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Full text of "Mexican linguistics : including Nauatl or Mexican in Aryan phonology; The primitive Aryans of America; A Mexican-Aryan comparative vocabulary; Morphology and the Mexican verb; and The Mexican-Aryan sibilants; with an appendix on comparative syntax"

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^ Cornell University Library 


Mexican linguistics including Nauati or 

3 1924 021 136 399 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


\3 el 


? ^ 

is the result of many years of patient ^udy. Al- 
though hampered by ill health, by crippled hands 
which seriously interfered w^ith the free use of 
books, by the fact that he was an amateur emd 
lacked the special training that was needed, and, 
finally, by the ridicule of scholars who assumed that 
his quest was a foolish one, Mr. Denison essayed 
an "impossible" task and — accomplished it. Years 
•were spent in laying the foundation for his w^ork. 
Thousands of conjectures "were made and rejected. 
Scores of books were consulted. Excursions into 
many fields were made for possible helps. Journeys 
were undertaken and carried out. In the end, con- 
clusions were reached and printed. Typographical 
errors were soon discovered by experts, and these 
were seized upon as a basis for condemning the 
w^hole undertaking. Mr. Denison at once began 
their correction. He wrote out his la^ monograph 
in the meantime and — died. This has no-w been 
printed and included in the volume, corrections of 
former errors have been tabulated and placed at the 
end, an introduction has been prepared by a 
scholar who had the patience and courtesy to hear 
him through, and, in the belief that future investiga- 
tors w^ill recognize not only the stupendous nature 
of the task but also the remarkable success w^ith 
w^hich it w^as completed, the book is now^ presented 
to the great universities and libraries of the world 
and certain other se- 

lecT:ed in^itutions with THE PUBLISHERS 
the compliments of CHICAGO. MARCH. 1913 

U3 ei 















H. W. MAGOUN, Ph.D. (J.H.U.) 

AUTh6r of various monographs and papers, including THK editing of a SANSKRIT MANUSCRIPT 





Copyright 19 13 By 
T. S. Denison & Co. 

All Rights Reserved 

Composed and Printed By 

The University of Chicago Press 

Chicago, Illinois. U.S.A. 



Introduction 7 

Mexican in Aktan Phonology 

Introduction 3 

I. Mexican Phonetics 5 

II. Cognate Languages, Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Ger- 
manic 5 

III. Vowels: Mexican, Sanskrit, Greek — ^Phonetic Decay 6 

IV. Consonants: Labials, Gutturals, Palatal-Gutturals . 9 
V. Comparative Tables: Mexican, Sanskrit, Greek, 

Latin, Germanic 17 

Bibliography 24 

The Primitive Aryans or America 

Introduction 7 

Chapter I. Indian Languages — Origin of Mexican . 15 

II. Method of Working 22 

III. Roots in General ...... 26 

IV. Roots and Dictionaries 31 

V. Morphology of Mexican 38 

VI. Mexican Word Studies 47 

VII. Mexican Syntax . . . . . . .56 

VIII. Tla and In — ^Mexican Gender, Dialects, 

Style 64 

IX. Individuality of Languages — ^Their Ver- 
bal Peculiarities . . . . . .71 

X. Languages and Thought-Form ... 77 
XI. Phonology: Vowels, Dentals, Gutturals, 

Vocalic Consonants, Labials .... 91 

XII. Mexican Notation 101 

XIII. History of the Mexican Language . . 108 

XIV. Linguistic Evidences concerning the 
Origin of the Nauatlaca 114 

XV. Historical Evidences ... . . 123 

XVI. The Aztlan Legend 134 




Chapter XVII. Religion and Mythology of the Nahua . 151 

XVIII. Aztec Civilization not Indigenous . . 163 

Bibliography 171 

Index 183 

Mexican-Aetan Compabative Vocabulaky 

Introduction 5 

I. Grammatical Structure of Mexican 15 

II. Orthography of Mexican 17 

III. Phonology: (A) Vowels, (B) Consonants . . .18 

Authorities . . 22 

Vocabulary 25 

Indices 99 

Morphology of the Mexican Veeb 

Introduction 5 

The Verb: Augment, Endings, Conjugation, Desi- 
nences, Verbal Noun 7 

Abstract Nouns in -yo-tl 22 

Appendix: Numerals, Labials, Initial y, Nasals — 

Remarks 24 

Mexican-Aryan Sibilants 

Prefatory Note 5 

I. S-Soimds in Mexican: (A) Combinations, (B) 

Simple Sounds 7 

II. Noun Endings: Suffixes, Kinship Words, Affixes, 

etc 14 

III. Mexican Prefixes 24 

IV. Primitive Inflection: The Locative, the Instru- 
mental 28 

V. The Mexican Plural 29 

VI. Mexican Possessive Pronouns as Determinants . . 30 
Appendix: (A) Syntax OutUnes, (B) Word Order, 

(C) Miscellaneous Items, (D) Mexican Syntax . . 33 

Addenda et Corrigenda 1 


By occupation Thomas Stewart Denison was a business 
man, but by nature he was a linguist. From his childhood 
this fact was apparent. Even before he left the farm in 
the mountains of West Virginia he had begun the study of 
French, and, being the youngest of five children, his wishes 
in this matter were respected. He became a man of keen 
mind, an independent thinker, and a person of great per- 
sistence. It was this latter quality that determined his 
occupation; for, when he could not find a publisher to 
handle a play that he had written for the school he happened 
to be teaching, he published it himself. As the demand for 
copies grew, he went on with the work. Then he wrote 
other plays and published them, and gradually acquired 
a publishing business by this means. Almost before he 
realized it, he had become a fixture in that occupation, 
and his own productions had laid the foundation for his 
success. Some of his earliest plays are still in demand 
among amateurs in various parts of the country. He wrote 
between thirty and forty in all. 

The human element was strong in Mr. Denison's nature, 
and this appears plainly in his literary productions. It is 
the main feature in the prolonged success of his writings 
for non-professional players. Wherever he went, it was in 
evidence. Having a phenomenal memory for words, he 
began at once to pick up the vernacular of any country 
that he happened to visit, and within a week he would be 
talking with the m-chins that he chanced to meet on the 
public highways. He traveled extensively, made two trips 
to Europe, spent some time in Palestine and Egypt, and 



finally settled down to the investigation of ancient records 
in his own hemisphere. He was considering an extensive 
trip in Mexico^ when he died; for it had become his one 
purpose in life to determine, if possible, what the true 
nature of the Mexican language really is. 

In earlier years he had written a volume or two of poems 
besides several novels; for he was a man of wide interests, 
and he often felt that he had a message to deUver. He 
seldom wrote without a definite purpose, and this can be 
traced in most of his books. Ultimately he lost his interest 
in the Hterary productions of his younger days, because he 
had become absorbed in an attempt to solve a great world- 
problem, a thing which he had been assured could not 
possibly be done. To his mind that was a good reason for 
trying it, for he refused to be limited by the judgment 
of other men. 

His democracy corresponded to his linguistic vision. 
Indeed, it might almost be said that it was as wide as the 
earth; for he was a natural champion of the down-trodden 
and oppressed. He had no use for sophistry, as those who 
ventured to cross swords with him soon found out. One 
experience along these lines was usually sufficient; for his 
wit was keen and could be biting, if the occasion demanded 
it. He had the directness and simplicity of greatness, and 
he was therefore occasionally misunderstood, his frankness 
being mistaken for blimtness. His early struggles with 
poverty may have contributed something to this charac- 
teristic, and they may have added to the intensity of his 
convictions, as they certainly did to his tenacity of purpose 
and his vigor of body. For a time he was a miner in the 
Rockies; but, ultimately, his college course having been 

•He had already spent some time there, having made one or two trips 


completed, he settled down to the life of a man who works 
with his brain rather than with his muscles. 

A native has said that he spoke French without an accent. 
Italian was familiar to him; Spanish was easily mastered; 
Greek was his delight for many years; and he even became 
interested in the cuneiform inscriptions of the East. From 
these he turned to Sanskrit; for he had begun a search 
looking toward the discovery of some cognate speech with 
which he could link the tongue of Montezuma, since the 
proper classification of this language had now become his 
most fascinating quest. The idea of linking it, or attempt- 
ing to do so, with any other language, especially with one 
that was oriental, seemed to many scholars an utter 
absurdity; and they laughed long and loudly at the bare 

The teachings of experience should have made them 
wiser. It is now less than thirty years since scientists were 
proclaiming in their classrooms and in their books that 
electric lighting would never be a practical success in our 
urban life. They had not reckoned with Edison, however, 
and they despised his opinion in all such matters. He 
said nothing and attended strictly to business. Denison 
Was a man of the same stamp. If the thing was "impos- 
sible," it was worth trying, and he went at it with a deter- 
mination to see what could be done. 

He was not a professional linguist; but what of that? 
Edison was not a professional chemist; but he proceeded 
to find two substances that would dissolve urate of soda, 
as soon as he heard from a gouty friend that there was 
nothing that could be used for the purpose, in medicine, 
because there was no such substance except, possibly, 
carbonate of lithia, which was in doubt. As a result, the 
doctors now have tetra-ethyl-ammonium hydroxide in their 


materia medica, and the world is that much the wiser. 
Again, all the "authorities" were agreed that phosphorus 
could not be expelled from iron ores at high temperatures, 
because it would require a substance for a pot-lining that 
would stand 2500° F., and there was no such thing. In 
spite of their conclusions, however, two young men found 
such a material, and Bessemer steel is now made from 
low-grade ores in consequence. 

The amateur has proved his right to a place in the world, 
and he is entitled to the world's respect. In fact, it has 
been abundantly shown that he may not only equal but also 
surpass the professional in almost any department of life, 
if he only has the necessary patience and perseverance. 
Mr. Denison had both to an unusual degree. He also had 
a devoted partner who was much interested in his work. 
For ten years this man, who is now his successor, carried 
all the details of the business himself so that Mr. Denison 
was left free to pursue his linguistic studies. He did so 
with great delight, in spite of the daily pain involved in 
the use of hands badly crippled with rheumatism. Every 
motion was disagreeable, and every movement made with a 
pencil was acutely registered on his sensory nerves; but 
he wrote out his conclusions just the same, and he wrote 
them legibly. 

This habit of his proved to be a most fortunate one; 
for he died suddenly, soon after he had committed his last 
monograph to paper. He had not even revised it; but 
the manuscript was sufficiently clear, in nearly every detail, 
to enable the present writer, when it was placed in his hands, 
to get at his intention with due accuracy, from beginning 
to end. In a few cases he had evidently thought of adding 
something, or of modifying his statement in some way; 
but most of the additions had already been made, along 


with a number of erasures, where he had decided to restate 
some conclusion or alter his arrangement of evidence. 
Such changes as are usually necessary in revision had to be 
made. They were the result of slight errors in writing, 
due to the fact that the author's attention was concen- 
trated on the thought to the exclusion of minor details. 
When these corrections were completed, a typewritten copy 
was prepared for the printer; but extreme care was taken 
not to alter or rearrange any part of the manuscript itself. 
It was to be presented as he would have had it printed if 
he had lived, and the sole effort was to attain to that 
end with a proper accuracy. For this reason Brugmann's 
abbreviation for Sanskrit (Skr.) was retained in place of 
the ordinary EngUsh one (Skt.). 

As to the ultimate verdict concerning his work, it is 
too early as yet to speculate. He would be the last man 
to claim that it was final, in the shape in which he left it, 
but he believed with all his heart and soul that he had found 
too much material to have it rejected in toto. In this 
belief he died, after having at last received some encourage- 
ment from men of great attainments. Professor A. H. 
Sayce, whose breadth of mind and honesty of purpose are 
too well known to need exploiting here, wrote him from 
Egypt, saying of his work, "it is the first scientific attempt 
that has been made to establish a relationship between^ 
the American and Indo-European languages." He then 
went on to say: "But what are you going to do with the 
structure and grammar of Nauatl, by which, after all, 
linguistic relationship must be decided? And how is the 
geographical space between Central America and Western 
Asia to be filled up ?" In his Appendix Mr. Denison tried 
to meet one of these points, but he had already postulated 
boats for the other, which he therefore passed by. 


In a later letter, Professor Sayce returned to the same 
questions, after saying: "I have much admiration for the 
patience and persistency with which you have piirsued your 
researches, and for the very good case that you have made 
out for your theory." The material, therefore, impressed 
him by its character ; but he had a very practical difficulty in 
seeing how the theory could be true in view of present 
geographical obstacles to the consummation of such a rela- 
tionship, and he was also concerned as to grammatical 
questions. The latter consideration, however, is really of 
much less moment than it seems, as will appear later. 
Our own English is a non-inflected tongue, although one 
of its chief elements (Norman-French) came from Latin 
which was a well-inflected language, while its other main 
source (Anglo-Saxon) exhibits plainly six cases, especially 
in its adjectival and pronominal declensions, together with 
an occasional dual, besides having a degree of inflectional 
variation in its verbal forms such as only Biblical phrase- 
ology now duplicates in EngUsh. 

The geographical difficulty is a genuine one, and it must 
be met. At the outset it seems like an insurmountable 
barrier; but it is not, as a matter of fact. At this point 
a bit of history may be in order. Less than thirty years 
ago, physicists were claiming with unwonted vigor that 
man could not have come from a single pair. They now 
say that he could not have come from anything else. The 
bearing of this on language will be considered later. The 
point to be enforced here is this. Imperfectly understood 
facts led to a conclusion that had to be rejected entirely 
as soon as the whole field had been canvassed, and, 
on this point, science and the Bible finally agreed. Man 
did start from a single pair, and he originated in a place 
well supplied with fruits. There is now a tendency that 


leans strongly toward postulating a pair of Siamese twins 
as the original Adam and Eve, and the rib story may yet 
be regarded as an oriental description of the parting of the 
two. The myths of many peoples favor such an outcome, 
and scientific theories of mutation seem to require just such 
an explanation, if they are sound. 

Again, the origin of the North American Indian has 
long been in dispute; but it is now generally conceded that 
the theory of an Asiatic source is the true one. Race types 
show this beyond question; but there has always been a 
great and persistent difficulty as to how the red man first 
got here. Geology has at last solved that problem. Man 
was here during the Ice Age; but at that time North America 
and Europe were much higher, both relatively and actually, 
than they now are. The evidence on this point is over- 
whelming. But such a mass of world-material could not 
possibly be elevated five hundred feet on an average, which 
is much less than is generally postulated, unless some other 
portion of the earth's surface was correspondingly depressed. 
This should be self-evident, although no geologist seems to 
have thought of it. What, then, was depressed? All the 
oceanic islands show plainly that they underwent tremen- 
dous volcanic disturbances during Pleistocene times, and 
all of them contain evidence of a gigantic upheaval during 
the same age. Before that time, therefore, some portions 
of the ocean bed were much lower than they are in our 
day, and the sea itself was correspondingly affected. 

But this is not all. Some six or eight million cubic 
miles of water had been withdrawn from the ocean by evapo- 
ration and deposited as snow on the continents in question 
and elsewhere. It formed the ice cap, so called. This 
explains why fossil remains indicate that the continental 
islands were once parts of the adjacent mainland, and it 


also implies that all the continents must then have been 
connected, with the possible exception of Australia. Alaska 
and Asia were unquestionably united, and Alaska had a 
temperate climate in spite of the fearful conditions that 
prevailed in Labrador. This, at least, is the testimony of 
the rocks, and the way is thus opened for the advent of 
the first occupants of North America. 

They came from Asia,^ and others may have come for 
many generations. When the ice cap was finally destroyed 
and the present adjustment was reached — a cataclysm 
involving the Biblical flood— they could no longer come on 
foot, but the habits of ancestral tribes continued through 
many ages might lead them, or others like them, to come by 
boat, and this seems to have been what actually happened. 
But is there any evidence for such a contention? Yes; 
there is. It is not yet published; but it will be ultimately, 
and it may not be a breach of confidence to say that the 
traditions of the Mayas of Yucatan supply the missing 
link. Their totem was the snake, and when they beheld 
white men on whose helmets a snake was embossed, they 
at once accepted theni as blood brothers and a superior 
race. They were awed, not only by the complexion and air 
of the men, but also by their arms, which were overlaid 
with a film of gold and were therefore resplendent in the 
sunshine. My information on this point comes from a man 
who is a member of the tribe by adoption; for he has made 
it his life work to collect and preserve their records and 
archaeological remains. These white men came by boats, 
and they remained in the country. 

Here, then, is the needed link in Mr. Denison's theory; 
for these particular immigrants were probably Aryans. 
They could hardly have been anything else, from the indi- 

i See Records of the Past, Vol. XI, pp. 23 If. 


cations and the history of past ages. They were white 
and they were warriors and they sailed the sea with con- 
fidence. They were, therefore, masterful men. They were 
in search of new and better homes, and when they found 
what satisfied them, they remained there. Now, these are 
all Aryan traits, and they have been through the ages. 
The Semites migrate also; but it is usually the result of 
compulsion. They do not change their habitation from 
choice. Some necessity that compels obedience drives them 
forth. Otherwise, they stay where they are, and they are 
traders by preference rather than warriors. The Aryans 
have been warriors from the beginning. The Semites have 
generally avoided war if they could, though they have 
fought most desperately when at bay. The Semites do 
not take kindly to the sea, and the warring tribes of Central 
Asia do not. The Aryans, on the other hand, are fond of 
the great deep, and they have sailed it from choice for 
untold centuries. 

One significant fact should now be mentioned. It has 
long been recognized that certain astronomical symbols 
and methods of reckoning time that are found in Mexico 
and Peru are identical with symbols and methods that are 
known to hav^ originated in Central Asia. It has been 
supposed that they came in from the north; but, if so, it 
is a curious fact that they are confined to these two regions 
where other remarkable evidences of a high state of civiliza- 
tion are found and found in abundance. If these things 
were brought into America by the land route, why did 
none of them find lodgement until these southern lands 
were reached ? If, on the contrary, they came by sea with 
invaders that arrived by boat, possibly after long and exten- 
sive wanderings along the coasts of two continents, their 
peculiar development and localization can be accounted for. 


On the general linguistic question there is now a practical 
agreement. All the North American languages show the 
agglutinative characteristics found in the languages of 
Northern Asia, with little or none of the inflection so charac- 
teristic of the Aryan and Semitic groups. Siberia is said 
to abound in languages of this type, especially between the 
Ural River and the Altai Mountains. Some connection 
is also said to have been discovered between the dialects 
spoken by the aborigines of North America and those in 
use among certain tribes in central Siberia. This is sig- 
nificant as far as it goes. The classification of languages, 
however, as Agglutinative or Synthetic, as distinguished 
from Inflectional, not to mention other types, is not alto- 
gether satisfactory, as an example or two will show; and it 
will not do to depend upon it without restrictions. 

Sanskrit is one of the oldest of the Aryan tongues, and 
it is a highly inflected language, not only in the character 
of its nominal, adjectival, and pronominal forms, with 
their eight cases and three numbers, but also in the exten- 
sive development of its verbs, of which there are nomi- 
nally ten classes, the tenses regularly showing nine forms in 
their three numbers. And yet Sanskrit is capable of pro- 
ducing in all seriousness a compound like bhdndapurnakum- 
bhakdramandapikdikadega, which is purely agglutinative, as 
it stands, and means "one-corner-of-a-small-shop-of-a-pot- 
maker-filled-with-earthenware." The word occurs in the 
Hitopadega, in a fable concerning a Brahman who planned 
to get wealthy and marry four wives, but counted his 
chickens before they were hatched. In a somewhat similar 
way, Greek was capable of forming, in a spirit of mischief, 
the outrageous compound, meaning "hash," that is found 
at the end of the Ecclesiazusae of Aristophanes, a compound 
that by no means stands alone in the language of Aristotle. 


It is formed by combining the stems of all the words that 
are supposed to represent the various ingredients found in 
the different forms of that delectable dish, and it reads as 
follows : 


English is closely related to both of these tongues and 
it therefore belongs in the same linguistic family; but it 
is practically non-inflectional, and it is but slightly agglutina- 
tive, position counting for much in its general structure 
and especially in its syntactical relations, a characteristic 
that is said to be highly developed in the Chinese languages. 
Again, German, which belongs in the same minor group as 
English, is fairly inflectional as it retains four cases and 
varies its verbal forms, but it is also fairly agglutinative, 
especially in its scientific terms, of which AUertumswissen- 
schaft is an extremely mild example. English is beginning 
to take pattern with such terms as Ortho-Sulpho-Benzoic 
Acid and Para-Diazo-Meta-Toluene-Sulphonic Acid. 

But English is also doing another thing; for it is develop- 
ing a set of postpositions, to use a word apparently coined 
by Latham {Did., II, 568), which may be likened, in a 
■general way, to those in use in Asiatic languages. There is 
this difference. In English these words always modify verbs, 
except in poetry, while in the Asiatic tongues they serve 
as postpositive prepositions, if such a nomenclature can be 
tolerated, or act almost as inflectional endings of the nouns 
they govern. An illustration will make the point clear. 

A briUiant American scholar, during his university course 
in Germany, was told by a German fellow-student that 
English had no particles. He waited for an opportunity 


and then remarked: "I was broken in upon by somebody." 
"Broken in upon by!" exclaimed the puzzled German, 
"what is that?" "Only some of our English particles," 
was the answer. But "break in upon" is a verb with two 
postpositions, or adverbial affixes, attached to it as a part 
of its very essence, since all three words are necessary to 
express the thought, and all three go over into the passive 
voice in a body. Many such forms can be discovered in 
English, for its anomalies are by no means commonly 
understood. How many know, for instance, or have not 
forgotten, that the preposition "except" is really a verb 
in the imperative mode, or that "have lost" is, in origin, 
a flat contradiction? The hyphen has not yet asserted 
its right to a place in such forms as the one mentioned, 
but it will do so in the course of time. 

It must now be clear that grammatical structure is not 
an infallible test of, or guide to, language relationships 
and never can be. The truth is that all these pecuharities 
overlap one another and do not remain separate characteris- 
tics of any given tongue, although some languages do 
retain their individuality and continue to be fairly pure in 
their linguistic features. Where two different tongues com- 
bine, as was the case in early English, a result differing to a 
greater or less degree from either is to be expected, since 
conflicting inflectional endings may mutually destroy one 
another, and what is practically a non-inflected tongue 
may thus be produced. Indeed, no other outcome is to 
be looked for under such conditions, because neither set 
of inflectional endings is likely to obtain the mastery. A 
mixture, moreover, is out of the question, and a combina- 
tion is practically an impossibility. 

On the basis laid down, Mexican was a mixed language 
containing two elements, the native tongue of the aborigines 


and the more elegant speech of the invading Aryans. It 
must, therefore, be more or less anomalous in its forms and 
grammatical relationships, and no other condition of things 
would be natural, provided this conjecture as to its true 
nature is correct. The tradition is there and the results 
of the Maya culture are there. Both are significant. To 
them must now be added the fossil remains unearthed by 
Mr. Denison in the language of the people; for there is too 
much material in his compilations to be lightly dismissed. 
Details are doubtless at fault in various places, and alter- 
nate conjectures tend to weaken the general effect of his 
conclusions; but it should be remembered that these same 
alternatives also show his openmindedness and his readiness 
to recognize the possibility that he had not diagnosed those 
particular cases with suflBcient exactness to state them 

Mr. Denison was a pioneer in this work, and that must 
never be forgotten. As a pioneer he was necessarily ham- 
pered by the conditions found in the records, and he had 
to do the best he could with the materials at hand. That 
he spared no pains is evident from the months and years 
that he devoted to Brugmann's Comparative Grammar, and 
it is to be doubted whether any other American scholar 
has studied its conclusions more diligently than he did. 
His copy of the five volumes of this work (including the 
index) shows careful but incessant usage, and he was also 
a frequenter of libraries all his days in his search after truth. 
That he has accomplished his chosen task in a remarkably 
efficient way, when the obstacles that he had to overcome 
are considered, must be the ultimate conclusion, apparently, 
if he has fair treatment at the hands of scholars; for he 
has made out a good case, without question, in the aggregate, 
whatever may be thought of individual examples, and 


irrespective of the ultimate verdict concerning his work, 
which is another matter. Nauatl may not be and doubtless 
is not pure Aryan, but it does contain Aryan elements. 

The astronomical symbols and methods of reckoning 
time that are undoubtedly Asiatic, though found in Mexico, 
cannot be ignored in this connection, and there is also another 
point that needs to be recognized; for it is something more 
than mere accident that the traditions of the Mayas con- 
tain the statement that white men came, having serpents 
embossed on their golden helmets. Such circumstantial 
details as this imply a historical foundation of some kind; 
for ideas of that sort do not originate primarily in the 
imagination. The account given also harmonizes per- 
fectly with known facts in savage life. But the snake was 
originally one of the Aryan totems, as is shown by the 
sculptured cobras of India, the mural decorations of Pom- 
peii, and the well-known classical allusions to that reptile. 
Vergil himself makes this point clear, and Vergil is too 
familiar to require more than a cursory mention. The 
strange white men, then, were Aryans, and they have left 
their architectural achievements behind them for the world 
to wonder at. 

They became the dominant factor in the land of their 
adoption, as the monuments clearly show, and they must, 
therefore, have affeqted its language. Their descendants, 
being of a mixed race, would be likely to preserve the 
tongue of their fathers, though it would be modified more 
or less by the influence and pronimciation of their mothers; 
and a linguistic development would thus result that could 
hardly fail to be unique in various particulars. But this 
is the exact condition that appears to prevail in the Nauatl 
or Mexican language, as we know it; and the fact itself 
must be given due weight. 


Mr. Denison knew nothing of the tradition prevalent 
among the Mayas concerning the coming of white men; 
but he brought to his task a mature and a trained mind. 
He was born February 20, 1848, and died April 7, 1911, 
after a life filled with suffering, but also with incessant 
activity. A man of fifty is not likely to be easily deluded 
into the pursuit of a mere phantom, and Mr. Denison was 
a person of too keen an intellect to be readily deceived. 
He had the utmost faith in the ultimate Aryan character 
of Mexican, and, in a measure, this appears to have been 
amply justified. Such a character shines through Mexican 
very much as a Norman-French one shines through English; 
and, although some other powerful factor seems to have 
been at work in Mexican, as was the case in English, the 
Aryan features of the language are too strongly marked to 
be the result of either accident or coincidence. 

• If Mr. Denison did not fully recognize the possibility 
of an extensive speech admixture in the premises, it was 
not to his discredit. As a matter of fact, such a possibility 
rather adds to the remarkable character of his achievement; 
for it means that the difficulties of tracing sources were 
indefinitely increased by the obscuring processes inherent 
in speech amalgamation. Probabilities were against him. 
Scholars laughed at him. He was not a professional lin- 
guist. And yet he saw resemblances in Mexican words 
to Aryan forms so clearly that they constantly beckoned 
tii m onward, and he could not deny the call to give his life 
to the quest in spite of its seeming hopelessness. It took 
courage of a high order; but he had it, and he did not 
hesitate. Some day the world will estimate him at his 
true value; for worth must be the sole criterion by which 
such things are finally judged. 

It was mentioned above that physicists now affirm that 


man came from a single pair. This implies that all articulate 
speech had the same ultimate origin. But if it had, there 
may still be some evidence of the fact in the primitive roots 
or in the fossil remains of the languages of the world. Men 
have begun to look for such evidence. It was long held 
that no connection could ever be shown between the Aryan 
and the Semitic groups; but Professor MoUer's Semitisch 
und Indogermanisch claims to do just that, as does also 
Drake's Discoveries in Hebrew, Gaelic, Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, 
Latin, Basque, and Other Caucasic Languages. Both are 
radical, but they are also sane and convincing, and there are 
scholars who go far beyond this point, asserting that about 
fifty roots have already been traced in the languages of 
Europe and Asia. 

It is accordingly conceivable that a few Indo-Germanic 
radicals might be found in Mexican without involving any 
real linguistic relationship, in the accepted sense; but no 
such mass of material as Mr. Denison has accumulated 
could possibly be accounted for on a basis of that character. 
The thing is simply beyond belief. Coincidence could not 
account for it, and accident could not. His conclusions 
must, therefore, have some basis of fact, and the only thing 
to do is to try to determine what it is. All the evidence 
must be considered, even that which is apparently of little 
importance; for the sum total may be sufficient to settle 
the matter beyond reasonable doubt. 

A number of minor items that may mean nothing in 
themselves but in the aggregate may count heavily on the 
presumptive side of the argument ought, accordingly, to be 
mentioned in support and corroboration of Mr. Denison's 
general position. The first of these is the swastica, an 
emblem that is common among the relics found in Illinois, 
Ohio, Tennessee, Mississippi, and some other neighboring 


states. It is common in Thibet at the present time, and 
the Navajo and certain other American Indians weave it 
into their blankets in a manner similar to that in use in 
that Asiatic country. They also hammer it out of silver, 
as is likewise done by silversmiths in making the ornaments 
common in Mexico. It has even been found sculptured 
on the face of a cliff in Arizona. 

This curious symbol of good luck does not appear to 
have been native among any of the Semites; but it is said 
to have spread over Europe from Greece, and Greece has 
therefore been claimed as the place of its origin. But it 
also seems that it spread over Asia from India, and a like 
claim has accordingly been made for that country. Neither 
is satisfactory or sound; for the combined facts plainly 
point to an Aryan origin earlier than either of the two 
claimed, and the presumption is that the sign entered both 
countries with their Aryan invaders. It probably entered 
America in a similar way with Aryan invaders; for the 
Aryans took it everyTrhere. It may have entered Mexico 
first; for it seems to be the thing* that would serve as the 
most natural original source for certain curious ornamenta- 
tions found on Mexican ruins, which would appear to have 
required a long period of development. The connecting 
link may be the sort of half-swastica with a lateral exten- 
sion that is found on the walls of a cave in the Sierra Madre 
Mountains of Chihuahua.^ Such a symbol would spread 
with great ease and rapidity among the neighboring Indians 
whose superstitious reverence for the sign would account for 
its presence among their relics. To them it might be an 
emblem of the white man's superiority, and in time they 
would be likely to make more of it than its original users 
did. This would explain present conditions. 

1 See Records of the Past, Vol. V, pp. 5 fl. ; also Vol. VI, pp. 236 fl. ; and see 
likewise The National Geographical Magazine, Vol. XXI, pp. 1002 B. 


The one factor needed to make such an outcome likely 
is present; for a "blood-covenant" or "blood-brotherhood" 
could not fail to result from the possession of a similar 
totem, and this they had. The traditions of the Mayas call 
for a serpent clan, and the presence of such clans, widely 
distributed over extensive portions of the continent in the 
early days, is abundantly witnessed by the serpent moimds 
found in Ohio and elsewhere. That the clan was resident 
in Yucatan, while the so-called Maya culture was at its 
height, is CAridenced by the bas-relief ornamentation found 
on the temples and other monuments of the people. The 
"plumed serpent" is everywhere conspicuous, and it is 
not a very wild guess to assume that its prototype was 
originally embossed on Aryan helmets brought on Aryan 
heads into what is now Mexico. No other design is so 
prominent in their carvings on stone, and no other design 
is more significant. Quetzalcoatl, "The Fair God," is 
compounded of quetzalU, "a noble plume," and coatl, "a 
serpent." When this is put with the Maya tradition con- 
cerning white invaders with serpents embossed on their 
helmets, the suggestiveness of the combination is positively 

But, again, many of the ruins found in the coimtry of 
the Mayas contain a curious form of the arch, in which the 
opening is gradually narrowed by overlapping stones; and 
the same thing appears in Aryan structures of an early day, 
as is made clear by the "Lion Gate" of Mycaene, over 
which just such a support was originally placed. Men 
might develop this feature independently in their building 
operations; for men have invented the same instrument 
independently, and they have made the same discoveries 
independently. Men also borrow such ideas, and they 
carry them from one end of the world to the other in their 


migrations. They likewise invent things and perpetuate 
them, on the other hand, and this peculiar form of the 
arch may, therefore, mean more than it appears to do on 
±he surface. Its presumptive influence must accordingly be 
allowed to rest on the side of an Aryan origin. 

Evidences of sun worship and of moon worship are 
plentifully found, and these also were characteristic Aryan 
practices, especially in the Asiatic branch of the family, 
from which the Mexicans are supposed to have come. 
The pyramids used for the purpose were apparently not 
Aryan; but they were essentially Asiatic, and the idea may 
have been adopted there and then adapted to their uses, 
later on. The hideous rite of human sacrifice was Aryan 
though it was also Semitic, and this was one of the regular 
Mexican observances, the sacrificial stone being still pre- 
served. It was dug up near the ruins of the principal Aztec 
temple in 1791. The remains of their temples and other 
ancient structures show a high degree of skill in handling 
cut stone, and the builders have been called Mongolians, 
Semites, and even Phoenicians.^ They were most likely 
Aryans who came originally from the region of Persia. 

This, at least, has been Mr. Denison's contention, and 
he has supported it by evidence outside his linguistic studies. 
In an article in Records of the Past,. he maintains (X, 229 ff.) 
that the Aztecs were of Aryan origin and that they came to 
this country by boat. He also says that the migrations 
began about the time of Christ and ended with the Aztecs 

> The ruins of Mexico and the other things referred to are mostly f amiUar 
objects, which can readily be found in easily accessible volmnes. For the 
serpent mounds, see, for example. Records of the Past, Vol. V, pp. 119 fl. For 
the temple of the "plumed serpent," see ibid.. Vol. IX, pp. 298 fl. For the 
pyramids of the sun and moon and the calendar stone, see The National 
Geographical Magazine, Vol. XXI, pp. 1041 fl. For the sacrificial stone, see 
ibid.. Vol. XVIII, pp. 515 fl. See also Vol. XIX, pp. 669 fl. and Vol. XXII, 
pp. 487 f . and 498. For the "Lion Gate," see Records of the Past, Vol. I, p. 194. 
See also Vol. V, pp. 13 fl. 


about 1325 a.d., the Chichimecs coming first. The Toltecs 
he places at about 690 a.d. and says that they were about 
one hundred years on the way, while the Aztecs took but 
twenty-three, coining "'by boats over the sea wide as 
heaven," as one of the writers puts it. 

He had previously taught similar things and supported 
them by the native traditions. A considerable portion of 
his argument, in fact, in Primitive Aryans of America is 
devoted to this point. He says that the Mexicans were 
Indo-Iranians (p. 108), that their traditions deal with 
extensive migrations (pp. 125 ff.), and that boats are 
expressly mentioned in connection with the very first of 
them (p. 127). He further states definitely (p. 128) that 
they crossed the sea in two places, pausing on an island in 
the meantime. See also p. 132. 

In these contentions he is supported, in the main, by 
Morgan, who says, in his Ancient Society (pp. 189 ff.), 
that the Mexican tribes came from a far country in the 
north; that seven tribes, one after another, settled in the 
land, the Aztecs being the last; that they came from 
Aztlan, and that the native traditions teach these things. 
The authorities are duly cited, one of them being Acosta, 
who was in Mexico in 1585. 

A version of these traditions, with a French translation 
in parallel columns, was carefully used by Mr. Denison in 
his work, and his notes appear from time to time on the 
margins of the pages. The Annals of Chimalpahin are 
contained in the volume, and they cannot be lightly dis- 
missed. Traditions always have some foundation in fact, 
and these particular traditions imply a long progressive 
migration from a far distant and greatly beloved country 
to the shores of Mexico, involving boats as well as long 
and tedious journeys. They moved forward to the east, 


precisely as the Aryans of India did, apparently, then 
northward along the shores of Asia, then to the east again 
by boat, after which they tarried for a time on some con- 
venient island, but ultimately pushed ahead again by boat, 
continuing their migration until they finally settled down 
in what is now Mexico on the continent of America. 

The habit of assuming that such a process was an impos- 
sibility in those early days is no longer one that commends 
itself. It has happened so often that a corresponding 
position has been shown to be utterly untenable, that it is 
not the part of wisdom to insist on any such conclusion in 
this case. The fact is that the ancients were men of great 
vigor, and they "did things," whether we moderns are disposed 
to give them credit for it or not. Writing, weaving, ship- 
building, and even the use of gloves are far older than 
men dreamed possible only a few years ago, and it is now 
known, as has been shown by Clay in his Light on the Old 
Testament from Babel, that the story of Amraphel, Chedor- 
laomer. Tidal, and Arioch, which Noldeke and others once 
regarded as quite impossible, is actual history. 

But that is not all; for an account of a conquest of the 
very same countries has now been found recorded in an 
inscription of a much earlier date. The critics thought 
such an undertaking was too great for 2000 B.C.; but Lugal- 
zaggisi chronicles it. as having been performed by himself 
about two thousand years before that date, and the 
inscription is now in the possession of the University of 

But there are other points to be considered. The 
ancient Persians were fire-worshipers, as is well known, 
and the Mexicans should show traces of a similar cult. 
Do they do so? On this point Mr. Denison again scores. 
As was mentioned above, the Mexicans worshiped the sun 


and the moon quite after the regular fashion for devotees 
of that sort; but they also held that fire was sacred, and 
they maintained one day and night in their teocalli temples, 
in true Aryan style. Once in every fifty-two years these 
fires were all extinguished, after which a new sacred 6ie 
was kindled on the naked breast of a living victim, and 
runners then took it everywhere. See Primitive Aryans 
of America, pp. 153 f. In some details, ancient Persian 
practices correspond to these, and the resemblance in places 
is striking. 

This, again, is merely presumptive evidence; but it adds 
just that much more to the general accumulation in favor of 
Mr. Denison's thesis, and it therefore increases the probability 
that he has made a great discovery. Inherent qualities count 
for more than other things in such matters, and the fact 
should be recognized. 

The inscriptions furnish a genuine crux; for a race 
coming from ancient Iran would naturally be expected 
to show either some traces of the Zend alphabet or else 
some reminiscences of the Old Persian cuneiform letters 
in their writings. None have yet been traced; and, accord- 
ing to the Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed., I, 602), Mexi- 
can inscriptions, with those found in Yucatan, furnish two 
of the five general alphabets of the world, the Chinese, 
Cuneiform, and Egyptian being the other three. From 
the last of these, through the Phoenician, the various Indo- 
European alphabets are supposed to have sprung, although 
the matter is still in dispute. See article "Alphabet," 
Etic. Brit, 11th ed. 

If this latter assumption is true, the possibilities in 
Mexican are greatly extended; for, while the Sanskrit 
devanagarl alphabet and the Hebrew one have some slight 
general resemblance and the former is supposed to have 


been based on an early type of the latter, neither has the 
slightest resemblance to Zend, which might possibly be 
mistaken by a novice for Arabic, although the two are not 
at all alike in reality, the Zend being the more complicated 
and elaborate of the two. The different alphabets, in fact, 
show about as much variation from the supposed original 
as the languages do which they portray; and Mexican, 
therefore, may possibly be less alien in its writing than it 

But if the alphabets found in Yucatan and other parts 
of Mexico are the result of a race mixture, the superior 
race adopting and adapting certain symbols used by the 
aborigines in their picture writing, then no resemblances 
either to the Old Persian cuneiform or to the more modern 
Zend can be hoped for, although one or both may have 
had some influence in determining the final result. At 
present, this is about all that can be said; for no clue to 
the meaning of the characters has been found, so far as is 
known. They militate agaiast the supposition that the 
Mexicans were pure Aryans; but they do not exclude the 
possibility that the people were of a mixed Aryan stock. 

In judging his work, one thing should always be kept 
in mind; namely, he was an amateur, not a professional. 
Had he been a professional, he would have been familiar 
with the unwritten law of philologians, which demands 
that every breathing, accent, and diacritical mark shall be 
in its place and be correct. As an amateur, he lacked this 
advantage; and the pain incidental to the handling of books, 
because of his crippled joints, led him to trust his mem- 
ory to an excessive degree in citing examples from other 
languages. The result was an abundance of small typo- 
graphical errors in his printed works, which were added to, 
in places, by misinterpretations of his handwriting by the 


compositor. Some of these escaped notice in the proofs 
along with the rest, and were discovered only when it was 
too late to correct them. 

Mr. Denison's attention was finally called to this con- 
dition of his monographs, and he began to emend his tejct 
by citing the correct forms, on the margins of a printed 
copy, wherever they were needed. These emendations, 
together with a number of additions which he had also 
noted, have been collected and placed at the end of the 
volume. With them have been assembled such other 
emendations as could readily be made, and a fairly complete, 
though not exhaustive table is the result. See "Editor's 
Note," at the end of the list. 

Here and there things will be found by which the reader's 
patience may be tried. This, however, is not a justifiable 
ground upon which to reject Mr. Denison's conclusions. 
It is rather a reason why he should be heard to the end. 
If he says in various places that he derives this or that 
Mexican word from a Sanskrit one, he also says, at the 
very start (Phonol., p. 9, footnote): "I am not deriving 
Mexican words from Sanskrit directly, but merely employ- 
ing that language as the nearest cognate." In order to be 
sure that his position should not be misinterpreted, he 
repeated the same general statement elsewhere {Prim. 
Aryans of Amer., p. 24, footnote), saying: "But let it be 
understood once for all that I am not deriving Mexican 
words from Sanskrit directly." Having thus defined his 
terms, he felt that he had a right to use them. Such state- 
ments in footnotes, however, are apt to be either overlooked 
or forgotten, and the irritation caused by this peculiar use 
of words will then inevitably persist. It should not be 
allowed to warp the judgment. 

To his credit be it said that he worked steadily three 


and one-half years before he ventured to be sure of his 
ground. Many derivations and hypotheses were adopted 
tentatively, only to be rejected later, and his experiments 
and conjectures ran into the thousands before he finally 
settled down to a definite method of procedure. Most of 
the preliminary work was then discarded; but the process 
still went on, and it appears in many places in the volume. 
Individual examples may still be more or less doubtful, as 
he fully realized and admitted; but beneath the surface, 
with its uncertainties and baffling details, there does seem 
to be a genuine substratum of fact in his contention that 
the Mexican tongue was Aryan. It is now the business 
of philologians to sift the evidence anew, to examine it in 
all its phases with an open mind, and to abide by the result. 

The fact that Mr. Denison was not a philologian by 
profession should have no weight. A small boy once dis- 
sented from the great Agassiz, while he was lecturing to a 
class of young ladies on a steamer in Boston harbor. The 
boy was promptly silenced by the frowns of the class; but 
he was right, and later in the day proved his point with a — 
"Say, Mister, here's one o' them fish." In like manner, 
another boy's idea of a trotting horse, expressed in a drawing, 
was the butt of unending ridicule, until the camera silenced 
his critics by showing a similar likeness of an actual horse 
in motion. 

The point is this. The question at issue is not any 
particular phase of Mr. Denison's labors, it is not his 
limitations or his shortcomings as viewed by professional 
men, and it is not their opinion of him or of his work. It is 
simply and unavoidably this: Is he right in his main con- 
tention? Does Mexican contain Aryan elements? 

The genuine scholar is always ready to receive truth 
from any source and in any guise, so long as it is truth. 


The genuine scholar also has patience and is willing to sift 
a bushel of chaff, if need be, for only a handful of grain. 
The genuine scholar, moreover, is never, a carping critic. 
He knows that . the real seeker after truth is necessarily 
modest, and he knows that no man can permanently build 
himself up by seeking to pull another down. He may be 
compelled to dissent from him and to expose his fallacies; 
but he will be fair in doing so, and he will furnish substantial 
evidence to prove his contentions in detail. 

Until this is done, Mr. Denison's work must stand. It 
is the imperfect labor of an amateur and a pioneer; but it 
shows courage and patience of a high order, and the chances 
are that he is right in his general position, whatever may be 
true of certain processes in his attempted etymologizing. 
There are always plenty of men to criticize anything new. 
Few have the patience to go below the surface in such a 
field, and a fault, once discovered, is usually considered 
sufficient provocation for precipitating a general condem- 
nation of the whole thing — on superficial grounds. Of this, 
Mr. Denison has himself borne witness. 

In places, my own patience was sorely tried; but simple 
fairness, to say nothing of courtesy, compelled me to go 
through all that he had written and to view it with an open 
mind. In details, we did not agree; but in final results it 
was plain that some such relationship as he had postulated 
must exist to account for the facts. Due allowance for 
errors and coincidences could not cover the entire ground, 
and the fact was accordingly promptly admitted, to his 
genuine satisfaction and lasting gratitude. He seems to 
have added a permanent and important item to the world's 
knowledge, and he deserves unusual credit for it in view of 
the obstacles he had to face. 

H. W. Magoun 










copybight, 1907 
By T. S. Dbnison 


On the plains of Anahuac there has been spoken for 
centuries and is still spoken an Asiatic language of an 
ancient type. The vocabulary of this language is prac- 
tically Sanskrit; its root-formation follows the laws of 
Indo-Iranian phonetics. The people who speak this lan- 
guage call it Nauatl (Nahuatl), "the sweet-sounding," 
but since the most important tribe of the Nahua are called 
Azteca or Mexica, Mexicans, I have adopted the latter 
name as better known historically than Nauatl. 

In the case of an important discovery it is seldom that 
all the facts are correctly interpreted and all the details 
precisely fitted at first. So there may be things in this 
phonology subject to the verdict "not proven," but I think 
they are few. Besides, few details in Comparative Phi- 
lology can be proved absolutely as isolated facts. The 
proofs rest in the aggregate. I should have preferred to 
study the subject more exhaustively, but feel that I have 
done already all that the state of my health permitted. 

For a century an unwritten law of Comparative Phi- 
lology has been that America is forbidden ground. He 
who ventures thereon is "unsafe." Why ? Because there 
can exist no connection between the Old World and the 
New. This has been a deterrent and a clog. With 
infinite labor I developed phonetic principles such as 
r = i, u, only to find them later elsewhere. But, had I 
known this at first, what would have been left to discover ? 

A more popular work of a comprehensive character is 
now ready for the press, and its publication will depend 
somewhat upon the reception which this analysis receives. 

T. S. Denison 
163 Randolph St., Chicago 
September 7, 1907 




I. Mexican Phonetics 5 

II. The CoaNATE Langdages (Mexican, Sanskrit, Greek, 

Latin, Germanic) 5 

Percentages of Cognates 5 

III. Vowels 6 

1. Summary of Mexican Vowels with Times of Occur- 
rence in Sanskrit 6 

2. Table of Equivalence of Vowels in Mexican, Sanskrit, 
Greek 6 

3. Phonetic Decay, Shifting Sotmds, Quantity . . 6 

4. Antiquity of Mexican as Shown in Vowel-System . 7 
Note: Vowel Harmony 8 

5. Remarks on Diphthongs 8 

IV. Consonants 9 

1. Meanings 9 

2. Labials, b,p 9 

3. Gutturals 10 

4. Eastern and Western Palatal-Gutturals ... 10 

5. chi, dhl 11 

6. L and R 11 

7. Relation of r and i 12 

8. Words in nana or nahua 12 

9. Adjectives Ending uac and Homonyms ... 14 

10. Disguised Forms 14 

11. Verb Endings 15 

V. Comparative Tables (Mexican, Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, 

Germanic) 17 

Table A: Dentals 17 

Table B: Labials 18 

Table C: Palatals 19 

Table D: The Pseudo-Labial Z7 20 

Table E: Sibilants 21 

Table F: R and L 22 

Bibliography 24 



I. Mexican Phonetics' 

The Mexican language is written in the Spanish pho- 
netics of the sixteenth century. The system is arbi- 
trary, clumsy, and confusing. Thus qua, to eat, is also 
spelled cua; uei, large, is sometimes huei; Nauatl is also 
spelled Nahuatl; chopini, to peck (as a bird) tzopini; q 
represents s, but a late writer has discarded g for z uni- 
formly, and s only is found in a MS of 1607. The sound 
represented by x is also at times represented by ch, and 
as this sound may be either of sibilant or guttural origin 
the result makes analysis difficult. It is nearly four 
hundred years since Molina reduced these sounds to 
writing, but the "Metodo" of Chimalpopoca indicates no 
phonetic change between 1520 and 1869 A. d. 

The Mexican alphabet consists of sixteen letters: a, c, 
e, h, i, I, m, n, o, p, q, g (s), t, u, x, y, z [s). H is only 
a breathing; qu represents a /c-sound, but Pimentel uses 
a parasitic v, which would indicate a /cM)-sound and suggests 
an examination of the gtt-sound, as in Latin. This exam- 
ination I have been unable to make conclusively. In cui, 
u — r and should be pronounced. Nasals are rare. The 
nicer phases of phonetic change due to neighboring 
sounds I have not taken up. 

II. The 








170 words 

148 cognates 
85.7 per cent 

90 cognates 
52.8 per cent 

88 cognates 
51.5 per cent 

83 cognates 
44 per cent 

1 All references by number are to numbers under Consonants. 



III. Vowels 

1. Analysis of Mexican vowels as they occur in San- 
skrit, 120 words: 

Sanskrit a, 58 times: becomes Mexican a, 38 times; 
e, 12 times; i, 6 times; o, 2 times. 

Sanskrit i, 20 times: becomes Mexican i, 17 times; 
e, 2 times; a, 1 time. 

Sanskrit u, 22 times: Mexican o, 11 times; iu, 1 times; 
iui, 2 times; ao, 1 time; a 1 time. 

Kemainder diphthongs or doubtful cognates.'' 

2. Equivalence of vowels and diphthongs. — 

Mexican . 





Sanskrit . 



I, a 

U, V 


Greek — 

a, e, 17 

e, o, )) 




Mexican . 

tu, yu, yo 



iui (u) 


eo, eu 

Sanskrit . 

u, yu 

VI, va 


u, (vi), iv 


au, a{p) 

Greek. . . . 

V, *jv, Jv 

fOl, fi, Vl, u, w 


VI, *jvi, fu 



Mexican e = Greek rj in metztli — /irjvr] ; Greek a, in 
ten-tli, Tdv-v-fj,ai (Horn.) ; Mexican o^ Greek e, in conetl, 
child, 7W-0?. For b, p = u, cf. Sansk., abM; Zend, aiwi. 

3. Phonetic decay, shifting sounds, quantity. — Many 
Mexican words have been so changed by phonetic decay 
that out of a total of about 200 words considered only 170 
were employed in figuring percentages of cognates and, 
from these, 120 were selected for vowel comparison. 
These 120 words furnished only 62 Greek cognates, and 
the Greek depends upon that number. There is a con- 
fusion between o and u in Mexican; thus teotl or teutl, 

2 Whitney states that a = twice all other vowel elements in Sanskrit 
(Gram., sees. 22, 75). Hence it might appear that my work is deficient in 
Sanskrit a. But apparently Whitney's estimate does not apply to roots. 
My own count of one hundred pages of a Sanskrit vocabulary indicates, in 
fact, that the total of i- and w-roots about equals the total of (i-roots. To 
be precise, the ratio is : a is to i and u as 5.9 to 5.4. 


god; tlaolli or tlaulli, corn. Usually Mexican o = San- 
skrit u, Greek v. CoZ-li, ancestor; Jcdl-a; itzo-mia, sew, 
Kaa-a-v-Q). Mexican u = Sanskrit v; Greek f. Uel-iti, 
to be able, vr; *feX-ap, el\-ap. Ui=co, iluiz, e/atoy. Vi, 
bird; wt-tzilin; otwi/o?, ^o-puo-v-ot;. 

I have ignored quantity entirely. There is no Mexican 
poetry extant, so far as I am aware, except the poems of 
Nezaualcoyotl, the poet-king of Tezcuco, and no adequate 
scientific examination of the meter of these poems has 
fallen under my notice. Hence I have no data for deter- 
mining quantities in roots. 

4. Antiquity of Mexican as shown in vowel-system. — 
As may be seen by the "Analysis of Vowels," Mexican 
appears to be more ancient than Sanskrit. It resolves the 
vowel a into: a, e, i, o. Again with reference to the pala- 
talizing of a guttural, indicating a to be an original, I.- E., 
e, it does not go so far as Sanskrit. Thus, conetl, child; 
Greek, yeu-o^, Latin, gen-us; Sanskrit, jawa. We should 
expect xonetl [shonetl), for conetl, just as we find xonexca, 
Greek, jiyvcoaKw, Latin, nosco, *g®nosco; Sanskrit jAa 
(see sec. 4).' In tentli, edge, temi, extend, the Mexican e 
is primitive, from ten, Latin, tendo, while Greek has a in 
rdv-v-fiai {reiv-o)'^, and Sanskrit has a in tandtij han, to 
kill, becomes cuen (/cen) Mexican, as cuen-chiua, to wound. 

The percentages in the devolution of Sanskrit a into 
Mexican a, e, i, o, are: a, 65.5 per cent. ; e, 20.7 per cent. ; 
i, 10.3 per cent. ; o, 3.4 per cent. In the same comparison 
between Greco-Italic and Sanskrit, Curtius found the per- 
centages to be: a, 40 per cent.; e, 38 per cent.; o, 20.5. 
Thus a stands: Sanskrit, 100 per cent.; Mexican, 65!5 
per cent. ; Greek, 40 per cent. Hence if primitive Aryan 
was an a-language the order of approximation to it was: 

>Sk here appears to be the same as sk in Greek and Latin inceptives, as 
matt, to think ; maehtia, to teach ; but of. Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, 
sec. 608. 


Sanskrit, Mexican, Greco-Italic; but if the Old Aryan 
vowel system was a, e, o, the order is : Greco-Italic, Mexi- 
can, Sanskrit. In either case Mexican occupies an inter- 
mediate position both as to vowels and consonants. This 
is not necessarily a clue to absolute age. We may com- 
pare Mexican of today phonetically, in important respects, 
with Zend as it existed 3,000 years ago.'' 

Note. — Vowel harmony. — A cursory examination seems to indicate the 
existence in Mexican of vowel liarmony, a feature of Ural-Altaic Languages. 
Thus tepetl, mountain ; Greek, t6,<j>o$, hill ; Turkish, tepe. But roots in com- 
pounds retain their proper rowels hence only prosthetic and thematic vowels 
would be affected. A few examples are : acatl, acana, alaua, apana. azcatl. 
aztafl, cacatl, camafl. cana, chocolatl, cocho, coloa, colotl, cotona, coyotl, 
The vowels a, e, o, u, appear to be thus affected though this result may be 
only a legacy of the influence which made Sanskrit an a-language. Appar- 
ently i is not affected, and the same treatment of this vowel prevails in Tura- 
nian languages {Encyclopaedia Britannica, art. " Turkey"). This feature 
of Mexican, though not prominent, may possibly, in connection with the 
postpositive system, indicate Turanian contact. 

Vowel harmony may be illustrated by Turkish sev, love. Mek (mak) is 
the infinitive sign ; hence by agglutination, sevderehmemek, not to be able 
to cause to love. 

5. Bemarks on diphthongs. — While the Mexican lan- 
guage is apparently very rich in diphthongs it is really 
poor, since most of them involve u or arise from phonetic 
decay resulting in u (see Table D). The diphthongs ei, 
01, do not exist and ai, eu, scarcely furnish enough examples 
to prove their identity : eo, oa, ia, occur, and au is usually 
Sanskrit av, or a-\-a labial. The table of diphthongs is 
not absolute. Umlauts, spirants, and elision at times 
appear arbitrary. Ua and ui deserve more particular 
notice since Sanskrit v is always a vowel, u, in Mexican. 

^uas, Sanskrit, snort; ecuxoa, sneeze, Mexican. 

Vdstu, Sanskrit, house; uastli, house, Mexican. 

*For a brief statement of primitive a-theory see Professor A. S. Wilkins, 
"Greek Language," Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. XI, p. 127. For the 
primitive-a, e, o theory see Professor E. Sievers, "Comparative Philology 
of Aryan Languages," op. cit. Vol. XVIII, p. 788. 


Vi, bird -\-svar, hum, Sanskrit; uitzilin, humming- 
bird, Mexican.* 

Vig, dwell, Sanskrit; uic, vicinity, Mexican; vlcus, 
Latin; wic, A.-S. 

FagrA, to carry, Sanskrit; ttica, Mexican ; Greek, oxeco. 

Qvan, dog; itzcuintli, Mexican; Greek, kov, kvwv. 

Vr, "the chosen "+i;ar;',' 'enclosed " = Mai!2/ofca^Z, Mex- 
ican, kindred; vr = ual, but varj = yol, *jul. 

Vr in uipilli (tte-pilli) , *uilpilli, tunic=Mt. Cf . <f>eK-dvr]<;. 

A-yot-l, Mexican, tortoise; Greek vhpa, *jvS-pa. 

Tocaitl, name, Sanskrit, tu, power -{-ketu, appearance, 
influence; Eng. "hood." 

Teocihui, hungry, Latin, daps, a meal; Greek, SdirTco; 
cf. Sanskrit, ddyd -\- su; Greek, Sal^. 

IV. Consonants 

1. Meanings. — Only roots are given and these are de- 
fined, in the tables, once under "Mexican." Philologists 
will understand that the meanings may vary materially in 
the cognate languages. I have supported derivations by 
Mexican cognates in all possible cases. For example, tla- 
'pal-tic, strong: bhr, ^ep-co, fero, bear; the Mexican cog- 
nates are: ic-pal-Zi, chair; tzon-ic-pal-li, pillow; xo-pal- 
euac, summer — fruit-bearing season ; t'-pal nemoani, god, 
literally, the stay of the living; ^ea;-pal-K, the lips. 

2. Labials, b, p, are frequently dropped or become u. 

Tla-huana, drunk ; Sanskrit, tr -j-pdna, drinking, from pa; 

grabh, seize, cui (see r, I) ; eleuia, *e-leub-ia, Sanskrit, 

lubh, desire, love; xillantli, belly, Sanskrit, si-\-lamb, 

to hang down; English, lap, lop-ear; coatl, serpent, gubh, 

to be beautiful, to glide; [Quetzahoatl, "the Fair God," 

' It will of course be understood that I am not deriving Mexican worde 
from Sanskrit directly, but merely employing that language as the nearest 


answers to both definitions); auh, also; Sanskrit, apt, 
also; panauia, excel, pan -\- dp?, to "get in evidence.'" 

3. Final guttural dropped. — Cepa-yauitl, snow, *cega- 
yauitl? Let us notice how cognate languages have treated 
that universal word snow. Mexican has gone farther than 
any other; it has simply cep [sneg not allowable), the gut- 
tural being lost or labialized;' German is close with Schnee; 
English with snow; Latin drops the initial sibilant, but 
retains the guttural in nig-s [nix) ; Lithuanian retains the 
full form snegis; Russian, sniegj Irish, sneachd; Welsh, 
nyf; Greek, vL<^d<;. 

In consonance with this treatment of ce, Mexican cia 
or cea, say, speak, appears to be German, sag-en, to say. 
The final palatal is frequently dropped without resulting 
phonetic changes, as itzcalpatic or itzcalpactic, cold; 
uapaua, to get rigid, uapactic, rigid. Initial guttural is 
also dropped as uentli, from *ghu (see Table D). 

4. Eastern and western palatal-gutturals. — The k, 
kh, g, gh, sounds which remain k-g sounds in the west 
of Europe follow the East and become generally s-f sounds 
in Mexican. But sibilization does not appear to have 
gone so far as in Sanskrit.' Thus, Sanskrit, gvan, dog, 
is itzGuintli in Mexican; Qvas, sneeze, ecuxoa; conetl, 
child hovnjfla, to beget; calli, house, gala; Greek KoKld'i 
(perhaps, orig. *skal) ; cantli, cheek, Greek, yevw; Latin, 
gena; Anglo-Saxon, cinj English, chin; Sanskrit, hanil[?) 
*janil; ualyolcatl, kinship; ■vT-\-varj [j = k); tlapic, 
false, Sanskrit, pig-una, Greek, 'jriK-p6<;; cot-o-na, cut, 
Sanskrit, gat. It appears at first sight that g, j are k, g 

8 Compare, Hind., nawab, nabob, and Greek, Xias *Xa/:os, stone. 

' I hesitate to call this true labialization because I can find no other in- 
stance in the language. 

8 Sanskrit verbs of the j-class also exhibit a lack of uniformity in final of 
root. Cf. Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, sec. 219. 


before a, e, o, m.' But we have, xaua, to adorn, Latin, 
color (see Table D and sec. 8); xaua-ni, run (liquids), 
Sanskrit, jala, water {gal); xalli, sand; Latin, cal-x, 
pebbles; xonexca, to counsel; Sanskrit, jfi,a, *j^nask-o; 
Greek, yi-yvdi-a-K-to; Latin, nosco, *g^nosco; English, 
know; German, ken-nen; xaua-ni, drip; Latin, col-um. 

Rule: Q,j are soft before i, t, and in verb endings. 

But even the rule regarding t finds at least one excep- 
tion in tlapic, false ; tlapictli, one who is false. Tei-poch- 
tli, a youth, also has tel-poc-atl where the original is g. 

5. Chi is oftenest of dental origin. Though Chi- 
malli, a shield, may be: ji + x, dhr-\-x, Qi-{-x, si-\-x. 
But chi-mal-titlan means, "where prayer-sticks were set 
up" {Hand Book of Indians, Yol.1), from Sanskrit, dht, 
devotion. The Chichimeca, it is said, were so called in 
reproach because the name meant "dogs" {chichi), but 
they readily accepted the term and evidently understood 
by it the pious or 6raue people. Quau-chimal is a monkey, 
and Ozomatli, "the divine monkey," was one of the "Sta- 
tions" of the Aztecs in their wanderings. Cf. gydmd. 

6. L and r.—L is never initial in Mexican and I have 
discussed r and I as everywhere convertible, without going 
into the question which was the primitive. 

a) Medial r causes no radical changes (Table F). 

b) Initial r is: (1) dropped as in ocoi^?, light, Sanskrit, 

rue; yectli, right, Sanskrit, rj; (2) it is introduced by 

a prosthetic vowel as ilhuicatl, heaven; Sanskrit, rocand. 

The prosthetic vowel is usually i and I is followed in most 

such cases by ui, as ilhuia, to call. Of. Sanskrit, rindkti; 

Zend, irindkhti, to leave. 

9 This analyeis both of vowels and consonants seems to indicate that 
Mexican is nearer to the primitive Aryan than Sanskrit is. The vowel in- 
fluence in these changes requires further study. Thus in conetl, the o may 
be eastern a or I.-E., e; Greek, e. 


c) With palatal-guttural, r becomes: (1) i, as, kr = 
hi; ghr = ki; mrg = mik; [dhr = chi). Sanskrit, grabh, 
seize; Mexican, cui; Sanskrit, hr, becomes mv (2) palatal 
dropped and r retained as ilhuia, speak; Sanskrit, gr 
(or ru?) (3) prosthetic vowel and elision of guttural and 
r: Ihiotia, to shine; Sanskrit, hari, harit; Greek, %X«b-/3- 
09, %o\^ ; Goth, gul-pj A. S., geolo; Eng., gol-d. Ihiotl, 
breath; Latin, hio; Greek, %«'»; Sanskrit, ghrd? Eng., 
yawn? Ihia, to hate; Greek, e%-0-o?; ed-pbs? (see Table F). 

d) Double consonants with r as one member are not 
allowable as: sr, rs [si, Is), kr, ks, pr, str. One letter of 
the compound is dropped or a vowel separates them, as 
citlallin, star. But tl occurs constantly as a termination 
and in the prefix ^Za = tr, trans. 

7. Relation ofr and i. — ^The vowel i seems everywhere 
to be concerned in the changes caused by r, sometimes 
doubly so, as when the combination i-l-u-i, occurs. But 
in eleuia, desire, the prosthetic vowel is e and the following 
diphthong, eu; in alaua, glide, from *rangh, it is a-l-a. 
These latter may really be reduplications with the first r 
dropped." Eua, rise, flee, is irregular. Of. cognate 
developments of r: drior, ira, artus; op-vvfu, wp-ro, ep- 
Ko/iai, i\-deiv. Sanskrit, vr, to turn, keep back, becomes 
il in iloti, revolve, turn, Greek, tA-Xw, *piW(o, to turn, 
to tie; also il-pia to tie; il-caua, to leave, forget, turn 
from = vr -\- caua from gam, gd, go, come, be in a 
condition; or car, to wander. 

8. Words in nana or nahua. There is a considerable 
number of words beginning nana with very divergent 
meanings. Some of these involve r, others do not. 

a) Involving r: Nauatl, the language, nal, clear; 
Nahua, Nuhua, Nohoa, Noa, names of the people, all from 
^'^ Alaua may be from Latin, lapso, slide, glide. Of. German laufen. 


Sanskrit, nara, nala, man; rootwr; Greek, av^p; Latin, 

Naua-laua, to ridicule, Sanskrit, nar-man, fun + ro, 
give (make) ; cf. German Narr, fool. 

Nana, to dance, Sanskrit, nrt, to dance; Hindustani, 
nautch (girl). 

Nauatia, to command, nara, manly, bold; or nam, 
obeisance + vad, to order, the latter most probable. 

6) Words not involving r: Naualli, *nacualli, a sor- 
cerer ( astrologer) ; Sanskrit, ndkta, night ; Greek, vv^ ; Latin, 
nox -\- vara {vr), time or turn of a planet." But ci. four 
as a "sacred number" in magic. 

Naual-cui, steal, naualli -\- grahh (sec. 6, (c) (1)). 

Na-nauatl, a boil, bubo, redup. nabh, to burst. (Mr. 
Brinton and others apparently confound this word with 
Nanauatzin, the moon-god. ) 

Nam, four, chica naui, nine, Sanskrit, ndva. 

Nanauatzin, the moon-god, Nana-Yvas, to stop, 
dwell, Greek, *pd<TTv; A.-S., toes-an; Eng., was. His 
pyramid [tzaqualli), "stopping-place," lies 27 miles 
northeast of Mexico.'^ 

Nauac, near; A-nahuac, "near the water;" Sanskrit, 
nahus, neighbor + c, locative particle, or adjective ending; 
a, prefix, from atl, water. 

'1 since 4 was a significant number naualli may be naui+vr. The Aztecs 
had constant recourse to astrology. Prescott, Conquest of Mexico, Vol. I, 
p. 104. 

^^Nanauatzin may also be analyzed: (1) Nana+vd, to blow, + tem, 
honorific, "Nana, the reverend wind god;" (2) Nana + vad +tzin, to speak, 
foretell, "Nana, the forecaster;" (3) Nana+vas, to shine, "Nana who illu- 
mines." With (1) cf . Germanic Witotan, Wodin, Odin. With all of them 
cf . Algonquian Nane-paush-adt or Manabozho, son of the grand-daughter of 
the moon and the West-wind. Also Na, Nana, Ana the Accado-Babylonian 
"god of heaven." The relation of sin, Assyrian, moon, to the Mexican tzin 
(if any) would require too much space to admit of adequate discussion here. 
Cf. *dagh-Ana, S&<l)V'n, "she who burns." 


9. Adjectives ending "uac" and homonyms. — Hom- 
onyms are common in Mexican, usually resulting, as in 
other languages, from phonetic decay, as already seen in 
naua. A few adjectives end in uac, and it might appear 
that they all had a common affix. But such is not the case. 

Tamauac, fat; Sanskrit, tum-ra, fat." 

Patlauac, broad, flat (tortillas) ; Latin, pat-ul-us, broad. 

Chicauac, strong, dhr-\-caua (sec. 5). 

Chipauac, clean, dhi-\-pahua (Table D)." 

Melauac, direct, straight, md + rj {rjilf) 

Pitzauac, small, slender (rope) ; Sanskrit, pi§ -\- ra, 
*pitzlauac, or thematic, pitzra + uac; cf . Latin, pinso. 

Xopaleuac, * xocpaleuac, green (summer) ; Latin, su- 
cus, sugo; 'Eng.- suck -\- pal -\-eua-\-c; succulent, "fruit- 
bearing time." Here the thematic adjective may be xoc + 
pal, a postpositive, 'with juice' ; or a;oc+jpaZ, from bhr, to 

A striking case of homonyms is found in quechtli, neck ; 
ma-gitec/i-tli, wrist, from krg, slender; and quech-coatl, 
rattlesnake, from khaj, to shake; Eng., shake?. 

10. Disguised forms ui, iui, oui, uiui, uip, uian are 
very puzzling and difficult to determine positively. 

Uipilli, a tunic, shirt, ui -\- pilli; Sanskrit, var-man, 
d coat, from vr, to envelop. 

Uiuixca, to tremble (with debility), redup., Sanskrit, 
vij, move suddenly, *viska; A.-S., wdc, weak; O. H. Gr., 
weih; Eng., weak. 

Uelitic, powerful, Sanskrit, vr-\-vid, get, take. 

13 These adjectives may be derived in three ways: (1) Tu is the root, 
tuma, a stem; foma-a-tli, noun, means fat, large; toma+ua, possessive 
sign+c, gives tomauac; (2) tuma-ra+c also gives tomauac; (3) by affixing 
Sanskrit, vaiiQd, ^vac, lineage, "kind," as patla + uac, "flat-kind," of. 
English expression "kind o' flat." But see 11 (c). 

^^Dhi properly means pertaining to religion and pahua to make pure, 
or to cook. 


No-uian, around us; no, possessive pronoun, + San- 
skrit, vya, around. 

lui, in the same way ; Sanskrit, iva, as. 

luiui (pronounce yu-yil-i), difficult; Sanskrit, yu?, to 
repel, keep off (Vedic). 

luian, softly, perhaps, Sanskrit, ram, be quiet, but yhuitl 
is down, feathers, from vi, bird, and both may be the same. 

Oui difficult, dangerous, Sanskrit, bhi^ to fear, bhtmd, 
fearful; O. H. G., hi-he-t; A.-S., heofad. O in this and 
ouitic may be termed an "irrational vowel," 11 (c) . 

Ouitic, bad, sick, unfortunate ; Sanskrit, bhid, to harm, 
beat; Latin, fi[n)doj Grerman, beissenj Eng., bite, bit; 
Eng. slang, "bitteti," is close to Mexican. 

Uiptla, day after tomorrow; Sanskrit, vip, to waver 
(back and forth) -\-tri, tres, three. 

Uiptlati, to remain three days or return in three days, 
the same. 

11. Verb-endings. — While this brief treatise does not 
inclnde formative syllables, there are certain verbs which 
require mention in order to determine precisely what ele- 
ment is mere ending and what may be the disguised frag- 
ment of a member of a compound word. The regular 
endings of verbs are: a, ia, i, o [ua) {oa). The puzzling 
combinations are, ui, uia, iui. 

a) Influence of a: In the endings of Mexican verbs 
it seems to be a rule that u shall follow a, as iztatl, salt, 
iztauia, to salt; auia, to be pleasant; panauia, to excel. 
Sanskrit cognates throw much light on Mexican phonetics, 
as in auia, from Sanskrit av, to be pleased with ; mayaui, 
to repulse, push away, from, maitl, hand + Sanskrit, 
yam, dya-ta, extend. 

b) Influence of I {r): As has been seen before (sec. 
6, 6) ui usually follows I, as ilhuicatl, heaven, Sanskrit 


rocand, but there are exceptions, without apparent reason, 
as, poliiii, destroy, from Sanskrit, pdrdf; Latin, per-ire. 
In cuitlahuia, to care for, we have a compound cit-\-trd, 
where uia follows a. 

c) The root or stem. Mexican, like Sanskrit, is prone 
to indulge in a variety of forms for the same word or root. 
Consequently much uncertainty exists. Panauia, to excel, 
may be derived in three ways: (1) pana, thematic noun, 
evident, plain, with the termination uia, as above ; (2) pan, 
as a root + op, get [aui-a, sec. 2); (3) pan-\-hr, get, 
have, hold. 

In pachiui, to spy, from Sanskrit, pag, the s^-sound of 
the root possibly fixes iui for u (see xiuitl, Table E) . But 
a thematic noun in Sanskrit from this root might end in 
u, as pagtl, cattle. Hence the form is really pachu-a 
[pachoa) and this last gives us pachoa, to bend, from 
bhuj. But this is arbitrary and is no more to be explained 
(at least further study is required) than are the arbi- 
trary, inexplicable things in other languages. The reasons 
must be sought in Iranian or Sanskrit, rather than in 
Mexican. Nal means clear, but to become clear, is 
naliui. TepzutU, is iron, iepuzuia, to chop. It is perhaps 
best to call all these endings non-significant variations for 
the present. Cf. Zend " irrational vowels " and triphthongs. 

In tla-piuia, to grow, from Sanskrit pi, pivan, fat; 
Greek, •jtico-v, we have the Sanskrit theme, piv -\- ia. 
Ceula means to repose, assist another, cool, put out fire. 
Here are irreconcilable meanings. Ceua, means to freeze. 
Sanskrit unravels this tangle. 

The root gi, means to lie down, repose; the root, 
gi- or gya, means to freeze. Here is an evident min- 
gling of forms with a directness of meaning that leaves 
no doubt that gi, gya, ceua, ceuia are all cognates. 





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queloa, deceive 
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Owing to its great length it would be impracticable to 
insert here the bibliography which was prepared in the 
course of my extended investigations. But a few works 
will be named here for the guidance of those who may 
wish to take up the study of Nauatl. 

Nauatl-Spanish, Spanish-Nauatl Dictionary, by Alonzo 
de Molina. Mexico, 1755-1771. Keprint, Ed., J. 
Platzmann. Pub., Teubner, Leipsic, 1880. 

Nanatl-Fremch Dictionary, by Ken6 Sim6on. Cofltains 
brief Grammar in French. Paris, 1885. 

Arte {^Grammar') of Nauatl, by Andr6 de Olmos; edited 
by Ren6 Simeon. Paris, 1875. 

Metodo, Idioma Nauatl 6 Mexicano, Grammar and Dia- 
logues by Faustino Chimalpopoca ; Spanish text, O. P. 
Mexico, 1869. 

Annals of Chimalpahin Qauhtlehuanitzin, Nauatl, with 
French in parallel columns. Ed. E,en6 Simeon. Paris. 

^4rertas,i)iaZogrMes,Mexioan-Spanish-French. Paris, 1862. 

Gospel of Luke, Nauatl. Methodist Episcopal print. 
Mexico, 1889. 

The last two are unfit for beginners because of bad 
printing. Arenas is invaluable because of its idioms. The 
Grammar of Olmos contains "Address of a Father to His 
Son," which is very valuable as an example of primitive 
style. A bibliography of Nauatl literature is found in 
"Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico" by Francisco Pimentel, 
Vol. I, pp. 160-164; also a valuable sketch of the Nauatl 
language with much grammatical material. 











copyeight, 1908 
By T. S. Denison 


Tetech nic-poa inin amoxtli in notechicniuh, Oliver P. 
Kinsey, mimatini temaclitiani, TJei Nemachtilocalco (Uni- 
versity), Valparaiso, Indiana, United States of America 
In Tlatolicuiloani 



Introduction 7 

Chapter I 15 

Importance of Indian languages. — Various learned opin- 
ions.— The numeral "Six." — The Mexican language — Age, 
afflaities, origin. — Place of Mexican in the Aryan group. — 
Kinship of languages shown. 

Chapter II 22 

Methods of working. — Ancient forms — Cow — Sheep. — 
Consonantal equivalence and vowel genesis. — Meanings, 
their importance. 

Chapter III 26 

Roots — General definition. — Cow, bite, dog, sweat, elbow, 
ox. — In dra. — A nalysis. 

Chapter IV 31 

Koots. — Dictionaries. — ^What is a root? — Differentiation. — 
Different values of same root — Kul (kar)— Chichi. — Quetz- 
al coatl. 

Chapter V 38 

Morphology of Mexican — Compounds, terminations, "liz- 
tli," the honorific "tzin." — Postpositives — L and r. — 
Clipped words. 

Chapter VI 47 

Mexican word-studies — Tlani, Quechtli, Tzontli, Xauani, 
Ualyolcatl, Pixquitl, Tlacatecolotl, Metztli, Tezcatl-ipoca, 
Youalehecatl, Quauh-chimalli, Ozomatli, Mexico. 

Chapter VII 56 

Mexican syntax — The prepositive objective pronoun — 
sequence in sentence — Age, syntax as evidence of, connec- 
tives — Coalescing pronouns — Conjugation — Desinences. 

Chapter VIII 64 

The pronoun "tla." — "In," its use and history. — Gram- 
matical gender — "Animate" and "inanimate." — Dialects. 
— Thought forms and style. 

Chapter IX 71 

Individuality of languages. — Inflection. — Accent and 
rhythmic swing. — Repute and disrepute of words. — An- 
cient versus modern syntax. 




Chapter X 77 

Classification of languages as to thought form. — Incor- 
poration — Agglutination — Monosyllabism — Inflection. — • 
Conjugation of "speak" in five languages. — Reflections on 
the probable unity of human speech. — Persistence. — Pho- 
netic changes. 

Chapter XI 91 

Phonology. — General remarks. — Vowels. — Dentals. — Gut- 
turals (the kg-q and kq-s sound shifts). — Vocalic conso- 
nants. — The place of Mexican. — Labials. — Line of descent 
and assiqiilation. — The ealtillo. — Accent. 

Chapter XII 101 

Notation — The five base — Chica ce, 6. — Ten — The fifteen 
base. — System Aryan. — Hand counting. — Antiquity. 

Chapter XIII 108 

History and geographical extension of Mexican. — Tribes — 
Ruins — Population. — Native records and historians. 

Chapter XIV 114 

Origin of the Nauatlaca. — Evidences of language. — Uitzil- 
opochtli. — Oriental affinities. — Mythology. — Pre-Colum- 
bian discoveries. 

Chapter XV 123 

Origin of the Nauatlaca. — Historical evidences — ^The 
migration — -"Chichi" — The Tlacochcalca — Meaning of 
Aztec. — The Aztlan myth and synonyms of Aztlan. 

Chapter XVI 134 

Aztlan legend — Climate — The "ten" places of the "mi- 
gration." — Specific appellations. — Culture names. — Spell- 
ing of names. — Geographical and mythological names 
common to Mexico and Asia. 

Chapter XVII 151 

Religion and mythology of the Nahua compared with that 
of Asia. — General remarks. — Religion of the Nahua com- 
posite. — Human sacrifice. — Fire-worship. — The blood sac- 
rifice. — Izcalli, the resurrection. — The unleavened bread. — 
Winter solstice festival. — Rites of Mitbra. — The descent 
into hell. — Aztec future states. — Nudity rites. — Immacu- 
late conception. — The cross. — Prophecies of a Savior. — 
Confessional and absolution.— Baptism. — Births — Mar- 
riage — Burial. — List of deities common to America and 

Chapter XVIII 163 

Civilization not indigenous. — The home land. — Learning 
and arts. — Domestic life. — Ethics. — Economics and gov- 
ernment. — Cannibalism. — Nahua disposition and courage. 
Influence of superstition on the conquest. 

Index .' , 183 


The inertia of the human mind is a constant source of 
wonder to thinking people. Everyone can easily recog- 
nize a discovery after it has been made and thrust upon 
him by a tour de force, while very few even suspected it 
before. The question: Does a relationship exist between 
the languages of the New World and those of the Old 
World has been mooted for the past one hundred years. 
Professor Vater of Germany and Dr. Barton of Philadel- 
phia made extensive researches in this direction with little 
or no success. Even Alexander von Humboldt himself, 
had his attention attracted to the Mexican word teocalli, a 
temple, and noticed its striking similarity to "theoft 
kali&," Greek, "the house of God." But, apparently, 
H^umboldt abandoned etymology and instead tried to 
identify Mexican chronological nomenclature with the 
zodiac and calendars of the various peoples of Asia, with 
indifferent results. Alonzo de Molina, who published his 
great Nauatl-Spanish " Vocabulario" in the City of Mexico 
in 1555, must have understood Latin as well as he under- 
stood Spanish. But he passed by such words as Mexican 
pant-li and Latin po7it-is, without noticing their similarity, 
at least his Dictionary is silent on the subject. But com- 
parative philology was unknown in his day. 

Three hundred and twenty years later R6mi Simeon 
wrote his magnificent Nauatl-French Dictionary, based on 
Molina. It is a monument of scholarship and would be a 
credit to any language. This and other like work occu- 
pied him twenty years more or less, and yet he contents 
himself with suggesting, and this at second hand, a com- 



parison between the Mexican verb mati, to think, and the 
Sanskrit man meaning the same. Other eminent philolo- 
gists contented themselves with mere dicta on the subject 
of the relationship of the languages of the American 
Indians to the languages of the Old World, some of them 
to the effect that such relationship would never be shown. 
About 1766 there was published an essay by Maupertuis," 
a French scholar, to the effect that the serious study of 
barbarous tongues would result profitably in adding to the 
stock of human knowledge and in extending our concep- 
tions of thought forms. Max Mtiller expressed himself to 
the same effect, but for some reason nobody seriously 
undertook the labor. Yes, one man, Don Vincente Lopez, 
of Montevideo, did go about it seriously and made some 
comparison of Quichua (Peruvian) with the Aryan lan- 
guages. As I had never heard of his book until my 
own was well under way, and since I have been unable to 
find a copy of his work entitled "Les Races Aryfennes de 
la P6rou," I cannot speak of its character more than I 
have already said. 

These preliminary remarks are not made with the pur- 
pose of magnifying my own work or of disparaging the 
work of my predecessors, but to illustrate the inertia of 
the human intellect, already alluded to, and the difficulty 
with which mankind is finally persuaded in a new direction 
although the way be perfectly obvious. That I engaged in 
this work I owe to the attack of a painful and lingering 
disease. Furthermore, I should acknowledge here that 
everything save health favored my work, acquired linguis- 
tic knowledge, leisure, inclination. Beyond all these, I 
began on precisely the. right language, as I believe. Had 
I begun on Algonquin or Tupi my work in all probability 
would never have been finished. In fact it is not yet 


complete. Works on philology can be finished only by 
printing them. 

I did not undertake this work with any preconceived 
theory. In fact for more than a year I had no other 
motive than the love of learning languages outside the 
Aryan group. I was not looking for "lost tribes" nor 
seeking to restore vanished continents. I belonged to no 
"school" of philology, ethnology, or archaeology. For 
me there were no dogmas or creeds, no historical or scien- 
tific hypotheses of any sort whatsoever, either to bolster 
up or to tear down. For these sins of omission I pay the 
penalty of being classed as an "amateur," but since this 
innocent word really means one who loves his work I am 
willing to accept it. 

I shall undoubtedly be accused of rashness in suggest- 
ing daring derivations where greater scholars have been 
cautious. But this was not the place for hair-splitting 
discussion of cognates or vowel genesis. Where others 
have held back I have boldly entered, not from temerity 
and presumption but from necessity. He who would sail 
uncharted waters must take chances. Many tentative 
derivations and hypotheses were found to be wrong and 
cast aside. It was nearly three years and a half before I 
could positively derive xiuitl, grass, year. I have tried at 
all times to distinguish clearly between fact and theory. 
Doubtless I have retained some things as final which may 
eventually be found wrong. I am but a pioneer and 
others may improve my work. But I await intelligent 
criticism with calmness because my main proposition is 
unassailable, and it is this: The Mexican language is 
Aryan in vocabulary and in verb conjugation. Its post- 
positive system suggests Turanian ( Accadian) kinship, but 
it is analogous to that of the Indo-Iranian dialects 


descended from Old Aryan. In antiquity Mexican appears 
to lie between Sanskrit and Greek as indicated by both 
vowels and consonants. Mexican mythology partakes of 
the Aryan, Turanian, and Semitic. 

I believe that all the American languages may be traced 
directly to the Old World, though I do not say they are 
all Aryan. I will give here a single word as an example 
to illustrate more fully this general statement. Vig, 
Sanskrit, to go in, settle; vegd, a house; m'c-arage, Eng- 
lish, a parson's house; baili-i«ic/c, jurisdiction of a bailiff; 
oikos, Greek, a house; idc, Mexican, mc-inity, near to; 
huasi, Quichua (Peru), a house (from vas) ; og, oka, Tupi, 
a house; Natick, neh-wek-it, those in his household; wicki- 
wami, Algonquin, wigwam, an Indian's house; vic-inus, 
Latin, a subdivision of a town. 

The chief difhoulty with those who have attempted to 
compare the American languages and races with those of 
other portions of the earth appears to me to consist in the 
restriction of their field. For example, an examination of 
the zodiac, however interesting in itself, could not prove 
conclusive. Falb's "Das Land des Inca" is a remarkable 
monument to patient investigation and scholarship. His 
identification of the Peruvian god Chon with Yvd-can I 
believe to be firmly established, as are other things in his 
book, but his "gottheit" is not sufficient. Mythology at 
best is largely a matter of speculation and at times it 
descends merely to clever guessing. 

If the Indians came from the Old World at any time 
within the last 10,000 years, their languages should retain 
sufficient vestiges to indicate the fact. To go back to the 
Ice Age is doubtless going too far.' The traditions of 

1 Daniel G. Brio ton {American Race) thinks that America may have been peo- 
pled from Europe by way of the north at a very early date. John Fiske ( Discovery 
of America, Vol. I, p. 4) says ; "But it is by no means probable that their [Indians] 


Noah's Deluge, the vague traditions of strangers cast away 
at sea and driven by adverse winds to the American shore, 
the traditions of strange, bearded men supposed to be priests 
bent on proselyting, the occasional words having a resem- 
blance to European words of like meaning, all these things 
while significant are not conclusive. The languages must 
be taken as a whole and not in parts, nor in any vague 
discussions of similes, parallel traditions, and doubtful 
allusions to events of a semi-historical character. If two 
languages can be shown to be identical in a large propor- 
tion of their roots, say from 30 to 40 per cent., and 
identical in the basic features of their syntax, then in my 
opinion their common origin or contact is clearly estab- 
lished even if 5,000 years have elapsed since their separa- 
tion and in spite of the fact that all resemblance in the 
one may be buried under bizarre formative syllables and 
ancient thought forms, while in the other, antique features 
have been stripped ofE by the attrition of modern life and 
the analytical character of modern thought. 

This book has been a development. It has occupied 
nearly five years with unremitting labor. Groping my 
way at first, finding myself frequently wrong, and again 

migration occurred within so short a period as 5,000 or 6,000 years. '^ '* Is most 
emphatically a native and not an imported article" Cp. 20). "In all proba- 
bility h9 came from the Old World at some ancient period, whether pro-glacial 
Or post-glacial, when it was possible to come by land" (ibid.). Professor Fiske 
says further, commenting on Dr. Cyrus Thomas' "Aids to the Study of the Maya 
Codices," "it is becoming daily more evident that the old notion of an influence 
from Asia has not a leg to stand on " (op. cit.. Vol. I, p. 132, note) Also, " it 
[Mexican culture] was an outgrowth of peculiar American conditions operating 
on the aboriginal mind" (Vol. I, p. 147). I have quoted Fiske at some length 
because he fairly represents the attitude of most late writers on this subject. 
Also see A. H. Keane, Encyclopaedia Brittanica^ "Yucatan," and "America owes 
nothing to the Old World after the Stone Ages," Ethnology, p. 345. On the 
contrary the Mound Builders are reckoned as no more than barely pre-Columbian. 
In my Mexican in Aryan Phonology I have shown Nauatl to be Iranian and in 
important respects identical with Zend as it was spoken in Western Asia 3.000 
years ago. Truly Prescott spoke well when he said the word " probably " should 
be conjoined with most assertions of a historical nature. 


unduly elated over "finds" which proved later to have 
little or no value, I received no aid whatever. Though 
I sought advice from philologists, it was for various reasons 
declined. One learned "linguist," however, discussing 
some preliminary work, took some pains to show that I 
must be a very ignorant person. His extraordinary con- 
clusion was that "not a single one" of my derivations 
would stand the test of scientific analysis, which was a 
little worse than I could say of his criticisms, since some of 
them happened to be just. Another philologist speaking 
in a semi-official capacity took a shorter cut, he flatly con- 
demned without reading my paper! 

Most of this work has been rewritten four times, but 
long experience in the making of books warns me that 
where so much is attempted some errors must inevitably 
be found in spite of innumerable revisions. For these I 
ask the indulgence of the public. In consequence of my 
book's having thus been as it were a growth, a few things 
remain which possibly may not be supported by the whole. 
I have indicated them in every case by means of notes or 
by a modifying phrase and left them as perhaps not un- 
interesting landmarks of my progress. 

Some of my references are inexact for the following 
reasons. I began this work because a lingering illness 
incapacitated me from the active pursuit of business. My 
motive was solely to pass time in the agreeable work of 
studying another language. My study of Mexican interested 
me in other Indian languages, but it was some time before 
the idea of comparison occurred to me. Meantime I had 
been making notes rather carelessly, sometimes omitting 
volume and page. This is why I occasionally fail in exact 
reference or perhaps give no reference. But it is im- 
possible for me to go back now and plod wearily through 


a vexatious verification for something which after all is 
not of the first importance. T believe the ordinary 
reader seldom bothers his head with notes, though here 
many good things are found in the notes. The philologist 
will have little difficulty in finding what he wants without 
much guidance from me. 

In laying down my pen I confess to a certain sense of 
disappointment. The result hardly seems commensurate 
with the labor. For a time I hoped that I had discovered 
a very ancient language that might throw more light on 
the original speech of mankind, but finally it came to this, 
that I had simply added another tongue to the Aryan 
group. But if I have broadened the geography of Com- 
parative Philology, I am satisfied. 

T. S. Denison 
163 Randoi,ph St., Chicago 
September 10, 1908 


Importance of Indian Languages — Various Learned Opinions — 
The Mexican Language, Place of Mexican in the Aryan 
Group — Kinship of Languages. 

About the year 1766, Maupertuis, a French astron- 
omer and mathematician, published a treatise- on the 
origin of language. He emphasized the importance of 
studying the languages even of the most distant and 
barbarous tribes. In his opinion a critical examination 
of their "thought-forms" might give the world a new 
philosophy of language. His suggestions, however, did 
not meet the approval of M. Turgot, one of his contem- 
poraries, who professed not to understand them.^ Very 
important results might have followed a friendly accept- 
ance of the suggestions of Maupertuis by philologists. 

The white man has always considered the Indian as 
belonging to an inferior race, and has, in consequence, 
been somewhat indifferent to his language and his civili- 
zation. To a majority of the white race the Indian was 
once but little more than a wild beast to be robbed or 
killed at the pleasure of his more elevated and civilized 
brother. His language was popularly supposed to consist 
of a series of grunts and exclamations, pieced out with 
gesticulations, a barbarous jargon without nicety of struc- 
ture, or the power of extended expression and continuity 
of thought.^ It is not to the credit of the American 
people that they have allowed the Indians to perish from 

1 Henry R. Schoolcraft, Indians of North America, Vol. II.— [Maupertuis 
died 1759.] 

2 For a refutation of this nonsense, which has been held sound by some very 
respectable people, see Howse, Cree Grammar, Preface. 



the land without a more discriminating study of their 
languages, customs, and institutions. The Spaniards, in 
spite of their avarice and cruelty, have done better. But 
they came in contact with civilized Indians, and, to the 
shame of the Castilian, be it said, he ruthlessly destroyed 
the records and the monuments of two or three flourishing 
civilizations, little knowing or caring what he did. Of 
course there was a political method in his madness. 

For a long time the study of the Indian and his 
speech languished, but of later years much has been 
done. Fortunately it is not yet too late to solve the 
problem of the origin of the Red Man as recorded in 
American languages.' Exactly twenty years ago William 
Dwight Whitney of Yale, an eminent philologist, wrote as 
follows : " It ought to be evident to everyone accustomed 
to deal with this class of subjects that all attempts to 
connect American languages as a body with languages of 
the Old World are, and must be, fruitless; in fact all 
discussions of the matter are at present unscientific, and 
are tolerably certain to continue so, through all time to 
come." ^ 

Professor A. H. Keane says: "Science has demon- 
strated beyond all cavil that, while differing widely among 
themselves, the American languages not only betray no 
affinity to other tongues, but belong to an absolutely 
different order of speech.'" 

A German philologist recently expressed to me per- 
sonally this same conviction as embodied in Professor 
Whitney's statement. Alexander von Humboldt was of 

' The number of Indian languages bas been variously estimated : Adelung, 
1,264; Ludevig, 1,106 ; Squier, 400. The American Bureau ot Ethnology estimates 
the number of groups or families at 100. 

2 Encyclopaedia Britannica^ article " Philology." 

■f Encyclopaedia Britannica, article "Indians." 


like opinion regarding the aflBnities of the Indo-European 
group. Max Mtiller says: "To attempt at present to 
trace them [the American languages] to a Jewish, 
Chinese, Phoenician, or Celtic source is simply labor 
lost and outside the pale of real science." ' 

Professor Theodore Noldeke of the University of 
Strassburg remarks: "It must be remembered that it is 
only in exceptionally favorable circumstances that cognate 
languages are so preserved during long periods as to 
render it possible for scientific analysis to prove their 
relationship with one another."^ I think he puts the 
case too strongly, and the isolation of the American 
languages has furnished exactly the conditions described 
by the professor as exceptional, but philologists have 
ignored these conditions and confined themselves to 
dogmatic assertions not warranted by their knowledge 
of New World tongues,' and this while their profound 
studies of Old World tongues deserved the greatest praise 
and excited the admiration of scholars in all departments 
of learning. 

Professor Noldeke cites the numeral six as an example 
of a deceptive root which may lead the incompetent or 
rash philologist astray by its close resemblance in several 
languages which cross families, that is, belong to groups 
but little related according to accepted classifications. 
Thus: Hebrew, sheshj Sanskrit, shnsh; Modern Persian, 
shash. Professor Noldeke says the Indo-European root is 
sweks or ksweks, while the Semitic root is shidth, which 
he asserts to be a wholly different root. By pure analysis 
and reasoning, it would perhaps be equally impossible to 

1 Science of Language, Vol. I, p. 452. 

^Encyclopaedia Britannica, article " Semitic Languages." 
3 " Iq Tartary, 4,000 years really makes no changes in words," Joseph Edkins, 
Congress Orientalists, 1893, Vol. II, p. 670. 


establish his proposition or to disprove it. But in lan- 
guage, one living, virile expression or phrase upsets a 
chapter of theory, and the cases of absolute identity of 
form in such comparisons are so rare as to cut no figure, 
and would lead no real investigator astray. Professor 
Ncldeke might have added the Mexican chica, a possible 
*ldks but not in fact, which is the increment sign between 
five and ten. Thus, macuilli, a "hand grasp," five, but 
six is chica ce, that is, simply "plus one," five being 
understood. Chica is the Sanskrit adhika, plus or re- 
dundant, thus ashtddhikanavati is literally 90 + 8. 
With adhikanavati, compare Mexican chica naui, nine. 
But finally, Professor Noldeke's *ksweks might, I think, 
be Semitic shidth, the sibilant descending from a guttural 
which is regular and common, and the dentals from 
palatal k which is not so likely.' 

In spite of all these opinions from really learned men 
whom I greatly respect, I insist that analysis and com- 
parison are better than theory. I may add here that 
stray waifs of a universal language may be found every- 
where. If this happened but a few times it might be 
attributed to coincidence, but it continually happens. 
(See footnote, p. 88, on Khassi.) 

The Mexican language. — The old distinctions, Indo- 
European, Semitic, Turanian, acquire a local significance 
when there is introduced to the world a language older 
than Sanskrit, and to all appearances, much like Zend 
of 3000 B. c. The Mexican language, better known to 
philologists as Nauatl (Nahuatl), is, in vocabulary pure 
Aryan.'' It probably had its origin in the highlands of 
East Iran, the country of the Elamites, thus its primal 

1 K and t are interchangeable, Grammar of AwabakaU by L. E. Threlkeld. 

2 If there ^be such a thing as pure Aryan. Over 40 per cent, of Greek is 
unassignable (Kendall). The same may be said of Latin. 


seat was the Pamir country, "the Roof of the World." 
I shall not go into the origin of the Aryans here, but 
proceed directly to the specific matter in hand. Mexican 
is Aryan in its verb conjugation. Its pronominal system 
resembles Semitic with respect to the agglutination of 
pronouns, the conjugations are rudimentary Aryan, and 
the prepositive pronouns suggest Accadian (Turanian). 
While Mexican, in its vocabulary, is Aryan, some of its 
words appear to be found in Assyrian and some of its 
very oldest forms may be Accadian, while there are others 
in Prikhto which may be non- Aryan. It is of course 
possible that the Semites borrowed freely from the Ac- 
cadians, who in turn may have borrowed from the con- 
quering Semites. At any rate the two languages were 
both for a long time in use in Babylonia side by side, as 
is evident from the numerous bi-lingual inscriptions. 
Very much yet remains uncertain concerning Accadian, or, 
as it is latterly called, Sumerian.' In fact, so eminent an 
authority as Professor Friedrich Delitzsch denied the 
existence" of Accadian, and ventured the opinion that it 
will prove eventually to be neither more nor less than a 
hieratic gloss of the popular Assyrian. It is not my 
purpose to engage in the Sumerian controversy, but when 
words and roots are found current today on the plains of 
Anahuac which were in use on the banks of the Indus or 
the Euphrates 3,000 years ago, the question is pregnant 
and becomes one of patient research. Mexican occupies 
an intermediate position between Sanskrit and Old 
Persian, and in "thought-forms" establishes its claim 
to great age which is further supported by historical 
and mythological references. 

i"The Accadians were the Highlanders of Western Asia beyond much 
doubt."— A. H. Sayoe, Assyrian Lectures, p. 17. 

2 Assyrian Grammar, by F. Delitzsch, section 25. 


Place of Mexican in the Aryan group. — It will 
doubtless be said at once that language is no final test 
of race affinity. This is sometimes true, but I will add 
that language is almost the only thing which priests and 
politicians have never been able to aifect seriously. The 
Mexican language is so primitive in vocabulary, structure, 
and "thought-forms," that if it has been produced by 
contact or the mingling of races, or by conquest, the fact 
was accomplished at a very remote period. Its vowel 
system closely resembles the Avestan. Hence if the 
Aztecs were not Aryan in race originally, their absorp- 
tion by Aryans took place so long ago that for linguistic 
purposes we must call them Aryan. The postpositive 
system places Nauatl among the Pamir dialects, very 
primitive, and the modern Aryan languages of India, but 
the postpositive system is also Turanian.' I quote here, 
as h propos, a description of the Ainu of Japan. " The 
forehead is narrow and sharply sloped backward; the 
cheek bones are prominent; the nose is hooked, slightly 
flattened and broad, with wide strong nostrils; the skin 
is light reddish brown; eyes set straight in the head; 
hair for most part black and wavy; beard dark and 
handsome." The Ainu are said to be Aryans.'' Oust 
describes the Gralchas and the Dardui as pure Aryan 
stock and pre-Sanskritic. He thinks the Pamir region 
was the primitive seat of the Indo-Iranians.' Why not 
of all the Aryans (see "Geographical Names," chap, xvi) ? 
But Forlong radically disputes the entire theory of 
Aryan influence in India, and maintains that Turanians 

iFor the formation of postpositives and agglutination, see Professor E 
W. Faye, American Journal of Philology, Nos. 60, 61. 

2 The Nation, " Notes," Sept. 12, 1907, and note, p. 88, infra. 

3 Robert N. Gust, Modern Languages of India, p. 32. 


have predominated in both language and civilization.^ 
The question of color is also pertinent. Were there red 
Aryans? It is said on good authority, the Vedas, that 
the Kshattriya, warrior caste, were red, that they gave 
"the wisdom of India" to the white race, and that 
Buddha himself was a red man.' Their modern de- 
scendants are the Rajputs. The second Aztec "cycle" 
was the "Red Age." "The primitive Aryans were of 
light color, reddish or brown rather than black," says 
Mr. Widney.' 

Kinship of languages. — It is my purpose to support 
these preliminary statements with about five hundred 
words, more or less, in a comparative vocabulary, which 
I deem ample to establish the linguistic unity of the New 
World with the Old.* I do not pretend that the entire 
Mexican vocabulary may be derived from Old World 
languages. Doubtless there are words indigenous to the 
soil of America, and per contra, Aryan roots have been 
lost or so worn that direct proof of their origin is impos- 
sible and only analogy establishes their identity. I have 
examined about thirty languages in pursuing these studies, 
but shall attempt in this work to show the identity of but 
one American language, Mexican or Nauatl, with the 
eastern languages, though I am convinced that what I 
have done for the Mexican may eventually be done for 
Sh6shone, Quichua, Tupi-Gruarani, Maya, Algonquin, 
Dakota, Selish, and other American tongues. 

' J. G. K. Forlong, Short Studies in the Science of Comparative Religions, 
p. 248. 

2 Charles Johnson, of the Bengal service retired, in a Letter to the Nation, 
August 20, 1908, concerning his translation of the Bhagavad Qit&. Also Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, Vol. XII, p. 782. 

3 Bace Life of Aryan Peoples, Vol. I, p. 27. 

* Physical infirmities hare prevented the revisions necessary before publish- 
ing such a vocabulary. But ample proofs are found in my monograph Mexican 
in Aryan Phonology. 


Method of Working. — Ancient Forms -Cow, Sheep — Conso- 
nantal Equivalence and Vowel Genesis — Meanings 

Any explanations of my method of research would be 
superfluous in the case of the trained philologist, but as 
this work is intended for general use among educated 
people, I may be excused for presenting here a few general 
directions for the guidance of the reader. First of all, 
let us remember that vowel mutation is very important, 
though the causes of change are not so easily traced as in 
consonant mutation which usually takes place under very 
definite principles of change.' 

Cow. — The Sanskrit root go (gau) means cow. How 
small the change in 5,000 years. The Sanskrit g has 
advanced to k in English ; the Greek is bous (bo) ; the 
Latin bos or vacca. The Mexican for cow is quaquaue 
(pronounced ka-k^-way). Note here a curious thing. 
The Aztecs had no cows. The animal, if known to them, 
could have been known only as the bison (bos bubalus), 
but their name for cow is doubtless a reduplication of the 
Sanskrit gau,ov ga-ga, with e, a possessive ending. Now, 
how did they manage to retain this name for several thou- 
sand years intact, supposing that for a long time they were 
strangers to the animal? This may be explained if we 
assume a borrowed Assyrian root, though it is doubtful 

iln this connection read the phonetic mutations in chap, xi, "Phonol- 
ogy." Vowel mutation takes place under well-known definite rules in the Aryan 
languages. I ask the reader who is not a linguist to accept my statements as 
authoritative.- I refer the philologist to my Mexican in Aryan Phonology . Max 
Mailer says every vowel in the languages of Europe is exactly what itoughttobe. 
If he means according to rule the statement is too strong. 



if such assumption be sound philology. The root ka once 
meant any projecting, prominent feature or object as a 
horn of a cow, a pole set in the ground, and even the 
human hand. The Accadians used it 5,000 years ago, 
and the Assyrians much later in the same sense. (See 
ka in Norris' Assyrian Dictionary. ) Hence, if no Aztec 
had seen a cow for thousands of years, it would be in 
keeping with the genius of his language, to resort to the 
old name. But I do not maintain that this actually hap- 
pened, since the stag was called mazatl instead of qua- 
quaue. In the loway language the root is cae; to-cae, 
bull; cae-me, cow (buffalo). 

Sheep. — I will cite here curious facts in the history of a 
word which is at once peculiarly instructive and histo- 
rically interesting. Under the article "Mexico" in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, the author (E. B. Tylor), dis- 
cussing the ancient Aztecs, eulogizes their piety as exhib- 
ited in a prayer which he quotes. The worshiper calls the 
attention of his god, Tezcatlipoca, to his having sacrificed 
a sheep to the deity. The author concludes that the 
prayer had been tinged by Spanish influences because no 
such animal as the sheep was known to the ancient Mex- 
icans. Ichcatl, sheep, is chaga, goat, in Sanskrit ; skeap, 
sheep, is Anglo-Saxon; schaf, German. The phonetic 
changes here are: root is *skag, Mexican *i-skag = ich- 
cac-tl.' The final c is dropped giving ichcatl. In Ger- 
manic final c becomes p, hence skeap. The prosthetic i is 
common in Zend and Iranian generally. Such vowels 
have been termed "irrational." The only puzzling ques- 
tion is, why did the transfer of meaning take place from 
sheep to goat. Perhaps it was the Aryans of Asia who 
made the transfer to goat. At any rate the Mexicans 

1 An asterisk preceding a word indicates a restored or hypothetical form. 


appear to have had a word for sheep always, and in the 
prayer alluded to, a wild sheep may have been meant, 
though it is not at all improbable that the prayer may 
have been altered by Spanish hands. ^ 

Remember, too, that the termination tl cuts no figure 
in the solution. I may add that there is another deriva- 
tion for ichcatl, which also means cotton; Mr. Tylor 
derives it from ichtli, thread, and sheep is "thread thing," 
which is phonetically impossible, as shown by the cognate 
ic-patl, thread, where the soft ch reverts to hard c, but 
ich-ili may be the same as Sanskrit ish-n, a string.^ 

Consonantal affinity and vowel genesis. — The equiva- 
lence of consonants is perhaps at once the plainest and 
safest guide in making comparisons. To stray from this 
fixed principle is to err. There are some very strange 
exceptions, however, and the most notable perhaps of all 
is that by which an original g-k becomes t in one lan- 
guage and V, p, or / in another. For example, Sanskrit, 
catiir, four; Greek, t6ttares; Welsh, pedwar. But vowel 
mutation is also exigent and must not be disregarded. 
But this subject is fully discussed in chap, xi, "Phonology." 

Meanings. — Meaning is fully as important for pur- 
poses of derivation as the proper genesis of letters, pos- 
sibly it is even more important sometimes. The only 
thing absolutely immortal is thought, and words are the 

^Encyclopaedia Brittanica. article " Mexico." In fact the bones of Ovis 
Canadensis liave been found in Arizona ruins ; Smithsonian Report^ 1900-1, p. 27. 

2 la this book I shall constantly refer to the Sanskrit, A reference to that 
language takes precedence over aU others. But let it be understood once for all 
that I am not deriving Mexican words from the Sanskrit directly. The Sanskrit 
possibly possesses the most ancient literature to which we have access ; at any 
rate, it is very near the Mexican, and for that reason, takes precedence. If the 
reader neglects this caution, he may at times misconstrue my meaning. The yame 
caution applies to all other languages. For example, should I associate, petla, 
to peddle, with English peddle, I mean simply that both may come from a com- 
mon pre-literary root, the connection to be proved by cognates or otherwise. 


long-enduring, almost indestructible symbols of thought. 
When one looks into a Sanskrit dictionary and finds that 
lubh, 4,000 years ago, meant love, as it does today, that 
bhar meant bear, and gau meant cow, it is a matter of sur- 
prise that mere words may be imperishable. It is in fact 
almost certain that when the meanings of two words 
identical in form differ radically that they are in no way 

Even slang may teach us concerning language. The 
persistence of "thought-forms" is simply marvelous, and 
when words perish the same idea-mold will receive new 
words and the idiom appears to live forever. I remember 
having heard as a boy, among my native hills, the common 
expression "old rip," used. I looked upon it as simply slang. 
I cannot prove descent but I believe in it. The expres- 
sion cast a mild sort of obloquy upon one not deemed bad 
enough to be designated as an out and out rogue. The 
Sanskrit root-word rip and its affiliated root lip mean cheat. 
Hence, to call a person a "rip" is really to call him a 
cheat and "give me none of your lip" is doubtless near 
akin to it, though appearing to have a very different 

There is a deviation of meaning, however, which is 
allowable arising from figures of speech, where simile, 
metonomy, synecdoche, cause transfer meanings like 
sheep to goat, sister to daughter, or extensions like house 
to family and vice versa, but leave no doubt of the original 
signification, but even here, the careful philologist rejects 
all that appears doubtful. 


EooTS. — Cow, Bite, Dog, Sweat, Elbow, Ox, Indra — Analysis. 

Roots are the basis of philological research. Roots 
originally may have consisted of but two letters or even of 
but one. In Tupi, words frequently consist of a vowel, 
and e, for example, has nearly a score of meanings, which 
are differentiated by prefixes and affixes, and i is a root, to 
go, in Sanskrit. In Chinese many words appear to con- 
sist of but two letters, a consonant and a vowel; in fact 
some claim this to be a rule of Chinese. A compound 
consonant like ch or ts is counted as a single consonant. 
The most common form of Aryan roots appears to be: 
consonant + vowel + consonant, as vat, to know, reveal. 
But vafic, totter, while appearing to be exception, is 
really a tri-literal root strengthened by n. The n does 
not appear in Latin where we have uac-illare, totter, Eng- 
lish vac-illate. Bear in mind this strengthening which 
occurs frequently in Sanskrit and Greek. This will 
explain the frequent di&appearance of n in comparisons 
between Mexican and Sanskrit words. Thus man, to think, 
becomes ma-ti in Mexican, but retains the n in the Eng- 
lish word mind. Tupi roots, like e, may simply have lost 
their consonants. Sometimes what appears to be a simple 
root is really a compound or extension as Sanskrit yudh, 
to fight which = yu-\- dhe; Mexican, yao-chiua. 

Cow. — Very few words may be traced back wholly 
unmodified for any great period of time, but roots are of 
great antiquity. I have already mentioned the word gau, 
cow, as an example from the Sanskrit. But the Grreeks 



employed boU-s (bos). Why was this? Bou may be 
derived from gau by means of an intermediate parasitic v 
(gva), but bou may also have been an original root. In 
nyl-gau we have the root in a compound, "blue-cow." 

Bite. — The investigator does not always find his work 
so easy, as in the examples named, which are simple. 
Often but a small portion of a root can be traced in a 
word, or the whole is so transformed as to be unrecogniz- 
able. Sometimes only a single letter remains, and some 
obscure dialect proves the original. For example, German 
beissen, to bite, is in Mexican ouit-ic, bad, unfortunate, 
English, bitten; Sanskrit, bhid. 

This was my first derivation, but I find that Forlong 
derives a word from an old root which appears to be 
pre-Aryan, bod, bUd, bhud, Tibetan bo and Chinese fo. He 
connects it with Sanskrit bhutd, from bhii, to be, exist, 
hence a created being and specifically an evil spirit, our 
English bogy. The word was Turanian and is the Russian 
Bog, god, Iranian Baga. He does not explain the intrusion 
of the guttural g. In Mexican b becomes u, hence ouitic 
bad, oui, dangerous, are more probably derived from bhU 
than from bhld. This root is wholly distinct from 
Buddha the name of the Sage.' (See p. 152.) 

Dog. — The names cow, sheep, dog, are naturally among 
the oldest in any language and dog is especially ancient. 
In all probability, the dog was a companion of man at the 
very beginning of civilization. He was even a "sacred" 
animal. The oldest extant words for dog are formed round 
a /c-stem. The Sanskrit name is gvan (5 = k or sk) ; the 
Greek, kvwv; the Latin, canis; the German, hund; the 
English is specialized in hound. By reference to the 

iCf. Mexican in Aryan Phonology, p. 15, and Forlong, Short Studies in the 
Science of Comparative Beligiona, pp. 234 £11. 


chapter "Phonology, gutturals, eastern and western," it 
may be seen that Sanskrit k becomes h in Germanic 
tongues. This leaves the English word dog out of the dis- 
cussion, which will be confined to the original word with a 
/c-stem. The Mexicans have two words for dog, chichi and 
itzcuintli or izcuintli. The latter is the usual Aryan word, 
but in Panjftbi we find Icutta. The compound consonant tz 
stands for an earlier s and the i is only a prosthetic glide 
very common in Zend, Old Persian, and Mexican;' tliis 
the termination which may always be ignored. Hence the 
original root may in prehistoric times have been shun 
instead of kun.'' The Sanskrit q has a unique value. 
Derived from an original h, this sound remains fc in some 
tongues and becomes s or sh in others. 

My object here is twofold: first, to bring my methods 
of working, in a few examples, so clearly before the reader 
that he may learn to distinguish disguised forms ; second, 
to establish the fact that these words of extreme antiquity 
clearly show the Mexican to be in accord with other Indo- 
European tongues, or more explicitly an Aryan tongue. 

Sweat. — On the authority of competent scholars, the 
statement is made that all the Aryan peoples have the 
common word sweat, which might indicate that the race 
originated in a warm climate. The Sanskrit root is svid, 
Greek, i'So? *apiSo'!, Latin, sudor, and, curiously enough, 
these American Aryans of Mexico have the verb itonia, to 
sweat. If we concede the decay of an introductory sv, 
then they would be in accord with the Old World mem- 
bers of the family in *svid-onia. This is analogous to 
I'Sos *o-f iSo?, but the root is probably ton-a. 

1 See " irfational vowels," Mexican in Aryan Phonology, p. 11. 

2 Later I find that the Snake dialect of Sh6shone actually has what may 
have been an sk-form in shara-y, dog, and in Clallam, a Puget Sound dialect, dog 
is g&a-ha. Compare s&ye-terrier. "Clallam diifers materially from the other 
Puget Sound Selish tongues" (Gibbs). 


Elbow. — Two or more roots may be used as the base 
of. a vocable, verb or noun. In Sanskrit and Mexican 
bare roots may be joined into compound words. The 
Mexican name for elbow is molictli or molicpitl. Mol- 
ictli = mol +ic+tl. Mol is the Aryan root mr in Sanskrit, 
to crush ; Latin, mol-a ; Greek, fJ'vXr], a mill ; Anglo-Saxon, 
meal, and mol-de, crushed earth. This root also meant 
"mill" in the sense of a fight as it does today. The root 
inkh (ik) means to move unsteadily (back and forth) in 
Sanskrit. Omitting n and h as explained, pp. 26, 97, we 
have Mexican ic, and molictli is "the mill mover," in allu- 
sion to the movements of the elbow in grinding on the 
ancient hand mill. Pitl, may be derived from pid, to 
press upon, or possibly from pis which in itself means, to 
grind, crush, mill. Molictli may also be derived, per- 
haps more directly, from Avestan meregh, rub, wipe. 
Finally, as an "extended" root, molic-tli may be derived 
from mrj, to rub, to milk. These ideas are all closely 

Ox. — The word ox originally meant bull, from Sanskrit 
uks or vaks, "the sprinkler." A secondary form was uj 
or ug, to wet, from which we get the word hygrometer, an 
instrument to measure humidity; Latin, uvens, *ugven8 
coelum, the dripping sky; Gothic, auhsa, a bull, hence 
English, ox; German, ochse. The old Aryans also em- 
ployed this word as embodying the idea of virility, power. 
The Mexican is oquichtli, male. It will be remarked that 
this latter word expands the root into two syllables, oq-ich 
(okish) , instead of the Sanskrit uks, and a similar strength- 
ening of roots also occurs in Zend.' Oquichtli in Mexican 
is the sign of the male gender as : oquich-mazatl, a buck ; 
cihua-mazail, a doe. 

1 See Tolman, Old Persian Inscriptions, 


Indra, the name of a Vedic god, has never been satis- 
factorily derived. I offer the following solution. The 
Mexican particle in has practically the force of the 
article the. It is always independent or detachable in 
Mexican and had the same use in Old Persian.' Hence 
Jndra may be analyzed: in-\-dra, "the dra." It remains 
to find the special meaning of dra which does not concern 
us here. The Mexican god Tlaloc is certainly Indra, 
since in Sanskrit Indralokd means Indra's place, that is, 
heaven. Tlaloc is plainly [in-]"tla-lok," god of the Ter- 
restrial Paradise, the giver of rain, so was Indra, and 
patron of farmers. Tlaloc is no doubt a transfer meaning 
from place to lord of the place. Tlaloc was the only 
Mexican god who had a court; the instrument of his ven- 
geance was the thunderbolt — all of which suggests Indra.'' 

Analysis. — It is sometimes not easy to determine the 
root in long compound words such as occur in most Indian 
languages. For example notlazocniuhtze means "my be- 
loved and honored friend," of which no is the pronoun my; 
tlazo is clipped from tlazotla, love; icniuhtli, friend, be- 
comes, by elision of i and clipping off the termination tli, 
simply the mutilated fragment cniuh; tzin, honorable, is 
reduced to tz which combines with e, the sign of the voca- 
tive case. Temachtiani, a teacher, is resolved into te, some 
one, mati, to think, which becomes machti in the dative 
form, and ani, a termination meaning "one who" (does). 

I See the pbiraBe " in Susiniaky'''' p. 66. 

2 The eight Tlaloos were beyond doubt the Vedic eight lokapaU, "world 


Dictionaries — What Is a Root? — Differentiation — Different 
Values of Same Root:— "Kul," "Chichi," " Quetzalcoatl." 

To accomplish anything positive and definitive, philol- 
ogy should, to use a mining-phrase, reach bed-rock. 
That is in many cases manifestly impossible. But philol- 
ogy must dare or else forever remain a stationary science. 
Par be it from me to say aught in criticism of the illus- 
trious linguists who have gone before me and whose ripe 
scholarship in many cases far exceeds any acquirements 
of mine. I would not pluck a single leaf from their laurels. 
They laid the foundations for greater work, and it is for 
the future to utilize their labors, without which nothing 
could be done. It were invidious to select any particular 
names for mention from out this army of patient, persever- 
ing men who have prepared grammars and dictionaries of 
nearly all the known languages of the world, if not all of 
them in fact. The patient student who has at hand a 
magnificent library and behind him the prestige of a great 
university may, and often does erect a monument to 
scholarship. But he could accomplish nothing if he had 
not ready at hand the results of the pioneer's work, crude 
as it often is. It is safe to say that philology owes more 
to religion and the Christian missionaries, from the 
learned Jesuit father to the humblest preacher, than to all 
other causes put together, but one thing is to be greatly 
regretted. The natural bias of the minds of these men 
and the oneness of the trend of their thoughts, diverted 
them from anything like applied science in the study of 



languages. They set down faithfully what they heard and 
saw, but they seldom illuminated it by a spark of reflec- 

Our dictionaries are good, and constantly growing 
better, but what the world needs now is a great comparative 
dictionary, which shall include every word (of common 
use) in not less than twenty-five of the principal repre- 
sentative languages. No pretentious dictionary of the 
future should content itself with repeating parrot-like 
merely the Romance, Germanic, Sanskritic, and classic 
equivalents. They are so similar in form, in many cases, 
that their repetition is not worth the space consumed. 
French or Italian would answer for all Romance, and Grer- 
man for all northern languages, resorting to other dialects 
only for words not found in these. Roots should be given 
for common words in all these representative languages. 
The space wasted in superfluous detail under the present 
system would accommodate the full derivations for say 
3,000 common words, a suflSciency for all practical pur- 
poses ; a number which in fact would cover the whole field. 
Such a dictionary would enable the comparative philologist 
to take up his work without the endless and onerous work 
of collecting materials. 

What is a root? But firstly, accurate scholarship must 
determine the roots of the world's languages as carefully 
as it has been done for the Aryan tongues. This will 
involve an enormous amount of careful research and patient 
labor. In fact we may not hope ever to be sure of all or 
even a moiety of the roots in primitive human speech. 
Language was at first doubtless a formless sort of thing, 
which perhaps may be compared to the jelly fish in the 
animal kingdom. In these remarks I have in mind only 
definite, formed human speech however crude it may have 


been, language with a considerable vocabulary and 
"thought-forms" of definite mold, sufiicient to differ- 
entiate its vocables and prescribe its syntax. Eminent 
philologists hold to the opinion that a few hundred mono- 
syllabic roots would adequately include the primitive 
tongue, admitting for the sake of argument the unity of 

When is a vocable proved to be a root from the common 
or mother tongue ? When you can show identity or adduce 
collateral evidence from several languages widely separated 
in time and geographical distribution, it is safe to say 
that you have found such a root. If such proofs are 
lacking, the supposed root may be local. It is true there 
is much borrowing done between languages. But the 
Arab, for instance, has not had any opportunity to borrow 
from the Eskimo, not for some thousands of years at 
least. An identical root (phonetic changes considered) 
with practically the same meaning in both these languages 
would constitute presumptive evidence of its common 
origin^ Such a work as I have described could be pre- 
pared only under the patronage of some great institution 
with sufficient stability and resources to carry it through 
to a finish. The results would surely justify the expen- 
diture of time and money. 

It is also true that two primitive peoples may occasion- 
ally have independently hit on the same word for the same 
thing. ^^Kaw-kaw" might mean crow anywhere. Hence 
might spring a root, caw, to croak, to chatter, to mock, 
etc. This would be true of the small class of imitative or 
onomatopoetic words such as cacalin, a crow. The Mexican, 
chichi uaualoa, the dog barks, furnishes a fine example. 
Compare ha-ha, to laugh, perhaps once a guttural, kha- 

iMax Mailer, "Rede Lecture," Chips from a German WorJcahop. 


kha, with Sanskrit jask, to laugh, Mexican, uetzca, 
*ghatska, Latin, cac-chi-nare. 

Max Mtlller roughly estimates the number of original 
roots at 500. But some- philologists discard entirely the 
idea of primitive roots. Professor Keane says: "Roots 
must be relegated to the ante-Cosmos."^ I cannot agree 
with him. Throughout the vast Aryan territory, from the 
Indus to Anahuac, we can, no matter under what guise 
or what dress of formative syllables, always trace a phonetic 
unit and that unit we call a root. Professor A. H. Sayce 
is of the opinion that the sentence is the unit in human 
speech. In a qualified sense, and applied to languages 
already developed, this may be true. It seems obvious 
that it could not have been true of the first crude begin- 
nings of articulate speech, unless we consider exclama- 
tions, such as hark, to be complete sentences. 

Differentiation of roots. — There must have been some 
confusion and overlapping of meanings in the primitive 
days when monosyllabic roots reinforced by signs and 
gestures constituted language. New meanings were 
needed and new vocables were necessary to piece out 
the limited capacity of existing roots. As we have seen, 
particles like er, ly, iy, were tacked on, while n became 
an infix, thus constituting words. ^ Finally, long, clumsy 
compounds were formed which embodied in themselves 
whole phrases or sentences like the Sanskrit : sakala- 
nitigastratattvajfia, all - behavior - books - essence - knowing. 
Such phrases constituted adjectives or adverbs. In 
Quichua they are as formidable as in Sanskrit. Modern 

'A. H. Keane, Ethnology, p. 207 ff. 

2 Some philologists insist' that in comparison both root and termination 
must rigidly agree. But this is straining a point. I think for practical pur- 
poses the terminations may be disregarded, as a rule. For example: icviov, 
Greek ; can-is, *kvanis, Latin ; hun-d, German ; itzcuin-tli, Mexican. 


syntax reconstructs such clumsy locutions into subor- 
dinate clauses. 

The American languages are celebrated for long words 
consisting of anywhere from ten to twenty syllables. Nor 
are they an awkward jumble thrown together clumsily. 
They are dovetailed with nicety as a rule, though Mexi- 
can is at times a little cumbersome. They are built up 
from roots or words with precision and capable of a 
meaning at once extended but direct and pointed. But 
let us not be deceived by the amazing words constructed 
by missionaries and traders for the delectation and ad- 
miration of the unsophisticated. Wonderful things may 
be done in that way in German and modern Grreek, and 
nothing could be much worse than some of our English 
words.' Indefdtigably is a pregnant example, a cacoph- 
onous word with a broken back, and its primary accent 
four syllables from the end. It is simply barbarous. 
The following word is given as a sample of one of the 
very longest words in the Mexican vocabulary, tzonte- 
quilicatlatquicaualtia. Translated in the same order as 
the original it is " judgment-[givej-and-goods-restore- 
do." "Grive" has been inserted; it is not necessary in 
the Mexican. The whole means to render judgment for 
return of goods in an action in trover. 0-an-quin- 
tlaecoltia is a complete sentence, "you them have obeyed." 
But Mexican can be simple. Compare etl with English 
bean, and calpoZli, tribe, with cosmopoZitan, its cognate. 

Different values of the same root. — Any inquiry into 
the exact form of the most primitive roots of articulate 

iThe following clipping exactly illustrates the case: "A young German 
matron once said : ' Ach, how glad I am that my dear fritz has been appointed 
Hauptkassenverwaltungsassistent' — assistant cashier. 'Now,' she went on, *in 
my title of Hauptkassenverwaltungsassistentin I boast five letters more than 
that proud Oberhofsteueramtsinspectorin' — excise inspector's wife — 'can 
claim.' " — Philadelphia Press. 


speech would under the most competent hand be perhaps 
futile and mere speculation. For the sake of illustration 
assuming forms so elementary as ka, ah, ha, ah, pil, apil, 
ko, kon, pa, pat, at, ap, mac, map, there is under the law 
of permutations, room for almost numberless changes of 
form as these bits of speech are tossed on the restless sea 
of human thought. The wonder is, that anything has 
been definitely fixed. It is to be kept in mind that 
language is purely arbitrary. There are many anomalies 
which defy logic and elude analysis. The Sanskrit 
demonstrative sas might become sa, euphonically, so; 
Greek, 6, 57 ; Mexican ce, one ? In the oblique cases the 
word assumed a t-form, as tdm, tdt, English that. The 
German knahe, boy, may once have been k^nabej clan, 
*k*lan, from the Irish and Gaelic clann, appears to be 
at home in English as a terse, expressive root. I say it 
appears to be for the following reasons. 

Kul. — The old Aryan invaders of India clung to- 
gether closely, probably for three reasons, family pride, 
patriotism, and self-defense, since they were hated con- 
querors in the midst of a partially subdued alien race. 
In Sanskrit kula meant swarm, family, kin, tribe. The 
Mexican says "incal in no-coZ-huan," the house of my 
ancestors, literally, "my ancestors, their house." The 
Scotchman is very clannish, even yet. When an indi- 
vidual of the genus "sport" meets a chum he may 
greet him as "cully," and the other may in return 
greet his friend with the doubtful word "pal." Step by 
step these once honorable words have reached lower 
depths. The Scotch clan, *k®lan, was almost certainly 
once kulan, identical with Sanskrit, kula; Sioux, kola; 
Mexican, colli; Panjabi, kul, family ; Quichua, kolla. The 
Mexican is used only in compounds, but is the same root. 


no matter who may have originated the word. The 
vowel u (o) is an objection to this derivation but it is 
not insurmountable. 

Chichi is a dog in Mexican, it is also defined as " one 
who sucks;" chimalli is a shield, qnauh-chimalli is a 
monkey, chimal-ti-tlan is "the place where prayer sticks 
were set up." Here are apparently three radically dif- 
ferent meanings attached to the root chi. Sanskrit, dhl, 
means to suckle; it also means piety, mind "set" on 
religion; dh?; chi, means brave, strong. Originally dhi, 
dhd, meant to put. Hence we get these derived meanings, 
but chi from dhr would be a homonym.^ 

Quetzal-coatl. — The Sanskrit, guhh, means (1) to be 
beautiful, (2) to have a gliding motion. It would seem 
at first sight impossible to reconcile these meanings, but 
Mexican usage renders it easier. Coatl in Mexican is 
serpent, and Quetzal-coatl, plumed serpent; "The Fair 
God," gliding through the air with his streaming plumes, 
fulfils both meanings.^ 

1 See Mexican in Aryan Phonology, p. 11, sec. 5. Also Quanh-chimalU, 
below, p. 52. 

2 Coatl = *ciib-a.-tl, serpent. Compare with coa-tl, the Babylonian Hoa or Koa 
whom George Rawlinson believed to be the serpent of Eden, 


Morphology op Mexican. — Compounds — Terminations— "Tzin'' 
— Postpositions — L and R — Loss of Terminations. 

Compounds. — Languages vary much in their methods 
of compounding words. English has gone to the utmost 
extreme of simplicity and merely runs two words together 
without any change whatever, as house-keeper, black- 
thorn, honey -comb; the same occurs in Sanskrit and 
Mexican, as Sanskrit, amitrasena, army of enemies ; Mexi- 
can, cuen-chiua, "wound-put," or slay. In such cases 
the subsidiary element is merely an adjective or perhaps 
an objective as in the last. In Mexican, one of the words 
is nearly always clipped. For example, calli is house; 
the possessive pronouns are: no, my; mo, thy; i, his or 
hers. Hence nocal, my house; mooal, thy house; ical, 
his house; teotl, god; teocalli, a temple; atl, water; acal, 
a boat; teachcauhtli, a leader; acalcoteachcauh, a ship 
captain, literally "ship-in-leader." Ciuatl is woman; 
tlacatl, man; michin, fish; ciuatlacamichin, mermaid. 
But Chimalpahin has Aciuatlmichintlaco as the name of 
a country, "mermaid-land," in which the terminations 
remain. It will be seen that the Mexican in compound- 
ing, sheds all terminations except those belonging to the 
last word. Sometimes even that is clipped, which is uni- 
versally true with possessive pronouns as nocal, pronounced 
nocalh, with breathing after last syllable. In Tupi, the 
particles are pieced together in bits like a mosaic, aba, 
man; zoo, flesh; u, use, eat; hence dbaroU, a cannibal. 
In Quichua, a formidable array of qualifiers, not abbre- 
viated, fall into line with the precision of soldiers on 



parade, the principal verb at the conclusion exactly as in 
the long, mouth-filling, participial phrases of classic 
Sanskrit, such as the example already quoted.* 

Terminations. — A brief consideration of terminations 
will help to an understanding of Mexican words just as it 
will greatly increase our knowledge of English or any 
other language. In English r:=he who does, or is. The 
Latin ter, as in ma-ter, performs the same office. The 
Mexican tl is the same, as : cama^i, the mouth ; Sanskrit, 
cam, to sip = camatl, the sipper. But care must be taken 
to distinguish roots ending in /, in which case the ending is 
r, as: at-1, water, tzint-li, end. Such words are clipped 
in compounding as if the termination were tr, tl, as: 
a-calli, boat; quauh-fezn-co, at the foot of the tree. 

1 Lewis H. Morgan has said {Ancient Society) that perhaps more books have 
bsen written about the Aztecs and more speculation indulged concerning them 
than has fallen to the lot of any other people. The Nauatl language has been 
slighted or mistreated by many writers who have had occasion to come in con- 
tact with it. Prescott disliked it and openly expressed his contempt for it, but 
he may be excused because of his defective eyesight which rendered its study 
formidable. But he ridiculed the derivations of Kingsborough when in fact 
Kingsboroui»h was following a trail and Prescott was not. Even such careful 
writers as Fiske and Morgan misspell Mexican words and evidently at times do 
not fully comprehend them. The structure of Mexican is such as to lend itself 
readily to wrong interpretation. The polysyllabic words may at times assume 
dlif erent meanings according to different analyses. Chichimecatly the name of a 
tribe, Is a case in point. It has been defined by Molina, Sim6on, and other 
authorities, as *'one who sucks." This is an Indian definition and the Indian 
definition when it can be ascertained positively is obviously best, since a native 
always knows his own language better than a foreigner. A, F. Bandelier {Pea- 
body Museum Report^ 1876-79, p. 393) discusses ChichimecatL He thinks it may 
mean simply "red men" from chtchiltic^ red, and mecayotl, kindred. But me- 
catl may mean a. tie,, a cord,, a whip, a mistress. Chichi^ unquestionably may 
mean dog. Hence chichi-mecatl may mean just as easily an Eskimo dog team as 
it could mean "red men," and one writer suggests it may mean a pack of 
hounds. The syncope of I weakens Bandolier's derivation. It should be chichim- 
mecatl to satisfy his solution from a root chil. Another writer {American 
Antiquarian), commenting on Bandolier's derivation, suggests chichic, bitter + 
metl, "maguey drinkers" (pulque). But this is improbable, I think, since it 
omita final ca. My own view is that two homonyms obscure the meaning. In 
Sanskrit dfti, Mexican chi^ means to suck; but dhl also means devotion; while 
lifer, cfti, means brave. Hence the Chichi-meca "dogs" were no doubt simply the 
pious or the brave people. (See qua/u-chimalli,, p. 52. For ca (ka), see Whit- 
ney, ^ansfcnt Grammar, sees. 1186ct, 1222c.) 


The principal terminations of nouns in Mexican are 
tl, tli, It, qui, ni, e, a, ua, uan. Of these, tl, tti, li, qui, 
ni, all have the force of r = tl, as above, that is, they 
assert. The difference between tl and tli appears to be 
one of euphony, As conetl, son; tlantli, a tooth. Li, it 
must be remembered, is equivalent to ri or r of the other 
tongues, as icpalK, a seat might be *icparri. Such assimi- 
lation of a consonant is very common in Sanskrit and 
Latin, as scala, stairway, * scad-la, *scal-la. Qui no 
doubt = Sanskrit, kr (kar) make, one who makes; chiuqui, 
from chiua, do, is one who makes and tla-chiuh-tli is a thing 
done or made. Catl asserts nationality, trades, etc., as: 
Aztecatl, an Aztec; puchtecaW, a merchant. (See p. 46.) 

Ni is predicative as, ni-tlatoani, or is equivalent to tl 
(r), yani, a traveler = y a, go + ni. Ni is perhaps a more 
emphatic asseverative in tlatoani one who rules, i. e., who 
speaks. Ni is much used. It is a frequent ending of 
adjectives and nouns, as: ni-qualani, I am angry; ti- 
qualani, thou art angry; qualani, he is angry. Otl, utl 
is the ending of abstract nouns, though not confined to 
that class. 

^ is a possessive ending: tlantli, tooth; tlane, toothed. 
E appears to have the same function in Accadian. 

Va is the same; tlatquitl, riches, tlatqui/itta, a rich 
man ; plural, tlatquihttagwe. Ua, uan. New Persian van, 
means neighbor, as: nota icauallocahuan, my father, his 
horse, and its companions = my father's horses. A or tla 
means "abounding in;" tetl, a stone; tetla, a stony place. 

Ian, an, is equivalent to Latin um, Greek on; icala- 
qumw tonatiuh, sunset, literally, his going in place. 

Adjectives usually end in ic, c, qui, ni, o, que, tli, 
though there are many irregularities in Mexican and 
exceptional usages. Examples of regular forms : chipauac. 


clean; coztic, yellow; iztac, white; tetl, a stone; tetic, 
hard; teyo, stony. 

Yo or o = y in English. Eztli, blood; ezyo, bloody; 
xochitl, flowers; zochiyo, flowery; citlallin, a star; citlallo, 
starry; iztatl, salt; iztayo, salty. 

Ti appears to ascribe quality as in English; euatica, 
seated. Tihaa the same genitive use in Chinese, Assyrian, 
and English. 

But some adjectives end in in as before stated ; imatini, 
prudent, from mati, to think. Adjectives also end in ti, 
as: teyacati, perfect. Words in ati {ti) may be adjectives, 
verbs, or nouns, as: t-iztlacati (ti-iz), thou art a liar. 
This is called the substantive verb. It is often almost 
impossible to distinguish this verb from such an adjective 
as teyacati, before quoted.' Adjectives also appear to 
end in ca, as: mimatca, subtle = mo + imat + ca, really 

Adverbs are formed from adjectives by suflBxing ca, as : 
chipauac, clean, chipauaca, cleanly ; or by suffixing tica, as 
ilhuitl, a feast ; ilhuitica, festively ; or with catica, as tlat- 
quihua, rich; tlatquihuacatica, richly. Ca = Latin que 

Liztli. — Having neither inflnitive nor participle the 
Mexican language lacks the flowing continuity of the other 
Aryan tongues. The nearest equivalent to the present 
active participle in other tongues is the verbal noun end- 
ing in liztli, as chiua, do, make, chiualiztli, "a doing" 
of something. The passive voice expresses the same idea 
more specifically as, tlaxcalchiualo, bread is being made. 
Mexican grammarians treat this verbal ending as liztli, 
but they were little given to analysis. I think the real 

1 Compare this termination ati with musallikati, a pipe cleaner, Arabic; 
also il with fatatri, a pastry c'ook. The copulative verb be (sum) is regularly 
omitted in Mexican. 


formation was this: chiua, do; chiua + ra would mean 
"doing-becomes" or "doing-attains," which became simply 
chiualo, "is done or made." This is identical with the 
Latin passive voice. Perhaps this word once took the 
form *chiualis in accordance with the universal Aryan s 
termination. From this came chiualis + tr, a double ter- 
mination not uncommon in Mexican, hence "chiualiztli," 
or, more correctly, "iztli." It is sometimes syncopated 
as: choquiztli, weeping, not choquiliztli. 

Tzin. — Honorifics are of frequent occurrence in some 
oriental languages. The Japanese is full of such expres- 
sions as: "the honorable passengers will deign to claim 
their respected baggage." Servility in its varying gra- 
dations from slave to monarch, found expression in nicely 
graduated phrases to fit every possible occasion. The 
chief Mexican honorific, in fact the only one worth men- 
tioning, is tzin. It means sir, honorable, dear friend, lord, 
etc. A father says by way of endearment, nopiltzin, my 
dear son. I do not know the original meaning of tzin. 
It is possibly the Assyrian sin. 'Saram-Sin, king of 
Assyria, was the son of Sargon I, and reigned about 3700 
B.C. (later authorities say 3000 B.C.).' Cautemocfem 
was the last Mexican emperor, dethroned and put to death 
by Cortez 1524 A. d. Here is an interval of 5,224 years 
between these monarchs, the first recorded and the last to 
wear this ancient and honorable title or appellation. Sin 
or zin is not very closely defined in Norris' Dictionary, 
but reference is made in at least one case to its meaning 
a great and successful hunter, also soldiers and gods. It 

1 Canon Rawlinson in The Five Great Monarchies identifies the " Sin " mon- 
archs with sinu, the moon (god), but 1 think his acceptation of the word is too 
narrow. Ta zinnai, *' beasts of chase ; " Norris' Assyrian Dict.^ p. 357 ; ts changes 
to sh or s, (Norris) ; " ili-sunu zinMti^ ishtari-sunu sapshati, unikh ; " " gods-their 
armedt goddesses-their, attired, were reposing" (Norris, p. 359). Compare 
Sargon with Hungarian, sarga. yellow. 


evidently was applied to very noteworthy personages. 
As we have seen, tzin became generalized in Mexican, 
where it finally means little more than Mr. in English. 
In fact, its use is so generalized as often to seem absurd. 
It may be tacked on almost any part of speech. Its plural 
is tzitzin. (Compare Chinese Tientzin.) 

Postpositions. — Co in Mexican means with or in, as: 
Mexica, the Mexicans; Mexico, with the Mexicans, that is, 
in the city. The same "thought-form" prevailed in 
Greek. The Athenians did not ordinarily call their city 
Athens, if indeed they ever did. They said 'AOijvrjai,, with 
the Athenians. C is probably identical with co as an 
abbreviation in such words as Chapultepec, cemanauac. 
This /c-form is also Algonquin apparently. 

Other postpositives meaning in, or at a place, are tlan, 
in Coatitlan, place of snakes, qualcaw, a good place; 
tlaqualizpaw, meal time; c in Chapultepec, "grasshopper 
hill." Pal means in company with, as ipal nemoani, a 
very ancient phrase meaning deity. Pa signifies like or 
with, as occepa, another time ; it is also Sanskrit, as push- 
pa, flourishing. Icpac is summit or top of anything, as 
quauh-icpac, in the tree-top. All these postpositives were 
probably once significant words in themselves. As may 
be seen, they answer to prepositions in the modern lan- 
guages. They are numerous in Japanese and Chinese, 
and in the latter language, may precede the words quali- 
fied. This form of expression indicates the great antiquity 
of Mexican. But this is not a Mexican grammar and 
perhaps enough has been said already to make the subject 
clear. Vestiges of this form of expression linger in Eng- 
lish: for instance, ward as found in homeward, skyward, 
equivalent to toward home, toward the sky; manlike, like 
a man; therein. 


This feature of syntax is also employed by the Turanian 
languages and the modern dialects of India. The Turan- 
ian tongues have a peculiar vowel sequence, traces of which 
are found in Mexican.' 

L and B. — The Mexican alphabet lacks the letter r, 
but I is its equivalent. Substituting r for I in ail, we have 
atr, Slavonic voda, not much different from water, in fact 
the same word. B and I are peculiar letters in the lin- 
guistic scheme of the world;^ besides being interchangeable, 
they allow vowels to play hide and seek around them in a 
puzzling way. In Sanskrit, there exists a vocalic r (r) and 
I which play the part of vowels. The Sanskrit also has a 
regular r and I and the name for the letter r is ra instead 
of ar. Sanskrit tolerates such forms as ddrgam, I saw. 
A vanishing vowel, usually an a-sound, must of necessity 
have preceded or followed r. Otherwise ddrQam is unpro- 
nounceable. The usual Greek equivalent of vocalic r [r) 
was ra as in d^rkomai, I see ; 6drakon, I saw. The latter was 
possibly once 6darakon. The unaccented vowel naturally 
perished. Every student of Greek may recall the fact 
that anomalies of this kind were usually explained as 
metathesis, whereas they were cases of vowel decay. 

The word for wolf, vrka, in Sanskrit, illustrates admir- 
ably the vocalic character of r and I, and at the same time 
their interchangeableness. The word was originally, 
probably vrk, vragc, *vrask, the tearer. The Greek is 
liikos, V disappearing and r becoming Ij Latin, lupus; 
Church Slavonic, vliiku; English, wolf, *wolk. The 
English form is wholly unrecognizable were it not for the 
connecting links in other languages. Observe: that while 
Sanskrit and Greek retain kj Sanskrit, Church Slavonic, 

1 Mexican in Arycm Phonology, p. 8. 

2 Pezzi, Aryan Phonology, pp. 17 ff. 


and English retain initial v; Latin and English have 
passed from fc top (chapter "Phonology").^ 

I have gone into the study of r and I at some length, 
because r in particular is very important in determining 
derivations, also the value of terminations in many lan- 
guages. The old Aryan r (ra) had a determining value, 
or, speaking grammatically it had a nomen agentis value. 
For example, in the word farmer, farm is the entity or 
inert object, while r adds the significance by affirming an 
agency and naming the agent. Hence a farmer is the 
active agent who utilizes a farm. In Spanish caballo is 
horse and caballero, originally horseman, is a gentleman. 
Here r converts the word horse into a longer word with 
the resultant meaning "one who rides a horse," the addi- 
tional being simply for euphony, ero = er. Thus the single 
letter r expands into the relative clause "he who does." 

L and B as primitives. — In Mexican, an I may have 
been originally an r but perhaps it never was. In Sanskrit 
r prevails; in Zend and Old Persian I is missing. Any 
discussion of the reason why the Mexicans lost r, b, and 
g, would involve ingenious speculation, without definite 
results. The same phenomenon, paucity of consonants, 
occurs in other ancient languages. The truth may be that 
some modern forms of speech have simply developed more 
consonants, though Mexican has unquestionably lost them.^ 
It is a question of abstract phonics and vocalization, in 
short, a history of human utterance. Persons who are not 
philologists may be disinclined to accept the mere dictum 
that r so often resolves itself into I. There are numerous 
instances and there is also evidence, apparently, that the 
lost r may unaccountably return to a language as in mod- 

1 Urku is dog ia Assyrian, Norris' Dictionary, p. 505. 

2 "Ancient languages are very deficient in consonants," Onilroy de Thoron 
article, Aryayis of Peru, 


ern Chinese.' I will cite another instance where it appears 
plain that r and I are synonymous. The Mexican word 
tlalli means earth, the ground ; the old Latin word tellus 
meant the same ; the modern Arabic tel means land, coun- 
try. But the later Latin for earth is terra, Sanskrit, trs, 
to be thirsty (dry). Tel in Mexican has become merely 
initial tl. The full word may have been HHalli instead 
of tlalli. In Greek telm.& is a swamp. Mexican possesses 
no ancient literature, no musty tomes or corroded archives 
in which to trace the evolution of tel or tra, tla. But 
with such convincing corroborative evidence in languages 
so widely separated in time and in geographical distribu- 
tion, as Greek, Latin, Arabic, Mexican, is there any room 
for reasonable doubt that the Mexicans long ago said tel- 
alli or teralli instead of tlalli? Also note what has just 
been said about d6rkomai. 

Loss of terminations in plurals and compounds. — 
It is a curious fact that in Mexican compound words the 
termination of the first member of the compound almost 
invariably disappears: Thus cihuatl, woman, no-cihuauh, 
my wife; maitl, hand; quechtli (slender) ; maquechtli, the 
wrist; puchtecatl, a merchant, Tplnral puchteca, merchants. 
There seems to be a disposition in this very primitive 
language to look at things in the mass or quantity rather 
than as individuals. Thus Aztecatl, an Aztec, but Azteca, 
the mass, is the plural or tribe. It seems to me that the 
Greek neuter noun which takes its verb in the singular 
involves a similar basic thought. The only explanation 
I think of concerning the last example and others like it 
is this: pushteca is a sentence meaning they guard or care 
for goods.'' Popocatepetl is a similar case of a clumsy 
noun-sentence, literally "smokes-mountain." 

1 Chitiese Grrammar, by Professor James Summers, Oxford, 
^Cf. Pushman, an Armenian family name. 


Mexican Word Studies. — Tlani, Quechtli, Tzontli, Xauani, 
Ualyolcatl, Pixquitl, Tlaca-tecolotl, Metztli, Tezcatl-ipoca, 
Youal-ehecatl, Quauh-chimalli, Ozomatli, Mexico. 

Owing to phonetic decay the Mexican language pre- 
sents some curious forms which may often be classed as 
homonyms. At first I was greatly puzzled by the radical 
differences in the meanings of the same word. Some of 
these forms I have been unable to derive successfully, but 
I mention them here to illustrate the difficulties which 
beset the pioneer in the analysis of American languages. 

Tlani means command, wish, also down; nite-tlani 
means to gain at play; nitla-t\am, to lose. The first 
appears regular, that is, I have commanded some one or 
had my wish of him ; the second is doubtless one of those 
idioms found in all languages which cannot be explained 
by taking the words literally. Nicte-chiuh-Wani in tequitl, 
"I have acquitted you of the tribute," is very hard to ex- 
plain literally unless we understand: I have relieved you 
by putting your burden on some one else, "te" being the 
indefinite pronoun for "others." This tlani may be 
derived from Sanskrit tra, to protect. Tlani, down, may 
be tr, trans, through +m, nether, down, as in English ble- 
ther, millstone. 

Quechtli is the neck, maquechtli, the wrist, but quech- 
coatl is a rattlesnake. I derive the first from Sanskrit, 
k r q; Old Latin, cracentes, classic Latin, gracilis, slender ; 
the second I derive from Sanskrit, khaj, to shake.' 

1 See Max MttUer, synonyms, homonyms, and polynyms, Chips from German 
Workshop, Vol. II, p. 70. 



Tzontli, 400, in enumeration; the head or a head of 
hair. At first I felt sure this was Sanskrit, gata, 100; 
Greek, h6katon ; Latin, centum ; English, hundred. Pho- 
netically this derivation may be termed normal but not 
proven, hence only meaning may determine. If the word 
originally meant four hundred, or a large number, then 
tzontli is doubtless cent-urn; but if the original meaning 
was top, head, then it may possibly be derived from sdn-Vi, 
Sanskrit, top, ridge, a very different word ; or it may be a 
root not found in other Aryan tongues. 

Xauani, to drip, and xaua, to adorn, would appear to 
be related, were it not for the suspicious ending ni. Xaua 
seems to be found in the Latin, coZ-or. The fact that 
these very different forms exist with identical meanings 
in Latin and Mexican is the strongest kind of proof of 
the common Aryan origin of the two languages. When 
I had elaborated my system of phonology sufficiently I 
noticed this word xaua and argued that a Latin word 
from the same root should be spelled col. I turned to 
my Latin dictionary and found the cognate, coZ-or. But 
xauani is from Sanskrit, sr, sarana, to run (as liquids). 
Compare Latin, col-o, and Sanskrit, jala; German, 
quellenj and for xaua, Sanskrit, Qubh, to adorn.' 

Ualyolcatl seems a very strange and forbidding word 
to English eyes. It means kindred, consanguinity. It is 
derived from Sanskrit, vr to inclose, surround, hence those 
selected or set off from the rest of the tribe + vrj, *varg, 
which means to turn, or to surround, inclose, thus giving 
a double meaning to the word, " those selected and inclosed" 
(in a common household), that is, kin, the family. Vrjtoa 
from vrj meant either dwelling-place or dwellers. 

Pixquitl, harvest, is phonetically Aryan pise; Latin, 

1 See Mexican in Aryan Phonology, p. 11, 


piscis, a fish; German, fische; Anglo-Saxon, pise; Irish, 
iasg; English, fish. The Mexican word for fish is michin. 
How then is this transfer of meaning to be explained if 
pixquitl meant fish? If the Nahua once inhabited the 
northwest Pacific coast country, their chief occupation 
was necessarily fishing and to speak of the fish harvest 
was a natural sequence. But this is one of the cases 
referred to by Professor Nfildeke (see p. 17) where close 
resemblance of forms leads the negligent philologist 
astray. Pixquitl is Sanskrit Mja, *biska, seed, and pixqui, 
priest, is no doubt prach, Latin, prex. 

Tlacatecolotl, the devil, "the Rational Owl" (Clavijero) , 
the man owl. This is a very puzzling word (for birds in 
mythology see p. 116). It may be analyzed tlacatl, 
man + tecolotl, owl. Since this is the Indian explanation 
it must not be ignored. But since Mexican has no litera- 
ture, hence no records of word-history, it is not unreason- 
able to assume transfer meanings. Tlaca, an adverb, 
means, by day, visible, and is cognate with Sanskrit, dvQ 
to see; Greek, Sep/co/jiai; tlachia, to look, observe, is from 
the same root. Darga in Vedic Sanskrit meant the new 
moon. Tecolotl, owl, is no doubt Sanskrit, iSluka, owl 
*iSl1ikatl, and a "bad-luck" bird. The first syllable tec 
is, I think, from tecolli, a live coal ; from Sanskrit, dah, to 
burn; Anglo-Saxon, dseg; English, day.' Hence tlacatec- 
olotl may mean, "the firebird," "the shine owl," "the 
moon-shiner," alluding to the bright eyes of the bird or 
its plumage. This would be a very reasonable definition 
if darga, the moon, could be made to mean night which 
it really was. But the Mexicans distinctly meant day in 
their use of tlaca, thus: '^ tlaca ti-ualla, amo youaltica,'''' 
you will arrive by day, not by night, hence tlaca may 

1 Mexican in Aryan Phonology, Table 0. 


mean man since tec supplies the idea of luminosity.' In 
conclusion I may add that there exists today a belief in 
the "luminous owl." 

Metztli furnishes a curious instance of a transfer of 
meanings. Metztli means: (1) a month; (2) the moon; 
(3) a leg. Metztli is identical in verbal form with the 
Sanskrit mas, the moon, which in turn is derived from mo, 
to measure; Greek, jj^rivi]; Latin, mensis; German, mond; 
English, month. The moon was the universal measurer of 
time in the ancient world and remains so with Moham- 
medans. Hence moon and month are etymologically iden- 
tical. But the word leg suggests a difficulty and English 
history at once offers a solution. Our yard stick was 
established from the length of a royal arm, and on the 
authority of Brinton the Mexicans employed the lower 
extremity as a standard of measure. 

TezcatUpoca, a god, the devil, some say chief of the 
Mexican pantheon. Analyzed, tezcatl -\- ipoca. Tezcail 
is. defined a lake, a mirror but this appears to be a transfer 
meaning ; pocatl is smoke, Greek, irvKd^o), shadow ; image 
in the mirror as indicated by the possessive pronoun i. 
Hence Tezcatlipoca is demon, "his or its image in the 
mirror." Tezcatl is Sanskrit (Vedic), tdskara, thief, 
hence evil-doer. This personage was also called tezca- 

^ A curious incident is related by the Rev. Prank Borton ilndependGni^ Decem- 
ber, 1906) as told him by a priest. A certain large cross was a favorite with the 
Indians. Examination revealed in&ide it a large stuffed owl. — My speculation 
has been curiously veriiled later. The "luminous owl" really exists. See T. 
Digby Pigott, Contemporary Review^ July, 1908. 

Brinton {Myths of the New World, p. 106) says tlaca was prefixed to tecolotl 
by the Christans and that no such deity as the " man owl " ever existed (reference 
Buschman). He defines iecoJoii as "the stone scorpion," from ief 2 -{- coZoii. Verily 
some extraordinary conclusions have been drawn from the analysis of Mexican 
words. As a corroboration of this cult of the devil in Mexico it may be sufficient 
to recall the rival factions of ancient Persia, followers of Ormazd and Ahriman. 
A sect in Persia today keeps up this devil worship (Carus, History of the Devil, 
p. 63). 


tecolotl, thus merging the two devils Tezcatl-ipoca and 
Tlaca-tecolotl into one. Tezcatl-ipoca the evil specter may 
be classed with the mirror and left-hand superstitions — 
being unlucky, ill-omened, malicious. It is a well-known 
fact that some tribes of Indians refuse to allow themselves 
to be photographed because the taking of any picture or 
representation of the person is "bad medicine." In this 
connection compare the Aryan traditions connected with 
the mirror, such as the universal belief that it is bad luck 
to break a looking-glass, and the Scotch divinations enacted 
by lovers before the glass. Uitzilopochtli himself (chap, 
xiv) was intimately connected with this Old Aryan, "left- 
hand" superstition. Tezcatlipoca was also called Youal- 
ehecatl or "Spirit of the Night.'" He carried a mirror in 
which he saw all that went on in the world. The idea 
thief IB plainly embodied in the mirror which, as the Indians 
believe, steals something from you. 

Youal-ehecatl, spirit of the night, another name for 
Tezcatl-ipoca. Analogy and etymology combine to indi- 
cate that the Greek goddess Hecate or Artemis is indicated 
here. Hecatos the masculine form was an epithet of 
Apollo. The torch in her hand was supposed to symbolize 
the moon. She was distinctly a goddess of the night. 

1 The Aztec gods in general had different forms or aspects. Usually they were 
grotesque or terrible. I will describe one aspect of Tezcatlipoca : A young man 
of pleasing physiognomy, rather short and stout appearing, and slightly bent 
forward, this attitude probably assumed to comport with his half bird appearance . 
His vestment is an ample bird-mantle of blue or pale purple, the wings shading 
to black at the butts. His boxlike headgear is of the same color and surmounted 
by waving green plumes. His feet are double, above the human feet, springing 
from the ankle joints, are the feet of a cock. From his wristlets depend red rib- 
bons, tipped with yellow. His posture indicates animation. Altogether this 
gorgeous personage done in purple, black, red, green and yellow barely escapes 
the grotesque. (Kingsborough's Mexican Antiquities, Vol. V, p. 189, plate 42; 
Codice Mexicano, MS 3738 Biblioteca Vaticana.) 

For a description of the sacrifices to Tezcatlipoca see Prescott, Conquest of 
Mexico, Vol, I, pp. 79, 80 ; also Sagahun, Historia de Nueva Mspafla, Lib. II, caps . 
2, 5, 21. For a curious account of his apparition and interview with an Aztec 
chief, see Ohimalpahin, Annals, Seventh Relation, 1336, 1457. 


She presided over magic arts and spells to which the 
Nahua were greatly addicted. As goddess of the moon 
she is directly associated with the moon cult as represented 
in Hindu mythology and by the Algonquin Manabozho. 
Dogs were sacrificed to her and she was frequently repre- 
sented as accompanied by dogs. (See Quauh-chimalli. ) 

Quauh-chimalli, monkey ; chimalli, a shield. Ozomatli 
"the divine monkey" was one of the "Stations" of the 
Aztecs in their migration. What connection can possibly 
exist between a monkey and a shield? I shall try to un- 
ravel this mystery of mythology by offering what I believe 
to be at least a plausible solution. The days of the month 
in Nauatl, Maya and Kich6-Cacchikel were assigned "day 
gods." The eighth day in Maya was called Chuenj in 
Kich6-Cacchikel, Batzi; in Nauatl, Ozomatli} Both the 
latter mean monkey, but chuen looks as if it meant dog, 
Kvmv, canis. Hence there may have been a transfer 
meaning in the other two languages from dog to monkey, 
since such transfers are not infrequent. In Nauatl (and 
Japanese) chi means dog and chuen may be the same. 
The dog in Mexican was sometimes called "the lightning 
beast," from tzitzini-liztli, lightning, an epithet doubtless 
derived from a homonym, Sanskrit, dina, to light up; 
Mexican, cJiinoa. This is a step toward mythology. The 
monkey is esteemed sacred in India today. Here is a 
striking coincidence, the words dawn and lightning. A 
third step is that Sanskrit, dhi, Mexican, chi, means devo- 
tion. Main is a puzzle. Is mat a root or is it formative? 
In Vedic Sanskrit gyama meant dark or black; Qj&mAm. 
(ayas) was iron in the opinion of Dr. Schrader, though 
termed "black bronze." From this we see our way to 
chimalli, shield, black, "iron thing," dha, to put. Turn 

1 In Nauatl, Ozomatli was the 11th day ; cf . cimmeiian, cyam&m. 


again to mythology. Sardma, the faithful dog of Indra, 
came at dawn driving up her cows with two other dogs(?), 
GjkmA and QaMla, familiarly "blackie" and "spot." ' The 
dog which accompanied the "Unknown God" on his visit 
to the Inca was black (Falb, Land of the Inca), and the 
dog Ceberus played an important part in Greek mythol- 
ogy as guardian of the portals of Hades. Here we have 
the connection between chiov chin, the dog "blackie" and 
chima-\li, shield (black iron), also the ideas "divine" 
and "dawn" or "lightning." But it remains to explain 
quauh in quauh-chimal, monkey. The Sanskrit name for 
ape was Jcapl, which phonetically becomes Mexican Jcauh. 
Hence if transfer meaning from dog to monkey took place 
the whole is clear without employing the specific name of 
Sardma's dog "blackie," but simply understanding it as 
the black ape ^ymtTk, chimalli, or "the Divine monkey."'' 
I do not call this discussion of quauh-chimalli strictly 
scientific, nor is it, in fact, anything more than plausible 
as before stated. Chimalli may be derived, in its reli- 
gious aspect, very directly and simply; dhi, devotion + 
man, to think, *man-ri, malli; hence "the pious, rational 
ape." But this will not explain chimalli a shield. 

Ozomatli. — What was this "divine ape" who gave a 
day name to the Mexican calendar? As said before 
kapi Sanskrit for ape became quauh in Mexican as in 
quauh-chimalli, "monkey-sacred," not tree monkey. Hanu- 
man was a king of the monkeys. Rama Chandra was an 
incarnation of Vishnu, a sort of Hindu Ulysses. In the 
Vedas we have Vrshd-kapi the virile ape who fought 

1 The legend of The Hound of the Baskervilles, by Conan Doyle, was doubt- 
less foiiDded on this dog or Cerberus legend. This supernatural dog has become 
a spirit of evil in the Island of Britain. The Welsh call it Own Wybir. 

2 The philologist will ask here why cya develops chi rather than chia or cha. 
I can scarcely answer that question but usage renders either form probable. 


for Rama. Barth remarks that the modern monkey wor- 
ship of India may go back to this warrior ape of the 
Vedas.' I would add that it unquestionably does. Matti 
is probably Sanskrit mad which may mean : joyous, divine, 

Mexico. — The origin of the word Mexico has caused 
much speculation. Olavijero discusses it and connects 
it with the god Mexitli and no doubt correctly. His 
"house" was Mexicaltzinco. Lord Kingsborough tried to 
derive Mexico from the Hebrew meshiak, Messiah, "the 
anointed." In my earlier work I connected it with the 
Assyrian root mekh, which derivation I still believe to 
have a basis in fact.^ Some think it may be metl, maguey 
-\-citli, hare, hence Mexitli would be "the hare of the 
maguey" and probably related to the Algonquin "Great 
Hare" Manabozho. Others connect it with meyalli, a 
fountain. This is evidently wrong phonetically. Others 
suggest metl + ixtli "face to face with the magueys." 
This seems absurd and wholly lacking in specific mean- 
ing since "face to face with the magueys" might mean 
almost any place in Mexico. 

When the curse was put upon the Azteca, Uitzilopoch- 
tli changed their name to Mexica and spake to them: 
Yacachto ti-tequitizque, "for the first ye shall labor." 
Mexitli was another name for Uitzilopochtli. 

The god Mexitli is, beyond any reasonable doubt, sim- 
ply the Persian Ahura-Jf azda, "the great god," the 

1 A. Barth, Religions of India, p. 265. The phonetics are: ursfta, virile, be- 
comes ozo Cuzo) in Mexican, r being dropped ; in Icapi, P=w, hence gua'uA=ka-d. 
The frontispiece of The Story of Vedic Jyidia, Ragozin, gives in colors a picture 
of the battle between Rama with his army of apes and the demon Icing of Lanka 
(Ceylon). The "divine monkey" is portrayed as performing astounding feats of 
valor and agility. Cf . Paul Carus, History of the Devil, p. 82. 

2 References to Mekh, Norris, Assyrian Diet. : mekhazu, stronghold (p. 768) ; 
mekbira, a superior (772) ; la makhri, unequaled (778) ; mekhran, a city (780). 


Supreme Being. Ahura, Sanskrit asura, god, is dropped 
and only mazda = mexitli remains. It is not uncommon 
in Iranian to extend a root to two syllables by interposing 
a vowel. Hence mazd-a becomes *mazid-a, Mexican, mex- 
it-li. The root is mag as in Latin mag-nus, large.' If 
we consider the Avestan, mazdian then we have Mexi-tli 
= magian, a priest of the fire worshipers. 

Tenochtitlan, the more common name for the city of 
Mexico, is simply "place of the rock cactus" and no doubt 
was named from his own cognomen by its founder Tenoch. 

1 Cf . Gray, Indo-Iranian Phonology, also Tolman, Old Persian Inscriptions, 
for phonetic changes. Mazda often stands alone. 


Mexican Syntax — The Prepositive-Objective Pronoun and 
''Thought Forms" — Sequence in Sentence — Syntax and 
Probable Age of Mexican — Coalescing Pronouns — Con- 
jugation — " Desinences." 

The prepositive object-pronoun in Mexican seems 
wholly superfluous. This scarcely comes under the head 
of compounds and yet it is in effect a species of com- 
pounding. In the sentence: Nic-poa in amoxtli, I read 
the book, c {qui) is the prepositive objective pronoun 
which usually indicates that the object will be named 
later on, but a pronoun must be used whether the object 
follows or not. The formula is: I-it-read, the book. 
The indefinite sentence: Peter reads (or reckons) would 
be: Petolo ila-ipoa.. Qui is not used with "pacientes," 
that is, personal objective pronouns as Nimitz-tlagotla, I 
love you, not Nic-mitz-tla^otla. The indefinite pronoun 
tla, it, has a similar use but represents things indefinitely 
while te represents persons. This is a curious survival 
apparently confined to American languages.' We may 
well speculate concerning the origin of so curious a syn- 
tactical device. It appears useless now, but once the logi- 
cal order of expression was different. The primitive man 
returning tired from the chase or driving his herds, at 
first sight of his dwelling, exclaimed tersely, "house." 
That was the important thing. If he made a statement it 
was "house, I see it," "house not far," etc. Many lan- 
guages even yet place the object first. It was a long time 

1 Compare, ni-te-tla-maca, I give-him-it, with French, Je-Ze-Zwi-donne, I-it-to- 



before the more analytical, detailed statement "I see our 
house" could come into use.' Perhaps the Mexicans 
began to place the object after the verb, occasionally, at 
first, and then generally, and the old instinct probably 
told them there should still be something before the verb 
to act as a sort of index. It is possible that c was at first 
an objective case sign, indicating the object in a tongue, 
without gender, number, or inflection, like the Japanese 
ga, the sign of the nominative case. The noun may have 
been switched over to follow the verb, while the sign got 
glued to the subject pronoun and remained there. Japa- 
nese and Chinese still use such signs; also Tupi, to a 
limited extent. 

I think, in fact, Tupi may offer a curious corrobora- 
tion of this view. There is a feature of the possessive- 
objective in that language which I confess I am unable to 
understand from the meager, hazy treatment given the 
subject by Ruiz de Montoya, though I have tried hard to 
grasp the gist of the matter. He speaks of "reciprocals" 
and "relatives." The rule is, that every noun beginning 
with h, t, r, has its relative g and its reciprocal h. Other 
nouns have y "relative," o "reciprocal." Tera, name; 
cherera, my name; hera, his (ejus) name; guera, his 
(suum) name. Example: tub begins with t. Peru gnha 
ohaihii oci ab6. Peter his father loves, his mother also; 
g is a "relative" possessive-objective. Tupi is given to 
queer phonetic changes; tu or tub(a) is father; cheruba 
is possessive-nominative, my father (che + r + ub) ; guba 
is possessive-objective. May not g, here be an old objec- 
tive sign coalesced and analogous to the Mexican? The 

iThe first arrangement has been called the "logical" and the second the 
"natural." These are arbitrary terms since both are logical and both natural. 
Byrne says that thoughtful races adopt the order subject-verb while careless 
races employ verb-subject, Principles of the Structure of Language, Vol. II, p. 281. 


formula would be g° + tub. [In fact this seems to be 
wholly a question of phonetics.]' 

Sequence in sentence. — Modern Mexican places the 
adjective before the noun, and the object, as a rule, after 
the verb, thus following the "natural" order. But there 
are indications that once the "logical" may have at least 
partially prevailed. The usual order in an indefinite sen- 
tence is (1) inseparable, nominative pronoun, (2) preposi- 
tive, objective pronoun, (3) verb; as: m-f Za-gwa, I-it-eat. 
But the object noun may be clipped of its termination and 
compounded before the verb as: nacatl, meat, ni-naca- 
qua, I-meat-eat; finally where nouns are employed for 
both subject and object the order may be (1) verb, (2) 
object, (3) subject; as: (a) "Auh ic quin-macac in ipil- 
tzin in Chinancoca itoca Cacamatl Totec; Chinancoca gave 
them his son by name Cacamatl Totec." Or the order may 
be, (1) verb, (2) subject, (3) object: as (6) "yancuica 
acMopa oquittaque in Tlacochcalca-Chalca in opopocac 
in tepetl, for the first time the Tlacochcalca-Chalca saw 
[that] smoked the mountain."'^ Mexican continually em- 
ploys the predicate adjective in what must be considered 
as a sentence. Thus Sanskrit, vrsh^-kapi, virile ape; 
but the Mexican reverses this, a Latinism, and says ozo- 

1 In the Tukiok dialect of Polynesia, there is Bomething resembling this : 
ynig I'uma or rvma-ig, equally mean, my house, A Melanesian form is etuia-k^ 
my father. In Papuan, ina-guis my mother. But theseaffixes are all in thefirst 
person. As to position, notice post- and pre-position in the first example quoted, 
Briuton gives uba, father, but Montoya's excellent dictionary gives : tu.b, father ; 
oheruba, my father; tuba, ejus pater; guba, suum pater. With such phonetic 
changes it is very difficult to determine the real root. Brinton apparently 
held the view that " relatives " refers to relationship, consanguinity. . But there 
are changes which are not capable of such explanation and are hard to explain 
in any way as tesa, eyes, cheresa, my eyes ; supia, egg ; sapucai, hen, but sapucai 
rupid^ a hen's egg. Compare Sanskrit change of final r to 8 and nigori in 
Japanese, as kuni kuni to kuni guni. This change applies to prepositions also 
in Tupi as tenonde, before ; s«enonde, before him. 

2 References: Chimalpahin, 4n?io!s, Seventh Relation (o) year 1342; (6)1347, 
The earliest historical account of an eruption of Popocatepetl, 


matli, the ape [which is] active. Compare the French 
un homme grand, a man [who isj distinguished, but un 
grand homme is simply a tall man. 

Age. — Mexican syntax is also a strong proof of the 
extreme antiquity of the language. The Vedic Sanskrit 
allowed much more latitude in the position of modifiers 
than did the classic Sanskrit. The same feature prevails 
in the Mexican today. To illustrate: o-mo-ual-cuep, he 
returned, literally "he back turned." Here o is the aug- 
ment which is separated from its verb cuep by the adverb 
ual and the pronoun mo. This arrangement in Greek 
would be an impossible barbarism. The augment is fre- 
quently omitted in Mexican, in perhaps half the cases, the 
same thing in the same proportion holds good in Vedic 

Mexican has no infinitive, though Assyrian possessed 
an infinitive 5,000 years ago. It is not probable that 
Mexican once had an infinitive and lost it later. I know 
of no such case. The rudiments of an infinitive, perhaps 
the very germ as it were, arrested forever, may be found 
in the use of tlani. Here one verb was plainly made 
dependent on another in an infinitive relation, as, nicte- 
mactlani, I have ordered it given another ; nicte-chiuh/Zam, 
I caused another to do it, ninomauigoUam, I desire to be 
honored. Had this usage extended to all verbs instead of 
being confined to this parasitic tlani, a genuine infinitive 
would have resulted. Poloa is used similarly. 

The Mexican is extremely simple in its syntax, never- 
theless. The adjective as an attributive precedes the noun 
as in English. Iztacciuatl, the name of the great volcano, 
should really be spelled as two words : iztac, white, ciuatl, 
a woman, so called because the snow on its summit lies in 

1 Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, sec. 587, a, b, c, d. 


a long line resembling the body of a dead woman in her 
shroud ; in Spanish Mujer Blanca. The possessive adjunct 
usually precedes its head word, though no ambiguity 
results if it follows thus : Nota i-cauallo, my father's horse, 
literally, "my father, his horse," or i-cauallocahuan in 
nota, my father's horses. This is New Persian as, daman 
i-koh, hillside. For the important and peculiar use of the 
possessive pronoun, as used in nota (no tatli), I would 
refer the reader to a Mexican grammar. 

Connectives are few in Mexican. There is no true 
relative pronoun. This lack of connectives gives the lan- 
guage scantiness of thought or at least the appearance of 
it, as : Nic-nequi nic-quaz, literally, I wish I shall eat, for 
I shall eat. There is an ambiguity in the use of the 
imperative in the singular. Thus : ma nitla-qua may mean 
(1) May I eat (precative) ; (2) I do not eat; (3) I am 
going to eat. The voice distinguishes them.' 

Coalescing pronouns. — In Assyrian the possessive 
pronoun follows its headword instead of preceding it. 
Thus, "their corpses" would be written pagri-sunu, 
corpses-their, while the Mexican would say: sunupag, 
clipping the termination from the last word, assuming that 
he used the same words. But position may count for lit- 
tle. Considering the lapse of time, perhaps the Assyrian 
once said sunupagri. It must be borne in mind that 
Assyrian was spoken without radical change through a 
period of nearly 5,000 years. Such language-vitality 
makes English and other modern languages, except Greek, 
Lithuanian, Finnish, etc., seem like mere mushrooms of 
speech. We are 2,500 years later than Nebuchadnezzar, 
but the latter himself, was 3,200 years later than Sargon I. 
Both spoke Assyrian. Lithuanian retains a curious sort of 

1 Olmos, Grammar of Nahuatl, p. 82, 


liaison which practically links two words into one, as the 
recent investigations of R. Gauthiot in Lithuania conclu- 
sively show and decide a mooted point.' The Hindus 
wrote an entire sentence as one word, and liaison in pro- 
nunciation probably took place as in modern Lithuanian 
in certain cases, though modern grammarians are inclined, 
I think erroneously, to consider this feature of classic San- 
skrit as largely artificial.'' (See the Sanskrit phrase 
quoted, p. 34.) In language we must accept things as 
they are, however illogical and arbitrary they may appear. 
Apparent contradictions may exist side by side in dialects 
of the same language. Thus in colloquial Arabic, the 
pronoun, possessive or demonstrative, precedes its noun in 
Syria, as: thal-beit, this house. In Egypt it usually fol- 
lows as: el-beit tha.^ 

The coalescing possessive pronoun would appear to be 
Semitic, but it is also Hungarian as, tolla, a pen (feather) ; 
toUam, my pen; toUod, thy pen. Compare tolla here, 
with Nauatl tollin, a reed; Spanish tuU. This prepositive 
adhering pronoun is not a feature of Aryan syntax in 
general. This fact alone might indicate that Mexican is 
a Turanian language which separated from the mother 
tongue along with West-Ugrian (Finnish and Hungarian) 
before the defection of Aryan, were it not for the Aryan 
vocabulary of Mexican. The postpositive system is not 
Western- Aryan, but it finds many parallels in Sanskrit as 
manushvdt, as Manu did. But the lack of an infinitive, 
which Sanskrit possesses, and which is wholly wanting in 
Mexican, indicates clearly the archaic form of the latter.* 

1 Lithuanian, Buividzi Dialect, Essai, par R. G-authiot, Paris. 

2 Whitney, Sanskrit Orammar, 101, u. 
sTien's Manual, p. 52. 

* Modern Bulgarian has no infinitive. For discussion of the development of 
infinitives see Max Mttller, "Rede Lecture " in Chips from a Qerman Workshop. 



The infinitive proper is a subtlety of speech which indi- 
cates considerable development in language. 

Conjugation. — Mexican certainly appears to contain 
the first stages of Aryan verb conjugation, as exhibited 
in Sanskrit and Greek. Let us examine the Mexican 
verb, taking maca, to give, as a model: Ni-c-te-maca, 
I-it-to someone-give. 



Singular, nicte-maca Plural, ticte-maca 

ticte-maca anquite-maca, 

quite-maca quite-maca 

Notice that the third person is subjectless, with regard 
to pronouns, a defect common to some American lan- 
guages, also to Japanese, Chinese, etc. The reflective and 
impersonal, however, employ the subject as: mo-chiua, 
it is doing. 



















Here we perceive distinctly the "s" sign of the future 
tense and the aorist system as best illustrated in the 
Greek. In the Mexican future and preterite plural 
ending, "que" = ka, I think may be seen the equivalent 
of the Greek perfect termination ka. The "s" sign of 
the future, the augment and the perfect sign ka ar6 
thoroughly Greek, hence Aryan. It is impossible that 
this is the ruins of an earlier elaborate system of con- 


jugation. The usage of the two tenses also corresponds 
largely as: eureka, I have found it; onicte-mac, I gave 
it, or have given it. 

[This view, formulated in the earlier part of my work, is 
perhaps not adequate in the treatment of the verb.] 

Desinences. — These devices, unknown to western Aryan 
tongues, give added significance to a verb. Co, quiuh, 
qui, mean "just done" (venir de faire) nitla-quaco, I 
come to eat, just arrived; to, tiuh ti, "about to do" (aller 
faire), antemachti^o, you (plu. ) have gone to teach. The 
use of the desinences is very subtle, and at times ap- 
parently arbitrary. An extension of meaning is also 
given by linking two verbs by ca or ti, as: nitlaquaticac, 
ti + icac, I eat standing up. 


The Particle "tla" — "In," its Use and History — Grammatical 
Gender — "Animate" and "Inanimate" — Thought Forms 
and Style. 

The particle tla. — The Mexican pronoun tla is in 
constant use, in fact it is greatly overworked. It is an 
indefinite pronoun, the use of which may be illustrated 
in this brief sentence: nitla-matoca, I touch it, literally, 
"I it touch." The active Mexican verb must always 
have an object, as has been remarked before, and when 
the object is unknown or the speaker does not think it 
worth while to mention it, he merely inserts tla to repre- 
sent it. Tla begins many verbs, as an integral part of 
the word, and is often simply initial tr or dr. 

There are cases where tla seems superfluous, and adds 
nothing to the meaning, as : tlamana, to make an offering ; 
tlanonotza, to tell a story; tlapixqui, to guard; tlagotla, 
to love ; tlatlacalhuia, to injure ; tlaicnotililli, impoverished. 
As may be seen, these verbs are all active, but even a 
noun or an adjective may take tla in the sense of an ob- 
ject, as tlatomalli, something unraveled, though in this 
case the verbal might well govern an object. This con- 
stant repetition of tla is one of the defects of the language. 
Such extreme cases as tlatla^otla, to love, arise from ety- 
mological complications. 

A large proportion of the excess of words under t, 
which constitutes about one-fourth of the entire vocabu- 
lary, is caused by this persistent tla, and tla as an 
introductory particle or pronoun cannot be easily ex- 
plained. Mexican grammarians derive tla from itla, 



thing. Let us insert thing and see if it is adequate. 
"Raveled-thing" makes sense; but there is no sense in 
"love-thing," "pray-thing," "oration-thing," "injure- 

In my opinion, tla must be sought elsewhere. It is 
simply tr^ through, completely; Latin, trans; Sanskrit, 
tra. It often appears to be simply an article as: tla- 
tomalli, unraveled; tla-chiuhtli, a thing done. In its 
most general sense it has the signification of by, with, 
through, or because of, but in tlachia, to observe, from 
drg, tla is an integral part of the root. 

A further material increase of verbs under / is caused 
by the emphatic prefix te (ta) which I take to be some- 
times the demonstrative pronoun ; Sanskrit, ta, tad ; 
English, that; but Olmos pronounces it a syncopated 
form of tequi, much, greatly. 

In. — The Mexican language has, properly speaking, 
no article, yet tla in such a word as tlachiuhtli is 
translated a, a thing done. But in is so often used 
clearly as an article, that it may almost be said to assume 
that function. Yet in so often appears superfluous that 
the reader is continually at a loss to determine its proper 
significance. The Spanish grammarians of Mexican are 
accustomed to assert that the Mexicans continually inter- 
jected superfiuous words into their discourse simply to 
fill up, so to speak, and round a phrase. The poetry of 
Nezahualcoyotr affords numerous examples corroborating 
this fact, and the same doubtless may be said of hartogues 
in council. But poetry in all languages abounds in 
figures, inversions and pleonasm. In serious prose, in 
probably has always a definite use, but only a Mexican 
knows its proper use, and he must be an intelligent 

1 Daniel G. Brintou's edition, Philadelphia, 1880. 


person. It would be profitless to dwell on the subject 
here. Its place is in a Mexican grammar. But an evi- 
dence of the extreme antiquity of the word in, in its 
article sense, is found in an inscription "in Susinak," 
1200 B. 0.' In modem Persian m is the demonstrative 
this, and in Mexican inin is this; inon, that. This on, 
by the way, is thoroughly Saxon, meaning extension, 

Orammatical gender. — English is a language which is 
strictly logical in its use of gender. It follows nature, the 
male takes a masculine pronoun, the female a feminine, 
and all that is neither male nor female is neuter, without 
exception. Most languages are arbitrary in this respect. 
In French, a house, maison, is referred to as she, while 
miir, the wall of the house, is he. Grammatical gender is 
a subtle question which cannot be discussed fully here. 

Animate and inanimate. — The Indian languages 
usually divide all things into two classes, "animate" and 
"inanimate." Some philologists consider this classifica- 
tion as an evidence of great age, but modern Persian has 
"rational" and "irrational," which amounts to the same 
thing, and this distinction, animate and inanimate, is some- 
times arbitrary.^ For example, in Chippewa, akkig, a 
kettle, is an animate object. In Mexican, only animate 
nouns have plurals, as ichcatl, sheep; plural ichcame; na- 
ualli, a sorcerer ; plural nanaualtinj ticitl, a doctor, plural 
titici. Spanish has had some influence in causing inani- 
mate nouns to assume plurals. 

Where it is necessary in Mexican to distinguish between 
male and female, and the words employed do not in them- 
selves indicate sex, oquichtli is used for male and cihuatl 

1 Jacques de Morgan in Harper's Magazine, May, 1905. 

2 See Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class. Introduction. 


for female, as oquichmazatl, a stag; cihuamazatl, a doe. 
The same method prevails in modern Persian, as: gav i- 
nar, a bull ("man cow"); gav i-mada, a cow ("woman 
cow " ) . 

Let the fact be emphasized that animate and inanimate 
are not synonymous with living and non-living as we 
understand the terms. Primitive man endowed all things 
with a relative intrinsic importance, aside from any nat- 
ural classification. Thus the ground-squirrel might be 
considered so insignificant as to be placed in the class in- 
animate, while the camp kettle, by reason of its important 
place in domestic economy, was raised to the higher clas- 
sification of animate things. All this may appear very 
childish. In fact, it is childish, but do we not daily see 
children talk to their playthings, and even go so far as to 
reward the good and punish the bad ? But primitive man 
did have reasons for his classification since his animate 
things were important according to his knowledge of them. 

Dialects. — The Nauatl language bears internal evidence 
of differences which probably result from dialectic vari- 
ations due to the mingling of tribes. The Spanish lexi- 
cographers and grammarians speak of these dialects and 
agree that the best Nauatl was spoken at Tezcuco, the 
Athens of Anahuac. These variations no doubt originated 
in Asia. For example in Mexican we have telpochtli or 
telpocatl, a youth ; chiuhc naui or chica naui, nine ; teuctli 
or tecutli, a chief. The name of the Afghan language is 
Pilkhto or Filshto. A philologist writes me: "philolo- 
gists require uniformity." Quite so! But they do not 
always get it. 

Thought forms and style. — Most students of Nauatl 
eulogize the beauty and expressiveness of that language. 
The word nauatl means, sweet sounding, clear, as defined 


by Molina. The language has at times a sonorousness to 
be compared favorably with Latin. But I cannot join in 
unqualified eulogy of the Mexican language. It is lack- 
ing in that precision which makes equivocation almost 
impossible in Greek or Latin. It sometimes defies con- 
struction. Brinton, on this point, says that all words not 
directly connected with the verb are without construction, 
but this, while occasionally true, is an extreme statement. 
The following sentence is a fair example of the capacity of 
Mexican syntax to express sustained thought: 

No iquac ipan inin omoteneuh xihuitl in quixixitinique 
Also then in this aforesaid year (they) demolished 
nohuian ipan Nueva Espana in inteocal ihuan imixiptla 
everywhere in New Spain the temples and images 
in tlacatecollo in quimoteotiaya ueuetque tocolhuan, 
of the gods, which (they) worshiped, the ancients, our ancestors; 
ye yuh matlacxiuitl ipan ce xiuitl moetzticate in matlacome 
already ten years with one year were (here) the twelve 
San Francisco teopixque inic motlaxixinilique nohuian, 
San Franciscan priests when (they) destroyed everywhere 

ye yuh caxtolli on ce 
[the temples and images of the gods] already fifteen on one 
xihuitl oacico in Espanoles in iquac tlaxixitin 
years had arrived the Spaniards when (was) the destruction 
everywhere. {Annals, 1534.) 

The first clause is tautological though it is Chimal- 
pahin's regular formula. "No iquac ipan inin" would 
express the same idea in this context omitting "omoten- 
euh xiuitl." 

Parable of the Woman and the Lost Coin (Luke 15:8) 

Anozo aquin zoatlacatl quipia matlactli tomin, oquipolo 

Or what woman has ten tomins (she) has lost 


ce tomin amo quixotlaltia tlanextli ihuan qu'ichtoa 

one tomin (does) not sweep (up) the dust and search 
in calli ihuan necuitlahuiztilica quitemoa in oc quiaziz? 
the house and diligently it seek until (she) it finds ? 

A favorite construction puts the name of a place in 
apposition with ompa or oncan, there, as : 

Ipan inin acito xochiyaoyotl in ompa Chalco-Atenco. 
Now began (the) "war of flowers" there (at) Chalco-Atenco. 

The verb ca, to be, is little used and then usually either 
for emphasis or to denote condition rather than mere 

Ca fan oc inceltin, in macehualtin, in miquia. 

(It) was but themselves the vassals who were perishing. 

Redundancy is of continual occurrence. 

Ipan inin poliuhque in Cuanahuaca, quinpehuato 
This (year) fell the Cuernavaca, them-conquered 

in Mexica. 

the Mexicans. 

Nopiltz6, nocuzqu6, noquetzal6, otiyol, 

My dear son, my jewel, my plume, thou wert begotten, 

otilacat, otimotlalticpacquixitico. 

thou wert born, thou hast arrived on earth. 

Death of Cauhtemoctzin (Guatemozin), introducing 
Spanish words. (Annals, 1524.)' 

Ye yuhqui ye Christianoyotica momiquilli, cruz imac 
Thus Christian-like he died, cross in hand 

quitlallique auh in icxicrillos^ tepozmecatl, inic 

(it) they placed, also foot-irons (an) iron-chain, as to 

canticaya inic pilcaticatca ^ pochcauhtitech. 

him they secured, when he was hanged, (a) silk cotton tree-on. 

1 Hanged in Honduras by Cortez for alleged conspiracy against the Span- 

sCrillo or grillo, a cricket, Spanish; in the plural, fetters. 

3 For the precise meaning of these compounds verbs linked by ti, which 
usually gives emphasis or increased significance, see a Mexican grammar. Can 
(C'an)=<iui-ana, to seize, secure. Pilca, means to hang, to seize, to attach to. 

70 the peimitive aryans of america 

The Lord's Prayer Analyzed 

Totatzin6 in ilhuicac timoyetztica, ma yectenehualo in 
Our Father heaven-in thou art (rev.') May be revered the 
motocatzin, ma huallauh in motlatocayotzin, ma 

thy-name (rev.'), May (it) come the thy-kingdom (rev.'), May 
chihualo in tlalticpac in motlanequilitzin in yuh chihualo 
be done earth-on the Thy-will (rev.') as (it) is done 

in ilhuicac. In totlaxcal momoztlae totech monequi ma axcan 
heaven-in. Our bread daily (as) to us necessary (is) may now 
xitechmomaquili, ihuan ma xitechmopopolhuili (rev.') 

to us thou give (rev.'), and may thou us forgive 
totlatlacol in yuh tiquintlapopolhuift intechtlatlacalhuia. Ihuan 
our sins as we them forgive (others) their us-injuring. And 

macamo xitechmomacahuili inic amo ipan tihuetzizque in 
never permit us (rev.') that (not) there we may go (rush) 
teneyeyecoltiliztli, ganye ma xitechmomaquixtili (rev.') 

into (great) temptation, and may thou us not let come 

in ihuicpa in amo qualli. 

in contact-with (the) not-good. 

1 There is a form of the verb which is called "reverencial." It is indicated 
here (rev.). The other words in parentheses are supplied to complete the sense 
in English. In such situations as in ilhuicac, h is silent and merely separates 
vowels, or adds stress to the vowel preceding it, as il-ooi-cac. This word is 
Sanskrit rocan^, heaven. Tzin is honorific. 


Individuality of Languages — Inflection — Accent and Khythm — 
Repute and Disrepute of Words — Ancient versMS Modern 

Individuality. — It seems a marvelous fact that of all 
of the myriads of millions of human beings who exist or 
have existed in the world, no two individuals are exactly 
alike. It seems equally remarkable that after the lapse 
of thousands of years, nature appears to produce a dupli- 
cate of some former individual. For example. Gen. U. 
S. Grant strikingly resembled a certain Roman emperor. 
Now if unity of human speech be assumed, as a matter 
not yet suflSciently settled to be asserted as a fact, how 
has this great confusion of tongues been brought about? 
There are in the world, or have been in existence in past 
times, perhaps 3,000 languages and dialects (only an 
approximation not capable of proof) , and it is a well-known 
fact that every language is foreign to every other language.' 
Even languages so near akin as Italian and Spanish have 
comparatively few expressions which are identical. Any 
untraveled native of the United States who will make a 
journey to Scotland and attempt to converse with the 
old-fashioned people of the Scotch villages, will realize 
for the first time the full meaning of the word dialect. 
He will surely return satisfied as to his own linguistic 
poverty. And yet Scotch is only a dialect of English, 
and not a very pronounced one at that. English and 
German are closely akin, but an English-speaking person 

1 Quoted from memory, as read in some periodical. I think the figures by 
far too large, but some place it at 4,000. 



at the first attempt will be unable to comprehend a single 
word of German. We have all met people who under- 
stand German or French, but who are unable to speak 
those languages. I leave these remarkable people out of the 
reckoning. Yet both these languages contain numerous 
words identical with the English words for the same things. 
Inflection. — What then causes the radical difference 
which exists between languages ? If the Aryan 5,000 years 
ago said lubJi, love, hhar, bear, and the American today says 
love, hear, which though spelled differently, may have 
had practically the same pronunciation as the ancient 
Sanskrit, why could not these two individuals readily 
understand each other if they got together today, granting 
our Aryan eould rise from the dead by a miracle? It 
sometimes happens that dress makes the man ; it is always 
so in language. The Aryan furnished the root with 
strengthening devices and pronoun endings longer than 
the root itself in some instances.' If he said something 
like dragdmi, dragdsi, dragdti, I drag, thou draggest, 
he drags, or perhaps very clearly drag-ha-mi, his speech 
could not by any possibility sound like I drag; but when 
he said lekshi, thou lickest, he very nearly spoke English. 
Expressing thought-relations by means of adhering 
affixes (and infixes) is called inflection, when the word 
is welded into an inseparable whole. But this subject 
will be dealt with more fully, farther on. It must have 
taken the Sanskrit-speaking people fully 1,000 years to 

1 In its general sense, Aryan apparently means free people, superior race. 
Max Miiller first used the word in a linguistic sense. There has been much 
discussion as to the original home of the Aryans. Sayce inclines to northern 
Europe and cites the fact that the Aryans had three seasons, that the words ice 
and snow are common, also the fact that the vocalic system of Europe is older 
than that of Sanskrit. Dr. Schrader inclines to the steppes of Southern Europe 
and notes that the horse was known, but not the ass or the camel. Ihering 
names the Hindu Kush, His arguments are very full, lucid, and convincing, 
and I think there can be little doubt of the correctness of his conclusions. 


build up their marvelously finished system of inflection. 
It has taken the English-speaking people 500 years to 
strip off the inflectional system, inherited from Anglo- 
Saxon. Had we advanced a little farther, and adopted a 
hieroglyphic or character alphabet, instead of a phonetic, 
and become an isolated people, we might today abide in 
the tents of the Chinaman so far as language goes. He is 
wholly monosyllabic, we are nearly so in the language of 
every-day life. Instance this sentence: I saw the boy 
light the straw stack with a match and then take to his 
heels as fast as he could run. Here twenty-three mono- 
syllables move along with a jerky, unmelodious sequence, 
which is characteristically English. 

Why did inflection fail ? Because, like dress, it became 
too elaborate and cumbersome. Only natives could use 
it intelligibly. Hordes of invading foreigners could 
not master the new tongue. The ignorant, when knowl- 
edge declined, made many mistakes, confused forms, and 
obscurity was the result. Circumlocutions were resorted 
to as an aid, which resulted in corrupting language till 
finally the whole fabric crumbled and new tongues 
sprang up, not founded entirely on roots, but partially on 
the d6bris of collapsed polysyllabism. But there is no 
apparent reason why a new infiection may not be set up 
in the course of time. Our English possessive is a 
case in point. John's book was once John, his book. I 
have seen it written so in my own time. The term lingua 
rustica is a stalking-horse, which I believe greatly over- 
worked. It is employed to explain the differences in 
vocabulary and syntax between the. Romance languages 
and Latin.' I have no doubt the most ignorant Roman 

1 strange difEerences do exist, however, side by side. In Java the women 
speak a dialect difEerent from that of the men. "In Sanskrit plays the women 
spoke Pali." Max MttUer, Science of Language, Vol. II, p. 44. 


readily understood Cicero and Cicero could understand 
him. The capacity of the illiterate to employ habitually 
and correctly a very intricate language has been under- 
estimated. Instance Chippewa as a lucid example. We 
may as well be prepared to believe that the Vedic Aryans 
who had never heard of phonetics possibly understood 
fully their sentence liaison (see p. 61). 

Accent and rhythm. — There is also a rhythmic, tonic 
and accentual individuality in language. English has a 
vicious habit of slurring the final syllable of a word. 
Thus the word "labor" might be spelled indifferently bar, 
ber, bir, bor, bur. Compared with the nicety of pro- 
nunciation prevailing in many languages, English is 
indeed a sloven, but this habit is not confined to English 
since others have the "neutral" vowel. Accent is usually 
difficult to acquire, and by accent I do not mean pedantic 
pronunciation merely. There is a certain indescribable, 
rhythmic swing, I had almost said lilt, which every lan- 
guage possesses, and which can be acquired only by careful 
attention and long practice in speaking with those tp 
whom the language is mother tongue. It is this subtle 
feature of the French tongue which brings grief to so many 
who think they have mastered French in school, but who 
are unable in France, to ask the servant to make a fire for 
them. The marked undulatory cadence of the Spanish is 
at once sonorous, melodious, and baffling to a foreigner. 

Repute and disrepute. — Words, like human beings, 
are subject to many vicissitudes. Fortune smiles on one 
and frowns on another. The same word may be in good 
standing in one language and in bad repute in another. 
For example, take pal: ipal nemoani is an appellation of 
god in Mexican ; the English pal may be a thief .^ Again 

1 Pal and citHy are no doubt borrowed from the Gypsies since Komany is an 
Indo-Iranian tongue. 


there are vulgar words not admitted in any dictionary, 
whose roots lurk in speech and may be traced back to 
prehistoric times. They will never die, though they may 
be denied print. Others again hover on the ragged edge 
of respectability. Some words are refused admittance to 
so-called Saxon dictionaries which are freely admitted to 
the dictionaries of other nations less prudish.' Then 
fashions in words change, and a word in good repute now, 
may be fallen very low a hundred years hence. 

Ancient versus modern syntax. — Ancient thought- 
forms seem disjointed and scanty compared with the ana- 
lytical methods of modern tongues. For "I wish to eat," 
the Mexican says: "I wish, I shall eat." The same lack 
of continuity renders the Assyrian uneven and discon- 
nected in its style. In Tupi the tenses are clumsily pieced 
out by means of adverbs marking the time when an action 
occurs, and the modern value of connectives is not clearly 
appreciated. Thus: "Peru guba ohaihii, oci a6^;" "Peter 
his-father loves, his-mother also," for the more precise 
and elegant "Peter loves his father and his mother." 
But in its "desinences" (p. 63) Mexican possesses a 
device of syntax which in English would require a sepa- 
rate word. Thus: in aquin o-aci-co, "he who has just 
arrived," where co indicates an action completed at the 
present moment like the French: II vient d'arriver. 

And yet the significant fact remains that these ancient 
tongues are often competent to express any idea which 
the human mind is capable of conceiving. The Chinese 
language, though apparently indefinite to a foreigner, is 
said by critical students of the language to be wonderfully 
precise and that equivocation is almost impossible unless 
it be intentional. Clavijero remarked that Nauatl was 
capable of expressing the most abstruse conceptions of 


the Christian religion without the aid of a single foreign 

The chief obstacle in adapting such languages to the 
needs of modern civilization is the lack of words for the 
multitude of things of modern invention. The Mexicans, 
for example, had no horses but they adapted caballo, the 
Spanish name, as cauallo; but for bridle they invented 
the formidable compound cauallo-tepuz-tem-meccc-yotl, 
literally, "horse-iron-mouth-cord [thing"]. 


Lanqdages as to Thought-Poem — Incorporation ^ Agglutina- 
tion — Classification — Monosyllabism — Inflection — Kela- 
tive Merits — "Speak" Conjugated in Five Languages — 
Unity of Human Speech — Persistence — Phonetic Changes. 

Languages have been classified as agglutinating, like 
Turkish ; monosyllabic, as Chinese ; inflecting, as the Latin 
and all the Indo-European group ; and incorporating, like 
some of the American languages. 

Incorporation. — Mexican has been described as a 
typical incorporating language. What is incorporation? 
Professor Henry Sweet says: "If we define inflection as 
'agglutination run mad,' we may regard incorporation as 
inflection run madder still: it is the result of attempting 
to develop the verb into a complete sentence.'" In the 
same connection he says: "Incorporation is nowhere more 
logically carried out than in Mexican." I think there is 
at least room for argument here. In its development, 
language doubtless followed the universal law of nature 
that the concrete must precede the abstract. A thing, in 
other words, must exist before we can speculate on its 
origin, or discuss its properties. It may be shown that 
Mexican is scarcely an incorporating language at all, if 
indeed there really be such a thing as an incorporating 

Analysis resolves all things and substances eventually. 
Here let me recall a thought of Albert Gallatin's, no mean 
authority, by the way, who has a few words to say in this 

1 Sweet, History of Language, p. 69, It is manifest that no such conscious 
attempt was ever made by any people in the growth of a living language. 



connection. I give the substance of his thought, not his 
exact words. He sensibly concludes that the first whites 
who attempted to learn the language of the Indians, being 
guided solely by sounds, and having no written material 
to exercise the eye upon, naturally mistook phrases for 
words, sometimes, and consequently joined together par- 
ticles or words in cases where thought-form really allowed 
a hiatus. He gives some examples. Continuing in his 
line of thought,' suppose I say in colloquial English : 
"Gimme some bread." Would not a foreigner be almost 
sure to understand "gimme" as one word? The Spaniard 
says : digaselo, tell to him it, but Spanish is not an incor- 
porating language, nor is it agglutinating beyond this one 
single feature, the personal pronouns, in so far as I can 
recall. When the Spaniard coined the word, "correve- 
dile," "run-see-tell-it," for talebearer, he clipped old words 
to make the new. Does he compound, incorporate, or 
agglutinate ? 

In fact the only feature of Mexican syntax which can 
be, strictly speaking, classed as incorporative is the curious 
prepositive object-pronoun (chap. vii). I will take Sweet's 
own example, nic-qua, I it eat, where c (qui) is the incor- 
porated pronoun. Next he considers "m'-waA;afca," "I 
meat eat." The Mexican spelling is "gtta" which is not 
mentioned here as a correction of Professor Sweet's spell- 
ing, since he employs a uniform phonetic system in his 
admirable book. "I meat eat" illustrates a very common 
form of expression in Mexican. I admit that the dropping 
of tl, the termination of naca^Z, meat, is an argument in 
favor of the theory of incorporation, but there must always 
be an interval, be it ever so slight, between the noun object 

1 " Introduction to Hale's Indians of Northwest America,'' Transacti<ms 
American Ethnological Society, 1848. 


and the verb, and the thematic noun in Mexican had a 
general collective quality like the Greek neuter, as for 
example Azteca from Azteca-tl the singular. This hiatus 
is distinctly marked at times as calli house, but no-calh, 
my house.' 

Mexican grammarians say that these clippings, as the 
tl of tiacatl, are made largely for purposes of brevity and 
euphony. But they always occur at a natural cleavage 
point, if we assume an original agglutination of particles. 
They cannot be compared at all with such mere mechanical 
devices as the t in the French sentence : A-t-il fini ? I think 
the cause of this usage lies farther back than brevity or 
euphony. Savages had plenty of time to pronounce entire 
words and were like ourselves scarcely conscious of euphony. 

In Cree the noun incorporates an objective pronoun- 
postpositive, as: mdokooma, knife; net oo-m6okooman-m, 
I have a knife.'' But the Aryan verb incorporates its pro- 
noun subject, as leg-o, I read. 

Professor Sweet says, furthermore, that ni, in m-naca- 
qua' is additional evidence of incorporation. Why? It is 
true that it is always printed so, and ni is called insepar- 
able by the grammarians, while ne and neuatl are called 
"separable" forms for the pronoun I. The question is 
merely one of sounds which coalesce readily or the con- 
trary as the case may be. "Igo," "yougo," might look 
like incorporation or synthesis, while "one goes" and 
" Edward goes," would remain analytic. There are cases 
where ni does syntactically stand alone ; m'-tlatoani is an 
example. In such cases the copulative verb be is omitted 
universally in Mexican. Inserted, it would read ni ca 

1 Oltnos, Grammar Nahuatl, p. 200. 

2 Howse's phonetics are English ; " Italian," net u-miikuman-in. 

3 Sweet, History of Language, p. 70. 


tlatoani, I am a chief, though this would not be correct 
Mexican since ca is not properly be, but the Spanish estar, 

Mexican syntax is synthetic, not incorporating. Its 
postpositives are as readily detached as is ward in the 
English word h.ovn&ward. But it is by no means so com- 
plex in grammatical structure as is Algonquin or Japanese, 
for example. The opinion of Clavijero previously referred 
to, who found it capable of expressing every mystery and 
subtlety of the Christian religion without borrowing a 
single word, is surely a strong testimonial for its power of 
expressing sustained thought. 

Agglutination. — A few lines will suffice for this subject. 
I mention it here partly to render my book symmetrical 
but chiefly to show that Mexican is not agglutinating. 
All the earliest systems of writing appear to have been 
syllabic. Sanskrit and Japanese are so today, as well as 
Cherokee in the United States. The following sentence 
from King's Assyrian Grammar will illustrate the system 
of syllabic writing; the hyphen separates syllables, the 
words are spaced: i-na di-ma-a-ti a-lul pag-ri-su-nuj 
ina dimati alul pagri-sunu; on poles I hung corpses-their. 
Stratonike (wife of Antiochus Soter) is spelled (in As- 
syrian) As-ta-ar-ta-ni-ik-ku; Antipatros, An-ti-pa-at- 

The repetition of a vowel did not necessarily mean it 
was to be pronounced twice. Remember the unit was a 
syllable instead of a letter. Thus di-ma-a-ti, simply spells 
dimati with the a long. This system of writing is per- 
haps an additional evidence of the agglutinative character 
of all languages at first. Turkish is a good example of an 
agglutinating language. It tacks on particle after particle 
in a most astonishing fashion. Here is an example: Sev 
is the root-word for love; sevmek is the infinitive to love; 


sevmemek, is not to love; seveAmemek, is not to be able 
to love; sevdermek, is to cause to love; sevdtVmemek, is 
not to cause to love; sevderehmemek, is not to be able to 
cause to love. In this linguistic sandwich the infinitive is 
practically expanded into a sentence. 

Classification. — Just what fixes a language in a given 
class is not easy to tell. In fact there is no exact line which 
divides any one class from any other class. Languages 
constantly defy classification. According to Max MtlUer 
a Turanian language should be, not only agglutinating, 
but terminational. But the Rev. H. Roberts inclines to 
class Khassi as an agglutinating language and says that 
its particles are without exception prepositive. For 
example, the verb lait means free; pyl-lait, to make free; 
jing-pyl-lait, freedom or liberation. Yet this ancient 
language seems to be Turanian according to Mr. Roberts, 
though it would appear, from the example, to be mono- 
syllabic, rather.' 

Since the American languages are classed as incorpo- 
rating it may be interesting to compare a Selish (Flathead) 
verb with the Turkish. TneskoW (operor) to do, to be 
busy, is the primitive; kol is the root; tneskol, the form 
in composition; ieskolm, active causative, I advance a 
thing, I do ; tnesklkoli, reduplication, I do several things ; 
tneleskoli, iterative, I do it again ; tneskolmluisi, frequenta- 
tive, I do it frequently; tneselkok'li, diminished action, I 
work lightly or easily; kaeskolstegui, reciprocal, we work 
to our mutual advantage; tneseskolmisti, reflective, I 
fashion myself; or tneskolsuti, I work for myself. 

1 Khassi is classed by Mr. Roberts in the indefinite group, " Sub Himalayan." 
He estimated that it is spoken by about 250,000 people who inhabit an isolated 
district of Assam, The language has only lately been reduced to writing. [Actual 
population, about 175,000.] 

2 Tiies, pronounce t^nSs. Kol is possibly identical with Sanskrit, kar, to make, 
to do ; compare the Turkish seu with Sanskrit sfi, to generate ; Mexican,, 
to love. 


Monosylldbism. — -Monosyllabic languages or isolating 
languages may be adequately represented by Chinese, in 
which every word is theoretically a monosyllable. Some 
of these primitives are also idea words, that is, they express 
an idea in themselves asjin, a human being, but specifically, 
a man; fu-jin is woman, and ur-jin, child. Hence most 
Chinese words logically are not monosyllables. The early 
use of arbitrary ideographs or characters instead of a flex- 
ible alphabet, has arrested the development of Chinese and 
fossilized the language. 

Prof. Henry Sweet in speaking of Chinese synta,x makes 
some statements (also made by others) which lead to con- 
clusions I am unable to reach. I should like to copy them 
in full, but can only give the substance here.' He dis- 
misses peremptorily (and properly) the notion that Chinese 
is an analytical language which has outstripped even Eng- 
lish in freeing itself of inflections and returning to a 
monosyllabic state. He further says >that there exists 
indisputable internal evidence in the language itself that 
it was once polysyllabic. These two statements appear to 
me contradictory. If the Chinese was once polysyllabic, 
it is safe to assume that it had for "relation" signs either 
. the system of terminations known as inflection or the other 
system known as postpositive which is, after all, a species 
of inflection. In fact Chinese employs in practice, both 
prefixes and affixes today, which are in no way dift'erent 
in function from similar particles in Magyar, Assyrian, 
Mexican, and Japanese, instance ti, the genitive sign in 
Chinese, or mun the plural sign. Ti is employed in the 
same way in Assyrian and Mexican, and is our English ty. 
In fact such particles whether separate or agglutinated are 
absolutely necessary to every language. For example, 

1 Sweet, History of Language, p. 74. 


tsai means in, on; nili, interior j wai, exterior; tsaifang- 
tze nili, inside the house; tsai fang-tze wai, outside the 
house. Along with the idea-words, like boy, dog, wheat, 
book, there must be relation or form- words like the Chinese 
ti, the English of, the Mexican co, or the Japanese ga, the 
sign of the nominative case. It seems impossible that 
Chinese could ever have been polysyllabic. Some vestiges 
of the system would surely remain such as ward, in the 
English word, homeward. 

The basis for this theory of the former polysyllabism of 
Chinese lies in the fact that certain letters have disappeared 
from Tibetan words within comparatively recent times.' 
Tibetan is a monosyllabic language, in the class with 
Chinese and certain letters in literary Tibetan are silent. 
Contemporary Chinese inscriptions indicate that they were 
sounded in the sixth century, a. d. It is said that in certain 
parts of the country they are still pronounced. W. D. 
Whitney holds this as important if proved true and it 
appears to be true.^ But a particle may perish without 
affecting the monosyllabism of a language, and it seems 
to me the cases are not parallel. Suppose, for example, 
the Chinese sign "tf^ of the genitive case should become 
useless through juxtaposition or some other device which 
rendered ti superfluous. Then ti might perish, first the 
vowel, the t lingering for awhile as a useless silent letter, 
a parasite on the head word, until it, too, would disappear. 
Take our English possessive, " John'.s book," once "John 
his book." It would be a parallel case to say that s was 
once a syllable of the word John's. If the case were to 
go a step farther, and sometime in the future the posses- 

1 According to A. H. Sayce, Chinese has undergone serious phonetic decay 
(.Assyrian Lectures, p. 153). Max MQller, however, maintains the contrary, Science 
of Language, Vol. I, p. 50. 

2 Cfi Eeane, Ethnology, pp. 207 S. 


sive were indicated by an adjective, "the John book," the 
philologist of that day might claim that English never had 
any other but the adjective possessive. Lacouperie 
appears to have proved beyond doubt that Tibetan now 
monosyllabic was once polysyllabic' Hence the inference 
that the same thing has occurred in Chinese. But admit- 
ting this fact we have only illuminated aperiod in linguistic 
development. The heginning and the end in the growth 
of language can never be positively determined. Granting 
that a language is now monosyllabic, English is nearly so, 
in the past it may have been polysyllabic as we know 
English to have been, and we also know that English was 
originally built around monosyllabic Aryan roots which 
we dare not ignore simply because we cannot account for 
their origin or assign a date to their beginnings. Tibetan 
has apparently undergone some extraordinary phonetic 
changes, and the same may prove true of Chinese, but I 
know of no adequate scientific study of Chinese phonology 
and its history, which will decide the matter. 

Inflection. — Inflecting languages are, for example, San- 
skrit, Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, and German. 
They are so well known as to need no special treatment 
here, beyond the remark that the conjugation of the Mexi- 
can verb (p. 62) places that language indisputably in 
the inflected class. Other American languages belong 
there. For example, Chippewa is a marvel of inflection, 
beside which ancient - Greek is not difficult, and its vowel 
changes are developed harmoniously and symmetrically. 

For a long time the tendency in human speech has been 
to discard synthetic forms for analytic. Thus instead of 
expressing the pronominal idea in the verb ending as in 

1 See article "Tibet," Encyclopaedia Britannica, by A. Terrien de Lacouperie . 
Also Vol. XVIII, pp. 774, 779, article "Philology," by W. D. Whitney. 


Latin leg-o, I read, we say in English "I-read." The 
Roman youth said to his sweetheart, amo te, I love you. 
There was no need of the analytic form ego amo te, unless 
he wished to be emphatic. Both forms of expression have 
their advantages. The analytic is simpler but the syn- 
thetic may be very concise and expressive. The inflec- 
tional method required the memorizing of such a multi- 
tude of forms built upon the same root that it seems 
incredible that the unlettered could have recognized all 
of them as cognates. It is more probable that to most 
people they were, in their disguised aspect, separate forms. 
For example, would it not require a scholar to analyze the 
Sanskrit compound Hitopadega, "given for instruction" 
as derived from dhd, to give + upa, for, + dig to point 
out, guide instruct ? It surely would. Did the illiterate 
Greek recognize the root 0av in re^vcoTo?? It is to be 

The relative merits of the two systems may be briefly 
shown in a conjugation of the present tense of the verb 
speak, talk, in five languages. 


dice, I speak 

dicimus, we speak 

dicis, thou speakest 

dicistis, you speak 

dicit, he speaks 

dicunt, they speak 




par 11 




Both Latin and Italian, as may be seen, have six dis- 
tinct forms and pronouns are not necessary. 

I In this connection I may suggest that grammar existed and was taught 
long before the art of writing was in existence. How else could such involved 
tongues as Greek, Sanskrit, Quichua, and Chippewa have been preserved from 
corruption and final dissolution? It is said that the aborigines of America gave 
their children at an .early age careful instruction in grammar. Hand Book of 
Indians, Vol. I, "Education," p. 414. 



ich rede 

wir reden 

du redest 

ihr redet 

er redet 

sie reden 


I speak we speak 

you speak you speak 

he speaks they speak 

German has four forms out of a possible six. English 
has but two forms, a veritable pauper, and, since pronouns 
are necessary, it might as well have but one form. 








Here there appears to be but one form, but there are 
really two since the lengthening of the final vowel of the 
plural to distinguish it from the singular is really inflec- 
tion. It will be observed that the third person singular 
and plural has no pronoun, a feature which is frequently 
found in Indian languages. 

Inflected speech was undoubtedly built up in the flrst 
place by the gradual agglutination of independent signifi- 
cant particles. But when these particles began to lose 
meaning to the masses of the people and a host of forms ^ 
required precision in grammar and nicety in pronuncia- 
tion to avoid equivocation, and the old process began over 
of piecing out the meaning with other words which became 
finally auxiliaries, adverbs, or prepositions. 

Unity of human speech. — The reader has doubtless 
observed in these pages from time to time, that the origi- 

1 The possible number of mutations of a Grreek verb was about 570 ; of a Latin 
verb 171. I quote from memory, having lost my reference. I confess the total 
surprised me. 


nal unity of human speech is tacitly assumed though 
nowhere directly asserted. Positive declarations on this 
subject are hazardous. The prehistoric period of man's 
development is, in all probability, of very much longer 
duration than the historical'. To postulate prehistoric 
speech is impossible. It is also very difficult for the 
ethnologist to explain scientifically the differentiation 
which resulted in such extreme physical and mental types, 
as the negro and the white man exhibit. It is possible 
that a branch of primitive man may have for many thou- 
sands of years remained stationary in Africa, while his 
more favored brethren advanced steadily to the high 
intellectual standing of the Aryan nations. We have seen 
how languages may exist unchanged for great periods of 
time, and a like ari^st of physical and mental development 
may be assumed as not unreasonable.' 

Persistence. — This may be a fitting place to refute the 
nonsense so often repeated about the rapid changes in 
the languages of America. I have read repeatedly that 
the vocabulary of these languages may change so rapidly 
as to render the tongue unintelligible, within a lifetime. 
In that case the grandfather could not converse with his 
grandchildren with any satisfaction. I call this plain 
nonsense; it might take a stronger term to express the 
case properly. We have seen that it takes hundreds of 
years to make material changes in syntax, and we have 
seen that syntax is no more enduring than word forms. 
Anyone who will study the words father, mother, house, 
fire, cow, dog, will at once realize their great antiquity. 
An exception to this statement may be made in the case 
of some non-Aryan tribes for special reasons. John 

iPinnish has remained practically without change for 1,600 years; Sweet, 
History of Language, p. 118. Also see statement of Joseph Edkins, footnote 3, 



Fraser, in "An Australian Language," says that the 
aborigines of Australia were accustomed to cease using 
any word found in the name of a dead man, immediately 
upon his death. If a man were called "Pell in the 
Water," a new word must be found for water after his 
demise. The reason of this curious fact was that they 
believed a mention of the name of the defunct, would 
disturb his spirit, which was capable of harming the 

Phonetic changes. — -One fact will surely arrest the at- 
tention of every observant reader. There are usually two 
or three words for the commonest things. This might 
appear to be in favor of the argument that language had 
original development from several independent centers, 
and that a subsequent mingling gave 'the multiplication 
of words like tlacatl, avrjp, avBpoairo'i, mas, homo, vir for 
man; deus, hog, and god; vig, chan {Icshem, ham), cal, 
and cab for house. These independent words might have 
been scattered and commingled by the incessant migra- 
tions of mankind and the mingling of different races 
through wars and conquest. But the fact that these 
roots do not appear to be in the least localized, as, for 
example, pilli, boy, found in Assyria and Mexico, would 
seem to indicate that all mankind were one, until after 
definite articulate human speech was firmly established.' 
But very strange permutations may occur through pho- 
netic changes. Thus Fraser derives ka, eat, and edo, 
eat, from the same root, k and t being equivalents.^ The 
three words given here for god, for example, are really 
not roots. They are probably all derivatives. 

1 There are Hebrew roots in Ehassi which the presence of Arabic will not 
explain. Introduction to Khassi Qrammar, by H. Roberts. The Ainu of Japan 
have been shown to be Aryan in speech by Rev. John Batchelor, The Nation, 
September 12, 1907, " Notes." 

^An Aiistralian Language, Introduction. 


These independent forms may all have been developed 
in the same community through figures of speech. But. 
figurative language, as a rule, is plainly traceable to its 
origin, and simile is usually more verbose than the origi- 
nal, as: "ship of the desert," a camel; "king of beasts," 
a lion; "lord of creation," man. When we read that the 
Arabs have some fifty words for camel, we must allow for 
the imagination of the writer, as well as of the Arab. In 
fact Tien gives but three; naqa(t), ebl, jamal. Sacroug 
gives two: gamal, naka, a she-camel, and naca-tl is the 
Mexican word for meat.' (The g of Egypt isj in Syria.) 

Max Mtiller, in a moment of doubt, practically asserts 
that we have no right to say that the Latin quatuor is a 
cognate of the Sanskrit cattlr (four), or that the Greek 
tettares is in any sort of relationship to either, and he 
names other examples to support his idea of the moment. 
But there is an explanation that is convincing for the 
relationship existing between catiir and quatuor (see 
"Phonology," chap. xi). Phonetic laws apply uniformly, 
and operate through long periods of time, but not in 
every case. We must recognize phonetic "sports" just 
as we recognize sports in plant life. 

A novice in comparative philology would scout the 
idea that any relationship exists between Aryan ekwo, 
the Sanskrit agva, horse, the Latin equus, and the Persian 
asp. But the laws of phonetics incontestably prove a 
common origin. If we were to place in the same cate- 
gory "hack," "whoa," and "get up," a smile would be 
excited, and yet they are perhaps all from "agva," hack 
being the first syllable and whoa the last. Whoa is 
said to be a "horse call" from China round the globe to 

1 Gabriel Sacroug, Traveller's Interpreter^ or Arabic without a Teacher^ 
Cairo, 1874. 


California. In parts of France people say "tip" for "get 
up," the Utes of Colorado say the same. The latter 
phrase probably should be "get ep." No farmer says 
"get up" until after he has passed under the influence of 
the pedagogue. The real meaning then was originally 
doubtless "get horse," "go horse," since "up" (ep) may 
be traced through hippos to the same source. I have 
thought this paragraph worthy of print even though it 
have no better warrant than "travellers' tales." 

If we assume the unity of human speech, as we doubt- 
less shall be obliged to do in the future, we may then be 
justified in assuming word relationships which cannot be 
proved absolutely by any known laws of derivation. 


Phonology. — General Eemarks — Vowels — -Dentals — Gutturals 
(the kg-q and kg-s Sound shifts) — Vocalic Consonants — 
The Place of Mexican — Labials — ^Line of Descent and 
Assimilation — The Saltillo. — Accent. 

Getieral remarks. — Heretofore I have given no more 
attention to phonetics than what I deemed necessary to 
explain the case in point and to support the thesis which 
is the common origin of the Mexican and the Indo-Euro- 
pean group of languages. The remarks in this chapter 
are merely a brief sketch of elementary principles, since 
phonology is, in itself, a subject sufficient to fill a large 

We have all doubtless wondered at the formidable com- 
pound consonants of Sanskrit, Grreek, and Arabic, such as 
Jch in Ichedive, sheikh, bh in &Aagava and combinations 
like phthisic, pteron. It is not easy to say always just 
how the ancients pronounced these combinations. One 
thing is reasonably sure, none of the letters were silent. 
In bh the h may have been a full aspiration or the briefest 
possible stop and not a distinct aspiration like our Eng- 
lish h. Arabic kh is neither k nor h but both. I confess 
that I cannot pronounce it exactly as an Arab does. It 
is a very deep guttural, harsher and more throat filling 
than German or Scotch ch, or Spanish j. Ask a German 
to pronounce knabe. You will notice that he brings out 
the k distinctly with a suggestion of a vowel between the 

iSee the author's Mexican in Aryan Phonology and Gray, Indolranian 
Phonology, for special information bearing on the subject of this book, also Tol- 
man, Old Persian Inscriptions, 



k and the n. There appears, however, to be no trace of a 
vowel in the Arabic kh as there is in knabe. Pteron was 
once *p®teron; phthisic was probably *ph^thisic. 

As man became more civilized, there was doubtless a 
tendency to tone down speech and simplify harsh com- 
pound combinations. Arabic and Quichua are still marked 
by harsh consonants. The guttural-palatal series is today, 
in most languages, g, k (c), (/i a survival), German ch, j. 
The labial series is b, p, f, v, w. The dental series is d, t, 
th (in thing), th (in that). The liquids are 1, r. The 
sibilants are s, z, ts, tz, zh, j(dzj), ch, sh. The nasals are 
m and n. 

The general tendency, apparently, is to crowd sounds 
forward in utterance, especially in American languages. 
Thus Mexican has lost g entirely; k only remains. The 
Sanskrit g (once k) becomes: c [k),ch, s, sh, x, in Mexican. 
Apparently an impulse for an easier sound has dropped b, 
beginning the series with p, so that the series consists of 
p, u sometimes, which is zero in the series. Of the 
liquids, r is either lost or becomes I, and I is never initial. 
In the dental series, Mexican has lost d and th, only t 
remains, but Sanskrit d, dh, become ch, dhi = chi, palatal 
or sibilant, and it may be that t also becomes a sibilant or 
the equivalent ch. 

But there is no synchronological uniformity in conso- 
nant mutation, exhibited in the languages of the world. 
Grimm's law is of universal but not uniform and synchro- 
nous application, hence it must not be strained because 
the same language may offer side by side words which do 
not conform as Greek kw, ttw?. 

But we see Mexican losing g entirely, which English 
retains in full vigor. Aryan k becomes h (ch) in English 
as c"^anis, dog, English houn-d, but we have English chin 


and Mexican can-tli. English is older in one respect 
than New High German, having one less "sound-shift.'" 

The post-consonantal "aspiration" of Sanskrit is lost 
in most of the other Aryan languages, or more properly 
speaking, it is peculiar to Sanskrit, and is less often found 
in Greek as : bhar, carry ; ph6r6, Greek ; f ero, Latin ; bear, 
English; Mexican, pal; bah, *bagh, Greek, ttci^w?; Mex- 
ican, ua-paua; English, bough; bhratr, brother; phrAter, 
Greek; f rater, Latin; bruder, German; dih, *dhigh, rub; 
Greek, dl'^oo; Mexican, ta-taca, scratch; English, dough. 

As to vowels, the Mexican is rich, in fact nauatl means 
sweet-sounding, while English is, to say the least, not a 
euphonious language and is, to tell the truth, weak in 
vowel sounds chiefly because it has largely banished diph- 
thongs, properly speaking. 

Elements of phonetics.— -Tn the rudimentary principles 
offered here, I do not pretend to do more than set down 
the facts necessary to a proper comprehension of this work. 
Without these explanations, my book might, in places, 
seem inconsistent and confusing. For exact classified 
treatment of the subject read Mexican in Aryan Phonology. 

Vowels. — ^Vowels are unstable; a in one language may 
be au^o, or ai = e in another language, or in a derivative 
in the same language; u and o are constantly changing 
places; a may become e or i as: agni, fire, Sanskrit; ignis, 
Latin; English, ingle-side. Vowels and roots are fre- 
quently strengthened. For instance ma in Sanskrit is 
strengthened to man; lip, Greek, to leave, becomes lelpo 
in the present tense; venir, Spanish, come, becomes vengo, 
I come, viene, he comes. The real stem may always be 
traced somewhere, as in 6lipoii, the aorist of leipo. Old 

1 " Sound shifting " may awing around a circle and finally reach the starting- 



Aryan is known to have had the Yowels a, e, o, and i, u, 
which two latter were much employed in the formation 
of diphthongs. Sanskrit lost a large part of its vowel 
heritage and became a monotonous a-language.' 

The equivalence of vowels and diphthongs existing 
between Mexican and Greek and Sanskrit is exhibited in 
the following table: 

Mexican . 








I, a 

U, V 


Greek . . . 

a, e, ij, 

i, a, ri 




Mexican . 

tu, yu, yo 



iui (m) 


eo, eu 

Sanskrit . 

u, yu 

VI, va 


u, (vi), iv 


au, a(\) 

Greek . . . 

u, *yu, fu 

fOi, ft, Vl, V, u 

fa, a 

Vi, *jut, V 



X indicates a missing labial. 

The pseudo-labial u performs a vicarious service: (1) it 
may represent a lahialj as Mexican, auh, also; Sanskrit, 
api; (2) alostgry as Mexican, ttopatta, get rigid ; Greek, 
irdx-vi; (3) a lost r, as Mexican, nauatl, clear; Indo- 
Iranian, nalj Mexican, nana, dance; Sanskrit, nrt. 

The vowel i («/) may represent a lost r as in quiyauitl, 
ghr+ab; Sanskrit, rishi; Pali, isi. The change of ft, j), to 
u is of very wide geographical reach, as: Mexican kauh, 
ape; Sanskrit, kapi; Pali, vuddho; Sanskrit, buddhd,. 
The same is true of u=r, I as : Mexican, xau-a. ; Latin, 
coZ-or ; Old French, 6chauder ; Latin, excaldere, scald. The 
change of a palatal to u appears to be Indo-Iranian, as: 
Mexican, ua-pawa, ■n-d'x^u'; ; Panjftbi, newl ; Sanskrit, na/cula. 

The vocalic system of Mexican lies between Greek and 

Dentals. — Old Aryan had the dentals t, th, d, dh. 
Philologists say they were more truly dental than in 

1 For a brief discussion of the primitive Aryan vowel system, cf. Professor 
A. S. Wilkins, Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Greek Language," Vol. XI, p. 127; 
Professor E. Sievers, Vol. XVIII, p. 788 ; Mexican in Aryan Phonology, pp. 7, 8. 
Also, Pezzi, Aryan Phonology, p. 51. 


English, the tip of the tongue being pressed against the 
teeth in utterance. 

Gutturals [eastern and western), the kg-q and 
kg-s sound shifts. — There were two sets of back con- 
sonants, palatals and gutturals, and these were aspirate 
or non-aspirate: thus g, gh, k, kh. This subject is rather 
abstruse, but each of these series was again classified as 
pure palatals and labio-velars, those which had an accom- 
panying parasitic v as gvarm' warm; kvos, what. The 
palatals divide into an s-series and a k-series, the s being 
eastern and k, g or h, hw, the equivalents, western. K be- 
comes 5 (s) in Sanskrit, as in gvan (svan), dog ; and remains 
fc or /i in the western tongues and partially in Mexican; as, 
Kvav, dog, Greek; canis, Latin; hund, Grerman; itzcuin, 
Mexican = *skuin. Clallam is skaha; Snake, sharay. 

It is necessary to understand these sounds else you 
cannot see the connection between Greek, kvwv, German, 
hund, and English, hound; Mexican, calli, house; Old 
Persian, kal'a; Sanskrit, 5ala(?); Romany, kher, khel.' 

The labio-velars, through the influence of this associ- 
ated V or w, became in western tongues: p, b,f, w, v, as: 
*g^arm, Aryan, warm; gharma, Sanskrit; formus. Old 
Latin, warm; Germanic, cognate, burn; Greek, therm6s. 

Catilr, four, Sanskrit; tettares, Greek; chetuire, Rus- 
sian ; quatuor, Latin ; pedwar, Welsh ; fier, German ; four, 
English. Here we have for Aryan k, c in Sanskrit, ch in 
Russian, t in Greek, qu in Latin, p in Welsh, and / in 

Aryan *k'^o-s, who, what; Sanskrit, kas; Ionic, kos; 
Attic, pos; Latin, quod; English, who, what; Mexican, 
cuix. Generally, then, the eastern languages have palatals, 

1 When I speak of distinguishing these sounds I do not mean that you must 
understand the cause of such changes. No one can say truthfully that he can 
explain the subtle causes of phonetic change. 


an s-series, and a fc-series. The eastern, s-series (5) ap- 
pears in the west as k, as Sanskrit, gatam, hundred ; Lith- 
uanian, szimtas; Latin, centum (kentum) ; Welsh, cant; 
English, hundred. The labio- velars of the east change in 
the west to q, qv, hw, or a labial as four and what. This 
change should not occur in Mexican. TJentli an offering 
is from Sanskrit, hu *ghuj Latin, fu-t-is; uitztli, thorn, 
from German gerste} But Pimentel employs a parasitic 
V as in kvallotl, beauty, koXov, for which I find no phonetic 
warrant (see p. 99). 

But some philologists contend that the entire subject 
of human speech-sounds is too little understood to be dealt 
with conclusively, because up to the present time, investiga- 
tion has been confined largely to Aryan sounds. Since the 
organs of speech appear to be the same among all tribes 
and colors of men we may naturally expect the same pho- 
netic changes to occur. In fact, general phonetics are the 
same, and to make exceptions of the American languages, as 
some do, is unsound philology. When universal philology 
has been written we shall hear no more of this bugbear. 

The "continental" pronunciation which is employed in 
this book, is also known as the Italian. In Mexican, h is 
simply a device to indicate the nature of vowel sounds; 
thus Anahuac is pronounced A-nd-wac, not anawhack. 
For this reason h is seldom used except with u, which it 
may precede or follow. 

Vocalic consonants were common, apparently in Aryan. 
Now, practically only r and I remain and they are confined 
to Sanskrit. These sounds have occurred so often in the 
body of this book that it was deemed necessary to explain 
their character as they occurred, hence no repetition is 

1 Cf . Mexican in Aryan Phonology , Tables C, D. 

2 Modern Khassl admirably illustrates these sounds: bh=b-lia; kh=k-ha; 
dh=d-ha;gh=g-hi;ph=p-huh; rli=r-hem; tli=t-haw; Roberts, XAossi Giammaj', 


necessary here, beyond the general statement that a vowel 
sound, more or less distinct, accompanies them, as: r (ar), 
rise, go, fit, rn6ti, Arta, rt4. 

There was also a vocalic n in Aryan as, tntd, stretched. 
Other languages insert a vowel with or without the n, as 
Greek, tatdsj Latin, tenders; Mexican, tentli. 

The place of Mexican. — With regard to the split k-s- 
sounds, Mexican seems sometimes to stand with the east 
and again with the west in gvan, Sanskrit; canis, Latin; 
itzcuintli, Mexican [itzc or izc=sk)} Here it is old 
Aryan rather than eastern or western, but has, Sanskrit, 
(and cuix, what, Mexican ?) are both eastern, while what and 
quod are western. An anomalous change of Sanskrit rt 
to Iranian sh appears to occur also in Mexican ; as Sanskrit, 
drtha, property, goods; Piikhto, ashja; Mexican, ash-ca, 
as n'axca, mine, that is, my property ; Zend, asha. Some- 
times t is dropped as: Mexican, nana, to dance; Sanskrit, 
nrt; Hind., nautch. 

Strengthened roots have been dealt with already. 
Sometimes an m or n infix occurs as lab, lamhdno, Greek ; 
conjug&ie, conjunction ; but this device is seldom found in 

Initial m and final n are sounded very faintly in Mexican. 
Mexica, Mexicans, is pronounced very nearly exica; totolin 
or totoli, hen. Ch is the Spanish ch as in church, except 
in such a position as in the word opochtli, when it is prac- 
tically sh. X has the sound of sh or ch.^ 

Labials. — It is a remarkable fact that of the entire 
labial series of consonants, p, b, v, w (w), the Mexican has 
lost all but p, u. Olmos, however, asserts that at the time 

1 For phonetics see Mexican in Aryan Phonology. 

2 The history and exact character of this sound is not clear. Olmos says, 
Grammar, p. 198, that it should be sounded like x in Latin dixi. The Spaniards 
pronounce it like j, German ch, but Piinentel says it resembles initial ch but is not 
the same. 


of the conquest, the Mexican women often employed a 
w-sound where the men uttered the u[oo)-sound. It is 
an unaccountable fact that b was very rare in Old Aryan. 

G is missing from the Mexican, which would indicate a 
forward movement of sounds.' This general decay of g is 
wholly different from such a case as *gvarm, English, 
warm. Here the loss of g may be attributed to the influ- 
ence of the accompanying semi- vowel, v. There must have 
existed a slight tendency toward uttering a g. Olmos says 
at times the natives appear to pronounce a g but that in 
his opinion the real sound should always be c {k).' 

Line of descent and assimilation. — It will be seen from 
this short discussion of phonetics, that consonants very sel- 
dom cross a series. The change, if any, is to another letter 
in the same series ; in other words, once a labial, always a 
labial. Thus the Sanskrit, pana, drinking, becomes Mexican 
tla-uana; duhitr becomes tiuhtli, both dentals. Water 
and ntl stand side by side. Mexican having dropped the 
V which Greek, did universally. How four can be cattir 
in Sanskrit and quatuor in Latin and fier in German, has 
been explained under k-sounds. But the Greek tSttares, 
four, may be termed a phonetic "sport" though k and t 
are sometimes interchangeable, regularly so, in Samoan 
and Awabakal.^ 

MandB. — Some philologists contend that m is a regular 
substitute for 6, in natural course of phonetic change. 
This view finds corroboration in Tupi-Guarani, where mb 
and mp are common initial consonants as in mhoe, to teach. 

Arabic. — The t in such words as naka (t) , she-camel, 
is in a "constructive position." 

iFor an interesting disonssion of the forward movement of sounds, see 
Sweet, History of Language, p. 32. 

2 Olmos, Grammar Nahuatl, p. 197. 

3 See Sweet, History of Language, p. 29; also I. L. Threlkeld, Grammar of 
Awabakal, ed. John Fraser. 


Assimilated consonants. — Frequently a letter is assi- 
milated with a following letter [recessive assimilation). 
This is especially true in Latin as scala, *scad-la; terra, 
*tersa. The same occurs in Mexican as can qs, caz ^e; 
ma tiquin-xox, ma tiquix-xox, do not fascinate them. There 
is also progressive assimilation, as buddhd for budh-t6. 

Accent. — The accent in Mexican usually falls on the 
penult. In vocatives on the ultimate, as totatzin^, oh our 
father ! But the shortening of words as used with posses- 
sive pronouns causes a stress which is not properly accent, 
as: calli, a house, nocalh, my house. 

The saltillo, little leap, is a feature of Mexican pro- 
nunciation which appears to be aspiration. It is fully 
described by Chimalpopoca. Some authors say it is a 
pedantic nicety which may be ignored altogether. 

Dialects. — In some instances Mexican seems to follow 
Sanskrit very closely as kapi, ape; Mexican, quauh; 
cihuatl, woman; Sanskrit, giva. Again it seems to be 
nearer the Avestan. Thus mauigo, wise, great, learned, 
may be derived from mag, Sanskrit mahh, by dropping g 
and filling its place with u, a common Indo-Iranian change. 
But this requires Aryan terminal s which is not Mexican. 
Or it may be derived from the same root following Avestan 
analogy where g becomes sj or Sanskrit g toj, Mexican, 
ch or xj thus mauigo = magian, by the change to s and 
the introduction of adventitious vowels.' A parallel case 
as to vowels is hrndti; Avestan, kerenaoiti. After the 
Avestan, Mexican yauiz-teca, to set up a shrine, iyaua, is 
from yaj, to worship; Greek, dyid^co, to consecrate. 
The Hindustani word for magi is ma jus ; for magic, ^azi- 
ma^-khwani. The Mexican compound verb azi-ca-mati,^ 

1 Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, sec. 219 j Mexican in Aryan Phonology, p. 10. 

2 Azi is phonetically serpent, ah,i, " serpent wisdom ;" ct. Zend, Azhi dah&lca. 


means to be wise, to know perfectly. The identification 
of magian with mauigo thus seems to be indisputable. 

These Indo-Iranian dialects seem to have run amuck 
in verbal forms. The Sanskrit for mongoose is nakula, 
the Panjabi is neul. The Sanskrit, pdcati, means to cook ; 
Avestan, pacaiii; New Persian, pazadj Afghan, paxa- 
vaul; Kurd, patin/ Mexican, pahua. 

The loss of a final palatal is pan-Aryan, as: Pali, 
manam; Sanskrit, manak; Greek, dvy-d-rrjp; Sanskrit, 
duhitr; Mexican, tiuhtli; English, dauter, daughter. 

Since the Nahua consisted of several tribes it is natural 
to suppose from these comparisons that they brought with 
them to the New World some of their peculiarities in dialect.^ 

Mexican phonetics are Spanish of the sixteenth century. 
The system is arbitrary, contradictory, and full of absurdi- 
ties. The verb qua, eat, is also cua (Sanskrit, gr, gras? 
de-vorare ?) ; uei, large, or hueij Nauatl or Nahuatl. 
The same word may be spelled with ch, x, z, or s at the 
caprice of each writer. The vowels o and tt are often 
equivalents, as teotl or teutl, god. 

For initial s, Mexican employs q ; as a rule for medial s, 
z is preferred, but a MS of 1607 everywhere employs s.^ 
But Chimalpopoca (1879) employs initial z for s and 
discards g entirely. In fact, the utmost confusion exists 
as to s and h and no writer seems to be uniform with him- 
self. I may as well confess that I, too, have not been uni- 
form, but not carelessly. I have often dropped h, which 
is a clumsy makeshift, and in such words as uetzca it is 
misleading to English readers who would pronounce the 
word whetzca. 

1 Gray, Indo-Iranian Phonology. 

2 The Congress of Orientalists announces (1908) the diecovery of an extinct 
Aryan language in Chinese Turkestan which is said to be western. 

3 Los Beyes, Nahuatl text, miracle play ot Tlatelulco, Chicago Public Library. 


Mexican Notation. — The Five-Base — Chica ce,6 — Ten — The Fif- 
teen-Base — System Aryan — "Hand Counting" — Antiquity. 

The Mexican numeral system and the Aztec calendar' 
are of such importance that they deserve a thorough dis- 
cussion but the subject can only be mentioned here. The 
Mexican cycle consisted of 52 years, and at the end of 
which occurred the ceremonial of "binding up the years," 
mo'lpilli in xiuitl. All fires were extinguished, the people 
rent their garments with lamentations and the sacred fire 
was rekindled on the breast of a living victim upon a 
mountain top. When the fire was rekindled^ swift runners 
distributed it to the people of Anahuac and rejoicing suc- 
ceeded the period of gloom. When the Spaniards landed 
in the country, they were surprised to find that the Aztec 
calendar was practically correct in actual date, while their 
own was several days behind time. The year contained 
18 months of 20 days each, with a supplementary period 
of 5 days. Both days and months had specific names. 

The method of counting was vigesimal, that is by 20s.^ 
The names of the numerals up to fifteen are, in my opinion, 
pregnant with facts regarding the genesis of numeration. 
Five, ten, anA fifteen have special names unlike those of 
the true Aryan system. They will be referred to later. 

Tupi has a word which Ruiz de Montoya in his diction- 
ary defines as "10 or 11." Qata, one hundred, in Sanskrit 

iFor the Aztec calendar see Prescott, Conquest of Mexico; Chimalpahin's 
Annals^ Simfion's edition ; for the names of the months, see Metztli ; for the days , 
see Ilhuitl in Sim6.on's NauatUFrench Dictionary. 

2 On Mt. (7ic7i-ach-tecatl ; " keeper of the light?" Uich=ij<J^s, eos-t-ra, Easter. 

3 The vigesimal system is still in use in Kafiristan in the Hindu Kush region. 



also meant "a great many.'.' From this it may be seen 
that the primitive counting was rather indefinite just as 
we yet say, "eight or ten" men. 

The first great unit in Mexican notation is 20 ; the next 
400, its square ; the next 8,000, its cube. Twenty is called 
cempoalli, one score; 400, centzontli, meaning many, 
literally, "a head of hair;" 8,000 is called xiquipilli, a 
purse or bagful. 

In counting, they add units to 10 as we do, but fifteen 
is a new base. Ten is matlactli; eleven, matlactli ce, "ten 
one " ; sixteen is caxtoUi ce, fifteen one ; nineteen, caxtolli 
on naui, "fifteen on four." Once is ceppaj another time, 
occeppa. The system is capable of expressing complicated 
ideas which in English can only be explained at length. 
It is thoroughly worked out, is comprehensive, and an 
index of a high degree of civilization, such as the Aztecs 
possessed. The vigesimal system is also used by the Mayas 
of Yucatan and their calendar was the same as the Aztec. 


1. Ce 

2. Ome 

3. Ei, yei or e 

4. Naui (nahui) 

5. Macuilli (a hand) 

6. Chica ce 

7. Chicome 

8. Chicuei 

9. Chiucnaui or chicanaui 

10. Matlactli ("both hands") 

11. Matlactli oca (on ce) 

15. CaxtolU 

16. Caxtolli oca (on ce) 
18. CoxtoUi omey (on ei) 

20. CempoaUi (" 1 score") 

21. Cempoalli on ce, or oce 


22. Cempoalli omome (on ome), etc. 
30. Cempoalli on matlactli 

34. Cempoalli on matlactli on naui 

35. Cempoalli on caxtoUi (20+15) 
40. Ompoalli (ome poalli) 

100. Macuilpoalli ("5 score") 

250. Matlacpoalli ipan ompalli on matlactli ' 

400. Centzontli (a great bunch; a head of hair) 

500. Centzontli ipan macuilpoalli (400 with "5 score" ) 
1000. Ontzontli ipan macuilpoalli (2 tzontli with "ten score") 
7000. Caxtoltzontli ihuan ontzontli ihuan matlacpoalli 
8000. Cenxiquipilli (one "purse" bag. Cen=ce) 

Macuilli, five means simply a "hand" or "hand-grasp." 

Chica, in chica ce, six, etc., is Sanskrit adhika, plus. 

Matlactli, ten, is the torso or both hands (half the body). 

Naui, four, may mean a man, "hands and feet," but 
any positive opinion here involves the differentiation of 
Mexican chica naui, nine, and Sanskrit nava, nine, which 
may or may not be related. (See "hand counting.") 

Ten. — -The fact that Mexican differs from other Aryan 
languages in its word for ten may throw some light on our 
deka, English ten. In Mexican, mo-teca simply means 
"they assemble," hence deka may originally have meant 
merely a "gathering," like our expression "ten or twelve" 

CaxtoUi, fifteen, I should derive from Sanskrit, kas, to 
move, or gag, renewing, plus tula, balance, weight ; Greek, 


Xiquipilli means a purse or haversack. This might 
indicate perhaps that the people who originated the word 
were once accustomed to having large sums of money though 

1 There is some latitude in the use of ipan and on. In general, ipan is used 
above one hundred; also in the use of ihuan. Chimalpahin says macuilpoal 
ziuitl ipan ce xiuitl, 101 years, also mactlactli ihuan ome zinitl, 12 years. 


the Mexicans used it in reckoning bags of cacao beans. 
Compare a lac of rupees as used in modern India. 

Plurals. — The numerals have plural forms as: ome, 
omentin; ei, eintin, etc. 


Chapter I, ic ce quaitl. 

Chapter, XVI, ic caxtolonce quaitl. 

Chapter XXI, ic cempoalli ihuan ce quaitl. 

One time, ceppa. 

Two times, oppa. 

Three times, expa. 

Four times, nauhpa.' 

Five times, macuilpa. 

Six times, chicaceppa. 

Seven times, chicoppa. 

Eight times, chicuexpa. 

Nine times, chicunauhpa.' 

Ten times, matlacpa. 

Ordinals may be read with can, as excan, " by threes," three in 

a bunch; also with oc, occe, another; ocome, two others. 
The first time, ic ceppa. 
The second time, ic ompa, etc. 

Ce. — Ce and centzontli deserve a passing notice. Ce, 
Sanskrit sa, Latin as, denotes the idea of unity. The 
original meaning, however, appears to have been either 
one thing or a number of things taken as a unit. The 
latter sense may serve to explain the difference between 
the 100-unit of the other Aryans and the 400-unit of the 
Mexican system. The Latin cem^-um is one hundred, but 
the Mexican tzont-li is four hundred. From this it appears 
that ce originally referred to the aggregate as a unit and 
not to the number of individual units forming it, consid- 
ered as to their number. But it is not certain that tzontli 
can be referred to cent-um (see p. 48). 

1 The h in words spelled like nauhpa indicates merely a hiatus as " na-oo-pa," 


Ome, two, may, I think, fairly be considered as the 
sacred syllable om. In Panjabi, ikokar, ik-om-kar, means 
naming the trinity, i. e., doing "the one two three" but 
three is omitted. 

Nine is chiuchnaui or chica naui, chica "plus," San- 
skrit, adhika, indicating increments added between 5 and 10. 
It will be observed that I have identified as Aryan, 1, 2, 
6 to 9, 15, 20, with 100 doubtful. I have not been able 
to ascertain the relationship existing between Mexican 4, 
naui,^ and Sanskrit, 9, ndva. 


The word matlactli, ten, affords a good example of the 
capacity of the Mexican for varied expression. Tlamantli 
or Centlamantli is in general, thing, object.^ 

Matlactlamantli, 10 objects. 

Im matlactlamantli, centlamantli, 10 objects in one, " a ten." 

Im matlactlamanixtin (plural of above), all the ten objects, all 

the tens. 
Matlacpa, ten times. 
Oc matlacpa, ten more times. 
Matlacpa matlactli, 10 times 10. 
Matlacpa ixquich, 10 times as much. 
Matlacpa omome or omoppa, 12 times. 
Im matlactli ce, 10 in one. 
Matlaccan, in 10 places.' 
Ic matlactlamantli, 10th object. 
Inic matlactlamantli, the 10th object, or a tenth part. 
Matlatlactli (reduplication), by tens. 

iFoMr was a sacred syllable in magic, to which the Aztecs were greatly 
addicted. For the sacred syllable " om," see Elphinstone, History of India, Vol. 
I, Bk. I, chap. iz. 

3 Sanskrit, mantra, any utterance of a priest, during devotion, which he 
enumerated as a part of his supposed inspiration, or incantation. 

3Sim6on renders matlaccan, "dix parties," ten parts, also "dix endroits," 
ten places. Can is a locative of place, ordinarily, as qualcaji, a good place. 


Hand counting. — An excellent account of the origin of 
numeration and "hand counting" is given by E. B. Tyler 
in Primitive Culture. I shall give a few of his salient 
facts here condensed and in my own phrasing. The Tonga 
Islanders have native numerals up to 100,000 ("Vol I, 
p. 241). Finger methods vary. In Tamanac, of South 
America (quoting Father Gilig), 5 = " whole hand;" 6 = 
"one on the other hand;" 10="both hands;" ll = stretch 
out both hands and say: "one on the foot;" 16 = "one on 
the other foot;" 20="tevin it6to," "one indian;" 21 = 
"one to the hands of the other Indian;" 40= "two Indians." 

Per contra in Juri "a man" is only 5. 

"Zulu is perhaps surpassed by no language in finger 
counting." They begin in general with the little finger 
of the left hand, then the thumb makes a "finish hand;" 
the right thumb becomes six; the right index finger is 
seven and the word used is komba, to point. 

Tylor (quoting Dr. Wilson) continues: "The dual 
number preserves to us that stage of thought when all 
beyond two was an indefinite number." 

The natives of the Island of Futuna, New Hebrides, 
have numerals to 4 inclusive; 5 is "my hand;" 6, "my 
hand and one;" 10, "both hands;" then on toes up to 20; 
above 20, "very many." This is the simplest system.' 

Does enumeration throw any light upon the relative 
antiquity of Indian tribes? 

One of the first things which primitive man learned 
must have been to count in some fashion, however crude. 
The Tupi Indians of South America have distinct names 
for the numerals, only from one to four inclusive. When 
we compare this meager result with the highly developed 
system of the Nauatlaca the contrast is very striking. The 

1 W. G. Fitz-Gerald, Harper's Magazine, October, 1907. 


Mosquito Indians have an elaborated system wholly dif- 
ferent from the Aztec. The Algonquin system appar- 
ently has no relation to any of these, unless it be that the 
Delaware, newo, newa, four, be the Mexican naui, four. 
The system appears to be concise and sufficient. The 
Tupis appear to have been wholly ignorant of hand count- 
ing, which the other peoples mentioned all have. Why 
this great difference in the numeral systems of inhabitants 
of the same continent? What is the signification? It 
seems to argue that these tribes have been isolated for 
very long periods and separated before the very beginnings 
of anything like culture. 

Some, however, believe that the origin of counting is 
to be found in purely mental concepts which involve ideas 
of Cosmogony. For example, if the ego be considered as 
a center there at once arises the idea of the four quarters 
of the earth with reference to this center, also the idea of 
an upper world (zenith) and an under world (nadir) .' 

1 See W. J. McGee, "Primitive Numbers," Smithsonian Report, 1897-98, Part 
I, p. 834. This is, of course, pure philosopliiziiig, hence neither susceptible of 
proof nor to be contradicted. 


History and Geography of the Mexican Language — Tribes — 
Native Kecords and Historians — Euins — Population. 

[Introductory Note. — Chaps, xiii, xiv, and xv were written 
before I had determined positively that the Nauatlaea' are Indo- 
Iranians. I tried to give a fair r6sum6 of their fragmentary, 
mingled history and tradition and naturally I ventured on some 
speculation of my own. I have concluded to let this part stand 
as originally written because it is a fair statement in brief com- 
pass of the difficulties of the case and it presents a few opinions 
of various writers with my own tentative suggestions. With one 
year's further successful investigation, I have proceeded to give, 
in chap, xvi, what I finally believe to be a clear and conclusive 
exposition of the Aztlan legend and have identified some of the 
places named in it.] 

Tribes. — There was a mingling of tribes on the plateau 
of central Mexico, and much speculation has been indulged 
as to their origin and relationship. There were Toltecs, 
Ohichimecs, Chalcas, Tlacochcalcas, Mexicans, Acolhuas, 
and others. It is to be remembered that the best-known 
name of all, Azteca or Mexica, was unimportant in the 
early days. But finally the Mexica obtained the mastery 
over the other tribes and subdued numerous "kings." 
But these kings, like those overthrown by Joshua, were 
really petty rulers, "lords rich in a dozen paltry villages." 
From the time of Axayacatl to the conquest, the rulers of 
Mexico were really worthy the name king, though they 
styled themselves simply "tlatoani," "he who commands," 
literally, who speaks. Their courts were splendid and re- 
fined, with incomprehensible aspects of barbarism. The 

1 Nauatlaca is a compound of Nauatl^ a language, and tlacatly man, the whole 
meaning the people who speak Nauatl. 



great Axayacatl himself once deigned to take part in a dance, 
clad in a gorgeous flowing robe of feather work which was 
open at the sides suflSciently to give glimpses of his fine 
figure and coppery skin. Some incidents of this great 
festal occasion, half ball, half religious ceremonial, strik- 
ingly illustrate the absolute power of this monarch who was 
satisfied to style himself " he who commands." The chiefs 
of the Tlacochcalca had come, bringing with them the 
great musician who was expected to conduct the cere- 
monies. But somehow he bungled things, when a young 
musician who was present volunteered and saved the day. 
He won such applause that the great Axayacatl himself 
deigned to emerge from the seclusion of his women, in the 
royal gallery, and indulge in a pas seul to the edification 
of his people. Because of their failure, the leading men 
of the Tlacochcalca expected nothing less than the fall of 
a few heads to placate displeased royalty. But the king 
was in a merry mood, and heaping gifts on his new favorite, 
overlooked the failure of the old. This incident suggests 
the arbitrary acts of oriental despots and especially those 
of the kings of Persia.' 

To illustrate the smallness of these "kingdoms," Tez- 
coco which was the Athens of Nauatlaca culture, is only 
about thirty miles from Mexico. But all these tribes 
(some say seven) spoke the same language, Nauatl or Mex- 
ican. This fact makes their tribal names seem still more 
obscure. Prom what central seat did these successive 
migrations emanate ? And what became of the parent stock ? 
Its extinction implies a great antiquity and perhaps a great 
national calamity. But the Toltecs appeared on the 
plains of Anahuac only about 1,200 years ago according to 
(alleged) authentic data. These Nauatlaca, Nauatl men, 

1 Annals of Chimalpahin, year 1479. 


regardless of tribal relation have been called "Nahua," 
"Nuhua," or "Noa." They have once been in close touch 
with the Hindus, the Assyrians, and the Accadians. 

Ruins. — The great pyramid, teocalli, of Cholula incon- 
testably suggests Babylonia.' I visited Cholula in the year 
1891 and was filled with wonder at its vast dimensions which 
clearly establish the existence of a dense population and 
such a work implies an organized community long settled in 
one place. Twenty-seven miles northeast of the City of 
Mexico, at Teotihuacan, the sacred city of the Toltecs, are 
the pyramids of the sun and the moon. The pyramid of 
the sun is over 200 feet in height. These pyramids are 
like the pyramid of Cheops in form, while Cholula is ter- 
raced. A descending tunnel leads to the interior. Here, 
according to Sahagun, tradition says that Tecuiztecatl, god 
of the sun, and Nanauatzin, god of the moon, once tarried 
four days. According to Dr. Karl Sapper, houses at 
Tonina, state of Chiapas, are built with walls sloping in- 
ward exactly like the great pylons of Egypt and the 
pigeon houses of that country today. There is an H -shaped 
court at El Sacramento and the substructure of the great 
inclosure at Baalbec is H -shaped. The ground-plans of 
a house at Ticul greatly resemble the plans of the temple 
of Denderah. The exterior of Denderah, as well as the 
interior, is covered with sculptures as are the exteriors of 
Peten, Palenque, and Uxmal. To my mind, these facts, 
taken together, point significantly to some former intimate 
connection between the people of the Old World and the 
New, the indications being that this connection, so far as 
the Nauatlaca were concerned, existed after civilization 
had made a considerable advancement. 

iThe pyramid covers more than 44 acres. It is larger than the pyramid of 
Cheops. Humboldt also remarks the resemblance of Cholula to the temple of 
Bel or Belus, Researches, Vol. I, p. 98. 


I quote the following from Dr. Cyrus Thomas. Kefer- 
ring to the slight progress made in deciphering these 
records, he says: 

We might hope that further research will prove that this has 
some relation to Maya history, were it not that the beginning 
was placed about 4,000 years prior to the time when the inscrip- 
tions were made, a date so remote as to preclude the supposition 
that it related to any noted event in the history of the tribesi' 

Chimalpahin begins his Annals, seventh relation, with 
the dispersion of men at the tower of Babel. But his sec- 
ond relation begins with the year 50 A. d. Perhaps after 
all he did not get his authority for his pre- American history, 
entirely from Christian sources. (See notes p. 126.) There 
is a tradition that an Aztec king, long ago, ordered all the 
records of his people to be burned. Chimalpahin and 
Ixtlilxochitl were both Indian historians who wrote in the 
Nauatl language. Both could read the old picture writings 
and both refer to records now lost, which they understood 
perfectly, in such a manner as to leave no doubt of the 
truth and accuracy of their statements regarding these 

While the Maya language appears to be distinct, accord- 
ing to philologists, from the Mexican, and the Maya culture 
apparently older than that of the Nauatlaca, all indications 
point to a common origin for both, Asia. It may not be 
going too far to assert the same of the civilization of Peru. 
It is almost certain that the deciphering of the Mexican 
and Mayan hieroglyphics would add little to authentic 
history but out of much priestly rubbish and records of 
world-old myths there could unquestionably be gleaned 
facts which would throw a flood of light upon ethnology, 
archaeology and mythology. 

1 Smithsonian Document, No. 1532, ' ' Central American Hieroglyphic Writing. " 


The geographical extension of the Nauatlaca and the 
Mexican language was very considerable, though not 
equaling thatof Algonquin, Tupi, or Quichua. The language 
extended from the state of Sinaloa in northwest Mexico 
on the Pacific, obliquely across the continent, to the 
Mayas of Yucatan on the Gulf of Mexico, a distance of 
nearly 1,500 miles. It reached down the Pacific coast 
farther south into Nicaragua, 2,000 miles, where it is now 
extinct. It ruled supreme on the table-lands of Anahuac, 
except that an enclave of Otomi ran down from the north 
nearly to the City of Mexico. Mexican was the Latin or 
lingua franca of nearly all Mexico. Tribes who did not 
speak Mexican always understood more or less of it. Its 
only real rivals in southern North America were the Maya 
and the Quich6 of Yucatan.' 

Population. — At the time of the conquest, 1520, 
the language was spoken by several millions of people, 
probably five millions at least. Tenochtitlan or Mexico 
was a great capital, a modern Venice, possibly equaling 
in size the present Venice of the Adriatic. Cholula had 
200,000 inhabitants. Humboldt thought the numbers of 
the Indians to be exaggerated by the Spanish conquista- 
dors. Tylor, on the other hand, says the temperate region 
shows evidences of a former population perhaps ten times 
that of the present.^ Cortez wrote to the emperor Charles V 
that from the top of one tower at Cholula he had counted 
more than 400 other similar towers.^ Some temples had 
two towers, others only one. Some of the Spanish con- 

1 Mexican is still spoken extensively in the states of Vera Cruz, Puebla, Tlax- 
cala, Mexico, Guerrero, Michoacan, Jalisco, Sinaloa, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Tehuan- 
tepec, San Luis, Colima, Zacatecas, Durango. Francisco Pimentel, Lenguas 
Indlgenas de Mexico. Vol. I, p. 158. [About 1,750,000 people spoke Mexican in 

2 E. B. Tylor, Anahuac. 

3 Clavijero, History of Mexico, Vol. II, p. 23, note. 


quistadors estimated the population of the City of Mexico 
at 60,000 ; others say 60,000 houses. My own opinion, 
based partially on personal observation of the stupendous 
ruins of the country, inclines to the latter estimate, since 
the pyramid of Cholula, as just stated, covers 44 acres. Is 
it not more reasonable then to accept the estimate of 
200,000 inhabitants rather than the absurdly low estimate 
of 30,000? 

Tezcoco was an elegant capital where the Nauatl 
language was spoken in its pristine purity. There the 
poet king NezahualcoyotP held his court and wrote his 
poems. He also constructed a great aqueduct to furnish 
his capital with pure water. This is no exaggerated 
picture; the testimony of the conquistadors may be 
adduced in confirmation. These men, many of whom had 
been soldiers of fortune and had visited most of the capitals 
of Europe, were struck with astonishment at what they 
saw on entering the City of Mexico. Some of these 
adventurers declared that in all Europe, Constantinople not 
excepted, they had never seen a finer appointed and busier 
market-place than that of Tenochtitlan, the doomed' capital 
of the ill-fated Empire of the Aztecs. 

1 Nezahualooyotl, "fasting coyote," or " hungry wolf," (canis latrans) . 


Origin of the Nadatlaoa. — Evidence from Language — Uitzil- 
opochtli — Possible Assyrian Affinities — The Deluge — Pre- 
Columbian Discoveries. 

The various tribes which invaded Anahuac from time 
to time, in successive migrations, all appeared to be of one 
stock and all spoke Nauatl, though the word Nauatlaca 
was never used by these people in speaking of themselves, 
in so far as I can discover. Their story is interesting even 
if nothing is definitely fixed as to localities. But first let 
us continue with the evidence of language a little longer 
because that is more certain.' 

Uitzilopochtli. — TegoQomoc, says Uitzilton, "Little 
Humming Bird," was born 1091 A. D. He was apotheo- 
sized as Uitzilopochtli. It is asserted that he led the 
Aztec "migration," 1064:?-1087, twenty-three years, from 
the departure from Aztlan to the landing at Tlalixco. 
But apparently he was not born till after the "migration" 
had ended. Clavijero says, in spite of Chimalpahin's 
assertion that the chiefs name was Uitzilton, that Boturini 
made a mistake in the word because he did not understand 
Mexican.'^ But Chimalpahin wrote several books in Mexi- 
can. Furthermore, Clavijero gives a succinct account of 
the miraculous conception and terrible events attending 
the birth of Uitzilopochtli at Coatepec near Tula. Sahagun 

1 According to A. von Humboldt, Professor Vater and Dr. Barton, of Phil- 
adelphia, recognized in eighty-three American languages, only one hundred and 
thirty-seven roots common to both hemispheres or one and two-thirds words to a 
language. Such results are practically nil, I conclude that the examination 
must have been one of those which may be classed as " unscientific." A. von 
Humboldt, Researches concerning the Institutions and Monuments of the Ancient 
Inhabitants of America^ Vol. II. 

'■! Clavijero, History of Mexico, Vol. II. 



spells the name Vicilupuchtli and remarks: "fu6 otro 
Hercules," he was another Hercules. 

Let us analyze Uitzilopochtli. Uitzilin, is derived 
from Sanskrit, vi, bird +st;ar, to hum, English, swarm 
(as bees).' What then does opochtli mean? This ques- 
tion at once involves mythology but it pertains to etymol- 
ogy as well. The Indian definition of opochtli is left 
hand (side). Why was his left foot adorned with hum- 
ming-bird feathers rather than the right foot, or both 
feet? The Greeks considered the left hand unlucky, 
hence always referred to it as the "well omened," eiwwfio';, 
by way of euphemism, and to break the spell of bad luck. 
Even today we all have heard that it is bad luck to see 
the new moon, for the first time, over the left shoulder.'' 
Though moon worship was general the Aryans assigned 
the planet a specific bearing on the question of good or bad 
luck. This would appear then to be a very widespread 
Old Aryan superstition, if found in Europe, Asia, and 
America. The Romans alone of Aryan peoples did not 
hold the left hand to be unlucky. Hence is it not reason- 
able to suppose that the Mexicans decorated the left leg 
of their god for the same reason which prevailed among 
the Greeks, that is, because the left side was unlucky? 
The word opochtli in itself does not mean left at all, but 
on the contrary something good, the meaning left being 
apparently an extension. The Sanskrit root bhaj, means 
to divide, deal out, and to give a part or get a part; bhaga, 
a derivative noun, means he who deals out, master, lord, 
also an epithet of Savitar, an exalted god of the Hindu 
pantheon. In Old Persian Baga was God; in Russian 

' Mexican in Aryan Phonology, p. 9. 

2 This "left hand" superstition is not to he confused with the obscene "left- 
hand" rites to the goddess Kali described by Jastiow, Religions of India, p. 491, 
" Right and left " had originally nothing to do with the cardinal points. 


Bog. Hence we see that the Mexican o-poch-i\i does 
not stand alone in representing an Aryan deity. Bhag-a- 
vant was fortunate, blessed, bhagin, happy ; bhagini, a sis- 
ter, "the happy one." This last use also occurs in the 
Mexican, ich-poc/j-tli being a girl, tel-poc/i-tli, a boy. 
The initial o is merely prosthetic. Does it not follow 
clearly that Uitzilopochtli as a deity is surely Aryan and 
cognate with the modern Russian name for Grod, Bog, 
and the ancient Iranian Baga? 

But it may be asked why was so tiny a creature as the 
humming-bird selected as the attendant of so terrible a 
god? The answer is hidden in the impenetrable mists of 
mythology. Suffice it to say that it was a universal Aryan 
custom to assign various animals as attendants (simulacra ?) 
or even as guides to gods and demi-gods. Witness the 
owl of Pallas, the garuda of Vishnu, the mouse of Apollo 
and the woodpecker and wolf of the Italians. The un- 
known god who appeared to the Inca (Falb, Land of the 
Inca) was accompanied by a black dog. 

The Algonquin Manabozho is doubtless opocMli. 
Manabozho was a sort of protean deity who assumed 
various forms, sometimes grotesque. Ordinarily he was 
called the Great Hare. His father was the west wind, 
his mother granddaughter of the moon (see "Climate," 
p. 135). In Natick, Nanepaushadt is moon or moon-god. 
In Scotland the west wind is associated with the moon- 
myth. Manabozho recreated the world after the deluge.' 

Besides the name bozho an additional link connects 

1 See Parkman^ Introduction to Jesuits in North America. In spite of his 
absurd attributes he was considered chief of all the Manitoue, a position accord- 
ing well with Savitrl-Baga-Uitzilopoohtli. He also granted the Indians immor. 
tality, but a carious squaw opened the packet and the gift escaped. Here is a 
legend evidently parallel to the myth of Pandora's box ; Bureau of Ethnology 
Beportfor 1B90~93, Menominee Vocabulary: M&n&bllsha=mtLsha, great+wabds, 
rabbit, sic? 


this god with the Hindu pantheon. He was called the 
Great Hare and was a descendant of the moon. The 
Hindus see a hare or a gazelle in the moon instead of a 
man, but the Tartars also reverenced the moon.^ 

Even the Spaniards appeared affected by the humming- 
bird myth since it is related (Ohimalpahin, Annals, year 
1531) that a humming-bird attended Friar Martin de 
Valencia in his solitary meditations and prayers. 

The name for woman in Mexican is cihuatl. In Tupi 
it is simply ci, mother. The Sanskrit giva is the phonetic 
equivalent of these words. It means kind, gracious, 
lovely. The horrible god Qiva (Siva) "the gracious one," 
is one of the Hindu trinity to this day, and his name is 
also a euphemism. A few words more as to Tetzauitl 
which was an appellation of Uitzilopochtli.^ A celestial 
phenomenon, tetzauitl, "terrible thing," in the year 1509, 
excited terror among the Mexicans. It was a great light 
in the heavens which appeared nightly for months. Prom 
Chimalpahin's description it is hard to believe it a comet. 
Tetzauitl as an appellation of Uitzilopochtli plainly marks 
him as a devil-god. I derive it from Sanskrit, dasd, evil 
demon + vid, to know, a seer ; Icelandic, vit-ki ; English, 
witch ; Anglo-Saxon, wicca. Tetzauitl stands for the evil 
side of Uitzilopochtli. Will any one claim that these refer- 
ences, analogies and derivations, are unscientific or mere 
coincidences? But there is more. 

I Carpini, Dawn of Modern Geography, Vol. Ill, p. 284. The same may be 
said of the Hottentots and other tribes, Cyclopedia of Superstitions. 

2 See " Nauauatzin," Mexican in Aryan Phonology, p. 13, and "deities," 
p. 161, infra. 

Much futile and some absurd speculation has been indulged in by writers 
on the subject Mexican mythology. Uitzilopochtli has been considered as a per- 
sonification of the powers of nature and the word uitzilin even applied to the 
whisperings of an oracle. The Micboacan legend says Tezpi (Noah) sent out 
uitzilin to explore the waters. An extended account of Uitzilopochtli may be 
found in Eingsborough's Mexican Antiquities, Vol. VII, Book III, pp. 103 ff. ; also 
Native Races of the Pacific Coast. 


The Assyrian Bel, Hebrew Baal, was one of the most 
puissant gods of western Asia. He was supreme at Baby- 
lon, Baalbec, Carthage and elsewhere. Without going 
into the origin of his name, it is possibly connected with 
the Sanskrit yeih pdlay a, to protect, because bel also meant 
a secular lord, a feudal protector. The Mexicans also have 
the phrase, ipal nemoani, *Nebo-Ana? *nembo-ana? for 
God, that is, "He who walks with the living" or "Him 
through whom men live." Ipal, "his pal," in this case 
evidently means protector. But I should add that the 
connection between Mexican and Assyrian in this case is 
only in the phase of suggestion. 

AUepetl means town, in Mexican. Al is separable, 
tepetl means hill or mountain, as in " Popocatepetl," "the 
mountain smokes." In the Assyrian cuneiform writings 
alu was always placed as a catch word before sentences 
describing or referring to cities. 

In Mexican, calli is house, or a public building; 
chantli, is a dwelling; ekalli in Assyrian is palace (c = k). 
Kal'a was a Sassanian palace. Nacatl is meat in Mexican; 
in Egypt (where camel's flesh is eaten) it means she- 

The Deluge. — Noah (Noakh) in Hebrew is defined 
rest. In the opinion of some critics it really is the name 
of a people instead of a man. Oppert believes Noah 
to be a7iu, a god; and Abel to be abilu, son. The Semites 
called the Accadians adamatu, "red race," and it seems to 
be agreed upon that Adam was a red man. The Nahua, or 
Noa, were one of the tribes of the Nauatlaca. Noakhali is a 
district of Bengal.' 

1 These references to Semitic culture were written at the time when I believed 
the Mexicans to be closely associated with the Semites. They are allowed to 
stand here for what they may be worth, if anything. They are not wholly value- 
less because it is certain that the ancient Aryans were at various times in contact 


The Mexicans, like all nations, had a tradition of the 
deluge. Coxcox was their Noah and eight people were 
saved in an ark called tlaptli petlacalli. In an Aztec 
painting he is represented as floating on a log on the waste 
of waters. This phrase is not easily explained. It is easy 
to get the modern Indian significations, but what were the 
original meanings ? It must be remembered that Mexican 
is a non-literary language and for lack of continuous his- 
tory of words, only comparative philology will help us 
out. Tlaptli means a coffer, and petlacalli, literally, "a 
mat-house," that is, not made of mats but made like a mat, 
probably of wicker or woven fabric. It would seem, at 
first glance, as rather a childish conception, that of an ark 
made of mats or wicker work. But on the authority of 
Dr. Peters, who conducted the explorations in Babylonia, 
for the University of Pennsylvania, boats are made there 
today precisely in that fashion. A framework of wattles, 
interwoven, is thickly covered with pitch, and such a boat 
will support a team of horses. If the Mexicans ever used 
petra for stone, of which I have no evidence, then petla- 
calli would mean stone or pitch (?) house. 

Tlaptli, a coffer, may possibly be derived from the San- 
skrit root trp, to sustain, nourish. This meaning, the ark 
would satisfy. Petlatl (in petlacalli) may also be explained 
figuratively. In Mexican court language, "icpalli ihuan 
petlatl," "seat and mat" were symbols of authority. 
Hence the whole phrase "tlaptli petlacalli" might mean 
something like this: "the ruler's or patriarch's house 
which sustained us." Nothing in the phrase even hints 
at boat. The Mexican name for boat is acalli, "water- 
house." It is further to be remarked that the ark of the 

with Semites and Turanians. Even today an Afghan tribe claims Hebrew 
descent. A very different derivation is given for Nahua in Mexican in Aryan 
Phonology, p. 12. 


covenant was really a coffer, and until lately a meal chest 
was called an ark in the north of England.' [A better 
derivation of tlaptli is tr + ap = " across the waters." ] 

Like the Babylonians, the Nauatlaca recognized the 
male and female principle in their deity, as is clearly 
shown in the following quotation from Ohimalpahin's 
Annals, year 1519. "Auh in aquin oquigaco in teotl, in 
tonantiz, in totatiz." But he who has come [Cortez] is 
god, our mother, our father. The female in such cases is 
always mentioned first. 

What then is the purport of all these references to 
Hindus,^ Assyrians, and Hebrews? That the Nauatlaca 
are descended from all of them jointly? By no means, 
but it is evident that these red immigrants to America 
were once in close touch with the ancestors of all these 
nations. Indications point to the highlands of western 
Asia, the country of the Elamites, as the original seat of 
the Nauatlaca. Elam is given as Hebrew for Aryan. A 
grammatical expression, "in Susinak," identical with 

1 Pushita is the Indian name of a township in Auglaize County, Ohio. Com- 
pare it with Pushan a Vedic deity or with Uitzil-o-pocTi-tli. Illinois is the French 
rendering of lliini, an Indian appellation in the Delaware, anini, men. It vio- 
lates no law of phonetics or historical probability to derive illini (inini) from 
ilu, Assyrian, a god (plural, ilani). And here we are brought face to face with 
the fact that all the ancient peoples believed that they were a " chosen people," 
or in some measure under divine protection, and many tribes claimed divine 
ancestry. This reduces the Hebrew claim " Chosen People," to an insignificant 
historical incident. But a derivation of Illini directly from Iran is better. Com- 
pare Eirin, Erin, Ireland. 

The swastika, JJ| , a mysterious symbol, belts the earth by way of Java, 
Egypt, Spain, and Arizona. It is generally supposed to be a religious symbol, 
but Falb {Land of the Inca) thinks it represents the ancient hand mills. The 
name is Sanskrit, meaning "well-being," or simply "good luck." The swastika 
has lately been found at Moundville, Ala., U. S. A. Mr. Wardle {Harper's Maga- 
zine^ January, 1906) who conducted the explorations, calls it merely a sign of the 
cardinal points. The vase in question carries the form -J— . 

3 The marriage customs of the Aztecs greatly resembled those of the Hindus, 
Presoott, Conquest of Mexico, Appendix. For superstitions see Elphinstone, His- 
tory of India, Vol. I, Bk. I, chap, iv, p. 76. 


modern Mexican syntax, occurs in an inscription of the 
Elamites, 1200 b. o., according to a translation by Jacques 
de Morgan. The country of the Mekhirani was overrun 
and devastated by Ezar Hadon 681 b. o. 

The Mexican termination, "catl" (Sanskrit, jatru or 
gattru?) as in Aztecatl, may sometimes possibly mean 
"lord of" and may be Katur, of which Chedor is the 
Hebrew equivalent according to Sayce,' and Chedor-Lao- 
mer (Lagomer) was one of the kings mentioned in Gen- 
esis (14:9).^ Katur-Mabug resembles the name of the 
Mexican official t\a-maocatl = Mabug-a-tl. Everything 
discoverable in the Mexican language then points to the 
fact that it must be of extreme antiquity. 

Pre-Columhian discoveries. — I may as well refer to 
"pre-Columbian Discoveries" of America, though the sub- 
ject seldom touches upon philology, and has only a remote 
bearing here. Only one of these discoveries, in so far as 
I am aware, has any philological bearing on the origin of 
any tribe of Indians, and that is told in the story of Madoc 
or Madog, a Welsh prince who is said to have sailed west- 
ward from his native country early in the eleventh century 
and never returned. From this fact, if it be a fact, has 
sprung some Welsh myths connected with the Indians of 
North America. In "Lives of Famous Indian Chiefs" 
(quoted from Baldwin, Ancient America) may be found a 
remarkable affidavit by the Reverend Morgan Jones who 
"certifies" that he was wrecked in the year 1660 at Port 
Royal [S. C] where he held conversation with the Tusca- 
rora Indians in British (Welsh), and "did preach to them 

1 A. H. Sayce, Higher Criticism and the Monuments, p. 164. 

21 have not been able to determine " oatl" as a separable affix nor to con- 
nect Mekhirani with the puzzling word Mexica. The same applies to "otl" as 
an abstract termination. The word Katur, Katir, is still In use in Kafiristan with 
a doubtful meaning, probably a horseman or lord. 


three times a week." George Catlin also tells a somewhat 
similar story of the language of the Mandans,' and 
although he asserts that the Mandans are extinct, contrary 
to the fact, he tells the story of their tragic end with such 
circumstantial detail that I think there must be some con- 
fusion of names as to the tribe in question. 

1 Norman Wood, Lives of Famous Indian Chiefs^ Aurora, 111. Catlin, Indians 
of North America, p. 759. Catlin's list of words will not bear scientific scrutiny. 
The affidavit of Rev. Morgan Jones I leave to the individual opinions of my 
readers. This matter is discussed fully by Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific 


Origin of the Nauatlaoa. — Historical Evidences — The Migra- 
tion— "Chichi"— "Tlacochcalca"— Meaning of Aztec— The 
Aztlan Myth. 

Tribes. — It now remains to set down the little that is 
known about the wanderings of the people of Anahuac. All 
the writers tell us that there were three important tribes 
who successively arrived at the Mexican lakes. First came 
the Toltecs, "architects," who were supposed to have been 
artisans. Some derive the name from toUin, a reed, a 
rush( ?), some from ToUan- Aztlan. They were builders of 
fixed habitations. Next were the Chichimecs, who were 
supposed to have been a pastoral people because the name 
is defined "he who sucks."' Lastly came the Aztecs. Why 
were they not called the "bronze workers," from aes, cop- 
per, asi, ensis, a sword, and "tecatl,''^ master of? In fact, 
Quetzalcoatl, "the fair god," is said to have taught them 
the art of casting metals." He was also a law-giver and 
instituted the book of martyrology. All these people 
came from Aztlan in the north. 

The Sanskrit must usually be given first place in things 
Mexican and as means (1) to be, to exist, asura, a god; 
(2) to shoot, to dart; and from this last we may get the 
idea copper, if lances were tipped with bronze. But if we 
take as, (1) then we may get as-ura, the gods, and 

1 See discussion of ChicMmecatl, p. 39, note. 

2 Quetzalcoatl =(xuetzalli, a plume + coatl, a serpent, hence "plumed ser- 
pent." Boa was the Babylonian serpent god, the serpent of the garden of Eden, 
no doubt (Eawlinson). Boa may be the equivalent of the Mexican coa. Hoa was 
not originally an evil personification. Since coatl is derived from Sanskrit cubh 
it would be necessary to show a corresponding phonetic change in Assyrian, or a 
direct borrowing on one side or the other. 



Aztlan may become "the land of the gods," Germanic 
aes-ir; Irish, ais-sidhe, "god land;" possibly a land 
specially ruled or favored by the gods as was ancient 
Palestine in the estimation of the Hebrews. This second 
view is very probable. The Nauatlaca, especially the 
Mexicans, were eminently religious, as is evidenced by 
their turning back to their own country to worship. The 
Mexicans had an important official called Teohuateuctli, a 
word which means "near to, or guardian of, sacred things." 
Doubtless he was a sort of pontifex maximus or high- 

Chichi is defined by the lexicographers, Molina and 
Sim6on, as dog, and mecatl is a whip, a cord. This would 
give us "dog whip;" and Chichimeca, "masters of dogs," 
but also interpreted, no doubt falsely, simply "dogs" and 
suggesting a people who may once have sledged with dogs 
in the far north. This would also suggest that the Chichi- 
mecs came to America overland by way of Alaska.' In 
the face of this, is the definition, "one who sucks," but 
Sanskrit dhi, means also pious, and dhr, chi, means bear 
(stout), 6p6-vo<;, hence I do not advance the dog-sledge 
view as a hypothesis, but merely as a suggestion, and to 
illustrate the difficulties which surround this subject. 
But these few lines of speculation are perhaps more than 
sufficient. The Ohichimecs were supposed to have left 
Aztlan, in the north somewhere, about the year 50 a. d.'' 

The northern tribes around Puget Sound, the Sho- 
sh6nes, and farther south the Utes and the Moquis have 

1 Chichi means breasts, hence milk, in Japanese, also father ; it is derived 
from Sanskrit, dhi, to suck, but dhl also means devotion. Heuce this word applied 
to the Chichimeca, '^dogs," in derision was accepted by them as a term of honor. 
See p. 39, note. 

2An important date is 1091 A. D., when they "reformed" the calendar. But 
according to Veytia an earlier ''reform" took place at a meeting of Toltec astron- 
omers, 134 B. c, in Ueuetlapallan (Balkh?). 


been classed as the Uto-Aztecan stock. In 47 Sh6shone 
words I found 21 apparently akin to Nauatl. 

The Toltecs, says Clavijero (Vol. I, p. 112), began 
their migration 596 A. d. and traveled, always southward, 
for one hundred and four years. Their arrival at Tula 
(Mexico) was about 690? A. d. According to this account 
Aztlan could have been a country situated at an immense 
distance. It is supposed that all these tribes came from 
Aztlan. But Tegogomoc says the Aztecs required only 
twenty-three years for the migration. 

Ohimalpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin, a descendant of Indian 
kings, was born 1579. He was near enough to the con- 
quest, beyond doubt, to have access to Aztec documents 
now lost which he could decipher. The traditions of the 
Aztec empire still lived in his time. He is a careful, trust- 
worthy writer, and his Annals have been called the Mexican 
classic. I shall follow him a little farther. 

In places, Ohimalpahin is vague, owing as he frankly 
confesses, to the fact that he did not know what the exact 
facts were. His pages teem with names of tribes and 
places, long bizarre names which, to anyone who does not 
understand Mexican, seem hopelessly barbaric. It would 
be useless to try to follow him far in one short chapter, 
but the leading facts may readily be culled from among 
the minor details. I will quote the opening sentence of 
Chimalpahin's "Sixth Relation." To understand the date, 
an understanding of the Mexican calendar is necessary.' 

XIII Tochtli Xiuitl, 1258 Anos — Inic ualquizque in Xicco 
in Chichimeca in intlan Chalca in oncan catca XVIII xiuitl, in 
atenco cenca quipopouhtinenca, inic Chichimeca in tlein quichi- 
uaya quimilhuiya Atempaneca. 

1 For caleodar see Presoott, Conquest of Mexico, Vol. I, chap, i ; Introduction 
to Chimalpahin's ^KTiate, ed. Simeon; and Veytia, Coieredarios JIfexicanoj, Pub. 
MuB^o Nacional de Mexico, 1907. 



XIII year rabbit, 1258 a. d. — Then the Chichimecs repaired 
to Xicco where had dwelt the Chalcas for eighteen years, occu- 
pying themselves with the art of divination ( ?) by the water side, 
for which reason the Chichimecs called them Atempaneca. 

The year 1258 A. d. is then Chimalpahin's first definite 
date in his very brief "Sixth Relation," as edited by 
R6mi Simeon, though in his introduction to the "Seventh 
Relation" he begins with the confusion of tongues at the 
tower of Babel and dwells on the wickedness of Nimrod. 
This is merely a restatement of the biblical account; but 
recent discoveries make it probable that the Indians did 
possess reasonably definite knowledge of events which 
occurred thousands of . years ago.' Cyrus Thomas, as 
stated in chap, xv, discussing the Maya inscriptions of 
Yucatan, alludes to dates about 4,000 years anterior to the 
date of the inscriptions, which he thinks may have been 
written not long before the Christian era, thus reaching 
back over 6,000 years. Mr. Thomas discredits these dates 
as wholly improbable, but at least they justify further 
investigation before they are summarily dismissed. 
Mexican writers allude to old records which appear to have 
been chronicles from their name, as, for example, the 
teoamoxtli, sacred book, of the Chichimecs. 

The Tlacochcalca. — A tribe repeatedly mentioned by 
the Indian chronicler is the Tlacochcalca. It may be only 
a coincidence, but the syllable ^^coch" of this word is phone- 
tically equivalent to "cush" in CwsMtes. The CwsWtes 

' I see no way whatever of verifying tliese positive dates at present. 

"The aborigines of America have preserved a clearer and more accurate 
remembrance of the great archaic events narrated in Holy Writ than the natives 
of the eastern hemisphere, with the only exception of the chosen people of God." — 
B. P. De Roo, America before Columbus, Vol. I, p. 211. 

*^There can be no doubt that the Toltecs had a clear and distinct knowledge 
of the universal deluge, of the confusion of tongues, and of the dispersion of the 
people." — Francesco Saverio Cl&wiieio, History of Mexico, Vol. I, p. 116. 


are lost in the obscurity of forgotten ages. They were, 
for one thing, an Ethiopian people, as is definitely asserted 
by the ancient Egyptians. But some authorities claim 
that they originated in Arabia. The pre-Semitic language 
and people of Babylonia were certainly Cushitic. What 
does the word mean? Evidently "The Bowmen" since 
tlacochtli is an arrow in Mexican.' Another name for 
the Tlacochcalca was Nontiaques, and Nandi is another 
name for Siva "the glorious one." 

This tribe apparently equaled in importance, if they 
did not surpass, the Mexicans themselves. He says this 
tribe left Aztlan or Aztlan-Chicomoztoc, that is, Aztlan of 
the Seven Caves, about 1272 A. d. This place or country 
was called Tlapallan. A long interval elapses between 
the building of the tower of Babel and 1272 a. d. Hence 
we have practically; as yet, nothing but tradition and the 
evidence of comparative philology to fill up the gap. The 
Chichimeca left Aztlan about 50 a. d., the Azteca, 1064 
A. D., arriving at Tlalixco about 1087 A. d. To formulate 
from the Annals any hypothesis as to the routes traveled 
by the Indians or their manner of transport, would be 
unsafe, though Ohimalpahin says the Chichimeca traveled 
by boat (Second Relation, year 50).^ Yet most writers 
agree that the Toltecs preceded the Chichimecs. There 
evidently exists either a confusion of names or a confusion 

1 This was written comparatively early ia my investigations. It is allowed 
to stand since it is not improbable to suppose contact between these peoples at a 
very early date. 

The word kuch, a tribe, appears in India as late as the fifteenth century. 
The Turkish word for bird is kush; English cushat the ring-dove, hence the idea 
ot flight may have been the potent factor in naming an arrow. Khasti is a bow in 
Assyrian. Since writing this I have found a curious confirmation of my hypothesis 
in "Prehistoric Mound ville" by H. Newell Wardle, Harper^s Magazine^ January, 
1906. A copper arrow-head was found modeled somewhat after a bird's head. 
Mr. Moore of the Bureau of Ethnology arrives at the same conclusion regarding 
the bird and the arrow. See p. 141, infra. 

2 Quoted by Simeon from MS. 


of dates, else the Chichimecs were several hundred years 
on the way, which is not probable. 

Chimalpahin says that when the Tlacochcalcas left 
Tlapallan/ they traversed a great sea on the shells of turtles 
(boats of that form or name, probably) and reached a 
great river, the course of which they followed.^ Then 
they returned again toward the east (?), to perform 
religious duties before the sun. For this reason they 
were called Teotlixca, that is, '■'■face to face with God." 
This last name suggests another difficulty which adds to 
the confusion. Here was the name of a tribe changed, 
owing to a single fact in their history, and we have already 
seen (p. 126) how the Chichimecs changed the name of the 
Chalcas. It will be observed that these people were very 
pious. Again they crossed the sea and this time visited 
"Mermaid Land." They crossed the sea in two places, 
landed on a large island and explored it, and soon after 
arrived in Xiuhpetlapan, 1272 A. D., where they remained 
a year. Next they came to '■'■Spider Mountain'''^ and then 
to "Snake Mountain" and later to a place where the 
timber or scrub was so thick that they had to cut their 
way through it. 

It will be seen that all this, while specific, is bewilder- 
ing, because we cannot identify positively one single place 
and such a name as "Snake Mountain" affords no clue. 

1 Tlapallan. — The synonyms for this place are Aztlan, Chicomoztoc, Tzo- 
tzompa, Nonohualco, Quinehuayan, Teocolhuacan, Tula, ToUan, Amaquemecan, 
Temoanchan. I have already discussed the two first. But I fear efforts lo reach 
convincing derivations for the others are futile [see chap. xvi]. Not all 
add Amaquemecan and Temoanchan. The Mexicans call the north the right hand ; 
the south, the left hand. This is the reverse of the Hindu method. It may be 
considered as one proof that the Aztecs came from the went. In the ceremony of 
*' binding up the years," mo'lpilli in ziuitl, which occurred at the end of each 
cycle of fifty-two years, the officiating priest always faced the west. 

2 Was this river the Tigris-Euphrates to the sea or the Hoang-Ho to the sea? 
3Cf. the "Earth Spiders," cave dwellers, of Japan; Batchelor, The Ainu. 

Xiuhpetlapan^ is the "country of grass mats." 


The only large islands worthy that name in the north 
Pacific, and which necessitate crossing a "Great Sea" to 
reach them, are the Hawaiian Islands. The only great 
rivers (on this side) are the Sacramento and the Columbia, 
unless we adopt the Alaskan route and the islands which 
constitute the extension of the Alaskan Peninsula/ There 
are strong arguments against the probability of the 
peopling of America from the Pacific side. In fact it is 
positively asserted that America was inhabited at the 
close of the glacial age by immigrants from western 
Europe who came by a northern route.'' 

Aztlan. — Where was Aztlan-Chicomoztoc ? Possibly it 
was in North America and the Great Lakes were the sea, as 
before remarked. There has been much puzzling over the 
situation of Aztlan and the meaning of the word. Some 
think it is cognate with aztatl, the egret heron and place 
the "Seven Caves" on the south Atlantic or Gulf coasts, 
or specifically in Florida. But there are no caves in 
Florida, and aztatl cannot be connected easily with Aztlan. 

According to De Koo, there is, or was, a small pyrami- 
dal mound on an islet in Lake George, Florida. Humboldt 
describes a Mexican painting representing Aztlan, as a 
small island with a teocalli and a palm tree growing near 
to the temple. Florida abounds in palm trees, but ap- 
parently the insuperable objection to supposing Aztlan to 
be in Florida is Chicomoztoc, "the Seven Caves;" con- 
stantly mentioned in connection with Aztlan. R6mi 
Simeon appears to think it a fact that the Chichimecs 

1 Also see reference to O. T. Mason's sea-route, Indo-Malaysian. Keant?, 
Ethnology, p. 365. 

2 D. G. Brinton, American Race, p. 28. But Petitot in Asiatic Origin of the 
Esquimaux makes equally convincing arguments for the other side of the ques- 
tion, such as the finding of drawings of monkeys and elephants, on Esquimaux 
tombs, traditions of reindeer and the assistance the Japan current would render 
to boats. Also the west is called by a word which means behind. 


divided into two branches, in Florida, one going directly 
to Mexico led by Quetzalcoatl and Uemac and the other 
to Yucatan. The former was highpriest, the latter regent 
of the earth. 

Clavijero places Aztlan east of Zacetecas, and the Seven 
Oaves were, in his opinion, large buildings, the ruins of 
which still exist. But Chimalpahin distinctly states that 
the Tlacochcalcas crossed the "Great Sea" after leaving 
Aztlan. Boturini placed Aztlan in Asia.' But A. von 
Humboldt thought Aztlan must be sought in America 
north of the forty-second degree of latitude. Chimal- 
pahin's reference to timber and snow corroborates this 
view. Betancourt placed it 2700 miles from Mexico. 

It seems absurd, however, to place Aztlan on the small 
barren islands off the coast of southern California as some 
writers have done. Those islands might have been a tem- 
porary stopping-place, but certainly they could not have 
been the permanent seat of any tribe worth considering. 
Furthermore, Chimalpahin remarks that in the year 1274, 
the Tlacochcalca reached a place where it snowed on them, 
"oncan inpan ceppayauh." If they left Catalina Island 
and traveled south, they should have reached in two years 
a country where it never snows except on the tops of the 
very highest mountain peaks. This snow fell soon after 
they passed through "the dark woods." 

1 Clavijero did not know Botnrini's reasons for this opinion. But Boturini 
may iiave been right. It is said that he was a very learned man. As, in Aes-ir, 
doubtless means something like "home of the gods," as before stated. Com- 
pare ^s-gard, "stronghold of the gods." But there may naturally have been a 
new Aztlan on the American continent just as there is a New York, a New 
Spain, etc. Brasseur de Bourbourg found reference in a Quich6 MS to four 
Tulas, one of which was in the east beyond the sea. One writer (Presoott, Vol. I, 
p. 11, ed. note) thinks tal, tol, tul, originally applied to the Himalayas, the root 
being found in English tall, in Atlas, Atlantis, Italy, Aitaly, etc. Ultima Thule 
has also been mentioned. Here apparently nothing is certain. There are caves 
in the sea cli£fs north of San Biego, at la JoUa. 


It was not the Tlacochcalcas alone, whose fortunes 
Chimalpahin follows specifically, as the following transla- 
tion will show: 

I tochtli xiuitl, 50. — Nican ipan inin acaltica in ohuallaque 
in ueuetque Chichimeca in motenehua Teochichimeca; [also 
called Azteca] in uei apan ilhuicaapan ohuallaque in ohaullanel- 
lotiaque, ompa quigaco achto onean motlallico in itocayocan 
Teocolhuacan Aztlan. (Second Relation.) 

Translation : 

1 year rabbit, 50 a. d.— Now the ancient Chichimecs, called 
"the godly Chichimecs," embarked on the great sea, wide as 
heaven; they arrived by means of oars; they landed and first 
established themselves in a place called (by them?) Teocolhua- 
can Aztlan. 

Here we have Aztlan coupled with Teocolhuacan and 
distinctly not the original home. It was the place of 
"the Divine Brotherhood," "ca anepantla aitic," "in 
the middle of the water." Aztlan was described as a 
delightful land in which all were happy. Ducks, herons, and 
other water-fowl abounded. A variety of edible fishes swam 
in beautiful streams whose banks were cool with refreshing 
shade. Song birds of bright colors enlivened the woods 
with music. When the wanderers left this paradise, all 
was changed. The land became a desert, the animals were 
ferocious, the serpents venomous, the shrubs became thorns 
to tear the fiesh, and even the worms were malignant. 
This all sounds very much like the story of the expulsion 
from the Garden of Eden. The Aztecs changed their 
name to Mexican by command of Uitzilopochtli. God 
gave them the bow and arrow and the fish -net and Uitzil- 
opochtli said to them: "Ye shall for the first labor." 
"Yehuantin yacachto tequitizqu6."' This again sounds 
like the primal curse that man shall earn his bread by 

iDr, Seler, Alterthuma Kunde, Vol. XI, pp. 33 ff., illustrations of the 


toil. These people evidently considered themselves a 
pious, perhaps a "chosen" people, though the Romans 
spoke of "pious Aeneas." But the chief points to be 
noticed are that they crossed a "great sea" in boats and 
reached an island. Where? This account mighi favor 
the view that they did not come by way of Behring Strait, 
or the Aleutian Islands, since there is mention here of but 
one island. He further says that they arrived naked, a 
statement which precludes the northern passage.^ But the 
account here is too concise and vague. The people of the 
Mexican plateau were excessively superstitious and at the 
same time punctilious in the observance of their religion. 
It was a common practice for them to strip naked for the 
performance of certain rites, especially in the practice of 
their exorcisms. It is possible that the newcomers, on 
approaching land, laid aside their clothing and waded 
ashore in observance of some religious rite or in obedience 
to some superstition. In this way they may have literally 
" arrived naked." It is not probable that they made a long 
voyage nude, for the lowest savages make some pretense of 
clothing themselves. In classic usage naked sometimes 
merely meant unarmed. 

Finally, it will be observed that they landed in Aztlan. 
Hence the investigator must identify first of all this local- 
ity and its synonym Chicomoztoc' They are one and the 
same, since all accounts agree on these two places. 

It is a noteworthy fact that nowhere in these accounts 
of the wanderings of the Nauatlaca is there a single allu- 

1 Simeon says pepetlauhtiaque may also be translated "in want." I should 
translate it "clothed in skins," or better textile fabric, grass or wild hemp, 
(See "Nudity Eites," p. 157.) 

2 In a painting giving the history of the Aztecs from the Deluge to the found- 
ing of Mexico, 1325, Chicomoztoc is given as the seventh station from Aztlan, but 
this fact may not be significant when we consider that T&noc/ititlan was one sta- 
tion and Tlatelulco, its suburb, another. 


sion to any meeting of hostile tribes. There was no fight- 
ing on the way. This fact is certainly unique in all 
history. The annals are absolutely silent on this question 
of inhabitants of the countries passed through, except one 
instance where the astonishing statement is made that they 
met people with three legs and feet like birds.' But it is 
not a reasonable conclusion that America was uninhabited 
at the time of the arrival of the Nauatlaca. 

The Mexica-Chichimeca arrived at the present site of 
the City of Mexico in 1825, according to Chimalpahin. 
Other writers assign different dates varying from two to 
sixteen years. It has been repeatedly stated on good 
authority that the first comers saw on an islet in the lake, 
an eagle sitting on a cactus (nochtli), devouring a serpent, 
and from that incident they named the place Tenochtitlan, 
"place of the cactus." This word, however, leaves out 
entirely the serpent and the eagle, in spite of the corrob- 
orating evidence of the Mexican coat-of-arms. Chimal- 
pahin asserts that the party was led by the chief Tenochtzin 
and it is altogether probable that, like many other founders 
of cities, he called the place after his own name which also 
means a species of cactus. 

1 This description fits tlie sculptures of tlie demons in tiie palace of Assur- 
banipal at Koyunjik, Also cf. Dr. Sven Hedin (Harper's Magazine., September, 
1908), for realistic account of the monsters depicted on Buddhist temples to 
frighten away evil spirits. 


The Aztlan Legend— Climate— The "Ten" Places of the Migra- 
tion — Specific Appellations — Culture Names — Spelling of 
Names — List of Geographical Names in Mexico and in Asia. 

It must be borne in mind that the Nahua, like the 
other peoples o£ the world, had their myths which go 
back to the very cradle of the race. It is no more to be 
expected that their myth places can be identified positively 
than that we can identify the Garden of Eden positively. 
Aztlan itself may be such a myth name, though that 
question will be discussed after some other names have 
been considered. Let us consider first: Where was the 
Nahua patria? 

I have shown conclusively that Nauatl is an Aryan 
language.^ Furthermore, it is closely related to Zend and 
Sanskrit, but nearer phonetically to the former. It is in 
fact older than either and is, I think, closely akin to the 
archaic Aryan dialects of Kafiristan.^ For example, it 
retains the vigesimal system of numeration in common 
with them which all the classic Aryan languages have 
discarded. A Kafir ("infidel") word for god is deok, 
which perhaps survives in the Mexican teuctli, a leader 
(or god). "The T-ornament is still found there. This was 
the form of Aztec money. Animal sacrifice still exists in 
Kafiristan. On the head- waters of the Oxus in Afghan 
Turkestan we find such culture names as Cutlers^ Vale, 
Smiths^ Vale; Valley of Eye-paint. With these compare 

1 Mexican in Aryan Phonology, 

2 The Dards and the Galchas have remained in situ near the head-waters of 
the Oxus. The home of the Indo-Iranian race must have been in this neighbor- 
hood. R. N. Cust, Modern Languages of the East Indies^ p. 32. 



such Mexican names as Yacapichtlan, place of painted 
noses, Qacapechco, place of straw beds. Notice further 
that two of these names refer to handicrafts. Bronze 
working was carried to a high state of the art in western 
Asia and in Anahuac. The country is also rich in 

Climate. — This may be as good a place as any to refer 
to some curious facts in meteorology. The Aztecs called 
the west Cihuatlampan, "woman's region," the "mild 
quarter." An Algonqiiin legend makes Manabozho son 
of the granddaughter of the moon and the west wind. A 
Scottish superstition is connected with the west wind. 
"Prayers to the moon in the face of a west wind while it 
is raining will cause you to dream of your future husband." ' 
The beneficent winds of the Pamir region which bring 
the rain are southwest winds,^ while in Mexico the trade- 
winds are east winds. The Aztec sacred quarter was the 
west (chap, xvii, "Baptism"). The Nahua called the sky 
ilhuica tliltic, black heaven. In high altitudes the sky 
looks black. 

The "ten" names. — Let us proceed to examine in 
detail the ten Aztlan names. Are any of these names 
common to Mexico and Indo-Iranian Asia? It certainly 
is to be expected that they should be so found. We 
have English names in America from names in England. 
We may expect a new series of Aztlan names in the 
new country and it is these new names which have led 
linguists and archaeologists astray. The "ten" names 
are: Aztlan, Ohicomoztoc, Nonohualca, Quinehuayan, 
Temoanchan, Tula, Tola or Tullan, ToUan, Tlapallan or 
Ueuetlapallan, Amaqemecan, Tzotzompa, Teocolhuacan. 

^Cyclopedia of Superstitions, Vol. Ill, pp. 157 f. 

2 Stanford's Compendium of Geography, Western Asia (ed. A. H. Keane) , p. 131, 


1. Teocolhuacan has always been defined "the land of 
the divine brotherhood."' Some of the Nahua called 
themselves Teotlixca, "face to face with god." Here is 
distinctly a religious idea. In Mexico we find Teotihua- 
can, twenty-seven miles northeast of Mexico, "the sacred 
city." Wakhan is a district on the upper Oxus. Here 
we may have Teoti + Uacan, "Sacred Wakan." Simeon, 
however, gives a definition which precludes this, but, in 
my opinion, Teocolhuacan maybe analyzed teo+kol + 
Wakan. JCol means a mountain-pass in Asia, in Mexican 
&-col-ii is the coHar-bone, but it also means tribe. 

2. Nonohualca may be analyzed nono + Ualca. Nono 
is probably a reduplication of Noa or Nua." Cities of this 
name are today found in Persia, and countries adjoining 
the east, as may be seen in the list on p. 149. Ualca 
phonetically answers to Ferghana, a province at the head 
of the Jaxartes, modern Khokand, but it may be restored 
as *Galca = Galcha ? 

3. Quinehuayan.^^j the rules of Mexican grammar 
this word may be: (1) Quine-ua, land of the Khine — -this 
name is found from the head of the Jaxartes to the Pun- 
jab and is cognate with China; (2) it may be Khin-ah, 
river of the Pamirs ; (3) Khin, a river + ehua, to rise, that 
is, source of the Khin river; (4) by syncope of medial 
k it might be "Khinaka people" but I find no such name. 

4. Chicomoztoc, "the seven caves." This is one of 
the most important of the Aztlan names and one of the 
most puzzling. It may be discussed under three heads, 
(o) Chicome undoubtedly means seven and oztotl, a cave. 
In Russian it is ust, a mouth, an aperture. I shall try 

1 For the existence of a "divine brotherhood " in Asia from time immemorial, 
see A. P. Sinnett, Esoteric Buddhism, p. 50. 

2 This may also be rwhua, people -(- vrj, inclosed, set apart, " the chosen peo- 
. pie," Mexican in Aryan Phonology, Table F. 


to show that chicome vakj in this case be a homonym 
which does not necessarily mean seven, though I incline 
to the literal interpretation. The river Oxus is also 
called the Amii Daria and the Jihun. The last name 
may be restored to the ancient Gihon for *Gikon or 
* Chicon = Chicom. Hence we have Jihnn-caves. The 
Gihon was one of the rivers of Eden. On the head- 
waters of the Oxus are numerous caves, some of which 
contain sculptured colossi, giants ? Here was the ancient 
Zohak, a name which goes back to the very twilight of 
Persian tradition. Zohak,, it is said, was a wicked Per- 
sian king (mythical) who invented the dreadful punish- 
ments of crucifixion and flaying men alive.' After his 
death the devil made him head gate-keeper in hell. It 
will at once be seen that this spot may have been "holy" 
for both Buddhists and the devil-worshiping Persians." 
In Mexican the name for giants is, in the plural, tzocui- 
lique, zohacs ( ?) . This may well be an allusion to the 
colossi in the caves at Zohak. (6) If Chicomoztoc means 
"divine''^ there are two adequate explanations. (1) San- 
skrit dhi (chi) means devotion; om is a sacred syllable, 
dhik is an exclamation. The repetition of om is an act 
of piety. This would give us "the sacred caves." (2) 
Comitl in Mexican means a vessel, earthen dish, *combitl; 
Sanskrit, kumbhd; Grreek, kvim^t]. Hence we have dhl, 

1 Cyclopedia of Superstitions. — Professor A. V. Williams Jackaon says Zohak 
was a Babylonian tyrant. In Aztec cosmogony the First Period or Golden Age 
was also called the "' age of giants." 

2 The Chinese traveler, Hwen-Tsang, 630-644 A. D., found here monasteries 
inhabited by Buddhist monks and colossal statues of Buddha abounded. Dr. 
Sven Hedin (Harper's Magazine, August, 1908) found encircling the Holy Lake 
Manasowar, in the Pamirs, eipht gun-pas, Buddhist monasteries. One he speaks 
of as being terraced. It may be partially a cavern, natural or artificial, on that 
point he is silent. Sanskrit dhi (chi) means sacred, dfii-gun-ust-oc gives us 
Chicomoztoc, without any reference to number. For discussion of dhi, see p. 39, 
note. Enpassant, this lake is big enough to furnish the Aryan word boat, nav-is. 


ho\ J -\- cumb, a yessel or utensil. If these were temple 
caves or even the secret places of worship of a proscribed 
sect, we get Chi-com-ozt-o-c, the caves of the holy uten- 
sils, (c) If chicome really means seven here, then we 
must satisfactorily connect that number with the caves, 
but in any case we are still at the head-waters of the 
Oxus. Dr. Sven Hedin mentions eight monasteries at 
the "Holy Lake" Manasowar. One might have been 
added to seven existing at the time of the Aztec exodus. 

The Aztecs were undoubtedly once in contact with 
the fire- worshipers (see chap, xvii), in fact some of the 
Nahua tribes must have been fire-worshipers.^ Zoroastri- 
anism, then, must be taken into account. Zoroaster had 
seven ecstasies or divine revelations and tradition points 
yet to two of his caves at Mt. Sahund and Maraghah, 
with the fire-altar.^ Below, in the chapter on "Religion," 
"Mithra Rites," is discussed the importance of the 
cavern in religious affairs. Dr. Sven Hedin gives a most 
realistic description of the present condition of hermits 
immured in sealed caverns in this Oxus-Indus country.' 
Their fate is dreadful in the extreme. My own cursory 
observation of the "caves" of the hermits in the canon of 
Mar-Saba, Judea, is in the same line, except that these 
latter always appeared to have a square hole left for the 
admission of food and water. Dr. Hedin says that his 
ears were everywhere and incessantly assailed with the 
chanting of the sacred phrase, "on mane padme hum." 

It may be thought that I have too many alternatives 
in the case of Chicomoztoc. I have tried to give all the 
possible explanations which my investigations prompted. 

1 See " Mexico," chap, vi, and chap, xvii, " Fire- Worship." 

'^A. v. Williams Jackson, Persia^ p. 61; also see note, Oztomecath p. 164. 

3 Dr. Sven Hedin, Harper's Magazine^ September, 1908. 


Whether this name originally meant "the seven oaves," 
or "the holy caves," makes but little difference, since the 
localities are the same in either case. In fact it may be 
a case of two homonyms which in the lapse of ages finally 
retained only the most evident meaning, and were thus 
merged into one word.. 

Seven in magic. — It is hard to escape the conclusion 
that magic had something to do with the constant recur- 
rence of the number seven in antiquity, We have the 
seven caves of the Aztecs, the seven ecstasies of Zoroaster, 
the seven "castles" of the dasyus in the Vedas, the seven 
Amesha Spenta, or holy immortals, of the Gathas; the 
seventh day Sabbath originally an unlucky day, it is 
said; the siege of Jericho, in which seven priests, blow- 
ing seven trumpets of ram's horns, led the march round 
the doomed city for seven days and seven times on the 
seventh day; the seven golden candlesticks of Solomon's 
temple; "and there were seven lamps of fire burning 
before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God" 
(Rev. 4:5); "and the seven angels came out of the 
temple having the seven plagues" (Rev. 15:6); there 
was the book sealed with seven seals (Rev. 5:1); the 
beast with seven heads and ten horns (Rev. 13:1); the 
gates of Troy shook seven times when the wooden horse 
entered, and Rome was built on seven hills. Examples 
of the occurrence of the number seven might be repeated 
indefinitely. Seven was a "sacred" number among the 
Accadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians. The "unlucky 
days" of the "Farmers' Almanac" are based on this 
ancient cult. 

5. Tlapallan is one of the most common synonyms of 
Aztlan. It must have been a city of importance since 
the Toltec astronomers met there and revised the calendar 


about 134 B. c' Tla is the usual separable prefix, hence 
Pallan, *Paltlan *Palctlan, becomes the Saaskrit Bali, 
the chief city of the fire-worshipers and a holy city; in 
Armenian Bahl? In the times of the Greek Bactrian 
kingdom it was called Zarispa, from zari, yellow, some 
say, so called because of its bay horses, but Curzon," a 
modern traveler, was impressed with the fact that the 
river was of a marked red hue. The Hari-Rud, Red 
River, is today a river of Afghanistan.* 

6. Temoanchan. (1) Tfemo means to descend. Anshan 
was the primal seat of the Achaemenian kings of Persia. 
(2) The Pandjeh is an important affluent of the Oxus, 
rising in the Pamir country. Temoanchan may have been 
originally *Temopanchan, p often being dropped in such 
cases. But the first locality accords best in the main with 
the Aztlan names and traditions. The entire west slope 
of the mountain country is called by the modern Persians 
"the slope," daman i-koh, just as we speak of the Pacific 

7. Tula, Tola, Tullan, Tollan. — Tul is the name of a 
pass in the Hindu Kush Mountains. Toll is a town of 
east Afghanistan. The Toltecs built "The Sacred City" 
Teotihuacan in Mexico.' It is not to be overlooked that 
Tur may be a Turanian word, the root of Turanian itself 
or from Accadian dur, a fortified place, as Dur-Sargina, a 

1 Review of Veytia's Calendarios Mexicanos, Athenaeum, Feb. 15, 1908, by A. 
H. Keane. 

21 set aside Vamb6ry's derivation from Turkish balik, a city, as having 
no support. 

3 Curzon, Central Asia, p. 145. 

*The Aztecs referred to Tlapallan as the "old red place." Doubtless the 
root is Sanskrit bhraj ; Greek, tftKiyia • Latin, fulgnr, if balk meant red originally. 

^Fergnsson says. History of Architecture, that no Aryan race were ever 
distinctly builders of great mausoleums. It remains to be seen whether these 
pyramids were sepulchral. 


town. The Nahua doubtless borrowed words from their 
Turanian neighbors on the north, and from the Tibetans 
and Chinese on the east.' 

A positive case of borrowing occurs in Mexican tepetl, 
mountain, Turkish tepe, as in Geok-tepe, Greek, Td<j>o<!. 
But who borrowed? All writers agree that the Aryans 
were prehistoric in all the Oxus country from the Caspian 
to the Hindu Kush. According to Vamb6ry the modern 
Tajiks of Samarcand are of Aryan origin. lehring places 
the primitive seat of the Aryans in the Hindu Kush and 
I think he is right." -4Ztepetl, town, suggests the Arabic 
article al or Assyrian alu city, but Arabic is too recent, in 
the country in question. 

8. Amaquemecan may mean simply "the home land" 
from Sanskrit amd, at home + kama, desirable or kshema, 
a house; English, ham-let. If it is local to Mexico it 
may mean simply "covered with paper (see p. 142). But 
the root Kam continually occurs in Kafiristan and a more 
specific use of it is to be sought. There is a tribe called 
the Kamoz, and one of the affluents of the Indus is the 

9. Tzotzompa is defined as "the place of human 
skulls," suggesting a battle-field or sacred relics.^ But 
Sim6on defines Tzompanco, "the place of the pious." 
Going back to the highlands we find Tibetan Tsangpo or 
Tsanpo means a river, but the word skulls fixes this name 
as an appellation. It was an Aryan Calvary. 

Specific appellations throw additional light on the 
subject. The TlacocAcalca (see p. 126), were a people of 

1 Turanian dialects were spoken in Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, 1500 to 
1100 B. c. De Morgan, Mission scientifique en Perse, Vol. IV, p. 183. 

2 See Ujfalvy, Les Aryens de L'Indou Kouch. 

3 Compare the gruesome relics in the convent of the Capuchins at Rome and 
the numerous " holy sfcwZ/g" of slain hermits at Mar Saba, Judea. — Cortez pitched 
his first camp at Tzonipantzinco and Tecohuac. 


Anahuac. The word tlacochtli means arrow, and Simeon 
defines the whole "keepers of the arrow house." This 
definition is not convincing, since we find the Nonohualca- 
Tlacochcalca mentioned evidently as a tribe, but more 
likely a priesthood. Kush occurs in the Hindu Kush 
Mountains and repeatedly elsewhere. Prom a historical 
painting (see note, p. 143) are taken the names of the 
"stations" in the Aztec migration. One is Tetepanco, 
"place of the stone wall." It is a curious fact that the 
oasis of Merv was surrounded by a stone wall 172 miles 
in circuit by Antiochus, son of Seleucus. But if the 
migration was by way of China it may refer to the Great 
Wall. Alexander the Great also built a wall of many miles 
in extent to prevent the incursions of the Tartars east of 
the Caspian. Sim6on defines Amaquemecan, "covered 
with paper." So curious a definition demands an explana- 
tion since it indicates local origin. For purposes of exor- 
cism the Indian went at night into the woods, stripped 
naked and covered himself with paper, then stripping this 
off he fled home nude (chap, xvii, "Nudity Rites"). Teo- 
tenanco, "divine" Tenanco (tenamitl, wall), "within the 
walls," was evidently a walled city, Balkh ? Tzincuetlaxco- 
huatepec is a "snake-mountain" of some kind; Chalca- 
Atenco is '^Chalca by the water side;" and there occurs 
even such a combination as Quahuitl-iteoh-omitl-pilca- 
yan, "the place of the tree on which bones were hanging." 
Compare the "sacred tree" of Cairo hung with rags. 

A similar nomenclature prevails in central Asia today. 
The map of Afghanistan, Bokhara, Khiva, and northern 
Persia fairly bristles with compound words; instance, 
Nochas-Toch-Gai; Yarm-Chata-Bai-Himbesi; Arki-Kur- 
bars-Ali-Bek. Some of these names are plainly Mexican, 
as the tabulation at the end of this chapter will show. 


10. Aztlan itself remains to be considered. It is per- 
haps the most elusive name in the whole list. It is already 
apparent to the reader that the ten Aztlan names do not 
all apply to one town or locality. They apply to a tract 
of country very extensive as anyone may see by consulting 
the map. It lies, roughly speaking, between latitude 30° 
and 40° north; and 53° to 73° east longitude, that is, from 
the Caspian Sea to the Hindu Kush Mountains. Aztlan 
in the painting of the Aztec " Migration" before alluded to, 
is pictured as an island with a temple and a palm tree.' 
It is a curious fact that Chicomoztoo is named as the seventh 
"station," although synonymous with Aztlan. This coin- 
cidence doubtless arose from the fact that chicome means 
seven. That Aztlan was not the starting-Tpoint is plain 
from Chimalpahin who records the fact that in the year 
50 A. D. the Chichimecs "voyaged on the sea with oars" 
and finally arrived in Teocolhuacan-Aztlan where they 
established themselves. "It was an island in the middle 
of the sea."^ But the Mexicans made ChapuUepec a few 
miles from Mexico a station, the city itself was another, 
and Tlatelolco, a suburb, was another. Hence it is evi- 
dent that this picture and the other accounts of the migra- 
tion have no value as actual itineraries, but they appear to 
represent truthfully the traditions of the migration at the 
time they were made. It is evident that Aztlan remains 
without a definite location. It may be a myth place like 
Eden, or it may be in America, as all the early investiga- 
tors bislieved. But this fact would in no wise affect the 
nomenclature given here for Asiatic towns and places. 

1 This paintiog was published in Giro del Mundo by Gemelli Carreri. Some 
think it an invention, but Humboldt appears to believe it authentic. — Besearches^ 
Vol. II, p. 57. 

2 There are islands in the Lake Urumiah held to be in Zoroaster's native 


Let US look farther in Asia for Aztlan-Tlapallan. If 
the Chichimecs when expelled from their country,' came 
down the Oxus (there is a vague report of following a 
great river) to the Caspian Sea, they followed the old 
course of the Oxus, no doubt, since the Oxus now empties 
into the Sea of Aral. An inland people would certainly 
call the Caspian "great sea," "wide as heaven." They 
could travel on it a long time "by oar." At the extreme 
southeast corner of the Caspian lies Astr-shad, phonetically 
Aztlan. This alone has little value, and the same may be 
said of Az in the Pamirs. They need support. But there 
are Balkan Mountains near this place and on a modern 
map west of the Aral is Ust Urt which supplies the ust 
in Chicomoztoc. Near, in the Caspian are islands, and in 
the swamps no doubt were herons, aztatl, which are asso- 
ciated with Az-ti-tlan the old form of the word. It is to 
be noted, too, that Chimalpahin says {^Annals 1272) that 
the Nonohualca-Tlacochcalca returned toward the East 
to practice religious rites to the sun. Here is opportunity 
for equivocation. They may have simply faced the 

Culture names. — The culture names at the head of the 
Oxus suggest a significant comparison. "Cutlers' Vale," 
"Smiths' Vale," indisputably suggest handicrafts, metal 
working. The Azteca were skilled metal workers and 
from az, bronze, Sanskrit ayas; Latin aes, bronze or cop- 
per -|- teca, Greek, rex-Tov, we have worker, artisan, 
Hence an Aztec may have been simply a bronze smith, and 
Aztlan, the land of copper or of the bronze working indus- 
try, which greatly flourished in western Asia.'' This word 

1 Some of the Nahua tribes were expelled for rebellion. Bancroft, Native 
Races of the Pacific Coast. 

2 A possible objection to this derivation is that the root should be ez as in 
ez-tli^ blood, copper color? 


teca, tequitl, always means occupation or business in 

Continuing on culture names we find Pantitlan, "the 
place of cloth weaving." Tibet adjoins the Pamir plateau 
and Tibet has long been famous for cloth,' and Bokhara 
for rugs. There are no people in North America of which 
the same may be said except the Navajo Indians. 

Another name is Apazco [apaztli, a dish, water jar). 
The glyph represents an earthen vessel with a stream of 
water running into a fissure in the earth. Nobody would 
think of inventing a name like this. Subterranean aque- 
ducts were common in west Afghanistan. Or it may 
represent a river issuing from a glacier or entering a fis- 
sure in a glacier. The Oxus emerges from glaciers. Atl- 
itlal-ac-yan, another station, means "where the water enters 
the earth." It may refer to these aqueducts. 

The Aztlan glyph^ is a bird (flamingo?) placed over the 
sign for water apparently alluding to the sea, with the palm 
indicating the tropics, but all this may be merely the 
fancy of the artist who doubtless lived in Mexico and 
painted from tradition. That there has been confusion 
and transfer in these place names seems established beyond 
doubt since Ohicomoztoc is named as seventh station 
though synonymous with Aztlan.' 

References have been made to Ozomatli "the divine 
monkey" which is named as "station 24" and is also the 

iFor an extended account in a bulky volume of the reputed discovery of 
Mexico by Buddbist Chineae, in the sixth century A.D., see Vining, An Inglorious 
Columbus, also bibliography of the subject in Anderson's America notDiscovered 
by Columbus. 

2 For geographical " glyphs," see Peflafll, Nombres Oeograficos de Mexico. 

3Ghimalpahin explicitly states (Seventh Relation, year 1272) that the name 
Tlapallan-Chicomoztoc was changed to Nonohualca-Tzotzompa-Quinehuayan 
whence the Tlacochcalca set out on tbeir *^ migration." Does this mean a voyage 
up country from the " caves" over the Pamirs by way of China to the " Great 
Sea"? The Aztecs were left behind by the other tribes at Chicomoztoc. 


"day god" of the eleventh day of the month. (See Ozo- 
matli, p. 53.) This indicates a country where monkeys 
are found, but strange to say Chapultepec is No. 25. The 
monkey in the Old World is found as far north as Tibet 
and Japan, in the New World, as far north as eighteen 
degrees, possibly twenty-three degrees. They have been 
found in the Himalayas at a height of 8,000 to 11,000 
feet, where snow and frost occur during several months of 
the year.' 

The spelling of geographical names. — Though I have 
occasionally referred the reader to my Mexican in Aryan 
Phonology I will give here for the convenience of those 
who do not have access to that work, a few elementary 
principles. A final g ot k may become j which in Mexi- 
can is ch or X with an s^-sound. But this guttural may 
remain primitive, be changed to sh, or dropped entirely. 
In Afghan we find Piishtu or PUkhtu, the name of the 
language. In the same way an initial guttural may 
become j (sh). Thus it is legitimate to say that khin may 
become chin. Tla-pal-lan may have been originally Tla- 
balk-an. In the same way chantli, house, may be origi- 
nally, Sanskrit kshem-a. A medial r ot g may be dropped 
and its place supplied thus : r = i, iu or u; a medial g = 
u or vanishes, or in Avestan becomes s. A b or p may 
be dropped or become u. Thus chir-abad may have been 
in Mexican Tziuh-anat-1. Ua in Mexican is a possessive 
sign, and uan its plural, as, teo-coZ-uan, literally the 
"divine brothers." Can, pan, yan, tlan, co, c, are simply 
place signs. 

In these compound words each member of the com- 

1 Montaigne, Verses of Virgil^ gives a curious account of gigantic apes en- 
countered by Alexander in India ; ret. Aelian and Stiabo. His account suggests 
Hanuman, king uf the monkeys, with his valiant army. 


pound may have its own specific meaning. These rules hold 
good for Indo-Iranian dialects as well as the Mexican. 
The spelling of these names varies also with the nation 
first transcribing them into western literature. Thus 
French tchouk is English chook, djin is jin. It is also 
common in Indo-Iranian dialects to insert "irrational" 
vowels and prosthetic letters as Sanskrit rindkti, he runs ; 
Avestan irindkhti; but Sanskrit adhika becomes Mexican 

It may seem as if it were merely guessing to derive 
Quinehuayan from China, the Chinese, or Khin -\- ehua, 
to rise, or Kin-ab, a river. It cannot be all three as a 
matter of course. What Khin or Kin meant originally is 
undetermined. But it is certain that it is an Asiatic 
place-name. Ehua is Sanskrit r [ra or ar), Latin, 
orior, rise. Hence Khin may originally have been a 
mountain, a river, or a place of gathering. Khinab + yan 
would mean "place of the river Khin-ab or Chinab," a 
river of the Pamirs. 

A scholar, whose knowledge of languages should have 
guided him better, writes me that such names may be 
taken from non-Aryan languages and made to fit ad libi- 
tum. It may be done occasionally but it cannot be done 
regularly. Such criticism is of a piece with the ingenious 
hypothesis of a certain Scotchman who tried to convince 
the world that the Sanskrit language was a cunning 
invention of Buddhist priests to deceive Christians. A 
professor in an English university criticized me because 
I had not made non-Aryan comparisons and an Ameri- 
can linguist found fault because I had made such com- 

'See Louis H. Gray, Indo-Iranian Phonology; and " Dialects, " p. 99 



Introductory remarks. — This comparison is a work of 
almost insuperable difficulty. It requires a profound 
knowledge of many languages, unlimited patience, and 
plenty of time. As I am not overstocked with any of 
these things I submit this list as the best I could do under 
the circumstances. Things must be made clear at the risk 
of some repetition, and a few words as to the general 
character of Mexican word-formation are necessary to 
begin with. The Mexican word teca means work, occu- 
pation, an office, tribute. Hence a tlaxcal-/eca-tl may be 
one who keeps bread or who has charge of bread. A 
tlaltecatl is a superintendent of granaries or doubtless a 
tithing man. Catl has at times the same signification, as 
atecpancatl, a supervisor of ditches. But in spite of 
much labor, I have never been able to give a root deter- 
mination to catl and otl. Prom these remarks it may be 
seen that an office or tribal appellation existing in Asia 
may have continued under the same name in America 
though the thing which gave the name no longer existed 
(see pixquitl, p. 49). Again, names purely occidental 
doubtless sprang up in America under these same forms. 
Teca also became linked with terms of contempt as Qogol- 
teca, "dung people." AmantecatV (Olmos, Gram., p. 33) 
was an artist, hence his designation was not lost during 
the disorganization incident to the migration. The word 
is probably Sanskrit, md, to measure, fit, be "handy;" 
manu quaerere is handiwork; yezhuahuacatl, may be the 
yezidis, devil- worshipers, ydjvan. They were superior 
officers in the court, royal entourage, of Mexico. A com- 
prehensive study of Mexican officialdom would surely 

1 Cf. the amanta of Peru who was at oace philosopher, reciter and herb 
doctor. Ized is New Persian, a god, Satan? 



prove profitable. But unfortunately these qualifiers in 
such compounds cannot be proved absolutely by cognates 
as can teca itself, from Sanskrit, talcs; Greek, tsk-tov. 
Furthermore, the original meaning of most geographical 
names is lost, hence phonetics alone must serve as a guide. 

Nahua, a tribe. 

Nahua or Nohoa, the same tribe. 
Tula or Tola, a city. 

Amantecatl, an official. 
Cuixtecatl, an official. - 

Calli, a public building. 

Chantli, a house. 

Nal, clear, as water or weather; 
a-nal-co, across the water. 

Milli, a field; milpa, in the coun- 

Uemac, an Aztec chief. 

Uei, large; of. Etruscan Veii. 

Me, a Mexican plural ending and 
Cuixtecatl as above. 

Tlal-wiawaZ-co, town settled by 
Nonohualca after leaving Tla- 

Altepetl, gen. name for town. 

Temoanchan, town of the migra- 
tion; tevno, in Mexican, de- 

Miahuaque, a tribe; miauatl, a 

corn-stalk bloom. 
Quinehuayan, starting-point of 

the " migration." 

Kala-Nao, Persia. 
Shahr-Noa, Khorassan. 
Toll, a town, Afghanistan; ct. 

Etruscan Vetittonia. 
Amantai, town, Bokhara. 
Krs, Sanskrit, to plough; krsti, 

tilled land, people; ct. Krishna. 
Kal'a, Sassanide palace; towns, 

Kala-nao, Kala Kumb, Kala- 

Chan-Ojuk, Chan-Kui, towns in 

northeast of Persia. 
Nal, a river, Baluchistan. 

Mil-Omar, a town south of Merv. 

Eimak, the four tribes, Afghan- 

Ve-Rud, Pars! name of the Oxus. 

Chech-me, Chech-me-Aris, towns 
in northeast of Persia. 

Mei man, place, northeast of 

Geoktepe, town, Russ. territory. 

Daman i-koh, hillside, " the 
slope," New Persian; Anshan, 
legendary city of the Achae- 
menian kings. 

Miau-ab, a town on Persian Gulf. 

Kin, (1) Kin-abad, town on the 
upper Oxus; Khin-ab, one 
of the heads of the Indus; 




Acollhuacan, town of the A-ool- 
ua; a-col-li, thes/ioMWers; col, 
also means tribe. Hence Acol- 
huacan may meanKul-Wakan; 
also Teotihuacan, "sacred city" 
of the Toltecs.1 

Culiacan, a town. 

Tlapaflan, town of the migra- 
tion (see p. 139). 

Yacapichtlan, " place where they 
adorned noses." 

Coxcox, Aztec Noah; Tezpi, Mi- 
choacan Noah. 

Nontiaque, a Nahua tribe. 
Ipal Nemoani, god. 

Chal-co, "place of precious 
stones," 18 "station" of Aztecs. 

'Nonohualca, a tribe of the 

Aztecatl, an Aztec (see p. 144). 

Coyohuacan, place of coyotes 

Poyauteca, a tribe. 

Aztlan, Nahua " Eden." 


(2) Khin + eTiMa, "the rising," 
head of the Khin River; 

(3) The China or Chintan 
were the Chinese; cf. Ainu, 
Kimun-gUTU, mountaineers. 

Kul in Pamirs and Alps, moun- 
tain pass; Kara-Kul, black 
pass; Wakan, a valley at head 
of Oxus. From the above may 
be teoti-Wakan, "divine Wa- 
kan;" Simeon, "where they 
conduct the gods" (teotl). 

Kul, as above. 

Balkh, capital of ancient Bac- 
tria, Merv oasis. 

" Eye paint town," head of Oxus. 

Kush, in Hindu Kush; Hydaspes 
River (Indus); or Vishtasp, 
early Persian-Bactrian king 
(not good if divided Vishtasp). 

Belut-tag and Kara-tegin, range 
of the Hindu Kush. 

Kan-i bal, BalaMurghab, towns, 

Chal-Ata, ruby mines and gold, 
Upper Oxus. 

Ferghana; Baldjuan, town, Bo- 
khara; the Oalchas, primitive 
Aryan tribe in Pamirs. Merv 
was ancient Garjistan. 

Aztecani, people mentioned by 
Strabo, Panjab country. 

Gorys, city on Attock (Strabo); 
kauravya; 0Tkavi-\-yaj. 

Cf.Porws, Indian king; cf. Ainu, 
poiyaumbe, brave? 

Azha, town, head of Indus. 

1 The A-coI-ua were so called because they wore a scarf over the shoulder. 
The Vedic neophyte assumed a scarf over the left shoulder and was dubbed twice 


Religion and Customs op the Nahda Compared with Those op 
Asia. — General Remarks — Religion of the Nahua Compos- 
ite — Human Sacrifice — Fire- Worship — The Blood Sacri- 
fice — Izcalli the Resurrection — The Unleavened Bread— 
Winter Solstice Festival — Rites of Mithra — The Descent 
into Hell — Aztec Future States — Nudity Rites — Immac- 
ulate Conception — The Cross — Prophecies of a Savior — 
Confessional and Absolution — Baptism — Marriage — Births 
— Burial — List of Deities Common to Mexico and Asia. 

General remarks. — The title of this chapter should 
not lead the reader to expect an extended and detailed 
treatment of a subject which in itself would require a vol- 
ume for its elaboration. I shall give only a brief outline 
of a few matters which I consider significant since my 
book must rest on its philological aspect for its vindication 
before the world. A few thoughts to begin will be in 
place regarding the significance or non-significance of the 
items set down. It is unscientific and unsafe to base claims 
of genetic relationship between two tribes or nations on 
casual resemblances in language, traditions, or national 
customs. Many such resemblances may have originated 
independently, though I think some writers carry their 
incredulity beyond the bounds of reason and consequently 
accomplish little or nothing. For example, traditions 
of the deluge appear to be universal. They point to the 
original unity of the human race but are not conclusive. 
The same may be said of serpent worship which appears 
to have been universal. The moon, the owl, and the rab- 
bit appear to be nearly universal objects of adoration or 
fear and the mirror myth is certainly old Aryan. The fire 


152 THE pbimit'ive aeyans of ameeioa 

myth 18 probably universal. From the nature of fire and 
its early use such must be the case hence the fire and the 
sun cult except in specific applications is non-significant. 

Religion of the Nahua composite. — The religion of 
the Nahua was no doubt composite. From the habitat of 
these primitive tribes in the region around the head-waters 
of the Oxus and the Indus they must have been acquainted 
with the gross superstitions and idolatry of the primitive 
Aryans, the astrolatry and ophiolatry of the Turanians, 
the Accadians, and the Babylonians, likewise with the 
purer cult of the fire-worshiping Persians and the strange 
sect of devil-worshiping Persians.' The religion of the 
Nahua appears to have borrowed something from all these. 
The Toltecs, it is agreed, had a milder and purer form of 
religion than the Aztecs. Their chief deity Quetzal- 
coatl was a serpent god, but in the form of a man he 
taught the useful arts. Besides, according to Canon 
Rawlinson, the serpent was originally beneficent, only in 
later times did he become the enemy of mankind.^ 

Human sacrifice. — According to Clavijero the Aztecs 
instituted the abominable practice of human sacrifice only 
about two hundred years before their advent into Anahuac. 
But this is to be doubted, considering the origin of that 
people, and they undoubtedly brought it with them from 
Asia. Human sacrifice, says Dubois, existed in India 
within the lifetime of old men with whom he had con- 
versed, and that is but little over one hundred years ago. 
In 1733 the Frenchman Renaudot saw girls devoted to the 
Bads or evil spirits and Forlong remarks that he fears the 
same thing may be done yet when the vigilance of the 

1 Izedis or Yezidia, still numerous. Dr. Paul Cams, History of the Devil, 
p. 63. Cf. Japanese, Yezo-jin, dwarfs. 

3 See note 2, p. 123. 


government relaxes.' I will give two specific instances of 
Aztec sacrifice. In preparation for the festival of Tez- 
catlipoca, the victim- who personated the god was a hand- 
some young man. He was carefully attended and greatly 
honored. Twenty days before his immolation, four maid- 
ens were assigned to him with whom he had carnal con- 
versation. On the fatal day he marched with honors to 
the sacrificial block. Children were sacrificed to Tlaloc 
the god of rain. They were immured alive in a cave or 
thrown into a whirlpool in the lake." 

Fire-worship. — From their original seat in the Pamirs, 
the ancestors of the Nahua must have come in contact with 
the fire-worshiping magians who carefully guarded their 
sacred fires. Where was the field of Zoroaster's chief 
labors? There is some doubt on this point. Professor 
Jackson is positive, with very convincing reasons, that 
Zoroaster was born in northwest Persia near Lake 
Urumiah.' But a host of authorities agree that the chief 
field of Zoroaster's labors and the place of his death must 
have been Balkh the capital of ancient Bactria. The Par- 
sis of Yezd at the present day, says Jackson, know nothing 
of the Urumiah legend. I think it safe to conclude that 
the Aztecs got the fire element in their religion from the 
fire- worshipers of Balkh (Tlapallan?). The Aztecs kept 
these fires burning day and night in the towers of the 
great teocallis* and their extinction was considered a 
calamity. Once in 52 years all fires were extinguished 
and relighted with solemn ceremonies including human 
sacrifice (see p. 101). According to Ujfalvy evidences of 

1 J. G. H. Forlong, Short Studies in the Science of Religion, pp. 102-12. 
^Sahagun, Cosae de la Nueva Espafla, Bk. I, cap. v. 

3 A. V. W. Jackson, Persia Past and Present ; and same author, Zoroaster. 
^The great temple of Mexico was inclosed by a stone wall. The enceinte 
contained about 70 chapels, cu ; 5,000 priests were attached to this service. 


the old fire-worship exist today, even among Mahommedans, 
all over the ancient Bactria and the Pamir country. For ' 
example a Tajik will not blow out a candle with his breath 
but uses his hand or a fan. He will not spit in the fire. 
They also have a "fire cure.'" 

The blood sacrifice. — ^The self-tortures and penances 
of the Aztecs continually remind us of similar horrors 
practiced in India from time immemorial. They gashed 
themselves with knives on the cheeks, ears, and thighs 
and smeared the blood over their countenances. They 
pierced the tongue with a maguey spine and forcibly 
drew twigs or grass stems through the wound. They went 
naked to the woods and placed these bloody agents of tor- 
ture on a sort of cage made of canes. The women kept 
up these hideous rites for five days, the men for eight 
days before an approaching festival of a god. Devotees 
bought pheasants and beheaded them in the temple pre- 
cincts, then dipping white paper in the blood which was 
caught in a vessel they went round the sacred inclosure 
smearing the mouths of the various gods with blood.'' 

Izcalli, or itzcalli, the resurrection. — The feast of 
Izcalli was held at the end of the year of 360 days after 
which came five days called nemontemi, superfluous days, 
literally, "they fill up." This end of the year feast cor- 
responded in a general way to the Christian Easter.' It 
was a time of general rejoicing. Meats were roasted and 
to each person was given a nauhquiltamalli or cake. The 
food was eaten hot and wine drunk. In the fire sacrifice 
of the Zoroastrians little cakes with small pieces of holy 

• Ujfalvy, Les Aryens de I'Indou Kouch, pp. 95 S. 

zSabagun, Cosas de la Nueva Espafla, appendiz to Bk. II. 

3 The idea of the resurrection was Mazdian rather than Jewish, Samuel 
Johnson, Oriental Beligions, pp. 138 ff. 


meat were eaten and haoma (soma) was drunk.' Human 
sacrifice occurred in bissextile years.^ In these last years 
Paynal was introduced. He was an emergency lieutenant, 
vicar, of Uitzilopochtli and originally was not a god but 
a man. Compare the man-god Jesus. 

The unleavened bread. — This festival would appear to 
suggest the Jewish feast of unleavened bread, but it was 
probably of wider signification. The atamalli, "water 
cakes," were made of meal and water, not even salt was 
added. This feast occurred only once in eight years. 

The winter solstice festival to Uitzilopochtli was a time 
of blood-letting penance, fasting, processions as prelimi- 
naries. An image of the god was made from dough mixed 
with the blood of sacrificed children who were bought 
or offered voluntarily. In the bread were put seeds of 
the nauhquilitl (savory, Satureia hortensis) and the 
whole was baked. A priest shot an arrow into the heart 
of the god. The heart was then eaten by the king and 
a piece of the image was given to every man, but no woman 
was allowed to partake. Compare with this the fact that 
no woman was allowed to recite the Vedas or perform 
sacrifice without the presence of her husband. A similar 
feast takes place today in Persia (see Izcalli).' Compare 
this with the Christian sacrament in which the body of 
Christ is supposed to be eaten. The eating was called 
teoqualo, "the god is eaten." Concerning the devil- 
worshipers,^ Carus relates the story of a German traveler 
who asked one of these people why they worshiped the 
devil. The naive answer was, "why should not the devil 

1 Dr. Paul Carus, History of the Devil, p. 57. 

2 For a description of the festival see Sahagun or Bancroft, Native Races of 
the Pacific Coast, Vol. Ill, pp. 288-324. 

3 Dr. Paul Cams, History of the Devil, p. 69. 
ilbid., p. 64. 


help US since we are the only people who ever helped him ?" 
Tezcatlipoca, the Mexican devil, in his contest with Quet- 
zalcoatl and the Toltecs certainly acted up to his reputation. 

Rites of Mithra. — The Mithra cult originated in Persia 
at a very ancient date. W. S. Brackett compares the rites 
of Mithra with those of the god Uitzilopochtli. The 
neophyte in both cases after undergoing an ordeal of hor- 
rors, some of which occur in a caiJe or subterranean chamber, 
is hailed as "born again." Compare this with the Vedic 
"twice born" and the Christian "born again." The author 
gives two illustrations side by side of Mithra and Uitzil- 
opochtli. The figures are strikingly similar, both sur- 
mounting a globe and both accompanied by the bird and 
serpent emblem.' Curiously enough Mr. Brackett arrives 
at the conclusion that Persia was settled from Mexico. 

Descent into hell. — -The rites of Mithra and Uitzil- 
opochtli which were underground, the sacrifice of children 
to Tlaloc in a cave, the holy caves of Zoroaster, the terrible 
self-immolation of Buddhist devotees in dark, sealed 
caverns, the descent of Christ into hell, all point to a 
common origin and cause, the desire to make the penance 
as dreadful as possible in darkness and secrecy. "Stations" 
3 and 4 in the Aztec migration were "the places of humilia- 
tion and grottoes." 

The Aztec future states were three: (1) Ilhuicac, region 
of brightness according to the Sanskrit, or rocanA ; Latin, 
lux; (2) Tlaloc's, terrestrial paradise, a beautiful land of 
streams, fruits, and flowers where squashes and corn grew 
without the trouble of cultivation; (3) Mictlampan or 
hell, as some writers define it, but, in the Nauatl language, 
simply "the land of the dead." 

Compare these three states with heaven, purgatory, 

1 W. S. Brackett, Lost Histories of America, p. 138. 


and hell. The belief in the immortality of the soul was 
Aryan and Zoroastrian, also the belief in angels. 

Nudity rites. — Barth gives the following as a very 
curious example of the belief that nudity was efficacious in 
some observances. "If a man takes seven cotton threads, 
goes to a place where an owl (Tlacatecolotl) is hooting, 
strips naked, ties a knot at each hoot, and fastens the 
thread round the right arm of a fever patient the fever 
goes away.'" The Aztecs had rites which necessitated 
stripping nude in the woods and fleeing to the house 
naked. Chimalpahin says the Chichimecs landed naked. 
A Latin author, Virgil, I think, exhorts the husbandman 
to plow naked and sow naked. This has been construed 
to mean unarmed but perhaps in some cases it should be 
taken literally.^ Strabo records that the Gymnetae 
(naked) of India lived in the open air practicing fortitude 
for the space of thirty-seven years, and were singularly 
esteemed. When Onesicritus desired to converse with 
Calanus, an Indian Sophist, the latter asked the Greek to 
strip naked and lie down on the rocks beside him before 
the discourse began.' 

The Immaculate Conception. — There was a Zoroastrian 
prophecy that a virgin would give birth to a savior.* 
Uitzilopochtli was begotten by immaculate conception but 
unfortunately for the parallel his mother was a widow and 
the mother of grown children.' These the monster 
promptly slaughtered immediately after his birth. A late 
writer takes the ground that Jesus was an Aryan." 

'A, Barth, SeligionB of India, p. 279. 

3 Fort William, Ont., ApiU 9, 1908. " Doukhobors again commenced parading 
naked on the streets here this morning." — Chicago Tribune, April 10. 
a strabo (Bohn's Library), Vol. Ill, p. 112. 
* Countess Martinengo Cesaresco, Contemporary Review, October, 1907. 

5 Clavijero, Storia di Meesico. 

6 Professor Paul Haupt, Congress of Orientalists, 1908, cf . letter to the Nation, 
September 10, 1908. 


The cross was a pre-Christian symbol. When Quet- 
zalcoatl landed at P^nuco he wore a handsome robe 
adorned with crosses. The cross is frequently found in 
the ruins of Yucatan and in the oldest Cretan excavations. 

Prophecies. — The Aztecs believed that Quetzalcoatl 
would eventually return and redeem them from a con- 
dition which they considered "fallen." A bull predicted 
the coming of Zoroaster 3,000 years before his birth and 
an ox spoke his name 300 years before. All these parallel 
the prophecies concerning the coming of Christ. 

Miracles accompanied the birth of Zoroaster. He 
even had a Herod in the person of a Turanian king. He 
disputed with the wise men.' He was tempted by the 
devil.^ He recognized three divine principles, Glory, 
Spirit, Substance, a close parallel to the Christian trinity. 

The confessional and absolution were also distinctively 
Aztec, but they diif ered from the Christian confessional in 
this important particular: Confession was made but once 
in a lifetime. If the penitent transgressed again he could 
not be absolved a second time, consequently it was usually 
deferred till late in life. The ceremonial was solemn and 
impressive, and if Sahagun describes it literally it repre- 
sented a very high order of piety and a profound apprecia- 
tion of the importance of the act.' 

Baptism. — Sahagun describes in full the ceremonies 
attendant on the baptism of a child. They chose the 
most prosperous "house" in the sign for the ceremony. 
It was a day of feasting for all the friends of the family 
"y tambien & todos los ninos de todo el barrio," "and like- 
wise to all the children of the quarter." The boy faced 

1 A. V. Williams Jackson, Zoroaster, pp. 61 B. For prophecy of Messiah same 
author, Biblical World, August, 1896. 

2 Conway, Solomon and Solomonic Literature, p. 186, 

3 Sahagun, Cosas de la Nueva Espafla, Bk. V, cap. vii. 


the west and drank of the water. The fingers of the 
officiating personage (midwife) were dipped in the water 
and touched to the child's mouth.^ The ceremonial dif- 
fered slightly for girls. 

Births. — At the birth of an Aztec child the astrologer 
or naualli was always consulted regarding his star and 
the auguries. The Parsis call the astrologer on the sev- 
enth day after birth.'' In fact the Aztecs consulted the 
naualli -on the most trivial occasions such as the hooting 
of an owl near the house. At the birth of Louis XIV, 
the astrologer Morin de Villefranche was concealed behind 
the curtains to cast the nativity of the future monarch. 
An Aztec book of magic was called tonalamatl from 
tonalli and amatl, paper. Tonalli is cognate beyond 
question with Hindustani, tonhd, a magician. The Aztecs 
called a magician naualli, which may be derived from 
the Sanskrit, nalda, night; Latin, nox; and vara, the 
time or turn of a planet. Or it may be connected with 
naui, four as a "sacred" number in magic. 

Marriage among the Aztecs was a matter of great 
importance. At the marriage of a son the old women 
"go-betweens" were employed just as in the Orient today. 
They sought out the parents of the girl who was the 
preference of the parents of the young man and obtained 
their consent. Then the telpuchtlato, a sort of pedagogue 
who had charge of boys, brought home the son to his 
parents and in a speech formally resigned his charge and 
delivered the boy into the care of his parents, laying at 
his feet an axe as a sign that the tie between himself and 
the boy was severed. A feast followed for the telpuchtlato 
and all the boys under his charge. The groom's friends 

1 Sahagrun, Cosas de la Nueva EspaHa, Bk. II, cap. six. 
^ETUiyclopaedia Britannica, article "Parsis." 


went by night to bring home the bride. There was a 
torch-light procession in which all the friends joined. 
Among the Parsis today the procession is formed at sunset. 
The bride and groom were seated by a fire (the Parsis light 
a lamp) in the center of the hall in the groom's home. The 
mother of the groom laid at the feet of the bride richly 
embroidered underclothing and the mother of the bride 
put on the shoulders of the groom a handsome uipilli, 
tunic, and laid a richly embroidered maxtlatl, belt, at his 
feet. Then the tittci, "wise old women" in this case, tied 
a corner of the groom's tunic to a fold of the bride's, and 
the ceremony was complete. The Parsis tie the right 
hands of the bride and groom with a silken cord, winding 
it round their bodies. Feasting and dancing followed.' 
The entire ceremonies occupied several days. The points 
of resemblance between this Aztec ceremony and the 
marriage ceremony in India to be specially noted are 
these: in India the hearth-fire plays the same important 
part and the bride and groom sometimes are tied together 
with straw of the "sacred grass." 

Burial customs. — -Mr. Tylor says the burial customs 
of the Aztecs may be adequately illustrated by the cere- 
monial of burying a king. The corpse lay in state in- 
vested in the mantle of his patron god. The deceased was 
furnished with a jug of water, some pieces of cut paper 
(see Amaquemecan) , and garments to protect him from 
the elements on his journey, and a dog was sacrificed to 
accompany him. In earlier times the body was buried 
sitting uprighf* surrounded by slain attendants, later it 
was burned on a funeral pile with accompanying sacrifices 

' Sahagun, Cosaa de Nueva Espatia, Bk. II, cap. xix. 

^Galla, daughter of Theodosius the Great, thus sat in state for more than 
a thousand years in her mausoleum at Eavenna. 


of attendants. The Ptolemaic Grreeks also equipped the 
dead for their long journey — in one case a coin, a staff, 
and a book. Ibn-Poslan, an Arabic traveler in Russia in 
the ninth century A. d., describes a burial which is almost 
a duplicate of the Aztec, but in the case of the Slavs a man 
and a woman volunteered to accompany the dead, and a 
horse was sacrificed.* 

Deities common to Mexico and Asia. — It has been said 
that the Nahua had no general name for god. This is a 
mistake. Their generic name for deity is teutl or teotl, a 
god, any god. It is cognate with Sanskrit, devatd; Hindi, 
deotd; Latin, deus. As may be seen by these compari- 
sons the Christian religion is largely Aryan in origin 
rather than Judaic which may be accounted for by the 
protracted captivity of the Jews at the court of Persia. 
But future investigations may establish the fact that the 
Aryans borrowed their religion from Turanian sources. 


This list is not given as absolute, or complete. 

Uitzilopochtli, Sanskrit, bhaj, bhaga; Persian, Baga; Euss., 
Bog; Algonquin Mana-bozho. 

Quetzalcoatl, Babylonian Hoa or Koa? the serpent-god, also 
Turanian serpent-god. 

Tetsauitl, a prodigy, Sanskrit, das^, evil demon + vid, to see. 

Manit or Manitou = Ma-f-an-it, Anna, Ana, Anu, Babylonian, 
Turanian, Aryan. 

Nanepaushadt, apparently Na, Anna or Anu, and Baga. 
Nepau is possibly Nebo and Anna, Babylonian; Egyptian 
Anu-p(?), the hawk, which involves a confusion of names with 
the order reversed; compare, Egyptian Pasht, the cat-god, Nebe- 
hat, and Hat-hor. 

1 Alfred Eambaud, History of Bttssta, Vol. I, p. 40, Eng. translation. 


TlaloG, the Mexican Indra (see chap. iii). There were in all 
eight Tlalocs; compare the eight loka-pdld, "world protectors" 
of the Vedas. 

Siva, Sanskrit, " the gentle one; " ciuatl, a woman, Mexican. 

Sarva, Sanskrit, another name for Siva, perhaps Xelhua, who 
built the pyramid of Cholula. 

Tecuiztecatl, god of the sun, Dag-on (?). Said to come from 
dag, a fish, but is a crab in Mexican, but better Sanskrit, 
daghs, Mexican, tekis,+feca,"fire care-taker," i. e., the sun. 

Tlacatecolotl, "the man owl" (see chap. vi). 

Uitznauatl, god of condemned slaves, Vishnu (?) or Sanskrit, 
vish, plebs+nauatl. 

Ozomatli, "the divine monkey," Sanskrit, vrsh4-kapi (see 
chap. vi). 

Chon, Peruvian, Yvl-can, Baal-can (Falb). 

Conn, an Irish god or giant who overwhelmed his enemies 
with snow; Algonquin, fcon, snow; alsoTuranian of central Asia.' 

Nanauatzin, Mexican moon-god, Ana. (See Nanepaushadt 
above, also Mexican in Aryan Phonology, n. 12.) 

Tezcatlipoca, Mexican devil; compare universal Aryan bad- 
luck legends connected with the looking-glass (see chap. vi). 

Tonantzin or Teteo innan, Mexican, " mother of the gods," 
Vedic, Aditi. 

Ipal nemoani, Babylonian Bel? Nebo-Ana?^ 

Remarks. — At the festival of the Aztec god Xipe the victims were flayed, 
Clavijero relates a horrible act, the flaying of a maiden who personated "the 
Mother of the G-ods." Cybele was the Tnother of Zeus and was closely associated 
with Marsyas who was flayed. Mani, founder of the Manichaeans. was flayed 
Hence flaying may have been a religious rite rather than an act of cruelty. Xip-e 
may be Cyb-elQ. — Compare Mana-hozho with Mdnd rabb&, " the Great Spirit of 
Glory" of the Mandaeans. 

1 See the account of Sergeant Bagg's combat with the "Fairy Man*' which 
was suddenly terminated by a blinding snow-storm. Lav-engro, chap, xii, George 
Borrow. Also see Marco Polo's and Fa-Hien's account of the dangers of the 
desert of' Gobi. The latter speaks of dragons that spit sand-storms and snow- 
storms, time, 402 A. D. Dawn of Modern Geography, Vol. I, pp. 479, 480. 

2The number of deities in the Mexican pantheon was thirteen major, two 
hundred minor. Prescott, Conquest of Mexico, Vol. I, p. 58. 


Aztec Civilizatioii not Indigenous — Home Land — Learning and 
Arts — Domestic Life — Education — Ethics of Their Re- 
ligion — Priests — Economics and Government — Cannibal- 
ism — Nahua Disposition and Courage — Influence of Super- 
stition on the Conquest. 

One tiling is certain. We must dismiss all notion that 
tlie Nahua developed an indigenous civilization on Amer- 
ican soil in spite of assertions to that effect by prominent 
writers. They distinctly inherited the old Aryan culture 
of western Asia. Whatever may be said of that, may be 
predicated, with modifications perhaps, of the people of 
Anahuac. These people were not barbarians. They may 
be classed with the Vedic Hindus and the Greeks of the 
Homeric age. The Aztecs could never have been on as 
low a plane as the northern savages, such as the Eskimo, 
or the Athapascans. To give the beginnings of their 
culture is then to restate the beginnings of the most primi- 
tive Aryanism which is perhaps today best illustrated in 
Kafiristan and the Hindu Kush region. 

Home land. — According to tradition the original seat 
of the Nahua was a land of cheer, and they dearly loved 
that land as their traditions testify. It was a beauti- 
ful land of forest, stream, and savanna, a glorious land; 
but this may be the myth of an Eden. They or their 
neighbors were builders of cities and of imposing edi- 
fices. They had wealth, considerable wealth, as xiqui- 
pilli and cuiltonoa, to prosper, testify. The xiquipilli, a 
purse, contained 8,000 pieces. Who but a commercial 
people would have occasion to handle such a sum of 



money ? Were the standard but five cents it would equal 
$400. They had two names for merchant,^ and a verb 
meaning peddle, all indicating an established commerce. 

The word macehualli, servant, vassal; Hindustani, 
wallah, may indicate that the Nahua in Asia held slaves 
or lived under a feudal system, according to the universal 
custom of the age. But the local conditions in Mexico 
may well have brought cuiltonoa and macehualli into use. 

Learning and arts. — The Aztecs understood to a cer- 
tain degree the science of astronomy. Their ancestors 
revised the calendar years before it was revised by Julius 
Caesar (see p. 139). At the time of the conquest it was 
practically correct, while the reckoning of the nations of 
Europe was wrong by about ten days. 

The Aztec gold- and silversmiths produced beautiful 
work which was highly prized and eagerly sought by the 
Spaniards for its artistic value. The Aztec feather pic- 
tures were unique in kind and admirable in execution. 

The Nauatlaca had written records in picture writings 
which were called tlacuilolli. That these writings were 
capable of sustained narrative cannot be doubted. But 
the Spaniards destroyed most of these writings and the 
knowledge of their accurate interpretation has been lost.' 

Domestic life. — In favor of their home life much may 
be said to their credit. The Nauatl language abounds in 
terms of endearment such as "my dear little son," "my 
jewel," "my esteemed wife," or "honorable wife." 
Friends were always addressed by the term tzin, honor- 
able, or icniuhtze, friend. It may be said in objection 
that oriental courtesy is a mockery, and the free use of 

1 The word o^fjo-mecatl, merchant, is plainly connected with oztotl cave. But 
in Russian ust means mouth, opening, thus the word must have meant not only 
cave but the open front of a shop in the bazars. (See Chicomoztoc.) 

2 On one occasion a bonfire of MSS, lasting several days, blazed in the streets 
of Tezcuco. 


"honorifics" a mark of servility. But the same criticism 
has been made regarding French politeness by people 
who have much less real politeness than the French. 
Etiquette may be abused by sycophants and knaves, but 
etiquette was not invented for sycophants and knaves. 

It would be wholly foreign to my work to go into 
lengthy details of the domestic life of the Nahua — dress, 
customs, cuisine, music, education, art, books, etiquette. 
I have confined myself rigidly to one purpose — to show 
the connection of these people with the people of Asia. 

Education. — The greatest care was bestowed upon 
the education of children as evidenced in the "Address 
of a Father to his Son," and the "Address of a Mother 
to her Daughter." In the latter the consequences of 
infidelity to the marriage vow are depicted with great 
force and striking realism. The telpuchtlato had charge 
of boys (see p. 159). 

Festivals. — They had feast days and holidays on 
which .everybody turned to play and rejoicing. Flowers 
they greatly loved and the feast of xocouetzi^ was conse- 
crated to the apple tree, xocotl, which Simeon thinks 
was the malum or apple of the Romans. The religious 
festivals, it is true, were sometimes marred among the Aztecs 
by revolting human sacrifices, but some of the other 
tribes looked on this custom with horror. 

Ethics. — This last remark brings us to consider re- 
ligion (already treated at some length), than which no 
other human institution is more easily misunderstood by 
foreigners. Much has been written about the sanguinary 
and monstrous god of war, Uitzilopochtli. But as I have 
shown (chap, xiv), his name means simply "the Giver," 
though the irony of fate converted him into a devil. 

iThe month Xocouetzl extended circa August 17 to September 5.— Simeon. 


The god Tlaloc, "Lord of the Terrestrial Paradise," was 
a New- World Indra (see Indra, chap. iii). He was the 
beneficent giver of rain and the source of agricultural 
prosperity. He contended with the adverse spirits of 
heaven. The Aztec Venus was perhaps identical with 
the Greek and Roman Venus, simply a goddess of pleas- 
ure. The world practices her cult today, dispensing with 
the formality of announcing a cult and appointing a 

Priests. — The Aztec priesthood formed a distinct and 
powerful caste. They apparently possessed unbounded 
influence over the people. Doubtless they differed in no 
respect from the priesthood in all ages and all countries — 
some were sincere, good men, others took advantage of 
their sacred calling for their own advancement and profit. 

Economics and government. — I shall not go into the 
question of Aztec internal polity, form of government, and 
land tenures. That has been done well already by others.' 
But this question inevitably arises: Why did not the 
Aztecs, and other Indians as well, rise to the condition 
of a stable civilization and a well-ordered state? This 
question has nothing to do with philology and I shall 
give my opinion in a line. They lacked beasts of burden 
and a reliable, abundant food supply. The Nahua had 
corn (maize), squashes, perhaps sweet potatoes, native 
fruits, including the banana, seven kinds of tomatoes and 
chocolate. But they lacked three things essential to a high 
civilization. Wheat (or rice), meat, and a root crop 
capable of preservation. 

Cannibalism. — With respect to human sacrifice and 
the attendant cannibalism, Aztec character has been 

1 Notably, Lewis H. Morgan, Ancient Society, and A. F. Bandelier, Peabody 
Museum Report, 1876-79. 


painted in the blackest colors. Some of this color or bias 
at times sprang only too evidently from bigotry, again 
from ignorance of the subject in its broader aspects. I 
make no defense of this monstrous rite as it was practiced 
by that unfortunate nation. Their excesses were revolting. 
But to my mind there appears to be some slight extenuation. 
All the human race once believed in human sacrifice and 
practiced it. It existed secretly in India within the 
memory of very old men lately living, indeed it may exist 
yet. The curious "horse sacrifice" still existed in Russia as 
late as the sixteenth century.' It may have been a Vedic 
survival but there was also a "horse sacrifice," aswamedha, 
existing in India. Animal sacrifice still exists in Kafiristan, 
in the Hindu Kush region. If the whole world once 
believed a thing, why should the last man to believe it be 
crucified ? ' 

It is said that the Aztecs introduced human sacrifice 
only about two hundred years before the conquest, according 
to Clavijero.' But this, as stated in chap, xvii, is doubt- 
ful. It was the act of a decadent tribe, an atavism, which 
led in the end to the most dire consequences. The effect 
on Aztec character was fatal. From bravery they passed to 
bravery plus heartlessness. It is generally conceded that 
the lack of an adequate meat supply greatly aggravates 
the practice of cannibalism, and the Spaniards. also felt this 
need. They killed and ate the native dog itzcuintli until 
they exterminated him. 

This feature of Aztec religion reacted on their civil 
polity. Instead of cementing their empire by a wise 

1 Max MtLller, Mythology ; also Alfred Rambaud, History of Russia, trans- 
lation of Lenora B. Lang, Vol. I, p. 40. As to the present existence of human 
sacrifice in India, cf . Jastrow, Religions of India, p. 529, and Hunter, Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, article, " India." 

>An authentic case of human sacrifice has occurred in Mindanao, P. I.; 
Nation, " notes," Nov. 12, 1908. 

3 Clavijero, History of Mexico, Vol. I, p. 120. 


policy of organized assimilation, which the Romans, of all 
people, best understood, they conquered for the sake of 
fighting, for spoliation, and for the purpose of obtaining 
victims for their abominable sacrifices. Thus when the 
final crisis came their ill-organized state was resolved into 
its discordant elements, their allies became their enemies, 
and the only Indian state in North America became a thing 
of the past. 

The Aztecs threw away the greatest opportunity ever 
offered to a people to found a new and magnificent empire 
on a virgin continent. But if we believe in fate then fate 
so willed it. The Aryan brothers of the Aztecs, from 
Europe, equaled them in courage and excelled them in 
knowledge. The civilized Aryan of Europe had utilized 
gunpowder and learned how to shoot. 

Nahua disposition and courage. — All writers appear 
to agree that the Toltecs possessed the highest civilization 
existing among the Nahuatlaca. They were not addicted 
to cannibalism and human sacrifice, so far as is known. 
Clavijero says of the Chichimecs: "With respect to their 
customs, they were certainly less displeasing and less rude 
than those to which the genius of a nation of hunters gives 
birth." ^ They worshiped the sun. Their life was simple, 
they lived on game, fruits, and roots. 

The Aztecs certainly equaled the Greeks in bravery," 
but they have been accused of deceit and treachery. 
By whom? By Christians who wreaked a horrible ven- 
geance on the Tlascalan envoys; who burned Chimalpo- 
poca at the stake; who pledged protection to Cauhtemoctzin 
and then hanged him; who resorted to trickery to get 
Montezuma into their power and then subjected him to 

1 Clavijero, History of Mexico., Vol. I, p. 120. 

2 See Henry Cabot Lodge, As to Certain Reputed Beroee, 


a bitter and unmerited humiliation; who won victory by 
the aid of Indian allies and then treated those allies no 
better than they treated the vanquished Aztecs. At tim^s 
the simplicity and dignity of Aztec character stands side 
' by side with that of the Grreeks in their best days. 
Instance the death of Tlacahuepantzin, son of Axayacatl. 
Chimalpahin says simply : "Mo-yaomiquillito Huexotzinco 
yn Tlacahuepantzin."' He died in war at Huexotzinco. 
This simplicity of statement regarding the death of a 
prince is paralleled only by the Greek memorial tablets in 
the cemetery at Athens, "he died at Syracuse." How 
brief is martial glory! 

The Tlascalans, on the other hand, rivaled the Aztecs 
in courage and ferocity.^ But the Aztecs were distinc- 
tively the warriors of Anahuac. I have before compared 
them with the Greeks of Homer's time. They cut a large 
figure in their day. They gave twenty-seven chieftains to 
the world from Uitzilton, born 1087 A. d., to Nanacaci- 
pactU, the last Aztec governor of Tenochtitlan under the 
Spandards, died 1565 A. d.' 

Influence of superstition on the conquest. — There was 
a current belief among the Nahua at the time of the con- 
quest that the "end of the world," that is, of the present 
order of things, was approaching. Quetzalcoatl, "the 
Fair God" (white), had been banished from the country 
centuries before, or rather got rid of by his rival Tezcatl- 
ipoca under false pretenses. There was a tradition that 
he would return (with white men?) to reform his people 
and restore a better condition of society. The Mexicans 
sent a delegation to interview Cortez soon after his landing. 

1 Cfaimalpahin, Annals, Seventh Relation, year 1495. 

^Without his Tlascalan allies Cortez could never have succeeded. Fatuous 
people who prepared their own destruction ! 

3(;;himalpahiD, AnnaU, Seventh Relation, year, 1565. 


Their report was: "In aquin oquigaco in.teotl tonantiz, 
totatiz." He who comes (has just come) is a god, our 
Mother, our Father. There is no doubt whatever that the 
conviction that a long-standing prophecy was about to be 
fulfilled greatly facilitated the work of conquest by extin- 
guishing hope, which gave way to a "dire fatalism.^ 

It may be noted finally as a very remarkable fact that 
the followers of Zoroaster believed that this regeneration 
of the world would take place 3,000 years after Zoroaster. 
If we accept the date 1500 b. o. (some say 660 to 800 
B. c. ) as the beginning of the Zoroastrian era, then 1520 A. d. , 
the date of the conquest, completes 3,000 years with suf- 
ficient accuracy. Lest this paragraph provoke a smile I 
will ask the reader to consider carefully and weigh well 
the entire case as made out in this book from first to last. 
He only is a competent judge who decides after he has 
weighed all the facts. Any other judgment is miscalled. 
Its proper name is prejudice. 

^ Montezuma consulted the king of Tezcuco concerning the Tetzauifl (p. 117). 
Montezuma, who had been a priest and was naturally of a gloomy disposition, 
believed it to be a dire omen. The Tezcucan was inclined to laugh at it, so they 
cast lots to see whose opinion should prevail and Tezcuco won I Alea jacta eat! 


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English-Micmac, by Rev. Silas Tertius Rand. Halifax, 1888. 

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General Linguistics 

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Introduction to Smithsonian Report, 1898-99. 

Comparative Vocabulary, many languages, common words 
only, by Robert Ellis. 

Comparative Grammar, by Francis Bopp. 2 vols., Indo- 

History of Language, by Henry Sweet. . London: Dent & 
Co., 1900. 

Modern Languages of the East Indies, by Robert N. Cust. 
London: Triibner & Co., 1878. 

Chips from a German Workshop, by Friedrich Max Miiller. 
Vol. IV Language. New York: Scribner, Armstrong & Co., 


Lectures upon the Assyrian Language, by A. H. Sayce. 
London: Samuel Bagster & Sons, 1877. 

Science of Language, by Max Muller. 2 vols. London: 
Longmans, Green & Co., 1891. 

Principles of the Structure of Language, by James Byrne. 
2 vols. London: Triibner & Co., 1885. 

Tables of Phonetic Changes, by Francis A. Wood. Indo- 
European. University of Chicago. 

Indo-Germanic Roots in English, by August Fick, in 
International Dictionary. Springfield, Mass.: C. and G. Mer- 
riam, 1900. 

The Origin and Authenticity of the Arian Family of 
Languages, by Dhanjibhai Pramji. Bombay, Year of Zoroaster, 
2251, A. D. 1861. 

Mexican in Aryan Phonology, by T. S. Denison. Chicago, 

Origines Ariacae, by Karl von Penka. Wien und Teschen : 
Karl, Prochaska, 1883. 

Aryan Phonology (Glottologia Aria Recentissima), by 
Domenico Pezzi, translated into English by E. S. Eoberts. 
London: Triibner & Co., 1879. 


Nauatl Poetry, by Daniel J. Brinton. Text, Nauatl- 

Rig-Veda Americana, by Daniel J. Brinton. Text, Nauatl- 

Ollantai, a Peruvian tragedy in verse, edited by Gavino 
Pacheco Zegarra, with copious notes on grammar and history. 
Parallel, Quichua-French. 

Gospel of Luke. Mexican text. Methodist Episcopal Print, 
Mexico, 1889. 

Catechism, Tupi-Spanish, by Euiz de Montoya. 2 vols. 

" The Old Man," Eleventh Ode of Anacreon; by F. Pimentel, 
in Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico, Otomi-Spanish, interlinear. 

Address of a Father to His Son. Mexican text, in 
Olmos' Grammar, Spanish annotation. 

Annals (of the Aztecs), by Chimalpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin. 
Parallel, Nauatl-French. Edited by R6mi Simeon. Paris, 1875. 


Los Reyes, The Kings. Nahuatl text, religious play. Tlatel- 
olco, 1607. MS. *P. 379, Bibliotheca Publica, Chicago. 

Gospel of Luke in Awabakal, an Australian Dialect. 

Sanskrit Reader, by Charles Eockwell Lanman. Selections 
from Nala, Kig-Veda, etc. Vocabulary Eomanized, Notes. 
Boston: Ginn & Co., 1888. 

A Guide to the Old Persian Inscriptions, by Herbert Cush- 
ing Tolman. Brief grammar with vocabulary and text, Eoman- 
ized. American Book Co. 

Zuni. Texts with interlinear English, Stevenson (see ujider 


Historia de las Cosas de la Nueva Espana, by Bernardino de 
Sahagun. Published by order of Mexican Congress, 3 vols. 

Manners, Customs, and Conditions of the North American 
Indians, by George Catlin. 2 vols., profusely illustrated. 

An Inglorious Columbus, by E. P. Vining. Eeputed Dis- 
covery of America by Chinese in sixth century a. d. Favorable. 
D. Appleton & Co., 1890. 

History of Mexico, by Francesco Saverio Clavijero, trans- 
lated by Charles CuUen. 3 vols., illustrated. Eichmond, Va.: 
Wm. Prichard, 1806. 

America before Columbus, by B. P. de Eoo. 2 vols., Phila- 
delphia: Lippincott, 1900. 

Anahuac, or Mexico and the Mexicans, Ancient and Modern, 
by Edward B. Tylor. London, 1861. 

The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient World, by George 
Eawlinson. Much matter on language, mythology, etc. 

Bibliography of Pre-Columbian Discoveries, by Paul Bar- 
ron Watson. Appendix to America Not Discovered by Colum- 
bus, by Easmus B. Anderson. Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co., 1891. 

Conquest of Mexico, by Wm. H. Prescott. 3 vols. 

History of India, by Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, 2 vols. 
London: John Murray, 1843. 

The Hittites and Their Language, by C. E. Conder. Lon- 
don: Wm. Blackwood & Sons, 1898. 

The Discovery of America, by John Fiske. 2 vols. Boston : 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1892. 


Persia, Past and Present, by A. V. Williams Jackson. New 
York: The Macmillan Co., 1906. 

Native Races of the Pacific Coast, by Hubert H. Bancroft. 
5 vols. San Francisco: A. L. Bancroft & Co., 1883. 


The Geography of Strabo, translated into English by H. C. 
Hamilton and W. Falconer. 3 vols. Vol. Ill, India, Persia. 
Bohn's Library. 

Geography of Mexican Languages, with colored map. Pub- 
lished by Government of Mexico, 1864. 

Nombres Geograficos de Mexico, Jeroglificos, par el Dr. 
Antonio de PefiaJBl. 

Codice de Mendoza from Kingsborough's Mexican Antiqui- 
ties. Mexico: Oficina de la Secrataria de Pomento, 1885. 

Transactions Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and 
Letters, Place Names. Vol; XIV, 1903. 

Dawn of Modern Geography, by C. Raymond Beazley. 
3 vols. London: John Murray, 1897. 

A History of Ancient Geography, by A. P. Tozer. Cam- 
bridge University Press, 1897. 

Nomina Geographica, Spinach und Sprach-Erkldrung von 
42,000 geographischen Namen aller Erdrdume, von Dr. J. J. 
Egli. Derivations. Leipzig: Friedrich Brandstetter, 1893. 

Shores of Lake Aral, by Herbert Wood. Maps. London: 
Smith, Elder & Co., 1876. 

Travels in Central Asia, by Arminius Vamb6ry, with map 
and illustrations. New York: Harper & Bros., 1865. 

Mythology, Folk-loee 

Contributions to the Science of Mythology, by F. Max Miil- 
ler. 2 vols. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1897. 

Lost Histories of Am,erica, by W. S. Brackett. London: 
Triibner & Co., 1883. 

Myths of the New World, by Daniel G. Brinton. Leypoldt & 
Holt, 1868. 

Myths and Myth Makers, by John Fiske. Boston : James R . 
Osgood & Co., 1872. 


Cyclopedia of Superstitions, Folk-Lore, and Occult Sciences. 
3 vols. Chicago and Milwaukee: J. H. Yewdale & Sons. 

The Zuni Indians, their Mythology, Fraternities, and Cere- 
monies, by Matilda Coxe Stevenson. Illustrated, colored plates, 
634 pp. Smithsonian Eeport, 1901-2. 


The Higher Criticism and the Monuments, by A. H. Sayce. 

Central American Hieroglyphic Writing, by Cyrus Thomas. 
With plates. Smithsonian bulletin, 1908. 

The Old Indian Settlements and Architectural Structures 
in Northern Central America, by Dr. Carl Sapper. With plans. 
Smithsonian Bulletin, 1895. 

Researches Concerning the Institutions and Monuments of 
the Ancient Inhabitants of America, by Alexander von Hum- 
boldt, translated into English by Helen and Maria Williams. 
2 vols. Illustrated. London, 1814. 

Gesammelte Abhandlung zur Am-erikanischen Sprach- 
und Alterthums Kunde, von Edward Seler. 2 vols. Profusely 
illustrated with Kingsborough and Boturini reproductions. Ber- 
lin: A. Ascher & Co., 1902. 

Asiatic Affinities of the Old Italians, by Robert Ellis, ton- 
don: Trilbner & Co., 1870. 

Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples, by Dr. O, 
Schrader, translation of Prank B. Jevons. Comparative philol- 
ogy. London: Charles GrifiQn & Co., 1890. 

Das Land des Inca, von Eudolph Falb. Origin of speech, 
first conceptions of gods, extremely technical and curious. Leip- 
zig: Verlagbuchhandlung von J. J. Weber, 1883. 

Antiquities of Mexico, by Viscount Kingsborough. Lav- 
ishly illustrated, plates in colors. 9 vols., elephant folio. Lon- 
don: Robert Havell, 1831. For description of this great work, 
see Prescott, Conquest of Mexico, Vol. I, p. 130, note. 

Teotihuacan 6 la Ciud'ad Sagrada de los Toltecas, par 
Leopoldo Batres. Monografia de Arqueologia Mexicana, plans, 
illustrations, colored plates. Mexico, 1889. 

Same Subject, University of Chicago Bulletin, No. 1, 
Anthropology, by Frederick Starr, 1894. 

Mexican and Central American Antiquities and History 


(Calendar, Paintings, Picture Writing, Mythology). Twenty- 
four papers: Seler, FOrstmann, Schellhas, Sapper, Dieseldorf, 
and others Translated into English by Charles P. Bowditch. 
Illustrated. Bui. 28, Smithsonian, 1904. 

The Cradle, of the Aryans, by Gerald H. Kendall; good 
r6sum6 in brief space. London: Macmillan & Co., 1889. 

Mission Scientifique en Perse, by Jacques De Morgan. 
5 Tols., illustrated, plans, maps, comprehensive and scholarly; 
Vol. IV, Archaeology; Vol. V, Linguistics, chiefly Kurdish. 
Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1894. 

Special Aetiolbs 

Primitive Home of the Aryans, by Archibald H. Sayce. 
Essay, Contemporary Review, 1889, Smithsonian, 1890. 

Origine Asiatique des Esquimaux, par Ilmile Petitot. 
Eouen: Imprimerie, De Esperance Gagniard, 1890. 

Becherches, philologiques et historiques sur la langue 
Quichua de Perou, par Onffroy de Thoron. " Bibliotheca 
Ludovigi Lugiani Bonaparte," Clipping brochure in Newberry 

Transactions American Philological Association, "Tupi 
Language," by C. P. Hart, 1872. 

Transactions Ninth International Congress of Orientalists, 
Vol. II, 1893. "Kesearch in Chinese," "Evolution of Consonants," 
by Joseph Edkins; also "Accadian AflBnities of Chinese," by 
C. J. Ball. 

Report of Peabody Museum, 1876-79. Adolf F. Bandelier 
on "Antiquities and Land Tenure of the Mexicans." 

The Jesuits in North America, by Francis Parkman. 
Introduction is a sketch of St. Lawrence Indians. Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Sociology, Ethnology 

Indians of North America, by Henry Schoolcraft. 
Languages and Customs, 2 vols., illustrated, much matter on 
languages. Philadelphia, Lippincott. 

Ethnology, by A. H. Keane. Cambridge University Press, 


Evolution of the Aryan, by Kudolph von Ihering, translated 
into English by A. Dnicker, indispensable on the Aryan question. 
New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1897. 

What the White Race May Learn from the Indian, by 
George Wharton James. Chicago: Forbes & Co., 1908. 

Les Aryens au Nord et au Sud de L'Indou Kouch, par 
Charles de Ujfalvy, Map. Paris: G. Masson, 6diteur, 1896 

Primitive Culture, by Edward B, Tylor. 2 vols. New York: 
Henry Holt & Co., 1876. 

Chaldean Magic, its Origin and Development, by Frangois 
Lenormant. Chapter on "Accadian." London: Samuel Bagster 
& Sons. 

The Story of Vedic India, by Zenaide Ragozin. Dlustrated. 
iSTew York: G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1895. 

Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonials, by J. A. Dubois, 
The Clarendon Press, 1899. 

Essays of an Americanist, by Daniel G. Brinton. Philadel- 
phia: Porter & Coates, 1890. 

The American Race, by Daniel G. Brinton. New York: 
N. D. C. Hodge, 1891. 

The Hako, a Pawnee Eitual by Alice C. Fletcher. Smith- 
sonian Institution, 1903. 

General Ethnology. — Works, Titles, Subjects, Authors. 
American Bureau of Ethnology, 20th Annual Report, Smith- 
sonian, 1898-9. 

Art and Architeotdre 

Ancient Mexican Art, 5 folio vols., numerous illustrations in 
colors and in black, ornaments, human figures, ruins, pottery, 
etc. (5th vol. text), by Antonio Penafil. Berlin: A. Asher & 
;Co., 1890. 

MS Mexicain Post-Columbian of the Biblioth6que National, 
Florence. Illustrated in colors, chiefly mythological figures, 
oblong octavo, very curious, no text. Rome : Pub. Daneri, 1904. 

Codex Maghabecchiano, similar to the above in print and 

History of Architecture in all Countries, from the Earliest 
Times to the Present Day, by James Fergusson. 2 vols., illus- 
trated. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Mexican Antiquities, by Kingsborough, see "Archaeology." 



A History of the Devil, by Paul Carus. Illustrated. Chi- 
cago: Open Court Pub. Co. 

Ten Great Religions, by James Freeman Clarke. Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1886. 

Oriental Religions, by Samuel Johnson. Boston: Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co., 1885. 

Zoroaster, by A. V. Williams Jackson. New York: The 
Macmillan Co., 1899. 

Short Studies in the Science of Comparative Religions, by 
J. G. R. Porlong. Illustrated. London: Bernard Quaritch, 

Religions of India, by A. Barth. London: Keegan, Paul, 
Trench, Triibner & Co., 1891. 

The Popular Religion and Folk Lore of Northern India, 
by W. Crooke. 2 vols., illustrated. London: Archibald, Con- 
stable A Co., 1896. 

Religions of India, by Morris Jastrow, Jr. Boston: Ginn 
& Co., 1895. 

The World's Religions, by G. T. Bettany. 2 vols., illustrated. 
London : Ward, Lock & Co. 

Religion in Universal History, by Grant Showerman, 
American Journal of Philology, April-June, 1908. 

The Religion of the Veda, by Maurice Bloomfield, New 
York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1908. 

Solomon and Solomonic Literature, by Moncure D. Conway. 
Chicago: Open Court Pub. Co., 1899. 



Absolution, 158 

Accadian, doubt of, 19 

Accent, 99; and rhythm, 74 

Adverbs, Mexican, 41 

Aesir, god land, 124, 130, n. 

Age of Mexican, 59 

Agglutination, colloquial, 78; dis- 
cussed, 80 

Ahuia Mazda, 54 

Ainu, Aryan, 88, n., 128, n., 150 

Altepell, town, 118 

American race, origin, 10, n. 

Anahuac, 112 

Arialysis, 30 

Animal sacrifice, 134; horse, 161, 

Animals, names, Aryan, 72, n. 

Animate and inanimate, gender, 

Anshan, 140 

Ape, Mexican Sanskrit, 53 

Apple, xocotl, festival of, 165 

Ark, 119 

Arrow, tlacochtli, 127 and n. 

Ai'temis, 51 

Aryan, color, 2L, 118; roots, 21, 
26; habitat, 72, n.; name for 
boat, 137, n. 

Aspiration, 91 

Assimilation of sounds, 99 

Assyrian, infinitive, 59; pronouns, 
60; "mekh,"54 

Astrology, 159 

Augment, 59, 62 

Australian, changes of names, 88 

AxayacatI, the Great, 108 

Aztec, primal curse, 54; migra- 
tion to Anahuac, 125; histori- 
ans, 111; books. 111; bronze 
workers, 123; money, 134; fu- 
ture states, 156; domestic life, 
164; ethics, 165; government, 
166; cannibalism, 166; civil 
polity, 167; priests, 166; cour- 
age, 168; fatalism, 170; mar- 
riage, 159 

Aztlan-Chicomoztoe, 127; syno- 
nyms of, 128, n., 129; described, 
131; "ten " Aztlan names, 135; 
painting of, 143; etymology, 144 

Bactria, 140, 153, 154 

Bad luck, left hand, 115; mirror, 
50; owl, 49, 50, n. 

Baptism, 158 

Bel, Baal, 118 

Bird and animal attendants of 
gods, 116 

Births, Aztec, 159 

Bite, root, 27 

Blood sacrifice, 154 

Bog, god, 116 

Bogy, Bod, 27 

"Born again," "twice born," 156 

Boturini, 130 

Bridle, Mexican word for, 76 

Bronze, 144 

Buddhists in Mexico, 145, n. 

Bull, 158; see Ox 

Burial, Aztec, 160 

Calendar, Aztec, 101; revised by 
Toltecs, 139 




Oalli, house, 118; in New Persian, 

Calpolli, cosmopolitan, 35 
Calvary, Aryan, 141 
Cannibal, in Tupi, 38; see Aztec 
Case signs, 57, 83 
Caspian Sea, 142, 144 
Cauhtemoctzin, death of, 69, 168 
Cave-dwellers, 128, n. 
Caves, seven, Chicomoztoc, 129, 

136; in religion, 153, 156 
Caxtolli, fifteen, derived, 103 
Ce, one, 104 
Chichi, as root, 37, 39, n.; see Chi- 

Chichimecs, 39, n.; as "dogs," 
124; with the Chaloas, 128; 
expelled, 144; naked, 157; came 
to Anahuac, 125, 133 
Chicomoztoc, seven caves, 129, 

Chimalpahin Quauhtlehuani- 
tzin, born, 125; Annals, 111; 
quoted, 58, 68, 125, 169 
Chimalpopoca, author, 99, 100; 
chieftain burned at stake, 168 
Chinese, polysyllabic, 82; syntax, 
82; phonetic decay, 83, n.; com- 
pared with Tibetan, 83 
Chippewa inflection, 84 
Cholula, 112 
Climate, 135 
Clipped forms, 46 
"Cloth country," Pantitlan, 145 
Coalescing pronouns, 60 
Coat ofarms, Mexican, 133 
Col, coMar, Ahcoluacan, 150 
Color in race problem, 20, 118 
Compounds, 38 
Confessional, 158 
Conjugation, 62 
Connectives, 60 
Consonants, law of change, 24 

Cow, as root, 22, 26, 164 
Culture names, 144 
Cushites, 126 
Cree, syntax, 79 
Cross, pre Christian, 158 


Dards, 134, n. 

Deities common to Mexico and 
Asia, 161 

Deluge, 118 

Dentals, 94 

Descent into hell, 156 

Desinences, 63 

Devil, as owl, 49; worshiped, 152; 
Tezcatlipoca, 50; described, 
51, n. 

Dialects, Mexican, 67, 99 

Dictionary, new comparative, 32 

Divine brotherhood, 131 

Dog, as root word, 27; in pho- 
nology, 27; in mythology, 53 

Dual number, 106 

Easter, 101, n.; Aztec, 154 
Economics of Aztecs, 166 
Eden, Nahua, 131, 163; Aryan, 

Education, Aztec, 165; Indian, 

85, n. 
Elam, Aryan, 120 
Elbow, molictli, root, 29 
Endings, Mexican, 39, 40, 41 
Ethics, Nahua, 165 
Etiquette, Nahua, 165 
Etruscan towns, 149 
Expression, power of in primitive 

tongues, 75 

"Fall" of man, 158 
Feather pictures, Aztec, 164 
Festivals, Aztec, 165 



Finnish., permanence of, 87, n. 
Fire, kindling in Anahuao, 101; 

worsliip, 153 
Five, " handgrasp," 103 
Food supply, 166 


O with V, in Mexican, 98; be- 
comes j or s, 99 

Galchas, 134, n. 

Gender, Mexican, 29; and New 
Persian, 67 

Geographical extension of 
Nauatl, 112 

Geographical names, Mexico- 
Asia, 149, 150 

G iants, 133; "age of giants," 137, n. 

Glyphs, Mexican, 145 

Grammatical gender, 66 

Greek, unassignable words, 18, n. 

Greek verb, mutations, 86, n. 

Gutturals, 95 


Hand counting, 106 

Hanuman, king of monkeys, 
146, n. 

Hare, Great, 54 

Hebrew roots in Khassi, 88, n. 

Hecate, 51 

Hell, descent into, 156 

Hermit caves, 138 

High-priest, Teohuateuctli, 124 

Hindu Kush, Aryans in, 141, 142, 

Home land of Nahua, 163 

Homonyms, 47 

Honoriflcs, 42, 165 

Horse calls, 89; sacrifice, 161, 167 

House, word for, Old World and 
New, 10; see Calli, 149 

Human sacrifice, 152 

Humming bird, 114, 116, 117 

Hungarian, postpositions, 61 

Immaculate Conception, 157 

Immortality, Aryan belief, 157 

" In " as article, 65 

Incorporation, 77 

Indian languages, number of, 16, 
n.; power of expression, 75 

Individuality of languages, 71 

Indo-Iranian phonetics, 100 

Indra, as Tlaloc, 30, 166 

Infinitive, germ, Mexican, 59 

Inflection, 72, 84 

Islands in Nahua migration, 129, 
132, 143 

Izcalli, or itzcalli, the resurrec- 
tion, 154 

Iztacciuatl, mountain, 59 

Japanese words, dog, 52; Yezo- 
jin, 152, n.; "earth spiders," 
124, n., 128, n. 

K and t, equivalents, 18, n., 88; 
"catiir," 89; k equals t, 95; k 
equals p, f, 95 

Ka, a root, 23; sign of preterit, 62 

Kaflristan, Aryan, 134 

Katur-Mabug, Chedor-Lagoraar, 

Khassi, 81, n. 

Kinship of languages, what con- 
stitutes, 11; of American, 21 

Kul, clan,36 


L and r, 44 

Labials, 97 

Languages, vitality, 24, 60; form- 
classification, 81, number in 
world, 71; Old World and New 
compared, 114, n. 

Latin, unassignable words, 18, n 



Learning, of Aztecs, 164 
"Left hnnd" superstition, 115 
Liaison, Lithuanian and San- 
skrit, 01 
Lingua rustica, 73 
Liztli, 41 

Loka pa] A, world protectors, 162 
Lord's Prayer in Mexican, 70 
Lost letters, 92, 93 


M, 11, not sounded, 97; m related 

to 6, p, 98 
Magian, derivation, 99 
Magic, Aztec tonalamatl, 159 
Man, various words for, 88 
Manabozho, the Great Hare, 116; 

in Menominee, 116, n., 161, 162 
Manasowar, holy lake, 138 
Mandans, as Welsh, 122 
Marriage, Aztec, 159 
Matldctli, ten, thirteen forms of 

expression, 105 
Maya, language and culture. 111; 

inscriptions, 126 
Meanings, importance of, 24 
Merchant, oztomecati, 164 and 

Metztli, see Moon, 50 
Mexica, later name of Aztecs, 54; 

Mexica-Chichimeca, 133 
Mexican language, place in 

Aryan group, 18; age, 59 
Mexico, meaning of word, 54; 

Tenoohtitlan, 55 
' Mexitli, Mexitl, as AhuraMazda, 

54; see Mexico 
Migration, Nahua, cause of, 144, n. 
Miracles, 158 
Mirror, bad luck, 50, 51 
Missionaries, as philologists, 31 
Mithra, rites of, 156 
Molina, Nauatl lexicographer, 7 

Monkey, 52; see Quauh-chimalli 
and Ozomatli; geographical 
range, 146 

Monosyllabism,82; English, 73 

Monsters or giants, 1.33, n. 

Montezuma, 168, 170, n. 

Moon and west wind, 116, 135; 
monarchs, 42, n.; gazelle in, 
117; Tartars reverence, 117; as 
Artemis, 51; see Metztli 

Mother of the gods, 162 

Myths, moon and west wind, 116, 
135; Pandora, 116, n. 


Nahua Eden, 131, 163; courage, 

Nauatl language, easily misin- 
terpreted, 39, n., 50, II., 60 

Nebo, 118 

Nine, Mexican and Sanskrit, 105 

Noah, Mexican, 119, 150; of 
Michoacan, 150 

Nonohualca, tribe, name derived, 
136, and n. 

Nudity, 132, 157 

Numerals, Mexican, are Aiyan, 
102, 103, 104, 105 

Numeration, Mexican, 101 

Numeration and cosmogony, 107 


Olmos, Nahuatl grammarian, 97, 

n., 148 
Om, sacred syllable, 105, 137 
On, Mexican and Saxon, 66 
Origin of American race, 10, n., 16 
Owl, Mexican devil, 49; "bad 

luck" bird, 49; "luminous," 

50, n. 
Ox, root, 29; predicted birth of 

Zoroaster, 158 
Oxus, 136, 137, 133, 141 
Ozomatli, divine monkey, 53 



Painted nose, 150 

Painting representing Aztlan, 
129, 132, n., 143 

"Pal" and "cully," 36, 74, n.; 
ipal nemoani, god, 118, 162 

Pamirs, 135 

Pandora, Algonquin, 116, n. 

Pantheon, Mexican, 162, n. 

Parable, Woman and Lost Coin, 

Parsis, 160 

Passive voice, 42 

Paynal, man-god, 155 

Pedagogue, telpuchtlato, 159 

Periods, in linguistic develop- 
ment, 84 

Persistence of language, 87 

Phonetic " sports," 89 

Phonetics: changes, 24, 88; decay, 
47; Sanskrit-Tupi,58,n.; world- 
wide, 96 

Photograph, "bad medicine," 51 

Pixquitl, harvest, 48 

Plural formation, Mexican, 66; of 
numerals, 104 

Poetry of Nezahualcoyotl, 65 

Popocatepetl, eruption, 58, n. 

Possessive, English, 83; Mex- 
ican, 38, 40, 60; New Persian, 60 

Postpositions, 43; eastern Aryan, 

Pie Columbian discoveries, 121 

Prepositive object-pronoun, 56 

Priests, Aztec, 166; in teocalli of 
Mexico, 153, n. 

Primal curse on Aztecs, 131 

Pronunciation, "continental," 96 

Prophecies of birth of Zoroaster, 

Piikhtu language, 146 

Pyramids of Teotihuacan, 110; 
Cholula, 110 

Quauh-chimalli, monkey, 52 
Quechcoatl, rattlesnake, 47 
Quechtli, the neck, 47 
Quetzalcoatl, word derived, 37; 

contest with Tezcatlipoca, 156; 

taught arts, 152 
Quinehuayan, name derived, 136, 

Quotations, Mexican, 68 


Religion of the Nahua, 152 
Repute and disrepute of words, 74 
Resurrection, Izcalli, 154 
" Reverencial " verb, 70, n. 
Rhythm, 74 

Root, what is? 32; onomatopoetic, 
33; differentiation, 34; value 
compared with termination, 34, 
n.; kul and chichi as, 36; usual 
form, 26; number of, 34; prim- 
itive, 34; abolished, 34; actu- 
ality of, 84; did ignorant 
recognize? 85; strong forms, 93 

S, z, Q, Mexican, 100 
Sacrament, 155 
Sacred books, teoamoxtli, 126, 

and n. 
Sacred numbers, seven, 139; four, 

Sahagun, historian, 158 S. 
Saltillo, 99 
Sar^ma, dogs of, 53 
Selish verb, 81 
Serpent, of Eden, 123, n.; worship 

of. 152 
Seven in magic, 139 
Sheep, derived, 23 
Simeon, editor Mexican books, 7, 




Siva, ciuatl, 117 

Skulls, place of, 141, and n. 3 

Slang, endurance of, 25; "old 
rip," 25 

Sound ehifts, 93 

Sounds, forward movement, 92; 
"eastern and western," 95, 97 

"Speak," conjugated, five lan- 
guages, 85 

Spelling, syllabic, 80; Mexican, 
arbitrary, 100 

"Stations" in Natua migration, 

Superstition and conquest of 
Mexico, 169 

Svsrastika, 120, n. 

Sweat, Aryan word, 28 

Syntax, Mexican, 58; ancient and 
modern, 75; synthetic vs. an- 
alytic, 84 


Tajiks, 141; 154 

Te, pronoun, 56, 62; prefix, 65 

"Tecatl" and "catl," as appella- 
tives, 148 

Tel, terra, tlalli, 46 

Tenochtitlan, 55; see Mexico 

Teocalli, 7; of Mexico, 153 n. 

Terminations, value in compari- 
son, 34, n.; syntactical, 39; 
Mexican, 40; lost in plurals 
and compounds, 46 

Tetzauitl, as Uitzilopochtli, 117; 
derived, 117, 161, 170, n. 

Tezcatlipoca, 50; described, 51, 
n.; contest with Quetzalcoatl, 

Tezcoco, Athens of Nahua cul- 
ture, 109, 113 

Thought forms and style, 67 

Ti, affix, wide use of, 82 

Tibetan, phonetic decay, 83 

Tla, derived, 64 

Tlacatecolotl "man owl," 49 

Tlacochcalca, tribe, 126 

Tlaloc, as Indra, 30, 16(3 

Tlani, homonym, 47 

Tlapallan (Balkh), 139; "old red 
town," 140, n. 

Tlaptli, ark, 119 

Tlascalans, envoys, 168; bravery, 

Toltecs, 123; came to Anahuac, 
125; sacred city Teotihuacan, 
136, 140; religion of, 168; char- 
acter, ]68 

Transfer meanings, 25; see Metz- 
tli, 50 

Trinity, 158 

Tula, Tola, 130, n., 140 

Tupi, "relatives" and "recipro- 
cals," 57; phonetic changes,. 
58, n.; word for cannibal, 38; 
numerals, 106 

Turanian syntax, 44; compared 
with Mexican, 61 " 

Turkish language, 80, 141 

Tzin, honorific, 42 

Tzontli, as numeral, 48 

Ualyolcatl, kindred, 48 
Uemac, Aztec chief, 130, 149 
Uichachtecatl, mount, 101, n. 
Uitzilin, see Uitzilopochtli 
Uitzilopochtli war god, 114; as 

Tetzauitl, 117 
Uitznauatl, god, 162 
Unit of expression, word or sen- 
tence? 34 
Unity of human speech, 86 
Unleavened bread, 155 

V, w, parasitic, 27, 95; equals oo, 

Verb, Mexican, conjugation, 62 



Vicar of Uitzilopochtli, 155 

Vigesimal numeration, 101, 134 

Vocalic consonants, 96 

Vowels: mutation, 22; genesis, 
24; sequence, 41; discussion of, 
93; table of comparison, 94 

Vulcan, 162 

Walled places, 142 
Welsh-speaking Indians, 121 
West, in Aztec ceremonials, 128, 

n., 159; "behind," 129, n. 
West wind, moon myth, 116, 135 
Winter solstice festival to Uitzil- 
opochtli, 155 
Witch, Mexican word, 117 
Wolf, phonetic changes, 44; As- 
syrian, 45, n. 

Words, long, 34, 35; clipped in 

compounds, 38 
"World protectors," eight, 162 


X in Mexican, sound of, 97 
Xauani, Latin, col, 48 
Xiquipilli, "bag full," 103 

Yezidis or Izedis, 152, n. 
Youalehecatl, 51; see Tezcatli- 


Zoroaster, 139; field of labors, 
153; prophecy of birth, 158; 
miracles at birth, 158 

A Mexican-Aryan Comparative 












By T. S. DENiaoN 

Cpmposed and Printed By 

The University of Chicago Press 

' Chicago, Illinois, U. S. A. 



Introduction 5 

Grammar 15 

Obthographt 17 

Phonology 18 

Vowels 18 

Consonants 20 

Authorities 22 

Vocabulary 25 

A few special subjects found in their alphabetic order: 

Aryan Affixes: 2a, aca, can, ic, ni, on, pan, qui, tla, 
tlan, {i)an, yan. 

Aryan, superlative, izt-li. 

Augment, o, sec. 5. 

Mythology: Mamaluaztli, Mexitli, Nanauatzin, Quetz- 
alcoatl, Tecuiztecatl, Tetzauitl, Tlaloc, Uitzilo- 
pochtli, Uitznauatl, Xipe. 

Passive, -lo; r in Latin. 

Perfect endings: the s- aorist, -x- ; the k- perfect, 3 ca. 

Personal Pronouns: aca, ne, neuatl, nech, te, tech, 
mitz, " ma,'' in maceualli, maceua. 

" Reverencial," Aryan middle, -li-a. 

S (z) as future sign, -x-. 

Indices 99 


In the year 1907 I announced in my "Mexican in 
Aryan Phonology" that Nauatl or Mexican is an Aryan 
language closely akin to Sanskrit and Ayestan but more 
primitive than either, in fact Aryan of the proethnic 
period. In 1908 I followed up my work by publishing 
"The Primitive Aryans of America." This Vocabulary 
presents the witnesses themselves of my thesis, that is, the 
living words of a living language. To my mind the proofs 
in Comparative Philology may be named in three words, 
etymology, meaning, syntax. Historical proofs are merely 
records compiled to the best ability of the historian, but 
words are living, continuing witnesses. There is little or 
no proof to show that Sanskrit is an Aryan language 
beyond these three basic points. History is silent. Eth- 
nology is incompetent. Even Mythology refuses to testify. 
What are the proofs that English is an Aryan language ? 
History says that English is Germanic and the Germans 
were — what? Nothing certain until Comparative Philol- 
ogy showed them to be Aryan. Now the proofs are just 
as good that Mexican is Aryan as they are that English 
is Aryan. This incomplete vocabulary contains about 620 
radical forms. The Aryan roots in English according to 
Fick are only 310. In this lexicon 94 per cent, of the 
captions have Sanskrit cognates. 

Etymology is, I admit, sometimes uncertain and an 
unsafe guide in individual instances. I may quote here 
the opinion of Professor W. D. Whitney [Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, article Philology), who says: "On the whole 
the contributions of language to ethnology are practically 



far greater in amount and more distinct than those derived 
from any other source." Philological proofs rest in the 
aggregate, and the equivalence of two entire vocabularies 
could not happen as a coincidence unless we are willing 
to concede that a linguistic miracle has been wrought on 
the American Continent. 

Professor Frederick Starr of the University of Chicago 
has well said [American Antiquarian, May- June, 1908) 
that my proposition is so clear and positive that mere 
shrugging the shoulders will not do in reply.- He thinks 
Philologists should either accept my work or try to refute it. 
But radically new ideas make way slowly. I sent out 
gratis, a contribution to human knowledge, about one 
hundred copies of my "Phonology" to learned men and a 
very few periodicals. Of this number only half a score even 
acknowledged the receipt of the book. If I had found 
and excavated an ancient ruin in Greece or the Orient, and 
rescued a scrap of the Christian Gospels, or a few verses 
of Sappho, or some lines of Menander the fact would have 
been cabled to America and published all over the civilized 
world. But I find an old Aryan language in America, 
one that will throw a flood of light on philology, ethnology, 
mythology, and the fact passes unnoticed. Why ? 

The Indian question has some peculiar aspects worthy 
of note. It is a very hazy question. Thousands of 
books and articles have been written about the American 
Indians or in some way referring to them. Lewis H. 
Morgan has^said [Ancient Society) that perhaps more has 
been written about the Aztecs than any other tribe of 
people that ever existed. And what is the result of all 
this writing ? The habits, customs and traits of the Indian 
have been perhaps adequately set forth. But concerning 
his origin, his religion and his ethnic and psychical 


characteristics we, until lately, knew very little and we are 
still very much in the dark. Specialists connected with 
"Expeditions" or working singly have done most excellent 
work. But who reads it? It would seem that if a man 
announced that he had penetrated this mystery of the origin 
of a race and solved as regards one ethnic unit a prob- 
lem which had endured for four hundred years, that he 
would be listened to eagerly, as one who had achieved 
something worth while. And his discovery, you might 
think, would be treated with respect and examined into on 
its merits. But those experienced in the ways of the 
world know better than to expect that he would get oif so 
easily. They know that incredulous silence or caviling 
opposition is what great discoveries have invariably 
encountered. To employ the apt phraseology of a critic, 
they excite "hostile surprise." Anything which upsets 
old beliefs, and traditions which are hoary with antiquity 
and respected because nobody ever thought of questioning 
them, is sure to be opposed strenuously and with more or 
less hostility. Philology is no exception to this universal 
rule. The smug conceit of infallibility is a great satisfac- 
tion to a majority of mankind. 

But how about the magazines and newspapers of 
America which nourish the flame that lights the world? 
Are not their editors always looking for new things? 
They continually say so. But "news" is not synonomous 
with "facts." Of all the periodicals I sounded on the 
subject of my discovery, and they were not a few, none 
would touch it with one notable exception. Mr. Cornelius 
McAuliffe, Managing Editor of the Chicago Record- 
Herald, heard my story and promptly promised to give 
it publicity. Two years later I gave him advance sheets 
of my book [Record-Herald, Jan. 8, 1909). I take 


this occasion of saying further that The American Jour- 
nal of Philology (Oct.-Dec, 1908) gave my " Phonology " 
an adequate review from the pen of Professor Edwin W. 
Pay of the University of Texas. He pronounced my work 
"fundamentally sound" as far as I had gone. 

The question arises: Why were editors so indifferent? 
For the reasons above named, inertia, incredulity and a 
hesitancy in assailing fixed beliefs, or they got bad coun- 
sel from a "Literary Adviser," a Phoenix who invariably 
rises from the ashes of precedent. Philologists, Ethnolo- 
gists, Archaeologists, Encyclopedists, have been telling us 
for many years that the Indians are sui generis, indigenous, 
and could not in measurable time have come from Asia, 
that their languages are wholly unlike those of the Old 
World and are governed by different laws of sound- 
genesis and growth. These positive assertions were made, 
in the first place, by men who in preparing some general 
work of linguistics gave a brief study to a language and, 
without mastering it, attempted an analysis. They set 
down as positive what they should only have suggested as 
probable, or as what they believed. Subsequent writers 
have copied these statements, believing them to be truth 
and science, whereas they are neither the one nor the 
other. Hence the "unwritten law" that America is for- 
bidden ground to the Comparative Philologist. 

From all this we see that if an editor wants an article 
about Indians he can get a safe one from the encyclopedia 
or a western tourist with a camera much cheaper and easier 
than he could investigate mine. An article by a promi- 
nent American author dealing with the Indians lately 
appeared in a Magazine. It was simply "available," it 
contained nothing new nor of any special interest or value 
to anybody. What the people expect about the Indians and 


what they have usually had, is the picturesque, fine chief- 
tains in war bonnets and paint, platitudes about "the pipe 
of peace" and "Minnehaha," "Laughing Water," with a 
thriller about the tomahawk to spice the whole, and some 
pictures which shall include a war dance or the snake 
dance. The poor redman, facetiously "Lo," has not been 
thought capable of entertaining so complex a concept as 
a religion with a creed and a ritual. In this connection 
to mention the "Great Spirit," in capitals, as a tribute to 
deity, was considered ample. 

If the origin of the Indian was touched upon it was 
usually in a way that would have invited ridicule if applied 
to any positive science. There were traditions of "bearded 
white men" bent on proselyting, of daring navigators who 
left their native land never to return and who consequently 
might have settled in America! There were drawings and 
inscriptions on rocks which suggested similar survivals in 
the Old World.' There were traditions of a great deluge 
and coincidences of the Zodiac. The measurement of 
skulls is a scientific proceeding but the deductions are as 
yet by no means certain, and men who pretend to scientific 
accuracy have gone astray. They assert with positive 
assurance that they know that the Indians could not have 
originated in Asia. But these positive writers must sub- 
mit to the rules of evidence and give convincing proofs. 
They have done the cause of Ethnology, History, and 
Philology real harm, since their reputation for learning 
impresses the world with the idea that they are sure 
of their ground. But when their reasons are sought 
one discovers little but plausible theory and adroit specu- 

1 On July 2 of this year (1909) I met on a railroad train a Mr. McNabb, civil 
engineer, of Salina Cruz, Mexico. He informed me that in the course of eicava- 
tion there were found in that country, well modeled in clay, a hippopotamus and 
the head of an elephant. These objects were presented to President Diaz. 


lation regarding data which might admit of a different 
interpretation. I have avoided speculation eicept in a 
solitary instance and that proved wrong later on. Wher- 
ever I have ventured a guess I have always indicated the 
point as uncertain. I have striven not to deplete my 
reserve, that is, to be able to give still further proofs if 
needed until ready to give these final proofs. But appar- 
ently I got no credit for having any reserve. Perhaps 
justly, the public would not accept my word a step in 

I ask a reading of this Comparative Vocabulary because 
it is scientific, because it is definite, because it is exact, 
because it embodies much research, because it opens up 
a vast new territory to the philologist. I make this 
appeal not specially for my own sake, though I have con- 
tributed to the world's knowledge several years of my 
time without expectation of reward and at great personal 
sacrifice and expense. I appeal in the name of Science. 
Let competent linguists read my work. If it be found 
good let them give me credit for it. I may add here that 
a man of world-wide reputation writes me from an English 
university that my work is "scienii/ic" (italics his) and 
the only scientific work ever done in that field. 

I am repeatedly asked: "How do you get the Indians 
from the highlands of western Asia to Mexico?" This is 
a proper question, a pregnant one, but I scarcely think 
it is within my province to answer it. I am dealing with 
philology, with facts. Naturally I have given this sub- 
ject some thought and I see no insuperable difficulties in 
the coming of the Nahua across the sea in boats, just as 
their annalists say they came. 

In "The Primitive Aryans of America" I started to 
write a popularhook, that is, one which any well-educated 


person could read, but it gradually grew more and more 
technical as I advanced. This work is intended for 
philologists and is strictly technical. But my work has 
all the time been very difficult. It must be remembered 
that I had no clews, no authority, and very little litera- 
ture to work on. It should not be expected of me that I 
should define every detail with the precision attained in 
the classic languages which have been studied and ex- 
ploited by philologists for a century. And I may repeat 
here what I said in the Introduction to "The Primitive 
Aryans of America," that this is not the place for hair- 
splitting discussions of vowel genesis and doubtful cog- 
nates. That may come later. There is no present way 
of determining vowel quantity with precision. Occasion- 
ally I give two forms from the same root. Such by-forms 
are found in all languages, and coincidence in exceptions 
is the best kind of proof. For example what could sur- 
pass the riot of forms exemplified in the Latin: olus, 
holus, helvus, flavus, fulvus, furvus, gilbus, all from the 
same root meaning yellow. 

This work is not confined to roots alone. Formative 
syllables: suffixes, prefixes and postpositives have been 
determined as may be seen by examining such forms as: 
iii, qui, c, on, (i)an, can, tla, tlan, pan, iztli, tzin, tontli, 
tgolli, potli. Most of these are Primitive Aryan, some 
secondary of a later period. 

To read a dictionary is not what may be termed exactly 
a pastime and no doubt only the serious student will read 
this one. Any Comparative Philologist, however, may de- 
cide in an hour's time as to the value of the work, and it 
is not necessary to understand Mexican. I have given 
correct definitions with cognates and phrases illustrating 
meanings and all the reader needs to do is to verify the 


comparisons. If any one thinks he is too busy to do this, 
let me say that I have always been a busy man. If I 
could spend several years at this work it might seem 
that any lover of linguistics would be glad to examine 
the results of my work. 

This vocabulary contains nearly all the root forms of 
the Mexican language which has a marvelous power of 
building up compounds from basic themes. The only 
duplicates are the cases where two significant forms 
spring from the same root. I should like to be able to 
say that it contained all the radicals. It should contain 
them, but my health is such that I work under constant 
strain and but a very short day's work is mine. For this 
reason I have thought it best to publish installments 
from time to time rather than to risk total disability and 
have on hand a mass of material which nobody else would 
edit or proofread. Besides I still have much material on 
hand which requires my attention before it is ready for 
the printer. My work, I trust, may incite younger men 
to do as much or more for other American Langnages. 

I have no doubt that some of my comparisons may be 
found wrong in the end. It would be remarkable if all 
were correct. I make this admission well knowing that 
mean-minded persons may take advantage of it. Balzac 
has well said somewhere that men of mediocre minds 
watch eagerly for the omissions, slips and concessions of 
greater men and dwell upon them in order to score what 
they consider a triumph. This actually occurred to me 
in the case of review in the Nation. A pedantic Boston 
critic exclaims in alarm that I am doing violence to the 
"Aztec" language! that I have wrenched words apart 
regardless of lines of cleavage! He makes the astound- 
ing announcement that the "Aztec" sentence consists of 


a single word! If any moral is to be found in his screed 
it might be this : it is a good idea for a reviewer to read 
the book which he is about to criticise. Otherwise stock 
platitudes and meaningless generalities are safer. 

As this vocabulary nears completion I am in receipt 
"of a personal letter from Professor E. B. Tylor of Oxford 
University. He calls my attention to the Appendi-x of 
his book Anahuac published in 1861. To my surprise I 
find there a list of 64 Mexican words compared with 
Sanskrit. These comparisons are significant and some 
of them correct though made nearly fifty years ago. It 
is to be regretted that Professor Tylor did not follow up 
his work. A profound knowledge of Sanskrit and ex- 
haustive comparisons will establish Mexican as one of the 
purest Aryan languages extant. The extreme antiquity 
of this tongue and its lucidity of word formation will 
render its study indispensable to the Comparative Philolo- 

In conclusion, lest the reader may misunderstand me, 
I may add that the critical aspect of this preface does not 
reflect complaint. It is simply history. I welcome all 
sincere criticism whether favorable or unfavorable. Some 
of the matters mentioned here belong properly in an 
article for a Review or Magazine. But since I have so far 
been denied access to the ordinary avenues of publicity I 
have thought it well to put them down here. 

T. S. Denison 

163 Eandolph St., Chicago 
Sept. 27, 1909 



1. Analysis. — The Mexican language is one which 
presents many difficulties to the student. Its inherent 
complexity has been aggravated by the orthographical 
and syntactical rendition of the early Spanish Lexicogra- 
phers and Grammarians. Olmos, the earliest Gram- 
marian, tried to fit his "Arte" into a Latin model with 
indifferent success. Molina, the first Lexicographer, is 
partially responsible for the absurd idea that every Mexi- 
can sentence consists of a single word by his method of 
welding pronouns to verbs. A critic reviewing my work 
(see Introduction) accuses me of wrenching sentences 
asunder without regard to lines of cleavage. This critic 
would not be worth a passing notice were it not that men 
who write with authority have become partially possessed 
of the same error. They talk of "incorporation" or 
"encapsulation" when there is no such thing. 

2. The Pronoun — object and SM6;'ec^.— Every transitive 
Mexican verb requires a prefixed objective pronoun and 
the action of the verb is directed according to the pro- 
noun which is its subject-object combined. Thus nino 
gives the sense of the middle voice or reflects the action 
upon the subject of the verb. Ni is the subject, no the 
dative object, accurately speaking ; nite, directs the action 
toward another person and nitla toward a thing. Molina 
and Olmos joined these pronouns to the verb when logi- 



cally they may be separated which would render reading 
much easier. For example ticocMoc, you are lying down 
asleep, might better be written ti-cochtoc; ninotlagotla, 
I love myself, nino-tlagotla ; nictlagotla in Malinton, I 
love Marie, nic-tlagotla in Malinton. One might as well 
write in English, give me it, "gimmeit." There is no 
incorporation here. 

3. The possessive personal pronouns have a peculiar 
use. A noun as head- word loses its ending when a posses- 
sive pronoun is prefixed, as, tatli, father, nota, my father, 
just as correctly no-ta. Adverbs are treated the same way, 
as, nouic, around me, no-uic. There are cases I admit 
where it might appear like straining syntax to carry this 
principle out, as notenco nicmati, I learn a thing by 
heart; no is my, ten, tentli word; co, in or by. I have 
followed Simeon's example and separated pronouns from 
verbs by a hyphen, thus, nic-mati. Hence I am not 
doing violence to the language as aforesaid hysterical 
critic imagined. The same rule applies in compounding 
nouns, as atl, water; calli, house; acalli, a boat. 

4. The postpositives, such as qual-can, a good place; 
coati-tlan, place of snakes, need no special treatment. 
Some of them are Old Aryan, some are of later formation. 

5. The augment is o. It is always separated from its 
verb by the pronouns or even by adverbial phrases, as 
o-timo-tlalticpac-gMixft-co, already thou, earth-on, hast 
arrived (just come). Here co is a "desinence" indicating 
action just completed. The augment is usually omitted 
where its absence would not obscure the sense, as o-nicte- 
mac or nicte-mac, I gave it to someone, but o-nitla-qua, I 
ate it; ic cen o-ya, he has finally gone, is dead. Here it 
is necessary, as ya would be mistaken for the present 
tense. The augment is omitted in at least half the cases, 


and the same is true of Vedic Sanskrit (Whitney, Sans- 
krit Grammar, sec. 587). 

6. The '■'■reverenciaV is a form of the verb which at 
times appears to be simply the Romance reflective verb, 
as, il se tait vite, he gets quiet immediately. This sub- 
ject is purely grammatical. I give these forms here in order 
to show that I have not left certain affixes undetermined. 
The form, it may be seen, does not primarily indicate rev- 
erence. The endings are lia or tia, thus, mXe-tlagotla, I 
love some one; ninote-tlagotiZm is the reverencial. In 
some cases three forms exist, as, nitetla-maoa, I give some- 
thing to some one, nitetla-maquiKa, -Q^uxlhtia, -qui/m, 
reverencials ; (see vocabulary, -lia, -lo). 

7. The passive usually ends in lo, as chiua, make, passive 
chiuaZo; tlein itoZo.^ what is the news? itoa, to tell; but 
the passive of mati is macho or m&tiua; of ana, take, 
analo or anoy aci, axoa, aciua, axiua. 

8. Connectives. — Ca and ti are used to connect com- 
pound verbs. Ca connects co-ordinates, as acicamati, to 
be wise, i. e., "attains and understands." Ti connects a 
subordinate adjective element, as eua/ica, "seated is"; 
chapan/metzi, "stumbling falls." Final que must not be 
confused with these. It is merely a plural ending, as 
ueuet-que, the ancients; o-ticte-maque, we gave. 


9. Mexican Orthography is arbitrary and confusing. 
The clumsy Spanish phonetics of the sixteenth century 
were inadequate to the demands made upon them. No 
accents are given to guide in pronunciation. Two spell- 
ings of the same word are common, as yualli, yoalli, 
night; chopinia, tzopinia, to sting as a snake, peck as a 
bird ; chichi, dog, and tzi-n, honorific, both develop from 


dhi; cocoltic, lean, feeble, is also Qogoltic, which is signifi- 
cant since it involves the question of a sibilant or a palatal. 
The antique q (s) is used for s, z for the soft sound. 
Some writers use these letters indifferently. The sound 
sh runs riot. It may be x, ch, tz, or, apparently, even s 
or zj initial it appears to be Spanish ch as in church, but 
in such a word as tochtli, rabbit, it may be sh[x, ch). 
Pimentel remarks: it is not the same as ch, hut resembles 
it; Olmos says [Grammar of Nahuatl, p. 198) that it 
should be sounded like x in Latin dixi. It is simply 
English sh. 

In regard to h there is much confusion; thus uei 
(Molina) or huei, large; eua or ehua, to rise. Molina was 
sparing in the use of h. Generally h appears to be sim- 
ply a device to lengthen a vowel or denote the "saltillo," 
little stop, as ahauia, to take pleasure in, or auia (both 
Molina). The "saltillo" thus probably sometimes repre- 
sents aspiration. 

Prosthetic vowels occur frequently, as eleuia, ilhuicatl, 
ocuelin. This change has transferred to i many words 
originally belonging to other letters. It has literally 
robbed initial s, as iciui, from su, to hurry ; ilhuicatl from 
Sanskrit, rocand, heaven; egotl, blood, from Sanskrit su, 
to press out; much rarer is a, as alaua, glide, Latin, 

10. Lost letters. — Mexican has lost b, d, g, which fact 
renders positive differentiation more difficult. Whether g 
existed in the language at the time of the Conquest is a 
question discussed by Olmos [Grammar, p. 197). 



11. Equivalence of vowels and diphthongs, Mexi- 



can, Greek, and Sanskrit, is exhibited in the following 
table : 

Mexican . 





Sanskrit . 


a, i 

i, a 

u, V, a, a 


Greek . . . 

u, e-, -q, u 

e, a, 11 




Mexican . 

m, yu, yo 



iui (u) 


at, eu 

Sanskrit . 

u, yu 

VI, va 


u, (vi), iv 


e, e-\-u 

Greek . . . 

V, *yu, eu 

foi, fL, ut, 0, <a 

fa- a 

VI, *Jvi, V 


X indicates a missing' labial or r. 

12. Variants. — The pseudo-labial u performs a vicari- 
ous service: (1) it may represent a labial; as Mexican, 
auh, also; Sanskrit, apt; (2) a lost g; as Mexican, 
uapaua, get rigid; Greek, irdx-vi; (3) a lost r; as Mex- 
ican, xauani, drip; Sanskrit, sarand, run; caua, stop; 
Skr. car; TroXeco, to wander, stop. 

The vowel i («/) may represent a lost r as in quiyauitl; 
Sanskrit, ghr, drip + ap, water, *ghi-ap-i-tl ; piaztic, San- 
skrit, prasiti-c; cf. Italian, piacere, for placere; Sanskrit, 
rishi; Pali, isi. 

The change of b, p to u is of very wide geographical 
reach, as: Mexican, auh; Sanskrit, api; Pali, vuddho; 
Sanskrit, buddhd; also of r, I to u, as nana, nara, or 
r dropped, ozo-matli, vrsa; caqui, heav *karki; (see 17); 
Old French, 6chauder; Latin, excaldere, scald. 

The change of a palatal to u appears to be Indo- 
Iranian, as: Mexican, ua-pawa, 7ra%i/9; Panjabi, neul; 
Sanskrit, na/cuM, ichneumon. 

The vowels o and u are often interchangeable, as teotl 
or teutl, god; mochi or muchi, much, all. This point is 
to be considered in vowel derivation. The long a of San- 
skrit is regularly Mexican o. As to the w-sound in Mexi- 
can consult Olmos, Grammar, p. 197. 


(a) The pseudo diphthong eu may result from: (1) 
juxtaposition as tleuana, tle + uana; neuatl *nesuatl; (2) 
umlauting or strengthening, as teuhtli, dust; Skr. dhu; 
(3) a Sanskrit form direct, as teutl, from div; (4) influ- 
ence of a liquid or dental, as eua, Skr. r; Lat. artus, 
orior; eleuia, lubh? or rdh? eu as an originial IE. form, 
teuhdli, a leader, from *deuk. 

(6) -uia, -iui, -oa, verb endings are difficult to determine 
because of umlauting; thus xeliui, break, and xeloa are 
synonomous; in calpol^iw'a, to convoke the calpolli, the 
sense demands Skr. hu, to call, hu-iaj but in tenia, to 
stone, from ietl, hr, to "handle" (stones) may be supplied 
though the sense does not require it; xicoa is Skr. sic 
4-ra? panawia, to excel, appears to be Skr. pan, admire, 
commend -|- av, to have pleasure in; or ap, to get, become. 
Iciui, to hurry, is plainly Skr. su; tlapiui, to grow, is 
from piv, tticov, fat. But Skr. hr, to be angry, develops 
in Mex. qual-a-ni; ga, icau-ia [au=^o). Here ia is, 
analogous to Skr. verb affix ya. 


The Consonants are: c, ch, h, I, m, n, p, qu{k), q{z), 
s[ch, x), t, u[w), y. 

13. Dentals. — The only dental is t; tz is a develop- 
ment from s; dh, d, develop ch before i, e, u, as, chiua, 
do, from Sanskrit dhd; and tz, as in tzicauastli, a comb, 
dhr; choloa, to run, tiirati. The dental is never final 
except in the perfect tense; it is dropped in verbs when 
final of root, as paina, he runs, *padna, xini, to cut, 
destroy *xitni; Skr. chid. 

14. Labials. — The only labial is p; Aryan p, b, bh 
may develop Mexican u, as in eleuia, desire, from lubh; or 
the labial is dropped, as coatl, serpent, from gubh, to 
glide; tla-pana, tlauana, drunk. 


15. Palatal- gutturals — only c, qu remain. 

Initial they are: (1) hard as, qual-ani, angry; San- 
skrit, hrntte; (2) become u with umlaut, as in uentl\ an 
ofPering, from ghu, to pour out ; but h, g, gh remain primi- 
tive more frequently than in Sanskrit, as, conetl, child; 
Sanskrit, jan, jtoa; -(3) becomes; as, xaua; Latin, color. 
Final (of root) — the palatal is (4) dropped and u or h 
takes its place as iyaua, Sanskrit, yaj, tiuJi-ili; Greek, 
OvyaTTjp; (5) becomes ch as tel-poc/i-tli, young man; tel- 
poc-a-tl, youth; Sanskrit, pig, to adorn; Latin, pic-tor; 
Mexican, _picAj (6) remains primitive as, tla-jaic, false; 
Sanskrit, pig-una ; Greek, iriKpot. A change analogous to 
the dropping of a guttural occurs in Sanskrit; compare 
yundhi, yungdhi with tiuhtli. 

16. Sibilants, g{s), z, sh {ch, x), tz, tg. S is never 
final except in the future and perfect tenses of verbs. The 
combinations st, sp, sn, si, ks, are not allowable. Initial 
ks becomes s. S final (of root) may be dropped as, 
moyotl, mosquito; Greek, /J-vta *nva--ia; Latin, musca, 
fly; sv becomes s, as uitzilin, humming bird, vi + svar; 
ma-cep-oa, my hand is asleep, ma + svap, to sleep. The 
explosive tz may derive from s as, tzo-mia, to sew; San- 
skrit, siw; or from a dental as, tzicoa, to hold, detain, 
from Sanskrit, dhr, strong, but this dh may be chi as in 
chicauac, strong, from the same root. (See 12.) San- 
skrit Q (k) is nearly always hard before a, o, u, soft be- 
fore e, i. 

11. L and'{r). — L is never initial; r is missing en- 
tirely. L (r) may become i or u, or be dropped, initial 
or before a palatal or sibilant (sec. 12). But an original 
initial r may be preserved by a prosthetic vowel as e-leui-a, 
from lubh; ilhuicac, Sanskrit, rocand. R is dropped be- 
fore s: auachtli, dew, ogomatli, ape, quechoa, to stir, and 


elsewhere. 17 may appear even when I remains, as iluiz, 
Sanskrit, ris. 

18. Nasals with a palatal are comparatively rare if 
indeed they are found at all. Compare eca-uaztli, a lad- 
der, with Sanskrit, ankA; Greek, 07K0?, English, angle; 
aqui, to be squeezed in, with *angh, Greek, a%o?, a7%<o; 
Latin, ango. 

19. Modern Mexican appears to differ very little from 
the language at the time of the Conquest, judging by 
recent writers. A few changes may be observed in the 
gospel of Luke, thus om.o-chl, for oxno-chiuh. In the 
latter form u was emphatic instead of i. 


A BihliograpJiy here is naturally not to be expected. 
I have obtained words from all possible sources — Dictiona- 
ries, special articles, "Reports," Periodicals — in fact wher- 
ever they were to be found. A complete Bibliography of 
my investigations may be found in The Primitive Aryans 
of America. For a more comprehensive treatment of 
"Phonology," see my Mexican in Aryan Phonology. To 
Brugmann's Vergleichende Grammatik I am indebted for 
words not easily found elsewhere; to Simeon's Nahuatl- 
French Dictionary for numerous illustrative phrases. 
Molina's bilingual Vocabulnrio is of course a sine qua 
non in the study of Mexican. One must know Spanish 
before he can even begin the study of Mexican, and 
French is necessary to its successful prosecution. I 
believe my own is the first analytic work published in 
English. The Nahuatl Grammar of Olmos is available 
to students at a reasonable price, also Molina's Vocabula- 
rio edited by Julio Platzmann (Teubner, Leipsic, 1880). 
Unfortunately the reprint contains the typographical 


errors (not serious) of the original. Incorrect typogra- 
phy is a common fault with Mexican books. The Dia- 
logues of Arenas, Mexican-Spanish-French (Paris, 1862), 
very valuable for their idioms, are a tangled mess. The 
book of Luke is still worse. The invaluable Annals of 
Chimalpahin Quauhtleuanitzin edited by K6mi Sim6on 
are in parallel columns, Mexican-French. All of Simeon's 
work is done with critical acumen. It can not be too 
highly commended. I have felt seriously the lack of 
material. Books which I should have had I have been 
unable to get. The Vocabulary of Lanman's Sanskrit 
Reader has been very useful to me, owing to its concise 
form and critical scholarship. I also greatly regret that 
I have not been able to secure a competent linguist to 
revise my proofs. Through habit a writer may overlook 
his own errors and inconsistencies. But Mexican is prac- 
tically an unknown tongue to the learned world and 
scholars are naturally averse to assuming such a respon- 

The abbreviations employed are those in ordinary use 
and are self-explanatory, except: Chimph., which refers to 
the Annals of Chimalpahin, seventh relation, unless 
another is mentioned; Chimpo., Chimalpopoca ; PAA., 
"Primitive Aryans of America;" MAP., "Mexican in 
Aryan Phonology;" rev., reverencial (sec. 6); cf. is not 
always asseverative; enclosed references, thus (12), are 
to this introductory synopsis. I have used "Aryan" in 
the sense of Indo-European. All accredited illustrative 
phrases are of my own selection. In spelling I have 
followed Molina but in quotations I have retained the 
spelling of the author quoted. 



1 a, neg. particle, no, not; anac, a+ni+ac, lam absent ; 
a-nitia-caqui, I do not hear, or comprehend; a-ompa, not 
there, nowhere; Skr. a, an, Greek a, av, negatives. 

2 a, affix (also, e), "abounding in" as, tetl, stone, tetla, 
a stony place; also te[y)o; quauitl, tree, quauhtla, a 
forest; Skr. a, as ksam, to be patient, ksama, patience; 
sev, to serve; seva, service; Aryan affix o, a is perhaps 
analogous; cf. OHG. tohter-a, daughters (Brug., II, sec. 
60) ; or Aryan, tro, tlo, locative affix, as; Skr. jani-tra-m, 
birthplace; Grreek, Xee-T/so-i', "lying place," bed; following 
Mexican analogy te-tla is more probable than tett-a. 

aca, pro. indef., someone, anyone, alguno; cf. Aryan, 
oka, as in Skr. asmakam yusmakam; (Brug., Ill, sec. 

acatl, a rush ; acatl xiuitl, name of a year in the Aztec 
calendar; Greek, a/c^, point; cf. aK-jo-<s, end; Lat. ac-u-s, 
chaff; Goth, ahs, ear of corn; OHG. ahil, chaff, beard 
(of grain) ; (see yacana). 

achi, a little (more or less), achi ti-qualli in neuatl, 
thou art better than I am ; achi centlacol, less than half ; 
Skr. 4dhi, over (surplus); (13). 

achtli (in comp.), oc/icauhtli, to lead, captain ; aohto, first ; 
ach, Skr. Ajq;ti; Greek, dyco, to lead; cf. Assyr. akh, highest; 
Cree, ach, active; Turk, agha, lord; (see cauhtli). 

aci, to arrive, reach (with hand), chase; in aquin 
o-aci-co, he who has just arrived, especially to arrive at 
truth or knowledge as actcamati, to be wise; Skr. a?, to 
reach, attain; Greek, -qv-eyic-a, carried. 



aco, *ac-co( ?) upward; Skr. ^g-ra, top; Panj. acas, sky. 

ago, agoga, agogan, perhaps, doubtless; agogan te [tec?] 
o-tic-cuic, perhaps you took it on your own responsi- 
bility (stole) (JMoL); ago quema macuilli, about iive; 
correl. conj. with anogo, "either-or;" ago moztla ni-ual- 
laz anogo quin uiptla, doubtless I shall arrive tomorrow 
or the day after; Skr. &, an, neg. ; Greek, a, av-\-sa, so, 
Greek, o, i?, ro; Goth, sa, so, thata. 

acoUi, shoulders; Skr. angd,? a limb, member; cf. 
ahkA, bend at hip in sitting, hook; cf. col, top. The 
Acolhua or Colhua, a Mexican tribe, "scarf over the 
shoulder people;" (PAA., p. 150, note). 

acuetzpalin, water lizard; uei acuetzpalin, alligator; 
atl + cuet + spal-in ; Skr. garta, a water hole + sphr, 
sphur, sphurdti, dart about; "water hole darter;" Greek, 
a-airalp-o), struggle convulsively ; Lat. sperno ; Eng. spurn, 
spur; (r 12, 17); (see cuetlacMli) . 

ai, to accomplish, do, perf., o-ax; tlein fai? what 
are you doing? Skr. i, 6ti, go, attain j Greek, te-vat; 
Lat. 6-0, go, succeed. 

alaua, glide like an eel, slip; Lat. labor, lap-sus, glide, 
slip; a prosthetic; (MAP., from laghii, Table D, less 

alco, an extinct wild dog; Skr. vfka; Eng. wolf; Lat. 
lup-u-s; cf. Skr. dlarka, a mad dog, a fabulous animal. 

altepetl, town; citadel(?), also king; altepetl, a moun- 
tain; Simeon analyzes atl + tepetl, "water mountain," 
irregular; al *alc, Lat. arx, arceo; Greek, apKeco, ward 
ofP; tepetl, Greek, rai^o?; New Per. tapah; Turk. Geok- 
tepe, a town in Russ. Turkestan. 

altia, (1) to bathe; (2) to do business, sacrifice slaves 
(done only by the rich); offer gifts to a god; (1) Skr. 
ard-ra, wet; (2) Artha, object, profit, business. 


amatl, paper; atl(?) + mat-l; Lat. matta; AS. mail; 
Eng. mat; "a-matl," a mat made with water; or Skr. am, 
to press hard. 

amolli, soap plant, root used for washing ; amolhuia, to 
wash with soap; atl, water H-moMi; Skr. mula, a root, 
"root used with water." 

amomoloa, the water murmurs (Sim.); atl, water + 
momoloa; Skr. marmara, to murmur; Greek, fJ-op-fjLvp-o}; 
Lat. murmur, murmuring, buzzing (bees) ; roaring (lion, 
thunder, the sea). 

amoxtli, *amozg-tli, a plant of the Mexican Lakes 
(hence, papyrus?), a.t\ -\- moxtli, a book; Skr. mdjjati, to 
duck under (water); Lat. mergus, submerged; OBulg. 
mozgu, marrow, "inside;" (see temascalli). 

an, pro. per., 2d plu. nom.; an-te-tla-yeool-tia (-ye- 
culhtiah [Olmos]), you serve some one: Skr. pronominal 
roots, anA, ena or ami. 

ana, take, seize, undertake; nic-ana in no-tequiuh, I 
undertake my work; nic-ana in espada, I draw the 
sword; Panj. an-na, to bring; cf. Skr. ni. 

anca, intensive particle; cem-awca, very greatly; Skr. 
(t6) angd, they only. 

ano, not, no doubt same as amo, not; often a, as anac, 
I am absent ; (a + ni + ac) ; a-tlacatl, ill-mannered; Skr. a 
or an; an-a^vds, without horses; Greek, av-iinro';; with 
go, anogo, which see ; amo, 1 a -(- Skr. ma, not. 

anogo, anozo, correlative conj., nor-neither, or-either; 
introductory alone, or with ago or amoga; anozo aquin 
zoatlacatl qui-pia matlactli tomin, or what woman who 
has ten pieces of silver (Luke 15: 8) ; anogo oncan amoga 
in cecni cana, neither here nor anywhere else (Chimph., 
Annals); these conjunctions may change places; ago- 
anofo, or anogo-amoQa. 


apana, *apanta, to gird self; to wrap self in a mantle; 
Skr. bandh, badhnati, bind, tie, put on; Lat. fid-is, a 
string; Eng. band, bind; a prosthetic doubtless through 
influence of hJi. 

aqui, enter a hole or place, put on tight clothing; tla- 
actica, submerged, overwhelmed, to owe; Skr. agh^, dis- 
tressful; anhii, narrow ; Greek, a%09; Lat. ango; Grer. engst. 

atemitl, a louse; tec?-|-mitl; for tec see tecpinj mitl; 
AS. mite, a species of insect; Goth, maitan, to cut; cf. 
Greek, ro/i^, a "cutting;" or tem-itl, from Te/M-vo), to cut. 

atl, water; cf. Skr. ud, un^tti, to bubble up, flow; 
Slav, voda; Greek, vSwp; Eng. water; a for uaj drops t 
of root in compounds. 

atlapalli, awing, leaf; a-tla-tl, Skr. tr, to cross + pal-li ; 
pal, bhr, to bear; cf. Skr. spr, sphur, sphurati, to make a 
quick, Jerky motion; parn^, wing; Lith. sparna; Eng. 
fern; (for s, see acuetzpallin) . 

aua, scold, quarrel, divorce a wife ; Skr. &va, away, off, 
"to separate." 

auachtli, atl + wac/i-tli, dew; uach; Skr. vrs, vteati, 
it rains, or to pour down (for r, see 17) ; auachia, to 
sprinkle, the same ; or aua + chia, aua, Skr. ap, water ; 
Lat. aqua + dhi, to put, to place. 

auh, and; illative, then, also; Skr. api, also, but; Lat. 
amb-, both; Greek, a/x^i. 

1 auatl, a woolly caterpillar; Greek, aco-ro-?, wool 
(Brug., II, p. 229); Skr. iirna; Eng. wool, *ol-a-tl. 

2 auatl, a thorn ; a + uat-1 ; Skr. vyadh, vldhyati, to 
pierce; Lat. di-vid-ere. 

3 auatl, evergreen oak, grove of such oaks; perhaps 
Skr. dva, a protector. The cypress and the ceiba tree 
were called "protectors;" cf. 6sadhi, "herbs." 

auia, have enough, be content; Skr. av, dvati, favor, 


have pleasure; Lat. avere, ave Maria; auiani calli, casa 

auiliui, to ruin self, indulge vice; a+uiliui; auil- 
popoloa, to be prodigal, waste ; Lat. vilis, vile, cheap, com- 
mon ; cf . Skr. dvara, vile ; iui, perhaps to join to, Skr. yu, 
to attract; but influence of I may cause this form from 
root vilj (see 12 b). 

axcaitl, in comp.,aa;ca, "property;" rCaxca (no+axca), 
mine as pro.; Skr. ag, to obtain -j-ct, to collect, get; 
Piikhto ash-ja, possessions ; cf. Avestan arth-ra, which by 
change rt to s gives ash-a, goods; cognate axcan, now, 
"the arrived time." 

axixtli, excrement, axixa, to evacuate bowels; to uri- 
nate; hence atl, water + Skr. gis, ginfeti, to leave, "leav- 

ayac, pro., no one; a + yac; at/ac mo-potzin, no one is 
thy equal; Skr. ya, relative, originally demonstrative 
+ka, yaka-s (Whitney, -^ans/criY Grammar, sees. 511, 
521), "not any one," but may be made also from ay^m, 
that one + ka {ibid., sec. 501). 

ayotl, a tortoise; atl+yotl; yotl, Greek, vhpa, *jvSpa, 
hydra, water snake ; Skr. ud ; Lat. und-a ; Eng. ot-tev. 

aztatl, a heron (egret heron?), atl + sta-tl, "water 
stander," "wader;" siatl, Skr. stha, to stand; Greek 
(Doric), (TTa-fiev; Lat. sta-re; OHG. sta-n; AS. stand-an; 
Eng. stand. 

1 ca, ligature, in compound verbs, as, acicamati, very 
wise; ni-matconemi, I go prudently ; connects coordinates ; 
Skr. ca; Greek, re, Ka; Lat. que. 

2 ca, cah, oncah, verb denoting existence; Sp. estarj 
pres. ni-ca, fut. ni-ez, perf. ni-catca (ca+ti+ca), impers. 


yeloaj xiq'ilhuia ca nican ni-ca, tell him that I am here; 
itoca o-catca-ya Isabel, her name was Isabel (Luke) ; oncah 
tlaxcalli, there is bread; nitla'zcaltilli ni-catca, I was a 
neophyte (Ohnos) ; the spelling of Olmos cah indicates a 
long vowel or final spirant ; cf . Skr. q6te ; Greek, Kel-fiai, 
to lie, be situated; root *Kej. 

3 ca, or qui, sign of perf . tense ; as, tlaneci, day breaks ; 
perf. o-tlanez (Mol.) ; otlanez, otlanecic-qui (01m.); ni- 
ga, I awake, o-ni-ga-c, I awoke ; panoa, to cross a stream ; 
perf. o-ni-pano-c; cf. Greek perfects in k, as, Xvw, to loose, 
perf. Xe-Xu-«;a; i-a-rd-Ka. See -a;- another perf ect ending, 
aorist form; the s- perfects are more numerous than the 
k- perfects ; some verbs have both forms. 

4 ca, adv. ending as, iciui, to hurry ; iciuiliztica, hur- 
riedly; Meca, faroff; cenquiz-ti-ca, entiTely; Aryan suffix, 
go, qo; Skr. dha-kA-s, a receptacle; Greek, dij-Kr); (sec- 
ondary) Skr. anii-Zca-s, coming after a thing; Lat. reci- 
procus, *reco *proco (Brug., II, sec. 86). 

cacalli, cacalotl, a crow ; Skr. kaka ; cf . Khassi, kakaw ; 
Chippewa, kankakee; Natick, kon-kon-t. 

cactli, shoe; caca-l-lot-l, shell; Skr. kacat6, bind; 
Greek, KiyX^, lattice; Ger. hag; Eng. hedge; lot, Skr. 
rudh, grow; Lat. rudis. 

calania, to polish; to rub one thing against another; 
cala -|- nia ; calhuia, to eat corn roasted in the embers 
with little tongs made of cane ; Skr. cal, cAlati, stir, quiver, 
shake -|-m, to direct, attract, bring to; calhuia, cal, kala, 
trembling + hr (?) , to handle, swerve, fall off; Greek, 
X^^P, the hand; (see homonym in tlatlacalhuia) . 

calli, house; Greek, /caX-ia, KoXv-^r], house; Eng. hall; 
Per. ekal'a, a Sassanide palace ; cf. Assyr. ekalli( ?), palace ; 
Skr. gala ; Ger. hillle ; Hawaiian, hale, house ; Marquesan, 
whare; Samoan, fale; Tahitan, fare; Manihiki, fale. 


calpoUi (pul), "house full," phratry; pol, (1) Skr. pr, 
prnati, fill; Greek, irC-'rrX'q-iJLi; Lat. pleo; Lith. pulkas, a 
crowd; Eng. full; (2) Skr. piir, city; Greek, Tro'Xt?. 

calpulhuia, to convoke the calpuUi (which see) ; liuia, 
Skr. hu, hdvate, *gheu, to call, invoke; (see 12b). 

camatl, mouth; Skr. cam, to sip; camasd, cup. 

cana, a place ; cecni cana, some other place ; cana nite- 
tlalia, I placed him somewhere; oftenest a postpositive, 
as qualcctrz, a good place; mieccan, many places; axcan, 
now; Skr. kain (?). Bartholomae conjectures this to be 
a primitive Aryan locative, and no doubt he is correct, 
but its meaning is not "at one's pleasure," from kdmas, 
desire; (Brug., Ill, sec. 262). 

canauhtli, duck, cana + uhtli; cana, Skr. hahsA, goose; 
Greek, XV^' ^^^- anser *ganser; Ger. gansrf uhtli, Skr. 
vac, uktA, "voice of the goose;" (see galiuhtli, ixui- 
uhtli); cf. hansaka, "little goose." 

cantli, cheek; Skr. hdnu, jaw, chin; Greek, yev-v^- 
Goth, kinnus, cheek; Lat. g6na, cheek; Ger. kinn; Eng. 
chin; cf. Natick, mi-shon, chin. 

caqui, *carki (nine) be satisfied, (nite) heed another, 
listen to, (nitla, nic) understand, heed; aompa nic-caqui, 
I take it in bad part; ichtaca nitla-caqui, eavesdrop; AS. 
hercnien, heorcnian, listen, hear, give heed; OD. harcken, 
horcken; LG. harken, horken; Eng. hearken, listen, give 
heed to what is said; (17). 

caua, quit, finish, stop, leave a thing, ma yuhqui xic- 
caua, leave it as it is; nic-cmta in otli, I leave the road; 
Skr. car, cdrati, move, wander, undertake, do a duty, 
commit an offense; Greek, TroXe'aj, wander, turn, frequent, 
abide in, be employed, ttoXo?, a pivot; Lat. polus (astro- 
nomy ), the poZes of the earth ; (12). 

-cauh- (in comp.), teachcama, to make one chief heir in 


a will; te-ach-caM^, an elder brother, the best; acalco 
teachcaw/i^K, ship captain; Skr. kavi, wise; Lat. cav-eo, 
cautious; Ger. schauen; Eng. show. 

cauitl, time, weather; quen anqu'itta in cauitl? How 
does the weather look? what are the "probabilities?" 
(Arenas); Skr. garM, summer, autumn, year; Avestan, 
sar^ta, cold, cool; Lith. szaltas, cold. 

caxitl, dish, porringer; Skr. cas-ka, a dish. 

caxtolli, fifteen; cax+toUi; Skr. tula, a weight, hal- 
ance; Greek, ToXavTov; cox, perhaps Skr. has, to move, 
or gag, renewing. 

caxua, (nitla) to get flaccid, diminish, as taxes; caxa- 
nia, (nino) have a relapse (sickness) ; caxanqui, a thing 
that is flimsy or badly put up ; Skr. kas, kfeati, to hurt ; or 
kas, kdsati, to gape, open. 

ce, cem, one, Aryan, *sem; Lat. sem-el, once; Skr. sa, 

cea, cia, *ceg-ia, say, consent; Icelandic, seg-ja; OL. 
en-sec-e, tell; Greek, *ev-a-eTr-e, tell; Ger. sag-en; (15); 
but may be Mexican from ce, one ; cf . Skr. gr, call, speak ; 
Greek, yijpvi; Lat. garrio; Eng. call. 

eel, *cel-li (in comp. only), alone, only "oneness;" gan 
i-cel, himself only, *cem-li; Aryan, *sem, one; Skr. sa- 
krt, once; Greek, fua *crfiia *a^fiui; Lat. sem-el, once; 
Mex. ce, cen, cem, one. 

celia, (ni) get; grow (as budding of tree) ; (nite) 
entertain a guest, nic-ceZta in sancta communion, I take 
the holy sacrament; cei/ofZ, marrow ; ce + Skr. ra, " giving 
oneness;" cf. cin6ti, ^cet, arrange, construct, get. 

cemanauatl, the world, universe; ce or cem, "one," often 
emphatic prefix; simplest derivation, mana, to be in a 
condition to remain, ceman -j- ti + oc, terra firma (large), 
the earth -f uat-l + Skr. *vat-as, year ; Greek, eVo?, *peTO'i ; 


Lat. vet-US, old, hence "the thing which has remained 
always;" cf. Skr. vat, an affix. 

cetca (in comp.), no-ce^-ca, a relative; Skr. saty^, real, 
trusty,' faithful; cf. sadha or sahd, "oneness," com- 

cetl, frost; ceuia, to freeze; ceuiz cauitl, cold weather 
(Arenas) ; s in adj. formed on verbal iztli; Skr. gya or 51 
Qyayati, to freeze. 

chalchiuitl, a large emerald, "blue or green;" chal + 
chiuitl; Skr. jaM, water; jalaja, "born in the water," a 
pearl + jyut, to be bright. 

chantli, house, dwelling; Skr. ksi, to dwell; ksema, 
home ; Goth, haims ; Eng. ham-let ; cf . Assyr. khin, cabin ; 
Arabic, khan, an inn. 

chapolin, cha+poZ-in, a grasshopper; (1) Skr. chad, 
to "cover," wing + pol; (2) Skr. ga, cigati, whet, make 
eager, also to " spread " + pol-iui, to destroy; "the eager 
destroyer;" (see igauia, poliui) . 

chia, to wait; Skr. cik6ti, to seek; cf. dha, dadhati, 
stand, remain; (for cognate, see tlachia). 

chiauitl, a vine-grub, a viper; chia -}- uit-1 ; Skr. dhav, 
dhAvati, run; Greek, Oeco, *0ef<B + vidh, vidhyati, pierce, 
hit ; chia here, uncertain. 

chica ce, six, chica, the increment after five; as ma- 
cuilli, "handgrasp" + ce, one = 6; Skr. adhika, plus, re- 
dundant, as in ashtddhiha-nayati, 98. 

chicaua, get strength, grow old; chic-ac-ti-c, strong 
or old; chic, Skr. drh, drnhati, firm, enduring; OL. 
forc-ti-s, fortis; ac, Skr. ag or anc, "towards;" root, 

chicauac, strong; Skr. drh + vangA? "kind" lineage; 
(see va). 

chichi, dog ; chi-chitia, to give milk ; Skr. dha, dhdyati, 


to suck; Greek, drj-Xi}, breast; Lat. fe-lo, suck; filius, 
"suckling"(?) ; Goth, daddjan, give suck; (13). 

chichiltic, vermillion, bright red, Colorado, redup. ; Skr. 
gll-pa, ornament, art. 

Chichi-mecatl, a Chichimec, called in derision, "dogs;" 
Skr. dhi-dhi, "very pious," "the godly Chichimecs" 
(PAA., pp. 124, 131); cf. dhrs, bold; Greek, Opaa-w; 
Lat. fastus; Goth, ge-dass; Eng. durs-t; (13). 

chicMnaca, redup., to have pain, as in wound; chichi- 
natza, (nite) to cause another pain; chi (dha)+Skr. nag, 
to lose; Lat. noceo, to harm (/cor s). 

Chicomoztoc, legendary place in the Nana migrations; 
chicome, seYen -\- oztotl, cave; ost, ustj Russ. mouth, open- 
ing; once open front of a shop (PAA., p. 164, note); 
perhaps a by-form of Skr. vas, to dwell, stop in a place. 

chimalli, a shield, chi -(- mal-li ; Skr. mardha, fight, 
battle; chi = dha, to put (on) ; *mal, *mel, a root cognate 
with mr, to crush; (see Chimaltitlan) . 

CWmaltitlan, defined {Hand Book Indians, Yo\. I) "the 
place where prayer sticks were set up." The ordinary 
grammatical analysis is chimal-ti-tlan; here no doubt dhi, 
piety+mrd, grace + tlan, "place" (see quauhchimalli) . 

chinamitl, hedge of canes, a fence; chinancaWi, sur- 
rounded by a fence; Skr. dhana, holding + mitl ; (13). 

chinoa, burn (as woods on fire) ; tla.-chinolli, something 
burned; Skr. di, shine; dina, bright; (13). 

chipaua, to clean, purify, settle muddy water; Skr. 
dha, giving, putting + paua, cook, but probably also to 
purify; Skr. pac, to cook, "perfect." 

chiua, (nic, nitla) do, make; (nite) beget child; Skr. 
dha, dMhati, pp. dhita (Vedic), put, make, create, con- 
ceive; Greek, Tv-drj-iMt; Lat. ab-do, put away; Eng. do; 
also, Lat. fa-c-io; root *dhe; (13)., 


choca, weep, bleat, bellow, hoot (owl) ; Skr. dukbd, 
miserable; satisfies only to weep; (13) ; cf. quc, to grieve. 

choloa, run, flee; (1) Skr. tur, tiirati, press on swiftly; 
involves the sibilization of t as in Hindi nautch, girl, from 
nrt, to dance; (13) ; (2) dhu, run + ra. 

chopinia; to bite (as snake), peck (as a bird) ; tzopinia, 
to prick ; Skr. su, suvAti, to bring about, cause ; Greek, edai, 
*(Tefaco, o-u-To + Skr. bhid, bhindtti, cleave, split; Ger. 
beissen; Eng. bite; or dha, for su. 

ciaui, *ciasui, to be tired; (1) Skr. jas, jAsyati, to 
be exhausted; very tired (s, 16); (2) gram, gramyati, to 
be weary ; (for m, see mayaui) . 

cipactli, marine monster (zodiac), shark ; Nanacacipac- 
tzin, grandson of Ahuitzotzin, of the Mexican royal line; 
"devourer of mushrooms," i. e., of the people's bread, 
because, as governor of Tenochtitlan, he did not oppose 
the exactions of the Spaniards (d. 1565); perhaps, Skr. 
cibu-ka, chin, "hammer head;" ac= anc, or aq. 

citlali(n), star; Skr. str, strew; Greek, a-iSr/p; Lat. 
stel-la; Ger. stir-ne; Eng. star. 

citli, rabbit, old woman, tia hermana de abuelo (MoL), 
sister of grandfather; Skr. cit, c6tati, to be wise, or 
sad, to sit. "The Great Hare" was a deity among the 
Algonquins, and the Mexicans linked the wisdom of the 
serpent and the woman in their ciua-coatl, Chief Judge; 
cf. sita, pure, white; sita-kara, white-rayed, the moon; 
the moon was also called in Sanskrit "rabbit holder." 

-co, postpos. ; Mexico; Skr. ku, "land." 

coatl, snake; Skr. gubh, to glide, to be beautiful; 
Quetzal-coatl, the "Fair God," fulfils both definitions; cf. 
Babylonian Hoa or Koa (PAA., p. 123, note 2); "snake 
charmer" priest; (Harper, Assyr. and Bab. Lit., p. 4). 

coa-tlaca, a meeting of nations; coanotza, (nite) to be 


convivial; coatequitl, public work; coaunoque, they are 
gathered round(thefire) ; coami/Z, blackberry, "clustered;" 
coa, coan, general meaning "community," "together;" 
*kuom que; Lat. cumque, con? quotiescMmgwe, however 
many times. Hence Ciua-coa-tl, the Mexican Supreme 
Judge, may not mean "woman serpent;" cf. coatl. 

cochi, to sleep; Skr. guh, giihati, to hide+gi, to rest, 
be quiet, "secluded rest." 

cocolia, to hate; cocoliztli, the plague; Greek, x°^'V, 
bile; Lat. cholera, gall; AS. c weal-in, destruction; Eng. 
quail; cf. Hung, gylilol-in, to hate. 

cocotl, the throat ; Skr. giihati, hides ; Avestan, goaziti, 
hide, keep ; Lith. giisztft,, broodingnest ; hence " secret place." 

colli (in comp. only) , ancestor, to-coZ-huan, our fore- 
fathers; Skr. kulA, family, clan; Panj. kul, family; Sioux, 
kola, friend; Quichua, KoUa, name of a tribe. 

coloa, bend, twist, go by a detour; Greek, Kvp-T-oi, 
curved; Lat. cur-vo; Eng. curve. 

colotl, scorpion; uitzcolotl, a thorn; Skr. gald, quill of 
porcupine, bristle of a hog; hence co Z-otl, "the stinger;" 
from corresponding long as gala; fsee uitztli). 

comitl, *combitl, dish, cup; Skr. kumbh^, vessel; 
Greek, kv/j.^7]; (14). 

conetl, child (word used by the mother, as pilli is used 
by the father), young of animals, as CRnanh-conetl, duck- 
ling, "duck's child;" Skr. jan, jayate, beget; jdna, man; 
Greek, ye-yov-w; Lat. gen-ui; AS. cen-nan, beget, cyn; 
Ger. konig, king; Eng. kin, king. 

cotona, cut, pick fruit; Skr. gat, gatdyati, cut, cause to 
fall off. 

coua, (nitla) to buy; (ninotla) couia or couilia, buy for 
oneself; Skr. kr, krn6ti or kar6ti, do, make; hard, doing, 
kary^, business, work; Greek, KpdTo<;; Lat. creo; (12). 


coyametl, a hog ; coyonia, to pierce, bore through ; Skr. 
gu, a hollow + yam, yayama, to hold, offer ; hence "the hole 
maker," rooter; but cf. ^i-gu, young; kvco, be pregnant, 
"the prolific one;" or Skr. *5u-ya + mi, to measure. 

coyauac, wide, "like a ditch or a window" (Mol. ) ; co- 
+ yaua+c; co, Skr. gu, to swe\l-\-yam; y^chati, to ex- 
tend; ayata, extended +c; (for m, see mayaui). 

cuechaua, *keshala, to soften, to wet; cuechauac, 
humid, rainy ; acuexatl, a flood ; Skr. ksar, ksArati, ( 1 ) to 
flow; (2) to destroy; Grreek, ^OeCpm; (r, 12). 

cuechoa, *kelchoa, to stir, grind thoroughly; Skr. krs, 
kteati, draw, pull, tear in pieces, tug, etc. ; cuecuechilia, 
to shake a tree; (for I, see 17). 

cuel, already; no cuele, gan no cuele, also; Skr. khdl-u, 
now indeed. 

cuenchiua, to till the soil; quem-i-tl, one's inheritance; 
cuen + chiua; cuen, Skr. khan, to dig; cf. ks6ma, home. 

cuepa, to turn, exchange, make excuses, translate, (nite) 
turn one back; (nitla) give a reason; Goth, gib-an; 
OHGr. geb-an; Icelandic, gef-a; Ger. geb-en; Eng. give; 
cf. cui-\-pa, verbal, "having." 

cueponi, to pop, as nuts roasting; bloom, as flowers; 
to be resplendent, sparkle; Skr. kamp, kdmpete, to trem- 
ble, to leap; to be bright, clear; cf. cwi + pu, punati; 
Greek, 7rv-p, fire; Lat. pu-t-us, pu-r-us, pure. 

cuetlachtli, wolf; Skr. garta, hole + raks, raksa-ka, 
"keeper," defender, or simply "living in a hole;" or 
raksas, "harm ;" [see acuetzpalin) ; (12). 

cui, (nino) esteem self; (nite) cohabit; (nitla, nic) take, 
take example of; Skr. grabh; later, grah, seize, take, 
master; learn; CMt'cMt, redup., cohabit; (12, 17) ; cf. Goth, 
greip-an ; Icelandic, grip-a ; Ger. greifen ; Eng. gripe. 

cuica, to sing; lit. to sing a song; i-cuica in tototl. 


a bird's song, melauac cuicatl, a song of the people; 
Skr. gl-r + gayati, to sing; cf. Skr. kankani, an ornament 
with bells; Greek, KafMa^a; Lat. cano; Goth, hana, a cock. 

cuichectic, blackish; Skr. krsnft, black + aQ, attain or 
anc, "toward;" (r, 12). 

cuiloa, write, paint ; tla-CMi'Zo-Ui, a Mexican book ; Skr. 
krtti, a hide ; or kir^ti, to cover with ; Lat. oc cul-o, cover ; 
Eng. hull. 

cuiltonoa, to enjoy, to be rich, (nino) to own ranches; 
Skr. krt, verbal, "get" + dhana, "having;" dhana, grain 
(store of) ; root dha. 

cuitlatl, excrement ; cui + tra; Skr. ci, "pile" + tr. 

cuitlauia, (ninote) to take care of another; (nino) to 
be convivial, -iltiaj Skr. ci, notice + dravya, "worthy," 
property, object; cuitlauia, (nitla) to manure the ground 
[cuitlatl) ; a curious instance of the contradiction in 

cuitlaxcoUi, entrails; cuitlatl + skolli; Greek, aKap; 
dregs, ordure; Lat. scoria; AS. renscur, rainstorm ; Eng. 
scour; (see cuitlatl). 

cuix, interrog. particle, is there? is it? what? Aryan, 
kos; Skr. kds, kim, ka; Lat. quis; Greek, «&)?, ttoj? ; Goth, 
huas; Ger. was; Eng. which. 

cuztic, coztic, yellow; Skr. kac, to shine, to be visible; 
kagA, visibility from thematic noun with affix ti-\-c. 


ga, fan, gam, adv., only, but, now in sense of conclusion ; 
ga ic nino-caua, [now] I have finished; gaye, before; ga 
J JO, ganio, this only ; gan ye yo, that only ; gayuhti, this 
time only; ga iz, near, "around here;" gan achi, but 
little; gan campa ualla, a stranger, lit. but whence comes 
he ? gan cen (zacen) , joined, "only one ;" an elusive particle. 


limits to the matter in hand and excludes an alternative ; 
Skr. sa, similarity, "oneness;" *se-m; (see ce). 

gagamaua, to revive, quicken, reanimate; redup., Bkr. 
qa. (iQauia) + miv, to move; Greek, a/jLel^co, change; Lat. 
moveo; Eng. move. 

gacamoa, to stir up the soil freshly, or to cut grass; 
gaca + moa (see gacatl) ; moa, Greek, a/nacu, to mow; 
OHG. majan, to mow; AS. mawan; Eng. mow. 

gacatl, straw, grass; Skr. gaka, an edible herb; gakha, 
a branch. 

galiuhtli, galiuyantli, a joint; tlanqua-paZm/i-tli, the 
knee joint; gal + iuh; gal, Skr. sr, glide, flow; sarit, a 
stream; Lat. Almo, *Salmo, a river; cf. Arabic, sal, flow; 
wassal, to join; iuh *jeug; Skr. yunjate ; Greek, ^eviy-w-jM; 
Latin, jungo; Eng. yoke; (15-4) ; or Skr. yu, to join. 

gauatl, smallpox; Skr. garva-ra(?), spotted. 

50a, *solga, unroll, extend, open (as book) ; nic-poo in 
noma, I extend my hand ; Skr. srj, srjdti, let loose, sArga, 
something let loose. 

goatl, woman; Skr. su, press. out, allusion menses? 
generatrix? (cf. gubh, fair); cognate, ciuatl. 

goneua, (nino) the growling of dogs and cats when 
excited; the cries of birds when alarmed; the roaring of 
rising waters; (nite) excite the people; gon+eua; gon, 
Skr. svanA, sound; Lat. sono; AS. swinsian, sound; Eng. 
swan (from its cry) ; (see eua). 

goquitl, *sloqnitl, mud, clay; 50 + quitl; go, Skr. sru, 
srdvati, to flow; Greek, pea, *apef-(o; Lith. srav-j-ii; 
Ger. stro-m; Eng, strea-m+ci, ci-ti, a pile; goquiyotl, 

gotlaua, swoon, die ; Skr. sud, suddyati, put an end to, 
destroy + ra, "giving." 

guma, (nino) to be annoyed, to frown; gumal-e, en- 


raged, courageous; Moteuhczuma, Montezuma, "he frowns 
like a lord," en grand seigneur; Skr. gusma, bold, impetu- 
ous, violent; cf. gu, to be superior; cm, a temple. 


ecatl, air, ehecatl, a spirit; Skr. ej, 6jati, to move, stir, 

ecauaztli, a ladder, (depalo?) perhaps a green sapling 
trimmed to leave short prongs; eca + nastli, eca, Skr. 
ahkA, a hook, angle; Greek, o'ly/co?; Lat. uncus; AS. 
ongel, a hook; Eng. angle; uastli, "furniture," Skr. vas, 
v4ste, to put on; Greek, e-ea-To, had on; Lat. ves-tis, 
garment; (see tzicauastli, teponastli) . 

egotl, blood; goa, bleed; Skr. su, sun6ti, press out; 
sutd, extracted, soma juice; e, Skr. 6ta, quick, rushing ( ?). 

ecuxoa, to sneeze; (see icuxoa). 

1 el, in comp. often and as an independent vocable ; 
Skr. r, rn6ti; (see under 3 el, infra). 

2 el, to be diligent, careful, solicitous; nel (ni+el), I 
am diligent; Skr. r, 6lam, adequate, fitting, ready; av- 
alam-krta, well adorned; for el, also, see eli-micquini. 

3 el, the liver (tel, "our liver ":=to + el), elpantli, the 
breast; Skr. r, Ai,, "fitted;" Lat. ar-t-us, fitted, close, 
narrow + pan, "place" + tl. 

elcima, to choke (with food); 3 el+cima; cima, to 
hackle and clean maguey fiber; Skr. snih, to stick, *sin-a, 

eleuia, desire; Skr. lubh; Greek, XtTTTto; Lat. lubet, 
libet; AS. leof; Eng. love; Ger. lieben; (14). 

elimicquini, tiller of soil; eli + micqui; elij Greek, 
apoca, to plough; Lat. aro, to plough; Goth, arjan; 
AS. erian; Eng. to ear (obs.) ; mic-quij Skr. mig, to inix; 
Greek, /iij-wfu; Lat. misceo *mic-sk-eo; AS. miscian; 


Eng. mix, for misk; arya (Aryans), caste name of the 
householders, cultivators of the soil. 

elmlmiqui, to be a stammerer; elmimicqui, a stam- 
merer; el + mim; el, r, artus; Greek, /ittVio?, a mimic, 
comic actor; fj,tfj,a), an ape; Lat. mimicus, mimic, actor 
+qui, kr. 

epatl, a skunk (mephitis spilogale putorius) ; e + patl; 
Skr. pdtati, pour out, shed (water), throw, etc.; e, Skr. 
6ta, quick, rushing; or as, to dart. 

-etz- or -yetz-, reverencial "to be; "to-tatzin6 in ilhuicac 
timo-i/e^z-tica. Our Father, heaven-in thou art (Lord's 
Prayer); Skr. as, to be; Greek, eV-rt; Lat. es-t; AS. is; 
Eng. is; (see ni-ez, under 2 ca). 

eua, *era, rise, go, flee, attack; ewa-ti-ca, seated; Skr. 
r, rn6ti, join, "go for;" Greek, iX-detv, to go; ap-roi, 
risen; Lat. or-ior, rise; Eng. run, ran. 

euatl, bark of tree, skin of animal; *esuatl (?); Skr. 
ag, portion, part + vya, to weave or wind around, as a 
robe (for s, see moyotl) ; or r, eua, "joined." 

euhteua, (nino) rise from bed in haste; (ni) depart 
suddenly, eu+ti + eua; Skr. i, §ti, go, aya, going; ayii, 
lively; cf. Greek, ^w, active. 

euia, to animate or encourage another, give food; Skr. 
edh or rdh, to thrive; *eduia *elduia; Greek, ak6(o, 
' ' grow ; ' ' (see eleuia) . 

exotl, a green bean; Skr. ag, eat; Lat. esca, food; cf. 
Natick, ask-e, raw, green ; but cf . xococ. 

eztli, blood; Skr. as, asy^ti, shoot, throw; asan, blood; 
Lat. ensis, sword; alea, *as-lea, a die (dice). 


Note. — I is so often prosthetic that I have not deemed it necessary to repeat 
the statement except in doubtful cases. 

i, pro., 3rd, sing, poss.; plu. in; as, no-ta, my father 
(tatli); I'-ta, his father; m-tahuan, their fathers. Skr. 
pronominal root, ij Lat. i-d, that; Goth, i-ta; Grer. es. 

-(i)an, yan, postpos. of place in which; o-n'acico in 
n'aciaw (no + acian), I have reached my destination; ton- 
atiuh i-qual-aquian, sunset; temachtilo^/aw, a school- 
house. Aryan locative with 7i-stem; Greek, aii%-eV-t; 
Goth, auhs-in (Brug., II, sec. 113) ; i or y, euphonic. 

-ic, adj. ending; tet-tc, hard, stony; tetl, a stone; IE. 
iqo; Greek, iOv-iKo-^, national, ethnic. 

ic, conjunctive adv., as to, regarding; o-ya ic Mexico, 
he went to Mexico; ic ayemo, before; lit., as to the not 
yet; ic ti-az? when will you go? im'c qualli ic ti-miquiz, 
that you may die well; ic ce quaitl, the first chapter; 5a 
no ye ic mo-miquillique in gauatl, they also died of small- 
pox (Chimph., Annals, 1520); Lat. ac; AS. eac, and, also. 

icali, (nite) make war on, guerilla warfare; Skr. kal, to 
drive, to hurry; kalaha, strife; Lat. celer, swift. 

igauia, (nino) to be astonished, (nite) to astonish or 
scandalize others; *pa-t-eua, to wake and rise with a 
start; iga-uaca, (ni) I am hoarse; rattling of dry cacao 
beans, snake running over dry leaves; Skr. Qiqati, to 
sharpen, promote; Greek, kodvq^, a cone, kotoi;, grudge; 
Lat. cotes, whetstone; Eng. hone; Avestan, caem, point; 
uaca, vac; Lat. vox, vok-s, voice. 

ichcatl, *ichcactl, sheep, cotton; Skr. chaga, goat; 
OHG. scaf ; AS. skeap; Eng. sheep (PAA., p. 23), transfer 

ichpochtli, a girl, ich-\-poch-t\.i; Skr. bhaj; bhagd, lot, 
happy lot; bhagini, a sister (see Uitzil-o-poc/i-tli, PAA., 


p. 114 ff.); ich, Skr. is, to be desirable (see telpochtU, 

ichtequi, to steal; Skr. sta, to be stealthy; ste-nd, a 
thief + grab, to take (with the hand); (see cui). 

iciui, hasten ; Skr. su, su, suvAti, impel ; i prosthetic. 

icnotl, an orphan; Greek, lKe-Trj<;, a suppliant; Uveo- 
fiai, to entreat. 

icoltia, to covet; Skr. 15, to own; AS. agan; Ger. eigen; 
Eng. own + Skr. vrt, vdrtate, to turn, happen, to be in an 
occupation ; Lat. verto ; AS. weorthen, become ; Ger. wer- 
den ; Eng. -ward and perhaps wrist and other cognates in 
various languages. 

icpatl, a thread, *lic + patl ; lie, Skr. likh, to slit, scratch ; 
Greek, ipeiKm, to cut, gash ; Lat. rima, *ric-ma, slit, crack, 
line, a rhyme; Ger. ritzen(?), to scratch; patl, Skr. pa, 
to hold, keep, "keeps the rent together;" (see tecpatl). 

icucic, ripe, cooked; icucic atl, hot water; Skr. gus, 
Qtisyati, dry up; Avestan, hush, dry, indicates susj i 
prosthetic; oric + usic; Skr. us-man, heat. 

icuhtli, in comp., brother, or younger sister when elder 
sister speaks, younger sister when elder brother speaks; 
icuiya, to put up hair (woman), se coiffer, coiling of snake 
round tree; icuia, to tie up a roll with cords; ichtli, ic- 
patl, a thread + Skr. vi, vya, envelope, "wind around;" 
perhaps krt, to spin, to prepare; krta, " done ;" family rela- 
tions — Skr. ciidd, a tuft of hair left on a child's head 
after the ceremony of tonsure; "pure;" (see tlagotla). 

icuxoa, sneeze; gvas, gvfeiti, blow, whistle, snort; AS. 
hwaesan; Eng. wheeze. 

icxitl, the foot; cf. Skr. chid, to split, "the split one." 

ihia, (nite) to hate another person; Skr. ci, ciyeti, to 
hate; (see ihiotl). 

ihiotia, (nino) to be dressed gorgeously, to be conspicu- 


OTis; Skr. *ghr, hr, yellow; Greek, -xXm-po-i; Lat. holus, 
gilbus, fulvus; AS. geollo; Eng. yellow, gol-d. 

ihiotl, breath, ni-hiyo, my breath, ihiotl ioui, current 
of air; lit. "the wind blows;" Greek, X"-^'^ Eng. yawn; 
Lat. hio; ioui, cf. Skr. cyu, to stir; (r, 12, 17) ; (for loss 
of c, see ihia, ihiouia) . 

ihiouia, (qui) to be in want, be poor; Skr. ha, jiihati, 
to be left, forsaken; Greek, x^joo?; Lat. fames, hunger. 

il, comp. in a few verbs as, ilcaua, ilpia; the verbum 
actionis of the compound; otiose, orig. to set a-going; 
Skr. Irte, to set a-going ; cf . Eng. he starts-working today. 

ilacatziui, twist, turn, ilacatzoa, (nin') turn away, avert 
face, serpent coiled round tree; (nitla) roll up, as paper; 
(1) ilac + tziui; ilac, Skr. vrj, vrn^kti; Greek, *fpeiJ,0o<;; 
Lat. vergo, bend, turn; AS. wrincle; Eng. wrench, with 
j3, warp, wrap ; tziui, Skr. cyu, cyAvati, to set a-going; or 
su, the same meaning; tzi-ui may, however, be another 
spelling of chi-ua, a very common final member in com- 
pounds; tzoa, ahj-ioTm = tziui; [2) ila-\- ca-\- tziui ; ila, 
*uila, Skr. vr, turn; Greek, iXva; Lat. volvo. 

ilamati, to grow old; ilama, old woman; Skr. ram, to 
be quiet; Goth, rimis, quiet. 

ilaqui, '-anegarse la nao," the boat sinks; "pasarse el 
papel," spoil paper? the oil spot (clothing) spreads badly; 
a very indefinite definition ; the allusion to boat appears to 
mean the rapid increase of water from a leak or pouring 
over the sides ; Skr. lang, langhdyati, leap, mount, enter, 

ilhuia, to speak, call; ninote'lhuia, I appeal the case; 
xic-coua tzapotl qui' ilhuia "mamey," buy sapotes called 
"mamey" (Chimpo.); il + Skr. hu, hdvate, call. 

ilhuica atl, the sea; locution, may be confounded with 
ilhuicatl, heaven, Skr. rue, rocand. But this may be a 


case of homonyms. Ilhuica ail may be "the roaring 
water;" Greek, o-pvy-fi6<!, a roar, epevjo), to throw up, 
bellow, roar; Lat. ructo. But "the smiling sea" vies in 
beauty and immensity with "the smiling sky" and this 
may be either. 

ilhuicatl, heaven, the sky; Skr. rue, rocand, region of 
light; Greek, Xeu/ed?, light; Lat. lux; Ger. licht; AS. 
leoht; Eng. light. 

ilhuil, ilhuilti, not to be worthy; il+vil; [seeauiliui). 

ilhuitl, (1) a festival to be kept (ilhuia) ; (2) a day 
of the week; *ilhuictli; Old Per. raucah, day, from rue, 
to shine. 

ilhuiz, very capricious, very bad; ilhuiz tlacatl, a de- 
ceiver; Skr. ris, risyati, to harm, injure; ris, an injurer; 
ilhuiz piltontli, bastard, may be above, "a wronged 
child;" or Greek, e/aw?, "a love child;" s offers an objec- 
tion to the latter; cf. Skr. rus, to be vexed, angry; or il + 
vis, " bad." 

ilnamiqui, to remember; il + nami + qui (see il) , nami, 
Skr. naman, name, "nama grah," mention the name; (for 
grah this ending may be spelled cui, which see) ; Greek, 
o-vofjLa; Lat. nomen; AS. namian; Eng. name. 

iloti, to revolve, turn; Skr. luth, to roll; Lat. rota, a 
wheel (?). 

ilpia, to tie; ilpiloyan, a jail; pia, pie, to have, to 
guard (see infra) ; il, Skr. ir irte, set going (see il and 
pia) . 

ilpitza, to blow upon, nitla'lpitza, I blow upon it; 
il + pitza; Greek, ^vada, to blow upon; (see il). 

in, used constantly in almost the sense of the definite 
article "the;" Skr. pronoun, root i; Lat. i-d, id est; i- 
pan, with, near by; i-quin, when^ + kim; plu. m="those 
who" as, m-tlaqua, those who eat. 


inaya, (nino) hide self; (nitla) hide a thing; i + naya; 
Skr. 711, in, into; Greek, evi; Eng. be-7iea-th; or ni, remove. 

iquiti, to weave, Skr. grath, grathndti, string together, 
connect; compose a book; krt, to tie, weave, will give the 
same; i prosthetic; cf. ic + vi, to weave. 

itauhcayotl, fame, honors ; Skr. da, give + ojas, power ; 
or ka-\-joil. 

itconi, vassals, "poor trash;" ita, to provide for a 
journey, proveer el aforza aotro; it, Skr. ad, Atti; Greek, 
eSoi; Lat. edo; Eng. eat; Hitl, belly + Quna, emptiness, 
hence indigent, empty, poor; colloq. "empty bellies." 

it-e, obese, it-e-tl, the belly; itacatl, food; Skr. ad, 
eat; Lat. edo; AS. et-an; Eng. eat; cf. d,n-na, *ad-na. 
Hind, food; esp. rice. 

itla, thing, i-d + la? i-d, demons, pro., Lat. i-d, that; 
la, Skr. ra-s, "possessions;" Lat. re-s, thing; (see tla). 

itlania, to ask something of another, beg; itla + to, lead, 
direct; (for numerous meanings, cf. Sanskrit Dictionary). 

itloc, with or near him, her or it; itloc quiga, resem- 
blance of two things; itlo-i-c; Skr. itara, other; Lat. 
iterum, again, a second time; OBulg. jeterum + c; cf. 
Aryan aflBx tlo, i-tlo-c. 

itoa, (ni) to speak, tell (but to talk to another is nite- 
notza) ; the Mexican "tlatoani" (tla-zYoa-ni) were rulers, 
kings; hence, Skr. da, give, impart, ultarain da, to make 
answer, "have the last word;" Greek, Si-Sm-fii; Lat. do, 

itotia, (nino) to dance; (nite) cause another to dance ; 
Skr. tud, tuddti, to strike, pound; Lat. tu-tud-i; (see 

itta, *uitta, see, take notice; xiquHtta in tlein nimitz- 
ilhuia, heed what I say; Skr. vid, v6tti, know, notice; 
Greek, *e-/rt8-oi', saw ; Lat.videre; AS. wit-an, see; Eng. wit. 


itzcuintli, izcuintli, an extinct species of wild dog ; Skr. 
Qvd,n, dog; Lat. *k'^anis, canis; Greek, kvcov; Ger. hund; 
Eng. hound; cf. Clallam, ska-ha; Snake, sha-ray for 
prosthetic s; i prosthetic or may be analyzed, zfe+cuintli; 
Skr. is is^yati, "the swift one," or is icch^ti, "the desir- 
able animal;" cf. Aryan prefix s. 

itztapalli, paving stones; hewn stone; itza-\-pal-li; 
izta, Skr. stha, stand ; for cognates, see quetza; for pal, 
see ttaj)altic. 

itztic, ytztic (Mol.), cold, also cecec; to be moderately 
cold: itztic, itzcaltic, itzcapintic (*calpintic?) ; very cold: 
itzcapintic, itzcalalatic, itzcalpatic (-pactic?), itzcaltic, 
itzcapatic, cecepatic; itz, Skr. isyati, "fresh;" or *stic; 
Greek, o-ti^-tj, hoar frost; Lith. stink-stu, congeal; cal., 
Lat. gelo, freeze; Goth, kalds; Eng. cold; cal-pa^-ic, see 
-patl; cal-pint-ic, Skr. pid, to pain (bhid? to "bite") ; (for 
cecec, see cetl) ; cf. *stig, to prick, tij; la, ra, "having." 

itztiuh (itzteua?), go; Skr. stigh, stinn6ti, proceed, 
stride; Greek, a■Te^'%(u; proceed; OBulg. stigna, I come; 
AS. stigan; Ger. steigen, mount; Eng. stirrup, *stig- 

iui, in. the same way ; Skr. iva, as. 

iuian, meekly, softly, gently; contented, pleased; Skr. 
van, van6ti, love, wish, possess; Lat. venia, Venus; AS. 
winnan; Eng. win. 

iuitl, down, feathers; Skr. vi, a bird; Lat. avis. 

iuiui, iu + iui, to be obliged to leave or quit a place or 
thing; Skr. yu, yuy6ti, to repel, separate from. 

ixca, ixcohiia, to cook, bake, burn pottery; Skr. que, 
56cati, burn *skuc(?); Lat. ci5quo(?), cook, *quequ6 
*squequ6( ?). 

ixconoa, shell small seeds, as mustard; Skr. cha, cut olf 
+ nabh, burst; (see nauauatl). As an illustration of the 


difficulties of analysis, ixconeua means to attack another, 
striking at his face = ix + co + ni + eua. 

ixhua, grow (plant) , itzmolini, to bud out ; ix, its; Skr. 
is, vigor; of. Skr. va; Eng. weave; Lat. vi-tis, vine. 

ixiptlatl, ixip + tla-tl, an ambassador, delegate; an 
image, picture; Skr. sab-hd, house, hall, "orig. perhaps 
family" (Lan.); Goth, sibja, relationship; AS. sibb; 
OEng. god-sib, sponsor, in baptism; Eng. gossip, a 
"familiar;" this supposes the envoy to be one of the 
"clan," "familia;" for image, Greek, a-KeTr-r-ofji-ai. 

ixneloa, (nitla) to mix things up, (nite) put others in 
disorder; Skr. nrt, nr+t, dance, play, move to and fro; 
[seeixtli, neloa); cf. snih, to be supple+ra, "having." 

ixpechoa, to put something on over your clothing (as 
scarf or decoration?), ixpechtia, to put a thing on top of 
something else; ixpepechoa, stop holes with mortar ; jsec/iy 
Skr. pag, pfigyati, to fasten ; Greek, -irdaaaXo'; *'7raK-jaXo<; ; 
Lat. pac-tum, a pact; Goth, fahan; Eng. fang, a tooth; 
(see ixtli). 

ixpeloa, to open the eyes wide (stare), to wink; ixtli 
-\-pel; Skr. brh, to make big; +ra. 

ixquich, all, as much as possible; ixquich amotlapal 
xic-chiucan (Mol. ), do [ye] your very best; pronoun forms, 
Skr. asau(?)+kas; correlative with quexqiiich, as much, 
so much, how much; quexquich ipatiuh inin totolin? (Are- 
nas) what is the price of this chicken? cf. Lat. quis-quis. 

ixtlauatl, plain, prairie, campus; Skr. str, strnati, strew, 
spread out; Greek, a-Topeco; Lat. sterno; AS. streaw; 
streowian; Eng. straw, strew; Lat. stratum; OL. stlatus, 
spread out; (for initial stl, cf. Brug., I, sec. 503) ; (see 
citlallin, a different form of same root) ; uatl, cf. affix, vat. 

ixtli, the face ; node on a cane ; itztimani, to be standing 
looking at something; Skr. iks, iksate, to look, see; mean- 


ing not only the human face, but the face of an object, as 
a wall; (for fcs 16). 

ixui, gorge, eat to repletion; doubtful; cf. Greek, o-O-?; 
Lat. sus; AS. swin *su-ina; Eng. sow; from inordinate 
appetite of swine; "eat like a hog." 

ixuiuhtli, a grandchild; i-xu -{-iuhili; Skr. su, to bear 
+yuj, yuk-ti, related, '^related to a son;" (15) ; su, Greek, 
m-6<;; OSlav. synn; Ger. sohn; AS. sunn; Eng. so-n. 

iyaua, (nino) to offer self as a sacrifice to a god; 
(nitla) to make an offering; Skr. yaj, y^jati; Greek, 
ayid^io, to worship, hold sacred; (15). 

izcalli, iz-|-calli, (nino) to revive (as from swoon), to 
quicken; (nite) revive another, give religious instruction, 
bring up children, (mo) the return of the sun (winter 
solstice) ; Skr. is, isdyati, to set in swift motion + kal, 
kalAyati, drive; Greek, KeX-ofiai; Lat. celer, swift; (MAP., 
sk-root, skand, to climb *skandli, *skalli; Lat. scando). 

iztatl, *iztlatl( ?), salt; perhaps Skr. str, to strew; "the 
strew;" but cf. stoka, drop, small; (see citlallin and 
ixtlaiiatl) . 

iztlacati, to lie, deceive; Greek, a-Tpdyy-o';, perverse, 
shameless ; iztlactli, saliva, spittle ; Greek, arpdy^, a drop, 
to trickle. 

-izt-li, verbal ending, as, chiua,to do, chiualiztU, a doing; 
choco, weep, choquiztli, weeping ; cochi, to sleep,. cochiliztU 
or cochiztli, sleeping ; two forms ( 1 ) from theme most com- 
mon, as chiual-o-ni, a thing done; from pass, chiualo; (2) 
from 7'oot as, choc-iztlij Aryan affix, "is-to" a superla- 
tive ; Skr. aQ-istha ; Greek, cIik-ktto.^, quickest ; Goth, h^uh- 
ist-s; OHG. hoh-ist-o; Ger. hoch-ste; Eng. high-est. 

izuatl, a leaf, ixTiua, to bud out; syn. zYz-molini; (for 
iz, see izcalli); uatl, Greek, ^i^to'-z/ (?), "growth," a live 
or created thing; (see ouatl, ixhua); (11). 


L (never initial) 

-li-a, "reverencial" ending of verbs, as nitetla-maca, I to 
someone it give; rev., ninotetla-maqui-Zi-a; nino gives 
sense of middle voice; cf. Skr. irregular form, third per., 
plu. mid., ire, as ni, to lead, ranylre; another Sanskrit irregu- 
larity is ur, third per., plu., pres. indie, as duh-Hr, "they 
milk;" compare with this Mex. ni-quiga, I go out; quix- 
oa, all go out; yoli, he lives, yoli-ua, all live; nmo-zau-a, 
I fast; ne-zau-a-Zo, all fast, "they fast;" (r, 17). 

-lo, passive ending, ne-zaua-?o, they fast; "it is fasted;" 
teoqua-Zo, "the god is eaten," cf. Aryan forms; Skr. duh- 
ilr, they milk; third per., plu. mid., duh-re; Lat. legitur, 
"one" reads, "they read" (Mex. idiom precisely) ; Olr. 
do-beror, it is given; (Brug., IV, sec. 1076); r is the 
passive sign in Latin as; am-6, I love; amo-r, I am loved. 


ma, not, with negative verb; ma ti-tlatlacoa, beware 
that you sin not; macamo, never := ma + ca + amo ; Skr. 
ma, not, lest, would that. 

maca, give, (nicno) give to self, i. e., to take as medi- 
cine; Skr. mahh, *magh, make great or abundant a thing 
for a person; Lat. magnus; AS. mseg, be able; Eng. 
may ; Ger. mOgen, wish, be able. 

magatl, deer; Skr. mans, mahsd, meat; Pruss. mensa, 
flesh; OBulg. m§so; cf. Algonquin, moose. 

macepoa, (no) my hand is asleep; maitl + cepoa; Skr. 
svap, svdpiti, to sleep; Lat. sop-or, sleep. 

maceua, to dance, if the dancing was done by holding 
/lawds or embracing ; maitl + Skr. seva, "service;" (nic) to 
merit a thing desired; ma, "mine" + seva; belonging to 
one's self; Skr. pro. stem m; as ma-vant, mine. 


maceualli, a slave, maceualtin, peasants, peons ; ma + 
ceua+li; Skr. ma, mine (mavant); seva, service. 

machtli, nephew, "manlike," male; mach, (1) a form of 
mag-nus; Avestan, mazda, male, "great," virile, powerful, 
Ahnra-mazda; (2) Skr. mddhya, middle, madhyama-jatd, 
"middle born," a "so?z" (why?); Greek, fieacyo'; * fied-ja ; 
Lat. med-ius; Groth. mid-jis; Eng. mid-die; cf. mod. 
Span, macho, a male. 

malacatl, spindle; malina, to twist cord; temalacatl, 
mill, or wheel (of stone) on which captives were tethered 
and fought for liberty ; Skr. mr ; Greek, fji,v\ri ; Eng. mill ; 
Lat. mola-f ca-tl; note that "mill," to fight, is associated 
with temalacatl; ina, Aryan suffix; te, tetl, stone. 

mamachotla, (nino) to be vainglorious and seek praise; 
(nite) to flatter; ma+ma, Skr. ma, to mete out -|- chad, 
to please, offer a person a thing -|-ra, "having." 

mamali, redup., (nitla) to bore a hole; (tetlan nino) 
to force through a crowd; Skr. mr, *mal, *mel, crush, 
grind; (see molictli). 

mamalti, redup.., a prisoner; Skr. mrd, mrdnati, to 
crush, afflict; AS. mold-e, crumbling earth; Eng. mold. 

mamaluastli, "protector," fig., the constellation Orion ; 
(1) Skr. vas, ucch^ti, to light up ; Greek ^w? ; Lat. aurora 
*aus6sa; Ger. Eostra; Eng. Easter; (2) this was may mean 
also "house" (astrology), "dwelling with;" (see Nanau- 
atzin); mamal, Skr. *mal, suggests Maruts, the flashing 
ones, storm gods. 

mana, (nino) give, stop; (nic) take; (nitla) make an 
offering, spread clothes to dry, xic-mana, carry it; oc 
cemmo-raawa in quiauitl, it still rains; teixpan niquin- 
mana, declare banns, i.e., I place them before me or face 
to face; mani, to spread flat things, to continue to be in a 
place, to remain; standing or growing crops (Arenas), 


continued action, cuicatimani, they are singing; mani 
metztli Junio, in the month of June ; a confusion of forms ; 
Skr. man, remain, manh, increase; Greek, /xevw; Lat. 
mano, spread, diffuse, flow. 

mateloa, (nitla) to rub with the hands, as rubbing 
ointment; to chafe the hands; to strike another with the 
hand; maitl + teloa ; Skr. tala, place on or under; spe- 
cialized, tala-ghdsa, "clapping the hands." 

mati, to think; macMia, teach; teuan rniio-rnati, I 
agree with; Skr. man, to think, matl, thought; Greek, 
Hevo<i, mind; Lat. mentis; AS. ge-myn-d; Eng. mind. 

matzayana, cutoff hand, divorce; (tetech nitla) lend at 
interest; maitl, hand -(-Skr. gr, QrnAti(?), to break, 

maui, (ni) to be afraid; mauhtia nino, to have fear; 
cf. Skr. mr, m^risyati, to die; mard, dead; mara, murder; 
Lat. mori; Goth, maurpa; Eng., murder; mrd, martyu- 
dhaya, fear of death. This comparison seems entirely 
correct but it seems strange that fear and death should 
be synonomous; cf. Skr. math, to hurt, oppress. 

mauigo, *man-uiQO, wise, honored: termination o = 
abounding in; Skr. man, mdnyate, to think; Greek, /cte- 
fiov-a; Lat. me-mm-i, to think of; Eng. mean -\- uig, 
Skr. vis, vivfeti, to be active; (PAA., p. 99, /iayh). 

maxtlatl, a belt; max, see machtli; tlatl, Skr. tr, to 
cross, or tra, to protect. 

mayana, to be hungry; mayanaltia, to starve another 
to death; mayaquen, wolf; maya -Hna, afiix; ic nauhxihuitl 
imayanaloc, it was the fourth year of famine (Ohimph., 
Annals, 1453) ; 2/ as an "adventitious" vowel is frequently 
found as an introductory glide; perf. tense, pass. ; Skr. ma- 
rana, killing, mr, to die; Greek, f^apaivai, to fade; Lat. mori; 
(for quen, see quenchiua). 


mayaui, (nitla) to throw a thing away (as worthless) ; 
(nite) to throw another down; maitl, hand + Skr.' yam, 
y^chati, hold, restrain, hold out; ayata, extended; *jm- 

mecania, to hang a man ; Armenian, mac-ani-m, I hang 
on to; (Brug., IV, sec. 620.) 

mecatl, a cord; mecay ot\, kinship; Skr. mi, to measure; 
m6khala, a girdle ( ?) ; relations, Skr. m^thati, to associate 
as friends; *metka? cf. Greek, tJ,fJKo<;, length, extent. 

melauac, direct, plain; melauac cuicatl, a song of the 
people; meladic, melaztic, direct, straight, and long; 
melaua, (nic) to explain a difficult matter; Skr. mi, 
min6ti, to establish, measure, observe + ra, "giving;" ac- 
ti-c, az-ti-c, aq, io "attain," or anc, "toward." 

metzli, month, moon; to-metz, the leg; Skr. mas, the 
measurer; Greek, fJ'i]vr], moon; Lat. mens-is, month; AS. 
monath; Ger. monat; Eng. month. 

Mexitli, Mexitl, Mexican god, another name for Uitzil- 
opochtli; Avestan, Ahura-mazda, the great god; cf. mi + 
chid, "destroyer;" root, mag'; (PAA., p. 55.) 

meya, manar la fuente o cosa semejante (Mol.) ; appar- 
ently this definition does not confine meya to the flowing 
of liquids, but rather to the activity of a thing; hence 
ameyalli, a fountain; at\-\-meya-\i; Skr. may a, a deter? 
minative as, su-mAya, of good make; kim-mAya, of what 
make (root mi). 

miccagaua, (nino) to wear mourning for the dead; 
micca (miqui) + gaua; gaua, (nino) to fast; ne-^;oMa-lo, 
(pass, impers.) "everybody fasts," "all fast;" Skr. sah 
*sagh, pp. sodhA, be victorious, endure, suffer; Greek, 
'La^fo *ai.-cr^-co, hold back; Goth, sig-is; AS. sig-or, vic- 
tory ; Ger. sieg. 

michin, fish; Skr. mad-sya, fish, "the lively one;" cf. 


mlna, fish; in spite of this analogy I think the Mexican 
more likely to be mis, misdti, to have the eyes open, "the 
staring one;" (for in, as in agvin, of. Whitney, Sanskrit 
Grammar, sec. 1230) . 

miec, much, the Pleiades; Skr. mahd, great, mighty, 
powerful, country, heaven and earth; Icelandic, mik-ell, 
great; AS. mik-il; OHGr. mih-il; of. Greek, /jLey-d-Xa; 
(Brug., II, sec. 76, p. 209.) 

mini, a field ; mi'Z-pa, in the country ; Skr. marii, desert ; 
Slav, miru, the world; cf. mil, to assemble. Campus Mar- 
tius(?-). The Algonquin appears to furnish the same 
root as, Mil-uaki, Milwaukee, "Council ground." 

mina, (nitla) to draw a bow, shoot, (nite) to prick, 
sting, as a wasp ; tlamina, spurt, dart as serpent ready to 
strike, fish leaping from water ; Ilhuicaminatzin, name of 
a chief, "he hurls his darts to the sky;" Skr. (1) mi, 
to measure, observe ; (2) Lat. mitto, send, hurl; OHG. 
midan, let go. 

miqui, to die, Skr. (1) mi, lessen + kr, "to make an 
end of it;" (2) mrg, to fade away; OPer. mar, mdrkha, 
death; (12); cf. "ev toii vrjaoit tmv |ji.aKdp«ov." 

mitz, pro., 2d per., sing. obj. ; in yuh ni-mitz-itta, as I 
see you; Skr. ah4m, tvam; ace, ma; Greek, /ie; Lat. me; 
Bng. me + sya *mi-sy a ( ? ) . 

mixoyotl, battlement ; Skr. mis, misdti, look, keep eyes 
open, hence "the outlook." 

mixtli, cloud; Skr. mih, migh, m6hati, to make water; 
Panj. mih, to rain; Greek, o-/u.j'p^-\t7 ; Lat. mingere; AS. 
migan; Eng. mist, *migst. 

molictli, elbow; (1) Skr. mrjAti, rub off; wipe away; 
Lith. melzu, milk; Avestan, mer^zaiti, strips; Greek, 
a-zjieXj-eiv ; Lat. mulgere; AS. meolc; Eng. milk; (2) 
mr, to mill; molicpitl, elbow, suggests the derivation, mr. 


fjivX-q ; Eng. mill + Skr. inkh, (ik) to move unsteadily back 
and forth; hence, "the mill mover or presser," alluding to 
the movement in operating the hand mill ; or mrj, extended 
to m.o\iQ-\-pitl, nomen agentis; {see pitli, malacatl). 

moloni, spurting of a fountain, rising of clouds, feathers 
blowing in the wind, spreading of an odor; molo-|-ni; 
Lat. molior, to set in motion; cognate, itz-molini, the 
sprouting of a plant; Skr. nl, ndyati, to lead, bring to, to 
"start" a thing going; or om, afSx. 

molonia, to soften (cleanse?) feathers, wool; molo + 
nia; Skr. mrdii, soft; Lat. mollis, to soften, make pliant; 
nia, cf. nij, to cleanse, wash; or oni, affix. 

momoztla-e, daily ; in totlaxcal mo-moztlae totech mone- 
qui ma axcan xitechmo-maquili, give us daily our needful 
bread (Lord's Prayer); mo-m + ustla-e ; mo, Skr. ma, to 
mete out + usfe, morning-evening, that is, a day ; for / be- 
tween s andr, cf. eostra, Easter; m euphonic; (e, see 2a). 

montli, son-in-law; Skr. manada, honor-giver; or mud, 
m6date, to be glad, rejoice over; mudr^, joyous. 

motla, (nitla) I throw a stone; teca nino-motla, I run 
into another inadvertently ; mo + tla ; Skr. muc, to hurl, 
let go-f tr; cf. Lat. tramgo, to pass; (see tla-tlama). 

moyaua, mo -\-yaua, spreading of grease on cloth, 
muddying of water; (nic) to spread a report; (nite) destroy 
enemies, or put them to flight, drive cattle; Skr. ma, 
make+ya, to go, "makes way." 

moyotl, mosquito; Greek, fivla, *fiv<T-ia, a fly; Lat. 
musca, fly; Lith. mus-i. 

muchi, mochi, all (many); Skr. mah, mahd; Greek, 
fiey-dXa; Lat. mag-nus; cf. Accad. many (Norris, Assyr. 
Diet., p. 767) ; Natick, moche ke, moche onk with Mex. oc 
mochi, more; Fick makes Skr. mahd, Greek Ate^a, Lat. 
magnus, OHG. mihil, all cognates; (see miec). 



nacaztli, the ear; nac + uastli; nacayotl, flesh, the 
body; nac, Skr. nag-nA, naked; Goth. naqaf>s; Lith. nugus; 
OSlav. nagu; Ger. nakend; Eng. naked; (see ecauastli). 

nanalca, growl or snarl of dog, grunting of hog, 
quacking of geese, sound of cracked bell; nanaltza, 
barking of dog; Skr. re, drcati, sing, intone (said also of 
wind); nan, perhaps onomotopoetic word, as "hum- 
hum," "sing-song;" c sibilant in nanaltza, of. rg-veda, 
Rig veda; of. Skr. nard, to scream + pa, to excite; 

nanatzca, creak, crackle ; redup. ; nat, Skr. nad, to 
sound, hum, cry+affix lea or sfc-a. 

nanauatl, redup., a boil, bubo; Skr. nAbhate, to burst. 

Nanauatzin, the moon-god; nana+uatz-in; uatz, Skr. 
vas, to light up, or vas, to dwell; "dwelling with Nana;" 
cf. Nannar and Sin, Babylonian moon-gods; and MAP., 
p. 13, note 12. 

nanquilia, to answer, reply, respond, as at mass; Skr. 
nama grah, to name ; nam, to pay respect + gir, speak ; or 
naman, name; Greek, ovoixa; Lat. nomen; Ger. name; 
Eng. name + 2 qui. 

nantli, mother; (1) Greek, vdv-v7],axnii; Welsh, nan, an 
aunt; transfer meaning (2) "the spinner" or "seamstress;" 
Goth, nepla, needle; Greek, i'?5/ia, yarn ; Lat. net-us, spun, 
root, *sne-n6 (Brug., I, sec. 75) ; (3) Skr. nand, to please, 
"a delight," nAnda, a son, nanda, a woman's name. 

Naua, Nahua, the Nauatl-speaking people ; (1) Skr. nr, 
narA, nald, man, "hero," primal man; Greek, avrjp; Lat. 
Nero; (2) but nal, clear, water or weather; nauatl, clear; 
Nal, a river of Asia, must be a different root and may 
equally be the root of Nahua, "men." Molina defines 
nauatl, clear sounding, as a bell, or hombre ladino, a 
sagacious or cunning man. Arenas applies the term to 


weather and water; naualli, sorcery, Skr. naya, (naua) 
worldly wisdom; (*nac-iaalli?MAP., p. 13) ; ndyd, a chief, 
perhaps in this sense the Naua were simply "guardians 
of the wisdom ;" the whole matter is not entirely clear; (cf. 
Nauaque Tloque). 

naua, to dance, "embrace," Skr. nrt, also nr + t; naua- 
tequi, to embrace ; Hind. Nautch girl, dancing girl, Hindi 
drops r and / becomes sibilant, Mexican nr; Avestan 
drops r and t becomes sh; cf arthd, goods, asha. 

nauac, near, Anahuac, near the water; Skr. n^hus, 
neighbor, nah, *nagh; +c (see ua). 

nauatia, command, demand; nauatilli, law; Skr. nam, 
n^mati, to yield +vad, vAdati, speak, lay claim to; (m, see 
mayaui) . 

ne, pro. plu., "they," everybody; ne-zaua-lo, they fast; 
passive, lit. "they are fasted;" Uei we-machtilo-calco. Uni- 
versity, "Big house they are taught in;" Aryan, *ne, 
ne-s (Brug., Ill, sec. 436). 

nech, pro. first per. sing., obj., me; ma nec/i-uiquili 
inon, let him bring that to me; Skr. nas, us; Lat., nos; 
Eng. us; with nech omit c, qui; cf. Olrish, ne-ch *ne-kuo-s; 
there is great confusion in s, ch, and sh [x) sounds so 
that diflFerentiation is very difficult. 

neci, to appear, tla-nect, breaking of day; Skr. nag, 
attain, reach; Lat. nac-tus, reached; AS. neah, naihst; 
Eng. next; "through night;'''' or Skr. tr + nig, night, ndkta ; 
Greek, vv^; Lat. nox; Eng. night. 

necOc, two-sided; necoc nemi, a "two-faced" man; 
necoc yaualtic, square; ne dual as in neuan, "we two" + 
Skr. gunaka? *guka; gund, "secondary;" cf. ne + ca-|-oc. 

necuiloa, (nitla) shift, trade, barter; (tetech nitla) put 
out at interest; ma neva-vao-necuiloli cetlamalli, see that 
no cargo (of mule) shifts (Arenas), ne-fcuil; ne, imp. 


pronoun; cuil; Greek, 7v/>o?; Lat. gyrus, a circle, revo- 
lution ; or nag, to lose + vl, turn away + ra. 

necutli, neuctll, honey; Greek, veKTap; nec-(-utl. 

neloa, nelhuia, row a boat, soften, beat (as eggs) ; ma- 
neloa, to swim; Mod. Gr. nero, water +*ra, to row; Greek, 
iperT}<;, rower; Lat. ratis, raft; Eng. row. 

nemi, live, dwell, exist ; ipaltzinco in Dies ti-nemi, we 
live by the grace of God; inic ye nemi tlalticpac, while 
he lived, lit. walked the earth (Ghimph., Annals, 1431); 
Greek, vifia, share, grant, inhabit, dwell; ve/i-o';, pasture; 
Lat. nemus ; Ger, nehmen, take ; Eng. nim-ble ; cf. gan ic 
nemi, "at every step," or "I have never known it otherwise" 
(Mol.); with Skr. sdnemi, sa+nemi, always. 

nenetl, pudenda muliebria, a child's doll, idol; nene- 
pilli, the tongue ; Skr. netra, the eye ; ni, to lead ; cf . Greek, 
vi]B-w, belly, womb ; idol may allude to phallic worship. 

nenqui, nothing; Lat. ne or non; Greek, vr]-; Eng. 
none + Skr. gr. 

nequi, to wish, tlein qu'itoz nequif What does it mean? 
itoa, say; Romance idiom; cosa vuol dire? que voulez- 
vous dire? que quiere decir? Greek, w'-o?, mind, will + 
2 qui; or Greek, val; Lat. nse + Skr. gr. 

neuan, or to-neuan, "I and he", two together, two 
jointly; Mexican dual; ne + ua; plu. uan; Skr. a-vam; us 
two; Eng. we; cf. bahii, more, increase; euphemism I 
and "more;" to-ta-uan, our ancestors; no-cauallo-cawaw, 
my horses, "one horse and more," but cf. ua, va, as suffix. 

neuatl, or ne, separable pro., I; ne + Skr. sva, self, 
*nesuatl; or avA; cf. same for teuatl, thou, yeuatl, he. 

nextic, gray ; nextli, ashes ; Skr. nag, to perish ; Greek, 
veicp6<i, dead. 

-ni, ending of verbal nouns, as tlatoa-m, one who com- 
mands; ya-ni, one who goes, a traveler; Aryan, ni, end- 


ing of verbal abstract nouns, as Skr, lu-ni-s, a turning- 

no, also; Skr. n&, like. 

nonotza, (nino) reflect; (nite) to speak to others, 
counsel; (nitla) to recount ; nonoteaZZt, a story, narrative ; 
Lat. noto, to mark, observe, remark + ga, to communicate. 

nontli, a mute; Skr. mutd, bound; muka, dumb; 
Greek, fivco; Lat. mutus, mute. 

noquia, spill liquids, pour; nio-noquia, I have diar- 
rhoea; Skr. muc, munc^ti, discharge as phlegm, urine, 
ordure; Greek, /j,vk-ti]p, nose; Lat. mucus, snot. 

no-uian, around us; no, poss. pro. + vi + an; Skr. vi, 
"around," out, away; (see [i]aji, yan). 

nunchipa, tomorrow; nun + chi + pa; Skr. mi, now; 
Greek, vv, vvv; Lat. nun-c; AS. nu; Ger. nun; Eng. now; 
Skr. nun^m, in the future; chi, locative, as tlal-chi, on 
the ground. 


oc, more, o+c? oc achi qualli, more beautiful; oc ce, 
another time; Skr. a, further, besides; cf. Icelandic, oc, 

oga, paint the face, adorn; Skr, unch, wipe; Anjas, 
salve; Lat. unguo; Eng. wash. 

ocelotl, a tiger (jaguar?) o+cel-otl; o Skr. a intensive 
"very"+ceZ, Skr. cal, cdlati, (kal) to be swift. 

ocueliu, worm; Skr. krmi *qr-mi; Lat. verm-is 
*querm-is; AS. wyrm; Eng. worm; cf. Natick, okhq, a 
worm ; o^ol, Skr. vr? ura-s, breast, "belly;" cf. analogous 
urd-ga, aura-ga, a serpent, "going on his belly." 

ololoa, (nic) to make a thing round; (nino) dress self; 
tlaloZm, an earthquake; ollin tonatiuh, motion of the sun; 
Skr. *ur, iirmi, a wave, "roller;" Greek, tXXm *fiXX(o ( ?) ; 


Lat. volvo ; Ger. welle, a wave ; olo-t\, a corn cob ; ololtic, 
round; vr, to encompass. 

omitl, a bone; Lat. os, *ost, bone + Skr. mit, a post; 
(see chinamitl) ; cf. Saake, stzum, a bone; Greek, oareov; 
(for s, see 16). 

on, particle in constant use, as, nocon, I=ni -\-oc-\- on; 
ayac mitz-ow-itta, no one visits you, but ayac mitz-itta, no 
one sees you (Chimpo.); meanings "extension," more; Skr. 
Anu, after, along, over; Greek, dva; Goth, ana; Eng. on. 

oquichtli, male; used to indicate males; as, oquich- 
mazatl, a stag; no-quichui, my husband; Skr. uks, 
sprinkle; Goth, auhsa, bull; Ger. ochse, ox; Eng. ox. 

otlaga, to stop the way, shut out, to mow grass; ot + 
lag; Skr. ud, Eng. out + Skr. lasati, rise, vi-las, to move 
hither and thither. 

-otl, see utl. 

otli, road; Skr. ud, forth, out ( ?) ; Greek, 0S09, road; 
Slav, ut, a way. 

ouatl, sugar cane, green cornstalk, *oluatl; Skr. ulva, 
enveloping membrane, and ulbana, knotty; or *os-uatl, 
6sadhi; otcrva? osier, "herbs" +ua^, affix. 

oui, difficult, dangerous; Skr. bhii, to be, bhutd, a "be- 
ing," an evil spirit; Eng. be; (PAA., p. 27; supra 14) ; or 
2a + Skr. vl, to strive, attack. 

ozcoa, (nin') I warm myself by the fire; uz + ooa; uz, 
Skr. us, 6sati, light up, burn; (see ttauia); coa, Lat. con? 
cum que; see coa-, coua, and pepetzca; cf. in oc/i-pantli 
moqueztaya, it appeared in the west (comet) ; (Chimph., 
Annals, 1577). 

Ozomatli, ogomatli, "the divine monkey;" ozo + mat-li; 
ozo, Skr. vrshd- (kapi), the virile ape *ulza; (PAA., p. 
53, supra 12) ; Ogomatli was a "station" in the migration, 
"day god" in Aztec calendar; (see quauchumalli). 


oztopilin, a large round rush; topilli, a staff, shaft of a 
lance; fo + pilli; Skr. fo-mara, a lance; to-ya, water; Mo- 
vant, to make a libation of water; relation of meanings not 
clear; (see calpolli); oz, cf. osadhi, relating to herbs; 
(see topilli). 

oztotl, a cave; Russ. ust, mouth, opening (shop?) 
(PAA., note 1, p. 164) ; ostomecatl, a merchant, osto + 
mecatl, "shop people." 

1 pa, postpos., similar, like; ilhuicapa, from heaven or 
like heaven; Skr. suffix, pus-pa, flourishing; sami-pa, 

2 pa, to dye, color; paatl, rose water; poyaua, to dye 
(which see); Skr. pata, cloth, curtain, image; patala, 
pale red. 

pac-ha, woolly; Skr. paQii, cattle; Lat. pecus; Ger. vieh, 

pachiui, (ni) eat to satiety; Skr. bhaks (bhaj); Greek, 
(pTj'y-o'i, oak (acorn); Lat. fag-us, beech; AS. boc; Eng. 
beech, book, buck, in buck- wheat. 

pachiuia, (ninote) play spy; Skr. pag, *spa5; anupag- 
yati, to spy; Lat. spec-io; Ger. spah-en, to spy; uia is 
perhaps hr h^rati (hr^ui), to hold, carry, get, master, 
destroy; in fact this verb may mean almost anything 
apparently; (see MAP., p. 16; supra, 12 b). 

pachoa, (nino) stoop, bend, compress the abdomen; 
(nitla) cover a person with a thing; (notech nic) to join 
or apply to body; (nite) rule, direct; iia-pachoa in totol- 
in, the hen sets, i. e., bends her wings over her eggs; 
Skr. bhujAti, bend; AS. bug-an, bend; boga, a bow; Ger. 
bieg-sam, pliable; cf. Natick, oh-bahq-os, a tent; wonk-i, 
*bonki ('?), it bends. 


pagyotl, woof (weaving) ; pap-yolacatontli, reeds in 
frame to separate the warp; Skr. pag, to bind; Greek, 
7rao--o-aXo?, peg, bar; Lat. pac-i-sco-r, bind; AS. foh-en, 
fasten; Eng. fang; (see acatl, tontli). 

pahua, paua, cook ; pauatl, fruit ; gan quin-tenque in 
Tlatilulca inic quin-pahuazque in quin-ualhuicaqueChalco, 
they washed the Tlatilulca that they might cook them when 
they had brought them to Chalco (cannibalism) ; (Chimph., 
Annals, 14:QQ, -p. 131); cf. pu, to purify; paca (Mex. ), to 
wash ; ( 15 ) ; Skr. pac ; Greek, -ireaaai *TreKaco ; paua, to cook, 
is not found in Molina, who gives pauaci, to cook. 

paina, (ni) to run; Painal, the "man-god," vicegerent 
of Uitzilopochtli, "he who ran;" Chimal-pahin Quauhtle- 
uanitzin, author of "Annals" of the Naua; Skr. padA, 
step, stride; pedna, on foot; hence *paitna, to run; 
Greek, ireSov, ground; Lat. op-ped-um (pid), town; AS. 
foet, a step; fetian, to go for; Eng. fetch. 

palaxtli, a wound with spear or stick; Greek, ttXtjytj; 
Lat. plaga, blow; Lith. plak-u, I strike; root *plaq, plag. 

paleuia, aid, protect ; Skr. bala, power + euia; cf . pa, 
palaya, pala, a protector. 

paloa, (nitla) to taste, dip bread in the sop; Lat. 

paltia, *palutia, to get wet; azo ii-paltizque, perhaps 
we shall get wet (Arenas); Skr. plu, pldvate, to float, 
swim; extension, pZwd; Greek, .7r\j5-(rt-?, washing; Lith. 
plu-ti, become flooded; AS. fleot-an; Eng. float. 

pan, postpositive, general meaning, "place;" _po + n; 
no-tlac-pan, on my body (tlactli) ; tlatlacol-pan, in sin; 
\s.-pan, before my face; pa, synonym; Mexico^o itztiuh 
Pedro, Peter goes to Mexico (Olmos) ; y-xic-pan qui- 
tzotzopinique, quigaco in i-cuitlaxcol, they punched 
(kicked?) him on the belly [till] his bowels protruded 


(Chimph., Annals, 1444); Aryan suffix, bha, bho; OCSl. 
ha; ^tro-6a, belly ; zulo-6o, wickedness ; Greek, ko'\o-^o-?, 
a box on the ear. 

panauia, to excel; nimitz-cenpanauia, I excel you 
greatly; 2^o,ni ca, evident; Skr. bhana, splendor; Greek, 
(paiveo *^a-vt,a), shine, manifest; epi-phan-y, manifestation 
of Christ; (for uia, see 12 b). 

panoa, *palnoa, to cross a stream by boat or ford ; Skr. 
p^ra, carrying over, further shore or bank; Lat. per -ire, 
perish; Ger. wer-gehen; Eng. /or-bear; orig.-f wdw, boat; 
Greek, vaii-<i; Lat. navis. 

panocuia, to peddle; pan+cuia; Skr. pana, to barter, 
bargain; (for cuia, see coua). 

-pantli, line, wall, rank, flag; quaah-pantli, a bridge; 
coa-pantli, the great "snake wall," encircling the teocalli 
of Mexico; Skr. pathi, pdnthan, path; Greek, Traro?, path; 
Lat. pont-is, bridge. 

papatztic, soft and mellow, as fruit; papatza, to stir 
milk cooking; papatzoa, (nitla) to "mellow" fruit with the 
thumb; papatzaua, (nite) to criticise and detract from 
the statements of others; Skr. bhas, b^bhasti, to chew, 
consume, reduce; yol-pa/z-micqui, "to be smitten to death 
in the heart." 

paqui, (nic) to enjoy a thing; Skr. pajas, brightness, 
cheerfulness; pacca, joyously, pac+ka. 
^ pati, to melt, as snow, or salt; Skr. pat, pdtati, fall, 
perish, pour out, shed tears; patilia, to misdirect another 
on his way; "errar a otro;" Skr. vi-pad, fall asunder; 
(rev. 6). 

patia, care for, to mend a thing; Skr. pa, protect; 
Greek, •ne-ird-iJLac, kept; Lat. pa-sco, keep a pasture. 

-patl, final in comp., tec-patl, flint; ic-patl, thread; 
e-patl, a skunk; gen. meaning guarding, keeping, as *teo. 


fire, patl, to keep, hence, /ecpatl, a flint, "keeper of fire;" 
Skr. pa, to protect; pitr, father, "protector;" Greek, 
iraTrjp; Lai pater; Goth, fadar; AS. feeder; Ger. vater; 
Eng. father; ^ec-patl and e-patl may also be referred to 
Skr. pdtati, to pour out, shed; [see pitli). 

patla, (nino) distrust, be tired waiting; (nitla, nic) 
change, undo a thing, to trade (commerce) ; cuix tic-nequi 
tic-patiaz ica inin? will you trade it for this? (Arenas) ; 
Skr. pad, pMyate, vi-pad, to fall apart, answers to undo; 
prati-pad, to get, acquire (trade?); cognates, pcdiotia, 
(nitla) to buy ; patioil or patiuMli, price. 

patlani, to fly; Skr. pat, to fly, pAttra, wing; Greek, 
TTTepov, wing ; Lat. penna *petna; Ger. fed-er ; Eng. feather ; 
cf. Natick, ptoeu, it flies. 

patlauac, broad; Lat. patulus, broad; cf. Skr, prathAte, 
to widen. 

patli, potion; pati, to be convalescent, cure; patia, to 
cure; Skr. pa, drink; Greek, nre-Trco-ica; Lat. po-tus. 

patoUi, dice; patouia, (nite) to play at dice; Skr. pat, 
pAtati, -to cast down, fall; Greek, iri-Trra, fall; Lat. pet-o 
+vr, *ur, to roll. 

patzaua, to bruise or press fruit, as grapes ; to reduce a 
swelling ; patzauac, barley or maize blasted or frost-bitten ; 
Skr. pad, pAdyate, perish, go to ruin+sa, syatd, press hard, 
distress, destroy, make an end of, in Skr. as in Mex. at 
end of comp.; cf. patzca. 

patzca, (nitla) to squeeze a thing very hard, to wring 
clothing; patzmiqui, to cause others distress; putzconi, 
the screw of a wine press; Skr. bhas, b&bhasti, crush, con- 
sume; pa + SCOTO, Skr. gcut, to drip. 

patzcoa, (nino) slip out from among others; petzcaui, 
to slip from the hands as an eel; Skr. paQca, behind, wesif, 
with kr, to leave behind. 


pepetzca, redup., shining of a smooth surface, as silk or 
brilliant plumage ; Skr. pi, full + gcand, shining ; Greekj 
^avd-6<;; Lat. candeo. 

petla, (nitla) to bore, split; (nite) charge an enemy, 
rush upon ; Skr. pat, to split ; pat, to fly, fall upon ; Greek, 
irerdoo', spread, open; Treroo), strike, hit against; Lat. pet-o, 
attack ; cognates, petoni. to project, as the end of a beam 
in a wall; dislocate a joint; petlani, petlania, to drain off 
or spread liquids ; two roots ; -\- ra. 

petlatl, a mat; Skr. pid, to tread on + tr; cf. Skr. p^ttra, 
a wing, feather, cart, paper, plate of metal. 

peua, pehua *pela, (nite) begin, be first; conquer; 
(nom) I start somewhere; qnin-peuh in ueue Moteuhc- 
gomatzin, Montezuma the Elder conquered them (Chimph., 
Annals, 1461) ; Skr. pdra, further, beyond, over; Greek, 
■Trepa, ultra, over, exceedingly; (12). 

pi, (nitla) pull out as hair, pull up grass, *bida; Skr. 
bhid; Lat. findo; Ger. beissen; Eng. bite, bit (part.). 

pia, pie, have, guard; tlein tic-pie tehuatl? what ails 
you? (Arenas); Skr. pa, pati, guard, keep; [see pitli). 

piaztic, long and slender, narrow, as a man, a column; 
Skr. pra, forward + si, to biad (a string); prfeiti, con- 
tinuing +c, 

pichautica, stiff with cold, very cold; Tpi^ chau-tica; 
Skr. jadra, frigidity, stiffness; pi, pid, to oppress, pain; 
pida, pain, ache. 

pilli, cavalier, a noble; no-pil, my son, my dear child; 
pil-tic, delicate, tender, gentleman; pillatoa (pil+itoa), 
to speak in elegant phrases; gen. meaning io have pleas- 
ure in a thing; Skr. pri, prindti, to gladden, to have 
pleasure in; Greek, irpao's, gentle; Goth, frijo, treat kindly; 
AS. freond, loving; Eng. friend; AS. fri; Ger. frei; Engi 


piloa, (nino) hang self; itech nino-piloa, I grasp, hang 
on to, persevere; (nitla) to hangup, as clothing; pi + loa; 
Skr. brh, brnhati, pluck, destroy; middle, to draw toward 
one's self, cf. Mex. middle (nino) + ruh, rise, put upon. 

pinaua, to be ashamed; pmayotl, bad reputation; 
Greek, Treivda, to want, be poor; ttiVo?, dirt. 

pipiolin, pipiyolin, a honey bee (bee of the mountains, 
Mol.); Lat. pipi-o, to chirp, pipe, as a bird (onomoto- 
poetic) ; cf. Skr. pipila, an ant. 

piqui, to invent; piquia,, (nitetla) to calumniate; cui- 
capicqui, to write a song; Skr. pig, pih^Ati, arrange, adorn; 
Greek, ttlk-po's, bitter; confusion of roots. 

pitli, elder sister, duena; Skr. pitf, father, "protector;" 
for cognates, see -patl. 

pitzauac, delicate, slim, as columns, ropes, road (nar- 
row), gentle wind, small (as beans) ; Skr. pis, pinfeti, grind, 
crush; Lat. pinso, pound, beat (small) ; cognate, pitzini, to 
break an egg, to chew, to prick a pimple ; (for ua-c, see vd) . 

pixca, to gather the crop; pixquitl, harvest; Skr. bija, 
seed, corn, grain; bijaka, seed; (see teopixqui) . 

poa, pohua, (nino) to be proud, (nitla) to count, to 
render account, as of stewardship; cem-poa-lli, one score, 
twenty; (itech nic) to give another his share; poaltia, 
(itech or tetech nic) to dedicate, as a book; Skr. bha, 
bhati, to shine, to appear, become manifest; Greek, 
^rj-fii, to speak; Lat. fa-ri; Eng. ba-n, "notice" (mar- 
riage) ; ttapoa, the same, shows double use of tla; nitla- 
tlapoa, I open, gate keeper, makes evident; xic-tlapoa in 
m'ixtelolo, keep your eyes open (Arenas). 

pogaua, swell, inflate; pogoni, to be angry, agitated, 
boil, dash, as wave^; po+gaua; po, *polj Skr. bhur, 
bhurdti, struggle, stir ; Greek, <f)\va>, <j)vpa), bubble ; Lat. 
furere, rage; Eng. brew, to boil + Skr. qa, to excite; (r 


17) ; but cf. phonic treatment of final s and r; (Whitney, 
Sanskrit Grammar, sec. 169 b) . 

pochina, to card wool or cotton; poch-ina; Skr. bhuj, 
bhujdti, to bend, fold; (for cognate, see pachoa). 

poctli, smoke ; popoca, it smokes ; Popocatepetl, smok- 
ing mountain, volcano s. w. of City of Mexico; Greek, 
TTvicd^ca, thicken, hide, shade. 

poliui, poloa, perish, wane; ye poind in metztli, 
already the moon wanes; ic oen-poliuhque in Xaltepeca, 
the Xaltepecs finally succumbed (Chimph., Annals, 1500) ; 
po + liui(?); if this analysis be correct, Skr. bhu, to be 
+ rdvati, dash in pieces; Greek, ipvco; Lat. ruo; Eng. ro-t; 
poloa, (nic) to waste, lose, ail; tlein otic-polo? what ails 
you? (Arenas); bhu + ruj, *roga, to break, pain, disease; 
cf. Greek, oWvfu, to destroy; (see 12 b). 

popolhuia, to forgive ; ma xiiechmo-popolhuili in totla- 
tlacol, forgive us our sins (Lord's Prayer) ; Skr. papa + 
rah, to leave, give up; papa-rahita, innocent ; [see poliui, 
poloa; 12 b). 

potli, in comp., an equal; no-cihua-po, a woman of my 
own class; Skr. patra, worthy person, "an equal." 

potoni, to stink; Skr. pu-ti-s, stinking; Greek, wv-O-ca, 
rot; Lat. puter, rotten; + Skr. da, "give" + ni. 

poyaua, to dye cloth; tlapal-po-j/ac-fo'c, rose or orange 
color; Skr. bhas, bright + raga, color; (s 16, r 17, gr 15). 

puchtecatl, merchant, puch + tecatl; Skr. bhuj, profit, 
wealth; (see teca). 


qua, to eat; Panj. kha-na, eat; cf. Skr. khad, bite, 

quachtli, a large cotton mantle; Skr. kasaya, a brown- 
red garment. 


quaitl, head, top, extremity; ic ce quaitl, the first 
chapter; quaiztac, gray -headed; Skr. ka, the head. 

quaiuinti, to "lose one's head," get giddy, weep much; 
qnaiil -\- uinti; Skr. Una, lacking; Greek, eSw?, bereft; 
AS.«wanian; Eng. wane. 

qualani, to be angry ; Skr. hr, hrmt6, growls, is angry ; 
cf. kalaha, strife; Avestan, zar-. 

qualli, good, ye qualli, enough; Skr. kalya, well; 
Greek, kuXo';; AS. hal; Eng. hale. 

quaquauitl, a horn ; quaqua-e, animal with horns ; Lat. 
cerv-us, stag; Ger. hirsch; Eng. hart; Avestan, grva, 

quauhchimal, monkey; ogomatli was "the divine ape" 
(PAA., p. 53), hence quauh, may be Skr. kapi, ape, but 
if chimal be analyzed chi + mal we get dhi, piety + mrgfi, 
*mar-g^, wild animal, specifically the gazelle in the moon, 
an object of adoration, then taking quauitl as tree we 
have, "tree-pious-animal," and by the first "ape-pious- 

quauhtli, an eagle; quauhuia, to groan with pain; 
quauhtlatoa, to speak loudly; xi-tlaquauhtlatoa, speak 
loudly (Arenas); harsh sound; Skr. kh4ra, harsh, an ass 
from his bray ; cf . gu, to cry ; ^ori ; ga, to sing ; Eng. caw. 

quauitl, a tree, stick, beam; Skr. krt, krntdti, to cut; 
karta, a cut, hence quauitl is a thing to cut or already 
cutoff; (12). 

quech-coatl, rattlesnake; Skr. khdja, agitation. 

quechia, to lean on, support self by something ; quauh- 
quechilia, to prop a house with timbers; itech ninotla- 
quechia, I lean on it; Skr. glis, glisyati, to cling to, adhere; 
its cognate gri, is AS. klinian; Eng. leanj (r 12, 17). 

quechtli, the neck (head); ma-quechtli, the wrist; 
quech-tepnlli, nape of neck; hence, something slender; 


Skr. krg, grow lean; Greek, icoXoaa-6';, *ko\ok-j6';; Lat. 
gracilis, slender. 

queloni, to dislocate a joint; (nite) to deceive, (ten- 
queloa) ; que + l6ni; que, Skr. cest, move the limbs, act + 
lu, I6nati, to loose; * quest -loni. 

quem, quen, cuen, interrog. particle, quen ti-ca? how 
are you? quem patio? what is the price? quentel, so 
much; form of the Aryan interrogatives, *qo, *qi, *qu; 
Skr. kd-s; Lat. quo-d; Goth, hva-s; Eng. who; cf. Skr. 
kim aham ajnas? with quen ti-ca? (see cuix). 

quenchiua, strike, wound, do an injury; Skr. han, 
hdnti, strike, kill, destroy; Greek, (j)aT6<;, slain; OHG. 
gund; AS. *gun8, battle; cf. French, gonfalon; root, 
* gh''en-{' chiua. 

quentia, to cover self with a mantle; Skr. krnti, to 
weave; cf. Skr. kantha, a patched garment. 

quetza, (nino) rise up; (nite) detain one, stop; quetz- 
tica, standing; ote-ixpan-gwe/za-lo-que, the bans are de- 
clared, they stand face to face; que + tza *Bta; Skr. stha, 
to stand; Greek, o-arrj-fJLi; Lat. stare; OHG. sta-n; Eng. 
stand; (for que, see 1 qui); cf. Greek, e-^e-c, there; he 

Quetzalcoatl, "The Fair God;" the plumed serpent of 
the air ; quetzalli, plume + coatl, serpent ; Skr. fubh, to 
be fair, to glide. 

quetzalli, a plume; Skr. k^sara, kegin, with flowing 
mane; Lat. cessaries, hair; Quetzal-coatl, the plumed 

1 qui, plu. quin, pre-pos., obj. pro., him, her, them, 
it; nic-qua in nacatl, I (it) eat meat; yeuantin quin- 
polloque in Mexica, they [the Mexicans] conquered them, 
(Ohimph., Annals, 1433) ; (1) Aryan, *ki, kio; cf. Lat. ci- 
ter, ci'-tra; OHG. hin-iu, OSax. Am-diga, on this day; 


(Brug., Ill, p. 329); (2) simply the objective relative 
pro. Skr. kfe, kim, ka. 

2 qui, verbal affix, asserting the action of the head 
word, as ten-qui, a full thing; palan-gtti, a rotten thing; 
coyayau-gwi, a thing widened; Skr. kr, krn6ti, do, make, 
cause; this is analogous to the development of kr in 
Indian dialects, as Hindustani kara, (pp.) in poetry 
rarely, regularly ki-ya; Panj. vulgar, karia, regularly 
kita. There is occasionally some doubt between kr and 
grahj (see ilnamqui) . 

3 qui, emphatic or exclamatory prefix ; gttt-cempactica, 
he who is happy, "how happy he is!" qui-ciani, to be 
very tired; "how tired he is!" yollogwimil, rude, rustic, 
"in heart, how countrified!" Skr. ki, (ka, ko, ku), kidrg, 
what kind? 

quiaua-c, outside (the house) ; quiauatl, door; see 
B qui -{-Skr. &\a, off, "away;" auatl, door; "the thing 
which swings away;" or *kerv, turn; *kelvatl, Greek, 
KvpTo^s; Lat. curv-us; Groth. haiirds, door; Eng. whirl. 

quiauitl, rain, qui+auitl; qui, Skr. ghr, jigharti, to drip, 
ghee, Anglo Ind. melted butter; auitl, Skr. ap, water; 
Lat. aqu-a; OHG. ahwa, water; Eng. Avon; (14). 

quiga, quiza, (ni) go out of the house, finish a work, 
cease raining, ripen (grain), rise (as sun); ual-quiza, 
arrive; quizaiii, one who has gone; itech quiza, touch in 
passing; Skr. gis, gindsti, leave, remain, i. e., be left, be 

quil, they say; quil mach, same meaning; quil, Skr. 
gr, to speak, call; gir, a voice. 

quimichin, mouse ; qui + michin (see 3 qui); qiti, Skr. 
grah, to take, seize, "steal;" cf. parallel meaning of mus, to 
steal, "mouse;" the idea is the same, but the vowel u is 
an objection to the latter derivation; (see miehin). 


quimiloa, to tie, roll in mantle, bury the dead; qui- 
milli, a classifier (enumerator), a pile of clothing; 3 qui + 
miloa; Skr. mr, to die; Greek, /jLop-jo-'i, mortal; Lat. Morta, 
goddess of death (see miqui) ; for meaning roll, pile; 
qui, Skr. kr, "a made pile," "a dressed corpse" +mr, 
"mill," "roimd;" (see malacatl). 


ta, prefix, apparently originally a particle; Skr. td; 
Greek, o, jj, to, "the;" otiose, as, /a-machiua, to weigh; 
to-pagoUi, a bird's nest; ta-co\ (colli), the shoulder; ta- 
mascalli, a vapor-bath house. 

tacapiliui, to bear the marks of cords in the flesh when 
bound; taca+piliui; Skr. da, bind; Greek, Se'w + ka; 
{pi, see ilpiaj liui, see poliui, poloa). 

tamalli, Hispanicized tomale, a Mexican cooked roll, 
consisting of Indian meal (maize) mixed with minced 
meat and chili, and enclosed in successive layers of corn 
husks; /omaZom, a thing which can be unrolled; ta+mal- 
li; Skr. da, dyAte, to cut + mar, to enclose; (see temal- 
acatl) ; but cf. toma, to unroll, open. 

tanima, to-\-anima, "our mind," the soul; te-\-anima, 
somebody's soul; Skr. an, 4niti, breath, blow; Greek, 
dvefji,o<s ; Lat. anima; Goth. anan. 

tapayoUi, aball; tapa + yoUi; tapa, Skr. dhrb, drbhdti, 
make into tufts; tol-tapa-yolliin camac qui-hualaaquique, 
they thrust gags of rushes into their mouths (Ohimph., 
Annals, 1469). 

tataca, redup., scratch, dig; Skr. dih« *digh, stroke, 
touch lightly; Lat. fingo, form; Goth, daigs, moulded 
mass; Eng. dough. 

tatli, father ; Skr. dhatar, the giver ; Avestan, datar, he 
who places, the "creator;^'' this is after the analogy of pa- 


ter, lie who protects; or Skr. tatA, "papa;" Greek, Terra; 
Lat. tata. 

tguUi, guUi, tfoUi, golli, postpos. (01m.), worn, old, 
rusty; tilhma-^pM^Zi, an old cloak; notilma-pwZ, my old 
cloak (01m.); igoliui, clothes get old (Mol.) ; igoloa, to 
degrade self; Skr., sud, to finish, *sut-li, suUi; cf. Skr. 
dhvr, dhvdrati, gen. meaning to injure; Lat. fallo, deceive; 
Groth. dvals, foolish; AS. dwellan, to check; Eng. dull, dolt; 
Ger. toll, mad; (Brug., IV, sec. 608). 

1 te, indef. pro., 3rd sing, and plu. obj., him, her, it, 
them; ni-Ze-tlagotla,- I love someone; Skr. t^: sfe, tdt, sa, 
first per. plu. masc, t^. 

2 te, emphatic prefix, as te-ana, to take apart; te-aci, 
to overtake ; Ze-ach-cauhtli, a leader, chief ; fe-gacatl, large 
straws; Skr. verbal dA, giving, causing. 

teca, (nino) lie down; tepan nino-Zeca, attack, "square 
up to him;" mo-feca, they assemble; (nite) cohabit; 
tepan nite-Zeca, diffame; (nitla, nic) set posts or trees; 
ipan mc-teca, place poles in piles; tequilia, take charge of; 
atlauh-feca-tl, keeper of the darts; tequitl, work tribute; 
gen. idea of arranging, working, caring for; Skr. taks, 
work; Greek, reK-rav, an artisan; Lat. tig-num, a log. 

tech, pro., first per. plu. obj., us; Skr. td: sAs, tat, sa; 
Greek, 6, 57, to, that (one); Skr. plu., te, *te-s? omit c, 
qui, objective with tech; may employ in, as, ti-iec/iin-cuili 
in to-quaquauecauan, you (thou) took our oxen away from 
us; for s, see Skr. fem. plu, ace, tas; gen. plu. masc, t6sam; 
fem., tasam; (see 7iech, where s is differently treated). 

techcatl, the' terrible sacrificial stone now in the Na- 
tional Museum of Mexico; Skr. tij, tejdyati, to be sharp; 
tiksnd, hot, bitter, slaughter; tejas, heat, radiance, vigor, 
fierceness + ka. 

tecoUi, charcoal, braise (Sim.), live coals; Skr. dah. 


*dhagh, burn; Goth, dags; AS. dseg; Eng. day; (PAA., 
Tlacatecolotl, p. 49). 

tecolotl, an owl; tec + olotl or ulutlj for tec, see tecolli; 
ulutl, Skr. lilu-ka, owl; Greek, o'\o\-o9, howler; Lat. ulula, 
screech owl; {Tlacatecolotl, PAA., p. 49). 

tecpatl, a flint; tec+patl; tec as in tecolli; tec-pa-tl, 
"keeper of fire;" (1) Skr. pa, to keep, "to have," "to 
hold;" (2) pat-1, Skr. pat, to throw out, "eject sparks;" 
{seepati and epatl). 

tecpin, -pintli, a flea, tec + pin, /eomilotl, hornet; Skr. 
tij, tejdyati, to prick, orig. *stig; Greek, o-ti^co; Lat. in- 
stig-o; Eng. stick; pintli, Skr. pinda, a little ball. 

tecuicitli, a crab, tec + uiQ-i-tli; for tec, see tecpin; 
Skr. visa-ya, "activity," working; visa-na, horn, tusk, 
claw of crab; but may be tec + vi, away + citli, the sitter, 
"spiny, backward mover or sitter." 

Tecuiztecatl, the sun god; Skr. tij, sharp, hot; tiksnagu, 
the sun + vis as in tecuicitli + tecatl. 

"Scorpion mea guard its gate, 
From sunrise to sunset they guard the sun." 

— Gilgamesh Epos, XII. 

tecutli, a leader; 2 te + cut + li; Skr. gad, gagddi, to dis- 
tinguish one's self; CSl. kot-ova, battle; OHG. Hadu- 
wich, battle strife; AS. heaSo-weorc, battle work; Ger. 
had-er, strife. 

1 tel, adversative conj., yet, more; cf. Skr. tdrhi, in 
that case, then. 

2 tel-, as prefix ; to despise or to speak of another with 
great disdain; ipan mo-chiua ca mochtin qui-/etehiua, 
thus it happens that all despise him (Chimpo.) ; *delp; Skr. 
drp, wild; drpyati, to be insolent, arrogant. 

telchitl, one who thinks evil of another ; tel + chitl, 
Skr. ci, ciy6ti, to hate; (for tel, see telchiua). 

telpochtli, boy, young man; telpocatl, youth; tel, cf. 


Skr. tila-ka, ornament, "pride of" (family); (for poch, 
see ichpochtli, Uitzilopochtli) . 

tema, [temi?), (nine) bathe, ^ee few?, to bathe; (nitla) 
store things away, as corn ; cook in a little oven ; fill in 
earth; iemi, (ni) to be full to satiety, fill a vessel with 
liquid ; to collect together, as a litter of puppies ; a pile 
of grain ; general meaning, to teem, to be plenty ; AS. teman, 
tyman, to bring forth, to abound; Eng. teem; or Lat. 
con-titieo, hold, contain; cognate, tenqui, adj., full. 

temazcalli, tetl, stone + iiiascalli or te emphatic; a bath 
house, vapor bath ; mascalU, Skr. mAjjami, I duck under ; 
Lat. merg-o; AS. mearg; Eng. marrow, "inside." 

temo, descend; temoayan, descent; New Persian, daman 
i-koh, hillside, "descent;" doubtful. 

tena, (ni) groan; Skr. stan; Greek, a-revco; Swed. stan- 
ka, pant; Eng. stank. 

tene, sharp; fene-yeyecoltiliztli, a great temptation; 
*tecne, *ticne; Skr. tij, tejas, sharpness, edge. 

teni, wash, tetenqui, one who bathes another in 
temascalli bath (tema?) gan qmn-tenque in Tlatilulca 
inic quin-pahuazque, they washed the Tlatilucas in order 
to cook them (cannibalism) (Chimph., Annals, 1469) ; 
Skr. tim, to be damp; (see tema). 

tenitl, a foreigner; tentli + it-1; "another tongue;" it, 
Skr. itara, another; Lat. it6rum. 

tentli, lips, border, edge, fig., by "extension," a word; 
Skr. tan, tan6ti, extend; Greek, rdv-v-iMai; Lat. tendo; 
Ger. dehnen; Eng. thin; cf. Natick, mut-toen, the mouth. 

teo, prefix like ta, gives emphasis; as feoamatini, a 
skilful sailor ; feococox, leprous, very sick ; teociui, hungry ; 
feoxiuh, generous son; feotlac, evening, late in the day, 
"very late"; Skr. da, dddati; Aryan, *di-do-mi; Greek, 
Si-Bw-fii; Lat. do, dedi; Skr. verbal dha, or dha, giving. 


teociui, teocihui, be hungry, teo -^-iciui; teo, very; iciui, 
or ixui, to eat ravenously ; in MAP., p. 9, Lat. daps, a meal, 
hence teus-i-ui. This is regular but it seems more probable 
that the word is a compound; (see ixui). 

teo-pixqui, a priest, guardian; teotl -\-pixq-i; Skr. 
prach, *prk-sk, ask (pray) ; Greek, deo-TrpoTr-o';, asking the 
gods; Lat. prec-es, prayers; (12; pixca) ; Grer. forsehen. 

teopoa, (nine) to be afflicted, (nite) to afflict; nic- 
teopoa in nix [no+ixtli] in no-yoUo, I am much afflicted 
in countenance and in heart (Mbl.); Skr. tap, t^pati, do 
penance, "burn;" Lat. tepor? 

teotl, teutl, god; Skr. div, the sky; Greek fito'y, *SifO';, 
heavenly; Lat. divus, dius, deus; Germanic, tiw, as in 

tepetl, mountain, Pers. or Kurd, tapah; Turk, tepe; 
Greek, ra^o?, a hill or tomb. 

teponastli, *tepontuastli, a drum; te+pon + astli; pont, 
Skr. bhanda, a musical instrument ; (see 2 te and ecauastli) . 

tepulli, membrum virile; qnechtepulli, nape of neck; 
hence, slender, tapering; AS. tapur; Irish, tapar, a small 
candle; Welsh, tampr; Eng. taper H-vr; cf. cal-pul-\i, 
a phratry; cf. tetl, stone +pul; Skr. pr. 

teputztli, shoulders, back; Skr. prsthA, back of an 
animal; AS. first-hrof, ridge pole (house); Ger. firste, 
ridge of roof; (see 2 te). 

tepuztli, metal, iron, bronze; (1) tetl, BtCine -\-puztlij 
Skr. bhraj, to shine; Greek, (jiXeyco, flame; Lat. fulgur, 
lightning; Eng. bleach? "shining stone;" (12); (2) tap, 
tdpati, to burn; glow+us, osati, to burn; "glowing hot;" 
(see tlauia). 

tetl, a stone, perhaps Skr.' trs, "dry;" Lat. *ters-a, 
terra, land *tels-tl; cf. French tete, * testa for analogy 
in form. 


tetzaua, to coagulate, to be sticky and hard (bitumen) ; 
tetzaual-mulli, a thick soup ; te emphatic + tzaua, Skr. 
sty aye ti, to coagulate; (see tigatl). 

tetzauia, (nino) to see an omen, be in terror; tetzauitl, 
a prodigy, in peuh in ilhuicatl itech uel mo-quetzaya in 
ietzahuiU, there appeared, remained in the sky a dreadful 
prodigy (Chimph., Annals, 1509) ; inPAA.,p. 117, tetza + 
uitl; Skr. dasA, a demon -\-vid, to be wise (in bad sense) ; 
Icelandic, vit-ka; AS. wic-ca; Eng. witch; cf. vadh, to 
destroy; vadhA, Indra's thunder-bolt; epithet of Uitzilo- 
pochtli; cf. te -f- savitf, "impeller." 

teuhctli, a chief; Teohuateuhctli, "he who has the 
gods," Mexican oflBcial; Moteuhcguma, Montezuma, "he 
frowns like a lord;" root *deuk, Goth, tiuhan, draw; Lat. 
duco, to lead; cf. Tukta Bey, Tartar chief. 

teuhtli, dust; Skr. dhu, dhun6ti, move quickly hither 
and thither; dhumA, smoke, vapor; Grreek, ^uto; Lat. 
fumus, smoke. 

tezcatl, mirror, te + sca-tl ; Skr. didi, shine ? + Skr. 
cha-ya, shadow, reflection, charm ; personified, wife of the 
Sun ; tezcatl machiotl quitlalia, to set a good example ; 
Tezcatlipoca, Mexican devil; (PAA., p. 50, where ski^ 
was rejected for tdskara) ; sea, Greek, aKid, shadow. 

ti, prefix, same as 2 te; also Aryan affix ti. 

tigatl, *ti5actl, varnish; whiteclay ; tigayoa (ni), I varnish 
myself (paint?) ; tigauia, (nitla) to varnish or dip ; perhaps 
Skr. di, dideti, shine +sanj, saj, sdjati, to stick; Lat. segnis, 
sticking; tigayoa,iiqs.i\-\-yoa; Skr. yu, yaiiti, to join, hold 
fast; if dig, to show, be taken, g is soft before a contrary 
to rule (see ticatla) ; then tigatl iuitl nic-tlalia., I give good 
counsel, must be "advice that sticks;" i-vid, to know, 
understand ; Greek, olSa, *f tS ; Lat. video ; Eng. wit. 

ticatla, midnight, at midnight; Skr. dig, digAti, to point; 


di§, a point (end of day?); Greek, BeiKWfii, show; Lat. 
dice; AS. tah; Ger. zeigen; AS. tahte; Eng. taught. 

ticitl, plu. Uticij wise person, doctor, midwife, in latter 
case "consecrated;" Skr. diks, dikseti, to consecrate. Ke- 
ligious feeling pervaded all the daily life of the Nahua 
and must be considered in comparisons, but cf . ti := 2 te 
+ cit, to know. 

tilana, (nitla) stretch; tilauac, broad (table, cloak) ; 
Skr. tirds, across; adv. crossways; (til + awa). 

tilinia, Hilicnia, (niqual) to give a hand to help one 
fallen; (nino) to gird self tightly; (nite) to seize with 
intent to commit rape; tilictic, stiff and bulging; Skr. 
drh, dfnhati, to be firm; Lat. fortis, *forctis, strong. 

-tiuh, in comp. tonatiuh, the sun; Skr. div, the sky; 
Greek, Sto'?, *Sif6<;; Lat. div-us, divine; Germanic, the god 
Tiw; Eng. Tuesday. 

tiuhtli, uel-tiuhtli (Mol.), eldest sister, transfer from 
daughter; Skr. duhitdr; Greek, 6vy-d-ri]p; Ger. tochter; 
Eng. daughter; (see pitli). 

1 tla, pronoun, lY; ni-tla-qna, I it eat; itla is "thing" 
and the two may be the same; tlein, tie-in, what; tlein 
t'ai ? what are you doing ? these pronouns are very elusive 
(see itla) ; =id + le-in( ?) ; Lat. re-s, "thing;" or tle-m, 
*id-re-in(?) ; (for in with pronouns in Greek, cf. Brug., 
Ill, sec. 448) . 

2 tla, prefix, Skr. tr; Lat. trans, "through," or "by 
means of;" ^Za-chiuhtli, a thing done "through" doing; 
iZa-cenquetzalli, a thing continued to the end; tla may 
be tr, "through," or itla, thing finished. It is not easy 
to differentiate this from 1 tla; tla is sometimes an integral 
part of the vocable, as in tlaca, by day ; tlacoa, to injure ; 
(for double use in this sense, see tlapoa under poa) ; 
intla is a sign of the subjunctive, yntla onitla-qua-to, 


amo n'apizmiquizquia, if I had come and eaten I should 
not be dying of hunger (Olmos) ; (see itla). 

tlaca, by day ; tlacapan, a visible place ; Skr. dvq, see ; 
Greek, SepK-o-fiao; Goth, ga-tarkjan. 

tlagalli, a snare (hunting) ; tlagalolli, a thing fastened 
to another, one who is detained by others; tlagaltia, to 
take a thing forcibly; tla+gal; Skr. sr, sisarti, glide, rush; 
(see galiuMli, qaliuyantli) . 

tlacauaca, a murmuring of the people, vox populi, 
battle cry; tlacatl + uaca, Skr. vac, to speak; Greek, 
eVo?, *fe7ro?; Lat. voc-is; Ger. er-wah-nen, mention. 

tlaCQa, *tlac*ga, to run swiftly ; Skr. dra, drati, to run, 
drdlca, speedily -|- sah, to be capable of ; Greek, ^pdm. 

tlachia, (ni) to see; tlachia noyollo, to be circumspect; 
tla + chia, Skr. dr + ci, cik6ti, to observe, notice, seek for. 

tlacoa, injure, to sin; tlaco, fraction, half, a small 
Mexican coin; tlaco youac, midnight, "half-night-in;" 
ma ti-tlaHacoa, beware that you sin not; Skr. tr, td,rati, 
to cross; tirfc-kr, to treat disrespectfully, put aside; (for 
treatment of kr, see coua) . 

tlacotl, rod, wand; Skr. tla+gata, slender. 

tlajotla, to love; Petolo qni-tlagotla in Malinton, Peter 
loves Marie (Chimpo) ; etymology puzzling; Skr. tlaH- 
sev + tla? sev, seva, to serve, attend, worship, also sexual 
int(Jrcourse-|-tra, "to protect;" cf. Osmanli Turk, sev, to 
love, ton, diminutive; cf. Quda+ra, "having," gudanta, 
the harem; gud is indicated by the rev. form, supra p. 17. 

tlacotli, a slave ; tla + cotli ; Skr. gudrd, fourth caste ; 
cf. g6, cow; gotrA, a cow-stall or a race, "caste" (?). 

tlaelitta, to abhor, hate; tlaellatolli, "bad" words; 
tla + eZ+itta; el. Greek, e/a-t-s, strife; Lat. lis, litis. 

Tlaloc, Lord of the Terrestrial Paradise, god of clouds 
and rain; (PAA., p. 30) Skr. indraloka, Indra's place. 


heaven; but perhaps simply tlalli, earth -\-oc, Skr. vaj 
vajdyati, to be mighty; v6j-ra, the thunderbolt of Indra, 
"the mighty;" Greek, vyirj';, strong; Lat. vegeo, to be 
active; AS. wacol; Eng. wake. 

tlamantli, centlamantli (Mol.), thing, object, a whole; 
tla -f- man-tli ; Skr. man, to think, hence a concept, idea, 
thing grasped by the mind as a whole; cf. mantrd, thought, 
spell in incantation, plan. 

tlami, end, finish ; oncan tlami inin intlahtoUo in teya- 
canque, there ends the story of the chiefs (Chimph., Annals, 
p. 275); Skr. tir^ti, tdrati, traverse + Sl^r. mi, to lessen; 
Grer. minder; Eng. mince. 

-tlan, postpositive, place, country of; Aztlan, home 
land of the Nauatlaca; cosiitlan, place of snakes; root, 
til, tel (Brug., I, sec. 287), *t''la-n; Skr. talas, surface; 
OBulg. tlo, tilo, ground, floor, "surface;" Ger. diele, a 
board; tlani, down, tlalli, the ground, *t®la-li. 

tlanaui, *tta-naziii, to be very sick; tlanautiuh, go 
from bad to worse ; sick person to get worse ; tla + naga, 
(nag) loss, ruin, death; (s, 16, cf. guma, moyotl). 

tlaneuia, (nic) to make excuses; (nino) borrow and 
return in kind; tlaneuiuia, redup., to have abundance; 
tlaneuiuililiztli, the act of comparing one thing with 
another; tla + neuia; Skr. navi, to renew; Ger. neu. 

1 tlani, down ; tla + ni, Skr. ni, downwards ; Eng. ne- 
ther, lower. 

2 tlani, *tMa-ni, (nite) win from another at play ; Skr. 
tr, tdrati, tirdti, get through; tdra, surpassing, "surpass 

tlanitztia, (nino) to praise self, brag; to praise where 
no merit is, misrepresent; 1 tlani -|- Skr. stha, to stand; 
"lower oneself." 

tlanquaitl, the knee ; tla + anquai-tl; Skr. tr + ank^, an 


angle; Grreek, vyKO';; Lat. uncus; AS. ongel, hook; Ger. 
angel; Eng. angle; cf. ecauastU, a ladder. 

tlaocolia, (nite) to take pity on; (nite) tlaocoliia 
(rev. ) , to seek sympathy ; tla + oc + olia ; Skr. uc, licyati, 
be pleased, like ; Greek, oIkto';, pity ; ol, vr, to wish. 

tlapalli, color; tlapaloa, *tlapalca, to dye cloth; Skr. 
tla + bhraj, bhrajate; bhArgas, radiant; Greek, <j>\eyo<;, 
flame; Lat. fulgur, lightning ; (seepoyaua). 

tlapaloa, (nino) to dare to do a thing; (nite) salute 
another; to cross one's path(?); tla, tT-\-paloa; Skr. 
pAra, surpassing; reciprocal, paras-paradin, eating one 
another ; pr, Lat. perendie, the day after ; Eng. far, fore. 

tlapalpol, awkward, tla+palpol; Skr. barbara, or bal- 
bala-kar6mi, I stammer; Greek, /Sa/s/Sapo-?, unpolished; 
Lat. balbus, stammering; a "barbarian." The "barbara" 
were foreigners, non-Aryans. The absence of final "K" 
leaves an element of uncertainty, since it always means a 
compound; perhaps pol or pulh, indicating bigness and 
badness, or inferiority. 

tlapaltic, strong; tla + pal + ti-c; pal; Skr. bhArati; 
Greek, <^ep<o; Lat. fero; Eng. bear. Cognates, ic-pal-\i, 
a chair; pal-evaa., to aid; tlajpaZiui, to be robust, grown 
up, a laborer. 

tlapana, break, as dishes, egg shells in hatching; shell 
cocoa beans; Skr. dr -f- phanati, leaps, hops (cf. sphr) ; tla, 
Skr. drnati, cleave; (jrreek, Bepw; Eng. tear. 

tlapic, vain, falsely; tlapicilatoa, to speak falsely or 
without sense; tlapictli, thing made or created, demon(?) 
[Chimph., Annals, 1^99) ; tla-pic; Skr. *pi5, ping4ti(?), 
shape, prepare; piQuna, slanderous ; Greek, TrtK-po'?, bitter; 
Lith. piktas, bad ; Goth . f aih, deception ; Olr. oech, an enemy ; 
original meaning of pig does not agree with "false."' 

tlaquactic, hard; tlaquauh, loud, strong, as tlaquauh- 


tlatoa, to speak loud, halloo to another; tla-quauh yuuac 
(youac), very dark night; tla-{-quaG-ti-c; tlaquauhnau&iia, 
command imperatively; tlaquauac tecpatl, a diamond; 
Skr. karkara, hard, firm, for phonetics see caqui. 

tlatia, (nino) hide self or burn self; (qui) conceal 
thoughts; gan qm-tlcdia, he only conceals, is a hypocrite; 
Skr. tirdti, to cross; cf. Greek, Spdw, act, practice, flee; 
to burn, tla+di, dideti, shine, gleam, fame; (see chinoa). 

tlatla, *tlatlas, (ni) ardere; burn self; tlatlac, burnt; 
Skr. trs, trsyati, to be dry; Lat. torreo, *torset; Ger, 
dorren; (see tlan, tlatia). 

tlatlacalhuia, (nite) to injure; in yuh tiquintla-popol- 
huia mtech-tlatlaoalhuid, as we forgive those who sin 
against us (Lord's Prayer, Luke) ; tlatla -\-calhuia, Skr. 
hr hArati, *ghel, steal, seize, destroy, frustrate attack; 
(see tlatla). If huia be separable, from hr, to handle, 
Greek, x^'^Pj hand, then the whole is: tlatla+caZ, good + 
hr, "those who eagerly take away the good from us," and 
hr=ui-a; (see calhuia under calania; ghel, to injure, 
under tla-uel-l); (see 12 b). 

tlatlacoUi, sin ; tlatla + colli, Skr. cara, conduct, behav- 
ior, hence toWa-coUi, "ardent" or " excessive " actions; by 
extension, sin. 

tla-tlama, (ni) to fish with a net; Lat. tramgo 
(transmeo?), go or pass through; trama, the woof (weav- 
ing); njgo, go, pass; (see motla). 

tlatlauhtia, (ni) pray, ask; (nite) ask a favor; (nitla) 
pray; tlauhtia, (nite) do a favor; tlatla + Skr. vac, uktd, 
say, speak, say a prayer. 

tlatoa, speak, tla+itoa; tlatoani (tlatohuani), one who 
speaks by authority; xi-tlatoa tepitzin Mexicopa, speak a 
little Mexican (Ohimpo.) ; xi-tlaquauh-tlatoa, speak loudly 
(Arenas); tlein itolo, what is said, what is the news? 


(Chimpo.); see itoa; cf. Skr. vad, to speak, speak authori- 
tatively; tla+*md; Lat. vates, seer. ; 

tlauana, tlahuana, to get drunk; t\a-\- huanaj Skr. tr 
+ pana, drinking; (14); (see Chimph., Annals, 1476). 

tlauele, angry, brave; tlauelia, to hate; telpochfiaweZ- 
iloc, perverse, a tricky young man, rake; tlauelcxd, to 
be abusive, get angry; tla + *ghel; Skr. hr, h^rati, take 
by violence, steal; hrnit6, be angry; Hara, the destroyer, 
epithet of Siva, cognate qual-ani, angry; the dropping of 
the guttural indicates an earlier *uelli without the prefix 
tla; loc, Skr. lok, to "look," or ruj, "disease;" Greek, 
\v7-/3o?; Lat. lugeo. 

tlauia, *tlauiza, (nitla) strike a light; (nite) to guide 
(with torch?) ; (nitla) to paint red; tlauizc&lli, the dawn; 
tla-\-uizj Skr. us 6sati, vas, to light up; usds, dawn; Greek, 
avm, kindle; Lat. us-t-us, burned; rjw's, dawn; Lat. aurora, 
*ausosa; AS. Eos-t-ra; Eng. Easter; tla-Mtzc-alli, Skr. 
vl, +5eand, "far shining." 

tlaulli, tlaolli, maize, grain; Skr. tla+y^va, grain, later 
barley; Taylor (^Origin of the Aryans, p. 28) thinks Skr. 
vrhi, rice, is originally European rye; vr. gives Mex. ul-li, 
but the Mexican is probably simply tla+vr, ol-li, "the 
round thing." 

tlaxtlauia, to pay; tla +ix+ tlauia; neuatl niqu'ix- 
Uahuiz centlacolpan inic tlapatiotilli, I will pay half that 
price (Arenas); ix; Skr. is, desirable thing + drav-ya, 
property (dru). 

tietl, fire, tl+et-1; Skr. daru, drii, tree; Greek, S/oO?; 
Goth, triu; Eng. tree + idh, to burn, 6dha, kindling; 
Greek, a'idm; Lat. aed-es; AS. ad, funeral pile; Eng. oast, 
a kiln to dry malt. 

tleuauana, to stir up the fire; tletl+ua-uana; (see 
tletl) ; nana; Skr. vAna, wood, hence "firewood;" Quauh- 


tleuaiiitzin (Chimalpahin), author of the "Annals^^ of the 
Naua, "Fire-Brand;" quauitl, stick, "poker." 

tliltic, *tHiltic, black; Skr. dr, driydti, to see; AS. 
tilian, to be intent on ; il-t, Grer. zielen, aim at -\- OFries. 
irthe, the earth ; Goth, airpa ; Ger. erde ; Greek, epa^e, hence 
black, "earth color;" cf. r] yrj fieXaiva irivei, the "black" 
earth drinks. 

toca (o short), (nite) follow, accompany, frequent evil 
resorts ; in comp. to feign, pretend ; o-nimitz-micca tocaca, 
I feigned death before you; Goth, tiuha, tauh, taiihum, to 
draw; Ger. ge-zog-en; OHG. tziohan; Lat. diico; (see 
teuctli) ; to feign, Goth, pugkjan, to seem ; OHG. 
dunchen; two forms coalesced. 

toca (o long), (nitla) to plant seeds; toctli, maize, 
"planted;" Skr. tok-man, green stalk; (nite) to bury; to 
drown; perish; OHG. duhan, gi-dung-an, squeeze (press 
grain in ground with foot?); Lith. tvenkia(?), it gives 
pain; or Skr. tadka, "killing." 

tocaitl, name; no-toca, my name; tlein i-tocaf what 
is his name? Skr. da, bestow, give+ketii, appearance, 
"distinguishes;" Eng. hood, as in maiden-hood. 

tochtli, rabbit, very doubtful ; cf. Skr. dhvas, to be off, 
perish; dhusvara, "dust colored;" Turk, taushane, rabbit ; 
Shoshone (Snake), toosha, rabbit; Natick, wan-tuq-es. 
"They have a reverent esteem for this creature and con- 
ceive there is sonie deity in it" (Trumbull, Natick Diet.) ; 
cf. Legend of Manabozho, "the Great Hare," and Hindu 
rabbit in moon; cf. tujati, hasten, "the runner," and tile, 
offspring, "the prolific one." 

tolinia, to endure, to be poor; Skr. tul, tolAyati, bear 
up; Greek, raXo?, wretched; Lat. tul-i; Goth, tulan; 
Eng. thole; cognate, toloa, to bow the head, to swallow. 

toUin, a reed; "cats-tail," Hispanicized, tule; Skr. 


tula, cotton plant, panicle (Bpt.) ; Greek, rv-Xr?, swelling, 
lump; (see tomauac). 

toltecatl, an artisan, a Toltec, a builder. The Tolteca 
who came to Anahuac late in the seventh century, A. D., 
were reputed to be great builders, some of the imposing 
ruins of Mexico being attributed to them. Uncertain; cf. 
Greek, tv/jo-i?, tower, fortification, wall; Lat. turris, the 
same; Skr. forms are: tur, to run, conquering; tur-yd, 
superior strength ; cf . tur, the root of Turanian. 

toma, (nino) take off belt, (nitla) untie; (nite) get 
another out of jail; uitoma or uituma, to pull down a 
house; spurting of water pent up; Greek, To'/xa (Dor.), a 
piece cut off, section ; ui, Skr. vi, apart^ away, as in uitoloa; 
cf. Algonquin, tomahawks, a tommyhawk, "hatchet;" 
ypan in mo-huiton [torn J, panhuetz yn teocalli yn ical 
Huitzilopochtli, then "grew," became splendid, the temple 
the house of Uitzilopochtli, i.e., was rebuilding (Chimph., 
Annals, 1482); this tu-m is Yi-\- tu, grow, swell; (see 
tomauac) . 

tomauac, fat, plump; tomatl, tomato; Skr. tu, t^viti, to 
be strong (swell); tiim-ra, fat; Greek, tvXw, lump; Lat. 
tum-ulas; AS. thuma; Ger. daum; Eng. thumb; perhaps 
tomifl, wool, hair, from swelled, puffy appearance of fleece; 
ua-c, affix ■j;a + c; or vangd, "kind." 

tonatiuh, the sun; tona + tiuh; tona; Skr. diin6ti, 
burns, "the burner"; cognates, tonalli, heat of sun, sum- 
mer; itonia, to perspire; <0'«a?- a matl, book of magic ( ?) or 
martyrology; if Greek, i'So?, sweat, be Skr. svid, thenMex. 
itonia may perhaps be * svid -f- tonia. 

tontli, (ton), a postpositive denoting depreciation, 
diminution; piWouH/, pilh tontli (Olmos), a little boy, 
ueueton, "little old thing;" Skr. dhvan, dhvdnati, to 
become extinguished, to blacken; AS. dunn; Eng. dun. 


topal, fantastic; topalquetza, (nino) to be presump- 
tuous; tap-a-l; Skr. tap, to burn, do penance; tApa-s, 
ardor, penance; tapa, the same, "fantastic," clothed as a 
hermit or holy man( ?). 

topilli, staff, insignia of office ; topil-e, a constable ; Skr. to- 
mara, a lance ; cf . Tartar topaz, official truncheon of a khan. 

tototl, bird; Skr. tud-d,-ti, pushes, beats; Lat. tu-tud-i; 
allusion to bird's movements in flying. 

tzaqua, (nitla) to close; (nite) stop or confine ; izaqualli, 
stopping place, specifically, pyramids of the sun and the 
moon at San Juan Teotihuacan, where Nanauatzih (moon 
god) and Tecuiztecatl (sun god) once sojourned; nihio 
mo-tzaqua, my breath stops (asthma) ; xio-tzaqua in mo- 
camac, shut your mouth (Chimpo. ) ; mo-tzaqua in quauitl, 
the rain ceases; Skr. saj, sAjati, cling to; Lat. segnis, to 
stick; Lith. seg-ii, I fasten. 

tzetzeloa or -huia, (nitla) shake (clothing, tree) ; sift, 
strain, pick or chip off; tzetzelinhti mani, rain or snow 
falling; tzeltilia, chip off, pick at; *tzelc, Skr. srj, sasarja, 
let loose from hand; throw, _pot(r (rain), emit; tilia, Skr. 
drnati, split; Groth. ga-tair-an; Lith. diru; Eng. tear. 

tzicauaztli, a comb; tzicoa, (nite) grasp or detain a 
person, to tie one thing to another; tzicatl, an ant, 
"strong one;" chica-uac, strong; Skr. dhr, hold, support, 
hold in check; Greek, ^/jo'-z'-o?; Lat. fre-tus; +ka. 

tzilini, to ring like metal; tzilinia, to ring as a bell; 
Skr. svar, to sound ; Greek, a-vp-iv-^, flute ; Lat. su-sur-rus, 
humming; Eng. swarm (bees); (see UitzilopOchtli). 

-tzin, (honorific) honorable, great, as Cauht6moc-fem, 
last Aztec emperor; term of endearment, as hopil-fom, 
my dear little boy ; Skr. dha, put, appoint, ordain, accom- 
plish, as pujarh vi-dha, show honor j for cognates, see chiua, 
teo; (13) ; cf. Temvchin or -jin, the name of Genghiz Khan. 


tzintli, end, anus; tepetl i-tzin-tian, foot of the moun- 
tain; tzintia, to ordain a thing; no ihquac tzintic [o-tzintic] 
in nemactiliztli, now [this year] marriage was instituted 
(Chimph., Annals, 1529, p. 212) ; Skr. sad, sit, settle down; 
Latin, sedo; Goth, sitan; Grer. sitzen; Eng. sit. 

tzitzitza, (nitla) to bind firmly ; syn. cacatza; tzitzi + tza; 
Skr. so, to bind; tzi, si, (sa) sy^ti, to bind; Greek, t/ua?, 
*a-iixa<;, strap; OSlav. s6-ti; AS. sa-da; Ger. sai-te, string. 

tzomia, sew, blow the nose ; Ski*, sivyati, to sew ; Greek, 
Kaaavto; Lat. suo ; AS. siwian ; Eng. sew ; blow, Skr. svan, 
to sound. 

tzontli, hair of the head; pelo (MoL); as a numeral 
400; top, i-tzon-co in qaauitl, in the tree top; no-tzon- 
tecon, the head (comitl) ; Skr. sanu, peak, top. 

tzopelia, sweeten, *tzot + pel; *tzot, Skr. svadiis; 
Greek, ^Wy; Eng. sweet; peZ-m, "full;" {Bee calpolli) . 

tzotzopaztli, redup., tzo + tzo+paztli; blade, "sword" 
which drives the threads home in weaving; tzo, Skr. su, 
su, suvdti, set in motion; Greek, aifia crv-ro, the blood 
spurted ; (for paztli, see pagyotl) . 


1 ua, plu. uan, adj. affix; Skr. va (Whitney, Sanskrit 
Grammar, sec. 1190); cf. tnma-ua-c, fat, tum+va+c 
with Skr. pak-vd, ripe; this "uac" may also be Skr. vangd, 
kind, "plump kind;" ua, possessive as tlatquitl, riches; 
tlatqui-wa, a rich man. Cf. New Pers. affix va, van. 

2 ua, "big," te-wa-palli, a big stone; Skr. bahii, much ; 
(see uapaua). 

uacalli, sort of cage for carrying things on the shoul- 
ders ; uacaloa, to flute or stripe ; Skr. vyag, to encompass ; 
uacaliui, to be weak nerved, crippled; Skr. vane, vAncati, 
to totter, rock; Lat. vac-uus; vac-illo, to be weak, timid. 


uacqui, a dry thing; uac + qui; Greek, (fxayco, roast; 
OHG. bahhu, bake. 

ual, hither, this way; prefix to verbs; ttaZ-lauh, to 
come; ual-cnepa, return; nehuatl ni-uallaz nican, I shall 
return here (Arenas) ; Skr. val, vdlati, to turn, return. 

uapalli, table, a board or beam; ua+pal-li; ua, Skr. 
bahii, big, strong; (see ua and tlapaltic). 

uapaua, uapahua, support, strengthen, get rigid; fig., 
to bring up children; ua -\-paua; Skr. bah, be thick, 
strong, much; Greek, 7ra;)j;v?; thick, strong; tttj;;^!;?, fore 
arm, *^axv<>; ua, bahii, much; Ger. bug, shoulder. 

-uastli, in comp., mammal-was W^, constellation Orion; 
fig., a protector; hence (astrology); (1) "house," Skr. 
vastu, house; or (2) vas, to shine (as star); (3) vas, a 
vest-meni, "furniture" {tzicauastli, ecauastli) ; of. Natick, 
wetu, house; Quichua, huasi, house; Eng. was (to remain) ; 
(see Nanauatzin, "dwelling with n-Ana"?). 

uatza, to dry, soften; tle-wafea, roast meats; Skr. us, 
burn; vas, ucchdti, light up; Lat. ustus, burned. 

uaualoa, to bark (dog); uaualtza, the same; Skr. 
bhas, to bark + ru, raiiti, to cry, howl; Greek, ay-pv-ofjuai; 
Lat. raucus; AS. rhyn, a roaring; (s, in bhas, dropped, 
see moyotl) ; ualtza, cf. vrsa (end of comps. in Veda), 

uauana, redup., (nitla) to scarify the soil, rule paper, 
to make drawings; Skr. vap, vApate, shear, shave, pare 
nails, crop off, sow seed; vap-ra, mound of earth; ud + 
vap, dig up; (14). 

uayolcayotl, blood relationship; ua + yolca-yotl; see 
ua and uei, large + Skr. vrj, varjAyati, vrjtoa, dwelling 
place or dwellers; by-form, ualyolcatl; also uancayotlj 
Skr. vaflQ^, " family " + otl. 

uei, huei, large; ueia, to grow; make big; ueiatl, the 


sea; ueyao, long; cuix ueca? is it far? ttecatlaca, for- 
eigners; quenin uecatlaca amo ueuetzca noca? why do 
not foreigners laugh at us ? (Chimpo. ) ; uecaua, delay ; tleica 
oan-uecauhque? Why did .you delay? (Arenas); Skr. m, 
particle indicating size, distance. 

uel, good, very good ; weZachto, firstly ; uel axcan, just 
now; uel ca iyollo, content, good is his heart; uel ocachi 
tlatquihua, he is much richer; MeZtiuhtli, eldest sister; 
Skr. vr, vrnit6, choose, wish; Lat. volo; OEng. wol, wol 
not, wont; cf. Aryan *g^hel; Skr. hr ; Greek, e-deX-eo, 
6e\(o, be willing, wish, prefer, determine, be able; (see 
ila-uel-e, ueliti). 

ueliti, (ni) I am able, possum; *vrt; vr + affix t, to 
have a band or following; cf. Skr. mr-t-yii-s, death; 
Avestan, as-ber^-t, enduring much; Mexican thematic i 
=Avestan e (Brug., II, sec. 123) ; Eng. worth, he-ware. 

uentli, an offering; wentlamana, to make an offering; 
Skr. hu, guh6ti, *ghu, pour into the fire, make oblation; 
Greek, xe-(o *-)^ef-a), pour; Lat. fons, fov-nt, fountain; AS. 
ge6t-an; Ger. ge-gos-sen, poured. 

uetzca, to laugh; Skr. hdsati; jask, to laugh or eat, 
ghas. (See Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, sec. 640.) 

uetzi, to fall; uetztoc, to be in bed; in comp., idea of 
acceleration as, teztiuetzi, grind rapidly, from teci; Skr. 
hu, to pour; Greek, ^v-crt-?, fall (of leaves) ; Lat. fu-ti-s, 
water spout + Skr. vi, apart + si, to hurl, throw; "down- 
fall;" (see uen-tli). 

ueue, *ueuet, redup., old; ueuetque, huehuetque, ances- 
tors or old men; Skr. *vatas, year; Greek, eVo? *peTO<;, 
year; Lat. vetus, old, hence "yeared." 

ueuetl, *ue-ueptl, a drum; Skr. vip, v6pate, tremble, 
shake; Lat. vibro; AS. wsefre; Eng. waver. 

-uic, -huic, in comp., near; ganye ma xitechmo-maquix- 


till in i-Am'c-pa in amo qualli, and mayst Thou keep us 
from contact with the not-good (evil), (Lord's Prayer, 
Luke) ; Skr. viq, to settle in, veqA, a house; Greek, oIko';; 
Lat. vic-inus; Eng. vic-arage; cf. Algonquin, wiki-wami, 
wigwam; Natick, neh-wek-it, those in his household; 
Tupi, og, ok-a, house. 

uica, carry, support; xic-onuicacan on [inon?], you 
(plu.) carry that (Arenas) ; aompa t\a,-uica in notequiuh, 
my work does not suit me; Skr. vah, *vagh, carry; 
Greek, oxeas, carry; Lat. vehere, *vectere; vehiculum, 
a wagon; AS. weg-an, to weigh; Ger. weg, a road; Eng. 

uipilli, tunic, (mil) quilted coat of mail made of 
cotton; AS. wimpal; OHG. wimpal", veil, streamer, nun's 
wimple; OFrench, guimple; (g parasitic, as Guillaume 
for William) ; Eng. gimp, borrowed. 

uiptla, day after tomorrow ; ye uiptla, day before yester- 
day ; uip + tla, Skr. vip, to waver back and forth -f tla, 
(1) Skr. trdy-as; Greek, r/aet?, rpi-a-i; Lith. tre-ji, three 
"by three;" *tr-i (Brug., Ill, sec. 167); (2) tr, to 

uitequi, (nite) to beat or chastise; (nitla) thrash with 
a flail; (1) ui + tequi; mi; Greek, t-9 *ft-9, power ; Lat. vi-s, 
strength; (2) Skr. vadh, to beat; Greek, odea -{-qui. 

uitoloa, (nitla) to bend a bow without shooting; uitol- 
iui, to twist, mould clay; uitoliuhqui, an arched bridge; 
syn. ten-ollij Skr. vi, "away"+tul, toldyati, to raise, 

uitz eheeatl, south-east wind or wind of the middle of 
the day; hot is indicated; Skr. us, to burn; Lat. ustus; 
(see tlauia). 

uitz, huitz, to come (only in pres. and perf. ind.) ; 
gives added meaning in comp., uitla-qua-ti-uitz, I come 


eating; Skr. vis, to be active; cf. bhusati, with same 

uitzilin, humming bird; vi + tzilin; Skr. vi, bird; Lat. 
avis + Skr. svar, sv^rati, sound. 

Uitzilopochtli, Mexican war god; left leg adorned with 
feathers of humming bird ; uitzilin (which see) -\- opoch- 
tli, left side; "left" no doubt connected with Aryan "bad 
luck" legends, hence originally o-poch-t\i, "the lucky," 
by euphemism; o, Skr. a, "entirely;" poch, Skr. bhaj, to 
portion out (give or get) ; bhagin, happy, bhaginl, sister, 
"happy one;" Mex. ich-pocA-tli, a girl; OPers. baga, god; 
Russ. Bog; (PAA., p. 114) ; cf. Algonquin, Msma-bozh-o; 
Natiok, Nane-paits/i-adt, the moon, moon god; if bhu- 
sati, "the adorned one," he is still "the left hand" one 
apparently because opochtli is given by Molina for left, 
along with chicoyotl, which means suspicion; Skr. dhik, 
displeasure ; dhik-kr, to reproach. 

Uitznauatl, god of condemned slaves; uitz+nauatl; 
uitz, Skr. vis, the plebs, common people; cf. Vishnu; 
(see nana) . 

uitztli, a thorn; Skr. hrs, hrsyati, to be excited, to 
stand on end (as hair) ; Lat. horrere * horsere, to shudder, 
be horror struck; Ger. gerste, barley. 

uiuixca, to tremble, shake ; uiuixcayotl, the debility of 
a sick person who trembles and totters; Skr. vij, vij6ti, 
to tremble; *visk, or vij + affix ka; OHG. weih; AS. 
wac; Eng. weak. 

-utl, -otl, common ending of nouns ; called by Mexican 
grammarians the ending of abstract nouns ; tlacatl, man, 
tlacayutl, humanity; patiuhtli, patiotl, price; qualli, 
good; qual-1-o/Z, goodness; puchtecatl, a merchant; 
puchteca-2/ofZ, merchandise, but moyotl, a fly, is certainly 
not an abstract; Skr. m or w+tl; as tap, tdpu, hot; dara, 


dani, bursting; going further back the proethnic aflBx, 
0, d, had the same meaning; as *gon, beget, *gon-o, a 
begetting; (Brug., II, sec. 60; see 2a). 

-X-, [z, sh), perfect ending as, ni-tlachia, I see; perf., 
o-m-tlachix, I saw it or I have seen it; tla-piuia, to grow; 
o-tla-piuix, it grew; also, o-ila-piuia-c; cf. Aryan s-aorist 
as, *merg, Skr. 6-mark-s-am; Greek, a-fiep^-ai,; *deik, 
Skr. ^-dikg-i; Greek, e-6ei^-a; Lat. dix-i; (see 3 ca) ; also 
sign of the future as nitla-pia, I guard; nitla-piaz, I 
shall guard; cf. Greek, \v-a-(o, I shall loose. 

xalli, sand, xayotl, lees (of wine) ; Skr. sard, "moving," 
root, sr ; xalieil, pebble ; teil, tila, a small particle of any- 

xamitl, a brick; xa + mitl; Skr. sam, "together" + 
mit6, meted, same measure in length and breadth; Lat. 
me-ta, a post. 

xapotla, (nitla) to destroy a wall or fence; (nite) de- 
flower a virgin ; a;apo/-timotlalia, to ruptiire, burst ; xa + 
pot; sa, "entirely," asinMex. cen; Skr. sa-kala, "wholly" 
+ Skr. puth, pothydti, destroy; la, Skr. ra, give, bestow; 
or ra, "having." 

xaqualoa, (nino) rub self; (nic) rub one thing against 
another, shell (peas) ; itech nic-xaqualoa, I rub two 
things together ; Skr. sa, to be in common with + hr, 
hold, get, take, "handle;" Greek, x^^Pj the hand; (for 
hr, see qualani). 

zaua, to adorn self in Indian style, paint, (mo) ripen- 
ing of fruit; Skr. garand, a covering; Lat. color; oc-cul- 
ere, to conceal; cf. Ger. htille, hull, covering; cognate, 
calli, house, KaXid. 

xayacatl, the face; A-xayaca-tzin, "Rain in the face," 


Tlatohuani (King) of Tenuchtitlan, 1469; xa + yacatl(?), 
the nose, "point" (.?); Skr. sa, connection, unity (with 
the nose); yacatl, nose; yaca-iia, to sharpen, to be first; 
2/oc-achto, to be first (see yacana) ; or ac (see acatl). 

xeloa, (nitla) to divide, portion out; xexeloa, (nitla) 
to divide, to break up ground; (nite) divide the people 
into parties ; xeliui, to split in two ; Skr. §r, cirndti, break, 

zigo, to be well; xigotzi, agreeable, otorgando, said 
only of women; "tractable;" xig-\-oj Skr. gis, ginAsti, 
gistd,, to separate, hence distinguished, a "good person;" 
(for o, see 2 a); (see phonetics of quetza). 

xicotli, "a big honey bee that bores in the trees;" 
cf. Skr. si, to dart + guh, hiding place, hole. 

xictia, (ninote) to hold another in small esteem; (ni) 
xicuetzi, to lose one's honor; xicoa, to be angry; (nite) 
make fun of; xiccana, to lose a thing through negligence; 
Skr. root in all, sic, pour out, be arrogant ; CSl. sicati; 
Grer. seichen, to strain; Eng. silt; (see uetzi, caua). 

xictli, the navel; Skr. ji, jin6ti, enliven, quicken, also 
jinv, and jiv; Greek, /3to?, life; Lat. viv-us; Goth, qiu-s; 
OHG. quec; AS. cwic, cwicu, cwucu, cucu; Eng. quick; 
gen. meaning of all, to be alive, to be "quick;" suflix k 
only in Germanic and Mexican; the navel being the 
attachment of the life-cord of the foetus, the allusion 
appears to be to the "quickening" of the embryonic being; 
cf. xictia. 

xicuecueyotl, "large wrinkles on the bellies of old men 
and old women;" acuecueyotl, a wave; acuecuexatl, 
(Chimph.), ic niman qui-ualhuicaque in Mexico in 
acuecuexatl, soon the fiood arrived at Mexico (Chimph., 
Annals, 1499, p. 172) ; cuech, Skr. krs, karsati, draw fur- 
rows, draw; (for xi, see xillantli). 


xillantli, flank, belly, womb; xi-l-lantli ; xij Skr. sa, 
si, syd,ti, bind; Lith. se-tas; Ger. saite, string; or xic, 
in xidli, the navel; lantli; Skr. lamb, to hang down; 
Greek, \o^-(h; Lat. limbus, border, fringe, belt; AS. Isep- 
pa, loosely hanging; Eng. lap, limp, lop; (cf. xipeua). 

xinachtli, seed, semen, sprout, cutting; xinachoa, to 
sow grain; xin -\- achtli; perhaps Skr. sina, "provision," 
"seed" + as, to throw, as in sowing grain; (see achtli). 

xini, fall, as wall; xitmi, the same, destroy; xitinia, 
(nitla, nic) to destroy; in qvLi-xi-xitinique nouian in 
inteocal ihuan in imixiptla tlacatecollo in quimmo-teotiaya 
inhuehuetque tocolhuan, they destroyed everywhere [with 
us] the temples and the images of the devils, those which 
the ancients, our ancestors, worshiped (Chimph., Annals, 
1534) ; Skr. chid, to cut off, hew down ; Greek, aici^co ; Lat. 
scind-o, rend, split; (for mi, see tlami). 

xiotl, shuttle (weaving) ; Skr. su, suvdti, impel, set in 
motion; Greek, aevco, ctvto, shake, drive, impel; Goth, 
skewjan; AS. seeatel; Eng. shuttle. 

xipeua, to shell peas or beans; xippachoa, to cover 
with grass, weeds, smother crops; xip, Skr. gipi, gipitd, 
something superfluous ; meaning in Mexican evidently 
"covering;" (see eua, pachoa). 

xipe, god of the goldsmiths, cf. Skr. Cipi-vlstd, an epi- 
thet of Vishnu and Qiva; the victims of this god were 
flayed; (see yolcatl and PAA., p. 162). 

xiuitl, *xipitl, grass, year, turquoise, comet, grass; Skr. 
gipl, gipitd, cipka, a fibrous or thin root; (see xipeua); 
xip-paUi, the color of a turquoise, "grass color;" the 
ancients had very indefinite ideas of color and confused 
even blue with black; (14). 

xococ, sour; xoxouhqui, *xoxocqui( ?), green, raw, un- 
ripe; &g., free; xocotl, fruit; fig., young, younger brother; 


specifically, apple; generic, fruit, as naranja xocotl, an 
orange; sour, Skr. guc, burn, give pain; free, giici, 
pure, honest; asoc-paleuac, summer; Skr. guci, summer; 
cf. Lat. suc-us, juice; OHGr. sucu; AS. suce, suck; Eng. 

xolhuaztli, a clothes brush; cf. Skr. suri, impeller, active 
agent; or sara, "removing;" uastli as an article of furni- 
ture' occurs frequently in Mexican ; (see ecauastli, tzica- 
uastli, teponastli) ; also as "house" see Nanauatzin. 

xolo, a slave, page, nurse, serving man; xolopitl, a 
dunce; Skr. gala, house; galagni, the domestic fire; (for 
pitl, see molictli) ; cf. sala-s, "lazy." 

xolochtli, a wrinkle; xo -|- lochtli ; Skr. su, intensive, 
well, thoroughly; lochtli, Skr. ruj, break, injure; Greek, 
'Kvy-po's, painful; Lat. ruga, a wrinkle. 

xonexca, to advise, to warn; (MAP., Skr. janati, to 
know; Greek, ycyvMa-Ko) ; untenable); Skr. su, well + nig- 
caya, conviction, persuasion; etymology uncertain. 

xotl, the foot, comp. only, as to-sco-pil, the toes; Skr. 
ksud, to stamp upon. 

xotla, xo + tla, to dry up (ground) ; burn (coals) ; to 
bud (flowers),; Skr. ksa, ksayAtl, to burn; (ks 16); for 
tla, see tlatla ; cognate, scouatza, to become lean. 

xuchitl, xocMtl,. a flower; xuchioa, the blooming of a 
rose tree; xuchiotl, fat around the Entrails; gen. meaning, 
bright, shining; Skr. su, well-f-dha dhita," well- made." 

xumatli, xumalli, xomatli, a ladle, dipper ; xu + matli ; 
xu, Skr. su, extract, liquor -f- matli, Skr. ma, to measure^ 
cf. s6ma, the Vedic drink; this word illustrates the Mexi- 
can method of noun endings, tl [tr) and l-li, (r). 



yacana, to guide, lead; yacatl, the nose, "pointer;" 
yacatia, to point; same as acatlj cf. Skr. rajati, direct, 
rule; Lat. reg-is, king; Goth, reiki; AS. rice, dominion; 
(r, 12, 17). 

yacapichtlan, place of painted or adorned noses ; yacatl 
+.pich-|-tlan; pick, adorn, yhquac yah Quetzalcanauhtli 
in ompa Coyohuacan tejaca-piqui-to, then Quetzalcanauhtli 
went to Coyohuacan [Yacapichtlan] where he adorned 
their noses; (Chimph., ^?iraaZs, 6th Rel., 1332) ; Skr. pig, 
to adorn; Lat. pic-tor, a painter; g here develops two 
forms: pich(sh), piq(k). 

yamaztia, (ni) to be assuaged, mollified; yqmaztic, 
smooth, soft; Skr. ra?-|-mrsna, soft, smooth; yaniania, 
synonym, ram ? quiet + mi-a ; az, a.q or anc. 

yancuic, new, recent; metztli yancuic, the new moon; 
Mod. Pers. yanki, new; c adj. ending, etymology uncer- 

yaoyotl, war, battle ; yaotla, or yaochiua, to make war ; 
root, yaot; ipan inin acito xochiyaoyotl in ompa Chalco- 
Atenco, in this [year] began the "flower war" at Chalco- 
Atenco (Chimph., Annals, 1376) ; Skr. yudh, yiidhyate, 
to fight; Greek, vaiuvrj *vd-aiJL-, battle; a in root may be 
explained by vrddhi (Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, 226). 

yappalli, black; yap-f-palli; yap, Skr. Apa, away, forth; 
Greek, airo; Lat. ab; Eng. off; hence "off color;" (see 
tlapalli) ; y euphonic; better * yac-palli. 

yaualtic, round, circular (as round table); Skr. ya, 
yati, go-J-vr, to encompass; coyaua, to enlarge, a hole 
*coyaual ( ?) ; ololiuhcayotl, round, spherical ; see ololoa) ; 
round, like a column, mimiltic, see mr in molictU, 

yauh, to go; pres. ni-yauh; fut. ui-azj perf. o-n'iaj 


Skr. ya, yati, go; Panj. ya-na; cf. Arabic ja, to come, 
yalla, to go ; ya Allah ? 

yayactic, blackish, yauitl, black, brown corn, maize; 
Skr. rajds, dark; Groth. riqis; Eng. rack, clouds ; (r, 12). 

1 ye, yeuatl, pro., he, that; Skr. ya, which, what, 
originally that; Eng. yon; .2/eMa^Z=ye-sua-tl; Skr. sva, self. 

2 ye, adv. in constant use, already, past, always was; 
ye uiptla, day before yesterday; ye iloti in metztli, 
[already] the moon wanes; ye tocon-chiua gan tepiton, as 
yet we have done very little (Arenas); Skr. ey&, custom; 
in this way, so; Grreek, aei *afei, always; Lat. aevum, an 
age; Goth, aiw, ever; Eng. aye, ever. 

yecoa, *yelcoa (nite) cohabit; (nitla, nic) achieve, 
finish ; aoc nocon-yecoa, I am not able to endure a person ; 
Grreek, epy-ov, epjm, work; Goth, vaiirkja; OHG. were; 
Eng. work; also parallel stem, epSa *fepyieo (Brug., IV, 
sec. 706) ; OHG. wirk; root, *uerg. 

yectli, good, virtuous, just, right; mayectli, the right 
hand; Skr. rj, rnj, rnjAti, reach out (straight); Greek, 
opeyco; Lat. rec-te, right; OHG. reht; AS. rec-ian; Ger. 
recht; Eng. right; (12, 17). 

yetic, heavy; y+eti+c; Skr. ^ti, excessive ; dti-hhara, 
excessive biirden; y introductory glide. 

yezhuahuacatl, a Mexican official of high rank 
(Ohimph., Annals, 1431); *(y) +ez + du-a+huac-a+tl, 
y euphonic glide; ez Skr. is, 6sta, worship; du, duva-s, 
" offering" + vac, v^ca-s, request; "he who requests the 
offerings;" du form of da; vac, Greek, eVo? *feirov, word; 
Lat. voco, vox. 

yhuitl, down, feathers; Skr. vi, bird; Lat. avis. 

yoalli, yualli, night; tlaca youa-c, midnight; tlaca ti- 
uallaz amo youal-tica, you will arrive by day, not by night ; 
Skr. a+vr, vrn6ti, cover, conceal; avr-ta, "covered;" 


heiice, the "curtain of night," " the concealer ; " a intensive 
adv., entirely; y euphonic glide ; cf. vdruna, the "Encom- 
passer" of the Universe. 

yocatia, (nite) to deceive; (nicno) to appropriate a 
thing to one's self; no-yocauh, mine ("thing which is 
mine") ; Skr. yac, yacati, ask, beg, woo, as a girl in mar- 
riage (rev.). 

yocoani, god, the creator; Skr. yuj, yun6,kti, prepare, 
make ready; Greek, ^evyvvfj-o; Lat. yungo, to yoke; Ger. 
joch ; Eng. yoke ; or Skr. yu, to unite + coa-ni. 

yolcatl, a slug, grub; yolcayotl, saliva, froth, food; 
iyolca, cream, oozings; yolcaxvp&MR, {nite) flay another 
alive ; Skr. urj, sap, strength ; Greek, opydw ; Lat. virga, 
a swelling twig; y euphonic; (see xipe). 

yoli, to live, be conceived, alterarse el miembro, ardere ; 
oti-yol, [yolh ] otilacat, otimo-tlalticpacquixtico, thou wert 
begotten, thou wert born, thou hast arrived on earth 
(Olmos, "Address of a Father to his Son") ; olin, ollin, 
is an undulatory motion, as a wave, tlalolin, earthquake; 
or direct motion, as olin in tonatiuh, movement of the sun ; 
all these indicate Skr. urmi, a wave ; Greek, e\uta, to turn ; 
Lat. volvo, to revolve; Eng. wal-low, well; yollotl, olotl, 
the heart, "the roller." 

yoltompochtli, a fool; yyo an yoltompochtin ihuan yetic 
in anmo-yollo, oh ye fools and slow of heart, Luke 
24:5; yol-ftom+pochtli; torn, heavy, darkened (spirit- 
ually); Skr. tam, tamas, darkened; Lat. tenebrae; OHG. 
demar, dusk; Ger. dammerung; yyo, Zend, voya; Eng. 

yopeua, (nitla) despegar algo, unloose, disjoin; Skr. 
yup, yopdyati, to obstruct, thwart + eua(?). 

yopiueuetl, a small drum carried on the person in bat- 
tle; ueuetl, a drum; ga no ye ipan in itlahuiz (trousseau) 


yn Axayacatzin yopihuehnetl in qui-mamaya, also in his 
war-gear Axayacatl carried a yopiueuetl (Chimph., An- 
nals, 1480) ; yopi, Skr. rup, lup, lumpdti, attack; in Ger- 
manic, spoils; AS. reaf, booty; OHGr. rouban, to rob; 
OPrench, rober; hence robe, garment; cf. yupa, allusion 
to sacrifice; (r, 12, 17). 

yuh, adv., so, as, thus; xinech-itta in yuh nimitz-itta, 
see me as I see you; yuhca (yuh+ca) noy olio, such is 
my idea (heart) ; yuhc&yotl, nature of a thing, kind; Skr. 
yuj, yun^kti, "make ready" in gen.; y6ga, use; yuh is 
very frequent in comps. or introductory, as, yuhca no- 
yeliz, such is my custom; yuh m'itotia, so they say; yuh 
nenqui, a bachelor, he is, so to speak, nothing or a "do 
nothing. " 

yuhti, iuhti, first time ; in locution quin iuhti;. iuh -f 
ti ; Skr. yuj ; yuk-td, preparation ; yug-adi, the beginning 
(of the world); or Skr. yii-van, young; Lat. juvenis; 
Germanic, *yuvuhga; Ger. jung; Eng. young, youth. 


It is believed that the indices here given in f,ve languages will serve the 
purpose of linguists in all parts of the civilized world. Hence "scattering" 
words in various languages have been omitted, since their insertion would meet 
no real want. English has been made the leader in Germanic. The Sanskrit 
index will require no explanation for Sanskrit scholars, but for the benefit of 
those who know little or no Sanskrit, I have given developed forms as well as 
radicals. The verb offers the chief difficulties, owing to the complicated devel- 
opment of forms. Thus vip, the root, to waver, is in Sanskrit dictionaries : vip, 
v6pate, he wavers ; from the root yu springs yaiiti, to join, and yuydti^ to repel ; 
vac, to speak ; vdkti, he speaks ; uktd, spoken. Reduplication is frequent in 
Sanskrit and more frequent in Mexican, as Sanskrit dha, put, d&dhati. This 
scheme is not strictly followed in all cases. 

The supplementary Mexican list includes cognates not given under the 
captions. Owing to compounding, Mexican words may not always be found 
under my captions, thus eel, ceiti, does not exist as an independent vocable. 
Molina gives icel, himself only. He gives maytl, hand; noma, my hand (under 
n). Sim6on analyzes everything. 


a, an, 25, 26 

filarka, 26 

ire, 50 

4gra, 26 

4va, 28, 29 

I'rte, 45 

aghfi, 28 

ftvati, 28 

15, 43, 95 

ftSga, 26, 27 

&vara, 29 

ankfi, 40, 79 

a?, 25, 29, 33, 38, 41 

nks, 60 

aflc, 3.3, 38 

asau, 48 

ud, 60 

ftjati, 23 

as6n, 41 

uccb&ti, 51, 

ftfijas, 59 

asyfiti, 41 

uflch, 59 


ah£m, 54 

licyati, 80 

fttti, 46 

a, 25, 59, 90, 96 

unfttti, 28, 21 

ddhl, 25 

ap, 28 

uluka, 73 

adhika, 33 

ayata, 37, 53 

lilva, 60 

&niti, 71 

ayii, 41 

us 6sati, 60, 

ftnu, 60 

avfi, 58 

una, 68 

- • nn 

anukas, 30 

avrta, 96 

urj, 97 

anbii, 28 

^8-istha, 49 

urna, 28 

ap, 70 

urinl, 59, 97 

&pa, 95 

i, 26, 41, 42, 45 ' 

r, 40, 41 

apl, 28 

Icchatl, 47 

iti, 40 

am, 27 

Itara, 46, 74 

rndti, 40, 41 

Amarksam, 91 

Indra, 78 

ffijfiti, 96 

ami, 27 

iva, 47 

rdh. 41 

aya, 41 


^rcati, 56 

is&yati, 43, 47, 48, 49, 82, 

96 6jati,40 

Artha, 26 

i'ksate, 48 

6ta, 40, 41 

ardra, 26 

inkh, 55 

6ti, 26, 41 

6lam, 40 

ir, 44, 45 

edh, 41 

82, 87, 89 


ena, 27 

gayati, 38 

evft, 96 

glr, 38, 70 

6sta, 96 


guna, 57 

ka, 64, 68 

gunaka, 57 

kaka, 30 

guhati, 36 

kankani, 38 

gr, 32, 58, 70 

kapi, 68 

g<5, 78 

kam, 31 

gotrd, 78 

kimpate, 37 

grathnfiti, 46 

kar4, 36 

grabh, grab, 37, 70 

kar6ti, 36 

ghr, 70 

karta, 68 

kfirsati, 92 

ca, 29 

kal, 42 

cam, 31 

kalya, 68 

camas&, 31 

kavJ, 32 

cfirati, 31 

kajS, 38 

o41ati, !i0, 59 

kfcati, 32 

caska, 32 

kasaya, 67 

cara, 81 

k4s, 38, 69, 70 

ci, 38, 73, 78 

kao, 38 

cik§tl, 78 

karyfi, 36 

clcati, 33 

klm, 38 

cin6ti, 32 

kirAti, 38 

clbu-ka, 35 

kidrs, 70 

ciyfiti, 43, 73 

kumbhS, 36 

cirnfiti, 92 

kul4, 36 

oud4, 43 

kr, 36, 54, 58, 70, 71, 78 

c^tati, 35 

ki-t, 43, 46, 68 

cest, 69 

krtd, 43 

oyAvati, 44 


cyayati, 33 

krri6ti, 36, 70 

cramyati, 35 

krnt4ti, 68 

chand&, 51 

ki-mi, 59 


krc, 69 

chaga, 42 

klsnfi, 38 

chaya. 76 

ketii, 83 

chid, 43, 53, 93 

kecin, 69 

kSsara, 69 

i4na, 36 

ksdrati, 37 

janitram, 25 

ksayAtl, 94 

jaW, 33 

ksi, 33 

jalaja, 33 

ksud, 94 

jfisyati, 35 

ksSma, 33, 37 

jaDati, 94 

kMja, 68 

jandra, 65 

khan, 37 

jaj'atp, 36 

kbAra, 68 

jlgharti, 70 

kMlu, 37 

iin6ti, 92 

jinv, jiv, 92 

gau, 68 

juhati, 44 

garta, 26, 37 


t4, 71, 72 

taks, 72 

tan6ti, 74 

tap, 75, 85, 90 

tftpas, 85 

tarn, 97 

t4ra, 79 

t&rati, 79 

t4pati, 75 

tftpu, 90 

tala, 52 

talas, 79 


tamas, 97 

tiksn&, 72 

tim, 74 

tirSti, 79 

tirAs, 60, 77 

tudfiti, 46, 85 

tiimra, 84 

tur, 84 

tdrati, 35 

turyfi, 84 

tula, 32, 84 

t'e, 72 

tejayfitl, 72, 73, 74 

tejas, 74 

tr, 28, 52, 55, 77,78,79,81,82 

ti'syati, 75, 81 

tr^yas, 89 

tra, 52, 78 

tokman, 83 

tomara, 61, 85 

t6ya, 61 

tol&yatri, 83 

tovant, 61 

tvam, 54 

d4, 72 

dadati, 74 

d&dhati, 33, 34, 94 

dara, dr, 83, 85 

daru, 91 

das&, 76 

dab, 72 

da, 46, 71, 74, 83 

daru, 82 

dlna, 34 

dlv, 75, 77 

die, 77 


dih, 71 

dl, 34, 76,81 

diksete, 77 


dideti, 76 
dukM, 34 
duvas, 96 
duhitr, 77 
duhdr, 50 
du, 96 
dunfiti, 84 

druiti, 80 
dfpyati, 73 
dibhfiti, 71 
dfnhati, 77 
dyftte, 71 
drav-ya, 82 
draka, 78 
drati, 78 
driyfiti, 83 
dni, 82 
dhfiyatl, 33 
dhfivati, 33 
dha, 33, 34, 85 
dhakfis, 30 
dhatar, 71 
dhana, 38 
dbik, 90 
dhikkr, 90 
dhita,'34, 94 
dh'i, 34, 68 
dhiindti, 35, 76 
dhumft, 76 
dhusvara, 83 
dhr, 85 
dhvanati, 84 
dhvas, 83 

Hi, 59 
nad, 56 
Dand, 56 
ndnda, 56 
nagnd, 56 
Dfibhatf!. 56 
naya, 57 
nar&, 56 
na\&, 56 
navi, 79 
nas, 34, 57, 58 
Das, 57 
nah, 57 
nAhus, 57 
nama, 56 
naman, 45 
naya. 57 
ni, 46, 79 

nif, 57 
nljoaya, 94 
ni, 27, 46 
nu. 59 
nun&m, 59 
nr, 56, 58 
ni-t, 35, 48, 57 
netra, 58 

pac, 34, 62 

pat, 65 

pata, 61 

p4tati, 41, 63, 64, 65, 73 

p4ttra, 64, 65 

pathl, 63 

pad&, 62 

p4dyate, 64 

pana, 63 

pdnthan, 63 

p6ra, 80 

p&ra, 63, 65 

paras-paradin, 80 

papca, 64 

pa^d, 61 

pfteyati, 48, 61, 62 

pa, 43, 63, 64, 65, 73 

pajas, 63 

patala, 61 

pati, 65 

patra, 67 

pana, 82 

paparahita, 67 

pitf , 66 

pinksti, 66 

plnd'a, 73 

pinfAri, 66, 80 

pig, 95 

piguna, 80 

pi, 65 

pid, 47, 55, 65 

pida, 65 

puth, 91 

par, 31 

piispa, 61 

piitis, 67 

proati, 31 

prsthS, 75 

pedna, 62 

pothyfiti, 91 

praoh, 75 

prin&ti, 65 

plfivate, 62 

phanati, 80 

badhnati, 28 
b&bhasti, 63, 64 
barbara, 80 
bala, 62 

balbala-karfimi, 80 
bah, 58, 87 " 
bahii, 58, 87 
blja, 66 
bijaka, 66 
brhati, 66 
brhAnt, 84 
bhaks, 61 
bhaj,'42, 90 
bMrati, 28, 80 
bhfirgas, 80 
bhas, 87 
bhas, 63, 67 
bhati, 66 
bhanda, 75 
bhindtti, 35, 65 
bhujati, 61 
bhurfiti, 66 
bbu, 60, 67 
bbfita, 60 
bhr, 28, 80 
bhrajate, 75, 80 

ma, 54 
m^jjati, 27 
mati, 52 
math, 52 
madsya, 53 
mddhya, 51 
madbyama jatfi, 51 
man, 52, 79 
m&nyate, 52 
manh, 50, 52 
maya, 53 
marts, 52 
mani, 54 
mardba, 34 
marmara, 27 
mah, 55 
mab&, 54, 55 
ma, 50, 51, 55, 94 
ma, 51 
manada, 55 
mansS, 50 
mara, 52 
marana, 52 
mas, 53 


mi, 53, 54 
migh, 54 
mlt, 60 
mindti, 53 
miv, 39 
miQ, 40 
mis&ti, 54 
mi,' 54, 79 
muc, 55, 59 
muBc&ti, 59 
mudr&, 55 
miika, 59 
miit6, 59 
mula, 27 
mr. 34, 51„52, 71 
mrdu, 55 
mrdnati, 51 
mrg, 54 
mrg4, 68 
nirjfiti, 54 
mrsna, 95 
mSkhala, 53 
mSthati, 53 
mSliati, 54 
m6date, 55 

ya, 29, 96 
yftchati, 37, 53 
yftjati, 49 
yam. 37, 53 
yayama, 37 
yAva, 82 
ya, 55, 95 

yautl, 39, 47, 76, 97 
yaoati, 97 
yati, 95 

yu, 29, 39, 47, 97 
yaktA, 98 
yugadi, 98 
yuj, 31, 97, G8 
yunfikti, 97, 98 
yufljate, 39 
yudh, 95 
yiidhyate, 95 
yuy6ti, 47 
yiiyan, 98 
y6ga, 98 
y6payati, 97 

ra, 91 
raks, 37 
raksaka, 37 
raja's, 96 

ram, 44 
ra, 32, 91 
raiSti, 67, 87 
raga, 67 
rajati, 95 
raa, 46 
rlsyati, 45 
rue, 44, 45 
riii,82, 94 
rup, 98 
rus, 45 

luh, rudh, 30 
rocanfi, 44, 45 

langli&yati, 40, 44 
lamb, 93 
likh, 43 
luth, 45 
lump&ti, 98 
lubh, 40 
luuis, 59 

vaajfi, 33, 86, 87 

Tao, 31, 78 

T&cas, 96 

vanoati, 86 

vajAyati, 79 

*vatas, 32, 88 

v6na, 82 

vandti, 47 

vadh, 89 

v4pati, 87 

varj&yati, 87 

v&rtate, 43 

Tfirsati, 28 

vdlati, 87 

vas, 34, 40, 51, 56, 82, 87 

vAste, 40 

vah, 89 

vastu, 87 

vl (bird), 47, 90, 96 

vl, "apart," 58,59,82,84, 

yijfiti, 90 

vidhyati, 29, 33 

vipad, 63 

viv6sti, 52 

vie, 89 

yis,_ 52, SO, 92 

vigana, 73 

visaya, 73 

yiVtrive), 89 

Vl, vya, 43 

vr. 44,88, 96 

yrj, vrnfikti, 44, 87 
vrjAna, 87 
vrnitfi, 88 
vfnati, 96 
v6tti, 46 
vfipate, 88, 89 
ve{4, 89 
vyac, 86 
vyadb, 28 

Sar4d, 32 
Caran&i 91 
garvara, 39 
(aka, 39 
pata, 78 
Satftyati, 36 
$ala, 30, 94 
Sinftsti, 29, 70, 92 
jipl, 93 
pilpa, 34 
$i(ati, a 

QIQU, 37 

gista, 92 

cue, 35, 47, 94 
gdei, 94 
Subh, 35, 69 
cusma, 40 
gusyati, 43 
SQdr«, 78 
grD&ti, 52 
S6te, 30 
C6eati, 47 
Qcand, 65 
gcut, 64 
gyayati, 33 
glisyati, 68 
gydn, 47 
gvSsiti, 43 

sa, 32, 39, 91, 92 

sakala, 91 

sakrt, 32 

Efijati, 76, 85 

safij, 76 

sa' y&, 33 

sad, 86 

sabhi, 48 

sam, 91 ^ 

samTpa, 61 

6ar&, 91 

sarit, 39 

s&rga, 39 


sasarja, 83 

sah, 53, 78 

sa, 86, 93 

sanu, 86 

si, 65, 86, 88, 92, 93 

sic. 92 

slna, 93 

sisarti, 78 

sivyati, 86 

sii (well), 94, bis 

sntfi, 40 

sudfiyati, 39 

sundti, 39, 40, 94 

suvfitl, 35, 43, 86, 93 

su, sosy&tl, 39, 49 

sr, 39,'78 

srjati, 39 

seva, 50, 51, 78 
sodha, 53 
s6ma, 40 
Stan, 74 
sta, 43 
stigb, 47 
stinn6ti, 47 
strnati, 35, 48 
styayeti, 76 
stha, 29, 69, 79 
snih, 40 
sphurati, 28 
eyati, 86, 93 
srfivati, 39 
sva, 58, 96 
svan, 86 
svan&, 39 

svfipiti, 50 
SY&rati, 90 
svid, 84 

ban, 69 

li£nu, 31 

htati, 69 

hans&, 31 

Hara, 82 

hArati, 81, 82 

Mvate, 31, 44 

h&sati, 88 

ha, 44 

hu, 31, 88 

hr, 44, 68, 81, 82, 88, 91 

hrnlte, 68, 82 

hf syati, 90 

a, av, 26 
aytd^ui, 49 
aYu, 25 
dec, 96 
aZSoi, 82 

txK^, 25 

aXOo), 41 
df(du>, 39 
djuei'/Su, 39 
djLiEAyetv, 54 
djuep^at, 91 
dju.(^(, 28 
di/d, 60 
dvejLtos, 71 
dviip, 56 
dviiriro;, 27 

dTTO, 95 
dpKEw, 26 
apoui^ 40 
do'iraipb), 26 
ttuxei'i, 42 
avia, 82 
aXOS, 28 
dwTO?, 28 

(SdpPapos, 80 
/Sios, 92 
PpexfLov, 84 

Yeyocw?, 36 
yeVvs, 31 
■y^pvs, 32 
yiyvatrKta^ 94 
yiipo^t 58 


SeLKVVfli^ 77 
SepKOfLai^ 78 
Sipa, 80 
6ei», 71 

iiSioiui, 46, 67, 74 
Sioi, 75, 77 
Spiiu, 78, 81 
apCs, 82 

edb), 35 
iciSov^ 46 
eSu, 46 
e-ecTTO, 40 
ieei.(a., 91 
e«eAu, 88 
edvifcds, 42 
eX^eti', 41 
eXtio), 44, 97 
ei'i, 46 

liros, 78, 96 
epafe, 83 
epyov, 96 
epyu, 96 
cpSu, 96 
epeiKftj, 43 
eperijff, 58 
epcvyu, 45 
epit, 78 

EpVb), 67 

epws, 45 
eo-Tt, 41 

ETos, 32, 88 
eS>"s, 68 

*/:Eiro!, 78, 96 
*f€pyitOf 96 

V^Tos, 32, 88 
V'S, 76 
*^iXA<», 59 
*/:'!, 89 
*y:pe>^os, 44 

ieii7>.Ci(»i, 39, 97 
i, 26, 71 

7jSv5, 86 
^VEyKd, 25 

^us, 41 
ijiis, 51, 82 
9Ef<», 33 
SeAu, 88 

flEOTrpOTTOS, 75 
«ECO, 33 
S^icrj, 30 
»i)A)l, 34 
Spatrus, 34 
0pdvo9. 85 
dv-ydrijp, 77 

0VU, 76 
IS(K, 84 

Ievhi, 26 
tKETJJS, 43 

tKfc'o^at, 43 
iAAoi, 59 
I/iis, 86 
«, 89 

tcTTTjjal, 69 

ItrxtHy 53 


(ca, 29 

KaXta, 30 
KoAds, 68 
KaXvftt}, 30 
KajUa^w, 38 
Katrtrud], 86 
KeijU-ai, 30 
KcAofiai, 49 
KtyAts, 30 
fcoAat^of, 63 
KoAotrcrdj, 69 

KOTOS, 42 
KpaTOJ, 36 

KlijLl^>J, 36 
KvpTos, 36, 70 
KVb), 37 

KVd)!', 47 

Ktuvoff, 42 
Kw?, 38 

AEKTpOI', 25 

Aevkos, 45 

Al'jTTW, 40 

Aopds, 93 
Auypos, 82, 94 

fiapaivto, 52 
jue, 54 

jaeyaAa, 54, 55 
fiifiova^ 52 
jue^'os, 52 
fievm, 52 
ju-ectros, 51 
M^Kos, 53 
/i-^i-ij, 53 
(uta, 32 
fi.iyvvfi.1, 40 
/xt/iw, 41 
jLLop/tvpo), 27 
/ioprds, 71 

jLLUia, 55 
jLLVKT^p, 59 

jLLvAij, 51, 55 
juuto, 59 

val, So 
I'ai'i'i), 56 
vavs, 63 
veKp09, 58 
V€Krap, 58 
vejLLOS, 58 
rejLiw, 58 
v^Sus, 58 
v^/ia, 56 
vdos, 58 
vv, vuc, 59 

^arSds, 65 

5, ^, TO, 26, 71 
oyKos, 40 
6£of , 60 
oTSa, 76 
oIkos, 89 
oTktos, 80 
oAoAos, 73 
ofii'xATj, 54 
DVO^a, 45 
opyafai, 97 
opeyo), 96 
opuy jLids, 45 
htniov^ 60 
oxe'd), 89 

TracffaAos, 48, 62 
TTttT^P, 64 
TTttTOS, 63 

Traxtis, 87 
Trefioj', 62 
TTEtf ao), 66 
Treirafiat, 63 
jreVwKa, 64 
irepa, 65 
Treo-trw, 62 
TreTaw, 65 
ireTOto, 65 
ir^X"^! 87 
TTiKpds. 66, 80 
irtvoy, 66 
mirAijjLLt, 31 


TrAijy^, 62 
TrAuo^ts, 62 
TToAew, 31 
irdAts, 31 
TTOAO?, 31 
7rpao5, 65 
TTTepov, 64 
TTvOta, 67 

TTUKa^W, 67 
TTvp, 37 

iTws, 38 
peu, 39 
ccva), 93 
o-iStjp, 35 
CTKeTrro/xaE., 48 

(TKKX, 76 

o-Kt'^w, 93 

tTKlOp^ 38 

(TTa/xei', 29 
(rT€txt»*. 47 
cTeru, 74 

o-Tt^T), 47 

(TTt^U, 73 

o-Topew, 48 
(TTpayyos, 49 
(TTpdy^^ 49 
(Tvpiv^^ 85 
<rus, 49 
ffvTo, 35, 86, 93 

TaAo.i'TOi', 32 
TttAos, 83 
ravVjuai, 74 
Ta<^os, 26, 75 
Te, 29 

TEftl'b), 28 
TETTtt, 72 

Ti'dijjui, 34 
TO, 26, 71 
Top.ii, 28, 84 
Tpeis, Tpto"t, 89 
TiiA-ij, 84 
Tu'Ats, 84 
Tupo-is, 84 

I'V'-Ji?, 79 
iiyKOff, 79 
iJSpa, 29 
iJSup, 28 
uib?, 49 
v<Tp.Lvy\^ 95 

0aLr(i}, 63 
^ttTds, 69 
</)epta), 80 
0-)jyu9, 61 
4>^/i.i, 66 
^Aeyos, 80 
^Ae'yw, 75 
^Ava>, 66 
(^upu, 66 
t^vcrdia), 45 
if)VT6v, 49 
0(iyti>, 87 

Xa(d, 44 

Xei'p, 30, 81, 91 
Xew, 88 
X'?*', 31 
X^po?, 44 
XAupd?, 44 
Xo^*?) 36 
Xvtrts, 88 

OtKlOTOS, 49 
SipTtii, 41 
aipuojuai, 87 



ab, 95 
abdo, 34 
ao, 42 
aedes, 82 
aevum, 96 
Almo, 39 
amb-, 28 
ango, 28 
anima, 71 
anser, 31 
aqua, 28, 70 
arceo, 26 
aro, 40 
artus, 40 
arz, 26 
aurora, 51, 82 
avere, 29 
avis, 47, 90, 96 

balbns, 80 

candeo, 65 
caois, 47 
cano, 37 
caveo, 32 
celer, 42, 49 
cervus, 68 
cessaries, 56 
cholera, 36 
color, 91 
con, 60 
contineo, 74 
c6quo, 47 
cotes, 42 
creo, 36 
cumque, 60 
curvo, 36 
curvus, 70 

dedi, 74 
deus, 75 
dico, 77 
diuB, 75 
dividers, 28 
divus, 75, 77 
dixi, 91 
do, 46, 67, 74 
duco, 76, 83 

edo, 46 
ensis, 41 
eo, 26 

esca, 41 
est, 41 

facio, 34 
fagus, 61 
fallo, 72 
fames, 44 
fari, 66 
fastus, 34 
felo, 34 
fero, 80 
fldis, 28 
Alius, 34 
findo, 65 
fingo, 71 
tons, 88 
fortis, 77 
fretus, 85 
fulgur, 75, 80 
fulvus, 44 
fumus, 76 
furere, 66 
futis, 88 

garrio, 32 
gelo, 47 
gilbus, 44 
g^na, 31 
genui, 36 
gracilis, 69 
gyrus, 58 

hio, 44 
bolus, 44 
horrere, 90 

id, 42, 45, 46 
instigo, 73 
itSrum, 46, 74 

jungo, 39 
juvenis, 98 

labor, 26 
lapsus, 26 
legitur, 50 
libet, 40 
limbus, 93 
lis, 78 
lubet, 40 
lugeo, 82 
lupus, 26 
lux, 45 

maguus, 50, 55 
mauo, 52 
me, 54 
medius, 51 
memini, 52 
mensis, 53 
mentis, 52 
mergo, 74 
mergus, 27 
meta, 91 
mimicus, 41 
mingere, 54 
misceo, 40 
mitto, 54 
mola, 51 
molior, 54 
mollis, 55 
mori, 52 
Morta, 71 
moveo, 39 
mucus, 59 
mulgere, 54 
murmur, 27 
musca, 55 
mutus, 59 

nactus, 57 
nae, 58 
navis, 63 
ne, 58 
nemus, 58 
Nero, 56 
netus, 56 
uoceo, 34 
nomen, 45, 56 
nos, 57 
noto, 59 
nunc, 59 

ooculo, 38, 91 
oppidum, 62 
orior, 41 
OS, 60 

pacisoor, 62 
pactum, 48 
palatum, 62 
pasco, 63 
pater, 65 
patiilus, 64 
pecus, 61 
perire, 63 
penna, 64 


perendie, 80 
peto, 64, 65 
pictor, 95 
piDSO, 66 
pipio, 66 
plaga, 62 
pleo, 31 
poluB, 31 
poQtis, 63 
potus, 64 
preces, 75 
proco, 30 
purus, 37 
puter, 67 
putus, 37 

que, 29 
quis, 38 
quisquis, 48 
quod, 69 

ratis, 58 
raucus, 87 
reciprocua, 31 
reco, 30 
recte, 96 
regis, 95 
res, 46, 77 
rima, 43 
rota, 45 
ructo, 45 
rudis, 30 

ruga, 94 
rue, 67 

scindo, 93 
scoria, 38 
sedo, 86 
segnis, 76, 85 
seme1, 32 
sono, 39 
sopor, 50 
specie, 61 
sperno, 26 
stare, 29, 69 
Stella, 35 
sterno, 48 
stratum, 48 
sue, 86 
sus, 49 
susurrus, 85 

tendo, 74 
tenebrae, 97 
tepor, 75 
terra, 75 
tignum, 72 
torreo, 81 
tramgo, 55, 81 
trans, 60, 77 
tuli, 83 
tumulus, 84 
turris, 84 
tutudi, 46, 85 

ulula, 73 
unda, 29 
uncus, 40, 79 
unguo, 59 
UBtus, 82, 87, 89 

vaoillo, 86 
vacuus, 86 
Tegeo, 79 
vehere, 89 
vehiculum, 89 
venia, 47 
Venus, 47 
vergo, 44 
vermis, 59 
verto, 43 
Testis, 40 
vetus, 33, 88 
vibro, 88 
vicinus, 89 
video, 76 
videre, 46 
vilis, 29 
virga, 97 
vis, 89 
vitis, 48 
vivus, 92 
vocis, 78 
voco, 96 
vole, 88 
volTO, 44, 60, 97 
vox, 42, 96 


angel, 80 
beissen, 35, 65 
berg, 84 
biegsam, 61 
bug, 87 

daum, 84 
dorren, 81 
dehnen, 74 
diele, 79 

eigen, 43 
engst, 28 
erde, 83 
erwahnen, 78 
as, 42 

feder, 64 

flrste, 75 
forschen, 75 

gans, 31 
geben, 37 
ge-gossen, 88 
gerste, 90 
ge-zogen, 83 
greifen, 37 

liader, 73 
hag, 30 
hirsch, 68 
bOchste, 49 
httUe, 30, 91 
hund, 47 

joch, 97 
jung, 98 

kOnig, 36 

lioht, 45 
lieben, 40 

minder, 79 
m6gen, 50 
monat, 53 

nakend, 56 
name, 56 
nehmen, 58 
neu, 79 
nun, 59 

ocbse, 60 
Ostern, 51 

reoht, 96 
ritzen, 43 


sag.'n, 32 
salte, 86, 93 
schanen, 32 
seichen, 92 
Bieg, 53 
sitzen, 86 
spahen, 61 
steigen, 47 

angle, 40,80 
Avon, 70 
aye, 96 

bake, 87 
ban, 66 
band, 28 
be, 60 
bear, 80 
beech, 61 
beneath, 46 
beware, 88 
bind, 28 
bit, 65 
bite, 35, 65 
bleach, 75 
book, 61 
borough, 84 
brew, 66 
buckwheat, 61 

call, 32 
caw, 68 
chin, 31 
cold, 47 
curve, 36 

daughter, 77 
day, 73 
do, 34 
dolt, 72 
dough, 71 
dull, 72 
dun, 84 
durst, 34 

ear {to plough), 40 
Easter, 51, 82 
eat, 4p 
ever, 96 

fang, 48, 62 
far, 80 

stirne, 35 

vergehen, 63 

Strom, 39 

vieh, 61 

tiw, 75 

was, 38 

Tiw, 77 

weg, 89 

tochter, 77 

welle, 60 

toll, 72 

warden, 43 

zeigen, 77 

vater, 64 

zielen, 83 


father, 64 

mean (a thought), 52 

feather, 64 

middle, 51 

fern, 28 

milk, 54 

fetch, 62 

mince, 79 

float, 62 

mind, 52 

forbear, 63 

mist, 54 

fore, 80 

mix, 41 

free, 65 

mold, 57 

friend, 65 

move, 39 

fuU, 31 

mow, 39 

murder, 52 

gimp, 89 

give, 37 

naked, 56 

gold, 44 

name, 45 

gossip, 48 

nether, 79 

gripe, 37 

next, 57 

nimble, 58 

hale, 68 

none, 58 

hall, 30 

now, 59 

hamlet, 33 

hart, 68 

oast, 82 

hearken, 31 

off, 95 

hedge, 30 

on, 60 

highest, 49 

otter, 29 

hone, 42 

ought, 43 

-hood, 83 

out, 60 

hound, 47 

own, 43 

hull, 38 

ox, 60 

is, 41 

quick. 92 

kin, 36 

rack (clouds), 96 

right, 96 

lap, 93 

rot, 67 

lean (on), 68 

row (boat), 58 

light, 45 

run, 58 

limp, 93 

scour, 38 

lop, 93 

sew, 86 

love, 40 

sheep, 42 

marrow, 74 

show, 32 

mat, 27 

shuttle, 93 

may, 50 

silt, 92 

me, 54 

sit, 86 


son, 49 

sow (swine), 49 
spur, 26 
spurn, 26 
stand, 29, 69 
stank (groan), 74 
star, 35 

stick (to prick), 73 
stirrup, 47 
straw, 48 
stream, 39 
strew, 48 
suck, 94 
swan, 39 
swarm, 85 
sweet, 86 

taper, 75 
taught, 77 
tear, 80, 85 
teem, 74 
thin, 74 
thole, 83 

thumb, 84 
tree, 82 
Tuesday, 77 

us, 57 

vicarage, 89 

wake, 79 
wallow, 97 
wane, 68 
-ward, 43 
warp, 44 
was, 87 
wash, 59 
water, 28 
waver, 88 
way, 89 
we, 58 
weak, 90 
weave, 48 
well, 97 
wheeze, 43 

which, 38 
whirl, 36, 70 
who. 69 
win, 47 
wit, 46, 76 
witch, 76 
woe, 97 
wol (wont), 8 
wolf, 26 
wool, 28 
work, 96 
worm, 59 
worth, 88 
wrench, 44 
wrist, 43 

yawn, 44 
yellow, 44 
yoke, 39, 97 
yon, 96 
young, 98 
youth, 98 


^ Since the Mexican words constituting the vocabulary are arranged in alpha- 
betical order an index of captions would be unnecessary repetition. Accord- 
iagly only the cognates have been indexed. 

^achto, 25 
achcauhtli, 25 
acaecuexatl, 92 
acuecueyotl, 92 
acuexatl, 37 
araeyalli, 53 
amo, 27 
amopa, 27 
amolbuia, 27 
atlacatl, 27 
auatl, 70 
axca, 29 
axixa, 29 

cacalotl, 30 
cacatza, 86 
Cauht^moctzin, 85 
caxania, 32 
caxanqni, 32 
ce, 32 
cecec, 47 
cem, 32 
cemanca, 27 
ccmpoalli, 66 

centlamantli, 79 
ceyotl, 32 
chicactic, 33 
chicauac, 85 
chichitia, 33 
cliicome, 34 
chinancalli, 34 
cima, 39 
coa, 36* 40 
coamitl, 36 
coaunoque, 35 
coanotza, 35 
coapantli, 63 
coatequitl, 36 
cocoliztli, 36 
colotl, 36 
couia, 36 
couiiia, 36 
coyonia, 37 
cuechauac, 37 
cuecuechilia, 37 
cuicapicqui, 66 
galiuyantli, 39 
gaua, 53 

goquiotl, 39 
Qumale, 39 

ehecatl, 40 
elpantli, 40 
epatl, 63 
euatica, 41 

ichtli, 43 
icoliui, 72 
igoloa, 72 
icpatl, 43, 63 
icucic, 43 
icuia, 43 
icuiya, 43 
ilacatzoa, 44 
ilama, 44 
ilhuicatl, 44 
Ilhuicaminatzin, 54 
ilpiloyan, 45 
ioui, 44 
ita, 46 
itacafcl, 46 
ititl, 46 
itla, 77 


itlani, 46 
itzmolini, 48 
itzteua, 47 
itztimani, 48 
iuhti, 98 
ixcobua, 47 
ixhua, 49 
ixpechtia, 48 
ixpepechoa, 48 
izcuintli, 47 
iztlactli, 49 
ixai, 75 
iyoloa, 97 

maceualtin, 51 
maoh, 51 
machtia, 52 
malina, 51 
mana, 32 
maquechtli, 68 
mayanaltia, 52 
mayaquen, 52 
mayectli, 96 
mecayotl, 53 
melactic, 53 
melaztic, 53 
milpa, 54 
Moteuhcguma, 76 

nacayotl, 56 
nanaltza, 56 
naualli, 57 
nauatequi, 57 
nauatilli, 57 
nauatl, 56 
ne, 58 
nextli, 58 
nezaualo, 53, 57 
nonotzalli, 59 

Ofomatli, 60, 68 
olin, 97 
oUin, 97 
oncali, 29 
oquichmazatl, 60 

paatl, 61 

pasyolacatontli, 62 
papatza, 63 
papatzaua, 63 
papatzoa, 63 
pati, 64 
patia, 64 

patilia, 63 
patzauac, 64 
patzconi, 64 
patzmiqui, 64 
paua, 62 
paaatl, 62 
pehua, 65 
petzcaui, 64 
pia, 45 
pie, 45, 65 
pillatoa, 65 
pilli, 36 
piltio, 65 
pinayoU, 66 
pipiyolin, 66 
piquia, 66 
pixquitl, 66 
poaltia, 66 
pogoni, 66 
pohua, 66 
poloa, 67 
popoca, 67 
Popocatepetl, 67 
poyaua, 61 

quauh, 68 
quauhpaotli, 63 
quauhquechilia, 68 
quauhtlatoa, 68 
quauhuia, 68 
quechtepiiUi, 68, 75 
quemitl, 37 
quentel, 69 
quetztioa, 69 
quiauatl, 70 
quimilli, 71 
quiD, 69 
qniza, 70 
quizani, 70 

teachcaub, 32 
tpcmilotl, 73 
tecpatl, 63, 64 
■tail, 91 
telpocatl, 73 
temalacatl, 51 
temi, 74 
temoayaD, 74 
teoi, 74 
tenoUi, 89 
teo, 74 

Teohuateuhctli, 76 
tetenqui, 74 

tetio, 42 

tetzaualmulli, 76 
tetzauitl, 76 
Tezcatlipoca, 76 
tigauia, 76 
ticayoa, 76 
tilauac, 77 
tilictic, 77 
tilhmatli, 72 
titici, 77 
tlacapan, 78 
tlafalolli, 78 
tlaealtia, 78 
tlachia, 78 
tlachinolli, 34 
tlaco, 78 
tlacuilolli, 38 
tlaellatolli, 78 
tlahuana, 82 
tlalli, 79 
tlalolin, 97 
tlamina, 54 
tlanautluh, 79 
tlanquacaliuhtli, 39 
tlaneci, 57 
tlaneuiuia, 79 . 
tlaolll, 82 
tlaocoltla, 80 
tlapaloa, 80 
tlapalpoyactic, 67 
tlapictlatoa, 80 
tlapictli, 80 
tlaquauh, 80 
tlatlao, 81 
tlatoani, 81 
tlauelia, 82 
tlauhtia, 81 
tlauizcalli, 82 
tleuatza, 87 
tocolhuan, 36 
tootli, 83 
tomaloni, 71 
tometz, 53 
tonatiuh, 77 
toneuan, 58 
topalciuetza, 85 
topile, 85 
topilli, 61 
tzaqualll, 85 
tzeltilia, 85 
tzetzeliuhti, 85 
tzicatl, 85 


tzicoa, 85 
tzilinia, 85 
tzopioia, 35 

uacaliui, 86 
nacaloa, 86 
ualcuepa, 87 
uallauh, 87 
ualcLuiza, 70 
ualyolcatl, 87 
uaQcayotl, 87 
ueia, 87 
ueiatl, 87 
uentlamana, 8i 
uetztoc, 88 
neuetl, 97 
Tieueton, 84 
ueuetque, 88 
Tieyac, 88 

iiitoliuhqui, 89 
uitoliui, 89 
nitoma, 84 
uitzcolotl, 36 
uiuixcayotl, 90 

xalteil, 91 
xayotl, 91 
xeliui, 92 
xexeloa, 92 
xiccaua, 92 
xicoa, 92 
xigotzi, 92 
xicuetzi, 92 
xinachoa, 93 
xippachoa, 93 
xitlaia, 93 
xitmi, 93 
xocotl, 93 

xolopitl, 94 
xoxouhqui, S 
xuchioa, 94 
xuchiotl, 94 

yacachto, 92 
yacatia, 92 
yacatl, 92, 95 
yamaztic, 95 
-yan, 42 
yaochiua, 95 
yaotla, 95 
yeuatl, 96 
yolcaxipeua, 97 
yolcayotl, 97 
ytztic, 47 
yualli, 96 







Author of ''Mexican in Aryan Phonology," "The Primitive Aryans 
of America," ** Mexican- Aryan Comparative Vocabulary" 




Copyright 1910 
By T. S. Denison 

Composed and Printed By 

The University of Chicago Press 

Chicago, Illinois, U. S. A. 



Introduction 5 

The Verb 7 

The augment 7 

Endings of the present indicative active — fourteen classes . 7 

Conjugation 16 

The future tense 16 

The perfect tense 16 

The passive and impersonal 17 

The "reverenclal" 18 

The desinences 19 

The verbal noun ending in -iz-tii . . 21 

Abstract Nouns Ending in -yo-tl- 22 

Appendix 2i 

Numerals 24 

Phonology of the labials 25 

Initial y 26 

The nasals 27 

Bemarks suggested by criticism 29 

Compounding 29 

The palatals and velars 30 

Syntax as a determining factor 31 


This is the fourth instalment of my work on Nauatl 
or Mexican as an Aryan language. In 1907 I published 
a brief monograph, Mexican in Aryan Phonology. In 

1908 appeared The Primitive Aryans of America, which 
gave a rather extended treatment of language in general 
with several chapters on the migrations of the Nahua, 
the Aztlan legend, and the culture of the Aztecs. In 

1909 I issued A Mexican-Aryan Comparative Vocabu- 
lary containing the common root-forms of the language. 
The comparisons found under Morphology are almost ex- 
clusively between Mexican and Sanskrit because of the 
intimate relationship existing between these two tongues. 
Greek is however an important factor. I regret this nar- 
rowing of the field practically to Indo-Iranian, but Latin 
and the Germanic languages do not furnish the parallel 
forms unchanged in suiEcient numbers to be of practical 
utility here. 

The Numerals, to four inclusive, are identical with 
matter furnished for the Encyclopedia Americana. The 
phonology of the labials, initial y, and the nasals is greatly 
expanded. Under "Remarks Suggested by Criticism" 
are some points pertaining to the subject in general. 
Each step in the work naturally clears up some previous 


T. S. Denison 
July 20, 1910 



The augment is always o=Vedic a. It precedes the 
personal pronouns: o-ni-tla-uica, I it carried; Skr, v&- 
hati, he carries. The prepositional prefixes such as Skr, 
pr A, before; Greek, irpo; Lat, pro, are very unusual in 
Mexican and may be said practically not to exist com- 
pared with their fertility in other Aryan languages. Prd 
is no doubt found in Mex, piasti-c, slender, long; Skr, 
prAsiti and con in coanotza, to be convivial. On, Skr, 
Ana ; Eng, on, is frequent, as ow-itta, to visit. But there 
is nothing beyond vestiges. In the use of the augment 
a form like ava^aivca, ave^rjv is impossible. 0-mo-ual- 
-cuep, he turned back, might seem to be an exception, 
but ual is an independent verb; Skr, vd,lati (see "Com- 
pounding," p. 29, infra)} 


In preparing this classification of the Mexican verb I 
have examined over two hundred verbs, practically all 
the common verbs in the language. The word root is 
used for convenience to indicate any identical form, as 
tle-ua-uana; Skr, vtoa. A form like ta-taca is usually a 

I. Verbs ending in -a. — This class comprises about 
one-fifth of the whole number of verbs. In Sanskrit 
these verbs are all accented on the root. None of the 

iThe augment is omitted in about half the cases as in Vedic (Wbithey, 
Sanskrit Grammar, 587 a) . 



-a class have l/r final in the root. Examples : Mex, 
uica, carry ; Skr, vdhati, *uegh ; Mex, teca, care for ; Skr, 
tdksati; Mex, maca, to give; Skr, m^hhate (mac-o-cui, 
get large) ; Mex,ta-taca, to scratch; Skr. dih, d^gdhi; Mex, 
tla-pana, to crack, pop (as egg-shell) ; Skr, phanati, leap; 
Mex, qua, eat; Skr, khadati; Mex, tzaqua, fasten, stop; 
Skr, sdjati, it sticks; Mex, tena, groan; Skr, sttoati, roar; 
Mex, choca, weep; Skr, 565ati, grieve; Mex, cuica, to 
sing=cui + ca; Skr, glr + g4yati, "sing a, song"; Mex, 
guma, to frown; Skr, gustna; Mex, tzi-tzi-tza, to tie; Skr, 
sydti; Mex, quiza, go out, finish ; Skr, gis, ginfeti, leave ( ?) ; 
Mex, tetzaua— te + tzaua, coagulate; Skr, styayeti; Mex, 
uatza, to dry ; Skr, us, 6sati, light up ; cf . vas, ucchAti. 

Root forms: gaga-maua, to mow; root mau; afidco; aua, 
to scold; Skr, &va, d,miti(?) ; toma, to grow, "enlarge ; Skr, 
tu, tfiviti; Greek, rv-\rj, a swelling; Mex, toca (o long), 
to plant seeds; Skr, tiic, tok-man, a green stalk; Mex, iua, 
to send; Skr, invati, send; [n, see nasals). 

II. Verbs ending in -oa. — The class ending -oa in- 
cludes about one-fifth of all the verbs. In Sanskrit this 
class has the stem ending in -o accented, or a root ending 
l/r, pure or in combination. Examples : Mex, pachoa, 
to bend; Skr, bhujAti *bheugh; Mex, ixpechoa, to put 
on (as a wrap) ; tla-pechtli, a bed; Skr, pagy&ti, to fasten 
(on) ; Mex, xicoa, to lose (as a thing or honor) ; Skr, 
sincAti, to pour out; Mex, ozcoa, to warm self by fire; 
Skr, vas, ucch^ti, light up; ustus, burned; Mex, pixoa, to 
sow seed; Skr, blja (bijd?) seed; Mex, ecuxoa, sneeze; 
Skr, cvdsiti. 

Involving l/r. — Mex, paloa, to taste; Lat, palatum; 
Mex, amomoloa, the waters murmur ; Skr, marm^ra, a mur- 
muring; Greek, fivp-fivp-io; Lat, murmur; Mex, toloa, to 
bow the head; Skr, tolAyati ; Mex, ua-ua-loa, to bark ; Skr, 


bhasami *bhelso; Mex, xeloa, to divide, cut up; Skr, 
^rnati, break; Mex, piloa, to hang on to a thing, perse- 
vere; Skr, brhdti, to draw toward one's self, embrace, 
strengthen; Mex, cuechoa, to stir, grind, *kershoa; Skr, 
kfirsati or krsd,ti, to plough; Mex, cuiloa, write, paint 
(cover with pictures) ; Skr, kirdti, cover with ; Lat, oc- 
-cul-o ; Mex, ma-teloa, rub the hands, together, chafe ; Skr, 
tala, surface, "on," (to place on or under) ; tala-gh6sa, 
clapping the hands; Mex, tlacoa, to injure; Skr, druhydti, 
to hurt, *dhreugh; cf. Skr, tr, tir^ti + kr, tiraskr, to treat 

III. Verbs ending -i. — The verbs ending, -i number 
one-sixth of the whole. In Sanskrit about half of the 
cognates are accented on the thematic vowel. Some of 
the -i- endings appear to be idiomatic and a question of 
phonetics, and consequently cannot be explained by Aryan 

rt) Compounds with kr or grah (qui), as final deter- 
mining member; Mex, ilnamiqui, to recollect, il-(-nama-n, 
name + grah; cf. Skr, nama-grah, mention the name; 
elimicqui, to stir the soil, labor, eli, fira, ground -|- Skr, 
mig; Greek, fir/-vv-ni; Lat, misceo, mix. 

b) With vocalic r, -qui (above); Mex, cui, to seize; 
Skr, grah, grbhnAti; Mex, iquiti, to weave; Skr, krnti or 

c) After final t (of root or derivatives); Mex, iloti, 
revolve, turn ; Skr, luth^ti ; Mex, mati, to think ; Skr. matl, 
thought, mdnyati; Mex, ueliti, to be powerful; Skr, vr + t, 
to have a following; Mex, yoli, to become, be conceived, 
*yolti; Skr, vrt, vArtate, , turn, happen, live, *uert; Mex, 
xini, cut, destroy; Skr, chid, chinndti (or chid + ni affix?) ; 
Mex, tzinti, to begin, tzintli, anus, end; Skr, sad, sidati, 
to sit, settle down; a-|-sad, to get, approach; Mex, mamali. 


to bore ; Skr, mal or *mrdndti ; exception, Mex, itta, to see ; 
Skr, v6tti(?) to know. 

d) Moot forms: mani, to be (remain) ; Skr, man, 
mam&tti; Lat, man-6-o, remain; Mex, temi, to be full, AS, 
tyfnan(?) to teem; Mex, nemi, to live, exist; Greek, ve/io}, 
to inhabit ; Ger, nehmen, to take, get ; Mex, cecui, redup, 
get cold *glii-mo; Skr, himd-s, cold; piqui, to invent, 
cuicapiqui, write a song; Skr, pingdti, to adorn; Lat, 
pictor; Mex, aqui, to enter, fall in hole, unite; *ahgh, "tie 
together"; Greek, a^o';; Lat, ango; Mex, neci, to appear; 
Skr, ndgati (fut. nanksy^ti) ; Mex, teci, to grind; Skr, 
dafic, ddgati, bite(?); Greek, ^aKva; Goth, taihjan, tear, 
rend ; Mex, aci, to attain, arrive ; Skr, agnoti, reach ; Greek, 
rjv-efKa; Mex, tlami, to end, finish; tla + mi; Skr, minati, 
diminish; Greek, ixi-vv-a; Lat, min-u-o; Mex, ilaqui, 
springing of water into a sinking boat; Skr, langhAyati, 
mount, enter. 

Remark 1. — All these have m or n (nasal) in the root. 
Compare verbs ending -nia; and Aryan affix -i; Mex, tena 
*stena, groan; Skr, stan-i-hi, thunder; Mex, ecuxoa, 
sneeze; Skr, gvfe-i-ti, snort; Mex, no-ma-cepoa, my hand 
is asleep; Skr, svap-i-ti, to sleep. 

Remark 2. — Accent in all is about equally divided 
between root vowel and affix. 

IV. Verbs ending -nia. — The verbs ending -nia con- 
stitute one-eighth of the whole number. These verbs 
appear: (a) to be denominatives from nouns ending -ni 
(see -oni. Class X). Skr, vAh-ni-s, a beast of draught; 
yo-ni-s, lap; me-ni-s, a missile. Cf. Mex, Ilhuica-mim- 
-tzin, "sky-shooter," he who hurls his darts at the sky, 
name of two chiefs ; Mex, caxania, to have a relapse ; Skr, 
kdsati, to hurt; Mex, tolinia, to endure; Skr, tolAyati; 
Mex,. mecania, to hang, a man; [nino) to hang self; cf. 


Armenian, mec-ani-m, I hang on to; Mex, calania, to 
polish, rub; Skr, cdlati, stir. 

Remark 1. — Some of these may perhaps be classed as 
theme + Skr, ni, "to lead to." 

6) Root forms containing n with accent in Sanskrit on 
thematic vowel; Mex, chopinia, to bite, prick (tzopinia) ; 
Skr, 5ula, spear, pain + bhid, bhin^tti (cf. sn, impel + 
bhid) ; Mex, xitinia, to destroy, cut to pieces; Skr, chid, 
chindtti, to split *skid; Mex, tilinia, to use force; Skr, 
dhr, dharti; cf. Skr, drhyati; Lat, fortis, *forctis; for last 
chicaua *dhergh. Class VI. Mex, tzomia, to blow (nose) ; 
Skr, svdnati (m for w) ; Mex, noquia, spill (diarrhea) ; Skr, 
muncdti (n fOr m); Mex, nanquilia (not "reverencial"), 
to name or reply = nama + quilia; Skr, grndti, to speak; 
gir, voice; Greek, yrjpv;, speech; Lat, garrio, talk; Eng, 
call; Mex, quechia, to cling to, lean on; Skr, clisyati has 
11 in cognate gri; cf. Greek, kXivco; Lat, clino; AS, hlinian; 
Eng, lean (away from perpendicular). Compare root 
forms of verbs ending -i. 

Remark 2. — A few verbs ending -au-i {m^=u), may be 
placed in this class with loss of m/n. Mex, ciaui, to be 
tired; Skr, §ramyati; Mex, mayaui, to throw down, or 
away; maitl+yaui; Skr, ydcchati, *jm-sketi; loss of s: 
Mex, tlanaui *tla+nazui, to be sick; Skr, ndgyati; or 
Greek, vavaia; poui, to be conspicuous; Skr, bhasati. 

V. Verbs ending -ia. — A few are verbs which seem in 
some cases to be variants of verbs ending -i; aqui, aquia, 
to enter; tzilini, tzilinia, to ring. Others have different 
significations as homonyms without apparent cause of 
difPerentiation; atemi, a-f temi, to be dropsical; atemia, to 
get full of lice; atemitl, a louse; the first form may be 
considered an adjective like tlatlati, one who guards the 
fire; tlatlatia (reverencial), to make a fire; but the verb 


is distinctly in both forms: tlami, to end, or tlatlamia; 
moloni, to be (set) in motion; molonia, to soften. 

Root forms: tzopelia, to sweeten; *tzot + pelia; Skr, 
svadiis; Greek, ^Su? + pr; pia, to hold, have; Skr, pa; 
chia, to wait; Skr, dha; tlachia, to see (p. 16). 

VI. Verbs ending -ua {a-ua?). — This is a small 
class numbering one-twelfth of the whole. This ending 
springs from very difPerent sources, and some of the verbs 
are difficult to determine with certainty: 

o) Involving l/r: Mex, naua, to dance; Skr, nr + t; 
Mex, xaua, to paint the face; Skr. garanA, a covering; 
Lat, oc-cul-o ; Mex, caua, to cease doing a thing, delay, stop, 
break ranks, quit the road, accompany, prevail over, carry, 
tarry, visit; Skr, cdrati, go, roam, perform, wander, ap- 
proach, accomplish, wait on, arrive, depart, seduce; Mex, 
cuechaua, to soften, wet; Skr, ks^rati, to flow; Mex, 
chicaua, get strong; Skr, dfhyati; Lat, fortis *forctis; 
perhaps better, dhi + caua (see tilinia, Class IV [6]). 

b) Involving loss of palatal, velar, or s: Mex, paca, to 
cleanse; pau-aci, *psa-aoi, to cook; cf. Skr, pAcati, to 
cook, ripen ; Mex, gaua, to fast ; Skr, sahate, to be master, 
conquer, endure *segh (cf. ksam) ; Mex, alaua, to glide; 
Skr, rAnhati( ?) *rangh (cf. Ifeati) ; Mex, poyaua, to dye = 
po+yaua; yauitl, reddish or black corn; Skr, rdjati, to 
dye, or *rudh-ro-s, red. 

c) Root forms: gaja-maua, to mow, Greek, afjidco; Eng, 
mow; Mex, aua, to wrangle, divorce ; Skr, Ava(?) "away"; 
Mex, pinaua, to be ashamed; Greek, ireivdco, to be poor, 
TTiVo?, dirt; Mex, tetzaua, to coagulate =tetl, stone + tzaua; 
Skr, styayeti, to coagulate; chamaua, to commence the 
season of ripening corn and cocoa, to grow, jactarse; Skr, 
sam, with + dvati, to set going, refresh. 

VII. Verbs ending -eua. — A small class, (a) A 


typical verb is eua, rise, go, join (in battle), eua-ti-ca, to 
be seated; Skr, r, iyarti, rn6ti, rise, send, put, fit, "go 
for," in bad sense; Greek, wp-ra; Lat, orior, rise; Mex, 
teneua, to speak ( = tentli, word + eua); pocheua, to 
smoke, to brown bread baking; poctli, smoke; Greek, 
TTW/cafta + eua ; euh-t-eua, to rise in haste ; Skr, ayii, 
quick; Greek, ^u? + eua; ixconeua, to attack = ixco + (ni) 
eua, "I meet him face to face"; (6) root forms: Mex, 
maceua, to dance [Comp. Vocabulary); Skr, ma, mine + 
seva, service; Mex, peua, to be first, conquer; *pr-uo; 
Goth, fr4uja, a lord; Lat, pri-mus; Mex, yopeua, to un- 
loose, withdraw; Skr, yu, to separate -|- peua; matt-eua, 
prevision of a dying person, "second sight" (?); mati + 
eua; ma-topeua, to push; tud(?); TU7r-T(B(?). 

Remark. — The formation of these words is often diffi- 
. cult to determine with certainty. Thus xipeua, to shell 
peas, may be formed, xipe; Skr, gipi, a fibrous or thin 
root (covering?) + eua, to open, "get at"; or xi + pi, to 
pull up grass; Skr, bhid, *bheid, *pitua; or it may be a 
simple verb formed, xi'pe + va *uo, an adjective which later 
became a verb without change. Pinaua, Class V, is a 
parallel case. 

VIII. Verbs ending -uia. — Verbs ending -uia [huia) 
constitute about one-tenth of the whole number. This 
class possesses a special interest from the fact that the 
formation is so clearly old Aryan. The ending uia is 
*u-i6 (Brugmann, Vergleichende Grammatik, IV, §772). 
These denominative verbs are very lucid in formation, as, 
iztatl, salt; iztauia, to salt; tetl, a stone; tenia, to stone. 
Two forms exist: (a) formed on the root; (6) formed on 
a stem. 

Boot forms : Mex, te-tzauia, to coagulate, harden ; Skr, 
styayeti, to harden; tetzauitl was an epithet of Uitzilo- 


pochtli; also a dire prodigy. Mex, xe-xeluia, to cut to 
pieces, destroy; Skr, crnati, to break; Mex, i^auia, aston- 
ish, startle; Skr, 5a, gicati, to sharpen. 

Stem forms: Mex, pachiuia, to spy; Skr. pAgyati *spek; 
Mex, paleuia, to aid; Skr, b^la(?), power, pal6yati(?) to 
protect; Mex, panauia, to excel; Skr, bhana, splendor; 
Greek, ^div(o; tlapi-uia, to grow, multiply; Skr, trp, trpyati, 
nourish (cf. pivan, irlcav). Cf. reverencial forms, p. 18. 

IX. Verbs ending -iui. — A small class. These verbs 
are practically adjectives, as ni-pachiui, I (am) full. The 
form *iu is closely associated with *io (Brugmann, op. cit., 
II, §105, nouns; IV, §702, verbs). The original mean- 
ing was "desiring," "possessing," "performing"; Skr, 
agva-yu-s, desiring horses; Mex, pachiui, to eat to satiety, 
"possessing fulness"; Mex, xeliui, to break, "being 
broken" (cf. xeloa. Class II, and xeluia, Class VIII) ; 
auiliui, to become vile, degrade self; Lat, vil-is( ?). The 
ending iui appears to be analyzable iui, but cf. affix u; Skr, 
tanv-i, masc, tan-u-s (Brugmann, op. cH., II, §104). 
Here y would be euphonic glide + u-i, and this is parallel 
to Mexican ending ui; oquichtli, man ; te-oquichui, a hus- 
band; iztli, a knife (obsidian), n'itz or n'itzhiii, my knife. 

X, Verbs ending -oni (-ni?). — This is a small class 
numbering only about 5 per cent of the whole number of 
verbs; examples: Mex, cueponi, to pop; potoni, to stink; 
Skr, purtis; Mex, moloni, activity (set in motion); Lat, 
molior; cognate, itz-moli-ni, to sprout (seeds); Mex, 
queloni, to dislocate; Greek, K\jji'9(?), lock; clavus-1-lo-ni; 
Skr, lu-ni-s, a loosing; Goth, lu-n-s, "a means of loosing," 
ransom. From these comparisons it would seem that 
these verbs were originally nouns ending -ni and became 
verbs without change of form (cf. Brugmann, op. cit., II, 
§§95,96, and IV, §597). 


XI. Verbs ending -na {-ana?) *-no-*nd. — A few verbs 
end in na. Examples: yacana, to lead (raj) ; mayana, to be 
hungry (famine); cf. Skr, marana, killing, root mr; 
Grreek, fiapdivm ; Lat, mori ; Mex, ana, take ; Skr, *ag-na( ?) ; 
apana, to gird up, wrap *a-pa5-na? These are not to be 
confused with root forms "ending in na, as mana (mani), 
to place; tlapana, to break; Mex, tle-ua-uana, to stir the 
the fire; Skr, vtoa, wood. Compare yaca-na, to lead (raj), 
with Skr, bhara-na-m, act of bearing (cf. Brugmann, op. 
cit., 11, §65, and IV, §616). 

XII. Verbs ending -noa. — A small class, less than ten 
verbs. Examples : Mex, cuiltonoa, to prosper, cuil + tonoa ; 
*grr-; Skr, gariis, important, Greek, ^apw; Lat, gravis; 
Skr, dhd-na, riches; tepitonoa, to make small (by analogy) ; 
Mex, uecapanoa (-paniui), to exalt = ueca+panoa; Skr, 
panii, praise; Mex, chinoa, to burn, light up; Skr, dina, 
"light." As may be seen these forms are root + -na, -n, 
-nu (Brugmann, op. cit., IV, §§597, 607 ; Whitney, op. cit, 
§ 717). Some of them are evidently nouns which became 
verbs by assuming the regular verb ending -a, as in dhAna, 
or without change (cf. panoa, to cross a stream, pr^+na 
*sna, p. 28). Cf. Class II. 

XIII. Verbs ending -ina, *-ino. — A very small class. 
.Max, pochina, to card cotton; Skr, bhujditi, to bend, fold; 
cf. po(pro) + *qs-n; Greek, ^aivco, to card wool; Mex, 
malina, to twist; Skr, mrnati, to "mill"; Mex, xancopina, 
to make bricks=:xamitl + copina; Skr, kap-ala( ?), pot- 
sherd, jar ; cf . parallel adjectives and nouns ; Skr, daks-ina-s, 
dexter; Greek, 0?;7-ii/o-s, beechen; Lat, faginus. This 
affix, very rare in Mexican, was not fertile in Indo-Iranian 
(cf. Brugmann, op. cit., II, §68). 

XIV. Verbs with irregular endings: -ni: tolini 
(tolinia) ; tzilini, to ring; tlani, to "gain"; Skr, tir6,ti or 


trati; -mi: tlami, to end; tr-|-mi; temi, to be full; tomi, 
to undo (toma) ; -o, temo, to descend; tleco, to mount, 
and a few others which appear to be variants from the 
regular types; chia, to wait, appears to be Skr dMhami, 
*dhe, to place; Greek, ridrifii; tlachia, to see; Skr, di- 
-dhi-e, he looked; to be circumspect; Skr, dhayati,to reflect; 
chi-ua, make, beget, is *dho; coua, to buy, kr. 


Comparison of the conjugation of the Mexican verb 
with verb-flexion in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin: (1) the 
s-future; (2) the s-aorist and the k-perfect; (3) the 
passive with -1- affix; r- forms, Latin and Sanskrit; (4) the 
"reverencial" affix -lia; Skr, -ire? 

1. The future tense of the Mexican verb ends in -z; 
plural -zque; nitla-pia, I guard ; nitlapiaz, I shall guard ; 
nite-tla§otla, I love ; nite-tla^otlaz,- 1 shall love. 

2. The perfect tense ends in -x[sh), ov -ca{c): o-nitla- 
-pix, I guarded; pluperfect, o-nitla-pixca ; qua, to eat; 
o-nitla-qua, I ate; o-nitla-quac, or nic-quazquia, I had 
eaten; izcaya, to grow; o-izcayac, it grew. Some verbs 
have both forms: tlaneci, day breaks; o-tlanez (root- 
form) or o-tlanecic, day hvoke; with lei as a variant, 
o-tlanezqui. This k-perfect must not be confused with 
root perfects, as, nitla-paca, I it wash ; o-nitla-pac ; miqui, 
to die; o-mic, or mic, he died; chiua, to make, do; o-nic- 
-chitih, I did it. 

The s-perfect may be compared with the Aryan s-aorist 
and the k-perfect with the Greek K-perfect. 

Remark. — The verb ca indicates existence ; Span, estar, 
and is rarely predicative^ sum. The perfect is o-ni-catca 
(ca-ti-ca). Hence the k-perfect may be perhaps inter- 
preted as a compound with ca as the final member, but 


the variant qui and the plural que indicate a different 
origin. Compare the Greek perfect in -ica, as Xvm, to 
loose; \e-\v-Ka, I loosed. Tlatla-calhuia, to, injure; Skr, 
Qrnati; has the perfect tlatlacalhui, the form of the Latin 
perfect in ui. This form results from the idiomatic 
change in Mexican, by which the perfect tense of many 
verbs drops the final vowel. The Mexican perfect in 
k appears to me to be identical with the Greek perfect 
in Ka. It has been said in objection to my view that 
this is a late form. Here is Brugmann's view: "The 
explanation which has most in its favor is the following. 
K is called a Root-Determinative, which came from the 
parent language into Greek in a few verbs" (Brugmann, 
op. cit., IV, § 864, Rem.). The Mexican s-perfect (x), 
has the form and use of the s-aorists in Greek and San- 
skrit, and the same may be said of the s-future. 

The sk-form, pluperfect, o-nitla-pixca(pia) affixes to 
the root both the s and the k signs. The same is true of 
the form nic-quazquia. This is really reduplication of two 
past signs, the s-aorist and k-perfeet. Compare with this 
sk-form the Greek iterative imperfect, /levo), to remain, 
fiev-eaKOP ; ^v'yai, to flee, <pvy-e-aKOi'. 

3. The passive voice ending -lo, -o. In the passive the 
forms are: ni-pia-lo, I am guarded; o-ni-pia-lo-c, I have 
been guarded; o-ni-pia-lo-ca, I had been guarded. Thus 
usage seems to indicate a passive older than the k-perfect, 
but this may be a later form by analogy. 

The impersonal may be classed with the passive: 
ne-zahua-lo, they fast, all fast; teo-qua-lo, the god is eaten 
(being eaten). Irregular forms are common; analo, or 
ano, I am taken; maca, give, maco; ni-pixca, I gather corn; 
pixco, pixcoa, pixcalo, "they" gather corn ; quiza, to go out; 
quixoa, all go out; yoli, to live; yoliua, all live. 


The reverencial also exhibits the same irregulari- 
ties; ecTixoa, to sneeze; ecuxalhuia or excuxolhtia (class 
oa verbs). The impersonal of aci, to arrive, is: aciua, 
axina, axoa, "they" arrive, "it is arrived"; poliui, to be 
lost, poliua; tleco, to mount, tlecoa or tlecoua. This last 
form may indicate a dropping of r * tlecola ; and a passive 
-ola; hence poliua, *polil-a, might be compared with the 
reverencial ending -ilia. 

Amidst this confusion of forms two facts appear to be 
established: that Mexican is analogous to the languages 
of the old world: (a) as to the presence of r-forms; (6) all 
these forms are middle or passive. ' Compare the irregular 
Sanskrit 3d plu, pres, indie, active, duh-dr, they milk. 

The passive determinant -I- suggests comparison with 
the Latin passive. For analogy of thought-form cf. 
Latin vivitur, "they" live, people live. 

4. The "reverencial" ending -lia, -tia {i-lia, i-tia). — 
This form of the verb derives its name from the fact that 
it is a "courtesy" form or "honorific," but it is regularly 
used with an indirect object as the "dative," so-called. 
(This form has the reverencial -li-\--lia.) It is often dis- 
tinctly reflexive, as nite-tlagotla, I love (someone) ; reveren- 
cial, ninote-tlaQotilia or -tiltia; but mo-tlagoti-lia, he loves 
himself. The reverencial also has the ending -tia: mati 
(ni), I think; machtia (nino), I learn; machtia (ni-te), I 
teach.' Verbs ending oa take -huia, -Ihuia. But it is to 
be observed that in all its forms and uses it requires the 
reflexive pronoun. 

These forms, -tia and -lia, have a special significance 
when compared with Sanskrit forms. It has been seen 
that -I- is the sign of the passive in Mexican and that it 
appears to be an ancient form. This -?--|-the Sanskrit 

1 See Olmos. Grammar Nahuatl, pp. 20, 161 ff. ; Falma, Grammar, pp. 69, 70. 


passive sign yd, may give the reverencial (middle) ending 
-lia, as above. The Sanskrit middle perfect has the 
ending re and ire; other bizarre Vedic r-forms exist. 
They are called "peculiar" (Whitney, op. cU., 550d; for 
r-forms cf. Brugmann,' op. oil, IV, §§ 1076, 1083). The 
reverencial in -tia, the "compulsivo", (Palma), is to be 
sought in the proethnic imperative; cf. Skr, Iphdra-ta; 
Greek, (jiep-re; Lat, fer-te, bear ye. 

Remark 1. — ^ These r-forms require further study and 
comparison before venturing to announce positive results. 
A few Mexican verbs have hotJi forms in one vocable, as 
nitla-tilinia, to dilate, stretch; reverencial, ninotla-tilini- 
-lia, ninotla-tilini-tia or mnoiln-tiliniUilia. 

Remarlc^2. — A few verbs take ch before the reverencial 
ending: iloti, to turn; ilochtia, to turn a person from his 
course; mati, to think; machtia, to teach. A sporadic 
ch affixed to the stem or substituted for its final consonant 
occurs in a few verbs in Sanskrit (Whitney, op. cit, 608). 

Remark 3. — Such a remarkable identity of bizarre, 
specialized forms in two languages so widely separated 
in time and locality as the Vedic of 1000 B.C. and the 
Mexican of 1900 A. D. can scarcely be explained as a "co- 
incidence." A rational reason is required instead of a 
puerile one, and the most obvious explanation is that of 
genetic relationship. 


These affixes in a certain sense indicate the time and 
purpose of an action. They are: to, tiuh, ti, aller faire, 
about to do; co, quiuh, qui, venir de faire, just done. 
Their origin is naturally sought among the non-finite forms 
of the Aryan verb, the participles, gerunds, verbal nouns, 
etc. Olmos calls these forms "gerundives": o-nitla-piato. 


I went to guard; nitla-piatiah, I am going to guard; ma 
tla-piati, let him guard. 

a) -to; cf . * dhe-to-s, perf . part. ; Skr, dhi-td-s (hitas) ; 
Grreek, Ori-To, "put," "done"; Lat, credi-tu-s (Brugmann, 
op. cjl, IV, §1099; II, §79). 

b) -tiuh; cf. Lat, supine da-tu; OCSl, da-tu, to give, 
ground form teu. Also cf. tio = t + io; Skr, kr-t-ya-s, faci- 
endus (Brugmann, op. cit., II, §63). 

c) -ti; cf. Lith, infinitive, du-ti; OCSl, da-ti, to give 
(Brugmann, op. cit., IV, § 1088 [6] ; III, p. 161). 

cl) -co; o-nitla-piaco, I have come to guard (just 
come); nitla-piaquiuh, I am coming to guard; ma tla- 
-piaqui, let him guard. Cf. afiix *qo, qa (*k6 *ka?). In 
nouns and adjectives it meant "tantamount to, or resem- 
bling the original"; Skr, fus-ka, dry; Anuka-s, coming 
after a thing ; dha-k&-s, a receptacle ; Greek, d-q-Kt] (Brug- 
mann, op. cit., II, §§83, 85, 86). 

e) -quiuh; perhaps -k, -q + *iu, *io; "In Sanskrit, a 
living participial suffix ; dfg-ya-s, ddrg-iya-s, visible, worth 
seeing" (Brugmann, op. cit., II, §63); Greek, dy-io-<;, 
venerandus (see tio, supra, under tiuh; also verbs in 
-iui. Class IX, supra, and abstract nouns in -yo-tl, p. 22, 

f) -qui may perhaps find a derivation in: qui, kr, to 
"make," "do," as used elsewhere in Mexican. Cf. ten- 
-qui, filled, "made full"; co-yayau-qui, a thing widened; 
but it is more probable that -7c- should be assigned to the 
perfect tense (p. 16, supra) with -i undetermined. 

Remark. — An examination of these desinences reveals : 
(a) the first series has a -/-base; (6) the second series 
has a -/c-base. (c) The vowels of the two series corre- 
spond and evidently have a tense value (imperative ex- 
cepted) namely: -o for the past tense and -iU for the 


future. The /-form sometimes expresses a purpose, as 
nite-machti-tiuh, I go to teach. This parallels the use 
of the Latin supine in -tu-m after verbs of motion, as: 
legati venerunt res repetitum, deputies came to demand 
restitution. Cf. also the Latin perfect passive participle 
in -tii-s. 


This in an active sense predicates "doing" as applied 
to the original verb. It is formed in two ways: (a) on 
the root: choca, to weep; choquiztli, weeping; (6) root 
+ 1: chiua, to do; chiua-1-iz-tli, a doing; (c) both forms: 
choquiztli, choquiliztli. Compare the primitive compara- 
tive suffix *ies, *is; superlative, -is-to. There is, how- 
ever, no idea of comparison found in Mexican -iz-tli. 
Possibly es-ti, *ei, is; "weeping-is." The form es, ei^l, 
be, occurs in the reverencial timo-y-e/z-ti-ca, "thou art." 


A. Variants. — The forms -yo-tl, -yu-tl (-lutl), involve 
the relationship existing between Mexican o and u, which 
are often interchangeable. In a majority of the cases o 
represents a primitive u, as in teotl or teutl, a god *dm; 
moyotl or muyutl, mosquito; Greek, fivla *fivcr-La, a fly. 
Tlacatecolotl, devil, "man owl," has the variants: tlaca- 
-tec-olutl, -ulutl; Skr, lilii-ka, owl; Greek, oXo\-o<;, waller; 
Lat, ulula. Patiotl, price; patiyo, dear, is also patiuhtli, 
while patiyotl, bravery, has but one form; Skr, pati, to 
be master + io. 

-lu-tl. Olmos gives -lu-tl as the equivalent of yu-tl 
(op. cit, p. 39), but distinctly says (p. 198) that II is not 
liquid but is sounded like II in Latin villa. This suggests 
the affix * -lo, -llo ; Skr, tu-la, cotton boll ; Greek, ti5-\o-9. 

Remark. — yuh, -iuh, -uh: yuh, so, as; Skr, yaii, pro., 
dual, masc, "that"; gal-tw/i-yantli, a joint; Skr, sr+yu, 
to join+*en(*ien?) ; ieuh-iW, dust; tetl, a stone; *trs+u; 
ue-icm/i-yotl, kin by marriage; Skr, su, to generate, (?/ a 
glide, p. 27). 

B. Morphology.— ^onns in -yotl are formed: 

a) by affixing -yotl directly to the root: teo-yotl, 
divinity; pac-yotl, woof; Skr, pd^yati, to bind; Lat, pac- 
-iscor; chichi-yutl, pertaining to a dog ("sucker"); root 
*dhoi'; qual-lotl (kal-ro-tl?), goodness; Greek, to /caXoV. 

b) Prom themes: pati-yotl, bravery; Skr, patl; pino- 
-yotl, wretchedness; Greek, ttlvoi ; ma^a-yotl, deer color. 

iThe "neutral vowel "o; IE *p»-tri Mex. jji-tli, " protector " ; *sth9, stand ; 
Mez, ue-tzi^ fall; *mo-ti, measure; Mex, ma-i-tl, the hand; m?-tl, arrow, post; 
MeX. con-9-tl, child; Skr, jan-i-man, birth; Mex, t'an-i-ma, the soul; an-i-ma. 



c) Grammatical forms : (1) nouns as above ; {2) from 
adverbs ending -ca (cauh)/ as uecauh, far; uecauh-yotl, 
"farness," distance; chichica-yotl, bitterness; too-forms: 
coton-yotl or cotonoa-yotl, clippings, from cotona, to cut; 
Skr, gatdyati; (3) from the perfect tense of verbs; tlatoca- 
-yotl, a matter of authority, from tlatoa, to command; 
tlacuiloca-yotl, a matter of writing, cuiloa, to write (paint 
hieroglyphics) ; (4) with the same prefix *io are formed 
adjectives in -yo: tetl, a stone; teyo, stony; iztatl, salt; 
iztayo, salty. 

Remark. — These Mexican nouns in -yo-tl, are unmis- 
takably formed by the proethnic affix, *io, *ia, *iio, *iia 
(cf. Brugmann, op. cit, II, § 63). They had at that early 
period an abstract meaning. Compare the following con- 
current examples: Mex, xiuh-ca-yu-tl, a matter of a year; 
Skr, ddga-mas-iya, lasting ten months; Greek, e/jL-fi'qv-io-^, 
during one month ; Mex, teo-yo-tl, divinity ; Skr, div-ydi-s, 
heavenly ; Greek, Blm * Stf -to-?, divine ; Lat, jov-iu-s, be- 
longing to Jove; Mex, qual-lo-tl, goodness; Skr, kal-ya, 
healthy ; Skr, vac-iya-m or vac-ya-m, speech ; Mex, tlaca- 
-uaca, murmuring of the people; the corresponding abstract 
would be *tlacauaca-yo-tl. Cf. *io verbs. Class IX. 

1 Aryan sufiSx Co, qo(?) (Brugmann, op. cit., 11, §83, 129). 


The Numerals 

Mexican notation is partially based on the "hand 
counting" system, the most ancient and universal. The 
numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, are Aryan and the base of the system. 
I offer this analysis. There were two primitive Aryan 
roots for one and two roots for two. The roots for one 
were, sem, as in Latin, sem-el, once; Mex, ce, cen, cem; 
and i, e, oij Skr, 6-ka, one ; Greek, oivrj, ace ; Latin, unus. 
The roots for two were duo ; Latin, duo ; and uei, ui, uim, 
uin ; Skr, vin-gati, twenty, " two tens " ; Greek, ii-Kari ; 
Latin, vl-ginti ; Mex, itn-xiuitl, two years. The root i or 
e, one, is found in Latin, tre-s, three; Old Irish, tri; ana- 
lyzed tr + i or e. In Sanskrit tr means to cross, also to 
increase, hence i or e must have once meant one (cf. 
Thessalian 'ia, one) and tr + e = three, was read "increase 
one," that is upon two. The Mexican then is: cem, one; 
ome, two = uim+e, "two ones"; e, ei, r/ei, three, "increase 
one," tr being dropped ; naui, four, becomes nd, "like" -f ui, 
a pair, that is "like two twos"; mactiilli, five, is a "hand" ; 
matlactli, ten, two "hands." 

An ordinal one occurs in Mexican outside the notation. 
The root, pr-mo, pr-uo, meant first; Latin, pri-mus; 
Gothic, fr6uja, a lord; German, frau, a lady; Mexican, 
pil-\\ (pr), a nobleman; ciua-j3t7-li, a lady. From the 
strong form, pr, comes Mex, pehua, to be first, to conquer; 
Eng, /ore-most. 

Macuilli, five, a "hand grasp," is a compound of maitl, 
hand + ciii, to grasp ; Skr, grabh, grah ; grbhnati, he grasps. 



Mailactli, ten, the torso or both hands; maitl + Skr, 
tr + anc; hands crossed. 

Caxtolli, fifteen, is cax + tol-li; Skr, toMyati, to weigh, 
balance (count?) ; cax is probably Skr, kdsati, to move, 
or qaq (^agvant) , renewing; "renewing the base or unit?" 

Cem-poalli, a score, is cem, as above + poa, to make 
evident; Skr, bhati, to shine, appear, to make plain; 
Greek, «^»j-/it, speak ; Lat, fa-ri ; Eng, ba-n, marriage notice. 

Tzontli, 4:00, the grand nnit, a "head of hair," "many" ; 
as head, Skr, sanu, peak, top. 

Phonology of the Labials 

Of the series only p remains. 

The labials were difiicult sounds for the Mexicans and 
were frequently lost or transformed, p seldom, b and bh 
oftener. The change was simply a dropping of the labial 
or a change p / b becomes u. The labials are usually 
preserved when protected by prefixes or affixes. But 
the changes are sometimes so puzzling that determination 
is very difficult. 

1. p. — Tlauana, drunk =tla + Skr, pana, drinking; here 
p is lost despite the protecting tla; auh, also ; Skr, api ; qui- 
-auitl, rain = qui + auitl; Skr, ghr jigharti, to drip+^p, 
water (cf. yauitl; Skr, rajds, dark, clouds), ph — pro- 
tected; tla-pana, to break, pop (egg-shells, dishes); Skr, 
drnati, cleave + phanati, leap, hops (compare with tlauana). 
p, p-l — tla-pal-li, color; Lith, pal- va, yellowish ; OCSl, 
pla-vu, tawny. 

2. bh. — Initial and final, accented( ?), unprotected: ua- 
-paua, to make strong, *ba-baua; Skr, bah, banhdyate, 
to be strong, *bagh bhagh; bahii, much; Greek, iraxv^, 
thick, strong; Ger, bug, the shoulder; eleuia, to desire, 
*eleubia, *leubh; Skr, Mbhyati; Greek, \(7r-To-/ttat ; Lat, 


lubet, libet; AS, leof, love; tlal-olin, earthquake; ol-oloa, 
to roll ; Skr, bhrdmati, rotate ; or bhur^ti, stir around ; oui, 
dangerous, to be in danger; Skr, bhi, bhAyate, to fear; 
coatl, serpent; Skr, gumbhAte, to glide; comitl, dish, 
*colmitl (?) ; Skr,kumbh^; it may be assumed that Mexican 
never had the suffix *bh& in this case; uaualoa, to bark, 
*bhels; Skr, bhfeati; camatl, mouth; *ghombhos; Lith, 
zam-ba, mouth. 

3. bh — protected, not dropped: tla-pal-tic, strong ; Skr, 
bhdrati; ich-pocA-tli, a girl; Skr, bh^jati, to' deal out; 
bhagini, sister, "fortunate one," *bhag; of. Pali, Vudho; 
Skr, BuddhA. br — tla-paloa, to salute; Skr, bru, to speak. 

Remark. — Compare names of a few "flyers" with Skr, 
bhrAmati, to move unsteadily (ol-oloa, roll) ; or bhur&ti, 
stir around: tot-olin, a hen; pipi-olin(-yolin), a bee; 
gayulin, a fly ; chapolin, a grasshopper. 

Initial y 

a) y represents a primitive palatal or velar: yollotl, 
heart, "meat" of fruit (hence not "roller," Comp. Vocab.) ; 
Skr, hrda-ya, heart or essence of thing, *ghrod, (1-1= 
1-io?) ; yan-yolcayotl, "blood" kindred, *gn, *gen, gigno; 
Skr, jan, jayate (of. conetl, child); iyaya (redup), to 
smell; Skr, grha, jigharti, to smell; yauh, to go, *gem; 
Skr, gam, ga; orya; ihia, tohate; Skr, c^yeti *qei; ihiotia, 
to be gorgeously dressed, "shine," *ghr; Skr, h&ri, yellow; 
Greek, j(;\a)-po'-? ; Lat, holns, gilbus, fulvus; AS, geolo; 
Eng, yellow; yeua, to beg; Skr, ha, jahati(?), to be des- 
titute, *ghe; Greek, x»)-/oo-?: Lat, fames. 

b) y represents initial r: yectli, good, right, *reg; Skr, 
rj (raj); Lat, rec-te, right; OHG, reht; Eng, right; ya- 
-yac-tic, blackish; Skr, rajds, dark; Goth, riqis; Eng, 
rack (clouds) ; yopi-; Skr, lumpati( ?) ; yac-ana, to guide, 


rajati ; yamania, to soften ; Skr, ramaniya ; ilhuia, to call, 
*gr; Skr, gir; Greek, y^pw; Eng, call. 

c) y, introductory glide: yal-ua, yesterday; Greek, 
^po-1, year, season, hour; Goth, jera, year; Eng, year, 
yore; ye, already; Greek, *cufei, aiei; Lat, aevum; Eng, 
aye, ever; yye, ye, yes; Greek, r), surely; Goth, ja; Eng, 
ye-s; ioui, "flowing" (air) ; Lat, flo( ?) ; Skr, vati, to blow; 
Goth, val-vo, blow, *au, -blow (umlaut, i-au-i) ; Lat, 
ve-nt-us, *ue; ihiotl, breath; Lat, hlo, to yawn; Greek, 
Xaw; cf. (a) ihiotia; yancuic, new, *iuunko-s; Skr, 
yuvagd-s; Lat, juvencus; Eng, young; ua-yolca-yotl, kin 
by blood; Skr, vrjdna, "dwellers"; yolqui, an animal; 
yolcatl, a grub, froth; yolca-tlaxcalli, bread of life, gen. 
meaning life; Skr, iirj, sap, strength; cf. Lat, virgu-lum, 
bushes; qua-iuinti, to lose one's head ; quaitl + iuinti; Skr, 
tina, lacking; Greek, 'evvi<;. 

Remark. — As an introductory glide y is indeterminate : 
y olio tl, yoUotli, olotl, heart; spherical: ololtic, tapa-yoltic, 
tolontic; cylindrical: olotl, a corn cob; co-yol-omitl, an 
awl; Skr, ara, point; auiac, or auiyac, sweet smelling. 
It is impossible to differentiate yollotl, *ghrod, heart, 
from olotl, round, *ur, "roller" or bhrAmati, to rotate or 
bhurdti, to struggle; Mex, olinia, shake, move, (bh 
becomes o or u; see "labials," p. 25). 

The Nasals 

In modern Mexican there is a tendency to drop n, ni, 
_iiiitial.£md_£nal:- -Mexico, .nearly Eshico; totolin, a hen, 
or totoli (01m OS, op. cit., 197). Apparently there are no 
nasal verbs (see verbs ending -i, Class III, Eem. 1. For 
in=v{u) see verbs ending -au-i, Class IV, Rem. 2). Dis- 
appearance of the nasal causes no change in the root: 
*angh, aqui, to squeeze in, enter; *ghen, quen-, wound; 


*bhngh, ua-pau-a, to strengthen ; *unn, iuian ; Skr, vandti, 
meekly; Lat, venus; *stembh, fasten; itztapalli, paving- 
stone (or stha + bhr) ; *men, *mn-t6; mati, to think; chic- 
^oc-tic, strong, *dhergh + *nq. 

Primitive vocalic n=a: -n-, not; Mex, a, amo (ano?) ; 
Greek, a, av; Skr, a, an; Lat, in; Ger, un; yancuic, new; 
*iuun-ko-3; *jm-, ma-yau-i (see above and verbs, Class 
IV, "rem. 2). 

11-— e: *tn-td, stretched, *ten; Mex, tentli, lips, border; 
nenqui, nothing; Greek, ve- vd; Lat, ne; *dnk, bite; 
Greek, Mkvw; Mex, teci(?), to grind; ghn; Mex, quen, 
to wound (ken); Skr, han. 

Remark. — As may be seen by these examples vocalic 
n in Mexican exhibits the differences shown between 
Sanskrit and Greek n—a and Latin n = e. 

-lit: Skr, -ata; Greek, -drai, -rjre; Mex, *-anat-: 
auatl, a door; Skr, ata; Lat, anta, doorpost. 

-id: Mex, cem-mana-uatl, the universe; sem, one,-|- 
manfio, to abide, immanent + *uent = uat; or Skr, dnta, 
"anticus," "limits" ; Mex, ixtla-uatl, valley, vista, "spread"; 
*str+uent; Greek, a-Tpto-fia; Lat, stramen; Eng, straw; 
uentli, an offering; ghu + *en + tli; Greek, ^v-tXo-ii. 

-Ill-: Mex, ouatl, a green corn-stalk; auatl, oak; Lat, 
alnu-s(?), an alder, *alnos; auatl, a "wooly" caterpillar, 
*ulna (au— u); Skr, iirna, wool. 

-ns-: Mex, ma^atl, a deer; Skr, mans, meat; Mex, 
metztli, moon, month, "leg," in comp. Greek, /J'fjv; Skr, 
mas; hence Mex, *men-s-tli, a derivative ending affixed 
to primitive s, which is wholly irregular in Mexican, 
whichr universally discards final s; for example, the iinal 
z in ceiiiz, cool, derives from the verbal ceuiztli. 

sn: Mex, panoa, to cross a stream, prd + *sna, bathe, a 
stream; Lat, no, swim. 


TO following st: Mex, omitl, a bone, awl, *ost + mitl. 
mr — br: Mex, tla-paloa, salute; Skr, bru, to speak. 

Remarks Suggested by Criticism 

Criticism is valuable only as it elucidates. The criti- 
cism which is insincere, superficial, or biased, has little or 
no value. The intelligent critic selects salient features 
and notes both merits and defects. He informs his 

1. Compounding. — It has been objected that my method 
of determining compound verbs gives results which are 
not Aryan. Pachiuia is cited. I give it (^Comparative 
Vocabulary), "perhaps" *spac + hr. In the same connec- 
tion is a cross-reference where the matter is discussed as 
one in doubt. The critic absolutely ignores the "per- 
haps" and the reference. Several have thus turned my 
tentative suggestions into positive assertions. A profes- 
sor in a great New England university picked out enough 
such suggestions and doubtful points to constitute, with 
a few personalities, the chief part of his review, and was 
tlius guilty of practical falsification. Such criticism may. 
be compared with guerrilla warfare or "night-riding."' 
But to the point: Would pachi + hr (huia) be a legiti- 
mate Aryan compound? In Mexican the objective noun 
element, root or theme, is used in an adverbial sense: 
quen-chiua, to wound, *ghen + *do; Skr, han *ghn-dhi, 
(ftorTo-^; Mo-teuhc-qvima, Montezuma, "he frowns like a 
lord," mo + teuhctli-|-§uma, is a case of the noun (not 
objective) used adverbially. Compare Skr, niti-jna, eti- 
quette knowing; agvamisti, horse desiring; Mex, yec-toca, 
to pretend to be good; Goth, pugkjan, pretend; OLat, 
tongere(?); Mex, quechpiloa, to hang (a man); quechtli, 

I The Nation, February 25, 1910. 


neck, is not objective. Quech is the root, though distinctly 
a noun. Mexican clips terminations in compounding, as 
in tatli, father, no-ta, my father, and moteuhcguma above. 
Compare with quech piloa, Skr, astam-eti, sunset, "home- 
goes." It is impossible in such cases to draw a strict line 
between objective-noun, noun-adverb, and adjective; com- 
pare potis-sum, possum. Beside these put Mex, cue-tlani, 
to get quiet * qie + tr ; Lat, quies, quiet ; Mex, xa-pot-la, 
to ruin [Comparative Vocabulary), from Skr, sa-|- 
pothyAti -|- ra or ra, "all-destruction-having," an original 
phrase coalesced into a verb. How does this differ from 
purvajanmakrta, done in a previous existence? In geom- 
etry (a positive science) we learn that things which are 
equal to the same thing are equal to each other. If 
Mexican = Sanskrit and Sanskrit = Aryan, then Mexican 
= Aryan. Q.E.D. (See pachiuia, under Verbs, Class 
VIII, supra.) Compare Vedic, vid-man-e, get to know, 
with Aztlan-chan-e, a resident of Aztlan. 

2. The palatals and velars. — Hasty critics have as- 
serted that I have not differentiated these primitive sounds. 
A Frenchman' tries by this test (and others) to ridicule 
my work and perpetrates various niaiseries himself to 
prove me guilty of " enf antillages." This is another case 
of superficial reading. Had this critic examined my 
"Phonology" he would have seen that all the sounds of 
the two primitive series fall in Mexican into two sounds, 
a c (k) and an sh (x, ch) sound (cf. "initial y," supra). 
His ignorance of my phonology was rivaled only by an 
American critic^ who after much expenditure of verbiage 
and sarcasm examined only one entry out of 620 in my 
vocabulary, and pretended not to understand that. 

1 A. Cuny, Etudes Anciennes, Avril-Juin, 1910, Bordeaux. 

2 Carl D. Bnck, Classical Philology, April, 1910, Chicago. 


3. Syntax as a determining factor. — Some linguists 
hold the view that syntax is above etymology in determin- 
ing genetic relationship. I beg to submit that there must 
have been words before there could be any arrangement 
of words. Admitting the equal value of syntax and 
etymology, let M. Cuny and others observe the signifi- 
cance of verb-structure as exhibited in the perfect and 
future tenses, the -sk-pluperfect, the reverencial, the 
passive, the desinences, and the affixes, which all un- 
qiiestionably belong under syntax. Also is to be noted 
the very peculiar Mex. pronoun, aca, someone, with which 
compare Vedic asmaka, yusmaka, and the pronoun iech-in, 
we, with which compare the -iv in Greek pronouns. In 
what other Aryan languages can this -in be found? 

Can so extraordinary a coincidence as the appearance 
of ch in a few verbs (p. 19, rem. 2) in both Sanskrit and 
Mexican be, by any sort of probability, attributed to 
chance? Other cases, such as the omission of the aug- 
ment (p. 7), might be cited. 







T. 8. DENISON, A.M. 





Copyright igia By 
T. S. Denison & Co. 

All Rights Reserved 

Composed and Printed By 

The University of Chicago Press 

Chicago, Illinois. U.S;A. 



Prepatobt Note 5 

I. S-SoDNDS IN Mexican 7 

A. Combinations ■ . . 7 

B. Simple Sounds 10 

II. NoDN Affixes 14 

III. Mexican Prefixes 24 

IV. Primitive Inflection 28 

V. The Mexican Pldbal 29 

VI. The Mexican Possessive Pronouns as Determinants . 30 

Appendix 33 

A. Syntax Outlines 38 

B. Order of Words 35 

C. Miscellaneous Items 35 

D. Mexican Syntax 36 


Mr. Denison died soon after he had completed the 
MS for this monograph. He had made some additions 
and corrections; but he had not yet revised his work. 
In editing it, places were accordingly found where it was 
necessary to make some slight changes, or add a word or 
two, for the sake of clearness; but the utmost care was 
taken to preserve his exact meaning and, as far as pos- 
sible, his exact phraseology. In one place, the MS read: 
"Mex., puch-tecatl, merchant the same, enjoy, by exten- 
sion 'goods.' " Other passages and the preceding example 
showed plainly, that the meaning was: Mex., puch-tecatl, 
merchant; *bheug, to enjoy, (by extension) "goods." 
This emendation was therefore made. The semicolon after 
the word "merchant," which came at the end of a line, 
had been inadvertently omitted in writing, and the repe- 
tition of *bheug had been avoided. Its use was necessary, 
however. This example was one of the extreme cases; 
but it illustrates the changes made. 

In the first part of the appendix, it was found that a 
mere outline had been made, and that this was only par- 
tially clear. It was accordingly compared with the ori- 
ginal sources, and such additions were made as appeared 
to be imperative in carrying out his intentions. The 
task proved to be easier than it had looked; for the points 
were fairly clear, and it was possible to supply the needed 
material from the authorities referred to. He had appar- 
ently intended to do this, and it seemed best to proceed 



on that~basis. If any slips have been made, they are 
mostly accidental; for no pains have been spared to get 
at his exact meaning and to follow it, using his • own 
words without alteration as far as that could be done. 

H. W. Magoun 

Cambbidge:, Mass. 
April 25, 1912 

I. S-SouNDS IN Mexican 


1. SI, Is, krs, trs. In these combinations r/l is regu- 
larly dropped: Mex., a-uach-tli, dew; Skr., varsfi, rain; 
Gr., epar), dew; Mex., Ogo-matli, " The-divine-monkey," 
a station in the Aztec migration; Skr., vfsan, virile; Mex., 
co-quitl, mud; Skr., sr, flow,+ci-tl, pile; Skr., cin6ti; 
Mex., quech-tli, the neck; *krk; Lai, grac-ilis, slender; 
Mex., quechoa, to stir, grind; Skr., krs, kArsati, to plough; 
Mex., cuich-ec-tic, blackish ; Skr., krs-nd, black; *qrs-no; 
(ec=anc, ac, *nk).' Exceptions. — s dropped: Mex., 
ua-ualoa, to bark; *bhelso; Skr., bhasati; Mex., no-uil- 
tec-ca, no+vr+*stig, roof ; Gr., Teya>, aTeym; Lat., tego, 
"Enclosed under a common roof" (of a gens?). 

Remark. — Vocalic r, I, exhibit in Mexican the vowel 
variations of all the other Aryan languages. Vocalic n 
shows a similar development. 

1) r=i; cipactli; Skr., srp; cuitla-pitz; Skr., prg. 

2) T=il: pilli; Skr., pr; no-uil-tecca ; Skr., vr. 

3) r=e: eua; Skr., r, lyarti; pe-ua; *pr-ua; cue- 
tlani; Gr., icXda). 

4) T=el: tepuUi; Skr., trd + pr; uelt-iuhtli; Skr., 
vrdh; ueliti; Skr., vrt. 

5) T=u: ca-putztic; Skr., prQ; teputztli, *te-pu-tzi-li; 
Skr., trd+prsthd,; te-pon-az-tli ; Skr., trd+puta, "per- 
forated cavity," drum; *plta. 

6) i=ul: cal-pul-li; Skr., pr; te-puUi (above, 4). 

7) T=a (rare): ca-mil-ec-tic, brown, reddish (fruit) ; 

1 The infix, Skr,, afic, ac, appears in Mexican as ac, ec, az (fik) ;' 
al-as-tic, slippery; also alauac (Skr., vafio, of. vaiig&), 



Grr., ;^/3w-nta + /it'X-To-s; "color," "vermillion"; ca-putztic 
(above, 5). 

8) T=al: ca-ualli; Skr.,sr + vr; na-ualli; Skr., iir + 
vr; tla-pal-tic; Skr., bhr; tlaca; Skr., drg. 

2. S with Palatal or Velar [* Bq, * sg) : Mex., amoxtli, 
book, from a species of papyrus found in Mexican lakes; 
*mozg; Skr., mdjjati, to submerge; Mex., tema-zcalli, 
vapor bath; *sql; Gr., a-icdWa); Lith., skilii, *skiliu, to 
light a fire (in a bath?); Mex., te-zcatl, mirror; Skr., 
cha-ya, shadow; ^ Gr., a-Kid; Max., teo-pixqui, priest, 
"asking a god"; *prk-sk; Skr., prcchAti, to ask; Gr,, 
^eo-TTjOOTT-o?, "asking a god," prophetic; Mex., ui-uixca, to 
tremble (with weakness or fear); *wig-sk; Skr., vij^ti, 
to start in surprise; AS., wic-an; Eng., weak; Mex., 
cuitlapitz, big-bellied; pitz; Skr., pre, to satiate. 

Variants. — Tzk for sk: Mex., patzcoa, to drop behind; 
Skr., pagca, behind; Mex., pe-petzca, shining; pi + Skr., 
gcand, shining. 

S dropped: Mex., ma-lac-a-tl, a spindle; ma, hand, + 
razg, rope, yarn; Lith., rezgii, to knit; Lat., restis, *resc- 
ti-s, rope. 

3. Ks- (Skr., ks) becomes ch or x: Mex., chantli, 
house; Skr., ks6ma; Mex., xotl, foot; Skr., ksud, to stamp; 
Mex., xotl, a sprout, shoot; ae-xotl, willow, big-shoot; 
*qieu; Skr., cyAva-ti, set going; Avestan, gavaite; Gr., 

4. St; (a) with prosthetic or interconsonantal i, {b) 
s dropped or / dropped, (c) variants: x, ch, tz, tzt, z. 

a) Mex., itzta-palli, a paving stone ; *sth8 + bhr ; Mex., 
ixtlauatl, plain, prairie: *str, "spread out"; Skr., str, to 
strew; Gr., aropmixi; Lat., stra-tu-m; AS., *stre^w; 
Eng., straw; (*strau-a^-l, affix, or s,iva-vat-\) ; Mex., 
iztlac-tli, saliva; Gr., a-Tpdy^; Mex., ytztic, cold; Gr., 


ffTtjSr?, hoar frost; Lith., stlnkstu; *stig; Mex., citlalin, 
a star; *str, as above; Lat., stella, *ster-la (see srp, §5). 

ft) S dropped: Mex., tena, to groan; Skr., stanati; 
Gr., o-TcVtB. Tdropped: Max., te-tzaua, to coagulate; Skr., 

c) Mex., te-putzt-li, back, shoulders; Skr., prsthA, 
ridge; (for r see Remark, §1); Grer., firste, ridge pole; 
Mex., ue-tzi, to rush, "fall on"; vi + *sth9, to stand; 
Mex., que-tza, to stop, stand; *knt; O. Irish, cet; Gr., 
Kara -\- adr] (strong grade of e) ; Mex., ichte-qui, or ychte- 
qui, to steal; Skr., ste-nA(?)+kr or grah (of. Comp. 
Vocab., p. 43) ; Mex., que-tzuma, to bite; Gr., Kecrrpa 
(§ 22 d. Remark 3, 2) + a-rofia, mouth. 

Remark. — Ozto-mecatl, merchant, oztoa, to be shrewd, 
"foxy"; but if the meaning is, "strange-people," *ghos- 
ti-s; Lat., hostis, either host or guest (for loss of palatal 
see Morphology, p. 12) ; and if the meaning is, "shop- 
people," bazar; Lat., 6s, mouth; opening of shop(?); 
Mex., oz-totl, a cave (cf. Primitive Aryans of America, 
p. 164, n. 1); quai-ztalli, gray haired, quaitl, head+jr, 
to grow old( ?). 

5. Sp {s-p): Mex., a-Cuet-zpal-in, water lizard; cuet; 
Gr., Kara (as in quetza, § 4) +sphr; Skr., sphurAti, to 
dart; Mex., atla-pal-li, wing; Skr., sphr; Lith., spar-na-s, 
wing; Skr., par-n^-m, wing; Mex., cipactli, shark (calen- 
dar), marine monster; *srep, *srp, to glide; Skr., sArpati; 
Lat., rep-tilis; (ac, *nk, anc, "like"). 

6. jSm- becomes s- .■ Mex., tzo-pelic, sweet, *tzot-pel-ic; 
Skr., svadiis; Gr., ■^Sw; Mex., tzo-tzon-a, to beat a drum 
[nino), fig., to sound; Skr., svanati; Mex., tzilini, to ring, 
buzz; Skr., sv^rati, to sound; Gr., avpiy^, a pipe; Mex., 
tzo-mia, to blow the nose, sound (it) ; Mex., cepoa, to be 
numb with cold, have the hand "asleep"; Skr., svdpati. 


Exception. — Mex., vez-ua-tli, *suesr, sister; Ger., 
sch wester; Eng., sister. 

7. Sn{f) : Mex., pa-noa, to cross a stream; pra + sna; 
Lat., no, swim. 

8. iV^s.- Mex., majatl, a deer, "venison"; Skr., mansa, 
meat; OCSl., m§so. (For -nst-, see Division III. § 22 d. 
Remark 3, 2. ) 

9. Ps: Mex., pau-aci, to cook: Skr., ps-a-, "food." 

10. Str: Max., citlal-in, star ; Skr., tara, *stara, stars; 
Lat., stella; Mex., ixtlanatl, campus (see §4 a). 


11. X. The devolution of Mexican x, as illustrated 
in fifty words, shows (a) two-thirds of the cases [circa) 
primitive s, (6) one-fifth palatal, k, g, and (c) combi- 
nations of its component letters, as sk, ks (see supra, 2 
and 3). 

a) Mex., xu-chitl, flower; Skr., su4-*dh8, well put 
("made"); Mex., xu-matli, a ladle; Skr., su, " juice, " + 
ma-tli; ma, to measure (cf. soma +tl) ; Mex., xalli, sand; 
Skr., sr, sard, moving; Mex., ixu-iuhtli, grandson (see 
§ 15 c, 2) ; Skr., sute, to generate, su-nii, son; Eng., son; 
Mex., ecuxoa, to sneeze; Skr., Qvasiti ; AS., hwe6s, wheeze; 
Mex., xiotl, a shuttle; Skr., siivate, to impel; Gr., aeva; 
Mex., xol-huaztli, a broom; Skr., surl, impeller, +vas, 
"furniture"; Mex., quex-quich (quez-qui), how much? 
*qa, *qi; Skr., ka-s, ki-m; Lat., quis; Mex., ixtlauatl, 
plain, campus; *str (§4); Max., izua, grow, bud (iz-, 
itz-); Skr., is, force, strength; Gr., te/jo'?, i-p6-^, *ia-p6-^, 
lively, fresh; Mex., caxaua, to get flaccid; Skr., kasati, to 

b) X [palatal origin) : Mex., mix -tli, cloud; *meigh; 
Skr., meghd, cloud; Mex., nextli, ashes; Skr., nAgyati, to 


perish; Mex., palaxtli, a wound; *plag; Grr., irXrjyi], a 
wound, blow; Lat., plaga; Mex., ui-uixca, to tremble; 
*uig-sk ; Skr., vijd,ti ; Mex., xaua, to paint the face (Indian 
style) ; Skr., garaM, covering; Lat., col-or; Max., xeloa, 
to divide, break; Skr., grnati; Mex., xoc-otl, fruit; Skr., 
5iici(?), summer. 

Variants. — {X for ch): Mex., xitmi, to cut (xini) ; 
Skr., chinndti (chid) ; Mex., xotl, a sprout, shoot; *qieu; 
Skr., cy^vate, he moves himself; Gr., o-evco; cf. Eng., 
shoot, shuttle (see xiotl, a, supra) . Here we should expect 

12. Ch springs from three sources about equally di- 
vided as to recurrence: (a) palatal or velar, [b) dental, 
(c) primitive s. 

a) Max., pachoa, tobend; *bheug; Skr.,bhujAti; AS., 
bug-an, bend; Ehg., el-bow; Mex., puch-tecatl, merchant; 
*bheug, to enjoy, (by extension) "goods"; Mex., te-a:ch- 
cauh (qa+uk), elder brother, leader; Skr., fijati; Gr., 
ayeo; Lat., ago; (tiacauh, valiant, is related to Skr., tya- 
jati, to risk) ; Mex., ich-poch-tli, girl; *bhag; Skr., 
bhag-ini, sister, "fortunate one," "happy"; Mex., yaca- 
pich-tlan, "place of adorning noses"; pick, *pik; Skr, 
pingdti; Lat., pic-tor, a painter; Mex., quechtli, neck; 
ma-quechtli, wrist, "slender"; *krk; Skr., krgyati; O. 
Lat., crac-entes; Mex., choca, to weep; Skr., 56cati; per- 
haps Mex., pi-och-tli, arm pit, hair place; pi, hair; Lat., 
pi-lu-s+*uk; Skr., Ticyati, to be accustomed; 6kas, home 
(cf. uh,% 20). 

b) Dental: Mex., achi, a little (more or less); Skr., 
adhi, over, besides; Mex., chi-chi, dog, "sucker"; *dha, 
"suck" or milk; Skr., dhe-mi, a milch cow; Gr., drj-Xi], 
breast; Mex., chinoa, to light up; Skr., di, didyati, to 
shine; Mex., chi-ua, to make, do; *dh9-(-ua; Skr., d&- 


dha-ti; Gr., Ti-Orj-fii; Mex., chimalli; *.dli8 + mr; Mex., 
xu-chitl, a flower, "well-made"; suH-*dli9. 

c) Ch=s: Mex., ich-pochtli, a girl; ich-, *ais, "desir- 
able"; Skr., is icchd,ti; Mex., cuich-ec-tic ; Skr., krsnd, 
black; (ec, ac, §1); Mex., oquich-tli, a male; *uks; 
Skr., TiksAti, emicat; uksdn, bull; Groth., aiihsa; Mex., 
michin, fish; Skr., misdti, to open the eyes, "stare" ; Mex., 
ychtequi, i-chte-qui, to steal; Skr., ste-nd, a thief; *ste- 
+kr. or grah (see Comp. Vocah., p. 43) ; Max., cuechoa, 
to stir, rub; Skr., kfeati, to plough; (for loss of I, see 
§1) ; Mex., a-uach-tli, dew; Skr., vrs, vdrsati, to rain. 

Remark. — From the heterogeneous character of the s, 
sh sounds, they have little real value for purposes of dif- 
ferentiation ; ch palatal or velar seems, however, to be 
medial, while ch initial is apparently always dh-\-i, which 
throws doubt upon choloa, to run ; Skr., tur^ti; cf. Hindu, 
nautch (girl), from nrt, to dance. But ch [ = tsh) stands 
to t as tz, explosive, stands to s. In tzo-pinia, to peck, 
sting, or cho-pinia (su+bhid), we have both forms. Cf. 
Mex., chan-tli, house, with Skr., ksi, to dwell; Grr., kti- 
o-t-9, a settling, foundation. 

13. Tz [tzt) represents primitive s, pure or in combina- 
tion. Since U is the only consonant combination which 
may begin a word in Mexican, sic, st, sp, etc., must be 
reinforced by "irrational" vowels (see combinations, 
supra) or else one of the consonants must be dropped. 
The commonest vowel for this purpose is i prosthetic, 
rarely e or a, and a or e inter consonans. 

Mex., itzcuintli, ytzcuintli, dog; *skun; Skr., qy&n; 
Gr,, Kva)v; Lat., canis; Ger., hund; Mex., itzta-pal-li, a 
paving stone; *sth9, to stand, + bhr, to bear; Mex., itztic, 
cold; *stig; G-r., cttc^t), hoar frost; Lith., stlnkstu, to 
congeal; Mex., patz-miqui, to "kill," cause distress ; Skr,. 


bhas, Mbhasti, to crush; Mex., pitz-a-uac, (1) small, 
delicate, cord, beans; *peis; Skr., pinfeti, to grind; Lat., 
pinso; (2) large, robust; pi, "fat"; Gr., iricov-^-Skr., 
vangA, "kind"; (3) long (road); pi (hair-like?), drawn 
out; Mex,, piaztic, slender, pi + az [ac, aflc); cf. Skr., 
prdsiti; Mex., te-putzt-li; Skr., prsthA, back, ridge, *pr 
+ *sth8; Mex., tlani-tztia, to lower one's self; *sth8; 
Mex., tzilini, to ring, hum; Skr., svdrati; Max., tzo-mia, 
to blow the nose, sound (it); tzo-mia, to sew; Skr., syu; 
Lai, suo; Eng., sew; (for mia=nia see Morphology, p. 
10); cf. the parallel form, ci'o- toma, to unravel; Mex., 
tzo-pelic, sweet; Skr., svadiis; Gr., iJSv?; {^pel=pr); 
Mex., ue-tzi, to fall; vi+*sth8; Mex., pi-tzo-tl, hog; pi, 
fat, supra; -tzo; *su-; Lai, su-s; Gr., S-?; AS., sti; Eng., 
sow; (pitz-otl would mean "smallness"). 

Variants. — Tz is rarely derived from dh-j Mex., tzica- 
uaztli, a comb, "holder"; chica-uac, strong ; tzic-a-tl, ant, 
"strong one"; all from * dhergh ; Skr., drnhati, to make 
firm; Lai, fortis; *forc-ti-s. Mex., _ca-putz-tli, black; *prk; Skr., prg- 
ni; Gr., irepK-vo-'; ; (for ca-, see §1, JRemark, 7); Mex., 
tzontli, hair, four hundred [numeration) ; Skr., cuda, 
tonsure of a child (in a religious rite) ; also, knob, top; 
[Comp. Vocab., sanu, top, p. 86). iV is irregular in 
tzontli, if it is equivalent to cuda. 

14. S (Q,z,ce-,ci-). Molina (FocafowZanb, 1571 A.D.) 
employs the antequated g for s before a, a, and u; Chi- 
malpopoca {Metodo, 1869), Palma (Grammar, 1886), and 
others use s for p [z medial), and a MS of 1607 has s 
only. In fact, there is no standard of uniformity. The 
sound is s initial, z medial. In origin, s is, (a) primi- 
tive, in three-fourths of the cases [circa), and (6) palatal 
or velar, in one-fourth. 


a) Mex., egotl, blood; Skr., su, sun6ti, to press out; 
Mex., eztli, blood; Skr., 4syati, to throw, as-fin, blood; 
Mex., ce, ceme, one; *sem; Lai, sem-el, once; Mex., 
iciui, to hasten; Skr., suvdti; Mex., magatl, deer, "veni- 
son"; Skr., maiisd, meat; Mex., ga-ual-li, a cobweb; Skr., 
sa, " united," +vrt, to enclose; Mex., quiga (quiza), to go 
out, quit; Skr. gis, gind,sti, to leave, set apart; Max., 
pogaua, to boil; Grr., ei/fw(?). 

6) Mex., tozti, tozte, the nails; tozquitl, the mouth of 
one who sings, hence, apparently, "a showing of teeth"; 
*tozq+ti; *dnk+sk; Skr., d^gati, to bite; Gv., BdKva),to 
bite; AS., tusc, tooth; Mex., to-totza, to accelerate, wind 
a clock, the idea being that of "movement"; perhaps a 
by-form of *vagh; Gr., o;)^-o-9, *fo'j^o?, a wagon (cf. Mex., 
uica, vica, to carry); possibly totj Skr., tud, "thrust 
forward"; Mex., cuz-tic, yellow; Skr., kag-ati, to shine; 
Mex., igauia, to waken suddenly; iga-uaca (Lat., vox), to 
be hoarse; Skr., gigati, to sharpen; Lat., c6-tes, whetstone; 
Eng., hone; Mex., ticitl, doctor, "wise old woman"; Skr., 
digAti, to show; Gr., SeiKw/Mi,; Lat., dico, to tell; Mex., 
tla-got-la, to love; tr+Skr., gudh-ya-ti, to be pure (?) ;' 
Mex., tzo-tzo-paz-tli, a sword (to drive the woof home in 
weaving) ; Skr., su, impel, +pag, pagayati, to fasten; *pak. 

Remark. — Mex., oga, uga, to paint the face; *ue-sk, 
*uns-sk; Skr., unchati, to wipe. Here the development 
of s i3 uncertain; but Mexican seems not to take -sk. 

II. Noun Affixes 

15. (a) Comparative frequency of -tl and -tli. As 
shown by one hundred and thirty-five nouns, -tl stands to 
-tli as five to four. Including the fertile class of nouns 

1 Verbs like tla^otla, xotla, to dry up, xapotla, to destroy, etc., are abnormal 
in form. I afiSxed -ra, -ra, "having" to these roots (see Comp. Vocab., pp. 78, 91). 
In reality, they may be instrumentals that have become verbs (§24). 


ending in -yo-tl {Morphology, pp. 22 f.), the ratio is two 
to one. 

h) Sequence of -tli. (1) In about 37 per cent of the 
cases, -tli follows s (or sA) sounds; (2) in 27 per cent of 
the cases, it follows n; (3) in 13 per cent, it follows c 
(k)\ (4) in 16 per cent, it follows a long vowel, a, o, u. 
It is rarely attached to an i (e) stem. 

1) Mex., a-uach-tli, dew; Skr., vdrsati, it rains (see 
§12c); Mex., eca-uaz-tli, a ladder; Skr., vfete, to put 
on; Lat., ves-ti-s, a garment; Mex., ix-tli, the face; Skr., 
iksati, to look at; Mex., palax-tli, a wound; Gr., irX'q'^ri; 
Lat., plaga; *plag; Mex., nac-az-tli, the ear; Skr., 
nag-nd, naked, ("flesh"); Goth., naqafs, naked; {az=B.q 
or anc) ; Mex., chi-ual-iz-tli, a doing; *is-to. 

2) Following n (m) : Mex., chan-tli, house (see §3); 
Mex., mon-tli, son-in-law; Skr., mana, "honored one"; 
Max., ten- tli, lips, mouth, border; *tn; Skr., tan6ti, to 
extend; Gr., rav-v-o), Tav-v-fiai, to stretch, extend; Lat., 
tendo; Ger., dehnen; Mex., can-tli, the cheeks; Skr., 
h6n-u-s; Gr., yev-v-^; Lat., gen-a; Ger., kinn; AS., cin; 
Eng., chin. 

3) Following c (/c) : Mex., cip-ac-tli, shark, marine 
monster (calendar); *srp-|-nq, ac, "like," "serpent-like"; 
cf. cepa-yauitl, snow; Skr., srp, creep; Mex,, poc-tli, 
smoke; Gr., irvKd^m, to cover up, enwrap; Mex., te-uhc- 
tli, leader, Mo-teuhc-^uma, Montezuma; te4-*aug, "make 
great"; Skr., 6jas, might; Lat., Aug-ustus; [te, §22 h). 

4) Following a vowel: Mex., pa-tli, a potion; Skr., 
a-pa-t, he drank; Lat., p6-tu-s; perhaps, no-ueue-po, my 
neighbor, "a man I drink with"; Mex.,.quauh-tli, eagle; 
Skr., kh4, sky,-)-uc, "accustomed to," "sky-bird." 

c) The use oi -tli in kinship names. Some typical 
kinship words end in -tr in Sanskrit: pitf, father; matf. 


mother; bhratr, brother; duhitf, daughter. Only two in 
the list accord with the rules governing -tr (see Whitney, 
Sanskrit Grammar, §1182/). 

1) General Names of Kindred: father, tatli; mother, 
nantli; children (in general), pilhuan; pr, to fill; son 
(when the father speaks), pilli, (when the mother speaks) , 
conetl, "begotten one"; Skr., jdnas, race; Gr., yevoi; 
nephews and nieces, pilhuan (pr), also te-ixui-uan (Skr., 
su-mi), "sons," "begotten ones"; elder brother, te-ach- 
cauh; Skr., Ajati, to lead, or d,gra-ja, elder brother; also 
ti-yaca-pan, both meaning "leader"; elder daughter, 
ueltiuMli; third, fourth, or fifth daughter, tlaco teicu 
(see Bemark 2, infra) ; youngest child, xocotl, "tender," 
"sprout"; second child, son or daughter, tlacoyeua, 
tlamamallij a youth is tel-poch-tli; a maiden, ich-poch- 
tli [Comp. Vocah., pp. 4'2f., 73 f.), said by males and 
females; women alone say, conetl te-coneuh; stepfather, 
tlacpa-tatli (icpa) ; stepmother, chaua-nantlij an "afflic- 
tion." (For table of kindred, see Palma, Gramatica de 
la Lengua Azteca o Mejicana, p. 119.) Personal pro- 
nouns go with all of these (see §26). I have inserted 
them only where the word would not stand alone.' 

2) Derivations and Special Meanings. Skr., pitr, 
father, has been assumed to mean "protector" ; Mex. has 
pi-lli, *p8-|-tr, eldest sister (said by a younger sister) ; 
also, lady; and a servant accompanying a lady (Sp. 
criada, usually, "wet nurse"). Here is distinctly the idea 
of "protection" in all three cases; Mex., ta-tli, father, is 
parallel; Skr., datf, "giver"; Mex., tex-tli, (with "saltillo") 
tehex-tli (Palma, I. c), is brother-in-law; "cunado. de 

1 Morgan {Ancient Society^ pp. 419 £F,) gives the Hawaiian nomenclature, 
which is similar to this, and the classification appears to indicate simply pre- 
cedence in birth; but in Sanskrit and Mexican ag- indicates a ''leader," "supe- 
rior." Cf . also Morgan, I. u., pp. 404, 412, 438 S., and 447 S. 


var6ii," one who marries a man's sister. Here ex-tli (ez- 
tli) evidently means "blood," as shown in te-eq-o, son of 
a noble (cf. Fr., sang pur). The first member of the 
compound may be taken as *dai in Skr., devf, husband's 
brother (transfer) ; Gr., Saij/j, which is also brother-in-law 
and best man at a wedding; Mex., vez-ua-tli is sister-in- 
law; no-vez-ui, my sister-in-law (a woman speaks) ; *suesr, 
sister; Mex., tla-tli, uncle; Skr., tratr, "protector"; Mex., 
nan-tli, mother; Skr., nana, mother (colloquial) ; cf. 
nfeandr, aunt; Mex., ixu-iuh-tli, grandson; Skr., su-nii, 
son; AS., sunu; OOSl., synu; Eng., son; Mex., mon-tli, 
son-in-law; Skr., mana-da, "honored," said by a woman 
of her husband or lover; Mex., mach-tli, nephew; Skr., 
mfidh-ya, middle; madh-ya-ma-jata, "middle born," a son; 
Mex., ci-tli, grandmother; (a root cis is indicated by te- 
ciz-tli, some one's mother") ; Skr., giB, to set apart (cf. 
xigo, §23) ; Mex., pipton-tli (pep), grandmother; (redup. ) 
* pi-pitr-nt-li ; (for r=u or o, cf. teputztli and caputztli, 
§§1, 4, 13; and see Morphol, p. 22 or Remark, §21 
below) . 

8) Tribal or Gentile Names: co-coZ-li, grandfather, 
ancestor; Skr., kiila, clan; ve-pul-li, sister-in-law, "far off 
kin," one of the cal-pul-li, gens (?) ; Skr., piir, city; Gr., 


4) Attributives foreign to general Aryan use: Max., 
ic-uh, younger sister (an elder brother speaks), younger 
brother or sister (an elder sister speaks), apparently, 
"the free one," "lower (?) one"; ic=ric; Skr., ric, 
rindkti; Lat., linquit, leave, go away, go free, or leave 
behind; Ger., leihen; Eng., len-d; (ic-uia, to tie with 
cords, is Skr., likhdti, to line); (also cf. cuda, relating to 
the tonsure) ; for "elder sister" see also ueltiuhtii, and 
for "elder brother" see achcauhtli (§ 20) . 


Remark 1. — These kinship names are all distinctly 
Aryan, and yet no two of them coincide in both form and 
meaning with the corresponding names in the classic 
languages. But their significance is even more marked 
than that of those found in the latter languages, because 
nearly all the Mexican names retain clearly their "attrib- 
utive" character. And ta-tli, datr, "giver," is just as 
close and significant an attribute as pitr, "protector." 
With the numerals [Morphol., p. 24) they clearly show 
the very ancient character of the Mexican nomenclature. 

Remark 2. — It may be seen from the above that 
younger brothers and sisters are classified; thus, elder 
brother, te-ac/i-cauh, younger brother, te-ic-cauh; but 
younger brother is n'tc-u-, when an elder sister speaks, 
and n'lc-u- is also younger sister, when an elder brother 
or sister is the speaker. Again, icw-tontli is second cousin, 
male or female, and ic-ni-tl is brother in general (Palma, 
I.e.). Molina gives ic-ni-uhtli as "friend" (same roots). 
A paternal uncle is tlatli; a great uncle, calli; a great 
great uncle, mintontli; a paternal aunt, auitl; a great 
aunt, citli, a great great aunt, piptontli; etc. The rami- 
fications and nomenclature of consanguinity and affinity 
in full, as employed by the Nahua, would require much 
more space than I have at my disposal here. Enough 
has been given to make the system clear and place it in 
the Aryan scheme. Some of the designations seem arbi- 
trary, and perhaps no cause can be discovered for their 
existence; e.g., why is tlacote ycu applied to the third 
son, but to the third, fourth, and fifth daughter ? Such 
is Molina's plain statement. As may be seen, this classi- 
fication indicates a state of society preceding the Aryan 
(but not excluding it). See Morgan, Ancient Society, 
pp. 394, 413 f ., 442, 467, 480 ff. Ic-ni-tl, ic-niuhtli, ic-uh, 


are forms cognate with Gr., lic-veo-iiai, iK-e-Trj';, a suppliant, 
to entreat, (in the ppl.) fit, worthy, etc; Brugmann (ojo. 
cit., IV. p. 138) seems to refer ik- to the same foot as 
Lat., hos-tis, *ghos-tis. The affix is *neTio, which 
becomes an infix. 

16. (a) The suffix -tl has extended greatly in Mexi- 
can. It has taken the entire fertile class of abstracts 
ending in -yo-tl [Morphology, pp. 22 f.). Compare: 
Mex., aca-tl, a reed, rush; Gr., aicq, point; aKpo<;, *a/c-to-?, 
pointed; Mex., ci-aca-tl, arm pit, "hair place"; *si; Gr., 
t-/ia-?, *o-t/*a'?, strings + (1) aca, as above, or else (2) Skr., 
Anga, a member, part of the body; Mex., mic-que-tl, a 
corpse; Skr., ci, to pile (allusion to funeral pile) ; but cf. 
*qies, quiet, "death-rest"; Mex., yac-atl, the nose, yac- 
ana, to guide, hence, "leader" (also yac-a-tia, to point), 
may be either (1) "aca," point, as above, or (2) *reg, 
to rule; Lat., reg-o; Mex., coatl, a snake; Skr., gubh, the 
"glider"; Mex., ce-tl, frost; Skr., Qi-td, cold; Mex., tec- 
olo-tl, owl; Skr., lilu-ka; Gr., o\oX-w?,- "howler"; Mex., 
toma-tl, tomato, either, (1) "the cut one," "parted," 
Gr., Tofiof, a piece cut off, or (2) "the fat one," plump, 
from *tu, to swell, + ma (affix not certain). 

b) The nomen agentis value of -tr, -ter, has sometimes 
disappeared in Mexican, as may be seen by the above 
examples, or it is at least otiose. It distinctly remains in 
names of trades and tribes: words ending in -teca-tl; 
Skr., tAksati; Gr., reKT-cov, carpenter; Mex., puch-teca-tl, 
a merchant; Skr., bhuj, profit; Tol-teca-tl, a Toltec, an 
artisan; Az-teca-tl, an Aztec; azta-tl, a heron, "wader"( ?), 
if so, atl, water, + * stha, to stand. 

Remark 1. — Other specific nomina agentis endings 
are: -ni, -ti ("compulsive"), and participial forms ending 
in -lli, -tli, -qui. The nomen instrumenti ends in -oni, as 


tla-tec-oni, a knife. These aflBxes involve internal con- 
struction in a few cases which is not within the scope of 
this work. Some remarkable compounds may be built 
up, as tla-ajtn-qui, a carpenter; *skid, to split; quauh + 
te+ma+lac-a-J-xin-qui, a wagon-maker. 

Remark 2. — -Differentiation of -tl, -tli, -tr {t-r), tr-, 
and tl-. As may be seen by what has gone before, the 
Mexican forms are not morphologically identical with the 
primitive -er, -ter, -tor, which are found side by side with- 
out difference in meaning (Brugmann, op. cit.. II. § 119). 
The primitive kinship names had an ending -ter, and 
from these were formed feminines in -trl: Skr., jtoi-tri; 
Lat., gene-tri-x, a woman. This evolution corresponds 
exactly to Mex., pi-tli, elder sister; but the form has ex- 
tended to all sorts of nouns. Calling -tli the strong 
grade, -tl is the corresponding weak grade. Here the 
subject may be made clearer by an examination of root 
and prefix forms of tr and dr: (1) -tla- as a pronoun, 
ni-Wa-qua, I-it-eat, (2) roo/ forms. Examples: tr; Mex., 
til-ana, to stretch; til-auac, broad "across"; tr; tlani, 
down; tlani [ni-te), to win at play; Skr., trati, to "sur- 
pass" ; *dr, to tear; Mex., tl-an-tli, tooth, "tearer " ; *dr+ 
*ien (affix); tla-til-li, a wedge; Skr., dr, pierce, split, to 
"tear"; Mex., max-tla-il, a belt; Skr., *madh--|-tra- 
(strong grade) ; Mex., tl-ot-li, a hawk; tr, "across," +ud, 
out, away (weak). 

17. (a) The suffix -r. — Tla-til-li [supra) and all 
similar forms with a root ending in -r-, -t-, or a vowel, 
suggest the question: Is there a suffix -r(i) in Mexican? 
This suffix was very rare in the primitive language (Brug- 
mann, op. cit., II. §118). Mexican euphony forbids Itl, 
hence the probability that such a form as Chimaltitlan, 
" Place-of-prayer," cannot possibly be associated with 


mr, to fight, but with mrd, to be forgiving. Hence ti is 
not the copula, as in Ooa-fo'-tlan, "Place-of-snakes." And 
the probabilities are that tla-til-li, wedge, is *tla-til-t-tli 
rather than tla-til-|-r(i). Since It is not allowable, Chi- 
maltitlan could not be Chi + malt + ti. 

6) Affixes. — (1) The possible infixes -it-, -ad-, in 
Mexican. If Mex., cauitl, time, weather, be correctly 
associated with Skr., gar-dd, autumn, we may postulate: 
caui- [r—u, which becomes ui before /), or *cau + it+l; 
but cf. Gr., K/o-o'vo? {^—')^p6vo^, time?), *Kar-onos [kr= 
kr~ca-) ; cf. Mex., ca-mo-pal-li, dark maroon, and Gr., 
XpS>-iJLa, color, "chrome." The form -itl is very common 
in Mexican, also -atl, -uatl. Ten-tli is mouth, border, 
then, by extension, a word; tn, to stretch; and tenitl is a 
foreigner, "one of another speech." Differentiation would 
seem to forbid teni-tl. No doubt this -tl is another weak 
form for *tero in the sense "other" (comp. "more") ; cf. 
Gr., aWo'-T/3-to-?, the precise equivalent in weak form 
(^.tr- = -tl-) being found in it. Will this hold good in 
te-tzauitl, a prodigy (Uitzilopochtli, War-god) ; Skr., 
styayate, to harden? Omitl, bone, *ost, bone,+mitl, a 
post or "supporter"; Skr., mit, pillar (derived from the 
root mi, to set up, according to Lanman, Sanskrit Header) . 
Itmay be mi-tl or mit + tl (cf. Whitney, op. cit, § 383, II). 

2) The affix -uat; either *uent, or ua, for *mo, plus tl: 
Mex., iz-ua-tl, leaf; *is, "quicken"; Skr., is, force, vigor; 
Mex., -ua-tl may be, as suggested, *uo, ua+tl, or *uent; 
Skr., -vant (-vat),-f tl. The first of these affixes occurs 
in Mexican: pe-ua, to be first ; *pr+ua; chi-ua, do, make ; 
*dh9+ua; but *uent is not so certain; ixtlauatl, campus; 
either ixtla-uat-1 or ixtlau-at-1, unless it is ixtla-ua-tl; Mex., 
-auatl, door, I refer to the same original source as Lat., 


c) Roots ending in 4: Mex., tec-patl, a flint, may be 

(1) tec; Skr., t6jas, sharpness, "fire," + pa, to keep; or 

(2) tec+pat-1, to eject (sparks) ; ic-patl, thread, must be 
*ric, a line, seam, +pa, to guard. 

18. The suffix -li, *-tli. Nouns ending in -li number 
about one-seventh of the tr series, which stands : -tl, 4/7 ; 
-tli, 2/7; -li, 1/7. The affix -li follows a root ending in r 
or t (perhaps with a few exceptions from analogy) . Mex., 
chi-mal-li, a shield; *dh9-(-mr; pil-li, son, nobleman; 
*pr, to "fill," "complete"; cal-pul-li, phratry; cal-li, 
house, +pul; Skr., piir, town; Grr., tto'Xi?; Mex., Nauatl, 
the name of the language, "clear," "sweet-sounding," 
also applied to water or the weather; root, *nal, name of 
a town in Beloochistan, and nr; Skr., nr, man, hero; cf. 
Nala (proper name); n4ra, "man"; hence, the Nahua; 
also gods, in Nahua-que tlo-que ; but naualli, sorcery ; nr 
-f-vr; Skr., vrtrA, "restrainer" (of the cloud-cows that 
give the rain) ; mod. "medium"; Mex., ta-malli, a cooked 
roll; ta+mr, "rolled," or ta + mrd, "crushed" (the meat 
in a tamalli is minced), te-malli, pus; perhaps, dhe+mr, 
"dead deposit" (ta, supra, is the strong grade, dha); 
maceualli, a slave, servant; Skr., mrs, not heed, endure, 
-|-vrt, to be in an occupation; * marsa-ualtli ; (^Comp. 
Vocab., p. 51, ma+seva, "my service"). 

Remark. — Olmos {Grammaire de la Langue Nahuatl 
ou Mexicaine, p. 21) gives the form for clipping a noun 
ending in -li, in composition (r-root) , as in y-tlaxcalh, his 
bread; no-calh, my house, calli. Other writers ignore -h, 
which plainly is nothing but the "Saltillo" or stress indi- 
cating that the noun has been reduced to its root. 

19. The suffix -in. This affix is not fertile. In San- 
skrit it indicates possession (Whitney, op. cit., §§1183, 
1230). The same idea prevails in Mexican in the jiames 


of "flyers" {Morphology, p. 26, Remark): pipiolin, a bee, 
"buzzer"; totolin, a hen; etc. It is also to be found in 
the names of a few other "animates": michin, a fish; 
Skr., misAti, to have the eyes open, be "pop-eyed"; Mex., 
tec-pin, a flea (root form) ; etc. With totolin, a hen, 
"balancer" (of motion in the wind), cf. Skr., tolayati, 
lift, weigh. 

Remark. — The curious locution, ipal nemoani, is de- 
fined as "god"; i-pal, by means of, "mediante"; nemo- 
ani. The latter I refer to *nem, *nemb; O. Irish, nem, 
heaven; cf. Skr., n&m-as, ndbhas; Lat., nebula; Ger., 
nebel, mist (cf. Brngmann, op. cit, II. §132, p. 419); 
but i-pal I refer to bhr, to bear. 

20. The affix -uh, found in a small class of nouns, is 
*uk; Skr., uc-ya-ti, to be accustomed; 6kas, home; Goth., 
bi-iihtB; Lith., jimkstu; Mex., ueltiuhtli, eldest sister, 
"exalted in place"; vrdh+uc; {Comp. Vocab., p. 77, 
duhitf) ; Mex., ach-ca-uh-tli, elder brother; Skr., djati, 
he leads, +ka+uc, or ak, a?, to attain; Mex., quin-iuh- 
ti, "it was always so"; perhaps pi-ocA-tli, armpit, "hair 
place," with Jc sibilant. 

21. The suffix -otl, -utl. Perhaps for -d, -ad, -ad: 
Mex., ol-otl, corncob, "like a roller"; cf. Gr. mv-o-s, 
dwarf, vav-a)S-ri<i, dwarfish; Mex., tototl, bird; tud+tud, 
thruster, beater (of air); *tutud [Phonology, p. 17, 
table A); but it may be tud-od-tl, "like a.beater." No 
concurrent examples were found. 

Remark. — Since u and o have almost fallen together 
in Mexican, these vowels are valueless for differentiation. 
Palma says [»p. cit., p. 116) that o is to be preferred in 
pronunciation. The reverse is true of derivation. In 
Mex., oztotl, a cave; Lat., 6s, mouth; we may postulate 
(1) os-ftat-1, "extended mouth," (2) ost + ad-, as above, 


or, finally, (3) ost+6d, the ablative, "originating in a 
mouth," opening; cf. Skr., gukra krsnad ajanista, the white 
was born from the black. If this be an ablative form, it 
greatly strengthens the probability of the existence of a 
locative (§23) and an instrumental (§24). 

III. Mexican Prefixes 

22. The Mexican language is very poor in prefixes 
{^Morphology, p. 7, augment). The prefixes ta-, te-, teo- 
are practically otiose. They are *ta, *te; Skr., tat- 
(tad); plu., te. 

a) Ta- is rare and doubtful: Mex., ta-palc-a-tl, broken 
pottery; ta+Skr., bhragyati, to fall, be ruined; Mex., ta- 
cax-xo-tia, to dig up, transplant (?) trees; ta-|-Skr., 
kasoti, to move, +xo-tl, shoot; Mex., ue-xotl, willow, 
"big shoot"; *qiou; Skr., cyAvati, to move from its 

Remark. — Sometimes ia- is not a prefix: Mex., ta-pal- 
iui, be pimply, is doubtless ta+de, +pal-, "colored de- 
posit"; cf. G-r., e^-dv-dri-iia, a pimple, "colored deposit," 
also d(o-fi6-'i (strong grade), a heap; Mex., tauh, crown 
of the head, may be, (1) de+uk, "place," mound-like, or 
(2) to, our, +au, *aus, ears; Gr., oS?, Dor., 5?, ear; 
Mex., ta-pag-olli, a bird's nest; *d9, to bind (strong 
grade) ; Gr., Seia, +pak, fasten, +ol-, round. 

6) Te- (1.) prono'un, (2) prejwc, and (3) first member 
of a compound. 

1) In a vast majority of the cases, te- is simply the 
pronoun te, someone; Mex., ta-tli, father, te-ta, some- 
one's father; auitl, aunt, te-aui, someone's aunt, etc. 

2) Mex., te-gacatl, a big straw; te, same as ta, +Skr., 
gaka, herb ; Mex., te-cuechoa, to beat or grind ; etc. Here 
te- is used much as also te-qui and te-te-uh are, which are 


emphatic prefixes in a few verbs (Olmos, op. cit., p. 186) ; 
cf. Gr., Se (conj.), but, and, which often seems super- 

3) Mex., te-uhc-tli (te-cu-tli), a chief; perhaps, Skr., 
day, d^yate, to allot, possess; Gr., Bairn, +*aus; Skr., 
6jas, might; Mex., tecutliis a synonym. Te (tetl), stone: 
te-apaztli, stone, water-trough; te-tzauia, to harden; te- 
callotiani, a mason. 

c) Teo- (1) "very," and (2) teo- as the first member 
of a compound. 

1) Mex., teo-cuitlatl, gold, very bright; Skr., cit-r&; 
Mex., teo-nochilia, to injure another; *nok; Skr., nagd- 
yati; Lat., noceo; Mex., teo-xiuh, a generous son; Skr., 
su-nii; Mex., teo-tlac, very late in the evening; cf. Skr., 
darga, moon. 

2) Mex., teo-calli, temple; *dieu; Skr., div, sky; 
Mex., teotl, a god. The genesis of teo- is uncertain. Cf. 
Skr., tu, expletive, and tu, to be powerful. 

d) The prefix qui- (ki-) is also practically otiose: 
Mex., qui-ciaui, very tired; jollo-qui-mii, "very rustic," 
"how rustic" (in heart), a "Keuben"; cf., for this qui, 
Skr., ki-yant, how great, etc. 

Remark 1. — The prepositive-objective pronoun, qui 
(c), is not in this category. Its origin is obscure and a 
mooted point; cf. ni-c-te-maca, I it to someone give; 
3rd per. sing., qui-te-maca. 

Remark 2. — (1) Ti- is not a prefix though at times 
seemingly so. Compare te-ach-cauh, elder brother, leader 
(§15 c, 1), and tiaca-uh, a valiant man, (Sp.) "animoso"; 
Skr., tya'jati, renounce, risk. 

2 ) Ti- in compounds : Mex. , ti-anq-iz-tli, market-place ; 
*d9, "gifts," "goods," -f-ang, to move; Skr., angana, 
court; originally, perhaps, "gangway" (Lanman, Sanskrit 


Reader) ; Mex., ti-a-mic-tli, market-place; *da + mik, to 
mix; Lat., misceo, *mic-sc-eo; but it may be dia-, an 
instrumental (cf. §24), since (Skr.) mig is used with the 
instrumental (Skr. Diet.); Mex., ti-malli (temalli), pus 
(§18); ti-tich-ti-c (adj.), tight, short (clothing); ti- 
tich-oa, shorten; ti-tix-ia, to glean after the harvest; 
perhaps, *d9, to cut off (Skr., dydti), +affix -s- (if so, 
affix is very rare) . 

Remark 3. — Que- in Mexican begins many words and 
might appear to be an affix; but it is really the first 
member of a compound. The forms que- and cue- are 
used indiscriminately by Mexican writers and are, so far 
as I can discover, non-significant in phonetics. Both 
forms are h and not 7cm (quauhtla pro kotla). The latter 
sound should not appear in Mexican. Molina has cauitl, 
time, quauitl, tree ; ca-n, where ? que-n, how '? why ? cui-x, 
is there? all from the pronominal roots, *qe, *qi; Skr., 
kfe, klm; Lat., quis; Gr., ««? ; Mex., quen-chiua, to 
wound; *ghan; Skr., han; Mex., cuen-chiua, to till one's 
paternal acres; Skr., ks6ma, "home." He is absolutely 
silent as to phonetics or reasons for his spelling. A 
considerable list of puzzling words is found with que-, 
cue- (separable), for the first member. 

1) *Ke{n), empty, void: Mex., cue-cue-no-ti, to be 
vainglorious; Gr., Kev-6-';, empty, +Skr., nu, nauti, to 
sound, praise; hence "empty sounds," "wind bag"; Mex., 
que-tzontli, large hairs in the armpit, "hollow hair-place" ; 
que-xilli, groin, "hollow"; que-queloa, to ridicule, use 
"empty words"; cue-tzpalti, to be a glutton; *ken, 
empty,+Skr., spArdhati, to contend, strive (with) ; Mex.^ 
cue-tlauia, to wither; i*ken, "consumed"; (for tlauia, see 
Comp. Vocab., p. 82); que-que-tolli, small of the back; 
*ken+Skr., tolayati; Mex., que-ga-uin-toc, about to die; 


*ken+sa, wholly, +Skr., und, lacking; Mex., oue-xpalli, 
large hairs left in the armpits of boys when shaved; 
cue+AS., sparian, to spare (?); Mex., cue-cue-50, to 
baste (sew), "useless sewing"; cue-chinia, to shake, move; 
Gr., Kiv-e(o-\-a-KiS-vrjtJi,i, to scatter, break up(?); Mex., 
que-locha-ui, withered; *ken-|-Skr., rujati, to "crush to 
naught"; Mex., cue-tlach-tli, wolf; doubtful, perhaps 
*ken, furiously, +Skr., trasa, terror; Mex., cuetlachtli, 
wolf, perhaps also leather; Gr., kvt-o<;, Lat., cutis, Pruss., 
keuto, skin,+Skr., rac, prepare, or raj, color. 

2) *Kes-, *kenst-: Mex., que-quetz-olli, the heel bone; 
Gr., Kea-rpa, a mallet; of., for a similar idea, the name of 
the ankle-bone, (Lat.) malleolus, "little hammer"; Skr., 
kas, to "scratch," to kick and push in a crowd; Gr., 
Kcv-Tem, to prick; Mex., quetz-il-paina, to run on tiptoe; 
queg-necuiloa, to be lame; cue-cuech, cue-cuetz, shameless, 
debauched; Gr., Kevrpcop, a (torture-scarred) rogue(?); 
Mex., cuex-an-tli, a pocket ; Gr., leevrpcov, "patch- work" ( ?) ; 
(an=*ien) ; Mex., cuech-micqui, (lit.) "scared to death"; 
(Gr., Kevrpov, goad, "motive") ;.Mex., quec-euatl, a piece 
of rawhide fastened on the hip to catch the ball in the 
game called "tlachtli"; Gr., Kevrptov, "patch" (?); pos- 
sibly, *«eWT/><Bi' ; {^c^s). 

3) *Kl: Mex., cue-tlani, (1) to break big things, 
"smash" ; Gr., kXcico, to break; (2) crackling of a big fire; 
Gr., KXa^m, to crackle; perhaps Mex., cue-cho-a, to grind, 
crush, may be, rather than Skr., kdrsati, *kl+so (s affix, 
see ti-tich-oa, §22 d, Remarlc 2, 2); Skr., grnati; Mex., 
que-loni, to dislocate a joint, "key" (Gr., KXrj'k, kXck ; 
Lat., clavus, nail),-j-lu, to loosen; or, possibly, *kel-oni; 
Mex., que-quex-olli, a crumb of bread; *kl^que-|-que-s 
4-olli (affix s doubtful). 

4) *Kr: Mex., cue-cue-yo-ca, cue-cue-yoni, to swarm 


(of ants, fleas, sparks, etc.); kr; Skr., kiila, a swarm, + 
y6ni, a "place." 

e) The forms, coa-, go-, con-, com-, occur in compounds 
as the first member: Mex., coa-chiua, coa-notza, coa-teca, 
to be convinced; no doubt Lat., con, "with," cum, quum, 
*quom; Mex., co-aciui, to have gout; Skr., 511, to swell; 
Mex., co-mol-oa, to dig holes; gu+Lat., moles, mass, 
"labor"; Mex., con-caca-uh-toc, expiring, in extremis; 
perhaps, con, "with,"+Gr., kuk-o-v, evil; "in a bad way"; 
(for -uh-, see § 20) ; Mex., co-monia, to cause excitement, 
a stirring of the people; Skr., gan^ crowd; Gr., dyopd 
(cerebralized) ; or else Grr., kw-kvco, to cry out; Lat., 
queror; *qu-es-; (cf. Skr., grama, village) ; Mex., comoni, 
blazing, if cerebralized (r) , may be referred to *ghar-mo, 
heat; Skr., gharm^-s, (cf. note, §26, Remark 3); Mexi, 
CQm.aa.-altia, to bathe, sacrifice, is synonomous, and hence 
the difficulty of determining comon-altia; cf. Lat., ardeo, 
or Skr., r, "make ready,"+*dh9, to put. 

IV. Primitive Inflection 
23. The locative case. The locative plural ending, 
-su, -si, has the appearance of a pure postpositive with 
the original meaning, in or at a place or condition. The 
singular ending is the same in Sanskrit and in Mexican: 
Skr., pdrvatasya prsth-6, on the ridge of the mountain; 
Mex., Cauhtitlan chan-e, he lives at Cauhtitlan (chan= 
*ghzem). Locative expressing condition: Skr., MitrAsya 
sumatarl syama, may we be in the favor of Mitra; Mex., 
maui-50, to be wise, honored, mauifo-Uani, he wishes to 
be honored, i.e., to be among the honored (plural -su; 
root, man, to think) . The Sanskrit ending of the singular 
was -i, fusing with -a- to -e; but later -i and -u stems 
took the form -du (Whitney, op. cit., §307 i). Mex., 
xal-lo, sandy, is doubtful; cf. adjectives in -yo {Mor- 


phology, p. 23) ; Mex., xi-50, agreeable, "otorgando" 
(Sp.), said only of women, is less so; for, if xi be Skr., 

]i-n6ti, *g''i, Grr., /Stos, Germanic, quick, then -go would be 

a clear case of locative of condition. 

Remark. — The ending -su is very rare in Mexican; 

but the ending -I is fertile, occurring in "domiciles" 
(place) and so-called possessives: Mex., cen-tli, cin-tli, 

corn; cen ocuilin, corn worm; cen-e, owner of corn, i.e., 

among those who have corn (condition) ; also CQ-ua, 

owner of corn; Old Per., -va, possessive. 

24. The instrumental case. In Sanskrit the instru- 
mental singular in all genders ends in -a or -d. Compare 
with this the Mexican affix -a: quauitl, a stick (wood), 
quauh-tla, a wood; or else quauhtl-a; if quauh-tla, we 
may supply the primitive locative affix, *tro, as in Gr., 
XeK-rpo-v, a bed, "lying down place"; but if we analyze 
as quauhtl-a, we have identically a Sanskrit instrumental 
of the form datr-a. If the objection be raised that a 
should be Mexican 0, I may quote Brugmann (op. cit., 
III. § 274) : "In the present state of the question I con- 
sider -a the more likely of the two" (a or e). 

Remark. — The existence of the locative and instru- 
mental as fertile forms in Mexican would by no means 
lead to the conclusion that Mexican once had the noun 
inflection of the classic tongues. On the contrary it is 
an argument against such inflection. All Aryan inflection 
was originally postpositive; but the locative and instru- 
mental are so speciflcally postpositive as to accord fully 
with the Mexican affix- scheme. 

V. The Mexican Plueal 

25. The idea of number in Mexican is supposed to 
attach only to "animate" npuns, "cosas animadas." The 


plurals are very irregular. Nothing like a system pre 
vails. Keduplication is common as in teotl, a god (teutl) , 
teteo (teteu). The regular endings are -me and -tin 
ichcatl, sheep, ichcame; quauhtli, eagle, quauhtin. For 
tribes the bare stem forms the plural: Aztecatl, Azteoa. 
The affix -me may be a primitive -mi strengthened to -me, 
and, if so, it was the ending of the instrumental dative 
and ablative plurals found in Lithuanian, Balto-Slavonic, 
and Germanic (Brugmann, op. cit., III. §§367, 379). 
But this matter is too uncertain to go beyond the phase 
of suggestion here, though the probabilities of the 
existence of the locative and instrumental cases greatly 
strengthens the hypothesis, as well as the fact that these 
endings are bizarre in form in the primitive language 
and suggest miscellaneous postpositives. 

VI. The Mexican Possessive Pronouns 
AS Determinants 

26. In Mexican, nouns compounded with the possessive 
personal pronouns are invariably clipped. Presumably, 
only the root remains, or at most the stem. Thus, ta-tli, 
father; no-ta, my father; ciuatl, woman; i-ciuauh, or 
y-ciuauh, his wife. Olmos [op. cit., pp. 27-31) gives 
rules for these forms: "Nouns ending in -atl, -etl, -otl, 
-utl, change -tl to -tt/i," as atl, water; n'auh, my water. 
"Nouns ending in -tli simply drop -fK"; ci-tli, grand- 
mother; no-ci, my grandmother (cf. "kinship names," 
§ 15 c, supra). Similarly, nouns ending in -li drop -li 
and take -h according to Olmos. Others ignore -h, which 
is plainly the "Saltillo" or stress indicating that the 
noun has been clipped to its root. Vowel stems take -uh, 
as in quanaca, a certain bird; no-quanacauh, my bird; 
or else they remain unchanged: tuga, rat; ytuga (ituga), 


his rat. Nouns in -uitl change -uitl to -uh, as chiquiuitl, 
basket; no-chiquiuh, my basket; but -tl may be dropped, 
as in auitl, aunt; n'aui, my aunt. Similarly, -itl may be 
dropped, as in comitl, an earthen pot; no-con, my earthen 
pot. This clipping of nouns must not be relied on as a 
certain indication of a root. But it has a decided value. 
Mex., camatl, mouth, becomes no-camac or no-can; Skr., 
cam, to sip (m final in Sanskrit roots becomes n, Whitney, 
op. cit., § 143 a) ; Mex., no-camac should mean, in my 
mouth, and it is formed by analogy with the postpositive 
of place, -c; Mex., matlatl, red ochre, becomes no-matl, 
which is itself a typical Mexican noun and demands a 
search for the root; cf. AS., msedere; Eng., madder, a 
red or brown dye stuff; Mex., cauitl, time, would become 
no-cauh [supra, cf. §18, Remark). Nouns prefixed to 
verbs observe the same rule: Mex., md-toca, to touch; 
maytl, hand,-f-toca; Lai, tango; Mex., ni-naca-qua, I 
meat eat, naca-tl. 

Remark 1. — In Mexican, -t (final) is not allowable 
(except in the perfect tense of verbs) ; and -tt- and -rr- 
are not permissible: Mex., tlauitl, no-tlauh, red ochre 
(cinnabar?) ; tlauia, to strike a light, may be *tr-|-rudh, 
red; Gr., ipvd-p6-<i; *tr(r)ud-tl; by anaptyxis *tla-ud-tl, 
with u umlauted to ui, as in ilhuicac, heaven; Skr., ro- 
cand. This would of course be a case of extreme phonetic 
change. Mex., -rr- in the root: vilana, to go on all 
fours; vilantli, lame; Skr., vellati, to reel. 

Remark 2. — In words ending in -itl, it would seem 
that -it of the root (or the affix, § 17 6) regularly becomes 
-uh: Mex., iuitl, feather; (Skr., vl, bird); n'iuiuh, my 
feather; Mex., chiquiuitl, basket; no-chiquiuh, my basket 
{supra); *d8, put+krt, cut "splints," or krt, a "pro- 
duction." This -uh may arise from analogy with roots 


in -u, like Mex., ilhuicac; Skr., rue. It is impossible 
that the noun affix -uh (-uk, see §20) should be trans- 
ferred to these nouns with possessive prefixes and yet 
n'oqmch-hui, my husband, from oquichtli, male, points 
to the occasional use of an affix in these forms; of. 
no-ciuauh, from ciuatl, woman. 

Remark 3. — In a few roots ending with a dental, the 
latter is dropped and n appears as final: Skr., sidh, (1) 
to drive off, (2) to accomplish; Mex., tzin, honorific, as 
in cauhtemoc-tzin, "perfected," "exalted"; tzin-cui, to 
shell corn, "take away the good part"; tzin-tetl, cement; 
tzin-eua, to haggle, "cheapen"; (tzintli, end, bottom, 
scarcely accords).' 

lis this " cerebralization "*? Cf. Mex,, te-pun-az-tli, from *plt (Skr., puta), 
fold, cavity (§1, Bemarlc, 5); Mex., pe-tla, to split; *plt, cavity,+dj', to split; 
Mex., pat-io-tl, price; patioa, to cost; cf. Eng., "palter," to equivocate, use 
trickery (haggle?); Mex., xillantli (xil-yau-tli), a belly, womb; Skr., jatbdra; 
Goth., kilj>ei (.Comp. Vocab., p. 93, has +lamb) ; Mex., yoli, to live, be conceived; 
Skr,, vrt, vSrtati, where the only change is dropping of -t. 


A. Syntax Outlines 

Based on Professor Sayce's article on Grammar in the Wncyclopmdia Britan- 
nica (ninth ed.), Vol. XI, pp. 37 ff. 

Grammar includes, (1) Word-building, (2) Syntax, 
(3) "Accidence." The sentence is the unit or starting- 
point (p. 38) . The objective pronoun is embodied in the 
verb in Basque (38). Position is the determining factor 
in Chinese (39). A "mixed" grammar is "almost, if 
not altogether unknown" (39). According to Professor 
Earle, words are, (1) "Presentive" and (2) "Symbolic." 
The former present objects or conceptions ; but the latter, 
which are called "empty" by the Chinese, serve a gram- 
matical purpose only (40). 

Vowel changes of a to i or u, according to M. Hove- 
lacque, indicated a change from passive to active in the 
parent Aryan (40). 

The oblique cases are really adjectives or adverbs; but, 
according to Htibschmann, the locative, ablative, and 
instrumental have a logical origin and determine the 
logical relation which the nominative, accusative, and 
genitive bear to each other and to the verb. The latter 
cases are classed by him as purely "grammatical" (40). 

The plural of the strong cases (nom., ace, voc.) is 
regarded by M. Bergaigne as merely an abstract form 

Gender is the product of analogy and phonetic decay. 
The parent Aryan originally had none (40). 

The adverbial meaning of many of the coses shows 
how they crystallized into adverbs and prepositions (41). 



Prepositions in Aryan are of late growth, and they are 
simply transformed adverbs. Conjunctions were also 
primarily adverbs, and they are mostly "petrified cases of 
pronouns," like "that"; although our own "and" may 
equal ert ( ?) and signify "going further." Juxtaposi- 
tion, however, was the first form of the compound or 
complex sentence (41). 

Infinitives are likewise of adverbial origin and come 
from the dative, the locative, and the instrumental, and 
also from the neuter stem as found in Vedic usage. Gr., 
Sovvai and Skr., dav&ne are equivalents, the latter being 
a dative case (41). 

The verb in Aryan, as in Semitic, seems originally to 
have indicated relation only; but the idea of time was 
soon added to the attributive relation, two tenses being 
developed, one for a continuous, the other for a momen- 
tary action (41). 

The future in s may possibly involve the auxiliary as, 
to be, and this verb appears in various compound forms 
(Lat. perf., amavi points to fui, while scrip-si indicates 
the root of sum, and amarem is plainly ama-sem; but 
new modes and tenses were also formed by^^suffixes as well 
as by composition (42). 

As to the age of tenses it may be said that some were 
late, as the usage of the Iliad shows, while others seem to 
have been lost and reproduced again. There are traces 
of a pluperfect in the Veda; but it has been wholly lost 

The passive is late and was not found in the parent 
Aryan speech. It grew out of the middle or reflexive, 
and the deponents show that r in Latin and Keltic had 
originally no passive force. "I am pleased" could be 
rendered by "I please myself" (42). 


B. Order of Words 

Baeed on the same article, p. 42. 

The original Aryan order of the sentence, according 
to Bergaigne, was, (1) object, (2) verb, (3) subject. 

Semitic reverses the order of attributive words, and the 
adjective follows its noun; but it precedes its noun in 
Aryan. English is true to the antique Aryan arrange- 
ment, while Latin varies much. A distinction between 
attributives used merely to qualify and those used pred- 
icatively gradually arose, and the latter were placed after 
their nouns. The adjectives thus came to be used as a 
predicate, the copula being implied: deus bonus [es/]. 

C. Miscellaneous Items 

Based on Professor Siever's article on Philology, op. cit.^ Vol. XVIII, pp. 781 ff. 
and Professor Whitney's, i&id.,pp. 765 fE. 

All Indo-Germanic words and forms must be traced 
back to simple monosyllabic elements called roo/s (p. 789). 
Derivation and Inflection are based on a system of suffixes. 
A few infixes, mostly nasals, occur. Prefixes in the 
proper sense, do not seem to have occurred. The exact 
number of cases used is uncertain (789). 

The infinitive had not been developed in Aryan, its 
place being taken by the oblique cases of verbal nouns 

Comparative Syntax is the youngest branch of Aryan 
philology. It deals mostly with original meanings and 
the primitive uses of the cases, modes, and tenses 

"Phonetic change has nothing whatever to do with 
change of meaning, the two are the product of wholly 
independent tendencies" (Whitney, p. 772, italics mine). 

1 A list of works on Comparative Syntax can be found in Sayce's Science of 
Language, Vol. II, p. 361. 


Euphony is "a false principle"; for it is nothing but 
"an idealized synonym of economy" (773). 

{^Remark. — Sucli, for so-like, and which, for who-like, 
illustrate this, as does cost, from its Latin equivalent, 
con-stare, and preach, from its Latin equivalent, prae- 

In its inflection, Aryan is agglutinative: Semitic, on 
the other hand, is inflected by internal changes in the 
root and stem (774). 

Language is never a proof ot race; but it is, never- 
theless, very generally the best guide, in some degree, to 
race identity in primitive times [lilt.). 

Two accusatives, "it to him," have a peculiar treat- 
ment in Mexican. See Comp. Vocab., pp. 16 f., and 
Prim. Aryans of Amer., p. 78. 

D. Mexican Syntax 

Based on the Grammaire de la Langue Nahuatl^ the first edition of which was 

prepared by Andr6 de Olmos in 1547» and also on the Gramatica 

de la Lengua Azteca o Mejicana by Miguel 

Trinidad Palma, 1886. 

The Mexican verb, with its Indicative, Imperative, 
Optative, Subjunctive, and Infinitive modes, which involve 
tenses corresponding more or less closely with classical 
models, as is shown by the paradigm (Olmos, pp. 68 ff.), 
has also gerundive forms, or forms that are so classified. 
On the whole, it is not too much to say that this verb is 
more Aryan in its general character and inflectional forms 
than those found in some of the known members. of the 
Indo-Germanic family of languages, and it seems to con- 
tain traces of original Aryan forms and usages. 

It resembles the verb in Greek and Latin in using the 
present for the perfect or imperfect if the action con- 
tinues, as in such a sentence as, "I have been at home 


for a long time." The perfect is used for time wholly 
past. The future may be used for the perfect, and the 
perfect for the pluperfect. 

I. The subjunctive, in conditional forms, is suggestive, 
as examples will show. They are from Olmos, on the 
pages cited. 

a) Yntla (intla) nitemachtia, tlein ic notech tlamiloz 
yn (in) tlatlacuUi? If I teach, why should he (they) 
blame me? (Miloa, lit., "end," "upset.") P. 203. 

b) Yntla uelh ninemini' aquen ninochiuazquia. If 
well I live, in nothing would I harm myself ("do" 
myself). P. 203. 

c) "J/" and the future, etc. Yn -ihquac, iniquac, 
when (if). 

1) Yn ihquac nictlagotlaz (ni-c-tlazotlaz) in Dios, 
ni-qualli niez. When (if) I love God, I shall be good. 

2) Yn ihquac nitemachtiaya, nopan o-mo-chiuh y. 
When I preached (if I should, or were to, preach), etc. 
(imp. Ind.). P. 84. 

d) Ni followed by quia, "if I had, I would"; pres. 
with fut. perf . subj. : Yntla nictlagotlani Dios, amo niua- 
lazquia mictlan. P. 130. 

e) Yntla onitemachtiani, ye onitemachtizquia ; or 
Yntla nitemachtizquia, ye onontemachtiani. If I had 
had to preach, I should have preached. P. 203. 

/) Yntla onitlaquani, amo occeppa nitlaquazquia. If 
I had eaten, I should not eat again. P. 203. 

g) Yntlacamo xinechmolhuiliani, ye onicquaca in 
xocotl; or ye nicquaznequia ; or nicquazquia. If you 
had not told me, I should have eaten the apple. P. 203. 
In these forms the perfect is used for the pluperfect. 
See p. 80 and [ibi) note 1. 

' Imp. subj. of nemi, with second form, nemizquia, P. 129. (Palma, p. 45.) 


h) Yntla ticquaznequia in nacatl, tleica amo achto ic 
otinechmonauatili ? If you wished to eat meat, why did 
you not first ask my permission? P. 203. 

II. Para, para que; "that I may'''' forms. 

a) Ynic (inic) uelh (uel) temachtiloz, monequi ne- 
machtiloz. That I may well teach, it is necessary that I 
study. P. 207. 

6) Ynic uellayeculhtiloz in Dios, monequi uelh io 
necencaualoz. In order well to serve Grod, it is necessary 
well to prepare. P. 207. 

c) Ynic oacic {or oacito) Pedro Mexico, cenca ic 
ototocac. That Peter shall have arrived in Mexico, he 
must hurry. P. 207. 

d) Ynic uelh oquichiuani in calli, achto monequia 
uelh omomachtiani. In order that he may have done up 
the house well, first it were necessary that he has learned. 
P. 207. 

e) Ynic nitemachtizquia, ninotzalozquia. In order 
that I preach, I must be called. P. 207. 

/) Ynic tlayeculhtiloz Pedro, ualhuiloaz. In order 
that Peter may be served, they must (turn) to service. 
P. 208. 

III. "TF/iew" forms, perfect and pluperfect. 

a) Ma omic in Pedro, yn niuallaz. If Peter had been 
dead when I arrived. P. 206. 

fo) Omic in Pedro, in oniualla. Dead was Peter when 
I arrived. P. 206. 

c) Omicca in Pedro, in oniualla. Dead had been 
Peter when I arrived (but returned to life). Pluperfect. 
P. 206. 

IV. Until, "hasta que^^ (?). Ixquich, inoc, inoquic. 
Ixquichcauitl inic oti-uallaque ; until ye came (Molina, 


o) Amo ni-mitz-cahuaz, intlacamo iquac otinech-macac ; 
or intlacamo achtopa ti-nech-macaz, in ti-nech-huiquilia. 
I will not leave you, until you have paid; or unless you 
first shall pay. Perf. def. or fut., with Indicative. Aryan 
requires a Subjunctive. P. 184, note 1. 

6) Ynoe (inoc) nitla-cuiloa, nican timotlaliz (fut.). 
While (until) I write it, seat yourself here. P. 184. 

c) Ynoc nitla-cuiloa, oc ximotlali. While I write it, 
remain seated. P. 184. (The paradigm on p. 68 would 
lead us to expect -tlalia; but see Palma, p. 63.) 

V. When (after). Muztla yn otitemachtique, titla- 
quazque. Tomorrow after (when) we have taught, we 
shall eat. P. 209. 

VI. Adverbial Phrases. (The references are to 
Palma. ) 

a) Otlatzontequiloc "itech tlapopololtin" in aquique 
amo ohuelit quin tlaxtlahuaz ipampa in i-netoliniliz. He 
was sentenced "with costs" which he could not pay on 
account of his poverty. P. 94. 

&) In telpocatl ocallac "itech in tlatlaliloyan" oqui 
ilhuique, ma moyeyantiani, ac amo oquinec qui chihuaz. 
The young man burst "into the wardrobe," they told 
him to sit down, which he did not wish to do. P. 94. 
(The -que serves as a conjunction. Ma, etc. = imp. Subj. 
^c=rel., referring to the preceding clause.) 

The object regularly follows the verb with the sign 
"in." Tehuan tic huicaya in tlaolli. P. 95. (But it 
precedes, if compounded, ni-naca-qua, I-meat-eat. ) 

A phrase may be incorporated. Nic nequi nicuaz 
tzopelic; or, by incorporation, nicuaznequi tzopelic. 
P. 98. 

VII. Although . . . yet. Immanel ni pinahua tlein 
mach nic-chihuaz? matel nino-yolcuiti. Although I 


am ashamed, what in truth must I do? Why confess? 
P. 98. 

VIII. Or [nozo). lea chicahualiztli nozo ica necaya- 
hualiztli. P. 104. See infra, XXIII. a. 

IX. Neither . . . nor [amo . . . amono). Amo tic 
tlazotla in motatzin, amono in monantzin. Thou lovest 
neither thy father nor thy mother. P. 85. 

X. Emphasis. Direct construction. In yectiliztli 
pepetlaca occecaye itech in amo ipatiyo in tlapololiztli. 
Inverse construction. Itech in amo ipatiyo in tlapolo- 
liztli ompa occecaye pepetlaca in yectiliztli. P. 195. 
See infra, XXIV. a. 

XI. Participles. (Ablative absplute.) Tlacati in 
tlacatl itech aompayotl tlaquimilolli netoliniliztli. Born 
is man with nothingness, involved in misery. P. 106. 

XII. Possessivenouns. (Subject and object. ) Geni- 
tive and dative. 

a) In tlaquihua iconeuh onech huiquili ce patli. The 
son of the rich man brought me a remedy. P. 107. 

b) In iteopixcauh in n'altepeuh tech momachtilia 
cualli domingotica in itlamachtilzin in Totecuyo Jesu- 
cristo. The priest of my village explains carefully to us 
the doctrine of our Savior, Jesus Christ, every Sunday. 
P. 107. (The gren.=poss. pron. before the noun. The 
dat. is indicated through the verb.) 

XIII. Verb as infinitive (two dependent). Onic nee 
nic'chihualtiz motlaloz in titlantli. I wished to hasten 
(to make to run) to the messenger. P. 107. 

XIV. Ownership. Forms indicating possession. 

a) Inin tlalli n'axca. This land is mine (lit., my 

b) Inin calli no-tech pohui. This house to my 
account, "evidences" (belongs). P. 108. 


XV. Before. (The references are to Olmos.) 

a) Oyuh yalhua ni-ualla in ti-ualla. I came one day 
before you. 

6) Quin yuh yeua ni-ualla in ti-ualla. I came a little 
while before you came. 

c) 0-qui-muztla au-uallaque in ni-ualla. You came 
a day after I came. 

d) Muztlatica ti-nech-ualitzta. You came a day after 
(I did). P. 210. 

XVI. Romance reflexive, "se" (Sp., se leer, etc.). 
a) Uelh nic-poa yn amuxtli. I read the "book." 
h) Uelh ni-tlatoa. I speak. P. 208. 

c) The use of ne. (The reference is to Palma.) Ne- 
tla-icoltilo. "It covets itself." P. 89. 

d) Nino, timo, mo, etc., are also used. (Olmos, p. 
100.) Mo-chiua, it does itself, is done. 

1) Qui-mo-cuitlahuia in nopilhuan. My children are 
cared for. 

2) Ne cuitlahuilozque in nopilhuan. (Pass.) 

3) Miec tlatlacoUi, mo-chihua. (Lit,) many sins com- 
mit themselves (cf., supra. A, the passive). For all 
three, see Palma, p. 100. 

XVII. Passive voice. Not made from the active. 

a) Nic no-tlazotilia in Teotl. I love Grod. (Palma, 
p. 89.) 

h) Nech mo-tlazotilia in Dios. God loves me. {Ibid.; 
Olmos, p. 99.) 

c) Ytechpa (itechpa) in Dios ni-tlagotlalo {ego amor a 
Deo). (Olmos, p. 99.) 

XVIII. Continued action. Present, Subj. in -nij 
past, imperf. in -ya. (The references are to Olmos.) 

a) Yuh ni-te-machtiani. Thus I am accustomed to 
preach. P. 208. 


b) Yuh ni-te-machtiaya. Thus I was accustomed to 
preach. P. 208. 

c) Yn iuh tlamanca; or tlamania yeuecauh, no yuh 
tlamani yn axcan. Just as they were accustomed (to do) 
in ancient times so they are now. P. 209. 

d) That I may. Niaznequi inic ni-te-machtiz ; or 
niaznequi ni-te-machtitiuh. I wish to (that I may) 
teach. P. 209. Ni-te-machti-z (-tiuh) is a future. Cf. 
the use of a fut., Ind., in Latin and Greek for a Subj. 
form. This may be a Subjunctive. 

XIX. '^Attributive" position. (The references are to 
Palma. ) 

a) In huey tlatoani quin-pepena, itech in huehuey 
altepeme, tlayecanque (-yac-?) inic quin-yechuicazque in 
itlacohuan. The governor chooses among the districts 
leaders who shall govern the subjects. P. 99. 

6) In huey teopixqui tech titlanilia in teopixque, 
ipampa in toaltepehuan intech monequi ma quin machti- 
can in itenahuatiltzitzihuan in Teotl Dios. The bishop 
sends us priests, because our towns need those who can 
tell plainly the commandments of God. P. 99. Ipampa 
is here used with the fut. for a Subj. form, meaning, "be- 
cause," "for the reason that." 

XX. "Although ... not yet." 

a) Ye tlaue in piltzintli manel ayamo ixtlamatilice. 
Already the child possesses teeth although he does not 
yet possess the use of reason. P. 98. 

XXI. '' Genitive partitive.'''' Ce or ceme, one. 

a) Ceme tehuantin Tlaxcallan yaz. One of us will go 
to Tlaxcala. P. 97. 

XXII. Adjectives. These usually precede their sub- 
stantives and lose their endings: tlazoxochitl, a precious 
flower. P. 96. This is for tlagotli+xochitl; for Palma 


is more modern than Olmos or Molina, and his forms 
differ from theirs in consequence. Iztaccihuatl, a white 
woman. P. 96. (Iztac+ciuatl.) One adjective may 
also qualify another, and neither loses anythiiig; tliltic- 
nextic, black-gray, black-ash-colored. P. 96. 

XXIII. ^^ Cause, instrument,^'' etc. lea . . . nozo, 
"with . . . or." 

a) In aqualtiliztli mochihua ica ome tlamantli, ica 
chicahualiztli nozo ica necayahualiztli. Injustice is com- 
mitted in two ways, either with violence or with deceit. 
P. 104. 

XXIV. "So . . . as." Itech . . . ompa, "in . . . 

a) Itech in amo ipatiyo in tlapololiztli ompa occecaye 
pepetlaca in yectiliztli. Virtue shines principally in the 
scorn of (idle) pleasures. P. 105. {In the loss of 
pleasures, there, etc.; it so shines as it scorns pleasures 
that are useless.) 

XXV. Romance (reflexive) forms ("cosa vuol dire") 
express necessity, etc., using the verb nequi and the im- 
personal pronoun mo: mo-nequi in tlanahuatilli, the law 
necessitates itself, is necessary. P. 108. 

XXVI. Special words and idioms. (The references 
are to Olmos.) 

a) "And," auh. Auh yu-axcan (iu-axcan), and at 
present (even now?). 

6) "But" (except), Sp., "menos," oc-ye-amo. 

c) "Then," "when," Sp. "entonces," yquac (ihquac). 
Possibly ic + ac. Ac, who, which. Ic, (prep.) with, 
"con"; (conj. and adv.) for so much, for this, at that 
time, when, etc. 

The conjunctions are classified by Olmos, pp. 194 f. 
Greek and Latin sequence can be found in any of the 


grammars. Comparisons with the Mexican will be sug- 

d) Aquen nino-ohiua. I have nothing, nothing ails 
me. P. 180. Of. Fr., avez-vous faim? Qu'avez-vous? 
Je n'ai rien. 

e) Qan uelipan moztauiz nacatl. The meat will be 
salted properly (-fairly well). P. 181. Qan uelipan, 
"so so," fairly. Sp., cosi cosa. 

/) Cuix mo ; or cuix monel huel niaz ? N'irai-je done 
pas? P. 182. Cuix mo? Not, therefore? Not, then? 
Ne ce pas? 

g) Ye ipan ti-cate yn negaualiztli. (Already) we are 
in lent (fasting). P. 186. Ye=Sp., ya, already. 

XXVII. Infinitive with neqiii: "itoz nequi," "cosa 
vuol dire." (Two forms.) 

a) Ni-tla-quaz-nequi. P. 86. (Paradigm, p. 70.) 

b) Nic-nequi ni-tla-quaz. P. 86. (Paradigm, p. 70.) 
These forms vary with the time to be expressed, the 

imperfect having ni-tla-quaz-nequia, for example, and the 
perfect o-ni-tla-quaz-nec. P. 86. 

Editor's Note. — At this point the MS ends, a,nd the work 
is left incomplete. Expansions were plainly contemplated; but 
they were never made. Where the intent was clear, the needed 
additions have been put in. It is impossible to go further than 
that in such a work. One or two items are in doubt. It has 
been impossible, for example, to verify the expression, "cosa 
vuol dire," which seems to be some Mexican colloquialism of 
the present-day Spanish. It occurs twice just above, meaning, 
"Do you wish to say anything?" See Comp. Vocab., p. 58. 


Mexican in Aryan Phonology 


jines marked b are counted from the bottom of the page.] 

Page 5, 

line 26 read: 

87.5 per cent 53 per cent | 51.5 per cent | 

49 per cent 




f, a, t], a 1 t, a 




otwvos for oicDvds 



xonexca for xonexca 



jna for jna 



(see IV. sec. 4) 




See formation of "Eeverencials," Olmos, 
Grammaire de la Langue Nahuatl, 
p. 164. 



tomb, mound; for hill; 




Sat's for Sais 



hhr, \A-bhar-i\, tfiipm, 

106 insert 

: pal-ewia, to aid; 




snegas; Russian, sniegiX; 



jan for jna 



yevus for ytvvs 



hdnu, for hanil ( ?) 



*jdnu for *^"awrt 




jwa ioijna 



c6l-um for col-um 



rindkti for rindkti 




hdrijharit; Gr., x^o-po-i, x^°-V'> Goth., 
gul-p; AS., geolo; 



' Ihia, ihiyouia (Olmos, op. cit., p. 159), 
to hate; Gr., ex-^-os, ix-O-pos (?). (See 
Table F.) 



Ip-XO-juat for ip-KO-imi 




revered for reverend 




sUcus, sugo for sucus, sugo 




vyd, wind around. 


Page 16, 

line 2 


: , from Sanskrit, pdra ? 



: si, for si, 



ft or p?/a, for gi or p2/«j 



f i, p^/a, for si, sya, 




In Iranian, z becomes d. 



Sip-OS \ divus 



oSos for oSos 



*(r/:r8os, rSos | siidor 



f 10 for fio 



dhr+na+mit | 6p6-vo-'s \ fre-nu-m 



duhkhA for duhkh^ 




pecu for pecus 



bhaj 1 (^ijyo's fagus | boc (beach) i 



btigan for bugan 



palatum for palatum 






pinda for pinda 



6pi for apl 




dhd, dhi 



caesaries for caessaries 



karil for karii 



dha, dhi 



*6iyoi for Oiyo) Also dag-, for dag, 




coc for coc 



fii-ti-s, fons 1 geStan, AS. 



yuh, so, as, thus 




slv, slu for siu 



siii for siu 



aurora for aurora Also AS., for < 



mans for mans 



scoria for scoria 



scala for scala 



livens for uvens ' 



chaga for chaga 




*vf, iirmi eiXw, *pip\<o'i 



fjuL-pay-va for fui-pay-va Also -enl 



palatum for palatum 



vrj for varj 


22, line ib read: 

raflih for ranh 



luth for luth 



rtd for rtli 

23 1 




epxotuu, for epKo/uu Also ira for ira 
geolo for geolo 

X^'V for x°^^ 
recte for recte 

24 7 



9 and 126 read: K6mi Simeon 

Primitive Aryans of America 

27 12 and 126 read: bhid for bhid 

rSos (TfiSoi, Latin, sMor, 


116 read: 




























































mel for meal 
liikh for inkh 
maregh for meregh 
livens for uvens 
ochs for ochse 
Sanskrit, dhd, weak form dhi, Also 
dhi for it 

Originally, dhd, weak form dhi, 
dhd, dhi for dhi 
dhr for dhr 
scala for scala 
gain for lose 

the second is ... . words literally, 
hekatdn for h^katon. 
fisc for pise 
bija for bija 

lighted up; for to light up; 
Qydnia for syama 
QyamS, for CySm^ 
" " gymarfi 
-macac (-macac-) for -mac (-mac-) 
onicte-macac for onicte-mac 


Page 85, line 16 read : Teft/eSros for t£6vu>t<k 

89 13 " qioattuor for quatuor (Also in 1. 18.) 

93 7 " iraxui for iraxus 

8 " bhratr, brother; phrater, 

9 " frater for frater 
10 " *ftyo) for eiyia 

94 9 " V, M for vu 

18 and 96 read: iraxvi for irdxyi 
lib read: excaldare for excaldere 

95 186 " *gh''arm for *g''arm 
106 " quattuor for quatuor 

96 7 " hu, *ghu ; Latin, /S-t-is ; 
86 " apparently, for apparently 

97 3 " drtifor&ta 
4 " tnt6 for tntd 

98 166 " quattuor for quatuor Also vier for fler 

99 3 " scala for scala 
4 " gan ge, gaz ge; 

103 86 " tula ioi tula 

105 17 " (plural of above?) 

18 add: Matlactlaman+ix (ix-quich), ''as many 
as ten.'' Cf. Skr., 6kaika (efca+efca), 
one singly; Mex., ce-ce+yaca, each one. 

117 176 read: das4 for dasd 

135 36 " Amaquemecan for Amaqemecan 

137 36 and 26 read: dhi for dhi 

140 46 read: bhraj for bhraj 

144 86 " TcV-TOJV for T€K-T0V 

147 7 " rindkti for rindkti 

161 11 " devdtd for devatd 

162 12 [The Sanskrit equivalent of vfsh§-kapi is vfsS- 

kapi; but the form has been left as 
originally written. See p. 53, 1. 66, and 
p. 58, 1. 176.] 
181 106 read: E. W. Hopkins for Morris Jastrow, Jr. 

Comparative Vocabulary 

17 17 read: aua2o for analo 

19 13 " irax-vi ioi irdx-vs (Also 76.) 


Page 19, line 14 read: sarana for sarand 
146 insert (after rishi): (j-si) 
12b read: dpi for apf 









excaldare, bathe in warm water. 



hu, to call, -hu-ya; 



pinv, pi for piv 



hrniU for hrnite 



slv for siw 



cuechoa for quechoa 



fijati; Gr., ayw, 



7jv-(.yK-a for i^v-eyK-a 

1 ; 


Cf . KOLTO), down. 

66 read; 

; Lat., aZ-tu-s, "high," arx, arceo, "ward 

off"; Gr., apKim, 



ard-rd for ard-ra 



murmuring for to murmur 

12 tr. and read: a book, atl-\-moxtli ; 



; ima for ami 




aflhii for anhii 


acuetzpalin for acuetzpallin 


vrs for vrs 


a(o-To-s, wool, "down," "blow" 

76 omit 

: Skr., .... *ol-a-tl. Add: Cf. Skr., 

drvant, "runner." 

56 add: 

Of. a+vodh. 



Skr., dva, grace, favor; Avest., avah-, 



6sadhi, "herbs," for 6sadhi, "herbs." 
Add: *au-sra (Brag., II, p. 413), *au- 
sa-dhi, help medicinal, =ava-s-; Mex., 
ava-que, citizens, "protectors"; qui- 
avatl, door, "rain-protector." 



gindsti for gindsti 



vSpa, *jv8pa (?) 



a-rd-fiev for crTa-/i£i/ 



l-CTTij-Ka for e-o-Td-Ktt 



dnu-fca-s for anti-fca-s 



kdkara for kaka 









136 read: 

ka§ate, shine, make a show; for kacat6, 


126 " 

KiyicXis for KtyXls 

2 " 

prnati for prnSti 

5 " 

hii for hu 

6 " 

cup; for cup. Add: Lith., zamba, 

mouth; *gombho-s (Brug., I, p. 264). 

14 insert 

(end): *ghans-; 

15 read: 

anser for anser 

9 " 

tula for tula 

126 " 

only, for only 

106 " 

fiw., *<Tiua for fua *a-iua 

16 " 

uat-l; ioiuat-l+ 

16 " 

ga for ga 

126 omit; 

I vidhyati, 

86 read: 

astadWfca-navati, ninety-eight. 

86 " 

vaiigA for vang^ 

6 " 

dhi+dhf for dhl-dhf 

11 " 

be lost for to lose 

13 " 

OS, mouth, estu-ary; for ost, ust; 

16 " 

m^dha for mardha 

16 " 

*dh8 for *dhe 

1 " 

duhkha, for dukh^ 

3 " 

tur^ti for tiirati 

6 add: 


7. read: 

£a<i) for eao) 

8 " 

*<T€pd<o, (Tv-To for *iTifa<i), arv-TO 

156 " 

axrriljp for (ri&rjp 

7 " 

guhati for g6hati 

10 " 

jaundice for gall 

15 " 

kula for kul& 

136 omit 

: as §aM 

2b read 

: k^ndti for krn6ti 

16 " 

karyJi for kary^ 

11 " 

krs for krs 

116 " 

kampate for k^mpete 

2 " 

kankana for kafikani 

3 " 

Kavcurcrai for Ka/m^u) 

7 " 

oc-cul-o for oc cul-0 



line 156^read: 

(tkS)p for &KWP 


kag for kac 


kiga for kagS. 



sii, bring forth, or su, press out, 


siid4yati for sudSyati 


8 add: 

Cf . (rTofia, mouth, or point, edge. 

11 read: 

Ep. e-ecr-TO for e-ea-To 



rn6ti for rA6ti 



sv-alam-krta for av-alam-kjta 

106 add: 

Cf. Skr., ySkft, liver; Gr., ^ap; Lat., 


66 insert (after desire): *leubh; 

56 add: 

Cf . la-las-a-s (Brug., I, p. 212). 

36 read; 

; dpoci) for apota 




/UflOi for flL/JiOi 

8 i 


i (after p^lati): fly, caus., 

12 ] 


itr-Ti for f(T-Ti 



rn6ti for rnoti Also S>p-To for wp-ro) 



*kx0(o, aXOaivo}, heal; Zd., ared, "grow"; 
for SXOw, "grow;" 




i-cual-aquia» for i-qual-aquia« 



av)(-€v-i for av)(i-ev-i 







iKe-rrfS, a suppliant; 1KVE-0-/UU, 



agnian for agan 



weorthan for weorthen 



gus for gus 



us-m^n for us-man 



krt^ for krta 



ciida for eiida 



c4yati for ciyeti 




hdri, *ghr, *hr, 



*\a,(i), ^dcTKto for T^ao) 



jdhati for jlihati 



vrn§,kti for vyn^kti 



*wrincle for wrincle 



langh for lang 




opvpaySoi, opvy/juaSbi, a roar, Ipevyoptu,, 



risyati for risyati Also ris for rf s 


Page 45, 

line 16 


epcos for epws 


nama for namian 


luth for luth 



evC for evi 


grathnati for grathnSti 


*ra-s (ra-m), rai, for rS-s, 


jeterii for jeteriim 


uttaram da for ultaram da 



insert (after gvan): gen. gtinas, 

166 read: 

stighnoti for stinn6ti 



stign^ for stigna 



stigan for stigan 



nanauatl for nauauatl 




sabh-a for sata-hfi, 



; pdgyati, 

66 read; 

a-Top-w-fu for (TTopiyut 



citlalin for citlallin 




siis; AS., swin, *su-ina; 



yuk-t4 for yuk-ti 



Di-ds; 0. Slav., synu; Ger., sohn; AS,, 

sunu; Bng., son; 



ay/^o) for ayidim 



izcalia for izcalli 



is^yati for is^yati 



kalayati for kaldyati 



citlalin for citlallin 



tTTpayy-ds for wTpayy-os 



choqu-iztli for choc-iztli 




ir6, as ni, to lead, Jimjir6; 

5 insert 

(after duh-iXr): {duh-Hs) 

11 : 


duhr6 for duhre 



nians4 for va&t.s& 



ma; as mS-vant, like me. 




*ma, mine, ma, me 

146 insert (after redup.,): to make 
52 3 read: man, to think, manh, make great; Gr., 

ni-fx-ov-a, Lat., me-min-i, keep in mind; 
8 " tala-tala {tala-gla.6sa), 


Page 52, 

line 11 read: 

strength, spirit; for mind; 

12 insert 

(new line): matoca, touch with the hand; 

Lat., tango. 

13 read: 

grnftti for grn^ti 



marisy^ti, to die; mft4, dead; 



maurpr for maurpa 



mrtyu-bhaya for martyu-dhaya 



vivesti for viv6sti 




yS,cchati for y^chati 



mi (weak form of ma), measure; 



monath for monath 



sodh^ for sodhd 



m4t-sya for mad-sya 




mis^ti for misdti 



mih-hil; cf. Gr., fi£y-d-\r). 

17 insert 

; (before Lat.): me-ni, a missile; 

146-13 read: 

mr, to fade away; 0. Per., mar, to die; 

Avest., mahrka, death; 



ahdm, tv&m; ace, ma, tva; Gfr., fie, a-i; 
Lat., me, te; 



6-fiC)(-Xri for o-/itx-A.ij 



migan for migan 



d-/i6\-y-£iv; Lat., mulgere; AS., meolc; 




mollis; for mollis, 



fjuey-aXfj for /icy-oAa 



mihhil for mihil 




nogas for nugus 



nackend for nakend 



ga for ga 



; fca or 

156 read; 

: voice for speak 



vav-va for vav-v-q 



nepla for nepla Also net-us for net-us 



*srie-ne for *sne-ne 



nara (nala, reed), man, Also avfip for 




nai,j& for naya 



drtha for arthd 



neah, neahst for neah, naihst 


Page 58, line 1 read: ySpos; Lat., gyrus, 

2 " nag, be lost, +vi, away, -|-ra; or nek+ 

6 add: Cf. neneloa, "mix," and ezneloa, to 
make " bloody." 
v7;8-vs for vjj8-t)s 
ne or non; Gr., vrj 
kj- for gf 
ne for nae 

59 1 " lu-ni for lu-ni-s 
ga(s) for ga 
miitus for mutus 

Also Goth., 4ukan, "increase"; O. Ir., 
6g, "whole." 
tXXm for iXXm 

60 9 " ai/<£for(£va 
ochs for ochse 
68os for o8o; 

6sadhi for 6sadhi Add: Cf. aiksatS, 
sugar cane, 
vrsa- for vrshS,- 
quauhchimal for quaucM-malli 

61 2-3 " toj/a-vant, provided with water; 
sami-pa for sami-pa 
biig-an for bug-an 

62 1 " pacyotl for pasyotl 
fon, *f6h-an, fasten; 
*op-ped-um for op-ped-um 

18 insert (new line): pal-ani, rot; Lat., per-ire. 

63 12 " (after Skr.): pan, 
pac for pac+ka 
Tri-ira-fmi, have kept for Tre-Trd-fuu, kept 

64 15 " prAthate for prathdte 
p6-tus for po'-tus 
vT(t), *ur(t), to roll, 
sitd for syati 

65 6 " TKT-dwvfu, spread, open; ireT-ofuu, fly; 
7raT-ajiT(T(i), strike, 

16 add (after exceedingly;): *pr-ua 

16 ] 








126 add: 

1& read: 

























18 insert 



96 read: 








Page 65, 

line 96 read; 




















































16 i 


17 read 






















jadata for jadra 
prinati for prinilti 
brh^ti for brfthS,ti 
pinojotl for pinajotl 
pTpi-o for pipi-o 
pipll^ for pipila 
irtK-pos for irtK-pos 
bija for bija 
bljaka for bijaka 
<t>rj-/d for ^-q-iu 
pu-ti for pu-ti-s 
bhas for bhas 

red (garment) for red garment 
hrnTt6 for hrnit6 
Skr., grngin for Avestan, §rva 
hlinian for klinian 
cest for cest 
lu, lunati for lu, 16nati 
Eng., Fr., and Sp., gonfalon; 
kj-ndtti for kfnti 
sta-n for sta-n 
i-KvX for e-^e-' 
caesaries for cessaries 
ci-tra; OHG., hiu-Ux, O. Sax., ftiw-diga, 
insert (after door): qui+4va-afic, down (lid- 
anc, up); 

quiauatl for auatl 
aha for ahwa 
drbh for dhrb 

dhatr, the giver; Avest., da tar-, 
tasam for tasam 
tiksnd for iiksnd 
oX.oX.-oi, "howlers"; 
stig-o for stig-o 
tiksnaiigu for tiksnagu 
gagdda for gagddi 

-weorc for -weorc [See below, Editor's 
26 " c^yati for ciy6ti Also 3 tel- for telchiua 


tyman for tyman 

Si-Sw-iu for Si-8<a-fu Also -dha, or -dha 
for dha, or dha 
Sioi for 8ids 

divus,_ dius for divus, dius 
tapor for tapur 
styayate for styayeti 
dS,sa for dasA 
vit-ki for vit-ka 
f iimus for fumus 
di, didi for didi 
sanj for sanj 
dico for dico 
diksate for dikseti 
dffthati for df nhati 
Sios, *8t/:os; Lat., divus 
duhitf for duhitfir 
ga-tarh-jan for ga-tark-jan 
drdk for draka Also Si-Spa-a-Kio for Spd<o 
13b and 116 read: tra for tla 
86 read: *guda for guda [See below, Editor's 
lis, litis for lis, litis 

79 2 " vajiyati for vaj^yati 
vigeo for vegeo 
mdntra for mantr^ 
Lat., min-or; 
tala for talas 
anew for to renew Add: Lat., novu-s; 

80 1 '' oyKos for vyKos 
tra+bhraj, bhrajate; 
perendie for perendie 
stammering, or for or 
piAg^ti for ping^ti 

81 7 " tir^ti for tir^ti Omit: , flee 
dideti for dideti 

tvf for trs Also *torseo for *torset 
tla-uel-e for tla-uel-l 

82 12 " Xvy-p6%; Lat., lugeo. 

Page 74, line 

» 8 
















































12 insert 

























line 16 : 


Tfisin for ijms 


tla-MJ-zcalli for tla-ttfac-alli 


vf for vi, 


tra for tla 


vrlhi for vrhi 


idh for idh 



on; Ger., zielen, aim at, +il-t; 


epa-^e for Ipa^c 


teuhctli for teuctli 

13 add: 

0. Lat., tongere; *teng; ma-toca, touch. 

15 read: 

tok-ma for tok-man 



droivn, for drown; 



tadaka for tadka 



dhusara for dhiisvara 



tojati for tujati 



ToXas for ToXos Also pulan for tulan 




tur-yd for tur-yd 



TOjm for TOfja 



T«\os for TijAis 



thiima for thuma 



dun6ti for dun6ti 



tSos for iSos 




quiauitl for quauitl 



seg-ii for seg-ii 



drndti, to split; Goth., go-tafr-a; Lith., 




t/icts for i/ias 



svadti for svadils 



ijSus for rfiw 



aliia for aiita 



vyac for vyag 




Ti^X^s for irrixvi 



ru for ru 



ryn for rhyn 



vaiigS, for vaflgS, 




vrnTt6 for vrnit6 



*gii''el for*g^hel Also l-BiX-m for E-flc'X-w 



mr-t-yti for mj-t-ytl-s 



as-ber«-t- for as-ber^-t 


Page 88, 

line 166 read: 










































86 omit: 


7 read: 
















106 read: 

76 omit: 

66 read: 
















juh6ti for guh6ti 

geot-an for geot-an 

jaks for jask 

fu-ti-s for fu-ti-s 

; or for + 

eTos for £Tos 

oTkos for oiKOi 

vicTnus for vicinus 

AS., *wimpel for AS. wimpal 

i-s for (-s Also vi-s for vi-s 

&6eoi for odim 

dhik+kf for dhik-kr 

vig for vis 

horrere, for horrere 

vijdte for vij6ti 

dani for danl 

*gon-, beget, *g6n-o-, 

^-mark-s-am; Gr., ^-/^cp^-a; 

6-diks-i; Gr., l-Sei^-a; 

puthyati for pothy^ti 

to be 

grnati for girn^ti 

gis, gin^sti, gist^, 

*si for si 

viv-us for viv-us 

cwyc for cwucu 

k^rsati for kajsati 

s6-tas for se-tas 

skewjan; AS., sceotan; 

Qipi-vist4 for Cipi-vist4 


gipha for cipka 

siic-us, juice; OHG., siig-u; AS., suc-e, 

surf for suri 

sala-sa for sala-s 

ruga for ruga 

jfia, janati for janati 

ksSyati for ksayAti 

, hita for dhita 


Page 95, 

line 3 read: 

reg-is for reg-is 



mrdii for mrsna 



ni-a for mi-a Add: Skr., 




*ve-iJ.- for *ve-<riJL- Insert 
Avest., yao-s, leagued; 

(after battle): 

76 add: 

Lith., pal-va-s, tawny. 


4 : 


r&jas for rajAs 



own for self 



aA for act , 



aivs, time for aiw, ever 



vaurkjan; OHG., werch; 



wirk-u for wirk 



rnj, jnjdti for rnj, rflj^ti 



6piy<o; Lat., recte, right 
AS., rec-can; 

; OHG., reht; 



-esati for 6sta 



vrn6ti for vrn6ti 




e\vo> for eXvo) 



tamasa for tamas 



demar for demar Omit: 

Zend, voya; 




roubSn for rouban 

1 " a for d 

9 " 4nu for dna 

11 . " ava^aivto, avi^rp/ for avaPalvto, av«j8ijv 

2 " *uegh for *uegh 

5 " phanati for phafiati 

8 " g6cati for g6gati 

9 " gSyati for g^yati^ 

11 " gin^sti for gin^sti 

12 " styayate for styayeti 

14 " afiAut for aiiAia 

17 " t6kman for tokman 

106 " pag for pagy^ti 

76 " ustd for ustus 

66 " bijaforbIja(bij4?) 

56 " gv^siti for cv^siti 


Page 8, line 2b read: /lop-juvp-w for /jivp-fivp-ai 
bhasati for bhastoi 
dnihyati for druhyfiti 
nama grab for nama-grah 
grbhnati for grbhnSti Also krnS,tti for 

grathnati for grathn^ti 
luthati for luth4ti 
chin^tti for chinnati 

10 1 " *mal or mrdnati for mal or *mrdn4ti 
mad, mdndati for man, mamfitti 
tyman for tyman 
naiiksyati for nanksy^ti 
daftg for danc Also tahjan for taihjan 
ajndti for agnoti 
mi-nu-o for min-u-o 

v^h-ni, a beast of draught; y6-ni, lap; 
me-ni, a missile, 
kdsati for kdsati 

11 7 " gula for gula 
dadharti for dharti 
grnati for grndti 
glisyati for clisyati 
clino for clino 

12 4 " svadii; Gr., ,J8t5-s 
garanfi for garand 
sdhate for sS,hate 
a/xdu) for a/xato 

styayate for styAyeti ' 

13 2 " i'n6ti for fn6ti 
Z)p-TO for tap-Tio 

ay\l for ayii 
yjvi for ^vs 
*ma for ma 
primus for primus 
styayate for styayeti 

14 2 " gj-nati for cfnati 
gigati for gicati 

<f)MVO> for <f>divm 

i 2b read 









































17 . 
































Page 14, 

line 8 



























13 1 





3-4 1 










9-10 , 


15 : 




































pivan for pivan 
pu-ti for pu-tis 
lii-ni, a loosing; Goth., iQ-n-s, 
bhara-na for bhara-na-m 
gurii for garus 
mrn^ti for mrnati 
daks-iiia for daks-ina-s 
beechen (oaken); Lat., fag-inu-s 
da-dr5-6 for di-dhi-e 
didheti for dhayati 
*dh8; coua, to buy, kri. 
(jievym to flee, <l>c.vy-c-iTKOv 
bhara-td; Gr., ^ep-e-re; 
Cf. noun r-forms (Brug., Ill, § 224). 
Of. -s- or -dh- in extensions of the per- 
fect (Brug., IV, p. 391). 
-dhi-t4-s (hi-td-s); Gr., Oe-ro-i, 
do-ti for duti 
ciis-ka-s, dry; 4nu-ka-s, 
es-t, icr-rl for es, hfd 
to be 

rel. pro. for pro. 
*pa5 for p^gyati 

9 for o in *dhoi and in the footnote also. 
p6ti for pati 

TTtVOS for TTlVOi 

dd§a-mas-ya, lasting ten months; Gr., 


vak-ya,-m for vac-iya-m 

oivT], ace; Lat., unus. 

d-Kocri for ii-Kari, 

tre-s for tre-s 

pri-mus for pri-mus 

grbhnati for grbhndti 

</>7j-/xt for tftrj-iu 

6pi for api 
rdjas for rajAs 
phanati for phanati 
pal-va for pal-va 













56 add: 

3b read 








Page 25, line 46 rpad: bafih for bah 

Travis for ird^vi 

26 2 " bhramati for bhr^mati 
bhi for bhi 
*ghrod for *ghrod 
ghra, jfghrati for grha, jlgharti 
cdyati for c^yeti 

Cf. Brugmann's theory concerning Skr. 
h, etc. (op. cit., I, pp. 347, 408). 
rec-te for rec-te 
rdjas for rajds 
lumpdti for lumpati 

27 4-6 " mpo-s, year, season; <upo, season, hour; 
Goth., jer, year; Eng., year, yore; Gr., 
*aip€l, da; Lat., aevum; Eng., aye, ever; 
yea, yes; Gr., ^, surely; Goth., ja; 

10 " *xa<«> X''"''"" fo'^ X"" ^^^^ *iuun£o-s for 


14 " virg-ultum for virgu-lum 

16 " ivvK for 'ewts 

126 " *ghrod for *ghrod 

28 1 " *uan for *unn Also van6ti for vandti 
2 " hold dear for meekly 

5 " n- for -n- 

6 " d-, dv-; Skr., a-, an-; Lat., in-; Ger., un-; 

7 " *iuun-ko-s for *iuunko-s 
10 " Gr., vTj-; Lat., ne-, ne-, ne; 
16 " -nt- : Skr., -4nti, -^ti; Gr., -am, -vtoi; 

166-15 " Mex., cem-man-ca, eternal; ce-mana-uatl, 
the universe; se-mana-, it abides, is 
immanent, (?)+ 

136 " (TTpZ-fJUX for (TTplx>-)Xa 

116 insert (after corn-stalk): *aug; O. Jr., 6g, "un- 
injured"; Goth., dukan, "to increase"; 

96 add: ulva, "covered." Also, read: wool, for 

86 read: m^fis for m^ns 

76 " ixrjv for /x^v 


Page 29, li: 

ne 8& read: 

*d9 for *do 

5b " 

niti-jfi^ for niti-jna 

ib " 

agvamisti for agvamisti 

25 " 

tongere for tongere 


4 " 

astam-6ti for astam-eti 

10 " 

puthyati for pothy&ti 

17 " 

vid-man-e (dat. as inf.), 

18 add: 

Cf . Brug., Ill, p. 62. 

Mexican Aryan-Sibilants 


25 read 

: al-ac-tic, for al-ac-tic' 


7 " 

*suesr for *suesr 

Editob's Note. The above list is not exhaustive. It was com- 
piled' from the author's marginal notes with the addition of such 
corrections as could be readily made. A few cases of sh for j in 
Sanskrit have been passed over, as being sufficiently clear, and a few 
long vowels before -ns- etc., in Latin, have not been indicated. Three 
or four words either have not been found or have not been properly 
identified. Brugmann cites OHG., hadu-, but he does not seem to 
have Hadu-wich or kot-ora, (see Comp. Vocab., p. 73, 1. 126). Again 
(ibid., p. 78, 1. 8b), it is plain that guda has a wrong d; but no such 
form as guda, guda, or gudanta could be found in the Sanskrit 
lexicon (Bohtlingk). What he had in mind is not clear. Some errors 
may have been overlooked, especially in the unfamiliar Mexican ; 
for there was not time to verify all the forms. Mr. Denison could 
not do such work without severe physical pain, and he was therefore 
disposed to trust to his memory, though he seems to have been care ■ 
ful to have his Mexican words correctly spelled. In addition to 
this, his authorities differed in their systems of writing or of trans- 
literation, and in some cases consistency would have been well-nigh 
impossible even for an expert. Many corrections were made neces- 
sary by this last peculiarity, and it is hardly fair to judge Mr. Deni- 
son by technical standards in these matters. His Sanskrit studies 
were subject to a serious handicap, and the wonder is that he suc- 
ceeded as well as he did. Indices have not been revised.