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Cornell Univ/c. lyLibuFy SkT*^! 

F 2508. D54 1907 



The Brazil of To-day 



Dr. Rodrigues Lima e sua administracao ( Pi'tipai^Mitila ri.'|tni)lii'MiKi ). 

— IS.-ilii.i. lyiKigrapliia Wilku I'iiard \ C. 1800, — I viiliime 
(■mil 111.') iiiiyiiias. 

Problema Naval. — Hid ile .Uiiicirii. T.V|in!jr:i|i|]ia da Eslalislica. 1889 

— 1 V(iliiiiiL' dc 37.1-xxv |iagiiia.s. ('.(iiii iiiii inxd'acid de Sciiador 
liny llarliiisa. 

Do Rio a Buenos Aires. (E|ii,sndii),s e iiiipres.sao de uma viatfcm ao 
Pralai. — l!io dc Janeini. 1001. Nacioiial. — I grosso 
viiluiiic (irn.'idd laim cerca de 200 es|ileiulidas gravnras. 

Algumas Paginas. Oiiesirie.s .sdbre defesa (nililica, poleiiiira , ele. — 
lialiia. lOnil. ']y|>. dd Coi'i-eio de Noticiits. — I Vdliiiiie, em 
(i|iliiiid |ia|i('l, cdiii 220 iiapiiias. 

HIS i:\(:ki.m:\(:v w ai'tonso I'Kwa 

rill sihiM oi iiii; liiiA/ii.iw tni'in'.i m; 

Arthur DIAS 




A book of Commercial, Political and Geographical Information 
on Brazil 

Impressions of Voyage, Descriptive and Picturesque data about the Principal Cities 

Prominent men and Leading Events of our Days 

with Illustrations and Statistics 

^ M.'W 


L A X X E A U & I) E S P 11 E T 

1' R I N T E R S 

X I V E L I- 15 S (B E L « I U m) 



I. — Introduction. — Politics. — Administration. 
Federai, Services. 

II. — Sciences. — Fine Arts. — Litterature. — Progress. 

The Brazil of To-day 

This great eound'y, already one of tlie largest, in the world when 
it made its appearance as an independent nation at the heginning of 
tlie last eentnry, has since added to its map several regions, botli at 
the North and South, not by means of military conquests, but through 
the decisions of intei'uational judges. At the beginning of this cen- 
tury tliere were only four flags unfurling their colors over communi- 
ties larger than the Brazilian Republic and they were : England, 
which is the largest euipii'c of the world, with its colonies and pos- 
sessions all ovei' ; Russia, with its Asiatic annexations ; the immense 
China whicli we maj' com])are A\ith a well, as it seems to grow at 
the proportion other nations take away from it some territoi-y; and 
tiie United States with its four million of squai'e miles much enlarg- 
ed by the victories won in the war against Spain. Of all these great 
countries, however, none has territorial honuigeneity, and what is 
still more impoi'tant , none has the homogeneity of its race as 

Brazil has. 

That enormous English empire is by itself a map of peoples with- 
out any other ties but its i)owei'fnl insti'uments of administration, 
so that, what we admire it foi', is not its tendency towai'ds desaggre- 
gation nearlj' exposing itself by the independence of the Australian 
federation, but for its aggremiation, as it exists to-day, conglome- 
rating artificially ethnic dispositions, liabits and customs, languages 
and social inclinations of impossible assimilation. 

The massive Russia is an aggravation of the English lieteroge- 
neity we referred to : is like the English empire but more crowded 
with antagonistic I'aces — the vSlavonic, Polish, Laplanders, Finlan- 
ders, Estonians, Armenians, Siberians, Parminiens and Georgians, 
Tartars and Tchoudians, in sliort, « line nionsiirneuHe ct diacordante 
agglomeration de peiiples, n as a certain geograplier put it. 

About China, empire of Tartai's and Mongolians, it is enough to 
say tliat only half of its enormous population is really Chinese. 

The United States, as a nationality, is the least heterogeneous 
of the four. It encloses within its boundai-y lines English Conti- 
nental States, French States, Mexican States, without speaking of 
the Spanish-Philippine ones added after the last war. 

In a word : Brazil is the only one of the gigantic conntries in- 
habited by a single nation. The Brazilians to counter balance the 
many incriminations justified by their inherited faults, owe to Por- 
tugal the inestimable benefit of the unity of the race, unity main- 
tained and strengthened through the evolution of the nationalitj% 
mainly by means of these two factors : language and religion. 

The religion adopted by the population of the country generally, 
without either fanaticism or intolerance, but I'ather with the legal 
consecration of the freedom of creeds, is one and the same in all the 
twenty States of the Republic. The small number of non-Roman-Ca- 
tholic churches, is not sufficient to alter faith in general. It is just 
like the case of that law of the impenetrability, in physics : there 
is no room. 

The language is, in our opinion, still a more valuable factor of the 
national cohesion. Any one travelling in Brazil, as I have done, from 
North to South, and from the cosmopolitan cities of the sea shore, 
with a high degree of European culture, to the most obscure villages 
of the interior, will not hear anything else but the same latin voice, 
harmonious and tuneful, expressing the same feelings, their folk lore 
and traditions, the same thoughts, the same philosophy, the same 
ideals, in short, by the productions of tlieir poets, their journalists, 
their orators, any one will understand most plainly the truth of that 
Dohne's judgment saying ; « the language is the only characte- 
ristic of a nation which cannot be adulterated. » 

This does not mean that the language spoken to-day in the vast 
territory of Brazil is strictly the language of Portugal and its philo- 
logers. — To say that would be not to understand, in its quantity 
and in its variety, the contingent with which the messoneist action 
and the collaboration of the aboriginal dialects intervene as irresis- 
tible modifiers and regulators, in the transfiguration of the prosody, 
of the syntax and even of the lexicology, of the vocabulary, in the 
difference of the speaking of the two peoples. The mother tongue 
was providentially sown in every corner of the Brazilian territory 
and there was preserved through all the alternatives of the history 
of Brazil, in spite of the presence of the diverse elements that ap- 
peared in the foundation of several cities, by Spaniards, Frenchmen, 

Dutclimen , Gei-iuans and Italians, either in the colonial period, or 
even after the political independence of Brazil. 

This double tie arranged in such a way the unity and the iden- 
tity of the Brazilian people, that, political superveniences which wei'C 
great modifiers as the one that in 1822, by the monarchy, changed 
the « Capitanins », into « prouincias », and the one that in 1889, 
by the republic, changed the « provincias » into federated states do 
not succeed in shaking in the least the joints of the body of rela- 
tions and interdependences, which transform the political-social life 
of each of the States into the life of only one national organism 
perfectly indivisible. The phenomenon, which is observed, by all 
foi'eigners who visit Brazil, with astonishment, has caused no little 
amount of envy on the part of the neighbors of Brazil. 

With such proportions, occupying an area of over one half of the 
continent, Brazil presents itself as a true collossus, if not comparing 
it with the territory of European countries , at least comparing it 
with the nations of the same continent. 

The most curious conjunction, yet, and the one presenting itself 
as casual in its most surprising consequences of the evolutional 
syncretism of the race, is that, to that plij'sionomic-social unity 
corresponds, at the bottom, a most varied ethnic amalgam, a human 
compound, notably mixed, in which there interfered with uneven 
coefficients the EuroiDcan latin-born, the Neerland European, the 
African, the Autochtone , already mixed bj' the fusion of diverse 
tribes and nations. 

The intermingling of these elements, for a long time elaborated, 
gave in result the alloyage of to-day, in which took i^art also the 
Polish, Teutonic and Latin of the peninsula, giving to the Brazilian 
population of our days the character of a race of transition , in a 
continuous process of purifying itself by the predominance of the 
white types. 

That community received, with the physionomic characteristic 
of its ancestors, its psychic inheritance equally mixed in the fusion 
of a sole type which is none of them being at the same time all of 
them : the blind and solid virility of the Luso-Iberic, the imagi- 
nation and enduring resistence of the indigenes, with the sentimen- 
tality of the African and his affective capacity, 

Theophilo Braza, a Portuguese writer of renown , wrote the fol- 
lowing paragraph in the introduction of a book Coiiios Popiila- 
res by Sylvio Romero, a Brazilian litterary man, considered the 
best litterary critic of the country : 

(( The co-operation of the three human races, the arica by its 

^^-'] ,. 

— 10 — 

speculative capacity', the negro one by its ail'ective superiority and 
the indigene by its active tendencies, unified in the social fact of 
the Brazilian nationality makes us to augur what will he the extra- 
ordinary greatness of the South American civilisation in ^\•hicll 
Brazil will j)redominate >>; and that greatness we can alr(;ady feel it 
in the figures with which the Brazilian nation increases its nume- 
rical total so rapidly. 

In 177(1 the number of inhabitants was estimated at l.'.ifJU.OOU, 
but at the time of the indei^endenee of the country it was already 
o.UDO.OUU; in 1S5C> there were S.UOU.OOO in round figures, though it 
luid sejiarated itself from that colossus called (UspUilinn Province, 
as it was the only strange j^art of it under the view point of I'ace and 
language, history and customs; in a shoi't while, after the Para- 
giuiyan war it was 11.000.000, and the census of 18U0 sliowed offi- 
cially 1 1.:>.'>J.1I15 though did not comprize quite a number of cities 
and villages of the interior. 

To-day the population is estimated at 20.000.000, of which more 
than half are whites ; the other half is subdivided into a mixed breed 
-with an indefinite number of degrees of crossing by descendants of 
Africans, in smaller number, and by some Indian tribes. 

New arrivals of Eurox^eans, principally latin ones, (Italians, 
Poi'tuguese and Spaniards) as well as Anglo-Saxons, Polish and 
Syrians, in small numbers land in Brazil every year to shai'c the be- 
nefits of this beautiful and happy country, collaborating at the same 
time in the ra^jid growth of the nation, which, some day, will have 
as France, Germany and Belgium, all its territory recognized and 
exploited. It will be then that, upon these deserts of the West, upon 
these melancholic fields and mountains, the noise will be lieai'd of 
the active and struggling communities and the music of civilisation 
marching with its industries and earnest life: and in this future age, 
instead of 18 or 20.000.000 inhabitants sx^eaking the language of the 
Brazilian writers and poets there will 100.000.000 or 500.000.000 
doing it and they will be there ready to defend the flag that past 
generations have delivered to them spotless, beloved and powerful. 

"What Brazilians have done with that large territory in their 
possession, is not all they aspired for in their patriotic dreams. No 
other people has done more, if are to consider tlie small number of 
its population, the conditions of climate and other drawbacks. Its 
population is and has been unsufficient to exploit its vast territory. 
After the national independence, everything that tluu'e was possible 
of assimilating from the conquests of sciences, arts and industries, 
is well in evidence in the administrative organization of the nation, 

— 11 — 

in the liberal and humane principles of the Brazilian codes, in the 
activity of the commerce and newly born industries, in the railroads, 
schools, churches, libraries, newspapers and many other evidences 
ot progress. Many European countries have been excelled in the 
proportion of those exteriorities of the evolutive capacity of peoples. 

The capital of the Republic, the beautiful city of Rio de Janeiro, 
which represents the pride and the hopes of the Brazilians, by its 
gigantic proportions, though it may not be celebrated by its buildings 
and monuments it is one of the largest in territory and even in popu- 
lation. The improvements it is now undergoing, opening avenues, 
bay-side-drives, constructing public buildings, theatres and beau- 
tifying its squares and parks give the assurance that Rio will shortly 
be one of the best cities in this continent, no doubt, the first in South 
America. The Harbor Works and the Avenida Central now under 
way, the latter being neaiij^ completed both began by the adminis- 
tration of President Rodrigues Alves and Dr. Lauro Muller, Secre- 
tary of Public Works are two magnificent improvements which are 
causing no tittle amount of envy to the Argentines, always jealous 
of the Brazilians. 

Before going any further we will now speak of the administration 
of the country. Since 1889 when the Republic was proclaimed, the 
"20 Provinces began to be known as States, with full liberty to govern 
theraselves both economically and politically at their own free will, 
of course, under the surveillance of the F'ederal Government. Among 
other things they can elect their Governors, vote their taxes and use 
their revenue in the best manner they deem it ^\ ise. Besides this 
they received all grants of land, the largest portion of national 
grounds, mines, the power arbitrating the legislature on raih'oads 
and rivers navigation, once they are within the boundary lines of the 
State, and other advantages. 

If some of the States have made some mistakes of administration, 
the majority have been administrated with great wisdom and pros- 
pering thereby. 

We must say that the 20 States were not by any means on the same 
level as to their capacity development and material improvement, to 
justify such liberality to be granted to all at the same time. On the 
other hand, it would have been convenient to have established a new 
territorial division retailing into two, three or four political-geogra- 
phical unities the largest part of the big States, and maintain under 
the Federal administration those constituted after that sub-division. 
State of international frontier. The simple intuition of self-defense 
suggests it. 

— la — 

To be sure such mistakes will be remedied in a revision of the 
eonstitution which, it is believed, some day will be done. The prac- 
tical good sense oi' the Brazilians so often demonstrated in several 
historical periods of their evolution warrant our assertion. 

At the moment of this writing Brazil is at comx^lete peace with 
foreign powers and in the most pacific ti'ancpiility at home. Thus 
Brazilians are engaged body and sole in developing the matei'ial 
progress of the Federal District and the 20 States forming their 

Protected by the prox^icious shade of the libei'ty expressed in the 
Brazilian laws there can be seen the speedy progress of sciences, 
litteratui'C, fine arts, and that multiplicity of exteriorisations of the 
commercial and industrial activity. Brazil is repi'esenting an impor- 
tant role in the concert of civilized nations and the manner in which 
the rest of the world is getting interested in its affairs speaks for 
the recognized importance in which this great country is had by the 
foreign powei's. 

By reading the following chapters of this book it will be realized 
that the progress of Brazil in all its branches of activitj' has been 
considerable and we may say right here in a spirit of fairness that 
Brazil at the head of all the South American republics, offers from 
this very moment an undeniable assui'ance of the happy future of 
the civilization of this continent, laying claim, foi' the neo latin races 
that occupy it, to those attentions and sympathic demonsti'ations 
that the Giani of the Xorth knew so well how to conquer for that 
portion of the continent it dominates. 

Is Brazil yet a little away from that pi-ogress? Tt may be true, but... 

I'efit poisson devieiulra gniiul, 
Ponruii que Dieii liii prete vie,,, 
(Siiiiill lisli will become large, so long as God give tliein life...) 

Brazilians have no reason to be discouraged, neither is it worth 
while to think of how much they have yet to overcome. If the road 
to travel is long), it is nevertheless a glorious one. They have con- 
quered a good deal since the starting point of their colonial freedom. 
Thej' received a quite weak and disjointel nation, and from it they 
made a great and homogeneous nationality with immense future ijos- 
sibilities. They will have to work a good deal more, they will have 
to engage themselves in the struggles for civilisation and nature has 
endowed them with everj' element of success. Brazilians to-day 
seem to be well imbibed in that tiling, which, as Emerson said : — 
(( is the only serious and formidable thing in the world » — the will 


Sqiiiirc kiloinetrcs. — Scale i mim — loo kilometres 

English Colonial 



2S.052 . 900 

22 .430.000 


United States 


II . ii5.65o 

9.212. 3oo 






Square kilometres 

— Scale i 

r mjm -= 

100 kilome 






















— 14. — 

For tlie peoples just as for the individuals, progress is just that : 
to work and to struggle, as for them, using the words of a Brazi- 
lian poet, 

Vh'er e In tar. 
.1 ^»/V/;( e conibntc, 
Que o.v f'raco.-i abate, 
Que OS fortes, os hravos 
So pode exaliar. 
(To live is III slniggle. Life is a bullle, xvlicre llm weak ai'e Ijir'owii ddwii ijiit wliere llie 
strong anil brave can only be elevated.) 

But, let us go on. We will try to analj'ze in a concise form the 
Brazil of to-day. 

Before ijassing in review the diverse aspects of Brazilian life of 
to-day, b,\' means of a trip to each one of the twenty States, in which 
the reader will be kind enough tot let us escort him, we must write 
a few remarks about the Administration and several branches of the 
civil service of the Republic, leaving that descriptive exjjosition of 
the States by their geographical oi'der to follow afterwards. 


The telegraphic net of Brazil, is the most advanced and the most 
extensive, under the technical i^oint of view, of all others in the 
south American republics. Its installation and its initial improve- 
ments are due to a Brazilian of great worth, the Baron of Capanema. 

The telegraph was operated for the first time in Brazil in 18(il. 
The ajjparatus used then were those known by the name of A, B, C, 
with a small show case and which worked by means of Breguet 's 
electric batteries being in use also at the same time the Stochrer 's 
double current apparatus. These lasted for some time but right after 
the Paraguayan war they began to use the electro-magnetic current 
apparatus the currents of which were used by means of magnetic- 
inductors of the house Siemens & Halske. 

The apparatus of the first period of the telegraph service in Bra- 
zil were replaced in 1877 by those of Morse, which Brazil was com- 
pelled to adopt since then once it had joined the St. Petersburg 

At the same time wires were being spread all through the coun- 

— 15 — 

Until a little before the republic was proclaimed the tclegra])h 
was living a slow lii'e. An olTicial document says in that regard : 
<( in the decade 1880 to 1881) the average dit not exceed 420.000 tele- 
grams with about (i. 000. 000 words annually. The maximum being 
057.000 telegrams with 8.100.000 words in 1887. There existed the 

liio DK Janeiro 

Prai'a « (Jiiinzo-Novembro ». 

circumstance that the public educated with the slow work of the 
telegraph did not exact very much as to the quickness of transmis- 
sion. )) 

This we quote from the report of the General Telegraph Depart- 
ment, published in Rio, in 1902, p. 72. 

From 1900 on, however, the volume of telegraphic traffic deve- 
lopped in such a way that the government was compelled to dupli- 
cate and in some places increase four fold the leading lines. The 
Morse apparatus were replaced by those of Baudot, which are in 
operation in the leading stations of the sea-shore, from Recife to Rio 
Grande do Sul. 

The telegraphic movement in the federal lines in the year 1900 
was as follows : 



From the Stales 














— 16- 

To these figures we liave to add those wlio belong to the traffic 
of the States, as some States liave telegra^^h lines of theii' o\N'n, built 
and maintained by their treasuries as it happens with Amazonas, 
Para, ^Maranhao, C'eara and Rio Grande do Sul. In the schedule 
above are not also included the figures regarding the submarine 
telegrams, English ones, agencies being established in the principal 
cities of Brazil. 

The Brazilian telegraph is extended and distributed through all 
the States of Brazil with an extension of 42.008.000 metres with 400 
stations new lines being under way of construction. 

The following table shows the progress of the telegraphic net of 
Brazil from the last year of the monarchy : 



1892 . 

1893 . 
1895 . 




1899 . 
1901 . 



This number goes up to 50.000 kilometi-es including the States 
telegraph lines, those of private railways concerns, etc. 

As we see, Brazil can be ]5laced among the States possessing the 
most extensive telegrai^hic nets, of which we now give an account : 
the United States lias (i.jO.OOO kilometres, Russia 130.000, Germany 
118.000, France 90.000, Austria-Hungary 09.200, English India 
(33.000, Mexico 61.000, Great Britain and Ireland 55.000, Canada 
52.000, Italy 39.000, Turkey 33.000, Argentine Republic 30.000, Spain 
20.000, Chili 25.000 kilometres, etc., the other countries being below 
these figures. 

The Barao de Capanema for many years managed the service of 
Brazilian telegraphic lines, always assimilating to the official instal- 
lation the progresses introduced in the most advanced European 
countries. This way the national telegraph has always been able to 
render good services. The successors of the Barao de Ca^janema in 
the administration of the service followed his example, not only 
develojiping the lines, but acquiring newer apparatus, some of wliicli 
are manufactured in the work shops attached to the Central Station 
in Rio de Janeiro. 

A\'hen they closed in London the International Telegraphic Con- 
vention in June 1903 deciding to adopt the apparatus of the Baudot 
system, for the International Telegraphic service (as the St. Peters- 
biui-g adopted the Morse apparatus 30 years ago) they found Brazil 

— 17 — 

already adopting the Baudot system of which "25 instalhitions of the 
most improved had been made representing- four varieties of that 
ingenious system, in types, that soon will become models for the 
other administrations. Ey means of this system there were operated 
then nine of the leading stations between Recife and Rio Grande, 
connected by over-head lines with more than 5000 kilometres. 

Of those installations four are between Rio de Janeiro and Sao 
Paulo and are in operation from November 15 tli., 1807. Nine work 
between Rio de Janeiro, Caravellas, Bahia and Recife from the 
beginning- of 1903, the inauguration having taken place in July of 
that year and 12 installations were made between Rio de Janeiro, 
Coritjrba, Porto Alegre, Pelotas and Rio Grande. The president of 

Uaihvajs in Brazil. — Tlie Grola Kiiiida Viaduct S. Paulo. 

the Republic, Dr. Rodrigues Alves as well as the Secretary of Public 
Works, Dr. Lauro MuUer were present in the Rio de Janeiro Cen- 
tral Station. 

From Rio de Janeiro we can communicate directly with Buenos 
Ayres, Montevideo, Santiago and La Paz which is at 7.000 kilometres 
distance via Buenos Ayres. 

The Brazilian telegraph lines which work ^^ ith all regularity, 
have been built by civil and military engineers natives of Brazil. 

Railways. — Tlie first I'aihvuy built in Brazil was ol'ficiallj^ 
inaugurated on the ISO tli. of Api'il, 1S51, representing the efforts of 
one of the Brazilians who more useful were to their father-land, the 
Barilo de Maua. It is the railway line that starts from the Bay on the 
other side of Rio de Janeiro and goes up the lull to Petropolis. The 
first locomotive, the one was used at this inauguration, is still kept 
to-day at the Central Railway Station. Its name is (c Baroneza » and 

it was built in England and 
rendered good services dur- 
ing several years. 

From that small start to 
the great feats of engineer- 
ing built by Brazilians 
there was a great lapse of 
time. The first feat of Bra- 
zilian engineering was the 
plan of the Central Railway 
which starting from Rio had 
to cross the Mantiqueira 
chain of mountains. It is a 
series of dear and trouble- 
some -work of art ; collossal 
cuts , successive tunnels , 
etc. The price of this road 
with 1.390 kilometi-es went 
up by the end of 1003 to the 
amount of 167. .50(3. 756 mil 
i-eis and this is explained 
by the nature of the ground 
it had to be open through. 
Another railway whose consti-uction was worthy of note also due 
to the efforts of Brazilian engineering, is the one from Paranagua to 
Corityba, cutting its way through a wild ridge of mountains by the 
sea. It is extraordinary what they did there. Successive tunnels, 
many and large viaducts, some perfectly superb under the technic 
view i>oint and the daring of the engineering feat, form this short 
I'ailway branch \\ ith but one hundred and odd kilometres. 

The Corcovado railway is also worthy of note. Xo tourist, even if 
the steamer stops in Rio but a few hours, goes away without going 
to the top of that beautiful hill with a 26 "/„ inclination. 'I'his railway 
was planned and built by the Brazilian engineer V. Bassos who is 
to-dav Mayor of the city of Rio de Janeiro. 

Enginkkuing Wokks in BriAzu.. 
Bridge dvci' Ihe I'iii V|)iraiigii, in PaiMiia. 

— li) — 

Another railway worthy of mention is the one between Santos 

and Sao Paulo, of which we will write further down thouu;li this is 

not a Brazilian road. 

The present condition of the railways in Brazil is as follows : 
Five States : Amazonas, Piaohy, Sorg-ipe, Matto Grosso and 

Goyaz — have no i-ailways as yet. All the others luxve more or less 

as can be seen bj- the following list : 

Slates. Kiloin. 

S. Paulo 4.136 

Mina.s 3.650 

Uio (le Janeiro 2.335 

Uio Grande do Sul 1.610 

Baliia 1.511 

I'ernambuco 813 

Parana 645 

Ceara 449 

States. Kiloin. 

AlagVias 353 

Es|iii-ilo Santo 2.58 

Pai-ahyba 141 

Uio Grande do N'orle .... 121 

Sania Calliarina 116 

Distriolo Federal 107 

Maraidiao 78 

Para 61 

In 1896, when Dr. Prndente de Moraes was president, by reasons 
of reduction of appropriations in the Budget all the works under 
way in the line of railway building were suspended, a great deal of 
material and work began being lost. 

The present government, however, recommenced with great 
energy all the work of prolonging railway lines and building new 

As can be seen by the table we print above the Brazilian railways 
are very unevenly divided by the different States. Some have not a 
single mile of road, others have quite a good deal, so that, as it was 
already remarked bj' an observer, in the three States of Sao Paulo, 
Miuas and Rio there are (I.372 kilometres or (32 per cent of the total 
of the whole country. In seven Southern States and the Federal 
district there are 11.998 kilometres against only 3.000 kilometres in 
the eight Xorthern States that liave railways what repiresents a pro- 
portion of 3 to 1. We can, though, very easily explain that state of 
things : the road is the function of the traffic, it is built where acti- 
vity demands it. In countries like the United States the inverse 
often happens and the road is built to create or provoke traffic. 
Brazil will come to that soon but needs to cncoui-age foreign capital 
to be invested in those ventui-es. Unfortunately capital is the great 
drawback for a more rapid growth. The country is extremely 
wealthy but it re(|uii'es capital to work up that wealth to the [)()int 
of producing and start the motion that has made the United States 
grow so immensely fast during the last fifty years. 

— 20 — 

The four largest railways of Brazil are : 

The Leo|i()l(liiia, willi 2.258 kiloiiielros. 

Tlic Ceiili-al, » I.;;(j6 » 

The Mogy:m;i, » 1,32:J » 

Tlie Paulisia, •> 1.02:! » 

The railways in Brazil have not devclopped in the pro])ortion of 
the large sums invested in their construction, because, as it is well 
known, the largest number of them ai'c built along shore, where 
the commei'cial and industrial activity of the country first stai'ted 
and expanded and the sea shore belt is the most hilly. That explains 
everything. Later on when they will spread towai'ds the \\est, in the 
interior, they will be no longei' long shore roads but roads of pene- 
tration , running over the 
immense fields of the plains, 
the cost of building will be 
greatly reduced and i-ail- 
roads in Brazil '^^•ill undergo 
a larger and far easier deve- 
lopment than it has till now. 
The same happened in 
A)-gentine , -when they be- 
gan Ijuilding their roads in 
the plains. 

The dc'sidcratiiiii of the 
present day, is to connect 
the several branches alrea- 
dy' built, arbitrarily, with- 
out any other systematisa- 
tion but the instinct of the 
local peoples, expressed by 
the forms of the isolated 
necessities , but there being 
at the bottom a prescience 
of the national sense , to 
which the connection work 
now very much advanced brings its explanation and sanction. AVitli 
this 1 do not mean to say that the most provident politics is always 
the one that w aits for private initiative to translate and satisfy by 
itself, tJie necessities of the communion. 

Be as it may, the spread out roads of the Espirito Santo, Bahia, 
Alagoas , Pernambuco, Parahyba, Rio Grande do Norte and Oeara 
are being connected and in a short while all these States will be eon- 

#' v' si ';--<i 

EMi]NKKRi\G WoiiKS ]N BiiAZii,. — Till' ri'lcliral Oil Car- 
vallio viadiicl oil llie I'araiia Railway. 

— 21 — 

nccted to one anotlior Ly nxihvays, heing also eonnocted with Rio de 
Janeii'o, Sao Paulo, Miiias, Parana and Rio (ii-andc do Sul. 

The AVar Department eonteniphites to buikl a long strategie-in- 
dnstrial railway line in the direetion of the central regions ol Matto 
Grosso and Goyaz, employing in its study and construction a compa- 
ny of army engineers. 

During 1904 were initiated the following roads, sanctioned by 
laws decreed by Dr. Rodrigues Alves : Timbo (Baliia); Sergipe, 
the prolongation of the Eaturite in the Ceara : the prolongation of the 
Mogyana to Catalao and many others. 

The present Secretary of Transportation, Dr. Lanro Muller, in 
whose program of administration is included all xH)ssible expansion 
of railroad bnilding lias not neglected any efforts to execute his pro- 
gram both at the Xorth and South of the country. The total length 
of Brazilian railroads in 1903 was lG.3o9 kilometres, and with new 
inaugurations went up to 17.000 kilometres. The .States that opened 
extensions to their lines were : Sao Paulo, Minas, Rio Grande do 
Sul, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Rio de .Janeiro and Para. 


Just like all the other South American republics, Brazil main- 
tains a small army, and in case of war would have to improvise eve- 
rything as it happened 
in 1864 when the Para- 
guayan war broke out. 

Brazil is one of the 
nations spending the 
least money with their 
military forces in rela- 
tion with the total of 
the Budget. 

Though as to the 
value of its exports 
Brazil is in the ninth 
place, as to the amount 
spent with the ai-my is Hio m-; Janeiko. — Imbnlij tori. 

in the thirteenth place. 

The following table sliows, in pounds sterling, the total of the 

expenses of each country and the amount they sot aside I'or the 
organization of public defense : 

Xaiioiial expense, total and military, of several countries. 

Gi'pat-Ui'iUiiii . 
Germany . 
Holland . 

Belgiinii . 
Italy . . . 

Swilzerlanil . 
Tui'kcy . 
I'di'Uigal . 
United Stales. 


1-26.. 180. 000 



11 640.000 



IS. 520. 000 





12. 320.000 
















1.960. 000 





By tins table we can see that no other country having expenses 
nearing' the amount of Brazil spends less with its army than this lar- 
gest of the South American republics does. 

Rio UK .U.NEirto. — Lai'go Rialengu cai'ti'idge factory of tlie War Ministry. 

At present the total of the land forces of Brazil composed of the 
federal army and police troops under military organization and 
maintained by the I'cspective states is of about 50.000 men of tlie 

— 2:i — 

three arms. This exchides the civilian guards and fire-men, semi- 
military organizations maintained in many ol' the 20 States of the 

The aetive military force is regulated by the Legislature every 
year. The law for 1904 fixed the following numbers : 

■28.100 privates. 

800 military schools cadets. 

1.120 officers. 

In case of war this force is doubled. 

In Brazil thei'e is not as yet the military compulsoiy service, as 
there is in Chili and Argentine, so that the vacancies are filled with 
volunteers. There is a law to the effect that while military service 
is not compulsory the time of service for a volunteer is three years, 
with facility to renew the enlistment as often as wanted but always 
for a three year term. 

The privates who at the exj^iration of the service time continue 
without interruption in the ranks, with three years engagement, 
have right to certain favors in cash ; and those who so wish it are 
placed in the colonies maintained by the \\ar Department in certain 
places of the territory, Asliere grants of land and agiicultural imple- 
ments are given them free of any charge. 

The figures of the Brazilian army divided by the different 
arms is : 

Two engineers battalions ; 14 regiments with four divisions each 
of 231 men and a company for transportation service, all of cavalry ; 
regiments and batallions with four batteries each, each of the 
regiments liaving 229 men and each of the battalions having 487 
men, all of artillery. 

Forty battalions of four companies, each with 241 men, infantry. 

Tlie arms used by the infantry are Mauser improved. 

The artillery material is all from Krupp's works. Studies are, 
however, being made now for the adoption of a superior type in 
order to reform the whole artillery of the Kepublic. 

Congress voted .500 eontos for the establishment of a smokeless 
powder in Kio de .Janeiro. 

Tlie chief objection that could be made as to the organization of 
the Brazilian Army is the lack of reserves, which might fill the 
number to reforce the first call. As the different States, however, 
have all organized police under a military system just alike the fede- 
ral troops, there Brazil will find a first class reserve, with the 
advantage that it is, we might say, mobilized, ready as they are in 
their barracks to march fully equiped at the first call. 

— u — 

The org'cUiizatioii ol' those poliee i'orces in their majority eom- 

maiided by reguhxr army officers and armed with mauser rifles is 
as follows : 

AmazDiias 1.200 

Para 1.300 

Mai'anliao 4.50 

Piauliy and Rio Gi'ande do N(jrte 450 

Coai-a 400 

I'araliylja 200 

PeriiambiR-o 1.3.50 

Alogoas and Sergipe 800 

Bidiia 2.500 

Rio de Janeiro 1.200 

Capital Kedoral 4.800 

S. PaiUo 5.000 

Minas 2.000 

Parana 460 

Rio Grande do Sol 5.000 

Esjiirito Santo, Santa Catljarina, Goyaz and Matto 

Grosso 1.075 


Those forces, in several of the States, have an elevated degree of 
instruction and military solidity, as it happens with the regiments 
of Manaos, Belem, Bahia, Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul etc. and 
are divided in three arms infantry, cavalry and artillery. 

Inl'antry eamp during nian(jeiivre.s. 

The national guard, a kind of Landwehr or territorial militia is 
getting better organized every day and in some States as Eio Grande 
do Sul and the Federal Capital it has been called upon more tlian 

once to assist the regular army. 

The war department maintains several technical establishments, 

as the cartridge works, the Estrella and the Caxipo powder works, 
the « Brazil n Military College, the « Realengo » and the (( Porto 
.4 /eg-re 5) Tactics Schools, the Military School, where the children 
of military men are brought up, the Serjeants School, the Army 
Library and several others. 

The I'orees are spread out through the territory of the Repu- 
blic which under the view point of military administration is divid- 
ed into seven districts with headquarters in the principal cities 
and commanded by Generals. 

School-cruiser : Benjamin Constant. 

At present the Army Major-State is drawing a map of tlie coun- 
try and the engineers companies are busy, some extending the tele- 
graph net through the Western States, and some studying plans for 
the building of strategic railways. An engineers company is now 
building a railway starting from Lorena city to the mountain region 
where a large military Sanatorium is being built. 

The Navy. — Until a certain time Brazil was the only South- 
American power and in all this continent , only the United States 
could present a navy excelling the one of this Republic. 

Lately Argentine and Chili at the cost of enormons financial sa- 
crifices succeeded in disputing this supremacy and to their navies, 
W'liich, however had not the glorious traditions of the Brazilian his- 

tory of its navy, thoy added a nuiuber of cruisers and battlo-sliips 
superior to the Hrazilian ones. 

The navy oi-ganization of Bi'azil at tlie ])resent date is a niod(!st 
one and is not in j)roportion witli th(? lout;' coast it lias to defend. 
The federative system adopted increases tlic i-esponsibilities of llie 

Tlie existence of a ])o\verful navy in the federative system cor- 
responds to tlie necessity of great lin]-;s of cohesion between the 
Statee whicli may neutralize their disaggregating tendencies, and 
establisli predominance of the ideas of the ^Tenl fuiherhmd. '^riiere 
is not, in fact, and we liave already once said it, among tlie links of 
national stability, none tactile, noiu* more dominant because of its 
repi'csentative iiowor neither more efficient in multiplicity of its 
objects, than it is the naval power of the Republic. The present 

Tum:uuinre (cruiser) 4000 T., biiill at the Kio ilu .laneiro ai-seiial. 

fleet has .j4 vessels, counting lai-ge and small, many of which arc 
almost useless under the view point of modern war value. Thev 
can only be used for patroling in the ports and interior rivers. Thev 
are classified as follow : Seven battle-ships, eight cruisers, three 
torpedo boats destroyer, five gun boats, eight dispatch boats, three 
steamers, nine torpedo boats, three tugboats, auxiliary steamers, 
a yacht (the « Silua Jurdim », the old Imperial galiot) , two brigs 
and three pataches. 

The liead(imirters ol' the Navy forces is composed of several 
pavilions. The present commander is Commander Marques da 
Rocha, to whom the discipline and military garb of tlie navy infan- 
ti'v forces owe a good deal. 

The principal establishment for naval production and repairs is 
the Capital of the Tvepnblic — the Rio Navy Yard — and employs 
-.000 working-men. In its ship-yards several ships, cruisers, small 
river battle ships and others have been built. During the Paraguayan 
war this yard in a few months built and armed several ai'med moni- 
tors, which were of great assistance in that campaign. Lately were 
built there two small river monitors for the defence and patroling 
in the frontier rivers. 

There are two other navy establishments of this kind, one in 
Para and the other in Ladario. They assist in the work of repairing. 


ir.— - '• 


.- -.::fe:=;^-5iw-rr 

BaUle-slii|i Deodoro. 

There is also in the Capital of the Republic the Navy College, an 
establishment of technical instruction which is an honor to the 
counti-y and is probably the best in all vSouth-America. Its present 
director is I'ear-admiral Duarte Huet de Bacellar one of the most 
distinguished and ablest sailors of the Brazilian Navy. A man who 
has discharged with great honor to the country he represented 
important commissions all over the world. He is not only an able 
man in navigation, he is a competent man in gunnery, ship-building 
and every department required in navy activity. As a practical man 

he is he is improving very mueh the JSTavy College under his admini- 
stration to keep pace with modern pi'ogress. 

The other Navy depai'tments are settled in small islands in the 
bay. In one oi' them is Torpedoes School organised b\' reai--admii-al 
Alexandrine de Alenear and the works established there for torjte- 
doos and mines repairing are worthy of note. 

War lruiis|i(ii'l dii-Ios (ionies. 

The National Sailors Comjiany Barra(d<s is a series of buildings 
in the small island of Villegaignon, where is tlie fortress of the same 
name. This fortress does not serve any strategic function now and 
is all illuminated bv eleetricit\'. 





BaUlc'-,slii|i liiiwJiiielo. 

The Sailors Company is constituted by sea men, that come from 
the Schools for aj^prentices or from the offices of the Captains of 
the Port in the different States where they enlist. The largest num- 
ber of them are caboclos (native Indians), or rather, a mixed breed 


of those native Indians crossed with ]<]ui-opeans, with a numbei- of 
bhxclis descendants from Africans and whites. As a rule they know- 
how to read and write, liaving received in school instruction relati- 
vely liberal, learning geography, arithmetic, civilian rights, music, 
drawing, elementary history, a little manual art appliable tho the 
sea life, and the needed professional instruction : gunnery, signal 
service instructions, torpedoes, marine engines, etc. Generally the 
Brazilian sailor is a man who knows something and when they come 
from the Apprentices Schools they are prepared to struggle for life 
in the cities when tliey finish tlieir enlistment time. 

This way the Apprentices Schools in Brazil render a double ser- 
vice to the community and to the man : they not only prepare sai- 
lors for the jSTavy but men for practical life at the same time. 


Cniiser-torpcdo Tymbira- 

The Company of Marine Infantry is an imitation of the colo- 
nial and landing troops of the European navies ; among Brazilians, 
however, this company has a capital function on board — it is a 
modifier in the permanent service of the discipline of the ship, an 
auxiliary actually indispensable to the moral force of the officers. 
This company has a tradition as an orderly organization and its 
services have been highly praised in tlie Naval history of Brazil. 
Its barracks are at Ilha das Cobras (snake island) , one of tlie many 
in the Rio bay, near the north east part of the city. 

In the schedule of the officers, the number of those of high rank is 
rather large if we consider the limited requirements of tlie floating- 
material. The schedule comprises : 
1 admiral, 2 vice-admirals, 10 rear-admirals, 20 Captains, 40 Com- 

^ :!n — 

manders, 80 Lieutenants-Commanders, IGO 1st. -Lieutenants, 150 
2nd. -Lieutenants — 4(io Officers in active work. 

Besides these there are 120 ensigns; 1.000 men of the National 
Navy Companies; including ]. "30 men of the engine firemen compa- 
ny, and 100 of the Matto Grosso comjjany; 000 contracted firemen; 

1..500 Navy apprentices; •'300 mfn 
of Navy Infantry Company. 

In time of war the naval for- 
ces will have the double of this 

Tlie privates or sailors and 
ex-privates or ex-sailors who ha- 
ve been engaged over three years, 
and following that, two or more 
years have a riglit in each enga- 
gement to the value in cash of 
the uniform which is distributed 
free of cluirge to the recruits, and 
this l)ecause the military service 
in Brazil is not compulsory. 

In nearly every seaport there 
is an Apprentice Sailor School, 
a curious institution under the 
view point of its civic. -military 
nature and of its utility and its type is a creation of the Brazilian 
administration. Some of them deserve special mention because of 
the correctness of their organization and discipline, and among 
these are the ones of Ceara, Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, 
Santa Catharina and others. 

Cniiscr Barrozo. 



BP^H _ , (•^BBJj^H^^^'^'^* '¥ ■ 



Marine practice, sliooling at a target. 

— ;!i — 

References to them will 1)0 iiuxde in the deseriplions of the seve- 
ral States which %\'ill be published somewhere else in this book. 

The seat of the Navy administration is in Rio de Janeiro, where 
the N"avy Council is compelled to be. The Nav\' Council is a Board 
composed ot Xavy generals and high officials of the Navy Depart- 
ment and is settled where the Sailors quarters, the Navy inl'antry 
barracks and several dcpai'tments of the same Ministry as well as 
war material are also settled. 

I'lKj 111; .Ianeiuii. — OiiL' (>( llic |i;i\ iliiiiis ()[ llic MiM'iiic iiifaiilry hiiii'acU,' 

To-day the Brazilian Navy is largely improved and on a fair way 
to be gi'eatly enlarged. By the end of l'.)05 the Brazilian Congress 
authorized the api^ropriation to execute the following naval pro- 
gramme which is beginning to be put in pratice in England with 
the construction of 

Three 13.000 ton battle-ships. 

Three 9.700 ton cruisers. 

Six 400 ton destroyers. 

Twelve 50 to 130 ton torpedo-boats. 

Admiral Julio de Noronha, the Secretary of the Navy, the au- 
thor of this programme, is also building at Ilha Grande, near Rio 
de .Janeiro, a large military port like the one of Spezia or Pola, 
with arsenal, dry-docks, ship yards and everything needed for a 
powerful Navy-Yard. 

Besides the ships above mentioned the 1905 programme com- 
prises also 3 submarine boats, a large coal-ti-ansporter and a school- 

At the present moment Brazil is develojjing a great activity 

— :!2 

which will soon place the country in a prominent place after the list 

of nations having first class navies. 

Merchant Marine. — The fact of many Portuguese officers and 
ship-owners having settled themselves in Brazil, after its indepen- 
dence, explains ho\\- there was already a considerable nucleus of 
merchant marine right at the heginning of the national organiza- 

tion. Besides the extensive 

line of coast filled with nu- 
merous i^orts most accessi- 
ble, contributed towards the 
great development of a sai- 
ling shijis merchant marine, 
served by daring ships fur- 
nished by the sea-shore ci- 
ties and thus soon the new 
Brazilian flag was carried 
to the peox^les of distant 

This relatively powerful 
marine had, however, a ])C- 
I'iod of difficulties and al- 
most reached paralysis : and 
that was when a bill voted 
in 18()4 permitted foreign 
ships to engage themselves 
in the coastwise trade , tak- 
ing thus away from the 
Brazilian flag a privilege it 
was enjoying till then and at 
whose protection it was developing in a considerable way its mari- 
time activity. 

It was only in 18'.)(3 that the Brazilian Congi'ess by means of a 
bill completing a constitutional disposition, gave back to Brazilian 
shiiJ-owners the old right of only consenting coastwise trade to be 
carried on by ships with the national flag and thus was ox3ened a 
more definite and more compensative horizon for the country's 
merchant marine. 

During the year of 1811) steamship navigation began to be intro- 
duced in Brazil and the other Houth American countries. It was on 

Scliool-sliip Guararapes. 

— 33 — 

the 4 til. October 1S19 that General Felisberto Caldeira Brant, later 
on Marqnis de Barbaoena, started a line between the capital of 
Bahia and Caclioeira employing in that service a small paddle 
steamer and that was the initiation of the Brazilian merchant marine 
using steam-boats. 

When the privilege of coastwise trade foi' tlie national marine 
was decreed in 1S9G, the Brazilian merchant marine took a great 
impulse, occupying to-day the seventh place among the nations with 

feSg <.^-«t-ato»ft? ,.<.aiJ, 

Merchant — Model of river steamers of 500 tons of the « Companliia Maranliense ». 

largest number of shiios in their merchant marine, being right after 

According to an official publication of the Commercial Statistics 
Department the movement of Brazilian ships engaged in coastwise 
trade between the 52 ports of the Republic during lUOl, 1002 and 
1003 was as follows : 


Entrances . 


. . 11.5.-4 
. . II. 2/16 





Ships. Tons. 

Enfranee.s 1l.7i.5 .... 4.;j67.266 

Sailings 11.081 .... 4..W8.579 


Sliips. Tons. 

Entrances 12.232 .... H.mH.lSO 

Sailings 12.217 .... 5.038.900 

By these statistics we see tlie f)i'Ogressive growtli of tlie mer- 
cliant marine maritime movement. According to official statistics 
tlie Brazilian mereliant marine lias a fleet of 3o6 steamers with a 
total of 290.000 tons displacement, and 511 sailing vessels with about 
300.000 also displacement. 

From 1901 to 1902 the movement of the Brazilian coastwise ti'ade 

navigation increased 300 in the number of ships and over 600.000 

tons, in the entrances and sailings to and from the 52 ports of the 

These steamers belong to companies and private ship-owners 

residing in several sea-side cities of Brazil. The principal companies 

Merchant Marine. — Model of steamers of 2,000 tons of tlio Brazilian Lloyd. 

to-day are : the Novo Lloyd Brazileiro which possesses 32 steamers, 
some of 4.000 tons, electric lights, refrigerators, etc., but this com- 
jiany is being reorganized by Dr. Manoel Buarque de Macedo, a civil 
engineer of renown and an industrial genius of no small importance, 
and the service of that company is going to be largely improved not 
only with better coastwise service but having a line of large steamers 
plying between Brazil and the United States, a large number of stea- 
mers being now under construction for the new service, some of 

— S5 — 

which will be (i.OOO ton hoatfi; t]iG Coinpanliiii do Aimtzomis, with 
10 small river steamers I'rom 500 to 900 tons, plying between Para 
and the dil'1'ei-ent points of impoi'tanee in the iVmazon river and its 
affluents; the (lompanhia Co.stvirn, with 12 steamers from 800 to 
1.500 tons, maintaining regular navigation between the capital of the 
Republic and the Southern ports of the country; the Conipanluu S:tl 
c Xave^-eivHO, which possesses large cargo-boats employed in coast- 
wise service; the Coinjianhia Pcrnainbiicana, with 10 steamers; the 
Companhia Maranhense; the Grtio Para and the Paraensc, both A\ith 
main office in Belem, capital of Para .State, and with steamers from 
800 to 2.000 tons ; the Espcranra Maritinia ^^ ith six small steamei'S ; 
the T'(a(;ao Central do Brazil, ^\ith main office in Pahiaandits stea- 
mers navigate in the S. Francisco basin between the States of Minas, 
Pallia and Alagoas; the (A>mpanhia Bahiana with iutei'nal and inter- 
state navigation and many otliers of smaller importance, which we 
will give an account of while speaking of the different States in the 
second part of this book. 


It will be seen that hand in hand with the material development 
of the country, and parallel growth of the energies of the race, there 
is springing forth witli vigor the blooming of the literature, arts 
and sciences. 

No other country in the American Continent, the United States 
excepted, can present a group of superior men , inventors, men of 
science, artists and literary men, so conspicuous as that luist of 
celebrated men who have honored Brazil with the wide i^ublication 
of their names all over the world since the middle of the last century. 

In accordance with the plan of this book, dealing in it, as we 
do, only with the Prazil of to-day, of the ISrazil of this very mo- 
ment, we must not write but about those of the present age. Men 
who have been intellectual gloi'ies for Rrazil in the past, artists, 
military men ^\'llo won reputations ■worthy of mention in the days 
that are gone, will not be reviewed in this presentation 1 am making 
to the reader of the contemporary things, men and events. 

Put, even leaving aside the names of those illustrious dead, 

— 36 — 

among which you would find individualities that do not belong only 
to the glory of Brazil, but to the whole world, we will have to write 
about most interesting personages, notabilities of our days, some of 
whieh are, no doubt, known to the reader. We will begin by Santos 
Dumont, the extraordinary air navigator. 

This name which introduces a South American notability has 
been applauded in France as well as in all the other European coun- 
tries with the same enthusiasm that Brazil has done it. 

Santos Dumont. — He is the son Henrique Dumont a farmer of 
the State of Minas, whose name is connected with the largest coffee 

p'antation in the S. Paulo State, or, 
for that matter, in the whole world. He 
was born in a place known as Rio das 
Velhas, (Old women river), in the then 
province of Minas, in July 1873. Weal- 
thy and well educated he devoted him- 
self since his young days to the study 
of air ships. He went to Paris and 
there had a balloon of his own invention 
made. vSince then he has kept on modi- 
fying it and each modification he 
makes, manufacturing a new balloon 
gives it a higher and successive num- 
ber. It was with the No that the da- 
ring aeronaut obtained thec<Deutsch» 
prize which marks the solution of the 
problem of the direction of air-ships. 

It was in 1898 that he made his first ascensions with his baloons 
« Brazil » and « America », of spherical shape. In those experiments, 
Avhich had no interest to the public, ho understood that the spheroi- 
dic shape was not useful and had one made, cigar shape, with 
Kerosene oil as fuel. 

He has made since many trial trips and the French press has 
written about them in the most encouraging way and from Paris the 
telegraph has kept on informing the whole Avorld of the successive 
improvements Santos Dumont has been introducing in his air-ship. 
Several engineers and inventors in Brazil have devoted themsel- 
ves to this interesting problem, the first being Bartholomeu Gusmao, 
who went iii his bfiloon but never solved the problem of its direction 

Santos Dujiont 

— :!7 

and the last was the unrortnnate Augusto Severo wlio died in Paris, 
victim oi' the explosion oi' is air-ship a Pnx ». 

JFiiLi.o Marquks 

Mello jMarques. — From those who travel in tlie air to those 
who travel nnder water there is really a great distance but there is 

no space so long that thought cannot over- 
^mi^^^ come with ease. 

JH \ Several Brazilian inventors propose to 

IW "^ll build a model of submarine boat fulfilling 

all the requirements of the navigation of 
such boats. None, however, lias made a 
more decisive experimental demonstration 
than the inventor Mello Marques. The Rio 
press wrote in the liighest terms and most 
enthusiastically about those exx^eriments, 
made, as tliey were, before the President 
of the Republic and a committee of techni- 
cal experts. 

Among otlier things the Tribuna of Rio, 

in its edition of the 27 tli. vSeptember 1901 

said about Mello Marques 'submarine boat. 

(( The model used in these experiments demonstrated to have a 

longitudinal and transversal stability as well as complete stability 

in its trip. 

)) Both the immersion and emersion are operated with the stron- 
gest safety as to its results , 
and by means of a most 
simple manoeuvre. 

« To avoid a minucious 
and detailed account we may 
say that the experiment we 
are writing about consisted 
of two different parts : 

» P'. — The boat without 
longitudinal translation. 

» 2"". — The boat with 
longitudinal translation. 

» In the P'^ part tlie 
boat made the immersion, 

emersion and stop between two waters, everything with the most 
strict practical precision, obeying perfectly well to the operator. 

Tlic submariiio boat Mello Marques. 

— :HK — 

)) In the 2"'' part Mr. Mello Marques sliowed to have solved the 
important prohlom of tlic siiilin^' stability. 

y> Thus it was that once the boat placed hetwecn two waters and 
in perleet quiel or static equilibrium, wlien placed in motion its 
propelling- maeliine, it slided I'oi'ward without deviating in the least 
I'roni its fluctuation hoi'izontal plan. » 

Lam)kll i)K Moura. — Is another Brazilian inventor of our days, 
lie is the learned eloctrieist Father Landell de Moura, and is now- 
residing in tlie United States. His inventions are the result of a 
patient investigation and seienliiie knowledge perfectly solid. He 
was l)orn in I'orto Alegre, where he has two brotliers, one a physi- 
cian, the other an apothecary. In S. Paulo he has another brother 
who is a merchant. The Xcw York Ilendd in its edition of the 12 th. 
October 11)02 published his picture with a long article headed 
« Britziliiin Priesi^s Iiwvniion » giving the following information 
about his inventions ; 

D'' Ilobert Landell invented his apparatus 
in Porto Alegre, and as soon as he reached 
Sao Paulo in 1SU(J, he began with preliminary 
experiments, to obtain his object — to trans- 
mit human voice at a distance ot 8, 10 or 12 
kilometers, without using any wires. 

After several months of hard work he 
obtained excellent i-esults with one of the 
ai)i)ai-atus he made. 

Encouraged by the I'esults of his experi- 
ments, Father Landell ti'ied to improve his 
invention, which is the outcome of studies 
and discoveries of some laws relative the 
propagation of sound , light and electricity 
through the space, the earth and water. 

Thus, he invented several apparatus : the 
ic'liiiixiophone, the kiileophone, the aneinatop hone, the teletiton, and 
the cdiphone. 

The Inlauxiophonc is the last word of the telephone, not only 
because of the foi'ce and intelligibility whith which it transmits the 
words, but also because with it telephoning at great distances beco- 
mes a practical and economical reality. 

The kalt'ophone works also with wire, and presents the origina- 


lity of not needing to ring the bell to eall, to hear the artieulated 
sounds, or that of the instrument. 

The uncmatophone and the tclcliton are wireless telephones. The 
perfeet operation o! these apparatus, aecording to what their inven- 
tor says, reveals laws entirely new and is altogether most curious. 

The cdiphone is useful to purify and soften the plw)nograplied 
voice of the parasitical vibrations, reproducing it just as the natural 

The wireless telephone is reputed the most important discovery 
of Father Landell, and the expei-iments made by him in the presence 
of the English Consul in Sao Paulo, Mr Lupton, and many other 
parties of high social position, were so satisfactory that Dr. Ilodri- 
gues Botet, giving an account of those trials wrote the moment was 
not far when Father Landell would he consecrated as the author of 
marvellous inventions. 

In a Porto Alegre daily paper we saw the following biographical 
notes about this inventor : 

« Father Robert Landell de Moura was born in Porto Alegre in 
the year 18G2. 

He is a son of Mr. Ignacio de Moura and a brother of the apothe- 
caries, Joao, Edmundo and Ricardo Moura, of Dr. Ignacio Landell, 
a physician and of Mr. Pedro Landell de Moura a well known Sao 
Paulo merchant. 

Having decided from his childhood to become a priest, Robert 
Landell went to Rome while yet quite a young fellow, there he follow- 
ed the theological course with distinction and was ordained. ]^y 
this time he Avas already studying with special care physical 
sciences. » 

HuET DE Bacellar. — The clever and 
illustrious Rear-Admiral Huet de Bacellar is 
another contemporary inventor and is one of 
the most distinguished officers of the Brazilian 
navy. As a Captain , commanding several 
men-of-war, he had occasion to obsei've the 
defects in the tubes of the submarine torpedo- 
throwers, which, in fact, are far from giving 
satisfaction, in their practical \^'ork, not only Huki- be 

because it is impossible to regulate the charge 

of the cordite, or the pressure of the gas inside the tube, but because 
of other defects verified every time use is made of the torpedo- 

— 4.0 — 

throwers, .sometimes causing disasters as it happened on board the 
men-of-war (c Aquidaban » and « Deodoro ». 

Wliilc commanding- the small battle-ship « Floriano «, rear-admi- 
I'al Huet de Bacellar attempted to put in practice a modification of 
the apparatus SchM'artzkopf, which he had in mind to realize after 
long studies in other ships. He ordered in that German house the 
manufacture of a torpedo-thrower as he invented, and experiments 
were made the result of which representing a great triumph for the 
clever sailor. 

In a lecture delivered in the Xavy College on the 23rd. May 1902, 
with the pres(!nce of the President of the Republic and high authori- 
ties of the navy, he said : 

The apparatus works by means of compressed air, and in that 
there is nothing new. 

What is really new and what characterizes this invention is the 
peculiar disposition of tubes themselves and the arrangement of the 
valves which let the compressed air x^ass to the cylinders from the 
external to the internal tube, making it go on till the end of its 
course when the torpedo is expelled. In the initial movement only 
the cylinders of the external tube receive the air, but after the air 
having gone a eei'tain course the torpedo gets loose from its safety 
links automatically, the valve that gives the double entrance of the 
air in the cylinders is then opened, the air that enters oft hastens 
the movement of the internal tube and the air that enters fore passing 
through the stems of the embolus causes the firing of the torpedo. 
The remaining air, that stays inside the cylinders, in their fore part, 
serves as a kick-stopper. 

Once the torpedo fired, the internal tube gets in automatically to 
its initial position by the external pressure of the water and when by 
some circumstance this does not happen, it is taken back from the 
battery by the comjjressed air, or by hand, by means of a mechanical 

Brazilian and European experts recognized the importance of the 
invention to which the german manufacturers gave the name of 
Bacellar-Schwartzkopf and which was adopted by the Brazilian 
navy, the battle-ship « Floriano », commanded at the time by the 
inventor being the first one to adopt it. 

Radler de Aquino. — Is a young navy officer who invented an 
apparatus of practical use which proves how well prepared in scien- 
tific studies the Brazilian navy officers are. 


Lieuk'nniil liAiir.Kit in; A(jm\o 

His invention is tlius described by the ol'l'icial organ of the 
Navy : « It consists of an apparatus in two different parts a trans- 
mitter and a receiver where are a number of copper contacts corrcs- 
pondino- to the different orders to be transmitted or received. 

Both receiver and transmitter have a 
lever and not only this has a wire connec- 
ting it to the other, but the contacts that 
correspond to the same indications, in this 
two apparatus, were also connected by 
means of a metallic conductoi'. 

A current running through the ^^■irc that 
connects the two levers, can, indifferently, 
circulate through either of the elementary 

But the electrical communication can 
only take place by one of the mentioned 
circuits, when the lever of the receiver is 
in symetric position with that of the trans- 
mitter, that is, it is necessary that the two levers should mark the 
same signal. 

It must be said : when that takes place, two lamps, one of the 
receiver and the other of the transmitter, placed upon the wire that 
connects the levers, will prove that the general circuit has been 

On the other hand, the lever of the transmitter is built in such a 
way that while one of the extremes slides by the contacts above 
mentioned, the other extreme, passing over the contacts that are 
between it and the other contact indicating the order, produces the 
closing of a special circuit, causing that waj' the vibration of a bell 
in the receiving section. » 

Lieutenant Aquino's device is worthy of mention mainly by the 
simplicity of the ajiparatus, when compared with those of Fiske, 
used by the United States Navy and those of Barr and Strond used 
by the English navy. 

Besides, he has also invented a chemical indicator, to substitute 
Lord Kelvin 's mechanical one, in the average soundings of hydro- 
graphy or rapid navigation. 

Radler de Aquino continues in his scientific studies, and besides 
the above described apparatus has several other inventions, among 
which is the velocimetre, destined, as its name indicates to measure 
the speed of the ship, based upon, in the live pressure of the water 

— 42 — 

canstHl l)y the presence of the Ixiat, the apparatus having been named 
by i(s author « picao-velociiuctro. » 

Experiments made in July and August 1000 on hoard the 
a Jiun-oso », a Brazilian nian-ol'-war, produced excellent results. 

EiiS'iiieei' Rmi:iRO da Costa 

TliBETiio DA (losTA. — Is tlic uanio of another Brazilian inventor, 
also of the navy. He is an engineer with the rank of comanander and 
is at present in charge of the A\'ork-shops of the TMo de Janeiro 
Navy Yard. 

This intelligent Brazilian scientist, devo- 
ting all his spare time to the problem of the 
life-saving service, invented and built a life- 
saving boat vei'y curious and original. It is a 
small open canoe, unsinkable destined to the 
lifes-aving service of passengers and crews 
of wrecked boats. It offers the greatest facili- 
ties of being i^laced in tlie water and has abso- 
lute safety of fluctuation. 

The Commander Ribeiro da Costa's life- 
saving boat is patented in Kurope, and in the 
last Paris exposition IIKJO received tlie highest 
av\ard, the jury of tlie exposition having i-ecognized the merit and 
true value of the ingenious a])paratus destined to represent a promi- 
nent place among the useful collections of the life-saving societies. 
Commander Costa has two different models of his boat. 

An article written on this invention states that for the landing of 
ti'oops in case of \\"ar, any of the two types will be of great moral 
effect for the soldiers, since the,\' will know immediately that they 
can't die drowned even should the boat receive any number of shots 
from the enemy. 

He also invented the construction of a raft appropriated for the 
ships with large crews. ^J'his raft is built with lumber and canvas 
and was tried with great success as well as presented to the Pollock 
competition in Europe. Its model, as the one of the other saving 
boats is on exhibition in the Naval Museum of Rio de Janeiro. 

Kngineer Ribeiro da Costa enjoys a good reputation as an intel- 
lectual man. 11(5 keeps on devoting himself to that bi'anch of naval 
consti'uction, but has invented other apparatus for several other 

Besides the two life-saving boats and the new raft a Pliant », the 
apparatus (c Dirccliophonc » devoted to know the direction of the 

— iH — 

sound of a steam whistle in I'ogoy weather and tlie praetieal and 
infallible rules to avoid collisions in the high seas during I'oggy 
weatlici', he has several inventions, all ol' them original patented in 
Europe, and submitted to the Brazilian (Government, such as : 

A semi-submarine torpedo-boat with great advantages over the 
other ones used to-day and oi'dered to be built by the government at 
the Rio Navy Yard. Unfortunately it was not built the material 
having disappeared during the revolution of 189;J. 

A rotatine steam engine, patented and tried in Brazil. 

A steam engine, completely new in all its devices, with great 
advantages over others, patented in France, Belgium, Germany, 
England and United States, devoted specially to navigation, built 
and tried in Havre in IS'Jl, received the prize in the Modei'n Inven- 
tions Exhibition in Paris, receiving great praises in several maga- 
zines as well as the gold medal <( .htcc^'iuiy » in the Naval Club of 
Rio de Janeiro. 

A new distribution of steam , without excentric, patented in 
several countries. 

A new sucking treading ])unip, oscillating movement also patented. 

An apparatus to feed boilers automatically. 

A new steam engine for navigation purposes. 

A new four concentric tubes boiler patented in several countries. 

A machine to make tooth-xjicks. 

A very original engine working by means of compressed air, all 
automatic, the result of 28 years study, built since 1897 in Marseille, 
lacking yet a few small details to make experiments. 

An hydraulic turbine, for navigation purposes. 

A new apparatus to feed automatically any boiler even a ship one 
about to be tried soon in the Rio Navy Yard. 

A new submarine torpedo. 

Francisco Przewodowski. — Is the name of another Bi'azilian 
invent(U\ He is a navy officer as is father was. He was born in 
Cannavieiras (Bahia) and as his name indicates is Polish descent. 
He WHS educated in the Naval College and devotes himself to the 
study of physics and mechanic. The invention that placed him in 
evidence among professionals and which won a 1.5 year privilege 
from the Brazilian Government ^^■as his ai;)paratus <( Przewodowski » 
destined to the self direction of torpedoes against movable or fixed 

This apx^aratus, result of patient studies, is a series of pieces 

— 44 — 

disposed so, that it permits the use of tlie iman or magnectic needle 
to give sell' direction to the torpedoes. According to the patent the 
apparatus has two i^arts, the first with an iman, the following with 
bobines whore the electro-iman necessary is obtained. They are 
separate, each occupying its chamber and the second is lined with 
china except the discs oi' the eyes were placed the extremities of the 
bobines. The only communication between the first and the second 
is by wires, sufficiently isolated crossing the intermediary wall 
allowing only tlie passage of the electric current that is going to act 
upon the helm of the torpedo making it take the direction of the aim 
or target. The inventor received proposals for the purchase of the 
invention from an English house but refused to sell it which he is 
still improving every day in Rio. He also applied for patent in seve- 
ral Eui'opean counti'ies. Lieutenant Francisco Przewodowski is a 
persistent and intelligent investigator and a hard worker, and 
expects yet to improve considerably his own invention. 

The experiments he has made have, so far, been most successful. 

Adel Pinto. — He was 
born in S. Gabriel, Rio 
(Jrande do Sul. He first 
studied in the Military 
College of Rio , finishing 
in the Polytechnical Colle- 
ge of the same city. In the 
army reached the rank of 
1^' Lieutenant of artillery. 
Since his youth he has de- 
voted himself to special 
studies on electricity and 
its applications. Several 
discoveries and mechanic- 
al inventions give him a 
prominent place among 
Brazilian inventors. We 
must mention sxaecially : a 
new process for preserva- 
tion of meat and fish, which 
is being exploited by an 
exporting enterprize in the 
River Plate. Another one is a curious apparatus to avoid railroad 

Adel Picto 

— 15 — 

collisions by means of a new Blofk-sysicm absoliilely automatic, 
electrical-mechanieal, simple, sale and economical. It was tested 
and tried by the Central of Brazil Railroad and judged as ])ossess- 
ing splendid and safe conditions to guarantee its object. Another 
one of Dr. ^Vdel Barretto Pinto's invention consists in utilizing- the 
power produced by the column of air dislocated by any vehicle in 
motion, such as trains, ships, automobiles, etc., transforming this 
power in electrical energy in benefit of the same vehicles, multi- 
plying their motive power with economy of fuel. 

This transformation of power is made by means of a compressed 
air turbine, constituted by eight paddles in screw form, adapted to 
the front of the vehicle, the turbine becoming a special generator, 
forming a system, by means of a combination of pulleys with a small 
dynamo of electro motive power proportional to the power of its 

Gomes I'ereira. — (An- 
tonio Coutinho ) Another 
military inventor. He be- 
longs to the navy. As the 
reader can see this class 
gives a good contingent of 
inventoi's thanks to their 
initiative intelligence, and 
to the excellent scientific 
culture acquired in the Xa- 
vy College of Kio , Gomes 
Pereira was born in Rio, 
graduated from the Xavy 
College where he was al- 
ways one of the first in all 
the classes he had to go to. 
After a few trips , both in 
the Atlantic and the Paci- 
fic, having visited the prin- 
cipal Arsenals and Xavy 
yards of Europe , he was 

commissioned as sub-commander of several ships , and later on 
commander of the torpedo-boat « Tamoyo », where he revealed 
himself a sailor well posted on modern warfare. After tlie Ilussian- 
Japanese war, he invented, taking advantage of what he learnt in 


that war, a most ingenious apparatus an niitomaiic commuter I'or 
tlie circuit of the firing- of the guns on board. Tliis api^aratus, 
patented ah'eady by the Brazilian Government iias as an ol)ject to 
avoid the deviation of tlie bullet and loss of the shot caused by the 
motion of the ship and is being adopted by the Brazilian Navy with 
great praises froui the authorities in this line. He has still other 
inventions but this tiutomaiic commuter is tlie one worthy of 
special mention in this chapter of our book. 

Oliveika de Menezes 
(Augusto Xavier). — ITe 
was born in f 870. AVhen he 
was 18 years old he entei'ed 
the National Gymnasium. 
He followed iiis preparato- 
ry studies wath distinction. 
He liad great inclination 
for the study of physical 
and natural sciences , re- 
vealing an inventive ge- 
nius , preparing exponta- 
neously most curious ap- 
paratus to be worked by 
electricity. He has a bat- 
tery of Ills own that works 
with common kitchen salt. 
Later on he was professor 
at the National Gymna- 
sium. He entered after- 
wards as student to the 
Medical College. In 1902 he wrote a work with the title (c Xococi suc- 
cintas dc Cliimica Philosophical) which made a name for him. In 1903 
he published anew w'ork on chemistry which adopted by nearly every 
one of the Eio x^rofessors. In 1905 lie took part in the Scientific Latin 
American Congress wdiere he presented a notable (c jjapcr » on « .1 
Atmosphera rarefeita m presenting highly important phenomenon. 
His work was unanimously approved by the learned men present at 
the meeting both foreign and natives. This meeting was held in the 
Polytechnical College of Kio. He was then but 25 years old. He has 
several inventions wH)rthy of note, wdiich he has not put in practit'o 

Oliveira de Menezes 

— 47 — 

for lack of material elements as it is : an clcctro-inulliplycr, a rcg-iil- 
iitorofthe incHiiilcsccnt lamps intcnsiir, nn cleclricul ncciiDuilniof, 
searelied hy the use of a metal not as yet exploited, and wliicli aecoi'd- 
ing to his theories will be tlie ideal of modern electricians : small 
weight and volnme, large capacity. lie is now writing a work on 
physical science entitled « Nocdes siicxintas dc Physica Elemeiiiar. 

EllUAllDU (.'il.ALllllO 

Eduakdo Claudio. — He is another engi- 
neer, born in Tvio de Janeiro , to-day at the 
head of t.lie technical section of a tramway 
company. He contribnted towards the good 
name of the Bi'azil of to-day, inventing a pro- 
pelling appai'atus destined to substitute the 
helix of tlie steamei's, just as the helix sub- 
stituted the wheels or paddles. The Brazilian 
Admiralty much interested in the new pro- 
X)eller, made strict experiments adapting it 
to a port torpedo boat, the « Sabino I'/c/ra », 
obtaining results that encouraged the order 

to adapt it to a large ship which is now being done. All the technical 
world accompanies with an interest tliat can easily be imagined, the 
trial proofs of the ingenious appai'atus to ^\■llich its inx'entor gave 
the name of Trochoulal Propeller, or simply 'I'roehoide. 

^^__ Dr. Eduardo Claudio is a 

sei-icius man , an investiga- 
toi-, and endowed with large 
theoretical knowledge. His 
invention is not a casual 
discf)vei-y, but the I'csult of 
much thinking and untired 
studies of several years , 
luckly ci'owned with good 

The construction of the 
new pi'opellei' obeys to a new 
theory absolutely o])])osed to 
the theories of tlie helix. 

Tliese theoi-ies claim that 

the propelling action of the 

helix is due to the reaction produced upon the water by the Tore side 

of the helix ])aildles, ^\•hi(■]l would be e(iui\alent to saying tliat the 

trochoide ought not to work efficiently. 

Tin; <c Truclioide » 

— 48 — 

Notwithstanding- tlie Troclioide not only proved its economical 
superiority over the helix in experiments realized with a torpedo- 
boat in the hay ol' Kio, hut also proved that the vibrations that seem 
unavoidable in the ships of great speed propelled by helix have no 
I'eason to exist, and will absolutely disappear when propelled by 
the troclioide. 

In sjiite of the imperfections of the first a2ipai-atus experimented, 
comparing it with one of the best helixes, an economy was realized 
of 30 "/,-,. 

The Brazilian Government has ordered the construction of seve- 
ral of these apparatus, in the Rio Navy Yard , to be used in the first 
boats to be made which will be propelled by the trochoidc, putting- 
aside the helix wich does not come up to the same perfection. It is 
the eternal work of the indefinite progress. 

ToRQCATO Lamakao. — An elec- 
tricist of renown, a native of Para, 
has become quite prominent with 
his work on electrical oscillations, 
applied to the wireless telegraph 
and to the direction of submarine 
war torpedoes. For tins torpedo — 
submarine torpedo directed by the 
hertzian electric waves — the Bra- 
zilian Congress has voted a subsidy 
of twenty contos for an apparatus 
to be built. 

Tills tor^Dedo has in its favor the 
approval of all the Board of engi- 
neers of the "SVar Department, that 
declared officially , after studies 
ordered by the Secretary of war « that the invention with slight mo- 
difications, indicated by the Board, could render the highest services 
to the defense of the Brazilian ports. » 

Experiments made on board the steamer « liuhy^i of tlie Brazilian 
merchant marine in 1900, and others made in 1903, in Rio, before 
many experts , showed the importance of electricist Lamarao's 
invention. For the last 1() years Mr. Lamarao has devoted himself 
to the study of physics and chemistry. 

With his ap])aratus, transmitter of hertzian -waves, the inventor 
in that test put in operation the watching torpedoes which exploded 

T(ir(iuat(i L;iiiiai-;io 

— i9 — 

as soon as they roceivcMi the waves. AfLerwards ho iiiado four of them 
expk)de simultaneously by means of waves sent also simultaneously. 

The wii-eless teleo-raph, invented and built by him, it is a device 
so arrang'ed that assures safe and pei'feet woi'k. 

This ingenious inventor and eleetrieist has still other instruments, 
of great utility, invented by him, as tlie Sondogrnpho, devoted to 
register on a dial the soundings in navigated canals, and the Eleclric 
]]'arnei\ to denounce the presence of water in the hold of the shii)s. 

His most important invention is the tor])edo apparatus, c^xaniiiuHl 
by military engineers, and, as has been mentioned above awarded a 
prize by the Brazilian Congress. The press wrote (extensively and 
enthusastically about the success of the expeiiments made on the 
liith. April in Kio where the advantages of his invention were plainly 

Pereira de Lyra 

Pereira de Lyra. — Hei'e is the name 
of another Brazilian extremely fond of the 
imtural-physic sciences, a name that has 
just won I'ame for the invention of a motoi-, 
extrenud.\- ingenious. Dr. ^Vntonio .Vh'es 
I'ereii'a de Lyra was boi-n in the ex-i)ro- 
vince of I'ei-nanibuco. He became a jjhysi- 
cian but kept on studying with the greatest 
love and care physics and nu'chanics nuxk- 
ing seai'ches appliable to these sciences, 
and in this Avoi'k he is always patient and 

He invented sevei'al apparatus and industiial devices, devoting to 
this woi'k all the spai'c moments of his clinical occupations and his 
functions as a member of the Brazilian Congress where he represents 
his native State. Xone i^f those inventions, it seems, will nu-et the 
success which is api^arently reserved for his Molov-Tiirbine, of a 
system entii'ely new, which will substitute the steam, gas and watei' 
engines in use to-day in the industi'ial establishments. Hi a compa- 
I'ative ex])ei'iment in Avhich it was i)ut side a side with the (Jiiiiis 
tui'bine, it was sho^^■n that the n(!W turbint^ is so superior that it does 
not stand comjjarison, Ixdng besides much simpler and ehea])er. 

Being unabh^ to give hei'C a eomj)lete desci-i])tion of this in\'ention 
■we limit ourselves to transci-ibe fi'om the JornnI do Coinincrcio, of 
Rio de .Janeiro, the following ])aragra])li in which tliey i-eferred to 
this invention at the time gi-antcd a three yeai- j)atent to (he in\'entor. 

« Entirely dilTerent iVoni all the others by its sliajte and disposi- 
tion ol' its paddles, the new turbine may be niade with one sin<;le 
wlieel, which is ea])able ol' reducing its speed to the limit exacted by 
liractice. It is a returnable enoine, which, by the simjjle movement oi 
a cock, goes indifferently to the right or to the left, without any alte- 
ration in its delivery. It avoids completely shocks and whirls, 
because of the s])ccial disposition of the paddles and the direction of 
the throw. The admission is made by means of automatic valves, 
moved by the steam itsell', which maintain always the same ])res- 
sure, never mind what the chai'ge and system of the engine may be. 
In short, it is a simple appai'atus, light, economical, offering i-esis- 
tance and able to substitute with advantage the motors of its kind, 
in a lai'ge number of api>lications. » 

OswALDo Faria. — We will now 
mention a name which will lie often 
I'cpcated in future as evei'ything 
udw indicates. It belongs to the 
youngest of inventors as he was 
liut 1.") or 16 years old when he made 
his ajipeai'ance before the scientific 
world as an inxcntor. lie was born 
in Rio de .Janeiro but is now in I'a- 
ris finishing his scientific studies. 
'I'hc jircss of the whole \voi'ld,and 
much sj)ccially the French one wi'ote 
extensively about his discovery. 

Morales de Los Rios the wcdl 
known architect of Rio wi'ote thus 
about Oswaldo Faria the great in- 
ventoi', our confrere : 

<( Os\\ aldo Faria 's invention is 
really, if we are to b(^lievc the news 
that are reaching us, a most lucky 
discovery and is destined to i-evolu- 

tionize the (dectrical mechanics, industry and economy. 

It is no more or less than a transfornu'r of the altei'nativc 

currents into continual currents. This transfornn'i' is at the same 

time a regulator of ])ower, which i)erniits, or I'ather, originates a 

series of new a])i)lications for the electric cui'i'ents. 

Oswaldo Faria 

— 51 — 

It is the solution of the mos( sought of pi-ol)lem by eleetrical 

Its author until now has reduced tlicse now applications only to 
seven, and among these are nioi'e prominent, the suppression ot spe- 
cial works and machinery to produce ozone, the su]3pression of spe- 
cial apparatus and shops to chai'ge the accumulators, the enormous 
and most sought of advantage of becoming fix and steady the light 
of the arc-light lamps, which, as it is known, has been from its 
beginning till now very imperfect. That fixidity of the electric light 
produced by that lamp gives to the vitascope views a firmness which 
they never had until Oswaldo Faria "s invention appeared and par- 
ties who w^ere present at the experiments of the vitascoi)e with 
Fai'ia's regulator, assure that the views are absolutely firm and that 
the absence of that inconvenient trembling observed until then in 
the reproduction of the views of the vitascopes, is complete. The 
invention of the young Brazilian ])romises to regulate the power of 
the light, either in the are-light lamps, the incandescent one, what 
offers the advantages of the ordinary lamps being able to fai'nish 
light weaker or stronger, at will. 

The same apparatus originates other important improvements. 
'We may say it is going to revolutionize in an extraordinai'y way 
the electrical production under its varied forms of light and power. » 

Through the intervention of His Excellency Barao do lUo 
Branco, Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Dr. Piza e Almeida, Brazilian 
Minister to France, j.n Paris, gave the aid of his prestige to safe- 
guard the interests of the young inventor, protecting his rights, and 
to that effect had experiments made by experts of recognized com- 

The repercussion ol' this discovery in the European scientific 
world was such, that the French government wanted to offer the 
young inventor the graduation diploma of one of its Academies. 

Dr. A^idal Brazil. — This inventor has followed quite a diffe- 
rent kind of investigations from the others above mentioned. His 
name is connected with one of the most precious discoveries of the 
medical science and most important to the life of the rural population 
specially those who work in the field or in the woods. 

He has discovered the antidote against the ophidic poison. Some 
time ago, another Brazilian, Dr. Lacerda, discovered a preparation 
having as basis permanganato of potassium, which was a most use- 
ful remedy when applied in time for the bites of certain ophidions. 

— 52 — 

Dr. Vidal who is at present the director of the Instifuto Seriim- 
ihcrHi)ico,o( S. Paulo, gave the last word applying the .sez-zn/i/Zieray'V 
to the cure of snake bites, and in Brazil there is a large number ol 
nnghty poisonous ones. Dr. Vidal had to make experimental studies 
most accurate and rigorous during several years. 

In all the medical centres, investiga- 
tions of this kind have progressed but 
little, to be precise, have note advanced 

The same is not the case in Brazil. In 
this counti'y there ai'c many kinds of sna- 
kes, some most poisonous ones and quite 
a numbei- of men fall victims to them as 
well as do domestic animals in several 
regions of the country. 

To avoid this evil which until then 
had resisted to the efforts of physicians 
and quacks, Dr. Vidal Bi-azil has disco- 
vered that remedy with scrums prepared 
by him of three different kinds : the anti- 
crotnlic, against the bite of I'attle-suake, the auti-b()tliro])ic, against 
the bite of the ya;-a;-ara-snakc, and the anti-ophidic, formed by the 
mixture of these two against the bite of the other kinds of siuxkes. 

This way Dr. Vidal put well in evidence the name of Brazil in the 
medical world, and giving credit to the institution he is director of 
in Silo Paulo. 

Vidal Brazil 

Another Brazilian invention, though not of great scientific value 
as the preceding ones, is the inviolable sea/, invented by an em- 
ployee of the Post Office, Mr. Marques de Souza, charged with the 
branch of the Post Office in the Federal Congress Building. 

It consists in a kiiul of a bolt or lock made of card and lead and 
in which after closing nuxil bags, envelopes or any othei' postal 
package, by means of an ingenious ai)i)aratus could l)e i)rinted any 
signals, dates, numbei'S, anything 'wisluHl. 

The sim])licity of the invention can only be compai-ed with its [)rac- 
tical use and [efficiency foi' the Avork, as it is ])roviug its real value 
in tlu' ]>ost-offiees of llu' country. Soon aftci' it Mas i)atentcd, it was 
adopted b\' the ])ost-offiee administration and it can be seen that 
\)r\'uv<' Utujj; Ihv innidhiblc seal in\'cutcd by Mi-. Mar(iucs de Souza 
will make disapix'ar from all the ])ost-offices, the use of wax, muci- 

— 5:1 — 

la^'cd soals and all tluM)th(u- ])riiiiitivo proccsKos tiMcd until now to 
assure the in\i()lability of tlie mails. 

Besides this seal and an original mail bag to carry the mails from 
port to ])()rt, Mr. Marques de Souza invented several other deviees 
among wliieh is tlu^ Brazilian Grenade, a war projectile, submitted 
not long ago to the appreciation ol' the Major-State oi' the ai'niy, and 
the characteristic of which consists in that, much to the contrary of 
what happens with all the other projectiles used, it is open, that is, 
it has a longitudinal opening ramified with three lines running in the 
direction of the drilled rays of the inside barrel of the gun. The air 
introduced in these openings when the pi'ojectile is in motion it 
escapes, impressing greater velocity to it and more penetrating 

Should we have time and s})ace we could give a long series of 
inventions, discoveries, scientific apx^lications, etc., of our days, all, 
the woi'k of Bi'azilians, but the list would be rather long. We would 
liave to speak of : 

Freire de Aguiar. — New process of manufacturing extracts of 

Angelo Borges. — Rotative motor engine. 

Marao Ferreira. — New flat-irons. 

R. nE Carvalho. — New process of metal stencil work. 

Antonio Salles Ferreira. — Improved coffee-})ot. 

Bemvindo a. Brandao, of Rio. — Hydrometre. 

Fraxcisco Gox'gALVES RiBEiRO, of Sao Paulo. — Improved coffee 

Bernardo Cagmari, of Rio. — Paste board made of peri-pcri 

D"" Francisco Cintra, of Sao Paulo. — Ap^jaratus for trigonome- 
tric calculations. 

Jose Vincente Marella, of Rio. — Acetylene gasometre. 

OcTAVio Teixeira Mendes, of Sao Paulo. — Cooler by compres- 
sed air. 

AuGUSTO Barbosa da Silva, of Minas Geraes. — New jn'ocess 
for the manufacture of ])ig iron, steel and an electric oven for that 

JoAO FiGUEiREDO Pv,ociiA, of Rio. — Mechanic-ex])laining map 
for the study of geography. 

J. A. DA SiLVA GouYEiA, of Rio. — N(nv style flat-iron. 

A. CosTA Sampaio, of Rio. — Oiler to jii'event rust. 

IsiDORO J. Machado Lapa, of Rio. — Acetylene ajiparatus for 

- 51. — 

xVntonk) F. de Cauvalho, of Rio. — Disinl'ycting iiiacliiiH' for 
barbers iiistruiiu'iits. 

Carlos M. dk Lackrda, of Rio (Jramb; do Sul. — New process 
to prcjjarc dry salted Iteef making it imcliaiigeable. 

DiAs i)K Oliveiua, oI' Baiiia. — A])i)aratus to lil't heavy weiglits 
fi'Oiu the bottom ol' the sea. 

JoAO T. VAseoNiELLOs, ol" Rio. — Xew night lamps named 
« Bra/.ileiras ». 

Maximo P. de Cakvalho, of Minas. — Horse-shoe nails, named 
« Bi'azil )). 

Miguel A. Bruno, of Rio. — Original drink with therapeutie 

Antonio V. V. da Fonseca, of Rio. — Ingenions deviee called : 
<( Automatic Fisher ». 

Jose Fmilio Reriiardt, of liio Grande do Sul. — Apparatus to 
cut clothing named (( Adjusting Ray ». 

Eduardo J. S. Proenca, of Rio. — Fishing apparatus. 

.loAQuni Leocadio Freire, of Sao Paulo. — Xew system to pro- 
duce sugar, Ijy means of the air and heat. 

AuGUsTo C. S. Telles, of Sao Paulo. — Utilisation of the resi- 
due of araminc to manufacture paper, etc. 

Fduardo Gomes Ferreira , of Rio. — Improvement in cotton 
weaving, linen, etc. 

Manoel Antonio Guimaraes, of Rio. — New carriage models. 

Arthur O. F. R angel, of Rio. — Photographs by a ilew process 
called « celluloidinos » and an Electi'ic Drill. 

Lui/, Freire de Aguiar, of Rio. — Sanitary apparatus named 
« Simjjlex ». 

Fduardo Gomks Ferreira, of Rio. — Improved weaver's shuttle. 

Andre Framu, of Rio. — Substance and process to tan skins, 
named « Frama preparation ». 

Oscar Spalding, of Rio Grande do Sul. — Machine to scrape 
MnndiocH. (A Brazilian plant out of which flour is made). 

.loAO Vasques, of Rio. — A very curious lamp named ((Progress. » 

Germano F. Vidal , of Rio. — Industrial advertisements by 
means of stereoptican views. 

Manoel Gomes, of Rio. — Incandescent alcoliol street lamps. 

Carlos Silva. — Original stove. 

Raul DA F. RiHEiRO , of Rio. — Station indicator for railway 

Pedro A. Borges, of Sao Paulo. — Ant-killer machine. 

— 55 — 

Pedro Perkgrino, of Rio. — An apparatus niaiicd « Kloxeiiioto », 
to neutralize the sliaking- of earriaj^es. 

B. F. Costa e Sousa, of Rio. — A process to cool tlie air sudtlenly. 

Affonso C- Seabra, of Rio. — A nu)tor turbine. 

Dr. P^RAN'cisco MouRAO, of jNIiuas Geraes. — A])plieation of man- 
ganese and its compounds to a eeramic paste. 

Bento ^1. Sa, of Rio. — Maeliines to clean knives and forks. 

Arthur D. Lagerde, of Rio. — Process tor cloth to become im- 

Berxardi^o a. Soares, of Rio. — !Motor l^y means of compressed 

Afkonso DOS Reis, of Rio. — Machines for wall paper manufac- 

Fernando Xavier da Silvetra, of Minas Geraes. — Brick nu^k- 
ing machine. 

JoAQUiM LouREwgo RiBEiRO, of Parana. — Hydraulic automatic 

Antomo Ayres Ferreira, of Rio. — Traction machine. 

Dr. Joaql'im Leocadio Freire, of Sao Paulo. — Inijjioved dis- 

JoAO XoGUEiEA Malheiros, oI' Rio. — Xew maritinu' vehicle, 
named « Velo-helice ». 

Dr. Francisco Alves de Lima , of Rio. — Air pump, foi' land 
and sea. 

And an endless number of others, -which proves the inventive 
energy and cax)acity of the present generation. 

It would require two large volumes to desci-ibe, even in a con- 
cise foi-m these discoveries and inventions. By what we have writ- 
ten, by what we presented in the above lines, we can affirm that the 
time is gone when the dense forests, the incjians, the missionaries 
and the slaves were the essential subjects of the Brazilian social 
scenery, the common reference places for the European traveller to 
write about Brazil as a large lot of tame savages. 

Xow, let us have a look at Brazilian investigators, scientists, 
thought workers, etc. 


Among the Brazilian men of science the following names occupy 
j^re-eminent places : 

Barhosa RoDRiGUES. — Is the name of the learned director of the 
Botanical Garden, author of several important photographic mono- 

Bakiiosa liuuiiiGUi;s 

gniphies, a work in two volumes « Miiinikyhtn and the Symbolic 
idols », and iiian,\- ollior works, the most noted ol' which being a cle- 
ver treatise on ])alni-trees, entitled '< I'almeiras do Brazil », a work 
lor the publication ol' which the IJi'azilian Conj;i'ess \-oted an appro- 
priation of L'OI ):()()()*( H)() or aboul se\'ent\- thousand dollai-s. 

Dr. A. J. Ferreira da Hilva, pro- 
lessor or the Polytechnical Academy 
oi Oporto, Portugal , writing about 
this Brazilian scientist, who devotes 
all his spare moments to botanical 
and ethnological studies stated : ((Make 
agreat mistake those who are thinking 
that Brazil is indifferent to the civili- 
sing progress of the world, characte- 
rised by the development of sciences. 
An impulse of no small importance 
has been given, and we can even as- 
sure that it will be one of great future 
possibilities, if the Brazilian Govei'n- 
ment does its duty. 
Joao Barbosa Rodrigues I'cpresents one of the most valiant 
im])ellors of that movement of scientific emancij)ation in Bi'azil. His 
maguilicciit Ijotanical studies, especially about j)ariisite!i and jialm- 
li'ccs give him one of the most distinguished jilaces among the bota- 
nists and his ethnological studies have thrown light on many pro- 
blems concerning the races of the American continent ». 

Barbosa Rodrigues is the type of a true friend of science ; he 
never devoted himself to nor allowed himself to be attracted l)y any 
other thing but scientific researcdies. In 1871 he entered the Amazon 
valley to stiuh' the forest. He lived therefor years. He then founded 
the Bonatical Museum of Manaos, and from there he was invited by 
the Federal Government in 18U0, to take charge of the Botanical 
(Jai'den of Rio de Janeiro, \\liere he introduced thousands of new 
plants, classifying every one he found there. Twice European men 
of science perpetuated his luinie in botany, as a recognizance of his 
scientific work : they (dassified a genus of the jialm-tree family 
(( liiii'bosii )i and a genus of parasitc^s (( Rodri^uezicllu ». Besides 
these there ai'e some ten otlnu- si)eci(^s devoted to him bearing the 
name of the wise Itra/.ilian. He has gone over every bit of the 
lirazilian tcri'itory in his scientific excursions. 

In 1<S8I-18<S.5 he pacified the Indian tribe of the /w'(c/!a;i;'i.s, that 
h(^ met with and was highly jiraist'il by the Brazilian [)ress. 

His Avoi'k oil parasites was liig'lily a])i)re(_'iato(l by Enropcaii scien- 
tists. Ill the lutei'iiatioiial Botanieal Congress, held on the 
V)tli. September 1892, where the celebi'ated professor Oog'iieaiix sent 
a great iiuinber ol' drawings from Barbosa Rodi'igues nianiiscript a 
lettei' was I'ead in which the well known professoi' liad \\ritten : 

<( It was then that, at my /x-rsisiciit requests, Mr. Barbosa Ro- 
drigues, promised me all his eolle('ti(ni, consisting of nearly nine 
hundred eolored drawing's. » 

And the letter ends thus : 

« Some of these drawings that I took, at hazard, will permit to 
appreciate the ai'tistie talent with which those drawings wei'e made, 
and above all, the great cai'e witli which the minutest details of the 
analytical dra^\■illgs of this i-ich and precious series were represented. 

Closing these lines a comparison im])oses itself before my mind, 
between the behaviour of the two old competitoi's to the editing of the 
pai'asites moiiography for the <( Flora Brasiliensis »; a (Reichembach 
son) revenged himself for having been set aside, ordc^i'ing, by his 
death, that his important collections should be closed during 25 years, 
so that they could not be utilised in the editing of the work; another 
one (Barbosa Rodrigues), though he could not have been selected 
because of the position in which he was placed , he wanted however 
to render services to science and xiermitted me to utilise the best way 
I could the fruit of his active i-esearches during many years. I believe 
that this latter botanical scientist will thank his abnegation, and from 
my pai't 1 take advantage of this opjjortunity to publicly present my 
most profound gratitude. « 

He has also some works of great value on experimental physio- 
logy. His study on the curare was the most interesting that has been 
done in Brazil. A moiiography on « Fecundacao vegetal » is equally 
one of the most noted works on experimental physiology in Brazil. 

Often have researches made by Dr. Barbosa Rodrigues appeared 
in Europe attiibuted to other learned men, as it happened with pro- 
fessor Aberdeen, J. W. Ti-ail, to whom Barbosa Rodrigues had to 
write revindicating the right of priority in the classification of certain 
vegetable specimens, as well as with professor Crude, later on, when 
he wrote about palm-trees in the « Flora Brasiliensis ». 

Barbosa Rodrigues has wi'itten many other monograpliies , 
pamphlets and books on archeology, ethnography, and several other 
subjects. Here is a list of these works, though incomplete, sufficient 
to give to the i-eader an idea of the productive energy of this learned 
Brazilian : 

Iconographie des orchidees du Bresil, 1869-1882; La vallee des 

Aiinizoncs. ISTl'-I.ST.") ; Sertuiu Pulinarum; lS~-2-\8'.n : Eniimcratio 
piilniaruni nonaniin (jiias valle /Iiiiiiinis Antazoiium invcntas et ad 
Scrtiiin Palinariiiii collcclas, (l('scri])sit ct iconibus illustrauii, 1875; 
Idolo ainazonico , achado no Rio Aniazonas , 1875; Exploracao e 
csliido do vallc do Aniazonas : rio (hipim. Relatorio, etc., 1875 ; 
Exploracao c estiido do ualle do Aniazona.s. Rio Tapajos, 1875; 
l'Jxj)loracao c csttido do valle do Aniazonas : rio Troinbcdas. Rela- 
torio, 1875; Exploracao do rio Januinda. Jiehitorio , 1875; Explo- 
racao dos I'ios Uriibii c .Tatapii, 1875; Antig'uidailes do Ainazonas, 
187(j-1880; Monoslychosejntliun, ffcn. nob., (Rev. dc Hort.), 1877; 
(jcnera ct species orchidearnni (jiias collcgit, dcscripsit ct inconibiia 
illuslrauit, I vol., 1877; Estiidos sobrc a iriitabilidade dc nnia Dro- 
sera, 1S78; Proleslo appcndicc ao a Eniuncratio palniarnni nooa- 
rinn », 1871); Palniciras do Aniazonas. Distribuicao •^•eogi'apliica, 
187i); Attalca olcifcra, palnicira nova descripta e dcscnhada, liiSl ; 
O canto c a dansa sclvicola, 1881 ; Lcndas, crcncas e siijiei'.^ticdcs, 

1881 ; Flora da Scrra do Lenhciro, 1881; Rcsultado Botanico dc uma 
brcvc c.xcursao a S. Joao d'EI-Rc}-, 1881; Species orcliidcarum nova- 
nun, 1881 ; Xoias a Liiccok sobrc a Flora c a Fauna do Brazil, 1882; 
() Miiirakytan, prccioso cocvo do honicni anli-coluinbiano, 1882; Ech 
palniicrs, observations sur la niono^raphie dc cette faniille dans la 
(•.Flora Brasiliensis », 1882 ; Catalo^o dos objectos exposto.'i na Expo- 
sicao Anthrojiologica, 1882 ; 'relrastylis, i^cn. nob. das Passiflorea- 
ceas, 1882 ; Genera el sj)ecies orchidearnni nooaruni (jiias collcgit, 
dcscripsit ct iconibus illustravit, II vol., 1882 ; Diversos artigos na 
RcvislaAnlhropologica, 1882; Orchiilae Rodeienses el alterte ineditie, 

1882 ; SIriiciure des Orchidecs, Xolcs d' unc etude, 188.'i ; Esenibechia 
fasciculata, Griunary, 1883 ; O j\Iuirak}-tan on aliby { Revista Ania- 
zonica), 1881 ; Esierhazia superba. Especie nova da faniilia das scro- 
jihnlariaceas, 1885 ; Rio .Janapery. Paci/icacao dos Crichanas, 1885 ; 
Cataloffo de prodnclos do Aniazonas, 188ii ; .1 necropole de Mirakan- 
gnera (J'^xtr. da Vclloisa), 1887; Taniaknare, especies nova.'i da 
ordeni das Ternstrd'niiaccas, 1887 ; Vcllosia, V ed., 1887 ; Eclogai 
jdanlarum novarnni qnas descripsii, 1887 ; Palnia; Aniazonenses 
novte, 1887 ; Viagens as Pedras Verdes, 1888 ; A lingua geral e a 
(iiiarany. Annolacdes ao alphabeto indigcna, 1888 ; O Miiirakytan e 
o Jiiriipari, 1889 ; Ees reptiles fossiles dc I'Aniazone (Extr. da Vello- 
sia), 1889 ; Decada de Strychnos novos (Extr. da ]'ellosia ) 1880 ; Bi- 
gnaniacecr novo' (Extr. da Vellosia), 1880; Horas dc lazer, notas, 
1880 ; Porandiiba Aniazonense (Pabl. da Bibl. Xac. ), 1800 ; Os idolos 
synibolicos e o Miiirakytan, 1891 ; Plantas, novas cultivadas no Jar- 
dim Botanico, I vol., 1801 ; Vellosiai" ed., 1891 ; Vocabiilario indige- 

;)a coiiipuriido ( Publ. da Bil)l. Xac. ), 18'.i2 ; Plunius novas ciilUviKhis 
lU) Jitrdiin Bolnnico, II vol., 18U;i ; PUtiihi.s iioviis callivuda.s no 
Jardini Botnnivo, III vol. ISU:!; Vocabuhirio com n ovlo^ruphia 
corrccia, 18U:i ; Planttis nouns ciillivndas no Jardini Bolunico, 
TV vol., 18'.) 1 ,• lloi-iiis Fluininensis, 181)4; Plantas nouas ciiltiuadas 
no Jardini Bolanico, X vol., ISOil ; Palniw Mailo^'-rossensf nouu\ 
1807 ; Plantiv Maito^-ressensc novw. O Miiirakyian e as idolos 
synibolicos (2 vols.), 18'.ni ; Tratado das Palnieiras do Brazil, 1903. 

BLii'fio de C;i|):inoma 

BaRxIo de ('apanema. — Ts without 
a donbt ono o! tlic most noted Bi'azi- 
lian intellectual men. He was bom in 
Rio de Janeiro. 

His life is a continual sevii^s ol' ser- 
vices rendered to his t'ountry, and it 
sut'i'ices to ])oint out anions- them the 
one of having- introduced in the South 
.Vnu'rican continent the electrical te- 
legra])h seiAice which wci-e under his 
direction tor nearly 20 years. He star- 
ted his i)ublic career as a pi'ol'essor of 
l)hysics in Rio de .Janeiro. A little 
before the Paraguayan war, he was one ot those charged ^\■ith the 
study of improvements to be ad()])ted in the Brazilian ai'my, b_\' oi'der 
of the Imperial Government. By that tinu>. the Estrella powder 
factory in Rio de Janeii'o had been destroyed hy fii-e and he was 
charged with i-e-establishing it. While in that commissicni he inti'o- 
duced some novelties, c-oni])letely ignored in South America oik; of 
them being the Touriudron turbine, that he himsell' had built in the 
Rio Xavy Yard. He iu\'ented and installed in the factory- an appa- 
ratus to carbonise wood by means of over-heated water steam. The 
jMilverisation of the powder elements was also oljtained by him by 
means of an ingenious apparatus also of his own invention, a very 
simple one but ^^Ilich substituted with advantage the old crushing 
primitive process adopted in the factory. By his own initiative 
were introduced in the Brazilian army the breecli loading rifles, 
the first ones that were sent to South America. 

He also invented some sky-rockets to be used in time of war, and 
which were used in the Paraguayan war with the best results. Those 
sky-rockets were of cylindrical shape and contained explosives. 

But Barao de Capanema did not devote his deep genius to war 

appliances only. Some years ago he conceived a chemical (lompound 
lor the extinction of the Saiiims a species of ant which has hcen a true 
plague to Brazilian agriculturists. He gave it the name of <( Fofmivida 
(hipniicnui )i. An enormous factory established in Governor's island 
in Rio bay furnished for man,\- years tons and tons of that ant-killer 
to the farmers of the country. In 18'.)o during the Floriano revolution 
this factory was destroyed during one of the military engagements 
and with the factory also disappeared several most rich conchiologic, 
geologic and mineralogic and industrial chemistry collections whicli 
represented the I'esult of 38 years of researches made by the learned 

He made the plans and began the construction of the Rio Custom 
House Storage liouses. He reorganised the Ii^anema iron factory. He 
initiated an itinerary map of Brazil which could not be finished 
because of the Government having denied the needed funds to do it 
with. He was the founder of the Polytechnical Institute that has I'en- 
dered such good services to the country. 

As a member of the international committee for the establishment 
of a universal standard he was the introducer of the metric system 
in Brazil. 

The first paper factory established in Brazil was founded by him 
40 years ago taking advantage of a water fall near Petrox^olis. 

He spent several years going through the province of Ceara to 
make some geological studies. He indicated there the existence of 
coal and iron mines. In the mountain chain known as Carisis he 
found the formation of cretacea. In a place known as Crato, he dug 
up and classified some fossils finding one belonging to the Jurassic 

Later on he directed a committee charged with the demarcation 
of the boundary lines that separate Brazil from the Argentine Repu- 
blic as well as he represented the progress of natural sciences in 
Brazil in different Congresses and Conferences held in European 

* * 

In the medical and natural sciences Brazil has a long list of nota- 
bilities, many known abroad but the limited space of this book 
compels us to cite only a few most prominent. There is no doubt 
that the first place belongs to Dr. Chapot-Prevost, professor of the 
Rio Medical College. To give an account of his successful chirurgical 
operations which meant life and death to the operated would fill pa- 
ges and pages of this book. It suffices to mention that as audacious 

— 61 — 

as skill'nl operation made on the thoroxiphopag sisters, Maria and 
Kosalina, separatimg tliem. Tliis opera'.ion was cause oT great won- 
der to the scientists all over the world. Dr. Chapot is about to 
peri'orni an identical operation on two little thoroxiphopag girls 
which have just arrived I'rom Ceara at the translating of this book. 

Other prominent medical men ai'e Barilo Pedro Ati'onso ; Dr. Paes 
Lome; Dr. Baptista Lacerda; Dr. Pizarro; Dr. Oswaldo Cruz, the 
great baetereologist and energetic Director of the Board of Health 
and Dr. Pereira Barreto the wise propagandist in Sao Paulo. 

Dr. Baptista Lacerda. 
— "We must write some bio- 
graphical notes about this 
learned Bi'a/.ilian very much 
spoken of in the scientific 
world of late years for his 
studies and researches, lia- 
ving disco vercd among other 
things the an(i-ophidic ac- 
tion of the permanganate of 

He was born on the 12th. 
July 18-1() in the city of Cam- 
pos, province of Rio de Ja- 

His father, who is now 
dead , worked for many 
years as a physician in that 
city having acquired a good 
name l)oth for his skill and 
charitaljle disposition. 

In 1804 Dr. Baptista La- 
cerda graduated in letters 
and sciences after a brilliant course in the Collegia Pedro II. In 
1870 he graduated in the Rio Medical College and in 1876 was 
appointed vice-director of the zoological section of the National 
Museum and later on was for several years its director. 

In 18S1 with the collaboration of L. Conty founded the physiology 
lab(n'atorv of the Xational ^luseum the first institution of its kind 
then in Brazil. 

Baptista LACiiRUA 

-- (!2 — 

He piil)lislie(l several works of value about anthi'opoloj^y, pliy- 
siolof;-y and iiiiei'()l)iol()g y. 

Ill llie saiiu^ year LSS] lie diseovenMl the aiitidotisni of iieriuaiig'a- 
iiale ol' liotassiuiii for the iioisoii of the ophidioii. This (liseover\' 
gave him a good name not only in Brazil hut in foreign eoiiiitries. 
'i'he ImpiM'ial Government eondeeorated him with the title of (Jom- 
mcndndor da Rosa, and he received a ])ri/,o voted by the I'arliament 
as a eomjx'iisation for his humanitarian discovery. 

During two years he -was iiresident of the Medical National Ac;v 
dem\- and in 18'.I5 ^\-as a])i)ointed director of the Xational Mu- 

He was charged with several scientific comniittees, in Brazil and 
abroad, and several times he was honored with the nomination of 
\iee-]>reside]it of foreign congi'esses. 

He is eorres])ondii]g-member of many scientific associations both 
national and foreign. 

He wrote several ])ai)ers on the yellow fever, heri-beri and syinpto- 
uihUc caiiinnclea in ]Minas (ieraes, the riirure, on soiiu' Brazilian 
toxic and medicinal jtlants. l!(d'ormiiig the Xational ^fuseuni he 
reconstituteil there the Biology Laboratory the direction of which 
he took charge regardless of any coni])ensation. 

He is one of the Brazilian men of science most known abi'oad. 

About the learned man Pkreir.v Hau- 
RKTo, that ^\•e mentioned abo\-e , it would 
not be exaggeration to say : there is one 
of the giants of the thought in South Ame- 
I'ica. This noted ])hysician was born in the 
old ])roviiiee of Rio de Janeiro , but after 
graduating in medieinc in Brussels , esta- 
lilished his residence in Sao Paulo contri- 
buting as few have towai'ds the moral and 
material ])rogress of tliat state and the 
country. He is an earnest and active expe- 
rimentalist of industrial and agriculturist 

He is the author of that theory that the epidemic f(>vers of some 
localities of Siio Paulo are due to the eonsimrcation of tll(^ sheets of 
•water, tlieory originated aftei' the most warmly debated controvei'- 
sies, the series of measures taken for tlie improving of the sanitary 
conditions of those ])lac(^s, the drying of the soil, haxiiig thus Sao 

Pkukiua Bakretto 

— (iS 

Paulo inipi'ovcd ami tfanst'oriiicd the majoritv (if its cilices in the 
last 15 years. 

Anothei' large i)art of the good work o! that man of science was 
the campaign of rehabilitation of the weak soil , in Sao Panlo. He 
resohed then several problems of j)id)lic economy, the populating of 
several districts and the multii)licity of culture. The lattei' because 
of the State farmers devoting themselves to the cultivation of coffee 
exclusively. The lai'ge agricultural establislmient he founded as an 
experimental demonstration of his i)roi)aganda, it is to-day a good 
school for all those of that region who de\'ote themselves to such 

Dr. Luiz Pereira Barreto maintains an earnest })ro])agauda foi' 
the inti'oduction of the vines in Ei-a/.il. His fai'm in Pirituba near 
Sao Paulo is transformed in a large demonstration I'ield where tlie 
])i'ecepts of the scientific cultivation, ])reached by the ])ropagaudist, 
in successive works, have their best illustration and tlie most 
elo(|uont in thousand kinds of vines, coming from all ()\'cr the world, 
and there they are acelinuitized and blooming. 

Pie is also a philoso])]ier. 

Sociology and ])hiloso])hical ci'itic lake up the balance of his 
sjiare time, after attending to his njcdical woi-k, tlie agi'icultui'c and 

^Vmong his books and ai'ticdcs jjublished in the Belgium, French 
and Brazilian ])ai>ers has acquired a just re])utation his book «. The 
theory of (he three States >i, which ])rovoked endless and aniniaied 
discussions and is a vigoi'ous book of i)hiloso])hical critic. 

But we can't delay any longei' with this chapter, ^^'e must go 
ahead! There is a good deal to be wiitten. 

I)k. Lauko Sevkki,\no Miiller (Secretary of Industi'v and Public 
\\'orks). He is the youngest of all the members of the Govei'nment. 
AVas born in the pi'ovince of Santa Catharina in 1801. He is a man 
of su])ei'ior mind, has a sti'ong will power, is calm, persistent and 
determined. He soon took a pi'ominent ])lace among the politicians 
of note, though he does not resemble them at all, detesting as he 
does politics. 

We may say of Dr. Laui'o Midler what II. Taine said of one of 
his fellow-citizens : he ])re])ared himself for jjolitics through sciences 
and n)orals. He is an enemy of all this : (piarrels, cousi)iracies, dis- 
putes and little subtilities, that constitute as a rule the pi'ofile of 
politicians by profession, here in South America, l)r. Miiller never 

^ (M, ^- 

wanted to niiderstaiid that tlio object ol' the ]))-eoecni)atioiis of a 
public man were limited by eternal quarrels of the political parties 
and elections dis])utes. His military education, — he is a major 
belonging to a military engineers com})any — his scientific instruc- 
tion, explain fully well the reason ^^■by he places before the cogita- 
tions of the party, before the unending manoeuvres of internal poli- 

Lauro Seteriano MiiLJ.i;n 

ties, a persistent care and he never gets tired of looking after the 
material progress so nuu'h needed by this as •\^•ell as all the other 
countries of Latin America. 

Due to this particular chai'acteristic he has been elected in spite 

— 05 — 

of political differences liy all political parties of his native State in- 
distinctly. He has re])roseuted liis State both as a Congressinan 
and a Senator and was nominated candidate and elected govei'nor. 

It was wliile he was Governor of liis State that Dr. Rodrigiies 
Alves invited him to assist him in fulfilling- tlie programme of work 
and material progress that he had promised to the nation. 

jNJagnificent selection it was. For a long time Brazil has not had 
a man like Dr. Midler and he will be replaced with difficulty should 
he not he invited to continue to serve with the new ])resident as it is 

Dr. Miillei' is not only a man of good judgment and ])rogi'essive 
ideas, but he is a hard worker, energetic and the work of Ids de- 
partment is going on under such an active management that many 
call him Yankee. He visited several points of the country, he opened 
new I'ailroads, he called meetings of scientific Congresses to examine 
(le visit questions of importance in charge of his dejjartmcnt and 
last but not least he opened the Centi-al Avenue, Bay-side-drives, 
contracted the harbour woi'ks, called experts fi-oni the United States 
to study the future possibilities of the coal mines regions and others. 

It is to Laviro Miiller pi'incipally tliat Brazil owes the starting 
stream of investing capital inclined to come from the United States 
to Brazil for the benefit of both, the capitalist who will multiply his 
capital and Brazil that will develop its industries. Dr. Miiller is a 
hard woi'ker and he supervises and investigates personally every- 
thing of interest running through his department. 

Though every one of the Secretaries of the Government Jiave 
been attentive to the work of their departments, Dr Miiller has been 
pai'ticularly so. He does not confine himself to go to his office, give 
orders and sign papers. Pie inspects railroads, exainines mines, 
studies agriculture problems and is a tireless worker. 

Another characteristic of Dr. Muller's moral profile is the little 
imijortance he attaches to what the papers say about him, either in 
his favor or against liim. And was a newspa2)er man himself one 
day. He is a clever orator ; we often heard him speaking in Con- 
gress. He despises theatrical effect in his speech. He is discreet and 
the delivery of his s^^eech is slow and calm. He is, however fond of 
a little humorism which is the basis of a good practical sense. He 
was always listened to with considerable attention. 

As a Secretary lie has been more a man of action than a man of 
words. "\A'hen he took charge of his office instead of looking for liis 
political friends and political bosses, he Avent to the technical centre 
of engineers and scientists where he had occasion to declare that 

— 66 — 

« in the government he would make engineering work » and this 
phrase became celebrated and with some i-eason because there were 
quite a number of civil engineers struggling for lack of work and the 
material progress that Dr. Miiller has developped during his term 
of office brought work to the majority if not all of them. 

vSecretary Miiller has done during the four years of his admi- 
nistration 1902 to 1900 everything that could be expected from a 
good administrator of public affairs and a clever and wise man that 
he is. When he took charge of his Department he found the railway 
system almost paralyzed all through Brazil. He went to work and 
not only gave new life to the lines in operation but created new 
ones. He built some 14 to 17.500 kilometres of new roads and there 
are contracts signed for the building of 5.000 more kilometres. 

But it was not only in this line that he developped his activity. 
He also looked after the mining districts. He contracted from the 
United States, Mr. J. C. AVhite, a mining engineer who made two 
trips to Brazil for mining studies, specially the coal industry. Thus 
Secretary Miiller has promoted the industrial exploitation of the 
coal mines so rich and yet so abandoned in Brazil. He also reorgan- 
ised the New Brazilian Lloyd Steamship Company which was 
going to pieces. ISTow that company is in the hands of the firm 
M. Buarque & Co. The head of that firm Dr. Manoel Buarque de 
Macedo is one of the most clever of the Brazilian captains of indus- 
try and now the Lloyd is becoming a modern and powerful enter- 
prize devoted to the coastwise service and international navigation 
under the Brazilian flag. 

Secretary Miiller also contracted the Rio Grande bar improve- 
ments, a problem which has been waiting for centuries to be solved. 
He also solved the other no loss diffieiilt problem of the internal 
communications whith Matto Grosso, by means of a 1.200 kilometres 
railway. He promoted yet the great achievements of the Harbor 
Works of Rio de Janeiro, Baliia, Rio Grande, Victoria, Recife, 
Para, Florianopolis and Laguna. He put an end to that endless 
complaint of unsufficiency of water suj^ply in Rio de Janeiro, 
through canalisations from far away rivers. He solved yet the prob- 
lem of the supply of electric light and power for the industries and 
city illumination. He ordered the consti-uction of artisian wells and 
penetration roads, a system of public works to prevent famine in 
the States that lack irrigation during the dry season. He increased 
the federal telegraph lines more than 1.000 kilometres. He promoted 
the first industi'ial census ever taken in this republic and got 
interested in everything that ('ontributed towards making Brazil 

— 67 — 

better known abi'oad. It is not necessary to write here the good 
results obtained tliere from. It suffices to mention the St, Louis 
Exposition wliei'e Brazil presented a beautiful exhibit. The country 
owes to Secretary Miiller the important improvements Uio de Janeiro 
is uuderg'oing- as the destruction of some of the hills, the prolonga- 
tion of the !Mangue Canal with its two avenues, a permanent 
Museum, the Central avenue, tlie uniformisation of the width of the 
Central Railway of Brazil tracks and juany other improvements. 

Paulo de Frontin 

Paulo de Frontin. — Andrc-Grustavo-Paulo de Front-in was 
born in Eio de Janeiro in 1800. He was but 10 years old when he 

g-raduated as a oeograpliie ongineor from the Rio Tolyteclmical Col- 
lege. Ono year aftiCrwards lio was a processor of that same college. 
Later on he graduated as a Bachelor ol' Mathematics and Physical 
Sciences and Civil Engineering. In 1882 he obtained by comi^etitive 
examination, \\ Inch he passed with Iiigli distinction, the place of steam 
machinei'y professoi' at the Polytechnical College, lie was tea(diing- 
at the same time philosoi^hy at the Pedro II High School and me- 
chanics and asti'onomy at the National (Jymnasium. He has realized 
some most notable pieces of engineering work, railroads, water 
works, etc. Among this we must mention the (rold mines of ^Vssii- 
T'ua, in Bahia, 10 kilometres canalisation; the bringing down to Rio 
the waters of the Xerem and Mantiqueira rivers, foi' the capital 
water supply, work tliat made him a celebrated man; the Melhora- 
HU'/ifo.s o/'/ir;)c;(7 railway 150 kilometres that he studied, projected 
and built all alone in .5 year; the project of the port and docks of 
Rio; the i)lan of modifications for the improvement of the sanitary 
conditions of Rio, opening avenues and throwing down hills, and 

many other works of im- 
portance. The opening of 
Avenida Central in Rio 
which was executed in 22 
months perpetuated his 
name. lie is a man of rai-e 
intelligence and i:)henome- 
nal capacity for work and 
is , without a doubt the 
ablest engineer of South 


He is one of the most no- 
table civil engineers. He 
was born on the IS th. 
July, 18 17 in S. .Joao d'El- 
Rey, in the State of ]Mi- 
nas. He graduated in 187 1 
as a Baclielor in ^Mathe- 
niatics and I'hysical scien- 
ces, and Civil Engineer- 
ing from the Rio de Ja- 
neiro Central College. In 187:! lie was appointed (diief engineer of 

KiiANCisco Bi(:a],H(j 

— 09 — 

the Mncaho and Campos Canal. In 1874 he was appointed cliief of 
the traction department of the Pedro 11 Railway. After that he has 
filled the positions of engineer of the Eaturite railway, first 
engineer of the celebrated contractor Gabrielli, engineer of the 
Pedro II railwajr prolongation, director of the new water supply 
woi-ks in Rio, engineer of the central railway of Brazil, director of 
the hydraulic section of the l^uhlic ^\'orks department, engineer in 
charge of the project for the construction of a Custom House in Juiz 
de Fora and director of the public works of the municipality at the 
same time, and afterwards held the same position in Bello Hori- 
zonte, \\'here to they moved the State of Minas capital. Xow he is 
directing the Mangue canal works w hich is a complement to the 
Harbor works of Rio de Janeiro. Dr. Bicalho is one of the most 
notable professional men of Brazil. 

J. MiKTiNHO. — He is 
one of the best minds in 
Brazil. He was born in 
Cuyaba, Matto Grosso , in 
1848. He graduated in engi- 
neering, law and medicine. 
His notoriety is due to the 
latter aptitude. He has no 
rival in Rio that can come 
near him in Homeopathic 
treatment. He is one of the 
few foreigners who was ad- 
mitted to the group of the 
Hahnemanians , of Xew- 
York, and the only South 
American that has had that 
honor. He is a notable man 
also as a biologist and his 
knowledge of geometry is 
deep. Some years ago attract- 
ed by politics was Secretary of Public Works, later on Secretary of 
Treasury (1899-1902) where he introduced original theories of his 
own with the applause of European men, like .1. Guyot and Herbert 
Spencer and European papers, like the Financial Xcws, the Tiinen, 
the Independance Beige, etc. To-day J. Murtinho is a Federal Sena- 
tor and as a statesman he enjoys in Brazil a great prestige. He is 
one of the liveliest intellectualities of to-day. 

J. Muiiii.Niiu 

— 70 — 

ViEiitA SouTo. — Another strong mombor oT the mental aristo- 
cracy oi Brazil. He was born in Rio and is professor oi' the Poly- 
technical College where he teaches political economy. He is a scien- 
tiiic man and one oi' the leaders in the present progressive move- 
ment in Brazil. He is director of the i)rotectionist school and chief 
of one of the sections of the improvements that being executed to 
modernise the citv of Rio. 









r ' ^^ 



r - - : 





Carlos Moreika. — 
Is one of the most nota- 
ble scientists of South 
America. He was born in 
Rio in ISOU. There lie 
studied, becoming promi- 
nent for his aptitude for 
natural history investi- 
gations. He is a Zoologist, 
an entomologist and he 
has devoted himself to 
patient studies on the 
classification and habits 
of Brazilian insects and 
his collections ai'C disput- 
ed at high prices bj' 
the European specialists. 
From 18'. to to 1901 he did 
studj^ deeply Atlantic ich- 
thyology and his works 
have found a place in the 
Annals of the Rio Mu- 
seum. He travelled through all the South in commission with the 
geologian engineer White. Carlos Moreira while onlj' 19 years old 
was already a draftsman and shortly aftei' preparator of natural 
historj' of the 1st. section of the National Museum of Rio, of which 
he is even to-day the vice-director. From his works we mention the 
following translated into other languages. 


Caulos MoilliUlA 

Crustaceos do Brazil-Thoracostraceo.s, v. XI of the Archives of 
the Muaeu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. 

— 71 — 

Nota appendice a piiblica(;ao anterior, v. XII ol' the Arcliives of 
tlie Miiseu Xacional. 

Criistaceos da Ponta do Pharol em S. Francisco do Siil, E.slado 
de S'" Catharina, v. XII of the Archives of the Miiseu Nacional. 

Vermes Oligochetos do Brazil, v. XII of the Archives of the 
Miiseu Xacional. 

Uma especie nova de Amphipode Orcheoiideo (jiie vive a 2240 m. 
sobre o niuel do mar, v. XII of the Archives of the Miiseii Nacional. 

Campanhos de })esca do k Annie ^y (Jrastaceos ; estados prelimi- 
nares. A « Lavoiira )>, da Sociedade Xacional de Agriciiltura iV'^ 1 
to 3 of 1903. 

Campanhos de pesca do « Annie » Criistaceos, v. XIII of the 
Archives of the Miiseii Xacional. 

Relatorio das excursoes ao Rio Branco em S. Paulo e ao Itatiaya, 
V. XII of the Archives of tlie Muscii Xacional. 

Contra os inimigos, « Lavoura, » v. 2" serie agosto de ii^<)(j. 


For a large countrj^ like Brazil the list of its deep thinkers and 
writers is quite a long one and represents a gathering of intellec- 
tualities who do honor to South America and would constitute the 
motive for worthy pride should they belong to any European nation. 

Keeping, however, within the limits we mapped out for this 
book, we will only mention the facts and the men of to-day writing 
of nobody else but contemporary celebrities. 

RuY Barbosa. — Of all the Brazilian litterary men, of all philo- 
soj)hers of the age, of all the great thinkers and authorities in law 
and statemanship, we can say without fear of making a mistake 
that Ruy Barbosa is in first place. This assertion of ours is perfectly 
useless, should this book be published to circulate only in Brazil, 
as everybody in this country knows he is second to none in the 
whole nation. He is , to be sure, a good specimen of intellectual 
superiority and the true type of the moral blooming of the social 
surroundings where he moves. 

It can be said about him, most appropriately, just the same that 
H. Taine said of a philosopher of his age, Mr. Roj^er-CoUard : « As 

72 — 

to knowledge or behavior he does not hick any natural acconii^lisli- 
nients which confer the title oT authority : he was born a conqueror 
a doniinator ol' the mind of others ». 

^^'e can speak of Ruy Harbosa intimately as we lia\e liad the 
good fortune for some time past of enjoying his pleasant sociabi- 
lity and we have been able to study that great difference that goes 
from the home intimacy to the public life at large. So we have been 
able to observe him closelj-, to sound his moral organisation, if we 
may be permitted to thus express it. And the result of those obser- 
vations is, that we believe, every day with stronger faith, in the 
predestination of the Brazilian people. 

Writing in the most impai'tial way 
of Ruy Barbosa, we can assure that he 
adds to the most astounding and deep 
knowledge a moral nature affirmed 
by all the prestige of an exemplai'y 
behavior. He is a whole iiersonality 
before the public — who often do not 
understand his intentions — jnst as 
they would before his own self, in his 
own home. He has that politeness and 
S(>nsibilit\- proper of tlie first phase of 
life in spite of his forty yeai's contact 
with society, which the multiplied 
role he has been called to perform in 
the coimti'v, as a lawyer, a senator, a 
statesman, and other cai)acities , has 
afforded him to observe it through all 
its inuiginable features. ^A'itli a good 
experience in joui-nalism, politics, courts, eacli one of them quite 
sufficient to sjioil the purest of natures, Ruy Barbosa is not only a 
learned man but a good and honest man as well. 

His knowledge is vai'ied and he has shown it well in every 
branch of human activity : in mathematics (of which lie has a 
manuscript treatise), in medicinal science, in public, private and 
intei'national law, in history, I'eligion, finances, strategics, diplo- 
macj', sanitary legislature, pedagogy, parliamentary speaking, and 

A list of liis works will speak lietter for the varied capacity of 
this pol.\'grapher and thinker : Crinw af^-ainat industrial property, 
Bahia, 1874; Chief of the custom House Ins[)ectors defense, lialiia, 
187'.J; Rocha Viannas defense, 1880; The street prolongation, two 

liuv Baiiuosa 

— 7!! — 

volumes (a treatise on disappropriations Cor public use), Rio, 1887; 
Crime revieiv, Rio, 1888; C. Monsc^'iir's mercy petiiion, Rio, 1888; 
The state of sie>>-e , its ijatiire, its effects, its limits, Rio, 1892; 
I'neoijstitiitionul acts, ete., Rio, IS'.K); Relig-ioiis liberty, Rio, 1870; 
The Pope and the Council, (ti'anslation and introduction), Rio 1877; 
Instruction reform, Rio, 1882; Primary Instruction reform, 188S ; 
Slaves emancipation, 1884; Lessons of thino-s, 18(i0; Direct election, 
1814; Castro Alves, Baliia, 1871; The Marquis de Pombal, 1882; 
Draaiing- and imlustrial art, Rio, 1882; Bonifacio, vSao Paulo, 
1877; The political year, 1887; — Swift — 1888; The Provisional 
Government, Rio, 181)1; The servile element; lectures on slave 
freedom; the situation of slave freedom; commemoration of the - tli. 
September law iS3i ; The freedom of slavery in Brazil; Ilomagv to 
the Danlas Ministry; Republican finances and politics, 181)1; Letters 
from England, Rio, 1896; The conservative party, Baliia, 1896; Visit 
to the native land, Baliia, 1895; Inverse Amnisty, Rio, 181)7; Opinion 
on the Civil Code, Rio, 1902; Answer to the defenses, etc., Rio, 
1903, etc,, etc. 

But ^yllere we can better study the capacity of this great man is 
in his journalistic work, spread by the diffei'ent dailies and maga- 
zines, the Diario da Bahia, Diario de Xoiicias, of Rio, Jornal do 
Brazil, and Imjirensa where we worked with him in 1902. All this 
journalistic work constitutes a solid bibliograxjhy , which future 
generations, will surely collect and publish in a complete edition, as 
the best and most beautiful litterary monument received from the 
present age. 

Amako Cavalcanti. — lie is a Statesman, a financial wi'iter an 
author and a jui'ist. He was born in Rio Grande do Xorte in 1819. 
When only 20 years old was a professor of languages and founded 
the public library of Baturite. He graduated from the Albany fjaw 
School, of New-York. Later on he was principal of the Lyceum of 
Fortaleza, cai^ital of Ceara State and Director of the Board of Educa- 
tion in the same city. From there he went to Rio where he has 
been a lawyer, a professor, a journalist, and a politician after the 
proclamation of the republic. Since then he has become a notable 
man. He was a Senator in the Constituent Congress after the pro- 
clamation and in the first ordinary legislative session. AA^hen his 
mandate ended he was appointed envoy extraordinai'y and pleniiio- 
tentiary minister to the Plate Republics. Later on he was Secretary 
of Justice and Public Instruction, juridical counsellor of the Foreign 

74 — 

Relations Department, etc. lie enjoys an excellent reputation all 
over Brazil. He published the following ^vorks : 

.1 Keliguio , Geara , 
187 1; A Mens Discipnlos, 
Ceara, 1875; Livro Popii- 
Inr, Cear:i, 1871) and Xew- 
y<)i-k , 1881 ; JCducacM) 
Eleinenicir nos E. Unidos 
da IST. America , Ceara , 
1881 ; Xotkia Chronolo- 
Lficn (la Educacrio iiopular 
no Brazil (incomplete) , 
Ceai'a, 1883; Ensino mo- 
ral e reliffioso nas Escolas 
Piiblicas, Rio, 188:'.; Meio 
de dc'senuoluer a iiistruc- 
cao ])riinaria noa iniinici- 
pio^ ruraefi , Rio, 1884; 
The Brazilian Eang'iiag-e 
and its ag'g'liitination , 
Rio, 18S i ; Einances (du 
Bresil), Paris, 1881); lie- 
yen ha Einaneeira do ex- 
Lnperio, Rio, 181)0; Pro- 
jerlo de C.onstituicrto de 
iini Eslado, Rio, 181)0; .1 
/^('/"or/jj/i .l/oJ!c/a/'/;7, Rio, 181)1 ; Poliiica e Einancas, Rio, 181)2; O 
Meio Circnlante Nacional , Rio 1803; A Situarao Poliiiea on a inter- 
venciio do Governo Federal nos Estados da Uniao, Rio, 1893; Ele- 
menios de Einaneas, Rio, 1896; Tributagao Constitncional, Rio, 1896 ; 
Regimen Eederativo, Rio, 1900; Sabre a unidade do dlreito proces- 
snal (Relatorio ao Congresso Juridico Americano), Rio, 1900; Di- 
reito das obrigaeoes (Relatorio sobre os arts. 1011-1227 do Proj. do 
Cod. Civ. Brazileiro), Rio, 1901; O Arbitramento (no direito inter- 
nacional), Rio, 1901 ; Taxas Protectoras nas tarifas adnaneiras, Rio, 
V.)0.i; Responsabilidade Ciuil do Estad, Rio, I'Mo; and many other 
litterary, political, economical and other works. 

Amaiki Cavalc.anti 

Barao no Rio Branco (.Jose-Maria da Silva Paranhos) (Secretary 
of I'' o reign Affairs). It is a name known esteemed and resi^ected by 
two generations of Brazilians. 


His father was one of the most ilhistrious statesmen of the Bra- 
zilian Emjure, and from him liis son inherited the liighest ([iialities 
as a diplomat respeeted in Brazil as the ablest man in intei'national 

The Baron is 5(1 years old. He made his preparatory studies in 
the I\^dro Se^undo Stdiool where he studied \\ itli distinetion until 
the .jth. year. He entered then the Siio Paulo I^aw College where he 
was graduated. He always I'evealed himself a man of advanced ideas 
fond of progress and work. He; abhors all domestic petty qnestions 
of the political parties and devotes himself entirely to litterature 
and sciences. 

He took his first prac- 
tical lessons in diplomacy 
A\ ith his father who was 
^Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs and later President 
of the Cabinet at the time 
of the Empire. 

He was elected deputy 
to the Lower House by 
Matto Grosso province 
which his father was then 
i-epresenting in the Sena- 
te. He was a journalist 
and editor of « .4 Xacrio » 
with Dr. Gusmao Lobo. 

AVhen Admiral Grenf- 
fel died Barao do Rio 
Branco was appointed 
Consul General in Liver- 
pool, in his stead. 

While there he was sent by the Government to defend the inter- 
ests of Brazil in the Arbitration Tribunal at Washington. After that 
he was the stern defensor of Brazilian rights in the boundary ques- 
tion of Oyapock. Two extraordinary victories. 

The remarkable services rendered to the country in these two 
eloj-ious missions and on his return to the country he received a 
public manifestation as few have taken place in Brazil. 

From Berna he went to Berlin as Envoy Extraordinary and 
plenipotentiary Minister, from which office he camp to Rio as Secre- 
tary of Foreign affairs. In this high office he has rendered great ser- 
vices to the country. The acquisition of the Acre region, which was 

Bai-iio de llio Branco 

— 76 — 

in dispute was the one thtit proved liis wisdom and fine tact as a 
stateman. He also solved and is solving with equally ahility, settled 
and pending- (questions with Bolivia, Peni. 

During the short time of office, as Secretary of Foreign Affairs 
his woi'k has shown many and good I'esults in favor of Brazil acquir- 
ing for this country a large amount of international prestige as it is 
clearly proven hy the creation of the Xorth-American Embassy, in 
Rio de .Janeiro, the concession of a cardinal, Rio de Janeiro being 
the first South American capital to have one, the termination of all 
the boundary questions, the many treaties with the object of closer 
commercial and di2)lomatic relations as well as arbitration treaties, 
being worthy of special mention those with American nations. Barao 
do Rio Branco is most justly had as the ablest stateman of South 
America having hold the office of Secretary of Foreign Affairs in 
this continent. 

Arthur Orlando. — 
He is a jurist, a writer, a 
news paper man. He was 
born in Recife in 18.58. He 
gi-aduated from the Law 
College of that city in 
1881. His first work of 
note was the Philocrilica, 
188(j, a 220 page volume. 
He has been the editor of 
the Jornal do Recife, the 
Keuista Brazileira , the 
Prouineia and at present 
the Diario de Pernainbiico 
having already represent- 
ed his State in the Fede- 
ral Congress in more 
than one legislature ses- 
sions. Hisprincipal works 
are, besides the one above 
mentioned : Men Album, 
1891 ; Propedeutica Poli- 

tico-Jiiridica; Ensaios de critica, 1904; Novos Ensaios, 1905; Memo- 

ria ao Congress Latino-Americano, 1905. 

Arthur Oi'lando is an oi'iginal thinker he is a member of the 

Litterary Academy of Recife. 

AiiTiiuii Orlando 

— 77 


Aiiotlier philosopliio brain is Sylvio 
Romero, ^Yllo has distinguished liim- 
self mainly by his analytical woi'ks on 
Brazilian mental evolution. He wrote 
the History of the Brazilinn Littera- 
tiire, which is a true monument of 
scientific criticism applied to ihe 
study of Brazilian litterature, under 
all its features. He possesses a spirit 
of action which fights and builds, that 
works and assembles, so that among 
Brazilians he has become the most 
noted ensign-bearer of that new flag 

of superior and clever nativism filled with pride for his country, his 
race and their histoiw. He preaches peace, work, solidarity, haughti- 
ness, and confidence in the country's destiny. That spirit, which 
I will call — spirit of intellectual nationalism — dominates all the 
woi'k of Sylvio Romero, giving it a social and positive character, 
which distinguishes it so strongly fi'om that of any other Brazilian 
writer and philosopher. He is a true and sound polygrapher. He 
has written on jurispi'iidence, philosophy, art criticisms, etlmo- 
graphy, history, litterary criticisms, politics, national folk-lore 
investigations, poetry, etc. These works, though apparently not 
associated, are, nevertheless constittitive parts of one only whole, 
needed implements of one single work, and woidc of the greatest 
cohesion and homogeneity, broad work, deep and complete in its 
conception and in its object, animated all through by a live senti- 
ment, subsisting on any of its pages as the atomic affinity in the 
smallest particle of any organism : it is the sentiment of the intellec- 
tual autonomy of the country. 

The following list gives a sample of the complexity and abun- 
dance of the intellectual work of this learned man : Philosophy in 
Brazil, 187S; The Brazilian Litterature and Modern (Jriticifini, 1880; 
Essays on Parliamentary Critieisnis, 1883; Conlemj)oraneous Litte- 
rature studies, 1881; Brazilian Ethnography, \88i^; New Studies on 
contemporaneous litterature, 1897 ; Machado de Assis (study), 1897; 
Martins Penna (study), 1897; Luiz Mural (sUxdy), 1890; Valentim 
Mai^'alhaes (stud^'j, 189.0; Introduction to Brazilian Litterature's 
history, 1882; History of Brazilian Litterature, 1888; Brazilian 
History told by its heroes 'bio<^'raphies, 18.S0; Xalional Lam History 

— 71! ^ 

(in preparation); Pnpulnr Sod^s of Brazil, 18S2; Poj)iilar Songs of 
Brnzil, ISS.S; Studies on Brnzllhin popular .soDg-.s, 188.S; A trick! 
jmpiilar songs and slorii's of Brazil and Mr. Thcophilo Braga, 1887 ; 
The Portuguese element in Brazil, 1902; Parliamentarism and 
Presidentialism in ihe Brazilian Republic , 189:3; Prouocaiions and 
Debates (in the press) ; The Evolutionism and Positiuism in Brazil, 
1891; Law Philosophy Essays, l8{)o\ End of Century songs, \i^lS; 
The last harp sounds, 1883; Caxias and the integrity of Brazil, 1901. 

JoAQUiM Xaiuh-o. — Is anotlicr noted man, belonging- also to the 
deep thinkei-s. He is as those we liave just written about a good 
orator. lie is an altruist struggler wlio distinguished hiniseir most 

prominently during the 
j)ropagand I'or the slave 
I'l'eedom. He never was 
and never will be a popu- 
lar man. His personal 
()nalitics don 't make him 
very accessible to the 
masses. Ho is a polite and 
noble man. He is not a 
nobleman because ol' use- 
less and valueless titles, 
but because of his noble in- 
telligence and noble clia- 
ractei', a nobility whicli 
separates men far moi'e 
than that of titles. The 
masses of the vicious and 
ignorant cannot make any 
alliance with the superior 
types. A characteristic 
that shines as a star a- 
round the moral profile of 
Joaquim Xabuco is his 
patriotic gratitude ( for 
the sake of the old slaves), to the crown that gave them freedom, 
.loaquim Nabuco never was a friend of the Imperial Court, but 
Avhen the Brazilian monarcliy effected, with the sacrifice of its own 
institutions, the fi-eedom of slavery tliis defender of the unfortunate 
considered himself enshived by the gratitude he owed for that act 

.lOAQUlM \A[(Ui;n 

— 79 — 

of grace and mercy devoting- to the new victims all the love that 
survived from the former. 

The recognizance of the oppressed race made him become a 
friend of the crown, but that ^^as \\'hen lie saw the royal family con- 
demned to exile. When, later on, the protected friends of the 
crown, turned their backs to the royal family to look for beneficial 
advantages in the new government, they found great reasons to 
criticise .loaquim Xabuco because he had accepted from the Republic 
a commission of patriotic responsibilities, representing the country 
as Minister to England without, however, repudiating his gratitude 
to the crown. They had forgotten that Xabuco, as every man who 
has reached a certain degree of superior perfection, could not 
identify either his fatherland oi' mankind with this or that transitory 
form of government. For this great writer and philosopher (( inter- 
esl , love, zeal, patriotic ardor, must be directed to the national 
substance — the country. » He « would never establish a dilemma 
between monarchy and fatherland, because fatherland could have 
no rival. « 

These quotations are from his o\\n book « Minha fornuiciio » pu- 
blished in Rio in 1900. 

As a writer, , J. Xabuco, observed through his works, presents 
himself as one of those advocates of virt:ue, of whom Emerson 
writes, and v^'ho in their apparent isolation, are yet so useful to the 
social community. 

He seems, in fact, to be isolated from his people, he speaks to 
them in a quite independent language without fear of displeasing 

« Balmaceda », « .1/7 intervention », and the other books of his, 
look like a defiance to the times in which they were published, (c I 
got used to consider the historian 's judgment, as a definite one, 
what is equivalent to saying a final one, and consequently the one we 
must have always in view. » This was written by .Toaquim Xabuco 
and added : « The judgment of the masses which elevates us to-day 
and lower us to-morrow, that represents only the dust of the road. » 
In full military dictatorship, when, in Rio de .Janeiro, the multitude 
made display of their devotion to the military work , he went to 
the press to claim that (( Paraguayan tyranny had been revived in 
Brazil at the point of the same bayonets that had put it down. » 

In his books transpire a little of that melancholy that Schopen- 
hauer classifies as sound. 

His books are not many but they are substantial ones : Jialmn- 
ceda, Rio, 1895; Minha Formacao, Rio, 1900; Uni Esiadista do Ini- 


pcrio, three vohinies, Uio; diindcs ;ind The Lnsiadas, Rio; Elciqoes 
jAbcrncs, Rio, 1808; Unui inlcrvcncno, \lio, 1801. 


Mkiaa) Morakk. — We will write 
about that active iuvestig-ator of the 
past, a elironicler ol' popular traditions 
of Brazil — Mello Moraes Filho. — 
This poet and historian is a passion- 
ate lover of his fatherland, and he 
sees no hotter means of displaying 
these sentiments hut singing in his 
verses its traditions shaken more and 
more every day by the growing euro- 
peanisation, spreaded out through the 
maritime cities and from there to the 
interior, ^vith its new customs and 
its noisy iconoclast progress. In the middle of this transformation 
that drags everything and everybody, ]Mello Moraes is faithful to 
his affections sings his legends the primitive modes of popular life. 
Ho writes his chroni(des A\ith the colors of nostalgia, and in an 
effoit that ^ve are compelled to respect he speaks to us of the attrac- 
tions of the past, fixing his jiassing images, those shadows of other 
shado\\s. Mello ]\Ioraes' books will survive and our grandchildren 
will find in them a sweeter pleasure than we appreciate, « because 
in them li\'es the great soul of Brazil, because in them he sings and 
plays, or groans and cries that mixture of enthusiasm and melan- 
choly, i-emembi'ances and courage, which is the Portuguese genius 
ti-ansformcd in America. » 

'I'liis was written by Sylvio Romero in a preface to il. ^loraes' 
book « Festas e Tradicoes. » 

"We cannot give a complete list of !Mello jNIoraes' works as a large 
number have been published in newspa^jers spreaded all over the 
country, yet we can ])oint out : Cuntos do E(juudor ; Edurnvao 
Civicn; FcsIhs c 7'r;ir//r(7c.s Poinilnrcs do Brnzil ; Myihosc Pocinas; 
O Ciincioiiciro Pojniltir; Ciirso dc LUicraiiiru Bruzilcira ; Parnaso 
Brazilciro ; (> Dr. Mello Moraes; (laneioneiro dos Cii^'anos ; Qiiadros 
e (^hronicas : ()s ciiiaiios no Brazil , Serenalas e Saraos; Cancioneiro 
Fliiniinense : Ohra.s jioelicas. We do not include here a long and 
good collaboration in Rio papers on ethnograiihy, Brazilian folk-lore, 
colonial clu'onicles, documents and memoirs. 


Mello Moraes was bovn in Baliia, and is one of the most popular 
AYi'iters in Brazil. 

Mac.haiio d), Assis 

"NVe will now speak ot Machauo we 
Assis, in whose enormons literary lug- 
gage we will find verses, novels, theatre, 
and light stories. As it is well know n he 
started by his verses, what was I'ai- Fi-oni 
indicating the brain solidity oi the giants 
of the thought. ^A'liat eonipels nie to 
select a prominent place for this great 
spiritual pioneer, in my worship for tlie 
prominent leaders of the mental race, is 
the art with which he created, in his 
novels, Brazilian types of social charac- 
ter, as O Carlos Maria, o Major Lujiieiru, a Fernanda, o Palha, and 
others, which appear in his psychological novels Qiiincas Borba, 
Braz Cabas, etc. 

^lachado de Assis was born in the city of Rio de .Janeiro. 
Adding to the natural talent of a stylist, an insti'uction Avliich he 
does not cease to add knowledge to, each daw that goes by, thus he 
became the prince of Brazilian literature. That fine humour Sterne 
and Lamb style, skeptical and calm, which goes through the philo- 
sophy of his books, it seems to me, makes pai't of liis psychic consti- 
tution, translates a congenial propension. 

In tlie age of enthusiam , when he was but 20 years old, the con- 
temptuous rapture of the philosophei' of the future, through the 
mouth of one of the personages he created, expressed himself this 
way in a poem of his entitled « Pallida Elvira >-> : 

Depois de ter aprofanchulu ludo, 
Plantii , honiein, estreUas, noites, dian, 
A choii esta li(;ao inesperada : 
Vein a saber que iiuo sabia nada. 

( Allei' going d('e|i into cvcrylliing, |il;iiil,s, men, sUirs, iiiglils, days, lit' met willi an nn- 
expetled lesson : lie came lo know llial lie Knew mitliing.) 

It is the spontaneous melancholy, (he skoi)tical witticism of 
Thackeray, the same philosophy of the ]'anity Fair or of the Snobs 
Book, whicli had to be crystalised later on in the celebrated book of 
his Braz (hibas, and never more abandoned all his works accentuat- 
ing itself more and more with the age. 

For this very reason, just as it happens with the work of the 

Calcutta writer among tlic l^lnglishmcn, the novels of this Brazilian 
humorist enjoy a high esteem in the Portuguese literary circles. 

The character of Machado de Assis' pliilosophy can l^etter be ap- 
preciated in his novel liraz Ciibas — and it is a comjoound ol' a hali' 
humorism, somewhat ironic, whicli the reader devours with a dis- 
creet smile to the last line. \\'c alTirm as did a critic sjjcaking ol 
Machado de Assis thai. (( against current opinion, the best chapters 
of liis l)oo]vS arc those in which he reveals his qualities as an obser- 
ver ol' customs, and as a ps,\'cliologist, those qualities in which he 
descri))es Brazilian lil'e, customs and social habits, jj Machado de 
Assis works are I'ead in Brazil with an intei'cst that does not cool 
off and that we can see by the successive editions that appeal-. lie 
has \\ritten : /-'/(;i/e/!;i.s (verses) Rio, 18(i'.); Vurins Hisioruts; Meiiio- 
ritis iiosthuinas de Braz Cubtis ; Qiiincns Borlni; Amcriauins (ver- 
ses), LS'.).";; Ynyn Garcia; Chrysalidas (verses), ISH); Papcis Auiilsos; 
Helena ; A mao <• a liwa; Resurreicao ; (loiitos Flumincnses ; Hiato- 
rias (la Meia Noite ; Deiises de Ca.sac;!. For the stage: () Caminho 
da Porta (The way to the dooi'); O Protocollo ; As Forcas Caiidinas ; 
Debaixo de Riiiin Cajia; () Espalhafato ; Quasi Minislro; Tii So, 
Til, Piiri) /I /;io;' (comedies); .1 l-\imilia Jlenoilon (translation); Mon- 
tejoie (translation); .l/i/o de Meia Nuite (translation); liarbeiro 
(translation); Pipelel (translation) ; Siipplieia de iima Mnlher (tran- 
slation); -l.s Piodas de Joanita; and several others. 

Carlos de Laet. — lie is another 
Brazilian whoso name has a place of 
honor among the literary men and 
philosophers, though like Machado de 
Assis, he multiplies his talent into 
fragments ; critic, polemics, philoso- 
phy, ti'avels, history. In his book, 
« £■»( J///!;i.s, » Pvio, 18'.t|, the reader 
will get acquainted with him in the 
light of these different prisms of his 
talent. He also published .1 Ii)tj)reiisa 
(Republican decade), Rio, l.S'.IU; and 
several other w(U'ks of merit both in 
foi'm and basis. 

Carlos de Laet was born in Rio de 
I public teacher 
and ])rofessor of literature, earning that way his daily bi-ead. 

Caii],o.s i>e IjACT 

Janeiro where he lives in a courageous struggle as 


His opinions are sentiments and his sentiments have compelh-d 
him to I'enounee many souvees of revenue, as he reserves i'oi- Iiimsell' 
the right to eritieise and huigh a little at the events ot to-day. 


Oliv'eira Lima. — He belongs 
to the list of those who are at the 
same time writers and diplomats, 
and he knows how to take advanta- 
ge of the spare time he ean dispose 
of after his diplomatic duties devot- 
ing himself to historical , social and 
political investigations tlie publica- 
tion of which has always been receiv- 
ed by tlie Brazilians with applause. 
His woi'ks are most conseiencious, 
reveal great patience, are not limit- 
ed to literary or rhetorical preoc- 
cupations, they are written in a grave style though fluent and clear, 
the style of a man who is used to deal with loyalty and ini])artiality. 
It is this way lie writes history. 

Manoel de Oliveira Lima, was boi-n in Pernambuco. He entered 
the diplomatic cai'cer in 1800 having been appointed Second Secre- 
tary of the Brazilian Legation in Lisbon and later on he was trans- 
ferred to the same position in ]-3erlin. It was in 1892. 

When promoted to First Secretai'y he was sent to \\'ashington in 
1896. From thei'e he went to London 1899. Aftei' that he was charged 
with the affairs of the Legation in Japan. 

He published in 1901 , Rcconhccimcnio do Iinjicrio, c Mcinoriu, 
aobre (> dcHCobrinu'iiio do Brazil; in 1891, the book t( Pernambuco » 
— sen desenoolulinento hlstorico ; in 189(j, Asjjcctox da lltterainrn. 
colonial brazilelra, and the pamphlet Sept ans dc Kepubluiuc an 
TircHll ; and in ISQOathick volume — In the United States — ])olitical 
and social impressions. He has written for the Jornal do Recife, 
Jornal do Commerclo, of Rio de .faneiro , Revlsta de Portni>;al a 
Reulsta Brazilelra, as well as in. Jornal do Brazil and other papci'S. 
He is ijublishing Svcretarlo d'El-rey which it is said is an historic- 
al investigation work of no little im[)Oi-tance, as well as it is a liter- 
ary work of merit. 

In 1903 he i)ublished a book on social observaticms and studies 
in Japan, with the title « No .Japao » and written b\' him during his 
stay in that country. 

— 114 

Assis Brazil 

Assis Brazil. — He is also a diplomat 
and a writer. He is an expert in everything- 
lie professes and cultivates. He is one o! 
the best fencers in Bi'azil and is tin; best 
shot in the country. Xobod^- excels him as 
a marksman. At the same time he is also 
a diplomat of great ability and tact , as he 
proved to be in the recent Acre cpiestion 
between Bolivia and Brazil. 

He has Avritten on politics, law, poetry, 
as well as some works on industrial vul- 
garisation. Here is a list of his works : 
Chispas — a volume of verses of the youth, 
about "200 pages, Rio Grande do Sul, 1877; 
()i>portiinisino e a Rcuoliirao — public lecture delivered at the 
Club Republicano AcHdcinico, about 10 pages, Sao Paulo, 1880; 
,1 Rcpiiblica Federal, 301 pages, Rio, 1881. Several reprints of this 
work were issued for free distribution , by some repul)lican clubs. 
The first one was of 10.000 copies, by order of the executive com- 
mittee of the Sao Paulo republican party ; Ilintory of the Rio-Gran- 
dense Republic, one volume (preparatory edition), Rio, 1882; A Uni- 
dade Nacional, about 50 pages, public lecture delivered in Porto 
Alegre on the evening of March 15th., 1883, Porto Alegre, 1883; 
Doia Disciirsofi, delivered at the Rio (Irande do Sul province Legis- 
lative Assembly, Porto Alegre, 188(), 153 pages; .4,s-si.s- Brazil aos 
Sens Concidadaos (to his fellow citizens) Porto Alegre, 1891 (a mani- 
fest about the political events that followed General Deodoro's 
couj) d'etat on the 4 th. November, 1S',»1); Democracia Representa- 
tiua, do voto e do modo de volar, Rio, 18113. This book was translat- 
ed into the Spanish by Mr. Bartolome Mitre e Yedia, Chief Editor 
of La Aar(o;j, of Buenos Ayres, in 1901 under the title « La Z>e/?!o- 
cracia Representaliva, del volo y del modo de volar. The edition has 
339 pages; Do Goveriio Presidcucial na Repiibliva Brazileiva, 370 
jiages, Lisbon, 189(i; (hiltura dos ra;?(/>o.s, general notions of a<>i'i- 
cnlture and special notion on some cultivations of pressing interest 
in Brazil, Lisbon, 1898. This work was i)rinted on acct)unt of the 
Sociedade Brazileirn para aniinacao da affi-iciiltiira , foi' free disti'i- 
bution in Brazil. This society is composed of Bi'azilians, the lar<>est 
number residing outside of J-Sra/.il and its seat being in Paris. As.sis 
Brazil has been its president ever since it was founded in 1895. 

— 85 — 

xVinoiig the proper jurists, we eoukl cite many names of renown, 
because in Brazil tlie juridical-social sciences have many people 
devoted to their study and just now, some of the most vigorous 
talents, that have become ripe in the study of that speciality, form a 
numerous and clever group. But we will speak but of few. The most 
noted of them all by the variety of jurisprudence questions he has 
written about is Ruy Barbosa about whom we have already written. 
Ruy Barbosa has become better known as a philosopher, a writer, 
as a politician, it seems that the first place among specialistic jurists 
belongs to Conselheiro Lafayette Rodrigues Pereira, the author of 
(( Direiio c/as- (^oisas e Direitos do Fainilia » (Things and Family 
Laws) two books that are two monuments of juridical science and 
scientific method upon special branches of private law and which 
might have been signed by any of the highest foreign authorities on 
the subject of the present day. 

He was born in Minas Geraes, he began his political life, at the 
time of the Empire, defending the Republic, engaging himself most 
earnestly during years in its propaganda. With reflection and juri- 
dical culture deadening his republican enthusiasm, he accepted some 
offices from the monarchical government, having acted several times 
as minister, deputy and senator. 

He has been charged with an international commission of great 
importance in Chili, and we believe he was Plenipotentiary Minister 
to the United States at the time of the proclamation of the Republic. 

As a deputy, as a senator, as a minister he always discharged 
most brilliantly his duties, being a talented and competent man, as 
he proved to be. As president of the second Cabinet to which he 
belonged, being at the time the Minister of the Treasury, he wrote a 
report which was highly appreciated by the authorities in financial 

While in the discharge of tlie duties of these high offices he 
revealed besides his juridical knowledge special competency in 
finances and literary studies. 

W^e remember yet how fortunate he used to be in his ironical 
attacks against his adversaries dui'ing parliamentary debates. 

Clovis Bevilaqua. — It is the name of another jurist, who dis- 
tinguished himself by many books he wrote on jurisprudence, liter- 
ature, etc. Just because of his writing so many works, he was 
selected by the Government to write a Civil code for Brazil, task 
that he fulfilled most cleverly delivering it to the Brazilian Congress 

!u; — 

that is disenssiiif;' and improving tlio pniject of tlio code, lie was 
horn in Ceani and spent his yontli among hooks and papers. He 
made Ids journalistic appearance in the; State oi' Rio de Janeiro writ- 
ing Tor several papers and eslahlishing a newspajjer a Aurora de 
Quissamri. He Avas a i)npil oi' the celehrated Tobias Barreto, and he 
inherited from this giant some of his mental audaeily, S(}nie of his 

emancipated si)iritual na- 

,^-- ~— - . tore , some ol' the solid 

criterion of that great 
Brazilian thinker. 

Clovis lieuilaqiia has 
puhlished the following 
works : Philosophia Poai- 
liua, RecH'e, 1881; Tracos 
do Dcscmbar^ador Frei- 
tas. Recite, 1888; Licoes 
de Leg-islacao doinparada, 
Recife, lSU:;i; Phrases e 
I'haniasias, Recife, 181)4; 
Epocas e Individualida- 
des, Bahia, 1895; Dircito 
das obri^-acdes , Bahia , 
18115; Direiio da Familia, 
Recife, 18m;Jnristas Phi- 
l<)so])h()s , Recife, 1897; 
Esbocos e Fra^inentos , 
Bahia, 189(3; Criniinolo- 
gia e Direito, Bahia, 1896 ; 
Jesus e OS Evangelhos 
(translation), Recife, 188(1; Ilospilalidade no Passado, Recife, 1891; 
Esludos de Direiio e Eeonomia Politiea, Recife, 188(1. 

Many jni'ists shine as stars of the hi'ig-litest in the Brazilian 
social sciences sky. We ANonld like to write here a few lines about 
ever\' one of them, or at least about the leading ones, but our space 
is I'ather narrow. Andrade Figueira , Bulhdes de Carvalho , Sa 
Vianna, Barradas, Sousa Ribeiro, t'/oollio Rodrigues, Duarte de 
Azevedo, (landido de Oliveii'a, .loiio Monteiro are some of their na- 
mes but there are many more. As we said, however, we will end 
liere tlie jui'ists section and w ill take another direction. 



— 87 

Josk-C"arl()s Rodkiguks. — Dr. Josr-Carlos Rodrigiics is llic 
chiei oililor and publisher of « Jornal do Cotiunervio », tlic leading 
Rio daily, the best known and most po\Yerrul paper in Brazil. He is 
a self niad(> man, with broad ideas and a determined eharacter. lie 
was born in Ivio where he 
made his first studies. 
^Vhile tpiite young yet he 
went to Xew-York where 
with energetic work and 
eneyelopedieal knowledge 
he founded the « Xouo 
Miindo » un illustrated 
Magazine printed in Por- 
tuguese devoted to com- 
merce, literature and fine 
arts and he thus rendered 
good services to his coun- 
try abroad. In 1800 he 
came back to Brazil and 
became the managing- 
editor of the « Jornal do 
C online re io ». With alive 
ex2)erience of affairs and 
commercial tact he gave 
a new impulse to that 
paper, opening a wider 
field of i^rosperity and giv- 
ing it a moral prestige as 

to its opinions. He has published (xuite a number of studies on reli- 
gious criticisms, finances and literature. Among the many gi'eat 
services that Jose-Carlos Rodrigues rendered his country is the deal 
of re-purchase of railways which netted several millions profit in 
benefit of the National Treasury. Dr. Carlos Rodrigues is a man of 
progressive ideas and being, as he is, at the head of a great newspa- 
per, though somewhat conservative in its ideas, he has been a bene- 
ficial element in all generous and liberal movements. He is necessar- 
ily the president of all the civilising undertakings, and progres- 
sive initiatives wich have of late characterised the social and politic- 
al life of his fatherland. Another trait of his moral profile is the 
generosity with which he ccmtribntes towai'ds the supjjort of charit- 
able institutions. He is a writer of merit and a consciencious one, 
and is to-day one of the most popular and esteemed men in the higher 
circles of Brazilian societv. 


— «8 — 

AiA'iNDo GiiANAiiARA. — Oiio (if tlio iiiost notablc Bi-a/,ilian writ- 
Ci's, orator and journalist, lie was born in Magu, State of Rio , in 
18(.)5. In ISS.") lie was already a well known man in the Rio press, 
editing then the u (luzcUi da Turdc », where ho worked I'oi- the free- 
dom of the slavi s. In 1887 he Tounded the « Xiinidiides », which 
lasted hut a few days. After that he was editor of k (Jorreio do Po- 
vo 11, the only repid)liean paper then in Rio, the « Joriial do Coin- 
inercio », the u Kepiiblica )>, the « Tribiinu » and to-day he is the 
editor of the « O Puiz ». 

He has been a member of Congress and has represented tlie go- 
vernment in several commissions abroad. As an orator he is one of 
the most applauded ones. As a journalist, to-day, he is second to 
none, in the Brazilian press for the profuse variety of his knowled- 
ge, tor his deep I'esources in polemics, for the brightness and vigor 
of his stylo concise and to the point, always at the side of liberal 
and patriotic ideals. He is the chief now in the cami)aigns in favor 
of the working classes, the tuberculosis as well as in the campaign 
against the ixirties enemies of public order. Alcindo Guanabara is 
the chief Editor of « Paiz- », the great organ of the conservative 
and intellectual classes of Brazil. 

•ToAO RiiiEiRo. — He 
is a great thinker, a phi- 
lologer, a historian , a liter- 
ary' critic , a poet and a 
journalist. His full name 
is .loiio Baptista Ribeiro 
de Andrade de Fernandes, 
and was born in 1860 in 
the city of Ijarangeiras, 
State of Sergipe. When he 
was 21 years old he went 
to Rio de .Janeiro where 
he came immediately into 
prominence as a writer. 
He is one of propagators of 
German] culture in Brazil 
and a bachelor in social sciences. He represented Brazil in the Dres- 
den Conference to discuss literary property in I'.iOo and in the follow- 
ing year in a Congress held in London foi' the organisation of the 
international catalogue. He is one of the 10 members of the Rio Li- 

.liiau Kibeii'i 

— 89 — 

tevary Aeadeiiiy and has published the rollowing works : Tcnebrosa 
Lii.w pcieiii, Ai'aeaju, 187'.>; Dias dc Sol, poeti'y, liio, 188-1; I'hilolo- 
i^'icul studies , Rio, 1885 ami I'.HI'J; Aiwiia e (^ yt Intra, i>OGtry, Uio, 
[SSi) : Morpholo^-ia (' Collocarao dos pronomes, Rio, 1880; Grainma- 
tica Portu^-iieza, Rio 1888 and I'.iUl was in its •iTtli. edition. This 
gvauimar is for the 1st year study. For the 2nd year he has one in 
its llltli edition and I'or the ;>rd in its 12th edition. Diccionario 
Granunatical, Rio, 188<.l and lUOl; .1 Instriicrao Publica, Rio, 1890; 
y esses, 2nd edition of works mentioned above, 18U0, Rio; Historia 
Antiga, East and (ireece, Rio, 1892; Auetores (lontemporaneos, 
Rio, 1891 and 189."i; Historia do fira;!'/, 1st and 2nd volume, 1900, 
Rio; O (A)racrio, translation of the well known work of E. d'Amieis; 
Meinoria dos siiceessos oeeoridos no (iymnasio Xaeional em i<)o3, 
Rio, m)i: Seleeta Classiea, Rio, 190."); Pai^inas Esccdhidas (Acade- 
mia Brazileira (le Lettras) Rio, 1901, Patinas de Ksthetiea, Lisbon, 

,Joao Ribeiro has been editor of several papers both in Rio and 
Sao Paulo, such as « Globo », a O I'aiz », a « licvisia lirazileira », 

RocH.\ PoMBO. — This 
Brazilian historian is one 
of the ablest literary men 
in the country. He was 
l)orn in the small town of 
Monetcs in the Parana 
State in 18.57. His first 
works were short stories, 
poetry, novels, published 
in the Parana and Rio pa- 
jiers. He is living in Rio 
now. His best books are : 
Historia da Anwriea, Rio, 
1890; Parana no Cente- 
nario, Rio, 1900; Gran- 
de Problema, Rio, 1902; 
Resunio da Historia Ame- 
ricana, Rio, 1904 ; Xo Hos- 
picio, novel, Rio, 1901; 
Historia do Brazil, Rio, 2 volumes, 1905. 

Rocha Pombo is considered the best historian of the modern ge- 

lior.iiA I'osirio 

— 90 — 

neralioii and \m is a joiirnalisl. ol' no small merit. lie writes I'or the 
« Ciifrvio (hi Munlut >> a IMo dailx' of the opposition party. 

Vllt(iILIO VAliZKA. — Is a 

\\riter. He was born in fJa- 
navieiras, Santa Catliarina 
in ISdl. He was brought up 
in G. A\'illington Amei'iean 
School and afterwards in 
the llio de Janeii'o Navy 
C-ollege. lie made several 
trips as mate in the Atlan- 
tic. Later on he was elected 
State Congressman and dis- 
trict-attorne\' in S. Jose. In 
his writings he became ce- 
lebrated I'or his inclination 
to select niai'inc subjects, 
which helped him lo become 
poptihir. lie wrote the fol- 
lowing \\()rks : 

Tnwos Aziic's , poetry, 
Desterro , 1883 ; Tropos e 
Phaniasias with Sousa Cruz, 
short stories, 188.5; iVarc.s e 
CaniiioK, short-stories, 18'.)."j; R(>se-(kistle, novel, 18',io; Contos de 
Amar, I'.iOl ; Sunlu (^iil Inirinii, historical monography, lUOO; -1 Xoivn 
do I'alatUno, m\(\d\c age novel, I'.iOl ; liiigiie Fllhiisleiro, novel, 
10n:>; (laribnldi in America, translation into Italian by Clemente 
Petti, I'.iOl; Hislorias Riisticas, short stories, lilOl. \aiizi:a 

Nes'I'ok Vui'iou. — He is a hard worker and a clevei' litei'ary man. 
He was born in Parana, '^riiere he began to work as a journalist, 
poet, novel wi'itei'. Later on he began to write for the Rio j)ress and 
afterwards in Pai'is. Ilis works ai'e (piite original, beautiful phrases 
and lively ideas. As a novel writei' Nestor Victor, is following with 
some siicc(!ss the ])S\'cliological form of anal,\'sis and social criti- 
cisms, liut be does not allow himself to be dragged by exaggerations 
of luivcls of gi\'(^n schools. He; has wi'itten a good deal for newspa- 
pers, and writes well. He has succeeded to print in book form the 

— 91 — 

roll()win<i- works which have imiiosod tliemselvcs to tho modern cri- 
ticism : Sii^-nos , short stories, Amifios, novel ol' ol)servation ; .1 
Horn literature and art criticisms, Rio lUOU; Transi'iguracoes, ver- 
sos, I'.iOI; Cruz e Soiizu, monography, Rio. 

We will now speak oT 
the literary writers , the 
poets, novel writers, cri- 
tics, chroniclei'S and jour- 

Among the un tired and 
witty scouts ol' history , 
philosophy and social 
sciences as well as the li- 
terary men of the poetr\', 
of the rhetoric , there are 
ahostof names, represent- 
ing the divulgeis of know- 
ledge, the journalists, the 
wi'itcrs who brought po- 
pularity to the events of 
the day , the notions 
brought from Europe by 
every steamer. These wri- 
ters whom we see at the 
head of the Rio papers as 
well as those of the diffe- 
rent States are men of ta- 
lent and vast knowledge, 

and are in the majority authors of books with poetry, short stories, 
literary critic, theatrical plays, speeches, etc. Without wishing to 
go very deeply' into any subject, they perform a most important role, 
giving to the masses of the population the s])iritual daily bread, that 
speculative high science, on one hand, and poetical inanity on the 
other, cannot give. 

Araripe Junior, Barao de Loi'eto, Eunapio Delro, J. Verissimo, 
are at the head of the list. 

A'estoi! \'i(;to[i 

Medeiros e Albuquerque. — Strong, clever and emancipated 
mind, he is a true journalist of the age — an encyclopedia. — Like 
Beaumarchais he seems to like to boast himself of the fact that he 
was not born a nobleman, neither an abbot, a capitalist, nor any- 


tliiiii;' bceausc lu^ lialcs witli an iiilellectuul and compassive 

liatrcd , A\ itli equal dislike, tlic titles, the proud eai^ital , the servi- 
lisni. lu a word , Medeiros e Albuquerque is a revolutionai'\' soul 

chei-ked l).v an analytieal brain that 
finds pleasure; in ri<;htin<^- formed opi- 
nions, be what they may, with sciencie 
arms whieli lie handles so cleverly. 
Though, young, Medeii'os e Albuquer- 
que is one of the strongest minds of 
Brazil. Through journalism he has 
pa\ ed his way in the I'oad of life 
I'caehing the highest social and poli- 
tical positions without favors fi'om 
any one. Unfortunately, politics, the 
eternal disturber , has overcharmed 
him, so that his wonderful assimila- 
tion and mental pi'oduction caijaeities 
not finding the peace of the work desk, 
so favorable to the l)uilding up of great 
intellectual monuments, devote them- 
selves to journalism, and thus Medeiros e Albuejuerque writes daily 
about local (questions and subjects needing discussion or editorial 

Wi'apped in this atmosi)here he has not been able to publish but 
five or six books, dealing merely with literary subjects : poetry 
and short stories or novels, while it is well known his compe- 
tenc\' and authority to write on many subjects as philosophy, 
psychiati'.x', jisychology, legal-medicine, history, pedagogy, religious 
criticisms, intei'national law, pi'ivate constitutional law, and criti- 
cisms on literature and art, and Lord knows what else. About all 
these subjects he has written time and again in his daily journalistic 
work that sjjread and lose so many teachings that could be so much 
more beneficial in book foiin. 

His work in the daily papers and magazines has a personal stamp 
that distinguishes it from the other writers. As a rule he docs not 
show any i)redilection for a theme, an objective subject, he writes 
on a variety of topics, scientific, social or those of mere entertain- 
ment for the I'caih^r, as it happens with an humoristic chronicle 
that he writes weekly for (c ,1 Xoliciu. » His style is cleai', fluent, 
always resjiectful towards the gi'ammar, but always joking about 
the granunarians. He has no pity for the impostor, never mind of 
wliat kind, but at the same time he is a friend of all those who are 

— 03 — 

good. In the literary critic that lie writes in the « Noticia » he ma- 
kes of it a kind of public audience receiving the actors width hisses 
or applauses according to their merit. He hates conventionalism so 
much that he doesn 't admit it even in oraloi-y. It is curious to see 
him in Congress. Each one of his speeches, never mind liow animat- 
ed the debates may be, is simply a talk with his hearers : he substi- 
tutes natural eloquence for the rhetoric, the brilliance of speech for 
the novelty in ideas, in which, either writing or speaking he is per- 
fectly original. 

At present, of all the editors writing steadily for IJio papers, 
none has won credit for a stronger and richer intellectual capacity 
than Medeiros e Albuquerque. He was born in Ivecile, began his 
career as a teacher of primary studies, in Rio, where he is to-day 
General-Director of Public Instruction, Federal Congressman, pro- 
fessor of the Fine Arts College, etc. He published : Reinorsn, 
1888, a pamphlet on republicanism, the sale of which was pei'secuted 
by the police; Cancdcs da Dccadenria , versos, Rio, 18'.il ; Peccados, 
verses, 181M; A Practical Man, novels and short stories, 18'.)(i; ^lae 
Tapiiia, stories; Os Pro/oco//o.s /^T/;ano.s, patriotic pamphlet, 1<S97. 
Besides these he has executed considerable newspaper work and has 
edited several papers : « O Tempo », « () Figaro » and others. To- 
day he writes for Rio, Silo Paulo and Para papers. 

A curious note : Brazil being the country of the poets, he is the 
only one whose name is in the legislature of the country as he wrote 
the <( Hyinno da Republica », which was decreed bj- the law under 
X" 171 of 20 th. January, 1870. 

Affonso Celso. — He is an 
untired literature worker and is 
still quite a young man , being a 
monai'chist he has been set aside 
by i^olitics and thus is that he is 
entirely devoted to his studies now. 
He can present a larger production 
than the jnajority of Brazilian liter- 
ary men of to-day. He was entirely 
devoted to his studies when the 
libera-1 party of the Empire involv- 
ed him in politics. With the repu- 
blican form of Government he re- 
turned to his studies. It seems ithat 


— 91. — 

evcvy evil is a hei^innini;' ol' some good. AA'e mast explain our ex- 
jircssion tluii lie was sel aside by polities. It was his noble seruple 
that made him abandon polities, righting, eneoni-aged by the impul- 
ses of filial dcn-otion, the i;e])ubliean CJovei-nment that ordered his 
father's exile when he was the president of the Cabinet of the Impe- 
rial Govca-nment at the time of tlio proelamation of the republie. 

But, speaking of Affouso Celso, we must say that nearly every 
year he publish(>s a book, and as a. rule, a good book : Some of these 
are a true sueeess, as the one he wrote with the title : (( Pnr(jiir me 
iifiiiio do men Paiz. » (TJic re:is(in>< ivhy I am proud of my father- 
land.) He also pu))lished : ]'iillos c Factos; Minha Fillia; O Iinpcra- 
dor no Kxilio; Liipe; .Vo/;i.s c I'^icrors; Rinias dc Ontr'ora, (vei'ses) ; 
Vm invcjado ; (iucrrilhas ; C.oniradictas Monarchical; Giovanina; 
<) Assassinato dc (icntil dc Caxtro, a iianiphlet on polities; .1 Imiia- 
cao dc (dirislo (Poetieal translation of tlu' famous book); Oito anno.'-; 
dc parlamcnlo, (historical and political memoirs). He has also wi'it- 
ten considerably in the newspapers both in Brazil and abroad. lie is 
an excellent oratoi', earnest and deep, a man of advanced ideas and 
fighting convielions. He evidenced most firmly these (lualities while 
in the Pai-liament fighting wliith all the earnestness of his great soul 
for tlie freedom of the slaves. 


I'liiKS 111: Ar.juiiiiA 

PiHKs i)K .iVi.MKiDA (.losc Ricar- 
do). — He is the type of those wri- 
ters who ai'e al\va,\-s at theii' desks, 
in theii' studios, nobody knows him 
personally, and notwithstanding he 
his always before the public by 
means of his constant work, deep 
and varied work. 

He is a polygraph. He has ren- 
dered services with his brilliant 
work to the medical sciences , the 
stage, the poeti'y, the statistics, of 
which he is a gr(>a( worker, the plii- 
loIog,\', the history, (juestions of pu- 
blic instruction and (utti (juanii. 
He shuts himself up in his library, 
in the morning, at night, and perio- 
dically l)ut ^\•ith the silent regula- 
rity of a sand-clock , he appears in 

— 05 — 

tlio columns of the « Jornal do Coniinercio » where ho lias been a 
writer for the hist thirty years, ehicidating- tiie most varied subjects, 
with a uuinber of informations and knowledge whicli denote his 
nntired and investigating- patience. Every now and then he presents 
at intervals between those journalistic works, almost mechanic by 
their persistence, some thick book of historical investigation and 
analysis, pedagogy, theatre and other subjects. 

Typically modest, backwards, or indifferent he produces, builds 
his extensive intellectual work, without even feeling or realizing 
that he is doing it. He does not frequent the centres of bohemia in 
Ouvidor Street, neithei' any of the mutual praise grouj). He has not 
deserved from the critics but a polite tolerance and some flying- 

Pires de Almeida was boi-n in Rio de Janeii-o. He is a graduated 
from both the Medical and Law Colleges. From his many works we 
now remember : /7(.s/o/'/a do Drnnin; L'lnxtruclion Publiijuc nn 
Bri'sil; O Theatro no Brazil; I'iradenles ; A Kduvacao ; A Fcxia dos 
Craneos ; Liberdade, Miilato ; Sctc dc Seicinbro ; () Tra/ico ; Mar- 
lyres da Liberdade ; Tempesiades do Coravao; Phrynea e Paschoa 
(dvama^) ; Ketroioa a pcnna; (lenlenario do Sr. Scinpreuiva , Papli- 
sado na cidade nova. 

CoELiio Netto. — He was born 
in the State of Maranliao, (in the 
city of Caxias in 18(:)4j. Maranhilo 
is well kno\\-n as a State who has 
furnished a large and great contin- 
gent of literary talent, it is as they 
sa_y — the eagles' nest. 

Coelho Xetto came to the South 
and began his work writing- for 
newspapers and afterwards some 
books. He is a quick worker and 
no writer has in the same space of 

time sent more books to the printing press tlum he has. Each one 
of his works ^^•ould suffice to estaldisli the reputation of an author. 
He has books of all kinds : novels descriljing habits and customs, 
naturalistic novels, romances of all kinds, extravagant ones, liisto- 
rical, psychological and so on. lie has written comedies, tragedies, 
poetry, words for the music of operas, criticisms, history, entertain- 


— 96 — 

iiig chronicles, has written on oratory, on education, on art criti- 
cisms, etc. 

He went to Sao Pauh) in 18<s:<, al'ter liaving published in the 
« Giiie/ai/Ki » his first literai-y essays. He wrote in Sao Paulo for 
several Academic pul)lications. From there he went to Recife, capi- 
tal of Pernamhuco Statr, where lie fre(iuentod the first year of the 
Academy, came back to Sao I'aulo and devoted himself body and 
soul to litei'aturo. He published a paper witli the title of « Meridia- 

no )) which lived (he life of a rose. Having taken part in the 

campaign in favor of the freedom of the slaves he was persecuted 
and had to run away to Recife in ISS-j \\liere he passed his examina- 
tions of the 3rd year Law College course. It was his lot tliat he 
Avould never become a lawyer or a judge. Ho came to Rio de Janeiro 
and was invited by .Jose do Pati'ocinio to woi'k in tlie « Gazci;i dn 
'iartlc )) and there lie woi'ked most actively. Ijater on he left this 
paper to establish one of his own « () Dia », that lasted but a short 
while, and then ho was invited to manage as editor the <( D'nirio 
lUusitrado ». In this paper he started the publication of his novel 
<c .1 Bohemia » written day by day, « O Dlario Ilhisirado » had no 
resources, and though its editor was working \\\ih eai'uestness he 
did not succeed in ovei'coming the great difficulty of public iudiffe- 
rcuice. He was then invited by tlu' « Cidndc do Rio n, in the eve of 
the freedom of slavery. In that pajier he published A iapera, a great 
number of slioi't stories, and began to write O Rci-Fantasina. In the 
(c Diario de Xolicias » lie edited a section .1 Fiiinar (smoking) and 
wrote Sunday stories. In IS'.KI he married with ^Sliss Maria (irabi'i(dla 
Cadho Mello. For a while he abandoned newspaper work, and was 
appointed Secretary of the Government of tln^ Rio State, during 
the adininistratioii of Dr. Francisco Portidla. On November 213rd he 
went back to newspajjer work, with O Pai: and in that pa])er he deve- 
loped his activity writing a daily clironicle, Bilhetes Postaes (Postal- 
cards), Sunday stories, and other articles. In that iiajier he publish- 
ed also writing them day by day the following romances : ,4 Caj)i- 
tal Federal; Mirag-em ; Invernu em flor and Kei Faniasma. From 
that paper he went to the (iazeia de Noticias where he had a. dail\- 
section under tlie title of Fai^-iilhas besides articles on all topics and 
short stories with the titles of Georgicas, exotic storit's of the Album 
de Galiban, and the romances : Paraiso; () Morto; () Rajah do 
Pendjab and the novels Gega; Os ]'elhos; of the volume published 
later on with the title of Serlao. In another paper, the Re])nblica he 
])ublislied, A Conquisla, and in the Revista Prazileira he began 
.'l^''areno (T(n-menta). He wrott'. the Pelo Amor! dramatic poem 

— 9? — 

uiid Saldiincs hoth with music by Lcopoltlo Mij^ucz; Artemis, in one 
act, imisic by A. X('])()imu'oii(), ami Ilosiin, also in oik^ act, jiiusic l)y 
Dolgado de C'arvalho. All these works wcvq. jiut on the stag-e by tlie 
Centra Artistico, oi' which Coelho Xetto was one of the fomulcrs. 
For the stage he wvott> : Xcue no Sol, (Snow in the Sun) i)lay in tour 
acts ; Ironia aiid Ao liiar, one act jjlays; .-Is estacoes, Ij'ric episodes, 
ill one act and in verse; and the comedies : Diabo em Casa, O Reli- 
eario, in three acts, and O.s Raios X and Fim de Raea, in on(^ act. 
A^'ith Olavo Bilac he wrote several school i-eaders , Terra Fltimi- 
nense ; Coiitos Patrios ; Patria BrazUeira and these books ai-e 
adopted in the public schools. Coelho Xetto wrote also a book 
Yiagem de iima familia ao Korte do Brazil. He writes I'or (c Correio 
da j\laiiha », Rio daily, Estado de S. Paulo, A Revista Medica de 
S. Panto, and Jornal de Noticias of Baliia. He is at ])rescnt professor 
of litei'ature of the National Gymnasium of Cami:)inas. lie is a 
member of the Academy of Letters (A literary institution admitting 
only 40 members re])rescnting the cream of Brazilian literary men. 
Besides the books we wrote of above he has yet : Rapsodias ,■ Halla- 
dilhas; Friicto Prohibido; America ; Inucrno em /lor ; Morto ; A 
descoberta da India; Romanceiro ; Lanterna Magica; Seara de Rath; 
A conqiiista; For Monies e ]'alles. Edited by Domingos de iNIagal- 
haes, he published Memoria on art, in the 2 nd volume of the Liuro 
do Centenario, ]'iag-em de ama familia ao Xorte do Brazil; I'^im de 
seciilo; a bicn de pcnna: (Agiia de Jiwenta; Riiinas; Bom Jesus da 
Malta). Edited by Delloz brothers, of Oporto, Portugal, he has 
Apologos, tales for children. He edited with Paula Ney and Pardal 
Mallet a pamphlet « Meio ». He wrote for (c .-1 Mda Moderna » and 
« A Bruxa » literar\' magazines. He was professor of .Vrt Histoi-y 
in the Fine Arts college for one year and editor of the debates in 
the Federal Senate. 

He is a literary Proteus. His style is powerful and brilliant, by 
the sweetness of its form, as well as for the opulence of its vocabu- 
lary. In this i)articular excepting Ruy Barbosa, no other literary 
naan exceeds or even equals him. 

He is a true nabob of the vocal)ulary. 

Coelho Netto has written on every subject, of re onine scibile, but 
the most solid base of his litei-ary glory is the I'onnince. 

Once we spoke about i-omancists we will mention some other 
names, but only the most popular ones, as the space is rather limited 
to waite about the whole family of thos(>. cultivating novel writing 

— i)» 


"We will iiieiitioii Let'ore any 
otlior Aluizio Azkvioixi, wIio like 
Coelho X(>tt() ^\aK also bor!! in 

HedilTers entirely i'l'om Coelho 
Netto because lie devotes liiniseli' 
to one single kind of fiction : 
The natural romance. He lias giv- 
en his woi-k a stamp of perfection 
\\hich gives him the right to a 
jilace of honor among the other 
writers. Ilis style is concise, neat 
and bright. He gives the proper 
name to everything, withontlook- 
ing for euphemisms , as others 
usually do. He is most minncious 
in details, and in his descriptions 
we have first the notion of the details of the accessories and after- 
wards the altogether. The great nnn-it of his work lies mainly in this 
analytical predisposition, which enables him to that descriptive fideli- 
ty and precision so convenient in a romance that needs observation. 
He knows liow to select his types in the local atmosphere and in 
preference in those classes less cosmopolitan. 

He has also written for the stage, though with not so much success 
as when writing novels. Here is a list, though incomi^lete, of his 
works : — Uina iHg-riniH dc iniilher, Maranhao, 1879; (> miilato, 1880 
(several editions) ; .1/cHior/a.s dc uin condcinnudo, Rio, 1881 ; il/v-s'^c- 
rio da 1'ijiicii, Rio, 1882; ('.iis;i dc PciisHo, IJio, 188.'!; Philomcnn 
Boriics, Rio, 1881!; <) Caii-uJh, Rio, 188,5; <) hojucin, Rio, 1887; Cor- 
ticu, Rio, 18'.)(); <) Mubiici (drama), 188f; C^' dc Onitcs (comedy 
with Arthur de Azevedo), Rio, 1882; Flor dc Liz (operete, collaliora- 
tion), 1882; Philoinenn Borg-es (comedy in one act), Rio, 1881; 
]'cncn<is (juc Curam (comedy), Rio, 188.-I; Ctiboclo (drama), 1886; 
(As- SonliadorcK (comedy in three acts), 1887; Friizmuk (comical 
review, collaboration), Rio, 1887; Fora dc horas (short stori(>s) ; 
Livro dc umu sog-ra, Rio, 1887; Demonios, Rio. 

Xavikk j\[Aii(iiKs. — He is another novel writer with a firm 
rei^utation. It is a niinil tpiite different from Aluizio ^Vzevedo, he is 
not inferior to him, in sonn^ ])oints is even his sux:)erior. He started 
in Brazil a I'caetion against Zola's school, basing the observation 


novel on local forms, in which provincialism, the peculiarities of his 
ccnnmunity arc introduced in the novel. Studyino-, under a i'cature in 
which psychology and idealism do not repel each other, men and the 
people's habits and customs, he succeeded in creating national types, 
national scenery, a naticmal work, in short, in his elaborated 
romances, written in a sound language, very rich and noted above 
all, by the propriety of its application, by the full measure of its 
vocabulary. His style, not having the 
unevenness of Coelho Netto's, is as bright 
and charming as his. His books denounce 
a careful attention in its writing and we 
do not notice a simple mistake not even 
a lapse, or an unaproi)riated term; much 
to the contrary he is fluent, exponta- 
neous in his narratives and in the 
exposition of liis novel. 

As we say, Xavier Mai'(£ues , is a 
contrast of Aluizio Azevedo, botli in his 
physical as literary personalities. He 
never wished another scenery for liis 
heroes but the normal moral atmos- 
pliere. Vice, blood, aberrations find no 
room in his books, and he does not 

devote himself either to the idealistic kind and the honnetctc of 
G. Ohnet's novels. He limits himself to fix simply the truth, wliich, 
in this, as in everything else, is always in a just term. He was born 
at Itaparica island, Baliia, and had no great trouble to isolate 
himself in literature as he isolated himself socially, as he isolated 
himself geograiihically is his province, and he never wanted to 
deviate himself from this programme. Xavier Marques each day has 
more readers and each day is read with more interest. The editions 
of his books sell out and this proves that the public is not sneli a bad 
critic as it seems. Some of his books are destined to gain a reputa- 
tion even abroad as that delicate idyl Joanna e Joel. He started his 
intellectual life as editor of the « Jornal de A'oticia^: », in Bahia, and 
worked afterwards with Diario da Bahia, Diario de Nolicias and 
.1 Bahia. He wrote : Theniaa e ]'aria<;oes (verses), 188 1 ; ^S/ni/y/c.s 
Historian (short stories), 188(j; UmafamiliaBahiana (romance), 1888 ; 
Bolo & 6'o, romance on habits and customs, 1807; Joanna e Joel, 
Bahia, 18*.J0; HolocaiiHlo (romance), Bahia; P(;jf/o;-;i/;(a, historical 
romance which won the prize of the Historical Institute of Bahia, 
in 1900; Sargento Pedro (episodes of the war of independence) ; 

Xavikii MAisynKS 

](»(• — 

O nrpoiuloi- and M:iri:i R(>.s;i. Tliesc two hist Looks Ijcilong to a 
follcction under tliu name ol' « Praicirti » to wliich also belongs 
Joiinnn c Joel, a series ol' stories of maritime and sea-shore life a 
poetical world picturesque and novel shown to us by X. Marques in 
JoiUinH e Joel. 

Jui.iA Loi'KS DE Almeida 
— occui)ies one of tlie first 
l)laces among Brazilian i-o- 
mance writers, proving tlie 
trulh oi what Stai'l said to 
Xai^oleon : genius has no 
sex. In Tact Julia Lopes de 
jVlmeida because of her in- 
ventive capacity, her talent 
lo tell, ]ier beautiful langua- 
ge rich in colors and atti'ac- 
liveness, is one of the grea- 
test names among those "who 
are elevating the fiction 
literature in Bi'azil. 

She is a daug'hter of \'is- 
conde and Viscondessa of 
S. X'alentim and was born 
in Itio in 1<S(JL' and here slie 
stai'ted her studies. 

A\'hen she was but lU 
years old slie was the chief 
editoi' of the " (iazelit de 
dainpinus » and waswiiting 
fin- other x)ai)ers. She then 
made a tri^) to ]uirope and married [''ilinto de Almeida, a journalist 
and literary man of repute. 

^^'riting constantly and frecjuently to the papers and nnigazincs, 
she saw her name I'cspected and ap])hiuded as an intellectual notabi- 
lil\- and she was at the same time ajipreciated for lier virtues as a 
noble misti'ess of her charming home. 

^^'hile she was yet a little girl her golden dream was the stage, 
but family and books took that away from her head. Jler books 
have, to be sure, obtained foi- her better applauses and a better name 
and rcjputation than tin; stage, it may be h:ss noisy, Imt is also less 

.luLjA Lopes he Almeida 

— 101 — 

Not long ag-o, a rorcign writer of her sex, wrote in « La Miijcr », 
an Argentine magazine, (c Julia Lopes de Alnieida lias an equally 
delicate mind and intelligenee. She is kind, sweet, as the fruit of 
her native country, to which she has robhed the juice and sugar 
taste, that emanate at one time Trom her phrases and her eyes. 

At the same time that she feels that she is in love with litera- 
ture, and writing, enjoys, as she licrself says — and that compared 
with me nuikes a sensible contrast, just as with our physical person, 
in which we are a live contrast — she takes care of her children 
with endless love, and surely from them she receives her best con- 
ceptions. « 

She has published: — Ti-ncos e Illuminiiras (tales); A fuinilin 
Mcdciros (romance;; .1 ]'inva Simdcs (romance); O Livro (his Xoivns ; 
A Fallcncia (romance); two editions; . I /(c/a c/cz-yia /short stories); 
Mcinoruis dc Muriha, (novel); IlistoriH (hi nossa irrra; (Aintos In- 
faniis. This last one she wrote it with hei' sister Adelina A'icira also 
a wi'iter, both in prose and verse, much appi-eciated in Brazil. 

We do not wish to cite all the romance writers of Brazil, neither 
would there be room for all of them if we were to write the remai'ks 
to which tliej' would have a right. We must, liowever mention, Nestor 
Victor, a strong talent as a poet and novel writer, ^\•hohas been writ- 
ing considerably in the newspapers. He has puldished with great 
success : Si^-nos (a beautiful book of short stories), Rio IS'.iT ; Cruz e 
Sonza, (study on the poet Cruz e Souza); Aini^-os, Konumcc, Itio, lOOO; 
.1 Hora, (criticisms), Rio, 1001. 

Other names worthy of mention in tliis branch ai'e : Rodrigo Oc- 
tavio, tlie bright author of the Cabanas, and other books ; Inglez de 
Souza; Affonso Arinos; ( Ji'aca Aranha ; CJaT'cia Uedondo; Euclydes 
Ciinha; Leopoldo Freitas; Viveiros de Casti'o ; Lucio de ilendonea 
and many othei's. 

It is about timeto w'rite something about the stage, about the play 
witers. This kind of literature has at present but Uiw men who de- 
vote themselves to it sei'iously. Of those few some have their repu- 
tation estaVjlished but others are just leai'ning ho^\' to fly. Of the 
former the first one Arthur Azjcvedo, a native of Maranhao, who 
came while quite young to establish his residtmce in Ilio de .Janeiro. 
He first started his career as a journalist. He is one of the most ta- 
lented men of the present age and there is hai'dly any branch of lite- 
rature that he has not devoted himself to with brilliancy meeting 
always with success. But his sti'ong-liold is Ihe stag(^. and to that he 
devotes himself body and soul. 

— 1112 


He. lias writton a large, iiiiinbor of jilays both in prose and verse, 
hmnoristic eliroiiicles, poetry, art eriticisins, ote. He is a superior 
mind not accessible to the small ei;()tistieal passions. He is a loyal 

I'riend and a kind man, so kind that 
he would lil't from the ground his 
enemy should he fall. 

Ilis first theatrical essay was 
when he had \~> years of age. It was 
a comedy. The success of the play 
was sLieli that he became immediate- 
ly a popular man, and his comedy 
has been produced ever since by 
every theatrical manager in Brazil. 
Itsnamo is Amor par Aiwxins (Love 
by (piibbles). 

No writer in South America has 
seen his name oftener in the posters 
and in the newspapers. 

He is also an inspired poet and 
dramatic critic of high compenteney. 

Here is a list of liis principal works, only the principal ones : — 
Comedies : — .1 Joia; Lihenito; de Onites ; Badcjo; Fantasma 
na Ahh'ia; Iiidiisiria c rclibato; Fernando o engeitado, Reviews : — 
Mandariin ; Bilontra; Mcrciirio ; ]'iaf;eni ao Parnaso, Plays on 
habits and customs : — Vespcra de lieis ; O.s noiuos. Comic 02)era : — 
Donzella Theodora; Prinvcza dos Cajueiros. Parodies: — Maria 
Angn ; Mascollc na Roca ; Abel Ilelana; Casadinho de freseo ; Amor 
ao pello ; Dramas : — O Anio do mal ; Unas irman, Magic plays : — 
A Filha do Fogo and several others. Monologues ; — Ilellar e Fa- 
giindes ; () Alfacinha. Translations and adaptation : — Xiniche; 
(jilelte de Narbone; Flor de Liz; Falea; Genro e Sogro ; Tres boti- 
carios; Co(juelieot ; Dia e noite; Fillio de Coralia; Mascara de 
lironze; Mulheres do Mercado; Perolu Negra; Proezas de Riehelieu; 
Novels and short stories : — Conios ephemeras; Contos j)ossiueis ; 
etc., etc. 

Now we will speak of the Pi'azilian poets, they are numberless 
and ail uiK'veu lot. 

Tliey comprise every one in the country. One of them asked on- 
ce ; Who is I here that does not write verses when lio _ve;i;-.s o/f/?' And 
he was about I'iglil. Nearl_\' evei'y man is a poet in this fatherland of 
the orators and poets, and iiciarly every writer has started his careei' 
writing a book of poetry. 


Some oT the i)()ets, howevei', have elevated themselves far above 
the multitude of verse makers, and among- those there are some great 
individualities who are real poets and from those superior personali- 
ties the erities give the first places to : 


Olavo Bilac. — Was born in Rio de 
Janeiro where he lives still to-day, devot- 
ing most of his time to journalism. He 
devotes himself entirely to literature and 
lives from it. He is a young, flexible, ex- 
pontaneous, delieate and genteel writer. 
He is a magnificent and chai'ming spea- 
ker, he dominates the word spoken with 
great ability and in the delivery of his 
speeches one will notice the same fluent 
and expontaneous facility that he shows 
in his verses so svt'cet and so natural. 
His name is disputed by newspapei'S and 
magazine editors as a good advertise- 
ment for those who are lucky enough to 
secure his collaboration. He is one of the 
Editors of the « Gazeta de Notician » and 

through its columns he fights daily with enthusiasm for all the good 
causes that may help the j)rogress of Brazil. 

His chronicles run away sj^stematicall^^ from grave subjects but 
selects any light theme more artistic in its slyle and at the same 
time more natural. This does not mean that in any way he avoids a 
subject never mind how grave if he deems it necessary to present 
his criticism that a moral lesson or a warning might be deducted 
from it, but never mind how circumspect the subject may be he will 
treat in such a light form so that he may use that soft but convinc- 
ing style that he so cleverly masters. 

He has published stories, verses, and text books. We are now 
going to give our readers one of his beautiful poems and we are 
sorry that pressing time to j^repare this translation does not permit 
but to give here a rough ti'anslation of it : 


Se por vinte annos, neslii fiirna escitra 
Delxei dormir n minh/i mahlii^ao , 
— Hoje, velhn e can^uda dii umurgura, 
Minh'almii se abririi como um viilcao : 

— 101 — 

E, cm inrrenles ile folern e loiiriira, 
Sobre ii tint cubet^n ferverno 
Viiite uiinos lie tiffoiiin e de lordira , 
Vinle ,i/i;io.v ile nilencio e .■iolidiio ! 

M;ildit;i .s-oy'.i.s- iielo Idenl jierdido / 
Pelo null i/ue fizcslc sem ijiierer ! 
Pell} iiinor que iiiori-eii sent ter niiscido ! 

Pehis hnrns uii'idns sent jjr:i:er ! 
Pelii trUleza do ijiie tenho sido! 
Pelo falifor do que ileixei de ser ! 

(CuRSKii Mavkst Thou 1)k — If iliiriii^ Iwuiily years, 1 alldwcil my L-urso li. ,sk'i.'|i iji Ihis 

(hii-k (Ion, — l(i-(biy, old :iiiil lii'cil of Ihiil liilleriiess, my soul, likr :i viilraii, will hursl 
open : And llicn, Iwciily yours of agony and lorluro, Iwonly yoars of silerice and solilndo, 
over lliy liead will pour Ijoiling ill a slroani of |iussion and madness! Cursed inayesl lliou 
1)0 for llie lost Ideal ! Koi- llie evil llion liast done unwillingly ! For llio love thai died willi- 
onl ever liaviiig boon born ! Viw llie lively lioiirs s|iont. wiUionl any pleasure I l*"or the 
sadness ni wlial 1 have Ijeen ! l-'oi- llie splendour of that I could mil lie I) 

Magaliiaes de A/.eredo. — A bright and a young poet is Maga- 
lliaes lie Azeredo. lie was Ijorn in llio, in January, 1872. He was 
brought up in Europe but finished liis studies in Brazil. AYhile yet a 
student in tlie Sao I'aulo Law College was already the editor of the 
Estailo ik' S;li> Pnulo. Later on in Rio he worked with the « Gnzeta 

de Xoliciaa ». In 18111 he was appointed 
Secretary of the Brazilian Legation in 
Montevideo and from there he was trans- 
ferred in 1890 for the same position in 
Rome. In January 18'.)7 the Aaulciuia 
Brazilcira elected him to be one of his 
40 members to which number the mem- 
bei-ship is limited, just like in the French 
Academj'. The books he has published 
Md : Alma Priiitiiiva (story); Procella- 
rias (verses); Balladas c Phantasias (ver- 
ses) ; lie . I /enra/' (study) ; O Portu- 
gal no Centenario das Indias. He has 
written very much in newspapers and 
magazines, mainly in Jornal do Cnin- 
incrcio; Rcvisia liiazilcira; lievisla Mo- 
ilcriia, of Paris; etc. He is about to pu- 
blish ; — Homens c Livros ; Poesias ; 
Aspccto.s (la Italia; Melancholias (story); () Santo (I'oiuance); Kiisti- 

.Maealhrii's de Azoredo 

— 105 — 

ca.s c Mni-inhas (verses); Elo^-io hisiorico de I). J. (ioiicalvcn de 

Here we give now a sample ol' his verses : 


Que o ten nnior de Ideul no enijieiiho iiiio con^isUi 
De eultivnr em tl suinente o jjiiro artisla. 
E o Homeii? iV.irfa vnle; e direitos nfio tern ? 
A verdnde condnz no IJello e o Bello no lieni. 
Segne esxn lei : qnnijoia exjtlend/iln, bipidn 
Tun nimn : e nisso j)6e tnl :elo e Innto nrdor. 
Que entre ns obrns do ten enpiriio erendor, 
A inn is perfeitn sejn n tun i>ro]>rin nidn. 

iTi) A I'OET. — May lliy love lor llie lilral not coiisisi in llic car'ni'Sliii'ss lo iiKikc of y(]i[ 
only a sini|ile :ir'tist. Ami llie niaiiV Is lie woi'lli iiolliiiig? Tiajlli loads lo Ilie Beaiilil'iil and llio 
Beaiilit'iil loails lo the Go(i(l. Follow llial law ; lapidalo lliy soid jiisl as if il weve, a splendid 
ji'wrl ; and do it Willi snoh /.ual and sncli oagei'noss that, among Iho works of thy ci'calive 
mind, tlie most perfoct may be your own life). 

AuGusTO DE Lima. — Is one 
of tlie most no.tecl j)oets of to- 
day, but lie is so modest and 
backwards that i^i^\ know him 
personally. In onr travels 
tlir(jugli the States I had the 
pleasure of meeting him in 
Eello Horizonte. He was intro- 
duced to me as a noble and fair 
spirit. ^Ye became good friends 
and to be sure I am not the 
least enthusiasmed of his ad- 
mirers. Augusto de Lima was 
born in Minas Geraes, where 
he is to-day the Directoi- of 
the Public Archives. He is a 

member of the Rio Academy of Letters, but this will not give him a 
better i-eputation than his verses will. He jjliotographs himsellin 
his works. He is a learntsd and philosopliical ])oet, a little skei)tieal 
and a little melancholic. He has published but few books. They 
are : ContemponincaH (verses), 1887; Symboloa (verses), 18*,I2 and .1 
Vida (poem) and several panii)h]ets, speeches and Brazilian History. 
The first work of Augusto Lima, Contemporuneas was publisJied in 

.\U(.USTO 1)1, JjM\ 

— lOli — 

Uio and ill it he rovealcMl liiiiisc-li' a true jioet not only becaiiso of the 
i'orm as by tlie \i<;()iir oi' tlic tliouj^ht, novelty of idras, anil strong- 
beauty oi' the ronreption. lie does not sing like the spring- pouts 
I'oolish love aflaii-s and laney llirtations. His themes are human and 
soeial and is just that that shows him ipiite different Crom the majori- 
ty of the Hrazilian jjoets. In his liook the ContcmporiinenH and for 
that matter the Syinbolos eaeh piece of poetry is a gem, not one 
single inferior production can be found among them. 

Hen^ we give a sonnet from his book Syinbolof;, as a sample : 

liiso K PRASTO 

Dims fiiiciOea o !fr:uule todo liiiiu:nio 
onre/Tit : ninn ijiit'i'i, otitrn (/ne cJiorn. 
Dujilice inonsiro, rontrasliido ,J:iiio: 
lem niimit fiice — ,/ iioite, e iiontrii — <i aurora 

Mas nil sen scio ctcriiainenU' mora, 
fonio o [ndypo no prof undo occiiiio, 
a dor (/lie o riso meiitiro^^o cti/lora, 
It inesiiia dor tjiie verte o ])ranto iii-saiio. 

Basla line riso on lai;riina reciinie 

da conlraccho de iim iiuixcnlo irritado, 

temos amor, jiezar, oilio on chime. 

Nem seiiipi'c o riso e iima exjiressaodc a^rado, 
e as ve^es ijiiem mats cliora se presume 
feliz, por parecer mats desgranido. 

(Smii.ks ami TiiARs — Tlie grual liiiiniiM wliole ciicliisi's hvo [nii-liiins : oiio llial laiiglis, 
aiiiither llial wpeps. Ui>iil)li> iiuiiislor, liki^ Janus, wi'ars on one rlii'i'k — night, anil on Ihe 
otiior — ilawn. Bill in ils liosom, lliin-(> lives I'oi' ever, jiisl like llie polypus in the deep oeean, 
llie pain that the lying smile embellislics, (lie same pain slieil by the maddening tears. It 
sullires that a smile or lear shall oo/e Ironi the eonlraetiiiu of au irrilaled musele for us to 
feel hive, regrel, hatred or jealousy. It isn't always that Ihe .smile pleasantness expresses, 
and someliines those who most weep happier seem to feel, tor the thought of looking to 
others more unfortunate..) 

FoNTfiuRA Xavikk. — lie is a poet and a writer of reputation. He 
is to-day (!onsnl (Jeneral of Brazil in New York city. He was boi'U 
in Rio Gi'ande do Sul. He writes well several languages and had the 
pleasure of seeing his best pieces of poetry, translated, by poets of 
renown like Bliss (!arman, W. Watson, and others, into_. other 
languages. He has published several works the most celebrated of 
which is the « Ojiiilns », Porl-o Alegre, 1881. He also published the 
Again Anwricunct, (tlie American Eagle) ; the Venus de Wasliinoion ; 


Esirophes a Baby Mec : () Pugem; .Is Monlanhus; As (Jaturalu 
do Xiagiira, Sj)U'cii dc liaii<lclaire ; and El Dorado dc Poc ; 


As a sample of his high degree of fine humor we publish here one 
of his sonnets with its translation in prose. 


En undo triste, mudo, :itr:il>ili,'irio, 
I'ersegiie-ine « visao de um soaho vugo ; 
Tenho ;is trislezns tetricns de Mario, 
E as soUdbes sinistrns de Carthago. 

Nein saibu o mundo... Tiibido sudario 
Envohtn-ine a paixlto i/iie em meiite afago... 
Von em meio caminho do (lalvario 
E desconhero a crnz que aos Iiombros trago ! 

Desconfio de algiiem. De longa data 
Conto entre as minlias relacbes ignotas 
A graca escalptiiral duma acrobata... 

Miiita vez, a saida, dei-llie o braco, 
E iiida lenlto jirese/ite as cambalhotas 
Que ella dava iia uusencia do palhaco !... 


(Tim: Ci.iiwn 's wii i:. — I aiii siid, iliiiiili, iijclinirhiilii', iici'srniled liy Ihc visioji (if ;i 
viiLjiK' ili-ciiiii, I liaMMlic liilli-r s;i(lii('ss (iT Miirid iinil llie siiiislci- siililiiilc.' (if (;a]-|li:i};(i. 
I (Idii'l u.iiil Ihc wdild Id kiiiiw... I. el an licclic slii'diiil uri)|i up Ihc liiiL'iiiiiy love 1 (■ar(;ss 
ill iiiv iiiiiKJ... I ,1111 half way Id Ihc caharv. And ignore llic cross llial my souldcrs licars! 
— f siis|iccl some one. Fdi' a Ions lim'' I li:ivc had anions my iiriKnouii aci|nainlanccs, Tlic 
scnl|ilui'al si'.'ico (if iin aci'dlialic woman... — Of I en, S"iiiri "id> **'i'' I''" 'H'm in 'ii'in " iHi m'N 
.\n(l ] can slill rememliei' Ihc tnmljlinss she yave when Ihc clown was away '....j 

Mi't'io I'liixioiKA. — He 
is one of tlie Brazilian 
writofs wlio lias woi-ked 
tlie most. lie was Ixini in 
Port II Aleore, I85,S. \\']ieii 
lie was Init 'Jl years old 
lie was Secfetai-y of the 
Espii'ito Santo proyiiiee. 
Al'tei-w ards lie went to \"e- 
nezuela as Consul Gene- 
ral. He was editoi' of se- 
veral papers in Baliia, 
Sao Paulo, Rio Grande, 
and Kid de Janeiro. Liv- 
ind- as he does liy his 
jien he, lias quite a num- 
her of produetions many 
of whieh have lieen trans- 
lated into other langua- 
ges : 

Poetry : ]'<>ze.s 'rrt-imi- 
las , 1 vol. ; r/o/c/a.s , 1 
vol.; Oiuhis (■ Xiiocns, 1 vol.; Soinbras c Chiroes, 1 vol.; Xovos 
ideites, I vol.; Prisnuts e Mbrnrdes, 1 vol.; Iluf^-oniunas, 1 vol.; 
PocsUis (' Pocnuis, 1 v(il.; Celnjcs (in Spanish) 1 vol. ; Hrasileinis y 
LuzitanHs, 1 vol. ; Poesiiis de Miicio Teixeiru, "2 vols. ; Cainpo Santo 
with 7-". illustrations. 

INieiiis : Ccrvbro e Corarao, 1 vol.; Faiislo e Mar^-arida, 1 vol.; 
CnnloH cm Canhis, 1 vol. ; i'm soithador do Scciilo, 1 vol. ; O Inferno 
Poliliea, 1 vol. ; () 'I'libnno Rei, 1 vol. ; () (iirafa. 1 vol.; O.s niiinianos, 
1 vol.; <) Ineon/idenles, 1vol.; O Meslre de SanI ia^-o, 1 vol.; Pecinenos 
jioenias de (hunj)oanio}\ -J vols.; () Drama Universal, L' vols.; 
MidhercK do Knan^vlho, 1 vol.; ]'era Crnz, being finished. 

Dramas : O Filho do Uanijneiro, 5 aets; Alvaro o Fanapo, in 

.Ml i;io TiJM:mA 

— 109 — 

5 at'ts ; ,1 Flor dc iim din, 1 acts, versos ; Tc/itix'shiilcs inorucs, :', acts ; 
.1 uiiiiidc IK) crime, .". acts; () Sobrinho pelo Tio, :> acts; MoiUidvo, 
:iacts; (Jhiinicu Coiiju^-nl, 1 act, verse; (];irid;iile, I! acts; 

Works in prose : Mcini)ri;ts di^-nns de incinorin, ^> \-()]s. ; Syn- 
these hisloricii dn Literiiiiirn Brazilcim, :\ vols.; Foetus de ]'ene:uelH, 
1 vol.; Pdcliis do Me.xico, 1 vol.; Poeins dn llolinin, 1 vol.; Poeltis dn 
Americn Lnlinn, 1 vol.; Poelas do Hrnzil, :] vols.; ]'i(lH e Obnix de 
(^nstro Alors, 1 vol.; a Rei}olii(;rto do Rio (inuide do Siil em jSij'i, 
1 vol.; La ndminiatraeeion del Doctor Jniin I'nblo Rojits I'nul en 
]'eueziiela, 1 vol.; Uii ;uio en Venezueln, 1 vol.; () Hrnzil Marciid, 
syntliese historiea das giu'rras, revoUn;oes e rex'oltas, ilesde os 
tempos coloiiiaes ate a actualidade, co)n l)iograpliia e os reti-actos 
dos heroes. (Histoi'ical resiuuuni of wars and re^■olutiolls i'rom 
Colonial times u[) to now, \\'itli biographies and 2>'otur(;s of the 
hei'oes, and others. 

LUCIO I)K ^rKM)OK(^:A. — 

lie is a jndge and a poet. 
lie was born in 185 1 , in 
the cit\' ol' Rio. lie stu- 
died in the S. Paulo Law 
college. ^Vl'ter his gradua- 
tion he devoted himsell' to 
journalism. Ho wo-a also a 
poet, like all tlie students 
ol' his time were. He re- 
vealed great talents in his 
wiitinigs and soon made a 
name for himself in Sao 
Paulo Avhieh might have 
been of far more advan- 
tage for him if lie had 

been writing in Rio. To-day Lucio de Mendonca is a member of the 
Federal supreme court and one of the 10 members of the Literaiy 

His books are ((. Neuoas Matiitinus », poetry; « Cangoes do 
Oniomno >>, poetry ; <x Esbocos e Per fis ^), sliort stories 1889 ; « Fer- 
^'■a.sfa.s- » ; « Horns de Bom tempo n, Ilio 19():J. 

Lucio de Mendonca worked as a journalist in S. Paulo, Minas 
and Rio, writing for « Provincia de S. Paulo », « Gazeta de Noticias », 
« Estacao », (t Seniana)), and f)thers. 

Lucio DE Mknuonca 



jUiz GuiMAUAKs (Fillio). II(^ was l)orii ill Rio in 1877. He went to 
Europe \\itli liis father who was a (li])h)iiiatist. Tie ^rin^iiated in I.S07 
Troni the Coinibra University, in Poi'tugal. Returning to Rio was 
given the ])osition of Editor ol' the <c Gnzvtn ilc Noticias )>a Rio daily, 
lie \\rote for nearly every one of (he Rio dailies. lie published 
seven volumes of ])oetry : Iilyllu)s (^hinczes , Aov Murin, Uma Pugi- 
nn do Quo ]':i(lis , and Pcdnis Pi-pciosn^i. These are the four best 
ones. The edition of his books are as a rule sold out. 

Liiiz Oiiiniairies iFillio). 

Luiz (Jniniaraes (Fillio) is a diplonialist. He was the secretary of 
till' Brazilian Coniniission to the 2nd I'au-Anierieaii Congress, 
Secretary of the Brazilian Legation in ^lontevideo and to-day he 
holds the same place in 'i''(}kio. His xerses have been translated into 
S])anish, Ereiudi and Swedish. 

Luiz Edmundo. — lie is a most clever writer and a poet of no 
little merit. II(^ was born in Rio on the "iOtli.June 187'.i. 

In 1898 he published his first book « Niinbos ». Since then he 

in 180<.); and <( Turris 

— HI — 

pul)lisluHl another one « Thnrybulos 
Eburnea)) in 1902. 

In 1899 he founded a ma- 
gazine « Kevista Contempoi-a- 
nea » of which he is the chief 

This magazine has in its 
staff of AYi-itei-s the best wri- 
ters of this generation : A. de 
Guimaraes , H. Lopes , Luiz 
Gnimaraes Filho, Mangabeira, 
Xestor Vietoi-, Carvalho Ara- 
nha, Luiz Pistarlni , I'aido Bar- 
reto Azevedo Cruz and others. 
It is x)ublished in Rio de .la- 
neiro and has attained success 
as an artistic and literai'v nui- 

Luiz Ediiiundo is ])re])arijig 
now another book. 1'liis as all 
tlie othei's he has written are 
poetry. Heiswi'iting, however, 
his first essay in prose « Im- 
pressions of a trii) to Central 
ICurope. )) 

He has written for every daily and every magazine that has been 
published in Rio since 1897. 

Raymundo Corrka. — We do not in- 
tend to fill these pages with llie names 
of that large host of Brazilian poets, as 
we wrote before. Their number is too 
large and should they devote the time 
spent in verses making to more useful 
exercises in agi'icultural , industrial or 
Ijusiness pursuits much better it would 
be both for themselves and the commu- 
nity. But since we have mentioned a few 
of the cream, we can't leave outside the 
name of that most inspired poet liay- 
mundo Correa. He is a true poet. He 
was born in Minas, and is at present 
judge in one of the Rio de Janeiro courts. 

Luiz Edmuxdo 

lUvjIUNUO (jOliRE* 

— 112 — 

He can't be iinitaled in the i>errectioii ol' the conception, the 
inventive f;enius and tlie melody ol' his \erses. J I is eiiongli to read 
tlie sonnet l)elo\v, a sonnet ]vno^^■ll by lieart by every Brazilian Ironi 
one end to the other ol' tlic conntry and in it j'oii will see the great 
soul of the poet : 


}'iic-se ;i />riincir!i jtontbn (lc.'</icriii(I<i ... 

I' iiiilni iiinis... ntitis oii/rii... eiii/iiii (tc'zen:is 
I)c jiontbas v;io se ilos iioinluu'x, :i/H'iius 
J\;ii:i, .lunf^ninen e frcsai, a nuidrugndn. 

lit i\ tarde, qiiundo a rigida ni>rtnd:i 
Sojtra, ao.'i poinbiic.s dc iiono ellns ."^ereiins, 
Jiu/Jnndo US :i:;i.s, .•i:iriidiiido ax jieniui.s 
Voltnin todns cm bmido e em revomhi. 

Tiimbcm dos ccir.irbes, oiide tibntoain, 
Os soulios, am jior iim, celere.s voiim, 
^'Omo oonin us /tombus dos jiombues. 

Xo :izid il;i tubdesccnt-iii :is:iz:is soUiim, 
l\}nem... nuts iios jiombucs ;is jiombu^ ooltum. 
h' cdles uos corurbes n.'tri Kolhim nuiis .. 

(« TiiK Duvi.s ». — Tlicrc i;(irs the lirsl ddve lliul iiwijkc... Iliori; goes aiiollior (inu... slill 
iiiiDlliei'... we'll, dozens of ddvi's lly fr(]iii llic dovi'lidiises, wliijii dawii, reddisli and I'resli, 
hardly ht'j^ins (o a|i|icai'. — Anil at llic siiii-sel, when the iXoi'lhern slrnng winds blow, there 
lliev come again llNiiiti baciv in bands lo Ihe dove-lioiises, so serene and cliecrfnl nniving 
theiL' wings, shaking llieii' leallii'i's. — Tlnis also, Irem the hearts, where the dreams are 
iaslejicd, one by one, Ihcy swillly tly, just as Ihe doves do, from Ihe dove-hniises. — In the 
l>lne of Ihe adoleseency they ,s|ircad llieir wings, they lly... but the doves return to the dove- 
iKJUses, and Ihe di'eains never i-(nue back lo the hearts.) 

We cotild yet mention othei' names of j)oets who have won a jtist 
notoriety as Lniz Miirat, Ltiiz Delphino; Lncio de Mendonea, 
Alberto de Oliveira, ]Mueio Teixeira, .Toao Ribeiro, — who is alst) a 
writer of no small I'eputation, but we liave no space. 

We need now to review anotlier featnre of Brazilian talent. They 
are the artists of to-day. 

— lis 


This t'calm-e of Brazilian artistic life is not less brilliant Hum the 
ones presented in previons sections. AA'ei'e it not that onr in-oo-raninie 
hinds us to write only ol' the men of to-day we ^^o^ld have inncli to 
write about great men, among 's\hom is one who \\dn fame abi'oad as 
well as in the country. He is Carlos Gomes, the iniiuortal authoi' of 
« (iiinrniiy », opera that has been and will continue to be sung all 
over the civilized world. And he is not (he only one of mu' dead 
notabilities. We had Miguez, the author of the <( Saldiines » Jose 
!Mauricio, the great composer and others. 

But we will ^\■rite only of the men of to-day, the space being 

Alberto Nupomuceno. — AVe owe the first i)lace lothe author of 
« Arleinix ». He is the only mneslro now in Sduth-America who 
deserves to inherit the glory of Carlos (Joines. 

He was born in Fortaleza, Capital 
of Ceara, on the (Jth July, 1804 and is 
a son of the great musician A'ictor Xe- 
pomuceno, well known here. With his 
family he went to Recife, the capital 
of Pernambuco, where he was much 
esteemed, devoting himself to music 
lessons being the most scmght after 
professor in that city where he was 
the introducer of classic music. 

Under the direction of his father 
and obeying to self inclinations , Al- 
berto Xepomuceno, day by day, accen- 
tuated more and more his artistic per- 
sonality, and he kept on enlarging his 
circle of friends and admii-ers, succeed- 
ing at the age of 18, in substituting 

the maestro Euclides Fonseca, as director of the concerts at the 
Carlos Gomes Club till the time of the death of his father. 

He came then to Rio, without any protection and without 
resources. Here he lived and strengthened his artistic talent. Later 
(m he went to Europe where lie perfected himself. On his return he 

Ai.BEinn Niii'iiMUCKNo 

— 114 — 

was appoiiitod i)ri;aii prol'o.ssdr of the ^Musical Institute, oT llio, and 
altiTwards director of tliat ( loxoi'niiicnt cstublisliiu(;nt. 

Aniont;' his niaiiy (.-oiiipositioiis of true merit, and in \\liich he 
rexH'als a prodigious feeundilv of brain, \\e note tlie Romunces 
Itruzilriras a series (lie \\()rds of some of whose pieet^s were wi'ittcn 
by, Juvenal (Jaleno; the opera /i/cc/zvi, a Gre(dv subject translated in 
\"erse by CJiabault, and wdiicli was perfoi'med in Paris in the hall of 
Saint-Barhe des C'hamps; Syiuplionies , he A\rote a numbei' for 
grand-orchesti'a ; the Siiiic lircsllicnnc, on national subjects ; sever- 
al pieces for i^iano and singing; sacred pieces for orchestra. The 
words for his opei'a Aricnus were -written by Coelho Xetto and the 
opera was sung with great success in the .S. Pedro tlu;atre in Ilio. 
He has just written two other operas, the Aluil and liibcrto. I'lie 
latter is going to be sung in \'ieima. 


'-> ^ Hemuque OswALix). — He represents a 

great personality in the artistic world at 
least in South Amei'iea. To give the bio- 
gi-ai)hical profile of Henri(|ue Oswaldo it is 
sufficient to give an ac^eonnt of the follow- 
ing episode : Lc Fi^-nro, a French paper 
published in Paris opened a musical contest 
in which ilOO composei's from every country 
in the world took place, sending the pieces 
in sealing envelopes and without signature. 
L^'roiu all those (it)U compositions, the selec- 
ted one to receive the prize was Henrique 
Oswaldo 's. Referring to the composition that Parisian paper wrote : 
AA'e made allusion yesterday to the hesitations that seemed to i)re- 
vent our jury from delivering the prizes. As to the // ncigc ! (is the 
composition of Henrique Oswaldo) , there was not the least discus- 
sion about it. Only one vote and absolutely spontaneous ! We remem- 
ber yet that cliarming surpi-ise and flying and delicate artistic sen- 
sation we felt when we first Iieard the composition of Henric^ue 

vSaint-Saens, Faure and Diemer, grouped togetlier, for many 
hours around the i)iano luui already exhausted a good nuinbei- of 
CDixiis and the session was about to end wdien Diemer gettino- hold 
casual of a roll of ]iaper said : And if we slumld try this one? It was 
the // ncigc ! 

Then, undca' tlu^ fingei's of tlu' pi;iuist there rose an exquisite me- 

— IK) — 

lody, the intense poetry of wliieli with tlie Ijeautiriil sound oT the swce, 
and wrapijing- dreams evolced to tlie imagination sometliing of a pale 
winter lantlseape, tlie monotonons and slow fall of tlie white snow- 
flakes nuder the mysterious silenee of the desert field. « Xoiix ('lions 
coiKjiiis ! y> (We had been eon(piered) thus ends the pai'isian pa]>er. 

Henric^ue Oswaldo was born in Rio in 18."j:!. His father was J. -J. 
Oswaldo, a piano mereliant in Sao Panlo, and his mother D. ('ai'lota 
Cantagalli Oswaldo, was of Italian descent. 

From hS-jl to 1870 Henri([ue Oswaldo lived in Sao Paulo, studied 
in the Episeopal Seminary, in Bai't 's German Lyceum and received 
music lessons from professor Girandon, considered then an excellent 

From there he went to Italy to im])rovc his musical studies in Flo- 
rence under the direction of inacatro Grozzoni, ex-director of the 
Benetto Marcello Conservatory of Venice and professor of the Flo- 
rentine Musical Institute, and he was lead tln-ough mysteiies and 
the secrets of harmony and counter-point. 

He has devoted himself mainly to the cuiunni music, an aristocra- 
tic and fine kind, having pul)lished : sonatas, concertos, morccuiix 
diucrs for the piano, and symphonies for grand-orchestra , con- 
certs for sti'ing insti'umcnts. In all he wrote thirty different ])ieces. 
His music is elaborated with high care and is perfect in its minutest 
details, of broad inspiration , transparent, it reminds Beetlunen's 
school. At present lie is director of the Kio National Musical 

Meneleu Campos. — He succeeded 
Cailos Gomes in the Belem Conservato- 
ry, in the capital of Para state, and \\'e 
cannot say that he does not honor the 
inheritance. He was born in that beauti- 
ful city and from his youth he revealed 
decided aptitude for music. His first 
teacher Avas Adelino do Nascimento, a 
violin virtuose of great fame in Brazil. 
Later on he went to Italy in 1891, enter- 
ing Milan Conservatory. 

He has written music for piano, sing- 
ing , and orchestra. He has composed 
good many pieces, all of one thought and 

original one])erfectly distinct, somewhat melancholic. And much ean 
be expected yet, from the author of Xollurno of the romance Tamo 

Mkneleu Ca^ipos 

— lift " 

IIo, wrote miiinottes and syinplionies that f^ive a sweet and 
untraushitablo sensation ol' tranquility, of broad and transparent 
inspiralinn. 'Pliey are a language i'or the soul ingeniously expressive 
and s\\eet, and the musical drawing and riehness of accoi'fls show 
a iu)l)h' and classic make up. Meneleu (/ampos cannot he imitated in 
these iiilcrnicz-o pieces that he so ingeniously intei'calates in his 
greatest works. In his luinucilcs and syinphonics ho sometimes hides, 
like Xapomucent) the originality of jiopular themes, handling' and 
transmuting them so heautiful as he does in the Miniatura dedicated 
to the Para ladies; sometime he thi-ows himself to spontaneous stream 
of the inspiration as he did in the Mtuchn Fiinebrc, dedicated to the 
memory of Carlos Gomes, or yet in the (Joracs, a thick, rich, liar- 
nKtnious music, in which we cannot say what is more beautiful, if 
the beauty of the melody of thouglit, or the greatness of the harmo- 
nious cheeking. In oui' opinion INIeneleu Campos is one of tlie most 
inspired musicians of Bi'azil. 

h'uANcisco Bii.vGA. — Here is another 
much applauded name. He is a man of a 
sympathic figure and he knew how to make 
room for himself in the arena of the struggle 
for life, having no other means of defenee 
hut is talent. 

He is a born musician and has vocation 
for that art. He prefers the orchestral mu- 
sic for his productions , having produced 
and executing in public concerts some bean- 
tifid symphonic pieces, poems, ouvertures, 
('Ijisodes. He was born in liio de Janeiro 
where he i-eeeived his musical edueation. 
He ^\■ent also to Paris to continue his stu- 
dies under the direction of Massenet. 

He com])osed in that city several pieees 
which were played in two concerts : Caii- 
r/icHia;- symi)honic prelude ; l^aysnge , symphonic poem, both for 
orchestra; Marioniwiics , gavotte (wliicli is known all over the 
world); Prierc, Miiuicllo for quartette. He produced also while 
tliere : Lc lever ; I'J.xlasc ; Declaration; (Jhan^on; Seremuh' loin- 
laiiie , foi- singing. Sehei'zn ; Valse roninntuiue ; Mini; Melaneo- 
lia, for i)iano. /^();»;/;(rr; (^liansoii (/'.l ;(/o;)i/i(' , for violoncello ; and 
man\' othei'S. 


— 117 — 

In Giormany he composed : Brazil, solemn maveli Tor martial 
band : .l/;(/';i/);i, symphonic ])ocm i'or orchestra; A iilvidc , (ov qiiar- 
tetto ; Ohl si tc Hinei ! ; DA-inc ;/.s pctnlns de i-osa , romance i'or 
singing, and his first opera .lupyra. 

In Dresden several of his pieces, which the musical critics 
referred to in the highest terms were executed in several puhlic 
concerts in 18V>8. 

He is now awaiting the opportunity (o put on the stage of the 
Imperial Theatre of Munich, his opera Jupyin, which has already 
undei'gone the criticism of one of the first celebrities in Germany — 
the maestro Hermann Levy. This critic among other things said 
that his advice was : (c do not strike out a single note from this 
opera )> — so perfectly identified with the poem did he find it. 

Abdon Mm.anez 

MiLANEz (Dr. Ahdou Felinto). — 
Is pei'haps the most popular of all 
the composers of popular music. 
His compositions ai'e executed in 
every theatre of Brazil, as if he had 
promised to himself not to do any- 
thing else but write music for all the 
audiences and all tlie people of the 

He was born 10 yeai-s ago , in 
Areias, a modest city of Pai'ahyba 
State, which can be proud of having 
exported great artists for the other 
coi'ners of the counti'y. He distin- 
guished himself as a ]'ailway civil engineer having been graduated 
in the Polytechnical College of Rio de Janeiro, in 1881, he was in 
office several times, as land inspector, director of the emigration 
service, in Europe, and other capacities. To-day he is a Congressman 
representing his native State in the Federal Congress. 

His notoriety, as it is natural , was acquired mainly by the 
ins2)iration of his theatrical compositions, which were always execut- 
ed with success. He had already composed a large number of i)ieces 
that had become i^opiilar, wlien in 188H, his comic opera, in three 
acts Doiizclla Theixlorn ^^as snug in the SunrAnnn theatre in Rio. 
The music of this operette so light and oi'iginal A\as I'cceived with 
gicat applauses, and the success was coniplete. 

Encouraged by this triumph, and having become the idol of Bra- 

— UR — 

/.ilian audiences, he was iiisi)iT-e(l willi the full power of his noted 
humour and gaiety and wrote some (juite original plays : Ilcroe n 
forrn, eomie opera in three acts; ,4 Duma dc EspuduK, comit- opera 
also in three acts; Moemn, lyric drama in one act; () Bnrbcirinho de 
Sevilln, operette in three acts; the si)ectaeular nnigic plays : Flor de 
Mnio: A Fitdit A:ul ; () ISico dc J'ainiifnio, all in three acts, and sever- 
al other plays. All of them met with great success all over Brazil 
some being performed hundreds of times and some pieces from these 
comic operas are most popular and are executed all over in concert 
halls and whistled in the streets as a live expression of the race and 
of the people 's sentiments. 

With po2)ular music, no composer national oi' foreigner ever 
achieved such success in Brazil. 

lie is for tlu^ Rio theatres what Plan(piette was for the Parisian 
ones for many years, and Abdon .Milanez does not devote himself 
entirely to that light music. 

He also wrote for the Church and writing sacred music he un- 
dergoes such a transformation that one of his Te-dcuins is the one 
most fre(|uently heard in tlic Kio chuches. 

Here is a list of the musical works of this noted Bi'azilian ope- 
rette composer with the names of those wo wrote the words : Don- 
zella Thcndorn (3 acts), Arthur Azevedo; Ilcroc ;i Forca (o acts), 
idem; .1 Duma de Fspadas (I! acts), dr. Moreira Sampaio ; () Barbei- 
riiiho de Sevillui ('■') M'ts), K. CJarrido; Pintar o Padre (1 act), D. 
Castro Lopes; .1 Loieria do Amor ('■', acts); Coellio Xetto ; Xinon (Ij 
acts), I). Castro Lopes. Magicas — .1 Prineeza Flor de Maio (3 acts), 
E. Gai'rido; .1 Fada Azul (3 acts), idem; O Bico de Papagaio 
(3 acts), idem; .1 CItane do Inferno (3 acts), I). Castro Lopes ;.l 
Mosca Azul (3 acts), Valentin Magalhaes. Reviews — O Ze I'ovinho 
(3 acts), dr. Mnccnte Reis; Cornell '. (3 acts) Arthur Azevedo. Opera 
— Primizie (1 act). Heitor Malagutti. Draina with music — Moema 
('■> acts), ('orida Coaracy. 

Abdon Jlilauez has besides these plays composed a number of 
songs, romances, dancing and military pieces, etc. Some have not 
been published but they all have been often and often played and are 
(piite popular, which constitutes in a certain way the definite conse- 
cration of the musicians. 

Carlos dp: Mksqiti'a. — Has a long list of compositions and an 
opera l-lHrnernlda. Besides him we have yet a number of others : 
Henrique de ^lesquita who has composed so much music for the 


Dclgado (Ic Cai'vallio a 


Stage, gay pieces in tlie OITenljaeli style 
grave composer ol'liigli music wlio wrote a short opera Ilostin and 
another one Moeimi both of which were snceessi'ully sung in Kio de 
Janeiro. Tliere are yet A. Vianna Pacheco, Barroso Xetto, Nicolino 
^[ilano and many othei's, who 
are musicians ot great merit 
sustaining the good name that 
in tlie world ol' Art Carlos Go- 
mes won lV)r Brazil. 

It is well known abi'oad 
that, outside ot Europe, the 
only country that succeeded in 
having an o^^era ot its own 
performed all over the world 
in the leading cities, was Bra- 
zil with that tamous and ma- 
gnificent Carlos Gomes' opei'a 
« Gunrnny ». 

The cultivation of music as 
-s^ell as of other liberal arts is 
maintained with care. The go- 
vernment supx:ioi-ts officially Music and I<'ine Arts institutes in Rio 
de Janeiro, and some of the vState Governments of this licpublic fol- 
low the example, and this explains the number i-elatively large of 

good artists to be found in Bra- 
zil. In this regard no other South 
American country comes near 
this republic. 

* * 

We will now speak of the Bra- 
zilian Sculptors : 

The place of honor belongs bj' 
I'iglit and in fact to Kodoi.piio 
Berxardelli , the celebrated 
sculptor who has populated with 
statues the capital of Brazil, ^fhe- 
re are here in Rio and elsewhere 
statues made by European artists 
of reputation, for lai'ge sums of 
, yet c(mfronted with the work of this Brazilian they do not 
that preference and are not in anytliing supt'rior. 

RoDOLPHo Blrnakbelli 


— 120 — 

licnardclli was Ijorn in IS-'i:.' and in 1870 lie entored the Fine Arts 
Ai'udeiiiy of Rio. Three years later lie had exeeiited his first work — 
Dui'id, soon allerwards lie scul])tui-ed a Sniuhidc <ht Tribii and 
A'csjii-rihi, i)oth of wliieli received ]irizes at the Pliiladelphia Exposi- 
tion. In 1<S7() he earned a prize annually i;i\'eii to the best student 
of tlic A<'ad('iiiy whicli prize eonsisls in going- to iMirope to eonlinue 
the studies at tlie governnienl expenses. lie sta,\ed nine years in 
Kiiroiie i)erreeting himself and jiroducing. 

On his return he executed a inonuniental grou]! (^hristo c a iidiil- 
tern, which belongs to the Academy, and the Ffivcirn which excited 
the art critics Mith enthusiasm. Later he sculi^tured Sanio Estcoam, 
and three statues: Osorio, Alciu:;tr and Dikjuc dc (^nxias, all of 
which are to-day in Rio's jjublic squai'cs, all of them of bronzt' and 
two of them, those of Generals Alencar and Duque de Caxias, on 
hoi'scljack. His last work is that magnificent group in bronze, 
representing tlie discoverers of Hi'azil inaugurated dui'ing the festi- 
vals of the celebration of the fourth centenary of the discovery of 
Bi-azil. Tliis work of art by itself is enough to give him the great 
name as an artist he has and so I'ichly descu'vos. 

Bernardelli is fond of naturalism, 
ill art; in his work he jilaees himself 
at the disposal of the plain truth and 
he doesn't deviate from this happen 
^\•hat it may: 

His statues are always a theme for 
discussion among the critics, whom, 
as it is usual, ne\er agree in their 
(}pinions as to the artist. The sculptor 
doesn't pay any attention to them. If 
such an hero used to mount his horse 
in a manner that was not correct, he 
reproduces him just so in the bronze; 
if another liad his stomach distended 
some^^■llat more than it is idealized by 
the standard fixed by the legends for 
their idols, lie cares lit lie for that, he 
rounds the marble true to his model. 
And as to convencionalism, \Nliieh is 
a criterion foi' the art of the crowds, 
that expands itself in reprox al ions, in strong criticisms in the iiews- 

l)a])ers Ic pnpivr .^u)iiffrc loul. 

Notwithstanding all that, Hernai'delli has also his admirers, 

li. Ill iiN.VDhi.i.i. (.'/ii-i.sto c .1 :i(liillerii 


and, besides, nobody can refuse his title as a genius aTrirmed by 
imniortal bronze statues. 

The list of works exeeuted liy tliis Cirst. ol' lirazilian scu]j)t()rs is 
a long- one. Besides all these statues to be seen all over tlie cily in 
itspublie squares, there are nuniljei'less low relief busts, medallions, 
and other works in bronze and marble seul])tured by him. Of late he 
exeeuted a statue of (Carlos domes for Cam])inas and two others of 
Teixcirn de Fi'eiins and V/.sco/n/e dc Maun for Rio. 

In Brazil artistie eireles Bernai'delli is the 
most respected personality of all the artists in 
the country. He has imposed himself by his 
talent and if he is not a millionaire lie can say "^ ' 

as Emerson did : real pride is worth an inco- 
me of £ 1.50U. 

CoRKEA Li.^rA. — This name is another 
document of Brazilian Fine Ai'ts cultui'e. Is 
a revelation and a promise. He has tin,' sense 
of the beautiful and by enei'getic work has 
acquired the suvoir fnirc of the stadptor, who 
perpetuates himself, bjr perpetuating others 
in his mai'ble. 

The certificate of his genius ^\■as seen in the Uio l''ine Arts Exhi- 


CoKiiKA Lima. — Muter Duloroxit, bcluugiiig lo llie l-'iiii' Arls liisUliile. 


bitidii, wliei'c lie cxliiliited liis bi-oiizc statue Pu^v powerful in its 
natural expression. 

C'ori'ea Lima is one ol the most lieautil'ul and Ijest defined artis- 
tic personalities of South America. Though (juite young lie has \>y 
himself ac(juired the I'cpiitation of a superior artist. He was a jjupil 
of Bernardclli ami freipiented the Fine Arts College in Rio. He was 
horn in the Slate of liio, in the small city of S. Joao Marcos, in 
1878. He followed the full course of that college during three years 
and it was a surjjrise, not only for the puhlic, hut even for his college 
mates and professors, the cxhiljition of his work in marble « Rc- 
inorso » wlii(di won foi' him the prize of a trip to Europe at the 
expenses of the Government. NMiilein Rome he developed a fever- 
ish activity, piixlucing among other woi'ks the « Prisionciro » a 
great ^^ oi-k in bronze, where he exliibited liis independence and self 
individuality (jualities, well evident in a nioi'e oi' less vivid manner, 
in all his works. 

Jn the Fine Arts expositions of l'.)01, 1002 and 11»0;j!, in Rio, he 

won the first prizes with 
his works, Page, S. Joao 
Baptista, Rcmor.'^o and the 
Pcscadoi-, and others. 

His chief work of art, 
the one which won for 
him the celebrated repu- 
tation he enjoys was that 
painful group Mater dolo- 
rosa , a genial association 
of the classic ai't inspira- 
tions with the preoccupa- 
tion of natural art, full of 
emotions and truth. 

IjUuovico Rehna. — 
He is also a young artist 
and his name is being the 
object of articles in the 
technical periodicals and 
daily papers. 

LuDovico BiiiiNA Pie is an architect of 

talent. Tlie altar lie built 
for the Reniamin Constant church is a real gem of work in the go- 

tliic style worthy of great praise. 


Bn'TENroruT da Silxa. — 'I'lic antircd woi'kci' Dii'ectDr dI' tlie 
Arts and Trades Lyceum does not need any l)ei1er prool" ol' liis talent 
than the I'ront ol' the I'^xehange l^uilding. Tlie whole building;' is the 
product ol' the xturest Rcnnissnncc school, adding- to the nohility oi' 
its lines, the elegance ol' the decorative details. 

In Sao Paulo the Brazilian architects fill that city ^^■ith beautiful 
mansions, affii'iuing Brazilian advancement in ai'ts. In the North we 
can mention : 

Hans Schlkiaer, of Bahia. — He has had to struggle against tlie 
smallness of the centre where he lives, yet succeeds in impressing a 
sign of his renovating spirit in a few private buildings he has built 
up. His best works are the residences of Messrs. J. (Jama and (_'osta 
Santos in Victoria and that of Mr. V. Hassclman in ^'ictoria Scpiare. 
He also built the large business house of Deoc. Alves at Prin- 
cezas vStreet, the City Hall in Sao Felix and several others. He has 
also worked in several cities of Germanv where he now is. 

So USA A QUIA B (Fran- 
cisco Marcellino). — This 
is , no doubt the best 
known of Brazilian archi- 
tects and he is as well a 
C^eneral belonging to the 
engineering company of 
the Federal Army. He 
was born in Bahia. From 
his very youth hei'evealed 
notable (jualities as a mi- 
litary man and an aclmi- 
nistratoi'. He was for ma- 
ny years the Chief of the 
Fire Department in Kio, 
which is one of the best 
in the world, there being 
no equal t(j it anywhere 
else but in the United 
States. He was also at 
the head of the telegraph 
system of this conntry. Jn 


both of these offices he discharged his duties in a most clever w 


- 12+ — 

lie is a liii;'hl y (;<liu';it(!(l man a. ciillnred scioniisi and a lingnint wliich 
is ol' groat- liolp to liini w liilc on connnission in I'oi'oign lands, llia( ho 
lias done sevei'al timos i-oprosonting his oountry with great advan- 
tage, lie represented Brazil in the Chicago A\'()rld's Fair and in the 
vSt-Louis l<]xi)ositi()n. In this latter exposition, the Brazilian pavil- 
lion, as the American press said it, excelled those ol' all the othei- 
foreign nations. Sonsa Agniar has many aptitudes is a man of strong 
charactei' and superior mind. The feature that can most easily be 
appreciated by the i)eople is liis talent as an architect. He is now 
l)uilding a beautiful Palace for the Kio Xational Libi'ary, the Fire 
Dejiartment bari-acks, the St. Louis Fxposition building which was 
brought from the United .States. He has in project a building for the 
Xational Congress. We need not mention the Bi'azilian Building at 
the Chicago World's Fair which was a fine building. 

Sousa Agniar is in fact a great artist. His works are beautiful, 
original and np-to-date. 


Ramos UK AzKVEDO. 

— ( Francisco de Paula 
Uamos de Azevedoj is the 
nu)st notable ai'chitect 
from Sao Paulo of those 
living there to-day. He is 
an extraoi'dinai'y artist, 
lie lias built some 100 
buildings both public and 
private ones in the State 
of Sao Paulo. A\'e might 
say that it is to him that 
vSao Paulo owes its ai'clii- 
teetui'al transformation. 
Among the buildings he 
projected and built we 
must mention the Poly- 
technical college, perhaps 
the nicest in all Brazil. 
He himself is a professor 
of architecture. He also 
built the Secretary of 
iry's building and the one of the Agriculture's Secretary, 
Headquarters, Xormal college, Prudente de Moraes School, 

Kamos dk Azkvkiiu 

— 125 — 

Municipality Palace in Campinas, the large building of the Santos 
Docks Company in Rio, the Bray School, the Military Hospital, both 
in Sao Paulo, and many fine residences and some millionaires man- 
sions in Silo I'aulo. In a word, he is tlie most enthusiastic promoter of 
the intellectual and artistic movement in Sao Paido in the last few 
years. We had forgotten to mention the beautiful building of the 
Ifine Arts and Trades Lyceum, of which lie is the President and to 
the organisation of which he gave a x^ractical chai'acter, transfoi'in- 
ing the Lyceum into many shop works for artistic and industrial 

He is a good and patriotic man, clever and progressive^ in his 
ideas. He is also a philantro])ical man charitable and generous. He 
is to-day one of the most popular and respected men in Siio Paulo. 
Not long ago a joui'nalist writing about him said : « We know not 
a man in Sao Paulo with a bettei' heart or a sui)erior mind to liis. » 

Ol-lVKiRA Passos 

^ Oliveira Passos. — Son of the celebrated engineer and admi- 
nisti-ator Passos. He was born in Rio de Janeiro, but followed his 
studies in Germany where he was always distinguished as a good 

— 120 — 

Uclni'iiiiifi' to Brazil lie made his care(!v as an industrial man and 
an arcliitoi't 0('('up,\inj;' to-(la,\' a prominent place; among his 

In a competitive examination for the selection oi j)lans for the 
;Munici])al 'IMieatre his won the prize and wei'c selected, 'ilie huild- 
ins is nearh' finished and with it he made a name. 

Heitor ok Mello. — 
He -is a Brazilian archi- 
tect of recognised ability 
in the artistic circles of 
Tlio. He is a son of the 
late celebrated admiral 
Cnstodio de Mello. 'J'his 
young bnt already ^^■ell 
known architect was born 
in Rio in 187." where he 
made his first studies. 
Afterwards he travelled a 
good deal in Europe and 
returned to Rio where he 
followed the Fine Arts 
College course, v^ith high 
distinction graduating as 
an architecl, a diploma 
not easily obtained in 
that college. 

Heitor de Mello has 
ever since devoted him- 
self to his pi'ofessional work with enthusiasm and has built some 
most beautiful buildings , as the Xavy Infantry barracks and many 
private mansions, being worthy of mention some l)eautifnl l)uildings 
in the Avenida Central. 

Heitor de Mello I'anks to-day with the best of his class and is had 
as one of the ahlest. His works recommend him by its strong features 
that bring forth harmony, distinction and novelty. 

lltlTOIl DE MliLLO 

Paula Fueitas. — His name is connected \\it\rCanilflnria church 
in Rio. CnndrUiriii is the richest and most artistically built church 
in South America. 

PuiiUi Ficiliis ga\e the plans and executed (he architecture of its 

— 1'27 — 

intei'ior. lie also huilt the National Printing Office buildino- -with a 
most original front, popular already, liaving been, as it has, in 
mostly every magazine pul)lislied in the country. lie built yet the 
Goncnlncs Asylum at S. Christovani square and other buildings. 

Let us now write about Brazilian artists — the ])ainters. 

Xot many months ago Brazil lost his most celebi-ated artist whose 
renown did not limit itself to Brazil, being univei'sal. He was living in 
Europe at the time of his death. His name was Pedro Aincrivo. 

AuKELio UE FiGUEiREDo. — He is Pedro Americo's brother and 
is also a painter. He is untired with his brush and most audacious 
in the coloi'ing, alive and bright in the whole make up. He cultivates 
with success historical themes. He paints with ease and on all sub- 
jects, landscape or any other. According to the art critics his best 
work is his painting Paulo e Fnuiccscit whei'c the fundamental (jua- 
lities of an artist ai'e in evidence. 

Nearl,^' every one of his paintings ai'e in Rio in (he hands of 
amateurs, in public buildings, a few in the Fine Arts College and a 
few others in Buenos Ayres, Argentine! I{ei)ublic. His two last paint- 
ings « .1 (k'scoberta do Bnizil » and « Uin vajiitiilo da hinloria pallia » 
are, one, in the Pi'esident's ])alace, and th(> other in the House of 
Deputies wliei'C the congressmen meet. 

RoDOLPHO Amoedo. — One of the most fa- 
mous of the Brazilian artists, having, not- 
withstanding, dev^oted himself to a most dif- 
ficult kind of work — historical painting. This 
does not mean that he has not d(^ne some other 
kind of work because he has painted quite a 
number of landscapes , marine pictures and 
others, but history is his favorite style and in 
that line has produced far more than in all 
others. He belongs to the new generation and 
was born in Rio de Janeiro. 

His artistic education began at the Arts and Trades Lyceum, of 
Rio, continued at the old Fine Arts College and he perfected his 
studies in Europe, where he went at the government expenses, 
having received the prize offered yearly by the Fine Arts college. 

His paintings Tamoyo, Maraba and others representing 
Brazilian history subjects, belong to-day to the State Government 

IlODOLpuo Amokdo 

— 128 — 

are str(in<;' (evidences ol' his prowcrful iusiMi'atioii and ])atri()tisui as 
well as iynv works of arl. .1 Moric dc Abel is aiiotlier i)ainting- with 
which i;o(h)lph() Aiiioodn answered to tlie chissh' tendencies of his 
surroundinsis at tlie time he did that work. 

U. Amolixj. 

.1 inii-ruilio (le P/iilvtus: hrliiinjiin! lo llie Hio Museinil. 

The best reputed of all his works, however, is ,1 Narraciio de 
Philcicts, celebrated paintin<;' ae(|uii'ed also by the government for 
the collection of the State ^luseuni. The softness of the lines, the 
I'elief of tlie figures, the subtile ])oetic sentiment of the scene in this 
painting, give altogether a I'eal and harmonious coloring. This 
picture is considered the geiu of all those at the official Art Gallery. 
Rodolpho Amoedo is minucious in the anatomic study of the 
figures, — as it must be done in historical painting, — and lie 
knows how to place them in position with artistic taste and as a 
niastei' will. He seems to possess the secret to do it with pei'fection. 
Add to these virtues the complete control of the brush and jiaints 
for the soft marvels of the coloi'ing and there I'emains explained the 
success of this artistic celebrity, to-day professor of the Fine Arts 
College where he was once a student. 

Amomo Pauhkuias. — Born in Ivio de Janeiro, had as his teacher 
the celebrated German landscape painter Jorge Grimm. Eut it 

— 12!) — 

seeius that al)()vc liis ])r()i'cssc)r lio lovod (liis inarvullous nature of 
Brazil. He has ahondoned a lonj^- time ago the style of his teaclier 
and created an independent individuality of his own. The landscape 
will however continue to be his 
love, his inspiration. At present it 
would be difficult to find a lauds- 
cape artist so faithful, with such 
adoration and care for the repro- 
duction in his pictures of the trees, 
the woods, the mountains, with 
such delicate coloring;- copying tlie 
charming pieces of scenery tliat 
nature in Brazil offers to the artist. 
He knows how to see his original 
and how to fix it in his painting. 

His monumental painting Scr- 
tanc'JHii, is in one of the drawing- 
rooms of the President's palace. 

He has a large number of smaller 

Antonio Parreiras 

paintings , which are disputed by 

the experts in art. They are , most all of theju , pieces of Brazilian 
scenery. The painting A DeiTubaihi, which was sold for a high price, 
is one of the most beautiful ones as it is the one — Ventania, — botli 
of which will some day adorn some celebrated art gallery. Some of 
his beautiful paintings decorate the walls of the Court Room at the 
Rio de Janeiro Supreme Court. 

EoDOLPHO Chaafbklland. — Rodolpho Chambelland is an artist 
of reputation, though he is quite a young man. He was l)orn in Rio, 
and received his artistic education at the National Fine Arts College. 
He became popular by exhibiting paintings of Rio scenes at the 
Fine jVi'ts College every year with greater success. One of these — 
a A'Sahida do Bailc » (Leaving tlie ball) won for him the prize of 
one year's trip to Europe at tlie Governments expenses. Another 
canvas which won a great triumph for him was tlie « Ar Ijivre » 
(Baohantes em festa) exhibited at the annual Salon of Rio in 1004. 
According to a critic, who is not a very lenient one, ^\■hat distin- 
guishes Chambelland is the harmony of his compositions, always 
original, with excellent effect of light and dark liglit, tlie free move- 
ment of the figures, the landscape always broad and well illuminated, 
the happy perspectives, and the fine sky, which ])roves the neatness 

— 130 — 

111' liis liriisli, and (liu aXIcniioii In; jiays to tlic! iiiimitest oi' details. 
Uddolpho Oliaiiibollaiul is l)csidos all that a hard worker, producing 

liOIKllJ'lKI (',IH\nii;].].ANIl 

a go<id deal, a])pcaring in all cxhiliitions of line arts, held \-early 
at the C'ldlege where he is always sure (o win the hesl pri/.es though 
he has eonipetilors of great merit. 

IIenrkjuk BERNARDELia. — Ts also one of the most noted eulti- 
vatoi's of ]iure art in Brazil. At the service f)f a legitimate artistic 
temperament he has a solid intelleclual cuUi\ati()n, and as a result 
of that we see tlu; superiority of his work among wliicdi we recom- 
mend the fresco paintings of the ceiling of tlie Musical Institute 
Hall. Among his most ap])hiuded j)aintings is the 'ruruntelhi , a 
sti'ong study on hahits and customs, of gay coloi'ing and irreprehen- 
sible ex(M'ulion, Mcdihiiulo, Syri;!, Riiimis vm Rnovllo, nostalgic 
landscapes, of soft coloring. (!;is:is l>j-;inc;is, Pi-;ii;> dc Cnpiiciibunn, 
are delicate landscapes because of their subjects, but lliey were 
treated by a sti'ong and warm brush, -wluch leaves in the picture a 
bi'ight impression of life, atti'acting and palpitating. 

i:il — 

Hut landscape is not tlie only 
style in Avliieli H. Bernardelli re- 
veals liiniseli' as an artist and a 
creator. The intellectual history of 
Brazil has charms I'or him and in- 
spire him most enthusiastically, ^^'e 
see that in his paintings Jose Mnii- 
ricid dcantc do Rci whose pictures 
have the animation of real life ; o A - 
h'ijivlinho (the cripple) in our opi- 
nion to the latter in the disjiosition 
of the figures, in the ensemble and 
in the coloring ; the Exiase, that 
seems an introduction to the sym- 
bolism in painting. It is a revolu- 
tionary painting, under the view 
point of classic art, and is a docu- 
ment of the audacious soul of this Brazilian artist 

llKNniQt'i; Beii.naiuii; 

Elyseu Visconti. — A student of the Xational I''ine xVrts College, 
studied also for some time in Europe. On his return lie presented 
some paintings that made a name for him among the most noted 
artists. He tackles all subjects and every style. Ho has worked on 
oil paintings, watei' colors, ])astel, religious and historical subjects, 
landscape, decoration and others. 

Drcio Vii.L.iRKs, artist of great merit; Zefevino da Costa, sacred 
l)aintei' whose talent is in evidence in the « plafond )> of the « Cande- 
laria » chui'ch ; rc;'/)^'';'(/77U'r, the insijired son of Rio Grande State 
whose paintings are so minucious in detail, so cai'ofidly treated 
and so patiently finished. They liave l)een all sold at high prices. 
.7. Biijitista and man\' others though not so j^opulai' as the above ai'e 
all artists that contributed considerably towai'ds the impulse Fine 
Arts have received in Brazil. 


Historical, Gkograi'Iiical, Commercial am) AnAUMsrKA'rivio Data; 

Description of Cities and Places worthy oe note, 

Chl'rciies, ^Iom'ments , etc. 


Once finished, as it is, in tlie precedini^- pages, tlie review of the 
Brazilian intelleetual world, we must now deal with the physical and 
political one in the complexity of their many aspects : — industries, 
commerce, public instruction, railroads, etc. What we are about to 
write, is the I'esult of jjersonal observation and study, dui'ing our 
travels all over the country, going from city to city. We will begin 
by tlie Xothern States. At the extreme north, as the doorway of 
this great nation we have the Amazon State, \\cll worth\- of the 
grandeui' of this beautiful country, being its northern boundary line. 

Dr. Constantino .\kiiv, govcriior of Amazon Slalo 

Just as Kio Grande does at the extreme South, the Amazon opens 
with a marvellous and ex(]uisite majesty its frontier to the new- 
comers from all over the world. 

As to its frontiers, Brazil has really much to thank (J-od for the 

— i;Ui — 

generous way it was treated while the distribution of natural 
greatness was made among tlie people of this planet. But this 
Anui/.(m region hus not as yet been exploited, (uily a small part of 
its territory and of its wonderful waters being dominated by man, 
by the Bfa/.ilians, we might say, as the Europeans seldom go there. 
Every (me of the explorers, scientists and travellers, who have pene- 
trated some of its thick I'oads, its endless rivers, come back 
astounded, and praise enthusiastically that infinite and calm wealth, 
that is waiting for the future generations, and spreading in flowing 

I)r SiLVEiuu Xi:iiv. eN-aovcnior (if Aina/.dii Stale 

stream, a variety of things, tliat cause the envy of men, through a 
territory larger than the majority of the diffei'cnt kingdoms of the 
earth. Its enormous surface surpasses that of I^]ngland, Germany, 
France, Italy, Holland and Belgium put together. 

This part of the Brazilian dominion, taking the name of a river, 
the largest river in the world, I'endered a poetic demonstration of 
homage to the most powerful abyss of fresh water that there is on 
this i^lanet. It is impossible for us to rejieat here what Humboldt, 
Agassiz, Condreau, Osculati, Wallace, Castelnan and many others 
have said about the Amazon. The trip alone from Belem, the capital 
of Para State, to Manaos, the cajjital of the Amazon State, is in 
itself a panoi'ama tluxt can't easily be forgotten. We made this tri]) 
once and we \\ ill n(;ver stop bringing to the eyes of our mind the beau- 
tiful images of that magnificent scenery. On the 31st of July 1902, 

— 137 — 

OB board of a steamer Hying at its stern the Brazilian I'lag, (( 
Alaii'Dus )>, we sailed from Pai-a, in tlie direetion of Mamios. It was 
live o'clock in the afternoon and (lie weather was splendid hright 
and not too warm. 

We had to sail some UOO miles. A short section of that colossal 

1'he mute i-iverside landscape is of itself i^erfectly charming', but, 
bending over the deck railing we were completely wrapped up in the 
contemplation of the whole scenery, a synthesis of unseen coloi-ing 
and liiilit (diano'es. 

View ol llio town of Maiiaos. 

Until we reached the bay of Marajo, the steamer was crossing a 
large moving surface of pacific waters, shining and clear as a 
looking glass, from the bosom of which were brought forth green 
streams of a loving and solemn vegetation : gay and round islands, 
quite wet, as coming out of tiie bath, otliers syinetric in their green 
dresses, but an even green, thick, without shades treated as if with 
Z;; Those particles of tranquil land, are sown liere and 
there but a little every where, and sometimes they appear at the 

— ini! — 

i'ii;'lit, somrliines at the left, looking sometimes as if t)ie\' were 
eiU'ireliiii;' (lie steamer, oi' I'loatiiig anywhere as il' suspended between 
i]\c. light and (he moving waters. Wlien the boat seems to advance 
towards one ol' tliem, and makes eh)se bj' the contornation ol' tlie 
green silhouette, suddenly they divide themselves in t\\o, and we 
tlien see that they ^\■ere really two and not one. Tlie vegetation so 
full of damp and bright vigor, is understood in tlie inexplicable 
poem of its details, of its trunks and branches, of its epyphites and 


Kdiiarild liibi'ii'ii's .Vveiiiii' 

of its parasites. Bye and bye the islands seem to disapi^ear, tliey 
hide themselves from view. The boat runs swiftly and smoothlv in 
largo tracts of free sea, the sea-shore, the banks of the river, are 
far away, with a grayish color brought by the wet fog that vises 
between, and everytliing seems to soften in a vast and melancholic . 
silence, in a solemn solitude ol' tlu' spreaded out waters. And this, 
not because the banks ai'e desert. In a little while, \\'hen the rivei' 
Iteciunes nai'i'ower b\- the sudden emersion oi new islands — and 

— VM) — 

they are nnraberloss — • ayc discover here and tliere , spots argil 
coloi', noisy sounds iii tlie liai-nionious neutral green o! the ti'ees. 
l^hey ui'e the houses : — ^V brick I'aetory, a (( biwrucu ». Going- 
nearer Nve distinguish everything : — a del'iant factory chimney. 
Sheds covered with reddish tiles, or a zinc rooi house shining with 
the sun. When, through the thick islands, the boat reaches Marajo, 
the horizon I'uns again in circle, and a tired rest fluctuates upon 
the vast sheet of water ; there are no waves, there is no noise, one 

.--■„, ,,,»; -^iJ^^fflwHiiWltlHIl!!!^ 

Maiiaos. — Slale 's Treasurv and Receiver's odice 

would think we were before a ])icturc of the geologic period of the 
dominant waters. y 

The following day we ran early in the morning to the deck rail- 
ing, we wanted to see that sea-river, as very pi'operly they call it 
tliere. The Maraj(') bay has been left behind, quite far now, and by 
this time, the steamer was sailing already through new islands, new 
groups of islands, through extensive corridors, now wide, then nar- 
row, in that great maze of the Amazon river. 

\\'lu',ii i( lia|)i>cms tliat the <( Alaj^oas » runs softly a littl(; clnser 
1),\' (luc (if tlidsi'- islands, w hat liappciis at every moment, from the 
shi[i we viiw (listin<;-uisli \\'ith lull detail tlie dil'lerent kinds of vege- 
tables wliieli abound in the most variegated assortment of kinds, 
and llu.' tliin and (all gems of the niirilys and of the ussuhys are 
swiftly renuiining behind the boat. Some of tlie echoes of tliat live 
symplion\' of the forest reach our ears. With such points of refe- 
rence ^\ e re-enter in the conscience of tlie speed and tlie road that 
has been covered, b\it the more wc advance more waters appear to 
tliat re(piested vision. In tlie places where the i-iver becomes 
nai-i'ower, by the development of the islands spreaded all over, and 
wliicli never allow us to see tlie true banks of the colossal river, a 
thick sheet of algas luxuriant and impenetrable, together with 
trunks and branches of enormous ti'ces, ones intermingled with the 
othei's, close tlie watei'S in a longitudinal and endless line, opening 
evei'y now and then the breathers of the muddy igarapcs, melan- 
cholic ititruiu'is, of the fiiros in whose sinew s divagates the gi'ay and 
nostalgic iini<iiuiry. 

Each di\ ision of that maze is visited by the inontarias — as they 
call the small canoe boats used liy the humble inhabitants of that 
region, busy in the fishing of (he tui'de, the tasty jaraquy, the 
prime fish of the Amazon, the huiinarc, the acai-a<)-at<HU, the })acu, 
or of the ])opulai' lantbaquy. But the high i-oad is the streamy river, 
always mudd,\- and dirty, in spite of the poets singing phantasti- 
eally its crystaline watei's. It is that way that the unempeached and 
ti'iumphal Ixials, large and small, go on in their pilgrimage, 
nourishing the ever growing commercial ti-affic of the Anmzon 
States and neighboring nations. 

From among the steamers we will I'cfer to the gaiolas, steamers 
of a peculiar type, appropriated for the sailing in those waters. 
They are wide open, well ventilated, flat bottom. They are auda- 
cious and their nuni))er is large. They run in all directions the 
vast hydrographic net of the Amazon, cari-ying life, and civilising 
activitx' of the commerce, under the national flag, to the most 
hidden corners of the inhabited re<rion. 

A lai'ge number of them belong to the Mamios market, the 
majority, liowever, belong to firms of Eelem, cai^ital of Para. 

The Anuizon, we will repeat, is the great road, the only road of 
those wciilthy and immense I'cgions to the intercourse with the 
civilised world, '{'here are no railways in the state of Amazon, 
neither are thei'e even any carriage roads. There is only, and that 
in excess, a large sea of fresh water, noisx' and rapid, which, with 

— 1,11 — 

its many afriuents, lorms the most comiilete and stnpendons system 
of roads open to tlie eommunieation fui'v ol' tlie commoreial and 
indnsti'ial lil'e of to-day, 

The peculiarity of locomotion in this system, are the gaiolns, 
the affirmation of a deep human initiati\o in the enterprize of 
dominating the aquatic desert, the first document of the ability of 
the Brazilians, the shipowners of Para and jVmazon, for the 
achieving of that conquest of a world which is yet closed, a conquest 
that represents the most daring geogi'aphical feat of the century 
just ended. 

A Part of Ediiardo Kibeiro's Avenue 

That fleet, which has not as yet reached its possible develop- 
ment, is already this day the largest of the South-American conti- 
nent, and can only be compared to the other one that dominates in 
the north the other great river, the Mississipi. 

These boats navigate about 10.000 miles, transporting the great 
treasures of the Amazon — the rubber gathered in the many 
seringaes and sent to the ports of Manaos and Para wdiich exjjort it 
to markets of the whole world. 

Navigating in all directions , they take sometimes one, two, 

— 142 — 

Uirce inonlhs, i;<)iiig frdm burrncii (o h:irr;tr;i at tlie docks or stoi'age 
houses of the principal places, uiiloailiiij^' tlieir cargoes \\here the 
owners ol' tlu' svrinf^-ucs oel llieir provisions Irom so tliey can supply 
their men during the rubber liarvest. Coming down they call at the 
same places it it is time tt) receive the rubber already prepared. 

i^m.: . 

Jlaiiaos. — MonuiiiciU of oiiciiiny ul Annizoiius I'ivui' Ui the iiitLTiuiUdiial Trade 

These docks are wooden bridges sometimes ^vith a large wooden 
storago-i'oom called — bai'racao — . 

As this name of biirrncu or hiirrncao given to these establish- 
ments situated in the I'iver-banks can induce to a 1'alse notion, we 

— us — 

will state rig'lit here that they are no tents, as the word niight imply, 
but a shop and stoi'age-house, some o1' them with a house for the 
proprietor's family just with the same eoml'ort as the houses ol' 
farmers in Eui-ope. In the Pui'us and the Madeira i-ivers \\g can see 
many of these houses which would cause the envy exen of residents 
of many a city. 

But the ^-aiolas do not do all the traffic of this river. Nearly 
every week a steamer goes from North to South of the country. 


I'liblic Murkel 

from Rio de Janeiro to I'ara, and from there to the Amazon. Calling 
at Ceara, Piauhy and Maranhiio there is another line with a 
monthly steamer. Twenty English steamers are working, sometimes 
two and sometimes four a month, in this line, taking the Amazon 
I'ubber to the ports of New York, Havre, Liverpool, Hamburg, 
Lisbon and Oporto. There is also a steamshij) company belonging 
to the Portuguese liouse Andresen which is engaged in the same 
trade to New York, Liverpool, Lisbon and Oporto. 

— lit — 

Tims is (luii till; Ania/.on rci^ion is in i'l'cqticnl and swii'l contact 
with tlic principal Eni-opean and American j)()rts. 

Until a certain time, IStKi, the Amazon river was not open to the 
commerce of Ihe world, but in that year an Emperor's decree opened 
it to the tralTic of all flags, which, attracted by the wealth of that 
rcf^ion, began to explore il, slowly at first, but in large scale after 
a while. 

In ISii.", Agassiz, who xisited the mighty river, wrote about it : 
« In these waters, in which we met but two or three ships in six 
days, steamers and sliips of all kinds will go up and down and life 
will animate these I'cgions. d 

This prophetic assertion Avas realized, "t'o-chiy wo can't go up or 
down that river without meeting every sliort awhile some kind of 
boat, filled with people and loaded with cargo, running in all direc- 
tions. The local government sjjcnds annually 1.980 contos with 
subventions, in order to augment more and more the maritime 
activity of this region. 

Besides the Brazilian steamers, lai'ge and small ones, navigate 
these waters (Jorman, English and Italian transatlantic steamers, 
but it is right to say here that the majority are Brazilian 

To have an idea of the navigation traffic, we give here a table of 
the movement in JIanaos i)ort in I'.HJl. 


SI earners 696 

I.aiinches 3iS 

Tola! l.n^-i 


Sleaniei's 711 

Lauiielies 311 

Tnlal 1.022 

.\,\T1().\AL1TY OF TIIK BOATS : 

Brazilian i)03 

Knglisli 101 

Cieniian II 

llaliaji 9 

Tola! I.02i 


BraziliaTi 901 

Eiigiisli 101 

Geniiaii II 

llaliaii 9 

Ti.lal 1.022 

— Ii5 — 

If Agassis I'oukl verily to-day llic size oi liis i)i-e(lit'(i()ii, lio would 
liave no small surprise in looking at these Tiguros. 

This enormous development of the navigation in the Amazonic 
basin is fed nuiinly by the large producing eapaeity of the two States. 
The rubber production is worked by national laborers. 


Ediianlo llibeiru's Avenue — Comnieri'ial lioiisus 

Tjie Rtbhek. — 'I'lie ru))ber, serino-a, or ^-oinma chisiicn, is 
made of the juice of several trees of the Amazon valley as the nypho- 
nia clastic, syphonia cubuchu, jatropa elastic, hevca guyancnsix, 
syphonia raythidacariia, etc., the most common being the best — 
the havea and the syphonia clastic. They attribute to a catholic mis- 
sionary father Manoel da Esperanga the discovery of this substance 
of common use among Amazon inliabitants. He came to know it in 
his pilgrimages among those people and brought it to the knowledge 
of the civilised world. 

Later on, the astronomer La Condamine took it to France, i^re- 
senting on tliis subject, in 1745, a paper before the Paris Academy 

of Scioiices. Only later on the J<]nglisli thought about their India 

Tlu^ way to gather or extract the juice ol' tliO scrini^-ueirn has so 
ol'ten been described that wc will not take up the readers time 
with it. 

In the beginning the exploitation of that product was insigni- 
I'icant ; some '20 years ago, however, with the multiplicity ol' indus- 
trial applications , increasing as it did, the demand in Europe and 
Xorth America, the States of Para and Amazon began to develop 
in a large scale their forest industi-y, and the export of ^erin^a 
reached figui'es nevei' dreamt of. 

A fact must be accentuated most emphatically : It is most exclu- 
sively to Bi'azilian labor that this concpiest is due. It was the native 
laborer, mainly from the State of Ceara who penetrated more auda- 
ciously this mysterious solitude of the large rivers, establishing, 
organizing the « scrini^-iwn », the first base of the con(iuest for the 
universal intercourse, for the exx)loitation of that wealtliy prf)duct 
of the mighty I'iver region. 

vSome statistic data will reveal in a better and plainer manner 
the development attained : 


1858 a !8()-2. 
1803 a 1868. 
1877 a 1881. 



12. 280.. 5.32 

1887 a 1880 (throe jear.s) only llie porl of Mam'ios . 9.511.99-4 
1890 a 1892 id. id. . 

1893 a 1895 id. id. , 27.071.456 

An interesting table for the verification of the productive pro- 
gress and energy of the Amazon State is the following official sta- 
tistic : 

Rubber export from the Port op Man,\os : 

1881 . 

1 882 . 

1 883 . 
1 885 . 


I ..162 
2. til 



1891 . 

1 892 . 
1 893 . 


.3. 093 

1896 0.827 

1897 fiisl six nionllis . . . 4,285 

From that time on the production 

)ws a constant x)POgress. 

According to official declai-ations the production in the Amazon 
State alone in 1000 was 11.581.880 kilgrs., in I'.iOl, reached 
16.851.oi;> kilgi's. of the three (jualities, fine, scrnniuby and caiicho. 

Yet, the reader must not bo led by these figures to think that 
rubber is the only product of the exploitable wealth of the Amazon. 

In the following table, from a reliable publication, we will see a 
full variety of goods exploited at present by the Amazon people 
exported from the p(n't of ^Nlanaos. In this table are excluded goods 
that come from neighlioring countries, and pass in Manaos only in 
transit increasing its commerce. "We will afterwards give a table 
of those goods in transit. 

Goods produced by the Amazon .Statu in 1001. 

Entering' S;iiling 

the port fidiii tlic port 

Riibbt>f « liiia )> .... kilos ll.89;i.2:!7 9.!I87.I79 

Rtibbcr « scrtiaiiil))" )) . . .> 2 2:il.i.>5 I.873.5i7 

Utibbcf « caitcbd » . . . » 8.798.0"29 •!..'i9ii..WC 

Pifafaot'i dfi(?a salleil lisli . » 489. 85i 34.5.050 

Ttibacco » 57.8.>2 — 

Copahyba ail » 7.394 9.182 

Dt'er skitis » 2.489 2.478 

Cattle skins » 5.351 1.53.077 

Cocoa » 60.701 55. .525 

Piassava » 210.016 180.099 

Com » 1.750 — 

Giiaran;i » 678 678 

Jutaliysica » 13.185 18.320 

Puxui-y » 822 167 

Pai-sclcy » 405'' 260 

Preciutis sliells . . . . » 82 — 

Sbeep skins » 6 1. 628 

Pig skins » 14 — 

.Skins » ll'9 180 

Cafajuni » 5 5 

Murure » 8 — 

Cnmani « 7 28 

Tticnin » iO — 

Bifds featliei'S » 3™ 9X"'" 

Mixii-a tins ,50.5= 251 

Biiltoi- litre li4 3.697 

Lumber latbes dozen 2.400 — 

Lumber boards .... metre 128.989 41.512 

Cliesltutts Itecl. .37.069 .37.666 

Due to this varied and valuable production the Amazon State 
can already take the third place among the different States of 
Brazil that export the most, comes right after Sao Paulo and Rio 
de Janeiro in the following proportion : 

ExiH)RTS fr():m I'lii': i'kimip 

Slid Paulo .... 
liid (lu ,l:iii(.'ir(i (ciiiiilMli 
.\niiizon:is .... 



vi; St.vtes of Bk,4zil IX 1901 

. . .■501:7G8$493 

. . i:i->:92(;.?72.3 

. . i)0:08.'3$-iy.5 

. . 76:0o2S5fl7 

. . 61:686.$764 

The total of exports and imports Irom and into the Amazon 
Slate in V.HXA \vas lOlt.OOU : OOOsOOO. 

.MaiKKis. — (iai'ileii nl' llic Cuvcniur's Palace. — The \ side 

Tlie goods in ti-ansit through Manaos, coming from Bolivia and 
i'eru in ISUl was ; 

Kiililier II liiia )> . 
ill. (I Kxlra-lliia » 
ill. II Seriiairihv » 
id. II Gaiirlio )» . 

Pia.ssava .... 

Deer .skins. . . . 

Tubaeeo .... 

(^hili hals .... 



84.1. 8H6-' 

2. 844. 886-' 







5 1.2.- 2 








— 149 — 

The products ol' the Amazon State exported in LSUl paid to tlie 
State Treasury : 

Exiiorl duties i.j.207:.460$5"29 

Taxt's for Maiiaos Excliaiiye. , . , 3li:.469$057 
Slorage 1 43:9 1 7$ 1 82 

The rubber exported during the year of 19U1 had the folhiwing 
destination : 


" Fine •) « Sernamby » (■ Caucho -> 

Para 163. 1G7:' 22.400 l!3..-i78 

Kio lie .laueii'o ... — — — 

Havre 600.480 94.3ri6 315.076 

Liverpool 3.772.5.30 607.1.58 1.639.037 

Hamburg 64.950 11.371 6.332 

.New York 5.386.040 1.137,962 1.513.943 

9.987. 179i 1.873.547 3.490.566 

The Climate of the Amazon. — The Amazon is one of nine 
States of Brazil where there are Indians yet to-day. Tliese primitive 
inhabitants of Brazil are disappearing at the proportion that the 
natives of Ceara and other Northern States penetrate into valleys 
and accessible forests. And this beneficial invasion grows larger 
every day. Then it is not true, as they say, that the climate of this 
region prevents the existence and the extending of the population. 
Most assuredly this is not so. The expression — torrid region — 
doesn't mean anything but a geographical pai'adox for a long time. 
The « unbearable heat of the tropics. » in what concerns that 
region washed by the great brazilian rivers in the northei'n part of 
the country, it is a legend, a fiction that remained from the stories 
told by the travellers of old, and that proves the truth of that French 
saying : .4 beau mcniir qui uLeiit de loin 

The heat in this region is neither in excess nor is it constant, we 
say that a result of our own experience having been there for a 
whole summer month. The great surface in evaporation, formed by 
several currents of water of that hydrographic system, the prevailing- 
winds during the summer season, besides other causes, explain the 
relative mildness of the climate and normal tempei'ature, reasonably 
bearable of that region. 

The learned Maury, whose statements on such subjects can't 
be but respected, assures that : « there is always there (in the Ama- 
zon) a pleasant weather, in spite of frequent showers in certain 
seasons. » 

By its turns, one of the men who treated with more sei'iousness 
the Amazon subjects wrote in a book which deserves the respect of 

-^ 150 — 

being considered authority : '< The lieat is strong, l)ut never as in 
Xe^v-^■or]■:, oi' even in rorliigal or Spain where tlic; men working in 
tlie J'ields are suiTocated hy it. » And I'urtlier on ho adds tliese woi'ds 
written by Herbert Sniitli who travelled tlirough a large part of this 
region : <( I went all through the Amazon during I'oui- years and never 
liad a fever, yet I caught it in Ohio, in the United States wlierc I 
was but three days. Tt is about time to put an end to these fancy tra- 
diti<ms, it is about time to tell the truth, repealing firmly these false 

Mmi];'ii)S. — ('.:illii_'(lr;il cImii'cIi and S(|iiai'o 

notions, admitted and repeated, about the climate and health in 
tliese regions. 

The Barao de Marajo, who registered therraometric observa- 
tions, during several years, about the climate of ^lanaos, observa- 
tions made \\ith all care three times a day, asserts that he never 
obtained annual averages of more than 21)", o() or 2()",87 what can, in 
no way, be compared to that temperature that two years ago we had 
occasi(ui to feel in Buenos-Ayi'es, when the many cases of insolation 
caused the suspension of work in the sti'eets, men and animals fall- 
ing dead in the capital of the Argentine Republic. 

— 161 — 

In tlic siiiiiiiK'r of I'.lOl, ill Now York in oiio siuglo day died over 
loo people, because of tlie high degree oT leuiperaturc. ^Iiiiuios, as 
well as Belem, caiutal ol' Para State, is another patient \ietini ol' 
the teiTil'ie legemls of the geographers who sit at their desks all the 
time, as insolation is unknown there. Thei'O is, to he sui'o, a smnnier 
season, and it is hot, but Ironi that to the deseriptions ol' certain 
bonlc'unrd informants there is a world of difference. Dr. L. Cruls is 
right wlien he says : « The Amazon climate has been and is much 
injured. » 

In ^Nlanaos after the many improvements tliat j)lace has gone 
through, the malarial l■e^'el•s are becoming more and more scarce every 
day, and the few cases that appeal' are far milder. The same fact is 
observed in other small cities of that State. As to the I'ivers, nothing- 
will affirm plainer theii' present sanitar\' conditions than the great 
number of I'ural establishments, the Storage liouses. Stores, resi- 
dences, which appear every day at the banks of the navigated I'ivers. 

AVe will yet present the testimony of a man \\lio has sjient ten 
years in that region and who I'esides and has business there. He 
wrote to us, not long ago thus : « The rivei'S I knoW' in my constant 
travels as the Taranaca, an affluent of the .Jnrua, (or .Jurui'a, or 
Hyurua) and the Envira, affluent of Turauaca, as well as other 
smaller ones, affluents of the .lurua, enjoy a most healthy climate, 
and we notice there very few cases of malarial lexers and absolutely 
no cases of beri-beri. In the rivers Muru and Acuran, affluents of the 
Tarauaca, and in the Jurupaiy, Diabinlio and other affluents of the 
Envira, when there ajjpear any cases of malarial fevers they ai'e 
I'elatively mild and are easily cured. 

Between the months of May and .Tune and some years in July a 
inetereological phenomenon takes i^lace causing a cool season very 
well known to those living in that region. It consists this pheno- 
menon in a sudden fall of the teinjjerature during three or four days 
in which the thermometre accuses depressions woi'thy of a Euro- 
pean winter. But that is a passing thing, though sometimes repeated 
with persistence. Our friend Carlos A. Xoli assures us that one year 
when he had to ex])erience, in the Envira rivei', the disagreeable repe- 
tition of the cold phenomenon, he suffered afterwards a rigorous 
summer and his tliei'mometre reached to otj degrees in the shade. 
But wliat are those ■)H degrees compared with the infernal summers 
in Buenos Ayres and Xew York. 

We must now publish a few of our notes, jotted down during our 
travels, on the life of the residents in the banks of tliose rivers. 

Those who travel in the Amazon and its tributaries will find in 

— ir)2 — 

tlie banks, Iicrc and lliorc, Sdinc l)iiil<lin};'s siil •^■citeris built I'ariiif;' 
th(^ rivc'i-, \\ itb their woocb'ii bi-i<ljirs, and sonic small canoe, or iiion- 
titrin as tlicy call i(, aloiij^sidc^ of it. 

It is the hnii-uin of Ihe nibber mannractui-i'|- « the s('rin<j;uciro » 
The bnildino- of the proi)rie(:Ors is all made ol' \s'ood — and coxered 
\\ ith pachiuba leaves. M'lie paebiaba sometimes give trunks of 20 to 
'2~i feet in length and these cut in boards of some 15 to 25 centime- 
tres thickness also are used for the walls of those buildings. Many 
houses are covered with boards of the same pachiuba, others are 
covered with zinc, as there are very few tile factories and common 
tiles are sold at very high prices. In the upper Jurua, the cedar trees, 
so abundant in tbe neighboring woods substitute the palm trees for 
such uses. The houses and burnicHs of tlie sci'iiiii-iiciri)s who are 
poor, are ordinarily covei-ed with sti-aAV, most ah\ ays furnished Ijy 
X^ahn tree leaves, but in preference by pachiuba, urucury, jacy or 

^^'e have been i-ather long writing about the Jurua river and its 
affluents , because of its being one of the ti'ibutaries of the great 
basin, the one most noted our days, as the seat of an extraoi'dinary 
pi'oduclive po^\■el■, attracting (o i( nu)s( energetically the scrin^'iiei- 
/■o.s, the rc'f^-nldes (ambulant merchants going from place to place in 
small boats) the (■oniiiiis-UDycigvars, and even the tame Indians, who, 
once in a Nxliilc, rcai)])ear to do business. 

On the other hand, these details are good to document the pro- 
gress realized in those regions. Twenty years ago there were hardly 
10 houses in the .lui'na river and the l\ii'auaca, the most impoi'tant 
of its arilnents, whose course was then almost unknown. Even IJarilo 
(h^ Marajci, whom I have rci'erre(l (o as the leai'ued geographer of the 
Amazon, in bsiNi wi-otc : « I t'an't say much about this I'ivei', because 
as it happens with so many others neither this one nor its tributaries 
have been propei'ly studied, it has hardly Ijcen exploited by tlie 
rubber makei's, and its botanical, zoological and mineral wealth has 
not lieen observed at all. 

Xothing less than .'JO nations, or Indian tribes, with more oi' less 
odd names, inhabited by that time the banks of the Hyapura, and its 
affluents, but at the projiortion that the enthusiastic i}iutiiin-inuiiiin{^) 
invaded the solitudi' of those I'cgions, spreading ai'ound the civilized 

Cj Miiliiiiinni/iim is llii' woi-d willi which lh(Mi]tliaiLS (hiilf-i'ivilizod ) dcsigiKile thi^ 
.Stii:iiiih(i:il, Mlhiilirij; In Ilic iiiiisr (ij" llii' cnyiiics. 

— I5:i — 

man, full ol' ambit ion, and tliii'slv I'or advcntui'cs, all thosi^ sava^'e 
crowds I'un a\\ay liidinj;- theiiiselvCK in the far away coi'n(!i's of tlie 
forest where, soon the in\'aders will surely t^'o to trouble them. 

Let us now see what these new landownei's have done, and the 
manner in which, .Furua with its suite of small rivers, contributes 
towards the country wealth. Here is a table of the pi'oduction in 1901, 
in the princii)al rivers exploited. 


RUIiBKR « F]NA )) 






Lower .\iiiaz(iiKi.s 




Rio Bi:iiiL-u 




» Ira Brazileii'd 




» .Iiinia 

S. 018. 561 



» .hnary 




» Jutaljy 




J) Madeira 



2 1 1.023 

» >'egi'o 

J) PuriLS 

i, 128.274 



» S(jliiiirie.s 



2.075. 127,--' 


We have spoken about the .Turua, which is one of the newest 
fields of the rubber exploitation. We will now write about the oldest 
of them the Purus. 

The exploitation of the Purus seringaes date away back, when 
the steamship service was introduced in the Amazonic Ijazin. 

A Brazilian who was an enterprizing genius and whose name often 
appears in connection with the liistory of the Brazilian progress of 
the last 50 years, Barao de Maua, was the initiator of the improved 
navigation in the king of rivers organizing a company under the 
name of a Companhiu de Xavegacno do Ainazonas ». The first 
steamers of this Company were called, Marajo, Rio Ne^fro and 
Monar-cha, and inaugurated their ti'ips in 18."j2. 

It was the Ei'azilian flag that won the glory of being the first to 
bi'ing the steamship navigation to those waters, as well as the glory 
of having established a regular traffic from port to poi't. But, as soon 
as the river was open to the commerce of the whole world, the 
Danes were the ones to initiate international I'clations with the 
Amazon. It was in 1874, on the 25th. march, that a sailing ship 
unfurling the Danish flag reached Manaos from Hamburg. In his 
book <c // delle Amazzoni » Sant' Anna Nei-y said : « The 

— 154 — 

impulse luul l)oen given; and on A]>ril (lie :i()Ui I'ollowing' an 
Englisli small steamer ol' r/.l.j tons sailed from Liverpool and inau- 
gurated the subsidied navigation, the promoter of that improvement 
having been Hritto de jVmorim, a Portuguese «. 

The Amazonic eolossal basin can easily be the reiidcz-vDiis place 
for the meeting of all the fleets of the whole world. It suffices to say 
that, according to Maury, it has an area of no less than 2.048. 180 
square miles. E. Reelus gives it a surface of .j.5!)I.O0O kilometres, 
and Elndan 2.722.000 miles. A\'e know of no other fkn'ial basin that 
could be compared with this. « The Mississipi one wich is the 
largest after the Amazon has only 984.000 square miles. The other 
ones like the Plate, the Nile and the Ganges, are much inferior. 

Some of the colossal rivers which are affluents of the Amazon, 
are little by little, being travelled by the northern pioneers — ambu- 
lant merchants and scrin^-ncii'os — but they are almost unexplored 
as yet. The Purus was the first exploitcsd. 

The conquest history of this tributary of the Amazon, bj' itself one 
of the greatest streams of water of this planet, it is worth a hymn in 
honor of the enterprising capacity of the northern Brazilians. The 
Portuguese knew of its existence and some committees went through 
part of its course. Later on the English audacious and broad minded, 
])aid it a visit and studied it. The Spanish descendant nations of the 
neighborhood also timidly navigated somewhat through it. 

But, none of them did anything in the way of calling to the civi- 
lised communion the wealth of that region. It ^^■as only some time 
afterwards that ]\Ianoel Urbano, one of the most finished types of 
the Amazonic persistency and audacity, made frequent trips exx)Ioit- 
ing the rubbei', the wealth of the forests at the river banks and then 
the active woi'k of the mxti\'es of Geara was trained to that wealthy 
and unexploited shores. Manoel Urbano at the head of natives of 
Para, in large numbers, and later on at the head of natives of Ceara, 
l)enetrated the river in different directions in search of rubber, and 
in a short while there appear numberless burracdcs all along the 
liver which were the beginning of the installation of small villages 
to-day transformed in beautiful cities, as Boa Vista, Aiiiiiaiy, Cami- 
tama, Bei'ury, Labrea, and others. Three millions of tons of merchan- 
dise, predominating the rubber, descend each year, to IManaos. The 
tnitochioneK trilie the hypuriiiHs, the most powerful of the Purus, 
which were also in the Acre, the capcchiiinna who lived in the inte- 
rior, and the cunainarys, so well known of the serinf^-ueiros, all of 
them were forced to hide themselves in the deej) interior abandoning 
the Purus and its valleys. 

— 156 — 

This curious river, united to the Amazon by no less uumher of 
luouths than I'ive, rorniing in its course hundi'eds of lakes, is exploit- 
ed in all its course, the seringueiro has been in eveiy inch ol' its 
banks. The ports at whit-li tlu' steaniei'S call are many and multiply 
themselves, and civilisation is going up penetrating in the afi'luents 
on both sides. The trip I'rom Manaos to the Upper-Pnrus takes 
(iO days and ovei' 50 steamers, all of them Brazilian, not counting 
the steamlannches and small sailing boats, are sailing up and down 

Manaos. — A pari of Eduai'do Ribeiro's Avenue 

the river. This gives a good idea of the importance of the explora- 
tions that have been made. 

What makes the Purus i-iver more noted is its tributaiy — the 
Acre river. 

It is untired civilising task the Cearense has for some years domi- 
nated the exploitatiim of these regions on the North-East of the 
Amazon, called Acre. This region was for a long time in disjjute but 
was j)eacefully settled with Bolivia. 

^ ir.(! — 

'^riie ([uestion iicai-ly br(iiif;li( aJ)()ut a war between Bolivia and 
Hra/.ii, but thanks to the \\isih)ni of Barao do Rio Brant;o's dijjlo- 
maoy and to the patriotism of the Brazilians the Aei'e makes jjart 
to-day of the teri'itory o! Brazil. The exit oT this question owes 
mueh to Plaeido de Castro who, when Bolivia claimed Acre as its 
territory, \\as at the head of the revolution on the Brazilian side, 
and I)r Sylverio Nei'y, govei'noi' of the Amazon. 

We referred above to the Cearenses that emigrate from their na- 
tive State to the Amazon region. And th(\v do not I'orni the wlnde of 
the total that immigi'ate into these two states Pai'a and Amazon, 
many go from other northern states, ilany thousands of passengers 
enter the port of Manaos yearly and the number is increasing all 
the time. In ISViT the number of them was 2O.U0:j, but in 1801 it went 
np to I8.1):{1, more than the double, and nearly all Brazilians. That 
that immigration which is the j'icli seed of the Amazon grandeui', 
goes there to stick to its soil, work and flourish, it is proved by the 
figures that represent the ac(piisition of lands which liave been jju- 
blished in official documents. 

Lands sold to Brazilian Wokkmex from ISUH to I'.IOO 

Ve:iis Area sold Hovenue lor the stale 

1890 .... ,Sl.j.-217,12i 06;oy9S"2.V) 

1897 .... .';6."k")(),79IJ 80:0(i5$907 

1898 .... — 392:.^i9i$007 

1899 .... .1.088.707, i;i9 2IJ:670St;89 

1900 .... (!.i88.027,7i(i .195:7l()$0O0 

'I'he data we print above has a good deal of meaning, demonstrate 
the energy with which the jjrogress of that region is Ijeing elabo- 

Taking the number of entries in the princii)al port of the state, 
and deducting those who remain there, the remaining, wliicdi con- 
stitute the great majority, entered the interior conquering tlie wild 
forests, and consequently they will be ever so many contributors 
towards the ti'ansformation and its prosi)ei'ity. 

But we must show now, the number of foi-eignei'S and Brazilian 
travellers who remained in Manaos, in its 2(i hotels, in the year 1801. 

Brazilians 5.960 

Americans ."I 

.VrgriUini's 20 

Aniliians 7 

Gei'niaiis -il 

Aiislriaiis 10 

Belgians 20 

lo bring over . . 6.089 

— 157 — 

brousjlit (jver. . . 6.089 

Holiviiiiis 107 

Ciildiiihiaiis 8'2 

Froiieliniori ii)8 

.S|i;iiiiarils l~7> 

lliingariaiis "2 

Eiiglisliiin.'ii 57 

Kalians 505 

I'oniavians 100 

I'di-tiiguesc 1.051 

Russians 165 

Suisses 9 

Dutchmen i 

Trugiiayaiis 10 

Total. . . 9.10.1 

Tlie large crowds of tlie newly arrived go at once to the interior 
and engage themselves in the promising task of extracting rubber 
fi'oni the trees. Seldom, vei'y seldom, indeed, do they take with them 
their wives and children. What they most always liavc \\ith them is 
the classic viola (a kind of gaitar) which is the insejiarable compa- 
nion of the native of Brazil. 

As we repeatedly liave written, the natives of Ceara are the best 
and most numerous contributoi's for the pf)pulating of the ^Vmazon 
and the ijrogressive development of that region. The native of Ceara 
who leaves the Amazon does it only to come back a little later on. 
He repeats to-day with the same heroic tenacity, tlie I'ole of the biiii- 
(leirantc from Sao Paulo in the history of the evolution of Brazil in 
the seventeenth and eighteentli centui'ies. The ])olitical-social pheno- 
menon which tf)ok place in the south is now repi'oduced in the north. 
The scenery and the actors have been (dianged, but the nature but 
the human motion is the same, the history of each generation is no- 
thing else but the reflex of the agitations of the preceding ones. 

What explains sociologically S2)eaking the predomination of the 
native of Ceara in the phenomenon of the migration of to-day is the 
famine of the constant and regulai' dry seasons to which is subject 
periodically a large j)ortion of the State of Ceara, as well as of some 
neighboi'ing states, consequently we have explained the moral phy- 
sionomy characteristic of the new populating element, whose lines 
of melancholy or hope transpire in their songs, in their activity at 
work, in their intimate customs and even in their vocabulary. 

In the names they give to their ser(ng'ae.s scarcely is there a name 
not suggesting a melancholic idea, or an aspiration of lio])e and im- 

— 158 — 

pnivcuK'ut. In every nook dI' the rivei' hanks ol' lliose invaded I'e- 
j;i()ns , (hat nole signifies the ])resenee ot tin; native of Ceara, oi' 
other northern JSrazilian. The denominations Bomfim (good end), 
Boa EspcrancH (good liope), lAvrnmentn (delivrance (from evilj, 
Xiiua Sarlc (new lot), Bon Xoi>n (good news), and others ^\•hieh de- 
note eontidence, good augury, or tliese others : Dcscnguno (desil- 
hision), Deixa Fnllar (let tlieui sp(^alv), Malijiwrenrn (bad wislies, to 
wish unsuccess to others), Sol)i-al, Fortaleza (these two ai'c names of 
Ceai'a cities), sad and allusive to the things left behind, wliich are 
repeated, so often, here and there, are the whole profound history of 
the soul of the native of Ceara, of the intelligent man, of the suf- 
ferer and the hero, and to whose irresistible andaeity it is due the 
finding of the Ama/.onie hidden treasuries. 

^^'llen he finds liimself in the plaee he selected to stai't his life in 
ti'act of land hidden in the interior, — at the side of an i^-afapv, going 
to woi'k on his account, oi' for some one already established — lie 
takes charge of so many entradas (roads), as many as he can exploit : 
Each e^lrada has genei'ally from 10(> to IwO (.■^eringiiciras) rubber 

For mercantile purposes each estrada is worth more or loss 100 
or 5(>0 milreis if the seringueiras are well preserved. 

'Fhe Aviador, that is, the merchant in Manaos or Belem (capital 
of J'ara) furnishes all the needed goods, material and food to the pro- 
prietor of tlie serinfial. This one sells them again to the working- 
man, on credit, to be paid at (he time of the harvest thus remaining 
tied up 1o the owner the newly arrived. It is easy to understand 
whal (>ffoi'ts the ))atient workman has to cm])loy to free himscdf 
economically, and in the metamoi-phose of woi-kman to proprietor, 
reappear sonic day in Manaos, or in lielam, or in his native State 
rich and independent dazzling with his prodigality those he left in 
the niis(>ry of the old native village. 

Those who depart are in much larger number than those who 
come back, to be sure. Yet, life there is monotonous c^uite even in 
their cares for the work of every day, year in and year out — a^jpa- 
rently calm, filled with peace either in the hours he strikes the tree 
to gather his rubber, or at- their hours of leisure spent at the door of 
the barraca listening to the songs, very long and very sad ones, that 
they are, aceomj^anied by the melancholic and plaintive sounds of 
the sweet viola. His life comi)anion puts the child to sleep singing 
sonK' old song, after having given the little one a bath in the river 
and pii( on him his night shirt with strong perfame of the jiiripi- 
rioca (a scented plant abundant in the noi'thern states). 


On a suimy Saturday, it was the 2ncl July, l'.H)2, when wo weie 
g'oing thi'ough the Breves narrows (whicli, l)y the wa\', looki.ul to nie 
quite broad) we began to discovei' in the afternoon some mountains 
at the distance and at o>n' riglit. On one of tliose mountains is tlie 
city of Monte Alegre, belonging to tlie Para State. 

Ai'tei'wards, a few leagues furtlier ahead we saw the establisliment 

Manaos. — Court of law Palace — Principal front 

known as tlie Cactiiial Grande, a vast plantation of coeoa which, as 
tliey told us, had just lieen acquired by a Paris chocolate factory. 
Then, on the other bank, we saw tlie city of Santarem, near the spot 
where the confluence of the Tapajos river with the sea-river takes 

It is a beautiful scenery. The earthen dirty waters of the Amazon 
are filled with greenish spots whicli are confounded and transform- 
ed into a voluminous stream, ample and deep, which is the 'I'apajos 

— 100 — 

river, one oT (he most hcaiilirul rivers <>\' the \\-c»-ld. Pacific ^^"^'^ ^ 
solemn, smooth and sliiniiiK lik(! an emerald, tlie Tapajos enters 
into the Amazon, withoiil niixiug- with those of the colossal river its 
dark green waters, al)snlntely clear if placed in a f^lass. 

Six hours from that time, at night, wc were ))assing in front of 
Ohidos, at the right going up the river. This modest city which will 
be soon fortified, as it is the key to that Ama/,onic maze, was deep 
asleep in the silence of the night, under the mystery of tliat land- 
scape deep with darkness, some lights, drawing the lines of the city, 
throw their shade in the water trembling and darkish. 

The steamer goes straight on her way. When she reaches nearer 
any of the banks light-bugs follow the boat entering the cabins flying 
around the eh'ctric lamps. 

Sunday morning, at three o'clock, we had in sight two cocoa 
plantations, \\hich lend to the landscape a characteristic shade of 
gi-een. This one of the many Amazonic treasui-ies is cultivated al- 
most without any trouble spreads itself with exuberant ostentation 
showing the wealth of that soil, 'i'hero are even some varieties tliat 
grow spontaneously without industrial \\ork, as it happens with one 
known as the CHcaunriina, which is to be found in the w ild woods. 
The aspects of the banks are, in a general way, identical, perhaps 
monotonous, s])ecially after wc see the first ti-acts, after one day's 
sailing in the narrows, and then there is only real enjoyment when 
the steamer gets vei'y near the shore, as often does. Then we distin- 
guish perfectly well the details : — tluxt unending wall extended on 
either side of the boat, shows itself in a gigantic shape near us, 
spreading out towards the watei' thick and long branches of frondons 
trees, we see inflexible silvery white trunks bi-ought forth amidst 
the thick foliage, and ap])eai' above opening the upper branches like 
an immense umbrella, some light red some green as if over them were 
passing two seasons of the year at the same time. The palmtrees 
are also seen elevating their high trunks above all the other vege- 
tation, sometimes here and there isolated, sometimes in groups. 
Here, vfc see the assahy long and thin seeming ready to Iturst 
with the first blow* of the wdnd, there, the tiicuma with a solid trunk 
defying everything. We find in one place the skeleton of the bmiiry 
leafless and dry reddish as if it were an old rusted iron frame, in 
another place a group of trunks bundled at (he basis as if they wanted 
mutually sup])or1, each other, and tall, vei-y tail, in ])erpendicular 
line as 11' avoiding a dreadful effort in the struggle for light, which 
they wanted to di'ink beyond, above the top of the strongest trees. 
And as life and death embrace each other every Avhere, at every 

— IGl — 

great distance we sec some dead tree fixed to the soil by briitisli 
roots that can't be desti-oyed assuring' its position for a ccntnry. 
Shades that tliey are of a majesty, those majestic remains resist half 
drowned in the steel net of cipos in a forest struggle, suspending 
from its naked arms a whole lot of parasites, gravatas, orchideas, 
and others. 

In the ocean of eternal and renewing foliage which grows in 
those valleys, covering the stones, filling empty places, those soli- 
tary trophies have in their dominating and silent impassibility a 
noisy expression of an unfinished struggle, permanent and persis- 
tent, formidable struggle, struggle that goes beyond death. This is 
the scenery in which everything agitates and everything seems 
immoable, in which everything makes a noise and everything seems 
dumb, everything exists and everything seems dead, living, growing, 
blooming, dying, renovating, each tree, each stone, each insect, each 
germ engaged in the renovating struggle of the fratricidal life, in 
which everything and everj'body find itself on the ground without 

sin saber qnizt'i 

ni por que la miierie dii, 
ni por que pierde la vida. 

(without knowing also, neither the reason why the death gives, nor 

why loses life.) as was said by the inspired poet Nunez de Arce. 

At last, at in the morning of the fourth August, we landed at 


* * 

Manaos. — Those who have never been in Manaos and have their 
heads filled with all kinds of untruths published by a lot of foreign 
books written on Brazil , telling all about the impossibility of inha- 
biting the tropics, the backwards condition of these countries, etc., 
etc., will surely he much surprised men Avhen they see for the first 
time the capital of the Amazon. 

Xobody would imagine it in the condition it real is to-day, that 
modern city of Manaos. Why? Is it possible that after a 900 mile run 
through the heart of the South American deserts, with the most 
inaccessible and thick woods, there may exist a city like this one? 

To be sure it is possible. And not only it really exists, but pros- 
pers and grows every day, and then it is evident that the people who 
build it up, who nourish it with the vigor of the large cities, have 
done, to be sure, something worthy of note, their has been an im- 
portant one. 

— U'2 — 

The capital ol' tlie Amazon, seen as a whole, has the physiognomy 
of a city jnst built. 

To be tnie, it is a now city. It is built by an immense afl'luent of 
the Amazon, the Rio Negro, (Black river) thus called because of its 
dark color, something like coffee color, and no learned man as yet has 
been able to account for that explaining the cause. It is situated in 
an ample bay of the river, offering thus to the navigation a safe poi't. 
They are nearly finishing the great harbor works which will make 
of Manaos a landing place of first class. 

As he enters the city, the traveller finds himself in a quite large 
square, treated with care, with a pretty garden, and its grquisds 
somewhat inclined. In an anale at the other end of th itiuai'e is^ljiie- 
Cathedral, dominating the squai'c, on an.ejev,ated grqynd w&ftli-is- 
levelled to take away the inclination of tire square, there being stjw^ 
way on both sides to enter from the lower pari of the sqffiir<# F^gln 
there, beautiful streets I'un in front and at both sides, all of theiwJtB&L 
with buildings (tf modern construction, the business houses (T^SDla"^; 

ing prettv show \\indows in which the products of the woi']d ;•: arCj 

^*v - -^ '■ y ■ . 4 - - fc ■ *? 

and industi'ies are exhibited-..v' -.' ' ' ■■ r ■■^'' '■■ f. '•" -'ML^-'-' 
'I'he area of the part of the city ;;-;rows lai-gei^Svery 4g;\'*a|m 
as the topography of the .^laco i. .,ome\\ hat inclined the inhabimnts of 
Manaos, undertake daring works, opening gr(}at cuts, filling in tracts 
of ground, putting down hills, attending, to the sanitary conditions 
of shallow places, while the private buildings keep on occupying the 
ground thus conquered. The new streets, wide and in straight line 
give an aspect of feast, a modern atmospliere to the new capital. 
Amongst other streets, the following struck us most favorably : 
Municipal street, ;!0 metres wide, built on a ground that before was 
marshy, is one of the most beautiful streets of the north lined with 
fine buildings ; Jose Clemente Street, Remedios street, Qninze de 
Novembro Street and others. None of these however exeells Eduardo 
Ribeiro Avenue which reminded us of the Maio Avenue of Buenos 
Ayres, though it has not the fine buildings the latter has, it is well 
paved, and profusely. In the afternoon and evening the high-life the 
wealthy part of the population walk up and down Eduardo Ribeiro 
Avenue. In the drinking places they drink their vermouth and com- 
ment upon the events of the day. The public buildings with their 
beauty and architecture prove the excellent installation, the progres- 
sive state of the city and newly born power of the Amazon metro- 
polis. We will mention some of them. 

For the new-comer, one of the things that attracts his attention the 
most is the magnificent theatre the « Amazonas », whose construe- 

— IBS - 

lion has just been finished. It is built on ;i causeway all oi' nuiwon 
work, and its dome of light eoloi-s I'aises itself above the whole city. 
The external lines are majestic, and while not obeying to no special 
classic order of architecture is a ha])py conception, if though a little 
too able details. Inside this theatre is a beauty with all those 
rows of columns supporting the four floors of boxes yet they disturb 
somewhat the perspective of the whole. 

Tlu" foyer has no ecxual in all Brazil, it is large, light, surrounded 

Jlanaos. — S. SebasliTio 's .Square and the Amazonas Theatre. 

by columns imitating rare marble and decorated with De-Anoelis 
paintings of rare artistic value, as those that represent Cecy e Pery, 
Uin trecho da Selua Ainnzonica, (A piece of Amazonic landscape), 
the Sun-Set, and others. Between the p)aintings there are marl)lc 
busts of the celebrities of modern theatre. The electrical installation 
of the theatre, can serve as a standard, and is worthy of note, as a 
work of art, the large lustre whicli illuminates the audience hall. 
The Palace of Justice, also lately inaugurated, is another orna- 

— Wi — 

nicnt ol' !^^:ul;l()s. It is Udman s( vie, its s(aii'\\;iy made of l)r(in/,e aiifl 
marble leads to the large lialls where the jiidgeH have their olTices and 
C'oiirt rooms. The i)arlour of the judge; who performs the mai'riages 
coidd serve as a. model I'oi- Uio (h' Janeiro, and is (h'corated with 
I'lirniture of gotliic style. The ,) iiry room, the Supreme Court Hall 
are severe in style and imposing and ai'eall in aceordanee with the 
external beauty of the building. 

The (lymnasinm has a lordly aspect. It was inaugurated in ISSd 


Tliii ,s;il(]iiii ()[ Aiiiazonas Tlieaire 

(bu'ing tlie Administration of Dr. Ernesto Chaves, wlio was then 
the, president of the pi'ovince. 

The building of « Instituto Benjamin Constant » which we visited 
in all its departments, is jjlaeed at the end of a beautiful garden. 
'I'here they educate; young girls and they are trained by Sisters of 

The catliedral is a vast temide of simple architecture and modest 
interior, all white. The chnreh is floored Nvith lumber and has on 
botli sides stone platforms, (Lisbon stjde mason work in high relief) 

— Ifio — 

"wlierori'oni the sonuons are preaehed. Tliis elinreh is under the 
saint name of Our Lady of the ('onee]>tion. 

One of the visits tliat left on us the l)est impression, was tlie one 
we paid to the police regiment harraelvs, a kirge building two stories 
high facing the Constituieao Scxuarc. In the upper story are the 
fencing parlors, the !Major-staff-roora, the library, where we admir- 
ed a Iteautiful painting a LibcrtncM) do Ainnzonas » (freedoin of the 
Amazt)n), and in the lower floor are the splee]3ing rooms of the pri- 

JIaii;'ios. — Bciiiaiiiiii Coiislaiil's InsliUitc 

vatcs companies, guns store rooms, and at tlie end the stables, 
filled with splendid River-Plate horses. 

The Military regiment of Manaos is one of the best organisations 
of its kind in all Brazil. It is composed of two battalions of infantry, 
with .500 men each, and a detachment of 10 men cavalry. The infant- 
ry battalions are commanded by majors, who are officers of the 
regular army. Each battalion has a band of music not inferior to 
those of Rio de Janeiro. 

We must also speak, among the nice buidings of Manaos, of the 

— 166 — 

l>nblic market, an elcR-aut structure ot iron and lumber ]>y the river 
side. \\'lien this building was ercu'ted, not many years ago, ever,>'body 
thought its dimensions exaggerated and Tar beyond the necessities 
of Manaos. Now everyl)ody complains that the market is altogether 
too small. The city grew much (|uicker than it was ever thought of. 

The same thing happened about the Snndadc cemetery. Some 
fifteen years ago the municipality designated that place for a gravc- 
yai-d. There were claims from all over to the effect that it was too far, 
that there were no means of conveyance and many other protests. 
To-day the cemetery is surrounded by buildings, the city growing 
up in that direction and it will be soon necessary to remove it from 

And as we have spoken about means of conveyance, we must 
say that to-day few cities in the North have so com])lete a system of 
tramways, except the City of Sao Paulo which has also a very good 
tramway system. There is also in Manaos a regular sei'vice of cabs 
and carriages. The Sao Paulo as well as the Manaos tramways are 
of American manufacture, large, comfortable, clean, and run through 
the city in all directions. The main line in Sao Paulo is called 
Avenida-circular, and surrounds the contornation of that beautiful 
city, going over a beautiful bridge which crosses a stream (as strong 
as some Eui-opean rivers) which has escaped from the number that 
have been filled in to build up streets and houses. 

No visitor comes away without often repeating that trip, as well 
as the one that goes to Flares, a district a little way off filled yet of 
thick and wild woods but threatened with the invasion of city 
buildings, lining with beautiful residences the road that is cutting 
the forest. 

The bridge we I'cferi'cd to above is called Cachoeira Gi'ande, 
made of iron, divided into three sections, and is an excellent point 
of view to observe the magnificent surrounding panorama. Other 
bridges and viaducts , as the Uemedios and the Cachoeirinha, 
mounted on stone columns embellish other sections of Manaos. 

In front of the Governor's palace, which is a modest building 
they have built a pretty garden named Republic, where charming 
moments can be si)ent. 

One of the most noted things of the city is its splendid illumina- 
tion second to none in the whole Bi-azil. The reader can have an 
idea of what that branch of public service is, knowing that 527 arc- 
lights, 2.000 candle power each, are lighted at a cost of 150 contos 

This Fdcctric light company furnishes also 1 .cSOO sixt(>en candle 

— 167 — 

power li<;hts to pi'ivato houses wliicli work since the coiiipaiiy 
instalhition all over the city. 

The pumping worlc ol' waters talsien from tlie Cachocira (Irmidc 
falls and placed in the reservoirs huilt specially for it in Moeo and 
Castelhana, is also made by electricity. The water is not as good as 
the Rio de Janeiro water but it is not much inferior and its distri- 
bution to the population is abundant. They furnish daily ti.OOO.OOO 
litres and the State government spends annually with this branch of 
public service about -100 contos yearly. 

Pai-t of ]lio Acre 

By these simple notes we have printed here the reader can 
calculate the progress of the beautiful metropolis of the Rio Negro. 
But this is not everytliing. Any of the improvements and services 
of a large European city can be found in that city, which is in the 
most hidden corners of this continent between the base of the Andes 
and the corridors of largest mass of fluvial waters in the whole 
Avorld. The telephone and telegraph (either the subfluvial or the 
overland one that the State built at its expense until the frontier of 
Para), the newspapers, the libraries, an active commerce, everything 
indicates that civilisation installed in that rc^gion of the semi-cultiva- 
ted continent a new land mark of its evolution. 

With the colossal works that are being finished for the adaptation 
of its port to the requirements of the large international commerce 
of which Manaos is the centre in this part of America, it is impossi- 
ble to foresee the impulse this metropolis will receive as it had been 
impossible 30 years ago to foresee the present development it has 

— 108 — 

What Bra/iliaiiR can be more proud of, is, tliat all the progress is 
the work oT themselves. Manaos is a product ot Brazilian activity, 
I'aith and energy. It was disputed, conquered and enriched by 
Brazilian arms. To-day Manaos is a cosmopolitan city, as it is a 
centre of strong navigation and commerce, because the aliens look 
for it, come to it with their work, industry, deep ambition. But the 
I'oots are energetically national, the work that circulates through 
the interior rivers, which discovers the hidden corners of the desert, 
which explores the wealth with tenacity, which transports to the 
solitude of the internal spots the seed of ideas and sentiments, is all 
the work of the x^atient native of the Xorth of Brazil, with his incon- 
(|uered resistance, his sti-ange customs, fine as gold, firm as steel. 
It is above all the work impelled by their trusting and ingenious 
soul, dreamy and strong, poetical and warlike that defies the storms 
of the Atlantic in a raft and penetrates the solitude of the interior 
without any other tools but his boat and a row. 

The dominion of the world will be, eternally, in any sense, of 
those who dominate the waters. 

Since Humboldt, many prophecies have been made as to the 
magnificent future which is reserved for the Amazonic region. 
Certainly, however, few of these prophets calculated that in the 
present generation the existence of a city like Manaos, right there at 
the month of Rio Negro should already be a reality. 

This phenomenon would be imjiossible o() years ago, when the 
Amazon was not dominated yet. At that time, it represented nothing 
else for civilisaticm but a stupendous geographical marvel. Referring 
to it used to be said : « (7 (.s the mi<^'htic'sl of rivers, » and everything 
had been said. The trips through its waters were enterprizes consi- 
dered as dangerous as a voyage to the poles. From Para to the Rio 
Negro and back it meant then ten to twelve months. Those who 
made that trij), in small sailing boats or little canoes with rows used 
to be received with sky-rockets on their coming back. When the 
steamer began to make these trips everything was changed. 

The sea-river was conquered and with it Manaos, then a simple 
group of small houses, just a stopping and resting place in the Rio 
Negro. From that time on it gathered strength, and grew up 

After that the Purus river was conquered with several other 
affluents, and eacli victory against the savage nature of the continent, 
in those colossal roads, corresponded to anew impulse towards the 
progress of Manaos. The most recent of those victories was the 
dominion of the .Turua, with its ti'ibutaries, about which we wrote 

— 169 — 

above. Over 5.000 tons ol' nici'cliaiidise g'oes yearly to the oreat 
capital augineutiiig its Nxorld conimereial intercoui'se with the whole 
world. But, what does that represent in that intinile incognito ^^()rld 
that is there defying man? Very little indeed. 

^^'hat does tluit matter? The steamer is thei'e now and tli(.! 
natives of Xorthern Brazil will do the rest. On its tnrn the native of 
Amazon is also in a hurry to complete his w(n-k of civilisation. 

Banii <if l!i() l'iinis-I,!iiiilsca|io al tlie tiiiK' uf Hoods 

The administration of the last few governors has been as good as 
could be wished for and the Amazon has now entered an era of 
activity and work aided by an honest government. 

Tlie governor of the State to-day, Dr. Constantino Nery is a 
brother of the last one who was Dr. Sylverio Nery, a perfect gentle- 
man, a military engineer, a broad minded man, a leai'ned man and 

— 170 — 

animated by the most patriotic sentiinentB. He lias r(;-estal)lis]ied in 
the Amazon an Iionest ])ro^ranini('., an orderly one in the administra- 
tion affairs. 

He made great improvements in the financial conditions of the 
State and gave quite an impulse to the commercial and in<lustrial 
activity of ^Ma.naos. llis government marked an era of noted progress 
for the State. It suffices to remember his wise and intelligent inter- 
vention contributing towards the realisation of the colossal harbor 
works of iManaos and towards the support of the Brazilians in the 

Maiiiios. — « .Vmazoneiist' » gyniiiasiiim 

Acre region during the disputes with Bolivia. On this subject it is 
not known yet how much Brazil o\\es to the attentive and discreet 
action of Dr. Sylverio Nery's politics, but in time it will be known 
so that justice may be done to his patriotism and intelligence. 

The establishing of schools, the inauguration of several public 
establishments , the termination of political persecutions , the 
recovering of the financial credit of the State, in a word, the decisive 
cut in the practice of alnises, which seem to exist unfortunately in 

— 171 — 

previous adiuiiiistrations, -are llie titles tluit Dr. Sylverio has to im- 
pose liiiuseir tt) the !;ralitiule oi liis State and the i-cspeet ol' all those 
who eare for tlie welfare of the eountry, repudiating private inte- 

He made (piile a number of improvements and some of them 
of high importance. He inaugurated a Sanatorium in the most 
healthy spt)t of the State. 

(_~)n the Otli. February, 11H)1, he installed offieially a Laboratory of 
Analysis for analytieal chemistry, bromotalogy and texicology. As 
an annex to this Laboratory there is a small bactereological arsen- 
al, which is the beginning of the foundation of the I'espective 

He also installed in a new building the City Hospital which was 
not in very good conditions in the old building. He inaugurated also 
a Model School to serve as a kind of normul collc^'c, furnished with 
all the pedagogic material needed and i)re])ared as well the esta- 
blishment of an agricultural school in Pai'acatuba. 

\\\ IW'.'y thei'C were in the Stale 1(17 (Jrammar schools, with a fie- 
(j^uency of 5. '.til students, but in this number is not included a large 
number of private schools. 

In Maiiaos there are 45 schools all of them in fine buildings 
nicely appointed with adequated pedagogic furniture. 

One of the beauties of Manaos is its port always animated , al- 
ways filled with boats , loading and unloading. We see tliere not 
only the small river lioats, steam and electric hiunches, as the big- 
transatlantic steamers which stand still pefectly motionless so calm 
are tlie waters. In front is the quay with its enormous lifting ma- 
chinery ever busy hiadiug and unloading the lighters that come 

The constant movement of small boats, the whistles of the steam- 
ers and their echoing voices, the variety of colors of the flags un- 
furled in the masts, everything gives to the port of Manaos one of 
the happiest and most pictnrescpie feature. As the city is built on 
ground slightly inclined, from many points of it we can enjoy the 
contemplation of the most beautiful paaorama one could imagine, 
looking at the port and the active life that animates it from sun rise 
to sun set. 

Formerly just in the place where Manaos is to-day, there were 
two tribes of Indians — the Pusses and the Af;ut:'ios — the latter 

— 172 — 

liaviiig- given the name to the city. P>ven as I'ar back as LSliO a Brazi- 
lian \\i'iting on (lie i)riniilivc city, seat of the llio Negro port and 
ilisti'ict gave some very cnrions inrornuitions. Among other things 
lie wrote that there were 2.'!"J houses, with straw roots, and even the 
governor 's palace had a I'oot made ot the same material, as well as 
llie soldiers barracks and nearly all the other public buildings. There 
was a small ship _^'ard to build lighters and canoes. There were a 
lew i)rivate houses covered with earthen tiles, but they were very 

Muiiaos. — Public School 

lew. The powder magazines were roofed with the same material. 
There were two churches : The Matriz, built by some Carme- 
litas missionaries in 1695 and another very small one ol' little im- 
portance. The population of the city was .'i 17 men and 327 women 
(white), 115 men and -1.50 women (inaincliicos) — (children of Eui-o- 
peans and negroes), 790 men and 1.042 women dark mulattoes, 225 
men and 164 women slaves, 225 men and 2t)H women, (mongrels or 
mixed breed). The whole city had but 11 small streets and one 
square. That- is just what Manaos was in 18o9. 

— I'i - 

To-day this beantirul city has an ai'ca of 10 sij^uare kilometres 
and about 6.000 houses, in the majoritjr two story hif>'h, viUas , pahi- 
ces, built on the ground where the extinct Indian tribes were. The 
sti'eets are long and wide, with trees and well paved, going from 
one end to the other of the city, tearing the space througli hills and 
rivers and fi'om neither one of these two thei'e is not the slightest 
vestige, except the openings and the filled in places. The commerce 
opens each day new houses, displays in the avenues luxury and 
comfort. The industries begin to appear here and there making 
noise with the machinery (jf the factories and dai'kening the sky 
with the clouds of smoke from their chimneys. We had occasion 
during our shoi't stay in Manaos to visit factoi'ies of several products 
as ice, matches, electicity, incineration of the cit\' garbage, pai'asols 
and umbellas, rubber goods and others, and we can affirm in the 
most convinced manner tliat we have great faith in the future possi- 
bilities of Manaos. 

Yet, it is not only in the capital that the admii'able luxury of 
that true El-Dorado — the Amazon, — is displayed. Neither is it 
there only that we can see that conquering work transforming and 
civilising of the Brazilian race. Besides Manaos there are 20 other 
cities and villages, by the banks of those enormous rivers of that 
State and they show how much activity the inhabitants of the nor- 
thern States of Brazil have developed in that effort to perform the 
social work of civilisation in that region. 

The principal ones are Barcellos, Borba, Boa- Vista do Rio Bi-anco, 
Humayata, Labi'ca, all of them with an active commerce; Manicore, 
a very progressive city founded in f 877, its budget being then about 
£ 30 and to-day is of over £ 20.000; Manes, Olivenca, Antimary, 
Caqueta, Teffe, Villa Bella, Silves, Serpa, Uio Branco and others 
are so many marks of civilisation spread through the territory of 
this colossal State of the Amaz(m. We regret that tlie limited space 
of this book does not allow us to write about each one of these cities. 

If we could do so how much couldn't we write about the munici- 
pal district of Rio Branco, for instance. But about this place we 
cannot avoid writing a few lines even if for nothing else but to dis- 
pel from our readers' minds the erroneous idea people have to sup- 
pose that in the Amazon State there is only the forest industry. 

The valleys of Rio Branco intermingled with beautiful ridges of 
mountains until the frontier of Brazil with the English Guyana, are 
a magnificent field for cattle raising as well as for the cultivation 
of corn and wheat and we even go as far as stating they are probably 
better fitted for that than Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catharina. 

— 174 — 

It is calculalod in one Uiousand square leagues this beautilul 
I'egion, itroper lor eattle I'aising- and daii'y industries and yet at a 
distance relatively short from the capital. >\'ere it not for the ^^'ater 
falls of llio Branco, the trip from :\[anaos to these valleys could be 
made in two days. A raihsay would resolve this probhnn , and not- 
withstanding- the difliculties to be met in an enterprise of this kind, 
the local ( rovernment is thinking seriously of building one. As to 
cattle raising, a party competent to speak on the subject said that 

MaiULOS. — Public School 

cattle can lie raised wild and the beef can compete with that of Rio 
Grande and River Plate. The only fault with the ox is not crossing 
with superior races and that can be easily remedied once that the 
(j(;vernment should ti'ain immigration Indping tfie cattle I'aisers. 
The inconvenient for the dairy industry is the excessive length ol' 
the farm lands. Only one of them, known as S. Marcos, occupies an 
area of dozens oi scpiarc leagues and can contain if necessaiy one 
hundred thousand heads. Similar elements of greatness are found in 
other numicipalities. 


What we liavc written on Miuiaos is sal'l'icient, we think for tlie 
reader to oaleulate tlie importance and progress ol' tliat vast ti'aet 
of the Hi'azilian territory, to l)e sure one of tlie most prosperous 
iederatixe entities ol' the Bra/ilian Repulilic. 


Of all the Xorthei-ii States of Brazil, the State of Pai'a is the most 
important as to its population, wealth, external ('onnnerce, and 
the progressive condition of its capital , the city of Belem. Even 

i n«ii III!!) mm 


Belem. — building of sciiolar's group on tlio Baplista Cainiios |ilaco 

comparing it witli all the other states of the Union, its present value 
and growing progress assure for it a superior and glorious jilace in 
tlie Federation. 

And yet, this is not one of the oldest states , neither did it dis- 

— 17B — 

piise ol', 1(1 adain its prosunt (Icx'clopmoiit , any of the j^overnainontal 
a<lvantaj;cs other Slates liad eitlier in tlio times of the soveroif^n 
nationality oi' in tlic eoh)nial a<;cs. 

Visited from time to time ])y Englisli, Duteli, l''rench and otlier 
adventurers, wlio never conki estaldisli there a firm settlement of 
conquest, il was only in Kild, nearly three centuries ago, tliat a 
Portuguese, the Commandei' l<'ranciseo Claldeira Castello Branco, 
w as sent from ^laranhao lo found a city in Belem , the first founda- 
tions of which were placed in the ground in .January of that year, 
as the chi'oniclers of that time assure us. 

We must count from that date the initiation of the national exis- 
tence of this great Northern State. 

Until 1(U0, however. Para had no political personality, it was a 
])art of the Maranhao government , hut from that date on it was 
constituted a political district, jierfectly aside, having coneuii-ed to 
that I'esult not onl,\- the fact of the Dutch invasion in tlie Maranhao 
province, as well as the degi'ee of matei'ial importance to which. 
Belem had readied, and that can be ascertained by the document of 
that time. 

Later on it was incorporated to the Maranhao government, but 
it got independent by the end of the seventeenth century, though 
with great struggle, considered as a province then and to-day a State 
under the new form of (Jovernnient — a republic. — 

Tlie great advancement of this Bi-a/.ilian i-egion, in the way of 
progress, became more evident, however, just as it happened with 
the ^Vma/.<m, with the developnu^nt of the making and exporting of 
i-ubber. So that if we look for a point of historical reference, to fix 
in a plain way, the initiation of that trajectory, just as it happens 
with the Amazon, we will hax'c to adopt the date of .luly 31st., iStiT, 
the hapjty date of the opening of the Amazon river to the interna- 
tional navigation, as the progress and prosperity starting point of 
the State of Amazon. 

The rapid progress of that I'egion from that time till to-day can 
be seen by tlie inci'ease of its revenue. \Miat Para M'as then, and 
what it is to-day can be seen by these figures : 

Pvogrc'Nn of the revenue of I he State of Purii every five years. 

Vein's Average in ttie fiveyejira 

1K(J7 a I8ij« .... 274;i27$(3n8 

1872 a 1 87.1 . . . . ."78;60.j§307 

1877 a 1878 .... 78;i:97n§7Gy 

1882 a 188.- .... 2..'i02:.i2i$77'i. 

I88() a 1887 .... 2.7ir):li8()$08l 

1892 a W,)7, .... (),000:0(l()§nOO 

1807 a 18!i8 .... 9.7(«18l 

— 177 — 

This progress does not rejiresent an inci'ease in (he taxes, l)ut 
simply the inerease of production, exported from Ihe State. It is 
well knoNvn that the main impoi'tance of revenue is ol)tained hr the 
exportation taxes. 

The folkiwing table will show that the importation of European 
and American industrial products kept pace with the exportation 
progress : 

Importation in the Port of Belem. 

Yejus Value of Ihc iiiiportiilion 

I89.i a 95 .... K.300:.'i68$(IOn 

1895 a 96 ... . 9.(301 :887$00(l 

1890 a 97 ... . |-).97r;:8l.5$000 

1897 a 98 ... . 18.56G:4oO$000 

1898 a 99 ... . 21.502:7,>isn00 

It is ^vortll while, since we are dealing with figures, to register 
also the total revenue of the state in the laste decades : 

Revenue of the State of Para in the last decades. 

Years Official value 

1851 2.291 :9o5$95o 

)8CI S.C60:l.i7Si7l 

1871 11.796:407$510 

1881 16.907. -i91$l4(i 

1891 2l.2.-35:7304;690 

190! 5n.9.">8;830$000 

As that revenue, as we have said , comes mainly from the expor- 
tation of the products of the State, it is natural that we should show 
the reader the figures of that exportation, and so much so because 
they prove a progressive scale as seldom as been seen any where 
else. AA'e will sec then : 

Exportation of products exclusively from P.yra, exported 


Years Value oC exportation 

1838 848:377.$869 

1840 1.236:857^039 

1851 I.986;.'i-i2.$l73 

186! 3.567;0.58$775 

1871 9.3.i8:29.5.$890 

1881 I5.701:072$7li0 

189! 27.7,55:667$00i 

1901 96.032:.397.$000 

Just as it happens in the neighboring state the main factor of 
progress , worthy of note, is the rubber which Para has in endless 
quantities in the l^anks of those mighty rivers. 

— 178 — 

Tho large amoiints of capital and the large number of woi'king- 
men employed in the extraction of tha(. source of wealth grow larger 
day hy day. 

To ))(' sure, that constitutes a disagreeable contingency to fix the 
financial situation of the State, because any alteration in t-he value 
of that merchandise, in the buying nuirkets, will make its effects in 
the disturbing oscillations of the official revenue, I'obbing from the 
budget its necessary character of prevision and method. 

Let us see what happened several \'ears ago 18',i(i and 1807 when 
the depression in the rubber x>rices caused a violent and uneoml'or- 
table condition of the whole economical and commercial life of 

'J'he State however is exporting other products, as cocoa, which 
is largely produced in its territory, there being two harvests yearly, 
chestnuts (Bra/.ilian chestnuts), tobacco, oils, rosin, etc. 

Xo other State of Brazil , excepting the Federal capital, shows 
such a maritime activity as Para does. Its geographical situation 
justifies that fact. It has, with the i^ort of Beleni, the key to the vast 
noi'th. There is the natural meeting of everything that is coming 
down, — men and goods — fi'om the beginning of those great rivers 
already exploited and those to be exploited, so that, each one at its 
historical moment , will come to increase the relations of the 
Beleni I<]mpoi'ium. Xot long ago, ^^■e heard a ti'aveller expound 
the strange thesis that the civilisation of Brazilian northern cities 
is being dislocated from ^laranhuo towards Belcm and thence to 
Manaos, so that each point of the scale of that march will come back 
to ruin successively, at the pi-oportion its neighbor will grow larger 
and riclier. 

Only those who look to phenomena of that kind superficially 
can admit such a conjecture. 

BioLEM. — Eight da,ys stay at this ca^^ital of the Para State will 
suffice to teach enough to the visitor to enable him to see these 
subjects in a better light. 

Let us open a map of the State, and we will immediately see that 
the providential ])osition of Belem, in the i)lace it was built, secures 
for it every possibility and pi'obability of a future similai' to that 
of the great Iiistorical met]'0])olis. Belem is already to-day a power- 
ful cit\', growing rapidly, sti'ongly and so far it has only serving it as 
organs of appropriation and nourishment a very, very small part 
of its rivers, of its islands, relatively, compared with what can be 
placed in the field f)f exploitation in the future. 

(iuite often when \vc went through that cajiital, (luite contented 


looking at its active LM)inm('r<'ial inovcnient, at its ])()i't filled wiili 
iiiastH ol' ships and smoke-stacks of steaniei's we asked ourseh'es : 
What a capital will this one be when the continent island — Marajo 
— and the other small islands, the small and lai-o-e rivers, everything 

ISeli'iii. — Minlcni Ciiljaii ISuililiues 

in full bloom of exploitation, po])ulated and na\igated, shall empty 
itself here, with those unknown fabulous treasuries, which ai'c 
reserved for its opulence! 

It is silly to imagine that the developement of Manaos will shake 
in tlie least the greatness of Eelem. The former has its economical 

— IfiO — 

role as tlio key (o tlu' rc^gioiis it encloses, in (hat height i>\' tlie Ama- 
zon. Hut Para will aU\ays be the natiii'al outlet of everything exist- 
ing between the Toean tins, Xingu , Tapajoz and the other rivers, 
not to speak ol' the larger i-ivers. This on one hand, and on the 
other, all that big number ol' islands, rivers and lakes, that are 
spread towards the Xorth and Northeast, bcdonging to the lower 
.Vma/.on system. All of this large world relatively unexplored, whieh 
could contain liOO.OOO.OOO people, and feed the whole of Europe, has 
and will always have as its natural head the city of Belem, which 
will keep on gi'owing at the proportion civilisation and industry will 
dominate tliose vast and mostly deserted fields. 

We can already i)lace Belem at the side of the large cities of this 
vSouth American continent. According to the census of 1002 it has 
120. 000 inhabitants, and the statistic data of the competent depart- 
ment ])ublished in a rejxirt wi'itten by the ex-governor, I)i'. Paes do 
Cai'valho, gave the number of inhabitants as nearly 02.00(1 in ISOH. 

Population of tiik t'rrv of Beleai. 

Years Iiiliul)itunls 

1720 i.OOO 

1820 9.000 

IH.-)2 12.467 

l«:i0 40.080 

1882 60.122 

1896 91.993 

'S'et, here it is the manner in which a well known historian des- 
ci'ibed that city in 1700 : " nobly bnilt up and having sumptuous 
chnrebes : Matriz and ilisericordia, the large tem])les of the Noss 
Senhora do Cai'mo, Merces, Redempeao de Captivos, Religiosos da 
Companhia , tJapuchos de Santo Antonio, and Capella de Santo 
Christo convents; Itarracks, beautiful residences, the fortress of 
Xossa Senhora das Pierces, and the mouth of the bai', ujjon the 
river, w ith many pieces of good artillery of gi'eat calibre, of iron 
and bronze. » Churches and fortresses, monks and soldiers.... how 
far away that age is ! 

Hut let us leave the ancient Belem , the reader will feel more 
interested I'eading about the Eelem of to-day. 

We had already stop))ed a very short \\'bile, on our way up, at 
that city, f)ut it was in August 10(»1 that we went there with the in- 
tention of sto])])ing there to examine it and get ac(iuainted with it. 

Those who go from the South, curving the point where the Su- 
rupy light-house is, entei's in the Para route, goes through A majestic 
river of silvery waters, vast as (he sea, tranquil and filled with pic- 


— 181 — 

tuvesquo ami green islands. At riolit and left, once we ])ass Salinas 
city, wliere they liave placed a lio-lit-lioiise-boat those islands are in 
large number until we veaeh in i'ront oT Belem. 

It is beautiful the aspect of the port!.... The city can't veiy well 
be seen from the outside, as it was built in a region of plain and low 
grounds very little above the level of the sea. 

This circumstance is in favor of the port, which presents itself, 
to the examination of the new comer before the city does it. 


yialue of Ihc bislio)] Irei Caelaiiu liraiulfio 

It is a forest of masts and smoke-stacks, steamers and boats of 
all shapes, large and small, black, gray, white or green, the majo- 
rity of them with the Eiazilian flag, anchored motionless by the 
city, and others alongside the docks and bridges. Among them we 
can see by their color the jnany steamers of the Companhia Ama- 
zonas, painted of light yellow, an original color which contrasts 
strikingly with the dark green of the waters. 

The movement, the noise of the whistles and lifting machinery, 
the running of the steamers ai-riving and sailing, all this gives to 
the j)ort of Belem a characteristic aspect. 

— 182 — 

The port is a ti'imcinil l;xt>'()()n, I'orined by tlii-' Para river, wliicli in 
jolted down ill lli(^ iiiajis with tlie iiaiiu^ (Jiiajara t)ay. It is lined hy 
tliiel-: woods w liicli a( distance a])i)ear as a grayisli oT(;en hand. 

At the side, in llie continent, is the city, an (>.xtensive one, as 
ample as Madrid or ljisl)0n, plain and levelled with the neighboring 
woods, appearing only with more prominence the towers of the 
cathedral oi' the roof of some one or other building a little higher. 

AMien v e land we have a Ijeautiful impression. The cpiay, where 

Belcm. — Krei Cactaiio Braiuirio's Square 

are by the water side, the market, the Custom House, the docks and 
storage houses of the Brazilian Lloyd and Amazon steamship com- 
panies, is lined )_)y a magnificent boulevard, x^aved with st(me 
blocks, and the commercial activity to be seen in that river side part 
of the city is wonderful. 'J'lie (Juinze de Novembro and Joao Alfredo 
strc^ets whicli run parallel to the quay, are thick commercial arte- 
ries, with banking houses, luxurious stores, large three and four 
story buildings, in general structures of simple architecture, 
altogether Portuguese style , but yet a few of them of modern 

— 188 — 

The most: bcaiitirul avenues at'e, liowevei', in tliai par( ol' the eiiy 
most reeently built, and the buildings in them are ol moro artistie 
taste. They are all the work of the last twelve years. 

If tlie visitor takes a tramway ride in the cars that go to the 
distant suburbs as : Umarisal, S. Braz, Baptista Campos, Na/.areth, 
Marco da Legiia, he can then apjn-eciate the extension of the city. 

The most central city districts are, just as in Rio or in Sao Paulo 
occupied by the stores and commercial storage houses. There the 
streets are nar^o^vel■, althongh straight and clean, cpiite clean. Even 
in this bnsiness qnai'ter, constantly modified by Ihe progress of the 
city there are S(juares which have no equal in all the other northern 
cities and we might say in all Brazil. 

The Square Frei Caetano Brandao, which some find quite sad, 
we found it poetical. It is one of the first to be visited when we arrive 
at Belem, attracted by the cathedral that is on it. 

There is in the centre of the garden of the square a monument 
with square basis, of white marble, with the bronze statue of the 
Bishop D. Frei Caetano Brandao after whom tlie S(juare was named. 
The bishop is with clerical robes and his face is full of expression. 
He must have had just that venerable type, the good prelate, who so 
much loved that city, that he built the first hospital there for 
the poor. 

Let us have a look at the cathedral. It is a large, vast construc- 
tion, heavy and gi'ave, just in the style of the Portuguese; buildings 

— 184 — 

ol' tlie eighteenth century when the tired style of D. Manuel time, 
had already disappeared from tlie mind of the architects. The front 
of the church is imposing with the severity of its lines and x^arsi- 
mony of its ornamental curves. It is com])osed of an ample face, the 
trunk of the huilding oi)en with three main windows which let the 
light in, at the upper part, and some smaller ones for ventilation 
purposes as well as the light. They are disposed, however, without 
any regard to the harmony of the external expression of the build- 
ing. In the centre upper part has what in cliurch architecture the 
Portuguese call crajciro with two small decorative pyramides and 
to finish two towers, one on each side, somewhat elegant, and 
everything is quite harmonious, the height of crajciro and towers 
being ])i-etty nearly the same. 

In the interior the cathedral was treated with great care and we 
see that it was a church built in the good times of religious faith. It 
was built in 1771. 

The painter, the high relief carver, etc, they all disputed the first 
place and as a result the interior work is of a most brilliant effect. 
There is perhaj)s a little exaggeration in the coloi'ing. The main altai' 
is all of marble, the platforms for the x)reaching' of sermons are of 
l)ronze, nicely burilated, the great organ, the gas fixtures, the paint- 
ings in the ceilings and walls of great artistic value, evei'ything con- 
tributes to the beautiful effect of the whole. There are ten altars on 
both sides and two are of mai'ble, with the images of Jesus' Heart 
and Mary's Heart. The sanctuary is one of the most important ones 
in Brazil. 

On the other side of the square is a large two stor,y building 
which used to be the War Arsenal and to-day is an hospital. N^ext to 
it is another hospital called Bom Jestjs c/o.s Pofores (Good Jesus of 
the Poor) which was founded in 1787 hy the good monk Frei 
Caetano Brandilo. 

On the bay side closing the square we see a grim wall which has 
the damp appearance of old ruins. It is in fact a ruin preserved res- 
pectfully for its historical value. 

They call it the (( Cantello « (Castle). It was from there that the 
defense was made. It was there from the very foundation of the city, 
saw its birth, protected it in its days of weakness and now sleeps at 
the shade of its victoiious progress. 

The hishop's palace, a large mansion , three stories high, with 
windows all over and connected with the left side of the Santo 
Alexandre 's church, occupies the opposite angle of the square, 
concurring thus to that strong impression of the whole. 

— 185 — 

We will now write about another important square of this capi- 
tal of the Para State — the Praea da Independeneia. — 

]5elem, just as all the otlier vSouth American capitals has one — 
Praea da Independeneia. It is one ol' the most beautiiul in Para 
which is e(tuivalent to say one of the most beautiful in Bi'azil , as in 
no other capital of Bi-azil we find more care and love for the city 
gardens than in Belem. The inhabitants of Belem, judging by what 
we observed, love nature, love flowei'S. There the parks and jjublic 
gai'tlens ai'c not enclosed, we do not see those heavy railings as we 
see in many cities. Everything is 0])en in Para, the green lawns, the 

Belc'ni. — Monument to General Gurjiio, on tlie Indepenilenc-ia |ilace 

beautiful gardens are quite open, there are no railings around them 
and nobody ever stej^s on the grassy lawn, nobody cuts a flower. 

There is the reason why Belem can keep in perfect order tlie 
prettiest gardens in all Bi'azil. 

The garden at the Praea da Independeneia is worthy of note. It 
is divided in different sections, some kept as lawns, some as flower 
beds and some with short and delicate bushes intermingled with 
flower trees. The garden streets are well paved and there are ben- 
ches for the pidjlie to sit down. In the centre surrounded by a circle 

ol' real palm trc-os llici'c is a inonuiiiciit (jrccted in honor ol 
( Jimt'i'al ( iiu'jao. 

In OUT cxi'ui'sions llirougli Brazilian cities we ha\e noticed that 
tlieinajoi'ity oi' the monuments iiavc Ijcen erected in honor oi' mili- 
tary men. 

There are Generals in l)ronzc and marhle, a little of it every- 
where, but Carlos CJomes the great lat(^ musician, witli a single 
piece of music made IJrazil bett(u- known of the whole world than 
all of those great warriors put together. So did Cayru, who led 
Brazilians by his hand to the advanced state in which they ai'e 
to-day, by the opening of the Brazilian ports to the universal com- 
merce; Maua, the introducer of the locomotive in Brazil; Gusmao, 
the inventor of the air ship; the late princess daughter of the 
Emperor Pedro II who put an end to slavery in Brazil l)y the simple 
signing of her name to a decree ; and like these many other person- 
ages tied lo the national civilisation l>y celebrated deeds and they ai'e 
foi'gotten by the public, and they have not even a line engraved in 
the base of the statues of the lucky soldiers that are in the public 
scpiares. That is not jiist 

Our remarks, however, do not embrace Para, because if they 
erected that superb statue to the soldier who so richly deserved it 
and who died in a fight against the invading enemy, exclaiming : 
(( Sec how ii ]iriizili;ui ^■cncriil dies ! », they did not forget the other 
meritorious citizens, and they built statues in honor of Caetano 
Brandiio, Sama Malcher and others. 

But speaking again of the monument of the praca Independencia 
we must say that it is of marble. In the basis are a few steps with 
lions, one on each side. I'pon this there is a square trunk with a 
statue on each cornei', then thei'c is a cover with inscriptions and 
on to]) General (Jurjao 's bronze statue. 

Under the esthetic point of view the monument is far from being- 
reputed a work of art, it lacks unity of conception, yet it is much 
decorative and it hai'monisos well with the si[nare that needed a 
monument like that one high and of imposing appeai'ance. 

The prac^a Independcaicia is much freciuented, not only because 
it is a central place but because of the buildings that surround it. 
These arc : 

The (iovc)-nenient palace, a noble mansion two stories high and 
with an exti-a one in the centre body of the building, with a trian- 
gular front, \f> ^\ indons on each story, of simple architecture, its 
intei'ior decorated with taste, and with a beautiful and broad stair- 
way (sn trance of Lisbon stone. It is divided in two big halls where 

— 187 — 

the si'ci'c'tarii's oi' the State have their departments. There is also an 
important l)romatoh)^y hiboratory, exeellent ereation of President 
Align sto ^[ontenegro. 

Tlie bnihling is ^\■ell pi'esorved, in spite of liaving been bnilt in 
177(i and lias telephone, telegraph and eleetrie light installations. 

Xear it is the City llall built in the Colonial times by order of tlie 
Marquis de Poinbal. This building is also two stories high, paint- 
ed of blue on the outside, and very well decorated on the inside. In 
the Main Hall richly appointed is a beautiful painting representing 
the death of Carlos Gomes the immortal musician to whom Para 
sootlied his last moments. In the same building is provisorily install- 
ed tlie local Legislative Assembly. The municipality of Belera is a 


Palace of Uie Slate's Governor 

model of honest clevei- and advanced administration. Tlie present 
Mayor, Senator Antonio Lemf)s, a true gentleman in his manners, is 
a wise and honest administrator, a man of an enterjirising mind and 
a practical man. 

Belem owes him a good deal and his contribution towards the 
progress and transformation of the city doesn't admit of any doubt. 
As the Mayor of tlie city he has been wise in the two needed 
characteristics : he knows how to promote revenue, and knows how 
to ai)ply it. 

Another central square beautifully decorated is the one named 
Visconde de Rio Branco, formerly known as Mcrccs. It is a little 

— IKl! — 

siiialliT than ilic, olhei-s, l)ul. it is v(^ry \V(!ll talvoii care ol', and like 
the, ollu'i-s has no railinf;'. Tlie nioniiniont in the centre oT this s(inai-e 
is probably tlic most artistic of the whole city. It is simple in its 
coniposition, is nol very original, hut hai'nionioiis and suggestive. 
Standing- upon a marble liasis of square form is the bronze statue of 
the great Brazilian ])atriot Jose da Garna Maleher in a noble but 
natural position. In the principal face of the basis is the beautiful 
figure of a young girl with her knee upon the step in tlie position 
of one engraving the name of the hero. The monument is surrounded 
by an elegant railing. 

The new stpiare that the present Mayor ordered to be fixed with 

liokiii. — Biiikliiiy lit tliL I'.ii o .MiLiiifipal 

trees and a gard(^n is the one named Baptista Canipos, and is one 
of the beauties of the modern part of the city. 

It was an enoi'mous field quite abandoned in one of the city 
corners where the grass grew with a vigor worthy of tropical fame. 
This was not long ago. The mayor Antonio Lemos transf<n-med it in 
a little paradise, with fountains, little lakes with miniature islands, 
bi'idges, lawns, flower beds, fancy Ijushes and rare plants, well 
paved streets, a j)erfect paradise. Well invested the money spent in 
that ])ablic improvement. 

In the other end of Bclem , beyond the line of city buildings, 
the good taste, or we would say better the common sense, of those in 
po\\ ei', idealized a public recreation unique in its kind in all Brazil 

— IKO — 

what confirms what we liavc said beroro, wiicii we arrirnied that the 
people ol' Para were the best h)vers of nature among- all others who 
live in the large eities of Brazil. 

That public place is a tract of primitives forest bright in its 
vigorous structure of secular trees spreading their long branches 
with shady foliage. 

The city grew up devouring the woods around that proceeded it, 
that were scpieezing it. Later it gre\\' more, annihilated to spread 
itself, but reached the place called Marco da JjCgua; and finding 
that square of powefful trunks in rows tight together in a som- 
bre way , as the last witnesses of a cataclysm , its destructive 
expansion stopped, admired and res]>eeted the mystery. \A'anted to 

Boleni. — A part ot llie Municipal Pai'li 

sjiare it. Spread its avenues by its margin, it went on growing, but 
closed that piece of wild woods that was there at the vei-y beginning 
of the city ; encircled its four sizes with railing, opened streets to 
disclose the intense poetry of its bosom ; placed green houses, 
booths, cascades, fountains, all kinds of artistic embellishments here 
and there. iSpread through its thick foliage many di'ops of white 
light from arc lamps. And then they named it « o Bosijiic » and thus 
« The Woods n has the right to live for many years, who knows ! 

This marvellous piece of Amazonic woods, preserved with filial 
love by the municii)ality of Eelem, before the victorious expansion 
of its constructions, is a motive of pride for its inhabitants and of 

— ion — 

praise to tlio wise and lioiicst mayor, Senator A.Lemos, from all tlie 
sti-ang-ers who h'(> tliea-e. 

The same we might say about the rigor with wliieh the precepts 
ol' good taste and hygiene are respected there, with regard to the 
arborisation not only of the avenues, but the streets as well. Among 
those we can cite Dczcseis de Novcinbro, Bru^-nnvu, S. Jeronyino, 
Indeiwndcncia and others. 

The ancient .S'. Jose Street, to-day Dezcscif: de Novcinbro avenue, 
quite long and straight, has two ro^\■s of imperial palm trees which 
give it a graceful aspect, and remind as of the Paysandn in Rio de 


Bi'lcni. — Iiiilo(ien(leiicia Avciiiu' 

Longer yet than the Avenue Dczesch dc Xovcinbro are the 
beautiful Avenues denominated Brtignnra and Indeiiendencia; the 
latter is 10 metres wide, with three side-walks between two rows of 
manfiereira trees, and electric light lamp posts in the centre. It costs 
a good deal of money to the municipality, but it is well worth the 
money spent. The former follows that one after a slight curve, and 
prolongs itself until the Bosque in the same proportions of the other 
though it has not as yet been paved. Beautiful villas and summer 
residences line both sides of this avenue which have also, like the 
other, two rows of trees. All these improvements are the result of 
senator A. Lemos' efforts and he deserves all credit Cor the many 
inij)rovements and changes the city has undergone. 

— 191 — 

There are other squares we did not write ahout, some w itli f^ar- 
dens, others being' I'ixed now, all ol' them illuminated with electric 
lights. We remember the names of these : Floi'iano I'eixoto, crossed 
by Braganca avenue, tlie Saldanha Maiinho and 'Prinilade in I'ront of 
the church of the same name, embellished with high palm trees, tlic 
Justo f'hermont, where the cluireli of Our Jjady of Xa/.areth is and 
wliich is one of the nicest of the city. 

Tlie heart of Belem, its very first S(juare, however, is the one 
where the « Pa: » theatre is situated, in tlie most elevated part of 
the city. Formerly its name was Largo da Polvora, because it exist- 
ed there, in olden times , a powder storage house. Now with tlie 

Belem. — Kepiiblic Monument, on the Hepublic Square 

adojotion of the new form of Government wanted also to have a 
Praca da Republica (Republic Square) just as nearly every city in 
Brazil has and the historical Largo da Polvora was onc(^ more chris- 
tened. But the eliange was not only in the name, it also gri^atly im- 
proved its appearance. 

They made a large garden, which can serve a standard for others 
in Brazil. There are powerfid electric lamps. All visitors must not 
leave Belem without going to this garden. AA'e ^\ould like to add 
that it is treated with all care and is extremeh- clean. In the centre 

— 192 — 

there is a bcaiitit'ul iiiai'ljle iiiomiincnl, witli bronze I'igiires, to coin- 
incmoi-ate the jiroelaiiiatioii ol' tlie Uepiihlie, and in the streets luii- 
ninff diaironati\- with wide si(h'\\alks witli benelies, (here ai'C al\\ays 
to be seen lai'f^e (•ro\\ds ol' i)eo])le and earriages moving in all 
directions. The\' are going to the aristocratic districts, wide and 
well paved avenues illuminated 1)\- electric lights and adorned with 
pretty trees. 

The main street of the S(|uai-e is filled with coffee lionses, drink- 
ing saloons, concert halls and all kinds of places of amusements. 
The cafe « P:i: », under the hotel of the same name, a beautiful 
building, is always filled ^^ith jieople not only inside, but also sitting 
at the tables placed on the sidewalk in front of the hotel. It is parti- 
culai'ly so in the evening, when the scene animated by the musie of 
orchestras in the places of a.mus(!ments, the noisy \-oices of the news- 
boys and the movement of ])assers-b,\-. Tint life in the (evening 
always earnest in cosmopolitan cities, finds there its field of action 
and a most animated one it is. Wo can hear the sweet sounds of 
music mingled with the noise of the carriages jiassing by, the mono- 
tonous wheeling of the tramways always filled with people and if 
there is any theatrical company in town there is the dis^tlay of the 
high-life, ladies richly dressed, the multitudt^ of the wealthy in 
luxurious apparel, expensive overcoats and cloaks, because in cer- 
tain seasons, the evenings in Belem are not less cold than in Rio de 
.Janeiro. The cafes we speak of above are establishments ([uite dif- 
ferent from those of Ivio, they are a kind of combination of Candy 
stores and bar rooms. There are also in the square the Apollo circus 
and the carroussel Paz — the classic mciry-go-vound and many 
other places of amusements, where people gather always gay lend- 
ing to that district of Belem a i)eculiai' feature. Among the flowery 
and artistic bushes of the garden in the square is a beautiful foun- 
tain of bronze, making /^e/u/an^ witli the monument of the Republic, 
which we referred to above. 

This one is composed of an elevated column of white marble over 
an ample basis on the sides of which there are colossal allegoric 
figui'cs in bronze, and on the top of the column there is the stately 
figure of a woman symbolizing the Brazilian republic. There are 
several steps at the basis, surrounded by a ])rettv railing, also of 
bi'onze. The avenues Indio dc liruzil, Nnzurcth, S. .Jcion^-nio and 
Kepublica, wliich start from the centre in the direction of the four 
cardinal points of the city are profusely illuminated, with broad 
sidewalks, aud tramways running back and forth all day and night. 
The buildings lining these avenues are pretty ones, though here and 

— 19B — 

there can he seen several siruetures maintaining the Portuguese 
heavy style of arehiteeturc, because the Portuguese colony in Belem 
is quite a large one. We insist in praising the illumination of these 
avenues even becanse we can't say as much of the streets in the 
commercial part of the city which is most unsul'ficient. 

We must not finish the description of Republica Square without 
referring- to the building which completes the pers])ective, and 
which in its kind is one of the best in Latin America. We speak of 
the Paz theatre, a large structure of white marble, dominating the 

; F 

■ .n^ - 1 


- 1 iiniiif F 


Belein. — (( Ua Paz » TIjeaU-e (alter its restoration). 

gardens l)oth at tlie front and back, appears to the visitor as an 
evocation of the Greek architecture of classic times. 

It has more or less a parallelogram, elevated on columns of 
corynthian style, fine, even majestic, of fine lioz stone, with a trian- 
gular fi'ont , imposing through its simplicity. It has no Jieedless 
details, no over (jrnamentation. The impression is gathered from the 
austere and harmonious whole which has an expression of tranquil 
erandcur and cannot be found in any other theatre in South 

— 191. — 

It was Ixiilt tlnriny;' tlie rci^n cil' thu second umpuror oi IJrazil. It 
bf.l()iii;s to tlio State CJovernment, who lets it to national and 
roi-eign companies, talcing cave of it and improvinf;- it all the lime. 
It does not lose value as to architetuvo in its interior. It lias i'our 
rows of boxes, held on steel snpi^orts artistically decorated. The 
plafond holds suspended from its centre a beaulil'ul electric light 
lustre and is decorated with valuahle and artistic jjaintings, painted 
by the famous artist De Angelis, and is ex(]uisitely surrounded by 
high relief golden carvings. It is a theatre that honors tlie culture 
and importance of the city. 

The same can he said of the foyer ^\'ith l)eautiful inlaid floor, 
artistic paintings and well appointed furniture. Besides, it has a 
complete installation of electric lights, with machinery of its own, 
and all othei' improvements of a modern theatre, as really there 
is none in llio do .Taneiro. 

A Portuguese writer of repute visiting this sc^uare two years ago, 
said : « The Largo da Polvora shames our Avenida da Ijil)erdade 
in Lisbon. It has three times its width, it has nothing of that forced 
and uneasy ajjpearance of that double I'ow of simple houses of 
which the inhabitants of Lisbon become so proud, it has an immense 
statue of the Republica in the centre, well made, loosening from its 
bronze animated cries of victory and it almost can't be distinguish- 
ed from the faces of the square. If they could place there the 
Ti'iumpho Arch it would rivalize with the Champs I<]lysees. Through 
the street on the riglit, tramways, carriages and bicycles cross them- 
selves with horseback riders and pedestrians in an animated confu- 
sion. On the asphalt of the broad sidewalks drinking places, brasse- 
ries, serve their customers in small zinc tables on the sidewalk. 
They drink, speak, laugh, with joy and with life. 'I'lie Universal 
Club with its windows wide open displays its hall and reading room, 
where the profuse electric light throws its rays upon the luxurious 
furniture and beautiful 2)aintings. At the end of the entrance hall we 
guess a dining room by the snow-white covers on the small square 
tables, awaiting the members of the club who once in a while enjoy 
a tete-a-tete with their friends. And at the low verandahs the grace- 
ful heads of Para's fair sex seem to wraji in their jet black hair a 
whole wave of smoke. Human voices, noises of striking balls at the 
billiard tables, denounce the billiard room. 'I'hen further down in 
front of the central rond-poini is the majestic I'az tlunitre, dominat- 
ing the space with its circular line of terraces and rails. Once in a 
while a concert, an Italian opera company, a rare comic opera 
company makes the Paz theatre abandon its monumental serenitv. )> 


There is no exa^gei'ation in tlie coloring- and animation of this 
description made by this \\-riler in the above lines. W'e, ourselves, 
who have visited a respectable number o! cities in Brazil and abroad 
experimented that strong impression of admiration and pleasure, 
when for the first time ^^e were on one of those l)oulevards 
that, passing hy the large square, show us the splendour of 
its unequalled perspective. It was in the evening of the 15th. 
August, 1902, and as this date is celebi'ated in Para, (for the reason 
of its integration to the Brazilian fatlierland), there was special 
aspect of rejoicement and movement, wliich overflowed from the 
park and invaded the avenues in conjunction ^\■ith that multitude 
of carriages and pedestrians coming from them to the centre. The 
superb theatre was open, and through the thick foliage of the trees, 
over its decorations, its monu- 
mental greek columns Avhiten- 
ed by the ai'c lights, we could 
feel the poetical inspiration as 
springing forth fi'om an an- 
cient and noble sight. 

An act of justice, in sjiirit 
of fairness, compels us to 
repeat our 2)raises, making- 
known to the puldicthe name 
of that Brazilian who has 
contributed the most towards 
the gi-eatuess and embellish- 
ment of the capital of Para , 
sparing- no efforts, sacrificing 
everytliing , popularity, per- 
soiml intei'ests and sometimes 
even his health, in his ambi- 
tion to Europeanize the beau- 
tiful city of Belem. This name 

is Antonio Lemos and its owner is popularly known as Senator 
Lemos. He is the mayor of the city to-day and its inhabitants owe 
him all the great recent impi-ovements, its modernisation, its supe- 
riority, and he- is well worthy of having his statue in one of the 
public squares. For many years Senator Lemos has mortgaged his 
activity to Para. Everybody recognizes and proclaims the services 
he lias rendered to the city his patriotic collaboration, but in our 
opinion as a visitor of the city, we believe, nothing equals this great 
task he took on his shoulders, for some years past, and is realizing 


Tlic Ceiiielorv 

— 196 — 

with tenacity, niakins' tin; ti-ausfigm-ation ol' the did Belein city into 
this ])()\\ei'l'iil and iiKidern metropolis, wliicli is b(;c"uiing- in all its 
teatni-es, appeai-ance and lial)its, quite European. 

From llie tlieatrc to the church, tlie least it ujay seinn, there is 
not a gi-cal distance, ^\'e want then, lo write about some of tlie 
churches since we have written about the theatre. 

In a small s(|nai-e whore a beautiful garden has been arranged 
and where cal)S and carriages ior puljlic hire ai-e always to be seen, 
there is one oi' the city cliurehes. It is the Sant' Anna church, much 
frequented by the people because of its jxisition in the centre of the 
city-. It was built in the eighteenth century, we believe in 1761. It is 
simple in its exterior as it is inside. What we find wortliv of notice 

Belciii. — Tlie (.■liiircli of Our Ladv of Ilie Cui'ii 

is that in spite of having been built in olden times, it is not m the 
heavy style of those times. Its front, (luite simple, of straight lines, 
its two square towers, its modest dome, covered with glass to let 
the light in the interior of the church, are traits worth mentioning. 
In the interioi' besides the nuxin altar, there ai'c two otliers at the 
sides and in the choir is a good organ. 

Another church is the one of Our Lady of the Oarmo , of colonial 
times. It is of old style witli a slight idea of Italian art. It has a 
curious stone front finished in 170(i. It has a wing building on the 
right, facing the scjuare, and which formerly was the convent of that 
congregation, belonging to the foundei's of the church. 

— 11)7 — 

In the square, a large one, called Jnsfco Cliermont, is another 
elmreh niueh spoken of in Para. It is the one of Our Lady of Xaza- 
reth, \Yere yearly they hold a traditional feast that lasts several 
days, in whieh the entires xjopulation of the city take part, with great 
joy and enthusiasm. The church was built recently, 1802, and lias 
been enlarged in successive reforms, because the municipal author- 
ities, taking in great consideration the popular catholic sentiments 
of the inhabitants, surround of all care that church. It is ixuite 
curious to hjok at a department of the church where the sea-men 
for many years past come to bring presents offered to Our Lady of 
Nazareth in moments of danger. These are wax miniatures of boats 
and other objects of maritime life. That large collection of offerings, 
which, unfortunately, is being destroyed to make room for the new 
offerings that ai'e arriving every day, forms an instructive and 
curious museum of nautical art, which, if collected by an intelligent 
amateur, would afford later on valuable infoi'mation for the recon- 
struction of the history of Brazilian activity in maritime customs, 
in that part of the country. 

We could write yet about other churches all of them with histo- 
rical value, as the one of Trindade , recently rebuilt, the S. .Toilo 
Bajjtista one, the Santo Alexandre, and others, but we have other 
important subjects to deal with. 

Puisne Instkuctiox. — AVe will start this department by accom- 
panying our reader to the celebrated museum of natural history and 
ethnography, named Museu Goeldi, a richly deserved homage on 
the part of the State Government to the name of a learned Swiss 
scientist who for many j'cars is the director of that well know'n 
scientific institution. 

That liomage serves at the same time to enoble the wise scientist 
and to prove the highly cultured spirit of justice of the Brazilians 
of the North, who thus show that they know how to recognize 
the merit of any one irrespective of nationality or any other 

The Goeldi Museum is one of the most noted of Latin America. 
It has natural history collections classified with all the rigor, a rich 
anthropology and ethnographic department , preserved with all 
care, and in the zoological section, a really curious one, they 
exhibit live specimens, mainly of the Amazon, in cages, and the 
public are admitted free to see that exhibition twice a week. There 
is an horticultural-botanic department annexed to the museum, 
worthy of being visited for the careful selection and organisation of 


the catalogue ol' the. i;rea( variety "I' j)li\t()l()^ic'al S])cciiiiuns there 
planted botli in tlie open aii' and Iiot houses. 

'I'h(i publications of tlie muscMim are dis])uted by tlui studious 
class of the country and abroad, thanks to tin; abundance ol' infoi'- 
niation ol' investigation and studies that the\' contain. 

'Idle public library of the Ktate is one of the best oi'ganised in the 
country. It was founded on the :i.^tli. Febi-uary, l.STl, by Dr. J. P. 
]\raehado Portella. 

The State governor Dr. .Vngust Montenegro in 1901 annexed 
to tliat public department, the i)ublic archives, and to-day under the 
direction of Artliui- N'ianna, a jjatient investigator and bibliographer, 
native of Para, the two de]>artnients ai-e in tlie same building. \\'ii 
visited it in August of I'.KIl'. 

The librai'y had 2.5. OOo volumes, having a well organized cata- 
logue, and the books well arranged in iron bookstands disposed in 
the rooms so as to receive lots of air and light, according to Ame- 
rican system, and not placed against the walls, lining them as it 
used to be done foi'mcrly. 

A publication of value Os -" 

Annncs da Bibliolhccn e Ar- 
cluix) Publico completes a se- 
I'ies of good services rendered 
to the i)ublic instruction by 
that excellent institution. 

W'e ^\ill now speak of au 
establishment of manual work, 
obeying to the orientation of 
modern educators and to the 
necessity of practical teaching. 

It is the Lauro Sodre insti- 
tute installed in a splendid 
mansion , in tlu^ district of 
Marco da Legua and which is 
one of the most ehxpient proofs 
of the seriousness and 2)ati'io- 
tism of the Governmentof Para. 

Besides the. KM) boarding 
IDupils to whom the establish- 
ment furnishes instruction , 
house, clothing, food and everything, it accepts yet 100 pupils who 
slec]) outside and follow the agricultural course. 

The instruction administercnl in the institute has two general 


Ki'diil view of llic Laiiri) vSoiU-l' 

— 199 — 

eonrsi's : the primary, and that ol' ai)plication or prorcssional. 

Tlic primary course is just tlie same as in tlie Groverument Gram- 
mar schools, and the application course is sul)divided into industrial 
and agricultural courses. 

The industrial course comprises arts, trades and industries, xjro- 
perly speaking. The agricultural course embraces the study of 
agriculture, in any ol' its branches, cattle raising- and dairy indus- 

The industrial courses are : book-binding , compositors and 
printers work, graphic arts, stenograj^hy, painting, decorating of 
buildings, carpenting, iron-smith work, boiler making, tin-smith 
work, shoemakei' work, leathei' tanning ^\(lrk, tailoi'ing, electrical- 
telegraphy, joiner 's work, d^yer 's work, and machinist work. 

The agricultural work which confers the diploma of Agricultural 
Regent, is a six year theoretical course accompanied by the school 
practical work in experimental fields, and laboi'atories, tlie student 
before receiving his diploma being compelled to have one year prac- 
tice in an agricultural station, or in the same establishment. 

The institute has l'.( professors who teach : five of them the pri- 
mary course, equivalent to tlie grammar school, one gymnastics, one 
instrumental music, one French, one geograjjhy, one chronology and 
history, one arithmetics, one algebra and p)lain geometr\', one geome- 
try in the space, one trigonometry and elementary mechanics, one 
X^hysics and chemistry, one agriculture and industries, one zoologj^ 
elementary botany and agriculture, geology and mineralogy, one 
geometric and free liand drawing, one mechaiiical and architectui'al 
drawing, one cultivation of trees and horticulture, one agricultural 
engineering, rural buildings, i-ural and forestry technology, one 
vegetal entomology and microscopy, economy, countability and rural 
administration, and one animal hygiene, zootecliny, and elements of 
pathology and siderotechny. 

Visiting this instruction establishment, one of the best in Brazil, 
we had occasion to see among other things, great quantity of 
school furniture manufactured there for the public schools. 

The local government doesn't buy any more furniture for its 
public school. Everything is furnished by this institute as it 
furnished all the uniforms for the state troops, etc. 

It completes tlie practical demonstrations of the utility of this 
institute a well organised band formed by its students. 

The Escola do Commercio , another institute of practical 
teaching, is also worthy of mention, and modeled after the Business 
Colleges of the United States. It was installed on the 13th may 18U9. 

— 200 — 

The I'roquoney in tlie Kscola do Conimorcio is or w:is last year of 
■41.'! students. 

The fine arts study was not noglcci-ed in lliis state. 'l'I)er(! is a 
Conservatory named tJarlos Gomes, directed by tlie Brazilian maes- 
tro Meneleu Campos, and this is a seliool wortliy of all praise. It 
is installed in a Government building, and the o(,vernment spends 
with this institution forty contos yearly. When we visited this 
establishment the number of pujjils was l.'iC). 

The Fine Arts Academy, founded by a number of illustrious 
iiativesof Para, fond of arts, though it is a private school, is render- 
ing liigh services to the artistic education of the population. There 
are oO pupils in it. 

There are a number of other institutes devoted to instruction. 
The nature of this book does not allow us but to cite tlieir names. 
We would have to write scsveral volumes if we wanted to enter into 
the description of all the public instruction institutes of Pai'a and 
the other States of Brazil. 

We will mention the Gentil Bittencourt Institute, devoted to the 
or])lians and poor, and for it, a large building is being eonstrneted 
at the government 's expenses. The Orphenilato Parucn^c, also fen' 
the poor and oi'phans. The Benjamin Constant Lyceum, an arts and 
ti'ades institute, devoted to the working (dasses and the poor and 
maintained by a private society. Tnsdtnto Pacs do Carvalho, the 
expenses of which are made by the municipality. The Asyh) de 

— 201 — 

Saiito Aiildiiio. O Soniiiuii'io I'^piscopal, lor tluMjlogiciil inslroclion, 
and others the names of whieli I can't remember now. 

Among the private establisliments, I'eceiving Ijoarding pupils and 
outsiders, teaching i)rimai'y and secondary instruction we can 
renieml)er i'or hoys : xVtlieneu Pai'a3nse, one ol' tlie best of pi-ivate 
schools, disposing of an excellent board ol' prol'essoi's ; the Collegio 
Minerva, an estalilishment with but four years existence, and is in 
excellent conditions of prosperity ; The ('ollegio Imnuiculada Con- 


Sclioul 8rou|] Btiildiiig of .\azui'clli 

cei(;ao with a branch in the Amazon State; and tlie S. .Tose, and Onze 
de Agosto Colleges. 

For girls tliere are many schools and colleges, among wliicli we 
can rememfjer : Collegio Perseveranca, under the direction of a 
normal school teacher 1). Carlota Pistacchini ; Collegio Yalmont, 
entrusted to anotlier normal school teacher D. Maria Valmont; the 
Our Lady de Xazaretli, Fi'anco-Americano, Santa (Mara, Intei'nato 
Iramaculada conceicilo, Collegio Lisbonense, S. Lui/. Gonzaga and 
otlier establishments. 

— 202 — 

As to tlic i)riiii;u'y iiisti'iiction or griiiimiar scliools \v(; gatliorcd 
the following notes : 

In tlie eapital (lie seliools arc gatliered in groups, splendidly 
installed in governinenl buildings, ivieli group, is composed of six 
or eight scliools of hoth sexes. Are worthy of note those of the 
Baptista Campos square, magnilieent building, 700 pupils, the 
Xazareth one with ilOO pnpils and a splendid building. 

Dr. Amazonas de Figueiredo, secretary of tlie Para government, 
who is flic president of the Public Instruction Department, is a man 
of advanced ideas, a hustler, just lik(; an American, has been a 
powerful factor of the progress this hranch of public work has had 
lately, ^^'e owe to his kindness and to the care he devotes to the 
public instruction i)roblcm all the information we liave gathered 
here and the following data : 

Para has to-ilay besides tlu^ groui)S, -"TT isolated schools heing : 

Kli'Mii'iiUirv (UK'S 5il 

('.(iiii|ilciiiciil;ii'v (iiirs 30 

ToUil .')"7 

Tlie elementary ones are thus divided : 

SiiljiM'lis 30.') 

■Isl I'tiss ivilhises) 00 

211(1 cliiss ((.■ili(;si 8(5 

Oi'il chiss (caiiilul) 00 

Tdliil . . . . .'iH 

Besides these tliei'e ai'e school groups in the cities of Aleniquer, 
Curu(;a, Bragamja, and Sanlarem. Sixteen elementary schools and 
eight eom])lementary ones, being divided in 2 complementary and 
four elemiMitary in each groiij). 

TIk; school statistics of the State in the years IS'.)?, ISDS and 1890 
show the following data excluding tlm j)upils of the school groups 
in tlie capital numbering i.OOO : 

111 IK'J7 21.071 

III IWIK 20.!)7,S 

111 iHiio ai.orM) 

Para spends with public instruction about two thousand contos, 
gold, and gives l)esides a subsidy for a pedagogic publication named 
,1 Escola which is the best of its kind in South America. 

* * 

— ao3 — 

PiHLic IIeli*. — Othci' institutions tluit !;'i\(' prooi <>( tlie \)vn- 
u-ress and greatness of ]-Jelem are among the pul)lie iielp ones, tlie 
following : 

The City Hospital, known as the Santa C'asa da Misericordia, 
one of the best of Brazil, is an enormous huilding, pavillions system, 
isolated, but neai' one another with different wards, disposed under 
a scientific view point around the Central building consisting of two 
tall structures. It is splendidly situated, in a position to receive the 
winds fresh breeze, and in its whole reminds one of tlie Baliia city 
hospital, facing the ample fields. 

Bi'li'iu. — Asyluiii i'oi' the |ioi)r. Iiitei'ioi' Garden and Uei'ecloi'v ; Men's 8ide 

The Insane Asylum, is in the same conditions as the above, with 
regard to the make up and situation. It is a modern building, as it is 
)nodern all the intei'ior installation ordered from Europe by tlie 
present (Jovernoi'. The vast construction, with llirec prominent 
bodies, and its small dome, can be distinguished from among the 
neighboring buildings and gardens, as a monument raised by jiiety 
and science to relieve the misfortune of otliers. 

The Asvlo de Mendicidade inaugurated in 11102, is one of the best 


wt' hiwii seen. II. is in tlic Itiilian Classic style, sober, elegant and 
(Misis one Uidusand and (liree hnndred eontos. 

It is situaliMl on the right hand side, kil()inetr(! 11 o! the Bra- 
gan(;a. railway, between jNIarco da Legiia and Soiiza. 'I'iie vVsn-Io de 
jMt'udieidade has 7(i m. I'ront TJ.fiO metres (le])th, and oeeu])ies an 
area of 'i.Ti\~ ,i'ii) scjnare metres. 

Tlie building has thi'ee wings pei'|)endieulai' to the main build- 
ing. It has in the central wing accommodations i'or the Chapel, 
riiai-ina',\\', ^Mess room for the employees, clothing storage I'ooms, 
panti'.\-, kitchen, wliei'e thei'e is an immense iron stove manufactn- 
I'ed by the Bcrtn I'irm of Rio Grande do Sal, sleeping I'ooms, bath 
tubs foi' the directors and employees. 

We will not sa,\' much about the other ])uildings as the Asyk) 
1). Luiz I, belonging to a Portuguese association, and others. There 
is no space for it. 

^'et we can 't help it but to speak of some now under construc- 
tion, and which when finished will constitute so nuxny more impi'ove- 

ments for the city of Belem. They 
are : 'I'he Penitentiary a large 
building ; the Ai'upai'o College, 
and the Kxchange Building, all 
of marble on one of the sides of 
the Independoncia scpiare. These 
are works that will show the 
importance of the city. 

It would be unjust not to men- 
tion hei'c tlie New Market , built 
by Senator A. hemos. 

It is of iron and slate, and 
situated on the Boulevard da Re- 
l)ul)lica in a place known as Vcr 
o Peso (see the weight). This is a 
traditional name that the inhabi- 
tants of Para have preserved , 
while Senator Lemos does not 
realize his improvements project in the river side, transforming 
then things, places and names. 

The new market was inaugurated in December I'.HJl. It occupies 
a surface of 2.068 square metres on a parallelogram of ol"'X67™, 
with towers on the corners, and doesn't absolutely resemble the 
other markets in the Southerner Stat(^s, and worse yet the old Para 
jiiarket, which is yet up in Rua 15 de Novembro as a legitimate 

Sknator a. I.ksios. — liUendaiil olllio Bolem 

— 205 — 

representative of old arcliitectare tliou^h il is (^iiite large and clean. 

The I'ront measures 1"\ 10 until the superior lines of the eoi-nice 
which eonipletes 8"',2o I'or the total height of Ihe Ixiilding. 

There are other markets in Eeleni, but none is frecpiented as 
this one, neither is there any with such a fine aspect. 

* * 

The CoiijrEucE. — Once we are speaking of markets il occurs to 
us to say something about the commerce of Beleni. This capital of 
Para State, everyone knows it, is a large commercial market. And 
it couldn't be other\\ise if we are to consider its geographical posi- 
tion. In the main streets of the active business district we see 
magnificent stores, displaying large and beautiful sho\\- windows. 
A visible opulence testifies the power and the credit of the market. 
The merchants have, generally, advanced ideas, but they all have 
the same complaints to make, which are heard from tlie commercial 
class, about the crisis, dull business, scarcity of mone\" and all that 
kind of talk, just the same as in Rio, in Babia, in S. Paulo, and yet 
the importation grows at large pace, and the volume of business in 
all branches becomes larger every day. It is an eternal custom 
inherited from the I'ortuguese, this one of complaining for ever of 

One who listens to a Brazilian lamenting national decadence, the 
crimes of the government, the adversities of e\er\- day or the bad 
condition of ex'ei'ything, the infei'iority of the ])resent. the bad 
business, would believe, that then; is going to be a tremendous 
crisis, a serious misfortune threatening the nation. But after all the 
truth is tluit the country goes ahead. T]\e figures take charge of 
speaking to us a language which is not so sad, and we bec()me calm, . 
in the end when we glance over them. 

This is the reason why we prefer to jot down those figures than 
listen to the complaints of those people. 

Until 1807 the banks of Para used to give a dixidend of ti and 7 
per cent, and does the reader want to know how many ))anks operate 
there, not including private banking houses? 

Here they are : 

ll.inlis. Cnpiliil. 

ijo i'ai':i iri.ooiiiooo.'jnon 

Comraercial do I'ar'i M.000:000,«(;0()0 

>'oi-te do Pari! ^2.un():0f)0$000 

Belom (1(1 Para i>.000:000$n(IO 

D(j Credilo P(j|iiMar I 000:000iS;000 

Loii(l(jii & Brazilian Bank £ I. ."10(1. 0(10 

River Plale Barilv £ L.jOO.OOO 

— 20(i — 

The sliii)s which entered the pm'L o!' tliat rapital in 1881 were 
oil witli i-Tj. 181 tons (lisplacenieni. In i8',)l tliere entered Hl(.) ships 
with I7:.*.:i()() tons displacement ! Over the double inci'ease in a 

The importations which in 1881 n-ave a total of 16. HOT : '.UlSOdO, 
in 18'.»1 went up to 3 1.7 10 : .jOoSooo. 

A side ol' the commercial development >;rows the local industry, 
and tlioiio'li all the activity is devoted to the exi)loitation of tl]e 
forests and its kindred industries, sawing- mills etc., there begin to 
ap2)ear different factories. 


MMiisuloum ol' Gi'iieriil Cnirjrio iji llie ^olidade C(jiiiclur\ 

Some of these are installed in the capital itself, others in other 
cities. The most important are the ropes, shirts, ready nuide clothing 
and paper ones, all of them working with steam. There are yet 
othei's manufacturing sanitary crockery, biscuits, t'andles, soap, ice, 
masses, carriages, sugar refineries and alcohol distillers. In Santa- 
I'em and Braganca and other cities there are sawing mills, lime 
factories, small ship-yards etc. 

— 207 — 

The transportation service, is made by cabs and carriages and 
horse cars, but the niiiiiicii)ality has alreard,\^ sigiuMl a contract to 
change the animal traction ol' the tramways i'or (electricity. 'J'lie old 
tramway company belonged to a Brazilian enterpi-ize, and its cars 
not only run thrcnigh the city, but go to the suburbs like Marco da 
Legna and other places. 

(^ne of those lines goes to Jose Boniracio street where one of 
Belem cemetoi'ies is situated. 

Let us go in. They call it the vSanta Isabel cemetery. It was inau- 
gurated in 1880, on the 15 th., August. 

When we visited it, there were lots of flowers. From tlie gate runs 
a wide street filled with trees crossed by narrower ones lined with 
marble stones with the conventional inscriptions — Here it is, — 
about which a writer once said to be the biggest of lies. The grave 
yard occupies 90.08.5 square metres in a part of the city looking 
towards the Guamii river. It has a railing all around and small 
chapel in gothic style is one of the most interesting we have seen. 

Inside in mute squai'es tliere are the rows of tombs, ^^'e noted 
one where Eusebio Martin's family lies, having on toji an angel wliite 
as snow. We noted yet another belonging to the Bacbcco family in 
old style, but none had such a striking a])pearance as one at the 
right re])resenting the Eyffel tower, in iron, with this simple word 
— l)erpetual. — 

The keeper couldn 't explain the meaning of it. There were quite 
a number of private monuments, some rich and artistic ones. 

The State troops. — The I'cgiment of the State of Para is one 
of the best organized military bodies of Brazil. It is composed of 
two battalions of infantry with 1.000 men, a squadron of cavalry 
with 200 men and an auxiliary artillery company with 100 men. 

The uniforms are similar to tlujse of the State troo])S in Bahia 
and they have modern guns and the horses are from the Biver Plate. 

The different companies under the eommand-in-chief of a Fede- 
ral Ai'my officer who is to-day Colonel vSergio Fontoura. We saw 
several fencing diills, rifle target-shooting and general mancjeuvring 
di'ills, and we can assure that oven in the I'cgular army no bettei' 
drilled men can be found than these State troops soldiers of Para. 

Besides this military foi-ce, charged with the police sei'vice of 
the whole state, the municipality maintains under the foi'm of mili- 
tary organisation a fire com])any ^\■ith 120 men, well disei])lined. 

— 208 — 

Tlieii- uiiirdrms arc clegrtiil. ol' Uiick gnu'isli clotli, the material for 
tlic I'ii-e (Icpai'tniciit work is excollunt ami Umy liax'c a lieautil'iil and 
a(k'(|iiate building lor (hcii- quarters. It lias two sciniratc pavil- 
lioiis, eoiineoted 1)\' a ceiiti-al arch quite ])i-ottv. This lii-e depart- 
ment company has a band ol' music that has ^\'on reputation all over 
the counti'v, and is one of (lie prides of the city whose municipality 
sjiares no exjienses to keep up its rejiutation. 

Tlie nari'ow plan of this book prevents us from g'oin<;' into small 
er details about this beautiful city of Belein, to speak of its many 
and fine soi'ial clubs, its police service, iiublic liygiene, benefit asso- 
ciations, its most impoi'tant press, undoubtedly the most advanced 

TypL' i)( i-('vnlvri' guns iis iiseil \>\ llie SUik' ■Mililarv Kpginierit at Par: 

in the Xortli, having- as its leader the (c Prouincia » the best Northern 
])aper not only for its make up but for its influence and prestige. It 
would do honor even to a large European or American city. It circu- 
lates all over the country and no other provincial paper can rivalize 
with it. 

For the same I'eason we abstain from wi'iting about a num- 
lier of interior cities wortliy of mention , some just springing 
lip, others already in full dev(dopment. Opening an exception 
we will speak about two of them. They are Bi'aganca and 
.Santarein. Tlie latter as we said above is on the i-ight bank of the 
Ta))aj6z river, one of those Amazon tributaries that cause wonder 
to the foi-eigner. It is the seat of the municipality of the same name, 

— 209 — 

it has pretty orficial and private buildings, a beautiliil palace wliere 
the Municipal Council meets, as well as are held the Court sessions. 
It was built in 18(37 and is in the centre of Sad .Sebastian Square. 
There is also the municipal dock and storag-e house strongly built 
according to the necessities of the local commerce, the new market 
built in 18U7, two catholic churches, one oi which is quite large, 
named Our Lady of Conceicao. There is yet a theatre — the Vic- 
toria — situated in Republica Square. It was built in 1S0,5 by a pri- 

Bclem. — Building of Aveiiida Deodoro's scliolar group 

vate association, that offered it unconditionally to the municii^ality. 
The production of Santai'em is the cocoa, Brazilian chestnuts, fish, 
rubber, tobacco and cattle, all of which is produced with great abun- 
dance. It has among other agricultural and industrial establishments, 
steam sawing mills, lime and brick factories, and sugar cane brandy 
distillers, as well as ship.\'ai'ds well mounted for repairs in ships 
and steamers, and belonging to ricli enterprizers. Due to these 
present conditions of develo])ment with large future possibilities, 
Santarem is an accessible and to-day much frequented port, not only 
by the steamers of regular lines calling there, but by those which run 

— aio — 

up tlic Amazon in long trips -witliout liaving to call there, but to 
Santarom they go al'ter the many and abundant products it exports. 

When we visited that important interior city in July 1002 , its 
mayor was Mr. Raymundo E. Correa an intelligent and clever man 
and great worker of the local progress. 

The municipality of Braganca has as seat the city of the same 
name which will soon be connected with the capital oi the State by 
I'ailway, partly constructed and already in ox^cration. This is a great 
commercial municipality situated in the oceanic region of the State, 
and extending itself from the river Quatipurii until tlie Boranonga 

It is bounded in the North by the ocean, in the South by the Ourem 
municipality, in the East by the Vizen municipality and in the ^^'est 
by the municipality of Matipurii. Besides those two rivers it has 
the Caete, Arumaj<), Aturiahy, Imborahy, Peroba, Araliy, all navi- 
gated by small boats. It is one of the best municipalities from the 
agricultui'al stand point. Everywhere we can see sugar cane planta- 
tions, rice, beans, e<n'n, tobacco, the latter being a source of wealth 
as it is considered as one of the best in Brazil. 

Cattle mising is cari'ied on to considerable extent in this muni- 
cipality, whei'c besides its immense fields all along the North and 
West, has magnificent nmrines by the seashoi'e which can be used 
to advantage for that xDurpose. 

The seat of the municipality, the city of Braganca, is on the left 
side of the Caete river, on a tract of land slightly inclined. Two 
rivei'S that limit the city on the North, South and '\^'est, — Rio 
Grande and Riozinho — furnish the city with the best desirable 

The city has 11 streets and 13 lanes. Eour of these streets, 
including the ^'isconde do liio Branco one, were lately paved and 
the sewage exits cimented. Five of th(^ lanes underwent the same 
improvement and that work keeps on being done in the other streets. 

It has six squares called : Generalissimo Deodoro da Fronseca, 
S. Benedicto, Matriz, Republica, Concei(^-ao and Santa Rosa de Li- 
ma. They are all I'illed with trees. The Deodoro da Fronseca one, 
where the municii)al palace is, Rejiublica and Conceicao have rows 
of beautiful luiingiiciros trees. 

The S. Benedicto, Republica, Matriz and Deodoro da Fonseca 
are surrundeil by beautiful private buildings. 

Recently an avenue was opened, called Augusto Montenegro, 
measuring 50(» in length and M in width, beginning at Republica 
sqiuxre, an<l ending in the river Rio (Jrande. Another avenue is 

— 211 — 

about to be opened, in a beautil'ul district and it will be called vSena- 
tor Lemos. That avenue will be crossed by the x^uIjUc roads : Bacu- 
rytena, Campo de Cima, and Campo de Baixo. 

For the loading and unloading of cargoes and landing of passen- 
gers, Bragau(;a has Tour bridges, two in use, one l)eing rebuilt and 
the other in construction. 

The municipal building (City Hall) has 22 metres front, U,50 in 
height and oO metres deep. In it arc the courts, the municipal 
council and the different departments of the same council in the 
upper floor and on the ground floor is the jail and the barracks. 
This building was erected in September 1901. 

Dr. Augusto Montenegro. — Governor of the Para Stale 

Besides the municipal building above mentioned, there are yet in 
the city the building of the jniblic mai'ket and the pretty building of 
the school house « Correa de Freitas ». The city is illuminated by 
19t3 kerozene lamps of an improved model. 

In the municipality of Braganf;athe local Government established 
a colony under the name of Benjamin Constant, with national and 
Spanish workingmen. This colony was connected with the seashore 

— 212 — 

by a railway nine kiloinetros long, Deronville system, and is pros- 
pering a good ileal. The iiiaydr of Braganoa is Mr. Antonio Pedro 
da S. Tereira, to whose kindness we owe the information we 

'I'liis eity w ill improve a good deal more when the railway wliieh 
runs in full operation 141 kilometres shall reaeh there. 

'IMie state of Para has seriously attended to the colonisation pro- 
blem, l)eing worthy of praise the interest the Gorvernor of the State, 
Dr. Montenegro lias taken in this regard. Here is a list of the 
colonies already emancipated in the several municipalities of the 
State of Para. 


Sanla Kosa .... 
Kerreira Peiiiia . . . 
Jose do AleiU'ur. 
liihaiiga[iy .... 


Benjamin Coiislaiit . . 
Graiija-Amcrioa . . . 
Aiiiiila Garil)aUli 
Mara|iiiiiim .... 
.lambii-assu .... 
Santa Hita do Car'anii . 


jMonle Alegrc . . . 















































In this moment Parii disembarassed from that great commercial 
depression from 1000 to 1902, re-enters an era of activity. Its admi- 
nistration has found the right man in Dr. xVugusto Montenegro. He 
is a clever and well educated man, a patriot, entei'prizing but calm, 
tolerant but energetic. This illustrious Brazilian gave to the govern- 
ment of that part of the Republic a new and sound impulse, correct- 
ing what was to be corrected, awaking what was there to be 
created, elevating that way the namc^ of the State of Para, in the 
general o])inion of the country and placing it in the place it had a 

right to occupy I'or its social, political, cconoinical ami commercial 
importance. Thanks to this able and disci'eet governor, the great 
northern State went through the events of a tremendous financial cri- 
sis which the country suffered for over three years without feeling- 
much of its bad effects, and now the wealthy State has lecuperated 
its traditional habits of Avork and jjroductivity, and presents itself 
before the Federation as a model to be followed, and example to sti- 
mulate others. 

The following words with whicli Dr. Montenegro closed his mes- 
sage to the State Congress in 1902, explain better than any other 
document, the miracle of the excellent administration that saved Para 
from the dangers and adversities, which have threatened it of late, 
placing it on the solid gi-ound we found it on those days of our visit 
to that region : 

<( I have employed, he, said, my activity in all the branches in 
whicli public sei'vice is divided. None of the administrative subjects 
have been neglected by me, as I understand that only oi'der and me- 
thod can serve as guides to an administrator, in the midst of the 
complications of a government excessive difficulties brought about 
by a crisis which caused wontler to many and disturbed everybody. 

I have an unshakable faith that the way I traced for myself to 
follow is the only one which will lead us to the raising of the econo- 
mical and financial level of our State and I have confidence that the 
earnest efforts employed will soon be crowned by complete success. 

"We must convince ourselves that this is an age of sacrifices, and 
our strict duty is to do them. Later on we will gather the fruit of the 
sound, modest and reflected and at the same time energetic and 
honest politics, that we are at x)resent following. )> 

We M'ere eye witnesses of all sorts of results brought to the Para 
State through this benefit politics. The existing anarchy ceased, 
the disturbances that dreamt of dominating the streams of Belem 
ceased also. The laboring tranquility has been re-established, that 
tranquility that generates the public wealth and the welfare of the 
population. The commercial classes recommenced their work of the 
expansion of business, of the re-edification of the credit shaken by 
the late crisis. 

In short : Para by its constant progress, by the political and 
administrative order that presides to-day under the care of a young 
patriot, learned and honest, as Dr. Montenegro is, occupies now a 
beautiful place at the head of the 20 States of the Brazilian federa- 
tion and everything indicates it will keep its place. 

— 214 


On a Monday of July, 1902, in the morning we were entering the 
l)ar of Maranhao on board of the « Pernambuco » of the Brazilian 
Lloyd company. 

At the entrance of the bar there is an ancient bulwark of circular 
form, the work of the Portuguese. The horizon around is lined with 
luimble green hills. The city is at the bottom on the left, upon a hill. 
The port is not a favorable one, at least for a shi}) of deep 
draught. They told us, however, that big ships have already entered 

What we saw was that the bottom was low. The color of the 
water indicates it. Thick spots delineate from side to side, the neu- 
tre green of the tranquil basin, marking the presence of large sand 
banks. The mud thickens with the time and the banks grow larger 
and spoil the poi't and narrow the caiulls. 

Our steamer could not penetrate, we 
anchored outside awaiting the high tide. 
Fi'om there we could see high ravines 
of red eai'th, cut straight down. In the 
anchorage there is some animation, there 
ai-e several steamers unloading. A boat 
is starting. It belongs to the navigation 
line between S. Luiz and Caxias. 
Later on our steamer went in. 
Now we can see from near the city, 
that agglomeration of buildings of all 
colors, i-os(\ yellow, blue, white, all lean- 
ing against the mountain. Several 
chimneys let out clouds of smoke that 
dirty the pretty blue of the sky, sing the hynm of industrial labor. 
At the proportion grows nearer the city we discover othei- fronts of 
houses, some large, some small, some grouped together, some isolat- 
ed, in the same attitude of going up the hill, some coming down, 
some going up. 

Tliis city was at one time the most important in the Xorth of Bra- 
zil, but Bclem, the capital of Para State, exceeded it in population 
and wealth. It did not exceed it, however, in the love for the sciences 

Senator Beneouto Leite 

— ai5 — 

and literature, wliicli the native oT ^Maranliao keeps ^^ itli jealousy 
and pride, the just pride ot its intelleetual traditions, that s'ave to the 
eapital of the State the title ol Brazilian Athens, title disputed also 
by the State of Bahia. And — curious thin<^- — it isn't only in that, 
that S. Luiz, capital of Maranhao reseml)les Bahia. Its sti'eets and 

S. Luiz. 

Tlie Municipal Ailmijiislraliou 

inclined plan, its large numl)er of buildings of Portuguese style etc., 
bring recollections of Bahia, the old capital of Brazil. 

There are two capitals of Brazilian States Avhich ai'c not, properly 
said, in tlie State, that is placed in its continental territory, but in an 
isolated fragment of it, inside of islands, which more or less geogra- 
phical belong to the State, but, after all, separated by the sea, such 




— 217 -^ 

cities present tliat peeiiliarity : (hey are insular capitals, heads sepa- 
rated from the hudies they direct ; one is Desterro, in the Scnith, tlie 
other is S. Lniz in the North. 

Like Desterro, also, S. Lniz lacks the aspects of modern capitals. 
It is, however, the most inipoi'tant sea coast city hetween Recife and 

It was built by the Frencli. A certain Mr. La Ravardiere, founded 
it in 1610 and in honor of Louis the thirteenth gave it the name 
of S. Luiz, name it has preserved to this day. 

The city is placed on an uneven ground, with some places lower 
than others. We go up, as we land, by a steej) inclined street which 
leads to the Mtiranhense avenue. At the left is the governor's palace 
and that of the municipality (the city hall), modest buildings, of the 
time of the Portuguese , and preserved by the administration that 
deems it wiser to invest the State money in schools, gymnasiums, 
etc., than in reforming old buildings. When the conditions of the 
public fonds are better the reform of the buildings will be made 
from top to the bottom. 

The governor's palace was formerly a convent. It is an enormous 
building with two floors, treated with care and clean. The main hall, 
decorated with sobriety and decency, is on the upper floor, and 
awaj' inside are the different departments of the (jrovernoi''s office. 
In the front a lai'ge door opens showing the splendid staii'way 
entrance of Portuguese marble. The stairway leads to the xnnvate 
office and the different departments of the Government. 

At the side of this building is the City Hall, also with two floors, 
witli a front which doesn't display luxury but doesn't cause a bad 
impression to the visitor. AVe went through the whole building in 
August of 1902. The mayor of the city was Colonel Nuno Alvares da 
Cunha, a pleasant gentleman to whom the city owes great improve- 
ments. Everything we saw was praise worthy. In a part of this 
building is temporarilly installed the local legislature. 

The buildings in S. Luiz have notli ing characteristic, but the 
modern buildings, which are not now in small number, are modi- 
tying in a gaily way that tone of antiquity of the active capital of 

The streets are paved and much cleaner than the streets of many 
a city in other States. A large number are of pleasant aspect, and 
unexpected, thanks to the inclination of the soil. 

The administration of the last years , lias employed earnest 
efforts, which the natives of Maranhao must thank for. It ordered 
the ti'ansforniation of the empty fields into gardens. 

— 218 — 

The Ecucdicto Lcite S(juiii'c, I'oi' instance, though small is an 
expressive homage to the patriot whose services to Maranhiio can 
never be over compensated. It has a heautil'nl garden, and is really 
charming in its I'eature of park mignon. 

In front of the old Carmo convent was also an empty square, 
abandoned, but to-day has been levelled and planted with pretty 
bushes and ti'ces. They call it Joao Ijisboa square, in homage to the 
great Brazilian writer of that name. 

S. Luiz. — liiMii'dicIo Leilu Square 

Odorico Mendes — wliich presents the 

Another square is the 
same cliarming aspect. 

Our preferences, however, go to the large and beautiful Gonc^-alves 
Dias square. 

We will now make a little opening : 

In the South the squares are christened with names of generals 

and admirals. There in S. Luiz they prefer the names of poets and 

— 219 — 

literary men. It is a little exteriorisatioii of the soul ol' those people. 
Ex-abundancia, cniin cordis os lo(]ui(ur, (the mouth speaks of the 
one whose heart is fall), says the book of hooks. 

But, going hack to our subject, none of those city 's squares pleas- 
ed me as much as the one dedicated to the celebrated poet. It is 
surrounded of palm trees, through which can be seen the figure of 
the poet that so much loved that city. 

^^ ^V 


S. Luiz. — Goiiiiilves Dias Moimmeiit 

It is placed on an original mai'ble column erected in the centre 
of the square, standing in the attitude of one who contemplates the 
sea. We said original column and will exjjlain why : because it is 
different from all others of its kind, because the column instead of 
surrounded of acantho and oak leaves, lias palms as we see in the 
egyptian constructions. It is a new type of column. But let us leave 
the troubadour where he is surrounded by his favorite palm fre(»s, 
as he said in his verses 

— 220 — 

A'e.s\ve logur xoliinrin 

Sen fadario 
J)e ver <> mar se recreiii ; 
J)e o ver it tarde dorineiUe, 

Siispirar na hranca areiu 

ilii lli:il Idiicly |ilace liis lalal lol liiiils recrT'alioii in c(jnliMii|jl;ilii]g lln' sea; in lool^ing 
al il ill SHci'l sl('C|i sigliiiig on llie while sand.) 

Let US go on visiting the eity. 

In one of the angles of the siiuare they are finishing a prett\' and 
large ehureh of gothic style, which is going to be one of the deco- 
rations of the city and ^vill be called our Lady dos Remedios. 

, S •T'^yX'-vL^ AS^S^V-^.'-iy,,-?;?' -C .^-.iS&i 

S. Lniz. — Gomes tie Oasli'o Avenne 

Contrasting witli the old streets, new streets are being torn wide, 
with I'ows of trees and they will speak in the future well deserved 
praises to the present administration. 

Among them we mention the Gomes de Castro Avenue, wide and 
level, with a nice disi^lay of illumination and pretty trees. 

Among the buildings worthy of note we will cite the 8. Luiz 
tlu^atre, a large building a-eceutly rebuilt, \\itli capacity to seat 1000 
])eo])Ie and nicely furnished. The curtain was painted by Coliva a 
sccnogra])her of I'epute in Rio de Janeiro. The interior has a fine 
aspect and four rows of boxes. 

— 221 — 

In the broad vestibule we see I'ine oil paintings, pictures of cele- 
brated writers and actors. 

The Campo de Ourique barracks, enormous building- is note wor- 
thy because ol' its large proportions, though it is not so i'or its archi- 

The city is crossed by street I'ailway lines, and though to-day the 
trams are drawn by animal traction, arrangements are being made 
to introduce electricity. There is a company supplying the water i'or 

S. Luiz. — Reading-room of the Public Library 

the city, conveniently sent through pipes, and another one furnish- 
ing hidro-carbonic gas tor the illumination. 

According to statistics data of 1809, there were in the city 29 dry 
goods houses and groceries, 181 retail groceries, 5 hardware stores, 

grain exporters, 6 sugar export houses, IS lumber yards, 22 shoe 
stores, 14 lime stores, 7 sewing-machines stores, H mineral waters, 

1 powder, li crockery, 3 bric-a-brac, 3 coal, 10 cigar stores, 2 billiard 

— 222 — 

rooms, 20 Lakers, 11 sugar refineries, 2 livery stables, 5 book stores, 
1 auctioneers, 5 Ii(|uor stores, 20 buteiiers, and 12 pork moreliants. 
There are also, 7 private sehools for boys, 5 for girls, 20 i)rofessors 
of languages and sciences, .'! of drawing, 2 of book-keeping, 11 of 
music, r> civil engineers, Ki jjliysicians, 2 dentists, 8 pharmacies, 
1-1 lawyers, (i solicitors, .'lo compositors, l)(5 book-keepers, 1 ste- 
nographer, 2:> tailor shops, 23 barber shops, 8 trunk manufactur- 
ers, 20 tinsmith shops, 2() shoemakers, 2K cabinetmakers, 21 dress- 
makers, 10 goldsmiths, o boiler makers, 4 stone-jewellers, 1 calker, 
4 watch makers, 7 ironsmiths, 1 images maker, 1 wooden-soled shoes 
manufacturers, 6 cooj)ers, 5 music instruments manufacturers, 1 
matrasses nuiker, 1 sadler, 2 engravers, 3 undertakers, 2 hotels and 


S. Liiiz. — S' AiitcjiiiiKi's CluirL-li and S(iiiiii'( 

boarding houses, 3 photographers, 8 printing offices, 4 piano tuners, 
1 gilder, 3 builders, binders, 8 stevedores, 1 upholster, 2 iron foun- 
dries, 5 lighters owners, 12 boat owners, 2 shipyards and (luite a 
number of factoi'ies. 

Industry, Commerce, Navigation. — One thing that can't help 
being referred to by the visitor if he has to speak about the city, is 
the number relatively lai'ge of factories working in S. l^uiz. Cotton 
mills alone we counted six, and still there are two other threading 
mills, one lead factory, one crockery, one matches, six rice, five 
olive oil factories, three alcoholic drinks distillers, one shoe, two 

— 223 — 

candle, two hat and two umbrella manufacturers, two factories of 
ladies hats, two chocolate, seven fire works, two hosiery, six soap 
and six vinegar factories, and two steam saw-mills, 

There are three banks in vS. Luiz, and among other enterprizes 
there are two raih\ay companies and the navigation ones which 
carry to far away cities alongshore the proof of Maranhao's activity. 

They are the « Companhia Fluvial Maranhense », and the « Com- 
panhia de Navegacao a Vapor «. 

The latter the most important one, is subsidized by tlie fede- 
ral government, sends its steamers as far as Manaos and Rio de 

S. Luiz. — View of a Pari, of tlic (t nia do S(]l » 

Janeiro, being the owner of the following steamers : Oriente, Deci- 
de nte , Colombo, Cabral , and Continente , lately received from 
Europe, and for the river navigation the tug-boats : Mearim, Gomes 
de Castro, Caxiense, Ypiranga and Maranhense, and 26 boats to be 
towed and seven lighters. 

The Comjianhia Fluvial Maranhense, subsidized by the State 
government with .36 contos yearly devotes itself altogether to the 
river navigation for which service it has five small steamers : 
Vianna, Victoria, Barao de Grajahu, Gonqalves Dias and Lidador 
and eight lighters. 

The Grajahu river navigation not long ago considered impracti- 
cable, was inaugurated two years ago, by this company. These two 

— 224 — 

enterprizes, that have rendered so nuiiiy useful services to the pro- 
gress of the State , sliow at tlie same time the aptitude of tlie 
natives of Maranliao, for business and industrial pursuits. 

We will now give a table of the cnterpi'izes established at present 
in Maranhao according to the information of Mr. Fram Pacheco : 

Local Enterprizes Capital realized 

Banni flo Maraiili.'io 1.550;n00$000 

Banco Cimiiiicrcki do Maraiiliao I.5.tI:.500$000 

Banco Hjpotliecario e Commercial do Maranhao . . 1.020:000^000 

Comiianhia Fabril Maranliense 1.700:000^000 

Companliia Fiacao e Tecido.s do Bio Anil I .;)7o:C90S000 

Conipanhia do >;avega(:ao a Vapor do Mai' . . I..')00:000g000 

Conipanhia Kiarrio c Tociilos Maronliciiso 1.200:000S000 

Companliia Fiac'ao e Tecidos de Canliamo .... 900:000$000 

Companhia Jlanufactiii'cira e .Vgricdia do Maranli.'io . 899:90n$000 

Companliia llniao Caxiense 8.5O:0n0S00(l 

Companliia Progrcsso .\gricola 7,'5i:200S00fl 

Companliia do llluminai'.'io a C,:a 5i0:000.$000 

Compaiilii:i Indiislrial Caxiense .■i00:000Sn00 

Campanliia da,s ,\giias S. Liiiz .il.i:O00$non 

Companliia Fhivial Maranliense i36:0nos000 

Companliia Ferro (^arril ^Maranliense .i00:0n0$600 

Companliia Sania Amelia lanliga Lanilicios) .... 500:OO9S000 

Companliia de Segnros Maranliense 2.")0:OOflS0OO 

Campanliia Indiislrial Maranliense 2.i7:7.i0§000 

Companliia Alliani.a 2l0:0n0S000 

Companliia I'opiilar Segiiradora 200:000^000 

Comiianhia Fsiiia Caslello 160:000$000 

Companhia Fabrico do (^liumlio 1E)0:000$000 

Companhia de Segnros Ksperanea 100:000^000 

Companhia TeleplKiniea 40:000$000 

Engenho d'Agna, em Caxias 5:30:000^000 

Empreza Tecelagem S. Lniz 500:000^000 

Empreza Fabriea de Phosphoros 270:000S0O0 

Usina Benascenea, em Poriciiman Io0;000$000 

Empreza Sanharo, em Caxias 100:000^000 

As to railways there are two in Maranliao : 

From Caxias to Cajazeiras. ... 79 kilometres 
From Engenho Central to S. Pedro. 10 kilometres 

The one from Caxias to Araguaya is now being constructed and 
will be 182 kilometres lone:. 

PUHLIC IXSTRUCriOX AN'D Cui/n'RE. — \Vo will UOW <;'ive SOUKi 

inl'ormation on the institutes ol i)iiblic instruction in tlio capital. 

The first place belongs to the grand literary temple ^^■hich is its 
Public Library. It is installed in a Governuient building, the halls 
are airy, roomy and well illuminated. They arc filled with wooden 
bookstands containing 19,000 volumes carefully watched over by 
the librai'ian, Mr. Antonio Lobo, who organised its catalogue. lie is 
one of the most competent men in Brazil for this branch of work, not 
only because of his scientific culture, but because of his special 
knowledge on bibliography and librai'ianship, so well in evidence in 
his work while directing that establishment. 

S. Luiz. — Part of the « rua dos Hemedios » 

One of the good innovations of the Maranliao Library, is the 
ladies sectifin, where a special collection for them is to be found, 
consisting mainly of vulgarisation books, fashion pa])ers, books on 
art and household affairs, etc. 

Another institution we visited witJi great pleasure was the Model 
School, founded by Dr Benedicto Leite, Senator, political-chief and 
now governor of the State. We were there on a weekday, it was the 
4th. of Septenibre 1U02. The establishment was filled with pupils. They 
presented an appearance of contentment. The professors in the class 
rooms, taught them wise teachings of universal knowledge, handled 
the specimens of the natural history cabinet, the complicated vases 
of the chemistry laboi'atory, while in other halls the pedagogy profcs- 

— 226 — 

sors gave lessons ol' things by (lie Kr<i'bel system, explaining- solid 
bodies, its I'onns, etc., in a pi'aetical way sllO^\'ing tlic, objects to the 
pupils. And one hundred heads of all shades, from the light blonde tf) 
the darkest bi-unette, attentive, with bright h)oks, accompanied the 
rythm of that grave ceremony, ihe most grave and most beautiful, 
of the State's performance of duties — to transmit ideas and notions 
to the young brains thirstj' for knowledge. They all listened with at- 
tention and pleasure to the professors teachings. And how the State 
cares seriously for the mission it undertook to pei'foi-ra ! It suffices 

Lar'gc Alaiiufarldi-y (][ eoUoii tissues « .Maiiul'aclora C.axieiise » 

to say that the director of ifiat establishment is a man of prominence 
in politics and in opposition to the government, but he was a compe- 
tent man, and that drawback was overlooked, as comijcteney was the 
only recpiirement to be exacted from him to be entrusted with that 
position. This is an institution that honors Marauhao. It lias cabi- 
nets and laboi-atories for the study of natural liistory, physics, che- 
mistry, it has a pedagogic museum, gymnastic apparatus, (modern 
gymnastic) sewing and ladies works section, etc. 

The music school recently founded is a good institute for artistic 
teaching and it is under the direction of the maestro A. Rayol. 

Public instruction is administered through the State by 217 gram- 

— 227 — 

mar schools, and a i'cw liio-h schools, in the capital, as the, Maranhenso 
Lyceum, Theological Seminary and others. 
There are in the capital 10 private schools : 

For o'ii'is (; 

For hoys 10 

Total. . . IG 
which ^Yere l'ret[uented in 1U02 by 1.08.^. scholars : 

Boys 480 

Girls 605 

Total. . . 1.085 

^^«»*.**B..#S-«»^fc*?^«ii^i2;;« -7 "^^^^^^^^^^fy , ,^^Jgy^^^ ^ . 

S. Luiz. — Da Misei'icordia HospHal 

The S. Luiz city is one of the Brazilian cities whei'C the Portu- 
guese element has established deeper roots. Just as Rio and Baliia 
it presents to the visitor in its buildings and many of its customs 
and even in the large number of negroes in relation to the total of 
population, just so many recollections not easily forgotten of the 
l^assage of the Portuguese colonist in those regions. Not long ago 
J. Leitao, a Portuguese joui'nalist wrote : (( In Maranhao the vestige 
of our colonisation is recognised even by the vices of Portuguese 
language and by our provincialisms adopted by them. >■> 

Another foreigner obsei'ver, Mr. Temple, the English consul in 
his official report on the .State of Maranhao wrote : « There; are in 
the interior a large number of Indians in their primitive state, at 

-- 228 -- 

the same time that the proportion of neg'rocs in the e.ities and civilis- 
ed spots, due to the hirgi' •"il'"i't''>'"<"i "'' slaves in past years, is 
perhaps larf^er in ^tlaranhao than in any other state of Brazil, 
excepting' Bahia. » 

The illustrious writer Frani Pacheco, who so brilliantly edits in 
Maranhiio the Rcni^iln do Xnrle, commenting this remark of the 
English consul in his report, wrote in his turn the following para- 
graph , which corroborates our assertion : « The excess of negroes, 
stated by the English consul, is, unfortunately for us, true. This 
race, indolent and full of vices, though extremely affectionate, em- 
bodies the main drawback of the progress of this State as well as 
that of Bahia, whereto even to-day a large nnmbcr of negroes go. 
These two States need an earnest irrigation of white blood, if per 
chance they are thinking of their futui-e society. » 

Then, the representatives of European descent, the most apt, 
the most competent, emigrate, also go too in searcli of places far 
away from Maranhao, like Para, Amazon, Rio and S. Paulo to deve- 
lop their activity. It is in that way that we see Arthur Azevedo, 
Coelho Netto, Aluizio, Aarao Reds and many, many others are fil- 
ling with the brilliancy of tlieir names the cultured life of tlie great 

The same phenomenon hajtpens in larger proportions in Bahia. 
We went all through Brazil from North to South and did not find 
a city where in the group of pi'ominent men there should not be at 
least one native of Bahia. In some places they monopolise the good 
situations and the most profitable professions, carrying thus the 
contribution of their talent and their activity, to tlie work of evo- 
luti(m and progress of the country, while tlieir original province 
marches slowly in such a feeble pace that it seems stationary. 

The remedy to counterbalance the inconveniences of this pheno- 
menon, would be, in our opinion, and in that of the writer I refer- 
red to above, to increase European immigration, to transfuse, into 
tlie race weakened by African crossing, a regenerating current of 
Arian blood as Fram Pacheco very well said : The duty of those who 
govern, each day more urgent, each day more needed, is, to promote 
a strong current of immigration from the people of latin civilisa- 
tion, and also the germanic one as well. The centre, the ^Yest, and 
the North of Brazil need, very much indeed, to be evenly distri- 
buted through a general plan, in combination with the Federal and 
the different States governments. » 

* * 

— 2a!) — 

Tlie State troops consist, of one inl'antrv Imtallion witli l.'JO men 
commanded by a Lieutenant-Colonel, and a detaclimcnt of 20 men 
cavalry. They liave fine uniforms, and maintain perfout discipline. 

S. Luiz is illuminated by hydro-carbonic gas, but soon will have 

We hope that under the wise direct administration of Governor 
Dr Benedieto Leite, we will soon see Maranhao quite ti'ansl'ormed 
and improved, occupying- an honorable place among the coast cities. 
And we have so many more reasons for hoping so because we 
know that State has resources, large and numerous natui-al resour- 
ces to exist and grow larger and richer among the richest of the 
Brazilian States. 


Really, we ought not to include Piauhy in the number of the 
maritime, or coast States. It has l)ut a short extension of coast in 
proportion of its territorial surface, and even in proportion of its 
river banks having, as it has, the long and strong Parnahyba. 

Whoever looks at the map of Brazil will understand fully well 
what we mean : the Piauhy has the configuration of a bean shell, 
crossed by ridges of mountains, and the stem of wliich, inclined 
towards tlie Atlantic, is formed by that tract of coastland between 
Amarragao and the mouth of the Parnahyba. This short coastland is 
all that Piauhj' can show to pretend to be included in the number of 
the mai'itime States of the Union. 

There is no large ancliorage place — that of Amarracao being, 
-sve might say , devoid of any conditions of development. — So 
that, its true port, the actual organ of appropriation and outlet 
of the State, is its small city of Parnahyba, in tlie fluvial coast 
where also is Therezina. 

All the territorial body of Piauhy, is an intci'ior region, just as 
Goyaz and Minas. 

Piauhy has not been able to follow the progress of the other 
maritime States, neither has it in the h'ederation the importance 
corresponding to its territoi'ial extension, lai'ger than that of Sao 
Paulo, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Oeara and 
others, just to cite only the most advanced, Piauhy being the eighth 
State of Brazil in the order of the total surface. 

— 230 — 

Tts population, liowcvcr, does not accompany tlie same propor- 
tion. In all tlie State there are only .•J50.(XJ() inhabitants. Although 
the eighth in the list for its size, is it the sixteenth tor the density 
of its population. 

The short shore oi Piauhy which 1 went through in 11)02 makes no 
difierencc with that between the Xorth of Parahyba, Rio Grande, 
Ceara and South of Maranhao. It is of one single physiognomy, low 
and uielaneholic, developed in extensive slteets of sand interrupted 
hero and there at long spaces by small and poor carpets of that 
ricketv vegetation of the sandv land. The seals relatively low, filled 

Tlici'eziiia. — Aiiiiiihuiaii S(iiiarc and Qiiali'ii de SL'lendjro Theatre 

with sand banks, and unsteady crowns, but the waters are of peculiar 
hues running all the full range of the green color from the very 
lightest to tiie darkest. 

^J'hat stretch of shore belonging to Piauhy, is formed, almost 
conii)letely, by the coast of an island called Ilha Grande, which 
closes, as if with a cork, the narrow neck of the territory of Piauhy 
turned to the ocean, and it is in it, a little further ahead towards the 
Xoi'th, that the small bay called Tutoya, is to be found. This is a 
forced point where the coast navigation calls, and has been for some 
time dis2)uted by two States, Maranhao and Piauhy. 

It is a small sheltered auchorage with green and low banks, where 

— 'i:n — 

there are but a few hamlets, and a few stores and storage lioiises. To 
be sure, before long we will see thei-e a commercial eity, one of 
those generated and developed by the navigation. Modern elements 
for the blessed struggles of progress and civilisation. 

AVhere does its name, Piauby, come from? The historical name, 
according to what the old historians and geographers wrote was Piagui. 
Thus it was also written by the celebrated Sebastiao da Roclia Pitta. 

He describes, in that peculiar style of his which is a pleasure to 
translate, the very beginning of Piagui or Piauhy, a follows : 

« By this time the extension of lands in which we had penetrated 


S. Beiiedictd's (lliiiirli 

in the interior of this region was amplified still a little more than in 
1671 when it was discovered the places denominated Piagui, a large 
tract of land which is at ten degrees from the North, beyond the 
S. Fi'ancisco river towards Pernambuco in the continent of that 
province and not very far fi'om Maranhao. It took tlie name of a 
rivei' which was so poor that it ought not to have one to give away. 
This liver only runs when there is rain , and in summer dries up 
leaving a pool here and there. The same hap])ens Nvith six other lit- 
tle rivers which bath that region. These are, the Canindc, the linun, 
the S. Victor, the Piiti, the Longtijcs and the Pinuiiriicn. They, 
however, through sevei-al ways, more or less contri])ute to the swel- 

— 282 — 

ling of tlie Parnaliylia, river, wliicli , with tiiem, reach the opulent 
oeean in the coast ol' Maranhao. » 

The cx-i:irovinee ol' Piauhy, according to the political statute 
agreed upon all over the republic, was organized as an Estate on the 
Kith, oi June IS'.iL'.and divided its territory in 134 municipalities, each 
with a mayor, a legislative council, 17 districts with 18 judges (the 
capital having two) :Hi wards and :'> 1 judiciary districts : Aniarante, 
Aniarrai;ao, Ajjparecida, Alto Longa, Bari'as, Bom Jesus, Burity 
dos Lopes, Belem, Cam])os Salles, Campo Maior, Castello, Corrente, 
Floriano, Itamaraty, Jaicos, Jurumenha, Livramento, Oeiras, Par- 
nahyha, Parnagua , Patrocinio , Paulista, Peripery, Piracuruca, 
Picos, Porto Alegre, Regenerai^'ao, Santa Philomena, S. Joao do 

View ot a pari of Uie (.'ily of I'ariialiyba 

Piauhy, S. Raymundo Nonnato, Santo Antonio de Gilboes, Tliere- 
zina (capital), Uniao and Valeni^a. 

Its principal products and industries are : cattle (of all kinds), 
cotton, grains, skins, dyeing establishments, tobacco, sugar cane 
brandy, sugar, butter, cheese, building lumber, carnahuba wax, 
manicoba and mangabeira-trees rubber, fowl, copahyba oils, cotton 
seed, rosins essences and others. 

The State Legistative C^ongress is composed ol' '21 members, serv- 
ing terms ol' four yeai-s. It has I'our Congressmen and three sena- 
tors to represent it in the National Congress. 

Its Capital is Therezina, situated on the right bank ol' the 
I'arnahyba river. It is a small but pretty city, divided into 12 
disti'icis and two ])arishes, Amparo and Our Lady das Dores. It 

— 283 — 

lias a population of about 25.000 inhabitants, and was founded in 
185'2. It has about 'J. 000 houses (not including small hamlets), 
20 streets, wide and straight, some with trees, seven large S(juares, 
three churches and several public buildings. 

Among those the best are : The (Government pahice. State and 
Municipal legislature buildings. State troops baiTaeks, Court House, 
Board of Health, Public Works, I^yceum, Official pi'inting Office, 
Public Market, Jail, « (^uatro de Setembro » theatre, Treasury, 
Post Office, Telegraph (in a i:>rivate house). Regular troops barracks, 
City Hospital, and two pretty cemeteries. 

Piuuliy. — Cil\ of Pariialiyba , rua Griiiule 

There are : a cotton mill with 120 looms, in a building occupying 
an area of .500 metres, a steam foundrj-, a soap factory, one shelling 
and pressing cotton factory, a fluvial navigation steamship company, 
having three steamers, there being also other private steamboats, 
one maritime insurance company, a Lyceum with all the privileges 
of the Xational Gymnasium and which is frequented by 100 students. 

'J'he city of Parnahyba, which took the name of the j)rincipal 
river of the State, is to-day the most important city after the Capi- 
tal, only as to its commerce which is developing on a large scale. It 
is situated on one of the banks of the Iguassu river, one of the 

— 2:t|. — 

iU'lliuuils (iT (lie l';irn;ihyl);i riv(3i-, \~) kilometres away froin the river 
and .SO I'l-om tlie Oajiital. It lias some pretty buildings, a k'i">'1 ^'e- 
l)lionic luM, and, like the ('api(;d is illuminated with kerosene oil. 

There is a Cuslom House and Port Department, and its popu- 
lation is oi aliout lO.UOl) inhahilants. 

In this edy amongst other' good buildings, must be mentioned the 
Charitx' Ilosi)ital, maintained by a private eivil association. Parna- 
liyba, howcnev, is not so young as There/.ina and other cities of the 
State. II was already a village in ITiil and was officially installed on 
tlie •-'(ith of August 17(32. By a provincial law of the 16tli of August 
181 1 it became a city, mucli before the foundation of the capital. 

It has only one parish : Our Lady da Gra(;a, whose image the 
natives of Parnahyba adore in the cJiurch of the same name, a 
modest old temple, of no great value either as to its size or archi- 
tecture. The city is divided into three police precincts. 

Okiras. — If the above city is noted by its commerce, thanks to 
its position, between the capital and the external markets, Oeiras 
is noted by its historical past, its material advancement, and its 
population, the largest of the State, excepting Therezina, having 
about 20. ()(.)(> inhabitants as per the 1902 census. It has had formerly 
the honors of C'apital. 

.lust as Parnahyba it is not one of the youngest cities. With the 
peculiar name of Mocha or Moxa, an indigene name, was already a 
village in .Tune 1712, and in the year 17(il was elevated to city, the 
metropolis giving it the illustrious name of a noble Portuguese city — 
Oeiras, — which it has preserved until to-day, which is right. We 
see no reason why geogra])hical names should be changed with the 
feminine frivolity of changing fashion styles as it is done in South 

Regarding the foundation of tliat old city (ancient only in rela- 
tion to the Capital) we find in a noted chronicler of the colonial 

times the following interesting paragraph : « it is a village 

that the extremely serene king I). .Joao Vordered to be founded by 
Dr. Vicente Leite Ripado, Ouvidor do Maranhao (ouvidor was an 
ancient official position) and the latlt'V did so in 1718 invocating Our 
Lady da Victoria and Moxa the name of the place where it was 
built. » 

1\)-day Oeiras is a pietures(^ue city with the kind and calm phy- 
siognomy of tliose interior idties, when the cosmopolitan fermenta- 
tion has not as yet saturated its structure making burst through it 
the noise of the sea-sliore cities entirely mixed u]5, disturbed and 

— 2S5 ~ 

It is divided into lour ])olicial precincts ; Oeiras, Sanio Ignacio, 
Tei'cciro and Quarto, all forming- one single ])ai'ish, named Our Lady 
da Victoria, the same cliurcli ol' the foundation of the rity, the popu- 
lation of which as jier the i8".i2 census was l'.).85U inhahitanls, to- 
day liaving some 'io.oOo. Tltero are in this city :-'()<Sl) houses, :; chur- 
ches and 7 schools. 

A>[AKAXTE, — is the third city of the State. Its population is 
of 15.525 inhaltitants, 7.612 men and 7.0i.'i women. It occupies the 
third place not only on account of its population, but hecuuse of its 
active commerce in the I'egion of which it is the seat. It is situated at 
the bar of a small river called Mulato, and was elevated to the rank 
of city in August 1871. 

Yalen(;a. — There is also a city of tliis name in Piauhy, and 
though in its size and industrial impoi'tance njay be quite at a 
distance from the city of the same name in Baliia, it is woi-thy of 
mention because its pojjulation by the last census is I.'i.7()l inhabi- 
tants. The last census was taken in 1900 and the above number 
includes the inliabitants of the surrouding municipalities of which 
Valenca is the seat. Situated on the bank of a small rivulet called 
Catinguinha, it had this name for a long time, but in October 17()1 
Avas elevated to the rank of a village, and adopted the present name. 
It is at 42 leagues distance from Therezina and consequently it is 
easy to inaagine how slow it will be in its development. It is divided 
into three districts, forming the parish of Xossa vSenhora do O'. 
(Our Lady of the O'.) 

Maeathoan. — It comjjrises three districts ; parish (Our Lady 
of the Conception). Xossa Senhora da Conceicao das Barras de 
Maratlioan. Population 12.384 inhabitants. 

Campo-Maior, — is one of the best cities of Piauhy, which, in 
truth, if we are to l)e exacting it, has only one city which deserves 
that classification — it is the Capital. — The others are nothing 
but groups of houses, with a larger or smaller number, without the 
least impoi'tance, and all of them with but little energy, contribu- 
ting but little to the development of the national ])roduction and 

Campo-Maior, being one of the best cities of Piauhy, has no more 
than 350 buildings worthy of the name, forming eight streets and two 
squares which have neitlier garden nor pavement. In the surround- 

— 2;i6 — 

ing- neigliborhood is a place called (icnipa])o where on the -;>i'd 
of March, ](S2;j, there was a I'riglitful encounler hetween Brazilians 
and the I'ortuguese colonial troops oi' the metropolis. 

Tiie nuiiiicipality ol' whicli Campo-Maior is the seat, extends 
itscir throng]) a tract oi land generally level, covered, in a large 
portion of it, wilh carnauba-trces. From Sontli (o North it is batlied 
by the Longa river, wliicli starts from there and aftei- a 50 league 
course runs into the I'arnahyha. In that Longa valley run the 
following tributaries belonging to the municipality : — Soruhim, 
(Jonipapo, Marathoan, Titaras, Riacho Fundo, Corrento, and others 
of smaller importance. Its climate is warm and dry, cooled by a 
most healthy constant ventilation. The soil is rich and fertile. 

At present they cultivate there : mandioca, corn, rice, beans, 
sugar cane, but those only for the maintainance of the population. 
There are mines in these regions but they never were exploited. 
The principal industry is cattle raising, which is done in a large 
scale, but by slow and backward processes. Often in the dry season 
the dryness is such that it nearly exterminates the cattle which is the 
only fortune of the State. In this like in other municipalities for 
some years iiast there has been a rapid decrease in this industry, 
and if it keeps on like that it is easy to foresee its end, and this is 
due to the negligence of the population of the interior. Its com- 
merce, nearly all done with ^laranhao and Parnahyba markets, is 
small, due to the lack of transjjoi'tation facilities, which is all of it 
made by animals. Its exports arc — cattle, skins, cheese and other 
dairy products, and cai'nahuba-tree wax. This latter industry has 
been somewhat developed. The f'ampo-Maior city is situated 20 
leagues at the east side of the Capital, on the banks of the Sorubim, 
in the centre of vast fields of an indescribable beauty. It is one of 
the oldest cities of Piauhy. 

Campos Sallks, — is a small and modest village. It is named 
after the last president of Brazil and consequently of recent date. 

It was a small place settled by a provincial law in August 185.'), 
under the name of Batalha. It was elevated to the rank of village 
in 1899 and, as we said above, in honor of President Campos Salles, 
whose term was 1898-1902, changed its name. 

This pretty village is situated at the North of the State of Piauhy, 
and is bound at the east by the municipalities of Piracuruea and 
Piripery, at the North by Burity dos Lopes, at the West and South 
by Barras. It has a pleasant cliTuate. This municipality is bathed by 
the Longa river, which comes from the upper Longa municii:)ality 

— 237 — 

and runs tlirongli the. niunkupalities ol' (.!anipo-Maior, the Barras 
rivei' \\hieh sei'ves partly to sepai'ate this ninnieipalit\- I'roin tlio last 
one of the others and follow s hy Barras do Longa till the Parnah\'l)a 
river. The other one is the I'iver Mattos whieh hathes this munici- 
pality and runs to the Tjonj^a rivei'. The Piraeuruca river is also an 
affluent of the Lon^a, i-unniu<;' into it in a place called Barra, serv- 
ing there as boundary line with Piraeuruca municipality. 

Piaiiliy Types. — A e()w-keo|jor 

None of the rivers of the locality are navigable. The dry seasons 
scoui^ge this municipality destroying its agriculture, though in some 
places there are some strong springs of fresh water to wet large ai'eas 
of land. At a distance of one or one and a half league from this 
village are the places called JBrejos de Gima, and Brejos de Baixo 
and S. Lazaro, which, if regularly cultivated, and in any of them 
established an industrial concern for the manufacturing of 
sugar and sugar cane brandy, would produce sufficiently, not 

— 2;ia 

only to siip])ly that district but tlic whole Statu. Its population, 
howevei-, just like the interior population of the other States lack 
activity. (lanipo-Maior has also (extensive territory filled with rich 
woods, aniouo- which are the following- varieties, yet none are 
exported : cedar, piquiseii'o , pau d'arco , jacaranda, taeajuba, 
aroeira, violet, unihurana, tamboril, bacury and many others. 


By the sea-shore in a stretch where it justifies the assertion of the 
great poet : — brave green seas — there is an enormous sheet of 
snow-white sands, a sad brightness of long shores, which are the 
coasts of old liiirema, to-day C'eani. 

It is a desolate immense sea-shore, spreading for leagues and 
leagues white sand, here lowly with slight ondulations, there in 
hilly form, horrible with all its barrenness. 

In that sandy band, surrounded by it, threatened each day by the 
approximation of its moving ondulations, men settled a group of 
houses in Kill), and it has resisted and grown, and to-day is Foi-ta- 
leza, the Capital of one of the Brazilian States. 

It is not the Portugaese but the Dutch who are responsible for 
that bad selection of that sjiot for a city which has to defend itself 
from the sands. 

It may be that the port was the cause, the motive of its selection. 
It is possibly so. It may also be, that at the time that Mathias Beck, 
the founder of the city, came there, the Ceara coast offered in that 
place a deep and sheltering bay, the ups and downs of sand which 
dance to-day so horribly l)y the music of the southern winds, may 
be that they were then firm, subjugated, pressed by the trium- 
phal vegetation of the mango and cocoanut trees. All these are 

guessings The reality of to-day is that the sea beats those shores 

spreading the dust of those sands, so fine, but so barren and so 
warm. The trees dried up, its trunks died, the roots have disap- 
peared and in an extensive band of the coast, between the ridge of 
mountains and the sea, dominates this arid, barren spot, uncon- 
scious of the residues from -the old rocks and the thirsty sands that 
intimidate man and defy the ocean. 

Once landed, the visitor cannot see the city without overcoming 
a kind of sand barrier that separates it from the sea. He goes over 
a stretch which is not yet properly the city, goes up an inclined 

— 2:i!) — 

streetlike plan, leaving at llio I'iglit a. large, building of military 
aveliitecture, abandoned, but in perteet state ol' preservation, leaxes 
also at the side the Sailors School and walking a fcnv stei)s more; 
he will be in a wide sqnai'c filled with ti'ees, and there the large 
cathedral is, with its cross aisle in the middle of the chnrchyard and 
sui-rounded by railing. 

The city Sjjreads itself beyond in a plan which is several metres 

Fortale/a. — Public Market 

above the sea, with its streets, all straight and wide, clean and 

About 50. 000 inhabitants live there. The buildings have nothing 
charactei'istic, but are well cared for, and in the majority they ai'e 
one floor houses. In the streets Formosa, Mai'echal Floriano and 
nearly all the others there are fine houses with uj^per stories. But 
it is in the suburbs of Benifica, Mororo, and others, all very liealthy 
places, that the best Ijuildings of modern architecture can be seen. 

* * 

— aio — 

Tlie f>-enei'iil aspect of the city is gay and pretty. To a certain 
extent Fortaleza contrasts with tlie oilier capitals ot the colonial 
times, hy tlie syraetry and alignement of the streets which reminds 
one of a chess-board. 

jVs to the public buildings, we can mention the following which 
pleased us most : 

The public market, a new building of cast iron, built by the pre- 
sent mayor is one of the best in the Xorth. 

It is a little larger than the Manaos one, but is already becoming 
unsufficient for Fortaleza, and has the peculiarity, (we don't know 
if advantageous or incovenient), of being situated right in the centre 
of the city, and not on a corner as it hapi^ens in Manaos, Belem, 
Recife, Santos, Bello Horizonte, Porto Alegre and other cities. 

As to its construction , is perhaps the most artistic of all of 
them, though not so large as any of them excepting the Manaos one. 

The Xormal College, inaugurated during the government of 
Colonel Bezenil, is an elegant two story, modern style building, 
facing the square from which it is separated by railing and an aris- 
tocratic gate. 

The Patrocinio Church, a beautiful catholic church, the front in 
one single body with a high tower at the centi'e. 

Sagrado Cora^'So church, near the Liberdade park, has also 
only one centre tower of squai'e basis, in the main body of the front 
and in Roman style. 

Baturite Railway station. It is foi'med by three different structu- 
res, the centre one being a greek portic on four columns. 

House of Deputies or Congress. It is a large two stoi'y building 
with a simple form, but not without art and noble aspect. 

Cily Hall building, is also a large two story building with six 
windows and six doors looking and leading to the street in which it 
is built. A square towerlike elevation with a clock and decora- 
tions in the upper part complete tlie main body of the building, the 
interior installation of which leaves nothing to be wished for. 

The government Palace, which is also the residence of the 
governor, as in Rio and in the other States, is a fine building 
looking to the small square where General Tiburcio's statue is. In 
its interior it is decf)rated with good taste and even somewhat 

The City Hospital is an enormous building with windows all 
around, with only one floor but well divided and very neat and 
clean in the intei'ioi'. It has hygienic improvements which recom- 
mend it to public appreciation and i)raise. 

— '211 — 

In llie centre of ;\rar(juez de Ilerval s([iiare, a (|iiilo wide sciiuire 
decorated with lino trees and surrounded ])\ I'ine l)uildini;s , 
are the roiindations ol' an enormous theatre now in (he wa,\' oi' cons- 
truction and winch hud-cily was not finished. We say hicdvil,\' because 
ne\er mind liow magnificent a buikling they should put up, it would 
never be worth the hygiene antl esthetics of a city tlie scpuirc that 
on its account would be closed up. This mistake oi obsti'ueting the 
large city bi'eathers, which are the stpiares , is a crime that we 
have seen commited in several cities of Brazil. Luckily they did not 
finisli the theati-e so that the beautiful Mai'cxuez de Herval scpuire, 
is destined to be transfoi'med some day into the favorite park of 


Building (it (lie JMuiiici|iaI AiliniiiisU'alion 

Fortaleza, and is awaiting tranquilly for a mayor who will do with 
it, what the present one did with the Ferreira stpiare, wdiich is 
to-da\' a beautiful garden named Sete de Setembro squai-e. 

AA'e will not forget the barracks of the 2nd infanti'\- regiment, one 
of the best of its kind in the North of Brazil , where is housed only a 
detachment of soldiers. It belongs to the Federal Government. 

The sight that made us feel happy was the Marine Apprenti- 
ces School installed, however, in a second class building. We were 
present at several fencing, marcliing, ship gynrnastics and other 
drills, and we were quite pleased witli the degree of technical in- 
struction given to its 170 pupils, who are being prepared, for the 
navy, by their ])resent diivctor laeutenant Commander Luiz Lopes 
da Cruz. 

— 242 — 

Descemliiig from that establishinont, the rear part ol' which louks 
to tlie sea, follows that extensive sandy road that margins the 
shore with a tramway lino leading to the Custom House, a solid 
stone building always in activity, because, in spite of the bad port, 
Ceara's commerce gives a good income to the Federal Government. 

Among the public gardens of Fortaleza, we must cite the one 
called Liberdade, a charming spot, with its small lake and thick fo- 
liage of its little woods. It looked to us that tlie park had been]some- 

Forlaleza. — Gymiinsliu-room of tlio Marine Apiircnlices Sclioiil 

what neglected lately, there were to be seen weeds growing up in 
its streets and the ornamentation work was a little spoilt. They told 
us that the municipality having finished the works of the Sete de 
Setembro vSquare, was going to direct their attention to that poetic 
spot named (c Lil)erdad(> «. They ought to lose no time doing that 
liecause that beautiful landscape is worth gold. 

In the other angle of the city there is. also a public garden laid out 
in three plans, descending, one after the other towards the sea. It is 
a ])]-etty little park though more exposed to the dust than the othei-. 
Its streets cross one another picturesciuely and here and there some 
marble or bronze goddess fix(>d on a column, is watching us through 

— 243 — 

the palm i'aas and ovm- the red roses. One of the i)rettiest ol' the 
streets is the one ealh'd Avenida ('a\o Prado, having- in all its length 
stone benches in the shade of the trees inviting one to rest a little. 
The vegetation, is live and green even if there is not a great variety 
of it. 

In the city squares there are two statnes, the one of General 
Tiburcio and another of General Sampaio. The former as an artistic 
work is the best. It represents the hero in bi'onze, standing, on a 
square stone basis surrounded by a pretty metallic chain. 

One of the curiosities of Fortaleza which the new ai'rived sees 
imniediatelj^ is the numerical superiority of the feminine element. 

Foi'laleza. — ytaUic of General Tibureio 

Generally the families are large, and wherever there is a gathering 
like public festival, the observer will at once notice that there are 
more ladies than gentlemen present. The periodical emigration ex- 
plains that, but the city has lost n(jthing by that so far as its culture 
and progress are concerned. 

The gas, the telephone, the newspapers, the libraries, the several 
clubs, give to Fortaleza an animated and aristocratic physiognomy, 
which fits it very well in the role of Capital of the State. 

The physical appearance of the people, though the i)opulation has 
not, in the same degree of southern cities, received the crossing of 
Eurojjean elements, is, we can affirm, beautiful and n()l)le. 

The types of T^eauty are many, specially among women of white 
race. They dress with the correctness and elegance peculiar to the 

-- 244 — 

Em'onean descendants, cultivate tlieir minds in ndted proportions 
and lilce the o-eneral type oT Brazilian women are endowed with the 
noblest virtues. The prevailing habits and customs have the beauti- 
I'ul austerity oT the cities not yet invaded by the cosmopolitanism, 
abundant both in good and evil. 

PuiiLic Instuuotio^ AM) SociAL ('uLTUiiK. — We will now give 
some information about public instruction : 

It is administered by several institutes of learning, both gram- 
mar and high schools. 


.\(ii'ni;il r,i)ll(>^e 

The Lyceum, just as the National Gymnasium of Rio, has a com- 
plete course of the preparatory programme. The Xormal College is 
exclusively devoted to the training of teachers. 

The Lyceum in iyo3 had 1(J0 students and counting the different 
classes they frequented the number is 3().5 entries. 

The Xormal College had in lUOo, year in which we visited that 
institution, .518 ])upils. 

Private instruction is administered by the Episcopal Seminary, a 
college established in Caninde , under the ausjiiccs of the monks, 
another in Lstevao mountain (Quixada) undin- the Benedictine 
monks and by many education establishments in the Capital , espe- 
cially those of Immacnlada Concci(;ao, directed by ladies of the 
S. Vicente de Paulo Congregation, of Nossa .Senhora de Lourdes, of 
Parthenon (!earense, of the Cearense Gymnasium, of the Commercial 
School and others of smaller importance. 

— 2-j.r> — 

The i)iil)lic inslviu'tion at the oxpcnsti ol' (lie Klatc f;-ov<'riiiiicn(. 
is I'ui'nislied free of eliarj^o by 'iod classes, tliiis dislribiiled : 

111 llie Caiiilal -21 

111 tin; filii's S3 

111 llii' villiigrs 82 

111 tlic siiiiilk'r |ihi/rs 70 

beini;' I'l-ecinented tluis : 

In Uio miilo scliodls 71 

III llie fciiinli' sfliools 70 

III llic iiialr and lonKilo scIiodIs . . 100 

The I'requentation oi students in tliese scliools was during- tlie 
last five years : 

Years Stiidenls 

1896 0.122 

1897 o.or;o 

1808 10.572 

I8;i9 1(1. .i70 

101)0 Il.50.'i 

Tlie public library is in one of the State buildings, and is mu(di 

It has to-day 11.104 volumes, (i.Ofl^ are bound and 5.ol2 with 
paper cover. 

It is open from U a. ni. till 3 p. ni. 

Among tlie litei'ary clubs and societies, which lend to Foi'laleza 
the animation of their work, are the « Instituto do Ceani >>, founded in 
1887 and which publishes a magazine known all over the country ; 
« Centro Litterario », publishing another magazine the Iruci'mu, 
« Padaria Spiritual » which imposed itself with its extravagant name, 
carried as a triumphant banner, by all talented young men, all over 
Brazil ; « Academia Cearense » , whicli publishes for the last seven 
years a splendid magazine. 

Of the papers published in Ceara we will eite the following : 

In the Caj^iital : .1 Rcpublica, organ of the republican party, 
daily; — A RciH.siii do Inniiluio do (Jenn'i, ijuai'terly pulilii-ation; — 
Kevisiu da Academia Cearense, monthly; — .1 lieforina, fortnightly; 
— A Gazetina, weekly; — Ceara Xii, weekly. 

In Batuidte : O Oitenta e Xove, organ of the republican party, 
weekly; — Municipio, reijnblican paper, weekly. 

In Redemi^cao : .1 Reileinpeao, weekly. 

In Maranguape : Marangiuqte, weekly. 

In Aracaty : Ja(jiiaribe, weekly. 

In Sobral : A Ordem, weekly; — .1 Cidade, \\ve\<Ay. 

In Crato : .1 Cidade do Crato, weekly. 

In Acaraliu : A Cidade do Acarahii, weekly. 

~ 24(i — 

Navigation, Commercial and Industrial Activity. — Once we 
have spoken of tlie intellectual activity of Oeara, let us also write 
sometliini;- about i(s material activity, in the domains of commerce, 
industi'ies and navigation. 

There are in the Coara State besid(!S hundreds of sugar cane , 
flour and (}ther natural products factfu'ies, two cotton mills, the 
« (_!eara Industrial » and « Pompeu & Irmao », one in Ai'acaty, tlie 
other in (Soln'al. "^rhd'e are also two net factories, in the Caioital, both 
with st(^ain power, three biscuit and mass factories, all in the Ca])i- 
tal, two oil factoi-ies, one in the Capital, the other in Maranguape, 
eight cigarettes factories, two of them moved by steam, one ice 
factory, three soap ones, several distilleries, sugar refineries, 
umbrella factories, coffee roasting works and caju wine distillery, 
hat factories, furniture ones and others. 

'i'ho city of Foi'taleza ought to have a quay with apparatus to 
facilitate its commercial relations. Let us see its export relations 
statistics : 

Official value of goods exported through the port of Fortaleza to 
foreign countries and ports of the Brazilian Union : 

Yejirs Official value 

189.5 .5.l57:.>50$49o 

1894 4.48-i:ioi§481 

189.-; C.996:S.'J6,$4.'iO 

1890 ri.sio.sariS'oi 

1897 7.2ll:9l.i$400 

1898 1 1 ,G9.-;:806.$0.'i6 

1899 in..-8.>;ll.'5S7i5 

1900 II.589:785,SG40 

Tlie Custom House revenue in the five years previous to the 
proclamation of Repuljlic was : 

Vears OHicial value 

I88.-1 I.074:924$ol8 

1H8G • t.l78;0ij5S558 

1887 1. 884:809^828 

1888 1.475:9o7$420 

1889 I.72-2:389|497 

In the five years from l<SO(i to lilOO (though a period of general 
business depression in Brazil) the Custom House revenue was : 

Years Ollicial value 

I89(i 2.494:797!S;.mO 

1897 4.029;7«2$00."i 

1898 .-,3.1(J:4()7$S90 

1899 .->.0,'59:G5.i$840 

1900 5.21;j;042|0G.'5 


IvAlLWAVS, ^^'ATEU Sll'l>I,Y, V/VC. t'eai'JL llilS tll(! !'( lllow ill<;' I'uil- 

ways built by the Federal Government : 

Baturite Kailway, connects the Capital to the city of Humayata, 
297 kilometres, I'ented to the civil engineer Alfredo Novis. 

Estrada de Ferro do Sobral , goes from Cauiocim to the interior 
of the State, beyond Sobi'al, 21(j kilometres. It is rented to the civil 
engineer J. T. Saboya e Silva. 

In the C'apital there are tramways belonging to three enter])rizes : 

Foi'lak'za. — Sijuare and slalioii uf tin: Baliirite Hallway 

the Ferro Carril do Ceara, the Ferro Carril do Outeiro , and the 
Ferro Carril de Porangaba. 

Several steamship companies, national and European ones, jnain- 
taiu communications between Fortaleza and external markets. 

The State troops consist of an infantry battalion, called — Batal- 
liao de Seguranca do Ceara — with 23 officers, 348 privates and 12 
aids, forming a major-staff, a minor staff, and four companies. 
There is also a small cavalry company attached to one of the infan- 
try companies. 

All the police service of the Capital and in the interior is done by 
these troops. 

— — 

Till.: wA'j'HK suiMM,-.-. — In oi'dov to vcniiedx' tlie rrequent dry sea- 
sims \\iiicli bring serious consequences to tlie State, the Govern- 
ment ])lanned the l)iiilding' of an enoriiioiis reservoir, called Quixa- 
da, wliicli il is Iiopcd, will wilder good services to the population. 

Unfortunately they have not had tlu; necessary perseverance in 
an altenipt of this kind. M'hen the winter sets in, the claims cease 
and tlie government suspends immediately the works, what makes 
one believe that suidi work is being done only to give work to the 
population during tiie dry season. 

Korlaleza. — (laitj Prailo aveime 

'I'lie woi'ks recommenced in .June, I'.iOO, liad a greater impulse in 
October of the same year in consequence of an extraordinary credit 
of 100:()(.K)§0()() to aid indirectly the i^opulation suffering from the 
effects of tlie dry season, and they are still on. While the extraordi- 
nary credit lasted, the committee succeeded in employing 1.700 men. 

The hydrograpliic basin is constituted by the valleys of the rivers 
known as Verde, Caracol, and Satia which, when joined together 
were caught by the central flow. 

I'his flow is about 5 kilometres from the city of (iuixada , which 
is served b\' the Baturite i-ailway. 

Until to-day ihc. Federal ( iovernment has spent on this resei'- 
voir nothing less than :!. 18O;<)()l.$00(). Tliere arc other reservoirs 

— 24.9 — 

started; one in Baturite, tlu> otlier in Mavanguape. None, liowever, 
lias the proportions oT that of (^uixada, \Yliich has rejjresented seve- 
I'al winters T,i.) million eubic metres of water. 

AVe luid tlie opportunity of lieai-in;^- complaints from every one, 
as to tlie kick of complementary ^\orks for iri'igation ])urposes, 
without which, they told us, the reservoir will not he able to 
fulfil its object. 

There are in Ceara SO districts, 29 cities and 52 villages. The judi- 
ciary division consists of a « Tribunal da Relaciio », composed of seven 
(c desembargadoi'cs » , including the attorney genei'al of the State. 
There arc 31 districts with one judge each, and the Cajjital two, 72 

Forlaleza. — Foi'inosa sireel 

judiciary districts, 40 of which are served by substitute judges and 
213 i^olice districts. 

The Budget of the State has grown gradually, for the last twelve 
years, the one of 1903 was of about 3.00(^ contos. The I'evenue and 
the expenses of the State are more or less equivalent. 

Punished by the dry seasons, i)eriodieally, Ceai'a sees itself each 
year abandoned by a gi'eat numbei' of its active children, who emi- 
grate to the West and North of the country, caiTving the progres- 
sive work of their arms to far away places. 

In 1877-1879 and in 1888-1889 the emigration from Ceara to the 
North and South of the country took wonderful proportions, being 
estimated at LjO.OOO the numbei' of natives of Ceara who left their 
native land running away before the calamities of the dry season. 

— 250 — 

Tlici-e arc no uxact notes lor cori'ect statistic data on emigra- 
tion. It can l)e judo-ed only liy the people leaving the port in the 
Lloyd Brazileiro Steamship Company, wliich statistics show the 
I'ollowing- results from 1802 to IS'JT. 

Tu llic- To III.- 

Yfiirs Soiilh. North. 

1 892 15 595 

1895 1.795 7.580 

1894 1-489 -4.-M5 

1895 2-089 9.09-2 

1896 I.89.i 9.680 

1897 1.787 7.512 

TciUil. . . 9.0,5.4 51.506 

In 1900 a new dry season appcai-ed in tlie inteiior of the State and 
tlie emigration I'cceived new impulse. The Lloyd steamers entered 
Fortaleza almost without any ijassengcrs , and sailed on with 
hundreds, sometimes o\'er a thousand of those natives of Ceara, 
driven out hy famine , men who worked in tlie fields, of sound 
hahits, thrifting and hai'd \\orkers. 

During that year sailed on their own account and at the expense 
of the governments of the Amazon and Para, ::>2.0(.)'2 people and at 
the expense of the Federal Government l.j.TTM, a total 47.(S3.j. 

This number does not include hundreds of them who sailed on 
theii' own account taking the steamer at Camocim. 

Notwithstanding this, the population of Ceara has not decreas- 
ed, and the State keeps on its place as one of the most populated 

A glance at the publications of the Statistics Department, will 
explain this : Ceara is the part of Brazil where the most beautiful 
cases of fecundity take place. It is not rare to find thei'e a married 
couple with 12, 11 or even l(j children. 

Each blow of misfortune is follow'ed by the natural compensation 
of a new favorable impulse. After the crisis of the dry season, there 
comes a period of W(niderful abundance in which the fields and the 
woods seem to bloom with earnest efforts with an overproduction 
of everytliing. The crops grow enormous, the cattle multiply gene- 
rously, milk, cheese and butter reach the point of not having quota- 
tion in certain points. In the competent departments the registry of 
births and marriages is such, that in one year only, they registered 
200 marriages and aljout 20()0 christenings. 

This mysterious rythm of gains and losses constitute the histoi'y 
of all the vitality of Ceara, the resistant and struggling fever of its 

— 251 


The first affidavit of tlie discovery and the Portuguese dominion 
in Brazil was tlie monnnient erected on tlie Rio Grande do Norte 
shore on the place called Bahia Formosa, a small and poetic bay, at 
the South of Natal city in the district of Cangnaretama. 

This monument was placed there hy the Portuguese Adniii'al 
Christovao Jacques in the year VAy.i. 

That stretch of coast of Rio Grande is the mother cell of the 
Portuguese dominion in America. We will then in a I'apid glance, 
pass in review that sandy shore filled with sinuosities, near the 
Capital of that State. 

The coast of the Rio Grande State participates of the general 
character of that region : sand, always sand, now in downs and hills, 
then in infinite i^lains, and only from place to place interrupted by 
short stretches of poor vegetation, oi- some cocoa-nut trees as in 
Bahia and Pernambuco and a little scarcely towards the Xortli. 

Those who come from Rio de Janeiro will appreciate all that 
landscape, as the most coast steamers always navigate close to the 
shore with land in sight. 

Those going down from Ceara pass near the Cayssara canal, 
passing between the island and firm land at the right, quite near as 
the canal is narrow. The tiresome panorama continues : curves and 
inclined stretches becoming white a little above the water. The 
sandy shores extend themselves in vast white stretches towards the 
interior beyond, spotted here and there by some cocoa-nut trees. 

Here we are off Natal, in front but somewhat distant. Unless it 
is a light draught steamer it cannot go near the shore on that part. 
In front of the city is an enormous and long rock , which prevents 
the entry of large steamers. Yet this same rock forms a kind of 
protection breaking the strength of the sea waves, a kind of natural 
artificial port affording a tranquil anchorage place, quite calm. 

This reminds one much of the port of Recife. At the left of that 
colossal anchorage, near a seashore place called Morcego (bat) rests 
the valetudinarian of a fortr^ess that was born Avith that settlement 
some 400 years ago and of which the gray shade detaches itself from 

ilie lioi'izoii bliK^ l)()tt()m, as a sc.iilry, iniiiiovahlc, firiiKid in its])]a('c by 
the ice of tlic (■(^ntiirics. Uoclia Pitta's liistory of I'(ii-tu<^iK'S(; AiiKU'lca 
says : " II is foiiiKhHl half a lraj;u('. rroiii its poii (aJilc; to harhor all 
kinds ol' sliii>s) at the entrance of which is the Santos Keys I'orlress, 
one <if the Ix'st in l!ra/,il as to sitiiat ion, t'ii-nmess, re^iilai'ity and artil- 
lery, l.)uilton roi'ks of enormous size, with tour towei-s. n Thus s])oke 
riocha Pitta al)oiif. Xatal and its i'oi'tress, tliis snrvi\'or of the hard 
war constructions of the metropolis, which to-day preserves yet the 
same name ol' Trez Reis Magos I'orti'oss. 

They placed on it a light house, with a fixed white light, ^\llich 
can be seen from a distance of 1.", leagues. Thus the light of the old 
foi'ti'ess w hi(di in olden times served the purpose of pi'cventing the 
navigation, ser\('s now to protect, it. 



S.'iiiliis licis Muyus l'(]i'li('ss :il llic (.■jUraiii-c iif llie Nal'al b:ir 

To-day liio Grande do Norte has about 300.1)00 inhabitants with 
;!(■) municipalities and 3H parishes and a surface of 57. 18.5 square 

By the census taken in December 1U(.)0 the exact population was 

The names of the cities and villages of the Rio tlrande do Norte 
State are : 

Natal (capital), Macau, Mossoro, Ganguaretama, Parelhas, :Maea- 
liyba, Ceara-Mii'im, S. Jose de Mipibii, .Jardim, Caico, Martins, 
Assu, Apody, Papary, (ioyaninha. Nova (_'ruz, Angieos, Santa Oruz, 
Sant'Anna dos Mattos, Triumpho, Acary, Curraes-Novos , Port' 
Alegre, Cai'aubas, I'au dos ]<'erros, S. Miguel, Serra Nogra, Patn, 
Lniz (jomcs, Santo Antonio, Cuitezeiras, S. CJoncalo, Flores, Tou- 

— 253 — 

ros, Muriu, Potenoy, Curiimitau, Arez, Taipii, Areia Branca, Penlia 
and otliei' smaller i)lac('s. 

Of all those places, the one that seems destined to a more rapid 
development is ^lossor('), the centi'c ot the prosperous salt indus- 
try, whii'h is the principal industry of that region, and the one that 
brings the largest revenne to the State. 

The production of salt in Rio (Jrand(> do Sul in the yeai's of 18H5 
to ISrtrl was :!:!.(HH) alqueires, a little over 5.000 tons. In 11103 that 

Harbor and City of hiatal 

l^roduction v\ent u[» to 700.000 alqueires, or over 112.000 tons, nearly 
all exported to Southern ports. 

The Rio (irande Salines occupy enormous stretches of shore and 
are a wealth much superior to all exjiectations. That is a just com- 
pensation of the local nature, because Rio (Jrande has not like the 
other S(juthern States that mild eliinate which makes agrieultural 
progress so easy. That State suffers the destruction caused by long 
summers which dry up the small idvers and burn its valleys. The 

dry seasons rcpi-at tliemselves periodically producing- enormous 
damages to tlie population and being a drawback to the general pi'o- 
gress ol' the State. 

This exi)lains the jiaralization of certain local industries, among 
others that of the cultivation of sugar cane, the manufacturing of 
sugar, brandy etc., so old in the Rio Grande vState in which that 
brancli of industry has developed the most. Yet there are quite a lot 
of old factories which will present quite a large production when 
there is no dry season. 

Recently the Federal Government undertook several public works, 
as M ater works, railways, etc. to try to neutralize the effects of that 

Fortunately the spot where the Capital is, does not suffer from 
the bad results of tlie dry season, liaving been a good selection even 
if the port is not of easy access in comparison with the other sea- 
ports of tlie country. 

It was .leronymo Albucpiercpie who, after an agreement ^^'ith the 
inhabitants of Uio-(Jran(Ie on Chi'istmas day of the year 1.597, placed 
the foundation stone of the first building of the Capital of the State. 
When that city progressed a little they placed at its head as chief the 
Conde do Rio Grande and the province was elevated to the rank of 
Condailo. Tlie Count was D. Lopo Furtado de i\Iendonga the first 
nol)leman with a Brazilian title in the old colony. 

The CvinTAL. — Let us cast a glance over the Xatal city of to-day. 

The bulk of the constructions in this city follow t\\'o different 
plans : one part extended itself through the lower part and is called 
Ribeira, the other, called Bairro Alto (upper district) is occupying 
the upper part of the sandy elevation upon which .Jeronymo de 
Albuquerque had the fancy to settle the city. This sandy mountain 
has as boundary line the Potengy river, the sea-shore with its 
sandy ups and downs, wdiich surround it in all its conference, the 
banks being 21 in number, the city remaining just like an island, 
with the difference that on one side has the sea, on the other sandy 

Tlie Capital comprises the following districts : Cidade Alta, 
Cidade Baixa , Cajupiranga and Ponte Negra , all the parish of 
Nossa Senhora da Apresentacao, having a population of 10.056 inha- 
liitants, being : 7.900 males and 8.156 females. As can be easily seen 
this city is far from having had a develojiment projiortioual to its 

— 255 — 

There are some nice buildings in ifc, as the Palace where the 
Btate Congress meets, the I'liblic Instruction Department, in Con- 
ceiciio street, the Charity Hospital, which is also the barrracks of 
the police force in Silva Jai'dim street, the barracks of the iJHh regi- 
ment Eegular Federal troops, the Marine A])pentices scliool, the 
Government Savings Bank, and other private buildings belonging 
to rich merchants. 

* * 

Public Instruction, Police Fouce, Railways, etc. — About the 
pul)Iic instruction Rio Grande has developed but little as it has done 


Government Piilace 

with nearly everything else. Tliere are in the whole State but 92 
grammar scliool classes, while the i^opulation is about 300. OOt) inha- 
bitants. In the Capital there are some high schools among which is 
the Atheneu Xorte Rio Grandense. 

The rollowing papers are published in Natal : 

Album (published by the literary grouj) Frei Miguclino). 

Diario do Natal, daily paper. 

Gazeta do Commercio, daily paper, founded on the Isl of Octo- 
ber lUOl, and is published by an association, having as its editor 
in chief Mr. Pedro Avelino. 

Oasis, the organ of the Gremio Litei'ario. 

— 250 — 

Tribuiia, periodical. 

Oiio dc Sctc'iubro, pci'iodical. 

The ])()lice force is rorined by a l):itlalion with :!()0 i)i-ivates com- 
manded b\- a Lieutenant (.'f)lonel , the l^attalion being divided into 
i'our companies. It is infantry and tliey are armed with (Jomldain 
guns. Tlioy do tlio xiolice duty of tlie Capital and interioi' cities. 

As to I'ailway service, all that Kio Grande do Norte has in that 
line is the Natal to Nova Cruz Kailway, built with a guarantee of 
interest on the capital invested, furnished by the Federal Govern- 
ment and lately rented by the Federal Govei-nment from the (ireat 
]]'e.'iierii of Brazil Railway. It runs over 121 kilometres of track. 



- ('vi)iu'olrriu hilrcet 

Peincipal Cities and Mumcipahties. — The cities worthy of 
special mention are among others the ones we are going to refer to, 
it being understood beforehand that Rio Grande do Norte has no 
city that can justly be called worthy of mention. 

The most important are ; S. .Jose de Mipibii, on the left bank of 
the Trahiry river, a little above the Papary lake; Macao, at the 
right of the Assu river, in a peninsula formed by the same river, the 
Manoel Goncalves strait and the island bay ; Assii, at the left side 
of the Piranhas river; .Jardim at the left of the vSerido river, a con- 
fluent of the Piranhas river and over ^0 leagues above the confluence 
of Acanha river with the Seridoone; Mossord at the left of the 

— 257 — 

Apody rivei-, to \Yhieli it o'ives its nanu' a little above the cnnriuenee 
of the Upaneuia river with the ^Mossori) river. 

]\I()ssoR('). — Is but a small eity but x)romises gi-eat I'ulure possi- 
bilities. It has al)out 12.000 inhabitants, good and hard working 
people, peaeeful. The eity is divided in three political preeinels and 
one parish, Santa Luzia, name of a Saint to be I'ound in a ehiireh 
that has no speeial eharaeteristie, but that can boast o! being the 
oldest ill those regions. 

Mossorc). — Sois do .laueira Sijiuirc 

Mossoro devotes itself to the salt industry. It is a pretty and 
industrious city, and we might consider it the first in the whole 
vState. It is not inferior to the Capital in anything. If it has not poli- 
tical preeminence, it has the superiority of its active commerce, 
population, industry and buildings. It is HO leagues away from the 
Capital and seven from the sea, on the left bank of the Apody, to- 
day, Mossoro river. 

In Mossoro the following periodicals are 2:iublislied : .1 Idea, the 
organ of the litei'ary club « Df)is de Julho » and O Moasoraensc, illus- 
trated news paper, ])ublished twice a month. 

TouRos. — Among the foui' cities of bi.OOt) inhalntants, that the 
last census exhiljited disputing with the Capital of the State the 
record of the density of population in the Rio Gi'ande do Norte, this 
city of Touros (Eulls) in spite of its name is one of the most sympa- 
thic though it is not the most progressive. 

Ceara-merim. — It is a well Iniilt city, \^•ith fine buildings, as 

— 258 — 

are : the Jail, (he Allicncuim, the City Hall, the Market, the Ceme- 
tei'y and the Ohureli wliich tlie prim!i2)al one havinj;' no rival in this 
vState and that of Parahyha, having its equal in the church of Penlia, 
in Pernanibuco, which is small in the length though larger in width. 

There are also some nice private buildings. There are yet three 
S(|uares named — Alegria, Mereado, and Matriz. This last one is 
ample and with ti'ces and in it is the church and the Atheneum. The 
market is small, but neat and clean. There are 50 streets only one of 
which is paved. There are two districts — Ribeira and Cidade Alta. 

Compared with its territory, the State of liio Grande do Norte, is 
one of the States that has the longest coast extension, having three 


l-'loros SU'ccI 

ports for its external commerce, Xatal, ^lossoro and ^lacau, though 
all of tliem are of difficult access. 

All the imaginable wealth of the forest, of the soil, of the rivers 
and of the sea-shores are in Rio Grande do Norte waiting for the 
European arm, the immigrant and the capital, to develop, to raise 
the fortune and the progress of that region. On the other hand the 
climate is excellent, there are no epidemic diseases nor any evils 
that may shake the proverbial quietness of those ]ieople. 


The Rio Grande do Norte, as the neighboring States, is periodi- 
cally subject to dry seasons, « Several times » — says a writer — 
has ravaged over the Ajiody river and all the far interior of the 
State the teri'ible ])henomenon of the dry seasons, the following 

— 250 — 

having- been tho most dreadful : they are those of KiOT, ]C)02, 1710- 
1711, 17'2o-1721, which were extended I'roni Bahia to Ceara, those oi 
17oti-17:i8, 17 1 1-17 15, 1777-177S, in which the cattle of the State was 
reduced to the eighth part, and that oC 17'.X)-17U:i called the great dry 

The same way that in Ceani, whose nature is analogous to that 
of this State, once the dry season period passes, there comes a period 
of compensative abundance. It is abundance and fortun(! without 

The principal products of the State are : corn, beans, mandioca 
flour, cotton, sugar, skins, butter, vegetables, oils, rozin, carnauba, 
honey, brandy and building lumber. 

Mossui'6. — Da JIatriz climvli and Sijiiare 

In those Eio Grande hills and mountains they have discovered 
vestiges of the existence of several kinds of minerals such as : iron, 
sulphur, saltpetre, chalk, and different stones. In one of the corners 
of the Itahu lake, or of the Apody near the mountain of the same 
name, has been seen for these last few years, a large quantity of a 
betuminous and inflammable substance, which produces a light simi- 
lar to the carnauba wax. They say that at leagues distance from the 
city thei'e is a layer, wliere, among othei' curiosities a kind of crys- 
tal can be seen. We read about it that <c the ground of this layer and 
its neighborlKJod is a kind reddish blue clay which exposed to the 
fire and diluted in water, becomes tine and soft so as to be moulded 
in any shape for the manufacture of crockery. This reddish blue soil 
is naturally cleaved in many places where a kind of light and vei'y 

— 260 — 

iine matter can he seen, that looks Hke looking-glass steel and 
■\vhicli is awi'iil hai'd to gather ». 

As to watei-, there are several mineral water s]))-ings which have 
not as yet been analysed. The best known ot these are the ag7(a.s 
fcrrciis (iron -waters). The use oi these is good, generally, for the 
diseases that require iron prepai'ations. 


Rio Grande do Xorte as to its manul'acturing industries is just as 
backwards as I^iauhy and Goya/, arc. "Worthy of mention there is 
only in its territory : a good cotton mill in the Capital ; a soap fac- 
tory and a saw mill next to it in a place known as Refoles ; a prin- 
ting office, engraving shop and book-bindery in the Capital ; and a 
cigar factory also in the Capital. 

Its exports are still inferior to those of Piauliy notwithstanding 
the fact of having three ports to communicate with the exterior, or 
may be that, because of that, the volume of its external commerce is 
so small, as one can see by the figures of the movement during the 
first eleven months of 1901 : 

Ex|iurls Hi7,:m'$(m 

Imporls ,55l:l85$0n0 

But, we must not desjjair as to the future of the progress and 
wealtli of this beautiful region. This territory has elements, every 
element of prosperity, by the varied producing capacity of its val- 
leys, its most super!) mountains as Horburema, ,Ioao do Yalle, Luiz 
Gomes and others. Railways and European blood is what Rio 
(Jrande do Xorte lacks to develop its latent wealth and prosperity. 


Sailing from Recife in the evening, we soon bid farewell to the 
two light houses : vSanto Agostinho (a large unmovable white light) 
and Picao (changeable light white and red), and we awake in sight 
of Cabedello the sea-port of Parahyba, capital of the State of the 
same name. 

The shore continues covered with trees and right there at the 
enti'anee of ('abedello tliere is an extensive plantation of Bahia 
(!ocoa-nut trees. There is also a light house. Built on a low plane 

— 2(il — 

which in the higli tide presents a envious speehiele : an iron tower, 
high and solid witlioat any basis in siglit but the moving waves. It 
is the Pedra Seeea light house. 

Cabedello is an old village without any other importance but the 
one lent to it by the eircuuistaiice ot being the landing place of the 
State. It is connected with the (capital by a I'ailway. A wooden 
bridge dock is there for the ships to eomo alongside. 

The road, of narrow track, goes through the Avoods describing 
curves, in an inclination sometimes quite steep, as Parahyba is 
quite away up and there are only 1<S kilometres separating it from 

Paraliylja. — Das jMcrces clmrcli and street 

The Capital is a small historical city, a poor one and as old as it 
is modest. It was built on the 5th of August 1.58-5 by the Portuguese. 
Oh !... 1585... How well we can see that by the first buildings, which 
we see as we I'eacli the city. Its name is Parahyba, the name of the 
river that bathes its territory and must have some 180.000 inhabi- 
tants. It was once called Frederikstad (Frederic city) while it was 
under the Dutch c(mqnest. At another time during the same period 
it was also called Felipea, in honor of Felipe who reigned over 
the Spaniards when these latter dominated the Portuguese. 

Even to-day Parahyba is a small city divided in two halves quite 
unequal : one margins the anchorage at the river level , full ol' 
commercial storage houses etc., and its name is Varadoiro, the other 
going up-hill and ending on the top ol' the )nountains wherefrom a 

— 262 — 

beantiriil i)a.n()runia is displayed bel'ovo our eyes : mountains gi'een 
as they ean be, enoi-mous clay-pits, cliinineys letting out a light wliite 
smoke I'von) the sugar factories, sj^read liere and there, nice small 
houses of delicious snow-white, and connecting this heterogeneous 
mass as a conducting wire, the Parahyba river lains , making the 
coutour of the reliefs, withmit wa\es, without noise until it loses 
itself in the hesitating gray of the horizon. 

The inclined street that connects the two districts, has at its 
right the Europe Hotel, a grim and dirty looking large building, and 
leads to another cleaner street called Bai'ao da Passagem, which 
runs straight lined by nice houses, following yet another one called 
Rua Xova and existing since IHSi, the buildings, however, seeming 
to confirm the new name of the street. Walking a little further we 


Old I'diivciil (if S. I'l'iiiicisci 

are on the toj) of the main hill, where fine houses have been built. 
There is the old Church, a large temple devoted to Nossa Senhora 
das Xeves, which is the cathedral lo-day. 

This churcli was built away back in Woo and the S. Francisco 
convent, with its large church that has a characteristic front. Of the 
religious consti'uctions this one is the best in Parahyba. It has a spa- 
cious nave, at the sides dressed with mosaic, the entrance however 
is of a more modei'n style, and in the centre there is o cross-aisle of 
iberit! marble, a curious feature. Even in the interior the church is 
worth looking at, as it is the Ordem Terceira Chapel which was 
afterwards annexed to it. 

When the Dutch took possession of the city they fortified this 
C(mvent and made of it the (Governor's i-esidence. 

— 2(iS — 

To-d;vy, having- lost its monks, they made of tlie convent ;i school 
which is frequented hy 200 boys who make their jjreparatoi'y 
studies to enter the dil'l'erent Colleges and Universities. 

li' we take the tramway that goes to tlie beautiful suburb of 
Trincheira where the extreme end of the city confounds itself with 
the woods, we go through a pretty square witJi a beautiful garden 
protected by iron railing. 

In front of this garden there is another construction with the 
charecteristics of respectability. It is an old convent and its church 
with a tower of undefined color, which is the color of the centuries. 

To-day the old building lias an official function, being the gover- 
nor's palace. 

I'ai'ahyba. — The guveriior's |ialaoc. 

At the side of the church, is the Parahybano Lyceum where there 
are quite a number of classes in the two floors of the building. 

The best buildings are in the upper part of the city, but, in a rus- 
tic style square occui)yng' more or less the middle plan between the 
two cities, ai'e the largest ones : the Post office, of fair size ; at the 
right, the theatre and in front of the Post Office tlie police barracks 
a large two story building. The Italian Benifieent Association buil- 
ding, followed by a row of small houses close the square, which has 
the name of Bento da Gama. The Treasury a good solid building is 
also in this square. 

Industry, Traxsportation, Public Ixstructiox. — The prin- 
cipal industry of tliis State is tlie cultivation of sugar-cane, sugar 
manufacture, alcohol, etc. The number of sugar-cane farms and fac- 

— a«4. — 

l(M'ies is 20'.>, working most oT tluMii liy old processes. There are, lio- 
^\■e\■('l■, solium iinportaiit I'aetorics : a eolton mill, two cotton shelling, 
fine cigars, one oil and one ciment, Ijricks and mosaic factories, etc. 

llegarding the mineralogical wealth of I'arahyba, the experts 
speak most highly. Tlx^y say that the nnderground of this region 
has cxlensive layers of coal, rich copper, l(»ad, iron, gold and silver 
mines, important feldspai'S and precions stones. 

\\'e can say about this State what can be said with all safety about 
the balance of the country — it is most wealthy. It is most wealthy 
but all the wealth and all the variety of its minerals remain tranquil 
in its layers, where Irom nobody seems tempted to lift them. 


Fisi"il l)('l('K;ili<iii 

As yet, what is being developed is the agriculture, and a little 
the dairy industry. The ground, in Parabybais generally fertile and 
adapted to all kinds of cultivation, and above all : mandioea, corn, 
I'ice, beans, tobacco, sugai--cane and cotton. 

The sugar-cane and cotton furnish the largest part of the State 

(( The developnu'nt of coffee and wheat cultivation, as well as the 
extraction of rubb(;r from the manicoba and mangabeira trees, are 
expontaneous products of the soil, and will in the future be a rich 
source of i)ublic wealth. 

The to])ographical positi(ui of the State, the large extension of 
its clay-pits and the lack of I'ailways to connect the agricultural re- 
gion, favor a good deal, in spite of all the zeal of the fiscalisation, 
the exit of a gi'eat part of the agricultural prodiu'ts of the State to 

— 265 — 

tlie neig'hboi'ing ones, appearino' in the export statistics of the hitter 
as production of theii' own. » 

The railw ay ol' the State is called Estrada de Ferro Cond(> d'Eii 
with a capital ol' (i.()00:0(HiSOO() with a g'uarantee of 7 "/„ interest and 
£ Oli.'JT.'i with a guarantee of (J ",,, interest. This road connects Para- 
hyba with the neighboring States. 

'i'he principal line, from (,'abedello to Guarabira, is ll(i kilo- 
metres and the branch that goes from Entroucamento to Pilai' mea- 
sures •J." kilometres. 

It A\'as rented by the goverment to the enterprize who built and 
inaugurated it in 1883. 

This I'ailway ^\'itll its branches has the following extension of 
trafic : 


Mainline (Paniliyba lo Muluiigii) 70.000 

BrRnch (Pilar lo liHle|ieiuIeiicin -47.000 

Prolongation (Parahvba to Cabedello) .... 18.000 

Brunch (Muliirigii lo .Uagiia Graiulci it. 000 

Tolal. . . . lOri.OliO 

We said above that sugar-cane was the principal cultivation of 
the Parahyba State. AA'e had better said it is the sugar-cane because 
since colonial times they have never tried any other. "When the Dutch 
denominated this I'egion Parahyba, they gave it as coat of arms 
three sugar lotiues. That was the idea of that talented Prince of 
Nassau (whose beneficial dttminion over that part of the country, it 
is a pity, was not prolonged), who in that way wanted t(i express 
tlie superiority of that product of Parahyba ab(jve all the other simi- 
lar product all over the world. To-day, with its pi'imitive processes, 
with the humble large copper pots it cannot prevent that even in 
Brazil that superioritj' will go over to other States who have adopted 
the modern manufacturing processes. 

And its thi-ee-sugai--loiiues coat-of-arms signifies nothing else but 
a beautiful historical allegory. 

Yet, even with the decadence of a great industry, Parahyba 
succeeded in nine months, in 19()3, to i-each the following figures : 

Exports l.o3.i:779S600 

Imports l.o/i7:76I.S090 

In projiortion to the conditions of the State, the dairy industry, 
in its different branches, is important, contributing with abotit one 
third of the State revenue. 

At intervals it is greatly diminished by the periodic dry seasons, 
beginning a new and jDrospering period when the regular winters 

apix'iir ruriiishing with its ahnnclant pi-odiu^tioii tlie nciH'lil'oi'inK' 
State of I'eriianibuco. 

The public instruction is adniinistereil by Ki'i chisses witli a 
t'reiiuentation of t.OOO students. 

Tlicrc are also in the Capital : a Normal School which is devoted 
to the training oi' toaehei-s and the high school — Lyceu Parahybano 
— having the same rights as the National Gymnasium by decree 
2001 oi 1st. .luly, IS'.H). There are also the Model School and Marine 
Apprentices schools as well as a Public Library. 

The military force is ccnistitutcd l.)y a Safety Battalion with 200 
men commanded by a Ijieutenant-Colonel. 

The telephonic and telegraphic nets connect with Mamanguape , 
Areia, Lerraria, Bananeiros, Alagoa Grande, Alagoa Nova and 
Campina with an extension of 250 kilometres. 

Other ctjies of the State. — Besides Parahyba there are other 
cilies worth mention, though all of tliem are cities of third or foui'th 
order. As yet they ai'C small nucleus, destined to a])i)ear later on in 
the list of the fine Brazilian cities, when the railway will afford 
them the miraculous vitality of their services, bringing tlu^m nearer 
the Capital, connecting them with the outside mai'kets. 
Here are some of those small cities : 

Akeia. — It is beautiful and well built, situated on one of Bor- 
l)urema hills, 25 leagues away from the Capital, 700 metres above 
the sea level, a I'egion with an European climate ; its streets are 
paved, some of them inclined but very neat, fjuildings of modern 
style, and pleasing aspect. It has a cathedral and another ehurcli, an 
hospital, a theatre, a gai'den, a public squai'e and the jail. 

A i)art of the municipality is devoted to cattle raising, the other 
to agriculture with fertile fields, irrigated by little rivers. It consti- 
tutes the most powerful centre of sugar-eane cultivation in the 
interior of the State, counting more than 80 sugar factories. Its prin- 
ci])al places are : Lagoa do Remigio and Matta Linipa. In that city 
were born Aurelio de Figueiredo and Pedi'o Ameiico, two notabili- 
ties of the artistic world. 

MA:\rANGUAPE. — A city, seven miles away from the sea and 12 
away from the Capital crossed by a little river wliei'e boats navigate. 

It has two churches, a jail, and some pi'etty i^rivate houses. It has 
a Treasury and Telegi-aph station. Its eommei'ce is mainly with the 
market of Recife. 

On the way from the Capital to Mamanguape there are vast tracts 

— 267 — 

of nians;'abeii'as , trees where I'uliber is extraeted I'l'iim. They say 
there is a lari>e calcareous cave, ^\■llich is one of the finest things 
worth htolcini;- at. 

There ai'e many sug-ar iactories and they cultivate grain, tobacco, 
inandioca, and sugar-cane. 

Itahaya^na. — It is situated at the right of the Paraliyba river, 
IT) leagues from the Capital and G(i metres above the level of the sea. 

It ]iroduees corn, mandioca and cotton, they manufacture cheese 
butter and prepare dried salted beef, which is sold principally in 
the neighboi'iug State of Pernambuco. 

Ca.iazkikas. — This eity is situated 112 leagues at the west of 
the Capital and has '.i.OOd inhabitants. 

For its commercial activity and prosperity is considered one of 
the principal cities of the State. Its soil is ada])ted to the cultivation 
of grain, tobacco and specially cotton. 

This Paraliyba State hasten cities : Pavahyba (capital), ]SIaman- 
gnape , Ciuarabii'a, Itabayanna , Bananeiras , Canjpina Grande, 
Areia, Ponibal, Souza and Cajazeiras. 

Tliere are thii'ty five muniei])alities : the Capital, Santa llita, 
Espirito Santo, Pedras de Pogo, Mamanguapc, (luarabira. Pilar, 
Areia, Serraria, Alagoa Grande, Itabayanna, Campina Grande, 
Natuba, Inga, Cuite, Araruna, Soledade, S. .loao, Cabaceiras, 
Batalhao, Pombal, Catole do Rocha, Brejo da Cruz, Pianco, Con- 
ceicSo, Misericordia, I^-inceza, Patos, Santa Luzia do Sabugy, 
Teixeira, Alagoa do ^lonteiro, Souza, S. Joao do Rio do Peixe, 
Cajazeiras and S. .lose de Piranhas. 

Sixteen districts : Capital, Mamanguape, Itabayanna, Guarabira, 
Bananeiras, Areia, Camjjina Grande, Alagoa do Monteiro, Catole 
do Tvocha, Pombal, S. .Joao, Pianco, Patos, Souza, Borburema and 


The Capital of Pernambuco about which we are going to write 
now is one of the most important sea-shore cities. It is the foui'th 
as to its size, population and activity, of all Brazilian cities. Those 
preceding it being Rio de .Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Baliia. 

There is a I'idge i-unning parallel to the city in the sea, in the 
form of a majestic and solid reef and it was that what very properljr 

— 2(58 — 

g;ivo it tlie name of Recife. Tlie census ni I'.iOd gave it a jjopiilation 
of ll:!.()0() inlial)itants. 

I'Vnv fancies of the pi'odigious nature of Bi'azil are comparable 
with tlie imposing and curious foi-m of that platonic rock, placed as 
a break-water, a long strong wall against which the waves ^\■it)l all 
their fury doesn't succeed but in transforming in foam tlie ^^■ater 
stream, all that portion of sea beats against it. 

What there is of artificial woi'k in that break-water was tlie work 
of the Dutch, those celebrated collaborators of the sea, ah'cady 
clevei' in the conipiering science at that time. To crown theii- w^ork 
the\- placed at its extreme end, a few metres above the sea level, a 


Iiilcrior ani-lKiraue and llii' naliirai I'eL'l'. 

Strong tower to be used as a light-house and which can be seen at 
20 miles distance. 

Seen from a great distance, the city seems buried in the water, 
we might say it looks like a large, marshy village, half floating, half 
sunk, where we can discern the church towers, the factory chimneys 
and the Xavy Yard tower. It is that scene that the great Brazilian 
poet wanted to impress in these verses : 

Salue ! term fnrmosa, oh ! Pernainbiwo, 
Fe/ie^a iiiiivrirana, triinsjjurftidu 
lloinnte sobre us us-nns '. 

Hail ! heaiiUriil land, oli ! Pcriiaiiiljiu'd. American Vcnii'O, Iraiisiiorlcd floating mi llii' 
seas ! 

— 269 — 

An impression o( the first visit to the eity is expressed in tlie fol- 
lowing paragraph of a true ol)server : 

« Those who on board of a transatlantic steamer, arrive for tlie 
first time at Pernambuco have the impression that the ei(y of Recife 
raises itself from the sea growing larger and more l:)eautiful at the 
proportion we grow nearei'. 

This illusion, known by all those who have entered Uecife by 
sea, though produced by an effect of optics, is however based on a 
true fact : the city of Recife, was, really in its greatest part, con- 
quered from the sea. 

Tlu)se disti'icts of the city full of movement, as the Recife (S. P^rei 
Pedro Goncalves), Santo Antonio and H. .Jose, and a good part of 
Boa-vista where jdaces largely covered by marshy ground which the 
high-tides fed and the human work conquered by means of quays 
and filling in the ground, in oi'der to architect the city of to-day 
which is already a beautiful city, but has all the elements to become 
still much nicer. » 

So that the city area is nothing else but a series of small penin- 
sulas and canals — happening that the oldest one of the districts, is 
positively an island. All this, however, connected, embodied by 
means of viaducts, built with more or less elegance over the mur- 
muring, bright and reflecting rivers. 

This jieculiarity, pi'oj^ortionating to the Recife, the most poetic 
and unforeseen panoramas, was the cause of it having received the 
popular name of Brazilian Venice. 

Its geographical position, on the other hand, having impressed 
on it an undisputable preeminence, assures for it also an auspicious 
future, on the day that its port shall become a forced point for inter- 
national navigation to touch on its way abroad as the shortest route 
between the European Continent and Brazil. 

Elisee Reclus, witli all the weight of his autliorily said : (( It is 
one of the commercial emporiums which seem destined to a great 
future. » 

It is said that it was founded in 1536 by Duarte Coelho. Later 
on in the seventeenth century it was embellished by Maurice of 
Nassau, a Dutchman, who instituted it the seat of the Dutch do- 
minion when they treated of the occupation of those conquerors in 

Its port is then divided by the natural reef. The space between 
this reef and the city is called Lingueta, and only ships of middle 
draught can anchor there. The ships of deep draught remain beyond 
the reef. That anchorage is not slieltered and they call it Lamai'ao. 

— '270 — 

AVlien the governincnt will I'ealize any of the existing projects, 
((here is a French one, P'ournie and an English one, Ilawkshawj, I'or 
the improvement ol' the port, Recife will heeome a city of capital 
iia])ortanee, hecause, as E. Recliis said : « No i^oint on llie Brazilian 
coast has more importance from a strategic point of \'iew. It is 
the advance point of the Kepuhlie and of all the Latin American Xew 
Woi-ld, for that matter. It will not be long in the future, when ways 
of direct communication will allow the line to the commerce to he- 
come shorter and Pernambnco will he the most frequented port of 
all South America. » 

Recile. — View ot Prinieiro de Marco slreet 

But we^have said enough about the port. Onr reader, to be sure, 
wants some notes on the city ot to-day. We will please him. What is 
there in Recife to-day?... Everything that goes to make a large ca- 
pital : railways, tramways, hotels, theatres, arsenals, superb chur- 
ches. Academies, libraries, newspapei-s, clubs, factories, nice resi- 
dences, in all the islands and suburbs, a constant movement in the 
streets, a joyful agitation of the active working classes, here we 
have the Recife of to-day. 

Let us see the princi])al sections of the city : 

Tlie Recife prosperity, and that of Santo Antonio, from the purely 

— 271 — 

esthetic point oT view are not up to tlie district of Boa-Vista, and the 
new suburbs. IJat, as in everything there is tlie law of eoni])eTi- 
sations, they have a constant animation and s])lendid business 
liouses disi)]aying- eliarniing show-cases and windows. 'J'iie streest 
are uneven, ({uite so. It we see some wide and straight sti-eets as 
Bai'ao (h' Yictoi'ia, Impei'atriz and a few others, which give a nice 
impression to tlie visitor, we see many others narrow, tortuous, 
regular lanes, lined with thi'ee and four story buildings, Portuguese 

Recife. — Estarao da E. P. de Caruani 

style with plain walls only disturbed in their simplicity by the mo- 
dest verandahs and windows. The monotony of the constructions in 
these districts, are just like those of Bahia and Pai'a, of all tliose 
places where the commerce has Portuguese roots and virtues. 

Just wheie we land, in the business district, is the building of 
the Commerc'al Association. It is a fine building, though without 
architectural style. It is situated in a place of the Lingueta which 
was conquered from the sea, a stretch that is prolonged as quay 
forming a jiretty and pleasant boulevai'd. This l)uilding has two 
floors, has a library, a reading room with newspajiers and maga- 


zincs, which is iiinch t'rc(iueiilu(l, and abdve these is tlie meeting ]iall 
with the pictures ot men, wIki have rendered services (o the eom- 
meriH', lumping IVoni tlie walls. AVhcn we were thei'c the jiresident 
oi' Ihe Association was I)i-. Corbiniano da I^'onseca Filho, an indus- 
trial will) has a large soap and caudle factory in the Blum district. 

A little further ahead we see the i>retty street called Cadeia which 
prolongs itself over a bridge called Recife, paved with stone blocks, 
and wooden sidewalk on both sides ; the centre for carriages and 
trucks, the sidewalks for footpads. Two stone arches of i)eculiur 
ornamentation give access to the extremities of this viaduct, one is 
called Santo ^Vntonio, the other Conceicao. 

Following, always in straight line, another street of magnificent 
pei-spective is seen. It is the Dois de Marco street, also lined with 
large buildings two and three story high. The ground floors are oc- 
cupied by stores, whose sliow windows and signs of all colors and 
dimentions lend to that artery of the city an European stamp. 

Crossing this street perpendicularly runs Impera(hir street, a 
wide one ventilated by the fresh breeze with fine buildings on both 

The aspect of tliat avenue is rigorously modern, not only l)y the 
buildings but by the movement of ])eoi)le and vehicles of all kinds, 
by its active commerce, by its brasseries filled witli people, tlie 
beantiful fashion establishments with the display of a world of fine 
laces, feathers and' other pretty futilities. 

The pretty street Barao da Victoria, we referred to above lias 
also its continuation ovei' a bridge, which is named Boa Vista, from 
wliicdi looking to the portions of the city on the river side we enjoy 
a landscape that can't easily be forgotten. 

Beautifnl panoi-amas they are those we can contemplate from 
those bridges ! We see that the Capiberibe river returns as a new 
looking-glass does, the image and the coloring of all the buildings 
stooping over its banks. The large buildings of the city, thanks to 
the strange topographical arrangement of Recife are lining the 

One of them, which we visited only owing to that cireumstance 
was the House of Detention (the jail) built l\v the civil engineer 
•Jose Manoel Alves Ferreira. 

Leaving that section of the beautiful city rnnniug in another 
direction we run acci-oss a tyjncal iron and glass building. It is the 
S. Jose Market. Two enormous pavilions with their red roofs con- 
nected by a central gallery. Inside, Ijathed by tlie irradiation of the 
sun, which penetrates by all sides, there moves in all directions like 

— 273 - 

busy bees a tliiok crowd of men ami women, yoinig and old, even 
boys and girls, and the grain, the vegetables, tlie Ijeautiful ti-opical 
fruit, everywhere, complete the picture oi' the large building. There 
is another market, superior to this one in arehitectaral style. It is 
called the Derby. 


Now we are before a church. Let us look at it, dear reader. 

It is one of the most beautiful in Brazil, though it is not so impos- 
ing and so large as Caudelai'ia, in Rio de Janeiro is, n(n- of so 
severe grandeur as the Collegio church of Baliia, nor of so elegant 

Recilc. — Tlie marUel of Uerl)y 

architecture in its exterior as the Bello Ilorizonte and Curytiba 
cathedrals, nor so majestic in its height as the Xossa Senhora das 
Dores churcli of Porto Alcgre, nor of so patient interior decoration 
as the historical S. Francisco church of Bahia. It is, liowever, most 
wortliy of the fame it enjoys for its harmonious architectural style, 
based on the corynthian order in which every part of the church is 
moulded, from the simple front, in which predominates an Italian 
taste, till the elegant dome of the spheric section, ending at the tc^p 
by an open lantern with a monumental image of Our Lady. 

Another church of those lo in the city, whicli pleased us a good 
deal was the Boa Vista, unfortunately situated in a place that is not 
favorable to its perspective. It has a stone front in two bodies, one 
over the f)ther, each one with its columns and two square towers 

— 274 — 

some no nicircs hi^li. The whole striictiii-e presenfH ;i noble appear- 
anee with many ornamental aceosKorieH wliieli do not diminish its 
majcstie aspect. 

W'c will now write ahout the Santa Izabel theatre which is one of 
the I'inc buildings of the city, one oi the best ol' Brazil, though oi mo- 
dest propoi-tions. It is not as rich in its interior as the Manaos thea- 
tre, and hasn't much less the architct'tural perfection in its exterior 
that the Belem theatre has, yet, it is a most pretty building- and well 
worthy of the praises all visitors are pr(nnpt to make. 'J'he central 


Subiii-b of Kecife ;iii(l 8ele lie Seleiiiliro Bridge 

body of the building in the form of parallelogram is somewhat impos- 
ing on the outside, witlLt^YO rows of windows having above them 
two rows of windows, (like ships port-holes), remind one even of 
a large transatlantic steamer. Two different bodies complete the 
whole, annexed to the two snuiUer angles, the front one being 
decorated with a porlico and a terrace with columns. 

It was built by the French architect L. Vauthier and inaugurated 
on the 18tli of May l.S.V). Devoured by a fire in vSeptemlier 18(i9it was 
I'e-erected by a builder .Jose Augusto do Araujo, under the direction 
of the public works engineer Dr. Jose Tiburcio Pereirade Magalhaes, 
and it Mas i'cojx'ikmI on the liith of December l<S7(i. 

— 275 — 

In the rebuilding tlic primitive plan of the building wrh eidai-ged 
and has a sitting capacity Tor l.ODU persons. 

There is in Recife another theatre, that of the Club Draniatico, 
belonging to a private association, with a sitting capacit_y for 000. 

In the same square where the Santa Isabel theatre is to be found, 
there is the Governor's palace in the other angle. This palace is both 
the State Government seat and the Governor's residence, and is shad- 
ed by tall palm trees. As to its architecture this palace has nothing 

Recife. — Nossa Seiihora da Pciilia cliurcli 

worth while noting, ^it looks a little like the Para State one, though not 
so large and not so pretty. It has, however, an historical interest, as 
it was erected on the foundations of the Prince of Nassau's palace. At 
present, after successive reforms, it has the external appearance of an 
old mausion residence of noble personages. It has two floors in three 
of the angles of the building, in tlie fourth angle, at the rear there 
are three floors and there is the Governor's residence. The front is 
painted of dark red, with a triangle in the centre at the toj) and 
faces the garden of the Republica Square. 

This is the finest square of the city. Recife in this regard did 

— 276 — 

not keep in pace with its inij)()riiince and grandeur. It haw but few 
S([uares, and tliose it has, liave quite poor gardens. Yon ma\' run 
llirough the wliole eity and you will not I'ind one of those pretty 
parks as you find in Belem, Sao Paulo, and Rio de Janeii'o, perfum- 
ing the atmosphere with the balsamic sweet scent of their flowers. 

Anotliei- inipf)rtant building is the Congress Palace, modern 
style with a semi-spheric dome, the shade of which projects itself in 
the looking glass of the river calm waters, as a large and trembling 

It is a fine building, the foundation stone of which was placed on 
the 2nd of December 1870, and was finished on the 2()th of January 
187(i, under the direction and according to the plans of the civil 
engineer Dr. .lose Tiburcio Pei'eira de Magalhaes. 

A little further aliead, also in the pretty street that lines the 
river we see a large building, the Gymnasium, possessing in its 
large size what lacks in elegance. 

At the end of the Imperador street is a white three story high 
mansion, of sober architecture — it is the Town Hall. — The muni- 
cipality does not occupy the whole building. The second floor is the 
public librai'y which has nothing to do with the municipal sei'vice. 

We visited it with leisure and with all this patient crankness 
that makes of us a library-maniac. Everything was in perfect order. 
The books of which there are 20.000 volumes were in book-cases 
with glass-doors, quite protected from the dust and leaning against 
the walls, according to the nsages in olden times libraries. The 
books were nicely kept. The catalogue is nicely arranged. 

Without feeling it we started treating public instruction subjects 
and as it deserves a separate chapter wo now open it. 

The oldest an<l most respected institution in this line is the Law 
College. Xot having that famous reputation for its glorious traditions, 
nobody will say by looking at this establishment, that this building- 
is the nest and nursery wherefrom so many intellectual eagles have 
I'aised its flight carrying the beneficial influx of their knowledge to 
every corner of Brazil. 

The Arts and Trades Lyceum is a most sympathetic institute of 
learning. It owes its existence to pi-ivate initiative and its expenses 
are made by the product of subscriptions of private contributiims. 
It has a building of its own, and a fine construction it is, with 

— 277 — 

classes wliei-e languages, scicneos, arts aiul tnides, industrial 
drawing and other studies are taught free ot charge both in day and 
evening classes. M'e were there a couple of hours examining some 
curious anthropological, archeological and numismatic collections 
which form its interesting museum. 

This popular institute, based on the system of the establishments 
of its kind in Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, was founded by the u Socie- 
dade dos Artistas Mechanicos e Liberaes «, in the year 1881, the 
State Government contributing with a yearly subsidy. 

The Archeological Institute has a rcpiutation which has already 
reached beyond the State boundary limits, it has si)i'ead all ovei' the 

-?$r • ■ ■- 

■■■ -. 

■■ ■ 

•■'.'-- I 

■-■■'- ^ 

■ » 



^> " '" 


"fete s 











Losislalivo Ooiii'TCss :uid Gviuiiasiiiiii biiildijigs. 

country. It is in a small building of a most peculiar architecture, in 
which curve lines predominate, built at first for grammar schools 
and later on reserved for this institution. 

In the meetings Hall we saw^ a picture gallery with the portraits 
of hist(jrical personages, and notabilities of the ex-province. 

Charities Department. — The public buildings devoted to the 
service of public aid in Pernambuco are worthy of note. 

The D. Pedro II Hospital is the largest. It is a large three story 
building — it is the city hospital. 

The foundation stone of the building w^as placed on the 25th of 
March 1847 and before it was finished on the 10th of March 1801 
began already its charitable work of i-eceiving patients to be treated. 

It has nine wards for men and four for women, steam washing 

— '271! ~ 

iimcliiiiery, ;i chapel, I'lowi'i' and vegetable gardens, observation 
rooms for siisi)ee(iMl diseases, livcr\' stables, laboratories and every 
departnuMil needed in an institute of its kind. 

Tlie Insane Asylum though not as important as that ol' Paru, or 
that ol' Sao Paulo, is yet one of the best in tlie whole eoiintry. 

The building is a modern one, situated at the 'l\imarindeira 
Square, a most pleasant and healthy spot. It has four ])avilions, the 
central one being 145 meti'es away ironi the ])ublic rc^ad, and is 
occupied by the administration of the institution, measuring UOm. 50 
front by 22 m. (H) deiith. The other two pavilions, are devoted to 
the habitation of the insane, and have their fronts a little further 
ahead than the centi'al one and measure .'50 m. 50 t'l'ont by 50 m. 00 

.»*.-«»> ^ i^<:f,^j^/U*. 

., ,«^.ri^.^ ^..yu)H..Ln^J. , 

liccil'i?. — Insane As\lnni 

The main front is of doric style and of Ijisbon stone with a 
stairway, a portico and a. garden in front. 

When we visited tliis noted asylum in ()ctober 1002 thei'e were 
12 insane ])atients from Pernambuco and neighboi'ing States. 

.lust as the Insane Asylum, the Poor House, known as the Asylo 
de Mendicidade, is another document of the high interest that the 
Government of Pernambuco lakes in the pul)lic aid services of its 

'fhere are yet in Ilecife the asylums and hospitals, Alagalhaes 
Eastos, Lazaros, Santa Angela and others. 

PuMi.ic Instri'C'I'iox. — Incidentally we have already s])oken of 
some publico instruction cslablishmenls, as the CiNiunasium and the 
Lyceuui. We will now write about the grammar schools. The diffe- 
rcmt nninicipaliti(;s of Penuimbut'o share with the State Government 

the L'liargcs ol' jmhlic instruction. Jusi as il is <l()n(' in l^aliia, Minas, 
Sao Paulo, and other States. 

llie State maintains in its capital, Reeife, 16 grammai' schools, 
two in each ward — being one for each sex. 

The municiijality in its tnrn sup^jorts lOS day schools and eight 
night ones. 'I'here are also about :i(» ])rivate schools. 


In the capital : 

Day classes . . . . 108 
Xight classes ... 8 
Private classes ... 30 IK) 

In the interior 381 

Total . . 527 

There are, besides this, many private schools, both grammar and 
high schools spread through the cities and villages of the interior. 
The State govei'nment has also the Cohmia Orphanologica Isabel, 
(« Isabel » orphanological colony], an important institute for orphan 

There are in liecife several libraries, the principal ones being : 
a Bibliotheca do Estado ; Bibliotheca da Faculdade de Dii'cito; Bi- 
bliotheca do Gabinete Portuguez de Leitura ; Bildiotheca do Insti- 
tute Archeologico. 

Xearly all the principal associations and learning institutions 
maintain libraries of moi'c or less imjjortance. 

The State Library has 30.000 volumes, the Gabinete Portuguez 
one 20.000; the Faculdade de Direito (me 10.000, and that of the 
Archeological Institute 3.000 volumes. 

As to secondary and superior instruction there are also the follow- 
ing classes : 

(cAssociaciio dos Empregados do Comniercio» night classes of lan- 
guages and other studies for book-keeping and commercial pursuits. 

Xormal College, — with a a four year course for teachers. There 
is another school of this kind foi' the same purposes maintained by a 
j)rivate association. 

Engeneering College, founded by Dr. Barbosa Lima while Go- 
vernor of the State, installed in a fine building, modern style, with 
a physics and chemistry cabinet and laboratory. 

"We must not close the Pcrnambuco section without writing 
about the magnificent jtrcss of its Capital. It is the State where 
journalism is the strongest and most advanced. In the Capital alone 
there are eight dailies, and some have won a I'eputation in all Bi'a- 

— 280 — 

zil, siu'li ;is the Jornnl do Recife publislied I'di- tlie last V.> ,\'eiirs ; the 
Diario ile Po-iuimbiico, published since 1S25; the Provincia; the 
ICstniln ,■ the Correii) do Recife ; o Jornal Peijiieno, etc. In the interior 
we I'arely find a city nl' some importance without a newspaper. 

IxDi'sTKY AM) Co:wMERCK. — In spitc ol' tlio largest part of Per- 
nambiieo's activity and wealth being- trained towards agricultural 
industries, just as it happens in nearly every State of Brazil, it would 
be a mistake to imagine that there is not either in the Capital or in 
otliei' cities, an ever growing number of factories. 

RoL'il'c. — ('.oni|)rossiiiy cuUnu works of V. N'peseii ol O 

Speaking only of important establishnnmts there are in Recife 
and suburbs the following factories : :> shoe ones, (1 cotton mills, 1 
oakum, 2(1 cigars, 2 playing cai'ds, 1 glassware, 2 hats, 1 matches, 
2 perfumery, 1 powder, H soap, 10 furniture, '■', oil, 4 candles, 2 glo- 
ves, 2 bones coal, 7 picture frames and looking glasses, 1 ice, 1 neck- 
ties, 1 paste board, 1 biscuits, 1 wire nails, 1 cement, 1 brick, 3 to- 
mato mass taclories and 12 breweries and licpior distillers. 

As to its muter industry, tlie manufacture of sugar, the State 
not long ago invested 1 l.oODiO^OOOOO to enlarge the installation of 
some factories and introduce new processes in the pre})aration of 

In the State of Pei'uambuco there arc to-day .'JS steam and 


hydraulic sui>-ar I'ai'tories, and l.()()0 sugar Tactoi-ies working by tin; 
old processes, wliieli gi\-e an average of \'>0.0()i) tons of sugar each 

1'lie total of the annual jjroduetion ot sugar-cane is estimated at 
nearly ii.oOO.UOO Ions. 

To-day none oi the l>ra/.ilian States produces better (inalities ot 
sugai' noi' cheaper ones than Pei'uamhnco. 

On the other hand, its pi'oducing energy is astounding. The 
following table of sugar export by the port of Recife serves as a 
pi'oof of the statements we made above. 

Map of the sugar pkoduixd in Pkrnamuuco in 7 years IHfU-lOOl (in rags of 75 Kii.os) 









Seplenibcr . . 








October . . . 








N'ovenibei' . . 








Uecember . . 








.lamiarv . . . 


547. G59 














Mai'cli . . . 








.\|iril. . . . 








Mav .... 





GO. 072 



.luiie .... 








.Iiilv .... 








.\llgllSt . . . 














It isn't sugar alone that appears in the list of Pernambuco 
exj)orts , thei'e is also cotton, dried and salted skins, alcohol, 
l)randy, oils, caruauba, mamona (of which castor oil is made), and 
rubber. All these articles are exported in smaller or larger quantities. 

l''he i:>roduction of cotton, for instance, which is the second arti- 
cle in importance in the list as to quantity is quite large and the 
tal)le below representing the port of Recife exports of that article in 
the decade 18U1 to 1901 will give us an idea of it : 

Wars liales 

1891 a 1892 107.999 

1892 a 1893 312.112 

1895 a 1894 312.258 

189i a 1895 195.667 

1895 a 1896 172.427 


1896 a 1807 

1897 a 1898 

1 898 a 1 899 

1899 a 1900 

1900 a 1901 


289. 82G 

The importation commerce of Pernambuco is large, exceeds even 

its exports, what is easily explained beeaiise the ])()rt ol' lleeife is a 
kind ol' intermediary of the imports oi' some of the small neighl)oring 

In Ui03 the international interchange of Pernambnco from 
January to November A\as : 

Exporls 2:i.998:."i7l,S00O 

liii|joiis 54.l9.i:82l|000 

By the following list we will see that Peruambueo occupies a 
l)i-ominent place, being second to none but Rio de Janeiro as to the 
amount of its imports among the six States wliich import more than 
they exjjort. By tlie last official statistics data during the first nine 
iiiontlis of lUdl we see that those states imported : 

Federal (',aiiit,'il 156.71 l:8ol|00n 

I'ernanibiiCd .">!. I9i:8-2I,$000 

Kio Gramle do Sul :iO.I98:2"26,$OOn 

Maraidifio .i.o29;,fj84.$000 

Pandijba l..-)17;77l,4;n00 

Sergipe 5r>0:«l9$00n 

The port of Recife is one of the principal ones of Brazil, as to 
the entry and sailings movement in spite even of nothing having 
been done materially to adapt this poi't to the requii'ements of 
modci'n commerce. A committee of engineers which the Federal 
(jcOvernnient maintains there, and installed to-day in the old Xavy 
arsenal building, has nuide some dredging work in tlie port between 
the Lingaeta and the light house to clear u]i the channel. 


Police force, tkaxsport,\tion, etc. — Tlie police foi'ce of Per- 
nambnco, which used to liave 2.000 men, was lately reduced. 

The map showmg the expenses made with the State troops, 
during (he year 19034904 go up to 852:;!00$550. 

The above document was sent to the State Congress l)y Dr. An 
tonio Goncalves Ferreira, governor of the State, with a message of 
which we extracted the following paragraphs : 

« It is thus tluit by the proposed reform presented, the State 
t)T)o])s will be reduced to 1.303 privates and 30 officers, distributed, 
according to the table approved, by a regiment of infantry and a 
S(|uadron of cavalry, the former with 1.2 11 men and the second with 
59 ])rivatcs under the general command of a colonel who will have 
full cliarge of tlie service. » 

— 288 — 

The city is crossed by the trucks of the (( Companhia Ferro (Jarril 
rernaiul)ucana, » whicli iiiangarated its service on tlie 2Lstor Septem- 
ber 1871 with tlie Mag-dalena line. Then they started the Ai'l'orgados 
one, on the -JOth of Xovember ot the same year, Santo Amaro, on the 
14tli or January, 1872, C'apunga, ending in Fernandes Vieira, in the 
l)eginning of tlie scpiare in which they plan the construction ol tlie 
Aniorim park, on ilst oi' September, 1872. The tramways are large, 
in good conditions, comfortable, and the general service is good. In 
1903 this company carried 7.000.000 passengers in tlie different linos, 
which run over a total of 2.5 kilometres. 

Generally the tramway service is good tliougli they adopt as yet 
animal traction. It is noticed by tlie visitors why such a beautiful 
and progressive city should not adopt electrical traction as nearly 
all the important cities of Brazil are doing. 

As to railroads the State of Pernanibuco has the following com- 
jianies : 

Mel res 

Estrada do Ferro do Recife a S. Fraiirisco 12-4. T.iO 

Estrada Sill de Pcriiamljiico I9.".n0n 

Estrada de Hiboirao a Boiiilo 2(i 

Estrada do Ferro de ('.iicail 70 

Estrada do Ferro Santos Dias — 

Estrada de Ferro Central ITK.DOO 

I'^slrada de Ferro do liecito ao Ijnioeiro iinaiii line) . . . H:i.97(i 

Estrada de Ferro de (^arpiiia a Xazai'otli (bi'aiii-li) , . . . I.", 009 

Estrada de Ferro de iXazarelli ao I^ilar (liraneli) .... 84.240 


Besides these the State has other railways connecting the Capital 
with the suburbs : 

« Estrada de F'ei'ro Trilhos Urbanos do Recife a Dois » with a 
branch going to Varzea, the trains of whicli start from Republica 
square. Thelineuntil Apipucos was inaugurated on the 5th of .January 
lS()(i. Tlie branch that follows to Varzea separates itself from the 
main line at the F^ntroncamento, crosses Capunga, goes over the 
Lassarre Itridge and thence througli tlie new road neai' a place named 
Zumby, following up to Caxanga. 

F^rom the entroncamento starts a new branch following by the 
Arrayal, which connects again to tlie main line in Monteiro. This 
railway belongs to an English Company: tlie Brazilian Street 
Railway; its track is l'"20 wide and lias 26 kilometres extension. 

The (( Trillios Urbanos do Recife a Olinda e Be))eribe » Company 
has its main station at Rua Visconde do Rio Branco (Aurora) at 
the South of Pedro II bridge. It is 12 kilometres long, its ti'ack is 

— a84 — 

r":!2 wide and l)cl()n<^s to a Hra/.ilian company. Tlie main station at 
liiia Anroi'a was open to the public in lX7)i. 

For transiiortation and sea communications, liecii'e supf)orts a 
coastwise navigation company (l>esides otlier enterprizes tliat call 
there, belonging to other States). It is tlie «CompanhiaPernambucana 
de Navegacan a Vapor)) founded in 185-':! which has eight steamers tor 
that service with (J.OiiT tons I'or cargo and accommodations I'or l.loO 
fii'st and second class jjassengers. 

Sundry notes about the city. — There are in Recite the follow- 
ing l)anks with the roUowing capital : 

Banco de Pcrnambiiro 8.0nO;OnOSOO() 

Banco l'0|)iilar !..'iOn:000,$nOO 

Banco Emissor 20.0nn.000,«;0n0 

Banco Crcdilo Itcal I.n00;000§000 

The following banks have braneli houses : 

The IjOiidoii and Brazilian Bank I, Id. 
The toniloii and Bivei' Plalc Baid, Lid. 

There is also an agency of the Banco de Republica do Bra/.il , of 
Itio de .Janeiro, and a new bank undei' the name of Banco do Recife 
\\ ith a capital of e.OoOiUOOSOOo has just been founded. 

The city is illuminated bj- hydro-carbonic gas of which there is 
an excellent factory and gasometre in S. Jose ward. It receives its 
water supply through pipes and has a complete system of sewerage. 
It has 345 streets, 29 squares, 21ij lanes and 67 alleys. 

In . January of 1902 the city of Recife and suburbs had 20.147 
buildings, Ijeing 19..S9."3 inhabited, 1(19 under construction, and 83 in 

Of these buildings 1.092 didn't pay any taxation for the good 
reason of having legal exemption from it. 

The municipal revenue collected in 1902, amounted to 1 . 198: .5 18898.5, 
which aftei- adding the balance left from the previous year went up 
to 1.204.3491330. 

The population of the city has increased thus : 

1810. . 25.000 inhabitants. 
1842. . 72.600 « 

1872. . 97..500 » 

1890. . 129.07 I inhabitants including Olinda and the other 


Other Cities oe PEKN'AMiiuco. — Besides Reeil'e, one orilie SonUi 
American jewels, the Pernambuco State lias within its limits some 
very pretty cities, active nucleus of civilisaticm and progress, which 
the not of railways is little hy little uniting, so that they become 
homogeneous, let us put it that way, in the formation of that block 
of national soul and conscience, which is so rarefied and so uncon- 
scious once the sea-shore line is left to penetrate in the vast world 
of the west — the interior. 

Here are the names of those cities , which are spread here and 
there, some connected by the railway, others that will be so in some 
future date : 

Bezerros at the right of the Ipojuca river, at the Xorth, near Serra 
Xegra; Bom Janlim, in a beautiful position at the right of the Tra- 
cunhaem river, near the State of Parahyl)a do Xortc ; Brcjo da 
Madre de Dens, situated in a valley and just from this very circum- 
stance its name originates. The valley is formed by the Prata and 
Estrag(j hills. This city formerly was nothing but a lai-ge farm bo- 
longing to the convent de S. Philii)i3c Isevy in Keeife. (hdio is another 
city at the right of Pirapama, crossed ^)y the E. do P. do Recife a 
S. Francisco railway ; (Barnaul is in slightly inclined but healthy 
and dry ground, bathed by the Ipojuca I'ivor, and placed at its loft. 
That river is quite strong in winter; Escada, also at the left of 
the Ipojuca river, high gi'ound, many inhabitants, ^\ ell mounted 
sugar factories and a railway station of the E. de F. do Recife ao 
S. Francisco company, bathed by the Salgado and Goyta rivers 
which run near by; Garanhunx, in the centre of a hill top near the 
source of the Mundahii river ; Gloria de Goyta near the city of Pao 
d'Alho bathed by a little river of the same name, with sugar factoidos ; 
Goyanna between the rivers Tracunhaem and Capiberibo-mirim. 
24 kilometres from the coast with sugar-cane, coffee and tobacco 
agriculture; Gravata at the right of the Ipojuca river; Itambe at the 
extreme end of the State in front of the Pedras de Fogo village, well 
populated, with a magnificent climate and fertile ground; Jaboattio, 
at 18 kilometres west of the Capital, with a good climate, bathed by 
the river of the same name, connected with Recife by the E. de F. de 
Caruaru : Limoeiro, at the left of Capiberibe river, it is a beautiful 
l^lain; Nazareth , with 4.000 inhabitants at the right of the Tracun- 
haem river, in high ground, rocky and uneven connected with 
Recife by the E. de F. do Recife ao Ijimoeiro by the branch of its 
name; 0/mr/a, only 6 kilometres away from Recife, built on a hill 
bathed in the South by the Beberibe river, in the North by the Doce 

— 28fi — 

river, in tlio Eas( by the ocean. (It was I'ornierly tlie capital of Pcr- 
nanilmco, then one of the most 0])nlent and ricli cities ol'Bi-azi!) On tlio 
2:ird of Xovembei', 18l!l the Dutch set fire to it. Among its ))uil(l- 
in;;s worth wliile noting is : (lie Cluircli (Se); the Seminary, an ohl 
college that belonged formerly to the .Jesuits, the S. Francisco and 
vSao Ik'nfo convents well ])reserved; the Carnio convent in ruins, the 
Nuns Home: the terminal station of the E. de K. de Olinda, a lai'ge 
building where in olden times v\ere slieltered the soldiers. It w as the 
artillery barracks and t(;-day was reconstructed by tlie railway 
eompanj'. The City Hall building; the market; the S. Pedro Martyi', 
the S. Pedro Xovo, the Amparo, the S. Joao, the Misericordia, tlio 
Milagres and othei' churches. Olinda's water supply is furnished by 
the Santa Thereza Company, the water coming through pipes from 
the Beberibe rivei'. In the Varadouro there is a pretty bridge. 
Piilniitres, at the left of the Una river, in the I'^. de F. do Recife ao 
S. Fi'aneisco ; Pvxiiuclru, at the bottom, of the west side of Araruba 
hill where the Panema or Ipanema river begins; Rio Formoso, at 
the right of the river of the same name, near the sea coast, with 
<S.00() inhabitants became celebrated in the days of struggle with 
the Dutch; I'MiuarctingH, elcxated to the rank of a city in 
1.S87 ; Tinibtiiibii, but at a short distance from Pernarabuco boundary 
line, separating it from Parahyba; Y'r/iHN/^/jo in the Baixa Verde 
mountain, cultivating largely coffee; V'icturia, crossed by Natuba, a 
little i-iver, situated at the left of the Tapocara river, in tlu^ E. de F. 
do Recife a Caruaru, it was formerly the Santo Antao village. 
Barrcirns, crossed by the Una and Cariman rivers, near the State of 
Alagoas ; Scrinhricin, built on a hill at the right of the river of the 
same name; Boniio, at the left of the INIadre de Dens river; Ai^iia 
Preiii, at the left of Una river; Petrolina, on the banks of the 
S. Fi'ancisco river , and in front of .Joazeiro, in Bahia; vS'a/^''np(/'() 
and Bom Conaelho, at the l)ottom of Taboleiro hill, at the right of 
the Lava-pes little I'iver, which divides it into two districts, connect- 
ed by two wooden bridges : (iainelleiru, bathed by the Serinhaem 

AVe persist in oui' opinion that this part of Brazilian fatherland 
will play a most important role in the p)rog]'ess and civilisation of 
the country. When we visited it, though we heard repeated com- 
plaints against the dull business, against such or such stability of 
local progress, we were convinced that we can trust decidedly and 
confidentially in the future of Pernambuco, without incurring in the 
error of being optimist. Its principal cultivation, the sugar-cane, is 
not threatening it, as the impatient ones cry. Pernambuco has a 

— 287 — 

sure markef in the IH or IS million consuniers right in the country. 
It siitTiees to close Brazilian markets to the alcohol, brandy and 
sugar impoi'tcd from i'oi'cign countries, to amplil'y by industrial ap- 
plications the use ol' the alcohol and the crisis ol' the vState agricul- 
ture will be i'ought. To be sure that all must be preceded by 
the radical remodellation ol' the cultivation and manufacturing pro- 
cesses. Those l.HOO sugar i)lantations where sugar is manufactured 
by the old processes of large copper pans, have to be transfoi'med 
into modern factories, or disappear from the regions where these 
new processes begin to be adopted. 

The agricultural evolution will have to accomi:)any inevitably the 
general evolutitm. 

But what assures firmly the future of Pernambuco is its nuxgni- 
ficent maritime sitiuxtion between tlie two worlds, lucky position, 
nothing lacking to it, not even tlie pi-oximity of good anchoi-age to 
help the access to the Recife one. 

In fact, among other bays which make the coast navigation so 
easy, \\e will cite the port of Tamandare , 12() kilometres south of 
the Capital, -which is reputed one of the best, if not the best of the 
wliole State. It is formed by a large bay in the coast, between the 
bars of the Una and Formoso rivers, closed in the fi'ont by the I'eel'. 
It has an easy entrance, a good anchorage with deep waters and 
sheltered from stoi'ms. 

The Fedei'al (Jovernuient installed there a (piarantine station, 
iiiodei'n style, of which the building nicely painted and clean we had 
to oljserve, e%^en if against our wishes. The steamer in which we tra- 
velled going to Ri(j, called at Recife at a time when they reported 
the existence of the plague there. Tlie steamer was sent to Taman- 
dare for disinfections and otlier annoyances, with which they perform 
all over the world the comedy of the official prophylatic theories. 
AVe gained l)y the visit. We got acquainted with one of the most 
beautiful anchorage places of Brazil. 


From Bahia to Maceio there are only 240 miles, and besides the 
ti'aveller will have always in siglit the low lands of the sea-coast, 
ai-aceful in its curves, a little sandv, here and there, but fertile in 
the largest pai't of its extension , and always dressed by tlie woods 

— 2ii« — 

in wliich prodmiiimitc^s the ci'oxMi ol' the piilm-lrccs, coco;i-nui trees 
in onilulatiiif;' eullivatioiis that ha\'(' miles ami miles of extension. 

'{"he I'ii'st time \v(^ reached the porl of Maeeio , was on a .June 
morning tresli and sweet, the diaphanous atmosphei'e lel'l before our 
eves the vision of an infinite field. At the left of those which from the 

.Mari'ii). — Tlic lislit-liiiiisc 

sea look to the city, are awfully long plantations of cocoa-nut trees. 
The same moving bottom, is like a frame to the while buildings 
affoi'ding a joyful and ])leasant panoi'anni. 

'J'he buildings are spread penetrating (he green block and seem 
to be advancing in two distinct columns, one low down lining the 
shore, the other going n\> the hill, a picturesque and reddish hill, not 

very liig'li and wliicli serves as hasis Tor the liglit-lioiise. Several 
clinrch-lowers appear alxive tlie tliiek l)()(ly "f the buildings looking 
I'or a supei'ior atmosphere, si)otting- the sei'enity oi' the sky transpa- 
rent blue. Towai'ds the Xorth and Xorth-east j^icturescpie houses and 
hamlets of humble people ui'e lining the roads always gi-een with the 
eoeoa-nut trees till about a league's distance. 

\^'hen the steamer anchors, an enormous quantity ol' boats gather 
around il , the boatmen shouting to offer transi)ortation making a 
tremendous noise. In ten minutes everything is done and we are 
walking over the wooden bi'idges to enter the city. The landing- 
place is a sea-shore called .Jaragua, filled with small houses without 
any importance and large commercial houses, storage rooms, docks 
and warehouses and navigation comx:ianies agencies. A tramway 
takes the visitor to the centre of the city, passing by the Univei'sal 
hotel, a small hotel at the left, and a large building, x^ainted in rose 
color, at the right, a little above, this is the building where the 
State Government was for along time. After this we see commercial 
streets, squares, all filled of passing crowds of woi'kmen, who consti- 
tute the main local activity. 

One of the peculiarities of Macei(') is its light-house, erected in the 
centre of the buildings. All the othei' light-houses are surrounded 
by waves, this one is surrounded by houses. 

The city has some 37.000 inhabitants, four newspapers, several 
clubs , associations , etc. There are also factories, banks and elec- 
trical illumination. 

The general apj^earance of Macei<') is pleasant. Elisee Reclus 
found it so, and said : « it is a most graceful city. » In fact there is 
nothing more picturesque than its agglomeration of white houses, 
framed inside the greenish cocoa nut trees and resting by the bright 
green looking-glass of its bay when the south winds don't revolt this 
one into brave waves. The city has progressed considerably in the 
last ten years. 

They inaugurated the electrical illumination and erected fine 
buildings, both public and private, ^^'e will cite the Government's 
palace, inaugurated in 1',HJ3, a large building of solid c(mstruction, 
two pavillions of Italian style. 

The Casa de D(;tencao, (house of detention or jail) is another 
large and good public building of JIaceib. It has a large central body 
with three floors and two side galleries with lots of square ^vindows. 

— 290 — 

The railway station always tull of life and in a central locality is 
also interest ini^'. 

l''lie eliurcli, a large building with two towers at the sides, of 
sober st\le, faces a public s([uare Avith palm trees and otlier kinds 
with a modest religious monument ei'ected in the centre. 


Tlie Calliedral 

The Treasury is one of the prettiest buildings in Maceio. It is 
quite large, with three flooi's, based on a parallelogram , kept vei'y 
clean and surrounded by a pretty iron railing. 

Tlie building of tlio « Associacao dos Empregados do Comniercio» 
is also a tliree floor house, but it has not, however, the appearance 
of the other building, being only noted because of its size. 

— -Ml — 

There are some pretty and live streets, as Rua do Commercio, 
Rua Direita (straight street), whicli is somewhat etirved and even 
tortuous, Rua Augusta, Rua Mareclial Floriano , wide and straight, 
Rua Nova and others. 

We didn't see any large square with garden as we see further at 
the Xorth. 

There was a large square, centrally located that could he trans- 
formed in a puhlic garden , but was spoilt by erecting there a large 
building for a theatre, as they told us, and which can be seen yet 
there in the middle of the square unfinished and grim looking, wait- 
ing for some clever mayor who will level the ground anew, deliver- 
ing that square to its natural function becoming a fresh breather in 
the middle of the city. 


Railways and navigation. — There are two railway enterprizes 
in this State : A Estrada de Ferro Piranhas a .latoba, with 116 kilo- 
metres both the terminal places being on the banks of the vS. Fran- 
cisco river. 

This railway connects two stretches of navigable rivers which 
are disconnected by the celebrated Paulo Affonso falls. 

The Estrada de Ferro Central de Alagoas, running from Macei(') 
to Uniilo, with 88 kilometres and a branch to Vicosa city with 67 

They are building a line from Uniao to Paquevira uniting this 
road witli the Estrada de Ferro Sul de Pernambuco. 

Tliere are also under study the following railways : Iilstrada de 
Ferro de Maceio a Leopoldina; Estrada de Ferro de Maceio a Paulo 

The financial movement of the branch only of the Central de 
Alagoas railway in the five years 1897 till 1901 was : 












62;625$0 1 4 

1899 . . . ■ . 

240:740$ 150 





20;;: 109$ 135 






The revenue of the whole road in 1903 was of about y00:00o$000 
and the expense 720:0001000. 

— 292 — 

Besides, the State is ei'ossed by a lot of wagon roads and country 
roads, in its majority l)adly kept. 

In tliose roads tlie transportation is made in wagons driven by 
oxen, and on liorseliaek, just as generally liapi)ens in all the interior 
of Hi'u/il. 

As to the water eomniunieations the State is quite far from the 
progress it ought to have because of its geographical configuration 
and extensive fluvial and marine coasts. The coastwise navigation 
is supi)orted mainly by the steamers of the Bahiana Company, Lloyd 

Maccio ; do Commcrcio street 

Brazileiro and Pernambucana Company, besides several small boats 
going up the S. Francisco rivei- till the city of Penedo. 

On that river is a line of steamers running between Penedo city 
and the village of Piranhas, and a section of the Companhia Per- 
nambucana is under woi'k. 

On the Mangnaba lake there is navigation between the Capital and 
the city of Pilar, the steamers running there Ixdong to the « Com- 
panhia de Xavegacao das Lagoas )> with main of fice at Macei('i. 

They are small paddle steamers, of 100 to 1.50 tons like those 
navigating between Iguape and the small fluvial cities of Sao Paulo. 

293 — 

The port of the Capital, is visited by large carj;()-l)()ats, both Bra- 
zilian and European. Seldom a ^\■e(■k goes by without at least a 
couple ot steamers calling- there. 

* * 

Co:\iMKRC'E AND iNDUsTKiKs. — While as to its size this is one of 
the smallest, being, as it is, the 17tli. On the list of the 20 vStates, Ala- 
goas can speak with piide of its production and commercial activitj\ 

Maceio. — Principal railway stalion 

Its main industi'y is the sugar-cane cultivation and sugar mannfac- 
ture. t)nce known the actual crises in which this product has hardly 
any value we can imagine that the State's Treasury is not becoming 
overrich with its main source of revenue, neither the commerce and 
industries of the country must feel very liappy. 

Yet, work goes on jnst the same, the factories whistles continue 
to be heai'd, the factory machinerj' juakes the usual noise, and the 
industrious population keep on developing their activity. 

There are in the State seven cotton mills all of them are moved by 
steam, three vegetable oil, eight cigar, several leather tanning, some 

— 294 — 

papor, soup, cordials, vinegar, shoos, briciv, rice, lime factories 
besides 838 sugar making- establishments by old processes. 

There are several modern sugar factories as that of Mr. Van- 
dosniet, tliat of the Brothers Leiio, in Utinga. 

The .State has 18 cities, 15 villages distributed among 3.'} munici- 
palities. Of these cities we must mention Penedo which has a fluvial 
port, a most important one over the S. Francisco I'iver of which it 
is the emporium. Unfortunately it can't harbor but middle draught 
ships. The small boats of five States, Minas, Bahia, Pernambuco, 
Sergipe and Alagoas come there with their loads of cotton, sugar, 
leather, lumber, etc. 

Further on we will give some notes about the different cities of 

The production and commerce of those 18 cities and their respec- 
tive municipalities have developed a good deal these last few years, 
in spite of the low prices of their main merchandise — the sugar — 
and the fact of its agriculture being led, by old processes, by routine. 

Yet in the first six months of 1901, they exported 17.556.493 kilos 
of sugar 1.384.050 kilos of cotton. The total value of their commerce 
through the two ports of Maceio and Penedo was in nine months of 

that year : 

Kxporls 8.ri29.8S8$900 

Imiiorls o.2l9..=).55.$o30 

After the Parana and Amazonas States, Alagoas is the one of 
most recent organisation as to autonomic political personality, as 
the old capiiania only was taken away from the Pernambuco pro- 
vince on the loth of September 1817 and by the declaration of inde- 
pendance on the 7th of September 1822 it was also considered a 
province of the empire. 

AYitli the transition from the empii-e into the republic in Brazil, 
on the 15th of November 1899, the old province took the denomina- 
tion of a State on the 11th of June 1891 once promulgated the State 
constitution and definitively constituted the autonomous State on 
the 1st of July 1892, during the administration of the Governor, 
Major Gabino Besouro. 

The area of the State is estimated at 28.500 square kilometres, 
having tlie form of a rectangle, the principal side of which is in the 
mouth of the S. Francisco river. 

On the Atlantic its sea-shoi-e has an extension of 2(-i4 kilometres. 

By its area we see it is one of the smallest Brazilian States, yet is 
larger than many Eupopean independent countries. In consequence 
of its geographical position it has no very long interior territory. 

— 2!>5 — 

and tliat way, even Irom the rarlliest away points ot its boundary 
lines with Peruambueo State, ^\ e can go to a port on the S. Kran- 
eisco river, or on the sea-eoast with a run ol' o2 leagues or I'M kilo- 
metres, maximum. 

The population ol' the State, aeeoi'ding to the eensus taken on the 
olst of December lUOO, was 64'.>.27.'J, being ol<).437 males and 
333.000 females. 

* * 


Macoio. — Tlic Marljrs 8i|iiarc 

Other cities of Alagoas. — After Maceio, the most important 
city of the Alagoas State, is Penedo , built on the banks of the S. 
Francisco river. It is in a very favorable position for its develop- 
ment. It was elevated to the class of village on the 23rd of April 163(3, 
with the denomination of S. Francisco and to the class of city by 
the provincial law, decree n" 3 on the 18th of April 1812. It compri- 
ses the districts of Penedo, Mucambo , and Salome, parish of Nossa 
Senhora do Rosai'io do Penedo, created by provincial \a\\ , decree 
n° 7, on the 23rd April 1842. Its population is 18.421 inhabitants. 

The Federal Government has there a Custom House. Its princi- 
pal export product is sugar. It has three newspapers : A Fe Christ^, 

— 296 — 

catliDlic weekly ; O Sal dc ,l/;?^>Y)a.s-, a coinmercial newspaper ; and 
O Triib;illu> wliicli is tlie pai^ei' with tJic largest cii'culation in the 
Slate, deviited to tlie interest of the agriciiltui'al classes as well as 
eonnnei'cial and industrial ones. 

The eity ol' Tenedo is illuminated ^\■ith kerosene oil, hut there is a 
pi'ojeet to suhstitute that system hy electricity. It has 1.012 houses. 

Ai.AiioAs. — It is not <i±' the cities ol' largest ])opulation. It has 
only l.".:!:!(i inhahitants as per the census taken in 1?(J0, but it is 
ahead of the others by its wealth and production, consisting mainly of 
sugar, manufactured in 20 factories, grain plantations, and an ex- 
ti-aordinary production of fi'uit. Its commei'ce is ratlier small and its 
iudustr\- of little account, excepting fishing which is largely carried 
on on the lake. Coffee is cultivated there in small scale. 

Atalaia. — Is (piite an old city created between 1762 and 17(35. 
Formerly it had the denomination of Arraial dos Palmares. 

It comprises the districts of Atalaia, Ingazeii'a, Sapucaia, and 
I'azenda da Poranga, parish of Xossa Senhora das Brotas da Ata- 
laia. Population (of the municipium) 28. 120 inhabitants, being 12.862 
males and 14.16U females. Their elements to earn a living are varied 
and the city seems to have entered a new life, with the impulse it 
received after the building of the railway branch line connecting it 
with Vi<;<>sa. 

Sugar and cotton are the main sources of wealth, not speaking of 
the enormous production of grain. 

There are in the municipium 157 farms where they manufacture 
sugar. Many are partly in the municipium of Parahyba , lately 
created. There are also important sugar factories, one of them worth 
more than l.OOOiOOOsOO belonging to F. et G. Yandesmet. They also 
devote themselves to cattle raising. 

(_'A:\rARAGiKK. — Or Passo de Camaragibe, was denominated vil- 
lage in June 1852 and city by provincial law n". 842 on the 14 th 
of .June 1880. It comprises the districts of Camai-agibe, Matriz de 
Camaragibe and Soledade, parish of Nossa Senhora da Coneeieao 
do Passo de Canuiragibe, created by a law, decree n'\ 417, on the 
Uth of June 1861. Its population is 22.6<.I6 inhabitants. 

It is an industrious population and the Passo de Camaragibe is 
quite an active place. There are 61 sugar manufacturing places, 
which shows that the sugar-cane agi'iculture is the largest resource 
of the locality. After it is the cotton, mandioca, beans, corn, rice 
and cocoa-nuts, the latter forming beautiful forest.s on the sea-shore, 
'i'lie exports are vegetables, building lumber, maintaining in good 
footing its internal commerce. 

— 2itT — 

Maracjouy. — ]<'()rmerly callutl CJamelhi, wlicii it was part of 
the I'orto Calvo numieipiuin. It was rankud as a village by provin- 
cial law n". (581 on the 2Hh of April 1875 with the name of Isabel. It 
was installed on the :2nd of December of the same year. Then was 
denominated Mai'agog>' by provincial law n". 7M3, on the .'Srd of .Tune 
1887. It com])rises the districts of Maragog'v, Bara (Ji-ande, jjarish 
Sao Hento de Maragogy cj-eated by proA'incial law in Ajjril 18.55. 
This city is the seat of an essential agricultural miinicipium, having 
i'.j sugar factoi'ies. There are large fruit and vegetables plantations, 
and extensive plantations of cocoa-nut trees. It has a regular com- 
merce, and its industry limits itself to fishing and nu^nufacturi^g 
straw hats. 

Palmeika, — Installed by law n°. 27 on the 12th of March 1838. 
Suppressed by law n". V.i on the Ith of ^lay 184(1, and restaured by 
law n". 209 on tlie 2l:)i'd of June 18511. It became a city Ijy law n". 
1007 on the 20tli of August 1881). It comprises the districts of Pal- 
meira, Olhos d'Agua do Accyoli, Santa (h'uz, Caheceiros and Cal- 
deirdes, pai'isli Xossa Selihora do Amparo da Palmcii'o dos Indios, 
created in 1708. Population 15.010 inhabitants. TluM-esources of this 
city and its mnnicipiuni consists in cattle raising, its commerce, 
which is somewhat developed and its agriculture, producing large 
quantities of cotton, as well as sugar manufactured in 10 farm- 
houses, corn, beans and other vegetables. Its industi-y has only a few 
factories to shell cotton, tan skins and pi-epare salt and lime. 

S. Braz. — Village by pi'ovincial law n°. 1.05G on 28th of June 
1880. Separated from the Porto Real do Collegio. It comprises the 
districts Braz and Lagoa Coraprida, pai'ish S. Bi'az, created by 
provincial law n". 702 on tlie 10th May 1875. Population, 0..'17.3 inha- 
bitants. It has considerable cultivation of cotton with factories to 
shell it and pack it in bales. It has also rice, mamona a,nd corn 

This city raises and exports cattle, has factories to tan skins as 
well as soap factoi-ies. 

Santa Ltzia. — A pretty small city, an i)idustrial one, with 
15.000 inhabitants. Its municipium comprises 57 sugar factories, and 
that is its largest I'cveniie. It has two cotton mills well mounted in 
Fernao-Velho and Cachoeira, and one brick and tiles fai'tory in 

There are two other cotton mills undei- construction, one annexed 
to the Cachoeira one, and the other in Rio Largo, between that place 
and the branch line of the city of Vicosa. 

The Cachoeira cotton mill, says a newspaper, distributed in 1803 

— 2i)a — 

ovor 10 "',, (lividciiid (o its stock-liolders. Business in tliis district is 
Lec'oniini^- pi'()S])er()ns , with Ihe impulse received by tlie I'aiJway 
<c Unirio )) and lluxt brancli tluit ci'osses the same municipium. 

Umai). — Was formerly called Santa Maria. It is the head of a 
fertile municipium, the j)i'incipal wealth of which lies in tlie large 
cotton plantations as well as those of mandioca, c(jrn, beans and 
other vegetables all of which give life to its commerce already im- 
proved by the imi)nlse it received with the Alagoaa Railway, which 
connects it Avitli the Capital and soon will be the terminus of the 
Sul de Pei'nambuco railway branch, starting from Paquevira. It 

Pilar. — View of uiie of llie iiriiicipal sU'ects 

exports besides the above mentioned articles, the sugar manufactur- 
ed in seven factories, the tobacco in strings, leather, skins, brandy, 
cattle, pigs, etc. 

This city has a factory for the extraction of the mamona oil, cot- 
ton shelling, sawing lumber, preparation of mandioca flour and 
other works. 

TuAipr. — It is a pretty city with from lO.OOU to 20.000 inhabi- 
tants. It is the seat of an important municipium of which the princi- 
pa\ source of wealth is the cattle raising. It cultivates cotton and 
grain and has several factories to shell cotton. 

Its commerce is somewhat active and the dried salted beef pre- 
pared there is ex])orted in (juite large quantities. 

— 299 — 

Traipu while villaf;e was calknl Porto da P'olha, by a proN'incial 
law ol' April ISo.", installed on the 'ind of August l<SoS. It became 
Ti-aipii by provineial law n". .'K; on the IJdtli of April 1870. 

Pilar. — "With this name was installed in March 1872 the city, 
seat of a most industrial municipiuni, the elements of wealth of 
which, are varied and abundant. The pi'incipal one is the sugar ma- 
nufactured in 27 factories. Cattle raising, however is quite limited. 
Its commerce is prosperous and the manufacturing industry has 

I'ilar. — Cdinmereio SU'eet 

grown considerably. It has four brandy distilling factories, one 
working by steam and in a large scale, two cigar factories, one 
cotton mill, two shoe factories, and many others. 

P(jpulation, 1.5. olo inhabitants. In Pilar they publish an instruc- 
tive news magazine, the organ of the « vSociedade Fraternal dos 
Caixeiros do Pilar », under the title of Vinte <le Julho. 

Porto Calvo. — This city has a relatively large population, 
having yO.UOt) inhabitants. Its largest resoui'ce is sugar manufactur- 
ed in (It factories. Cattle raising is not done in a large scale. Its 
commerce also could very well have a good deal more life, if the 
natui'al resources this part of the State disposes of \\ere better 
taken cai'e of. Its industry also is not much developed. 

vS. Luiz DO QiiTUNDK. — A pretty city with 18.2H(> inhabitants. 

The municipium has 78 sugar factories. They also export Inm- 

— 300 — 

her, ('(ittoii and oilier prodiicls, amoiii;- wliicli arc cocoa-mils, in large 
(quantities. It lias sexcral aJcoliol and brandy distilling places, and 
lor a larger develo]nnen( in this line, a I'actorx- is going to be esta- 
blished with a capital ol' KHJ eontos. Tlioy manufacture also bricks, 
tiles, etc. 

S. Mkuikl i)h Campos. — '^riiis city with its numicipiuni has 
■Jd.oiirt inhabitants, 17 sugar mills, and produces in a large scale cot- 
ton and many kinds of vegetables, which it expoi'ts as well as it does 

Piiulo-All'oiiso falls, view of llio [irincipal \valor-.ium|] 

leather , skins and salt. There is hardly any industry , very little 
cattle raised. It is, however, about to inaugurate a lai'ge sugar 
factory moved by steam. 

There are still other villages worthy of mention, as Campos, 
vS. Luiz de Quitunde, Limoeii'o, Ti'iumplio, Santa Liizia do Xorte, 
Parahyba, S. .Jose de Lage, Anadia, CiirurixDC, Belmonte, etc. 

AVe will not close this chapter without speaking- of Paulo Al'fon- 
so, the celebrated falls. Two collossal Avater falls, shake the eternal 
silence of the woods, one at the North, the other at the South. The 

— 301 — 

latter is the SaUo das Selc Qaedas (Jump of the Seven Falls), ahoiit' 
whieh we will speak latei' on when we shall write about the Parana 
State, the I'ormer, is the Paulo Afl'onso Tall in the S. Francisco 
I'iver, and just in the boundai-y line of the Alagoas State. 

The S. Francisco river, minning with a speed ol' about a foot and 
a half a second, coming suddenly across a mountain of basalts, in its 
violent stream, tluvtws itself u]), and precipitates itself down the 
rocks into the waters 150 feet below. « The principal water jump, » 
says a Bi'azilian wi'iter, (c falls down forming a curve, at half way 
from the stone canal through which the waters run, impels the 
cui'rent north-ward against the waters on the other side of the 
stream, mixing, or as we might say, crushing themselves. When 
tliey meet each other we do not see the volume of the water in mass, 
we see but foam, steam, a log, and in a dreadf id jump, those revol- 
ting waters, all crushed into a fine spray fall into the abyss. 

This fall is 15 to 18 metres wide and passing through such a 
narrow channel becomes noted because of the impetuous violence of 
its current. 


Sei'gipe is the smallest of Brazilian States, its area being only 
39.090 square kilometres. Yet, what it has less in territory, compar- 
ed with the other 10 States of the Bi-azilian union it has more in 
density of population. Even the total figures of population — 350.264 
inhabitants — is superior to those of Espirito Santo, 209.783; Santa 
Catharina, 283.769; Piauhy, 334.328; Goyaz, 255.395; Amazon, 
249.7.56; and Matto Grosso, 118.025. 

How many powerful people would dare to engage themselves in 
conquest war, to round the figures of its territory to those 39.090 
kilometi'es of the State of Sergipe ! 

Be as it may, the old province has to-day just as its sister States, 
l)erfect autonomy a political organisation identical to those of the 
most advanced and jjowerful States of the Republic. 

Sergipe has progressed industriously and usefully, sufficing to 
say — and for that there is nf)thing like figures — that, only in 1903, 
the production exported to the other Brazilian ports and Europe 
went up to 70.0<)0:000$000. 

We also verified that Sergipe excelled many of the other States 
with its commerce. 

— 8(12 — 

Its capital, Ai'acajii, is a city with 20. 000 inhabitants, bat it is not 
very accessible becanse of the (Jotinguiba bai'. A\'cre it favorably 
situated, by some lai'g'C and deep river, as Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, 
Eecift', lieleni, or even Maceit), we can well imag'ine what propor- 
tions of growth it would take among the other Brazilian capitals. 

Even the \\ay it is, almost hidden, without a frequent and rapid 
navigation service, Aracaju is growing. 'J'welve yeai's ago it liad a 
dreadful aspect, to-day it is a pleasure to pay it a visit : the number 

.Vracajii. — A pai'l of llie lariiliiig-|ilac.-e 

of buildings increases, new and pretty ones are going up every 
day, and the area of the city keeps on extending itself dominating 
the small farms and uncultivated fields of the suburbs. It was only 
in lUOl that the street paving work began, thanks to the energy of 
the patriotic Governor, Olympio de Campos. 

When the visitor enters Aracaju thinking he is going to see a 
city in a state of decadence, lie finds himself agreeably surprized 
with the genei-al aspect of that Capital, its commerce, that life pecu- 
liar to a i^lacc growing up and destined to become great in the future. 

Among other streets, all of which run straight, broad and par- 
rallel , the following cause a splendid impression : Laranjeiras , 

— 303 — 

Avirora, S. Christovao, Japaratuba and Itaporanga, quite long ones 
ol'l'ering a pretty perspective. 

Among the pubic squares are noted by its size, tlie one where the 
Matriz church is and tlie I'alacio square, wliich has not as yet any 
garden, but embellished with imi^erial palm trees nicely planted in 

Among the noted buildings we will cite : the Matriz church, 
which has some originality in its front with two side towers, sup- 

Ai'ac:iju. — Aurora sU'eel 

ported on square base. These towers have three floors facing the 

This church has the form of a parallelogram, and all its exterior 
obeys to an hybridism of the German ogive style with its heavy 
lines of colonial construction. 

At the front there are a few steps and a mod(>st railing which 
give the three doors that give entrance to the church. 

The Government Palace is another fine two floor building , sur- 
rounded by large windows, and having in its front the Ilepublic 
coat-of-arms. As to its architecture it is not worth much, but in its 
interior is decorated with decency and good taste. 

— Wi — 

In ri'diil, oT this iiioniiniont is a l;n'<;e, light building, i'acing- the 
squui-c with coUimns ol' classic, (ii-der in front serving as basis to a 
triangular top. This is the Palace of the Legislative Assembly. 

'I'he eharity hospital, a large building, all white, composed of 
two lateral structures, connected on(! to the other by a centre one 
serving of vestibule and entrant'c to the Imsjjital. 

The Xornuil College, a modern ))uilding, of only one floor, S(|uare 
l)ul elegant, a double stairway giving access exteriorly to the main 
entrance, which is lined Ijy railing. 

UfllMMU:.— - 

.\i"i(_'ajti. — MaU'ii cliui'cli 

The Jail is a solid building with small windows which give to its 
extei'ior a (duiracteristic aspect of the object for which it was built. 

The cotton mill, the police barracks, the branch office of the 
Federal Treasury are, all of them, buildings that contribute 
to the euibellishment of Aracaju in conjunction with the large 
number of uumsions, residences and business establishments. 

Public Instruction, Polick and Finances. — There being in 
Bahia, (juite near this vState, a number ol institutions devoted to su- 
perior grades of Public Instruction, wliicli are quite accessible to the 

— S05 — 

peoi)le of Sergipe, it is evident that tliere is no necessity for the 
State Governement to make sacrifices hy mere luxury keeping- 
academies and universities in Aracajii. In this Capital, liowever, 
there arc schools to prepare the students for college. There is 
the Atheneu Sergipense, which had in 1900, 75 students; in 
1901, 98; and in 1902, 83, all of them preparing themselves for 
examination which will admit them to the different colleges in the 
different States of the Republic. The Normal College had in 1902 
one hundred and four pupils. In Maroim , the Instituto Cruz 
prepares boys for commercial x^ursuits. The latter establishment was 

Aracajii. — Prison Place and Buildings 

founded by a philantropist Mr. Joao R. da Cruz, an industrial man 
who bequested an annual income for its support. 

The Government also gives a subsidy to this establishment, and 
has in Estancia, Laranjeiras, Maroim and Propria High Schools 
teaching : national grammar, French, Arithmetic and book-keeping. 

As to Grammar schools, tliere are in the State, besides the Sale- 
sian and other private schools, 209 classes. Of these 43 are for males, 
56 for females and 110 for both sexes, being 22 in the Capital, 55 in 
the cities, 44 in villages and 85 in smaller places. 

The frequentation in 1900 was 4.110 students and the number of 
matriculations was G.167. In 1901 , the frequentation was 4.554, the 

— 30(i — 

nialrirulatioii, (i..s:)l. In lUOl! the inalrioiilation wonl up l(j T.ij'J.'J and 
the I'reci^iieiitation was (i.lllO. 

Tlie police i'orce is constituted by an inrantry battalion, divided 
into throe eonipanios, with loti men eoninianded by a major. 

The financial conditions of Sergipe ai'c good. In lOOI, Governor 
Olynipio de Campos who has been a most clever and discreet politi- 
t'al chief said in his message to the local legislators : 

(c II pleases me to declare to you that Sergipe is one of the States 
of Ihc L^nion which is settled up to date regarding every one of its 
responsibilities , ])aying all its exjjenses with tlie ordinary revenue 
of its pul)lic administration services ». 

In I'.X.K!, Sergipe had unforeseen expenses, founding new schools, 
building bridges , impi'oving roads in tlie interior of the State and 
in spite of that, discharged all its obligations, including the two last 
installments of the amoi'tization of a loan it had raised in the « Banco 
da Rcpublica of Uio de .laneiro x. 

As to its numicipal administration we may well praise tlie spirit 
of order presiding to the rinances in that ])art of the counti'y, and 
there is no municipality in the State that doesn't i^resent a snrplus 
at the close of its fiscal year, modest as it may be in some cases. 

The budget of this State is of alxiut l.,S()0:OOOSUOO, revenue and 
expenses being about even. The following table is very interesting 
showing the constant growtli of the i-cvenue of the State in ten 
years, 180(1-1001 : 

1890 . 
1«91 . 
l,S9-2 . 
[K)'> . 

l8'Ji . 


1 897 . 
18118 . 

1899 . 

1900 . 

1901 . 

595:36 i.«;99t) 
1 .4 15:002*;,»7 
1. 664 :n85.$905 

, .'iOi 




* * 

Proikiction , TxDi'sTUY ,\M) Co^MMERCK. — Scrgipc bclougs to the 
gi'oup of those Brazilian States which devote themselves to a mono- 

— S07 — 

culture, and when it so happens, if the product of that niouocultui-e 
ohtains iiigli prices, all is well, everything is easy, hut if that pro- 
duction is depreciated in its value, as it has happened with sugar 
and coffee, then the situation is a dreadful one. 

Sergipe cultivates sugar-cane in a propoi'tion that almost means 
exclusivism. The computation of the sugar-cane products and their 
official value in the ten years, ISOU-lUOl, was ; sugar •i(J2.()17 tons, 
representing the value of 5o.71)6:4S::!8',il)5; brandy 10.()57.85'.» litres, 
representing the value of 2. 12 1:713$307 ; alcohol l'.)l.Ci4S, litres, 
representing the value of 74:56 1S088; and melasses 225.178 litres, 
representing the value of 11:531W00; this shows a total of official 
value of 5G.306:8y2$390, and the average sugar pi'ice was 2U I reis per 
kilo. The weight of the sugar-cane corresponding to the 2()2.()17 tons 
of sugar exported, taking as a basis 6 "/o of sugar, is eipiivalent to 
4.37(1.048 tons of cane. 

Sergipe has in several cities improved factories for the sugar 
manufacture. We will mention among them the Riachuelo one which 
belongs to the Assucareira Comx^any of Rio de Janeiro, which has 
another factory in Botafogo, in the Federal Capital, moved by electri- 
city, having cost 5.00O.(J00 francs and xjroducing 18.000.000 kilos 
refined sugar yearly. 

The « Usina Central do Riachuelo » is one of the best in Brazil, has 
a branch railway to connect it with the main line, has impi'oved 
machinery moved by steam and electricity, distilling apparatus, 
vaste sugar-cane plantations, and grinds annually 20.000.000 tons of 
sugar-cane, producing 3.360.000 kilos of sugar and 1.200 casks of 
sugar-cane brandy. 

The surplus of the local consumption is exported, not without 
difficulty, because , as we said above , very few steamers call at 
Aracajii. They manage, however , to export all its surplus by the 
three small ports of the State : Cotinguiba (Aracaju city) Rio Real 
(Estancia city) and Vasa Barris (vS. Cliristovao city). 

By the following map we will show the export figures during ten 
vears, 1802-1001 : 

Map of the sugar exportjcu from 1802 to 1901 




Yea 1-8 



1 6. 839. .581 








29. 515.714 

Once we have written about the State exports, we must offer 

— 308 

data about tlie imports. Unl'ortimatcly we ]iave no clota more recent 
than 180'.). We will f^ive then the- tahles ol' the three years 18'.)7-1800 : 

vSkkoii'e exports fkoji 1807 to 1809 

In 1807 

Direcl im|iiii'talii;iii 

Cn;isl\\i.S(_' iiniKirhiliun 
Tlirouoli Eslaijcia Cuslniii Huiise 




In 180S 

Dii'L'cl impiirlalioii 

Coastwise imixirlaliou .... 
Tliroiigli K.slaiicia C.usloiii . 

In 1800 : 

Dii'ci'l iiii|initalioii 

Coa.shsise iiii|iin'tarion .... 
Tlirough Ivslam-ia Ciisloin lloiisi; . 




67 1:509.$ 168 
1.879; i27$655 


'I'liese i'if^ures show liow (]uiekly (lie Slale is orowing, as its im- 
ports show, lo a eerlain extent, its consumption, and consecpiently, 
its growth. It would he interesting to compare previous figures. 

We will take, I'oi' instance, (he tigures of the budgets ol the 
vState, during five years of a remote time and five years of a more 
recent period, and the striking differoice will show us the progi-ess 
attained : 




18.53-18.56 . . . 
1856-1857 . . . 
18.57-1838 . . . 
1858-1859 . . . 
18.39-1840 . . . 

75:6.50$ 180 
122: 041 §937 





1896. . . . ■ 




1.526: 92$615 
1. 107:802^274 

1.704: lo.5.$i29 

— HOi» — 

The above rigares arc (luito sij^iiilicant. 

But let us go back to (he sugar production, which we were deal- 
ing witli before this retrospeclixe digi'cssion, as Sergipe owes to it 
the growth of its public wealth. 

We wrote about the sugar-cane factories, some by old processes, 
some with improved macdiinery, some in the sugar-cane plantations 
farm-houses, some in the cities. We spoke of some with improved 
machinery which were being installed in order to increase the manu- 
factured quantities of sugar and cheaxDcn the price of its production. 

We will now present a list of these farm-houses sugar factoi'ies, 
of all the diverse types, which ai'e now in operation in the different 
cities and municipiums of the .State ; 

Sugak-Cane Factories now ix operation 
IN THE State of Sergipe 


S. Clirislovno . 

Ilaporaiiga . . 

Laranjeiras . . 

Riadiuelo . . 

JIaioim . . . 

Uosai'io . . . 
A'. a S.a das Dores 

Capella . . . 

Pacatulja . . 

Villa JNova . . 

Riachao . . . 

Espii'ito Santo . 
Divina Pastora . 

Siriry. . . . 

Estancia . . . 

Araiia . . . 

Villa Cliristiiia . 
Lagarlo . . 

Santo Amaro . 

Simao Dias . . 

Soccori-o . . 

Santa Liizia. . 

S. Paulo. . . 

.Japaraliiba . . 

Propria . . . 

Boqiiim . . . 

Aqiiidaban . . 










I 2 



































— 310 — 

The industry ol' the State of Sergipe , besides tlie 071 sugar fac- 
tories luis : 2 cotton mills, one in Aracaju omjjloying 5()0 woi'k" 
men, the othei' one in ]']stancia, witli 30(1 workmen; 1 oil factory; 
1 rice and 2 soap factoi'ies in the Gax^ital ; 2 oil and soap fac- 
tories in Kstaneia, and there are a number of otliers of which we 
cannot give an accurate account for lack of data. In the municipinms 
of Itabaiana and Xossa Senhora das Dores there ai-e some cotton 
shelling ones; in the Capital there is a foundry and iron works of 
fair size; 1 mamona oil factory, 1 saw mill, 2 shoe and sevei'al cigar 
factories, 2 sugar refineries. In Estancia, there is a shoe factoi-y, and 
iron works. In Laranjeiras and Maroim there is an iron foundry 
and a cigar factory. 

Other crriEs. — Besides Aracaju, there are other cities in the 
State of Sergipe that are prospering : ]\Iaroim, Estancia, Laranjei- 
ras and Riachuelo are the principal ones. 

Estancia. — Is one of the best cities of Sei-gipe, divided into foui' 
districts : Estancia, Banco Alem da Ponte, Rio Branco and Rio Real, 
with 14..5."J5 inhabitants according to the census of 1892. It has about 
2.(J00 houses and a church — Nossa Senhora de Guadelupe, — which 
is one of the nicest chui'ches in tlie interior of the State. There is 
also the Commercial Club, the Uniao Caixeiral club, both with fine 
buildings in the ^'inte e (^uatro de Outubro stpiare , the Charity 
Hospital, in the Hospital Street, 2 threading mills; 1 cigar factory; 
2 slioe factories ; 2 oil and soap ones; 2 alcoholic drinks distilling 
works ; .'! hotels and a numbei' of business liouses. 

In Estancia they publish A Kazuo a newspaper of large circula- 
tion in all the State, 

Laran.ieiras. — Is a city of 11 to 12.000 inhabitants, and is the 
seat of the municipium with Itaporanga and Riachuelo. The latter 
and Laranjeiras are constantly disi)uting the seat of the municipium 
and have both altei'natively had that honor. 

Its commerce is all made with Ai'acaju, Estancia and jMaroim, 
by boats and canoes, and a monthly trip of fluvial steamers which 
take the passengers from the port of Sape , and thence they go to 
Ai'acaju. It \\as village since March 187:5 and city by decree of 2.5th 
of Decembei' 1870. 

To-day Ijaranjeiras is the seat of the municipium, and thus has 
the honoi' of having as its guests the judges, coui't clerks, district 
attorneys and othei' officials. We believe, howevei', that its largest 

— 811 — 

advantages will come to it by the large sugar factory that some 
industrial men luive built there, where from a short Ijranch raih\ay 
(the only one there) starts to conni^et it to the port of Sa])c. A month- 
ly fluvial steamer comes to this port ol' Sape from Aracaju. 

Itakaiamnha. — A small city with O.OOO inhabitants, or 1(1. ()()() if 
we include the neighboring districts (leru and Umbauba. 

It has a little commerce, nuany cattle ranches, sugar factories, 
which is the principal branch of agricultural industry in this terri- 
tory. It exports sugar to I']stancia and Timbo and furnishes the inte- 
I'ior of Bahia with flour and sugar. They are now building tliere a 
telegraph line, and it is expected that tlie prolongation of the Timbo 
I'ailway shall go thi'ough that municii)ium. The water I'eservoir built 
lately by the Government is one of the best public works of this State 
and ])i'otects it from any famine. 

The other cities, Maroim, Propria, Divina Pastora and a few 
nioi'e are yet beginning to develop and pi'esent nothing worthy of 
note as vet. 


Some 720 miles North of Ivio de Janeiro is an immense gulf, deep 
and sheltered, at the eastern bank of which lies the city of Bahia, 
Capital of the State of the same name. It is the third city in all Brazil 
and one of the lai-gest on the whole continent. The optical illusion of 
the sight around the bay is complete. Nothing disturbs it. The obser- 
ver embraces it all in a glance. 

It is not so pretty, neither is it so vast, (judging by what we see), 
as that of Rio de Janeiro. It doesn't present either those natural 
aspects in conflagration, those stupendous basalts, those curves and 
accidences; of a large ridge of mountains, like pieces of scenery, 
lining the enti'ance and the end of the other bay. 

The panorama is quite different : it is not astounding, it is seduc- 
ing, it doesn't dazzle our eyes, it invites us to contemplate it, it is 
not the scenery of a battle, it is a painting of a charming landscape. 

Every visitor lias that pleasing sensation, looking at the whole 
sight of the city, with its jjort, and expresses it by exclamations that 
show his admiration. In fact, appreciating this sight, it is far more 
tlie picturesque of it than its greatness that produces fascination 
in that persjjective of the Bahia bay. And the city, spr(>ad out in an 
ami)liitheatre, 02)ening itself in a half circle to the observer, between 
the two blue hues of the ^\■aters and the sky, oi'igiiuitcs (hat ini- 

— 312 — 

liroKsion of a ti-aiisparont, filigree like Sevres miniatiire, a patient 
fonijiosition of endless little details engraved in the green inclina- 
tions of the mountain sides, a dreadful work of natural decoration, 
like so much lace embellishing the hills, under a large and sweet 
liglit that di'ops from above. 

The first foundation in this capital was placed in 1549 by Thome 
do Souza. It can boast of being the oldest of all the Brazilian cities. 
It is most probable that its sister capitals will not envy that primacy. 

For the visitor, when he has left at his right the Santo Antonio 
fortress, and on his way to the anchorage i>lace, lie re%ae\vs that 
multifarious spot of the city, spread from above upon the unmovable 
gulf, as an absurd cascade of houses, towers, colors and confused 
shapes, the sensation that his retina — that bearer of poetry — 
transmits to his soul, is one of those to last impressed on man's mind 
for a couple of generations. 

The two rows of buildings, embracing the mountain at the same 
time, at its basis and its vertex, advance in disorder to meet each 
other, — at least is that what we see from afar, — in the green decli- 
vity of the hillside, and pushing this way, pushing that way they 
engage themselves in the busy task of conquering it. 

Here, they get near each other, there , they separate again. It 
seems as if iron rails were tearing furrows in the mountain exposing 
its reddish flesh and its hard stony skeleton, with viaducts here and 
there and i-oads that look like stony belts. 

All this spectacle, which, after all, is nothing else but the history 
of the city growth, is displayed there, detail by detail, in a long 
panorama, that even in the configuration of the ground springs a 
new optical element to wrap the whole soul of those who contem- 
plate it. 

Let us land. Now we can distinctly see, divided in two, that mass 
of buildings, one forming the « down town d, the other forming the 
« iip-town ». We must confess that as we enter the city a large part 
of the impression received vanishes. We jump on a small dock of the 
Navy Arsenal, wherefrom, through an old, unstylish gate, we are 
led into one of tlie oldest streets of the city. It is Uibeira street, 
which preserves its name from colonial times and its buildings of 
real Portuguese style of construction. It is not a very fine vestibule 
for such a noble Capital. The street is somewhat straight, but very 
narrow, quite shaded because of the tall buildings. It looks like a 
street in Oporto or in Toledo. A little further ahead, at the right is 




— 314. — 

tlu> ('111 ranee, lo a small tunnel with a strong smell of engine oil and 
steam. This tunnel lea.ds to a meclianieal elevalor, one oi' the con- 
xc.yances I'oi' the. iiopulalion to be transported hctween the two cities. 
I'assing that, the visitor finds himself in a Ixjttei' ijlaee, Alfan- 
dega street and after that, l*rinc(v,as Imi)eriaes street, a lai'ge and 
pi'(^tty artery of the eonimei'cial part of the. city with big buildings 
with four and five floors. That row of houses face also the front 
of tlie ipiay and they are noted by theii' symetry and i)ropoi'tions 
which dissimulate their modestv and architectural design. 

Baliia. — Tlio Govui'iior's I'alaoe 

Tliey are large buildings occupied by agencies, banks and offices 
af all kinds. Thei-e and in the neighboring streets lies tlie nervous 
s\stt'm of the commei'ce of lialiia. From them start many side 
sti'cets and lanes, narrow streets crossing in all directions, having 
other nari'ow and toi'tnous streets as the others but in a longitudi- 
nal direction from the basis of the hill, crossing in their course some 
small s([ua.res as the one of the Taniai'indeiros, filled with trees and 
the Ouro Sipia.i'c, not altogether paved. It is a perfect maze for the 
newly ari-ived. 

They do nothing but business, only business. So mucli so, that 
in the afternoon, — as there is not in this district any of those 

— 315 — 

luxurious stores with show windows as there are in Rio de Janeiro 
and Sao Paulo, brightly illuminated in the evening, — as soon as it 
becomes dark, every stoi'e is closed, the streets become almost desert 
and in i)lace ot the noise oT the da.y time; movement, there comes a 
silence enveloping those tall buildings and desert streets. 

All that immense multitude of people \\'orking hard from sun to 
sun, immigrates at the sunset to the uji louui districts, or to the sea- 
shoi'cs as Rio Vermelho, Barra, Itapagi]je, and the commercial 
district sinks into that silent sadness of a convent, were it not for 
the electric raihvay that from time to lime In'ings back to this 
district a little of its conscience, illuminating speedly on its way. 

By this low plane and always surrounding the mountain, there 
goes a road sowing the way with ne^\• buildings, new roads, ruins, 
and of docks buildings filled with merchandise, coal depots, all this 
intermingled with residence buildings, high buildings, old and new 
churches, till the free , airy part of the city, where wider streets 
appear like those of Mangneira, Jequitaya, Calcada and Dendezei- 
I'os, and afterwards new squares, new streets and new districts as 
those of Rome, Boa Viagem , Itapagipe and otliers, a sketch of an 
augmented Babel. 

Let us leave this district of which we will speak later on as the 
transportation means are easy and quick, evei'ything served by elec- 
trical ti'ansportation. We will go back to our starting jjoint, and we 
will go to the elevator. It is not quite inducing that trip through the 
interioi- of a liigh chimney, and a dark one as that. A box with sj^ace 
for 1.5 or 20 people, lifted by a steel-cable, lifts its passengers from 
down town and transports them to the top of the mountain, a pai'ody 
to that diabolic scene of the Temptation of Jesus. 

This triji is made in a few minutes, and when the passenger gets 
out he finds himself in a pretty square, on the top of the city, wliere- 
from a beautiful panorama of the whole bay and the blue islands 
beyond is to be seen. 

In front we see a beautiful building — the municipal Palace — of 
some architectural value and a national relique. It is an inheritance 
from tlie metropolis. It was si:)oilt by the Dutch in 1(330, afterwai'ds 
reijaired and I'ecently rebuilt being added to it a four face tower with 
a clock ended by a piramid in sections. The principal face of the 
l)uilding has a pretty effect, open in arches on tlie square. There are 
in it several sections among whicli is a public library established by 
Mr. Paula Guimaraes when mayor of the city. 

The riglit side of that palace looks to a narrow street called 
Visconde de Rio Branco, the inclination angle of which, just like 

— 316 — 

thai ol' the other streets of S. .lose district, is not one of the least 
iiiterestini;' curiositic^s ol' the; old eity. 

l-'orniinH' an anj^le with the municipal I'alace, there is another 
lari;'e buildin<;-, also of historical origin, having been the residence 
ot rortugiiese governors and oT all the ])residents of the ex-province. 
It was rebuilt foi' the same purpose, but entirely built anew, (^very- 
thing but the foundation having been pulled down. In this palace 
is established the (Government of the State , and another buil- 

Bahi.'i. — Miiuici|]:il I'alnco 

ding, in Corrodor da Victoria is the one used as residence of the 

Fi'om this square run to the right and left some very narrow 
lanes, .3(10 years behind the age, as the Chili, Misericordia and As- 
seml)lea streets invariably lined by plain buildings. The Chili street 
which runs in an inclined plan, ends in a bright and picturescpie 
square which is divided into two small gardens, in one of which, 
i-ight in front of S. .loao theatre, just at the sea side, is the statue of 
Colombo on top of a pretty marble fountain. 

It is chai'ming the situation of this public square, called Castro 

— S17 — 

Alves, some 50 metres above the bay with a wall with railing and 
streets with henehes. That part ol' the mountain, translormed into a 
fantastieal stairway, whose degrees are the Montanha and Gonc'eieiio 
streets open in longitudinal direction in the hillside under the up- 
town part of the city. On the land side there are large buildings 
surrounding the square. They are the Paris and Sul Americano 
hotels, the Diario dn Bahin, a daily newspaper, a large building of a 
pretty but trivial style. 

If we take a tramway, one of those crossing the town, to go to 
Graga, for instance, we have the opportunity to see quite a different 
section of the city. In this line the tramwa^'-cai's are driven by mules 

Baliia. — Palace in Uie Victoria SU'ecl, Governors' residence 

and it is not without difficulty that they go up the steep hill that 
separates Castro Alves square from that group of streets preceding 
the pretty public square called Piedade. Having gone up that tor- 
tuous neck called Carlos Gomes street and those that follow it, we 
are at Piedade. Excellent buildings, mixed up with some quite mo- 
dest ones, line the wide public scjuare, the centre of which is a pretty 
garden surrounded by railing , with beautiful flowers and green 
grass, with a nice band-stand, and in the centre an artistic marble 
fountain having on top a native symbolism — an Indian stepping 
on a serpent. 

One of the sides of the square is formed by the Piedade Church, 
one of the prettiest ones in the North, with its polished dome, a mi- 
niatui'e of that of Santa Maria dci Fiore. In the other angle we see 
the pi'Ctty Senate l)uilding, of Italian style. Following in the tram- 

— ;ii8 — 

way-car and IcaAiiifi' at the right the Police Department Headquar- 
ters, we fi'o t]ir()ii<;li a pretty street not altogether straight , but all 
ol' it lined with tine buildings, in wliieli the\- insisted in tollowing 
the I'ortuguesc architectural style, however, here and tliei'C, ap])ear 
some transformations under a preoccupation of more ad\'anced art, 
and (lie new and modern buildings are giving to the Pedro Luiz 
street tlie healthy and joyful aspect it presents. 

Fui'ther ahead is a charming pul)lic gai'den, the Passeio Publico, 
a sweet place to rest awhile sitting under the delicate pei'fume of tin; 
mango trees, with widely spreaded out branches that prevent the 


Seiialo buihliiig 

sun liglit from shining upon the sandy ground of the garden 
streets. It is pleasant to walk under that ancient canopy that an old 
and noble count planted fqr us to enjoy, with all that perfumed scent 
of the flowers flooding the atmosphere and the murmuring sounds of 
the foliage whispering a primitive but delicious symphony. 

The lawns and the foliage of the mango and other trees do not fill 
all the silence of the park, there is (luite a large spot covered with 
shining tiles forming a kind of terrace just a little above the level of 
the street, suri'ounded by a varandah with mythological marble 
looking upon a deep and ample horizon. The straight and open pers- 
pective, the inundating light, the picturesque of the first plan where 
the city begins to appear, the mute company of the wandering but- 
terflies showing us what is true happiness in their free flight, wi- 

— 319 — 

thout boundary lines and without a time table, — liere is a picture 
worthy of the envy of that king Louis of Bavaria. 

In another open spot of the park, in a stretcli left free by the 
mango trees, the past generations commemoi'ated the arrival of I). 
Joao VI to Brazil, ereetiug an obelise in the shajje of a i^yi'amid 
made of Lisbon marble with 
an inscription engraved in gol- 
den letters. 

In the Afflictos scpiare (cu- 
rious name given after a catho- 
lic church built there) where 
the Passeio Publico ends one 
of its sides, there are the thick 
walls of a large Portuguese 
fortress looking like a Bhudist 
church. This fort is now trans- 
formed into the barracks of 
the Police force, for which ser- 
vice the necessary adaptations 
were made. 

A tortuous inclined street 
paved \\ith large stone blocks 
runs down following the lines 
of the inferior plan of the Pas- 
seio Publico almost masquera- 
ded by the irresistible vegeta- Bahia. — Monument of tlio Uiaelmelo siinarc 
tion of the inclination and leads 

to the Gamboa fortress — a colonial fortification at the bottom of 
the mountain half hidden bv the rolling waters. 

From the S. Pedro fort square follows a bi'ight street, quite a 
busy thoroughfare, passing by the Polytheama, and leading to ano- 
tliei' square, the l)est one in the Capital, formerly named Campo 
Grande. This square has a prettj' garden decorated by a noble brf)uze 
and marble monument of large size and fine artistic expression, 
commemorating the historical event of Dois de Jiilho (the second 
of July) which sealed in Bahia the consummation of the national 
independence of Brazil. 

It is peculiar that in the Capital of Bahia there are no statues or 
monuments of an individual character, (excepting the bust of Dr. 


I'alcrson, ;m l<]ii<;lisli pliilaiilropist, and a ])liysi('ian of a most cliari- 
tablc disposition, devoting liiniseli' to take care ol' the poor). Be it 
due to clianee or to eonseiencioiis delibei'ation, the i'aet remains that 
all the iiionumenis ereeted by tlie people ol' Bahia, in the s(|uares ol' 
its ]>rt'tly Capital , rel'ei' to some national I'act and they represent 

allegories and symbolisms or 
^\^^~Z ^7 ". ~ ^ , " ' "^ some allusion in a collective 

, ■ ,: :, ,- . I and generic sense. 

'J''his monument ])ois de 
.lulho is composed of a high 
column coryntliian style with 
the traditional Indian on top 
dominating the desi)otism, re- 
l^resented by a dragon. Colos- 
sal bronze figures represent- 
ing the big Brazilian rivers, 
with several other decorative 
accessories complete the mo- 
nument which is one of the 
nicest in Brazil. 

The square built upon an 
horizontal plan, has the shape 
of an irregular square and 
the si:)ace between the lateral 
sti'cets is a pretty garden, quite 
large though not so beautiful as 
those of S. Paulo and Belem. 
Tliei'e are some very fine buildings in the square, and the streets 
starting from it are elegant ones, with modern buildings. Among 
them the visitor must not foi'get the Corredor da Victoria, where 
there are pretty mansions, and it is the favorite residence street of 
the wealthiest part of the jjopnlation. There is also the palace 
tliat is the private residence of the Governor. 

(roing ahead we come across another square, without any garden 
■ as yet. There is the Church of Nossa Senhora da Victoria, which, 
they say, was built in l.olio, and further ahead yet we see Graga 
Square, notable because of tlie church that is there, belonging to the 
Benedictine monks, and which they say stands in the same place 
where they first formed the city in tlie sixteenth century. 

From there new streets start, as well as an inclined avenue lined 
with bright houses with gardens and modern palaces. 

But, for us to come to this place so quickly it was necessary to 

Baliia. — The [ijramid (if the Passeio I'ilIjIIco 

— 821 - 

leave aside other joarts of the city of no lesser interest than this one. 
The Nazareth district, with a large square, the garden of which is in 
way of construction. It is surrounded by fine comfortable residen- 
ces and has much to be seen. There is a trade school 'directed by 
Salezian priests and the Misericordia (tlie city hospital) which is 
one of the nicest of its kind in Brazil. 

Batiia. — National Indepejulance Monument. Duke de Caxias Square 

On the other side, coming down through a valley, between the 
hills on which the city is built, we go through a long street, paved 
with little care. It is Rua da Valla (as that place was the bed of a 
ravine which had to be filled up) . That way we reach a topogra- 
phical neck known as Baixa dos Sapateiroa, a place of considerable 
transit. There, are always people crossing in all directions. 

Every minute tramcars start in tlie direction of the four angles of 

— 322 — 

the city; i'rom the markcl, which is situated in front, there comes a 
noisy crowd, joylul witli a Irco and easy air tliroiigli the many doors 
ol' the ))uihli]i<;' ; tlie noise of wagons and ti'iicks running in all direc- 
tions is heard all da\' long, here and thei'e tlic newsboys cry out tlie 
names of (he i)apers, and thus from sunrise to sunset, eveiy day 
of the week except Sunday, this place is ke])t (juite alive and nois\'. 
"We take one of those tranicars (there are vei'y few cahs and carria- 
ges) and we take a ride to see what is going on in the otliei- part of 
the citv. xVfter half an hour of zig-zagging we ai'e in an enormous field 

Buhia. — 8. Bejilii SU-eel and Convciil 

all covered with grass and surrounded by buildings on all sides. It 
is called Jjarbalho field. 

At one of the sides of tliis field, looking to the l)ay is the carcass 
of an olden times fortress, built in the ages in which it was indis- 
pensable to liave the place lined with these protective structures. 

We will not attempt to describe the whole city with its many sec- 
tions and suri'ounding suburbs. Another volume like tliis one would 
be necessar3' for that 

Let us pay a visit to tlie buildings woi'th noting. 

Among tlie churches , which arc in great number, there is 
the S. I^'rancisco on(\ of monolithic style of architecture both in its 

'■^■■JL' i. 

— 324 — 

front and in the other parts of the building, this being the peculiar 
style of the temples built \>y the Franciscan monks. In its exterior 
there is nothing worth admiring, and it suffices to say that it was 
built in 1711!, an epoch of complete decadence of the building trade 
and artistic architecture among the Portuguese. In its interior, ho- 
wever, no lover of expontaneous art, visiting Baliia, must go away 
without paying a visit to this church. Besides the cloister with those 
colored tiles, style of that time, with drawings of biblic episodes, 
just as in the City Hospital of Rio de Janeiro, there is the high relief 
'v\'ork on the rich wood of the country, partly gilt covering the walls 
and ceiling of the church not only in its main nave but in the lateral 

That interior of the church, the whole of it, is an admirable mani- 
festation of art on the basis of a touching religious spirit, and even 
to-day, those reliefs with flowery curves, coats-of-arms, angels heads, 
birds and spiral lines columns put in vibration all our nei'ves of 
sesthetie emotion. 

That valuable treasury of retrospective art was deplorably threa- 
tened with deterioration, when a group of German monks, all of 
whom are Brazilians to-day, took charge of the convent, andrestaur- 
ed it with care worthy of the gratitude that impels us to register 
hei'e that fact. 

Another curious church, is tlie Collegio. It is a document of the 
degree attained by artistic architecture among the Jesuits of the 
Portuguese colonial times in Brazil. This church was built before 
1572 what is hard to believe. It was built by the Jesuits to serve as 
a college for them. That is the reason why even to-day the church 
has that name, having once been elevated to the honor of Cathedral 
of the primate of all catholic Brazil. 

Its front, though of a turgid style, with wide lines and massive 
ornamentation, is imposing to a degree of making one's mind grow 
torpid and listen to its old and rude tradition. This church is of 
stone and we can't deny a certain harmony in the whole of its struc- 
ture. In its interior, all the details of ornamentation, from the design 
of the main altar, to the work in the ceiling, perhaps the most 
curious of all we have seen in Brazil, are worthy of study and leave 
stupified those who have artistic vibrating soul. 

The Benedictine monks also built a pretty church — S. Selias- 
tiao. — Clever men they are , proven as it is by the splendid 
location of all the convents they have built everywhere, the monks 
of S. Bento selected a spot of very first order, within the city upon 
a central eminence. 

— 325 — 

It is a clim-ch all white, inside and outside, from the candor of 
the main altar marble to the >Saints images, of snow-white Carrara 
marble, the two open towers supported by white pillars, and white, 
likewise, is the pompous dome which is the highest spot of the city. 

There are yet a large number of catholic churches, some large 

and well built, as the Matriz church, Sant'Anna do Pilar, and others 

of smaller importance as to the point of view of art, though noted 

by their historical value as the one of Nossa Senhora da Ajuda 

which is the oldest of Bahia, and others. Those we mention above 

ai'e the most important. 

* * 

Baliia. — Fine Arls Oollege 

Public Instructiox. — The State of Bahia has been one of those 
which have better understood the responsibilities belonging to the 
title of vState, given by the republican Constitution to the Brazilian 
pi'ovinces. It is thus that it deemed to be its duty to aj^ply a good 
part of its income to the diffusion of Public Instruction. 

The budget of the ex-province appropriated about 600:000^000 for 
public instruction. In 1897 the State Government spent a little over 
1.000:0001000, and at present it spends over 2.000 :000$000, the 
State contrilniting with 1.800:000^000 and the municipalities with 

In the State of Bahia the distribution of elementary teaching is 
in charge of the municipalities. The State, however, gives a subsidy 
of 800:0(J0I0(>0 to the poorer muni cix^ali ties, thus contributing even 
watli more than the double of what the municipalities themselves 

— 326 — 

Bpeiid. About l.OOOifiOOSOOO avc spent with dilTcveiit institutes : Gym- 
nasio da IJaliia, Xonnal Institute, Law College, Normal Colleges 
Caetc^te and ISarra. , Agriculture Institute, l''ine Arts Aeademy, 
!Musi(' Conservatory, and State elenientary schools, and subsidies to 
the Polytechnical Institute and Lyceum oi Arts and Trades. 

In the vState there are to-day the I'ollowing institutes ol' secon- 
dary and superior instruction ; Medicine Academy, established by 
the impei'ial Government, and with a jnst reputation firmed by the 
notabilities that have come out of that college to follow the medical 
profession in otlicr cities of Brazil. Tt is installed in a fine Iniilding, 
much better than the building of the medical -college in the Capital 
of the Ilei)ublic, it has magnificent lafxtratories, magnificent scien- 
tific material and good elecli'ic inslalhition. 

'J'he Fine Arts College, is a beautiful building, though situated 
in an inclined street. It has nuany students, it lias a beautiful i^icture 
Gallery and scidptiire exliibiiion, and a Music Conservatory is 
annexed to it. 

The Fine Arts College building is a larg(i one, with three floors 
in the main bodies of the structure, and of Italian style. 

After the Uio de .laneii'o one, (capital of Bi'azil), the Kahia Col- 
lege is the oldest, and magnificent results have l)een ol)tained. 

"J'he La^x College ^\as founded aftei' the jjroclamation of the re])u- 
blic. It is in a building of its own , of fine construction and nicely 

The jVgiicnltural Institute \\as founded Ijy the impei'ial govern- 
ment and is in tlie district of S. Bento de Lages nfit very far fi-om 
the Capital. 

Tlie Noi'mal ( 'olh^ge is a large building. It pi'epares teachers of 
both sexes. The training is the very Itest, and it is quite common for 
those who receive degree there to be prefered for high pedagogic 
functions in other States. In its large Ijuilding there are scientific 
cabinets and pedagogic museum, everything prepared with nicety 
and even somewhat luxm-iously. Annexed to it is the kinilcrii-nrlcn 
and complementary c]ass(>s foi' practical training. 

There ari^ two other establishments of this kind, somewhat more 
modest, in the cities of Caetete and Flarra do Uio de Contas. 

The Baliia (Jymnasium, is an institute just like the National 
Gymnasium of Itio de .Janeiro. H is in a beautiful building erected 
by the ex-governor Lui/. \'ianna, in one of the city x'iit)lic squares. 
It has a good museum and library. 

The (iymnasiiiui S. Salvador, is a first class institute, but is 
maintained by private jieople. Wa mention it here because the exa- 

— 327 — 

miiiations passed tliere have the same value as il' they were passed 
in the National Gyninasiuin. It has a I'inc hnilding ol' its own and 
has a good reputation. 

The Lyceum ot Arts and Trades, is an institute of wliich Hahia is 
proud. It was founded l)y private initiative as the Rio and liecife 
ones. It has about 2.000 students, class rooms for languages and 
sciences , several workshops for practical training, an excellent 
library, picture Gallery', museum f)f architecture, a band of 
music, etc. 

There are yet other establishments of public instruction as the 
Archbishop Seminary, the Salezian College , the Santa Tliereza 
pAlucandario, the two lattei' ones subsidized l)y the State, the Spen- 
cer College, the S. Joacpiim College, the Sete de Septeml)ro College, 
the S. Jose College and many other private establishments. 

Sevei'al libraries and reading rooms complete the instruction 
service in this State. The Medical Academy library has 15.000 volu- 
mes; the rich Public Library founded in 1811 by the Conde de 
Arcos, has 20.000 volumes; the Municipal one, founded by Paula 
Guimaraes when Mayor, has 14.000 volumes; the one of the Gremio 
Litterario has some 10.000 volumes; that of the (Jabinete I'ortuguez 
has 10.000 volumes ; the Benedictines one, 5.000; the one of the 
Lyceum of Arts and Trades 12.000 ; the one of the German Club, 
o.OOO. There are many libraries all over the State. There is no city of 
any impoi'tance without having a library, most always belonging to 
private societies and Clubs, but open to the public. 

In short, tliere are in Baliia 56 Colleges , Academies , Gymna- 
siums, etc. and 051 Grammar schools thus distributed : 

Colleges I'or su|iei'ior, tecliiiical and (jrofessional Iiislriicloiii . . 14 

Secondary iiislniction colleges in llie Ca|iital ....... 33 

Colleges in llie interior of tlie State 9 

Elementary scliools (of the State 128 

» » (of tlie niunici|]alilies) 722 

Schools maintaiiied by [irivale individnals 9i 

Schools maintaijied by religions creeds |iro|iagandists .... 7 

Total .... 1007 
Adding to this the number of private schools of the modest kind 
to be found here and tliere, in the interior, we will have a total of 
no less than 1.100 instruction establishments in tlie State. 

* * 

Police force, land and sea transportation. — By the orga- 
nization of its public services Bahia occupies a first class place in 

— 328 — 

the Brazilian Federation. Its police force is, as the Para, Manaos, 
vS. Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul ones, organized in such a manner 
that in normal times it fulfils the duty of maintainers of the public or- 
der, and in case of necessity, serves as reserve of the federal army. 

It is divided into four infantry battalions with 2.000 men and a 
cavalry squadron with 300 men. They have Mauser and Comblain 
guns and Nordenfeld rapid fire guns. Their uniform is simple, of 
dark cloth, just like the one used by the Pernambuco jjolice. The 
privates police the streets, armed with swoi'd and the commander of 

Baliia. — Elecli-ic U'amway statii 

the forces is a colonel. The regiment has two barracks, large and 
nicely kept; one is in the Mouraria square in fr(mt of the General 
Headquarters of^the federal garrison, the other, near the Passeio 
Publico, is a magnificent type of a building of its kind, having no 
better ones excepting in Bello Horizonte, S. Paulo, Porto Alegre 
and Rio de Janeiro. 

The municipality maintains a well organized fire department. 

We will now write something about means of communication. 

Bahia, being a State with relatively many cities (lias im munici- 
piums and about 100 cities and villages), had the necessity of a wide 
net of railways, but unfortunately does not possess it, as it happens 

— 329 — 

all over Brazil where railways are never in the proportions of the 
reqnirenicuts of progress. 

In the Capital the trannxay serviee is made by several companies : 
the Ijinha Cireular, the Ti'ilhos Centraes, the Transportes Urbanos, 
the Ferro Carril Ondina (in way of construction) and the Carris 
eleetricos, which, as the name indicates is moved by electricity. All 
the principal districts and arteries of transit, are served by tram- 
cars, and a great lack of public cabs and carriages is noted. We 
can't very well understand this, considering that the population of 
the city according to the census taken in 1000 was 205.813 inhabi- 
tants, and to-day, probably some 220.000. 

In compensation there is that curious construction of mechanic 
elevators, some through an inclined plan as the allamos de (iueiroz)) 
and the one of « Grara », othei's in vertical line, like the ones of 
Pilar, Taboao and Lacerda, all moved bv steam. These interestina: 
works of art of which no other Brazilian capital had necessity (there 
being but a short inclined jjlan in Rioj , for its city transit, Bahia 
had to build that in large number because of its peculiar toi)Ography. 

From the Capital starts an extensive railway till .Joazeiro, anew 
city on the S. Francisco river banks, -with branch lines running to 
Timb('), etc. We will now give a list of the railway lines running in 
this State. 

The capital is in communication with cities in the far away 
points of the bay and of the sea coast, by means of the steamers of 
the Bahiana Company, an old navigation cnter])rize maintained by 
Brazilian capitalists, and by sailing boats. These boats are another 
typical peculiarity of the local life of Bahia. T^liey can never be con- 
founded with other types of naval construction as to their shape. 
They form a unique gender of their own. They are built in a some- 
what primitive style, in private ship-yards, of which there are a 
great number in the bay and little rivers of the interior. 

Another navigation enter]3rize, the <t Viac^'.ao Central do Brazil », 
runs between .Joazeiro and the cities of the States of Bahia and 
Minas on the banks of the S. Francisco river. It has eight or ten 
small steamers and the seat of the company is in Bahia. 

The commerce of the Capital, internal as external, is very active 
and one of the most impoi'tant of Brazil. It is true that in its vast 
bay enter every day large foreign transatlantic steamers, shii:)s and 
steamers from everywhere , besides the national steamei's engaged 
in the coastwise service. From there sail also for the North and 
South, as well as to the interior points in the bay, every day, the 
steamers of the Companhia Bahiana. 

— 330 — 

Tlie nnml)er oT shipK (intcring that port during 1901 was 620 with 
S.OOO passengers. The niimher of sliii)S sailing was 020 witli 7.000 
passengers. In I'M'i entered 080 ships with 39.00.5 passengers and 
sailed 07fl with '■'>'■'>. 110 passengers. 

In this is not included the coastwise navigation whicli was in 
the same year 706 ships witli 14.9-57 passengers entei-ing the hay, 
and 701 ships with 14.784 passengers sailing. 

Here is a list of railways existing t((-day in the State of Bahia 
and their extensions in kilometres : 

Railway enlreptizes Kiloms. 

Baliia .10 S. Francisco •'iTG 

liainal do Tinilio 82 

Esli'ada lie Fcrro C.ciili'al •'520 

» » Saiild Aiiiai'ii 50 

Train Road dc Nazareth 99 

EsU'ada lie Kerro Bahia e Miiias .... 1 i2 

Sanlo Antonio a Aiiiai'gosa 65 

CenU'o Oesleda Hahia 26 

S. Francisco a Fcir'a (in con.structionj . . 6.'j 

Tola). . . 1.411 
* * 

PIyoiene AM) (hiARiTiKs T) EPARTJiKN'i'. — Tlic hygicnc and Clia- 
i-ities Depai-tnient services have heen largely improved in Bahia 
during the last few years. 

'^Fhe Central Board ol Health has several branch departments 
nicely established, as the isolation hospital, the disinl'ection depart- 
ment, and the vaccinia institute. 

The prohylaxy and disinfection sei'vices are executed just as in 
Rio de Janeiro and S. Paulo, with fii-st class material, ol' every des- 
cription. There is a magazine published to disseminate every fort- 
night demogi'aphic statistics data, and all the information in relation 
with the sanitary conditions of the city. 

Bahia completes its service of public aid, giving subsidies to large 
establishments which render public aid both in the Capital and in the 
interior cities. 

We will mention some of them : 

The first worthy of mention is the Hospital da Misericordia, (city 
hospital) named also « Santa Tzabel hospital », with a service iden- 
tical to that of the Rio de Janeiro city hospital. 

There is all comfort in this hospital as well as all the conditions 
recommended by science. It was built ten years ago, thanks princi- 
pally to a valuable inheritance willed for that purpose by the Count 

— 331 — 

Penni'a Marinlio, whoso statue, in marble, is in tlie pi-etty garden, 
I'iglit in front of the Ijuilding. 

The Asyh) de Mendieidade, (the poor house), is tlie most impo- 
sing and luxurious ol all the ]>oor houses in Brazil. IMu^re is hardly 
any eity in Bi'azil that has not built a house for its poor, but none has 
done so well as Bahia in this regard. Bahia has built a palace for its 
poor. It was built in a charming sea-shore place called Boa ^'iagem, 
and is surrounded with gardens and mai'ble. Tt is a white huildino- 

Baliia. — Lai'ce Textile MaiiufaclOJ'v da Boa Viasein 

with statues on top of it, and in fact, it looks more like a summer 
I'esidence than anything else. 

The .Vsylo dos Lazaros, (the lejirous hospital), is another institute 
of cluirity also receiving a subsidy from the State Governement. It 
is a large building in a pleasant district called (^uinta, as it was 
there that the Jesuits had their I'ecreation Quinta (fai'ra). 

The Insane Asylum is not a building so large as the Rio one, 
neither is it so modern as the Para one, but is taken great care of. 
It is located in the lieautiful sea-shore place. Boa Viagem, and was 
inaugurated in 1874. 

— 332 — 

There are (iIIk^i- liosjntals and As\'luTns, as tlie Military Hospital, 

the Fouiulling- Asylum, etc. 

* * 

PuoDueTiON , eoMMEiie'E AM) INDUSTRY. — Tlie question a iinirisi 
genei'all\' asks as he goes I'or the first time to a place is : WIihI does 
tliifi plnce prcuhice'.' — But the visitor in Baliia ought to invert the 
order and ask : 117ia/ does liiihia not prodnee? 

In i'aet, just like in Rio Grande do Sul, Bahia is a eity which can 
supply itself without outside aid, hecause of the rich variety of its 
culture and production. 

The soil rich , fertile , has everything- all the othei' States of 
Brazil have, (jold? Yes, it has minims now being exploited — those 
of the Assurua and others which are going to he exploited, — and 
what is raoi'c, with Brazilian capital. Mangane? Of, course. It is 
not Minas alone that expoi-ts this I'ich mineral. Bahia is doing so. 
Last year exported some lO.tlOO tons to begin with. Diamonds? Why 
not? In l^ahia are the richest and most famous layers of dia- 
monds in America. Every one remembers the noise made about the 
discovery of some mines in Salobi'o, in the disti'ict of Cannavieiras. 
One of the cities of the State is called « Lavras Diamantinas, >■> 
(diamond exidorations,) because of occupying a certain region where 
they do nothing but seai'ch diamonds. Copper ? There is also 
copi)er in Bahia, and this State is to-day a competitor of Chili in the 
cojjper market. They have discovered an enormous layer of this 
metal. A Belgium syndicate was formed, so the papers say, to begin 
the exploitation of that treasury. The ^Vmerican consul, Mr. Tour- 
niss, not long ago wrote this in one of his reports, speaking of the 
layers of diamonds in Bahia : 

« 'I'lie largest diamond carbonate ever found was discovered in 
the district of Lencoes, in 1895, in a mountain rock which had been 
exploited some time before. It weighed 3.150 carats and was sold by 
the miner for 80:000.$ (at the exchange of that time being the equiva- 
lent to £ 16.000). One quarter of its jirice was paid to the owner of 
the concession for the exploitation of the ground where it was found. 
This stone changed hands and was at last bought by an exporter 
of the Ca])ital of Bahia for 121:000$000 (equivalent to £ 25. 100 at the 
exchange of that time). It was sent to Paris where it was divided 
into smaller stones, to become more marketable. 

Another good find took place in I'.K.K) , in another concession 
ground of the same owner. The diamond carbonate weighed 577 

— 333 — 

carats and was sold by the minor for 70:000$000 (at the excliange of 
that time equivalent to £ 17.o80), the miner, as in the preceding case 
had to give one fourth of its price. The average size of the diamonds 
found is G carats. 

The diamonds found in Paraguassu arc not so clear neither so 
perfect as those of Caniuivieiras but are re])uted as having more 
brilliancy. They appear mixed up with the carbonates and often 
contain small particles of non-crystalised coal what diminishes their 
value. )) 

Mr. Hen. Praguer, an engineer, wrote an article in a newspaper 
called .1 Bahia, saying : 

(c Generous nature offered to Bahia extraordinary riches, coming 
from certain minerals which of all this world can only be had in 
Bahia, as there are the carbonates of the Chapada Diamantina, the 
rich sands of the Prado, the famous and celebrated taiu'i of the bay, 
and finally the soil and under-soil of the large and imi)ortant city of 
Bahia with enormous depots of fuel, composed of anthracite and 
bituminous coal. » 

The failure of the company organised for the exploitation of 
kerosene oil in Marahu, failui'C that carried with it the loss of an 
enormous capital, gave cause to strong a spirit of prejudice among 
the capitalists of Bahia, so that, they have allowed the exphjitation 
of the wealthy under-soil to fall in complete abandonment. 

The most recent of these exploitations is the one of the celebrat- 
ed monazitic sands discovered as prodigious wealth in the shores 
of the city of Prado at the southern part of the State. 

Let us say something about the vegetable wealth of the State. 
They are not inferior to the minerals in their wealth, The piassava, 
the cocoa-nuts, the rosin, the exquisite lumber, the cocoa, the to- 
bacco, the sugar-cane, the coffee, the grain, everything appears in 
the list of the expoi'ts of this State. 

During the first nine months of 1001 Bahia exported goods valued 
in about (J 1.000:000-5000 and its imports were valued in about 
24.000:000$000. It occupies the fifth place in the list of the largest 
exporting States of the counti'y. 

S. Pauli) (im|iorlatioii and expurtalion). . . 576.0(50 

Federal Capital .510.657 

Amazonas Oit.OOO 

Pai-a 90.800 

Balila S6.700 

— :iS4 — 

Produc'I's Exi>(iR'ri';i) i;y 'i'iik Statu ok Baiiia 
(III kilogi-aiiis) 








20. i 00. 880 












2:;. 281. 980 

The otliei- merchandises whicli increase tlio total oi" tlie exjjorts 
i'rom Bahia, tliough in a smaller scale have followed the same yearly 
ascendency : 








(lo kos. eac 




1 7 1 .,524 















307. .584 




General view dl' llie « Pilanga » sugar factdry, in Ihe iMalla (jf 8. .J(iau muiiicijiiuin 

As to manui'actui'ing industries with the exception oi Rio, 8ao 
Paulo and Rio Grande, no other State exceeds this one in numl)er 
and importance of its factories. We will not sx)oak of the extraction 
and forest industries (piassava, cocoa-nuts, etc), neither of the dairy 
industries, nor cattle raising. The State is a little backwards in this 
line, though they have just established practical acclimatation ins- 
titutes — the model cattle raising farm, at the Catii, and the vine 
experimental school in Joazeiro, — we will write, however, about 
the manufacturing industries, though in a concise way. 

The sugar manufacturing industry is falling somewhat in Bahia, 

— 83B — 

though there are 1.800 manufacturing places by primitive x^roeesses 
and 21 large steam ones. Hut sugar at the present low prices doesn't 
stimulate production, and tarniers are perfectly discouraged, and 
limit themselves to produce for the local consumption. 

The sugar farms and factories in Bahia are, as a rule, factories 
of some importance, with improved appai-atns. Among tliem we 
must mention : the one of S. Bonto de Inhata, the chimney of \\hich 
is oH metres higli and is the pride of Santo Aniaro district. It grinds 
15.000.000 tons of sugar-cane each crop. It is owned by Mr. Pedro 
Alexandi'ino, and its water I'cservoir, has 200.000 S(iuare metres, and 
is one of the beauties of the place always visited by the ioiirista. 

The Pitanga sugar mill owned by tlie Barao de Assii da Torre , 
with a steam railway and large machinery has capacity to grind 
10.000.000 tons of sugar-cane. 

The Rio Fundo one owned by a company, grinds 30.000.000 tons, 
occupies large buildings , has its own rail\\ay and is located in 
Santo Amaro. 

The AllianQa, also in Santo Amaro and owned by Sa Ribeiro 
et Co. grinds 15.000.000 tons sugar-cane ; it occupies gigantic build- 
ings, dominated by a ol metre high chimne\'. 

The Conceieao sugar mill and alcuhol distilling place owned l)y 
Dr. Jose Marcellino , Governor of the State, located in the Nazareth 
municipium, grinds 12.000.000 tons a year. 

The ^lodel distillery occupies a groux) of ample buildings, produc- 
ing 100.000 casks of brandjr and alcohol. 

The sugar mills : Iguape, near the city of Cachoeira ; Bora Suc- 
cesso, Capimerim, Malembar, Carapia, Passagem, Esperan(;a, Mara- 
cangalha, Colonia and Botelho, all of them moved by steam, with 
railways and improved machinery and in Santo Amaro disti'ict. 
Pojuca, in Matta of Sao Joao ; Aratu, in Santo Antonio and Agua 
Comjjrida in the capital municipium , as well as several others, 
some belonging to farmers and some to companies with seat in 
Bahia, — are so many other factors towards the progress and indus- 
trial activity of that section of Brazil. 

There are, besides this, othei' industries both in the Ca])ital and 
other cities of the interior. There are 111 factories, large and small. 
Of these, 12 are threading mills, by steam, and 2 hydraulic ones, 12 
cigar and cigarrette factories, 5 ii-on and bronze foundries, 2 ice, 
12 oil, 3 shirt, 5 candle, 3 chocolate, 3 locks, 2 artificial flowers, 
2 church ornamentations, 3 chemical products, 5 furniture, 1 car, 
2 glove, 3 paper boxes, 10 trunk, 6 broom, 3 grease, 13 soap, « perfu- 
merv, 1 confetti, 3 mineral, 3 biscuit, (1 coffee, 11 vinegar, 1 matches. 

— 336 — 

3 nuu'illag'e, 21 tile and brick, II lime, 1 piassava, 5 grain, 2 Italian 
mass factories, I skin tanning ones, 1 bi-oweries,4 cordials and other 
drinks distillers, 2 diamond lai)idating \\()i-ks and many others like 
saw mills, bags and nets, uml)rellas, flags, blank books factories, 
shij) yards, brick factories, foundries, i^i-eserve factories, vegetable 
coal, oils, shoes and other manufacturing concerns. 

Among the monuments of industrial initiative in Kalua, we must 
not forget the large nianufactuiing company, Empoi'io Industrial, at 
Boa Yiagem sea-shore. It is one of the largest threading mills. It lias 
about 2.000 woi'kmen, and all the necessary institutes needed to 
better the condition of the workingmen : cooperative-stores and 
societies, schools, savings bank, houses, gardens, amusements. The 
foundei' of this small world, where all modern ideas of philantro- 
pists towards workmen are practiced, was Lniz Tarqninio, a Brazi- 
lian who died there not long ago. 

Another concern worthy of note, belongs to the director of the 
Banco da Bahia, Oommendador Sousa Campos. It is composed of 
vast Salines at a short distance from the Capital, in a place called 
jMargarida, with all reixuisites and modern European apj^liances for 
salt manufacturing. 

It is one of the largest South American industrial establishments, 
and its products meet ready sale. 

The great graphic arts establishment, Reis et Co, one of the best 
of its kind in Brazil, is another establishment worthy of being visit- 
ed. It is situated down town in the Capital. 

There is also the large furniture factory, Marcenaria Brazileira, 
the products of which can be compared favourably with those im- 
ported from Europe, being much superior to the latter as to the 
quality of the wood employed. 

Other cities of Bahia. — Those who wish to make a correct 
judgment about the importance of the State of Bahia must not limit 
themselves to the examination of its large Capital. They must go to 
the interior, visit the cities spread through the S. Francisco river 
valley, those hidden there by the river side as if forgotten and also 
those interned in the interior of the State. 

Cachoeira. — In a low valley of the Paraguassii river, extended 
through its left bank, full of nice houses, churches and pretty shops 
and stores. It has 50.000 inhabitants, H public squares, 50 streets, 
connected by a railway with Sao Goncjalvo de Campos, S. Felix, Cur- 

— 3S7 — 

ralinlio and other places. It is also ooiniected, Ijy steamers sailing- 
daily, with the Capital. It has a colossal bridge, huilt on stone pillars 
and connecting it with S. Felix. It lias a large threading mill, three 
cigar boxes I'actories and several others manufacturing raucillage, 
vinegar, soap, candles, distilling works, sugar refineries. It has yet 
good hotels, daily papers and other periodicals, telegraph, tele- 
phone, clubs, liljraries and a citj' hospital. 

S. Felix. — It is not as large as the one just mentioned, but has 
this peculiarity : it is, we miglit say, the whole of it a cigar factory. 
It is like some of those European cities that monopolise a certain 
industry. It got used to improve cigar manufacturing and does 
nothing else. Among all those large cigar factories there is one, 
which is the largest in South America. It is the property of Geraldo 
Danneman, whose products can Ije seen in every cigar store of the 

The population of this jjlace devote themselves to the cultivation 
of tobacco, its manufacture and exportation. Those who are not em- 
ployed in those large factories, as Danneman, Simas, Cardoso, Mi- 
Ihajes, Roedenbui'g and others, are at home working on their own 

The buildings of this busy city are not so pi'etty as those of its 
neighbor. It is also on the banks of the Paraguassii liver stretching 
itself almost in one street only. The City Hall was planned by 
an architect of Bahia , Mr . H . Schleyer , and is a beautiful 

Santo Amaeo. — It is another city of about 8.5.000 inhabitants. 
The buildings show that formerly Santo Amaro was quite an impoi-- 
tant social centre full of enthusiasm and life. The city has the cu- 
rious feature of embracing the river, narrowing it between its streets 
filled with ancient style mansions, covered with colored tiles import- 
ed from Portugal, villas and other light cottages. A large church, 
the pride of that region, is standing in the Purificac^-ao square where 
also are the City Hospital and City Hall, solid and strong as every- 
thing that was formerly built with the first money earned watli sugar 
cane plantations. 

In another square is the theatre, a building hardly worth men- 
tioning and the Poor House, with a school for girls founded in 1813. 
There are tramways in the city, as well as water supply, railroad, 
hotels, factories, foundries, public illumination, everything that can 
give importance to a modern city. A few leagues away is the « Insti- 
tuto Bahiano de Agricultura » supported by the State. 

— niiBj— 

In the suburbs of Santo Amaro are some I'ai'ins with Ijeau- 
til'ul panoramas, and througli the munieipium there ai'O saw-mills, 
sugar-factories, distilling works, where they work day and night, 
and others. 

Xazarktii , ^Iakagocju'K AM) ARATrmi'E. — These are otlicr 
growing cities, each of over 20.000 inhabitants, with tactories, 
schools, clubs, newspapers, etc. They have daity communication 
with the city by steamers. 

Fkira 1)e S.^nt'Anna. — Is built upon an esplanade of beautiful 
hori/on. Its landscape is the i)rettiest of the Xorth of Brazil with its 


Dioiivsio CerijiiL'ira Place. — Popular lloliday 

streets straight and wide as the Senlior dos Passes, and Direita 
streets. 'I'he fact of this Direita Sti-eet (straight street) being really 
a straight one surprised us. In nearly every city there is a tliorongh- 
tare with this name being generally the most tortuous street of the 

It lias fine private and ])ublic buildings. The City Hall, the thea- 
tre, the Railway Station, the nuignificent City Hospital and Girls 
Asylum. Us name was given after those colossal country fairs, cattle 
exchange, that used to be held there before there was any railway. 
^Fen to twelve thousand heads of cattle could then be seen thei'C. 
There arc^ foui' steam factoi'ies and other smaller ones manu- 
faetui'ing vegetable oils, tobacco, soap, ropes, tiles and other 

— 339 — 

The pvincipal eouimerce of llie city luis aB basis tobacco and its 
preparation, there being 13 bnsiness houses by wholesale and 86 re- 
tail honses. It also exports hides, lumber, grain, etc., in smallei' 

It is a city of mnch future, with (i 1.000 inhabitants according to 
the last census and dates, only fi'om the time of the political indepen- 
dence of Brazil. 

CuRKALiNiio. — Known also as Castro Alves, because of liaving 
been the birth-place of the great Brazilian poet of that name. It is 

Alagoiiilios. — Paro Municipal (squarej 

also a city with a bright future, built on the top of the Sairiru 
mountains, and we must say, well built. It has 20 large sti'eets, 
foui' public squares and fine houses. 

ALAcioiNHAS. — Here is anothei' city owing its existence to the 
locomotive. Formerly there was a kind of a hamlet with that name 
a short way from the place where this city is now. With the arrival 
of the railway-bridge of the Bahia to S. Francisco railway, there 
was formed a nucleus of houses, by and by a small hotel, a church, 
a school, later on business houses of cei'tain imp(n'tance and soon we 
saw formed a beautiful city to be added to the number of the 40 
Bahia State cities. 


AUii^-oinhas grows every year , ami is alroad,\' u good city ol 
conimereial activily. It lias a iml)lic s(|iiare, Paeo Muiiicipal, two 
railway staiioiis , a lai'go market, pretty (■Imrclics , eight public 
schools, scA-cral cliihs ami hotels, soap-factori(;s, hrandy distilleries, 
soda-water wfirks, leathei' tanning factory, a newspajjcr, etc. Itspo- 
])ulation is .i'i.L'iii acc()rding to the census taken in I'.IOO. 

From there starts a railway to Timho and tlie prolongation line 
to the H. Francisco river, crossing the cities of Bonirini, Serrinha 
unt il .loa/.eii'o. 

The region crossed by this I'ailway is most interesting with 
variegated and exijuisite panoi'amas one alter anothei'. At the begin- 
ning endless tobacco plantations ot small l'arm(n-s intermingled witli 
corn and other cei-eals. 'I'lie road goes through two green l)an(ls, 
where the tobacco comes in line with small plants of one to two 
metres. Al'terwards near Bond'ini, formei'l\' N'illa Nova da Rainha, 
we enter a stony region in whicli ])redoniinates the Itanba mountain 
(an enormous stone) ri(di in the variety ol' stones among which are 
the rosy on(;s, coniiiaci, which have already been utilized loi' monu- 
ment making in the Capital. A little further ahead is the city of : 

BoMFi.-\r. — This city has some I .•2()(.) houses, 2t) streets, 5 squares 
and looks like a hamlet built by chanc(^ with cross and tortuous 
sti'cets. Yet the houses are pretty and new, as the city is not an 
old one. 

F\illowing the railway we find extensive open fields, with a pecu- 
liar vegetation, the cactus i)redominating. There is (.'ven a stretch 
of some kilometres of surface, wdierc we can contemplate the impos- 
ing panorama of a forest of cactus, with thousands and thousands 
of specimens firndy standing uj) disi)laying their pretty gi'cen colors. 
The bottom of that picture is the naked body of the mountains in the 
neighborhood, a sad landscape with those broken lines of the mon- 
struous rocks. 

Serrinha. — Among the i)laces that line the road before Bond'im, 
some are of some importance, as (iueimadas, Santa Luzia, etc. 
S(!rrinha is a city of right. As its name gives to understand it is 
located in a small mountain. Right at its entrance there is a i)retty 
hotel, indicating tliat, being a new city, (it is another creation of 
the railway), very little worth noting can l)c present. Its houses 
have as a I'ule oidy one flooi', only lately scmuc being built with upper 
stories. ^Idic; main ])ublic s(piare is the Praca INIanoel Victorino. 

JoAziiiRo. — After tlui Bonifim station, five hours of train ride, 
we see Joazciro, on (he sandy Ijanks of the S. F'rancisco river, and 

— 341 — 

where fi'ora a beautiful panorama can l)e observed. In front of 
it is a city l)elongino- t,) Pernambuco State, the wliite Iiouses of 
which, tliere at the bottom, u-ive a strong- relief to the small Fogo 
island (Fire island), situatiMl between the two cities. Petrolina is the 
name of that little gem , connected to-day by a telegraphic wire, 
carried over-head by a high post on the island and that tlius helps 
to unite the thought of two cities that the river in vain tried to 

Joazeiro has grown up considerably after the railway reached 
tliere. It has 22 wide streets running in the direction of the axle of 
the river, crossed by several other side streets and public squares. A 

Joazeiru. — Tlie railway slalioii of llie line Baliia to S. KraJicisco 

pretty building is the i'aih\ ay station of this city. The City Hall is 
also a solid and large building. There are also two club houses, a 
library, a music school, some churches, a small theatre, and several 
good commercial houses to give life to the city. The houses are of 
modern construction, and among them ai'e some of noble aspect. 
Tlie seat of the A^iacao Central do Brazil, — which takes charge of 
the navigation on the river and its affluents, — is a large house, 
not a very j^i-etty one, painted white, a little ahead of the station, 
having annexed its repair shops. The street lining the river is full 
of business houses, but as it happens in every city of Brazil it is 
not overcrowded. 

Three or four kilometres from Joazeiro is a large establishment 
devoted to the experimental study of vines, directed by Dr. .1. Sil- 
^■eira an entomologist and ethnologist of repute. 

All that region margined by salinitrous gi'ound, produces 
ext^'llent vines, with four crops a year, and the scientific establish- 

— 3i2 — 

meiit lias as its objei-t to direct tliat new agricultural industry. 
The wheat and the vine prosper wonderful in this region. Lum- 
ber, cattle, apjiles, peaches, ever\thing is produced there, promis- 
cuously with the eixuatorial plants, so as to place in disorder those 
notions accumulated for centuries about climalology. 

So that nothing be lacking, a few leagues away from .Joazeiro in a 
idace called Sobradinho, the river arranged some high falls, and in 
the neai' future all the neighboring cities will have jjowcr, light and 
heat without needing a single ton of fuel. 


I-iirge Icxlile Fabric 

Todos OS Santos » 

Let us leave alone this region the future of which is depending, 
as Ave said before, on the immigration , the European blood and 

"We will give a jump back to the Capital and will take a coastwise 
steamer to visit the sea-side cities. We will go first to Valenca, the 
industrial city as it is called. 

Valem.'a. — At seven kilometres from the bay of Tinhare, on the 
Ijanks of a small river, the Una, is one of the most interesting 
cities of Bahia, — Valenya, — with 24.957 inhabitants, 2.100 houses, 
81 larger l)uildings, 2(i streets and 5 public squares, with pavements 

— 343 — 

and illuiiiinatioii, partly electrit-al, partly with kerosene oil, two large 
faetories, (threading mills), two saw-mills, water supply, newspa- 
pers, telegraph, breweries, I'ruit-wine factories, soap ones, cordial 
distilleries, caudle-i'actories, shii)-yards, and 10 school houses. 

Among its best buildings, Valenca can show the City Hall, the 
Amparo Church, of modern style, and the Hospital. It is connected 
with the Capital by a i-egular line of steamers and sailing vessels. 

Further down on the sea-coast there are a lot of cities with 
-bright future. In our opinion, this southern region has in its bosom 
the greatness of the Bahia State because of its natural treasuries. 

There are Prado with its monazitic sands, which, in one year 
alone paid «>00:000S000 (about $2,700,000) of export duties to the State 
of Bahia; Caravella^, 291 miles fi'om tlie Capital, the topography of 
which looks like a chess-board on account of the way the streets 
are disposed forming right angles. It has whale-oil and a railway 
that goes to Minas. (Jannavieiras, a sti-ong centi-e of the cocoa trade, 
built on big lumber stakes on account of the river floods, with fine 
houses, newsx^apers, hotels, clubs, a large number of business hou- 
ses, etc. etc. 

All the streets of Cannavieiras city are sandy. The buildings 
worth noting are : the City Hall and the ,Iail. It has a water supply 
by means of pumps moved by wind. 

The water is taken from the artesian wells and deposited in tanks 
with a total capacity of 70.500 litres. These x^umps work constantly 
as the wind always blows in this region. 

Since the moment we enter the Pardo river we see on the left, 
immediately after the promontory south of the bar, the Peso river, 
wliich connects Cannavieiras with Belmonte, passing through the 
interior of the bar of the Peso. After this we see yet two other 
rivers on the same side, the .Jacare and the Boi rivers. 

Ilheos. — Above Cannavieiras, going to Bahia we see a pretty 
and wide bay called Ilheos much smaller, however than the « Todos 
OS Santos « one. 

It is in the southern part of the bay of Ilheos that runs the 
Cachoeira river on the left bank of which is the city of S. Jorge dos 
Ilheos, constructed partly on a peninsula, extented southwardly and 
ending at the Matriz hill with about 60 metres of height. 

Ilheos is in the bosom of a beautiful inner bay, behind some rocks, 
like the Kapa and others, which make it as picturesque as it is shel- 
tered and adequated to navigation. This city was founded by Fran- 
cisco Romero, in 15:30, which means to say that it is of the oldest in 
Brazil. In the last years of the monarchy it had attained the maximum 

— 344 — 

of its decudem-e, even the Matri/. Clmreli — S. Jorge — was in ruin. 
But the extensive eoeoa jjlantations began to produee some twelve 
years ago. The old IlUeos lately began to feel younger, there eanie 
money, people, and everything was transformed. To-da\' it can com- 
pete with the l)est cities oi the interior oi Bahia. It has good hotels, 
stylish mansions, paved streets, an aeti\'e commerce with large 
stores and luxurious show windows, nuidern newspapers, as the 
Guzelu de llheos, several factories of chocolate, cocoa, soap and 
others. Scnne of thejiear-by villages, as Tabocas, which 10 yeai's ago 

Illiiios. — P:iiior;iiiia of :i piii'l nf ilic cMy 

were stO])ping-places for travelei's, to-day present the aspect of cities 

by themselves. 

* * 

It is below Cannavieiras, between a part of Bahia and the Spirito 
Santo, that is to l)e found, a little way from the coast, the curious 
ai-chipelago of ])olyperas rocks, dark and rough, by the typical name 
of Abrolhos. Some of these rock islands are visible from a great 
distance, the most Aoluminous being Santa Barbara, halfcovered by 
rickety vegetation. On it they built a l)eautiful light-house. Few 
people live in this piece of ground lost in the immensity of the ocean, 
and which the least noise of the life of the cities, does not reach 

— 345 — 

neither from any other human community. The present keeper of 
the light-house lonest)mely lives so, witli a small group of people, for 
the last twenty years. Only once in three months a coastwise steamer 
goes to tlie island, carrying provisions and fuel for the light-house, 
^vhich never stopped one single night from illuminating its silent 
and desert horizon. 

A number of sheep, goats and otlier animals, complete the group 
of the live population imprisoned in the Abrolhos, where days and 
nights slide without any alteration, well in harmony with the regu- 
lar but uneonscient rotations of the light-house apparatus which for 
the last 30 years lights the rocks without interruption. 

We referred to the Abrolhos on account oi the light-house cele- 
brated to the navigation that there i)asses by. 

It is impossible for us to give an account of every city. The 
limited space of this book would not permit it. 

Those we have mentioned suffice to give an idea of the wealth 
of this large State. It continues to be at the head of the other States 
in many respects, and taking into consideration the \ ariety of its 
produi'tion — being as Rio Grande do Sul and Minas, of the lew 
States that do not deliver themselves to the contingent prosperity of 
monocultui-e — we have not to fear any crisis like those that have 
suffei'ed E,io de .laneiro, Pernamljuco and other States, not long ago. 

The secret, however, of its great prospei'ity entirely lies on a 
measure that its administrators have not, as yet, been willing to, or 
did not know how to realize, and that is : the introduction of large 
numbers of European immigrants into the lands of this lich State. 

"When Bahia decides itself to adopt this measure and receives 
and disseminates in its beautiful teri'itory some 500.000 immigrants, 
Bahia will then have established the basis of its true progress so 
vast and powerful, that we believe there is no other region in the 
whole of Brazil in a condition to equal it. 


Between the two large cities of the Brazilian coast, one that was 
formerly the Capital of tlie country, — Bahia, — and another that 
is tlie Capital to-day, there is a sea-coast city which is the Capital of 
one of the 20 States of the Union. It is much more modest than a,ny 
of the other two, moi'e modest even than many of the interior cities 

— 34.(i — 

of tlic country in tlic S. I'aulo, Bahia, l!io rJi'aiidc; do Snl oi' many 
ol' the other States. Yet its name may sound as belonging- to a great 

Victoria is the name of that sniall city, Capital of one of the small- 
est States of the Union. — the State of Kspirito Santo, 

Sailing- fi'om Rio de Janeii'o in some of those coastwise steamers 
that are in the lial)il of navigating- nearei- slnn-c, in 2fJ or ,! 1 hours 
we are in front of that city, wliiidi is not visilde from the sea. AVo 
can only see it after ])encti-ating- into the fim't. hehind a crown of 
mountains at the bottom of ^\hich is the city. 

Entering- the port, a little towards tlie east side of ^'illa Velha we 
see a large rock of conic sha])c, ( which one would think is thi'eatening 
to fill u]) the canal should it fall into it) and near this rock another 
one just like it but a little taller — they are the two inside marks of 
the estuary. This one is called Moreno and the former, the prettiest, 
they gave the name of Penlia, and they built Tm to]) of it a small 
white chajjel in the most ideal and poetical of spots. 

We read that the little convent of Penlia was started in lo^iS and 
finished in l.o75, and it is not much to have spent ten years, carry- 
ing stone by stone, to a height of 120 metres, to build that church 
and its c(mvent, strongly cnongh to be able to resist, as they have 
resisted, during- centuries, to tlie rigor of the weather with its sti'ong 
winds on the sea-shore. 

When the toiirisi wishes to go uj) the hill, lie finds a regular 
I'oad, paved with stones, in constant curves until the top where the 
church is all di-essed in white with its stone foundatitni firmly fixed. 

— u^ — 

The bay of Espirito Santo is wido, perlectly seroiio and calm, we 
could not say it more ap])ropviately in any other case, — ;(.s- in h 

The present Secretary ot Puhlic ^^'orks, Dr Lauro Muller, pro- 
moted the construction of harbor works which will completely 
transform this port at an expense of £ l.OOO.OOO. 

In a curve of this bay and on the side of a hill is the city of 
Victoria with its uneven buildings, its churches, its public garden, 
which can be seen frcun the anchoi'age place. Its quay is not a jn-etty 

Vicloi'ia. — A |i;irl of llio L'ily and aiicliorage 

one, but a large number of boats are always to be seen there for the 
service of the port. 

Xotwitlistanding it is an old city, it has had lots of time to 
grow and acquire modern ideas. Numerous cities of the interior of 
S. Paulo, others of Minas and others of Bahia, not to speak about 
capitals like Mana(')s, Curytiba, Bello-Horizonte, Maceio, are far 
more advanced, better euroi^eanized, more pi'ogi'essive than Victoria. 
Why so? It seems that it is the fate of the cities located in islauds in 
the Brazilian coast, not to conquer their way in the road of progress 
as those on the continent. 

Yet the city is not so very ugly. Seen from the anchorage place, 

— 34.8 — 

tlio distance shows it as a poetic reliel', j)i-esenting itself as a picture 
Tor a draw inj;' room, mild and tender, round, soft, hall' framed in the 
](m<^ i^iccii of the mountains that have not the roughness of othoi' 
mounlains, e\-ci'ytliiiig displayed in another inverteil landscape in 
that blue rcfli'ctoi' of the waters. 

'I'he natural port is calm, sheltere<l and vast as few are. The gay 
panorama of the mountains surrounding it, correspond pei'feetly 
well to the beauty and quietness of the bay. 

Victoria is a small city active and industrious, having seven 

Victoria. — .Uiollirr |iart of llie city ami aiiclioragc 

public squares, of which only one has a garden; twenty odd streets 
extending themselves in a longitudinal direction of the anchorage 
line, crossed by other narrow and inclined side-streets, lined by 
houses wliich in tlie great majority are there since colonial times. 
There are, however, some of modern aspect. 

The palace of tli(> Governoi' is the old convent, which, as in the 
one of Parahyba, exhibits yet the church at the side. 

The houses are disposed in irregular squares or blocks, lining- 
streets disorderly arranged. They shelter undei' their roofs a poi)ula- 
tion of some 0.0(30 inhabitants, being \.l2o males and 1.577 females, 
according to the census of lUD'J, only in the city prop(>r. E. Ileclus in 
his book — O Brazil — savs : 

— 34.9 — 

<c Several years ago, Victoria while having yet but little eoiii- 
meree, only small ships came to its bay. The improvement works 
made in the channel ol' the port which is over live or six metre deep 
permit the entrance even to the large transatlantic steamers. Its 
commerce grows to-day rapidly and the immigrants land there by 
thousands. Hencei'orth Espirito Santa considers itself indepen- 
dent I'rom Uio de Janeiro as to its ultramarine i-elations ». 

In I'act it is so. The agriculture of the State was backwards and 
weak, its commerce, consequently, could not be very prosperous. 
However, the immigrants came there i'rom Portugal, Gei'many, 
Italy and Spain. They went to the interior, to the river banks. Cofi'ee 
began to appear in the market, in quantities growing larger every 
year, and everything was done. 

Victoria is already appearing in the list of the noted exporting 
ports, in a pi'Ogressive march which can bo obsei'ved in the follow- 
ing figures : 

Coffee exports isv thio i'okt of victoria 

Years. Kiloi^s. 

1892 I().(i7:!.3(12 

1893 2I.7():!.1()() 

1894 *].-217.l(il 

1895 UAUl.lll 

1896 -2.J. 2(11.568 

1897 .34.791.488 

1898 .33.4 ID. 90 1 

1899 27.3711.76-4 


1901 41. .494.095 

And this progression can be maintained. Everj'thing shows that, 
and it is hoped that the pi-ogression from now on will be much lar- 
ger. The habit of working is extending itself to wider circles in the 
interior, the railways will awake facilities of transportation and 
exchange, and above all, stronger than everything, it will assure 
progress to the fertility of the soil, acting by the entrance in the field 
of work the enormous areas conquered on the wild forests 

p]spirito Santo has two railways : the Santo Eduardo to Cacho- 
eiro with an extension of 90 kilometres and the Sul do Espirito 
Santo with 80 kilometres in operation and 8.'J in construction. 

The road that goes to Cachoeiro, belongs to the Leopoldina 
Railway, crosses tracts of land most wealthy as well as thick woods 
and forests. 

Another railway quite extensive and which will mean the reali- 
sation of an old aspiration of the people of the Espirito Santo 

— 350 — 

S(ul(^ is ul)i)iil to be Ijuilt soon, according to in formation furnislietl 
us l)^\' the ( <ov(M'nnient itself in an official docninont. We I'ofer to the 
follow ing to])it' of the messages of Governor Muniz Freire read before 
the Legislative Assembly : 

K I must also inform yon of the pleasing impi'ession I have 
rccei\ ed by the recent organisation of the « Companhia Victoria a 
Diamantina », wliicli proposes to realize the concession renovated by 
art. IS, n" Hi of the Federal law n" 8::!4 of December .'30th. 1001, for 
the construction of a railway that, starting from \'ictoria and going 
thi'ongh Pessanlia, in !Minas Geraes State, will go to Diamantina an 
important centi'c of the same State, with an extension of 700 kilo- 
metres. » The works of this company have ali'eady stai'ted. 

PuiiLic Instruction, police, production, cojoierck, etc — The 
things that have reference to the public instruction of the inliabitants 
of Esi)irito Santo have not been neglected, though they could not 
have been treated as it would be expected to be treated in a State 
with such a brilliant future. A Central Department with its seat in 
\'ictoiia, manages everything concerning public instruction under 
the direction of a General Director. The insti'uction given bj' the 
official institutes is divided into ])rimary, — which is comj)ulsory 
and free of charge, as it Imppens in all the othei' States of Brazil, — 
and secondary, distributed by the Normal College with 100 pupils, 
and several schools like tlie Atheneu Santos Pinto, the CoUegio do 
Carmo, directed by Sisters of charity and installed in an old convent. 

F^)r the elementary instruction there are in the State lUO schools 
in the Capital and interior towns and villages. 

The police fort'c of Es])irito Santo is a modest battalion of infan- 
try, we might say a t'ompany, with 120 men, commanded l>y a major, 
■i captains, ::! 1st. lieutenants, 2nd lieutenants and a small band of 
music with 18 figures. 

As to the sanitary public services, public aid, statistics, etc., 
there are only rudimentary departments very simple for the organi- 
sation of a State. 

There is hardly any manufacturing industry worth writing 
about; there is one or other factory of soap, vinegar, beer and a few 
others. 'J'lie great industry is the agriculture and of this there is 
only one important manifestation — the coffee cultivation. This does 
not mean that Espirito Santo does not export other products, 
because it does sugar, luml)er and othei-s, but excepting coffee all 
tlie others are sent in very small cpiantities. There is consequently 
the monoculture with all of its inconveniences. 

It appears however, that a new element, will come to modify, 

— S51 — 

though slightly, the situation that cii'cuimstauce brings about, and it 
is the discovery of inonazitic sand in the sea-coast, 'rhe executive 
Chief of tli(^ State wrote thus about it : 

« As you know, it was (inly two years ago, in 1898, that the exis- 
tence of that source of \\ealtli in the State was knomw. Until tlien its 
existence was only known on the coast of the Prado niunicipiuni, in 
the State of Bahia. From that time however it was discovered that 
we have important layers of those saiuls in Bai-ra de S. Matheus, 
Guarapary and Benevente ». 

Oacliocini lie lla|ieiiii'i'iin. — I'eali (if lluliira 

Principal cities. — Espirito Santo is not large, neither in terri- 
toi'y, nor population. The former is of 15.000 square kilometres, the 
latter is 209.000 inhabitants, less than there is to be found in any 
other lai'ge city of Rio, S. Paulo, Bahia. Under the circumstances 
how could there be anj' city of importance V 

At all events we will see what can be presented as cities of rela- 
tive importance. 

Cachoeiro de Itapemekim — or onl}' Itapemerim — is in first 
place, thanks to the new vigor given to it by the immigration that 
largely increased tlie number of its coffee plantations. 

It is the seat of a large agricultural municipium composed of : 
Conceicao, S. Gabriel do Moqui, S. .Toao do Moqui, Castello, and 
S. Pedi'o do Cachoeiro districts. Their population was by the cen- 
sus taken ten years ago .^.OOO inhabitants, and by last year census 
19. .592 inhaliitants. It is a jjicturcsque city cut into two halves by 
the Itapemei'im river on the banks of which it is built. 

A metallic bridge resting on stone pillars unites those two parts. 

— 362 — 

111 the southern part of tlie city are the railway stations. Tlie 
river makes a eiirve rif;ht wliere the city is, and tlie houses there, 
nearly all one floor buildings of the simplest arcliiteeture, are spying 
al the sides supixirted on posts and pillars. On both sides are 
ample woods on the inclined plan, of a deep green whose greatness 
is being explored with the fall of the rich lumhei' pulled (hiwn by the 
active immigrants. 

This city has progressed somewhat of late, inaugurated [its elec- 
trical illumination and lias built some nice houses and chulels. 

Oaclioeii'a dc lla|iuiiiei'iiu. — J^oiitiiurii pai'l ul' llie cily 

Not long ago it was connected with the Rio de Janeiro State and 
when they build the 83 kilometres rails of the Sul do lilspirito Santo 
railwa\' wliich goes down to Victoria it will be connected l)y railway 
\\ ith the Capital of the Republic. 

Among other newspapers they publish <( O Cachoeirano » which 
is the oldest paper of the state. 

S. ^Iathkus. — It has relatively little commei'cial imjjoi'tance. 
It is pai'tly built on a little liver with its stone c^uay and partly in a 
small mountain. The river that serves of decoi-ation to it and which 
th(! city is named after is a beautiful stream of clear and calm 
waters. Its passage is always reproducing in front of the quay the 
image of the city w'itli its high palm-trees planted some 30 years ago 

— 353 — 

in the down-town part of the city. This part of the city is composed 
of two floor liuiklings, pkxin walls and Portuguese style. In the 
upto\\n part of the city are also several two floor buildings. The 
city is illuminated with kerosene oil and is the seat of the munici- 
piuni of the same name created by law n'^ 6 on the 28th of March 183.5. 
It is situated on the right bank at the mouth of the S. Matheus 
river, four leagues from the sea and from Villa da Barra, and 28° n. 
of Rio Doce, altitude 18°. 53'. 34". longitude 3". 9'. 13". It is 40 lea- 
gues away from the Capital of the State. It comprises the district 
and pai'ish of the same name with a population of 7.701 inhabitants. 


Local Scene, tlie Siesia 

Cachoeira de Santa Leopoldixa. — (Port of). It is the seat of 
a coffee municipium, where they are actively operating a renovation 
of customs and habits as well as the whole agricultural life of the 
State. To that city many Italian, German, Polish and other natio- 
nalities immigrants have gone of late. It is a small city and quite a 
simple one like all the others in this State. Its commerce, however, 
considered its territory is quite active and prosperous. It is a city of 
some 5 or (J.OOO inhabitants. Adding to it the neighboring districts 
of Jequitiba, Mangarahy and Santa Thereza, its population is 9.867 
according to the report of the statistics Department. 

Benevente. — This is a municipium of some future. At present 
has but little importance. It jiroduces rice, sugar, coffee. This muni- 
cipium was created by decree signed on the 1st of January 1759. It is 
14 leagues away from the Capital of the State. It comprises the dis- 
tricts Alto Benevente and Piujna parishes Nossa Senhora da Con- 
cei<jao de Piuma. Its population was 14.038 inhabitants in 1892. 


Other cities like Ilabniionnn at the southern part of the State, 
Fspiritd Sanlo — as old as an age, — Sniitn Cru2, and several others, 
are spread here and there over the State. They have, however, 
hut a rcdative interest for public knowledge. And why to cite thenr? 
Cities, like so many hundreds ol' them spi-ead through the vast ter- 
ritory ol' Hra/.il, still growing, cities without anything particular 
about them, or as much as that terrace about which the Spanish 
poet wrote ; 

Turn jinrliriibir, 

Que en Uorienilo xe mojn 
Como los (tenuis 

( Si) |ii'ciilini', tli.'it Nvhoii il niiiis gels wcl, just like llie others ) 


On account of its size and physical aspect the State of Rio de 
.Janeiro is the most hilly of all the other States of the Union. 
Crossed by capricious lidges of mountains, enormous lakes, it has a 
marvellous maritime boundary line where tlie most beautiful bays, re- 
fused by nature to the other States, were given to it with prodigalitJ^ 

Tn this I'cspect this State is in striking contrast with its neigh- 
boring State — Minas. — This latter State has not the least commu- 
nication with the sea. Rio has so many and large anchorage places 
that it has no necessity to give commercial application to all of 
them. It concentrates all its maritime activity in the bay that lays 
between the two twin cai)itals : Rio de .Janeiro, the Federal Capital, 
and Nietheroy, the Capital of the State of Rio de .Janeiro. Every one 
of the great peculiarities that give fame and value to a territory, this 
State got tliem heajjed up upon it by nature. II has the highest oro- 
graphic point, the Ttatiaya; the largest and most marvellous bay, 
Guanabara, (the Rio de .Janeiro bay); the most curious elbow of 
land, o Cabo Frio, (the Frio cape); the stuixuidons rocky mountains, 
o Pao d(( Assucar, Gavea, Frade de ^lacahe; mountains of universal 
fame for its picturesqueness, the Mantiipieira, and os Orgiios. F]ve- 
rytiiing in this State contributes to a glorious destiny. And as if all 
was not sufficient, there came men adding to such great natui'al pos- 
sessions, their j)atient and valuable work. They built there one of 
tln^groatest commercial metro])olis of the world, the political head of 
the whole nation, extended thi'ough the vallcvs a whole svstem of 

— 355 — 

railways, installed on the to]) ot the mountains, sumniei- resorts 
being so many othei' cities, -where the wealthy inhabitants reside. 

vSome by the sea-side, some in the interior places, some large, 
some small, there is quite a number ol' cities all through the State 
like Macalie, Araruama, Cabo Frio, Saquarema, Marica, Nietheroy, 
Rio de Janeiro (Capital of the Republic), Mangaratiba, Angra, Pa- 
raty. These being the sea-side ones. The leading cities oi the moun- 
tains are Petropolis, Xova Friburgo and Theresopolis. 

The territory between Rio de Janeiro and the Ponta Negra, near 
Cabo Frio, where a large light-house is since 1861, is high ground , 
formed by enormous stones, sometimes bare like rocky mountains, 
sometimes covered with green, lined with thick woods. Among these 
superb stone bodies we see Ponta Xegra (Black point), thus called 
because of the aspect and color of its elevation, on the top of which 
we see, from the distance at which the steamers pass by, a white 
building, used as a semaphorieal signal station. Away down on a 
sandy hill near Saquarema city is the church of Nossa Senhora de 
Xazareth, all white, like a sea-mew. 

The shores we see from there at the North, and which do not 
look at all like those of Rio Grande do Sul, are called Pernambuco. 
,\. little further ahead we see a fine stone body called Cabo Frio and 
there the coast seems to fold upon itself, abandoning its course frona 
West to East, to follow North-East. 

The Rio de Janeiro is, as to its teridtorial extension, one of the 
shortest States of Brazil, but its population places it among the most 
important ones. It has over one million inhabitants. 

Owing to this relatively large population , Rio de .Janeiro, com- 
pared with the other States , has developed very rapidly its agricul- 
tui-e, industry, transportation and commerce. Its extensive coffeeand 
sugar-cane plantations concentrated during the second half of the 
last century the base of the national public wealth in that region as 
they did in Bahia in the last century, and as thej^ are doing in 
S. Paulo. Thus has been dislocated the economical-financial hege- 
mony, changing of seat, under cii'cumstances, that as yet do not 
seem to characterise a superior law or a definite form. 

We only apprehend the material phenomenon : the dislocaticm 
of the economical centre of gravity which we believe later on will 
have to be taken from S. Paulo to the rubber States in the North. 

Once the sceptre of the country's agricultural wealth dislocated 
from Rio de .Janeiro to S. I^aulo , Rio began to exercise a vei'\' mo- 
dest influence in the destinies of the nation , and the whole of the 
State, in spite of its beautiful and S(jme most important cities, seems 

— 350 — 

to l>e supported by tlio life of the small district tliat makes part of 
its territory, IVom the geograi)hieal point oT vi(^w, but independent 
and distinct as it has been reserved Tor the functions of acting as 
the head of the whole country — the Federal District. 

Why it allowed itself to be tlius supplanted by S. Paulo in that 
privileged condition, is something that apparently can't very well 
be explained. It was not inferior in the richness of the soil, nei- 
ther in the density of the population, neither in the variety and 
excellency of the climate, neither even was it inferior in the geogra- 
phical situation , number of ports, proximity of a large market cen- 
tre , but much to the eontrai'y, it had over S. Paulo all the natural 
advantages, and above all, it had great superiority in the advance- 
ment of political and social education of its land-ownei'S, as well as 
in the development of two agricultural industries, coffee and sugar- 
cane, which was cultivating when S. Paulo was but making exi)eri- 
ments with them in the North and Xorth-west I'egious, the marvel- 
lous West unknown at the time. 

'I'he Capital of the State had always been Xictheroy, the t\\in city 
of the (•ai)ital of the Republic. In bS'.H, however, the local Govei'u- 
ment transferred the Capital of the State to the city of Petropolis, 
where it was but a shoi-t while, returning to Xictheroy in July ly03. 
Nictheroy celebrated then joyfully the recovering of its historical 
hegen)on\' over the other cities of the State. 

IM'csident, or rather tJovei'nor Bocayuva (in Brazil some States 
hax'ing the name of (joocnior, othei'S President for the Executive 
Chief of the State,) was the one who reinstalled there the Capital of 
Rio de .laneiro State, receiving the applauses of the entire popula- 
tion of the State. 

Nictheroy is a small city built between the ridges of mountains 
that line the eastern side of the large bay. It participates of the soul 
and moral economy of the neighboring metropolis. Many of its inha- 
bitants have their business and exercise their activity in Rio^ on the 
other side of the bay. It feels with Rio the same feelings as if it 
were a part of it, and cpiite often an event in Rio has its repercution 
in Nictlicroy quicker than in the very suburbs of the city. In fact, 
besides the telephone, telegraph and post office service, there is a 
constant communication service by steam boats (ferry boats) run- 
ning day and night between the two large cities on the banks of the 
Guanabara baj'. This constitutes a syncretism of life so intimate, so 
mixed with one another that hardly can be thought, setting aside, 
the material separation of the bay, the distinction that political 
geography causes between the two cities. 

— S57 — 

The true dil'l'erence, tlie only dil'lerence, rests in tlieir active life : 
Rio is a — whirlwind, — Niethorox', — a resting place. The aspect 
of life in the streets of liio is like th^t of the great comniei-cial cen- 
tres full of activity, x^eople in the streets do not walk, they run, 
— do not speak, but cry. 

Nictheroy is just the inverse of it : there is an infinite quietness 
in the air as in everything. Its ])opulation moves about at ease in the 
quiet streets. There is a sound calm within the open city, without 
walls, without barriers, suri-ounded only by its sandy shores, the 


.NielillicToy. — The celebraled rock uf lla|)uca, and tlie beacli of k-araliy 

most picturesque sea^shoi-es suii-ounding a city — Icaraliy, S. Lou- 
renco, etc. 

Xicthei'oy has .3.5.000 inliabitants, tramways, electric illumina- 
tion, newspapers, a large number of factories, ship-yards, etc. 

IcvKAHY. — Is most interesting : one of its monoliths, the indi- 
gene name of which was preserved, the — liapiica — is a large, 
isolated stone, a monumental feature, half placed into the water, 
and the unmistakable beauty of Avhich has already become celebrat- 
ed in the art magazines, photograx^hic views taken by the tourists 
and post-cards. 

— ;?o8 ~ 


(.'upilal as Potn)i)()lis, t'anipos and othoi' cities of the State, are 
exeelleiit iiistitult'M oT learniiii;-, some private, some belonging to the 

Among the hiUci- we mnst mention tlie Fhiminense Gymnasium, 
llie Campos and the Niethevoy Normal CJolleges, the Campos L\-eeum. 
Among the former we must mention : Tlie Fi'ee Xoi'iiial ("ollege, of 
I'etropolis, flie Lyceum, of the same city, the gi-and Salezian Oc)llege 
mainlaiiie(l hy [iricsts in Santa Itosa, Xietlieroy, and which is one of 
tlie most noted institutes of professional education in tlie country, 
and tlic Auchicta College, of Frihui'go, dii'ccted hy .Jesuits, also I'cpu- 
1(m1 as one of the hest institutes of learning in Soutli Amei'iea. 

As to the elenientai'y insti-ucfion it is compulsory and free of any 
charge all over the State. 

'The State su])j)orts schools in T*et)-opolis, Rezende, Xictlieroy, 
Campos, \'alenca and IJarra Maiisa, and ahout (iOll grammar schools 
all over th(> State in huildings owned hy the State. 

The police force of Rio de .laneiro State is constituted liy an 
inrantry I'cgiment composed of (wo divisions, one militarized, an 
organisation identit'al to the Fedci'al infantry, devoted to maintain- 
ance of the authority and integi'ity of the State, the other a civil 
organisation, to iurnish detachinents to diffei'cnt points, to do the 
l)olice sei'vice. Each division has M) men. They lia\'e both ^Mauser 

On account of its torrit(nial extension, the State of Rio is the one 
having the easiest means of communication. T^vo larger railways 
place its interior cities and villages in contact with the exterior, 
'i'hese railways are the Leopoldina and the Central do Brazil. Besi- 
des these, other smaller railways connect two, three, or more cities 
within the State, as the F]strada de Ferro Campista, the Estrada de 
VevYo de Theresopolis, the Estrada de Ferro Sapucahy, the Uniao 
Valenciana, the Rio das Flores, the Bananal, the Vassourense and 
the Rio do Ouro railway enterprizes. The total extension of those 
raih\ays is 2..'J2."i kilometres. 

l.esides these, there are yet several street railway enterprizes in 
some of the principal cities, as Xictlieroy, Campos, Vassouras, etc. 

Other cities like S. .Joao da Barra, Campos, Macalie and others 
have fluvial navigation companies. 

Pi'/i'KOi'OLis. — The State of Rio can boast of possessing with 
that pretty city of Retropolis one of the most interesting cities of the 

359 — 

New World. Tn the bej^inniiig- it was a colony composed of 2.000 
Germans, who came there in 18 l.j to settle themselves in grounds 
belonging to the impei'ial crown. Later on develoi)ed into a city, 
having been during three or four years Capital of the State. It is not 
so high as S. Paulo, Bello Horizonte or Curityba, as it is built in an 
esplanade of the Orgaos mountain, 750 metres above the sea level. 

The fact, liowever, of being so near the Capital of the Republic, 
invested it with the prei'ogatives of a sanatorium and summer i-esort 
of Rio, and every summer the wealtliy population of Rio, the diplo- 
mats and even the Executive Chief of the nation o() to'that citv. 

Peli'opolis. — Tlie Municipal Prefect's Palace 

But it is not only on that account that Petropolis deserves the 
importance it enjoys among the cities of the Rio State. It is also a 
pet in picturesqueness and constrnction. A very mild small river 
runs in curves like a serpent tlirough the interior of the city and over 
it, are to be found many wooden and iron bridges, which contribute 
in a large measure to embellish the gracious physiognomy of the city. 
On the otlier hand, the wide and straight streets, with their rows of 
magnolias, ever blooming, light but magnificent buildings , palaces 
of varied architecture, form a beautiful ])anorama not to be found 
in any other city. 

The climate is charming. In winter it reminds one of Europe, 
it is quite cold, and cold weather may be hated in England or xVme- 
rica, but is adored in tropical countides. 

The streets and public squares are illuminated by electric lights, 
incandescent lamps. There is an abundance of cabs and carriages to 
be hired in the streets, and a tramway company is about to be orga- 
nized to run street cars by electricity. 

— 360 — 

Everything- that a, modern city may wish is there : telegraph, 
newspapers , hotels , theatre , libraries , tolei)h()nes. And better, 
there is an elegant society oi what there is best in diplomatic and 
political circles in the Capital. 

Two railways connect this small paradize with the Capital of the 
Republic, and two other cities of the Rio State. In the suburbs of 
Petropolis are factories, threading, cotton and silk dairies, brewe- 
ries, etc. 

One season in the year, the rainy season, is monotonous and tire- 
some to be spent in Petropolis. The largest part of moneyed people 
who visit it, run away in a hurry at the first tidings of that season, 

.Nova Fribui'go. — General view of Ihe Aiieliieta Cullegio 

the winter. But , when the real summer begins, it is nice to see the 
life that day by day the streets of Petropolis acquire. Large number 
of Rio families depart from Rio, to install themselves in the x^alaces 
and many hotels and boarding houses in the city until then aban- 
doned. Otliers, the merchants and capitalists, go up every evening 
to sleep there, only to return in the morning to Rio to engage them- 
selves in their daily labors. 

Petropolis has 40.000 inhabitants with its suburbs. It is in the 
northern side of the mountains which incline themselves mildly 
towards the Paraliyba valley. 

In its private buildings we immediately note the predominance 
of beauty and comfort of the aristocratic cities, though there are also 
many humble belonging to the first inhabitants of the colony. 

Among the public buildings there are some beautiful ones. It 
suffices to cite the City Hall, the best in the whole State, both on 
account of its size and stylish architectiire. 

— 361 — 

Nova Fkibukgo. — Or simply Fribiirgo is a city very much like 
Petropolis as to its relations witli Rio. J t is built in the northern 
inclination ol the .1/a;- mountain in that part in which the mountain 
is known as Boa Vista (Fine Vie\\), allusion to the horizon \\ithout 
rival that can be observed around it. 

It is not so new as Petropolis as it dates i'rom 1819. 

Its Xova Friburgo name originates from the Tact of having been 
founded by 1.700 -Swisses bebmging to a district of Switzerland 
named Friburg , wlu) settled there that very year and stayed 
for many, many years, some abandoning the colony which little by 
little assimilated itself to the native element, and to-day is quite a 

Cam[ios. — Quiiize dc iNovembi- street and I'aralijba I'ive 

Brazilian city though many descendants from the settlers are still 

It has not that aristocratic aspect of Petropolis, neither has it 
developed as much, but it has a beautiful climate, perliaps superior 
to tbe one of that city, as well as a natural circumstance highly 
pleasant, to which tlie country life of the suburbs give an exixuisite 
relief. A railway and an audacious one, from the point of view of 
construction, conquering the mountain in strongly accentuated 
inclinations, connects this city with Nictheroy. 

Camjjos, is situated on the banks of the Parahyba river, which at 
this point has a width of over 300 metres, it is nine leagues from the 
coast, and is a part of the Campos dos Goytacazes municipium which 
is at the extreme Nortli of the State of Kio do Janeiro. 

As its name is indicating, it is a municipium formed by a vast 
plain w'hich extends itself to .S. Joao da Barra on the eastern side 

— 362 — 

and to the Atlaiitif, on the, otlier side. On tlie western side the 
grounds are move or lessliilly, in some phiees even mountainous , 
like all over the JMurihe valley. 

Two leagues irom the eity and on the right bank of the Ururahy 
river, it can be seen rising, solitary in this vast plain, (uilled by the 
natives Goytacomopi, that is, Campos das Delieias (Deliees field) the 
large liill Itaoca. 

The city of Campos has an extension of nearly three kilometres 
in front of the Parahyba river, and about two kilometres towards the 
interior. It has 3.680 houses, 38 streets, 8 public scpiares, and 
several lanes and ci'oss streets. It is divided into two districts. It 
was f(mnded in l(i71 and elevated to the I'ank of citv in 183.5. Its 

Campos. — S. 8alv:i(li)r S(|iia]'e 

level is 6 '/.> to 11 '/■: metres above the sea and its population 35.000 
inhal)itants. ' 

It was the fii'st of all Bi'azilian cities that adopted the electric 
light system of illumination and one of the fii'st to adopt gas. Even 
squares to-day it has these two systems of illumination. 

The city presents a pretty aspect of neatness in the streets, some 
paved witli stone blocks, other with irregular stones. Its public 
squares have fine trees and some have even gardens. 

In S. >Salva(1or square is the beautiful building of the City 
Hall, one of the best in the State, having at its right the Municipal 
Library with over 15.000 volumes, and the Nossa Senhora Mae dos 
Homens having at its left the lai-ge building of the City Hospital 
where about 2.000 patients are taken care of annually, some of them 
coming from the neighboring numicipiums, from the States of Minas 

— S63 — 

and Espirito Ranto : tlie Grand Hotel Gaspar, tho Post-Office, 
and other bnildini;s. On the other side of the scpiare is tlie Matriz 
ehurch, S. vSalvador, the telegraph Ktatlon, the printing offiee of 
the Diurio Popuhiv, a newspaper, and the heantiful hnilding of the 
Assoeiaeao Cominereial, several lawyers offices, etc. 

In a, spot far away from the city , in the centre of spacious 
gi-oiuuls, there is the Isolation Hospital, where tliose with conta- 
gions diseases ai-e kept. 

Caiiifiiis. — lAceuni of Kiiiiiauities and .Normal School 

Besides a large number of granunar schools kept hy the State and 
municipality, private schools and night schools maintained by sever- 
al associations, as the Brazileira de Beneficencia, Uniao Ai'tistica 
Beneficente, several mason lodges, the Macodronio Club, AA'orking- 
men Centre and others, the city lias three good institutes of leai-ning 
rendering important services to public instruction and the population 
receiving it. They are : — the Lyceu de Humanidades, with its course 
corresponding to the National Gymnasium one ; the Lyceum Bitten- 
court da Sylva, of Arts and Trades, installed in a beautiful building 

— 3(i4. — 

ol' its own, cxijvc^ssly l)nilt for tliat puryosc, the Ijcautifiil arcliitec- 
tnrc, and solidity oT which presented a fine palace, where day and 
nit;'ht were classes, foi- hoth sexes, innch freqnented, and the Normal 
College insalled with the Lyceii de Hnmanidades in the palace 
situated in the Pinheiro square. Each one of these tlii'ee institutes 
has a frequentation of over ]()() students. 

Campos is a commercial and industi'ial centre of g-reat movement 
and importance. There are in itt^\■o hanking houses : <co Banco Com- 
mercial Hypothecario de Campos » and the « Caixa Depositaria de 
Campos,)) a Commercial Association, three good hotels, many others 


Wuler resei'voii' 

of smaller importance, many restaurants and drinking places, four 
music bands societies, a gas company, an electric liglit one, sewage 
works, -water works, a good street railway service, animal traction, 
going to the suburl)s, and telephonic service. 

The city of Campos has l-o catholic clmrches, a ])resbyterian and 
aljaptist one, and tliree masonic lodges. 

Its pulilie market is plentiful, abundant, Mith goods of all kinds. 
In tlie slaughter house, in tlie lower pai't and away from tlie city, on 
the banks of the Paraliyba river, they kill the cattle needed f(n' the 
consumption of the population, under the ins])ection of the City Hall 
pliysicians. There is yet a theatre with a capacity of 8UU seats — the 
S. Salvador theatre. 

Three newspapers are published in Campos , the .I/o/hVo/' Ctiiu- 
/H'.s7a one of the oldest pa])ers in Brazil, with HI years of uninter- 
rupted publicity, the Guzeta do Povo, with 20 years existence, and 
tlie Diaiio Popular, besides other periodicals like the Comhate and 

— 366 — 

the Idcul, tliis hitler being- the (irgan ol'the students of CaniX)C)S, and 
the Aiiroru a literai-y montlily magazine. 

Tliere are I'ive railway stations witli daily trains starting and 
ari-iving tliere. There is also a fluvial navigation company witli 
boats and steamers running to S. Fidelis, and S. .Joao da Bai'ra on 
the Parahyba river. There is a solid iron bridge :>Vo metres long, 
connecting the city with the northern territory where a new city is 
being formed, or the present one extended to, in that half league 
that goes between. 

The municipium of Campos has 38 sugar-factories, some of very 
first oi'der. 

Macauk. — In relation to the cities of the Brazilian sea-coast 
cities, this one is a modern one. It was a village on the 21)th of Xo- 
vembre 1813 and became a city by the pi'ovincial law n" 364 of April 
15th, 184(i. 

The geographical situation of Macalie is magnificent , at the 
mouth of the river of the same name, in front of the .Vtlantic, having 
a federal Custom House there. 

The city itself is not large , it has not over 800 houses, and by 
the last census has Ijut 7.000 inhabitants. It has no monument of 
impoi'tance or building worth mentioning. 

Its suburbs, however , are populated and its inhabitants are 
industrious. In all they constitute a population of 10.000 inhabitants. 
The agriculture industry exploited there is the sugar-cane. There are 
many sugar-factories among which is the Quissama steam factory 
one of tlie most important in the whole continent. 

Maealic has railways connecting it with the Capital and the city 
of Campos. 

Parauyba do Hvl. — Like the majority of the cities of the Eio 
State, Parahyba do Sul is a new city. It was made a village by law of 
January 1.5tli, 1883 and elevated to city by provincial lawn" 1().53, of 
the 20th of December 1891. The population of the whole municipium, 
according to the census taken in 18U0 was 27.351 inhabitants, but, 
the city itself, has not over D.OOO inhabitants in the three districts 
of Pai-ahyba do Sul, Braz and Entre Rios. 

Barra do Pirahy. — Is one of the cities with better fature in the 
Rio de .Janeiro State, not only because it is the seat of an active 
and industrious municipium, but because of its communication faci- 
lities witli the Capital of the Republic as well as S. Paulo and Minas 

Barra do Pirah\' was elevated to the rank of city and seat of the 

— 367 — 

district by decree of the lOtli of Mtircli 1890. Tlie city is built in a 
narrow valley embracing tlie Piraliy and Paraliyba that meet there. 
There ai'c five bridges, three metal and two wooden ones. It is the 
most important place on the line of Central of Brazil railway as all 
the large Minas and S. Paulo ramifications are crossing there. 
Besides these railway lines there are the ^^■orks and main station 
of the Estrada de Ferro Sapucaliy. 

The first house of this city was built in 1853 and the inaugura- 
tion of the Central Railway station (then Pedro II railway) took 
place on August 7th. ISrtl. The City Hall is a large neat building. 

In this city are the bari'acks of the 2nd division of the Civil Po- 
lice of the State with 400 men under the command of a major. 

The commerce of Barra do Pirahy is active and in a relative large 
scale and there are also several industrial estaldishments : Near 
the city is an important sugar-factory « Engenho Central Rio 
Bonito, » which at i)resent is stopped. Within the city of Barra 
do Pirahy is a lai'ge machine shop for the manufactui'c of agricul- 
tural implements, a sugar-factory, two lime ones, four tobacco 
works, a large distillery, a large leather tanning establishment, and 
others. Mendes, wliicli is the most prosperous district of Barra do 
Pirahy has some of the most important industrial establishments of 
the State : The large Teutonia, de Preisse, Hausslcr & Co. brewery; 
the Companliia Itacolomy and a paper-factory directed by Dr. Felicio 
dos Santos. 

The Mendes district is becoming the refuge of the wealthy popu- 
lation of Rio. It is illuminated by electricity, has two newspapers, 
and is about to be sepai'ated politically from Barra do Pirahy, to 
form an indei^endent city. 

Among the works of art woi'thy of note in Bai-ra do Pirahy, 
we will mention a metallic bridge 2-50 metres long, across the Para- 
liyba river, built in 1003 by the Estrada de Ferro Sapucahy. 

Rezexde. — Another interior city connected to the fJapital of the 
Republic by the central of Brazil I'ailway. It is dominated by the 
upper part of it called Mantiqueii'a. This is a coffee district, and 
prospers when tliat agricultural industry also prospei'S, and falls 
when the latter falls. It extends itself on the right bank of the Para- 
liyba river, on toj:) of three hills, each one with a church, — Matriz, 
Rozai'io and Passos. — The panorama displayed before the eyes of 
the observer is one of the most beautiful in the whole country. 
On the left bank of the river and in front of the city, ai'e the 
Eliseos fields, where is the E. de F. Central of Brazil, connected 
with the city by a bridge. It comprises the parishes of Nossa 

— 368 — 

Sciilidra. (la OoneoiriTo, 8. Jose do Campo Bollo, Eoin Jesus do 
Uilxurao de Sant' Anna, Santo Antonio da Vargem (irande and 
S. N'u'cntc I<\^n'er. 

Uc/.cndc lias no l(>ss than 1(1. ()0() inliabitants. It Las two newspa- 
pers and about 2.(100 houses. 

Ue/.cude has developed ol late cattle raising and the tlairy indus- 
tries. 'I'lie larnis of this munieipiinn are already sending cheese and 
butter to the Rio de Janeiro market. The budget of this district is 

\'iissiiui':is. — \'i(>\v III' a pai'l nl' llii,' ril\ anil llic Barao ilr Anipani park 

1 1."j:1 bS.sOOO Iroin all sources of revenue, and the exi)enses are equi- 
valent to that. 

Vassoiras. — Occupies an intermediary location between the 
Parahyba valley' and mountains. It was formerly much moi'c pros- 
pei'ous than it is to-day. And considering its churches and buildings 
that line its streets, the new comei' understands at once tliatVassou- 
ras is a city that [)romised a good deal more than wher accomi)lished. 
It was erected in 18)^3 and was progressing so much that two years 
later, in 18:!."j, another decree made it head of the district. Yet only 
was made a city in 1857. It has a population of Ti.OOO inhal)itants, 

— 369 — 

more or less. The census ol' lUOO gave it 9.()6G, being 4.95(1 males and 
4.710 I'emales. 

Though it has lost miteh of its opulence- ol' olden times, A'assouras 
is yet one of Ihe x)rettiest cities ol' the Rio State. A short rail\^•ay 
owned by the municipality connects it with the main line of the Cen- 
tral of Brazil railway which runs five kilometres awajr from this 
city. Two railways cross this munieipium, benefiting a good deal 
Vassoui'as city. They are the « Central of Brazil Railway w and the; 
(( Melhoramentos do Brazil jj. 

The cultivation of this region is : coffee, sugar cane, tabacco 
and gi-ain. Tliere is also a large matches-factory Serra do Mar owned 
by Dr. Aarao Reis. There are two newspapers in the city : O Miini- 
cipio and the Vassourense. 

The city is surrounded by farms, mostly coffee plantations. The 
budget shows a revenue of 111:55.5,$0(H) yearly. 

* ^ 

Barra Mansa, a pretty city, Valenca Canlagallo, Paraty, Saqiia- 
rema, S. Joao Marcos, Capivary, Rio Claro, etc. are so many other 
cities about which we would like to write. Each one of them has 
something worthy writing abotit. It is impossibe, however, to enter 
into so many details and we will stop here as far as cities of the Rio 
vState are concerned. 

As to the villages, many of them are as important as some of the 
cities, others are still progressing and developing, promising to be- 
come soon large centres of activity and commerce. 

Rio de Janeiro is one of the most noted and most cultured of the 
States of Brazil, btit, owing to the sudden depression in the prices 
of its main export products — coffee and sugar — it has crossed a 
crisis these last few years, exposed to hoi'rible contingencies of 
financial anormal violences. The last tliree years liowever has consi- 
derably bettered its conditions. 


A tract of the State of Rio tcjri'itory located l)etween two gigantic 
bays, — Angra dos Reis and Gnanabara, — ever since the eighteenth 
centui'y, has been the seat of tlie nation's government, with the 
name of — Municipio Neuti'o (Neuter Munieipium), — and, after the 

— 370 — 

Rei)ul)li(.' — Disli'icto l<\'(lc'f;il (l<'cdci-al District). I^'oi' tliu geograpliy, 
Imwcver, it was, il is, and always will he known, as — liii) ile Ja- 

Those who, coming down from the Norlh, direct Ihemselves to 
Ouanabara hay, as soon as they leave behind Ponlti Ncgru and Cabo 
Frio, which are (id miles away from Rio de .Janeiro, will see at a 
short distance from the coast, always lofty and picturesque, a series 
of islands, scattei-ed here and there, some round, some quite bare, 
and others covered with green woods hxdving like floating forests. 


Diis Miiieii'iiS Mild AII';iii(leyM (|uajs 

Two of them especially, attract very much the travellers' atten- 
tion : one, is Ilhn Ruzn (Flat Island), a large, flat rock, as its name 
indicates, divided into two lobules with an electric light-house built 
upon it, displaying a I'cd and white light. The other, is Escalvdda 
(arid-sterile) , located at the west side of Raza Island, a very small 
sjjherelike island, some six or seven metre high, with no vegeta- 
tion, what justifies its name. 

'i'he Ra/.a Island is xevy much liked by the passengers going to 
Rio, as it is the first landmark showing its entrance, and its light- 
house, tlie first sign of the civilisation that flourishes near hy in the 
grand organism of the city. 

A\'licn the passenger comes nearer the entrance of the bay, from 
board the steamer he sees, on the right, a series of dark mountains, 
coming towards the si'a : it is the, Itaypu point lined by a pretty group 
of little islands, known as Ilhn do Pi'ie and lllui (hi MTie (Father 
Island and Mother Island). 




— 372 — 

On the left, beyond, where the horizon is, wrapped in deep hhie, 
rises the phantastic rigure of (iavea, witli its hald head, constituted 
by a mass ol' polished rock. This strange profile of njountain will 
never more be effaced fi'om the memory of tlie ti'avellcr, onee he 
has set his (\ves upon it. 

Further beyond, is the bhinl peak of the ^Vndarah^y, of a somln'e 
blue. Then towai'ds the interior, the ("oreovado needle , that stony 
line, here of naked rock , there covered '\\ith vegetation, accompa- 

nies the eoast as a lively guard in the eontoi'tions of a cataclysm 
that might have shaken everything, bringing uj) the mountain roots, 
giving life to the I'ocks and the woods. Indeed, the whole seems a 
lively one. One would say that everything is dancing .before that 
infinile light poured everywhere. The steamer is getting nearer and 
the landscapes transform themselves. Xobody can contemplate this 
scenery without being wi'apped by the unlimited grandeur of the 
whole panorama. None of the great writers or artists, national oi' fo- 
reigner, who have appreciated this unequalled spectacle of the Rio 
entrance luxs been able to describe it cither with his pen or his 

At the bottom of those colossal mountains, along shore, there we 
see s])read out light j)lains, more or less levelled, which end in 
beautiful sea-shores, sometimes covered with rocks sometimes with 
snow-whit(! sand. On the left is one of those beaches, Copaeabana , 

— S7S — 

wliieli is already tlie bejiinnini^- of tlic city, l)(>cause Rio is a city 
that spreads itself out with districts all over, some towards the sea, 
others towards the curves, coiiteiiiplatini;- Nicthei'oy on the other 
side of the bay , towards C'aju, others towards the hills and still 
others acconipanying' the valley that lines the Central of Brazil Rail- 
way road, as if the whole Capital were pursuing them. Upon a 
small light green r(K>k, is the little white chapel Xossa Scnhora da 
Copacahana. On the beach a i-ow of summer residences witli roofs 
covered with new tiles is seen in a beautiful disjjlay. And hardly 
we leave behind this flying landscape, and the Cotnndiiba island, 
then we see on the left the gi'eat monolith , the Ptio do Ass:iicar 

MM!^ -I WMA^ 

Rio. — General Osorio's statue 

(sugarloaf ), enormous, conic shaped, isolated rock, which celebrates 
the interior sea-entrance of the bay, with its projection covering 
the channel's mouth. 

Looking at it one seems to hear the poet's voice when he referred 
to it in these verses : 

Aiuht::^ rolosso, 
Robnatd vehidor, </ne no long-e assomhra 
Oh genios do oretino, e brnda no mniido : 
— Km nonie do direito e dn Jusfi(;a, 
Podeis entriir no temjjlo do fiitaro, 
Siicrifiriir no Deus dn Uberdnde '. 

(Dai-ing cdIo.sshs, strong walcljer, thai from afar frighten.s the Ocean's geniuses, and 
eries ont to the wliole world ; — 1ji name of Law and .Justice, you can enter the temple of 
the future, to sacrifice the God of Liberty !) 

— 374 — 

On the otlier side, tlie continental land, extending itsell' just like 
a peninsula, advances as if to meet the Pao do Assucar rock and 
vS. .loao hill, I'orming a kind of step to them. There, the seals notliing 
hut a narrow corridor, walled on hoth sides hy rough rocks. This 
strategic passage was niodil'ied b,\- the building of fortresses on 
both sides. In spite of all, the corridor is dominated, from the insi- 
de, by a t'olossal rock, the Lage fortress, roofed with steel, and 
walled with steel like an armoured slii]), with open spaces here and 
there, through whi(di the gun mouths watch as |if they were so many 
attentive e\'es. 

liio. — The ('..'illieilinl .'mil do Cuiniio C.liiirch 

Passing those narrows, on the right with the Imhuliy and Santa 
Cruz fortresses, and on the left the S. .Joao and Mallet ones, and, 
following the channel, between Santa Cruz and Lage, there we have 
the (iuanabara f)ay. On one side, at the AVest the grand Capital, not 
the whole in a lump, but in ])ieces, appearing behind the cui'ves of 
the sea-shore and green hills. Only one part of it, — the one lining 
the poetical curves of Botafogo, Russel and Flamengo — appears in 

In front, on the east side, we see Jurujuba where is the Hospital 
for ej^idemic diseases. After that is the charming beach of Icarahy 
witli its celebrated rocks, and further ahead is Nictheroy, tlie pretty 

(•apital of tilio fStatt' ol' Rio dc, .Faiioii-o, lookiiif^- towards the old i)art 
of the nu'ti'opolis. 

Between the two cities, hiil nearer Rio is a little island Willegai- 
gnon, whieh is to-day the sailors barracks, and in 1555 was the ini- 
tiation of the city when the daring filibuster, which gave it the 
name pUT.nted there the seed of the first seat of the city. 

The aspect of that anchorage place is charming for the new 
beauty of its perspectives, for the harmonious tone of the colouring, 
for the vai'iety of the contrasts in the horizon outline. 

E. Reelus speaking of that beautiful spot which he visited, said : 


,pi,n;nj'Mi!iftB.eilSiW!i8J"W^''<i^'^-5 ■""^^ 

Rid. — 8. Pedi-o (le .\lcant;irn Tlieaire 

(( When the weather is fine, when the abundant sunlight con- 
trasted by the shadows, illuminates under different forms and with 
changing hues the I'ocks, the grass and the woods, when successive 
plans becoming bluish by the distance, project themselves upon the 
blue horizon of the interior hills, as the Estrella liill and the row of 
obelises of the Orgaos ridge of mountains, the massive liio offers a 
charming panorama by the beauty of the colouring and the indefinite 
diversity of aspects. When, notwithstanding is a heavy gray lead- 
like sky isolating the group of hills in front, and the clouds or the ' 
showers hiding the pointed pyramids, the walls in the horizon farther 
away, the landscape assumes the appearance of the polar regions : 
it looks to the observer as if he were approaching a Desolation 


ishmd, as in the f Jroenlander arcliipelag-oes or in Fire Land and 
aslcs liinisell', ]\n\\ is it that men could found in kuc-Ii a jdace a larg'e 
city like that, one of the most cliarmina' of the Unixerse. » 

Rill. — Kroiil of the Bcnjainiii (Imislaiil iiisliliile 

Quite often on winter-mornings the fog that slowly goes up 
forms thick sheets white at the basis and only sombre at the top, 
away up, detached from the even bottom of the sky, giving the idea 
of an inexplicable, subversion of all physical laws. On other occa- 
sions, the upper points disappear under a mass of heavy fogs, and 

Hill. — Tci'iare of Passcin I'lililico 

the inhabitants of the city, that look to the Tijuca hill as if it were 
a bai'ometre, say : Tijuca has its cap on, it is going to I'ain... .Vnd 
in fact when tliat happens, it rains. 

— 377 — 

But noi'niiilly the litjht prevails, in all its forei;, sliowinf;' the 
prelty eolonviiii;- of the various plans of the bay side, the transpa- 
rence ami brightness of everything-, the bluish ether iiiakiiii;- mil- 
der and inort' potMical those roeks, and the woods which drown 
their depi'essions and drciss their bodies. 

The passeni;er steamers ancdior a little nearer the city ^nay, 
between a place called Toco (w(dll, where the Brazilian men-oi■-^\■ar 
ai'c, and a small island in front of the Custom-llouse and on which 
they ei'ceted a beaiitifid linilding of gothie style which is used as the 
bai'racks or quarters of the Custom-IIouse inspectoi's and is thus 
called Fiscal Island. It is a most pretty building. 


Iiiilial slalioii of llie t.eiitnil (jf Hi'iizil liailwav 

The space between that island and Ponta do Caju is completely 
taken nj) by ships of all nationalities , of all kinds , I'rom the 
smallest vessels to the largest steamers, some coming and just 
anchoring, others preparing to sail and among them a numberless 
lot of lightei's, tow-boats and launches, some propelled by steam, 
others, by gazoline and others even by kei'osene, sailing here and 
there, some noiseless, some whistling and all -with their flags aft. 

By the quay, alongside the \\ooden bridges a number of small 
steamers and sailing ships receive from the storage houses lai-ge 
quantities of coffee to be transported to Europe and the United 
States, and the thousand varieties of industries, the sui'plus of the 
metropolis commerce going to the coast ports. 

The forest of masts, cliimneys, the stretched I'opes , the noise of 

— 37!l — 

\(iiccs (iT tlic lidistili;; niacliiiici'y, oT slcamsliii) Nvliistl(!s, ^ixM- to that 
pari III' llu^ bay a cliaractoi'isl ic loadirr. liidcuil )1 is (|nit(! a contrast 
\\ illi llic vasdicss and prol'ouiid silence ol' (he waters (dsewiierc. 

Kill il is nol onlyllie Uio de .laneii-o, or (Juanabara bay, that 
we see liere, nor even only that circle bliu; and wide wliich the, 
steamboats lake one liinu-to cross in its shortest dianietre. 

Farther away i'roni this part oi' the Capital and Ilha das Coljras 
(snake island), is an interior sea wide open, deep and pacil'ic, Mitli 


Federnl Capital : Sea-slioro ol Lemc 

numerous small but charmiug islands , some populated , others 
occupiied as commercial, storage places, others are industrial esta- 
blishments, some small, some as large as half of some kingdoms. 

The territory forming the curved contour lines of this colossal 
gulph, the most beautiful of all in this plan(>t, is the most important 
of all Brazil as to the density of population and number and variety 
of establishments. 

A\'e will I'eview, liowevcM', only that part near the gulph on the 
west side. 

— 379 — 

There we see tlie priiu-ipal military and civilian cstablisliiiients 
of Brazil, the largest I'aetoi'ies, ship-yards, di-y-doeks, storage-hou- 
ses , the most earnest comniereial and industrial activity ol' the 
conn try. 

The Capital has long ago overrun the limits with which it was 
found by the time of Brazil's independence. The old part of it foi'ras 
one single disti-ict, and compared with the present area of the city 
is iust like the seed is towards the fruit. 

l;i(). — Slaliic of I). Pedro 1. 

Considered by its frontiei' the city of Rio would ))e one of the lar- 
gest cities in the world. But we must allow for the enormous sjjaces 
that Santa Thereza, Corcovado and other hills occupy within its area. 

The buildings and the districts have l)een si:)read out in an hazar- 
dous way, through these accideneies of the soil. Some of the hills 
have been pulled down as the Senado one, others will be in future, 
but some never will be, and thus the city will keep on, filling with 
streets and new buildings, ^the large empty spaces uniting with liou- 

— 380 — 

ses the dil'IY'reiit districts now only coiniected Ijy tli(3 street railway 

\\'lioev(M' wishes to judge Kio hy the architectural \alue of its 
hnildings will not do it justice, Kio rcijrcsenting, as it do(>s, such a 
lari;t' city, '{"he greatest el'forts of man in this inetro])olis ha\(; not 
hecn de\-oted to emhellish tlie city, but in jjreparing its foundation, 
if \\ (> uiay say so. A\'liat has been done in oitenings. Tilling up, level- 
lings, has been great woi-k. M illiiins of cubic metres of earth ha\'e 
been taken away 1'i'(nn the hills. 

The extensive plain called Praia Formosa, \'illa (Juarany, etc. 

lii(i. — Oiiirizr (Ic NOvcnihi'ii si|unre niid VxKwd of Tr:ul(' liiiilding 

is the woi'k of an eiiteri)rise. There was the sea, small little islands, 
the names of which can still be seen on the maps ; ilha dos Meloes 
(Melons island), ilha das Mocas C^'oung girls island) , ett'. Among 
others thei'e were the marshy grounds of the Oampo da Acclamacuo. 
Foi-merly washei'women were seen there , just in the same place 
where to-day is the beautiful park with its ai'tistic grotto, little 
lakes, etc. 

The city in 1.S2:-' had only 1 1 .()()() houses ; in LS.-.t) had ]().Otl();in 
18(it had 21.000; in 1880 had ."jO.OOt) and to-day has al)out 81.000. 

There is nothing special to say about tlie Iniildings of Kio de 
Janeiro. T\\r houses of the new districts are t'omfortable, some of 
them of elegant ai'cliitecture and suri'ounded by gardens, but those 
of the commercial districts, have only very slowly been undergoing 
some modification , and if in ()jio street or other appear some 

— 381 — 

nice Iniidings, tlie majority ol' tlicm is an a^^^ul sight, reminding 
antitj^uity, without any taste as to its ornamentation oi' areliiteetnre. 

The main landing ])laee is tlie I'hai'oux (j^uay, wliieh tlie munici- 
pality lias now transformed into a heautiiul and large square, with a 
pretty garden, and a large hronze fountain. 

This s(piare has as a prolongation of it anotlier smaller s(piare, 
whei'C is at one side the Old Court of the Emperor, to-day trans- 
formed into the telegraph depai'tment. In the centre of the garden 


■^■■: 'jyV^'-A^'^'!vV^<fc;*t.>^r''Wfeifrg>^'g 

Kio. — Seiiiidor Uaiilas SU'eet 

of this smaller sc^uare is General Osorio's statue, beautiful w'ork 
in bronze made by Bernardelli with pi'etty low relief at the basis. 

This square leads to Primeiro de Marco Street, one of the main 
tlioroughfares of Rio. There are some fine buildings in this street : 
the Exchange Building, tlic Post Office, the Banco do Commercio, 
the Supreme Court, and several other business and private houses. 
The transit both of carriages and trucks as well as of foot-patfis in 
this street is very livel\'. 

— ;tn2 — 

It is Troni tliis wide but uneven street that start otlicr narrow 
cross-streets lined with tall Iniildings , paved with stone hloeks, 
lilled with dust because ol' the lively transit. They all run towards 
the t'cntre of the main pai't ol' the city, where is one ol' the finest 
parks of South America. 

Of all these ei'oss-sti-eets one, tliat is a )'eg\dar thorouglil'are, is 
the Ouvidor Street. This sti'eet is a deception to the visitcn's coming 
from the different provinces of Brazil and who heard so much 
about it. 

I'roiil 1)1' llic CoiK.iilves do Ai'iiiijd As\liiin, in ('.:iiii|iii do S. ClirisUivao 

If yon have never been in Kio, just imagine a street (1 '/,■ metres 
wide, beginning at the Quay and ending at S. Francisco Square, 
where Jose Bonifacio's statue is. The street looks just like a corri- 
dor, lined with large and uneven buildings, some splendid ones, 
others of the worst kind, keeping in mind colonial architecture. The 
latter are fortunately in small number, ^fhe pavement is good, in the 
centre paving stones, in the side-\\alks coloured mosaic. Owing to the 
excessive transit and the narrowness of the streets-carriages and 
horseback riders are not allowed to go through. Kvery house in this 
street has in its ground floor a store of some kind anil in the show 
windows are the most varied displays of specimens of national and 
foreign industi'y. The best tailors, dress-makers, jewelers, bric-a- 
brac, dealers, the most luxurious stores of the town are there. This 

— ;«:{ — 

sircct is the rriulcz-uoos pliicc t'cii- tlic liigli-liro, (lie unomployud, the 
idlers, the politieians, the adventurers, the lawyers, the college 1)(),\'S, 
all that flouting elass that is the H\c foam of the large cities. 

This is one of the Rio curiosities, the most exquisite, the most 

Rio. — Till' Post Ollirr mill E\rli;iiigr Biiililiiig 

individualised curiosity of Rio de .Janeiro. To go there and not know 
Rua do Ouvidor, is impossible. 

Another thing that gives Ouvidor an exquisite feature is the 
Cafe. These houses devf)ted to tlie sale of demi-tasses of black coffee 
sj^read all over Brazil, in every city, occupy many ground floor's in 
this street: and hei'e, more than anywhere else, the\' are a place of 
meeting and conversation. 

— 384, — 

To (.'(iiiipU'te llic iKiise of tlic street tliei'e are the Musie stores, 
where the\' tr\' a piano every iiiimite, there are tlie jjhonograph sto- 
res, the bar-rooms with oi'ehesti'a, and tlius tliis all conti'ilmtes to 
that noise ol' the streets that voiees and langlis heard i'l'oni all sides, 
I'roni the t'rowds standing and chatting at the cornei's, and I'roin the 
li\ely transients wiio walk nj) and down the street. 

The Ouxidor" Street is also the forced witness of the stnmp-spea- 

Kio. — Town Hall 

kers, at the meetings, military parades, carnival feasts, religious 
demonstrations, etc. 

The first time we crossed that street , some twelve years 
ago, we had just arrived from the province, and it caused a deep 
impression in our mind of shame and discouragement. And we 
understood that there was a good deal to be done, for the country 
to get rid of those colonial buildings, and that backwards artistic 
state in which the eighteenth century left it. We understot)d the 
genera] abandonment of the old dynasty at the hour of its fall, by the 

— S85 — 

energetit' necessity aeting- ujion tlic I'uee, necessity of going aliead, 
of progressing, doing away witli a system that was l)i'inging Brazi- 
lians up aceastomed to tlie contemplation of those antiquities, to 
teach democi'acv which is knocking tlu> crowds one against the otlier. 

Ex-Pi-esiileiit Kodi-igiies Alves (100^-1900) wlio iiiili:iled llie lliu ilo Janeiro imprnvemeiils 

'J'he Ouvidor Street we heard of in our native town, was indeed 
that narrow street lined with colonial times buildings, heavy, filled 
with dust, insignificant both as to style and comfort. It was a decep- 
tion, an enormous deception ! 

A few years afterwards , in spite of the bad administration the 

— 3Rfi — 

sirect was orcally mollified a\ ith soino stone and marble bnildings 
subslitulini;' the old colonial ones. 

The old district of the city, to-day entirely occupied by business 
houses, which give it the appearance oi a colossal bazaar, with all 

II'' I'cri'il-i P:iss(is, I'l'd'ccl of Ilio do .laricir 

hinds ol' goods, enibraccs the centre shores troni the Custom House 
1o Ihc cxtroiK^ ciul of (Jamboa. 

Some ramificalions of the city have extended considerably, em- 
l)racing areas in fai' a\va.\' ])laces, around the interior hills and the 
sliores thai line a si retch of the beautiful bay. The districts settled 










, . — 888 — 

in those curves arc incomparable as to their brig-lit beauty, ample open 
air, and they have in that transmarine picture, always moving-, aUvays 
new, an enjoyment as nowhere else can be had. With electric tram- 
^\ay service the wealthy part of the population is transported to and 
I'rom the new districts of the modern Capital. (Generally the streets 
the cars go through are lined with fine houses with gardens. One of 
those shores, appreciated both by the natives and foreigners is the 
absolutelv geometric curve douiinated by two small hills at each one 


Till' .Naliiiiial Priiiliii!>- (lliit-o 

of the extremities of the line. It is Botafogo. It is under the projec- 
tion of the Corcovado hill, that stupendous rock, dark grey, dressed 
in rich vegetation which N\raps certain part of it, leaving bare the 
southei'n ])i'ism. 

Many of the newly arrivcnl would not believe that Brazilian 
engineering should have dared to build a pleasure railway going up 
to TOO metres high. 

Seen from one of the sides of the curve formed by the bay, the 

— 389 — 

perspective of Botafogo is siilendid, marvellous; the Pfio do Assuear 
lii 11 seems to take tlie enti-ance of the small little gulph , perfectly 
calm, as a piece of crystal, as a polished emerald. At the basis 
of this is a rose colour building- of large proportions , half hidden 
— it is the Military College l)uilt between two blocks of the^ grou]) 
of rocks. On the opposite side is the original profile of (Javea. 

The Botafogo bay is lined by a beautiful avenue which extends 
itself full length with thi-ee different roads nicely paved with pretty 
grass lawns and flower beds between and lining the street side and 
brightly illuminated with different rows of arc-lights. It is no doubt 
a charming shore, the prettiest public garden that could be ima- 

But the population do not seem satisfied, they keep on multiply- 
ing the fine mansions, the summei- residences, and they are trans- 
forming the lands alongside the Leme, Copacabana and Ipanema bea- 
ches into a large city, a beautiful summer resoi't. Tlicy have already 
good hotels, telephone, telegraph, gas, all conveniences to make it a 
comfortable place and the electric railway, trolley system, connects 
these three places, that look only one city, with the heart of llio. 

AVhile this prolongation of the city or formation of a new city in 
itself is being opei'ated, the same is ha])penini;' on the oiher side of 
the city alongside the I'oad of the Central of Brazil IJailwny, t>a'h 
one of those nucleus formed being well worlh the name of city. 

Large squares with gardens are reserving for the breathing of 
the great organism of the city, large ojien tracts of land, but not 
satisfied with their space, they have gone up the hills. 

These squares are not in so large a nuniber as one would think 
considering the broad space of the city. Some of them, however, 
with their sizes and beauty, compensate well the shortness of the 
number. "We will cite Duque de Caxias square, in front of one of the 
finest churches of Rio. This one is not so extra large, but has a real 
beautiful garden, and in the centre of it, the Statue of Duque de 
Caxias on horseback, a bronze statue which speaks highly for the 
artistic work of the Brazilians. , 

The Tiradentes Square, formerly called Roeio, is a snuill l)ut 
pretty garden with a bronze statue of the first Empei'or of Bi'azil 
wdiich is a great work of art. 

The Passeio Publico is the most delicious place in llio, for the 
beautifulness of the landscape having the pretty flowers on one side 
offering the sweet fragrance of their scent, and the sea on the other 
side leaving wide open room to blow over the fresh breeze. It has 
a fine terrace looking towards the bay. In the garden are good 

— 390 — 

specimens of a variety tif (rces, and some spots of it look like rej^ular 
woods. There are lakes also crossed by bridges, nice lawns, every- 
thing- to make it peiiectly delightful. 

But what must we say then of Jardim Botanico, (Botanical Gar- 
den)? There is not a foreigner, a tourist, even if only in Rio the few 
hours the steamer is in the bay sailing on the same day , that 
does not try to go to the Botanical Garden. It is supported by the 
government for the purpose of Botanical Researches and Accliinatu- 

Thu Polvlecliiiical Scliool 

tion Experiments. The admission is free, and there Is a line of the 
trolley cars that passes by the door of the Garden, so that there is 
nothing uncomfortable in making the trip. As soon as we enter, we 
see beautiful streets lined with tropical trees. The royal palm-trees 
(areca obracia) avenue which crosses the garden from the gate in 
diametrical line, is a picture that we cannot easily forget, and it is 
already well known all over by photography. 

Another square where a garden was lately laid out is the Onze de 

— 391 — 

Junlio Square, named after tlie I'amous naval battle I'ouglit on that 
day by the Inii^erial navy against ITrugnay. It is situated at (he 
end of the Mangue canal, wliieh runs through (|ui(e a long streteh 
of the new part of the city, lined hy two sti'aight avenues, nieely 
paved Avilh a row of snpei'b palm-ti'ces. 

The most beautiful, however, is the Pra(;a da Republiea, (Ivepu- 
blie Square), a wide square ti-ansfornied into a park enclosed by 
elegant railing. The area of this park was nicely divided into small 
little woods, grass valleys, small little I'ivers with artificial tiny 
islands and dominated by artistic bridges. There is also a pretty 
grotto with a beautiful cascade, which constilutcs an attiaction not 
common in public squares and gardens. Several thousands of speci- 
mens of South American ph^■tology are repi-esented there in groups, 
and spi'ead out, making up a prodigious landscaping architectui'e. 

A little farther ahead from this park is the enormous main sta- 
tion of the Central of Brazil Railway wich connects the Capital of the 
Republic with three different States, crossing forty cities and having 
a yearly revenue, of 35.000:000^000. 

Several other raih\'ays — The Leo}i(>l<Uiiii, the Mclhoi-aineiitos, 
the Rio d'Oaro, etc. — start from Rio to the intei-ior; none, howe- 
ver, has the great role that the Central of Ei'azil performs in the 
intercourse life of the Capital. This I'ailway transports fourteen thou- 
sand passengers a year, between the city and the suburbs. The ex- 
treme ends of this railway are Bello-Horizonte and S. Paulo. Presi- 
dent Campos Salles ordered the construction of the road in the 
direction of Curvello and President Rodrigues Alves intended to go 
beyond, towards S. Francisco river valley. 

* * 

The districts where the maritime commerce concentrates, Saude, 
Sacco do Alferes , etc., are the ugliest of the Capital: tortuous 
streets, narrow, lined with old, ugly houses, filled with dust, grains 
of coffee, and the transit through them obstructed by heavy trucks, 
filled u]} with big piles of coffee bags , and the crowds frequenting 
these streets are of the worst class, but during the day those who 
make all the noise are the drivers and workmen who run about, 
cursing and punishing the poor animals in a brutish way. 

A strong odour of coffee, overpowers all others. The nice and 
neat electric tramcars that make travelling so comfoi'table in other 
districts could not be used through these streets. To go through them 
in a carriage couldn't be done without running risk. There is, liowe- 

392 — 

ver, ;x line of horsecars, narrow track (0™60 wide) running through 
this district. 

Tliose who never knew tliis aspect ot Rio lii'e, these dirty but ac- 
tive and liard working districts, tliat greatness of work and com- 


^'I'W liiiildin^s : (Iinu'l iif .liislici 

merce in one of the hirgest masses of contemporaneous wealth, will 
not see it any more, as this primitive part of the city is disaxspearing, 
thanks to tlie harl)our works that the x^i'csent administration has 

We love I lie active cities, the hartl working districts as we abhor 

— 393 — 

the places of idle peace, and we have a right to feel so, as — chnciin 
pent, ii soil <>-rc, disposer de son ame. — But, we will never feel any 
longings for the dusty disti-icts of vSaude, Sacco do Alferes and 
others. Let them pull down all those old buiklings. 

In the same ease are the districts of Castello hill, Pinto, Xheco 
and other hills where the lowest classes gather. These hills ought 
to be thrown down, not only for tlie hoi'riblc houses, hut to allow- 
some fresh air in the citv. 


/;^ -!- ^^31esa^^^Ai^.^/^?L^^ 


Capilal Ffileral : The Mmiici|ial Theatre 

The transfiguration of the Brazilian metropolis, initiated by Pre- 
sident Rodrigues Alves, will be work for a long time, because Rio is 
enormous in size, and everything is to be done, in order that it may 
become the Capital of Brazil as it deserves to be, and as Brazilians 
would like to see it : that is, a city with gardens, wide open ave- 
nues, parks, bay-side drives , taking full ad\'antage of the magnifi- 
cent position it is in. 

Rio de Janeiro , like all the other cosmopolitan cities has not an 
accentuated physiognomy, uniform and distinct. It is a monstruous 

— 3(11. — 

Uf^gloinciatioii of aspccis, a gallieriii^- of cities, loi-iiied by its eiior- 
nious districts, some plain, sonic mountainous, some hidden among- 
tlie liills, otliers exposed by tlio sca-sliore, oi- isolated in islands 
spread here and there in the hay. All these disli'icis are ])opuhited hy 
heterogeneous inhabitants, aiTiving I'roni all the States in the Union 

liio. — Glass windows ul' llic iMiinici|iul ThoaU'c 

and every country in the world, speaking all the languages imaginable. 
In the morning- \\ hen the electric ears, that work without inter- 
ruption, day and night, arrive I'rom the extreme ends of the city, — 
Gavea, Ipanema, Lcme, Ileal Grandeza, Botal'ogo, etc. at one of tlie 
centi'al points of tlie city, Carioca Square, and there empty that 

— 395 — 

crowd of early workers, we see a eurions sij^-lit : men of all types, 
white, negroes, niulatoes, Indians, Europeans, a most pliantastie 
mixture, landing there, taking all directions, mainly the commercial 
streets, Uriigtiayana], Cioncalves Uias, Sete de Setcmbro. And this 
movement continues until ten or eleven. Aiter that it slackens 

Rio. — Glass windows of tlio Muuiciiial Tlieatro 

a little , beginning anew in the afternoon ever since three 
o'chjck. Then the morning pei'r()rmance b(^gins but in the other 
dii'ection. Fi-om the streets coming irom the city and landing at 
Carioca square, comes a constant crowd of men and women , 
native and foreigner, looking for the cars to take them home. The 

— 396 — 

neA\s-l)()ys add to tlie lil'o of th(i scene crying out the al'ternoon pa- 
pers ; the TribiinH and the Xolicin. 

hi another S([uare not far away, San Francisco wliich is anotlier 
terminus oi' tramway-cars I'unning to othei' districts, tlie same sce- 
nes as tlie Carioca ones, are reproduced. To tliat point come and 
start tramways from and to 'j;! dii'l'erent lines, all belonging to the 
S. Christovao line, with (30 kilometres of extension. There they 
bring evei'y morning thousands of passengers fi'om all points : Tiju- 
ca, h'abrica, ITruguay, S. Christovao, 8. Januario, Itapagipe, Ale- 
gria, Ponta do Cajn, Pedregulho, Catumby, etc. 

The Ijeautiful Tii-adentes Scjuare offers the ,same picture and in 
about the same proportions. Another large street railway concern, 
the Villa Isabel, empties its cars in that square and tlnu'C receives 
in the afternoon all that large crowd of workers, business men rich 
and poor, working men of all classes who come fi'om their day's 
labour. Over the Santa There/.a hills is another tramway line, 
also an electric and trolley line passing over the ai-cdies of an old 
a(puMliict, thus the i)assengers while crossing it go over the city 
streets with the houses below in \\ide open view, and it is interest- 
ing to look at the peoi)le and carriages below looking like minia- 
tures. But as to scenei'y what there is of unexcelled in Rio and 
purely local is the ascencion to the Corcovado mountain. We hardly 
feel going up, so softly the tramway I'uns. This line is a fine piece of 
engineering, as we said abovi'. 

Indeed Dr. Passos found a way to j)lan that road, the cars stall- 
ing right from the basis of the hill, at the end of Larangeiras street, 
and going up to the needle point, where, from an ii'on pavillion 
we see the whole niaj) of the city with its boundary lines : the capri- 
cious mountains, the lakes, the red spots of the groups of buildings, 
cut through by the streets, the towers and domes, as the sentries of 
the different districts, the forest of active cliimneys, giving the only 
sensation of life of the whole, and at last, framing the confused 
painting of the city, some far away bluish hues of the ridge of 
mountains , here , pointy-like towards the air , there , in sweet 
rounding form , but eveiything far away , undistinguishable and 
confounded into a sea of light, a blue lucid sea. 

But this is not the only belvedere of the city. There, in the first 
23lains of the Tijuca mountains, are parks, natural ones, woods never 
trod upon, fine roads open and nicely kept by the municipality, 
grottoes, cascades, and splendid summer hotels. An electric road 
starting from Uruguay street takes the passengers and tourists to 
the first plain of the hill. There, carriages can be hired to go further 

397 — 

up. The spot'taele of that iiiystei'ious Tovcst is charming and com- 
pensates the discomfort of tlie long ti'ip. 

Considering its political importance Tvio de Janeiro has iaw large 

The tJovernment Palace whicli is also the I'esidence of the Presi- 

(iapilal I'edri'al — • (loiislriicliiiii of llic Passiis sireel 

dent is located in Cattete street. Though inside magnificently deco- 
rated, its exterior is severe, and excessively heavy. It was formerly a 
private residence. Its park, however, is worthy of a king's palace. 

The House of Congress can hardly he called a palace. It is enough 
to say that it was the old jail in the colonial times. The Senate build- 
ing is a little better, but is in quite a distant district from the one 
where the Congress building is. 

The Police Barracks is a good building but simple like all the 
colonial buildings with plain walls, 

— 398 — 

'^riiiM'c ai'e, liowever, sonic juiblic l)nildings noted by their archi- 
tectural beauty and richness ol' material used. 1 cite, I'or instance, 
the Sui)i'eme Oonrt, in Primeiro do Mai'(;f) Sti'oet, wliich I referred 
to above. It is a beaulil'ul rose color stone and marble building, of 
sum])tuous architecture, not only in the whole, but sumptuous in 

I'lin. — ^(iiMilaiii in llie « Gloria » Oarderi 

the ornamentation details, both of bronze and marble, as well as in 
the intei'nal decorations where there are good specimens of painting 
and sculpture work. 

The Stock Iilxchange near this building is also a palace of im- 
portance. It was planned by a Hra/.ilian architect. Dr. Bittencoui't 

— 1.(10 — 

d;i Silva, and is of Italian style. It is one of the finest buildings in 

'riie C"andelai-ia church, unl'ortiinately located in the middle oi 
narrow streets, is a place the visitor lias to see. Extei'nally it is like 
one oi those old lMii'0])ean churches with a majestic dome painted 
white to symboli/e purity. It was planned and built by Evaristo da 
Yeiga a Brazilian (engineer. It dominates all the commercial part of 
the city. The three bronze doors with reliel' work are a true work 
of art. Inside it is tlie richest church of Latin-America, is all dressed 
with marble and in its beautiful ceiling and wall paintings and 
decorations, worked during twenty years the best reputed Brazilian 

The National Printing Office is another pretty building. — desi- 
gned by Paula Freitas, a Bi'azilian architect. The same can be said 
of the Public ^^'ol•ks Department which is one of the best in the city. 
The new Medical ('ollege not yet finished in the Praia da Saudade, 
in front of Pao do Assucar hill, w'ill do honor to the city both for its 
size and magnificent front looking to the street that separates the 
l)uilding from the sea. 

The Mint, lai'ge building in Praca da Republica, imposing front 
with columns and broad stony stairway. There ai'e some fine bronze 

The City Hospital at Santa Luzia shore is the largest of its kind 
in all South America. Its portic of stone, is of Gi-eek style, and gives 
a noble appearance to that monotonous symetric building. To have 
an idea of the size of this hospital it is sufficient to read the follow- 
ing figures showing the movement in that institution during 1902- 
1903 : 

Oil Ihc 1st (>r. Inly 1902 lliure were 1. 188 |iiiti('iils. 

During- llie year, .Inly Isl 02 to .Iiiiic ^flili 0.3, oiilered . . 13.729 |iiilients. 

Left tlio hospital (luring the same year 10.960 patients. 

Died (luring the same year 2.855 patients. 

ISemained in the Hospital being ti-eated on June 3'lth 1903. 1.102 pattcnts. 

Besides this main Citj' Hospital, maintained by a charitable 
organisation there are, also maintained by the same organisation, the 
Santa Maria and vS. ,Joao Baptista hospitals, in Botafogo; Nossa 
Senhora da Saude hospital , tJamb()a; Nossa Senhora do Socorro 
hospital, Ponta do Caji'i; Nossa Senhora das Dores hospital, Casca- 
diii'a. The number of ])atients in these hospitals averages 550, being 
•'i."jO in the Sande district, 120 in the S. .Joilo Baptista and the balance. 

In the beginning of 1903 the total number of patients in charge 

— 402 — 

ol' the iiisiitutioii was 1 .()79 not countiiif;- those in tlie wards ol' the 
different asyhims it maintains. 

Anotlier building worth mentioning is tlie Military sehool, a line 
specimen of arcliiteeture, elegant, nicely decorated, but with general 
sober lines as it is fit in an educational institute like this. 

It is located in an awfully quiet district, right at the side of the 
Babilonia hill which seems to I'l'ame it. 

Another place worthy of a visit is the old Emperor's Court at 

Hill. — Tlio Jlililiirv sriKKil 

S. Christoviio, in the district of the same name. It was the winter 
residence of the Emperor, and the beautiful park around with pictu- 
i-esque lakes, aven\ies of choice trees, fine lawns, cascades, etc. is 
now utilized by the National Museum which is installed there, with 
ethnographic, archeological and natural sciences sections. The visi- 
tor will profit going in there, even if the modest external appearance 
doesn't please him much with its poor architecture. 

Rio de .Janeiro has many scientific establishments. One of them 
is the Public Library with 3(.)0.0(X) volumes not counting tens of 
thousands of manusci-ipts, rare j)ictures, medals, precious docu- 
ments, in a modest building at Ijapa Scpiare, running great risks of 





— 4.04. — 

a Tire. Tlie Navy Miisenm where an interesting collection oi 
naval-military -history of the country relics is to he seen. The Navy 
Lihrary also is a modest huilding. The Tuhlic Archives so precious 
to those devoted to the history of the country has a lar<;e numhcr ol 
precious documents. The National College of Fine Arts, opens an 
exception as to its external api)earance, has a classical front, with a 
nnxjestic portico, looking to a small square in the centre of which is 
the statue of the celehrated Brazilian actor Jouo Caetano. 'i'lie buil- 
ding, however, is getting too small for the large number of paint- 
ings and marble works , which grows larger every day. The 


■Jlie Aiii'ieiil K]n|ioi-c)i-'s Hesiileiu-c, al |ii'i'soiil : National Museum 

Music Institute, which is the institute of its kind with the best 
official reputation in the South Ameidcan continent. It is a large 
building just at the side of the Fine Ai-ts building. On the cmtside 
has a severe i)hysiognomy. In the interior it has a concert hall 
hall beautifully decorated I^y Henrique Bernardelli, the brother 
of the celebrated sculptor. The organ of this institute is the largest 
in South America and it was a donation of the celebrated musician 

Besides the colossal Public Library, there are nuxny others to 
support the intellectual of I\,io, such as the Fluminense Library with 

— 405 — 

90.000 Yolumes, in a large four story building in Rua Ouvidor; the 
Army Library, which, like that of the Navy, also 2:)ublish(!S a tech- 
nical magazine, edited by the major-stalT; the Medical College and 
Pt)lytcchnical Acadenn' Schools with 70.000 and 10.000 volumes, res- 

llio. — Moniiinent of Uie discovei'ers of Brazil 

pectively ; the Senate Library which was founded by the late unfortu- 
nate Manuel Victorino, with 80.000 volumes; the Congress Library; 
the Gabinete Portuguez de Leitura Library (a Portuguese associa- 
tion) installed in one of the most beautiful buildings of the city in 
the D. Manoel historical style in Rua Luiz de Camoes near Sao 
Francisco Square; the Commerce Library with 10.000 volumes. 

— 40() — 

installed lately in one of the halls of the Stock Exchange buildiiv''; 
the IMuiiicipality Lihrai-y; the Oliib Brazileii-o (yommereial I^ihi'ary ; 
as well as those ol' (Jerinaiiia (Uub, the Associaeao dos Eiiipregados 
do Comincrcio one, and naany othei' smaller ones. 

There is no impi-ovement oi' industrial henei'it that this city ol 
Rio does not enjoy : telephone, telegraph, over 100 periodical publi- 
cations, ini])ortant daily pajaers among which we must mention the 
Joi'nal do Oommeieio, which is, for the material value of its daily 
edition, as well as for the solidity of its economical resources, one 
of the first journalistic enter|)rizes of Soutli America. It was founded 
about seventy-fi\-e years ago. 

The city is illuminated by gas, having 15.000 lamps by the diffe- 
rent streets of the city and many of the suburbs. There is also a part 
of the city in the main part of it, illuminated by electricity. An 
English Company called a City improvement)) disposes of the sewage 
by a gallery system that throws it into the sea after being chemi- 
cally treated. 

The police service is done by a brigade w ith 1.000 men command- 
ed by a (jienei'al, the i)olice force being a military organisation. The 
public aid is exercised by the authorities tliat maintain an Insane 
Asylum, a Poor House, a Plague Hospital, a C'hildren Reformatory 
and othei' (>stablishments, and is also rendered by 40 pi'ivate asso- 
ciations as the Irmandade da Candelaria, maintaining Asylums and 
hospitals, the D. Pedro Y, the ^ferceira Penitencia, the Carmo, and 
otlieis, most of them religi(uis institutions. 

Itio (1(? .Taneiio is proud, and has a right to be so, of its Charity 
institutions, its asylums, its hospitals, its I'efoi'inatoi'ies and found- 
ling institutions. Xo other city has Ihcni in so large a number in 
relation to its size. 

It is worth visiting the Goncalves de Ai-aujo Asylum in S. Cliris- 
tovao S(|uare, the Lazaros Hospital, by a charmiug shore, in a fine 
building, the Benefii'encia Portugucza, with large \\ards surrounded 
by gardens in Sauto Amaro Street , the Bom Pastor Asylum , 
the Unprotected Children, the S. Cornelio, tlie Foundling, the 
S. Eranci"sco, the Invalidos, the S. Jose, tlie Old and Unprotected, 
the S. I'rancisco de Paula, the S. Luiz, the Deaf and Dumb, the 
pjlind, and dozens of other asylums. 

A vigorous trait of the Rio greatness is its manufacturing indus- 
tries, to which we must add the official establishments which are of 
industrial nature, such as the Military rifle, powder, cartridges and 
other w'ar material factories, the government shipyards and stock 
of material for the navy. Such establishments are as a rule beyond 

— 4-07 — 

the city limits, in islands in I'ront oi' the city or in the most distant 

The establishments of private industry, however, are spread all 
over, in the citv and in the outskirts, in the commercial streets as 

Hio. — Slat lie ol' Buarqiie Macedo 

well as in the suburbs, and they represent all that variety of common 
industi-ies. In the cities we see flat-iron factories, bone buttons, 
pa])er boxes , strings and ropes, playing-cards, card-board goods, 
cartridges, shot, and other factories. There are also breweries, 
cordial distilleries, canned goods factories, threading mills, disin- 

— 408 — 

fectaiits, neckties, stockings, soaj), oils, candles, suspendors, caps, 
crockery, glass-ware and crystal-ware, perfumery, furniture, paper, 
matches, shirts, preserved fruit, woollen goods, wagons and trucks, 
and other factories. There are yet vinegar and soda-water works, 
pharmaceutical products, mosaic and tiles, safes and stoves works, 
book-binderies, cigar and cigarettes factories, fruit flour, iron 
bridges and galleries, hats, shoes, lace, nails, lead pipes, rubber 
coats, iron beds and chairs, wire nets, medicinal soaps, acetylene 
gasometres, coffee improving machinei'y, sugar, matte (Brazilian tea) 
factories, rice and grain j^reparation works, wooden boxes factories, 
corsets, clothing, chocolate, printing type, trunks and travellei'S 
material, rubber stamps and stencils, images, musical instruments, 
incandescent light veils, ears, brooms, cane baskets, wooden orna- 
mentations for buildings, wax candles, mica lamp chimneys, asphalt, 
artificial marble, harnesses, biscuits, shoeblacking, wall paper, 
picture fi'ames, artificial flowers , leather tanning, jewelry, vege- 
table oils, scales, ice, thread, envelopes, brushes, flags, bicycles, 
umbrellas, fire works, tin boxes, cement <( French » style and com- 
mon tiles, bricks, collars and other factoi'ies. 

^^'e do not intend to make special references as to the banks , 
commercial enterprises , navigation companies , railwaj's , i^ublic 
works, insurances, etc. That would require a large volume, but the 
city almanacs, some as good as the best in Europe, like the Laemmert 
one, give detailed information about it. AVe will neither speak of 
the primary instruction, in charge of the municipality, of the many 
colleges and academies. We will, however, mention, the Navj' Col- 
lege, Pilots School, Medicine College, Polytechnical Academy, Law 
College, the Military College and other institutes, no doubt, of 
importance, but our limited space would not allow it. 

The tract of land where is the seat of the Federal Power, was 
since the foundation of the Brazilian nationality , reserved for that 
function. There, have been accumulated, during the whole history of 
Brazil's independent life, and even much Ijefore that, the national 
official establishments, the barracks, the arsenals and ship-yards. 
There, was centralised the mental, artistic and intellectual direction 
of the country. To that Capital run all the marine communications, 
and railways connect it with several States. S, Paulo, Minas, Rio 
and Espirito Santo have already closed the circle af railways con- 
necting them with the great metropolis. The road of the Central of 
Brazil Railway reaching the S. Francisco River, Bahia, Alagoas, 


— '1-1(1 — 

Pernamhnc'o, Paraliyha and Tlio Granrle do Norte, which arc already 
coniuH'Icd, ^^ill conijilofe tlie whole system. 

Somi wo will see some soulhei'ii conneolioiis. Parana and Rio 
Cirandc do Sul on one side, and Goyaz and Matto (Ji'osso, on the 
other will tlms unite tliemselvos to the large net of railway system, 

Siiljiii'bs (il Ilio. — Ti.jiica Forest 

the centre of which will ahxays he the Capital of the Repuhlic, to 
whicli nature giying it one of the most advantageous location in the 
planet, assured heforehand the destiny, the greatness of which, we 
only can conjecture to-day. 

The causes of great social phenomena are numerous. But they 




never met in sucli a large number to explain the suiKsriority of a 
city over others of its time as they have done in llio de Janeiro, 
sim-c its origin, being- surrounded both by natui'al advantages and 
])rodigalities of fhanee. 

Until lOu:') very little was done to improve in a satisfactory way 
the conditions of this great citv of Uio de .lancii'o, though manv 

llio. — Tlic Mint 

jirominent Brazilians attempted to do it. A\'c could even mention a 
good number of projects, each one the most worthy of being appre- 
ciated, planned by men of advanced ideas. Of all these the most 
noted were those of the late Aice-pi'esident Manoel A'ictorino, which 
would completely transform the old city, should it bo realised, those 
of Senators Trovao and Alvaro Machado, being also projects of wide 
scope, the one of Dr. Vieira Souto, an engineer of note in Rio, and 
so many others Ave do not now remember. All these projects, howe- 





— lit. — 

vcr , were postixtned Troin time to time lor sevei-al eanses, and did 
notliiiig else but to activate the oeneral anxiety of the population 
that every day claimed louder nnd louder the solution of that old 

When Tresident Uodrigues Alves was elected and wont into po- 
wer in IIKIL', his first care was to select a man able to undertake 
that achievement. He appointed for the place of Public Works Se- 
cretai-v, Senator Lauro Miiller, an engineer, whose ideas on the 

Dr. (i;il)i'i('l .luiii|ui'ira, onc "t llic coiislrtii'lni's dI' llie CoiiU'al AvcMue 

subject were already kno\\n for a long time. Once decided that the 
whole of work reituired , ought not to burden the ordinaiy budget of 
the Government, a loan was raised of £8.000.000, abroad, spe- 
cially for those improvements, adding to this another home loanof 
£ 1.000.000 contracted by the Municipality of the City of Kio. 
With these two resources the Government began the great impro- 
vements which are transforming altogether the City of Tlio de 

The Secretary of Public Works after having studied in detail all 
th(! projects and ideas until then in mind as to the sanitary imjjrove- 

— ur, — 

ments and embellishing' (,f the eity, submitted to President Pvodrio'iies 
Alves the general plan oT the works, which the Decree n" l.'.)(i'.) on 
the ISth of September, IW.', declared approved, giving- power to desap- 
propriate all grounds and houses needed for such woi'ks, and a s\m- 
i-ial fund was resei'ved to pay for the services. 





Tlie S. Ki'ancisco clmi'ch 

Tlie^main part of this i^lan was: 1st., the construction of a large 
commercial quay for tlie ships to come alongside, in an extension of 
y.500 metres; 2nd, the construction of a large avenue parallel with 
tliis quay with 3.500 metres length and 10 metres wide; ;Srd, the 
I'ectification and prolongation to the; sea of the interior canal known 

— 4i(; — 

as « Mangue )> in an extension ol' 3.000 metres lined by two avenues 
^\■ith rows of iialm-troes, illuminated by electricity with 40 metres 
width each ; 1th, the elevation oi' the railroad-bed to a viaduct 5 metres 
above the street level, and construction of an avenue on the Fran- 
cisco Eugeuio Street, straight until the Quinta da Boa Vista, the old 
residence of the late Emperor; ."jth, enlargement of water supply for 
the city, taking in all the near by sources; Gth, general revision of 
sewage piping, improving all that service by adopting all modern 

!)'■ I)('l-\('li-hi(i, Engineer 

impi'ovements; 7th., the construction of an avenue of 1.800 metres 
length and oo wide; .Stli, the throwing down of some hills in the city 
and improving of the quay, (railway, electric illumination, storage 
liouses, etc.) and finally the enlarging of certain cross-streets cros- 
sing the great Auenida Central . 

On the other hand, tlu; new Maj'or of the city, Dr. Francisco 
Passos, selected by the President to help and complete the work of 
his Secretary, I)i'. J^auro Midler, promoted the enlargement of other 
strecits, the consti'uction of a beautiful avenue — bay-side drive, 
along the river or bay front, with 7.0()0 metres lengtli and :\h metres 

— U7 — 

wide, the substitute ol' tlie old pavement of tlui streets tor asphalt 
and other modern ernes, and sevei'al other works to aid embellishing 
the eity, gardens, school houses, etc. 

The rejoicement of the population was unusual, the Engineers 
Club, noted association of technical men, ordered a bronze sign cast, 
with the name of Dr. Eodrigues Alves, the Pi'esident, and his Public 
Works Secretary Dr. Lauro Miiller, placing it under gi'eat solem- 
nity in tlie seat of their meetings, on the 28th of September 1903. 

liio. — Part of the New Avemie 

With promptness the harbour works were contracted with the 
Englisli firm Walker & Co. of London on the 26th of September, all 
the work, however, to be directed by Brazilian technical men, under 
the charge of the noted engineer Francisco Bicalho. 

Afterwards the different services were distributed, taking into 
consideration the promjit execution of the work. I'higineer Soiito 
took charge of the administration ; Dr. Manoel Maria, the general 
management of the service; Dr. Bicalho, the chief, the works of the 

— 418 — 

Maiig'iio C'anal, quite a coiuplux work; Dr. Del-Vocfhio, lias in 
c'harg-e the buildiiii;- of tlio (^uay and all the hydraulic works ; Dr. 
b'l'ontin took ehai'ge ol' the Central Avenue. 

Dr. Miillerwas the author of that beautiful avenue, one of the 
prettiest sights of Rio de Janeiro. It was lie who first liad the idea 
of connecting tlie projected quay with tlie central streets in the com- 
mercial district l)y means of a large avenue and not by means of 

llill. .\'('\V lillilllillgS 

tunnels as it was first thought when they considered the Rio projects 
of reform. 

On tlie 8th of March, 11)01, took place, with great joy on the 
part of the population , the inauguration of the work of that ave- 
nue, in the presence of President Rodrigues Alves and other high 
officials. Then was placed the foundation stone of the buildings 
n" 2, 4 and (i of the new Avenue. All the Rio newspapers celebrated 
this date and the ])nblic joined them in that celebration , speaking 
of nothing else. 

As we said above, the idea of the oi)oning of that street was the 






— |.20 — 

(Hitcoine (if the nefcssity ol' allowing an outlet for the movement of 
the l)ort, as the accumulation and crowding of traffic would he into- 
lerahle in th(> old narrow streets once the quay would he finished. 
Tlie Central Avenue cost ahout :i5.000 contos, owing to the high 


umif ft'^nmtt rt'imn f " ttflft-f' Kta«ifl!f^y;fit}g!ft 


Aa/)i t.or ^ xit'e- 

Kio. — New Buildings 

jjriee for desai)])ropriating the huildings that had to be pulled down, 
'i'heir number was (idl, all of them pulled down in less than three 
months. It was earnest woi'k and was done by dcuible teams of 
workmen tliat substituted eacli other every morning and evening. 
Tlu^re were about li.OOO workmen. 

— 421 — 

The open region, taking- the maswive of the buildings ol' the old 
city, had the length of 1.800 metres, and the width of 73 metres, being 
',>'■'< h)v the bed of the avenue and 20 on each side for the new l)nil- 
dings. The plan is in perfect straight line, from sea to sea, \\'hich 
affords a beautiful perspective. 

The works run so quickly that on tlie 15th of Novembre 1905, 
twenty months after\\ ards the new street was inaugurated. Dr. Fron- 
tin executed with the greatest of successes Secretary Midler's idea. 

liio. — Xcw BiiiUliiigs 

The Avenida Central, which has just been finished, measures 1996 
metres from sea to sea. Has 3:j metres width, being 19 for the pave- 
ment and 7 for each of the sidewalks. The longitudinal profile of the 
Avenue is as follows : Level in the first 10 m. beginning in Rua do 
.\cre (X.) ; it I'ises ■■/i.ouo until Benedictinos street; follows level 
until General Camara Street; between this street and Hospicio rises 
'/i. 000 ; between Hospicio and Ouvidor is level; between Ouvidor 
and Sete de Setembro rises '/'-i"" ; I'^'o™ Sete de Setembro to 

— 4.22 — 

Manoel de Cai-vallio rises ■'/i.ooi. ; remaining level in all the exten- 
sion of the Municipal Theatre, where from at last lowers ^i.cioo 
until Bay-Side Drive. 

The side walks have an inclination of 0",15, a little more than 2 "/o 
which is sufficient for the waters outlet. 

The pavement of the street bed foiins a slight circle arch 0,'".32 
high in the centre. 

Capilal federal. — Pavilion in Uie S. touis' Exiiiljition orecled on the Ocnlral Avenue 

Tn the centre of the Avenue they planted 'yd Pho Brazil trees, in 
flower beds 5 metre long and 2 wide, and at a distance of o3,"33 from 
one to the other. The Electric light posts with three lamps each, 
are also in the centre and 55 in number, being at the same dis- 
tance of each other as the trees are. 

On the sidewalks they are also going to plant trees, 173 on the 
odd side and 160 on the even side. There are also the gas illumi- 
nation iDosts .'30 on each side. 

Tlie buildings lining the Avenue are of fine architecture, having 

— 423 — 

on an average '20 metres lieiglit, there being- llo^\ ever a few, with 
40, 50, 60 and even more. Those are huildings tliat would do honour 
to any large European eitv. 

Once we have spoken of the Central Avenue, we must say some- 
thing of the other one — A Avenida Beira Mar — (River->Side Drive 
oi' Bay-Side Avenue) projected after the Avenida Central, but 
nearly completed. 

This avenue has 7 kilometres in length, it is really a bay-side 
di'ive. It begins just where the Avenida Cenlral ends, and follows 
along the river front through the many curves of the city contour till 
Botafogo bay, a beautiful curve enclosed by the green frame of 
high hills. 

This beautiful work is due to the Mayor of the city who is in an 
admirable way completing Dr. Midler's system of improvements. 

Another improvement now in via of realisation is the extension 
of the Mangue canal. The works executed there are worthy of note. 
The canalization of the little rivers in this part of the city is made by 
means of a canal 3 kilometre long enclosed in stone walls crossed by 
metallic bridges, of artistic style. The old canal had but 1 '/e kilome- 
tre in length with 12 metres sections and only a little over 1™ 50 of 
depth. Xow it was extended to o kilometres, the section 20 metres, 
and depth 3 metres. As the ground through which it run was not 
very steady, they steadied it by means of posts lU metres deep. The 
plan of the canal consists of two tangent lines forming almost a right 
angle, connected by a nice curve. This canal acts as an outlet for 
the rain waters as well as the waters of the small rivulets of that part 
of the city. It could not be used for navigation except of very small 

Besides the Avenida Central there are many streets worth men- 
tioning, among which are : the Uriig-iiaytina, 17 metres wide with fine 
buildings and asphalt pavement; the Assemblea, also 17 metres wide 
probably prettier than the other , having a charming perspective 
upon the sea; the Carioca Street between the square of the same 
name, at the end of Assemblea Street and ]'mon(le do Rio Bramo ; 
they are almost in straight line, and form altogether a road of over 
2.000 metres length ; the Floriano Street has 21 metres width and 
nearly 1.000 length, with its natural extension Acre Street; the Trezc 
de Maio, 17 metres wide; the Passos Avenue, extension of the old 
Sacramento Street; the Inhauma with 30 metres width. All of them 
are paved with asphalt and were opened or widened at the sacrifice 
of 1200 old l)uildings that were pulled down. Such is the energy with 
which in the last three years the habitation, sanitary conditions and 

— 424. — 

aesthetic problems of tlie llio city have been taken care of. 

The buiklings folh)\v tlie same \'igorous impulse. In 1903 there 
\Yere 000 new buildings constructed in Rio and 400 reconstructions. 
In lUOI there ^\("l•e 1200 nc^w buildings put up and 800 reconstruc- 
tions. Uio de .Janeiro had then 84.00(i houses inhabited while in 1890 
only had IT.iJol. This illustrates the progress ot the last few years. 

.lust now the buildings, both private and jDublic, in Rio, arc 
undergoing a considerable transformation, and while there are to be 


Ai'w Buil(li]ii;s 

seen yet in many places houses of the colonial type, all the new 
buildings are of the most modern designs, showing how the city is 
becoming European like and how the capital is growing in wealth. 
Among the new buildings we will mention a few, some finished at 
time of writing, others, nearly finished, others just stai'ted : 

The Congress Palace, the most notable one in all South America, 
occupying 12.000 square metres, in front of Tiradentes Squai'e, sur- 
rounded by Kio Branca, ConKlituU-rio and Gomes Frcirc streets. Its 
cost is estimated at 15.000:000$000. 

425 — 

The Municipal Theatre, with marble Iroiit, bronze decorations 
and a dome in metres high, valued at ;).000:000$()00 built by the 
Brazilian Architect, Oliveira Passos. 

The buihlino- of the S. Paulo — Rio Grande, a Brazilian Hailwav 

Kio. — A'ew Buildings 

concern, of gothic style, simulating a castle of middle age times, has 
six floors, 30 metres of height, estimated at 900:0()0$000 built by 
the Bi-azilian architect, Siha Costa. It will be one of the beauties of 
the city. 

The Jardim Botanico Street Railway Co., French style, 62 metres 


front, 33 meti'os Iiigii, the centre body witli (i I'loors, the side ones 
four. It will oceupy a whole block, is divided by a gallery, in tlie 
style of the Passage Joffroy, in Paris, the Vittorio Emnianuele, in 
Milan, and Unibei-to Primo, in Turin. Its cost is estimated in 

Hid. — Nrw Itiiililiiii'S 

2.000:000*000. Its architect is t^aminhoa and it is the property of 

The Naval Club new-classic style , five stor;, iiigh in the main 
body and four in the side ones. Its architect is Pe:.: i. It will be one 

— .1-27 — 

of the best bnikliiigs in the Avenida Cciiti'iil iiiul its cost is cstiuuited 
at 800:()00,?000. 

I'he t'aixa do Aniortisacjao building, classic style, with a series 
(if beautiful white and rose marble columns, with bronze tops. Its 
cost is estimated at 1 .•2()0:OO0S00(). Its architect is Gabriel Junqueiro. 

The Jornal do Bruzil building, marble front, lai'ge and original 
dome, 50 metres high. Its aichitect is Mr. Berna, the proj^rietors 
are Brazilians. 

liio. — .New liuikliiigs 

The Jornal do (U)innierrio building, seven floors, high tower, li'i 
metres high, stone and marble front. Its cost is estimated at 
•J.()00:0O(ig0U(i, its owners, Brazilians. 

Palace of the Exhibition, the same building as the one repre- 
senting Bi'azil at the St. Louis Exhibition, 15 metres high, built by 
the Brazilian Architect Souza Aguiar. 

Guinle & Co. building, beautiful stone front, 8 floors 52 metres 
high, owned by Brazilians and its cost estimated at 1.000:0(108000. 

Docas do Santos building, fine floors, built by the Brazilian Ar- 

— 428 — 

chitect Ramos Azevcdo and owned by Bi-azilians. Its cost is estimated 
at l.-200:(»0(_l»00. 

National Library, stone, marble and iron, live I'lcxn's, 45 metres 
high, bnilt by the Brazilian architect Dr. Agniar. Its cost is esti- 
mated at ::!.0()0:000$0()(). 

Kio. — >e\v Buildings. — Tlic |iaUR'L' ciI tin.' d:iilv |iapor : « O.loriial do Commeroio ». 

The indication of nationality, which ^^ e have taken pains to 
sliow, serves to illustrate to those who do not know Rio de Janeiro, 
the efficient contribution that native elements are bringing towards 
the develojjnient and transformation of Rio de Janeiro Avliere fo- 
reign capital, intelligence and activity, willfind a vast field to ope- 

= 429 - 

rate ui^oii, with iprdl'italtle results by, tlie adliesioii and aid of the do- 
minant ideas amonj4' the natives. 

"We \\ill not elose these few lines on the rapid progress Rio has 
undergone during the last few years without speaking of an enter- 
pris(> we referred to above, which has initiated its work and will be 
the most important of all the improvements the great Cai)ital is going 
to l)e presented with. 

AVe refer to the Harbour work the main feature of the plans eon- 

llio. — The New « trezc do Mai'ro » SU'OCl 

ceived and being executed by the present Secretary of public Works, 
Dr. Lauro Miiller. 

Though Rio possessed one of the largest and best anchorage places 
of the world, by the beauty, depth and safety of the bay, its popu- 
lation has been longing for the last (lO years for these benefits en- 
joyed by nearly every sea-port city of the world — a dock system 
alongshore, that the ships miglit come alongside to load and unload. 

This was a general anxiety continually expressed, by evei'y ime, 


bat owing- to certain circumstances wliich can all be reduced to this : 
lack of a resolute and broad minded government, — the plans and 
projects for tlie liarboiir works were being- postponed from time to 
time in s])ite of their pressing- need. The situation was just this wIk^i 

liio. — \i!\v Buildings 

President Rodrignes Alvos invited for the ])lace of Public ^Yorks 
Secretary l)i-. Lanro Miiller. 

We will now give some detaihid information about this improvt^- 
ment now under way : 

The Rio de Janeiro poi-t iinpi-oveiiients woi'k comprises : 

— 132 — 

First. — The building of a long- stone quay, with sufficient deiitli 
for sliips and steaniei'S of any draught coming alongside, with a 
large number of iron landing staii'ways attached to the quay, las- 
tening i)osts, doubh> stone stairway at the curves. This quay accor- 

Kio. — Xew Biiikliiii's 

ding to the adopted project goes from the extension of S. Christovao 
street to the neighborhood of the Navy- Yard, compi'ising the inner 
bays in fi'ont of the Mocas, Meloes, Sacco do Alferes, Gauiboa and 
Saude old islands and has .■].."')(K) metres in length. 

Second. — The filling of all the area comprised between the 







— 434 — 

fntiire quay and tlio river front. In some places the distance between 
these two i)oints is 250 metres as it hapjiens in the Saude inner hay, 
tlie deptli of tlie water varying l)etvveen 1 and 7 metres. 

Third. — Dredging- till 10 metres distance from the space destin- 
ed to the setting oF ionndation ca/, and quay wall, and a hand 

Rio. — i\e\v Buildings 

2.50 metres in width, forming the channel so that ships can come 
alongside with(jut any trouble. 

Fourth. — The opening of an avenue alongside the quay, mea- 
suring 100 metres in width, of which 25 metres are reserved for 
railway tracks, r!5 metres for the building of imports and exports 


storage houses and administrations offices , and 40 metres nicely 
paved and with rows of trees for public thoroughfare. 

Fifth. — Construction of the quay, comprising the most modern 
machinery used foi' hoisting, loading and unloading the ships. Two 

Rio. — New Biiildiiigs. — OIBces of llie ilitil.v |ia|)ei' ; « I'aiz » 

stations inconvenient places with the necessary machinery to furnish 
electric power to the machinery and electric light for the illumina- 
tion of the whole quay. 

Sixth. — Utility of the neighboring islands as deposits of inflam- 
mable goods, coal, and other port exactions, increasing its area 
if needed, filling up the space between tliem and near by rocks. 

— ISfi — 

T]ie works of wall building coiDprisino- (he dredging and filling 
were contraeted on the -iltli ol' September 19(W, by the govei'ninent 
with the well known house of C. H. Walker & Co., of Jjomlon. 

The work was inaugurated on the -iUth of March, l'.)()l, initiating 
on that day in front of Saude bay the service of dredging the poi't. 
On the first days of January I'.IOI the bottom of the bay has been 
dulv dredged all along the line of the 1st section of <|uay measuring 

Jtii). — .Nl'U liuildiiigs 

500 metres and the contractors initiated the work of the wall con- 
struction setting the first cnisson with the order number -i;!-. 

By the end of April lUO.j two sections of wall were ready till the 
average tide height. On May 1st, in presence of His Excellency Pre- 
sident Rodrigues Alves, the Mayor of the City, the Members of the 
Cabinet, (Congressmen and Senatoi's, high officials both civil and 
military ones, business men and representatives of all classes, 
the inauguration of the quay work took place, fixing on the external 
side of the wall a plate commemorating this act. Figure n" 1 shows 
the sections \\r spoke of, as Nsell as the inauguration plate attached 

— 4S7 — 

to the stone containiiif^- the record of the proceedings, newspaper's 
of that day and several coins of the country. 

According to tlie chxuse XIV of tlie contract all the work must 
be finished by June, :!Oth, I'JIO obeying to the following ])rogrcss : 

On llieaoih iilJiiiie, 1906 oOO melres. 

" 1907 500 » 

» » >' K108 800 » 

» " >' lOOi) ICO » 

» » » 1!H0 10(10 >, l)ahiiic(^ 

1(1 iiuikc ij|j the lolal (if :j500 iiielix'S. 

Itid. — (^(jiisUMiclioii (it tlie tkinal (In Maiiaue 

To detcfmine the solid layei' at the bottom where the foundation 
cHtsHons ]ia,v(' to be supported, which is a part of the construction 
system adopted, as well as for the calcnlation of the total volume of 
land to be excavated and recognizance of several layers of ground 
placed upon the solid one, many perforations were made in the direc- 
tion of the i^rojected ynay, and elsewhere in transversal direction, 
in some points becoming necessary to find oiit the inclination or 
profile of those layers. 

— 438 — 

The system of construction adopted for the quay was, the com- 
pressed air (me, liy means of cnissons made of iron, identical to 
those used hitcly in the port of Antwerp. 

. Two large floating scaffolds, constituted by two pontoons attach- 
ed to eacli other by iron frames, carry suspended by two strong 
steel chaims, the respective dryers, measuring 12 metres high, 25 

Uio. — StaUic of Viscount ilo liio Brai 

metres long, and O.liO metres wide. Underneath these apparatus they 
introduce tlie ironra/.s.soij.s or boxes which have the same dimensions, 
with the exception of the height which is only 2, "'.50. By means of 
screws adapted to the internal walls of the dryer, and holes in the 
caissons helped by rubber between these two pieces, a close attach- 
ment of the two is 0])erated so that when it all sinks down into the 



— 440 — 

water, the cnisson is water proof. Wlien the lowering fails centri- 
fugal pinnps are put to work moved bj- electricity. 

The caisson, the main part of the system of construction adopted, 
is formed by strong cramp-irons solidly united and supported by 
steel beams 0,70 thick. The four outside faces are dressed by iron 
plates as well as the inside under the beams. The caisson is 
divided into two parts : one constituted by beams and empty spaces 


Aew Buildiiias 

left by the spaces of the cramp-irons, and the other slightly arched 
or vault-like roof, open at the bottom, forming the « work chamber » 
where later on the workingmen have to get in when charged of the 
excavation of the bottom and of the provocation for the penetration 
of the ciiissons through the layers at the bottom. For that reason, 
the roof of the work chamber has four circular openings 0,70 m. in 
diametre, destined to receive the chimneys for the entrance of the 
workmen and material. 

Protected by the first chimneys in the oi)enings of the caisson's 

— 441 — 

voof, they immediately fill the upper part of tlie caisson witli eement 
or I'ather beton, forming thus the plate or ground on whieh the first 
stones of the wall have to be placed. Then the masons begin the con- 
struction of the wall in the interior of the dryer, always supported 
by roi)cs and chains and at the proportion it grows the dryer is lower- 
ed to I'clieve the cai'go that chains and ro^jes support. When the 
work reaches about 1 metises of height, the;\' manoeuvre convenien- 
tly the floating scaffold by means of the eight anchors of the 
pontoons, and once in the alignement of the quay, they let the cais- 
son down, with the work already done on top of it loosening the 
dryer from everything that fastens it. During the sinking of the 
caisson into the water they always heigten the chimneys to avoid 
the entrance of water, so that when the caisson touches the bottom, 
these reach their utmost height. On this occasion they adapt an 
apparatus, the machineiy begins to woi-k compressing the air in the 
work chamber. 

The workmen in groups of 12 to 18, who are I'elieved every eight 
hours, descend to that compartment and, helped by syi)hons which 
expel what they excavate or dig at the proportion it gathers in the 
chamber, they provoke the descent of the caisson through the seve- 
ral laj'ers of the bottom. 

Once reached the solid laj'er and this one being completely clean 
and levelled, it is immediately filled with cement concrete. When 
this operation is finished they continue the work of the wall till the 
height of the average tide. They then loosen the screws that attached 
the caisson to the dryer, they allow the water to enter the dryer and 
thus relieved, it is once more attached to the chains which suspend 
it again and thus is the apparatus i-eady for the construction of a 
new section of wall. I-Cacli section measures '23, -50 metres in length. 

The work to finish the wall on its upper part is done during low 

Figure n° /^. — Shows Ihe caisHoii inside the water ready to be 
put in proper place under the dryer. 

Figure n" 5. — Shows the caisson in the act of enteiing under 
the dryer. 

Figure n" (>. — Shows one of the floating scaffolds with the dryer 
completely suspended, and the caisson already attached to its in- 
ferior f)art. 

Figure n" y. — Represents the hulk « Victor » of 25 tons used 
for several kinds of work. 

Figure n" 8. — Represents the two floating scaffolds and the 
hulk (( Victor » working. 

— 442 — 

The work of the compressed air once started continues M'ithout 
interruption until the Avork cliamber is completely filled with con- 
crete. It takes about 10 days of 21 hours. The digging in the interior 
of the caisson, is made according to the nature of the soil, by means 
of syphons which work by the same compressed air action, or by 
means of ordinary apparatus for such work, the diggings being taken 
out in buckets through the chimneys. When they find rock which 
needs to be partly levelled so that the caisson can be i)laced in per- 

Port o! Rio. — Filling up of llie Sea Zone 

feet horizontal level, they take the rock out in small stones, little by 
little, and they make it bui-st with very small charges of dynamite. 

Figure n" g. — Represents several sections of the quay with the 
intervals left between them, where the connections have to be 
filled in. 

Figure n" lo. — Represents a hoisting bai'ge, used to place the 
stones on the wall and for ])reparation of the concrete destined to 
that portion of the wall that goes up from the average tide height. 


Fig-lire n° ii. 

Shows the interior of a barge working in a con- 

The normal type of quay measures 2™50 high of foundation, 
8"'S0 from tlie top of caisson to the level of low tide , and o"H>() from 
there to the top, representing a height of 14"90. As to its width is 
G metres on the caisson and 1:10 on the outside and 1:15 on the 
inside inclination up to the height of the low tide, from there up the 

I'orl (iI Kio. 

CiiiLslniclioii ol' llie iNcw Oiiav. (Iraiie-boiil 

external inclination is 1:20 and after a cut of 0'"60 goes up in vertical 
line, the upper j^art of the quajr measuring 3™02 in width. 

The wall has holes placed at intervals of 100 metres to be used 
as outlets for the rain waters. On the top of the wall there will be 
an opening covered Avith iron to receive the canalisations for the 
light, water and power. 

Until the 15th of December 1905, the contractors had built 16 sec- 
tions of quay representing 100 metres wall, up to the height of the 

— 444. — 

average tide or l">-20 ahove the lowest tide. The connections, with 
cxeeplion of 5 of tlieni were all finished, and the part already con- 
cluded, with top part and all has an extension of 2~~) metres. 

All the space comprised between the wall and the hayside will 
he filled and levelled with earth taken away from the Senado Hill 
and sand from the bay. The Senado Hill will be all taken down and 
its ground levelled. The sand will come fr(nn the dredging of the 
channel, shouhl it be good enough to be used in filling in the ground 

Porl (if Itio. 

(loiislriidioih (i[ llie Acw Oiiav 

according to the Fiscalisation Committee, other wise the sand will 
be taken from the bay sand-banks ^^•hich this Committee may 
designate, nntil a dej)th of 10 meti'cs water in the average tides. 

The sands will be thrown into tlie inferior part and upon them 
the Senado Hill earth will be placed up to the level of the wall. 

For the first section that must be ready on June 30th, 1900, 
the earth to fill in is being taken from the hills right in front and 

— 446 — 

which I'di-med the two ishxnds — Morns and Mcloes which can i'lir- 
iiisli about 200,000 cubic nietrcs. 

I''i^-iirc n" 12 represents a pai't of tlio work werheas I'l^-urc n" iH 
shoN\s tlie disposition of the fastening posts. 

Fio-ure n" /-/ re])resents tlic two floating scaffolds in front of the 
old Meloes island, the earth of which is being taken away to fill in 
the quay of the first section. On the top of one of the hills is an old 

I'di'l (if Kio. — (;iiiisli'iicli(iii of llii' iNew Quay 

house that serves as tlie office and residence of the Fiscalisation 

Figure n" 15 sliows one of the places wliere from the earth to fill 
in tlie quay is being taken out. 

The contractors to make the necessary repairs in the dredeina- 
boats and their aj)paratus, liave two installations; one on the other 
side of the bay, in Nictheroy, in a place called Ponta da Areia and 
another in the central point of the works at Santa Bai'bara island, 

— 447 — 

some (lOO metres away from the shore. Tlie former helong-s to tlie 
contractors, the hotter belongs to the government but lent to the 
conti'actors while the work of the building of the quay lasts. 

In Ponta da Areia are several repairing work-shops where small 
pieces of machinery are made. These shops are well mounted with 
locomotives and freight cars, hoisting machinery, places for barges, 
bridges, machine shops, stone cutters, machinery to break also smal- 

Poii of Kiel. — Consti'iiftioii of llie New Quay. Anchoring place 

ler stones. There is a cxuarry back of this place which is exploited 
by the contractors. 

In vSanta Barbara island are the stocks of cement, hardware of all 
descriptions, to make the caissons (or boxes for the foundation of 
each section of wall) and extra pieces for the scaffolds, etc. They are 
always at work in this island preparing new caissons. These when 
needed are taken to a place under a kind of bi-idge frame with 
powerful hoisting and suspending apparatus on the upper part, run 
by endless screws which take up the caissons, hoisting them up, 

— 118 — 

transporting- tlioin to the sea rolling over a track ; — and then tlicy 
are towed until the place where the (piay is being worked. 

(ieiicrall\' there are always i'cnir caissons in construction to be 
rcad\' I'or service emergencies. 

Fi^'urv II" id shows tlie ajiparatns that hoists the caissons as we 
just ex])laiucd. 

Fiii'iii-f n" I- shows the quay on the l."ith ol' December of last \'ear. 

It is useless to add that the genei'al plan of tlie works, as it hap- 

I'orl of ISio. - I'illiiig ij|i (if llii! Sen Zone 

pens with works of this nature and magnitude is subject to modi- 
fications , not only as to tlie alignment but as to the process of 
construction, which may be suggested by the progress of the \v(n-k. 

As a comi)lement to the works which are being executed, they are 
projecting, to use the islands in front of the (piay, embi-aced by the 
great bay contourning S. Christovao shore till Ponta do Oajii, as 
<lry-docks, coal depots, inflammable storage-bouses, and othei' build- 
ings uc(Mlcd in a first class commercial ]i(u-l. 

I'(i]| i][ liid. — (jiiiislnii-lidii III III!' .\i;\v ijiiuy. — \'iew ii( llic wnrks in Di'i-oiiihor 1005 



The city of S. Paulo, Capital ol' tlie State the same name, is 
Imilt on an uneven <;round hetween the 'IMete river (which is its boun- 
dai'y line in the Hra/. district), and the U'amandutehy, which, in 
capricious curves goes thi'ough this part of the town l)et\\een it and 
the upper districts — Campos Elysios (7.")() meti-es above the sea 
level), Consolagao (SGO ni.j, Liberdade (779 m.), and Villa Marianna 
(1)00 ra.). 


S. Panlii. — Jdisomii ot Ipyraiigii 

Owing- to those altitudes the passenger who goes from Santos or 
Rio to S. Paulo is surprised, to find an unforeseen temperature 
wliich requires gloves and an overcoat. So mucli the better. That in- 
vites tlie ]ieo])]e to dress better. We do not see there as we see in Rio, 
Pahia or Recife, the truckmen and hard working people on account 
of the ti'opical climate neglect their clothes, orpresenting themselves 
bare looted, with dirty ragged garments. 

Seen ivom ;iii uj)i)er pusilinn tin; city looks like a sea in all tlie 
f;i'eatn(jss of ils grow iiifj;' vitalily oxjjandini;- itsiill'. It lias the form of 
an iri'coiihir ]ioly,i;'oii, filled with S(|nares, streets and avenues wilhont 
any i;ec)niel rical oi-ienlalion jiisl as liiienos-Ayres or Tlierezina, bill- 
foi'niin<;' liloeks whieh give an idea of several eiti(;s conneeted \vi(]i 
one another, bound the eily exterior lines. Fi'om these grounds start 
lowai'ds the fields and lulls located in front unfinished streets whieh 
ramify themselves going to new districts like Bom Retire, BaiTa 
I<\inda, \'illa Doodoro, Perdizes, Kant'Anna, etc., and wliicli the 
electric railway, the telephone, illumination, and sewage net are 
incorporating gradually to the central nuclens, in an inflexible woi'k 
of d(^finite appropi'iation. 

In tlie disti'iets near the Tiete ai'e large and numerous 
stoi'cs, hotels, hrussei-ies, woi'kinginen liouses, faetoi'ies of all 
descriptions, storage houses, etc. A forest of cliimneys throw from 
sunrise to sunset spirals of smoke into the air crossed in all di- 
i-ections by electrical wires. In the streets is a confusion of 
vehiides , and men I'unning liero and there, 'i'here is the noise of 
human voices, (he i-attling of the wagon-wlieels npon the pavement 
of the streets , the whistles of the factories all wrapped by dust- 
clouds which si)read themselves all over. 

In the centre points boils all the effervescency of the brainy 
city : — the elegant high-life, the active intellectual men, the 
bankers, the lawyers, tlie multitude of the forum crowds, the gay 
world with its fashionable women, the high tone families in their 
carriages, the crowds of hasty ones and at last tlie multitude of tlie 
obscure, of the nameless, all of them circulating in the district of Rua 
Direita, (^uinze de Novembro, S. Bento, Rosario Square and ajacent 
streets, etc. This cannot be called the centre of the city, as S. Paulo 
has extended itself so very much towards the new districts, where 
the buildings grow up every day with a richness of marvellous art 
and good taste. 

In these business streets the old style buildings , the big Portu- 
guese houses with jjlain walls are disajipearing under the victory of 
the evolution of art. The assimilating capacity of the Brazilian race 
in contact with Italian genius, the Italian colony being one fifth of 
the ])opulation, affirmed themselves in an undeniable demonstration. 

Many buildings now ai'e planned and constructed by Brazilians. 

It is useless to say that the streets we mentioned above are not 
the i)i'etti(^st of S. Paulo, though they present the most lively aspect. 

— 1-53 — 

either during- tlie day or night time. The avenues and streets that are 
the prettiest beeause of tlieir buildings and perspeetive, are tliose tliat 
behmg to the new distriet of the Capital : the boulevard Burehard, in 
the Coneeieao distriet, where fiom the largest i)art of the city area 
ean be observed; the Paulista Avenue, open upon a longitudinal 
esplanade, above the other distriets, is not as yet all built up, but it 
already presents some very ])retty palaces with different arehiteeto- 
nic styles surrounded bv gardens, — thev are nnx>jnificent mansions, 

S. Paulo. — I.iii'go (la 8ij 

princely residences; — the Barao de Piraeieaba street, a kind of 
grove, straight and wide; the Glette street with magnificent build- 
ings, among which is the Sagrado Coraeiio church with a 40 metre 
tower with the image of Jesus on top in golden bronze, and it can be 
seen from nearly everywhere in the city; the Tiradentes, a pretty 
avenue of about two kilometres long, but very irregular in its width, 
lined by superb buildings, some of them large ones, like the Polyteeh- 
nical C(d]ege, the vast Police Force barracks, the Model College and 
others, this street is crossed twice by the Tiete river; the Bambus 
(canej grove, a wide street also lined with fine buildings; the Bangel 
Pestana Avenue, with a width of 2o metres, an extension of 

- 1-51. — 

l.riSd niL'tres ami ])r()liMii;at(Ml w itli the naiiic ol' A\-eiii<la du Iriti'ii- 
deiu'ia I'oi- another Icngtli of l.'iiH) metres and tlie same \\idtli. 

Among- tlie public s(|iiares wc must mention in first place the one 
in front of the Luz Railway station, the enormous piililic f;-arden, 
beautifully and most carefully treated, with a profusion of flowers 
pretty as dreams, and a pretty lake. This is the only municipal gar- 
den worthy of the luime. 

The Rosario Sqiuire is not so wide as one would think because of 
its fame, but it is a centre and the principal centre of the Capital, 
surrounded by candy-stores , bar-rooms , cigar-stores and other 
shops. This is the place where the active population of the city have 
their rendez-voiis. This S(iuare and (^uin/.e de Xovembro street are in 

S. Paiilci. —The lake nl llie l'iil)lir (;:ir(teii 

S. I'aulo, just what S. l-'i'ancisco Scjuare and Rua Onvidor are in 
Rio de .laneiro. 

Another pretty and much wider scpuire is the Republica one, 
dominated by the pretty building where the Xormal College is. 
There are other scfuares like the Municipal, Paysandu, S. Fran- 
cisco, — witli the statue of Jose Bonifacio, — Goyanazes, Carmo 
and othei's, l)ut lack the pretty gardens and arboiization that embel- 
Hsh so much the scpuires of Belem, Capital of the Para State. 

Kxcepting Hello Ilori/onte, no otlier Brazilian city has ])ublic 
buildings witli sucli an arcliitectouic beauty, none also ])resents 
such a large number of them. 

It is im])ossiblc to do about S. Paulo, wiiat w c have done about 
the other cities we have spoken of in this book : — to describe minu- 
ciously tluMr churches, monuments and buildings worth mentioning. 

— 455 — 

Only ill the first \2 years ol' the republieau rorni of government, 
S. l^iulo spent in new building-s lor its Capital 2UU.UUU:UUU*U0U ac- 
cording to olficial data. 

And what has been spent in public works like railways, sewerage, 
board of health, schot)ls, etc., in the interior cities I'eaches an 
amount over 300.000:00(»S00U in ten years. 

IMie general progress of the state represented by its splendid 
Capital and by the principal cities of the interior, in the volume of 
factories, farms, banks, large buildings, I'ailways, etc., not only 
places S. Paulo in front of all the other States of the Kepnblic but 
its civilisation is over 20 vears^ahead. 

?^S-~V*W^'I — 

S. I'aiit 

(la I.iiz Slalioii. 

The city of S. Paulo had in 1850 about 3U,nOO inhabitants, in 1885 
had 15,(in0 inhabitants, by the census of 18'.J0 it had 65,00U inhabitants 
and by the one of lUUO not less than "2(0,000. Its private buildings arc 
of modern ai'chitecture, the Italian style predominating. In majo- 
rity are residences inhabited by one single family, there being very 
few houses where more than one family live together. 

In the modern part of the city, what means in the largest part of 
the city, the houses have their gardens at the side or in front. 

All the streets are illuminated by gas, 1.82(t lamps, tin; central 
streets being illuminated by electi'ic light, having 5.000 incandes- 
cent and 101 arc lights, and are all paved with stone blocks. 

In KiOJ, S. Paulo had 25,000 buildings in the city with a first 
class water suj^ply, the water dams and works being a monumen- 
tal work of art. The tramwav service by electric traction, is the 

— |.o(i — 

bc'sl ill all lirazil owuud by one of the most poMoii'ul (•oniinuiies in 
tlic country — 'JMio Light and I'ower Company — an American con- 
ceni. 'I'his t'oinpan,\' jilaceil 17 1 kilometres ol' tracks in the city and 
inniishcs pow cr to al most all tlit^ large factories ol' S. J'aiilo : — glass 
works, threading mills, breweries (tlie largest in tlie country), cigar 
factories, etc., witli a total of cS,01)(» horse power. 

; Tliert' arc also tramways by animal traction, ami two steam (jnes, 
ooino- to the suburbs, telephone seivice \\ith over l,n()(J subsci iljci s, 

S. I'aiilu. 

■ Guveriiineiil palace uf S. I'uulo. 

telegi'apli, oO newspapers: — dailies, weeklies, magazines, periodi- 
cals of all descrijjtions. 

Among its buildings worth noting are ; the Ipyranga monument 
unequalled in the whole country for its dimensions and imposing 
architecture, the group of the Palaces of the different Secretaries of 
the Government wduch are beautiful buildings : the Agriculture 
one in (iernian style, the Treasury one, covering 700 scpiarc metres 
made by the Hi'azilian architect, Ramos Azevedo, the .Justice one, 
at the side of the Governor's palace in roman-doric style also built by 
a Brazilian architect. 

'i'lie JjUz Station is the most lieaiitifiil building of its kind in the 
whole South American continent. It is as large as it is pretty and has 

— 157 — 

an elevated tower. It is made ol' red hrieks and tiles in the gothic- 
seottisli style. It is in front of the public garden, wliieh is nuieh 
like the Brussels park. M'e were told this station cost o\'er 
I.Ut)0:tMJ()fr(.»tMj. There is a constant movement of eahs and eaii-iages 
ab(nit the main entrances. The aspect of this building is one of those, 
that once impressed in the ti-avellers mind, is not easily foi'gotten. 
The Luz barracks, occupies a whole square, is illuminated by 
electric light, and this pi'etty architecture is a model of its kind. The 
ample Polyteehnical College, with its beautiful front, wide, enoi'- 

S. Paulo. — S. Bciito Place. 

nious witli its three distinct bodies of Roman style. The Luz school, 
the Xormal College are true palaces, erected in honor of Art and 
public instruction. 

In no other South American city we find such a large number of 
beautiful buildings devoted to public instruction. 

The churches are numerous, but only the modern ones i)resent 
artistic effect. 

Tlie public theatre, now being built will be in size and magnifi- 
cence well worthy of the other monuments of S. Paido. Us cost was 
valued at :j,000;OOU$000. It can be compared with the first theatres of 
Europe. Its front, rich in decorations, in the structure of its whole, 

— 4-58 — 

is classif and c-in hv I'laKsilicul as Louis XV style. As to its architec- 
ture, it preserves the ti-atlitions of the Italian classics by the sobriety 
of the lines of its whole. 

The place for the nmsicians is placed below the level of the 
orchestra seats in the audience, according to the system originated 
by Wagner. 

The orchestra seats capacity is a little smaller than those of 
European first class theatres, as the Grand Opera of Paris and 

Tlie progress of the scientific institutions, the culture of the cities 
and the public instruction in all the State is notably su])erior, and 
in an elevated degree, to the progress of other sections of Bi'azil. 

The late L. Gouty, biology professor at the Polytechnical Aca- 
demy of Rio, having promised some time ago that he would demons- 
trate the equality of the S. Paulo ex-province to the Buenos-Ayres 
prf)vince, wrote : 

« I'Jn jjiirbuit (III rerenncineiit de hi jiroiiince de Jiiieiios -Aires , nous nous 
etioiis eni;uge ii fiiire voir ijiie cetlc proi'ince si florissaute el si rapide au jiro- 
g-rcs auuil son egnlc nil Bresil, S Paulo ; nous nous etions trornjte ; S. Paulo 
n'esi i)as seiilemenl egnle : elle est, ii certains jioints de rue, siiperieiirc a 
Buenos-Aires ». 

" Spcakiiis of llic census (it llic liueiios-Ayrfs iu'dviiicc , we were cMigaged in pro- 
viiig lliiil llial |ir-i)viM(i' sii Ijlodniiiig nnd of siicli a I'apid pnigress liail its eqnal in Bfa- 
zil, S. I'anlii. We wi'i'o niistalien. S. I'aulci is not only ('(jnal , it is from eei'lain points 
ot view sii|iei'ioi' lo Buenos-. Vvres ». 

But, the speedy growth of iS. Paulo is such that the economist 
who is surjtrised of it having multiplied six times its x^roducing 
energy in 20 years, when Buenos-Ayres in the same i^eriod didn't sue" 
ceed to do any better than double it, added : « If the other provinces 
of Brazil had developed their work as vS. Paulo did, that country 
would furnish lo-day (1884) 10,000,000 bags of coffee instead of the 
5,000,000 it produces. )) 

AA'ell, it was not necessary for 8. Paulo to wait another 20 years 
l)y itself, to attain that figure of agricidtural production, what Luiz 
Gouty didn't think possible to be obtained without the aid of the 
other twenty provinces. 

I'iiii>ic Ins'i'iui'tion. — The Scientific Departments and Insti- 
tutes, the technical ones or mere theoretical ones, have an impor- 
tance in S. Paulo that they ha\e not in any other part of the 

— 459 — 

Its Pulytcchuical College is even superior to that of Rio, ]>y the 
uiaguii'ieenee ot its laboratories, hy the practical chai-acter ol' its pro- 
grams (it study and even by the imposing I'eature o! the building 
itsell'. Its Agricultural Pratical Schools have no ec^ual in the whole 
country, andsome of them such as the school of Batataes, areexclusive 
pi'opo'ty of the municipality; its demonstration fields are so many 
other practical schools, and have nothing to fear when compared 
with identical European institutes. The Agricultural Institute is 
also one t)f the best establishments of its kind. As to the Botanical 


.^jS j*-~<.. -f^ ^ ' 

_S ^ * 

S. Paulo. — Poljlcdiical College 

(iardcni it suffices to i'e2)eat these topics which Mi'. Benjamin F. A. 
Lima not long ago wrote : 

i< S. Paulo is a lucky State. 

All of its scientific establishments, all of its hygienic institutes 
are a niceness of jjrogress, with what there is of most perfect and 
modern in its kind. Thus, the Polyteclniical Academy, the Isolation 
H(jspita], the N'accinalion Institute are witnesses of the great pro- 
gress of the State. 

\A'c visited lately the Botanical Garden and while this establish- 
ment is but a section of the Geographical Commission, the works 
executed by Di'. ^Vlbert Loefgren are of extraordinary importance 

— mil — 

iov tlie Brazilian flora and show very well that it is under the 
direction of a learned man. 

The national and foreign plants nurseries, the hot-houses, the 
grafting of plants, everything is arranged with seientifie orientation, 
offering the most methodic order in the several bi-anehes of cultiva- 
tion practiced there, and leaving a pleasant impression in the visitors 
mind even if he knows but little about botany. 

Setting aside the importance of the new institute, the kindness 
of its director and his family make a visit to that establishment most 

S. Paulo. — (( PruileiUe de .Moraes)) Model scliool 

Its library is a repository of everything there is of best in that 
branch of natural sciences. 

The colleclions of insects both harmful and useful to agriculture, 
form already a large contingent of useful knowledge for the Brazil- 
ian farmers. 

Observations of atnii)sphci'ie conditions and soil temperature ai'C 
made by registring appai'atus cai'efuUy installed. 

The illustrious director initiated a series of microscopical obser- 
vations upon the contexture of the best Brazilian lumber, a most 
interesting work. » 

It is enormous what S. Paulo has achieved running the expenses 
of scientific departments and researches for the study of meteoro- 
logy, geology, botany, geographj' of the S. Pauh) State. It exceeds 
the amount spent for this purpose by all the other States together. In 
S. Paulo such services oljey to an official , methodic and efficient 
organisation. They are services created and kept by the State. 

'IMie librai-ies and newspapers appear in every city, in every 

village and every distriet ol' the State. During lUOIJ only, the agi'ienl- 
tnral and indiistiial depai'tnients distributed some 100.000 copi(>.s of 
pamphlets , bulletins and circulars containing jiractieal instruc 
tions for the public. In this State are 212 newspapers and periodi- 
cals. In proportion to the number of its inhabitants it is the state 
that reads and wi'ites the most. One fifth of all the Brazilian press is 
within the boundary lines of S. Paulo State. Xo other lias so many 
libraries or book stores. It is the largest l)ook market in the country 
after Rio de Janeiro, the Capital of Brazil. 

Xo other possesses such a large number of schools, relatively to 

S. Paiil(j. 

NDi'iiial Sriiool 

its population. Having only one third of the population of the State 
of Minas, it has nearlj' as many public schools as that State has. 

There were 2.558 grammar schools in the State of S. Paulo during 
last year with .57.002 students. 

In each municipium thei-e is besides those schools one high 
school with professional classes for each grouj) of ten grammar 

'I'he buildings for the grammar schools in the interior are true 
monuments erected to public instruction. They are in Santos, 
Lorena, Piracicaba, Ttapetininga, Amparo, (juaratingueta, Pinda- 
monhangaba and other places and they ought to serve as a stimula- 
tion for tlie other States. 

In the Capital there are the following establishments of instruc- 

— J.(i;> - 

tion, privato ;incl public : /-'/ia;v?(iiry College, iiiaiignratud on tlie 
11th of February 1890; the Aiixiliadora Orphan Asylum; the 
Christovao Colombo Orphan Asylym; the D. Anna Rosa Institiile; 
the Sagrailo Coracao Lyceum ; the Lyceum of Arts and trades ; the 
Seminario das Educandas ; the (rymnasium ; the ,}[odel School, 
annexed to the Normal College ; the Prudent de Moraes, in Luz ; the 
Maria Jose, in Bella Vista; and two other ones in Braz and Carmo. 

Railways, navigatiox, eti'. — Even in this regard S. Paulo is 
one of the first States of Brazil. Not long ago a Brazilian writer 
said : « In the Brazilan federation the State in which private initia- 
tive got ahead of the one of the other States, as to the development 
of their railways, is S. Paulo. » Xotwithstanding, we must note that 
that movement which is the advance agent of the progress of the 
old province, took place, without preci2)itation, at the proportion 
that the farmers arms were extending the coffee plantations which 
cover vast tracts of land with their thick branch and foliage, as a 
proof of the fecundity of the Brazilian soil in that region. 

There are in this State l.lSfi kilometres of railway, of which 
only 1.1 K'i kilometres are railways belonging to the Federal Govern- 
ment. There are •")02 locomotives, ."iyo passenger-cars and (i.88;> 
freiglit cars. 

There are in active construction .31(5 kilometres of railway tracks. 

Here is the general table of the railway lines in the State of Sao 
Paulo : 

General Table of Railway Lines, Both Federal 
AND Belonging to the State , in S. Paulo 






Ill Coiistriielioii 

C.onli'acted willi stiiflies presenli^il 
and not |iresenteil .... 






o 10,000 


Totals. . . 

2.99 i 



But the following table furnished us by Mr. S. das Neves, a civil 
engineer, is a better proof of the value of the S. Paulo railways : 


VKAll 1900 

iNcoiiK i:xi'i;\'si:.s [ iiAr.ANCio 

.S'. l^nulo liniliviiy . . 


Sorocabaiia e Ituaiia . . 



K. F. Campineiru . . . 
C. A. FuniliMise .... 


Kozoiule-Bocaina. . . . 












22.-;: 1808100 


6."i; 4338600 










7 4:9188990 













Def. 1:6268900 


Def. 4:7898004 


IJef. 8:595|350 



Total . . . 




These figures went away up in 1003 in tlie same roads, presenting 
tlie following totals : 

Incomes . 

Balance . 



Besides its railways S. Paulo maintains some navigation li- 
nes : the Mogy - Guassu (60 kilometres); the Ribeira de Iguape 
(1.54 kilometres) ; the Piracioaba and Tiete rivers ones, not speaking 
of the steamers for the coastwise navigation, starting from Santos, 
the outlet of the State. 

* * 

Police force and Charities Department. — The police force 
of S. Paulo is the best organized in tlie whole country. It is formed 
by a brigade composed of two infantry battalions, a cavalry com- 
pany, an organization of civic guardsmen, a firemen department, 
with a section of nurses for public aid and ambulance service in the 
Capital and two infantry battalions to do police duty in the interior. 

There are in all .5.000 men under the command of a colonel of the 
Federal army. 

The uniforms are first class ones, and they are armed with Mau- 
mser rifles. The civic guardsmen do their police duty generally unar- 

— let — 

ed only bearing tlic police, badge and by the selection oi' t-bese 
men, and thcnr good behavior wliile discharging their duties, this 
organization enjoys moral anthoi'ity towards the jx'ople. 

If (here is a Soiilh American Stale or ])i'o\ince where Sanilai'y 
ser\'ices and public aid are a r(!ality, this Slate ol' S. i'auloisthe 
one. Xot long ago an Italian ])ublication said abf)ut this bran(di of 
public service : « The Sinic ofS. Ptiiilo h:ts ;i snnilnry scruice which 
aut be coiujiured milh that of uny other country even of those con- 
sidered more nduunced ». 

Thei'C is a ])ermanent corporation ol' Sanitary ])(dice, composed 
ot ]}hysicians, well paid, inspectoi's and assistants, who keep a close 
watch in the Capital and i)rincii)al cities. Tliere is a .Sanitaiy code 
regulating and deciding all tlie questions relating to public health. 
There are several establishments installed like in Europe, as the 
Seroterapie Institute, the Bacteriological Institute, the Chemical 
and Bromatological Analysis Laboratory, the Isolation Hospital, 
the Demographic Hospital, tlie Central Disinfectory, the Pharma- 
ceutical Laboi'atory, the Pasteur Institute and others, placing thus 
S. Paulo the first on the list of the States having the best Sanitary 

As to public aid, properly said, we must mention the following 
establishments not needing any details, as it is well known the care 
that presides the management of public sei'vices : Charity Hospital, 
Insane Asylum, hospitals in all the cities of the interio)- of the State, 
like : Bananal, Casa Branca, Campinas, Franca, Iguape. (jluaratin- 
gneta , .Taearehy, Lorcna, Mog\y das Cruzes, Pindamonliangaba, 
Piracicaba, S. Carlos do Pinlial, Santos, Silveiras, Taubate, Itu. 


* * 

Industry, production, coArMERCE. — The most advanced State of 
Brazil as to its manufacturing industries, excepting the Capital of 
tlie Repnl)lic, is yet S. Paulo. Its factories multiply themselves in a 
])rogression and variety really remarkable. Tlie number of factory 
hands, men, women and (diildren at present working in S. Paulo is 
mor(! than 50.0()(». 

There are factoi'ies of the most varied industry, mostly moved by 
steam, a considerable number b\- electricity, others by hydraulic 
power, etc. I'herything is worth noting from the large sugar facto- 
ri(;s of Piracicaba, liaffard, Kugenio Artagas, to tliose of minei'al 
waters, wines, vinegai', perfumes, chocolate, stai'ch, biscuits, beer, 
jjreserves. In the line of glasswai'c, crockery, t'rystals, bottles, etc., 

— Ki.i — 

the mannlacturers of S. Paulo imposed themselves to the Hi-ivzilian 
markets by the supeviority ot their goods. Tlie works in inarl)le, 
tiles, pipes, enamel, bricks, cannot be exceeded. Tlierc are several 
important cement I'actories, we will mention only, however, the 
Kodovalho one, the products oi' which have won fame. "I'lie threa- 
ding mills, cotton, silk and wool ai'e important and there are also in 
the Capital two large coffee-bags factories known as Penteado with 
about 1.000 hands. In tliis threading mills line tliere are : the Nossa 
Senhora da Ponte , in Sorocaba, with 500 hands; theMooca;the 
Prudent, with 200 hands ; the Santa Rosalia, moved by electricity ; the 
S. Koque, with 500 hands ; the Del Acqua, in Osasco; the S. Bernar- 
do; the Keyman R. & Co., also in S. Bernardo,- the Votorantin, in 
Sorocalja; the S. Martinho and others. Working in furniture \\e 
mention : the Santa Maria; Lavei'ias; Cai'los Lohol & Co.; Edward 
Waller, school furnititre; Brothers Reffinotte, also school and 
domestic furniture; Antonio jMasso, show-cases and closets; Almei- 
da Guedes and others. 

The breweries are : the Antartiea Paulista, one of the most 
important in South America. Its buildings occupy 8.000 square 
metres and pi'oduces four million litres of beer. The Bavai'ia bre"\\ery 
is as important as the Antartiea. 

It is not necessary to give account of the factories one by one, it 
suffices to give the names of the most important ones : One araminn 
threading mill, (the only one of its kind in South America); 1 glass 
lapidation; 1, soap and grease; 1, blank books; "2, looking-glasses 
and crystals; 1, toys; 2, shoe blacking; 7, shoes; 1, nuisical instru- 
ments, (adopted by all the bands in the .State); 1, statues; 1, jiianos ; 

1, fruit flour; 5, book binderies; 1, nails; 5, leather tanning; 
5, sweets; 4, sugar refineries; 2, fine soap; 1, artificial flowers; 

2, chemical products ; several, coffee roasting; 1, bronze foundry; 

1, bells and brass articles; 1, hats; 1, sanitai'y pipes and tiles; 
'■>, vegetable oils ; 2, flour mills; 1, sli^jpers; 2, sawing mills; 1, cement 
and crockery; several distilleries; 1, canned goods; 2, powder; :>, 
agricultural implements; 1, matches; o, ready made clothing; 
i, glassware and bottles; 1, marble articles and lime ; 1, children's 
food; 2, string and ropes; 1, gloves; 1 , paper ; 1, priests apparel; 

2, apparatus for water and sewerage; 2, incturcs frames ; l.eard- 
lioard ; 7, (inplate goods; .'J, trunks; 1, lead pi]ics ; .'!, iron works; 
2, mineral waters; li, nu'n's clotliing; 0, brooms; 1, baskets; I, food 
products; 1, awnings; (i, matresses , 1, candles; 2, optical instru- 
ments; o, economical stoves; .'J, straw or cane furniture ; 2 pulj) 
making; 1, carbon sulphureto; 2, candy. All these factories are me- 

- 4Gr, — 

chaiiieal ones. There are many others, smaller ones, all through the 
different eities of the vState. 

CoKFKK. — The great strength of S. Paulo rests on the powerful, 
ample basis of its agriculture, the productive energy of which has no 
parallel in the United States of America. The wealthy productivity 
of the soil got for the coffee a reign, as it can never have in 
Asia, Africa, Central America, and even in some of the Brazilian 

S. Paulo knew coffee half a century ago, but that cultivation 
began to receive impulse when the railways spread west-ward 
in 1825. 

Coffee fann-liouse lo tlic west of S. Paulo 

The initiators of this concjuest were Brazilians , natives of 
S. Paulo, with which they gave a prominent place to Brazil in the 
world interchange , assuring for it a kind of monopoly of that 
precious product. 

From that date the production is for ever increasing. The far- 
mers, all Bi'azilians, in the beginning used the African slaves to 
work their grounds. In 1888 the slaves were free and the work began 
to be done by European immigrants, most of them Italians. The 
latter is a good immigrant. 

A Brazilian, a native of the Minas State, called Dumont, went 


Annual averagefi by ihousnnd bugs weighing- 60 kilos each 


































IS 5 










Scale I mjnt to 10,000 bag's. 

— 168 — 

iiway w'i."st- in tliis State and there established the largest coffee 
plantation in the world. Others imitated him, though in more modest 
proportions, and to-day S. Paulo has 650.9(30.060 coffee trees of all 

The area occupied is 300.4J(i ahjueircs and there are yet, to be 
disposed of, in the farms that are being cultivated, )!92. llij ahjueires 
of grounds apipropriated for ne^Y coffee plantations. This means, 
that without needing to come out of the region where coffee is culti- 
vated, within the limits of that part of the State already x^opulated 
and served by the best means of transport, it disposew of grounds 
for the production of more than the double of what it produces to-day. 

From 1880-1881 to 1884-1885, or, from 1895-1896 to 1899-1900 the 
average annual production of Brazil increased from 5.900.000 to 
9.690.000 bags, while in Africa only increased from 125.000 to 225.000 
and in Venezuela Colombia, from 2,175.000 to :j.o25.000. 

Santos exported an average of 1.755.000 yearly from 1880 to 1885 
and from 1895 to 1900 this average went to 6.020.000 bags (of 60 
kilos) with an estimate for the crop of 1905-1906 of 9.500.000 bags, 
the total computation of the whole Brazil being lo. 125.000 bags, and 
of the whole world 16.125.000. No doubt these figures illustrate in a 
striking way the extraordinary coffee producing capacity of Brazil. 

The development and value of the S. r*aulo coffee production 
can be better demonstrated by the graphic exposition that we 
print here. 

It will show how the coffee exports through the port of Santos 
(not computing then the exports from Rio, Bahia and Victoria) was 
increasing while those of the producing centres of Asia and America 
remained stationary or diminished, crushed by the S. Paulo compe- 

In spite of that increase of production and exportation of coffee, 
the State of S. Paulo, had yet time and energy to send to the markets 
several other products, some in large (juantity like rice, sugar, 
tobacco and some grain. 

AVe hear the noise of the discontented and pessimists cursing the 
coffee, si)eakiug of crisis, a curious crisis that sujiports tlie cost of 
monumental works and feeds an active commerce. 

In 19(J0 S. Paulo exported products of its agriculture to the value 
of 261.099:57781 i:i. 

L)o you want to know how much it exported in 1901 in the height 
of the crisis? 

I'he official value of goods exported by the port of Santos during 

— — 

1901 was :.n)l.'.J74:10o§2U.j. These exports from Santos eomc I'roiii 
(lilferent States in these projiortioiis : 

8. Paulo . . 
Hi lias G("raos 
r.()\ a/ . . . 
Oihoi' Sialics 



118:1 l.-!j;()00 


These figures would go over .•JU(J.0o(l:00(»$U()O if we sliould add to 
them the not small amount of goods tliat go to Rio de . Janeiro 
instead of Santos by the Central of Bi'azil railway. 

And the manufactured products? 

The principal poi't hy which ,S. Paulo exports its goods is San- 
tos, one of the best of tlie coast because of its docks and appa- 
ratus foi' loading and unloading. 




AusU'iaii . 
Argentine . 
Brazilian . 
Frencli . . 
Italian . . 








1 02 





































Danish . 





























— 470 — 

The loading- and unloading ol' goods on the Santos quay, during* 
that year was 1.1 17. sr,? tons against 700.012 in 19UU. The Custom 
House revenue was : 

190.) :i0.59:i;.4IOSO(lO 

I90i .V2.95ri;OIO$nO0 

I'.io:; r)(i.82.i::!8.'i<snoo 

Always inercasing, always pi-ogressing ! 

The Hrazilian Hag daring l'.iO:i had an increase oi :;<! ships, 
20.000 tons of goods more tlian the preceding year in the port of 


Hosijilal of Sania Casa ile Misericoi'ilia 

The immigration. — The cause of the great development 
S. Paulo has had, is principally due to the immigration of European 
hlood which has activated its general circulation lately. This great 
transfusion of European hlood gave to tlie work of vS. Paulo a strong 

The aspect of the Capital of S. Paulo is to a certain extent the 
aspect of an European city, with its types, customs and comfort. 

Tlie same happens through all the interior. 

From 1827 to 1900 S. Paulo received no less than ',t09.2o(» immi- 
grants from Europe, including 11^8.220 third class ])assengers. About 
seven tenths of tlusse were Italians. 

^ 1.71 - 

« On aecouiit ol' its territorial siirrace., no otlier region in Sonlli 
America received so mnch iniiiiigration, » said Dr. Kugenio J^elevre, 
of the S. Paulo Agriculture Depai'tment, and added : << Tlie Argen- 
tine Republic with "2. 885. 020 square kilometres oi' territory received 
from 1857 to 18f)V», only 2.5()4.:i91 immigrants, which is less than one 
per squai'e kilometre, The State of S. Paulo during the same time 
with a surface of 2.50.000 square kilometres received in proportion 
four times more than Argentine. » 

Tlie efforts employed by S. Paulo to attract to its territory an 
efficient current of immigration from Europe, were such that in 
1871 from a Budget of 1.500:000S000, it devoted an api^ropriation of 
(100:0001000 to the immigration service alone. 

During the years 1805 to 1898 the entry of immigrants in groups 
of five years was as follows : 

Years Immigrants 

I860 10 1869 1.160 

1870 » 1874 1. 273 

1873 » 1879 10.4.33 

1880 » 1884 15.899 

1885 » 1889 168.289 

1890 « 1894 520.313 

1895 » 1899 420.296 

Until to-day the i^ercentage of those who go away is 34 '/e "jg. 

The current of immigration is always in the increase, and the 
State does not spare sacrifices to keep on increasing it. Let us see 
the statistics of 1900-1901. 

Immigrant passengers. 

Years. Entering. Sailing. 

1900 27.6,59 38.141 

1901 73.843 40.707 

Of these immigrants 11.693 in 1900 and 22.133 in 1901, came to 
S. Paulo at their own expense and this proves that the saci'ifices the 
State has made could be dispensed with and the European immi- 
gration current will keep on coming of their own free will and at 
their expense. 

The Cities of the State of S. Paulo. — No other State pre- 
sents such a large number of beautiful cities as S. Paulo does. We 
can even say that some of its interior towns are more advanced , far 
more so, than certain capitals of the States of Brazil. 

It has 22 cities illuminated ))y electricity and four by gas. 

— 472 — 

Tlu'i-e are 25 plaei's in the State witli Water Works, four others 
AN ith this (h^]3artmeut under way, ])lacing the pipes under ground, 
three aniplihing theii- service, and It witli plans approved only, 
awaiting the arrival of the mat(n'ial whieh is furnished by tlie State. 

Have sewerage service : the Capital, Santos, Campinas, Arara- 
quara, .lahu, lliheii-ao Preto, Piracicaba, Itapira, Bragam-a, ^NJonte- 
M(')i', ten places in all. With sewerages initiated and worfcing on its 
installation there ai'e Rio Claro, Sorocaba, Pirassununga, Taubatc, 
Limeira, and Aniparo, six in all. With approved plans, eight : Espi- 

SmiiIos — 7 Si'lyiiiliiii Sli'ci'l 

rito Santo do Pinhal, ( Juaretingucta, Lorena, Botucatu, ]Mogy das 
Cruses, S. .lose do Rio T'ardo, Caeapava and Tiete. 

Mogy-iMirim has the works initiated but suspended for several 

'Vhc material of glassy crockery mass furnished by the State to 
the localities which are going to do this sanitary work, is all of 
home manufacture, and in its largest part made in S. Paulo. 

Nearly every one of the cities above mentioned have public build- 
ings of first class, hospitals, railway stations, newspapers, thea- 
tres, factories, etc. 

^^'e will speak only of the most important ones. 








— .1.71. — 

Samtos. — Tlioso who go from Itio to the Soiitli, iilways follow a 
sea-coast full oi' curves, with several little bays, some of them destin- 
ed to perform a great role in the future, like Uhatuba, S. Sehastiao, 
all that coast shaded by high and uniform elevations of the Serra do 
^rar (sea ridge of mountains; which looks like an enormous wall de- 
lending the i-oast in all its extension till the front of the liertioga 
bar where a large tract of the continent, separated from it, opens 
witli the name of Gnaruja, a sheltered ])assage lined with small 

Santos. — Keal's CciiU-o Portuguese building 

islands, at the bottom of which is Santos, the organ of appropria- 
tion and expropriation of all the S. Paulo State. 

It is its safety valve. 

It is not the largest city of the State, it is perhaps the third, or 
fourth as to the number of inhabitants. As a city , and as to its 
urbane organization, its function of being an outlet of the enormous 
production of the S. Paulo State, it lias won a great importance 
before all the others. Besides, there are the hydraulic works built in 
its port, placing it at the head of all other Brazilian ports, as to the 
regularity of its commert'ial operations, can do no less than increase 
that importance, so that, as to the bidk of its world interchange, 
Santos has become one of tlie most noted ports of South Ameinea. 

- 47 r, — 

In Brazil is only second to IJio dc Janeiro. It is S. Paulo's dooi- at 
the oeean. 

The city extends itsell' over plains with beautiful searshores like 
Jose Menino with beautiful residences, picturesque buildings , a 
splendid hold, which looks as if stolen from some beautiful Euro- 
pean summer resort. The oldest part of the city is the one bet\\een 
the docks and (Juin/.o de Xovembro Sti'ect. It is tortuous, filled with 
lanes as in the old cities. The new part of the city spreads itself 
towards the South, South-east and towards the enormous areas con- 
cjuered from the sea by the Empreza das Docas , around the nice 
hill crowned by the Nossa Senhora de Mont-Serrat church. 

In the business streets, especially (iuinze de Novembro one, 
filled with banks, offices, stores , bar-rooms , is a whirlwind of 
human waves, I'unning here and there, as the largest part of the 
business is done between the arrival and departure of the S. Paulo 
train, because the majority of merchants go to S. Paulo in the eve- 
ning, running away from the heat and the dust of Santos. 

From 10 in the morning to 1 in the afternoon is the most 
earnest activity, peoj^le do not run, they fly. The sweat dami^ens 
the collars, the convei'ses are resumed to the exchange of monosyl- 
lables, as it is necessary that everything be finished before the last 
train starts. Every foreigner notices on the first days, this social 
aspects of the city impression, thus translated by a writer : — « the 
city has the appiearance of a person just finishing and closing all 
his business for a long trip, for a rest, for a vacation, on the eve of 
a holy day season. There is not that business almost regulated and 
calm, of the Brazilian commercial markets. There everything is done 
in a hurry, in anxiety, in earnest , it must be a fever if it is not an- 

Through the other streets work is disputed with the same eager- 
ness as in the Quinze de Novembro street. Heavy four wheel trucks 
run here and there overloaded with bags of coffee, and from the 
railway to the docks these wagons cross our way with all their haste 
and noise threatning running over us. At the door of the storage 
houses the horses have their rations of straw while the trucks are 
loaded. Herculean Portuguese and negroes, sweating, half naked, 
barefooted go about I'unning in small but swift steps with one or 
two bags on their backs over their heads from the stoi'age house to 
the ti'uck at the sound of a singing tune monotonous and savage 
like. We hear the noise of the wooden shovels handling the coffee 
in the stoi-age houses. )) This is in the active centre of the city. I^et 
us see the other places. 

— ni; — 

On tlie way to tliat lioantil'ul sca-shorc, « .Jose Meiiino » there are 
extcnided in parallel with each other two w idc and long avenues, — 
Xehias and Anna Cosla, with a length ol' nearly lour kilometres, 
well jiaved and illuminated with carbonic gas like the rest of the 
city. Pretty streets ci'oss these avenues now only pai'tly huilt and 
which will in the future be gradually taking active part in the mo- 
\-enient of the central districts. Tramcars overloaded with passen- 
gers take to this region of rest the people that ended their duties, 
and come back running unceaselessly through the business streets, 
filled with noise of the wagon-wheels , ambulant venders and 

S. Vicenlo. 

iMoiiuiiieiit of llie -ilh ceiiliiry of Brazil, ereclod wliei'i^ 
i\Iartim Aflonso laiidpd 

newsboys. There in that district move around busy in their work 
the anonymous workmen. 

The Empreza das Docas which built the improvement of the port 
and made the sanitary rehabilitation of Santos , spoiled a little the 
beauty of their work, Ijuilding ugly storage houses covered with zinc 
in the entire front of the city, so that not only the city loses some- 
what in its appearance but those storage liouses prevent the air from 
circulating in the streets that lead there. 

But as « every evil is the beginning of good », that so little com- 
fortable preeminence impelled the inhabitants of Santos to direct 

— 1.77 — 

their cares to the beautiful sea-shores : S. Vicente, Jose-Menino 
and Guam j a. 

Tlie latter is a sea-shore place in the style of those of the vSouth 
of Europe. To go there from vSantos we take a small launch and after 
a short sail, half an hour railway ride takes us to the most pictu- 
rt's(j^ue summer resort of South America. A sea-shore of white sand, 
pretty and long sti'eets lined by ihnlets (wooden cottages) more or 
less of the same style, i Queen Anne cotliigesi, the Casino, the lai-ge 
hotel with its wide verandah contemi)lating the honest and distant 

Sanlos. — S. Paulu I'ailway station 

furyjof the sea, that endless sea, and more ])leasant than all that, the 
aristocratic circle of summer residents in light clothes — that is the 
pretty picture of that charming summer resort. 

From S. Paulo, from all over Brazil, families and toiirhts pay 
their visit to Guaruja the panorama of which begins to become cele- 
JH'ated as those of p:uropean resorts in travellers albums, postal 
cards and magazines. 

That charming and bright place by the sea, with its light and 
beautiful cottages , surrounded by gardens , remind one of the 
most picturesque scenes of Switzerland. It (has also all the poetry of 

— 47R — 

tropical places and is most accessible. Excepting during the Sea- 
shore season when the houses are all taken and there is no room at 
the hotel, iiuy one without incurring in large expenses can visit this 
pretty corner. And the place is w(dl frequented. 

The other sea-shoi'C places are not less interesting, and I'or all 
ol' them are rapid and easy transportation I'acilities. To go to 
S. \'iccnte, that pleasant city, there is a railway service. It is located 

Campinas. — Railway Station 

atone hour ride fi'om Santos, and has a beautil'td stone monument to 
commemorate the discovery of Brazil. 

Santos is connected with S. Paulo by a i^owerful railway, which 
had to overtake the diffei'enee of 70(1 metres over the Cubatao hill in 
a series of five inclined plans, each of them filled with works 
of art, tunnels and viaducts. It was a raarvelhuis feat of modern 
engineering and it was the initiative of Visconde de Mami. 

When the train starts from the bottom of the hill, our first 
thought is that the monster cannot go up that steep hill, which rises 
with all its majestic proportions filled with abysses of threatening 

48n — 

\cj;c'tati(in. I5ul the train j;(ii's on, achances with a o-roiij) oT cars,tlie 
laudsra-pos nm aw ay Iroin us, llioro arts ciidluss banana plantations 
lil<c rouKli lakes liy the side of (he train until the first station. Then 
be};insthe rphill work until the third stop. Then thei'e is tlie tonrth 
and llie filth until the toj) where from throuf;h a level road the train 
lakes us to S. I'aulo. It is a pretty seenery all along- the road 
w ith houses, ehurehes, plantations, faetory cdiinmeys, monuments, 
woods, bridges over a rixcr, all that vai'iety of landscape that 
(duirms the eye o! the traveller w ithout tiring his brain. 

Ca^ipinas. — It ^\as onee the most important eity of S. Paulo, 
that beautiftil city of Campinas, and it still keeps one of the first 
places in the State. It was formerly called 8. Carlos, and took the 
present name after the green fields that surround it. It was elevated 
to the rank of city in 18 12. It is the seat of a most rich coffee dis- 
tri(,'l. .Veeording to census of twelve years ago there were MIl.UOO inha- 
bitants, to-day there must be l.",()nUor more. A railway line con- 
nects it with tlie Capital of tlu^ Slate. It has a learned and cultured 
population, with several institutes of instruction. Its wide streets 
carefully swe^jt, with magnificent gas illumination, are lined with pa- 
laces and fine numsions. A Brazilian writer wrote about it as follows: 
» But what is to be admired most there is the neatnes.s of the streets, 
and even in the residences there is to be noted good hygienic 
conditions and cleanliness. The yards are cemented, they can be 
easily swcjit anil washed, thus a\<iiding dii't and infiltrations, with 
all its bad consc(pu'nccs. 

M'ith that sky of a. perpetual blue, and a complete silence, the city 
luis the aspect of a wealthy spot sheltering an opulent coui't. » 

It is pr(d)ably due to that aristocratic api)earance that they call 
it PrincvzH do Ocsle (Pi'incess of the West) and must be a real prin- 
cess tlu' city that has the re(|uiroments to ennoble it that Campinas 
has. Wei'e it not- I'oi' S. I'aulo, t'ampinas woidd be a splendid capital 
wdiicli would not lower its greatness. I'^xcellent water, several 
ncw-s])apers, a nice (!\-mnasiuni, three lil)raries , tramway sei'vice, 
are all elements of ))rogress to be foi'med in Campinas. 

P'rom among its l)est buildings we admired the S. Carlos theatri'; 
tlie large vegetable market; the Companhial'aulistarailway station, of 
norman style, with a srpuire towei' at the side, ending in a pyramid. 
Die main body of wliicdi ha\ ing two floors and side galleries; the 
Cit\- Hall, of simple but noble lines ; the Xossa Senhora da Conceicao 
(diui'ch of Roman vStyle, imitating the (lloria Church in Rio, and 
on(! of the largest and richest eliurehes in Brazil , in a public 
S(]uai'e with four rows of trees cai'efully treated; the Cori'ea de Mello 

— 481 — 

School, andtlier I'iiie public buildiuf;-, dI' modern agriciiltui-o ; the 
Slaughtei- house, one of the best ol' its kind in S. Panlo ; the publie 
garden and race track. These two are worth a visit of tlie lou- 
riats as well as the building- of the Lyceum of Arts and 1'rades and 
that of the Italian Beneficent Society, large and of Corinthian style 
with a central body and two wings. 

A:mi'aro. — This is one of tln^ most jji-ogressive cities in the 
country. It has 30.000 inliabitants with all modern improvements 
Avhich can give name to a Capital. And this is the Capital, we may 
say it, of an opulent municipium. 

Camjiinas. — Panorama oi a part of the City. 13 Maio e Costa Aguiar Street 

The agriculture which is the j^rincipal element of life of this 
municipium consists in coffee. The export of this product in 1900 
was of 23.351.603 kilograms and the import of goods in 1899 was 
10. .512. 102 kilograms. 

We were told in that city that its name — Amparo — (protection) 
came from an historical circumstance : several families quite 
poor, a certain day went to that place looking for protection and 
shelter that that rich and pretty spot could offer theiia. And there 
remained and prospered. It was a beautiful place. From the city on 
one side could be seen a ridge of mountains known as Caraquata, 
rich and fertile as Brazilian mountains generally are, and on the 

— 4.82 — 

otliev side tJio waters, the river, that as Father Kazan said, are I'm' 
the landscape what the eyes are for the I'ace. 

It is a new city. In 1828 it was a simjjle liamlet. It became a city 
in 18( )."•). 

It is 135 kilometres away from H. Paulo. The hills siii-rounding 
it, all lull of cultivation , are charming. Having progressed much in 
the last ten years it can present to the visitor some beautiful Iniikl- 
ings, as for instance : 

The parish-church , a structure preceded of four corinthian 
columns, ending in a front with a statue, two square towers and 
polygonal pyramids , a central door and three windows fill the front 
of the building, and in the towers are niches for statues. 

Oainiiinas. — l.yccuni dI' Ails and ^laiuil'aclnrcs 

The City Hall, a magnificent building has in its front rich 
columns, in the two floors and upon the acroteria a little steeple 
with a clock and bells, symbolisms left by tradition to the muni- 

The Amparo Hospital is one of the best w(i have seen. Two 
bodies of two stories each, connected by a central pavillion in form 
of portico, the entrance to which is made by a pretty stairway, all in 
the ionic style, is the exterioi' of the building ; in the interior, as all 
modern hospitals, has wards amply aired, full of light and with 
complete hygienic and anti-sceptic conditions. 

'i'liere is a large and pretty school in a two story building, with 
two distinct bodies, german style, with terraces and i^avillions at 
the sides, forming all a beautiful whole. 

— 4R3 — 

The .Toao Caetano theatre, with a pretty i'ront, two floors, is a 
small but artistic theatre with (")00 sc^ats capacity. 

The electric light works, are in a solid Imilding. They provide 
the motive power for the electric lights of the city. 

The street that pleased us most was Treze de Maio , wide, 
with nice buildings, of Italian architecture, as well as business 

('.ampinas. — Cliurcli of ,N'. I), da Conceirao 

The public garden is pretty and good care is taken of, with works 
of art, pavillions, etc. 

The city is connected with the outsitle by means of the Mogyana 

PiRACicABA. — It is on a rivei', as it happens with the majority 
of Brazilian cities. This river is nice and clear, with falls, the 
inliabitants taking full advantage of them. 

Its I'iver is the motive power for the light and moving of Piraci- 

— 4,11 — 

caha fac'toi-ics. Tliiis is lluit an industrial city. Its to])0<4i'ai>]i3' 
is rci;'iilar, (lie Ijiiildiuf^s are modern ones, it looks like a chess- 
board. Its piil)lic <;ar(len is ver,\- pretty, 'i'liere is f^reat animation 
and material [irogress in the city. It must have )i.").(lOO inliahitants. 
n'en years aj4() when the last census was taken, it had l:!.l'.)| males 
and kJ.OTl I'emah^s, not incdudin;;- the i)0])ulation of Santa Maiia 
disti'iet, \\hi(di really is not city. 

It has pi-etty buildino's bofli public and private, as : 

'J'lie Coi'acao de Jesus churcdi, of Koman Style, in a lar^'e severe 

Giiaraliiiguetii. — View ot a pari of tlje City and port 

body in two sections, with statues in the front. Tt has a classic and 
harmonious appearance. 

The Metliodist clmrch, with its steeple in the form of a collossal 
sentry-box and surrounded hy ])alm-trees. 

The high school, new two story building, Italian style, with a 
fine garden and artistic railing in front. 

The grammar school, a pretty building of a sober and liarmo- 
nious architecture, gothic style; it is a proof of the care and gene- 
rosity with which S. Paulo installs its institutes for instructicm. 

Piracicaba lias some notable factoi'ies, moved by steam and hy- 
draulic ])ower, threading mills, breweries, distilleries, etc. We cite 
a sugar factory, producing annually U0,()00 bags of sugar of rtO kilos 
each. It is a large building with two chimneys. Tlie « Arcthusinu » 

— 485 — 

is a cotton mill with all modern improvements with a valuable pro- 
duction hotli because ol' the (juantity and quality. 

GrARATiNGUETA. — Tliosc wlu) travel between S. I'aulo and Rio 
see at the kilometre n°300 of that line, a gay city, the houses of which 
are reflected in the trembling crystal of the river Avaters. There is a 
long red bridge over this river. This city is Guaratingueta, built in 1611 
though it only became in fact a city in 18-14, two centuries afterwards. 

To-day it is a most active commercial city as well as an indus- 
trial and agr-icultural one, with excellent jjublic buildings and private 

S. Juao du Bua visla. 

Place ul' recreation 

Jt could n(jt be otherwise considering the magniticent^location 
where it is between two commercial emporiums, the two largest 
markets of Brazil — Rio and S. Paulo — and connected with both 
by I'ailwaj'. 

It has a beautiful climate at a height of 5o0 metres above the sea 
level, wrapped in extensive coffee plantations, another green sea, 
which grows larger every year around the city. 

Among its principal streets is Quinze de Novembrt), wide, a little 
curve, with nice private houses and commercial stores. 

Its City Hall is not worthy of note ; it is a solid U\o story struc- 
ture, with seven windows in the upper story and three in the lower 
one, and has a somewhat decorated front. 

— 4-8fi — 

"Plic church, the high tower of whicli can be seen from tlie train 
is one of the finest churches in the interior. Its market is a lively 
one and kept clean. The streets are wide and well illuminated. The 
movement and animalion of the peoi)lc, c\ery(hing there gives the 
city the right to be called one of the first cities of S. Paulo. 

Its population grew rapidly. By the statistics of 10 years ago it 
had ;!().(. )00 inhabitants, to-day it has no less than !•").( )(.)(), of course, in 
all the munieipium. 

iS(uun'Ai!,\,. — S. Paulo having se\'eral cities ])urely industrial 
ones, hardly will be able to present another like Sorocaba, excepting 
the Capital. Of its oO.OOO inhabitants at least one tenth or about 
oOOU devote themselves to tlie factory work. Located in a large hole 
in the soil it takes advantage of its river, full of falls, known as <c the 
river that digs holes » and uses it as motive powei' for the factories, 
cotton mills, etc. 

Its public garden is the most picturesque in the whole State. It 
has in the centre a pavillion or Ijand-stand, country style but quite 
pretty. Its churcli has also a eounti-ylike aspect, old architecture, 
quite simple. We are not sure but we think it dates back the time 
Sorocaba was a village in l(jO(.>. 

Its streets somewhat tortuous, as those of all the old cities, are 
lined with nice ])rivate buildings and stores. 

Dr. jMoreira Pinto twoy ears ago wrote about this city as follows : 

II Sorocaba is to-day transformed into an industi'ial city, business 
there now is taking a new turn, ne^^■ houses built in large numbers 
show a live awaking. 

It has four threading mills, leather tanning works, brick factory, 
hats, shoes, and other factories, and these are the best in-oofs of the 
new economical feature of the munieipium. 

Besides the lime manufacture which is done in lai-ge scale, and 
l)rei)aration of marl)le at Dr. Xicohio Vergueio's farm, there is the 
culture of vines and making of wine, the latter finding easy market. 

"^'ct , the business of Sorocaba preserves a more vast field 
than that of the boundary lines of the munieipium. All that immense 
region at South-east of tlie State of S. Paulo until the frontiers of 
the Parana State gets its supply from Sorocaba that is undeniably 
the most imi)ortant market on this side of S. Paulo. » 

It has a Charity hospital, a fine jiublic theatre, newspapers, ma- 
sonic lodges, liie Siu'ocaba railway, water suj)ply, electrical illumi- 
nation, etc. 

It pi'odu(;es coffee in gi'cat ahundauce, it exports cattle, sugar, 
lime, etc. It ])i'oduces gi'ain for the consumption of the whole munici- 

— 487 — 

pinm and even exports a little to the neighborhood. This distriet is 
no doubt rieh in minerals and there is the Ipanenia iron foundry, 
producing iron of a (.xuality superior to that of the best foreign mi- 
nes. Before the discovery of this important layer whieli feeds tliat 
factory, several exploitations of gold and silvei- had btsen made iu 
the Aracoyaba hill. The iron foundry is situated very near this city, 
being connected with it by the Horocaba railway which has a local 
station there. 

PiNDAMONUANGAHA. — When a long name like that is given in 
Brazil, what is not uncommon, people generally say : — « the name 
is larger than the person ». In this case w(^ cannot say that the name 
is larger than the city. Large as the name is, the city exceeds it, 
progressing with a speed that honors the S. Paulo State. It is also by 
the Central Railway of Brazil I'oad, 17(1 kilometres from the Capital 
of the State. Just like Guaratingueta it is built on the banks of the 
Parahyba river. It has an excellent climate, "ilO metres above the 
sea level, on an elevated ground opening the horizon of ridges of 

Its poi)ulation is, perhaps about 25.000 inhabitants. The census 
of 1892 gave it 17.542 of which 8.741 males and 8.798 females. It was 
made a city by provincial law n" 17, the 3rd of Ai)ril 1849. Its princi- 
pal products are : coffee, rice, beans, corn, sugar, brandy, hides and 
rattle. It comprises the Xossa Senhora do Bom Suecesso de Pinda- 
monhongaba church. Its Sete de Setembro street is pretty, though 
somewliat inclined, with a fine perspective with one and more 
floors. The Francisco Komeiro public square is most beautiful. 

LoRKNA. — This city, as thepi'cvious one, is bathed by the waters 
of the Parahyba river, and in the ^SOth. kilometre of the Central of 
Brazil railway, not far, then, from Guaratingueta. From there starts 
the small railway now in construction to Campos do Jordao, where 
the War office built a military Sauatarium. 

Lorenahas a charming panorama, has newsi)a])ers and good illu- 
mination. Its jjarish-church is pretty, middle age Italian style, 
with a high steeple and suri-ounded by palm trees. 

A building that awakes the attention of the tourist is the jail and 
police bai'racks , with \\'ide lines Italian style without losing 
anything of its austerity and solidity. 

The school, however, has not the architectonic beauty of those 
of other cities of S. Paulo. It is a large building like a plain storage 
house, in the style of the houses in the old metropolis square and 
windows on all sides. A fine building in Lueena is its sugar factory, 

— 188 — 

t^YO stories high, and in the main stimetui'e has a square chimn(>y. 
Jahu. — By the Estrada Paulista railway at 12 hours ride irom 
S. Paulo, there is Jahu. It is the seat of a coffee municipium, a great 
producer. Its City Hall is a square building with two floors, simple 
but elegant, with a stairway in its front, decorated with ionic style 
columns. Its market is pretty, but of quite a different type from 
other markets we see in the interior cities. It was built with stone 
and lime but of an architecture (piite presentable. 

Jaliii. — Miiiiici|iul Cliamber 

One of i(s newspapers the Correio dc Jahu, not long ago affirmed 
that that municipium is of all others of tlie State, the one where 
more woi'k has been done for the cause of public instruction. 

Not long- ago it had only two schools, one for each sex, and now 
besides private colleges it has '.VS schools with 1.021 pupils. 

Jaliii has ten schools united in a group called « Dr. Padua Salles i>, 
four isohiled, uiaintained liy tlu' government. III nuiintained by the 
municipality, a night school nuiintained by the government, an 
Italian school directed by professor Diaferia, a church scho(.)l main- 
tained by tlio vicar , another night school installed in the mason 
lodge building, one maintained by the Presbyterian church, one just 

— 189 — 

founded, — « the Maternal « — for little girls from two to five years 

There is a good sehool for boys under the denomination of 
«Atheneii Ja/uu'/).s<' », of which Dr. Domingos Magalhaes is the 
director; another (me under the direction of Dr. Gabriel Pupo; and 
another one for girls directed by the Sisters of Charity of S. Joseph's 

PHl>lic instruction alone costs to the munici])ality 45.000$0()(i. 

Taubate. — Tlie Callioilral 

AisARAfiUAUA. — Pretty City, (14(» metres above the sea level. It 
was progressing very rapidly, when a few years ago, the yellow fever 
visited it in spite of its height and temperature. The population of 
that region got frightened and Ararac^uara lost a good deal thereby. 
It is at a 10 hour railway ride from S. Paulo. It is below the Piraci- 
caba river and near a high ridge of mountains full of vegetation in 
the 401 St. kilometre of the Santos railway. 

It has a public garden, which is charming and is the pride of the 
inhabitants of that citjs with artistic arborisation, full of small little 
avenues with benches, and a metal pavillion or music-stand. 

The Matriz church is somewhat modest, notwithstanding it does 
not look bad : it is composed of a sole structure , with a nice front, 
in the centre of which is a large clock. Elevating itself on the 

— tflfl — 

I'ront ;i little on the inside, there is :i scinare steeple ending in a 

'Vhe eity (if ^Vrai'unnara is at the Xorth-west oi" the Capital. It eom- 
prises the S. J-iento de Arara((iiai'a and Boa Esperanca pai'ishes. Its 
inhabitants devote themselves to tlu' eultivation ol' cofi'ee, sugar- 
eane, eatlle raising, as well as pigs, horses and sheep which is expor- 
ted. Its popidation, city and niunicipiuni, is ol' .'ll.-'li-'O inliahitants. 

Rio Oi.ARo. — As its name indicates, Rio Claro is on llie hanks 
of a clear and pictnres(|ue river, which geographically has the same 
name of Rio Claro. It is a new city. 

8. Paulo has them in large number, and besides it makes old 
cities become new. This is a city of 2t).(.HX) inhabitants. Its streets 
are straight and wide — a model. Its public s(piares are embel- 
lished by palm and other trees. It has a splendid temperature and 
fresh at its (tiO metres above sea level. 

It is a city truly Brazilian , as it was founded after the political 
independence of Brazil. 

It has splendid private and public buildings, factories, schools, 
colleges, newspapers and others. A newspaper nian writing about 
Rio Claro, as a foreigner, noted at once this circumstance — the 
difference between the cities built by Brazilians and those inherited 
from Portuguese colonial times. 

This newspaper man said : « Cities like Rio Claro are beautiful, 
because in these interior cities that are all built b.\ Brazilians, the 
creation is more perfect. Rio Claro, is a small eity of the S. Paulo 
State, a new one, with but few inhabitants, and it was born already 
with a perfectly modern plant : The streets by numbers, like those 
of American cities, and illuminated by electricity, and this was done 
in six years ! » 

This speed in eonsti'uction , seems to be a secret of the inhabi- 
tants of S. Paulo. 

Rio Claro develops day by day, thanks to its active commerce, 
the fertility of its soil, and the good habits of activity and work of 
its citizens. 

Besides all that it has the advantage of not being far from the 
Capital, only 18(.> kilometres. It has two railways : the Paulista and 
Rio Clarense railways. 

Taubatk. — This is one of the lai'gest cities of S. I'auk), only 
150 kilometres from its Capital. It is located between a little river 
called Correio and the left bank of the Parahyba, the triumplial river 
that bathes a good number of the best cities of the .State. 

— 491 — 

This name ol' Taubatc, so tlie\' say, conius I'vom the Indian names 
/;(/>;(, whieh means, (hamlet), and ilc, wliieli means (low). Others 
are of opinion thai it eonu's from Taybale or 1 tahoate.... 

At the Xorth of this i)relty city there is the rough iiielination of 
the Mantiqueira, the tops of whieh ean he seen from many miles 
away. Its population is of :_!(). (.)()(_) inhaldtants, and eomjjrises the 
S. Franeiseo das Chagas de Tauhate parish and surroundings. 

It has gas illumination, tramways, newspapers, hotels, eluhs, ete. 
Its streets ai'e in general w ide and straight , and there are 37 of 


(',i](liifir(.is street 

them. It also has iL' publie sc^uares and several lanes. It has about 
•J..jUU houses, nnjst of them only with the ground floor, but niee 
looking, several eliurehes, sehools, oil faetories, threading mills, gas 
works, ete. This is 'i'aubate a well known eity. 

The most important of the Churches is the Muiriz a large Imild- 
ing, simple but sober, with two towers alike. 

It has excellent water, coming through pipes from the Manti- 
(^ueira springs to supply the ])opulation. It passes under (be 
Parahyba river bed. 

Besides the tramway service in the eity, by animal traction, IJiere 
is also a steam line connecting the city of Taubate with tlie poetical 
sulmrb — Trememb*', a little village of some 1.000 inhabitants. 

— -1.92 — 

Iguape. — We visited tliis city in May oi' 1003. It Ik located at 
the point ol' the sea-arm between the continent and the narrow sea- 
island, \\hich is in front ot it nuite i'lat and dressed with humble ve- 
getation. ^^'h(>n vc enter the port, and \\e look to the city, it seems 
smallei', mu(di smallei' than it reall,\' is. 

This is the Emporium of the S. Paulo rice exports, a nnjst modest 
em])oriuni, indeed. As a city, Iguape, has nothing worth noting. It 
is a quiet group of houses of old style construction, above the roofs 
of which majestically rise the two towers of the Bom Jesus 
church, wliei-e they hold a popular festival evei-y year, with the 
assistance of all that multitude of people from the neighborhood that 
come there to join the city crowds. They have then a real fine time. 

Outside of those festivals the city is a quiet one, only awaken 
into activity with the arrivals of Lloyd steamers going there to load 

In the port, so shaded and calm we saw several small steamers 
for the fluvial navigation. 

('ananka. — At tlie South of Iguape is another small city 
also a port where the Lloyd steamers call at, it is Cananea. It is 
built on a ravine a little above water. It has a few dozen of houses 
with dark, old roofs, some falling, ipiite abandoned. We go up to the 
city by quite a steep road, which leads to the public square where is 
the church — a modest church witli only a tower at one side, all 
white. In fi-ont of it is a fountain, rose color, of simple archi- 
tecture, an<l s(|uare in form. Some boats and canoes, do the port 
work, the bar of which, a little ahead of the Bom Abrigo island is 
an awful one, with a long I'eef. 

Among the other cities of tliis State we cannot help mention- 
ing : Pii'assununga ; Uibeirao I'reto, which has vei'y much progi'es- 
sed ; S. Carlos do Pinhal ; S. .lose do Rio Bardo, seat of a very rich 
municipium; Batataes ; Braganca; Descalvado; Botucati'i; Itu and 
several others. We must, howevei', maintain ourselves within the 
plan of the book. These references and descri})tions would go very 
far, should we speak about every one of the cities. We will close this 
chajiter right here. 







— 494. — 


That spleiulid ref;ion soutli of tlio S. Pauli) State , from wliicli 
jurisdiction it was detached in 1853 to form a new province, is per- 
haps the most beautiful spot in tlie South of Brazil, if not in the 
wliole of South America. It was discovei'cd and conquered Ijy tiie 
(Jtirijos Indian tribes in 161 1. 

Tliey used to call it Pnn'i-nri, or Mni-anu (Ihnl looks like llic sen), 
and the Brazilians called it tlien Pnnini'i. 

Romario JIartins in its « Historia do Parana )> wrote : 

(( By that time the place of S. Vicente which was made village by 
Martim Alfonso was already beo-innino- to flourish. 

Dr. \ iciMilc Miicliadd. — (idvi'rrKir of l'iir';iii;'i 

Its inhabitants hungry for imaginary sources of riches, moved 
aronnd, everywhere looking for tlios(^ inexhaustible mines of pre- 
cious metals. 

Encouraged, then , by the number and by the ideal of wealth, 
crowds of Portuguese decided to go to sea, in a southward direc- 
tion, following the coast-shores of Ararapira and Superaguy, and 
aftei' a little work they succeeded in going through the bar of Para- 
nagua, in front of the beautiful panorama which made them stop in 
ecstacy. « 

— 495 — 

Of our sea-coast States, Parana, is, after Piauliy, tlie one tliat 
has the smallest extension of coast, with only two ports : the bay of 
Paranag-ua, — tlie largest of all the southern bays — and that of 
Gviaratuba, a small bay, as yet without any commercial importance. 
But its river fronts are enormous. We can say tliat its territory 
was indicated by the long courses of those streams called Parana, 
Paranapanema and Ignassu, which give it the morphology of a true 

I'inc-lri'c, nrniiriirin /i/'.-LSvY/ejix/.v 

island. It would be so if its population did not vindicate, in a dis- 
pute, which is already a long time being discussed, the extensive 
fields north of Santa Catharina State, till the thick ridge of moun- 
tains named Fortuna which runs like an axle ijarallel to the Iguassu. 
Dr. Vincente Machado is the present governor of Parana, one of 
the most liberal minded politicians and one of the most patriotic 
Brazilians of the present generation. A patriot, not in the vain sense 
of declamations, but in a pr'actical manner, as he occupies himself a 

gdod deal with iiialcrial i)r()fj;ress, ])iil)lic order, puVjlie instriie- 
tiou, and very little or nothing with eleetion disi)utes and othcu' 
politieal trifles. In a short period of public life, he has already 
rend(>red <;reat sei'viees to Brazil, giving impulse to the progress of 
Parana's eivilisation. GuiMtyha owes to him its last inipro\'en]ents, as 
the water works, sewerages, pavements, ete. In the interior he has 
lieljied eomnieree, colonisation, the local industries, public insti-nc- 
tion which are receiving tlie visible benefit of his good politics of 
work and action, that he has exercised in his post of political chief 
in the Parana State. 

A small part of the territory of Parana is full of villages and 
cities, here and there, in a region, lying lietween the sea-shore and 
the Parana-piacaba ridge of mountains, and in the South between 
the Iguassu and the Esperanca and the Cavernoso mountains. The 
large remaining area, which represents four fifths of the surface of 
the State of Parana, is still almost unexploited. 

TuE PINK TKEi:. — 'I'he aspect and mild climate of Parana, some- 
times cold, going uphill, make of that \)i\yt of Brazil a i)rivileged 
mansion. Its long and green fields are the sweetest fancy of Ameri- 
can nature. Saint-IIilaire used to say that : <( they were Brazil's 
paradise. » What, howevei' gives to Pai'ana an unmistakable charac- 
teristic are its pine-tree woods. These are the first curious thing of 
Parana. The /</jie-^rce, arniicaria brusilU'ii.sis is the pride of the 
fields in Southern Brazil. It is the seal of its flora sovereignity over 
the other regions of the continent. It is the prettiest and most useful 
of the coniferous and after the palm-tree is the most suggestive 
specimen of (u-namentation of all the flora individuals in South 
America. It is a fruit-tree, it is an architectural column, it is first 
class fuel, it produces most useful rosin, it is the most beautiful 
shade-maker in the vast plains it dominates, and it is above all a 
pleasure to the observing traveller, never mind how little of the poet 
and artist there may be in his soul. 

It participates of the intertropical and northern ])hytology 
characters, it is a Euroj)ean and American tree at one and the 
same time. Botanist did well in calling it brasiliensis ; the tree, as 
the Brazilian people, is from America, yet they are from Europe. 
There is no figure which will attract more the traveller's eye, than 
the oi'iginal i)rofile of an urauairiu, remembering one of those favo- 
rite motives called art nouueuii (new art). Just imagine a tall and 
vertical piece of lumber as if it were a column worked by the most 
uiiuucious artists. It rises from the ground naked, in the fields to a 
height of 2,") ()7- oU metres wlun-e it supjjorts a series of branches also 

— 4.97 — 

naked like the eollossal stem, spreaded out, a little eurved upwards, 
to the cdnti-ary of the Rur()])ean pine-tree, and ending in globes of 
dark green erispy leaves. It looks like a candelaln-nni, sometimes the 
stem divides itself into two and looks like two eaiidelahrums, upon 
the same trunk. These are in small number. The other kind is the 
eommontype and is found sometimes isolated, sometimes in groups, 
and somelimes in I'egular foi'ests of grou])s. 

Rocks of red stone of villa Velha 

Another curiosity of Parana are the sainbiKjiiy.s, enoi'mous o.strei- 
ra.s- of which there are only 71 in tlie Antouina munieipium. They 
have the form of hills representing the work of many generations, 
as the kjkkninoddings from Denmark, they mark and illuminate the 
history of a prehistoric race in South America. 

In regard to those material documents of first life in Brazil, 
Dr. Ermelindo Leao a native of Parana, wrote : 

« The vestiges of human existence that we note in them, just as 
skeletons and pieces of vases, goods of polished stone, etc., make us 
believe that they were accumulated in the fisliei'v season by the 
aborigines, in a long series of years. 

— +98 — 

Anil (liiis wo cxphiin liaviii^- luiw I'oinid i-oni^li oljjiscls of splintc^v- 
ed stones, then articles ol' polished ones, more perfect, l),\' and by, 
eraniunis of I'eroeious aspect, later yet others much less aecentuatiMl 
as to the facial-eraniiini niorphology attril)nting tliem to };enei'ations 
left behind. » 

Indnstry has destroyo<l mei'cilessly those raonnnuMits of lira/.i- 
lian paleontholoi;y, which were not as lucky as those of the Laj^oa 
HaTita, (Saint Lake). 'I'lu^v are waiting for investigators be it a 
I^nnd, be it a Brazilian, a lovcu' of his past. Tlie sniubiujuys give an 
excellent lime, and that is all we know as yet. 

A third enriosity of the Parana I'cgion, is the Villn ]'c'lh:i (old vil- 
lage), which becomes popnlai' thi'ough j)hotographs and engravings. 

^\'hat is after all that ]lll;i Vcllui 1 

The yilln Vvlhii is a stu'ies of monolitlis, or rathei', an extensive 
sei'ies of rocks, reddishlike, named l)y the geologists as old red 
sandxionc, of vulgar formation in some grounds, having over a kilo- 
metre of depth. As time and water destroyed the carsiable part 
of the (quarry, opening streets and regular squares, and the parts 
that remained standing at certain distance look like houses, walls, 
constructions in ruin. The low bushes covering the squares and 
enveloping somewhat tlie lower part of the quarry, give it the confi- 
guration of an abandoned city. In some phu'es the stratifications 
rise to a lieight of over 100 metres, imitating towers and castles. 
Each street and each scpiare of those ruins has its name, oi' rather 
nicdcnamcs given by the people, who frecjuently visit that curious 
geological formaticni some :!() kilometres away from the tlie Ponta 
Gi'ossa Station. 

Last but not the least, there is still another curiosity, the Sete 
Quedas cascades formed by the Parana river, near the place where 
used to be a celebrated Prooincia dc Gmiyra, of the Spanish 
monks. According to this they also call this colossal water fall — 
Salio de Giiayrn (Guayra jump). The Parana river, becoming thick- 
er with the Ilio (Jrande and Paranahyba rivc^rs meets with a spine 
of the Maracaju ridge of mountains, some .">()() metres of I'ocks upon 
which the whole river narrowing itself suddenly throws itself, with 
a noise that can be heard some two leagues away. Fi-om the bottom 
where the waters fall, forming seven cataracts, an enormous cloud 

These great falls, which we believe to be the largest of tlie 
whole; continent, having no small nunil)er of them, can only be 
compared with those known by the name of Paulo Alfonso in the 
S. I'^rancisco river, about whi<'li we wrote several chapters above. 

— "WO — 

I'lil'ortnnatcly (ho trip in the Sullo dcis seic- Qiicdns, (seven fulls 
jump), is, and will be I'or some time to come a paiiitul and diffieult 
one. This fact prevents the tourists a,nd scientists, troni cnjoyino- 
that deeply emotional pleasure, which is larfi(dy increased hy the 
I'act of there hein<;' neai' the falls, the ruins of some theological 
tem])les devoted to the conversion of the Indians, known as n reduc- 
voi's », and destroyed, like the (iuayva Province, hy the Imndeiranles, 
(those carrying- the flag), in 1(331, the ruins of \^hicli can be seen 
there, in the desolation of dead cities. 

Tlie devil's (iL'uk tiiiinel in Cordilbei'a do Mar. — Parana llaihvay 

The trip from Rio de .Janeiro to Parana must be made by sea. 
The coast steamers make it in 21 hours, if it is a direct trip, or 
two to three days if they call at the intermediary ports, according to 
the delay in the port of Santos and the small cities of Tguape and 
Cananea. Be as it may it is a delightful ti'ip made icrre-it-terrc. 

The entrance of Paranagna hay is most charming. Three bars 
formed by the intei'position of the Mel, (Honey), and Pc(;as , 
(Guns), islands give access to the calm anchoi'age place, amply 
illuminated by a cloudless sky. This port is to-day the vestibule 
of Parana State. Those who wish to admire its (*apital, the i)retty 

— 500 — 

Ciirilylia, miisf- hcohi there-, I'irst \isiting the port ami the old 
I'araiuigua t'ity. 


A ci'iijOHRA'ii-;]) KAiiJioAii. — Oil the IStli ot ]\Iay I'.to:'., a pi'etly 
bad day, one of these grayisli al'ternoons, with a eeaseless small 
rain and cold temperature, we took tlie l.l-iO \>. m. train start- 
ing;- from Paranaf;iia to the (Capital ol' the State. The Esti-ada de 
Ferro do Parana, (Parana liailway), ^Yhi<■ll has there a (piite poor 
station, is one of tliose things that tlie traveller congratulates him- 
self on coming aci'oss with in his travels. 

It is the work of Brazilian engineeiing which conceived, plan- 
ned and bnilt it through those convex mountains till the top where 
Curityba is. 

On that rainy afternoon, the landscape, all wrapped in a sheet of 
clouds, every moment duller since the time we left Paranagua, could 
not be (jbserved as it ought to be, so that 1 dindn't notice but uninter- 
rupted succession of works of art that are there in abundance to be 
admired, especially in the second plan of the road , from Morretes 
to Pira<[uara. 

From Morretes on begin to appear, sometimes isolated in the 
majesty of their profile, sometimes in dominating groups, the 
specimens of that variety of pine-trees, which are, because of their 
ornamental power and industrial utility one of the signs of tlie 
infinite kindness of God towards the Parana soil. 

Starting from Morretes to the place where the road has a branch 
line, we can only see a stretch of little houses here and there, old 
churches, somewhat indistinct because of the weather and the dis- 

A little before we liad seen Alexandra, formerly an Italians and 
Brazilians colony, to-day an industrious and growing village, by the 
railway as a nest on the branches of the trees. 

The train goes on. Porto de Cima that a little while before was 
to be seen cm the level with the road , is now below, and by and by 
disappears behind a ravine. 

Thus we see now and again the same place, as that bright casca- 
de, the Vco dc Xoioa, (bride's veil), which, the first time we discover 
far away up, like a thin vein, a stony tear, and half an hour later, 
aftei' -"jd tui'ns through tunnels and viaducts, we see it near the 
train with all the noisy greatness of its fall, which beats the massive 
dark (piartz niascaraded by surrounding vegetation. 

— 501 — 

Oh! but that nasty litth' rain How it spoils the gladness of 

these panoramas ! 

The train keeps on its speedy nuireli, going through and over 
narrow edges, deep holes, mountain after mountain, the locomotive 
crossing all this through many tunnels and viaducts (piite near one 
another. An unexpected river with foaming waters now on the right, 
the on the left of the track, appears and disappears, as a caprice, asf 
a defiance to the road whose bridges wrap it a boa conslriclor siuike 
— and overcome it going ahead. 


I'araiia railway Stalioii. 

Sonielinies the mountain opens itself into an abyss, or two sepa- 
rate hills, in front of one another, open a solution of continuity in 
then tortuous and inclined road, which the track descri))es, for many 
kilometres, when it comes across with one of those mammoth open- 
ing, a bridge connecting the two hills, one of those bridges tliat look 
phantastic and that the dreadful genius of metallurgy devised and 
learnt how to put uj), and upon it the train goes calm, strong and 
firm o\'er the danger. 

One of these crazy fancies is the S. .Joao bridge, a hard steel 
web thrown from a hill to the other on pillars 10 to .50 metres high. 
Another one is the Carvalho viaduct, (Carvalho being the name 

— 602 — 

(iT the IJi'iiziliaii ciij^iiiecr who l)uLlt it), p;iinteil red. It is a kind ol 
\'cruiulali tied t(i tlic mountain side suri'ounding it in its carves, 
and leaning over the valleys whieli describe tlieir curves below. 
The dark and wet top ol' those trees of the vegetation is Ijelow those 
points more mystei'ious still in its interior silence. In one oi' these 
precipices, in the orjtli kilometre , we saw a simple Init an expressive 
monument, a black iron cross, with an nscrix^tion that could't be 
read — and they told me that it was in that place that they mnrder- 


(iiiriulia. — Coii(ir(-'ss (lliiiMilK'r. 

ed Barao do Cerro ^Vzal and four ccnnpanions, at the time ot the last 

It is near tluit place tliat is the Pico do Diabo, one of the hill tops, 
quite I'ough and the hardness of which had been perforated fi-oni side 
to side by one of the road tunnels. The panorama is exquisite. The 
rocks dominated the vegetation, l)ut this attempts with energy to 
wrap them. It looks like a convulsive picture. Rocks and Abysses ! 
All in a grandeur that deailens our minds. 

From kilometre 85 on, the multitude of araucarias increases. 
Thei'e they aiH^ standing firm, noble, melancholic and there also 
appear the saw mills which waged them a dreadful war. Some of 

— 503 

tliosc s;i\v mills, are cstiiblishmLMits wortliy of note, moved liy sleum 
and of quite large i^iropoi-tions. 

After several Ijridges, viaduets and 1 1 tunnels, — a string of 
daring art works — we are at Pira(iuara station on the top. 
From there on we meet but plains, large ones \\'itli iri'egulai- \ege- 
tation, the beautiful pine-tree alw ays i^redominating, as the Parana 
diadem. Those plains prolong themselves till Curityba, where the 
train arrives in the evening already under the irradiation of the 


■ The Governor's Palaee 

electric lights which announce the traveller that he is in the i)re- 
sence of a modern Capital. 

This l']strada de Fei'ro do Pai'ana Station, is a beautiful three floor 
building, painted yellow. It is as new as it is pretty. 

CiRiTYjjA. — Those wh() know political geogi'aphy of Brazil must 
have noticed that nearly every Capital of State is by the sea, either 
at the entrance of a bay or at the mouth or on the banks of a I'iver 
Ijathiug its teri'itory. 

Three of the Capitals, are exception to this I'ule, and they are : 
vS. Paulo, Bello Horizonte and Curityba, all of them l)eing on high 
places that dominate the nan-ow Ijand of the sea coast where are the 

- - 501 — 

conniuTcial ]>or(s. Tlieso tlircc oai)itals ai'c between 800 and 900 
metre's above the si^a level. 

S. Paulo and (Uirityba wliieli, belore Bello Horizonte ^^■as built, 
were the eapitals with best aspect in the whole Brazil , i)resented, 
several points ol' analogy : Both of them liave their organ of commer- 
eial-eeonomie appro^Driation and exprojji'iation, in the Atlantic coast, 
of which they are both separated by a chain of mountains which had 
to be overcome l)y railway. Both had to build their commercial 
vehicle realizing notable works of art to connect them with tlieir 

S. I'aulo had its inclined plans installed to go up the Oubatao hills 
beiween Santos and the Capital; Gurityba built its tunnel-bridge line 
to cross the Sea Mountain bet\v(;en Paranagua and Piraquara. Both 
are (lie most celebrated works of art in the construction of railways 
in all Brazil. Thei'oad from Paranagua to Curityba, however, is the 
most marvellous one, by its plan, its audacity in the viaducts it built, 
and by the novelty ol' the aspects of nature it envolves. 

\\'e will now speak of Cui'ityba, pi'ojjcr, if you like. While this 
Parana region was still only a district of the S. Paulo province, 
Leodoro Ebano Pereira founded a place at the foot of the Sea 
Mountain, giving it the name of Curityba. It did not take long for it 
to develop becoming a village in KiO:!. 

''Phe whole of the city is gay. The pure aii' oi the pine-trees that 
wrap it, the wide and clear horizon, the plain displaying itself in 
all directions, the modern feature of the houses, the daring feat of 
scA'cral constructions, the alignment of the streets, all of these are 
details that form the fcstivallike and tender physiognomy of 

(Considering the difference of relative size , this city is the 
S. Paulo of I'arana. \\'ith its hard working population, hospitable 
and clever, witli its manufacturing activity, its intellectual cultiva- 
tion, its contribution towards progress and corresponding horror to 
the routine ])rocesses — Curityba charms the visitor who remains 
with the imj)ressiou that he is in a I<]uroi)ean city. And such an 
impression will ni'ver be forgotten by the traveller. 

Right in front- of the railway station is an avenue of a beautiful 
effect too which they call Ijilierty Street, where the »State Congress 
building is, the (iovernor of the .State building, several hotels, and 
imi)ortant i>rivate houses. It is illuminated by electricity like the 

Curityba is a \'ery mo(h'rn city in its development,. Only in 
l.S(i:i it liad but :,'."i streets, 2S:,' lioiises (inhabitable), and about 100 in 

— 505 — 

construction and of tliose only 22 had upper stones. To-day Curi- 
tyl)a has 15(1 streets, four beautiful and larj^e public s(iuares, nine 
smaller ones, four boiileuanls, not counting- streets spreading them- 
selves to the suburbs increasing the expansion of the future nucleus. 
Te streets of to-day are wide, lined with houses on both sides 
and in all its length, there being but few empty lots among them. 

Curilj'lia. — • .lose Bouilufts sU-rcl. 

Many are straight , all of thcua plain, as the city is ini an esplanade, 
the celebrated fields of Cui'ityba. Among the princij^al sti-eets we can 
cite (^uinze de Novembro (tlie date of the proclamation of the Repu- 
blic, there being a street with tliis name in nearly cver\' cit\' of Bra- 
zil). This Quinze de Novembro street in Curityba is like its sx^inc, 
it is extensive , straight, with large business houses, newspapers 
offices, Post Office Department, Federal Telegraph , candy stores, 

— 50fi — 

bar-rooms, cti'. Thu uiovement and transit, in this street, whicli do 
not cease till very late, Till the great artery of Curityba, lending to it 
a sedueing feature. 

Xo man in Curityba has finished his days work if he has not had 
his (juarter of an hour rende/,-vous, to whieli the elegant part of the 
population, the business men, the politieians and literary men are 
used to. A peculiar thing, however, there is not in this street, neither 
in the wdiole city, a coffee house, (one of those bar-rooms making the 
speciality of serving cups of coffee, to be seen in every corner and in 
every city or village of Brazil). 

Those dreadful centres of conspirations of all nature, — those cof- 
fee houses — the Brazilian rendez-vous places, where reputations are 
made, unpopularities decreed, where criticisni of all sorts is made, 
where they speak of science, art, lousiness, are a regular pass-time 
which gives great life to Brazilian cities, but there is not one of them 
in Curityba. AVe find them, however, in Florianapolis a city much 
more inferior to Curityba in de\elopnient and impoi'tance, and in 
Rio Grande, Pelotas, Porto Alegre, cities which are farther away 
than Curityba to i)artake of the habits of Rio and the other nor- 
thern cities of Brazil. 

Instead of those coffee houses, there are clubs and the lack of 
the former explains the frequency we always noted in the club- 
rooms, in Curityba. We visited every one of them, and there is a 
good number of them. 'We were especially much pleased with the 
Cnritybano club, with wide and well appointed rooms, a splendid 
librai-y with lO.OUU volumes. This is the oldest of the city, and the 
Casino Club, as important as the Curitybano and also having a good 
library. All of them give monthly parties in which the leading fami- 
lies of the city take part and the brightness of which we can well 
imagine when we know that tlie lair sex of Parana are of the pret- 
tiest in all Brazil, 1 hanks to (he superior transfusion of European 
blood (German, Italian and Polish) that in strong proportion has 
collaborated in the formation of the populations south of S. Paulo 
and Minas Geraes. 

Curityba, more than any other Brazilian capital, presents the 
ethnic traits of the type of Brazil's future ])ophlation : the whites, 
somewhat fair, with vertical lines , well formed, give life to the 
squares and commercial streets with the activity characteristic of 
the race. 

A splendid factor of w«n'k in J'arana and conse(j;uently of the 
])rogress of its cities , are tliose (Jerman and Polish elements , 
co]lal)orating towards a sound spii'it of work and order, the evolu- 

— 507 — 

f ion of the colonies, the industry ;ind l)usiness. In Ciirit,vl)a, espe- 
eially, a large portion of the business houses belong- to (Jermans, and 
in the signs are getting searee the AlmcidHs, the SilvH.s and the 
Fvrniuxles (Portuguese names), to give place to the Meyers, the 
llauers, the Stahls, the Miillers, the Meissners, the W'eisses, and 
other Uernian ones. 

He would be quite mistaken the one supposing that sueh signs 
belong to foreign houses. Nearly all of them belong to natives of lira- 
zil, sons or grand-children of Germans, Poles and Italians, the 

Ciiriljljii. — OlIicL'S ijf llie lijiii .Idso lluucr A Bross 

Germans more esj^eeially fixing their residence in the country. In 
(Jurityba, in Ponta Grossa, in Paranagua, the best business houses 
belong to descendants of Germans. It is enough to cite the liouse 
.J. Ilauer & Sons, a very well known firm whose eoniuiercial house 
is a monument for Curityba. But this is not the only one. The match 
factory of Eisenbaen & Hurliman, one of the most important in 
South Ameiica, only in one year paid l.OOO: 000^000 of taxes. There 
are jnany othei's. 

Another ])eculiar asi^eet of Curityba is its unusual transit of cars 
and tracks. As the city is surrounded by liard woi'king colonies, 

— 608 — 

every iiuirniiij;' the I'anii-workiueii cdme down to the city to bring 
tlieir ])roducfs : tliey l)riiif;- milk, clieese, butter, vej^etables, I'niit, 
ami (itlier prochiels. A multitude of wagons and heavy trucks with 
canvass covers, Tilled with goods, 1-ii'azilian tea inutile), oi- ti'unks of 
l)ine, come to the Capital. Some go to the railway station, some go 

Cuj'ilvlia. — The Calliolic Oalhcdral 

from street to street, sometimes driven by country girls who take 
cliarge of their business. Though the types and customs are yet at 
the bottom entirely J>ra/.ilian, we note certain traits ot dirrerence 
betwc.(;n this and the northern cities. The servant., the truckman, 
the gi'ocer, etc., are not Portuguese I'rom the continent or I'rom the 
J'ortuguese islands, as in Para, Santos or Kio, but Italians or Poles. 
(Jurityba of to-day is developing uncc^asingly. 

— 509 — 

Among its best buildings wc noted : the Cathedral, of a ligorons 
gotliic style, a repvodnction of the Bareelone cathedi'al, built by the 
arehiteet August \\'enneck and inaugurated on the 7th of September, 

In front of that church is one of the most beautiful (.'urityba 
S(|uai'es, — the Praca. Tii^adentcs, — where they recently erected a 
statue of the late president Floriano. 

In that square was formerly a jail , to-day it is a public st|uare. 
Just where thei'e used to be the ignominious pillory of the kings 
justice, in olden times, to-day ondulates the beautiful vegetation 
of the tree tops, and the j^erfume of the roses invites one to 

Ciii-ityba. — Cliai'ily Hospital 

dream. He was right the prophet when he said : « When perfection 
arrives, imi)erfection ceases ». — Cum autein ueiierit quod perfec- 
tiiin etc. etc. 

Another public place wliieh is very pleasant is the public garden, 
built in a place where the small river Belem, makes capricious but 
interesting curves. The painter of landscapes sketching that sweet 
type of garden, liad no other art but to follow the local natural one, 
only using the details. Tlie river that passed there had not to be 
bothered in its course, but was decorated and embellished by light 
bridges, and other fancies of the landscaping architectui'e. The 
public garden, has some .50.000 sc^uare metres, and is one of the 
prettiest in Southern citi(;s, though, it is a little abandoned when I 
visited it. 

— r)in — 

Hut, going' hack to the notod huihlings of tlio city wc liavc : 
The Hospital dc ('ari(Uule, an identical institution to the other 
v\t\ hospitals ot the lii-a/.ilian capitals, it shelters and cures the poor 
sic'k without distinction as to where they come from. It is a large 
and beautiful building, the white structure of which is seen from 
many places in the city, because, while it was built at a distance, 
to-day the buildings have wrapped it, and that which was but a 
suburb of Curityba, to-day is its t'entre. It was founded by Silva 
Mauricy, a native of Parana, and inaugurated by the emperor 
Pedro 11, in Mav bSSO. 

(;iii-il\l]a. — l']'i'.slivlei-i;iM Chiii'cli 

Tlio Presbyterian church, in Matto Grosso street, is of a beautiful 
effect with its front of scotch gothic style, grave and austere as a 
melody of reform. The front of tlie building looks to a pretty little 
garden, protected by the classical and decorated iron railing. 

The Telegraph Station of the Federal (lovernment is another 
pretty building in the Pvua Quinze. It has three floors, and looks to 
that street. 

'I'he Bari-acks of the (Ith regiment artillery, large and solid, witli 
an imposing and artistic front looking to Praca da Republica, and 
is of middle age style. 

— 511 — 

Tlie (~)i'i)lian Asylum, luri^c. and cil' a iiii-'e ai'cljitc^i'J urc, il was 
built by public su!)Scriptioii , and el'i'orts of its rouudei', Scnaii)r, 
Monsenhor Alberto (xoiK^'alves, whom tlio Municipality aided consi- 
derably in his philantropic NX'ork. Senator Alberto Goncalves is a 
prelate of the Brazilian Catholic Church, highly esteemed in Rio 
where he has been vice-president of the Federal Senate and beloved 
by his fellow-men in his State who elected him to the Senate, and in 
fact he would be to-day the Governor of his State had lie not declin- 
ed that honor. 

(airitvl)ii. — Polioe bai'racks 

The barracks of the State troops, inaugurated in 1898, is a large 
building in S. Jose Street, at one side of the city. The main front 
is decorated and is somewhat majestic. The interior is perfect, every 
department shows exemi)lary discipline and zeal. In the stables we 
saw some fine types of Parana horses , which do not seem in 
anything inferior to those imjjorted from the River Plate. This is a 
good example to the northern States that neglect horse breeding. 

The State Congress has also a fine building, new and nol)le in its 
lines, Italian style, with a poetical little garden around. A stairway 
separated from tlie street with railing of artistic iron, leads to the 
entrance of the building open in ar(;hes supported by columns of the 

enriiitliiaii ordci-. Tlic bnildiii*;' is paintod on the outside and inside 
ol' ^>;-(.s-/u77t', color, which brings it out in prominence from the green 
color of the sni-i'onnding garden. In a word, it is jjleasant to the eye, 
without being in disharmony with the severe composition of a 
building destined to its object. It was inaugurated in 18'.)(i. 

The tioverniiK^nt palace also in the Liberty avenue, a little I'nr- 
tbcr aliead than the Congress building, but on the other side, is not 
lai'ge. Tt is even smaller than that of Santa Catbarina, but it is in 
entire barnmny w itb the official installations of its whole. Tt has a 
s<)l)cr aspect, a supei'b fi-ont, and inside is deeoi'ated with all care 
and good taste. 


(Jiii'ilyb;i. — Bai'i'acks ul' the KJtli cavalry legimciil 

A characteristic of the official installation in Parana, is o tliat in 
its buildings tliere is nothing to criticise. They do not represent 
exaggerated expenses, but on the other hand they do not show mean- 
ness, or neglect of official denieanour. They are in perfect accord 
with the importance of the Capital and its public treasury, neitlier 
more nor less. 

The Guahyra theatre is another imjiortant building. It was alrea- 
dy there before the last progressive impulses the State has received, 
but in 100(3 was entirely rebuilt , giving it the feature it has now, 
with a l)eautiful two floor front. 

The vSeminary is a large building erected by the Catholic Bishop of 
that Diocese in a district of tlie city known as Batel, with a tramway 
line running to that ))lace. I^liis district has fine private houses, 

— 513 — 

Iniildings ol' varied styles, beautirul farms and a brewery, on the 
terrace of which families meet who f>'o there for a walk, to listen 
to some music and drink beer. 

There are several chui'ehes, many business houses, private resi- 
dences, which would be woi'tli mentioning- here but the fear of 
making- this chapter too long compels us to go ahead, treating- of 
other subjects. 

Social Culture, Puklic Instruction etc. — It would be diffi- 
cult to find in a citv of the size of Curitvba sucli an active centre of 

(-.iirilvliM. — Asyliiiii nf X. I), da tiiz I'oi' liiuMlii'S anil llic |iih)I- 

intellectualities and men of fine culture as it is to be found there. 
The (;it\' by the general census of tlie country in I'.KJO had 10.7.55 
inliabitants, adding the poi^ulations of Xova I^ilonia and Taboao 
(2.998 and 3.509 respectively) Curityba presents a total of about 
.55.000 inhabitants. 

The increase of 25opulation has been thus : 

Years Intiabitunls 

1780 "2.949 

1873 H.7;?0 

1890 24..J53 


Tn that lot of .50.000 inhabitants ^\'e find scientists, writers, poets, 
journalists, who make Curityba a noted intellectual centre : (Jandido 
Abreu, the geagrapher ; Sebastiao Parana, the corographer ; Roma- 
rio Martin, the untired polygrapher, director of the museum ; Nestor 

— 514 — 

Victor, the novel writer and poet; Kmilio de Menezes, the satirical 
poet; AH'redo C^oelho ; Ismael Martins; Roclia Pombo, the historian ; 
Domingos Nascimento ; Leoneio Correa; Armando Paiva; Ricardo 
Lenios, K. Pernetta; Dario Vellozo; Silveira Netto, Julio P(>rnetta; 
Xestor Castro; Pereii'a da Silva; Ricardo Lemos ; J.Moi'aes; Eucli- 
des Handeira; Carvalho Aranha; Theodoro Rodrignes; Marianna 
('oi'lho; I\e^•0(•ata de Mello ; .lulieta Montciro; and a dozen more, 
are names that produce echo outside, proving the mental and literary 
activity of Curityba. Many of them found the ])lacc too small for 
them and -went to Rio and S. Paulo, carrying with them the sujkj 
riority of the fame of the Parana State, that precious piece of the 
country. The local administratifin supports many institutes of public 
instruction like : 

The Paranaense Museum, one of the best in Brazil, though it has 
not as yet an adequate installation as those of Rio , Belem and 
S. Paulo. 

The Public library that we had the pleasure of seeing open to the 
public during the night, as those of Rio Grande do Sul ami Rio de 

The Fine Arts Conservatory with a modest Musical Institute 
annexed. "We visited that beautiful establishment and congratulated 
its directors for \\ hat \\c saw. We find thei'e young ladies with real 
artistic vocation. The institute is directed by a lady and is going to 
have a building of its own at the State's expense. 

The Industry and Fine Arts College, for the study of liberal arts, 
was founded by private initiative of the professoi' Antonio Mariano 
de Lima, in 18'.)0. 

The Gymnasium Paranaense, an institute of the same kind as 
the Rio one where the examinations are officially recognized. 

The Normal College, the Theological Seminary, about 20 high 
schools, classes of many private associations, like the Historical 
Institute, the Archives, the clubs, with their libraries, etc. complete 
the organisation of the intellectual apparatus in Curityba. 

There are several papers published in this Capital, nice papers 
and with quite a circulation. Among them ai'e : Rcpnblica, 
Diario da Tarde, Parann etc. dailies. Among the weeklies and 
fortuightlies are : Gilo de Dezembro, Pernilongo, O Sapo, A 
(iazeiti Polfika, Jerusalem, Espliyiiffc, Der Beiibachter, and several 

As to elementary instruction Paran;i is one of the most attentive 
and most generous States. It maintains ■'>b2 grammar schools foi' a 

— 515 — 

population ol'il-JJ.OOO inhahilants. This gives it a. proiiiinciit plarc at 
tlic licad oi the other States ol' ]->razil. 

Keeping the same proportion Minas onglit lo liave l.:.'0(l schools, 
S. Panlo 2.700, Bahia 2.700 and Pernamhueo 2.000. 

Aeeording to its population, we repeat, Parana is the State that 
maintains the largest nnmber of public schools. 

* * 

Groing to another subject, the police force of the Parana State is 
composed of loi men forming Regimcnto de Segiiranca (Safety 
regiment), whose barracks is the building we spoke of. It is com- 
manded by a colonel of the Federal Army. They use Mauser rifh^s. 

The city has good hotels, tramways by animal traction, and 
around the city a number of colonies, Italian, German, Bi-azilian and 
Polish ones. In one of these colonies, known as Villa (!olombo, is 
among other factories, a porcelain and fine crockery one", the I'eal 
artistic products of which ^\■e had opportunity to see. 

The State of Parana, is the one that has adopted the best coloni- 
sation system, on a rational basis, distributing the imniigi-anis with 
equality by the regions of its territory where the colonies might 
grow and flourish, avoiding thus the mistake of the compact grouping 
of one simple nationality, as it happened in Santa Catharina, and, 
though in a smaller degree, in Rio (Jrande do Sal. In Parana ai'e 
54 colonies, that, according lo a magnificent topographic raaj) 
drawn by Dr. f'andido Abren, I notice are located among Brazilian 
population, near the railways or the rivers. Many of them ai'e 
ali'eady villages or cities. We don't include the military colonies the 
expenses of which are covered by the Federal Government. 

To facilitate communications among them and its markets, 
Parana has railways, fluvial navigation on the interior rivers, and 
nice c(^)untry roadways, the best in the country. 

Among these I'oadways there are two that had a just reputation 
and are to-day in decadence hurt fatally by tlie locomotive : the Gra- 
ciosa one, which connected Curityba with the sea, the Matto Grosso 
one, between the Capital and Serrinha. The railway came and they 
were abandoned. It is the fatal history of evolution everywhei-e. 

There are two railways running in Parana : the Paranagua to 
Ponta Grossa one, with 417 kilometi-es, and the S. Paulo-Rio (h'ande 
between Porto Uniao and Jaquariahyba, with .'JOO kilometres follow- 
ing the construction of the studied sections. 

The interior navigation is effected (m the Iguassu and Xegi'o rivers, 

— 51fi 

by a. lai'ge number of small steamers, I'rom 100 to 200 tons, belonging 
to commercial firms and private citizens in Curityba. 

Industry, Prodtction and Co.mmerck. — Kven as to industrial 
activity, Pai'ansi, tliongli one of the smallest of the Union, is one 
of the most advanced. We might even say that there is no branch of 
industry of those that are exploited to-day in Brazil, that is not 
represented in Parana. Its ^jrincipal industry is the preparation of 
Brazilian tea — inatte — for export. Only in the municipium of 
Curityba alone thei'e are 2T> factories, modern ones moved by steam. 
These factories are called eii^'eiihos, the name that the farmers in 
the Northern States give to the factoiies whei'e they make sugar in 
the sugar-cane plantations. The production of intitte in these Curi- 
tyba factories is 25.000.000 kilos. Annexed to this there are other 
industries, an accessory of it, like the making of l)arrels, printing 
offices, lithographies, etc. After this we have the sa-^-mills, some 
moved by steam, some hydraulic. The main bulk of lumber in these 
mills is pine, but they also handle einbryu and other kinds of wood 
of Parana. There are also wine, soap, shoes, cigai's , matches, 
neckties, hosiery, cai's, silk, trunk, ci'ockery factories etc., etc. 

Curityba alone has : PIU barrel factories, 83 shoe factories, 18 
mechanit' shops, 2." eiig-cniios, Brazilian tea; 11 brick factories, 12 
leather tanning works; 11 brewei-ies, ." cordial distilleries, :iO furni- 
ture factories, '.) printing offices, 1 lythographing place, 3 mass facto- 
ries, 1 ice factoi-y, 5 soda-water, 1 matches, 1 neckties, 2 trunks, 
4 i)icture frames, 1 cliocolate, 1 china pipes, 2 corsets, 1 hats, 
.'j harnesses , 1 paper boxes, 1 glassware, 1 aluminium articles, 
2 playing cards, 2 tile factories. We do not mention small tin-smith 
works, coopers shops, iron-smiths, carpenters, etc. 

Wliat we see in (Uirityba as to variety and power of its industrial 
activity — which is the most positive manifestation of the social 
evolution in a certain region — we also see it in the other cities of 
that .State, taking into consideration the respective proportions of 
each one. 

But the principal merchandise which absorbs nearly all the pro- 
ductive energies of Parana, is the matte, (Brazilian tea), and it is 
upon it that is based the strength of its maritime commerce. Due to 
matte, Parana is in the list of the States that are exporters. It 
exports, in fact, much more than it imports, as Para, S. Paulo, 
Amazonas and Bahia. In the list of the States that export the most, 

— 51 V — 

I'nraiiu is in the sevoiitli place of those 18 expoi-ting States. 

Besides matte, Pai'ana exports to foreign countries and other 
Brazilian States, Inmber, fruit, matches, etc. Its port Paranagua is 
the largest fruit exporter of the country to the River Plate. 

When the Brazilian Ivcpublic was proclaimed the Budget of 
Parana a\ as 82(1;000S()00 and to-day it is l.()OU:000$000, not including 
the municipal revenues. The exports from the State ten years ago, 
was :_!.UO0;0U0«UOU, but in I'.IUI it went up^^to 13.851 :000$000 and in 

l':ii'aiuigii;i. — l»:i I'l'aia Mi'cel and laiiiliiig slage 

i'.ny^ was over l(i.U()():OUOS(A(U all proceeding from agricultural and 
industrial wealth. 

Unfortunately, as to mineral wealth, in spite of marvelhms things 
being said about the Parana soil, nothing has been done to take 
advantage of it. 

* * 

(Jthkk citjus Of' Parana. — Besides the Capital there ai-e no 
other large cities in the State of Parana. In this respect Parana 
looks well like the Para and Amazon States. Take Curityba away 
from Parana and you will see how difficult it w ill be to find another 
capital. Let us see, however, the best cities : 

— 518 — 

l'Ai;ANA(a;A. — Tlio second city of Mie State, <' is ueut and ele- 
gant, its inlial)if.ants are f^'Ciieroiis, soeialile, and liospitalde, expan- 
sive and hard workers. It is a cit\- ot eoniraercial movement. Its 
nuuiieipiiini is very rich, and its soil produces with abundance the 
vegetables of (bat tenii)eratc region. « 1'bis was told us l)y an infor- 
mant who is authority on the subject, and we found it all so on the 
17th of March 1903, when we visited it for the first time. We have 
also to add something of what we saw. This old Paranagua (derivated 
from ptiruna^'iu'i — bay, or sea bosom) is in the recess of a vast bay 
of calm aspect at the entrance of which we see a long low island, 
divided into two and covei'cd with vegetation. In one of the sections 
is the ligbt-house and in the inner side by the water is an old fortress 
about which a pi'ccious book gave iis the following inforjnation : — 
« Uui'ing the reign of I). .lose 1, the famous chancelloi' Pombal, 
determined that tlie inlial)itants should build the fortress at their 
own expenses. The poor fellows went to work to raise the money 
and built it, without saying a word, as such things were done at 
that time, that is, (jn the I'.ith of .January 1707. Vet, in April 17t)'.i, 
when the forti-ess was finislied the governoi- came there and ordered 
the following inscription to l)e engraxed on the beautiful stone walls, 
taking away from the people any co-operation in this work altogether 
executed by the inhabitants of Paranagua and to whom exclusively 
its existence was due. And tlierc I'enuiined the insci'iption cmgraved 
in the stone as a remembrance oi colonial injustice. Here it is : 

I!li\a\ij(i i;)i i'uutui^vl 

n SKllKMSSnil) SIMIIili l)o\l .loSK I'll 



HoR OoM Luis Antonio hi-: Souza Botkmio 


auo UK .Matheus, FiDAMHi iiii Casa 111-; Sua M 





It is quite original to note how badly this inscription was wilt- 
ten, the spelling as well as the division of the syllables in the words 
that go o\er t,o the next line being all wrong. Here is the translation : 

1 1770, llciiiijiiiH ill roiliiyiil Mis Sureiie Lord Duiii .lose (lie lii'.sl, His illiisU-iuus 
K\i-ollnii\ Sciihiir lloiii Luis Aiiloiiio do Soii/;i Bolrllio Moiii'rio, Lord of (lie village Ovellia 
M(ii{^."do de .Mallieiis, Ndlileiiiaii of His Ifajesly Coiii'l, Coiiieiidadoi' of llic Korlress of Viaiia, 
Goveriifir and Caiilaiii General of lliis port of Si'io Paulo ordered lliis forU'ess to be buill in 
the foiirlli Year of Ins GoveriinienI 1769.) 

— 51!) — 

From that fortress to the anehorage phiee is still a long distance 
and from the other side we see the ilha das Cobras (snake island), 
^^•here the quarantine place is. This is a large quiet building looking 
as if it Mere abandoned. 

At last, at the end of the ample bay all filled with rocky points, 
shewing that it is not so good an anchorage place as it looks, there 
lies the cit\-, half hidden, behind the trees somewhat faded in its green 
shade, as it happens with all the vegetation in the salt-pit banks. 
Paranagua is not, properly said, on the bay but at the mouth of 
the Itibere river. 

Aiiluiiiiia. — Geueral View of Uie i-ily 

The steamers with draught above the average cannot enter the 
channel in front of the city, so that its modest stone quay is of no 
use, as the passengers must disembark in boats, and the goods dis- 
charged in lighters which bring them to the quay in fifteen minutes. 

The city has no great importance. It is a group of houses, some 
with upper stories, a good hospital, and some old churches. In front 
of the quay is a sad serenity like in a hamlet, and the point of sea 
half confounded with the liver takes the feature of a mild lake, 
dead, where the vegetation and white houses on the other bank 
reflect themselves in a trembling fidelity, like; a picture. 

— r.L'ii — 

AiiKiiig' otlicr indnsli-iul establislimont-s Lliei-c is a ^ooil iiuitcli 
I'aclory, not ol' Uu^ importance ol' the (!urity)ni one. 

'This city \\'as I'oiukUhI in ITiHO by a gToup ol' dwellers ol (Jananea, 
a cify of S. I'aulo State. Later on there was some work in the 
mines i;i)inj; as far as starting a j;'okl loundi-y, and tliat ti-oni 1(1-J7 
lo 17:;n. 

An'I'omna. — It \\as lorinerly eaile(l (iiiHnijiinirnbH (fat risli hayj, 
heautilul imlii4ene name that they eluini;ed in lionor ol the name ol' 
the ]>rinee D. Antonio Xosso Senhor, as we I'ead in (lie doenment 

I'crl 111 MdiTcles (ui lliL'j.MHiM(ti;i(|u;ir;( 

\\hr\[ il became a village in 17U7. II became a cify in I.S"i7 and is 
placed in another recess ol I'aranagua bay between the Xhundia- 
(]nara and ('achoeira ri\ ers. 

It is a city that once liad more importance than it has to-da\-. 

'I'lie Oraeiosa road gave it lile, making it tlie outlet ol all Parana. 

Tlie railway, liowever, took awa\- the eommeree from that direc- 
tion, and now^ it has to grow dependent upon its own resources. 

Its population, ipiite select and lios])itaJ>le, Ijul- very paitriotic 
a,nd Willi h)cal i)artialit ies doesn't exceed I^.'^SO inliabitants, :!.L'1S 
nudes and :i.:i(i_' females. There are some good business liouses, 
sevei'a! eliureh(.'-s, affirming the old developnn'nt of the city, about 

— 522 — 

l.OOO 1h)uscs, many with upper stories. This is Aiitonina a port 
wlicre the Lh)yd lii-azileiro Steamers call at. 

MoRKKTKs. — A little i'urther ahead is Morretes on the banks of 
the Nhnndiaquara, and surrounded by pretty hills where the name 
eomesfrom. It is quite hot there, and is delicious for those who like 
strong emotions. The city is api3ai'entl>- in decadency. Caritylja kills 
it with its absorbing- progress and its inexorable railway. The 
0.500 inhabitants of Morretes have to develop a most delicate energy 
if they don't like to see theii- pretty little city disappear. It is neces- 
sary that Morretes should not die. 

Yet it has been a great deal worse and m eaker than it is to-day. 
Its I'.iOO census gave it 5.000 inhabitants and the last one (J..500. If it 
increases it is because it is not falling. It exports an exquisite 
brandy, ni'^ny bananas, oranges and other fruit. 

Ponta-(tR()ssa. — One morning we were starting from Curityba 
station in the Ponta Grossa 8 o'clock train. The landscax^e was quite 
new for my eyes of Northern Brazilian. 

Those who never went out of Rio de Janeiro and have only seen 
the strong aspects of the mountains crossed by the E. de F. Central 
can't have an idea, or imagine what these Pai'ana fields are, with 
its pine-tree woods, its ondulations to obey to the same liiytm, its 
velvetlikc prairies with several shades of green whereby seldom a 
soft I'ivei' slides like a slow transparent rosin tear. The railway 
extending itself through that region connecting cities and nucleus, 
where life begins now gaily for the fair hard working and pleased 
populations. The lethargic sadness made of laziness and fatalism of 
the mixing breed of the Portuguese-African that we see in the 
interior of certain Northern States, run away frightened with the 
passage of the railway and there appear those groups of new genera- 
tion, those new colonies, villages and cities. This phenomenon of 
our ethnical-social metamorphosis has in the railway one of its most 
strong factors. This, however, is what has happened in all America 
and everywhere. 

But, as we said, the train left Curityba in the morning. It was 
full. The time of empty trains is past. And where are those who 
assui'ed that that road would never give result? Last year it had a 
l)alance in its favor of 1.000;000$000 and it has had one for a long- 

We went oii. Every now and then there was a stop, a station, 
there were great piles of merchandise, lumber, pine-tree trunks all 
pilled up on freight cars. Wealth in elaboration. The landscapes 

— 523 — 

I'ollow one uuoUior with ;i viiricly ol' details, but without breaking- 
tlic contoi'iuitiou lines wliieli are the seal ot that unaltered nature. 
Long fields with cattle in the pasturage, bands of reddish earth 
bordering the savanna, pine-trees suspending a sweet dark green 
eanopy over the endless valleys; near the tracks, little hamlets, 
covered with i)inc, cattle here and there, sometimes large planta- 
tions of grain with cars bending over tin- road, and the constaiil 
pine-tree, the pine-tree straight and vertical, standing up erect, with 
its majestic appearance and its top like a cup lui-nedup towards the 
sky, near and I'ar, in I'l'ont and behind, evervA\herc, as the origin, 

l'i)|iul;ii' l\|ic.s. — A iKiski'l-iiKilu'i' I'l'oiii Hie interior nf P;ii';i]i;'i 

tlie cause, the end ol' all that scenery. 

At i'onr o'clock we i-eached Ponta Gi'ossa. It was in the afternoon 
of the L'.5th of March lOO.'J. We went to an Italian hotel. 

Ponta (_ti-ossa lias this name owing to the ronnd thick rock upon 
^^■llich it is built. It was a bad selection foi' a city. 

In 1(S71 it received the genteel name of Pitangny, bnt, we don't 
know why, I'ight after they gave it the name of Ponta Grossa. Owing 
to its location 017 metres al)ove the sea-leA'el it can be seen 01) kilo- 
metres away. That same circnmstanee brings to it disadvantages 
that are not to b(_' (iinied. A large part of the year it is punished by 
the strong winds, raising clouds of red dnst. 

The city of to-day is colossal compared with the small litth; one 
of 1880, and the canse of this increase was the railway. It is builf 
on the top of the hill, bnt its streets and bnildings rapidly co\ered 

- ;,2i — 

(he C'lcviition ami cxtciid themselves throu;;!! the phiin, ovei' an area 
eaeh time h\rf;er. 

Tlie streets have no jjavements. Its illumination is kerosene oil. 
On the top of the hill they built a large ehurcli of Roman style, not 
yet finished and the dome of \vhieh is seen from veiy far. There are 
several houses with upi)er stories, modern style, good business hou- 
ses. Those with best aspect are of the Teuto-Bi'azilians and Ger- 
mans. In the small scpiare where the ehurch is, is a quite mo- 
dest building, ugly, square, which is the market, with one door on 
each side, and six small half circle openings to take the place of 
windows. The vS. Paulo-Rio Grande railway, which passes near by 
can be seen away down. It is a fine building, perhaps the best in the 
city. The building of the Parana railway is inferior to that. It is 
right at the entrance of Ponta (Jrossa, painted lead-gray coloui- and 
rustic style. 

Near the city is the large matte factory vSanto Agostinho, well 
known in the )St)uth of the country as well as in Rio da Prata. 

Ponta Grossa has also its Club, the Pontagrossense Club, which 
is in a one floor building decorated with good taste. Its principal 
streets are : Santos Dumont, Quinze de Novcmbro, Ribas. There is 
no great movement in Ponta Grossa, but it is not that that makes it 
nostalgic and oppressive : it is the sensation of isolation and exile, 
which instinctively invades our minds when we contemplate that 
even horizon, infinite, unitpie, which we see all around, never mind 
which side we turn, a green sea of vegetation over which there 
seems to fluctuate islandlike, Ponta Grossa. 

Lapa. — It is XU3 metres above the sea-level and enjoys deser- 
vingly the fame of healthy city. 

There is a good deal of life in Lajja in the ciilti\'ation of wine, 
numdioca., beans, coi'ii, etc. Lapa. fruit is famous all over the State. 
It exports matte, lumber, liides and cattle in lai'ge (jiiantity. 

It suffered a good deal with the civil war but it has I'ecovered 
now and is once more progrcissive and lively. 

Castro. — I'l'ctty city with 1 .(it»U houses, and ll.o77 inhabitants, 
."3.728 males and 5,(149 females, when according to the census of ten 
year's ago it had but IJ.OOO inhabitants. We can see how it has grown. 
What must we attribute it to '! To no otjier element but the railway. 

(!astro, though more elevated than Ponta Grossa, as it is 
0.57 metres above the sea-level , has not the disadvantage of the 
dust and constant cyclonical wind that sweeps the city. Castro is a 
pleasant city on tlie left bank of the Yapo river, and is connected 

— r)25 — 

■with its Santa Cruz district by a long wooden bridge, at the side ol' 
which is the elegant metallic bridge belonging to the railway. This 
bridge goes over an open spac(^ 80 metres wide and cost about 

The place where ("astro is located was formerly a residence of 
aborigencs. It is named alter the king's minister Mello e Castro, the 
same who ordered every factory and every industry in Bi'azil, except 
thick cloth for the slaves, to be destroyed. We see that naming the 
streets after heroes is a mania that dates away back in Brazil. 


S. Paiilo-Uiii Grande Kaihvay bi'iilgo ovor tho Rio Yapi'i 

Castro has good colleges and schools, catholic and lutheran chur- 
ches, and some good buildings, which have been built of late, but 
in general are of that solid but not elegant style of the ancient 
times. Several lumber yards and suburbs decorate and extend the 
city which seemed to us be destined to a great future, especially 
when the S. Paulo-Rio Grande railway will realise its projected 
connection with the Sorocabana railway, in the S. Paulo frontier. 

GuARAPUAVA. — This is one of the highest cities of Brazil. It is 
1.095 metres above the sea-level. D. Joao VI ordered an exploitation, 
by missionaries, of the famous fields of Guarapuava in ISO'.t, soon 
after his arrival in Brazil, and this expedition, directed by Frei Cha- 
o-as, a native of Curityba , arrived at that place on the I7tli of .J une 

— 526 — 

ISIO. 'riu'.s(> fields, however, had heen diseox-erod on tlie Stli of Sej)- 
tcinbcr I771[,hy liculeiuuit Caiulido Xaxier dc Almeida e Soiisa, of 
Sao Paulo. Lately a good deal oi business is converging to that 
plaee and the buildings multiply themselves , thei-e a])ijearing new 
liolels, saw-mills, work-shops, and (iuarapuava is gro-wing up. 

'file city properly said has not over lO.OOU inha))itants but its 
niunicipiums are growing moi'e populated every day, and altogether 
(the disti'icts : Pinhao, Heserva, Campo Real, Capanema and Thei'e- 
/.ina) has over 21. (XX) inhabitants. 

<iii;it'a|iii.'i\ ; 

j |i, .lijidi'iii |-i\rr 

Among the natural curiosities of the Guarapuava miinicipium we 
will mention the two falls of th(> Jordao river some .""jO kilometres 
away from the city, of which the most noted for its sizes, as for the 
beauty of the scenery is the Salto do (hirucnca (Curucaca jump). 
Though it has not the stupendous greatness of tlie Salto do Guahyra, 
the .lordao river one is celebrated on account of its location amid 
the fields and near a hill, from the top of which we can contemplate, 
the whole of that picturesque and beautiful Snlio do (hiriia'ua. 

Ca,mi'o IjAiicio. — This city is a most picturesque one and enjoys 
a delightful climate. It has 1000 houses. It comprises the Xossa 
Senhoi'a da Piedade de Campo Largo and S. Luiz do Poruna jjari- 

— 527 — 

slics. Its population is lO.'.HiS inhabitants. The city is )>! kih)iiu'.trcs 
West of Curityba, with whieli it is connected by a carriage road call- 
ed Matto Gi'osso. It is inhabited since 181 1. In 1826 it had already a 
good church, the Piedade one. In 1870 it was considered a niunici- 
piuni by law of th(" '2i\d of April of the same year. 

Its exports of matte and lumbei' are worthy of note. 

TiBAUY. — It is the head of a rich niunicipium, it is upon an 
extensive plain, somewhat (devated, in relation to the neighboring 
gi-ounds. It has good water reservoirs and a climate \\orthy of envy. 
By its honses, yet a little scattered and modest, runs the river it is 
named after. It has two churches, a catholic and a protestant one, 
several schools, fine matte factories, many cattle ranches, all near 
the city. 

Pai.meiras. — By the Parana railway, at the left going to Ponta 
Grossa, on the to]) of the Campos Geraes mountains and by the rivei' 
Ignassu. The houses extend themselves at the shade of a catholic 
church, the two towers of which, terminate in hemisphere form, 
painted blue. There are two other catholic churches and a protestant 
one, eight schools, a masonic lodge, two clubs, and is surrounded by 
colonial nucleus which supply it with everything it needs. It is the 
seat of a large municipium. The principal cultivations are the vine, 
coi'n, beans, rye, potataes and tobacco. In all the municipium includ- 
ing the seat there is : 1 physician, 2 lawyers, 12 cattle ranches 
farms, ;i saw mills, 2 matte factories, 1 flour mill, 8 wine distilleries, 
:;0 dry goods and fancy stores, 12 gi'ocers and hardware stores, etc., 
.3 butchers, '.i bakers, I billiard-room, 2 breweries, 3 brick factories, 
(J horse sheers, 1 carpenters, 2 joiners, a tinware factory, 2 tailors, 
1 barber shop, 3 shoemakers and 1 hotel. 

Besides these, which are the principal ones, there are other 
villages and cities flourishing in the territory of the State which 
has 38 miinicipiums. 

A large part of Parana, however, is intact, ignored, and perhaps 
it is the richest part, covered with odorous forests of pine-trees, the 
providencial tree, tlie precious gift with which nature presented 
that State, as a token of affection and prodigality, to its hard 
working people and progressive development. 

— 52R 


The first attempts made to populate tliis region were, very natu- 
rally, undertaken by vSpaniards who considered themselves possessors 
ol' all the region comprised between the Prata and Cananea rivers. 

Xot only can we verify, by the study of the epoch, that this was 
the dominant orientation in the Court of Castella, favoring all the 
undertakings in that sense, but we also know that the dominion 
became cffcctivi! making contracts for the colonisation of the 
S. Francisco and Santa Catharina rivers. 

l-'inri;iii(p|iiilis. — Moniiiiicjil In ilii' |iali-iol ic viiliiiil(>crs in the piililii-'di'ii 

The contract celebrated with .Jayme Rasquin is an important 
document to clear this point. 

According to this curious document, signed in Madrid on the 
30th of December 1.5.57, Rasquin had to establish on the sea-coast 
several sugai- factories, as well as he ought to found four cities in 
the following ordei' : 

Un piwblrj oil In coxOi del Bnixil, dentro dc luwstra demurcncioii, en la parte 
que dicen San-Franeisco. y otro treuila leguax mas arriba hacia el rio de la Plata, 
doiule dicen el Viana. (jne ])or i>lro nombre se llama el Puerto de los Patos ; y en- 
Irando en net rio de la Plata, etc. 

— r,29 — 

(A village (111 llie [ira/iliaii coasl, iiiuliM- ONI' ik'iiKii'fiilidii, in the pari wliicli llicy call 
S. Francisco and aiuiUici' lliirly Icatsiics above lowards llu' liivcr I'lalc wlicrc llie\ say is 
the Viasa, which has the name of Piierln (U' los Palos (l)iii-l>s port) and enleriiig in llie I'iver 
de La Plate ( Plate Uiver), etc. 

It was tliis Rasiinin, the first, as far as we know who had a 
reguhxr establishment in Santa CatJiarina soil. These beautiful 
lands, to-day, with the limits of the old province, yet subject to the 
verification with Parana form a State, the sixth in the cn'der of the 
smallest of Brazilian States, having all the rights that the largest 

SI rail ol Ihe isle of S. Calliai'iiia and lor S. Crnz 

have and enclosing in its Tf.l.JH square kilometres of surface a very 
large number of natural wealth. 

The true founders of Santa Catharina however, were Francisco 
Uiogo Velho and his sons. 

A Brazil writer said about it : 

« Thus, then, in tliat abandoned and forgotten Santa Catharina 
soil, in KioO appeared Francisco Dias Velho Monteiro (whom others 
call Francisco Uiago) with four sons, victims of a dreadful wreck in 
the North point of the island called Jurie-Mirim. 

Being a religious man with great faith in Our Lady do Desterro, 
as soon as he saw himself safe, having escaped such a great disaster 
he built upon a hill, (which is to-day (iuinze de Noverabro) a little 

— r,3o — 

cliapel, in ailoration to (he saint of tliat name, and the Capital of 
Santa Catliarina — Desterro — was named after tliat fact. 

In the constrnetion of the chapel and residences he began to 
build he was aided by the natives, who soon familiarized themselves 
with the customs and language of the lMiroj)eans, (|uite astonished 
and surprised at the use of domestic obj(!Cts they did not know, 'j'lie 
houses were all huilt by the sea-shore, the first Ijeing called Rua r/o.s 
Pntos (Ducks Street), afterwards called Riui do Principe (Prince 
Street), attei- the repuhlic tliCN' named it Jokc Vciga, and lately 
(dianged the name of that native of Santa Oatharina by that of 
Altino Coi'rca. 

'^riie island had once the name niPntos, (Ducks), name of an abo- 
rigene tribe, which, with the carija Indi,ans, and others, inhabited 
there. They devote themselves to fishing and sea-life. Perhaps it 
is an inheritance from those habits the inclination the natives of 
Santa Catharina have for the sea-life, having had among them illus- 
trious sailoi's, as Parao da Laguna and others. 

It is i-eally worth admiring the calm and courage with which the 
inhal)itants of the scivshore in Santa Catharina defy the fui'y of the 
w aves, now in small boats, narrow and flat canoes, by and bye in 
pi'ettv- yachts running the coastwise navigation of those ports. 

'J'lie State received large crowds of German immigrants who 
established themselves in a tract of land having no easj' means of 
communication. 'Plie lack of direct contact with the natives preserv- 
e<l among tlu-m, for a long time the language and customs of their 
fatherland, which only slowly become nationalized. 

The colonies with that attachment of preserving their native 
customs have risen the suspicions of the Rio de .Janeiro press. The 
newsi)apers of the Cai)ital do not want to listen to a word about the 
\\'ork and useful value of those colonies, and only see in them threats 
to the homogeneity of the Brazilian national constitution and even 
to the integrity of the Brazilian territory. 

There is nothing, however, like a local examination to forma 
judgment ujjon such allegations. If we leave Rio, go to Itajahy or 
S. Francisco, take a small fluvial steamer, one of those that go to 
.Joinville, or to Blumenau, examine everything in close observation, 
retaining \\hat there is of good, according to the precept, we will see 
if it is woi'th while or not to speak about t]i(> German (lanf>-er and 
similar foolishnesses. 

It was that what we have done. We went there ourselves in 
April, lOOli. 

— 531 — 

Destekuo. — Ts the Capital of vSanta Catharina Statu, i( is not in 
tlie territory of the State properly said, but in a large island in front 
ol' it. Tlie same ease as in Maranliao and Espirito Santo. 

"When we go to this port, we have to eross a long channel formed 
by the Atlantic, a narrow length ol' the ocean which goes on getting 
narrower between the continent and the island, until it reaches the 
minimnm width of 100 fathoms in the place called Eslreilo (Narrows) 
between the city and a point of tlie continent ]jrolonged by it. 

The sail through this channel is most pictures(|ue. At a certain 
place we sec t^^'o small islands the Ratnnes ones, name that docu- 
ments the passage of the Spaniards l)y that land. On the right we see 
tlie old fortress Santa Cruz, with a white light-house. There at the 
shade of those walls were murdered, or, justice was cruelly done to 
them, several prisoners arrested in the city in ISill by the 7th bat- 
talion commanded hy Moreira Cesar. 

The city is in an elbow of the large island, looking towards the 
continent. It occupies the flat parts, between the sea and the moun- 
tain towards the inclination of which the houses are getting higher. 
The city is not a large one, neither is it pretty. It is composed of 
narrow streets, wdiich run in jiarallel with the sea-shore and others 
transversal ones, which start from the sea-side in direction of the 
inclination of the small hills covered with woods which frame in 
velvet green the whole city. 

Looking from the sea, the city is really pretty and divided into 
two distinct parts : the old city where is the commercial part of the 
city, the hotels, the storage houses, with their wooden docks (or 
bridges), and the Praia de Fura or the new city where ai'e the fine 
white residences and small farms of the wealthy part of the ])opu- 

We heard a good deal of German spoken here, as we hear French 
in Rio, Italian in S. Paulo, Spanish in Southern cities, (iuarany 
(one of the Indian languages of Brazil) in Corumba. Nothing, how- 
ever, either local aspirations or customs or anything else confirmed 
the api)rehensions of those who spoke to us in Rio about national 
character disfigurement. We never saw people more jjatriotic, more 
intelligent, more enthusiastic over Brazil than the inhabitants of 
Santa Catharina. 

The largest number of the streets are paved, though not in a first 
class style. Some, however, like Aliino Correa Street are paved with 
stone blocks. In the central pai't of the city is a pretty public 
garden, enclosed by an iron railing as they do in nearly every Bra- 
zilian city. This is one of the prettiest and l^est taken care of garden 

— 5S2 — 

Mc luiNc seen. It is (inite artistic as to tlio disposition and order ot tlie 
riowor beds, huslies, distril)ntit)n ol' ornamental plants, etc. It has at 
one of the corners a jn-ettA- and light pavillion ol painted ir on and in 
the centre a nionunient in homage to the Volunteers of Para- 
guayan war. 

This is a stone monument with the names of the Santa Catharina 
volunteers who died in the war written on the different sides of 
the monument. On top is a pile of cannon balls in form of a 


HiiMiii-iniic view ol' Iho Cit\ 

Generally, in Floriano))olis the construction is of old ai'chitec- 
ture, pure colonial style, but they are now building- some modern 
houses, elegant palaces, especially in Praia de Fora, Matto-Grosso 
(to-day Admirante Alvin) streets and in several others. 

That part of the population which constitute w'hat is called 
popular masses, is of good habits, good natured and hospitable. The 
other classes composed of the ricli, the learned, the politicians, the 
business men, the farmei's, etc., do not differ in anything from the 
public of other capitals. They all make good fi'iends with strangers 
and foreigners. It is a ])opidation open to the cosmopolitan sociabi- 
lity, but vei-y jealous of their national ijersonality. There nobody 

believes or cares l\)r what Uiey say about tlie German danger, 
and Germans and Brazilians li\e in the best of harmony. There 
are no banks , neither I'asliionable dressmakers , noi- jewelers , 
eoneert-lialls, nor any of those luxurious exteriorities, so common 
in modern capitals, where the noise and pomi^ous display of elegant 
life reigns supreme. Also, crime hardly exists there, neither are there 
scandals, disorders, riots or great sickness. It is a simple and sound 
land in the bosom of Abraham. 


- .State Govei'iior's Palace 

I'lie Governor's palace, a large and noble mansion, looking to 
the Matriz S(]uare, (to-day Almirante Goncalves square), is located 
at the side of the churcli. Inside it is lull of good i)aintings, golden 
and high relief decorations, having a marble vestibule and stairway 
of sumptuous appearance. It is the newest and the best building of 
the city, witli gai-dens on the sides and illuminated by acetylene gas. 
It has two floors and a beautiful front looking to the scpiare. It is 
beautiful api)ointed and decorated with good taste and even luxury. 

Tlie public market is a large building als(j of recent construction, 
rose coloi', which gives it a resemblance with that of Santos (though 
this one is much superior to it in size and architectui'e). It is a dou- 

— 534, — 

lilc <;allery on a parallelognun l)asis, with many doors, those of tlie 
inlci-ior hiokiii"- lo a yard neat and clean. All the building' is covei'- 
ed \\ith /,inc, al whose shade that multitude ol' buyers and venders 
ui(i\t' hei'e and there. It is in (lie centi-e of the city by the sea-shoi'e 
ni'ar Ihe Custom-House. 

We found the Custom-IIouse well installed, in a two stoi-y build- 
ing, in notliing haxing- the mean aspect of those of I'ai'anagua, 
Macei('), or Mamios. 

The City Hall is another good building, a solid one. H' it is not 
of a noted aix'hitecture, vcl is easily distinguished from the othei' old 

l''luiiaiio|iulis. — Da Saiila (iasa lli]S|iilal anil liracli ol Sai/cu ilds liiini^s 

style buildings with plain walls. It is located at the corner of Tira- 
denles street and its front looks to the Public (Jarden. 

'J'he Charit\- Hospital is upon a mountain and its snt)w-whilc 
structure presents a mild relief upon that green bottom, tlic deep 
green of the woods (ui the hill side. It was built in the same place 
«herc tlie old Iiospital was built, in the eighteenth century. Its fun- 
damental stone was ])laced by I'ctcr II in ISITi, as the latin inscrip- 
tion ovei- the doorway, right at the cnli-ancc shows it. 

It is directed by Sistei'S of Charity, IrinTis <Ih Pnnudcnciu ( J^ro- 
vidcnce Sistei'S), botli (Jeruians and Bi'ay.ilians. In the main hall we 
saw a beautiful painting, a true work of art, representing a specialist 

— 585 — 

on eye diseases operating- a i)aiient. Tliougli it lias no date they say 
it is one ol' the fii'st works of tlie celebrated 1-Jrazilian painter Vietor 

The Xossa Senhora do Desterro ehnreh is a large huilding plac- 
ed at the bottom of a hill in front of the public square where there 
is a garden, with a pretty stairway to go up to. 

There is nothing worthy of note in the exterior of the church. 
It has the form of a parallelogram, a j)lain front, looking to the 

Floriaiiii|i()lis. — CalliLMlr;il 

rublic (larden. The entrance and the corners of the front are of 
mason work. The basis and front isagood deal wider than the top and 
ends by two s(]uare towers. Internally besides the main altai-, there 
are two others at the side and two small chai)els. The choir is sup- 
ported by \\ooden columns of octogonal sections, painted blue. 'I'he 
walls are plain and wliite, without pictures or golden decorations, 
everything modest and simple. There is a rich image of Nosso 
Senhor dos Passos. 

This image, according to what tradition tells us was not destined 
to receive the catholic worship of the Santa Catharina people. It 

— 53fi — 

was sculptured in lliiliia. I'oi' 11 io ( iraiiilr do Sul, l)ui the designs of 
l*ro\ideiice didn't want it so. 

It -was in tlic year ITCil a, boat sailed Irtnu Baliiii t,o Kio (ii'ande 
do Snl, ean-ying- t]ie artistic imag-e. Ueacliing- tlie bar, tlie sea 
was so strong- tliat tlie boat could not venture to go in, and so 
looked ioi- slicltei' in Desterro. A new attempt was made with the 
same result and still they tried a thii'd time in vain, and the captain 
seeing in this the will o! God wishing the image to remain in Des- 
terro left it there. 

I"'l(iriaiiii|>(ilis. — Till' |iorl ;iii(l C(iiiiinei'ri:il (,lii:irler 

The city has othei- churches but all of tlieni without any artistic 
value as to their architecture. 

Another fine l)uilding is the Barracks of the Police force. It is a 
large building with two floors and two side wings with many win- 
ilows w ith iron i-ailings. One of these wings is the jail. 

The military hospital, the theatre, the Apprentices School, are 
other buildings of I'clative importance. None of them, however, 
impressed us as muidi as the factory of Mr. Carlos TToepkc, in a 
l)lace called Santa Rita. II is a wire-nail factory, always active pro- 
ducing enough to export to the noi'thern markets of Brazil. 

'fhe city has some beautiful places wlierefroni charming lands- 

— 537 — 

capes can be observed with gi-eal enjoyment, as I'rainha, Jose, 
Mendes, and the pretty phxee ealled Sncco dos Linides (Lemons bag), 
which is the hip of the sea-shore upon the blue and pacific water of 
the l)ay and there are no interjections of pleasure and admiration 
being- able to translate what the eyes can see and enjoy. From any 
high point of the city we find admirable perspectives of exentric 
I'clief and mild hues. 

The shores of Desterro ai'e not muddy as those cities with rivers, 
neither are they of plain sand as those of some places in the Atlantic, 
but are filled with stones large and small, standing here on the 
shore, there half sunk into the water, some rough and some polish- 
ed and some with a little vegetation springing from their corners. 


I'JSlCVC'S .IlllliOl' SIlTI'l 

In the evening the city is sad, quiet and sleepy. 

For those wln) are in the habit of hearing the noise of the great 
centres, Desterro, is as its name indicates a perfect exile. There is 
complete silence in the city, discreet lights speak to us through the 
closed window-panes of that calm poetry of home which is a compen- 
sation and a treasury. There is no wordly life, neitlier the noise of 
the nights in a cosmopolitan city. One or other coffee-place and 
billiard-i-oom may be open till ten o'clock. 

The kei'osene oil lamps light the desert streets with a sleeping- 
dull light and by moonlight tliey are economically j)ut out. On 
the sea-shore the sea jxilishes the stones and rocks softly bu( 

Public Instruction, polick forck, industry and commekck. — 
Speaking of public instruction in the >State we must cite the Arts and 

— 538 - 

Trades Lyceum. It has KM) pupils and occupies an approi)riate 
huildiiig', liaviii^- annexed a library witli 5.U0(J volumes, and the 
Museum, ^\ Iiicli is there provisionally and has good sections of archio- 
logical cui-iosities , anatomic anomalies, important collections of 
mineralogy, numismatic, shells and l>ra/.ilian woods. 

'i'lie State has a Noi'mal College, with ■lO pupils; a (Jymnasiuni; 
one \'e(erinar,\- and Agi'iculture school in Hlumenau; a (gymnasium 
in Tubarao, anothei- in Laguna, at the expense of the municipalities. 

"riiei'e are in the State, lUO grammar sidiools, maintained by the 
government, and lt)U private ones. 

The State police force is formed by an infantry company witli 
:.'5() men with nice blue uniform and white belts and commanded by 
a Lieutenant Colonel. 

As to i)ublic transportation , there ai'c several carriage I'oads in 
Santa (,'athai'ina, and two railwaj'S. One is the short railway 
Estreito to Palhoca, now under construction, the other is the 
1). Thercza Chrislina I'uilway connecting a i)lace calbxl Minas, in 
the Tubai'ao Municipium, with the Imbituba and Laguna jjorts, 
serving these two cities and 'i'ubarao w itli 1 Ui kilometres of tracks. 

ft is going to lie extended till — ^lassiambii — a near sea-port to 
aid the exploitation of great mineral layers in Tubai-ao. 

ISlumenau and .loinville, old Teuto-Hra/.ilian colonies were 
made cities, ^^'c gi\-c below the i)oi)ulation of thc^se colonies 
in IS'.iO : 

lilunicnnu lliaziliiiiis r.iicisiurs 

Males I-2.900 l.iltl 

Fcmulus II 901 I .'^J:! 


JIalos 7.(li;i -1(IH 

Kciiialrs (j.jOl i\\ 


iMale.s T.i'.ll .■)IIS 

Kemales 7.05:! f'H 

The production of these colonies as that of all the State is (xuite 
varied. Industry progresses actively and many of Santa Catharina 
products find market in Rio and S. Paulo competing with advantage 
with similar home and foreign products. 

Besides the Rita Maria wir(^-nail factory, there are breweries, 
canned goods factories, cane goods, artificial flowers, soaj), furni- 
ture, carriages factories, dairies, vinegar and fruit wine distilleries, 
co(^l)ei's works, threading mills, wooden shoes factory, cordials, 
lime, matte factories, sawmills, brick w(n-ks,and others, established 
in the Capital and in the interior. 

— 5S!I — 

Thv (I'ip 1(1 the colonics is easy uiid conii'drluhlc. W'lieii K'l'ii'f^' ^" 
Bluiueniin \\ e take in Rio tlie coast steamers eulliiii;' at Itajaliy and 
in tliis city we are ti'ansl'erred to a small ri\-er-steamer that goes up 
to Hltimenau. (ioiiii;- to .loinville we take the steamers calling at 
S. Francisco, transportation I'acilities to that city being easily 

riMNCii'Ai, ciTiKs OK Till': Statk. — Thosc wlui waut lo express 
judgment on the value of Santa Catharina, on its progicss, on its 

liliiiiiciiiiii. - (iijiiiiitic |i;ilin Iri'i.', |iiilriis !) iiicli'cs I(jM| 

ca])acily i'or evolution, witJiout seeing hut the island and its Capital 
to lie sui'e will make ;i mistake. It is necessai'y to go to the 
interior to know Santa Catharina, and of all the interior no region 
will sliow more e\idence of economical i)uissance but those c(donies 
the seat of \\hicli is l:>lumenau. 

'I'lie little steamers going from ftajahu (o Elumenaii take S to 
It) hours. When we arrive tlie panoi'ama of the city is very pretty, 
though it has nothing of imjiortance. It is a small city with 'it to 
■J.'.OOO inhabitants, most of them Jirazilians, (Jermans descents who 
li\c tJiere quite mixed with Jji'azilians, Italians and other nationa- 

^rhe- port is a most j)ictui-esque one as in general every jxirt with 
a river the stream of wliicli is not sti'ong. '^Phe banks almost disap- 

— 54(1 — 

pear under the vegetation of evergreen and weed. On the river we see 
some yachts painted with gay coh)rs,and two or three small steamers. 

From there we see the City Hall a nice two floor building with 
another stoi-y in the centre, (iernian style, all white. The Mayor 
(or superintendent, as they call him tliero) was when we visited it, 
M. Alvius Schi'ader, a Bi-azilian (Jcrman descent, and the president 
of the municipal council M. Francisco xMargarido. 

The 15 de Xovembro street starts from this point neat and wide, 
crossing near by the Doctor Blumenau street. Dr. Hermann Hlu- 
menau after whom the city was named was a German i)hilantropist 
who over .jO vears ai>'0 obtained a grant of lands from the Brazilian 


iMi]i)iL'i|iul Chiiiiiber 

government, placed a few marks in his jjockel: and with a crowd of 
farmers went into the interior of Santa Catharina and founded this 
colony in 1850. 

Dr. Blumenau was a generous man, tall, strong and a learned 
man, doctor in philosophy, full of courage and humanitarian ideals. 

He did not pay much attention to money. His ambition was to free 
the negro slaves. He was very sober in his habits, a foe of anything 
and everything dishonest. The Brazilian govei-nment in appointing 
him director of the colony did a wise measure. Many contos passed 
through his hands but when he left his position was just as poor or 
as rich as when he first took it. 

In 18<)-1, tired and old, seeing his work ([uite ripe — he was then 
in that age when the remembrances of the first years burst from all 

— r>4.i — 

sides of our thought — he wanted to see his old I'atherland and went 
back to Germany. His work liad been completed the colony was 

He lived there still fifteen years often repeating : « what a mistake 
to have left my dear Blumenau ! » and he used to receive with great 
demonsti-ation of contentment any acquaintance or friend who might 
bring him some news of his colony, to-day a fi'ee and lively city. 

Blumenau is always growing, its streets have fine arborization, 
palms and other trees, new houses with artistic fronts, nice veran- 
dahs are built every day, here , we see a gothic church with its 
tower, a catholic one, there, a protestant one, both of them pretty, 
and there are fine churches in this colony. Are worthy of note the 
Gaspar and Rodeio districts catholic churches. The Santo Antonio 
college is an important building with four floors, but as to its exter- 
nal beauty the S. Paulo college of German style is not inferior to 
it. Notwithstanding, the commercial houses present models of archi- 
tectural construction which can be compared with advantage with 
the construction of the old city. J<]ven the residences of modest 
families are so neat outside, so well taken care of, aic relatively so 
artistic, that it looks as if they could serve as model or standai'd to 
many expensive constructions in the large capitals. 

But that is not all. We take a little carriage and ride a little 
thi'ough those fine roads. We see large fields and pastures on both 
sides, fences, modest houses of the colonists showing in spite of 
their modesty comfort and abundance. None of them would sell you 
for love or money that house and lot maintained and enriched by 
their work, growing better year after year, and treated with a care 
that can hardly be believed. It is difficult to find an empty lot, and 
much more so because there are no discontented colonists there. 

Blumenau cultivates and produces everything : sugar cane, cof- 
fee, tobacco, grain , vegetables, cattle, etc. There are settled as 
small real estate owners, Brazilians, Germans, Italians, Poles, 
who are only distinguished by the language and preferences they 
devote to certain cultivations , while time and atmosphere did not 
complete the unifying work. Like this one, though in smaller scale, 
there are other colonies : Brusque, vS. Bento, Rodeio, Aquidaban, 
Sao Paulo, Cedros and several others. None, however has the impor- 
tance of Blumenau. 

.loiNViLLE. — We will say a few words about that gem of Santa 
Catharina cities. It is probably the prettiest of the State. It has a 
population superior to that of the Capital and a much more progres- 

six'c aspect. Its huildings are iiiodtM'ii oiu^s, ju'edominatiiif;- those ol 
tu'i-man st.\l(', l)ut not very large. The streets are wide and paved, 
and Uiey are kept with perfect cleanliness. Its tire department is 
\\()rtliy of a modern city. Its president of Municipal Council was 
Mr. liernardo iMiznianu when we were ther(\ lie is an active and 
energetic man who never feels tired. He is always improving public 
services and the administration of the city as well as the ^Nlayor 
:\Ir. Procopio de Oliveira. There are many factories, several hotels, 
book-stores, i)rinting offices, good newsi)apei's, etc. 

- l'.-iiMir;iiiia 

|..-iil nl III,. , 

After Peti'oi)olis it is the best city of German origin in South 

TuharAo. — On the banks of the river with this name is 
Tubarao city connected to Lagnna by a railway (tlie D. Thereza 
Christina). It is a progressive city destined to a great future witli 
the exploitation of tlie layers of coal existing in the municipium 
now beginning to be worked up and they have verified they arc the 
largest of its kind in the whole world. 

S. FiiAN(;isco. — Is a i)ictures(£uo city, one of the oldest in the 
State, as it was a village already in ]()(50. We were there and can 
wi'ite with conviction of (-he gi'eatness and excellency of its port, 
certainly the best, soutli of Santos. It is called Babitonga bav or 

— 54- > — 

S. Francisco bay (as scmiic call it). It is (|uitc tleep until neai' tlic sea 
and there ships of deep draught can anchor. vSome of tin; few rocks 
in the bay have buoys to point them out, allowing the navigators 
to keep away from them even at night. 

Through the south bar, called Ara(puiry, the access is easy for 
small boats as yachts, laun(di<>s and canoes. It is much sought for 
('Specially by the boats coming from Itapocu and Barra Velha, 
vessels that l)ring flour, Ijeans, stardi, corn and otliei' grains to the 

D Bliiuicnau. 

FouikIi'i' 111' Ihc cilv of Hull luuiie 

Every inch of the territory of this municixnum is fertile, and 
gives good I'eturns to those working it. 

Befoi'e reaching Babitonga bay, we were anchored some time 
befoi'e Gracas island, a high hill covered with thick woods. It is the 
largest of a gi-oup of pictures(j[ue islands near the coast. 

We left Gracas island at (ia. m. entering throiigli the southern bar. 
Turning round to the left there is tlie green point, peninsular one, 
on the hill of wliicli is a light-house. We entered a little sea of free but 
clear waters Ijound at the right by the hill. The bay is like a looking- 
glass br'iglit and immovable. Sevei-al yachts are anchored there, others 

— 544 — 

slowly iiKivc by a weak brce/.o. The city is in tlie island, in 
front of the continent. We see some new buildings, and the houses 
constituting- llie city wrap on both sides the hill quite green forming 
the spine of the city. On top of it we see the ruins of a construction 
abandoned before it was finished. Jt is a (thiirch of ^^■hich we only 
see four naked walls, its paneless windows like an empty cranium 
looking to the life which animates l)otli the cit\- and th(! jiort. 

The white of the houses \iolently strikes the sober green of the 
hill. Above the houses raises the old tower thin and tall, ending by a 
blue half sphere. This is the Matriz church built for .oiOUUSOdO in the 
eighteenth century at the expense of the neighljors. To-day it would 
cost no less than iJOOiOOOSOUf). 

On the I'ight, in ajirominent j)lace is the market, scjuai'c, heavy, 
yellow, with a central door and six windows on each side. Tliere is 
also the Commercio Hotel a two floor building, where the tourists 

From this i)lace starts a trans-Brazilian railway whiidi is being- 
built by the 8. Paulo Rio (irande Company between this port and 

Ita.iahy. — This city which we have already referred to, is a 
pictures(|ue city located in a curve of the sea-coast and at the mouth 
of the Itajahy river, but of difficult access when the season of the 
southern storms comes on. 

The point of land situated a little beft)i-e the city, which is called 
Cabecudas, is an enormous series of I'ocks, on \\liich they built a 
light-house, supjjorted on an ij-on column. Tt is one of the ports 
with bigger commerce in the State and though it has only 4.5.000 
inhabitants, it presents the following commercial movement during 
the following nine years : 

Vt-ais liUi'i'ior F.vhTioi' 

1892 . . . I.598.2.i6.8.i0 l.-).8(i0.noO 

1894 , . . I.20l..i05 100 — 

IH9.J . . . 1.2- — 

1890 . . . 1.900. I9.';.990 O.IiiV.GOO 

1897 . . . 1.969.7:i2.144 119 719.100 

1898 . . . 2.2.47. 4.'i9.0t2 102..-(i0.027 

1899 . . . 2.724.118.400 ;i5.9l8.100 

1900 . . . I.8|-).01,f).|.44 8.-;.99.i.800 

1901 . . . 1.079.S00.407 I74.ril7.880 

10.271 9?i.4.5.'i7 .'i.-;9.722.807 

Tcjiiil in iiiiio year.s, I0,831:057,$l()4 

.\nriiinl average. 1 .870:184$I20 

— 545 — 

Lagos. — This prosperous up-hill city, head of a rich catth; rais- 
ing munieipium, was founded by S. Paulo people in 177 1 and was 
formerly called Nossa Senhora dos Prazeres. Tt is 800 metres a))ove 
the sea-level. 

It has now about ."}00 buildings, all inhabited ))y a populatioi\ of 
about 1.000 people. 

It has some houses with upper stories of fine appearance, modern 
construction and four churches as old as the city. 

It has a fine market and a small theatre with a seating capacity 
for .500 people in a quite nice building. 

It has also a college directed by priests of the Franciscan 
ordei', where modern methods are adopted. 

In the main square of the city they initiated the consti'uction of 
a church to be the Matriz of the city. They also inaugurated a large 
and elegant building all of it stone work which is the City Hall. 

This city has 10 streets, several lanes and cross-streets, and four 
public squares. 

The munieipium has but five public schools suppoi'ted by the 
State, a number unsufficient for the public instruction of the poor 
children who wish to frequent them. 

The munieipium supports several other schools which are well 

Several private schools are sjjread in this region supported 
by the chiefs of households and they are not in small number. 

The wealth of the munieipium is the cattle, which is far better 
than that of Rio Grande do Sul. They export annually from 20 to 
2.5.000 heads. There are enormous fields and endless forests. It only 
lacks hands and railroads — the problem in all Brazil. 

Laguna. — A sea-coast city of large future possibilities, for its 
business. It is a pity that its port cannot always allow the entrance 
of ships that run or call at this port. This city was founded by the 
sons of that Diogo or Bias Velho about whom we spoke above. 

Dias Velho Monteiro was killed by treason by the sailors of a 
Dutch ship who put into the harbor of Cannavieiras. His sons fled 
to the continent where they founded the place of Lagoa, to-day 
city of Laguna, the first point which was populated in th(>, Santa 
Catharina continent. 

Laguna is the Sjianish for Lagoa (lake); it i)roves the historical 
occupation by the Spaniards in that part of the country. It is an 
active and commercial c-ity. Its aspect is pleasant for the regulai'ity 
of the buildings, and alignment of the streets. By the last census 
it has some 10.000 inhabitants. 

— B.t6 — 

Tlirrtuoh tlio Tvagiina port- mercliaiidises were exported from 18'.iL' 
to htOl as I'ollows ; 

Yr.iis IiilL-iiur l':xl<'rior 

IHiti . . . l)(in.729.H7;) iri.S.'iH.SHl 

i.sDi . . . «i7.70i.52;i 3(i.<;7«;2on 

1,H!);, . . . (;-,l.7i9.r,!Ki "J7.3o7.200 

IHiKi . . . I.(lll.9;i7.8fil .">",. (i(iO. 200 

iKi)7 . . . i.riOH.oio.ra-; 

IKilK . . . 2. 009.470.91:1 205.29i.9S0 

IH99 . . . 1 .950.50:;. ."ififi 298.H0l.0n0 

1900 . . . I.200.:il0.800 215.282.500 

1901 . . . I.12(;.52i.l80 — 

Total. . 1 1. 07i. 121.022 1.0-45.180.870 

Tolal l2.1l9:CiO|892 

,\ni]iinl :ivci-asi'. ■ 1 .515;290.*;099 

Ararangia. — Is a villaf;e fliat already deserved to become a 
city. In the same conditions are S. Sebastiao do Tijucas on tlie 
l)anks of the I'iver Tijucas, Brns(iue, on tlie banks oT tlie river 
Ttajahy-mirim, .S. Bento, Bella Vista de Palmas, Uniao da Victoria, 
Nova Trento, Palho(j'a, Rio Xcgro, Cnrytibanos, Campos Novos and 
S. Miguel, cities that are being developed. 


This is one of the most im])oi'taut States ol' Brazil. 

Leaving the hilly lands ol' Santa Catharina southward , the sea- 
coast assumes (juite a new feature. After those mountains of vege- 
tation mingled with dark quari'ies and thick woods, come low sea- 
coast lands with naked sandy shores, that seem not to end any 

Shortly, sailing neai' the coast — what is only possible to be 
done by boats of short draught — we see the shores called Fernam- 
buco or Pernambuco , and afterwards the Mostardas, long white 
savannas lining the short sea-coast on the extended continent as a 
\N'all between the ocean and the Ijagoa dos Patos. 

This band of land lias a narrow solution of continuity, at the 
South, and that is the Rio Grande bar which gives access to the vast 

In that Y>\aQe precisely the coast is very low, but really very low 
and sandylike. The Atalaia light-house marks the proximity of the 

— 547 — 

bar. But the channel is so curved and h)ng, (over 10 kilometres) that 
until wc enter tlie i^ort Atalaia is always seen, though in several 
positions. To the right and left in the channel there are many 
buoys, some with bells, some witli lights, other simple fluctuant 
buoys. The sea there is generally rough and seldom a steamer enters 
without being violently I'ocked and it is always necessary to take a 
pilot alioard. At last witliin tlie anchorage place, the port shows its 
beauty and the view of the city pays well for the discomfort of 
the trip. 

The vState lias a configuration of lines perfectly homogenious, 
assuming a rhomboidal form, only one of the angles being the Brazi- 
lian sea-coast, the other three being land fr(mtiers, the largest part 

D' Borges de Medeiros. — Present Governor of Rio Grande do Sul 

of wliich are boundary lines of foreign lands. This circumstance 
compels the Federal Government to always have a considerable 
detachment of troops in this State. 

This is one of the most pojiulated and most advanced States of 
Brazil. The European immigration goes there in large numbers, 
especially from Germany and Italy, thanks to the similai'ity of the 
climate and meteorologic analogies with certain portions of Europe 
to which advantages we can add the one of the fertility of the soil. 
Its population is of over 1. 200.000 inhabitants. They are hard working- 
industrious people, and would share a good portion of national 
exports were it not the drawback of not having a good sea-port. 

Its Caf)ital which is developing very fast cannot be visited by 

— 54R — 

tlic'lavge transatlantic steamers and oven some ot the middling size 
steamers of the Lloyd Erazileiro get eanght in the low tides while 
crossing Lagoa dos Patos on their way to Porto Alegre. This has 
happened to us when in May 190:! w<! wore going for the first time; 
to Porto Alegre. 

Gaucho Coslume 

Though the Rio Grande peojjle do not differ from the general 
Brazilian tyi)e, as we verified by self observation, as to their physi- 
cal appearance and moral standards, they have, however, habits and 
customs in their field-life that are not to be found in Para, Bahia, 
or any other place of Brazil. 

Kvery locality has its little traditional habits, that can only be 
adopted in that very locality, and are forgotten Or disappear 

— 519 — 

with the fii'st contact with the raihviiy and especially with the 
surroundings of city-lil'e. 

In these everything loses its personality and peculiar characte- 
risation, to be melted in the generalized and uniform Brazilian type, 
with common ideals, common history, laws and language, — « the 
inl'allihle distinctive oi' naticmal character, » — quoting the exact 
expression oi' Mr. Doline. This is what happens in Rio Grande 
do Sul. 

But it causes an agreeable impression to the ^onri's/ and the ob- 
server to find a cow-boy in the interior ot Bahia, a caijtira (the man 
of the interior who never comes to the city) in the interior of Siio 
Paulo, or a Rio Grande gaucho (cow-l)oyi in the cattle ranches 
of this State, Santa Catharina and even in Parana. 

The clothes are different but none of them have the peculiar 
showy dresses of the gaucho. 

This type — o gaucho — is in southern Brazil, just what the 
cow-boy is in the West, as far as his work goes and even a little as 
to some habits. 

He dresses boiirbacha (a kind of wide trousers) tied at the feet 
at the side of the shoe, the ponche, a kind of cape or rather a wool- 
len shawl with an opening in the centre, through which he puts his 
head, the shawl resting on the shoulders, and wide brim felt and soft 
hats. The gaucho with his favorite clothes, his cow-boy habits, his 
/;ja/^e (Brazilian tea) without sugar, and his popular songs, is the 
most chai-acteristic type of the interior of Brazil. 

But let us write about the physical aspect of the Rio Grande terri- 
tory. We have already said that its sea frontier is relatively ungra- 
teful — sandy and low — and had this peculiarity : it has not one 
single island (not being the rock in front of the Torre do Isorte). It 
has an extension of 9.50 miles. 

In compensation, the interior region, with immense fields and 
cattle ranches, with mountains, with enormous forests, is a most 
wonderful world. It is in this mountain region, called as in Parana 
and Santa Catharina the regitio scrrana that abundant rain falls 
and mark better the four seasons of the year. 

A dreadful peculiarity is the strong breeze that hh)ws on (lie 
sea-coast during winter, it cuts like a knife, very cold, which in IMo 
Grande they call minuano, and in the United States they call void 
wave. We had to try it, against our wishes both in April 1889 and 

550 — 

May 1U03. These winds come from the Andes and even the natives 
suffer witli them. 

The Rio Grande do Sul being the State tliat is further south is 
the one having the climate mol-e similar to the European. 

Its three large cities are placed in the interior margin of Lagoa 
dos Patos, a true fresh water mediterranium, named after the 
indigene family that together with the Carijos and others popula- 
ted all the southern coast from Santa Galharina down. It is so wide 
that from one side of it wc cannot see the other, having, so they 
affirm U.OOO square kilometres of surface. 

The city of Porto Alegre separated from the ocean by a barriei' 


I'orlo Alogi'c. — Isle of I'utlras Bniiiuas iuid powder magazine 

a few leagues long can only be reached after an extensive turn after 
entering Rio Grande bar, and 21 hours navigation northward 
through that lake. 

Porto Alegrk. — For the toiirisl, however, this enoi'iuous dis- 
tance is com])ensated by the extraordinary panoramas of this trip : a 
most ample surface, ample and calm, of a grayish green evading hue 
with large spots, marking the differences of bottom, or the presence 
of sandy crowns that the steamci', steered l.>y the pilot, tranquilly 
avoids. This is the Ijagoa dos Patos. 

A quarter of an hour before reaching the Capital we see in the river 
waters a gay island formed with enormous rocks half decorated with 
green trees, and it is in that island that the Federal Government 
keeps their powder magazines. 

They call that pictui'esquc spot Pedras Brancas and, at least 
w lien we saw it, it was of a sno^^ -white i)i'etty as silver reflect- 

— 551 — 

iiig its bi'ight \vhitenes8 under a morning- sun in May on the waters 

Sinee tlien we begin to see the Capital which is covering some 
low hills at the East of Guahyba. In front a few islands and ramifi- 
cations of other rivers gather together there gaily and picturesquely. 
The buildings cover the hill side as a cloak of variegated colors, and 
come away down lining the (|uay and extending a Ijoi-der of storage 
houses and conimei'cial docks ui3on the river watei's I'unning bright 
and clear. 

The nearest l)uildina-s can be distinguished at the eiiti'ance of the 

f Wi?**-^ -fW^ Wf*!?*'"'; 

, -1»«* ■*r^>{«t^'>,^^ 

•^ f t 

Porto Alegro. — Lower pari of the city 

l^ort — they are the Menino Ueus district — in an ample curve of 
sea-shore. On the right is the large barracks, all white, seeming to 
have its foundation sunk in the water. 

When our boat was at anchor, and during the legal formalities 
of custom house and board of health visits, we admired that char- 
ming panorama of the city. It was beautiful ! It reminds one of the 
scenery at Bahia, the buildings, however, being more modern ones. 

We see on the right, at a little distance, the large buildings of 
the Poorhouse with its white tower pointing towards the clear blue 
sky. l<\irther, some houses mingled vegetation covering the plain 
between the river and the hills. On a promontory somewhat elevated 
is concentred the bulk of the houses, dominated by the two high 
white towers of the Xossa Senhora das Dores^Catholic Church. 

— 552 — 

Suvroiinding the massive I >ody ul' buildings , there are some pu- 
lilic squares and j;ai-dens, leaning towards the quay: one is tlie 
Harmony one, the otlier All'audega. We do not remember the names 
of I lie others. 

In this pari ol' tlie i)lain, almost near the n\ ater , is the majesUe 
building oC the municipality the ironl of which looks to the square 
on the land-side. 

Landing near there, the visitor can see with pleasure this pretty 
building. It has two upper stories and giound floor. The princi])al 
body is a little inside, and crowned by a kind of tower, which used 

v'j^W »«■> 

I'di'ld Al 

Municipal Ijuildiii^ 

to be the distinctive charactei'istie used by all the City Halls and 
churches. TIic two side bodies are decorated with columns. 

A stone quay dresses this part of the city connected with the 
anchorage place by several wooden bridges with theii' respective 
storage houses. Alongside these bridges are a lot of yachts, steamers 
and lighters, making constant noise while loading and unloading, 
and that lends a lively tone to the port, though in a smaller degree 
tlian is noticed at Rio Grande. 

Ther'e, near (he quay, is the public market, a large, square, stone 
building divided into suuUl business houses, and in the centre a vast 
yard ^^•ith an ornamental fountain completes the whole. There is an 

— 553 — 

abondanoe of fruit, dairy products, vegetables, ioyyl, etc. The prices 
are a revelation to those who come from Uio and would not lie belie- 
ved in Belem or Manaos, so moderate are they. 

I'orto ^Vlegre has water in abundance. The public illumination is 
with hydro-carbon gas as in Pelotas and Rio (Jrande and the pi'ivate 
illumination of the houses is by electricity. 

The suburbs : tJloria, Navegantes at the North, Partenon, Moin- 
hos de Vento , Floresta, etc., at the South , are pretty and all 
connected by tramway lines which transport in one year about 
:?.t)00.000 passengers. 

I'di'Ui Alcgix'. — 1 selenilirci sU'cot 

The nicest public place of the city is the Park, where not many 
years ago a general State Exhibition was held and where is to be 
seen a pretty summer theatre , several architectonic pavilions of 
iron and wood, gardens, birds nurseries and menag-erie, everything 
illuminated by electricity. This is the attraction place where the 
high-life of the town meet. 

The public squares with gardens in the commercial part are very 
pleasant. There is the General Deodoro square where they built a 
statue of the Conde de Porto Alegre, the brave general native of 
Rio Grande. 

The Alfandega Square] (Custom House Square), is named thus 
because of the Custom House being near there. It is a drawing-room 
of the city. It is there that we await for the tramway, that we read 

— 554. — 

tlie piipcrs, that we take a little Iresli air, and it is the thoroughfare 
for tlio circulating- artery of the I'ity, the Andradas Street. 

The General Marques square, is propably the largest but has no 

The most central square, and one with a had history is the Har- 
monia one, with benches, flower-beds and plants. It was there that 
the ])risonors convicted to death were executed. Even as near as the 
:>rd of November IS.'T they executed there : Domingos Baptista and 
Sergeant Felix, who in IS.'jo killed, for the purpose of robbing him, 
Manoel Tavares, a Portuguese, and they also executed then Floren- 
tine), a negro, \\ho killed Antonio Soai'es Ijeao his master in Belem. 
These were the last executions which took place in the Rio Grande 
capital. At present people walk around tliere gay and free, without 
remembering the sad celebrity of that square. 

Among the prettiest streets of the Capital, the newly arrived 
ctinnot help noticing the Andradas street foi-nierly called Praia 
Street. In fact this street runs parallel to the shore, (praia means 
sea-shoi-e). It is a long street of uneven width, lined with nice 
houses, carefully paved, with mosaic sidewalks, and it is a lively 
thoroughfare. It is to Porto Alegre, what Ouvidor Street and Central 
Avenue are to Rio de .Janeiro. In this street are cafes, brasseries, 
fashion establishments, jewelers, several newspaper offices, lawyers 
offices, agencies, etc. 

The Braganca street is pretty, wide and somewhat inclined, lined 
with nice buildings. The Voluntaries daPatria street is quite a long- 
one through which i-un the Navegantes line of tramways. This street 
has many factories, whose chimneys are their best ornament, and it 
lines the sea-shore. Generally the streets in Porto Alegre, are not 
straight, neither are they wide. Many like those of Dens Menino 
disti-ict are tortuous forming both curved and broken lines. There 
are many up-hill sti'eets, what is naturally the city being built up on 
a hill. It is not large like Bahia, Recife or Para. Its buildings are 
old and as ugly as those of Rio or Bahia, but there are many new 
buildings quite artistic in German and Italian styles which have lar- 
gely contributed towards the material evolution of Rio Grande do 

The public buildings reflect the progress of the city and the fol- 
lowing are the best of them. The Engineering College, a modern two 
floor building, near the Park. The Catholic Seminary also a fine 
building. The local Legislatui'e building; the Atheneum ; the Normal 
CJollege; the Medical College; the Public Library; the Government 
Palace; the Provisory Palace, large square building- of olden stjde; 

— 555 — 

the Cluirity Hospital, a laro-c two floor building-, painted yellow, T'oi- 
tuguese slyle, divided into two bodies, connected by a central front, 
and a modest eliureli, at the right end, the theatre — S. Pedro, — 
fine building but of little architectural value; the Providencia bank; 
the Connnereio and the P]nglish banks. The Insane Asylum; the Mi- 
litary College, a large S(puire building, rose color at the end of a 
large si^uare without any garden; the (Jermau ehurch; the Catholic 
Cathedral, an old church, very pretty inside, Init with unimportant 
architectural style; the Earracks ; the « Julio de Castillio )i palace 
and many private mansions. 



II 1 1 it 1 1 II 


Poilo Ak'gri.'. — Scliool ot Civil Eugiuueis, Ai'ls, and iiiaiiufai-liii-es 

This city has a great commercial activity, great movement of 
carriages and trucks, tramways, etc., many clubs, fii'st class newspa- 
pers, Federal and vState telegraph, telephone company, liotels. Inclu- 
ding the Pedras Brancas, Barra, Marianna Pimentel districts and 
islands in front, the population of Porto Alegre is of 7o.57l, twelve 
years ago it was only of 52. 121 inhabitants. This shows how it 

Yet this city is not one of the oldest in Brazil. In 17 12 some (io 
c(juples from the Portuguese islands Meiit there to found a colony. 
They were sent Vjy the king I). .Joao V. This explains the name of 
Porto dos Casaes (caseas means couj^les). It became a village in 
August 1803 and city in Novembre 1823, with the title of Leal 
c ualuroaa cidadc (Loyal and Brave cityj. This title was given to it 
in 1811. 

— 556 — 

The great prosperity <>r Porto Alegre only began after the immi- 
gration broiiglit to tlie State the vigor oltlieir impulse. 11 is the same 
old story ol the United Stales, Australia. Argentine, S. Paulo. 

From there railways start, I'luvial steamers, telegraph and mails. 
It is a commercial and active centre ol' I'irst order. 


» ^ft?*'*.^' 



I'lirli) .\l('ur( 

.liilid (Ic Ciislillids |iliice 

Pruijio Lnstkuctiox, roi^icK fokck A^'I) transportation. — «0n 
the literary and scientific side », thus wrote E. Reclus, (c Poi'to 
Alegre can be^eonsidered as a kind of Capital, thanks to its schools, 
colleges, newspajjers. » There is in Porto Alegre besides the Military 
College, maintained by the Federal (government, the Engineering, 
Medicine, Pharmacy, Law and Theology Colleges, N"ormal College, 
Gymnasium, several schools for males and females, and ontside of 
the Capital : a Lycenm for agriculture studies in Pelotas, and another 
in Taquary, etc.. Besides these there are the district schools of 
Porto Alegre, Tacpiara, Monlenegro, Taquary, Santa Maria, Santa 
Cruz, Rio I'ai'do, Livranniuto and Cru/ Alta, which had the fre- 
qucjitation of 1. lUU students in I'.iOo. 

For the elementary instruction the State ^\ as divided into seven 
districts, counting 'Mk) public schools thus distributed : 

— l)t)i — 

3i-d ileiiree : 

Filled 174 


mill deifree : 

iMlleil 109 

X'acaiit 2 

jxt degree : 

Fllleil 070 

Vafiiiil i 

Tdlal . . . 905 

Poi'ln Ali^yiT. — Sarila Casa da Misci'ic(ii-dia lios|iilal 

Tlie school population in 1003 was more or less 30.000 pupils, 
the Porto Alegre municipium alone having (i.B88. 

Tlie Rio Grande do Sul State keeps a large body of troops : a 
brigade militarily organised, with 3 infantry battalions , a cavalry 
regiment, armed with modern rifles and well equipped, several pro- 
visory infantry and cavalry companies on the Uruguayan frontiei' to 
do police duty and protect it against conspirators who go over to 
the neighboring country for the organisation of political fights. 

The capital municipium maintains a battalion of guards, a kind 
of Fi'ench ^civlarmerie, with light blue uniforms which are one of 
the lively notes of the Porto Alegre streets. p]ach municipium in the 
other cities has, in the same way, a little company of guards. Tlie fire 

— 558 — 

(lo])artinent roriiis anotlier iiiilitarizotl company in the Capital. 

We spoke al)ove of the Porto Alegi'C tramways. The\' are driven 
h\- animal Iraet-ion as those of Pelotas and Ilio Grande. As to 
railways there are the following : the Porto Alegre to Uriiguayana, 
diss kilometres long, but only 'Ml in operation, till Cacequy, and the 
S. (Jahriel hrancli lini;, with 7(1 kilometi-es. It starts trom tin'. I'iglit 
l)ank of the Tacpiary river where is the main station, called " Mai'- 
gem » station. Y(>t there runs between this place and tin; Capital a 
daily line of steamers of the Companliia Fluvial. 

The Rio (rrande to Bage railway, with 2S:i kilometres in 0])era- 
tion, going through Pelotas. It will cross by and bye, in Cacequy 
the Porto Alegre and Uruguayana railway. 

The P(jrto Alegre to Nova Hambugo railway with :>1 kilometres, 
going through S. Leoi)ol<lo city. The State Govei'nment is going to 
cxttMid it till Caxias village, which will take about l:)() kilometres, 
crossing tlie impoi-tant mnnicipiums of vS. Leopoldo, S. Sebastiao do 
Cahy, S. .Toao do Montenegro, Bento Gon^alves and ('axias, with a 
])opnlation of over lOfl.OOO inhabitants, also serving the neighl)oring 

The Santa Maria to Itarare i'ailwa,\-, with L'lii kilometres running 
till Cai'ajinho, KJO kilometres bciyond the Ci'uz Alta city thrritigli 
which it. goes, and soon it must reach Passo Fundo. 

'J'lie (iuarahy to lta(|ny raih\ay, with ISO kilometres, crossing 
the rrnguayana city. 

The small railway which starts from the .Tunc(;ao (.Junction) 
station, crossing of the Rio Grande to Bag('' I'ailway with it. This 
line goes to the summei' resort A'illa Sicpieii'a a sea-shore place, 
belonging to the \'iacao Rio Grandense Company. 

'I^her'e are several I'ailways under project, as well as the plan of a 
canal from '{'ores to Porto Alegre, taking advantage of the immense 
series of lakes being along this shore. 

Of these roads one belongs to the Federal Government, — the 
Porto Alegi-e to Uruguayana one — all the others l)elong to private 
concerns. Rio Grande do Sul has railways running over a total of 
l.Gltt kilometres. 

IxDus'i'KY, Production axd Coa[merce. — In relation to otlier 
States of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul has an advanced manufacturing- 
industry, not speaking of the dairy industry in which it is one of the 
first producing States. It exports dried salted beef in large quantities. 
What is worthy of note is the variety of its manufacturing industries 

— 6B9 — 

either in the Capital or in other cities. We saw there cotton mills, 
matches factoi'ies, threading mills, hosiery, iurniture, hats, shoes, 
combs, gloves, cigai-, masses factories, canned goods works, glass- 
ware, arms, sales, soap, candles, carriages, harnesses, bi'oom I'ac- 
tories, I'eady made clothing, pharmacentical products concerns and 
many othei-s. There are yet l'actori(>s to rule paper, book binderies, 
printing offices, ty])ographing establishments and sliip-yai'ds for the 
bnilding of small boats. 

The national wine is also niannfactnrecl in lai'ge scale, princi- 
pally in the Italian colonies, lacking yet the convenient preparation 
to allow it to be exported. There are also, vinegar, cordials, and 
brandy distilleries as well as breweries. 

The lard factories is an industry the reputation of which is 
already made, and there are quite a number of factories in this State. 

The cheese industry is large as well as the butter one, but imly 
foi' local consumption. It seems, howexer, that these industries are 
going to be largely developed. 

Excepting Rio and S. Paulo no State has its industries so much 
developed as Rio Grande do Sul. ^^'hile it pr((grcsses in these it does 
not, at the same time, neglect its agriculture. 

In the interior ai-e large beans, mandioca, corn, i)otatoes, rice 
plantations, and others, which not only furnish the Rio Grande 
market but are exported. Rio Grande do Sul, we jnight say, is the 
grain storage house of Brazil. 

Besides what it gives to the internal consumption, it sends to 
Rio, S. Paulo and Bahia the excess of the production of onions, 
cabbages, fruit, etc. 

Cattle begin to be exported. Until now it was hardly enough for 
the xarrjaeadas (factories of xarqiie « dried salted beel'»), the hides 
and residuunis to the European industries. As to the sheep industry, 
properly said, Rio Grande do Sul is the most advanced State, though 
the sheep are not so good there as of other places like Lages , 
Campos Novos, Curitybanos and others of the northern neighboring 
State. As to cattle the Santa Catharina ox is stouter and heavier 
having an average of 30 kilos more than the Uio Grande one. 

If we are not mistaken, however, both of them come from the 
same origin, the iberic cattle. We refer to the wild cattle because the 
product of recent crossing breed are from fine breeds that lately 
have been introduced in Santa Catharina and Rio Grande. 

Horses are also a source of wealth for Rio Grande, and the pro- 
ducts of horse breeding are the best of all Brazil. They are not hor- 

— 560 — 

ses of fine lines, tall ones, but of middle height, humble aspect, of 
groat resistance to fatigue and of strong muscle. 

For the military service, cami^aigns and marches through the 
roads, they are used b,\' the Bi'azilian army in jn-eference to the 
horses inii)orted from the River Plate and Eurojie. 

It comes from the Portuguese «Alemtejo)) province horses, 
introduced in Rio Grande by the Portuguese, its first colonists, to 
whom is due the country trucks, certain stories and popular le- 
gends, as well as the goats, dogs, sheep and other domestic animals 
to-day already modified and altered in Brazil. 

With such agricultural elements and dairy industries it is easily 
seen that this State must maintain an active work of exchange with 
the remittance of its surplus to the markets of othei' places of Bi'azil 
and abroad, receiving from them what it lacks. 

The exports and imports of Rio (irande is made not only through 
these three large markets, Porto-Alegre, Pelotas and Rio Grande, 
but by the southern frontiers and those of Santa Catliarina. There are 
no statistics to be depended up(ui, as to the volume of its interstate 
interchange, but there are some data as to the external commerce. 

About these the statistics show an importation much above the 
exports. Thus is that in 1001 , Rio (irande do Sul imported (only 
from .Fanuary to Xovember) goods with the value of 2().Ki.S:22(3SOO(). 
and did not export ovei- l-i.l2'.):O7().S()00. 

According to the local statistics, the State has exported both for 
home and foi-eign markets goods with the following values from 
1807 to lOOl;! : 

Ycals (IllkijI v;iluc 

1897 .^■2.9;:i6;22.5S000 

1898 52.o83;129$000 

1899 :j4.096:8n0.$n(l(l 

1900 50.034: 171$00n 

1901 .yi.|-28:9l-2§(l0() 

1902 .51.492:.i87$0n0 

190.5 .5.5.II.S;.300,$000 

The exports of dried salted beef during the same period corres- 
ponds to the total of heads killed in the Pelotas, Bage, Quarahy and 
other xar(]iiea(las (dried salted beef factories). 

^^i"s Number ot heads 

1897-1898 374.901 

1898-1899 287..36C 

1899-1900 297.690 

1900-1901 .-.04.902 

1901-1902 472.378 


— 5(;i — 

Rio (iuAXDi.; crriKS. — Al'ler Porlo Alegi'c, llic riclKisl- and iiiiirc. 
advanced city of the State is Pelotas , wliich by tlie last census lias 
24. OUO inhabitants. Adding, however, the population ol' tlie other 
localities of the mnnicipinni (oi ^^•hich it is the seat) we get the 
number of ir).0()i) inhabitants and by the census of 1X00 it had but 
12.000. The growth liei'c was not so large as in Porto Alegre and 
Rio Grande. 

Tn fact, placed as it is between these two nucleus of urbane assimi- 
lation, one acting as political and industrial capital of the State, the 
other as its organ of interchange with the exterior , Pelotas, feels 
its municipium rec(uested by the centrifugal energies of (^xch one of 

I'cliilas. — Virw 111' a |imi'I nf Ihc cily 

them, and it is not without a very strong resistance that it succeeds 
in not declining, in profit of any or both of the two. 

Pelotas was made a village in 1880, and a city in December l<S;>o. 
In 1812 it was but a hamlet. 

It is 300 kilometres away from Porto Alegre and .5.5, ."j kilometres 
from Rio Grande b,y railway, and by sea only three hours in steamers 
making ten knots an hour. 

It is not a rivei' lined with woods as in the North of Brazil, or 
even in the mai'vellous central region. It is a river of low banks, 
dressed by bushes of light green showing that those are sandy 
grounds. The river-stream is not a strong one, and its waters ai'e 
dark in some spots. The low banks allow the plains to be seen, 
extending beyond covered with canes and bushes. 

Here and there we see a xarqiieada (dried salted beef factory) 
with its string of smoke, they grow in nnmber as we near Pelotas. 

__ r)(i2 — 

Tho city is on tlic left banks <il' S. (Jonralvo rivei-, ni)t vcvy far 
wiiorci it meets llie lake waters. We laml on a S(|uare by tlic river, 
tliroiigli a wooden (|iiay. Tlie port is filled with small boats. 'JMie 
steamers do not come alongside the (|iui\'. To come ashore we hire a 
Ijoat. Ijots of r;i/r;i('/;'rt.s (boatmen) eome alongside the ship as they 
do in IJahia and othei- ])orls. They are. generally l'ortiigni;se, in the 
Sontli, wliile in l'(!i'naml)ue(), Maranhao and Hahia Ihey are negroes 
and nmlatoes. This port is not so frecinented neither is it so pi-etty 
as Rio (h-ande. The city streets are wide, straight and hmg, cut in 
squares, modern style. The buildings have as a rule one floor as 
in Rio Grande, having more liouses witli nppei- stories than this one. 


View (t( u Bi^(.'f KmcIoi'v 

The <( l-") Xovembro » street, is the 'liveliest of all.\Tt |has nice 
two story buildings, business houses, with nice show-windows, 
coffee-houses, hotels, etc. At the left we see the new and jiretty 
building — the ('ity Hall — the front of which looks to the Public 
Garden. — The Public Libi'ary, an institute which is the pride 
of Pelotas is also in that street and it is a model of order and neat- 
ness. It lias 2.5.000 vohimes. 

Tills aristocratic street pays well foi' the impression we receive 
entering the \>()vt, as the part of the city near tlie ((uay does not. 
awake favorable iin])ressions about the city. 

The region from the garden up it compensates this impression. 
In all the horizon line every side the observer may look to, we see the 
chimneys emj)tyiiig rolls of smoke towards tlu', blue sky and this 

— 5(!3 — 

gives at onoc an idea of tlie indnsli-ial pciwcr oT I'elotas. 

The Tnblie tJardeii, is of all the piihlie squares, tiie preltiest and 
most frequented. Large ti'ees shade its orounds. It is square and lias 
niee buslies, tlower-beds, fine jjlants, l)enehes, lawns, and an arti- 
ficdal grotto. 

Among the niee public buildings we will menlion the tluiatre, a 
large and elegant building ; the dity Hospital , in certain points 
supericH' to the one of the Capital ; the pretty railway station ; the 
nmrket in the central part of the city, a stone and lime, one floor 
building, ((Id style, surrounded by small grocery stores, and with a 
large door on each side of the building, door that gives access to 
the internal light yard; the S. Francisco ehnrcdi, heavy building of 


Da Misi'i'ii'di'dia iKispilal 

colonial architectui'e, but not altogether of bad appearance, looks to 
a pretty square, and has a portico with ionic columns and two to- 
wers somewhat dark with years. In its interior it has six altars, it 
is light, as are as a rule all the catholic churches. 

The city commerce is quite progressive. There is life in the 
streets. Tlie newsboys offer the papers for sale. The horse-cars run 
through the streets. There are many public cabs and carriages , and 
their hire is not dear. For 3S()(»U (about one dollar) they took us from 
Rua Quinze to Tabhula (a vast esplanade wherefrom you can see 
." to iJ.OliO heads of cattle in the pasture. For 2S0O0 they go to the 
Pelotense Park, charming public place due to the initiative of a well 
known chemist and druggist. 

The city is illuminated by gas. Its streets are paved and the 
houses ai'e elegant, unlikely maiiy othei' cities of the country. 

— 564 — 

Rio Okaxde. — Tlie third city of Rio Grande do Snl is S. Pedro 
do Uio (iraiide. We were tliere in ISUI. Jn 190:3 we liad to yo tliere 
a second (inie and wt've ignite surprised at tlie progress tlie city liad 
undergone. It took good advantage of tliat decade. Its port 1ms each 
day more movement. It is a beauty. A well built stone quay, 
lines the city, and allows middle draught boats to come alongside to 
load and unload, fn the anchorage place we see the transatlantic 
stcnimors. All the flags have places in iJiis rcndcz-uoiis of interna- 
tional commerce. 

Rio Grande city has much enlarged its area and lias open splen- 
did sti'aight and wide streets. Its houses, generally one floor ones, 

Kid (iriiii(l(,'. — Mai'eclial l-'loriiuio Street 

are modest, but a few public and ])rivate buildings are affirming the 
transformation power of wealtli in the physiognomy of the cities of 

Certain streets as (General Floriano one, are lined altogetlier 
with fine buildings with upper stoi-ies and nice architecture. In this 
sti'eet we can see the variety and lichness of the Rio Grande com- 
merce. In the evening it is a pleasure to go out for a walk, by the 
light of tlie « iVuer « gas-light, and look at the dry-goods and dress- 
makers windows, to see the coffee-houses full of natives and stran- 
gers, the billiard-rooms, the breweries, all of these lively and gay 
as in the cosnujpolitan cities. 

I'ublic c;il)s and c'ari-iu<;es run here and (here in all direetions, 
k)aded trueks yo and come to and from the (luay, and the newsboys 
cry out the names of the city papers and latest news. And what good 
papers this city has. Some capitals of State have not in this sense 
anything that can be compared with it. 

Another street of much life and more so during the day time is 
the Uiachnelo street, a long boulevard alongside the port, paved 
w itli stone blocks filled with houses with upper stories cm one side 
as the other is the (luay. There is the Custom-House , the dome of 
which can be seen above the roof of the other houses. 

l!iu Cii'aiKlc. — Miiiiicipalilv's 8i|n;ii'l' 

There are (X'iit*3 a few other wide and well paved streets as Yinte 
e (^uatro de Maio and others. 

Sevei'ul public squares have gardens and works of ornamental art. 

As soon as we reach the city we see a garden in front of the 
Post Office. In it is a eolumn , a monument to commemorate the 
freedom of the slaves, which, we believe to be the only monument 
in Bi'azil erected to celebrate this great national date. That very 
public garden has a large fountain of great effect among the decora- 
tive vegetation that surrounds it. 

Anothei' most beautiful square is the one called Tiradentes. It is 
a new one. It was not there when we paid our first visit to that 
city, it is a large one, surrounded by railing what neither increases 
nor diminishes its beauty. Inside is a kind of lake or rather a 
little river crossed here and there by bridges. Pretty swans populate 
this thin little thread of water. Tlie lawns and flower beds present a 
charming display of colors. 

Al uii imK'k', (if tliai hcautirul pul)lic, garden, all suri-ouuded by 
nit-c biiildiiif^K, is the Bencl'ice-ncia Portngueza, ^^•itll a rose color 
I'roiit, inanueliiie style, if is the jjridc ol Ihe district. A little farther 
aliead is the Salxador protestant clinreh, ol' sni)ei'b scottish-gothic 
lines, siirroinided l)y an artistic railing with a kind of a tower. 

Once we havt^ spoken of those buildings, we must cite the City 
Hall, with t« o pavements and nice front of a sober and classic style. 
It is one of the best in the State. 

'I'he Army Head (Quarters is next to that building and is also a 
fine two floor building, and looks to the garden of the si^uare. It is 
a nol>le building with but little ornamentation. 

The church is a solid piece of heavy architecture, two to\A'ers and 
a front with windows, of a type so common in the churches built in 
the eighteenth century. (Jomes Freire in ]~o7> ordered it to be erected 
on the foundation of the primitive church which had been desti'oyed 
by a fire, caused by lightning, (iomes Freire built the fi'ont and the 
main altar and the people built the rest. 

The old church was then away from the village. 

There were then two cha])els, the Sant'Anna one, half a league 
awa,\-, and the Lapa, a wooden one. 

Besides the Matriz church and several others the city has the 
Bomfim church, new in style and construction, all white as an 
expression of purity. 

Few institutions honor so much a city as the Kio (h'andense 
Library does. It is supported by an association of lovers of litera- 
ture. It is admired by all the visitors. It is installed in a large 
though one floor building, owned by the association. It has large 
halls for reading rooms and 30,000 volumes. When we visited it, we 
noticed among the frequenters a number of privates and petty offi- 
cers of the army , and we were glad to see them there at night, em- 
ploying the best way they could have done their leisure hours. 

In IJio Grande, as in Porto Alegre and Pelotas, several nice 
papers are published, of large size, modern features. There are two 
morning and four afternoon newspajjers. Of the morning ones the 
Diario do Kio (irnnih' is the oldest of the State and excepting ,/«;•- 
nal do (Joinmcrcio of Kio de .laneii'o, it is the oldest in all Brazil. 
The '( Ariistn » one of the afternoon i)apers has no less than 12 
years of unintei'ru])tc(l ])ul)lication. '^Phe Rio (Jrande city is a city of 
much future. By the census of bS'.K) its ])opulation was 1(1.000 inha- 
bitants. The last census gives it 22.000 not counting the suburbs 
(Port-o Xo\(), Traliim and M angueii'a) . With those would present at 
least IjO.OOO. The eitv is on the bank of the channel formed bv the 

(ifoan about. \2 kilometres away from the liar, and ',<■',{) kilometres 
a\\ay from the I'apital. It is built on a sandy and quite plain 

^^'ere it not I'oi- the ptn-t, wc eould not understand liow man 
should have seleeted such a centre oi' threatning- sands to l)uild a 
city on. To be sure, an irrational and blind I'oree presides tlie birth 
of cities in this continent. 1'hose ^Yllo see Rio (Irande lor the first 
time cannot help but think of the possibility of giving in or rather oi' 
being sniotliered by those mountains oi' fine sand which surround it 
on all sides. 

S. JosK ut) XoRTK. — Is a small city in I'ront of the preceding 
one. This one and Rio Grande I'orm, each one on its side the canal 
where the Lagoa dos Patos empties itself into the Atlantic ocean. 
Its soil is vei'v sandy but it is very good for tlie cultivation of pota- 
toes, tomatoes and onions, of which it exjiorts to Santos. 

Ukuguayaxa. — Is one of tlie good cities of the Rio Urande State. 
It has lo.iilJS inhabitants by the census of 10()(.). It is on the Ijank of 
an enormous river — the Uruguay. In front of it is tlie Ai'gentine 
village Restaiiracion. The Commerce of Uruguayana grows very 
much just because it is in tlie frontier. It develoiied a good deal 
after the inauguration of the railway connecting it with Alegrete. 

Soon we will be able to ti-avcl by railway between this city and 
the Capital, that is, 710 kilometres. The best buildings of I'ruguay- 
aiia are : the Oustom-House, the Carlos Gomes theatre, the large 
Matrix Church, the City Hall, the municipium Public School and the 
Fedei'al garrison barrack-s. 

HA(i]i. — Tliis is a most x)icturesque city. It is bathed by a modest 
little i-iver, after which the city was named. It is the most important 
city of the interioi' because of its location, because of its commerce 
and industry. Its main buildings are : The Charity Hospital in one 
of the suburbs, the Benefieencia Portngueza, the Beneficencia Ita- 
liana, the Matriz church, the City Hall, a beautiful theatre, the 
Xossa Scnhora da Conceicao church, the large barracks, the market, 
and the pretty railway Station. 

Bage was a hamlet in 184(1, became a village in the same year, 
and city by law of \'> th December 1859. 

It is ."j-JS kilometres away from the Capital and has 1o. Ki.'! inha- 
bitants by the last census. 

Sant'Anna uo Livramento. — Is at the west side of Bage. It is 
curious because it is the frontier more connected with a foreign na- 
tion. It suffices to say that only one street separates it from the 

— 5fi8 — 

lirii;lili(iring- rnif;iKi.y i-c])Ml)lic, tlio lioiisos on one Midc iMjlonging ^o 
I he l!i-a/.iliaii city and Miosc ol' the- ()i)|)()sitc side Ixjlonging- lo 
Ui\'cra. an ()i-icnlal or rnigiiax'an citN'. During the constanl civil 
wars in Ui-agiuiy, lAvrnmeiiio jiislil'ies clearly its name, IVceing the 
i-el'iigees Ironi llie \iolences tlicy would sulTer il' they couldn't escape 
so easily lo a neuter lerritor^'. 

'riie\' say tliattlie hills are very i-ieh in minerals, (jiiite eas\' (o he 
exploiteil hut I'emain intact. 

It has a good commerce and the dairy industry is well developed. 
Among its hest huildings we cite : the (.'it,\', the Matriz church, the 
JJarraeks, the C'hai'ity Hospital and the Theatre. 

It was a luimlet in 18-48, became a village in liCu and city in 187ti. 

It is 7(_)1 kilometres away I'rom the Capital and 225 kilometres 
away i'rom 1). Pedrito. 

V\w/. Alta. — It is a city of about ."i.OOO inhabitants. It is oOt) kilo- 
metres away fi'om Porto Alegre. It is centrally located and is the seat 
of a municipium ver\' rich of inaltr iHi-azilian tea). It was but a vil- 
lage in 18.")U and there werc^ not over (U) houses, but to-day there 
are over 2U0 tor a j)()pulation ol' I. '.H)'.) inhabitants. The buildings 
worth noting arc : the Oily Hall, the .lail, the Railway station of tlie 
road connecting it witli I'orto Ah^gre, the Cai'los < Jomes theatre, the 
Matriz church, in which they ai'e working and have been doing it ior 
the last II) years, the Municipal School, the cemetei-y and a ijublie 

lUiilt on a high hill, we can observe from there the most beautiftd 

Its climate is unexcelled as lo Iieallh, and il suffices to say that 
weeks go by without one single death occui-ring. 

'i'wo newspapei's of small size are ])ublished there. 

S. ( iAHRiKi.. — It is ditficult to find a more pictures(£ue small city 
Ihan this one. II is on the left bank of a I'iver — tJie Vaccacahy. II 
is a city w ilh rc^lativc good commeree and a livel\' one and besides 
the rivei' has a I'ailway. 

It is the military centre of llie Slate, and is served by the Estra- 
da de Fei'ro Porto Alegre to I'rugiuiyana (railway) (hat has a l)i'anch 
line going there. It has 8.l)<.);! inhabitants. 

It becann; city in bS.""/,). 

It is .'07 kilomelres away from Porlo Alegre by i'ailway. 

Its pi incipal buildings are : the City Hall, llie IMalriz Cihurch, the 
liai'i'acks and otiiei's of smaller importance. 

Ai,Kuiii':TK. — A pretty city with 1 1 . 11)8 inhabitants by a recent 

- 5fi9 — 

ol'lifial census. It is un a liill on (lie IclX bunk of iJie I hinipuytiini 

Its prineii)al buildinj^s are: the City Hall, the Matrix, ehureh, the 
Chai-ity Hospital, the Federal troops barracks, and the Porto Ale- 
gre to Uriigayana I'ailway station. 

This city owes its origin to the Mar(juis dc Al^-rele who in 1X17 
ordered a cluii't-h to be built on the banks oT the Ibii'apuytani with 
the name ot Nossa Senhora da Ajjparecida. 

.Vlegi'ete has two newspapers, liotels, wine distilleries, breweries 
and other I'actories. 

S. Ij1':oi>oh)0. — Jt is one ot the prettiest cities ol' iJio (Jraiide. 
It used to be an old European colony. It has a poj)ulation of 11.015 
inhabitants. It has wide and straight streets, carefully clean. There 
is no great movement in the city, especially to those wlio go from 
Porto Allcgre, to which it is connected by one houi' railway ride. 

It is on the left bank of Sinos river and at the North of the 

It is a calm city. It I'eminds one of (Tcrmany. Its municipium 
prosjiers because of its industry and developed agriculture. It has a 
nice chui-ch, the noted .lesnits College, the City Hall, the Kneipp 
establisliment and other nice buildings. 

8. Leopoldo owes its origin to a (ierman colony that settled there 
in LS24. It is a city since 1<S(J1 and is :jo kilometres away from the 

Its fame comes from an excellent high school — the S. Lec^pold 
College — directed by some Jesuits and which was constituted an 
educational centre for the children of the wealthy families of these 
southern States. 

8. Lriz i)E MosTARDAs. — It is an interesting village, placed on 
the sandy sea-coast, which is seen by those travelling in the South, 
near the Rio Grande de Sul coast. There is no traveller who doesn't 
know this Mostai'das sea-shore. The village is behind the sand 
lianks, seen from afar, looking like a flat shore. H. Moreii'a Alves — a 
Brazilian wi'iter — says about this place : « After passing by Solidao, 
S. vSimao, etc., after crossing enormous sand-banks that ai-e to be 
seen all along the coast of this State, how surprised will not the 
traveller be, when he sees, far away, very far away, the tower of 
the Mostardas church V 

Jaguarao. — It is a small city in front of Artigas, of the Oriental 
Republic, having D.UOO inhabitants. 

Among its public buildings it has : the City Hospital, small but 

— 570 — 

neat and in hygienic conditions, the Militai'V Hospital, the Matriz 
church, etc. In tlic centi'al i)art of Jagnarao we see a pretty scjuare 
witli a garden. Tlic two chibs — the .Jaguarcnse and Quinzc de 
Xovembro are the animation points in the small city. 

.lagnarao was a hamlet in ISi:;, it l)ecame a village in lSo2 and 
city in 18-"'>."i. 

It is 170 kilometres away I'l-om Poi'to Alegre. 

Many other \illages and cities are growing {i\> settled by the 
rivers. TIic \l\n (Jrande is the only State that has its (ei'ritory 
evenl,\- tilled witli villages and cities. It has no large tracts of empty 
lands. The civilisation work impelled by the governments and haste- 
ned by Jun'opean colonies goes ahead every day. Industi'y grows, 
business develops, itio (irande do Sul is destined to play an impor- 
tant I'ole among the other States. 


ilinas is the incdullu lor marrow l)onei of Bi-a/il. It is its heart 
not only in a geographical or material sense, but because the most 
energetic characteristics of nationality are there crystalised as well 
as its faults and its best virtues. 

Thus !Minas is a miniature of the great fathei'land. It is as if hid- 
den by its propel' mountains. Of all the other most iniijortant States 
is the only one having no maritime boundary lines. AVe might say 
that it selected this location in the interior of the continent to keep 
better the enormous treasures hidden in its bosom. 

Of all the American counti-ies, only five — United vStates, Mexico, 
Argentine, Peru, Colombia — have a total population superior to 
the one of this Brazilian province. 

Wliat has oi'iginated these advantages, as we must attribute to 
each fact a cause ? 

The climate ? The excellency of its waters V The wealth of the 
territoi'y ? 

All those factors together? It is most x^i'oljii-ljl.v that. In fact 
there is not a tract of Brazilian land disputing to the valleys and hills 
of Minas the reputation given to this State by natives and foreigners. 
It is a place worthy of being the first residence of man , as it was 
idealized by biblic poetry. 

In thelState of Minas what doesn't hide gold, contains iron; what 

— 571 — 

does not contain coal, spreads diamonds; — in a word, Minas has a 
treasury in every incli of ground in all its rich territory. 

The physiognomy of the ground is very complex and lietereo- 
geueous. It suffices to look to a map of that region. 

The northern part of the State, tlie widest, is visibly inclined 
towards the valley of Sao Francisco, not as a plain, but inclined, 
lilled with hills, now disi)ei-sed, by and bye in groups. 

The south-east part more crossed by roads, in spite of the hills, in 

l>)'. .lofio I'iiilicird 

G(]vei'i]()r of llie !Slalo of Minas (lurac 

continuous (diains and iri'egular tops, presents itself more crowded 
with cities. The best cities of ^linas are to l)e found there. 

In olden times, in the ages of difficulties, when there were no 
means of transjjortation but animal backs and the trucks pulled by 
oxen, Minas Geraes saw gathering in the valleys of its hills a race 
that tore its stony bosom, I'cmoving earth and stone in such quantities 
that after centuries had ela])sed tliey could see with wonder the 
ruins of such work. 

Eighty thousand minei's tired themsehes to death in a task 
of 100 years duration hunting the hidden veins, undei' the mountains. 

— 572 — 

"I'lKiiisaiuls oT kildsol' imrc j^olil were/ (orii Ironi (lie luu'il (juart/, ami 
sent lu Lisbon. 

Tlie kino-s of I'drtuj^al received j^old in abundance, enough to get 
salisTied, l)ut tliey never satiated their thii'st for gold. ( )nly one ol' 
them, .loao \', I'eeeived from the incxliaustible bosom of Minas ac;- 
eording to an histoi'ian : " [:H)A)0OXM) criisudos, 1(10,(100 gold coins, 
:;i.'. sihcr marcos, L'l,."Ot) gold marcos, <S.50() kilos gold dust, :;'.)(.) oi- 
lavos gold weight and 10 million crusados diamonds, not including 
the lu'odnct of the taxes in the value of one fifth of all the gold 
pi'odueed ! » 

According to u calculation made by the Barao do J'^scliewege, in 
front of official documents a the quantity of diamonds taken fiom 

liolld Kiirizijiile. — l':ir-,i(i|it'l);i Avenue 

Minas (ieraes until 1Sl''J was Ki.j.TdO ■''4 eighths, and it can he as- 
sured that the smuggled ])oi'tion amounts to as much as this. » 

The whole province was like a gallery, a vast underground one, 
where at the sound of the tools, free men and slaves, in the same 
dust, the same pains, had to live that ungrateful life, at the king's 
governors' services as well as of any man with the slightest portion 
of])ower. "Generally at that time Minas tJeracs was avast contpiest, 
simultaneously explored by all ranks of dominators, from the king, 
our nui.sler, until the humblest of soldiers. To devour the pri/.e 
without rest or commiseration, sucli was the common object, and in 
that voracious anxiety it was not strange tliat one should invade the 
ground of his neighbor, and sometimes even the governors would pe- 
netrate the king's dominions. When not even the king was respected 
imagine how the jieople were robbed, the poor people, without any 
guarantees of rights, burdened w'ith work, duties, tribntc^s, without a 
right to enter complaints, mute, day and night always terrorized. » 

— 57)1 — 

To-da_y the i;old isiiot mined by the king- l)nt by the indiisli\\- man, 
tlie private owner who eau and wants to exphire it. 1'liat territory 
half liidden, among tlie hills, is the open shop i'or all the exiles of 
the fortune, health and polities : to the first, turns into gold and 
diamonds, as the safe of a millionaire at description: for the seconds, 
opcMis the 100 marvels of si)ring w'aters ; and to the latter, the safety 
of a refuge twit'e advantageous; foi- the peculiarities of the vast soil 
and the system of la\\s and public customs having tolei'ance as a 
basis'as well as firmness and sei'iousness. 

l-ii:llo llorizoiili;. — ISiiililii]"' ol' iOcoiioniii- Iciiik :ii]ii Tiimsni'i IJi.'li'giilioii 

It is singular. This populated territory of Brazil, notwithstan- 
ding its density of population of 5,9 per square kilometi-e, wdien 
the genei'al average is of not more than 2,1, has no large city. The 
cities of 50.000 and upwards are in States fai' less important than 
Minas Geraes. None of the Brazilian cities having ovei' 100.000 
belong to Minas. 

But, the best cities in Minas are not the most populated ones, 
neither the most populated are the oldest. Ouro Preto, the famous 
Villa Uica of former times, was until lately the Capital of the power- 

— 574. — 

I'ul State, wiiicli is worth by itsell', a i-cspectablc nation. Well, Ouro 
Preto, as a Capital was a deception for the xisitor. Placed in the 
mountains i( was a city without level, it looked more like a hidden 
place I'or animals than residence for men. 

To he sure the selection of such place was justified when the\' did 
it, Ix'cause of the wealth of the jiiace and that can be seen in the 
document of its installation. '<.... supposed that did not find conv(!- 
nient place, taking in considei'ation the wealth promised by the 

mines worked in these hills, the principal pai't of these mines it 

is resolved so to execute » What profits came out of that selection? 
Due perhaps to that imx^roper localisation, Ouro Preto never had 
the appearance of a Capital , as either of the ex-province or of the 
State deserved. 

The State constitution having prescribed the removal of the 
Capital to a place that detailed studies should determine. President 
Affonso Penna charged the Civil Engineer Aariio Pais, to plan and 
huild a new Capital. 

On the 1st of March 18U4 Dr. Aariio Keis installed himself in the 
unsheltered hamlet called (Jnrral il'El-rey, the old name of Bello 
Horizonte, and witli a large committee undertook the work. First 
of all a branch line of 14 kilometres track for a railway con- 
necting the place with the Central of Brazil railroad had to be built. 

The works began with such an activity that on the 4th of 
Xovember of the next yeai' licenses were given for private houses 
to be built. It is necessary to note that this was a mere little place a 
handet, and everything had to be done to make up the city that is 
there to-day. 

The natives of Minas Geraes spent with the construction of the 
new Capital, including the branch railway to Bello Horizonte, 
yy.OTSiOCiOSOOO. Of tins 29.53t):000«135 was treasury money and reve- 
nue collected by the building committee from the sale of grounds 
3..537:000$26y. Of this total we must deduct 2.800:000$000, amount 
for which the State sold to the Union the branch railway line, and 
2.000:000!$000 amount spent with the building of liouses of officials 
and public employees and which are mortgage to the State. When 
w^e visited Bello Horizonte for the first time in 1003, it was already 
finished and in full period of enlargement. We w^ere glad of it, as 
they had informed me of the Contrary. 

After crossing the (iOO kilometres of I'ailway that connects this 
city to Rio de .Janeiro, at ten o'clock on a nice bright and sunny day, 
we arrived at the enti'ance of the branch line leading to the city, the 
station of whicli is of original architecture, immediately indicating 

— 675 — 

that wc are going to sec new things. It is like tlie advertisement or 
poster in stone and lime about the next performance to appear. 

From this station called General Carneiro, to Bello llorizonte is 
l)ut lialf an hour railway ride and we enter the ne\\- Capital by a 
pretty portico which is the :Nrinas station. This is an ample building 
with a white tower reminding ns of middle; age times. This tower 
elevates itself above tlu; houses with a lour dial clock. 

The station looks to a large square just finishing its garden built 
by :Mayor Bressane when we visited that city. From tlic tower we 

Brilo lloiiz(inl( 

Miiias Slatioii, oT llic ICsli'iiihi di' Kpi'i'o Ccnli'Ml 

can see a fine picture. What an excellent selection of a place for a 
city of peace and lil)erty 1 

The whole city seems to rock itself in tiae balsamic breeze that 
softly blows suspense between tlie surrounding mountains as a web 
of light. Its streets run straight towards the green of the hills, with 
tliat eternal beauty of order, and so large, so symetric as if tliey had 
to let go through, all the people of this world together. These streets 
are lined by new and graceful buildings which are being ctmstructed 
liei'c and there. 

Dominating them, under an enormous tei'race that is like the 
head of the city, we distinguish, lining the scpiare, the white and 
rose color buildings, the Government palaces and several Depart- 

incuts (if (lie Adiiiiiiisl.ratiion. ('oiuiiii;- down from llicrc li> tlic liinil 
ol' the buildinf;s, we sec tlu! bulky mass ol' lif>]it yellow ol' tlie ijolice 
barracks, in a position of sentry ol' the city. In the conti-<! of this in a 
valk\\' of a little river called Ai'radas, the (sngineers made a park 
(|uite wide and ai'tistic. This was an idea applauded l)y all visitors, 
for tlie way all cni'xes ol' tlic river and aceidenees of tlie i^round 
were taken advantage of to bring out in i-elief the gai-den. 

A sti'cet wider than all the others, the Afl'onso Peniia Avenue, 
divid(*s into sections 1'roiu one end to the other, in two e(puxl i)arts, all 
the built region, and with its symetric I'ows of magnolias go to the 
meeting of the mountain sides which ga\'e name to the old hamlet, 
the Curral d'El-Rev mountain. 


A dclili' (it llii.' Scn'ii iIii'('.uit:i1 mi llir \\,-i\ In (liird I'ri'ln 

The topograj)hy of the place where; Bello Horizonte is slowly 
acoidented composing itself of the valley where the primitive hamlet 
was born and died, and some hills, and soiirrounding mountain 
base. There engineering was previously engaged in correcting 
natnr<\ filling in grounds, opening places, softening the rough parts 
of it witlioiit giving it the monotony of a plain without contrasts. 

This way Bello Horizonte has the physiognomy of just centre 
among the hilly cities and plain ones sharing of the advantages of 
both these types, without tlu; exaggerations of any exelusivism in 
one sense or other. 

The city is more or less in the altitude of S. I'aulo city or 
Curityba, some 800 metres above the see-level. But Curityba with 
its European cf)ld, S. Paulo w ith its sudden ciianges of temperature 
cannot give an idea of the mild and unexpected climate of Hello 

— 577 — 

As to the public services tli(^y ave sj^leiidid. The arlxtrisatiou the 
most rational and the most artistic ol' any South American city. The 
sewage, the water supply, the illumination, tlie (dectric tramways 
everything eorrcsixnids to the idea ol' a modern tJajiital. 

The arboi'isation about whicli we cannot say too much is a mai-- 
vel. The \\hole city gives us tlu; im])ression of a large garden. 

At night the city is melancholic. It goes to sleep very early, as it 
is convenient for a new city really so yf)ung. The illumination is not 
profuse. It is far from that ))rightncsH of Manaos and even certain 
stree:sin S. Paulo. 

■■^- i K 


Bell(j llorizoulc. 


Only in Bahia street all lined with business houses, we notice 
some life up to ten o'clock at night, crowds of loungers and now and 
then a carriage going by. 

After that hour the tramways become scarce , the crowds are 
dispersed, hai-dly one or othei' remains in the streets and even 
Bahia street is wrapped in complete silence as if it were at sound 
sleep. Tlie otlier streets look like the cloisters of a convent, with 
suspended lamps, here and there. If it rains there is one more ele- 
ment to put the city to sleep early. The streets that are not payed 
have a kind of reddish surface which does not absorb as quickly as 
it receives the rainy water and makes a kind of sti(d<y and disagi'eea- 

— r,7f! — 

l)le mud slickiiif;- to the slioes of tliose wlio have to go tliroiigli. 
Liirkily the tramways and public carriages save the situation. 

Excepting S. Paulo, no State has at present a l)etter or more 
complete olTicial installation than this city. 

The Palaces of the (Jovei'nment, Secretary of Interioi-, Agricul- 
tural Department etc, occupy a larg(! sipiarc in Liberdadc square. 
The first one with its small park looks to the front of the S(juare 
entirely dominating it. 

It is an imposing building, witli three fronts, the main one looking 
to the square being of a most beautiful effect. It is all of stone with 
a bust of the Republic, 

It has two stories. The ground one lias the vestibule, the bai-racks 
for the guard. Tlie upper story, the noble Hall in front, dining-room, 
library, office, private appartments of the governor, and side galle- 
ries in form of towers, round ones, with 7 metres diameter, surround- 
ed by seven windows decorated by columns of ionic style (fancy 
work) and roof in half-sphere form with oil paintings decorations. 
It occupies a surface of 1.898 square metres, witli 31), .50 metres front, 
."2 depth, and i^),U) height. 

An ample marble stairway leads the way up. It is a piece of 
artistic work. 

The walls are decorated, the ceiling has the allegory to Liberty, 
Order, Fraternity and Progress, and the whole is fine work in colors 
and gold. 

They told us that this l)uilding cost the Stnte government about 
1. J0O:0UO$0()(). It was well spent money. It is the first building of its 
kind in all the States. The Palaces of the Government of S. Paulo, 
Petropolis, Bahia, which are new and large cannot be compared 
with it. Those of Florianopolis , Maeeio and Curityba are new but 
have not that size. Those of Belem and Recife are large but heavy, 
ungraceful Portuguese colonial style, strong but ugly. 

The President or Governor of the Mi nas State is Dr. JoasPinheiio, 
one of the most noted of public men of the country. He is a captain 
of industry, very clever and active, he is a lawyer and literary man. 
He was elected by unanimous vote to the dignity of governor. He has 
held other official positions. He has been a member of the State 
(Congress and Federal Senator, always acting with good judgment 
and devoted to his duties. He is a young man of jjrogressive ideas 
and strong initiatives. 

In the same s([uare where is the (Jovei'nor's j)alace is the Palace 
of the Interior, a large building with three floors. 

Leaving the Liberty S(]uare at the side of this building is the 

— 570 — 

Finance Deparlnient, largo and imposing, llirce floors, tln-c-ft bodies 
on a small stairway. 'Plu^ ground I'loor is of doric stA'le, and those, 
above are corinlliian style. 

The three l)odies of th(» building, jjainted rose color are disjjosed 
in such a w a\' that the centre is a little inside. The staii'way in this 
as well as in the other bnilding rests on an iron frame, with artistic 
supporters of beautil'nl effect. Inside it is decorated in a sober style, 
but of good taste. It cost .S.^irOT.'iSOOO and that of the Interioi' about 

On the opposite side to the (Jovernor's I^alace is the Agricnltu- 

Bcllo llorizoiite. — Governor's Palace 

ral Department, a little similar in its general lines to the one I just 
mentioned but in details obeys to the Toscane style and it is plea- 
sant. Like the other has in its front, three distinct bodies with the 
centre one a little in. Like the other it also has thi-ee pavements. 

It has on the first floor, two windows on each of the side bodies. 
In the central body is a wide iron door of pretty and of artistic 
design, with two smaller and narrow doors also of iron at the sides. 
On the second floor are two windows on the side bodies and five in 
the centre one. On the third floor, five in the centre, one on the sides. 
In tlie side bodies of the building are in relief the initials S. A. 

It is on the ground i'loor of that pretty building that the City 
Hall of Bello Ilorizonte is provisionally installed. 

— 580 — 

Tlieve wo saw beautiful oil paintings representing views of that 
l)lacc in olden times, the si^ed of the great city. 

Other bnildings worth looking at are the Barracks of the Police 
Force. Its front measures 112 m. 50 length. It has five different 
bodies. The central one has 28 metres and \T> m. height, two side 
ones are lower and two are towers at the extremities. On the 
ground fhior at the left is the cavalry squadron and at the riglit 
the 1st company of the 1st infantry battalion. In the centre is the 
major staff and general headquarters, the guard i-ooms and jail and 
storage rooms. 

Belli) Hui'i/.unle. — Home lieparUneiU and Revenue 

On the superior pavemi'iit are the rooms and offices of the com- 
mander and secretaries, etc. 

The stables are at the rear. We visited them with interest and 
found them in fine order. 

Xext to this barracks is a target firing establishment. Both 
civilians and military men can practise shooting there. 

A little before the barracks is Santa Ephigenia church a pretty 
cliurch of gothic style. 

Tlie City Hospital is a beautiful building though not so large as 
the Para, Recife, or Bahia ones and much less than the Rio de .Tanei- 
I'o one. It is a building of a fancy ai'chit(^cture , a mixture of the 

— 581 — 

li'Dtliit' and classical liellenic styles, 'riio main entrance is ol' stone. 
Till' front has a ground I'JO metres long-. At the side in dil'i'crent plans 
forming- wings are vast wards eight by thirty metres. Inside is well 
ventilated with curved ceilings and large windows. 

The central building has an upper story and has a very large door 
where are going to be installed the chemistry laboratory, storage 
rooms, and employers rooms. 

The Bello Horizonte market has a severe aspect. Its front has 

Bello Horizuiile. — AgricuUurt' Pulace 

42 metres length by four width, and two side wings measuring 
■22 metres by four each. 

In its front which looks to the Quatorze de Fevereiro sciuare 
are two pretty towers 13 metres high by four length and by four 
width placed at the extremities. 

The building which cost l'(.»U:UUOS0OU is covered with metal and 
surrounded by a sidewalk two metres wide , protected by an extend- 
ed roof. The floor is cimented. 

We must also mention ; the fine church, Flemish style, called 

— 582 — 

i< San'i-ado Corarao dc .Icsiis; the Gyiniiasio Mineiro in a I'iiie build- 
ing near tlio Interior I )opartinent ; tlie Law ('ollef;e, a I'ine build- 
ing; the Federal Treasury Department Hraneli and Government 
Savings Hank, with its front in Seottisli style without synietry but 
ot beautil'ul ei'let't; the Senate a larg(i building but of little areliitee- 
tonie value; the .State Congress; (he T'oliee Department, a most 
elegant and appi'opiiated building; the Offieial Printing Office of 
aristoeratie side, but without decoration; the Grand Hotel at the 
coi'ner of two lai'ge streets, painted rose color and last but not the 
least the Matriz church now being finished — S. Jose — design of the 

liello lloi'izoule. — Barracks of the Piililic Force 

Brazilian architect Ts'ascentes Coelho. It is of modern maniicline 
style, 3U metres Ijy <iU and the centi'al towei' 10 metres Jiigh uj) to 

the cross. 

* * 

Pniiijc JxsTRUc'i'iox , Tkansi'ortation , CoMJiEiu'K. — Minas 
Geraes recently presented the following aboutrits schools statistics : 
Fi'oni ."■,:!() districts: number of jjupils 52.(ir)5 being 111.501 males and 
21.1.51 feiiuUes. Vet tlicre are 17. 'lb! male children and ll.lil.j female 
ones, or a total of .'S^.IJ.'iO childi'en who do not receive any instruction. 
R(U'eive insli'uclion in State schools 1 1 ,OIS children, in private nnes, 
(.100 and at home SSj, 

— 583 — 

Tliere are in the State 1.501 g'rammar schools. Of these 188 are in 
the eity and 1.013 in the interior. There are 671 for males, (iKi for 
females and 184 mixed. 

During 1903 there were yiJ.OliS pupils registei-ed in the schools, 
19.421 males, 13.647 females. The frequentation was thus 13.113, 
being- 7.5.j6 males and .5.557 females. 

There is a well known Miner Engineering College in Oni-o Preto 
which renders great services and 15 professional schools in other 

In that very city is a magnificent Pharmacy College with ;500 
pupils which enjoys a very good reputation all over the country. 
In the Capital the State maintains the Gymnasio Mineiro, Law 
College, several Normal colleges in interior cities. In Barbabacena 
is the Internato do Gymnasio ( Boarding Gymnasium ) with 100 
pupils. It is a model institute. It has a library with 10.000 volumes 
and in Juiz de Fora is the Commerce Academy. 

We will not forget the Public library recently founded in Bello 
Horizonte with 15.000 volumes, a good start. At present tliere are in 
Minas 51 public libraries distributed by the principal cities. Of Nor- 
mal colleges we cite : Ouro Pret\:i, Sahara, .luiz de Fora, Campanha, 
Diamantina, S. .loao d'El-Rey, Uberaba, Arassuahy and Montes 
Claros with from 150 to 200 pupils each. 

As to railways only one State is superior to Minas — it is 
S. Paulo. 

The )ailway-net of the State of Minas in 1902 was 3.480 kilometres 
thus distributed : 

Minus ifiil\v;iys Melres 

Lcopoldiiia 8i2. l.iiO 

Oiisle de Minas .... 084.000 

Sapucaliy 571.000 

Baliia e Minas 23.5.800 

Mnzamliinho 94.89.5 

Cataguazes 48.180 

.Joai) Gomes a I'ii'anga . . 26. .56-4 

Pai-aopeha 12.000 2.5I2I<,595 

I'lMlcTiil mails Moires 

Cenlral (Id Hrazil .... .574. .592 

Minas eUio t47.000 

Miizambinlii) 14-i.flOO 

Mdgjaiia 502.000 1.167k. 592 

Tolal 5.480l<.I87 

The State of Minas has spent until now w'ith railways : 
In subsidies : 892:764$000. 

— 584 — 

In j;uar;uiU'cs of iiik'.resl 'J 1. 1C)L':101*000 (listribntod by tlio rollow- 

iiij;' roads : 

].((.|i(il(liiia 8.l77):«2IS:i01l 

OL'sto (iciMiriMs .... 1 m±<.m't^im 

Sapiicaliy «.4I8::HI.$745 

MiizanihinlKi lin;4:58$84;; 

Joao GoiiiL'S a I'ii'anga . . 406:4558671. 



Jn loans 15.875; I12«;051 being : 

8a|.iicaliv (;.!)20:000$n00 

iMiizainliinlio ;;.644;4I2$()5I 

E.S|iirilu Saiilu (■ Miiias. . .",.51 1 :(lOns;(IO(l 

Tnlal. . i:;.875:4l2g05l 

Bellu Horizonle. — Public market 

It spent witli the E. V. Baliia and Minas (purchase, loan, eons- 
truction of extension till Tlieophilo Ottoni, studies till Arassuahy) 
16.191 :S(:i7$788, Altogether .57.1l*2:235«!777. 

The total revenue ofthese State railways was in 188U, ;j.li8:3;'.nj08482 ; 
in IDUU, 8.2i;J:0.57$;!lL'; in l'.)()l , 1U.222:()88« 17 and in 19(12, 


'l'(i-ilri> llii' cxli'iisioii iif iailuavs in i>|ifi'aliiiii is 5.648.277 

licirifT siilisidi/cd (11- Willi (■(iiiccssiou li'diii llic Male . . . . 2.510.085 

Stale I'diiccssidii (ir |iro|ii.'i'ly iiT Hie I'liidii 1.557.502 

Tulal 7.296.554 

— f>8n — 

'riierc aw now in construction (iOt.) i<ilomoti'es in Hcvcral lines, 
concessions I'roui the Stiitc luid the Union. Only tlie Central Brazil 
railway is aliout to inaugurate U)U kilometres. 

Thus by the close ot this year I'.iOB the Minas State will see its 
railways with an extension of over 1.000 kilometres. 

Tlie Police force of the State of Minas is C(nistituted by a Police 
Brigade composed of 1.(500 privates and loO officers, forming three 
infantry battalions and a cavalry st^uadron all under the command 
of a colcmel generally a regular army orticei-. 

The battalions have not an equal number of men. Thus is, that 
the I'ii'st has Ul'.t men in the barracks we described above, the 
second in the city of Uberaba with 310 men, and the third in Dia- 
mantina with :j.50 men. Only the comi)any housed in the Bello 
Horizonte barracks has a band of music. 

The cavalry scpiadron commanded by a captain lias 200 men. 

They don't all use the same i-ifle. They use Comblain, Mauser, 
Chassepot, etc. 

Xatuual wealth, Industries, Manukacturing. — None of the 
Brazilian States except Bahia disposes of so many natural resources 
and so valuable as Minas Gcraes and none has had so deserving- 
fame of the abundance and excellency of these I'esources as the 
layers of the State of Minas. 

Gold and diamonds have been for a long time the pi'incipal 
wealth of Brazil. Recently, since some 15 years ago they discovered 
enoi'mous layers of manganese v^diich were immediately placed 
under industrial exploitation as they were by the Centi'al Brazil 
railwaj' load. 

In the Northern region of the State they recently discovered 
layers of precious stones and according to the official paper, it has 
increased much of late the exploitation of the topaz, the ametliyst, 
the tui'maline and other precious stones, which have been largely 
sought especially in the Bahia markets. 

Tlie quantities of gold extracted from Minas Geraes at the time 
of the Portuguese dominion seem incredible. It suffices to say that 
in the period from 17(J0 to 1820 the taxes oi' duties collected on that 
metal were 7Ao7,'j a. witli a value of .").'!. 52y:750IOO(,). « The gold 
extracted during that period amounted to o5.6S7,5 a. with a value of 
2H7.()5(3:500-$000, falling to the Ouro Preto district 22 "/„, Sahara 2.'! 7,,, 
Marianna 2.5 "/„ and the balance divided by the other districts. » 

From the message of Vice-president Costa Serra we transcribe a 

oRfi — 

(;iblf of gold exported by Minas Geracs with its oTricial value during 
the years IcS'.Hi to lUOl : 

I Kill). 
IS! IK. 
I!l(ll . 


(■ruiiiDies lieis 

1 .08«.:i"27 ;i.597: IGOSi.").) 

-2.253.^1 i 7 18f:(i8.jS7(Ji 

.-.090 :!li:; |li.8ll!:n72g«A-i 

i.ll)'J.414 l5.G8::!:.7yiSlG7 

i.-.(i4.(i8H ir)5ll;:il8$5.-M 

'iA)\'->.'->'i>\ I0.77I:07IS8II 

l'.).82l.-2(ii( ()l.l6.-):072$i;il 

Bello llorizonle. — l-'roiU view nf lliu Minas GyiiiriasiiLiii 

This does not inelude the gold-dust expoi-ted during the same 

It is imiDOssible in a book like this one to enter into details oi 
information about the gold-mines Ijeing worked now. They are not so 
few that I might give theii' list here with details. 

Among theni, however, there is the Morro A'elho, directed by an 
able mine engineer Mr. Chalmers. This mine has all modern 
apparatus and tools for its exploitation out of which excellent results 
have been obtained. 

Inexhaitstiblk Manganese Mines. — As to the exploitation of 

— 587 — 

nunig-anesc oxides we may say tliat not even 1 '\U <>( the known and 
discovered layers in this State is eontributing- towards the fortune of 
tlie country, because until now they only are exploiting those by tlie 
roads of the railway companies. Yet notliing is more interesting than 
to look at the activity in the work ol' those layers as we cross that 
region in the Central of Brazil trains. From the Laffayete Station 
on jjrincipally in Miguel Burnier we liad the opportunity to be pre- 
sent to the shiijping of enormous quantities of mineral in freight 
cars that were to carrv it to Rio de Janeiro wherefrom it was to be 

Bellu Horizonle. — Tlie Law-Suliool 

of m 

ai'ded to Europe or North America. The State (jf Minas is becom- 
one of the large exporters of this important element of industry 
ineral extraction. These figures indicate the progress it has 

Quantities of mangan'kse transported hv 'i-iik (Juntrae 
OF Brazil railway 

Years Tuns 

iiJOO 92.H0I 

I'.KII «!t.irt> 

1902 H\J)i-2 

1905 ' 18.1.100 

I'JOi 2l7.iW.-5 

190.J 246.000 

— 588 — 

It is oijportimc to i)iiblisli licru some rumarks iiuwlc liy lliu 
Aiivcrs-])()urs(' ahimi. Ilie oxi)loit,ati()n of mangaiioso in Brazil ini- 
tiated in jNIinas with j^roat success : 

K Tlic manganese industry in Brazil, still ij^uite recent, as it has 
only some twelve years of existence, promises to become the most 
serious competitor of tlie manganese commerce. If the.^' liave delayed 
exploiting the layers of manganese in Brazil it is because, with the 
economical crisis conse(juencc of the forced cii'culation of pa[)er 

I: -'F.'U^Jtmi£^'^^!± _-.,. «,. . s-;,=.=^-^-.^- 

Miiias. — lh{' gi'ual Kails ut Toiiibus du (^arajjyola on llic [I'ljiilicr of Jliiias anil Kin 

money, in this South American Republic, such branch of industry 
was absolutely onerous. 

^Vs it is known manganese is especially used by steel factories, 
and metallurgic industries are not yet developed in Soutli America. 
It is, then, exclusively for export that we can base the exploitation 
of the manganese layers. 

The first were discovered in 1888 by an engineer employed in 
the eonsti-uction of the Central Railway of Brazil near the Miguel 

— 5KH — 

Burnicr station (.State of Miiias (Jeraes). A Brazilian e.a])italist was 
the first to export manganese to England and the United States 
and a scu'ies of analysis made in those countries showed that the 
Brazilian mineral contains as an average over 55 "/„ of manganese. 
Nowhere in the world is a richer mineral of this kind to be found. 
The Spanish mineral is the one that comes nearer to the lirazilian 
with an average of 5o "/,, of metal. 

Recently new layers of manganese of considerable imjxn-tance 
have been discovci-ed in the interior Bahia, and there they have also 
initiated the exportation of that mineral. 

The mineral exported from Greece, Chili, Cuba and France con- 
tains 52",,, of manganese. After these comes Caucasus witli 51"/o. The 
Brazilian mineral has also the advantage of not containing phos- 

It is not surprising then that under these circumstances the 
exports of the Brazilian mineral has increased in extraordinary pro- 
portions, growing from G.785 tons in 1895 to over 120.000 tons in 
1003 only from the layers of Minas Geraes State. 

Brazil furnishes now 350.000 to 100.000 tons of this mineral to the 
universal market. » 

Besides the gold-mines, diamonds, already being exploited, many 
others, especially diamond ones are being bought in the Northern 
municipiums, which, as it is expected, will soon be lively centres of 

Another characteristic of the mineral soil wealth is the value 
now attached to the reputation of its waters and summer resorts. 

They are in large number, those fountains in several States, 
some with an established reputation, principally the extensive 
vulcanic basin of Caldas, Lambary, Cambuquira, Caxambu, etc. and 
many others in larger number but not yet known. Lately there has 
been a movement of interest about this hydro-mineral extraordinary 
wealth in the State of Minas. 

Several enterprises liave been established. Tlie recognizance of