
and intersected with mountains or mountain spurs in all directions, 
was settled by Indian families at periods which it is impossible to 
determine. Of these peoples certain members became extinct during 
prehistoric ages; others survived until they were recognized, and then 
disappeared; while a third contingent, unmixed with foreign blood, 
still exists. The Bolivian section of that champaign country extend- 
ing from Brazil into Patagonia contains a population, which has expe- 
rienced like processes of destruction or decrease. In the elevated 
provinces artificial food production is essential to multiplication in 
numbers and social progression, whereas this lowland region affords 
actual support without expenditure of organized labor or need for 
acquired skill. On these highlands American aborigines reached their 
ultimate developmental grade; but those exuberant plains lying below 
have never harbored anything except savages. 

ArcliBBological remains, indicating comparatively advanced culture 
among highlanders, generally exist within the limits of depressions 
which, beginning as alpine gorges, gradually broaden into fertile val- 
leys, and finally emerge from Andean foothills to be lost in river 
basins farther east. They gave shelter against storm or cold; arable 
soil accumulated through erosion and vegetable decay; subsidiary 
combes or swales were watered by mountain streams and likewise 
stocked with a variety of useful products. These quebradas formed 
the best as well as most uniformly favorable part of Bolivia for settle- 
ment, yet their combined expanse was comparatively small, as each 
occupied an isolated position, and all probabilities seem adverse to 
an opinion that such vestiges of progress as they contain actually 

southern sections, different groups of one stock display unlikenesses among qualities 
which tend toward survival and progress. Customarily, degenerative phenomena, as 
evinced by civilized individuals or families, are referred to bad blood — transmitted 
vice of mental and physical constitution; damtiosa hcerediins. There is no doubt about 
the disastrous issues in such cases; but having played a conspicuous part among 
aboriginal populations, they require attention, even if nothing can be offered beyond 
a mere suggestion that dislocated and intermixed American societies must necessarily 
incur the risk of absorbing inferior strains. 

Whatever the cause may be, the facts are as follows: One portion of affiliated inhab- 
itants in regions where climate, soil, and productions were apparently uniform, adjusted 
themselves and evolved within certain limits; another part stood still, dwindled, or 
perished. Belated tribes from the same locality, though frequently hostile toward 
each other, have exhibited an unfaltering love of country that suppressed their 
enmities when a common danger threatened and kept them united. In many 
instances, however, such peoples fell apart at once, took opposite sides, resisted with 
devoted heroism, or sank into slavery almost without a struggle. So far as expres- 
sions of mental power, moral faculty, plasticity, and ability to improve equal opportuni- 
ties go, there is little likness between congeneric nations. This dissimilarity meant 
everything in relation to these indigenes, but the rationale of such incongruities 
among relatives similarly placed has not been expounded with any clearness. 


originated there. Conversely, however, upland vales most probably 
subserved important purposes in aflFording resting places for somewhat 
advanced immigrants, who needed more preparation before entering 
upon arid plateaus, where the struggle for life taxed every resource 
which relatively unevolved societies could command. 

One stock, among several that invaded " Upper Peru," carried there 
an antecedent development which is implied in the ability to live, 
multiply, and improve amid such surroundings. This means that 
previous evolutionary processes had generated methods of avoiding 
natural selection's direct effects. It signifies enlarged faculty, with 
possession of those appliances which are inseparable from mental 
development, and vouch for a physiological and mental plasticity, 
enabling men whose sociological progression was as yet inchoate to 
adjust themselves when continued unfitness would have involved 

De Nery" calls the Amazon "a daughter of the Andes," but that 
family who made western Bolivia their home and became acclimatized 
in regions which, excepting Tibetan pamirs, reach loftier elevations 
than any other permanently inhabited tracts, were not originally 
mountaineers, and came to these heights after an indefinitely pro- 
tracted residence upon low-lying alluvial plains traversed by vast 
river systems. Had these Indians not possessed faculty and those 
acquisitions its exercise entails, such surroundings must have broken 
masses up into nomadic bands, sharing the degradation common to 
residents of this region. They formed, however, the one group of 
Bolivia's settlers who possessed inherent powers that could rescue 
them from oblivion. 

This aggregate is now called the Aymara-Quichuan family, which, 
emerging from a chaotic congeries of lowland tribes whose best efforts 
merely resulted in slight modifications of savagery, took long steps 
toward civilization under circumstances where persistently primitive 
societies must have dwindled or become extinct. Those societies 
above named, with Muyscas in South America, and Huaxtecan or 
!Nahuatlac peoples north of Darien formed the American culture 
group. Self-preservation, as also improvement, always coincides with 
the number, degree, and complexity of adjustments established with 
surroundings. Faculty or fitness can not be created by difficulties, as 
Hegel's excogitated Philosophy of History teaches — they are simply 
quickened into activitj\ Apart from what is insuperable in all environ- 
ments, everj'thing depends upon endowment or race traits. Cold, 
storm, an unproductive soil, in no way transferred exceptional Cor- 
dillera tribes to successively higher social grades; these conditions 
merely stimulated preexisting powers, which developed with exercise. 

''La Pays des Amazones. Paris, 1899, 


Similarly, Maya-Quiche congeners [Deniker] of Aymara-Quichuas 
turned altogether different natural antagonisms to account among the 
tropical jungles overspreading Honduras and Yucatan. 

Keane" adds Atacamenos to that dominant Bolivian family just men- 
tioned as being distributed on the plateau region called (Jharcas, an 
area crossed by ranges of nearly impassable mountains, intersected in 
all directions with their spurs, and cut up in this way so effectually 
that there could never have been any possibility of important concen- 
trations among tribes, or those associations between communities which 
promote general progress. Comparative isolation among resident 
populations, however, does not here imply a localization of inhabit- 
ants according to race. It is an altogether impracticable undertak- 
ing for systematists to divide Bolivia into ethnological provinces. 
Branches of its stocks scattered widely within this countrj^ passed 
beyond political lines, and sometimes lost those traits by which they 
could be identified. 

Primitive influxes of proto-Europeans, neolithic Mongols, and 
each subdivision formed through intermixture between them, together 
with numerous causes tending toward dispersion or variation, have 
been at work throughout the entire territory. Successive arrivals 
here via Darien probably bore little resemblance to those irruptions 
that took place during the period of "nation wandering" in Europe 
or Asia. There is no record of Bolivia's peopling; but none is needed 
to show how completely its future depended upon those qualities which 
distinguished immigrants settling there, or to imform us concerning 
the more important circumstances attending migration. Briefly, bands 
differently composed, unequal in numbers, variously qualified, gathered 
in low-lying fertile spaces where subsistence was easily procured. 
Finally a group destined to preeminence detached itself by degrees, 
ascended the Andean counterforts, and succeeded under conditions 
that entailed failure upon all others who made a like movement. This 
separation was apparently ^'oluntary, since these emigrating com- 
munities had found no trophic center on the plains below, no place 
capable of fostering population until it became superabundant for 
available food suppl}', so that disrupture became necessar}'. They 
possessed the pioneer spirit, however, evinced true social instincts, 
and were the authors of a rudimentary culture excelling their neigh- 
bors, thus being able to profit by opportunities which with less well- 
constituted men came to naught. Collateral observations will illustrate 
what has been said. Masses resembling modern Chiquitos or Chiri- 
guanos, for example, lived in the Bolivian yungas, and, like them, 
seemed organically incapable of proceeding beyond a savage state. 
Certain portions of these aborigines managed to survive and preserve 

a Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel. London, 1901. 
116a— 04 3 


their integrity, but no doubt they frequently broke under shocks 
accompanying hostile inroads, famine, pestilence, etc., and dispersed, 
to be absorbed by larger aggregates or perish entirely. Events prove 
that progenitors of the coming "Inca race," kept themselves alive and 
vigorous amid vicissitudes from which they could not have been exempt. 
Communities belonging to this civilizing aggregate planted maize around 
the ancient Mojo Sea, cultivated in Eastern Paraguay, and extended 
agricultural settlements around that great Argentine gulf which once 
nearly approached those mountain valleys leading into "Alto Peru." 
Sedentar}^ habits insensibly augmented the solidarity arising from 
consanguine ties. Human beings of any intellectual superiority can 
not abide together long without so organizing as to lessen disaggrega- 
tive tendencies. They must needs become more self-supporting with 
consolidation, and their internal relations will assume an increased 
complexity. Such changes are essentially developmental. While it 
is obvious, despite the absence of records, that social improvement 
followed fa\'orable routes (what were at first lines of least resist- 
ance) and was localized within more or less well-provided districts 
where enough forwardness was gained to initiate successful advances 
toward the future culture center situated at Titicaca, it is inconceiv- 
able that any men took their first steps in progress there. A caveat 
to the unqualified assertion that American cultures are isolated and 
local should be entered. 

Few ethnological results which can be regarded as certain, are deriv- 
able from a survey of populations in upper Bolivia during prehistoric 
ages. At various unknown eras since that remote epoch when Peroche 
saj^s race making began with dispersion, was continued through adjust- 
ments to new surroundings, and acquired definiteness by intermixture, 
many peoples made their wa}' into these regions where Paul Marcoy's 
specification of a particularly representative blood strain is altogether 
arbitrarj^ We know scarcely anything concerning the genealogies, 
physiognomy, or tenor of those times — certainly not that Acolhuan 
immigrants founded Bolivian culture. To one well-marked stock, how- 
ever, all approximations toward civilization were due, and whatever 
was accomplished must be ascribed. Collahua, or the highlands, called 
after their supposititious settlers, is rather a vague and indefinite 
expression, which at different eras probably was applicable to several 
provinces, seeing that Peru when first brought to light included four 
states, now independent of each other, but once chiefly held by a single 
composite group whose modifications easily account for the local dis- 
appearance or translation of any title to territory seized upon in the 
first instance, soon regarded as having been immemorially possessed by 
those communities then living there. 

West of 68° the oldest distinguishable societies of those civilizing 
peoples who built pueblos on the Andean plateaus are probably CoUan. 


Predecessors belonging to the same type — unknown offshoots from sev- 
eral northern families with whom ethnologists have identified such of 
these Indians as raised themselves above savagery — no doubt wrought 
to the same purpose, but left nothing discernible. Moreover, Collan 
aborigines themselves, if as a separate class they effected anything 
important, lost claim to their achievements because they were subse- 
quently merged in Aymara-Quichua mementos. These latter also 
became obscured under Inca rule, for those head war chiefs and ulterior 
high priests of mixed multitudes, consistently endeavored to destroy 
whatever their own direct ancestors could not appropriate and call its 
own. Hence the pre-Inca origin of barbaric societies around Lake 
Titicaca has only lately been discovered, and while much stress is laid 
upon advancements attributed to supposititious descendants of Manco 
Capac, tribes to whom the latter owed nearly everything were until 
lately sunk in oblivion. Canas and Rucanas, of doubtful lineage, rep- 
resent populations that had become largely Americanized physically, 
and characteristically developed socially, at the earliest period to which 
examination extends. No fossil remains have been unearthed whose 
evidence is conclusive as respects primitive man in this country. The 
presence of proto-Europeans at Minas Geraes does not admit of doubt; 
yet if those archasic Brazilians entered Bolivia, ethnologists do not 
know it. Features unquestionably inherited from them prove inter- 
mixture somewhere, but nothing more. Similarly with mongoloid 
primogenitors, whose generalized traits survive, though neither the 
fossilized bony structures of neolithic Asiatics nor their first creolized 
descendants have come to light. Down to comparatively modern times 
genealogies and interrelationships are uncertain, while even the sys- 
tematic classifications possess little that is altogether trustworthy. 
As has been the case ever3='where, only particular parts of congeneric 
masses became prominent enough to be scrutinized and present traits 
for delineation. Here, as elsewhere, subsidiarj' though consanguine 
members of aggregates never stood out from that neutral background 
whereon innumerable subdivisions of human races faintly disclose 

What is now loosely called the "Inca race" was not an ethnic unit, 
but, so far as known, a specially well-constituted Aymaran offshoot, 
which may have been Collan in origin, or derived from more than one 
source. This people chiefly belong to Peru, for the reason that their 
expansion is identified with that State. It should be said, however, 
that they came from a site outside its present limits, equipped by nature 
for conquest and progress; fit both mentall)' or physically for making 
necessary adjustments; endowed with innate qualities which enabled 
them to utilize opportunities and take the initiative amid less well- 
endowed communities. So far as Bolivia is concerned, its mixed inhab- 
itants apparently received all higher social and cultural impulses from 
the Aymarans alone. 


The eastern portion of this .Vymara-Quichuan family were con- 
quered during prehistoric times, and became instruments wielded by a 
powerful kindred for carrying out their own designs — beneficiaries 
who received whatever improvements elevated them, at the hands of 
more cultured Inca relatives and masters. Bolivians had no distinctive 
art, religion, or social organization which can now be separated from 
Peruvian models. Minor contrasts, some varieties in features and 
temperament due to an unlike distribution and its necessary adjuncts, 
distinguished the countries. Cis-Andean natives, crossed with other 
strains, lived on different food, and in several particulars practiced 
modes of life dissimilar to those of their congeners beyond that moun- 
tain chain, sundering closely connected ethnic elements. Creolization, 
however, has not entirel}' veiled the characteristic lineaments inherited 
from remotest ancestors. This "mixed" family, as Deniker calls 
it, " still indicates through structural reversions those wholly diverse 
sources whence it came. In cranial conformation (general character of 
brain case, taken without reference to craniometrical minutia?, which 
are without diagnostic value and have no biological significance) these 
Aymara-Quichuan indigines, together with their inconspicuous and 
no doubt frequently overlooked or unrecognized kinfolks, show results 
arising from intermingling, but have not been perfectly blended. 
Thej^ approach a new type, though coalescence has failed to form one. 
Strictly speaking, the predominence of proto-European, proto-jNlongol, 
or native American features is an unknown anatomical quantity. Skull 
indications as affording a basis for ethnological classification fails upon 
being subjected to scientific tests, yet accordantly with principles 
already explained, Keane's statement that "head shape points toward 
unity of stock"* can not be contradicted. In an}- instance, neverthe- 
less, more precise and extensive data than were ever collected are 
essential for reliable conclusions. Evidently results depend on the 
number of specimens examined, and it is obvious that these have 
always been insufficiently numerous to warrant generalizations. Con- 
sequentljr, cc cathedra decisions upon families and even types often 
disagree. De Quatrefages feels justified in separating Ayinaras from 
Muyscas, Chontah, and Cunas, on evidence given by partial cranial 
measurements. '-^ On like grounds Brocaputs Mexicans and Peruvians 
together and Pi'uner Bey divides them. Tollmann '^ sets long-headed- 
ness on this continent at a considerably lower average than that of 
equal or almost equal transverse and longitudinal diameters, while 
Topinard unhesitatingh" assumes the entire American race to be mesati- 

o Races of Men. London, 1900. 

6 Man, Past and Present. London, 1899. 

« Histoire G4n6rale des Races Humaines. Paris, 1889. 

d Zeitschrif t f ur Ethnologie, 1883. 


cephalous. In view of such declarations and of the fact that this 
A3'mara-Quichua family inherited long skulls on one side with short 
ones on the other, some intermediate contour should be looked for; 
but beyond what has been said respecting general amalgamation, accom- 
panied by more or less reversion toward both ancestries, there are no 
conclusions to be arrived at. 

Clemens Markham" says: "There was no sign of civilization when 
the Incas invaded Collao. Garcilasso de la Vega describes Quichuans 
in words that can not be true, since such utter savages as he depicts — 
men like Panos on the Amazon headwaters, Cashibos or Carapaches, 
who live like Fuegians along the Ucayali — could scarcely have found 
support where these resided. It is impossible to prove them better off 
economicall}' than those Caribs whom Desire Pector* introduces into that 
elevated region, and changed conditions of existence would have been 
fatally felt at once. Plateaux Indians, who multiplied and advanced, 
eliminated themselves from surrounding Karipunas, Pacaonares, Sete- 
bos, Sipivios, stagnating in the plains. Immediately upon change of 
place, however, they had to do regular work, and fortunately pos- 
sessed means by which labor was made effective. Lowlanders, whom 
Cousin, Orellana, De Lepe, Quesada, came in contact with, lived idly 
from hand to mouth, and were either ignorant of maize planting or 
constitutionally incapable of utilizing that plant to any extent; besides 
which their country provided no animals that could be domesticated. 
On the heights, both these accessories, with good mental endowments, 
will account for what followed through regular evolutionary processes. 
Squier suggests that old pueblos of Aymaraland may have been coeval 
with Mj'cense and Tiryns, or were, perhaps, more ancient than either. 
Tiahuanuco happens to lie within the present confines of Bolivia, but 
political lines have little bearing upon those questions considered here. 
Most probabl}^ one division of an Aj^maran stock built this town and 
left other similar constructions which show that they pushed their 
waj' northward. No answer can be given when questions relating to 
particular builders or special dates are asked, since no one is able to 
say precisely who the Inca Indians were, or when they constructed 
these old towns, teraplcs, and tombs. We are only justified in assuming 
that they belonged (with several other peoples) to a more or less differ- 
entiated mass, afterwards named as if it contained but two contingents. 
Payne's theory of an original division among lowland immigrants after 
reaching the plateaux (Aymaras going south and Quiehuas north) is 
plainly based on existing distributions, and proves nothing respecting 
settlements made during remote ages. Even supposing that occupation 
as it is now had always been the same, our knowledge of Aymaraland's 
priority in progress would still leave it doubtful which integral part of 

"History of Peru. Chicago, 1892. 
'Notes sur rAmericanisme. Paris, 1900. 


a complex aggregate pioneered. Allied predecessors or contempora- 
ries — Collas, Pacasas, Urus, Lupacas — of those tribes alone mentioned 
in Bolivian records, have had no history. Whatever was found in 
possession of an ostensibly dual group, writers credited its known 
constituents with originating. Under the military Peruvian rule, 
and while oppressed by Spanish conquerors, or as free citizens of an 
independent State, it has so happened that indigenous populations, 
though superficially modified, lived always in like fashion, derived 
consolation fi'om similar beliefs, and preserved much the same social 
system under completely dissimilar governments. Everything extra- 
neous or incompatible with natural constitution and spontaneous devel- 
opment remained imperative because it was unassimilated, and left 
aborigines of ' ' Upper Peru " essentially unaltered. Tribesmen, relieved 
from pressure, did not entirely revert to old usages or naturally 
evolved faith, nevertheless the}'' displayed only external vestiges of 
those innovations forced, upon them, and their crude and artificial civi- 
lization or religion had the same incongruous effect that wearing mas- 
querade fragments would produce. 

Monier " found this view of affairs completely substantiated by his 
personal observations. Sir Martin Conway,'' also studying natives in 
situ, says "the present generation is doubtless as ignorant as any 
under Inca dominion, and Benzoni'^ records the ineffectiveness of new 
institutions nearh' four centuries ago, when Indian reserves and mis- 
sion stations had alreadj' begun to break up. We are not sufficiently 
acquainted with nomadic bands roaming over waste lands for any suffi 
cient description of such bodies during earlier periods to be given. 
Both Aymara and Quichua indigenes, however, partly led similar lives. 
At best they were sedentary semisavages, somewhat modified by a pas- 
toral element conjoined with an imperfectly organized agricultural 
system. Subsequently, under Peruvian swaj', the population was arbi- 
trarily divided and kept to an artificial order bj^ force. When existing 
in a natural state — before Inca conquest, as well as after Spanish control 
had been thrown off — those pueblos where the better part of Bolivia's 
inhabitants dwelt, represented democratic military communes having 
no trace of feudal institutions. This subject will be discussed in con- 
nection with the native races of Peru. Here it suffices to say that all 
matters which public safety or need involved, were arranged by con- 
solidated gens acting through officials appointed by popular vote and 
removable if occasion required. Highland tribes generally broke up 
into municipalities (meaning by this free towns), all of small size, 
because their means for support forbade large associations, and these 
established no mutual ties, for the reason that all this country was 

a Des Andes au Para. Paris, 1890. 

6 The Bolivian Andes. London, 1890. 

c Historia de Mundo Nuevo. Venice, 1565. 


divided into isolated tracts by barriers which produced an absence of 
interconamunication, quashed reciprocal interests or sympathies, and 
stunted the growth of public sentiment. Even now, says Conway, the 
old communistic spirit and local exclusiveness survive. For example, 
'•tame Indians" will only work for proprietors on shares. Having 
little idea of individual action, and none concerning nationality in its 
true sense, they rehabitate communal regulations, so far as possible, 
under modern socio-political conditions. Similarly as respects their 
conversion. These Catholics go to mass, and yet practice rites con- 
demned by the church. Briefly, veneered Indians assume civilization's 
outward forms while utterly devoid of its essence. Surroundings 
which have not materially changed, with inherited traits, make them 
much the same men as their forefathers of La Paz, Oruro, and Potosi, 
in pre-Incan times, and when Cuzco dominated most Andean lands. 

As a whole, there was no decided uniformity in Alto Peru among 
those family groups which have been constructed seemingly without 
reference to accessible ethnic criteria. Antisians or Chunchos, for 
instance, are a miscellaneous collection of savage mountaineers plainly 
exhibiting diverse origin by their somatological peculiarities. In this 
huddle of different strains, some show results by which creolization has 
produced the so-called "American man;" others display distinctively 
Mongoloid features that miscegenation has not obliterated; while a 
third class measurably preserve those characteristics and unmistak- 
able traits belonging to proto-Europeans. These typical divisions 
stand between tribal fragments endlessly graded; who can not be cata- 
logued even by name, as verbal designations have altered continuously 
from the practice of supplying old titles with newly adopted suffixes. 

Aymara-Quichuas are no doubt kinsmen ; yet they present marked 
contrasts temperamentally and in mental character, besides being, so 
far as is known, disinclined to mix. Probablj' the former cherished a 
hereditarj' disdain for peoples who were tributary before Inca rule 
was established over both. Previously to Spanish invasion vener- 
ated tradition guarded Aymaras against Cuscan iconoclasm. Their 
language was not suppressed, and in memory of its ancient renown 
that region around Lake Titicaca continued to be held sacred. These 
members of the greatest race this continent has produced, resembled 
each other structurally quite closely. They were medium-sized or 
rather short generally, but muscular, with deep chests, broad shoul- 
ders, and apparently robust frames; though on account of physio- 
logical deficiencies, whose origin in insanitary conditions has hereto- 
fore been explained," staying power was wanting either to recuperate 
from overexertion, or bear up against the depression misfortune entails. 
Usually Quichuan noses are less aquiline than those of Aymaras, yet 
there is a similar facial massiveness and an equal cranial asymmetry 

" Vid. United States of Brazil, etc. 


from occipital excess, over frontal development. The whole family 
had some tendency toward obliquity in their black or dark-brown 
eyes; while all displayed coarse, abundant black hair, expanded nos- 
trils, with smooth copperj'-brown skins. Several ethnologists have 
concluded from stud3'ing the mummies found in old chulpasthat these 
people once possessed disproportionately short and undeveloped legs. 

This sign of inferiority, however, was most likely exceptional, 
merely an atavistic recurrence, whose not uncoromon appearance led to 
unwarrantable generalization. At all events such is not the case now, 
nor could a malformation like this be persistent among mountainers 
who involuntarily lengthen their stride, and exercise tte muscles of 
the lower limbs excessively, so that in time mechanical action would 
adapt them to those functions which were involved by surroundings — 
namely, locomotion on surfaces whose planes lay at different angles. 
Nondevelopment of the inferior extremities has a well-understood 
meaning in human natural history; likewise modifications due to 
special habits prevailing among couftnunities, are also explicable. 
This assumed somatological trait of Aymara-Quichuans may be dis- 
missed with the verdict, "not proven." 

An outline of racial features wants completeness without illustra- 
tions, taken from from both sides of human nature, mental as well as 
physical. Bolivia, however, has no archaological remains, no inven- 
tions, arts, institutions, or cults which are peculiarly her own. So far 
as we know anything about it, mementoes of these classes were left by 
members of one group, which is only Bolivian through construction. 
Its representatives evident!}' occupied very different positions in cul- 
ture history, and the only valid distinction is between populations who 
descended from Collans and indigenes referable to other stocks. If 
all pueblo Indians on the plateaus of High Peru were not more or less 
near kinsman, there is at least nothing to show that any civilizing 
aliens ever occupied those regions. On the other hand, everything 
indicates their occupation by several affiliated groups, among which 
one achieved preeminence during earliest times, dominated the rest, and 
disseminated improvements, so far as circumstances favored instruction, 
or ability for receiving it existed. On an increasingly great scale this 
process went on from its beginning in Aymaraland. Peruvians — that 
is to say, Quichuas — with Aymaraand other tribes, destroyed, altered, 
and may have developed existing models, but they created nothing. 
Spanish invaders contributed what could not be effectively used. 
Thus from primeval days there was probably a like cultural discord- 
ance with that wliich now displays itself among natives of this country. 

Keane remarks, that "in Bolivia the transitions between different 
ethnical and cultural groups are perhaps less abrupt than in most 
other parts of Spanish America."" It is true of this countrv as a 

a Stanford' a Compendium of Geography and Travel, p. 25-i. London, 1901. 

ttATiVE BA0E8. 41 

whole that we do not now see many instances where savagery stands 
side b}' side with barbarisna, or conditions improperly called civilized, 
which pure-blooded indigenes Accasionally display. Approximative 
uniformitj' is, however, comparatively recent, and depends upon the 
fact that upland savages have nearly disappeared; while wilder deni- 
zens of forested plains or pampas, inhabit remote positions where they 
remain almost unknown. Moreover, the obvious inference from what 
has been said concerning CoUan initiative, and such progress as was 
subsequently diffused among consanguine peoples, is opposed to an 
opinion that advancement proceeded regularlj-. At all times it must 
have been governed by subvarietal differences in tribes which were 
relativel}^ capable or incapable. • Furthermore, social evolution was 
contingent upon contact with those who propagated it, and thus became 
an accident of topographical position. No doubt a population now 
represented by Aymara-Quichuas displayed so much forwardness dur- 
ing primitive epochs as enabled them to live in plateau districts and 
multiply there; but the}' did little more en masse. Relatively modern 
culture belonged to a single class; its spread was effected through mili- 
tary colonies stationed in conquered territories, and most indigenous 
populations scarcely profited much from their presence. Special cases 
of resemblance or unlikeness frequently evade precise explanations. 
Such contrasts and similarities are, however, recognizable as results of 
situation, average mental constitution in aboriginal masses, or both. 
This mental sameness, or the presence of nearly identical surround- 
ings, explain why Atacameiios and Mojos are alike, except for certain 
extrinsic and superficial contrasts. These conditions also account for 
the fact which seems to be at variance with the statement just made, but 
really is not so; namely, that favorably placed sedentary communities 
on lowland sites resemble in social organization mountaineer com- 
munities who migrated from their original plains with little prepared- 
ness, and afterwards developed only enough fitness to sustain them in 
a new habitat. 

Data for a systematic arrangement of Yunga Indians do not exist to 
an adequate extent. They may be arranged according to localities, and 
have in some instances been gathered into supposititious groups for 
whose formation there is frequentl}' little reason and occasionally no 
warrant whatever. In fact, these dislocated and scattered bands mostly 
consist of heterogeneous and unconnected race elements. Bates" 
describing those boatmen attached to his expedition, and drawn from 
a district closely resembling this or the Peruvian montana in ethnical 
diversities, says that "some were tall and well built, others had squat 
figures, with wide shoulders and excessively thick arms and legs. No 
two of them were at all similar in the shape of their heads." The 

«The Naturalist on the Amazons. London, 1864. 


facial variations equalled such corporeal differences as have been men- 
tioned. Several .showed oval faces, with delicate regular features; 
another part displayed distinctly marked jMongol physiogonomies — 
"broad, prominent cheek bones, and oblique e3'es." Most of them 
presented gradations toward one or the other type, while dissimilari- 
ties in mind and character were not less pronounced than bodily unlike- 
nesses. Eastern South America is predominant!}' a champaign 
countr_y, where few obstacles to the inteiinixture of indigeneous popu- 
lations are found. Contact and consequent fusion between variously 
differentiated aggregates make it " the despair of ethnologists," who, 
being unable to trace blood relationships through this maze, have con- 
structed families on linguistic grounds, thus establishing connections 
which can not be substantiated on the evidence adduced. Those 
" somato logical units" Deniker" finds in the coUuvium of gentes dis- 
tributed through east Bolivia, and which he says make their appearance 
on ' • the Cordillera, * * * the plains of the Amazon and Orinoco, 
with those of Guiana," have been frequently noticed in these chapters 
as biological results due to reversion, or an escape made by certain 
communities from that general amalgamation pi'ocess by which two 
alien stocks were fused into a new type under continental influences 
acting during cycles of time. Moreover, such physical subdivisions 
and survivals are not only where Deniker places them, but distributed 
from sub -Arctic latitudes to Cape Horn. Natural families continu- 
ally grow smaller and moi"e indistinct throughout the New World. 
Strongly marked men who preserve traits which reproduce ancestral 
features usuallj^ exist as enclaves amidst hybridized multitudes, and 
Captain Fitz Roj'* judiciously remarks that there is less unlike- 
ness among secondary traits exhibited by masses than selected speci- 
mens ever display. 

The foregoing are facts concerning changes in a type whose creation 
America has witnessed, and ^^hose end it is likely to see within a much 
shorter period than was occupied in forming it. Resident tribes of 
the Bolivian champaign being inextricably entangled, must be referred 
to separately. Michelena y.Rojas'' represents Maypures as now prac- 
tically extinct; but none of those questions which their disappearance 
suggests, and which are of vital importance, can be satisfactorily 
answered. We do not know whether they died out or were absorbed. 
Even the group these natives belonged to is uncertain. Nominally, 
Maypures should be Guaranis from Paraguay and members of that 
so-called Tupi-Guaranian familv whose tribal lists all disagree; but 
actual community by blood between those of the west and their 
theoretically allied eastern branch is uncertain. Llipis, Changros or 

a Races of Men. London, 1900. 

6 Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, vol. 11, p. 642. 

« Exploracion Oficial. Bruxelles, 1867. 


Moquehas, with Capac and Upenque Indians likewise, are either van- 
ishing or already gone, without our being able to identify them or 
trace those causes which effected extinction, or will finally involve 
destruction. Conibos, Cacibos, Chipas, etc., have been included 
in an artificially constructed Pano group that appears to stand by 
itself, and is seemingly unconnected with plain-dwelling Mojos, Chi- 
quitos, Chiriquanos, or Aymara-Quichua highlanders, separated from 
them by mountain barriers that La Condamine estimated as equaling 
3,000 miles of sea. These indigenes evinced a disinclination to mix 
with neighboring communities. There was, however, little or no 
physical distinction between Panos natives and members of other 
societies, either near by or at a distance. They were "better off 
economicall}', being well supplied with provisions, and also housed, 
clothed, equipped, in an unusually complete manner. Until far into 
the seventeenth centurj' the sedentary, agricultural peoples referred 
to held positions much superior to those of surrounding tribes, and, 
altogether, existence among them may be properly compared with 
that maintained by pueblo Indians settled upon Bolivian plateaus. 

The circumstances- occasioning their decadence and subsequent down- 
fall are not clear; yet it is evident that they must have operated under 
conditions like malign agencies heretofore spoken of as acting in Brazil," 
Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, namely, unsatisfied physiological needs 
inevitably entailing degenerative processes of all kinds, with initial 
psychical deficiency. There is no proof that public calamity broke 
them up; those societies most probably faded away, having done all it 
was possible to accomplish, and then merelj' lived on with an increas- 
ing death rate in a state of unstable equilibrium, easily disturbed by 
any irregularity in the rhythm of life. Once oscillation unsettled the 
balance between incident forces and adaptative or recuperative power, 
destruction became unavoidable. Race inheritance, habits of life, 
mental or physical capacity provided nothing to check decline, and these 
communities like so many others ultimately succumbed. Marco j^ " rep- 
resents them as now reduced to miserable remnants of the former group. 

It has been said by Markham,* and several authorities agree with 
him, that eastern Bolivia shows a much greater diversity in economic 
or social states than can be found among "Incaized" plateau popula- 
tions, to whom three centuries of Peruvian rule had given an external 
uniformity, principally through the " destruction of all former land- 
marks distinguishing tribe or creed." It should be mentioned in this 
connection, however, that when Keane remarked upon the absence of 
violent contrasts between upland societies and plain-dwelling tribes, he 
no doubt referred to highlanders en bloc, with such yunga communities 
only as were permanently settled, lived by tillage, and inhabited regu- 

a Travels in South America. London, 1875. 
6 History of Peru, Introduction, p. xxi. 


larly organized villages. Dabaila " estimates the entire number of native 
lowlanders at 27i,0(l0 individuals; but no reliance can ])e placed on this 
statement, since many aggregates are little or not at all known, none 
escape the liability to sudden change, and, as Sotomayor Valdes* 
observes, all occupy a country whose discomforts, difficulties, or dangers 
have thus far prevented any complete exploration. There is a shifting, 
evasive, varying entanglement of peoples here, forbidding computation, 
and impossible to arrange either numerically, ethnically, or as repre- 
senting definite social gradations. At one end of this cultural scale 
stood comparatively recently extinguished Paiios, while utter savages — 
naked nomads, without even so much as collective names which can be 
depended upon— constituted , and indeed still form, the opposite extreme. 
Immense spaces of time, vast expenditures of effort, incalculable 
organic differences, intervene between men so situated, supposing that 
evolutionary changes which imply involution also were operating. 
The former clothed themsehes decently with fabrics made at home, 
built houses that, although constructed from perishable materials, had 
been comfortably furnished, and developed a complex system of com- 
munal life. They made effective arms, domestic implements for all 
necessary purposes, devised ornamental articles, and attempted to pre- 
serve their dead by burying them in painted earthenware jars, thus 
giving evidence of sentiments and speculative tendencies which pure 
savngos do not display'. Finally, these aborigines had so far awak- 
ened to self-consciousness that they recorded memorable events on 
maguey leaves. On the other hand, half -famished nomads like Cani- 
chanas or Guayraras, did nothing except seek for food of any kind, and 
lived after a fashion which De Gabriac'' describes as positively brutal. 
Blood strains cross here in a bewildering way ; race criteria are 
jumbled together within the same districts; disconnected stocks jostle 
each other throughout this entire region. Nearly white Yuracares 
have their homes betwixt the Beni and Marmore headwaters, where 
every household exists separately, and yet, like Araucans, farther 
south, they are neither destitute nor unable to hold their own among 
surrounding indigenes. On the watershed draining into Paraguay 
short, dark, round-headed Chiquitos concentrate in small, undeveloped 
communes, and certainly do not live better, if so well, as those disag- 
gregated aborigines just mentioned. There are ^NIojos with both long 
and short skulls, darker or lighter complexions, more or less weU- 
grown frames, scattered about the ]\Iachupa, San Miguel, and Rio 
Blanco basins, besides an undetermined number of nati\e bands (none 
otherwise than wholly savage); and, apart from the Guara-Yu — a 
yellow-skinned and bearded mass of so-called Guaranis — none having 

« Histoire de 1' Amerique du Sud. Paris, 1876. 
''Estudio Historico de Bolivia. Santiago, 1S74. 
'^Promenade ix travers 1' Amerique du Sud. Paris, 1868. 


commonly characteristic features. Considering how many travelers 
belonging to various nationalities entered eastern Bolivia since the 
sixteenth century, some coming by way of Darien, others ascending 
the Madeira River or penetrating into this province from Paraguay 
and Argentina, it is astonishing how little we know concerning its 
inhabitants. Few first-class observers came hither, and most of what 
follows is merely an outline wherein multifarious groups show much 
the same arts, customs, and general conditions of existence. Manuel 
V. Ballivian has probably given all the information it is now possible 
to obtain." 

What has been said will apply to Siriones, on the Rio Grande and Rio 
Pirai; to Hichilos, who wander over Beni pampas; Penoquiguias, by 
the San Miguel's southern reaches; with Guaranocas and Potororas, 
inhabiting that Mesopotamian tract lying between the Tucabaca and 
Satiriquique; and likewise Chiriguanos, or Tobas, occupying lands 
along the Pilcomayos, upper course, or extending from thence into 
Argentina through the Vermejos lower basin. No one can say what 
groups besides these, now inhabit this region or have wholly passed 
away there. It appears from so much as is known of j'unga socie- 
ties, however, that most are in a decadent state, but were at one time 
more numerous. The "staying power " which Deniker has singularly 
enough ascribed to South American aborigines, failed in this instance 
signally. Everv-day life, such as these Indians led, neither demanded 
an exhibition of sustained energy nor enforced any disciplinary routine, 
which might have to some extent at least evolved inherent qualifica- 
tions through occupations. Fortitude upon their part is mainly phys- 
ical insensibility, or may be attributed to undeveloped emotional 
feeling. The much exploited native composure originates in an absence 
of rational curiosity, and ever active inordinate vanity, which betra3S 
all savages into mistaking unimpressibility for superior wisdom. 
Those in question disclose scarcely anj^ reserve force of body or mind, 
and when great disasters overtook masses thus constituted, they nat- 
urally gave way. They were not so born, fed, or trained as to support 
mental and physical strain. 

a Sinopsis Estadfstica y Geogntfica de la Uepiiblica de Bolivia. La Paz, 1903. The 
ethnological section of this work contains an exceptionally large body of information 
relating to native races in this country, which is also thoroughly systematized. 
Existing knowledge concerning Bolivian groups, both savage and partially reclaimed, 
will scarcely enable anyone to construct more complete tribal lists, or improve upon 
the author's review of their regional distribution. Furthermore, unusual stress has 
been laid upon those striking but mostly unexplained contrasts in mind and char- 
acter between consanguine peoples who were similarly situated. From an anthropo- 
logical standpoint this is very important. Heretofore these dissimilarities have 
received no more than a cursory notice, and any contribution toward resolving mys- 
terious causes of difference, either through jiresenting additional data or scientifically 
discussing materials already collected, has an undoubted value. 


Topographical details are mostly wanting; but indigenous groups 
for the most part inhabited tracts extending along those " three thou- 
sand miles of river " that Church says " " converge like the arms of a 
fan upon the Madeira's falls." Haenke * points out hdw many streams 
flow through forests, where cultivation is impossible, and natives are of 
necessit}'' fishermen or hunters in primitive savagery. 

Luxuriant as its vegetation is, this country only produces spontane- 
ous food growths, which, eked out by the animals of its waters, woods, 
and plains, will barely support a sparse population, who are nearly or 
quite without artificial means for procuring supplies. Although numer- 
ous species — arboreal and terrestrial — make their home here, or migrate 
to the yunga, this region does not form anything like a great natural 
game preserve. Woodland openings were sometimes cultivated in a 
primitive way, but even natives living in comparatively treeless dis- 
tricts remained backward with regard to the division of labor, and 
indeed, all cooperative action, doing little toward accumulating such 
stores as would have forwarded effort if progress had been among 
those possibilities allowed bj- circumstances. There can be no hope 
of redemption for men whose entire energies are expended in avoiding 
starvation; whom destitution divides into insignificant bands, incap- 
able of those generative social functions which only become operative 
where considerable aggregates can maintain themselves permanently. 

One of the ethnological facts conspicuous here, and strikingly dis- 
played elsewhere among South Americans, is family unlikeness. It 
can not be said that stock bears no relation to social status, because 
civilizing aborigines throughout Andean provinces belong to one group; 
but its members may be wandering savages or village Indians, with as 
much culture and general development as falls to the lot of native 
Americans. Moreover, physical type — those organic criteria from 
which elevation or degradation are usually inferred — fails completely 
when applied to sociological classification in this domain. Three of 
the four families into which Von den Steinen'' puts all Brazilians 
enter these lowlands, together with Paraguayan Chiquitos, Argentine 
Tobas, and Collan cognates from Upper Peru; but nowhere does bodily 
conformation necessarily correspond with prosperity or power. In 
fundamental structural characters the old builders around LakeTiticaca 
are much on a par with modern yunga savages, who occupy dwellings 
not so well constructed for shelter or defense a.s those designed by 
many inferior animals. Furthermore, river valleys belonging to this 
district contain tall, symmetrical, light-complexioned men, having 
high-caste heads, oval faces, and well-cut features, yet whose dailj' life 
is noway superior to that led by stunted, hideous crossbreeds, mal- 
formed and miserable. 

oThe route to Bolivia via the River Amazon. London, 1877. 
6 Navigable rivers flowing into the Maranon. London, 1877. 
" Unter den Naturvolken Zentral-Braziliens. Berlin, 1894, 


Different parts of the champaign tracts, nevertheless, offer more or 
less favorable conditions to men upon whom their environment exerts 
an almost direct effect; consequently (other things being equal) those 
most advantageously placed should succeed best, which is probably 
the case, as a rule. We see here, however, indubitable evidence that 
this is in nowise universal; since communities most diversely condi- 
tioned, both socially and economically, live under almost precisely 
identical natural influences. It seems useless to seek an adequate 
explanation of those human varieties which pervade Bolivian pampas, 
gather around lakes Cavinas, Pacaguaras, Bubues, Torromanas, Nahas, 
etc. ; bands that cultivate woodland opens, wander over grassy plains 
or by streams where jungle growths are so dense that the interior of 
forests become uninhabitable. They defy classification, and their 
names in numerous instances seem without import or identificatory 
significance. Thus Pacagudras, Chapacuras, Maropas, Sirionos, are 
titles of Indian tribes and rivers also, a small portion of whose length 
is claimed hy each people mentioned. Travelers have no doubt in 
great part bestowed tribal designations taken from those waterways 
on which they encountered particular societies. It is unheard of for 
savages to speak of a whole great stream under one name; therefore 
collective titles must have been arbitrarily applied to sections of 
aboriginal aggregates and withheld from their blood relations who 
were located at sites somewhat removed. 

As was previously said, the archaeology of Bolivia is no more 
Bolivian than that commonly identified with Peru is in a true sense 
Peruvian. This subject, however, can not be now considered. Its 
literature has enlarged into such formidable proportions as to prevent 
anything like an intelligible or truthful summary; besides which, 
works of art — taking them in their most comprehensive meaning — are, 
in connection with these inquiries, only object lessons throwing side 
lights upon anthropological subjects. 

Processes of disaggregation, absorption, and extinction are rapidly 
going on among Bolivian lowlander.s; but how should anything that 
can be preserved in a museum explain why this population, as a whole, 
is decadent and seems to be dying out? Unfortunately vei"y little has 
been learned with respect to tribal descent or particular modes of life. 
Except foi some imperfect information throwing a faint light upon 
climate, topography, sanitation, social state, and intelligence, there 
are no clues to aid in discovering the secrets of these peoples' fate. 
Spanish explorers of an early period had better opportunities for 
observing peoples in this province, as they remained from pre-Colum- 
bian times, than other travelers, though, excepting Cieza de Leon," who 
soon left the plains for upland regions, every adventurer, lay or cler- 

o Travels, 1532-1550. Hakluyt ed. London, 1864. 


ical, exclusively reg-arded Indians as sources of profit, or "children 
of Satan" to be coerced into a state of grace. Preconceptions, ignor- 
ance, and the grossest superstitions, blinded both classes to many things 
it was most desirable that they should see. Chronicles and Mission- 
ary Eelations show how unprepared their authors were to express 
opinions upon men and things. Even so strikingly exceptional a man 
iis Cieza de Leon constantly needs to have his text qualified or cor- 
rected. He says of tlie route from Panama to Potosi that it extends 
over "more than twelve hundred leagues." "This," continues Cieza, 
"I traveled over by land, and saw, examined, and know those things 
which I describe."" 

Incomplete as his narrative is, and must necessarily have been, it 
nevertheless contains information of great value. So far as aggregates 
can be grouped according to social status, this account introduces some 
order into the northwestern tribal melange of South America. In those 
days, while distinguishing features, since obliterated, were still visible, 
he found Popayan, and most tracts north of Bolivia's champaigns, 
peopled by sedentary groups who had also settled along the northern 
Anclean counterforts. One theory of their origin is that these com- 
munities, among whom Atratos may be regarded as a representative 
class, were allied to ^Mexicans; another derives them from Maya 
sources, besides which strains others also were intermingled. How- 
ever this ancestry really was, there were resemblances both to 
Huaxtecans and Nahiiatlans in many ways. Concrete agricultural 
societies within which subdivisions of kinsmen (gens) were the forma- 
tive and functional elements, lived under elective chiefs exercising, 
in combination with councils, an undisputed executive authority. 
From certain desultory remarks made by Cieza, it might be inferred 
that there existed here traces of the sacerdotalism which, united to 
superior power concentrated in one order and quasi-caste institutions, 
constituted a basis for Inca despotism. At all events, those Indians 
were organized socially, and strongly contrasted with Yunga tribes — 
better housed, fed, and clothed — in everj- respect more prosperous than 
the J'. The men bore good bows of black palm, made excellent pot- 
ter3', besides manufacturing multifarious articles for use or ornament; 
while their women were cleanly — "decently dressed and combed." 
Furthermore, "individuals of either sex possessed man}' decorations 
and chains of fine gold." In addition, the chronicler says these natives 
inhabited "small villages, and their dwellings looked like long sheds. 
They slept in hammocks * * * were clean in eating, and had 
none of the dirty habits belonging to other nations," i. e., those lower 
savages also seated here — nameless bands whose presence is merely 

a Chronicles of Peru. Part first. 1530. 


All Pedro de Leon's observations are full of meaning to ethnologists, 
and he adds another significant fact, namely, that those communities 
mentioned uniformly engaged in active commercial enterprises. Orel- 
lana, Pinzon, and De Lepe encountered these indigenes under altered 
circumstances; yet their experiences are confirmatory of the forego- 
ing. Ite saw not only "long houses" here, but also "casas grandes," 
octagonal wickerwork or wattle-and-daub dwellings, whose communal 
character was evident. Quevedo mentions good furniture, and palm- 
thatched roofs projecting so as to make a shaded space all around; 
while Herndon and Gibbon note separate hearths used by each family, 
guardrooms, detached quarters for youths and girls, as also other 
particulars that are real object lessons explanatory of their social sys- 
tem, together with its then existing grade. Doubtless Caripuna or 
Atrato societies were of different class from homeless, destitute, 
marauding savages Ygnacio Ananz describes as living in southern dis- 
tricts now included within Bolivian territory. Moreover, those spe- 
cially endowed peoples who developed on the plateaux were possibly 
their offshoots or congeners, and, starting with the degree of progress 
stated, migrated from these plains already prepared for adaptative 
changes involved by new environments, thus advancing until they at 
length established that great civilizing center which had its focus at 

The group specified demonstrated a capacity for progress through 
all sociological phases below civilization. Little is known of it while 
its members remained on lowland tracts except the fact that consider- 
able migrations to those mountain provinces which they permanently 
occupied certainly took place. Amazonas, Gran Chaco, and north- 
western Argentina sent contingents, and it is most likely that bands 
of what are now called Atratos and Caripunas took part in sucli move- 
ments, while unidentified aggregates, variously descended, contributed 
to form the intermixed populations and remained stationar}'. 

According to discriminations made between men on the basis of 
social, economic, and material conditions, none of these tribes inhabit- 
ing lower Bolivia had distinctly emerged from savagery. That grade, 
however, like those which succeed it, leaves room for considerable 
differences between the included communities. In many important 
particulars savages may not be at all alike. Their temperaments, 
tendencies, moral traits, mental habitudes frequently bear little like- 
ness to each other. So far as the evidence in this case extends, that 
antagonism was strongly marked here, where indigenes, closely resem- 
bling each other so far as modes of life, appliances, or general traits 
are concerned, nevertheless differed profoundly. Upon the borders of 
their hunting grounds, as also when driven to places far removed, 
Indians of the river plains evinced the most striking dissimilarities in 

116a— 04 4 


those directions above mentioned. So to speak, side by side with 
tribes incapable of defense and equallj^ unable to support servitude, 
others displayed an unyielding firmness, waging a hopeless war against 
aggression, generation after generation, while any were left alive. 
That implies a great deal, and is ver_y significant when confronted 
with those sweeping generalizations which have been made about 
Yunga natives. 

Cieza de Leon asserts that other communities who offered little 
armed resistence, still could not be conquered. There was little actual 
fighting, but when Spaniards appeared these people abandoned their 
poor possessions at once. The invaders gathered no prisoners for 
slaves, and collected scarceh' any booty. Cabeza de Vacca, whose 
raids into this region were bloodier, though almost as unremunerative, 
describes the province in terms like those used by travelers of recent 
times. He saj's it is a country where our latelj' acquired knowledge 
assures us that an incipient civilization could not proceed. Its exces- 
sive rainfall, unheajthj' climate, and the inferior character of natural 
food productions set limits to progress that primitive man never 
overpass either here or anywhere else. Brinton " calls "agriculture 
the onlj' mollifying iniiuence " which circumstances permitted to act 
upon American natives, although Andean peoples of highest grade were 
to some extent pastoral. Effective tillage, however, is not found in 
savagery. These societies lived separately' and suffered all those 
vicissitudes inflicted by man or nature without receiving any efficient 
assistance from their countrymen. Their undeveloped state distrib- 
uted most tribes along streams; it was easier to fish than cultivate, 
and they endured manifold ill consequences from famine or mal- 
nutrition, together with serious misfortunes arising from the per- 
petual depradations of piratical foes who infested rivers here after 
the manner of Paraguayan Indians. When gra\e disaster came upon 
communities scarcely able to cohere while undisturbed; if famine, 
pestilence, or defeat occasioned severe loss and general purturbation, 
the shock broke them up into small nomadic bands which might 
resemble Ucayalis, of whom Keane remarks that they look like 
Fuegians and live like wild beasts. Peoples in whom progressive 
qualities are not ingrained retrocede readilj'. 

This Ucayali strain escaped to a large degree the effacement of 
original traits effected by creolization, and so retained many features 
characteristic of their proto-Mongol stock. Spix and Martins* 
observed them outside Bolivia's present confines; but allied types, or 
descendants from the same line, were domiciled within that country, 
together with populations representing every gradient which intermix- 
ture and physiographic factors could establish between races primarily 

a Myths of the New World. Philadelphia, 1878. 
* Travels in Brazil. London, 1824. 


SO distinct as generalized Mongols and Europeans. Illustrations of 
such ethnic variation and entanglement have been frequently given, 
and now it remains to state in a cursory way the adaptative capacity 
displaj'^ed by these aborigines at large. 

Besides grasp of mind or corporeal fitness, mental and physical plas- 
ticity are likewise necessary for evolution, which consists essentially 
in making successively higher more numerous and complex adjust- 
ments to surroundings. Evidently those Bolivian indigenes who 
ascended from plains where men may live in some sort without any 
but the simplest correspondence with their environment were fitter 
than that portion remaining stationary. An occupation of lands so 
contrasted as are the alluvial bottoms at Beni and those sterile heights 
on which Collan culture culminated, implies initial adaptativeness, 
followed by a continuous increase of the same power. Maize would 
not grow around Tiahuanuco until an acclimated variety was produced 
through cultivation ; 3'et Payne calls the social system of Aymaraland 
a "corn civilization." Natural potatoes are nearly worthless as arti- 
cles of food; the Huanuco could do nothing for progress before it was 
domesticated; plateau existence depended upon artificial improve- 
ments that most lowland Indians could neither originate nor take advan- 
tage of when opportunities were offered to them. These latter would 
have hunted wild Auchenise everlastingly and gone no further, just as 
they ate the horses or cattle bestowed by strangers without profiting 
from this gift. There was an absence of intelligence and receptivity 
upon their part that no extraneous aid could compensate for. Yunga 
savages succumbed to organic deficiencies and natural obstacles. Fore- 
most in this last class, the most formidable was an insufficiency of 
tissue-making, force-producing food. Cieza de Leon declares that these 
Indians could always find enough to eat, but nowhere did the popu- 
lation get properly fed, and under a permanent condition of innutri- 
tion an}^ latent powers they may have possessed i-emained in abeyance. 
Throughout its entirety, from start to finish, amid every phase of 
human life, the imperious requirement for physiological aliment never 

That demand could be satisfied to some extent by lowland tribes, 
seated farther north than those crudely organized Yunga peoples 
specified. They either came here with means permitting the forma- 
tion of sedentary'- self-supporting societies, or through inherent faculty 
these were developed under favorable circumstances. Maize was per- 
haps autochthonous in eastern Paraguay, and that was the foundation 
of every social structure in South America. Physical fitness or mental 
range are not originated by what men eat, but nutrition strictly con- 
ditions both. No result except failure should have been anticipated 
from attempts at converting and civilizing Canichanas, Itonamas, 
Cayubabas, Maropas, who could not or would not learn to plant. So 


soon as outside pressure was withdrawn these latter tribes relapsed 
into idleness, destitution, and heathenism. Before men can form 
bonds of cohesion among themselves, before order, customary law, 
cooperative labor, or public enterprise can effectually influence them, 
they must be able to live together, and no such possibility existed in 
case of those tribes who had not become cultivators. De Leon says 
their small bands "were and always had been in a state of con- 
fusion," and that the whole of them "detested being under subjection 
to anyone." Eegularity in any form or conformity with whatsoever 
system was intolerable, and to a greater or less degree an aversion to 
oi'der and discipline is common to unevolved mankind, although not 
always ineradicable. In their primiti\e state, savage plain-dwellers 
were naturally blind to future advantages and incapable of resisting 
passing impulses. They exerted themselves only when incited by 
present needs. Those anticipatory acts, predetermining prosperous 
issues or preventing inevitable miseries, could not be performed by 
men whose cerebral constitution and correlative mental organization 
disqualified them for everything involving self-restraint or foresight. 

Surveying Bolivian aborigines generally, it would appear that simi- 
lar organic defects attached to the majority. Certain members of a' 
single group proceeded farther than others, and all outstripped com- 
munities belonging to alien stocks, but none advanced continuously. 
This is a matter admitting of positive affirmation. What we know 
concerning ancient Aymaraland shows Collan pueblos in a state of 
decrepitude prior to Peruvian invasion. Apparently that exceptional 
subdivision of this famih- had already done its utmost. The Incas 
fell before a shock almost ridiculouslv disproportioned to those con- 
sequences it caused, and there is but one reasonable inference possible, 
namely, that degeneration had alreadj' taken place. Aj-mara-Quichuans 
occupying Bolivia shared their kindred's fate. The governing class 
exhausted its initiative, leaving those governed as they originally 
were, except for superficial alterations made by Peruvians and Span- 
iards. Statutes and doctrines, clothes and furniture, do not change 
men radicallj'. When self -evolved these mereh' indicate social or 
intellectual states — presently existing conditions which naturally give 
rise to such institutions. Conversely, if arbitraril}' imposed, common 
experience shows them to he inoperative. Human beings must be fitted 
to grow better; failing in this nothing can make them so. Artificial 
processes of metamorphosis will never transform human masses into 
anything they are organically disqualified for becoming. Unaided, 
one section of indigenous natives nearly reached barbarism; but 
Spanisli domination or republican administration have not since con- 
verted them into anything more than barbarians. 

Apart from influences operated through external agencies other than 
their surroundings (super-organic factors, that is to say), the three 


groups composing this population are very much now as they were 
always. Two of them (the only ones definitely known), if not of one 
family at least belonged to allied races, or in so far as like develop- 
mental traits evince kinship, they appear as if congenitally related. 
The third is an agglomeration of ti'ibes representing various strains 
(mostly extra-Bolivian) who possess no common ethnic characteristics, 
and have never done anything— not even kept themselves alive. 

Their northern and more enlightened neighbors— Indians of the 
Atrato type— worked gold (if they did not procure It already made up 
from Chibchans or Peruvians), and everyday life with its appliances, 
accessories, and adornments, was on a plane corresponding to a par- 
tially developed social structure. Very little is known concerning their 
intellectual existence, but it seems evident from early chronicles and 
missionary reports, that the animistic stage in religion which accompa- 
nies pure fetichism had in some measure given way to crude natural- 
ism and shamanistic cults. In many respects there is little difference 
between witch doctors and ministers of elemental spirits; yet a finer 
fancj' enters into conceptions of beneficent divinities who dwell on 
sunlit peaks and quicken the earth to "bring forth her increase," than 
that which chiefly finds malign powers in nature — demons animating 
everything hurtful, deities enveloped by darkness and directing the 
storm. It is "nobler in mind," and bespeaks a higher style of man, 
when gratitude or hope replaces terror as an incitement to good con- 
duct or devotion. Fear has never wholly eliminated itself from any 
religion, yet some Bolivian lowlanders rose above those sombre and 
grotesque conceptions which held full sway over their less elevated 
countrymen. Here, as among plateau communities, an entirely devil- 
beset mental environment had been broken through, and this fact con- 
veys"much to anthropologists. This was only a partial emancipation, 
however. No doubt -the esoteric meaning of Inca sun symbolism 
would have been equally incomprehensible with Christian mysteries to 
most Aymara-Quichuan, Caripuna, or Atrato Indians. These groups, 
nevertheless, separately accomplished something that adds another 
resemblance to those likenesses existing between them, besides widen- 
ing the interval by which they are removed from irremediable savages. 




Spanish rule. — From 1544 to 1810 Spanish colonial rule was supreme 
in the country, then known as " /Vy«," or Upper Peru. Between 
these two dates the countrj' was governed by 53 viceroys, the last 13 
being the rulei's of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, to the jurisdic- 
tion of which Alto Peru was annexed in 1776. 

Independence. — The country solemnly declared its intention to 
become independent on the 16th of July, 1809, the formal proclama- 
tion of independence being issued on the 6th of August, 1825, upon 
the termination of the war. The country took the name of Bolivia in 
honor of Gen. Simon Bolivar, its founder, and adopted a unitarian 
republican democratic form of government. 

Political Constitution. — The Constitution now in force in Bolivia is 
that of October 28, 1880, and amendments. It is generally conceded 
to be one of the inost liberal constitutions in Spanish America. The 
Constitution consists of 18 sections, divided into 139 articles, containing 
especial prescriptions relative to the fundamental principles of individ- 
ual rights and how they are guaranteed. Other general provisions 
are the preservation of peace and order, the formation of the legisla- 
tive power, and the administrative, judicial, and municipal organiza- 
tion of the State. The Nation is declared to be sovereign, and the 
exercise of its sovereign powers is vested in the Legislative, Executive, 
and Judiciary branches of government, which are independent among 
themselves. Agreements entered into by the State are inviolable. 
The Republic is organized under the unitarian system of government, 
its administration being a representative democracy. Individual rights 
are fully stated and guaranteed. 

Legislative Power. — The Legislative Power is vested in the National 
Congress, a body consisting of two chambers, the Chamber of Depu- 
ties ( Cdmara de Piputados), equivalent to the House of Representa- 
tives in the United States, and the Senate or Cdmara del Senado. 
The Chamber of Deputies consists of 72 members, elected by direct 
vote of the people for a term of" four years. The Senate is composed 


of 16 senatprs, 2 for each department, elected for the term of six years 
by direct vote of the people. One-half of the members of the Cham- 
ber of Deputies retire every two years, while in the Senate one-third 
of their number retire every two years. Congress meets annually, 
the regular session lasting sixty days. This session, however, may be 
extended, either at the request of the Executive or by joint resolution 
of both chambers, to a period of ninety days. Extraordinary sessions 
may be convoked by concurrent vote of the majority of both houses, 
or by executive proclamation setting forth the place of meeting and 
the special object for which Congress has been convened. During the 
extra session Congress must adhere exclusively to the business stated 
in the proclamation or decree calling such session. The chambers of 
Congress have both separate and concurrent powers, every chamber 
having specific duties, as set forth in the Constitution. 

Representatives. — To be a clvputado or representative it is necessary 
to have the following qualifications: (1) To be inscribed in the National 
Registry'; (2) to be 25 years of age and a Bolivian by birth or natu- 
ralization, having resided pei-manently in the country for five years at 
least, and to have an annual income of 400 bolivianos'^ derived from a 
profession, industry, or real estate; (3) never to have been condemned 
to corporal punishment (imprisonment or hard labor) by sentence of 
any ordinary court of law. 

The duties of the Chamber of- Deputies are: (1) To impeach before 
the Senate the President and Vice-President of the Republic, the min- 
isters of State, justices of the Supreme Court, and diplomatic ministers, 
for offenses committed in the discharge of their respective duties; 
(2) to elect the justices of the Supreme Court from the list of three 
names submitted by the Senate. 

Senators. — The qualifications necessary to be a senator are: (1) to 
be a Bolivian by birth or naturalization, with five j'ears' permanent 
residence in the country, and to be registered as a citizen in the 
National Register; (2) to be 35 years of age; (3) to have an annual 
income of 800 iolivianos from a profession, an industry, or real estate; 
(4) never to have been sentenced to corporal punishment (imprison- 
ment or hard labor) by an ordinary court of law; (5) to have had 
four years uninterrupted residence in the country immediately prior 
to the election as senator, unless, in case of absence from the country, 
such absence is due to the discharge of a public duty or service. 

The duties of the Senate are: (1) to investigate the accusations 
made by the Chamber of Deputies, as stated, and decide whether the 
impeachment is valid or not. Should the decision of the Senate be in 
the affirmative, such impeached officer shall be forthwith suspended 
from office and placed at the disposal of the supreme court for trial 

"The boliviano is worth $0,422 United States currency, as estimated by the Director 
of the United States Mint, October 1, 1904. 


under the law. The Senate can only try the justices of the Supreme 
Court and pass judg-ment upon them, whether the accusation originates 
in the Chamber of Deputies or from a complaint duly filed by the 
aggrieved party or by another person; (2) to submit to the Executive 
lists of three names for the appointment of archbishops or bishops, 
such appointment to be proposed by the Executive; (3) to submit to 
the Chamber of Deputies lists of three names from which the Chamber 
is to elect the justices of the Supreme Court; (4) to reinstate as 
Bolivians, or as citizens, whoever should have forfeited such qualifica- 
tion; (5) to permit Bolivians to accept honors, offices, titles, or emolu- 
ments from other governments, providing such are not contrary to the 
laws of the country; (6) to elect by secret ballot the generals and 
colonels in the army from the list of three names submitted bj- the 
Executive; (7) to decree rewards and public honors to those most 
deserving for services rendered to the country. 

The annual cost of tho legislative branch of the Government may 
be estimated at 167,000 holiviayio.i. 

Executive Power. — The Executive Power is vested in the President, 
who can only exercise his authority" through the respective secretaries 
or members of the cabinet. The President is elected by the direct vote 
of the people; his term of office is four years, being ineligible for the 
next succeeding term. Two vice-presidents, one first and one second 
vice-president, are elected at the same time, in the same manner and 
for the same term as the President. In case of death, disability, or 
resignation of the President, or when by reason of a civil or interna- 
tional war he assumes personal command of the army, then the first 
vice-president shall discharge the duties of office, and in default of the 
first \ice-president, then the second vice-president shall discharge such 
duties. The first Vice-president is the presiding officer of the Senate. 
The necessarj' qualifications to be first or second vice-president are the 
same applying to senators, except that thej' must necessarily be native 
Bolivians. The powers and duties of the President are set forth at 
length in the Constitution. 

Cahinet. — The President is assisted in the discharge of his duties by 
a Cabinet consisting of five secretaries, called Jlinistros de Estado. 
To be a Minister of State the same qualifications apph'ing to deputies 
are required. The Cabinet ministets are jointly responsible with the 
President of the Republic for all their acts of administration in their 
respective offices. The ministers are jointly responsible for all acts 
performed in their Cabinet meetings. All decrees and orders issued 
by the President shall also bear the signature of the Minister or Secre- 
tary of the respective department, without which such order or decree 
can not be enforced. 


For the appointment or removal of a Minister the President's signa- 
ture is sufficient, but a written or verbal order of the President does 
not relieve a Minister from personal responsibility. Ministers may 
be prosecuted before the Supreme Court by the aggrieved party for 
common offenses, and judgment shall be rendered according to the 
laws on the subject. Cabinet members may be present and take part 
in the debate of either chamber of Congress, but must leave the place 
before a vote is cast. Ministers are under obligation to send to Con- 
gress, as soon as the annual session is open, a complete report relative 
to the work done in their respective departments during the year. 
The Cabinet ministers are iive in number, viz, Minister of Foreign 
Relations and Worship, Minister of the Interior and Promotion (Gobi- 
erno y Fomento), Minister of Finance and Industry, Minister of Justice 
and Public Education, and the Minister of War and the Colonies." 

Other important branches of the administration are the ''^Supremo 
Trihunal de Caentas" an institution analogous to the office of the 
Auditor-General, the Bureau of Public Credit, the Mint, the Bureau 
of Posts and Telegraphs, Bureau of Immigration and Statistic!^, and 
the Engineer's Corps. 

The total annual cost of the service may be estimated as follows, in 
round numbers: 


Foreign Kelations and Worship 470,000 

Interior (Gobierno) 200,000 

Finance 420, 000 

Promotion ( Fomento) 101, 000 

War 578,000 

Colonies 400, 000 

Education 206, 000 

Departmental expenses 700, 000 

Total 3, 075, 000 

Judiciary. — The Judicial Power is vested in a National Supreme 
Court of Justice, superior district courts, lower district courts (juzgados 
de partidos), courts for the preparation of criminal cases, called 
'"'' juzgados de instruccioji,'''' the duties of such courts being similar to 
those of the Grand Jury, and parochial courts. 

The Supreme Court is composed of seven justices appointed by the 
Chamber of Deputies from a list of three for each justiceship submitted 
by the Senate. The necessary qualifications to be a Justice of the 
Supreme Court are to be a Bolivian by birth or naturalization, to be 
45 years of age at least, and to have had a permanent residence in the 
country for five years; to have been a judge in any of the superior 
courts of justice or District Attorney for five years, and to have been 

« The powers and duties of the President and the members of the Cabinet are 
specifically set forth in articles 4 to 22 of the " Supreme Decree,'' January 10, 1903. 


a practicing lawyer in good standing for ten years; never to have been 
condemned to imprisonment or hard labor by sentence of any ordinary 
court of law. 

Besides those duties devolving upon the Supreme Court by virtue of 
the laws of the Nation, its constitutional duties are, in general terms, 
the following: To hear and determine on all appeals for the reversal 
of a sentence passed by the lower courts and to establish the main 
points at issue; to originally hear and determine on all questions of a 
purely legal nature the decision, upon which depends on the constitu- 
tionalit}'^ of a law, decree, or anj^ other resolution whatever; to hear 
and determine on all cases concerning the responsibility of diplomatic 
and consular agents, judges of the superior courts, district attorneys, 
and other public officers, as specified, for offenses committed in the dis- 
charge of their respective duties; to hear and determine on all cases 
arising from contracts, negotiations, and concessions granted by the 
Executive Power, and on all suits brought against the Executive arising 
from executive action; to hear and determine on all matters relating 
to the national patronage exercised by the Supreme Government, and, 
finally, to settle all controversies between municipal councils, between 
these and the political authorities, and between either of them and the 
provincial municipal boards. 

No justice or judge can be removed from oflSce except by proper 
action, nor can they be suspended for any other offenses than those 
specified in the laws of the country. Publicity of judicial proceedings 
is the essential condition of the administration of justice in Bolivia, 
except in such cases where public morals may be offended. 

The annual cost to the State of this branch of the service is estimated, 
in round numbers, at 600,000 bolivianos. 

Departmental administration. — The political, administrative, and 
financial powers of government in the departments are -vested in an 
officer called "Pr^t'cfo,'' directly responsible to the General Executive, 
whose immediate agent he is and with whom he is to communicate as 
determined by law. The provincial government is represented by sub- 
jn'efectos^ subordinate to the prefectos. The district {canton) authori- 
ties are the Coiivgidor (a country justice), and for the smaller district 
subdivisions, called camjyana., or rural districts, alcaldes, or petty jus- 
tices, appointed bj' the respective prefects. 

Municipal authorities. — There is a Municipal Council at each depart- 
mental capital, and in their respective sectional subdivisions there are 
municipal boards and municipal agents for the still minor subdivisions. 
Municipal councils are authorized to enter into mutual agreements or 
contracts for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways 
between two or more of their respective departments, whenever such 
agreements or contracts affect the revenues or moneys of the municipal 
treasury of the respective departments. 



Articles 31 to 36, inclusive, of the Bolivian Constitution thus deter- 
mine citizenship, and the necessaiy qualifications to be a citizen: 

"Akt. 31. Bolivians by birth are: 

"First. Those born within the territory of the Republic. 

"Second. Those born in a foreign country of a Bolivian father or 
mother while in the service of the Repul)lic, or while in exile for polit- 
ical causes are Bolivians, even in such cases where the law requires the 
condition of birth within Bolivian territory. 

"Art. 32. They are likewise Bolivians: 

"First. The children of a Bolivian father or mother born in a foreign 
country, by the mere fact of having their residence in Bolivia. 

"Second. Foreigners who, having resided one j^ear in the Republic, 
declare before the municipal authorities of their respective places of 
residence their intention to become citizens. 

"Third. Foreigners who obtain as a concession from the Chamber 
of Deputies their certificate of naturalization {Carta de naturalesa.) 

"Akt. 33. The qualifications to be a citizen are: 

"First. To be a Bolivian. 

"Second. To be 21 years of age, if unmarried, or 18 years of age, 
if married. 

"Third. To be able to read and write; to hold real property or have 
an annual income to the value of 200 bolivianos, provided that such 
income is not a compensation for services as a servant. 

"Fourth. To be inscribed in the Civil Register. 

"Art. 31. Citizenship rights are: 

"First. To take part, either as an elector or as the elected party, in 
the formation of the public powers, or in the exercise of the duties 

"Second. To be admitted to the discharge of public duties without 
any further qualification than that of being competent to discharge 
such duties, except as otherwise provided by the Constitution. 

"Art. 35. Citizenship rights ai'e forfeited: 

"First. By naturalization in a foreign country. 

"Second. By sentence of a competent court of law to corporal pun- 
ishment," until reinstatement. 

"Third. By fraudulent bankruptcy, when this has been adjudged as 

"Fourth. By admitting offices, emoluments or decorations from a 
foreign government without special permit of the Senate. 

"Art. 36. Citizenship rights are suspended when the person is suh 
judice, by virtue of a decree of impeachment, or by having been dis- 
trained for a debt due to the public treasury." 

a Imprisonment or hard labor. 


Bights of foreigners. — Article 19 of the Constitution provides that: 
"All men enjoy in Bolivia the same civil rights, the exercise of which 
is regulated by civil law." 


The personal rights or guaranties granted by Boli\'ia are specifically 
set forth in Section II, articles 3 to 25 of the Constitution. They are, 
in general terms, as follows: 

Slavery is abolished, all t^laves becoming free upon their arrival in 
Bolivian territory. 

Right of transit throughout the Republic is free, except as restricted 
bjr international law. The right to exercise any lawful trade or pro- 
fession is also free. The freedom of the press and speech is granted, 
as well as the right to teach under Government supervision, and the 
right of association and peaceful assembly. Political and civil rights 
are liberally granted. Industrial and literary rights (trade-marks and 
copyrights) are inviolable, as ^\ ell as the home, all private correspond- 
ence, and property. Personal security is protected, and torture or any 
other kind of personal punishment is forbidden under any and all cir- 
cumstances. The attempt to violate, or the actual violation of any of 
the foregoing guaranties or rights makes the author directly respon- 
sible before the law, and no legal privileges or exemptions can be 

Taxes apply equally to all, and are obligatory only when voted by 
the Legislative Power. Civil and criminal laws applj' equally to all. 
Confiscation does not exist as a punishment for political offenses. 
Private correspondence, if violated, can not be used as legal evidence. 
Acts performed b_v persons without legal authoritv or proper juris- 
diction are null and void. 

Constitutional principles are applicable in preference to any other 
law, and any act or disposition contrary to the Constitution is void. 
Arrests, detention, or imprisonment can only be made in strict accord- 
ance with the law, except in cases of flagrante delicto, when it can be 
made without warrant, and by any person. No person, except the 
military, can be tried by a special court. Xo person is under obliga- 
tion to give testimonjr inci'iminating himself or herself in criminal 

The penalty of death is abolished, except as a punishment for the 
crimes of murder, parricide, and treason. Civil death and infamous 
punishment are also abolished. 

The Public Debt and all contracts and agreements entered into by 
the State, according to law, are guaranteed. 


The national church of Bolivia is the Roman Catholic, as stated in 
article 3 of the Constitution, which reads as follows: "The State recog- 
nizes and supports the Roman Apostolic Catholic religion, the public 



exercise of any other worship being prohibited, except in the colonies, 
where it is tolerated." The large majority of the population professes 
that faith, but foreigners belonging to other church denominations are 
not molested in the free exercise of their religious beliefs. 

The conversion of the wild Indians into the Eoman Catholic Church 
is in charge of colleges for the Propaganda Fide, having at present 
about 18 missions. 

The countiy is divided into 1 Archbishopric and 3 bishoprics, the 
first embracing the departments of Chuquisaca, Oruro, Potosi, Tarija, 
and Atacama, under the name of Archbishopric of La Plata, covering an 
area of about 137,615 square kilometers, with a population estimated 
at 750,000 inhabitants. This Archbishopric consists of 133 parishes, 5 
monasteries, and 3 colleges for the propagation of the faith. 

The bishoprics are that of La Paz, consisting of 90 parishes, 3 con- 
vents, 2 monasteries, and 1 college for the conversion of heathens, its 
jurisdiction covering an area of 139,227 square kilometers. The bishop- 
ric of Cochabamba consists of 3 monasteries,- 1 convent, 1 missionary 
college, and 53 parishes, its jurisdiction extending over an area of 
60,417 square kilometers. The bishopric of Santa Cruz has 61 parishes 
and 1 home, for the missionaries, its jurisdiction extending over an 
area of 630,583 square kilometers. 

There are five colleges for the propaganda — at Sucre, Potosi, Tarija, 
Cochabamba, and La Paz, respectively. The principal missions are 
found in the department of La Paz, working among the Mosetenes and 
Chimanes Indian tribes; in the department of Tarija, working among 
the Chiriguanos; in Santa Cruz, working among the Chiriguanos and 
Guarayos; and in Chuquisaca, its field of work being among the Chiri- 
guanos and tBe Matacos Indians. The number of Indians under these 
missions is estitnated at 20,000. 

The religious orders have in the Republic 18 convents, 8 of which are 
devoted to nuns. The estimated number of members of religious 
orders and of the regular clei-gy is unofiicially given at 1,088, divided 
as follows: Nuns, 280; friars, 241; regulars, 567. The support of the 
Roman Catholic Church costs the State the sum of 196,027 bolivianos 
annually, of which over 14,000 bolivianos is devoted to the missions. 

The National Census of 1900 gives the following figures in regard to 
religious sects: 





Per 1,000. 



24, 245 










Territorial division. — ^Bolivian temtoiy is divided into 9 depart- 
ments and 1 territory, called the " Territorio JVaciunnl de Colonids."' 
These departments are subdivided into provinces, 59 in number, 
425 cantons, 233 vice-cantons, 18 missions, and 1 colony, as shown in 
the following table; also giving area, population, geographical posi- 
tion, and altitude above the sea level: 


I'olitical divisiona. 

of Depart- 







»;. kmf. 
13'J, 277. 74 
•Ail, 1.55.53 


60, 417. 36 


(',6, 170. 68 








145, 616 

32, 180 


328, 163 

209 692 


SantiX Cruz . 


49, 820 





Territorio Nacional de 



1, 822, 334. 75 


42.1 2.32 1 IS 1 1 



La Paz 




Santa Cruz 




Atacama or Litoral" . . . 
Territorio Nacinnul de 

Department capitals. 

La Paz de Ayacucho - . 




Santa Cruz de la Sierra 





Puerto Acre!' 


of capitals, 



4, 291 

15, 898 


18, 335 


20, 907 





sea level, 





Geographical po.sition. 
Pans meridian. 


16 29 57 

18 9 
77 16 

16 .57 
19 42 44 

19 30 

21 41 

22 32 


70 29 25 

67 39 00 
69 25 00 

68 42 00 

66 12 30 

67 15 00 
67 13 00 
66 32 00 
72 40 00 

a Chilean figures, Dec. 31, 1900, as given by the Bolivian Census Report, 1902. 
!> These figures are the result of a military census taken February, 1902. 
cNo data available. 





Between 1638, when the old town of Chuquisaca, now Sucre, was 
built, and 1604, date of the foundation of the city of Oruro, all the 
main cities of Bolivia, at present capitals of their respective depart- 
ments, were established, among them the present citj'^ of La Paz de 
Ayacucho. This city was founded in 1548, under the name of Nuestra 
Senora de la Paz (Our Lady of Peace), but by act of January 3, 1826, 
the name was changed into La Paz de Ayacucho, in memory of the 
historical battle which sealed the fate of Spanish rule in South 
America, fought at Ayacucho. 

Situation. — La Paz lies in a deep valley, irrigated by the Choqueyapu 
River, forming a fertile plain toward the south, while toward the 
north the valley disappears at the foot of the snow-capped Andean 
Range. The climate is cold, dry, and healthy, the mean annual tem- 
perature being estimated at 10° C. or 50° F. In 1862 magnetic 
declination was reckoned at 10° E., and in 1898 it registered 9°. 

The latitude and longitude of La Paz, Paris meridian, is 16° 29' 57" 
and 70° 29' 25", respectively. The altitude of the city at the Plaza 
Murillo has been estimated at 3,630 meters above the level of the sea. 

Area. — The city covers an area of 2,726.86 square meters, divided 
into 9 districts, embracing 147 city blocks, with a total of 1,808 
houses, forming 110 streets and 10 public squares. 

Population. — According to the latest official census (1900), the popu- 
lation of the city amounted to 54,713 inhabitants, divided as follows: 
Whites, 13,419; Indians, 30,606; mestizos (mixed), 10;555; negroes, 
]38; and 15 representatives of the j^ellow race. This total population 
was composed of 26,476 males and 28,237 females, of which there 
were 16,379 married, 4,679 widowers and widows, and 33,655 unmar- 
ried inhabitants. There were 39,420 persons who could neither read 
nor write, 147 able to read, and 15,146 who could read and write. 
The number of Roman Catholics at the capital was 54,603, and 110 
persons belonging to other religious sects. 

On the 20th of September, 1902, a special census of the city was 
taken, giving the results shown in the following table: 

Cenms of the city of La Paz, September 20, 1902. 

City districts. 






tag:e of 


El Sagrario 



2, 086 

206. 2 


La Concepcion 

Santo Domingo 

18 4 

El Carmen 


Santa BArbara 

El Hospicio 

31 6 

San Francisco 

30 3 

San Sebastian 

La Nueva Paz 




51, 162 

384. 5 

"Officially, Sucre is the capital of the Republic, but practically La Paz enjoys that distinction, 
being the seat of government. 



To this total of 51,162 inhabitants representing the city population, 
a 3 per cent was added for errors and omissions, bringing the total 
population for the citj' alone to 52,697, while to the rural or suburban 
population of 1900, which gave a total of 6,981 inhabitants, a 5 per 
cent was added, so that the official figures for the population of the 
city of La Paz and suburbs can be safely given at 60,031. 

Real estate. — ^The estimated value of real property in the city, other 
than public propertj^ amounts to 29,000,000 bolivianos, and public 
buildings are valued at 4,801,713 bolivianos. 

Industries. — There are several industrial establishments in the city, 
the principal being breweries, distilleries, tobacco and cigarette fac- 
tories, soap and candle factories, looms, tanneries, and pottery works. 
The value of these industries is estimated at 5,000,000 bolivianos per 

Commerce. — The principal interior customs district of the Republic 
is situated at La Paz, 796 kilometers from Mollendo, and 175 from 
Arica, the capital being the central point of distribution for the min- 
eral and agricultural outlj'ing districts. Imports consist mainly of 
cotton goods, wool and silk fabrics, readj^-made clothing, furniture, 
hardware, provisions, wines, liquors, drugs, and other foreign prod- 
ucts, while the exports are made up of silver, copper, tin, bismuth, 
gold, rubber, coffee, cacao beans, coca leaves, cinchona bark, and 
other native articles and productions. 

The receipts from the custom-house of La Paz during the year 1902, 
latest available itemized data, were as follows: 





706, 099. 07 



913. 21 

1, 928. 77 


4, 042. 37 

132, 133. 04 

3, 239. 40 

Ifi. 40 

1, 581. 00 

321. 70 

IMPORTS— continued. 



21 131 49 

Additional storage charges 

Back rents 

871 41 



Postiil orders 

10, 066. 91 

Sealed or stamped silver 





69, 477. 78 



The total imports and exports through the same custom-house dur- 
ing the years 1900, 1901, and 1902, as officially given by a Bolivian 
authoritj^," are the following: 

Exports , 
Imports . 


2. 976, 563. 44 

2, 969, 501. 59 


3, 843, 054. 86 

a Sm6psia Estadlstica Geogr4fica, Vol. II, 1903. 


9, 789, 119. 89 
14, 830, 398. 20 


Figures for 1903 are 5,404,651 bolivianos for imports, and 3,602,318 
bolivianos for exports. 

Communications. — The city of La Paz is in communication with the 
rest of the world by telegraph, and with the Pacific coast through 
Tacna and Arica, in the south, and MoUendos in the north. The dis 
tance to Arica is estimated at 475 and to Mollendos at 796 kilometers. 
Interior communication is also had by telegraph and telephone. There 
is an efficient cab service in the capital, which is connected with Guaqui 
or Desaguadero, a port on Lake Titicaca, by a railroad 34 kilometers 
in length. There are several roads leading to the interior departments 
and also to Brazil, Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Paraguay. The city 
is lighted by electricity. 

Education. — Official data for 1899 show that the number of public 
schools for the department of La Paz for that year was 112 devoted 
to primary education, with 6,866 pupils. On December 31, 1902, 
there were in the city of La Paz" 24 municipal schools, 13 for boys 
and 11 for girls, having 2,463 enrolled pupils— 1,471 males and 991 
females — with an average attendance of 1,255 for the boys and 834 for 
the girls. There were, besides, 22 public free schools for both 
sexes with 2,417 pupils, and over 400 boys and girls taking private 

Primary education is therefore represented at the capital by 46 
schools, employing 134 teachers and having 5,279 enrolled pupils. 
These figures do not embrace children being educated in private pri- 
mary' schools, nor a large number of Indians receiving instruction 
under the religious orders. 

Otl;er institutions of learning are the TTniversitj% the Seminary, the 
School of Law, and several private schools and colleges. 

Prhicipal 'buildings. — The city of La Paz possesses many fine 
buildings, several public parks, and a Municipal Library created 
by decree of June 30, 1838, with 697 volumes. At the end of the 
first year the library had increased to 1,500 volumes, reaching the 
number of 3,917 in 1845, 6,810 in 1896, and about 15,000 in 1902. 
The library is open to the public during certain hours dailj', except 
Sundays and holidays. The reading room is large and well lighted 
by electricitJ^ Besides the Municipal Library there are other similar 
establishments in the capital, the principal being the library of the 
Convent of San Francisco with 3,500 volumes, and that of the Convent 
of Recoleta with over 5,000 volumes. The Seminary, the University, 
and the School of Law have also fine libraries, as well as the Inter- 
national Bureau of Immigration and Statistics, and the Geographical 
Society of La Paz. 

« Memoria del Concejo Municipal en 1902. La Paz, 1903. 
116a— 04 5 


The Municipal Museum, which was open to the public in 1844, con- 
tains a fine collection of specimens of the natural wealth of the 
country, besides priceless aboriginal mummies found on the plateaus, 
curiouslj' -deformed skulls, ancient monoliths, and sculptures, speci- 
mens of ceramics and other paraphernalia from the Incas, and some 
samples of Bolivian paleontology, flora, fauna, and mineralogy. 

There are in the city several remarkable churches and convents, a 
good theater, an Orphan Asylum, and many public dispensaries. 
Among the eleemosjnary institutions the principal are the " Benefi- 
cencia"' and the " Higiene." There is also a savings bank called " El 
Ahorro del Hogar," a manual training school " Don Bosco," several 
insurance companies, a race track, a gun club, and many other clubs 
and institutions. 

The city of La Paz possesses a modern penitentiary, built in ten 
years at a cost of 430,000 bolivianos. This penal institution is divided 
into three main departments, one for the detention of accused persons, 
one for debtors, and the penitentiary proper with a capacity for 200 
convicts. There are in the establishment four workshops for men and 
two for women. 




The nine departments into which the Republic is divided are the 

Atacama oe Litoeal. 

Situation. — This department, which has been occupied by Chile 
since 1S79, lies on the Pacific coast, to the southwest of Bolivia. It 
was created by a decree of July 1, 1829. 

Area and population. — The area of Atacama measures 66,170.58 
square kilometers, and the total population of the Department in 1900 
was 49,820 inhabitants." 

Communications. — Antofagasta is the principal seaport of Atacama, 
and is connected with the city of Oruro by rail, and by means of high- 
ways with all the principal producing centers of Bolivia. The total 
distance from Antofagasta to Oruro by rail is 924 kilometers, the road 
riting from 5 meters above the sea level at Antofagasta to 3,694 
meters at Oruro. 

Trade. — A large portion of the foreign trade of Bolivia is carried 
on through the port of Antofagasta. There are no reliable statistics 
on this trade, however, as Bolivian exports and imports are credited 
to Chile instead of Bolivia. The British Consul-General at Valparaiso, 
in his report relative to the trade of Antofagasta,* states that the total 
of exports from Bolivia shipped through that port in 1901 amounted 
to 31,048,096 ;jasos, as follows: 




Sulphate of silver.. 



Borate of lime 

Argentiferous lead. 

19, 924, 112 
826, 433 
723, 7,51 
487, 521 
410, 524 
365, 457 


Copper o,nd silver , 



Other articles 

Total . 


130, 948 

102, l,-)7 

10, 477 



"Chilian figures, December .31, 1900, iis given by the Bolivian census reports, 1902. 
l> Bulletin of the International Bureau of the American Republics, February, 1903. 



Divisions. — The department is divided into 5 provinces and 10 can- 
tones. Cobija, or Puerto La ^lar, with a population of 9,000, is the 
capital city. Other important towns are Antofagasta, as stated, San 
Pedro de Atacama, Tocopilla, and Mejillones. 


Situation. — This department, created by decree of November 18, 
1842, is situated in the northeastern section of the country, bounded 
on the north and east by Brazil, on the west by the department of La 
Paz, and on the south l)y the departments of Cochabamba and Santa 

Area unJ jMindation. — The area of Beni measures 264,455.53 square 
kilometers, with a population of 3:2,180 inhabitants, or a percentage of 
population of 0.12 per square kilometer. According to the census of 
1900, this population has been estimated as follows: From census 
returns, 25,68*); not reported, 5U0; Indians, not civilized, 6,000. 

Comnnniication-'i. — There are several highways in this department 
connecting it with the other departments of the Republic, besides 
navigable rivers, there being the following open ports on the Beni 
River: Reyes, Rurrenabaque, Muchanes, and Magdalena. The depart- 
ment has 4 post-oflice stations, viz, Mlla Bella, Trinidad, capital of 
the department, Rurrenabaque. and Riberalta. Telegraphic communi- 
cation also exists with the rest of the country. 

Trade. — The trade of this department and a large portion of that of 
the National Territor}^ of Colonias is carried on through the customs 
district of Villa Bella, in the province oi ^'aca-Diez, a town situated 
at the confluence of the jNIamore and the Beni rivers, on the Brazilian 
boundarj', 891 kilometers from Trinidad, the departmental capital. 
Villa Bella is the most important customs district of the department 
on the Amazon trade route, about 680 kilometers from LaPaz by land 
and water, and 3,055 kilometers distant from Para, Brazil. The trade 
movement through the Villa Bella customs district, is officially esti- 
mated for 1900, 1901, and 10()2 at the following figures: 


Exports 3, 057, 149 

Imports - , 268, 690 

Bolivianos. Bolivianos. 

210, 765 

1902. Total. 


1. is 1, 044 

84, 027 


5, 942, 087 


During the first six months of 1903 imports amounted to 31,286 and 
exports to 644,584 bolivianos. 

A portion of the trade of the department of Beni is carried on through 
the Puerto Suarez custom-bouse, in the department of Santa Cruz. 

Dirixio/is. — The Department is divided into 4 provinces — Mojos, 
Itenez, Yacuma, and Vaca-Diez; 16 cantones, and 9 vice cantones. 


Capitiil city. — Trinidad, in the province of Mojos, is the capital of 
the department, at an altitude of 500 meters above the sea. Its popu- 
lation numbers, according to the latest census figures (1900), 4,294 
inhabitants, of which 2,109 are males and 2,185 females, or 2,566 city 
and 1,738 rural inhabitants. The city is built on a broad vallej', at 
about 10 kilometei's from Trapiche, a port on the Ibore River, an 
affluent of the Mamore. The distance from Trinidad to the frontiers 
has been officially estimated as follows: To Brazil, via Villa Bella, 891 
kilometers; via Puerto Suarez, 1,741 kilometers; to Argentina, 1,666; 
to Chile, 3,081, and to Peril, via Oruro, 2,235 kilometers. 

The city of Trinidad is well laid out, its streets are wide, and the 
majority of its buildings one story high. It is in communication 
with the rest of the department by means of highways, traffic being 
carried on in large carts. Sugar-cane mills, tobacco factories, and a 
few looms represent the industries of the city. 

The other principal provincial towns are Santa Ana, Magdalena, and 
Ribei'alta, capitals of the provinces of Yacuma, It^nez, and Vaca-Diez, 


Situation. — The department of Chuquisaca, created bj^ decree of 
January 23, 1826, is situated in the southeastern portion of the coun- 
trj', bounded on the north by the departments of Cochabamba and 
Santa Cruz, on the west by Oruro and Potosi, on the south by Tarija 
and the Argentine Republic, and on the east by Paraguay and Brazil. 

Area and population. — The area of the department measures 
68,42(J.2S square kilometers, with a population of 2()4,434 inhabitants, 
which the latest census (1900) divides as follows: Population as per 
census returns, 196,434; not civilized Indians, 8,000, which gives a 
percentage of 2.98 inhabitants per square kilometer. 

Communications. — Highways-are the principal means of communi- 
cation of Chuquisaca with the other departments of the country. 
There are three main wagon roads leading from Sucre, the capital of the 
department, to Cocbabamba, 468 kilometers; to Potosi, 161 kilometers, 
and to Challapata, Oruro, 340 kilometers distant. Up to February, 
1903, there was a stage line running between Sucre and Cochabamba, 
taking six days to make the trip. The Sucre and Potosi stage line is 
not very important by reason of scarcit}' of traffic. The contract 
made by the Government and the stage company expired in 1902, but 
no new bids have been made. The distance between the two provin- 
cial capitals by this road is 161 kilometers. The stage line between 
Sucre and Challapata is subsidized by the Government. The distance 
between the two terminal points is 340 kilometers, taking six days to 
cover it. 


There are 6 post-office stations in the department, 220 kilometers of 
telegraph line, and an efficient telephone service on the State telegraph 

Trade. — There are no official data available in regard to the value 
and the extent of trade in this department. Imports consist in the 
main of foreign manufactured products of all kinds, while the exports 
are the few articles of consumption and staple goods produced by the 

Difisionft. — The department of Chuquisaca is divided into 4 prov- 
inces, named Yampai'aez, Tomina, Cinti, and Acero; 53 cantones, Irt 
vicecantones, and 5 missions. 

Capital city. — Sucre, the capital of the department, as well as the 
official capital of the Republic, is situated at an altitude of 2,844 
meters above the sea. and in 1900 had a population numbering 20,907 
inhabitants, 8,671 being males and J2,236 females. The city was 
fomided in 1538 as La Plata, or Charcas, and was subsequently named 
Sucre by the Bolivian Congress in 1836, in honor of Antonio Jose de 
Sucre, one of the bravest and most honorable soldiers of the war of 
South American independence. 

Sucre is a historical cit}-. being the first to rebel against Spanish 
rule. It is the legal residence of the Executive, Legislative, and Judi- 
cial branches of Government, as already stated, and the See of the 
Archbishopric of La Plata, embracing the departments of Chuquisaca, 
Oruro, Potosi, Tarija, and Atacama. 

Sucre possesses what is considered the best university of the Republic, 
several private colleges, public schools, literary associations, a com- 
mercial college, a public library, containing 6,048 volumes, S.ydO pam- 
phlets, and 914 complete collections of periodical publications, a Law 
School, Geographical Society, and several newspapers and scientific 
publications. The Medical Institute is considered the best of its kind 
in Bolivia, as it is provided with the latest and most expensive instru- 
ments and material, and has an anatomical museum, a museum of 
natural history, several laboratories devoted to microbiology, chemis- 
try, physics, toxicology, etc., and a fine medical library. The city 
has 22 temples, the principal being the Cathedral, Santo Domingo, 
San Felipe Neri, San Agustin, and the churches and convents of Santa 
Clara and Santa Teresa. Other notable buildings are the Palace of 
Justice, the Insane Asylum, the theater, the Palace of the Supreme 
Government, the Xational Bank, and the market. There are also 
several eleemosynary institutions, a bank of issue, and a mortgage bank. 
The principal public parks are the "Alameda" and the "Parque," 
with artificial lakes fed by an aqueduct 21 miles (about 33.79 kilo- 
meters) in length, passing through a tunnel cut in the rock 266 meters 
in length. Sucre is in communication with the rest of the world by 


telegraph, and with the principal cities of the Republic b}"- highways. 
Sucre is distant from the Peruvian frontier, via La Paz, 922 kilo- 
meters; from Chile," by land 1,737; from Argentine, 661; from Bra- 
zil, via Chiquito, 1,527, and via Trinidad, 2,501, and 1,691 kilometers 
from Paraguay. 

The principal provincial towns are Yotala, Padilla, Camargo, and 
Villa Monteaguda, capital of the Yamparaez, Tomina, Cinti, and Acero 
provinces, respectively. 


Situation. — The department of Cochabamba was created by decree 
of January 23, 1826. It lies in central Bolivia, being bounded on the 
north by the department of Beni, on the east by Santa Cruz, on the 
west by La Paz, and on the south by Oruro and Chuquisaca. 

Area and population. — Cochabamba measures 60,417.36 square kilo- 
meters in extent, having a population of 328,163 inhabitants, which, 
according to the census of 1900, is estimated as follows: 326,163 as 
per census returns and 2,000 Indians not civilized, thus giving a per- 
centage ^f population of 5.43 inhabitants per square kilometer, this 
being the most populated department of the Republic. 

Communications. — ^The principal means of communication of this 
department with the rest of the country is by means of wagon roads 
or highways, the principal being one from the capital to Oruro, 228 
kilometers in length, and another connecting it with Sucre, 468 kilo- 
meters distant. From Cochabamba, capital of the department, to 
Oruro, the capital of Oruro, there is a regular stage line holding the 
concession to run the line without competition until the end of 1908. 
The company receives a subsidy from the Government. The time 
needed to cover the distance between the two capitals is two days. 
The Cochabamba and Sucre stage line was suspended in 1903. A 
large portion of the trade of the department is carried on by means 
of the Chapare River and other navigable streams. There ai-e 14 
post-oiEce stations in Cochabamba, 830 kilometers of telegraph wire, 
and an efficient telephonic service over the State telegraphic lines. 

Trade. — Although no official figures are available in reference to the 
trade of Cochabamba, it may be safely stated that its import and 
export traffic is fair, taking into consideration the facilities afforded 
by river navigation and the restricted necessities of the territory. 

Divisions. — The department is divided into 1(> provinces, 59 can- 
tons, and 25 vice-cantons. 

Capital city. — Cochabamba, the capital of the department, was 
founded in 1572. Its altitude above the sea level is 2,557 meters, and 
its population, according to the latest returns of the census of 1900, 
numbers 21,886, divided into 10,377 males and 11,509 females. 

"Sindpsia Estadfstica y Geogrdfica de Bolivia, 1904, Vol. Ill, p. 4. 


Cochabamba lies in an extended narrow valley and enjoys a mild cli- 
mate. The city streets are wide and the public parks well kept. The 
city has a University and several public and private educational insti- 
tutions, a Public Library, various daily and periodical publications, 
literary associations, and charitable institutions. The citj' is in com- 
munication with the re>t of the Republic and the world liy telegraph, 
while interior traffic is done by means of heavy carts or road wagons. 
The distances between the capital and the frontiers ;ue as follows: 
Distance to Peru via La Paz, 624 kilometers: to Chile via Atacama, 
1,359; to Argentine via Tupiza, 941, and to Brazil, 1,365 kilometers, 
via Paraguay, and 1,588 by way of Beni. 

The several provincial capitals are: Quillacolo, capital of Tapacari; 
Punata, Tarata, Totora, and Mizque, capitals of the respective prov- 
inces of the same name; and Capinota, Independencia, Sacaba, and 
Aiquile, capitals of the provinces of Arque. Ayopaya, Chapare, and 
Campero, respectively. 

La Paz. 

The department of La Paz was created b}' decree of January 23, 
1826. and lies in the northwestern portion of the Republic, its bound- 
aries being as follows: Brazil on the north, Peru on the west, 
Atacama and Oruro on the south, and Cochabamba and Beni on the 

Ana and 'population. — The area of this department measures 
139.277. 71 square kilometers, with a population of 14:5,616, according to 
the census of 1900, estimated as follows: From census returns. 126. 930 
inhabitants; not repoi-ted. 3,686; not civilized (Indians) 15.000. This 
shows that the percentage of population in this department is 3.1ii per 
square kilometer, being the second as regards density of population. 

Resources. — The products of this department are numerous. The 
animal kingdom is represented by large flocks of llamas, alpacas, 
vicunas, sheep, and goats, and great droves of horses and cattle; the 
vegetable, hy numerous products, such as cocoa, cotton, coffee, cacao, 
bananas, sugar cane, orange and lemon trees, cereals, potatoes, 
different vegetables, and building and cabinet woods. The coffee cul- 
tivated around La Paz in the '• yungas" — the low, inclosed vallevs 
north of the city on the slope of the Cordillera Real, between hills 
from 800 to 1,600 meters high, and whose rivers flow toward the 
Amazon, are designated under this name — has the aroma and delicacy 
of the Mocha coffee. Formerly the coflee trees were used to inclose 
or were planted as hedges to the agricultural properties, and it is only 
recently that regular coflee plantations have been set out. 

In the same "yungas" is found the cocoa, at Apolobamba, from 
which the chocolate of the same name is produced. The sugar of 
this region is remarkable for its crystallization and the cotton for the 

LA TAZ. 73 

delicacy of its fiber. The same superiority is found in tiie fiber of the 
Angora wool. 

The mineral kingdom is represented by gold, copper, silver, rock 
crystal, very beautiful marble (some of the white varieties being 
almost transparent), tin, etc. From a commercial point of view the 
department of La Paz is one of the most important of the Republic. 

The development of the copper mines of Corocoro, a small Indian 
village, situated at an altitude of 4,025 meters, is extraordinary on 
account of the high prices reached recently by this metal. These 
mines, which have been known since the earliest times, were once 
abandoned on account of the low price of this metal and the difficulty 
of exporting the products. They are a part of a vast formation which 
extends almost without interruption to Atacama, passing through the 
provinces of 'Lipez, where white copper is found, Porco, and Cha- 
yanta (department of Potosi). Appearing in the provinces of Arque 
and Colchas (department of Cochabamba), it extends toward Turco, 
Poopo, and Oruro; then follows a northeast direction to Corocoro, 
and from Corocoro this copper formation extends through the prov- 
inces of Omasuyos, Munecas, and Caupolican, ending at Apolobamba, 
in Pere. Besides these immense deposits, veins have been discovered 
in all the Andine spurs, extending to the departments of Chuquisaca 
and Tarija. 

Communications. — The department of La Paz enjoys the distinc- 
tion of being the first section of the countr}' where a railway has been 
built with national funds. The line, which starts at the Guaqui wharf, 
in the Pacajes Province, department of La Paz, has a total length of 
87.20 kilometers to the Alto de La Paz, a short distance from the capi- 
tal. The line was officially inaugurated on October 25, 1903. This 
line connects with the steamers plying on Lake Titicaca, and the Puno 
and Mollendo Railroad. 

The principal highways of La Paz connect the capital with Oruro, 
273 kilometers, with Corocoro, capital of the Pacajes Province, 114 
kilometers, and with Achacachi, Omasuyos Province, 111 kilometers 
distant. Stage lines run regularly on these roads, covering the dis- 
tance between La Paz and Oruro in two da3'S, between La Paz and 
Corocoro in twelve to fourteen hours, and between La Paz and 
Achacachi in about the same time. 

River navigation is another means of communication of the depart- 
ment, affording excellent facilities for the development of trade. 

There are 30 post-office stations in the department, kept at a cost of 
45,692 bolivianos perannum. Theextentof telegraphic lines is 711 kilo- 
meters, and telephonic communication is had over certain State tele- 
graph lines. 

Trade. — The most important interior customs district of the Republic 
is that of La Paz, as it yields ihe largest revenue to the State, notwith - 



standing the fact that only one department supports the trade. There 
are several small customs districts under the jurisdiction of the La Paz 
custom-house. During the j'ears 1900, 1901, and 1902 the revenues 
produced by the La Paz custom-house have been officially estimated 
at the following values: 


1900 885,825 

1901 1,113,134 

1902 - 1,069,259 

The trade of La Paz Custom House for 1903 has been officially esti- 
mated as follows: Imports, 5,401,651 bolivianos, against 5,194,721 in 
1902, or a gain of over 226,000 bolivianos, and exports 3,737,343 
bolivianos, against 3,843,054 in 1902, or a decrease of over 105,000 

Divisions. — The department is divided into 11 provinces, 103 can- 
tons, 35 vice-cantons, and 3 missions. 

Capital city. — La Paz de Ayacucho, capital of the department, as 
well as the present seat of Government, " is in communication with the 
Pacific coast through Tacna and Arica in the south, and Mollendos in 
the north, the distance to Arica being 475 and to Mollendos 796 kilo- 
meters. The city of La Paz is 1:^2 kilometers from Peru, via the Desa- 
guadero River, and 267 via Ancomarca; 1,404 kilometers from Chile, 
by way of Cuevitas; 936 from Argentina, via La Quiaca, and 1,838 and 
1,738 kilometers from Brazil, whether through Puerto Suarez, depart- 
ment of Santa Cruz, or via Villa Bella, respective!}". The number of 
schools in the department of La Paz on December 31, 1902, was 172, 
with 10,165 attendants and 275 teachers. * 

The provinces are Cercado, Sicasica, Omasuyos, Munecas, Pacajes, 
Loaiza, Inquisivi, Nor-Yungas, Sud-Yungas, Larecaja, and Caupolican. 


Situation. — The department of Oruro, created on September 5, 1826, 
is situated in the western portion of the Bolivian territory, its bound- 
aries being as follows: La Paz to the north; Atacama on the west; 
Potosi on the south and east, and Cochabamba to the northeast. 

Area and population. — The department covers an area of 49,537.53 
square kilometers, its population being, according to the official census 
of 1900, 86,084 inhabitants, divided into 43,698 males and 42,386 
females, showing a density of population of 1.71 per square kilometer. 

Mesaurces. — The department of Oruro is one of the most important 
in the Republic both from a commercial and a mining point of view. 
Government statistics show that the exports of tin bars from the 

o See Chapter IV, page 63. 

6Memoria del Presidente del Concejo Municipal, en 1902. La Paz. 




■ - - ' ' 

1 ^- ^t^^^i 



department of Oruro during the year 1900 amounted to 81,771.28 
metric quintals, as follows: 

Oruro 11,350.28 

Machacamarca 36, 674. 94 

Poopo 3,665.14 

PaziSa 6,153,92 

Challapata 22,515.99 

Sevaruayo 1,411. 01 

Total 81,771.28 

Thesfe figures do not include 850.75 metric quintals shipped in bulk 
from Oruro. Estimating the value of an avoirdupois ton at £111 the 
82,622.03 metric quintals, or 812.41 tons, are worth £90,177 10s. 2d. 

Communications. — The means of communication enjoyed by the 
department are in the first place the outlet to the Pacific by the Anto- 
fagasta and Oruro Railway, inaugurated on May 15, 1892. The total 
distance covered by the railway is 924 kilometers. It ascends from 
Antofagasta, situated at 5 meters above the sea level to Quegua, 3,796 
metei's, and then descends to Oruro, 3,694 meters altitude. 

There are highways in the department leading* to several of the 
adjoining departments, the principal being the La Paz and Oruro road 
where a stage line is established, covering the distance between the 
terminals, 273 kilometers, intv/odays, and the Cochabamba and Oruro, 
228 kilometers in length, where there is another regular stage line 
covering the distance between the two capitals in two days. 

River navigation also affords another means of communication. 
There are 6 post-office stations in the Department maintained at a cost 
of 23,476 bolivianos. The Antofagasta and Oruro Railway Company 
has a telegraph line running parallel to the railroad track, the exten- 
sion of this line being 924 kilometers. The other telegraph lines in 
the department represent total length of 816 kilometers. Telephonic 
communication is obtained over some of the State telegraph lines. 

Trade. — By decree of July 29, 1902, Oruro was created a National 
Customs District, intrusted with the special duty of classifying accord- 
ing to tariff all goods and merchandise imported through Antofagasta 
for consumption in the interior of the Republic, and also intrusted 
with the dispatch of all merchandise iii transit to Antofagasta, and the 
collection of the export tax on minerals. Previous to this Oruro 
existed as an ordinary customs district, its trade movement for the 
fiscal years 1900, 1901, and 1902, being officially estimated at the fol 
lowing figures: 






6, 673, 689 

270, 141 



259, 906 







The trade of Oruro for 1903 is officially estimated at 352,834 bolivia- 
nos for imports and 8,013,544 bolivianos for exports. 

Divisions. — The department is divided into 3 provinces, 23 cantons, 
and 17 vice-cantons. 

Capital city. — Oruro, founded in 1606, is the capital of the depart- 
ment. The cit}' is at an altitude of 3,694 meters above the level of the 
sea, and has a population according to the National Census of 1900 of 
15,898 inhabitants, of which there were 7,692 males and 8,203- females, 
further divided into 13,575 inhabitants for the city and 2,323 for the 
rural districts. The city of Oruro lies in a broad plain at the foot of a 
small ridge of mountains. Its climate is cold, strong winds prevailing 
in this region. Oruro has a good public library, several fine buildings, 
and public squares, educational and' benevolent institutions, and several 
dailj- and periodical publications. The city is connected with the 
Pacific coast by the Antofagasta Kailway. The distance from Oruro to 
the frontier is as follows: To Peru, via Carangas, 284 and via La Paz, 
395 kilometers; to Brazil, bj- way of La Paz, 2,011; bj' waj- of Trini- 
dad and Santa Cruz, 2,T41, and via Puerto Suarez, 2,150 kilometers; 
to Argentine, via^Tupiza, 663 kilometers, and 1,131 kilometers from 

The provinces and their respective capitals are: Cercado, capital 
Oruro; Paria, capital Poopo; and Caraugas, capital Corque. 


Situation. — This department, created by decree of January 23, 
182(5, is situated in the southwestern section of Bolivia, being bounded 
on the north liy Oruro and Cochabamba, on the west and south liy the 
Litoral de Cobija or Atacama, on the southwest by Argentine, and on 
the east by Tarija and Chuiquisaca. 

Area and population. — Potosi covers an area of 126,390.43 square 
kilometers, with a population of 325,615 inhabitants as given by the 
latest official census, 1900. This shows a density of population of 2.57 
inhabitants per square kilometer. 

Resources. — Potosi is one of the richest mineral districts in the 
world, and its export trade consists in the shipping of mineral prod- 
ucts either to Chile, by the Antofagasta and Oruro Railway, via 
t^yuni, or to the Argentine through the Tupiza customs district. 

Cduiuiunicdtionx. — The principal highways connecting Potosi with 
the neighboring departments are the one leading from Sucre to the 
city of Potosi, 161 kilometers in lenyth, the Potosi and Uyuni road, 185 
kilometers, and the road from Potosi to La Quiaca, 417 kilometers in 
length. Navigation also affords means of interior communication. 
There are 20 post-office stations in the department, maintained at an 
annual cost of over 31,000 bolivianos. The number of kilometers of 



telegraph wire is about 700, and the telephonic service is also well 
established in the department. 

Trade. — The import and export trade of the department is carried 
on through the custom-houses of Uyuni and Tupiza. Uyuni lies on 
the western section of the department, on the railway from Antofa- 
gasta to Oruro, the special duties of this custom-house being to collect 
the export tax on minerals and verify the operations of the Antofa- 
gasta custom-house. The exports through Uyuni consist mainly in 
goods in transit, as it is the nearest custom-house to the Chilean 

For the years 1900, 1901, and 1902 the imports and exports through 
Uyuni are officially estimated as follows: 

Exports . 
Imports . 

919, 845. 10 

19, 382, 062. 60 
1, 071, 462. 39 

1,388, 767. 1£ 

49, 647, 234. 31 
3, 380, 064. 62 

For 1903 the imports amounted to 2,222,390 bolivianos, while the 
exports were estimated at 10,936,280 bolivianos. 

The Tupiza customs district is on the Pilcomaj'o River,in the south- 
eastern portion of the department of Potosi. Through this custom- 
house are cleared all goods imported from Argentine, as well as those 
in transit for the departments of Potosi, Chuquisaca, and Oruro. 
Tupiza is principally a mining center, gold, silver, tin, bismuth, and 
lead being mined in this section. Trade through this customs district 
for 1900, 1901, and 1902 is estimated as follows, according^ to official 
figures : 

Exports . 
Imports . 


540, 840. 41 
1, 038, 910. 50 

1, 173, 860. 80 
523, 137. 89 

695, 848. 40 
664, 517. 58 


The official estimate for 1903 ci'edits Tupiza with 661,817 for 
imports and over 160,000,000 bolivianos for exports. 

The revenue derived from both customs districts in 1902 is estimated 
at 87,381.29 bolivianos. 

Divisions. — The department is divided into 9 provinces, 73 cantons, 
and 78 vice- cantons. 

Capital city. — The capital of the department is the city of Potosi, 
founded in 154.5, at an altitude of 4,146 meters above the level of the 
sea. During the colonial epoch this was one of the richest cities in 
America on account of its mineral wealth. A census taken in 1611 


gave Potosi 160,000 inhabitants, while the latest official figures for 
1900 show its population to number 20,910, as follows: Males, 10,366, 
and 10,544 females. 

Of the ancient splendor and the 60 churches of Potosi only a few 
remains are left. Most of the temples are in ruins. The Matriz 
(cathedral) is considered the best in the Republic. San Francisco is 
another rich and handsome church. In the heights surrounding the 
citj'^ there still exist 36 lakes built at an expense of over $3,000,000. 
Among the other remarkable institutions and buildings is the Casa 
Nacional de Moneda (National Mint), built in 1572 at a cost of 
11,148,000, with timber brought from Argentine. Up to 1S46 the 
mint had coined $1,751,721,578. Up to 1876, §111,204,307 {pesos) and 
7 reales silver and $2,621,919 gold had been coined. Coinage in 1892 
amounted to 1,535,340 bolivianos, at a cost of $68,054, and in 1893 to 
$1,678,320, at a cost of $54,894. 

In 1895 the municipality of Potosi supported 49 schools, there being 
besides 11 public and 1 private schools, with a class roll of 1,973 boys 
and 928 girls. Potosi has a public library, a metallurgical museum of 
no small importance, several newspapers, hospitals, a bank, and man}- 
other important institutions. The city is in communication with the 
rest of the world hy telegraph and with all the other capitals of the 
Republic by means of highways. 

The provinces are Frias, Charcas, Linares, Chayanta, Nor-Chichas, 
Sud-Chichas, Porco, Nor-Lipez, and Sud-Lipez. 

Santa Cruz. 

Sihoation. — The creation of this department dates from January 28, 
1826. Santa Cruz lies in the eastern portion of the territory and is 
bounded on the north by the department of Beni and Brazil, on the 
west by Cochabamba and Chuquisaca, on the south by the latter 
department, and on the east by Brazil. 

Area and 'population. — The area of this department measures 366,- 
128.03 square kilometers, with a density of population of 0.57 per 
square kilometer, according to the census of 1900, which gives the fol- 
lowing figures: Population per census returns, 171,592; not reported, 
18,000; Indians not civilized, 20,000. 

Resources. — The natural products of this department are in general 
terms similar to those of the rest of the Republic. There is quite an 
important export trade in sugar, rice, cacao beans, manioc, rubber, oil, 
tanned and raw hides, skins, vanilla, and tamarind. The principal 
industries are the manufacture of cigars, sugar, and spirits, tanneries, 
a sawmill, and other less important trades. 

Communications. — River navigation is the principal means of com- 
munication. Santa Cruz has to carry on its trade with the interior, as 



well as with the neighboring departments, over the rivers Chapare, 
Mamore, Beni, and other large streams and their tributaries. High- 
ways also traverse the territory, heavy carts being used in the traffic. 
Mail service is in charge of 12 post-office stations, maintained at an 
annual cost of about 24,000 bolivianos. The telegraphic lines in Santa 
Cruz cover a distance of over 100 kilometers, while telephonic service 
is efficient. 

Trade. — The bulk of the import and export trade of the department 
of Santa Cruz, as well as a large portion of the trade of Beni, is car- 
ried on through the customs district of Puerto Suarez, situated on the 
western bank of the Paraguay River, on the bajr of Caceres, opposite the 
Brazilian town of Corumba. This customs district is an important 
center for ihe trade of southeastern Bolivia. 

The amount of trade done through the Puerto Suarez custom-house 
during the years 1900, 1901, and 1902 is officially estimated at the 
following figures: 




Exports . 
Imports . 

118, 753. 21 




559, 486. 81 

Official figures for the trade of this port in 1903 show the following 
values: Imports, 303,980 bolivianos and exports 300,088. 

Since the opening of Puerto Suarez in 1893, the old port of Santiago 
in the same department has been closed to traffic. 

Divisions. — The department is divided into 6 provinces, 51 cantones, 
19 vice-cantones, and 5 missions. 

Capital city. — Santa Cruz de la Sierra, altitude 422 meters, is the 
name of the capital of the department. The city was founded in 1557. 
The population of Santa Cruz, according to latest census reports 
(1900), is 209,592, as follows: Census returns, 171,592; not reported, 
estimated at 18,000; uncivilized Indians, estimated, 20,000. Santa 
Cruz is situated in a valley, and possesses several fine buildings and 
wide streets. It has a University, a number of primary .schools, liter- 
ary associations, newspapers, religious and eleemosynary institutions, 
and other elements of civilization. The city is in telegraphic commu- 
nication with the world, and is the starting point of several highways 
leading to the provincial capitals or to the large navigable rivers Beni, 
Madre de Dios, Mamore, and Guapay. These rivers are navigated by 
small craft. 

Santa Cruz is distant from the frontiers of Bolivia: Six hundred and 
seven kilometers from Argentine, 3',02:3 from Chile, 1,176 from Peru 
via Oruro, and 1,288, via La Paz, and from Brazil 1,388 and 702 kilome- 
ters, via Trinidad and Puerto Suarez, respectively. 



The provinces and their capitals are: Cercado, the chief town; Santa 
Cruz, the departmental capital; Valle Grande, with a capital bearing 
the same name; Cordillera, Lagunillas; Velasco, San Ignacio; Sara, 
Portachuelo; Chiquitos, and San Jose. 


Situation. — This department was created on September 24, 1831. 
It is situated in southern Bolivia, having Chuquisaca to the north and 
east, Potosi to the west, and Argentine to the south. 

Area an d population. — The area of Tarija measures 1 83. Oi 16. 16 square 
kilometers, and its population, according to the last census. lOOO, num- 
bers 102,887 inhabitants, divided as follows: Census returns, <jT,SS7; 
not reported, 10,000; uncivilized Indians, 25,000, or a percentage of 
0.56 inhabitants per square kilometer. 

Besourcefs. — The resources of Tarija are of an agricultural and mining 
character, lack of capital and labor being responsible in the main for 
their undeveloped. condition. 

Communications. — Highways and river navigation are the principal 
means of transportation in the department. There are 6 post-office 
stations, maintained at a cost of about 12,000 bolivianos a year. There 
are 3,116 kilometers of telegraph wire in the department and an 
efficient telephone service over the State telegraph lines. 

Trade. — All the commerce of the department is carried on through 
the Tarija customs district, situated in the western section of the 
department, on one of the affluents of the Bermejo River. The trade 
through this customs district during 1900, 1901, and 1902 is estimated 
as follows bv the Bolivian authorities: 

Exports , 
Imports . 

•n. S26. 16 
299, 404. 84 


34, 323. 74 
478, 556. 24 


31, 199. IS 
316, 004. 05 




The foreign trade of the port during 1903 has been estimated at 
466,780 bolivianos for imports and 28,500 for exports. 

Divisions. — The department is divided into 6 provinces, 29 can- 
tones, 35 vice-cantones, 5 missions, and 1 colony. 

Capital ci.ty. — The capital of the department is the city of Tarija, at 
an elevation of 1,921 meters, founded in 1571. 

The population of Tarija, according to the census of 1900, numbers 
6,980 inhabitants, 3,140 males and 3,840 females. On account of its 
situation and climatic conditions Tarija is a delightful city. It is well 
known for its mineral springs and fine buildings, among others the 
Cathedral and the Convent of San Francisco. The city is in commu- 
nication with the world bj- telegraph, and has many fine roads lead- 


ing to the other departments. The distance between the city of Tarija 
and the frontiers of Bolivia is as follows: Argentine, 133 kilometers; 
Paraguay^ 1,225; Brazil, via Puerto Suarez, 1,883, and via Villa Bella, 
3,031 kilometers; Peru, by way of La Paz, 1,214, and by way of 
Oruro, 1,103 kilometers, and 1,170 kilometers distant from Chile. 
Tai'ija has a public library', several schools, colleges, hospitals, scien- 
tific associations, and various newspapers and other publications. 

The provinces and their capitals are: Cercado, chief town Tarija, 
also the capital of the Department; Mendez, San Luis; Aviles, Con- 
cepcion; Gran Chaco, Yacuiba; Salinas, San Luis, and Arce, Padcaya. 


Situation. — The Territorio Nacional de Colonias, lying to the north- 
west of Bolivia, was created by a decree dated March 8, 1900. At the 
time of the creation of the Territory its boundaries were given as 
follows: To the north, the boundary line with Brazil; to the west, the 
Peruvian boundarj' line; to the south, river Madi-e de Dios, and river 
Beni to the east. By virtue of the boundary treaty concluded with 
Brazil on November 17, 1903, the definite boundary line has been 

Area and pojnilation. — The Territory embraces the largest area of 
any of the divisions "of the country, measuring 497,931.05 square kilo- 
meters.* Its population, as given by the census of 1900, consists of 
7,228 inhabitants, according to census returns, 9,656 not reported, and 
15,000 uncivilized Indians, making a total of 31,883 inhabitants, or 0.6 
per square kilometer. 

Resources. — This Territory embraces one of the richest rubber pro- 
ducing belts in South America, and only awaits for capital and labor 
to yield immense riches. 

CommiinicatiouK. — River navigation, highways, postal facilities, tel- 
egraphs, and telephones are the means of communication with the 

Trade. — The Acre National Customs District is situated at Puerto 
Acre, on the left bank of the river of the same name, a few kilometers 
south of the Brazilian frontier. According to Bolivia's official sta- 
tistics the exports of Puerto Acre in 1900 to 1902 were as follows: 


1900 6, 461, 028 

1901 6, 474, 090 

1902 2, 328, 388 

The only official data available in regard to imports is for 1901, when 
they amounted to 60,144 bolivianos." 

a See Chapter I, p. 10-13. 

6 Sinopsis Estadfstica y Geogrdflca, Vols. I and III. 

«Siii6psis Estadfstica y Geogrdfica, Vol. II. 

lieA-04 6 


Divisions. — The Territory is divided into 2 delegadones, called 
"Aiquiri" and " Madre de Dios," respectively, and 8 cantones. 

Capital city. — Puerto Acre, founded in January, 1899, under the 
name of Puerto Alonzo, is the chief town of the Territory. There 
are no official data giving reliable infonnation as to the population of 
Puerto Acre. The National Census Commission, however, publishes 
a table? showing the figures obtained in February, 19(1:^, for the popu- 
lation of Puerto Acre by the military authorities. According to these 
figures, there were 345 inhabitants in Puerto Acre. 329 of which were 
males and 16 females, further divided into 207 whites, 122 mestizos, 
10 Indians, and 6 negroes. 

"Censo de la Poblacion de Bolivia en 1900. Vol. I. La Paz, 1902. 



Bolivia ha,s an estimated area of 182,233,400 hectares. Leaving 
aside about 30 per cent of this total as represented by forests, rivers, 
lakes, mountains, citier, etc., there remains over 100,000,000 hectares 
suitable for agriculture and stock raising, which could give occupation 
to 25,000,000 or 30,000,000 people. The population of the countrj^ 
numbers about 2,000,000, while the land under cultivation may be 
estimated at about 4,000,000 hectares. Of this area, however, only 
about one-half is under actual cultivation, as it is customary in the 
country to set aside a portion of the land for breeding purposes and 
future agricultural development. The topographical formation of the 
country is such that products from all the zones can be raised, the 
natural richness of the soil and abundant means of irrigation facili- 
tating agricultural development. Most, if not all, of the land under 
cultivation is held by the whites but worked by Indians, employing 
the most primitive methods in the generality of cases. A great vari- 
ety of crops is raised in the country, for local consumption only, the 
main products for export being the following: 

RiMer. — This is undoubtedlv the principal and most valuable of 
Bolivian products. The belts or districts where rubber is grown and 
sapped are divided into four classes, according to the natural commer- 
cial outlet of the product, the first region being that of the Acre or 
National Territorj' of Colonias, estimated to produce about 10,000 tons 
of crude rubber per year. The outlet for the exports of this belt, as 
well as a portion of the product of the upper Tahuamanu River, is 
Puerto Acre. The second belt is that formed by the basins of the 
rivers Madidi, upper and lower Beni, Orton, Maruripi, Tahuamanu, 
and several lesser streams, embracing such sections of Madre de Dios, 
Acre, and Purus as do not find a natural outlet through Puerto Acre. 
The exports of rubber from this belt are made through the national 
customs district of Villa Bella. The third belt comprises the rubber 
forests of La Paz, having as a natural outlet Puerto Perez, on Lake 
Titicaca, and via Puoo and Mollendo, ia Peru. The fourth and last 




rubber producing zone lies in the northeastern section of the depart- 
ment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, embracing the provinces of Velasco 
and Magdalena, the former being on the boundary line with the state 
of ^Slatto Grosso, Brazil. The department of Cochabamba also has an 
abundant supply of rubber trees, now commencing to be developed, 
but promising a great future. 

Production. — The production of rubber in Bolivia from 1890 to 
1902, except for 1899, do data being available for this year, is given 
in the following table compiled by Bolivian authorities, showing the 
year, number of kilograms, value, and duties or taxes collected: 












394, 818 



2, 475, 000 









3, 496, 2J0 


3, 46.=., 063 














497, .580 




The exports of rubber during the years 1900, 1901, and 1902, is 
officially valued at 10,403,959 bolivianos for 1900; 9,151,823 for 1901 
and 4,910,334 for 1902. 

Coca {Erytln'oxiflon coca or Peruljianum). — This is one of the most 
valuable products of Bolivia. It is a shrub from 2 to 8 feet in height, 
according to the locality where it is cultivated, which has attracted the 
attention of the world since 1862, on account of its marvelous proper- 
ties. Coca is cultivated in the lower plateaus and temperate regions 
of the western watershed of the Andes, in the departments of La Paz 
and Cochabamba, at an altitude of 650 to l,6o(i meters above the 
sea level. The cultivation of this plant is one of the richest and most 
prosperous industries of the province of Yungas. A coca plantation 
requires an outlay of about 2.500 bolivianos at the start, and 20 months 
of care and cultivation. It begins to produce about the third year an 
income of 1,000 to 1,500 bolivianos per annum. A coca plantation, 
with proper care, may last from 30 to 40 years. 

The total production of the coca plantations in the country is esti- 
mated at 3,500,000 kilograms per year, valued at 3,000,000 bolivianos, 
the State receiving 250,000 bolivianos per annum on taxes. About 
three-fourths of the total production comes from the province of 
Yungas, in the department of La Paz, the balance being the product 
of Larecaja, Inquisivi, Caupolican and Yuracarez in Cochabamba. 

Bolivian coca commands better prices than the Peruvian product, 
and has a larger demand in foreign^markets, while miaersaud Indian 


laborers vise it in preference to any other. Cocaine is the alkaloid 
extracted from the coca leaves. The ph^'siological effects of coca 
vary according- to the mode of using the leaves, whether in an infusion 
or hj simple mastication. In the iirst case a slight nervous irritation 
is produced, accompanied by insomnia, and in the second case its 
action is slow, steady, and invigorating, keeping up strength without 
need of food. Thus the resistance of the Indian is explained, who can 
work steadilj' in the fields or undertake long and exhausting trips 
without anj' food, maintaining his strength by simply chewing the 
coca leaves. It is mainlv through the ports of Mollendo, Arica, 
and Antofagasta that the bulk of the coca exports leave for foreign 
markets, while it is exported to Argentine via Tupiza. 

During the j-ears 1900, 1901, and 1902 the total exports of coca are 
officially given as follows: 





556, 275 
255, 718 

663, 713 

1901.. . . 

269, 613 

1902 ... 

223, 930 

The export tax levied on La" Paz amounts to 0. 50 boliviano per 
cesto, or basket of 25 pounds. France is the largest consumer of coca 

Coffee {Coffea arabica). — Bolivian coffee is considered by many as 
finer than the Moka product, and at times it has commanded very high 
prices in foreign markets. Yungas coffee was once a favorite in 
European markets, where it was sold as high as 50 bolivianos per 
quintal (100 pounds). At the present moment coffee is cultivated in 
Yungas in a small scale, the annual production being estimated at 12,000 
to 15,000 quintals, which is not sufficient for local consumption. It is 
believed that with better means of communication and transportation 
facilities coffee production will increase to the e.xtent of making this 
product one of the principal items of Bolivian exports. Good coffee 
is also produced in Beni, and Santa Cruz, and exported to Chile 
and Argentine. 

The cultivation of the plant is not difiicult, as it onlj' requires to 
clear the ground of the underbrush twice a year, the first crop being- 
gathered at the end of the third year after planting. Each tree yields 
from 2 to 8 pounds every crop. In Yungas the soil is so suitable for 
the cultivation of the plant that coffee grows almost spontaneously. 
A Spanish quintal (46 kilograms, or about 101. 50 English pounds) of 
coffee is worth on an average from 26 to 28 bolivianos. Coffee dregs 
or residue is an excellent fertilizer, and some use it in preference to 
the Peruvian guano, as it contains 85 per cent of nitrogen. The 


analysis made of this residue has shown that it contains a large per- 
centage of phosphoric acid and phosphates. The exports of coffee in 
1900, litol, and 1902 are estimated officially as follows: 





212, 368 




61 744 

Qulnu ( i 'ineJiona ojfidrialis). — This is classed among the most impor- 
tant products of tropical Bolivia, not only on account of its superior 
qualitj', but also by reason of its large production. Cinchona bark is 
found in all the eastern region of the Andes, especialh^ in the depart- 
ments of La Paz, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, and Tarija. The number 
of trees in cultivation at present is estimated at 6,000,000. Formerly 
there was no system of cultivation, the trees being felled in order 
to strip them of their bark. Now the stripping is done carefully and 
according to scientific methods. 

Bolivia was for a time the principal cinchona-producing country in 
the woi'ld, and when the cultivation and exploitation of the plant was 
introduced in other countries it was feared that this source of wealth 
would be lost. This has not been the, however, as the Bolivian 
production is not sufficient to meet the existing demand for the Boliv- 
ian bark, the quality of which is considered superior to any other similar 
product, the analj^ses made bj' Delondre and Pelletier showing that 1 
kilogram of Bolivian calisaya or cinchona bark yields from 30 to 32 
grams of sulphate of quinine. 

The following is the result of said analyses: 


Bolivian caliaaya bark 30-32 

Curled calisaya _ 15-20 

Carabaya (thick bark) _ 15-20 

Carabaya (thin bark) 12 

Cuzco (red bark) _. i 

Ecuador (red bark) 1 _ . 20-25 

Ecuador (light bark ) 15-18 

Huauuco (Peruvian ) _ 4 

Colombia 30 

Pitayo cinchona ( Popayan) . . _ _ _ _ _ 20-25 

The Challana cinchona from the department of La Paz is the high- 
est quality of the Bolivian bark, yielding 48 ounces of sulphate of 
quinine to the 100 pounds. There are immense cinchona forests in 
the department of Santa Cruz as yet unexplored. 

The quinine plantations of Bolivia, it appears, were started by 
German immigrants having some knowledge of chemistry and chem- 
ical products. The groves, known as "quinine quinales," are usually 


found on rough and broken mountain sides, at altitudes of from 1,000 
to 2,000 meter.s above the sea. Most of the trees have been raised from 
the seed, which is gathered in the early summer months and sprouted 
in hothouses. In five or six years the trees which have been trans- 
planted will have reached a height of 4 to 6 meters and the trunks will 
be straight and slender and about 1.5 centimeters in diameter. In size 
and shape and the peculiar gloss of its leaves the tree resembles the 
orange. Two or three times a year three or four strips of bark about 
50 millimeters wide and from one-half to 3 meters long are cut from 
the trunk and thrown upon a paved yard to drj', where, as the moisture 
evaporates, the}^ curl up like cinnamon bark. Within a year or two 
nature replaces the bark that has thus been stripped off, and the tree 
is stripped again in other places. As the tree grows older, smaller 
strips are taken from the stronger branches, and the mature tree will 
produce an annual average of about 2 kilograms of bark. For ship- 
ment, the bark, after it has dried for a few days, is packed in rawhide 
bales and exported from Arica and Mollendo. 

As there is no tax of any description on the exploitation of the bark, 
there are no statistical data in reference to the actual production of 
cinchona in the country. The exports of cinchona produced in the 
department of La Paz from 1898 to 1902 through the ports of Mo- 
llendo and Arica are officially given as follows: 





172, 597 
328, 307 




260, 061 







The total exports for the years 1900, 1901, and 1902 are valued at 
the following figures: 1900, 104,085 bolivianos; 1901, 127,554 bolivia- 
nos, and 81,309 bolivianos in 1902. 

Cacao {Theohroma cacao). — The department of Beni is the largest 
producer of cacao, its soil being the best suited to the cultivation of 
the plant, especially in that portion lying between Puerto Salinas and 
river Madre de Dios. La Paz and Cochabamba also produce a fine 
grade of the bean. Bolivian cacao is considered on a par with the 
finest products of the world, as it is very rich in oil and has a delicate 
natural aroma, there being no necessity of giving it an artificial flavor. 
The production is sufficient for the needs of local consumption and to 
attend to a growing export trade. 

Tobacco {Nicotiana tahacum)., — This plant is very common in the 
departments of La Paz, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, Tarija, and Beni, 
where several varieties are under cultivation, known as Havana., Mack 


Havana, lechngiiilla {lettuce leaf), lengua de hucy {ox tmigue) and criollo 
{native). Notwithstanding the fair quality of the product its cultiva- 
tion is not equal to the facilities afforded in the country to make a 
good paying industrj'^ of tobacco growing. The total production of 
tobacco in Bolivia is estimated at 1,500,000 kilograms per annum, 
valued officially from 650,000 to 700,000 bolivianos. The exports of 
tobacco during the years 1900, 1901, and 1902 vary from 10,000 to 
17.000 kilograms, valued from 5,000 to 9.00<» bolivianos. 

Bice {Orisa Sat/va). — The ordinary yield of rice in eastern Bolivia 
is 40 to 1, or, in other words, for evevy faTiega" of rice sown the crop 
is estimated at 4:0 fanrgai<. The first crop is gathered five months after 
sowing. Rice can be sown during the entire year. There are two 
kinds of Bolivian rice, the white and a red or pink variety. Wild rice 
has been found in the province of Chiquitos, department of Santa Cruz. 
Notwithstanding the fact that there are great facilities for the cultiva- 
tion of i-ice, not only on account of the soil, which in many districts is 
peculiarly suited to this crop, but also by reason of the enormous yield 
and high quality of the product. Bolivia imported this grain to the 
amount of 1,209,195 kilograms in 190L>, valued at cS90,673 bolivianos. 
The actual rice production of the country is barely sufficient to meet 
the necessity of a small fraction of the population of Santa Cruz. 

Sugar. — ^The cultivation of the cane and manufacture of its products 
should be one of Bolivia's principal industries. The amount of sugar 
cane that could be grown in the department of Santa Cruz is enormous, 
but the primitive methods used are a drawback to the development of 
this industrj'. The crop is gathered eight months after planting. 
Sugar is sold at the city of Santa Cruz at 11 to 16 cents per kilogram, 
according to quality, which when refined is superior to the beet prod- 
uct. It is believed that the increase in the cultivation of the cane, 
which is also grown in the departments of Potosi and Chuquisaca. and 
the introduction of modern methods and improved machinery would 
produce sugar capable of competing in quantity, quality, and price 
with the products of anj- sugar-producing country. Lack of suitable 
means of communication and the expensive and wasteful methods in 
actual use in the country ai-e at present responsible for the small pro- 
duction of sugar cane, while it is a fact worthy of consideration that the 
production of alcohol and rum increases steadily, being estimated at 
over 1,000,000 liters for Santa Cruz alone. There are also heavy 
taxes levied on the sugar-cane industry, which have in a way pre- 
vented its proper development. Sugar exported from Santa Cruz to 
other Departments is taxed at the rate of 1.20 bolivianos per hundred- 
weight, besides the municipal taxes levied at the place of consumption. 

a One fanega is equivalent to 1.58 bushels or 55.50 liters. 



The exports of sugar from Santa Cruz to other BoUvian departments 
for ten years is given m the following table: 




1893 . . .. 

832, 232 
718, 750 
437, 920 



316, 170 

1895 . 

295, 710 


194, 100 

1897 .'. 

182, 940 

1S98 . . . 

187, 500 


176, 680 



1901 ... 



Viticulture. — The cultivation of the grape is one of the flourishing 
industries of the provinces of Mizque, department of Cochabamba; 
Cinti, department of Chuquisaca, and Loayza and Cercado in the de- 
partment of La Paz. There are two kinds of grapes cultivated in the 
country, the crlolla or native variety from the old vineyards founded 
by the Spaniards, and the French or Bordeaux species imported from 
Peru and Argentine. The methods employed for the cultivation of 
the grape are primitive, except in Cinto, where modern methods have 
been introduced of late. There is an immense area that could be 
devoted to the cultivation of the grape and the manufacture of its 
products. There are no statistical data in regard to the production of 
grapes in the country, but it is known that, in the provinces of Cercado 
and Loayza, in La Paz, the 3neld per hectare is estimated at 100 to 150 
quintals of the fruit, while in Cinti and Mizque the yield is far beyond 
these figures. 

Other products. — Corn, wheat, barley, beans, malt, fruits of several 
kinds, chick-peas, pepper, matico {Artanthe elongata), a medicinal 
plant; over 250 kinds of potatoes, chuno (a preparation of frozen pota- 
toes claimed to be highly nutritious and to preserve its qualities unim- 
paired for many years and in all climates); quinua {Chenopodium, 
quinua), claimed to possess nutritious properties superior to those of 
wheat; manioc, oca {Ocsalia tuberosa)., olives, cotton of two varieties, 
one white and another purple, indigo, Campeche and Brazil woods, 
saffron, vegetable silk {toborocJii)., quillal {Saponaria sapindi/n), tarog 
{C'asaljjina tara), camphor, tolu, valerian, gentian, cinnamon, nutmeg, 
and a large number of medicinal plants and tanning barks. 

Silkworm industry. — An attempt was made some years ago to intro- 
duce the silkworm industry in the country, the department of Cocha- 
bamba being selected for the experiment with marked success. An 
Italian who for several years was engaged in the silkworm culture, is 
quoted as follows:" 

aSinopsia Estadlstica y Geogrffica, Vol. II, 1903. 


"It is surprising to see the development and healthy condition of 
the silkworm, as in the fourteen j'ears and over during which I have 
been engaged in the wilkworm industry in Bolivia, 1 have never seen 
one single instance of disease, so that every cocoon is available. The 
silkworm industry has a future, and whoever should develop it in 
Bolivia is assured profits tenfold larger than in anj' other country, not 
only because there is no known disease in the country affecting the 
worms, but also because as many as six cultures can be made during 
the year. 1 have made them during three consecutive years." 


The duty of development and fostering of the agricultural wealth of 
Bolivia devolves upon the ^Ministry of Finance and Industrj'. Leg- 
islation in I'eference to public lands and the regulation of the rubber 
industry will be found in Chapter XIII, devoted to " Immigi-ation 
and Colonization." 


The immense Bolivian forests on the eastern portion of the Republic 
abound with excellent timber, but no effort has been made so far to 
develop this industry, which will undoubtedly jield handsome profits 
to promoters. Ebonj', mahoganj-, cedar, rosewood, satinwood, wal- 
nut, hemlock, beech wood, holly, boxwood, storax, colo (an extremely 
hard wood not affected liy moisture of any kind), jacarandu (a remark- 
able wood of \ariegated colors), and the quebracho (species of ironwood 
used for sleepers on account of its extraordinarj'' resistance) are among 
the few known species of forest products. 

""Within the wilds of its forests and plains," states an authority, 
referring to the natural products of Bolivia, "are to be found a great 
variety of dyewoods and precious medicinal plants from which may be 
distilled fine essential oils, while the mountain slopes, hills, and val- 
lej's abound in valuable construction and cabinet woods. The cele- 
brated ironwood tree of this region attains a height of IS meters and 
a circumference of SO centiuieters. The specific gravity of this exceed- 
ingly compact and durable wood is 1.250. and the contents of tannin 
26 per cent. This wood is used extensively for railroad ties, posts, etc., 
and is emplo^'ed in considerable quantities in tanneries. 

"Another valuable product of the Bolivian forests is the tree known 
as 'Corupan' {Piptademia cebil), which grows to a height of 20 meters 
and attains a diameter of 1 meter. The wood of this tree has a specific 
gravity of 1.141 and does not decav when immersed in water, which 
quality renders it exceedingly valuable for use in the construction of 
ships, bridges, and hydraulic works. It makes a very durable railroad 
tie, and the bark, which is very thick, contains about 25 per cent of 
tannin. The tree secretes an abundance of gum arabic, and is one of 




the most valuable and highly prized productions of the Bolivian for- 
ests. Lapacho {Tuhehuza fiavesceng) is a tree noted for its great beauty 
and usefulness. It grows to the height of 20 metei's, has a circumfer- 
ence of trunk of 80 centimeters and a specific gravity of 1.100. When 
sawed into lumber or beams it is greatly esteemed for construction 
purposes, and is especially suitable for use in the building of hydraulic 
works and for railroad ties. There are four varieties — the gray, the 
yellow, the red, and the black — alt of which may be distinguished 
While in bloom by the color of their flowers. The bark is rich in tan- 
nin, and the wood is utilized in the manufacture of dyes. Mumday 
{Astronium juglandifolkmi) is a greatly prized Bolivian tree, which 
attains a height of some 20 meters and produces a trunk measuring 1 
meter in circumference. The specific gravity of this wood is 1.200, 
and is suitable for railroad ties, telegraph poles, and general construc- 
tion purposes. There are three varieties — white, yellow, and black. 
It is also a dyewood." 


The country is peculiarly suited for stock breeding on account of 
its deep valleys, well-irrigated areas, and excellent pasture fields. 
Stock raising, however, is still in its infancy, although large herds of 
wild and domesticated stock are found in the valleys, table lands, and 
even in the skirts of the Andean range. 

Beef cattle. — Large herds of cattle are found in the frontier of 
Chuquisaca and Tarija, and in the province of Chichas, in Potosi, 
which supply the needs of the rest of the country. In the Chac6 
regions of Tarija and in the eastern portion of this province there 
are numberless wild herds of cattle. The great breeding zone, how- 
ever, extends over the entire region of Mojos, in the department of 
Beni, where, according to official estimates, the number of heads is 
over 1,500,000. Due to the natural pasture the beef of this region 
is said to be excellent. Beef cattle on the hoof is sold here from 10 
to 20 bolivianos, accordingto age and size of animal. There are many 
salting establishments, called saladeros., in this part of the countrj^, 
where salt, sun-dried beef is prepared under the names of charque and 
cecina. All of the Bolivian cattle is native stock, as no foreign breeds 
have been introduced to improve the race. The value of cattle on the 
hoof and hides exported from Bolivia during the years 1900, 1901, 
and 1902 is officially estimated as follows: 






154, 623 

87, 097 
120, 748 



372, 434 


Sheep. — Sheep abound in the cold and temperate regions of the 
country. The wool is considered of the finest qualit}', and its consump- 
tion in European markets is steadil}^ growing. The meat is excellent 
on account of the peculiarl}^ fine pasture grounds of these regions. 
Besides wool clipping and the preparation of the skins, the manufac- 
ture of cheese and salting of the meat are native industries. This salt 
mutton is called chalona and finds a read}' market at home. Sheep 
farms, or haciendas, are generallj' valued for the quantity of the wool 
crop and the number of cheese and chalonas produced, these being the 
only elements taken into consideration, as the real value of the lands 
for other purposes is very small on account of the climatic condition 
of. these regions. 

Goats. — There are more or less large herds of goats in care of the 
Indians, but no effort is made to improve the stock. The meat finds 
a ready market, as well as the skins, the preparation of the latter giv- 
ing rise to small tanning establishments. The exports of goat skins 
in 1902 amounted to <i<J,972 bolivianos, against 7i,815 for 1901 and 
43,000 in 1900. 

Vhinchilla {Chinchilla lanigei'). — The departments of Potosi, Oruro, 
and La Paz are the best producers of this stock, which is also foimd 
in the rest of the country. The Chinchilla fur is highly appreciated 
and commands a good price in foreign markets. The meat is good, 
but finds little consumption in the civilized markets. 

Alpaca {Auchen/K clpaca). — This stock has been the object of special 
investigations by several persons who have endeavored to introduce 
the breed in other countries, unsuccessfull}' however. Alpacas are 
found in large numbers in the provinces situated on the Titicaca plateau, 
toward the eastern slope of the Andes, such as Sisasica and Pacajes 
in La Paz; Carangas in Oruro; and Lipez, Chichas, and Porco in Potosi. 
Alpacas live and thrive in the coldest regions, where snow is constant, 
in the slopes of the loftiest ridges and in the gorges of the tallest Cor- 
dilleras where a fine, small grass is found in marsh}- places. The 
breeding and care of the alpaca is entirely' in the hands of the Indians, 
and it is believed diflicult that other races would undertake to develop 
this industry, as the Indian is peculiarly fitted to the work on account 
of his habits and mode of life. Attempts made to acclimate and 
propagate the alpaca in other countries having proved fruitless so far, 
it is believed that for manj' years to come Bolivia and Peru will have 
the monopoly of this stock, which could undoubtedlj' be improved 
through proper and intelligent care. There are black, white, brown, 
and yellow alpacas, the latter's wool being the only rival to the vicufia 
wool. As a general rule alpacas are clipped twice a year, thus obtain- 
ing fibers about 12 inches in length and a fleece weighing from 10 to l-l 
pounds. Alpaca wool was unknown in European markets until 1835, 
and from that date to 1839 about 3,200,000 kilograms were imported 


through the port of Liverpool. The exports of alpaca wool in 1872 
amounted to 2,000,000 kilograms. At the present moment the exports 
of alpaca wool have decreased so much as to be practically none. 

Vicuna {Oamelus vicogna). — All efforts to domesticate this almost 
priceless stock have proved useless so far. It is found in large numbers 
and in a wild state in the same places inhabited by the alpaca. .Its 
wool is highly appreciated, and furnishes a valuable article for home 
consumption and export, being used for the manufacture of hats and 
heavy fabrics. Vicuna meat is pleasant to the taste and nutritious. 
Blankets or lap rugs made of vicuria pelts are exported to Argentine 
and Chile, where they command high prices. The export of live 
alpacas, vicunas, and chinchillas is prohibited by law. 

Llama {Camelvs lama). — This is by far the most important of all 
Bolivian stock, as it partakes of the usefulness of the camel and of 
the vicuna. It is the Indian beast of burden, and although the llama 
does not carry over 100 pounds, and only makes from 12 to 16 miles 
a day through the steepest trails, it does not cause any expense for 
food, as it lives on the grass and shrub leaves that grow in the 
mountains, and, like the camel, can go for days without drinking. 
Besides these advantages, its meat is nutritious and palatable; its wool 
is used for the manufacture of coarse fabrics, its skin for making 
djotas (an Indian foot wear) and pack boxes, and the bones for the 
manufacture of several articles for weavers. The price of llamas 
varies from 8 to 10 bolivianos. In Lipez, department of Potosi, there 
are immense herds of llamas, the property of Indian breeders. The 
main portion of the traffic from the Pacific ports to the interior of" 
Bolivia is carried on large droves of llamas, the freight being the 
lowest obtainable, and although transportation is extremel}' slow this 
method is preferred to any other for the conduction of such articles 
as glassware, china, and similar products. 

Huanaco (Auchenia Iluanaco.) — The habits of this stock are some- 
what similar to those of the vicuna. It is, however, wilder and more 
difficult to hunt alive on account of its fleetness. 

The exports of stock of all kinds and their products for the years 
1900, 1901, and 1902 are oflBcially given as follows: 




1900 ... . 

468, 061 

297, 481 





The mineral wealth of Bolivia is such as to challenge competition 
with the most famous mining centers of the world. Mining is the only 
industry which has attained such degree of development as to become 
the national industry. The mountains of Bolivia hold large deposits 
of the finest specimens of the mineral kingdom, and only lack of suit- 
able and rapid means of communication, labor, and capital are respon- 
sible for the still undeveloped mining wealth of the largest portion of 
the territory. These conditions notwithstanding, the mining of silver, 
copper, tin, and other ores increased considerably in 1900, the revenues 
derived by the Government from the exports of said minerals amount- 
ing to 775,000 bolivianos in round numbers. 

The number of mining concessions awarded during the fiscal year 
lsyy-l!»Ou numbered 669, and covered an area of 1.5,295 hectares, while 
iti the fiscal year 1900-1901 these permits numbered 1,172 and covered 
31,315 hectares, or an increase of 503 permits and 16,020 hectares. 
Up to the vear 1900, 119 concessions, embracing 596,480 hectares of 
land, were issued by the Bolivian Government, covering the mining 
of emeralds, coal, petroleum, peat, borax, calcite, sulphur, salts, etc. 
In 1900, there were 56 concessions granted for the exploitation of 
the above substances, covering an area of 471.711 hectares, all of 
which shows the immense natural resources of the country, and the 
important part these products are playing in the de\'elopment of the 
Republic, affording at the same time a new source of governnjpntal 

The principal minerals and mineral substances found in the country 
are silver, tin. copper, bismuth, gold, iron ores, antimonj", lead, coal, 
borax, sulphur, nitrate, salt, feldspar, marble, asphaltum, and wolfram. 


Senor Gerardo Zalles, Consul-General of Bolivia in New York, in a 
communication to the ^lonthl}- Bulletin of this Bureau," referring to 
the mineral wealth of the country, makes the following statement: 

« Monthly Bulletin of the International Bureau of the American Republics, March, 



" The principal mineral-producing regions of Bolivia may be enum- 
erated as follows: 

"Department of Potosi. — This department is exceedinglj' rich in 
silver, tin, and bismuth. Silver is found in great abundance in the 
provinces, or districts, of Lipez, Chocaya de Chichas, Cerro de Porco, 
Siporo, Ubina, Huanchaca, Macluyo, Tomave, Calavi, Andacaba, 
Coruna, Pulayo, Guayna Potosi, Puilcata, Malmira, San Juan, Cargua- 
callo in Porco, Guariguari, Machacamarca, Toraci, Maragua, Ocuri, 
San Pedro, and Cerro de Aullagas; tin in Uncia; gold in Chilco de 
Chichas; red and white copper in Lipez; nitrate in San Cristobal de 
Lipez, and topazes, emeralds, opals, jasper, and marble in Lipez. 

''''.Department of Tarija. — This Department contains an abundance of 
native copper in the province of Tarija; silver is found in the province 
of Tazcara, and gold in Cerro de la Polla. In addition to the precious 
metals, the Department of Tarija is rich in asphalt, marble, etc. 

^''Department of Sucre. — Silver is found in Huaillas; silver and tin 
in the provinces of Tomina and Padilla; lead, copper, and gold in 
Cinti; gold, silver, and native copper in Tarabuco de Tomina, as well 
as asphaltum; native copper in the province of Azero, as well as an 
abundance of coal of a superior quality. 

"Department of Cochahaviha. — The gold mines at Choquecamata de 
A3'opaya have been worked for a long time, and were famous mines 
during the time of the Spanish domination. Silver and marble are 
found at Palca; gold and silver at Sayari; silver at Mizque, Colcha de 
Arque, and Quioma. 

"Department of Santa Cms. — In the department of Santa Cruz 
there is a district 60 miles in length, sitated in the province of Santo 
Corazon, containing rich gold mines that are worked by the natives 
onl3'. An abundance of gold is also found in the provinces of Capa- 
rus, San Simon, and Guarayos. These rich mining districts, which 
contain large deposits of high-grade gold ore, were discovered and 
worked by the Jesuit Fathers a century ago. Immense deposits of 
native iron ore exist in the province of Santa Ana, and precious stones 
are also found in this province. 

" Department of L<i I'az. — There are in operation in this department 
the rich mines of Chuquiaguillo, which produce considerable quantities 
of gold ore. Gold and silver are found at Pongo, about 25 miles 
from the city of La Paz. Excellent wagon roads connect this mining 
district with the city of La Paz. Gold is found in the sands of all the 
small streams in the province of Yungas, and exists also in the prov- 
inces of Coroico, Chirca, Unduavi, and Yanacache. Gold nuggets are 
encountered in the rivers of Zongo, Challana, Rio Cajones, and there 
are celebrated gold mines atTipuani and Yani that are known in mining 
circles the world over. Silver and gold are also found in considerable 
quantities in the provinces of Munecas and Charanzi. The provinces 


of Berenguela and Pacajes contain more than 200 mines of silver, 
copper, and bismuth. There are rich copper mines in exploitation in 
the province of Corococo, and gold, silver, tin, and bismuth are mined 
in the province of Inquisivi. iMarble, antimonj', coal, tin, copper, 
and bismuth are found in the province of Sicasica; silver in the prov- 
inces of Mohoza, Yaco, Cavari, Choquetanca, Ichoca, and the famous 
mines of Araca, which are still in operation, produce gold in consider- 
able quantities. 

^^ Department of Oruro. — The Department of Oruro contains at the 
present time 30 mineral districts where silver and tin are mined. Gold 
is found at Irooco, Chuquimia, La Joya, Machacamarca, Poopo, Sepul- 
turas, Sorasora, and Toraca; tin in Negro Pabellon, Condequi, Gua- 
nuni, jNIachacamarca, Bizacoma, and Carangas; silver in nearly all the 
mining districts of the province; tin, copper, iron, lead, silver, bis- 
muth, antimony, and sulphur in Antequera and Ichocollo; feldspar, 
which is used in the manufacture of porcelain, is found in San Jua- 
nillo de Oruro; silver, borax, tin, and bismuth in Carangas; bismuth 
in lumps in Poopo and Coriviri, and large deposits of almost pure 
antimony in Poopo. Topaz and amethysts are found in the province 
of Candelaria." 


For a long time Bolivia stood third among the silver producing 
countries in the world, the annual output of its mines being estimated 
at 10,000,000 ounces. This metal, which is abundantly found in almost 
ever}' portion of the territory, gave a world-wide reputation to the 
Potosi ^iountain, which, from 1506 to 1615, yielded the Spanish Crown 
in taxes onlv (the one-fifth or 20 per cent tax) the sum of 3,240,000,000 
'bolivianos. The western portion of the Republic is the richest in sil- 
ver, the metalliferous belt extending from Sotalaya, department of 
La Paz, in the northwest, to Tupiza, in the south, embracing a zone of 
about 1,600 kilometers in length and 350 kilometers in breadth, with 
large deposits in La Paz, Potosi, Oruro, Cochabamba, Chuquisaca, and 
Tarija. Silver is found here above the gold-bearing belts of the 

The silver-bearing region is divided into three sections, each differ- 
ent from the other as regards conditions and geological formation. 
Thus the Potosi and Oruro mines possess features very different from 
those of Colquechaca, which in turn have no features in common with 
the silver deposits found in the extreme southern portion of the terri- 
tory. There are over 10,000 silver mines in the country which have 
been abandoned, either for lack of capital or for other obstacles con- 
nected with the means of development, though not by reason of 
scarcity of metal. At the present moment silver mining is not carried 
on in Bolivia to a great extent. 


The department of Potosi is the richest in silver, the principal 
mining centers being the liuauchacas, Aullagas, Colquechaca, Ociuri, 
Porco, Guadalupe, Portugalete, Carguaicollo, Chorolque, Tomare, 
Lipez, Cerro de Potosi, Andacaba, Chochacomani, and Turqui. The 
richest ores yield from 1,000 to 8,000 marcos per cajon."' The ores 
yielding this percentage are in the first place native silver, and the 
silver formations known in the country under the names of rosicler, 
canutillo, fierro viejo, pasamano, and other varieties classified according 
to their outward appearance. The acerados and negrillos yield from 
100 to 1,000 marcos. Rosicler is the name given to a rich argentifer- 
ous ore yielding the highest percentage of pure silver. There are two 
varieties of this ore, one light and one dark. The word canutillo as 
applied to this ore denotes that the rosicler is in well-defined crystal-^, 
generally prismatic in shape. The richest "rosicler" region is the 
mining district of Colquechaca, where this mineral is found in veins 
unequally distributed, there being belts where it decreases to a con- 
siderable extent, and even disappears to reappear again in deposits 
called clavos or holsoiies, according to the shape and length of these 
pockets. A rich clavo of this metal yields immense profits, enough to 
pay for all expenses, leaving a substantial sum besides to continue 
operations on a larger scale. There have been instances when the 
working of one rich clavo has produced, in from thirty to fifty days, 
from 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 bolivianos. The ore called paco is of 
inferior quality, yielding only from 5 to 100 marcos per cajon, but as 
this ore is very abundant and easily manipulated, good profits are 
made by the miners. The richest ore is generally exported, and when 
treated in the countrj^ the methods used are the amalgamation and 
smelting processes. The negrillos and acerados are treated in the mines 
by amalgamation with quicksilver, after crushing and roasting in special 
crushers and ovens. The pcuios are treated by means of very simple 
and inexpensive methods, the patio system being generally employed. 
Cerro de Potosi. — This, is the oldest and richest silver mine in the 
country. It is a mount rising to an altitude of 4,T80 meters above the 
sea level, situated at 11^ 34' 59" south latitude and 68° 0' 11" west 
longitude, Paris meridian. The discovery of silver in this mount by 
an Indian dates from 1545. The characteristics of the mount clearly 
show that it is of comparatively recent formation. Its shape is that 
of a perfect cone, measuring at the base 6,988 meters in circumfer- 
ence, and having at its almost circular summit 9.15 meters diameter, 
while its altitude over the mean level of the city of Potosi is 762 
meters. The igneous rock traversing the mount is rich in metallic 

"■Marco is a unit for pure silver, equal to 230 grams, or about 7.40 ounces, troy; 
cajon is equivalent to 50 quintals, or 2,300 kilograms. 

116a— 04 7 


products running in all directions, the principal minerals being lead, 
tin, copper, iron, and especially silver in the shape of chlorides and 
sulphurets. The most remarkable among these products is the one 
called plomo ronco (kerargyriti), frequently yielding as much as 75 per 
cent silver, the rosider and the coch.izo yielding from 75 to 80 per 
cent silver. There are also other silver compounds and masses of 
native silver. 

The Potosi veins run north and south, with an average dip of 75°. 
The number of veins known to have been prospected and developed 
in this mount is officially given at 64, and although manj- others have 
been worked there is no record of their number. The principal veins 
are situated between the Polo vein, east of the summit, and the San 
Vicente vein on the west. East of Polo, and as far as the road leading 
to Argentine, the Spaniards worked several veins. The Descubridora 
or Centeno, the Rica, the Estano, and the Mendieta mines have given 
the largest profits, but at present, excepting the Real Socavon and 
the Rei Socavon, operations in these mines are reduced to treating the 
tailings left by the old miners. The degree of activity in the develop- 
ment of these mines in former times is clearly shown by the ruins of 
the long row of establishments stretching from the town of Potosi for 
over 3 miles, and the damming up of a large quantity of water in res- 
ervoirs at a cost of over $2,500,000. These waterworks were com- 
pleted in 1621. The original number of these reservoirs or lagunas 
was 32, but at present there are only 32 in good condition. 

The average production of the Cerro de Potosi from its discovery in 
1545 to 1800 has been estimated as follows by several authorities: 


Average annual product 13, 485, 174 

Royalties 779,444,057 

Principal 3,897,215,286 

A resume of the output from 1801 to 1864 shows that during these 
sixty -four years the Banco de Rescates de Potosi redeemed 13,203,685 
marcos oi pina silver,'' which, at the average rate of 9 pesos per marcs, 
amounts to $118,833,155. An equal amount has been estimated as the 
value of smuggled silver. Therefoi-e the total output of the Potosi mines 
in 320 years is estimated at $3,631,128,352, or a yearly average of 
Sll,284,776. From 1801 to 1864 the highest amount of silver marcs 
redeemed is estimated at 338,034 marcs for 1811, while the lowest was 
67,384 in 1815. The following are the only mines now under opera- 
tion in Cerro de Potosi: 

Real Socavon de Potosi. — An English company, under the name of 
"The Royal Silver Mines of Potosi, Bolivia, Limited," with a capital 

"Pina (pineapple) or pella (mass) is the amalgam of silver and quicksilver before 
the separation of the latter. 



of £300,000, has been operating this mine since 1886. The company 
has succeeded in establishing a modem mining plant near the mine, 
the water power necessary to the operations being obtained through 
two turbines developing 150 horsepower. This is the best mining 
plant in Potosi, its average output per month being estimated at 8,000 
marcos. The company is still operating the old abandoned mines, no 
further progress toward the interior silver deposits having been made 
so far. It is believed, however, that as soon as the work advances and 
a new vein is struck the output of this mine will be far beyond expec- 
tations. The output of this company from 1894 to 1901 is officially 
given as follows: 



Silver bars. 

Silver ore. 



40, B26. 86 
45, 724. 25 

623. 81 




1896 -• 



81, 379. 91 




34, 010. 67 


42, 856. 00 


29, 530. 00 


333, 784. 00 
648, 680. 60 
449, 788. 00 

a Value of marco, estimated at an average ot 10. 50 bolivianos per marco. 

Puhxcayo. — This mining district, which has been held as the first 
mining district in South America, both by the extension of its silver 
veins and by the unexcelled quality of the ore, is said to be second only 
to the Broken Hill mine of Australia. From 1873, when the present 
company ("Compaiiia Huanchaca") was founded, to 1901 the mine 
produced 4,520 tons of silver. According to scientific investigation 
the mine still contains about 1,150 tons of silver, outside of probable 
new veins or deposits. In order to have an idea of what these figures 
represent in South American silver mining, it suffices to state that the 
production of silver in Chile from the seventeenth century to 1894 has 
been estimated at 7,032 tons, or, in other words, the production of all 
the silver mines in Chile for three centuries is scarcely double that of 
the Pulacayo mine in Bolivia during half a century. 

The Pulacayo mining district is situated at 20° 26' north latitude 
and 69° west longitude, Paris meridian. The mouth of the mine is at 
an altitude of 4,620 meters above the sea level. The property covers 
an area of 598 hectares. Entrance to the mine is had through a socavon 
or shaft 446 meters below the summit of the mount. This shaft 
extends 650 meters in a horizontal line, where another shaft leads 
down to the actual works, 456 meters deep. The general direction of 
the vein, called "Tajo vein," is from east to west, and the average 
thickness of the vein is generally 80 centimeters. 

Estimating the value of the standard silver ounce (28 grams) at 48 
pence for the period above mentioned (1873-1901), less 25 per cent for 



depreciation in silver exported in the shape of ore and other com- 
pounds, the production of the Pulacayo mine ma3' be safely given at 
£24,000,000. Huanchaca, Asiento, and Urbina were formerly the site 
of the principal works for this mine. At present there is a large plant 
at Playa Blanca, near Antofagasta, for the amalgamation and smelting 
cf the ore. The machiner}' is considered one of the best plants in the 
world, costing 5,215,641 bolivianos. 

The Pulacayo mine was worked toward the end of the eighteenth 
century, operations being abandoned at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century and resumed in 1832. In 1873 the Compania Huanchaca de 
Bolivia was formed, with a capital of 6,000 shares at a nominal value 
of 1,000 bolivianos each. At present the stock capital is represented 
by 320,000 shares at a nominal value of £5 each. Besides the mine, 
which, in itself, constitutes the principal source of wealth of the con- 
cern, the company has large smelting works at Huanchaca, equipped 
with several telegraphic lines open to the public, 16 steam engines of 
800 horsepower each, and a Decauville railway. The number of hands 
employed at these works is 3,200. The great mine of Pulacayo is 
connected with the railroad from Antofagasta to Oruro bj' a branch 
line 32 kilometeis in length, with a terminal at Uyuni, and another 
branch 10 kilometers in length running through a tunnel 3 kilometers 
long, connecting the mine with Huanchaca. The main office of the 
company is in Valparaiso, Chile. The production of this mine from 
1877 to 1901 is officially given as follows: 



Taxes paid 


of ca- 
j ones ex- 



the Boliv- 
ian Gov- 

Annual net prolits. 

tracted, a 



£. s. a. 



£. s. d. 



148, 436. 14 


241,391 15 6 



72, 467 9 10 




2, 189, 749. 39 

337,586 7 3 

127, 373. 45 

989, 814. 42 

152,596 7 9 





341,615 2 11 



114,421 1 9 


5, 748. 22 

252, 853. 72 


383,742 18 10 



131,345 15 1 



327, 185. 98 


492,042 19 8 


742, 439. 93 

114,459 9 9 





930,285 4 4 



485,130 10 


9, 580. 10 



781,219 17 1 



390,021 6 



464, 071. 52 


740,165 18 6 

362, 119. 09 

2, 174, 677. 00 

326,201 11 





708, 602 12 2 



195,867 8 1 


14, 147. 96 



834, 442 15 

397, 876. 34 

3, 168, 803. 36 

422,607 2 3 



571, 422. 10 


647,917 13 2 

300, 495. 00 


195,425 9 1 




6, 549, 398. 16 

647,429 15 8 



236,616 7 6 





799,448 10 3 



339,487 19 7 





1,026,443 10 6 

448, 493. 27 


505,577 5 5 





961,011 00 3 

511, 164. 37 

3, 434, 340. 04 

443,602 5 1 


13, 376. 54 



869,625 15 2 

551, 618. 14 


395,293 1 10 





1,097,396 14 11 



463,664 14 3 


16, 539. 20 


]2, 512, 063. 73 

1,042,671 19 6 



424,531 11 5 


17, 922. 62 



690,471 4 7 



81,305 9 5 





383, 890 12 5 



22, 662. 26 



354,339 10 11 
431,357 19 1 

267, 619. 13 


"'"'386," 918." 30 



30, 294. 22 



531,845 18 2 



56, 688 17 7 



988, 751. 39 


453,788 8 1 



112,495 9 6 




6, 050, 102. 06 

432,150 1 4 



157,050 2 




16,140,884 5 3 



5,856,769 16 10 

aCajon equivalent to 2,300 kilograms, or about 5,000 pounds. 



Deducting from this total the losses sustained by the company in 
1896 and 1897, amounting to 2,979,962 bolivianos, the total net profits 
can be estimated at 45,876,791 bolivianos. 

Colquechaca. — The town of Colquechaca, capital of the province of 
Chayanta, Potosi, is another important mining center. This region, 
as well as the AuUagas, is famous for the richness of the silver ore 
it produces. There are several works in these districts, the Com- 
pania Colquechaca-AuUagas de Bolivia being the most notable, as it 
operates the richest veins. The Embudo and Gallofa veins are remark- 
able for the prodigious wealth of their ores. The former runs across 
the San Matias Mount, embracing a longitudinal area of 2.60 kilo- 
meters, while the latter, which is famous for the profits yielded since its 
discovery, starts at the Ulicante Mount, and passing through the slopes 
of the Hermoso in a southeasterly direction, ends at the Gato Mount, 
a distance over 1 kilometer in extent. There are no reliable statistics 
for the production of these mines when they were first worked, the 
only figures available being those for the last quarter of a century, the 
production being estimated at over 80,000,000 bolivianos. The com- 
pany now operating these mines is composed of several small organiza- 
tions, incorporated as stock companies in 1892. The stock capital of 
the Colquechaca-AuUagas Company consists of 12,600 shares, repre- 
senting a nominal value of 12,600,000 bolivianos. The company has six 
soeavones, or shafts, several kilometers of railroad, two mining plants, 
and four steam engines, the San Bartolome plant with a powerful 
Cornish pump being the most expensive and better equipped of the 
works. This plant was erected at a cost of £29,000. The Rosario and 
La Polca smelting works belong to this mine. 

During the first few years the company produced on an average from 
17,000 to 18,000 marcos per month, but the output has decreased of 
late. From 1895 to 1901 the production of the mine has been ofiicially 
estimated as follows: 





80, 981 

903, 359 
874 2S'> 



1 898 



754 740 




Gompania Gallofa mid ('(niKulJihuhi. — These two companies operate 
on the Colquechaca district. The production of the Gallofa mine from 
1895 to 1901 is estimated as follows: 






292, 110 





81, 270 




74, 098 



The Compania Consolidada from 1899 to 1902 is credited with the 
following production : 






102, 601 


86, 866 


87, 244 


62, 632 

Portugalete. — This mine was successfully operated in the eighteenth 
century and during the first twenty-five years of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, until the depth attained by the works was such that the 
presence of water prevented further operations unless heavy expenses 
were incurred to drain the mine. In 1856 a company was formed to 
exploit the mine, and subsequently others were incorporated with the 
same object, but lately the Guadalupe Company consolidated all the 
other concerns and is the only company at present operating this rich 
vein. Unfoi'tunately the argentiferous ore in this mine is crossed by 
several streaks of nonmetallic substances, very expensive to clear so 
as to reach the ore. The Basualdo vein, now under operation, is very 
rich. A steam pump, the first to be erected in Bolivia, is used to 
drain the works. Other veins have been surveyed down to a depth 
of 150 meters. The operating plants are established at Guadalupe 
and Tatase, the former using the amalgamation process, while in the 
latter the ore is treated by lixiviation. The value of the mining and 
other property of the Guadalupe Company is estimated at 3,000,000 
bolivianos. The quantity of metal extracted during 1902 amounts to 
25,787 quintals, at a total expense of 58,270 bolivianos, or at the rate 
of 113.07 bolivianos per cajon. During the same year 109,679 quin- 
tals of ore were treated, yielding 23,019 marcs pure silver. The pro- 
duction of this mine from 1895 to 1902 is given as follows: 






1895 . 

48, 923 
42, 746 
32, 523 

613, 691 


448, 822 


443, 716 



1899 ... 

221, 707 




273, 631 

1902 . . 


Chorolque. — This mount, well known in Bolivian mining history, 
rises on the boundary line of the provinces of Nor-Chichas and Sur- 
Chichas, Department of Potosi, its highest peak reaching an altitude 
of 6,450 meters above the sea level. The Chorolque mount contains 
rich silver veins, tin, bismuth, wolfram, lead, copper, kaolin, and 
other minerals. Mining is carried on at an altitude of 5,700 meters 
above the sea level. The difficulties to be surmounted for the opera- 
tion of this mine are immense. It is situated in the snow region, 
exposed to the cold winds, and in order to reach the opening it is 
necessary to climb over enormous bowlders which sometimes roll down 
at the least pressure, imperiling the lives of the miners. The ascension 
is made by means of hanging cables, which also serve to lower the 
ore, but the risk of life and limb and of the loss of the mineral and the 
expenses connected with these operations have always been so great as 
to prevent the proper development of the mine. An elevated railroad 
from the mouth of the mine to the San Bartolom^ shaft has been built, 
thus minimizing danger and expenses. This mining district is 150 
kilometers from the Uyuni railroad station. There are several mining 
companies in operation, the principal being the Aramayo Franke y Com- 
pania, with a plant at Quechisla, 16 kilometers from Chorolque. This 
company has another plant at Poopo, department of Oruro — silver, 
tin, and bismuth being the principal output of both plants. The net 
profits yielded to the company by the Chorolque plant in 1901 is esti- 
mated at 191,320 bolivianos, and by both plants in 1900, 7,989 marcos, 
valued at 83,884 bolivianos. 

Andacdba. — This mining district in the province of Linares, is 
operated by a stock company with a capital of 5,000,000 bolivianos, at 
a nominal value of 1,000 bolivianos per share. The company owns 
350 claims. Andacaba Mount is 5,060 meters above the sea level. The 
mine is 4,750 meters high, and the mining plant is 14 kilometers from 
the mine. The fuel used in these works -is peat from deposits about 10 
kilometers from the plant. There are no trustworthy statistics of the 
production of the Andacaba mines, but it is known that the annual 
production is, on an average, 1,000 cajones, with an average output of 
28 marcos per cajon. 

The provinces of Nor and Sur Lipez also contain rich silver mines, 
which were operated first by the natives and later by the Spaniards. 



The most important of the present mining plants in this region is that 
of the Nueva Compania Lipez, whose claims are in Santa Isabel, a 
canton of Sur-Lipez province. The vein under operation isverj'rich. 
The smelting plant is at Candelaria. There is no official data available 
in regard to the output of this mine, but it is known that the works 
yield a fair profit. 

There are several other mines in the department of Potosi, the 
output of which has been officially estimated as follows, from 1895 to 






3 110 730 


1 890 000 




2,782 .TOO 



1 155 000 

For the years 1900, 1901, 1902, and the first six months of 1903 the 
number of hectares granted for mining purposes in the department of 
Potosi was as follows: 




















70 1 

Sur Chiuhas .. 


179 : 1,014 




612 1 1-79B 

The department of Oruro, as a silver-producing region, is second 
only to Potosi. The Oruro chain is composed of a series of hills of 
varying heights extending from north to south. The city of Oruro, or 
San Felipe de Austria, as it was formerly called, situated at an altitude 
of 3,654 meters, had in the seventeenth century a population estimated 
at over 75,000 inhabitants, the mines in this region having been dis- 
covered in 1575. During the three years preceding independence the 
Oruro department paid for mining taxes to the Crown the amount of 
$40,000,000, equivalent to a production valued at $200,000,000. There 
was a time when as many as 5,000 mines were in operation in the 
department. In the city of Oruro and surrounding country there 
exist at present over 20 silver and tin mines yielding good profits, 
the principal being the Socavon de la Virgen and the San Jose mines. 

Socavon de la Virgen. — This mining propertj"^, discovered in 1595, is 
situated in the citj^ of Oruro, at the foot of the mountain, and is at 



present the property of the Compania Minera de Oruro, formed by 
Chilean capitalists. This is considered the wealthiest and most pro- 
gressive of all the industrial establishments in the department. The 
plant is equipped with the newest and best mining machinery and is 
connected with the Oruro-Antofagasta Railroad by means of a branch 
line. The production of this mine from 189.5 to 1901 is officially as 





225, 196 
168, 968 
80, 666 

2, 364, 568 

1896 . 




1, 669, 164 

1899 . . . - 

1, 127, 742 


770, 962 

1901 - 

819, 932 

The plant which is considered the best in the Department is situated 
at Machacamarca. Until 1898 the system in use was amalgamation, 
which was substituted for the lixiviation system, thereby obtaining a 
saving of 30 to 40 bolivianos per cajon. 

San Jose. — The San Jos6 mine, about 3 kilometers distant from 
Oruro, is operated by a Bolivian company, which has established the 
necessary working plant. Tin has been lately discovered in this mine, 
and a suitable plant erected for its treatment. San Jos6 is a prosperous 
mining town of about 2,000 inhabitants. The amount of silver extracted 
from the mine for the years 1895 to 1901 is officially quoted as follows: 




1895 . ... 

232, 283 
216, 466 

1, 978, 410 
2, 848, 408 
2, 272, 882 
1, 666, 499 




1899 . 




Anteqiiera. — Another important mining district in this Department 
is Antequera, in the province of Paria, 4,004 meters above the sea. 
The San Jose, Copocabana, and Pomabamba mines are considered the 
richest lodes, the last mentioned having yielded in less than five years 
over $6,000,000, the output being 5,000 marcos per cajon. In colonial 
times these mines were under exploitation until 1781, when they were 
abandoned by reason of an Indian uprising. In 1855 an e£fort was 
made to continue the operation of the Pomabamba mine, and a com- 
pany was formed for the purpose. At first the product of the mine 
was so large that the stock issued by the company had a premium of 
1,000 to 8,000 per cent, but this output decreased gradually, due to 



faulty methods of exploitation. Another company was formed a few 
years later and is still operating the mine. The production of the 
Antequera mining district, and others of lesser importance in the 
department of Oruro is estimated, as shown in the accompanying table, 
from 1895 to 1901: 













1899 . 






In the department of Chuquisaca the principal mining districts are 
San Lucas, province of Cinti, and Huata and Pojpo, in the province of 
Yamparaez. These mines are operated on a small scale because of the 
lack of means of communication and difficulty in transportation. 

In the department of Cochabamba the principal mines are those of 
Arque and Choquemata, which are under the same conditions of those 
above uientioned. 

In the department of La Paz, the Colquiri mines are the most 

The total production of silver in Bolivia from 1895 to 1901, is offi- 
ciall3' given as shown in this table: 




1895 ... 

2, 690, 907 

18, 431, 198 






14, 654, 348 


13, 662, 000 


15, 043, 454 




130 885, 632 

The total production for 1902 amounts to l,120,8f 1 marcos, valued at 
11,769,010 bolivianos, the grand total from 1895 to 1902 being 12,970,628 
marcos, or about 96,000,000 ounces troy, valued at 115,654,672 

The exports of silver bullion for the years 1900-1902 is officially 
estimated as follows: 


1900 13,691,267.54 

1901 14,566,660.66 

1902 10,832,700.28 

T<(,vefi. — By act of October 31, 1889, miners are required to send to 
the mint, in silver bullion, one-fifth or 20 per cent of their total out- 
put, under penalty of a tine of 30 cents per marc. The pri _ jf such 




silver bullion is paid in silji^er coins at the rate fixed monthl}!' 1)y the 
prefect of Potosi and the Director of the National Mint. 

Up to 1902 the export tax on silver ore and bullion was one of the 
most important sources of revenue for the country. By act of Decem- 
ber 13, 1902, the export of silver ore and bullion from the mines of 
the Republic was declared free, the only tax assessed being called 
statistical duty, amounting to 8 cents on each marco of silver contained 
in the silver bullion, ore, or any other mineral containing silver 
exported. There is also a tax of 6 per cent on the profits of all com- 
panies or associations engaged in silver mining in the country. Ore 
and bullion destined to the mint are exempt from taxes. The export 
tax on silver from 1882 to 1902 has been a steady source of revenue to 
the Government, as shown in this table: 


Export tax. 


Export tax. 


760, 400. 47 
791, 083. 56 



928, 603. 62 
815, 659. 21 
421 540 10 










1 888 






404, 235. 67 
376, 147. 90 

1891 ... 



Bolivia's wealth in tin mines is marvelous. Tin is abundantly found 
along the eastern belt of the plateau, from the vicinity of Lake Titicaca 
to the southern frontier of the Kepublic. This belt measures about 
500 kilometers in extent, and is the richest and most important por- 
tion of the tin region, lying between 17° and 19° south latitude. The 
general formation of this region consists in slate and gravel, having a 
great inclination and interrupted hy trachytic porphyrj^ and other 
igneous rocks, tin being found in the latter. There is no uniformity 
in the species of minerals with which tin is found, being sometimes asso- 
ciated with iron pyrites or silver ore, while in certain cases it is found 
in a more or less pure state. These tin deposits sometimes cover a 
large superficial area, but are also found at a depth of over 300 meters. 
The width of the lode also varies from 25 to 50 millimeters to 2 or 3 
meters. Ore containing from 40 to 65 per cent pure tin is frequently 
found in veins not exceeding 60 centimeters in width. 

A writer on Bolivian tin mines" makes the following statements in 
regard to the tin deposits found in the country: 

"The more important deposits at present known are those of Huaina 
Potosi and Quimsa-Cruz, in the department of La Paz; of Colqueri, 

a Mr. J. B. Minchin in Engineering and Mining Journal, January 3, 1903. 


Negro Pabellon, Morococala, Huanuni, Antequera, and Avicaya, in 
the department of Oruro; of Llallagua, Uncia, Potosi, and Chorolque, 
in the department of Potosi. 

' ' The lodes, dipping usually at angles of from 50° to 70°, are almost 
invariably met with traversing highly inclined metamorphic shales, 
and occasionally passing into the adjacent igneous rocks. They are 
generally at altitudes of from 13,000 to 15,000 feet above sea level — 
sometimes, as at Quimsa-Cruz and Chorolque, running still higher. 
At Avicaya and Uncia the rocks are polished and grooved on the sur- 
face by ancient glacier action. 

"The climatic conditions of the Bolivian table-land must have under- 
gone a great change. The old watermark, a calcareous deposit on the 
hillsides, shows that a vast sheet of water formerly existed, covering 
more than 20,000.square miles. This has dried up in the course of ages, 
nothing now remaining but the lakes of Titicaca and Poopo. 

"The conditions of the tin deposits vary greatly as regards width; 
every gradation is encountered, from the narrowest veins up to lodes 
of 2 and 3 meters. These lodes usually carry streaks of more or less 
pure tin ore, the rest of the lode matter being composed of compounds 
of silica and alumina, and of iron oxide with tin ore intermingled. In 
some cases the lodes are filled with soft clay carrying a large percentage 
of tin oxide in the form of grains and nodules; and occasionally rich 
pockets are found in which the whole lode is filled with nearl}'' pure 
tin ore as a coarse sand. In these cases it is, of course, mined with 
great ease, but, as a general rule, the lode matter is solid and the country 
rock unusually hard. 

" Little or no progress was formerly possible in this industry, chiefly 
on account of the great difiiculties of transport, more especially of 
machinerj', but during recent years more attention has been paid to it, 
owing to the comparative facilities offered by the Antofagasta-Oruro 
Railroad and to the present favorable price of the metal. Improved 
grinding and concentrating machinery is in operation or in coui'se of 
erection for various enterprises. 

"The concentration mills are usually at altitudes of from 12,000 to 
13,000 feet above sea level, or from 1,000 to 2,000 feet below the 
mines. Until recently the transport of ores to these mills was carried 
on exclusively by means of llamas and donkej^s, and constituted one 
of the miner's chief difficulties, owing to the insufficient number of 
animals available and the considerable cost, amounting to $1.25 per 
ton- mile. The Avicaya, Huanuni, and Chorolque enterprises have 
lately put up ropeways for carrying, their ores. These lines, supplied 
by the ropeways syndicate of London, are giving great satisfaction. 
They have each a capacity of 8 tons per hour and work by gravity, the 
cost of transport being reduced to about 12 cents per ton-mile. The 

TIN. 1U9 

most important of the lines is that at Avicaya, with an approximate 
length of 3 kilometers. 

"The fuel question is another difficulty encountered, as no coal 
exists on the Bolivian plateau, and the imported article from England, 
the United States, or Australia costs $30 per ton. Native fuel, 
'"yareta^ or llama dung, is efficient for steaming and is comparatively 
cheap, but in many districts it is becoming scarce. 

"At the amalgamation works belonging to Senor Avelino Aramayo, 
at Bella Vista-Poopo, a Deutz anthi'acite suction gas motor was 
recently erected of 80 horsepower at sea level. Brake trails at Poopo 
gave from 50 to 55 horsepower, a result considered satisfactory in 
view of the altitude of 12,300 feet. The consumption of anthracite 
was 0.7 kilogram per horsepower-hour, but it is expected that this 
will be reduced to 0.6 kilogram. Similar motors are in course of 
erection for the Avicaya and Huanuni enterprises, which will then be 
enabled to run their concentration plants with regularity. Petroleum 
motors are employed at Avicaya for electric lighting and for running 
Wilfley tables. 

"The average contents of the ores in Huanuni and Avicaya, as they 
come from the mines, is from 10 to 12 per cent of metallic tin. The 
degree of fineness to which they are ground depends on their quality. 
They are pulverized as little as possible, so as to avoid the formation 
of slimes. At Avicaj^a No. 4 to No. 8 sieves are employed in the 
stamp and ball mills, while at Huanuni, owing to the tin oxide being 
more disseminated through the gangue, a 25 mesh is necessary in the 

" The ground ore passes through hydraulic separators which, with 
an upwai'd current of water, carry off the slimes to settling tanks, 
whence they are treated in round buddies and Wilflej^ tables, while 
the coarser material is classified in trommels and concentrated in auto- 
matic jigs. The concentrates undergo a final treatment \>y washing in 
sieves, after which they are dried and sacked for export. At Avicaya 
the average lye of the finished product, or "barrilla," is over 70 per 
cent of fine tin, while at Huanuni, in spite of the finer grinding, it 
does not usually exceed 67 per cent. The Huanuni tailings still con- 
tain 2 per cent of tin, and though they admit of good concentration to 
10 per cent the tin oxide can not be separated without further pulver- 
izing. Huntington mills have been ordered for this purpose. 

"The Llallagua-Uncia mines occupy another important tin region, 
but as they have been more recently opened up and are about 45 miles 
distant from the railroad, with which they are not yet connected by a 
coal road, the ores are still treated in a primitive manner, being ground 
under hand-worked rockers and concentrated in simple buddies. 


"The Potosi production is so far chiefly derived from the old silver 
amalgamation tailings, which are roughly concenti'ated and then 
reduced with charcoal in small water-jacket furnaces and run into bars 
for export, on accunt of the higher freight from this district. 

" The Quimsa-Cruz region appears to be promising, though it has as 
yet been but little investigated, owing to its distance from the raih'oad, 
to bad roads, scarcity of labor, and the great elevation at which the 
lodes exist. Many of them are on the level of the perpetual snow 
line. This has, however, the great advantage of affording ample water 
supply for power purposes. 

"In addition to the tin mines proper, many of the silver ores, as in 
the case of the Oruro mines, contain a small percentage — 2 to i per 
cent — of tin, which is, however, advantageously extracted by the inex- 
pensive concentration of the lixiviation tailings. 

"The depth to which the tin ores extend in the Bolivian mines has 
not 3'et been clearly established. Srtne of the principal lodes in 
Huanuni and Avicaya are still rich at 300 to -iOO meters below the 
tendency for the value to fall off in depth, the tin ore being replaced 
by more or less poor iron pyrite. 

" Reliable statistics of Bolivian tin production are not readily 
obtainable. Those of the principal enterprises ma\', however, be very 
approximateh' given as follows, in tons per month, of black tin 
{'barrilla'): " 


Huanuni Tin Mining Company, Huanuni 65 

Teller Hermanos, Huanuni 60 

Other mines, Huanuni 75 

J. Juleff, Autequera 50 

Totoral Mining Company 65 

Avicaya 100 

Llallagua 45 

Compaiifa Minera Uncia, Uncia 35 

S. Patino, Uncia 80 

Chorolque 90 

Silver ore tailings, Oruro 130 

Total - 795 

Equivalent to metallic tin 525 

"To this may be added a monthly production in bar tin from the 
Potosi mines, 135 tons, making a total of 660 tons monthly. 

"Estimating the production from all the smaller workings, includ- 
ing some stream tin as equivalent to 140 tons monthly of bar tin, a 
total production for the whole Republic of 800 tons, or about 9,600 
tons yearly, is obtained." 

The tin-producing portion of Bolivia may be divided into four 
regions or belts: La Paz on the north, Oruro in the center, Chorolque 
in the south, and Potosi in the east. Oruro is the most important tin- 



mining district, as one-third of the total production of this metal 
comes from that department. 

The following mines are under operation in the northern or La Paz 
tin belt: 

ITuaina-Potosi. — This mining district is 26 kilometers distant from 
La Paz. Although the veins carry silver and other minerals besides 
tin and bismuth only these latter are worked at present. 

Illlluni. — This district lies about 10 kilometers from the Huaina- 
Potosi mines. The width of the lodes which run to the east, north, 
and south varies from 60 centimeters to 4 meters. Operations in this 
mine have so far been devoted to the treatment of the outcroppings 
and superficial works, there being only one shaft 70 meters deep. This 
mine and the Huaina-Potosi are operated by a French company. 

CJiacaltaya. — The general features of this mine, 19 kilometers from 
La Paz, are similar to those of the two already described. These three 
mines are in fact one single lode about 9 miles in length. The Vilaque 
and Japajopo mines, yielding a small amount of gold, also belong to 
this district. The proximity of this mine to La Paz facilitates its 

Incjuisivi. — The entire province of this name is rich in tin lodes, 
especially at the Cordillera dc Tres Cruces, 5,546 meters above the sea. 
The number of claims granted during the first six months in 1903 
amounts to 6,700. A large company is now being organized for the 
pui'pose of operating this mine by the most approved methods. 

Colquiri. — The main vein of this mine was under operation in colo- 
nial times. There still exists two tunnels about 1,000 feet in length. 
The vein extends 80° to the north and 80° east and south. According 
to old records the Spaniards shipped over 500 tons of larrillas or 

Sayaquiri. — The lode in this mine measures about 25 feet in width, 
tin being found associated with iron pyrites and wolfram. The tin 
found in this mine is inferior to the product of the others. 

The output of the tin mines of the department of La Paz from 1897 
to 1902 is officially given as follows: 



Official valu- 


6, 632 
9, 536 

495, 840 
698, 760 
806, 704 
696, 988 


1899 - . 



1902 ... 




a One metric quintal is equal to 100 kilograms or about 220 pounds avoirdupois. 


The most important of the tin-producing districts is Oruro, the 
following being the mines in actual operation: 

Huanuni. — This is the richest tin-mining district, the principal 
deposits being found in the Pozoconi mount. The principal veins run 
from east to west and thence in a southerly direction. Stratiflcation 
is very irregular. Four of the principal veins extend in an almost par- 
allel direction, with a dip of about 50° south, through a hill of slate. 
The vein under opei-ation by the Compania Huanuni is called "Catari- 
cagua," its width varying from 2 to 8 feet. The Spaniards, who were 
the first to work this mine, found rich pockets down to a depth of 
1,000 feet. Tin ore is richer near the vein, although its quality is uni- 
formly fair. Selected ore from the vein generally contains 50 per cent 
oxide, and the poorest quality of ore fields 20 per cent. This mine 
has produced over 100 tons of concentrate per month. As a general 
rule the selection of the ore is done by women, who pick out the best 
qualit}'' of mineral, leaving the inferior ores, which yield about 10 per 
cent, to be subsequently treated. The company" has ten crushers and 
other machinery necessary to the treatment of tin by the improved 
Cornualles system, which has been very successful. The washings, 
containing about .5 per cent oxides, are put aside to be treated anew. 
Selected ore has yielded as much as 65 per cent tin without concentra- 
tion, and the washings about 15 per cent. There are, near Huanuni, 
other tin deposits under operation. Huanuni is 30 kilometers from 
Machamarca. Transportation of ore is done by carts, pack mules, 
and llamas. There are several prosperous mining companies in this 

Morococala. — About 16 kilometers north of Huanuni the ^Nlorococala 
mines are found, producing ore which yield as much as 20 per cent 
oxide. The principal mine is operated through a shaft sunk in the 
vein, which measures from 12 to 15 feet in width in some places, and 
contains pure oxide in large quantities. 

Vilacolo. — This mine is a short distance from Morococala. Formerly 
it yielded large quantities of silver and tin. Milling and washing are 
the systems used in opei'ating the mine at present. 

JVegro PabelUn. — This mine, although situated in the same region as 
Morococala and Vilacolo, has its peculiar characteristics, which make 
it different from the others. The vein extends from north to south 
in a vertical direction, the dip of the strata being 45^. Tin from this 
mine is of superior quality and easy operation. The main vein, 3 feet 
in width, is crossed by several smaller veins, forming rich pockets at 
the points of intersection. The ore is soft and easily washed, the con- 
enctrates or harriUus yielding over 70 per cent tin. The Morococala 
and Negro Pabellon mines are at an elevation of 4,600 meters above 
the sea. 



Challa-Apacheta. — These mines lie at about 16 kilometers south of 
Huanuni. One of the tin veins in this mine is remarkable for the fact 
that it is from 25 to 30 feet in width, but the ore is so mixed with 
gravel and clay that the yield of the mine is on an average no more 
than 20 per cent. There is another vein from 12 to 18 inches in width 
which appears to be the continuation of the former. 

Avicaya. — About 5 kilometers south from Challa-Apacheta the 
Challe. Grande mountain rises, containing the mines of Avicaya, Toto- 
ral, and Chuncho, tlae first mentioned being the only one worthy of 
consideration. The veins extend from east to west in an almost par- 
allel direction, with a varying dip of 60° to 10° north and an average 
width of 1 to 5 feet. Tin extracted from this mine yields from 20 to 
40 per cent. 

Antequera. — This is an important mine, yielding good profits. Ara- 
mayo y Compania, the owners, have a contract to deliver 2,000 quin- 
tals a day to the railroad to be carried to the Bella Vista smelting 

Berenguela. — This mineral district lies 45 miles east of Oruro. It 
was formerly worked by the Spaniards for silver, which was extracted 
in good paying quantities. The tin found in these mines is said to be 
superior to any other found in Bolivia. 

Besides the above-mentioned mines there are several other less 
important deposits. The number of hectares granted in the district 
of Oruro during 1902 is officially given as 2,866, while the total pro- 
duction of tin from 1897 to 1902 is as follows: 



Official val- 


14, 256 
17, 216 
44, 266 
100, 206 

1,377 200 


189S . . 

3, 565, 210 

1900 '. 


4, 380, 768 


4,301 304 


365, 183 

17, 179, 696 

The Chorolque Mountain, in the department of Potosi, is also a 
large tin-producing district, the treatment of this metal being made 
under the same conditions of silver. The vein runs in the main from 
east to west, with an average width of about one meter. The richest 
deposit is at the deepest point in the mine, about 100 meters from its 
mouth. The ore sent from the mine to the mill contains, on an aver- 
age, 25 per cent metallic tin. The alluvial deposits, which are abun- 
dant in this region, are worked by private parties in a primitive manner. 
The tin-bearing clay is taken away by hand, to l)e treated at a short 
distance from the mine. A portion of this clay is crushed and picked 

116a— 04 8 • 


by hand, yielding as much as 60 per cent. The balance, after being 
crushed, is ground by hand in a mill and washed in jiggers, thus 
obtaining from 50 to 60 per cent tin. During seven months in the year 
operations are practicallj' suspended, by reason of scarcity of water. 
The total monthly production of the Chorolque district is estimated at 
about 350 tons of harrilla, or 210 tons of tin in bars. The total pro- 
duction for the years from 1897 to 1902 is the following, according to 
official statistics: 





















The following are the principal tin mines in the department of 

Zlc/Nagua. — The mountain where these tin mines are found has an 
elevation at its base of 3,800 meters above the sea and 1,400 at the 
summit. Ore is rich and abundant, and the principal vein now under 
operation is at a depth of 210 meters from the summit of the moun- 
tain. The general direction of this vein is 36° north, while three 
other smaller veins run in a westerly direction, the mean dip being 
estimated between 11° and 11°. Lack of good roads is responsible for 
the present state of development of these mines, but a wagon road 
80 kilometers in length is being built to connect the works with the 
Challapata station of the Oruro-Antofagasta Eailroad. The actual 
production of this mine does not exceed 75 quintals of barrilhi tin per 
day, containing 70 per cent pure tin. It is expected that the output 
will soon increase to 100 quintals per day of twenty -four hours. Some 
important work is being done at the mine in order to erect a first-class 
mining plant. The district is 60 kilometers from the Challapata station , 
and 90 kilometers distant from Oruro. 

Uncia. — There are several companies engaged in the exploitation of 
these mines, which are situated at 6 kilometers from Llallagua. There 
is a good plant now in operation and another is to be erected in a 
short time. 

Potosi. — In these mines, as in some of the Oruro district, silver is 
associated with tin. The product is not as fine as that of other mining 
districts, because of its mixture with antimony and other metals. The 
railroad line is about 240 kilometers from the mine. 

Porco. — The operation on a large scale of these mines was abandoned 
because of the poor quality of, the ore. 



Maragua and Ocuri. — Both of these mines yield a fair quality of 
tin, that of Ocuri being superior to the Maragua product, both in the 
quality and quantity of the mineral. They are over 140 kilometers 
distant from the railroad. 

There are many other tin mines in Potosi, but their output isinsig- 
niiicant. The number of hectares granted in the Chorolque and Potosi 
districts for tin-mining purposes from 1900 to 1902 and the first six 
months of 1903 is ofiicially given as follows: 





1903 (six 
months) . 
















Nor Chicas 




Sud Chicas 


• Total 





The total production of tin in Potosi from 1897 to 1902 is shown in 
the following table: 





19, 826 

655 780 

1898 . . . 

732, 240 
2, 410, 918 




2, 936, 962 

1902 . 


202, 685 


These are the principal tin mines under opei'ation for the exclusive 
extraction of tin, which is also found associated with silver, especially 
in the departments of Oruro and Potosi. As a general rule this tin is 
of inferior quality. Tin mines are also found in other departments, 
such as Santa Cruz and Cochabamba. The development attained of 
late years by tin mining is due in a large measure to the eonstruction 
of the Oruro Railway in 1892, whi(;h has made a considerable saving 
in freight and time. On an average the cost of production of tin is 
20 bolivianos per metric quintal; freight to Europe costs 35 bolivianos 
per metric ton, and freight from Oruro to Antofagasta, by rail, 4.89 
bolivianos per metric quintal, while other transportation and shipping 
expenses may be estimated at 3 bolivianos per metric quintal. 

Ore from the districts of Oruro, Potosi, and Inquisivi, La Paz, are 
shipped from Oruro to Antofagasta by rail. Ore from Huaina Potosi 
is shipped in road carts to Puerto Perez, on Lake Titicaca, thence to 
Mollendos. Freight per metric quintal to Puerto Perez is, on an 







5, 730, 960 

162, 342 

S. 579,: 39 

219, 159 



S, 782, 703 


average, ].60 bolivianos, and from said port to Mollendos 2.10 soles." 
Chorolque ore i.s exported either via L'^yuniand AntofagastaorTupiza 
and the Argentine Republic. The largest portion of Bolivian tin goes 
to London. 

The total production of tin in Bolivia from 1897 to 1902 is officially 
the following: 

,, Metric t Official valu- 

*^*'^- quintals, j ation. 







Total ! 731.833 88,865,406 

The exports of tin from 1900 to 1902 are oiEcially estimated as follows: 


1900 8,579,539.21 

1901 9,380,714.00 

1902 8,782,703.93 

Taxes. — By act of May 20, 1899, the following tax is levied and 
collected on all tin exported: Barrilla, 1 boliviano per quintal of 16 
kilograms; tin in bars, 1.60 bolivianos per quintal. 


The geographical distribution and geological formation of the bis- 
muth belt in Bolivia follow the direction of the tin lodes, as these two 
metals are very frequently found intimately associated. The direction 
of the bismuth deposits is in the main that of the cross strata of the 
Andes, as far as the Apolobampa ]Slount, it being found at Palca, 
Chacaltaya, Huaina-Potosi, Sorata, Chorolque, Tazna, and other 
points. The Chorolque deposits contain silver and tin, besides bis- 
muth. The several silver and tin veins are very thick and their lower 
strata contain bismuth either in the state of chlorides or sulphurets. 
It is also found in its native state and in other forms, particularly at 
Coribiri, where bismuth nuggets, weighing from 3 to 4 adiirmes.'' are 
frequently found in a small stream at the foot of the mountain. 
Chloride of bismuth is also found near the surface in these deposits, 
changing to sulphurets at a slight depth. The Chorolque lode is con- 
fined to the mountain and its slopes. Copper and iron sulphurets are 
also found associated with bismuth in its several forms. In the Tazna 
Mountain, 5,000 meters elevation, the main formation is a slaty rock 

"Sol is the Peruvian monetary unit, equivalent to about $0.48 U. S. Currency. 
''The adarme is equivalent to about 1.80 grams, or 27.73 grains. 



traversed by lodes over 1 meter thick, where chlorides are predomi- 
nant, sulphurets being found at a short depth. 

The Bolivian bismuth lodes are both rich and valuable, lack of 
capital being at present the only drawback to its fullest development. 
In the latter part of 1903 very rich bismuth veins have been discovered 
in the Inquisivi Province. 

The total production of bismuth in Bolivia from 1895 to 1902 is 
shown in the following table. The price of the product per metric 
quintal has fluctuated between 160 and 200 bolivianos. 



Official valu- 

189.T . . 


298, 300 


276, 500 


380, 000 

1898 . . 

570, 000 


960, 000 


871, 7U2 

1901 ... ... . . 




Exports of bismuth for the years 1900 to 1902 are officially given as 


1900 271,702.28 

1901 1,463,088.43 

1902 303,736.06 

Taxes. — By act of December 13, 1902, the tax at present in force on 
all bismuth exports is 6 bolivianos per quintal of 46 kilograms. 


The distribution of the metallic belts in Bolivia has always been a 
matter of wonder to geologists, Raimondi having made the statement 
that the Bolivian plateau is " a silver table supported by gold columns." 
The gold-bearing belt of the country is divided into three region.s, 
the first extending from the western boundaries of the Republic, in the 
Inambari basin, to the eastern frontier on the littoral of Upper Para- 
guay. This region embraces the whole of the mountainous section of 
the provinces of Caupolican, Munecas, Larecaja, Cercado, Yungas, In- 
quisivi and Loayza, in the department of La Paz; thence it continues 
through the department of Cochabamba and ends at the Santa Cruz- 
Paraguayan boundaiy. The second region starts in Atacama and 
Lipez, extending south through the provinces of Chayanta, Sur Chi- 
chas (department of Potosi), Mendez (Tarija), Cinti and Acero (Chu- 
quisaca), as far as the Santa Cruz plains. The third region, which is 
perhaps the richest of all, extends toward the northwest of the 
Republic as far as Carabaya, Peru, and the headwaters of the Madre 
de Dios, Acre, and Puru rivers. This rich region, however, is 


exclusively inhabited by wild Indians, so that nothing has been done 
to develop the mines. The number of mines under operation in the 
other regions is very small. 

The only gold-bearing districts under development in the first aurif- 
erous region are the following: 

San Juan del Oro. — This deposit takes its name from the San Juan 
River, in the Inambari basin. The streams flowing through this region 
have been covered with alluvial formations. This is a lavadero (wash- 
ing place), yielding very little, and it is believed that it will soon be 

Siwhes. — At the headwaters of Suches River gold is found in con- 
glomerates and placers; along its bed gold-bearing gravel exists in 
paying quantities, there being about 100,000,000 cubic meters of gravel 
yielding gold at the rate of 40 cents per cubic meter. The town of 
Suches is about 140 kilometers from Juliaca Station, on the Puno and 
MoUendo Railroad, 33 kilometers from jNIojo, a port on Lake Titicaca, 
and 338 kilometers from La Paz. The roads are good, pack trains 
making the trip to Mojo in two days. Freight from Mollendo to l;he 
mines is about 8 bolivianos per quintal, and from La Paz about 4 
bolivianos. Freight on heavy machinery is reasonable. 

Ttptmni. — The auriferous wealth of this river, in the province of 
Larecaja, is far ])eyond that of any other in the Republic. The gravel 
deposits are so enormous that at a depth of 100 meters no rock bottom 
has been found, the production of gold increasing with the depth of 
the gravel. This is one of the oldest gold-mining districts in the 
country. In 1571 gold mining was at its height in this district, the 
Portuguese miners being compelled to introduce negro slaves to satisfy 
the demaud for the metal. Gold was so abundant that in 1780 one of 
the promoters had over 13,000 kilograms in "stock. A company who 
worked this mine from IBIS to 1867 reached a total output of 150,766 
ounces of gold, at a cost of $1,500,000. Tipuani gold is from 22 to 
28.50 carats. 

Yani. — The Yani and Tacacoma placers are also important. Among 
the mines of this section the "Elsa" property is considered the best. 
According to an authority the "Elsa" contains 61,000,000 English 
tons of gravel yielding 36 cents gold per ton. In the course of the 
experiments made bj' said authoritj^ (Stumpf) to ascertain the value 
of this mine, the larger portions of the washings yielded 12.70 gold, 
while other samples gave from $4 to $10 gold. Twelve cubic meters 
were washed in each section 

Chuquiaguillo. — ^The mines of this name in the neighborhood of La 
Paz have been worked from time immemorial. Gold in this section 
is generally found in the form of nuggets, yielding on an average 50 
cents per cubic meter. Since their discovery these mines have always 
produced gold in paying quantities, and many miners have made for- 

GOLD. 119 

tunes working them. The most remarkable nuggets from this mine 
are one weighing 95 marcos, 21 carats fine, sent to Madrid in 1718; 
another, 22 marcos weight, found sometime ago, and, finally, one 
weighing 18 marcos recently found. In 1887, there were 254 Spanish 
ounces, 2.50 adarmes (about 257 ounces avoirdupois, 69.35 grains) 
extracted from this mine at a cost of 2,319 bolivianos, being sold at 
24.50 and 25.60 bolivianos, making a total of 6,246 bolivianos, or a 
net profit of 3,926.20 bolivianos. Until very recently work was car- 
ried on in this mine in a most primitive way. Since 1901, however, 
modern practical methods have been introduced. According to official 
statistics the exports of gold from Chuquiaguillo through the La Paz 
custom-house since 1900 has been as follows: 



Official val- 

1900 , .. 


21,481 28 


1902 . . . . . 

Araca. — This gold district is in the province of Loayza, in a creek 
at the foot of the Tres Cruces range. The auriferous wealth of this 
section has been well known since colonial times. Mining engineers 
who have examined the mines of Araca agree that they are one of the 
richest in Bolivia, lack of capital being the only drawback to its full 
development. The excellent quality of the gold produced by these 
mines is a well-known fact, the quartz vein being very wide, the 
output being from 5 to 12 grams per ton, when treated by amalgama- 
tion, a method rather unsatisfactory, as there is a loss of about 30 
per cent, due to the extreme minuteness of the gold particles. Not- 
withstanding this, miners have extracted as much as 6 kilograms per 
month, with a profit of over 5,000 bolivianos, and others have made 
10,000 bolivianos per month, at a cost of 2,500 bolivianos. The pres- 
ent works are in a region producing free milling ore. Tests made with 
different specimens have yielded from 4 to 5 grams of gold per metric 
ton. This mining district has not been wholly surveyed. The Rosario 
belt contains 1,000,000 cubic meters of auriferous quartz. According 
to estimates it would take seventeen years to exhaust this mine work- 
ing it at the rate of 100 tons a day. It has been estimated that at 
least there could be worked in this mine 625,000 tons of quartz, which 
at an average rate of 5 grams, would yield 3,225,000 grams of gold. 

Choqueeamata. — This rich deposit, 75 miles from Cochabamba, was 
discovered in 1750. It is situated in the ridge called "Tetillas," the 
loftiest of the region. The central portion of this ridge consists of 
granite and quartz. There are several small creeks rich in auriferous 
gravel, besides the Choqueeamata River. This is an excellent mining 


I'egion, as on account of its special features there are no serious diffi- 
culties in the work. The deposits of auriferous gravel are about 6 
miles in length. According to tradition, during colonial times over 
120,000,000 in gold were gathered in this region from superficial 
gravel and the high banks of the river. The Cocopata or Santa Cata- 
Jine Mountain, not far from this mining region, also contains gold in 
large quantities. 

Chiquitos. — From colonial times this has been one of the richest 
auriferous belts in the Republic. It measures over 900 square kilo- 
meters in area, and its situation is unexcelled by reason of climatic 
conditions and fertility of the soil. The Santa Rosa mine in this'dis- 
trict yielded from 1847 to 1877, 2,500 pounds of gold. 

Other gold deposits in this region are: Rio de la Paz or Chuquiyapu, 
where the capital cit}- is built, according to tradition the site of very 
rich gold mines; the mountaiu of lllimani, known to contain rich 
gold deposits, the auriferous gravels of river Palca being under 
actual exploitation, and the Cavari district, rich in gold, hut as yet 

The second auriferous belt has been known from the earliest times 
as the richest in Bolivia. For a time the city of Chuquisaca was a 
large mining center. The principal gold region in this belt is the 
Poconota Mountain. 

Poconota. — This mountain, which is one of the oldest mining dis- 
tricts in the countrv, belongs to the province of Xor-Chichas, depart- 
ment of Potosi. The mountain is composed of a series of parallel 
lodes of yellowish ferruginous quartz running north and south and 
crossed by numerous other veins. Mining was carried on here by the 
Spaniards on a large scale, as shown by the works still existing, which 
prove that the output of the mines must have been of considerable 
value to paj' for the expense involved in the erection of such works, 
at a time when miners lacked the most necessary elements to such an 
undertaking. The Poconota gold yields 360 grams per ton of 1,600 
kilos. The vein measures 64,000 cubic meters, and the density of the 
quartz being 2.50 per cubic meter, the vein represents 169,000 tons, 
which at the rate of 0.30 grams per ton, a rate far below the average 
obtained at the tests made, shows a wealth of l.SOU kilos gold. 

The other principal mining regions in the south of the Republic are 
the following: 

Caiza, in the province of Linares, where the Indians wash a large 
amount of the yellow metal. Yura^ province of Porco, where there 
are immense gold veins not yet surveyed, while auriferous gravel is 
abundant in the Yura River, San Jxian river, Esmoraca and Chilco. 
Lipez, Tupizii, and Snd Chichas, yielding at present about 100 ounces 
gold per month. A company with a capital of §375,000 has been 



formed in Buenos Ayres for the development of these mines. At 
Suipacha there exists a gold vein about 67 kilometers in length by 2 
meters in width. Coremayo is another mine in the vicinity of Portu- 
galete. There are numberless creeks where gold is found in varying 
quantities. The largest portion of these gold-bearing deposits have 
been abandoned and are idle at present for want of capital and labor. 

According to official estimates, which agree with those of Humboldt, 
Sotbier, and other European authorities who have made a special study 
of the matter, Bolivia's gold mines have produced from 1540 to 1750, 
a lapse of 210 years, the sum of £420,000,000. From the latter year 
to the beginning of the nineteenth century the mines and lavaderos 
of the provinces of Larecaja and Caupolican alone, in the department 
of La Paz, produced $14,000,000. From ,1 818 to 1868 the product was 
150,776 ounces of gold. The product of the other mines and lavaderos 
in the Republic from the latter part of the seventeenth to the last years 
of the nineteenth century is estimated at i;250,000,000. If the primi- 
tive methods emploj'ed in mining have yielded such splendid results, 
an idea may be had of what could be attained by the use of modern 

There are no official statistics of the production and export of gold 
in Bolivia, as the largest portion of the exports is made clandestinely, 
notwithstanding the fact that the only tax levied upon this mineral, on 
way bills only, is 20 cents per ounce. A careful investigation of all 
the mines and lavaderos at present under development, and reliable 
private information show that the annual production of gold in Bolivia 
may be conservatively estimated at 550 kilograms, valued at 275,000 
bolivianos. Upon this data the following official estimate of gold pro- 
duction in Bolivia from 1895 to 1902 has been based: 



Official valu- 



342, 000 

1896 .. 



276, 000 
273, 000 



275, 000 
275, 000 




The exports of gold from 1900 to 1902 are given as follows in Boliv- 
ian statistics: 


1900 : 9,821.00 

1901 21,487.28 

1902 69,759.06 


The nations of the world to which gold is exported, and the percent- 
age of exports is officially estimated as follows: 

Per cent. 

England -t. 

France - 2. 5 

Germany 2. 5 

Belgium .4 

North Ameritai 4 

Other comitries 2 


Copper is one of the most important minerals found in Bolivia, the 
abundance and purity of the metal insuring good profits to the devel- 
opment of this industiy. The cupriferous regions are extensive, and 
follow in the main the trend of the eastern chain of the Andes. Cop- 
per formations are almost uninterruptedly- found from Atacama, 
thi-ough the province of Lipez, where vhite copper is found, to Porco, 
Chayanta, department of Potosi, Arque, Colchas, in Cochabamba, to 
the department of Oruro, towards Corocoro, thence to the department 
of La Paz, and to the boundary line with Peru. Besides this general 
belt there are ramifications extending throughout the Andes slopes. 
The geological formations of I'opper are peculiarily characteristic in 
these regions. The purity varies, being in the principal veins higher 
than in the ramifications. The dip of these two strata varies in the 
main veins from 60^ to 8(>-, while in the ramifications it is from 
30=" to 60°. 

Copper is most generally found in small, irregular grains, called 
hari'iUa, yielding from 70 to 80 and sometimes up to 92 per cent pure 
metal. Native copper is abundant and constitutes the real wealth in 
this metal, being foun<l under different forms, from the hai-Hlla, or 
small grains, to the large masses of almost pure metal called charquis 
by Bolivian miners. Charquis in the shape of large plates 3.50 
inches thick have been found in the Carangas and Titicaca regions. 
Native silver has been found in these cupriferous formations either in 
a granulated form or in small nodules. Silver, however, is never 
found in the copper, but under the cupriferous strata. In the Coro^ 
coro mines, for instance, there have been times when copper has dis- 
appeared to give place to the silver formation. Zinc and nickel have 
also been found in these copper veins. The analysis made in Ham- 
burg of a specimen of this mineral showed the following proportions: 

Copper 0.329 

Nickel 175 

Silver 009 

Zinc 117 

Other matter 370 


COPPER. 123 

Miners ia Bolivia only extract the native copper, as it is easily treated 
b^' the primitive methods of milling and concentration. 

Gorocoro district. — This is the richest and most active copper-mining 
center, being only second in abundance and purity of the mineral to 
the Lake Superior mines in the United States. Corocoro is situated 
in the plateau 4,023 meters above the sea level, being the capital of the 
province of Pacajea, department of La Paz. This mining center is 
easily reached from the Pacific coast by way of Arica, 425 kilometers 
distant, and by way of MoUendo through Desaguadero, Lake Titicaca, 
and Puno, 245 kilometers. Corocoro is connected with La Paz by a 
good wagon road, 110 kilometers in length. The cupriferous strata of 
Corocoro extend about 50 kilometers from northeast to southwest, a 
belt about 600 meters in width, where the Pucara and Chacarrilla mines 
are found. Native copper is uniformly found throughout this belt 
under different forms, such as charquis, red copper, gray copper, or 
panahasa, and several other combinations. Native silver has been found 
below the copper formations, as stated. 

The only method of extracting the copper in use at present is the 
treatment of the gravel or other matter wherein it is contained, so as to 
obtain a product no less than 70 per cent pure for export. When the 
metal is found in the shape of charquis, or serrated crystals, smelting 
is resorted to in order to obtain bars easily transported on pack trains. 
The principal mining companies of Corocoro are the following: 

Compania Corocoro de Bolivia was established in 1873, with a capital 
of 1,250,000 bolivianos in cash. This is a Chilean company with main 
offices at Santiago de Chili. The Remedios and Socavon Corocoi'o are 
under actual development. The weekly output is estimated from 600 to 
800 metric quintals of copper. Work is carried on at a depth of 460 
meters with powerful steam engines. The company employs in the 
mine 500 men. 

Guallatiri. — This mine is under development by the firm of Noel 
Berthin. Work is carried on in two shafts distant about 500 meters, 
at a depth of 300 meters. The mineral is treated at Acoruni, in the 
vicinity of the mine. 

Santa Mosa, the property of Carrera Hermanos, employs about 300 
men. The depth of the mine is 280 meters; steam power is used. 
The annual amount of copper produced is estimated from 7,000 to 
8,000 tons of the raw product, yielding from 3 to 4 per cent in barriUa, 
about 82 per cent pure. 

Viscachani., under operation by the firm of J. K. Child & Co. The 
work is carried on by means of twin shafts 270 meters deep, the daily 
output of the mine being estimated at 25 to 30 quintals of harrilla. The 
capital of this company is 160,000 bolivianos. 

The cost of development and treatment varies according to the 
facilities of the mining company, but it can be safely estimated at 10 



bolivianos per quintal of 80 per cent iarrilla, leaving a net profit 
of about 3.25 bolivianos per quintal. Exports of iarriUa are made 
through Tacna and ]Mollendo, the latter route being less expensive. 
The cost via Tacna is estimated at 3.24 bolivianos per quintal, while 
via Mollendo it is only 2. 87 bolivianos. Freight to Europe on an average 
costs 2.78 holivianos per quintal. The richest copper-producing dis- 
trict besides Corocoro is found in the department of Atacama or 
Litoral, now occupied by Chile by virtue of a treaty. According to 
Chilean statistics, the output of these mines during 1901 is estimated 
at 24,751,642 kilograms of copper. Other copper mines in Bolivia 
are not developed for want of labor and capital. 

In 1850 the total output of the copper mines of Bolivia amounted to 
113,000 Spanish quintals or 51,980 metric quintals. This production, 
however, has decreased steadily because of the low price the metal has 
commanded in European markets. At present the Corocoro are the 
only mines under operation, the others haHng been abandoned. The 
output of the Corocoro mines from 1890 to 1902 is officially estimated 
as follows: 





29, 316 
25, 254 

] 407 168 

1891 . . 


1,391 040 


1 597 8*M 

1894 . . 


1 413 120 









The exports of copper for the years 1900. 1901, and 1902 is officially 
given as follows: 


1900 1,025,030.22 

1901 1,112,598.90 

1902 2,059,510.10 

Ta.iva. — The export tax now in force since 1898 amount to 1 bolivi- 
ano per Spanish quintal of harriUa. 


There are large deposits of l>ora;c in the country, the principal being 
that of Chilcaya, department of Oruro, covering an area of 10,000 to 
12,000 hectares. This product is considered among the best of its 
kind in the world. Chilcaya borax is exported through Arica, 190 
kilometers from the mines. CouJ and petroJeum are also found, espe- 
cially in the vicinity of Lake Titicaca. 



From 1900 to 1902 the following mineral substances were exported 
from Bolivia according to oflBcial statistics: 






60, 489. 37 
180. 00 


199, 279. 00 











Other minerals 

2, 590. 60 

8, 200. 00 

998 30 



310, 576. 79 



Under Spanish rule the mining legislation framed for Peru and 
Mexico under the name of "Ordenanzas del Peru," was in force in 
Bolivia, then known under the name of Upper Peru (Alto Peru). The 
first mining code prepared bj^ Bolivia as a sovereign State dates from 
1834, and was repealed two years later. A new code was framed and 
adopted in 1853, until 1880, when the law now in force, with subse- 
quent amendments, was promulgated on the 13th of October. Other 
legislation has been enacted since tending to regulate mining, the last 
being a decree bearing date April 11, 1900, on the subject of exploi- 
tation of nonmetalliferous inorganic substances, and the regulations 
thereof issued on the 8th of January, 1901. 

The mining law contains 27 articles under 5 titles, viz, (1) Owner- 
ship of mines; (2) Prospecting and surveying; (3) Concessions and 
mining properties; (4) Working of the mines and forfeiture of the 
concessions; and (5) Rights and duties of miners. Briefly stated the 
main points of the law are the following: 

Under the general title of "Ownership of mines" it is established 
that all kinds of metalliferous substances of whatever origin, lying 
either on the surface or in the interior of the ground belong primarily 
or originally to the State. 

Soil- and subsoil, for the purposes of the law, are two different and 
separate things. The soil is the outward or surface layer of the 
ground to the depth the owner has reached in agricultural work, or 
in building or laying foundations, but not in mining operations, and 
the subsoil is all that lies beneath the soil to an indefinite depth. The 
ownership of the soil, whether it is the property of private individuals 
or of the State, is never lost or impaired, except in cases of condem- 
nation proceedings, the owner being always entitled to the use of the 
thing. The subsoil, however, remains under the control of the State 
which has the right to abandon, grant, or convey said right as pro- 
vided by law. 


Mines, as real property, are estates different and apart from all 
ground or surface propert}', even when both the mine and the soil 
belong to the same owner. The right of ownership, possession, use, 
and enjoyment of mines can be transferred or conveyed as in the case 
of any other property, subject, however, to the provisions of the law. 
Mining claims or property are indivisible units, but the capital repre- 
senting their value may be divided into shares. 

Prospecting without previous permission from the authorities is 
allowed on lands belonging to the public domain, as well as on private 
lands that have not been protected by a fence. Prospecting is for- 
bidden in improved lands, whether public or private propert}'. 

All persons in the enjoyment of their civil rights are entitled to one 
or more mining claims on a single grant or concession in mineral lands 
already known, but no moi'e than 30 claims in lands recently dis- 
covered. All claims constituting a single concession or grant must be 
grouped together, so that all adjoining claims have a common side. 
Preferential rights to a claim is acquired by priority in filing the 
respective petition. 

The claim or unit to be used in granting mining concessions is a 
prismatic body of indefinite depth forming a square having 100 meters a 
side, measured horizontally in any direction selected by the petitioner. 

Gold and tin bearing sands or gravel or any other metallic product 
found in rivers or placers, veins, pockets, outcroppings, or deposits, 
whether in public or private lands, are subject to concession to be 
granted with the same formalities applying to any other mines. Tail- 
ings, washings, slag, and refuse found in lands not protected by a 
fence or wall shall be granted to the first applicant. These shall be 
considered abandoned or vacant when no work has been done on them 
for six months. 

Upon the concession of a mining claim, and when it is shown that 
the ground is free, the demarcation and survey of the property must 
immediately follow, even when no ore has been found, nor works of 
development have been executed. 

The survey may embrace all kinds of buildings, roads, etc., and the 
mining work must be done in accordance with the police and other 
regulations for the safety of the mines. The point where a claim 
begins may be marked inside or outside the property upon discovery 
or find of metalliferous deposits, but the demarcation shall be done as 
plain as possible to prevent confusion. 

Miners are at liberty to use in the development of their respective 
claims any methods they deem proper, subject, however, to the regu- 
lations in the premises, which will be strictly enforced by the respec- 
tive authoi'ities. 


Grants of mining claims are made in perpetuity, the grantee becom- 
ing bound to pay a tax of i bolivianos per hectare every year. Pay 
ment is to be made semiannually in advance, and becomes due from 
date of concession. Placer and other claims pay only a tax of 2 boli- 
vianos, while tailings, washings, etc., are exempted from this taxation. 
Mining claims shall be deemed abandoned when payment of tax has 
been in default for a year and the miner fails to pay the same within 
fifteen days after execution proceedings have been instituted against 

Miners wishing to abandon their claims must notify the proper author- 
ities of this fact, thus being relieved from payment of tax since date of 

The duties and rights of miners are established in title 5, articles 21 
to 27, inclusive, of the law. Miners are under obligation to permit 
ventilation of adjoining mines, to suffer the waters from said mines to 
pass through their property to the general outlet, and to comply with 
all police regulations. In these and all cases of easements an indemni- 
fication must be paid after proper appraisement of damages. Miners 
are free to enter into agreements with the owner of the surface as 
regards the area necessary for their dwelling houses, stores, shops, and 
offices, etc. Should there be no possible agreement in regard to area 
or price, then the mine owner may ask that expropriation or condem- 
nation proceedings may be resorted to. 

Surface roads made for one mine are free to all mines situated in 
the same mining locality. In such cases expenses for the maintenance 
of the road must be paid pro rata among all owners. Miners are the 
owners of all the waters found within their works, as well as of all 
veins or lodes of mineral substances found within the limits of their 
respective claims. The ownership of the veins or lodes extends to the 
full depth of the same, but miners can not develop or follow such veins 
or lodes into another's claim. In case that miners should encroach or 
trespass into the property of another they are under obligation to 
refund to the rightful owner the value of the mineral extracted accord- 
ing to expert valuation. In cases of fraud or bad faith trespassers 
shall be guilty of larceny. 

Besides the 27 articles mentioned, the law contains also 10 transitory 
articles, establishing certain provisions relative to the general subject. 

The regulations of the foregoing law were promulgated on the 28th 
of October, 1882. They form a code containing 9 chapters divided 
into 75 articles. The principal provisions of the regulations are the 

Persons desiring to obtain one or more mining claims {pertenencias) 
must file a petition or application for said claims, either personally or 
through a duly appointed agent, with the Pr'efecto of the respective 


Department. The application must state as clearly as possible the fol- 
lowing points: 

1. Name, residence, and profession or trade of applicant. 

2. Name under which the claim or grant is to be known. 

3. The starting point of the claim, which must be plainly marked 
either inside or outside the claim, as the case may be, establishing as 
far as possible the direction and distance to a given fixed point. 

4. Number of claims for which application is made. 

5. Mining district within which the claim or claims are situated, 
stating whether it is a known district or one recently discovered. For 
the purposes of this regulation a "known mining district" is that 
where at the time of the application at least one mine is under devel- 
opment or has been previously worked, or where two or more applica- 
tions for registry within their limits have beeen filed by different 

6. The names of the adjoining mine owners, if any, and the rela- 
tive position of their claims and that of the applicant. 

7. Name of the owner of the ground, in the case of private lands. 
Upon the filing of the application a memorandum shall be entered 

thereon stating the exact time, hour and minute, when it was received. 
This memorandum must be signed bj' the prefect and his secretary in 
the presence of the applicant. The prefect shall keep a book or 
record called "Applications for Mining Claims," wherein a record is 
to be made in strict numerical rotation and chronological order of the 
day, hour, and minute when the application was filed, this memoran- 
dum to be signed by both the prefect and the applicant. This record 
book is always open for inspection. The prefect shall then cause a 
grant or concession to be issued in the name of the applicant, in 
accordance with the terms of the law, such grant to be made public 
for thirty days by publication or otherwise, as provided by the regu- 
lations. At the same time a notification of this fact shall be made to 
adjoining mine owners. If within the thirty days of publicity no 
objection or opposition is made to the grant of the application, then 
the property is to be surveyed and possession taken by the applicant 
by virtue of the concession. Should there be any opposition, this can 
only be based upon two facts, viz, priority of application, or that no 
vacant claims exist. 

Within sixty days after the expiration of the thirty-day term, if 
there is no opposition, or in the contrary case after execution proceed- 
ings, as the case may be, the applicant must file another application 
requesting to be allowed to proceed to the survey and delimitation of 
the claim or claims, and to take due possession of the property. In 
case of failure to file such petition as provided, the grant shall be void. 

Mining taxes are to be paid half yearly in advance during the first 
month of the first quarter, no exceptions being made to this rule. If 


the tax is not paid as provided, a surtax equal to 2 per cent per month 
shall be assessed and accrue during such time as the principal remains 
unpaid. Failure to pay the tax for a year entails forfeiture of the 
concession, as provided by law. 

Executive decree of May 8, 1900, in reference to the exploitation of 
nonmetalliferous inorganic substances, establishes in general terms 
that all kinds of nonmetalliferous inorganic substances of whatever 
origin and lying either on the surface or below the ground belong 
originally to the State, but inorganic substances of a clayey or earthy 
nature, such as limestones, building stones, sands, gravels, and similar 
or analogous substances, are of free exploitation. 
116a— 04 9 




Manufacturing industries are of little or no importance in the 
country, notwithstanding the fact that raw material is most abundant. 
This peculiar condition is explained in part by reason of the geograph- 
ical position of the territorj-, situated as it is in the ver3' heart of the 
South American continent, surrounded by the Andes Range on the 
one side and by impenetrable forests on the other, and having no 
direct outlet to the ocean. Under such conditions means of rapid 
communication are necessarilj^ lacking. 

With the exception of the Antofagasta and Oruro Railroad, 924 
kilometers, and the Guaquia and La Paz line, 87 kilometers, all traffic 
is carried on on pack trains or in heavy, slow road carts. River navi- 
gation is still in its infancy, notwithstanding the enormous facilities 
afforded by this method of communication in certain portions of the 

This explains wh^^ the industrial development of Bolivia has not 
passed beyond the primitive stage and is confined to the production 
of some staple articles and a few of the most necessary commodities 
of life, depending on the import trade for almost every luxury, and 
even for provisions for everj'daj^ consumption. 

Bolivians are naturally clever in the production and manufacture of 
most delicate works of art, made without appropriate tools or tech- 
nical education. The principal native industry is the weaving of 
cloth, and with the exception of a modern factory- in the city of La 
Paz, primitive methods are resorted to all over the country. The 
products of these native weavers, generalh' Indians and mestizoes, 
range from the coarser fabrics made from the llama wool to the finest 
product from the vicuna, or the alpaca wool and silk, still using the 
looms imported hy the Spaniards into Peru at the time of the conquest. 
In the provinces of Mojos and Chiquitos, in the departments of Beni 
and Santa Cruz, respectiveh", a certain kind of cotton cloth called 
makana is made, as strong and good as the best imported product of 
the kind. This fabric is used for clothing, towels, sheets, hammocks, 
and ■ponchos or blankets, and is said to have wonderful lasting 



Coarse and fine baize of different colors and excellent quality is 
manufactured in Oruro, this being the goods used for clothing the 
army. Cashmere of a superior quality is made in the provinces of 
Cinti (Chuquisaca) and Chichas (Potosi). This product seems to compete 
most favorably with similar foreign fabrics, being similar to the 
English product in pattern and general appearance, while the color is 
more lasting and the stuff wears better. These domestic cashmeres 
are used in preference to the imported goods not only on account of 
the excellent quality of the fabric, but also because they cost one-half 
less than the German or English imported product. 

Woolen ponchos, mufflers, blankets, and white and black baize used 
by the Indians for their garments are manufactured in the department 
of La Paz. A fabric called iarracd, a very coarse cloth, is made 
in the departments of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, the most remark- 
able products in this line being the water-proof ponchos used by the 
miners, made of the brightest colors and a mixture of silk and merino 
wool. The material generally used for the manufactui-e of these 
coarse fabrics is llama and lamb's wool, both very abundant in the 
country, while the vicuiia and alpaca wool is only employed in the 
finer fabrics. 

From 1900 to 1902 the exports of cotton and woolen goods from 
Bolivia is officially estimated as follows: 








17, 191 







Saddlery and the preparation of skins and furs is another important 
native industry. The alpaca and vicuna lap robes made in the country 
always command good prices abroad. In order to satisfy the demand 
for this article alpacas were crossed with vischacas, another member 
of the same stock, the breed resulting therefrom having a coarser 

Cigars and cigarettes, sugar, soap and candles, chocolate, starch, 
wines, straw and woolen hats, gloves, furs, hides, skins, sole leather, 
cheese, and pottery are among the industrial products of the country, 
besides the preparation of sulphate of quinine, the silk-worm culture. 
Such industries where the home products enter exclusively are the 
most flourishing. 


Although there are no official statistics on the subject, the exports 
of Bolivna's industrial products, an estimate based upon custom-house 
figures for 1900 to 1!»02, shows the following total: 


Kilograms. Value. 

1900 - 

133,260 227 040 


161,072 535,937 
153,291 300,569 

1902 . 

The Bolivian Government is desirous to develop the industrial wealth 
of the country, and with this end in view an act was passed >\0Tember 
20, ISU."). guaranteeing- 4 per cent interest on the capital invested on 
an}' steam plant, provided the plant worked steadil}- and regularly 
during one year in the manufacture of sugar. A bonus was created, 
liv the same act. of l,00i> bolivianos for the sugar manufacturer pro- 
ducing 4,000 quintals of refined sugar per annum, and premiums of 
2,0(10, 1,000, and 5(>0 bolivianos for the three best sugar refineries. 
There was also a premium of 3.000 bolivianos for the person or corpo- 
ration establishing in the country the best condensed-milk factory. 


The cities of Sucre, La Paz, Cochabamba, and Potosi afi'ord positive 
advantages for the establishment of electric-light plants operated by 
hydraulic motors. The first of these cities can utilize the currents of 
the Cachimayt^i River, which is but a short distance from the town; 
the city of La Paz can use the Choqueyapu River, which flows through 
its center; the city of Cochabamba can utilize the waters of the Rocha 
River, and especially those of the Colomi River which, at a distance 
of 30 kilometers from the city has a fall of more than 100 meters; and 
the city of Potosi can use the waters of the neighboring lakes. The 
rights of the companies which may establish this class of industries are 
dul}' protected l)v law. 

In ISSS an electric-light plant was established in La Paz, and the 
power house was located in the upper part of the city in order to 
utilize the current of the river. The contract now in force between 
the municipal council and this company contains the following clauses: 

The company agrees to light the city, using for this purpose i25 
incandescent lamps of 16 candlepower each, and S arch lamps of 3,000 
candlepower each. On moonlight nights the company furnishes no 
light to the city, and on other nights only until 1 o'clock in the morn- 
ing. The municipal council pays an annual subsidy to the company 
of 26.000 bolivianos, payable monthly in advant'C. The duration of 
the present contract is eight years, five of which have already expired. 

By decree of May 8, 1858, importers of machinery for any manufac- 


ture or industry unknown before in the Republic are guaranteed an 
exclusive privilege for ten years. This term may be extended bj' legis- 
lative enactment. 

Municipal governments pay subventions only for public service, 
leaving the companies free to contract with private individuals in such 
terms as they may deem most convenient. 

In addition to the points already mentioned where water could be 
utilized as power, responsible companies or individuals desiring to 
establish new industries in the country have the right to select any 
other place for the erection of the plant, with the privilege of extending 
its operations to other parts of the country. A concession would be 
granted permitting the use of the national waters, provided that, after 
generating power from the same, the waste waters be returned to the 
streams from which they were originally taken. In case of a joint 
stock company, organized for the purposes mentioned, it would have 
to pay to the State 2 per cent per annum of its net profits. At the 
expiration of the concession, the Government may grant other com- 
panies desiring to engage in the same line of business concessions equal 
to the original, and, all things being equal, no preference is given to 
any particular company. 

The subsidy of 26,000 bolivianos paid by the city of La Paz to the 
electric light company can not, perhaps, be paid by other municipali- 
ties having smaller revenues. 



Domestic trade. — Bolivia's domestic trade consists in the interdepart- 
mental exchange of products, subject to the natural drawback created 
by the lack of rapid means of communication. There are no official 
statistics giving the extent and valuation of this trade. The foreign 
trade is subject to the provisions of certain treaties and agreements 
entered into with several Eu.ropean and American countries, and 
special reciprocity treaties and conventions with Peru, Chile, and 
Paraguay, whereby certain native products enjoy in those countries 
the same privileges granted b}' Bolivia to other products from said 
countries. Although there is no written law on the subject Bolivia 
is a free-trade State, thus affording foreign products a good market, 
offsetting the difficulties of transportation by the low rate of its cus- 
toms tariff. 

Foreign trade. — Bolivia's import and export trade is carried on 
through the following national customs districts and their dependen- 
cies: Villa-Bella on the north; Puerto Suarez on the east; Uyuni 
and La Paz on the west; Oruro in the central portion of the coun- 
try, and Tarija and Tupiza on the south. There are customs agen- 
cies established at ^MoUendo, Arica, and Antofagasta on the Pacific 
coast. The MoUendo customs agency is simply' an office for the dis- 
patch of goods in transit to Bolivia, merchandise being classified and 
duties collected at the La Paz and Pelechuco districts. The Arica 
customs agency, which for a time was leased from Peru for the sum 
of $(300,000 per annum, was in 1879 declared a free port for Bolivia, 
in consideration of a 40 per cent tax on the value of invoice. But in 
1885, after the war, it was transferred to Chile during its occupation 
of the territory, it being agreed by the Treaty of Truce of ISS-t that 
out of the total of the customs receipts 25 per cent should go to Chile 
for certain specified purposes, 40 per cent to be applied to the settle- 
ment of certain claims, and the remaining 35 per cent to go to Bolivia. 
Duties on foreign goods direct for Bolivia are collected in Chilean 
currency according to the Chilean tariff and no other duties are levied 
upon them. Foreign goods introduced in Chile through Arica and then 



exported to Bolivia are assessed Chilean import duties on their intro- 
duction and deemed foreign goods for the purposes of importation 
into Bolivia. The customs agency of Antofagasta is a collection dis- 
trict. By the Treaty of Truce natural and manufactured Chilean 
products are admitted free of duty in Bolivia. 


Bolivian official statistics date from 1895, and show the following 
figures for the value of imports and exports from that year to 1902: 
















27, 365, 746. 65 







1897 . . 












a On Oct. 1, 1904, the boliviano was quoted by the Director of the United States Mint at S0.422 United 
States currency. 

These figures show the official customs valuation of the imports and 
exports, the actual or commercial value not being given. It is esti- 
mated, however, that the real value of these items is double the official 
valuation. Notwithstanding the fact that according to the preceding 
table exports exceed imports, the financial condition of the country is 
not as flourishing as it would seem, because the larger portion of the 
profits remain abroad, as the majority of producers are foreigners, 
resident in Bolivia. On the other hand, the bulk of these exports is 
made up of silver, tin, and rubber, the only products Bolivia can 
export in large quantities, while other native productions which could 
have a good demand in foreign markets are practically unknown. 
These facts must be borne in mind in order to fully understand 
Bolivia's position as a commercial country. 

The value of exports by customs districts for the years 1900 to 1902, 
according to Bolivian official figures, are shown in this table: 

Customs district. 

Puerto Acre . . 
Puerto Suarez 




La Paz 






118, 753. 21 


540, 840. 41 

16, 702, 340. 78 

2, 976, 563. 44 

5, 673, 689. 06 


6, 474, 090. 40 


212, 448. 15 

34, 323. 74 


19, 382, 062. 60 

2, 969, 601. 59 

5, 731, 079. 97 











37, .578, 210. 97 




The figures corresponding to Mollendo, Arica, and Antofagasta are 
included in the La Paz, Oruro, and Uyuni returns. 

These exports are divided into five large classes in Bolivian statistics, 
i. e., mining, embracing all mining products of whatever nature 
exported from the country; agriculture, all products of the soil, includ- 
ing forest products; manufactures, all manufactured products of the 
country ; cattle, etc. , embracing live stock, hides, skins, wool, bones, etc. , 
and miscellaneous, such products as can not be classified among the other 
divisions or are not specified. For the three years before mentioned 
the value of exports by classes is officially given as follows: 



























The value of free and dutiable exports during the same period is 
officiallv estimated as shown in this table: 













The value of the principal exports by articles, according to above 
classification for the same period, is represented in these tables: 













24, 150. 68 


33, 9%. 50 







21, 481. 28 





9, 142. 80 






Gold . 


Borax . - - 


Lead . . 




1, 55S. 16 




22, 083. 653. 09 































2^21, 322. 22 

















Manufactured copper 
Vicuna bed blankets. 

Alpaca blanlcets 




Woolen hosiery 



Woolen blankets 

Ready-made clothing 


Leather, sole 

Various fabrics 

Wines and liquors 




812. 90 

59, 323. 00 


214. 02 

5, 125. 80 
2, 628. 70 
1, 280. 00 



6, 072. 00 


227, 040, 63 

3, 049. 30 
1, 232. 00 


4, 162. 10 

678. 66 


9, 051. 00 

108. 80 


4, 108. 70 




4, .596. 80 

16, 017. 00 

28, 438. 00 
3, 536. 00 
2, 756. 25 

6, 959. 40 
2, 387. 00 

82, 830. 00 

38, 156. 30 


300, 669. 70 






154, 623. 00 


74, 815. 20 

22, 143. 00 



2, 332. 00 










Live cattle 

Goat skins ' . . 

Lambs' wool 

Alpaca wool . - ... 

Live sheep 

12, 300. 00 


2, 677. 50 


1,000. to 
859 00 


535 00 



297, 481. 68 




Specie . 




87, 904. 61 







Total . .. 




a Pounds sterling. 



The origin of these exports by departments is officially estimated as 









3, 066; 671. 05 


369, 103. 10 

70, 143. 15 



5, 916, 101. 51 















97, 347. 10 




3, 612, 432. 00 




28, 041, .578. 74 

Should the total exports for 19(i2 be distributed among the popula- 
tion of Bolivia according to the latest census returns (1900), the pro rata 
would be at the rate of 16.43 bolivianos per capita. This proportion, 
however, is not accurate, as neither the uncivilized nor the civilized 
Indians can be counted as factor.s in this branch of trade, .so that only 
the white and mestizo portions of the inhabitants (668,185) are the 
actual producers and exporters, the proportion being, then, 11.96 boliv- 
ianos per capita among these races, a.s shown in the following table: 


and export-' Percent- 
ing popu- age. 




per capita. 

Beni and Territorio Nacional de Colonias 

Oruro • 


La Paz 

Santa Cruz 

Tari ja 







3, 709, 779. 10 



3, 892, 437. 96 

366, 762. 35 



27, 742. 20 










2.S.5. 37 








668,1m I 100.00 28,041,578.74 


Lack of own ports precludes the possibility of obtaining, in the 
majority of cases, accurate data in regard to the ultimate destination of 
Bolivian exports. For instance, goods exported to foreign markets 
through the port of Antofagasta are shown in the Oruro and Uyuni 
custom returns as "exported to Antofagasta," and as there is no 
record of such exports at this port the actual destination is unknown. 
Foreign statistics of Bolivian exports are no better in this respect, as 
it is a well-known fact that Bolivian products exported through Chile, 
Argentine, or Peru are credited to these countries instead of the 
actual country of origin. The following table shows the official 
approximate valuation of exports bj- countries from 1900 to 1902: 










United States 




Literal or Atacama 





Unknown destination. 

Total 35,657,689.96 
















13, 183. 30 

818. 60 



624, 760. 78 

6, 494, 076. 80 





6, 580, 366. 11 




8, 727. 38 








82, 687. 30 

2, 383, 068. 00 





80, 161. 09 


2, 396. 40 





A large portion of the exports is credited in this table to the "Literal" 
or Atacama region, as Antofagasta is the port to which such exports 
are forwarded to be ultimately shipped to foreign markets. Lack of 
proper declaration in shipping explains why the valuation of exports 
to " unknown destination" is represented by such large sums. 

The export duties collected during the same years is officially esti- 
mated at the following figures: 






10, 085. 00 






2, 624. 23 


13, 442. 83 


397, 131. 68 



404, 235. 67 


6, 242. 34 








Silver coin -. . 



2, 145, 781. 80 


Imports into Bolivia consist in the main of hardware and machinery, 
provisions, woolens, furniture, wines, spirits and liquors, cottons, 
drugs, chemicals and medicines, ready-made clothing, live stock, and 
general merchandise. Bolivian statistics at hand for the years 1900 
to 1902 do not give in detail the items making up this important 
branch of trade, but the official valuation of imports through the sev- 
eral customs districts, as represented in this table: 

Custom districts. 




Puerto Acre . . . 
Villa Bella.... 
Puerto Suarez . 




La Paz 



Antofagasta . . . 


919, 846. 10 

890, 250. 97 


CO, 144. 48 
434, 649. 51 
478, 556. 24 
623, 137. 89 


5, 988, 028. 88 



84, 027. 30 

213, 488. 83 





305, 967. 12 

860, 906. 76 


Total 13,344,114.47 



a No data available. 



The countries importing into Bolivia, according to original bills of 
lading and consular invoices, is shown in the following table: 







Central America . 







United States 




England , 







other countries - . 



3, 109, 521. 13 




7, 763. 40 


4, 294. 60 


16, 723. 66 

10, 921. 40 

93, 322. 14 

815, 466. 07 


3, 205. 75 


448, 622. 18 



326. 00 

4, 684. 06 






33, 799. 86 

4, 632. 10 







679, 367. 72 

16, 588. 24 


3, 777. 60 





16, 953, 223. 75 









805, 169. 16 


789. 34 










17, 383. 66 

14, 143, 342. 31 

There are no official figures showing the relative valuation of the 
free and dutiable imports hj countries for 1900 and 1901, but the fol- 
lowing table is the official estimate for 1902: 










933, 452. 64 






125, 742. 61 















723, 739. 82 


248, 065. 66 



16, 834. 59 

20, 289. 96 


6, 120. 04 









805, 1.59. 16 


290, 633. ,52 




13, 118. 32 










1 76 


United States 



Argentina. . 






Paraguay . 

526. 00 





other countries 




9, 866, 094. 09 




Conditions relative to exports per capita are also applicable to the 
consumption of imports, the white and mestizo population, represent- 
ing 36 per cent of the total number of inhabitants in 1900, being the 
chief consumers, as the Indian element scarcely buys foreign goods. 
Under circumstances the per capita consumption is for both 
races 21.16 bolivianos, instead of 7.78, should the Indian population 



be included as a consumer. The following table shows the per capita 
consumption by departments in 1902: 

tiza pop- 







tion per 





229, 766 



60, 000 

■34. 39 




















26. 22 


22. 76 


Beni and Territorio Nacional de Colonia.s. . 




668, 185 





The total customs receipts from 1900 to 1902 is officially estimated 
at the following figures: 

Customs district. 




Villa Bella 




115, 678. 72 








27, 286. 39 



119, 603. 57 





La Paz 

795, 692. 74 


A rica 

379, 441. 52 





2, 649, 669. 51 

The per capita tax for customs duties in 1902 is given at 3.66 per 
cent, estimating that on\j 36 per cent of the economic population of 
the country is a consumer. 

Coiiiiiierce in 1903 J'- — Bolivian official statistics for 1903 show in 
detail that in said year the trade movement of the counti'y is repre- 
.sented as follows: 

Customs districts. 








La Paz 


Puerto Suarez 

Tarija , 



Villa Bella... 





16, 910, 956 

1, 845, 233 


673, 698 



59, 401 

38, 946 


811, 632. 12 

352, 834. 48 
303, 979. 95 
466, 787. 74 





4, 982, 

12, 486, 



2, 639, 

48, 314, 



69, 155, 506 


3, 602, 318. 25 

8, 012, .544. 81 

300, OSS. 02 

28, 463. 34 


10, 936, 279. .68 

644,. 584. 00 



a Memoria que presenta el Ministro de Gobierno y Fomento ante e! Congreso ordinario de 1904,— 
La Paz, 1904, 



Figures for the Villa Bella customs district only cover the first half 
of the year. 

Imports. — Imports are divided into three large groups, according 
to tariflp, as follows: 



General merchandise 

Liquors, etc 


644, 845 


These imports are subdivided into free and dutiable, showing that 
the amount of dutiable goods imported was 18,502,737 kilograms, 
valued at 9,925,243 bolivianos, and 57,349,230 kilograms free imports, 
valued at 6,327,642 bolivianos. 

Imports by countries as compared with 1902 are represented in the 
following table: 






G ermany 









806, 159. 15 








290, 633. 52 

10, 935. 00 














465, 784. 00 



29, 715. 33 


1, 559. 16 

Colombia - , 

Cuba .... 












United States 

10, 997. 21 







3, 911. 35 
















The percentage of imports, by countries, was as follows: 

Peru 19.48 

Germany 18. 35 

England 16.92 

United States 6.65 

Chile 6.62 

Argentine 5. 18 

Belgium 4. 54 

France 2.86 

Italy 2.49 

Other countries 16. 91 

Total 100.00 

The customs districts showing an increase of imports over the pre- 
ceding year are, Antofagasta, 865,890.38 bolivianos; Uyuni, 833,623.42 
bolivianos; La Paz and Pelechuco, 226,609.18 bolivianos; Tarija, 
150,783.69 bolivianos; Puerto Suarez, 90,491.12 bolivianos; Oruro, 
46.867.36 bolivianos; while a decrease was shown in the imports through 

EXPOETS — 1903. 


Arica, 49,274.64 bolivianos; Tupiza, 2,700.65, and Villa Bella (six 
months) 52,740,97 bolivianos. 

Exports. — The export trade for the same year shows that the quantity 
and value of dutiable goods exported from Bolivia amounted to 
66,189,471 kilograms, valued at 23,894,104.26 bolivianos, and 2,966,035 
kilograms free goods, valued at 1,276,044.20 bolivianos. 

The following table shows the share of the several departments in 
the export trade: 




La Paz , 

Colonias Territory. 


Santa Cruz 









5, 100, 073 

364, 265 





36, 651 







644, 684. 00 




30, 320. 00 







The destination of exports according to the customs reports were as 







■ Germany 

Not specified 








United States 

Total . . 


48, 627, 826 




2, 060, 162 






10, 765 














13, 599. 39 

69, 155, 506 















Exports by customs districts show the following figures for 1902 
and 1903: 

Customs district. 










31, 199. 18 






2, 328, 388. 00 

La Paz 








105, 711. 65 


82, 196. 43 


2, 735. 84 


813, 997. 20 


2, 626, 651. 35 


639, 460. 00 




2, 872, 430. 10 



According to the Bolivian official source from which the foregoing 
table is taken, although there is apparentlj" a decrease in exports, in 
reality it does not exist, as the Puerto Acre custom-house passed 
under Brazilian control at the beginning of the year, and the Villa 
Bella returns onl}' represent the first six months of 1903. Such being 
the case, and estimating the Villa Bella trade during the second half 
of the 3'ear at the same figures quoted in the table in reference, the 
export trade maj' be said to have been stationary during 1903. 

Customs receipts during the same j'ear, as compared with 1902, 
show that there was an increase of 219,934.81 bolivianos, as shown in 
detail in this table: 

Customs district. 


La Paz and Pelechuco 



Puerto Suarez 


Villa Bella 






795, 69-2. 74 

379, 441. 52 

119, 603. 57 



27, 286. 39 



2, 649, 659. 51 

854, 020. 10 
36, 968. 04 
7, 810. 97 










According to data furnished the Bolivian Government by the Consul- 
General of Bolivia in New York, the value of the merchandise shipped 
from the ports of New York, San Francisco, and Philadelphia to 
Bolivia was in 1896,§231,013.43; in 1897, $151,524.93; in 1898, $179,- 
206.99, and in 1899, ^177, 696.45. The value of the merchandise shipped 
from San Francisco to Bolivia in 1900 is shown in the following table: 






3, 704. 00 









The value of the merchandise shipped from New York to Bolivia 
during the years 1900 and 1901 is as follows: 


January \ 819,251.69 







34, 24; 
8, 541. 68 
84. 649. .W 
35, 754. 70 

30, 921. 75 
28, 122. .51 
19, 772. 66 



October . . . 



20, 634. 51 



3:!, 739. 04 




And for 1902 the following figures show the number of packages 
and their official valuation: 



February . 







October . . . 
November , 



United States official figures " for the fiscal year 1903 give the total 
imports from Bolivia during that period at $1,600, and the exports to 
Bolivia at $49,107, as follows: 

Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and medicines $1, 483 

Clocks and watches, and parts of 1, 592 

Cotton, manufactures of 9, 777 

Gun powder and other explosives 119 

Iron and steel, and manufactures of ; _ 20, 825 

All other articles 15,211 

Total 49,107 


The Organic Customs Law of Bolivia still in force bears date of 
November 25, 1893, and establishes the basis of the customs legislation 
of the country. The principal points established by said law are the 

All goods which may form the subject of a commercial transaction 
shall be admitted into the territory of the Republic, with the sole 
exception of articles the free circulation of which is prohibited by penal 
laws, public surety, and morality laws, and by regie laws affecting 
goods subject to monopol}-. 

Exportation is allowed of products of the soil and industry of the 
country, in any form, except live vicufias, alpacas, and chinchillas. 

To be legally considered as imported into the country, merchandise 
of any description must pass through a national custom-house for the 

« Commerce and Navigation of the United States, 1903. 

6 The full text of the Organic Customs Law of Bolivia, as well as the General Cus- 
toms Regulations, the General Regulations for the Application of the Valuation Tariff, 
and the complete Tariff are printed in the Monthly Bulletin of the International 
Bureau of the American Republics for January, 1903. 

116a— 04 10 


pui-pose of being examined and assessed with any customs duties 
chargeable thereon. The classification of goods is strictlj' subject to 
the stipulations of the tariff; no alteration can be made to the estab- 
lished duties, under the joint and sev^eral responsibility of the apprais- 
ing officer and of the examiner, whose bond will be held liable for any 
under-charged difference, without prejudice to criminal proceedings. 

No exemption from or reduction of dutj' can be granted in favor of 
any industry, public establishment, company, or person whatsoever, 
except in cases expressly authorized by laws or legislative decisions. 
Exemptions enjoyed by diplomatic agents are granted in accoi'dance 
with the respective treaties and international usage, and are subject to 
the provisions of the customs regulations. 

Goods admitted into custom-houses of the Republic shall remain 
therein under protection of the laws, and in no case, not even in the 
event of war with the country of which the owners, shippers, or con- 
signees of the goods are subjects, can the goods be seized or any 
measures of reprisal resorted to. In no case nor under any circum- 
stances can the goods referred to be subject to any new State or 
municipal taxes, beyond the duties established in the tariff under 
special laws or municipal orders dul}^ sanctioned by the Senate. 

Every importation shall be effected in the form prescribed by law, 
and the consular invoices relative to imported goods must be produced, 
except as otherwise specially provided for in the regulations. 

Exports of products of the country, transshipments and reshipments, 
coasting-trade business, imports of duty-free or specially taxed goods 
shall all be subject to the formality of valuation and cleai'ance in con- 
formity with the regulations. 

Metals and ores of all kinds must, prior to being exported, pay the 
tax applicable thereto. As to argentiferous ores, the payment of the 
export tax shall only be provisional. The degree of silver percentage 
declared by exporter shall first be taken as a basis, but on final settle- 
ment of duty he shall be required, within the time limit of one hundred 
and eighty days from date of export certificate, to exhibit his trade 
account of sales effected abroad, showing amount of sih'er, gold, tin, 
copper, or bismuth contained in the exported ore. In default of pro- 
duction of such accounts within the term specified, the person con- 
cerned shall be condemned to pay the duty chargeable on ore contain- 
ing the most silver. 

Cases of contraband and fraud shall be adjudicated upon administra- 
tively by the head of the custom-house concerned, with the assistance 
of the public prosecutor, but the decision of the Chief of the Customs 
may be referred to the Minister of Finance, whose award may be 
impeached in the Supreme Court, the disputed goods remaining mean- 
while in the custody of the customs authorities, without prejudice to 


any such common-law judgments as may be rendered in respect of 
other offenses committed in connection with the foregoing. 

The General Customs Regulations in force contain 415 sections, and 
were promulgated on the 21st of January, 1901. The principal gen- 
eral provisions in regard to shipping and import and export trade 
generally are as follows: 

Masters of merchant vessels shall, in exchange for a receipt, deliver 
to the officer charged with the inspection of the ship a general mani- 
fest of everything on board, especially showing samples, provisions, 
and stores of the vessel. The provisions must be in proportion with 
the number of the crew, and this item is not to include such articles as 
are not assimilable thereto nor such provisions as in the opinion of the 
collector of customs appear in excessive quantity. If the vessel is in 
ballast and has no goods to discharge in the port, the master will make 
a written declaration of the fact and hand the same to the inspecting 
officer for transmission to the customs. 

The general manifest may be written in any language, made out on 
ordinary paper, and shall specify: 

1. Place from which the ship departed, and the character, name, and 
nationality of the vessel. 

2. Tonnage. 

3. Marks, numbers and quantities, and kinds of packages; names of 
consignees and, as far as possible, nature of the goods contained in the 

4. Samples. 

5. Provisions and stores on board. 

6. Date of production of manifest. 

Should it be impossible to furnish this document forthwith, the offi- 
cial in charge of the inspection shall request the master to produce it 
in the course of the day, and will withdraw, leaving an assistant on 
board in order to prevent that goods or persons be taken on board, 
landed, or transshipped until the production of the manifest referred to. 

It shall be the duty of owners or consignees of portions of a vessel's 
cargo to produce itemized manifests. These documents shall be deliv- 
ered to the customs authorities in duplicate, within six days from date 
of deposit of the general manifest or from the date when the unloading 
is completed, if the vessel entered the port under stress of weather. In 
land custom-houses this term shall run from the date on which the 
goods entered the custom-house. 

If after the expiration of the six days the itemized manifest has not 
been exhibited, the defaulter shall incur a penalty of from 50 to 300 
bolivianos in the judgment of the Customs Collector, without prejudice 
to the right of suspending the clearance of merchandise, which are 
the property of persons who have failed to manifest them, or, in default 
of such persons, of the ship's consignees. 


Consignees of goods entered in the general manifest, or the per- 
sons claiming in that rapacity under an indorsement on the itemized 
manifest, or on the lists presented shall be deemed to be the owners of 
the goods. 

Packages declared "to order" in the general manifest, the actual 
addresses of which should be unknown shall be declared in detail by 
the consignees of the vessel. These manifests shall be accepted at the 
customs without any further declaration as to the contents of the pack- 
ages, and at the time of clearance the real owner of the goods shall 
exhibit new manifests in detail to take the place of the former. 

Every detailed manifest presented to the customs authorities shall 
be drawn up in duplicate and shall state exactly the number and kind 
of packages, the marks, and numbers thereon, the denomination and 
class of goods contained in such packages, and their classification 
according to tariff. No abbreviations, erasures, or alterations either 
in words or figures are permissible, and every manifest so presented 
shall be refused and the person concerned must prepare a clean and 
correct copy of said manifest. In case of error in the wording of the 
manifest, the person concerned shall report to the collector, who will 
order a notification to be annexed to the detailed manifest. In no case 
can a detailed manifest be rectified after the interested part}' has 
handed in his lists of goods. 

Every detailed manifest is to be viseed by the consignee of the 
ship; othei'wise it shall not be accepted by the customs authorities. 

Should it be impossible to manifest in detail the contents of one or 
more packages, the person interested will apply in writing to the chief 
of the customs to have the goods contained in such packages examined. 
This application shall state the name of the transshipping vessel and 
also the marks, numbers, and kind of packages of merchandise. As 
soon as the permit has been granted, the application shall be trans- 
mitted to the examining office, so that the interested party may, in the 
presence of the warehouse keeper or anj' other customs official desig- 
nated by the collector for this purpose, make the invoice under his own 
responsibility. The application shall then be filed with a note describ- 
ing the transaction and the part}' interested will draw up his detailed 
manifest in duplicate and in the form prescribed by law. The expenses 
in connection with the moving of the packages subjected to examination 
shall be borne by the applicant. 

If the same package contains goods of different kinds, this fact shall 
be noted in the detailed manifest in the form of "Miscellaneous goods," 
but in the case of inflammable articles, or liquids, the contents of the 
package must be declared in full. 

Packages containing explosives or inflammable materials shall be 
declared, with their marks, numbers, and weight, together with a 
description of the goods contained in such packages. 



It is unnecessary to declare separately packages of goods, the con- 
tents and marks of which are identical. These packages can be declared • 
jointly, but must be cleared on the same document. 

Packages containing or inclosing other parcels provided with similar 
or different marks or numbers may be declared jointly if required to 
be cleared in bulk, and separately if convenient to importer to clear 
them in this manner. 

Should it appear that the general or detailed manifest has been 
altered by the owner or consignee of the goods, or that words, marks, 
or numbers have been erased or substituted therein, the goods con- 
tained in the package or packages so altered shall be forfeited, and the 
owner or consignee will thereafter be refused admission to the custom- 
house. If the attempt to defraud was committed by persons other 
than the own6r or consignee of the goods, such goods shall not be for- 
feited, but the offender shall be liable to a fine of 500 bolivianos, and 
refused admission to the custom-house. 

By samples is meant parts of fabrics or other merchandise of no com- 
mercial value. Samples shall also include articles completely manu- 
factured and having a commercial value when imported in reasonable 
quantities, should it be clearly' proved that the sample is only intended 
to advertise the quality of the goods. Samples may be landed imme- 
diately after production of the general manifest. They can also be 
cleared prior to the delivery of the detailed manifest, if entered in the 
general manifest. After the detailed manifest has been delivered, and 
the goods or packages containing the samples have been found specified 
therein, the samples shall be treated like any other goods. 

Applications for clearance of samples shall be filed at the custom- 
house on a form made out in triplicate. As to samples of no value, it 
will be sufficient to declare them as '''' samples of no value" If, how- 
ever, the samples are liable to duty, the marks, numbers, and contents 
of each package shall be stated. It will be unnecessary, however, to 
enter the number of the different samples, which duty devolves upon 
the examining officer superintending the clearance and valuation of the 
goods. If, under the designation of "samples of no value," there 
should be packages containing articles having a commercial value and 
being of a kind different to that provided, such samples shall be liable 
to double the duty. 

Appraising officers shall only classify as samples such goods as 
unquestionably have the character of samples. Samples of goods stored 
in customs warehouses can only be taken once. In order to be allowed 
to draw samples, an application must be made to the collector, who, 
after granting his permit, will transmit the application to the apprais- 
er's office. The appraiser, who is to be present at the withdrawal of 
the samples, will fix the duty chargeable thereon and the warehouse 
keeper will note the condition of the packages after the sampling. 


The application shall be subsequently delivered to the liquidating 
office, and the controlling department will affix the corresponding note 
to the detailed manifest. The expenses incurred in moving the pack- 
ages shall be borne bv the applicant. 

Owners of goods are permitted to examine same at the customs 
warehouses, either with the view of showing to their buyers articles of 
which they can not or do not wish to take samples, or for some other 
reason. Persons wishing to do so shall make application to the collector 
to that effect. 

By baggage or luggage is understood wearing apparel, boots and 
shoes, jewelry, and other articles of personal use, including printed 
books, in a quantity proportioned to the importer's station in life, 
exclusive of furniture and household utensils of foreign origin, even 
if used. Baggage shall not be landed until after the captain of the 
vessel has delivered the general manifest of his -cargo. 

Any parcel of baggage must be submitted to examination on entry. 
Prior to cleai-ance the owner shall be called upon to declare the con- 
tents, and if found to contain dutiable articles the}- shall be entered in 
the corresponding list. If. however, after examination, articles not 
declared should be detected, which can not be considered as articles of 
personal use, thev shall be seized. 

Baggage of diplomatic agents accredited to the Government of the 
Republic, as well as of foreign public ministers of any power crossing 
the Bolivian territorj-, and of ministers of the Republic returning to 
the Republic after completing their mission abroad, shall bo exempt 
from customs examination and other formalities prescribed by these 

Foreign diplomats may, on arrival in Bolivia, and during their stay 
in the Republic, import free of duty for their personal use and con- 
sumption all kinds of articles, after first complying with the customs 

Foreign goods imported for consumption in the country shall pay 
at the custom-house of entry, and in the form prescribed by the regu- 
lations, such import duties as are fixed in the tariff. 

The following goods, when entered for consumption, shall be 
admitted free of dutj', viz: 

1. Articles included in the free list of the import tariff in force, also 
the articles covered by the law of December 12, 1900. 

2. Products the growth of Chile, as well as articles manufactured 
therefrom, upon proof of their origin and identity being furnished. 
(Article .5 of armistice signed with Chile on April 4, ISSi, and article 7 
of additional protocol of May 30, 1885.) 

3. Products of the soil and industry of Peru in accordance with the 
special provisions governing their importation. 


4. Personal baggage within the meaning of the regulations. 

5. Articles intended for personal use of diplomatic agents. 

6. Articles belonging to Bolivian ministers on their return from 
their mission. 

7. Articles for State use and service subject to the previous orders 
of the Government. 

To secure importation into the Republic of goods from countries 
not included in. any special provision of the customs regulations it 
will be necessarj' to prepare four copies of an invoice, certified by the 
Bolivian consul in the port of shipment of the goods. This invoice 
shall specify the name of the shipper, port of shipment, the Bolivian 
custom-house to which the goods are consigned; name of consignee in 
the Bolivian port of discharge or in a foreign port in case of transit; 
name of persons in Bolivia ordering goods; the marks, numbers, quan- 
tities, and kinds of packages, quantity and kind of goods contained 
therein, their weight, total value of invoice, and date of entry, and the 
signature of the shipper. 

The consul will immediately forward the first copy of the invoice to 
the custom-house of destination, under sealed cover; the second copy 
he will forward to the Minister of Finance, the third to be returned 
to the shipper, and he shall file the fourth in his archives as voucher. 

Consular ofiices will supply printed blanks for the invoices at the 
rate of 10 centimes of & franc, or equivalent thereof in other currency, 
per copy. 

For the purpose of verifying invoices submitted for legalization 
consuls will in all cases require the production of the corresponding 
invoices of the factories or venders. In the event of these documents 
not agreeing, they will refuse to legalize them. 

Invoices of foreign goods destined to Bolivia will not be considered 
as genuine, and shall be of no legal value, when it is proved that they 
have not been presented to the consul of the Republic in the port of 
shipment and have not been certified by him. In such case the mer- 
chandise shall be deemed imported without consular invoice. 

If the goods to be imported come from ports where there is no 
Bolivian consul to certify the invoices, importation may be made with- 
out this formality, but the legalization fees shall be charged at the 
Bolivian custom-house of destination. 

Consuls are not allowed to legalize invoices relating to packages 
directed to different custom-houses of the Republic. 

The consular fee for certifying invoices shall be at the rate of 1 per 
cent of the amount of the value of the same. 

Goods imported without consular invoice shall be charged double 

Importers of foreign goods shall forward said goods by the roads 


indicated to them to the customs station nearest to the custom- 
houste of destination. Goods shall he seized if found outside the 
roads so designated or if imported without having passed a xjustoms 
post at the corresponding frontier. 

Products of the soil or industrj^ of Bolivia, goods upon which cus- 
toms duties ha\e been paid and foreign merchandise in transit exported 
overland must be accompanied by a pass issued by the respective 
custom-house. This pass shall be issued in triplicate, and show the 
route adopted for export, the marks, numbers, quantitj-, and kind of 
packages, as well as the kind, quantity, and class of goods or articles 
contained in each package. 

Goods paying export duties, and foreign-transit goods must leave the 
country ^'ia the same routes and roads as were assigned for their impor- 
tation. Goods'found to be outside of the routes or not accompanied 
by the required pass or way bill shall be seized. 

Fruits, metals, ores, and other native products and also nationalized 
goods or goods upon which customs duties have been paid may be 
freely transported from one point of the Kepublic to another without 
any formality beyond obtaining a customs pass, which shall be issued 
free of charge and is intended to serve for the carrier to show which 
is the place of origin and that of the destination of the goods. 

Trade between ports of the Eepublic may be carried on by any ves- 
sel whatsoever, and it shall be lawful — 

(1) To transport from a principal port to another of the same class 
and to import through a principal port all nonprohibited merchandise. 

(2) To convey from a pi'incipal to a secondary port and import 
through the latter domestic or nationalized goods. 

(3) To transport from a secondary to a principal port or from one to 
secondary port to another all domestic or nationalized goods. 


The general regulations for the application of the valuation tariff, 
promulgated November 28, 1900, which entered into operation Januarj' 
1, 1901, are in substance as follows: 

1. The tariff onl}' includes ordinary and standard types of merchan- 
dise; goods appearing to be of materially lower or higher quality than 
the generality, or imported in receptacles of higher quality than those 
generally in use, shall be appraised in accordance with the provisions 
of article 15 of the regulations. 

2. In every case where the valuation of a tissue is based on the 
number of threads, the latter shall be reckoned, by means of the thread 
counter, in a square of 6 millimeters per side. 

3. If the length, width, or surface of goods exceeds the maximum 
or is less than the minimum fixed in the tariff', such goods shall be 


assessed by taking the dimensions as a basis. But when the maximum 
only is mentioned the assessment shall be made on this latter basis. 

i. By "gross weight" is understood the weight of the package as 
made up for transporting the goods. Appraisement by gross weight 
shall also be adopted in the case of goods generally conveyed loose, in 
bulk, or bound together in bundles. 

5. The expression " including packages" applies to goods appraised 
according to their actual weight, together with the weight of con- 
tainers and packages in which they are inclosed or wrapped, but not 
including barrels, casks, cases of wood, tin, or sheet iron, with the 
cross pieces and outside packing cloth necessar}'^ for transportation. 
This rule shall not be applicable to goods for which the mode of 
weighing has been expressly stipulated in the tariff. 

Should goods dutiable including the weight of packages be imported 
loose, in bulk, or fastened together in bundles, they shall be appraised 
according to their net weight. 

6. "Net weight including receptacles" means the weight of the 
goods including the receptacle containing them, and attached to the 
goods even if only used for safe transportation. 

7. Merchandise for which the tariff does not expressly stipulate 
another mode of weighing shall be appraised by its net weight. 

8. When goods dutiable on their gross weight are imported in the 
same package with other goods assessed or classified under some 
other rule, the weight of the goods, including interior receptacles and 
packages, shall be increased by 30 per cent if imported in boxes and 
by 6 per cent if imported in bales; save that in both cases the exterior 
receptacle referred to in article 5 shall not be taken into consideration. 

9. Fractions of a centavo amounting to 50 centimos and over shall 
be considered as a full centavo and fractions of less than 50 centimos 
shall be disregarded. 

10. The denomination appearing at the head of each gi'oup consisting 
of one or more subdivisions shall be deemed repeated at the commence- 
ment of each subdivision. 

The expressions "the same" or "as above" which are frequently 
omitted in the different subdivisions of an item shall be also sufficiently 
understood and indicated by the denomination appearing at the head 
of each group. 

11. For " unfinished and untrimmed hats" shall be understood hats 
which are not provided with linings, ribbons, etc., notwithstanding 
that they may have been ironed; this expression shall embrace hats 
furnished with a gauze or paper wrapper for the sole purpose of pro- 
tecting them from damage. 

12. In the tariff, "common metal" shall be held to be any metal 
except gold, silver, or platinum. 


13. The threads or material of which tissues are composed shall be 
considered as of higher or lower appraisement, according to the fol- 
lowing order: 

1. Silk. 

2. Wool or hair. 

3. Linen. 

4. Cotton or ramie. 

5. Hemp, jute, and other vegetable fibers. 

14. By "warp" must- be understood the joint number of threads and 
filaments which form the length of the tissue, and by "weft" or 
"woof" the joint threads or filaments crossing the warp. 

15. Articles subject to "appraisement" and "not specified in the 
tariii" shall be appraised at the custom-house according to their 
wholesale price. In order to arrive at this estimate the original 
invoice shall be referred to and its amount increased by 20 per cent 
for freight and other charges affecting the goods from market of 
origin, provided these incidental expenses have not already been 
charged in the invoice. In default of the original invoice, or in case 
of doubt as to the genuineness thereof, the goods shall be appraised 
by taking for basis the wholesale price of the article on the nearest 
market to the custom-house, subject to a deduction of 30 per cent. 


According to law no compulsory taxes exist in the country, except 
when duly established by the legislative power. Municipal taxes are 
obligatory only when duly approved by the Senate. Taxes affecting 
commerce are of two kinds, national and local, the former being col- 
lected by the State through the respective customs districts, and the 
latter by the respective department or municipality, either through the 
custom-house or through special bureaus created for that purpose. 

Import taxen. — Import taxes are national, departmental, and muni- 
cipal. The national taxes on imports are such fees as are collected on 
the value of consular invoices, payable at the Bolivian consulate at the 
port of shipping, and from 10 to 40 per cent ad valorem payable at the 
custom-house upon importation of foreign goods into the country, 
according to the tariff. According to the consular law now in force 
fees charged by consuls for the certification of shipping documents to 
Bolivia are as follows: 

1°. For legalization of the manifest of the cargo of a ship, 2 cents 
for every ton over the net tonnage; the tonnage shall be estimated 
according to the laws of the different countries. 

2°. For registration of consular invoices, 2 bolivianos when the 
amount of the invoice does not exceed 200 bolivianos. Invoices for 
higher values shall be paid at the rate of Ik per cent, estimated in the 
money of the country where they are made. 



There shall be no charge on invoices relating to the importation of 
gold coin in Bolivia. 

3°. For visaing certificates of the merchandises in transit, 2 boli- 

Certain articles, such as spirits, wines, liquors, tobacco, and sugar, 
are subject to an additional octroi tax {estanco) ranging from 0.30 to 
10 bolivianos, according to tariff. Warehouse dues are from 5 cents 
per package weighing up to 30 kilograms, to 1 boliviano for packages 
weighing from 581 to 610 kilograms. Foreign and domestic merchan- 
dise are subject to both departmental and municipal taxes, according 
to the respective tariffs, besides a tax of 10 cents per metric quintal (46 
kilograms) on all foreign merchandise, except as specified. 

Export taxes. — Bolivian products subject to export tax are given in 
the following list: 


Export tax. 

Bismuth per metric quintal. 

Copper (manufactures) do. . . 

Copper ore do. . . 

Tin in bars , do. . . 

Tin barrilla do. . . 

Rubber, exported through the Acre customs district percent. 

Rubber, exported through other customs districts do. . . 

Gold, bars or dust per ounce. 

Silver, bars or ore per marco. 

Silver coins per cent a. 












« By act of Congress, 1903, this tax has been increased to 6 per cent. 

Departm'ental and municipal taxes are also levied on exports accord- 
ing to the tariff. 

Commercial travelers. — Commercial travelers are required to pay a 
license tax at the capital of every department, such license being only 
valid within the respective department. This license tax varies accord- 
ing to departments and the class of goods carried as samples. 



Bolivia's finances, both as regards its resources and administration, 
have undergone a radical change from- colonial times, when mining was 
the only source of revenue to the State. In 1800 the total revenues of 
the country- were estimated at $:2, 304,060, collected both in cash and in 
goods. Decrease in mining and the war of independence produced a 
heav}' depression in the finances of the country, until the development 
of the cinchona bark industry gave a new source of revenue to the 

In 1826. when the Republic was formally established, the first budget 
amounted to §2,3111.763, and in 1850 revenues were estimated at 
$2,093,016, and expenditures at 81,919,984, leaving a balance of nearly 
§200,000. After this there came a crisis in the mining and cinchona 
industries, crippling the financial conditions of the country-, which have 
been slowly improving of late years. 

Revenues in Bolivia are divided into three classes — national, depart- 
mental, and municipal. 

JS^ational revenues.— The, national revenues consist in the main in 
the fees charged for consular invoices, customs duties, octroi or excise 
tax on alcohol and other spirits; taxes on mining products, rubber, 
stock companies, mortgages, mining claims, and rubber claims {estradas 
gomeras) ; stamped paper, revenue and postage stamps, telegraph, and 
other minor dues. 

According to official figures national revenues from 1890 to 1902 
have yielded the following sums: 


1890 3,624,200.00 

1891 3,321,280.00 

1892 3, 860, 823. 00 

1893 4, 153, 823. 00 

1894 4, 211, 599. 00 

1895 4, 115, 700. 00 

1896 4,434,312.10 



1897 5,564,350.00 

1898 5,194,509.50 

1899 5, 939, 580. 50 

1900 6,462,931.53 

1901 6,434,925.34 

1902 5,969,652.73 


The State's propeity consists in public lands, forests, mines of all 
kinds, and real property called fiscal property, valued at 10,468,906 
bolivianos. Part of this, over 5,000,000 bolivianos, is national 
property, over 3,000,000 municipal, and the balance departmental 

Omtonis. — The customs revenues for 1902 amounted to 4,383,000 
bolivianos, as follows: 

La Paz 1,280,000 

Pelechuco 20,000 

Puerto Suarez 140, 000 

VillaBella 100,000 

Tarija 120,000 

Storage at Tarija 1, 000 

Acre 100,000 

Uyuni 80, 000 


Oruro 30,000 

Tupiza 12, 000 

Customs agency in Antofa- 

gasta 2,050,000 

Custom agency in Arica 450, 000 

Total 4,383,000 

Tolls. — Bridge and road tolls, 50,000 bolivianos. 

Excise or octroi. — Alcohol and other spirits. The revenues produced 
by this branch of the service amounted to 605,000 bolivianos. The 
octroi or monopoly for the sale of alcohol and other spirits was under 
direct Governmental supervision until 1900, when it was sold to pri- 
vate parties. The grantee pays the State 8 bolivianos per can of 
spirits imported weighing 1 quintal. Alcohol and spirits are sold from 
20 to 25 bolivianos per can of 6 gallons, of alcohol 40° Cartier, net 
weight 23 kilograms. 

Exports. — Revenues through this branch of the service for 1902 
amounted to 2,285,150 bolivianos (direct collections), as follows: 


Silver ore and bullion 500, 000 

Tin 500,000 

Copper 80, 000 

Bismutii 10, 000 

Silver coin 5, 000 

Gold / 150 


Acre customs district 1, 000, 000 

Purus customs district 30, 000 

Villa-Bella customs district 160, 000 

Total 2,285,150 

Miscellaneous revenue: 

Consular invoices 180, 000 

Grants of rubber lots 50, 000 

Stock companies and mining companies 120, 000 

Tax on mortgages 45, 000 

Trade-marks -. 200 

Mint 110,000 

Stat? telegraphs 60,000 


Miscellaneous revenue — Continued. Bolivianos. 

Post-office boxes 8,000 

Postage stamps 120, 000 

Stamped paper and revenue stamps 20,000 

Subsidy from the departmental treasury of' La Paz for the construc- 
tion of the Guaqui and La Paz Railroad 70, 000 

Total 783,200 

Contingent and extraordinary receipts: 

Increase on the storage dues at La Paz custom district for the construc- 
tion of a railway and for other purposes 20, 000 

Extraordinary receipts 16, 000 

Coinage of nickel money 500, 000 

Oruro Railroad 6,000 

Coinage of nickel for the National Territory of Colonies and Beni 
Department 500,000 

Total '. 1,042,000 

The sum total of these different sources of revenue amounts to 
9,148,350 bolivianos for 1902. 

Departmental revenues. — These revenues are made up of taxes and 
real estate propert}'. The valuation of departmental property is esti- 
mated at 1,021,430 bolivianos. The other sources of revenue are 
several kinds of taxes and other contributions, amounting in 1902 to 
2,395,602.97 bolivianos, as shown in this table: 



236,869 22 

La Paz 

278, 259. 60 


4ii 864 91 

217, 608. 40 


Santa Cruz 

180 692 00 

El Beni 

178 000 00 



The several departmental sources of revenue are excise tax, rural 
land tax, Indian Territorial tax, tithe, university degrees and fees, 
indirect succession, export and import tax, stamped paper and revenue 
stamps, fines, mining grants, tolls, national subsidies, and several 
minor taxes. 

Municipal revenues. — The revenues of the municipalities consist in 
the tax on lighting, lease of municipal properties, cemetery dues, per- 
sonal taxes, ground rents (censos), tax on hides and skins, tax on articles 
of consumption, market stalls, city land tax, fines, industrial, commer- 
cial, and professional taxes, tolls, sale of public lands, and other minor 
dues. Municipal revenues for 1902 were estimated at 2,317,669.88 
bolivianos, and the expenditures at 2,379,179.88, showing a deficit of 
61,510 bolivianos. 

DEBT. 159 


The fiscal revenues of the country have suffered a serious drawback 
since 1902, due in part to the enormous rate of exchange with Europe 
and the United States, and in part to the heavy decrease in custom 
revenues because of the depreciation of Bolivian currency in foreign 

The national budget for the fiscal year 1903 estimates the revenues 
at 7,013,350 bolivianos and the expenditures at 7,461,860.91, a deficit 
of 448,510.91 bolivianos. The budget in detail is as follows: 

Customs: Bolivianos. 

Import duties : 3,512,000.00 

Export duties (silver, tin, copper, gold, bismuth, rubber) 1,881,150.00 


Spirits, toll, consular invoices, stocli companies, trade-marks, mort- 
gages, etc 995,200.00 


Railways, telegraphs, mails, rubber claims, and other sources 625, 000. 00 

Total 7,013,350.00 


Legislative service « 165, 564. 00 

Foreign Relations and Worship 527, 251. 51 

Government and Justice 647, 054. 00 

Finance and Industry 1, 419, 513. 00 

Improvements and Instruction 925, 040. 00 

War 2,366,866.40 

Colonization 1,410,572.00 

Total 7,461,860.91 

The budget for 1904 has been estimated at 7,241,700 bolivianos for 
revenues and 9,126,295 for expenditures. 


The financial obligations of the Republic are of two classes — the 
internal and the external or foreign debt. 

Internal debt. — This debt covers the following obligations: 

First series. Debt contracted during the war of independence, called 
"Deuda Patriotica Espaiiola." 

Second series. Annual accumulated dues arising from contracts and 
loans made by the Republic during Melgarejo's administration. 

Third series. Refund of the value of certain lands sold, such sale 
being made void by the Assembly in 1871. 

Fourth series. Indemnification for damages tO property during the 
civil wars. 

1 60 BOLIVIA. 

Fifth series. Obligations entered into by the Government during the 
war of the Pacific. 

Sixth series. "Deuda consolidada," under which name are included 
various obligations dating prior to 1840. 

The amount of these obligations acknowledged by the State up to 
1899 was 3,934,250.57 bolivianos, as follows: 


First series — Spanish war debt 611, 190. 87 

Second series — Accumulated dues 1, 564, 226. 02 

Third series— Refund of land values 528,888.42 

Fourth series — Indemnities 336, 335. 03 

Fifth series— AVar loan 763,391.17 

Sixth series— Consolidated debt 130,219.06 

Total 3,934,250.57 

The State's assets, arising from debts due the national and depart- 
mental treasuries, post-offices, mint, and other public institutions are 
estimated at 2,000,000 bolivianos, out of which sum only 817,593 boli- 
vianos has been duly acknowledged. 

By decree of May 16, 1908, the Government of Bolivia ordered 
the issuance of treasury scrip, for circulation in Colonias Territory 
and the department of Beni, to the amount of 1,000,000 bolivianos. 
This scrip will be issued from time to time in such amounts as may 
be required, in denominations of 50 cents, 1, 6, 10, and 20 bolivianos, 
and is receivable in all the Government and custom-house offices in 
the northeastern portion of the Republic and the department of Beni. 
The gradual withdrawal and amortization of this scrip is provided for 
by applying 10 per cent of the customs receipts of the Territory of 
Colonias and the department of Beni for this purpose. 

The National Bureau of Public Credit at La Paz is in charge of all 
matters connected with the internal debt of the country. 

Foreign debt. — This debt covers the following obligations recognized 
b\' the Government in favor of Chilean citizens, as indemnity for 
damages sustained during the war of 1879, for seizure of their property : 


Compania Huanchaca de Bolivia 2,207,032.56 

Compania Corocoro de Bolivia 2, 818, 000. 00 

Compafiia Minera de Oruro 286,956.50 

Bondholders of the Chilean loan (1867) 1,238,841.60 

Total 6,550,830.66 

To the pa^-ment of these obligations, which are the only recognized 
foreign debt of Bolivia, 40 per cent of the product of the Arica custom- 
house revenue is devoted exclusively in conformity with the stipula- 
tions of the Treaty of Truce made with Chile. The amount paid from 
1885 to J9i33 was 16,042,453.10 Chilean currency. 



The banking and commercial institutions of Bolivia are all in good 
standing, and substantially established in the principal cities of the 
Republic. Conditions governing exchange, however, are such that 
prompt foreign payments are frequently difficult, long credits being 
the prevailing rule, as in the case of other South American countries. 
The best system is the use of bills of exchange or better still letters 
of credit on London, which not only facilitate transactions, but also 
relieves the Bolivian purchaser of unnecessary additional expense in 
settling his foreign credits. 

Currency. — Prior to 1856 there were five classes of gold coins made 
at the National Mint, ranging in value from $17.80 to $1.10. These 
coins, however, do not exist at present as a token of exchange. Boli- 
vian currency is on a silver basis, the legal unit being the silver boli- 
viano, worth 100 centavos, weighing 25 grams, 900 fine. At par it is 
equivalent to 5 francs. This coin is now practically out of circula- 
tion, the only fractional silver pieces used being the 60, 20, 10, and 5 


Silver coinage. 










347, 220 

Medio boliviano 

178, 670 





The value of the silver boliviano is subject to fluctuation, and on the 
average is equivalent to 40 cents United States currency. The latest 
official quotation of the Treasury Department, October 1, 1904, assigns 
the boliviano a value of $0.42. 

Other subsidiary coins are made of nickel and copper, in 5 and 10 
centavos pieces of the former and 1 and 2 centavos copper pieces. The 

116a— 04 11 161 



only legal currency of the country, according to law, is that lawfully 
issued by the State, except the pound sterling, which has been admitted 
as such since 1895 in payments not exceeding 2,000 bolivianos, at the 
London rate of the price of silver, plus a premium to be fixed by the 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Coinage. — The amount of money coined and placed in circulation by 
Bolivia from 1890 to 1899 is officially quoted at the following figures: 


1890 887,390.79 

1891 1,473,048.80 

1892 1,518,480.00 

1893 1,678,320.00 

1894 1,286,371.55 


1895 1,744,210.45 

1896 1,508,087.60 

1897 1,189,282.20 

1898 ■- 1,650,535.80 

1899 1,839,442.62 

For the ten years 1892-1903 the operations at the mint are shown 
in this table: 











1,206,0%. 79 










63, 386. 96 





















1896 . 










For the first five months of the calendar year 1904 the figures are 
307,413.21 bolivianos for silver redeemed, at an expense of 8,865.37 
bolivianos, the coinage amounting to 282,137 bolivianos. 

Bank notes. — Bank notes are issued by four institutions in the coun- 
try, the face value of the bills being 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 bolivi- 
anos, at par with silver. On the 30th of June, 1903, the amount of 
notes in circulation was officially estimated at 9,144,254 bolivianos, 
the following being the banks of issue: 


Banco Naoional de Bolivia 4, 208, 554 

Banco Francisco Argandofia 3, 145, 700 

Banco Industrial de La Paz 1,040,000 

Banco del Comercio, Oruro 750, 000 

Total 9,144,254 




The following is a list of the principal banking institutions of Bolivia: 



Legal residence. 



Paid up 

CrMito Hipotecario de 

Banco Nacional de Bo- 

Banco Hipotecario Ga- 
rantizador de Valores. 

Banco Hipotecario Na- 

Banco Francisco Ar- 

Banco Industrial de La 

El Ahorro del Hogar . . . 

Banco del Comercio de 



Mortgages and loans.. 

laaue, loans, depoisits, 

and discounts. 
Mortgage bonds 






2, 000, 000. 00 





100, 000. 00 

Sucre . 


100, 000. 00 

Issue, loans, deposits, 
and discounts. 

Issues, loans, and de- 

Issue of cumulative 
bonds, loans, depos- 
its, and discounts. 

Issue, loans, deposits, 
and discounts. 



La Paz. 

800, 000. 00 

.do . . 

60, 000. 00 


600, 000. 00 

La Paz 

500, 000. 00 

Oredito Hipotecario de Bolivia. — This bank was legally established 
in 1870 with a capital of 1,000,000 bolivianos in stock — of which 
100,000 bolivianos had been paid up— and a reserve fund of 20,000 
bolivianos. During the first six months of 1903 the bank made 32 
loans to the amount of 165,700 bolivianos, or 2,097 loans since its 
foundation to the value of 12,613,100 bolivianos. The value of the 
mortgage bonds in circulation was at the time 4,054,500 bolivianos. 

Baiico Nacional de Bolivia. — The first bank of issue established in 
Bolivia was the "Banco Boliviano," which in 1871 transferred all its 
rights and privileges under its charter to the present Banco Nacional. 
The cash capital of this bank in 1903 amounted to 3,000,000 bolivianos, 
its reserve fund being 145,845, and its emergency fund of over 5,000. 
The net profits of the Banco Nacional during the first six months of 
1903 is estimated at 157,900 bolivianos. 

Banco Hipotecario Garantizador de Valores.— This banking institu- 
tion, founded in 1887, has an authorized capital of 1,000,000 bolivianos, 
its paid up capital being 100,000 bolivianos and a reserve fund of 
122,738 bolivianos. The net profits of this bank during the first six 
months in 1903 are estimated at 12,828 bolivianos. 

Banco Hipotecario Nacional.— This bank, originally established at 
La Paz in 1890, transferred its legal residence to Cochabamba in 1903. 
Its nominal capital amounts to 1,800,000 bolivianos, out of which 
100,000 bolivianos have been paid up. Its reserve and guaranty fund 
amounts to 17,918 bolivianos. 


Banco Francisco Argandona. — Has an authorized capital of 4,000,000 
bolivianos, over one-half of which has been paid up. Reserve fund in 
cash, £50,000. Net profits during the first six months 1905, 126,000 

Banco Industrial de La Pas. — Established in 1899. Nominal capital, 
2,000,000 bolivianos; paid up capital, 800,000 bolivianos. Profits dur- 
ing first six months in 1903, 81,658 bolivianos. 

El Ahorro del Sogar. — Savings bank established in 1900 with an 
authorized capital of 200,000 bolivianos, of which 50,000 bolivianos 
were paid up. Profits during the first six months 1903, 5,900 boli- 

Banco Agricola. — Bank of issue established by act of November, 
1902. Paid up capital, 500,000 bolivianos, with the right of increase 
to 2,000,000 bolivianos. 

All these banks have offices at the capitals of the Departments. The 
banking law in force was enacted September 30, 1890. 

Commercial institutions. — The principal commercial institutions in 
the country are the chambers of commerce in La Paz, Sucre, Oruro, 
and Tarija, the Board of Trade and Industry of La Paz, and the Cocha- 
bamba Board of Trade. 

Insurance comjyames. — There are several agencies in the Republic. 

Rate of exchange. — The fixed rate of exchange used by the Depart- 
ment of Finance of Bolivia in making estimates is the following since 

Dollar = 2.40 

Pound sterling =11. 40 

Franc, lira, or peseta = . 45 
Reichsmark = .57 

These quotations are on the basis of 21 pence per boliviano. The 
fluctuation on exchange at La Paz on London and Paris during 1902, 
has waved between 16 and 18 pence on London and 1.71 to 1.93 francs 
on Paris. 



As Bolivia is an inland or Mediterranean country, possessing peculiar 
topographical features, its domestic and foreign traffic has to traverse 
long distances, precipitous mountains, and arid plains to reach either 
its destination within the territory or any of the outlets leading to the 
outside markets of the world. Mountain passes or bridle paths, wagon 
roads or highways, waterways and railroads are the channels of traffic 
through which Bolivia carries its home and foreign trade. 


Sighways. — Public highways in Bolivia are either national or munic- 
ipal property, the former being built and maintained by the Government 
from appropriations made by Congress, and the latter being built and 
maintained under municipal control. The topography of the country is 
such as to admit few wagon roads east of the plateau in western Bolivia. 
The most expensive of the national roads, both as regards cost of con- 
struction and maintenance, are those built by Indian labor, in the 
highest sections of the Andean Range, for the sole use of pack trains. 
The amount of traffic carried on on mule back or on the backs of 
llamas and donkeys over these precipitous, narrow, winding paths is 
very valuable, according to Bolivian authorities. Thei-e being no sta- 
tistics on the subject no accurate estimation can be made of its impor- 
tance. The industry is exclusively in the hands of the Indians, who 
take such good care of the freight intrusted to them that rarely, if 
ever, there is a cause of complaint for the loss by breakage, even of 
the finest crystal ware, after one of those long and tedious journeys. 

In such sections of the country where there are neither railroads 
nor navigable rivers bridle paths are found skirting the mountains, 
crossing the valleys, using the dried-up beds of creeks and other 
streams, and connecting the principal towns of the several depart- 
ments. These roads are provided by the Nation with sheltered places 
called "postas," built at the end of a day's journey, where travelers 




may rest. There is no charge for the use of the place, and only a 
nominal price is collected for food for men and mules. Fresh mounts 
for hire are always found at these postal, to be left at the next station, 
where fresh mules can be had. The State's charge for this service 
is invariably 20 cents of boliviano for each mule per league (3 miles) 
and 10 cents for the guide or postilion per league also. These guides 
are remarkable for their endurance, always walking before the trav- 
eler, chewing coca leaves, and making from 80 to 90 kilometers a day 
over such rough and diflScult roads. 

Bolivian roads as a rule connect the principal cities with the adja- 
cent towns and settlements, and for the most part are well built and 
kept in good condition. 

The following table shows the distance covered in kilometers by the 
roads connecting the several departmental capitals: 






Santa Cruz... 


La Paz 







La Paz. 
































MTar/o?! 7-oads. — The topographical conditions of the country make it 
almost impossible to build a net of wagon roads connecting all the 
departments among themselves. The few wagon roads open to traffic 
are only serviceable during eight months in the year, as the rainy season 
makes traffic almost impossible. To build these roads in a more sub- 
stantial manner would be as expensive as the building of a railway, 
and would not give the same results. 

The most important wagon roads in the country are the following: 

Za Paz to Oruro. — Over this road, 273 kilometers in extent, there 
is a regular stage line for the conveyance of passengers between the 
two cities. The trip is made in two days, leaving La Paz at 6.30 a. m. 
on schedule days, Sicasica, intermediate station 150 kilometers distant 
from La Paz, is reached at 6.30 p. m. the same day. The stage leaves 
next morning at 6 a. m. and reaches Oruro at 6 in the evening. The 
same itinerary applies to the return trip. There is a fixed tariii for 
the price of seats in the stage coaches and for freight. The conces- 
sion for this line lapses on December 31, 1905. The Government has 
a rebate of 50 per cent on freights and passages. 

Za Pas to Corocoro. — Distance, 114 kilometers. A stage line makes 
regular trips between the two cities. Time consumed in the journey, 
twelve hours. There is a regular freight and passenger tariff estab- 


lished for the service. The same company owns a freight line to 
Nacazara for the transportation of minerals and general merchandise. 

La Paz to Aehacachi. — The distance between the two terminals is 
111 kilometers, covered by the stage in from ten to twelve hours. This 
line belongs to the same company, Yonares & Cia. , operating the La 
Paz and Corocoro line. Congress, in order to foster the permanent 
establishment of the stage line over this road, has granted the com- 
pany a subsidy of 2,000 bolivianos per annum. 

Gochahamha to 6'j'Mro.— This line covers the distance of 228 kilo- 
meters between the terminals in two days, traveling only in the day- 
time. The supreme Government, in view of the increased traffic over 
this road and the efficient service rendered by the "Empresa Tunari," 
the concessionaire of the stage line, extended their concession for 
four years, from January 1, 1905, and has granted the company 
an annual subsidy of 12,000 bolivianos. 

A new wagon road is under construction in this section from Cocha- 
bamba to Oruro, following another itinerary. 

Cochahamba to Sucre. — The distance between the two terminal cities 
by this road is 468 kilometers, and it takes six days to make the trip by 
stage. As there were no facilities for the comfort of passengers along 
the road, because traffic was not heavy enough, the Government 
rescinded in 1903 the contract with the company operating the stage 
line. At present there is no regular stage running between the two 

Slier e to Potosi. — The concession for a regular stage line over this 
road expired in 1902, and nothing has been done for the renewal of 
the contract, as traffic was not important enough to maintain the serv- 
ice. The distance between the terminals is 161 kilometers. 

Sucre to Challapata. — This line belongs to a Bolivian company, 
called "Empresa Zamora," and enjoys a subsidy of 12,000 bolivianos 
per year from the Government. The distance between Sucre and 
Challapata is 340 kilometers, covered in four and a half days. 

Uywiii to Potosi. — This is one of the most important land routes in 
Bolivia, 185 kilometers in length. 

Potosi to La Quiaca. — This road is 417 kilometers in length. Traf- 
fic is carried on on heavy road carts. 

There are other roads connecting with those described leading to 
the interior towns and to the frontier States. 

Waterways. — ^The principal waterways in the country are, in the first 
place, Lake Titicaca, having an area of 6,200 square kilometers. Two 
steamers ply on this lake between Puerto Perez in Bolivia, and Puno, 
Peru, touching at intermediate points. Small vessels on Lake Aulla- 
gas supply local needs, and the Desaguadero Kiver, connecting both 
lakes, is navigable by large steamers for a considerable distance. 


All the Bolivian affluents of the Amazon are navigable, while rivers 
Yutay, Yurua, Alto Purus, Acre, Orton, Madre de Dios, Inambari, 
Beni, Madidi, Itenez, and Mamore, and their affluents admit steam 
launches having from 4 to 6 feet draft. The navigable area of Boliv- 
ian streams for steam launches is estimated at 9,000 kilometers. 

The Pilcomayo is navigable for vessels measuring up to 200 tons, 
and the Paraguay for a distance of about 1,200 kilometers. 

The navigable zones of Bolivia may be divided into four regions, 
viz, one on the north, embracing the Territory of the Colonies, the 
department of Beni, and a section of that of La Paz; another region 
on the east, embracing the departments of Santa Cruz and Cocha- 
bamba; a third region to the southeast, comprising the Paraguay, Pil- 
comayo, and Bermejo rivers, and a fourth section, embracing lakes 
Titicaca and Poopo or Aullagas, and the Desaguadero River, which 
connects them. 

Navigation on the river Mamore, Chapare, Itenez, and their afflu- 
ents is in the hands of a native company, Barriga & Cia, while Barber, 
von Berks & Co. operate on the Magdalena (Beni). Another native 
concern, Maciel & Cia, has a steam launch plying on the Mamore and 

Lakes Titicaca and Poopo are connected by the Desaguadero River, 
the total length of this waterway being over 590 kilometers, as fol- 
lows: Lake Titicaca, 172.73 kilometers; Desaguadero River, 300.88; 
and Poopo Lake, 117.01. Vessels of 500 tons burden can sail over the 
Desaguadero River. There are several steamers and steam launches 
operating in the river. Among the latest concessions made by the 
Government to foster navigation in Bolivia there is one granted to Mr. 
Juan E. Hulman, to navigate the Desaguadero up to Lake Poopo. 

The concessionaire has the exclusive privilege of navigating the 
stream mentioned with steam vessels, subject to the rights acquired 
by the Peruvian corporation in that part of the route between Lake 
Titicaca and Puente of Concordia. By the terms of the concession 
the concessionaire is granted an annual subsidy of 10,000 bolivianos 
(§3,610 gold), for a period not exceeding ten years, which subsidy 
shall cease as soon as the net profits of the enterprise amount to 6 per 
cent on the capital invested. No duties, either Federal or municipal, 
shall be levied on the machinery, tools, and other supplies imported 
for use in the construction, maintenance, and operation of the vessels, 
buildings, wharves, etc., necessary for the navigation of the Desa- 
guadero River, for a period of twenty years, provided the original 
bills covering the materials mentioned are presented to the Govern- 
ment for verification and approval. 

The State grants to the concessionaire such Government lands as may 
be required for the erection of buildings, oflSces, warehouses, etc., and 


gives to the company the right to use such private lands as may be 
necessary for the purposes mentioned. The concessionaire also has 
the authority to construct and erect bridges over the streams and 
highways tributary to the Desaguadero River, and to charge a toll for 
the use of the same. This privilege shall last while the franchise 
remains in force. The tariff for passengers and freight shall be fixed 
by the Government, taking as a basis for the freight rate 1 cent, 
approximately, per metric quintal for each kilometer of distance 
hauled. The concessionaire agrees to open to public traffic the navi- 
gation referred to within a period of twelve months from the signing 
of the contract, using for this purpose a number of steam vessels or 
launches sufficient to meet the needs of the public. Government 
employees, troops, freight, and postal business shall be carried at one- 
half the tariff rates. The concessionaire is required to deposit 6,000 
bolivianos as a surety for the faithful performance of the contract. 
On the expiration of the contract the entire property of the enterprise 
passes to and becomes the property of the State. 

Another important concession has also been granted for the estab- 
lishment of a line of steamers on Lake Titicaca. The concessionaire 
is Mr. Federico G. Eulert, a merchant of La Paz, who has been 
authorized to organize a joint stock company, composed either of home 
or foreign capitalists, to establish a weekly steamer service in the 
Bolivian section of Lake Titicaca. This company will be known as 
the "Compania Nacional de Remolcadoras" (The National Towage 
Company), having its legal residence in the city of La Paz. The com- 
pany will commence the service with one steamer of less than 60 tons 
capacity, conveniently arranged for the transportation of passengers, 
and four iron launches, said service to be inaugurated within eighteen 
months after the approval of the concession by the Bolivian Govern- 
ment. As a guaranty for the faithful execution of the contract the 
concessionaire is required to deposit 2,000 bolivianos in one of the 
banks in La Paz, subject to the order of the Government. The com- 
pany is to increase the number of the vessels from time to time, in 
accordance with the demands of the traffic. The steamers will make 
stops at the Bolivian ports and landings of Lake Titicaca, there remain- 
ing long enough to load and unload freight and to comply with the 
customs regulations of the Republic. Each vessel shall be provided 
with a manifest of the freight it carries, approved and certified to by 
the proper authority at the port of shipment. At Guaqui the freight 
consigned to La Paz shall be unloaded in the warehouses of the rail- 
way, to be transported by rail to the city of La Paz. On domestic 
products the Guaqui Railroad is to charge only one-half the lowest 
freight tariff rates. 


The company shall transport the Government mails to and from the 
port of Guaqui and to and from the other ports of the lake free of charge, 
and will make a reduction of 50 per cent from the regular tariff rates 
for Government freight. The Government will admit free of duty 
the material and tools necessary for the construction of the steamers 
and launches. The company is also exempt from the payment of 
wharfage, storage, port, and light-house charges. The Government 
agrees to make no other similar concession on Lake Titicaca to any 
other company for a period of five years. 


At the end of the calendar year 1903 the number of kilometers of 
railway in operation in Bolivia was 1,129, as follows: 


From Tocopilla to Toco 93 

From Antofagasta to Oruro 924 

Branch line to Pulacay o 25 

From Guaqui to La Paz 87 

Total 1,129 

Commissioner Charles jNI. Pepper, appointed to carry out the reso- 
lution of the Second International Conference of American States in 
regard to railway development in Latin America in connection with 
the intercontinental railway project, in his report to the Secretary 
of State, !March 1:2, 1901, says in part as follows in reference to 
Bolivia's railroad facilities and future development:" 

"The national railway policy of Bolivia is intimately identified with 
the intercontinental project. The sections which would be formed 
in this line are regarded as essential to the Republic's develop- 
ment. * * * 

"A momentous event, and one which makes probable the early reali- 
zation of Bolivia's ambition for wider railroad intercourse, is the treaty 
with Brazil for the settlement of the controversy over the Acre terri- 
tory. This provides for a cash payment within two years of ^2, 000,000, 
or nearly $10,000,000, by Brazil to Bolivia, the stipulation being that 
the sum shall be expended chiefly for railway purposes. Even before 
the treaty had been ratified the declared purpose of the Bolivian Gov- 
ernment was to apply this indemnity to railway construction, securing 
the lines which will give it a through system from the Argentine 
border on the south to the boundary of Peru on the north, thus form- 
ing the great midway artery of through railroad communication 
between Buenos Ayres and Lima, as well as enlarging the means of 
commercial intercourse with the Amazon region of Brazil. 

o Pan-American Railway. S. Doc. No. 206, 58th Cong., 2d sess. Washington, 1904. 


'■'"President Pamdd's policy. — The intercontinental route is so clearly 
considered a part of the national system, and the preference for it is 
shown so strongly, that your commissioner quotes from the message 
of His Excellency the President, Gen. Jos6 Manuel Pando, to the 
Bolivian Congress, December 27, 1903. President Pando in his mes- 
sage said: 

If, as is expected, the treaty with Brazil is perfected and put in practice, it should 
be taken into account by the nation that the sum provided as the stipulated indem- 
nity should be applied in the construction of railway lines. * * * 

It is necessary for us to install railroad lines in the greatest possible extension of 
our territory, consulting the probability of assuring, with the returns sought, the 
interest on the capital invested; the necessity of putting into communication among 
themselves the distant centers of population in order to foster the national unity and 
give impulse to internal commerce and local industries, and finally the convenience of 
opening a highway by distinct routes to our international communication. * * * 

It is clear that the first lines to be constructed should be that from La Paz to 
Oruro; that from Oruro to Cochabamba; that from Uyuni to Tupiza, and that which 
joins these places with the very important one of Potosi. 

The railroad from Uyuni to Tupiza would be important to complete the network 
of international highways which will form the grand intercontinental system pro- 
posed by the United States of America. And since the Argentine Goveriunent is 
actually building the prolongation of the Central Northern to Tupiza, the line which 
is to be constructed to Uyuni would complete that work, giving us an outlet to the 
Atlantic, to the great advantage of the people of our southern districts. 

Other lines of vital importance, whose realization should be procured, are those 
from the Paraguay Eiver to Santa Cruz, from Cochabamba to the Chimore, and from 
La Paz to the Beni Eiver. 

The plan which should be proposed to effect these projects should be as follows: 
To send a commission to confer with the most solid and well-established firms of 
Europe and the United States engaged in railway construction in regard to the con- 
struction of railroads in Bolivia, the commission to agree to provide from Bolivian 
funds the additional capital on fixed interest. This capital would be guaranteed by 
all the lines constructed and their incomes and, besides, by the national revenues in 
case of deficiency. * * * 

The general administration of the lines should be turned over to the capitalists 
or company, the Government reserving the immediate supervision and the interven- 
tion necessary to protect their interests. * * * 

"The treaty between Brazil and Bolivia has been ratified by both 
Governments so that the plans outlined by President Pando can be 
carried out. Substantially, Bolivia has a cash capital of $10,000,000 
available for railway building and as a basis for securing further 
credit and the cooperation of private capital. The treaty provides 
that the first installment of £1,000,000 shall be paid within three 
months from the exchange of ratifications and the balance by March 
31, 1906. * * * 

'''' Prime importance of Pan- American sections. — It will be observed 
that the President places emphasis on the lines from La Paz to Oruro 
and from Uyuni to Tupiza, which will complete the Bolivian links in 
the intercontinental system. 


" The following summary of present and prospective railway con- 
struction was prepared for your Commissioner by Mr. T. Clive Shep- 
perd, the efficient director of public works: 

Puno is the terminus of the Mollendo, Arequipa, and Puno line, worked by the 
Peruvian corporation, 4 feet 8J inch gauge. From Juliaca, near Puno, the line pro- 
ceeds north toward Cuzco, and is completed as far as Sicuani. 

Puno to Guaqui, 110 miles (179 kilometers). — Lake navigation across Lake Titi- 
caca, worked by the Peruvian corporation. 

Ouaquito Viacha, 40 miles (65 kilometers). — Meter gauge line owned and worked 
by the Bolivian Government. Distance from Viacha to Alto de La Paz, 14 miles (22 

Viacha to Orwo, 128 miles (206 kilometers). — Proposed meter gauge line. 

Oruro to Uyuni, 195 miles (314 kilometers). — Two feet 6 inches (75 centimeters), 
line owned and worked by the Antofagasta (Chile) and Bolivian Eailway Company. 
The scheme includes a proposition to acquire this part of Jthe line and change the 
gauge to 1 meter. 

Uyuni to Tapiza, 147.5 miles (236 kilometers). — Not yet surveyed. 

"The distance between Uyuni and Tupiza usually is accounted as 
less than that estimated above. The Argentine engineers, who made 
a preliminary study, and the members of the Intercontinental Survej"^ 
fixed it at 125 to 130 miles. This line presents engineering difficulties, 
yet it would traverse an immensely rich mineral region, not only 
causing the reopening of mines which have been abandoned for lack of 
transportation facilities, but also leading to the development of new 
ones. The lowering of freight rates from the mines which now 
depend on pack animals for their transport was estimated for a term 
of years. This calculation showed that the average charge for minerals 
transported from Tupiza to Uyuni by pack animals was $24 gold per 
ton. For the intervening points it was not much less. * * * 

"Since the second conference progress has been made in Bolivia in 
the intercontinental scheme. The capital. La Paz, has been joined by 
rail with the port of Guaqui, which is the head of navigation on Lake 
Titicaca. This line was built by the Peruvian corporation, but was 
taken over by the Bolivian Government, which has since operated it 
and is paying the mortgage held on the property by the company. 

'' Present projects and concessions. — At the present time only one rail- 
way concession is in force in Bolivia. This is for the line known as 
' L'Af ricaine,' and the franchise is held by French and Belgian capital- 
ists. The line is projected from Santa Cruz to the Paraguay River 
through what is known as the Chaco or tropical agricultural area. 
The company was given a large grant of public lands for colonization, 
and provision was also made for a subsidy from the national revenues 
on the completion of the first 200 kilometers. 

"Some preliminary studies have been made, and the engineers of the 
company went over the ground in the summer and fall of 1903, but 
not much progress has been realized, and the prospect for early work 
is not encouraging. The corporation also has the franchise for con- 


structing a fort and canal at Bahia Negra, which is the confluence of 
the River San Rafael with the Paraguay, and which was to be the 
terminus of the railroad. 

"Other projects are for the prolongation of lines of the Argentine 
system from Lalie Ledesma to Oran and to the interior of Bolivia via 
Yacuiba. The distance is 300 miles (600 kilometers) from Santa Cruz 
to the frontier of Argentina. There are also plans for lines through 
the Chaco of Tarija and the provinces of Azero and Cordillera to join 
the Bahia Negra Railroad. They do not indicate early results. 

"An enterprise which has received support is for a railroad from La 
Paz through the copper fields of Corocoro to Tacna, from which point 
a railroad runs to Arica on the Pacific. A large traffic is now carried 
on over this route by means of pack animals. No franchise has been 
granted by the Bolivian Government for this proposed railway, and 
definite surveys have not been made. 

'■'■Opening up tJie rubber region. — The plans for connecting the heart 
of Bolivia with its tropical territory, which give promise of the earli- 
est realization, are tho^e for a railway from the heights of La Paz to 
Yungas, which is the center of the coca-leaf production and other 
tropical products, as well as of lumber and firewood. By this project 
the navigable waters of the Beni River will be reached and the capital 
thus placed in communication with the rubber region by means of 
railways and river navigation to Villa Bella, which is the customs- 
house and port of northeastern Bolivia. 

"The proposition is for an electric railway from the heights of La 
Paz by utilizing the hj^draulic power in the river Undavi. The esti- 
mate is that one section, 78 miles (125 kilometers), would cost 12,500,000, 
and the other section, 31 miles (50 kilometers), $750,000, making a 
total of $3,250,000. The Government has had the route carefully 
studied and the detail plans have been completed. This project comes 
within the immediate view of the Brazilian treaty, and presumably the 
funds for carrying it out will be supplied from the indemnity. It is 
to be carried forward in conjunction with other plans for electric trac- 
tion from the Heights (El Alto), which is now the terminus of the 
railway from Lake Titicaca, down to the city proper, as ordinary rail- 
road construction is too difficult and too expensive to carry a steam 
railroad from the Heights to the basin in which the city lies. 

'"'' Mines the basis of Bolivian railway growth. — The foundation of 
Bolivian railway development lies in its mineral resources. This 
is particularly true of the sections between Uyuni and Tupiza and 
Viacha and Oruro, which are the links lacking in the intercontinental 
location. Viacha is a few miles from La Paz on the railroad that con- 
nects the capital with Lake Titicaca. Concessions have been given at 
various times for building the line to Oruro and surveys have been 
made, but nothing practical has resulted. * * * 


'■^Liberal legislation prohcMe. — Bolivia has a general railway law pro- 
viding for a guaranty of 6 per cent on capital invested in railway con- 
struction and also conceding other security, but its terms have been 
too vague to induce capital to engage in these enterprises. There is 
State regulation of the private lines both as to fixing freight and pas- 
senger tariffs and as to other subjects. They are similar to the regu- 
lations enforced on the Government line between Guaqui and La Paz. 

"It is probable that as a consequence of the more definite policy 
which has been adopted by the present administration, and in order 
fully to utilize the advantages of the Brazilian indemnity, legislation 
will be enacted which will be more specific and will meet the condi- 
tions that are necessary in order to induce investments. A new general 
railway law was submitted to the Congress at the session of 1903, 
but owing to lack of time for full consideration no action was taken." 

Railways in operation. — The following is a brief description of the 
railways in actual operation in Bolivia: 

Tocopilla-Toco Railway. — In 1886 Mr. W. Stirling, of Tacna, 
formed in London a company under the name of "Anglo-Chilean 
Nitrate Railway Company," for the purpose of operating a railroad 
in connection with the nitrate deposits of River Loa. Work on the 
line was begun in 1888, the railroad being open to the public in May, 
1890. Like all railroads in Bolivia this line is of the narrow-gauge 
system, and is considered a remarkable piece of engineering because 
of its sharp curves and other features. The general gradient of the 
line is 4 per cent, the road ascending to 1,634 meters up to Ojeda 
Station, 54 kilometers from Tocopilla. From this point the descent 
begins to 1,200 meters. The cost of construction is estimated at 
i;209,404, and at £6.8 per mile the cost of maintenance. 

Antofagasta- Oruro Railway. — The concession for this line was first 
granted to the representative of the "Campania Huanchaca de Bolivia," 
in 1888, for the construction of a railroad and a telegraph line from 
the Bolivian frontier to the city of Oruro, passing through Huanchaca. 
The rights acquired by the company were subsequently transferred, 
in 1889, to the Antofagasta and Bolivia Railway Company, Limited, 
which operates the line. The company has a guarantee from the 
Government of 6 per cent per annum for twenty years on the capital 
invested on the construction of the line, said guaranty to become 
effective upon the delivery of the railway at Oruro. The line was 
officially inaugurated at Oruro, May 10, 1892. 

The distance covered by the railroad between both terminals meas- 
ures 924 kilometers. It is a single-track, narrow-gauge line, the maxi- 
mum gradient being 2.98 per cent. The road ascends from 5 meters 
above the sea level at Antofagasta to 3,956 at Ascotan, descending 
thence to 3,694 meters, which is the altitude of Oruro. The maximum 
speed of the trains is, according to the regulations, 40 kilometers an 



hour. The locomotives used on this line are all of American make, 
Baldwin, Rodgers, and Stevenson being represented. 

The line is divided, according to the territory over which it extends, 
into Chilian and Bolivian sections, the former from Antofagasta to 
Ascotan, 360 kilometers, and the latter from Ascotan to Oruro, 564 
kilometers. The revenues and expenditures of the Bolivian section 
from 1898 to the end of the first six months of 1903 are estimated by- 
Bolivian authorities as shown in this table: 




Net earnings. 






339, 409. 12 


609, 801. 71 


710, 386. 46 




583, 319. 86 


294, 744. 38 

From 1900 to the end of the first six months of 1903 the revenues 
of this line have been as follows: 






Grand total. 













1, 158, 480. 59 





In 189Y the Engineer Corps, under instructions from the Executive, 
made a thorough investigation of the capital invested in the construc- 
tion of the Bolivian section of the railroad, in order to ascertain the 
amount of the 6 per cent Government guaranty. The investigation 
showed that the cost of the Bolivian section of the line was £750,000, 
the annual guaranty being, therefore, £45,000. As the revenues 
derived from the operation of the line are larger than the amount 
fixed as the State guaranty, this is only nominal as far as the Bolivian 
Government is concerned. 

Passenger trains only travel by day, covering the distance between 
Antofagasta and Oruro in three days. Special fast trains, however, 
have made the run in 23 hours. 

Uyuni-Huanchaca Brcmch. — The Huanchaca Company owns and 
operates for its exclusive benefit a branch road from Uyuni to Huan- 
chaca, a mining region 15 kilometers distant. This branch road was 
built in five years at a cost of 544,550 bolivianos. . 

Quaqui and La Paz Railway.— This is the first railroad built in 
the country with public funds, and owes its existence to the personal 
efforts of President Pando, who in 1900 directed the survey of the 
line to be made. - By act of Congress, October, 1900, the construction 



of the railway was authorized, setting aside to defray building expenses 
the whole of the revenues from the alcohol tax or monopoly on spirits 
and the rubber tax in the department of La Paz. The construction of 
the road has been under the direct supervision of Engineer M. Busta- 
mante y Barreda, appointed by the Executive as Chief Engineer of 
the line. Work was commenced at Guaqui at the end of 1900. 

The total length of the line from Guaqui to Alto, near La Paz, is 
87 kilometers, the track ascending from 3,813 meters at Guaqui to 
4,160 at Viacha to descend thence to the Alto station 4,086 meters above 
the level of the sea. The gauge of the line is 1 meter; the rails weigh 
18 kilograms per meter and the total number of tons of rails used in 
the construction of the line is 3,398. The road is equipped with three 
locomotives of American make, and has a telegraph line running along 
the track for 38 kilometers. The total cost of the line was estimated 
•by Mr. Bustamante at about £170,000 (2,398,700 bolivianos, at 17 d. 
per boliviano), or about £2,000 per kilometer. The amount expended 
in the road up to September 30, 1903," reaches the sum of £141,741, or 
1,931,035 bolivianos. 

A sudden fall in the price of silver in London and other causes 
determined, in 1901, certain conditions which terminated in an agree- 
ment of the Peruvian Corporation, Limited, June 30, 1902, to loan 
the Government £10,000 and become responsible for certain obliga- 
tions, having as a guarantee a first mortgage on the railroad and its 
appurtenances. Later on, March, 1903, it was stipulated between the 
Government and the company that the former agreed to establish 
traflBc and operate the line to Guaqui upon the fulfillment of cer- 
tain obligations on the part of the company, and to pay the Peruvian 
corporation during 1903 the amount of £21,000, and from the 1st of 
January, 1904, on no less than £2,000 a month until the full and com- 
plete settlement of the mortgage had been effected. 

The revenues set aside for the construction of this road have pro- 
duced the following sums during the last four months of 1900, and the 
calendar year of 1901, according to the "Sinopsis Estadistica" before 


Alcohol tax. 

Rabber tax. 





156 101 96 

1901 --- 




Under date June 9, 1904, Mr. William B. Sorsby, the Americau 
Minister at La Paz, reports as follows in regard to this railway:* 

o Sinopsis Estadfstica y Geogrdfica, Vol. Ill, 1904. 

6 United States Consular Reports, No. 2010, July 22, 1904. 


"The Peruvian corporation owning and operating the Southern Rail- 
way of Peru, from Mollendo on the Pacific to Puno on Lake Titicaca, 
and operating lake steamers in connection therewith between Puno 
and Guaqui, has acquired control and taken possession of the Guaqui- 
La Paz (Bolivian Government) Railway from Guaqui, the Bolivian 
Lake Titicaca port of entry, to the city of La Paz, for the term of 
seven years from June 1, 1904, under a contract or lease. 

"The corporation lends the Government £50,000 ($243,335), at 6 per 
cent interest, for the completion of the extension of the Guaqui-La 
Paz line from the Alto to the city of La Paz, and the Government 
recognizes its present indebtedness to the corporation of something 
more than £23,000 ($111,930), which, with the £60,000 loan, and the 
cost of the permanent improvements that may hereafter be bought and 
made, will be charged against an amortization fund of 40 per cent to 
be reserved from the revenues of the railway; and if at the end of the 
seven years the total obligation has not been covered by this amorti- 
zation fund, the Government will extend the lease or pay to the cor- 
poration such balance as may then be found to exist. The corporation 
will retain 60 per cent of the revenues of the railway for operating 
expenses during the term of its lease. 

" The extension from the Alto (the present terminal of the Guaqui- 
La Paz Railway), for which the £50,000 ($243,335) loan was made, will 
be an electric line, 8 kilometers (4.97 miles) in length, with a 6 per 
cent grade and 1 meter (39.37 inches) gauge (the same .gauge as that 
of the main line), and will be completed within about twelve months. 
All of the material and equipment for the construction and operation 
of this extension will be obtained from the United States. 

"Thus it will be seen that by the acquisition of the Guaqui-La Paz 
Railway the Southern Railway of Peru secures a continuous service 
from Mollendo, Peru, to La Paz, Bolivia. 

" In this connection I further have to report that it now seems prob- 
able that the Peruvian corporation will also be given a concession for 
the construction of the proposed railway from Viacha, on the Guaqui- 
La Paz line, to Oruro, on the Antofagasta-Oruro line, under a fifty 
years' lease and with a guaranteed interest of 6 per cent on £550,000 
($2,676,575), the estimated cost of its construction and equipment. 
The length of the line will be 220 kilometers (136.6) miles), and it will 
be level, except for a few rises and falls the grade of which will not 
exceed 2 per cent. It is to be completed within three years after the 
final aceeptance of the lease by the Peruvian corporation and the 
Bolivian Government, through the Executive. The interest will be 
guaranteed for the term of the concession by the alcohol tax." 
116a— 04 12 


Other projected railway lines, either under construction or actual 
survey, are the following: 

, Kilometers. 

La Paz to Yungas 140 

Viacha to Oruro 220 

Oruro to Cochabamba 222 

Cocliabamba to Chimore 200 

Cochabamba to Santa Cruz 555 

Aiquile to Sucre andPotosi 333 

Santa Cruz to Puerto Pando 777 

Branch line to Florida 333 

Oruro to Wara (from Iquique and Pisagua) 312 

Potosi to Cariquima 288 

Potosi to the Argentine frontier 444 

Tarija to Tupiza 150 

La Paz to Huaicho and Pelechuco 325 

These lines cover an extension of 4,400 kilometers, the total cost 
being estimated at about 300,000,000 bolivianos. There are besides 
these lines other new concessions granted by the Executive. 


Bolivia's communication with foreign countries is necessarily ha 
through the territories of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru. The 
Amazon and its tributaries in Brazilian territory afford ready means 
of communication with the Atlantic coast, while river Plate offers an 
outlet farther south. The Pacific coast trade is carried on through 
the Peruvian port of Mollendo and the ports of Arica and Antofagasta, 
under Chilian control. In detail, these commercial routes are as 

Amazon route. — ^This route leads from Acre and Villa Bella, Boliv- 
ian ports and customs districts, on the Brazilian frontier, to Para, 
Brazil, on the Atlantic, a distance of 4,085 kilometers from Acre and 
3,471 kilometers from Villa Bella, covered in 244 and 216 hours, respec- 
tively. Return trips are made in double the stated time. The trip is 
made as far as the Para River in small boats. The largest portion of 
the trade of the department of Beni and the northern region of the 
Republic is carried on tlirough the Amazon route. Freight and inci- 
dental expenses on a metric quintal of rubber exported from Villa 
Bella to Para on an average amounts to 1 12 bolivianos, while freight 
and expenses for imports from Para to Villa Bella on an average cost 
130 bolivianos. 

Paraguay route. — The foreign trade of the department of Santa 
Cruz and a large portion of that of the Beni and Chuquisaca depart- 
ments is made by the Paraguay River, via Puerto Suarez, through the 
upper and lower Paraguay, Parana, and River Plate, to either Monte- 
video or Buenos Ayres, covering the distance of about 300 kilometers 


in 1 days. The total freight on a metric quintal of rubber from Espe- 
ranza, Beni, to Montevideo by the Paraguay route is 79 bolivianos. 
Freight per ton from Montevideo to Corumba, Brazil, 11 kilometers 
from Puerto Suarez, is $8; from Buenos Ayres, |7, and from Rosario 
de Santa Fe, $6. Average expense from Corumba to Puerto Suarez, 
|3. There are several steamship companies plying between Corumba, 
Rosario de Santa Fe, Buenos Ayres, and Montevideo, touching at 
Intermediate pomts. 

Argentine route. — ^This is the longest route between Bolivia and the 
South Atlantic coast, via Argentine. The total distance between the 
Tupiza and Tarija customs districts and Buenos Ayres is about 2,997 
kilometers, or 1,829 miles. The commerce of the department of 
Tarija and a portion of those of Potosi and Chuquisaca find an outlet 
through this commercial route. From Tupiza and Tarija to Salta, 
terminus of the North Central Argentine Railroad, the distance is about 
1,200 kilometers, thence to Rosario on the Parana, by rail, 550 kilo- 
meters, and thence by steamers to the Atlantic coast, 270 kilometers. 
Freight on a metric quintal from Esperanza, Beni, to Buenos Ayres, 
via the Cordillera and Yacuiba, is quoted at 92 bolivianos. Freight 
on a metric ton of mineral products from Tupiza to Buenos Ayres, 
via Jujuy and El Rosario, 109.60 bolivianos. 

Antofagasta route. — This, the most direct route to the port of Anto- 
fagasta, now under Chilean control, starting at Oruro, terminus of the 
railroad, passing from Uyuni and ending at Antofagasta, a distance of 
925 kilometers, covered in 3 days. The largest portion of the trade 
of the departments of Chuquisaca, Potosi, Southern Oruro, and 
Cochabamba finds an outlet through this route. Freight and incidental 
expenses on a metric quintal of rubber from Beni to Antofagasta is 
quoted at 92.40 bolivianos. The Oruro-Antofagasta railroad is divided 
for freight purposes into two sections, the Bolivian section from Oruro 
to Ollague, 489 kilometers, and the Chilean section from Ollagiie to 
Antofagasta, 435 kilometers. Each section has its own tariff, payable 
in the currency of the respective country. Freight per metric ton 
from Antofagasta to Europe is quoted at £4, or about 55 bolivianos. 

Arica route. — This is the shortest route to the Pacific, either from 
Oruro or La Paz, being the commercial outlet for the products of the 
departments of Oruro, Cochabamba, and a portion of La Paz. The 
distance from La Paz to Arica measures 544 kilometers. The trip is 
made by rail from La Paz to Viacha, 28 kilometers; by pack train 
from Viacha to Tacna, a distance of 452 kilometers, and from Tacna 
to Arica, 63 kilometers, by rail. Pack mules take 7 days to make the 
trip from Tacna to La Paz, pack donkeys 10 days, and llamas from 15 
to 20 days. 

Mollendo route.— The bulk of the trade of the department of La Paz 
goes by rail from La Paz to Guaqui, thence by steamers on Lake 


Titicaca to Puno, Peru, and thence by rail to Mollendo, passing 
through the city of Arequipa, a total distance of 848 kilometers, cov- 
ered in 42 hours as follows: 

From La Paz to Alto (highway), 6 kilometers, 1 hour; Alto to Gua- 
qui, by i-ail, 87 kilometers, 3 hours; Guaqui to Puno, by steamers, 
180 miles, 16 hours; Puno to Mollendo, by rail, 575 miles, 22 hours. 

There are three other routes besides, one from Pelechuca and Juliaca 
to Mollendo, another from Eio Desaguadero, Lake Titicaca, Puno, and 
Mollendo, and a third from Riberalta to La Paz, 1,554 kilometers. The 
Guaqui and La Paz Railroad, which was opened to the public in May, 
1903, facilitates the means of communication. The freight tariff on 
exports is from 15 centavos to 1.10 bolivianos for merchandise belong- 
ing to the first class of the tariff, or mining and manufactured products, 
except specie, value declared; and from 10 centavos to 1 boliviano on 
second-class goods or agricultural and cattle products. Specie, jewelry, 
gold dust, silver bars or pina, and kindred articles, pay from La Paz to 
Guaqui at the rate of two-fifths of 1 per cent on value declared. Im- 
ported merchandise for freight purposes only is divided into five 
classes, paying per metric quintal from 2.20 to 5.65 bolivianos, according 
to class. 

The main portion of Bolivia's foreign commerce is done through 
the ports of Mollendo and Antofagasta. English and German steamers 
touch regularly at these ports, while there is a direct steamer from 
San Francisco to Mollendo and Antofagasta, sailing every two weeks. 
There are also two other lines of direct steamers from New York, 
sailing monthly, while weekly shipments may also be made via Pan- 
ama from New York. Shipments from New York to La Paz, via 
Mollendo or Antofagasta direct, take about 60 days, and 40 days if 
sent via Panama. Shipments from San Francisco to La Paz take from 
45 to 50 days. 


Postal service. — Bolivia entered the Universal Postal Union in 1885, 
so that all rules and regulations applying to mails within the Union 
govern all mail matter destined to the Republic; domestic mails are 
subject to a special tariff. By reason of certain diplomatic conventions 
entered into with Ecuador, Peru, and Chile, Bolivia's mails enjoy special 
privileges in those countries. Bolivia's foreign mail is sent through 
Chile, Peru, and Argentine, according to special agreement and on the 
payment of certain fees. The laws of the coiintry establish severe 
penalties for violation of the postal code. 

A parcel-post and a money-order convention exists between Bolivia 
and the United States. The prescriptions governing the parcel-post 
convention stipulate that parcels shall not measure over 3 feet 6 inches 
in length, nor exceed 6 feet in length and girth combined, nor weigh 

MAILS. 181 

over 11 pounds. The rate for parcels not exceeding 1 pound is 20 
cents, and 20 cents additional for every pound or fraction thereof 
above such maximum weight. The exchange post-offices in the United 
States are New York and San Francisco, and La Paz in Bolivia. 

The Secretary of Government and Justice in his report to the Bolivian 
Congress of 1903 states with respect to the foreign service that the 
branch dealing with foreign orders or parcels post was operated in a 
satisfactory and creditable manner during 1902. The distributing 
offices of Uyuni and Oruro received in 1902, 1,836 orders, representing 
a total weight in merchandise of 3,680.127 kilograms. There were 
368 orders issued from the same stations representing merchandise 
weighing 566.710 kilograms, the postage on which amounted to 447.62 
bohvianos ($161.14). As compared with 1901, there was an increase 
in 1902 of 209 orders. The interchange of orders with the Republic 
of Chile is now well established and is constantly increasing. 

The money-order service with the United States, continues the 
report, is working most satisfactorily. From May, 1902, to June, 
1903, the number of money orders issued by Bolivia was 59, amounting 
to 11,789, and those received at La Paz amounted to $853. 

The mail received in 1902 amounted to 516,967 pieces of foreign 
mail, while that dispatched aggregated 228,866 pieces, making the total 
quantity of foreign mail handled during that year amount to 745,833. 
The number of pieces of mail handled in the domestic mail service in 
1902 rose to 1,275,843 pieces. Compared with 1901, the number of 
pieces of mail handled in 1902 increased more than 100,000. 

The receipts from the post-office in 1902 amounted to 137,654.12 
bolivianos (149,555.48), and the disbursements 179,606.59 (164,658.37), 
leaving a deficit of 41,952.47 bolivianos ($15,102.89). The postal 
receipts are yearly increasing, and in the course of time this deficit 
will doubtless disappear. The receipts of the post-offices of La Paz 
and Oruro exceeded the expenses of those two offices in 1902 by about 
12,000 bolivianos. There was a deficit, however, in some of the other 

The general postage rates from the United States to Bolivia are 
those governing mails sent to any foreign country except Mexico, 
Canada, and Cuba. The rate of postage charged in Bolivia on mail 
matter sent to the United States is as follows: 








Single postal cards, each 


Double card {reply paid) 



Eegistratiou fee 


Fee for return receipt 



On money orders to the United States the charges, according to 
the convention, are on amounts from $1 to $100, United States cur- 
rency, 2 per cent, plus the rate of exchange in force at the time the 
order was issued. 

The total number of post-office stations in the country in 1900 was 
328, distributed as follows: La Paz, 83; Potosi, 73; Santa Cruz, 38; 
Cochabamba, 36; Chuquisaca, 33; Oruro, 21; Tarija, 21; Beni, 16, and 
Cobija, 7. 

Telegraphs. — Telegraphic service in Bolivia dates from 1880. The 
total number of kilometers of telegraph lines in the country in actual 
operation is 5,013, of which 8,116 kilometers belong to the State and 
1,897 to private concerns. The State telegraph lines are the following: 


La Paz to Yungas 166 

La Paz to Desaguadero 106 

La Paz to Sorata 150 

La Paz to Oruro 295 

Oruro to Cochabamba 200 

Cochabamba to the east 603 

Oruro, Challapata, and Uyuni 321 

Challapata to Potosi 350 

Coquelchaca to Sucre _ 170 

Sucre to Pilcomayo 50 

Potosi to LaQuiaca 370 

Tupiza to Tarija 335 

Total 3,116 

The private lines are: 


Antolagasta railroad 924 

Huanchaca Company : 765 

Bolivia's Telegraph Company 208 

Total 1,897 

The report above quoted of the Secretary of Government and Jus- 
tice for 1903 makes the following statement in regard to telegraphic 
development in the country: 

"The internal telegraph service in 1902 consisted of 90,995 messages 
forwarded and 94,852 received. In 1901, 66,895 messages were sent 
and 69,554: received. The receipts from the telegraphic service in 
1902 was 69,011.02 bolivianos, or 16,145.01 bolivianos more than the 
receipts from the same source in 1901. 

"In 1902 a double wire was strung between La Paz and Oruro. This 
line has greatly improved and increased the telegraphic service between 
the two cities and has worked admirably from its inception to the 
present time. The work on the line which is being built into the 
eastern portion of the Republic has progressed satisfactorily, and some 


of the physical difficulties encountered in that region have been suc- 
cessfully overcome. A telegraph line has also been completed between 
Chulumani and Irupana, and the line between Sucre and Colquechaca 
has been reconstructed. These lines have been opened to the public 
and are working satisfactorily." 

Through the lines above mentioned Bolivia is in communication with 
Peru, Argentina, and Chile, and by cable with the rest of the world, 
via Antofagasta, Argentina, the West Coast of America Telegraph 
Company, and the Central and South American Telegraph Company 
via Galveston. Rates vary according to the company. 

Telephones. — This service is quite efficient and is in the hands of 
private companies. Some of the State telegraph lines have also a tele- 
phone attachment for public use. 



Lack of population and capital hare always been, and for many years 
will still be, the main obstacle to the development of the natural riches 
of Bolivia and the establishment of profitable industries in the coun- 
try. It is the unanimous opinion of those who have explored the ter- 
ritory and investigated its resources that Bolivia, by reason of its 
peculiar mediterranean position, its topographical and climatic condi- 
tions, and its rich hydrographic basins, is an emporium of wealth that 
only waits to be developed by the hand of man. The Indian, which is 
naturally indolent and conservative, is not an element to be reckoned 
with as a factor in Bolivia's progress, nor is the white and foreign 
population large enough to give a decided impulse to the introduction 
of progressive industrial methods. There is not 'a single department 
in the country where the immigrant can not find abundant means of 
profitably developing the natural resources of the land and making a 
pleasant home, where life is simple and inexpensive, due to the f eracitj'^ 
and climatic conditions of the territory. 

Bolivia offers excellent inducements to the immigrant who, if so 
willing, may in a short time become a citizen and a landowner in the 
country. For those bringing even a small capital the advantages are 
greater, as by the judicious investment of the funds in lands or in the 
exploitation of the rubber tree or in any other native industry the 
capital maj' be made to produce an income far beyond the ordinary 
rates of interest. 

For some time past the Bolivian Grovernment has endeavored, though 
not as successfully as it was to be expected, to establish a steady cur- 
rent of immigration, most liberal legislation being enacted to that 
effect. To the end of facilitating and spreading broadcast all necessary 
information in regard to the advantages offered immigrants, the 
National Bureau of Immigration, Statistics, and Geographical Propa- 
ganda was created in 1896. 

Several attempts have been made at different times to found colonies 
in Bolivia, but all efforts in this direction have been fruitless, due to 
various causes, among others lack of sufficient capital of the promoters 
and of a thorough knowledge of the requirements of the case. The 
Bolivian Government has always been most liberal in the terms and 


concessions granted colonization companies. At present the coloniza- 
tion companies established in the country are the Compania Arming 
and L'Africaine, the latter having also several projected schemes for 
the construction of railroads, the exploration and the development 
of the eastern and southeastern sections of the country, in connection 
with its colonization work. 

The best sections of the country for immediate colonization are 
those where rubber {siphonia elastica) grows in abundance, and the 
foundation of agricultural and pastoral industries in these localities 
in connection with the exploitation of the rubber forests can not fail 
to be very profitable. The territories of the Guarayos and Otuquies 
in the southeast are unexcelled for colonization, as they are easily 
reached through the Paraguay River, and trafiic can be carried on 
over this waterway. In the department of Beni and in the province 
of Caupolican, department of La Paz, there are two distinct regions, 
which may be called the "rubber and gold belt" and the "pastoral 
belt." In the departments of La Paz, Beni, Santa Cruz, Chuquisaca, 
and Tarija there are also large tracts of land which only wait to be 
opened up to colonists. Agriculture, stock raising, the extraction of 
forest products, and other kindred and profitable industries could be 
established here and developed on a large scale. 


The law relating to immigration and colonization in force in Bolivia 
bears date of November 13, 1886, and the regulations thereof March 
10, 1890. The principal points of interest to immigrants are, in gen- 
eral terms the following, from the law of 1886: 

All public lands in the departments of Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, 
Beni, Tarija, La Paz, and Cochabamba are opened up to colonization. 

The Executive may either grant gratuituously or sell at public auc- 
tion, after due valuation and survey, any public lands to the extent 
prescribed by law: First, to BoUvian or foreign corporations whose 
object is to found settlements; second, to the' religious missions of the 
Propaganda Fide; third, to such Bolivians as may desire to establish 
or settle themselves in such lands. 

Should the lands referred to lie within a radius of 12 leagues" (37.28 
miles) from any populated agricultural district of any canton or vice- 
canton, then the grants or sales shall be subject to the following rules: 

1. Lands shall be apportioned in lots or parcels of 25 hectares each. 

2. Lands acquired either by grant or purchase can not exceed thr^e 
lots in any one belt or zone for. each father of a family and one for 
each male child over 14 years of age still under paternal control. 

oThe standard league used for the allotment of public lands in Bolivia is equivalent 
of 5 kilometers, or about 3.107 miles. 


3. Such grants or sales are made under obligation on the part of the 
grantee or purchaser to cultivate at least one-sixth of the area of each 
lot within the first four years, under penalty of forfeiture to the State 
of such portions of land not under cultivation as prescribed by law. 
The dispossessed owner is entitled to the refund of any sums he may 
have paid, out of the proceeds of the public sale should the State sell 
the forfeited lands. 

4. The Executive shall fix the selling price of the lots according to 
the conditions and character of the lands. 

5. Payments of the purchase price of the lands may be made as fol- 
lows: One-fifth of the purchase price in cash and the balance in four 
equal installments at the end of each succeeding year, or the lands may 
be paid for in public bonds, as specified by the law. 

In such sections as may be found suitable for the erection of towns 
the necessary number of lots shall be set aside for that purpose. 

No sale or grant of lands can be made until the territory set aside 
for colonization purposes shall have been surveyed, divided into lots, 
and these properly measured. This provision notwithstanding, the 
Executive is authorized, subject to the approval of Congress, to grant 
companies applying for them such areas of unsurveyed and undivided 
public lands as may be needed to establish or found colonies. 

Any and all companies or corporations to which public lands are 
granted for the purpose of colonization before obtaining the concession 
are bound to give sufficient bonds to guarantee that they will duly per- 
form all their obligations. 

Other prescriptions contained in the regulations enacted on March 
10, 1890, establish the following rules: 

The sale of public or State lands shall be held at auction, proposals 
to be made under seal and to be based upon the just valuation of the 
land. Official notice of the contemplated sale shall be made public one 
hundred and twenty days before the date set for the opening of the 
bids, the notice to contain full particulars in reference to the location, 
area, climate, and other conditions of the lands. The sale or grant of 
lands suitable for cultivation situated within a radius of 60 kilometers 
from any town, village, or settlement shall be made in lots of 25 hec- 
tares each, subject to such regulations and limitations as described 

Other lands may be assigned to corporations upon application when 
such lands are to be devoted to cultivation and settlement, subject to 
the following conditions: 

Assignments by sale not to exceed from, 1 to 10 square leagues in 
extent, the maximum grant to any one person or corporation to be ten 
portions or concessions. Applications^ or grants of ten portions or 100 
square leagues shall be submitted to Congress for action. Persons or 


corporations acquiring such lands are under obligation to cultivate 
one-tenth of each portion or allotment within the first four years, other- " 
wise- the concession becomes null and void. 

Conditions governing the cultivation of lands shall be deemed ful- 
filled whenever the following work has been done: 

I. Tillage of the lands selected by the promoters or corporations. 

II. Erection of works for the exploitation of the forest products. 
in. Erection of houses for the colonists and their families. 

IV. Works in connection with stock raising. 

V. Introduction of machinery, engines, agricultural tools and imple- 
ments, erection of sheds for materials, opening of irrigation canals, 
roads, and in general all work deemed necessary for colonization pur- 

The price of the lands may be paid at the rate of one-fifth part in 
cash and the balance in four equal annual installments, or payment 
may be made in Government bonds, as provided by law. It is a nec- 
essary condition to all allotments of land that within four years five 
families shall be established per square league, thus laying the foun- 
dation of a colony or settlement in different parts of the whole area of 
the concession. The minimum extent of land to be devoted to culture 
and other agricultural persuits is 4 per cent of the lands. 

Corporations or private individuals who succeed in establishing 
families in their lands, for every family so settled are entitled to a 
rebate of 5 per cent of the value of a square league of land, to be 
deducted from the annual dues. If the price of the land has already 
been paid, the rebate shall be made either in cash or in new lands. 

As a general rule, alloted lands can not be disposed of until the full 
purchase price has been paid, and four years have elapsed since the 
allotment was first made. 

Corporations or individuals having gratuitous grants of public 
lands shall upon signature and delivery of deed make a deposit at the 
National Treasury of an amount equivalent to 20 per cent of the value 
of the lands, as a guaranty of their good faith in the discharge of 
their obligations. When not specifically stated otherwise, said bond 
or guaranty runs for four years and draws an interest of 6 per cent 
per annum, payable at the end of the four-year term. Railroad com- 
panies are not required to make such deposit, the stipulations con- 
tained in their respective contracts governing their particular cases. 
Religious missions are also excepted. 

BvUber concessions. — The exploitation of the rubber forests of 
Bolivia is the subject of special legislation, the law on the matter 
bearing date of December 10, 1895, and the regulations thereof June 
30, 1896. 


The salient features of the rubber law and its regulations are as 

Rubber {siphoniu elastica) and other trees of industrial value are the 
property of the State, which has authority to grant or transfer said 
property rights to private persons, in accordance with the law. 

All persons, whether natives or foreigners, may freely explore or 
prospect the national forests for rubber trees, no permit being neces- 
sary to that effect. The discoverer of rubber trees in the national or 
public forests establishes a preferential or priority right upon the 
trees, provided he files before the proper authorities, within 180 days 
from the date of discovery, a petition or claim for a grant covering 
such discovery. After the expiration of the alloted time preference 
shall be given to the first claimant or applicant. 

All persons desiring to obtain a grant or concession for the exploita- 
tion of the rubber forests may either in person or through a duly 
appointed agent file a claim with the prefect or the national delegate, 
as the case may be, stating the following facts: 

(1) Name, residence, and trade or profession. 

(2) The fact of the discovery and the date thereof, if the applicant 
is the first occupant of the trees. 

(3) Number of lots {pertenencias) in the concession and their area as 
approximately as possible. 

(4) Such points as will be the basis of the boundary lines and the 
delimitation of the property. 

(5) Cantonal or provincial jurisdiction within which the property 

(6) The names of the adjacent owners, if there be any, and their " 
respective boundary lines. A chart or map of the property may also 
be filed. 

The National Delegate in the Territory of Colonias and the prefects 
in their respective localities are authorized to grant no more than 500 
rubber estradas"' to every individual applicant and no more than 1,000 
estradas to ever^^ company legally incorporated. Grants in excess of 
these figures are made by Congress exclusively. 

The trees and the ground upon which they grow are granted in fee 
simple, upon compliance with the terms and regulations governing 
the case. Every grantee is to pay for each estrada granted the sum 
of 15 bolivianos, in fifteen annual installments of 1 boliviano each, in 
order to perfect his title to the property, under penalty of forfeiture 
of the concession. 

Payment in full in order to perfect the title can be made at any 
time within the fifteen-year term. Until the full value of the estradas 
granted is duly paid up, the National Treasury holds a special lien upon 

''Estrada ia a lot of ground containing from 100 to 150 rubber trees. 


the property, and no assignment by sale or otherwise of such property 
is valid unless full and complete payment has been previously made. 
The proper authorities are empowered, however, to permit the assign- 
ment, sale, or transfer of an unpaid grant, whenever the purchaser or 
assignee becomes bound to pay the balance due the State. 

Traffic upon all roads leading to the rubber forests or plantations, 
river navigation, and the use of the forests on the banks of these 
rivers is free and open to all. The introduction of food and all staple 
products into the rubber camps and settlements is free, the introduction 
and sale of liquors being prohibited. 

Promoters or bosses are strictly forbidden by law, under penalty of 
a fine from 50 to 200 bolivianos: (1) To curtail the liberty of the 
laborers in regard to the acquisition of food and provisions; (2) to 
retain their wages under any pretext whatsoever, or to pay for their 
work in checks, articles of consumption, or any other articles of trade; 
(3) to compel the laborers to work by force or actual violence. 

Tax on rubher. — In 1899 the National Convention established a pro- 
portional tax on rubber, amounting from 8 to 15 per cent ad valorem. 



Public instruction in Bolivia is divided into three grand branches or 
departments, viz, primary, secondary, and superior instruction. The 
schools belonging to the primary division are entirely under the 
immediate control of the municipalities to which they severally belong, 
by virtue of section 3, article 126 of the constitution, directing muni 
cipalities "to create and control institutions of public (primary) edu- 
cation, administer their funds, enact proper regulations therefor, and 
to appoint teachers and assign them their respective salaries. When 
such institutions are under the direct control of the State, munici- 
palities shall have the right of inspection only." 

Primary education. — Primary or public education is gratuitous and 
compulsory, the number and location of the schools being determined 
by the respective municipal councils. In 1900 there were, according 
to official data, 692 primary schools in the country, with 36,418 pupils 
and 1,020 teachers, the appropriation for the maintenance of these free 
schools being 140,000 bolivianos. Primary education embraces three 
terms in three years. 

The only available complete data in reference to the expansion of 
primary education in Bolivia is for 1899, and shows the following 





























32 5S 























6 866 



















El Beni 
















a Sm6psis Estadistica y Geogrifica. La Paz, 1908. Vol. I. 




On the 31st December, 1902,« public education in the capital city 
was represented by 24 municipal schools, 13 for males and 11 for 
females, the total number of registered pupils being 2,463, of which 
1,471 were male and 991 females, with an average attendance of 1,255 
and 834, respectively. The number of public schools for both sexes 
on the same date was 22, with 2,417 pupils. At the time there were 
besides 400 or more boys and girls being educated in private primary 
schools. A large number of Indians receiving education under the 
religious orders is not included in the above figures. 

Secondary Education.— This branch of instruction embraces such 
colleges and other institutions of learning as are under the direct con- 
trol of the universities, and consists in one year of preparatory studies 
and six more years of instruction embracing several topics of a general 
character. The highest degree attained at the end of this term is that 
of bachelor of arts, entitling the graduate to enter any of the profes- 
sional courses given at the universities. Secondary instruction was 
represented in 1900 by 8 official colleges, 4 seminaries, 1 religious 
school, and 4 private lyceums. Statistical data for the year 1899— only 
data available — show the following figures for secondary instruction 
in the several departments of the Republic: 






La Paz 



















Secondary education is mainly supported by the State, at an expense 
of about 100,000 bolivianos per annum. 

Superior editcation.— SwpeTior or professional instruction embraces 
three courses, viz, law, 5 years; medicine, 7 years, and theology, 4 
years. This branch of education is served by the universities situated 
at La Paz, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Potosi, Tarija, Santa Cruz, and 
Oruro, respectively. Instruction in law is given at all the universities; 
in medicine at Chuquisaca, La Paz, and Cochabamba, and theology at 
the latter institutions and Tarija. For the better administration of 
the educational system and to encourage education in the country this 
branch of civilization is under the direct control of the Secretary of 
Public Instruction, a member of the Cabinet. 

oMemoria del Concejo Municipal en 1902. La Paz, 1903. 



The accompanying table shows the standing of all branches of 
instruction in Bolivia in 1901, according to official estimates: 












































11, 018 

El Beni 



























The total cost of instruction to the State is officially estimated at the 
following figures: 





pal ap- 

state ap- 


30, 320 

14, 276 




41, 190 




69, 946 
166, 526 

El Beni 



Santa Cruz 




73, 026 

98, 652 



756, 943 

585, 365 


Besides the private schools, colleges, and lyceums devoted to educa- 
tion, special instruction is also given at the military school of La Paz, 
the commercial schools of Sucre and Trinidad, the agricultural school 
of Umala, department of La Paz, the mining and civil engineering 
school of Oruro, the school of painting at Coehabamba, and several 
manual-training schools established at different points under the care 
of the religious orders. 




Article 89 of the Constitution of the Republic, among other pro- 
visions, establishes that the President of the Republic shall have power 
"to grant according to law exclusive privilege for a certain time to 
inventors, improvers, or importers of useful processes or methods 
applicable to sciences or arts, and to order, in case that the secret of 
the invention, improvement, or importation be given to the public, 
the proper indemnification therefor to be paid." 

In compliance with the foregoing provision the patent law of Bolivia 
was enacted on the 8th of May, 1858, and by act of January 10, 1903, 
the Secretary of Industry was vested with the necessary authority "to 
grant patents of inventions and trade-marks." 

The patent law in force provides: 

Article 1. The law secures for all inventors the full and undis- 
turbed enjoyment of their inventions, provided that said inventions are 
not against law or good morals. 

Art. 2. The methods or processes discovered for the improvement 
of any industry or manufacture shall also be considered inventions. 

Art. 3. Devices or discoveries tending only to change the propor- 
tions of things already known, or to produce articles which are merely 
ornamental, shall not be deemed inventions. 

Art. 4. The Government shall have the power to purchase, for the 
benefit of the people at large, the secret of any useful invention. 

Art. 5. To secure to an inventor the exclusive enjoyment of his 
invention, a patent of privilege shall be issued in his favor, said privi- 
lege to last for not less than ten years nor more than fifteen. 

Art. 6. It is hereby forbidden to grant patents of privilege to the 
inventors of secret remedies. The publication of these secrets is a 
matter of duty for the inventors, who shall receive in consideration 
thereof a just indemnification. 

Art. 7. Importers of machinery, or of methods of fabrication or 
industry not known in the Republic, shall also be entitled to patents 
of privilege, the concession of which shall be subject to the rules set 
forth in the following article. 

116a— 04 13 193 


Art. 8. If the establishment of the imported machinery or industry 
requires the expense or the disbursement in advance of $25,000, the 
privilege shall be granted for three j^ears. If the amount to be spent 
or advanced is $50,000, the privilege shall last six years. If it reaches 
or exceeds 1100,000, the privilege shall be granted for ten years. 

Art. 9. Privileges granted to importers of machinery, or of new 
methods of fabrication or industry, known and used in foreign coun- 
tries, shall be limited to the district wherein the said machinery is to 
be set at work, or to the territory necessary to insure its benefits. 

Art. 10. Applicants for patents of privilege of the two classes afore- 
said shall file a petition explaining the nature of the invention or 
improvement, but the methods, materials, ingredients, or instruments 
to be used may be kept secret. The petition shall be accompanied by 
a sample of the article, smelted metal, or product to which the inven- 
tion or improvement refers. 

Art. 11. Applicants for patents for imported inventions shall file 
with their petition drawings or models of the machinery to be intro- 
duced, or a statement in full of the principles, methods, or processes 
of the industry to be introduced in the territory of the Republic and 
of the product which is sought to be obtained. 

Art. 12. The Government shall appoint a committee of three com- 
petent persons, whose duty it shall be to examine the process or secret 
constituting the invention or improvement to which the application 

Art. 13. This committee shall be always presided over bjj^ the 
Political Chief of the respective locality. Two members of the Munic- 
ipal Council of the same locality shall be added to it and shall aid in 
the examination referred to in the preceding article. 

Art. li. The two members of the Municipal Council and the three 
members of the committee appointed by the Government shall take an 
oath, to be administered by the Political Chief, not to reveal the secret 
of the invention or improvement and to faithfully perform their 

Art. 15. The members of the committee and those of the Municipal 
Council added to it shall meet forthwith and confer without the inter- 
ested parties being present about the report to be made bj^ them. 
Any difference of opinion which may arise shall be recorded. 

Art. 16. The report to which the foregoing article refers shall be 
forwarded to the Secretary of " Fomento," enclosed in an envelope 
marked "confidential." It shall be accompanied by a description of 
the method, machinery, process, etc., constituting the invention, 
improvement, or importation under consideration. 

Art. 17. Three months, at the latest, after the receipt of the report 
above referred to the Government shall cause the proper patent to be 


issued, said patent to be written on stamped paper of Class No. 1." 
It shall order, furthermore, that the sealed package containing the 
explanation of the secret, or the statement spoken of in article 11, be 
preserved in the Department of "Fomento." 

Art. 18. In order to prevent the patentees from misusing their 
patents the Government shall set forth on the latter that it does not 
guarantee either the truth, the merits, or the advantages of the inven- 
tion, improvement, or importation, and that the whole responsibility 
therefor is left to the patentee. 

Akt. 19. If the patentee desires to make some changes in his inven- 
tion, or in his original application, before obtaining the patent, or at 
any time thereafter within the period of the concession, he shall make 
a declaration in writing to that effect accompanied with a description 
of the novelties to which he refers, the whole thing to be done in the 
manner and form established in article 10. The variation of the privi- 
lege shall not entail any extension of the time of the patent. 

Art. 20. Patentees shall enjoy the exclusive right of using the 
invention or improvement to which the patent refers and of receiving 
the benefits thereof. 

Art. 21. Patentees shall have the right to found establishments for 
the working of their patents, either at any place in the Republic, if the 
privilege extends to the whole of it, or at the locality to which the 
patent may have been circumscribed. They shall also have power to 
authorize other persons to make use of their methods and to dispose 
of their patents as personal propert3^ 

Art. 22. Patentees shall not assign or transfer their patents, wholly 
or in part, except bj^ means of a public instrument; otherwise their 
privilege shall be forfeited. 

Art. 23. The priority in the application for a patent, if any dispute 
or doubt arises in case that two applications are made, shall be proven 
by the certificate of the Secretary of "Fomento," who shall make a 
record of the day and hour on which the petitions are filed. 

Art. 24. The period of the privilege of invention, improvement, or 
importation begins at the date of the decree by which it was granted. 

Art. 25. Patents shall be recorded in special books kept for this 
purpose at the Department of "Fomento." The original petition, 
the specifications, and all other papers spoken of in article 10 shall 
be kept on file in the same Department until the expiration of the 


Art. 26. The granting of patents shall be officially communicated 
by the Secretary of "Fomento" to the Political Chiefs of the different 
districts and published in the official newspaper. The patents shall be 
also inserted in the Collection of laws and decrees. 

a stamped paper of this class was worth at the date of this decree 2 bolivianos per 
sheet. Now it belongs to Class No. 6. 


Art. 27. At the expiration of the time of a patent, the invention, 
improvement, or privilege to import some new industrial method shall 
become public property. 

Art. 28. At the expiration of the time of a patent, the petition, 
specifications, and all other papers referred to in article 10 of this law 
shall be published and kept on file in the Public Library of the jSational 

Art. 29. Whenever a privilege becomes forfeited for any of the 
reasons set forth in this law, the publication of the papers and the filing 
thereof in the Public Library-, for the purposes of article 27, shall be 
likewise made. 

Art. 30. The Government shall cause the descriptions and specifica- 
tions, as well as all drawings accompanying them, to be printed and 
circulated in sufficient number through the Political Chiefs of the dis- 
tricts, so as to make the general public acquainted with the methods of 
the extinct patent. 

Art. 31. Patentees shall have the right, upon giving the proper 
bond, to ask for the seizure of the machineiT and instruments with 
which their patents have been or are infringed, and of the products 
obtained through their use. 

Art. 32. Infringers shall be punished, upon conviction, by the con- 
fiscation to the benefit of the patentees of all the property seized. 
They shall also be bound to pa}' damages in proportion to the amount 
of the fraud. 

Art. 33. If the fraud is not proved, the patentee shall be con- 
demned to indemnify the supposed infringer for the losses and dam- 
ages sustained by him in consequence of the seizure, and to pay a tine 
equal in amount to that which the latter might have had to pay if 

Art. 34. "Whenever a patentee is disturbed in the exercise of his 
exclusive rights as such, he shall have the right to apply for pro- 
tection to the courts of justice and request that the i infringers be 
punished according to the preceding articles. But in case that a dis- 
pute on the validity or invalidity of the patent should arise, the question 
shall be decided by the tribunal designated by law to take cognizance 
of cases against the Government." 

Art. 35. In case of question or dispute between two patentees as to 
the true ownership of the invention, if the similarity of the two pat- 
ents is absolute, recognition shall be given to the one first granted. 

Art. 36. The patent subsequent in date shall be, in the case of the 
preceding article, considered as a patent of improvement. 

Art. 37. Patents granted for an invention or improvement, or for 
the importation of foreign inventions or improvements, which the 

« This special tribunal having been abolished, the ordinary courts and tribunals of 
justice shall take cognizance of these cases. 



tribunals may condemn as contrary to law, public security, or police 
regulations, shall be void. Patentees in this case shall have no right 
to indemnification. 

Art. 38. Patents shall be forfeited, not only in the cases already 
explained, but also in the following: 

1. When the patentee is convicted of having concealed, in his speci- 
fication, the true manner of putting his invention into practice. 

2. When the patentee is convicted of having employed secret meth- 
ods not mentioned in the specification, or in the declaration under 
article 19 of the intention to amend it. 

3. When the patentee is convicted of having concealed the fact that 
the invention for which he applied and obtained a patent was at the 
time of his application known and described and published, through 
the public press, within or without the Republic. 

4. When the patentee has allowed one year and a day to pass since 
the day on which the privilege was granted to him, without having 
put his invention into practice, and has not given sufficient reason 
under the law to excuse his negligence. 

5. When the patentee, or the assignee of his rights, fails to comply 
with the obligations imposed by the patent. 

Art. 39. In all cases of nullification or extinction, for whatever 
reason, of a patent, the provisions of article '27 of the present law 
shall be carried into effect. 

On the 11th September, 1877, a decree was issued enlarging the scope 
of the original patent law and providing that as the decree of May 8, 
1858, does not contain certain provisions which should be added, in 
order to insure in favor of the industry the good effects which must 
be expected from the granting of patents, and at the same time pre- 
vent this business from being turned into reckless speculation, tending 
to increase fruitlessly the burdens of the Government, the following 
was decreed: 

Article 1. No patent shall be granted in any of the cases men- 
tioned in the decree above named, except upon proof of the truth of 
the claims made by the applicant, and of the usefulness of the inven- 
tion, and the advantages which are promised to be derived from it to 
the national industry. 

Art. 2. The examining committee shall report upon these points, 
setting forth all the facts and circumstances which may be conducive 
to form an exact idea about them. 

The applicant shall furnish to this effect the committee with all 
documents and proofs which may be needed, and shall give all the 
explanations, and make all the experiments which may be required. 

When the application refers to the importation of new machinery, 
or industrial methods, the applicant shall submit an itemized schedule, 


duly supported by proof, of the expense he shall have to incur for this 
purpose. The report of the committee shall also embrace this point. 

Art. 3. When the explanation of the invention or improvement 
can not be made without revealing the secret of the same, the appli- 
cant shall be permitted to refrain from making it; but he shall be 
bound to give such experimental proof of his invention as to convey 
the full knowledge thereof which is desired. 

Art. 4. Applicants who, upon fulfillment of the requisites set 
forth in the preceding articles, succeed in securing their patents, shall 
pay a fee of 100 bolivianos, and deposit, furthermore, in the National 
Bank of the Republic, the sum of either 100, 200, or 300 bolivianos, 
according to the duration of the patent, which may be for three, six, 
or ten or more years, as security that the patent shall be put into prac- 
tical operation. At the expiration of one year, granted for this pur- 
pose, without the patent having been put into practice, the amount 
deposited shall become the Government's property and shall be trans- 
ferred to the National TreasurJ^ 

Art. 5. The present decree shall be considered as supplemental to 
the decree above cited of May 8, 1858, which, as now amended, shall 
remain in force. 

On the 17th of January, 1902, the Secretarj' of the Treasury and 
Industry issued an order establishing that, upon examination of the 
case of Jos^ Szendy, applicant for a patent for the manufacture of felt 
hats in the Republic, it was decided, the decision to be taken as a 
general rule, that in the cases mentioned in ailicle 7 of the decree of 
May 8, 1858, the fact that the machinery or industrial method to be 
imported from abroad has not been previously used, within or without 
the Republic, is indispensable for the granting of patents. 

By order of the Secretary above mentioned, bearing date of March 
26, 1903, it was established that the concession of exclusive privileges 
to importers of machines or methods of manufacture or industry, being 
subordinated to the indispensable condition that the imported machines 
or methods are not known or have not been used or put into practice 
previous to the concession, within or without the Republic, the appli- 
cation of ]Matias Talamas, asking for a patent of privilege for a 
machine to manufacture cigars and cigarettes, which is known and 
used in the country, is against article 4 of the political Constitution of 
the State, which guarantees industrial liberty and restricts the power 
of the Executive in granting patents, excluding from it machines 
already known; and whereas no new invention for the manufacture of 
the articles aforesaid is herein involved, thereupon the application for 
the patent referred to is rejected. 



By law of November 25, 1893, the following provisions were 

Article 1. A tax of 5 bolivianos per year, to be collected through 
the Department of the Treasury and Industry, shall be hereafter 
levied on every trade-mark which may be filed for registration at the 
proper office. 

Art. 2. The Executive power shall make the proper rules for the 
execution of this law. 

In compliance with the foregoing provisions, on the 27th of March, 
1897, the following rules for the execution of the Trade-mark Law 
were enacted: 

Whereas the law of November 25, 1893, which ordered a tax on 
trade-marks to be levied and paid, gave authority to the Executive to 
make rules for the proper execution of its provisions: 

Therefore, I, the Chief Magistrate of the Republic, by virtue of 
the power vested in me by item 5, article 89 of the Constitution, do 
hereby decree: 

Article 1. An annual tax of 5 bolivianos shall be levied on each 
trade-mark filed for registration under the present rules. 

Art. 2. The following shall be considered as trade-marks, namely: 
Engravings, monograms, vignettes, stamps in relief, letters and numer- 
als with a special design, casks or wrappings of articles, and any other 
signs intended to distinguish from all others the products of a factory. 

Art. 8. The trade-mark secured through the process established 
in the present decree shall be the exclusive property of the manufac- 
turer or business man who obtained it, and he shall have the right to 
oppose its being used by other manufacturers or business men. He 
may enforce before the courts his exclusive rights, which he may also 
assign or ti'ansfer to others b}'^ contract or last will. 

Art. 1:. The sale of the business house, or industrial enterprise to 
which the mark belongs, shall carry with it, unless provided otherwise 
by the contracting parties, the transfer of the mark. 

Art. 5. The transfer of the mark shall be, for the purposes of this 
decree, recorded at the proper office. 

Art. 6. All applications shall be accompanied by two copies or 
samples of the engraving, emblem, letter, stamp in relief, etc., which 
is to be used. One copy shall be filed at the registration office and 
the other forwarded to the Department of ' Fomento.' 

Art. 7. The application shall also be accompanied by a description 
of the mark, made in duplicate, said description to specify the article 
or articles for which it is intended. If the owner of the mark does 
not personally attend to the business of this application, the power of 


attorney authorizing the applicant to act in his behalf shall also 
accompany the application. 

Akt. 8. No application shall be admitted if it is not accompanied 
with a receipt issued by the Department of the Treasury' showing that 
the tax established hy article 1 of this decree has been paid. Failure 
to comply with any of the provisions of this article shall cause the 
respective functionary to be responsible for the value of the patent. 

Art. 9. The application shall be filed before the notary of the 
Treasury, who shall make at the foot of the document a short state- 
ment of its contents, and the day and hour on which it is filed, as well 
as of the fact that the duplicate copy of the mark was also iiled. 

Art. 10. The Prefects, after having complied with all the requi- 
sites established in the foregoing articles, shall grant in the name of 
the nation the exclusive right to use the trade-mark. The decree by 
which this grant is made, as well as the application itself with all its 
exhibits, shall be published in the OlEcial Bulletin, and if there is no 
such Bulletin, in any newspaper to be designated for that purpose, the 
publication to be made three separate times, ten days intervening 
between each, at the cost of the interested party. 

Art. 11. After the publication is made as directed in the foregoing 
article, the applicant shall request, if no opposition has been shown to 
the granting of the trade-mark, that the whole record should be for- 
warded to the Secretary of "Fomento," in order that he, upon the 
proper report of the law ofiicer of the Department, may approve the 

The decision of the Secretary with all the papers of the case shall 
be recorded in a book specialh' kept for this purpose by the notaries 
of the Treasury. The entry shall be signed by the Prefect, the Dis- 
trict attorney, the interested party or his attorney, and the notary. 
Copies of this entry shall be given to the interested party and to the 
Department of Fomento." 

Art. 12. If any opposition is made after the expiration of the time 
of publication, the Prefect shall refer the whole record to the District 
attorney, who shall decide about the priority of rights according to law. 

Art. 13. If the decision of the Prefect is against the granting of the 
trade-mark, an appeal may be taken against it within eight days, to be 
counted from the date of notification, to the Secretary of " Fomento," 
who, after hearing the opinion of the Attorney-General, shall affirm 
or reverse the decision. The decision of the Secretary of " Fomento" 
shall be final. 

Art. 14. The samples of marks, or emblems, and their descriptions 
shall be faithful!}- kept, duly inventoried, and methodically classified, 
by the notar}- of the Treasury. They shall be exhibited for public 
inspection in well-arranged cases. 

« The text of this article has been amended by decree of March 13, 1900. 


Arti 15. Counterfeiters of trade-marks, adulterators of articles of 
commerce of a business house which makes use of a trade-mark, and 
sellers of counterfeited articles shall be punished with a fine of from 
20 to 200 bolivianos, independently of the penalties mentioned in 
article 302 of the Penal Code. 

Art. 16. Articles of merchandise bearing counterfeited trade-marks 
shall be confiscated to the benefit of the Departmental Councils. 

Art. 17. Business men who prior to the enactment of this decree 
have been iflaking use of a trade-mark which proves to be identical 
with another trade-mark granted under the new provisions shall be 
bound to adopt some change or modification of their distinctive sign 
or emblem. Their failure to do so shall render them liable to be pun- 
ished as counterfeiters. 

Art. 18. Business men who make use without the proper authority 
of a trade-mark shall be punished with a fine of from 6 to 50 bolivia- 
nos, for the municipal fund, without prejudice to their being compelled 
to secure in the proper way the authority required by this decree. 

Art. 19. Joint stock companies are entitled to the use of their 
names without any restriction. 

Art. 20. Foreign trade-marks shall not enjoy the guaranties granted 
by the present decree unless they are registered with the same formali- 
ties as are established for the domestic ones. 

Arj. 21. Business men who fail to pay the taxes due on account 
of their trade-marks shall be subject to the process of coercion estab- 
lished by law against delinquents of this kind. If the payment is not 
made after the first notice a sufiicient number of the articles of com- 
merce protected by the mark shall be seized and sold at public auction. 
The amount of the tax and a penalty of 2 per cent per month shall be 
collected by this process. The concession of the trade-mark may be 
also canceled. 

Art. 22. Business men who, after having been punished as pro- 
vided in the foregoing article, should continue to make use of the 
trade-mark, shall be prosecuted as counterfeiters. 

As the formalities established in article 11 of the decree of March 27, 
1897, on the subject of trade-marks, are apt to delay the prompt trans- 
action of this business, the following amendment was ordered by 
Executive Decree bearing date of March 13, 1900: 

Sole article. Article 11 of the decree of March 27, 1897, is 
hereby amended so as to make it read as follows: 

Art. 11. The publication provided for in the foregoing article hav- 
ing been made, and no opponent having appeared, the interested party 
shall ask that the whole record of his case be forwarded to the Secre- 
tary of "Fomento," who, after hearing the opinion of the Attorney- 
General, shall approve the concession and issue in consequence thereof 
the respective patent. The record shall then be returned to the Pre- 
fect for the purposes set forth in article 14. 


The following decree of May 30, 1902, establishes further rules for 
the proper registration of trade-marks: 

Whereas it is imperative to supplement the Rules for the registra- 
tion of ti-ade-marks by explaining the manner in which they must be 
numbered, designating the offices from which they are to be issued, 
and the manner in which they shall be recorded, and to establish also 
a rule that will protect merchants who have acted in good faith and 
who have ordered merchandise bearing a trade-mark subsequently reg- 
istered by others; 

Now, therefore, I, Jos6 Manuel Pando, constitutional President of 
the Republic, decree: 

Article 1. Certificates of trade-marks shall bear the number which 
corresponds to them in the order of their registration in the Depart- 
ment of "Fomento," and shall have attached on the reverse side 
thereof the drawing that represents the trade-mark, sealed with the 
seal of the Department and signed by the Chief Clerk of the division. 

Art. 2. The Department of "Fomento" shall keep a book for the 
registration of the, certificates issued, recording the number and the 
nature of the article, and attaching to each entry a copy of the drawing 
of the trade-mark, sealed and signed by the patentee or his attorney. 
The same formalities of guaranty shall be observed in the register kept 
by the notaries of thfe Treasury. 

Art. 3. Merchandise of a particular trade-mark, ordered^ from 
abroad prior to the date of the filing of the application with the Pre- 
fect for registration of the same trade-mark, shall not be considered 
articles of commerce bearing a counterfeited trade-mark. 

Art. 4. The Department Prefects shall order the publication in the 
Department Bulletin, or in some other newspaper of greater circula- 
tion, of the application for registration of trade-marks, so as to cause 
merchants who have ordered goods in advance covered by the trade- 
mark whose registration is solicited to be dulj' advised. 

Art. 5. Certificates already granted shall form Series A and shall 
be numbered in the order of their being filed in the Department. 
Series B shall commence with No. 1 and shall apply to trade-marks 
registered on and after this date. 

Art. 6. These provisions supplement those given by Executive 
decrees of March 27, 1897, and March 13, 1900. 


The Bolivian constitution establishes the fundamental character of 
the army, and declares it to be "an essentially obedient bod3^, which 
in no case can hesitate or delibei'ate, being alwaj's subject to such 
regulations and military orders as are issued for its guidance." The 
army is divided into two branches of service, the regulars and the 
national guard, both subject to special regulations. 

ABMT. 203 

All male Bolivians, sound in mind and body, are under obligation to 
serve in the army from their twenty -first to their fortieth year, as 
follows: Two years in the regular army, from 21 to 25 years of age; 
from 25 to 30 in the ordinary reserve, and from 30 to 40 in the extraor- 
dinary reserve. The clergy and persons of unsound mind and body 
are exempt from military service, and after six months active service, 
upon payment of certain dues certain persons specified in the regula- 
tions are also excused from further service. Foreigners who have 
become Bolivians by naturalization, having resided for five years in 
the country, are entitled to promotion to offices of high rank in the 

Regular army. — The military organization of the country has been 
subject to many reforms, until it has attained a high degree of effi- 
ciency. Congress fixes every year the number of troops in the regular 
array, which at present consists of 5 battalions of infantry, 1 of artil- 
lery, and 1 of cavalry. Official statistics show that in 1903 the regular 
army of Bolivia was made up as follows: Eight colonels, 14 lieutenant- 
colonels, 13 commanders, 6 majors, 9 surgeons, 55 captains, 41 first 
lieutenants, 49 second lieutenants, 89 sublieutenants, 7 bandmasters, 
132 first sergeants, 152 second sergeants, 274 corporals, 174 musicians, 
1,906 rank and file, giving a grand total of 2,933 men, including com- 
missioned officers of all classes. 

The military division of the country consists in 9 comandancias 
generaies (general commander's post) in the departments of La Paz, 
Beni, Cochabamba, Chuquisaca, Orui'o, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija, 
and Atacama or the Litoral. The Territorio of Colonias is under 
special military administration. 

National guard. — For the purpose of increasing the efficiency of 
this branch of the service, the country has been divided into 5 mili- 
tary zones, respectively called northern, central, southern, eastern, 
and northwestern zones, embracing, the first, the department of La 
Paz; Cochabamba and Oruro, the second; Potosi and Tarija, the third; 
Santa Cruz, the fourth, and Beni, the fifth. 

War Department.— ^h.& War Department consists in the following 
bureaus and divisions: Secretary's office; Bureau of Ordnance; Bureau 
of Inspection, Aides and Adjutants; General Army Inspection; Court- 
martial; Board of Examiners for Military Service. 

The General Staff is composed of 1 Chief of the staff, 3 colonels, 
chiefs of the regimental staff's; 3 majors, 3 European officers under 
contract, 2 captains, 2 first lieutenant and 3 sergeant orderlies. 
The Academy of War, Military College, School for Classes, Superior 
War School, Commissary department, and the Quartermaster's depart- 
ment are all under the War Department. 

Arsenals*. — The principal arsenal is at the city of La Paz, with 
deposits at the cities of Oruro and Potosi. The principal firearms in 

204 • BOLIVIA. 

use by Bolivia are Remington, Mauser (the old and the Argentine 
models), mitrailleuses, field and mountain guns. 

Forts. — In order to prevent Indian incursions, several small forts 
have been built and are well garrisoned. The principal forts are 
Caiza, Yacuiba, and Creveaux, in the province of the Gran Chaco, 
department of Tarija, and Camacho, Murillo, and Quijarro on the 
Pilcomayo River. 

Fighting force. — The total fighting force of Bolivia may be safely 
estimated at the following figures in round numbers: 


Regular army 2, 560 

First reserve (Cuerpo de deposito) 30, 000 

Second reserve 40, 000 

Territorial guard 15, 000 

Total 87,500 

The first reserve is a part of the regular army, being substituted 
for the second reserve, and this in turn for the territorial guard. 

The cost of maintenance of the army in all its departments and 
branches is estimated in round numbers to amount to 3,500,000 boli- 
vianos per annum. 


Although the metric S3^stem of weights and measures is the only 
legal svstem in the country some of the old Spanish and Bolivian 
units are still in constant use in the domestic trade. 

Measures of length. 

Legua =6, 666 varas = 5. 5727 kilometers = 3. 4627 miles. 

Cuadra = 150 varas =125. 3857 meters =136. 7041 yards. 

Vara" = 3 pies = 0.836 meters = 2.7427 feet. 

Pie = 12 pulgadas = 27. 8635 decimeters = 10. 9711 inches. 

Pulgada = 12 lineas = 2. 3219 centimeters = 0. 9142 inches. 

Linea = 12 puntos = 1. 9349 centimeters = . 07618 inches. 

Punto = 0. 1627 millimeters = . 0064 inches. 

Measures of capacity. 


Fanega =55. 5 litres =1. 5799 bushels. 

Almud or celemfn = 4. 62 litres =4. 2069 quarts. 
Cuartilla = 1. 15 litres =1. 0519 quarts. 

LIQUID. ^ t 

Arroba or cintara =16. 1329 litres =4 gallons. 

Cuarta = 4. 33 litres =1. 64 gallons. 

Azumbre = 2. 02 litres =2. 12 quarts. 

a The vara is subdivided into one-half vara (42 centimeters), one-fourth vara (21 contimeters), one- 
eighth vara (10.60 centimeters), one-third vara (28 centimeters), and the sesma, equivalent to U 



Measures of weight. 


= 20 quintales 

= 920 kilos 

=2, 028. 63 pounds. 


= 4 arrobas 

= 46 kilos 

= 101. 43 pounds. 


= 25 libras 

=11. 5 kilos 

= 25.358 pounds. 


= 16 onzas 

= 0.460 kilos 

= 1. 014 pounds. 


= 16 adarmes 

=28.75 grams 

= 1. 014 ounces avoirdupois 


= 36 granos 

= 1. 797 grams 

= 27.734 grains. 


= 5 centigrams 

= . 7653 grains. 


=135 libras 

=62 kilos 


= 136. 93 pounds. 

Marco ^ 

= 8 onzas 

= 230 grams 

= 7.3945 ounces troy. 


= 50 quintales 

= 2,300 kilos 

= 5,071.55 pounds. 

Fineness of gold. 

Ley de 24 quilates (carats) 
Ley de 23 quilates (carats) 
Ley de 22 quilates (carats) 
Ley de 21 quilates (carats) 
Ley de 20 quilates (carats) 
Ley de 19 quilates (carats) 
Ley de 18 quilates (carats) 

= 1,000 thousands. 

= 958.33 thousands. 

= 916.66 thousands. 

= 875 thousands. 

= 833.33 thousands. 

= 791.66 thousands. 

= 750 thousands. 

Fineness of silver. 

Ley de 12 dineros 

Ley de 11 dineros 
Ley de llj dineros 

Ley de 10 dineros 

Ley de 9 dineros 

Ley de 8 dineros 

Ley de 7 dineros 

: 1,000 thousands. 
: 916.66 thousands. 

925 thousands. 
: 832.33 thousands. 

750 thousands. 

666.66 thousands. 

583.33 thousands. 

Average market price for tin ore. 




































































































































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1856. Dr. R. A. Philippi's Erforschung der sogenannten Wiiste Atacama, November 
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Scale, 1:2250000. 14.1 by 24.6 cm. 
[In Petermann's Mitteilungen. 2: S4. 1856.] 

1856. Physikalische Skizze der Anden zwischen 19° u. 21J° S. B. Scale, 1:8200000. 
9.8 by 12.3 cm. 

[In Petermann' sMitteilungen. 2:84. 1856.] 

1859. Mapa de la Republica de Bolivia. By Juan Ondarza and Mariano Mujia, 

1859. 58 by 70 inches. 
1877. [Map of Bolivia] to accompany a report to the Governments of Bolivia and 
Brazil on the route to "Bolivia via the River Amazon," by George Earl 
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mandant of the army, 1899. Scale, 1:4000000. 39 by 48 cm. 
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denteConstitucional General Jose Manuel Pando. Formado por Eduardo 
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1902. Region del N. 0. de Bolivia conforme a, varias informaciones de la Oficina 

nacional de inmigraci6n, estadlstica y propaganda geogrdfica. Scale, 
1:2000000. 52 by 54.7 cm. 

[In Carta geogrdflca del N. 0. de Bolivia. 1902.] 

[1902.] Alto Paraguay River and part of eastern Bolivia. Scale, 1:3000000. 15 by 
24 cm. 

[/n Geographicaljournal, London. 19:69. January, 1902.] 

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Bolivia. 30.5 by 29.5 cm. 

[In Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel. Central and South America, 
V. 1. Precedes p. 269.] 

Map of a part of eastern Bolivia, comprising the country between the Andes 

and the River Paraguay. L. B. Minchin, Assoc. Inst. C. E. 89 by 68 cm. 

116a— 04 14 


Agricultural products: Page. 

Cacao 87 

Cinchona 86 

Coca 84 

Coffee 85 

Grapevine 89 

Other products 89 

Rice 88 

Rubber 83 

Sugar 88 

Tobacco 87 

Agriculture 83-93 

Alpaca. .1 92 

Altitude of inhabited places and 

cities 18,28 

Amazon h ydrographic region 19 

Area and population 7 

Argentine boundary 13 

Army 202 

National guard 203 

Regular army 203 

Arsenals 203 

Atacama, Department of, general 
description, resources, industries, 

etc 67-68 

Atacama hydrographic region 19 

Banking and currency 161-165 

Banking institutions 163-165 

Bank notes 162 

Banks of issue 162 

Barrillatin 110 

Beef cattle 91 

Beni, Department of, general de- 
scription, resources, industries, 

etc 68-69 

Bibliography 206-208 

Bismuth : 

Exports 117 

Production 117 

Tax on exports .117 

Boundaries 10-14 

Argentine 13 

Brazilian 10 

Chilean 14 

Paraguayan 13 

Peruvian 14 


Budget 159 

Cabinet 56 

Cacao 87 

Capital city, resources, etc 63-66 

Cartography 208-209 

Census— 1900 8 

Chilean boundary 14 

Chinchilla .>. 92 

Chuquisaca, Department of, gen- 
eral description, resources, in- 
dustries, etc 69-71 

Cinchona bark 86-87 

Citizenship 59 

Climatology 23 

Coca 84 

Exports 85 

Production 84 

Tax on exports 85 

Cochabamba, Department of, gen- 
eral description, resources, in- 

dustries,-etc 71-72 

Coffee 85 

Exports 86 

Coinage 162 

Colonias, territory of 81 

Colonization 184-189 

Laws and regulations 185 

Commerce 134-155 

Domestic 134 

Export 135-139 

Foreign 134 

Import 139 

Inl903 141 

Statistics 135 

With the United States 144 

Commercial institutions 164 

Commercial travelers 155 

Communications 165-183 

Amazon route 178 

Antofagasta route 179 

Argentine route • 179 

Ariea route 179 

Highways , 165 

MoUend route 179 

Paraguay route 178 




Communications — Continued. Page. 

Eailroads 170-174 

Wagon roads 166 

Waterways 167 

With foreign countries 178-180 

Concessions, rubber 187 

Constitution 54 

Constitutional guaranties 60 

Copper 122 

Exports ■ 124 

Mines 123 

Production 123-124 

Tax on export 124 

Cotton goods 131 

Currency 161 

Customs duties 152-154 

Customs law 145-152 


Foreign 160 

Internal 159 

Departmental administration 58 

Departmental revenues 158 


Atacama, or Litoral 67 

Beni 68 

Chuquisaca 69 

Cochabamba 71 

LaPaz 72 

Oruro 74 

Potosi 76 

Santa Cruz 78 

. Tarija 80 

Domestic fabrics 180-132 

Domestic trade 134 

Drummers. (See Commercial 
travelers. ) 

Duties, customs 152 

Education ~190-192 

Institutions of 192 

Primary 190 

Secondary 191 

Superior 191 

Electric phenomena 25 

Exchange, rate of 164 

Executive power 56 

Excise tax 157 

Exports 135-139 

Agricultural products 137 

By countries 139 

By customs districts 135 

By departments 138 

Cinchona bark 87 

Cocoa 85 

Exports — Continued. Page. 

Coffee 86 

Copper 124 

Dutiable 136 

Duties 139 

Free 136 

From the United States 144-145 

Gold 119,121-122 

In]903 143-144 

Industrial products 132 

Live stock 91, 93 

Manufacturers 137 

Mining products 136 

Miscellaneous products 137 

Other minerals 125 

Quina 87 

Revenues 157 

Rubber 84 

Stock, hides, etc 137 

Sugar 89 

Taxes - 165 

Tin 116 

Tobacco 88 

Fauna 28 

Fighting force 204 

Financial organization 156-164 

Fineness of gold 205 

Fineness of silver 205 

Floods 22 

Flora 29 

Foreign debt 160 

Foreign population, 1900 9 

Foreign trade 134 

Forest products 90-91 

Forts 204 

Geographical position 7 

Geological formation 18 

Goats 92 


Fineness of 205 

Production 118, 119, 120, 121 

Tax 121 

Government and constitution 54 

Guaranties, constitutional 60 

Grand Plateau 16 

Highest peaks 17 

Highways 165 

Huanaco 1 93 

Hydrographic belts 18 

Immigration 184-189 

Laws and regulations 185 

Imports 139 

By countries 140 



Imports — Continued. Page. 

By customs districts 139 

Dutiable 140 

Free 140 

From Bolivia into the United 

States 145 

Inl903 142 

Taxes 154 

Independence 54 

Industrial facilities 132 

Industrial products 130-133 

Insurance companies 164 

Internal debt 159 

Judiciary 57 

La Paz, city of 63-66 

Commerce 64 

Communications 65 

Education 65 

Industries 64 

La Paz, Department of, general 

description, resources, etc 72-74 

Lake Titicaca 21 

Land laws 90 


Colonization 185 

Customs 145-152 

Immigration 185 

Public lands 90 

Patent 193 

Trade-marks 199 

Legislative power 54 

Livestock 91-92 

Llama 93 

Mails 180 

Manufacturing industries 130-133 

Marshes 22 


Capacity 204 

Length 204 

Minerals 205 

Weight 205 

Mineral wealth 94 

Minerals, distribution of 94-96 

Mines 94-125 

Bismuth 116-117 

Copper 122-124 

Gold 117-122 

Other minerals 124-125 

Silver 96-107 

Tin 107-116 

Mining concessions 94 

Mining law 125 

Mountain passes 17 

Municipal authorities 58 

Municipal revenues 158 

National budget 159 

National guard 203 

Native races 30-53 

New industries 132 

Orography 15 

Oruro, Department of, general de- 
scription, resources, etc 74-76 

Paraguayan boundary 13 

Patentlawa 193 

Percentage of population 9 

Peruvian boundary 14 

Political divisions 62 

Poopo Lake 21 

Population 7 

Postal service 180-182 

Potosi, Department of, general de- 
scription, resources, etc 76-78 

Principal lakes 20 

Publiclanda 90 

Puna de Atacama 17 

Political constitution 54 

Quina 86 

Exports 87 

Railways 170 

In operation 174-178 

Begular army 203 

Religion 60 

Representatives 55 


Customs 157 

Departmental 158 

Exports 157 

Municipal 158 

National 156 

Tolls 157 

Rice 88 

Rights of foreigners 60 

Racial elements 9 

Rainfall 25 

Roads 166 


Concessions 187 

Exports 83 

Production 84 

Taxes on 84 

Santa Cruz, Department of, general 

description, resources, etc 78-80 

School system 190-192 

Seasons 24 

Seismology 26 




Senators 55 

Sheep 92 

Silk- worm industry 89 


Fineness of 205 

Production 98-106 

Taxes on 106-107 

Southeastern hydrographic region. 19 

Spanish rule 54 

Stock breeding 91 

Sugar 88 

Exports 89 

Taxon 88 

Tarija, Department of, general de- 
scription, resources, etc 80-81 


Bismuth 117 

Coca 85 

Commercial travelers 155 

Copper 124 

Excise, or octroi 157 

Export 155 

Gold 121 

Import 154 

Rubber 84,189 

Silver 106-107 

Sugar 88 

Tin 116 

Tolls 157 

Trade-marks 199 

Telegraphs 182 

Telephones 183 


Temperature ." 24 

Territorial division 62 

Territorio Xacional de Colonias, 
general description, resources, 

etc 81-82 

Thermal springs 27 


Average price of ore 205 

Exports 116 

Production 110-116 

Tax 116 

Tobacco '. 87 

Exports 88 

Production 88 

Topography 14 


Domestic 134 

Foreign 134 

"With the United States 144-145 

Trade-mark, laws 199 

Registration of 202 

Urban and rural population 10 

Vicuna 93 

Viticulture 89 

Volcanoes Is 

War Department 203 

\^'aterways 167 

Weights and measures 204-205 

Western hydrographic region 19 

Winds 25 

Woolen goods 131 


«A- -^ 


. V^ 

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