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Full text of "Collection of mediaeval and renaissance paintings, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University"

CORNELL 
UNIVERSITY 




COLLEGE OF 

ARCHITECTURE 

LIBRARY 



Cornell University Library 
N 527.A4 

Collection of mediaeval and renaissance 




3 1924 020 487 983 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924020487983 



mm 




SIMONE MARTINI 



FOGG ART MUSEUM 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



COLLECTION OF 

MEDIAEVAL AND RENAISSANCE 

PAINTINGS 




CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1927 



COPYRIGHT, I9I9 

BY THE PRESIDENT AND FELLOWS OF 

HARVARD COLLEGE 



PRINTED AT THE HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U.S.A. 



PREFACE 

IN the preparation of this Catalogue several members of the Divi- 
sion of Fine Arts of Harvard University and of the staff of the 
Fogg Art Museum have generously collaborated. To all of these my 
thanks are due, and especially to Miss Margaret E. Gilman, the secre- 
tary of the Fogg Art Museum, who has done practically all of the 
bibliographical work and written much of the text. I also wish to 
thank numerous critics in Europe and America for their interest. 
Mr. Bernhard Berenson has generously aided with advice and 
suggestions. Mr. F. Mason Perkins and Mr. Charles Loeser have 
also been especially helpful in answering questions concerning the 
attribution of many of the pictures in the Gallery. 

This Catalogue describes and reproduces the pictures, presents all 
available information as to their past history, and discusses the attri- 
butions. It also undertakes to fulfil the functions of a handbook for 
the students of Harvard University and Radcliffe College who take 
courses in the Fine Arts, and for the casual visitor as well, by includ- 
ing a certain amount of general and historical information. 

There has been no attempt to make the general bibliographies ex- 
haustive; they are meant merely as partial lists of books, most of 
which are readily available to the Harvard students. In the biblio- 
graphy following the history of each school general works, such as 
those of Michel, Crowe and Cavalcaselle, and Venturi, are not listed. 
In the bibliography of each artist, as a rule, only the more recent 
books and periodical articles are included, and no reference is made 
to well-known general works. The bibliographies of the individual 
pictures are as complete as possible. This has in some cases involved 
making references to articles in which the pictures are merely men- 
tioned and not described. 

No catalogue of this collection has ever appeared in print, although 
it has been described in part at various times. 1 The Annual Reports 
of the Director of the Fogg Art Museum to the President of Harvard 

1 See pages xiv-xv. 



iv PREFACE 

University give some information. Many of the pictures are well 
known and have often been described in magazine articles and his- 
tories of art. In fact a whole book has been written about one of 
them in the effort to prove that it is by Raphael. These articles are 
referred to in the bibliographies of the various pictures. 

Following the short histories of the schools are lists of certain of the 
pictures in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and in Mrs. Gardner's 
collection at Fenway Court, representing the artists who have been 
mentioned in the history of the school. The lists are given since these 
collections are in the immediate neighbourhood and are accessible to 
students. 

In the life of each artist, other pictures in America by him are 
mentioned for the benefit of the student. These lists are by no means 
complete, as collectors and museums constantly acquire new pictures, 
and there has been no attempt to make a systematic study of all the 
early paintings in this country. Some of the paintings referred to 
have been judged by photographs. In other cases the opinion of 
some well-known critic who has seen the picture has been accepted. 
In general, when the attribution is doubtful the picture is not men- 
tioned. In short, the list is in each case merely an indication of 
the approximate number of pictures by the master known to be in 
this country, rather than an attempt to achieve completeness. 

In this Catalogue are included several pictures which have been 
lent to the Gallery for many years, of which some are lent every 
year for a short time, while others are lent from time to time. The 
owners of these pictures have kindly consented to allow us to include 
them in the Catalogue, for the convenience of visitors when the pic- 
tures are on exhibition. Of these, Nos. 9, 11, 23, 24, 56, 57, and 62 
are owned by collectors in Cambridge. When these pictures are not 
on exhibition they may usually be seen by appointment on applica- 
tion to the Director. They are indicated by an asterisk. 

As some care has been taken in the colour descriptions, it may be 
well to say a word here about the system used. If every detail of 
each picture were elaborately enumerated, the descriptions would be 
intolerably long. If short sketches were made, some useful informa- 
tion might be found lacking by serious students in foreign lands. A 
compromise somewhere between the two systems has been adopted, 
laying special emphasis on what is most significant. In a general way 



PREFACE V 

the terminology in this volume is based on that of Dr. Ross. The 
terms used to describe the various colours are violet red, red, red 
orange, orange, orange yellow, yellow, yellow green, green, green 
blue, blue, blue violet, and violet. These colours are conceived as 
existing either in full intensity (or chroma) or neutralized by white, 
gray, or black. 

Ordinarily the terms gray and brown are used loosely and vaguely 
to cover a large variety of tones. In reality gray is a perfect mixture 
of all the colours so that no one predominates. If orange slightly pre- 
dominates, most people would still call the tone gray; but it is also 
possible to call it a neutralized orange. It is difficult for those who 
are not used to this system to understand when they hear a colour 
which they would call a light salmon pink or a dark reddish brown 
described as a light or a dark red orange. But if pure red orange is 
mixed with white, a salmon pink is produced; and if red orange is 
mixed with black, a colour is obtained that might be called brown. 
In this Catalogue gray and neutral are regarded as synonymous. 
Thus in some cases the term neutralized blue is used, and in other 
cases a bluish gray, or a grayish blue. Browns are neutral orange 
reds, oranges, orange yellows, or yellows. The term yellowish brown 
or reddish brown is used here at times for these colours, because it is 
more generally intelligible than the more accurate nomenclature. 
Occasionally the term rose red has been used to indicate a field 
painted with a transparent red lake glaze slightly tending towards 
violet. 

The question of the terms used to describe the colours bears some 
relation to the study of pigments. The brilliant orange reds are 
described as vermilions, as this indeed was the costly pigment which 
produced them. The duller red known as Venetian red or brick red, 
and produced by red ochreous earths, is often spoken of in this Cata- 
logue as a dull or neutral orange red because it is neutral compared to 
the vermilions. The colour produced by yellow and brown ochre, 
which was often used for the hair, and for various draperies, furni- 
ture, and architectural accessories, is usually described as neutral 
orange yellow or yellow brown. The ultramarine blue made from 
lapis lazuli, which was perhaps the most highly prized pigment 
known to the mediaeval master, appears in some of the pictures. 
Azzuro della magna or azurite was the substitute most often used. 



vi PREFACE 

It is probably the pigment that was used for the cloaks of the Ma- 
donnas which we now describe as dark blue. Many of them appear 
to be black. When the picture was originally painted this colour was 
of a blue probably not very different from cobalt. It has a tendency 
to turn with age to a greenish black. 

A study is being made in the Museum of the pigments which were 
used by the old masters, but the results are not yet important enough 
to justify publication. It is, however, a field which has possibilities 
of future usefulness and value to students of early Italian painting. 

EDWARD W. FORBES, Director. 

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, 

October 5, 1918. 



CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION ix 

COLLECTION OF EARLY PAINTINGS xiii 

EXPLANATORY NOTES xvi 

PAINTING — BIBLIOGRAPHY xxi 

BYZANTINE PAINTING i 

ITALIAN PAINTING 19 

FLORENTINE 23 

SIENESE 91 

UMBRIAN 141 

NORTH ITALIAN 181 

VENETIAN 205 

SPANISH PAINTING 237 

GERMAN PAINTING 249 

FRENCH PAINTING 271 

FLEMISH PAINTING 283 

ENGLISH PAINTING 3*5 

INDEX 3 2 7 



INTRODUCTION 

THE Fogg Art Museum or Harvard University came into 
being as the result of a bequest from Mrs. William Hayes Fogg 
in 1891, in memory of her husband who had died in 1884. It is said 
that the conception of the Fogg Museum was due to William M. 
Prichard, who was born in Concord, and graduated from Harvard in 
1833. While practising law in New York he made the suggestion to 
Mrs. Fogg which resulted in the bequest. It is also noteworthy that 
Mr. Prichard is the one man who has bequeathed to Harvard a sum 
of money the whole income of which must be used for the purchase of 
works of art. In November, 1892, the Corporation of Harvard as- 
signed as a site for the Museum the land in the College Yard lying 
north of Appleton Chapel and facing on Cambridge Street. In the 
autumn of 1895 the building was opened to the public. The Museum 
was planned by the architect, Richard Morris Hunt, of New York, 
to hold casts and photographs and the small Fogg collection of paint- 
ings and curios, as at that time the belief was held that it would 
never contain important original works of art. But even in the first 
year originals began to appear. As the collections grew and the 
Department of Fine Arts developed, the building became more and 
more inadequate. In the summer of 191 2, through the generosity 
of Alfred A. Pope, of Farmington, Connecticut, the ground floor 
was so remodelled that additional space was secured for exhibition 
purposes. In the following year the second story was made over, 
thanks to the generosity of various friends, notably Mrs. Edward M. 
Cary, of Milton. Since then the staff and the collections have grown 
rapidly and the building is now again inadequate. 

The interest in the Fine Arts has been steadily growing in the 
United States during the last fifty years. Professor Charles Eliot 
Norton awakened his students to a new understanding of the dignity 
and importance of art; they saw that it was one of the great forms of 
human expression. His eloquent lectures were among the important 
influences of the earlier days, and are still remembered with affection 
and gratitude by Harvard men who graduated between 1875 and 



x INTRODUCTION 

1900. His last lectures on art were delivered in the lecture hall of the 
Fogg Museum. Among those who heard his words, one turned to 
Greece, another to Italy, another to the East, but all were on one 
quest; and these were the men who first gave impetus to the growth 
of the Museum. 

The first Director was Professor Charles Herbert Moore, the well- 
known authority on Gothic architecture. During the years that he 
worked in Italy with his friend Ruskin he developed a delicate and 
exquisite skill in drawing and painting, and an exacting discrimina- 
tion in judging works of art. Many students look back to his 
teaching with keen appreciation. 

Among the Harvard men of the younger generation, the first to 
realize that here was an opportunity for the college to have a gallery 
with important original works of art was Richard Norton, at that 
time a professor in the American School at Rome. He was a son of 
Professor Charles Eliot Norton and shared his father's love of the 
Fine Arts. It was he who influenced various Harvard men to lend 
and give to the Fogg Museum. He gave generously of his time and 
thought. His taste and knowledge, and above all his enthusiasm, 
were of the utmost importance to the Museum during its early years. 

In these later days others have carried on the work. Dr. Denman 
W. Ross has been not only one of the most liberal benefactors of 
the Museum, but has had a far reaching influence as a teacher. 
Paul J. Sachs was appointed Assistant Director of the Fogg Art 
Museum in September, 191 5, and the Museum has benefited in large 
measure from his knowledge and enthusiasm. The Fogg Museum 
owes much also to the ability and devotion of the members of the 
Division of Fine Arts and of the staff of the Museum, who have 
carried on the earlier traditions and further developed the teaching 
by carrying it into new fields. 

The collections have grown during the last twenty years by means 
of gifts, loans, and bequests from a number of Harvard graduates 
and other benefactors. The group of men who have lent and given 
works of art to the University have been guided by the desire to see 
the great periods represented nobly in the Harvard Art Museum. 
Special emphasis has been laid on Greek sculpture and early Italian 
religious painting because they are of unique significance and funda- 
mental importance in the history of art. 



INTRODUCTION xi 

As early as the year 1895, Professor Norton and Professor Moore 
began to collect original water-colour drawings by Turner, Ruskin, 
and other members of the English school. In the same year Greek 
vases were lent by Edward P. Warren. At this time the famous 
Gray and Randall collections of prints were in the Museum of Fine 
Arts in Boston as a loan from Harvard College, since there had been 
no art museum in Cambridge in which they could be suitably kept. 
Indeed, the existence of the Gray collection with no adequate place 
for its safe keeping and display had been one of the causes of the 
founding of the Museum of Fine Arts. In the year 1897, Professor 
Moore succeeded in persuading the authorities of Harvard University 
and the Museum of Fine Arts to transfer the Gray collection to the 
Fogg Art Museum, and the Randall collection followed in 1898. 
These collections owed their beginnings to earlier days. Francis 
Calley Gray graduated from Harvard in 1809 and died in 1856. His 
collection was kept for many years in the Harvard College Library, 
and at one time Professor George Herbert Palmer was the curator. 
In 1876 it was removed to the newly erected Museum of Fine Arts 
in Boston. Dr. John Witt Randall graduated in 1834 and died in 
1892. In this latter year his collection was sent to the Museum of 
Fine Arts. These two large print collections have grown by means 
of purchases, and the Museum has been further enriched by gifts and 
by the bequest from Francis Bullard of the well-known Battle of the 
Nudes by Antonio Pollaiuolo. By these means the Fogg Museum 
collection of early prints has grown to be, next to that of the Museum 
of Fine Arts in Boston, in all probability the finest in the country. 

Greek marbles and Italian paintings first appeared as loans in 1899. 
In the field of Italian painting one other American university mu- 
seum was at this time preeminent. Yale had bought the Jarves col- 
lection in 1871, thus at one bound reaching a position difficult for 
others to attain. The Harvard collection started in a small way, and 
has since been slowly and steadily growing. 

In 1903 forty-seven bronze reproductions of Italian and French 
medals of the Renaissance were given to the Museum by Horatio 
G. Curtis; in 1908 a small collection of Japanese works of art, lent 
by Walter M. Cabot, was placed in one room on the ground floor; 
in 1909 a marble relief of a kneeling angel, of the Italian Renaissance 
school, the first and only bit of Renaissance sculpture in the Museum, 



xii INTRODUCTION 

was given by Mrs. Edward M. Cary ; in 1912 a large number of inter- 
esting and rare rubbings from monumental brasses in English 
churches were given by Mrs. George Fiske in memory of her husband, 
who was a graduate of Harvard. In 1 9 1 6 a collection of fragments of 
early Italian illuminated manuscripts came as a gift from William 
Augustus White; this gift, together with a few fine early illuminated 
law books lent by the Harvard Law School, started the Museum in 
a new field. During the years 1916-1918 Edward D. Bettens gave 
as a memorial to his mother, Mrs. Louise E. Bettens, five American 
paintings: namely, a large oil painting, Lake O'Hara, by John Singer 
Sargent; a large unfinished oil by Copley; a water colour by James 
Abbott McNeill. Whistler; a water colour by John La Farge; and a 
water colour by Winslow Homer. A water colour by John Singer 
Sargent was given to the Museum by a group of friends, and ten 
water colours by Dodge Macknight were the gift of Dr. Denman 
W. Ross. 

Thus each department was started by a gift or loan from some 
one individual; and in most cases the first gift has attracted others 
of the same kind. 

The Classical department has grown and now contains original 
Greek marble sculptures, including the famous Meleager and the well- 
known Greek idealized head of a woman from the Ponsonby col- 
lection of London, at one time thought to represent the mother of 
Alexander the Great; the Class of 1895 has given a Greek marble 
statue of Aphrodite; the bequest of Edward P. Bliss, of Lexington, 
includes a Greek torso, some vases, terra cottas, and coins; James 
Loeb has lent a collection of moulds and fragments of Arretine pot- 
tery; and there is also a selection of reproductions of the ancient 
Minoan art of Crete given by Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, of New 
York, in memory of her son, George Griswold Van Rensselaer. The 
collection in the Museum also includes various examples of the minor 
arts of the Greeks and the Romans. 

The Oriental collection has been increased, notably by the well 
chosen gifts of Dr. Ross in 1916 and 191 7, and more recently by the 
gift of Charles L. Freer, of Detroit, of an early Chinese painting, 
so that now this department contains Chinese, Japanese, Thibetan, 
Indian, and Persian paintings; Gandhara sculptures representing the 
Buddhist art of the monasteries in the Punjab region of India in the 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

early centuries of the Christian era; Chinese porcelains; a small but 
fine representative collection of Japanese prints; and a few textiles of 
various countries and periods. In the summer of 1917, Captain 
Philip Lydig gave a few beautiful fragments of Persian Moresque 
mosaic tiles from the mosques of Turkestan. 

The collection of drawings and water colours has developed. 
Charles Fairfax Murray, of London, gave in memory of his friend 
William J. Stillman a Turner water-colour drawing of Devonport; 
he also gave a number of drawings by Burne- Jones. The friends 
and former pupils of Professor Charles H. Moore, as a testimonial 
of their admiration and affection for him, gave to the Museum two 
fine water-colour drawings by Ruskin. From James Loeb came a 
gift of a number of pencil drawings by Turner; and from William 
Augustus White two drawings by William Blake. This department 
has been enriched by various other gifts and purchases, including 
an original wash drawing by Rembrandt. 

In addition to the originals, the Fogg Museum possesses a collec- 
tion of over forty-six thousand photographs and some thirteen 
thousand slides for use in the Fine Arts courses, as well as a small 
working library which supplements the greater collection in the Har- 
vard College Library — all indispensable material for study. More- 
over, through the kindness of Dr. Ross, there is in one of the galleries 
an exhibition of drawings, paintings, and diagrams illustrating the 
principles of design and of representation. Thus the Fogg Museum 
is not only a treasure house of works of art, but is the working 
laboratory of the Division of Fine Arts. 

It is hoped that some day the Museum building will be enlarged so 
that the various collections may be properly displayed to the public, 
and also that special catalogues will be produced to describe them. 
This Catalogue is confined to pictures painted before 1700. 

THE COLLECTION OF EARLY PAINTINGS 

From the year 1899 the collection of early pictures has steadily 
grown. By the summer of 1905 there were fifteen Italian primitives 
in the Gallery. In 1906 the Museum received as a bequest from 
George W. Harris, of Boston, the beautiful Flemish diptych (No. 60) 
attributed to Rogier van der Weyden and Gerard David. In 1908 
the funds of the Museum were used for the first time for the purchase 



x i v INTRODUCTION 

of a primitive painting, the Visitation attributed to Zeitblom (No. 
52). Before this such money as was available was used principally 
for general purposes and occasionally for the purchase of prints. 
Since then the slender resources of the Museum have been appro- 
priated from time to time to help in the purchase of pictures, and the 
collection of paintings has grown partly by loans for long and indefi- 
nite periods, occasionally by purchase, and more recently also by 
gifts. Mrs. Edward M. Cary, of Milton, one of the principal bene- 
factors of the Museum, showed her interest in the collection of 
paintings by giving four beautiful Italian primitives at different 

times. 

The Society of Friends of the Fogg Art Museum, modelled after 
Les Amis du Louvre, was started in June, 19 13. The members of the 
society numbered forty-one in December, 1913, and one hundred and 
seventy in December, 1917. The first picture given by the Society 
and other friends, with the help of the Prichard fund, was the An- 
nunciation by the Sienese master Andrea Vanni (No. 20), which was 
acquired in March, 1914. Since then several other pictures have 
been given by the Society and by other friends, including the central 
panel and the wing of the Monte Oliveto altarpiece by Spinello 
Aretino (Nos. 4A and 4B-C), the Pesellino (No. 7), the Jacobello del 
Fiore (No. 43), the portrait by van Dyck (No. 65), and others. 

The Society will undoubtedly increase in size and importance, and 
may prove to be the most potent element in the future development 
of the Museum. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bernath, M. H. Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Ber- 
lin, Dec. 11, 1908. viii, 37-39 (Report of address by M. H. Bernath), 
and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. No. 9, 550-552. 
New York und Boston. Leipsic, 1912. (Beriihmte Kunststatten, 58.) 
Reproductions. 

Beeck, J. Notizie intorno ai dipinti italiani nel Fogg Museum. Rassegna 
d'arte. Milan, Oct., 1909. ix (10), 169-171, Reproductions. 

Edgeix, G. H. The loan exhibition of Flemish painting in the Fogg Museum, 

Harvard University.. Nation. New York, Nov. 23, 1916. ciii (2682), 

492-493. 

The loan exhibition of Italian paintings in the Fogg Museum, Cambridge. 

Art and archaeology. Baltimore, July, 1915. ii (1), 11-22, Reproductions. 

The Fogg Art Museum. Harvard alumni bulletin. Boston, Oct. 25, 1911. 
xiv (4), 52-56, Reproductions. 



INTRODUCTION xv 

Forbes, E. W. Fogg Art Museum. Harvard graduates' magazine. Boston, 
June, 1910. xviii (72), 702-704. 
Museum of Fine Arts bulletin. Boston, June, 1909. vii (39), 22-29; Aug., 

1913. xi (64), 35-39, Reproductions. 
Recent gifts to the Fogg Art Museum and what they signify. Harvard 
alumni bulletin. Boston, Jan. 25, 1917. xix (17), 327-331, Reproduc- 
tions. 

Moore, C. H. The Fogg Art Museum of Harvard University. New England 
magazine. Boston, Aug., 1905. xxxii (6), 699-709, Reproductions. 

Perkins, F. M. Italian painting in the Fogg Museum. Boston evening 
transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. 
Pitture italiane nel Fogg Museum a Cambridge. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, 
May, 1905. v (5), 65-69, Reproductions. 

Post, C R. The loan exhibition of Italian painting at the Fogg Museum. 
Nation. New York, March 18, 1915. c (2594), 313-314. 

Rankin, W. Notes on three collections of old masters [Yale University, the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the Fogg Museum of Harvard Univer- 
sity]. Wellesley, 1905. 5-6, 17. 

Sachs, P. J. Fogg Art Museum. Harvard graduates' magazine. Boston, 
March, 1916. xxiv (95), 421-425, Reproductions. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES 

The Catalogue is arranged by schools, and chronologically under the 

schools. 

The medium in which the picture is painted is specified, although it is 
often difficult to distinguish oil from tempera. 

The total measurements (greatest height and width) of panel or canvas 
are given, in inches and centimeters. In a few cases, the measurements of 
the visible surface are also stated. The abbreviations H. for height and 
W. for width are used. 

In the description of the paintings the terms " right " and " left " 
refer to the right and left of the spectator, unless the text obviously 
implies the contrary. 

The pictures marked with an asterisk * are owned by collectors in 
Cambridge and are lent to the Museum from time to time. If not on ex- 
hibition they may usually be seen by appointment on application to the 
Director. 

A brief note on the different kinds of painting follows, and the descrip- 
tion of the preparation and painting of a panel for a tempera painting. 

Since many of the pictures in the Gallery are parts of altarpieces, the 
description of a typical church altarpiece of the xrv and xv centuries is 
also given. 

Processes of Painting 

The difference between the kinds of painting is largely the difference 
between the kinds of medium used to bind the pigment. In all cases there 
is pigment, which is colour in the form of a powder. In fresco the pigment 
is mixed with water and laid upon wet plaster. As the plaster dries a 
chemical action takes place by which the particles of pigment are bound 
to the surface of the wall. Fresco a secco is the method of retouching 
fresco with tempera after the plaster has dried. In water colour the pig- 
ment is mixed with gum arabic or other gum, in illumination with egg and 
gum usually, in oil painting with oil, and in tempera with egg or with glue. 

It is not always easy to describe the exact process by which a picture 
was painted. The so-called oil painting of the early Flemish masters was 
introduced into Venice, according to Vasari, by Antonello da Messina. 
The first Venetian masters to adopt the new method used it in a way not 
dissimilar to the manner of the Flemings. Titian and the later Venetians 
developed a freer and broader manner, just as Rubens and the xvn 
century Flemish masters did in the north. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES xvii 

There is a tradition that Baldovinetti and other masters were dissatis- 
fied with the tempera technique and experimented with the oil medium 
before the approved Flemish method was introduced into Italy. Vasari 
says that the Flemish method was introduced into Florence by Domenico 
Veneziano, who used oil in his paintings in Santa Maria Nuova, 1439-1445. 
But it may be fairly assumed as a general rule that any panel painted 
before the middle of the xv century in Italy was executed in tempera. 
The difficulty is to determine the exact process during the last decades of 
the xv and the first part of the xve century, when the Italian masters were 
gradually changing from the use of tempera to the use of oil. It is prob- 
able that many of the pictures painted in this period contained both 
tempera and oil paint. 

The later Renaissance painters in oil developed certain peculiarities 
which have been referred to under the history of Sienese painting (p. 100) 
as chiaroscuro, morbidezza, and sfumatura. Chiaroscuro, literally light 
dark, means light and shade. By the Italians the term is used especially 
with reference to the modelling of surface obtained by the use of light and 
shade. Morbidezza, literally softness, mellowness of tint, is a term used 
especially to indicate the softness and transparency of flesh texture ob- 
tained by certain masters, notably Correggio, partly by melting edges 
and suppression of sharp contours. Sfumatura, literally means smokiness. 
This term in its significance is not very different from morbidezza. It is 
used to express the way in which one field melts into another without 
sharp edges, and the modelling moves from light to shadow as gently and 
imperceptibly as smoke. 

In this Catalogue the terms miniature painting and illumination are used 
interchangeably, although there is a distinction between the two. The 
word illuminator originally meant one who lighted up the page with 
bright colours and burnished gold. Miniatures may be executed without 
the use of gold or silver. The term miniature is derived from the Latin 
word minium, or red paint, and a "miniaturist" was a person who marked 
the initial letters and titles of a manuscript in red paint. The word minia- 
turist, however, was unknown in the Middle Ages, during which period the 
decorator of books was called an illuminator. 

Preparation and Painting of a Panel 

The method of preparing a panel is elaborately described by Cennino 
Cennini, Who wrote in the late xrv or early xv century. Poplar, and less 
often lime and willow, were used by the Italians, and oak by the masters 
of the northern schools. The early Venetians are said to have used 
German fir. 



xv iii EXPLANATORY NOTES 

The panel, if made of several pieces, was dowelled together and the 
joints covered with strips of linen. Sometimes the whole panel was 
covered with linen or more rarely with parchment. After that a coat of 
gesso composed of whitening (chalk) or plaster of Paris mixed with glue 
was laid on the panel. The design was then sketched with a needle 
fixed into a small stick, and the outlines of the figures which came against 
such parts of the background as were to be covered with gold, were en- 
graved. The parts of the panel which were to be gilded were covered with 
a coat of Armenian bole, a reddish clay, mixed with white of egg. Cen- 
nino instructs the artist to cover the whole panel with gold if he can afford 
it. This was sometimes done, though more often gold was only laid on 
where it was to show. In either event, the system was more akin to the 
transparent water-colour system than to painting in oil with a thick im- 
pasto, because the brilliancy of the white or gold ground shining through 
the paint produced an effect of clearness and unity in the colours. When 
these processes were completed the panel was ready for painting. The 
first stage of the tempera painting was the modelling of the faces and 
the shadows of the draperies in terra verde, a green earth, mixed with yolk 
of egg as a medium. Then the successive coats were laid on the panel ac- 
cording to definite rules until the final effect was reached. Thus in the 
flesh tones red and yellow paint superimposed on the green underpainting 
would produce a resultant neither too warm nor too cold. The modern 
painter as a rule gets his balance of colours by placing the different tints 
side by side instead of one on top of the other. 

For the painting of draperies Cennino directs the artist to get three 
vases and mix three shades of the colour, red, or whatever it may be, after 
that to put in the darks, then the half tones and then the lights and finally 
work up to the highest lights with pure white. The results of this system 
may be seen in most of the pictures in the Gallery. The strongest colour is 
in the half tones and shadows; and the highest fights, which were originally 
probably nearly white, in many cases have mellowed with age to a warm 
golden tone. Occasionally the colour was modelled in the lights to yellow 
instead of white. The paintings in the Gallery by Flemish, German and 
Venetian masters may be characterized in general in a different way. 
These later artists tended to have the strongest colour in the lights and 
to neutralize the shadows. The pictures in the Museum attributed to 
Pesellino (No. 7) and to Bellini (No. 45) are good examples of these two 
types. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES xix 

Altarpiece 

The typical church altarpiece of the xiv and xv centuries was in general 
made up of different compartments or panels. The central panel was of 
course the most important, and contained the chief scene or figures. On 
either side were wings on which were represented subsidiary scenes or 
figures of saints. Frequently scenes or figures were painted on the out- 
side of the wings, which then folded as shutters over the central panel. 
Above the large panels were gables or pinnacles usually containing half- 
length single figures — saints, prophets, or angels, a representation of God 
the Father or God the Son, or often the Virgin and the angel of the Annun- 
ciation. Heads of saints were sometimes introduced into small circular 
or oval panels, called medallions, or panels shaped like a clover leaf and 
called trefoils or quatrefoils according to the number of arcs. These small 
panels were often inserted in the pinnacles or in the framework of the 
main panels. At the base of the central panel and the wings was the 
predella, consisting of small divisions or compartments, in which were 
represented scenes which had some bearing on the main panels — scenes 
from the life of Christ, or scenes connected with the saints, their miracles 
and martyrdoms. The various divisions were separated by frames, often 
very elaborate with twisted Gothic columns and carving. When the 
woodwork separating the different divisions was richly ornamented, the 
pinnacles were elaborately arched and decorated with crockets and 
mouldings. Sometimes the frames were very simple and the pinnacles 
were sharply pointed and ornamented with plain mouldings only. An 
example of this kind is No. 17 in this Gallery — a pinnacle of an altarpiece 
by Ambrogio Lorenzetti. 

An altarpiece consisting of two panels which folded together like a book 
was called a diptych. A triptych is an altarpiece of three divisions, the 
two wings often closing as shutters over the main panel. In this Gallery 
the painting attributed to Rogier van der Weyden and Gerard David 
(No. 60) is a diptych, the picture attributed to Daddi (No. 1) is a triptych. 
An altarpiece made up of more than three main divisions was called 
a polyptych. In Eastlake's History of Oil Painting the following note 
on the use of diptychs and triptychs is given. "The practice of en- 
closing pictures in cases with doors is to be traced to the use of portable 
altarpieces. The above terms were originally applied to books (libelli) 
composed of a few tablets or leaves, generally of ivory. The more orna- 
mented kinds were called simply diptychs, because they consisted of 
ivory covers only, in which leaves of the same substance or of vellum 
might be inserted. An inscription published by Gruter speaks of ' pugil- 



xx EXPLANATORY NOTES 

lares membranaceos operculis eboreis.' The consular diptychs, for ex- 
ample, were nothing more than ivory covers in which the book or libellus 
itself might be enclosed. They were presents distributed by the consul on 
his entering office, and generally exhibited the portrait and titles of the 
new dignitary on one side, and a mythological subject on the other. The 
covers were carved on the outside, and were plain within. 

" At a very early period in the Christian era similar diptychs of a larger 
size were employed in the service of the Church. They sometimes con- 
tained the figures of saints and martyrs on the inside (probably as a 
means of concealing them in times of persecution), and were subsequently 
exhibited on the altar open. The circumstance of the principal represen- 
tation being on the inside, instead of the outside, constitutes the distinc- 
tion between the sacred and the consular diptychs. 

" Such was the origin of the mediaeval altarpiece, the size of which long 
remained small as compared with later decorations of the kind." Many 
altarpieces have now been broken up and the different panels sold sep- 
arately, so that they are scattered through various collections, public and 
private, in Europe and America. 



PAINTING — BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Collections of Documents and Early Writings 

The Anonimo [of Morelli]; notes on pictures and works of art in Italy made 
by an anonymous writer in the sixteenth century. Tr. by Paolo Mussi, 
ed. by G. C. Williamson. London, 1903. 

Billi, Antonio. II Libro di Antonio Billi; ed. by Karl Frey. Berlin, 1892. 

Borghesi, S., and Banchi, L. Nuovi documenti per la storia dell' arte senese. 
Appendice alia raccolta dei documenti pubblicata dal Comm. Gaetano 
Milanesi. Siena, 1898. 

Boschini, M. La carta del navegar pittoresco; dialogo tra un senator dele- 
tan te e un professor de pitura. Venice, 1660. 

Il Codice Magliabecchiano, contenente notizie sopra 1'arte degli antichi e 
quella de'Fiorentini da Cimabue a Michelangelo Buonarroti, scritte da 
Anonimo Fiorentino; ed. by Karl Frey. Berlin, 1892. 

Descamps, J. B. La vie des peintres flamands, allemands, et hollandois. Paris, 
i7S3~ I 764- 4 v. 

Fabriczy, C. von, ed. II Codice deli' Anonimo Gaddiano, ed II Libro di 
Antonio Billi. Florence, 1891. 

Ghiberti, L. Cronaca del secolo xv tratta da manoscritti da Augusto Hagen. 
Florence, 1845. 
Lorenzo Ghibertis Denkwurdigkeiten; ed. by Julius von Schlosser. Ber- 
lin, 1912. 2 v. 
Vita di Lorenzo Ghiberti, con i Commentarii di Lorenzo Ghiberti; ed. by 
Karl Frey. Berlin, 1886. 

Kallab, W. Vasaristudien. Mit einem Lebensbilde des Verfassers aus dessen 
Nachlasse. Herausgegeben von Julius von Schlosser. Vienna, 1908. 
(Quellenschriften fur Kunstgeschichte und Kunsttechnik. N. F., xv.) 

Leonardo da Vinci. Literary works; ed. by Jean Paul Richter. London, 
1883. 2 v. 

Mander, C. van. Le livre des peintres; vie des peintres flamands, hollandais, 
et allemands (1604). Traduction, notes, et commentaires par Henri 
Hymans. Paris, 1884-1885. 2 v. (Bibliotheque internationale de 
l'art.) 

Milanesi, G. Documenti per la storia dell' arte senese. Siena, 1854-1856. 
3 v. in 2. 

Pacheco, F. Arte de la pintura, su antiguedad y grandezas. Madrid, 1871. 

Palomino de Castro y Velasco. El museo pictorico y escala optica. Madrid, 

I79S-I797- 3V. 
Ridolfi, C. Le maraviglie dell' arte, overo le vite de gl' illustri pittori veneti. 

Venice, 1648. 2 v. 
Valle, G. della. Lettere senesi sopra le belle arti. Venice, 1782-1786. 3 v. 
Vasari, G. Le vite de' piu eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architetti. Commen- 

tario di Lorenzo Ghiberti. Florence, Le Monnier, 1 846-1 870. 14 v. 
Lives of the most eminent painters, sculptors, and architects. Tr. by 

Mrs. Jonathan Foster. London, 1850-1852. 5 v. 



xxii PAINTING — BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Le vite de' piu eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori. Con nuove anno- 

tazioni e commenti di Gaetano Milanesi. Florence, Sansoni, 1878- 

1885. 9 v. 
Lives of seventy of the most eminent painters, sculptors, and architects; 

ed. and annotated by E. H. and E. W. Blashfield and A. A. Hopkins. 

New York, 191 1. 4 v. 
Le vite de' piu eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori. Mit kritischem 

Apparate. Herausgegeben von Dr. Karl Frey. Pt. i, Band i. Munich, 

1911. 
Zanetti, A. M. Delia pittura veneziana. Venice, 1771. 

General Works 

Lowrte, W. Monuments of the early Church. New York, 1906. (Handbooks 

of archaeology and antiquities.) 
Michel, A. Histoire de l'art depuis les premiers temps Chretiens jusqu'a nos 

jours, v. i-v. Paris, 1905-1913. 5 v. in 10. 
Reinach, S. Apollo; an illustrated manual of the history of art throughout 

the ages. New York, 1914. 
Repertoire de peintures du moyen age et de la renaissance (1280-1580). 

Paris, 1905-1910. 3 v. 
Ross, D. W. On drawing and painting. Boston, 1912. 

Theory of pure design. Boston, 1907. 
Thteme, U., and Becker, F. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Ktinstler. 

v. i-xi. Leipsic, 1907-1915. 

Technique 

Berger, E. Beitrage zur Entwickelungs-Geschichte der Maltechnik. Munich, 
1904-1909. 5 v. in 4. 

Cenntno Cenntni. The book of the art of Cennino Cennini. Tr. with notes 
on mediaeval art methods by Christiana J. Herringham. London, 1899. 

Church, A. H. The chemistry of paints and painting, 4th ed. rev. and enl. 
London, 1915. 

Eastlake, C. L. Contributions to the literature of the fine arts. London, 
1848-1870. 2 v. 
Materials for a history of oil painting. London, 1 847-1 869. 2 v. 

Jackson, F. H. Mural painting. London, 1904. 

Laurie, A. P. Materials of the painter's craft. London, 1910. 
Pigments and mediums of the old masters. London, 1914. 
Processes, pigments, and vehicles. London, 1895. 

Merrifield, M. P. Original treatises, dating from the xnth to xvinth cen- 
turies on the arts of painting. London, 1849. 2 v. 

Vasari, G. On technique. Tr. by Louisa S. Maclehose; ed. and annotated 
by Prof. G. Baldwin Brown. London, 1907. 



PAINTING — BIBLIOGRAPHY xxiii 

Christian Iconography — Legends of Saints — 
Ecclesiastical Vestments 

Barbier de Montault. Traite d' iconographie chretienne. Paris, 1890. 2 v. 

Beck, E. Ecclesiastical dress in art. Burlington magazine. London, July- 
Oct., Dec, 1905, Jan., 1906. vii-viii (28-31; 33-34), 281-288; 373-376; 
446-448; 47-50; 197-202; 271-281. 

Dearmer, P. The ornaments of the ministers. London, 1911. (Arts of the 
Church.) 

Didron, A. N. Christian iconography. London, 1891-1896. 2 v. [v. 2 con- 
tains that part of the Byzantine Guide to Painting which is concerned 
with iconography.] 

The Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine; or, Lives of the saints as Eng- 
lished by William Caxton. London, 1900. 7 v. (Temple classics.) 

Gruyer, F. A. Les Vierges de Raphael et 1'iconographie de la Vierge. Paris, 
1869. 3 v. 

Haig, E. The floral symbolism of the great masters. New York, 1913. 

Hurll, E. M. Life of our Lord in art. Boston, 1899. 

Jameson, Mrs. A. B. M. History of our Lord . . . completed by Lady 
Eastlake. London, 1872. 2 v. 
Legends of the Madonna; ed. with notes by E. M. Hurll. Boston, 1895. 
Legends of the monastic orders; ed. by E. M. Hurll. Boston, 1895. 
Sacred and legendary art; ed. by E. M. Hurll. Boston, 1895. 2 v. 

Jenner, Mrs. H. Christian symbolism. Chicago, 1910. (Little books on art.) 
Our Lady in art. Chicago, 191 1. (Little books on art.) 

Male, E. L'art religieux de la fin du moyen age en France. Paris, 1908. 
Religious art in France, xih century. Tr. from the third edition rev. and 
enl. by Dora Nussey. London, 1913. 

Catalogues 

In addition to the catalogues of the important public galleries of 
Europe and America, catalogues of private collections and of exhibitions 
are of value. A few such catalogues are listed below. 

Benson, R. H. Catalogue of Italian pictures collected by Robert and Evelyn 
Benson. London, 1914. 

Burlington Fine Arts Club. Catalogue of a collection of pictures of the 
Umbrian school. London, 1910. 
Exhibition of early German art. London, 1906. [Introduction; The xv 
century, by S. Montague Peartree. — The schools of Cologne, Ham- 
burg, and Westphalia, by Alban Head. — The xvi century, by Campbell 
Dodgson.] 
Exhibition of pictures of the school of Siena and examples of the minor 
arts of that city. London, 1904. [Introduction by Langton Douglas.] 

Johnson, J. G. Catalogue of a collection of paintings and some art objects. 
Philadelphia, 1913-1914. 3 v. [Contents. — v. 1. Italian paintings, 
by Bernhard Berenson. — v. 2. Flemish and Dutch paintings, by W. R. 



xxiv PAINTING — BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Valentiner. — v. 3. German, French, Spanish, and English paintings 
and art objects, by W. R. Valentiner.] 

Martin Le Roy, V. Catalogue raisonne de la collection Martin Le Roy. Paris, 
1909. v. 5. Peintures, par P. Leprieur et A. Perat6; Miniatures et 
dessins, par P. A. Lemoisne. 

Morgan, J. P. Pictures in the collection of J. Pierpont Morgan, with an intro- 
duction by T. Humphrey Ward and notes by W. Roberts. London, 
1907. v. 2. Dutch and Flemish, French, Italian, Spanish. 

Siren, O., and Brockwell, M. W. Catalogue of a loan exhibition of Italian 
primitives in aid of the American war relief. F. Kleinberger Galleries, 
November, 191 7. 

Siren, O. Descriptive catalogue of the pictures in the Jarves collection be- 
longing to Yale University. New Haven, 1916. 

Widener, P. A. B. Pictures in the collection of P. A. B. Widener at Lynne- 
wood Hall, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1913-1916. 2 v. 
[Contents. — 1. Early German, Dutch, and Flemish schools. With an 
introduction by W. R. Valentiner, and notes by C. Hofstede de Groot 
and W. R. Valentiner. — 2. Early Italian and Spanish schools. With 
notes on the Italian painters by B. Berenson, and on the Spanish painters 
by W. Roberts.] 

Charts 

Dowdeswell chart, chronological chart of artists of the Dutch, Flemish, 
French, German, Spanish, and British schools of painting, from 1350 to 
1800, by Gerald Parker Smith. London, 1909. 

Engraving 

Dodgson, C. Catalogue of early German and Flemish woodcuts preserved in 

the British Museum. London, 1903-1911. 2 v. 
Hind, A. M. Catalogue of early Italian engravings preserved in the British 

Museum. London, 1909-1910. 2 v. [Text and plates.] 
Short history of engraving and etching. Boston, 1908. 
Kristeller, P. Kupferstich und Holzschnitt in vier Jahrhunderten. Berlin, 

1905. 
Lippmann, F. Engraving and etching, 3d ed. London, 1906. 

Illumination or Books and Manuscripts 

Bradley, J. W. Illuminated mss. Chicago, 1911. (Little books on art.) 

Herbert, J. A. Illuminated manuscripts. London, 191 1. (The Connois- 
seur's library.) 

London. British Museum. Reproductions from illuminated manuscripts, 
2d ed. London, 1910. 3 v. 

Martin, H. Les peintres de manuscrits et la miniature en France. Paris, 
1909. (Les grands artistes.) 

MroDLETON, J. H. Illuminated manuscripts in classical and mediaeval times. 
Cambridge, 1892. 



BYZANTINE PAINTING 



BYZANTINE PAINTING 

THE general impression gathered from reading many histories 
of Italian art is that in the xni century the great achievement 
was the breaking loose from the bondage of Byzantine art which 
had served the purpose of an undesirable, if necessary, parent, to be 
apologized for, politely pushed aside, and forgotten as soon as pos- 
sible. There is only enough truth in this to make it sound plausible. 
Granting that the Italians owed their success partly to the fact that 
they did break loose from the parent whose iron rule was no longer 
needed, yet it is surely worth while to observe what they owed to 
that parent. 

In recent years several scholars have devoted themselves to the 
somewhat difficult study of the art of Byzantium, which in conse- 
quence is now better understood in its many subtleties than in the 
earlier days when most people thought of it merely as a provincial 
form of oriental civilization, or a debased remnant of the culture of 
Greece. 

One of the fascinating subjects in history is the intertwining of in- 
fluences of the various oriental and occidental countries during the 
last twenty-four hundred years. To some western minds the East is 
something incomprehensible, to be avoided and mistrusted. Yet the 
West has been mastered by oriental thought in religion, in phi- 
losophy, and in art. The seven great religions of the world were all 
born in Asia, for it was there that abstract thought thrived. Euro- 
pean art also has many of its deepest roots in Asia, and much vital 
nourishment was transmitted through Byzantium. Byzantine art 
owed its beginnings to a variety of mixed influences. While the 
Greek artists in Rome were becoming Romanized, those who re- 
mained in Alexandria and Antioch were affected by oriental in- 
fluences. When Constantine established his new capital in 330 a.d. 
various currents from the countries on the shores of the Mediterra- 
nean began to flow into the main stream at Constantinople. Persian 
art also exerted a powerful influence. So when we speak of the 
Byzantine tradition, we refer to that which was made up of a rich 



4 BYZANTINE PAINTING 

conglomeration of pure Greek, provincial Greek, Roman, and 
oriental traditions; and it may well be that the eastern love of 
the abstract was the most significant of them all. 

The two main sources of the art of the world were in Greece and in 
China, though, of course, Greece herself owed much to previous 
civilizations, notably that of Egypt, and China was indebted to 
India. The influence of Greece spreading to the east met that of 
China moving to the west in Turkestan, and China prevailed. These 
Chinese influences worked through to Persia, and from there to 
Byzantium and in a diluted form reached Europe. Meanwhile the 
Greek tradition was carried even across the Indus in the days of 
Alexander the Great. The Gandhara sculptors 1 felt this influence, 
and it spread also in a much diluted form to other parts of India, to 
China, and Japan. 

One of the principal cosmopolitan gateways between the East and 
the West was Byzantium. Here it was that the fusion of the various 
elements was completed, and a great art was formed. It is not en- 
tirely easy to define the art of that city in a few words, because the 
characteristics changed during the four important periods into which 
Byzantine art is usually divided, namely: 

First. From the foundation of Constantinople to the outbreak of 
iconoclasm, a.d. 330-726. This includes the First Golden Age during 
the reign of Justinian, 527-565. The art of this time was formative. 
Many diverse elements were gathered together and unified. 

Second. The Iconoclastic period, a.d. 726-842. The religious art 
which in the previous century had tended to become over formalized, 
was revivified by persecution; and the secular art went back with a 
fresh impulse to the classical models in Alexandria. The conven- 
tional designs of Persia also influenced the art of this period. 

Third. From the accession of Basil 1 to the sack of Constantinople, 
a.d. 867-1204, called the Second Golden Age. In this period, the 
various diverging tendencies were unified again, and there was a 
period of fresh growth. 

Fourth. From the Restoration to the Turkish conquest, a.d. 
1 261-1453, the period of the Palaeologi. After the Latin Emperors 
(1 204-1 261) came the new life and activity of the so-called Byzan- 
tine Renaissance, which flourished for about two hundred years, 

1 These sculptors are represented by a few important examples in the Fogg Museum. 



BYZANTINE PAINTING 5 

and has continued in Greece and Russia in a monotonous half alive 
existence even to the present day. 

The study of the various sources of the types used by Byzantium 
is important, because the thought, the artistic traditions, and partic- 
ularly the iconography of Byzantium are the bedrock foundations on 
which the art of Europe was built. To Greece may be traced many 
of the characteristics of Byzantine art. The early Christians began 
by adopting certain Greek motives and applying them allegorically 
to Christianity; for instance, the Greek Chriophorus or bearer of the 
ram (in earlier versions the calf bearer) became the Good Shepherd, 
the fish and the anchor became symbols of Christ. When Chris- 
tianity triumphed and became the official religion of the Roman 
Empire, there arose a demand for regal and sumptuous churches, and 
Greek motives were further developed. The Good Shepherd became 
the Christ Triumphant, the King, the living representative of God. 
The ancient figures of Victory were used as models for angels in the 
glorious court of Heaven. This court of Heaven was a projection 
into realms of ideal thought modelled after the visible earthly courts 
of the Eastern Emperors. Gorgeous churches were built and also 
humbler ones. The clergy saw the need of instructing in sacred his- 
tory the rude unlettered peoples who nocked from the countryside to 
worship at the shrines. In the early days the church was not only a 
place of worship, but a club and a hotel for the visiting peasants and 
pilgrims. The stories of the Bible were depicted on the walls of the 
church that all might understand. Certain scenes were originally 
painted in the churches on sacred sites. For instance, the Nativity 
and Adoration of the Magi were represented in the basilica of Beth- 
lehem. Pilgrims went there in large numbers and purchased copies 
of these wall decorations, and thus the new historical compositions 
which began to be created about the rv century assumed a traditional 
form. The various types also became crystallized. Christ became the 
partly Hellenic and partly Syrian figure that has become familiar. 
The Madonna assumed her characteristics, as did Saint Peter, with his 
round beard and gray hair, Saint Paul with his bald head and pointed 
beard, and the other apostles and saints. In all of these conceptions 
oriental influences predominated. Though Greek forms were never 
wholly forgotten, the characteristic freedom and flexibility of ancient 
Greece were lost, and instead a more formal and hieratic manner of 



6 BYZANTINE PAINTING 

painting developed, perhaps owing to contact with Syria. The in- 
fluence of Persia which had been driven back nine hundred years 
before, now returned. Architecture flourished and new ideas were 
developed; secular art also grew up at the same time. 

The art of Byzantium was thus derived principally from elements ' 
coming from Alexandria, Antioch, Ephesus, and Rome, and the 
civilizations of those cities. From the year 330 a.d., when the seat 
of government was moved to Constantinople, these various arts 
were in process of fusion, until the First Golden Age culminated 
in the reign of Justinian. 

In 532 the great conflagration which swept the city destroyed the 
basilica that Constantine had erected. Justinian's opportunity now 
arrived, and he used to the full his wealth and his energy in realizing 
his dreams of a city of unparalleled magnificence. Among all the 
stately palaces and splendid churches the greatest architectural glory 
was the church of Hagia Sophia, dedicated to the Divine Wisdom, 
perhaps a continuation of the tradition of the worship of Athena 
carried even into Christian days. All the elements of decoration — 
the mosaics, rich in pictorial effect and splendid in their glowing gold 
and sombre colours, and the beautiful marbles — were skilfully har- 
monized with the architectural design to which they were sub- 
ordinated. The Byzantines in this First Golden Age excelled in 
architecture. The mosaic decorations of their churches perhaps 
ranked next, and after that their delicate ivories, their enamels, il- 
luminated manuscripts, textiles, and other minor arts. Fresco paint- 
ing later developed from the mosaics. Sculpture declined, perhaps 
chiefly on account of the oriental dislike of the graven image, which 
was one of the causes of the Iconoclastic period. 

The fundamental reasons for the Iconoclastic controversy were of 
long standing. In the earliest days of Christianity those who 
espoused the new faith had little taste for art. The serious Jews 
from Palestine who travelled to Rome were descended from the race 
who had abolished idols and fought against idolaters since the days 
of the golden calf. The people of Israel served the " King eternal, 
immortal, invisible, the only wise God." They were not unlike our 
Pilgrim Fathers in their point of view towards art. But after a 
while the idolatry which had been crushed by the single minded 
Hebrews crept in under various disguises, and the images in the 



BYZANTINE PAINTING 7 

churches were worshipped and thought to have supernatural 
powers. The opposition to this decadent form of worship was 
strongest in Syria, where the ancient dislike of confusing material 
and spiritual values was still inherent in the people. In 754 the 
fathers of the church in council declared that "Satan has reintro- 
duced, little by little, idolatry under the name of Christianity "; and 
denounced " the ignorant artist, who through a sacrilegious desire 
for money represents that which should not be represented, and 
wishes with his soiled hands to give form to that which should not 
be felt except by the heart." When internal and external troubles 
overwhelmed Byzantium, and the Arab, Mussulman, and Slavic 
hordes swept over all of the eastern possessions of the Empire, the 
people thought of their sins, and believed that they were visited by 
the judgment of God. Emperor Leo m the Isaurian was the first 
to issue an edict against images, in 726 a.d. Through this righteous, 
if extreme and intolerant, movement, a large number of the master- 
pieces of the First Golden Age were destroyed. 

Under the Macedonian and Comnenian rulers a second age of 
prosperity, called the Second Golden Age, blessed Constantinople. 
New triumphs were achieved in military, political, commercial, and 
artistic fields. The different branches of art developed and expanded. 
But this period of growth did not last long. Constantinople was 
taken by the Latins in 1204 and pillaged. After some fifty or sixty 
years of Frankish rule, the Palaeologi returned as conquerors. Be- 
tween the xm and xvi centuries certain important frescoes were 
executed in Macedonia, Serbia, Mistra, and Mount Athos. This 
simpler method of decoration was adopted, as mosaics were too 
luxurious and expensive. Work in rich materials, such as ivory and 
gold, that required patient labour, was abandoned. Except in a few 
rare cases, miniature painting declined. 

The art of Byzantium gradually lost its spontaneity and degen- 
erated into formalism. But it is not fair to attack it too seriously on 
these grounds before the xv century. On the contrary, the length of 
life of the school of Byzantium, running through four differents tages 
during a period of some eleven or twelve hundred years, is the aston- 
ishing feature. No European country has held a commanding posi- 
tion in the world of art for such a long period. This remarkable city, 
as it received blow after blow, kept sending off new waves of inspira- 



8 BYZANTINE PAINTING 

tion towards the East and West, particularly to the West. Byzantine 
artists worked in Ravenna and in Rome in the First Golden Age. 
This was owing largely perhaps to the long line of Syrian bishops 
who filled the see of Ravenna. v At the time of the Iconoclasts 
large numbers of able artists fled to Europe, principally to Italy. 
Again in the Second Golden Age Byzantine artists were in demand to 
build churches in Greece, in Venice and Torcello, in Sicily, in south- 
ern Italy, and in Rome. In 1 204, when Constantinople was captured, 
large numbers of Byzantine artists again departed to Sicily and Italy 
and other places in Europe. These artists executed important 
mosaics in several Italian cities. In some cases the names of the 
artists are known. For instance, one Andrea Tafi, who was born in 
1 2 13, brought the Greek mosaicist Apollonios from Venice to help 
him adorn the Baptistery at Florence with mosaics. Finally, the 
never ending stream of eastern traders who invaded Europe, and 
also the western pilgrims returning from the East, brought with 
them Byzantine ivories, enamels, embroideries, gold and silver 
work, textiles, illuminated manuscripts, and other examples of the 
arts of Byzantium. These arts had an immense influence in 
Europe. The delicately carved ivories had a deep effect on the 
mediaeval sculptors of France, Italy, England, and Germany. 
Byzantine fresco painting was of far reaching importance in its 
influence on the art of Giotto, and hence on that of all later 
Italians. The illumination of manuscripts came originally from 
Alexandria. The Emperor Constantine called numerous Alexandrian 
scholars and illuminators to Constantinople, and founded a library. 
Several manuscripts both sacred and profane of this period still exist. 
In the Vatican is preserved an Iliad of the rv or v century executed 
in a style that is not unlike the best frescoes of Pompeii. This Byzan- 
tine tradition of illuminating manuscripts spread all over Europe, and 
had a profound effect on miniature painting and on other arts. The 
icons or religious panels were the ancestors of the later European 
altarpieces. Among the earliest existing panel pictures in the world 
are the realistic portraits, produced in the Fayoum in Egypt in the 
ni century and painted in the encaustic method, that is, with a wax 
preparation. 1 Probably the earliest Madonnas were similar. 

1 In the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, there is an encaustic portrait from EI 
Rubayat, Fayoum. 



BYZANTINE PAINTING 9 

We have noted that the iconography began in a simple and sym- 
bolic manner, and that then the representations of scenes in the life 
of Christ began to take form in the actual churches raised on the 
traditional spot where the event was said to have taken place. 
Gradually a newer and richer iconography developed in the Second 
Golden Age. The ancient orators of Greece became the prophets of 
Christian art. Apollo not only served as a model for Buddha in the 
East, but also had his effect on the development of the type of Christ 
in the West. The tunic and mantle of the Italian religious pictures 
were inherited from the Hellenistic pallium or himation. The com- 
positions, the action, and the gestures of the figures came from 
Greece; though in regard to the compositions this statement must be 
somewhat qualified. The early Greeks had an unfailing sense of 
significance. The principal actors were so placed in the scene as to 
tell the story effectively. The Byzantines were influenced in their 
compositions by the Persian love of completely filling the spaces with 
decorative features, which dispersed the interest over the whole field 
instead of concentrating it at the vital point. The types were in part 
Greek. The taste for gorgeous colour and for purely decorative fea- 
tures, such as conventional animals and flowers, was introduced into 
Byzantium largely through the Persian textiles. The artists, it is 
true, used the ideal types, but they also studied nature to some ex- 
tent. Oriental saints with almond-shaped eyes and pointed beards 
stand beside saints of the classical type in the groups in these pic- 
tures. A new scheme of symbolism was developed in the ix and x 
centuries for both the church and its decorations. The dome was 
Heaven. In it was a vast figure representing the Christ Pantocrator, 
or image of the invisible God. Then came certain apostles or proph- 
ets, and the Madonna ruled below. After that came other scenes 
arranged in due order, each saint or scene having a special signifi- 
cance. Twelve scenes from the life of Christ were chosen to repre- 
sent the Twelve Feasts. The two which were given especial emphasis 
were the Crucifixion and the Descent into Hell. Sometimes the Last 
Judgment on the western wall completed the series. In the earlier 
days the object was to celebrate the triumph of the Church and tell 
the sacred stories to the people. In the later days the scheme of 
decoration was a sort of liturgy, and subjects came to be used from 
the Apocalypse instead of from the Old Testament. The life of the 
Madonna and the lives of various saints also became more popular. 



10 BYZANTINE PAINTING 

Starting from the wreckage of one of the greatest arts of the world, 
Byzantine art suffered from the lack of an archaic stage. But in 
essence it remained nevertheless a primitive art. Its general tend- 
ency was to pay scant attention to nature. The Greek loved the 
human body, and the freedom of the athlete; the Byzantine held up 
the ascetic as an ideal — the body was first concealed and then 
ignored. The landscape was formal and conventional. The com- 
position of each subject was decreed by the Council of Nicaea to be 
fixed by the theologians, and the artists were to follow their instruc- 
tions. The Byzantines had a high standard of workmanship, which 
is one of the signs of a great art. They were the world's great masters 
of mosaic. The deep rich glow that comes from the walls of these 
churches darkened to the tone of twilight has the power of enchant- 
ment. Like music, mosaic is an abstract art, indeed, the word 
mosaic is said to be of the same root as the word music. 

It is this aloofness and this symbolic spirit that makes Byzantine 
art to some extent like Indian art, which has been thus described by 
Havell in his Indian Sculpture and Painting: " Realism to the Indian 
artist has a different meaning from what we attach to it; for Indian 
philosophy regards all we see in Nature as transitory, illusive phe- 
nomena, and declares that the only reality is the Divine Essence, or 
Spirit. So while European art hardly concerns itself with the Un- 
seen, but limits its mental range to the realms of Nature, and thus 
retains, even in its highest flights, the sense and form of its earthly 
environment, Indian art (like the Egyptian of which it is the living 
representative) is always striving to realize something of the Uni- 
versal, the Eternal, and the Infinite." " Greek and Italian art would 
bring the gods to earth, and make them the most beautiful of men; 
Indian art raises men up to heaven and makes them even as the 
gods." 

Thus, like a tree which shoots its roots deep into the earth, and 
holds its arms out afar towards the rain and the sunshine, and from 
those varied elements in due time produces series after series of fruits 
to nourish those in want, Byzantium, which was the centre of art and 
culture in Europe for hundreds of years, amalgamated various incon- 
gruous elements of East and West, and then gave forth inspiration 
freely to the world. 

E. W. F. 



BYZANTINE PAINTING II 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Dalton, O. M. Byzantine art and archaeology. Oxford, 191 1. 
Diehl, C. Manuel d'art byzantin. Paris, 1910. 

Strzygowski, J. Orient oder Rom; Beitrage zur Geschichte der spatantiken 
und fruhchristlichen Kunst. Leipsic, 1901. 



BYZANTINE SCHOOL 

The Byzantine pictures in the Fogg Art Museum are not at present 
on exhibition in the Gallery, as they are in quality for the most part 
much below the standard of the other primitives. They may, how- 
ever, be seen in the Director's room by request. Six of these have 
been given and four lent to the Museum. 

For convenience they are here designated by letters. Like most 
Byzantine pictures these paintings are hard to date accurately. 

A-B SAINT ANDREW AND SCENES FROM HIS LIFE 

A. H. 19! in. W. 14I in. (48.5 X 37.5 cm.) 

B. H. 19 A in. W. 14I in. (48.7 X 37.8 cm.) 

The most important and interesting of these pictures is a painting 
representing Saint Andrew and ten scenes from his life. Panel b was 
bought in Athens in 1907. It is a crude example of late Byzantine 
colour. When it reached the Fogg Museum the paint began to scale 
off, and it was found necessary to transfer the picture to a new panel. 
In the process, picture A, which is painted on parchment, was found 
underneath by William Allerton, who succeeded in performing the 
difficult operation of separating the two. Panel A is of far finer 
quality, and although it is almost a complete wreck, enough of it 
remains to show that the draughtsmanship and the colour were both 
exquisite. The principal colours that remain are vermilion and more 
neutral orange reds and blue greens. This original picture (a) was 
perhaps painted as early as the xn or more probably the xni century. 
Several centuries later it must have become damaged, and the order 
given to paint a new one over it. Fortunately the second painter 
used the traditional Byzantine method of preparing a coat of plaster 
or gesso as a ground instead of painting directly on the surface of the 
older picture. And so it has been possible to preserve them both. In 
both panels (a and b) the scenes are very much the same, and are 
arranged in the same order. 

Saint Andrew stands in the centre, and around him are represented 
ten scenes from his life which seem to be: Saint Andrew preaching; 
First Calling of Saint Andrew; Second Calling; Miracle of Nicolas; 
Miracle of the Seven Devils near Nice; Resuscitation of the Youth 



BYZANTINE SCHOOL 13 

who had been strangled by the Seven Devils in the Likeness of Dogs; 
Saint Andrew as Pilgrim; Flagellation of the Saint; Saint Andrew 
bound to the Cross; Crucifixion of Saint Andrew. 

In b the donors are painted at the feet of the saint. Between them 
in small letters is an undecipherable inscription. Saint Andrew holds 
in his hand a scroll. His name ayios 'Avrpeas is written in red paint 
on the green background. In the scene directly underneath the 
figure of the saint, representing Saint Andrew bound to the Cross, the 
date 181 2 appears in the same red paint on the brown rocks of the 
foreground, but, as these letters are different in character from the 
older writing, and as the style of the picture indicates that it was 
painted at least one hundred years before 18 12, it is quite possible 
that the date was added later. The prevailing tones of the picture 
are green, red, and gold. 

C SAINT ANDREW AND SCENES FROM HIS LIFE 

H. 19H in. W. 13! in. (50.6 X 35 cm.) 

This is another Saint Andrew panel, but it is cruder and probably 
later than b, perhaps of the later xvin century. It has eight scenes 
from Saint Andrew's life, instead of ten; the two omitted are the 
Flagellation of Saint Andrew, and Saint Andrew bound to the Cross. 
In the next to the last scene the saint appears to be preaching, 
holding a cross in his arms. 

The panel was bought in Switzerland in 1914. 

D THE DESCENT INTO HELL 

H. 25 & in. W. i6| in. (65 X 42 cm.) 

Christ wearing a gold garment and in a blue mandorla with gold 
lines has broken down the gate of Hell. An angel in the foreground 
is binding with chains the prostrate form of the Prince of Darkness. 
Several figures are behind Christ. In the front of the group are John 
the Baptist, David, and Solomon. On the right is the figure of Adam. 
Christ is holding him by the wrist and pulling him up out of a tomb. 
Eve is seen just above Adam's head. Both of them wear red gar- 
ments and Adam has a blackish green mantle over his gown. One 
group of figures in Limbo recedes behind Adam and Eve to one of the 
two conventional Byzantine pointed mountains which represent 



14 BYZANTINE PAINTING 

Hell; the other group, on the left, behind Christ, recedes into the 
depths of the other mountain. Two angels appear in the sky; be- 
tween them is the inscription: 17 avaa-raais tov Xpiarov (anastasis, 
literally, the rising up or resurrection) . At the bottom of the picture 
is a second inscription: Aejcris . . . rod deov (literally, supplication 
or entreating ... of God). 

The panel was bought in Athens in 1907. 

Professor Morey of Princeton, judging from a very poor photo- 
graph and basing his opinion chiefly on the iconography of the scene, 
thinks that the panel may date from the xrv century, as this is the 
characteristic late Byzantine type. He says: " The omission of the 
cross in Christ's hand puts the scene after 1200 . . . almost a 
replica of this composition is found at Mistra in the Peribleptos 
(Millet, Mon. byz. de Mistra, pi. 116, 3), save that the angel binding 
Satan is larger, that the groups are handled in a looser manner, and 
Adam and Eve lack the nimbi which they wear in the ikon. The 
Peribleptos fresco is dated c. 1350." 

Anastasis was the term used in East Christian art for the scene 
which in the West was called the Descent into Hell, or Christ in 
Limbo. The painting by Sassetta in the Gallery (No. 2 2) is a western 
representation of this scene. Deesis was the term used in the East for 
a symbolical group of Christ, the Virgin, and Saint John the Baptist, 
with Christ in the centre and the two other figures standing turned 
towards Him holding out both hands in an attitude of supplication. 

The Anastasis was one of the twelve principal Feasts of the liturgi- 
cal calendar of the Eastern Church, and was a very popular subject 
in the Middle Ages. The early illuminators all over Europe repre- 
sented the scene with great frequency. The story of the Descent 
into Hell is related in the Apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, but it 
has been suggested that early Egyptian legend influenced the repre- 
sentations. As told in Nicodemus, Christ, Who usually bears a cross, 
or later, particularly in the West, the banner triumphant, broke 
down the gates of Hell, crushing Death, and liberated the righteous 
persons of the Old Testament who had been kept in Limbo merely 
because they were born under the Old Dispensation. Adam and 
Eve are usually represented in a conspicuous place, and Abraham, 
David, Solomon, Isaiah, Abel, and other Old Testament figures 



BYZANTINE SCHOOL 1 5 

appear. From the beginning of the xi century the Baptist was in- 
troduced. In this picture it is noteworthy that Christ bears a roll 
in His hand instead of a cross. The gates on which He stands are 
in the form of a cross, as in xn century and later representations. 

E MADONNA AND CHILD 

H. 19 in. W. 13! in. (48.1 X 35 cm.) 

The Madonna and Child both have dark bluish black gowns. The 
mantle of the Madonna is of a deep violet red, and the mantle of the 
Child is orange red and is covered with the conventional Byzantine 
gold lines. 

The panel was bought in Verona in 1906. 

As in the case of most of the Byzantine pictures, it is difficult to 
date this one with accuracy. Its style suggests that it may have 
been produced in the early part of the xrv century, but it is also 
possible that it was painted later. 

F MADONNA AND CHILD WITH REPRESENTATIONS OF 
THE TWELVE FEASTS 
Vellum mounted on panel. H. 17! in. W. 13! in. (44 X 33.3 cm.) 

The Madonna and Child are surrounded by twelve scenes repre- 
senting the twelve principal Feasts of the Eastern Church, which are 
placed in the following somewhat unusual order: Annunciation, 
Nativity, Baptism, Presentation, Raising of Lazarus, Entry into 
Jerusalem, Crucifixion, Ascension, Descent into Hell, Ascension of 
the Madonna, Pentecost, Transfiguration. Half effaced inscriptions 
in gold letters give the names of the scenes. Two angels are in the 
sky on either side of the Madonna, and below her are Saint Barbara 
and an unidentified saint. On either side of these two are two saints 
on horseback, perhaps Saint George and Saint Theodore. As in the 
other pictures, red and green, much darkened, are the prevailing 
colours. 

This picture was bought in Athens in 1914. It may have been 
painted as early as the xv century. 



16 BYZANTINE PAINTING 

G PRESENTATION OF THE VIRGIN AND SAINTS 

Vellum mounted on panel. H. 13 H in. W. 10& in. (35-4 X 26.9 cm.) 

In the upper part of the panel is a Presentation, represented in 
accordance with the Byzantine Guide to Painting and showing the 
prophet Zacharias in pontifical robes with his arms open, the Virgin 
mounting the steps before him — in this case without the prescribed 
taper — Saint Joachim and Saint Anna, and behind them the crowd 
of virgins carrying tapers. In the upper part of the scene is the in- 
scription: 17 ev tc3 facS ei'croSos rrjs BeoTonov (Entrance of the Mother 
of God into the temple). Above the inscription are represented the 
Virgin and the archangel Gabriel, who offers her bread. On either 
side of the Presentation are figures of Saint John the Baptist, with 
wings, as in late representations of the Deesis, and Saint Nicolas. 
Underneath stand four saints, namely, Saint Theodore, with his 
palm branch and spear, Saint Dionysius, Saint Spiridion, and 
Saint Charalampus. 

This picture was bought in Athens in 1914. It is crude in execu 
tion, and probably was painted not earlier than the xvi or xvn 
century. 

H PRESENTATION OF THE VIRGIN 

H. 17H in. W. 13a in. (45.2 X 34.9 cm.) 

This is a typical representation of the subject with the Presenta- 
tion below, and Mary and the angel Gabriel above. 

The panel was bought in Switzerland in 1914. It is a crude, late 
piece, probably executed not earlier than the xvm century. 

I RAISING OF LAZARUS 

H. 20ft in. W. 13^ in. (52.5 X 34.9 cm.) 

The scene is represented in the traditional manner. Christ in a 
blue and gold mantle with a red tunic moves from the left, followed by 
a crowd of people. In His hand is a scroll on which is an inscription 
which includes the word Lazarus. On the right Lazarus stands up in 
his tomb. One attendant, as in the later representations, is begin- 
ning to unwind the wrappings. At Christ's feet kneel the Magdalene 
in a red mantle, and Martha. On the left, in a dark cleft in the rocks, 
appears a shadowy figure representing Hades. This is the only one 



BYZANTINE SCHOOL 17 

of the Byzantine panels in which the blue sky is represented instead 
of a gold background. The picture, originally crude, has suffered 
from darkening and repainting. Near the top of the panel is the 
inscription: 17 iytp<r{i)i$ tov Aa{apo v (Raising of Lazarus). 

The panel was bought in Switzerland in 1914. The date of the 
picture is probably not earlier than the xvm century. 

SCENES FROM THE LIFE OF CHRIST AND THE LIFE 
OF THE MADONNA 

Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 
H. 13! in. W. 12^- in. (34.6 X 30.5 cm.) 

This panel contains numerous small scenes including the Last 
Judgment, scenes from the life of Christ and the life of the Madonna, 
and representations of the Four Evangelists. 

The workmanship of the panel is delicate. It was probably not 
painted earlier than the xvi century, and perhaps much later. 



ITALIAN PAINTING 



ITALIAN PAINTING — BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, B. Study and criticism of Italian art. London, 1902-1916. 3 ser. 
Brown, A. V. V., and Rankin, W. Short history of Italian painting. New 

York, 1914. 
Burckhardt, J. Der Cicerone. Zehnte Auflage. Bearbeitet von W. Bode und 
C. v. Fabriczy. Zweiter Teil; Mittelalter und Neuere Zeit; iii, Malerei. 
Leipsic, 1910. 
Conway, W. M. Early Tuscan art from the xii to the xv centuries. London, 

1902. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. A new history of painting in Italy, from the sec- 
ond to the sixteenth century. London, 1864-1866. 3 v. 
Storia della pittura in Italia dal secolo 11 al secolo xvi. Florence, 1886- 

1908. 11 v. 
A new history of painting in Italy, from the 11 to the xvi century; ed. by 

Edward Hutton. New York, 1908-1909. 3 v. 
A history of painting in Italy; ed. by Langton Douglas, assisted by S. 
Arthur Strong. New York, 1903-1914. 6 v. [v. 3, ed. by Langton 
Douglas; v. 4, by Langton Douglas, assisted by G. de Nicola; v. 5-6, 
by Tancred Borenius.] 
A history of painting in North Italy from the xiv to the xvi century. 

London, 1871. 2 v. 
A history of painting in North Italy from the xiv to the xvi century; ed. 
by Tancred Borenius. New York, 1912. 3 v. 
Milanesi, G. Sulla storia dell' arte toscana. Siena, 1873. 

Nuovi documenti per la storia dell' arte toscana. Florence, 1901. 
Morelli, G. Italian masters in German galleries — Munich, Dresden, Ber- 
lin. Tr. by Louise M. Richter. London, 1883. 
Italian painters; the galleries of Munich and Dresden. Tr. by Con- 
stance Jocelyn Ffoulkes. London, 1893. 
Italian painters; the Borghese and Doria Pamfili galleries in Rome. Tr. 
by Constance Jocelyn Ffoulkes. London, 1900. 
Pater, W. The Renaissance. London, 1914. 
Ruskin, J. Works; ed. by E. T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn. Library 

ed. London, 1903-1912. 39 v. 
Symonds, J. A. Renaissance in Italy. The fine arts. London, 1914. 
Thode, H. Franz von Assisi und die Anfange der Kunst der Renaissance in 

Italien. Berlin, 1904. 
Venturi, A. Storia dell' arte italiana. v. i-vii. Milan, 1901-1914. 7 v. in 9. 
Wolitlin, H. The art of the Italian Renaissance. New York, 1913. 

Charts 

Winchester charts, by M. J. Rendall. London, 1908. 

Painters of Florence, Umbria, Siena, and the Vincian school of Milan. 
Painters of North Italy. 



FLORENTINE PAINTING 



FLORENTINE PAINTING 

ITALIAN PAINTING, in its beginnings in the xin and xiv cen- 
turies, though at first hardly to be distinguished from a mere 
renewing and perfecting of the best Byzantine traditions, was one 
phase of the Gothic art of western Europe, often indeed in close 
touch with that of France and of other countries beyond the Alps. 
Its further development in the xv century was likewise largely a 
carrying on of the naturalistic traditions of later Gothic painting, but 
to this was added the stimulus of direct contact with ancient art and 
culture, which gave a special character to this later period known as 
the Renaissance. 

To the vitality and energy of Gothic and Renaissance culture is 
due the feeling for plastic form, for individualization of character, 
and for reality of action, which distinguish early Italian painting 
from the stilted conventionalism of the prevailing Byzantine style. 
Nevertheless in technique and design, as well as in general methods 
of representation and in iconography, Italian painting was based on 
the traditions of Byzantine art. Moreover, the primary aim of most 
Italian painting was, like Byzantine, to serve as decoration of wall 
or panel surface, subordinate to the architectural intent of building 
or furniture design. Fresco was used for the decoration of the walls 
and ceilings of chapels, churches, and palaces; tempera, and later oil 
handled in much the same manner as tempera, for the decoration of 
the panels of furniture, either that in churches, like altarpieces, 
tabernacles or cupboards, or that in houses, like the marriage chests 
(cassoni). A more independently pictorial style, as opposed to this 
decorative style, was not introduced until the latter part of the xv 
century, and then largely under the influence of realistic Flemish 
painting. 

A very large part of the painting that has been preserved is reli- 
gious; but by no means all, even in Gothic times, was so. Secular 
subjects, in the Renaissance mainly classical in character, were com- 
monly treated in the frescoes and panels in palaces and houses. An 



26 



FLORENTINE PAINTING 



Pielro 

Cavallini 

late xiii c. 

Duccio di 

Buoninsegna 

ab. IZS5-I3I9 

Simone 

Martini 

ab. 1283-1344 



Cimabue, ab. 
1240-ab. 1301 



Giotto 
1276-1336 



example of this is the panel of the Judgment of Paris, No. 13 in this 
Catalogue. Even in the paintings of religious subjects, the natural- 
istic side, often the chief interest of the painters themselves, was 
entirely non-religious in its appeal. 

The first great personalities and the first distinct schools in Italian 
painting emerge in the latter part of the xm century; Cavallini in 
Rome, where realistic tendencies of classical Roman art seem to have 
survived somewhat distinct from the otherwise dominating Byzan- 
tine style; Duccio, followed by Simone Martini, in Siena; Cimabue 
and Giotto in Florence. With the removal of the papacy to Avignon 
in 1309, the Roman school quickly declined in importance, and in the 
xrv century Florence and Siena were the leading schools. Of these,, 
Siena, as the more distinctly Gothic school, was especially important 
for the influence it exerted on other Italian painting, including that of 
Florence. On account of its influence on French painting, partly 
through Simone Martini's sojourn in Avignon, it also played an im- 
portant part in the development of the so-called International style, 
a naturalistic and courtly phase of later Gothic painting of the close 
of the xrv and the beginning of the xv century, in which there was 
comparatively little distinction between the art of Italy and of the 
north. In the xv century, on the other hand, Florence took the lead 
among all the cities of Italy in painting, as in the other arts and in 
politics and learning, for in all the earlier Renaissance Florence was 
the recognized centre of culture. 

The art of Cimabue, the first individually significant Florentine 
painter, may, as far as can be judged from the few scanty, ruined, and 
disputed remains, which show strong Roman influence, be described 
as transitional between Byzantine and Gothic. Cimabue's pupil 
Giotto must therefore be regarded as the first great Gothic artist of 
Florence, sculptor and architect as well as painter, distinguished 
among all his contemporaries for his convincing expression of solid 
form, his power as a dramatic painter, his originality of observation 
and invention in trying to make his people act like real human beings 
as he himself saw them in the city about him — far less lovely than 
Duccio, who clung closer to his Byzantine models, but more deeply 
significant. As Dante wrote in the " vulgar " tongue, so did Giotto, 
more than his predecessors, express himself in every day " vulgar " 
idiom. It is altogether probable that he was directly inspired in this 



FLORENTINE PAINTING 



27 



by the acting in the religious plays of the day, for in the general ar- 
rangement of the compositions the plays had undoubted influence on 
the painting and sculpture of the time. Giotto was one of the great 
individual geniuses, so noteworthy in Italian art, who seem each to 
have been a culmination of some particular phase of thought and 
expression. Although he had many direct pupils and assistants, and 
numerous imitators, who produced " Giottesque " art in many parts 
of Italy, there seems to have been no great individual artist among 
them. While emphasis on plastic form is still found in many works, 
the more obvious emotional quality and the entertaining naturalism 
which are found in Sienese art — which are indeed common to all 
Gothic art of the later xrv century — seem to have appealed to other 
Florentine artists more than the stern majesty and the severe reality 
of Giotto. As a matter of fact, one of the principal changes in the 
Florentine style in the xrv century was that toward greater natural- 
ism in the relation of the figures to architectural and landscape 
setting, a change to be noted in all Gothic art of the time. 

Taddeo Gaddi has always enjoyed the reputation of being the 
principal direct follower of Giotto, but modern criticism is engaged in 
determining other personalities among his many assistants and 
pupils. Some of them may have come closer to Giotto than Taddeo, 
but their names will in most cases probably never be known. Ber- 
nardo Daddi and Andrea di Cione, known as Orcagna, possibly 
Daddi's pupil, show Florentine art of the xrv century, after Giotto, 
at its best. They were more akin to the Sienese in spirit, but Or- 
cagna, also a sculptor, was distinctly sculpturesque in the expression 
of plastic form in painting. His brothers, Nardo and Jacopo di 
Cione, were still more inclined toward Sienese Gothic, while Agnolo 
Gaddi, Giovanni da Milano, and Andrea da Firenze came directly 
under Sienese influence. Spinello Aretino, showing similar influences, 
was a typical unprogressive Gothic painter of the close of the century, 
preserving something of the monumental dignity of Giottesque art 
and much of its beauty of workmanship and design, but little of its 
significance. 

Just at the close of the xrv century and in the beginning of the xv 
century there was a final " burst " of the late Gothic style in the 
work of Lorenzo Monaco, of Fra Angelico, probably Lorenzo's pupil, 
and of Masolino. Lorenzo's painting, in its use of flowing line, is 



Taddeo Gaddi 

ab. 1300-1366 

Bernardo 

Daddi 

ab. 1280-1348 

Orcagna 

1308W-1368 

Nardo di 

Cione, active 

1343-1365 
Jacopo di 
Cione, active 
1360-1394 
Agnolo Gaddi 

ab. I333-I396 

Giovanni da 

Milano, active 

ab. 136s 

Andrea da 

Firenze 

xiv c, 2d half 

Spinello 

Aretino 

i333^)-i4io 

Lorenzo 

Monaco 

ab. 1370-1425 



28 



FLORENTINE PAINTING 



Fra Angelica 
1387-1455 



Masolino 
1384-after 

H35 

Masaccio 
1401-1428 



Domenico 

Ghirlandaio 
1449-1494 

Benozzo 
Gozzoli 
1420-1497 



strongly suggestive of xiv century French Gothic. Fra Angelico, in 
his architecture and costumes, often witnesses the presence of the 
Renaissance about him — in fact he is more often spoken of as a 
Renaissance master — but his style is distinctly Gothic, showing in 
many works the gaiety, grace, and charm of the International style. 
The works of both of these men are notable for their pure, bright 
colour, especially attractive in their paintings on a small scale. Maso- 
lino's naive and debonair manner is still more typically International. 

With Masolino's pupil, Masaccio, on the other hand, we come to 
an entirely new epoch, in which art, under the guidance of direct 
students of the antique, like the sculptors Brunelleschi and Dona- 
tello, became more conscious — more knowing in its rendering of 
nature, more measured and accomplished in its search for beauty. 
It must be borne in mind that in this new epoch, known as the 
Renaissance, even more than in the earlier period, the character of 
Florentine, indeed of all Italian art was determined by the individual 
genius of the few great artists, while at the same time each of them 
had numerous pupils and assistants who formed his school. Masac- 
cio was the first of these outstanding geniuses of the xv century, and 
in his frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in the Carmine in Florence he 
set the standard for wall painting in the Renaissance. In place of the 
scattered compositions of most of the historical works of the xrv 
century, he substituted a monumental style of composition, with the 
figures arranged definitely in three dimensions and relieved against a 
truly spacious landscape background. He also exhibited great 
power in the expression of solidity and weight in his figures, and 
showed fine dramatic feeling. Other Florentine fresco painters of the 
xv century followed in his footsteps in the matter of monumental 
composition, while they laid greater and greater emphasis on na- 
turalism in the handling of details of costume, in the treatment of 
architecture and landscape, and in the introduction of portraits of 
contemporary Florentines as attendant choruses, which finally, as 
in many of Ghirlandaio's frescoes, completely swamp the figure 
action of the subject itself. 

Although a more distinctly Gothic tradition survived well on into 
the xv century in the work of Fra Angelico and his pupil Benozzo, 
and in that of many of the minor workshops, naturalism, intense and 
severe in some instances, gentle and appealing in others, was the 



FLORENTINE PAINTING 



29 



keynote of the more significant and typical Florentine painting of the 
xv and xvi centuries. The painters of the xv century are conven- 
iently classified into two groups according to their tendencies in this 
respect: one a group of " intellectuals " or " scientists," including 
Uccello, Castagno, Domenico Veneziano, Antonio and Piero Pol- 
laiuolo, Baldovinetti, Verrocchio; the other including more popular 
painters, who appealed more to the average less scholarly taste. 
Filippo Lippi, with his follower Pesellino, is the chief representative 
of the latter group, to which also belong the host of painters in the 
large workshops like that of Pier Francesco Fiorentino, which turned 
out such a quantity of small Madonnas more or less in the win- 
some Filippo style. The scientists gave especial attention to the 
study of various branches of the science of painting — anatomy, 
perspective, foreshortening — and to experimenting with new tech- 
nical methods and media. Many of them were uncompromising 
realists, who, to avoid the commonplace, showed a conscious prefer- 
ence for a quaint ungainliness of action or ugliness of countenance. 
This may be seen in the engraving of the Battle of the Nudes by 
Antonio Pollaiuolo, an impression of which is in the Fogg Museum, 
and in the Portrait by the same artist at Fenway Court. The signif- 
icance of these masters, however, does not depend merely, or even 
principally, on their contributions to science, for they inherited the 
older traditions of workmanship and design, and they often achieved 
the greatest beauty of colour and composition as well as an amazing 
amount of vitality and life. 

Botticelli, although in training he belonged to the more popular 
school, for he was pupil of Filippo Lippi and master of Filippino 
Lippi and other " sentimentalists," may nevertheless more properly 
be included among the intellectuals and scholars. Some of his 
earlier work was in distinctly naturalistic vein, revealing Pollaiuolo's 
influence, but he soon developed a less realistic, more poetical style, 
which is shown in his treatment of both classical and religious sub- 
jects. In his mode of expression he was more abstract than most of 
his contemporaries, especially in his use of line. In general concep- 
tion all his earlier work was strongly influenced by Neoplatonism. 
Later on he came under Savonarola's spell, he abandoned classical 
subjects, and in the few paintings dating from the last years of his 
life revealed the strong influence of the Dominican friar's teachings. 



Paolo Uccello 

1397-1475 

Andrea del 

Castagno 

d. 1457 

Domenico 

Veneziano 

ah. 1400-1461 

Antonio 

Pollaiuolo 

1420-1498 

Piero 

Pollaiuolo 

I443-I496 

Alesso 

Baldovinetti 

1423-1499 

Andrea del 

Verrocchio 

1435-1488 

Filippo Lippi 

1406/0-146$ 

Francesco 

Pesellino 

1422-1457 

Pier 

Francesco 

Fiorentino 

active 

1474-1497 



Botticelli 
1444-1510 



3° 



FLORENTINE PAINTING 



Pier o di 

Cosimo 

1462-1521 



Fra 
Bartolommeo 

I475-I5I7 
Andrea del 
Sarto 
1486-1531 



Leonardo da 

Vinci 

1452-1519 



Michelangelo 
1475-1564 



In place of the sculpturesque conception, with its diffused light- 
ing, which prevailed in most of the Florentine painting in the xv 
century, a more distinctly pictorial effect, with more naturalistic 
lighting, was introduced by Piero di Cosimo and Leonardo da Vinci. 
The influence of Flemish painting in this is clear, especially in the 
work of Piero di Cosimo, who was very directly inspired by the light- 
ing scheme, as well as by the realistic types, employed by van der 
Goes in his altarpiece painted for Santa Maria Nuova about the 
year 1476. That the Florentine painters always naturally ap- 
proached painting from the sculptor's point of view, however, is 
shown in the strong contrasts of light and shadow developed by 
Leonardo and by Piero's followers, like Fra Bartolommeo and 
Andrea del Sarto, with the idea, first of all, of expressing more 
striking relief in the modelling of individual figures. 

In the later Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo 
were the leading masters. To a considerable extent their work may 
be regarded as the culmination in the development of Florentine art, 
summing up its principal tendencies. Leonardo, who was one of 
the first thinkers on many modern scientific problems, was the final 
representative of the naturalistic side of Florentine art, although it 
was in his drawings rather than in his paintings that he showed 
most clearly his kinship with the earlier scientists. In attempting 
to achieve refinement of expression, distinctness of individualization, 
and perfection of design, he lost in directness and spontaneity. Per- 
haps, if the time had been ripe, he would have been greatest as a 
landscape painter, for his heart seems most clearly revealed in his 
studies of rock, plant and tree forms, and in his drawings of extended 
mountain landscapes, and possibly it is the handling of light effect 
and of space which contributes most to make pictures like the Last 
Supper and the Virgin of the Rocks enduring works of art, ranking 
among the most typical, if not the greatest, expressions of Florentine 
genius. 

Michelangelo was the more genuinely imaginative artist with 
spontaneous vision. As opposed to the pictorial style of Leonardo, 
he clung more to the monumental traditions of fresco painting, and, 
although in some ways not so successfully as some of the earlier 
painters, he made decoration of wall or vault surface the controlling 
aim of his composition. Like the greatest of the earlier painters, his 



FLORENTINE PAINTING 



31 



" science " was rather a means toward the end of expression than a 
final interest in itself. In his prophets and sibyls and nude athletes 
on the Sistine ceiling he summed up in quite overwhelming fashion 
the artistic ideals of the Florentine figure painters in making the 
action of the figure expressive of the various moods or movements of 
the spirit, much as this is accomplished in musical composition by 
variations in rhythmical character. 

Michelangelo was the last of the great painters of Florence — the 
last of the long line of Florentine men of genius. His followers re- 
produced the muscles and contortions but little of the spirit of his 
figures. Leonardo also had no direct pupil of importance, but his 
influence is shown to a greater or less degree in the works of almost 
all the Florentine painters of the later Renaissance. Among the 
more important of these were Andrea del Sarto, Fra Bartolommeo, 
and Albertinelli, pupils of Piero di Cosimo; Bacchiacca, Franciabigio, 
and Pontormo, pupils of Andrea del Sarto; and the minor eclectic 
painters, Granacci, Raffaellino del Garbo, and Raffaelle dei Carli. 
Bronzino continued something of the older traditions through the 
third quarter of the xvi century. 

The importance of the Florentine school is, however, not to be 
measured solely by the works produced by the masters of Florence 
itself. Its influence on the other schools of Italy was of supreme 
moment in the development of all Italian painting of the xv century. 
In Umbria, for example, Piero dei Franceschi, one of the greatest xv 
century masters of Italy, was the pupil of the Florentine scientist 
Domenico Veneziano, and Piero's pupil, Signorelli, was also directly 
influenced by the Florentine naturalists. So to Fiorenzo, Perugino, 
Pintoricchio, and a little later, Raphael, Florence was the fountain 
head of inspiration. In a similar way Renaissance painting in north- 
ern Italy depended in its beginnings on that of Florence. Donatello's 
visit to Padua from 1443 to 1452, when he executed the equestrian 
statue of Gattamelata and the altar in the church of San Antonio, 
was of the greatest significance in conveying the influence of the 
Florentine intellectuals to that city, which was also visited by Paolo 
Uccello and Filippo Lippi. In the third quarter of the xv century 
Padua became the artistic centre for the north, and under Squar- 
cione and Mantegna dominated the art of all the northern cities, like 
Ferrara, Milan, Cremona, and even Venice. Later on in the xv cen- 



Albertinelli 

1474-1515 

Bacchiacca 

ah. 1494-1557 

Franciabigio 

1482-1525 

Pontormo 

1494-1556 

Granacci 

1477-1543 

Raffaellino del 

Garbo 

1466-1524(9) 

Raffaelle dei 

Carli 1470- 

after 1526 

Bronzino 

1 502 (,?)-! 572 



32 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

tury the direct influence of Florence was extended to Milan in the 
person of Leonardo, who took up his abode there in 1482. Practically 
all the Milanese painters succumbed to his more or less happy in- 
fluence; some became his direct assistants and imitators. Florence 
was indeed the mistress of Renaissance painting in Italy. 

Arthur Pope. 

The Florentine paintings in the Fogg Museum will be found under Nos. 
1-16 in this Catalogue. 

Among the artists mentioned in the foregoing sketch the following are rep- 
resented in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and in the collection of Mrs. John 
L. Gardner at Fenway Court. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts: Fea Angelico, Madonna and Saints. 

Fenway Court: Giotto, Presentation in the Temple; Daddi, Madonna and 
Child; Agnolo Gaddi, Annunciation; Fra Angelico, Death and Assumption 
of the Virgin; Attributed to Masaccio, Portrait of a Man; Pesellino, Labour 
and Time, Love and Death; Antonio Pollaiuolo, Portrait; Domenico Ven- 
eziano, Portrait; Botticelli, Madonna and Child, Death of Lucretia; 
Bacchiacca, Portrait; Bronzino, Portrait. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, B. Drawings of the Florentine painters. London, 1903. 2 v. 

Florentine painters of the Renaissance, 3d ed. New York, 1909. 
Conway, W. M. Early Tuscan art from the xn to the xv centuries. Lon- 
don, 1902. 
Siren, 0. Giottino. Leipsic, 1908. 

Giotto and some of his followers. English trans, by Frederic Schenck. 
Cambridge, 1917. 2 v. [Text and plates.] 
Sutda, W. Florentinische Maler um die Mitte des xrv. Jahrhunderts. Stras- 
bourg, 1905. (Zur Kunstgeschichte des Auslandes, 32.) 



BERNARDO DADDI (?) 

About 1280 to 1348 

Bernardo Daddi was an early Giottesque painter who has only 
within the past ten years received the attention which his work 
merits. He has been identified with the master who signed himself 
Bernardus de Florentia, by whom there are three signed and dated 
pictures: an altarpiece of 1328 painted for the church of Ognis- 
santi, Florence, and now in the Uffizi; a Madonna in the Florence 
Academy, the date of which is partly damaged, but which was 
probably 1333 or 1334, and a polyptych now in the collection of Sir 
Hubert Parry, Highnam Court, Gloucester, dating from 1348. Ber- 
nardo was the son of one Daddo di Simone, and was born late in the 
xni century, probably some time after 1280. He matriculated in the 
Arte de' Medici e Speziali about 13 17. About 1330 he painted the 
fresco over the San Giorgio gate, Florence, and the frescoes of the 
Martyrdom of Saint Stephen and of Saint Lawrence in Santa Croce. 
In 1335 he acquired the third share of a house on the Via Larga. Ac- 
cording to Vasari he was a pupil of Spinello Aretino and " labouring 
constantly in his native city adorned it with very beautiful works in 
painting. . . This master ultimately died laden with years ... in the 
year 1380." Daddi could not have been the pupil of Spinello as he 
was at least thirty years older than the Aretine painter, and he died 
before August 18, 1348; records show that on that date a guardian 
was appointed for his two minor sons. 

Although Daddi was born a Florentine and shows Florentine 
traits, the influence of Sienese masters, particularly of Ambrogio 
Lorenzetti, predominates in his work. He was the first of the Giot- 
teschi to combine with the naturalism of the Florentines the Sienese 
religious feeling and decorative sense. Through Daddi's pupil, 
Allegretto Nuzi, Sienese influence was carried into Umbria. Daddi 
painted large altarpieces and frescoes, but perhaps his most char- 
acteristic works are on a small scale. To this class of paintings belong 
a number of portable altarpieces; the Fogg Museum triptych is one 
of this group. 

Dr. Suida sees the work of two other artists in the paintings usually 
thought to be by Daddi. One of these painters he calls the Master of 
the Bigallo triptych, after the altarpiece in the Bigallo collection 



34 



FLORENTINE PAINTING 



painted in 1333. The other painter he calls the Master of the Cruci- 
fixions. Among the paintings which he attributes to this master are 
the Siena Academy triptych of 1336 and a large Crucifix in the Uffizi. 
As is often the case, at times it is difficult to distinguish between the 
work of the master and the best work of his assistants. 1 

Other paintings attributed to Daddi in this country are in the 
Jarves collection of Yale University; in the John G. Johnson collec- 
tion, Philadelphia; in the collections of Mrs. John L. Gardner, Fen- 
way Court, Boston; Henry Walters, Baltimore; Dan Fellows Piatt, 
Englewood, N. J.; Grenville L. Winthrop, Miss Belle da Costa 
Greene, New York; the New York Historical Society; and in the 
George and Florence Blumenthal collection, New York. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Frizzoni, G. La Galleria comunale di Prato. Rassegna d'arte. July, 1912. 
xii (7), 112-113. 

Fry, R. E. Pictures in the collection of Sir Hubert Parry, at Highnam Court, 
near Gloucester; i, Italian pictures of the fourteenth century. Bur- 
lington magazine. London, July, 1903. ii (5), 125-126. 

Gamba, C. Corrieri artistici; Firenze. Rassegna d'arte. July, 1904. iv (7), 109. 

Loeser, C. L'art italien au Musee des arts decoratifs. Gazette des beaux-arts. 
Paris, Nov., 1908. 3" per., xl (617), 407-408. 

Perkins, F. M. Un dipinto inedito di Bernardo Daddi. Rassegna d'arte. 
Milan, Nov., 1913. xiii (n), 189. 
Note su alcuni quadri del " Museo cristiano " nel Vaticano. Rassegna 
d'arte. Milan, July, 1906. vi (7), 107-108. 

Schmarsow, A. Maltres italiens a. la galerie d'Altenburg et dans la collection 
A. de Montor. Gazette des beaux-arts. Paris, Dec, 1898. 3 per., xx 
(498), 496-500. 

Schubring, P. Giottino. Jahrb. d. kon. preuss. Kunstsamml. Berlin, 1900. 
xxi (3), 163-164. 

Siren, 0. Alcune opere sconosciute di Bernardo Daddi. L'Arte. Rome, 
July-Aug., 1905. viii (4), 280-281. 
Dipinti del trecento in alcuni musei tedeschi di provincia. Rassegna 

d'arte. Milan, June, 1906. vi (6) 83. 
Giotto and some of his followers. Cambridge, 1917. i, 157-188, 270-272; 

ii, PI. 138-168. 
Trecento pictures in American collections. Burlington magazine. Lon- 
don, Dec, 1908. xiv (69), 188-193. 

Soulier, G. Une peinture de l'eglise San Biagio au Musee de Saint-Marc a 
Florence. Revue del' art ancienetmoderne. Paris, Feb., 191 2. xxxi(i79), 
109-116. 

1 See also M. E. Gilman. Art in America. Aug., 1018. 



BERNARDO DADDI (?) 35 

Suida, W. Einige Florentinische Maler aus der Zeit des Ubergangs vom 
Duecento ins Trecento; ii, Der Cacilienaltar der Uffizien. Jakrb. d. h'dn. 
preuss. Kunstsamml. Berlin, 1905. xxvi (2), 103-104. 
Studien zur Trecentomalerei; i, Bemerkungen iiber Bernardo Daddi. 

Repert. f. Kunstw. Berlin, 1904. xxvii (5), 385-389. 
Studien zur Trecentomalerei; iii, Nachtrag zu Bernardo Daddi. iv, Der 
Meister des Bigallo-Triptychons von 1333. v, Der Meister der Kreu- 
zigungen. Repert.f. Kunstw. Berlin, 1906. xxix (2), 108-117. 
Venture, A. Un quadro di Bernardo Daddi nella pinacoteca di Napoli. 

L'Arte. Rome, March-April, 1906. ix (2), 150. 
Vitzthum, G. In Thieme-Becker. Kiinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1913. viii, 
2S3- 2 S4- 
Bernardo Daddi. Inaugural dissertation. Leipsic, 1903. 

THE CRUCIFIXION, SAINTS, CHRIST IN THE GARDEN 
OFGETHSEMANE (TRIPTYCH) 

Tempera on panel. Central panel, H. 17! in. W. 10 in. (45.5 X 25.5 cm.) 
Left wing, H. 17! in. W. 5! in. (45.1 X 13 cm.) 
Right wing, H. 17! in. W. 4! in. (45.1 X 12.5 cm.) 

Central panel: The Crucifixion 

The colours are clean and harmonious. The Magdalene kneeling 
at the foot of the cross wears a vermilion mantle; the Madonna is 
dressed in dark blue. The hood of her mantle is lined with red. 
Saint John wears a blue robe and rose coloured mantle; the angels 
have neutral violet robes and wings. The cross is yellow brown; on 
the tablet at the head of the upright is a blurred inscription in gold 
letters on a red field which seems to read : Hie est Jesu Nazarenu Rex 
Judeorum. Above the tablet is the pelican with her young birds in 
a nest. The skull at the foot of the cross is yellow brown with blood 
flowing from it. The drapery of Christ is transparent with bands of 
golden embroidery and a thin line of gold around the edge. Blood 
flows from His wound. Throughout the central panel and the wings 
the figures have yellow hair, except Saint Peter and Saint Anthony 
the Abbot, who have gray hair and beards. 
Left wing: Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane 

The figure of Christ is clad in a rose coloured robe and a blue green 
mantle fined with brown. There are three different kinds of dark 
green foliage. The trees farthest over to the left are evidently orange 
trees with orange coloured fruit and some of the leaves are slightly 
tinged with this colour. 



3 6 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

Saint Peter and Saint Paul 

Saint Peter wears a blue tunic, a yellow mantle lined with red, and 
a white stole on which are black crosses. His keys are gold and his 
book neutral green with a gold design. Saint Paul wears a yellow 
brown robe and a rose coloured mantle lined with dark gray; his 
book is light blue with a gold design. Throughout the triptych the 
landscape and pavements are brownish green, except the pavement 
on which Saint Catherine and Saint Reparata are standing, which 
is yellow. The background is gold, with incised borders. 

Right wing: Saint Catherine and Saint Reparata 

Saint Catherine wears a robe of neutral orange red lined with gray 
fur and bordered with gold. Her book is red with a gold design. 
Saint Reparata wears a warm violet red gown and mantle lined with 
light blue and gray bordered with gold. Her cross is red. 

Saint James the Great and Saint Anthony the Abbot 

Saint James wears a pale neutral violet tunic and a green blue man- 
tle lined with warm red violet. On his staff is a red wallet. The white 
roll which he carries has the same significance as the books which the 
other apostles hold, namely the word or doctrine which they preach. 
The saint with him is probably Saint Anthony the Abbot, the founder 
of the hermit communities. He wears a black habit and carries a red 
book and brown palm. The palm, although usually a symbol of 
martyrdom, was occasionally given to saints who were not martyred 
but who were conspicuous for their victories over pain and tempta- 
tion. It is doubtless for his overcoming of temptation that Saint 
Anthony is here represented with the palm. 

A partially effaced inscription on the base of the frame reads: . . . 
cxxxim Mense Martii Espi (?), which indicates that the altarpiece 
was painted in 1334. 

The picture was bought by Charles C. Perkins in Italy some time 
between 1850 and i860, and was placed on exhibition in the Museum 
in 1917. In 1918 it was bought for the Museum with money given by 
the Society of Friends of the Fogg Art Museum with the help of the 
Prichard fund. 

The triptych was first attributed to Daddi by Dr. Osvald Siren. 
It repeats practically the same design and the same types found in 




I BERNARDO DADDI (?) 



BERNARDO DADDI (?) 37 

many other of the small triptychs or diptychs which originated in 
Daddi's workshop. Several examples of the Crucifixion show only 
three figures as sorrowful spectators of the scene, and represent the 
Magdalene, or, in the case of the Bigallo triptych, Saint Francis, 
kneeling at the foot of the cross. The Fogg Museum picture, however, 
is the only one in which the Madonna and Saint John are represented 
as seated. The individual figures of the Harvard altarpiece appear 
again in many other panels. All four of the male saints may be recog- 
nized among the figures surrounding the central panel of the Bigallo 
triptych; Saint Peter and Saint Paul of the left wing are found in 
almost the same attitudes on the left wing of the Meiningen altar- 
piece, and appear among the saints of the signed Madonna of the 
Florence Academy. These two saints are also represented on a large 
scale in the Madonna, Saints, and Angels of San Giusto a Signano. 
Saint Peter and Saint James are introduced again in the panel of 
the Sterbini collection, Rome. The Fogg Museum Crucifixion is 
neither so beautiful and luminous in colour nor so dramatic in feeling 
as the Crucifixion owned by Mr. Piatt, or the representation of the 
same scene belonging to Mr. and Mrs. Blumenthal. It is perhaps a 
school piece, but it is a delightful work and is more probably by the 
master himself. 

The pelican, the symbol of the redemption of the world through 
Christ's sacrifice, and the skull symbolizing Golgotha — according to 
one tradition it is the skull of Adam, who was supposed to have been 
buried here — are represented at the head and foot of the cross. 
These symbols are introduced into representations of the Crucifixion 
by masters of various schools, but it is somewhat unusual to find 
them both in the same picture. 

Under the life of the artist on page 33, mention was made of the 
Arte de' Medici e Speziali, the Guild of Doctors and Apothecaries. In 
Italy, as in the northern countries of Europe, no man was allowed to 
exercise a trade in a town unless he belonged to the guild of that 
trade. An interesting account of the guilds will be found in Edg- 
cumbe Staley's Guilds of Florence. About 1297 the painters of 
Florence, as they were " beholden for their supplies of pigments to the 
apothecaries and their agents in foreign lands," placed themselves 
under the banner of the Guild of Doctors and Apothecaries — L'Arte 



38 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

de' Medici e Speziali — one of the Greater Guilds. In 1339 L'Arte 
de' Pittori became a duly constituted corporation, but still dependent 
upon the Medici e Speziali. In 1349 a further development took 
place and the Compagnia e Fraternita di San Luca was formed, under 
the special protection of the Virgin Mary, Saint John the Baptist, 
Saint Zenobius, and Saint Reparata. The alternative title, La 
Confraternita de' Pittori was added, and the members continued to 
acknowledge their dependence on the Guild of Doctors and Apothe- 
caries. The Confraternity reckoned its members not only from 
makers of pictures, frescoes, and designs, but enrolled also decorators 
of stone and wood, metal, glass, stucco, and leather. It has been 
maintained that the date of the founding of the Compagnia di San 
Luca was 1338-1339. If this is so, the tradition that Daddi was one 
of the founders and later held a consulship in this body is doubtless 
true. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Gilman, M. E. A triptych by Bernardo Daddi. Art in America. New York, 
Aug., 1918. vi (5), 210-214, Reproduction. 



MENTIONED 
Sir£n. Giotto and some of his followers, i, 270. 



SCHOOL OF ORCAGNA 

ANDREA DI CIONE, called ORCAGNA, 1308 (?)-i368 
NARDO DI CIONE, active from 1343 to 1365 
JACOPO DI CIONE, active from 1360 to 1394 

A certain Florentine named Cione had four sons who attained more 
or less distinction in art. Andrea di Cione, commonly known as 
Orcagna, was far the ablest. He was ranked as the greatest figure in 
Florentine art next to Giotto in the xrv century. Like many of the 
most distinguished Florentine painters, he was also a sculptor and 
architect. Two of his brothers, Nardo and Jacopo, were painters 
and assisted Andrea in his work. Nardo was enrolled in the Arte de' 
Medici e Speziali in 1345, in the Arte de' Maestri di Pietra e Legname 
in 1355, and in the Compagnia de' Pittori in 1358. In 1363 he was 
given the commission for the paintings of the vault of the Oratorio 
del Bigallo, in Florence. Jacopo was enrolled as an independent 
master in the Arte de' Medici e Speziali in 1369, the year after Or- 
cagna's death. The works that he executed alone after 1369 dete- 
riorated in quality. One of his best works is the Saint Matthew in 
the Uffizi, which he finished from Orcagna's design in 1368, at about 
the time of his brother's death. 

Orcagna also had a large number of followers, among whom was 
Niccold di Pietro Gerini. Gerini was enrolled in the Compagnia di 
San Luca of Florence in 1368; at various times he worked with 
Agnolo Gaddi, Spinello Aretino, and Jacopo di Cione. 

Dr. Siren, in his recent publications, has attributed a number of 
works in various collections in this country to Jacopo di Cione and his 
brothers. A discussion of these attributions is beyond the compass of 
this Catalogue. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Chiappelli, A. Antica tavoletta del secolo xrv rinvenuta in Santa Maria 

Novella. L'Arte. Rome, March-April, 1906. ix (2), 146-150. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. New history of painting in Italy. London, 1864. 

i, 425-454- 
New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward Hutton. New York, 

1908. i, 355-379- 
History of painting in Italy; ed. by Langton Douglas. New York, 1903. 

ii, 204-226. 



4 o FLORENTINE PAINTING 

Siren, 0. Catalogue of the Jarves collection, Yale University. New Haven, 
1916. 39-46. 
Giottino. Leipsic, 1908. 65-81, 88-90, 99-102. 
Giotto and some of his followers. Cambridge, 1917. i, 214-262; ii, PI. 

185-220. 
Pictures in America by Bernardo Daddi, Taddeo Gaddi, Andrea Orcagna, 
and his brothers. Art in America. New York, June, Aug., 1914. ii, 
(4, 5), 268-275, 3 2 5-336. 
Trecento pictures in American collections. Burlington magazine. Lon- 
don, Dec, 1908. xiv (69), 193-194. 
Suida, W. Florentinische Maler um die Mitte des xrv. Jahrhunderts. Stras- 

burg, 1905. 4-27, 49. 
Venttibi, A. Storia dell' arte italiana. Milan, 1907. v, 759-776, 889. 

SCENES FROM THE LIFE OF CHRIST 

Tempera on panel, arched top. H. 32! in. W. 2ifin. (82.5 X 54.3 cm.) 

The Annunciation and Nativity, with a medallion of the Cruci- 
fixion above, occupy the upper part of the panel; below is the En- 
tombment. With the exception of the scene of the Nativity and a 
portion of the Annunciation, the background of the panel is fiat gold. 

The general effect of this picture is astonishingly rich and beautiful 
owing to the brilliancy of the colours. A wonderful orange red, a 
deeper red, and a pale rose red recur through the picture as do masses 
of rich blue and dark bluish black. There are also fields of yellow, 
yellow orange, and various neutral greens and violets. 

In the left arch is the Annunciation with the Dove descending from 
God the Father, Who is seen in the sky. Mary is clad in a red robe 
with a dark blue mantle. Her garments are the same in all four of the 
scenes except that in this first one there is a band around her head 
and the mantle hangs from her shoulders. In the Nativity her 
mantle reaches up over her head, but still shows a large part of her 
hair; and in the more tragic scenes of the Crucifixion and the En- 
tombment the mantle is drawn over her forehead so that her hair does 
not show at all. Rose red appears in the tunic of God the Father and 
the mantle of Gabriel in the Annunciation, and in the mantle of 
Saint John in the Crucifixion. A fine quality of blue, probably ultra- 
marine, occurs in the mantle of God the Father, and in the tunics of 
Gabriel and John. Vermilion red occurs in the hanging behind the 
Virgin in the Annunciation; and in the Nativity, in the wall behind 
the Madonna, in the mantle over the swaddling clothes of the Infant 




2 SCHOOL OF ORCAGNA 



SCHOOL OF ORCAGNA 41 

Christ, and in the tunic of Saint Joseph. Saint Joseph's neutral vi olet 
mantle goes up to a point at his shoulder. This same colour again 
appears in pyramidal form in the head of the ass and in the farther 
mountain to the right. The shepherd is clad in brown. The manger, 
the roof over it, and the ox are orange yellow. 

In the Entombment the three Marys and six apostles are present, 
and two donors on a much smaller scale, one dressed in blue and one 
in brilliant vermilion, are kneeling near the head of Christ. The 
apostles and the Marys are clad in a variety of gorgeous blues and 
reds with occasional yellows, greens, and grays. The kneeling figure 
in front of the sarcophagus in the robe of flaming vermilion orange is 
perhaps the finest of all. 

One small point is of interest to those who study these pictures 
from the technical side. The apostle who is bending over in a 
cramped position and clasping the feet of Christ was perhaps intro- 
duced into the composition as an afterthought. In any case he was 
probably not included in the original design. His upper garment was 
painted with a transparent red lake. Originally, doubtless, there was 
body enough to it to hide what was underneath, but something must 
have faded or been cleaned off, and now we can see through this lake 
glaze the line of the end of the sarcophagus and the robe of the 
apostle standing behind. This is a very unusual feature in the pic- 
ture, for generally there was a perfectly solid structure under each 
figure. 

The picture was sold in the Du Cluzel d' Oloron sale in 1882 (Cata- 
logue, No. 28, attributed to Giotto). It belonged at one time to the 
late Jean Dollfus, and was sold with the rest of his collection in 
191 2 (Catalogue, No. 63, attributed to Tuscan school, beginning of 
the xv century) . It was placed on permanent exhibition in the Fogg 
Museum in 1 913. 

The painting was published in the Bulletin of the Museum of Fine 
Arts, of Boston, August, 1913, and attributed to Agnolo Gaddi. 
Since then Dr. Osvald Siren has published it as a picture probably 
executed before 1368 by Jacopo di Cione when in his brother 
Andrea's workshop. He remarks on the resemblance of the En- 
tombment scene at the bottom of the panel to Orcagna's marble 
relief of the same subject in the church of Or San Michele at Florence. 
Other critics feel that there is not sufficient evidence definitely to 



42 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

attribute the picture to Jacopo di Cione. Niccold di Pietro Gerini 
has been suggested as the possible artist. His work combines the ele- 
ments which would account for the attributions to the Cione brothers 
and to Agnolo Gaddi. Others think that the picture might more 
safely be called School of Nardo di Cione. The illustration gives an 
idea of the delicacy of the workmanship but not of the beauty of the 
colour. 

It has already been noted that the donor and his wife are repre- 
sented kneeling at the head of the sarcophagus of Christ. They are 
on a smaller scale than the other figures and their faces are in profile. 

The custom of introducing the donor into a religious composition 
was an old one. It appears frequently in the mosaics. In the vi cen- 
tury mosaic of the apse of San Vitale, Ravenna, the bishop Ecclesius 
is represented offering a model of the church. He is in front view, on 
the same scale as the other figures, and standing beside them. At 
the beginning of the xin century the custom was introduced of repre- 
senting the donor kneeling. A xin century mosaic in the apse of 
San Giovanni in Laterano shows a diminutive kneeling figure of 
Pope Nicolas rv as donor. In the Arena Chapel at Padua Giotto 
portrayed the donor, Enrico Scrovegno, kneeling and presenting to 
the Madonna a model of the chapel. His figure is on the same scale 
as the others in the composition. 

The early attempts at portraiture appear to be often in front face. 
The picture of Saint Francis preserved at Subiaco, said to be a xn 
century contemporary portrait, and the so-called portrait of Cimabue 
in the Spanish Chapel of Santa Maria Novella in Florence are ex- 
amples of this. In like manner the early Byzantine Madonnas stare 
straight out of the panels with their round eyes. The xrv century 
painters generally showed their Madonnas in three-quarters view, 
and Giotto and his successors placed the various figures in their com- 
positions at any angle that pleased them; but they developed the 
habit of painting portraits in profile, probably because that was the 
easiest way to draw actually from life. Giotto painted Enrico 
Scrovegno in profile. Two portraits of Dante, one the famous fresco 
attributed to Giotto, and the other by Orcagna or his brother in 
Santa Maria Novella, are both in profile; and so is the well-known 
Guidoriccio Fogliani by Simone Martini in the Palazzo Pubblico at 



SCHOOL OF ORCAGNA 43 

Siena. This custom was continued even into the xv century, though 
Masaccio and Fra Angelico both, on occasions, varied from this rule. 

The series of female portraits attributed to Domenico Veneziano, 
Paolo Uccello, Pollaiuolo, and Pier dei'Franceschi are in profile. Fra 
Filippo Lippi, Benozzo Gozzoli, Botticelli, and the later men de- 
veloped a greater freedom, and painted portraits from any position 
that suited them. 

The Flemish masters generally represented their sitters in three- 
quarters view. This is illustrated in the diptych attributed to van 
der Weyden and David (No. 60). 

In general, portraits of donors occur rarely in xrv century paint- 
ings; in the xv century they appear more often, and usually are on a 
smaller scale than are the other figures, to express the idea of the 
donor's humility. If married, the donor was accompanied by his 
wife and children. The central panel of the triptych by Niccolo da 
Foligno in this Gallery (No. 29) gives an excellent example of a xv 
century donor. He is represented in profile and on a small scale. In 
the xvi century painting by Leandro Bassano (No. 50), however, the 
portly and sophisticated Venetian nobleman is fully as large as the 
figure of Christ. The xvi century donor in fact was apt to be repre- 
sented on the same scale as the other figures in the picture, and in 
profile or three-quarters view as well as full face. 

EXHIBITED 

Exposition des orphelins d' Alsace-Lorraine, Louvre, 1885. Catalogue. No. 228. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 35, Reproduction. 
Dollfus, J. Catalogue des tableaux anciens des ecoles primitives et de la 

renaissance, dependant des collections de M. Jean Dollfus. Paris, 

1912. 75, No. 63, Reproduction (PI. 63). 
Siren. Art in America. June, 1914. 274-275; Aug., 1914. 330, Reproduction. 
Giotto and some of his followers, i, 230, 257, 277, Reproduction (ii, PI. 215). 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 
(Attributed to Agnolo Gaddi); April-June, 1915. 2d ser., xix (2), 207. 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 13. 
Burlington magazine. London, Nov., 1914. xxvi (140), 90. 
Du Cluzel d'Oloron sale catalogue, 1882. No. 28. 
Nation. March 18, 1915. 314. 



SPINELLO ARETINO 
1333 W-1410 

Spinello di Luca Spinelli, commonly called Spinello Aretino, was 
one of the better known Giottesque masters. He was probably born 
at Arezzo in 1333, and was trained by Jacopo da Casentino, a feeble, 
local Giottesque artist. Spinello was fortunate in coming under the 
influence of the work of Giotto, and in possessing a certain native 
vigour and force. Later in life he received an added stimulus from the 
Sienese masters. His principal frescoes in a general way coincide 
with the three periods into which his mature life may be divided: 

1st. Giottesque, 1380-1390. Frescoes at San Miniato, Florence. 
2nd. Sienese, 1390-1392. Frescoes in the Campo Santo, Pisa. 
3rd. Sienese, 1404-1410. Frescoes in the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena. 

Unfortunately, his followers, Parri Spinelli and the Bicci, were weak 
men; so that Spinello was the one bright spot in a feeble line. Had 
he been a link in an important chain, he would hold a higher place in 
the history of art. He did not die in 1400 of fright at his own 
picture of Lucifer, as Vasari picturesquely states, but went to Siena 
to labour there, and died probably in Arezzo in 1410. Venturi 
says: " Spinello Aretino represents for the last time in Tuscany the 
two great currents that began with Giotto and Duccio." Vitzthum 
says that Spinello was profoundly influenced by Orcagna and that 
he thus inherited the tradition of Andrea Pisano. 

Spinello is represented in this country by a processional banner in 
the Metropolitan Museum; a Crucifixion in the John G. Johnson 
collection, Philadelphia; a painting formerly belonging to Captain 
Horace Morison, Boston, and now in the collection of Martin A. 
Ryerson, Chicago; and by the Fogg Museum panels. In the Rhode 
Island School of Design also there is a painting attributed to Spinello, 
representing Saint Anthony the Abbot. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Mather, F. J., Jr. A processional banner by Spinello Aretino. Bulletin of the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, Feb., 1914. ix (2), 43-46. 

Siren, 0. Giottino. Leipsic, 1908. 81-84, 94~95- 

Supino, I. B. II Camposanto di Pisa. Florence, 1896. 149-159. 

Vitzthum, G. Un cido di affreschi di Spinello Aretino, perduto. L'Arte. 
Rome, May-June, 1906. ix (3), 199-203. 



■4 ;■* 




3 SPINELLO ARETINO 



SPINELLO ARETINO 45 

MADONNA ENTHRONED WITH ANGELS 

Tempera on panel. H. 765 in. W. 44! in. (195.3 X 113 cm.) Frame, 
modern. 

The Madonna wears a red gown and a dark blue mantle with a 
white lining bordered with a band of incised gold. In her halo is the 
inscription: Ave Maria Gratia Plena. Behind her is a gorgeous 
fabric of vermilion and gold. The lower part of the Christ Child is 
wrapped in a yellow garment with a lining of vermilion. The attend- 
ant angels at the top are clothed in garments of varying shades of 
yellow and pink, the two foremost ones having grayish green mantles 
covered with a golden starlike design, and lined with red. A similar 
scheme of green and red is used in the robes of the four angels kneel- 
ing in front of the Madonna's throne. On the right side, the one in 
front is in rose pink and the one behind in green. On the left side, the 
one in front is in yellow green; the other is dressed in a robe which is 
yellow in the light, and vermilion in the shadow. In the foreground 
is a rich design of olive green on a gold field. The background is 
gold; the decorative effect of the whole picture is sumptuous and 
imposing. 

The painting was at one time in the collection of the Cavaliere 
Giuseppe Toscanelli, which was sold in Florence in 1883. It was 
No. 52 in the catalogue of that collection and was attributed to Don 
Lorenzo Monaco. The catalogue states that the painting was found 
stored in the church of San Michele in Borgo, at Pisa. Later it ap- 
peared in the collection of C. Fairfax Murray in London, who at- 
tributed it to Spinello. It came to the Fogg Museum in 1905. 

There has been a misunderstanding about the identity of this paint- 
ing. In 1908 Dr. Osvald Sir6n, in his book on Giottino, ventured the 
surmise that it was the missing central panel of the Monte Oliveto 
altarpiece by Spinello, described by Vasari. Several writers have 
since accepted this theory and it has been stated as a fact in a num- 
ber of publications. It was not until the right wing of this altarpiece 
(No. 4B in this Catalogue) was seen beside the Madonna that this 
hypothesis was seriously doubted here and since then the real central 
panel has been acquired by the Museum (see No. 4A). So we now 
believe the Fogg Museum painting No. 3 to be an undated but 
stately Madonna by Spinello. 



46 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 22-24, Reproduction. 
Beeck. Rassegna d'arte. Oct., 1909. 170, Reproduction. 
Perkins. Boston evening transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1905. v, 162. 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1910. 2d ser., xiv (1), 137. 

Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 14- 

Bernath. New York und Boston. 68. 

Bibliografia. L'Arte. Rome, Nov.-Dec, 1909. xii (6), 480, No. 204. 

Borenius, T. A little known collection at Oxford. Burlington magazine. 

London, April, 1915. xxvii (145), 22. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 1911. 54, 55. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. March, 1916. 422. 
Khvoshinsky, B., and Salmi, M. I pittori toscani dal xiii al xvi secolo. 

Rome, 1914. ii, 52. 
Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. n, 1908. viii, 

38, No. 8 (School of AgnoloGaddi),and same in Deutsche Liter aturzeitung. 

Feb. 27, 1909. 551, No. 8. 
London. National Gallery. Catalogue, 1913. p. 666. 
Mather. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Feb., 1914. 44. 
Nation. March 18, 1915. 314. 

New England magazine. Aug., 1905. 702, Reproduction (708). 
Rankin. Notes on three collections of old masters. 17, No. 13. 
Reinach. Repertoire de peintures. 1905. i, 259, Reproduction. 
Siren. Giottino. 83, 94. 

Some early Italian paintings in the Museum collection. Museum of Fine 

Arts bulletin. Boston, April, 1916. xiv (82), 12. 
Trecento pictures in American collections. Burlington magazine. London, 

Dec, 1908. xiv (69), 194. 
ToscANELLi, G. Catalogue de tableaux, meubles, et objets d'art formant la 

galerie de M. le Chev. Toscanelli. Florence, 1883. 14, No. 52, Re- 
production (Album PI. vii). 

4A-D MONTE OLIVETO ALTARPIECE (PANELS OF) 

A Central Panel: Madonna Enthroned with Angels 

B Right Wing: Saint Benedict and Saint Lucilla 

C Predella of Right Wing: Death of Saint Benedict. — 

Saint Augustine. — Martyrdom of Saint Lucilla 
D Saint 

4A Central panel: Madonna Enthroned with Angels 

Tempera on panel, arched top. H. 66f in. W. 35 in. (169.5 X 88.8 cm.) 
Frame made in imitation of the frame of 4B which is the original. 




'< * ' » 



■ ■ ■ I 



4A SPINELLO ARETINO 




4 b SPINELLO ARETINO 



SPINELLO ARETINO 47 

The Madonna's gown is vermilion decorated with gold ; her mantle 
is dark blue, bordered with a solid band of incised gold. Her halo is 
embossed in very high relief with the letters: Ave Maria Gratia 
Plena Domi. The Child's dress is of a bluish gray, richly em- 
broidered with gold; His mantle is a neutral rose, embroidered and 
bordered with gold; His halo is embossed in high relief with the 
words: Filius Dei Su. The morse or clasp which fastens the Ma- 
donna's mantle, the halos of Madonna and Child, and the gold band 
around the neck of the Child's dress are unusual in that they are 
decorated with jewels, or, to be more exact, coloured glass, which 
may have been in the panel originally, or may have been substituted 
later for jewels. Cennino Cennini refers to this practice of affixing 
precious stones or glass to pictures. The bird is brown with red 
markings around its eye. The drapery of the throne has suffered, and 
is now of a golden tone. It was probably originally of red and gold. 
The angels wear robes of varying shades of neutral blue, green, and 
red, trimmed with bands of gold. Their wings are of a variety of 
neutral tones incised with golden lines. They, like the Madonna and 
Child, have yellow hair, and each one wears a diadem of red. Though 
the top part of the picture has suffered, the two angels kneeling at the 
Madonna's feet are fortunately both well preserved. The one on the 
left wears a light blue robe; the one on the right is clad in rose pink. 
The background is gold. At the base of the throne is the inscription : 
Spinellus de Aretio picsit. 

4B Right wing: Saint Benedict and Saint Lucilla 

Tempera on panel. H. 74! in. W. 36! in. (189.5 X 92 cm.) Visible 
surface, H. 55 in. (139.7 cm 

The right wing of this altarpiece contains Saint Benedict and Saint 
Lucilla. Saint Lucilla was the daughter of Saint Nemesius, who, 
with Saint John the Baptist, appears in the left wing of the altarpiece 
now in the Budapest Gallery. 

Saint Benedict is dressed in the white habit of the reformed Bene- 
dictine order of the Olivetans, and a red cope decorated with a design 
in gold, lined with green. In his halo is the inscription in unusually 
high relief : Santus Benedictus Abas. In his right hand he holds a 
crosier and in his left a book with a blue cover and a gold design. 
Saint Lucilla wears a yellow green gown and a rose violet mantle, both 



48 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

decorated with a gold figured design. The mantle is lined with blue 
and has a border of a curiously wrought red and blue design with gold 
figures. Her mantle and that of Saint Benedict have clasps, which at 
one time may have contained real jewels, but now contain glass, sub- 
stituted perhaps by a less pious hand. Her halo is embossed in high 
relief with the words: Santa Lucilla Virgo Et. In her right hand 
is a sword and in her left is her decapitated head, similar in features 
to her living head, but of the pallid colour of death. The saints stand 
on a field of blue and gold. In the quatrefoil is Daniel in a blue robe 
and a mantle that is a rose pink on his right shoulder and a darker 
rose as it falls over his left shoulder; the lining is green. In his right 
hand is a pen and in his left hand a scroll, which reads: Daniel Cum 
Venerit Santus Santorum. 

The panel is still in the original frame, and at the bottom is the 
inscription in raised gilt gesso partly damaged: Gabriellus Saraceni 
de Senis Auravit mccclxxxv (?) ; the signature to which Vasari 
refers, but which differs slightly from the wording which he gives. 
The background is gold. 

4C Predella which belongs under 4B 

Tempera on panel. 
Saint Benedict panel, H. 13^ in. W. 13& in. (35.4 X 34.5 cm.) 
Saint Lucilla panel, H. 13H in. W. 12H in. (354 X 32.8 cm.) 
Saint Augustine panel, H. i2§ in. W. 2,ts in- (32.3 X 7.8 cm.) 

In the left-hand side is the Death of Saint Benedict. Several 
monks dressed in white are chanting the burial service beside the 
bier of the saint. The one at the head appears to be reading the serv- 
ice from a red book by the light of a candle, the flame of which 
flares up against the gold background. He wears a white stole on 
which are black crosses. The next monk but one holds what may be 
a vessel containing holy water, and an aspergillum, or perhaps a mal- 
let with which to tap the forehead of the dead saint. The next monk 
carries a cross, the next but one is an old man leaning on his staff, and 
two of the brothers are kneeling, one clasping the saint's hand and the 
other his feet. The bier is a primitive structure covered with a red 
cloth ornamented with gold, which stands out among the prevailing 
tones of white as the brightest spot of colour in the picture. The 
ground is a violet red tone. 




4C SPINELLO ARETINO 




4D SPINELLO ARETINO 



SPINELLO ARETINO 49 

Underthe picture of Saint Lucilla is a representation of her martyr- 
dom. She kneels on the ground dressed in a garment of pale yellow 
green about the same colour as her gown in the picture above. The 
executioner, brutally clutching her by her hair, is cutting her head 
off; he wears a garment probably originally red, but the colour, 
except in the shadows, has faded or been removed in the process of 
cleaning. Just above him is a man in a blue robe and cape with a 
pale violet red mantle. Behind him stands a man in yellow armour 
and a blue mantle, who appears to be goading on the executioner; 
and on the right are two soldiers. One dressed in green and yellow 
bears a large shield; the other, in neutral violet red, is holding the 
garment of a saint clad in red — Saint Nemesius the father of Saint 
Lucilla, who was beheaded after her, and who stands with bowed 
head watching the scene. The ground is neutral yellow green. 

In a niche separating the Death of Saint Benedict from the Mar- 
tyrdom of Saint Lucilla is Saint Augustine, in the black habit of an 
Augustinian friar over which is a faded rose red cope. He wears his 
bishop's mitre and carries a crosier and book. The background 
throughout the panel is gold. 

In the panel representing the Death of Saint Benedict mention was 
made of a small instrument in the hands of one of the monks which 
might be either an aspergillum, a metallic instrument or brush used 
for sprinkling holy water, or a mallet with which to tap the forehead 
of the dead saint. There are other Italian xrv century pictures, 
representing the Dormition of the Madonna, which show one of the 
figures holding what seems to be a small mallet. The artist probably 
had in mind the custom practised on the death of a pope, in which the 
cardinal chamberlain, standing by the body, called three times the 
baptismal name of the dead man and tapped three times on his 
forehead with a silver mallet or hammer. 

It has already been stated that Saint Augustine is wearing a cope 
and mitre and carrying his crosier. A cope is a large mantle of silk 
or other material, usually semicircular in shape, and fastened in the 
front at the height of the shoulders by a clasp or piece of material, 
called a morse. Along the straight edge is a border or orphrey, often 
richly embroidered. The round edge is often fringed. The cope has 
never been a distinctively clerical vestment. A mitre is a head-dress 



50 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

worn by bishops, abbots, and in certain cases by other distinguished 
ecclesiastics. The mitre came to be richly ornamented and jewelled, 
and thus these varieties became convenient: the Mitra pretiosa, 
jewelled; the Mitra aurifrigiata, without jewels, used at times of less 
solemnity; and the Mitra simplex, of plain linen, used on ordinary 
days and on penitential occasions. A crosier is the pastoral staff 
given to the bishop at his consecration as the symbol of the authority 
with which he rules his flock. The crosier is given to abbots also at 
their blessing. The cope, mitre, and crosier may also be seen in the 
picture by Benvenuto di Giovanni in this Gallery (No. 26) and in the 
Flemish diptych (No. 6ob). This picture (No. 6ob) shows the 
lappets or small decorative folds attached to the mitre. 

4D Saint 

Tempera on panel. H. i2f in. W. 337 in- (3 2 -3 X 7.8 cm.) 

The figure of a saint as yet unidentified is clad in a neutral orange 
tunic and a red violet mantle, with its orange lining showing around 
his neck. In his hand is a red book. This saint and his companion 
figures, Saints Philip and James and another apostle, probably 
belonged in niches between the predelle on the base. 

4A, 4B, 4c, and 4d are all parts of a well-known altarpiece by 
Spinello Aretino which has a curious and picturesque history. Vasari 
describes it as follows, in his life of Spinello Aretino: " While these 
works were proceeding, Don Jacopo d'Arezzo was made general of 
the Confraternity of Monte Oliveto, which appointment he received 
nineteen years after he had caused Spinello to execute the different 
paintings in Florence and Arezzo, to which we have before alluded. 
And as Don Jacopo, after the manner of his predecessors, lived for 
the most part at Monte Oliveto di Chiusuri, that being the principal 
seat of the order and the most important monastery within the terri- 
tory of Siena, he conceived the wish to have a very beautiful picture 
executed for that place; wherefore, having sent for Spinello, by 
whom Don Jacopo had formerly found that he was admirably served, 
the general caused him to paint a picture in distemper, for the prin- 
cipal chapel, and in this the master depicted an immense number of 
figures of middle size, very judiciously executed, and on a ground of 
gold. The picture was surrounded by a rich ornament or framework 
in mezzo-rilievo, carved in wood by the Florentine, Simone Cini, and 



SPINELLO ARETINO 5 1 

further adorned with mouldings in stucco, tempered with a rather 
stiff glue, and treated in such a manner that the whole succeeded 
perfectly, and was very beautiful. It was afterwards gilt all over 
with gold by Gabriello Saracini, and this same Gabriel inscribed the 
three names of the artists at the foot of the picture in the following 
manner: ' Simone Cini Florentino fece l'intaglio, Gabriello Saracini 
la messe d'oro, e Spinello di Luca d'Arezzo la dipinse l'anno 1385.' 
This work being completed, Spinello returned to Arezzo, having 
received great kindness from the general and his monks, and being 
moreover very largely rewarded." 

The central panel of the altarpiece disappeared, and as before 
stated, Dr. Osvald Siren surmised that No. 3 in this Catalogue was 
this missing panel. He published it as such in Giottino (p. 94) , and in 
his article on Trecento Pictures in American Collections, in the Bur- 
lington magazine for December, 1908. This statement was accepted 
as a plausible theory and was repeated in the Burlington magazine 
for April, 1915, and in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts Bulletin 
for June, 1909. In 1915, through the courtesy of Charles F. Bell, 
Director of the Ashmolean Museum, of Oxford, word was received at 
the Fogg Art Museum that the right wing of the altarpiece was to be 
sold at auction in London, and the picture was purchased for the 
Museum. When it arrived and was placed beside the large Madonna 
(No. 3. See page 45) it was found that they did not belong together, 
as the scale, the colour scheme, and the technique were different. 
As the result of further inquiry by the Fogg Museum, Captain 
Langton Douglas brought to light the fact that the real central 
panel of the altarpiece was in the hands of Mrs. Harry Quilter of 
London. This panel had been bought by Mr. Quilter at the sale of 
the collection of Howel Wills, of Florence, at Christie's, February 
17, 1894. Henry Goldman, of New York, bought the picture from 
Mrs. Quilter and presented it to the Fogg Museum in 191 7. When 
the panel came to the Museum and was seen beside the right wing, it 
at once became clear that this was indeed the central panel of the 
Monte Oliveto altarpiece. Moreover, it answers better than did the 
larger panel already in the Museum to Vasari's description of the 
picture, in which he speaks of the " immense number of figures of 
middle size." 



s 2 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

The picture fortunately crossed the ocean safely on the steamship 
Saint Paul on her last voyage from England before the entrance of the 
United States into the war, arriving in New York February 5, 191 7. 

The gable that belongs above it representing the Coronation of the 
Madonna, and the predella that belongs under it representing her 
death, are now in the Gallery of Siena (Catalogue, 1903. Nos. 119, 
125). The predella was removed in 1810 from Monte Oliveto to 
Siena. 

The right and left wings with their accompanying predelle were 
transported to a small chapel at Rapolano in the territory of Siena 
before the convent was suppressed. This chapel was later used as a 
hayloft, "where they were shamefully abandoned for many years." 
Here they were discovered in 1840. Johann Anton Ramboux, Di- 
rector of the Gallery at Cologne, bought them two years later for 
his collection. This collection was placed on exhibition in the 
Cologne Gallery in 1862. The owner died in 1866, and on May 23, 
1867, the collection was dispersed at auction. The left wing, repre- 
senting Saint Nemesius and Saint John the Baptist, with the accom- 
panying predella showing the martyrdom of each of these saints, 
and Isaiah in the gable, is now in the Gallery at Budapest (Catalogue, 
1 913. No. 21). The right wing and its predella found their way 
into the collection of Thomas W. Jackson, Fellow of Worcester Col- 
lege, Oxford, who died in 1 914. At the auction sale of his pictures 
in London, May 14, 191 5, these were bought by the Friends of the 
Fogg, Museum and were presented to Harvard. They are now 
numbers 4B and 4c. 

Finally there are four small figures of saints, which apparently 
belonged somewhere in the altarpiece, probably on the base between 
the different predelle. These also were in the Ramboux collection. 
One of them (4D) was bought by the Fogg Museum with the right 
wing at the Jackson sale. Dr. Tancred Borenius in his article on 
the Jackson collection says that the companion figures, namely Saint 
Philip, Saint James, and another apostle, have disappeared, although 
Dr. Siren in his Giottino (p. 95) and Captain Langton Douglas in his 
edition of Crowe and Cavalcaselle (ii, p. 258, note 3) state that two 
of these figures are in the Gallery at Cologne. Edward Hutton in 
his edition of Crowe and Cavalcaselle (i, p. 426, note 3) states that 
a saint in monkish dress, No. 87 in the Ramboux sale catalogue, is 




SPINELLO ARETINO. MONTE OLIVETO ALTARPIECE (RECONSTRUCTION) 



SPINELLO ARETINO 53 

now in the Perth Gallery. There is, however, some confusion here, as 
this is the small saint now in the Fogg Museum (4D) which was 
bought at the Jackson sale. 

Mr. F. Mason Perkins has published the altarpiece with a recon- 
struction in Rassegna d' Arte for January-February, 1918. 

EXHIBITED 
Central panel, Madonna Enthroned, Dudley Gallery, 1895. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Borenius, T. A little known collection at Oxford. Burlington magazine. 

London, April, 1915. xxvii (145), 22-27, Reproductions. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. New history of painting in Italy. 1864. ii, 11-12. 
History of painting in Italy; ed. by Langton Douglas. 1903. ii, 258, 

and " Corrigenda and addenda " (entry under 258, note 4). 
New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward Hutton. 1908. i, 426. 
Jackson, T. W. Catalogue of pictures by old masters, the property of Thomas 
Watson Jackson, Esq., which will be sold by Messrs. Christie, Manson, 
and Woods, May 14, 1915. 9-10, Nos. 37-39. 
Perkins, F. M. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, Jan.-Feb., 1918. Reproductions. 
Vasari. Le Monnier. 1846. ii, 193-194. 
Tr. by Mrs. Foster. 1850. i, 264-266. 
Ed. by Milanesi. Sansoni, 1878. i, 687-689. 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1917. xiv, 135. 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (1), 97. 

Bryan's Dictionary of painters and engravers, new ed. New York, 1905. 

v, no. 
Budapest. Museum der Bildenden Kunste. Katalog, 1913. 219-220, 

No. 21. 
Cennino Cennini. Tr. by C. J. Herringham. 239. 
Eastlake. Materials for a history of oil painting. 73. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Jan. 25, 1917. 328. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. March, 1916. 422. 
Khvoshinsky and Salmi, ii, 51. 
Quilter, H. Catalogue of [his] collection of pictures which will be sold by 

auction by Messrs. Christie, Manson, and Woods, on April 7, 1906 and 

April 9. 15, No. 76. 
Ramboux, J. A. Catalogue des collections d' objets d' art de la succession de 

M. Jean Ant. Ramboux. Cologne, 1867. Nos. 82 (left wing), 83 (right 

wing with predella), 84 (St. Philip), 85 (St. James), 86 (Saint, apostle), 

87 (Saint, apostle, in religious costume carrying a book). (Of these, 

Nos. 83 and 87 are in the Fogg Museum.) 



54 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

Siena. Galleria del R. istituto provinciale di belle arti. Catalogo. 
Siena, 1903. Nos. 119, 125 (gable and predella to central panel). 

Siren. Burlington magazine. Dec, 1908. 194. 
Giottino. 94, 95. 

Suida, W. Alcuni quadri italiani primitivi nella Galleria Nazionale di Buda- 
pest. L'Arte. Rome, May-June, 1907. x (3), 181. 

Venturi. v, 882. 

Vitzthum. L'Arte. Rome, May-June, 1906. ix (3), 202. 

Wills, H. Catalogue of [his] collection of pictures by old masters to be sold by 
auction by Messrs. Christie, Manson, and Woods, Feb. 1 7, 1894. No. 44. 



MASTER OF THE INNOCENTI CORONATION 

About 1420 to 1480 

Dr. Osvald Siren believes that he has found two other works, be- 
sides the one in the Fogg Museum, by a Florentine master of the xv 
century whose name it is not easy to determine. He has given this 
painter the name of the Master of the Innocenti Coronation, because 
in the Gallery of the Spedale degli Innocenti in Florence there is a 
Coronation of the Madonna, which is the largest and most important 
of the three examples. The third of these is in the collection of Sir 
Hubert Parry in England. The master was a "retardataire" influ- 
enced by Don Lorenzo Monaco and also by Masolino, Masaccio, 
and Filippo Lippi. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Siren, O. An early Italian picture in the Fogg Museum in Cambridge. Art 
in America. New York, Dec, 1914. iii (1), 36-40. 

MADONNA ENTHRONED BETWEEN SAINT FRANCIS 
AND SAINT PETER MARTYR. — GABLE : ANNUN- 
CIATION. — PREDELLA: NATD7ITY, VISITATION 

Lent by Mrs. Theodore C. Beebe. 

Tempera on panel, arched top. H. 27^ in. W. 12 A in- (7° X 31 cm.) 

The prevailing tones of the four pictures included in this panel are 
pale rose reds and grayish blues of different shades harmoniously 
placed in front of the gold background and spotted with a few effec- 
tive brilliant touches of vermilion. In each of the four scenes the 
Madonna has a neutral blue green mantle. In the large central panel 
her gown is pale red violet; in the other three it is a deeper red. In 
the Annunciation the angel Gabriel is clad in rose red. Saint Francis 
wears a gray habit and carries a cross in his right hand. A few ves- 
tiges of paint still adhering to the gold indicate that this cross was 
once red and was painted over the gold background. A bright red 
book is in the saint's left hand; a white cord hangs from his waist. 
Saint Peter Martyr wears a gray white tunic and scapular with a blue 
black mantle. Blood spurts from the wound in his head, and the 
same colour is echoed in the cross on his white flag and in the red 



56 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

book in his hand. The Madonna's throne and the garment of the 
Child are of a salmon pink. 

In the Nativity, the Madonna wears a red violet gown and mantle 
of gray blue as before. The Child is dressed in bright vermilion 
swaddling clothes. Saint Joseph is in a dark gown and yellow mantle. 
The prevailing tone of the landscape is brown. The roof of the stable 
is yellow; the angels are dressed in red, red violet, and blue. In the 
Visitation, Saint Elizabeth is clad in a vermilion gown with a neutral 
violet mantle. The earth is brown and the wall behind the figures is 
of a cold gray with a little golden sky showing above. The gold is in 
good condition on the whole panel, and the surface of the paint is 
also, in the main, well preserved. 

The picture was at one time in the collection of Charles C. Perkins, 
who bought it in Italy some time between the years 1850 and i860. 
It was bought by Dr. F. L. D. Rust in 1910 and lent to the Fogg 
Museum. It is in the Gallery as an indefinite loan from his widow, 
now Mrs. Theodore C. Beebe. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Siren. Art in America. Dec, 1914. 36-40, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Oct.-Dec, 1915. 2d ser., xix (4), 494-496. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 38. (Paolo di 

Giovanni Fei.) 
Burlington magazine. London, April, 1915. xxvii (145), 45. 




m 




S MASTER OF THE INNOCENTI CORONATION 



FRA FILIPPO LIPPI (?) AND FRA DIAMANTE (?) 

FRA FILIPPO LIPPI (?) 

1406/9-1469 

Filippo Lippi, the son of a butcher, while still very young was 
taken off the streets by the friars of the convent of Santa Maria del 
Carmine in Florence, and in 142 1 he took the vows of the Carmelite 
order. He probably received instruction from Lorenzo Monaco 
(about 1370-1425), and was influenced by his contemporary, Fra 
Angelico (1387-1455). He must have watched the painting by 
Masolino and Masaccio of the frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel of the 
Carmine, by which he was profoundly influenced. He became one 
of the most important Florentine painters of the early xv century, 
and executed a number of exquisitely beautiful tempera paint- 
ings on panel. He lived in Prato most of the time from 1452 to 1467. 
Here, assisted by Fra Diamante, he painted in the Duomo the fine 
series of frescoes of scenes from the lives of Saint John the Baptist, 
Saint Stephen, and Saint Bernard. It was here also that he met 
Lucrezia Buti, and became the father of Filippino Lippi. In 1467 
he went to Spoleto and began his other famous series of frescoes 
representing the life of Mary. Here he died in 1469, leaving Fra 
Diamante to finish his work. Pesellino and Botticelli were his 
greatest followers. 

Fra Filippo is best known to the world as a painter of Madonnas. 
These panels, particularly the early ones, show an emotional quality 
as well as a delicate sense of beauty. On the other hand, in his 
spacious and impressive frescoes, Fra Filippo carried on the monu- 
mental tradition of Masaccio. Vasari's life of the erratic friar is 
delightfully picturesque. 

By Fra Filippo in this country is an altarpiece in the collection of 
John Pierpont Morgan, New York. There are various other pic- 
tures connected with his name, including a damaged wing of an 
altarpiece in the Metropolitan Museum. 



5 8 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

FRA DIAMANTE (?) 

1430 to after 1498 

Fra Diamante, an assistant of Fra Filippo, was born in Terranuova 
in the Val d' Arno in 1430. When he was very young he entered the 
convent of the Carmelite order at Prato. In 1463 he withdrew from 
that order and became a Vallombrosan monk. Fra Diamante is 
mentioned as Fra Filippo's assistant in 1452, the year in which the 
artist commenced his frescoes at Prato, and worked with him almost 
continuously until Filippo's death in 1469. After completing the 
Spoleto frescoes in 1470, Fra Diamante returned to Prato. In 1472 
he was living in Florence and was enrolled in the Compagnia di San 
Luca. In 1481 and 1482 he was in Rome painting in the Sistine 
Chapel for Sixtus rv. The last record which we have of him is a 
letter dated 1498, written by the Ferrarese ambassador in Florence 
to Duke Ercole 1 on behalf of Fra Diamante, " Excellente pictore," 
who had been imprisoned by the Abbot of San Salvi. 

No work can with certainty be ascribed to Fra Diamante, though 
a few may plausibly be given to him. Mr. Berenson, in his Drawings 
of the Florentine Painters, lists the pictures which he believes to be 
by this painter. Among them are the picture in the Fogg Museum, a 
Madonna with Saint John the Baptist, Saint Stephen, and Donors 
in the Prato Gallery, and the execution of most of the frescoes at 
Spoleto. Dr. Steinmann definitely ascribes to him certain of the 
figures of popes in the Sistine Chapel. A study of the work which 
may probably be attributed to Fra Diamante shows him to be 
rather a weak painter, with little feeling for form. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

(Fra Filippo and Fra Diamante) 

Berenson, B. Drawings of the Florentine painters. London, 1903. i, 52-53; 

ii, Nos. 1385-1387 (Fra Filippo); i, 53-54; ii, Nos. 744-747. 1388 

(Fra Diamante). 
Browning, R. Fra Filippo Lippi. 
Carmichael, M. Fra Lippo Lippi's portrait. Burlington magazine. London, 

July, 1912. xxi (112), 194-200. 
Colasanti, A. Nuovi dipinti di Filippo e di Filippino Lippi. L'Arte. Rome, 

Aug.-Oct, 1903. vi (8-10), 299-302. 
Gronau, G. Fra Diamante. In Thieme-Becker. Ktinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 

1913. ix, 202-203. 




' 






< 



FRA FILIPPO LIPPI (?) AND FRA DIAMANTE (?) 59 

Mendelsohn, H. Fra Filippo Lippi. Berlin, 1909. 

Steinmann, E. Die Sixtinische Kapelle. Munich, 1901. i, 202-208 (Fra 

Diamante). 
Strutt, E. C. Fra Filippo Lippi. London, 1906. 
Supino, I. B. Les deux Lippi. Florence, 1904. 
Toesca, P. Una tavola di Filippo Lippi. Bollettino d'arte. Rome, May-July, 

1917. xi (5-7), 105-110. 
Ulmann, H. Sandro Botticelli. Munich, 1893. 3-21. 

SAINT JEROME IN THE DESERT WITH SAINT JOHN 
THE BAPTIST AND ANOTHER SAINT (SAINT 
THECLA ?) 

Tempera on panel, arched top. H. 62! in. W. 74! in. (159 X 189.8 cm.) 

The general tonality of this picture is a warm gray, as befits a 
desert scene of " scathed rock and arid waste," to use Ruskin's ex- 
pression in describing a similar landscape by Filippo Lippi. The 
composition is pyramidal. The three halos suggest an obtuse angle, 
whereas the neutral red pinks, which are the principal colour in the 
picture, form another pyramid with a sharper point. 

The neutral rose pink robe of Saint John is repeated by the moun- 
tain just above his head. A similar colour in paler form on Saint 
Jerome's left shoulder carries the eye down to the stronger reds of 
the lining of Saint Thecla's orange yellow garment and the flaming 
vermilion red heart in her hand. The cross in Saint John's hand is 
also of vermilion. The blood spurting from Saint Jerome's breast, 
which he is beating with a stone, flows from the wound and makes a 
pool on the ground. The other principal colour is the pale neutral 
blue in Saint Thecla's tunic, which is not very different from the 
greenish blue of the sky. The carefully finished vegetation is a 
dark yellowish green. The rest of the picture, including the trunks 
of the trees, the rocks, flesh tones, and the greater part of the robe 
of Saint Jerome, is composed of various neutral yellow grays. Saint 
Jerome's garment seems to be unfinished, though it is possible that 
its present appearance is due to the fading of the original lake glaze. 
The underpainting is of terra verde, neutralized by a varnish slightly 
darkened with age, producing the effect of yellowish gray green. 
Certain crude, sketchy, parallel lines which indicated the shadow 
mass still show. Such bits of evidence of process are rare, and hence 
technically interesting. Another curious feature is the faded red 



6o FLORENTINE PAINTING 

glaze, probably of lake, that is clearly marked in the drapery over 
the left shoulder and gradually fades away in the nether parts. The 
right side shows no trace of this red. 

Saint John the Baptist wears a brownish hairy garment. The 
martyr on the other side appears to be a youth, but has been called 
Saint Thecla by several writers beginning with Baldanzi and Mil- 
anesi. It is possible that the picture was never completed, although 
the vegetation was finished with the greatest care and elaboration. 

The painting was formerly in the Cappella Dragoni of the Carmine 
at Prato and was probably removed in Napoleonic times. When 
seen by Crowe and Cavalcaselle it belonged to Signor Grissato Berti. 
Later it appeared in a collection in Scotland. It came to America 
and was placed in the Fogg Museum in 1902. 

There is a difference of opinion among critics as to the authorship 
and quality of the painting. Many fail to recognize the character- 
istics of Fra Filippo himself and think that it is by Fra Diamante. 
Canon Baldanzi writing in 1835, Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Milanesi, 
and Mr. Berenson take this view. Herbert P. Home is reported to 
have said that the picture is the one certain painting by Fra Dia- 
mante. Several other well-known critics have stated that they believe 
it to be by Filippo himself, in some cases forming their judgment only 
on the basis of a photograph. The truth perhaps lies between the 
two extremes. The head of Saint Jerome is finer in quality than the 
other parts. It is possible that Fra Filippo himself began the picture, 
and that it was continued by Fra Diamante. It would be interesting 
to know whether this painting of Saint Jerome is the one referred to 
by Browning in his poem on Filippo Lippi. 

Saint Jerome is here represented as penitent. Generally when he 
was portrayed in this character he was accompanied by the Hon, 
symbol of his fervent nature and his life in the desert. The legend of 
the saint removing the thorn from the lion's paw was a late invention 
to explain the symbol. The painting in the Gallery by Matteo di 
Giovanni (No. 25) and the picture by Polidoro (No. 49) represent 
Saint Jerome in his character of translator of the Scriptures. 



FRA FHJPPO LIPPI (?) AND FRA DIAMANTE (?) 6l 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Baldanzi, F. Delle pitture di Fra Filippo Lippi nel coro della cattedrale di 

Prato. Prato, 1835. 52-53. 
Crowe and Cavalcaseixe. New history of painting in Italy. 1864. ii, 353. 

New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward Hutton. 1909. ii, 347. 

History of painting in Italy; ed. by Langton Douglas. 1911. iv, 179-180. 
Perkins. Boston evening transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. 

Rassegna d'arte. May, 1905. 65-66, Reproduction. 
Vasari. Le Monnier. 1848. iv, 127, note 2. 

Tr. by Mrs. Foster. 1851. ii, 85, note. 

Ed. by Milanesi. Sansoni, 1878. ii, 627, note 2; 641. 

MENTIONED 

American architect and building news. Boston, Jan. 17, 1903. lxxix (1412), 18. 
American journal of archaeology. July-Sept., 1903. 2d ser., vii (3), 404; Oct- 

Dec, 1905. 2d ser., ix (4), 498. 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 17. 
Berenson. Florentine drawings, i, 54. 
Bernath. New York und Boston. 68, 70, Reproduction (71). 
Bibliograeia. L'Arte. Rome, July-Aug., 1905. viii (4), 315, No. 283. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 24, No. 2. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 191 1. 55. 
Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. 11, 1908. 

viii, 39, and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 551. 
Milanesi. L'Art. Paris, Jan. 20, 1878. 4 e annee, i (3), 64. 
New England magazine. Aug., 1905. 702. 
Rankin. Notes on three collections of old masters. 17, No. 7. 
Thteme-Becker. ix, 203. 
Ulmann. Sandro Botticelli. 5, note 4. 



FRANCESCO PESELLINO (?) 

1422-1457 

Francesco di Stefano, called Pesellino, was born in Florence in 
1422. His father and grandfather were both painters, and it is prob- 
able that Francesco was the pupil of his grandfather Giuliano. He 
was a close follower of Fra Filippo Lippi, and was also influenced by 
Fra Angelico, Masaccio, and especially by Domenico Veneziano. 

Pesellino was particularly happy as a painter of small religious 
panels and predelle, and as a decorator of cassoni. In the John G. 
Johnson collection in Philadelphia is a remarkably beautiful Ma- 
donna and Saints by him. The predella panels in the Louvre and in 
the Academy at Florence, the Annunciation in the collection of Sir 
Hubert Parry, Highnam Court, Gloucester, which reveals Pesel- 
lino's close relationship with Fra Filippo Lippi, and the Madonna 
and Child and Saints of Dorchester House, are also very lovely 
examples of his art. Pesellino's romantic temperament and the 
grace, gaiety, and courtliness of his style recall the spirit of the In- 
ternational school. He was a refined colourist and altogether one 
of the most delicate and charming of Florentine painters; he died 
in Florence in 1457. 

Authentic works by Pesellino are rare and highly valued. The 
following pictures which are usually admitted to be by him are in this 
country and may aid in the study of the problem of the authorship 
of our panel: the miniature altarpiece in the Johnson collection, 
already mentioned; two cassone panels at Fenway Court, Boston; 
and a Madonna and Saints in the Metropolitan Museum, New York. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bacci, P. La "Trinita" del Pesellino della National Gallery di Londra. 
Nuovi documenti. Rivista d'arte. Florence, 1904. ii (8-9), 160-177. 

Berenson, B. Una Annunciazione del Pesellino. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, 
March, 1905. v (3), 42-43- 
Drawings of the Florentine painters. London, 1903. i, 54-59; ii, Nos. 
1838-1841. 

Cust, L., and Fry, R. E. Notes on paintings in the Royal collections; xiv, 
A group of two saints, S. Giacomo and S. Mamante, painted by Pesel- 
lino, by Lionel Cust. — Pesellino's altarpiece, by Roger E. Fry. Bur- 
lington magazine. London, Dec, 1909. xvi (81), 124-128. 




w 
o 

< 

to 



FRANCESCO PESELLINO (?) 63 

Logan, M. Compagno di Pesellino et quelques peintures de l'ecole. Gazette 

des beaux-arts. Paris, July, Oct., 1901. 3 e per., xxvi, 18-34, 333-343. 
Mackowsky, H. Die Verkundigung und die Verlobung der Heiligen Katharina 

von Francesco Pesellino. Zeitschr. f. bild. Kunst. Leipsic, 1899. N. F., 

x (4), 81-85. 
Perkins, F. M. La tavola complementare della predelle del Pesellino nella 

Galleria Doria. L'Arte. Rome, April, 1916. xix (2), 70-71. 
Weisbach, W. Francesco Pesellino und die Romantik der Renaissance. Berlin, 

1901. 

7 BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE 

Tempera on panel. H. 2ifj in. W. 23! in. (53.5 X 60.3 cm.) 

This picture is given an especial charm by its rather gay colouring. 
The brightest colour is furnished by the singularly luminous red 
shadows in the tunic of the carpenter on the right, the cap of the car- 
penter inside the building, the tunic of the mason inside the building, 
the gown of the king, and finally in smaller quantity in the hose of 
the mason with the mortar board on his head. A more neutral red 
appears in the wall on the extreme right of the picture, which vanishes 
and reappears in the opening between the two buildings. Further, a 
spotting of orange yellow is furnished by the beams on the ground, 
in the hands of the carpenters, and on the roof, together with the 
same colour in the mortar board, and in the shoes, harp, and hair of 
the king, and the whole panel is given character and emphasis by the 
black hose and cap of the carpenter on the right, the dark cap of the 
mason with the trowel, and the black robe of the king. The sky is a 
deep blue green. Harmonizing neutral grays are provided by the 
building and the pavement. 

The picture was formerly in the collection of the Rev. Arthur F. 
Sutton, Brant Broughton, Newark, England. It was placed in the 
Museum in t:qi6, and later purchased with money given by the 
Society of Friends of the Fogg Art Museum, with the help of a few 
special gifts. 

In its clear, bright colour and lithe, slim figures, in its gaiety and 
charm, the painting is characteristic of the master. The question has 
been raised whether this is a work by Pesellino himself. Mary Logan 
has made a special study of a master whom she calls " Compagno di 
Pesellino," and whose work she and Mr. Berenson believe has often 
been confused with that of Pesellino. Mr, Berenson and other 



64 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

critics believe that this painting is by the " Compagno di Pesellino." 
It is quite possible that works by more than one man are included 
under the name of " Compagno di Pesellino," and that further study 
will develop two or more personalities. A picture which is of interest 
in this connection is a beautiful Annunciation belonging to Philip 
Lehman of New York, which appears to have some relation to the 
picture in the Fogg Museum, and may conceivably be by the same 
master. Mr. Lehman's painting was reproduced in the catalogue 
of the Loan Exhibition of Italian Primitives held in New York in 
November, 1917 (p. 55, No. 19). There are said to be two other 
panels of the same series as the Fogg Museum panel in the Museum 
at Le Mans. Further study may convincingly establish the belief 
that the painter is Pesellino himself. 

EXHIBITED 

Grafton Galleries, ion. Catalogue . . . by R. E. Fry and M. W. Brockwell. 
No. 13, Reproduction (PI. xi). 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1917. xiv, 135. 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (1), 97. 

Arundel Club. Portfolio, 1908. No. 14, Reproduction. 

Burlington magazine. London, Dec, 1908. xiv (69), 174. (Arundel Club, 1908.) 

Harvard alumni bulletin. Jan. 25, 1917. 328, Reproduction. 



BENOZZO GOZZOLI 

1420-1497 

Benozzo di Lese di Sandro, called Benozzo Gozzoli, was born at 
Florence in 1420. It is possible that he studied under Giuliano 
Pesello, but he is better known as the most distinguished pupil of 
Fra Angelico. He was fortunate enough to be an assistant of that 
great master in Orvieto and Rome during the years 1447 t° 1449. In 
1450-1452, as an independent master, he painted a series of fres- 
coes of the life of Saint Francis at Montefalco. It is probable that 
from 1450 to 1458 he laboured for the most part in various cities 
in Umbria. He influenced a number of the most important Umbrian 
masters of that day, and was one of the men who deserve the credit 
of bringing into small provincial towns the great Florentine tradition 
which later helped to produce such men as Pintoricchio, Perugino, 
and Raphael. There are some pictures now in the Fogg Museum by 
the masters who felt his influence. In 1459 he returned to his native 
city and was chosen among all the painters in Florence to decorate 
the chapel in the palace of the Medici, now known as the Riccardi 
Palace. The decoration of this chapel is one of the most delightful 
bits of pageant painting of the Renaissance and is remarkable for its 
unity of conception and treatment. From about 1463 to 1467 he 
worked at San Gimignano. From 1468 to 1484 he was at work in 
the Campo Santo at Pisa, painting a series of frescoes, covering an 
enormous space, and picturing scenes from the Old Testament. He 
died at Pistoia in 1497. 

Benozzo is represented in this country by panels in the Metro- 
politan Museum; the John G. Johnson collection and the P. A. B. 
Widener collection, Philadelphia; and in the Worcester Art Museum; 
as well as by the Fogg Museum Madonna. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Achiardi, P. d'. Una tavola di Benozzo. L'Arte. Rome, Jan.-April, 1903. 

vi (1-4), 122-124. 
Bacci, P. Gli affreschi inediti di Benozzo Gozzoli a Legoli (Pisa). Bollettino 

d'arte. Rome, Dec, 1914. viii (12), 387-398. 
Benventjti, G. B. Gli affreschi di Benozzo Gozzoli nella cappella del Palazzo 

Riccardi. Florence, 1901. 



66 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

Berenson, B. Drawings of the Florentine painters. London, 1903. i, 6-12; 

ii, Nos. 530-546. 
Biasiotti, G. Affreschi di Benozzo Gozzoli in S. Maria Maggiore in Roma. 

Bollettino d'arte. Rome, March, 1913. vii (3), 76-86. 
Carnevali, N. Un affresco di Benozzo Gozzoli. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, 

Feb., 1909. ix (2), 24. 
Cust, L., and Horne, H. Notes on pictures in the Royal collections; viii, 

The story of Simon Magus, part of a predella painting by Benozzo 

Gozzoli. Burlington magazine. London, Aug., 1905. vii (29), 377-383. 
Gronau, G. In Thieme-Becker. Kiinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1909. iii, 341-349. 
Loeser, C. Note intorno ai disegni conservati nella R. galleria di Venezia. 

Rassegna d'arte. Milan, Dec, 1903. iii (12), 178, 179. 
Mengin, U. Benozzo Gozzoli. Paris, 1908. (Les maltres de l'art.) 
Pacchioni, G. Gli inizi artistici di Benozzo Gozzoli. L'Arte. Rome, 1910. 

xiii, 423-442- 
Papini, R. II deperimento delle pitture murali nel Campo Santo di Pisa. 

Bollettino d'arte. Rome, Dec, 1909. iii (12), 441-457. 
Dai disegni di Benozzo Gozzoli. L'Arte. Rome, 1910. xiii, 288-291. 
L'opera di Benozzo Gozzoli in Santa Rosa di Viterbo. L'Arte. Rome, 

1910. xiii, 35-42. 
Rossi, A. Un affresco di Benozzo Gozzoli. L'Arte. Rome, July-Aug., 1902. 

v (7-8), 252-254. 
Venturi, A. Beato Angelico e Benozzo Gozzoli. L'Arte. Rome, 1901. iv, 

1-29. 
Wickhoff, F. Die Sammlung Tucher. Munchner Jahrb. d. bild. Kunst. 

Munich, 1908. iii (1), 22, PL opp. p. 30. 

8 MADONNA AND CHILD 

Tempera on panel. H. 18 in. W. 14! in. (45.7 X 37 cm.) 
On the base of the frame is the inscription: Ave Gratia Plena Dominus 
Tecu. 

The Madonna wears a red gown and a mantle probably once pale 
blue. A hint of the original colour may still be seen on the right 
shoulder through a brownish varnish which obscures the true colour. 
The mantleis lined with black. In the Madonna's halo in black letters 
is the inscription, probably modern : Ave Regina Celorum Mater An. 
The Child is in a white tunic, much yellowed, and decorated with a 
flowered design in gold. A neutral blue violet mantle which at first 
sight appears to be a part of His tunic lies over His knees. A part of 
the mantle may be seen behind His left shoulder, apparently sup- 
ported rather awkwardly by the Madonna's left thumb. A gold- 
finch stands on the Child's knee looking at the pomegranate that He 
holds in His hand. The bird was painted over the mantle of the 




S BENOZZO GOZZOLI 



BENOZZO GOZZOLI 67 

Madonna, as the mantle shows through the more or less transparent 
colours of the bird. 

The painting was once in the collection of Signora Salvatori, of 
Florence, and later in Commendatore Professore Volpi's possession. 
It passed into the collection of Baron Tucher of Vienna, and thence 
went to Munich, where it was bought in 1907 and brought to the 
Fogg Art Museum. 

The picture appears to be another version of a Madonna by 
Benozzo Gozzoli, which was published in 1908 in the Munchner 
Jahrbuch, and which, curiously enough, also belonged to Baron 
Tucher, Bavarian minister at Vienna. The two pictures evidently 
were drawn from the same cartoon, or else one is a copy of the other. 
In Baron Tucher's version there are angels in the background, the 
Child holds the bird in His hand, and the piece of drapery behind 
His neck more obviously belongs to His mantle. In the Fogg 
Museum picture there is a renovated gold background, without 
angels; the Child holds a pomegranate and the bird stands on His 
knee. The two paintings also show a slight difference in the treat- 
ment of the drapery around the Child. Moreover, Baron Tucher's 
picture is decidedly reminiscent of Fra Angelico, whereas the Fogg 
Museum panel is slightly so, particularly in the type of the Child, 
Who bears a strong resemblance to the Child in the Perugia panel by 
Benozzo. It is further interesting to compare this painting with two 
pictures by Umbrians whom Benozzo influenced. One of these, in 
the National Gallery in London, is by Bonfigli (No. 1843). The 
other, by Mezzastris, a fresco, Madonna with Saints, in Santa Lucia, 
Foligno, is so similar in composition that it may have some connec- 
tion with the Madonna in the Fogg Museum. Mr. Berenson thinks 
that Benozzo painted the Fogg Museum Madonna in 1465. 

In this painting as in Nos. 9, 10, 12, and 30, the Christ Child has a 
red cross in His halo. This so-called cruciform (more exactly cruci- 
ferous, cross-bearing) nimbus, with the cross sometimes painted red 
and sometimes indicated by incised lines or painted in gold, was only 
used for members of the Trinity — the Father, the Son, or the 
Divine Lamb symbolizing the Son, and the Holy Ghost, represented 
by the Dove — although its use was not universal. It is doubtful if 
this was intended to signify the cross of Christ. The halo encircling 



68 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

the heads of several Buddhist and Hindu divinities is marked with 
a similar cross. 

The pomegranate in the hand of the Child bursting open and 
showing the seeds has been variously interpreted. It may be a sym- 
bol of the hope in eternity which the Christ gives to man, signified 
by the unexpected sweetness of the fruit within the hard rind. In the 
writings of the early fathers the fruit is also interpreted as the em- 
blem of congregations, because of its many seeds, or as the emblem 
of the Christian Church because of the inner unity of countless seeds 
in one and the same fruit. The bird was the symbol of the soul — 
the spiritual as opposed to the material. It appears in many of the 
paintings in the Gallery. Later the symbol lost its meaning and the 
bird was introduced as an ornamental accessory or as a plaything. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 24, No. 3, Repro- 
duction (28). 
Breck. Rassegna d'arte. Oct., 1909. 1 70-1 71, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1908. vi, 143. 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1910. 2d ser., xiv (1), 137. 

Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 17. 

Berenson. Florentine painters, 3d ed. 113. 

Bernath. New York und Boston. 68. 

Bibliografia. L 'Arte. Rome, Nov.-Dec, 1909. xii (6), 480, No. 204. 

Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 1911. 55. 

Thteme-Becker. iii, 348. 

Venturi. vii, pt. 1, 430, note 1. 



PIER FRANCESCO FIORENTINO 

Active from 1474 to 1497 

This master has been dragged from oblivion in recent years. Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle discovered his existence. Recently Mr. Berenson 
has to some extent reconstructed his somewhat puzzling artistic per- 
sonality. Other modern critics believe that pictures by at least two 
or three hands are now attributed to this painter. 

Pier Francesco himself was a priest. An altarpiece by him now in 
the Gallery at Empoli dates probably from about 1474. He signed a 
Madonna and Saints in Sant' Agostino, San Gimignano, in 1494, and 
a picture of Tobias and the Angels in 1497. It is said that he as- 
sisted Ghirlandaio at San Gimignano about 1475. He and the other 
painters whose types are so similar that they are often confused with 
him were eclectics, who probably had a workshop of a commercial 
nature in which Madonnas were produced in great numbers. The 
master or masters were perhaps pupils of Benozzo Gozzoli or Fra 
Filippo Lippi, and were strongly influenced by Neri di Bicci, Baldo- 
vinetti, and Pesellino. Their designs were usually copied from the 
greater men. Their work also seems to bear a relationship to the 
recently reconstructed painter known as " Compagno di Pesellino," 
already referred to on page 63. 

Three pictures in this Catalogue have been associated with this 
name. No. 9 is essentially Florentine and looks like the work of a 
pupil of Fra Filippo Lippi; No. 10 is probably by another hand, also 
an imitator of Fra Filippo Lippi; and No. 30, which is almost cer- 
tainly by some one else, is a very puzzling picture. Some critics feel 
sure that it is Florentine, others that it is Umbrian, and others have 
suggested that it is by a North Italian painter. In this Gallery it is 
catalogued as an Umbrian picture and will be described later. 

Mr. Berenson says that the sojourn of Pier Francesco at San 
Gimignano during the last thirty years of the xv century accounts 
for the Sienese and Umbrian qualities in his works. Even though 
some of his paintings may have these characteristics, the great ma- 
jority of the works called by this name are purely Florentine, which 
suggests either that the coworkers of Pier Francesco remained in 
Florence, or that he and his associates carried some Florentine de- 



yo FLORENTINE PAINTING 

signs by the great masters to San Gimignano with them, and held to 
their Florentine traditions with some tenacity in spite of the proxim- 
ity of Siena. 

Listed under Nos. 9-10 of this Catalogue will be found the works 
in this country associated with the name of Pier Francesco Fioren- 
tino, which are related to the pictures in the Fogg Museum. Other 
pictures connected with the master in America, though not all by 
him, are in the Detroit Museum of Art; in the Jarves collection; in 
the Holden collection, Cleveland; in the George and Florence Blu- 
menthal collection, New York; and in the collections of Michael 
Dreicer, the late Robert S. Minturn, Grenville L. Winthrop, New 
York; and Mrs. W. Austin Wadsworth, Boston. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 

Aynard, E. Catalogue des tableaux anciens . . . composant la collection de 
feu M. Edouard Aynard. Paris, 1913. Nos. 43, 59. 

Beeenson, B. Catalogue of a collection of paintings and some art objects 
(John G. Johnson collection); Italian paintings. Philadelphia, 1913. i, 
25-27, Nos. 39-43- 
Drawings of the Florentine painters. London, 1903. i, 12-13; ii, Nos. 

551-554, 1864-1897. 
Florentine painters of the Renaissance, 3d ed. New York, 1909. 166. 

Bibliografia. L'Arte. Rome, Jan.-Feb., 1905. viii (1), 75, No. 60. 

Cavalcaselle and Crowe. Storia della pittura in Italia. Florence, 1896. vii, 
498-507. 

Di alcuni qtjadri sconosciuti di Pier Francesco Fiorentino. Rassegna d' arte. 
Milan, Sept., 1906. vi (9), 136. 

Giglioli, O. H. Empoli artistica. Florence, 1906. 74-79. (La Toscana 
illustrata, ii.) 

Gnoli, U. L'arte italiana in alcune gallerie francesi di Provincia. Rassegna 
d'arte. Milan, Nov., 1908. viii (11), 186-187. 

Hoe, R. Art collection. Catalogue. New York, 191 1. No. 97. 

Logan, M. Compagno di Pesellino et quelques peintures de l'ecole. Gazette 
des beaux-arts. Paris, July, Oct., 1901; 3 p6r., xxvi, 18-34, 333-343. 

Mather, F. J., Jr. Pictures in the Robert Hoe collection. Burlington maga- 
zine. London, Aug., 1910. xvii (89), 315. 

Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Album of reproductions. Phila- 
delphia, 1892. (Attributed to Benozzo Gozzoli.) 

Perkins, F. M. Pitture italiane nella raccolta Johnson a Filadelfia. Rassegna 
d'arte. Milan, Aug., 1905. v (8), 116. 

1 Includes references to paintings similar to the pictures attributed to Pier Fran- 
cesco Fiorentino in the Fogg Museum. 




9 PIER FRANCESCO FIORENTINO 



PIER FRANCESCO FIORENTINO 71 

Poggi, G. Una tavola di Pier Francesco Fiorentino nella Collegiata d' Empoli. 

Rivista d'arte. Florence, Jan.-Feb., 1909. vi (1), 65-67. 
Yerkes, C. T. Charles T. Yerkes collection of ancient and modern paintings. 

Catalogue. New York, 1910. No. 105. 

9 MADONNA AND CHILD* 

Tempera on panel, arched top. H. 33 in. W. 22 in. (83.8 X 55.8 cm.) 
In the original frame. 

The Madonna, in a blue mantle with olive green lining over a rose 
red gown, supports with both hands the Child, Who stands on a par- 
apet. In His left hand He holds a bird. The drapery held around 
Him by His mother is of a silvery white, as is the veil which is wound 
around the Madonna's head and falls over her shoulders. The hair 
of the Madonna and of the Child is of a warm golden yellow. The 
cross in the Child's halo is of red. 

The condition of the picture is excellent. Though it is a little hard 
in some ways, the colour is clear and fresh and cleanly put on. The 
flesh is delicately modelled, the outline firm, and the drapery well 
handled. The gold background with radiating lines is well preserved. 
The frame is of the design so often used by Pier Francesco Fioren- 
tino, and is decorated in blue and gold. The panel is a delightful 
example of the work of this master. 

The painting was formerly in the collection of Mrs. Philip Lydig, 
which was sold in New York in April, 1913. It was No. 125 in the 
catalogue of that sale, and was attributed to a Florentine artist 
(about 1475). Though the catalogue states that the picture was at 
one time in the collection of F. Mason Perkins, Mr. Perkins writes 
that " unhappily " he never owned it. 

The picture was evidently painted from the same design as a 
similar picture formerly in the Aynard collection, Lyons (No. 59 in 
the sale catalogue), although the Aynard collection picture has a 
background of roses instead of a plain gold background. The picture 
(No. 9) is similar also to two paintings attributed to Compagno di 
Pesellino, more particularly to a Madonna and Child and Angels, 
formerly in the Hainauer collection, Berlin, now belonging to Mr. 
and Mrs. Harold I. Pratt of New York, and to some extent to No. 43 
in the catalogue of the Aynard collection. This latter picture has a 
certain resemblance to a picture at Fenway Court attributed also to 



y 2 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

Compagno di Pesellino. A replica of the Hainauer Madonna attrib- 
uted to Pier Francesco Fiorentino is in the Uffizi Gallery. Similar 
paintings attributed to Pier Francesco Fiorentino are in the Kaiser- 
Friedrich Museum, Berlin; in the collection of Lady Henry Somerset, 
Eastnor Castle, Ledbury; in the Victoria and Albert Museum, Lon- 
don; in the John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia; in the P. A. B. 
Widener collection, Elkins Park, Philadelphia; in the Academy of 
Fine Arts, Philadelphia; and in the collection of Henry Walters, 
Baltimore. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Valentiner, W. R., and Friedley, D. Illustrated catalogue of the Rita 
Lydig collection. New York, 1913. No. 125, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 
Nation. March 18, 1915. 314. 

10 MADONNA AND CHILD AND SAINT JOHN 

Tempera on panel, with arched top. H. 33I in. W. 22^ in. (86 X 
58 cm.) In the original frame. 

The colours in this picture are much darker than in most of those 
attributed to Pier Francesco Fiorentino. Usually these pictures are 
characterized by pale delicate blues and pinks. The Madonna's 
gown is red ornamented with a band of gold embroidery at the neck 
and waist; her mantle is dark blue. She wears a transparent cream 
white kerchief. The Child is half covered with a bluish white 
drapery. His hair, like that of His mother, is of a warm orange yel- 
low; the cross in His halo is red. The goldfinch is brown with a touch 
of red on its head. The little Saint John wears a goat-skin of greenish 
brown somewhat darker than his hair. The background is of gold 
incised with lines and indentations. Around the edge of the panel 
is the inscription: Gloria in Excelsis Deo et in Terra Pax Hominibus 
Bone Voluntatis Laudamus, and at the base: Ave Maria Gratia 
Plena. The letters are gold on a red ground, with a foliage decora- 
tion in gold. The frame of gold and dark blue decorated with gold 
stars is similar to the frame of No. 9, except that it has darkened. 

The painting was bought in Italy and was placed in the Museum in 
1904. It is one of numerous representations by the master of the 




IO PIER FRANCESCO FIORENTINO 



PIER FRANCESCO FIORENTINO 73 

Madonna and Child, with or without the little Saint John and 
angels in attendance. Other paintings similar in composition are in 
the Budapest Gallery; in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool; in the 
collections of Lord Battersea, London (1905) ; Dan Fellows Piatt, 
Englewood, N. J. ; Arthur Lehman, New York; and a Madonna and 
Child, formerly in the Yerkes collection. In execution No. 10 re- 
sembles still other paintings attributed to this master. The sug- 
gestion has been made that the original, of which all these pictures 
similar in design are variations, is perhaps a work of the so-called 
Compagno di Pesellino, belonging to Herr Bracht of Berlin (1909). 
The fine Madonna and Child attributed to Compagno di Pesellino 
at Fenway Court, Boston, is also closely related in composition to 
the series. The Fogg Museum Madonna is not one of the best, yet 
it is not without charm. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

McMahan, U. Une exposition documentaire en Pensylvanie. Gazette des 
beaux-arts. Paris, Feb., 1909. 4" per., i (620), 179-181, Reproduction. 
Perkins. Boston evening transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. 
Rassegna d'arte. May, 1905. 66. 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1905. v, 162. (Attributed to a follower 

of Pesellino.) 
American journal of archaeology. April-June, 1907. 2d ser., xi (2), 240. 
Berenson. Florentine painters, 3d ed. 167. 
Bibliografia. L'Arle. Rome, Nov.-Dec, 1906. ix (6), 480. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 24, No. 6. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. Boston, Dec, 1904. xiii (50), 278, 279. (Pesellino.) 
Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. 11, 1908. 

viii, 37, No. 2, and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 

550—551, No. 2. 
London. National Gallery. Catalogue, 1913. p. 541- 
Nation. March 18, 1915. 314- 

Rankin. Notes on three collections of old masters. 17, No. 3. 
Rassegna d'arte. Sept., 1906. 136. 
Valentiner, W. R., and Friedley, D. Illustrated catalogue of the Rita Lydig 

collection. No. 125. 



DOMENICO GHIRLANDAIO 

1449-1494 

Domenico di Tommaso Curradi di Doffo Bigordi was born in 1449 
in Florence, and probably was trained as a goldsmith, in connection 
with which art he or his father is supposed to have been given the 
name, Ghirlandaio, the Garland Maker. While still young he re- 
ceived his training as a painter at the hands of Alesso Baldovinetti. 
He was influenced by Verrocchio and to some extent by Botticelli. 

The work usually considered his first is the San Gimignano series 
of frescoes of 1475. He went to Rome in the same year, and worked 
in the Vatican Library. On his return to Florence he executed 
some frescoes in that city. In 1481 he went again to Rome and 
painted in the Sistine Chapel. Between the years 1483 and i486 he 
painted the life of Saint Francis in Santa Trinita in Florence. On 
September 1, 1485, he and his brother David received the com- 
mission from Giovanni Tornabuoni to decorate the walls of the 
choir of Santa Maria Novella with scenes from the lives of the Ma- 
donna and Saint John the Baptist, as the frescoes which Orcagna 
had painted on these same walls in 1358 were damaged beyond 
repair. Ghirlandaio's frescoes were completed in 1490. Vasari gives 
an amusing description of certain episodes connected with this work. 
It appears that the master's health broke down soon after this. 
The last works painted in his bottega during his lifetime were exe- 
cuted largely by his assistants. He died of the plague in 1494. 

Ghirlandaio was a facile decorator with a singular ability for 
portraiture. He executed numerous panel pictures; but, like most of 
the great Florentines, he was chiefly remarkable for his frescoes. Per- 
haps more than any one of his day he carried on the tradition of 
monumental art which came direct from Giotto and Masaccio. He 
had the honour of being the master of Michelangelo. Among the 
numerous pupils whose style closely resembled his own were his two 
brothers, David and Benedetto, and his brother-in-law, Bastiano 
Mainardi. Ghirlandaio clung to the use of tempera for his panel 
pictures, and did not adopt oil as did many of his contemporaries. 

By Ghirlandaio in this country is a profile portrait of Giovanna 
Tornabuoni, in Mr. Morgan's collection. There is in the Jarves 




II DOMENICO GHIRLANDAIO 



DOMENICO GHIRLANDAIO 75 

collection a much damaged portrait head in fresco, which has been 
attributed to him. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bekenson, B. Drawings of the Florentine painters. London, 1903. i, 110- 

115; ii, Nos. 863-893. 
Davies, G. S. Ghirlandaio. 1908. 

Hatjvette, H. Ghirlandaio. Paris, 1907. (Les maitres de l'art.) 
Mather, F. J., Jr. Domenico Ghirlandaio. Nation. New York, Aug. 20, 

1908. lxxxvii (2251), 167-170. 
Pietri, A. B. Di due tavole del Ghirlandaio nel Museo civico di Pisa. Bol- 

lettino A' arte. Rome, Sept., 1909. iii (9), 326-339. 
Steinmann, E. Ghirlandaio. Leipsic, 1897. (Kiinstler-Monographien, 25.) 

Die Sixtinische Kapelle. Munich, 1901. i, 208-215, 368-391. 



II KNEELING VIRGIN (FRAGMENT OF ANNUNCIATION)* 

Fresco, transferred to canvas on panel, with arched top. H. 57! in. 
W. 4of in. (147 X 103.5 cm -) 

The Virgin kneels, with a book in her hand, in front of a parapet of 
red and green marble. She wears a rose red gown similar to the red 
of the marble in colour. Her mantle is of a beautiful pale blue, lined 
with a cool bluish green which is repeated in the green of the marble 
and the foliage of the background. Her hair is yellow. Her halo is 
of a red very similar to the other reds in the picture; it was probably 
originally gilded. On the parapet are the vestiges of a rose red vase 
of flowers, probably lilies, but almost obliterated. In the distance 
are cypresses and other trees. 

The fresco was bought in Italy in 1905. It was formerly in the 
collection of the Cavaliere Giuseppe Toscanelli, which was sold in 
Florence in 1883. The picture was No. 68 in the sale catalogue and 
was attributed to Benozzo Gozzoli. It is described on page 18 as fol- 
lows : " Fresque qui ornait le dessus de la porte de la Villa Michelozzi 
situee pres de San Gemignano. En la de'tachant, l'ange ayant ete 
dStruit, il ne reste que la Vierge. Figure a genoux de grandeur 
naturelle. Haut: 1 m. 46 cent., larg. 1 m. 3 cent." 

As Benozzo Gozzoli, Pier Francesco Fiorentino, and Ghirlandaio 
were the three Florentines who worked in San Gimignano, it was 
evidently assumed at that time that the picture was by Benozzo 
Gozzoli. For years the resemblance to Ghirlandaio's San Gimignano 



y6 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

frescoes has been remarked. Mr. Berenson was the first to recognize 
it as a work of this master. Before he knew that it came from San 
Gimignano he said that he thought it was Ghirlandaio's earliest 
extant fresco, and various other critics have since agreed with that 
attribution. So there seems to be little reasonable doubt that this 
is the earliest or one of the earliest existing frescoes by the master, 
painted while he was still strongly under the influence of Baldovinetti. 
The picture has been transferred from a wall to a canvas on panel. 
It is a ghost of its former self but a very beautiful one, as it has not 
been repainted. The colours are pale and harmonious and suggestive 
of Domenico Veneziano and Baldovinetti. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Edgell, G. H. An early fresco by Gbirlandaio. Art in America. New York, 
Oct., 1917. v (6), 293-299, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. April-June, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (2), 232. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 24, No. 5. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 191 1. 55. 
Nation. March 18, 1915. 314. 

Toscanelli, G. Catalogue de tableaux, meubles, et objets d'art formant la 
galerie de M. le Chev. Toscanelli. Florence, 1883. 18, No. 68. 



ECLECTIC FOLLOWER OF 
GHIRLANDAIO AND FILIPPINO LIPPI 

A sketch of the life of Ghirlandaio will be found on page 74. 

Filippino Lippi (1457-1504) was the son of Fra Filippo Lippi and 
the pupil of Botticelli. Among his finest works are his fresco paint- 
ings in the Brancacci Chapel, where he finished the decoration begun 
by Masolino and Masaccio, and his Vision of Saint Bernard, in the 
Badia. Later his work became baroque in style and mawkish in 
sentiment, and he anticipated the decadence of Italian painting. 

12 MADONNA ENTHRONED BETWEEN SAINT SEBASTIAN 
AND SAINT ROCH 

Tempera on panel. H. 59! in. W. 53! in. (151 X 135 cm.) 

From the point of view of composition this picture is well and care- 
fully balanced. From the point of view of colour the interest swings 
to the right on account of the splendid red robe of Saint Roch, which 
is scarcely balanced by the somewhat dull, neutral orange yellow 
mantle of Saint Sebastian — though indeed the strong red is carried 
through the picture by means of the Madonna's gown, the rug in the 
foreground, and the hose of Saint Sebastian. The Madonna's cloak 
is of a rich deep green blue; this colour appears again in the tunic of 
Saint Sebastian. Saint Roch's tunic is green, making a transition to 
the browner green of the trees; his black hose terminate in buff 
coloured shoes. The saints have brown hair, but the hair of the Ma- 
donna and of the Child is yellow. The canopy is of cold gray marble 
supported by ornate columns of orange yellow. This last colour is 
also carried through the picture by means of the vases on the parapet, 
the robe of Saint Sebastian, and the staff and shoes of Saint Roch. 
The prevailing tones of the landscape are rather dark grays and 
neutral greens, enlivened by the red roofs of the buildings in the mid- 
dle distance. The halos of the Madonna and saints are narrow lines 
of gold. The Child's halo is cruciform. A Turkish rug with pre- 
vailing tones of red, black, and greens of various shades falls from 
the step and lies on the pavement, which is of black and white marble 
slabs, separated and bordered with narrow bands of neutral green. 



78 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

This picture belonged to the Hemenway family of Boston, and was 
transferred from panel to canvas probably about 1 862 . A letter from 
James J. Jarves, dated June i2 ; 1862, refers to the transferring from 
panel to canvas of a picture which he calls " a rare and beautiful 
specimen of Ghirlandaio of Florence." There is evidence which 
points to the fact that he refers to the Fogg Museum painting. The 
picture, however, went to pieces badly during the ensuing fifty 
years. In 191 2 it was given to the Fogg Museum by Augustus 
Hemenway, Louis Cabot, and W. E. C. Eustis of Boston. It was 
then transferred once more to a panel and was placed on exhibi- 
tion in the Museum in 1916, in remarkably good condition con- 
sidering the precarious state in which it had been more than once. 
The original surface is in certain parts intact, although in places, 
notably on the Child and on Saint Sebastian, the original paint has 
been replaced. 

As has been said, Domenico Ghirlandaio was succeeded by two 
brothers and a brother-in-law. In the next generation of painters, 
among his followers were his son, Ridolfo Ghirlandaio, who was per- 
haps a stronger painter than any of Domenico's other imitators, 
Raffaelle dei Carli, Alunno di Domenico, whose real name appears 
to have been Bartolommeo di Giovanni, Francesco Granacci, and 
Jacopo del Sellaio. Filippino Lippi was the master of Raffaellino del 
Garbo. One of these above mentioned masters or some other fol- 
lower of Ghirlandaio and Filippino doubtless executed this picture 
(No. 12). It bears a striking resemblance in certain particulars to 
other paintings, notably: Madonna and Saints, Naples, attributed to 
Ghirlandaio, but now thought to be a work of his school; two paint- 
ings in the Berlin Museum (Nos. 87 and 98), attributed to Raf- 
faellino del Garbo, but one of which (No. 98) Mr. Berenson believes 
to be by Sellaio and the other by a journeyman who worked for 
Filippino; Madonna and Saints, Volterra, perhaps by Carli; the 
Pistoia altarpiece, attributed to Lorenzo di Credi; Madonna and 
Saints, Academy, Florence (No. 66), Madonna and Saints, Uffizi 
Gallery (No. 1297), both by Domenico Ghirlandaio. This perhaps 
indicates that the design originated in Ghirlandaio's studio. As the 
types are more closely connected with the Filippino atelier, it would 
seem to show that the picture was executed by an eclectic follower of 
Ghirlandaio and Filippino. 




12 ECLECTIC FOLLOWER OF GHIRLANDAIO AND FILIPPINO LIPPI 



FOLLOWER OF GHIRLANDAIO AND FILIPPINO LIPPI 79 

The flowers in the vases are pink carnations, jasmine, and myrtle. 
Myrtle was one of the Madonna's flowers and symbolized her purity 
and other virtues. The jasmine, though not strictly a sacred flower, 
is often found in religious paintings — the star-shaped blossom ap- 
parently symbolized divine hope or heavenly joy. It is often found 
with roses and lilies beside the Madonna. The carnation had no 
definite symbolic meaning, but was frequently used instead of the 
rose; then it had the same significance as the rose, the symbol of 
divine love, sacred to the Madonna. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (1), 97. 
Howorth, G. On the restoration of oil paintings, with a few practical hints 
to the owners of pictures, 2d ed. Boston, 1864. 12. 



"PARIS MASTER" (?) 
xv century 

" Paris Master " is the name adopted by Dr. Paul Schubring for 
the painter of a series of cassone panels which heretofore have been 
considered close either to Cosimo Rosselli or Utili da Faenza. In 
Dr. Schubring's book, Cassoni, which appeared in 191 5, he points out 
that the work of this master finds its inspiration in Greek mythology, 
from which he draws the most delightful episodes for his pictures. In 
these panels the landscape backgrounds are usually suffused with 
brilliant light, in which mountain scenery, trees and flowers are well 
represented. The master has conceived a sort of earthly Paradise in 
which one meets happy Florentine princes. Dr. Schubring thinks 
that the out-of-door quality of the panels points on the one hand to 
the influence of Domenico Veneziano, and on the other to that of 
Neri di Bicci, who was the master of Cosimo Rosselli. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Schubring, P. Cassoni. Leipsic, 1915. i, 109; 260-265, Nos. 163-185; ii, 
PI. xxxiii-xxxviii. 

13 JUDGMENT OF PARIS 

Tempera. Panel transferred to canvas. H. 25! in. W.43xi"i- (65.1 X 
1 10.9 cm.) 

On the left are Juno, Venus, and Minerva disputing about the 
apple, on which there is the partially effaced inscription: TH KAAH 
(Tg Kakfj). Jupiter, who stands with the three goddesses, advises 
them to abide by the decision of the handsomest of men, the herds- 
man Paris. On the right the goddesses stand before Paris, who is 
seated on a tree stump with his dog and herds near by. He is holding 
out the apple to Venus. Here, as often in mediaeval and Renais- 
sance Italian paintings, different parts of the same story are repre- 
sented in the same picture, by what has been called " the continuous 
method of representation." This is the only instance in the Gallery 
which illustrates this custom. 

The most brilliant spot of colour in the picture is furnished by the 
gorgeous vermilion hose of Paris. The pale green blue of the tunic of 



"PARIS MASTER" (?) 8 1 

Paris is repeated in the mantle of Jupiter and echoed again in the far 
fields, distant mountains, and sky. Jupiter wears a gorgeous robe 
and head-dress of gold and red. This same combination of red and 
gold appears in the head-dresses of Juno and Venus, in the apple, and 
in the collar of the dog. The peacock feathers on Juno's dark green 
gown are wrought in gold also. Her mantle is violet red in the 
shadow and neutral green in the light, and her shoes are red. Venus 
wears the brightest garments of the three goddesses. Her gown is 
yellow in the light and red in the shadows. Minerva, in a white 
gown and tunic of dark blue green, wears the soberest colours. The 
golden flowers embroidered on her tunic in the scene where Paris is 
making his choice are designed in the same way as the little white 
flowers spotted over the dark brownish green grass of the field. This 
colour is carried up into the upper half of the picture by means of the 
foliage. Two of the cows and a calf on the right-hand side are neutral 
red. A series of warm grays runs across the picture. This tone 
appears with varied modifications in three of the cows, the goat, the 
dog, in the nearer mountains and meadows, in the sky at the horizon, 
in the cloak which Paris wears over his blue tunic, in the scarf of 
Juno, and in the hair and beard of Jupiter. 

The picture was formerly in the collection of Charles Butler, which 
was sold in London in 1911. Dr. Schubring speaks of it as in the 
John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia, which is an error. It was 
placed in the Museum in 1 916 as a loan. 

The picture is of especial interest, as it represents a secular subject 
and illustrates the classical spirit that was creeping into Florence at 
this time. Cosimo de' Medici had originated the idea of the Pla- 
tonic Academy after his meeting with the Greek, Georgios Gemistos, 
in 1439, and had educated Marsilio Ficino to interpret Greek phi- 
losophy. Lorenzo de' Medici, Pico della Mirandola, Angelo Poliziano, 
and Leo Battista Alberti were much interested in the revival of learn- 
ing and the study of the classics. Botticelli, Pier di Cosimo, and 
others among the great masters painted pictures representing the 
Greek myths. Even in the earlier days of Paolo Uccello the custom 
existed of decorating with paintings cassoni or bridal chests, other 
furniture, and wall panels. These were often decorated by the 
second-rate men, but occasionally some of the great artists like 



82 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

Pesellino painted them. The subjects were seldom religious; more 
often artists represented allegories, legends, mythological scenes, and 
contemporary festivities, such as pageants, feasts, and tournaments. 
It is difficult to tell whether this panel of the Judgment of Paris 
was used to decorate a wall or whether it was a panel in a cassone 
or other piece of furniture. 

EXHIBITED 

London. Burlington House, 1887. 

London. New Gallery, 1893-1894. Exhibition of early Italian art from 1300 to 
1500. Catalogue. 27, No. 142. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Schubring. i, 261-262, No. 168, Reproduction (ii, PL xxxv). 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (1), 97. 

Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 17, Reproduction (15). 

L'Arte. Rome, Jan.-Feb., 1917. xx (1), 64. 

Butler, C. Catalogue of [his] highly important pictures by old masters 

which will be sold by auction by Messrs. Christie, Manson, and Woods 

... on May 25 and May 26, 1911. 10, No. 26. 
Mather, F. J., Jr. Bride-chests of Renaissance Italy. Arts and decoration. 

New York, Dec, 1915. vi (2), Reproduction (Frontispiece). 
Nation. March 18, 1915. 314. (Utili da Faenza.) 
Reinach. Repertoire de peintures. i, 638, Reproduction. 



LORENZO DI CREDI (?) 

Lorenzo d'Andrea d'Oderigo Credi was born in Florence in 1457. 
He came of a family of goldsmiths; he himself probably started 
life in that calling in his father's workshop. At his father's death 
he became assistant to Verrocchio, the great painter-goldsmith and 
sculptor, in whose workshop he had the privilege of being a fellow 
student with Leonardo da Vinci and Perugino. Credi was a con- 
scientious, laborious painter of highly finished oil easel pictures, 
chiefly of religious subjects. Sometimes his colour is fine, often it is 
inharmonious. His drawings show that he had a sense of beauty, but 
his paintings are seldom inspiring. He was a faithful friend and fol- 
lower of Verrocchio. In his old age he was employed to restore 
pictures by the earlier men. He died in Florence in 1537. 

Vasari gives the following account of his methods, which incident- 
ally gives evidence concerning the practice of other painters of that 
day: " Lorenzo was not anxious to undertake many large works, but 
took great pains in the execution of all that he did, and subjected 
himself to almost inconceivable labours for that purpose; he had his 
colours more particularly ground to excessive fineness, carefully 
purifying and distilling the nut-oil with which he mixed them; he 
would place a vast number of colours on his palette, arranging them 
from the palest of light tints to the deepest of the dark colours, grad- 
uating them with what must needs be called a too minute and super- 
fluous care, until he would sometimes have as much as twenty-five or 
thirty on his palette at one time, and for every tint he had a separate 
pencil. Wherever Lorenzo was working, he would suffer no move- 
ment to be made that would occasion dust to rise; but all this excess 
of care is perhaps little more worthy of praise than negligence, for 
there should in all things be observed a certain measure, and it 
is always good to avoid extremes, which are, for the most part, 
injurious." 

Credi is represented in this country by paintings in the Metro- 
politan Museum; in the collection of Mrs. John L. Gardner, Boston; 
in the Holden collection, Cleveland; in the P. A. B. Widener collec- 
tion, Philadelphia; and in the collections of Otto H. Kahn and Mrs. 
C. P. Huntington, New York. 



84 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, B. Drawings of the Florentine painters. London, 1903. i, 41- 

48; ii, Nos. 671-734. 
Fry, R. E. A tondo by Lorenzo di Credi. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum 

of Art. New York, Oct., 1909. iv (10), 186-188. 
Gronatj, G. In Thieme-Becker. Ktinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1913. viii, 73-77. 
Loeser, C. L'autoritratto di Lorenzo di Credi. Atto di nascita dell' artista. 

L'Arte. Rome, 1901. iv, 135-137. 
Ross, D. W. A drawing by Lorenzo di Credi. Museum of Fine Arts bulletin. 

Boston, Aug., 1911. ix (52), 36-37. 

14 THE ANNUNCIATION 

Lent by W. E. C. Eustis. 

Oil on panel. H. 13^ in. W. 10^ in. (33.2 X 25.5 cm.) Measure- 
ments inside frame. 

The bright rose red gown of the angel is the strongest colour in the 
picture; it even overpowers the vermilion in the covering of the bed. 
The Madonna wears a neutral violet gown, the colour of which is 
not unlike that of the architectural setting of the room. Her cloak 
is pale blue. This pale blue and neutral violet both occur in the 
angel's wings, and the violet appears in the shadows of the fluttering 
mantle over his shoulders and the clouds on which his feet rest. The 
floor is of a subdued red violet, and notes of yellow and brown occur 
in the lining of the Madonna's mantle, the hair of the angel and of 
the Madonna, the chair and the ledge around the bed. The Dove 
and the curtain are a somewhat pearly gray, much like the angel's 
mantle. The canopy of the bed is green. The sky seen through 
the window is pale blue. 

On the canopy of the bed is an inscription in Latin. On the 
side of the Virgin's chair is the date mcccccvhi (1508). At the base 
of the picture is a quotation from Saint Jerome's Commentary on the 
Gospel of Saint Matthew, ix, 9: "Certe fulgor ipse, et majestas di- 
vinitatis occultae quae etiam in humana facie refulgebat [relucebat 
in original] ex primo ad se videntes trahere poterat aspectu." Writ- 
ten on paper and formerly pasted on to the back of the panel, but 
now removed, were the four letters of the Latin correspondence of 
Saint Ignatius with Saint John and the Virgin and a selection on 
Saint Ignatius from Saint Jerome's Liber de Viris Inlustribus, 
chapter xvi. 




14 LORENZO DI CREDI (?) 




15 MARIOTTO ALBERTINELLI 



LORENZO DI CREDI (?) 85 

The picture was lent to the Museum for a few months in 1910 by 
W. E. C. Eustis of Boston. In 1915 it was again placed in the 
Museum as a loan. 

There is a difference of opinion among critics as to the authorship 
of the panel, and there is a good deal of doubt as to whether it is by 
Lorenzo di Credi himself. It has been called an early work of Credi, 
also the work of a late follower of this master. In both cases the 
opinion was based on a photograph of the picture. 

MENTIONED 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 17. 



MARIOTTO ALBERTINELLI 

1474-1515 

Mariotto di Bigio di Bindo Albertinelli was born in 1474. He 
began life as a gold beater, but soon entered the workshop of the 
painter, Cosimo Rosselli. There he became intimate with his fellow 
pupil, Baccio della Porta, commonly known as Fra Bartolommeo, 
and they formed a partnership perhaps about 1493- - Save for a brief 
separation in 1494, the two artists worked together until 1500, when 
Baccio, through the influence of Savonarola, joined the community 
of San Marco of the Dominican order, under the name of Fra Bar- 
tolommeo. The partnership was renewed in 1509, when Fra Bar- 
tolommeo asked for Albertinelli's help in reorganizing the atelier of 
San Marco. In 151 2 the two men separated again. According to 
Vasari, Albertinelli, in a fit of disgust and ill-temper, decided to keep 
an inn. This freak did not last long, and in March, 15 13, he was 
painting again. Vasari further relates how Albertinelli, on his way 
home from Rome, was seized with a sickness at Viterbo and was 
carried in a Utter back to Florence, where he died in November, 1515. 

Little work in fresco by Albertinelli has been preserved; his panel 
pictures are scattered over Europe. In this country he is represented 
by a Nativity, in the John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia, and 
a figure of the Virgin Annunciate in the Untermeyer collection at 
Yonkers, N. Y. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, B. Drawings of the Florentine painters. London, 1903. i, 141- 

143; ii, Nos. 1-20. 
Frizzoni, G. La pinacoteca Strossmayer nell' Accademia di scienze ed arti 

in Agram. L'Arte. Rome, Nov.-Dec, 1904. vii, N. S.,i (11-12), 435-436. 
Grthter, G. Fra Bartolommeo della Porta et Mariotto Albertinelli. Paris, 

1886. 
Knapp, F. In Thieme-Becker. Kiinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1907. i, 213-215. 
Fra Bartolommeo della Porta und die Schule von San Marco. Halle a. S., 

1903. 205-234. 

15 SACRIFICE OF CAIN AND ABEL 

Oil on panel. H. 8§ in. W. 13H in. (21.6 X 35.4 cm.) 

Abel in a rich blue tunic kneels before his burnt offering. The red 
flame burns brightly and the smoke ascends straight up to the illu- 



MARIOTTO ALBERTINELLI 87 

minated yellowish cloud at the top of the picture. A red flame is seen 
in the clouds on the left and a bolt of fire descends to help his sacrifice 
to burn. Cain, a bearded man clad in a violet tunic, fiercely blows 
his fire, but the smoke comes back into his face. An orange yellow 
mantle lies on the ground in front of the gray brown altar. The field 
and trees are of a greener brown. The old yellow varnish still re- 
maining over parts of the picture neutralizes the delicate white 
clouds in the background. The sky, where the varnish has been 
removed, is of a wonderfully luminous, pale turquoise blue. The 
Sacrifice of Cain and Abel, like most Old Testament subjects, is 
seldom represented except in a series. This panel is the size of a 
predella panel and probably was once part of an altarpiece. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle in their Life of Raphael list the painting 
as in the possession of the art dealer Signor Enrico Baseggio, Rome. 
According to Passavant the picture may have been at one time in 
the Aldobrandini collection, Rome; later it was in the hands of Mr. 
Emerson, a London dealer; in 1844 Signor Baseggio owned it. It 
was placed in the Fogg Museum in 1906. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle attribute the picture to Raphael, and 
associate it with the Knight's Dream in the National Gallery as one 
of his earliest existing works; they describe it at length and praise 
its beauty. Passavant attributes it to Raphael, v. i, 65-66; v. ii, 16, 
No. 13, and dates it between 1500 and 1504; but in v. iii questions 
the attribution. Modern critics believe that the picture is Floren- 
tine. Charles Loeser was the first to suggest Albertinelli as the 
painter of the panel, though others believe that it may be by Fra 
Bartolommeo or Bacchiacca. The Albertinelli attribution on the 
whole seems the most probable. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 24, No. 4, Repro- 
duction. 

Breck. Rassegna d'arte. Oct., 1909. 171, Reproduction. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle. Raphael. London, 1882. i, 202-204. 

Passavant, J. D. Raphael von Urbino. Leipsic, 1839-1858. i, 65-66; ii, 
16, No. 13; iii, 158. 



88 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1908. vi, 143. 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1910. 2d ser., xiv (1), 137. 

Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 17. 

Berenson. Florentine painters, 3d ed. in. (Attributed to Fra Bartolommeo.) 

Bernath. New York, und Boston. 82. 

Bibliograeia. L'Arte. Rome, Nov.-Dec, 1909. xii (6), 480, No. 204. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle. History of painting in Italy; ed. by Tancred 

Borenius. 1914. vi, 98, note 3. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 1911. 55. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. Boston, Dec, 1906. xv (58), 286. 



SCIPIONE PULZONE, CALLED GAETANO 

ISS0(?)-IS88(?) 

Scipione Pulzone, called Gaetano, was born in Gaeta probably in 
1550. He was trained in the studio of Jacopo del Conte, a follower 
of Andrea del Sarto, and represented the finer Florentine tradition. 
In addition to historical and religious subjects he painted portraits, 
for which, he was especially noted. It is said that he painted por- 
traits of all the principal cardinals of the Roman court, of the 
secular princes, and of all the noble ladies of Rome. He was a careful 
and competent draughtsman, though lacking in inspiration. He 
died in Rome probably about 1588. All Rome grieved at his death. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Dominici, B. de. Vite dei pittori, scultori, ed architetti napoletani. Naples, 

1843. ii, 273-278. 
Lanzi, L. History of painting in Italy; tr. by Thomas Roscoe. New ed. 

London, 1852. i, 408-409. 

16 PORTRAIT OF A CARDINAL 

Oil on canvas. H. 53^ in. W. 41 & in. (134.7 X 104.6 cm.) 
The cardinal's white rochet is mellowed with age; his mozzetta is 
very dark green, almost black. His biretta is red. The chair is dark 
violet red; the braid and fringe- here, as generally in later pictures, is 
made to represent gold by the skilful use of yellow and brown paint 
instead of by the actual use of gold leaf. The background is very 
dark brown with deep violet red drapery at the left. The painting 
is signed on the scroll which the cardinal holds in his hand: All' 
Ill. mo et N" Sig. or II S° Card. Alessandino Scipio Gaetano facto 1586. 
The portrait was formerly in the collection of the Prince Sciarra, 
Rome, and was placed in the Museum in 1905. 

As already stated, the cardinal is represented in a rochet, mozzetta, 
and biretta. The rochet is a close-fitting vestment of linen or lawn, 
worn by bishops and some others. It reaches to the knees or lower, 
and has close sleeves extending to the wrists, or is sleeveless. The 
mozzetta is a short ecclesiastical vestment or cape which covers the 
shoulders and can be buttoned over the breast, and to which a hood 



90 FLORENTINE PAINTING 

is attached. It is worn by the pope, cardinals, bishops, abbots, and 
some other prelates who are especially privileged by custom or papal 
authority. A biretta is a square cap with three ridges or sometimes 
peaks on its upper surface, now commonly worn by clerics of all 
grades from cardinals downwards. 

MENTIONED 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 27, No. 20. 
Breck. Rassegna d'arte. Oct., 1909. 171. 




16 SCIPIONE PULZONE, CALLED GAETANO 



SIENESE PAINTING 



SIENESE PAINTING 

THE Sienese was probably the earliest of the great Italian schools. 
Inspired by Byzantine and Siculo-Byzantine art, independent 
painting began in Siena in the early xm century, first in the decora- 
tion of missals, then in more monumental work on panels. In the 
Palazzo Pubblico there is a Madonna by Guido da Siena, dated 
1 22 1, and though the authenticity of the date has been questioned, 
the probability is that Guido worked and surrounded himself with a 
definable school in the first quarter of the century. By the end of the 
Dugento the school was in full development, headed by Duccio, and 
it flourished most brilliantly in the first half of the xiv century. 
Then politically and commercially the city fell into a decline, and 
though significant art continued, it did not in an historical sense 
progress. Instead of unfolding into Renaissance painting, it merely 
borrowed Renaissance phraseology for the expression of mediaeval 
ideals. Unlike the Umbrian school, the Sienese was unable or un- 
willing to assimilate foreign ideas, and although the xv century 
school shows an increasing tendency to imitate Florentine and espe- 
cially Umbrian forms, this tendency led to obliteration of the native 
art rather than to its healthy development. Even in the late xv and 
early xvi century the greatest artists were those who had most in 
common with the earliest, and the end of the school came when the 
Sienese painters became wholly susceptible to outside influence. 
To understand and appreciate the painting of Siena one should 
think of it as the culmination of the art of the Middle Ages rather 
than as a promise of anything modern. Therein lies the difference 
which caused so great a gulf between the art of Siena and that of 
contemporary Florence, only forty miles away. Sienese art may be 
regarded as the most perfect expression of the Byzantine ideal. It 
was hieratic and mystic. While Giotto was forecasting the develop- 
ment of modern art by studying nature and making his figures act 
like the real people whom he saw about him, Duccio and Simone 
Martini were sounding the Byzantine creed that the Christian 



94 SIENESE PAINTING 

saints were not human but divine, not " vulgar " but regal, not 
approachable but aloof. To the early Sienese as to the Byzantine, 
the Raphaelesque conception of the Madonna as the most tender 
possible human mother would have been blasphemous bad taste. 
Siena, the Civitas Virginis, the city of Saint Catherine, of Fra 
Filippo of the Assempri, of San Bernardino, was dedicated to Chris- 
tian mysticism. Artistically, as well as philosophically, it was indif- 
ferent to reality, or rather it was interested not in commonplace but 
in divine reality. What frequently appears as unnatural in Sienese 
art is but an attempt to symbolize the mysteries. To the modern 
critic, the Sienese would have made the Taoist reply: " Can there be 
anything that is not natural ? " 

To express these ideals the Sienese found the predominantly linear 
mode of Byzantium perfectly adapted. Though the artists modelled 
their important surfaces in very low relief, they seem to have thought 
largely in terms of flat tones defined by line, and at times all model- 
ling of the surface was eliminated. With this linear mode went a 
Byzantine sumptuousness of decoration and material, a lavish use of 
gold, ultramarine, and even precious stones. A picture was a work 
of devotion, vowed to a Divine Being, and no embellishment within 
the means of the donor was too costly for it. Though the successors 
of Duccio painted in fresco as well as tempera, one cannot but feel 
that the latter is the more significant Sienese technique. 

Although Sienese art was founded on Byzantine, and was in a 
sense the culmination of Byzantine, it was nevertheless a Gothic art. 
In other words, it belonged to its period, but it selected certain ele- 
ments of Gothic style for emphasis. In Florence, Giotto was inspired 
by the plasticity of Gothic art and its naturalism. In Siena, Duccio 
and his followers developed the Gothic living line and later, the 
emotionalism of Gothic spirit. Thus both Florentines and Sienese 
were Gothic, but in a different way. 

It was inevitable that a school following a distinctly linear tradi- 
tion should neglect Gothic monumentality and sense of form to 
become vibrant with Gothic line. Line became the most powerful 
vehicle of Sienese expression. Sienese artists played symphonies in 
line, achieving harmonies in it by the repetition of the same linear 
forms in various dimensions throughout a painting. Line was used 
to express emotion and mysticism, and the painters would even 



SIENESE PAINTING 



95 



arrange strong contrasts of types of line, harmonious and graceful 
on the one hand, violent and angular on the other, to convey different 
spiritual effects. 

This linear quality and indifference to plastic reality, as well as the 
mystic expression, brought Sienese painting more nearly than that of 
any other occidental school into harmony with the art of Asia. 
Technically as well as spiritually the Sienese approached the artistic 
abstractions of China and Japan. Like the Oriental, the Sienese 
painted types rather than individuals. He tended to eliminate 
rather than elaborate. In short he tried to " express the organic 
continuity of consciousness rather than the functional individuality 
of matter; to realize ideas rather than to idealize or sentimentalize 
realities." * One might imagine a Chinese of the xrv century, a lover 
of Sung art, miraculously transported to western Europe and wander- 
ing in bewilderment among the art treasures of the Occident, seeking 
in vain for understanding, sympathy, or even interest. Were he to 
find such a painting as the Sant' Ansano Annunciation of Simone 
Martini, however, he would pause, for he could receive its message. 
Sienese art is thus in a sense a Chinvat bridge spanning the abyss of 
miscomprehension between the artistic ideals of the West and of the 
East. 

The analogies between Sienese and oriental art have been observed 
by practically every writer on the Sienese school. They have been 
tacitly attributed, however, to accidental similarities in ideals and 
modes in Siena and the East. As yet no one has been bold enough to 
suggest an influence derived from actual contact with eastern art, 
but such contact is not beyond the bounds of possibility. In the 
xm and xrv centuries overland communication with the Nearer East 
and with China was common and secure. Merchants like the Polos, 
prelates like John of Monte Corvino, Andrew of Perugia, and Friar 
Odoric of Friuli, readily found the way to Cathay, as China was then 
called. Pekin was made a Roman Catholic diocese, and Pegolotti of 
the Bardi banking house in Florence was moved to write a traveller's 
itinerary, remarkably like a modern Baedeker, giving the most 
minute instructions as to inns, food, servants, and so forth, on the 
route from Constantinople to Pekin. Moslems like Ibn Batuta tra- 
velled as widely as Christians, and oriental travellers visited the Occi- 

1 ]. E. L. Museum of Fine Arts bulletin. Boston, Dec, 1917, p. 72. 



Duccio di 
Buoninsegna 
ab. 1255-1319 



Ugolino da 

Siena 

V)-I339V) 

Segna di 

Bonavenlwa 

active 

1305-^326 

Simone 
Martini 
ab. 1283-1344 



96 SIENESE PAINTING 

dent. Thus Bar Sauma, a Nestorian of Pekin, visited the pope in 
1287, and passed through Tuscany on his way to Paris and Bordeaux 
two years after Duccio painted the Rucellai Madonna. Not only 
the Nearer East and China but India was opened to the European, 
and we hear of the martyrdom in the early xiv century of one Bro- 
ther Peter of Siena at a place near Bombay. It was not until the end 
of the xrv and the beginning of the xv century that the conversion of 
the western Tartars to Islam, the advance of the Seljuk Turks, and 
the overthrow of the broad-minded, hospitable Mongol dynasty in 
China closed the overland trade routes. During the next hundred and 
fifty years, while the sea routes were being discovered, Europe seems 
largely to have forgotten the existence of the Orient. Wild as the 
theory may sound, therefore, it is possible that actual contact with 
oriental art may account not only for the occasional Mongolian types 
and bits of oriental armour to be observed in Sienese art, but even for 
something of the spirit of the style. It would, however, be hard to 
explain why the influence should be confined to Siena, and though 
the theory is not impossible, it is not necessary. 

The first master clearly to express the Sienese ideals was Duccio di 
Buoninsegna, who painted the Rucellai Madonna for Santa Maria 
Novella in Florence in 1285, and in 13 11 finished his great Majestas, 
which was carried in triumph through the streets of Siena to the 
sound of pealing trumpets and clashing cymbals, and placed over the 
high altar in the Duomo. Duccio worked always in tempera. He 
was a master of all that makes Sienese art great, appearing as the 
finished product of mediaeval art, rather than as in any sense archaic. 
He had a strong sense of dramatic composition; but, unlike Giotto of 
Florence, who chose to depend on a few solidly painted figures, he 
preferred to balance mass against a single figure in a way that again 
reminds us of the Orient. He established a flourishing school, and 
two of his contemporaries, Ugolino da Siena and Segna di Bona- 
ventura, are specially worthy of mention. 

The mantle of Duccio descended on Simone Martini, a master who 
travelled widely in Italy, influencing many contemporaries. Toward 
the end of his career, he joined the papal court at Avignon, where he 
met Petrarch, painted Laura, and taught Sienese ideals and conven- 
tions to the craftsmen of a dozen countries. He died at Avignon in 
1344. He was a less coherent narrative composer than Duccio, but 



SIENESE PAINTING 



97 



in everything else he equalled or surpassed him. Moreover, he 
painted monumental works in fresco, as well as tempera panels. His 
most famous frescoes are the Majestas and the equestrian portrait of 
Guidoriccio Fogliani in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena, and the cycle 
of scenes from the life of Saint Martin in Saint Francis at Assisi. 
Probably the greatest of his many tempera works is the Sant' Ansano 
Annunciation, perhaps the most complete single expression of the 
Sienese genius. Simone was assisted in much of his work by his 
somewhat less able, but nevertheless gifted brother-in-law, Lippo 
Memmi. Lippo did many independent works as well, among them 
the stately frescoed Majestas at San Gimignano. 

With the advent of the next two important Sienese masters, Pietro 
and Ambrogio Lorenzetti, the old Sienese spirit was tempered. Al- 
though the old ideals of hierarchy and aristocracy were to a certain 
extent retained, the Lorenzetti brought art nearer to earth. Pietro 
was strongly affected by flamboyant Gothic emotionalism, and at 
times offends by an over-dramatic, one might almost say melo- 
dramatic effect. His spirit was anecdotic. Ambrogio, the more 
powerful artist, was didactic, preaching the beliefs of the Sienese 
ruling class. A Madonna by him remains a queen, but becomes a 
terrestrial one. He was influenced by the sculpture of Giovanni 
Pisano, and in his many Madonna compositions, like the Madonna 
del Latte (Madonna giving the Breast), succeeds in combining ten- 
derness and grace with aristocracy. He profoundly influenced the 
Florentine Bernardo Daddi, and through him the painting of Um- 
bria. Indeed the influence of the Lorenzetti was wide spread, show- 
ing clearly in such famous works as the Triumph of Death in the 
Pisan Campo Santo, an anonymous work possibly by Francesco 
Traini. 

Throughout the xrv century Siena was teeming with artists, and 
in this period it is not too much to say that the city held the dom- 
inating position in the art of the peninsula. Besides the great names 
already mentioned, there were many minor painters of interest and 
worth, who reflected the art of one or more of the major artists. 
Thus Barna Senese, a highly original artist about whom little is 
known, decorated the Collegiata at San Gimignano with frescoes 
which recall the dramatic mass compositions of Duccio and the inten- 
sity of Simone. Near to him in style was Luca di Tomme, a sub- 



Lippo Memmi 
(f)-i357in 



Pietro 
Lorenzetti 
active 
1306-1348 



Ambrogio 
Lorenzetti 
active 



Francesco 
Traini 
middle of 
xiv c. 



Barna Senese 
active oh. 
1360-1380 

Luca di 
Tomme, active 
1355-1392 



9 8 



SIENESE PAINTING 



Lippo Vanni 
middle of 
xiv c. 

Giacomo di 
Mino, active 
1362-1380 

Bartolo di 

Fredi 

ab. 1330-1410 

Andrea Vanni 

ab. 1332-1414 

Paolo di 
Giovanni Fei 
active 
1372-1410 

Taddeo di 

Bartolo, 

ab. 1363-1422 

Marlino di 

Bartolommeo 

active 

1389-1433 

Sassetta 

1392-1450 



Domenico di 
Bartolo 
1400-ab. 1450 



Lorenzo 
Vecchielta 
ab. 1412-1480 
Sano di Pietro 
1406-1481 



stantial painter in a Simonesque vein, and Lippo Vanni, an artist 
who approached the art of Simone still more closely. A pupil who 
revived the glowing colour of Simone was Giacomo di Mino. 

Two painters who worked together and influenced later art were 
Bartolo di Fredi and Andrea Vanni. Bartolo, a chatty, prolific 
artist, was very unequal, at times exquisite, at times laughably 
awkward. Andrea, the friend and portraitist of Saint Catherine, 
was a politician and diplomat, whose works are rare. Those that 
remain show a simplification of Simone's line, and a colour scheme of 
low intensity but great harmony. A third painter, who should be 
mentioned for his influence on later art, was Paolo di Giovanni Fei, 
the master of Giovanni di Paolo. 

At the turn of the century the commanding personalities were 
Taddeo di Bartolo and Stefano di Giovanni, called Sassetta. Taddeo 
was a widely travelled artist and a great disseminator of Sienese 
influence. He was a solid, able craftsman, with the appeal of unmis- 
takable sincerity, if not of genius. He inspired the mediocre Martino 
di Bartolommeo. Sassetta, on the other hand, was an artist of 
unquestionable genius. He lived in the period of the early Renais- 
sance, but he was purely mediaeval in feeling. A pupil of the 
uninspired Fei, he none the less inherited the best traditions of 
Duccio and Simone, and revived the living line, delicate colour, and 
significant composition of the earlier school. In spirit as in date he 
had much in common with Fra Angelico in Florence, though he was 
far subtler. He left it to his less gifted contemporary, Domenico di 
Bartolo Ghezzi, to inaugurate the Renaissance in Siena. Domenico 
was a naive realist, with no sense of composition, who sought to 
prove himself abreast of the times by crowding his frescoes with 
pseudo-classical detail. He is happiest in his panels, and on a trip to 
Umbria deeply influenced the Perugian painters, especially Boccatis. 

One of the most influential artists of the early Renaissance was 
Lorenzo Vecchietta, a pupil of Sassetta, who combined the fairy-like 
quality of his master with Domenico di Bartolo's classicism. An- 
other of Sassetta's pupils, Sano di Pietro, became the most devo- 
tional, in an obvious way, of the Renaissance Sienese. He reverted 
entirely to the Middle Ages, observing even a hieratic scale in the 
size of figures, and painted cherry-eyed saints in gorgeous flat robes 
to be adored by a not too discriminating bourgeoisie. As a contrast 



SIENESE PAINTING 



99 



to him one might select the pupil of Fei, Giovanni di Paolo, an 
unequal artist of extreme originality, who at times was capable of the 
most fairy-like works in the most charming colours, and at times 
was absurd, tasteless, and even brutal. 

By far the most progressive Sienese of the Renaissance was Matteo 
di Giovanni, a pupil of Vecchietta. Matteo studied under the great 
Umbrian, Pier dei Franceschi, and succeeded in assimilating Umbro- 
Florentine influences without destroying the native flavour of his 
art. His trade was the painting of astoundingly wistful Madon- 
nas, who show an almost Neoplatonic melancholy; but his several 
compositions of the Slaughter of the Innocents show that he was 
capable of unrestrained violence. He influenced many artists and 
inspired one imitator, Guidoccio Cozzarelli, who at times, in his best 
works, can be confused with the master. 

Two other artists of the second half of the century, Francesco di 
Giorgio and Neroccio di Landi, were less progressive, and perhaps for 
that reason more typically Sienese. They were copartners, and 
pupils of Vecchietta. Francesco was an architect and engineer, and 
not a prolific painter. In painting, in order to obtain exotic effects, 
he distorted the classical detail which he proportioned so justly in 
his buildings. His colour was clear and fine, his types melancholy 
and appealing. Neroccio has been called Simone born again. No 
Sienese used line more vital and suggestive, colour clearer and fresher, 
types more appealing in their languid, wistful grace. Nevertheless, 
there is a suggestion of ill health in the art, not a repulsive ill health, 
but a gentle neurasthenia suggesting artistic inbreeding. The school 
had passed the thoroughbred stage and the end was approaching. 
Little presage of it is felt, however, in the art of Benvenuto di Gio- 
vanni, another pupil of Vecchietta, who painted with a fine sense of 
decoration, and in his earlier period in a clear, rich colour scheme. 
His types have the appeal of pretty children. Toward the end of his 
career he attempted the pompous, and changed his palette to a dark 
and even sooty one. It is unfortunate that it is in this stage that he 
had the greatest influence on his son and pupil, Girolamo di Ben- 
venuto, who only occasionally did works that deserve high praise. 

The end came rapidly in Siena. Foreign artists invaded the city, 
chief among them Pintoricchio, who was employed to decorate the 
Piccolomini Library in the Duomo. Sienese artists went over to 



Giovanni di 

Paolo 

ab. 1403-1482 



Matteo di 
Giovanni 
ab. 1430-14.95 



Guidoccio 
Cozzarelli 
1450-1516 

Francesco di 



1439-1502 



Neroccio di 

Landi 

1447-1500 



Benvenuto di 

Giovanni 

1436-1518V) 



Girolamo di 

Benvenuto 

1470-1524(3) 



IOO 



SIENESE PAINTING 



Bernardino 

Fungai 

1460-1516 

Pacchia 
1477-1535 
Pacchiarotto 
1474-1540 



Sodoma 

1477-1540 

Domenico 

Beccafumi 

14S5-1551 



foreign imitation. Bernardino Fungai, a pupil of Giovanni di Paolo, 
was an Umbro-Sienese, crossing the art of his master and of Fran- 
cesco di Giorgio with that of Signorelli and Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. His 
pupil, Pacchia, was an eclectic imitator of Andrea del Sarto, Raphael, 
and others. Pacchiarotto, a pupil of Matteo, aped Perugino as well 
as his immediate predecessors. 

The chief masters of the first half of the xvi century in Siena were 
really Giovanantonio Bazzi, called Sodoma, and Domenico Becca- 
fumi. Sodoma was a Lombard, influenced by Leonardo, who came 
to Siena, and, finding competition slack, remained there. He was a 
slipshod painter, lacking in artistic moral stamina, but able to show 
occasional flashes of brilliance. Beccafumi was an orthodox master, 
highly respected by the burghers, who painted dull, magniloquent 
canvases in a reddish, sooty tonality. He learned the tricks of the 
High Renaissance, a developed chiaroscuro, morbidezza, sfumatura, 
and the like, but had little to say. 

The end of Sienese art was thus ignominious. Much of the stigma 
may be removed, however, if we disregard the aftermath, as indeed we 
should, and consider that the real end came with the death of the im- 
mediate pupils of Vecchietta — Francesco, Neroccio, and Benvenuto. 
In this case we shall see the movement first as one of the great me- 
diaeval schools in the xrv century, then as a delicate, self-absorbed 
school in the xv, the loveliness and significance of which is none the 
less great for its lack of general recognition. Poets, biographers, 
critics, have united to praise and expound the art of Florence; Siena 
has had no Dante, no Vasari, no Ruskin. The Florentine was the 
naturalistic, the progressive school, and deserves its reputation. It 
sounded a note that appealed to all, that all could understand. Its 
motto would have been the Greek one: " Man is the measure of all 
things." Its light should not dazzle us, however, and blind us to the 
beauty and inner significance of the reactionary sister school, whose 
creed may better be found in the words of the Psalmist: " What is 
man, that Thou art mindful of him ? " 

George Harold Edgell. 



SIENESE PAINTING ioi 

The Sienese paintings in the Fogg Museum will be found under Nos. 17-27 
in this Catalogue. 

Among the artists mentioned in the foregoing sketch, the following are rep- 
resented in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and in the collection of Mrs. John 
L. Gardner at Fenway Court. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts: Ugolino da Siena, Madonna and Child; 
Segna di Bonaventura, Magdalene; Lippo Memmi, Crucifixion. (This picture 
is attributed to Lippo Memmi but is more suggestive of Simone Martini.) 
Lippo Memmi, Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine. (This picture is attributed 
to Lippo Memmi but is strongly suggestive of Barna.) Bartolo di Fredi, 
Burial and Assumption of the Madonna; Sano di Pietro, Madonna and Child, 
Madonna and Child and Saints; Guidoccio Cozzarelli, Madonna and Child. 

Fenway Court: Simone Martini, Madonna and Saints; Attributed to 
Pietro Lorenzetti, Madonna and Saints; Andrea Vanni, Saint Elizabeth. 
Giovanni di Paolo, Christ in the Temple. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, B. Central Italian painters of the Renaissance, 2d ed. N. Y., 1909. 

Essays in the study of Sienese painting. N. Y., 1918. 
Douglas, L. History of Siena. London, 1902. 

Heyward, W., and Olcott, L. Guide to Siena; history and art. Siena, 1904. 2 v. 
Jacobsen, E. Das Quattrocento in Siena. Strasburg, 1908. (Zur Kunstge- 
schichte des Auslandes, 59.) 
Sienesische Meister des Trecento in der Gemaldegalerie zu Siena. Stras- 
burg, 1907. (Zur Kunstgeschichte des Auslandes, 51.) 
Sodoma und das Cinquecento in Siena. Strasburg, 1910. (Zur Kunstge- 
schichte des Auslandes, 74.) 
Rothes, W. Die Blutezeit der sienesischen Malerei und ihre Bedeutung fur die 
Entwickelung der italienischen Kunst. Strasburg, 1904. (Zur Kunst- 
geschichte des Auslandes, 25.) 



AMBROGIO LORENZETTI 

Active from 1323 to 1348 

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, the stronger of the two famous brothers, was 
one of the small group of great masters in the first and most remark- 
able period of the art and life of Siena, while the city was powerful 
and important in Italy. Of the life of this artist comparatively little 
is known. The first notice that we have of his activity is a document 
of 1324 concerning the sale of a piece of land. The scant notices and 
inscriptions after this date prove the artist to have been employed in 
and about Siena, except for a stay of two years in Florence, 1332- 
1334, where he matriculated in the Arte de' Medici e Speziali, and a 
journey which he made in 1335 to Cortona to paint frescoes, now 
lost, for the church of Santa Margarita. The most important date in 
Ambrogio's life is 1337-1338, when he began his famous frescoes of 
Good and Bad Government, finished in 1340, in the Sala della Pace 
of the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena. The last document which men- 
tions the artist is one of 1345, noting a payment for some figures 
painted by him for the Camera dei Signori Nove in Siena. The 
strong probability is that Ambrogio and his brother Pietro both 
died of the plague which swept Siena in 1348. 

Ambrogio Lorenzetti is represented in this country in the col- 
lections of Dan Fellows Piatt, Englewood, N. J., and Philip Lehman, 
New York, as well as by the Fogg Museum pinnacle. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cagnola, G. Dipinti ignorati. Rassegnad'artesenese. Siena, 1908. iv(2-3), 

45-46. 
Giglioli, O. H. L'allegoria politica negli affreschi di Ambrogio Lorenzetti. 

Emporium. Bergamo, April, 1904. xix (112), 265-282. 
Jacobsen, E. Sienesische Meister des Trecento in der Gemaldegalerie zu Siena. 

Strasburg, 1907. 33-41. 
Meyenburg, E. von. Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Inaugural dissertation. Zurich, 

1903. 
Perkins, F. M. Di alcune opere poco note di Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Rassegna 

d'arte. Milan, Dec, 1904. iv (12), 186-190. 
Dipinti italiani nella raccolta Piatt. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, Jan., 191 1. 

xi (1), 3~4- 
The forgotten masterpiece of Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Burlington magazine. 
London, April, 1904. v (13), 81-87. 
Schubring, P. Das gute Regiment, Fresko von Ambrogio Lorenzetti in Siena. 
Zeitschr. f. Mid. Kunst. Leipsic, 1902. N. F., xiii, 138-145. 




17 AMBROGIO LORENZETTI 



AMBROGIO LORENZETTI 103 

17 SAINT AGNES 

Tempera on panel. H. 14& in. (to apex). W. of in. (across base). 
(37 X 25 cm.) 

The saint is clad in a red mantle edged with gold ornamented with 
black and red; her diadem is dark, very neutral blue, and her halo is 
incised in the gold background. She carries a shield with the Agnus 
Dei, and the banner of Christ Triumphant. The Lamb has a gold 
halo. As in many pictures in the Gallery the bole under the gold 
appears in parts. 

The painting was bought in Siena by C. Fairfax Murray about 
1880. In iqio it was purchased in Florence, and in 1911 was placed 
in the Fogg Museum as an indefinite loan. 

This painting is a pinnacle torn from a lost altarpiece. The marks 
of the irons by which it was attached to the larger panel are still 
visible on the back. Occasional carelessness in execution may be 
accounted for by the fact that the panel was to occupy a subordinate 
position far from the eye of the spectator. The attribution to 
Ambrogio, based purely on internal evidence, has been generally 
accepted. The figure bears especially close resemblance to the Con- 
cordia in the Allegory of Good Government, painted about 1340. 
The Fogg Museum work appears somewhat more gracious and 
youthful, and probably antedates by a few years Ambrogio's great 
masterpiece. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Edgell, G. H. Un' opera inedita di Ambrogio Lorenzetti. L'Arte. Rome, 
May-June, 1913. xvi (3), 206-207, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. July-Sept., 1913. 2d ser., xvii (3), 467; 

Jan.-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 13. 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. ^ Aug., 1913. 35. 
Burlington magazine. London, Aug., 1913. xxiii (125), 313. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 1911. 54. 
Nation. March 18, 1915. 314- 



SCHOOL OF PIETRO LORENZETTI AND BARNA (?) 

SCHOOL OF PIETRO LORENZETTI 
(Pietro Lorenzetti, active from 1306 to 1348) 

Pietro Lorenzetti was the elder and the less important of the two 
Lorenzetti brothers, active in Siena in the first half of the Trecento. 
The first record of Pietro shows that he was an independent master 
in 1306; it is therefore probable that he was born about 1280. It 
is likely that he was a pupil of Duccio; he shows also the influence 
of Simone Martini, of Giotto, and especially of the sculptor, Giovanni 
Pisano. He was a very prolific painter, both of fresco and panel 
paintings. His work is often hasty, and at times he is over-emotional 
and melodramatic, as in his Passion frescoes at Assisi. But at his 
best he ranks with the three greatest Sienese; his Madonna between 
Saint Francis and Saint John the Evangelist, in San Francesco, Assisi, 
is one of the the finest bits of Sienese painting, and one of the loveliest 
expressions of Siena's deep religious fervour. 

The last mention of Pietro is in the records of 1344; as has already 
been stated, it is probable that he died in the great plague of 1348. 
Pietro Lorenzetti is represented in this country in the Metropolitan 
Museum; in the John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia; and at 
Fenway Court, Boston. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Douglas, L. History of Siena. London, 1902. 363-369. 

Gnoli, U. Un polittico di Pietro Lorenzetti scoperto a Gubbio. Rassegna 

d'arte umbra. Perugia, Jan. 1, 1909. i (1), 22-25. 
Jacobsen, E. Sienesische Meister des Trecento in der Gemaldegalerie zu Siena. 

Strasburg, 1907. 33-41- 
New York. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Bulletm. April, 1914. ix (4), 

99-100. 
Rothes, W. Die Bltitezeit der Sienesischen Malerei. Strasburg, 1904. 
Vasari. Vita di Pietro Laurati (Pietro Lorenzetti) con una introduzione, note 

e bibliografia di F. Mason Perkins. Florence, 1910. 




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< 




H 
H 
W 
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SCHOOL OF PIETRO LORENZETTI 105 

18A DEPOSITION (Face of double panel) 

Tempera on panel. H. 19& in. W. 13H in. (49.7 X 34.8 cm.) includ- 
ing the frame, a plain moulding which is part of the panel. 

The light gay colours of this picture are a little suggestive of the 
colour scheme used in xrv century miniatures. The blues, yellows, 
and pinks are distributed comparatively evenly through the pic- 
ture, whereas the strong vermilion is placed at the lower right-hand 
corner. 

The upright of the cross is orange yellow; the arm is of a greenish 
gray with drops of blood at either end. The body of Christ is of 
green, the palhd overtones having faded for the most part and the 
original terra verde underpainting only remaining. His white, 
transparent drapery is bordered with a thin line of gold. The women 
seated in the foreground, starting at the left, are clad in cloaks of 
blue, rose, green, yellow, and vermilion. The woman on the extreme 
right wears under her vermilion cloak a gown which was probably 
originally blue, though a brown underpainting shows in parts. The 
woman standing at the head of the body of Christ wears a yellow 
gown and a pale blue violet mantle lined with rose. The Madonna, 
who supports the upper part of Christ's body, wears a pale red violet 
gown and a bright blue mantle with a red lining. The gold halos 
have incised decoration. Saint John wears a blue gown and a faded 
rose coloured mantle; Saint Nicodemus a brown gown and a slightly 
warmer rose mantle; his hair and beard are brown. Saint Joseph of 
Arimathea wears a blue gown and holds a white sheet in his hands; 
his hair and beard are greenish white. The flesh throughout shows 
the terra verde underpainting. The angels, which appear to be 
repainted, are clad in varying shades of pale violet, pink, blue, and 
yellow. Two of the angels have wings of yellow and dark brown, 
almost black; the wings of the other two are of dull red violet, 
yellow, and dark brown. The background is gold with an incised 

border. 

The panel was bought in Rome by the Misses Williams of Salem 
some time between i860 and 1872. It was placed on exhibition in the 
Museum in 1915, at the time of the Loan Exhibition of Italian 
Paintings, and was purchased by the Museum in 191 7. 

The face and back of this panel appear to be by different men. The 
Deposition is probably of the School of Pietro Lorenzetti. 



106 SIENESE PAINTING 

The introduction of the angels flying near the cross dated prob- 
ably from about the xn century. Often one of the angels holds a 
chalice in which to receive the sacred blood from the wound in the 
Saviour's side, as in the small triptych attributed to Daddi (No. i). 
On the tablet at the head of the main shaft of the cross is the inscrip- 
tion: IHS Nazaren' Rex Judeo[rum] — the title which Pilate wrote 
and put on the cross. More often simply the initial letters of this 
title — I N R I — are used. Instances of this are seen in the Cruci- 
fixion of the panel of scenes from the life of Christ (No. 2), and in 
the Descent from the Cross (No. 55). 

BARNA (?) 

Active from about 1369 to 1380 

Barna was a follower of Lippo Memmi; he also shows the influence 
of Duccio, of Simone, and of the Lorenzetti. He was a dramatic 
painter of individuality and power. He is best known for his series 
of frescoes depicting scenes from the life of the Virgin and from the 
life of Christ, in the Collegiata, San Gimignano. 

Attributed to Barna in this country are the panels of the Cruci- 
fixion in the Johnson collection, Philadelphia, and in the collection 
of Henry Walters at Baltimore, and a small Madonna and Saints 
belonging to Joseph Lindon Smith of Boston. It is possible also 
that he painted a fine Marriage of Saint Catherine attributed to 
Lippo Memmi, now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Beeenson, B. Catalogue of a collection of paintings and some art objects 

(John G. Johnson collection); Italian paintings. Philadelphia, 1913. i, 

53-54, No. 93. 
Nicola, G. de. In Thieme-Becker. Kunstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1908. ii, 

506-507. _ 
Rothes, W. Die Bliitezeit der sienesischen Malerei. Strasburg, 1904. 
Schlegel, L. de. L'Annunciazione del Berna. L'Arte. Rome, May-June, 

1909. xii (3), 204-207. 

18B " WOMAN, BEHOLD THY SON." (Back of double panel) 
Tempera on panel. H. 19& in. W. 13 H in. (49.7 X 34.8 cm.) 
On a grayish brown ground stands Christ with His hands resting 
on the shoulders of His mother and Saint John. On either side are 



BARNA (?) 107 

Saint Peter in an orange yellow mantle over a blue green tunic, and 
an apostle, probably Saint James the Great, from his resemblance to 
the Saviour, clad in a blue mantle over an orange yellow tunic, thus 
making an interesting balance of colour. Saint John's robe is pale 
green and his mantle rose colour with a red violet lining. The 
Madonna wears a gown of pale pink and a blue green mantle lined 
with red violet. In the centre the figure of Christ is clad in a blue 
green tunic and a rather unusual white mantle lined with yellow; 
white being the colour in which He is represented after His resur- 
rection. Saint Peter's hair is gray and his beard, like the hair of the 
other saints, is yellowish brown. The palms are dark green, touched 
with a pale green, almost white. The background is gold and 
around the edge of the panel is a narrow border of red. 

The incident represented on this panel is related only in the Gospel 
of Saint John (xix, 25-27). "Now there stood by the cross of Jesus 
his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, 
and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and 
the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, 
Woman, behold thy son! Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy 
mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own 
home." The painter of the panel has not given a literal representa- 
tion of the scene. A similar representation of the subject occurs on 
the outside of the left wing of a triptych by Taddeo Gaddi in the 
Berlin Gallery. The incident is one seldom treated by artists. 

This picture seems to show some connection with the work of 
Barna, yet the treatment of the halos indicates that it was perhaps 
painted before his day. It has been suggested that both the face and 
back of the panel were executed by some painter of San Gimignano 
or Pisa who showed Florentine influence as well as that of the great 
Sienese mentioned. 

The history of the panel so far as it is known was given under i8a. 

18 A-B MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1917. xiv, 135. 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (1), 97. 

Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 13. 

Nation. March 18, 1915. 314. 



SCHOOL OF THE LORENZETTI 

The painting numbered 19 has been published by Mr. Berenson, in 
his Essays in the Study of Sienese Painting, and by Mr. F. Mason 
Perkins, in Rassegna d'Arte, March-April, 1917. Mr. Berenson 
attributes the picture to a master who was a pupil of Ugolino and 
later a follower of the Lorenzetti. The two Lorenzetti brothers have 
been described in connection with Nos. 17 and 18. Ugolino was a 
close follower of Duccio, though lacking Duccio's genius, and some- 
what influenced by Simone Martini. To represent the master formed 
by these influences, Mr. Berenson has devised the name Ugolino 
Lorenzetti, active from 1324 to 1335. Around him he has grouped 
a number of pictures, among them an Annunciation and Saints in the 
John G. Johnson collection and a small Tabernacle at Fenway Court, 
attributed to Pietro Lorenzetti. Mr. Berenson thinks that the Fogg 
Museum Nativity was painted about 1335. 

Mr. Perkins points out the eclectic quality of the picture, a char- 
acteristic of almost all the Sienese painting of the middle and late 
Trecento. He considers that the painting is perhaps most closely 
related to the first manner of Bartolo di Fredi, although finer than 
Bartolo's work. He places the picture in the middle Trecento, the 
work of an artist as yet unknown to critics. 

19 THE NATEVITY 

Tempera on panel, arched top. H. 67! in. W. 48! in. (172.4 X 122.3 
cm.) 

The colour scheme of this picture is unusual. The Madonna has a 
mantle of clear rich ultramarine blue bordered with gold over her red 
gown, which also has a gold border. In her halo is the inscription: 
Ave Maria Gratia Plena. Saint Joseph is clad in a striking orange 
yellow cloak over his olive green robe. A lighter blue occurs in the 
border of the window, through which God the Father is seen in the 
sky in a pale blue mantle in the midst of seraphim with orange wings. 
Just above the heads of the Holy Family are two groups of angels 
with red orange and gold wings. The basin and ewer also are of red 
and gold. The remainder of the picture is filled with a series of 
harmonious grays and browns. The shepherd on the right wears a 



.. gppgFS** 




- — . ., | :. t ;*^_~ 

19 SCHOOL OF THE LORENZETTI 



SCHOOL OF THE LORENZETTI 109 

brownish garment and a gray cloak. His hair is reddish brown and 
his staff and his stocking brown. Above him the greenish sleeve of a 
second shepherd and a bit of red drapery are seen. The white pillars 
support a frieze of neutral green with mouldings of rose. The Dove is 
white against a black background. The ox is reddish brown and the 
ass a cold bluish gray. The Baby is wrapped in white swaddling 
clothes. 

The painting was at one time in the collection of Dr. Bonnal of 
Nice; later it was in Rome. It was given to the Fogg Museum by 
certain Friends of the Fogg Museum in the winter of 1916-1917. 

This fine picture is a somewhat puzzling example of the work of 
the early Sienese school in its great period. Duccio, Simone Martini, 
and the two Lorenzetti brothers are the men whose types dominated 
the work of the minor masters. This picture is certainly later than 
Duccio, and only bears a general resemblance to his work. Simone 
Martini influenced all the Sienese artists who came after him and 
among others the man who executed this picture, but it is more 
closely akin to the work of the Lorenzetti brothers. 

The ox and the ass were invariably represented in scenes of the 
Nativity. There is a tradition that they were actually present at the 
birth of Christ, although they are not mentioned by any of the 
Evangelists. They are sometimes considered to signify the homage 
due to Christ from all creatures. Another interpretation is that the 
ox is a symbol of the Jews, the ass of the Gentiles. 

The Madonna wears the prescribed red tunic, which was originally 
richly embroidered, with long sleeves, and a blue mantle. Red, the 
colour of the ruby, signified divine love, while blue, the colour of 
the sapphire, when worn by Christ and the Madonna, was the symbol 
of heavenly love and truth and constancy. The Madonna's hood 
and mantle are continuous. In general, particularly in the early 
pictures, her head was covered with a veil or with her mantle. The 
colours red and blue, or sometimes green, were given to Saint John 
the Evangelist, but unlike the Madonna he wore a blue or green 
robe and a red or rose coloured mantle. 

The colours appropriate to Saint Joseph were a yellow mantle over 
a green or gray tunic. Here he wears a yellow mantle and a green 
tunic. Yellow, or gold, was the symbol of the sun, of the goodness of 



HO SIENESE PAINTING 

God, of marriage and fruitfulness; green, the colour of the emerald, 
symbolized victory and hope, particularly the hope of immortality. 
In the Florentine panel, No. 2, Saint Joseph wears a grayish violet 
mantle over a vermilion tunic; in the scene of the Nativity in the 
panel attributed to the Master of the Innocenti Coronation (No. 5), 
he wears a yellow mantle over a dark blue green tunic. The later 
masters were more apt to disregard the significance of colour. In the 
Holy Family by Pintoricchio (No. 33) Saint Joseph wears a deep rose 
red mantle and a dark blue robe. 

The apostle Saint Peter is usually represented in a yellow mantle 
over a blue tunic. The panel " Woman, Behold Thy Son! " (No. 
1 8b) and the triptych, No. 1, show him clad in these colours. Yel- 
low in its bad sense signified jealousy or deceit. Judas is generally 
represented in a dingy yellow garment. 

Violet, the colour of the amethyst, signified love and truth, or 
passion and suffering. Gray signified innocence accused, humility, 
or mourning. In scenes of the Passion or scenes which took place 
after the Crucifixion, the Madonna wears a gray or violet gown. In 
the Deposition (No. i8a) she wears violet. Black symbolized the 
earth, darkness, mourning, sin, and death, while white was the sym- 
bol of light, purity, joy, and life. The Madonna wears white in 
pictures of her Assumption, and Christ wears white after His Resur- 
rection. In the picture of Christ in Limbo by Sassetta (No. 22) He 
wears white drapery, shading into blue violet. White and black to- 
gether signified purity of life and mourning or humiliation. Black 
over white was worn by the Dominicans and the Carmelites. The 
Dominican habit is seen in Lotto's picture of Saint Peter Martyr 
(No. 47) and on the figure of this saint in the Florentine panel, No. 5. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, B. " Ugolino Lorenzetti." In Essays in the study of Sienese 
painting. New York, 191 8. 1-36; and Art in America. New York, 
Oct.-Dec, 1917. v (6), vi (1), 259-275, 25-52, Reproductions. 

Perkins, F. M. Un nuovo acquisto del Museo Fogg. Rassegna d'arte antica 
e moderna. Milan, March-April, 191 7. iv (3-4), 45-53, Reproductions. 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 191 7. xiv, 135. 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (i), 97; 
April-June, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (2), 222-223. 



ANDREA VANNI 
About 1332 to about 1414 

Andrea Vanni, painter, politician, and diplomat, was born in Siena 
about 1332. He received his artistic training probably from Lippo 
Memmi, though he was influenced by the Lorenzetti and more 
strongly by Simone Martini. He is even more interesting from the 
historical than from the artistic point of view. He was very active in 
Sienese politics, taking part in the rising of 1368 against the Nobili 
and subsequently holding many important positions in the state. 
He was sent on diplomatic missions to Rome, Naples, and Avignon, 
though the semi-illiteracy revealed in his letters raises doubt as to his 
ability as a diplomat. He was a friend and ardent admirer of Saint 
Catherine, and his portrait of her in fresco in the church of San 
Domenico in Siena is the only known representation of the saint by 
the hand of a contemporary artist. Andrea died about 1414. Since 
his name does not appear in the records of the church of San 
Domenico, where his family were buried, the probability is that the 
artist died abroad. Paintings by him are rare, this probably being 
caused by his wide activity in other fields. In this country, in addi- 
tion to the Fogg Museum picture, there is a small pinnacle of an altar- 
piece representing Saint Elizabeth, attributed to Vanni, at Fenway 
Court. It is worth noting that the measurements are almost iden- 
tical with the measurements of the pinnacle by Ambrogio Lorenzetti 
in the Fogg Museum. There is also an Annunciation by Vanni in 
the collection of Hon. William A. Clark, New York. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cagnola, G. Affreschi in S. Giovenale di Orvieto. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, 

Feb.-March, 1903. iii (2-3), 22-23. 
Chledowski, C. Siena. Berlin, 1905. ii, 195-197. 
Perkins, F. M. Andrea Vanni. Burlington magazine. London, Aug., 1903. 

ii (6), 309-325. 
Rothes, W. Die Bliitezeit der sienesischen Malerei. Strasburg, 1904. 



112 SIENESE PAINTING 

20 THE ANNUNCIATION 
Left: Gabriel Annunciate 

Tempera on panel. Including frame, H. 283 in. (to apex). W. i6| in. 
(across base). (72.4 X 41.3 cm.) 

Gabriel is clad in a cream white tunic embroidered with gold and 
ornamented with gold bands, and a mantle embroidered in gold and 
lined with red gold. The feathers on his wings are white yellow, 
vermilion, and violet red, all rather neutral. His hair is yellow and 
he wears a blue ribbon, with fibula-like ornament. His mantle must 
have darkened and gives the effect of yellowish brown. The branch 
which he carries is brownish green, neutral, as are all the other 
colours. 

Right: Virgin Annunciate 

Tempera on panel. Including frame, H. 29 in. (to apex). W. 15I in. 
(across base). (73.7 X 38.7 cm.) 

The Virgin wears a gold embroidered tunic with vestiges of pink 
and a mantle originally blue, but now a very dark neutral green. Her 
hood and mantle are continuous, and bordered with gold and lined 
with brown. Her hair is yellow; her flesh tones, like Gabriel's, show 
little of the green underpainting. Behind her is a curtain of vermil- 
ion embroidered with gold and lined with brown. Both the panels 
have gold backgrounds with the bole appearing, and pavements of a 
neutral violet red. 

The panels were probably originally pinnacles of a large altarpiece. 
They were formerly in the Saracini collection, Siena, and were ac- 
quired for the Fogg Museum in 1914, through the Society of Friends 
of the Fogg Museum. 

The painting is close in style to Vanni's chief work, the altarpiece 
of San Stefano alia Lizza in Siena. It is a work of the artist's mature 
style, and may be dated about 1400. It may be regarded as a later 
version of the Annunciation painted by Simone Martini in 1333, 
now in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Simone's complicated line is 
simplified, as always in Vanni's works, and Simone's low relief be- 
comes still flatter. The Fogg Museum painting shows more clearly 
than any other work, however, the ultimate dependence of Vanni on 
his great predecessor. 





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ANDREA VANNI 113 

The branch which the angel carries has been the subject of some 
discussion. It is possible that it is a palm. The palm was in general 
used only in the Annunciation to the Madonna of her approaching 
Death. The plant has been called a laurel. The laurel seems to have 
had no special significance save that of reward. 

It is interesting to note that while in the majority of xrv and xv 
century Annunciations the archangel Gabriel was represented bear- 
ing a lily, the Sienese painters seldom used this flower, preferring 
the olive branch, always a favourite symbol with them. In the 
Annunciation it referred to the Christ Child as the bringer of peace 
on earth. One interpretation of the avoidance of the use of the lily 
by Sienese artists is that it was due to the hatred of Siena for Flor- 
ence, the lily being the flower of Florence. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Edgell, G. H. Andrea Vanni Annunciation in the Fogg Museum, Harvard. 
Art in America. New York, Aug., 1915. iii (5), 226-231, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1916. 2d ser., xx (1), 121. 
Berenson. Central Italian painters, 2d ed. 261. (Palazzo Saracini, 1266.) 
Bibliografia. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, Oct., 1903. iii (10), 159. 
Bibliografia artistica. L 'Arte. Rome, Aug.-Oct., 1903. vi (8-10), 294. 
Brown and Rankin. 405. (Saracini collection.) 
Burckhardt. Cicerone, io te Aufl. 670 A. (Saracini Palace.) 
Burlington magazine. London, Dec, 1915. xxviii (153), 125. 
Chledowski. ii, 196. (Siena, Count Fabio Chigi.) 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. History of painting in Italy; ed. by Langton 

Douglas. 1908. iii, 130, note. (Saracini collection.) 
Douglas, L. Note on recent criticism of the art of Sassetta. Burlington 

magazine. London, Dec, 1903. iii (9), 275, note 2. (Chigi — late 

Saracini collection.) 
Haig, E. Floral symbolism of the great masters. New York, 1913. 177. 

(Collection Saracini.) 
Harvard graduates' magazine. March, 1916. 422. 
Heywood, W., and Olcott, L. Guide to Siena, new ed. Siena, 1904. Pt. ii, 

224. (Palazzo Saracini, No. 1266.) 
Nation. March 18, 1915. 314. 
Olcott, L. In Bryan's Dictionary of painters and engravers, new ed. New 

York, 1905. v, 257. (Saracini collection.) 
Perkins. Burlington magazine. Aug., 1903. 316, Reproduction (323). (Count 

Fabio Chigi, Siena.) 
Venturi. v, 749, Reproduction (752-753). 



TADDEO DI BARTOLO 

About 1363 to 1422 

Taddeo di Bartolo was a Sienese artist who represented the transi- 
tion from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. The date of his 
birth is unknown, but since records show that he was under age 
when working for the Cathedral of Siena in 1386, he was probably 
born between the years 1363 and 1365. He was entered in the Arte 
de' Dipintori in Siena about 1389, and the same year marks the 
beginning of the extensive travelling of the artist which carried his 
influence far and wide in the peninsula. That year we hear of Taddeo 
at Collegarli, in the hills of San Miniato al Tedesco, and in Pisa. 
Some three years later he was in Genoa, where he probably married. 
Vasari mentions a trip to Padua about this time, which, however, 
cannot be proved. In 1393 he returned to Tuscany and painted in 
San Gimignano. In 1401 he executed his great Assumption, with 
scenes from the Passion, for the Cathedral of Montepulciano. In 
1403 he was called to Perugia, where he painted a number of pictures 
which left a profound impress on Umbrian art. Several of these 
are now in the Municipal Gallery, Perugia. In 1404 he returned to 
Siena. From this time on he was chiefly occupied in painting 
frescoes in the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, though in 1410 he went to 
Volterra. Taddeo died in Siena in 1422. 

Paintings by Taddeo in this country, in addition to the Fogg 
Museum panel, are in the collection of Dan Fellows Piatt, Engle- 
wood, N. J. ; in the George and Florence Blumenthal collection, New 
York; in the John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia; and in the 
collection of the late Theodore M. Davis of Newport, which is now 
in the Metropolitan Museum. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, M. L. A picture by Taddeo di Bartolo in the Mus6e Crozatier at 

Le Puy. Revue archeologique. Paris, March-April, 1906. 4 e ser., vii, 

236-238. 
Beknath, M. H. Due disegni di Taddeo Bartoli nella Biblioteca comunale 

d'Assisi. Rassegna d'arte senese. Siena, 1909. v (3), 78-79. 
Desteee, J. Sur quelques peintres de Sienne. Florence, 1903. 27-33. 
Jacobsen, E. Sienesische Meister des Trecento in der Gemaldegalerie zu Siena. 

Strasburg, 1907. 49-53. 




21 TADDEO DI BARTOLO 



TADDEO DI BARTOLO 115 

Perkins, F. M. Alcuni dipinti senesi sconosciuti o inediti. Rassegna d'arte. 

Milan, Aug., 1913. xiii (8), 121. 
Rothes, W. Die Blutezeit der sienesischen Malerei. Strasburg, 1904. 
Vavasour-Elder, I. La pittura senese nella galleria di Perugia. Rassegna 

d'arte senese. Siena, 1909. v (3), 70-73. 

21 MADONNA ENTHRONED WITH ANGELS 

Tempera on panel. H. 70I in. W. 34! in. (178.5 X 87.9 cm.) 

In this picture the contrast of the dark blue mantle of the Ma- 
donna, now almost black, clearly silhouetted against the golden 
heavens and the flaming red wings of the seraphim, makes a strong 
and effective decoration. The Madonna's mantle is lined with a 
warm gray and clasped at the throat with a gold and red fibula. On 
her shoulder is a gold star. Her gown is red, gold embroidered. Her 
hair is yellow and over it is a thin veil; she wears a gold jewelled 
crown, and against her throat is a jewelled cross. On her fingers are 
gold rings set with red and black jewels. In her halo is the inscrip- 
tion: Mater Pulcre Dilectio. The Child has a yellow gray tunic 
and a green mantle, embroidered and bordered with gold. He wears 
a necklace with a cross and a red ornament; in His hand is a gold- 
finch with which He plays. Behind the Madonna and Child are 
four seraphim, gold delineated and vermilion coloured. Below are 
eight angels clad in varying shades of pale yellows and greens. They 
kneel on a pale flowery green field. The background is gold. In 
the quatrefoils below is the inscription: Tadeus de Senis pinxit hoc 
opus 1418. 

The picture was at one time in the Torlonia collection, Rome, and 
was placed in the Fogg Museum in 1905. 

Executed in 1418, four years before the artist's death, the painting 
represents his mature style. Taddeo's characteristic Madonna type 
with the broad forehead and the eyes well apart, giving a peculiarly 
honest expression, appears clearly in this work. 

The representation of the seraphim as heads with wings was of 
Greek origin and signified the absence of anything bodily; the head 
was the seat of the soul and wings were the emblem of spirit and 
swiftness. In the early paintings the seraphim were always red, 
"the seraphim, being fiery in appearance, inflame mortals towards 
divine love." The cherubim, on the other hand, symbolizing 



Il6 SIENESE PAINTING 

knowledge, were in general painted blue. Towards the end of the 
xv century artists lost sight of the distinction between the symbol- 
ism of red and blue. 

The choral angels were early introduced into pictures of the 
Madonna Enthroned — they were the heavenly choir whose office 
it was to sing hymns of praise, and not only was the Madonna their 
queen, but she was also the patroness of all music. The motive of 
angels singing from a scroll is unusual. The Umbrian painter Gentile 
da Fabriano used it twice, once in the Coronation of the Virgin, in the 
Heugel collection, Paris, and again in the Madonna and Child, in 
the Perugia Gallery. In the painting by Taddeo the words on the 
scroll are those of the Easter hymn: 

Regina Coeli laetare, Alleluia! 
Quia quem meruisti portare, Alleluia! 
Resurrexit sicut dixit, Alleluia! 
Ora pro nobis Deum, Alleluia! 

Various shades of red and blue were the colours most frequently 
used in the garments of angels, although green is often seen, and, 
particularly among the Venetians, yellow or saffron coloured robes 
are found. In all the Italian schools delicate and rather pale shades 
were used. The angels in this panel wear robes of pale green and 
yellow; in the Madonna Enthroned by Benvenuto di Giovanni 
(No. 26) the angels are dressed in robes of rose colour and of yellow; 
in the Madonna Enthroned by Spinello Aretino (No. 3) the prevail- 
ing shades of the angels' robes are green, rose, and yellow, while in 
the central panel of the Monte Oliveto altarpiece by Spinello (No. 
4A) the prevailing shades are blue and rose. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 
Beeck. Rassegna d'arte. Oct., 1909. 169, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1910. 2d ser., xiv (1), 137; 

Jan-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 13. 
Bernath. New York und Boston. 68. 
Bibliografia. L 'Arte. Rome, Nov.-Dec, 1909. xii (6), 480, No. 204. 



TADDEO DI BARTOLO 117 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 26, No. 10; Aug., 

1913. 38. 
Brown and Rankin. 402. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward 

Hutton. 1909. ii, 123, note 6. 
Perkins. Ancora dei dipinti sconosciuti della scuola senese. Rassegna d'arte 

senese. Siena, 1908. iv (1), 8. 



SASSETTA (STEFANO DI GIOVANNI) 

1392-1450 

Stefano di Giovanni, known as Sassetta, was born at Siena in 1392. 
He was a pupil of Paolo di Giovanni Fei and was influenced by the 
earlier Sienese, Duccio, Simone Martini, and the Lorenzetti, as well 
as by Bartolo di Fredi, the master of Fei. In 1427 he was com- 
missioned to furnish a design for the font of the Siena Baptistery. 
His first dated altarpiece, 1436, is the Madonna Enthroned with 
Saints, in the Osservanza, Siena. In 1437 he entered into a contract 
for the altarpiece of the church of San Francesco at Borgo San 
Sepolcro. This was completed in 1444. His work in Borgo San 
Sepolcro is noteworthy in that it helped perpetuate Sienese influence 
in Umbria. He executed many paintings in his native city and also 
painted in Cortona, where he was influenced by the work of Fra 
Angelico. In 1447 Sassetta was commissioned to complete the 
frescoes of the Roman gate which had been begun by Taddeo di 
Bartolo. He died in 1450, as the result of exposure while working 
on the gate, leaving the frescoes unfinished. Sassetta's name was 
nearly forgotten for a long time. The interest in him has revived in 
recent years and his works are now highly valued. 

Among his important paintings may be mentioned the following: 
Birth of the Virgin, Collegiata, Asciano; Scene from the Life of 
Saint Francis, Berlin; Mystic Marriage of Saint Francis, Chantilly; 
Madonna and Saints, San Domenico, Cortona; Apotheosis of Saint 
Francis, in the collection of Bernhard Berenson, Settignano; Adora- 
tion of the Magi, Saracini collection. 

Several interesting examples of his work may be seen in American 
collections: two representing the Temptation of Saint Anthony, 
in the Jarves collection at New Haven; a number in the collection 
of Dan Fellows Piatt at Englewood, N. J. ; Christ's Entrance into 
Jerusalem, in the John G. Johnson collection. A triptych attributed 
to Sassetta is in the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Harold I. Pratt of 
New York. 




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SASSETTA 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



119 



Berenson, B. A Sienese painter of the Franciscan legend. London, 1910. 
Berenson, M. L. II Sassetta e la leggenda di S. Antonio Abate. Rassegna 

d'arte. Milan, Dec, 1911. xi (12), 202-203. 
Douglas, L. A forgotten painter. Burlington magazine. London, May, 1903. 

i (3), 306-318. 
A note on recent criticism of the art of Sassetta. Burlington magazine. 

London, Dec, 1903. iii (9), 265-275. 
Fry, R. Journey of the Three Kings by Sassetta. Burlington magazine. 

London, Dec, 1912. xxii (117), 131. 
Nicola, G. de. Sassetta between 1423 and 1433. Burlington magazine. 

London, July-Sept., 1913. xxiii (124-126), 207-215, 276-283, 332-336. 
Perkins, F. M. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, 1904-1913. iv; vi-vii; xi-xiii. 
Siren, O. A triptych by Sassetta. Art in America. New York, June, 1917. 

v (4), 206-209. 

22 CHRIST IN LIMBO 

Tempera on panel. H. 13I in. W. 17 in. (34.3 X 43.2 cm.) 

, This is a well balanced composition with fine harmony of colour. 
The mountainous rocks show the typical Sienese treatment. The 
mountain through which the door opens to Hell is neutral red violet; 
the mountains in the background are grayish green. The sky is 
neutral blue. These large masses of subdued greens and violets 
balance the brilliant vermilions, greens, reds, pinks, and yellows in 
the robes of the group in the lower right-hand side of the picture. 
The staff of the banner triumphant serves as a dividing axis in the 
composition and helps to put the proper emphasis on the Christ 
figure in its white Gothic drapery touched with blue violet. The 
vermilion red of the cross in the banner appears again in the mantle 
of Isaiah, the shoe of Adam, and in the hose of the figures standing 
to the right. In the lower left of the picture the protruding claws of 
the devil painted in ebony black help also to emphasize the bril- 
liancy of the colour in the group on the right. 

In the forefront of the group are the kneeling figures of Adam and 
Abraham. Adam, whose hand Christ grasps, is clad in a light blue 
tunic and pale rose coloured mantle, both bordered with gold; his 
hair and beard are gray. Abraham wears a rose coloured tunic and 
a yellow mantle, both bordered with gold; his shoe is black. His 
hair and beard are neutral brown. In the group of standing figures 
behind Adam and Abraham one may identify, from left to right, 



120 STENESE PAINTING 

Abel, in red violet mantle over a brown tunic; Eve, only her head 
and shoulders draped in gray visible, and Isaiah. Saint John the 
Baptist, with outstretched arm, stands behind Abraham. He wears 
a red violet hairy robe and a green mantle bordered with gold; his 
hair is greenish brown. On his scroll are the letters : Ecco A. On the 
extreme right is King David, in a rich dark red mantle with a solid 
gold border and a gold lining over a grayish tunic; his crown is gold. 
His hair and beard are white and his book is grayish green with red 
clasps. Between King David and Saint John the Baptist are visible 
the head and shoulders of a woman with yellow hair, in which is a 
vermilion diadem. She wears a vermilion tunic and a neutral blue 
scarf. The figures stand on a gray green rocky ground, and behind 
them is seen the blackness of Hell. Christ is surrounded by a radiant 
golden light. The door of Hell, on which He stands, is an ochreish 
yellow. 

The picture was formerly in the collection of the Earl of Northesk; 
it was bought by his grandfather, the eighth earl, about sixty years 
ago in Rome. In 191 5 it was placed in the Fogg Museum as an 
indefinite loan. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (1), 97. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. March, 1916. 422, Reproduction. 



GIOVANNI DI PAOLO (?) 

About 1403 to 1482 

Giovanni di Paolo (Giovanni di Paolo di Grazia, called del Poggio) 
is mentioned as active in Siena as early as 1423. He was probably- 
born about 1403. He was influenced by Gentile da Fabriano and 
may have studied under him. Early in his career he was a close fol- 
lower of Sassetta, and was a pupil of Paolo di Giovanni Fei. He 
shows also a spiritual kinship with Fra Angelico. Although some- 
times imitative, Giovanni di Paolo's pictures have a striking in- 
dividual note and vary among themselves; at times they are fine and 
delicate in conception and handling, at times broad and sweeping 
and often lacking in beauty. He was an illuminator as well as a 
painter in tempera. He died in Siena in 1482. 

A number of Giovanni di Paolo's interesting pictures have come to 
America in recent years. Among them are the Paradise, and the two 
figures of saints — Saint Matthew and Saint Francis — in the 
Metropolitan Museum; Saint Catherine of Siena pleading before 
Pope Gregory xi, in the Jarves collection; six Scenes from the Life of 
Saint John the Baptist, formerly in the Aynard collection, Lyons, 
and now in the collection of Martin A. Ryerson, Chicago; two 
panels in the John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia; two panels 
in the collection of Dan Fellows Piatt, Englewood, N. J.; and the 
following pictures in private collections in New York: the Presen- 
tation in the Temple, in the George and Florence Blumenthal col- 
lection; the Coronation of the Virgin, the Annunciation of the Angel 
to Zacharias, and the Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise, 
belonging to Philip Lehman; the Nativity, belonging to Grenville 
L. Winthrop. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bacci, P. Una Madonna col Figlio di Giovanni di Paolo. Rivista d'arte. 

Florence, Jan.-Feb., 1909. vi (1), 39~43- 
Boeenius, T. SS. Fabian and Sebastian by Giovanni di Paolo. Burlington 

magazine. London, Oct., 1915. xxviii (151), 3. 
Breck, J. Some paintings by Giovanni di Paolo. Art in America. New York, 

April-June, 1914. ii (3-4), i77~ l86 > 280-287. 
Fry, R. A note on Giovanni di Paolo. Burlington magazine. London, Jan., 

1905. vi (22), 312-313. 



122 SIENESE PAINTING 

Nicola, G. de. The masterpiece of Giovanni di Paolo. Burlington magazine. 

London, Aug., 1918. xxxiii (185), 45-54. 
Perkins, F. M. Ancora dei dipinti sconosciuti della scuola senese. Rassegna 

d'arte senese. Siena, 1907. iii (3-4), 82-83. 
Dipinti senesi sconosciuti o inediti. Rassegna d'arte antica e moderna. 

Milan, 1914. i (7), 163-165. 
Schxtbring, P. Opere sconosciute di Giovanni di Paolo e del Vecchietta. 

Rassegna d'arte. Oct., 1912. xii (10), 162-164. 
Toesca, P. Opere di Giovanni di Paolo nelle collezioni romane. L'Arte. 

Rome, June-Aug., 1904. vii (6-8), 303-308. 

23 SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST* 

Tempera on panel. H. 2if in. W. 15! in. (55.2 X 40 cm.) 

Behind Saint John's head is a halo of delicate design, which spreads 
into a many pointed star indicated by lines incised in the gold back- 
ground. His hairy garment of gray green is covered by a mantle in 
many folds. This mantle was strongly modelled in terra verde. A 
red glaze evidently once covered the underpainting. The red re- 
mains in parts, and elsewhere has faded or been removed by some 
restorer, so that the present effect is one of red and green. The hair 
also was probably modelled in terra verde and was glazed with a 
reddish brown colour, which for the most part remains intact. A 
fine design is visible in several places on the border of the saint's gar- 
ment. The gold is obscured by a varnish which has darkened. This 
heavy, dark varnish injures the quality of the shadows in parts of the 
drapery. The verde underpainting of the flesh was executed in the 
heavy tones so often used by the Sienese. The wrinkles of the face 
and the veins on the hand and arm are strongly marked. The over- 
painting of the flesh tones has faded in part. The cross which Saint 
John holds in his left hand is red. 

The picture was bought in Florence in 1914. It is said that it came 
originally from Siena. 

The painting is so like the work of Giovanni di Paolo in his austere 
manner that Mr. F. Mason Perkins attributes it to him in Rassegna 
d' Arte, No. 7, 1914. Mr. Perkins points out that the representation 
is doubtless based upon paintings of the Baptist by Taddeo Bartoli, 
such as the one in the collection of Mr. Piatt, Englewood, and the 
Baptist in the triptych of the Compagnia di Santa Caterina, Siena. 




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EXHIBITED 

Loan exhibition of Italian primitives in aid of the American war relief, Klein- 
berger Galleries, Nov., 1917. Catalogue by O. Siren and M. W. Brock- 
well. 157, No. 60, Reproduction. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perkins. Rassegna d'arte antica e moderna. Milan, 1914. i (7), 164-165, 
Reproduction (166). 

MENTIONED 

Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 13. 

Nicola, G. de. Burlington magazine. London, Aug., 1918, xxxiii (185), 45, 
note 2. 



FRANCESCO DI GIORGIO (?) 

1439-1502 

Francesco di Giorgio (Francesco Maurizio di Giorgio Martino Pol- 
laiolo) was born in Siena in 1439. He was perhaps better known as a 
great military and civil architect than as a painter and sculptor. His 
writings, Sopra l'Architettura Militare e Civile, are, after Alberti's 
and Filarete's, the earliest collection of architectural works on build- 
ing and city planning. In his painting and sculpture he was in- 
fluenced by Pollaiuolo — as seen in his Coronation of the Virgin, 
147 1 — and was a pupil of Vecchietta. Like his master, he did better 
work as a painter than as a sculptor in bronze and marble. As a re- 
sult of his training as an architect, the architectural backgrounds in 
his pictures are better drawn than those of contemporary and earlier 
Sienese masters. For many years he was a partner of Neroccio di 
Landi. About 1475 the partnership was dissolved and Francesco 
di Giorgio travelled in Italy. It seems likely that in Lombardy he 
became associated for a time with Leonardo da Vinci, with whom 
he was called to Pavia in 1490. 

While something is known of his activity prior to 1469, it is only 
in that year that we hear of him as a painter. He is referred to as a 
painter from 1469 to 1477, and after that year until his death his 
energy appears to have been devoted primarily to architectural and 
engineering problems. In 1477 he was called to the court of Urbino 
in his capacity of architect and engineer, and from that time on 
painted pictures only incidentally, as for the Duke of Calabria in 
1479. 

Francesco di Giorgio's best pictures are still to be found in Siena, 
and reflect his refined spirit and sensitiveness to feminine grace. 
Among his works are the Coronation of the Virgin, dating probably 
from 1471, and the Nativity, dating from 1475. In 1472 he made the 
design for the Relief of Bethulia in the pavement of the Duomo at 
Siena. He also painted cassone panels. Comparatively few examples 
of Francesco's work have found their way out of Italy; of these the 
following are in this country: a Madonna and Child in the collection 
of Dan Fellows Piatt, Englewood, N. J., belonging to the same 
period in the artist's work as this picture (No. 24) ; and a Nativity 
in the George and Florence Blumenthal collection, New York. 



FRANCESCO DI GIORGIO (?) 125 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cust, R. H. H. The pavement masters of Siena. London, 1901. 63-69. 
Destree, J. Sur quelques peintres de Sienne. Florence, 1903. 87-96. 
Jacobsen, E. Das Quattrocento in Siena. Strasburg, 1908. 86-96. 
Schtjbring, P. Francesco di Giorgio. Monatshefte f. Kunstw. Leipsic, 

March, 1916. ix (3), 81-91. 
Ventuki, L. Studii sul Palazzo ducale di Urbino; Francesco di Giorgio 

Martini e le tarsie urbinati. L'Arte. Rome, 1914. xvii, 450-456. 

24 MADONNA AND CHILD* 

Tempera on panel, with arched top. Transferred. H. 18 in. W. n in. 
(45.7 X 28 cm.) 

The Madonna wears a gown of rose red tending towards violet red. 
At the neck of the gown is a golden band with a rich design. A yellow 
girdle encircles her waist. The mantle which goes up over her head 
is bluish black. There is a gold star on her left shoulder. The Child's 
garment is of a heavier red, but similar in quality to the Madonna's 
gown. The halos are incised with an elaborate design. The gold 
background is in good condition. The carnations have to some 
extent faded in the flesh tints, leaving the modelling of the faces a 
little flat in parts. 

The picture was bought in Florence in 1914. It is said that it 
came originally from Siena. 

Mr. Perkins and Dr. Siren have each independently published 
this as a painting by Francesco di Giorgio. 

EXHIBITED 

Loan exhibition of Italian primitives in aid of the American war relief , Klein- 
berger Galleries, Nov., 191 7. Catalogue by 0. Siren and M. W. Brock- 
well. 162, No. 63, Reproduction. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perkins F. M. Dipinti senesi sconosciuti o inediti. Rassegna d'arte antica e 
moderna. Milan, 1914. i (5), 103-104, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 13- 



MATTEO DI GIOVANNI 

About 1430 to 1495 

Matteo di Giovanni, sometimes called Matteo da Siena, was born 
in the Umbrian town of Borgo San Sepolcro about 1430. His first 
master was probably not a Sienese, but the Umbrian, Pier dei Fran- 
ceschi, who was a native of Borgo San Sepolcro, and who was working 
there in 1445. This powerful artist, steeped in Florentine tradition, 
gave Matteo a technical training stronger than he could have re- 
ceived from any Sienese. Before 1450, however, Matteo removed to 
Siena, where he soon became the most vigorous painter of the 
Sienese Renaissance. In Siena he studied possibly under Domenico 
di Bartolo, and was influenced by the sculptor-painter, Vecchietta. 
The rest of his life, spent for the most part in and about Siena, was 
uneventful. In 1463 he married a Signora Contessa, who died about 
twelve years later. The change in the type of Madonna painted by 
Matteo, which began about this time, may have been caused by that 
event. The monumental, if somewhat wan, tranquillity of the artist's 
ordinary style was broken in later life by a number of representations 
of the. Slaughter of the Innocents. These are marked by their lack 
of restraint. The vivid accounts of the sack of Otranto by the Turks 
in 1480, which were current in Italy at this time, are said to have had 
a powerful effect on Matteo. He died in 1495, the most highly lauded 
Sienese painter of his time. 

Matteo is represented in this country by paintings in the col- 
lections of Mrs. Henry L. Higginson, Boston; Dan Fellows Piatt, 
Englewood, N. J.; the John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia; 
and in the collection of Mrs. Collis P. Huntington, New York. A 
cassone panel in the Metropolitan Museum has been attributed to 
Matteo and also to his close follower, Cozzarelli. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Beeenson, B. A Ferrarese marriage-salver in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 
In Essays in the study of Sienese painting. New York, 1918. 62-70; 
and in Gazette des beaux-arts. Paris, Oct.-Dec, 1917. 4° per., xiii (693), 
450-458. 
Guidoccio Cozzarelli and Matteo di Giovanni. In Essays in the study of 
Sienese painting. New York, 1918. 81-94. 




25 MATTEO DI GIOVANNI 



MATTEO DI GIOVANNI 1 27 

Cust, R. H. H. The pavement masters of Siena. London, 1901. 59-63. 
Destree, J. Sur quelques peintres de Sienne. Florence, 1903. 61-76. 
Hartlaub, G. F. Matteo da Siena und seine Zeit. Strasburg, 1910. (Zur 

Kunstgeschichte des Auslandes, 78.) 
Jacobsen, E. Das Quattrocento in Siena. Strasburg, 1908. 56-65. 
Logan, M. Due dipinti inediti di Matteo da Siena. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, 

April, 1905. v (4), 49-53. 
Mather, F. J., Jr. Three cassone panels by Matteo da Siena. Art in America. 

New York, Jan., 1913. i (1), 24-30. 
Olcott, L. Di alcune opere poco note di Matteo di Giovanni. Rassegna 

d'arte. Milan, May, 1904. iv (5), 65-68. 
Perkins, F. M. Due quadri inediti di Matteo di Giovanni. Rassegna d'arte 

senese. Siena, 1907. iii (2), 36-38. 
Per un quadro non riconosciuto di Matteo di Giovanni. Rassegna d'arte. 

Milan, Dec, 1908. viii (12), 199-203. 
Schubring, P. Das Blutbad von Otranto in der Malerei des Quattrocento. 

Monatskefte f. Kunstw. Leipsic, 1908. i (7-8), 593-601. 

25 SAINT JEROME IN HIS CELL 

Tempera on panel. H. 67! in. W. 48I in. (172.2 X 122.9 cm -) 

The colour scheme of this picture was worked out with daring skill. 
Saint Jerome's cappa magna presents splendid flat masses of a clear 
rose red. Small brilliant touches of vermilion furnished by the car- 
dinal's hat and the edges of four books in different parts of the pic- 
ture make an odd and skilful contrast. The arrangement of the 
three spots of blue — the sky, the sleeves, and the lower part of the 
saint's cassock — cutting diagonally across the picture, is masterly. 
The silvery white of the saint's beard and of the fur of his hood is 
echoed in the marble bookstand behind him, the pages of his books, 
the balustrade just behind his head, the hourglass, the candle, and 
the transparent white of his alb over his blue cassock. The other 
fields are principally brownish in tone — the lion, the saint's desk, 
and his halo; whereas the walls of the study are of a greenish gray 
making a transition towards the blue of the sky. The mouldings of 
dull pink carry the main rose red motive of Saint Jerome's cappa 
through the upper part of the picture. A string of shining green 
and brown beads hangs on the wall and green trees are seen against 
the blue sky. The equipment of a mediaeval scholar, such as his 
spectacles, scissors, ink-well, and hourglass, surround the saint. 
There are also a polychrome crock and some scrolls near the car- 
dinal's hat. The floor is gray. Under the brown-clad left foot of 



128 SIENESE PAINTING 

the saint is the damaged inscription: Opus M . . . ei Ioannis De 
Sen . . . mccccl . . . xxn. 

The painting formerly belonged to Signor Cecconi of Florence and 
was at one time in the Panciatichi collection. Hartlaub states that 
it was seen by Romagnoli in the Palazzo Borghesi, Siena. He 
suggests that two panels of scenes from the life of Saint Jerome, 
in the collection of Lord Brownlow, Ashridge Park, may be part of 
the predella. The painting was placed in the Museum in 1905. 

It is interesting to compare the picture with the similar paintings 
of Saint Augustine and Saint Jerome by Botticelli and Ghirlandaio in 
the church of Ognissanti, Florence, and with the representations 
of Saint Mark by Melozzo da Forli in Rome. 

The painting is on the whole in a good state of preservation and is 
one of Matteo's most important works. It is fine in sentiment, digni- 
fied in pose, and especially interesting in colour. The patches of 
vermilion are used with extraordinary skill, and the effect of the 
whole is very decorative. A crack running the length of the panel 
has damaged the signature, but there is little doubt that the date is 
1482. Hartlaub, the biographer of Matteo, accepts this date and 
considers the work in closest stylistic relation to Matteo's composi- 
tion of the Slaughter of the Innocents. Dr. Schubring, on the other 
hand, dates it 1492. 

As already stated, the saint is represented wearing an alb over his 
cassock and a cappa magna. The alb is a white linen robe, with 
tight sleeves, which reaches to the feet, and is bound around the 
waist by a girdle. Usually it is ornamented at the edges and wrists 
with embroidery or lace-work. The cappa magna is a long vestment 
with a hood, worn by cardinals, bishops, by many canons, and by 
some abbots and some parish priests. Formerly the pope wore it at 
matins on certain days in the year. The cappa may have a single 
opening in front above the waist for the wearer's arms to pass 
through, as in this picture, or it may have side openings for the 
arms as in the picture by Polidoro (No. 49). 

There were three traditional representations of Saint Jerome — as 
patron saint and doctor of the church, as translator and commen- 
tator of the Scriptures, and as penitent. In this Gallery he is repre- 
sented in two of these characters. Saint Jerome in the Desert (No. 6) 



MATTEO DI GIOVANNI 129 

shows him as penitent. This picture (No. 25) shows him as trans- 
lator of the Scriptures. In this character he is usually represented 
seated in a cell as here, or in a cave, and often the lion is present. The 
Venetian painting by Polidoro (No. 49) also represents the saint as 
commentator or translator of the Scriptures. He is accompanied by 
his lion, and his cardinal's hat hangs near by. 

Although there is no authority for making Saint Jerome a cardi- 
nal, since cardinal priests were not ordained until three centuries 
after his death, the cardinal's hat was one of his attributes, perhaps 
to give him greater dignity, perhaps because he performed in the 
court of Pope Damasus the offices later discharged by the cardinal 
deacon. The hat is seen here under the saint's desk. The legend 
which relates that Saint Jerome was a cardinal and the story of the 
wounded lion are found for the first time in a life of the saint dating 
probably from the vi century. In the xrv century a work, the 
Hieronymianus, was written by one Giovanni d'Andrea, a Bolognese 
lawyer (d. 1348), to further the cult of Saint Jerome in Italy. This 
work throws an interesting light upon the influence of writers on 
contemporary painters. A passage quoted by Louise Pillion in an 
article, La Legende de Saint J6r6me, d'aprds quelques Peintures 
Italiennes du xv e Siecle au Musee du Louvre, in the Gazette des 
Beaux-Arts for April, 1908 (pp. SOS"^), is as follows: " C'est moi 
qui ai dicte aux peintres la formule selon laquelle on represente 
maintenant saint Jer6me assis sur un tr6ne, avec un chapeau tel 
que les cardinaux ont coutume aujourd' hui d' en porter, pose aupres 
de lui et avec un lion pacifique a ses pieds." When artists ceased 
to represent the saint enthroned, but pictured him in the desert or 
in his cell, they retained the lion and the cardinal's hat. The red 
hat was granted to cardinals by Innocent iv in 1245 at the Council 
of Lyons, and was conferred for the first time at Cluny in 1246. 
The use of the red cappa — although asserted by some writers to 
have been granted by Boniface vin (1 294-1303) —probably dates 
from 1464, the pontificate of Paul n. Cennino Cennini, in speaking 
of the " red colour called amatito," says that " it makes a colour 
such as cardinals wear, or a violet or lake colour." The red had not 
been adopted at the period when Cennino was writing. The Vatican 
manuscript of his book is dated i437> but this is probably the date 
affixed by the copyist, and the book itself was doubtless completed 



130 SIENESE PAINTING 

earlier. Early xv century illuminated manuscripts and pictures 
show cardinals in blue, violet, gray, and other colours. It is only 
in the second half of the century that cardinals are represented in 
red, but even then the cassock was sometimes of a different colour. 
A tapestry dating from the early xvi century, formerly in the J. 
Pierpont Morgan collection, shows a cardinal in a blue cassock and 
a red cappa and hat. In this picture by Matteo the saint wears a 
blue cassock, and although the picture was executed in 1482 or 1492, 
after the red had been adopted, Matteo painted the saint's cappa 
a deep rose colour — neither the " amatito " referred to by Cen- 
nino nor the vermilion of the hat. In the Venetian painting by 
Polidoro (No. 49) the saint wears a black cappa, with only the hat 
to indicate that he was a cardinal. 

EXHIBITED 

Mostra dell' antica arte senese. Siena, Aprile-Agosto, 1904. Catalogo gene- 
rale. 287, No. 6 (107). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson. Essays in the study of Sienese painting. 66-67, Reproduction; 
and same in Gazette des beaux^arts. Oct.-Dec, 1917. 454-455, Re- 
production (452). 

Hartiaub. 115-118, 140. 

Jacobsen. 59, Reproduction (PI. xxvi). 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1910. 2d ser., xiv (1), 137; 

Jan.-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 13. 
Berenson. Central Italian painters, 2d ed. 195. 
Bernath. New York und Boston. 72-73. 

Bibliografia. L 'Arte. Rome, Nov.-Dec, 1909. xii (6), 480, No. 204. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 26, No. 11; Aug., 

1913- 35- 
Breck. Rassegna d'arte. Oct., 1909. 169, Reproduction (170). 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward 

Hutton. 1909. iii, 132, note 3. 
History of painting in Italy; ed. by Tancred Borenius. 1914. v, 184, 

note 2. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 1911. 55. 
Kunstgeschichtliche Geseixschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. 11, 1908. viii, 

39, and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 551. 



MATTEO DI GIOVANNI 131 

Perkins, F. M. La pittura alia Mostra d'arte antica in Siena. Rassegna 

d'arte. Milan, Oct., 1904. iv (10), 150, Reproduction (151). 
The Sienese exhibition of ancient art. Burlington magazine. London, 

Sept., 1904. v (18), 583. 
Rescensioni. Rassegna d' arte. Milan, Jan.-Feb., 1912. xii(i-2), vi. (Hartlaub. 

Matteo da Siena.) 
Ricci, C. II Palazzo pubblico di Siena e la Mostra d' antica arte senese. 

Bergamo, 1904. 66. 
Schubring, P. Das Blutbad von Otranto in der Malerei des Quattrocento. 

Monatshefte f. Kunstw. 1908. 600-601, Reproduction. 
Mostra dell' antica arte senese. Repert.f. Kunstw. Berlin, 1904. xxvii (5), 

478. 

References to a Saint Jerome by Matteo 

Borghesi, S., e Banchi, L. Nuovi documenti per la storia dell' arte senese. 

Appendice alia raccolta dei documenti pubblicata dal Comm. Gaetano 

Milanesi. Siena, 1898. p. 255. 
MiLANESi, G. Documenti per la storia dell' arte senese. Raccolti ed illustrati 

dal Dott. Gaetano Milanesi. Siena, 1854. ii, p. 373. 



BENVENUTO DI GIOVANNI 

1436-1518 (?) 

Benvenuto di Giovanni di Meo del Guasta was born on Septem- 
ber 13, 1436, eighty-eight years after the great plague devastated 
Siena and closed the careers of the two Lorenzetti brothers, with 
whom the first great period of Sienese art came to an end. 

Benvenuto was not a great innovator. He was content to paint in 
the traditional Sienese manner. While the progressive Florentines 
were advancing with rapid strides in scientific studies in the field of 
art, the Sienese clung with singular tenacity to their flat and decora- 
tive designs enriched by exquisitely wrought detail in fine gold and 
brilliant colour. Benvenuto was no exception. His early work 
shows some relation to that of Matteo da Siena. The influence of 
Benozzo Gozzoli and of the Umbrian master, Bonfigli, has also been 
noticed in his paintings. After the year 1500, when he was an elderly 
man, he appears to have been influenced by Pintoricchio and Sig- 
norelli, unless the works of that date were executed principally by his 
son and assistant, Girolamo, who was born in 1470, and would have 
been more open to new influences from other cities than his father. 
Benvenuto died some time after 1517, perhaps in 1518. Little is 
known of his life. He was reasonably prolific as a panel painter and 
also executed some frescoes in various towns in Tuscany and Umbria. 1 

Among the paintings by Benvenuto in this country are the As- 
sumption of the Virgin in the Metropolitan Museum, in which some 
critics see the hand of Benvenuto's son Girolamo; the Madonna and 
Saints, and the Adoration of the Child, belonging to Dan Fellows 
Piatt, of Englewood; the Madonna and two Saints in the P. A. B. 
Widener collection, Philadelphia; the Madonna and Angels in the 
Jarves collection of Yale University; a Madonna in the collection 
of Philip Lehman, New York; and the painting in the Fogg Museum. 
A desco del parto in the Jarves collection has been attributed to both 
Benvenuto and his son Girolamo. 

1 See also E. W. Forbes. Art in America. July, 1913. 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Achiardi, P. d'. Per la formazione di una pinacoteca e per la conservazione 

di alcune opere in Volterra. L'Arle. Rome, Nov.-Dec, 1904. vii (n- 

12), 501-502. 
Cust, R. H. H. The pavement masters of Siena. London, 1901. 53-58. 
Destree, J. Sur quelques peintres de Sienne. Florence, 1903. 77-86. 
Jacobsen, E. Das Quattrocento in Siena. Strasburg, 1908. 68-75. 
New York. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Bulletin. Nov., 1910. v(n), 

249-250. (A Sienese painting.) 
Olcott, L. Una " Annunciazione " di Benvenuto di Giovanni. Rassegna 

d'arte. Milan, May, 1906. vi (5), 73-74. 
Perkins, F. M. Due dipinti senesi della Pieta. Rassegna d'arte senese. Siena, 

July-Sept., 1911. vii (3), 67-68. 
Thieme-Becker. Kunstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1909. iii, 359-360. 

26 MADONNA ENTHRONED WITH SAINTS AND ANGELS 

Tempera on panel, transferred. H. 72 in. W. 90 in. (182.8 X 228.5 cm -) 

This painting, imposing in size, is also gorgeous in colour. The 
spotting of the reds and greens through the picture, emphasized by 
the strong black notes as well as by the gold, the blue, the yellow, and 
the white, is masterly. Broadly speaking, there are three qualities of 
red; the first is the rose red which occurs in the gown of the Madonna, 
in the mantle of Saint John, and in the robes of the two angels in the 
background holding roses and lilies; the second is the red more resem- 
bling vermilion, which appears in the lining of Saint Augustine's cope 
and mitre, and in the book held by Saint Monica; the third is a more 
neutral earthy red which appears in the red slabs of the pavement, 
the balustrade, and the Madonna's throne, representing porphyry, 
and in the book which Saint Nicolas holds. Touches of paler pinks 
occur in the wings of the angels and seraphim and in the roses held by 
the angel on the left; whereas a deeper, duskier red appears in the 
flames of the two candlesticks. The greens are not brilliant but are 
admirably distributed through the wings and sleeves of the angels, 
the foliage of the flowers, the textile over the back of the Madonna's 
throne, and the lining of her robe. A still paler green is seen in the 
lining of Saint John's mantle; a darker quality appears in the parts 
of the pavement and throne made to represent verde antico. A cool 
white appears in the veil of the Madonna, the hood of Saint Monica, 
the mitre, crosier, and gloves of Saint Augustine, the beards of Saint 



134 SIENESE PAINTING 

Augustine and Saint John the Evangelist, the lilies held by Saint 
Nicolas and one of the angels, the candlesticks, and the white marble 
in the pavement. Saint John wears a pale bluish green robe and in 
his parchment-like hand is a yellow vellum volume. This colour is 
repeated in the gowns of the two angels just behind the Madonna's 
head and is approximated in the hair of the angels, the Christ Child, 
and the seraphim. Saint Augustine is clad in a jewelled cope of a 
neutral orange yellow. The same colour occurs in the band on his 
mitre and in the supports of the arms of the Madonna's throne, 
which are of elaborate design with scrolls and cherubs' heads. The 
mantle of the Madonna is a deep blue green which counts as a black. 
Finally, strong punctuations of black that appear almost like columns 
on each side of the picture are furnished on the right by Saint 
Monica and the eagle, and on the left by the habits of Saint Nicolas 
and Saint Augustine. The background is gold with a narrow in- 
cised border. 

This painting was bought in Italy in 1899, in a bad condition, and 
was put into the hands of a London restorer in hopes that it could be 
preserved by setting down the fragments of paint that were blistered. 
After the painting arrived at the Fogg Museum it became evident 
that more radical treatment was necessary. William Allerton 
successfully transferred it and returned it to the Museum in sound 
condition. Fortunately the upper part of the painting has suffered 
little. The bottom part is restored so frankly that it is easy to see 
what is new and what old. All the essential parts of the picture 
are in reasonably good condition. The principal parts to suffer 
have been the draperies of Saint Augustine and Saint John, and the 
pavement. 

The picture was probably painted between 1485 and 1490. The 
altarpiece in the Academy of Siena dated 1475 and the Madonna in 
the National Gallery dated 1479 are less mature; and the pictures 
that Benvenuto painted after 1491 are more harsh and muddy in 
their colour and more sombre in their effect. This appears to he 
between his early and later styles. 

The altarpiece was probably originally painted for an Augustinian 
church in or near Siena, as three of the saints represented are of that 
order. Saint Augustine, the great doctor and father of the church 



BENVENUTO DI GIOVANNI 135 

and the founder of the order, is on the Madonna's right. The right 
was the place of honour — Christ " sitteth on the right hand of God 
the Father Almighty "; in representations of the Last Judgment 
where Christ is between the Madonna and Saint John, the Madonna 
is on His right. Saint Monica, the mother of Saint Augustine, 
was also a favourite saint in pictures painted for this order; she is 
generally considered to be the first Augustinian nun. The great saint 
of the order, after its founder, was Saint Nicolas of Tolentino. He 
assumed the Augustinian habit in his early youth, and was distin- 
guished by his deep piety and his extremely austere life. He is 
usually represented as a very ascetic young man. The stalk of lilies 
which he bears symbolizes his purity of life. According to the 
legend, at the time of his birth a star shot through the heavens from 
Sant'Angelo, where he was born, and stood over the city of Tolentino, 
where he afterwards lived. He is therefore usually represented with 
a star on his breast. As preacher of the Holy Word he carries the 
Gospel. It is possible that the fourth saint, Saint John the Evangelist, 
was chosen because the church or the chapel for which the altarpiece 
was designed was dedicated to him. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Forbes, E. W. An altarpiece by Benvenuto di Giovanni. Art in America. 

New York, July, 1913. i (3), 170-179, Reproduction. 
Perkins. Boston evening transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. 

Rassegna d'arte. May, 1905. 66-67, Reproduction. (Taken in 1899 before 

restoration.) 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. April-June, 1900. 2d ser., iv (2), 285; Oct- 
Dec, 1905. 2d ser., ix (4), 498; Jan.-March, 1914. 2dser.,xviii(i), 124. 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 13. 
Berenson. Central Italian painters, 2d ed. 147. 

BnsLiOGRAFiA. V Arte. Rome, July-Aug., 1905. viii (4), 315, No. 283. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 26, No. 12; Aug., 

i9 x 3- 35- 
Brown and Rankin. 346. 
Crowe and Cavalcaseixe. New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward 

Hutton. 1909. iii, 118, note. 
History of painting in Italy; ed. by Tancred Borenius. 1914. v, 164, 

note 1. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. Boston, Sept., 1913. xxii (85), 214. 
Jacobsen. 75, Reproduction (PL xlii, 2). (Taken in 1899 before restoration.) 



136 SIENESE PAINTING 

Kunstgeschichtliche Geseixschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. 11, 1908. viii, 

38, No. 7, and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 551, 

No. 7. 
New England magazine. Aug., 1905. 702. 

New York. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Bulletin. Nov., 1910. 250. 
Perkins, F. M. Pitture senesi negli Stati Uniti. Rassegna d'arte senese. 

Siena, 1905. i (2), 75-76, Reproduction. (Taken in 1899 before 

restoration.) 
Rankin, W. Cassone fronts and salvers in American collections. Burlington 

magazine. London, Sept., 1908. xiii (66), 381. 
Notes on three collections of old masters. 5-6; 17, No. 12. 
Reinach. Repertoire de peintures. 1905. i, 268, Reproduction. 



GIROLAMO DI BENVENUTO 

1470-1524 (?) 

Girolamo di Benvenuto, son of the painter Benvenuto di 
Giovanni, was born in 1470. He was a pupil of his father, but 
developed the faults of Benvenuto's later manner, using his heavy 
figures and somewhat blackish tonality. As an artist, Girolamo 
was inferior to his father, though the fact that he was called 
upon in 1510, with Pacchiarotto, Genga, and Girolamo del Pacchia, 
to judge Perugino's altarpiece in the church of San Francesco at 
Siena, proves that he had the regard of his fellow citizens. He spent 
an uneventful life in and about Siena, and died not later than 1524. 

In addition to the picture in the Fogg Museum attributed to 
Girolamo there are by him in this country: a Madonna and Child 
belonging to J. Templeman Coolidge, Boston; a Pieta in the col- 
lection of Dan Fellows Piatt, Englewood, N. J. ; and a desco del parto 
in the Jarves collection of Yale University, representing Love bound 
by Maidens, although this has been attributed to Girolamo's father, 
Benvenuto. As has already been stated, the Assumption of the 
Virgin in the Metropolitan Museum has been attributed by some 
critics to Girolamo, although it is generally conceded to be the work 
of his father. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Douglas, L. History of Siena. London, 1902. 385-386. 
Jacobsen, E. Das Quattrocento in Siena. Strasburg, 1908. 75. 
Perkins, F. M. Dipinti senesi sconosciuti o inediti. Rassegna d'arte antica e 
modema. Milan, 1914. i (7), 163, 168. 
Due dipinti senesi della Pieta. Rassegna d'arte senese. Siena, July-Sept., 

191 1. vii (3), 68-69. 
Un dipinto di Girolamo di Benvenuto. L'Arle. Rome, 1911. xiv, 120-12 1. 

27 MIRACLE OF SAINT CATHERINE 
Lent by Mrs. Theodore C. Beebe. 
Tempera on panel. H. 12! in. W. 2if in. (32.4 X 55 cm.) 

A sick woman lies in bed. On the nearer side of the bed, a Domini- 
can friar reads the service. On the farther side, a nun of the same 
order holds a lighted candle, and a female attendant listens to the 
service. Saint Catherine stands at the left, outside the house, and 



138 SIENESE PAINTING 

prays to Christ, Who appears, attended by seraphim. A demon flies 
out of the house door. There is no well-known story of Saint Cath- 
erine to explain this scene. It has been suggested that the picture 
represents the expulsion of a devil from a sick woman by the saint's 
intercession. It has also been suggested that the scene represents 
Christ and the devil contending for the departing soul of the dying 
woman. 

The red coverlet of the bed and garment of the attendant at the 
bedside are balanced by the red mantle of Christ and the wings of the 
seraphim. The black and white garments of Saint Catherine are 
balanced by those of the friar and nun at the bedside. The bluish 
green of Christ's robe is not very different from the blue of the upper 
sky and of the hills in the background. The pavement is a curious 
neutral pink mottled with green. The ledge of the bed on which the 
friar sits is a pale yellow. The architecture is of various shades of 
cool gray. The devil is reddish brown and his hair is black; and the 
scroll which he holds in his hand carries the motive of whiteness from 
the habit of Saint Catherine to the habits of the friar and nun, and 
finally to the sheet and pillows and headgear of the dying woman, 
and the door behind her head. 

The picture was at one time in the collection of Charles C. 
Perkins, who bought it in Italy sometime between the years 1850 and 
i860. It was bought by Dr. F. L. D. Rust in 1910, and lent to the 
Fogg Museum, where it was left as an indefinite loan from his widow, 
now Mrs. Theodore C. Beebe. 

The painting is difficult to date more closely than sometime in the 
first quarter of the Cinquecento. The Umbrian landscape attests the 
influence of Pintoricchio, who painted in the library of the Siena 
Cathedral from 1503 to 1508. The work shows a kinship to the work 
of the artist's father, although the hard outlines, harsh types, and 
inferior colour scheme are characteristic of the son. 

The oriental devil is in general a monstrous and gigantic animal; 
the Christian devil from primitive times down to the xn and xm 
centuries was constantly given human form — often he was repre- 
sented as a very ugly man, sometimes he assumed the form of a 
woman or of an angel. The early representations are found chiefly 
in the illuminated manuscripts. From the xm to the xv century 




o 

H 
W 

W 
n 

3 

o 



o 



GIROLAMO DI BENVENUTO 1 39 

belief in the devil was at its height. About the end of the xm 
century the custom arose of representing the Prince of Darkness in 
the composite and hideous form seen in this picture, with the body 
and head of a man and parts of different animals attached, a tail, 
the horns of a goat, cloven feet with claws, the wings of a bat — 
the bat being the bird of darkness. The devil was sometimes painted 
black, signifying wickedness and death, as in the painting by Sas- 
setta in this Gallery (No. 22), and sometimes red as here, red in its 
bad sense denoting blood, war, hatred, and punishment. Often the 
devil was represented more nearly like an ancient satyr. 

MENTIONED 

Art and archaeology. July, 191 5. 13. 

Art in America. July, 1913. i (3), 178. 

Berenson. Central Italian painters, 2d ed. 181. (Boston. Museum of Fine 

Arts.) 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 38. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward 

Hutton. 1909. iii, 119, note 4. (Boston.) 
Perkins, F. M. Alcuni dipinti senesi sconosciuti o inediti. Rassegna d'arte. 

Dec, 1913. xiii (12), 199, Reproduction. (Boston. Museum of Fine 

Arts.) 
Pitture senesi negli Stati Uniti. Rassegna d'arte senese. Siena, 1905. 

i ( 2 )> 75- (Boston. Museum of Fine Arts.) 
Rankin, W. Cassone fronts and salvers in American collections. Burlington 

magazine. London, Sept., 1908. xiii (66), 381. (Boston.) 



UMBRIAN PAINTING 



UMBRIAN PAINTING 

FOR purposes of classification the painting of central Italy is 
divided into two schools, the Sienese and the Umbrian. The 
former includes the artists of Siena and her contado; with the latter 
are grouped all central Italian painters not clearly Sienese. Thus the 
term Umbrian is loosely applied to many painters born far outside 
the modern Umbrian province, and Melozzo of the Romagna, Gen- 
tile of the Marches, and Piero of southern Tuscany are none the less 
classified as Umbrians. Though the classification lacks geographical 
accuracy, the painters included nevertheless have enough in common 
stylistically to justify their being grouped in a single school. 

In date the Umbrian school was much later than the Sienese. Me- 
diaeval painting in Umbria was dominated by the art of Siena, and 
important individual work did not begin until the very end of the 
xrv and the beginning of the xv century. Then the school developed 
rapidly, however, showing great originality in the early Renaissance, 
and culminating in the xvi century in the art of Raphael. The 
Sienese was thus the important central Italian school in the Middle 
Ages; the Umbrian foremost in the Renaissance. 

Despite its never failing charm and frequent originality, the Um- 
brian school owed much throughout its development to a stimulating 
contact with neighbouring artistic centres, especially Florence. 
When Florentine artists worked in Umbria, as Benozzo Gozzoli 
worked at Montefalco, Filippo Lippi at Spoleto, or Domenico 
Veneziano at Perugia, the influence of their art on the Umbrians was 
immediate and happy. Moreover, the Umbrians frequently went to 
Florence to learn their craft, and it is significant that the greatest 
Umbrian masters, Gentile da Fabriano, Pier dei Franceschi, Peru- 
gino, and Raphael, all worked and studied in the Tuscan city. In the 
Middle Ages the Sienese artists influenced the school as well, espe- 
cially the brothers Lorenzetti and Taddeo di Bartolo, and in the early 
Renaissance Umbria learned much from the art of the Sienese 
Domenico di Bartolo. 



144 



UMBRIAN PAINTING 



Allegretto 
Nuzi, active 
1346-1373 
Gentile da 
Fabriano 
1360^-142"! 

The Salimbeni 
of San 

Severino, active 
1400-1416 
Cola da 
Camerino 
active 1421 
Oltaviano 
Nelli, active 
ah. 1400-1444 
Pier dei 
Franceschi 
I4i6(?)-I4Q2 



Luca 

Signoretti 

1441-1523 

Melozzo da 

Forli 

1438-1494 



The most marked characteristic of central Italian art is its devo- 
tional quality, remarkable even in the essentially devotional painting 
of Italy. Whereas the devotion of Sienese art had been hieratic, 
aristocratic, and akin to the ideals of mediaeval Byzantium, that of 
Umbria became ecstatically human. The Renaissance trend towards 
bringing to earth the regal Christian gods of the Middle Ages was 
nowhere so strong as in Umbria, and it is not an exaggeration to say 
that we owe to the Umbrians our modern visual images of the Eter- 
nal, the Madonna, and the other important members of the Christian 
Pantheon. The piety and humility of the figures was deepened and 
dignified by a specially emphasized space composition, both archi 1 - 
tectural and landscape. Landscape backgrounds were given unusual 
importance and delicate beauty. The school thus became the most 
charming, the tenderest, and the most intimately human of Renais- 
sance Italy. 

Allegretto Nuzi, the first Umbrian painter of note, was born in the 
Marches and studied under the Florentine, Bernardo Daddi. He was 
the master of Gentile da Fabriano, the one great Umbrian of the 
Middle Ages. Gentile really belonged to the International school. 
The delicacy and sprightliness of his art charms, but tends to obscure 
his historical importance. He worked in Venice, Florence, and else- 
where, and was technically well in advance of his contemporaries, 
not merely in the Marches, but in Florence. He had many followers, 
and we owe to him the art of the brothers Salimbeni of San Severino, 
of Cola da Camerino, and others. His influence was strong, too, in 
the school of Gubbio, whose chief master was the rather insipid 
Ottaviano Nelli, an artist who tried to expand into fresco the minia- 
ture technique of Oderisio and the other early Gubbian masters. 

The first great Umbrian of the Renaissance was Pier dei Fran- 
ceschi, pupil of Domenico Veneziano of Florence. This master 
conquered the scientific difficulties of his craft, mastered anatomy, 
perspective, and foreshortening, and became one of the most signifi- 
cant and monumental of Italy's painters. He dominated the early 
Renaissance as Gentile had dominated the late Middle Ages. His 
two important pupils, Luca Signorelli and Melozzo da Forli, modi- 
fied his somewhat impersonal style. The former developed his 
anatomical studies and gave to Michelangelo the conception of the 
human nude as the best possible vehicle for the expression of emo- 



UMBRIAN PAINTING 



145 



tion; the latter emphasized perspective and foreshortening, and in 
his decoration of dome interiors might almost be regarded as a 
vigorous and rugged proto-Correggio. Melozzo, having learned 
something of the Flemish technique from Justus of Ghent, in turn 
influenced Antoniazzo Romano, the one significant xv century master 
of Rome. 

Meanwhile the most important Umbrian local school had begun to 
develop at Perugia. Giovanni Boccatis, a pleasant trifler but a 
charming colourist, emigrated from Camerino to Perugia, carrying 
with him the traditions of the art of the Marches. He in turn in- 
fluenced Benedetto Bonfigli, a chatterbox with no sense of composi- 
tion, but an attractive, nai've painter with a delicate sense of beauty 
and the first important native Perugian. He was followed by 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, reputed master of Perugino and Pintoricchio. 
Fiorenzo's importance hinges about a series of small paintings in the 
Perugia Gallery, somewhat questionably ascribed to him, which 
would prove him to have been the first great Umbrian space com- 
poser. In his absolutely authentic works he is dull and dry. If he 
was the master of his contemporary, Pietro Vannucci, called Peru- 
gino, six years his junior, he should receive credit for that. Perugino 
held the commanding position in the later xv century that Pier dei 
Franceschi had had in the earlier. He was the most devotional of the 
devout, the ablest space composer, and the most inspiring designer 
of bare, sweeping landscapes. He had many satellites, among 
whom we may mention Lo Spagna, Giannicola Manni, Tiberio 
d'Assisi, Francesco Melanzio, and Eusebio di San Giorgio. The only 
xv century Perugian to approach him in importance was Bernardino 
Pintoricchio, an attractive painter of tender Madonnas, idyllic land- 
scapes, elaborate architectural settings, and gay cavaliers. Al- 
though marred by a tendency to garrulity, Pintoricchio was never- 
theless a great decorator. He and Perugino more than any others 
combined to inspire the art of Raphael. 

Besides the school of Perugia, there were numerous subordinate 
schools associated with provincial towns in central Italy of the xv 
century. Thus Girolamo da Camerino headed a school in his na- 
tive town, and Lorenzo Salimbeni the Younger continued the school 
of San Severino. Later, another artist connected with that town was 
the interesting if somewhat laboured and metallic Bernardino di 



Antoniazzo 
Romano 
active ah. 
1460-1508 

Giovanni 

Boccatis 

active 1435(9)- 

1480(f) 

Benedetto 

Bonfigli 

ab. 1420-1496 

Fiorenzo di 

Lorenzo 

1440-1521 



Perugino 

1446-1524 

Lo Spagna 

active 

1500-1528 

Giannicola 

Manni, active 

I493~i544 
Tiberio 

d'Assisi, active 
1500-1524 
Melanzio 
active 1488- 

1515 

Eusebio di 

San Giorgio 

active 

1492-1527 

Pintoricchio 

I454-I5I3 

Girolamo da 
Camerino 
active middle 
of xv c. 
Lorenzo 
Salimbeni 
the Younger 
d. 1503 



146 



UMBRIAN PAINTING 



Bernardino 
di Mariotlo 
ab. 1478-1566 
Matleo da 
Gualdo, active 
1460-1503 
Andrea da 
Licio, active 
late xv c. 



Niccold da 

Foligno 

ab. 1430-1502 

Pier Antonio 
Mezzastris 
active 
1456-1506 

Giovanni 
Santi 

1430/40-1494 
Evangelista di 
Piandimeleto 
active 

1483-1549 

Timoteo delta 

Vite 

1467-1524 

Raphael 

1483-1520 



Mariotto, a Crivelliesque master who reversed the procedure of Boc- 
catis and emigrated from Perugia to the Marches. In Gualdo Tadino, 
an awkward but highly original provincial artist appeared in Matteo 
da Gualdo, and in the Abruzzi, Umbrian art was represented by the 
amusing but honest Andrea da Licio. The most important of the 
local schools outside Perugia, however, was that of Foligno, where na- 
tive Umbrian tendencies were tempered by the influence of Benozzo 
Gozzoli's frescoes at Montefalco and by Venetian influences, espe- 
cially of Crivelli, which crept down from the Marches along the old 
Via Flaminia. The most important master of Foligno was Niccolo 
Liberatore, wrongly called Alunno, a solid, serious artist and a sound 
technician, but given to the painting of extraordinary physical con- 
tortions in an attempt to express psychical emotion. His contem- 
porary, Pier Antonio Mezzastris, was a painter of some merit but of 
less power. 

The culmination of the Umbrian line came with Raphael, the son 
of Giovanni Santi, a painter of Urbino, whose solid, uninspired imi- 
tations of the types of Justus of Ghent in no way forecast the produc- 
tions of his gifted son. Raphael studied in turn under Evangelista di 
Piandimeleto, Timoteo della Vite of Ferrara, and Perugino. The 
last gave the peculiar impress to the master's style which it retained 
to the end. For a time he assisted Pintoricchio, acquiring something 
of his gaiety and interest in elaborate architectural backgrounds and 
idyllic landscapes. In 1504 he went to Florence, and, like his great 
predecessors, vitalized his art by Florentine contact. In 1508 he was 
called to Rome, and there spent the rest of his life, working succes- 
sively under Popes Julius n and Leo x. Like Leonardo in Florence, 
Raphael threw off all the restraint of the developing Quattrocento 
and appeared as a true painter of the High Renaissance. He modified 
slightly and fixed the types of the earlier school, the tender Madon- 
nas, bearded Jehovahs, and graceful Sebastians of Perugino. He was 
a skilful portraitist, a sparkling draughtsman, and at times even a 
great colourist. He is best known to the public as the painter of 
lovely Madonnas, but probably his most enduring claim to fame 
rests on his ability as a composer, both on the plane surface and in 
space. His frescoes in the Stanze of the Vatican are unsurpassed in 
this respect, and, like the cartoons of Leonardo and Michelangelo, 
have been in a sense " the school of all the world." 



UMBRIAN PAINTING 



147 



Raphael conducted an immense bottega in Rome, and attracted to 

himself many disciples and imitators, but none approached his genius. 

The followers, including such men as Giulio Romano, Pierin del 

Vaga, Giovanni da Udine, Francesco Penni, and Francesco Pri- 

maticcio, have been classified together as the xvr century school of 

Rome. As a matter of fact they were a cosmopolitan, eclectic group, 

attracted from all over Italy by the fame of Raphael and the papal 

court, and it is misleading to think of them as Umbrians. Strictly 

speaking, the Umbrian school came to an end with the death of 

Raphael. 

George Harold Edgell. 



Giulio 
Romano 
I4Q2(?)-I546 
Pierin del 
Vaga 

1 501-1547 

Giovanni da 

Udine 

1487-1564 

Penni 

ah. 1488-1528 

Primaticcio 

1504-157° 



The Umbrian paintings in the Fogg Museum will be found under Nos. 28- 
36 in this Catalogue. 

Among the artists mentioned in the foregoing sketch, the following are re- 
presented in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and in the collection of Mrs. 
John L. Gardner at Fenway Court. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts: Attributed to Boccatis, Meeting of Salo- 
mon and the Queen of Sheba; School of Perugino, Saint Sebastian; Timoteo 
della Vite, Madonna and Saints. 

Fenway Court: Pier dei Franceschi, Hercule (fresco); Fiorenzo di 
Lorenzo, Annunciation; Pintoricchio, Madonna and Child; Raphael, Pieta, 
Portrait of Inghirami. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, B. Central Italian painters of the Renaissance, 2d ed. New 

York, 1909. 
Bombe, W. Geschichte der Peruginer Malerei bis zu Perugino und Pinturicchio. 

Berlin, 191 2. (Italienische Forschungen, v.) 
Broussolle, J. C. La jeunesse du Perugin et les origines de l'ecole ombrienne. 

Paris, 1901. 
Grtjver, F. A. Les Vierges de Raphael et l'iconographie de la Vierge. Paris, 

1869. 3 v. 
Jacobsen, E. Umbrische Malerei des xiv., xv., und xvi. Jahrhunderts. Stras- 

burg, 1914. (Zur Kunstgeschichte des Auslandes, 107.) 
Rothes, W. Anfange und Entwickelungsgange der alt-umbrischen Maler- 

schulen. Strasburg, 1908. (Zur Kunstgeschichte des Auslandes, 61.) 



UMBRIAN SCHOOL 

Early xv century 

28 THREE SAINTS 

Tempera on panel. Left and central panels, each, H. 2i| in. W. 6fJ in. 
(54 X 17 cm.) Right panel, H. 2i| in. W. 7! in. (54 X 18.5 cm.) 

The bishop saint on the left, perhaps the Franciscan, Louis of 
Toulouse, wears a neutral orange habit with a red cope lined with 
dark blue green. The knotted cord about his waist is of dull yellow 
and his crosier is a creamy white with bands of black. His mitre is 
white with green bands, and his book is dark green with pale yellow 
edges. The martyr saint of the central panel wears a red gown over 
which is a robe of greenish blue. Her crown is gold and she carries 
a dark green palm. Her scarf is of gold with narrow stripes of red 
and black. Her hair is dark yellow. The saint on the right, Saint 
Anthony the Abbot, wears a dark red tunic with a yellow cloak and 
a dark neutral green mantle. His bell is white, hanging from a red 
and yellow cord. 

The three panels have been sawed out of some larger composition 
and set into a modern frame. 

The picture was placed in the Museum in 191 5. It is an unimpor- 
tant painting not on exhibition. 



NICCOLO DA FOLIGNO 

About 1430 to 1502 

Niccol6 di Liberatore da Foligno, to whose genius is largely due 
the origin of the school of Foligno, was born in the town whence he 
derives his name some time between the years 1430 and 1435. Ac- 
cording to tradition he was a pupil of the local painters Bartolommeo 
di Tommaso and Pier Antonio Mezzastris, but the chief stimulus 
to the development of his art came from the Florentine, Benozzo 
Gozzoli, who worked in Montefalco and other towns near Foligno 
from 1450 until about 1458, and gave a new impetus to the art of all 
Umbria. At different times Niccold painted in the Marches, and 
there he came into contact with the influences of that school as well 
as with Venetian influence, especially that of the Vivarini and 
Crivelli. Among his earliest works were his paintings in Santa Maria 
in Campis, near Foligno ; the Crucifixion by him on the altar wall was 
signed and dated 1456. The Madonna with Saint Bernardino and 
Saint Francis, painted for Deruta near Perugia, was dated 1457 or 
1458. From this time until 1499 he produced a number of works, 
chiefly large altarpieces of single figures and scenes in rich Gothic 
frames. He died in 1502. 

As opposed to the calmness of Perugino and Pintoricchio, Niccold 
represents the more violent phase of the religious emotionalism of 
central Italy, especially in his later work, in which his attempt to 
represent excessive grief leads him into frequent exaggerations. 

In this country Niccold is represented by a Crucifixion in the col- 
lection of Dan Fellows Piatt, Englewood, N. J., and by the Fogg 
Museum triptych. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cristofari, G. Appunti critici sulla scuola folignate. Bollettino d'arte. Rome, 

March-April, 1911. v (3-4), 93 _IO S- 
Ergas, R. Niccolo da Liberatore genannt Alunno. Inaugural dissertation. 

Munich, 191 2. 
Gnoli, U. Note varie su Niccolo da Foligno. Emporium. Bergamo, Feb., 

1909. xxix(i7o), 136-144. 
Opere inedite e opere smarrite di Niccolo da Foligno. Bollettino d'arte. 

Rome, July, 1912. vi (7), 249-262. 
La " Pieta, " di Niccolo Alunno. Emporium. Bergamo, April, 1908. 

xxvii (160), 255-260. 



150 UMBRIAN PAINTING 

Perkins, F. M. La pittura all' esposizione d' arte antica di Perugia. Rassegna 

d'arte. Milan, June, 1907. vii (6), 93-95. 
Rossi, A. I pittori di Foligno nel secolo d' oro delle arti italiane. Perugia, 

1872. 18-40. 
Rothes, W. Anfange und Entwickelungsgange der alt-umbrischen Maler- 

schulen. Strasburg, 1908. Schule von Foligno, 37-48. 
Ventuei, A. Studii sull' arte umbra del' 400. L'Arte. Rome, May-June, 

1909. xii (3), 192-194. 

29 MADONNA ENTHRONED WITH ANGELS BETWEEN 
SAINT SEBASTIAN AND SAINT FRANCIS (TRIPTYCH) 

Tempera on panel. 
Central panel, H. 58! in. W. 33 in. (148.4 X 83.8 cm.) 
Left wing, H. 58J in. W. 17! in. (147.6 X 45.1 cm.) 
Right wing, H. 58^ in. W. i6| in. (148.2 X 41.3 cm.) 

The dominant colour note is the pale blue of the mantle of the 
Madonna, seen against her dark violet red gown on the one hand and 
the grayish green throne on the other. This throne is decorated with 
a floral design carved in low relief. Behind the lower part of the 
drapery may be seen the figures of two putti carved on a panel of the 
throne. A golden crown in addition to the halo adorns the Madon- 
na's head. The Infant Jesus holds some cherries naively in His left 
hand, and is putting the stems in His mouth. His right hand forcibly 
plunged into a bowl of cherries held by an angel has caused some of 
them to fall. A choir of angels dressed principally in neutral blues, 
reds, and browns, and playing on musical instruments, is seen be- 
hind and above the throne. The donor, an elderly man partially 
bald and with white hair, is kneeling in the foreground. His hands in 
the attitude of prayer are concealed by his black cap. His gown is 
of a luminous light rose red. His figure is balanced by a green brown 
glass vase with red and white roses. The foot of the angel just behind 
the donor's head has a stocking of vermilion. This angel's garment 
was painted over a gold foundation and modelled in brown, with the 
paint scraped off in the high lights to show the gold ground. The 
Christ Child and three of the angels have eyes which are definitely 
blue, which is rather unusual. The verde underpainting is clearly 
visible in the flesh tones of many of the faces. This may perhaps be 
owing to the fact that the picture was at one time over-cleaned. The 
hair of the Madonna and Child and of some of the angels is a singular 
yellowish green. Probably it was modelled in the first place in terre 




c 

V. 

►J 

In 

< 

p 

-o 
J 
o 
u 
u 

2 



NICCOLO DA FOLIGNO 151 

yerde and a yellow glaze put over this. Where the glaze remains, as 
in the shadows of the Madonna's hair and in the hair of certain of the 
angels, the resulting colour is a rich neutral yellow brown; but where 
the glaze has been removed, there is a too evident suggestion of green. 
In the left wing is Saint Sebastian with a white waist band. Blood 
is streaming from his wounds. He stands in a grassy field in front of 
a tree with a substantial trunk; there is a rich clump of dark greenish 
brown leaves behind his head. In the right wing is Saint Francis in a 
greenish brown habit, also standing in a grassy meadow. The 
background is gold. 

In an article in the Bollettino d' Arte for July, 191 2, Count Um- 
berto Gnoli calls attention to a fragment of a predella in the bishop's 
palace at Camerino, by Niccolo — representing the Pentecost — and 
suggests that it is perhaps a part of the predella of this triptych, and 
that the triptych may be identical with one seen at Camerino by 
Durante Dorio, a xvii century writer who made a catalogue of the 
works of Niccolo. This catalogue is now preserved in manuscript in 
the library of the Seminario at Foligno. The entry which Count 
Gnoli quotes is as follows: " A Camerino un' opera del medesimo e 
nella predella dell' altare da una banda vi e un canestro di cerase 
naturalissime, e dell' altra banda una caraffa di acqua con fiori dentro 
e mostra riverberarsi il sole." Though this hardly seems to describe 
the Fogg Museum picture, yet the central panel of this triptych is the 
only known painting by Niccolo in which both a basket of cherries 
and a vase of flowers are represented. Count Gnoli suggests that 
Durante may have referred to the predella or step of the Madonna's 
throne, instead of the predella of the altarpiece, when he speaks of the 
vase of flowers. Moreover, Rossi speaks of an ancona from the con- 
vent of Sperimento near Camerino. There are no other records of a 
work by Niccolo there. It is possible, therefore, that the Fogg 
Museum triptych came originally from Camerino and that the little 
panel in the bishop's palace was part of the predella. The altarpiece is 
said to have been at one time in Ancona; later it appeared in Rome. 
It was placed in the Museum in 1901. 

F. Mason Perkins, in an article in Rassegna d' Arte for May, 
1905, pointed out that the altarpiece was painted probably about 
1468, as it is closely related to the San Severino triptych signed and 
dated 1468. Parts of the painting are close to parts of the altarpieces 



152 UMBRIAN PAINTING 

at Gualdo Tadino, Nocera Umbra, and in the Villa Albani, Rome. 
One of the master's earlier paintings, it is less exaggerated than his 
later work. 

In this picture, as in the Sienese panel, No. 21, the Madonna en- 
throned as the Queen of Heaven wears a crown. At the foot of the 
throne is a vase of roses. Double roses, pink or red, were the symbol 
of divine love and were consecrated to the Madonna. One of her 
titles was the Madonna della Rosa, doubtless based on the verse in 
the Song of Solomon (ii, 1) — "I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily 
of the valleys " — for as early as the first centuries the fathers of the 
church applied to the Madonna the imagery of the Canticles. The 
tradition is that when the roses were massed together in garlands or 
baskets, they symbolized heavenly joys. The painters of central 
Italy during the xiv and xv centuries represented clusters of lilies 
and roses in the foreground of their Madonna pictures as votive 
offerings to her of her sacred flowers. Often angels present bowls of 
flowers to her. In the north of Italy garlands of fruit took the place 
of votive flowers. In pictures of Florentine origin, when the Madonna 
holds a single rose, she is represented as the Madonna del Fiore — 
Our Lady of the Flower — to whom the Cathedral at Florence was 
dedicated. 

Fruits in general symbolized the fruits of the spirit or a votive 
offering, or were often used purely for decorative purposes. The 
cherries which the angels offer to the Child are the fruit of Heaven, 
typifying the delights of the blessed. In a picture by Memlinc in 
the Uffizi, the Child holds in one hand a cluster of cherries — the 
fruit of Paradise — while with the other He reaches out for the 
apple offered Him by an angel. This typifies His relinquishment of 
heavenly joys and His taking upon Himself the sin of the world. 

Saint Sebastian was a favourite saint throughout Italy, and as the 
patron against plague was very popular in those districts which were 
particularly subject to the dread disease. He appears often in Um- 
brian paintings, and is usually represented as a devotional figure as 
in this picture. In Florence, on the other hand, the actual scene of 
his martyrdom was more often represented. Saint Francis of Assisi 
was a favourite Umbrian saint. It is possible that this is a votive 
picture to commemorate the escape of the donor from the plague. 



NICCOLO DA FOLIGNO 153 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Gnoli. Bollettino d'arte. July, 191 2. 254-255. 

Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. 11, 1908. 

viii, 38, and same in Deutsche IAteraturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 551. 
Perkins. Boston evening transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. 
Rassegna d'arte. May, 1905. 67, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1903. iv, 174. 

American journal of archaeology. Oct.-Dec, 1905. 2d ser., ix (4), 498. 

Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 20. 

Berenson. Central Italian painters, 2d ed. 208. 

Bernath. New York und Boston. 73, Reproduction (77). 

Bibliografia. L'Arte. Rome, July-Aug., 1905. viii (4), 315, No. 283. 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 25-26, No. 8, 
Reproduction. 

Burlington magazine. London, Jan., 1913. xxii (118), 245. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle. New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Ed- 
ward Hutton. 1909. iii, 167, note 5. 
History of painting in Italy; ed. by Tancred Borenius. 1914. v, 242, 
note 2. 

Ergas. Niccolo da Liberatore. 96. 

Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 1911. 55. 

New England magazine. Aug., 1905. 702. 

Perkins. Rassegna d'arte umbra. Perugia, Dec. 15, 1910. i (4), no, note. 

Rankin. Notes on three collections of old masters. 6; 17, No. 6. 



SCHOOL OF GIOVANNI BOCCATIS (?) 
(Boccatis, active from about 1435 to about 1480) 

Giovanni Boccatis, born in Camerino and active from about 1435 to 
about 1480, represents the transfer of Umbrian art from the Marches 
to Perugia. He was a pupil probably of Lorenzo Salimbeni, and was 
influenced by the Florentines — Fra Filippo Lippi, Benozzo Gozzoli, 
and Fra Angelico — and by Pier dei Franceschi. His painting, with 
its pleasing fresh colour and its delightful naivetS, has the charm of 
all early Umbrian art. He was influenced by the Renaissance, 
frequently introducing Renaissance architecture into his pictures, 
and at times he shows something of North Italian feeling. His 
influence was felt by nearly all the early Umbrian painters. 

In this country there is a Madonna and Angels by Boccatis in the 
collection of Dan Fellows Piatt, Englewood, N. J. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bombe, W. In Thieme-Becker. Kunstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1910. iv, 153. 
Douglas, L. Esposizioni londinesi. L'Arte. Rome, Jan.-April, 1903. vi 

(1-4), 108. 
Venture, A. Studii sulT arte umbra del' 400. L'Arte. Rome, May- June, 

1909. xii (3), 188-191. 
Weber, S. Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. Strasburg, 1904. 11-14. (Zur Kunstge- 

schichte des Auslandes, 27.) 

30 MADONNA AND CHILD WITH ANGELS PLAYING 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 

Tempera on panel. H. 32 in. W. 2of in. (81.3 X 53 cm.) 
The Madonna wears a very much darkened blue green mantle and 
a red violet gown with a narrow golden band around her waist. The 
mantle has a lining now black, with a rich gold design. The parapet 
in front of the central figures is of a warm gray in the high light and 
violet gray in the shadow. A colour approximating the former gray 
is repeated in the festoons with the cherubs' heads and the support- 
ing columns and in the subdued white veiling that the Madonna 
holds around the Child. The robes of the two upper angels are 
pink, that of the left-hand angel is of a slightly violet cast; the robe 
of the right-hand angel tends towards red orange. The left-hand 
lower angel is in a neutral gray green robe with a black collar and 




30 SCHOOL OF GIOVANNI BOCCATIS (?) 



SCHOOL OF BOCCATIS (?) 155 

band over his shoulder. The right-hand angel has a black and gold 
garment with a mantle of pale red of a violet tinge. Both have 
golden wings with a peacock feather design. The musical instru- 
ments are of an ochreish yellow, and the hair of the Child and the 
angels of a peculiarly light greenish yellow, caused doubtless by 
the fading of the yellow glaze and the consequent appearance of the 
verde underpainting. The background is gold. 

The picture was formerly in the collection of Arthur Kay of Glas- 
gow. It was bought in 1909 and placed in the Fogg Museum. 

The panel is a puzzling one. It has been variously attributed to 
the Florentine school, perhaps to a follower of Pesellino, to the Um- 
brian, Giovanni Francesco da Rimini, with whose work it has a cer- 
tain kinship, and to other Umbrians perhaps of the school of 
Boccatis or Bonfigli. Some critics have thought it to be North 
Italian; in fact it was attributed to Marco Zoppo at the time when it 
came to the Museum. In Mr. Berenson's collection at Settignano, 
and in the Dreyfus collection are paintings by the same master. It 
seems to us that the panel is the work of a master of the Umbrian 
school, near Boccatis, and that quite probably he had felt the 
influence of Pesellino in some form. 

The introduction of little angels singing vigorously and playing on 
musical instruments about the Madonna's throne was a favourite 
motive of the Umbrian Boccatis. Indeed, angel musicians were 
represented by artists of all schools from the xh to the xvii century. 
They stand or kneel before the Madonna and Child, or — partic- 
ularly in Venetian and North Italian paintings — sit on the steps of 
the throne, playing on lutes, harps, viols, miniature organs, blowing 
horns and trumpets, striking cymbals and triangles, or beating drums 
and timbrels, and singing their songs of praise and adoration. They 
make a delightful note of joyousness in representations of the 
Madonna and Child, and are among the happiest creations of 
painters and sculptors. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 38. (Umbrian 

school.) 
Harvard graduates' magazine. June, 1910. 703. (Marco Zoppo.) 



ANTONIAZZO ROMANO (?) 

Active from 1460 to 1508 

Until within the past fifteen years little or nothing has been known 
in regard to the work of the painter Antoniazzo di Benedetto Aquilio, 
called Antoniazzo Romano. Vasari, in his life of Filippino Lippi, 
mentions "the Roman, Antonio called Antoniasso", as being one of 
the two best painters in Rome in the year 1493, and says that these 
two painters were called upon to value some frescoes which had 
been executed by Filippino Lippi. Crowe and Cavalcaselle refer to 
Antoniazzo and distinguish three members of the family, one the 
original Antoniazzo; the second of the same name, perhaps the son 
of the first one, whose work bore relation to Pintoricchio; and the 
third named Marcus. Since then many documents concerning the 
painter's life have been brought to light, and in more recent years 
critics have made an effort to reconstruct his somewhat baffling 
artistic personality. He is conceived by some as a facile craftsman 
who imitated in turn the styles of the various masters under whom 
he worked, notably Melozzo da Forli, Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, and 
Pintoricchio. In his earlier work a slight influence of Benozzo 
Gozzoli has been discerned. Seven signed works by Antoniazzo 
have come down to us. Many other paintings have been attributed 
to him, but it is quite possible that it will appear later that the 
works now included under his name were from the hands of a num- 
ber of different pupils of the great Umbrian and Florentine masters. 

The date of Antoniazzo's birth is not known, but as his name ap- 
pears for the first time in the city records of 1452, when he was sen- 
tenced to pay a fine, it is probable that he was born before 1437. His 
first master was doubtless some painter of the local Roman school. 
It appears that most of his life was spent in Rome, where he was 
largely employed in work for the papal court, both for decorative 
painting and for unimportant commissions, such as flags, banners, 
and coats of arms. Antoniazzo's first dated work is a signed triptych 
at Rieti, the Madonna and Child between Saint Francis and Saint 
Anthony, painted in 1464. In 1475 he was employed with Domenico 
Ghirlandaio in the decoration of the Vatican Library for Sixtus rv. 
In 1478 he was one of three artists appointed by the pope to draw 
up the statutes of the newly formed Guild of Painters in Rome, the 




3: (CENTRAL PANEL) ANTONIAZZO ROMANO (?) 



ANTONIAZZO ROMANO (?) 157 

Compagnia di San Luca. In the years 1480-1481 he was associated 
with Melozzo da Forli in the Vatican Library; nothing remains of 
Antoniazzo's work there. In 1484, at the time of the coronation of 
Innocent vni, he was working with one Pietro di Perusi: this Pietro 
may well have been Perugino, who in about 1480 was painting for 
Sixtus iv in the Sistine Chapel. In 1492 he received five hundred 
florins for work in connection with the coronation of Alexander vi. 

It is difficult to describe Antoniazzo's style, because so many dif- 
ferent works of varying quality have been attributed to him. If we 
are to believe that he did them all, he must have had great delicacy 
and an exquisite sense of the beauty of line, as is shown in the 
Madonna in the Fogg Museum (No. 31) ; and he must have possessed 
also a certain rugged and virile force, to approach Melozzo so closely 
that their work is sometimes hard to tell apart. 

In Rassegna d' Arte Umbra for December, 191 1, Mr. Perkins 
attributes the following paintings in this country to Antoniazzo : a 
Madonna in the George and Florence Blumenthal collection, New 
York; a Madonna in the John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia; 
a Madonna in the P. A. B. Widener collection, Philadelphia; a 
Madonna and Child, formerly in the Fischof collection, New York; 
a Saint Francis of Assisi, two half-length figures of Saint Peter and 
Saint Paul, and a Madonna and Child in the Piatt collection, Engle- 
wood, N. J. ; an Adoration of the Child in the Metropolitan Museum, 
there attributed to Fiorenzo di Lorenzo; a Madonna attributed to 
Pintoricchio in the Davis collection, Newport; and the two pictures 
in the Fogg Museum (Nos. 31 and 32 in this Catalogue). A Madonna 
and Child by Antoniazzo (No. 82 in the catalogue of the Loan Exhi- 
bition of Italian Primitives, New York, November, 191 7) was sold in 
the Kleinberger sale of January 23, 1918. A replica of the Fogg 
Museum tabernacle (No. 31) is said to be in the collection of Henry 
Walters, Baltimore. A panel very similar to the central panel is in 
the Worcester Art Museum. 



158 UMBRIAN PAINTING 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bernardini, G. Alcune opere di Antonazo Romano. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, 

March, 1909. ix (3), 43~47- 
Ancora 1' " Annunciazione " del Pantheon. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, 

Oct., 1909. ix (10), iii-iv. 
Un dipinto attribuito a Melozzo da Forli nella Galleria nazionale di Roma. 

Bollettino d'arte. Rome, Sept., 1907. i (9), 17-21. 
Cantalamessa, G. L' affresco dell' " Annunciazione " nel Pantheon. Bol- 
lettino d'arte. Rome, Aug., 1909. iii (8), 281-287. 
Ciartoso, M. Note su Antoniazzo Romano, degli affreschi in Santa Croce in 

Gerusalemme e di due imagini votive. L'Arte. Rome, 191 1. xiv, 

42-52. 
Everett, H. E. Antoniazzo Romano. American journal of archaeology. 

July-Sept., 1907. 2d ser., xi (3), 279-306. 
G., U. Un dipinto di Antoniazzo al Louvre. Rassegna d'arte umbra. Perugia, 

May 15, 1910. i (2), 63-64. 
Gottschewski, A. In Thieme-Becker. Kiinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1907. i, 

575-576. 
Un dipinto di Antoniazzo Romano. Bollettino d'arte. Rome, April, 1908. 

ii (4), I5I-I55- 
Die Fresken des Antoniazzo Romano im Sterbezimmer der Heil. Catarina 
von Siena zu S. Maria sopra Minerva in Rom. Strasburg, 1904. 
(Zur Kunstgeschichte des Auslandes, 22.) 

Jacobsen, E. Neue Werke von Antoniazzo Romano. Repert. f. Kunstw. Ber- 
lin, 1906. xxix (2), 104-107. 

Munoz, A. Studii su Melozzo da Forli. Bollettino d'arte. Rome, May, 1908. 
ii (5), 180, note 1. 

Okkonen, O. Melozzo da Forli und seine Schule. Helsingfors, 1910. 19-21, 

I3I-I39- 
Note su Antoniazzo Romano e sulla scuola pittorica romana nel' 400. 

L'Arte. Rome, 1910. xiii (i), 51-53. 
Perkins, F. M. Tre dipinti di Antoniazzo Romano. Rassegna d'arte umbra. 

Perugia, Dec. 31, 1911. ii (2-3), 36-38. 
Pernot, M. Un nouveau Melozzo da Forli (?). Chronique des arts et de la 

curiosity. Paris, Sept. 25, 1909. No. 31, 248-249. 
Rossi, A. Opere d' arte a Tivoli. L'Arte. Rome, March-May, 1904. vii 

(3-S), 146-157- 
Schlegel, L. de. Dell' Annunciazione di Melozzo da Forli nel Pantheon. 
L'Arte. Rome, 1910. xiii, 139-143. 
Per un quadro di Melozzo da Forli. L'Arte. Rome, July-Aug., 1909. 

xii (4), 307-3I3- 
Schmarsow, A. Melozzo-Entdeckungen in Rom. Monatskefte f. Kunstw. 

Leipsic, Nov., 1909. ii (n), 497-503. 
Venture, A. Un quadro di Melozzo da Forli nella Galleria nazionale a Palazzo 

Corsini. L'Arte. Rome, June-Aug., 1904. vii (6-8), 310-312. 



ANTONIAZZO ROMANO (?) 159 

31 MADONNA AND CHILD AND SAINT JOHN WITH ANGELS 

— GOD THE FATHER IN LUNETTE (TABERNACLE) 

Tempera on panel. 

Central panel, H. 2off in. W. 14! in. (53.1 X 37.5 cm.) 

Whole tabernacle, H. ab. 54! in. W. ab. 42! in. (ab. 139 X 108.5 cm -) 

This picture is neutral in tone. The Madonna's robe is red; her 
mantle is a subdued green blue. The sky is of a grayish green. 
The hair of the Madonna and of the Child is light yellow and that 
of Saint John the Baptist deep orange yellow. Saint John the Baptist 
has a hairy robe of gray green. The Child rests on a red cushion 
with a neutral yellow tassel. He is supported by a parapet of sub- 
dued yellow. In the frame on either side of the central panel in the 
recess is painted an angel, standing in the arched doorway. The 
left-hand angel has a robe of subdued orange with black sleeves, and 
the angel on the right has a very dark yellow robe with red orange 
sleeves. Both the angels and Saint John have yellow brown hair. 
The arches are similar in colour to the parapet. Above is the white 
Dove in a golden aureole and gold stars against a blackish blue 
background. In the lunette is represented God the Father in an 
attitude of benediction against a mandorla of gold. He wears a red 
orange mantle with a black lining; His sleeves are of a violet gray. 
The sky is grayish green similar to the sky in the main panel. 

It is said that a member of the Torlonia family gave the picture to 
the nunnery of the Tor de' Specchi in Rome, about forty years ago. 
The picture was placed in the Fogg Museum in 1899. 

The painting has been published as an Antoniazzo Romano by Mr. 
Berenson, Mr. Perkins, Mr. Everett, Mr. Edward Hutton in his 
edition of Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Dr. Borenius in his edition of 
volume v of Crowe and Cavalcaselle, and by Miss Brown and Mr. 
Rankin. However, the attribution has been doubted in spite of so 
much authority for its acceptance. Many have felt a difference 
between the master who painted the central panel and the one who 
painted the angels on the sides and God the Father in the lunette. 
These latter are clearly in the style of Antoniazzo and suggest 
Melozzo da Forli. The central panel, on the other hand, seems to 
many to be Florentine in feeling and to be slightly reminiscent of 
Domenico Veneziano, Baldovinetti, and perhaps Verrocchio. The 
picture is remarkable for its deep religious feeling and for the 



160 UMBRIAN PAINTING 

beauty of its line. Antoniazzo rarely reached such subtlety, so the 
suggestion has been made that he designed and painted the frame, 
and that the Madonna was by some other hand. 

Up to the xn century portraits of God the Father are almost never 
found, although He is represented on a v century sarcophagus in the 
Lateran Museum. His presence is in general indicated by a hand 
issuing from the clouds or from Heaven. Even after it became cus- 
tomary to represent the Father in human form — during the Gothic 
period and the Renaissance — the hand was still used to indicate His 
presence, sometimes entirely open with rays darting from each 
finger, sometimes in the act of blessing with two or three fingers only 
extended. During the xni and xrv centuries artists represented first 
the face of the Father, then His head and shoulders, and finally His 
full-length figure. When represented in human form He wears a long 
tunic and a mantle. His feet are often hidden by His robes. The 
early representations make little difference between the Father and 
the Son, but about the year 1360 artists began to portray the Father 
as older, and to give Him definite characteristics of His own — long 
flowing hair and beard and the face of a man sixty or even eighty 
years old. From the xiv to the xvi century He was frequently repre- 
sented either as pope or emperor, to express His power and impor- 
tance, the pope and the emperor being the greatest earthly dignitaries. 
The later artists created an ideal type more like the classic Zeus, with 
flowing white hair and beard — a powerful and magnificent old man. 
This type also was frequently found in the xv century. 

There are three representations of God the Father in this Gallery 
and one of His hand. In the Annunciation of the Florentine panel, 
No. 2, He appears in the sky above the Virgin and is pictured as a 
young man with yellow hair and beard. His figure is full-length sur- 
rounded with golden rays. He wears a rose-coloured tunic and a blue 
mantle which envelops His feet, and He has the cruciform nimbus. 
His right hand is extended in blessing. In the Sienese Nativity 
(No. 19), the upper part of His body only is visible, surrounded by 
seraphim. Here too He is a young man, with reddish hair and 
beard. His garment is blue with thin lines of gold running through 
it. He has the cruciform nimbus, and His hand is in the act of 
blessing. In the Annunciation of the Florentine panel, No. 5, the 




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ANTONIAZZO ROMANO (?) 161 

hand of God the Father blessing appears out of a cloud. The 
tabernacle attributed to Antoniazzo Romano has a representation 
of the head and shoulders of the Father in the lunette. Here He is 
portrayed as an old man with flowing white hair and beard. He 
is represented in a mandorla of gold against the sky. His halo is 
plain and both hands are raised. This representation of the Father 
was frequent in the xv century. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perkins. Boston evening transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. 

Rassegna d'arte. May, 1905. 67, Reproduction (68). 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. April-June, 1900. 2d ser., iv (2), 285; Oct.- 

Dec, 1905. 2d ser., ix (4), 498. 
Berenson. Central Italian painters, 2d ed. 134. 

Bibliografia. L'Arte. Rome, July-Aug., 1905. viii (4), 315, No. 283. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 24-25, No. 7, 

Reproduction. 
Brown and Rankin. 340. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle. New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward 
Hutton. 1909. iii, 199. 
History of painting in Italy; ed. by Tancred Borenius. 1914. v, 280, 
note 1. 
Everett. American journal of archaeology. July-Sept., 1907. 291,294,304, 

Reproduction (PL xxiv). 
G., U. Rassegna d'arte umbra. May 15, 1910. 53. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 1911. 56. 

Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. 11, 1908. viii, 
37, No. 3, and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 551, 
N0.3. 
Neiv England magazine. Aug., 1905. Reproduction, 707. 
Perkins. Rassegna d'arte umbra. Dec. 15, 1910. no, note; Dec.31, 1911. 

36, note. 
Rankin. Notes on three collections of old masters. 17, No. 5. 
Venture, vii, pt. 2, 286, note 1. 
Worcester Art Museum. Bulletin. July, 1917. 28. 

32 SAINT FABIAN, POPE 

Tempera on panel. H. 62! in. W. 22J in. (157.6 X 57.2 cm.) 
The background of the panel is greenish black. The pope wears a 
cope of rich yellowish brown (much damaged in the lower part), 
under which is a vestment of grayish green; his gloves are gray white. 



1 62 UMBRIAN PAINTING 

His halo and tiara are gold, his cap red, and his flesh dark brown. 
The book which he holds in his hand is dark red, with the edges of the 
binding and the clasp bright red. The floor is yellow brown. In the 
extreme margin of the panel at the top are the remains of some 
letters which have been cut in half but which may be reconstructed 
to read S. Fabianus. 

The panel was probably originally part of an altarpiece in Santa 
Maria della Pace, Rome. Later it was in the collection of Signor Pio 
Fabri, Rome. It was placed in the Fogg Museum in 191 1. 

There is a difference of opinion about the attribution of the picture. 
Professor Adolfo Venturi, in his monumental Storia dell' Arte Ita- 
liana, has published it as a Melozzo da Forli. Signor Pietro d' Achiardi 
has also published it as by Melozzo. On the other hand, Messrs. 
Berenson and Perkins, Dr. Onni Okkonen, and Dr. Borenius have 
taken the view that the panel is by Antoniazzo. There is documentary 
evidence to the effect that Antoniazzo contracted to paint in Santa 
Maria della Pace, Rome, a representation of the Virgin with Saint 
Sebastian and Saint Fabian on either side. The contract, dated 1491, 
is between Guillaume de Perier, auditor of the papal court, and " An- 
tonazo di Benedetto, Pentore", for the decoration of the chapel of 
the Altissena in Santa Maria della Pace, and contains the following 
clause: " . . . to paint the Virgin Mary seated with her Son in 
her arms . . . and on one side of the Virgin Mary to represent 
Saint Sebastian, on the other side to represent Saint Fabian." Dr. 
Okkonen, in his book on Melozzo da Forli, suggests that the Saint 
Fabian now in the Fogg Museum, which, according to Professor 
Venturi, was originally in Santa Maria della Pace, may be the one 
referred to in the document. He admits, however, that the Saint 
Sebastian in the Corsini Gallery, which is on canvas, probably did 
not belong to the same altarpiece with the Saint Fabian, which is 
on panel. 

As the picture has been attributed to Melozzo by distinguished 
critics, it may be worth while to discuss this question briefly. There 
has been a spirited controversy over the artistic personality of 
Melozzo da Forli; some draw a very small circle and admit but few 
pictures to be by the master himself; others are less exclusive and 
include paintings such as the Annunciation in the Pantheon, the 
Corsini Saint Sebastian, and the Fogg Saint Fabian. Yet those who 




' , <m<f: 



32 ANTONIAZZO ROMANO (?) 



ANTONIAZZO ROMANO (?) 1 63 

hold the view that Melozzo executed only a few very choice works are 
not wholly consistent; they include the Saint Mark, Pope, formerly 
in the church of San Marco in Rome, which is, to be sure, rather 
imposing when seen at a distance, but which when examined at close 
range, appears somewhat feeble in handling and brush work and far 
below Melozzo's standard — it is possible that this is accounted for 
by the fact that the picture may have been repainted in the xvi or 
xvn century. On the other hand they exclude the Annunciation in 
the Pantheon, which seems to some critics to have a trace of the 
splendid exuberant force and spring of Melozzo. 

There are a number of Umbrian Annunciations which seem to have 
some relation to one another. Pier dei Franceschi painted this sub- 
ject three times : in the Misericordia polyptych, in the lunette over 
the altarpiece now in the Perugia Gallery, and in the frescoes at 
Arezzo. In Fenway Court is a picture attributed to Fiorenzo di 
Lorenzo which has some points of similarity to the Perugia Annun- 
ciation, and which also resembles in certain ways the Pantheon 
Annunciation before referred to, and the fresco of the Annunciation 
by Antoniazzo in the Camera di Santa Caterina in the church of 
Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome. This last again bears a certain 
resemblance to the Annunciation with Donors and God the Father, 
in the same church. This points to the fact that certain character- 
istics were shared in common by these men. 

The art of Giovanni Santi, Raphael's father, and that of Justus of 
Ghent, a Flemish painter who was at the court of Urbino from about 
1474 to 1476, also appears to be related to the work of Antoniazzo. 
It has been more than once remarked that the Saint Fabian, Pope, 
bears a striking resemblance to the series of philosophers, poets, and 
doctors of the church painted by Justus for the library of Federigo 
of Urbino and now in the Barberini Palace, Rome, and in the 
Louvre. 

In the case of the Saint Fabian, perhaps it is more conservative to 
take the view that Melozzo was a very great painter and that none 
but the most distinguished pictures should be attributed to him. 
The Saint Fabian is distinctly inferior to the great paintings in the 
Vatican and is very much in the style of Antoniazzo. There is 
evidence that Antoniazzo made a contract to paint a picture of 
Saint Fabian. It therefore seems safer to accept this attribution. 



1 64 UMBRIAN PAINTING 

Saint Fabian succeeded to the papacy in the year 236. It is said 
that his choice as pope was determined by the appearance of a snow- 
white dove which hovered for a while over his head while the election 
was being held. Saint Fabian was martyred in the persecution under 
the Emperor Decius. In paintings he is often associated with Saint 
Sebastian, as their f£te-day is the same — January 20. 

There are various interpretations of the triple crown or tiara worn 
by the pope. One explanation is that the three crowns refer to the 
Trinity; but this is not probable, as they were adopted by different 
popes at different times. It is not known just when the first crown 
was assumed; it first appears about the xi century, the time of the 
growth of the temporal power of the papacy. The second crown was 
adopted by Boniface vm in 1295, and the third by Benedict xn in 
1334, or, according to another tradition, by Urban v (1362-1370). 
The tiara has been interpreted to signify the three-fold power of the 
pope — his temporal power over the Roman states, his spiritual 
power over the souls of men, and his power over the kings and po- 
tentates of Christendom. Other explanations are that the triple 
crown signified the lordship of the papacy over Heaven, Earth, and 
Purgatory, or the triple dignity of the pope as teacher, law-giver, and 
judge. The tiara was worn only on certain occasions of great 
solemnity. 

Gloves were first recognized as a vestment by Pope Honorius 11 of 
Autun (11 24-1 130), although they had been worn previous to this 
time. It is said that they owed their invention to the coldness of 
early churches, being adopted originally simply to keep the hands 
warm. In the ix century they were given a more sacred character, 
and a prayer was prescribed to be used when putting them on. They 
were worn in general by popes, bishops, abbots, and at times by 
priors, although they might be worn with propriety by all who in ec- 
clesiastical functions carried staves, canopies, reliquaries, or candle- 
sticks. When first used the gloves were probably white and of linen 
or silk. Later they were of silk and coloured to accord with the 
other vestments. At times they were richly embroidered and 
jewelled. Coloured gloves, embroidered and jewelled, are seen in the 
Flemish diptych, No. 60. 



ANTONIAZZO ROMANO (?) 165 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Achiardi, P. d'. Un quadro sconosciuto di Melozzo da Forli. L'Arte. Rome, 

March-April, 1905. viii (2), 120-122, Reproduction. 
Bernardini. Bollettino d'arte. Sept., 1907. 20-21. 

Rassegna d'arte. Oct., 1909. iii-iv. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 38, Reproduction. 
Okkonen. 135-137. 

Perkins. Rassegna d'arte umbra. Dec. 31, 1911. 37. (San Gregorio.) 
Venturi. vii, pt. 2, 16-18, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED * 

American journal of archaeology. July-Sept., 1905. 2d ser., ix (3), 380; Jan- 

March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 20. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. History of painting in Italy; ed. by Tancred 

Borenius. 1914. v, 280, note 1. 
Gottschewski. Die Fresken des Antoniazzo Romano. 14-15. 
Muntz, E. Les arts a la cour des papes Innocent vm, Alexandre vi, Pie m, 

(1484-1503). Paris, 1898. 34. (LaVierge . . . entre Saint Sebastien, 

Saint Julien.) 
Schlegel. L'Arte. July-Aug., 1909. 312-313. 
Schmarsow, A. Melozzo da Forli. Berlin, 1886. 371. 

1 Includes references to the Virgin between St. Sebastian and St. Fabian in the 
Altissena Chapel, Santa Maria della Pace. 



PINTORICCHIO 

1454-1513 

Bernardino di Betto di Biagio, called II Pintoricchio, was born in 
Perugia in 1454. Little is known of the first thirty years of his life. 
It is probable, however, that he received his early training in the 
miniaturist school of Gubbio. Later, it is likely that he was a pupil 
of Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. He was influenced also by Perugino and 
Signorelli. 

In 1482 he was in Rome, working under Perugino on the decoration 
of the Sistine Chapel. His contact with the Florentine artists, no- 
tably Ghirlandaio and Botticelli, brought an important element into 
his style, although his later work shows little of Florentine influence. 
From 1483-1484 dates his first noteworthy independent commission 
— the decoration of the Bufalini Chapel in the church of Aracoeli, 
Rome. In 1492 he was commissioned by Pope Alexander VI to 
decorate the pope's private apartments in the Vatican. This was 
Pintoricchio's most splendid achievement. His own hand appears 
largely in the first two apartments, and the whole work was under his 
personal supervision. Pintoricchio executed many other series of 
frescoes, of which the most important were those in the Baglioni 
Chapel of the Collegiata, Spello, 1 500-1 501, the series of scenes from 
the life of Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini in the Cathedral Library, Siena, 
1 503-1 508, and the decorations of Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, 
1505. In addition to his frescoes Pintoricchio painted a number of 
altarpieces and panels, of which the Santa Maria dei Fossi altarpiece, 
now in the Perugia Gallery, and the Madonna of San Severino, are the 
most important. His last known work, painted in the year of his 
death, is the Christ bearing the Cross, now in the Palazzo Borromeo, 
Milan. He died in Siena in 1513. According to Tizio, the Sienese 
historian, his death was due to the neglect of his wife, who deserted 
him when he was very ill, with the result that he died of starvation. 

Among the paintings by Pintoricchio in this country are the small 
Madonna and Child in the collection of Mrs. John L. Gardner, Bos- 
ton; an unfinished Madonna and Child, owned by Mrs. Frederick 
Allen of Cleveland; and the Fogg Museum picture. 



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PINTORICCHIO 167 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Goffin, A. Pinturicchio. Paris, 1908. (Les grands artistes.) 

Phillipps, E. M. Pintoricchio. London, 1901. (Great masters in painting 

and sculpture.) 
Ricci, C. Pintoricchio. Tr. by Florence Simmonds. London, 1902. 
Schmarsow, A. Pinturicchio in Rom. Stuttgart, 1882. 
Raphael und Pinturicchio in Siena. Stuttgart, 1880. 
Steinmann, E. Pinturicchio. Bielefeld and Leipsic, 1898. (Kiinstler-Mono- 

graphien, 37.) 
Urbini, G. II Pintoricchio. Rassegna d'arte senese. Siena, July-Dec, 1913. 

ix (3-4), S!- 6 4- 
Venture, A. Disegni del Pinturicchio per l'appartamento Borgia in Vaticano. 
L'Arte. Rome, 1898. i, 32-43. 

HOLY FAMILY AND SAINT JOHN 

Tempera on panel. H. 2of in. W. 15I in. (53 X 38.7 cm.) 

The colour arrangement in this picture is strikingly happy, rich, 
and harmonious. The rose red of the Madonna's gown and of Saint 
John's mantle and the even warmer orange red of Saint Joseph's 
cloak form a mass of rich, warm tones brought out by opposition to 
the deep blues and greens which predominate in the rest of the 
picture. The Madonna's mantle is of a splendid deep blue, the dis- 
tant mountains and sky appear in a paler blue, and the other tones 
are for the most part varying shades of greenish brown. 

The picture was formerly in the collection of Ulrich Jaeger of 
Genoa, who bought it in Valencia, Spain. Signor Jaeger suggested 
that the panel might possibly have belonged at one time to the Borgia 
family, who came from Spain. It was bought by the Fogg Museum 
in iqio. 

Mr. Perkins places the date of the picture at about 1492-1494, the 
years in which the frescoes of the Borgia apartments were painted. 
The little Saint John is almost identical with the Saint John of the 
Santa Maria dei Fossi altarpiece painted in 1498. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Harvard graduates' magazine. June, 1910. 702-703. 

Perkins, F. M. Dipinti inediti del Pintoricchio e di Bernardino di Mariotto. 

Rassegna d'arte umbra. Perugia, Dec. 15, 1910. i (4), 109-110, 

Reproduction. 



1 68 UMBRIAN PAINTING 



MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1911. viii, 125; ix, 121. 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1912. 2d ser., xvi (1), 157; 

Jan-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 20. 
Berenson. Central Italian painters, 2d ed. 228. (Genoa. Signor Ulrich 

Jaeger.) 
Bernath. New York und Boston. 74, Reproduction (79). 
BiBLiOGRAFiA. V Arte. Rome, 1911. xiv, 159-160, No. 87. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 38, Reproduction. 
Brown and Rankin. 392. 

Burlington magazine. London, April, 1911. xix (97), 61. 
Crowe and Cavalcaseixe. New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward 

Hutton. 1909. iii, 295. (Genoa. Signor Ulrich Jaeger.) 
History of painting in Italy; ed. by Tancred Borenius. 1914. v, 416, 

note 4. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 1911. 55. 



UMBRIAN SCHOOL 

xv century 

34 MADONNA DI SANTA CHIARA 

Tempera on panel. H. 17! in. W. 13H in. (43.8 X 35.4 cm.) 

The Madonna wears a dark blue mantle with a solid gold border 
beautifully incised, and a dark green lining. Her gown is deep rose 
red, and her head-dress a pale neutral violet, receding into a red 
violet shadow on the left. In her halo is the inscription : Ave Regina 
Celorum. Both Madonna and Child have yellow hair. The Child 
has a white cloth held around Him; the part of this drapery over His 
right knee has a reddish tinge. A silvery gray green landscape re- 
cedes behind the Madonna into the distance. The gold background, 
incised so that the rays radiate from the Madonna and Child, is made 
to appear to be a golden sky, which in its turn recedes behind the 
hills. 

The picture was bought in Rome and placed in the Fogg Museum 
in 1900. 

This painting presents a curious and interesting problem. There 
are numerous similar pictures in different galleries and private col- 
lections in Europe and America. It is supposed that some one of the 
well-known painters, probably Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, Pintoricchio, or 
Perugino, created the type and that the design was then repeated by 
a number of his pupils and followers. There are at least fifteen of 
these pictures, besides several others which are closely akin either in 
the design of the Madonna or of the Child. Three pictures by 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo — the Salting Madonna, now in the National 
Gallery, the Madonna and Child in an early triptych in the Perugia 
Gallery, and the Madonna and Child formerly in Santa Maria Nuova 
in Perugia — all in one way or another bear resemblance to this type. 
Roger Fry suggests that the Salting Madonna by Fiorenzo is the 
archetype of the group, but he agrees with Crowe and Cavalcaselle in 
thinking that Pintoricchio, under the influence of Fiorenzo, actually 
created the design we are discussing. The view that these critics 
advocate is that the Madonna now belonging to John Pierpont 
Morgan, which was formerly in the collection of Major-General John 
Stirling, is by far the best, and was painted by Pintoricchio, and that 



170 UMBRIAN PAINTING 

all the others follow this model. Crowe and Cavalcaselle give 
second place to the Madonna di Santa Chiara of Urbino, now in 
the Fogg Museum. Next they place the picture by Pintoricchio in 
the National Gallery (No. 703), in which the Child stands upon a 
parapet in front of the Madonna, and they mention five more, one 
in Naples, one in the Brera, and three in the Louvre. Other repli- 
cas with minor modifications are in the National Gallery (No. 702), 
in the Cook collection at Richmond, in the Benson collection, 
London, in Budapest, in Darmstadt, in the Palazzo Bufalini at 
Citta di Castello, in the Palazzo Municipale, Toscanella, and one 
belonging to M. Ernest Rouart, Paris (No. 49 in the catalogue of 
the Henri Rouart sale, 191 2). No two of these pictures are exactly 
alike. Also from the same design is a fresco in the Sala del Gran 
Consiglio, Perugia. It is worthy of note that in the Morgan and 
Rouart panels and in the Perugia fresco the Madonna faces to the 
left, while in all the others of which photographs are available she 
faces to the right. The Fogg Museum, the Palazzo Bufalini, and the 
Benson collection panels have a landscape background instead of a 
mandorla of cherubs' heads. The Toscanella picture has both the 
mandorla and a landscape background. Of the others, at least nine 
have gold immediately surrounding the Madonna within the man- 
dorla, and either gold or uniform paint outside the mandorla. The 
Madonna di Santa Chiara, now in the Fogg Museum, is the only one 
we have found in which the Madonna and Child have solid halos, 
with inscriptions; at least seven have no halos. 

The Madonna di Santa Chiara has received many attributions. 
It has been placed upon the already over-burdened shoulders of 
Antoniazzo Romano; Antonio da Viterbo has been suggested. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle and others think it shows the influence of 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo and mention Ingegno's name in connection with 
it. Ingegno is mentioned by Vasari as in his first youth vying with 
Raphael, and among all the disciples of Perugino the one who would 
without doubt have surpassed his master by very much, " but that 
fortune, who is almost always pleased to oppose herself to high begin- 
nings, would not suffer l'Ingegno to attain to the perfection he was 
approaching; a cold and affection of the head fell with such fatal 
effect upon his eyes that the hapless Andrea became totally blind, to 
the bitter and lasting sorrow of all who knew him." 




34 UMBRIAN SCHOOL 



MADONNA DI SANTA CHIARA 171 

Finally, an attempt has been made to prove that the picture is by 
Raphael himself. It will perhaps be of interest to mention the partic- 
ular evidence brought forth in favour of this last named ascription. 
Professor David Farabulini in 1875 published a book entitled Sopra 
una Madonna di Raffaello d' Urbino, in which he devotes 235 pages 
to proving this point, and the question has also been discussed in 
various magazine articles and histories of art. It is manifestly im- 
possible in this short space to go into the argument at length, but in 
a general way Signor Farabulini's reasoning is as follows. In 1580 
Father Horace Civalli, in his character of father guardian of the 
Franciscan convents of Urbino, wrote about his triennial visit to that 
city: " I will not here make mention of all the churches, but will 
come at once to Santa Chiara, where we find two things worthy of 
notice. One is a painting a foot and a half in height representing the 
Blessed Mother with her Son in her arms, a work of Raphael Sanzio 
of Urbino, preserved with jealous care by the Reverend Mothers." 
Thus we know that the picture was in the convent of Santa Chiara as 
early as 1580, and was then thought to be by Raphael. Moreover, 
Passavant states that it was there in 1500, according to a chronicle 
of that year. In 1822 Pungileoni, in his Elogio Storico di Raffaello 
Santi, records : " The painting belonging to the nuns of Santa Chiara 
is in their convent guarded with the greatest jealousy. Neither 
Algarotti, who made the tour of Italy in order to buy objects for 
Frederick, king of Prussia, nor the picture-dealer Willi, was able to 
carry it away into a foreign country, as had happened to so many 
other paintings." 

There is an inscription on the back of the picture which apparently 
Pungileoni copied at that time. According to Professor Farabulini, 
he copied and interpreted the inscription erroneously and Passavant 
and Cavalcaselle both followed his interpretation. As given by 
Pungileoni it is as follows: " fu compro da Isabella dogobio matre 
di Raffaello Sante da Urbino 1548. Fiorini 25." This inscription 
read in this way is manifestly absurd. Raphael's mother was named 
Magia Ciarla, not Isabella. She died in 1491, hence could not have 
bought a picture by her son in 1548. The inscription actually reads 
as follows: " . . . fu comperato da Isabetta da Gobio matre di . . . 
Raffael Santi . . . 1548 . . . per fiorini 25." Professor Farabulini 
supplies the missing words as follows and makes the inscription read 



172 UMBRIAN PAINTING 

thus: "Questo quadro fu comperato da Isabella da Gobio matre di 
questo convento. In 1548 fu stimato per fiorini 25." (This picture was 
bought by Isabella of Gubbio, mother of this convent. In 1548 it 
was appraised at 25 florins.) He further states that the inscription 
which says "Raffael Santi" is in a different handwriting and earlier. 
He then points out that the meaning is clear; Isabella of Gubbio 
was the daughter of Federigo of Montefeltro, duke of Urbino. She 
was born in 1461 and was betrothed in 1471 to Roberto Malatesta, 
lord of Rimini, and was married to him in 1475. After a brief and 
unhappy married life she became a widow at the age of twenty or 
twenty-one, when her husband was killed at Campo Morto. She 
then retired to the convent of Santa Chiara in Urbino, which she 
endowed with her possessions, and took the name of Sister Chiara, 
probably about the year 1482. Professor Farabulini believes that 
the inscription means that Isabella da Gubbio, mother superior of 
this convent, bought this picture and gave it to the convent, and 
that in 1548 when they were taking account of stock the value was 
estimated at twenty-five florins. 

Vasari tells of Raphael's repeated visits to Urbino, and mentions 
that Duke Guidobaldo had two Madonnas, small but beautiful, by 
him, and Professor Farabulini conjectures that this picture must be 
one of those two, and was perhaps ordered by the Duke for his sister 
Isabella of Gubbio at some time. The picture was sold about the 
year i860 to an American banker in Rome, Mr. Hooker. Professor 
Farabulini says that the Madonna di Santa Chiara was evidently 
copied from an original by Perugino, and states that this original was 
in Perugia and has since disappeared, but not before a tracing had 
been made which came into the possession of Mr. Hooker, and which 
is now in the Fogg Museum. Signor Farabulini's theory is that the 
picture was painted when Raphael was between twelve and fifteen 
years old, while he still showed strong traces of his training under his 
father, Giovanni Santi. Signor Farabulini further gives a reproduc- 
tion of the design on the neck band of the Madonna's gown, and 
quite ingeniously translates it as follows: " Raphael . Vr . In . tr", 
which he says means " Raphael Vrbinas Inventor." 

Thus he builds his argument, which suggests an interesting pos- 
sibility, but the weight of the evidence appears to be against his case, 
as this picture bears no resemblance to any known work of Raphael. 



MADONNA DI SANTA CHIARA 1 73 

The Madonna di Santa Chiara, however, is far finer than any of the 
series, with the possible exception of Mr. Morgan's picture. That 
appears to be somewhat nearer Pintoricchio than does the painting 
in the Fogg Museum, but in spite of its beauty and rich colouring, 
there are certain defects in the draughtsmanship of the Child, which 
make the attribution uncertain. 

Mr. Hooker during his lifetime thoroughly believed the painting 
to be a Raphael, but his wife, who sold it, came to the conclusion 
that it was by Pintoricchio, as Morelli, Sir Edward Poynter, Sir 
Frederic Leighton, and others told her verbally that they believed 
it to be by that master. Mrs. Hooker says in a letter, however, that 
the documentary evidence tends decidedly towards Raphael, and 
that there is only a hiatus of forty years in the history of the panel. 
Perhaps future study and research will solve the complicated problem 
of this series of pictures. At the present time, Umbrian School is the 
safest attribution to give. 

EXHIBITED 

London. South Kensington Museum, 1876. 

London. Royal Academy. Winter exhibition, 1879. Catalogue. No. 193. 
Raphael-Ausstellung, Dresden, 1879. Catalogue. 8, No. 3. 
A photograph of the picture was exhibited at the Mostra internazionale Raf- 
faellesca in Urbino, Aug.-Sept, 1897. Catalogue. 49, No. 447. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Pictures in the Series 

Benson, R. H. Catalogue of Italian pictures collected by Robert and Evelyn 
Benson. London, 1914. 91-92, No. 47. 

Berenson. Central Italian painters, 2d ed. 168. 

Broussolle, J. C. La jeunesse du Perugin et les origines de Pecole ombrienne. 
Paris, 1901. 356-360. 

Budapest. Museum der Bildenden Kunste. Katalog, 1913. 176, No. 83. 

Burlington Fine Arts Club. Catalogue of a collection of pictures of the Um- 
brian school. London, 1910. 15-16, No. 1; 46, No. 64, 64a. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle. New history of painting in Italy. 1866. iii, 164- 

l6 5- 
New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward Hutton. 1909. iii, 

194-195. 

History of painting in Italy; ed. by Tancred Borenius. 1914. v, 273-275. 

Darmstadt. Grossherzoglich Hessisches Landesmuseum. Verzeiehnis 

der Gemalde. Bearbeitet von F. Back. Darmstadt, 1914. 64-65, 

No. 90. 



174 UMBRIAN PAINTING 

Fry, R. E. The Umbrian exhibition at the Burlington Fine Arts Club. Bur- 
lington magazine. London, Feb., 1910. xvi (83), 267-268. 

London. National Gallery. Catalogue, 1913. 711, No. 702. 

Magherini-Graziani. L'arte a Citta. di Castello. Citta, di Castello, 1897. 176. 

Phillips, C. The Salting collection; the Italian pictures. Burlington 
magazine. London, April, 1910. xvii (85), 15. 

Phillipps, E. M. Pintoricchio. 148. 

Ricci, C. Pintoricchio. Tr. by Florence Simmonds. London, 1902. 14-16. 

Rotjart, H. Catalogue des tableaux anciens composant la collection de feu M. 
Henri Rouart. Paris, Dec, 191 2. i, 27, No. 49. 

Thode, H. Pitture di maestri italiani nelle gallerie minori di Germania. La 
pinacoteca di Darmstadt. Archivio storico deW arte. Rome, July-Aug., 
1890. iii (7-8), 252. 

Venturi, A. I quadri di scuola italiana nella Galleria nazionale di Budapest. 
L'Arte. Rome, 1900. iii, 236-237. 
Storia dell' arte italiana. Milan, 1913. vii, pt. 2, 587-591, 712-713, 716. 

Madonna di Santa Chiara 

Blanc, C. Histoire des peintres de toutes les ecoles; ecole ombrienne et 
romaine. Paris, 1870. Andrea di Luigi d' Assise. 4-6, 8. 

Carr, J. C. Academy. London, June 3, 1876. 544. 

Colvin, S. Old masters at the winter exhibitions. Nineteenth century. Lon- 
don, Feb. 24, 1879. 309. 

Farabtjlini, D. Letter on the painting of Raphael of the Virgin of Santa 
Chiara at Urbino. Paris, 1879. 
Sopra una Madonna di Raffaello d'Urbino. Rome, 1875. 

Graesse, J. G. T. Ueber eine dem Raphael Sanzio zugeschriebene Madonna, 
jetz im Besitz des Herrn J. C. Hooker in Rom. Zeitsckr. f. Museologie 
und Antiquitatenkunde. Dresden, Jan., 1880. No. 1, 6-8. 

Hutchinson, G. L'Art. Paris, Jan. 23, 1876. iv (56), 121-122. 

The Madonna or Santa Chiara, Urbino. Rome, 1875. (Review of Professor 
Farabulini's book.) 

Passavant, J. D. Rafael von Urbino und sein Vater Giovanni Santi. Leip- 
sic, 1839. i, 43. 

Perkins. Boston evening transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. 
Rassegna d'arte. May, 1905. 67-68, Reproduction. 

Pungileoni, P. L. Elogio storico di Giovanni Santi. Urbino, 1822. 131-132. 
Elogio storico di Raffaello Santi. 1829. 8-9. 

Raffaello e la sua Madonna di S. Chiara celebrata in Germania. // Raffaello. 
Urbino, 1880. xii (1), 5-7. 

Review of a work lately published by Professor David Farabulini descriptive 
of the early painting by Raphael now in possession of J. C. Hooker, 
Esq., Rome. London, 1876. 

Tincker, M. A. La Madone de Santa Chiara. L'Art. Paris, May 28, 1882. 
xxix (387), 161-168, Reproduction. 

Trollope, T. A. Mr. Hooker's picture. Lippincott's magazine. Philadelphia, 
Aug., 1875. xvi (92), 254-257. 



MADONNA DI SANTA CHIARA 175 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Oct.-Dec, 1905. 2d ser., ix (4), 498. 
Berenson. Central Italian painters, 2d ed. 134. (Antoniazzo Romano.) 
Bernath. New York und Boston. 74, Reproduction (78). 
Bibliografia. L' Arte. Rome, July-Aug., 1905. viii (4), 315, No. 283. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 26, No. 9. 
Colucci, Abate. Antichita Picene. Visita triennale (nel 1580) del Padre 

Maestro Civalli de' Minori Conventuali. Fermo, 1794. xxv, 190. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. New history of painting in Italy. 1866. iii, 164. 
New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward Hutton. 1909. iii, 195, 

and note 2. 
History of painting in Italy; ed. by Tancred Borenius. 1914. v, 274. 
Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. n, 1908. 

viii, 38, and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 551. 
London. National Gallery. Catalogue, 1913. 711, No. 702. 
Rankin. Notes on three collections of old masters. 17, No. 4. 
Ricci. Pintoricchio. 15. 

Rio, A. F. De l'art chretien, nouvelle ed. Paris, 1861. ii, 272. (LTngegno.) 
Vasari. Le Monnier. 1852. viii, 72, note 4. 

Ed. by Milanesi. Sansoni. 1879. iv, 395, note 2. 
Weekly register. 1876. No. 14, 380. 

References to the two Madonnas painted for Duke Guidobaldo 

Comolli, A. Vita inedita di Raffaello da Urbino. Ed. seconda. Rome, 1791. 

13, note 21. 
Dennistoun, J. Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino. London, 1851. ii, 223. 
Quatremere de Quincy, A. C Histoire de la vie et des ouvrages de Raphael, 

3 9 ed. Paris, 1835. 26. 
Vasari. Tr. by Mrs. Foster. 1851. iii, 8. 
Le Monnier. 1852. viii, 7. 
Ed. by Milanesi. Sansoni. 1879. iv, 322. 
Ed. by E. H. and E. W. Blashfield and A. A. Hopkins. 1911. iii, 137. 



35 



BERNARDINO DI MARIOTTO 

About 1478 to 1566 

Bernardino di Mariotto dello Stagno, one of the most important 
members of the school of San Severino, was born in Perugia about 
1478. Although he lived after Perugino and Pintoricchio, Ber- 
nardino did not fall under the spell of those masters, but represented 
rather the older, more serious tradition of Umbrian painting as seen 
in Fiorenzo and Signorelli. His first master was probably Lodovico 
di Angelo Mattioli of Perugia, or 'perhaps Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. 
Bernardino also reflects the influence of Lorenzo da San Severino the 
Younger and of Crivelli. Documents record that Bernardino was 
in San Severino in 1502; he probably went there about 1497 or 
1498. He worked with Lorenzo da San Severino the Younger, and 
after Lorenzo's death in 1503 took over his workshop. He returned 
from San Severino to Perugia in 1522, and was active there until 
1541. He died in Perugia in 1566. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Aleandri, V. E. Un affresco a Camerino e Bernardino di Mariotto da Perugia. 

Rivista d'arte. Florence, Sept.-Dec, 1909. vi (5-6), 308-314. 
Bombe, W. In Thieme-Becker. Kunstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1909. iii, 441-442. 
Jacobsen, E. Umbrische Malerei des xiv., xv., und xvi. Jahrhunderts. 

Strasburg, 1914. 61-65. 

MYSTIC MARRIAGE OF SAINT CATHERINE 

Oil on panel, arched top. H. 2if in. W. 14! in. (55 X 36.8 cm.) 
The violet red colour motive of the Madonna's gown is repeated by 
the mantle of Saint Catherine; and the orange yellow of Saint 
Catherine's gown is repeated in the lining of the Madonna's mantle, 
and again in the mantle of the central angel, the sleeves of the left- 
hand angel, and the wings of the one on the right. The dark blue 
mantle of the Madonna is now black. The sky is a deep blue which 
grows lighter near the horizon. The central angel wears a robe of 
pale blue with collar and sleeves of violet red; his wings also are 
violet red. The angel on the left wears a pale violet robe. His 
mantle and bis wings are olive green. The angel on the right wears 
a garment in part yellow green and in part red violet. The general 
tone of the architecture is brown. 




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BERNARDINO DI MARIOTTO 1 77 

The picture at one time belonged to Count Augusto Caccialupi in 
Macerata, and appears as No. xin in the catalogue of his collection, 
published in 1870. It is described as a standard and is attributed to 
Crivelli. On the opposite side was a picture of Saint Sebastian and 
Saint Thomas in Adoration, now in the collection of F. Mason 
Perkins. Mr. Perkins- describes these saints as Saint Dominic and 
Saint Sebastian, and thinks that the two panels were originally bier 
heads. The Fogg Museum panel was sold in Rome in the Nevin sale 
in 1907. On the back of the panel is written: " From the Chateau 
of L'Abaddia." The picture was placed in this Museum in 1910. 

The painting well illustrates the influences to which Bernardino 
reacted. The three angels above the main group of figures, somewhat 
stiff and lacking in spontaneity, probably were derived from Fiorenzo; 
the type of Madonna recalls Signorelli; while the Saint Catherine is 
modelled directly upon Crivelli's Saint Mary Magdalene in Berlin. 
The colour is rich, but somewhat metallic; the outlines are hard. 
The painter's interest in detail is seen in the marble pavement, in 
Saint Catherine's crown, in her jewels and those of the Madonna and 
Child. The picture is somewhat stiff and formal, revealing the 
hand of the provincial painter. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Caccialupi, A. Catalogo di quadri di varie scuole pittoriche raccolti dal Sig. 

Conte Augusto Caccialupi in Macerata e descritti per il Marchese Filippo 

Raffaelli. Macerata, 1870. 9, No. xiii. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. June, 1910. 703. 
Perkins, F. M. Dipinti inediti del Pintoricchio e di Bernardino di Mariotto. 

Rassegna d'arte umbra. Perugia, Dec. 15, 1910. i (4), no, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan-March, 1912. 2d ser., xvi (1), 157; 

Jan.-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. / 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 21. 

Bibliografia. L'Arte. Rome, 1911. xiv, 159-160, No. 87. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 38. 
Burlington magazine. London, April, 1911. xix (97), 61. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. New history of painting in Italy; ed. by Edward 

Hutton. 1909. iii, 297, note 4. (Ex-Nevin collection, Rome.) 
History of painting in Italy; ed. by Tancred Borenius. 1914. v, 419, note 1. 
Nevin, R. I. Catalogo della vendita della collezione del fu Reverendo Dottor 

Roberto I. Nevin. Rome, 1907. 15, No. 50. 
Perkins. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, April, 1906. vi (4), 53, note 1. 



FRANCESCO ZAGANELLI DA COTIGNOLA 

About 1460 to 1531 
Francesco di Bosio Zaganelli was born at Cotignola in the duchy 
of Ferrara in the latter part of the xv century. He was a pupil of 
Palmezzano of Forli and in addition to Umbrian influence shows the 
influence of the Ferrarese school — especially that of Ercole Roberti 
and Costa — of the Venetian Rondinelli, and of the Bolognese 
Francia. With his brother Bernardino he worked in Cotignola until 
the death of Bernardino, about 1509. Then Francesco moved to 
Ravenna where he painted a large number of works. He died in 
Ravenna in 153 1. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ricci, C. D'alcuni dipinti di Bernardino da Cotignola. Rassegna d'arte. 

Milan, April, 1904. iv (4), 49-52. 
La " Madonna delle Rose " dei Zaganelli da Cotignola nel Museo di 

Vicenza. L'Arte. Rome, 1914. xvii, 1-6. 
Raccolte artistiche di Ravenna. Bergamo, 1905. 11-13. 

36 HOLY FAMILY 

Lent by Charles B. Perkins. 

Oil on panel. H. 25! in. W. i8f in. (65.3 X 47.3 cm.) 

The Madonna's gown is of red; her mantle, originally of blue has 
faded, especially over her knees, to a dark brown green. The lining 
of her mantle, once green, is now brown. Her hair is brown yellow 
and over it is a transparent kerchief. The Child's hair is brown. 
Saint Joseph's robe is violet red and his cloak red, similar in colour to 
the Madonna's gown. His hair and beard are brown. The landscape 
background has faded somewhat, and it presents a harmony of warm 
grays and greenish browns, save for a bit of dark red in the jacket of 
one of the two men standing near the camel and in the bundle over 
the shoulder of one of the men driving the ass. The distant moun- 
tains are of pale gray blue; the sky shades from pale blue to a pale 
pink at the horizon. The parapet on which the Madonna and Child 
are seated is yellow white, with a yellow brown base; the fruit is of 
shades of brown and rose. 

The picture was bought by Charles C. Perkins in Italy some time 
between the years 1850 and i860, and was placed on exhibition in the 
Museum in 1 910 as an indefinite loan. 



ZAGANELLI 179 

The painting illustrates especially the Umbrian element in Zaga- 
nelli's work. In the romantic background with its knights, rocks, 
feathery trees, and far distances, Zaganelli is close to Pintoricchio — 
indeed the picture was formerly attributed to Pintoricchio. The 
types also are Umbrian. 

On the parapet by the Madonna and Child are cherries, apples, 
and a gourd. The apple and the gourd were often painted together 
by artists, notably Crivelli. The use of the gourd dates back to the 
wall pictures in the catacombs, where Jonah was represented as the 
type of the Risen Christ and the gourd as the symbol of the Resur- 
rection. As the apple was the fruit of Eden which brought sin into 
the world, so the gourd represented the Resurrection which saved the 
world from the consequences of its sin. 

MENTIONED 

Berenson. Central Italian painters, 2d ed. 264. (Boston. Museum of Fine 

Arts.) 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 38. 
Brown and Rankin. 409. (Boston. Bernardino Zaganelli.) 



NORTH ITALIAN PAINTING 



NORTH ITALIAN PAINTING 



STRICTLY speaking, northern Italy consists of the whole region 
north of the Apennines, including Venice; but in connection 
with the history of painting, Venice is ordinarily regarded as a sep- 
arate school, for the development of its art is somewhat distinct from 
that of Northern Italian art as a whole and much more definite. As 
a matter of fact, outside of Venice, there was no school in northern 
Italy which had a continuous development, and until the middle of 
the xv century there were few masters of conspicuous individual 
genius. There was always a tendency to import noted artists from 
abroad to execute the more important works. Thus the Florentines, 
Giotto, Uccello, Filippo Lippi, and Donatello, were all commissioned 
to work in Padua, and later on Leonardo was called to Milan. 

In the xrv century the intercourse between the cities of northern 
Italy, in particular those of Lombardy, and the north of Europe 
seems to have been especially close, and a late Gothic style developed 
toward the end of the xrv century very similar to the International 
art of France and of Cologne. Grassi, Besozzo, and the Zavattari 
were the more important of these Lombard "Internationalists." 
Altichiero of Verona and his follower Jacopo d'Avanzi, who some- 
what earlier painted the series of frescoes in the oratory of Saint 
George in Padua and one or two other works still extant in Padua and 
Verona, were also typically late Gothic painters in their combination 
of discursive naturalism and grace and charm of style. In the genera- 
tion after Altichiero, Pisanello, also of Verona, a great medallist as 
well as painter, became the chief northern Italian representative of 
the International school. Pupil of the Umbrian, Gentile da Fabriano, 
whom he probably assisted in the Ducal Palace in Venice, he was one 
of the most charming of all northern painters. He was the keenest 
of naturalists, taking a particular interest in the representation of 
animals. 

Padua with its university was the chief centre of learning and cul- 
ture in northern Italy during the xiv and early xv centuries. At 
first its more important art was the work of foreign artists, like 



Giovanni da 

Grassi 

ah. 1340-1398 

Besozzo, active 

1394-1442 

The Zavattari 

xv c, 1st half 

Altichiero 

Allichieri 

ab. 1330-1395 

Jacopo 

d'Avanzi 

xiv c, 2d half 

Pisanello 

ab. 1385-1453 



1 84 



NORTH ITALIAN PAINTING 



Guariento 
active ab. 
1338-ab. 
1368 



Francesco 

Squarcione 

I394-H74 



Andrea 

Mantegna 

1431-1506 



Giotto and Altichiero. Its native art in the xrv century was repre- 
sented by Guariento, whose style was a meagre example of the 
Byzantine-Gothic, which prevailed so long in Venice and the neigh- 
bouring cities of the north that came less directly in touch with the 
more vigorous Gothic current. As Padua, however, had been a 
centre of humanism throughout the Middle Ages, it was peculiarly 
ready for the awakening of the Renaissance, which there, as in Um- 
bria, came largely through Florentine influence. The invigorating 
influence of the sculptor Donatello, who came to the city in 1443, 
was of the greatest importance in forming the characteristics of the 
school. 

Paduan art in the Quattrocento was centred in the workshop or 
academy of Francesco Squarcione, who was more significant as a 
collector, antiquarian, and teacher than as a painter. His art and 
that of his scores of pupils, who came from all over the north of Italy, 
including Venice, was founded largely on a study of antique sculpture, 
combined with the inspiration derived from Donatello's works in 
Padua. A strongly sculpturesque point of view, shown in the keen 
interest in modelling of surface and the emphasis on hard metallic 
edge as well as in a liking for sculpturesque details of classical form, 
and a striving for the rendering of great intensity of feeling in pos- 
ture and facial expression, were striking characteristics of the school. 
The style is thus to a considerable extent mannered and unnatural; 
poses of figures are distorted, facial expression tends toward grimace, 
draperies are metallic or cartaceous, the landscape is strangely barren 
and rocky, and bas-reliefs and garlands of fruit and flowers are super- 
abundant. Nevertheless, within its limits, the style is in its best 
examples forceful and harmonious. 

The greatest exponent and perhaps the principal founder of this 
Paduan style was Mantegna. He was one of the most individual and 
powerful painters of the xv century, and no doubt his presence in 
Squarcione's workshop accounted to a considerable extent for its 
stimulating effect on his fellow pupils. His influence was very wide- 
spread. He developed the scientific and plastic tendencies of Florence 
along special lines of his own, taking particular interest in perspec- 
tive and foreshortening, but without ignoring possibilities of beauty 
and charm. Mantegna is notable not only as a painter but also as an 
engraver, and seven engraved plates are attributed to him. Impres- 



NORTH ITALIAN PAINTING 



185 



sions from all but one of these will be found in the Print Room of the 
Fogg Museum. 

It might be useful to think of Northern Italian art as composed of 
horizontal layers or strata, spreading out from various centres more 
or less completely, rather than divided vertically into local schools; 
for if we examine the art of the separate towns and cities we find 
little homogeneity running through the different periods, even in the 
work of the same artists, but if we examine all northern art at any 
one moment we are likely to find considerable likeness. Thus Squar- 
cionesque painting had for a time great influence on the art of various 
towns to which pupils returned. The Squarcionesque stratum 
centred in Padua and took on a somewhat different aspect in different 
places according to the individual character of the various painters, 
but it spread out pretty completely over the whole of northern Italy. 
Foppa in Milan; Benaglio,Domenico Morone, Liberale, and Girolamo 
dai Libri in Verona; Girolamo in Cremona; Cosimo Tura, Ercole 
Roberti, and Zoppo in Ferrara; as Well as Bartolommeo Vivarini and 
Crivelli in Venice: these were all, at least for a time, a part of the 
Squarcionesque or Mantegnesque stratum. 

Among these, one of the most important was Cosimo Tura, pupil 
of Squarcione and founder of the Ferrarese school. In many ways his 
painting is mannered and bizarre, as in the angular folds of his dra- 
pery, but his figures are dignified and expressive, often intensely 
emotional. In subtle adjustment of colour design, he and his pupil 
Cossa are hardly surpassed by any other painters of the Renaissance. 

In the next generation Umbrian influence, combined with Fer- 
rarese, produced in Bologna the more sophisticated art of Costa and 
Francia. 

Another stratum which extended as far as Milan, in the painting of 
Andrea Solario, was due to the influence of the late xv century Vene- 
tian painting, especially that of Alvise Vivarini. Solario later be- 
came a follower of Leonardo. Many painters in a similar way fol- 
lowed the vogue of different masters in their successive periods, 
beginning perhaps in the style of Alvise Vivarini, then imitating 
Giorgione and Titian, or perhaps Leonardo and even Raphael and 
Michelangelo, in turn. 

A certain amount of Umbrian influence penetrated to Milan when 
Bramante, coming from Urbino, took up his abode there. It is notice- 



Vincenzo 

Foppa, ab. 

1427-after 

1502 

Francesco 

Benaglio 

xv c, 2d half 

Domenico 

Morone 

1442- after 

1503 

Liberale da 
Verona 
I45i~i536 
Girolamo dai 
Libri 

i474-i55<> 

Girolamo da 

Cremona 

active 

14.67-1483 

Ercole 

Roberti 

ab. 1430-1496 

Marco Zoppo 

ab. 1440-1498 

Cosimo Tura 

ab. 1430-1495 

Francesco del 

Cossa 

ab. 1435-1477 

Lorenzo Costa 

1460-1535 

Francesco 

Francia 

ab. 1450-1517 

Andrea 

Solario 

ab. 1459- 

ab. 1520 



1 86 



NORTH ITALIAN PAINTING 



Bramanlino 
ab. 1460-1520 



Bernardino 
Luini 
ab. 1475- 
1531/32 



Defendente 
Ferrari 
active ab. 

1510-1535 
Correggio 

1494-1534 
Francesco 
Bianchi 
I457-I5IO 



Dosso Dossi 

I479-I54I 

Romanino 

1485/86-1566 

Morello da 

Brescia, ab. 

I4g8-ab. 1554 

Giovanni 

Battista 

Moroni 

1520/25-1578 



Antonio 

Badile 

I5i7(?)-I56'° 



able especially in the work of Suardi, known as Bramantino, who is 
represented in the Boston Museum by an unusually lovely panel 
strongly suggestive of Umbrian quality. Later on, Leonardo became 
the dominating factor in all Milanese art, and almost all the Milanese 
painters, even Luini, who under the influence of ea flier artists had 
developed a style of rare grace and charm, succumbed to the in- 
fluence of Leonardo's exotic style, with its insistence on plastic 
modelling obtained by melting contours and blackened shadows, 
and its search for subtle phases of emotion. 

Farther to the west, in Vercelli, painters like Defendente Ferrari 
showed the influence of Flemish and French xv century painting. 

In the High Renaissance the most significant northern artist was 
Correggio. His direct masters were Bianchi of Modena and Francia 
and Costa of Bologna, but he combined the style of xvi century 
Venice with the weaker sentimentality of Bologna, borrowing also 
something of Leonardo's exaggerated chiaroscuro and soft modelling. 
Possibly the signs of decadence in his work may also be attributed 
somewhat to Leonardo's influence. In his best work he is one of the 
most masterly painters of all time in his free and expressive handling 
and in his subtle adjustment of tones to achieve harmonious mellow 
light and to express existence in different planes forward and back. 

Among other North Italian painters of the xvi century Dosso 
Dossi of Ferrara came strongly under Giorgione's influence, and 
Romanino, Moretto, and Moroni of Brescia followed the methods of 
Titian and contemporary Venetian painters. Moretto and his pupil 
Moroni are among the finest portrait painters of the xvi century. 
They incline toward a more silvery tone than Titian or Tintoretto, 
but otherwise their paintings are practically Venetian both in mode 
and in technique. 

A similar silvery tone is found in the works of the xvi century 
school of Verona, which produced masters like Badile and his great 
pupil, Paolo Caliari. The latter is usually thought of, however, as 
belonging to the school of Venice, where he did his more important 
work, but where he was known as " II Veronese." 

Arthur Pope. 



NORTH ITALIAN PAINTING 1 87 

The North Italian paintings in the Fogg Museum will be found under Nos. 
37-42 in this Catalogue. 

Among the artists mentioned in the foregoing sketch the following are repre- 
sented in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and in the collection of Mrs. John L. 
Gardner at Fenway Court. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts: Andrea Solario, Portrait; Bramantino, 
Madonna and Child; Moroni, Portrait. 

Fenway Court: Attributed to Squarcione, Madonna and Child; Man- 
tegna, Madonna and Saints; Liberale da Verona, Madonna and Saint 
Joseph adoring the Infant Christ; Cosimo Tura, Circumcision (companion 
piece to Fogg Museum tondo, No. 37); Francia, Madonna; Bramantino, 
Three Saints; Correggio, Venus; or, Girl with Thorn; Moroni, Portrait. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, B. North Italian painters of the Renaissance. New York, 1907. 
Borenitjs, T. Painters of Vicenza, 1480-1550. London, 1909. 
Gardner, E. G. Painters of the school of Ferrara. New York, 191 1. 
Grtjyer, G. L'art ferrarais a, Pepoque des princes d'Este. Paris, 1897. 2 v. 
Malaguzzi-Valeri, F. Pittori lombardi del quattrocento. Milan, 1902. 
Ricci, C. Art in northern Italy. New York, 1911. (Ars una: species mille.) 
Toesca, P. La pittura e la miniatura nella Lombardia, dai piu antichi monu- 
menti alia meta, del quattrocento. Milan, 1912. 



COSIMO TURA 
About 1430 to 1495 

Cosimo (Cosme) Tura, the founder of the Ferrarese school, was born 
in Ferrara, probably in the early part of the year 1430. He was the 
son of a shoemaker, Domenico di Tura. Little is known of his earliest 
training, but records show that in 1451 he was employed by the Duke 
of Ferrara with the local master Galasso. He was absent from 
Ferrara fromabout 1452 to 1456, and it is probable that he spent most 
of this time in Padua, studying in the Squarcione workshop. During 
his absence from Ferrara he doubtless visited Venice also. The de- 
termining influence in his training was that of Padua, where he 
" drank deep " of the inspiration of Donatello and Mantegna. He 
may have had some share in the less important frescoes of the Ere- 
mitani Chapel. At some time he may have come under the influence 
of Pier dei Franceschi, deriving perhaps from him something of his 
sense of colour harmony and his feeling for monumental quality in 
design. 

Tura returned to Ferrara in 1456 and in 1458 was appointed court 
painter; be held this position under Dukes Borso and Ercole d' Este 
until a few years before his death. His work for the Este family in- 
cluded a long series of paintings of religious and profane subjects, of 
portraits, of designs for tapestries, furniture, and silver plate, and 
decorations for court festivities and tournaments. Between the 
years 1465 and 1467 he was absent from Ferrara at Mirandola, 
where he decorated the library of Francesco Pico, the father of Pico 
della Mirandola. Tura returned to Ferrara in 1467; and there he 
spent the rest of his life, save for a short visit to Venice and Brescia 
in connection with a commission from Duke Borso to decorate his 
chapel in Belriguardo, and a second visit to Venice in connection 
with a commission from Duke Ercole for a silver service designed 
by Cosimo and executed by a Venetian goldsmith in honour of the 
marriage of the Duke to Leonora of Aragon. Tura's official con- 
nection with the court ended about 1485. He died in 1495. 

Tura is represented in this country by the panels in the Fogg 
Museum and in the collection of Mrs. John L. Gardner, Boston; by 
two small panels of Saint John the Baptist and Saint Peter in the 
John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia; by the portrait of Duke 




37 COSIMO TURA 



COSIMO TURA 189 

Borso d' Este in the Altaian collection of the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum; and by a Madonna and Child in the collection of Mr. and 
Mrs. Harold I. Pratt, New York. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Borenius, T. " The Crucifixion," by Cosimo Tura. Burlington magazine. 

London, Aug., 1915. xxvii (149), 202-205. 
Gardner, E. G. Painters of the school of Ferrara. New York, 1911. 16-31. 
Gruyer, G. L' art ferrarais a 1' epoque des princes d' Este. Paris, 1897. ii, 

56-84. 
Harck, F. Die Fresken im Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara. Jahrb. d. kon. 

preuss. Kunstsamml. Berlin, 1884. v, 99-127. 
Verzeichnis der Werke des Cosma Tura. Jahrb. d. kon. preuss. Kunst- 
samml. Berlin, 1888. ix, 34-40. 
Ricci, C. Tavole sparse di un polittico di Cosme Tura. Rassegna d'arte. 

Milan, Oct., 1905. v (10), 145-146. 
Venturi, A. L 'arte emiliana al Burlington Fine Arts Club di Londra. Archi- 

vio storico dell' arte. Rome, March-April, 1894. Ser. i, vii (2), 89-96. 
Cosma Tura, genannt Cosme, 1432 bis 1495. Jahrb. d. kon. preuss. 

Kunstsamml. Berlin, 1888. ix, 3-33. 
Maestri ferraresi del rinascimento. L'Arte. Rome, May-July, 1903. vi 

(5-7), I33-I34- 
Le opere de' pittori ferraresi del' 400 secondo il catalogo di Bernardo 
Berenson. L'Arte. Rome, Nov.-Dec, 1908. xi (6), 419-422. 

37 ADORATION OF THE KINGS 

Tempera on panel. H. 15! in. W. 15! in. (38.8 X 38.6 cm.) Visible 
surface, tondo. 

The Madonna's mantle is of a peculiar neutral blue; the high light, 
as is often the case with Tura's draperies, is of a silvery quality and is 
blue green in colour. The shadows are of a greenish blue turned 
brown in parts with age. A rose red, almost a red violet, appears not 
only in the mantle of the kneeling king but in the sleeves of the 
Madonna's gown and the collar and sleeves of Saint Joseph's tunic, 
and a fainter echo of this same colour appears in the subdued rosy 
light in the sky near the horizon showing under the dark blue green 
clouds, and in the sleeves and cap of the Ethiopian king. Saint 
Joseph and the fair-haired standing king both wear tunics of deep 
blue green, almost black, and this same colour appears in the sleeves 
of the kneeling king. The strongest colour note in the picture is the 
vermilion mantle of Saint Joseph. The drapery of the Ethiopian 
king and of the figure kneeling before him as well as the under tunic, 



I go NORTH ITALIAN PAINTING 

the drapery over the right arm, and the cap of the standing king are 
of a warm yellowish brown. This colour appears in a variety of skil- 
fully graded tones, many of them verging towards green, in the rocks, 
the shoes, the presents offered to the Infant Christ, and in the hair 
and flesh tones of all except the Ethiopian king, thus giving a har- 
monious unity to the picture. 

The panel belonged at one time to the Santa Croce family, Rome, 
and later was in the collection of the Contessa di Santa Fiora, Rome. 
It was placed in the Fogg Museum in 1905. 

The picture was formerly considered to be one of a series of five 
tondi which formed parts of the altarpiece of Saint Maurelius in San 
Giorgio fuori le Mura at Ferrara. Two of the series were thought to 
be the Trial and Martyrdom of Saint Maurelius, now in the Ferrara 
Gallery; and the other three, the Circumcision, in the collection of 
Mrs. John L. Gardner, Boston; the Adoration, in the Fogg Museum; 
and the Flight into Egypt, in the collection of Robert H. Benson, 
London. The theory that the five tondi formed one series has now, 
however, been discarded, and Dr. Venturi and Dr. Schubring have 
published the three tondi belonging to Mrs. Gardner, to Mr. Ben- 
son, and to the Fogg Museum, and representing scenes from the life 
of the Madonna, as forming one series. Similar types are used in the 
three panels; the same Saint Joseph appears in all; there is a close re- 
semblance between the Madonnas in the Fenway Court and the Fogg 
Museum panels, and between the Saint Simeon of the Fenway Court 
panel and the kneeling king of the Fogg Museum Adoration. 

The types, though reminiscent of the Paduan school, are somewhat 
less gaunt and hollow-eyed than is usual in the pictures of these 
northern masters; the Madonna is youthful and comely, lacking the 
excessive plainness which often characterizes the figures of the real- 
istic Tura. The drapery is somewhat complicated and metallic, 
though less so than is customary with the school. The background 
is a naturalistic representation of the geologic formation which the 
masters of Padua and Verona delighted in portraying. 

The incident of the Adoration of the Magi is related only in the 
Gospel of Saint Matthew, and there very briefly, but many legends 
grew up around the Magi and Kings from the East. The number of 
the Magi was at first indeterminate, but about the rv century the 



COSIMO TURA 191 

number three became general. It was not until the v and vi centuries 
that the Magi became Kings, and not until the x century were they 
represented as crowned Kings. The Magi were for the first time 
pictured as of different ages, an old man, a middle-aged man, and a 
young man, in an eastern manuscript dating from about 550. During 
the Middle Ages the exact age of each was given — the eldest was 
sixty, the youngest twenty, and the other forty years old. Their 
names, the Latin forms of which were Jaspar — later Gaspard — 
Balthasar, and Melchior, first appeared in a Greek vi century manu- 
script. A passage attributed to Bede, quoted in Male's Religious 
Art in France, xiii century (p. 214), states that " Melchior, an old 
man with long white hair and a long beard . . . offered gold, symbol 
of the divine kingdom. The second, named Caspar, young and 
beardless, with a ruddy countenance . . . honoured Christ in pre- 
senting incense, an offering pointing to His divinity. The third, 
named Balthazzar, with a dark skin and a full beard, testified in his 
offering of myrrh that the Son of Man must die." It was not until the 
xrv and xv centuries that artists represented the third King as a 
negro, in accordance with the teachings of the theologians that the 
three Kings represented the three races of mankind coming to render 
homage to the Christ Child. The subject of the Adoration of the 
Magi was a favourite one with artists, particularly in the xv cen- 
tury, as it lent itself to the richest and most elaborate treatment. 
The early legends asserted that Saint Joseph did not appear, but in 
representations dating from the xv century he is almost invariably 
present. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 26, No. 13, Repro- 
duction (27). 
Beeck. Rassegna d'arte. Oct., 1909. 169-170, Reproduction. 
Gardner. 28, Reproduction; 208, note 1. 
LafenestrE, G. La peinture en Europe; Rome, les Musees, les Collections, 

les Palais. Paris, 1905. p. 291, 292, Reproduction. 
Schubring, P. Cassoni. Leipsic, 1915. i, 151; 352, Nos. 560-561, Repro- 
duction (ii, PI. cxxvi, No. 560). 
Venture. Arckivio storico dell' arte. March-April, 1894. 90-94, Reproduc- 
tion (opp. p. 96). 
L'Arte. Nov.-Dec, 1908. 419, 420-421. 
Storia dell' arte italiana. vii, pt. 3, 546, Reproduction (550). 
Tesori d' arte inediti di Roma. Rome, 1896. 3, Nos. vii-viii, Reproduc- 
tion (PL vii). 



192 NORTH ITALIAN PAINTING 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1910. 2d ser., xiv (1), 137. 

Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 21. 

Benson, R. H. Catalogue of Italian pictures . . . collected by Robert and 

Evelyn Benson. London, 1914. p. 105. 
Beeenson. North Italian painters. 297. 
Bernath. New York und Boston. 74-75, Reproduction (80). 
Bibliografia. L'Arte. Rome, Nov.-Dec, 1909. xii (6), 480, No. 204. 
Burlington Fine Arts Club. Exhibition of pictures, drawings, and photo- 
graphs of works of the school of Ferrara-Bologna, 1440-1540. London, 

1894. xv. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. Painting in North Italy; ed. by Tancred Bore- 

nius. ii, 230, note 1. 
Gruyer. ii, 71, 82. 

Harvard graduates' magazine. June, 1910. 703. 
Jacobsen, E. Die Gemaldegalerie im Ateneo zu Ferrara. Repert. f. Kunstw. 

Berlin, 1900. xxiii, 360, note 4. 
Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. n, 1908, viii, 

38, and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 551. 
London. National Gallery. Catalogue, 1913. p. 697. 
Olcott, L. In Bryan's Dictionary of painters and engravers, new ed. New 

York, 1905. v, 212. (Rome. Contessa di Sta. Fiora.) 



FOLLOWER OF FRANCESCO DEL COSSA — PERHAPS 
LEONARDO SCALETTI 

Active from 1458 to before 1495 

Francesco del Cossa (1435 (?)-i477) was a pupil of Cosimo Tura 
and was influenced by Pier dei Franceschi and by Mantegna. 
With Ercole Roberti he founded the Bolognese school. Among his 
followers was Leonardo Scaletti of Faenza, member of a family of 
painters and architects, who has been suggested as the possible 
painter of the Fogg Museum panel. His name appears for the first 
time in Faenza records under date of June 9, 1458. An account book 
of the Servite order records payments made to him on September 30, 
1475 and on June 1, 1483, for painting done for the order. Scaletti 
died before 1495. He shows Veronese influence as well as Ferrarese 
characteristics. Mr. Berenson attributes to him the Madonna and 
Saints, dating from 1484, and the Portrait of the young Astorre 
Manfredi kneeling before Saint Bernardino da Feltre, both in the 
Faenza Gallery; and a picture in Fenway Court — Catherine Sforza 
praying at the Tomb of a Saint. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Francesco del Cossa 

Bernath, M. H. In Thieme-Becker. Kiinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 191 2. vii, 

507-510. 
Gardner, E. G. Painters of the school of Ferrara. New York, 1911. 32-45. 
Gruyer, G. L' art ferrarais a. 1' epoque des princes d' Este. Paris, 1897. ii, 

101-121. 

Leonardo Scaletti 

Desteee, J. Notes sur les primitif s italiens ; sur quelques peintres des Marches 

et de rOmbrie. Florence, 1900. 57-61. 
Messeri, A., and Calzi, A. Faenza nella storia e nelT arte. Faenza, 1909. 

383, S30-53I- 
Toesca, P. Di un pittore emiliano del rinascimento. L'Arte. Rome, 1907. 

x (1), 18-24. 

38 YOUTH SALUTING A KING 

Tempera on panel. H. 2o§ in. W. 17! in. (52 X 43-5 cm 
The king is dressed in a neutral red violet gown with collar and 
cuffs of black velvet. The red violet is repeated in the doublet of the 
second youth on the right and also in the cap of the second youth on 



I94 NORTH ITALIAN PAINTING 

the left. The black is repeated in the tunic of the youth saluting, in 
the striped hose and under tunic of the second youth on the right-, In 
the hose of the figure next the king on the right, and in the brims of 
two of the caps. The columns on either side, alternating black and 
red, repeat these colours, the red being nearer the foreground on both 
sides. Bright vermilion occurs in the cloak of the youth in the back- 
ground on the left, the collar and stocking of the youth saluting, and 
in the sleeves, cap, hose, and shoes of the first figure on the right, and 
the cap of the youth behind him. The doublet of the youth just to 
the right of the king and the mantle of the youth saluting are of a 
dark green. The columns on each side of the door behind the king 
are of a neutral red orange as arc; the king's shoes. The prevailing 
tones of the architectural setting are yellow and brown, punctuated 
by the black of the door and the arch over the door. In the two 
upper corners of the panel is a scroll decoration on a black ground. 

The picture was bought by the Misses Williams of Salem during 
their residence in Italy between i860 and 1872. It was placed on 
exhibition in the Fogg Museum in 1915, and in 1916 it was purchased 
and given to the Museum by Dr. Denman W. Ross. 

The panel shows a certain rigidity characteristic of the north, as 
well as the northern interest in polychrome architectural settings. 
Several critics have felt that the picture belongs to the school of Fer- 
rara, and more than one has tentatively suggested Scaletti. Mr. F. 
Mason Perkins, judging by a photograph which is none too good, 
suggests that the panel may be by the same Ferrarese master who 
painted two pictures in the Brera, No. 226, which Professor Venturi 
attributes to Agnolo degli Erri. Even if not by Scaletti, the panel 
appears to be of the school of Cossa. 

A panel formerly in the Sedelmeyer collection (No. 162 in the 
catalogue of the third sale, June 3, 4, 5, 1907), representing the 
Martyrr' ,m of Saint Bosone, bears a striking resemblance to the Fogg 
Muse' i r; picture. The architectural backgrounds in the two pictures 
are very similar, both having colonnaded courts, although the archi- 
tecture of the Sedelmeyer panel is in better proportion to the figures 
than that of the Fogg Museum panel. In both pictures the youths 
wear doublets, hose, and caps of red and black, and the attitudes, 
gestures, and general treatment of the figures are a'lmost identical. 
The measurements of the two panels are practically the same, the 




38 FOLLOWER OF COSSA, PERHAPS LEONARDO SCALETTI 



FOLLOWER OF COSSA 1 95 

Sedelmeyer panel measuring 52 cm. in height and 46 cm. in width. 
According to the catalogue this panel also has a scroll decoration on 
a black ground in the corners. The two panels are so similar in every 
way that it seems as if originally they must have belonged together. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (1), 97. 
Nation. March 18, 1915. 314. (Narrative panel in the style of Cossa.) 



ANDREA SOLARIO (?) 

About 1459 t0 about 1520 

Andrea Solario was a painter of the school of Milan; he combined 
Lombard training with the Venetian influence of Alvise Vivarini, the 
influence of Antonello da Messina — derived perhaps through Alvise, 
perhaps from contact in Venice with Antonello's work — and the 
influence of Leonardo. In his later work he shows Raphaelesque 
traits. He probably received his earliest training under his brother 
Cristoforo, a sculptor. He went to Venice with his brother in 1490, 
remaining there until 1493; and from 1507 until 1509 he was in 
France at work on the. decoration of the chapel of the Cardinal 
Georges d' Amboise, in the Chateau de Gaillon. Little is known of 
the last years of his life. He died probably about 1520. 

In addition to religious subjects Solario painted a number of por- 
traits in which he shows the influence of Antonello in his approach to 
the total visual effect of nature. 

Solario is represented in this country by a Madonna and Donors, a 
Bust of a Man in Prayer, and an Ecce Homo in the John G. Johnson 
collection, Philadelphia; a Portrait of a Man in the Boston Museum 
of Fine Arts, strongly Venetian in character; a Portrait in the Met- 
ropolitan Museum; and a Madonna with Saint Roch, in the collec- 
tion of John M. Longyear, Boston. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Badt, K. Andrea Solario. Leipsic, 1914. 

Berenson, B. Catalogue of a collection of paintings and some art objects 

(John G. Johnson collection) ; Italian paintings. Philadelphia, 1913. i, 

175-177, Nos. 272-274. 
Study and criticism of Italian art. London, 1901. i, 106-108. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Oct., 1911. ix (53), 44-45. 
Frizzoni, G. Rassegna d' insigni artisti italiani a ricordo dell' incremento 

dato ai Musei di Milano dal Direttore Giuseppe Bertini. L'Arte. Rome, 

1899. ii (4-7), 147-158. 
Phillips, C. An uncatalogued Solario. Burlington magazine. London, Aug., 

1911. xix (101), 287-288. 
Schlegel, L. de. Andrea Solario. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, June-July, 1913. 

xiii (6-7), 89-99, 105-109. 




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ANDREA SOLARIO (?) 1 97 

39 MADONNA AND CHILD 

Lent by John Thaxter. 

Oil on canvas. H. 2o| in. W. i6f in. (51.5 X 41.7 cm.) 

The Madonna in a rose red gown has a brilliant greenish blue 
mantle with an orange yellow lining. Over her head is a white ker- 
chief similar to the white sheet in which the Child is lying. The 
background is black. 

The picture was placed in the Museum in 1913 as a loan. 

The painting may have come originally from the hands of Solario, 
but has suffered so that the attribution is now uncertain. 



MARCELLO FOGOLINO (?) 
Active from about 1519 to 1548 

Marcello Fogolino was born in Friuli, at San Vito, probably about 
1470. He was active from about 1519 to 1548, working chiefly in 
Vicenza, Pordenone, and Trent. He was influenced by Giovanni 
Speranza of Vicenza and later by Pordenone. He shows also certain 
Raphaelesque traits, perhaps brought into Friuli by Giovanni da 
Udine. His paintings are rare. Among his extant pictures are the 
Madonna and Child and Saints, now in the Berlin Gallery; the 
Madonna and Child, in the Poldi-Pezzoli Gallery, Milan; and the 
Adoration of the Magi, at Vicenza. 

Fogolino was also an engraver. Seven plates, impressions of which 
are very rare, are known to be by him. In them Fogolino followed 
the technical processes of the Campagnolas. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle. History of painting in North Italy; ed. by Tan- 
cred Borenius. 1912. ii, 146-153. 

Hind, A. M. Catalogue of early Italian engravings preserved in the depart- 
ment of prints and drawings in the British Museum. London, 1910. 
5*2-5 14- 

40 ADORATION OF THE KINGS 

Oil on panel. H. 45! in. W. 35! in. (116.2 X 90.6 cm.) 
The strongest colour in the picture is in the extreme right-hand 
corner in the rich red lining of Saint Joseph's mantle, which covers 
most of his form. This colour is carried into the picture by means of 
the Madonna's hood, the tunic of the standing king — though this 
appears wholly in the shadow — the hose of the boy next him, and 
then in smaller and paler forms in the band around the head of the 
ox, the bridles, saddles, and trappings of the horses, and in the shoes 
and garments of one or two of the figures on the left. The colour 
of the lining of the Madonna's mantle, a curious neutral violet red, 
also recurs through the picture, appearing in the mantle of the Ethi- 
opian king, the tunic of the youth next him, and in smaller measures 
in the turbans and garments of various other figures, as well as in a 
darker value in the mantle over Saint Joseph's right shoulder and in 
his hood and gown. 



FOGOLINO (?) 199 

These dominant colours are foiled by the other colours on the 
principal figures in the foreground. The Madonna wears a bluish 
green gown; the kneeling king is clad in a yellow brown garment, and 
the king standing next him wears a mantle, red in the shadow and 
yellow in the light, with a shining cream coloured lining and head- 
gear. The boy next him wears jacket and shoes of blue green like 
the Madonna's gown. On the left, the Ethiopian king wears a bright 
tunic, yellow in the light, red in the shadow; his turban is pale blue 
embroidered with red. His breeches are grayish blue and his boots 
are yellow. The sky is blue merging into yellow at the horizon. The 
prevailing tones of the rocks and the clouds are yellow brown, con- 
trasting with the cool gray green shed on the right and the castle on 
the hill at the left. The ground is of a grayish yellow with heavy 
neutral shadows; the foliage is a greenish brown and the distant hills 
a neutral bluish green. 

This picture has strong contrasts of light and shade. The artist 
illuminated certain portions with a powerful light relieved against 
the dark surroundings. The principal light spots in the foreground 
are the faces of the Holy- Family and the faces and garments of the 
three kings; in the middle distance the dog lapping from the pool and 
the white horse among the attendants; and in the background, the 
luminous sky seen through the arch and the illuminated portions of 
the rock standing out against the dark mass in shadow. 

The painting came from the collection of the Duca di Galese, 
and was placed in the Fogg Museum in 1899. 

William Rankin was the first to attribute the picture to Fogo- 
lino on account of its general similarity to the Adoration of the Magi 
by this master in Vicenza. Mr. Perkins agrees with this view. The 
painting shows evidence of an influence from the north of Europe. 
On the back are two rather blind inscriptions, one of which seems to 
read: "Luca di Olanda." Above that is written: "Almagiis (?) 
Gierolomo Padovani Bolognia." It is curious to find the names of 
Lucas van Leyden and Girolamo Sordo on the back of the same pic- 
ture. Girolamo Sordo, more commonly known as Girolamo Padovano 
or del Santo, was a prolific painter whose works have largely dis- 
appeared and who has been nearly forgotten. He was employed as 
early as 1518 and died in the latter half of the xvi century. It is 
difficult to know who wrote the inscriptions on the picture and 
whose guesses they represent. 



200 NORTH ITALIAN PAINTING 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. April-June, 1900. 2d ser., iv (2), 285. 

(School of Ferrara.) 
Bernath. New York und Boston. 75. 

Boston. Museum or Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 26-27, No. 14. 
Brown and Rankin. 361. 
Perkins. Boston evening transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. 

Rassegna d'arte. May, 1905. 68-69. 
Rankin. Notes on three collections of old masters. 17, No. 10. 



ANTONIO BADILE (?) 
1517 (?) -1560 

Antonio Badile, a painter of the school of Verona, was born in that 
town in 1516 or 1 51 7. He was a pupil of Caroto, and was influenced 
by Francesco Torbido and Brusasorci of Verona, and by the Venetian 
school, especially Titian. He painted many portraits and represen- 
tations of religious subjects, but his greatest claim to importance is 
the fact that he was the master of Paolo Veronese. He was one of the 
first of the Veronese masters to break away from the old dry manner 
and to approach the freer, broader handling of the later xvi century. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Thieme-Becker. Kiinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1908. ii, 334-335. 

41 PORTRAIT OF A LADY 

Oil on canvas. H. 49 in. W. 41I in. (124.4 X 105.4 cm.) 

The tonality of the picture is a silvery gray. The lady is repre- 
sented in a gown of dark olive green and silver brocade; the sleeves 
and front of her bodice are creamy white. She wears a string of 
pearls and pearl ear-rings. Her hair is neutral brown. The strongest 
colour and almost the only colour in the picture is the table-cloth, 
painted with the same quality of red violet that Tintoretto loved to 
use. The background behind the lady is of a warm greenish brown 
growing cold as it approaches the shadow, and a similar colour 
scheme is used for the dog. The general tone of the sky and land- 
scape is a yellowish brown, and the trees in the middle distance are 
a greenish brown. 

The portrait was bought at the Blakeslee sale in 1915 and placed 
in the Fogg Museum as a loan. 

On a label, probably modern, on the back of the picture is written: 
"... Leonora de Toledo Daughter of Don Pedro de Toledo, Viceroy 
of Naples . . . Grandi of Spain, Married Cosimo de Medici 1st 
Duke of Tuscany." Eleonora of Toledo was married to Cosimo in 
1539 and died in 1562. Vasari tells us that "for the nuptials of 
the most illustrious Lady Leonora de Toledo, wife of Duke Cosimo," 
Bronzino "painted two stories of chiaroscuro in the court of the 



202 NORTH ITALIAN PAINTING 

Medici Palace," and that the Duke, " perceiving Bronzino's ability, 
commanded him to begin a chapel for the Signora Duchess, a lady 
excellent above all who have ever lived, and whose infinite merits 
render her worthy of eternal praise." Bronzino painted more than 
one portrait of this lady. The portrait in the P ogg Museum does 
not appear to bear any relation to the representations of Eleonora 
by Bronzino. 

It appears from another label on the back that the picture be- 
longed to Mr. Farrer, who evidently lent it to the Winter Exhibition 
of Old Masters, Royal Academy, London, 1 884. The picture appears 
in the catalogue of that exhibition as follows: "157. Frederick 
W. Farrer, Esq. Attributed to Paolo Veronese. Three-quarter figure, 
life-size, standing slightly to 1., nearly full-face; her r. hand rests 
on a dog, which is standing on a table; in the background a wall; 
landscape seen through a window to 1. Canvas, 49 by 41 in." In 
the Athenaeum for January 26, 1884, is a review of this exhibition, 
which states that the painting was attributed to Paolo Veronese 
" and evidently . . . owes much to that master, whose predilection 
for olive and silver brocade, and the warm, rich golden buff under- 
painting of the carnations, is distinct." It further states that " the 
picture is almost good enough for Paolo, and, apart from considera- 
tions of costume and the like, it is rather too good for F. Zucchero, 
whose work it much resembles." 

Another label on the back mentions Lady Ashburton. It is pos- 
sible that it was once in her collection. It later came into the pos- 
session of T. J. Blakeslee of New York, and appears as No. 33 in 
the catalogue of his pictures sold in April, 1915. Dr. Osvald Siren, 
who prepared the catalogue for this sale, attributed the picture with- 
out a question to Badile, and mentioned its close affinity of style with 
Badile's two portraits in Vienna. 

EXHIBITED 

London. Royal Academy. Winter exhibition of old masters, 1884. Cat- 
alogue. No. 157. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Athenaeum. Jan. 26, 1884. 126. 

Blakeslee Galleries. Illustrated catalogue. New York, 1915. No. 33. 




41 ANTONIO BADILE (?) 



42 



NORTH ITALIAN SCHOOL — PERHAPS PIEDMONTESE 

Early xvi century 

HOLY FAMILY 

Tempera on panel. Tondo. Diameter, 33% in. (84.1 cm.) 

The Madonna, in a rose red gown and dark blue green mantle lined 
with green, kneels before the Child. A transparent white veil is 
draped over part of the Child's body. Saint John, clad in a hairy 
garment, kneels close to the side of the Infant Christ. He is wrapped 
in a rose red cloak, which might almost be the continuation of the 
Madonna's gown upon which the Child is lying. Saint Joseph is just 
behind the two youthful figures, his head leaning against his hand. 
His mantle, yellowish in the lights, a pale red in the shadows, covers 
most of his dark gown. Two shepherds are behind the Madonna; 
the nearer one is dressed in brown and the farther one in a rather 
bright blue green. His cap is bright red and his hose are brown. The 
stable walls are gray and the thatched roof is yellow brown, similar 
in colour to the hair of all the figures, except that of the white- 
bearded Joseph and the black-haired shepherd on the extreme right. 
In the distance are warm gray hills and a village with red tiled roofs. 

The tondo was given anonymously to the Fogg Museum in 191 2. 

The picture is a crude provincial or eclectic painting, which sug- 
gests Florentine and possibly Umbrian influence and was perhaps 
executed by some painter of the Piedmontese or other North Italian 
school. 



VENETIAN PAINTING 



VENETIAN PAINTING 



IN Venice, which had formerly been almost a part of the Eastern 
Empire, painting was naturally slow in abandoning the Byzantine 
tradition, and a general liking for a rich, often somewhat heavy 
golden tone seems to have been a permanent inheritance from the 
splendour of gold and enamel of the early mosaics and jewelled altar- 
pieces. The xiv century was marked by a general transition from 
the Byzantine to the Gothic style, the beginning of which is repre- 
sented by the works of the earlier masters of the century, like Paolo 
and Lorenzo. 

Guariento of Padua, who later in the century painted in the Ducal 
Palace a large fresco of Paradise, covered afterward by Tintoretto's 
canvas of the same subject, reveals to some extent the influence of 
Giottesque art, while Niccolo di Pietro's Madonna and Angels, 
painted in 1394, though perhaps not an extraordinary performance, 
shows in the drawing and modelling of the figures and draperies a 
completely Gothic quality. 

In the xv century the development of Venetian painting depended 
much on foreign influence. No doubt the Venetian rulers felt that 
their own art was somewhat provincial and behind the times, as 
compared with that of the mainland, for early in the century they 
called Gentile da Fabriano and also Pisanello to paint in the Ducal 
Palace. Gentile painted there from 1409 to 1414 and Pisanello at 
that time or soon after. Gentile was trained in the traditions of the 
later Gothic painting — the International style — and his art was 
representative not only of Umbria but of Europe at the time. His 
influence on Venetian art was therefore distinctly broadening. 
Jacobello del Fiore and Giambono are striking illustrations of its 
effect; and Jacopo Bellini, the father of the famous Giovanni and 
Gentile, as well as father-in-law of the Paduan Mantegna, was a 
direct pupil of Gentile da Fabriano and possibly also of Pisanello. 

Jacopo Bellini came also under the sway of another important out- 
side influence, that of the Renaissance art of Padua. This was of 
especial importance about the middle of the xv century. Jacopo, 



Paolo 

Veneziano 
xiv c, ist half 
Lorenzo 
Veneziano 
active middle 
of xiv c. 

Niccolo di 
Maestro 
Pietro, active 
1304-1409 



Jacobello del 

Fiore 

ab. 1370-1439 

Michele 

Giambono 

active 

1420-1462 

Jacopo Bellini 

active 

1430-1470 

Gentile Bellini 

1429-1507 



208 



VENETIAN PAINTING 



Antonio da 

Murano 

active 

1440-1464 

Giovanni 

d'Alemagna 

active 

1440-1450 



Bartolommeo 

Vivarini 

ab. 1431-1409 



Carlo Crivelli 
1430/40- 
ajter 1493 



however, although he was interested in classical things, as is shown in 
the drawings of classical architectural details and ancient statues 
and of large palaces of more or less Renaissance pattern, always 
treated these in the discursive manner of the Gothic naturalist. His 
interest in them was one of random curiosity, like his interest in 
monkeys and bears. He remained a Gothic painter. Jacopo was the 
founder of one of the large workshops of Venice, which was carried on 
later by his sons. The painters of this workshop made a specialty of 
histories, large pictures with many figures, of subjects like scenes 
from the lives of various saints, employed as decorations of the walls 
of the Ducal Palace or the various Scuole. 

The chief rival workshop was that of the Vivarini on the island of 
Murano. The Vivarini made a specialty of altarpieces, or anconae, 
usually composed of a large number of panels with single figures on a 
gold ground, placed in an elaborate Gothic frame. The founder of 
this workshop, Antonio da Murano, with his partner Giovanni 
d'Alemagna, carried on the manner derived from Gentile, but some- 
what over-enriched, well into the century. Antonio's younger 
brother, Bartolommeo, displaced Giovanni as partner about 1450, 
and he with his nephew Alvise continued the workshop with many 
of its traditions through the century. Their style was modified, how- 
ever, according to the influences prevailing in Venice in the latter 
part of the century. 

After the middle of the xv century the late Gothic manner of the 
followers of Gentile and Pisanello gave way to the influenee of Squar- 
cione and Mantegna of Padua. Bartolommeo Vivarini and Carlo 
Crivelli were among the chief exponents of this influence, and they 
followed it much more thoroughly than did Jacopo Bellini. Bar- 
tolommeo combined the rich ornamental quality of Venetian art with 
the more plastic character of Paduan painting, emphasizing the bony 
structure of the figure and the ungainliness of pose. He showed also 
a strong liking for the intense emotionalism which Paduan art de- 
rived from the Florentine sculptor Donatello. Crivelli developed 
these characteristics into a still more extreme style which became at 
times a somewhat exotic mannerism. His use of elaborate gold 
ornament, frequently modelled from the surface of the panel in low 
relief, produces at times a somewhat confused, though richly decora- 
tive effect. Leaving Venice for the Marches in 1468, he did not come 



VENETIAN PAINTING 



209 



under the influence of the later changes wrought in the Venetian 
style, but developed what may be called the mid-fifteenth century 
Venetian manner to a degree of perfection not attained by any other 
master. In works of the last quarter of the century, as in the Pieta 
of 1485 in the Boston Museum, he continued to paint in the manner 
which had been abandoned for some years by the painters of Venice. 

Painting in Venice itself underwent a great change in mode and 
technical method with the introduction of the Flemish oil process 
and the mode of representation which accompanied it. The chief 
instrument in effecting this change was probably Antonello da Mes- 
sina, who came to Venice in 1474 or 1475. He had been trained in the 
Flemish methods in Sicily or in Naples, possibly under Flemish 
masters. Vasari was probably in error in saying that he visited 
Flanders. Painting in Venice, as in the rest of Italy, had up to this 
time been mainly in the mode of relief more or less in imitation of the 
idea of sculpture in relief. There had been little attempt to express 
by the tone relations effect of existence in atmosphere beyond the 
plane of the picture, and there had been little regard for effect of 
light and shade except as bringing out the modelling of the separate 
fields. The most important painting which Antonello executed in 
Venice, the large altarpiece for San Cassiano, has unfortunately been 
lost, but the revolutionary character of the art he introduced into 
Venice may easily be seen in the Saint Jerome in the National Gal- 
lery, London, or in the Saint Sebastian in Dresden. Henceforth 
most Venetian paintings were in a more developed mode, which in- 
cluded expression of light effect and atmosphere, and they were 
usually executed in oil. At first the Flemish oil method or a simple 
adaptation of it, with a white ground on panel, was employed, but in 
the xvi century a canvas with a dark ground served as a foundation 
in further developments in method and mode. Antonello's style was 
immediately imitated by many Venetian painters, especially closely 
by Alvise Vivarini and more particularly in his portraits. Alvise also 
served as a master to hand on the new traditions to fresh pupils. 

The greatest master of the last part of the xv century, however, 
was Giovanni Bellini. Born about 1430, he was trained first of all in 
his father's workshop, but came into close contact with the Paduan 
painters, particularly with his brother-in-law Mantegna. Bellini's 
earlier works show clearly the influence of the elaborate sculp- 



Antonello da 
Messina, ab. 
1444-ab. 1493 



Alvise 
Vivarini 
active 
1461-1503 



Giovanni 

Bellini 

ab. 1430-1516 



2IO 



VENETIAN PAINTING 



Marco Basaiti 
ab. 1470-1527 
Citna da 
Conegliano 
1460-ab. 1517 
Bissolo 
1464-1528 
Catena, active 

I495-I53I 

Rondinelli 

active ab- 

1480-1500 

Lazzaro 

Bastiani 

ab. 1425-1512 

Carpaccio 

active 

1478-1522 



turesque manner of Squarcione and Mantegna, but even in some of 
these Bellini showed a power for expression of existence in space and 
atmosphere, which he developed much more fully in the works of his 
mature period, and which he seems to have transmitted to his pupils 
Giorgione and Titian. Bellini sums up the whole history of Venetian 
painting from 1450 to the time of his death in 1516, and would do so 
still more completely for us if his larger histories had not been de- 
stroyed, for he changed his style readily to follow the latest develop- 
ments and even became to some extent a follower of his own pupil 
Giorgione. His works, like those of other followers of the Paduan 
influence, are intensely emotional, but they are more restrained, less 
exotic and mannered than those of Bartolommeo Vivarini and 
Crivelli. They are not intellectual like Florentine pictures, but 
broadly human in their appeal. His figures are stately and dignified, 
though capable of deep feeling; they are expressive of the devotion 
— to State, to Church, to cause — which was one of the noblest 
qualities of the great Venetian statesmen and admirals. 

The Vivarini and Bellini workshops produced a host of other 
artists, all working at the end of the xv and the beginning of the xvi 
century. Some of them, like Basaiti and Cima, were pupils of Alvise, 
but they were influenced also by the Bellini. Others, like Bissolo, 
Catena, and Rondinelli, were direct followers of Bellini. A few of 
them continued to paint in the Venetian manner of the last quarter 
of the xv century well into the xvi century, but many followed the 
Giorgionesque or the Titianesque vogue. 

Alongside of the Vivarini and Bellini workshops existed a third of 
great importance, that of Carpaccio. Carpaccio, who was possibly a 
pupil of Lazzaro Bastiani, was influenced by Gentile Bellini. Gentile 
devoted himself principally to large histories, and Carpaccio also 
made these his speciality. Several series of these, among them 
scenes from the lives of Saint Ursula, Saint George, and Saint 
Jerome, have been preserved. They continue the naturalistic tradi- 
tions of the earlier histories, like those no doubt of Jacopo Bellini, 
but in a more advanced mode. Carpaccio had a fine sense for 
comedy and his paintings are full of delightful bits of acting which 
show his keen observation of human nature. 

In the early part of the xvi century a new phase of Venetian paint- 
ing, intensely lyrical in spirit, singing the praise of youth and beauty 



VENETIAN PAINTING 



211 



and love, delighting especially in the charms of landscape and pas- 
toral life, but accompanied by a note of plaintive sadness, was intro- 
duced under the guidance of Giorgione. The lyrical quality of this 
art was referred to at the time as " il fuoco Giorgionesco." Gior- 
gione's treatment of classical themes, like Bellini's treatment of 
religious subjects, was, as opposed to the intellectual style of the 
Florentines, distinctly human, sensuous, and passionate. The sug- 
gestion of music by means of figures represented as playing on musi- 
cal instruments was often used to heighten the sensuous effect. 
Giorgione's influence on contemporary artists was evidently well- 
nigh overpowering, for they almost all imitated his manner, at least 
for a time, and some so successfully that the question of authorship 
of works of this school has been one of the most puzzling problems 
with which modern criticism has had to deal. At any rate, Sebas- 
tiano del Piombo, Titian, and Palma Vecchio, the most important 
painters of Giorgione's own generation in Venice, each went through 
a distinctly Giorgionesque phase, and hardly any painter of Venice 
or its neighbourhood escaped his influence. 

Titian was, after Giorgione's death in 151 1, the supreme master of 
the new generation. Although he began in the lyrical manner of 
Giorgione, the work of his mature period is essentially dramatic, 
sometimes achieving great heights in the realm of tragedy, or at other 
times revealing a delightful vein of comedy. Occasionally he was 
somewhat melodramatic, sometimes perhaps rather dull. His whole 
art, like that of his fellow painters, depended intimately on the new 
technical method, which was developed by the Venetians in the xvi 
century and differed materially from that of preceding Venetian 
masters. It consisted of painting on canvas which was prepared with 
a dark ground, instead of on the white gesso ground used formerly. 
The lights were heavily loaded, the darks painted more thinly, and 
much expression was obtained by the variations in the quality of the 
surface. The final colour was obtained by glazing in transparent 
pigments over an opaque underpainting which was typically in red, 
white, and black, giving distinctions only of relative warm and cool 
tone. The peculiar richness and depth of surface, in particular the 
translucency and warmth of flesh tone, of the great Venetian masters 
can be achieved in no other way. All the Venetians of the xvi cen- 
tury adopted this general method of painting. It was also adopted 



Giorgione 
1478-1510 



Sebastiano 
del Piombo 
ab. 1485-1547 
Palma 
Vecchio 
1480-1528 

Titian 
1477-1576 



212 



VENETIAN PAINTING 



Lorenzo 

Lotto 

1480-1556 



Paris 
Bordone 
1495-1570 
Polidoro da 
Lanciano 

1515-IS65 

Tintoretto 

1518-1594 



by other artists in Italy and by many in foreign countries, and with 
certain variations it survived through the xvin century and on into 
the early part of the xrx century, as in the works of the English and 
American portrait and landscape painters. 1 

Titian employed this manner with great ease and freedom of hand- 
ling, and also with great expressiveness in the rendering of textures 
and in the clear indication of planes. He was also a consummate 
designer, especially in works on a moderate scale with not too many 
figures — he was sometimes not so successful in compositions with 
large numbers of figures. His portraits are among the greatest of 
all time, distinguished for directness and nobility of characterization 
and simplicity and sureness of handling. 

Lotto was another Venetian of the same generation as Giorgione 
and Titian; but he was trained in the Vivarini workshop, and al- 
though he was influenced by Giorgione and Titian, the fact that he 
worked a good deal away from Venice, for some time in Rome where 
he was affected by Raphael, and still longer in Bergamo, may ac- 
count for an eclectic and somewhat provincial quality in his work. 
He was at the same time markedly individual in his conceptions. 
Beside the simplicity of Titian, many of his compositions seem over- 
wrought. A liking for elaborate detail and something of a senti- 
mental restlessness suggest a curious spiritual kinship with some of 
the Pre-Raphaelites of the xdc century. 

In the middle of the xvi century all the younger painters were 
affected to a greater or less degree by the ruling master, Titian. 
Among his direct pupils or imitators were Bordone and Polidoro, who 
reflected but feebly the glory of the master. Tintoretto, on the other 
hand, was a painter of outstanding individual genius. Though 
brought up in the Titian tradition, he was largely self-trained, and he 
modified the technical procedure of Titian to suit his own needs of 
more rapid and summary handling, not always quite happily from 
the standpoint of colour and quality. He was more serious minded 
than Titian and dwelt constantly on the tragic elements of his 
themes. These were mainly religious, as in the paintings in the 
Scuola di San Rocco, but even his paintings of slighter classical sub- 

1 This may be seen in the painting of Monmouth before King James n, by Copley, 
in the Fogg Art Museum, and in the portraits in Memorial Hall and the Faculty 
Room, University Hall. 



VENETIAN PAINTING 



213 



jects, like the Diana, or the Bacchus and Ariadne, reveal the same 
gravity of thought. 

Tintoretto was more skilful than Titian in handling compositions 
with large numbers of figures, but Veronese was the master of mas- 
ters in this. As his nickname indicates — his real name was Caliari 
— he was born in Verona and trained there under Badile, who, like 
his fellow townsman, had absorbed the Venetian technique and 
point of view. He did not come to Venice until after 1550. Though 
leaning always toward comedy, and typically gay and light-hearted, 
he yet shows often quite profound knowledge of human character, 
and this is expressed in very subtle fashion. Indeed he might be re- 
garded as a late Renaissance descendant of Carpaccio. His large 
decorative paintings either in fresco or in oil reveal the consummate 
designer and marvellously skilled craftsman. Like most of the North 
Italian painters of the xvi century, Veronese inclined toward a 
silvery tonality, in contrast to the golden tone preferred by the 
Venetians. 

The Bassani — Jacopo and his sons, among them Leandro — carried 
on the traditions of Venetian painting into the xvn century, though 
the nobility of the works of the great period was soon lost in the 
treatment of trivial genre subjects. In the xvn century as a whole, 
there was little but imitation of the masterpieces of the xvi century. 
Still the tradition survived, and in the xvm century there was a 
revival of something of the glory of the great period. By this time 
Venice had become little more than a pleasure resort for the rest of 
Europe. Longhi painted the society of the time, while Canaletto 
and Guardi painted views of the canals, especially at fete times. 
Tiepolo was a spectacular and melodramatic but magnificent dec- 
orator, a worthy successor of the great masters of the xvi century. 

Although the Venetian school of painting had a continuous exist- 
ence from Byzantine and early Gothic times to the close of the xvni 
century, what we usually think of as the distinctive Venetian school 
was especially that founded by Giovanni Bellini and embracing the 
art of the great masters of the xvi century. This was the Golden 
Age of Venetian painting; and, like the great epochs of Sienese and 
Florentine painting, it had a comparatively short existence. It had 
its rise in the last part of the xv century, its great period in the 
middle of the xvi century, and it was well on the road to decline by 
the close of this century. Arthur Pope. 



Paolo 

Veronese 

1528-1588 



Jacopo 

Bassano 

1510-1592 

Leandro 

Bassano 

Pietro Longhi 

1702-178$ 

Canaletto 

1697-1768 

Francesco 

Guardi 

1712-1793 

Tiepolo 

1693-1770 



214 VENETIAN PAINTING 

The Venetian paintings in the Fogg Museum will be found under Nos. 43-50 
in this Catalogue. 

Among the artists mentioned in the foregoing sketch, the following are repre- 
sented in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and in the collection of Mrs. John L. 
Gardner, Fenway Court. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts: Bartolommeo Vtvarini or School, Altar- 
piece; Crivelli, Pieta; Carpaccto, Portraits. 

Fenway Court: Giambono, Bishop; Crivelli, Saint George; Cima, Ma- 
donna and Child; Catena, Delivery of Keys to Saint Peter; Giorgione, Head 
of Christ; Sebastiano del Piombo, Portrait of Bandinelli; Titian, Rape of 
Europa; Bordone, Christ in the Temple; Tintoretto, Portraits; Attributed 
to Veronese, Coronation of Hebe. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, B. Venetian painters of the Renaissance, 3d ed. New York, 1894. 

Venetian painting in America; the xvth century. New York, 1916. 
Ricct, C. Art in northern Italy. New York, 1911. (Ars una: species mille.) 
Testi, L. La storia della pittura veneziana. Pt. i. Bergamo, 1909. 
Venturi, L. Giorgione e il Giorgionismo. Milan, 1913. 

Le origini della pittura veneziana, 1300-1500. Venice, 1907. 



JACOBELLO DEL FIORE 

About 1370 to 1439 

The date of Jacobello's birth is uncertain; it was probably about 
1370. Before 1412 he was in the employ of the Venetian signory, re- 
ceiving from them at first one hundred and later fifty ducats a year. 
His father, Francesco del Fiore, was a member of the Painters' Guild 
in Venice at the end of the xiv century; Jacobello was president of 
the Guild from 141 5 until about 1436. He died in 1439. 

Although essentially a mediaeval painter, Jacobello was one of the 
first Venetians in whom may be seen the breaking away from the old 
Byzantine-Gothic tradition and the elements of the new awakening 
brought into Venice by the Umbrian Gentile da Fabriano. 

Jacobello's paintings are very rare; his earliest dated work, now 
lost, was an altarpiece for San Cassiano, Pesaro, completed in 1401. 
Among his extant paintings are the Lion of Saint Mark, in the Ducal 
Palace, Venice, 1415; the Justice and two Archangels, 1421, now in 
the Venice Academy; the Coronation of the Virgin, also in the 
Venice Academy, painted in 1432 or 1438 — a free copy of the fresco 
of Paradise in the Ducal Palace painted by Guariento of Padua in 
1365 — and the Coronation of the Virgin with Saints, in Teramo. 
Even in his early picture of Justice, Jacobello showed the influence 
of Gentile, but he developed the International manner of Gentile 
into a more florid style, with complicated, fluttering drapery and 
exaggerated poses. 

The paintings all have a markedly decorative character, with their 
gold backgrounds, elaborate use of gold ornamentation on halos and 
robes, their deep, strong colour, their architectural settings and mo- 
tives, and their suggestion of the rich tradition of the Byzantine and 
the Gothic so wonderfully mingled in Venice. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Frizzoni, G. La raccolta Mond ed opere attinenti alia medesima. Rassegna 

d'arte. Milan, Feb., 1911. xi (2), 26-27. 
Gronatj, G. In Thieme-Becker. Kiinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1915. xi, 595-597. 
Testi, L. La storia della pittura veneziana. Bergamo, 1909. 393-421. 
Valentini, O. Di un polittico di Jacobello del Floro esistente in Lecce. Bol- 

lettino d'arte. Rome, July, 1913. vii (7), 272-274. 
Venturi, L. Le origini della pittura veneziana. Venice, 1907. 80-85. 



216 VENETIAN PAINTING 

43 MADONNA ENTHRONED WITH ANGELS 

Tempera on panel, arched top. H. 20& in. W. 17! in. (75.1 X 45.4 cm.) 

The Madonna's rose red gown shows not only in the main mass, 
but near her right foot in the lower left-hand corner and also in the 
lower right-hand corner. An orange red curtain hangs behind her 
throne. The garments of the angels standing beside her and of two 
of the angels with crossed hands at the top of the picture furnish in- 
termediate steps between these two qualities of red. The seat of the 
Madonna's throne and the capitals on which the angels stand are of a 
lighter shade of orange red. The Madonna wears a dark blue mantle 
with a dragon-like design in gold, a heavy gold border, and a white 
lining. This dark blue is repeated in the robes of three of the angels 
in the upper part of the picture. The back and arms of the throne 
are of a grayish green and the apple which the Child holds is yellow. 
The strongest colour note in the picture is the yellow orange mantle 
embroidered with gold which hangs over the Infant Christ's shoulder. 
The background is of gold incised. 

The panel was placed in the Museum in 191 6 as a gift from 
Arthur Sachs. 

With its rich colour and gold ornament the painting shows the 
decorative quality of Jacobello's art; in its tender feeling it reveals 
the influence of Gentile. Mr. Perkins in Rassegna d' Arte for June, 
1916, calls attention to the fact that this is perhaps the only example 
of Jacobello's work outside of Italy. 

The Madonna's mantle and deep rose coloured gown, both em- 
broidered with gold, illustrate the tendency which appeared at an 
early date among the Venetians to use sumptuous materials. This 
may have been due to Byzantine influence, or may have been 
introduced by Gentile da Fabriano. The early Byzantine masters 
represented the Madonna's garments enriched with lines of gold. 
Giotto and the early Florentine painters as a rule preferred to suggest 
a plain material, often of delicate colour, except when the Madonna 
was portrayed as the Queen of Heaven. In their devotional pictures 
the Sienese masters used gorgeous gold and red, or white and gold 
fabrics. Some of the Giotteschi, and perhaps Gentile da Fabriano, 
inherited from Siena their love of representing splendid textiles. 




43 JACOBELLO DEL FIORE 



JACOBELLO DEL FIORE 217 

This may be seen in the two panels of the Madonna Enthroned, by 
Spinello Aretino (Nos. 3 and 4A). Later, colour effects were made 
more of a study and deeper, richer tones appeared, but simple ma- 
terials were represented, except among the Venetians, who fre- 
quently in their pictures of both sacred and profane subjects painted 
elaborate, richly coloured fabrics. This cult of splendour reached its 
height in the xvi century under Paolo Veronese. The portrait 
(No. 41) in this Gallery attributed to Badile, the master of Veronese, 
shows the use of rich brocade, so prevalent in the Venetian school. 
It has already been noted that the Child holds an apple. In early 
pictures the apple sometimes represents the fruit of Paradise which 
the King of Heaven brings down to earth with Him. In general, 
however, it is used as the symbol of the sin of the world which the 
Christ takes upon Himself.' 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perkins, F. M. Due quadri inediti; un quadro veneto. Rassegna d'arte 
antica e moderna. Milan, June, 1916. iii (6), 121-122, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1917. xvi, 135. 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (1), 97; 

April-June, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (2), 223. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Jan. 25, 1917. 328. 



BARTOLOMMEO VIVARINI (?) 

About 143 1 to 1499 

Bartolommeo Vivarini was a member of the family which was, 
after the Bellini, the most important family of xv century Venetian 
artists. The exact dates of his birth and death are not known. On 
a painting of the Madonna and Child in the collection of the late Sir 
Hugh Lane is an inscription signed with Bartolommeo's name and 
dated 1448, which states that the artist was sixteen years old when 
the picture was painted. If this was so, it follows that Bartolommeo 
was born in 1431 or 1432. The authenticity of this picture has, 
however, been doubted. In Viadana there is a polyptych dated 
1449 and signed with the name Barthol . . . which has been at- 
tributed to him. His name next appears with that of his brother 
Antonio on a polyptych in the Bologna Gallery dated 1450. It is 
probable that soon after this Bartolommeo withdrew from partner- 
ship with his brother. Documents relating to Bartolommeo date 
from 1458 to 1490. The latest date which can be read on a picture by 
him is 1 49 1. This occurs on a triptych now in the Carrara Gallery, 
Bergamo. It is supposed that he died in 1499. In Bartolommeo's 
work we find the influence of the older Gothic style of Venice, repre- 
sented by his brother Antonio, combined with that of the Squar- 
cionesque school of Padua. 

Bartolommeo is represented in this country by several pictures, 
the finest among them being Mr. Morgan's Epiphany. Other paint- 
ings are in the Piatt, Johnson, Philip Lehman, and Quincy A. Shaw 
collections, and in the collection of the late Theodore M. Davis of 
Newport, now in the Metropolitan Museum. The Fogg Museum 
panel and the polyptych in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, show 
the hand of Bartolommeo or of his school. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Aru, C. Un quadro di Bartolomeo Vivarini. L'Arte. Rome, May- June, 

1905. viii (3), 205-207. 
Beeenson, B. Venetian painting in America. New York, 1916. 13-18. 
Borenius, T. Three paintings by Bartolomeo Vivarini. Burlington magazine. 

London, July, 191 1. xix (100), 192-198. 
Cagnola, G. Un' opera inedita della scuola di Murano. Rassegna d'arte. 

Milan, Nov., 1903. iii (n), 166-169. 
II "Vivarini" di Viadana. Rassegna d'arte. Milan, Sept., 1907. vii (9), 139. 




44 BARTOLOMMEO VIVARINI (?) 



BARTOLOMMEO VIVARINI (?) 219 

Fabriczy, C. von. Una scultura del rinascimento a Viadana. Rassegna 

d'arte. Milan, Dec, 1905. v (12), 185. 
Frizzoni, G. Opere di pittura venete lungo la costa meridionale dell' Adriatico. 

Bollettino d'arte. Rome, Jan., 1914. viii (1), 28-30, 33. 
Sinigaglia, G. De' Vivarini, pittori da Murano. Bergamo, 1905. 
Venturi, L. Le origini della pittura veneziana. Venice, 1907. 169-180. 

44 MADONNA AND CHILD 

Tempera on panel. H. 365 in. W. 26^ in. (92.1 X 66.8 cm.) 

The Madonna's gown is a subdued red. The drapery hanging be- 
hind her head is red violet with a red lining showing at the edges. The 
Child's tunic is a very dark yellow brown. The blue green mantle of 
the Madonna swings around in a curving line over the parapet, and 
up over her right arm and emphasizes the beauty and harmony of the 
reds in the picture. The parapet is yellowish brown and the back- 
ground is gold. The picture is painted in tempera and, with the 
exception of some rubbing away of the surface in the mantle, and 
other minor injuries, is in fair condition. Many of the lines of the 
preliminary drawing are incised deeply in the surface of the gesso. 

The picture was bought by C. Fairfax Murray about 1876, of 
the Inspector of the Academy of Venice, for John Ruskin, who sold 
it very soon to Sir Frederic Leighton. Mr. Murray repurchased it 
later at the Leighton sale. The panel was placed in the Fogg Museum 
in 1904. 

A picture at Sassari almost identical with this in drawing is signed: 
Bartholomeus Vivarinus de Murano pinxit mcccclxx. This pic- 
ture is therefore either a replica by Bartolommeo's own hand, or a 
school piece probably from the original cartoon. But if it is not by 
Bartolommeo's own hand it is a first-rate performance of the work- 
shop, and the significance of the conception is certainly due entirely 
to Bartolommeo. The picture is one of the small Madonnas of emo- 
tional type invented by Mantegna largely on the basis of Donatello's 
Madonna reliefs. In perhaps no other composition does Bartolom- 
meo come so close to the passionate mysticism of Mantegna. 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1905. v, 162. 

American journal of archaeology. Oct.-Dec, 1905. 2d ser., ix (4), 498. 

Aru. L'Arte. May-June, 1905. 207. 

Berenson. Venetian painting in America. 17-18. 



220 VENETIAN PAINTING 

Bernath. New York und Boston. 76. 

Bibliogeafia. L'Arte. Rome, July-Aug., 1905. viii (4), 315, No. 283. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 27, No. 16. 
Crowe and Cavalcaseixe. History of painting in North Italy; ed. by Tan- 

cred Borenius. 1912. i, 40, note. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 191 1. 54. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. Boston, Dec, 1904. xiii (50), 278; Dec, 1912. 

xxi (82), 290. 
Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. n, 1908. viii, 

37, No. 1, and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 550, 

No. 1. 
New England magazine. Aug., 1905. 702. 
Perkins. Boston evening transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. 

Rassegna d'arte. May, 1905. 68, Reproduction. 
Rankin. Notes on three collections of old masters. 17, No. 1. 
Venturi. vii, pt. 3, 323. 
Venturi, L. Le origini della pittura veneziana. 174. 



GIOVANNI BELLINI (?) 

1430 (?)-isi6 

The exact dateof Giovanni Bellini's birth is not known, but it must 
have been about 1430. He was apparently the natural son of Jacopo 
Bellini. Giovanni received his first training under his father; later 
on he worked for a while with his brother, Gentile; but finally he had 
a large workshop of his own with many assistants. During the last 
part of the xv century he was recognized as the leading painter of 
Venice, and was the master of the greatest artists of the next genera- 
tion — Giorgione, Titian, Palma, and many lesser painters. 

Giovanni's father evidently kept in close touch with the Paduan 
artists and very likely resided in Padua during part of the boyhood of 
his sons, so that Giovanni's early work, executed in tempera, shows 
the influence of the Squarcionesque school of Padua and of the Flor- 
entine sculptor Donatello. Later on, after the Flemish oil process 
and the Flemish mode of representation had been introduced 
into Venice, largely through the visit of Antonello da Messina, 
Giovanni, although not a direct disciple of Antonello, was one of the 
first to master the new technique and also the new mode, for from 
this time on he painted always in oil, and he put his figures more dis- 
tinctly into atmosphere and rendered definite effects of light. Gio- 
vanni was one of the first painters to give his attention to the expres- 
sion of existence in three-dimensional space, in the terms of pure 
paint, by the manipulation of edges and the adjustment of tone con- 
trasts in the different planes of distance, as is shown even in the work 
of his first period. In this respect he was the real founder of the great 
Venetian school of the xvi century. Giovanni's works included his- 
tories, although none of them has been preserved, as well as large 
altarpieces and smaller religious paintings and a few paintings of 
allegorical or classical subjects. Half-length Madonnas were espe- 
cially popular at the time, and in addition to those executed by 
Giovanni's own hand are many painted by pupils or assistants but 
often bearing the official signature: Ioannes Bellinvs. 

B ellini is represented in America by a number of fine pictures. Mr. 
Frick's Saint Francis is perhaps the most famous. There are many 
Madonnas attributed to him, several undoubtedly by his hand. 



222 VENETIAN PAINTING 

Mr. Berenson discusses the pictures fully in his Venetian Painting 
in America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, B. Venetian painting in America. New York, 1916. 54-142. 
Fry, R. E. Giovanni Bellini. London, 1899. (Artist's library.) 
Gronau, G. In Thieme-Becker. Kunstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1909. iii, 259-265. 
Die Kiinstlerfamilie Bellini. Bielefeld and Leipsic, 1909. 52-132. 
(Kiinstler-Monographien, 96.) 
Venturi, L. Le origini della pittura veneziana. Venice, 1907. 347-409. 

45 MADONNA AND CHILD 

Oil on panel. H. 29 A in. W. 22^ in. (74.4 X 58 cm.) 
The Madonna wears a red gown, brilliant blue mantle, and lu- 
minous silvery white hood. The drapery of the background is bright 
yellow green. The sky on the left is pale blue, and the rocks neutral 
brown. The parapet is a dark red brown; the book is red. On the 
parapet is the signature: Ioannes Bellinvs. 

The panel formerly belonged to W. H. Matthews of Bromley, 
Kent, who died in 1890. It was later in the collection of C. Fairfax 
Murray, London, and was placed in the Museum in 1902. 

The picture shows the sweet and grave dignity typical of Bellini, 
but it is almost certainly the work of one of his pupils, perhaps Nic- 
col6 Rondinelli. In the Layard collection of the National Gallery is 
another version, differing only in that the Madonna's hood is more 
elaborately embroidered and that there is more of the landscape 
visible on the left. This panel also is signed on the parapet : Ioannes 
Bellinvs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle think that Basaiti helped 
Bellini in the Layard collection picture. Mr. Perkins believes that 
these pictures were executed by Rondinelli. He states (1905) that 
a third version is in the collection of the Marquis Visconti Venosta 
at Rome. Mr. Berenson, in his Venetian Painting in America, 
discusses the Fogg Museum and the Layard collection Madonnas 
at length, and agrees with Mr. Perkins that Rondinelli is the prob- 
able author of the Layard Madonna, at least. He thinks that 
both pictures are copies of an original Bellini, apparently painted 
towards 1490, which has disappeared. Mr. Berenson further points 
out the connection of the Fogg Museum painting, in certain details, 
with a Madonna in the Duomo at Chioggia and a Madonna formerly 




45 GIOVANNI BELLINI (?) 




46 FRANCESCO RIZZO DA SANTA CROCE (? 



GIOVANNI BELLINI (?) 223 

in the Ferrarese Cavalieri collection. There is also said to be in the 
Barberini Gallery, Rome, a Madonna and Child attributed to 
Rondinelli, which is practically a replica of the Fogg Museum 
Madonna. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson. Venetian painting in America. 11 5-1 19, Reproduction. 
Perkins. Boston evening transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. 
Rassegna d'arte. May, 1905. 68, Reproduction. 

, MENTIONED 

American architect and building news. Boston, Jan. 17, 1903. lxxix (1412), 18. 
American journal of archaeology. July-Sept., 1903. 2d ser., vii (3), 404; Oct- 

Dec, 1905. 2d ser., ix (4), 498. 
Bernath. New York und Boston. 76. 

Bibliograeia. L'Arte. Rome, July-Aug., 1905. viii (4), 315, No. 283. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 22; 27, No. 15. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. History of painting in North Italy; ed. by Tan- 

cred Borenius. 1912. i, 183, note 3. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 1911. 54. 
Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. n, 1908. viii, 

38, and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 551. 
New England magazine. Aug., 1905. 702, Reproduction (706). 
Rankin. Notes on three collections of old masters. 17, No. 2. 



FRANCESCO RIZZO DA SANTA CROCE (?) 

Active from about 1513 to about 1545 

Towards the end of the xv century a family of Santa Croces came 
to Venice from a Bergamesque mountain village, Santa Croce. The 
first of the family to settle in Venice was Francesco di Simone da 
Santa Croce, who painted the Annunciation now in the Carrara 
Gallery at Bergamo. 

Francesco di Bernardo de' Vecchi, or Francesco Rizzo da Santa 
Croce, was a pupil of Francesco di Simone. Among his signed and 
dated works is a Noli Me Tangere in the Venice Academy (No. 149) 
painted in 1 5 1 3 . A number of unsigned paintings may be attributed 
to him. The latest record of Francesco Rizzo is dated 1545. The 
Santa Croces were not men of great distinction, and contented them- 
selves with following in the footsteps of Giovanni Bellini. 

In this country Mr. Berenson attributes to Francesco Rizzo two 
pictures in the collection of Henry Walters, Baltimore, in addition 
to the Fogg Museum painting. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson, B. Venetian painting in America. New York, 1916. 262-263. 
Bernardini, G. Sette dipinti della raccolta Lazzaroni. Rassegna d'arte. 

Milan, June, 1911. xi (6), 103. 
Fiocco, G. I pittori da Santa Croce. L'Arle. Rome, Aug., 1916. xix (3-4), 

183-186, 199-200. 
Fornoni, I. E. I pittori da Santa Croce. 1908. 
Ludwig, G. Archivalische Beitrage zur Geschichte der venezianischen Malerei; 

Francesco Rizzo da Santa Croce. Jahrb. d. kon. preuss. Kunstsamml. 

Berlin, 1903. xxiv, Suppl., 4-8. 
Molmenti, P. I pittori bergamaschi a Venezia; I Santacroce. Emporium. 

Bergamo, June, 1903. xvii (102), 420-421. 

46 MADONNA AND CHILD AND SAINT JOHN 

Oil on panel. H. 17I in. W. 19! in. (45.1 X 50.5 cm.) 

The strongest note in the picture is the brilliant red of the Madon- 
na's gown contrasted with the somewhat cold silvery white drapery 
wrapped around the Child and the white kerchief which shows over 
the Madonna's forehead and on her breast. The Madonna's mantle 
is dark blue with a dark orange Hning, and the garment of the little 



FRANCESCO RIZZO DA SANTA CROCE (?) 225 

Saint John is orange red. The landscape in the foreground and in the 
distance is painted with greens and browns and the mountains are 
blue. The sky is a bluish green shading into a pale and subdued 
orange red near the horizon. 

The painting was bought in Rome in 1900 from John Elliott of 
Newport, who had bought it of a Roman dealer. There is a tradition 
that it came from the Cenci family of Vicovaro. It was placed in the 
Museum the year of its purchase, 1900. 

In his book on Venetian Painting in America, Mr. Berenson at- 
tributes this picture to Francesco Rizzo da Santa Croce, and calls 
attention to the fact that the design of the Madonna and Child bears 
a marked similarity to the design of the Madonna and Child in 
Mantegna's late Epiphany, " of which there is a good copy in Mr. J. 
G. Johnson's collection." Kristeller, in his life of Mantegna, lists six 
copies of this picture; three of them, those in the Kaiser Friedrich 
Museum (No. 22), the Hermitage Gallery (No. 11), the Verona 
Gallery (No. 147), are probably by Francesco Rizzo or Francesco di 
Simone. 

Marco Bello and Girolamo da Udine have also been suggested as 
the possible authors of the Fogg Museum panel, but Mr. Berenson's 
suggestion is more likely to be right; Charles Loeser, judging by a 
photograph, agrees with him. 

MENTIONED 

Berenson. Venetian painting in America. 263. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 27, No. 18. 
Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. 11, 1908. viii, 
38, No. 5, and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 551, 

No. S . 
Perkins. Boston evening transcript. Oct. 4, 1905. (Marco Bello.) 

Rassegna d'arte. May, 1905. 68. (Marco Bello.) 
Rankin. Notes on three collections of old masters. 17, No. 9. 



LORENZO LOTTO 

1480-1556 

Lorenzo di Tommaso Lotto was born in Venice in 1480. He was a 
pupil of Alvise Vivarini, and was influenced also by Jacopo di Bar- 
bari, by Giovanni Bellini, by Palma, by Giorgione, and by Titian; 
certain of his paintings show Raphaelesque elements, a result of con- 
tact with Raphael in Rome where Lotto must have spent the years 
1508-1512. From about 15:1^01526 Lotto was in Bergamo for the 
greater part of the time, and this isolation from Venice and the all- 
absorbing influence of Giorgione and Titian was of the utmost im- 
portance, in that it fostered the development of his own distinctive 
manner. B etween 1527 or 1528 and 1 5 50 Lotto was for the most part 
in Venice, and from this time date perhaps his greatest religious 
paintings and some of his most sympathetic portraits. He died in 
Loreto in 1556. 

In the luxurious and splendid art of his day Lotto represents a very 
individual note. He was ardent, high-strung, and deeply religious, 
and his paintings of sacred subjects are characterized by their rest- 
lessness and by their somewhat bizarre, intensely personal treatment. 
At times he is very dramatic as, for instance, in the Crucifixion of 
Monte San Giusto. He painted almost no secular subjects. Lotto 
ranks high as a portraitist on account of his extremely sensitive and 
sympathetic interpretations of character. 

Paintings by Lotto in this country are: a Portrait of a Young Man 
in the Metropolitan Museum; a Madonna and Child, a Madonna and 
Child and Saints, and a Portrait of Gian Giacomo Stuer and his Son, 
in the John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia; and the Fogg 
Museum picture. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Beeenson, B. Lorenzo Lotto. London, Bell. 1905. 

Biscaeo, G. Ancora di alcune opere giovanili di Lorenzo Lotto. L'Arte. 

Rome, iqoi. iv, 152-161. 
Lorenzo Lotto a Treviso nella prima decade del secolo xvi. L'Arte. 

Rome, 1898. i, 138-153. 
Fogolari, G. RR. Gallerie di Venezia; acquisto di un ritratto di Lorenzo 

Lotto. Bollettino d'arte. Rome, 1907. i (1), 23-24. 




47 LORENZO LOTTO 



LORENZO LOTTO 



227 



Frizzoni, G. Ein bisher nicht erkanntes Werk Lorenzo Lottos in der kaiser- 
lichen Gemaldegalerie. Jahrb. d. kunsthist. Samml. d. Kaiserhauses. 
Vienna, 1911. xxx (1), 49-57. 
Intorno a Lorenzo Lotto e ad una sua pala smembrata. Rassegna d'arte 

antica e moderna. Milan, July, 1916. iii (7), 145-150. 
Lorenzo Lotto, pittore. ArchMo storico dell' arte. Rome, 1896. Ser. 2, 
ii (i~3> 6), 1-24, 195-224, 427-447- 

Libro dei conti di Lorenzo Lotto (1538-1556). In Le Gallerie nazionali 
italiane. Rome, 1894. i, 115-224. 

Loeser, C. Ein neu aufgefundener Lotto. Repert. f. Kunstw. Berlin, 1899. 
xxii (4), 319-320. 

Sinigaglia, G. La " Nativita del Signor finta di notte " di Lorenzo Lotto. 
Bollettino d'arte. Rome, Aug., 1908. ii (8), 298-302. 

47 SAINT PETER MARTYR 

Oil on canvas. H. 34-1! in. W. 26f in. (88.5 X 68 cm.) 

This picture has not the brilliancy of colour often used by Lotto. 
The saint wears a white tunic and scapular mellowed with age, and a 
cloak of dark green brown. His hair and eyes are dark brown; the 
tones of his flesh are ruddy. His book, lettered Nouum Testamen- 
tum, is dark green with red brown edges and gray yellow decoration. 
The dagger is dark green gray. On the right sleeve of the saint's 
tunic is a drop of blood. The background is dark red brown. 

The painting was bought in London and placed in the Fogg 
Museum in 1906. It is said to have come from Venice. On the back 
is a label which reads: No. 31, Paris Bordone, San Pietro Martire. 
Mr. Murray, who at one time owned the picture, was the first to 
attribute it to Lotto. It is interesting to note that in an account 
book of Lotto's, discovered at Loreto in 1892 and published in Le 
Gallerie Nazionali Italiane, Rome, 1894, there are references to a 
Saint Peter Martyr painted for a Dominican friar. The book covers 
the years 1 538-1 556, and under date of September, 1549, we find 
the following entry: "1549, sett. A Frate Angelo Feretti da San 
Domenico un ' San Piero martire, grande quanto lui in ritratto suo.' " 
(From Brother Angelo Feretti of San Domenico a Saint Peter Martyr, 
life-size, in his own likeness.) References to payments appear later. 
It is not impossible that these entries concern the Fogg Museum 
picture. The portrait bears a curious resemblance in type and in 
colour scheme to Titian's famous Saint Dominic in the Borghese 
Gallery. The earnest, rather melancholy, character of the saint, 



228 VENETIAN PAINTING 

or rather of the friar whom Lotto portrayed as the saint, is vividly 
and sympathetically realized. Lotto as usual has given life and 
character to his sitter by expressive painting of the hands. 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1908. vi, 143. 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 22; 27, No. 17. 

Breck. Rassegna d'arte. Oct., 1909. 171. 

Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 1911. 54. 

Harvard graduates' magazine. Boston, Dec, 1906. xv (58), 286. 

Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. 11, 1908. viii, 

38, No. 9, and same in Deutsche Liter aturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 551, 

No. 9. 

Reference to a Painting of Saint Peter Martyr 

Libro dei conti di Lorenzo Lotto (1538-1556). In Le Gallerie nazionali 
italiane. Rome, 1894. i, 127, 133. 



TINTORETTO 

1518-1594 

Tintoretto, whose real name was Jacopo Robusti, was born in 1518. 
His father was a dyer, or tintore, by trade, hence his son's nickname 
of Tintoretto, little dyer. According to Ridolfi, he entered Titian's 
workshop at the age of seventeen, and was dismissed because of 
Titian's jealousy. The story of jealousy sounds unlikely; but Titian 
may have thought him without talent, or he may himself have had a 
distaste for the strict discipline of a big workshop. At any rate, he 
probably set up a studio for himself and, although the influence of a 
number of different masters is to be seen in his early work, he was no 
doubt much more completely self-taught than most painters of his 
time. He was especially interested in the work of Michelangelo, 
revealed to him in drawings by Daniele da Volterra, on account of 
Michelangelo's extraordinary knowledge of the human figure; and 
Tintoretto is said to have placed above the door of his workshop the 
famous motto: II disegno di Michelangelo e'l colorito di Titiano. 
(The drawing — or form — of Michelangelo and the colour of 
Titian.) His earlier works show rather conscious striving for variety 
of action and rhythm of pose in pictures often overloaded with 
figures, as in the Last Judgment of the Madonna dell' Orto; but his 
later works reveal perfect mastery in the composition of figures which 
seem to fall into their places in the design with ease and naturalness. 

At first Tintoretto had to be content with small orders in less im- 
portant churches, and he is said to have painted frescoes on houses 
for the cost of materials. His first " success " came in 1548 in work 
for the Scuola di San Marco. After that he was apparently in easy 
circumstances, although he never achieved the great reputation 
abroad won by Titian and Veronese. He married in 1548 and had 
eight children, some of whom became his assistants. For a large 
part of his life he was occupied with the execution of paintings for 
the Scuola di San Rocco, for the refectory of which he painted the 
famous Crucifixion; but some of his most masterly work consists of 
paintings of mythological subjects, generally on a smaller scale than 
his religious paintings. Among them is the famous group of four pic- 
tures which forms the decoration for the Anticollegio in the Ducal 



230 VENETIAN PAINTING 

Palace. His last work on a large scale was the Paradise in the hall 
of the Gran Consiglio in the Ducal Palace. 

Tintoretto, like Rubens and Franz Hals, was a virtuoso with his 
brush. At his best his splendid, dashing workmanship shows con- 
summate skill, but often his execution was hasty and his colour 
lacked clearness, showing a tendency to black shadows. His tech- 
nique was less sound than that of his predecessors, so that many of 
his pictures have not lasted so well as theirs. Tintoretto was the 
most independent and original, perhaps the most profound, thinker 
among the great Venetian artists of the xvi century. 

There are a number of pictures in this country that are attributed 
to Tintoretto, but few of them do full justice to his genius. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Colvin, S. Tintoretto at the British Museum. Burlington magazine. Lon- 
don, Jan.-Feb., 1910. xvi (82-83), 189-200, 254-261. 

Holborn, J. B. S. Jacopo Robusti called Tintoretto. London, 1903. (Great 
masters in painting and sculpture.) 

Osmaston, F. P. B. The art and genius of Tintoret. London, 1915. 2 v. 

Phillipps, E. M. Tintoretto. London, 191 1. (Classics of art.) 

Ruskin, J. Relation between Michael Angelo and Tintoret. In his Works; 
ed. by E. T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn. Library ed. London, 
1906. xxii, 71-108. 

Soulier, G. Le Tintoret. Paris, 191 1. (Les grands artistes.) 

Thode, H. Tintoretto. Bielefeld and Leipsic, 1901. (Kiinstler-Mono- 
graphien, 49.) 

48 DIANA 

Lent by Samuel Sachs. 

Oil * on canvas. H. 43! in. W. 41 in. (109.8 X 104.2 cm.) 

This picture furnishes an excellent opportunity to study Tin- 
toretto's technique. The canvas was evidently originally covered 
with a tone of brown ochre. The unfinished parts of the picture, 
which are perhaps the most instructive, appear to be handled in the 
following way. The shadows are indicated by a dark brown tone 
and the high lights put in with yellow ochre and white, except for the 
foliage, which is a dark, neutral green. The dog on the right is cooler 
in tone than the dog on the left. The general tone of the sky is yel- 

1 Osmaston and others say that the Venetians used tempera for underpainting, 
but the brush work of this picture is that which we associate with the use of oil paint. 




TINTORETTO 



TINTORETTO 23 1 

lowish on the right and pinkish on the left. It was doubtless pro- 
duced by a scumble of yellow ochre and white shading into a scumble 
of Venetian red and white. Diana's flesh tones are light in the high 
lights and somewhere between the yellow and pink quality of the sky 
Her hair is yellow in the light and brown in the shadows. The moun ' 
tains are produced by a light scumble over the background, giving an 
atmospheric and neutral effect. The strongest colour note in the 
picture is Diana's bodice, which appears to be of Venetian red. 

The painting comes closest to Tintoretto's four pictures in the 
Anticollegio of the Ducal Palace, Venice — Bacchus and Ariadne, 
the Three Graces, Minerva repelling Mars, and the Forge of 
Vulcan — and probably was painted about the same time. It was 
formerly in the collection of John Ruskin, who bought it in Venice 
in 1852 from the painter Nerly. In a letter to his father Ruskin 
says: " . . . for it must be accompanied by a sad confession — that 
I gave thirty pounds the other day for the — not Paul Veronese — 
but Tintoret, as I afterwards discovered it to be by accident. It was 
put into a frame too small for it; in talking over it one day, moving 
it into a light, it slipped and came out, and behold, behind the frame, 
a piece of foliage and landscape which only one man's hand in the 
world could have painted." 

Ruskin left the picture to his friend Arthur Severn. It remained 
in this collection until 191 5 when it was bought by Samuel Sachs 
of New York. Mr. Sachs lends it to the Fogg Museum for a certain 
number of months each year. 

The painting was published by Arthur Pope in Art in America 
for October, 19 16. We quote from his article: " In its present 
state, as left by Tintoretto, the upper part of the picture seems to 
be practically finished; but in the lower half, although extraor- 
dinarily real existence in three dimensions is indicated by the broad 
masses of light and dark swept in so surely, the dark brown ground 
of the canvas is, except for one or two heavily loaded lights, hardly 
more than ' run over ' with light strokes, and in many places is 
entirely untouched. In its decisive vigour the sketching in of the 
legs is, in handling, exactly like that of the tempera studies in the 
British Museum. Apparently Tintoretto first of all sketched in the 
whole figure in this way to get the action and the placing on the can- 
vas, and then covered this skeleton of paint with flesh and clothing; 



232 VENETIAN PAINTING 

and we may accept this as his usual method of procedure in the work 
of his great period. Evidently the legs were to have been covered 
with drapery with only part of the right foot actually showing in the 
finished picture; but the structure of the figure would have governed 
the folds of the dress and would always have been felt as existing 
beneath them. The drapery over the legs might very likely have 
been a subdued blue green, if completed, but except for a little dull 
green, there are no cool tones in the picture as it stands at present; 
even the landscape is warm gray in tone — yellowish and pinkish — 
like most of the San Rocco landscapes. A superb bit of design is the 
placing of the dull red bodice as a controlling accent in the centre of 
the picture." 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Osmaston. i, 48, note; ii, 191. 

Perkins, F. M. Un dipinto del Tintoretto depositato nel Museo Fogg. Ras- 

segna d'arte. Milan, Feb., 1916. iii (2), 25, Reproduction. 
Pope, A. Tintoretto's Diana. Art in America. New York, Oct., 1916. iv 

(6), 353-357, Reproduction. 
Ruskin. Works, library ed. xi, 376, note. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. April-June, 1917. 2d ser., xxi (2), 229; 

July-Sept., 1917. xxi (3), 358; Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (1), 97. 
Bell, Mrs. A. Tintoretto. New York, n. d. p. xliv. (Newnes' art library.) 

(Belonging to Mrs. Arthur Severn.) 
Holborn. 107. 
Holborn. In Bryan's Dictionary of painters and engravers, new ed. 1904. 

iv, 262. 



POLIDORO DA LANCIANO 

1515-1565 

Polidoro de Renzi da Lanciano, the Venetian painter, belonged to 
a family who came originally from Lanciano, a town of the Abruzzi. 
His grandfather, Alessandro Renzi, was a vase painter. Polidoro 
was born in 1 5 1 5 and spent the greater part of his life in Venice. He 
was one of the most pleasing of the followers of Titian. He shows 
also the influence of Bonifazio, Pordenone, and Paolo Veronese. He 
died in Venice in 1565. 

In addition to the Fogg Museum painting, Polidoro is represented 
in this country by the Holy Family and Saints owned by Professor 
Palmer of Cambridge; by pictures in the Holden collection, Cleve- 
land, and the collection of Henry Walters, Baltimore. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Baxzano, V. Polidoro de Renzi di Lanciano, pittore. Rassegna d' arte degli 

Abruzzi e del Molise. Rome, March, 1912. i (1), 20-26. 
Berenson, B. Opere attribuite a Polidoro de Renzi di Lanciano. Rassegna 

d' arte degli Abruzzi e del Molise. Rome, June, 1912. i (2), 33-34. 
Ffoulkes, C. J. La collezione Mond. L'Arte. Rome, May- June, 191 1. xiv 

(3), 172-173. 
Gronau, G. Uber die Herkunf t des Malers Polidoro Veneziano. Repert. f. 

Kunstw. Berlin, 1910. xxxiii (6), 545-546. 
Ludwig, G. Bonifazio di Pitati da Verona, ii. Die Schuler Bonifazios — 

Polidoro da Lanzano. Jahr. d. kon. preuss. Kunstsamml. Berlin, 1901. 

xxii (3), 196-198. 

49 MADONNA AND CHILD AND SAINT JEROME 
Oil on canvas. H. 28| in. W. 35! in. (72.2 X 90.2 cm.) 

Although distinctly inferior in quality, in its present condition at 
any rate, this picture is characteristic of the method practised in 
Venice by the masters influenced by Titian. The Madonna's gown 
is a fine red, very dark and neutral in the shadows. This same colour 
is carried into the other half of the picture by means of the cardinal's 
hat of Saint Jerome. The mantle of the Madonna is a dark blue 
green, lined with orange yellow. Her hood is a neutral grayish green. 
The Child rests on a white drapery which is seen mostly in shadow. 
The page of Saint Jerome's book, his right sleeve, and his beard, to- 



234 VENETIAN PAINTING 

gether with the clouds in the sky, carry this tone through the picture. 
Saint Jerome's mantle is similar to the Madonna's in colour, and the 
lion introduces a note of dark brown. The trees are of a rather fine 
neutral green and the prevailing tone of the distant landscape of the 
mountains and sky is a grayish blue. The flesh tones show the typi- 
cal warm golden glaze used by Titian and his followers. 

The picture was at one time in the collection of Charles C. Perkins, 
who bought it in Italy some time between the years 1850 and i860. 
It was bought and placed in the Museum in 191 1. 

The painting shows the favourite Venetian Cinquecento treat- 
ment, evolved originally by Mantegna and developed in Venice by 
Palma, of the Madonna and Child and saints brought down to earth 
and represented in an intimate, informal relationship, in an out-of- 
doors setting. The types and the general point of view of the picture 
as well as the technical handling are reminiscent of Titian. The 
figures are treated as masses of light and shade in the foreground, and 
the landscape, the sky, mountains, and trees, are rendered as a sort 
of conventional tapestry background to enhance the beauty of the 
figures. But neither in the figures nor in the background are the 
values exactly true to nature from the modern standpoint, though 
they successfully and adequately tell the story, and give the feeling 
of figures seated in front of trees and in the distance a mountain 
landscape against a sombre sky. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 
Art and archaeology. July, 1915. 22. 

Berenson. Rassegna d' arte degtt Abruzzi e del Molise. June, 191 2. 34. 
Boston. Museum or Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 39. 




49 POLIDORO DA LANCIANO 




50 LEANDRO BASSANO 



LEANDRO BASSANO 

J 557 (?)-i622 

Leandro da Ponte, called Bassano,belonged to a family of painters 
active in Venice in the latter part of the xvi and the beginning of the 
xvn century. The most important member of the family was 
Jacopo, the father of Leandro. Jacopo introduced genre scenes of 
country life into Italian art and was a naturalistic landscape and 
animal painter of great technical ability, also a painter of portraits. 
Leandro Bassano, born probably in 1557, was the most talented of 
Jacopo's four sons. He was trained in his father's workshop and 
inherited his father's technical ability. He painted in Bassano and 
Venice and was chiefly noted for his portraits; he also painted his- 
tories — among them the Meeting of Pope Alexander in with the 
Doge Sebastiano Ziani, in the Doge's Palace — and religious and 
genre subjects. He died in 1622. The Bassani, like all other Venetian 
painters of that day, were profoundly influenced by the geniuses of 
the time, and applied to their genre paintings the methods of Titian 
and Tintoretto. 

In this country Leandro Bassano is represented in the John G. 
Johnson collection, Philadelphia; in the Holden collection, Cleve- 
land; and in the Fogg Museum. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Geeola, G. In Thieme-Becker. Ktinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1909. iii, 7-8. 

Bassano. Bergamo, 1910. 119-121. (Italia artistica, 59.) 
Veeci, G. B. Notizie intorno alia vita e alle opere de' pittori, scultori, e inta- 

gliatori della citta. di Bassano. Venice, 1775. 182-206. 
Zottmann.L. Zur Kunst der Bassani. Strasburg, 1908. 58-66. (ZurKunst- 

geschichte des Auslandes, 57.) 

SO CHRIST APPEARING TO A NOBLEMAN 

Oil on canvas. H. 30I in. W. 44 in. (76.8 X 111.7 cm.) 

The picture is sombre in tone and is lighted up by certain highly 
illuminated spots. Christ appears in a lemon yellow opening in the 
clouds. He wears a rose red tunic and a blue green mantle, which is 
similar in colour to the heavy clouds in the sky, and as his mantle 
appears against the brownish tones of the clouds where they burst 



2 3 6 VENETIAN PAINTING 

asunder, it counts as a brilliant colour. Christ's face appears to be 
highly illuminated, although it is seen in relief against the yellow, 
which is still lighter. Just at the horizon is an orange streak of 
light on the western sky. The nobleman to whom the apparition 
appears is clad in a dark mantle and his ruddy face is relieved against 
the heavy clouds. The dog is brown and white and the pillars and 
steps together with the rest of the landscape are of a grayish green. 

The painting came from the collection of an English country 
clergyman, who obtained it from the Wilson collection in Yorkshire. 
It was placed in the Fogg Museum in 1910. 

This picture, even more than the Polidoro, shows the practice of 
the Venetian painters of placing a face as a mass of light against a 
dark tapestry-like landscape background. 

In the left hand of Christ is an orb or globe surmounted by a cross. 
The orb was a symbol of sovereignty and is said to have been as- 
sumed by the Emperor Augustus. It was always borne in the left 
hand. The cross, symbol of faith, was added by Constantine. This 
symbol appears early in art. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 
Berenson. Catalogue of a collection of paintings and other art objects (John 

G. Johnson collection); Italian paintings, i, p. 132. 
Boston. Museum op Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 39. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. June, 1910. 703-704. 



SPANISH PAINTING 



SPANISH PAINTING 

PAINTING reached the height of its development in Spain later 
than in the neighbouring peninsula of Italy. It was not until 
the xvrr century that the art reached its most complete national 
expression. Yet throughout its history Spanish painting has a 
distinctive, if somewhat strange and exotic appeal. 

Spanish art was always peculiarly susceptible to foreign influences. 
Moorish, French, Italian, Flemish, and German elements made their 
way into the country and left their impress — but in their turn they 
were moulded by the strongly marked individuality of the Spanish 
people and helped to form a national art. 

The ruling factor in the life of Spain was the Roman Catholic 
Church. In the struggle against the Moors the people came to re- 
gard themselves as the chosen defenders of the true faith, and with 
the driving out of the infidel this feeling became intensified. A 
fervid Catholicism developed, together with a spirit of religious 
ecstasy and mysticism which gradually became self-conscious and 
sentimental. The Spaniard was a " pietistic dreamer." Force of 
circumstances however made of him a practical man of action as 
well. The painting of Spain reflects both these characteristics. The 
fervid and somewhat exaggerated religious sentiment is seen at its 
height in the work of the Valencian master Ribera and of Murillo. 
Naturalism, apparent even in the early xrv century paintings, 
reached its fullest expression in the xvn century in the work of 
Velazquez. The fact that painting was primarily devoted to the 
service of the Church furthered the naturalistic spirit, as the 
Church's teachings had to be so rendered that all might read. 

The Spaniard was by nature gloomy and melancholy, so a strain of 
the gruesome is apparent in Spanish painting, as in the realistic re- 
presentations of martyrdoms by Ribera. The gravity of the race also 
reacted upon the colours of painting, which tended on the whole in 
the most characteristically national period to dark and sombre tints. 
As already stated, painting was primarily devoted to the service of 



240 



SPANISH PAINTING 



Luis Borrassd 
1366 (?)-i424 
Master of 
St. George 
active 1430 



the Church — in contrast to Italy, with the exception of the por- 
traiture of the xvi and xvn centuries, few profane subjects were 
represented. Landscape painting was practically unknown to Span- 
ish art, until in the xvn century Italy taught its beauty to Velazquez. 

Though the painting of Spain as a whole has its distinctive, indi- 
vidual character, there are local differences which divide it into cer- 
tain main groups or schools; in the east the Aragonese group, which 
included Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia; in the south the Andalu- 
sian school, and in the central and northwestern part of Spain the 
school of Castile. 

In general, the Catalan school with Barcelona as its centre held 
the leading place through the xv century, although Andalusia pro- 
duced Vermejo, the greatest of Spanish primitives. Valencia was 
prominent in the xvi century; in the xvn century the schools of 
Valencia, of Seville in Andalusia, and of Madrid in Castile each 
produced important masters. Painting in general passed through 
three main phases — the early period of varied outside influences, 
chiefly Italian, Flemish, and French, or rather International; the 
period of Italian classicism in the xvi century; and the so-called 
Golden Age of the xvn century, when the national art is seen in its 
fullest expression. 

In the east, in the Catalan school, through the xiv and the early 
part of the xv century, Italian influence prevailed — in a slight de- 
gree that of Florence, but chiefly the influence of Siena, which was 
introduced through trade with Italy and which also spread from the 
school of Simone Martini at Avignon, bringing with it the courtliness, 
splendour, quaint realism, and picturesque detail of the International 
movement. Native characteristics of the Catalan school were the 
love of the ornate — seen in the use of gold backgrounds, gold orna- 
mentation, and magnificent brocades — and the feeling for formal 
design. These qualities appear in the work of Luis Borrassa. A 
noteworthy painting, probably of the Catalan school, dating from 
about 1430, by the so-called Master of Saint George, is a triptych — 
the central panel of which, representing Saint George and the Dragon, 
is in Barcelona, the wings in the Louvre. This picture is mod- 
elled almost exactly after a French miniature in the Andr6 collection, 
Paris, and shows the qualities of the International school — its use 
of contemporary costume, its smiling landscape, and gay naturalism 



SPANISH PAINTING 



241 



— but the raised and gilded stucco ornamentation on the panel be- 
trays its Spanish origin. 

In western Spain — Castile and Andalusia — during the xrv and 
first half of the xv century, although a Sienese element is apparent, 
Florentine influence prevailed, probably introduced by Stamina, the 
master of Masolino, and later by Dello Delli of Florence, who came 
to Spain about 1432 and brought more of the influence of the Italian 
Renaissance. In the second half of the xv century, Flemish influence 

— particularly "from the school of Tournai — superseded that of 
Florence, and made a much stronger impression than the Italian 
influence had made. Flemish pictures and tapestries became the 
fashion and were imported into Spain, and native artists absorbed 
the foreign models. Flemish tonality, oil technique, and feeling for 
realism spread throughout the west. To this period belongs the 
greatest of Spanish primitive painters, Bartolom6 Vermejo, of 
Cordova in Andalusia, who combined Flemish and native character- 
istics with the Italian feeling for beauty, and whose best work ranks 
with that of any of his Italian or Flemish contemporaries. His 
Saint Michael, in the Wernher collection, London, is one of the finest 
of Spanish paintings. 

Flemish elements were introduced into eastern Spain also in the 
second half of the xv century, as is seen in a certain stimulus to 
realism and the occasional use of oil technique; but in the main the 
painters of this period did not employ the Flemish medium, and 
kept largely to the gold backgrounds and elaborate ornamentation 
of the earlier Catalan painting, making free use of gilded reliefs to 
enhance the richness of their panels. Luis Dalmau was a close imita- 
tor of Jan van Eyck, but continued the old method of tempera paint- 
ing. A family of painters by the name of Vergos, who worked from 
about 1434 to 1503, raised painting in Catalonia to a high level. 
Their pictures show the Catalan tendency to overload with gold, but 
many of their altarpieces have fine and realistic portrait heads and 
are characterized by quiet dignity and strength. 

During the last thirty years of the xv century and in the beginning 
of the xvi century the full-fledged Italian Renaissance entered Spain, 
appearing first in Valencia in the work of a Master Roderigo, a 
transitional painter, and his son, Master Roderigo n, and in Fer- 
rando de Llanos and Ferrando Yanez, both of whom modelled them- 



Barlolomi 
Vermeio 
active late 
xv c. 



Luis Dalmau 
active 
1428-1460 
Vergds family 
active 
1434-1503 
Master 
Roderigo 
active late 
xv c. 
Master 
Roderigo II 
active early 
xvi c. 

Ferrando de 
Llanos, active 

i5°5-i525 
Ferrando 
Yanez, active 
I505-I53I 



242 



SPANISH PAINTING 



Pedro 

Berruguete 

active 

1483-1504 

Juan de 

Borgona 

active 

1495-1533 



Juan de 
Juanes 

1507(J)-I579 

Luis de 

Vargas 

1502-1568 

Luis de 

Morales 

ah. 1500-1586 



Alonso 

Sanchez 

Coetto 

ah. I5I5-I5QO 

Juan Pantoja 

de la Cruz 

1551V)- 

i6oq(?) 

Francisco 

Pacheco 

1571-1654 

Francisco de 

Herrera the 

Eider 

1576-1656 

Francisco de 

Ribalta 

ah. 1551-1628 



selves on Leonardo da Vinci. In Castile, Pedro Berruguete, who 
painted altarpieces for the inquisitor Torquemada, represented 
Italianism, combined with Flemish elements and the native Spanish 
mysticism. With Berruguete at Toledo worked Juan de Borgona, 
who had studied in Italy where he perhaps had been a pupil of Ghir- 
landaio. Through Italian influence he painted in fresco and brought 
into Spain the lovely Italian garden backgrounds. The second stage 
of Italian influence dates from about 1525 to 1575, when Spain, like 
every other European country, was permeated with classicism. The 
great Italian masters were imitated, and conventional forms and 
canons grew up, based on the works of Raphael, Leonardo, and 
Michelangelo. To this period belong a number of painters whose 
works are dull and lacking in interest, among them Juan de Juanes 
of Valencia, Luis de Vargas of Seville, and Luis de Morales of Mad- 
rid. Towards the end of the reign of Philip 11 more direct Italian 
influence entered Spain through the Italian artists whom Philip 
imported to work in his palace of the Escorial. The Flemish portrait 
painter Antonio Moro also came to Madrid. He had been court 
painter to Charles v in Flanders in 1552. Moro's " hard " manner 
was admirably suited to the stiff, unbending royalty of Spain. He 
trained two able Spanish masters, Alonso Sanchez Coello, who 
successfully assimilated the " hard " technique, and Juan Pantoja 
da la Cruz. A slight beginning of naturalism appeared in Seville in 
the work of Francisco Pacheco, the second master of Velazquez, but 
Pacheco's pictures are of less importance than his teachings which he 
embodied in a work, Arte de la Pintura. This book contains also a 
wealth of anecdote in regard to Spanish painters of the day. Fran- 
cisco de Herrera the Elder, the first master of Velazquez, to a certain 
extent abandoned classicism for naturalism. He was the first to 
paint the so-called Bodegones, " shop pictures," or scenes of popular 
life, a type which he handed on to his pupil Velazquez. 

About 1575 definite reaction against classicism appeared in Valen- 
cia in the work of Francisco de Ribalta, who founded his style largely 
on that of Correggio and the painters of the Eclectic school who 
initiated the revolt against classicism in Italy. Ribalta was partic- 
ularly influenced by the naturalism of the Caravaggi, and their so- 
called tenebroso manner, in which the greater part of the canvas was 
painted in deep shadow and certain other parts in bright light 



SPANISH PAINTING 



243 



relieved against the dark. The Valencian school culminated in the 
xvn century in the work of Jusepe de Ribera, who was a pupil of 
Ribalta and who also studied in Italy. In Ribera the tenebroso 
manner was carried to an extreme, and in his work the reaction 
against classicism resulted in an excessive naturalism, in which 
scenes of bloody martyrdoms were portrayed in all their dreadful 
details. Ribera also illustrates Spanish religious fervour carried to 
the point of extreme sentimentality; but he was a master of com- 
position and drawing, as is seen in such a work as the Holy Trinity 
in the Escorial. 

In Castile the revolt against classicism was incarnated in El Greco 
(Domenico Theotocopuli), so called because of his Cretan origin, who 
combined Italian influence — particularly that of Tintoretto and 
Michelangelo — with certain Greek elements, and a weird, feverish 
power of his own. He is perhaps seen at his best in his portraits, 
which are piercing characterizations of the haughty, morose Spanish 
noblemen of his day. In El Greco's other works his bizarre origi- 
nality led him into strange extravagances of line, colour, and lighting. 
He believed that fantastic drawing and harsh, discordant colour 
were permissible for the sake of attaining the desired effect, and 
sought to portray the supernatural by means of the unnatural. In 
his readiness to sacrifice truth of representation to expression, he 
was the forerunner of the modern Post-Impressionist. His art did 
not have a marked influence on Spanish painting. 

The great master of the school of Madrid in the xvn century, and 
one of the world's greatest painters, was Diego Velazquez. In con- 
trast to the passionate, " temperamental " El Greco, he was im- 
personal and a realist, basing his work on a minute and scrupulous 
study of nature. His colour is clear and beautiful; at times he used 
subdued gray and silver tones, and again he painted in richer and more 
brilliant harmonies. He was a master of light and shade, and his 
brush work, whether in his more finished early manner or in his later 
more impressionistic painting, was sure and sound. In all his works, 
his incomparable portraits of the degenerate and melancholy House 
of Hapsburg, his scenes of religious genre, his great historical picture 
of the Surrender of Breda, his lovely, simple Italian landscapes, he 
reveals a mastery of technique which has been the model and wonder 
of artists ever since. 



Jusepe de 

Ribera 

1588-1656 



El Greco 
1545/50-1625 



Diego 

Velazquez 

15Q9-1660 



244 



SPANISH PAINTING 



Bartolomi 
EsUban 
Murillo 
1618-1682 

Francisco de 

Zurbardn 

15Q8-1663 

Alonso Cano 
1601-166J 
Juan de 
V aide's Leal 
1630-16QI 



Juan Bautisla 
del Mazo 
1615-1667 
Juan Carreno 
de Miranda 
1614-1685 

Mateo Cerezo 
1635-1685 

Claudio 

Coello 

i623{?)-i6q3 

Francisco 

Goya y 

Lucientes 

1746-1828 



In contrast to Velazquez is Murillo of Seville, simple and devout, 
famous for his series of Immaculate Conceptions and other religious 
paintings, but whose best work is perhaps to be seen in his pictures 
of genre. No one has rendered more delightfully than he the charm 
of light-hearted Latin childhood. Zurbaran, Murillo's contempor- 
ary, was primarily a monastic painter, at his best in the rendering of 
single figures. He was provincial, but honest and sincere, and re- 
presented a restrained and sober phase of Spanish religious feeling. 
Other painters of the school of Seville, who rank only a little below 
Murillo and Zurbaran, were Alonso Cano of Granada, and Juan de 
Valdes Leal, who in his eagerness to represent grace and beauty 
became baroque. 

Followers of Velazquez were Juan Bautista del Mazo, who closely 
reproduced his master's style and who holds an important place in 
the history of Spanish painting; Juan Carreno de Miranda, who was 
court painter to Charles rr, and whose best claim to recognition is 
found in his portraits, in which he shows the influence of Velazquez 
and of van Dyck; and Mateo Cerezo, who shows a more pronounced 
influence of van Dyck in his religious paintings, but whose work is 
obvious and artificial. The last name of any consequence in the 
school is that of Claudio Coello, who succeeded Carreno as court 
painter. Decadence had already set in; and for about one hundred 
years the art of the peninsula was dead. With Goya, however, in the 
second half of the xvni century, came its rebirth, and the school 
entered into a new period of vitality. M E q 

Spanish painting is represented in the Fogg Museum by the picture num- 
bered 51 in this Catalogue. 

Among the artists mentioned in the foregoing sketch the following are rep- 
resented in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and in the collection of Mrs. John 
L. Gardner, Fenway Court. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts: Spanish school, end or xv century, Coro- 
nation of the Madonna. (This picture has been attributed to Borrassa but is 
possibly of a slightly later date.) Ribera, Saint Sebastian, Mocking of Christ, 
Philosopher; El Greco, Portrait; Velazquez, Portrait of Don Balthazar 
Carlos and his Dwarf. 

Fenway Court: Attributed to Vermejo, Santa Engracia. (By some critics 
attributed to Vermejo himself, by others to an Aragonese pupil of his, the 
Master of Santo Domingo.) School of the Vergos, Saint Michael overcom- 
ing Satan; Alonso Sanchez Coello, Portrait of Anne of Austria and her 
Mother; Velazquez, Portrait of Pope Innocent x; Zurbaran, Portrait of a 
Student of Salamanca. 



SPANISH PAINTING 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



24S 



Beruete y Moret, A. de. The school of Madrid. New York, 1909. 

Caffin, C. H. The story of Spanish painting. New York, 1910. 

Dietjlafoy, M. Art in Spain and Portugal. New York, 1913. (Ars una; 
species mille.) 

Justi, C. Miscellaneen aus drei Jahrhunderten spanischen Kunstlebens. Ber- 
lin, 1908. 2 v. 

Mayer, A. L. Geschichte der spanischen Malerei. Leipsic, 1913. 2 v. 

Sanpere y Miqtjel, S. Los Cuatrocentistas Catalanes; historia de la pintura 
en Catalufia en el siglo xv. Barcelona, 1906. 2 v. 

Sentenach y Cabanas, N. The painting of the school of Seville. New York, 
191 1. (Library of art.) 

Stirling-Maxwell, W. Annals of the artists of Spain. London, 1891. 4 v. 



JUAN DE BURGOS 

xv century, second quarter 

Juan de Burgos is a little-known Spanish painter, active probably 
in the second quarter of the xv century. No other pictures by his 
hand can be identified. Attributed to him is a half-length figure of 
Saint Blaise, No. 13 in the Catalogue of Ancient Paintings sold by 
the Kleinberger Galleries, January 23, 1918. 

Si THE ANNUNCIATION 

Tempera on panel. 

Gabriel panel, H. 36 in. W. 13^ in. (91.5 X 33.9 cm.) 
Virgin panel, H. 36! in. W. 13A in. (91-8 X 33.9 cm.) 

The same blue that appears in the Virgin's mantle is used in 
Gabriel's wings and in the lining of his olive green cloak. It is possible 
that the present blue of Mary's mantle is painted over the original, 
as there are traces of a rich texture of brocade showing underneath 
the blue. The green of the Virgin's gold and olive green gown is 
similar in colour to Gabriel's mantle, and the vermilion of the inside 
of the angel's wing is similar to the colour in the decorative gold and 
red brocade over the prie-Dieu at which the Virgin kneels. Gabriel 
wears a bluish white robe and both he and Mary have orange yellow 
hair. On the white scroll borne by the angel is inscribed in blue 
letters his greeting: Ave Maria Gratia Plena. 

Both panels have gold backgrounds, incised, and pavements of 
violet red shading into neutral red orange. The Gabriel panel is 
signed: maistre ju de burgos pitor. 

The panels are in their original richly carved Gothic frames. They 
were acquired by the late Sir Charles Robinson in Madrid about 
1870. In 1916 they were purchased by a member of the Society of 
Friends of the Fogg Museum, who has placed them in the Museum 
as a permanent loan. 

In general, representations of the Annunciation before the xn cen- 
tury are rare, but after the beginning of the xm century they become 
very frequent, appearing somewhere on almost every altarpiece — in 
medallions or quatrefoils above the main panels, in the pinnacles or 
in the predella, or painted or carved on the outside of the shutters. 






HHUfl 






i!lmnlT&M!i 




51 JUAN DE BURGOS 



JUAN DE BURGOS 247 

The subject was often treated as a mystery, not as an actual scene. 
Generally only the Virgin and angel were represented, although it 
was not unusual to find other figures. From the end of the xiv until 
the xvi century God the Father is often seen in the sky, and the Dove 
of the Holy Spirit descends from Him to the Virgin on rays of light. 
The Virgin was represented seated, standing, about to rise at the 
approach of the angel, or kneeling. Gabriel was pictured standing or 
kneeling before her, or just alighting on the earth, his feet not yet 
touching the ground. In the xm century representations, notably 
in the painted glass windows, the Virgin and the angel stand face to 
face; later the Italian artists represented the scene as taking place in 
an open loggia, while the Flemish artists painted the Virgin in medi- 
tation in her room when the angel appeared to her. Before the xm 
century Mary was often represented with a basket of wool or a dis- 
taff as, according to the Protevangelion, she continued to spin for the 
temple after she had become affianced to Joseph, and was working 
when the angel came. Gabriel bears the light staff or sceptre of a 
herald, a scroll on which is inscribed his greeting, an olive branch, or 
a stalk of lilies. The lily probably was developed from a flower with 
a long stalk which was introduced during the xm century, appearing 
in glass painting and miniatures and signifying springtime, " the 
time of flowers " when the Annunciation took place. Later, lilies 
were used to symbolize the purity of the Virgin, and were placed in a 
jar or vase near her or were carried by the angel. In Spain the vase 
of lilies was almost essential to representations of the Annunciation, 
and became the special and distinguishing attribute of the Virgin. 
The Spanish order of the Lily of Aragon, established by Ferdinand of 
Castile in commemoration of a victory over the Moors in 1410, had 
for its badge "pots filled with white lilies interlaced with griffins, to 
which was pendent a medal having thereon an image of the Virgin 
Mary." In Italy neither the vase of lilies nor the stalk was con- 
sidered essential in representations of the Annunciation, although 
they are of frequent occurrence. Certain of the Florentine artists, 
notably Fra Filippo Lippi, represented both. Ghirlandaio, in his 
Annunciation at San Gimignano, placed a vase beside the Virgin's 
desk and combined other flowers — roses, daisies, and jasmine — 
with the lilies. The angel bears the lily stalk. 



248 SPANISH PAINTING 

There are five representations of the Annunciation in this Gallery, 
and a fragment of a sixth (No. 11), which illustrate the various 
ways of treating the subject. In all of these pictures the Virgin is 
represented with a book. The legend is that she was studying the 
book of the prophet Isaiah, and was just reading the verse, " Be- 
hold, a Virgin shall conceive and bear a Son," when the angel ap- 
peared to her. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Athenaeum. London, Jan. 4, 1896. No. 3558. 24. 

EXHIBITED 

Royal Academy, London. 1880. No. 249. 

New Gallery, London. Exhibition of Spanish art, 1895-1896. No. 4. 

Burlington Fine Arts Club, London. 1908. No. 6. 

Grafton Galleries, London. Exhibition of Spanish old masters, Oct., 1913, to 

Jan., 1914. Catalogue, p. viii; 21-23, No. 25. Reproduction (PI. ix). 
Exhibition of primitive pictures at the galleries of Martin Hofer, New York, 

Nov., 1915. Catalogue. No. 5, Reproduction on cover. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (1), 97. 
Bertaux, E. L' exposition espagnole de Londres. Gazette des beaux-arts. 

Paris, March, 1914. 4 per., xi (681), 253, note 1, No. 25. 
Bertjete y Moret, A. de. La peinture en Espagne et en Portugal. L'art et 

les artistes. Paris, Sept., 1912. xv, 250. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Jan. 25, 1917. 328. 



GERMAN PAINTING 



GERMAN PAINTING 

PAINTING in Germany was of the highest international sig- 
nificance at only one period of its history, namely from about 
1450 to 1550, practically from the birth of Schongauer to the death 
of Holbein the Younger. In this it contrasts strongly with Italian 
painting, which, with the exception of a short period after the death 
of Giotto, was of importance from its beginning in the xm century, 
to the end of the xvi century, and made its influence felt even 
through the xvm century. But as in Italy there were a number of 
local schools varying in significance and development, so in Germany 
from 1450 to 1500 there were various independent centres of art held 
together by no national tie. During this period, foreign influences, 
chiefly Flemish, were at work. In the first half of the xvi century, 
1 500-1 5 50, painting reached its high-water mark, and local traditions 
were replaced by the dominance of the great artistic personalities of 
Albrecht Diirer and Hans Holbein the Younger. 

In contrast to Italy — as, from the xm century, the Gothic archi- 
tecture of the north did not admit of the large wall spaces necessary 
for cycles of frescoes — in Germany, artists were concerned chiefly 
with altarpieces, at first very elaborate, a combination of painting 
and sculpture — later, after about 1520, of simpler form. 

The conditions which surrounded German masters were different 
from those which fostered Italian art. Italian painting of the Renais- 
sance was under the patronage of wealthy court nobles and princes; 
in Germany, the bourgeois class was in the ascendency. In the 
main, therefore, with the exception of commissions executed for such 
princes as Frederick the Wise of Saxony, Albrecht of Brandenburg, 
Emperor Maximilian, and the wealthy merchants of Holbein's day, 
German artists worked for the middle class burgher, who cared more 
for the story a picture told or the lesson it taught than for its intrinsic 
beauty. Moreover, in Germany, the Reformation exerted an in- 
fluence corresponding to that of the Renaissance in Italy. The 
Italians discovered everywhere the beauty of the world of nature and 
man and gave expression to it. The Germans were concerned with 



252 



GERMAN PAINTING 



Master 

Wilkelm 

xiv c, 2d half 

Stephan 

Lochner 

active 

I430-I4SI 



the inner nature of man, and the painter, working for his bourgeois 
patron, aimed to express the character and feeling of man, and had 
little regard for beauty as a thing to be sought purely in itself. " The 
subtle use of the useless " had no place in the German scheme of life. 
So, in general, the art which developed was that of a simple people, 
lacking the Italian feeling for beauty, Italian purity of taste and 
sense of composition, design, and colour. German painting is apt to 
be harsh in colour and crowded and restless in composition. It is 
didactic, rugged, somewhat grim and gloomy, but always sincere. 
It is imaginative, and in some instances it is great. 

As compared with Flemish art, painting in Germany was, with the 
exception of the work of Durer and Holbein, less minutely beautiful 
in workmanship, although similar technical methods were employed, 
and — save for that of the early school of Cologne — German paint- 
ing was less spiritual, less mystic, more emotional and violent than 
the painting of Flanders. 

The chief schools of painting in Germany were the school of Cologne 
in the north, and in the south the school of Nuremberg, in Franconia, 
and the Suabian school, the chief centres of which were Ulm and Augs- 
burg, and in the upper Rhine district, Colmar and Basle. Cologne 
held the most important position during the xrv and the greater 
part of the xv century. Up to about 1450 the painting of the school 
followed the Gothic tradition — with its gold backgrounds, its rich 
decoration, its supple, flowing line, its idealized types — and was 
really International. It was probably a development of Flemish 
miniature painting, and kept to the methods and technique of the 
illuminators — to their pure, fresh colour and delicacy of handling. 
The influence of the mystics of the Rhine provinces is seen in the 
early painting. A certain Master Wilhelm — a generic name for a 
group of painters rather than the name of an individual — and later a 
Suabian, Stephan Lochner, who came to Cologne about 1430, repre- 
sent this idealistic phase. It is probable that Lochner had come into 
contact with the work of the Flemish masters, but this influence is 
only superficially apparent, and his work, in its naivete of feeling, 
, its delicacy, and its poetic spirit belongs to an earlier age. 

After Lochner the influence of the Netherlands dominated the 
school of Cologne. In 1450 Rogier van der Weyden went to 
Italy and probably visited Cologne on his way home; from about 



GERMAN PAINTING 



253 



this time Flemish realism made slow but certain progress. To this 
period belong various anonymous masters called after the names of 
their chief works or of the churches where their works are found. 
The Master of the Life of Mary combined Flemish realism with some- 
thing of the idealism of the school of Cologne, and from his pictures 
there breathes a sincere and simple religious spirit not found in the 
later works. The Master of the Holy Family portrayed the every- 
day life of bourgeois Germany without any real depth of feeling. 
Incidentally he was the first painter of Cologne to whom designs for 
glass painting can be attributed; three windows in the Cathedral 
were executed from his design, and show him to have had fine feeling 
for colour and composition and decorative effect. The Master of 
Saint Severin, reacting against the idealism of the school of Cologne, 
carried realism almost to an extreme. The Master of Saint Bartholo- 
mew, of Suabia, was an original and vigorous painter, and at the 
same time simple and moving, who showed a close connection with 
the Colmar artist, Martin Schongauer. Bartholomaus Bruyn, a 
Dutch master who settled in Cologne, came under Italian influence 
which in general had an unfortunate effect in Germany. Bruyn's 
best works were his able portraits, a number of which have come 
down to us dating from 1520 to 1530. The painting of Cologne was 
unimportant after the second half of the xvi century. 

In Switzerland towards the middle of the xv century an impetus 
was given to the arts by the Council of Basle, called in 1431, which 
attracted numbers of artists not only for the purpose of enriching the 
churches of the city with painted glass, tapestries, and altarpieces, 
but with the hope of finding patrons among the civil and ecclesias- 
tical dignitaries who attended the council. Among the painters who 
settled in Basle at this time was Conrad Witz, who had come in con- 
tact with the art of Flanders and Burgundy, and whose work, partic- 
ularly in its colour, is not unrelated to that of Lochner. Later Witz 
moved to Geneva. A wing of an altarpiece representing the Draught 
of Fishes, painted by Witz and now in the Geneva Museum, shows 
surprising ability in the rendering of landscape. 

The preeminent art in Germany in the xv and xvi centuries was 
the art of engraving on wood and copper. Almost all the artists were 
both engravers and painters; and in many cases their engraved work 
was finer than their paintings. The art of engraving had an impor- 



Masler of the 
Life of Mary 
active 
1460-1490 
Master of the 
Holy Family 
active 
1484-1509 



Master of St. 

Severin, active 

early xvi c. 

Master of St. 

Bartholomew 

active 

i48 5 {?)-i 5 io 

Bartholomaus 

Bruyn 

1493-1555 



Conrad Witz 
ab. 131)8-1447 



254 



GERMAN PAINTING 



Master E. S. 
active 1466 



Martin 
Schongauer 
ah. 1445-1491 



Master of the 
Amsterdam 
Cabinet 
active 1480 



Master 
Berthold 
active 
1420-1430 



tant bearing on painting, as the engraver's use of line was carried into 
his painting, resulting often in harsh, exaggerated contours and rigid 
draperies. In the second half of the xv century marked progress in 
engraving on copper was made by the Master E. S. or the Master of 
1466, belonging to the region of the upper Rhine, who gave freedom 
and scope to the art. His technical advances were further developed 
by the far greater master, Martin Schongauer, and culminated in the 
perfection attained by Diirer. Originally a goldsmith, Master E. S. 
carried the detailed technique of this craft into engraving. He was 
essentially Gothic — in his types and drawing, his use of ornamenta- 
tion, and his feeling for the grotesque. One of the rare engravings by 
this master, the Tiburtine Sibyl and Augustus, is in the Museum 
Print Department. 

Martin Schongauer, the first painter of note of the school of Col- 
mar, was of greater importance as an engraver. He was a follower of 
van der Weyden and may possibly have visited the Netherlands. 
He probably received his early training in engraving in the workshop 
of the Master E. S. In general his harmonious, well-balanced com- 
positions and dignified figures show the simplicity of the early Gothic. 
He combined a keen faculty of observation with a delicate imagina- 
tive power. His Christ bearing the Cross and the Temptation of 
Saint Anthony are perhaps his finest engravings. The Museum is 
fortunate in possessing excellent impressions of both of these plates. 
Schongauer exerted an important influence on engraving in Germany 
and even in Italy. 

The Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet (sometimes called the 
Master of the Hausbuch), probably from the middle Rhine district, 
was both painter and engraver. Although his paintings are in the 
main inferior to his engravings, his double portrait of Two Lovers in 
the Museum at Gotha is one of the most pleasing of German xv cen- 
tury paintings. His work as an engraver is characterized by its 
originality, its freedom of draughtsmanship, and its vigour of expres- 
sion. His subjects were chiefly allegorical and genre scenes: he was 
one of the first of the German engravers to attempt portraits directly 
from life. 

In Nuremberg in the early part of the xv century there was de- 
veloped a local school, in which a certain Master Berthold was the 
most noteworthy artist. He was both sculptor and painter, and 



GERMAN PAINTING 



255 



his work shows the charm and grace of the earlier painting. The 
new spirit of naturalism which was to predominate in the second 
half of the century becomes manifest in the work of the Master of 
the Tucher Altar. After about 1450 the Flemish influence of van 
der Weyden, introduced into Nuremberg by Hans Pleydenwurff, 
was prominent. Pleydenwurff's pupil, Michael Wolgemut, was at 
the head of a large and well patronized workshop, which produced 
paintings, sculpture, and wood-engravings, showing for the most 
part no originality or observation of nature. It is possible that one 
of the painters in this workshop was Rueland Frueauf, who has been 
suggested as the author of the Fogg Museum Visitation, now at- 
tributed to Zeitblom. 

The xv century school of Ulm produced no great master; it was 
characterized in the main by its quiet provincialism. Hans Mult- 
scher, the founder, was unusually realistic for the period in which he 
worked; another member was Hans Schiichlin, who showed the in- 
fluence of Schongauer. The most able master of the school was 
Bartholomaus Zeitblom, who perhaps best gives expression to the 
serene life of a provincial town. His calm types, subdued colour, 
simple lines, and quiet feeling make him one of the most pleasing of 
the early German painters. Martin Schaffner continued the tradi- 
tion of Zeitblom into the xvi century. 

Towards the end of the xv century Augsburg became the most 
important centre of painting, owing perhaps to the increase of wealth 
among the merchant classes from commerce with Italy and the 
Netherlands. The first master of note was Holbein the Elder, who 
was influenced by Schongauer and by the Italian painters. His 
silver-point portrait drawings are remarkable hot only for their 
sound technique, but for their character portrayal, and show him not 
unworthy of comparison with his more famous son. Hans Burgk- 
mair visited Italy; and in his work, for the first time in Germany, we 
see Renaissance details taking the place of Gothic ornament. Like 
so many of the German artists, Burgkmair was of more importance in 
the field of engraving. He drew many of the designs for the Maxi- 
milian publications. Editions of these works showing prints from 
Burgkmair's designs are in the Fogg Museum. 

In Albrecht Diirer the finer elements of the German spirit find their 
fullest expression. Though influenced by both Italian and Flemish 



Master of the 

Tucher Altar 

active 

1440-1450 

Hans 

Pleydenwurff 

d. 1472 

Michael 

Wolgemut 

ab. 1434-1510 

Rueland 

Frueauf 

active 

1450-1500 

Bans 

Mullscher 

active 

1427-1467 

Hans 

Schiichlin 

1440-1505 

Bartholomaus 

Zeitblom 

ab. 1450-1521 

Martin 

Schaffner 

active 

1499-1535 



Holbein the 

Elder 

ab. 1470-1524 



Hans 

Burgkmair 

I473-I53I 



Albrecht 

Diirer 

1471-1528 



256 



GERMAN PAINTING 



Little Masters 



Hans Sebald 

Beham 

1500-1550 

Heinrich 

Aldegrever 

1502-af. 1555 

Barthel 

Beham 

1502-1540 

Georg Pencz 

1500-1550 

Albrecht 

Altdorfer 

1480-1538 



Holbein the 

Younger 

1497-1543 



masters, he was fundamentally German. A thinker and scholar, a 
keen observer and investigator, as well as a creative artist, he has only- 
one peer in Germany, Hans Holbein the Younger. As a painter, 
particularly of portraits, Diirer achieved great distinction, but the 
full height of his genius was reached in his engravings on wood and 
copper. These are fully represented in the Museum collection in 
impressions of great beauty. Ranging from the fantastic visions of 
the Apocalypse to the familiar realism of the scenes from the Life of 
the Virgin, and the symbolism of the Melancholia, and the Knight, 
Death, and the Devil, they best reveal his spiritual insight, his great 
technical ability, and his powerful artistic individuality. Like the 
men of the Renaissance, Diirer saw beauty everywhere. He was a 
keen student of nature and thus on the boundary of the new world, 
yet in spiritual content many of his finest works hark back to the 
life and thought of the Middle Ages in Germany. 

In the second quarter of the xvi century, immediately following 
Diirer in the field of engraving, came the Little Masters, so called 
because of the small size of their engraved plates. They derived 
inspiration both from Diirer and from Italian masters, but main- 
tained a distinctive style of their own, and were, many of them, pos- 
sessed of charm and unusual technical ability. Although known 
chiefly for their engravings, many of these men were also painters. 
Among them were Hans Sebald Beham, a master of ornamental 
design, whose work in its finest impressions has something of a 
cameo-like quality; Heinrich Aldegrever of Westphalia, also an en- 
graver of ornament; Barthel Beham, whose portraits rank among 
his best work; and Georg Pencz, essentially German in spirit, who 
aimed at Italian classicism without success. Albrecht Altdorfer, 
usually classed with the Little Masters because of the size of his en- 
graved plates, was the most original genius of the group, and the 
least dependent upon Diirer. His chief distinction was his feeling 
for landscape and light effects, which he portrayed with charm and 
delicacy. More than any other xvi century artist he reflects the 
fairy-tale atmosphere of the German folk-lore. 

The second great artistic personality of the xvi century, who ranks 
even above Diirer in the history of painting, was Hans Holbein the 
Younger. Diirer, although strongly influenced by the Italian Renais- 
sance, was yet typically German — Holbein, on the other hand, like 



GERMAN PAINTING 



257 



his contemporary Erasmus, was a cosmopolitan, " a citizen of all the 
world," bound by no local or national traditions. His appeal is uni- 
versal. Holbein was the first German to belong wholly to the Renais- 
sance, and, in contrast to Durer, stands out preeminently as a 
realist of the modern world, concerned with portraying in an ob- 
jective, impersonal manner the life of his day, the life of cities and 
merchants, the life of facts, rather than the life of ideals. But his en- 
gravings, for example his woodcuts for the Dance of Death, show 
that he was not lacking in imagination. It is, however, as a keen 
observer and portrayer of the men and women about him that he is 
best known. His portraits are extraordinarily vivid interpretations 
of character. Especially fine is his series of portrait drawings at 
Windsor. In these free, preliminary studies may be seen Holbein's 
mastery of draughtsmanship and design, and his power of obtaining 
results by the simplest possible methods. No other artist has left 
so complete a rendering of the world in which he lived. 

Ranking just below Durer and Holbein was Matthias Griinewald, 
a great imaginative artist and unequalled in Germany for his mas- 
tery of colour. He abandoned the accepted scrupulous technique of 
the school, and employed the methods of the painter who feels and 
models in colour, light, and shade. His chief work was the great 
altarpiece painted for the abbey of Isenheim in 1510, and now be- 
longing to the Museum of Colmar. This altarpiece is one of the 
masterpieces of German art, remarkable for its emotional expression 
and for the beauty of its colour and light effects. 

In the xvi century the Saxon school came into prominence under 
the leadership of Lucas Cranach the Elder. Cranach and his fol- 
lowers produced a vast amount of work: portraits, religious, myth- 
ological, and allegorical paintings and engravings. Although Cranach 
lackedDiirer's imaginative insightand Holbein's gifts asa portraitist, 
he is at his best an able artist, often fantastic, but individual and 
interesting. His finest portraits are sincere and realistic; his colour 
is often clear and fine. Another artist of importance in the first half 
of the century was Hans Baldung Griin, who worked at Strasburg, 
a surprisingly individual master whose originality of invention, 
particularly in his woodcuts, is far too little appreciated. Griin's 
influence is seen in the work of the Swiss artists of the early xvi 
century, particularly Urs Graf and Nicolas Manuel Deutsch, both 



Matthias 
Griinewald 
ab. 1483-1130 



Cranach the 

Elder 

I47Z-I553 



Hans 

Baldung Griin 
ab. 1476-1545 
Urs Graf 
ab. 1487-152Q 
Nicolas 
Manuel 
Deutsch 
1484-1530 



Elsheimer 
1578-1620 



258 GERMAN PAINTING 

of whom were virile painters and wood-engravers. These masters 

are represented by woodcuts in the Fogg Museum Print collection. 

In the second half of the xvi century debilitating foreign influences 

and the imitation of foreign models, particularly Italian, superseded 

Adam native qualities. One artist of the period, however, Adam Elsheimer, 

deserves mention because of his influence on Rembrandt and the 

Dutch school. In the early part of the xvn century the Thirty 

Years' War completely stifled artistic expression in Germany. 

M. E. G. 

The German paintings in the Fogg Museum will be found under Nos. 52-58 
in this Catalogue. 

Among the artists mentioned in the foregoing sketch the following are rep- 
resented in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and in the collection of Mrs. John 
L. Gardner at Fenway Court. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts: Master of the Holy Family, Two Saints; 
Master of Saint Severin, Triptych; Wolgemut, Death of the Madonna; 
Cranach the Elder, Portrait of a Woman. 

Fenway Court: Schongatjer, Madonna; Durer, Portrait of a Man; 
Holbein the Younger, Portraits of Sir William and Lady Butts. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Burger, F. Die deutsche Malerei vom ausgehenden Mittelalter bis zum Ende 
der Renaissance. Berlin, 1913. (Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft.) 

Conway, W. M. Early Flemish artists and their predecessors on the lower 
Rhine. London, 1887. 

Dickinson, H. A. German masters of art. New York, 1914. 

Ebe, G. Der deutsche Cicerone, iii, Malerei. Leipsic, 1898. 

Heidrich, E. Die alt-deutsche Malerei, 200 Nachbildungen, mit geschicht- 
licher Einfuhrung und Erlauterungen. Jena, 1909. (Die Kunst in 
Bildern.) 

Janitschek, H. Geschichte der deutschen Malerei. Berlin, 1890. (Geschichte 
der deutschen Kunst, iii.) 

Kugler, F. T. The German, Flemish, and Dutch schools of painting. Re- 
modelled by Dr. Waagen and revised and in part rewritten by Sir 
Joseph A. Crowe, 3d ed. London, 1904. 2 parts. 

Reau, L. Les primitifs allemands. Paris, 1910. (Les grands artistes.) 



BARTHOLOMAUS ZEITBLOM (?) 

About 1450 to about 1521 

Bartholomaus Zeitblom was a painter of Ulm in Suabia. Our 
knowledge about him and particularly about his youth is very meagre 
and indefinite. He was probably born about 1450, and perhaps even 
earlier, and died between 1518 and 1521. He was a son-in-law of 
Hans Schiichlin, and possibly his pupil. He was influenced by Hans 
Multscher. We find his name in the records of Ulm from 1484 to 
1518. The statement sometimes made, that he was a pupil of Schon- 
gauer, appears to be without foundation, although it is more than 
likely that Schongauer's work influenced him, as did that of the 
schools of Franconia and Augsburg. His style has certain peculiari- 
ties, such as the slenderness of the figures; his colour scheme is 
rich and harmonious, and his draperies well drawn. 

His best pictures are to be found in Berlin, Augsburg, Munich, and 
particularly in Carlsruhe and Stuttgart. A painting of his school is 
in the John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bach, M. Bartholomaus Zeitblom und der Kilchberger Altar. Repert. f. 
Kunstw. Berlin, 1889. xii, 1 71-175. 
Studien zur Geschichte der Ulmer Malerschule; ii, Bartholomaus Zeit- 
blom. Zeitschr.f. Mid. Kunst. Leipsic, 1894. N. F., v (9-10), 201-207, 
235-240. 

Badm, J. Zur Rekonstruktion des Ulmer Wengenaltars. Monatshejtef. Kunstw. 
Leipsic, May, 1911. iv (5), 227-230. 

Haack, F. Zu Zeitblom. Repert. f. Kunstw. Berlin, 1903. xxvi, 33-34. 

Lange, K. Beitrage zur schwabischen Kunstgeschichte. Repert. f. Kunstw. 
Berlin, 1907. xxx (5-6), 421-440, SM-SSS- 
Einige Bilder von Bartholomaus Zeitblom. Repert. f. Kunstw. Berlin, 1905. 

xxviii (5-6), 486-494. 

52 THE VISITATION 

Oil on panel. H. 27^ in. W. 14! in. (69.6 X 37-5 cm -) 
The Virgin's gown is of dark blue green with a yellow white border 
around the bottom of the skirt. About her throat is a transparent 
white scarf. Her mantle is of rose colour bordered with a narrow line 
of white. Her hair is yellow brown. Saint Elizabeth wears a gown 
of olive green bordered with brown fur on the bottom and on the 



26o GERMAN PAINTING 

sleeves. Her undersleeves and the hood under her kerchief are a pale 
rose colour. Her kerchief and cuffs are white. Her bag is red; the 
knife at her side and her shoes are dark brown. The architectural 
setting and the rocky cliffs on the left of the picture are gray; the 
floor is neutral orange yellow. The space seen through the opening 
of the doorway behind Saint Elizabeth is black. The space between 
the figures is of gold, perhaps modern. 

The panel, bought in Munich, was placed in the Museum in 1908. 
It is attractive in colour and pleasing in feeling. The calm serenity 
of the two figures is characteristic of Zeitblom. 

MENTIONED 

Bernath. New York und Boston. 59, Reproduction. (Attributed to Rueland 

Frueauf ?) 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 28, N0.23. 




52 BARTHOLOMAUS ZEITBLOM (?) 



SCHOOL OF BARTHOLOMAUS ZEITBLOM 

53 SAINT JOHN THE EVANGELIST AND SAINT SEBALD 

Oil on panel. H. 58! in. W. 30H in. (148.2 X 78.2 cm.) 
Saint John wears a blue green robe with a band of neutral yellow at 
his throat and a dark red mantle. His hair is brown and his chalice a 
neutral yellow. Saint Sebald, the patron saint of Nuremberg, is clad 
in a robe of blue green over which is a tunic of neutral gray green, 
with a brown collar. He wears a dark green hat with a dull yellow 
shell on the brim. His hair is brown; his staff is neutral yellow; his 
rosary and boots are dark brown, and his wallet dull gray green. 
Both saints have halos of green with gold borders. The background 
is dark red brown, probably repainted, with a decoration of neutral 
brown in the upper corners. The pavement on which the figures 
stand is of slabs of yellowish white and pink. The gray green slabs 
at the front edge of the pavement are held together with black cleats. 

54 SAINT PETER AND SAINT PAUL 

Oil on panel. H. 58! in. W. 30! in. (148.2 X 77.7 cm.) 

Saint Peter wears a dull blue robe over which is an orange red 
mantle lined with yellow. His cuff is gray green, and his keys a neu- 
tral yellow. His hair and beard are gray. Saint Paul wears a robe 
similar in colour to the famous van Eyck green, and a yellow white 
mantle lined with red. His hair and beard are black; his sword is 
neutral yellow. The halos, background, and pavement are similar to 
those in No. 53. 

These two panels were at one time in the collection of Herr von 
Biirkl, a painter of Munich. They were placed in the Fogg Museum 
in iqio. 



GERMAN SCHOOL (?) 

xvi century 

55 DESCENT FROM THE CROSS 

Oil on panel. H. 31! in. W. 185 in. (81 X 46 cm.) 

The panel is especially beautiful in its colour design. The figure on 
the right, Saint Nicodemus, wears an olive green doublet with bands 
of brown fur around the sleeves and dark green blue undersleeves, 
bright vermilion hose, and yellowish brown boots. His cap is of a 
dark rose colour approaching to violet, trimmed with a band of brown 
fur. His hair is very dark brown, almost black. About his waist, 
over his arm, and held in his left hand, is a pale yellow drapery. The 
figure on the left, Saint Joseph of Arimathea, wears a mantle of dark 
violet red — similar in colour to the cap of Nicodemus — bordered 
with brown fur; over his shoulder is a silvery white scarf. His sleeve 
is a dark violet red and his boots a reddish brown. He wears a metal 
belt. The flesh of these two figures has a reddish tint. The undulat- 
ing lines of the body of Christ, which is in general of a yellowish flesh 
colour, and the sweeping curves of the yellow drapery held by 
Saint Nicodemus contrast very pleasantly with the stiff, straight 
yellows and browns of the ladders and the cross, just enough of which 
is seen to emphasize the beauty of the curves and not enough to sug- 
gest stiffness or rigidity. The colour of the sky changes from a deep 
green blue toward the zenith to a pinkish gray at the horizon. The 
general tone of the landscape is brown. 

The picture was purchased from a dealer who bought it in Paris. 
Formerly it was in Spain. It was placed in the Fogg Museum in 
1912. 

This painting has been supposed to be by a master of the German 
school, though various suggestions have been made as to its author- 
ship. Perhaps the most plausible suggestion is one that has been 
made recently, namely, that it is a Hungarian primitive painted by a 
master who was influenced by the Ferrarese school. There are said 
to be a number of pictures in the Gallery at Budapest evidently of the 
same school. At the present time photographs of these are unob- 
tainable. At all events, the picture is a fine piece of colour and was 
painted by a master of distinction. 




55 GERMAN SCHOOL (?) 



GERMAN SCHOOL (?) 263 

All four of the Gospels relate that Joseph of Arimathea went to 
Pilate and begged the body of the Saviour, but only the Gospel of 
Saint John says that Nicodemus brought spices with which to em- 
balm the body. Nicodemus is, however, almost invariably repre- 
sented in pictures of the Descent from the Cross, assisting Joseph of 
Arimathea. Often Saint John and the three Marys are present and 
some of the disciples who had fled and who were supposed to have 
returned. In the early Italian form of representation two ladders 
were placed against the arms of the cross, one on either side of the 
body of Christ. Joseph of Arimathea on the ladder on the right of 
the Saviour supported Christ's body over his shoulders. A similar 
arrangement is followed in this picture. Later representations 
tended to become more complicated and less impressive. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 

(Listed in error as by Isenbrandt.) 
Boston. Museum or Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 39. 



LUCAS CRANACH THE ELDER (?) 

1472-1553 

Lucas Cranach the Elder was the first painter of importance of the 
Saxon school. His name, Cranach, is taken from that of his birth- 
place, Kronach, in upper Franconia. The family name is uncertain. 
Lucas Cranach was the pupil of his father and was well known, not 
only as a painter, but as an engraver on copper and a designer of 
woodcuts as well. He did his principal work between 1506 and 1540. 
In the field of painting his chief interest was in portraiture, and he 
spent much time in depicting the features of all the German re- 
formers and their patrons and followers. From 1 502 to 1 504 Cranach 
was in Vienna; in the latter part of the year 1504 he took up his 
residence in Wittenberg, where later in 1537 and again in 1540 he 
was burgomaster; in 1508 we find him in the Netherlands; and in 
Augsburg and Innsbruck from 1550 to 1552. He is said to have ac- 
companied the Elector Frederick the Wise on his pilgrimage to the 
Holy Land in 1493, and it was the Elector who granted him his 
" kleinod " or coat of arms or motto representing a crowned winged 
snake. Until 1509 Cranach signed his works with his initials L. C. 
After that date and in all his subsequent works he used as a signa- 
ture the winged snake with variations. 

Portraits of Luther, either by the master or his pupils, are not 
infrequent, since Cranach was the reformer's intimate friend. In 
fact, he is said to have arranged the marriage of Luther and Cath- 
erine Bora. There are at least fifteen painted portraits of Luther, or 
portrait groups in which he appears, in addition to woodcuts and 
engravings, known to be the work of Cranach or his school. Two are 
in this country, one in the Johnson collection and No. 56 in this 
Catalogue. Cranach's most convincing pictures are to be seen in the 
galleries of Berlin, Munich, and Vienna, although a number of fine 
examples have found their way into American museums and private 
collections, notably the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and the 
Metropolitan Museum. 



LUCAS CRANACH THE ELDER (?) 265 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ameseder, R. Ein Parisurteil Lukas Cranachs d. A. in der Landesgalerie zu 

Graz. Repert. f. Kunstw. Berlin, 1910. xxxiii (1), 65-84. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. April, 1912. x (56), 10. (A 

portrait of a lady by Lucas Cranach the Elder.) 
Cust, L. Notes on pictures in the Royal collections; v, A triptych by Lucas 

Cranach. Burlington magazine. London, Dec, 1904. vi (21), 204-209. 
vi, Paintings by Lucas Cranach. Burlington magazine. London, Feb., 

1905. vi (23), 353-358. 
xii, A portrait of Martin Luther as ' Junker Jorg,' by Lucas Cranach. 

Burlington magazine. London, Jan., 1909. xiv (70), 206-209. 
Dodgson, C. Lucas Cranach. Paris, 1900. [Critical bibliography.] 

A picture by Cranach at Truro. Burlington magazine. London, Dec, 

1908. xiv (69), 133-134- 
The Cranach at Truro — a postscript. Burlington magazine. London, 

March, 1909. xiv (72), 359. 
Flechsig, E. Tafelbilder Lucas Cranachs d. A. und seiner Werkstatt. 129 

Tafeln in Lichtdruck nebst Text. Leipsic, 1900. (Saxony — K. sach- 

sische Kommission fur Geschichte. Schriften, 5.) 
Friedlander, M. In Thieme-Becker. Kunstler-Lexikon. 1913. viii, 55-58. 
Die friihesten Werke Cranachs. Jahrb. d. km. preuss. Kunstsamml. Ber- 
lin, 1902. xxiii (3-4), 228-234. 
Heyck, E. Lukas Cranach. Bielefeld and Leipsic, 1908. (Kiinstler-Mono- 

graphien, 95.) 
Meter, K. E. Fortleben der religios-dogmatischen Kompositionen Cranachs 

in der Kunst des Protestantismus. Repert. f. Kunstw. Berlin, 1909. 

xxxii (5), 4I5-435- 
Michaelson, H. Lukas Cranach der Altere. Leipsic, 1902. (Beitrage zur 

Kunstgeschichte. N. F., xxviii.) 
Vogel, J. Zur Cranachforschung. Zeitschr. f. bild. Kunst. Leipsic, 1907. 

N. F., xviii (9), 219-226. 
Woermann, K. Die Dresdner Cranach-Ausstellung. Zeitschr. f. bild. Kunst. 

Leipsic, 1900. N. F., xi (2-4), 25-35, 55-66, 78-88. 
Worringer, W. Lukas Cranach. Munich, 1908. (Klassische IUustratoren.) 

56 PORTRAIT OF MARTIN LUTHER* 

Oil on panel. H. 26f in. W. 19^ in. (68 X 50 cm.) 
Against the usual Cranach blue is set the flatly painted black robe 
of the sitter, relieved by a bright red band just below the white collar. 
The brilliancy of these two colours is emphasized by a black cord. 
Luther's hair is of silver gray and is treated in a masterly way. His 
eyes are brown; the flesh tints, in the reproduction, appear pasty and 
unconvincing, owing to clumsy repainting and restoration. This 
repaint has been removed recently and in the process of careful 



266 GERMAN PAINTING 

cleaning the barely distinguishable letters on the right-hand side, 
close to the face, have disappeared, leaving only the original lettering 
above the head. The modelling of the hands is not satisfactory, 
owing perhaps to over cleaning in the past. On the whole, the pic- 
ture is in a fairly good state of preservation, though it may have 
darkened with age. It is signed with the winged snake just below 
the date 1546, on the left. 

This portrait, which was formerly in the collection of C. Fairfax 
Murray of London, was first lent to the Fogg Museum in 1914. 

The portrait may well be from the hand of the master himself. 
Like many of Cranach's later works, there is evidence of a certain 
shallowness in characterization; also the fiat tones which as a rule 
Cranach employed may be observed. 




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GERMAN SCHOOL 

xvi century 

57 CHRIST IN THE GARDEN OF GETHSEMANE* 
Oil on panel. H. 49! in. W. 22J in. (125.8 X 56.5 cm.) 

Christ in a neutral blue green garment is praying. A design painted 
in dark red on His halo indicates the cross. Behind Him, Saint 
James, dressed in a blue green robe of the same colour as Christ's 
garment, is holding his forehead in his hands, in a vain attempt to 
keep awake. A red mantle lies over his knees. Saint John, below 
Christ's feet, is bowed in sleep. His red mantle is the same colour as 
the mantle which Saint James wears. Saint Peter is in a dark blue 
green gown, with his head resting on one hand and his sword at his 
side. A white mantle falls from his shoulder. A golden chalice with 
the white wafer floating just over it is on the mount in front of Christ. 
Judas in a yellow robe, with red lake appearing faintly in the deepest 
shadows, approaches with a stealthy step from behind the mount. 
In his hand is a gray bag containing the silver. His eyes, like 
Christ's, are directed towards the golden chalice that soon is to hold 
the life blood. Behind Judas comes the horde of soldiers, their spears 
forming a dark forest against the sky, the light gleaming on their 
helmets. Another band of soldiers appears from the left side of the 
picture. The foreground and the mount are of an olive green. The 
higher peaks of the mount behind are of a paler green at the top, 
shading into a brownish yellow. The prevailing tone of the city in 
the background is neutral gray. The sky is of a deep blue. 

The picture is said to have come from Vienna. Its authorship is 
difficult to determine. 

The chalice representing the cup to which Christ referred in His 
prayer, " O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me," 
stands on a rock in front of Him. This is unusual; generally an 
angel bearing the cup flies down from the upper air towards the 
kneeling figure of the Saviour. 



SOUTH GERMAN SCHOOL 

xvi century 

58 THE WEIGHING OF A SOUL 

Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

Oil on panel. H. 76J in. W. 48I in. (193.2 X 123.3 cm -) 

Saint Michael holds the scales and pours the water of purity on the 
head of the figure representing the soul. In the opposite side of the 
scale are placed the things of this world — a tower, land, money, 
food. The devil is adding his whole weight and the force of his dia- 
bolical strength to pull down the scales, in vain. On the right side of 
Saint Michael stands Saint George, conquering the dragon, and on 
the left is Saint John the Baptist holding the Lamb of God. 

The figures stand on a grassy meadow of dark brown green; behind 
them are neutral yellow green rocks. The background is blue, prob- 
ably repainted, with a gold field in the upper left-hand corner in low 
relief. Saint George is clad in steel gray armour, over which is a 
neutral red violet cloak. Saint Michael wears a white robe with 
greenish shadows, over which is a light olive green cope with a red 
fringe. Saint John the Baptist wears a neutral brownish hairy gar- 
ment and a cloak which is pale yellow in the light and dark red in the 
shadow. His banner is red with a white cross. Various shades of 
yellow and brown are the prevailing tones through the rest of the 
picture. These colours appear in the representations of the devil 
and the dragon, in the scales and contents, the flesh tones, staffs, 
and hair. The cream coloured Lamb has a cruciform nimbus, and 
the three saints have golden halos on which are embossed their 
names. The cross-piece of the scales and the tips of Saint Michael's 
wings are black. 

The picture was bought in Munich in 1907, and given to the 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. It was at one time in the collection 
of the Munich sculptor Ludwig Schwanthaler (1 802-1 848). It was 
placed in the Fogg Art Museum in 1 916, having been previously lent 
to the Museum from 191 1 to 1913. 

The painting is probably the work of a south German artist. At 
one time it was attributed to Hans Baldung Grim. 




58 SOUTH GERMAN SCHOOL 



SOUTH GERMAN SCHOOL 269 

The Psychostasis or the Weighing of the Soul in the balance as a 
symbol of judgment was employed by the Egyptians many centuries 
before the Christian era. It is found in the Book of the Dead about 
1400 B.C. Mohammedanism also made use of the symbol; and it ap- 
pears in certain other of the oriental religions. The Weighing of the 
Soul is of frequent occurrence in Greek literature and art. There is in 
the Boston Museum of Fine Arts a Greek v century marble relief 
representing a weighing scene, in which a winged youth weighs two 
small nude figures in the presence of two seated women. This is per- 
haps the Weighing of Adonis. In general, Hermes, the messenger of 
the gods and the conductor of shades from the upper to the lower 
world, presides over the scales, except in certain representations 
in which Justice holds the balance. Then the symbol expresses the 
divine act of judgment. The duties of the Greek Hermes descended 
to the archangel Michael, who was the messenger of Heaven. It was 
his office to conduct souls into the presence of the Almighty and to 
weigh them in the balance on the Judgment Day. Saint Michael was 
also patron saint and prince of the Church Militant and leader of the 
celestial forces. As the weigher of souls he is usually represented 
winged and clad in the angel's robe as in this picture, or in full 
armour in his character of the champion of Heaven. After the begin- 
ning of the xv century representations of Saint Michael in armour 
became more frequent. As in this picture, the devil is usually pres- 
ent at the weighing of the soul. The good was generally in the scale 
to the right of the saint, the right being the place of honour. 



FRENCH PAINTING 



FRENCH PAINTING 

THE history of painting in France is not the history of a strongly 
individual native school showing a continuous development, 
like the various schools of painting in Italy. On the contrary, down 
to the xvin century, painting in France, with the exception of the 
illumination of manuscripts, was rather the work of individuals and 
schools reacting to outside influences, chiefly Flemish and Italian, 
and was not marked with a distinct national character, except in so far 
as the foreign influences were moulded somewhat by the native spirit. 
During the early part of the Gothic period and even through the 
xiv century the history of painting must be followed in the pages of 
the illuminated manuscripts. Mural decoration on any large scale 
was swept away, for with the advent of Gothic architecture the 
cathedral became a perfectly balanced structure of piers, buttresses, 
and arches, and the necessity of supporting walls vanished. The 
vast spaces between the piers were filled with the brilliant stained 
glass windows which reached the height of their beauty in the great 
churches of the xrr and xm centuries. Throughout the Romanesque 
period the art of miniature painting had been largely monastic. 
With the beginning of the xm century, however, illumination was 
no longer confined to monks but was taken up by laymen, and Paris 
became the centre of schools of miniaturists. This was due in part 
to royal patronage, in part to the importance of the University of 
Paris, which attracted illuminators and copyists not only from 
France but from Flanders as well. A new spirit developed; the 
austerity of the Romanesque illuminators disappeared. The in- 
fluence of glass painting made itself felt; pure reds and blues pre- 
dominated, enhanced by gleaming gold backgrounds. In the second 
half of the xm century the influence of the architect and sculptor 
rather than that of the glass painter prevailed; architectural details 
were introduced and figures became more graceful; a more human 
element appeared in gesture and facial expression. A careful ob- 
servation of nature became apparent in the representation of the 
plants and flowers, and of the little animals and birds in the decora- 



274 



FRENCH PAINTING 



Jean Pucette 
xiv c, 2d 
quarter 



Andrt 

Beauneveu 

active 

1360-1403 

Jacquemart 

de Hesdin 

active 

1384-1400 



Limbourg 
brothers 
active xv c. 
1st quarter 



Jean Fouquet 
ab. 1415- 
ab. 1480 
Jean 

Bourdichon 
active 1479- 



tive borders. The movement towards a freer, more life-like, and at 
the same time a more delicate art continued through the xiv and 
the early xv centuries. Modelling was attempted, a lighter colour 
scheme was adopted, painting in grisaille 1 often appeared and a 
more graceful, supple use of line. Plain gold backgrounds gradu- 
ally gave way to fields decorated with designs in various colours, 
and later to landscape and architecture. Jean Pucelle was the most 
important master of the Parisian school in the second quarter of 
the xiv century. After the middle of the century greater stimulus 
to realism was given by the influx of artists from the north, from 
Holland, Flanders, the Cologne district, and the duchies of Limbourg 
and Guelders between the Meuse and the Rhine. Leading masters 
of this period were Andre Beauneveu, Jacquemart de Hesdin, and 
the three brothers Limbourg. Italian elements spread from Avignon, 
and something of the Oriental appeared in costumes and types. 
Miniature painting, in short, became representative of the Interna- 
tional movement which pervaded European painting at the end of 
the xrv and the beginning of the xv century. Perhaps the loveliest 
product of this delicate and fragile yet realistic art is the Tres Riches 
Heures of the Due de Berri, at Chantilly, executed in part by the 
brothers Limbourg and unfinished at the time of the Duke's death 
in 1416. The miniatures of this Book of Hours represent the life of 
the people of the day with a vividness and charm, a beauty and 
finish of workmanship which make it unsurpassed in its field. 

In the first quarter of the xv century, with the invasion of France 
by the English, Paris as the capital was abandoned by the French 
court. Manuscript illumination was still practised there, however, 
and very beautiful work was done by followers and pupils of the 
Limbourg brothers for the English Duke of Bedford, regent of 
France. The art of illumination flourished throughout the century 
in the provinces also — in Anjou and Brittany, at Dijon in Bur- 
gundy, which had always been particularly open to Flemish im- 
migration and influences, and at Tours, where Italian elements were 
prominent. This is seen in the work of Jean Fouquet, who was both 
a painter and an illuminator, and Jean Bourdichon, the illuminator 
of the Book of Hours of Anne of Brittany. 

1 Grisaille. — A system of almost monochromatic painting in delicate bluish gray 
tints with high lights touched in with white or fluid gold. 



FRENCH PAINTING 



275 



Panel painting was practised in France in the latter part of the xrv 
century. At the court of Burgundy Jean Malouel, Henri Bellechose, 
and Melchior Broederlam were in the employ of the dukes. Belle- 
chose is the probable author of the Martyrdom of Saint Denis, in the 
Louvre, and there are two shutters of a reredos by Broederlam in the 
Museum at Dijon, on which are represented the Annunciation and 
the Visitation, the Purification and the Flight into Egypt. These 
pictures are really only miniature paintings on a large scale, showing 
the graceful figures, delicate detail, and fine colour of the contempor- 
ary manuscript illuminations. 

In general, after the English invasion and the loss of the prestige of 
Paris, distinct centres of painting were formed, in which both Flemish 
and Italian elements may be seen. Since the establishment of the 
papal court at Avignon in the early xrv century this city had been the 
gateway through which Italian influence, particularly of the Sienese 
master Simone Martini and his school, entered France. In the xv 
century Flemish artists passing through Avignon, on their way to 
and from Italy, brought northern characteristics with them. Nicolas 
Froment, a French painter at the court of King Rene at Aix, was 
close to the Flemish artists. The Burning Bush, the central panel of 
a triptych by Froment in the Cathedral at Aix, shows Flemish 
naturalism and splendour of colour. 

South of the Loire, painting centred at Tours, Bourges, and Mou- 
lins. Jean Fouquet of Tours, who has already been mentioned as an 
illuminator, was also a portraitist. Fouquet's portraits are admirable 
characterizations, although technically weak. His miniatures, in 
their broad technique, reveal the hand of the painter rather than of 
the illuminator. They are delightful renderings of the life of xv cen- 
tury France, and in their feeling for landscape are akin to Flemish 
work. Fouquet was one of the first of the French masters to go to 
Italy, where he acquired the use of Italian Renaissance decorative 
elements. Italian influence is seen also in the work of the so-called 
Maitre de Moulins, whose pictures show a delicate feeling for ele- 
gance and beauty, for clear and harmonious colour, and pleasant 
landscape, but are lacking in strength. One of the finest works of 
French xv century painting is an anonymous Pieta from Villeneuve- 
les-Avignon, which in breadth and simplicity of drawing and com- 
position and in depth of feeling contrasts strongly with the more 



Jean Malouel 

active 

1396-1415 

Henri 

Bellechose 

active xv c. 

1st half 

Melchior 

Broederlam 

active 

1381-1409/10 



Nicolas 
Froment 
active 1476 



Jean Fouquet 
ab. 1415- 
ab. 1480 



Maitre de 
Moulins 
active late 
xv c. 



276 FRENCH PAINTING 

miniature-like panels of the period. In spite of its archaic gold back- 
ground the picture probably dates from the late xv century. In 
composition and in certain other features the painting resembles the 
Deposition, in the Frick collection, New York, attributed to Antonello 
da Messina, but more probably by a French primitive master. A 
popular and vigorous phase of xv century painting appears in many 
representations of the Virgin of Pity in village churches, and in a few 
remains of frescoes, many of which represent the Dance of Death, a 
subject to which the engravers of the period were particularly partial. 

In the xvi century the classical spirit predominated all over 
Europe. This influence pervaded France through the French and 
Flemish artists who went south and returned filled with enthusiasm 
for Italy, and through the French monarchs and princes who made 
periodical descents upon Italy and brought back with them Italian 
artists. The first step of importance in the history of Italian in- 
fluence in French painting was the decoration of the Chateau de 
Gaillon by Andrea Solario, who was employed from 1507 to 1509 
by the cardinal, Georges d'Amboise. Other artists from across the 
Alps came north, but it was Francis 1 who gave the great stimulus to 
Italianism. He was the first monarch to interest himself particularly 
in painting; and his enthusiasm for the achievements of Italian art 
was boundless. Through his influence Leonardo da Vinci and Andrea 
del Sarto came to France about 15 16; but Leonardo lived only three 
years after his arrival, and Andrea's stay was short. Italianism did 
not prevail to any great extent until about 1531, when Francis sum- 
moned II Rosso and Primaticcio to decorate his chateau of Fontaine- 
bleau. With these masters came many of their compatriots, who, 
with French artists working in the Italian style, formed the so-called 
School of school of Fontainebleau. Benvenuto Cellini, the Florentine sculptor 

and goldsmith, also played an important part in the spread of the 
new manner. By the end of the century France, the country which 
had evolved the Gothic, was dominated by the classical ideal. 

The invention of printing lessened the demand for illuminated 
manuscripts; but although the art had practically run its course by 
the end of the xv century, miniature painting was continued through 
the xvi century. The work of the period shows a perfection of tech- 
nique in the rendering of figures, landscape, and detail, but tends to 
become more conventional and lacks the charm of the earlier illum- 



Fontainebleau 



FRENCH PAINTING 



277 



inations. The most pleasing side of painting in France at this time 
is seen in portraiture, particularly in the work of Flemish masters, of 
whom Jean and Francois Clouet and Corneille de Lyon were the 
most famous. In them the realism of the north was tempered by 
French graciousness. The numerous portraits, both paintings and 
chalk drawings, executed by these men or in their manner, date from 
the reign of Francis 1 down to the time of Louis xm. In the sim- 
plicity and delicate beauty of their technique and in their subtle, 
vivid interpretations of the elegant, languid aristocracy of the day, 
these portraits are among the most delightful products of French art. 
In the early xvn century painting assumed a more important posi- 
tion and was largely patronized by the Church and by laymen. Ital- 
ian influence continued, through the French artists who journeyed 
south and drew inspiration from the various schools of the peninsula. 
The painting of these men was technically correct, but lacked life and 
originality. Simon Vouet imitated the Carracci. Le Sueur, a pupil 
of Vouet, based his art largely on that of Raphael. Nicolas Poussin 
spent most of his life in Rome and gave complete expression to the 
contemporary feeling for antiquity. He was a master of technique 
and design and his work stands above and apart from that of the 
other artists of the day. Claude Lorrain, who also lived in Italy, was 
chiefly interested in landscape. His idealized out-of-door scenes 
are significant in their feeling for space and light. Flemish artists 
continued to paint in France, among them Philippe de Champaigne, 
a Brussels master influenced largely by Poussin, who painted reli- 
gious subjects and able portraits. Under Louis xrv the Academy 
of Painting and Sculpture was founded (1648), and all art became 
largely official and grandiose, dedicated to the glorification of the 
monarch. Original, vital feeling was stifled. To this age belong 
Charles Le Brun, the decorator of the Gallery of Apollo in the Louvre, 
and director of the Gobelins factory, and Pierre Mignard, decorator 
and portrait painter. Hyacinthe Rigaud and Nicolas Largilliere, 
portrait painters who were influenced by the Flemings, Rubens and 
van Dyck, also represented this monarchical art. After the death of 
Louis xrv the true French genius blossomed anew in the freer 

atmosphere of the xvm century. 

M. E. G. 



Jean Clouet 

active 

1518-1540 

Francois 

Clouet 

ab. 1516-1572 

Corneille de 

Lyon, active 

xvi c, 2d half 



Simon Vouet 

1500-1640 

Eustache 

Le Sueur 

1616-1655 

Nicolas 

Poussin 

1594-1665 

Claude 

Lorrain 

1600-1682 

Philippe de 

Champaigne 

1602-1674 

Charles Le 

Brun 

i6io-i6go 

Pierre 

Mignard 

1610-1695 

Hyacinthe 

Rigaud 

1659-1743 

Nicolas 

Largilliere 

1656-1746 



278 FRENCH PAINTING 

French painting is represented in the Fogg Museum by the picture num- 
bered 59 in this Catalogue. 

Among the artists mentioned in the foregoing sketch the following are rep- 
resented in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and in the collection of Mrs. 
John L. Gardner at Fenway Court. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts: Claude Lorrain, Parnassus; Philippe de 
Champaigne, Portrait of Arnauld d'Andilly. 

Fenway Court: Francois Clotjet, Portrait of a Brother of Charles ix. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bouchot, H. L'exposition des primitifs francais; La peinture sous les Valois, 

Paris, n.d. 
Caffin, C. H. Story of French painting. New York, 191 1. 
Dimier, L. French painting in the sixteenth century. New York, 1911. 

Les primitifs francais. Paris, 1910. (Les grands artistes.) 
Gtjiffrey, J., and Marcel, P. La peinture francaise; Les primitifs. Paris, 

1911. 
Hourticq, L. Art in France. New York, 191 1. (Ars una; species mille.) 
Lafenestre, G. L'exposition des primitifs francais. Paris, 1904. 
Mantz, P. La peinture francaise du ix 8 siecle a la fin du xvi e . Paris, 1897. 



FRENCH SCHOOL 

About 1500 

59A ANNUNCIATION TO THE MADONNA OF HER APPROACH- 
ING DEATH 

Oil on panel. H. 37! in. W. 38! in. (96.2 X 98.4 cm.) 

The reds are the strongest note, as is usually the case in these early 
religious pictures. The archangel Michael's short tunic is of a rose 
red bordered with blue and gold. This is balanced by a similar 
colour in the mantle of the woman with her back turned to the 
Madonna in the group standing in the street; between the two a pale 
rose pink occurs in the mantle of the woman in the middle distance 
seen in profile. The same colour appears in the tunic of the angel seen 
against the sky and in the wings of the left of the two angels over the 
archangel's head; while it occurs in a still paler form in the steps 
in the foreground, the columns, capitals, and other architectural 
members. The Madonna is kneeling in front of a desk. She wears 
a dark blue mantle; the red sleeves of her gown are visible at her 
wrists. Her pale face is relieved against the dark grayish brown 
architecture. The fluttering drapery of the archangel Michael is 
white. The pavement, of a warm cream colour, carries the eye off 
down the village street towards the distant river and mountains, over 
which is a peaceful blue sky. The woman on the extreme left wears 
an olive green garment bordered with gold over a gown of bluish 
white. Her tight undersleeve is of golden brown touched with gold. 
Her cap is pale red and her hair reddish brown. Next to her is a 
woman clad in dark green, with reddish brown hair. The woman and 
the child in the distance are dressed in a grayish white and thewoman 
just this side of them wears a neutral violet gown. The angel with the 
red wings in the arch is dressed in a pale blue mantle and the other 
angel on the right in a white mantle with a dark brown tunic. The 
palm leaf is of green and gold and the desk of yellowish brown. 
Certain parts of the architecture are of a neutral olive green. On the 
gold border of the Madonna's mantle is an inscription difficult to 
discern. The word Christus appears in the lower part and the word 
Mater may be deciphered on the neck band. 

The picture was bought and placed in the Fogg Museum in 1910. 
It is said that it came originally from Flanders. 



2 8o FRENCH PAINTING 

It is singularly difficult to determine the author of the painting. 
Many suggestions have been made, covering most of the countries of 
Europe from Portugal and Spain through France, Flanders, Switzer- 
land, Germany, and Austria-Hungary; but in the Museum it is still 
attributed to the French school. It seems close in style to an altar- 
piece in the Cathedral of Aix, portraying scenes from the life and 
death of Saint Mitrius, which was shown in the Exhibition of French 
Primitives, Paris, 1904, and attributed to Nicolas Froment. The 
architectural treatment and the mannered attitudes and gestures of 
the figures are much the same in the two paintings. A picture 
similar in style, representing Esther and King Ahasuerus and attrib- 
uted to the Flemish school, was formerly in the George A. Hearn 
collection (No. 328 in the sale catalogue). More than one critic has 
suggested that the Fogg Museum picture is by a follower of Conrad 
Witz, and that it was painted about the year 1500 in Basle. It 
appears to be eclectic. The nationality of the types is hard to 
determine. The picture is fine in colour and interesting in its design 
and feeling. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 
Archvo f. Kunstgeschichte. Leipsic, 1913. ii, No. 33, Reproduction. 
Berkath. New York und Boston. 60-61. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Akts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 39. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. June, 1910. 703, 704. 

59B BEARING OF THE BODY OF THE MADONNA TO THE 
SEPULCHRE 

Oil on panel. H. 37! in. W. 17! in. (96 x45 cm.) 

On the back of the Annunciation to the Madonna of her approach- 
ing Death was another picture, only half of which has been preserved; 
and that fragment has been much repainted. It represents the 
Bearing of the Body of the Madonna to the Sepulchre. The apostles 
and attendant women are dressed in white and gray. The palm 
carried by Saint John is white. The foliage and the foreground are 
a greenish brown. In the background is a green hill with a yellow 
castle. The sky is blue green verging towards pink at the horizon. 
In spite of the bad condition of the picture a queer, wild, somewhat 
fantastic impression is given, as Saint John, carrying his large palm 




S9A FRENCH SCHOOL 



FRENCH SCHOOL 28 1 

branch, and the bearers of the bier stride forward against the back- 
ground of hills and a dark sky. 

All that remains of the other half of this panel is a small fragment, 
a wreck of what it once was, but instructive as showing how much 
more attractive and how much finer in quality an old, faded frag- 
ment is than a picture repainted by modern hands. 

The Death and Assumption of the Madonna were often treated by 
artists, but the Annunciation to the Madonna of her approaching 
Death was one of the less frequently represented scenes. Gabriel 
announced to the Madonna the coming of her Son; Michael was the 
angel of death, and in accordance with the legend he bore a palm. 
" I bring thee here a branch of palm gathered in Paradise; command 
that it be carried before thy bier in the day of thy death." The 
legend further relates that after the Madonna's death, " the apostles 
took her up reverently and placed her upon a bier, and John, carrying 
the celestial palm, went before." 

MENTIONED 

Archk f. Kunstgesckichte. Leipsic, 1913. ii, No. 33. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. June, 1910. 703. 



FLEMISH PAINTING 



FLEMISH PAINTING 



AT the end of the xrv and the beginning of the xv century a new 
school of painting grew up in Flanders. The school was the out- 
growth of northern mediaeval miniature and panel painting. Flam- 
boyant Gothic sculpture had emphasized the value of realism, and 
painters like Malouel and Bellechose, miniaturists like Jacquemart de 
Hesdin and Pol.de Limbourg established canons of naturalism which 
made Flemish art possible. The rise of the school was also aided by 
the xiv century art of. Cologne, best shown in the work of Meister 
Wilhelm. The art of the movement was, for its period, strongly 
realistic. Natural objects were painted with the utmost fidelity, 
interest in still life and genre began to appear, and details of archi- 
tecture and landscape were rendered as carefully as the heads of the 
most sacred personages in the compositions. So pronounced was 
this tendency that superficial observers are led to consider Flemish 
painting fundamentally material, but a thoughtful analysis will 
reveal a spirituality in the art quite as sincere, if not so obvious, as in 
the painting of contemporary Italy. In the early school the painting 
was almost wholly religious and scenes and actors were handled with 
reverence and deep feeling. 

The Flemings, however, inherited from earlier art a religious type 
to which they clung with great tenacity and which to the modern eye 
is ugly. The exaggeratedly domed forehead of the Madonna, a 
symbol of intellect to the Fleming, is to the modern a distortion. 
Similarly the tiny mouth, the eyes almost without brows, and the 
other features which Flemish symbolism demanded, are now some- 
what disturbing to the eye. When native realism and symbolism 
were coupled, as in the over realistic rendering of the ascetic Christ 
Child, the effect is sometimes startling to the layman, and the begin- 
ner in the study of Flemish art should beware of mistaking accidents 
of convention for artistic defects. If the conventions of Flemish art 
make it at first difficult to appreciate, the technical perfection of the 
work must appeal to any one. Oil painting, perfected if not neces- 
sarily invented in Flanders, gave a richness of colour and a lustre of 



Jean Malouel 
active 
1396-1415 
Henri 
Bellechose 
active xv c. 
1st half 
Jacquemart de 
Hesdin, active 
1384-1400 
Polde 
Limbourg 
active xv c. 
1st quarter 



286 



FLEMISH PAINTING 



Hubert van 

Eyck 

1370/80Q)- 

1426 

Jan van 

Eyck 

ab. 1385-1441 



Rogier van 
der Weyden 
I397/I400- 
1464 



Matlre de 

FUmatte 

active 

1406-1444 

Petrus 

Christus 

ab. 1410-1473 

Dierick Bouts 

ab. 1410-147$ 



surface which specially distinguished the style. The play and deli- 
cate gradation of light over richly coloured surfaces was rendered so 
skilfully that the artists approached the expression of a complete 
visual effect, finally reached, in xvn century Holland, in the work of 
Vermeer. 

The first great Flemish masters were Hubert and Jan van Eyck, 
who painted the Adoration of the Lamb for the cathedral of Saint 
Bavon at Ghent. This cosmic composition may be regarded as the 
first complete declaration of the Flemish school, and it reveals both 
the new naturalism and the old mediaeval spirituality which proves 
it to be essentially still a mediaeval work. Though in common 
terminology xv century Flemish art is spoken of as belonging to the 
Renaissance, properly speaking the Middle Ages did not come to an 
end in Flanders till the close of the century. The Ghent polyptych 
is painted in a rich oil technique, which makes it easy to understand 
the attribution to the van Eycks of the invention of this method. 
Besides his share of the great polyptych, Jan painted many fine 
panels, such as the Madonna of the Canon van der Paelen, in Bruges, 
and the Virgin of the Chancellor Rolin, in Paris. He was also a 
portraitist of astonishing ability and sincerity, as one may judge from 
the portraits of Arnolfini and his wife, in the National Gallery, or the 
Man with the Pink, in Berlin. 

The van Eycks, though the inaugurators and probably the most 
important artists of the mediaeval school, were surpassed in religious 
mysticism and equalled in technique by their slightly younger con- 
temporary, Rogier van der Weyden of Tournai. This master, in his 
most characteristic works, abandoned much of the realism of the van 
Eycks to obtain effects of more exalted religious fervour and tragic 
grief. He was also a sensitive portraitist. It is interesting to note 
that Rogier was one of the first of the many Flemings to make the 
journey to Italy. Meanwhile two artists of only slightly less im- 
portance, the Maitre de Flemalle (Robert Campin ?) and Petrus 
Christus, were contributing important elements to Flemish art. The 
former and older added to his native delicate aristocracy and reli- 
gious feeling an interest in still life which alone would give him an 
important place in the school. The latter made religious painting an 
excuse for genre scenes, and he might almost be called the father of 
Flemish genre. Another contemporary, the bourgeois Dierick Bouts, 



FLEMISH PAINTING 



287 



became one of the most finished technicians in Flanders, and raised 
the school of Louvain, his native city, to a high position. 

The two chief figures in the second generation of Flemish painters 
were Hugo van der Goes and Hans Memlinc. Van der Goes, a 
powerful master, is best known for his altarpiece, painted in 1476 
for Tommaso Portinari, and placed on view in the church of Santa 
Maria Nuova in Florence in 1482. It had a profound influence on 
contemporary Florentine painting, especially on the art of Ghir- 
landaio and Pier di Cosimo. Hugo was also a portraitist of force and 
delicacy. Memlinc was the most charming of the xv century Flem- 
ings. In his art realism is softened, the distorted types imposed by 
Flemish religious convention are modified, and an almost Italian 
sense of beauty appears. Born in Germany, his style partakes some- 
what of the character of the school of Cologne. A serene, untroubled 
artist, he sacrificed power to delicate beauty, and is often called, not 
without reason, the Flemish Fra Angelico. A contemporary of van 
der Goes and Memlinc, Justus of Ghent, deserves mention. He is 
especially important since he migrated to Italy in 1474 and in the 
court of Urbino taught Flemish technique to the Italian masters, 
most notably to Melozzo da Forli, while his own style underwent a 
partial Italianization. 

At the turn of the century, heralded by the work of Memlinc, a 
change came over Flemish art. The mediaeval quality began to dis- 
appear and painting in the true spirit of the Renaissance commenced. 
The Renaissance in the north took the form, in all arts, of an imita- 
tion of Italian pseudo-classical forms, rather than of a direct rever- 
sion to classical models. This sort of imitation appears clearly in the 
paintings of Memlinc's pupil, Gerard David, who incorporated 
Lombard architectural detail, festoons, and Cupids, with his back- 
grounds. This imitative Italianism was carried still further by the 
brilliant Quentin Metsys; and with his appearance the centre of 
interest of Flemish art shifted from Ghent and Bruges to Antwerp, 
where it remained while the school had vitality. Metsys travelled 
in Italy, and became the first whole-heartedly Italianate Fleming. 
He combined minute finish with breadth of effect, his colour is more 
uniform and fused than that of his predecessors, and his figures begin 
to be modelled rather than drawn. His artistic tendencies were 
further developed by Jan Gossaert, called Mabuse from the town of 



Hugo van 

der Goes 

ab. 1440-1482 



Hans 

Memlinc 

ab. 1430-1494 



Justus of 

Ghent 

active 

1460-after 

1474 



Gerard David 
1450/60-1523 



Quentin 

Metsys 

1466^-1530 



Jan Gossaert 
ab. 1472- 
ab. 1535 



288 



FLEMISH PAINTING 



Bernard van 

Orley 

ab. 1493-1542 



Jan van 

Scorel 

1496-1562 

The van 

Coninxloos 

active xvi c. 

1st half 

Lancelot 

Blondeel 

1496-1561 

Adrien 

Ysenbrant 

ab. 1485-1551 

Antonio Mora 

ab. 1519-1576 



Jerom Bosch 
ab. 1460-1516 



Joachim 

Patinir 

ab. 1485-1524 

Herri met de 

Bles 

ab. 1485- 

afler 1550 

Bruegel the 

Elder 

ab. 1528-1569 



his birth, Maubeuge. Finally, Bernard van Orley became the most 
completely Italianate of the great painters of the century, so that his 
works are frequently confused with those of contemporary Lom- 
bards. While travelling in Italy he visited Rome, and was strongly 
influenced by Raphael as well as by the North Italians. 

Meanwhile men of only lesser ability painted in the Italianate 
manner, among whom we may mention Jan van Scorel, who twice 
visited Italy, the van Coninxloos, and Lancelot Blondeel, painters of 
delicate and fanciful architectural backgrounds, and Adrien Ysen- 
brant, to whose delicacy, care, and feeling for life van Mander pays 
a tribute. Later than any of these came Antonis Mor, called also 
Ser Antonio Moro and Sir Anthony More in the countries he visited! 
A pupil of Scorel, he was a true cosmopolitan, who painted portraits 
of prominent persons with a finished technique and a wonderful 
grasp of the psychology of the sitter. His work marks a transition 
from the early formal portrait to the mature work of Rubens and van 
Dyck. On the whole, the xvi century in artistic Flanders was the 
age of Italian imitation. Nevertheless, there were Flemings in the 
period who continued the native mediaeval tradition. Such a one 
was Jerom Bosch, a preacher in art, whose half-mad and diseased 
allegories, painted in a clear, fluid technique, won him great popu- 
larity in the Spanish court. The bits of landscape painted by Bosch 
were charming, but he was surpassed in this genre by Joachim 
Patinir, the most lyric painter of the school. His successor, Herri 
met de Bles, combined Patinir' s landscape art with a delicate Italian- 
ism. The native flavour of Flemish art was renewed by Pieter 
Bruegel the Elder and his sons. This master not only designed 
fantastic allegories in the vein of Jerom Bosch, but, what is more 
important, painted many delicate landscapes with an unstudied 
naturalism quite modern, and village scenes which, without Dutch 
coarseness, anticipated the developments of Dutch genre. 

If the xvi century in Flanders was the age of imitation, the xvn 
was the age of adaptation. The great artists of the xvn century, 
studied Italian painting as carefully as their predecessors, but in a 
more thinking way. They sought not to imitate, but to discover the 
secrets of colour and composition which underlay the greatness of 
Italian art. The result was an Italianate art which nevertheless 
retained its native Flemish quality. It was the studied, somewhat 



FLEMISH PAINTING 289 

eclectic, but vigorous art of the Flemish Counter-Reformation. Its 
greatest exponent and controlling genius was Peter Paul Rubens, an 
artist, scholar, courtier, and diplomat, who studied eight years in Italy 
and returned to become practically artistic dictator of Flanders. All 
the tendencies of xvn century Flemish art might be illustrated in the 
vital, coarse, resplendent work of this artist. His range of subject 
was as extraordinary as his breadth of genius, and he is noted for 
religious subjects, allegories, hunting scenes, portraits, mythological 
scenes, genre, and still life. A contemporary of Rubens, Jacob 
Jordaens, at times out-rivalled Rubens in coarseness, at times 
painted with a suavity unusual in an artist who never left Flanders. 
Nevertheless, he always showed dynamic power. " Rubens dipped 
his brush in blood; Jordaens dipped his in fire," is a shrewd char- 
acterization of the styles of the two men. 

Antoon van Dyck formed the third member of what we may call 
the great Flemish trinity of the xvn century. Beginning as a pupil of 
the smooth classicist Hendrik van Balen, he was apprenticed for a 
time to Rubens, but in 152 1 he went to Italy, where he remained five 
years. On his return he worked in Flanders till 1632, when he was 
called to England, and for the rest of his life he was associated with 
the court of Charles 1. Van Dyck was the least Flemish and most 
cosmopolitan of all Flemings. He worshipped at the shrine of Titian, 
and obtained an almost Venetian richness of colour. Moreover, he 
was as delicate in thought as in touch, and he became the most re- 
fined, one might almost say the only refined, xvn century Flemish 
artist. As a religious painter, he belongs clearly to the Jesuitical 
group of the Counter-Reformation. His mythological scenes are 
almost Venetian in quality, but he is best known for his many 
aristocratic portraits. 

Rubens, Jordaens, and van Dyck best sum up the tendencies of the 
age, but there were hosts of other artists, among whom perhaps 
Frans Snyders, animal and still life painter, deserves special mention. 
Meanwhile, native bourgeois and genre tradition was continued by 
the Teniers family, the most important member of which was David 
Teniers the Younger, who painted scenes of the inn and village 
street in the smooth technique of earlier Flanders, but with a homely 
coarseness rivalling the art of some of the later Dutch Little Masters. 
After 1700, although painting continued in Flanders, the importance 



Peter Paul 

Rubens 

1577-1640 



Jacob 

Jordaens 

1593-1678 



Antoon van 

Dyck 

1599-1641 

Hendrik van 

Balen 

1575-1632 



Frans Snyders 

1579-1657 
Teniers the 
Younger 
i6io-i6go 



290 FLEMISH PAINTING 

of the school declined, and for progressive painting in the Nether- 
lands we must look to Holland rather than to the Catholic southern 

country. 

George Harold Edgell. 

The Flemish paintings in the Fogg Museum will be found under Nos. 60-65 
in this Catalogue. 

Among the artists mentioned in the foregoing sketch the following are rep- 
resented in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and in the collection of Mrs. John 
L. Gardner at Fenway Court. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts: Van der Weyden, Saint Luke drawing the 
Portrait of the Madonna; van Dyck, Portrait of Anna Maria de Schodt and 
other paintings by van Dyck and his school. 

Fenway Court: Jan van Scorel, Portrait of a Woman; Antonio Moro, 
Portrait of Mary Tudor; Rubens, Portrait of the Earl of Arundel; van Dyck, 
Portrait. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Conway, W. M. Early Flemish artists and their predecessors on the lower 

Rhine. London, 1887. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. The early Flemish painters, 2d ed. London, 1872. 
Fierens-Gevaert, H. Les primitifs flamands. Brussels, 1909-1912. 4 v. 
Fromentin, E. The masters of past time; or, Criticism on the old Flemish 

and Dutch painters. New York, 1913. 
Heidrich, E. Alt-niederlandische Malerei; 200 Nachbildungen mit geschicht- 

licher Einfuhrung und Erlauterungen. Jena, 1910. (Die Kunst in 

Bildern.) 
Vlaemische Malerei . . . Jena, 1913. (Die Kunst in Bildern.) 
Kugler, F. T. The German, Flemish, and Dutch schools of painting. Re- 
modelled by Dr. Waagen and revised and in part rewritten by Sir 

Joseph A. Crowe, 3d ed. London, 1904. 2 parts. 
Rooses, M. Art in Flanders. New York, 1914. (Ars una; species mille.) 
Wauters, A. J. The Flemish school of painting. Tr. by Mrs. Henry Rossel. 

London, 1885. 



R0G1ER VAN DER WEYDEN (?) AND GERARD DAVID (?) 

ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN (?) 

1397/1400-1464 

Rogier de la Pasture, or Rogier van der Weyden, as he was called 
after he settled in Flanders, was born at Tournai between 1397 and 
1400. The register of the Tournai Guild of Painters shows that he 
was apprenticed to Robert Campin in 1427. In 1432 he was re- 
ceived as a master painter in the Guild, although he had already 
made a name for himself as a painter by his Mirafiores triptych, 
which dates from before 1431. Records of 1435 show that he was at 
that time official painter to the city of Brussels. Among his works 
executed between 1435 and 1450 are the Descent from the Cross, in 
the Escorial, and the polyp tych of the Last Judgment, at Beaune. In 
1450, the year of the jubilee, he went to Rome, also visiting Florence, 
Ferrara, and probably Milan and Venice. It is thought that he went 
to Cologne on his way home. His pictures painted after this date — 
among them his Adoration of the Magi, at Munich, and the triptych 
of the Seven Sacraments, in Antwerp — show traces of Italian in- 
fluence, and his own work left its impress on the Italian artists. He 
died at Brussels in June, 1464, and was buried in Sainte Gudule. Van 
der Weyden and Memlinc rank among the greatest figures in early 
Flemish art and all but reach the high level of the van Eycks. 

Van der Weyden is represented in this country by the panel of the 
Mirafiores triptych, Christ appearing to His Mother, in the collection 
of Michael Dreicer, New York; by a Portrait in the collection of 
Michael Friedsam, New York; by panels in the John G. Johnson 
collection, Philadelphia; and by a picture in the Metropolitan 
Museum belonging to the J. Pierpont Morgan collection. In the 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is a picture of Saint Luke drawing the 
Portrait of the Madonna, probably by van der Weyden, although it 
has been attributed to Gerard David. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Fry, R. E. A portrait of Leonello d' Este by Roger van der Weyden. Burlington 
magazine. London, Jan., 1911. xviii (94), 200-202. 

Gomez-Moreno, M. Un tresor de peintures inedites du xv° siecle. Gazette 
des beaux-arts. Paris, Oct., 1908. 3 per., xl (616), 301-302. 



292 FLEMISH PAINTING 

Hasse, C. Roger van der Weyden und Roger van Brugge mit ihren Schulen. 
Strasburg, 1905. (Zur Kunstgeschichte des Auslandes, 30.) 

Hymans, H; L' exposition des primitifs flamands a. Bruges. Gazette des beaux- 
arts. Paris, Sept., 1902. 3 per., xxviii (543), 192-196. 

Lafond, P. Roger van der Weyden. Paris, 1912. (Collection des grands 
artistes des Pays-Bas.) 

Leprieur, P. Un triptyque de Roger de la Pasture au Musee du Louvre. 
Gazette des beaux-arts. Paris, Oct., 1913. 4" per., x (676), 257-280. 

Loga, V. von. Zum Altar von Miraflores. Jakrb. d. kon. preuss. Kunstsamml. 
Berlin, 1910. xxxi (1), 47-56. 

Maeterlinck, L. Roger van der Weyden, sculpteur. Gazette des beaux-arts. 
Paris, Oct.-Nov., 1901. 3° per., xxvi (532-533), 265-284, 399-411. 

Mather, F. J., Jr. Christ appearing to His mother by Rogier de la Pasture. 
Art in America. New York, April, 1917. v (3), 143-149. 

Ricci, S. de. Un groupe d'oeuvres de Roger van der Weyden. Gazette des 
beaux-arts. Paris, Sept., 1907. 3" per., xxxviii (603), 177-198. 

Wauters, A. J. Roger van der Weyden. Burlington magazine. London, 
Nov., 1912, Jan., 1913. xxii (116, 118), 75-82, 230-232. 

Weale, W. H. J. The Annunciation by Roger de la Pasture. Burlington 
magazine. London, May, 1905. vii (26), 141. 
The risen Saviour appearing to His mother. Burlington magazine. London, 
Dec, 1909. xvi (81), 159-160. 

Winkler, F. Der Meister von Flemalle und Rogier van der Weyden. Stras- 
burg, 1913. (Zur Kunstgeschichte des Auslandes, 103.) 



GERARD DAVID (?) 

1450/1460-1523 

Gerard David, the last great painter of the school of Bruges, was 
born at Oudewater in Holland some time between 1450 and 1460. 
His first training was probably received at Haarlem. He came to 
Bruges toward the end of 1483 and in 1484 was admitted as master 
painter into the Guild of Saint Luke and Saint Eligius. The works 
of the van Eycks, van der Weyden, van der Goes, and Memlinc, in 
Bruges, made a profound impression on David. He was a councillor 
of the Guild in 1488, in 1495-1496, and in 1498-1499, and dean from 
1 501 to 1502. From 1488 to 1498 David was at work on two panels 
— the Judgment of Cambyses and the Flaying of Sisamnes — for the 
decoration of the Justice room of the Town Hall at Bruges. Between 
the years 1502 and 1508 David painted for Jean des Trompes, trea- 
surer of Bruges, the triptych of the Baptism of Christ, of the Bruges 
Gallery. In 1509 he gave to the church of the Carmelite nuns at 
Bruges the picture now considered his masterpiece — the Madonna 
and Saints, of the Rouen Museum. In 1 51 5 he went to Antwerp, where 
he came under the influence of Quentin Metsys, and was elected a 
member of the Guild of Saint Luke. He died in 1 523. David was an 
illuminator as well as a painter. Two miniatures by him were (1914) 
in the Academy at Bruges. The famous Grimani Breviary and other 
books probably by the same hand — some of which are in America in 
the collections of William Augustus White and Alfred Tredway 
White, of Brooklyn, and in the J. Pierpont Morgan library — have 
been associated with his name. 

Paintings in this country by David are in the Metropolitan 
Museum; the collection of the New York Historical Society; and in 
private collections, among them the P. A. B. Widener and the John 
G. Johnson collections, Philadelphia; and the collections of Henry 
Clay Frick, and Henry Goldman, New York. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Amaudry, L. The collection of Dr. Carvallo at Paris; iii, Early pictures of 
various schools. Burlington magazine. London, Jan., 1905. vi(22), 294. 

Benoit, F. Un Gerard David inconnu. Gazette des beaux-arts. Paris, Oct., 
1904. 3 per., xxxii (568), 311-325. 



294 FLEMISH PAINTING 

Bodenhattsen, E. von. Gerard David und seine Schule. Munich, 1905. 
Conway, W. M. Gerard David's " Descent from the Cross." Burlington 

magazine. London, Nov., 1916. xxix (164), 309-310. 
Friedlander, M. J. Ein Madonnenbild Gerard Davids im Kaiser Friedrich 

Museum. Jahrb. d. kSn. preuss. Kunstsamml. Berlin, 1906. xxvii (3), 

143-148. 
Weale, W. H. J. Gerard David; painter and illuminator. London, 1895. 

(Portfolio artistic monographs, 24.) 
Netherlandish art at the Guildhall. Burlington magazine. London, July, 

1906. ix (40), 239. 
Painting by Gerard David in the collection of Don Pablo Bosch at Madrid. 

Burlington magazine. London, Sept., 1905. vii (30), 469-470. 
Shutters of a triptych by Gerard David. Burlington magazine. London, 

June, 1905. vii (27), 234-237. 
Winkler, F. In Thieme-Becker. Riinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1913. viii, 

452-455- 
Gerard David und die Brugger Miniaturmalerei seiner Zeit. Monatshefte 

f. Kunstw. Leipsic, July, 1913. vi (7), 271-280. 

60 DIPTYCH 

A MADONNA AND CHILD — VAN DER WEYDEN (?) 
B BISHOP AND DONOR — DAVID (?) 

Oil on panel. 
Madonna panel, H. 2i| in. W. 14^ in. (55.5 X 35.7 cm.) 
Donor panel, H. 22^ in. W. 14 in. (56.3 X 35.5 cm.) 

The reds in this picture make a sort of V-shaped composition, 
running from the rose red and pink brocade behind the Madonna's 
head through the red robe with the green lining which extends from 
her left shoulder down toward the centre of the picture. In the 
other panel the gown of the donor is a V-shaped mass of red, which 
carries the eye up to the pink lining of the lappets of the bishop's 
mitre and his pink cap. The Madonna wears a gown of green and 
gold brocade. Over this is her robe; her mantle which comes down 
over her head and falls over her shoulders is a very dark blue. Her 
kerchief is white, as is the cloth on which the Child is seated. The 
Madonna and Child both have rich orange red hair. A wall of pale 
olive green similar to the lining of the robe is seen on either side 
of the textile behind the Madonna's head. Through the window 
may be seen a delicately painted landscape with a pale orange red 
wall with green trees in front. A horseman is farther off and two 
figures stand near the entrance to the yellowish castle with a pink 




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a 

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(A 
W 

O 



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H 
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VAN DER WEYDEN (?) — DAVID (?) 295 

roof and blue turret in the distance. Far away a pale bluish moun- 
tain is seen against the sky, which is pale orange red near the horizon 
and changes gradually into blue. On the other panel the window 
does not quite match the first one in size or in placing, and the colour 
scheme of the landscape is also different. The sky descends to a 
yellow green near the horizon instead of to an orange pink, and the 
general tonality of the distance is a cooler blue. The donor wears 
over his red gown a black mantle lined with gray fur. He wears a 
gold ring, and in his hands is a scroll which reads: Me culpis 
solutum mitem fac et cafstum]. (Make me free from sins, gentle 
and pure.) The bishop, Saint Jodoc, wears a vestment of green 
brocade, with a narrow band of rose at the neck, and a cope of dark 
green blue bordered and clasped with gold and lined with rose colour. 
His gloves are light blue; on the back of his left glove is a dark blue 
jewel set in gold. There are faint traces of gold embroidery around 
the setting. His three rings are gold set with dark blue stones. His 
mitre is gold and jewelled, lined with green. His cap is of rose colour 
and the lappets to his mitre are lined with rose. His scarf is bluish 
white. There is no gold used in the picture, but the effect is pro- 
duced by yellow paint. On the right is a patch of greenish blue sky. 
Through the window the Crucifixion is seen on the hill in the middle 
distance, with numerous footmen and horsemen in evidence. This 
right-hand panel is not in perfect condition and has probably suffered 
in the past. 

The diptych offers an interesting problem. A number of critics 
have felt that the two wings were painted by different hands. Pro- 
fessor Frank J. Mather, Jr., of Princeton, has discussed the question 
in an able and interesting article in Art in America for October, 1915. 
The Madonna appears to be of the van der Weyden type. Most 
critics have thought that it was probably a contemporary copy by 
one of Rogier's assistants, but Professor Mather is bolder, and sug- 
gests that it may be by the master himself. The beautiful quality 
and exquisite finish of the picture and the fact that it has in the past 
held its own well on the same wall with other van der Weydens 
justifies this belief. 

The other panel was painted by a different hand. The style is 
more powerful and vigorous. It has been suggested that Gerard 



296 FLEMISH PAINTING 

David or somebody akin to him may have executed this picture. On 
the back of the right-hand wing is painted a coat of arms with a 
monogram and inscription, which reads thus: 

Hier voren ligghe begrave joos vader 
burch wil6 raed houyer vade romsch 
rycke en zyns zoons phs erdshertoge 
va oostrycke hertoge va bourgne grave 
va vlandere etc en ghe (com) miteerd ont 
fanghere va vuernabocht xxix iare 
die starf d6 vierde dach va sporkele 
int iarr m cccc zesenentneghentic (h) 

(Impaled arms ~\ 
Van der Burg I J. K. 
Van der Mersch J 
en ioncvrouwe katheline va der 
mersch zyn eerste wyf die starf d£ 
xx dach va maye int iarr M cccc. 
[zesenent ?] neghentich bedt ver de zielen 

This has been translated by Professor Mather with the help of his 
friends Mr. and Mrs. Bye as follows: 

Before this lie buried Joos Van der Burch, formerly counsellor of the 
Roman Empire [used for Emperor] and of his son Princely Highness 1 
Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Count of Flanders, etc., com- 
missioned as Receiver of Furnes for twenty-nine years, who died the 
fourth day of February, 1496. And Miss Kathleen Van der Mersch, his 
first wife, who died the twentieth day of May in the year 149-. 

The inscription has suffered and is in some places hard to read, but 
it appears to be substantially as above. The monogram J. K. 
doubtless represents the names of Joos and his wife Kathleen. 

In regard to the relation between the two panels, Professor Mather 
presents an interesting hypothesis : " Both were made for the van der 
Burg family, as the arms in the windows attest, but there is much 
reason for supposing that the two pictures were painted independ- 
ently, perhaps at widely differing times, by different artists, and later 
arbitrarily assembled as a diptych. The panel containing the por- 

1 It has been suggested that the letters phs stand for Philip, the son of the Emperor 
Maximilian 1. 



VAN DER WEYDEN (?) — DAVID (?) 297 

traits was originally at least two inches larger in every dimension, 
and later cut down. This is shown by the awkward way in which the 
frame cuts the donor's fingers, as well as Saint Jodoc's mitre and 
crook. Then the window shows only two rows of bullseyes on the 
sinister side of the central panel, as against three rows at the dexter 
side. Aside from this, the window by no means fits its pendant in 
the panel of the Madonna. It is larger in every dimension, the sill 
and crossbar do not fit, the perspective is slightly different, revealing 
more of the sill in the panel with the donor. Examining the reverse 
of this panel, the story is equally plain. At all points the flourishes 
have been cut off, at the right-hand side one or two lines of text have 
lost a letter in part." 

Mr. Mather further points out that the most natural explanation 
of this cutting down of the portraits of the donors is that this panel 
was the newer and less valued of the two. The simplest way to fit 
the panels together would have been to build out the Madonna 
panel. Since this was not done, it is probable that the Madonna 
was too highly valued to be tampered with. 

The prototype of the Madonna panel is doubtless the Madonna 
and Child of van der Weyden's Saint Luke drawing the Portrait of 
the Madonna, of which there are versions in Munich, in Petrograd, 
in the Wilczeck collection, Vienna, and in the Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston. It is uncertain which of these is the original. There are 
numerous half-length Madonnas from this design in the galleries and 
private collections of Europe. In the Brussels Gallery are two 
Madonnas, one of which is very close to the Fogg Museum panel, 
with a window on the right through which is seen a similar landscape, 
and the Madonna and Child undoubtedly from the same design. 
Almost the only difference is that in the Brussels picture there is no 
brocade behind the Madonna, and there are golden rays emanating 
from the heads of Madonna and Child. Other similar Madonnas are 
in the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam; the Antwerp Gallery; the Meyer 
van der Bergh collection, Antwerp; the Kaiser Friedrich Museum, 
Berlin; the Matthys collection, Brussels; the Cassel Gallery; the 
Staedel Institute, Frankfort; the National Gallery, London; the Trau- 
mann collection, Madrid; the Germanic Museum, Nuremberg; the 
collection of Baron Chiaramonte Bordonaro, Palermo; the Strasburg 
Gallery; in the collection of M. Michel van Gelder (No. 10 in the 



298 FLEMISH PAINTING 

Catalogue of the Exhibition of Works by the early Flemish Painters 
at the Guildhall Gallery, London, 1906) ; and in the Metropolitan 
Museum, New York. There is also a similar Madonna on a much 
smaller scale in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. A tondo 
formerly in the Kann collection (Catalogue, No. 113), the full-length 
Madonna and Child in the central panel of a triptych attributed 
to Ambrosius Benson (No. 71 in the Catalogue of Ancient Paint- 
ings sold by the Kleinberger Galleries, January 23, 1918), the 
Madonna and Child in Berlin by Gerard David (No. 573A), and 
the Madonna and Child by Memlinc in the Royal Chapel, 
Granada, are variants from this design; and there are many others 
in various collections. It is uncertain which of the half-length 
Madonnas of this type is the original van der Weyden, or whether 
perhaps more than one of them was executed by the master's hand. 
The panels have been variously attributed to van der Weyden, 
Bouts, Memlinc, David, or Ysenbrant. As we have already stated, 
Mr. Mather thinks that the Fogg Museum Madonna may be the 
work of van der Weyden himself. 

Dr. Victor van der Haegen, Archivist of the city of Ghent, in a 
letter dated December, 191 1, said that the picture is known and 
comes from the church of Sainte Walburge at Furnes, near Ostend. 
It appears by the inscription that J 00s van der Burg died in 1496, 
and that he was counsellor for the Emperor Maximilian (1459-1519) 
and for his son Philip (1478-1506). In that case the portrait 
could not have been painted by Rogier van der Weyden who died in 
1464. Gerard David was born between 1450 and 1460, and died in 
1523, which makes it possible that the portrait was painted by him. 

The picture was bought by George W. Harris of Boston, probably 
some time between 1870 and 1880, from an American collector, who 
had gathered together some works of art in Europe. Mr. Harris on 
his death in 1906 bequeathed the picture to Harvard University. 



VAN DER WEYDEN (?) — DAVID (?) 299 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bernath. New York und Boston. 54, Reproduction. 
Harvard alumni bulletin. Oct. 25, 1911. 54, Reproduction (53). 
KunstgeschichtlicheGesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht. Dec. 11, 1908. viii, 

39, and same in Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Feb. 27, 1909. 551-552. 
Mather, F. J., Jr. Three early Flemish tomb pictures. Art in America. New 

York, Oct., 1915. iii (6), 261-267, Reproduction. 
Winkler. 63; 113, note 2. 

MENTIONED 

American art annual. New York, 1908. vi, 143. 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. June, 1909. 28, Reproduction. 

Burlington magazine. London, Dec, 1915. xxviii (153), 125. 

Harvard graduates' magazine. Boston, Dec, 1906. xv (58), 286; Dec, 1912. 

xxi (82), 290. 
McMahan, U. Une exposition documentaire en Pensylvanie. Gazette des 

beaux-arts. Paris, Feb., 1909. 4» per., i (620), 183, Reproduction. 
Nation. Nov. 23, 1916, 492. 
For brief discussion of similar pictures, see also: 
FriedlXnder, M. J. Ein Madonnenbild Gerard Davids im Kaiser Friedrich 

Museum. Jahrb. d. kbn. preuss. Kunstsamml. Berlin, 1906. xxvii (3), 

143-148. 



SCHOOL OF QUENTIN METSYS 
xvi century, first half 

Quentin Metsys (1466 ?-i53o) was a painter of the school of Ant- 
werp and the last master to express with sincerity the old tradition of 
the Netherlands. He was influenced by Gerard David and Dierick 
Bouts and also by Italian masters. 

Among paintings by Metsys in this country are those in the 
Metropolitan Museum, and in the John G. Johnson collection, 
Philadelphia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bosschere, J. D. Quinten Metsys. Brussels, 1907. (Collection des grands 

artistes des Pays-Bas.) 
Cohen, W. Studien zu Quinten Metsys. Munich, 1904. 

61 SAINT LUKE PAINTING THE PORTRAIT OF THE 

MADONNA 

Oil on panel. H. 17A in. W. i2f in. (43.3 X 32.3 cm.) 

This picture is perhaps more lacking than most of those in the Gal- 
lery in subtle harmonies. Saint Luke is in a gown of strong red and 
the Madonna in a rich blue green mantle, which is similar to the 
head-dress of Saint Luke. Both have white kerchiefs. The pre- 
vailing tones of the background are grays and browns. Reminiscent 
of van Eyck's Arnolfmi portrait in the National Gallery is the 
mirror hanging on the wall behind the saint, in which his back and 
easel are reflected. 

The picture was bought in 1910 of Ulrich Jaeger, who had pur- 
chased it the previous year from a Spanish collection in which it 
was attributed to Mabuse. 

There is no reason for thinking that the picture is by Quentin 
Metsys himself, but it resembles his style more closely than that of 
other masters, though it is slightly reminiscent of certain character- 
istics of Mabuse. 

The subject of Saint Luke painting the portrait of the Madonna 
was frequently treated in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance. 
The earliest representation that we know is a drawing supposed to be 
of the rx century, which is published in Ottley's Italian School of 




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SCHOOL OF QUENTIN METSYS 301 

Design. The artist holds a brush in one hand and a small shell in the 
other, which is an interesting illustration of the mediaeval habit of 
mixing the colours in shells. Attributed to van der Weyden are the 
pictures of this subject, perhaps all replicas of a lost original, in Petro- 
grad, in Munich, in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and in the 
Wilczeck collection, Vienna. All represent Saint Luke, pencil in 
hand, drawing in a book. A picture by Dierick Bouts belonging to 
Lord Penrhyn (No. 22 in the Exhibition of works by the early 
Flemish Painters at the Guildhall, London, 1906) treats the subject in 
a very similar vein. In the Print Room, Brussels, is an engraving 
from a lost painting by Quentin Metsys of the same subject. This 
design appears to have a bigness and boldness that the Fogg Museum 
picture lacks, and the composition is dissimilar. In this one also 
Saint Luke is represented as drawing, but here with his left hand, on 
a paper resting on a book, as the composition was doubtless reversed 
in the process of printing. In addition there are other versions, some 
of them later, in which Saint Luke is represented painting instead of 
drawing the Madonna. One of the early examples of this type may 
be seen in the Germanic Museum, Nuremberg. It is by the Master 
of the Peringsdorf Altar and is said to have been painted in 1487. In 
this Saint Luke is represented with his panel on an easel, holding a 
palette of the modern type and with his hand resting against a mahl- 
stick. There is also an engraving from the hand of Dierick Jacobszoon 
Vellert (active, 1511-1544) which represents the same subject — and 
here too the saint has a palette. In the Hortulus Anime, printed 
in Lyons in 1516, the saint holds a palette, very diminutive in size. 
Indeed the noticeable thing in almost every case is the small size of 
the palette, perhaps indicating, as Eastlake suggests, that the artist 
finished one part of a picture at a time and that he used several 
small palettes instead of one large one. Associated with these is 
the panel in the Fogg Museum, probably dating from 1520. As this 
was formerly attributed to Mabuse, we might compare it with two 
representations of the same subject by him — one in Prague, the 
other in the Gallery at Vienna. Both are highly ornate and elaborate 
and so different from the painting in the Fogg Museum that it is un- 
thinkable that they should be by the same hand. In both cases 
Mabuse represents Saint Luke as drawing and not painting the 
Madonna, and in the Vienna picture an angel guides his hand. 



3 02 FLEMISH PAINTING 

The legend which makes Saint Luke a painter was of eastern origin 
and was introduced into the West at the time of the First Crusade. 
There may have been a Greek painter of Madonnas named Luca 
whom the Western Church confused with the Evangelist, but the 
Evangelist was always regarded an authority on the characteristics 
of the Madonna. His Gospel gives the fullest account of her. 

Further information as to the influences which formed the man 
who painted the Fogg Museum panel may be gained from a study of 
the background. The putti standing on the capitals and holding 
garlands show that this master, like Quentin Metsys and Mabuse 
and other Flemish painters of that day, was influenced by Donatello 
and the school of Squarcione. It is interesting to note that Memlinc 
in his Madonna with a Donor, at Vienna, and in his Madonna with 
Angels, in the Uffizi, has used this motive in almost exactly the same 
way. The austere van Eyck had contented himself in his architec- 
tural backgrounds with representing saints in niches in a true Gothic 
spirit. This later development of putti holding garlands is distinctly 
a product of the Renaissance. It was used by Jacopo della Quercia 
in 1413, by Donatello in 1435, an d by Mantegna about 1455. We may 
note various modifications of this same general idea in Michelozzo's 
work, in the Berlin Crivelli, and in the work of numerous other 
Italian artists, among them the master who painted the Madonna, 
Child and Angels, No. 30 in this Gallery. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (i), 124. 
Beenath. New York und Boston. 55-56, Reproduction. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 39. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. June, 1910. 703. 
Nation. Nov. 23, 1916. 492. 



ADRIEN YSENBRANT 

About 1485 to 1551 

Adrien Ysenbrant was a disciple and probably an assistant of 
Gerard David. He came to Bruges from Haarlem about 1509 or 
1 5 10. His name appears in the registers of the Painters' Guild at 
Bruges from 1510 to 1537. In 1526 and again in 1537 he was a gover- 
nor of the Guild. He died in Bruges in 1551. 

No painting can with certainty be attributed to Ysenbrant, but he 
is thought to be the author of the Madonna of the Seven Sorrows, 
originally in the church of Notre Dame at Bruges, and of various 
other pictures in European and American collections. 

In this country paintings attributed to Ysenbrant are in the Met- 
ropolitan Museum; in the John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia; 
in the Philip Lehman collection, New York; and in other private 
collections. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bodenhausen, E. von. Gerard David und seine Schule. Munich, 1905. 207- 

219. 
J., F. J. M. A panel probably by Isenbrant. Burlington magazine. London, 

Sept., 1905. vii (30), 480-485. 
New York. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Bulletin. April, 1913. viii 

(4), 67-68. (A triptych by Adriaen Isenbrant.) 
Weale, W. H. J. Early painters of the Netherlands as illustrated by the 

Bruges exhibition of 1902. Burlington magazine. London, Aug., 1903. 

ii (6), 326-331. 

62 SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST* 

Oil on panel. H. 15! in. W. 5 in. (39.7 X 12.7 cm.) 

Saint John wears a neutral dark violet mantle over a rich sombre 
orange brown shirt. The somewhat hot reddish flesh tones contrast 
with the cold gray of the Lamb. The picture, like most Flemish 
paintings of the period, has a cool gray green landscape which 
changes from an almost warm yellow green in the foreground to a 
blue green in the distance. The sky becomes paler and yellower 
near the horizon. 

The picture was bought of a dealer who purchased it in London 
some years ago. It was first lent to the Fogg Museum in 191 2. It 



304 FLEMISH PAINTING 

shows the delicacy of Ysenbrant's touch and the high finish to which 
he carried his pictures. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1914. 2d ser., xviii (1), 124. 

(Listed in error as Descent from the Cross) ; Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., 

xxii (1), 97. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Aug., 1913. 39. 
Harvard graduates' magazine. Boston, Dec, 1912. xxi (82), 290. 
Nation. Nov. 23, 1916. 492. 



FLEMISH SCHOOL 

xvi century 

The picture numbered 63 was undoubtedly painted by one of 
the numerous Flemish masters who went to Italy in the xvi cen- 
tury and studied the works of the great Italian painters. It is a 
copy of the Doni Holy Family, now in the Uffizi — one of the two 
existing panel pictures which is surely by Michelangelo, painted 
about 1 503. It is possible that some day we may be able to establish 
with certainty the identity of the northern master who made this 
copy. It has been suggested that the picture was executed by Jan 
van Scorel on one of his visits to Italy. Scorel (1496-1 562) was one of 
the cosmopolitan artists of the Netherlands in the early xvi century 
who came under Italian influence, particularly that of the Roman 
and the Lombard schools. He had a fine feeling for landscape and 
painted many portraits. Antonio Moro, who painted the portrait 
numbered 64 in this Catalogue, was one of his pupils. 

63 COPY OF MICHELANGELO'S HOLY FAMILY 

Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

Oil on panel. H. 54! in. W. 42^ in. (138.1 X 107.5 cm.) 

The Madonna wears a rose red gown and blue green mantle lined 
with yellow green. Saint Joseph has a gray robe with a mantle over 
his knees which is yellow in the light and orange red in the shade. 
The foreground is brown and the parapet a cool gray. 

It may be interesting to note certain differences between the copy 
and the original. Michelangelo painted a pale blue sky of tender 
quality above a simple and suggestive setting of fields and hills; the 
Madonna's mantle also is of a similar blue. In the Flemish picture 
the colour of the landscape is a neutral bluish green, characteristic 
of the Flemings, and the Madonna's mantle is a heavier, deeper 
shade of the same colour. Michelangelo's picture is a tondo and the 
nude figures are skilfully grouped so as to fill up the composition 
and carry out the motive of the curve. The Flemish artist who 
copied it apparently did not realize the compositional significance of 
these figures and changed his picture to a rectangular shape. He put 
in an interesting and delightful Flemish landscape with a convincing 
sense of distance, and a clear, luminous sky, and in the lower part of 



3 o6 FLEMISH PAINTING 

the picture he put cucumbers and vegetation to fill in the blank space 
in the curves. In so doing he illustrated admirably Michelangelo's 
criticism of the Flemish painters in the famous conversation reported 
by Francesco d' Ollanda: " The Netherland painting suits old wo- 
men and young girls, ecclesiastics, nuns, and people of quality, who 
have no feeling for the true harmony of a work of art. The Nether- 
landers endeavour to attract the eye. They represent favourite and 
agreeable subjects — saints and prophets, of whom no ill can be said. 
They use drapery, woodwork, landscapes with trees and figures, 
whatever strikes as pretty, but which possesses in truth nothing of 
genuine art in itself, and where neither inward symmetry nor careful 
selection and true greatness is involved. In short, it is a painting 
without meaning and power. But I will not say that they paint 
worse than elsewhere. What I blame in the Netherland painting 
is, that in one picture a multitude of things are brought together, 
one of which would be important enough to fill an entire picture. 
None, however, can thus be completed in a satisfactory manner. 
The works that come from Italy can alone be called genuine works 
of art." 1 

The painting was formerly in the Rinuccini collection, Florence, 
and came into the possession of the Museum of Fine Arts in 1907. It 
was lent to the Fogg Museum for short periods of time previous to 
1915. In that year the picture was placed in the Museum as an 
indefinite loan. 

MENTIONED 

Harvard graduates' magazine. June, 1910. 702. 

1 Herman Grimm. Life of Michael Angeb. Boston, 1898. ii, 302-303. 




63 FLEMISH SCHOOL — COPY OF MICHELANGELO'S HOLY FAMILY 



ANTONIO MORO (ANTONIS MOR) 
About 1519 to 1576 

Little is known of the early life of Antonio Moro. He was born at 
Utrecht about 1519 and was a pupil of Jan van Scorel after Scorel had 
become Italianized. In 1547 he was received into the Guild of Saint 
Luke at Antwerp. His first great patron was Cardinal Granvelle, 
who came to the Netherlands with the Emperor Charles v in 1548, 
and through whose influence Moro was made official painter to the 
court at Brussels. At this time he had two pupils assisting him. In 
1550 he was in Rome; and in the same year he went to Portugal in the 
service of Mary of Hungary. Among his other noble patrons were 
Philip n of Spain and Margaret of Parma. He worked in the Neth- 
erlands, in Italy, Portugal, Spain, and in England, where according 
to tradition he was knighted by Queen Mary. The last years of his 
life were spent in Antwerp where he died in 1576. 

Moro painted representations of mythological and sacred subjects, 
but is best known as a portrait painter. His portraits of princes and 
court nobles and their buffoons are able characterizations. Among 
his many fine portraits are the Jester of Cardinal Granvelle, in the 
Louvre; Margaret of Parma, in Berlin; Mary Tudor, in the Prado; 
Anne of Austria, in Vienna; and the Duke of Alva, in the Gallery of 
the Hispanic Society, New York. In this country, in addition to the 
portrait belonging to the Hispanic Society, there are portraits by 
Moro in the collection of Mrs. John L. Gardner, Boston; and in the 
John G. Johnson collection, Philadelphia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cust, L. Notes on pictures in the Royal collections; xviii, On some portraits 
attributed to Antonio Moro and on a life of the painter by Henri 
Hymans. Burlington magazine. London, Oct., 1910. xviii (91), 5-12. 
A portrait by Antonio Moro. Burlington magazine. London, April, 191 2. 

xxi (119), 53. 
Hymans, H. Antonio Moro; son oeuvreet son temps. Brussels, 1910. 
Loga, V. von. Antonis Mor als Hofmaler Karls v und Philipps 11. Jahrb. d. 

kunsthist. Samml. d. allerh. Kaiserh. Vienna, 1908. xxvii (3), 91-123. 



3 o8 FLEMISH PAINTING 

64 PORTRAIT OF A SPANISH NOBLEMAN, PROBABLY 

SENOR ANTONIO DEL RIO 

Lent by Samuel Sachs. 

Oil on panel. H. 33I in. W. 26^ in. (84.4 X 67.2 cm.) 

The sitter wears a black cap and black clothes, with white at his 
neck and wrists. His beard is brownish black and his eyes grayish 
brown. In his left hand he holds a pair of gloves and his right hand 
rests on a skull. The flesh tones are beautifully managed. The 
background is of a dark neutral colour. 

The portrait is said to have belonged at one time to Baron van der 
Graecht of Bruges, a descendant of the del Rio family. Later it was 
in the collection of Mrs. Philip Lydig, which was spld in New York in 
1913. It was No. 132 in the sale catalogue, in which the following 
comment appears: "About 1560-70. The portrait seems to repre- 
sent a Spanish nobleman, and was very likely painted by Moro dur- 
ing his stay in Madrid." The picture is now owned by Samuel 
Sachs of New York, who lends it to the Museum for a certain num- 
ber of months each year. 

The portrait is a sympathetic characterization. Here, as in the 
portrait by van Dyck, the face and hands of the sitter tell the story. 
The treatment, perhaps owing to the influence of Titian's portraits 
which Moro saw in Spain, is broad and free, in contrast to the 
" hard " handling which Moro usually employed. 

The portrait has been said to represent Sefior Martinus Antonio 
del Rio, the theologian and mystic, who is supposed to have been born 
in Antwerp in 155 1 and to have died at Louvain in 1608. As An- 
tonio Moro died in 1576, Sefior Martinus del Rio was only about 
twenty-five at the time of the artist's death. The portrait in the 
Fogg Museum is that of a man apparently about forty years old, 
and would seem rather to be that of the father, Antonio del Rio, who 
was a member of the so-called Council of Troubles or " Court of 
Blood," established by Alva in the Netherlands in 1567. This 
supposition is borne out by the marked resemblance of the Fogg Mu- 
seum portrait to the portrait of Sefior Antonio del Rio 1 in the Louvre. 
A portrait of the Sefiora del Rio, a companion to the Fogg Museum 
portrait of Antonio del Rio, was shown with the latter, in the Exhibi- 
tion of Flemish Painting held in the Museum in the fall of 1916. 

1 Hymans. 146-147. 




64 ANTONIO MORO 



ANTONIO MORO 309 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Nation. Nov. 23, 1916. 492. 

Valentiner, W. R., and Friedley, D. Illustrated catalogue of the Rita 
Lydig collection. New York, 1913. Introduction [4-5]; No. 132, Re- 
production. 

Valentiner, W. R. Mrs. Lydig's library. Art in America. 'New York, 
April, 1913. i (2), 74-75, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 
American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1918. 2d ser., xxii (1), 97. 



ANTOON VAN DYCK 
i 599-1641 

Antoon van Dyck, more commonly known as Sir Anthony van 
Dyck, was born in Antwerp, in March, 1599. At the age of ten he 
was apprenticed to Hendrik van Balen, an artist who copied the 
suaver side of Italian classicism, and from whom van Dyck may have 
got the refinement which differentiates him from his great fellow- 
townsman, Rubens. By 1615 van Dyck was living and working 
independently, and in 16 18 he was admitted to the Guild of Saint 
Luke. Though van Dyck was never, strictly speaking, a pupil of 
Rubens, we find him employed in that artist's studio in 1620, and he 
learned much from his elder contemporary. In 1620, he paid his first 
visit to England, where he was given a pension of one hundred 
pounds by the King, but within a year he returned to Antwerp. 

In 162 1 van Dyck went to Italy, going first to Genoa. Thence in 
1622 he went to Rome, and from there to Florence, Bologna, Venice, 
Mantua, and back to Rome again, ever studying the works of the 
Italian masters, especially the Venetians. The Flemish colony in 
Rome, however, was jealous of the " pittor cavalleresco," with his 
refined habits and his dislike of the coarse carousals of his fellow 
artists ; and van Dyck withdrew to Genoa, where he stayed until 1626, 
the date of his return to Antwerp. From 1628 to 1632 he remained, 
except for a short visit to Holland, in Antwerp. The absence of 
Rubens at that time left him supreme in Flanders. In 1632 van 
Dyck was called to England by Charles 1. He was lavishly aided by 
the King, given a house in town and one in the country, and knighted 
the year of his arrival. From this time on he was constantly asso- 
ciated with the brilliant fife of the English court, painting most of the 
nobility of the day, including many pictures of the King and Queen, 
entertaining sumptuously, and carrying on a number of intrigues, the 
most enduring being with the famous beauty, Margaret Lemon. In 
1639, however, he married Mary Ruthven. The following year 
Rubens died and van Dyck decided to return to Antwerp. This he 
did in 1640, but in 1641 he returned again to England, where he had a 
house at Blackfriars. On December first of that year a child was 
born to him. Meanwhile, however, the painter's health, undermined 



VAN DYCK 311 

alike by dissipation and hard work, had been failing rapidly, and on 
December ninth he died, and was buried in Saint Paul's. 

Among portraits by van Dyck in this country are those in the Met- 
ropolitan Museum ; in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ; in the col- 
lection of Mrs. John L. Gardner, Boston; in the P. A. B. Widener 
collection, Philadelphia; in the Frick collection, New York; and in 
the Fogg Museum. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cust,L. Anthony Van Dyck. London, 1900. 

Same, " Condensed version." London, 1908. (Great masters in painting 

and sculpture.) 
A description of the sketch-book by Sir Anthony Van Dyck, used by him 
in Italy, 1621-1627, and preserved in the collection of the Duke of 
Devonshire, K. G. at Chatsworth. London, 1902. 
The new Van Dyck in the National Gallery. Burlington magazine. Lon- 
don, Aug., 1907. xi (53), 325-326. 
Notes on pictures in the Royal collections; xvi, xx.The equestrian portraits 
of Charles 1 by Van Dyck. Burlington magazine. London, June, 1910. 
xvii (87), 159-160; Jan., 1911. xviii (94), 202-209. 

Fieeens-Gevaert, H. Van Dyck. Paris, 1903. (Les grands artistes.) 

Guiffrey, J. Antoine van Dyck. Paris, 1882. 

Haberditzl, F. M. In Thieme-Becker. Kiinstler-Lexikon. Leipsic, 1914. 
x, 263-270. 

Hymans, H. Antoine van Dyck et Pexposition de ses oeuvres a Anvers. Ga- 
zette des beaux-arts. Paris, Sept.-Oct., 1899. 3 per., xxii (507-508), 
226-240, 320-332. 

Jacobsen, E. Un chef-d'oeuvre inconnu d' Antoine van Dyck. Ckronique des 
arts et de la curiosite. Paris. Dec. 30, 1911. No. 39, 308-309. 

Knackfuss, H. Van Dyck. Tr. by Campbell Dodgson. Bielefeld and Leip- 
sic, 1899. (Monographs on artists, iv.) 

Rooses, M. Le portrait de la comtesse de Worcester par van Dyck. Gazette 
des beaux-arts. Paris, Feb., 1913. 4" per., ix (668), 128-131. 

Schaeffer, E. Ein unbekanntes Jugendwerk van Dycks. Jahrb. d. kon. 
preuss. Kunstsamml. Berlin, 1910. xxxi (3), 164-169. 

Valentiner, W. R. Fruhwerke des Anton van Dyck in Amerika. Zeitschr. 
f. Mid. Kunst. Leipsic, 1910. N. F., xxi (9), 225-230. 
Rubens and Van Dyck in Mr. P. A. B. Widener's collection. Art in 
America. New York, July, 1913. i (3), 158-170. 

Van de Put, A. The prince of Oneglia by Van Dyck. Burlington magazine. 
London, Sept., 1912. xxi (114), 3 II_ 3 I 4- 

Van Dyck: des Meisters Gemalde in 537 Abbildungen. Herausgegeben von 
Emil Schaeffer. Stuttgart, 1909. (Klassiker der Kunst.) 

Walton, W., and Cust, L. Exhibition in New York of portraits by Van 
Dyck. Burlington magazine. London, Feb., 1910. xvi (83), 296-302. 



3 i2 FLEMISH PAINTING 

65 PORTRAIT OF NICOLAS TRIEST, LORD OF AUWEGHEM 

Oil on canvas. H. 48^ in. W. 37! in. (122.3 X 95.5 cm.) 

The figure of Nicolas Triest is three-quarters length, and is clad 
in black, with a simple ruffed collar and cuffs. He wears a sword the 
hilt of which is wound with gold wire. His hair is dark 'brown; his 
moustache and thin pointed beard are of a lighter brown. In the 
upper left-hand corner is the coat of arms of the Triest family: " De 
sable, a deux cors-de-chasse d'or, lies et viroles d' argent, en chef, et 
un levrier courant d'argent, collete de gueules, borde et boucl6 d'or, 
en pointe. Cimier: la tete et col du 16vrier entre un vol-banneret 
d'or; ou, un vol a l'antique de sable et d'or." Below the coat of arms, 
beneath the varnish, and invisible except under powerful light is the 
inscription: Aeta Sua 48 An 1620. The background is very dark, 
relieved by a greenish gleam over the left shoulder of the figure and 
to a lesser extent over the right. 

The painting was formerly in the Rodolphe Kann collection in 
Paris. It was bought by M. Kann in 1896 from a Paris dealer — 
previous to that time its history is not known. The catalogue of the 
Kann collection published in 1907 states that the portrait was 
formerly in the collection of the late Lord Carlisle. This is not so, 
nor was the portrait ever in the collection of the late J. Pierpont 
Morgan, as is stated in the volume on van Dyck in the Klassiker der 
Kunst series. In the fall of 1914, while this picture, with others, was 
on the steamship Mississippi en route for America, a fire damaged 
several of the paintings. The injuries to this picture, however, were 
very slight. In 191 5 the portrait was given to the Fogg Museum. 

This portrait was painted when van Dyck was but twenty-one 
years old. It has frequently been called the portrait of Alexander 
Triest, but the coat of arms proves the sitter to have been the head of 
the Triest family, Nicolas, who was lord of Auweghem in 1620. Van 
Dyck had painted other members of the family, among them Antoon 
Triest, bishop of Ghent. Simplicity was the keynote of the artist's 
style at this period, as may be seen by comparing the Fogg Museum 
portrait with other works painted by van Dyck during the years 
between his admission to the Painters' Guild and the year of his 
departure for Italy. Closest to the Fogg Museum painting are the 
portraits of M. and Mme. Witte in the collection of M. Arnold de 




6s ANTOON VAN DYCK 



VAN DYCK 313 

Pret Roose de Calesberg. An almost equal simplicity of technique 
and expression may be observed in the portrait of Cornelius van der 
Geest in the National Gallery, in several portraits of the artist by 
himself, and in other early works. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bode, W. Gemaldesammlung des Herm Rodolphe Kann. Vienna, 1900. 22. 
Catalogue of a number of very important paintings by the great masters, 

which were in an outbreak of fire that took place on board the steamship 

Mississippi in November, 1914. Sale by direction of Messrs. Duveen 

Brothers, New York, 1915. No. 14. 
Edgeix, G. H. A youthful portrait by Van Dyck in the Fogg Museum. Art 

in America. New York, Aug., 1916. iv (5), 268-276, Reproduction. 
Kann, R. Catalogue de la collection Rodolphe Kann (by W. Bode). Paris, 

1907. v. i, xviii; 12, No. 10, Reproduction. English ed. v. i, xvi; 12, 

No. 10, Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American journal of archaeology. Jan.-March, 1917. 2d ser., xxi (1), 109. 

Gluck, G. Die Gemaldesammlung des Herrn Rudolf Kann in Paris. Die 
graphischen Kunste. Vienna, 1900. xxiii, 92. 

Harvard graduates' magazine. March, 1916. 422, Reproduction. 

Michel, E. La galerie de M. Rodolphe Kann. Gazette des beaux-arts. Paris, 
June, 1901. 3 e per., xxv (528), 502. 

Nation. Nov. 23, 1916. 492. 

Nicolle, M. La collection Rodolphe Kann. Revue de I'art ancien et moderne. 
Paris, 1908. xxiii, 200. 

Sedelmeyer Gallery. Illustrated catalogue of the second hundred of paint- 
ings by old masters. Paris, 1895. 12, No. 9, Reproduction. 

Valentiner, W. R. Zeitsckr. f. biid. Kunst. N. F., xxi (9), 230. 

Reproduced in Van Dyck (Klassiker der Kunst), 164. 



ENGLISH PAINTING 



ENGLISH PAINTING 

THE genius of the people of the British Isles is ordinarily thought 
of as finding its fullest expression in literature rather than in 
the pictorial or plastic arts. Yet one branch of the art of painting, 
namely that of manuscript illumination, had in these islands a long 
and uninterrupted history, dating from about the v until the first 
quarter of the xv century, and in its earliest period produced illu- 
minations unique in their field and remarkable for their beauty of 
conception and execution. This first period was that of the Celtic 
school of monastic illumination, which arose probably soon after 
the introduction of Christianity into Ireland in the v century, and 
reached the height of its development in the vm or early ix century. 
Celtic illumination stands apart from the miniature painting of 
other schools in that it was essentially an art of conventional orna- 
ment, its design based on the native handicrafts of the day, plaiting, 
weaving, and particularly goldsmith's work and its various processes 
of enamelling, inlay, and relief. Such figures as were introduced were 
subordinated to the decorative design and treated as part of the pat- 
tern. Plant forms were of rare occurrence. Spirals, ribands, intri- 
cate interlacings, together with motives based on the forms of birds, 
serpents, and fanciful monsters — these latter perhaps derived from 
Moslem stuffs imported for ecclesiastical vestments — picked out 
with bits of brilliant colour, were combined into designs of great 
beauty, executed with marvellous skill. In the finest of the early 
Irish manuscripts no gold or silver was employed, but when the Celtic 
style was transferred to England the use of gold was introduced. 
The masterpiece of Celtic illumination is the Book of Kells, dating 
it is thought from the vm or early rx century, and now in the Li- 
brary of Trinity College, Dublin. The manuscript was probably 
executed in the Columban monastery of Kells, and is remarkable for 
its extraordinary elaboration and delicacy of handling. Middleton 
in his Illuminated Manuscripts (p. 83) says that in the space of one 
inch there are " no less than 158 interlacements of bands or ribands, 
each composed of a strip of white bordered on both sides with a 



3 i8 ENGLISH PAINTING 

black line." In beauty and minuteness of design and technique no 
other work of the school can be compared with it. 

Manuscript illumination was practised in Ireland down to the xni 
century, but after its period of greatness the decline of the school was 
rapid. Celtic elements were, however, carried from Ireland by the 
Irish missionaries as early as the vi century, and were spread into 
western Europe and to the neighbouring coasts of Scotland and 
Northumbria. The Lindisfarne Gospels, executed in Northumbria 
probably towards the close of the vn century, show Celtic elements 
combined with Byzantine influence, derived perhaps from the 
manuscript from which the text was copied, and apparent in the 
treatment of the human figure as seen in the portraits of the Evan- 
gelists. 

From the vii to the xn century various influences were at work on 
the art of illumination in England. Through contact with the 
Church of Rome, classical elements were introduced and combined 
with Celtic. After the Danish invasions a current of influence from 
the Carolingian school, which had drawn something of its original 
inspiration from Northumbria, made itself felt. This Carolingian 
influence is to be seen in the painted miniatures produced by the 
x century school of Winchester. A contemporary method of illumi- 
nation was the use of pen drawing in red, blue, or brown, with 
occasional washes of colour. This line drawing had long been prac- 
tised in western Europe, and attained great perfection in England 
in the x and xi centuries. The Winchester school excelled in line 
illustration, as well as in painting, and produced beautiful miniatures 
executed in this manner, which show almost the purity of line of the 
finest Greek vase paintings. 

Throughout the xn and xni centuries the English school of illu- 
mination developed rapidly, and culminated in the Anglo-Norman 
style of the late xin and early xrv centuries, which had a similar 
development on both sides of the channel. From about 1250 to 
1300 or 1320 England occupied perhaps the foremost position in the 
art of manuscript illumination. This Anglo-Norman school com- 
bined Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, and Norman traditions, although the last 
named were the strongest, and a satisfying harmony was attained 
between the various elements of book decoration: realism, imag- 
ination, illustration, and ornament. The Anglo-Norman and French 



ENGLISH PAINTING 319 

manuscripts of the Apocalypse are beautiful examples of the work of 
the school, characterized by their splendour of burnished gold and 
rich colour, their graceful figures and lovely detail, and by the 
freedom and sureness of their drawing. The Windmill Psalter, in the 
collection of John Pierpont Morgan, New York, is a fine example of 
late xrn century work. Fourteenth century illumination is seen at 
its best in the famous Queen Mary's Psalter, which contains del- 
icately tinted line drawings as well as illuminations in which brilliant 
pigments and gold were employed with skill and beauty. English 
illumination of the xm, xrv, and xv centuries is illustrated in Har- 
vard University by the collection of early manuscripts and printed 
books relating to English law belonging to the Harvard Law Library. 

The ravages of the Black Death, 1348-1349, put all art in the 
background for a time; but good illumination was done towards the 
close of the xrv century. Certain Bohemian influences appeared, 
introduced doubtless by Rhenish and Bohemian painters who came 
to England in the train of Anne of Bohemia, who was married to 
Richard n in 1382. During the first quarter of the xv century fine 
examples of the art were produced; but English illumination was 
already on the decline, and was soon stifled by the preference shown 
for French and Flemish work, and by the introduction of printing. 

Painting properly so called was practised by the local schools in 
the Middle Ages. The Statutes of the English Painters' Guild were 
formulated in 1283. A series of accounts relating to the painting at 
Westminster and at Ely Cathedral in the xni and xrv centuries 
bears witness to the fact that some form of oil painting was com- 
monly practised in England at that time. Probably a method partly 
tempera and partly oil was used. Important monuments of this 
early period, now preserved only in copies and fragments, were the 
decoration of the Painted Chamber and the paintings of Saint 
Stephen's Chapel, Westminister. 

Portrait painting also seems to have been practised from an early 
date. Similar in style to the frescoes of Saint Stephen's Chapel are 
two important portraits of King Richard n, one at Westminster, and 
the other in a diptych, at Wilton House, which represents the King 
accompanied by three saints kneeling before the Madonna sur- 
rounded by angels. From their kinship with the French and 
Flemish miniature painting of the time, it is probable that the artist 



320 



ENGLISH PAINTING 



Nicolas 

Billiard 

1547-161Q 

Isaac Oliver 

(?)-i6i 7 

Peter Oliver 

ab. 1594-1648 

Samuel 

Cooper 

1609-1672 



or artists who painted the frescoes and portraits, if English, had been 
trained under foreign masters. The portraits indeed have been at- 
tributed to the French master Andre Beauneveu. Probably from 
about the same time dates a full-length portrait of Geoffrey Chaucer, 
in the National Portrait Gallery, perhaps an early copy from a 
miniature painting in the British Museum. Other portraits of the 
xrv and xv centuries are preserved in the National Portrait Gallery. 

In the xvi century the history of painting in England has to do 
chiefly with the work of foreign masters. And for the most part, save 
for the decoration of civic buildings, there was little mural painting. 
Henry vni was a patron of the arts, but a dearth of national talent 
forced him to import foreign artists. It is said that he tried in vain 
to persuade Raphael, Primaticcio, and Titian to come to England. 
With Holbein, however, he had better success. The Augsburg master 
spent some years in London, 1526-1528, 1532-1543, and dominated 
English painting for about a century, giving the needed stimulus to 
portrait painting on a large scale and to portrait miniatures. Numer- 
ous able portraits exist, founded on Holbein's style, but few of them 
can be ascribed to any known artist, and Holbein left no definite 
school. Antonio Moro, the Flemish portraitist, came to England 
from Spain in 1553 to paint the portrait of Queen Mary Tudor, and 
remained in London for some time. Italian masters also found 
favour at the Tudor court, among them Federigo Zucchero, who 
came to London about 1 574. Portraits painted by him of the Earl of 
Leicester, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Queen Elizabeth are in the 
National Portrait Gallery. 

A more national art is seen in the miniature portrait painting by 
native " limners " which was a survival of the old tradition of illu- 
mination. This art was stimulated and raised to a high level by 
Holbein and was continued by Nicolas HiUiard, who painted many 
miniatures of Queen Elizabeth, and by his contemporaries, Isaac and 
Peter Oliver, and Samuel Cooper, who was the ablest member of 
the school. His portraits are intimate character portrayals, distin- 
guished by excellence of drawing, design, and colour. With the 
death of Cooper the first period of portrait miniature painting came 
to an end. 

The most important influence felt in portrait painting on a large 
scale during the xvn century was that of van Dyck, who settled in 



ENGLISH PAINTING 321 

England in 1632, and from whom the modern English school of 
portraiture may be said to take its rise. Puritanism and the Civil 
War, however, checked the development of his school. Another 

foreigner, Sir Peter Lely, came to England and enjoyed extensive sir Peter 

patronage under the Restoration. After Lely, Sir Godfrey Kneller Lely 

and a number of French painters dominated the school until the i 6 * 8 - l6 f° 

Sir Godfrey 

beginning of the xvni century, when Hogarth freed painting in Kneller 
England from foreign dominion. 1646-1723 

M. E. G. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Armstrong, W. Art in Great Britain and Ireland. New York, 1909. (Ars 

una; species mille.) 
Herbert, J. A. Illuminated manuscripts. New York, 191 1. 
Middleton, J. H. Illuminated manuscripts. Cambridge, 1892. 
Walpole, H. Anecdotes of painting in England. Collected by George Vertue 

with additions by James Dallaway. New ed. rev. with additional notes 

by R. N. Wornum. London, 1849. 3 v. 



ENGLISH SCHOOL (?) 

xiv century (?) 

66 PORTRAIT OF GEOFFREY CHAUCER 

In the Treasure Room of the Harvard College Library. 
Oil on panel. H. 17H in. W. 14! in. (45.3 X 36.8 cm.) 

Chaucer is represented in a brown hood and gown against a black 
background. In his left hand he holds some black and red beads. 
His beard is yellow brown, his hair is a darker and more orange 
brown. His eyes are light yellowish gray. In the left-hand upper 
part of the picture are the Chaucer arms: Per pale argent and gules, 
a bend counterchanged. Below the coat of arms is the date 1400. 

The portrait, known in recent years as the Seddon portrait, was 
bought after Mr. Seddon's death by C. Fairfax Murray, who later 
sold it to James Loeb. Mr. Loeb presented it to Professor Charles 
Eliot Norton, who bequeathed it to the Harvard College Library 
in 1908 in memory of two lovers of Chaucer — Francis James Child 
and James Russell Lowell. 

The Harvard University Gazette for December 18, 1908, printed 
the following notice in regard to the portrait: " By bequest of the 
late Professor Charles Eliot Norton, the College Library received a 
very precious and interesting early portrait of Chaucer, painted in oil 
on an oak panel. An inscription on the back of the panel, formerly 
legible, but now too faint to read, states: ' This picture was pre- 
sented by Miss Frances Lambert to Benjamin Dyke on the 6th 
September, 1803, to perpetuate the memory of her late invaluable 
relation, Thomas Stokes, Esq., of Llanshaw Court, in the county of 
Gloucester, where it was preserved for more than three centuries, as 
appears from the inventory of pictures in the possession of that 
ancient and respectable family. . . The picture is to the possessor 
invaluable, owing to the purity of friendship which existed between 
the living and the dead. Reader, may thy friendship with whoso- 
ever it may be formed be as sincere, and may no rude or careless 
hand destroy this ancient relick. Time perhaps may perish it when 
thou and I are lost.' 

" Nothing more is known of the origin or early history of the por- 
trait, but it shows a close resemblance to the only known authentic 




66 ENGLISH SCHOOL (?) 



ENGLISH SCHOOL 323 

portrait of Chaucer, the miniature in Occleve's ' De regimine prin- 
cipum' (Harleian ms. 4866), written in 1411-12, and to a later 
full-length portrait in another British Museum manuscript (Addi- 
tional ms. 5141)." It also resembles the full-length Sloane portrait 
in the National Portrait Gallery — perhaps based on the manuscript 
portrait just mentioned — and a miniature in the Bodleian Library. 
In an article on Portraits of Geoffrey Chaucer in the Magazine 
of Art, 1900, M. H. Spielmann says in regard to the picture: " There 
is, perhaps, just the bare possibility that, apart from the Occleve 
illumination, one of the portraits I am about to mention — the Sed- 
don, or Fairfax Murray portrait — may have been executed by a 
limner who had seen Chaucer in the flesh. Although nearly every 
student of Chaucer and of the history of art would reject the sup- 
position, this view has been supported by at least one distinguished 
painter [Holman Hunt] ; but it is, of course, impossible to do more 
than speculate upon the point. The Occleve portrait, it must be 
remembered, is admittedly a memory painting, being, however, the 
only one which is universally accepted as trustworthy." 

EXHIBITED 

London. South Kensington Museum. First special exhibition of national 
portraits ending with the reign of King James the Second, April, 1866. 
Catalogue. 3, No. 9. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Spielmann, M. H. The portraits of Geoffrey Chaucer. Magazine of art. 
London, 1900. xxiv, 395-400, 441-445, 494-499. 



ADDENDUM 

Since the Catalogue was written a bequest has been re- 
ceived from Hervey Edward Wetzel of the class of 191 1, 
who died in France, October 15, 19 18, while serving with 
the American Red Cross. 

A beautiful little panel representing Christ on the Cross, 
by Simone Martini, formerly in the collection of M. Leon 
Bonnat, of Paris, has been bought from the Hervey E. 
Wetzel fund. The picture was acquired too late to appear 
in the Catalogue with the other paintings of the Sienese 
school, but is reproduced as the frontispiece of this book. 



INDEX 



GENERAL INDEX 



Abruzzi, The, 146, 233. 

Academy of painting and sculpture (in 
France), 277. 

Achiardi, P. d', 162. 

Adonis, Weighing of, 269. 

Adoration of the kings, 5, 100-101. 

Adoration of the magi, see Adoration of 
the kings. 

Aix in Provence. Cathedral. 
Nicolas Froment, 275, 280. 

Alb, 128. 

Albrecht of Brandenburg, 251. 

Aldobrandini collection, Rome, 87. 

Alexander in, pope, 235. 

Alexander vi, pope, 157, 166. 

Alexander the Great, 4. 

Alexandria, 3, 4, 6, 8. 

Allen, Mrs. F., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Pintoricchio, 166. 

AUerton, W., 12, 134. 

Altarpiece, xix-xx. 

Altissena Chapel, see Rome, Sta. Maria 
della Pace. 

Altman collection, see N. Y. Metropoli- 
tan Museum. 

Alva, Duke of, 308. 

Amatito, 129, 130. 

Amboise, Cardinal Georges d', 196, 276. 

American paintings in the Fogg Museum, 
xii. 

American portrait and landscape paint- 
ers, 212. 

Amis du Louvre, xiv. 

Amsterdam. Rijks Museum. 

Madonna after van der Weyden, 
297. 

Anastasis (Christ in Limbo), 9, 14-15, 
1 1 9-1 20. 

Anchor, 5. 

Andalusia, 240, 241. 

Andre 1 collection, Paris, 240. 

Angel musicians, 155. 

Angels, 5, 106, 116. 



Anjou, 274. 
Anne of Bohemia, 319. 
Annunciation, 113, 246-247, 281. 
Annunciation to the Madonna of her 

death, 113, 281. 
Annunciations, Umbrian, 163. 
Antioch, 3, 6. 

Antwerp, 287, 293, 300, 307, 310. 
Museum. 

Van der Weyden, 291. 

Madonna after van der Weyden, 297. 
Apocalypse, 9. 
Apollo, 9. 
Apostles, 5, 9. 
Apple, 152, 179, 217. 
Aragon, 240. 
Arezzo, 44. 

Armenian bole, xviii, 103. 
Arretine pottery, xii. 
Art, Sources of, 4. 
Arte de' medici e speziali, 37-38. 
Arte de' pittori, 38. 
Asciano. Collegiata. 

Sassetta, 118. 
Ashburton, Lady, 202. 
Asia, 3. 

Aspergillum, 48, 49. 
Ass, 109. 
Assisi. San Francesco. 

Pietro Lorenzetti, 104. 

Simone Martini, 97. 
Athena, Worship of, 6. 
Athos, Mt, .7. 
Augsburg, 252, 255, 259. 
Avignon, 26, 96, m, 240, 274, 275. 
Aynard collection, Lyons, 71, 121. 
Azurite (azzuro della magna), v. 

Baldanzi, Canon, 60. 
Barcelona, 240. 
Baseggio, Enrico, 87. 
Basil 1, emperor, 4. 
Basle, 252, Council of, 253. 



33° 



GENERAL INDEX 



Bassano, 235. 
Battersea, Lord, London. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 73. 
Beaune, 291. 
Bedford, Duke of, 274. 
Beebe, Mrs. T. C. 

Girolamo di Benvenuto, 137, 138. 

Master of the Innocenti Coronation, 

55. 56. 
Bell, C. F., si. 
Benedict xn, pope, 164. 
Benson, Robert and Evelyn, London. 

Cosimo Tura, 190. 

Umbrian school (Antonio da Vi- 
terbo ?), 170. 
Berenson, Bernhard, iii, 58, 60, 63, 67, 
69, 76, 78, 108, 159, 162, 193, 222, 
224, 225. 

Collection, 118, 155. 
Berenson, M. L., 63. 
Bergamo, 212, 226. 
Carrara Gallery. 

Francesco di Simone da Sta. Croce, 
224. 

Bartolommeo Vivarini, 218. 
Bergh, Meyer van der, Antwerp, 297. 
Berlin. Kaiser Friedrich Museum. 

Cranach, 264. 

Crivelli, 177, 302. 

Gerard David, 298. 

Jan van Eyck, 286. 

Fogolino, 198. 

Taddeo Gaddi, 107. 

Antonio Moro, 307. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino ?, 72. 

Attributed to Raffaellino del Garbo, 
78. 

Francesco da Sta. Croce, 225. 

Sassetta, 118. 

Van der Weyden ?, 297. 

Zeitblom, 259. 
Berri, Due de, 274. 
Berti, Signor Grissato, 60. 
Bethlehem, 5. 
Bettens, E. D., xii. 
Bettens, Mrs. L. E., xii. 
Bibliography, see French painting. Bib- 
liography; Painting. Bibliography, 
etc. 
Bird, 68. 
Biretta, 89, 90. 
Black, no, 139. 
Blakeslee, T. J., 202. 



Blakeslee Galleries, New York, 201, 202. 
Bliss, E. P., xii. 
Blue, 109, 116. 

Blumenthal, George and Florence, New 
York. 

Antoniazzo Romano, 157. 

Bernardo Daddi, 34, 37. 

Francesco di Giorgio, 124. 

Giovanni di Paolo, 121. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino ?, 70. 

Taddeo di Bartolo, 114. 
Bodegones, 242. 
Bole, xviii, 103, 112. 
Bologna, 178, 185, 186, 193, 310. 

Gallery, 218. 
Boniface vrn, pope, 129, 164. 
Bonnal,'Dr., Nice, 109. 
Book (carried by apostles), 36. 
Bordeaux, 96. 

Bordonaro collection, Palermo, 297. 
Borenius, Tancred, 52, 159, 162. 
Borgia family, 167. 
Borgo San Sepolcro, 118, 126. 
Boston. Fenway Court, see Fenway 

Court, Boston. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts, xi, 268, 
305, 306. 

Fra Angelico, 32. 

Bartolo di Fredi, 101. 

Attributed to Boccatis, 147. 

Bramantino, 186, 187. 

Carpaccio, 214. 

Claude Lorrain, 278. 

Cozzarelli, 101. 

Cranach the Elder, 258, 264. 

Crivelli, 209, 214. 

Attributed to Gerard David, 291. 

Van Dyck, 290, 311. 

Fayoum portrait, 8. 

El Greco, 244. 

Greek v century relief, 269. 

Master of St. Severin, 258. 

Master of the Holy Family, 258. 

Attributed to Lippo Memmi, 101. 

Moroni, 187. 

School of Perugino, 147. 

Philippe de Champaigne, 278. 

Ribera, 244. 

Sano di Pietro, 101. 

Segna, 101. 

Andrea Solario, 187, 196. 

Spanish school (Borrassa ?), 244. 

Timoteo della Vite, 147. 



GENERAL INDEX 



331 



Boston. Museum of Fine Arts (contin'd). 

Ugolino da Siena, 101. 

Velazquez, 244. 

Bartolommeo Vivarini or School, 
214, 218. 

Van der Weyden, 290, 291, 297, 301. 

Madonna after van der Weyden, 
298. 

Wolgemut, 258. 
Bourges, 275. 
Bracht, Herr, Berlin, 73. 
Brasses, Rubbings from, xii. 
Brescia, 186. 

Bridal chests, see Cassoni. 
Brittany, 274. 
Brown, A. V. V., 159. 
Brown ochre, v. 
Browning, R., 60. 

Brownlow, Lord, Ashridge Park, 128. 
Bruges, 286, 287, 293, 303. 
Brussels, 291, 307. 

Gallery, 297. 

Print Room, 301. 
Budapest. Gallery, 262. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino ?, 73. 

Spinello Aretino, 47, 52. 

Umbrian school, 170. 
Buddha, 9. 

Biirkl, Herr von, Munich, 261. 
Bullard, F., xi. 
Burg, J. van der, 296, 298. 
Burgundy, 253, 274, 275. 
Burlington Fine Arts Club, London, 248. 
Bye, Mr. and Mrs., 296. 
Butler, Charles, London, 81. 
Byzantine ideal, 10, 93. 
Byzantine painting, 1-17, 93, 94. 

Bibliography, n. 

History, 3-10. 
Byzantine-Gothic painting, 184, 207, 

215- 

Byzantium, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 

Cabot, Louis, Boston, 78. 

Cabot, W. M., xi. 

Caccialupi, Count Augusto, Macerata, 

177. 
Calabria, Duke of, 124. 
Calf bearer, 5. 

Camerino, 144, 145, 151, 154- 
Cappa, 128, 129. 
Cardinal, 129-130. 
Carlisle, Lord, 312. 



Carlsruhe. Museum. 

Zeitblom, 259. 
Carmelite order. Habit, no. 
Carnation, 79. 

Cary, Mrs. E. M., ix, xii, xiv. 
Cassel. Gallery, 297. 
Cassoni (Bridal chests), 25, 81-82. 
Castile, 240, 241, 242, 243. 
Casts, ix. 

Catalonia, 240, 241. 

Cavalcaselle, see Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 
Cecconi, Signor, Florence, 128. 
Celtic illumination, 317-318. 
Cenci family Vicovaro, 225. 
Cennino Centum, xvii, xviii, 47, 129, 130. 
Chalice, 106, 267. 
Chantilly. Musee Cond6. 

Sassetta, 118. 

Tres Riches Heures of the Due de 
Berri, 274. 
Charles 1, king of England, 289, 310. 
Charles n, king of Spain, 244. 
Charles v, emperor, 242, 307. 
Cherries, 152, 179. 
Cherubim, 115-116. 

Chiaramonte Bordonaro collection, Pa- 
lermo, 297. 
Chiaroscuro, xvii, 100. 
Child, F. J., 322. 
China, 4, 95, 96. 
Chinvat bridge, 95. 
Chioggia, 222. 

Chiusuri, Monte Olive to di, 50. 
Choral angels, 116. 
Chriophorus, 5. 
Christ, 5, 9, 109, no, 179. 
Christ in Limbo, 9, 14-15, 11 9-1 20. 
Christ Pantocrator, 9. 
Citta, di Castello, 170. 
Civalli, Father Horace, 171. 
Clark, W. A., New York, in. 
Cleveland. Museum of Art. Holden 
collection. 

Leandro Bassano, 235. 

Lorenzo di Credi, 83. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 70. 

Polidoro da Lanciano, 233. 
Cluny, 129. 
Cobalt, vi. 
Coins, xii. 
Collegarli, 114. 
Colmar, 252, 253, 254, 257. 
Cologne, 52, 252, 253, 274, 285, 287, 291. 



332 



GENERAL INDEX 



Colour, Significance of, ioo-iio. 

Colour terminology, iv-vi. 

Colours appropriate to Christ, Madonna, 
saints, and angels, 109-110, 115- 
116. 

Compagnia di San Luca, Rome, 156-157. 

Compagnia e Fraternita, di San Luca, 
Florence, 38. 

Confraternita de' pit tori, Florence, 38. 

Constantine, emperor, 3, 6, 8, 236. 

Constantinople, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 95. 

Consular diptych, xx. 

Continuous method of representation, 80. 

Cook collection, Richmond, 170. 

Coolidge, J. T., Boston, 137. 

Cope, 49. 

Cordova, 241. 

Cortona, 102, 118. 

Cosimo de' Medici, 1st duke of Tuscany, 
201. 

Cotignola, 178. 

Council of Basle, 253. 

Council of Lyons, 129. 

Council of Nicaea, 10. 

Council of Troubles, 308. 

Counter-Reformation in Flanders, 289. 

Court of Blood, 308. 

Cremona, 31, 185. 

Crete, Minoan art of. Reproductions, 
xii. 

Crosier, 47, 49, 50, 133. 

Cross surmounting globe, 236. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 52, 60, 69, 87, 
156, 159, 169, 170, 171, 222. 

Cruciferous nimbus, see Cruciform nim- 
bus. 

Crucifixion, 9. 

Cruciform nimbus, 67-68. 

Cup, 106, 267. 

Curtis, H. G., xi. 

Daisy, 247. 

Damasus, pope, 129. 

Dante, 26, 42, 100. 

Darmstadt. Museum, 170. 

Davis, Theodore M. Collection, see New 

York. Metropolitan Museum. 

Davis collection. 
Decoration of churches, Byzantine, 5, 6, 

9- 
Deesis, 14, 16. 
Deruta, 149. 
Descent from the cross, 263. 



Descent into Hell, 9, 14-15, 11 9-1 20. 
Design and representation, Exhibition 

illustrating principles of, xiii. 
Detroit. Museum of Art, 70. 
Devil, 138-139. 
Dijon, 274, 275. 
Diptych, xix. 

Consular, xx. 
Dollfus collection, 4. 
Dominican order. Habit, no. 
Donor, 42, 43. 

Dorchester House, London, 62. 
Dorio, Durante, 151. 
Dormition of the Madonna, 49. 
Douglas, Capt. Langton, 51, 52. 
Drawings, xi. 
Dreicer, Michael, New York. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 70. 

Van der Weyden, 291. 
Dresden. Gallery, 209. 
Dreyfus collection, Paris, 155. 
Dublin. Trinity College Library, 317. 
DuCluzel d' Oloron sale, 41. 
Dudley Gallery, 53. 
Durante Dorio, 151. 
Dyke, Benjamin, 322. 

East and West, Intercourse between, 95- 
96. 

Easter Hymn, 116. 

Eastlake, C. L., xix, 301. 

Eastnor Castle, Ledbury, 72. 

Ecclesiastical vestments, see Names of 
vestments, such as Cope, Gloves, 
Mozzetta. 

Eclectic school, 242. 

Edgell, G. H., 100, 147, 290. 

Egypt, 4. 

Eleonora of Aragon, 188. 

Eleonora of Toledo, 201. 

Elliott, John, Newport, 225. 

Ely. Cathedral, 319. 

Emerson, Mr. (dealer), 37. 

Empoli. Gallery. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 69. 

Encaustic method of painting, 8. 

Englewood. Piatt collection, see Piatt, 
D. F. 

English law, Manuscripts and books re- 
lating to, 319. 

English painting, 315-323. 
Bibliography, 321. 
History, 317-321. 



GENERAL INDEX 



333 



English portrait and landscape painters, 
212. 

Engraving in Germany, 253-254, 255, 
256, 257, 258. 

Ephesus, 6. 

Erasmus, 257. 

Este, Borso d', duke of Ferrara, 188. 

Este, Ercole d', duke of Ferrara, 58, 188. 

Eustis, W. E. C, Boston, 84, 85. 

Everett, H. E., 159. 

Exhibition of Flemish painting, Fogg 
Art Museum, 1016, 308. 

Exhibition of French primitives, Paris, 
1904, 280. 

Exhibition of Italian paintings, Fogg 
Art Museum, 1915, 105. 

Exhibition of Italian primitives in aid of 
the Ameiican war relief, Klein- 
berger Galleries, Nov., 1917, 64, 
123, 125, 157. 

Exhibition of primitive pictures at the 
galleries of Mai tin Hofer, New 
York, Nov., 1915, 248. 

Exhibition of works by the Early Flem- 
ish painters, Guildhall, London, 
1906, 298, 301. 

Explanatory notes, xvi-xx. 

Exposition des orphelins d' Alsace-Lor- 
raine, 1885, 43. 

Fabri, Signor Pio, Rome, 162. 

Fabrics, 216-217. 

Faenza, 193. 

Fairfax Murray, see Murray, C. F 

Farabulini, D., 171, 172. 

Farrer, F. W., 202. 

Fayoum portraits, 8. 

Feasts, the Twelve, 9, 14, 15. 

Fenway Court, Boston. 

Fra Angelico, 32. 

Bacchiacca, 32. 

Paris Bordone, 214. 

Botticelli, 32. 

Bramantino, 187. 

Bronzino, 32. 

Catena, 214. 

Cima da Conegliano, 214. 

Francois Clouet, 278. 

Alonso Sanchez Coello, 244. 

Correggio, 187. 

Lorenzo di Credi, 83. 

Crivelli, 214. 

Bernardo Daddi, 32, 34. 



Fenway Court, Boston {continued) 

Domenico Veneziano, 32. 

Diirer, 258. 

Van Dyck, 290, 311. 

Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, 147, 163. 

Pier dei Franceschi, 147. 

Francia, 187. 

Agnolo Gaddi, 32. 

Giambono, 214. 

Giorgione, 214. 

Giotto, 32. 

Giovanni di Paolo, 101. 

Holbein the Younger, 258. 

Liberate da Verona, 187. 

Pietro Lorenzetti, or " Ugolino Lor- 
enzetti," 101, 104, 108. 

Andrea Mantegna, 187. 

Attributed to Masaccio, 32. 

Antonio Moro, 290, 307. 

Moroni, 187. 

Pesellino, 32, 62. 

" Compagno di Pesellino," 71, 73. 

Pintoricchio, 147, 166. 

Antonio Pollaiuolo, 29, 32. 

Raphael, 147. 

Rubens, 290. 

Leonardo Scaletti, 193. 

Schongauer, 258. 

Scorel, Jan van, 290. 

Sebastiano del Piombo, 214. 

Simone Martini, 101. 

Attributed to Squarcione, 187. 

Tintoretto, 214. 

Titian, 214. 

Cosimo Tura, 187, 188, 190. 

Andrea Vanni, 101, in. 

Velazquez, 244. 

School of the Verg6s, 244. 

Attributed to Vermejo, perhaps by 
the Master of Santo Domingo, 244 

Attributed to Veronese, 214. 

Zurbaran, 244. 
Ferdinand of Castile, 247. 
Ferrara, 31, 146, 178, 185, x86, 188, 190, 
291. 

Dukes of, 58, 188. 
Ferrarese-Cavalieri collection, 223. 
Ficino, Marsilio, 81. 
Ex-Fischof collection, New York, 157. 
Fish, 5. 

Fiske, Mrs. George, xii. 
Flemish method of painting, see Flemish 
technique. 



334 



GENERAL INDEX 



Flemish painting, 283-313. 
Bibliography, 290. 
History, 285-290. 
Flemish technique, xvi, xvii, xviii, 145, 

209, 221, 241, 285-286. 
Florence, 26, 28, 31, 39, 58, 62, 65, 74, 
83, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100, 102, 
143, 144, 240, 241, 291, 310. 
Academy. 
Bernardo Daddi, 33, 37. 
Domenico Ghirlandaio, 78. 
Pesellino, 62. 
Badia. 

Filippino Lippi, 77. 
Baptistery, 8. 
Bigallo, 33, 37, 39. 
Carmine, Brancacci Chapel, 28, 57, 

77- 
Carmine, Convent, 57. 
Ognissanti, 128. 
Or San Michele, 41. 
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, 65 
Panciatichi collection, 128. 
Rinuccini collection, 306. 
San Giorgio gate, 33. 
San Giusto a Signano, 37. 
San Miniato, 44. 
Sta. Croce, 33. 
Sta. Maria Novella, 42. 

Duccio, 96. 

Domenico Ghirlandaio, 74. 

Orcagna, 74. 
Sta. Maria Nuova, xvii, 30, 287. 
Santa Trinita, 74. 
Spedale degli Innocenti, 55. 
Uffizi. 

Jacopo di Cione, 39. 

Crucifix, 34. 

Bernardo Daddi, 33. 

Domenico Ghirlandaio, 78. 

Memlinc, 152, 302. 

Michelangelo, 305. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 72. 

Simone Martini, 112. 
Florentine painting, 23-90. 

Bibliography, 32. 

History, 25-32. 
Flowers, 79, 152, 247. 
Fogg, W. H., ix. 
Fogg, Mrs. W. H., ix. 
Fogg Art Museum. 

Architect, ix. 

Classical department, xii. 



Fogg Art Museum (continued). 

Collection of early paintings, xiii-xv. 
Bibliography, xiv-xv. 

Drawings and water colours, xi, xii, 
xiii. 

Exhibitions, 105, 308. 

Friends of the, Society of, xiv, 36, 
52, 63, 109, 112, 246. 

History, ix-xiii. 

Library, xiii. 

Oriental collection, xii— xiii. 

Photographs, xiii. 

Print collection, xi, 185, 254, 255, 
256, 258. 

Slides, xiii. 
Fogg collection of paintings and curios, 

ix. 
Foligno, 67, 146, 149. 
Fontainebleau, Chateau of, 276. 
Fontainebleau, School of, 276. 
Forbes, E. W., vi, 10, 132. 
Francis 1, king of France, 276, 277. 
Franconia, 252, 259, 264. 
Frankfort. Staedel Institute. 

Madonna after van der Weyden, 
297. 
Frederick, king of Prussia, 171. 
Frederick the Wise, 251, 264. 
Freer, C. L., xii. 
French painting, 271-281. 

Bibliography, 278. 

History, 273-277. 
Fresco, xvi, 6, 7, 8, 25, 28, 30, 74, 75, 94, 

97, 104, 242. 
Fresco a secco, xvi. 
Frick, H. C, New York. 

Antonello da Messina ?, 276. 

Giovanni Bellini, 221. 

Gerard David, 293. 

Van Dyck, 311. 

Van der Weyden, 291. 
Friedsam, Michael, New York. 

Van der Weyden, 291. 
Friends of the Fogg Art Museum, Society 

of, xiv, 36, 52, 63, 109, 112, 246. 
Friuli, 95, 198. 
Fruit, 68, 152, 179. 
Fry, Roger, 169. 
Furnes, 298. 
Furniture panels, 25, 81, 82. 

Gable, xix: 
Gaeta, 89. 



GENERAL INDEX 



335 



Gaillon, Chateau de, 196, 276. 

Galese, Duca di, 199. 

Gandhara sculpture, xii, 4. 

Gardner, Mrs. J. L., Collection, see Fen- 
way Court. 

Garlands, 302. 

Gelder, Michel van, 297. 

Gemistos, Giorgios, 81. 

Geneva, 253. 

Genoa, 114, 310. 

Gentiles, 109. 

German painting, 249-269. 
Bibliography, 258. 
History, 251-258. 

German technique, xviii, 252. 

Gesso, xviii, 12. 

Ghent, 286, 287. 

Giorgios Gemistos, 81. 

Giotteschi, 27, 33, 44, 207, 216. 

Globe, 236. 

Gloves, 164. 

Gnoli, Count U., 151. 

Gobelins factory, 277. 

God the Father, 144, 146, 160-161. 

Goldman, Henry, New York, 51, 293. 

Good Shepherd, 5. 

Gotha. Museum, 254. 

Gothic architecture, 251, 273. 

Gothic art, 25, 26, 27, 28, 94, 97, 183, 
207, 208, 218, 252, 254, 273, 276, 
285, 302. 

Gourd, 179. 

Graecht, Baron van der, Bruges, 308. 

Granada, 244, 298. 

Granvelle, Cardinal, 307. 

Gray, F. C, xi. 

Gray collection of prints, xi. 

Gray, Significance of, no. 

Greece, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9- 

Greek mythology, 80, 81. 

Greek sculpture, x, xi, xii. 

Greek vases, xi. 

Green, 109, no, 116. 

Greene, Miss Belle da C, New York, 34. 

Grimm, H. Life of Michael Angelo, 306. 

Grisaille, 274. 

Gualdo Tadino, 146, 152. 

Gubbio, 144, 166. 

Guild of doctors and apothecaries, see 
Arte de' medici e speziali. 

Guild of painters, Rome, 156-157. 

Guilds, 37-38. 

Guillaume de Perier, 162. 



Haarlem, 293, 303. 

Haegen, Victor van der, Ghent, 298. 

Hainauer collection, 71. 

Hammer, 41. 

Harris, G. W., xiii, 298. 

Harrowing of Hell, see Descent into 

Hell. 
Hartlaub, G. F., 128. 
Harvard College Library, 322. 
Harvard Law School, xii, 319. 
Harvard University, 298. 

Class of 1895, xii. 

Portraits in, 212. 
Havell, E. B., 10. 
Hearn, George A., Collection, 280. 
Heaven, Court of, 5, 9. 
Hemenway, Augustus, Boston, 78. 
Hemenway family, Boston, 78. 
Henry vm, king of England, 320. 
Hermes, 269. 

Heugel collection, Paris, 116. 
Higginson, Mrs. H. L., Boston, 126. 
High Renaissance, 100, 146, 186. 
Highnam Court, Gloucester, see Parry, 
Sir Hubert, Highnam Court, Glou- 
cester. 
Himation, 9. 

Hofer, Martin, Galleries, New York, 248. 
Holden collection, Cleveland, see Cleve- 
land. Museum of Art. 
Holy Land, 264. 
Honorius n, pope, 164. 
Hooker, J. C, Rome, 172, 173. 
Hooker, Mrs. J. C, 173. 
Home, H. P., 60. 
Hortulus Anime, 1516, 301. 
Hunt, R. M., ix. 
Huntington, Mrs. C. P., New York. 

Lorenzo di Credi, 83. 

Matteo di Giovanni, 1 26. 
Hutton, Edward, 52, 159. 
Hymans, Henri, 308. 

Icon, 8. 

Iconoclastic controversy, 4, 6-7, 8. 

Iconography, 5, 9. 

See also special subjects such as 
Annunciation, Presentation of the 
Virgin, Raising of Lazarus. 

Illuminated law books, xii. 

Illuminated manuscripts, Italian (frag- 
ments of, in Fogg Art Museum), 



336 



GENERAL INDEX 



Illumination of manuscripts, xvi, xvii, 8, 
273-274, 275, 276-277, 285, 317- 
310- 

India, xii, 4, 96. 

Indian art, Spirit of, 10. 

Innocent iv, pope, 129. 

Innocent vm, pope, 157. 

Innsbruck, 264. 

" Intellectuals " (Florentine painters), 

29. 3 1 - 
International school, 26, 28, 62, 144, 183, 

207, 215, 240, 252, 274. 
Isabella of Gubbio, 171, 172. 
Italian painting, x, xi, 19-236. 
Bibliography, 21. 

Jackson, T. W., 53. 

Jacopo d' Arezzo, 50. 

Jaeger, U., Genoa, 167, 300. 

Japan, 4. 

Japanese works of art, collection of, in 

Fogg Art Museum, xi. 
Jarves, James J., 78. 
Jarves collection, see Yale University. 

Jarves collection. 
Jasmine, 79, 247. 

Jesuitical painting in Flanders, 289. 
Jews, 109. 
Johnson collection, Philadelphia, 81. 

Albertinelli, 86. 

Antoniazzp Romano, 157. 

Barna, 106. 

Leandro Bassano, 235. 

Benozzo Gozzoli, 65. 

Cranach the Elder, 264. 

Bernardo Daddi, 34. 

Gerard David, 293. 

Giovanni di Paolo, 121. 

Pietro Lorenzetti, or " Ugolino Lor- 
enzetti," 104, 108. 

Lotto, 226. 

Copy of Mantegna's Epiphany, 225. 

Matteo di Giovanni, 126. 

Quentin Metsys, 300. 

Antonio Moro, 307. 

Pesellino, 62. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 72. 

Sassetta, 118. 

Andrea Solario, 196. 

Spinello Aretino, 44. 

Taddeo di Bartolo, 114. 

Cosimo Tura, 188. 

Bartolommeo Vivarini, 218. 



Johnson collection {continued). 

Van der Weyden, 291. 

Ysenbrant, 303. 

Zeitblom, School of, 259. 
Judas, no. 
Julius 11, pope, 146. 
Justinian, emperor, 4, 6. 

Kahn, Otto H., New York, 83. 
Kami, Rodolphe, Collection, 298, 312. 
Kay, Arthur, Glasgow, 155. 
Kells, Monastery of, 312. 
Kings, Adoration of, 5, 190-191. 
Kleinberger Galleries, New York, 64, 

123, 125, 157, 246, 298. 
Kristeller, P., 225. 
Kronach, 264. 

Lambert, Miss Frances, 322. 
Lanciano, 233. 
Lane, Sir Hugh, 218. 
Lapis lazuli, v. 
Lappets, so- 
Last Judgment, 9, 13 s, 269. 
Laura, 96. 
Laurel, 113. 
Layard collection, see London. National 

Gallery. 
Le Mans, Museum, 64. 
Lehman, Arthur, New York, 73. 
Lehman, Philip, New York. 

Benvenuto di Giovanni, 132. 

Giovanni di Paolo, 121. 

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, 102. 

Pesellino ?, 64. 

Bartolommeo Vivarini, 218. 

Ysenbrant, 303. 
Leighton, Sir Frederic, 173, 219. 
Lemon, Margaret, 310. 
Leo in, the Isaurian, emperor, 7. 
Leo x, pope, 146. 
Leonora of Aragon, 188. 
Leonora of Toledo, 201. 
Lily, 79, 113, 13s, 152- 
Lily of Aragon, Order of, 247. 
Line drawing, 318. 
Lion, 60, 129. 

Liverpool. Walker Art Gallery, 73. 
Llanshaw Court, Gloucester, 322. 
Loan exhibition of Flemish painting, 

Fogg Art Museum, 1916, 308. 
Loan exhibition of Italian paintings, Fogg 
Art Museum, 1915, 105. 



GENERAL INDEX 



337 



Loan exhibition of Italian primitives, 
Kleinberger Galleries, Nov., 1917, 
64, 123, 125, rs7. 
Loeb, James, xii, xiii, 322. 
Loeser, Charles, iii, 87, 225. 
Logan, Mary, 63. 

London. British Museum, 231, 320, 323. 
Burlington Fine Arts Club, 248. 
Burlington House, 82 (see also Royal 

Academy). 
Dorchester House, 62. 
Grafton Galleries, 64, 248. 
National Gallery. 

Antonello da Messina, 209. 
Giovanni Bellini ?, 222 (Layard col- 
lection). 
Benvenuto di Giovanni, 134. 
Bonfigli, 67. 
Van Dyck, 313. 
Van Eyck, 286, 300. 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, 160 (Salting 

collection). 
Pintoricchio, 170. 
Raphael, 87. 
Umbrian school, 170. 
Madonna after van der Weyden, 
297. 
National Portrait Gallery, 320, 323. 
New Gallery, 82, 248. 
Royal Academy, 173, 202, 248 (see also 

Burlington House). 
South Kensington Museum (Victoria 
and Albert Museum), 72, 173, 323. 
Longyear, J. M., Boston, 196. 
Louis xiii, king of France, 277. 
Louis xiv, king of France, 277. 
Louvain, 287. 
Lowell, J. R., 322. 
Luther, Martin, 264. 
Lydig, Capt. Philip, xiii. 
Lydig, Mrs. Philip, 71, 308. 
Lyons, Council of, 129. 

Macedonia, 7. 
Macerata, 177. 

Madonna, 5, 8, 9, 42, 57, 94, 97, 99> "3. 
116, 144, 146, 152, 247, 302. 

Death, 281. 

Dormition, 49. 

Dress, 109, no, 216-217. 

Flemish type of, 285. 

Flowers, 79, 152. 

Presentation, 16. 



Madrid, 240, 242, 243. 
Escorial. 
Ribera, 243. 
Van der Weyden, 291. 
Prado, 307. 
Traumann collection, 297. 

Magi, Adoration of, 5, 190-191. 

Malatesta, Roberto, 172. 

Male, E., 191. 

Mallet, 49. 

Mander, C. van, 288. 

Mantle, 9. 

Mantua, 310. 

Manuscripts, Illuminated, see Illumina- 
tion of manuscripts. 

Marches, The, 143, 144, 145, 146, 149, 
154, 208. 

Margaret of Parma, 307. 

Marsilio Ficino, 81. 

Mary of Hungary, 307. 

Mary Tudor, queen of England, 307, 320. 

Mather, F. J., Jr., 295, 296, 297, 298. 

Matthys collection, Brussels, 297. 

Maubeuge, 288. 

Maximilian, emperor, 251, 255, 296, 298. 

Medallion, xix. 

Medals, Reproductions, xi. 

Medici, Cosimo de', 81. 

Medici, Cosimo 1, duke of Tuscany, 201. 

Medici, Lorenzo de', 81. 

Medium, xvi. 

Meiningen, 37. 

Mersch, Kathleen van der, 296. 

Metropolitan Museum, see New York, 
Metropolitan Museum. 

Meyer van der Bergh collection, Ant- 
werp, 297. 

Middleton, J. H., 317. 

Milan, 31, 32, 183, 185, 196* 2 9i- 
Brera. 
Agnolo degli Erri ?, 194. 
Umbrian school, 170. 
Palazzo Borromeo, 166. 
Poldi-Pezzoli Museum, 198. 

Milanesi, G., 60. 

Millet, Mon. byz. de Mistra, 14. 

Miniature painting, see Illumination of 
manuscripts. 

Miniature portrait painting, 320. 

Minoan art of Crete, Reproductions, xii. 

Minor arts, Greek and Roman, xii. 

Minturn, R. S., 70. 

Mirandola, Pico della, 81, 188. 



338 



GENERAL INDEX 



Mississippi, steamship, 312. 

Mistra, 7, 14. 

Mitre, 49-50. 

Modena, 186. 

Monte Corvino, 95. 

Monte Oliveto, Confraternity of, 50. 

Monte San Giusto, 226. 

Montefalco, 65, 143, 146, 149. 

Montefeltro, Federigo, 163, 172. 

Guidobaldo, 172. 
Montepulciano, 114. 
Moore, C. H., x, xi, xiii. 
Morbidezza, xvii, 100. 
Morelli, 173. 
Morey, C. R., 14. 
Morgan, J. P., Collection, 312. 
Ghirlandaio, 74. 
Illuminated manuscripts, 293. 
Fra Filippo Lippi, 57. 
Pintoricchio (Umbrian school), 169, 

170, 173. 
Tapestry, 130. 
Bartolommeo Vivarini, 218. 
Umbrian school (Pintoricchio ?), 

169, 170, 173. 
Van der Weyden, 291 (Metropolitan 

Museum). 
Windmill Psalter, 319. 
Morison, Capt. Horace, 44. 
Mosaic tiles, xiii. 

Mostra dell' antica arte senese, 130. 
Mostra internazionale Raffaellesca, Ur- 

bino, 173. 
Moulins, 275. 
Mozzetta, 89-90. 
Munich. Pinakothek. 

Cranach the Elder, 264. 
Van der Weyden ?, 291, 297, 301. 
Zeitblom, 259. 
Murray, C. F., xiii, 45, 103, 219, 222, 

227, 266, 322. 
Musical instruments, 155. 
Myrtle, 79. 



Naples, in, 209. 
Museum. 

Attributed to Ghirlandaio, 78. 

Umbrian school, 170. 
Nativity, 5. 
Neoplatonism, 29, 99. 
Nevin collection, Rome. 

Bernardino di Mariotto, 177. 



New Haven. Jarves collection, see Yale 

University. Jarves collection. 
New York. Hispanic Museum. 

Antonio Moro, 307. 
New York. Historical Society. 
Bernardo Daddi, 34. 
Gerard David, 293. 
New York. Metropolitan Museum. 
Benozzo Gozzoli, 65. 
Benvenuto di Giovanni, 132, 137 
(attributed also to Girolamo di 
Benvenuto). 
Cranach the Elder, 264. 
Lorenzo di Credi, 83. 
Gerard David, 293. 
Van Dyck, 311. 
Giovanni di Paolo, 121. 
Girolamo di Benvenuto, 132, 137 
(attributed also to Benvenuto di 
Giovanni). 
Fra Filippo Lippi, 57. 
Pietro Lorenzetti, 104. 
Lotto, 226. 

Matteo di Giovanni, 126. 
Quentin Metsys, 300. 
Pesellino, 62. 
Andrea Solario, 196. 
Spinello Aretino, 44. 
Cosimo Tura, 189. 
Van der Weyden, 291. 
Ysenbrant, 303. 
New York. Metropolitan Museum 
(Davis collection). 
Attributed to Pintoricchio (perhaps 

by Antoniazzo), 157. 
Taddeo di Bartolo, 114. 
Bartolommeo Vivarini, 218. 
Nicaea, Council of, 10. 
Nicolas iv, pope, 42. 
Nimbus, Cruciform, 67-68. 
Nocera Umbra, 152. 
North Italian painting, 181-203. 
Bibliography, 187. 
History, 183-186. 
Northesk, Earl of, Collection. 

Sassetta, 120. 
Norton, C. E., ix, x, xi, 322. 
Norton, R., x. 
Nuremberg, 252, 254, 255. 
Germanic Museum. 
Master of Peringsdorf Altar, 301. 
Madonna after van der Weyden, 
297. 



GENERAL INDEX 



339 



Ochre, v. 

Oil painting, xvi, xvii, xviii, 25, 74, 209, 

221, 230, 241, 285-286, 319. 
Okkonen, O., 162. 
Old Testament, 9, 65, 87. 
Olive branch, 113. 
Orb, 236. 
Oriental art, Analogies with Sienese, 95- 

96. 
Oriental art in the Fogg Museum, xi, xii- 

xiii. 
Orphrey, 49. 
Orvieto, 65. 

Osmaston, F. P. B., 230. 
Otranto, Sack of, 126. 
Ottley, Italian school of design, 300. 
Oudewater, 293. 
Ox, 109. 

Oxford. Ashmolean Museum, 51. 
Bodleian Library, 323. 
Worcester College, 52. 

Padua, 31, 114, 183, 184, 185, 207, 208, 
209, 218, 221. 

Arena Chapel, 42. 

Eremitani Chapel, 188. 

Oratory of St. George, 183. 

San Antonio, 31. 
Painted Chamber, Westminster, 319. 
Painters' Guild in England, 319. 
Painting. Bibliography, xxi-xxiv. See 
also Byzantine painting. Bib- 
liography; Florentine painting. 
Bibliography, etc. 
Painting, Processes of, xvi-xvii. 
Palaeologi, The, 4, 7. 
Palestine, 6. 
Pallium, 9. 
Palm, 36, 113. 
Palmer, G. H., xi, 233. 
Panciatichi collection, Florence, 128. 
Panel, Preparation and painting, xvii- 

xviii. 
Paris, 96, 274. 
Louvre, 277. 

Henri Bellechose, 275. 

Jan van Eyck, 286. 

Justus of Ghent, 163. 

Master of St. George, 240. 

Antonio Moro, 307. 

Pesellino, 62. 

Umbrian school, 170. 
Paris, University of, 273. 



Parry, Sir Hubert, Highnam Court, 
Gloucester. 
Bernardo Daddi, 23. 
Master of the Innocenti Coronation, 

55- 
Pesellino, 62. 
Passavant, J. D., 171. 
Paul n, pope, 129. 
Pavia, 124. 

Don Pedro de Toledo, 201. 
Pekin, 95, 96. 
Pelican, 37. 
Penryhn, Lord, 301. 
Perier, Guillaume de, 162. 
Perkins, C. B., 178. 
Perkins, C. C. 

Bernardo Daddi, 36. 
Girolamo di Benvenuto, 138. 
Master of the Innocenti Coronation, 

56. 
Polidoro, 234. 
Zaganelli, 178. 
Perkins, F. M., iii, 53, 71, 108, 122, 125, 
151, iS7, 159, 162, 167, 177, 194, 
199, 216, 222. 
Persia, 3, 4, 6, 9. 
Persian Moresque tiles, xiii. 
Perth. Gallery, 52. 

Perugia, 95, 114, 143, 145, 146, 149, 154, 
166, 176. 
Gallery. 
Benozzo Gozzoli, 67. 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo ?, 145, 169. 
Gentile da Fabriano, 116. 
Pintoricchio, 166, 167. 
Taddeo di Bartolo, ir4. 
Palazzo Comunale, Sala del Gran 

Consiglio, 170. 
Sta. Maria Nuova, 169. 
Pesaro. San Cassiano, 215. 
Petrarch, 96. 

Petrograd. Hermitage Gallery. 
Santa Croce, 224. 
Van der Weyden, 297, 301. 
Philadelphia. Academy of Fine Arts, 72. 
Philip 1 (of Castile and Aragon — son of 

Maximilian 1), 296, 298. 
Philip 11, king of Spain, 242, 307. 
Piccolomini, Aeneas Sylvius, 166. 
Pico, Francesco, 188. 
Pico deUa Mirandola, 81, 188. 
Pigments, v-vi, xvi. 
Pillion, L., 129. 



34-0 



GENERAL INDEX 



Pinnacle, xix, 103, in, 112. 
Pisa, 114. 
Campo Santo. 

Benozzo Gozzoli, 65. 

Spinello Aretino, 44. 

Triumph of Death, 97. 
San Michele in Borgo, 45. 
Pistoia, 78. 
Pius n, pope, 166 (Aeneas Sylvius Picco- 

lomini). 
Platonic Academy, 81. 
Piatt, D. F., Englewood, N. J. 

Antoniazzo Romano, 157. 

Benvenuto di Giovanni, 132. 

Boccatis, 154. 

Bernardo Daddi, 34, 37. 

Francesco di Giorgio, 124. 

Givanni di Paolo, 121. 

Girolamo di Benvenuto, 137. 

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, 102. 

Matteo di Giovanni, 126. 

Niccold da Foligno, 149. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 73. 

Sassetta, 118. 

Taddeo di Bartolo, 114, 122. 

Bartolommeo Vivarini, 218. 
Poliziano, Angelo, 81. 
Polyptych, xix. 
Pomegranate, 68. 
Pompeii, 8. 

Ponsonby collection, xii. 
Pope, A. A., ix. 

Pope, Arthur, 32, 186, 213, 231. 
Pope, Death of, 49. 
Pope, Tiara, 164. 
Popes, see names of individual popes; 

Julius n, Nicolas rv, etc. 
Pordenone, 198. 
Portinari, Tommaso, 287. 
Portraits in Harvard University, 212. 
Portraiture, 42-43. 
Post-Impressionism, 243. 
Poynter, Sir Edward, 173. 
Prague. Rudolfinum, 301. 
Prato, 57, 58. 
Carmine. Cappella Dragoni, 60. 
Cathedral, 57, 58. 
Gallery. 

Fra Diamante, 58. 
Pratt, Mr. and Mrs. H. I., New York. 

"Compagno di Pesellino?", 71. 

Attributed to Sassetta, 118. 

Cosimo Tura, 189. 



Predella, xix. 

Preparation and painting of a panel, 

xvii-xviii. 
Pre-Raphaelites, 212. 
Presentation of the Virgin, 16. 
Prichard, W. M., ix. 
Prichard fund, ix, xiv, 36. 
Princeton University, 14, 295. 
Processes of painting, xvi-xvii. 
Prophets, 9. 
Providence. Rhode Island School of 

Design, 44. 
Psychostasis, 269. 
Pungileoni, P. L., 171. 
Putti, 302. 

Quatrefoil, xix. 
Quilter, Harry, 51. 
Quilter, Mrs. Harry, 51. 

Raising of Lazarus, 16. 
Ramboux collection, 52. 
Randall, J. W., xi. 
Randall collection of prints, xi. 
Rankin, William, 159, 199. 
Raphael- Ausstellung, Dresden, 173. 
Raphaelites, Pre-, 212. 
Ravenna, 8, 42, 178. 
Red, 109, us, Il6 > x 39- 

Worn by cardinals, 129-130. 
Reformation, 251, Counter-Reformation, 

289. 
Renaissance, 25, 28, 30, 31, 93, 98, 99, 

114, 126, 143, 144, 154, 160, 184, 

185, 207, 208, 213, 241, 251, 255, 

256, 257, 275, 286, 287, 300, 302. 
Renaissance, High, 100, 146, 186. 
Renaissance sculpture, Italian (Kneeling 

angel), xi. 
Rend, King, 275. 
Representation, Continuous method of, 

80. 
Representation and design, Exhibition 

illustrating principles of, xiii. 
Rhode Island School of Design, 44. 
Rhine, 252, 254. 

Richard n, king of England, 319. 
Ridolfi, 229. 
Rieti, 156. 

Right, The (place of honour), 135. 
Rimini, Roberto Malatesta, lord of, 172. 
Rinuccini collection, Florence, 306. 
Rio, del, family, 308. 



GENERAL INDEX 



341 



Robinson, Sir C, 246. 
Rochet, 89. 
Roll, 36. 
Romagna, 143. 
Romagnoli, 128. 

Roman school, 26, 145, 147, 156. 
Romanesque period, 273. 
Rome, 3, 6, 8, 65, 86, 89, in, 146, 147, 
156, 212, 226, 288, 291, 307, 310. 
Aldobrandini collection, 87. 
Aracoeli. Bufalini Chapel, 166. 
Barberini Gallery, 163, 223. 
Borghese Gallery, 227. 
Corsini Gallery, 162. 
San Giovanni in Laterano, 42. 
Lateran Museum, 160. 
San Marco, 163. 
Sta. Maria della Pace, 162. 
Sta. Maria del Popolo, 166. 
Sta. Maria in Aracoeli, see Aracoeli. 
Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, 163. 
Pantheon, 162, 163. 
Sciarra collection, 89. 
Sterbini collection, 37. 
Tor de' Specchi, 159. 
Torlonia collection, 115. 
Torlonia family, 159. 
Vatican. Borgia apartments, 166, 167. 
Library. 
Antoniazzo Romano, 156, 157. 
Ghirlandaio, 74, 156. 
Melozzo da Forli, 157. 
Sistine Chapel. 
Fra Diamante?, 58. 
Ghirlandaio, 74. 
Michelangelo, 31. 
Perugino, 157, 166. 
Pintoricchio, 166. 
Stanze, 146. 
Villa Albani, 152. 
Roose de Calesberg, Arnold de Pret, 

Collection, 312-313. 
Rose, 79, 152, 247. 
Ross, D. W., v, x, xii, xiii, 194. 
Rossi, A., 151. 
Rouart, Ernest, Paris, 170. 
Rouart, Henri, 170. 
Rubbings from brasses, xii. 
Ruskin, J., xi, xiii, 50. 100, 219, 231. 
Russia, 5. 

Rust, Dr. F. L. D., 56, 138- 
Ruthven, Mary, 310. 
Ryerson, M. A., Chicago, 44, 121. 



Sachs, Arthur, 216. 

Sachs, P. J., x. 

Sachs, Samuel, 230, 231, 308. 

Saint 

Augustine, 134. 

Bernardino, 94. 

Catherine, 94, 98, in. 

Fabian, pope, 164. 

Francis, 42, 152. 

Gabriel, Archangel, 113, 281. 

Ignatius, 84. 

Jerome, 60, 84, 128-129. 

John the Evangelist, 109. 

Joseph, 109, no. 

Joseph of Arimathea, 263. 

Luke, 302. 

Michael, Archangel, 269, 281. 

Monica, 135. 

Nicodemus, 263. 

Nicolas of Tolentino, 135. 

Paul, 5. 

Peter, 5, no. 

Sebastian, 146, 152, 164. 
Saints, Lives of, 9. 
Salting collection, 169. 
Salvatori, Signora, Florence, 67. 
San Gimignano, 65, 69, 70, 75, 76, 114. 
Collegiata. 

Barna, 97, 106. 

Ghirlandaio, 74, 75, 247. 
Municipio, 97. 
Sant' Agostino, 69. 
San Miniato al Tedesco, 114. 
San Severino, 144, 145, 176. 
Santa Croce, 224. 
Santa Croce family, Rome, 190. 
Santa Fiora, Contessa di, Rome, 190. 
Saracini collection, Siena. 

Sassetta, 118. 

Andrea Vanni, 112. 
Sassari, 219. 
Savonarola, 29, 86. 
Saxon school, 257, 264. 
Schubring, P., 80, 81, 128, 190. 
Schwanthaler, Ludwig, 268. 
Sciarra collection, Rome, 89. 
" Scientists " (Florentine painters), 29, 

3°, 3i- 

Scrovengo, Enrico, 42. 

Sculpture, see Gandhlra sculpture; 
Greek sculpture; Renaissance sculp- 
ture. 

Seddon, Mr., 322. 



342 



GENERAL INDEX 



Sedelmeyer collection, 194-195. 

" Sentimentalists " (Florentine painters), 

29. 
Seraphim, 115. 
Serbia, 7. 
Settignano. Berenson collection, see Ber- 

enson, B., Collection. 
Severn, Arthur, 231. 
Seville, 240, 242, 243. 
Sfumatura, xvii, 100. 
Shaw, Quincy A., Boston, Collection, 218. 
" Shop-pictures," 242. 
Sicily, 8. 

Siculo-Byzantine art, 93. 
Siena, 26, 44, 70, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 

100, 102, 104, in, 114, 118, 121, 

124, 126, 132, 166, 240. 
Gallery. 

Benvenuto di Giovanni, 134. 

Bernardo Daddi ?, 34. 

Spinello Aretino, 52. 
Baptistery, 118. 
Cathedral. 

Duccio, 96. 

Francesco di Giorgio, 124. 

Taddeo di Bartolo, 114. 
Cathedral. Piccolomini Library, 138, 

166. 
Compagnia di Sta. Caterina, 122. 
Osservanza, 118. 
Palazzo Borghesi, 128. 
Palazzo Pubblico. 

Guido da Siena, 93. 

Simone Martini, 42, 97. 

Spinello Aretino, 44. 

Taddeo di Bartolo, 114. 
Palazzo Pubblico. Sala della Pace. 

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, 102. 
San Domenico, in. 
San Francesco, 137. 
San Stefano alia Lizza, 112. 
Saracini collection, 112, 118. 
Sienese painting, 91-139. 

Bibliography, 101. 

History, 93-100. 
Siren, Osvald, 36, 39, 41, 45, 51. 52, 55, 

125, 202. 

Sixtus rv, pope, 58, 156, 157. 

Skull, 37. 

Smith, Joseph Lindon, Boston, 106. 

Society of Friends of the Fogg Art Mu- 
seum, see Fogg Art Museum, 
Friends of. 



Somerset, Lady Henry, 72. 
Soul, Weighing of, 269. 
Space composition, 144, 145. 
Spalliera, see Wall panel. 
Spanish painting, 237-248. 

Bibliography, 245. 

History, 239-244. 
Spello. Collegiata. Baglioni Chapel, 166. 
Sperimento, Convent of, 151. 
Spielmann, M. H., 323. 
Spoleto, 57, 58, 143. 
Staley, Edgcumbe, 37. 
Star, 135. 
Steinmann, E., 58. 
Sterbini collection, Rome, 37. 
Stillman, W. J., xiii. 
Sterling, Major General John, 169. 
Stokes, Thomas, 322. 
Strasburg, 257, 297. 
Stuttgart. Museum, 259. 
Suabia, 252, 253, 259. 
Suida, W., 33. 
Sutton, Rev. A. F., Brant Broughton, 

Newark, England, 63. 
Switzerland, Painters of, 253, 257. 
Syria, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Tafi, Andrea, 8. 

Tempera painting, xvi, xvii, xviii, 25, 74, 

94, 96, 97, 221, 230, 3*9- 
Tenebroso manner, 242-243. 
Teramo, 215. 
Terra cottas, xii. 
Terra verde, xviii. 
Terranuova, 58. 
Textiles, xiii. 
Thaxter, John, 197. 
Thirty Years' War, 258. 
Tiara, 164. 
Toledo, 242. 
Torcello, 8. 

Torlonia collection, Rome, 115. 
Torlonia family, 159. 
Tornabuoni, Giovanni, 74. 
Torquemada, 242. 

Toscanella. Palazzo Municipale, 170. 
Toscanelli collection, 45, 75. 
Tournai, 241, 286, 291. 
Tours, 274, 275. 

Traumann collection, Madrid, 297. 
Trefoil, xix. 
Trent, 198. 
Triest family, 312. 



GENERAL INDEX 



Trinity, 67. 

Triple crown, 164. 

Triptych, xix. 

Tucher, Baron, 67. 

Tunic, 9. 

Turkestan, xiii, 4. 

Tuscany, Duke of, 201. 

Twelve Feasts, see Feasts, the Twelve. 

Type, Flemish, 285. 

Types in Byzantine painting, 5, 9. 

Types in painting, 144, 146. 

Ulm, 252, 255, 259. 
Ultramarine, v. 
Umbrian painting, 141-179. 
Bibliography, 147. 
History, 143-147- 
University of Paris, 273. 
Untermeyer collection, Yonkers, N. Y., 

86. 
Urban v, pope, 164. 

Urbino, 124, 146, 163, 170, 171, 172, 185, 
287. 
Federigo of Montefeltro, duke of, 

163, 172. 
Guidobaldo, duke of, 172. 
Mostra internazionale Raffaellesca, 
173- 
Utrecht, 307. 

Valencia, 240, 241, 242, 243. 
Van Rensselaer, G. G., xii. 
Van Rensselaer, Mrs. Schuyler, xii. 
Vasari, G., xvi, xvii, 33, 44, 45, 48, 50, 
Si, 57, 74, 83, 86, 100, 114, 156, 
170, 172, 201, 209. 
Vases, xi, xii. 

Venetian method of painting, see Vene- 
tian technique. 
Venetian painting, 205-236. 
Bibliography, 214. 
History, 207-213. 
Venetian red, 5. 

Venetian technique, xvi, xviii, 211, 221. 
Venice, 8, 31, 144, 184, 186, 207, 208, 209, 
211, 215, 221, 224, 226, 233, 235, 
291, 310. 
Academy, 219. 
Francesco Rizzo da Sta. Croce, 224. 
Jacobello del Fiore, 215. 
Ducal Palace, 208. 
Leandro Bassano, 235. 
Gentile da Fabriano, 183. 



343 



Venice, Ducal Palace (continued). 
Guariento, 207, 215. 
Jacobello del Fiore, 21s. 
Pisanello, 183, 207. 
Tintoretto, 207, 229-230, 231. 
Madonna dell' Orto, see Sta. Maria 

dell' Orto. 
San Cassiano, 209. 
San Marco, Scuola di, 229. 
San Rocco, 212, 229, 232. 
Sta. Maria dell' Orto, 229. 
Scuole, 208. 
Venturi, A., 162, 190, 194. 
Vercelli, 186. 
Vermilion, v. 
Verona, 183, 185, 186, 193, 201, 213. 

Gallery, 225. 
Via Flaminia, 146. 
Viadana, 218. 
Vicenza, 198, 199. 
Vicovaro, 225. 
Victory, 5. 

Vidal Ferrer collection, Barcelona, 240. 
Vienna, 264. 
Imperial Gallery. 

Cranach the Elder, 264. 
Mabuse, 301. 
Memlinc, 302. 
Antonio Moro, 307. 
Villeneuve-les-Avignon, 275. 
Violet, no. 

Visconti Venosta collection, 222. 
Viterbo, 86. 
Vitzthum, G., 44. 
Volpi, E., 67. 
Volterra. Gallery, 78. 
Votive picture, 152. 

Wadsworth, Mrs. W. A., Boston, 70. 
Wall panel (Spalliera), 81, 82. 
Walters, Henry, Baltimore. 

Replica of Fogg Museum Taber- 
nacle attributed to Antoniazzo 
Romano, 157. 

Barna, 106. 

Bernardo Daddi, 34. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 72. 

Polidoro, 233. 

Francesco Rizzo da Sta. Croce, 224. 
Warren, E. P., xi. 
Water colour, xvi, xviii. 
Water-colour drawings, see Drawings. 
Weighing of Adonis, 269. 



344 



GENERAL INDEX 



Weighing of the Soul, 269. 

Wernher collection, London, 241. 

Westminster, Paintings, 319. 

Westphalia, 256. 

Wetzel, H. E., 325. 

White, 107, no. 

White, A. T., Brooklyn, N. Y., 293. 

White, W. A., Brooklyn, N. Y., xii, xiii, 

293- 

Widener collection, Elkins Park, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Antoniazzo Romano, 157. 

Benozzo Gozzoli, 65. 

Benvenuto di Giovanni, 132. 

Lorenzo di Credi, 83. 

Gerard David, 293. 

Van Dyck, 311. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 72. 
Williams, The Misses, 105, 194. 
Wilczeck collection, Vienna, 297, 301. 
Wills, Howel, Florence, Collection, 51. 
Wilson collection, Yorkshire, 236. 
Wilton House, 319. 



Winchester, 318. 
Windsor Castle, 257. 
Winthrop, G. L., New York. 

Bernardo Daddi, 34. 

Giovanni di Paolo, 121. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 70. 
Wittemberg, 264. 
Worcester, Massachusetts, Art Museum. 

Antoniazzo Romano, 157. 

Benozzo Gozzoli, 65. 



Yale University. Jarves collection, xi. 

Benvenuto di Giovanni, 132, 137. 

Bernardo Daddi, 34. 

Domenico Ghirlandaio, 74. 

Giovanni di Paolo, 121. 

Girolamo di Benvenuto, 132, 137. 

Pier Francesco Fiorentino ?, 70. 

Sassetta, 118. 
Yellow, 1 09-1 10, 116. 
Yellow ochre, v. 
Yerkes collection, 73. 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



Adoration of the Kings, Fogolino ? (No. 

40), 198. 
Adoration of the Kings, Cosimo Tura (No. 

37), 189, 187. 
Adoration of the Lamb, Hubert and Jan 

van Eyck, 286. 
Adoration of the Magi, see Adoration of 

the Kings. 
Agnolo degli Erri, 194. 
Alberti, Leo Battista, 81, 124. 
Albertinelli, Mariotto, 86-88, 31. 
Aldegrever, Heinrich, 256. 
Alemagna, Giovanni d', 208. 
Alexander the Great, Mother of ? (Ideal- 
ized head), xii. 
Allegories of Good and Bad Government, 

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, 102, 103. 
Allegretto Nuzi, 33, 144. 
Altdorfer, Albrecht, 256. 
Altichiero Altichieri, 183, 184. 
Alunno, Niccold, see Niccold da Foligno. 
Alunno di Domenico, 78. 
Anastasis, see Descent into Hell. 
Andrea da Firenze, 27. 
Andrea da Licio, 146. 
Andrea del Sarto, 30, 31, 100, 276. 
Andrea Pisano, 44. 
Andrea Vanni, see Vanni, Andrea. 
Angelico, Fra, 27, 28, 32, 43, 57, 62, 65, 

67, 98, 118, 121, 154, (" Flemish Fra 

Angelico "), 287. 
Anne of Brittany, Hours of, 274. 
Annunciation, Juan de Burgos (No. 51), 

246. 
Annunciation, Lorenzo di Credi (No. 14), 

84. 
Annunciation (Fragment of), Ghirlan- 

daio (No. n), 75. 
Annunciation (Gable), Master of the In- 

nocenti Coronation (No. 5), 55, 160. 
Annunciation {Scenes from the Life of 

Christ), School of Orcagna (No. 2), 40, 

160. 
Annunciation, Pantheon, 162, 163. 
Annunciation, Antoniazzo Romano, 163. 



Annunciation, Simone Martini, 95, 97, 

112. 
Annunciation, Andrea Vanni (No. 20), 

112, xiv. 
Annunciation to the Madonna of her ap- 
proaching Death, French school (No. 

59A), 279. 
Antonello da Messina, xvi, 196, 209, 221, 

276. 
Antoniazzo Romano, 156-165, 145, 170. 
Antonio da Murano, 208, 218. 
Antonio da Viterbo, 170. 
Aphrodite (Statue), xii. 
Apocalypse, Durer, 256. 
Apocalypse, Manuscripts of, 319. 
Aquilio, Antoniazzo di Benedetto, see 

Antoniazzo Romano. 
Aretino, Spinello, see Spinello Aretino. 
Arnolfini portrait, Jan van Eyck, 300. 
Assisi, Tiberio d', 145. 
Auweghem, Lord of, Portrait, Van Dyck 

(No. 65), 312. 
Avanzi, Jacopo d', 183. 

Bacchiacca (Francesco Ubertini), 31, 32, 

87. 
Bacchus and Ariadne, Tintoretto, 213, 

231. 
Baccia della Porta, see Fra Bartolommeo. 
Badile, Antonio, 201-202, 186, 213, 217. 
Baldovinetti, Alesso, xvii, 29, 69, 74, 76, 

159- 
Baldung, Hans, 257, 258. 
Balen, Hendrik van, 289, 310. 
Barbari, Jacopo di, 226. 
Barna, 106-107, 97, 101, 104. 
Bartolo, Domenico di, 98, 126, 143. 
Bartolo, Taddeo di, 114-117. 9^, "8, 122, 

143- 
Bartolo di Fredi, 98, 101, 108, 118. 
Bartolommeo, Fra, 30, 31, 86, 87. 
Bartolommeo di Giovanni, 78. 
Bartolommeo di Tommaso, 149. 
Basaiti, Marco, 210, 222. 
Bassani, The, 213. 



346 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



Bassano, Jacopo, 213, 235. 

Bassano, Leandro, 235-236, 43, 213. 

Bastiani, Lazzaro, 210. 

Bastiano Mainardi, 74. 

Battle of the Nudes, Antonio Pollaiuolo, 

xi, 29. 
Bazzi, Giovanantonio, 100. 
Bearing of the Body of the Madonna, 

French school (No. 59B), 280. 
Beauneveu, Andre, 274, 320. 
Beccafumi, Domenico, 100. 
Beham, Barthel, 256. 
Beham, H. S., 256. 
Bellechose, Henri, 275, 285. 
Bellini, The, 210. 
Bellini, Gentile, 207, 210, 221. 
Bellini, Giovanni, 221-223, xviii, 207, 

209, 210, 211, 213, 224, 226. 
Bellini, Jacopo, 207-208, 210, 221. 
Bellini family, 218. 
Bellini workshop, 208, 210. 
Bello, Marco, 225. 
Benaglio, Francesco, 185. 
Benedetto Bonfigli, see Bonfigli, Bene- 
detto. 
Benozzo Gozzoli, 65-68, 28, 43, 69, 75, 

132, 143, 146, 149, 154, 156. 
Benson, Ambrosius, 298. 
Benvenuto, Girolamo di, see Girolamo di 

Benvenuto. 
Benvenuto Cellini, 276. 
Benvenuto da Siena, see Benvenuto di 

Giovanni. 
Benvenuto di Giovanni, 132-136, 50, 99, 

100, 116, 137. 
Bernardino di Mariotto, 176-177., 145- 

146. 
Bernardo Daddi, see Daddi, Bernardo. 
Berruguete, Pedro, 242. 
Besozzo, 183. 
Bianchi, Francesco, 186. 
Bicci, The, 44. 
Bicci, Neri di, 69, 80. 
Bigordi, see Ghirlandaio. 
Bishop and Donor, Gerard David (No. 

6ob), see Madonna and Child — Bishop 

and Donor, Van der Weyden ? and 

David ? (No. 6oa-b). 
Bissolo, Francesco, 210. 
Blake, William, xiii. 
Bles, Herri met de, 288. 
Blondeel, Lancelot, 288. 
Boccatis, Giovanni, 154, 98, 145, 146, 147. 



Boccatis, School of, 154-155. 

Bonfigli, Benedetto, 67, 132, 145, 155. 

Bonifazio, 233. 

Book of Hours of Anne of Brittany, 274. 

Book of Kells, 317. 

Bordone, Paris, 212, 214, 227. 

Borgofia, Juan de, 242. 

Borrassa, Luis, 240, 244. 

Bosch, Jerom, 288. 

Botticelli, 29, 32, 43, 57, 74, 77, 81, 128, 

166. 
Bourdichon, Jean, 274. 
Bouts, Dierick, 286-287, 298, 300, 301. 
Bramante, 185. 
Bramantino, 186, 187. 
Broederlam, Melchior, 275. 
Bronzino, 31, 32, 201-202. 
Bruegel the Elder, 288. 
Brunelleschi, 28. 
Brusasorci, 201. 
Bruyn, Bartholomaus, 253. 
Building of the Temple, Pesellino ? (No. 

7), 63, xiv, xviii. 
Buonarroti, see Michelangelo. 
Burgkmair, Hans, 255. 
Burgos, Juan de, 246-248. 
Burne-Jones, xiii. 
Byzantine school, 12-17. 

Cain and Abel, Sacrifice of, Albertinelli 

(No. 15), 86. 
Caliari, Paolo, see Veronese. 
Camerino, Cola da, 144. 
Camerino, Girolamo da, 145. 
Campagnola, Domenico and Giulio, 198. 
Campin, Robert (Maitre de F16malle ?), 

286, 291. 
Canale, Antonio (Canaletto), 213. 
Cano, Alonso, 244. 
Caravaggi, The, 242. 
Cardinal, Portrait of a, Scipione Pulzone 

called Gaetano (No. 16), 89. 
Carli, Raffaelle dei, 31, 78. 
Caroto, 201. 

Carpaccio, Vittore, 210, 213, 214. 
Carracci, The, 277. 
Carrefio de Miranda, Juan, 244. 
Castagno, Andrea del, 29. 
Catena, Vincenzo, 210, 214. 
Cavallini, Pietro, 26. 
Cellini, Benvenuto, 276. 
Cennino Cennini, xvii, xviii, 47, 129, 130. 
Cerezo, Matteo, 244. 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



347 



Champaigne, Philippe de, 277, 278. 

Chaucer, Geoffrey, Portrait of, English 
school? (No. 66), 322. (Other por- 
traits of Chaucer), 320, 323. 

Christ — Scenes from the Life of, School of 
Orcagna (No. 2), 40, 106, no, 160. 

Christ — Scenes from the Life of, and the 
Life of the Madonna, Byzantine school 
(J), 17- 

Christ appearing to a Nobleman, Leandro 
Bassano (No. 50), 235, 43. 

Christ appearing to His Mother (Panel of 
Miraflores triptych), Van der Weyden, 
291. 

Christ bearing the Cross, Schongauer, 254. 

Christ in Limbo, Sassetta (No. 22), 119, 
14, no, 139. 

Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane, Ber- 
nardo Daddi (No. 1, Left wing), 35. 

Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane, Ger- 
man school (No. 57), 267. 

Christus, Petrus, 286. 

Cima da Conegliano, 210, 214. 

Cimabue, 26. 

Cimabue, Portrait of, 42. 

Cione, Andrea di (Orcagna), 39, 27, 41, 
42, 44, 74. 

Cione, Jacopo di, 39, 27, 41, 42. 

Cione, Nardo di, 39, 27, 42. 

Circumcision, Cosimo Tura, 187, 190. 

Claude Lorrain, 277, 278. 

Clouet, Francois, 277, 278. 

Clouet, Jean, 277. 

Coello, Alonso Sanchez, 242, 244. 

Coello, Claudio, 244. 

Cola da Camerino, 144. 

" Compagno di Pesellino," 63, 69, 71, 73. 

Coninxloos, van, The, 288. 

Conte, Jacopo del, 89. 

Cooper, Samuel, 320. 

Copley, J. S., xii, 212. 

Copy of Michelangelo's Holy Family, 
Flemish school (No. 63), 305. 

Corneille de Lyon, 277. 

Coronation of the Madonna (Gable of 
Monte Oliveto altarpiece), Spinello 
Aretino, 52. 

Correggio, xvii, 186, 187, 242. (Proto- 

Correggio), 145. 
Cosimo, Pier di, 30, 31, 81, 287. 
Cosimo Rosselli, 80, 86. 
Cosimo Tura, 188-192, 185, 187, 193. 
Cossa, Francesco del, 185, 193. 



Cossa, Follower of, —perhaps Scaletti, 

193-195- 
Costa, Lorenzo, 178, 185, 186. 
Cqtignola, Bernardino Zaganelli da, 178. 
Cotignola, Francesco Zaganelli da, 178- 

179. 
Cozzarelli, Guidoccio, 99, 101, 126. 
Cranach, Lucas, the Elder, 264-266, 257, 

258. 
Credi, Lorenzo di, 83-85, 78. 
Cremona, Girolamo da, 185. 
Crivelli, Carlo, 146, 149, 176, 177, 179, 

185, 208-209, 210, 214, 302. 
Crucifixion (Scenes from the Life of Christ) , 

School of Orcagna (No. 2), 40, 106. 
Crucifixion, Saints, Christ in the Garden 

of Gethsemane, Bernardo Daddi ? (No. 

1), 35, xix, 106, no. 
Cruz, Juan Pantoja de la, 242. 

Daddi, Bernardo, 33-38, xix, 27, 32, 97, 

106, 144. 
Dalmau, Luis, 241. 
Dance of Death, French representations 

of, 276. 
Dance of Death, Holbein the Younger, 

2S7- 
Daniele da Volterra, 229. 
Dante (Portraits), 42. 
David, Gerard, 291-299, xiii, xix, 43, 287, 

300, 303. 
Death of St. Benedict (Predella, Monte 

Oliveto Altarpiece), Spinello Aretino 

(No. 4c), 46, 48. 
Death of the Madonna (Predella, Monte 

Oliveto altarpiece), Spinello Aretino, 

52. 
Defendente Ferrari, 186. 
Dello Delli, 241. 

Deposition, Antonello da Messina, 276. 
Deposition, School of Pietro Lorenzetti 

(i8a), 105, 107, no. 
Descent from the Cross, German school 

(No. 55), 262, 106. 
Descent into Hell, Byzantine school (D), 

13- 
Deutsch, N. M., 257-258. 
Devonport, Turner, xiii. 
Diamante, Fra, 57-61. 
Diana, Tintoretto (No. 48), 230, 213. 
Diptych, Flemish, Van der Weyden ? and 

David ? (No. 60), 294, xiii, xix, 43, 50, 

164. 



348 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



Domenico di Bartolo Ghezzi, 98, 126, 

143- 
Domenico Morone, 185. 
Domenico Veneziano, xvii, 29, 31, 32, 43, 

62, 76, 80, 143, 144, 159. 
Donatello, 28, 31, 183, 184, 188, 208, 219, 

22i, 302. 
Doni Holy Family, Michelangelo, Copy 

of (No. 63), 305. 
Dosso Dossi, 186. 
Double panel, School of Pietro Loren- 

zetti and Barna ? (Nos. i8a-i8b), 105- 

107. 
Duccio di Buoninsegna, 26, 44, 93, 94, 96, 

97, 98, 104, 106, 108, 109, 118. 
Diirer, Albrecht, 251, 252, 254, 255, 256, 

257, 258. 
Dyck, A. van, 310-313, xiv, 244, 277, 

288, 289, 290, 308, 320-321. 

Eclectic follower of Ghirlandaio and 

Filippino Lippi, 77-79. 
Elsheimer, Adam, 258. 
English school, 322-323. 
Enrico Scrovegno, Portrait of, Giotto, 42. 
Entombment (Scenes from the Life of 

Christ), School of Orcagna (No. 2), 40. 
Epiphany, Andrea Mantegna, 225. 
Ercole Roberti, 178, 185, 193. 
Erri, Agnolo degli, 194. 
Este, Borso a", Portrait, Cosimo Tura, 189. 
Esther and King Ahasuerus, Flemish 

school ?, 280. 
Eusebio di San Giorgio, 145. 
Evangelista di Piandimeleto, 146. 
Eyck, Hubert van, 286. 
Eyck, Jan van, 241, 286, 300, 302. 
Eycks, van, The, 286, 291, 293. 

Fabriano, Gentile da, see Gentile da 

Fabriano. 
Faenza, Utili da, 80. 
Fei, Paolo di Giovanni, 98, 99, 118, 121. 
Ferrando de Llanos, 241. 
Ferrando Yafiez, 241. 
Ferrari, Defendente, 186. 
Filarete, 124. 

Filippo Lippi, Fra, see Lippi, Fra Filippo. 
Fiore, Francesco del, 215. 
Fiore, Jacobello del, 215-217, xiv, 207. 
Fiorentino, Pier Francesco, 69-73, 29, 75. 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, 31, 100, 145, 147, 

156, 157, 163, 166, 169, 170, 176, 177. 



Firenze, Andrea da, 27. 

" Flemish Fra Angelico," 287. 

Flemish diptych, Van der Weyden ? and 

David ? (No. 60), 294, xiii, xix, 43, 50, 

164. 
Flemish school, xvi c„ 305-306. 
Flemish school ?, Esther and King Aha- 
suerus, 280. 
Flight into Egypt, Cosimo Tura, 190. 
Fogolino, Marcello ?, 198-200. 
Fohgno, Niccolo da, see Niccold da 

Foligno. 
Foppa, Vincenzo, 185. 
Forge of Vulcan, Tintoretto, 231. 
Forli, Melozzo da, see Melozzo da Forli. 
Foucquet, see Fouquet. 
Fouquet, Jean, 274, 275. 
Francesca, Pier della, see Pier dei Fran- 

ceschi. 
Franceschi, Pier dei, see Pier dei Fran- 

ceschi. 
Francesco del Cossa, 185, 193. 
Francesco di Giorgio, 124-125, 99, 100. 
Francesco Melanzio, 145. 
Francesco Rizzo da Santa Croce, 224- 

225. 
Francia, II, 178, 185, 186, 187. 
Franciabigio, 31. 

Fredi, Bartolo di, 98, 101, 108, 118. 
French school, ab. 1500, 279-281. 
Froment, Nicolas, 275, 280. 
Frueauf, R., 255. 
Fungai, Bernardino, 100. 

Gabriello Saracini, 51. 

Gaddi, Agnolo, 27, 32, 39, 41, 42. 

Gaddi, Taddeo, 27, 107. 

Gaetano (Scipione Pulzone), 89-90. 

Galasso, 188. 

Garbo, Raffaellino del, 31, 78. 

Gattamelata, Donatello, 31. 

Geest, Cornelius van der, Portrait of, Van 

Dyck, 313. 
Genga, G., 137. 
Gentile da Fabriano, 116, 121, 143, 144, 

183, 207, 208, 215, 216. 
Gerini, Niccolo di Pietro, 39. 
German school, xvi c, 262-263, 267. 
German school (South German), 268- 

269. 
Gethsemane, Garden of, see Christ in the 

Garden of Gethsemane. 
Ghent, Justus of, see Justus of Ghent. 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



349 



Ghent polyptych, 286. 

Ghezzi, Domenico di Bartolo, 98, 126, 

143- 
Ghirlandaio, Benedetto, 74. 
Ghirlandaio, David, 74. 
Ghirlandaio, Domenico, 74-76, 28, 69, 78, 

128, 156, 166, 242, 247, 287. 
Ghirlandaio, Domenico, Eclectic follower 

of, 77-79. 
Ghirlandaio, Ridolfo, 78. 
Giacomo di Mino, 98. 
Giambono, 207, 214. 
Giannicola Manni, 145. 
Giorgio, Francesco di, 124-125, 99, 100. 
Giorgione, 185, 186, 210, 211, 212, 214, 

221, 226. 
Giotto, 8, 26-27, 32, 39, 41, 42, 44, 74, 93, 

94, 96, 104, 183, 184, 216, 251. 
Giovanni Boccatis, see Boccatis, Gio- 
vanni. 
Giovanni d' Alemagna, 208. 
Giovanni da Milano, 27. 
Giovanni da Udine, 147, 198. 
Giovanni di Paolo, 121-123, 98, 99, 100, 

101. 
Giovanni Francesco da Rimini, 155. 
Giovanni Pisano, 97, 104. 
Giovanni Santi, 146, 163, 172. 
Giovanantonio Bazzi (Sodoma), 100. 
Girolamo da Camerino, 145. 
Girolamo da Cremona, 185. 
Girolamo da Udine, 225. 
Girolamo dai Libri, 185. 
Girolamo del Pacchia, 100, 137. 
Girolamo del Santo, 199. 
Girolamo diBenvenuto, 137-139, 99, T 32- 
Girolamo Padovano, 199. 
Girolamo Sordo, 199. 
Giulio Romano, 147. 
Goes, Hugo van der, 30, 287, 293. 
Good and Bad Government, Ambrogio 

Lorenzetti, 102, 103. 
Gossaert, Jan, see Mabuse. 
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco, 244. 
Gozzoli, Benozzo, see Benozzo Gozzoli. 
Graf, Urs, 257-258. 
Granacci, Francesco, 31, 78. 
Grassi, Giovanni da, 183. 
El Greco, 243, 244. 
Greek V century relief, Boston Museum of 

Fine Arts, 269. 
Grimani breviary, 293. 
Griin, Hans Baldung, 257, 268. 



Griinewald, Matthias, 257. 
Gualdo, Matteo da, 146. 
Guardi, Francesco, 213. 
Guariento of Padua, 184, 207, 215. 
Gubbio, School of, 144. 
Guido da Siena, 93. 
Guidoccio Cozzarelli, 99, lor, 126. 
Guidoriccio Fogliani, Portrait of, Simone 
Martini, 42, 97. 

Hals, Franz, 230. 

Head of a Woman (Greek sculpture), xii. 

Herrera, Francisco de, the Elder, 242. 

Herri met de Bles, 288. 

Hesdin, Jacquemart de, 274, 285. 

Hilliard, Nicolas, 320. 

Hogarth, William, 321. 

Holbein the Elder, 255. 

Holbein the Younger, 251, 252, 256, 257, 

258, 320. 
Holy Family, North Italian school, — 

perhaps Piedmontese (No. 42), 203. 
Holy Family, Michelangelo, Copy of, 

Flemish school (No. 63), 305. 
Holy Family, Francesco Zaganelli (No. 

36), 178. 
Holy Family and St. John, Pintoricchio 

(No. 33), 167, no. 
Homer, Winslow, xii. 
Hours of Anne of Brittany, 274. 
Hungarian primitive, 262. 
Hunt, Holman, 323. 

Iliad, Manuscript of, in Vatican, 8. 

Ingegno, 170. 

Innocenti Coronation, Master of the, see 

Master of the Innocenti Coronation. 
Isenbrandt, see Ysenbrant. 
Isenheim altar piece, Griinewald, 257. 

Jacobello del Fiore, 215-217, xiv, 207. 

Jacopo d' Avanzi, 183. 

Jacopo da Casentino, 44. 

Jacopo del Conte, 89. 

Jacopo della Quercia, 302. 

Jacopo del SeUaio, 78. 

Jacopo di Barbari, 226. 

Jacopo di Cione, 39, 27, 41, 42. 

Jacquemart de Hesdin, 274, 285. 

Jordaens, Jacob, 289. 

Juan Bautista del Mazo, 244. 

Juan Carrefio de Miranda, 244. 

Juan de Borgofia, 242. 



3 So 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



Juan de Burgos, 246-248. 

Juan de Juanes, 242. 

Juan de Vald6s Leal, 244. 

Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, 242. 

Juanes, Juan de, 242. 

Judgment of Paris, " Paris Master " ? 

(No. 13), 80, 26. 
Justus of Ghent, 145, 146, 163, 287. 

Kells, Book of, 31 7. 

Kneeling Angel (Renaissance sculpture), 

xi. 
Kneeling Virgin, Ghirlandaio (No. 11), 

75- 
Kneller, Sir Godfrey, 321. 
Knight, Death and the Devil, Durer, 256. 
Knight's Dream, Raphael, 87. 

La Farge, John, xii. 

Lake 0' Hara, Sargent, xii. 

Lanciano, Polidoro da, see Polidoro da 

Lanciano. 
Landi, Neroccio di, 100, 124. 
Largilliere, Nicolas, 277. 
Last Supper, Leonardo da Vinci, 30. 
Lazzaro Bastiani, 210. 
Le Brun, Charles, 277. 
Le Sueur, Eustache, 277. 
Leighton, Sir Frederic, 173, 219. 
Lely, Sir Peter, 321. 
Leonardo da Vinci, 30, 31, 32, 83, 100, 

124, 146, 183, 185, 186, 196, 242, 276. 
Leyden, Lucas van, 199. 
Liberate da Verona, 185, 187. 
Liberatore, Niccold, see Niccolo da 

Foligno. 
Libri, Girolamo dai, 185. 
Licio, Andrea da, 146. 
Life of the Virgin, Durer, 256. 
Limbourg, Pol de, 285. 
Limbourg brothers, 274. 
Lindisfame Gospels, 318. 
Lippi, Filippino, 77, 29, 57, 78, 156. 
Lippi, Filippino, Eclectic follower of, 77- 

79- 
Lippi, Fra Filippo, 57-61, 29, 31, 43, 55, 

62, 69, 77, 143, 154, 183, 247. 
Lippo Mernmi, 97, 101, 106, in. 
Lippo Vanni, 98. 
" Little Masters," 256. 
Llanos, Ferrando de, 241. 
Lochner, Stephan, 252, 253. 



Lodovico di Angelo Mattioli, 176. 

Longhi, Pietro, 213. 

Lorenzetti, Ambrogio, 102-103, x ^> 33> 

97, "I- 
Lorenzetti, Pietro, 104, 97, 101, 108. 
Lorenzetti, Pietro, School of, 104-106. 
Lorenzetti, Ugolino, 108. 
Lorenzetti brothers, 102, 104, 106, 108, 

109, in, 118, 132, 143. 
Lorenzetti, School of the, 108-110. 
Lorenzo, Fiorenzo di, see Fiorenzo di 

Lorenzo. 
Lorenzo da San Severino the Younger, 

145, 176. 
Lorenzo di Credi, 83-85, 78. 
Lorenzo Monaco, 27, 45, 55, 57. 
Lorenzo Salimbeni, 154. 
Lorenzo Veneziano, 207. 
Lorrain, Claude, 277, 278. 
Lotto, Lorenzo, 226-228, no, 212. 
Luca Signorelli, see Signorelli, Luca. 
Luca di Olanda, 199. 
Luca di Tomm&, 97. 
Lucas van Leyden, 199. 
Luini, Bernardino, 186. 
Luis de Morales, 242. 
Luis de Vargas, 242. 
Luther, Martin, Portrait of, Lucas Cranach 

the Elder (No. 56), 265. 
Lyon, Corneille de, 277. 

Mabuse, 287, 300, 301, 302. 

Macknight, Dodge, xii. 

Madonna — Annunciation of Death of, 

French school (N0..59A), 279. 
Madonna — Bearing of Body of, French 

school (No. 59B), 280. 
Madonna — St. Luke painting the Por- ■ 

trait of, School of Quentin Metsys (No. 

61), 300. 
Madonna — Scenes from the Life of 

Christ and the Life of the Madonna, 

Byzantine school (J), 17. 
Madonna and Child, Giovanni Bellini ? 

(No. 45), 222, xviii. 
Madonna and Child, Benozzo Gozzoli 

(No. 8), 66. 
Madonna and Child, Byzantine school 

(E), 15. 
Madonna and Child, Francesco di Giorgio 

(No. 24), 125. 
Madonna and Child, Pier Francesco Fi- 

orentino (No. 9), 71. 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



351 



Madonna and Child, Andrea Solario ? 

(No. 39), 197. 
Madonna and Child, Bartolommeo Viva- 

rini ? (No. 44), 219. 
Madonna and Child — Bishop and Donor, 

Van der Weyden ? and David ? (Nos. 

6oa-b), 294, xiii, xix, 43, 50, 164. 
Madonna and Child and St. Jerome, 

Polidoro (No. 49), 233, 60, 128, 129, 

130. 
Madonna and Child and St. John, Pier 

Francesco Fiorentino (No. 10), 72. 
Madonna and Child and St. John, Fran- 
cesco Rizzo da Sta. Croce (No. 46), 

224. 
Madonna and Child and St. John with 

Angels, Antoniazzo Romano ? (No. 

3i)> 159- 

Madonna and Child with Angels playing 
Musical Instruments, School of Gio- 
vanni Boccatis ? (No. 30), 154, 302. 

Madonna and Child with Representations 
of the Twelve Feasts, Byzantine school 
(F), is- 

Madonna di Santa Chiara, Umbrian 
school (No. 34), 169. 

Madonna Enthroned between St. Francis 
and St. Peter Martyr, Master of the 
Innocenti Coronation (No. 5), 55> IIO > 
160. 

Madonna Enthroned between St. Sebastian 
and St. Roch, Eclectic follower of 
Ghirlandaio and Filippino Lippi (No. 

12), 77- 

Madonna Enthroned with Angels (Rucellai 
Madonna), Duccio, 96. 

Madonna Enthroned with Angels, Jaco- 
bello del Fiore (No. 43), 216, xiv. 

Madonna Enthroned with Angels, Spinello 
Aretino (No. 3), 45, 116, 217. 

Madonna Enthroned with Angels (Cen- 
tral panel of Monte Oliveto altarpiece), 
Spinello Aretino (No. 4A), 46, xiv, 116, 
217. 

Madonna Enthroned with Angels, Taddeo 

di Bartolo (No. 21), 115, i5*- 
Madonna Enthroned with Angels between 

St. Sebastian and St. Francis, Niccolo 

da Foligno (No. 29), 150, 43- 
Madonna Enthroned with Saints and 

Angels, Benvenuto di Giovanni (No. 

26), 133, 5°. " 6 - 
Mainardi, Bastiano, 74. 



Maitre de Flemalle (Robert Campin ?), 

286, 291. 
Maitre de Moulins, 275. 
Majestas, Duccio, 96. 
Majestas, Lippo Memmi, 97. 
Majestas, Simone Martini, 97. 

Malouel, Jean, 27s, 285. 

Manni, Giannicola, 145. 

Mantegna, Andrea, 31, 184-185, 187, 
188, 193, 207, 208, 209, 210, 219, 225, 
234, 3°2- 

Marco Bello, 225. 

Marco Zoppo, 155, 185. 

Mariotto, Bernardino di, 176-177, 145- 
146. 

Mariotto Albertinelli, 86-88, 31. 

Marriage of St. Catherine, Lippo Memmi ?, 
106. 

Marriage of St. Catherine, Bernardino di 
Mariotto (No. 35), 176. 

Martini, Francesco di Giorgio, 124-125, 
99, 100. 

Martini, Simone, see Simone Martini. 

Martino di Bartolommeo, 98. 

Martyrdom of St. Bosone, Sedelmeyer 
collec, 194-195. 

Martyrdom of St. Lucilla (Predella, 
Monte Oliveto altarpiece), Spinello 
Aretino (No. 4c), 46, 48, 49. 

Masaccio, 28, 32, 43, 55, 57, 62, 74, 77. 

Masolino, 27, 28, 55, 57, 77, 241. 

Master Berthold, 254-255. 

Master E. S., 254. 

Master of Flemalle, see Maitre de Fle- 
malle. 

Master of 1466, 254. 

Master of Moulins, see Maitre de Mou- 
lins. 

Master of St. Bartholomew, 253. 

Master of St. George, 240. 

Master of St. Severin, 253, 258. 

Master of Santo Domingo, 244. 

Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet, 254. 

Master of the Bigallo Triptych, 35. 

Master of the Crucifixions, 34. 

Master of the Hausbuch, 254. 

Master of the Holy Family, 253, 258. 

Master of the Innocenti Coronation, 55- 
56, no. 

Master of the Life of Mary, 253. 

Master of the Peringsdorf Altar, 301. 

Master of the Tucher Altar, 255. 

Master Roderigo, 241. 



352 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



Master Roderigo n, 241. 
Master Wilhelm, 252, 285. 
Matteo da Gualdo, 146. 
Matteo da Siena, see Matteo- di Gio- 
vanni. 
Matteo di Giovanni, 1 26-131, 60, 99, 

100, 132. 
Mattioli, Ludovico di Angelo, 176. 
Mazo, Juan Bautista del, 244. 
Melancholia, Diirer, 256. 
Melanzio, Francesco, 145. 
Meleager, xii. 
Melozzo da Forli, 143, 144, 145, 156, 157, 

159, 162, 287. 
Memlinc, Hans, 152, 287, 291, 293, 298, 

302. 
Memmi, Lippo, 97, 101, 106, in. 
Messina, Antonello da, xvi, 196, 209, 221, 

276. 
Metsys, Quentin, 287, 293, 300, 301, 302. 
Metsys, School of, 300-302. 
Mezzastris, Pier Antonio, 67, 146, 149. 
Michelangelo, 30, 31, 74, 144, 146, 185, 

229, 242, 243, 3°5-3°6. 
Michelangelo — Conversation reported 

by Francesco d'Ollanda, 306. 
Michelozzo, 302. 
Mignard, Pierre, 277. 
Milano, Giovanni da, 27. 
Minerva repelling Mars, Tintoretto, 231. 
Mino, Giacomo di, 98. 
Miracle of St. Catherine, Girolamo di Ben- 

venuto (No. 27), 137. 
Miraflores triptych, Van der Weyden, 

291. 
Monaco, Lorenzo, 27, 45, 55, 57. 
Monte Oliveto altarpiece, Spinello Aretino 

(Nos. 4A-4D), 46, xiv, 45, 116. 
Monmouth before King James II, Copley, 

xii, 212. 
Mor, Antonis, see Moro, Antonio. 
Morales, Luis de, 242. 
More, Sir Anthony, see Moro, Antonio. 
Moretto da Brescia, 186. 
Moro, Antonio, 307-309, 242, 288, 290, 

305> 320. 
Morone, Domenico, 185. 
Moroni, G. B., 186, 187. 
Multscher, Hans, 255, 259. 
Murano, Antonio da, 208, 218. 
Murillo, B. E., 239, 244. 
Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine, Ber- 
nardino di Mariotto (No. 35), 176. 



Nardo di Cione, 39, 27, 42. 

Nativity, School of the Lorenzetti (No. 

19), 108, 160. 
Nativity (Predella), Master of the Inno- 

centi Coronation (No. 5), 55, no. 
Nativity (Scenes from the Life of Christ), 

School of Orcagna (No. 2), 40. 
Nelli, Ottaviano, 144. 
Neri di Bicci, 69, 80. 
Nerly, 231. 

Neroccio di Landi, 99, 100, 124. 
Niccold da Foligno, 149-153, 43, 146. 
Niccold di Pietro, 207. 
Niccold di Pietro Gerini, 39. 
Niccold Liberatore, see Niccold da 

Foligno. 
North Italian school, — perhaps Pied- 

montese, 203. 
Nuzi, Allegretto, 33, 144. 

Occleve Portrait of Chaucer, 323. 

Oderisio of Gubbio, 144. 

Olanda, Luca di, 199. 

Oliver, Isaac, 320. 

Oliver, Peter, 320. 

Ollanda, Francesco d', 306. 

Orcagna, Andrea (Andrea di Cione), 39, 

27, 41, 42, 44, 74. 
Orcagna, School of, 39-43. 
Orley, Bernard van, 288. 
Ottaviano Nelli, 144. 

Pacchia, Girolamo del, 100, 137. 

Pacchiarotto, Giacomo, 100, 137. 

Pacheco, Francisco, 242. 

Padovano, Girolamo, 199. 

Palma Vecchio, 211, 221, 226, 234. 

Palmezzano, Marco, 178. 

Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan, 42. 

Paolo, Giovanni di, 121-123, 98, 99, 100, 

101. 
Paolo di Giovanni Fei, 98, 99, 118, 121. 
Paolo Veneziano, 207. 
Paolo Veronese, see Veronese, Paolo. 
Paris Bordone, 212, 214, 227. 
" Paris Master," 80-82. 
Parri Spinelli, 44. 
Pasture, Rogier de la, see Weyden, R. van 

der. 
Patinir, Joachim, 288. 
Pencz, Georg, 256. 
Penni, Francesco, 147. 
Pentecost, Niccold da Foligno, 157. 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



353 



Perugino, 31, 65, 83, 100, 137, i 43 , i 4S) 

146, 149, 157, 166, 169, 170, 172, 176. 
Perugino, School of, 147. 
Pesellino, Francesco, 62-64, xiv, xviii, 

2 9> 32, 57, 69, 82, 155. 
Pesellino, Compagno di, 63, 69, 71, 73. 
Pesello, Giuliano, 62, 65. 
Philippe de Champaigne, 277, 278. 
Piandimeleto, Evangelista di, 146. 
Piccolomini, Aeneas Sylvius, Scenes from 

the Life of, Pintoricchio, 166. 
Piedmontese school ?, 203. 
Pier Antonio Mezzastris, 67, 146, 149. 
Pier dei Franceschi, 31, 43, 99, 126, 143, 

144, I4S, i47> 154, 163, 188, 193. 
Pier di Cosimo, 30, 31, 81, 287. 
Pier Francesco Fiorentino, 69-73, 29, 75- 
Pierin del Vaga, 147. 
Pieta, Villeneuve-les-Avignon, French 

school, xv c, 275. 
Pietro di Perusi, 157. 
Pintoricchio, 166-168, 31, 65, 99, no, 

132, 145, 146, 147, 149, 156, 157, 169, 

173, 176, 170- 
Piombo, Sebastiano del, 211, 214. 
Pisanello, 183, 207, 208. 
Pisano, Andrea, 44. 
Pisano, Giovanni, 97, 104. 
Pleydenwurff, Hans, 255. 
Poggio, del, see Giovanni di Paolo. 
Polidoro da Lanciano, 233-234, 60, 128, 

129, 130, 212, 236. 
Pollaiuolo, Antonio, xi, 29, 32, 43, 124. 
Pollaiuolo, Piero, 29. 
Ponte, Leandro da, see Bassano, Leandro. 
Pontormo, 31. 
Pordenone (Giovanni Antonio de' Corti- 

celli), 233. 
Portinari altar piece, Van der Goes, 287. 
Portrait of a Cardinal, Scipione Pulzone, 

called Gaetano (No. 16), 89. 
Portrait of a Lady, Antonio Badile ? (No. 

41), 201, 217. 
Portrait of a Spanish Nobleman [Senor del 

Rio), Antonio Moro (No. 64), 308. 
Portrait of Borso d' Este, Cosimo Tura, 

189. 
Portrait of Cimabue, 42. 
Portrait of Cornelius van der Geest, Van 

Dyck, 313. 
Portrait of Dante, 42. 
Portrait of Enrico Scrovengo, Giotto, 42. 
Portrait of Geoffrey Chaucer, English 



school ? (No. 66), 322. (Other portraits 

of Chaucer), 320, 323. 
Portrait of Guidoriccio Fogliani, Simone 

Martini, 42, 97. 
Portrait of Martin Luther, Cranach the 

Elder (No. 56), 265. 
Portrait of Nicolas Triest, Van Dyck (No. 

65), 312, xiv. 
Portrait of Richard 11, 319. 
Portrait of St. Francis, 42. 
Poussin, Nicolas, 277. 
Poynter, SirE., 173. 
Presentation of the Virgin, Byzantine 

school (H), 16. 
Presentation of the Virgin and Saints, 

Byzantine school (G), 16. 
Primaticcio, Francesco, 147, 276, 320. 
Proto-Correggio, 145. 
Psalter, Queen Mary's, 319. 
Psalter, Windmill, 319. 
Pucelle, Jean, 274. 
Pulzone, Scipione, called Gaetano, 89-90. 

Queen Mary's Psalter, 319. 
Quercia, Jacopo della, 302. 

Raffaelle dei Carli, 31, 78. 
Raffaellino del Garbo, 31, 78. 
Raibolini, see Francia, II. 
Raising of Lazarus, Byzantine school (I), 

16. 
Raphael, 31, 65, 87, 94, 100, 143, 145, 

146, 147, i63> 170. 171, 172, 173, 185, 

196, 198, 212, 226, 242, 277, 288, 320. 
Raphael, Bottega, 147. 
Rembrandt, xiii, 258. 
Renzi, Alessandro, 233. 
Ribalta, Francisco de, 242, 243. 
Ribera, Jusepe de, 239, 243, 244. 
Richard II, Portrait of, Westminster, 319. 
Richard 11, Portrait of, Wilton House, 319. 
Rigaud, Hyacinthe, 277. 
Rimini, Giovanni Francesco da, 155. 
Rio, Antonio del, Portrait of, Antonio 

Moro (No. 64), 308. 
Rizzo da Santa Croce, Francesco, 224- 

225. 
Roberti, Ercole, 178, 185, 193. 
Robusti, Jacopo, see Tintoretto. 
Romanino, 186. 

Romano, Antoniazzo, 156-165, i45j 170. 
Romano, Giulio, 147. 
Rondinelli, Niccold, 178, 210, 222, 223. 



354 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



Ross, D. W., v, x, xii, xiii, 194. 

Rosselli, Cosimo, 80, 86. 

II Rosso, 276. 

Rubens, P. P., xvi, 230, 277, 288, 289, 

290, 310. 
Rucdlai Madonna, Duccio, 96. 
Ruskin, J., xi, xiii, 59, 100, 219, 231. 

Sacrifice of Cain and Abel, Albertinelli 

(No. is), 86. 
Saint (Figure of Monte Oliveto altar- 
piece), Spinello Aretino (No. 4D), 50. 
St. Agnes (Pinnacle of altarpiece), Am- 

brogio Lorenzetti (No. 17), 103, xix, 

in. 
St. Andrew and Scenes from his Life, 

Byzantine school (A-C), 12-13. 
St. Augustine, Botticelli, 128. 
St. Augustine (Predella, Monte Oliveto 

altarpiece), Spinello Aretino (No. 4c), 

46, 48. 
St. Benedict, Death of (Predella, Monte 

Oliveto altarpiece), Spinello Aretino 

(No. 4c), 46, 48, 
St. Benedict and St. Lucilla (Right wing 

of Monte Oliveto altarpiece), Spinello 

Aretino (No. 4B), 46, 47. 
St. Bosone, Martyrdom of, Sedelmeyer 

collection, 194-195. 
St. Catherine, Marriage of, Bernardino di 

Mariotto (No. 35), 176. 
St. Catherine, Marriage of, Lippo Memmi ?, 

101. 106. 
St. Catherine, Miracle of, Girolamo di 

Benvenuto (No. 27), 137. 
St. Catherine, Mystic Marriage of, Ber- 
nardino di Mariotto (No. 35), 176. 
St. Catherine and St. Reparata, Bernardo 

Daddi (No. 1, Right wing), 36. 
St. Elizabeth (Pinnacle of altarpiece), 

Andrea Vanni, in. 
St. Fabian, Pope, Antoniazzo Romano ? 

(No. 32), 161. 
St. Francis, Niccold da Foligno (No. 29, 

Right wing), 151. 
St. Francis, Portrait of, 42. 
St. James the Great and St. Anthony the 

Abbot, Bernardo Daddi (No. 1, Right 

wing), 36. 
St. Jerome, Ghirlandaio, Domenico, 128. 
St. Jerome in his Cell, Matteo di Gio- 
vanni (No. 25), 127, 60. 
St. Jerome in the Desert with St. John the 



Baptist and another Saint, Fra Filippo 

Lippi ? and Fra Diamante ? (No. 6), 

59, 128. 
St. John the Baptist, Giovanni di Paolo 

(No. 23), 122. 
St. John the Baptist, Ysenbrant (No. 62), 

3°3- 
St. John the Evangelist and St. Sebald, 

School of Zeitblom (No. 53), 261. 
St. Lucilla, Martyrdom of (Predella, 

Monte Oliveto altarpiece), Spinello 

Aretino (No. 4c), 46, 48, 49. 
St. Luke drawing the Portrait of the Ma- 
donna, van der Weyden, R., 297, 301. 
St. Luke painting the Portrait of the 

Madonna, School of Quentin Metsys 

(No. 61), 300. 
St. Mark, Melozzo da Forli, 128, 163. 
St. Mary Magdalene, Crivelli, 177. 
St. Maurelius, Altarpiece of, Cosimo 

Tura, 190. 
St. MiPrius, Scenes from the Life and 

Death of, Froment ?, 280. 
St. Nemesius and St. John the Baptist 

(Left wing, Monte Oliveto altarpiece), 

Spinello Aretino, 52. 
St Peter and St. Paul, Daddi (No. 1, 

Left wing), 36. 
St. Peter and St. Paul, School of Zeitblom 

(No. 54), 261. 
St. Peter Martyr, Lorenzo Lotto (No. 

47), 227, no. 
St. Sebastian, Melozzo da Forli ?, 162. 
St. Sebastian, Niccolo da Foligno (No. 

29, Left wing), 151. 
St. Sebastian and St. Thomas, Bernardino 

di Mariotto, 177. 
Salimbeni, Lorenzo, 154. 
Salimbeni, Lorenzo, the Younger, 145, 

176. 
Salimbeni brothers of San Severino, 144. 
San Giorgio, Eusebio di, 145. 
San Severino, Lorenzo da, the Younger, 

145, 176. 
San Severino, Salimbeni of, 144. 
Sano di Pietro, 98, 101. 
Santa Chiara, Madonna di, Umbrian 

school (No. 34), 169. 
Santa Croce, Francesco di Simone da, 

224. 
Santa Croce, Francesco Rizzo da, 224- 

225. 
Santa Croce family, 224. 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



355 



Santa Maria dei Fossi altarpiece, Pin- 

toricchio, 166, 167. 
Santi, Giovanni, 146, 163, 172. 
Santo, Girolamo del, 199. 
Sargent, J. S., xii. 
Sarto, Andrea del, 30, 31, 100, 276. 
Sassetta (Stefano di Giovanni), 118-120, 

14, 08, no, i2i, 139. 
Scaletti, Leonardo, 193-195. 
Scenes from the Life of Christ, School of 

Orcagna (No. 2), 40, 106, no, 160. 
Scenes from the Life of Christ and the Life 

of the Madonna, Byzantine school (J), 

17- 
Schaffner, Martin, 255. 
Schongauer, Martin, 251, 253, 254, 255, 

258, 259. 
Schiichlin, Hans, 255, 259. 
Scipio Gaetano, see Scipione Pulzone, 

called Gaetano, 
Scipione Pulzone, called Gaetano, 89-90. 
Scorel, Jan van, 288, 290, 305, 307. 
Sebastiano del Piombo, 211, 214. 
Seddon Portrait of Chaucer (No. 66), 322. 
Segna di Bonaventura, 96, 101. 
Sellaio, Jacopo del, 78. 
Signorelli, Luca, 31, ioo, 132, 144, 166, 

176, 177. _ 
Simone Cini, 50, 51. 
Simone Martini, 325, 26, 42, 93, 95, 96- 

97, 98, 99, 101, 104, 106, 108, 109, III, 

112, 118, 240, 275. 
Slaughter of the Innocents, Matteo di 

Giovanni, 99, 126, 128. 
Sloane Portrait of Chaucer, 323. 
Snyders, Frans, 289. 
Sodoma, 100. 

Solario, Andrea, 196-197, 185, 187, 276. 
Sokrio, Cristoforo, 196. 
Sordo, Girolamo, 199. 
South German school, xvi c, 268-269. 
Lo Spagna, 145. 

Spanish Nobleman (Signor del Rio), Por- 
trait of, Antonio Moro (No. 64), 308. 
Spanish school, xv c, 244. 
Speranza, Giovanni, 198. 
Spinelli, Parri, 44. 
Spinello Aretino, 44-54. xiv, 27, 33, 39, 

116, 217. 
Squarcione, Francesco, 31, 184, 185, 187, 

188, 208, 210, 218, 221, 302. 
Stamina, 241. 
Stefano, Francesco di, see Pesellino. 



Stefano di Giovanni, see Sassetta. 
Suardi (Bramantino), 186, 187. 

Tabernacle, Antoniazzo Romano ? (No. 

31), 159- 
Taddeo diBartolo, 114-117, 98, 118, 122, 

143- 
Temptation of St. Anthony, Schongauer, 

254- 
Teniers, David, the Younger, 289. 
Theotocopuli, Domenico, see El Greco. 
Three Graces, Tintoretto, 231. 
Three Saints, Umbrian school (No. 28), 

148. 
Tiberio d' Assisi, 145. 
Tiburtine Sibyl and Augustus, Master E. 

S., 254. 
Tiepolo, G. B., 213. 
Timoteo della Vite, 146, 147. 
Tintoretto, 229-232, 186, 201, 207, 212- 

213, 214, 235, 243. 
Titian, xvi, 185, 186, 201, 210, 211, 212, 

213, 214, 221, 226, 227, 229, 233, 234, 

235. 289, 308, 320. 
Tomme, Luca di, 97. 
Torbido, Francesco, 201. 
Torso of a boy, xii. 
Traini, Francesco, 97. 
Tres Riches Hemes, of the Due de Berri, 

274. 
Triest, Nicolas, Portrait of, Van Dyck 

(No. 65), 312. 
Triptych, Bernardo Daddi (No. 1), 35, 

xix, 106, no. 
Triptych, Niccold da Foligno (No. 29), 

iS°. 43- 
Triumph of Death, Campo Santo, Pisa, 97. 
Tura, Cosimo, 188-192, 185, 187, 193. 
Tura, Domenico di, 188. 
Turner, J. M. W., xi, xiii. 
Two Lovers, Master of the Amsterdam 

Cabinet, 254. 

Uccello, Paolo, 29, 31, 43, 81, 183. 
Udine, Giovanni da, 147, 198. 
Udine, Girolamo da, 225. 
Ugolino da Siena, 96, 101, 108. 
Ugolino Lorenzetti, 108. 
Umbrian school, 169-175, 148- 
Utili da Faenza, 80. 

Vaga, Pierin del, 147. 
Valdes Leal, Juan de, 244. 



356 



ARTISTS AND TITLES 



Vanni, Andrea, 111-113, xiv, 98, 101. 

Vanni, Lippo, 98. 

Vannucci, Pietro, see Perugino. 

Vargas, Luis de, 242. 

Vecchietta, Lorenzo, 98, 99, 100, 124, 126. 

Velazquez, Diego, 239, 240, 242, 243, 244. 

Vellert, D. J., 301. 

Veneziano, Domenico, xvii, 29, 31, 32, 

43, 6b, 76, 80, 143, i44> 159- 
Veneziano, Lorenzo, 207. 
Veneziano, Paolo, 207. 
Verg6s family, 241. 
Verg6s, School of the, 244. 
Vermeer, Jan, 286. 
Vermejo, Bartolome', 240, 241, 244. 
Verona, Liberate da, 185, 187. 
Veronese, Paolo, 186, 201, 202, 213, 214, 

217, 229, 231, 233. 
Verrocchio, Andrea del, 29, 74, 83, 159. 
Vinci, Leonardo da, see Leonardo da 

Vinci. 
Virgin of Pity, 276. 
Virgin of the Rocks, Leonardo da Vinci, 

3°- 
Visitation, Zeitblom ? (No. 52), 259, xiv, 

255- 
Visitation (Predella), Master of the In- 

nocenti Coronation (No. 5), 55. 
Vite, Timoteo della, 146, 147. 
Viterbo, Antonio da, 170. 
Vivarini, Alvise, 185, 196, 208, 209, 210, 

226. 
Vivarini, Antonio (Antonio da Murano), 

208, 218. 



Vivarini, Bartolommeo, 218-220, 185, 

208, 210, 214. 
Vivarini, The, 149, 218. 
Vivarini workshop, 208, 210, 212. 
Volterra, Daniele da, 229. 
Vouet, Simon, 277. 

Weighing of a Soul, South German school 

(No. 58), 268. 
Weighing of Adonis (Greek v c. relief), 

269. 
Weyden, Rogier van der, 291-299, xiii, 

xix, 43, 252, 254, 255. 286, 290, 301. 
Whistler, J. A. M., xii. 
Windmill Psalter, 319. 
Witz, Conrad, 253, 280. 
Wolgemut, M., 255, 258. 
" Woman, Behold thy Son," Bama ? 

(i8b), 106, no. 

Yanez, Ferrando, 241. 

Youth saluting a King, Leonardo Scaletti ? 

(No. 38), 193. 
Ysenbrant, Adrien, 303-304, 288, 298. 

Zaganelli, Bernardino, 178. 
Zaganelli, Francesco, 178-179. 
Zavattari, The, 183. 
Zeitblom, B., 259-260, xiv, 255. 
Zeitblom, B., School of, 261. 
Zoppo, Marco, 155, 185. 
Zucchero, F., 202, 320. 
Zurbaran, Francisco de, 244.