Skip to main content

Full text of "A Latin grammar for schools and colleges"

See other formats







n. «i«»-.';9™®" University Library 
PA al087.H28 1892 

A '■^!|n,,9'!3'i?'nar or schools and colleges 

3 1924 021 613 058 

Cornell University 

The original of tliis bool< is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 









Copyright, 1864, 1874, 1881, 

Copyright, 1892, 

UOPRIGHT, 1909, 


W. f. 21 



The last quarter of a century has revealed many im- 
portant facts in the development of language. During 
this period philological research has thrown new light 
upon Latin forms and inflections, upon the laws of pho- 
netic change, upon the use of cases, moods, and tenses, 
and upon the origin and history of numerous construc- 
tions. The student of Latin gi'ammar is now entitled to 
the full benefit of the important practical results which 
these labors in the field of linguistic study have brought 
within the proper sphere of the school. In securing this 
advantage, however, care must be taken not to divert the 
attention of the learner from the one object before him 
— the attainment of a full and accurate knowledge of the 

The volume now offered to the public has been pre- 
pared in view of these facts. It is the result of a thor- 
ough and complete revision of the author's Latin Gram- 
mar published in 1864. To a large extent, indeed, it is 
a new and independent work ; yet the paradigms, rules 
of construction, and in general all parts intended for 
recitation, have been only slightly changed. The aim of 
the work in its present form is threefold. 

1. It is designed to present a clear, simple, and con- 
venient outline of Latin grammar for the beginner. It 



accordingly contains, in large type, a systematic arrange- 
ment of the leading facts and laws of tlie language, ex- 
hibiting not only grammatical forms and constructions, 
but also those vital principles which undei'lie, control, 
and explain them. The laws of construction are put in 
the form of definite rules, and illustrated by carefully 
selected examples. To secure convenience of reference, 
and to give completeness and vividness to the general 
outline, these rules, after having been separately dis- 
cussed, are collected in a body at the close of the Syntax. 
Topics which require the fuUest illustration are first pre- 
sented in their completeness in general outline, before 
the separate points are explained in detail. Thus a single 
page often foreshadows the leading features of an ex- 
tended discussion, imparting, it is believed, a completeness 
and vividness to the impression of the learner impossible 
under any other treatment. 

2. It is intended to be an adequate and trustworthy 
grammar for the advanced student. By brevity and con- 
ciseness of phraseology, and by compactness in the ar- 
rangement of forms and topics, an ample collection of 
the most important grammatical facts, intended for refer- 
ence, has been compressed within the limits of a con- 
venient manual. Care has been taken to explain and 
illustrate, with the requisite fullness, all difiicult and in- 
tricate subjects. The Subjunctive Mood and the Indirect 
Discourse have received special attention. 

3. In a series of foot-notes it aims to bring within the 
reach of the student some of the more important results 
of recent linguistic research. Brief explanations are 
given of the working of phonetic laws, of the nature of 
inflection, of the origin of special idioms, and of various 
facts in the growth of language. But the distinguishing 
feature of this part of the work consists in the abundant 


references which are made to some of the latest and best 
authorities upon the numerous linguistic questions natur- 
ally suggested by the study of Latin grammar.' 

An attempt has been made to indicate, as far as 
practicable, the natural quantity of vowels before two 
consonants or a double consonant.^ 

With this brief statement of its design and plan, this 
volume is now respectfully committed to the hands of 
classical teachers. 

In conclusion the author is happy to express his 
grateful acknowledgments to the numerous friends who 
have favored him with valuable suggestions. 

1 See page xv. It is hardly necessary to add that an acquaintance with the authori- 
ties here cited is by no means to be regarded as an Indispensable qualification for the 
work of classical instruction. The references are intended especially for those who 
adopt the historical method in the study of language. 

3 See page 4, foot-note 4 ; also page 9, note 8. 

Brown University, Providence, R. L, 
July, 1881. 




Alphabet 1 

Roman Method of Pronunciation 3 

English Method 5 

Continental Method 8 

Quantity 8 

Accentuation 9 

Phonetic Changes 10 

I. Changes in Vowels . 11 

II. Changes in Consonants 16 





Gender 21 

Person, Number, and Case . 22 

Declension 23 

First Declension 24 

Greek Nouns 26 

Second Declension 26 

Greek Nouns 29 

Third Declension .......... 30 

Class I. — Consonant-Stems 80 

Stems in a Labial 30 

Stems in a Dental ........ 31 

Stems in a Guttural 32 

Stems in a Liquid or a Nasal ...... 33 

Stems inS 34 

Class II.— LStems 36 

Special Paradigms 39 

Greek Nouns 40 

Synopsis of the Third Declension 41 

Gender 46 

Fourth Declension 48 




Fifth Declension 50 

General Table of Gender 61 

Declension of Compound Nouns . , 52 

Irregular Nouns 83 

I. Indeclinable < 53 

II. Defective 53 

III. Heteroclites 55 

IV. Heterogeneous . . . . . . . - .56 



First and Second Deciensions . 57 

Third Declension .......... 59 

Irregular Adjectiyes ... ... 62 

Comparison ,63 

I. Terminational Comparison 63 

II. Adverbial Comparison .65 

Numerals 66 



I. Personal Pronouns 70 

II. Possessive Pronouns 71 

III. Demonstrative Pronouns 72 

IV. Relative Pronouns . 74 

V. Interrogative Pronouns 75 

VI. Indefinite Pronouns . 76 

Table of Correlatives 77 



Voices, Moods 

Tenses .... 
Numbers, Persons 
Infinitive, Gerund, Supine 
Paradigms of Verbs 
Comparative View of Conjugations 
Verbs in i5 : Conjugation in. 
Verbal Inflections 
Synopsis of Conjugation 
Deponent Verbs 
Periphrastic Conjugation 
Peculiarities in Conjugation 
Analysis of Verbal Endings . 
I. Tense-signs 
II. Mood-signs 
III. Personal Endings 





















Formation of Stems „ . 119 

I. Present Stem 119 

II. Perfect Stems 121 

ni. Supine Stem 122 

Classification of Verbs 122 

First Conjugation 122 

Second Conjugation 124 

Third Conjugation 127 

Fourth Conjugation 134 

Irregular Verbs 136 

Defective 141 

Impersonal 143 



Adverbs 144 

Table of Correlatives 147 

Comparison 149 

Prepositions 149 

Conjunctions 160 

Interjections 162 



I. Boots, Stems, SufSxes 162 

Primary Suffixes 155 

II. Derivation of Words 168 

Derivative Nouns 168 

Derivative Adjectives 165 

Derivative Verbs 169 

in. Composition of Words 172 

Compound Nouns 173 

Compound Adjectives 174 

Compound Verbs 176 





I. Classification of Sentences 179 

n. Elements of Sentences 182 






Agreement of Nouns 
Predicate Nouns 
Appositives . 
General View of Cases 
Nominative, Vocative 
I. Nominative 
II. Vocative 



Direct Object 

Two Accusatives . 
Accusative in an Adverbial Sense 

Accusative of Specification 

Accusative of Time and Space 

Accusative of Limit 
Accusative in Exclamations . 

Dative with Verbs — Indirect Object 

Dative with Special Verbs 

Dative with Compounds 

Dative of Possessor . 

Dative of Apparent Agent . 

Ethical Dative 

Two Datives 
Dative with Adjectives 
Dative with Nouns and Adverbs 

VI. Genitive 

Genitive with Nouns 
Genitive with Adjectives . 
Predicate Genitive . 
Genitive with Special Verbs 
Accusative and Genitive 
VII. Ablative ..... 
I. Ablative Proper . 

Ablative of Place from which , 

Ablative of Separation, Source, Cause 

Ablative with Comparatives 
11. Instrumental Ablative . 

Ablative of Accompaniment 

Ablative of Means 

Ablative in Special Constructions 

Ablative of Price 

Ablative of Difference 

Ablative of Specification . 
III. Locative Ablative 

Ablative of Place 

Ablative of Time . 

Ablative Absolute 
VIII. Cases with Prepositions 





Agreement of Adjectives . . . • 239 

Use of Adjectives 241 



Agreement of Pronouns 244 

Use of Pronouns 246 

Personal, Possessive 246 

Reflexive 247 

Demonstrative 248 

Relative 251 

Interrogative 252 

Indefinite 252 





I. Agreement of Verbs — Use of Voices . 
II. Indicative and its Tenses ..... 

Tenses of Indicative 

Use of Indicative 

III. General View of the Subjunctive and its Tenses 

IV. Subjunctive in Principal Clauses 

Subjunctive of Desire 

Potential Subjunctive 

Imperative and its Tenses 

Moods in Subordinate Clauses .... 
I. Tenses of Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses 
II. Subjunctive in Clauses of Purpose . 

III. Subjunctive in of Result . 

IV. Moods in Conditional Sentences 
V. Moods in Concessive Clauses 

VI. Moods iu Causal Clauses .... 
VII. Moods in Temporal Claiises .... 
VIII. Indirect Discourse ..... 

Moods and Tenses in Indirect DLscourse . 
Persons and Pronouns in Indirect Discourse 
Conditional Sentences in Indirect Discourse 

Indirect Clauses 

VII. Infinitive — Substantive Clauses .... 

I. Infinitive 

Infinitive with Verbs .... 
Accusative and Infinitive with Verbs . 
Subject of Infinitive .... 

Tenses of Infinitive .... 
Infinitive in Special Constructions . 
II. Substantive Clauses .... 



VIII. Gerunds, Gerundives, Supines, and Participles . . 314 

I. Gerunds 314 

II. Gerundives 316 

III. Supines 317 

IV. Participles = . . 318 



Adverbs , 320 

Conjunctions 321 

Interjections 324 

Rules of Syntax 324 



Arrangement of Words 333 

Arrangement of Clauses 336 





I. General Kules of Quantity 338 

II. Quantity in Final Syllables 339 

III. Quantity in Increments ........ 342 

Increments of Declension 342 

Increments of Conjugation 344 

IV. Quantity of Derivative Endings 344 

V. Quantity of Stem-Syllables 346 



I. General View of the Subject 349 

^eet ■ . 350 

Verses .......... 35X 

Figures of Prosody 353 



II. Varieties of Verse .... 
I. Dactylic Hexameter . 
II. Other Dactylic Verses 

III. Trochaic Verse .... 

IV. Iambic Verse .... 
V. Ionic Verse 

VI. Logaoedic Verse 
III. Versification of the Principal Latin Poets 
Vergil, Juvenal, Ovid, Horace 

Lyric Metres of Horace . 

Index to Lyric Metres of Horace . 
Catullus, Martial, Seneca, Plautus Terence. 




I. Figures of Speech 370 

II. Latin Language and Literature 374 

III. Roman Calendar 376 

IV. Roman Money, "Weights, and Measures 378 

V. Roman Names 380 

Abbreviations 380 

VI. Vowels before Two Consonants or a Double Consonant . 381 

Index of Verbs 383 

General Index . . ,„..... 390 



Acta SoeietaMs PMlologae lApdends. Lipsiae, 18Y0-1888. 

AiLEH, F. D. BemnanU of Marly Latin. Boston, 1880. 

Bopp, F. Vergldehende Grammatih. Berlin, 3d ed., 18?0. 

BouTEEWBK, S., und Teqqb, Ahs. Die aUsprachUche Orthoepie wad dih 

JPraxit. Berlin, 18T8. 
Brambacr, W. fful/sbuehlHn fur latemieche SecAtsokreibunff. Leipzig, 3d 

ed., 1887. 
Bbambaoh, W. JHe ISeugestaUimg det lateinischen OrChographU. Leipzig, 

Beugmanh, K. Grundrias der va-gleichmden GraTnmatik. Strassburg, 1886. 
BOoHEi^EB, F- Grundriss der latmmchen Declination. Leipzig, 1866 ; Bonn, 

BftNGEE, C. Die laiemisohe Qaantitat in positiontlangen Silben. Strassburg, 

Cheist, W. Metrik der GHecken tmd Bomer. Leipzig, 1874. 
CoEssEN, W. Ausepraehe^ VoeaUamus, und JBetonmiff der lateiniaehen 

SpracJie. Leipzig, 2d ed., 1868. 
CoRasEN, W. Kritische Seitrdge. Leipzig, 1863. 

OuETius, G. Zur Ghronologie der indo-germaniscliea Spraehforachimg. Leip- 
zig, 2d ed., 1873. 
GuKTnjg, G. Dae Verbvm, d«r griecMseJien Sprache. Leipzig, 2d ed., 1880. 
DelbeCok, B. Ablativ, ZocaUs, Instrumentalie. Berlin, 1867. 
Oelbkuok, B. Der Gebrauch des Oonjunctivt und Optative i/m Sa/nahrU imd 

Griechieehen. Halle, 1871. 
DelbeiJok, B. Einleitung in das Sprachstudvum. Leipzig, 1880. 
Deaeqee, a. Etstorische Syntax da- lateinischen Sprache. Leipzig, 2d ed., 

Ellis, A. J. Quantitative Pronunciation of Latin. London, 1874. 
FoEESTEE, W. Sestirrmmng der lateinischen Quaniiiat aue dem Roman- 

ischen. Eheinisohes Museum, xxxiii., pp. 291-299. Frankfiirt am Main. 
Haetuitg, J. A. Die Casus, ihre MUmng %md Bedeutmig. Erlangen, 1831. 
9oFFMAini, E. Die Construction der lateiniechen Zeitpartiheln. Wien, 1873. 
HoLzwEissio, Fb. LocalistiscTie CaevMheorie. Leipzig, 1877. 
HSbschmabn, H. Zur Casuslehre. MUnohen, 1875. 

JoLLT, J. Geschichte des Injinitivs im Indo-germam.ischen. MunoHen, 1873. 
KuHii, A. ZeUiehriftfwr vergleicheinde Sprachforselmng. Berlin, i861-188& 


KtwsTEB, E. Aiufuhrlicha GrammaUh der laimmcKen Spracht. Eannoye^ 

LiteBEBT, E. Die Syntax von Qwrm. Breslau, 1870. 
Mabx, a. Die Amsprache der lateiniechen Vocale m posHiomlangen Silben 

Berlin, 1883. 
MsRauET, H. LateiniicTie Formenbildwng. Berlin, 1870. - 
Meteb, G. Grieelmche Graanmatik. Leipzig, 2d ed., 1886. 
MtLLEB, L. OHhographAae et Proeodiae Latmae Su/mmarvu/m. Lipsiae, 1878 
MClleb, L. Be Be Metrica Ibetarum LaMnorwm libri VII. Lipsiae, 1861. 
MOlleb, Max. The Science of Language. New York, 2d ed., 1868. 
MuNKO, H. A. J. The PronundiUion of Latin. Cambridge, 1874. 
KlaELSBAOH, C. F. Lateinieche Stilistih. Nilrnberg, 6tli ed., 1876. 
OsTHorF, H. Zur QescMohte dee Perfects im Indo-germanitchen. Strassburgp 

Papillow, T. L. a Marmal of Comparative Philology. Oxford, 8d ed., 1887. 
Peile, J, Greeh and Latin Etymology. London, 2d ed., 187-8. 
Pekza, K. Die Nommalflexion der Indo-germaimchen Sprachen. Wiea 

PEiaoLiNus, C. Inetitmtionwm Grammaticarum Ubri XVIII. Lipsiae, 1855. 
Eamsay, W. Latim, Prosody. London, 6tli ed., 1887. 
BiTsoHL, Pb. Unsere hevUge Avssprache des Latein. Kheinisches Museum, 

xxxi., pp. 481-492. 
BoBY, H. J. A. Grammar of the Latin Language. London, 2d ed., 1886. 
EtiMPEi, Th. Die Casuslehre. Halle, 4tli ed., 1876. 
ScHLEioHEE, AcG. Compendium der vergleichenden Ora/nvmaWk. Weimar, 

Schmidt, J. H. H, Ldtfaden in der Eh/yth/imh und Metrih der classischen 

Sprachen. Leipzig, 1869. A translatdou by Professor White. Boston, 

SoHMiTz, W. Deitrage sur lateinischen Sprachhwnde. Leipsig, 1877. 
SoHoLL, P. Vetervm Gram/matioorwm de Acoentu Linguae Latinae Testimo- 

nia. Acta Soeietatis Philologae Lipsiensis, vi., pp. 71-215. 
SEELMANif, E. Die Aussprache des Latein. Heilbronn, 1885. 
SiEVEBS, E. Gnmdeiige der Phonetik. Leipzig, 3d ed., 1885. 
Spenoel, a. Plautus, Eritik, R-osodie, Metrik. Gottingen, 1865. 
Stolz, p. Lateimache Gra/mmatih. Handbuoh der classisehen Altertums- 

wissensohaft von I. Miiller. Nordlingen, 1885. 
Transactions of the American Philological Association. Hartford, 1869-1888. 
Vaotoek, a. Mymologisehes Wortertuch der latmiischen Sprache. Leipzig, 

Vanioek, A. GriecMschr-lateimschesetym/>logischesWdrterbuch. Leipzig,! 877. 
Whitney, W. D. The Life and Ch-owth of Language. New York, 1875. 
WiQGEBT, J . Studien eur lateinischen Orthoepie. Stargard, 1880. 
WoBDSwoBiH, J. lYagments and Speoimms of Eartu Labm Oxford, 1874, 


I. Latin Grammar treats of the principles of the Latin 
iangnage. It comprises four parts : 

L Orthography, which treats of the letters and sounds 
of the language. 

II. Etymology, which treats of the classification, inflec- 
tion, and derivation of words. 

III. Syntax, which treats of the construction of sen- 

IV. Pbosody, which treats of quantity and yersification. 



2. The Latin alphabet is the same as the English with 
the omission of w.' 

' The Bomans derived their alphal>et Itom the Greek colony at Comae. In its origi- 
nal form it contained twenty-one letters : A, B, C, D, K F, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, 
Q, fi, 8, T, U, X, Z. C was a modification of the Greek gamma, and F of the digam- 
ma. Q was the Greek koppa, which early disappeared from the Greek alphabet. O had 
tb« flomid afterward denoted by ff ; Sy the sound afterward denoted by c. Z early dis- 
appeared from the Latin alphabet, but was subsequently restored, though only in foreign 
words. Throughout the classical period only capital letters were used. On the Alpluibet^ 
see Whitney, pp. 69-70; Fspillon, pp 28-48: Wordsworth, pp. 5-10; Eoby, I., pp. Sl-62; 
Sierera, pp. 24-lOS; Oorssen, L, pp. 1-846; Kiihner, I., pp. 86-49. 


\. Cia the fourth oentuty b. o. supplied the place both of C and of G. 
2.. (?, introduced in the third century b. o., was formed from O by simply 
changing the lower part of that letter. 

3. Even in the classical period the original form G was retained in ab- 
breviations of proper names beginning with 6r. Thus C. stands for Gains, 
Un. for Gnaeus, See 649. 

4. J, j, modifications of /, », introduced in the seventeenth century of our 
3ra to distinguish the consonant /, i from the vowel J, i. are rejected by many 
recent editors, but retained by others.' 

5. The letters u and v, originally designated by the character V,' are no^ 
used in the best editions, the former as a vowel, the latter as a consonant. 

6. In classical Latin, Ic is seldom used, and y and z occur only in foreign 
words, chiefly in those derived from the Greek. 

3. Letters are divided according to the position of the 
vocal organs at the time of utterance into two general 
classes, vowels and consonants,' and these classes are again 
divided into various subdivisions, as seen in the following 

Classification of Letters. 


1. Open vowel* ..... a 

2. Medial vowels e o 

3. Close vowels' - i y u 

1 Throughout the classical period, T^ used both as a vowel and as a conBonaut, sup- 
plied the place ot l^ i and J, j. As practical convenience has, however, already sanc- 
tioned the use of i, «, and v, characters unknown to the ancient Romans, may it not also 
justify the use of JJ j in educational works, especially as the Romans themselves at- 
tempted to find a suitable modification of I to designate this consonant? 

^ Originally V^ used both as a vowel and as a consonant, supplied the place of C, « 
and V, V, but it was subsequently modified to U. ^ 

3 If the vocal organs are sufliciently open to allow an uninterrupted flow of vocal 
sound, a vowel is produced, otherwise a consonant ; but the least open vowels are scarcely 
distinguishable from the most open consonants. Thus i, sounded fully according to the 
ancient pronunciation as ee, is a vowel ; but, combined with a vowel in the same syllable, 
it becomes a consonant with the sound of y . e'-l (a'-ee, vowel), e'-jus {d'~yu8, conso- 
nant, almost identical in sound with d'-ee-us). 

* In pronouncing the open vowel a as in father, the vocal organs are fully open. By 
gradually contracting them at one point and another we produce in succession the medial 
vowels, the close vowels, the semivowels, the nasals, the aspirate, the fricatives, and 
finally the mutss, in pronouncing which the closure of the vocal organs becomes complete 

^ JTiB amedial vowel between the open a and the close f, o a medial vowel between 
the open a and the close «; i is a palatal vowel, u a labial ; y was introduced from the 
Greek. The vowel scale, here presented in the form of a triangle, may be represented ae 
< line, with a in the middle, with i at the palatal extreme, and with u at the labial extreme ' 

i e a o a 




1. Semivowels, sonant . . .iorj = « v = ra 

2. Nasals, sonant .... n ' n m 

3. AspiBATB, surd .... h 

4. Fricatites, comprising 

1. Liquids, sonant ... 1 r 

2. Spirants, surd ... s f 
b. Mutes, comprising 

1. Sonant Mutes ... g d b 

2. 5«)-rf Mutes . . . . c, k, q t p 
Note 1.— Observe that the consonants are divided, 

I. Aeeordinff to the organs chiefly employed in their production, into 

1. Gutturals— ^Aroiri letters, also called Palatals ; 

2. Dentals — teeth letters, also'called Linguals ; 

3. Labials — lip letters. 

U. According to the mauneb in which they are uttered, into 

1. Sonants, or voiced letters ; 

2. Surds, or voiceless letters.^ 

Note 2.— Z= es,3 and z=.ds, are double consonants, formed by the union 
tia, mute with the spirant s. 

4. Diphthongs are formed by the union of two vowels 
in one syllable. 

Note. — The most common diphthongs are ae, oe, au, and eu. Ei, oi, 
and ui are rare.' 


5. Vowels. — The Towel sounds are the following : 

• With the sound of n in concord, linger. It occurs before gutturals : amgrissus, 

^ The distinction between a soTiant and a surd will be appreciated by observing the 
difference between the sonant b and its corresponding surd p in such words as bad, pad. 
B is vocalized, p is not. 

' X often represents the onion of g and s, but iu such cases g is probably first assimi- 
lated to c ; see 30, 33, 1. 

* Proper diphthongs were formed originally by the union of an open or medial vowel, 
a, e, or o, with a close vowel, { or u, as ai, ei. oi, au, eu, ou. An improper diphthong 
was also formed by the union of the two close vowels, as vi. For the weakening of these 
original diphthongs, see 23, note. 

*■ In this country three distinct methods are recognized in the pronunciation of Latin, 
They are generally known as the Roman, the BngHsh, and the Continental Methods. 
The researches of Gorssen and others have revealed laws of phonetic change of great 
value in tracing the history of Latin wwds. Accordingly, whatever method of pronun- 
ciation may be adopted for actual use in the class-room, the pupil should sooner or 
later be made fiimiliar with the leading features of the Boman Method, which is at least 
■n approximation to the ancient pronunciation of the language. 




& like a in father : 


a like a in Cuba 

» a'.<net. 

e « c " prey:« 


e " e " net: 


i " « " machine 

2 1'-rl. 

i " j " cigar: 


o " " old : 


o " " obey: 


u " M " rule :2 


u " u" full: 


1. A short vowel in a long syllable Is pronounced short : mtit,* « as in 
enm^ su'^mus. But see 16, note 2. 

2. Y, found only in Greek words, is in sound intermediate between th» 
Latin i and «, similar to the French « and tne German * : Ny'-sa. 

3. I preceded by an accented a, e, u, or y, and followed by another rowei, 
is a semivowel with the sound oi y m yet {II) : A-chd'-ia ^iL-ka'-ya). 

i. XT » in qv, and generally in gu and sm before a vowel, has the sound ol 
w : qm (kwe), Un'-gua (lin'-gwa), m&'-ait (swa'-sit). 

6. Diphthongs. — In diphthongs each vowel retains its 
own sound : 

ae (for ai) like the English ay (yes) : men'sae.' 
au like ow in hOTr : cau'-na. 

oe (for oi) like oi in coin: foe'-dv^. 

I. £i as in veil, en with the sounoc 0^0 and u combined, and iH'soa, 

occur in a few words : dein,^ neu -ter, prmn, 

7. Consonants. — Most of the consonants are pro- 
nounced nearly as in English, but the following require 
special notice : 

c like k in king : ci'-Us (kay-lace), c?'-iil (kS-w6). 
g " ^ " g6t: re'-gii/ni,re'-gis, ge'-nus. 

1 The Latin vowels marked with the sign ~ are long in quatiMty^ 1. e., In the dura- 
tion of the sound (16); those not marlsed are %1uyrt in quoMiiy ; see 16, note 8. 

2 Or e like a in made, % like e in me, and w like 00 in mo(7n. » 

* The short vowels can be only imperfectly represented by English equivalents. Is 
theory they have the same sounds as the corresponding long vowels, but occupy only 
half as much time in utterance. 

* Observe the difference between the length or quantity of the vowel and the length 
or quantity of the syllable. Here the vowel u is short, but the syllable sunt Is long; 
see 16, 1. In syllables long irrespective of the length of the vowels contained In them, it 
is often difficult and sometimes absolutely impossible to determine the natural quamMy 
of the vowels ; but it is thought advisable to treat vowels as short in all situations where 
♦here are not good reasons for believing them to be long. 

» This is sometimes called the parasitic w, as having been developed in many in. 
stances by the preceding consonant, and as being dependent upon It. See Paplllon, p 
50; Peile, p. 38»; Corssen, I., pp. 69, 70, and 85. 

8 Combining the sounds of a and i, 

' When pronounced as monosyllables in poetry (608,111.1; otherwise as dlss^lhiblM 
fe'-in. j)ro''in. 


j like y in yet : jn'stum (yoo-stum), ja'-eet. 

8 " i " son: sa -eer, so' -ror. A' si-a. 

t « < " time : U'-mor, ts'-tus, Oc'-ti-o. 

V " w " we: va'-dum, vi'-ci, vi'-ii-um.^ 

Vaim. — ^Before » and t, b bas the eonnd ot p: whs, giib'-ter, pronounced «rp», tup'' 
for.* Oh has the sound of i: ; cho'-rus (ko'-ms), 

8. Syllables. — ^In dividing words into syllables, 

1. Make as many syllables as there are vowels and diphthongs : mo'-re^ 
persuS'-dS, mStt'sae. 

2. Join to each vowel as many of the consonants which precede it- 
one or more — as can be conveniently pronounced at the beginning of a 
word or syllable : ' pa'4er, pa'Ures, ge -ne-r%, do' -mi-ims, no'scU, si'stis, 
clau'-^ra, mSn'-ta, beC him, tem! -plum, &mp'-tus. But — 

8. Compound woros must be separated into their component parts, if 
the first of these parts ends in a consonant : ab'-es, ob-l'-re, 


9. Vowels. — ^Vowels generally hare their long or short 
English sounds.' 

10. Long Sounds. — ^Vowels have their long English 
sounds — a as in fate, e in mete, i in pine, o in note, u in 
tuie, y in type — ^in the following situations : 

1. In final syllables ending in a vowel : 
Se, ti, ser'jui, ser'-vo, cor'^ii, mi' -ay. 

2. In all syllables, before a vowel or diphthong : 
Dff-us, de-o'-rum, de'-ae, di-e'-i, ni'-ki-tum.^ 

' There is some uncertainty in regard to the Bonnd of v. Corssen gives it at the 
beginning of a word the sound of the English v, in all other situations the sound of ui. 

' On Assimiiation in Sound in this and similar cases, see p. IT, foot-note 1. 

^ By some grammarians any combination of consonants which can begin either a 
Latin or a Greek word is always joined to the following vowel, as o'^mnis, i'-pee. Eoby. 
5n the contrary, thinks that the Romans pronounced with each vowel as many of the fol- 
lowing consonants as could be readily combined with it. 

* Scholars in dififerent countries generally pronounce Latin substantially as they pro- 
nounce their own languages. Accordingly in England and in this country the English 
Method has in general prevailed, though of late the Boman pronunciation has gained 
f^vor in many quarters. 

^ These sounds in l^tin, as in English, are somewhat modified by the consonants 
which accompany them. Thus, before r, when Jinal, or followed by another consonant, 
0, i, and w are scarcely distinguishable, while a and o are pronounced as in /ctr, for. 
Between y» and dr, mrt,a approaches the sound of o : quar'tus, as in quarter. 

' In these rules no account is taken of the aspirate h: hence the first i In nihUum is 
treated ai a vowel before another vowel; for the same reason, ch, ph. and th are treatail 
u tingle mutes; thus Oi, in Atlu>» and Oth/rya. 


3. In penultimate' syllables before a single consonant, 
or before a mute followed by a liquid : 

Pa'-ler, pa'-tres, ho-no'-ris, A'-tlws, O'-thrys. 

4. In unaccented syllables, not final, before a single con- 
sonant, or before a mute followed by a liquid : 

Do-lo'-rU, cor'-po-ri, con'su-lis, a-gric' -o-la. 

1) A imaccented, except before consonants in final syllables (11, 1), hai 
the sound of ajmcd in America: men'sa, a,^4us, a-ma! mus? 

2) I and y tmaeeented, in any syllable except the first and last, gener. 
ally have the short sound : nob'-i-lis (nob'-e-lis), Am'-y-cus (Am'-e-cus). 

3) I preceded by an accented a, e, u, or y, and followed by another' 
vowel, is a semivoweP with the sound of y in yet: A-cha' -ia {A.-\a! -ya.)," 
P(ym-pe'-ius (Pom-pe'-yus), La-to -ia (La-to'-ya), Har-py'-ia (Har-py'-ya). 

4) U has the short sound before bl, and the other vowels before gl 
and tl: Pub-lid -o-la, Ag-la' -o-plion. At' -las. 

5) U^ in qu, and generally in gu and su before a vowel, has the sound 
of w." qui (kwi), qua ; lin'-gua (lin'-gwa), Un'-guis ; sua'-de-o (swa'-de-o). 

6) Compound Wokds. — ^When the first part of a compound is entire 
and ends in a consonant, any vowel before such consonant has generally 
the short sound: a in aV-es, e in red' -it, i in in' -it, o in ob'-it, prod' -est. But 
those final syllables which, as exceptions, have the long sound before a 
consonant (II, 1), retain that sound in compounds: post'-guam, hos'-ee. 
E'-ii-am and qiio' ■mi-am are generally pronounced as simple words.' 

11. Short Sounds. — ^Vowels have their short English 
sounds — a as in fat, e in met, i in pin, o in not, u in tub, 
y in myth — ^in the following situations : 

1. In final syllables ending in a consonant : 

A'-mat, el -met, rex! -it, sol, con'-sul, Te'-thya ; except post, es final, and os 
final in plural cases: res, di'-es, hos, a'gros. 

2. In all syllables before x, or any two consonants except 
a mute followed by a liquid (10, 3 and 4) : 

Rex'-it, bel'-lvm, rex-e'-runt, bel-lo' -rum. 

1 Penultimate, the last syllable but one. 

' Some give the same sound to a >TCaMn monosyllables: da,gtta; while others ^t« 
It the long sound according to 10, 1. 

3 Sometimes written j. 

* This is sometimes called the parasitic u, as having been developed in many instances 
by the preceding consonant and as being dependent upon It. See Papillou, p, 50; Pellet 
P. 883; Corssen, I., pp. 69, 70, and 85. 

' Etdam is compounded of e^ and jam ; quoniam. of quom ■-- rruum. oum, hnd jam 


3. In all accented syllables, not penultimate, before one 
or more consonants : 

Dom'-i^tis, pat '-ri-hnis. But — 

1) A, e, or o before a single consonant (or a mute and a liquid), fol 
lowed by e, i, or y before another vowel, has the long sound: a'-ei-e.\ 
a'-cri-a, me'-re-o, do'-ce-o. 

2) U, in any syllable not final, before a single consonant or a mute and 
a liquid, except bl, has the long sound ; JPu'-ni-eus, sa-lu' -bri-tag. 

3) Compounds ; see 10, 6). 

12. Diphthongs. — Diphthongs are pronounced as fol- 
lows : 

Ae like e.' Cae'sar, Daed'-aJiis.^ I Au as in author: au'-rum. 
Oelikee; 0e'4a, Oed'-i-pus.^ \ Eu as in neuter: neu'-ter. 

1. Si and oi are seldom diphthongs, but when so used they are pro- 
nounced as in height, coin : hei, proin ; see Synaeresis, 608, III. 

2. Ui, as a diphthong with the long sound of «, occurs in cm, hm, hwic. 

13. Consonants. — The consonants are pronounced in 
general as in English. Thus — 

I. C and G are soft (like s and ,/) before e, i, y, ae, and oe, and Tuird in 
other situations : ce'-do (se'-do), tn'-vis, Oy'-rus, cae'-do, coe'-pi, a'-ge (a'-je), 
a'-gi; ca'-do (ka'-do), co'-go, cum, Oa'-des. But 

1. O has the sound of sh — 

1) Before i preceded by an accented syllable and followed by a vowel : 
eo'-ci-us (so'-she-us) ; 

2) Before eu and yo preceded by an accented syllable : ca-du'-ce-na (o»- 
du'-she-us), Sic'-y-on (Sish'-y-on). 

2. Ch is hard like k : cho'-rus (ko'-rus), Chi'-os (Ei'-os). 

3. G has the soft sound before g soft : ag'-ger. 

11. S, T, and X are generally pronounced as in the English words s(m^ 
time, expect: sa'-cer, ti'-mor, rex' 4 (rek'si). But — 

3. S, T, and J' are aspirated before i preceded by an accented syllable and 
followed by a vowel — « and t taking the sound of sh, and x that of ksh : Al'- 
n-um (Al'-she-um), ar'-ti^um (ar'-she-um), anx'-i'US (ank'-she-us). But 

1) T loses the aspirate — (1) after s, ^, or x : Os'-H-a, At'-M-^e, mix'-ii-o ; (2) in old 
laflDltives In ier: Jiee'-ti-er; (3) generally in proper names in iiim (tyon): PMrUef- 
M-oa, Am-pMe'-ty-on. 

* The diphthong has the long sound in Cae'-aar and Oe'-ta, according to 10, 3. but 
the %k(yrt sound in Daed'-a-lus (Ded'-a-lua) and Oed'-i-pua (Ed'-i-pus), according to 
11, 3, as fl would be thus pronounced in the same situations. 


t. <S is pronounced like e — 

1) At the end of a word, after «, ae, »», S, m, », r ; spm, praee. taui, «rJ«, M'-enu, 
mona^ pars ; 

2) In a few words after the analogy of the correBponding English words : Oat'-m» 
Caesar; eau'-aa, cause; m«'-«a,touse; mi'-ser, miser, miserable, etc. 

3. X at tlie beginning of a word has the sound of a / Xmi-tlms. 

14. Syllables. — In diyiding words into syllables — 

1. Make as many syllables as there are vowels and diphthongs : nui-rt, 
persua'-de^ menlsae. 

2. Distribute the consonants so as to give the proper sound to each 
vowel and diphthong, as determined by previous rules (10-18): pa'-ter, 
pa'4res, a-gro'-rum, au-di'-vi; gen'-e-ri, dom'-i-nus; bd'-lum, pat'-ri4nis; 
emp'-tus, tern' -plum ; rex'-i, anx'-i-us ; poa(-q>Mm, hos'-ce.^ 


15. For the Continental Method, as adopted in this 
country, take — 

1. The Roman pronunciation of the vowels and diphthongs ; see 5 and 6. 

2. The English pronunciation of the consonants;" see 13, 

3. The Roman division of words into syllables ; see 8. 


1 6. Syllables are in quantity or length either long, short, 
or common .* 

I. LoKG. — A syllable is long in quantity — 

1. If it contains a diphthong or a long vowel : Tiaec, res.* 

J Observe that compound words are separated into their component parts, if the first 
of these parts ends in a consonant (10, 4, 6), as poat'-quam ; that in other eases, after a 
vowel with a long sound, consonants are joined to the following syllable, as in the first 
four examples, pa'-ier^ etc., and that, after a vowel with a short sound, a single conso- 
nant is joined to such vowel, as in g&n'-e-ri and dom'A-nua; that two consonants are 
separated, as in bel'-kwi, etc. ; that of three or four consonants, the last, or, if a mate and 
a liquid, the last two, are joined to the following syllable, as in emp'-^tia, etc., but that 
the double consonant x is joined to the preceding vowel, as in, r«o'-i, anx'-i-ua. 

3 Strictly speaking, there is no Continental Method, as every nation on the Continent 
of Europe has its own method. \ 

^ Though the pronuhciatlon of the consonants varies somewhat in different Insti- 

* Common— i. e., sometimes long and sometimes short. For rules of quantity ae^ 
Prosody. Two or three leading facts are here given for the convenience of the learner. 

6 See note 8 below. 


2. If its vowel is followed by x or 2, or any two 
consonants, except a mute and a liquid:' dux, rex, 

II. Shokt. — A syllable is short, if its vowel is followed 
by another vowel, by a diphthong, or by the aspirate h : 
di'-es, vi'-ae, ni'-hil. 

III. CoMMOif. — A syllable is common, if its vowel, natu- 
rally short, is followed by a mute and a liquid : a'-grl. 

Note 1. — ^Vowels are also in quantity either long, Bhort, or common ; but 
the quantity of the vowel does not always coincide with the quantity of the 

Note 2. — ^Vowels are long before »«, nf, gn^ grn, and generally before j ; 
tOn'-tul, iTir-/e'-lix, reg'-nttm, teg-men'-tum, ha' -jus.* 

NoTB 8. — ^The signs ", " are used to mark the quantity of vowels, the first 
denoting that the vowel over which it is placed is long, the second that it is 
eo7miu>n,i. e., sometimes long and sometimes short: a-md'-b5. All vowels 
not marked are to be treated as short.' 

Nora 4. — Diphthongs are always long. 


17. Words of two syllables are always accented on the 
first : men'-sa. 

NoTB. — ^MonosyllableB are also accented. 

18. Words of more than two syllables are accented on 

* That Is, In the order here given, with the mute before the liquid; if the liquid pre- 
eedes, the syllable is long. 

' Observe that the vowel in Buoh syllables may be either long or short. Thns it is 
long in reas, but short in dita and »unt. 

> Thus In long syllables the vowels may be either long or short., as in rSx, dttas, sunt; 
see foot-note 4, p. 4. Bat in short syllables the vowels are altio short. 

* See Bchmitz, pp. 3-83, also p. 56; Ktihner, I., p. 13T; also H. A. J. Munro^s pam- 
phlet on the Pronunciation of Latin, pp. 24-26. 

s See p. 4, foot-note 4, In many works short vowels are marked with the sign ": 

* With the ancient Romans accent probably related not to/orce or stress of voice, as 
vi^n&,]>vXtam'Usical pitch. It was also distinguished as oct^^ or c«rcu7n;Z6tB. Thus 
all monosyllables and all words in which the vowel of the penult is long and the final 
syllable short were said to have the circumflex accent, while all other accented words 
were said to have the acute. The distinction is of no practical value in pronunciation. 
On the general subject of Accent, see Ellis, pp. 8-10 ; Boby, I., pp. 98-100 ; Euhner, I, 
p. 148 ; Oonien, II.. pp. 806-808. 


the Penult,^ if that is long in quantity,' otherwise on tli» 
Antepenult:^ ho-no'-ris, con'-su-lis. 

1. Certain words which have lost a syllable retain the accent of the 
full form. Thus — 

1) Genitives in I for il and vocatives in 5 for ie: in-ge'-nl iorin-ge'-ni-l, 
Mer-cu'-ri for Mer-cu'-ri-e. 

2) Certain words which have lost a final e : il-llc' for iUll'-cf, il-loc' fot 
il-la'-ce, is-ilc' for is-tl'-ce, etc. ; ho-ncin' for bo-na'-ne, iUlan' for il-ld'-)ie, 
tan-ton for tan-to'-ne, au-dln' for azt-dis'-ne, e-due' for i-dv!-ce? 

NOTB 1. — Prepositions standing before their cases are treated as Proclitics — i. e., are 
so closely united in pronunciation with the *bllowmg word as to have no accent of theii 
own: mbjij''-ge8. 

Note 2. — Penults common in quantity take the accent when used as long. 

2. Compounds are accented like simple words ; but — 

1) The enclitics, que, ve, ne, ce, met, etc., throw back their accents upon 
the last syllable of the word to which they are appended: ho'-mi-ne'-que,' 
mln-sa'-que,^ e-go'^met. 

2) Facw, compounded with other words than prepositions, retains its own 
accent: ca-'e-fa'-cU.* 

3. A secondary or subordinate accent is placed on the second or third 
syllable bsfore the primary accent — on the second, if that is the first syllable 
of the word, or Is long in quantity, otherwisS on the third : mo'-nvne'^mm,^ 
nw'-nu-e-ra'-Tnus,'^ in-stau' -7'd-ve'~runt, 

Note. — A few long words admit two secondary or subordinate accents : ho'~nd-rif' 


19. Latin words have undergone important changes in accord- 
ance with phonetic laws.' 

^ The penult is the last syllable but one ; the antepenult, the last but two. 

3 Thus the quantity of the iri/llable, not of the vowel, determines the place of the ac- 
cent : regen'-tis. accented on the penult, because that syllable is long, though its vowel 
is short; see 16, 1., 2. 

3 According to Priscian, certain contracted words, as ves-trds' for ves-trd^-Og, or with 
the circumflex accent, ves-trds for ves-trd-iis, Sam-nts for Sam-nl-Us, also retained the 
accent of the full form ; but it is not deemed adv^^able to multiply exceptions in a school 
grammar. See Priscian, IV., 22. 

4 By the English method, horn' ^i-ne' -que, cal'-e-fa'-cit. 

' A word accented upon the penult thus loses its own accent before an enclitic : 
men'-sa, men-sa'-que. 

8 By the EngUsh method, mon'-u-e'-runt, mon'-u-e-rd'~mus, hon'-o-rif'-i-cen-tit' 

' In the history of the ancient languages of the Indo-European family, to which the 
Latin, Greek, and English alike belong, the general direction of phonetic change has been 
from the extremes of the alphabetic scale — 1. «., from the open a at one extreme and 


I. Changes in Vowkls. 

20. Vowels are often lengthened : 

1. In compensation for the dropping of consoiiants: 

Servomsy^ servos, slaves ; rSgemSy rSgis, kings ; posnd, p&nSj I place ; pagla^ 
pdla, & spade. 

2. In the inflection of verbs : 

Legdy leg%^ I read, I have read ; ed^^ ?d*, I eat, I have eaten ; fugi^^ f^% 
I. flee, I have fled. 

Note 1. — Sometimes vowels are changed, as well as lengthened : agb^ Sgiy I drive, 
I have driven ; /oo^, ^(CS, I make, I have made; see 355, II. 

Note 2. — Different forms &om the same stem or root sometimes show a variable 
vowel : dudSy ditcis, of a leader, you lead ; regis^ regis, you rule, of a king ; tegd, toga^ 
I Bover^ a covering, the toga.^ See also 1iZ\ 1. 

21. Vowels are often shortened:* 

1, Regularly in final syllables before m and t; 

Erwm^ eraw,^ I was ; monedm^ moneam, let me advise ; cmdidm^ auddam, 
let me hear; erat^ erat, he was; amdt, amat, he loves; monM, monety ho 
advises; sit, sU^ may he be ; audU, audit, he hears. 

2. Often in other final syllables. Thus — 

1) Final a^ is shortened (1) in the Plural of Neuter nouns and adjec- 
tives,* and (2) in the Nominative and Vocative Singular of Feminine"^ 
nouns and adjectives of the first declension : 

from the close mutes at the other— toward the middle of the scale, where the vowels and 
consonants meet; see 3. Accordingly, in Latin words we sliall not tinfrequently find e 
or o, or even i or w, occupying the place of a primitive a ; and we shall sometimes find a 
Uguid or a fricative occupying the place of a primitive mute. See Whitney, p. €8: 
Papillon, p 49; Peil^, pp. 199 and 312. 

1 short in 8ef*voms is lengthened in servos to compensate for the loss of m, and 
a short in pagla is lengthened in pdla to compensate for the loss of g. 

a The short vowel of the present tense is here lengthened in the perfect; see 355, II 

' In 5'Moe«, tf-MOM, and in regis^ regis, the variation is simply in the quantity of thf 

vowel, but in tego^ toga, it affects the vowel Itselt; appearing as e in tego and o in toga. 

Sometimes a single vowel appears in one form while a diphthong appears in another : 

fides^ faith, foedus, treaty. 

* See Corssen, II., p. 436 seq. 

* In all these examples, the form with the long vowel in the final syllable is the earlier 
fomif and, in general, is found only in inscriptions and in the early poets, as Plautus, 
Ennlus, etc.; while the form with the short vowel belongs to the classical period. 

* Corasen regards numerals in -gintd^ as trl-gintd, guadrd-gintd, etc., as Plural 
N'euters, and d as the original ending. He recognizes also the Neuter Plural of the pro- 
noon with d in arU-ed, post-ed, inter-ed, praeter-ed, ante-hd-c, praeter-7id-o^ See 
Corssen, II., p. 465. For a different explanation, see 304, IV., N. 2. 

' In masculine nouns of the first declension a final was short In the Nominative even 
In early Latin : scriba, a scribe. But most stems in a weakened a to o, and thus passed 
takto the second declension. 


Templd, templa, temples ; genera, genera, kinds ; gravid, gravia, heavy 
maiaa, musa, muse ; bona, bona, good. 

2) In ar, or, and al final, a and o are regularly shortened : 

Begdr, regar, let me be ruled; audidr, audiar, let me be heard; atididr, 
awdior, I am heard; honor', honor, honor; orator, orator, orator; monedr, 
moneor, I am advised; am/male, animal (87), animal, an animal. 

3) Final e, i, and o are sometimes shortened : 

£en£, bene, well ; ««i8, nUbe, with a cloud ; nisi, nisi, unless ; ibi, iU, 
there ; led, led, a lion ; ego, ego, I. - 

22. Vowels are often weakened, i. e., are often changed to 
weaker vowels. ' 

The order of the vowels, from the strongest to the weakest, is as follows : 
a, o, u, e, i« 

Thus a is changed to o . . . u . . . e . . . i 

o to u . . . e . . . L 

u to e . . . i 

e to 1. 

Note. — The change from a through o to w is usually arrested at u, while a 
is often changed directly through etoi without passing through o or «.» 

1. Vowels are often weakened in consequence of the lengthening of 
words by inflection, composition, etc. : 

Carmen,* carmenis, carminis, a, song, of a song ; fructus, fruetiubus, friic- 
tibns, fruit, with fruits; /acid, con-faciS, em-ficii, I make, I accomplish; 
/actus, in-/aclus, ln-/ectus, made, not made ; dawMO, con-damnO, condemn 
no, I doom, I condemn ; teneO, con-teneO, con-tine6, I hold, I contain ; cadS, 
ea^cad-i, ce-cid-i, I fall, I have fallen ; tiiba, tuba-cen, tubi^cen, a flute, a flute- 

1 See Corssen, II., pp. 1^36. The process by which vowels are ehortened (81), weal^ 
ened, or dropped (37), and by which diphthongs are weakened to single vowels, and con- 
sonants assimilated, or otherwise chanpred, is generally known as Phonetic Decay. It 
may resnlt from indistinct articulation, or from an elfort to secure ease of utterance. For 
a difficult sound, or combination of sounds, it substitutes one which requires less physlca? 

2 But «, 6, and i differ so slightly in strength that tHey appear at times to be simply 

8 That is, the open a is changed either to the close u through the medial o, as seen 
on the right side of the following vowel-triangle, or to the close i through the medial e, 
AS seen on the loft side : 

Open vowel a 

Medial vowels e o 

Close vowels i u 

• The syllable men ■«r&t originally man. The original a has been weakened to < li 
tarmen and to i in carmin-iSr 


3. Vowels are often weakened without any such special cause : • 
Puerom, puervmi, a boy ; filios, films, son ; sont, sunt, they are ; regomt, 

fegunt, they rulei deaumus, decimus, tenth; mdxumwe, mdximus, greatest; 

llgiimims, Ugitimvs, lawful ; aeslumo, aestimi, I estimate. 

23. Two successive vowels are sometimes contracted: 

1. Into a DIPHTHONG : mensd-i, nwnsai, mensae, tables ; see 1. 

2. More frequently into a long towel. In this case the second vowel 
generally disappears. Thus e and i often disappear after a, e, and o .- 

Amdverat, amaerat, amarat, he had loved ; amdvisse, amaisse, amdsae, to 
have loved ; flieirunt, fleerunt, jterumt, they have wept ; immee, noisse, nSssi, 
to know ; senoi, servo, for the slave. 

Note. — I he proper diphthongs of early Latin were changed or weak- 
■wed as follows : 

ai ' generally into ae ; sometimes into e or i, 

oi generally into oe ; sometimes into u or I. 

ei generally into i ; sometimes unchanged. 

au sometimes into 5 or u ; generally unchanged. 

eu generally into u ; rarely unchanged. 

ou regularly into v.. 
AicUUs, aedilis, an aedile ; Bomai, Jtomae, at Rome ; amaimvs, am^mvu*^ 
let us love; in-caedit, in-cidit, he cuts into; inensais, minsls, with tables; 
foidut, foedus, treaty ; coira, coera, cura, care ; loidos, loedus, ludus,' play ; 
prierois, p-ueris, for the boys ; cmtis, dvis, citizen ; lautiis, lotus,* elegant ■, 
ex-daud^, ex-cludi, I shut out ; doueit, ducit, he leads ; jo-us, jus,^ right, 

24. Vowels are sometimes changed through the influence of the 
consonants which follow them. Thus — 

1 That is, by the ordioary process of phonetic decay, a process'which in many words 
has changed an original a of the parent language to 6 or o in Latin, and in some words 
toi or u. Gorssen cites upward of four hundred Latin words in which he supposes a 
primitive a to have t)een weakened to o, e, or i. Even the long vowels are sometimes 
weakened. Compare the following forms, in which the Sanskrit retains the vowel of the 
parent language. 






























t^ a voice. 







^ The forms ai, oi, el, au, eu^ and ou are all found in early Latin, as in inscription!; 
bat in the classical period oi had been already changed to ae, oi to oe^ and ou to iZ. 

^ Loidos, the earliest form, became loedtis by weakening oi to Od, and o to u (S/S, 2); 
then loedu8 became IGdua by weal£.ening oe to U. 

* Lauius^ the earlier, is also the more approved form. 

* As «u and ou were both weakened to ^, it is not easy to give tmstworthy exampLn 
of the weakening of fu to U 


1. E is the favorite vowel before r, z, or two or more consonants ; 

Omim, cinens ■ ( 3 1), of ashes ; judix, judex, judge ; miUtis, miltts, miles j 
of a soldier, a soldier. 

Note. — E final jp also a favorite vowel: servo, serve, slave; motOris, 
morari, monire,' you' are advised ; mari, mare, sea. 

2. I is the favorite vowel before n, s, and t : 

Homonis, hominis, of a man ; pulver or pulvis,* dust ; salutes, salahs, ol 
safety ; verotas, Veritas, truth ; yenetor, genitor, father. 

3. U is the favorite vowel before I and m, especially when followed by 
another consonant : 

Epistola, epistula, letter; volt, vult, he -wishea \ facilitds, faciltds (87), 
faeultds, faculty ; monementum, momimentum, monument ; colomna, eolnm- 
na, column. 

25. Assimilation. — A vowel is often assimilated by a follow- 
ing vowel. Thus — 

1. A vowel before another vowel is often partially " assimilated. / is thus 
changed to e before a, o, or u ; ia, ea, this ; id, eO, I go ; iunt, eunt", they go ; 
iadem, eadem, same; dflvus, dins (36, 4), deus, god. 

Note. — When the first vowel is thus adapted to the second, the assimilation is said to 
be regressive^ but sometimes the second vowel is adapted to the first, and then the as- 
similation is progressive. Thus the ending id (21, 2), instead of becoming ea as above, 
may become iS: Ivaywrid (perhaps for luxurids), luxu/ries, luxury; materia, mdteries,^ 

2. A vowel may be completely assimilated by the vowel of the following 
dyllable from which it is separated by a consonant. Thus — 

1) E ia as'similated to i ; mehi, miM, for me ; tebi, tihi, for you; sebi, sibi, 
for himself; nehil, nihil, nothing. 

2) U is assimilated to i : cdnsulimn, cdnsiUwn, counsel ; exsuUum, «a>- 
siHmn, exile. 

3) Other vowels are sometimes assimilated ; o to e: bone, berie, bene (SI, 2), 
well ; c to « .' tegurium, tugurium, hut ; « to o .' secors, socors, stupid. 

26. Dissimilation. — A vowel is often changed by dissimilation, 

* Oimdeis, from cinds, becomes dneris by changing s to r between two vowels, mak 
tog dndris (31, 1), and by then changing i to e before r. 

2 Observe that the vowel which appears as * in mlHtis before t, takes the form of fl 
D mVets before is, as also in miles for mVets. 

2 Moniris becomes monire by dropping s (36, 5), and charging final » to e. 

' Observe that the form in r has c, while that in « has i. 

» That is, it is made like it. adapted to it, but does not become identical with It 
Thus i before a may be changed to e. but not to a. 

' Thus from nouns in iH of tbi first declension were developed nearly all nouns In iit 
of the fifth. 


t e., by being made unlike the following vowel : in, ^, these ; ws, 
ew, for these.' 

Note, — The combination ii is sometimeB avoided by tlie use of e in place of the sec- 
ond i : pietda instead oipiitds^ piety ; societde^ society ; ■sarietd&, variety. 

27. Vowels are often dropped in the middle 'or at the end of 
words, sometimes even at the beginning : 

Jimpi«Z«OT,<empZ«m, temple; vincuhim,^vinclum,'hs,ni\ benigenus, berng- 
aus,^ benignant ; amaS, ami, I love ; remploa, templa, temples ; animdU, ani- 
mal,^ an animal ; «-»e, sin, if not ; dice, die, say ; esum, sum, I am ; esumiis, 
sumus, we are. 

Note. — After a word ending in a vowel or in m, est, he is, often drops the initial e, 
and becomes attached to the preceding word : res optuma est, res optumaat, the thing 
is best ; optumum eat, optumvmst, it is best ; doml est, domist, he is at home. In the 
same way es, thou art, is sometimes attached to the preceding word, when that word 
ends in a vowel : Jiomo es, homds, you are a man. for the loss of a final s from the pre- 
ceding word, see 36, 5^ 1), note. 

n. Interchange op Vowels aito Consonants. 

28. The vowel i and the consonant i — also written j — are some- 
times interchanged : 

AlUor,* higher; mSaar or major, greater; ipsiiu, of himself ; Uus or ^va, 
of him. 

29. The vowel u and' the consonant v, — ^generally written b — are 
often interchanged : 

CoUuif I have cultivated ; voca-m,^ I have called ; nSvita, navta, nauta, 
sailor ; voletvs, voliiius, rolled ; lavUts, Iwutus or lotus,' washed ; movtus, 
numtus, motus,' meved. 

Note. — The Liquids and Nasals are sometimes so ftilly vocalized as to develop vowels 

1 The combination v/u was also avoided in early Latin either by retaining the second 
vowel in the form of o, instead of weakening it to a, or by changing qu to e: eguos, 
afterward equus, a horse; quom, or cum, afterward, though not properly in classical 
times, quum, when. Observe that when o becomes «, a preceding qu become! e ; guom, 
ium ; loquot&s, locutus, having spoken. See Brambach, p. 5. 

See 16, note 2. 

' Observe that after e is dropped, a is shortened in the final syllable : animdl, oiw- 
tnal ; see 21, 2. 

« In the comparative ending ior, as seen in altior, » is a vowel, but in the same end- 
ing, as seen in mJior, major, it is a consonant, and in tUs grammar is generally written^ 
/ thus becomes j between two vowels; see 2, 4, foot-note. So in the genitive ending 
ius, i is sometimes a vowel and sometimes a consonant. 

* The ending which appears as ui in col-vi becomes vz in vocd-vt. U becomes u 
between two vowels. 

* If a vowel precedes the v thus changed to u, a contraction takes place — o-w becom- 
ing au, rarely b, o-u becoming b, and «-« becoming a : lavtus, lautua, lotus, waihedt 
Burvitu, numtus, nwtus, moved ; jmtus, jv/atne, jtUnu, assisted. 


before them. ' Thus agr <for agrm) becomes ager,^ field ; Oaf (for aorU\ dctr* I 
regm, regem, king ; sm (for earn), mm, I am; «i« (for emt), sunt, they lot. 

III. Ohanqbs in Oonsonantb. 

so. A Guttural— o, g,' q (qu), or h*— before s generally unites 
with it and forms x : 

Ihies, dux, leader; pacs, pdx, peace; rSffs, rice,' rix, king; is?*, lies, feu, 
law ; cojwsi, com,' com., I have cooked ; traJm, tracei, t/rastA, I have drawn. 

Note 1.— F for gti in «5»a, I live, is treated as a guttural : vimn, eiosJ, «4<i«, I have 

Nom 2.— For the Droppmg of the Ovitwral before «, see 36, & 

31. S is often changed to r : 

1. Generally so when it stands between two vowels : • Jl6sSe,Jl/>rls, flowen; 
/S»a, jura, rights ; memaeum, mensarum, of tables ; agroswm, agrdrum, of 
fields; esam, eram, I was; esamus, erdmus, we y!eie;/vesunt,/'uenint, they 
have been ; fuesit, faerit, he will have been ; amdset, amaret, he would love ; 
regMs, regeris,'' you are ruled. 

Note This phonetic law, in fiiU force during the formative period of the language, 

subsequently became inoperative. 

2. Sometimes before m, «, or » .- ccmnen, carmen, song; vetmme, vetermis, 
old ; hodiesnue, Twdiemus, of this day ; Mineeva,' Mmema, the goddess Minerva. 

33, D is sometimes changed to 1 : 

Dacrima, lacrima, tear ; dingua, lingua, language ; od^e, oUre, to emit an 

NoTB l.—D final sometimes stands in the place of an original t: id,' this; Mud, 
that; illud, that; quod, quid, what, which? 

NoTB 2.— 2>B at the beginning of a word (1) sometimes becomes b ; dveltmn, beUnm, 
war; dMa, Ma, twice; (2) sometimes drops d; dvigvnM, mgiitti, twenty ; and (8) some- 
times drops «) ; dvis, die, inseparable particle (308), in two, asunder. 

33. PAETIA.L Assimilation. — A consonant is often partially" 
assimilated by a following consonant. Thus — 

1 This occnrs between consonants and at the end of words after consonants. 

' The ending its or is is dropped (36, 6, 2), note), and r final vocalized to er; f» 
becomes em in regem, and um in ewm ; n becomes vn in »wnt. 

^ Sometimes gu: exsUnguai, exsUncsl, eaaHTMl, I have extinguished. 

* For an original g7b. 

' The process seems to be that the guttural before 8 first becomes c, and thtn nalttt 
with 8 and forms » : thus in coqusl, qu becomes c. 

e Heace, in many Latin words, r between two vowels represents an original A 

' Observe that i before s becomes e before r; see 34. 

8 For Men-es-va, men weakened to m*?i, see 858, 1 . 

> For it, iatut, etc. D stands for t also In the old Ablative In d : praeddd for prai^ 
ddt, afterward praedd, with booty; magUtrdtud for magistrdtut, ■magintrdtH, from 
(he magistracy. 

*■ Tlutt ti, U U adapted or accommodated to It, bat does not become the same lettw 


1. Before the surd s or t, a sonant b or g is generally changed to Its 
sorresponding surd, p ' or o : 

Scribsi, toHpsi, I have written ; scriitus, scnptma, written ; regsi, recti, rex* 
(30), I have ruled ; regtus, rictus, ruled. See also 35, 3, note. 

Note.— C«, A for gh, and v for gv are also changed to c before s and * ; coquait.' 
eocsit, coxit, he has cooked ; coguius, cootus, cooked ; traJiait,^ iracsit^^ traxit^ he has 
drawn; fy'ofitus, tracius, drawn; vlvsit,* vlcsit, mxit, he has lived; vlvturus, vlcPQrue^ 
about to lire. 

2. Before a sonant 1, m, n, or r, a surd o, p, or t is generally changed 
to its corresponding sonant, g, b, or d : 

Seclego, neglegi, I neglect ; sec-mentum, tegmentum, a cutting ; pop-uUcus,' 
p&plicus, pubUeus,' public ; quatra,'' quadra, a square ; quairaginta, quadra- 
ginid, forty. 

3. Before a Labial p or b, n is generally changed to m : " 

Inpert, imperi, I command; inperdtor, imperator, commander; mbellis, 
vmhelUs, unwarlike. 

KoTE. — ^Before n, a Labial p or & is changed to m in a few words : sopnus, somnus. 
Bleep ; Salmiwn, Samniwn, the country of the Saionites. 

i. M is changed to u — 

1) Regularly before a Dental Mute: 

Eumdem, eundem, the same ; eorumdem, e&rundem, of the same ; qiiemdam, 
quendam, a certain one; tamtus, tantas, so great; quamlus, quanima, how 
great, as great. 

2) Often before a Guttural Mwte : 

Hum-ce, i/unc, this ; num-ce, nuncf now ; prvm-eeps, princeps, first , nim- 
quam or nunquam,' never ; quamquam or quanquam, although. 

* But h is generally retained (1) before « in nonns in 6« .• urJ>n, not wrpK, city, and in 
trfia, from ; and (2) before « and t in ob, on account of, and mtft, under, in compounds and 
leriratives : o&-Mrp.7ns, observant; ob-tusus^ obtuse; snbscribd^ I subscribe; sub-t^r^ 
under. In these cases, however, b takes the sound of p, so that assimilation t&kes pince 
m ])ronunciafio7i, though not in icriiing. It is probable also that in some other corso- 
oants asBimllation was observed even when omitted in writing: twprlmi* and i ■- 
prvmw, both pronounced imprimis. See Eoby, I., p. Ivii. ; Munro, p. 10. 

^ ^w, also written q% is not a syllable ; nor is w or « in this combination either a 
rowel or a consonant, but simply a parasitic sound developed by ?, which is never found 
ndthout It. 

' For traghsit; h is dropped, and g assimilated to c. 

* For gvlgvsit; the first g and the second v are dropped: vlgHt, TAestt, vlatt. 

* From popvlniSy the people. 

* P is changed to h, and o is weakened to u ; see 32. 
' From guattuor, four. 

* That is, the dental n becomes the labial m. 

* "Or" placed between two forms denotes that both are in good use: ntimqMama 
m^nguam. In other cases the last is the only approved form : mine, prlncevt. 




Note 1.— Before the ending -que, m is generaUy retained: > guioumjite, wh08T«f 
piemque, every one; namque, for indeed. 

NoTB 2.—Qiiom-iam or quom-jam becomes quoniam, since. 

34. A consonant is often completely assimilated by a following 
consonant. Thus — 

1. T or d is often assimilated before n or s : 

Petna, penna, feather; mercednarius, mercmndrius, mercenary; eonoutsU. 
eoncumit, he has shaken. 

Note.— J/ before s is sometimes assimilated, and sometimes develops p : 
premait, pressit, he has pressed ; ssmsit, sumpdt, he has taken. 

2. D, n, or r is often assimilated before 1 : 

Sedula, sedla (87), sella, seat; unuhis, wnlus (87), alius, any; puentla, 
puerla, puella, girl. 

3. B, g, or n is often assimilated before m ; 

Sub-movS or sum-move5, I remove; tupmus, summus, highest; flagma, 
flmmna, flame ; inmoius or immOtus, unmoved. 

Note.— For Assimilation in Pr^ositiona in ComposiHon, see 344, 6. 

35. Dissimilation. — The meeting of consonants too closely re- 
lated and the recurrence of the same consonant in successive syllables 
are sometimes avoided by changing one of the consonants. Thus— 

1. Caehdeus becomes caerulem, azure ; medl-dies, merldiSs, midday. 

2. Certain suffixes of derivation have two forms, one with r to be used 
after I, and one with I to be used after r:' Oris, alis; burum, brum,^ bu- 
him ; ' curam^ crum, culum : 

PopuUHs,* popular; regalis^ kingly; dilnbrum, shrme ; ti-ibuhim, thresh- 
ing-sledge ; tqiulerwm, sepulchre ; periculum, peril. 

8. A Dental Mute — d or t — ^may unite with a following t in two ways; 

1) Dt or tt before r may become st : 

Bodtrum, rostrum, a beak ; equettria, eqiiestris, equestrian. 

2) Dt or tt before a vowel may become sa or s : ' 

FodMs, fosms, dug; vidtus, mma, seen ; plaudtus, plaumt, praised; met- 
tus, meeeus, reaped ; vertttta, verew, turned. 

• But probably with the sovnd otn; see p. IT, foot-note 1. 

a Xbi5 distinction is, however, not always observed. The form with I, probably 
weakened from that with r, became the favorite form, nnd was generally used if 2 did 

• fVom bvrwm are Ibrmed (1) brtmi by dropping «, and (2) bulum by weakening i" 
taito L In tb* eame way erum and cuhim are formed from ewrwm. 

• hipopaldrU^ S/ris is used because I precedes; but in regdUa, alia Is used because 
r preoedeb. When neither I nor r precedes, the weakened form uHs is used. 

• In regard to the exact process by which dt or tt becomes ss or «, there Is a dlveraltj 
of opinion among philologians. See FapiUon, p. 76 ; Baby, p. 62: CorBsen, L, p. 201 
bUM, p. 188, IB-r; 0«*tiafl; p. S50. 


Note.— Zff« may become l»;i rgt, ra; • lit, lt;i and rrt, rs.-» mulgiua, mmltm, 
milked; tpargtm, aparma, santteTei; fallim, /alaita, false; verrt-ua, veraua, swept. 

36. Omission. — Consonants are sometimes dropped. Thus 

1. Some words which originally began with two consonants have dropped 
the first : 

Cldmentum,' lameiitum, lamentation; gnatits, ndtus, bom; gnStas,* nOtm, 
known; dmginti, viginti, twenty; s/alUt,/allit, he deceives. 

2. A Dental Mute — d or t — before s is generally dropped : ' 

Zapida, lapis, stone ; aetata, aetas, age ; milets, miles, soldier; clavdal, 
clatisi, I have closed. 

MoTK.— iJ is occasionally dropped before other consonants: hod-oe, /ad, lido, thil; 
yiiod-cired, ^udeired,' for which reason ; ad-gnosco, dgnased, 1 recognize. 

3. A Guttural Mute — c, g, or q (qu) — is generally dropped-— 

1) Between a laquid and s : 

Maladl, mulait, he has ecppeased; fulgsit,f!tlait, it has lightenetl 

2) Between a liquid and t : 

Fnlctus, fultus, propped ; sarctut, tortus, repaiied. 

3) Between a laguid and m : 

PiUgm«n,fulmen, lightning; torqmneiitttm, tormentum, engine for hurling 


NoTB 1.— A Guttmal Mute is oooasionany dropped in other situations.' 

1> Obefore m and et before n; Hlomen, Mmen, Hght; Mesna, Ulna, moon. 

2. O between n and d ort: qu/metus, qv/iMua, fifth; qv/mcdecim, qu/iinAealm, fif- 

8. Q belbre tk or 17 ; * vib&gm&n, earnne/n (SO, 1), a swarm ; Jugm&ntvm, jumentum, 
beast of burden: magwilt, TndtmU, he prefers ; Itregvia, J>rema, short. 

Note 2, — X is sometimes dropped : aexdaca,m, aedecim (30, 1), sixteen ; aeam^, ami. 
Biz each; texula, tesola, tela, a web ; aamla, axla, dla, win?. 

NoTB 8. — N,^ J', and a are sometimes dropped : iTi-gTwtua, ignotua, xmknown; /or- 
Vunsua, formoava, beautiful ; guotims,^" quotiia, how often ; deciima, deciea,^" teo 

> 7* is changed to a, and g is dropped. 

^ 2^ is changed to a, and one I is dropped in Ut, and one r in rrt, 

8 Compare ddmd, I cry out. 

* Seen in i-gnottts, igTWtua, unknown. 

' Probably first assimilated and then dropped : la/pida, laplaa, lapia. But the dentaH 
(s sometimes assimilated and retained ; cedal, ceaal, I have yielded : coTWUtffit, concua- 
ait, he has shaken. 

* O lengthened In compensation ; see 30, 1. 

' iSexfiiua becomes SeaUua, a proper name; aeoxenii, aescmtl, six hundred; and 
miaiUta, mlatua, mixed, by dropping the mute contained in the double consonant w. 

8 O has also been dropped in did for agio, I say ; major for magior, greater, etc. 

B In numerals nt is sometimes dropped : ducentni, dvc&ni, two hundred each ; 'Vl- 
ffent-aimua or vicent-aimus, vlgeaimus or vlcSsimua, twentieth. 

^'^ So in all numeral adverbs in iSna, iia. The approved ending in most numeral 


Ume>; nrnUer-lyHa, muUebrU, ■womm\j; proraa^ prdsa, prose ; ttdem. Idem, mbm, 
jiU'deeOy jUd&D^ judge; OAiMane^ audine, wudhi^ do you hear? viane^ vine, tjwi, do 
f ou wish f 

4. A Semivowel — jj or v, also written i or u — is often dropped : 
Bi-^'itgae, biugae, Tngae, chariot with two horses ; quadri-jugae, quadrigae, 
chariot with four horses ; con-junetus, co-JUnctus, eimcftia, the whole ; abjicii 
or abicid,^ I throw away ; divUior, diitior, ditior, richer ; TievolS, neolS, nolo, 1 
im unwilling ; amaverat, amaerat, amarat, he had loved.' 

Note.— Separate words are sometimes united after the loss of v : Hi via, Mt, He, \, 
rou wish ; A^ imliia, amlHs, mlUs, if you wish. 

6. Final consonants are often dropped. Thus— 

1) Final a is often dropped : " 

MorHris, monere (34, 1, note), you are advised; ilhu, ilht, iUe, that; itiua, 
iitu, iate, that of yours ; ipms, ipau, ipse, self, he ; parricidas,* parricida, paiw 
rieide; magis or mage, more ; otbw, sive, whether, lit., if you wish. 

Note. — Id the early poets es, thou art, and est, he Is, after having dropped the initial 
e, sometimes become attached to the preceding word, which has lost its final 8 : veritue 
ea, veritnia, you feared ; tempua eat, temjmat, it is time ; tyiriOa eat, virtUat, it is virtua 
See SI, note. 

2) A final d or t is often dropped : 

Cord, cor, heart; praeddd, praeda,' with booty ; intrdd, mtrd, within;/* 
eihtinid,' /aciHiini, most easily ; venirunt,'' veniru, venire, they have come ; 
rixiirmit, rixere, they have ruled. 

WoTB. — Sometimes both a vowel and a consonant disappear at the end of a word : 
puwua, puer, boy (61, 2, 4)); deinde or dein, thereupon ; niMkwi or ndMl, nothing. 

3) A final n' is generally dropped in the Nominative Singular from 
Items in on; 

ZeSn, la, lion ; praedSn, praedh, robber ; hymon, Tuymi, man. 

tdverbB is iea^ but in those formed from indefinite numerals, as tot, quot, It is iena: 

* This is the approved form In verbs compounded q1 jaoi6 and monosyllabic preposi- 
tions ; but dbicio is pronounced as if written abjicid or db-Hcio, I. o., i =ji, pronounced 
ye by the Boman method. The syllable ab thus remains long. 

* Several adverbial forms were produced by the loss of » with the attendant changes : 
"e^ora-ua, reorana, rUraua, back ; aubavorsum, ausBoraum, auorav/m, sSraum, from be. 
low, on high. 

' In early inscriptions proper names in oa, afterward us, occur without the a as often 
■s with it : Rbacioa, Rosdo ; GaMnioa, GabiiUo. 

* This form actually occurs in early Latin. 

* The Ablative singular ended anciently in tZ, originally t. Many prepositions and 
idverbs in a and e are ablatives in origin, and accordingly ended in d. 

' Written with one I, afterward with two. 

' Here final t was first dropped, then n, having become final, also disappeared, and it 
last final u was weakened to e ; see 34, 1, note. 

* la early inscriptions final m is often dropped. 




87. Etymology treats of the classification, inflection.. 
d,nd derivation of words. 

38. The Parts of Speech are — Nouns, Adjectives, Pro- 
nouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and 



39. A Noun or SubstantiTe is a name, as of a person, 
place, or thing : Cicero, Cicero ; Roma, Rome ; domus, 

1. A Proper Noon is a proper name, as of a person or place : Ciceri , 

2. A Common Noun is a name common to all the members of a class 
of objects : vtr, man ; egwiis, horse. Common nouns include— 

1) Collective Noims, designating a collection of objects : populus, 
people; exercitus, army. 

2) Abstract Nowns, designating propertie." or qualities : virtils, virtue ; 
jUstitia, justice. 

3) Material Nouns, designating materials as such : aurum, gold ; 
hgtmm, wood ; aqua, water. 

40. Nouns have Gender, Number, Person, and Case. 

I. Gendek. 

41. There are three genders' — Masculine, Feminine, and 

NOTB. — In some nonns gender Is determined by signification ; in others, by endings. 

1 In English, Q&fidefr denotes sex. Accordingly, mascnllne nouns denote males; 
feminine oomiB, females ; and neuter nouns, objects which are neither male nor female. 
In Latin, however, this natural distinction of gender is applied only to the names ol 
males and females ; while, in all other nouns, gender depends upon an artificial dis- 
tinction according to grammatical rules. 

1^ person and number. casbbi 

42. Gbneeal Kules foe Gendee. 
I. Mascumnbs. 

1. Names of Males : Cicero ; vir, man ; rex, king. 

2. Names of Rivers, Winds, and Months: Bhenus, 
Rhine ; Notus, south wind ; Mdrtius, March. 

II. Femikines. 

1. Names of Females : mulier, woman ; leaena, lioness. 

2. Names of Countries, Towns, Islands, and Trees ; 
Graecia, Greece ; Roma, Kome ; Delos, Delos ; pirus, pear- 

Note. — Indeclinable nonns,' infinitives, and all clauses used as nouus are nenW: 
alpha, the letter a.^ See also 533. 

43. Remarks on Gender. 

1. Exceptions. — The endings ' of nouus sometimes give them a gender 
at Tariance with these rules. Thus, some names of rivers, countries, towns, 
islands, trees, and animals take the gender of their endings ; see 53, 1. 

2. Masculine or Feminine. — A few personal appellatives applicable to 
both sexes and a few names of animals are sometimes rrutsculine and some- 
times feminine, but when used without distinct reference to sex they are 
generally masculine : (Avis, citizen (man or woman) ; 60s, ox, cow. 

3. Epicene Nouns apply only to the inferior animals. They are used 
, for both sexes, but have only one gender, and that is usually determined 

by their endings : Onser, goose, masculine ; aquila, eagle, feminine. 

n. Pbkson and Number. 

44. The Latin, like the English, has three pcx-sons and 
two numbers. The first person denotes the speaker ; the* 
second, the person spoken to ; the third, the person spoken 
of. The singular number denotes one, the plural more 
than one. 

m. CA8BB.4 

45. The Latin has six cases : 

J Except names of persons, 

= 8ee 188,1. 

' Gender as determined by the endings of nouns will be noticed In connection with 
the several declensions. 

* The oase of a noun shows the relation which that noun sustains to other words ; as, 
John's book. Here the possessive case (John's) shows that John sustains to the book 
the relation of possessor. 



Nominative, Nominative. 

Genitive, Possessive, or Objective with of. 

Dative, Objective with to ox for. 

Accusative, Objective. 

Vocative, Nominative Independent. 

Ablative, Objective with from, with, iy, in. 

I. Obliqdb Cases. — The Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative 
em called the Oblique Cases. 

i. Locative. — The Latin has also a few remnants of another case, 
call«d the Locative, denoting the place in which. 


46. Stem and Suffixes. — The process by which the 
several cases of a word are formed is called Declension. It 
consists in the addition of certain suffixes to one common 
base called the stem. 

1. Meaning. — Accordingly, each case-form contains two distinct ele- 
ments — the stem,^ which gives the general meaning of the word, and the 
ease-suffix, which shows the relation rf that meaning to some other word. 
Thus, in rig-is, of a king, the general idea, king, is denoted by the stem 
rig ; the relation of, by the suffix is. 

2. Cases alike. — But certain cases are not distinguished in form. 

1) The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative in Neuters are alike, and 
in the plural end in a. 

2) The Nominative and Vocative are alike, except in the singular of 
nouns in us of the second declension (51).' 

3) The Dative and Ablative Plural are alike. 

3. Characteristic. — The last letter of the stem is called the Stem- 
Characteristic, or the Stem-Ending. 

47. Five Declensiosts. — In Latin there are five de- 
clensions, distinguished from each other by the stem-char- 
acteristics or by the endings of the Genitive Singular, as 
follows : 

> Moreover, in many .words the stem Itself is derived from a more primitive form 
ef*Jled a Boot For the distinction between roots and sterna, and for the manner in 
^Mch the latter are formed from the former, see 313-318. 

^ And in some nouns of Greek origin. 




Dec. L 

I ae 


o i 


i or & consonant is 


u us 


€ ei 

NoTB 1. — ^The five declenBions are only five varieties of one general aystem of infleo> 
tioB, as the case-suffixes are nearly ideDtical in all nouns. 

Note 2.— But these case-suffixes appear distinct and unchanged only In nouns witb 
consonant-stems, while in all others they are seen only in combination with the charac< 
teristic, 1. e., with the final vowel of the stem. 

Note 8. — The ending produced by the union of the ctzee-suffixs with the ch^ivrae 
terisHc vowel may for convenience be called a Case-Ending. 

48. Nouns of the iirst declension end in 

a and e— feminine ; Ss and es — masculine.' 
Nouns in a are declined as follows : 







a table,' 




of a table, 




to, for a table. 




a table. 









with, by a tahle,* 









of tables. 




to, for tables. 













, with, by tables.* 


^ That is, nouns of this declension in a and e are feminine, and those In as and 'W are 

2 The Nom. mensa may be translated a tdble^ table, or the table; see 48, 6. 

8 These case-endings will serve as a practical guide to the learner in distinguishing 
the diff'erent cases. The two elements which originally composed them have undergone 
various changes, and in certain cases the one or the other has nearly or quite disappeared. 
Thus the suffix has disappeared in the Nominative and Vocative Singular, and appears 
only as e in four other case-forms, wbile the characteristic a has disappeared in the ending 
19, contracted from a-is, in the Dative and Ablative Plural; see 83, 2, note. 

* Still other prepositions, as in, on, at, are sometimes used in translating the Abl&tlv<^ 


I. Stxh. — ^In nouns of the first declension, the stem ends in a. 
' 2. In the Pakadigm, observe that the stem is mmsd, and that the seT- 
eral cases are distinguished from each other by their case-endings. 

8. Examples foe Practice. — Like mSnsa decline : 

Ala, wing ; aqua, water ; cama, cause ; foriUna, fortune. 

4. Locative. — ^Names of towns and a very few other words have a 
Locative Singular' in ae, denoting the place in which (45, 2), and are 
declined in the singular ' number as follows : 








of Rome, 


of war. 



for Rome? 


for war. 



, Rome, 


I """■• 








from Rome,* 


from war. 



at Rome. 


in war. 

6. Exceptions in Gender. — 1. A few nouns in a are masculine by 
signification : agricola, husbandman ; see 42, L — 2. Hadria, Adriatic Sea, 
is masculine ; sometimes also ddmma, deer, and talpa, mole. 

6. Article. — The Latin has no article: corona, crown, a crown, the 
crown ; ala, wing, a wing, the wing. 

49. Irregulati Case-Endings. — The following occur:* 

1. as in the Genitive of familia, in composition with ptUer, mater, 
filius, and f ilia: paterfamilias, father of a family. 

2. Si, an old form for the Genitive ending ae, in the poets : ° aullR, af- 
terward aviae, of a hall. 

8. 11111' in the Genitive Plural: Dardanidum for Dardamdarum, of 
the descendants of Dardanus. 

4. abus in the Dative and Ablative Plural, especially in dea, goddess, 
and/iKa, daughter, to'distinguish them from the same cases of devx, god, 
saifilius, son: deSbtis for dels, to goddesses. 

' In the Plaral of all nouns the Locative meaning Is denoted by the Ablative : Athenia, 
at Athens. Whether, however, the form Athenis is in origin a Locative, an Ablative, or 
neither, is a disputed question. See Bopp, I., pp. 484 seq. ; Schleicher, pp. 686, 687; 
Penka, p. 194 ; Delbrflck, p. 27 ; Merguet, pp. 116, 117 ; Wordsworth, p. 69. In most 
noons the Locative meaning is denoted by the Ablative in both numbers. 

' The Plural when used is like the Plural of mensa. 

3 For the other prepositions which may be used In translating the Dative and the 
Ablative, see 45. Militia, war, warfare, military service. 

* To these must be added for early Latin d in the Nom. and Voc. Sing, and dd in 
the Abl. Sing. ; see SI, 2, 1), and 36, 5, 2). 

' Also in inscriptions as the ending of the Genitive, Dative, and Locative. 

• Contracted from a-um like the Greek 4mi>v, Sir, u shortened before m ; see 680, 11 



Nora.— NonnB in ia sometinieB have U for Ha In the Dative and Abl»tlve Plnnl 
gratis for groMU^ from gratia^ favor, IdndneBS. 

50. Greek Nouns. — Nouns of this declension in e, Ss, 
and es are of Greek origin, and are declined as follows : 

Epitome, epitome. 

Aeneas, Aeneas. 


Pyrites, pyrites. 

Nom. epitom© 



Gen. epitomes 



DcU. epitomae 



Ace. epitom€ii 

Aeneam, an 


Vbc. epitom© 


pyrtt©, a 

Abl. epitom© 



pyrit©, a 

Nom. epitomae 


Oen. epitom arum 


Dat. epitomis 


Ace. epitomas 


Voc. epitomae 


Abl. epitomis 


Note 1.— In the Plural and in the Dative Sln^ar, Greek nouns are declined like 
mensa. ' 

Note 2.— In nouns in e and es, the stem-ending (f is changed to e in certain caa«s. 

Note 8,— Many Greek nouns assume the Latin ending a, and are declined like menscu 
Many in e have also a form in a : epitome^ epitoma, epitome. 

51. Nouns of the second declension end in 
er, ir, us, and os ' — masculine ; una, and on- 

Nouns in er, ir, us, and um are declined as follows : 
Semis," slm)e. Puer, hoy. Ager, Jield. Templum, temple 



serviis " 





























^ Sometimes hv. 

3 Sometimes written servos ; see 53, 1. 

" In the Roman and in the Continental pronunciation, quantity firnishes a safe guide 




Kdm. servl 




Oen. servOmm 




Dat. servis 




Aec. servos 




Voc. servl 




Abl. servis 




1. Steu, — In nouns of the second declension, the stem ends in o. 

2. In the Paradigms, observe — 

1) That the stems are servo, pwero, agro, and tsmplo. 

2) That the characteristic o becomes u in the endings us and wn, ond e 
in ««</e,» that it disappears by contraction in the endings a,' i, and Is (for o-o, 
«-», and o-is)f and is dropped in the forms ^««r and ager, 

8) That the case-endings, including the characteristic o (47, K. 2), are as 
follows : 








































4) That puer and ager differ in declension from senus in dropping the 
endings us and « in the Nominative and Vocative : Nom. pu^ for puerus, 
Voc. puer for puere, 

5) That e in ager is developed by the final r.» 

6) That templum, as a neuter noun, has the Nominative, Accusative, and 
Vocative alike, ending in the plural in a / see 46, 2, 1). 

3. Examples for Practice. — Like sbrtus : dominus, master. Like 
puer: gener, son-in-law. Like ager: magister, master. Like templum- 
, war. 

to the sonnds of the vowels ; see 5. In the EngliBb method, on the contrary, the quan- 
tity of the vowels is entirely disregarded, except as it affects the accent of the word. 
Thus, a in ager is short in quantity, but long in sound (10, 8), while i in semis, paens, 
agris, and iempVls is long in quantity but short in sound (11, 1). Accordingly, in this 
method, the sounds of the vowels must be determined by the rules given in 9, 10_ 
*nd 11. Moreover, the learner must not forget that when the quantity of the vowel ia 
^own, the quantity of the syllable, as used in poetry, is readily determined by article IG 

> See %% and 94, 1, note. 

' Shortened from a; see 91, 2, 1). 

> See S3, note, and 87. 

* The endings of the Nom. and Too. Sing, are wanting in nouns In er. 

• See (89, note. 



4. Nouns in er and ir. — Most nouns in er are declined like ag*r, but 
the following in er and ir are declined like puer : 

1) Nouns in ir : vir, viri, man. 

2) Compounds infer ani ger ; armiger, armigeri, armor-bearer; aUgmfm', 
signiferi, standard-bearer. 

3) Adulter, adulterer ; Celtiber,^ Celtiberian ; gener, son-in-law ; /S«f,i 
Spaniard ; I/iier, Bacchus ; Kberi, children ; Miildber,' Vulcan ; presbyter, 
elder ; eocer, father-in-law ; veeper, evening. 

5. Nouns in ius generally contract ii in the Genitive Singular and ie 
in the Vocative Singular into I without change of accent : Olaudi for 
Claudii, of Claudius, fill iat filit, of a son ; Mercu'ri for Mereu'rie, Mer- 
cury, fill for filie, son.' In the Genitive Singular of nouns in ium the 
same contraction takes place : inge'ni for inge'nii, of talent ; see 1 8, 1. 

6. Deits is thus declined : Sing, dev^, del, deo, denim, deu«, deS : Plur. N. 
and V. del, dii, di;" G. deorum, deiim ; D. and A. dels, diis, dls;^ Ace. deos, 

7. Neuters in us. — The three neuter nouns in us,* pelagus, sea, virus, poi- 
son, and valgus, the common people, are declined in the singular as follows : 

Nmn., Ace, Voc. pelagus 
&en. pelagi 

Bat., Ahl. pelago 

virus vulgus' 

virl vulgi 

vlr5 vulgo 

'Soyii,— Pelagus is a Greek noun (64, N. 2), and in general is used only in the singu- 
lar, though pelage occurs as an Ace. Plur. Virus and vulgus are used o ly in the 
singular. Vulgus has a masculine Ace., tmlgwm, in addition to the neuter form vuigus, 

8. Locative. — Names of towns and a few other words have a Locative 
Singular' in i, denoting the place in which (45, 2), and are declined in the 
singular ' number as follows : 

Norn. Ephesiis, Rhesus, 

Gen. EphesI, of Ep/iesus, 

Dot. EphesS, for Ephesws, 

Ace. Ephesniu, Juliet 

Voc. Ephese, Ephems. 

Ahl. EphesO, from Ephesus, 

Loc. EphesI, at Ephesus. 

' Cettiber and Her have e long in the Gen., and Mulciier sometimes drops e. 
' Nouns in Hus sometimes contract eie in the Voc. Sing, into m.; Pompel or Pom 
pel, Pompey. 

' m and Ms are the approved forms, but del, dil and deU, dils also occur. 

* Originally s-sfems which by the loss of « in the oblique cases have become o-stemsj 
tee 6a, I., 1, foot-note. 

* Also written valgus. 

' In the Plural the Locative meaning is denoted by the Ablative : Gaiils, at Gabli 
see 48, 4, foot-note. " ' 

' The Plural, when used, is Uke the Plural ot sermis, puer, etc. 




of war, 


for war. 





bello, from 

, by war. 


in war. 


53. Ibregular Case-Endings. — The following occur ; ' 

1. OS and om, old endings for us and um, sometimes used after v and 
u."' servos for servus, servom for servum ; mortuos for mortuus, dead. 

2. us for e in the Vocatiye of deus, god ; rare in other words. 

8. um in the Genitive Plural, especially common in a, iew words de- 
noting money, weight, and measure : talentum for talentorum, of talents ; 
also in a few other words : dernn for deorum ; llheram for l/ihe>-orwm ; 
ArgiiMm for Argivorum. 

NoTB.— The ending nm occurs also in the Genitive Plural of many other words, 
especially in poetry. For the quantity of «, see p. -ib^ toot-note 6. 

53. Gender.— Nouns in er, ir, us, and os are masculine, those in um 
and on are neuter ; except — 

1. The FemAm/nes : — (1) See 48, II., but observe that many names oi 
countries, towns, islands, and trees follow the gender of their endings. (2) 
Most names of gems and ships are feminine : also alvm, belly ; carhasus, sail ; 
dolus, distaff; hrnnus, ground; vaimus, sieve. (3) A few Greek feminines. 

2. The Neuters :^aelagvs, sea; virus, poison; vulgus, common people. 
For declension, see 51, 7. 

54. Greek Nouns. — ^Nouns of this declension in os, 6s, 
and on are of Greek origin, and are declined in the singu- 
lar as follows : 

Deles, p.,' jDefo*. AiArogeoa, Androffeos. JJion, Ilium. 







AndrogeS, I 








AndrogeSn, © 










NoTB 1.— The Plural of nonns in on and on \b generally regular, bnt certain Oreeb 
endings occur, as oe in the Nominative Plural, and on in the Genitive. 

Note 2.— Most Greek nouns generally assume the Latin forms in vs and um, and are 
declined like serws and temphmi. Many in 08 or on have also a form in u« or twn.. 

Note 8.— For Greek nouns in etts, see 68 and 68, 1. 

Note ^.—Pan^ue has Toe. PamAhu. For pelagvs, see 51, 7, note, 

* To these must be added for early Latin: 1) od in Abl. Sing., and d in Nom., Acc^ 
and Voc. of the Neat. Plur. ; see 36, 5, 2), and 31, 2, 1); 2) oe in Gen. Sing. ; oe, e, es, 
efe, and Is in Nom. Plur, : poploe—popnJi; ploirume=p\mivai; viria^vin; leibereis ol 

2 Some recent editors have adopted ■oos, -wo*, vom and worn, for mta, v/us^ vwn and 
v/wrn^ but the wisdom of such a course Is at least questionable See Brambaoh, p. Z, 

* M. stands for mascmUne^ F, tor/eminine, and N. for neut^. 


65. Nouns of the third declension end in 

a, e, i, 6, y, c, 1, n, r, s, t, and x. 

56. Nouns of this declension may be divided into twc 
classes : 

I. Nouns whose stem ends in a Consonant. 

II. Nouns whose stem ends in I.' 

class i.— consonant stems. 

57. Stems ending in a Labial: b or p. 

Princeps, m.,' as leader, chief. 





a leader. 




of a leader, 




to, for a leader, 




a leader, 









with, by a leader. 









of leaders, 




to, for leaders. 












from, with, by leaders. 


1. Stem and Case-Suffixes. — In this Paradigm observe — 

1) That the stem is prlneep, modified before an additiooAl syllable uv 
prmcip ; see S9, 1, and 57, 2. 

2) That the case-sutfixes appear distinct and separate from the stem ; ' see 
46, 1, and 47, note 2. 

2. Variable Vowel. — In the final syllable of dissyllabic consonant 
stems, short e or i generally takes the form of e in the Nominative and 
Vocative Singular and that of i in all the other cases. Thus princeps^ 

' For Gender, see 99-115. 

' See foot-note 8, p. 29. 

^ Thus, prmcep-a, prlndp-is, etc. In the first and second declensions, on the con- 
trary, the sufilx can not be separated from the final vowel of the stem in such forms aa 
menaU, puerl^ agrle, etc. 



pnndpis,^ and judex, judicis (59), alike have n in the Nominative and 
Vocative Singular and i in all the other cases, though in princeps the 
original form of the radical vowel is e, and in judex, i. For a similar 
change in the vowel of the stem, see miles, militis (58), and carmen, car. 
minis^ (60). See also opxts, operis (Gl). 

8. In monosyllables in bs the stem ends in i ; tee urbs, 64. 

4. For the Looativb in the Thikd Declension, see 66, i. 

5. For Synopsis of Declension, see 87, 89. 

&». St: 


IN A Dental : 

D OR T. 

Lapis, H., stone. 

Aetas, F., age. 

Males, M., soldier 



. lapis 

















































M., grandson. 

Virtus, F., mrtue. 


Caput, s.jhsad. 






































> See 9S. 1. 

' See 88, 

1, foot-Mote. 















1. Stems and Case-Suffixes. — In these Paradigms observe — 

1) That the stems are lapid, aetat, milit, nepot, virtut, and cc^ut, 

2) That miles has the variable vowel, e, i, and caput, ti, i ; see 57, 2. 

8) That the dental d or t is dropped before s : lapis for lapide, aetas for 
aetdts, miles for rmlets, virtus for virtuts ; see 36, 2. 

4) That the ease-sufflxes, except in the neuter, caput (46, 2), are the same 
as those given above ; see 57. 

5) That the neuter, caput, has no case-siafflx in the Nominative, Accusa- 
tive, and Vocative Singular, a in the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative 
Plural, and the suffixes of masculine and feminine nouns in the other oases. 

2. Nedteb stems inf at drop t in the Nominative Singular and end in a ; 
Nom., poSma, Gen., poematis ; Stem, poemat. These nouns sometimes have 
is for ibus in the Dative and Ablative Plural : poematis for poimatilms. 

3. For Synopsis of Declension, see 69, 78-84. 

)9. g 

Items ending in a Gui 


OB G. 

Kex, M., 

Judex, M. & F. 

, R^ix, P., 

Dux, M. &v., 



































































1. Stems and Case-Suffixes. — In the Paradigms observe — 

1) That the stems are rig, Jodie, rddic, and due ; juddo with the variable 
fowel, 1, e ; see 57, 2. 

2) That the oase-sufiixes are those given in 57. 

8) That s in the Nominative and Vocative Singular unites with o or y of 
the stem and forms x ; see 30. 

2. For Stnopbis or Declension, see Nouns in x, 9l-9ft 

60. Stems 

851, M., 

Nam. sOl 
Qen. sOlis 



Consul, M., Passer, m., 



Vbc. sol 

Abl. sole 

Ifom. sOlSs ' 


Dai. solibns 

Ace. soles 

Voc. solSs 

Abl. solibuB 

Pastor, M., 

Norn, pastor 

Oen. p&storis 

Dot. pSstorl 

Ace. pastorem 

Voc. pastor 

Abl. pastore 

Nom. pastorSs 

Gen. pastormn 

Dot. pastori1»ii.s 

Ace. pastorSs 

Voc. pastores 

M. pastoribus 









Leo, M., 


leo Tirg8 

leonis vlrginis 

leonl virgini 

leonem Tirginent 

leo Virgo 

leone vlrgine 













Virga, F,, 















Pater, u.^ 













Carmen, n., 













1. Stems and Cask-Sufpixes. — In the Paradigms observe — 

1) That the stems are lol, dmrul, passer, patr,^ pastor, lean, virgon, and 

I Uany monosyllables want the Gen. Plor.; see 133, i. 

^ Iliat 1b, the stem is pair when followed by a vowel ; but when r beooraes final, tt 
•velopa e before It, and patr becomes pater ; see !39, not*. 



2) That virgs (virgon) has the variable vowel, o, 1, and carmen, e, i. 

3^ That in the Nominative and Vocative Singular s, the usual oase-Sttflh 
for masculine and feminine nouns, is omitted, and that in those cases the stem 
pastor shortens o, while Um and virgon drop n; see 31, 2, 2), and 36, 5, 3). 

2. HiEMS, the only stem in m, takes s in the Nominative and Vocative 
Singular. Also sanguis (for sangmns), blood, and SalamOs (for Salamma), 
Salamis, which drop n before s / see 36, 3, note 3. 

3. Passer, Pater. — Most nouns in er are declined like passer, but those 
in ter, and a few others, are declined Vike pater ; see 77, 2. 

4 Leo, VirqO. — Most nouns in o are declined like leB, but those in do 
and go, with a few others, are declined like virgi; see 7)8, with exceptions. 

5. Four stems in or change o to « / see 77, 4. 

6. For the Locative in the Third Declension, see 66, 4. 

7. For Synopsis of Declension, see 78, 75-77. 

61. Stems ending in s. 


Flos, M., 

Jus, N., 

OpilS, N., 

Corpus, N. 



































































1. Stems and Case-Suffixes. — In the Paradigms observe — 

1) That the stems aie flos, jiis, opos,' and corpos. 

2) That opus has the variable vowel, e, u, and corpus, o, u. 

3) That s of the stem becomes r between two vowels : fldt, fldrU (foi 
/SflsM) / see 31, 1. 

4) That the Nom. and Voc. Sing, omit the oase-sufflx; see 60, 1, 8). 
4. For Synopsis of Declension, see 79, 80, 88-84. 

' Opos occurs in early L.ltin. In oa, from the Primary Suffix as (380), was weak- 
ened to w in the Nom., Ace, and Voc. Sing, of opus and corpus, while in all the othei 
case-forms it was weakened *fl e in opus, but retained unchanged in corpus ; see 88. 



62. Stems ending ik l.— Nouns in is and gs, not 
increasing in the G-enitiTe. ' 

Tussis, p., 

Turris, F., 

Ignis, HI.., Hostis, m. & f.. 




Jire. enemy. 




. tussis 



















turrini, em. Ignem 











turrl, e 

Ignl, e 





. tussSs 


















tuss6s, Is 

turrCs, Is 

ignes, Is 

hostes, Is 

nubes, Is 















—Observe — 




is, Ss 






im, em 





1, That the stems are tussi, turri, lgn% hosti, and nuH,^ 

2. That the case-endings, including the characteristic i» which disappears 
in certain cases, are as follows : 



€S, IS 


' That is, having as many syllables in the Nora. Sing', as in the Gen. Sing-. 

^ Observe (1) that tussis^ turris, ignis, and hostis differ in declension onlyin the Ace 
and Abl. Sing., tmsis showing the final i of the stem in both those cases, turris some- 
times In both, ignia sometimes in the Abl., not in the Ace., hostis in neither (2) that nubes 
differs from the other four in taking is instead of is in the Nom. and Toe. Sing. 

' Noans in is. Gen. w, are best treated as z-stems, although some of them were 
originally *-6tems (61). Thus, originally the stem of nubes was itself nvbes^ but a was 
finally treated as the Nom. suffix, and the word was accordingly declined like the large 
class of t-nouns mentioned under 62, V. The origin of i-stems is obscure. A few cor- 
respond to i-stems in the cognate tongues, as ignis, ovis, turris ; a few are weakened 
from a-Btems or o-stems, as /oris, a door, Gr. Oiipa., imber—imbris, rain-storm, Gr. 
of^ppoti some are formed from s-stems, as nubes. Just mentioned. Upon the general 
subject of i-stema, see Boby, pp. 186-149 ; Schleicher, pp. 384, 432, 458 ; Gorssen, I. 281, 
en, 788 Beq. ; II. 227; Merguet, pp. 86-40. 51, 67, 95, etc. 


II. Like Tussis — ^Acc. im, Abl. I — are declined — 

1. Baris^ plough-tail ; rdvis^ hoarseness ; sitis^ thirst. 

2. In the Singular : (1) Names of rivers and places in is not increasing in 
the Genitive: Kberis, HispaUs ; see 583. (2) Greek nouns in is, Gen. is^ 
and some others. 

III. Like TUKKis — Aco. im, em, Abl. i, e — are declined — 

GlmiSi key; febris, fever; messis, harvest; ndvis, ship; puppk, stem;. 
Testis, rope ; semris, axe ; sementis, sowing ; striffilis, strigil. 

1. Araris, or Arar (tor Araris),^ the Saone, and Liger (for Zigeris),^ the 
Loire, have Aco. im, em, Abl. i, e. 

IV. Like IGNIS — Ace. em, Abl. i, e — are declined — 

Amnis, river; anguis, serpent; avis, bird; UUs, bile; dvis, citizen; 
cldssis, fleet ; colUs, Mil ; Jims, end ; orbis, circle ; postis, post ; wngids, nail, 
and a few others. 

Note 1. — Adjectives in er (for ris) and those in is have the Ablative in I (153, 
154). Accordingly, when such adjectives are used substantively, the a is generally re- 
tained : September, Septembrl, September;^ famiHdris,famiHari, friend. But adjec- 
tives used as proper names have e : JtivenaUs, Juvendle, Juvenal. 

UoTE 2.—Imier (for imbris), storm ; vesper (for vesperis), evening, and a few othera 
sometimes have the Ablative in i. 

V. Like HOSTis — Aoc. em, Abl. e — ai'e declined all nouns in is. Gen, 
is, not provided for under II., III., and IV.' 

VI. Like n5bes are declined all nouns in es. Gen. is.* 

63. Stems ending in i. — Neuters in e, al, and ar. 

Mare, sea. AmmaX, animal. Calcar, spwr. 






















e-» * 











> The shortening of Araris to Arar and of Ligeris to Liger is similar to the short- 
ening- oipuerus to pu&r ; see 51, 2, 4) ; 36, 5, 2), note. 

^ Names of months are adjectives used substantively. Originally mewwfl, month, wae 

3 Except ccwiis aud^u-yeww, which are consonant-stems, but have assumed i In the 
Nom. Sing. In the plural they have um in the Gen and is in the Ace. Apis^ memis, 
and voIiumHs often have um. for itim in the Gen. 

* Except atrties and vdtes, which f^enerally have um In Gen. PI., and aedee^ which hae 
um or ium. Compea, Qen. edis^ has also iwm. 

» See 2 below. 

' The dash here implies that the case-ending is sometimes wanting. 


































1. Paradiqhs. — Observe — 

1) That the stem-ending i is changed to e in the Nominative, Aocusative, 
and Vocative Singular ot'mare, and dropped in the same cases of animal (foi 
ardmdle) and calear (for calcdre) ; see 84, 1, note ; ZH ; 81, 2, 2). 

2) That the case-endings include the characteristic i. 

2. The following have e in the Ablative Singular : — (1) Names of towns 
in e ; Praerieste. — (2) Generally rete, net, and in poetry sometimes mart. 

Note. — Neuters in ar^ with a short in the Genitive, are consonant-stems ; mctar^ 
nectarit, nectar; also «d2, salt, and/or, com. 

64. Stems ending in i. — Nouns in a and z generally 
preceded by a consonant. 

Cliens, m. &f.. 

, Urbs, F., 

Arx, P., 

Mus,» M., 















maris * 






































clientes, Is . 

urbes, Is 

a,rc6s, Is 

mures, Is 











J Cliens is for eH&nMA, tbrbs for urbis^ arx lor arcts, and mm for mi/sis ; see 3G, 5, 
i). note. Mus, originally an «-6tem, Greek ftiJs, became an ^-stern In Latin by assuming i 

2 The vowel e is here short before nt^ but long before ns; see 16, note 2. Indeed, if 
ieems probable that nt and nd shorten a preceding vuwel, as ns lengthens it. See Mu> 
leFf p. 27; Bitschi, Rhein. Museum, xxxl., p. 488. 

' Xin arx=cs^ c belonging to the stem, and a being the Nom. sufiSx. 

* Muris is for musis : a changed to r between two vowels , see 31, L 

88 THIRD I>ECLER8I02ir. 

1. Faradioms. — Observe — 

1) That the stems are eUervti, urhi, am, and rnUri, 

2) That these nouns are declined in the singular precisely like consonant 
stems, and in the plural precisely like all other masculine and femiuini 

2. This class of i-stems includes — 

1) Most nouns in m and re.-s elims, cUenUs, client; cohors, coTwrtis, 

2) Monosyllables in s and x preceded by a consonant,' and a few in t 
and X preceded by a vowel:' urbs, city; arx, citadel; Us, strife; nox, 

3) Names of nations in da and is, or, if plural, In ati3 and itis : Arpinds, 
p?. Arpmdtes, an Arpinatian, the Arpinates ; Samnia, pi. Samnites, the 

4) Optimdtes, the aristocracy ; Penates, the household gods, and occasion- 
ally other nouns in as. 

Note l.— Caro, flesh, has a form in is, camis (for carinis), from wMob are foimed 
oaml, camium, etc. 

HoTE 2. — Pars, part, BumetimeB has parlirfi In the AccuBative. 

Note t.—BUs, country, sors, lot, svpeUtx, fiimitnre, and a few other words Bonn- 
times have the Ablative in i. 

65. Summary of I-st3M8. — To i-sfcems belong — 

1. All nouns in is and es which do not increase in the Genitive ; 
see 62. Here belong also — * 

1) Names of months in *«?■ (for Jm): S^temUr, Octdb^, eto. ; see6S,N.l. 

2) The following nouns in ber and ter (for bris and iris) : imber, storm ; 
Unter, boat; ater, leathern sack; venter, belly; generally also Inmber, an 

3. Neuters in e, al (for ale) and ar (for are) ; see 63 ; also 63, 
2, note. 

3. Many nouns in a and x — especially (1) nouns in ns and rs, 
and (3) monosyllables in s and x preceded by a consonant ; see 
64, 2. 

^ Nouns thus declined are moat conveniently treated as {-nouns, though the stem 
appears to end in a consonant in the Sing., and in i in the Plur. In some of these nouna 
the stem has lost its final i in the Sing., while in others it ended originally in a con- 
sonant, but afterward assumed i in the Plur., at least in certain cases; see 63, 1., foot- 

2 Some of these often have vjm in poetry and sometimes even in prose, as pari/Mi 
parent, generally has. 

* Except ipps^ opis and the Greek nouns, grpps. lynx, sphvnx. 

* Namely, /outc, gVte, lis, mas, nix, nox, os (ossis), vU, generally fra/us and mO», 



Special Paradigms. 


M. & P., 

Bos, M, & P 

., Nix, F., 

Senex, m., 

yis, v., 


«r, cow. 


old man. 











bo vis 









VI » 




























( boTnm 
l bonjna 







( bo'bns ' 
1 bul>us ' 






















1. The Stems are su ; bov ; nig (nix=nigs), raw, nivi ; ' senee, sen ; vl 
(sing.), Wirt (for vlsi, plur.) ; * see 31, 1. 

2. SBs, and gbSs, crane, the only u stems in this declension, are de- 
clined alike, except in the Dative and Ablative Plural, where ffrus is 
regular: gruibus. 

3. JcppiTER, Jupiter, is thus declined: Juppiter, Jovis, Jovl, Jovem, 
Juppiter, Jove. Stems. Juppiter and Jov. 

4. Locative. — Many names of towns have a Locative Singular in i or e 
denoting the place in which (45, 2). Thus : 

¥om. Earthago, . Carthage, 

Gen. Karthaginis, of Carthage, 

Dot. Eartha^nX, for Carthage, 

Ace. Earthaginem, Cartilage, 

Voe. Earthago, Carthage, 

Abl. Earthagine, from Carthage, 

Loc. Earthagin! or e, at Carthage. 

i B68 = bovs, bous ; l>dlyaa, bubus = bovibns, boabos. 
' The Qen. and Dat. Sing. — vU, vl — are rare. 

' For nigvi, from which nig iB formed by first dropping i and then «; flee 37, 36^ 
3^ note 1. 

* Ft ifl formed from vUi by first dropping i and then «. 




of Tibur, 


for Tibur, 






from Tlbur, 

Tlburl or e. 

at Tlbur. 



67. Case-Suffixes and Case-Endings.' 


CosaoHABT Stems. 


Maso. and Fsh. 


MaSO. and 






ia, 68, 
















im, em 





is, 6s, 



























6s, Is 












Note.— The following irregular case-endings occur : * 

1. E^ for ^, in the Dat. Sing. : * aer^ for a&ri, 

2. Eia^ for ifi, in the Ace. Flur. : cvoeia for civz«, cl«es. 

3. For Gbeek Endikob, see 68. 

68. Most Greek nouns of the third declension are en^ 
tirely regular, but a few retain certain peculiarities of the 
Greek. The following are examples : 

Lampas, f., 

Pkryx, M. & P., 

Herds, M., 





Nom. lampas 


herOs ^ 

Gen. lampadis, os 

Phrygis, OS 


Bat. lampadi, i 

Phrygl, i 

herOI, i 

Ace. lampadem, a. 

Phrygem, a 

heroem, a 

Voc. lampas 



Abl. lampade 



> On the distinction between Case-SuflSxes and Case-Endings, see 46, 1, and 47, noteS. 

• The dash denotes that the oase-ending is wanting. 

• To these should be added for early Latin— 1) u% and es in the Gen. Sing. : honvimM 
= Ttomd/nds ; salutes = ealutis ; 2) id and e in the Abl. Sing. : coTwentionld = coti/om- 
Hdiu; patre — patre; 8) fa and eia in the Nom. Plur. of i-nouns : JineiB^ jkiU —flnM. 
On the Caae-Enainga of the Third Declension in early Latin, see Wordsworth, pp 
6S-78; Kuhner, I., pp. 178-179. 

• This e is generally lon^. 




Nom. lampadCs, es 

PhrygSs, es 

hSrQCs, es 

Qen. lampadum 



Dat lampadibms 



Ace. lampadSs, as 

Phryges, as 

hSroSs, as 

Voc. lampades, es 

Phryges, es 

heroes, es 

AH. lampadibns 



Pericles, m., 

Paris, M., Dido, p., 

Orpheus, m., 


PwHb. Dido. 



iVom. Pericles 

Paris Dido 

Orpheus * 

Oen. Fericlis, I 

Paridis, OS Bidus, Snis 

Orph-eos, el, 1 

Dot Pencil,! 

ParidI, i Dido, onl, Oni 

Orph-el, ei, I, eo 

Aee, Periclem, ea, 6ii- "I *""' ^ DidS, onem 

Orphea, emn 

Voc. Pericles, es, 6 

Pari DidS 


AU. Pericle 

Paride Dido, one 


1. Observe that these Pabadioms fluctuate in certain cases — (1) between 
the Latin and the Greek forms : lampadis, os ; lampadem, a ; heroes, as : — (2) 
between different declensions: Pericles, between Deo. I., I^riden, Piricle, 
Deo. II., I^eridi (Gen.), and Dec. III., Ih^clis, etc. : Orpheus, between Dec. 
n., Orphei, OrpTuo, etc., and Dec. III., Orpheos, etc 

2. Noxma vs ys have Gen. yos., ys. Ace. ym, yn : Otkrys, Othryos, OtTirym, 

3. The Vocative Sinotjlar drops s — (1) in nouns in «««, y», and in proper 
names in a«, Gen. amtw : Atlas, Atla : — (2) generally in nouns in is, and 
sometimes in other words : Jhri. 

i. In the Genitive Plural, the ending 5» occurs in a few titles of books : 
MetamorpTios^ (title of a poem), Melamorphoseon. 

5. In the Dative abb Ablative Plural the ending si, before vowels em, 
occurs in poetry : Troades, IVoasin. 

6. A few neuters used only in the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative 
have OS in the Singular and e in the Plural : melos, mele, song. 


69. Nouns in a : ° Genitive in atis : Stem in at: 

poSma, poem, 



* The Pluial is of courae generally wanting; see 130, 2. 

> ^ is a diphthong in the 'Sam. and Yoc. ; e< sometimes a diphthong in the 0«d 
■nd Dat. 

? These are of Greek orlfin- 

43 SnsrOPSIS of THS third DECLENSIOy. 

70. Nouns in e : 

Genitive in is : 

Stem in 1: 

mare, sea. 



71. Nouns in I:' 

Genitive in is : 

Stem in i 

sinapl, mustard. 



NoTB.— Many nomis m I are indeclinable. Gompoonds of mell have iMs in the GeiA 
tive : oayTtieli, oxymeHHat oxymel. 

72. Nouns in 6 or 6 : Genitive in onis : Stem in on : 

leO, Uon, lednis, lesn. 

Exceptions. — Genitive in— 

1. onis : — most national names : Macedo, Macedonis, Macedonian. 

2. inis : ' — Apollo ; homo, man ; TiSmS, nobody ; turbo, whirlwind ; and 

nouns in do and go : grands, grandinia, hail ; virgs, 
virginis, maiden ; except — harpagO, onis ; ligO, Onis j 
praedo, onis, also comedo, cudo, mangO, spad&, a««d8, Hdi. 

8. nis : — earb, carnib (for carinis '), flesh ; see 64, 2, note 1. 

4. enis: — Anio, AniSnis, river Anio; NeriZ, Nerienia. 

6. us : — a few Greek feminines : Dido, DidUs ; see 68. 

73. Nouns in y ' : Gen. in yis (yos, ys) : Stem in y : 

misy, copperas, misyis (yos, ys), misy. 


74. Nouns in c ; alec, Sigcis, pickle ; lac, lactis,* milk. 

75. Nouns in 1: Genitive in Us : Stem in 1; 

sol, eun, soils, s6l, 

NoTB. — Ifel^/elMs, g&ll; met, melli8,hoiiey;edZ,8alia, Bait On neuters in aZ, see 63. 

76. Nouns in n : Genitive in nis : Stem in n : 

paeiln, paecm, paeanis, paean, 

fltlmen, stream, fluminis, flumen, in. 

Note 1.— Nonns in en have the variable radical vowel — e, i; see 60, 1, 2). 
Note S.^There are a few Greek words in on, Gen. in onis, ontis, St. in on. dntf 
aidon, aedonia, nig^htingale ; Xenop^um, XenopTwn^^ Xenophon. 

77. Nouns in r : Genitive in ris : Stem in r : 

career, prison, careens, career. 

1. Nouns in ar, ar: (1) ar, G. aris, St. ari: lar, /am, house; (^) par, 
parts, pair ; fa/r, f arris, com ; hepar, hepatis, liver. For ar, 6. wria, and or. 
S aria, see 63. 

2. Nouns in ter: Gen. in iris: pater, pairiB, father; except later, laterit, 
die; iter,itineris,yis:^; JuppUer,Jovis; and Greek nouns: crater, crS.teris,'boiii 

^ These are of Greek origin. 

' Stem in oti, in, or oni, ini, ni ; see 60, 1, 2). 

^ Nouns in y are of Greek origin, and are often indeclinable. 

* The only nouns in c. 


UoTK.— /mS«r and names of months in ber have brig in the GenitiTe ; imfter, tmJrii, 
shower; SepUmitr, Septembria, September; see 62, IV., notes 1 and 2. 

3. Nouns in or : 6. oris, St. or : pastor, pdstoris, shepherd ; but a few 
have G. oris, St. or: arbor, arboris, tree; aequor, sea; marmor, marbl«. 
But cor, cordis, heart. 

4. Four in ur : G. oris, St. or : ebur, ivory ; femur, thigh ; jeem; liver ; 
rbhir, strength ; hut fenmr has also/«mt»»«, and jecur, jeomoris, jecineris, 

78. Nouns in ut : Genitive in itis : Stem in ut, it : 

caput, Jiead, capitis, caput, it. 

m. Nouns ending in S. 

79. Nouns in as : Genitive in atis : Stem in at : 

aetas, age, aetatis, aetat. 

Exceptions. — Genitive in 

1. axis : — mOs, maris, a male ; — stem, mas, mari; see 31, 1. 

2. asia : — vas, vasis, vessel.' 

3. assis : — Ss, assis, an as (a coin). 

4. antig :— only masculine Greek nouns : adamOs, arUis, adamant. 
NoTS, — Anas, duck, and neuter Greek nouns in as have aUs : anas, anatis. Vas^ 

surety, Areas, Ait^dian, and feminine Greek nouns in as have adis: vas, vadis, 
lampas, tampadis.^ 

80. Nouns in es : Genitive in is : Stem in i : ' 

nubes, cloud, nnhis, nUbi. 

Exceptions. — Genitive in 

1. edis : — heres, /leredis, heir ; merces, reward. 

2. edis : — pes, pedis, foot, and its compounds : compes, edis, a fetter. 

5. eris: — Ceres, Cereris.* 

4. etis : — quies, rest, with compounds, inguiis, reguies, and a few Greek 

words: lebes, tapes. 

5. etis : — abies, fir-tree ; aries, ram ; pariis, wall. 

NoTK.— .SS», iessis, two-thirds; aes, aeris,* copper; praes, praedis, surety. 

81 . Nouns in es : Genitive in itis : Stem in at, it : 

miles, soldier, mllitis, milet, it. 

Exceptions. — Genitive in 

1. etis : — interpres, interpreter ; seges, crop ; teffes, covering. 

2. idis : — obses, hostage ; praeses, president ; see 57, 2. 

' Yds is the only stem in s which does not change to r between two vowels ; aoe 
81, 1, 8). 

* Greek nouns sometimes have ados for adis. 
' But see 64, 1. 
See 61, 1, 3). 


82. Nouns in is : Genitive in is : Stem in i : 

avis, bird, avis, avi. 

ExcBPTioNS. — Genitive in 

1. eris : — cinis, eineris,^ ashes ; cucumis, cucumber ; pulvis, duat ; vomia^ 


2. idis : — capis, cup ; cassis, helmet ; euspis, spear ; lapis, stone ; pro- 

mulsis, antepast, and a few Greek ' words ; as tyrannis, 
idis, tyranny. Sometimes Ibis, and iigris. 
8. inis : — pollis or pollen, flour ; sanguis, blood. 

Note. — Gils, gllris, dormouse; Us, liUs, strife; semis, semissis, half an as; Die, 
Dltis; Qmria, QuiriUs; Samnis, SamniUs. 

83. Nouns in os : Genitive in oris : Stem in os : 

mos, custom, mOris, mos. 

Exceptions. — Genitive in 

1. otis; — cos, cotis, whetstone; dos, dowry; nepos, grandson; sacerdos, 

priest ; and a few Greek words. 

2. odis : — custos, custodis, guardian ; see 36, 2. 

3. ois : — a few masculine Greek nouns ; heros, hero ; Minos, Tros. 
Note. — Arbos or arbor, arhoris, tree ; os, oasis, bone ; bos, bovis, ox ; see 66. 

84. Nouns in us, Gen. in uris or utis : stem in lis or ut. 

1. 'oris : — criis, leg ; jus, right ; jtis, soup ; rntis, mouse ; pus, pus ; rus, 

country ; tus (thus), incense ; tellus, earth. 

2. utis : — juventus, youth ; salas, safety ; senectus, old age ; servitus, 

servitude ; virtus, virtue ; see 36, 2. 

Exceptions. — Genitive in 

1. udis : — incus, anvil ; palus, marsh ; suhseus, dovetail. 

2. uie : — grus, gruis, crane ; sus, swine. 

3. untis : — a few Greek names of places : TrapezOs, untis. 

4. odis : — Greek compounds in pus : tripus, tripodis, tripod. 

"NoTK.—Ji^rauSjfra/udis, fraud; laus, laudis, praise; see 64, 2, 2), foot-note. For 
Greek nonns in eus, see 68. 

85. Nouns in us : Gen. in eris or oris : stem in os. 

1. eris : — latits, laieris, side : stem, laios.' So also : acus, foedus, fwma, 
germs, glomus, munus, olus, onus, opus, pondus, rudus, scelus, sidus, ultm, 
veUus, Venus, viscus, vulnus. 

2. oris : — corpus, corporis, body : stem, corpos.' So also decus, dedeeits, 

> Stem dnis, ciner for ciTtes with variable vowel i, e; see 84, 1 ; 31, 1 ; and 57, 2. 
' Qreek nouns sometimes have idos or even ioa for idis ; Salnmla has Saiamvivlai 
Simoia, Simoentis. 

' See 61, 1, foot-note. 


fadnus, /amus, friffua, lepua, litus, nemus, pectus, peeus, perms, jngnus, ster- 
ms, tempus, tergus. 

Soim.—Pecus, peaudis, a head of cattle ; ligita, Ligwia, Ligurian ; see 31. 

86. Nouns in ys : ' Genitive in yia, yos, ys : Stem in y : 

Othrya, Othryos, Othry. 

87. Nouns in bs : GenitiTe in bis : Stem in bi : « 

ilrbs, cii^, urbis, urbi. 

88. Nouns in ms : Genitive in mis : Stem in m : 

hiems, winter, hiemis, hiem. 

89. Nouns in eps : Genitive in ipis : Stem in ep, ip. 

princeps, prince, prinoipis, prinoep, ip. 

Note.— But auceps, atiaupis, fowler. Other nouns in ps retain the Btem-yowel 
inohanged; merops, meropis, bee-eater. Qryps, grifln, has gr^phis. 

90. Nouns in s after 1, n, or r : Gen. in tis ; Stem in ti : 

puis, h-oth, pultis, pulti. 

mens, mind, mentis, menti.= 

ars, art, artis, arti. 

Utare.—I'rdns, fi-ondia, leaf; gldm, glandis, e,mTn; juglSms, juglandie, wahiut; 
see 64, 2. 


91 . Nouns in ax : Genitive in acis : Stem in ao : 

pax, peace, pacis, pao. 

NoTB. — Fa^, facia, torch ; ao also a few Greek nouns. AatyaTiax, actia; so a few 
Greek names of men. 

92. Nouns in ex : Genitive in ecis or egis : Stem in ec, eg : 

1. ecis : — alex, pickle ; vervex, wether. 

2. egis : — lex, law ; rex, king, and their compounds. 

93. Nouns in ex : Genitive in iois : Stem in io, ec : 

ixLiex, judge, judiois, judic, ec. 

Exceptions. — Genitive in 

1. ecis : — nex, murder ; fenisex, mower ; {prex), precis, prayer. 

2. egis : — -grex, flock ; aquilex, water-inspector. 

3. igis: — remex, remigis, rower; see 24, 1. 

KoTB. — I*a6X, faeda, lees; aenea, a&nda, old man '(66); aupelUx, anpellectilia, 

94. Nouns in ix : Genitive in Iois : Stem in io : 

radix, root, radiois, radio. 

' 1 These are of Greek origin ; a few of them have ydia: chlam^a, chla/mydia, oloak. 
' DIssyllahles hare the stem In &. 
' Dissyllables in na have the stem In t. 


95. Nouns in ix. : Genitiye in icis : Stem in io : 

oalix, cup, oalicis, calio. 

Note. — Ntx, nims (66), snow; stri^, sPrigis^ screech-owl; a few Gallic nameB alBo 
hftTe the Genitive in igi8 : Dumnorix, Orgetorix. 

96. Nouns in ox or ox : vox, vocis, voice ; nox, noetis, night. 

Note. — There are also a few national names in ox, Gen. in ocis or o^s : Ca/pptv 
dox, Cdppadoois; Allobrox, Allobrogis. 

97. Nouns in ux : Genitive in ucis : Stem in uo : 

dux, leader, duois, duo. 

Note 1.— Zuw, luou, light; PolUas, PoUueis, Pollux; frux,frugis, fruit. 

NoTB 2.— Greek nouna in px and ym are variously declmed: Xrya, Eryeis, Eiyx; 
tombgx, iomiggis, silkworm; Styx, Stygia, Styx; eooopx, coec^gia, cuckoo; owyx, 
onychia, onyx. 

98. Nouna in x after n or r: Genitive in cis : Stem in ci: 

arx, citadel, arois, aroi. 

Note 1. — Conjwnx or conjiKB, cortgugis, spouse. 

Note 2.— Most nouns in x preceded by n are of Greek origin : Vynx, ^»ci<, lynx; 
phala/nx, phalangia, phalanx. 


99. Nouns in the third declension ending in 

6, or, OS, er, and in es and es increasing in the Genitive,^ 
are masculine : sermo, discourse; dolor, pain; mos, custom; 
agger, mound ; pes, Grenitive pedis, foot. 

100. Nouns in O are masculine, except the Feminines, viz. : 

1. Nouns in 6, Gen. inis, except cards, ordo, turbo, masc, cupiM and 

margo, masc. or fem. 

2. Cars, flesh, and the Greek Argo, echo, echo. 

8. Most abstract and collective nouns in is : ratii, reason ; cordii, an 

101. Nouns in OR are masculine, except — 

1. TAe Feminine: — arhor, tree. 

2. The Neuters : — ador, spelt ; aegitor, sea ; cor, heart ; marmor, marble. 

1 02. Nouns in OS are masculine, except — 

1. The Feminines : — arbBs, tree ; cos, whetstone ; dos, dowry ; eSs, dawn. 

2. The Neuter ; — os, mouth. 

Note. — Oa, bone, and a few Greek words in oa are neuter : chaoa, chaos. 

103. Nouns in ER are masculine, except — 

1 That is, having more syllables in the Genitive than in the Nominative. 


1. The Feminvne : — Unter, boat (sometimes masc). 

i. The Neuters:— {1) cadaver, corpse; iter, way; tuber, tumor; aber, 

udder ; ver, spring ; verber, scourge ;— (2) botanical names in er, 

Gen. eris : acer, maple-tree ; papaver, poppy. 

104. Nouns in £S and ES incrs.ising in the GenitiTe are masculine, 

except — 

1. The Feminmes : — compes, fetter ; merces, reward ; merges, sheaf ; 

quies, rest (with its compounds) ; seges, crop ; tegea, mat ; some- 
times dies, bird, and quadrupes, quadruped. 

2. The Neuter : — aes, copper. 

105. Kouns of the third declension ending in 

as, as, is, ys, x, in es not increasing in the Oenitive, and 
in s preceded iy a consonant, 

are feminine : ' aetds, age ; ndvis, ship ; cMamys, cloak ; 
pax, peace ; nubes, cloud ; urbs, city. 

106. Nouns in AS and AS are feminine, except — 

1. The Masculines : — as, an as (a coin), vas, surety, and Greek nouns in 

as, Gen. aniis. 

2. The Neuters : — vas, vessel, and Greek nouns in as, Gen. atis. 

107. Nouns in IS and YS are feminine, except the MasciUines, viz. : 

1. Nouns in alls, oUis, cis, mis, nis, guis, quis: ndtdlis, birthday; 

ignis, fire ; sanguis, blood. But a few of these are occasionally 
feminine : canis, amnis, dnis, finis, anguis, iorquis. 

2. Ams, axle ; buris, plough-tail ; cailis, path ; ' enm, sword ; lapis, 

stone ; mensis, month ; orbis, circle ; postis, post ; pulvis, -dust ; 
senlis, brier ; torris, brand ; vectis, lever ; and a few others. 

3. Names of mountains in ys : Othrys. 

1 08. Nouns in Z are feminine, except the Masculines, viz. : 
1. Greek masculines : corax, raven ; thSrOz, cuirass. 

9. Nouns in ex and umt ; except the feminines : /aex,/oifex, nex, (prex), 

S. Calix, cup ; fornix, arch ; phoenix, phoenix ; trOdmx, vine-layer, and 
a few nouns in yx. 

4. Sometimes : calx, heel ; calx, lime ; lynx, lynx. 

1 09. Nouns in ES not increasing in the Genitive are feminine, except 
the Masculines, viz. : 

1 NomiB whobe gender is determined hy SigniflcaMon (42) may be exceptions to 
these rules for gender as determined by SndAngs. CalUs is sometimes /emdnine. 


Adtnaces, cimeter ; sometimes palumbes, dove ; and vepres, thom-bush. 
NoTB. — For Greek nouns in ee, see 111, note. 

110. Nouns in S preceded by a Consonast are feminine, except the 
Masculines, viz. : 

1. Dens, tooth ; fans, fountain ; mons, mountain ; pSns, bridge ; gener- 

ally adeps, fat, and rudens, cable. 

2. Some nouns in ns, originally adjectives or participles with a mascu- 

line noun understood : oriens (sol), east ; conjluens (amnis), con- 
fluence ; tndens (raster), trident ; guadrSris (as), quarter. 

3. Ohalybs, steel ; hi/drops, dropsy, and a few other Greek words. 

4. Sometimes : forceps, forceps ; serpens, serpent ; stirps, stock. .4m- 

ma«s, animal, is masculine, feminine, or neuter. 

111. Nouns of the third declension ending in 

a, e, i, y, c, 1, n, t, ar, ar, ur, us, and us 

are neuter : ' poema, poem ; mare, sea ; lac, milk ; animal, 
animal ; carmen, song ; caput, head ; corpus, body. 

Note. — A few Greek nouns in es are also neuter : cacoetJies, desire, passion. 

112. Nouns in L, AR, and AR are neuter, except the Masculines, viz. ; 
Mugil, mullet ; sS?,' salt ; sol, sun ; lar, hearth ; salar, trout. 

113. Nouns in N are neuter, except — 

1. Ths Masculines : — pecten, comb ; ren, kidney ; ZJen, spleen ; and 

Greek masculines in an, en, in, on : paean, paean ; canon, rule. 

2. The Feminines: — aedon, nightingale; alcyon {halcj/on), kingfisher; 

Icon, image ; sindon, muslin. 

114. Nouns in UR are neuter, except the Masculines, viz. : 
Furfur, bran ; turtur, turtle-dove ; vuliur, vulture. 

115. Nouns in US and US are neuter, except — * 
1. The Masculines : — lyms, hare ; mus, mouse ; and Greek nouns in pus. 

3. The Feminines : — tellus, earth ; fraus, fraud ; laus, praise ; and nouns 

in us. Gen. iitis or udis : virtus, virtue ; palUs, marsh. 


116. Nouns of the fourth declension end in 

us — masculine; u — neuter. 
They are declined as follows : 

^ Bee foot-note, page 47. Sal Is sometimes neuter in ttie slngulmr. 


Fructus, fruit. 

Comu, horn. 



Nam. fructus 




Gen. fructas 




Dot. f ractiil, a ' 


ul, a' 


Ace. fructiim 




Voe. fruptus 




AM. fruottt 





Nam. fructas 




Oen. fructuiun 




Sat. fructibus 


ibus (ubua) 

ibus (ubus) 

Ace. fructas 




Voe. fructas 




Abl fructiltns 


ibus (ubus) 

ibus (ubus) 

1. The Stem in nouns of the fourth declension ends in u : fiuctu, comu. 

2. The Case-Endings here given contain the characteristic u, weal^ened 
lo ( in ibus, but retained in ubns ; see 23. 

117. The following Ireeqclar Case-Eitoings occur : ' 

1. UbuB for tfrus in the Dative and Ablative Plural — 

1) Eegularly in acu», needle ; arcui, bow ; and tnbw, tribe. 

2) Often in artus,' joint ; lacue, lake ; partus, birth ; partus, harbor^ 
tpeous, cave ; and veru, spit. 

8) Occasionally In a few other words, as genii, knee ; tonitms, thunder, etc. 

2. XSia, the uncontracted form for Us, in the Genitive : frOetuii for 

8. TTos, an old form ' of the Genitive ending : senOtuos,^ of the senate. 

118. Nouns in us are masculine, those in u are neuter, but the fol. 
lowing in us ar^— 

^ Thus ul Is contracted into u :frucbj/i, fructu. 

^ To these should be added the rare endings vd for u in the Abl. Sing., utM forua in 
the Oen. Sing., and uu» for «< in the Kom., Ace., and Yoc PL See Wordsworth, pp. 60-62. 

3 Generally plnial, Umbe. 

^ It has been ah^ady mentioned (47, note 1) that the five declensions are only five 
rarleties of one general system of inflection. The close relationship between the third 
declension and the fbnrth will he seen by comparing the declension oifrvctus, a v-nonn 
of the fontth, with that of grSs (66, 2), a u-nuon of the third. In fact, if the old Geni- 
-tive ending via had not been contracted into us, there would have been no fourth do- 
elenslon whatever. All v-noons would have belonged to the third declension. 

& Oompare the Greek Genitive in voe : (x^<^s> '■x'^^y fis^- 

* This was first weakened to aendiuia (SS), and then contracted to aendtus (98, i\ 
the classieal fiuin. 



FKUonirE BT EzcEPnoK : — (1) actu, needle; (X)?!W, distaff; domyu,\i.iswi\ 
marms, hand; poHieus, portico; iritnis, tribe; — (2) Idmi, Ides; 
Quinqudtrua, feast of Minerva ; generally penits, store, when oi 
this declension ; rarely specus, den ; — (3) see 4a, II. 

KoTE. — The only neuter nouns in coramon use are oomit^ genu^ and vtru.^ 

119. Second and Fourth Declensions. — Some nouns are partly of 
the fourth declension and partly of the second. 

1. Domus, F., house, has a Locative form doml, at home, and is other, 
wise declined as follows : ' 



domuum, domOrum 


domos, domOs 



S. Certain names of trees m us, as eupreams,fieua, laurva, plmit, though 
generally of Decl. II., sometimes take those cases of the fourth which end in 
ue, us, and a ; N. laurus, G. Icmrus, D. lauro, A. laurwm, V. Imirus, A. laimrii, 
etc. So also coIms, distaff. 

3. A few nouns, especially eenStus, senate, and tumuUus, tumult, though 
regularly of Decl. IV., sometimes take the Genitive ending i of the second ; 
lenSM, IwmmlM. 

i. Querms, oak, regularly of Decl. IV., has quercSrum in the Gen. PJur. 


120. Nouns of the fifth declension end in es— feminine, 
and are declined as follows : 

Dies, day. Res, thing. 







domui (domO) 






domo (domll) 








di«I or die 

rfel or re 

&, 6 


diei or die 

rel or rC 














> But neater forms occur Id certain caseB of other words. Thus, Dat. pBOul^ AM 
peoiZ. Nom., Ace., and Yoc. PI. pecua, from obsolete peeii^ cattle ; also artua tna 
artuM ; oasua from obsolete osm^ bone ; apeaua from spe^ua. 

3 Comblnmg forms of the second declension with those of the fourth. 




























1. The Stem of nouns of the fifth declension ends in § : die, r2.> 

2. The Cask-Endings here given contain the characteristic o, which ap. 
pears in all the cases. It is shortened (1) generally in the ending H, when 
preceded by a consonant, and (2) regularly in the ending em. 

XOTS.— Tnou of a Locative in « are preserved in certain phrases fonnd in early 
Latin, as die teptimi, on the aeventli day ; die crattini, on the morrow ; dieproximi 
on the next day. OotidU, hodie,pridie, and the like are doubtless Locatives in origin. 

121. iBEEGiTLiE Case-Endings. — The following occur: 

1. I or ei for l> in the Gen. and Dat.: acit for aciel, of sharpness; 
dtS for (ffieiy m for rets pemieii toTpemiciel, of destruction. 

2. Eb in the Gen. in early Latin : dies, of a day ; rabies, of madness. 

122. Defective. — ^Nouns of this declension want the plural, except' 

1. ZHis and res, complete in all their parts. 

S. Aeies, sharpness ; ^igies, image ; fades, face ; series, series ; species, ap- 
pearance ; spet,' hope, used in the Sing., and in the Nom., Ace., and Voc. Plur. 

3. Muvils, used in the Sing, and in the Nom. Plur., and glades in the 
Sing, and in the Ace. Plur. 

1 23. Gender. — Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine — 

ExoEFT dieSj day, and mer^di^, midday, masculine, though diis is some 
times feminine in the singular, especially when it means time, 

124. General Table of Geijder. 

I. Gender independent of ending.* Common to all de- 

* Originally most e-stems appear to have been either o-steme or a-stems. Thus: 1) 
Most stems In ie are modified irom id : materia, mdterie, Nom. mdterii-s, material; 
■ee 25, 1, note, with foot-note 6. In this class of words the Gen. and Dat. Sin^. are 
formed from the stem in id, not fl-om that in i'^a: mdteriae, not m'.teriei. 2) Diia 
Jidea, plebes, and spis appear to have been 9-stems, modified to ^-stems. as many 
•-stems in the third declension were modified to £-stems; see S2, L, 1. foot-note. 

' A few plural forms in addition to those here given are sometimes cited, but seem 
oot to occur in writers of the classical period. 

' In early Latin spires occurs in the Horn, and Ace. Flor-, (armed from spia treated 
W a stem In «. Thna: spes, splsl4, spires (31, 1). 

* For exceptions, see 43, 



Names of Males, of 
RiVERa, WiSDS, and 

Names of Females, of 
Countries, Towns, Isl- 
ands, and Trees. 

Indeclinable Nouns,' In. 
FiNiTiTES, and Glauses 
used as Noum, 

II. Gender determined by Nominatiye ending." 

Declension I. 
I Feminine. I Neater. 

I a, e. I 


as, es. 

er, ir, us, os, 5s. 

6, or, OS, er, is and 

es increasinff in the 

I I 

Declension III. 
as, as, is, ys, s, es and 
es not increasinff in tJie 
Genitive, a preceded by 
a consonant. 

um, on. 

a. «. I> y. c> 1> n> t. Sr. 
ar, ur, us, us. 



Declension IV. 

Declension V. 


135. Compounds present in general no peculiarities of declension. 

1. If two nominatives unite, they are both deollDed : ' rlspvhUea = rUpHJi- 
Uca, republic, the public thing ; jusjurandvm, =jusjv/randmn, oath. 

■ 2. If a nominative unites with an oblique case, only the nominative is 
declined : ' paterfamiKas = pater famiUas (49, 1), or pater famiUae, the father^ 
of a family. 

126. Paradigms. 


Nom. respublioa 
Gen. reipilblioae 
Dal. rSlpOblioae 
Ace. rempHblioam 
Voc. respflblioa 
Abl. rgpublioa 









> Except nameB of persons. 

3 For exceptions, see under the several declensions. 

' Words thus formed, however, are not compounds in the strict sense of the term 
see 340, 1., note. 



Som. rSspttblicae iar^jflranda patrgsfamilifts 

6»n. rgrumpdblioarnm patrumfamilias 

Dot. rebuspabliois patribusfamilias 

Aec. rSspublicas jaiajilranda patresfamiliaB 

Voc. rSspublioae ior^aranda patrgsfamilias 

All. rebuspilblicis patribusfamilias 

KoTB 1. — ^The parts which compose these and similar words are often and perhaps 

more correctly written separately: reapublica; pater /amilids m/amiliae. 

NoTH ij—P(Uerfamilid» sometimes has famiUdrum. In the plural : patretfamiU- 



127. Irregular nouns may be divided into four classes: 
I. Indeclinable Nouns hare but one form for all cases. 
EC. Defective Nouns want certain parts. 

ni. Heteroclites {heterodita') are partly of one declension and partly 
}f another, 

IV. Heteroseneous Nouns {heterogenea ') are partly of one gender and 
partly of another. 

I. Indeci-inable Nouns. 

128. The Latin has but few indeclinable nouns. The following are 
the most important : 

1. The letters of the alphabet, a, 5, c, alpha, tUa, etc. 

8. Foreign words : Jacdb, lUberi ; though foreign words often are declined, 

n. Dbfectivb Notws. 

1 29. Nouns may be defective in Number, in Case, or in both NwnJber 
and Case. 

1 30. Plural ve anting. — Many nouns from the nature of their signi- 
fication want the plural : Roma, Rome ; jUslitia, justice ; aurum, gold ; /a~ 
mis, hunger; sanguis, blood. 

1. The principal nouns of this class are: 

1) Most names of persons and places : OieerS, BBma, 

2) Abstract Nouns : fides, faith ; juatUia, justice. 

S) Names of materials : aurum, gold ; ferrum, iron. 

4) A few others : meridies, midday ; specimen, example ; supellex, furm- 
ture ; ver, spring ; veepera, evening, etc. 

2. Proper names admit the plural to designate /omiit««, classes; names ot 
materials, to designate pieces of the material or articles made of it ; and ab- 
stract nouns, to designate instances, or kinds, of the quality : Sdpionis, the 
Scipios; ow-a, vessels of copper; amr'iiioe, instances of avarice; (wiio, hatreds. 

8. In the poets, ihepVural of abstracts occurs in the sense of the singular. 

> From Irepo?, another, and icAto-is, ivfiecUon, i. 0., of different declensions. 
* From ercpo;, a/nolher, and yivo^, gender, i. e., of different genders. 



131, SiNOULAK WANTiNO. — ^Many nouns want the singular. 

1. The most important of these are : 

1) Certain personal appellatives applicable to classes : m^/SrSSjfore&thera; 
posieri^ descendants ; gemiTVi^ twins ; Uberi^ children. 

2) Many names of cities; Athenae, Athens; Thebae, Thebes; DelpM, 

3) Many names of festivals : Bacchdndlid, Olympia, Saturnalia. 

4) Arma, arms ; divitiae, riches ; exseguiae, funeral rites ; exuviae, spoils ; 
Idas, Ides ; indutiae, truce ; itisidiae, ambuscade ; mdnis, shades of the dead ; 
rmnae, threats ; moenia, walls ; munia, duties ; tiMpiiae, nuptials ; tiUgniae, 

2. An individual member of a class designated by these plurals may be de- 
noted by uaut ex with the plural: unue ex Ubens, one of the children, or a child. 

Note. — The plural In names of cities may have reference to the several parts of the 
city, especially as ancient cities were often made up of separate villages. So in the names 
of festivals, the plural may refer to the various games and exercises which together con- 
stituted the festival. 

1 32, Plubal with Change of Mbakino. — Some nouns have one sig 
nification in the singular and another in the plural. Thus : 


^edes, temple; 
Auxilium, Ttelp/ 
Csjoer, prison, harHeir; 
Castrum, castle, Jmt; 
Comitium, name of a part Iff (he 

Soman forwm ; 
C6pia, plenty, force ; 
Facult&s, abiUtyj 
Finis, end; 
Fortuna, fortwae; 
Gratia, gratitude, favor; 
Hortus, garden ; 
[mpedimentum, Mnd/ranet; 
Littera, letter of alphabet } 

Ludus, play, sport; 

Mas, custom; 

Natalis (diss), hirth-day; 

Opera, work, service; 

Pars, part ; 

Rostrum, ieah of ship; 

S&l, salt ; 


aedes, (1) temples, (2) a houst.* 

auxilia, auxiliaries. 

caroeres, barriers of a race-course, 

castra, camp. 

oomitia, the assembly held in the comitiym. 

cOplae, (1) stores, (2) troops. 
&cultates, wealth, means. 
fines, borders, territory. 
fortanae, possessions, weaUh. 
gratiae, thanhs. % 

horti, {1) gardens, {2) pleature-grounds. 
impedimenta, (1) hindrances, (2) baggage. 
litterae, (1) letters of alphabet, (2) qiistle, 

writing, letters, literature. 
lltdl, (1) plays, (2) public spectacU. 
mOrSs, manners, character. 
OitalSs, peeKgree, parentage. 
operae, worhmen. 
partSs, {V) parts, {2) a party. 
rostra, (1) beahi, (2) the rostra or tritnuM 

in Some (adorned with beaks), 
sales, witty sayings. 

* Aedes and some other words in this list, it will be observed, have in the plural two 
•Igniflcations, one corresponding to that of the singular, and the other distinct ft'om It 


1 S3. Defeotite in Case. — Some nouBS are defective in case : 

1. In the Nom., Dat., and Voo. Sing. : , opis, , opem, , opt, 

help ; , iiieia,^ , vicem, , vice, change. 

2. In the Nom., tien., and Voc. Sing. : , pre(A, precem, ,prece, prayer. 

8. In the Nom, and Voc. Sing. : , dapis,^ dapi, dapem, , dape, 

food ; , frUgis, frUgi, frugem, ,frttge, fruit. 

4. Inthe6en.,Dat.,and Abl.Plur.: Most nouns of the fifth Decl. ; seeing. 

NoTB. — Many neuters are also defective In the Gen., Dat., and Abl. Plur. ; /or, fel^ 
mel^ pue^ ru8, tua, etc., especially Greek neuters in os, which want these cases also in 
the singular : epoa^ meloa ; also a few noiios of Decl. IT. : metita^ situs, etc. 

6. In the Gen. Plur. : many nouns otherwise entire, especially monosylla- 
bles : tiex, pax, pix ; cor, coa, ros ; sal, sol, lax. 

134. Number and Case. — Some nouns want one entire number and 
certain cases of the other. The following forms occur: /ors, forte, 
c]iance ; ItiSs, hiem, lite, pestilence ; diciSnis, dicioni, dicionem, dieiSne, sway. 
FSs, right, and nefas, wrong, are used in the Nom., Aoc, and Voc. Sing. ; 
inxtar, likeness, nihil, nothing, and opus, need, in the Nom. and Ace. ; 
aems, sex, in the Ace. only. Many verbal nouns in S and a. few other 
words have only the Ablative Singular : jussu, by order ; manddtu, by com- 
mand ; rogOtU, by request ; sponte, by choice, etc. 

ni. Hbteroclitbs. 

135. Of Declensions II. and IV. are a few nouns in us ; see 119. 

136. Of Declensions II. and III. are — 

1. JUgerum, an acre ; generally of the second Decl. in the Sing., and of 
the third in the Plur. : jugermn,,jugen ; f\arti\,jv,gera,jugermn,jugeriJ>m. 

2. Vde, a vessel ; of the third Decl. in the Sing, and of the second in the 
Plur. : vis, vdsia ; plural, vdaa, vdaorum. 

3. Plural names of festivals in aUa : Baechdiialia, Sdtumdlia/ which are 
regularly of the third Dec]., but sometimes form the Gen. Plur. in drum of 
the second. AncUe, a shield, and a few other words have the same peculiarity. 

. 137. Of Declensions III. and V. are — 

1. Beqmes, rest; which is regularly of the third Decl., but also takes the 
forms requiem and requie of the fifth. 

2. Faroes, hunger; regularly of the third Decl., except in the Ablative, 
fana, of the fifth (not fame, of the third). 

138. Forms in ia and iSs. — Many words of four syllables have one 
form in ia of Decl. I., and one in tes of Decl. V. : luxuria, luxuries, lux- 
ury ; materia, mOteries, material. 

139, Forms in ub and um. — Many nouns derived from verbs have one 
form in us of Decl. IV., and one in um of Decl. II. : cdnHtus, cdnatwr\ 
attempt ; eventm, iventum, event. 

' Defective also in the Gen. Plur. 


140. Many words which have but one approved form in prose, admit 
another in poetry : juventus (utis), youth ; poetic, juventa (ae) : tenectSa 
(iitia), old age; poetic, senecta (ae): paupertds (atis), poverty; poetic, 
pauperies (SI). 

IV. Heterogenbous Nouns. 

141. Masculine and Neuter. — Some maso'ilines take in the plural an 
additional form of the neuter gender : 

Jocat, m., jest; pluTal,yo<», m.,joca, n. 

Zocut, m., place ; plural, loci, m., topics, loca, n., places. 

142. Feminine and Neuter. — Some feminines take in the plural an 
additional form of the neuter gender : 

Carbaxua, f., linen; plural, carbati, f., carbaea, n. 

Margarita, f., pearl; plural, margaritae, f., margarUa, n. 

Oitrea, f., oyster; plural, ostreae, f., ostrea, n. 

1 43. Neuter and Masculine or Feminine. — Some neuters take in the 
plural a different gender. Thus : 

1. Some neuters become maseulme in the plural : 

(7a«fom, n., heaven; plural, ca«2t, m. 

2. Some neuters generally become maseuUne in the plural, but sometimes 
remain neuter : 

M-inmn, n., bridle ; plural, freni, m., frena, n. 

Bastrmn, ii., rake; plural, rdstri, m., rostra, n. 

8. Some neuters become feminine in the plural : 
EpuVum, n., feast ; plural, ^ulae, f. 

144. Forms in us and run. — Some nouns of the second declension 
have one form in us masculine, and one in vm neuter : clipeue, clipeum, 
shield ; commentarius, commeniSrium, commentary. 

1 45. Heterogeneous Eeteroclites. — Some heteroclites are also hete- 
rogeneous : cdnotus (iis), conaium (I), effort ; meiida (ae), mendmn (I), fault. 



146. The adjectiTe is the part of speech which is used 
to qualify nouns : bonus, good ; mdgnus, great. 

NoTB. — The form of the adjective In Latin depends in part upon the gender of the 
nonn which it qualifies: bonus jmer, a good boy; bonapuella^ el good girl; honwm tem/' 
pVwm^ a good temple. Thus, In the Nom. Sing., bonus la the form of the adjective wnei 
used with masculine nouns, bona with feminine, and bonum with neuter. 



147. Some adjectives are partly of the first declension 
and partly of the second, while all the rest are entirely of 
.he third declension. 

FrasT ANB Second Declensions : A and O Stems. 

148. Bonus, good.^ 

' "^ 





Norn, bonus 



Oen. bonl 



Dot. bono 



Aoc. bonnin 



Voc bone 



Abl. bono 






Oen. bondrum 



Dot. bonis 



Ace. bonos 



Voc. boni 



Abl bonis 



149. lAher, free." 





Nom. liber 



Oen. Uberl 



Bat. libero 



Ace. Ubemni 



Voc. Ilber 



Abl. liberS 




Nom, Ilberl 



Oen. Uberdrum 



Dot. llberls 



Ace. llberds 



Voc. Uberl 



Abl. Uberls 



* Bonus \% declined in the Masc. \\!k.e»ervu8 of Decl. II. (61), In the Fern, like mensa 
af Decl. L (48), and in the Neut. like templum of Decl. II. (61). The stems are &09M 
In the Masc. and I^eut., and bond in the Fem. 

* Ubeb is declined in the Masc. like pzier (51). and in the Fern, and Nent. like boniui 


150. Aeger, siei;.^ 


Jfom aeger 

Gen. aegri 

Dai. aegrd 

Ace. aegrmn 

Vbc. aeger 

AM. aegrO 

Nom. aegri 
Gen. aegrSrnm 
Dat. aegrls 
Ace. aegros 
Voc. aegrI 
AM. aegrls 









Note. — ^Most adjectives in er are deoliaed like aeger, but the following ii 
er and ur are declined like liier ; 

1) Asper, rough ; lacer, torn ; miser, wretched ; prosper, prosperous ; Uner. 
tender ; but asper sometimes drops the e, and denier, right, sometimes retains 
it : dexier, dextera, or dextra. 

2) Satur, sated ; satar, satura, saturum. 

8) Compounds infer and ger ; mortifer, deadly ; dliger, winged. 

151. Iekbgulaeities. — Nine adjectives have in the 
singular ius '' in the Genitive and i in the Dative, and are 
declined as follows : 













alius 9 






































I Aeosb 1b declined in the masculine like ager (51), and in the feminine and nentet 
like ionua. 

^ liDlusia often shortened by the poeta; regul&rlj bo in alt^rius in dactylic vent 

> Barely aHs and alid. The same stem appears ia aU-quia (100, 2), some one^ 
aU-t»r, otherwise. 

* For aHiu8 by contraction. AlUriua often supplies the place of allttt 



Horn, alil 






9en. aliorum 






Dot. alilB 






Ace. alios 










Abl. ft1iT» 






1. These nine at^ectives are: oKtM, o, «rf, another ; nsWa*, o, «m, no one; 
solvg, alone ; totus, whole ; ullus, any ; flwas,' one ; alter, -tera, -terum,' the 
other » ; titer, -tra, -trum,* which (of two) ; neuter, -tra, -trmn,^ neither. 

KoTE 1.— The regular forms occasionally occur in the Oen. and Dat. of some of theM - 

NoiB 2. — Uke uter are declined its compounds : vierque, uiervU, ttt&rlibet, uter- 
ewigue. In aUeruter sometimes both parts are declined, as aUwius uirius; and 
sometimes only the latter, as alterutrma. 

Third DECiiKNSiON : CossoNAin" akd I Stems. 

152. AdjectiTes of the third declension may be divided 
into three classes : 

I. Those which hare in the Nominative Singular three 
different forms — one for each gender. 

II. Those which have two forms — the masculine and 
feminine being the same. 

III. Those which have but one form — the same for aU 

153. Adjectives of Three Eitdings in this declension 
have the stem in i, and are declined as follows : 

Acer, Aarp.* 





Jfom. ficer* 



Gen. icTim 



Dat. acrX 



Aee. acrem 



Voe. Seer 



AhL acrl 



* See dedensloiL, 175. 

' Gen. att^rhis^ Dat alteri ; otherwise declined like Uber (149). 
' Or one ^ ttoo^ the one. 

* Oen. tUritis^ Dat uiri; otherwise like aeger (150). J^euter like uier. 

* AoxB is declined like ignis in the Masc and Fern., and like mare (63) in the Nent, 
•xoept in the Nom. and Yoc Sing., Uasc, and in tiie AbL Sing. 

* These forms in er are like those in er of Deel. II. in dropping the ending in the 
Kom. and Voo. Sing, and in developing final r into er: deer for dcris, stem, dcri. 












acres, Is 






Norn, acres 
Oen. acrium 
Dat. acribus 

Ace, acrSs, Is 
Voc. acrSs 
Abl. acribus 

NoTB 1. — Like Aobk are declined : 

1) jltocer, lively ; ca/mpest&r^\eve\\ celeher, famouB; celer^^ swift; equester, eques 
trian; paluster, marsliy; pedester, pedestrian; puter^ putrid; saMber^ healthful; Sil- 
vester, woody ; t&rreater, terrestrial ; Dolucer, winged. 

2) Adjectives in er designating the months : October, bris.^ 

Note 2.— In the poets and in early Latin the form in er, as deer, is sometimes feml- 
Qine, and the form in is, as dcris, is sometimes masculine. 

154, Adjectives of Two Endings are declined as 
follows : 

Tnstis, sad.' 

Tristior, sadder/ 


M. AND P. 


M. AND F. 
































trtstiore (I) 



trlBtia " 














tnstes, Is 


trlstiorSs (Is) 

tnstiora , 











Note 1. — Like trUUor^ comparatives, as consonant stems, generally have the Abl. 
Sing-, in e. sometimes in % the Nom. Plur. Neut. in a, and the Gen. Plur. in um. But 
complures^ several, has Gen. Plur. co7npluriv/m ; Nom., Ace, and Toe. Plur. Neut. 
complura or oompMria ; see Plus, 165. 

^OTB 2. — In poetry, adjectives in is, e, sometimes have the Abl. Sing, in 6 : otgw- 
mvne from oognominU, of the same name. 

1 This retains e in declension : oeler, celeria, eelere ; and has wm in the Gen. Plur. 
a See also 77, 2, note. 

8 TYietis and triste are declined like derU and acre ; the stem is tristi. 
* TrUtior iB the comparative (160) of ^isft's; the stem was originally <r2«^«, bnl 
ft has been modified to iristius (61, 1) and trisUor (31). 
^ Enclosed endlngB are rare. 



155. Adjectives of Oste En^ding generally end in s or 
X, but sometimes in I or r. 

156. Audax, 



hippy. ^ 


M. amdF. 


M. AND F. 


Nom. audax 




&en. audacis 




Dal. aud£cl 




^ee. audScem 




Voc. audax 




^W. audacl(e) 

audaci (e) 


fellcl (e) 

fellcl (e) 

iVbm. audacSs 




€hn. audacimn 




Dot. audacibus 




Ace. audacSs (Is 

) audacia 

felices (Is) 


Voc. audac6s 




AU. audacibus 




157. Amans, 





m. USD'S. 


M. andF. 


Nom. amans 




Om. amantis 

amantis ' 


prudentis ' 

Dot. amanti 




Ace. amantem 




Voc. amans 




Abl. amante (X) 

amante (I) 


priidenti (e) 

priidenti (e) 

Nom. amantCs 




Qen. amantinm 




Dot. amantibns 




Ace. amantes (Is 

) amantia 

prudentes (Is 

) prudentia 

Voc. amantes 




Abl. amantibns 




NoTs.— The participle amans differs in declension from the adjective prudent only 

in the AbL Sing., where the participle usually 

has the ending e, 

and the adjective, i. 

^ Observe that e in the Abl- Sing., and ia^ iunt, and is in the Plnr., are the regular 
oase-endlDga for t-stems ; see 63 and 63. 

3 According' to Ritschl, Schmitz, and others, the e which is long in pfUdSfia before m 
Ib short in all other forms of the word, i. &., before nt. In the same manner the a which 
is long in amdna^ is according to Ritschl short in amantiA, amanti^ etc ; see p. 87, foot- 
note 2. See also Schmitz, pp. 3-26; Kitschl, Bhein. Maseom, xxxi., p. 4SS ; MiUler, p. 2t 


Participles need adjectively may of conrse take i. A few ad}ectlTeB have only e In gw 
era] use: — (1) pa/uper^ paupere^ poor; pubes, pubere^ mature; — (2) those in es,G 
itis or idis : alee, deeee, -fwjes, soapea, anperetet; (3) eaelebt, compos, impoa, prUiapt. 

158. Vetus, old. 

Memor, mindful. 
































vetere (I) 

vetere (I) 

















veterSs (Is) 


memorSs (Is) 









1. Neuter Plural. — Many adjectives like memor, from the nature of 
their signification, want the Neuter Plural ; all others have the ending ia, 
as feUcia, j/rudentia, except Uher, ubera, fertile, and vetus, Vetera. 

2. Genitive Plural. — Most adjectives have ium, but the following 
have um : 

1) Adjectives of one ending with only e in the Ablative Singular (157, 
note) : pauper, pauperum. 

2) Those with the Genitive in eris, oris, uiis: vehts, veterwn, old; 
memor, memorum, mindful ; cieur, cicurum, tame. 

3) Those in ceps : anceps, ancipitum, doubtful. 

4) Those compounded with substantives which have um: tnojM (ops,' 
opiun), inopum, helpless. 


159. Irregular adjectives may be — 

I. Indeclinable: fnigl, frugal, good; nlquam, worthless; mllle, thou, 
sand; see 176. 

II. Defective : (c§terus) ciiera, cStenim, the other, the rest ; (iQdicer) 
indiera, ludicrum, sportive ; (s5ns) sorUis, guilty ; (sBminex) simineds, half 
dead; pawn, ae, a, few, used only in the Plural; see also 158, 1. 

III. Heteroolites. — Many adjectives have two distinct forms, one in 
w», a, um, of the first and second declensions, and one in is and « of th« 
third : hilarm and Mhris, joyful ; exanimus and exanimis, lifeless. 



160. Adjectiyes have three forms, called the Positive 
degree, the Comparative, and the Superlative: alius, al- 
tior, altissimus, high, higher, highest. These forms denote 
different degrees of the quality expressed by the adjective. 

161. The Latin, like the English, has two modes of com- 
parison : 

I. Teeminational CoMPAEisoiir — ^by endings. 

II. Adveebial Compaeison — ^by adverbs. 

I. Tebminational Compabison. 

162. Adjectives are regularly compared by adding to the 
stem of the positive the endings : 


Maso. Feu. Swri. Mabo. Fem. TSlwst. 

ior ior ius issimus issima issimum' 

altus, altior, altissimus, high, higher, highest, 
4evis, levior, levissimus, Mght, lighter, lightest. 
Kon. — ^Vowsi. Stems lose their final vowel; alto, altior, aXUseimus. 

163. Ikregulak Superlatives. — ^Many adjectives with regu- 
lar comparatives have irregular superlatives. Thus : 

1. Those in er add rimuB to this ending: ■ Ocer, Oerior, Ocerrirmis, sharp. 
Kon. — Vetua has veterrimus; mSMras, both mMwrrimms and maturitehmu; 

d6xt6r, dexHmvs, 

2. Six in ilis add limua to the stem : ' 

facilis, difficilis, eas;/, d^euU, 

similis, dissimilis, like, imMke, 

gracilis, humilis, slender, low: 

faeUis, faHUor, facUlimus, ImbieilUs has imbeeilUmui. 
S. Four in rus have two irregular superlatives : 
extents, exterior, extrSmus and extimus, outward, 

Inferus, inferior, infimus aTid Imus, lower, 

snperus, superior, suprSmus and sununus, tipper, 

posterus, posterior, postrSmus and postumus, next. 

' The superlative ending is-eimue is probably compounded of is, from tdfi, the original 
comparative ending (164, foot-note 4), and simus for timus ; ios-iimus := ios-simus = 
ts-sirnvs. Alter I and r, the first element is omitted, and s assimilated : facitis, factX- 
simvs, fadl-limua ; Acer, dcer-eimus, aeer-rimus; bat those in iUs drop the final 
Towel of tha stem. Bee Bopp, |S 291-107; Schleicher, pp. 488-494; Boby, p. IzvL 



164. Mgenus, providus, and compounds in dicns, ficus, and 
volu8, are compared with the endings entior and entissimus, as if 
from forms in ens: 













KoTB. — MiHJiCissimus occurs as the superlative of mij^ificus^ wonderAil. 

165. SPBCiAii Iekbgulaeities of Compabison. 

bonus, melior, optimus, good, 

maluB, pSJOT, pessimus, bad, 

magnus, major, maximus, great, 

parvus, minor, minimus, small, 

multus, plus, plurimus, much. 

NoTB 1. — Plus is neuter, and has in tlie singular only Nom. and Ace. ^^, and 6e| 
plurU. In the plural it has Nom. and Ace. pliires (m. and f.)t P^^a (n.), Gen. plvn 
am. Dat and Abl. pluribus. 

Note 2. — Dives, frug% and nequam are thus compared : 


( divitior, 

divitissimus, i 
ditissimus, i 











saoer, - 





I divitior 
1 drtior, 
nequam, nequior, 

citimus, nearer, 

deterrimus, worse, 
intimus, inner, 

Oeissimus, swifter, \ 


1. In a few participles used adjeotively : meritus, merOissimus, deserving. 

2. In these adjectives : 
dlversus, diversissimus, 
falsuB, falsissimus, 
inolutuB, inclutissimus, 
invltus, ' invitissimus. 

Note.— Many participles used adjeotively are compared in fUl : amams, amamUof, 
amanHssimus, loving ; doeius, doctiar, doctissimus, instructed, learned. 

1 68. Superlative wanting. 

1. In most verbals in ilis and bilis : docilis, docilior, docile. 

2. In many adjectives in alis and ilis : capitdlis, capitdMor, capital. 

8. In alacer, alacrior, active ; caeeus, blind ; diuiumus, lasting ; hngVn- 
([wm, distant; opimus, rich ; prodlvis, steep; projnnqitm, near ; soZfUting) 
salutary, and a few others. ' * 

4. Three adjeatives supply the superlative thii- • 




adoISBO&nB, adolSscentior, minimus natu,' 

juvenis, junior, minimus natu, 

senex, Benior, maxim us natu, old. 

169. Without Tbrminational Compabison. 

1. Many adjectives, from the nature of their signification, especially such 
as denote material, possession, or the relations of place and time : aureus, 
golden ; paternus, paternal ; Bomanus, Roman ; aesUms, of summer. 

2. Most adjectives in us preceded by a vowel: idSneus, suitable. 

3. Many derivatives in dlis, dris, ilis, vhis, icus, inns, orus; mortaUs 
(mors), mortal. 

4. Altms, white; claudus, lame ; y«r!M, wild ; lassus, weary; ni4rm,-woa- 
der&l, and a few others. 

n. Adverbiai, Comparison. 

1 70. Adjectives which want the terminatioual comparison, form the 
comparative and superlative, when their signification requires it, by pre- 
fixing the adverbs magis, more, and mSxime, most, to the positive : arduus, 
magia arduus, mSxime arduus, arduous. 

1. Other adverbs are sometimes used with the positive to denote different 
degrees of the quality : admodum, tialde, oppido, very ; imprvmXs, apprmi, in 
the highest degree. Per and prae in composition with adjectives have the 
force oivery ; perdifficilis, very difficult ; praedarm, very illustrious. 

2. Strengthening particles are also sometimes used — (1) With the com- 
parative : etiam, even, muUS, longi, much, far : etiam diligentior, even more 
diligent ; rmilto diUgeniior, much more diligent — (2) With the superlative : 
muUS, longi, much, by far ; quam, as possible : muUo or longe diligentissi- 
mus, by far the most diligent ; gtiam dUigentissimus, as diligent as possible. 


171. Numerals comprise numeral adjectiTes and numeral 

1 72. Numeral adjectives comprise three principal classes . 

1. Cardinal Numbers : unus, one ; duo, two.- 

2. Ordinal Numbers : ^rimMs, first ; secundus, second. 

3. Distributives : singuU, one by one ; blnl, two by 
two, two each, two apiece. 

1 73. To these may be added — 

' Smallest or youngest in age. NdtH is sometimes omitted. 

* The first ten cardinal numbers, mille, primus^ seeundua, and semel (once), four* 
teen words in all, fUmish the basis of the Latin numeral system. All other numerals are 
(brmed from these either by derivation or by composition. 



1. MuLTiPLiCATiTES, adjectives in plex, Gen. plicis, denoting so many 
fold : simplex, single ; duplex, double ; triplex, threefold. 

2. Frofobtionals, declined like bonus, and denoting so many times as 
great : duplus, twice as great ; triplus, three times as great. 

174. Table oe Numbbal Adjectives: 


1, tinuB, lina, unum 

2. duo, duae, duo 
8. trSs, tria 

4. quattuor 
6. qulnque 

6. sex 

7. septem 

8. ooto 

9. novem 

10. decern 

11. Undecim 

12. duodecim 

13. tredecim' 

14. quattuordeoim 

15. qnludecim 

16. ssdecim o?* sexdecim > 

17. septendeoim' 

18. duodevlginti ' 

19. Ilndsviginti » 

20. vigintl 

oi ( viginti tlnus 
I unuB et vigintI • 

22 jvlginti duo 
(duo et vIgintJ 

80. triginta 

40, quadraginta 

50. quinquagintfi 

60. BezS,ginta 

70. Bsptuagintft 

80. octSginta 


pilmuB, Jirst 
BecunduB,* second 
terlius, tldrd 
quftrtUB, fov/rth, 
quIntuB, fifth 
tertius decimus ' 
quartUB decimus 
qulntus decimus 
sextuB decimus 
Septimus decimus 
duodB vicSsimus • 
vicSsimus ' 
vicesimus pHmus 
flnuB et vIcSsimuB » 
vSoSsimus secundus 
alter et vicSsimus 
trIcSsimuB ' 
octOgSsimus ' 


singuU, one by otit 

binl, two by two 











teml deni 

quatemi denI 

quinl dSnl 

sSnl denI 

septeni denI 




vIcBni singull 

flingull et vlc6nl 

vioeni binl 

Mm et viceni 


quadragenl « 



1 Bometimes with the parts separated ; decern et ires ; decern et aea; etc. 

' Llteially two from twenty, one from twenty, by aubtractioo ; bat these numben 
jaay be expressed by addition : decern et octo; decern et novem or decern novem, ■ so 
S8, 99 ; 88, 89, etc., either by subtraction from trigintd, etc., or by addition to m^/irUi, 

^ If the tens precede the units, et is omitted, otherwise it is generally used. Ho ii 
English cardinals, twenty-one, one and twenty. 

* Alter iB often used for secundus. 

* Dedmus, with or without et, may precede : decimus et tertius or deoinvus tertius 
' Sometimes expressed by addition ; octamts deoitmts and nonus decimus. 

' Sometimes written with g: vlgestm-us; trigesimus. 






I centum unus 
I centum et UnuB ' 
ducenti, ae, a 
400. quadringentl 
600. quingenti 
600. ssscenti' 
700. Beptingentl 
800. ootingenti 
900. n6ngentl 
1,000. mlUe 
8,000. duo miliar 
100,000. centum mllia 
1,000,000. decies centena 
mllia < 

Obdhtals, UisTBiBimTxs. 

nonaggsimus nOnagenI 

centesimus . centSnl 

centeslmus primus centSni singu]! 

centgsimus et primus cent6nl et singula 

ducentesimus duoenl 

trecentesimus treoSnl 

quadringentesimus quadringem 

qulngentesimus quIngSnl 

sescentesimus " sgscSnl' 

septingentesimus septingSnl 

ootingentesimus ootingSnl 

nOngentesimus nongSnl 

mlUesunus singula mllia > 

bis mlUSsimus bina mllia 

centies millesimus centena mllia 

dedes centies millesi- decies centSna ml- 
mus lia 

1. OBDmAi.s with pars, part, expressed or imderstood, may be used to 
express fractions : tertia pars, a third part, a tliird ; qudrta pars, a fourth ; 
iuae Urtiae, two thirds. 

Note. — Cardinal numbers with partes are used In fractions when the denominator 
larger than the numerator by one : duae partSs^ two thirds, tres partes^ three fourths, etc. 

2. DisTBiBUTivEs are used — 

1) To show the number of objects taken at » time, often best rendered 
by adding to the cardinal each or apiece.' temos dendrios acdepH-unt, they 
received each three denarii, or three apiece. Hence — 

2) To express MuUiplicaUon : decies centena mllia, ten times a hundred 
thousand, a million. 

3) Instead of Cardinals, with nouns plural in form, but singular in sense : 
Hna casira, two camps. Here for singvM and term, uni and trini are used ■ 
unae Utterae, one letter ; irinae Htterae, three letters. 

4) Sometimes of objects spoken of in pairs : Mni scyphl, a pair of goblets ; 
and in the poets with the force of cardinals : hina TmslUia, two spears. 

3. Poets use numeral adverbs (181) very freely in compounding numbers* 
bis sex, for duodecim ; bis septem, for guattuordecim. 

4. Sescenti and mUle are sometimes used indefinitely for any large num- 
ber, as one thousand is used in English. 

1 In compounding numbers above 100, units generally follow tens, tens hundreds, eta, 
as in English ; but the connective et is either omitted, or used only between the two 
highest denominations : mUle centum vlginti or miUe et centtim vlgintl^ 1120. 

' Often incorrectly written sexcentl^ aexcentesimus. and sea^cenl. 

' Often written mVlia. For diu> imlia. bina mllia or Ms mille is sometimes used. 

* Literally "ten times a hundred thousand^' ; the table might be carried up to any 
desired number by using the proper numeral adverb with oeiiteiia miHa: centit's ceii- 
Una mllia, 10,000,000 ; sometimes in such combinations centena mitia is uaderetoo<*, 
and the adverb only is expressed, and sometimes eentum mHiQ ii used. 




















Tres, three. 


trSs, m. 

and f. 






trSs, tris 






Declension of Ntjmekal ADjBCTrrBS. 

175. tJnus, Duo, and Tres are declined as follows: 

tjnus, one. 

Norn, finus fina unum 

Gen. unlus finius unius 

Dot. unl fini fini 

Ace. finum finam finum 

Voc. fine fina finum 

Abl. unO fina un5 

Duo, two. 

Nom. duo duae duo' 

Gen. duOrum dufirum duOrum* 

Dat. duSbus duabus duObus 

Ace. du5s, duo duas duo 

Voc. duo duae duo 

Abl, duObus duabus duObus 

Note 1. — ^The plural of unus in the sense of alone may be naed with any noun : iln5 
UMl, the Ubii alone ; but in the sense of one, it is used only with nouns plural in fonn, 
but singular in sense : una castra, one camp ; wnae HUerae, one letter. 

Note 2.— Like duo is declined OTnbo, both. 

Notes. — Multl, many, and pluriml, very many, are indefinite numerals, and as 
such generally want the singular. But in the poets the singular occurs in the sense oi 
mam/y a : multa hostia, many a victim. 

1 76. The Cardinals from quattuor to eenivm, are indeclinable. 

1 77. Hundreds are declined like the plural of bonus : ducend, ae, a. 

1 78. MlUe as an adjective is indeclinable ; as a substantive it is used 
in the singular in the Nominative and Accusative,' but in the plural it is 
declined like the plural of mare (63) : mllia* milittm, mllibus. , 

NoTK. — With the »ub8fa/nfive mlll&, milia, the name of the objects enumerated is 
generally in the Genitive : mllle Iiominum, a thousand men (of men) ; but if a declined 
Dumeral intervenes it takes the case of that numeral : tria mlHa trecenil mlliiee, three 
thousand three hundred soldiers. 

1 79. Ordinals are declined like bonvs, and distributives like the plwd 
of bonus, but the latter often have um instead of Brum in the Genitive : 
binUm for binBrum. 

1 In the ending o in <2uo and am&f) (176, note 2), we have a remnant of the dual num* 
ber which has otherwise disappeared from the Latin, though preserved in Greek and Ban- 
skrit Compare the Sanskrit dva, the Greek {u'o, the Latin duo, and the English tmo. 

* Instead of diwrurti and dudrv/m, duiim. is sometimes used. 
■ Barely in other cases in connection with miUwm or mUihtui, 

* Generally written with one I : mlHa. but sometimes with two : mllUa, 



180. Numeral Symbols: 






















































10, or D. 












CIO, or M.' 








1. Latin KTrusBAL Symbols are oombiuations of: 1 = 1; V = 6; X 
L = 50 ; C = 100 ; 10 or D = 500 ; CIO or M = 1,000." 

2. In the Combination of these symbols, except 10, observe — 

1) That the repetition of a symbol doubles the value : II = 2 ; XX ='20. 

2) That any symbol standing before one of greater value, subtracts its 
own value, but that after one of greater value, it adds its own value : V = 6 ; 
IV = 5-1 = 4; VI = 5 + 1 = 6. 

3. In the Combination of 10 observe— 

1) That each (inverted C) after 10 increases the value tenfold : 10 = 500 ; 
100 = 500 X 10 = 5,000 ; 1000 = 5,000 x 10 = 50,000. 

2) That these numbers are doubled by placing C the same number ol 
times before I as stands after it : 10 = 500 ; CIO = 500 x 2 = 1,000 ; 100 = 
6,000 ; CCIOO = 5,000 X 2 = 10,000. 

3) That smaller symbols standing after these add their value : 10 = 600 ; 
100 = 600; IOCC = 700. 

NuMBRAi, Adverbs. 

181. To numerals belong also numeral adverbs : 


semel, once 

2. bis, twice 

3. ter, three Phnes 

4. quater 

5. qulnquiss^ 

6. sezies 

7. septiSs 

8. octiSs 

9. novies 

10. decigs 

11. UndeciSs 

12. duodeciSs 

' Thousands are sometimea denoted by a line over the symbol : II = 2,000 ; V = p,000. 

" The origin of these symbols is uncertain. According to Mommsen, / is the out- 
stretched finger ; F, the open hand ; X, the two hands crossed ; Z. the open hand like K 
but in a different position ; CJO is sapposed to be a modification of the Greek <1>, not other- 
wise used by the Romans, afterward changed to M; 10 ^ afterward changed to i), is a 
part of CIO ; Ci% also supposed to be a modification of the Greek @, but it may be the 
initial letter.of cenfum, as Jf may be that oiTtiUls. 

3 In adverbs formed from cardinal nnmbers, iea is the approved ending, though ient 
often occurs. In adverbs from indefinite numeral adjectives ieim is the approved ending 
totiene (from 1ot\ so often: quoiiine (from qw>t\ how often. See Brunbaoh, p. 14 



.. iMrdeoiM 

1 quaterdeoies 
( qulnquiesdeoiSs 

- - ( S6X1 k-fc-i.»ij 

'i octiSsdeciea 
. ( andevlcies 
■J novissdecies 

80. videi 

81. semel et vidsa 
22. bis et vicies 
BO. tncies 

40. quadragiea 
60. qulnquagies 
60. sexagies 
70. septuagies 
80. ootegies 
90. nOnSgies 

100. centiSs 

101. centies semel 

102. centiesbU 

aoo. doeentite 
800. trecentie* 
400. qnadringentli) 
600. quIngeDtifiB 
600. sescentieg 
TOO. septingeDtilg 
800. octingentiea 

' indngentiSa 
1,000. ralUies* 
2,000. bismillUs 
100,000. centies mlUisi 
1,000,000. mlUies mlUies 

Note 1.— In compounds of units and tens, the unit with et generally precedes, as IB 
the table : bis et vleies; the tens, however, with or without et, may precede, 

Note 2. — Another class of numeral adverbs in wn or o is formed flrom the ordlnali; 
primim, prlmo, for the £rst time, in the first place ; (ertima, tirHo, tat the tUid dm* 


182. In construction, Pronouns" are used either as Sub- 
stantives: ego, I, tu, thou; or as Adjectives: meiis, my, 
tuus, your. 

183. Pronouns are divided into six classes t 

1. Personal Pronouns : tU, thou. 

2. Possessive Pronouns : meus, my. 

3. Demonstrative Pronouns : hie, this. 

4. Eelative Pronouns : qui, who. 

5. Interrogative Pronouns : quis, who P 

6. Indefinite Pronouns : aliquis, some one. 

I. Personal Pronouns. 

184. Personal Pronouns,' so called because they desig- 
xiate the person of the noun which they represent, are : 

» MUU^ is often used indefinitely like the English a thousand timet. 

> But in their signification and use, Pronouns differ widely from ordinary substantlTea 
And adjectives, as they never name any object, action, or quality, but simply point owl 
lt« relation to the speaker, or to some other person or thing; see 314, IT., witli foot-note 

> Also railed Substaniive PrtmovmM, because they are always uBed wubstantioeiU' 

PROlfOUNa. 71 


Ta, «A«M. 


Wmn. ego* 



Gta. mel 



Dat. mihi <»■ ml 



Ace. mS 





.<1U mS 



Horn. nOs 



0^ (nostrum 




D(U. nSbls 



.^ce: nOs 





AM. nobis 



I. The Case-Endinqs of Pronouns differ considerably &om those of Nouns. 
S. Sul, of himself, etc., is often called the Rejlemve pronoun. 
S. Ehphatio Fobms in met occur, except in die Gren. Plur. : egomet, I my- 
self; Umet, etc But the Nom. tii has tiiU and tutemet, not t&mei. 
i. Eedtjplioated Fobhs. — iSSsa, titl, mime, for ««, «, tna. 

5. Anoibht abs Basb Fobms. — Mis for >»«>/ tis for tui; mid and «n^<a 
iana; ted for <?/ «3<{, «eps<s, for si. 

6. Cdu, when used trith the ablative of a Personal Pronoun, is appended 
to it : micum, ticum. 


185. From Personal pronouns are formed the Possessiveg: 
meus, a, um, mj/; noster, tra, trum, our; 

tuus, a, Tim, thj/, pour; vester, tra, trum, your; 
suns, a, um, his, hers, its; suus, a, mn, their. 

* QT Mmse^, Jiersel/, iteeff. The Nominatlre is not used. 

* Effo baa no connection fn form with mei^ viiAi, etc., but it corresponds to tlie 
Greek tyuv, eyu. The oblique cases of ego and tu In the singular are derived from tha 
Indo-European roots tiui and iea. Compare the Accusative Singular of each in — 

Sakskbit. Gbeee. Latin. English. 

mi-m or mil, lU, mi, me. 

trft-m or tvS, «' oral, tS, thee. 

iSul, fiM, se, in both numbers are formed ftom the root 6va. The origin of the plural 
fonna of t^o and tu is obscure. See Papillon, pp. 142-149 ; Kuhnor, I., pp. 378-8S2. 

' VestruTn and vestrl are also written vostrum and vostri. though less correctly. 
dfei, iui, «ul, nosti'l, and vestrl, are in form strictly Possessives in the Gen. Sing., but by 
use they have become FersonaL .^o«^rZ and ves^r; have also 1>ecome PJural. ThuB,mtfm0r 
*««fr% ^mindflil of you,'' means literally mindful tjfyourti^ 1. e., of your welfare, intereali 
Vos^rum and veeirtan, for noetrorum and vestroruTJi, »ro a^so Poaaessivea; see 18ff. 



ZToTB 1,- PosleBsives are declined as adjectlTes of the first end eeoond decleniloui 
bnt mev^ has in the Vocative Sln^lar Mascallne generally mi, sometlmeB mew^ ud 1| 
the Oenltlve Plural sometimes meum instead of meorti/m.^ 

N<yiE 2.— Emphatic forms in pte and met occur: suapfe^ euoTnet, 
NoTB 8.— Other possesslves are: (1) oOjvt, a, wm," 'whose,' and eiijut, li, twji,! 
* -whose?* declined like borws^ and (2) the Patrials, nostras^ Genitive atis^ 'of our coun- 
try,' vestrdSy Genitive dtis^ 'of your country,' and eO^as^ Genitive SMs^ 'of whose coun- 
try,' declined as adjectives of Declension IIL 

m. Dbmonstkativb Pkonouns. 
186. Demonstratiye Pronouns, so called because they spe- 
cify the objects to which they refer, are declined as follows: 
L Hie, thu." 




Fsu. Timet. 




Norn, hie 

haec hoc 




Oea. btijas 

hQjUS hajus' 




Dai. huio 

huic huio 




Aoz. bune 

hano hSo* 




AiL hSo 

bSo hoc 




n. Iste, 

tha, that qf yimrs ;' 


860 450. 



FeK. tfETJT. 




Kom. iste 

ista istud 




&en. istius 

istius istius^ 




Dca. istI 

istI btl 




Aee. istum 

istam istud* 




ML istO 

ista istO 




* In early Latin twus is sometimes written UyooBy and &mi8, aovot, 

* From the relative qm^ eujua (187), ^l^o written quoiua. 

* From the interrogative qwia^ cvjua (188), also written quMua. 

* The stem of hlG la Ao, ha^ which by the addition of i, another pronominal Btem, 
rfeen m i-8, *ho,* bf^omes in certain cases hi (for ho-€y, hae (for ha-i)^ as in Ai-c, luie-c 
The forma ho^ ha^ appear in ho-c^ ha-^c. Ancient and rare forms of this pronoun are 
J^ (for Ale), hoiua (tor hujua), hoic^ TtMce (for Jiuio), hone (for hwnc), heis^ heiseCf Ms^ 
Hsce (for hicsy M\ Mbua (for h%8). 

* The Genitive sufBx is us^ appended to the stem after the addition of i (foot-note 4) : 
fco-i-w*, Ji^us (i changed to^' between two vowels, 38) ; isto-i-U8^ istiua {i retained aftef 
t consonant). The sufi&x us, originally as^ is in origin the same as the sufiOx is in tha 
third declension. In one the original vowel a is weakened to u, and in the other to i 
Bee Wordsworth, p. 95 ; Gorssen, I., p. SOT, 

In prose i in the ending his Is generally long. 

* Demonstrative, Belative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Prononns want the Vooaflvt 
' Here the form with Cy haec, is sometimes used. 

The stem of iate (for istus) is isto in the Maso. and Neut., and ista in the Fem. 6 
*n weakened to e Id iste (/S4:, 1, note) and to u in istu-d. Ancient and rare forms of isit 



m. Ille, that,^ that one, lie, is declined like iste; see n. on the 
preceding page. 

IV. Is, he, this, that.* 

Norn, is 
Gen. Sjus 
Dot. k 
Ace. eum 
AM. eH 






V. Ipse, self, he.* 


Nam. ipse 
Oen. ipsius 
Dal. ipsi 
Ace. ipsum 
Abl. ipso 

YI. Idem, the same.* 



















els, ils 
els, ils 







ds, ils 
^s, iSa 








^s, ils 
els, ils 







are Utus (for itte), forms \a l,ae,l (for ius) in the Oenltlve, and In o, (M, S (for Q In th« 
Dat : Ml (for idius), i»td (for Uti), isiae (for ietiue or ittiy. 

> The stem of ille (for ielue) is Ulo, ilia. Ancient and rare forms are (1) iSita (for 
ille), forms in i, a«, { (for iju) in the Oenitive Singular, and in 6, ae,d (for {) in the 
Dative Singular: UK (for ilRua), etc.; (2) forms boia olMs or o^Je (for those from ille)i 
alius, olle, olio, eta 

' The stem ot is i» i, strengthened in most of Its case-forms to eo, to. Ancient or 
rare forms of is are, eis (for is) ,• e^i-ei, ei-ei, i-d, eae (for Dative Singular H); im, em 
(for ewn) ; e-eis, i-eis, eis (for Nominative Plural el) ; e-i-eis, ei-eis, e-eis, ibus, edbus 
(for els). To these may be added a few rare forms from a root of kindred meaning, so, 
m: sum, aam—&um., earn; sos, eds=66s, eds. This root appears in ip-sus, ip-ea, ip. 
9um. Si, if, and si-e, thus, are probably Locatives from this root or from sva, the root 
of s»i (184). 

3 Sometimes a diphthong in poetry. In the same way the plnral forms el, ti, els, ils, 
kre sometimes monosyllables. Instead of ii and ils, I and is are sometimes written. 

* See page T2, foot-note 6. 

^ Ipse (for ipsus = i-pe-sus) is compounded of is or its stem i, the intensive particle 
pe,*even,^ 'indeed,^ and the pronominal root so, so, mentioned in foot-note 2 above. 
The stem is ipso, ipsa, but forms occur with the first part declined and pse unchanged : 
eum-pse, eam-pse, etc. ; sometimes combined with re : redpse = ri-edpse = re ipsd, 'in 
reality.* Jpsus (for ipse) is not uncommon. 

* In idcTn, compounded of is and dem, only the first part is declined. Isdem is 
shortened to idem, iddem to idem, and m is changed to n before dem (33, 4). In 
early Latin eisdem and isdem occur for idem,- eidem and Idem for idem; aisd4'm 
md isdem in the Nominative Plural for eldvm. 




Maw. Two. TSmx. 

Ifom. Idem eadem idem 

Oen. Sjusdem Sjusdem Sjusdem 

Dot. Sidem &dem £ldem' 

Ace. eundem eandem idem 

Abl. eSdem eSdem eOdem 



eaedem eadea 




eCrundem eirundem eiSrundeu 

elsdem eisdem eladem' 

ilsdem iladem ilsdem 

eOsdem easdem eadem 

elsdem elsdem elsdem* 

ilsdem Usdem ilsdem 

1. Hio (for M-ee) is compounded with the demonstrative particle ce, 
meaning Tiere. The forms in o have dropped o, while the other forms have 
dropped the particle entirely. But ce is often retained for emphasis ; hlce, 
hHjusce, hosce, horvmce (m changed to n), horunc {e dropped). Oe, changed 
to ci, is generally retained before the interrogative ne : hldne, hdscine. 

2. Illio and Isiio,' also compounded with the particle co, are declined 
alike, as follows : 









Nom, illio 


illoo (illoo) 




Gen. iUlusce 



J)(a. illio 






Ace. Uluno 


illoo (iUOo) 




AU. illoo 






8. Stmoopated Foems, compounded of ecce or ?», 'lo,' 'see,' and some 
cases of demonstratives, especially the Accusative of ille and is, occur; eceSm 
for ecce emn ; eecds for ecce eos ; ellmn for in, illwm ; illaim for 8« illam, 

4. Dbmonsteative AnraoTivEs : taUs, e, such ; tmiiius, a, um, bo great ; tot, 
so many ; totm, a, mn, so great. Tot is indeclinable ; the rest regular. 

Note.— For tdUs, the Genitire of a demonstrative with mod% (Genitive of modut, 
measure, kind) ia often used : hiijusmodl, ^usmodl, of tills kind, sucb. 

IV, Eelative Pkonounb. 
187. The Relative qui, 'who,' so called because it re- 
lates to some noun or pronoun, expressed or understood, 
called its antecedent, is declined as follows : ' 

> Sometimes a dissyllable. 

* Eldem and elsd&m are the approved forms. Instead of ildan and i^fidem, di»- 
syllables in poetry, Idem and iadem are often written. 

3 ZlliA and Udc are formed from the stems of ille and iete in the same manner as IM 
Is formed from its stem; see pape T2, foot-note 4, 

* Observe that ee \s retained in fall after a, but shortened to c in all other sitnatlont. 

* The stem of qvl is gm>, qua, which becomes oo, ou In oHjut and ouii. Qut nti 












. qui 


































1. G«»' = ?»«, ?'<«,' with which,' 'wherewith,' is a Locative or AblaUve 
of the relative qui. 

2. Cam, when used with the Ablative of the relative, is generally appended 
to it : qmbteecum. 

3. Quimmque and QuUquia, ' whoever,' are called from their signilioation 
general relatives.^ Quleumqu^ (quicunque) is declined like qui. Quisquie la 
rare except in the forms, quisqvis, quidqmd (quicquid), qudquo. 

Note.— The parts of Qulcumgue are sometlmeB separated by one or more words : 
qud re eum^ite. 

4. Eelattvb ADraoTivEs: qudUs, e, such as; qitant-ua, a, mn, so great; 
yuot, as many as; qnotue, a, um, of which number; and the double and 
compound forms : qudUsqudUs, qiidliscumque, etc. 

Note.— For Qudlit the Genitive of the relative with modi Is often used : eujagmodl, 
'i what kind, such as; eiyxMymnque'modl, cuicuimodl (for c/^^o^uamodi\ of what* 
ever kind. 

V. Interrogative Pronouns. 

188. The Interrogative Pronouns quis and qui, with 
their compounds,* are used in asking questions. They are 
declined as follows : 

quae are fbrmed from quo sod qua like hi and kae inhi-e&nd hae-c from hoaaHTia; eee 
186, 1., foot-note 4. Ancient or rare forms are guei, quis (for qui). Nom. Sing. ; quoius 
(i = J); qvoi^ cui (for eujus. aa in ouimodl = ei^uamodi)^ quoiet, quoi (for cui) ; quis 
(for qnl\ Nom, Plnr. ; qwii (for quae). Fern, and Neut Plur. ; quels, quis (for quibus). 

> An Accusative qutmiy also written quum and cum. formed directly from the stem 
quo. became the conjunction quom, quum. cum. ^ when,* lit. during which. I. e., during 
which time. Indeed, several cosgunctions are in their origin Accusatives of pronouns '. 
quam^*\n what way,' 'how,* is the Accusative of ffu4; quamquam^ 'however muah,* 
the Accusative of quie-quie (187, 8); turn. *tben,' and tarn, 'so,* Accusatives of the 
pronominal stem to, to, seen In is-iue, ia-te, is-ta (186, II., foot-note 8). 

' This is an element in gum = qul-ne, ' by which not,* ' that not,* and In quippe = 
qui-pe, 'indeed.* 

' Relative pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs may be made general m signification by 
taking eumque. like qul-eumque. or by being doubled like quia-quis : qudHs-cumquej 
qu&lie-qudUs. of whatever kind; vHA-eumque, vM^ubi, wheresoever. 

* The relative qui. the interrogatives quia, qui, and the indefinites quia, qui, are 
all Ibrmed from the stem quo, qua. The ancient and rare forms are nearly the same in 
all; see page 74, foot-note 6. 






wAo, which, 












































n. Qm, whUh, what ? is declined like the relative qui. 

1. Qtjis is generally used substantively, and Qni, adjeotively. The forms 
qim and guem are sometimes feminine. 

2. Qui, how? in what way? is a Locative or Ablative of the interrogative 
quit ; see 187, 1. 

3. CoMPODKDS of gms and gm are declined like the simple pronouns : guis- 
nam, gumam, eequis, etc. But ecgvia has sometimes eegua for ecguae. 

i. Intebeogative Adjectives : gualie, e, what? quanius, a, wm, how 
great ? guot, how many ? guokts, a, urn, of what number ? liter, utira, utrum, 
which (of two) ? see 151. 

VI. Indbitnite Pbonoiws. 

189. Indefinite Pronouns do not refer to any definite 
persons or things. The most important are quis and qui, 
with their compounds. 

190. Quis, 'any one,' and qui, 'any one,' 'any,' are 
the same in form and declension as the interrogatires quis 
and qui. But — 

1. After si, nisi, rie, and man, the Fem. Sing, and Neut. Plur. have qwu 
or qua : si quae, si qua. 

2. From quis and qui are formed — 

1) I%e Indefinites : 

aliquis, aliqua, aliquid or aliquod,' sonu, some one. 

quispiam, quaepiam, quidpiam or quodpiam," some, some one. 

quidam, quaedam, quiddam or quoddam,' certa/iM, ceHa/i/n one. 

quisquam, quaequam, quicquam or quidquam,* any one. 

^ Aliquis is compounded otall, seen in ali-us; qwiequam^ otquis and quam ; gids- 
que, of Q'wis and que (from qm) ; qu^is, of qui and the verb vis (393), 'you wish'— 
hence qui-vta, ' any you wlsli' ; gullibet, ofqM and the impersonal Ubet, 'it pleases.* 

■^ Also written quippiam, quoppiam. 

' Quidam changes mton before d : quenda/m for quemda/m. 

* Quisquam generally wants the Fem. and the Flar. 



2) The Gtntral Ind^fimttt : 

quisque, quaeque, quidque or quodque,> 

qiUvlB, quaevls, quidvis or quodvis, 

quSlibet, quaelibet, quidlibet or quodlibet, 

every, eoery one. 
any one yaa please, 
any one you please. 

Sons 1. — ^These compounds are generally declined like qv4s and gm, but they have 
In the Neut. Sing, gnod used ac0ectively, and quid substantively. 

NoTK 2. — Aliquis has aUqua instead of aMquae in the Fem. Sing, and Neut. Plur. 
AUgwi for aUqwis occurs. 

191. The correspondence which exists between DemonstratiTes, Rela- 
tives, Interrogatives, and Indefinites, is seen in the following 

Table of Correlatitgs. 





who? what 1" 

quis, qui,' any one, 
any; aliquie,' some 
one, some ; qmdam, 
certain one, certain ; 

Mc, this one, this;' 
isle, that one, that; 
Ule, that one, that; 
is, he, that ; 

qui,' who. 

vter, which 
of two 3 

ut&- or aU&-vter, ei- 
ther of two ; 

uterque, each, both ; « 

qui, who. 

qiiaUs, of 
what kind ? 

qitdUsUbet,' of any 

taUs, such ; 

quoMs,' as. 

qwmhie, how 

aliquantus, some- 
what great ; quan- 
tiisms, as great as 
you please ; 

tantus, so great ; 

quantvs,' as, 
as great. 

quot, how 

aliquot, some ; 

tot, so many ; 

quot, as, as 

Note. — 2/^eaciS quis^ ' I know not who,^ has become in effect an indefinite pronoon 
= quldam^ ^some one/ So also nesdd qui., ' I know not which' or ' what^ = ' some^; 
nesGiS quot = aliquot., '■ some,' '• a certain number.* 

' In Unus-qmsqtte both parts are regularly declined. 

" Observe that the question quis or gm, who or what? may be answered inde^ 
nitely by quia, qui., aliqui&, etc., or- de^itely by a demonstrative, either alone or with 
a relative, as by hie, this one, or hto qv^y this one who; is, he, or is qul^ he who, etc. 

3 In form observe that the indefinite is either the same as the interrogative or is a 
compound of it : qwis^ ali-qms^ qui, qui-dam^ and that the relative is tunaUy the same 
as the interrogative. 

* On hic^ iat6y iUe, and €«, see 450 ; 451, 1. 

^ Or one of the demonstratiTea, Alo, iste^ etc. 

78 VMRBB. 


192. Verbs in Latin, as in English, express existence, 
condition, or action: est, he is; dormit, he is sleeping; 
legit, he reads. 

193. Verbs comprise two principal classes: 

I. Transitive Verbs admit a direct object of the action : 
servum verier at, he beats the slave.' 

II. Intransitive Verbs do not admit such an object : 
puer currit, the boy runs.' 

194. Verbs have Voice, Mood, Tense, Numier, and Person. 

I. Voices. 

195. There are two voices: 

I. The Active Voice" represents the subject as acting 
or existing : pater f Ilium amat, the father loves his son; 
est, he is. 

II. The Passive Voice represents the subject as acted 
UPON by some other person or thing : fUius a patre ama- 
tur, the son is loved by his father. 

1. brrRANSiTivB Verbs generally have only the active voice, but are some- 
times used impersonally in the passive ; see 301, 1. 

2. DEPOiTEirr Vebbs^ are Passive in fonn, hut not in sense: loquor, to 
speak. But see 931. 

II. Moods. 

196. There are three moods :' 

1 Here 8&nmm^ Hhe slave,^ is the object of the action ; heats (wbatf) the slave. The 
object tfana completes the meaning of the verb. Be beats is incomplete in sense, but ih^ 
boy runs is complete, and accordingly does not admit an object. 

3 ViHee shows whether the eabject acts (Active Voice), or is acted vpon (Passire 
Voice). Thus, with the Active Voice, ' thejiither loves Ms son^ tne sah^eeUfaiher, ie 
the one vhap&rforms the action^ loves^ while with the Passive Voice, * the sor. is hved 
Try the father^ the subject, son, merely receives the action, is acted iipon, is loved. 

9 So called from depend, to lay aside, as they dispense, in general, with the active 
form and the passive meaning. For deponent verba with the sense of the Greek Middle, 
see 466. 

* Mood, or Mode, means manner, and relates to the manner in which the meaning 
of the verb is expressed, as will be seen by observing the force of the several Moods, 

VERBS. 79 

I. The Indicative Mood either asserts something as a 
fact or inquires after the fact: 

Legit, he is reading. Legitne, is he reading? Serviua rSgnavit, Ser- 
vius REIGNED. Quis ego sum, who am I? 

II. The Subjunctive Mood expresses not an actual fact, 
but a possibility or conception. It is best translated ' — 

1. Sometimes by the English auxiliaries,' let, may, might, should. 

Am^rmis patriam, let us lovb our cmtrUry. Sirit be&ti, may thbt bb 
hapfy. Quaerat quispiam, name one mat inquire. Hoc nemo diaxrit, no one 
WOULD SAT tMs. Ego censeom, I should think, or / am nroLiNED to thine. 
Enltitur ut vincat. Tie strives tJuU he mat conquer.* Domum ubi habitdret, 
ISgit, he selected a house where he might dwell. 

3. Sometimes by the English Indicative, especially by the Future 
forms with shall and will: 

Huic cedamus, shall we tield to this one? Quid dies ferat inceitum est, 
what a day will brino forth is uncertain. DubitO num debeam, I doubt 
whefher 1 ought. Quaesivit si liCirei, he inquired whether rr was lawful. 

S. Sometimes by the Imperative, especially in prohibitions : 

Sorlbere ne pigrire, do not negleot to write. Ne trdnsieris Iberum, do 
not cross the Bbro. 

4. Sometimes by the English J7i^raim-e;' 

Clontendit ut vincat, he strives to conquer.' MibsI sunt qui cdntulerent 
Apollinem, they were tent to consult Apollo. 

III. The Imperative Mood expresses a command or an 

Justitiam cole, practiss justice.^ Tu n§ <Xde malls, do not yield to mis- 

' The 1U6 and proper translatioa of the SnbjnnctiTe mnst be learned from the Syn- 
tax. A few illostrations are here given to aid the learner in nnderstanding the Para- 
digms of the Verbs; see 477-530. 

' This is generally the proper translation in simple sentences and in principal clanses 
C483X and sometimes even in subordinate claases (490). 

* Or, he strives to oonquhb; see 4 below, with foot-notj 4. 

< The English has a few remnants of the Snbjnnctive Mood, which may also be naed 
in translating the Latin Subjonctive: Utinam possem, would that I werb able, 

Observe, however, that the Infinitive here is not the translation of the Sabjnnc- 
tive alone, but of the Subjunctive with its subject and connective : ut vincat, to con- 
quer (lit., that he may conquer); qui consulerent, to consult (lit, who ^auld or woulS 

80 VERBS. 

III. Tbnsbs. 

197. There are six tenses: 

I. Thbee Tenses foe Incomplete Action'-: 

1. Present: amd, I love, I am loTing.' 

2. Imperfect : amabam, I was loving, I loved. 

3. Future : amdbO, I shall love, I will love. 

II. Thkee Tenses eoe Completed Action. 

1. Perfect : amdvl, I have loved, I loved. 

2. Pluperfect : amdveram, I had loved. 

3. Future Perfect : amdverd, I shall have loved.' 

Note 1. — The Latin Perfect sometimes corresponds to our Perfect with 
have (JiMie loved), and is called the Present Perfecf or Perfect Definite; and 
sometimes to our Imperfect or Past {loved), and is called the Bistorical Per~ 
ted or Perfect Indefinite.' 

Note 2. — The Indicative Mood has aU the six tenses ; the Suhjunotive has 
the Present, Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect ; the Imperative, the Present 
and Future only.* 

198. PEttrcrpAii ajto Histobical.— Tenses are also distin- 
guished as^ 

I. Pblncipai, or Pkimaby Tenses: 

1. Present : amd, I love. 

2. Present Perfect: (vmam,, I have loved.' 

3. Future : amdbS, I shall love. 

4. Future Perfect : a/mmeri, I shall have loved. 

n. HisTOKiCAi, or Seconiiaiit Tenses: 

1. Imperfect: amahomi, I was loving. 
3. Historical Perfect : amam, I loved.' 
3. Pluperfect : ammeram, I had loved. 

*■ Or, / do Vyoe. The English did Ta&j also be used in translating the Imperfeist and 
Pmfeet: J did love. 

* Or, Ivyill have loved. 

* Thus the Latin Perfect combines within itself the force and use of two distinct 
tenses— the Perfect proper, seen in the Greek Perfect, and the Aorist, seen in the Greek 
Aorlst: amaTi = irei^iAiiKa, I Juive loved; amavi = e0iAi]o-a, I loved. The Historical 
Perfect and the Imperfect both represent the action as poet, but the former regards 
It shnply as a historical fact— I loved; while the latter regards. it as in progress— 1 
■was lovi/ng. 

* The nice distinctions of tense hare been fully developed only in the Indicative. In 
the Subjunctive and Imperative, the time of the action is less prominent and is less dell- 
Bitely marked. 



199. Numbers and Persons.— There are two numbers, 
Singular and Plural,' and three persons. First, Sec- 
ond, and Third.' 

Note.— The various verbal forms which have voice, mood, tense, number, 
and person, make up the finite verb. 

200. Among verbal forms are included the following 
verbal nouns and adjectives : 

I. The Inpinitive is a verbal noun." It is sometimes best trans- 
lated by the English Infinitive, soinetimes by the verlal rmm in djg, 
and sometimes by the Indicative: 

Einre ex urbe vol6, Ivnah to aoovt of the cliy. Gestid s(Are omnia, / long 
10 KNOW all things. Haec scire juvat, to know these things affords pleasure. 
Peecdre licet nSminI, to sm is lawful for no one. Fincere' sols, yo» know 
how to oonquee, or you ■understand ooNQnKBma.s Te dif.;iii esse* sapien- 
tem, iJiey say that you abb* wise. Sentimus calere* Ignem, we perceive that 
fire 13 HOT.* See also Syntax, 53S-539. 

n. The GEBtnro gives the meaning of the verb in the form of 
a verbal noun of the second declension, used only in the genitive, 
dative, accusative, and ablative dngular. It corresponds to the Eng- 
lish verbal noun in tsb : 

Aman^, or lovino. Amandi causa, for the saJce of Lovnfa. Ars Viven- 
di, the art of ijviifo. Cupidus tS audiendi, desirous of heakinq you. tjtilis 
bibendo, useful foe dbtnkiko. Ad discendum propSnsus, inclined to lbakit,' 
or TO itSABiOKO. Mens discendo alitur, the mind is nmirished bt leabniso. 
See also Syntax, 641-544. 

in. The SxjprNB gives the meaning of the verb in the form of a 
verbal noun of the fourth declension. It has a form in um and a 
form in n: 

Amatmn, to lovb, foe lotdtg. Amaiu, to be lovbd, fob lovkto, in 

> Ab in Konns; see 44. 

^ The Infinitive has the characteristics both of verbs and of nonns. As a verb, it gov- 
•niB obUqne cases and takes adverbial modifiers ; as a noun, it is itself governed. In 
origin it is a verbal noon in the Dative or Locative. See Jolly, pp. 179-200. 

' Observe tliat the infinitive vincere may i>e translated by the English infinitive, to 
songuer, or by tbe ver1)al nonn, conquering. 

* Observe that the infinitives esse and calere are translated by the indicative are and 
<> (it hot) ; and that the Ace. te, the subject of esse, is translated by the Nom. you, the 
Bul^ttct of are ; and that the Aca Ign&m, the subject of oalere, is translated by the Nom. 
Jlre, the subject of is. 

' Occasionally the Oemnd, espedallv with a prepositian, may be thus taranslated by 
the EngUsh if^fiTiitive. 

82 VERBS. 

Lovnra. Aimlium postuldMm venH, he came to abe aid. BiificUe iieii «Bt 
U it difficult TO TBLL. See Syntax, S45-647. 

Note. — The Supine in wm is an Aoousative in form, while the Supine in 
« may bo either a Dative or an Ablative ; see 116. 

IV. The Participle in Latin, as in English, gives the meaning 
of the verb in the form of an adjective.' It is sometimes best 
translated by the English Participle or Infinitive, and sometimes 
by a Clause : 

' Amdns, lovino. AmdUmis, about to love. Amatue, loved. Aman- 
dus, DESEEViNO TO BE LOVED. PlatO scTibms mortuus est, Plato died while 
WHITING, or WHILE HE WAS WRiTiKG. Sol orims diem oonflcit, the sun Bisnra, 
or WHEN IT RISES,' causcs the day. Eediit belli oasum tentdturus, he returned 
TO TBY (lit., about to try) the fortune of war. In amMs (iigep.du,' in belbot- 
ISG friends. See Syntax, 548-5S0. 

Note. — A Latin verb may have four participles : two lu the Active, the 
Present and the Future, am&ns, amSMrua ; and two in tne Passive, the Per" 
feet and the Gerundive,' amatus, amandua. 

201. Regular verbs are inflected, or conjugated, in four 
different ways, and are accordingly divided into Four Con- 
jugations,* distinguished from each other by the stem char- 
acteristics or by the endings of the Infinitive, as follows : 

Con J. I. 



Infinitive Enbimob. 











202. Principal Parts. — The Present IndicatiYe, Pres- 
ent Infinitive, Perfect Indicative^ and Supine are called 
from their importance the Principal Parts of the verb. 

* Participles are verbs in force, but Adjectives in form and inflection. As verba, thej 
govern oblique cases; as adjectives, they agree with nouns. 

* Or by its rising. 

3 Sometimes called the Futv/re Passive Participle. In agreement v?ith a noun, i! 
is often best translated lilce a gerund governing that noun; see 644. 

* The Four Conjugations are only varieties of one general system of inflection, as the 
differences between them have been produced in the main by the union of different flnaJ 
lettera in the various stems with one general system of suffixes ; see ComparatiT6 Vlev 
of Conjugations, 313-21&- 

l^OTE 1. — In the inflection of verba it is found convenient to recognize fom 

1) The Verb-Stem^ which is the basis of the entire coiyugation. This is 
often called simply the Stem. 

2) Three Special Sterns^ the Present Stem, the Perfect Stem, and the Su^ 
pine Stem. 

Note 2.— The Special Stems are formed from the Verb-Stem, unless they 
are identical with it.i 

203. The Entire Con-jugatiois' of any regular verb 
may be readily formed from the Principal Parts by means 
of the proper endings.'* 

1. Sum, / am, is used as an auxiliary in the passive voice of regular 
verbs. Accordingly, its conjugation, though quite irregular, must be given 
at the outset. The Principal Parts are — 

Fb^. Ihdio. Fees. Infin. Pkef. Indio. 

sum, /am, esse, to 6e, fv^, I have been. 

Note 1. — Sum has no Supine. 

Note 2. — Two independent stems or roots ^ are used in the conjugation of 
this verb, viz. ; (1) es, seen in s-tim (for es-um) and in es-se^ and (2) /«, seen 

1 For the treatment of Stems, see 349-^56. In many verbs the stem is itself de- 
rived from a more primitive form called a Boot. For the distinction between roots and 
stems, and for the manner in which the latter are formed from the former, see 313-318. 
^ In the Fsradjgms of regular verbs, the endings which distinguish the various forms 
are separately Indicated, and should be carefiiUy noticed. In the parts derived from the 
present stem (838, 1.) each ending contains the characteristic vowel. 

3 The forms of irregular verbs are often derived from diflferent roots. Thus in Eng- 
lish, am, was, been; go^ went^ gone. Indeed, the identical roots used in the conjuga- 
tion of sum, are in constant use in our ordinary speech. The root &9, Greek es, originally 
as, is seen in am (for as-mi), art (for as-t)^ are (for as-e)\ the root/w, Greek 0u, origi- 
nally bhu, is seen in be (for bhe\ been. The close relationship existing between the 
Suiskrit, Greekf Latin, and English is seen in the following comparative forms ; i<T-<ri Is 
Homeric, and s-vri Doric : 

Sanbebit. Greek. 

as-mi ei-fil 

a»-i itr-vi 

aa-ti ea-TL 

8-maa i<T-fiiv for etr-ju.^s 

B-tha i<r-T€ 

8-anti i-vTi for i<r-vTi 

Every verbal form is thus made by appending to the stem, or root, a pronuminal ending 

meaning /, thou^ Ae, etc. Thus mi, seen in the English me, means /. It is retained in 

as-mi and ei-^Li, but shortened to m in s-u-m. and a-m. Ti, meaning Ae, is preserved 

In as-H and e(r-Ti, but shorten«)d to t in es-t and lost in is. The stem also undergoes 

various changes: in Sanskrit it is as, sometimes shortened to s; in Greek es, sometimes 

shortened to e; in Latin es, sometimes shortened to s, as in Sanskrit; in English a, ar^ 









s-um us 








204. Sum, I am. — Stems, es, fu. 


Pees. Ihd 

Peeb. Ihf. 


Peep. luB. 


Indicative Mood. 




I am, 
thou art,' 



we are, 
you art, 
they are. 


1 » « 

I was, 
thou, wast,' 
he was ; 



we were, 
you were, 
they were. 


Ishatt he,* 
thm wilt be, 
he will be; 






we shall be, 
you will be, 
they wUl be. 



I have been,* 
Hum hast been, 

he has been ; 




fuCrunt, 1 

fuCre, ) 

we home been, 
you Imve been, 

they have been^ 




I had been, 
thou hadst been, 
he had been ; 






, we had been, 
you had been, 
they had been. 




I shall have been, 
thou wilt have been, 
he will Jiave been ; 




we shall have bem, 
you will have been, 
they will have been. 

^ The Supine is wanting. 

^ Stmt is for esum^ eram for esam. Whenever a of the stem es comes between twc 
vowels, 6 is dropped, as in swm, sunt, or 8 Is changed to r, as in eram^ erO; see 31, 1. 
The pupil will observe that the endings which are added to the roots ea and fu> are dii' 
tinguished by the type. 

3 Or you are^ and in the Imperfect, you were; thou Is confined most^ to solemo 

^ Is verbs, final 0, marked o, Is generally long. 

• Or, Future, I will be; Perfect, I was; see 197, Dot« L 




3M0ULAR. Fkkss:,!:. 



may Ibe,^ 


lei tis be, 



mayst thou 6c,' 

let him he, may he he ; 


be ye, may you be, 
let them be. 



I should he,' 


we should be. 


thou wouldst be. 


you would he. 


he would he; 


they would In. 



/ may have been,' 


we may have hem. 


Ihou mayst have been. 


you may liave been, 


he may have been ; 


they may have been. 



IshouMhave been. 


, we shovld have been, 


Ihou wotddst have been. 


you would have beer 


he would have been ; 


they would have beer 


ft-es. es, 

be ihou, 1 este. 

be ye. 

Fui. e8t6, 

thou shall he,' estOte, 

ye shall be, 


he shall be, •<' 


they shaU be. 


Pres. esse, lo be. 
Per/, fuisse, to fiave been. 
Fui. futarns esse,'' to he about 
to be. 


Fat. futftms,* ahout to be. 

1. In the Paradigm all the forms begiraiing with « or s are from the stem 
w ,■ all others from the stem /«.» 

2. Babe Fobms -.—forem, fores, foret, forent, fore, for essem, esies, esset, 
ment, fvM/rus esse ; eiem, sies, siet, sienf, oifuam, fuas, fuat, fuani, for sim. 
As, sit, sint. 

1 On the translation of the Subjunctive, Bee 196, 11., and remember that it Is ofteu 
best rendered by the Indicative. Thus, mm may often be rendered Tam, and fuerim, 1 
have been. 

" Or ie t/uHi, or may ytm te, 

* The Fut. may also be rendered liKe the Pres. , or with let : be Oum ; let Mm be, 

* Puturvs is declined like bonus. So in the Infinitive : /uturus, a, um esse. 

* ^ and fu are roots as well as stems. As the basis of this paradigm they are prop* 
•rly stems, but as they are not derived from mere primitive forms, they are in them* 
Mlves roots. 



205. ACTIVE VOICE.— AmS, Ihve. 

Verb Stem and Present Stem, ama} 


Pbes. Ihd. 

Fees. Ihf. 

Pbbp. Ikd. 






Ihdicatite Mood. 

Present Tense. 






we lorn. 


you love* 


you love, 




they love. 



I was loving. 


we were loving, 


you were loving, 


you were loving 


he was loving ; 


ttueg were loving 





we shall love. 


you will love. 


you will tone. 


he will love; 


they will love. 



I have loved,' 


we have loved, 


you have loved. 


you have loved, 


he has loved; 


6re, they have lo 

amaveram, I had loved, 
amaveras, you had loved, 
amaverat, he had loved; 


amaTeramus, we had loved, 
amaveratis, you had loved, 
amaveraat, they had loved. 

Future Perfect. 


/ shall have loved,* 
you will have loved, 
he will have loved ; ■ 

amaverlmits, we shall have loved, 
amaveritis, you will have loved, 
amarerint, they will have loved. 

' The final d of the stem disappears in amd for ama-O, amem, amea, etc., for amO' 
im, ama-ls, etc. Also in the Pass, in aTnor for ama-or, amer, etc., for ama-ir, etc.; 
eee S3 ; 27. Final o, marked 6, is generally long. 

'Or 7 am loving, I do love. So In the Imperfect, I loved, I was lovi/ng, 1 did lovA 

• Or thou loveet. So in^the other tenses, thou wast loving, thou wilt love, etc. 

• Or fwill love. So in the Future Perfect, I shall ha/se loved or I will ham loved, 

• Or I loved; see 197, note 1. 







may Ilme^ 
may you love, 
let him love; 







let us love, 
may you lovi 
let them love. 

im&rem, IsKoiitd love, 
am&rSs, you would love, 

am&ret, he would love ; 

am9.r€iiiiis, we should love, 
amai-etis, you would love, 
amarent, they would love. 


amSTerlni, Imay have loved,' 
amaveris, you may have loved, 
amSverit, he may have loved; 

amaverimns, we may have loved, 
amaverftis, you may have loved, 
amaTerint, they may have loved, 

amSvisaem, I should have loved, 
amSvlssfis, you would have loved, 
amSvlsBet, he would have loved; 

amSvissSmiis, weshouldhaveloved^ 
amavissStis, you would have loved, 
amaTissent, they would have loved. 


Pret. ama, hve ihm ; \ amate, hve ye. 

fat. amatA, thou shali hve, I amatOte, ye shall love, 

amatS, he shall love ; \ amantd, they shall love. 

Pres. amare, to love. 
Per/, amavisse, to have loved. 
Pkit. amatams ' esse, to be about 
to love. 

Gen. amandl, of loving. 
Dot amando, for loving, 
Ace. amandnm, loving, 
Abl. amandld, by loving. 

Pres. amans,' loving, 

Put. amatnrus,' about to love, 

Aec. amatnm, 
Abl. amata. 

to love, 

to love, be loved. 

' On the translation of the Subjunctive, Bee 196, TI. 

' Often best rendered Ihave loved. So in the Pluperfect, IhadUmed; see 196, II 

> Decline like bonv^ 148. 

* For declension, see 157. 



206. PASSIVE VOICE.— Amor, lam hved. 

Verb Stem and Present Stem, ama. 


Fees. Iin>. 

Pek9. Iht. 

PXBT. Ins. 



amatUB sui 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 


I am loved. 




amaris, or re 





I was loved. 



amai>aris, or 






I shall or will be loved 



amaberis, or 






I have been loved or I was loved. 

amatns sam' 

amat! snmiui 

amatns es 

amati estis 

amatiis est 

amati sunt 



en loved. 

amatns eram' 
amatiis eras 
amatns erat 

am&tl eramnr 
amati eratls 
amati erant 

Future Perfect. 
I shall or will have been loved. 

amatns ero ' 
amatns eris 
amatns erit 

amati erimns 
amati eritis 
amatI ernnt 

' IFhil^ fvAsR^ etc., are sometimes used for tfum, ««, etc. : ammtu* Jv^ for amMiU 
mm. So /■u&ram, fat/rdSy etc., for erom, etc. : also /uerS, etc., for erd^ etc. 

fASsivM: rows. 




May lie loved, let him be loved.* 


amSris, or re 




I should he loved, he would be loved} 


wnareris, or re 


J may have been loved, or I have been lomed} 

am&tas sim' 
amatns sis 
amatits sit 

amati slums 
amati sitis 
amati sint 

Ithovld have been loved, he would have been Umed.^ 

•matns essem' 
amatns essSs 
amatns esset 

amati essemns 
amati essetis 
am^tl essent 

Pret. omflire, he thou loved; \ amaminl, he ye loved. 

Put. amator, thou shall be loved, I 

a.m&tor, lie shall he loved ; \ amaator, they shall be loved. 

Pres. amftrl, to he loved. 
Per/, amatns esse,' to 

Put. amStmn Irl, to he about to 

be loved. 


Per/. amStus, having been lovea. 

Oer.^ amandus, to be hved, de- 
serving to be loved. 

' Bnt on the tranBlatlon of the SnbjunctiTe, see 196, II. 

' Fuerim,fumia, etc., are sometimes used for aim, »J«, etc.— 80 t^fwisttm,fui—is, 
rto., for «M07n, teaea, etc. : tatt\jfwU»e for esse. 
* tfsr. = GerondiTe; see 800, IV., note. 



207. ACTIVE VOICE.— MoneS, I advise. 

Verb Stem, mon, moni ; Present Stem, tnoTig, 

Pees. Inb. Pees. Inp. Peep. Ind. StrpiNE. 

moned, monSre, monal, monition. 

Indicativb Mood. 

Present Tense. 


I advise. „,„„., 










was advising, or I advised. 








/ shall or will advise. 








I have advised, or T advised. 






monuerimt, or «re 

Pluperfect. .^ 

/ had advised. 







Future Perfect. 

I shall or wiU have advised. 







ACTIVE rows. 



Hay I advise, let him advise.^ 


moneam moneliinns 

mone&s moneatis 

moneat moneant 

I should advise, fte wottld advise. 







I may have advised, or I have advised.^ 




m onuerfmus 



I should have advised, he would have advised? 








advise thou ; \ monete, 

thou shalt advise, 
lie shall advise ; 

ft-es. mon6, 
Fut. monetd, 

Pres. monfipe, to advise. 
Perf. monuisse, lo have advised. 
Put. monituLriis esse, to be about 
to advise. 

Gen. moneiidl, of advising, 
Dat. moneiido, for advising. 
Ace. monenduin, advising, 
Jbl. monendo, by advising. 

mongtote, ye shall advise, 
monentd, they shall advise. 

Pres. monens, advising. 

Put. monitlims, abmtt to advise. 


Ace. monitiun, to advise, 

Abl. monitft, to advise, be advised. 

> Bu* on the translation of the Subjunctive, see 196, II. 

' The Flaperfect, Uke the Perfect, is often rendered by the IndicatiTe : / Kad ad 
viud, you kad advised, eto. 


208. PASSIVE VOICE.— Moneor,/ am affoiserf. 

Verb Stem, mon^ moni ; Present Stem, moriH, 

Pksb. Ihd. Fss8._Inf. 

moneor, monerl. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
lam advised. 

Pebf. Ihd, 


moneris, or re 

/ was advised. 

monebaris, or re 




mon©l»eris, or re 


I shall or will be advised. 


I have been advised, I was advised. 

monitns sum' 
monitns es 
monitns est 

moniti smnns 
moniti estis 
moniti snnt 

I had been advised. 

monitns eram' 
monitns er^s 
monitns erat 

moniti erS^mns 
moniti eratis 
moniti erant 

Future Perfect. 
I si tall or will liave been advised. 

monitns erO ' 
monitns eris 
monitns erit 

moniti erimns 
moniti eritis 
moniti erunt 

1 See 206, foot-notea. 





Hay I he advised, let him he advised. 


monearis, or re 





I should he advised, he would he advised. 
monSrer I monereiiiii.r 

monSrSris, or re monereminl 

monSrStur I mon€rentiu* 

I may have I 
monitus sim' 
monitns sis 
monitus sit 

> advised, or I have heen advised. 

monitS slmus 
monits sitis 
monitS suit 

I should have heen. advised, ht would have heen advised.* 

monitas essem ' 
monitus essSs 
monitns esset 

monitl essSmiKs 
moniti essetis 
monitl esMent. 

Pres. monCre, he thou advised / { monemlnl, i« ^e 
Put. monitor, thou shall he ad- 

monCtor, he shaU be advised ; 

Pres. monCrl, to he advised. 
Perf. monitus esse,' to have been 

Fut. monitum Irl, to be about to 

he advised. 

monentor, they shall be advised. 


Perf. monitns, advised 

Oer. monendus, to he advised, d* 
serving to he advised. 

> See a06, foot-notes. 

* Or I had &Mn advised, you had item advised, eta 



209. ACTIVE VOICE.— Rego, I rule. 

Verb Stem, reg ; Present Stem, rege.^ 

Pbeb. Isd. Pees. Inf. Pkkp. Ihd. 

regO, regere, rexl,'' 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

I rale. 











I was ruling, or I ruled. 








IsJiall or will rule. 








I have ruled, or J ruled. 






rexernnt, or ^m9 


I had ruled. 







Future Perfect. 

I shall or will have ruled. 







' The characteristic is a variable vowel— 0, «, e, i ; regO, regent, reg«re, reg^B ; Oup 
Aqb calls it the themaUc Dowel; see CurtiuB, I., p. 199, but on 6^ see also Meyer, 441. 
a See 254; 30, 33, 1. 






May Inde, let him rule.^ 









I should rule, he would rule. 








I may have ruled, or I have ruled. 








Ishovld have ruled, he would have ruled. 









rege, rule thra ; \ regite, rvh ye. 


regitS, tlwu shaU rvh, regitote, ye shall rule. 

regitd, he shall rule; regnntS, they shaU rule. 




regere, to rule. 

iVes. regens, ruling. 


rexisse, to have ruled. 


recturus esse, to be about 
to rule. 

Put. rSctOrns, about to 

Qen. regeiidl, of ruling, 
Dot. regendd, for ruling. 
Ace. regendmn, ruling, 
Abl. regendd, by ruling. 


Ace. rSctmn, to rule, 

Abl. recta, to rule, be ruitd. 

> But on the trumlatioii of th« Sabjunotlve, see 196, II. 



210. PASSIVE VOICE.— Kegor,/ am ra&rf. 

Vebb Stem, reg ; Present Stem, rege.^ 


Pbxs. Ihf. 


Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
lam ruled. 

Pbes. Ihd. 

Febf. Ihs. 
rectus' smn. 



regeris, or re 


regebaris, or re 

I was ruled. 




I shall or wiU be ruled. 


regSris, or re 


I have been ruled, or I was ruled. 

tSctns sum' 
rectus es 
rectus est 

rectus eram' 
rectus eras 
rectus erat 

I had been ruled. 

recti sumufi 
recti estis 
recti sunt 

recti eramuM 
recti eratis 
recti erant 

Future Perfect. 
I shall or will have been ruled. 

rectus erS* 
rectus eris 
rectus erit 

recti erimns 
recti eritis 
recti erunt 

> B«e !i09, foot-notet. 

* Bee 90e, foot-notaa. 




May I be ruled, let him be rated. 


regar I reg3.iniu> 

Tegftris, or re regamiiil 

regfttur | regantur 

Ishoudd be ruled, he would be rvled. 



regerCris, or re 


Imay have been ruled, or Ihave been ruled. 

rectus sim' 
rectus SIS 
rectus sit 

recti slmas 
recti sitis 
recti sint 

Iihauld have been ruled, he would have been ruled. 
rectus essem ' 

rectus essSs 
.rectus esset 

ricti essemns 
recti essStis 
recti essent 

Pre>. regere, be than ruled; | regiminl, be ye ruled. 

Put. regitor, thou shall be ruled, I 

xa^tor, he shall be ruled ; \ ve^antor, they shall be niUd. 


Pres. regl, to be ruled. 

Perf. rectus esse,' to have been 

l\U. rectum Irl, to be dbo/at to be 


Perf. rectus, ruled. 

Oer. regendns, to be ruled, di- 
serving to be ruled. 

> See SOS, foot-notes. 




211. ACTIVE VOICE.— Audio, /A«a»-. 

Verb Stem and Present Stem, autk. 

Pbbs. Ikd. Pebs. Ihf. PsEr. Ihd. Svpim. 

audio, audire, audlTl, audltma. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 


^^''- PLURAL. 








IvMU hearing, or I heard. 








I shall or mil hear. 








I have heard, or I heard. 






audlvemnt, or ere 


/ had heard. 







Future Perfect. 

I shall or will have heard. 







ACTIVE roicx. 




May I hear, 





lei him hear.^ 






I should hear, 


lie would hear. 





I may have heard 

or I have heard. 





/ should have heard, 

he would have heard. 





Pres. audi, hear thou ; 

1 audlte, liear ye. 

Put. audits, thou shall hear, 
audits, he shall hear ; 

auditote, i/e shall hear, 
audiuntO, tliey shall hear. 

Pres. audire, to hear. 
Perf. audlvisse, to have heard. 
Put. audltUrns esse, to he about 
to hear. 

Gtn. audiendl, of hearing, 
Hat, audieudo, for liearing, audiendnm, hearing. 
Ml audiendd, by hearing. 

Pres. audiSns, liearing. 

Put. auditOrns, about to hear. 

Ace. audltnm, to hear, 

Abl. audita, to hear, be heard. 

> Bat OD the translation of tlie Sabjunctlve, Me 196, II. 



212. PASSIVE VOICE.— Audior,/ am Aeo»-(f. 

Vekb Stem and Pkesent Stem, audi. 


Pbbs. Ind. Pbes. Ihf. 

Peef. \m>. 

audior, audiri, 

audltus sum. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

I am heard. 





audlris, or re 


auditur \ 



Iv\<K heard. 



audi«1>aris, or re 





I shall or will he heard. 



audieris, or re 





I have been heard, or / was heard. 

audltus siun ' 

au(KtI snmns 

audltus es 

audit! estis 

audltns est 

audltl sunt 


/ had been heard. 

audltus eram' 

audit! eramns 

audltus eras 

audit! eratis 

audltus erat 

audltl erant 

Future Perfect. 

J shall or mil have been Iieard. 

audltns erd ' 

audltl erimus 

audltus eris 

audltl eritis 

audltus erit 

audltl ernnt 

> See 20a, foot-notas. 





May I be heard, let him be heard. 


audiar audiamnr 

audiaris, or re audiaminl 

audiatur audiantur 

I should be heard, he would be heard. 


audlrSris, or re 


I may have been heard, or I have been Jieard. 
audltns sim* auditl simus 

audltus sis auditl sitis 

andltus sit auditl slut 

lihxmtd have been heard, he would have been heard 

audltns essem' 
andltus esses 
audltns esset 

auditl essSmns 
auditl essetis 
auditl essent 


A'ea. aadire, be thou heard ; | audlminl, be ye heard. 

Fut. auditor, tliou shall be lieard, 
auditor, lie shall be heard; 


Pres. audlrl, to be heard. 

Perf. audltns esse,' to have been 

Put, auditnm Irl, to be about to 

be heard. 

audiuntor, they shall be heard. 

Perf. audltns, heard. 

Oer. audiendus, to be heard, de- 
serving to be lieard. 

1 See 306, foot-notes. 




present system. 1 

Indicative Mood. 

































-abat ; 







-§bat ; 







-ebat ; 







-iebat ; 








-abit ; 







-6bit ; 


































reg ■ 


















-aret ; 







-eret ; 







-eret ; 







-Iret ; 







































Prks. Infinitive. 


















-iens ; 


Note.— Verbs in id of Oonj. 

III. have certain endings of Conj. IV. ; see 


For the Present Syatern. see 33!$, I. 






or fire,'' 




or ere. 




or Ire, 




or fibSre, 





present system. 

Indicative Mood. 


-atur ; -fimur, 

-Stur ; -Smur, 

-itur ; -imur, 

-Itur ; -Imur, 


-abatur; -abamur, -abamini, -abantur. 

mon -Sbar, -Sbfiris or Share, -Sbatur ; -ebamur, -ebamini, -§bantar. 

reg -Sbar, -Sbaris or Sbare, -Sbatur ; -ebamur, -ebfimiul, -ebantur. 

and -iSbar, -isbaria or iSbare, -iebatur ; -iebamur, -iebaminl, -iebantur, 


am -Sbor, -aberis or fibere, -abitur ; -fibimur, 

mon -Sbor, -Sberis or Sbere, -ebitur ; -ebimur, 

•ar, -Sris or Sre, -etur ; -emur, 

'iar, -iSris or iSre, -ietur ; -iSmur, 



-Etur ; -Smur, 

-efitur ; -eSmur, 

-atur ; -amur, 

-iatur ; -ifimur. 

-firetur ; 
-eretur ; 
-eretur ; 
-iretur ; 

-abimini, -fibuntur. 
-ebimini, -ebuntur. 


am -er, 

men -ear, 

reg -ar, 

aud -iar, 



-Sris or Sre, 

-earis or efire, 

-aiis or fire, 

•ifiris or ifire. 

-Sminl, -entur. 

-efimini, -eantur 

■fimini, -antur. 

•ifimini, -iantur, 

am -Srer, -firSria OJ-firSre, 

mon -Srer, -SrSris or SrSre, 

reg -erer, -ereris or erere, 

aud -Irer, -IrSris oi'irSre, 

-firemur, -firSminl, -Srentur, 

-eremur, -SrSminI, -erentur. 

-erSmur, -ereminl, -erentur. 

-Iremur, -ireminl, -Irentur 







am -fire. 



-fitor J 


mon -gre, 





reg -ere. 



-itor ; 


and -Ire, 

-IminI ; 




Pres. Infinitive. 















' Ib these aod the following endingre rd takes the place of ris : dris or dre^ dhdritt ot 
iha/re. Re is formed ftom ris by dropping final < and then changing final i to e; sec 
99. 6 ; 94, 1, note ; also 93 7. 





perfect system.' 
Indicative Mood. 





■it ; •imus, 


•Srunt, Sfe> 

-eram, .erSs, -erat; -er£iuus, .erBtis, .erant 

FnioRB Perpeot. 
.erifa, .erit; .enmus, -eriiiA, 4rtet. 



■ -erim, -wHi, -eiit; ^eiimiis, .eiltis, •erint 


•iesem, 'isaSs, -isset; -issSmus, •iasetis, 

■ -isse. 

Perfect Infinitive. 


Fur. Infinitive. Fur. Participle. 

-tirus esse. 



' For the Per/eat System, see aas, It; for the Supine Syatrni, 882, III. 

^ From the comparative view presented in 813-216 it will be seen that the foi& 
conjugations dilfer from each other only In the formation of the Prindpai Parts and la 
the endings of the Present Syatem. Ssa also 801, foot-note. 





Indicative Mood. 
-us Bum, .uses, -us est; -I> sumus, Jestia, -I sunt 

imBt ' 

audit . 

au(St . 



wdlt . 

-useram, .us erSs, -us erat; -leramus, -lerStis, -I erant 

Future Perfect'. 
-us erJ^ -us eris, -us erit ; -I erimus, -I eritis, -I erunt. 

■08 rim, .US 81a, -us sit ; -t simus, -' sitis, -I «int. 

-us easem, -us esses, -us esset ; -I essgmus, -I essetis, -I esseut 


-U8 ease. 


Perfect Participle. 

au(tit . 

-um VL 

> Id the plorsl, -ua beeomea -? .' amdt-i sumut, etc. 


217. A few verbs of the Third Conjugation form the Present 
Indicative in ia, ior, like verbs of the Fourth Conjugation. They 
are inflected with the endings of the Fourth wherever those end- 
ings have two successive vowels. These verbs are — 

1. GapiS, to take ; cupio, to desire ; facio, to make ; fodia, to dig ; fugia, 
to flee ; jacie, to throw ; pario, to bear ; quatiS, to shake ; rapia, to seize ; 
sapid, to be wise, with their compounds. 

2. The compunods of the obsolete verbs, lotciS, to entice, and specid,' to 
look ; allieiSf elicio, illicid, pellicid, etc. ; aspicid, coTLspicio, etc. 

3. The Deponent Verbs : gradior, to go ; morior, to die ; patior, to suffer ; 
see 231. 

218. ACTIVE VOICE. — Capie, I take. 

Verb Stem, cap; Pbesent Stem, cape.* 


pRBS. IND. Pees. Inf. Pbrp. Ind. Supine. 

capis, capere, cepi, captum. 

rNDiCATivB Mood. 

Pbesent Tense, 
singular. plural. 

capio, capis, capit ; I capimus, capitis, capiunt. 

capiebam, -iebas, -iebat ; | capifebamus, -iebatis, iebant. 

capiam, -ies, -iet ; | capiemus, -ietis, -lent 

cepi, -isti, -it ; I cepimus, -istis, -erunt, or ere. 

ceperam, -eras, -erat ; | ceperamus, -eratis, -erant. 

Future Perfect. 
ceperS, -eris, -erit ; | ceperimus, -eritis, -erint * 

capiam, -ias, -iat ; I capiamus, -iatis, -iant. 

caperem, -eres, -eret ; | caperBmus, -erStis, -erent. 

oeperim, -eris, -erit ; | cSperimus, -eritis, -trint. 

cBpissem, -isses, -isset ; | cepisssmus, -issetis, -issent. 

* Specid occurs, but is exceedingly rare. 
' With variable vowel— e. «"., cape, mpi. 

r.ER£S IN 10. 




iVe>. cape; 

1 capite. 

Fut. capito, 
capito ; 




iVes. capere. 

Perf. cepisse. 

Put. captOrus esse. 

Fres. capiens. 
Fut. captarus. 



Gen. capiendl, 
Dai. capiendo. 
Ace. capiendum, 
Abl. capiendo. 

Ace. captum, 
Ahl. captik. 


219. PASSIVE VOICE.— Capior, /am <«*«». 


Pais. Ids. 

Pek8. Ihi. 

Pebf. Ihd 



captus sum 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense, 
singular. plural. 

capior, caperis, capitur ; | capimur, capimini, capiuntur. 

capiebar, -iebSris, -iebatur ; | capiebamur, -iebamini, -iSbantur 

capiar, -iSria, -istur; | capiemur, -igmini, -ieutur. 

captus. sum, es, est ; | capti sumus, estis, sunt. 

eaptns eram, eras, erat ; | captl eramus, ef atis, erant. 

Future Perfect. 
oaptus ero, eris, erit ; | capti erimus, eritia, erunt. 



sinqulab. plural. 

capiar, -iaris, -iatur ; | capiamur, -iamini, -iantur. 


caperer, -ereris, -eretur ; | caperemur, -ereminl, -erentur. 


captus sim, sis, sit ; { capti simus, sitis, sint. 


captus essem, essgs, esset ; | captI essemus, essStis, essent. 

Pres. capere ; I capiminl. 

Fvt. capitor, I 

capitor ; I capiuntor. 


Pres. capl. 
Ferf. captus esse. 
Fid, captum In. 


Pefrf. captus. 
F\ht. capienduB, 


220. The Principai, Parts are formed in the fovir conjuga 
\tions with the following endings, including the characteristic vow- 
els, a, §, e, i : 

GoNj. L 6, are, avi, 3tum, 

amS, am9,re, amavl, am^tum, to love. 
Con J. n. In a /em verbs ; eO, ere, evi, etum, 

dSleO, delere, dglSvI, dslstnin, to destroy^ 
In' most verbs: eo, ere, ui, itum, 

moneO, monSre, monui, mouLtum, to advise, 

CoNJ. III. In consonant stems : 6, ere, si, turn, 

oarp6, oarpere, carpsi, oarptum, toplucic. 

In vowel stems: 6, ere, I, turn, 

aou8, aouere, acul, aciitum, to tharpern 

Con J. rv. io, ire, ivi, itum, , 

audiS, audire, audlvi, auditum, to hear, 

221. Compounds of verbs with dissyllabic Supines generallj 
change the stem-vowel in forming the principal parts : 

I. Wh»n the Present of the eompovnd has i for e of the simple verb: 

VMKJSAL lJSJfl,EVT10ilti. 109 

1. ITie Perfect and Supine generally resume the e : ' 

reg6, regere, r6xl, rSotum, to rule. 

dl-rig6, dirigere, dlrexl, directum, to direct. 

2. But sometimes only the Supine resumes the e : ' 

teneS, tenSre, tenul, tentum, to hold. 

d6-tine6, detinSre, dfitinul, detentum, to detain. 

II. WTim the Present of the compound has i for a of the simple verb : 

1. The Perfect generally resumes the Towel of the simple perfect, and 
the Supine takes e,' sometimes a: 

oapi8, oapere, <«pl, captum, to take. 

ao-oipl5, accipere, aooepi, acceptum, to accyt. 

2. But sometimes the Perfect retains i and the Supine takes e : ' 

iapi6, rapere, rapul, raptum, to seize. 

dl-ripio, dlripere, dlripui, direptum, to tear asunder. 

■ l^OTB. — For Reduplication in compounds^ see 355, I., 4; other peculiarities of 
compounds will be noticed under the separate conjugations. 

222. All the forms of any regulai- verb arrange themselves in 
three distinct groups or systems : 

I. The Present System, with the Present Infinitive as its basis, 
comprises — 

1. The Preseni, Imperfect, and J'kiiure Indicative — Active and Passive. 

2. The Present and Imperfect /Subjunctive — ^Active and Passive. 
8. The Imperative — Active and Passive. 

4. The Present Infinitive — ^Active and Passive. 

6. The Present Active Participle. 

6. The Oerrmd and the Oa-undive. 

Note. — These parts a-s all formed from the Present Stem, found in the 
Present Infinitive Active by dropping the ending re : arndre, present stem 
AMi ; moTiire, monS ; regere, rege ; aiulire, audi. 

n. The Perfect System, with the Perfect Indicative Active as 
its basis, comprises in the Active Voice — 

1. The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative. 

2. The Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive. 
8. The Peyfecl Infinitive. 

Note. — These parts are all formed from the Perfect Stem, found in the 
Perfect Indicative Active, by dropping i : amdvi, perfect stem ahav ; 


in. The Supine System, with the Supine as its basis, comprises— 

* Th» fevorite vowel before x, or two or more consonants ; see 84, 1. 



1. The Supines in um and a, the former of which with tri forms tha 
Future Infinitive Passive. 

2. The Future Active and Perfect Passive Participles, th"e former of 
which with esse forms the Future Active Infinitive, and the latter of wliich 
with the proper parts of the auxiliary sum forms in the Passive those 
tenses which in the Active belong to the Perfect System. 

Note. — These parts are all formed from the Supine Stem, found in the 
Supine by dropping um : amdtum, supine stem amat ; monitmn, monit. 



223. ACTIVE VOICE.— Amo, Hove. 

1. Principal Parts. 
ani5, amare, amavi, amatum. 

2. Present System ; Stem, oma. 







Pres. amo 
Imp. amabam 
Fut. amabo 





Gerund, amandl, do, etc. 

3. Perfect System ; Stem, amov. 

Perf. amavl 
Plup. amaveram 
F.P. amavero 



4. Supine System; Stem, amdt. 

I I amatiims esse { amaturus 

Supine, amatum, amatu. 

224. PASSIVE VOICE.— Amor, lam loved. 

1. Principal Parts. 
amor, amari, amatus sum. 

Pres. amor 
Imp. amabar 
Put. amabor 

2. Present System; Stem, ama. 




Gerundive, amandus. 



Perf. amatus sum 
Flup. amatus eram 
F. P. amatus ero 

S. Supine System ; Stem, amat. 


amatus sim 
amatus essem 


amatus esse 
amatum In 





825. ACTIVE VOICE.— Moneo, I adime. 

1. Principal Parts. 
mone&, monere, monuT, monitmn. 

Pres. moneo 
Imp. monSbam 
pit. monSbo 

Perf. monul 
Plup. monueram 
F. P. monuero. 


2. Present System; Stem, mmia. 

moneam mone monSre 


Gerund, monendl, d5, etc. 

S. Perfect System; Stem, mamt. 

monuerim • monuisse 


4. Supine System; Stem, trumit. 

I I I monituruB esse | monit&rui 

Supine, monitum, monitu. 

226. PASSIVE VOICE.— Moneor,/ am (wfoiseA 

Fret, moneor 
Imp. mon§bar 
PiU. monebor 

1. Principal Parts. 

monitus sum. 

2. Present System; Stem, moni. 




Oenmdive, monendus, 

Perf. monitus sum 
Plup. monitus eram 
F. P. monitus ero 

S. Supine System; Stem, monit. 

monitus esse 

monitus sim 
monitus essem 

monitum M 





227. ACTIVE VOICE.— Rego, IruU. 

1. Principal Parts. 
regere, rexi, rectum. 

2. Present System; Stem, rege. 







Pres, rego 
Imp. regebam 
Fui. regam 





Qerumd, regendl, do, etc. 

3. Perfect System; Stem, rex. 

Perf. rexl 
Plup. rSxeram 
F. P. rgxero 




4. Scpine System; Stem, rid. 

I I rectilnis esse 

Supine, rSctum, rSctu. 


228. PASSIVE VOICE.— Regor, / am ruled. 

1. Principal Parts. 
regor, regi, rectus sum. 

2. Present System; Stem, 


Pres. regor 
Imp. regebar 
Fut. regar 




Oenmdive, regendus. 

3. SiiPiNE System; Sitbu, riet. 

Per/. rSctua sum 
Plup. r§ctus eram 
F P. rSctus ero 

rectus sim 
rectus essem 

rSctus esse 
••actum In 





229. ACTIVE VOICE.— AudiS, / liear. 

I. Pbincipal Parts. 
audi6, audire, audivi, 

2. Prisent System; Stem, ««& 



audiam audi 


Pros. audiS 
Imp, audisbam 
Fat. audiam 


Oerund, audiendl, do, etc. 



Per/. audlTl 
Phip. audlTeram 
F. P. audlverS 


8. Perfect System; Stem, audiv. 

audlTerim audlvisse 


4. Supine System; Stem, audit. 

I I I audlturus esse I audlturus 

Supine, audltum, audltii. 

230. PASSIVE VOICE.— Audior, / am heard. 

1. Principal Parts 
audior, audlii, auditus sum. 

Pres. audior 
Imp. audiebar 
Pitt, audiar 

Per/, auditus sum 
Pnm. auditus eram 
F. P. auditus ero 

2. Present System; Stem, audi. 

audiar audire audlil 


Chnmdive, audiendus 

8. Supine System ; Stem, arutU. 

auditus esie 

auditus sim 
auditus essem 

audltum Irl 





231. Deponent Verbs have in general the forms of the Passivt 
Voice with the signification of the Active. But — 

1. They have also in the Active, the future infinitive, the participles, 
gerund, and supine. 

2. The gerundive generally has the passive signification ; sometimes 
also the perfect participle : lioriandits, to be exhorted ; expertus, tried. 

3. The Future Infinitive of the Passive form is rare, as the Active form 
is generally used. 

Note.— The synopsiB of a single example will Bufficient/y illustrate the peculiarities 
of Deponent Verbs. 

232. Hortor, I exhort. 

1. Principal Parts. 
hortor, hortari, hortatus sum. 

2. Present System ; Stem, horto,. 






Pres. hortor ' 





Imp. hortabar 


Eut. hortabor 



i, hortandl. 


ive, hortandus. 

Perf. hortatus sum 
Plup. hortatus eram 
F. P. hortatus ero 

3. Supine System; Stem, hortat. 

hortatus sim hortatus esse 

hortatus essem 

I hortatus 

hortatilrus esse I Uortatiirua 
Supine, hortatum, hortatii. 

Note.— For the Principal Parts of Deponent Verbs in the other conja|?ationB, see 
aes, 283, and 888. From these Principal Parts the pupil, by the aid of the paradignil 
already learned, wilt be able to inflect any Deponent Verb. 


233. The Active Periphrastic Conjugation, formed 
by combining the Future Active Participle with sum, de- 
notes an intended or future action: 

1 The tenses are inflected regularly through the persone and numbers : Tiortor^ Jtor- 
tdriSy Tiortdtur, hortamv/r, hortumini^ ?iortantur. All the forms in this 83Tiopsi8 have 
the active meaning. / exhort^ I was exhorting^ etc., except the OeruTidive, which has 
the passive force, deserving to be exhorted^ to be exhorted. The Oerwudive, as it is 
passive in meaning, cannot be used in intransitive Dopoaent Verbs, except in an Impet- 
eonal senae; see 301, 1. 

Amattirus sum, I am about to love. 


Pfes. amaturus sum ' 
Imp. amaturus eram 
JPSU. amaturus ero 
Perf. amaturus ful 
Plup. amaturus fueram 
F. P. amaturus f uero ' 

amaturus sim 
amaturus essem 

amaturus fuerim 
amaturus fuissem 


amaturus esse 
amaturus fuisse 

234. The Passive Peeipheastic Cokjugation, formed 
by combining the Gerundive with sum, denotes necessity or 

Amandus sum, I must be loved.* 

Prea. amandus sum 
Imp. amandus eram 
MU. amandus ero 
Per/, amandus ful 
Plup. amandus fueram 
F. P. amandus f uero 

amandus sim 
amandus essem 

amandus fuerim 
amandus fuissem 

amandus esse 
amandus fuisse 

Note. — The Periphrastic Conjugation, in the widest sense of the term, includes all 
forms compounded of participles with sum ; but as the Pres. Part, with sum is equiva- 
lent to the Pres. Ind. {amdna est = amat)^ and is accordingly seldom used, and as the 
Perf. Part with sum is, in the strictest sense, an integral part of the regular conjugation, 
the term PeriphrasHo is generally limited to the two conjugations above given. 


235. Perfects in avi, evi, ivi, and the tenses derived 
from them, sometimes drop v and suffer contraction before 
s and r, and sometimes before t. Thus — 

A with the following vowel becomes a: amdvisti (amaisti), amOsti; 
amaveram (amaeram), amaram ; amavisse (amaisse), amOsse j amavit (ama- 
it), amOt. 

£! with the following vowel becomes e : riivi (to spin), rOmafi (neisti), 
nisR ; neverunt (neerunt), nemnt. 

I-I and l-i become I : audivisB (audiisti), audisR ; audlvissem (audiis- 
oem), audlssem ; audivit (audiit), audit. 

1. Perfects in im sometimes drop ® in any of their forms, but generally 
Without contraction,' except before s ; attdvoi, cmdii, audiit, audieram ; audi- 
visti, audiisti or audietl. 

* The periphrastic forms are inflected regularly through the persons and numbers: 
amaturus earn, es, est. The Fut. Perf. is rare. " Or, / deserve (ought) to be kmed. 

" Then in prose the first i retains quantity and a^^eent : au^%'-i, aud^'-it See 94. 


2. Perfects in mi. — The perfects of nds(^, to know, and moves, to move^ 
sometimes drop « and suffer contraction before r and s ; novieti, iwstl. 

3. Perfects in si and ajJ sometimes drop is, is, or »m." soripsisH, seripsti; 
dvxisse, Wi/XA i accessisUs, accesHs. 

236. The ending ere for erunt in the Perfect is com- 
mon in Livy and the poets, but rare in Cicero and Caesar. 

NoTB. — The form In ere does not drop v. In poetry ervnt occurs. 

237. Re for ris in tlie ending of the second Person of the PasslTe is 
rare in the Present Indicative, but common in the other tenses. 

238. Die, duo, fao, and fer, for <tice, duce, face, and fere, are the 
Imperatives of di<A, duco, fads, and ferS, to say, lead, make, and bear. 

NoTS l.—Dloe, dmce, and face occur in poetry. 

ScfiB 2.— Compounds follow the simple verbs, except those ot/aciS, which change a 
Intoi.' cdn/lce. 

239. Undus and undl for endiis and endi occur as the endings of the 
Gerundive and Gerund of Conj. III. and IV., especially after i; facivmbus, 
ttomfaew, to make; dicandus, from <^c5, to say. 

240. Ancient and Rare Fobms. — Various other forms, belonging in 
the main to the earlier Latin, occur in the poets, even of the classical 
period, and oOcaaionally also in prose, to impart to the style an air of an- 
tiquity or solemnity. Thus forms in — 

1. ibam for iebam, in the Imperfect Ind. of Conj. IV.: cMam for 
sciebam. See Imperfect of eS, to go, 295. 

2. Ibo, Ibor, for iam, iar, in the Future of Conj. IV. : servibs for ser 
mam; opperihor for opperiar. See Future of eS, 295. 

8. im for am or em, in the Pres. Subj. : etHm, edis, etc., for edam, edOs, 
9tc. ; duim (from due, for do), for dem. — In sim, velim, pMim, malim (804 
and 293), im is the common ending. 

4. asso, esse, and s6, in the Future Perfect, and assim, essim, and 
sim, in the Perfect Subjunctive of Conj. I., II., III. : faxi (facso) for 
feceri ' (from/acio) ; faxim for fecerim ' / aumn, for avsus sim (for ause- 
rim, from audeo). Kare examples are : lewdsst for levd/verO ; prohibdssS for 
prohibuerS ; jussS for jusserS ; capsS for cepero ; axo for efferB ; oansit for 
ocmderii ; taxis for teligeHs. 

6. to and mind for tor, the former in both numbers, the latter in the 
lingular, of the Future Imperative, Passive and Deponent : arbitrStS, arbi- 
trUminS for arbitrator ; utrmtO for utuntor. 

6. ier for i in the Present Passive Infinitive : amarier for amciri ; vtdl- 
rier for vidiri, 

1 Bemembor that r in er6 and erinn was originally s ; see 31, 1 ; 304, foot-note 9. 



241. The endings which are appended to the stems in the for- 
mation of the various parts of the finite verb contain three distinct 

1. The Tense-Sign : ha in amO-ba-m, regeJiOs. 

2. The Mood- Vowel : a in nume-Os, reff-Os. 
8. The Personal Endino : s in mone-Os, reg-Os. 

I. Tensb-Signs. 

242. The Present is without any tense-sign: ama-s. So also 
the Future ' in Conjugations III. and IV. 

243. In the other tense-forms of all regular verbs, the tense-sign 
is found in the auxiliary with which these forms are all compounded : 

AmAiaim,^.atnav-eram, ; amO-bo, amav-ero ; mone-bam, monu-eram. 

II. MooD-SiGlfS. 

244. The Indicative has no special sign to mark the Mood. 

245. The Subjunctive has a long vowel — a, e,' or i* — before 
the Personal Endings : 

MoneS-m'us, mon£-d4is, amS-mus, am-e-tU, s-l-rnvx, s-t-tis. 

NoTB.— This vowel is shortened before final m and t^ and generally in the Perfect 
Iwfore s, 7nw5, and tU . mon-eam^ amet^ 8it,fu6ris^ amdveHmuSf amdvei^itis. 

' This Fntnre is in form a Present Subjunctive, though it lias assumed in full the 
force of the Futore Indicative; see foot-note 4 below. 

'^ Bam and &ram are both auxiliary verbs in the Imperfect, the former ii'om the stem 
6A«, the old form of ^ in /u-i, and the latter from the stem es ; the former added to the 
Present stem forms the Imperfect, the latter added to the Perfect stem forms the Pluper- 
fect, £6 and erd are Future forms, the former from &/m, the latter from es; the former 
added to the Present stem forms the Future in Conjugations I. and II., the latter added 
to the Perfect stem forms the Future Perfect. In the Subjunctive the teuse-forras, except 
the Present, are compounded with Subjunctive tense-forms from es; thus, erem in reg- 
erem is for esem, the old form of efsem ; erim in rex-erim is for esim = aim. and i8/<cm 
in rex-iasem is for essem ; thus the Present and Imperfect Subjunctive of sum added to 
the Perfect stem form the Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive. 

^ This e comes from o-t, of which the % alone is the true Mood Sign. 

* The Latin Subjunctive contains the forms of two distinct Moods— the Subjunctive 
with the sign a, and the Optative with the sign % sometimes contained in e for a-h 
Thus: Subjunctive, mone-a-mws, audi-d-Ua; Optative, 8-i-m««, rexer-i-tia^ am-e-mva 
for ama-i-mus^ reger-e-a for regera-i-a. The Subjunctive and Optative forms, originally 
distinct, have in the Latin been blended mto one Mood, called the Subjunctive, and are 
tised without any'difference of meaning. Thus the Mood in mone-d-mua^ a Subjunctive 
form, has precisely the same force as in atn-e-mua^ an Optative form. The First Person 
Singular of Futures in am—regam, midiam, etc.— is in form a Subjunctive, while the 
other Persons, regea, et, etc., audUa, et, etc., are in form Optatives. 



346. The Imperative is distinguished by its Personal Endings; 

see 247, 8. 

in. Pbbsonal Endings. 

247. The Personal Endings are formed from ancient pronom- 
inal stems, and have, accordingly, the force of pronouns in Eng 
lish. They are as follows •. 

Peesoh. Active. 




First m 



Second s 


thou, you 

Third t 


he, she, it 


First mus 



Second tis 



Third nt 




























1. Omitted. — In the Present * Perfect, and Future Perfect Ind. of all 
the conjugations, and in the Future Ind. of Conjugations I. and II., the 
ending m does not appear. In these forms the First Person ends in 5;^ 
amd^ amSboj am&vero; except in the Perfect, where it ends in ?,** amavi. 

2. The endings of the Perfect Active are peculiar. They are the same 
as in ful : 

1 In the Singular these Personal Undings contain each— (1) in the Active Voice one 
pronominal stem, m, I; a, thou, you; ^ he; and (2) in the Passive two such stems, one 
denoting the Person, and the other the Passive Voice : thus, in the ending tvr, t (taj 
denotes the person, and r, the voice. B of the first person stands for m-r. 

2 In the Pliural the Endings contain each — (1') in the Active two pronominal stems: 
mu-8 = m (mu) and s, I and you, i. e., we ; tis = t (the original form for 8, thou, as seen 
in ?M, thou) and «, = s and s, thou and thou, i. e., you \ nt = n and ^, he and he, i. e., they ; 
and (2) in the Passive three such stems, the thh*d denoting the Passive Voice : thus in 
ntur^ nt (ntu) denotes the person and number, and r, the voice. 

* Miivl was not originally a Personal Ending, bat the Plural of a Passive Participle^ 
not otherwise used in Latin, but seen In the Greek (jitei'ot). ATndmim^ originally ama/mi- 
Kin <28iis, means you are lowdy as amutl eaUs means you have been loved, 

* Except in sum, I am, and inquam, I say. 

6 The origin of this final 6 is uncertain. Curtius regards it as simply the th&matic 
vowel, but Meyer recognizes in it a suffix combined with the t?i&maiic vowel; see Cur- 
tius, Verbum, I., pp. 199, 200; Meyer, p. 849. 

* Probably a part of the stem ; but see Curtius, Verbum, TI., p. 1T8 ; PapiUon, pp. 194- 
196 ; also two papers by the author, on the Formation of the Tenses for Completed Actiol 
hi the Latin Finite Verb; Transactions of the Am. Phil. Assoc., 1874 and IftTS. 


SraGULAB. Plural. 

MrttHsrs. fti-l> fu-i-mus 

Beeond fu-is-tl fu-is-tis 

Third fu-i-t fu-eru-nt or 8re 

S. The Imperative Mood has the following Personal Endings : 



Rvs. Second I^s. — » te re mini 

Fvt. Second td tote 



lirus esse 

ParOeiple Pretent 









nm, Q 

Third t3 ntd tor ntor 

248. Infinitives, Participles, Gerunds, and Supines are formed 
with the following endings: 

AcmvB. Passivb. 

Infinitive Present re (ere) rt (en), I 

us esse 



249. The three Special Stems are all formed from the Verb Stem. 

I. Pbbsbnt Stem. 

250. The Present Stem, found in the Present Infinitive Active 
by dropping re, is generally the same as the Verb Stem in the First 
and in the Fourth Conjugations, and sometimes in the Second. 
Thus, ama, dele, and audA " are both Present Stems and Verb Stems. 

> Jf iB omitted in the first person, and t% an ancient form of ^, s, is used in the seo 
Jnd. Otherwise the endings themselves are regular, but in the second person ti and Ms 
aM preceded by m, and S-rvm^ in fu-erwnt is for eswnt^ the fUll form for aunt. Thus 
furerunt is a compound of /« and esunt for sunt. Fur-iaUs^ in like manner, may be a 
Qompouud of /m and isiia for eaUs,, and fu-istl, of /« and iati for eati for es. 

3 In the Present the ending is dropped in the Sing. Act, and the endings te and re 
are shortened from tia and 7na of the Indicative by dropping a and changing final i into 
e; see 24, 1, note. In the Future, td of the second person corresponds to ti of the Per- 
fect Ind.; id and ntd of the third person to t and nt. Tor and ntor add r to ^ and ntd~ 
Tote doubles the pronominal stem. 

' The final vowels are generally explained as derived from (^a, which became, in 
IX>1^ I,, t^o, shortened to d in am-d, and to a in the other forms, as am-d-mua: in 


251. The Present Stem, -when not the same as the Verb Stem, 
ie formed from it by one of the folio-wing methods : 

1. By adding a short vowel, called the Thematic vowel : ' 

regd ; Stem, reg ; Present Stem, rege ; to rule, 

oano ; " can ; " cane ; to smg, 

2. By adding a Thematic vowel preceded by n, sc, or t : 

sinS ; _ Stem, si ; Present Stem, sine ; to permit, 

apemo ; " sper, sprS ; " speme ; to spv/m, 

temnO ; " tern ; " temne ; to despise. 

veterasoS ; " Vetera ; " veterasoe ; to qrow old, 

orSsoo ; " orS ; " orBsoe ; to tncreaee, 

plectd; " pleo; " pleote; to braid. 

3. By adding a Thematic vowel preceded by i or j : 

capio ; Stem, cap ; Present Stem, oap-je, cape ; ' to take, 

pell8 ; " pel ; " pel-^e, pelle ; ' to drive, 

currS ; " our ; " our-je, curre ; ' to run. 

i. By adding a Thematic vowd and inserting n — changed to m before 

a labial, b or p ; see 33, 3 : 


" rup: 

Present Stem, franee ; 
" funJe ; 
" rumpe; 

to break, 
to pour, 

inga, e, orl; 

em, juv ; 
" haur/orhausi 

Present Stem, juva ; 
" vide ; 
" haun; 

to assist, 
to see. 
to draw. 

video ; 

6. By reduplicating the etem : 

8ist5; 8teni^B%A\ I^reamt 8te7n^^\%t^^^B\BX,Q\ to place, 

serd ; ** ea ; '* sisa, sise, sere ; * to sow. 

Note. — Sometimes two of these methods are united in the same stem ; 

g^gn6 ; Stem^ gen ; I^eamt Stem^ gigene, gigne ; ^ to beg^. % 

nanclBCor ; " nao ; " nanolice ; * to obtam. 

Conj. II., ^'o, shortened to ed in dSl~e6^ and to e in dei-e-mua; and in Conj. IV., "00, 
shortened U>idin aud-io^ to iu in aud-iM-nt, and to i in a/ud-l-mus; see 335, foot-note. 

1 This TJiematie vowels originally a, Is generally weakened to e or » ; reg-e-re, reg-i- 
mus; but sometimes it appears to take the form of or w .■ reg-6, reg-u-nt. There is, 
however, some difference of opinion in regard '^o the origin of d In such cases ; sm 
847, 1, foot-note 5 

^ With variable Thematic vowel; see foot-note 1, above. «/", pronounced y, assimi- 
lated to I and r in pelle and curre^ as in the Greek jSaXAu, ftom pdK-j<o. See Gurtius, 
Verbum, X., p. 300. 

3 For atiata for siaata. The e In aiste takes the several forms of the Thematic vowel. 

* S changed to r between two vowels; see 31, 1. The vowel a of the stem Is 
WMkened to { before «, but to e before r ; see !S4f 1 and 2. 

^ Bednplication with Thematic vowel 

* N inserted and i-ac-e added. 


n. Perfect Stems. 

252. Vowel Stems form the Perfect Stem by adding v: 

«m4 (a-4), amavl ; Stem, ama ; Psrfect Stem, amav ; io love. 

deleS, delevl; « d6l6; " d6l6v; to destroy. 

audio, audlvl; " audi; " audlv; to hear. 

1. In verbs in tid, the Perfect Stem is the same as the Verb Stem : 
aou6, acul; Stem, aea; Perfect Stem, axsa', to sharpen, 

253. Many Liquid Stems, and a few others, foim the Perfect 

Stem by adding u: 

aid, _ alul ; Stem, al ; Perfect Stem, alu ; to nourish. 

fremo, fremui; " frem; " firemu; to rage. 

teneS, tenul; " ten; " tenu; to hold. 

doceo, docul; " doo; " doou; to teach. 

254. Most Consonant Stems form the Perfect Stem by adding ■: 

reg8, rexl ; Stem, reg ; Perfect Stem, rSx = rSgs ; to rule. 

soribOj eoripsl ; " scnb ; " scrips = sorlbs ; to write. 

carpO, carpsi; " carp; " carps; to pluck. 

255. A few Consonant Stems form the Perfect Stem without 
any suffix whatever. But of these — 

I. Some reduplicate the stem : ■ 
0iin6, eednl ; Stem, can ; Perfect Stem, oeoin ; to sing. 

1. The EBDUPuoATioif consists of the imtial consonant (or consonants) 
of the stem with the following vowel, or with e — generally with the follow- 
ing vowel, if that vowel is e, i, o, or «, otherwise with e ; see examples under 
871, 1, and 91», 1. 

2. The Stbm-Yowel a is generally weakened to i, sometimeB to e ,■ cadi, 
ceiaM (for cecadi), to fall. 

8. In Yebbs BEoiiTNiNQ WITH Sp OB St, the reduplication retains both con- 
lonants, but the stem drops the s : spondeS, spopondi (for spospondi), to prom- 
ise ; stS, steti (for slesti), to stand. 

4. In CoMPODiTDs the reduplication is generally dropped, but it is retained 
\n the compounds of ds, to give ; std, to stand ; disco, to learn ; potd, tc 
demand ; aad sometimes in the compounds of currO, to run ; re-sponded, re- 
spondl, tu answer; cirmm-dS, cireuta-dedi ; eircnm-sto, circum-steti, to en- 
oircle. The compounds of do which are of the third conjugation change a 
of the reduplication into i : ad-di, ad-didi (for ad-dedi), to add ; see ;S59, 1. 

IL Some lengthen the Stem-Vowel : ' 

em6, Sml ; Stem, em ; Pafed Stem, £m ; to bay. 

mhj _ 8«; " ag; " 6g; to dnve. 

ab-igd, ab-egl ; " abig ; " abSg ; to drive away. 

Note.— ne stem-vowels a and (la compoands) { generally become e, as In agi and 

^ Sm Uite, »71, 1, and !3T8, 1. • See Usta, 271, 2; 278, % 



IIL Some retain the stem unchanged : ' 

loOj^ lol; Stem, lo; Perfect Stan, to; to strike. 

vlso, vlsl ; " vis ; " vis ; to vitU. 

NOTB. — Of the few verbs belonging to thl6 class, nearly all have the stem-syllable long 

III. Supine Stem. 
856. The Supine Stem adds t to the Verb Stem : 


dies, _ 





amatum ; 

Stem, ama: 

dictum ; 

" die; 

monitum ; 

" moni ; 

deletum ; 

" dsle; 

audltum ; 

" audi ; 

carptum ; 

" carp ; 

Smine Stem, amat; 
" diet; 

" monit ; 

« delet; 

" audit ; 

" carpt ; 

to love, 
to say. 
to advise, 
to destroy, 
to hear, 
to pluck. 

1. Stems in d and t, most stems in I and r, and a few others, change 

t into s : 

laedd, laesum; <8te>», laed; Supine Stem, laaa;* to hurt. 

vertd, versum ; " veit ; " vers ; * to twm, 

verrO, ver.sum; " verr; " vers; to brush. 

fallo, felsum ; " fall ; " fals ; to decewe. 


Class I. — Stem its a : Peeeect in vi oe vL 

357. Principal Parts 
These endings belong to 
ing are examples : 

in — 0, are, avi, atum.« 

most verbs of this conjugation. The follow- 





to besimn. 





to honor. 





to free. 





to name. 










to fiope. 

Note 1. 

—Pato, are, emJ. 

aivm, to drink, has also 

a supine, potwm. 

Note 2. 

—Cmdtua, from 


, ' to dine,' antljurdtuii, from Jtlro, ' to swear,' are active 

In meaning, 

having dined, etc. 

Foius. from poto, is 

also sometimes active in meaning 

1 See list. 373, 3. a For amao, 8 See 307„ 

* Laes is for laedt^ plana for plaicdt, vu for vidt^ vers for -yerft, fals Sot /alii, -oers 
for verri; see 35, 3, 2), note. 

6 The Perfect Formation la selected as the special basis of this classification, because 
the irregularities of the other principal parts are less important and can be readily as- 
sociated with this formation. In this classification the regular or usual formation is first 
given with a few examples, then complete lists (1) of all the simple verbs which deviate 
from this formation, and (2) of such compounds as deviate in any important particular 
from their simjile verbs. 

" It is deemed unnecessary longer to retain the double mark i=£ over final o In verbs. 
The pupil has now learned that this vowel may be short, though it is generally long in 
the Augustan poets. 



258. Principal Parts in — 6, are, ul, itum.' 



















( plicavl 
\ plieul 









1 frictum, 
I fricatum, 

J frictum, ) 
( fricatum, J 

plicatum, ) 
■plicitum,' J 


to creak, 
to recline, 
to tame, 
to Mil. 

to rub. 

to glitter. 

to fold. 

to cut. 
to sound, 
to thunder 
to forbid, 

Class II. — Peefect in l 

259. Principal Parts in — O, are, I, turn. 

1. With Redttplication.^ 



dare dedl datum, 
stare steU statum, 

2 'WrPB Lengthened Stem-Vowel.* 

to give, 
ta stand. 


juTSi juvl jOtum,' 

( lavatum," \ 
lavare lavl \ lautum, [• 

( 15tUK!, ) 

to assist. 

to WOisk. 

Note 1, — In do the ctuu'aotenstic a Is short by exception : '■' dabam, dabo, darem^ 
etc Fonr compounds of do^mrcurndo, pessumds, ejtisdo, aod vhi-amdo—are conju- 
gated like the simple verb tht rest are of the Third Conjugation (371). The basis oi 
several of these compounob is rfo, 'to place,' originally distinct from t?o, 'to give.' 

Note 2.— Compounds of sto generally want thfc Supine. In the Perfect they have 
^tetl^ if the first part is a dissyllable, otherwise aiiti : adstOy adsidre, ad^UPL VwiG and 
escaio want Perfect and Supine. 

' Note deviations in the Supine. 

• IncrepO, are, ul (a9)i\ ifum {atum)^ discre^'f!', 3r&, u/ (am), — . 

' Compounds which insert tw, as aecumbd^ etc., are of Coni. IIL; see 373. 

• The simple neeo is regular, and even in th^ oumpound the forms in dm and d^m 

• I>imicOj dre^ dvl {ut\ atium ; emico^ dre^ ul , dtum. 

■ Du^Hco^ mulHpMco^ replico^ and auppUcfi, are regular : dre^ a-pT, <7tiim. 
' SecO has participle aecdturus; sono, sondtfirus; jwoo, jv/odturue, in compounds 
iieo jatSrus. ResonO has Perfect resondm. Most compounds ofaono want the Supine 
(3 See 355, I. and II. 

• In poetry, lavo is sometimes of Couj. III. : UmO, la/vere, Id'Oi, etc. 

" This short vowel is explained by the fact that do Is a root-verb formed directly from 
the root da without the suffix from which the a is derived in other verbs ie this coigu 
Ration; see 250, foot-note. 



260. Deponent Verbs. 

In this conjugation deponent verbs are entirely regular. 



conatus sum, 



hortatus sum, 

to exhort. 



miratus sum. 

to admire. 


Glass I. — Stem ik e : Perfect iisr vi or uL 

261. Principal Parts in — eo, ere, evi, etum. 

These endings belong to the folio-wing verbs : 

dSleO d§lere dSl§Tl delitum, to destroy, 

to Jill, 
to weep, 
to spin, 

263. Priacipal Parts in — eO, ere, ul, itum. 
These endings belong to most verbs of this conjugation. Th« 
following are examples : 













debed d§bere 

dsbul dsbitum. 

to owe. 

habeO habSre 

habut habitum, 

to Iiave. 

moneS monSre 

monul monitum, 

to advise. 

noceo nocSre 

nocul nocitum. 

to hurt. 

pares parSre 
placed placSre 
taceo tacere 

parul paritum, 
placul placitum, 
tacul taciturn. 

to obey, 
to please, 
to be sileni. 

Note 1.— Many verbs with the Perfect in ui want the Supine. The fol* 

lowing are the most important : 

oandeo, to shme. 
egeO, to want. 
emineO, to stand forth. 
floreO, to bloom. 
frondeO, to hear leaves. 

lateS, to be hid. 








to be wet. 
to shine, 
to sm,ell, 
to be pale, 
to be open, 
to be red. 
to be silent. 

sorbeO, to swallow, 
splendeO, to shine, * 
studeo, to study, 
stupeO, to be amaatei. 
times, to fear. 
torpeO, to be torpid. 
vireO, to be green. 

Note 2. — Some verba 

, derived 

mostly from adjectives, want both PerfMt 

and Supine. The follow 

7ing are the most important : 

albeS, to be white. 
ealveS, to be bald. 
caneO, to be gray. 
flaveO, to be yellow. 

hebefl, to be bluvt, 
ume5, to he moist, 
immineO, to threaten. 
laoteO, to suck. 


to he sad, 
to be powerful, 
to shme, 
to befiUhy. 

' So other compounds of the obflolete pl60 : sxpleo^ impleo,, etc. 
3 To these may be added aboleO^ abolere, dbolivlf aboUtmn, * to deBtroy,* wltb Supine 
in itum. See also abolSecO. 277. 



Class II.'— Stem in c, n, r, ok s : Perfect in uI, 

263. Principal Parts in — eo, ere, ul, turn or sum.' 
These endings belong to the following verbs : 

censum ,' 









I mistum, j 

\ mixtum, j 



to think, 
to teach. 

to mix. 

to hold, 
to roa^. 

Class III. — Stem in a Consonant : Peefect in si or i. 

264. Principal Parts in — eo, ere, si, turn. 










Principal Parts 



f ulgere 
pieo) urgere 




in — eo, ere, si, 


( cOnlvI ) 
( conlxl j 

f rtxl (rare) 












tursi [rare) 





sum ' 

to increase. 
to indulge, 
to twist. 

to be cold, 
to bum. 

to wink ai, 

to be cold, 
to shine. 
to stick, 
io order. 
io shine. 
















urgeo (urj 







to remain, 
to milk, 
to soof/ie. 
to laugh, 
to advise, 
to wipe, 
to swell, 
to press 

Note. — CieO, ciere, c2«7, dtum^ to arouse, has a kindred form, czO, (Jire, divl^ cliwm^ 
from which it seems to have obtained its Perfect. In compounds the forms of the Fourth 
Conj. prevail, especially in the sense of to call., call/orth. 

1 For convenience of reference, a General List of all verbs iu.olvlng' Irregularitiec 
will be found on page 383. 

^ The Present Stem adds e; see 251, 5. Forphonetic changes^ see 33-36. 

' Participle ciTisuif and censltue. — Percenseo wants Supine : recmseo has recenntm 
and recensUum. 

* Id most compounds the Suoine is rare. 
6 Poetic, fulgo, fulg^e, etc. 

" The stem ot haered is haea. The Present adds e and changes « to r betwoeD twf 
Towels. In haeai and haesum^ a standing ibr as or st is not changed. 

* In oomponnds sometimes mulctum. 



266. Principal Parts in — eo, ere, I, turn. 

With Lengthened Stem- Vowel. 





to beware. 





to favor. 





to cherish. 





to move, 
to fear. 





to vow. 

267. Principal Parts in— eO, ire, I, sum. 

1. With Reduplication.' 

mordeo mordere momordi morsum, 

pendeo pendere pependi p§nsum, 

spondeo spondere spopondl sponsum, 

tondeo tondere toton(U tQnsum, 

2. With Lengthened Stem-Towel. 











8. With Unchanged Stem. 







conlvl, conlxl 
fervi, ferbui 
liqul, licui 


268. Deponent Verbs. 

1. Segulatr, 

to bite, 
to hang, 
to promise, 
to shear. 

to sit. 
to see. 

to winh at. 
to boil, 
to be languid 
to be liquid, 
to dine. 
to creak. 



licitus sum, 




meritue sum, 

to deserve. 



pollicituB sum, 

to promise. 



j tuitus sum, 
( tutus sum. 

to protect. 



veritus sum, 
2. Irregular. 

to fear. 



fassus sum,* 

to confess. 



to cure, 
to pity. 

j miseritus sum, 
( misertus sum, 




ratus sum, 

to think. 

^ For Tednpllcation in compounds, see S55, 1., 4. 

3 So drcumsedeo and sti^emedeo. Other compounds thus : assideo., ire^ assee^ 
ansessum; but dissideO, prassideo, and resideo, want Supine. 

8 Observe that the supine stem is wanting in most of these ^erbs. 

4 Participle, prdnsus, in an active sense, Jia/ving dined. 
"> OOnfiteor^ eri^ eoTi/essits : so projiteor. 






8. Semi-Dy)6nent — Deponent in the Perfect. 

audere ausus sum, to dare. 

gaudere gavlsus sum, to rejoice. 

solera solitus sum, 

to be accustomed 


Note.— Thla oanjugatloii contalos the primiti'ee verbs of the language; see 335. 

Class I. — Stem in a Ooitsonant : Perfect in si or t 
269. Principal Parts in — O (or io), ere, si, turn. 
These are the regular endings in verbs whose stems end in a 

consonant. The following are examples : ' 





to pluck. 



cioxl (gsi) 


to gird. 





to say. 





to lead. 





io extinguish. 





to carry. 





to marry. 





to rule. 





to take. 





to draw. 





to burn. 





to carry. 





to live. 


Principal Parts in — 6 (or io). 

ere, si, sum * 





io yield. 





to close. 





to divide. 





to evade. 





to fasten. 





io bend. 



fresum, ) 
fressum, j 

to gnash. 




to hurt. 





to play. 





to send. 





to dip. 



( nexi 
j nexul ' 


to bind 




to comb. 

* For PhoneHc Changes., see 30-36. 

3 The stem-vowel is often changed in compouDdB: carpo^ de-eerpo; regO, di-ri^Si 
for this change, see 344, 4 ; also S31. 

3 Soother conapounds of JS^tngriiO (rare): dutingtiO^ etc. 

* Compounds of claudO have w for aw, con-cludo; those of laedG^ f for ae, H-HdOf 
those of plaudo generally o for au, eoi-plddo ; those oiguaUo^ cii for qua^ con-eutio~ 

B So other compounds ot'Oddo. ^ Compounds take this form in the Ferfeo*- 













pressi ' 




quaasi * 






















Principal Parts in — (or io), 

ere, I, tvun. 

1, With Reduplication. 






















■ p6gl 

panctum,' ) 
pactum, J 
















tentum,'" ) 




sublatum, ' 









2. With Lengthened Stem-Vowel. 













to applaud, 
io press, 
to shake, 
to scatter, 
to shave, 
to gnaw. 
to wipe off. 
to thrutt. 

io hide, 
to sing, 
io believe, 
to learn, 
to bargain, 

to fie in. 

to bring forth, 
io place, 
to touch, 

to stretch. 

to raise, 
io sell, 
to prick, 

to drive, 
to take, 
to buy. 

' See page 12T, foot-note 4. 
> See 34, 1, note; 35, 8, It). 
s AIbo tergeo^ tergere, etc.; compounds tase thlb ibrm ; see S65. 

* So all componods of do except those of Conjugation 1. ; see S59, note 1. 

* CondnO^ ere, eonoinul^ ; so occino and praedno; other compounds want 

Perfect and Supine, 

* Explained as a compound of do; see dbdo. 

' Compinga, ere, compigl, cempaelmn ; eo t\eo trnpingl!. Z)«po»yo wants Perfect; 
vepa/ngo. Perfect and Snpine. 

* Participle, pa/riturus : compounds are of Conjugation IT. 

* Compounds thus : conHsUi, ere, constUl, conaiifum ; but drawmtitetl also oceuri. 
i« Compounds drop the reduplication. 

11 Attollo and ecetoUo want Perfect and Supine. 

IS Compounds thus : compvm.go, ere, compGmi^, corrvpUTictwn. 

1* So oirotwiago and perago; eatago wants Perfect and Supine. Other compound* 
ohang* a into i in the Present: abigO, ere, abeg% dbactnim; but coigo becomes cogo^ 
ere, coegl, co&ctum, and deigO, dego, ere, degi, without Supine. Prodigo wants Supine^ 
aad anibigo. Perfect and Snpine. 

<* S« OTitecapio ; other compounds tfaui : acdpio, ere, accSpi, aeceptwrn, 

>■ So eoemo ; other compounds thus : adime, «r«, adhnl, ademptu/m- 

















to throw. 





to break. 





to read. 





to leave, 
to scratch, 
to corufuer 









to burtt. 


Principal Parts in — (or io), 

ere, I, sum.* 

1. With Bbddplication, 










to cut. 





to run. 





to deceive. 



pepercl (parsi) 


to spare. 





to drive. 





to weiffh, 





tc demana. 




( tunsum," 
■j tflsum, 

to beat. 

2. With Lknothened Stem>Yowkl. 





to dig. 









to pour. 


With UNCHANaEO Stem. 










to defend. 





> ^fislve IrregnlEv: /iO, Jitff% facUis swm; see 294. So aaU^ado and componncU 
at /ado with verbs ; but componndB with prepositions thus : coTyJeftJ, cdn^cere. confedl. 
edn/ecf^wi; with regular Passive, conjicior^ mnfiei^ (^^fectus swm. 

' SuperjaeiO has jac^um or jectum in Supine: componnds with monosyllabic piepo- 
titlooB thus: dbido^ aMcere^ a^ecri^ abjecttmi ; see page 20, foot-note 1. 

• Compounds thns : coiifringO^ ere^ confregi., confra^^m. 

• So compounds, except (1) colHgo, ere., collegia coUSc^wm ; so deligo^ eligo^ fieWfl'O— (3) 
dUigO^ ere, dilean, dilictiim ; so inteUegO, neglego., though negUgl occurs in the Perfect 

• Compounds with Supine ; reUTiqiUf, ere, reliqm, reliciwm. 

• For Phonetic Changes, see 30-36. 

"f JnddO, &re, incidi, mcdeum ; so ocoido and recido ; other compounds want Supine. 
■ Compounds thus: coneido, ere, concidt, conclmmi, 

• Exewrro and praecurro generally retain the reduplication : eaeoucurrif praeauowr^ 
Vi; other compounds generally drop It. 

^^ BefeUo, ere, r^elll, without Supine. 

1^ Cbmparco, ere, comparsl, comparewm, also with e tx a: aomperoi^ er%^ eio. 
Imparcd and reparcO want Perte(A and Supine. 
>9 Compounds drop reduplication, 255, 1., 4. 
** Compounds retain reduplication, /S55, 1., 4. 
** So other compounds of the obsolete oando aadf&ndO. 




findere fidi (fiudi) fissum, 

to part. 


loere Id 




mandere mandl 




pandere pandl 

paasum, ) 
pansum, ) 

to opm. 

Dinso (piso) 

pinaere { P^f^ 

pinaitum, ) 

• pistum, >• 

pmsum, ) 



prehendere, prehendl prehensum,' 

to gram, 
tc climb. 


acandere acancfl 



scindere scidl 


to rend. 


aolvere solvl 


to loose. 


vellere veil! (vulal) vulaum, 

to pluck. 


verrere verrt 


to brush. 


vertere verti 


to turn. 


visere vlsl 


to visU. 


volvere volvi 


to roll. 

Nora 1. — Some verbs with the Perfect in ot or i want the 

Supine ! 

to squeeze. 

metuO, ere, i. 

to fear. 

annuo, ere, i. 

to assent. 

pluo, ere, I, or piiivl, 

to rain. 

bdtufy, ere, I, 

to beat. 

peallo, ere, I, 

to pla/y tht tiari 

bibo, ere, i, 


Bido, ere, I* 

to sit down. 

congruO, ere, 1 

to agree. 

ningO, ere, nTnzI, 

to snow. 

ingruO, ere, I, 

to assail. 

strldo, ere, I, 

to creak. 

lambo, ere, i. 

to lick. 

BternuO, ere, 1, 


Note 2. — 

Some verbs want both P 

erfect and Supine : 


to clanff. 



to be lame. 



to gape. 


to despise.' 


to grow. 


Class II. — Stem in a Consonant : Pbefeot in uI. 

273. Principal Parts in — (or io), ore, ul, itum. 





to recline. 




( alitum, ) 
7 altum, ) 
( depsitum, i 
( depatum, f 

to nourish. 




to knead. 




to elicit, 
to rage. 





to groan, 
to beget, 
to grind. 

» OfteD written prmdO^ prindere,, etc. 

■ F is here changed to its corresponding vowel u : solu^wm for aolvtmn. 

* GomponndB of de^ prae^ re^ are generally deponent in the Preeent, Imperfect, anl 

* Perfect and Snplne generally supplied from aedeo; hence sidi, HMum. Bo in com 

* Seaevddo^ 370. 

* But contemns, ere, contemp^^ cont0mptum, 

' So other compomids otcumbo, cubO; see cu&d, 258. 

* Other compoonds of Ic^iO thtifl : alHdo^ alUoere, aZUa^ altiotum. 





pSno pSnere posul 

strepd Btrepere etrepul 

Tomo vomere Tomui 

ITont. — OompmiB^ 'to restrain 

( plnsitum, \ 

< pistum, >• to trtuh. 

( plnsum, ) 

positum, to place. 

strepitum, to make a noise, 

vomitum, to vomit. 
escceWs,^ 'to ezcer; /arS, 'to rage'; tttrUk, 'U, 

snore'; and tremo, 'to tremble,' have the Perfect in v^ but want the Supine. 
274. Principal Parts in — (or io), ere, ni, turn. 





to cultivate. 





to consftiU. 





to hide. 





to snatch. 





to conited. 





to weave. 


Principal Parts 

1 in — 0, ere, sul, sum. 



messul ^ 


to reap. 




nexul f 


to bind. 

Class III. — Stem in a Vowel : Perfect in vi ok i. 

276. The following verbs have the Perfect in a^ from a stem in a: 
pSsco* p^Bcere pavl pistum, to feed. 




stratum, to strew. 



The following 

verbs have tl 

le Perfect in eroi from a stem in S : 


- abolescere 


abolitum,' to disappear. 




cretum, to decule. 




cretum,' to (/row. 




quietum, to rest. 




BprStum, to spurn. 




suetum, to became accustomed 

NoTS. — 8er6, aeiere, bSti, satum,^ to sow. 

278. The following verbs have the Perfect in ivi from a stem in I: 
arceSBO arc§SBere arcessivl arcessltum, to call for. 

capSsso capgssere capessivl capesBitum, to lay hold of, 

cupio cupere cuplvl cupitum, 



to desire, 
to make. 

I other compounds of eeUe want the Perfect and Supine, except pereeUo, peiveUere, 
pvroull, pereuiswm. 

* Compounds thus : corripiB, corripere, corripul, correptum. 

' The Perfect in ml seems to be a double formation, el enlarged to tui. 

* The stem otpdscd is pa, pas ; the Present Stem adds 8C4 ; see S61, 2. 

^ Bo inolesoO; but adolesco has Supine advUum; exolesco, eatoletum.; oiwlistA 

* InereteB and suceresoD want the Bupiae. 

* Compounds thus : adnsera conserers, odruevl, edntltimk 





moessiTl ) 
incessi f 

to tUl^uk 





to provoke. 



livi, levl 


to smear. 





to know. 





to aslc. 





to seek. 





to bray. 


sapivi, sapul 

to taste. 




si VI 







to rub. 


Principal Parts in— 6, ere, I, turn. 


are the regular endings in verbs with u-stems. 

The following 

are examples : 





to sharpen. 





to convict. 





to imbue. 





to diminish. 










to place. 





to impart. 


-Flmo and stru6 have the Perfect m xi. 





to flow. 





to hold. 


280. Inceptives end in sc6, and denote the beginning of 
an action. 

NoTB. — When formed from verbs, they are called Verbal Ine^Umes, and 
when formed from nouns or adjectives, DeTuyminative IncepPi/ces. 

281. Most VEKBAi jiNCEPTivES Want the Supine, but take the Perfect 
of theit primitives : 




















to become sour, 
to become dry. 
to become warm, 
to begin to bloom, 
to become warm, 
to become green. 


The following take the Perfect and Supine of their primitives : 

{con., vdleo) ere eonvak 

concupiscO icon, cupio) ere concuplvl concupitum, to desire. 
' "" " coDTalitum, 

coDTalescO icon^ valeo) ere 

exardSse^ (fiic, wrdeo) ere 

inveterascG immetero) ere 

ubdormiscO (o6, dormi6) ere 

revMsco' {re. vmo) ere 

Bcisco {sciS) ere 



In Vetera vi 




in Vetera turn, 

to grow strong, 
to bum. 
to grow old. 
to fall asleep, 
to revive, 
to enact. 

^ So Igndsco; dgndecO and cogndaco liave itum in Supine, dgnitwm; digndaao ABd 
intemoscO want Supine. 

^ OomyouDds thus : aequlro. ere, aoquis^/vl, acquisltwm. 

' For,fiug-sl. etrug-sl, formed Pot from u-stemA, but from consonoTii-ttemti, 



282. Most Dknominatitk Inceptites want both Perfect and Supine; 
dlT«80d (divts), to grow rich. 
duloiscO {dnilns\j to become sweet. 
grandSsoS (gran(iu), to grow large. 

Note.— The following have the Perfect in ul : 

naltSscO v"*'"'«>/i 
moUssca (molhe), 
puerfisco (puer), 

to grow mild, 
to grow soft, 
to become a boy. 










iri^ notus) 
ob, mutus) 










283. Deponent Veebb. 
























amplexus sum, 
aptus sum,' 
commentus sum,' 
experrectus sum. 

i frjictus sum, ) 

I fruitus sum, ) 

functus sum, 

gressus sum,* 

lapsus sum, 

(W, rare) 

locutus sum, 

mortuus sum,' 

nactus (nanctus) sum, 

natus sum,' 
I Disus sum, ) 
j nixus sum, f 

oblltus sum, 

pactus sum, 

passus sum, 

profectus sum, 

questus sum. 

nctus sum, 
secutus sum, 
ultus sum, 
ilsus sum. 

to become frequent 
to become hard, 
to become ktuyum. 
to become lean, 
to ripen, 
to grow dumb, 
to bleed afreah. 
to become wordless. 

to embrace, 
to obtain, 
to devise, 
to awake, 
to gape. 

to enjoy. 

to perfort)) 
to walk, 
to be angry 
to fall, 
to melt, 
to ^oeak. 
to die. 
to obtain, 
to he bom. 

to strive, 

to forget, 
to bargain, 
to suffer, 
to set out. 
to complain, 
to remember, 
to growl, 
to follow, 
to avenge, 
to iKe, 
to eat. 

Semi-Deponmi — Deponent in the Perfect. 
fidere fisus sum, 

to trust. 

' AdipUoor, ?, adefptus sum; 80 indlplseor. 

' Oom-mimtscor is componnded of con, sod the obsolete rm/iMoor; re-minlsoor 
waaiA tbe Perfect. 

* De-feHacor, i, de-/e»sut srnn. 

* Gomponnds thus : o^greMor^ %. aggreesus sum. 

* Morior has future participle moriturvt; n&aeor. Tidadturue, 



Class I. — Stem in I: Peefect in vI. 

to alleviate, 
to fortify, 
to knona. 
to htr^. 
to thirst. 
to cry. 

Note 1. — F is often dropped in the Perfect : auiM/l for aud/i/vi ; Bee !9S5, 1. 

Note 2. — Desideratives (338, III.) — except eswri/i, vre, , ttum ; miip- 

turUi, ire., ivi, and parturio, ire, ivi — want both Perfect and Supine. Also » 

few others : 

sagid, to be wise. 

BuperbiO, tobeprottd, 
tussio, to cough. 

Class II. — Stem in c, 1, oe r : Peefect in ui. 
285. Principal Parts in — ^io. Ire, ul, turn. 



Parts in — io, 

Ire, I-Tl, Itum. 

The following are 

examples : 





























to stammer. 


to bejteree. 


to be blind. 


to bark. 


to strike. 


to trifle. 



amicul (xl) 


to clothe. 





to open. 



salul (ii) 


to cover, 
to leap. 

Class III. — Stem in a Consonant : Peefect in si or i. 

286. Principal Parts in — iO, Ire, si, tnin. 




; fartum,' ) 
farctum, ) 

to stuf. 





to prop. 

haurio * 



haustum, hausum, 

to draw. 





to hedge in. 




( sancltum, ) 
( sanctum, ) 

to ratify. 





to patch. 





* Supine irregular. 

2 Compounds thus: detdHd., Ire, ui (if), {demltumfC). 
■ Compounds thus: (ymfercio., ire, cdnfersl, confertitm. 

* The stem of haurio Is haus. The Present adds I and changes 8 to r between two 
vowels Id hdUBi. and hmtsum, s standing for aa or st is not changed. 



287. Principa2 Parts in— is, Ire, si, sum. 



rausi rausum. 

to be hoarse. 



sensl sensum, 

to feel. 


-The following verbs have the Perfect in i .• 



oomperl oompertum, 

to learn. 



repeH repertum. 




veni ' ventum, 

to come. 


Dbpokesnt Vekbb 

1. Reffular. 



blandltus sum, 




largitua sum, 

to bestow. 



mentituB sum. 

to lie. 



mSlItus sum. 

to strive. 



partltus sum, 

to divide. 



potitus sum. 

to obtain. 



sortltus sum, 
2. Irreffular. 

to draw lots. 



assensus sum. 

to assent. 



expertus sum. 

to try. 



mensQS sum, 

to measure. 



oppertus sum, ) 
opperltus sum, ) 

to await. 



Brsus sum, 

to begin. 



ortus sum,' 

to rite. 


289. A few verbs which have special irregularities are 
called by way of preeminence Irregular or Anomalous 
Verbs. They are sum, edo, fero, volo, fw, eo, qued, and 
their compounds. 

290. Sum, '1 am,' and its compounds. 

I. The conjugation of sum has been already given (204) ; its numerous 
compounds — oiaum,' adsum, desum, praesum,' etc. — except possum and pro- 
sum, are conjugated in the same way. 

' With lengthened stem-vowel. 

9 In the Present Indicative and Subjunctive, forms of Go^jngatton III. occnr. 

s Compounded of ad and sentid ; see 387. 

* Participle, oriturus. — Present Indicative, Conjugation III., oreris, oritur. Imper- 
fcct Snbjmictive, orirer or orerer. — So compounds, but adorior follows Conjugation IV. 

* Ahsum and prawum,, like possum, have Present Participles, absent and praes^ns, 
uHd a« B^JectlTes, aiient, present. 



n. PoBSum, 


Pret. possum, potes, potest ; 

Imp. poteram;' 

Fut. potero ; 

Perf, potui; 

Phip. potueram ; 

F. P. potuero ; 

posse, potui, 


tote able. 


possumus, potestis, poBSunt. 







Pres. possim, posBis, possit; 
Imp. possem ; 
Perf. potuerim; 
Plup. potuissem ; 

possimus, possitis, possint. 





Pres. potgns {as an adjective). 


Pres. posse. 
Perf. potuisse. 

Note 1. — Pos»tim is compounded of potis^ *able,^ and sum, *to be.* The parts an 
sometimeB separated, and then potis la indeclinable : potis ewn, potis sum/ua, eto. 
NoTB 2. — In possum observe — ^ 

1) ThsX potis drops is, and that t is assimilated before «.* possum torpotsum. 

2) That the Perfect is poim not po^m.' 

8) Th&t posse and possem are shortened forms for potesse hqA potesaem. 

HI. Prosum, ' I profit,' is compounded of prd, prod, ' for,' and sum, ' to 
be.' It retains d when the simple verb begins with e .• prOsum, prddes, 
prSdest, etc. Otherwise it is conjugated like sum. 

291. Edo, edere, edi, esum, to eat. 

This verb is sometimes regular, and sometimes takes fonns similar, 
except in quantity,' to those of sum which begin in es. Thus — 



Imp. ^^'^O''''"' 
( essem. 




edit ; edimus, 


ederet ; ederemus, 

esset ; easemus. 






1 Inflected regularly through the different persons : poteram, pot&r&s, poierat, eto. 
So also in the other tenses ; pot-m, potwistl. etc. 

3 For old and rare forms, see S04, 2. Fotui is probably a regular pvrfvst In tA 
from an obsolete Terb poteo or poUo ; see S6/S, JS85 1 also Stolz, p. 22f>. 

' These forms have e long before «, while the corresponding forms of «um hsTe e ahorb' 



( Sb;' 

! estd; 





^OTE 1. — In the Pabbite, ettwr for editur and essetwr fop ed&retar also occur. 

NoTX 2. — FoBus Ts IM for am occur In the Present Subjunctive : edim, edM, ecm 
AO.f for edam, edda, edat^ etc. 

NoTS 8. — GoMPOTJNDB are conjugated like the simple verb, but comddo has in the Sn 
pine comiaum or eomesimn. 

292. Fero, 




to bear. 

active voice. 




Pres. fero, fers, fertj 

ferimus, fertis,' ferunt. 

Imp. ferebam;' 


Fui. feram; 


Per/. tuH; 


Plup. tuleram ; 


F. P. tulero ; 


Pres. feram; 



Imp. f errem ; 


Per/, tulerim; 


Plup. tulissem ; 


Pres. fer;» 



Ikit. fertS, 






Pres. ferre.* 


, ferSns. 

Per/. tuUsse. 

Put. latiirus esse. 



1 Bee page 186, foot-note 2. 

^ I'er-a, fer-t, fer-Us^ like es-t, ea-tis, diepense with the usual thematic rowet i 
WiUi such vowel the forms would be /erfs, ferity feritis. 
' Inflect the several tenses in full : fereham^ ferebds, etc. 

♦ JRsrram, etc., for /werem, etc.; /erra torferere (e dropped). 

* Jfer for/«r6 ; ferto^ ferte, fertoUj ferria, feriur. without thematic voweL 




ffen. ferendl, 

Oat. ferendS, 

Ace. ferendum, 

Abl. ferendO. 


Aec. latum, 
Abl. lata. 

t«ror, fern, latus sum, 



Pres. feror, ferns, fertur;' 

Imp. ferebar; 

Put. f erar ; 

Per/. Ifitus sum; 

Plup. latus eram; 

P.P. latus ero; 

to he lame. 

Pres. ferar; 
£np. f errer ; ' 
Per/, latus sim ; 
Plup. latus essem ; 

Pres. ferre;' 

FiU. fertor,' 

f ertor ; 


/V«s. ferrl." 
Per/, latus esSB. 
I\U. latum M. 




ferimur, feriminl, feruntuc 



latl sumus. 

latl eramus. 

latl erimus. 

latl s&nas. 
latl essSmua. 




Per/, latus. 
Oer. ferendus. 

1. Feri has two principal irregularities : 

1) Its forms are derived from three independent stems, seen in /all, tvU^ 

2) It dispenses with the thematic vowel, e or i, before r, «, and t. 

2. CoMPOtrNDB of /eri are conjugated like the simple verb, but in a few ot 
ttiem the preposition suffers a euphonic change : 









































' Wlthont thematic TOWcL 



NoTB.— 5!MteK and tubldtum, ue not often uaed la the lense of «(^«ra, to bear, 

they snpply the Perfect and Supine of tolU), to ralae ; lee 871. 

293. Vol5, 

velle, volm, 

to he willing. 


nolle, nolui, 

to be unwUMnfi. 


malle, malul, 


Pra. Toia, 




nOn Tl8, 



nOn Tult ; 






nOn vultis, 





Imp. Tolebam, 



Put. Tolam. 



Per/. ToluL 



Plup. Toluerom. 



P. P. TolueiS. 




Pra. velim." 



Imp. veUem.* 



Perf. Toluerim. 



Plvp. Toluissem. 


Pres. nOU, nOlIte. 
Put. nOUtO, nOUtOte, 
nOUto; nOluntO. 



Pres. TeHe. i 



Perf. Toluisse. | 



Pret. Tolens. | 


Note 1. — The stem of voTi is vol, with variable stem-vowel, o, e, u. 

Note 2. — NOlO is compounded of ra or inSn and voZS / hIlO, of magis 
uid vo2S. 

Note 8. — Bare Forms. — (1) Of volO: vdt, voids, for vuU, vultis; Sis, 
^iUtis, for «? VIS, si vultis ; wire' for visne. — (2) Of NOLO : nlvis, tiSvult (nivoU), 

> Velim la Inflected like tim, and vellem like estem. 

> Vellem and velU are Byncopated forms for ■velerem, velere; e la dropped and r 
■iilnillated f veZerem, velrem, vellem; velere, velre, velle. So nollem and Tiolle, fee 
Hdlertm and nolere; mallem and rndUe, for Ttidlerem and malere. 



nevelle, for nSn (rO) vis, non («e) vult, nolle. — (3) Of malO : mdvolo, mavelim^ 
mBfVdlem, for malo, mcUim, moUem. 

294. Fio, fieri, 

factus sum, 

tolecorm, hemade.^ 




Pres. flo, fls, fit; 

fimus, fitis, flunt. 

Imp. flebam ; 


Fut. flam ; 


Perf. f actus sum ; 

fact! sumus. 

Plup. f actus eram ; 

facti eramus. 

F. P. f actus ero ; 

fact! erimus. 

Pres. fiam; 



Imp. fierem; 


Perf. factus sim ; 

fact! simus. 

Plup. factus essem 


fact! essgmuB. 

Pres. fl; 





Pres. fieri. 

Perf. factus esse. 


'. factus. 

Fat. factum iri. 



295. Eo, ire, 

ivi, itum, to go. 

Pres. eo, Is, it ; 


Imus, Itis, eunt. 

Imp. ibam ; 


Fut. ibo; 


Perf. Ivl; 


Plup. Iveram ; 


F. P. Ivero ; 


Pres. eam; 



Imp. Irem ; 


Perf. Iverim ; 


Plup. Ivissem ; 


Pres. I; 



Fut. Its, 




^ Compounds of /tO are conjugated like the simple verb, but cdnfit^ defit^ and \ 
Are defective; see 397, III., 2. 



Pres. ire. 
Perf. Ivisse. 
FStt. ituTus esse. 

Oen. eun(U, 
2)(ri. eundO, 
Act. euiid''.m, 
Abl. eundO. 

Pres. iens, Oen. euntis. 

Fut. iturus. 

Ace. itum, 
Abl. itu. 

3 . ^ is a verb of the Fourth Conjugation, but it forms the Supine with a short vowel 
(«^z£m), and ^s irregular in several parts of the Present System. It admits contraction 
according to S35 : istU for ivistU. etc. 

2. Eo^ as an intransitive verb, wants the Pas.3ive, except when used impersonally in 
Ale third singular, ttur, ibdtuTy etc. (301, 1), but In, the Passive Infinitive, occurs as an 
auxiliary in the Future Infinitive Passive of the regular conjugations : amdtwm irf, etc. 

8. Compounds of eo generally shorten lui into if, VeneO {venum eo) has sometimes 
vem^am for "venlbam.. Many compounds want the Supme, and a few admit in the 
Future a rare form in eam^ ies, iet. 

Note 1. — Transitive compounds have the Passive : adeo, to approach; adeor, etc. 

Note 2. — Ambio is regular, like audiOj though amblbam for ambiebOTn occurs. 

296. Qufo, gulre, quivi, guiium, to be able, and negueo, neguire, negulvJ 
(ii), nequitum, to be unable, are conjugated like eS, but they want the Im. 
perative and Gerund, and are rare except in the Present tense.' 


297. Defective Verbs want certain parts. The following are 
the most important : '' 

I. Present System wanting. 

Coepi, J have begun. 

Memini, I remember. 

Odi, IlMe. 

J^f. coepl. 
I^up. ooeperam. 
F. P. coepero. 








Pnf. coeperim. 
i%<p. coepiBsem. 



^ng. memento. 
Phir. mementote. 


> A. Pasfive form, qultwr^ negmtTir^ etc., occurs before a PaBsive Infinitive, 
s For many verbs wbicb want the Perfect or Supine, or both, see %63-!S84. 



Pirf. coepisee. I meminiBse. i Odisse. 

Fui. coeptnirus esse. I I CstiruB ess*. 


Firf. coeptus. I I 6sus.> 

Fwt. coepturuB. | I Ssurus. 

1. With Fabsivx iHPiHTnTES, co»pl generally takes the FassiTe form : coeptm mmn^ 
wam^ etc. Coeptus iB PasBive in eense. 

2. Meminl and odl are Present in sense; hence in the Pluperfect and Future Perfect 
they have the sense of the Imperfect and Future. iVoui, ' I know,' Perfect of nosaO, ' to 
(earn,' and consuepi, ' 1 am wont,' Perfect of consueacO, ' to accustom one's self,' are also 
.^resent in sense. 

II. Parts of each System ■wAU'TiifG. 

1. Aio, Isa/i/, aa^ 
'ndic. Pres, ai5, 

Imp. aiebam, 


^uhj. Pro. 

'mper. Prea. al {rare), 
^rt. Prea. aigns. 

2. Inquam, I my 

'ndic. H-es. inquam, 



-6bat ; 

-gbamuB, -ebatis, 



inquitis, inquiunt. 

Fvt. inquiss, 

inquiet ; 


i%»/. inquiatl, 

inquit ; 

'mper. Free, inque. Fid. inqiute 

3. Fan, U apeak." 

'tuUc. Pree. 

Fut. fabor, 

Perf. fatus sum, es, 



fati sumuB, 

estiB, sunt. 

Fhip. Mu8 eram, eras, 


fS,tI eramus. 

eratls, erant. 

iu}>j. Perf. fetua sim, Bis, 


fatI simus. 

sitis, sint. 

Phip. fatus essem, esBgs, 

asset ; 

fatI essemuB, 

, essetis, essent. 

'mper. Free. fare. 

'njm. Free. fSirl. 

?aH. Pret. (fans) fantis. 

Perf. fatus. 

Qer. fanduB. 

'^trvmd. Gen. and Ahl. fandl, d6. 

Supine, Abl. fatfl. 

1 0«u8 is Active in eense, hating^ bat. is rare except In compounds : exoauB, pm'osus. 

* In this verb a and i do not form a diphthong; before a vowel the i has the sound 
iy:'a-yO, d-yunt; Bee 10, 4, 8). 

3 The Interrogative form aisne is often shortened Into alfC. 

* Albam^ aibds, etc., occur; also inqutbat for inquiebat. 

' .Fdrl is used chiefly In poetry. Compounds have some forms not fonitd in the 
imple: ac^&mvr, cu^d/mmi, ad/abar; tj^dberU. 



m. Impebatitbs and Isolated Forms. 

1. blPSBXTIVIg. 

bavsto ; 



9. Isolated Fobms. 

isdioatitx. subtohotivi. 


conflt; c6nfiat; oonfieret; 

dcflt, de^nnt; deflet; de^t; 

Infit, Influnt, 

Sub. Imp. forem, fores, foret, 

Md. I^ee, ovat, Ae refoiees. 

Ittd. Pre». quaeso, quaesumus,* I pray. 



Inf. hav6re,> 


coufieil, to be dont. 
defierl, to be wanimf 
to begin. 

forent. Jnf. fore.' 
Part, ovans. 


298. Impersonal Verbs correspond to the English Impersona) 
with it: Ucet, it is lawful; oportet, it behooves.' They are conju- 
gated like other verbs, but are used only in the third person singu- 
lar of the Indicative and Subjunctive, and in the Present and Per- 
fect Infinitive. 

299. The most important Impersonal Verbs are — 
decet, deouit, it becomes.* 

liquet, licuit, it is evident.' 

nuseret, miseTitum est, it excites pity.'' 
oportet, oportuit, it behooves. 

paenitet, paenituit, it oatues r«- 



1. Pabticipijes are generally wantlDg, bat a few occnr, though with a somewhat 
modified seuse: (1) from libet: lib&ns, willingr; (2) from licet: Ucina^ free ; licitutt 
allowed ; (3) from paenitet : paendtena, penitent; paenitendua^ to be repented of ; (4f 
from PUDBT : pudins, modest ; pudendtts, shameM. 

2. QEBimDB are {generally wanting, bat occar in rare iDBtancea : pa^nitendwny piP 

1 Also written av% avete^ etc. 

9 The Future aalvebia is also used for th« Imparattre. 

■ Forem = essem ; fore =futurum esse ; see J804, t. 

* Old forms tar qucierd and quaerimiLa. 

* The subject is generally an Infinitlre or clause, but may be a noun or pronooa de 
AOting' a tMng^ but not a person : Aa; Jierl oportet^ that this should be done is necessary 

* These four occur in the third person plural, but without ^peraonal subjeot. 
' Jfigmi9«r«^, I pity; nU paenUet^ I repent. 

* Alto the oompoond, pwiaedet^ pertaeeum eet, it greatly wearlea. 


300. Generally Impersonal are several verbs which designate 
the changes of the weather, or the operations of nature : 

Fiihmnat, it lightens ; grandinat, it hails ; lucleoit, it grows light ; phot, 
it rains ; rorat, dew falls ; tonat, it thunders. 

301. Many other verbs are often used impersonally : 

Acmdit, it happens ; appdret, it appears ; constat, it is evident ; eontmgit, 
it happens ; delectat, it delights ; dolet, it grieves ; interesi, it concerns ; Juvat, 
it delights ; patet, it is plain ; placet, it pleases ; praestat, it is better ; r^ert, 
«t concerns. 

1. In the Passive Voice intransitive verbs can be used only impersonally. The par- 
ticiple is then nenter : 

Mihi ereditwTy it is credited to me, 1 am believed \ tihi crSdiiur^ you are beUeved ; 
ereiUttwi est, it was believed ; certdtnr, it is contended ; curritur, there is rminlng, peo- 
ple run; pugndtur, it is fought, they, we, etc., fight; vvviivr, we, you, they live. 

2. The Passive Perifubastio Conjugation (^34) is often used Impersonally. The 
participle is then neuter: 

Milii sarfbemdwm est, I must write; Ulfi scribmdvm est, you must write; ilH tori- 
bend/UBi tat, he must write. 


SOS. The Latin has four parts of speech sometimes called 
ParUcles: the Adverb, the Preposition, the Conjunction, and the i»- 


303. The Adverb is the part of speech which is used to qual- 
ify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs: eeleriter currere, to run 
swiftly; tarn cehr, so swift; tarn eeleriter, so swiftly. 

304. In their origin, Adverbs are mainly the oblique cases ' of 
nouns, adjectives, participles, and pronouns. 

I. Accusatives. — Many Adverbs were originally Accusatives : 
1. AoocsATivEs OF NoDNs : partim, partly ; /ora«,» out of doors; (Mfl> (foi 
dkim s), for a long time. Here belong numerous advetbs in tim and sim, 
chiefly from verbal nouns ' no longer in use : ' contemptim, contemptuously ; 

1 Some, indeed, are the oblique cases of words not otherwise used in Tjatln, and soma 
are formed by means of case-endings no longer used in the regular declensions. 

a Accusative of dius = dies. 

' Some adverbs in Urn and sim are from adjectives : siriguldtim, one by one. li 
time doubtless tim, dtim, siTn, and im came to be regarded simply as adverbial ■QfBxeBi 
and were so used in forming new adverbs. 


*n*im, perceptibly, slowJy; raptim, hastily; staHm, Bteadily; fwriim, by 

2. AconsATivEs of Noons with Pkepositions : ad^modum, very, to the full 
measure; in-vicem, in turn; i/i-cassum, in vain; ob-iter, on the road, in pass- 
ing ; ob-mam, in the way, against ; poit-modum, after a short time ; inter- 
dm^ and iiUer-dius,^ during the day; inter-dum,^ during the time, in the 
mean time. 

3. AconsATivBs of Adjeottves : 

1) Nedtees in um, u, «, us, is : solum, only ; multvm, rmiUu, much ; «mb- 
ium, too much ; parum, little ; secundum, secondly ; (Seterumf cetera, as to the 
rest ; virum,' truly ; atunde,' abundantly ; facile, easily ; saepe,* often ; plus, 
more ; minus, less ; sa^ius, more frequently ; magis, more, rather.^ 

2) FsiimmEs in am, as : bi/driam,' in two parts ; muUifdriam, in many 
parts ; clam = calam, secretly ; palam, openly ; perperam, wrongly ; aUdi, 

4. AconSATiTES OF PKONOmrs: quam,'' how much; tarn,'' so much; turn, 
then ; tun-c, at that time ; nun^c, now. 

II. Ablatives. — Many Adverbs were originally Ablatives : 

1. Ablatives of NodjJs in. o, e, is ; ergo, accordingly ; ^ numero, exactly ; 
forte, by chance ; Jure, rightly ; apoiUe, willingly ; grdiiis, or gratis, gratui- 
tously ; forU, out of doors. 

Note. — The ablative ia sometimes accompanied by a preposition or by an a^jectire; 
ea-templo, immediately — ^lit., from the moment; %lico for in loco, on the spot; quot- 
annU, yearly; mvUi-modU, in many ways; lio-die {hnc~di^, to-day; gud-re, where- 
fore, by which thing. 

2. Ablatives of Adjeotites aiid Paetioiples in d, FEMTtmrE, o, i,' and J, 
Nedteb : dexird " = dextera, on the right ; «c<m," on the outside ; infra," on 
the under side ; intrd, on the inside ; — intra, within ; ultro, beyond ; perpetuo, 
continually ; rdro, rarely ; subito, suddenly ; auspicdto, after taking the aus- 

' Diu and d-urni are explained as forms of dium=: diem, and ditis&s for di^; see 
Corssen, I., pp. 232^286; II., 45S. 

2 Often becoming conjunctions — eetcT^itm, but. J^on, from ne-Hnum, also beloDg^e 

' Prom obsolete abundis. 

* Here may be added semel, ' once,* and »imul, *at the same time,* both for simile. 

* Secits, 'otherwise'; tenvs, 'as fer as'; protirms, 'straightforward'; and versus., 
'toward,' doabtless belong here. 

* Originally partem, or viam may have been used. 

^ Quam, from stem qua, in qui, quae; tarn, turn, from stem ta, to, in the final syl- 
able of iat^, for is-tu-s, is-ta; tun-G = tum-oe, nun-c = num-ce, in which num is from 
the stem no, seen also in num, ' whether,' and also in its original form, na, in nam, ' for.' 

^ Literally, by the deed. Compare Greek cpyoc, epyw. 

* That 6 is here an ablative ending is proved by the fact that it appears in early Latin 
In the form oied, an undoubted ablative ending. 

*" With these feminines, parte or via may have been originally used. 
" Often becoming prepositions. In fact, all prepositions in a are derived ttoja adverbs 
which were originally ablatives in ad, afterward a. 



pices ; consulto, after deliterating ; sortltd, by lot, i. e., after casting lots ;— 
docte, learnedly ; Kberi, freely ; larte,' surely ; recte, rightly ; «8r?, truly ;— 
doctisdmi, most skillfully ; maximef especially ; — brevi, briefly. 

3. Ablatives of PBOuouifs : «a, there, in that way ; Aac, here, in this way ; 
qua, where, in which way ; eSdem, by the same road, in the same way. 

Note. — Several pronominal adverbs denote direction toward a point: eo, to that 
place; hoc, hue, to this place; ^ iUo, illo-e, iUu-c, to that place ; ieto, iato-e, iatu^ t» 
the place where you are; quo, to which place. 

III. Locatives. — Some Adverbs were originally Locatives : 

1. Locatives of Nouns and Adjiotives in i or e .• heri, yesterday ; Um- 
peri, in time ; vesperi, in the evening ; peregn, or peregri, in a foreign land. 

2. Locatives of Peonodns : Me,* here ; illlc,* there ; utic, there where you 
are ; mc, in this way, thus ; uU,^ vt, in which way ; iM,' there ; ubi, where. 

Note. — Locative forms in im also occur : oUm, formerly ; utrim-que, on 
both sides ; ilUm, iUin-e, from that place ; Mn-e, from this place ; often with 
di : utrin-de, from both sides ; in-de, from that point, thence. 

IV. Adverbs in tus and ter. — Adverbs are also formed by means of 
the endings tus ' and ter : ' 

Fundi-tus, from the foundation ; rddiei-tus, from the roots, utterly ; dvvini- 
tus, by divine appointment, divinely ; /orti-ter, bravely ; deri-ter, sharply ; 
dwHrter, harshly ; elegan/4er, elegantly ; aman^ter, lovingly ; pruden-ter, pru- 

Note 1. — The stem-vowel before tus becomes J, and consonant stems as- 
sume i : fundi-tus,' rddic-i-tas. The stem-vowel before ter also becomes 
i : duri-ter.^ Consonant stems, however, do not assume t, but drop final t .• 
amant-ter, aTnan^er. 

Note 2. — Many adverbs are simply adverbial phrases or clauses whose 
parts have become united in writing. In these compound forms prepositions 

^ As e is an ablative ending, eertn and eerie are only different forma of the same 
word ; so also recto and recte, vera and vSre, thongh the two forms do not always have 
precisely the same meaning: vero, in truth; vSre, truly. 

^ This is the regular ending in superlatives. 

3 These are sometimes explained as Dati-vea, hut they are probably AblaHvet; iUo, 
lit., by that way or road, finally came to mean to that place, i. e., to the place to which 
the road leads. 

* Here the Locative ending is I : hi, illl, isH, 82/ c for c« is a demonstrative ending, 
meaning here. Sic is the Locative of ea ; see 313, foot-note. 

6 Utl contains two stems — u or cu (seen in eui), and ta or to (seen in ^ in ia-te). 

* In ibi and ubi the ending is bl; i in iH is the stem of is, he ; u in vM is the same 
as in utl. 

7 Seen also in in-ter, in the midst; in-tus, within; sub-ter and tub-his, below. 
These suffixes are of uncertain origin ; the former appears to be a case-suffix with abla- 
tive meaning, no longer used in declension; the latter, like ter in aUier, noa-ter, and dex- 
ter, has lost its case-suffix, and may therefore represent either terd with an ablative suffix, 
or terum with an accusative snfflx. See Corssen, II., p. 299; Kuhner, I., p. 67t. 

B The stem-vowel o is changed to i. 



are especially common, and sometimes seem to be used with oases with which 
they do not otherwise occur : ant-ea,^ before, before that ; imter-ed, in the 
mean time ; post-ed, after ; ante-hdc,'^ before this ; quem^ad-modum, in what 
manner ; parum-per, for a whUe ; nm-per = novum-per, lately ; tantis-per, for 
so long a time ; mdilicet = mdire licet, clearly— lit., -* it is permitted to see ' ; 
icSUoet = scire Ucet, certainly ; forsUam, =fors sit an, perhaps. 

305. Many Pronominal Adverbs, like the pronouns from which 
they are formed (191), are correlatives of each other, as will be seen 
In the following 

Table of Correlatives. 





I. Plaob ih which. 

uU, where?' 

alicubi, somewhere ; 
itspiam, luqiiam, any- 
where; iMvU, where 
you please. 

hie, here ; ' istic, 
there ; Ulic, there ; 
iM, there. 

M, where. 

n. Place to which. 

quS, whither i 

guirsum,* to 
what place? 
to what end ? 

aliquO, to some place ; 
quOUbet, qudi!is,whitii- 
er you please. 

aliqud-vorsum,* to 
some place. 

tec, to this place ; « 
isiue, to that place ; 
iUiio, to that place; 
eo, to that place; 
eddem, to the same 

hOrtwm,* to this 

qui, whither. 

quHrsum, to 
which place or 

ni. Plaoe from which. 

vn<{e, whence? 

aUcunde, ftom some 
place; undeUbet, from 
any placd. 

istinc, from that 
place; illinc, from 
that place; inde, 
from that place. 

tmde, whence. 

1 Some scholars, regarding ea and hoc in these and similar cases as ablatives, think 
that all such componnds had their origin at a time when ante, post, inter, etc., admitted 
that case ; bat Corssen treats ed and Tide in all sach cases at, neuters in the accusative 
plural. See Corssen, II., p. 4S5 ; Bucheler, p. 82. 

' Observe that the question uii, ' where f ' may be answered indefinitely by alicu- 
bi, ttspiam, etc., or dejindtely by a demonstrative either alone or with a relative : hie, 
'here*; hie, ubi, *here, where.' 

• Sie, *here,' *near me'; istic, 'there,' 'near yon'; Ulio, 'there,' 'near him'; ibi, 
'there,' a weak demonstrative and the most common correlative of ubi, 'where.' See 
distinction In prononns (191). A similar distinction exists in hUc, istuc, illuo, and eo. 

• For gud^orsum = guo-^ersum, ' whither tamed ' ; aliguo-vorsum, hUe-vorsum. 



Table of Correlatives. — {Ooniirmed.) 





IV. Time. 


guotieiis, how 

qnando, aliquando, 
■uTiquam, at any time. 

aliquotietis, somewhat 

nunc, now ; turn, 
then; tunc, at that 
very time ; ibi, then. 

totims, BO often. 

quom, cum, 
guwn, when. 


V. Wat, Manner, Degree. 

qua, by or in 
what way ? 

ut, uti, how ? 

g«am, how 

aliqud, by or in some 
way ; quavu, by any 

xHqua, m some way, 

aliquam, somewhat. 

hoc, by this way; 
istac, by that way; 
iliac, by that way ; 
ea, by that way ; eciy 
dem, by the same 

ita, sic, so, thus. 
tarn, so much. 

j«(i, by which 

■ut, utl, in 
which way, as. 

quam, as. 

Note 1. — From Relative Adverbs are formed General or IndefmMe Belativea by 
appending -cwTwgtie or by reduplicating the form : ubummgue, ubiuH, wheresoever ; 
quocumque, quoguo, wliithersoever. 

Note 2. — Other examples are — 

1) Plaob i—aliM, elsewhere ; ibidem, in the same place ; Tiecuhi, lest anywhere, 
that nowhere ; aiaubi, if anywhere; aUd, to another place ; citro, to this side; ■Ultra 
citrogue, to and fro ; ■utroque, to both places ; aliimde, from another place ; indidmi^ 
from the same place ; utrimque, from or on both sides; ■mid'lque, from all sides. 

2) Time \—hodie, to-day ; heri, yesterday ; eras, to-morrow ; pridie, the day be- 
fore ; postrldU, the day after ; jam, already ; ja^m turn., even then ; jamdiu, jamdMum, 
jamprldem, long ago ; quondam, at a certain time ; olim, formerly, hereafter ; interim, 
intered, meanwhile ; anted, priua, before ; post, posted, afterward ; ttTiquam, ever; 
nunquam, never; semp&r, at all times. 

8) Wat, Manner, Degree :—aded, so ; aUter, otherwise ; ■magis, more ; paene, al- 
most ; palam, openly ; prnrsus, wholly ; rite, rightly ; valde, greatly ; iila, scarcely. 

4) Oatoe :—cur, why; en, for this reason; ideo, idcircB, proptered, on this account; 
srgd, igitu/r, itaque, therefore, accordingly. 

Note %.—Nesaii, with an interrogative adverb, is often equivalent to an indefinite 
adverb : nexelt q^wmodo, I know not in what way = quidamm^do, in some way ; 
nesaid uH — aliaubi, in some place ; ■nesdS imde=aUcunde, from some place ; see also 
191, note. 

Note 4.— Adverbial phrases are formed by combining mlrum or niml^um with quam- 
tiim: narmn quantimi, it is wonderful how much = wonderflllly much, wonderflllly; 
Mmdimi quantum, exceedingly. Mlruin qiux^m, sdni quam, and iiaMi quam have s 
similar force : how icondej^fuUy, how ■very, how greatly = exceedingly, wonderfaUy. 

Note .5.— For Intep.eogative Pabttoles, see 311, 8. 

Note 6. — For Negative Particles, see 553. 


306. Comparison.— Most adverbs are derived from adjectives, 
and are dependent upon them for their comparison. The com- 
parative is the accusative neuter singular of the adjective, and the 
superlative changes the ending us of the adjective into e : ' 

altus, altior, altiaslmus, lofty. 

alts, altius, altissime, hftily. 

pradens, prudentior, prudentissimus, prudent. 

prudenter, prfldentius, prudentissime, prudently. 

1. When the adjective is compared with magis and mOxime, the adverb 
is compared in the same way ; 

egregius, magis egregius, maxime egregius, excellent. 

SgregiS, magis egregi§, maxime egregie, 

2. When the adjective is irregular, the adverb has the same irregularity : 
bonus, meUor, optimus, good. 

bene, meUus, optime, well. 

male, pejus, pessime, badly. 

3. When the adjective is defective, the adverb Is generally defective : 
deterior, deterrimus. 


deterius, deterrime, worse. 

novus, novissimus, new. 

nove, novissime. 

4. A few not derived from adjectives are compared : 

diu, diatius, diutissime, ~ for a long time. 

saepe, saepius, saepissime, often. 

satis, satius, sufficiently. 

nOper, nuperrime, recently. 

6. Most adverbs not derived from adjectives, as also those from ad- 
jectives incapable of comparison (169), are not compared : lac, here ; nunc, 
now ; wlgdriter, eonmionly. 

6. Superlatives in o or um are used in a few adverbs : prtmo, primum, 


307. The Preposition is the part of speech which shows the 

relations of objects to each other : 

In Italic esse, to he in Italy ; ante me, before me. 

Note 1. — PrepoBitions were originally adverbs, and, like other adverbs (304), are in 
•rlgln petrified case-formB.^ . 

> See 304, II., 2. 

^ Thus prepositions in a are in origin ablatives : cirtM, Gltrd^ contra, ergd. extra, 
irjfrd, etc: while those in m are accusatives: circwm, errant, cum. etc. These case- 
forms passed into adverbs denoting direction, situation, etc. ; but they finally became 
ABBociated with nouns in the accusative or ablative as auxiliary to the case-ending : locfi 


Note 2.— For the Use of PrcpoBltions, see 438-437. 

Note 8.— For the Fokm and Meamino of Prepositions in Composition, see 344, 5. 

308. Insbpabablb Pkbpositions.' — ^mM, rnnh, 'around,' 
'about'; dis, dl, 'asunder'; in, 'not,' 'un-'; por, 'toward,' 
'forth'; re, red, 'back'; se, sed, 'aside,' 'apart'; and ve, 'not,' 
are called Inseparable Prepositions, because they are used only in 

Nora.— For the Fobm and Meahikg of the Inseparable Prepositions in Composition, 
see 344, 6. 


309. Conjunctions are mere connectives. They axe either Co- 
ordinate or Subordinate. 

1. Coordinate Conjunctions connect similar constructions -. 

Labor voluptasQUE,' lahor abd pleasure. Karthaginem o6pit io' dlruit, lu 
took AND destroyed Carthage. 

2. SuBOKDiNATE CONJUNCTIONS connect subordinate with principal con- 
structions ; 

Haeo DTiM 2 oolligunt, effugit, whilb tke^/ collect these thmga, lie eica^ee. 


1. Copulative Conjunctions, denoting union: 

M, que, atque,' ac, and; etiam, quoque, also; neque, nee, and njt', neqve 
—»«?««, nee — nee, neque — nee, neither — nor. 

2. Disjunctive Conjunctions, denoting separation : 

Aut,* vel, ve, sive {seu), or; avt — aut, vel — vel, either — or; eive — awe, oith- 
er— or. 

Note. — Here belong interrogative particles In double or disjunctive queBtions : wtrum, 
num^ or'ne — an, whether — or; an, or; annon, neone, or not; see 353. 

3. Adversative Conjunctions, denoting opposition : 

= FBOM a place ; ex loco = ottt of a place ; aliqwld loco movere, to move anything from 
a place ; aUquid ex loco movere, to move anything out of a place. An adverb thus 
separated from the verb and brought into connection with a noun ceased to be an actverb 
and became a preposition. 

' Like other prepositions, these were doubtless originally case-forms. 

2 Thus que connects two nominatives, dc two indicatives which are entirely coSrdi- 
nate, took and destroyed, but dijmi connects the subordinate clause, haec — colligunt, 
with the principal clause, eff^it—he escapes while they collect these iMngs. 

3 Copulative conjunctions are et = Greek en, que = Kat, and their compounds — et-iam 
or et-jam, at-que, quo-que, ne-que. Ac is a shortened form of af-que ; nee, ofne-que. 

* Disjunctives are aut, vel, ve, with tbeir compounds : vel = velis, ' should you wish,' 
offering a choice, ve = vU, 'you wish,' as in qulrvU, *any you please ' ; tive = UvU, '11 
you wish.' 


Sed,^ auUm, virvm, virO, but; at, but, on the contrary; atqm, rather; 
atenrni, but still, moreover ; ' tamen, yet. 

4. Iliative Conjunctions, denoting inference : 

Mrgd, igitw, inde, proinde, itaque, hence, therefore ; see also 554, IV., 2. 

■, Causal Conjunctions, denoting cause : 

Sam, namque, mdm, etenim, for.> 


1. Tehporal Conjunctions, denoting time : 

Qvandd, qiiom,* cum, or quwn, when ; id, vM, as, when ; earn {qiwm or 
gwim) prvmwm, itt pntmim, ubi prwn/um,, simul, simmlac, mrml ae, aimul- 
atqve, eimul atque, as soon as ; dvm, donee, quoad, gaairtdm,' while, until, as 
long as ; antequam, priusquam, before ; postedquam, after. 


VI, vti, incut, sicuti, as, so as ; velut, just as ; praeut, provt, according as, 
in comparison with ; quam, as ; tanquam, quasi, ut ei, dc si, vehit ei, as if. 

8. Conditional Conjunctions, denoting condition : 
Si,' if; ei non, nisi, ni, if not; sin, but if; tn, qvidem, if indeed; si modo, 
dmm modo, immmodo, if only, provided. 

4. Concessive Conjunctions, denoting concession : 

Qaomiiquam, Ucet,^ cum {quom,* or quum), although ; etsi, tametA, eUamsi, 
even if; q'ttomvais,'' quantum/vis, qaaniwmUbet,'' however much, although ; ui, 
grant that ; nS, grant that not. 

6. Final Conjunctions, denoting purpose or end : 
m, uti, that, in order that ; m, nine (neu), that not ; qwd, that ; quimmus,' 
that not. 

6. CoNSBCUTrvE Conjunctions, denoting consequence or result : 
Ui, so that ; ut nSn, quvn,,* so that not. 

1 Co^jnnctions, like adverbs, consist largely of cflse-forms, chiefly from pronominal 
Items. Thns. sed^ verb, ergo^ etc., are explained as ablatives {sed trovti em); autem, 
vdrum, ceterum^ quami, quod, guom, or cum, etc., as accusatives; que, uH, uH, ut, etc., 
as locatives. 

' Lit, as to the rest 

' But most Cansal Conjnnctions are subordinate; see 311, T. 

• Quom, the original form out of which cum and quum, were developed (/i2; S6,, 
fbot-note), occors in early Latin, as in Plautus. Ou/m is the approved form in classical 

' Bee 304, 1., 1 and 2, foot-notes. 

• Probably locative, possibly instrumental; see page 78, foot-note 2. 

• Licet\R strictly a verb, meaning U is permitted; ^?s, in quam-'ois and gumitimi- 
v^, is also a verb; qua/m-vis, *a6 much as you wish^; as is also lihet, 'it pleases,* in 
quantum-libet, ^as much as is pleasing.* 

^ Quominus s= gud min/us, * by which less* ; gv^ = qv^ ne, ' by which not.* 


1. Cacbai Conjunctions, denoting cause : 

Quia, quod, quomam^ quamM, because, inasmuch as ; crnn {gwom, qimm), 
sinoe ; quandSquidem, dquidem,^ wbpote, since indeed. 


Ne, nomhe, mini, utrwm, an, whether ; an nOn, neane, or not. 


312. Interjections are certain particles used as expressions of 
feeling or as mere marks of address.* They may express — 

1. Astonishment : o, hrni, ehem, atat, bubae, vdh, en, ecoe, 

2. Joy ; is, mioe, euge, eja, o, pa/pae. 

3. Sorrow : vae, d, Jieu, eheu, STie, ah, am, pro, 
i. Disgust: a?ta, phy, apage. 

5. Calling: Tieus, o, eho, ehodwm. 

6. Praise : eu, euge, eja, Mja. 




313. Words are formed from stems (46, 1), and stems from 

roots or from other stems. 

Note -1.— Thus statue, 'position,' is formed from the stem statu by adding the nom- 
inative suffix a, 5 but the stem statu is itself formed from the root sta by appending the 
derivative suffix tu. 

^ Compounded of guom-ja^n, when now. 

2 Lit, if indeed. 

8 These are sometimes classed as Adverbs. In some of their uses they are plainly 
ConjwncUons., while in other cases they approach closely to the nature of Ad/oerb$. Ai 
a matter of convenience they may be called Int&rrogatiDe Particles; see 351, 1. 

* Some inteijections seem to be the simple and natural utterance of feeling, and 
accordingly do not appear to have been built up, like other words, from roots and stems, 
but to be themselves specimens of the unorganized elements of humaii speech. Others, 
however, are either inflected forms, as age^ 'come,' apage = aTraye, 'begone,' or muti- 
lated sentences or clauses : meliereules, meJiercuIe, etc., = mi ff&rmtlis jwoet, ' may 
Hercules protect me'; m^astor., 'may Castor protect me'; mMmts ficUvs^ 'may ttie 
true God help me ' ; ecastor = en Castor, ' lo Castor.' 

^ This s is doubtless a remnant of an old demonstrative, «(Z, meaning that^ Ae, «A«. 


n*n 3. — Words are either simple or oompound : 

1, Sinyple, when formed from single roots with or without suffixes. 

2. O(ympound-^ when formed by the union of two or more roots or stems; &e« 
340, UL 

314. Roots. — Roots are the primitive elements out of which 
all words in our family of languages have been formed.' They are 
of two kinds : 

I. Fbbdioatitb Soots, also called VsbbaIj Boots.^ These designate or 
Dame objects, actions, or qualities : ea In es-t, be is ; t in i-re, to go ; due in 
iiuo-s = dMX, leader; doc in doc-ilis, docile. 

II. Demonstrative Boots,* also called PRONOMiifAL Boots. These do not 
name objects or actions, but simply point out the relation of such objects or 
actions to the speaker : me in mei, ot me \ tu in tui, of you; iiais, that, that 
one, he. 

315. The Stems* of simple words may be divided into three 
classes : Soot Stems, Prwuwy Stems, and Secondary Stems. 

316. Root Stems are either identical with roots, or are formed 
from them without the aid of suffixes : 

Due-is, ' of a leader,' root-stem due ; " es-tis, ' you are,' root-stem e« / rlg-es, 
■ kings,' root-stem rSg ; mc-4s, ' of the voice,' root-stem voe ; murmw-is, ' of 
a murmur,' root-stem murmur. 

317. Pbimaiiy Stems are formed from roots by means of suf- 

* These roots were probably all monosyllabic, and were once used separately as words, 
bat not as parte of speech. Thus es. the root of sum, esse, ^ to be,^ and i, the root of eS, 
vre, 'to go,* were doubtless used In their original form, as Blgnlllcant words, long before 
the verbs themselves had an existence. 

* Observe that from this class of roots, whether called Predicative or Verbal, may 
be formed the stems, not only of verbs, but also of nouns, adjectives, and, in fact of all 
the parts^of speech except pronouns. 

' The learner should note the difference In signification between Predicative and 
Demonstrative Boots. Thus dux has a definite meaning, and must always designate 
one )cAo leads; while the pronoun ego Is not the name of any person or thing, but may 
be used by any and every person in speaking of himself. 

* The learner has ahready become fkmillar with the use of stems in the Inflection iiS 
nouns, adjectives, etc. ; but stems, like roots, were probably once used as words. 

* The basis of every inflected word is a stem. Due Is therefore the stem of duc-ia, 
bat as it can not be derived from a more primitive form, it is also a root. According to 
some aathorltiea, reg, the stem of reg-es, and vnc, the stem of vcc-es, are not roots, but 
derived from more primitive forms — reg in reg-0, and voc in voc-0 ; according to other 
authorities, however, reg and reg are only two forms of the same root; bo also voe and 
vdo, due and due. The stem murmur is not a root, but formed from the root mwr 
by reduplication. See Gurtius, Ghron,, p. 25; Schleicher, pp. 841-860; Meyer, pp i, 

* Any suffix used to form a Primary Stem li called a Primary Si0a; see 320. 

154 STEMS. 

















Note.. — MX stems formed from verb-stems are also generally classed as Frimari^ 
Stems : 2 curd-tor, * guardian,' * curator,' from curd, * to care for,' from cu/ra, * care/ 

318. Secondary Stems are formed from other stems ' by means 
of suffixes : * 

Stem. Suffix. Secondary Stem. "Wokd, 

civi,* CO ; ciTi-co, cavicus, civic. 

victor," ia ; victor-iS, victoria, victory. 

victor, ic ; victor-ic, victrix,' victress. 

319. The Stems of Compound Words are formed by the union 
of two or more stems, or of a stem with a root : 

fii-era,' fu-era-s, you had been. 

grand-aevo,^ grand-aevu-s, of great age. 

igni-color,' igni-color, fire-colored. 

magn-animo, *** magn-animu-s, great-souled. 

Note 1. — Words are formed from Stems by means of the Suffixes of Inflection ; see 
46 and S02, note 1. 

Note 2. — A single rootoften gives rise to a large class of forms. Thus, from the root 
8ta, * to stand,' are derived — 

1. The nimierous forms which make up the conjugation of the verb stS, stare, stetl, 
stdtiim, to stand. 

2. All the forms of the verb sisto, sistere, stit% statv/niy ' to place.* 

8. Numerous other forms. Thus (1), sta-biliSt * stable/ ' firm,' from which are de- 
rived stdbilio, *to make firm'; stdbilitds, * firmness,' and stdbiliter, * firmly*; (2) stobu- 
lum, * a standing place,' * stable,' from which are derived stabulOf and stabiUor, * to have 
a standing place ' ; (3) stamen, * something standing,' * warp in an upright loom ' ; (4) 
statim, *in standing,' *at once*; (5) statid, 'standing'; (6) stativuSy 'stationary'; (7) 
stator, *a stayer*; and (8) status, 'position,' from which is derived siatud, *to place,' 
which in turn becomes the basis of statua, * a statue,' and statu/ra, ' stature.' 

1 Ar-VQ-rti weakened to arvum, fac-to-s to /actus ; see 88, 2. 

« This is a matter of convenience, as new stems, or words, are formed from verb-steme 
in the same manner as from roots ; see Schleicher, p. 347. 

■ Except verb-stems. Remember that stepis formed from verb-stems are treated as 
Primary ; see 317, note. 

* Any suffix used to form a Secondary stem is called a Secondary suffix, but many 
suffixes may be either primary or secondary. Thus co in civicus is Secondary, as it 
is added to a stem ; but in locus, * place,' it is Primary, as it is added to a root. 

■ Clvi is the stem of civis, ' citizen ' ; mcior of victor, * conqueror *, 
« For mctorix, by contraction. 

' Compounded of root fu with stem era from the root es ; see 203, note 2, and 243 . 

■ For grandi-aevo. 

* Compounded of igmi, thestemofignis, 'fire,' and of coKr, the stem of coZor, 'color.' 
10 Corapounded of magna, the stem otmagnus, 'great,' and of am,iino, the stem of 
anittms, ' sonl,* Tfidgno-animo becoming Tfidgna/n/imo, 



S20. SuTFixES. — Most suffixes' appear to have been formed 
£rom a comparatiTely small nvmiber of primitive elements called 

Primary SuFfixES. 





&,« o, S, e, i, 

a and o in nouns and acljeotives, 6 in nouns, 
and e, i, 5, and u in verbs: scrib-a, writer; 
fvg-a, fligh.t ; J'ug-o, Nom. jvg^uHm,* yoke ; 
fii^ Nom. fid-is, faith; reg-e,' rule thou; 
reg-is, you rule ; reff-O, I rule ; rtg-u-nt, they 



JD a few nouns; av-i, Nom. av-is, bird; a»ii>-», 
Nom. arc-is, arcs,' arx, oitadeL 


U, 1 in nouns ; ' ae-u, Nom. ac-us, needle. 


on, Sn, en, 

denoting either the act or the aoskt; aiperg- 
on, Nom. aspergS' (G. inia), sprinkling; ger- 
Sn, gerd^ (G. dnia), a carrier; pect-tn (G. t»fe), 



hearing; ab-es-mts, ab-i»na, absent; amA- 
ents, amans, loving. 

' Most fiofSxes appear to be of pronominal origin, (. e., from pronominal stems or 
roots, but, according to Bopp, Corseen, and otliers, a few may be of verbal origin. Thna 
In several sofflxes beginning with &— seen in her, bilia, bulwm, etc— Corssen recognizes 
the root JAor = /«r in/«r-fl, 'to bear'; insomebeginningwith*— seen in «er, tor,turut, 
etc.— the root tar, 'to accomplish' ; in some beginning with o— seen in c«r, eulvm, arum, 
etc. — the root kar = «r, ore in cre-fi, ' to make.' For a dlscuBsion of the subject, see 
Bopp, III., pp. 186-201 ; Corssen, I., p. 56T; 11., pp. 40, 68; Schleicher, p. 448. 

' C!olnmn I. shows the sufBx in its supposed original form, while coloinn II. showi 
the varions forms which the sntEbc has assumed in Latin. 

■ Originally long in Latin in feminine forms ; see 31, 2, 1). 

• Observe that these saffixes form sterns^ not c(we«. Sometimes the Nominative Slng- 
nlar is in form Identical with the stem ; but in most cases, the Nominative is formed 
from the stem by adding the Nominative suffix, as s in fidis, m in jugu-m toijttgo-m 
(o weakened to «, 2!t, 2). 

• Observe that the Present stem takes the several forms, reg-e, reg-i, reg-0, reg-u; 
bnt see page 118, foot-note 6. 

• Often thus dropped; sometimes changed to «, «; mart, mare, sea; eaedi, eatde, 
eatdes, slaughter. 

' Also in adjectives, m union with < making ui: ten-vi-a, thin. 
> jr dropped; see 36, 6, S). 

• This Is the base of several compound suffixes : ent-o, tnt^ «n«-io— Nom. »»«■ 
um, utt-ia, and ent-ium ; flu-ent-um, stream ; sapi-ent-ia, wisdom ; eU-ent-ium, sUenoa 

» Also In a few adjectives and noxna: fr6gu-mt-t,fi'eg[uefM, frequent; pari-eiU-i 
porAw. Hen * Is the Nominative ending. 


Phimaet Suffixes. — (CoitHnued.) 





OS, us, es,' 
es, or, ur, 

ffen^os, gen-ue,' birth; corp-m,^ body; nub-es, 
cloud ; roi-w,^ strength ; sop-or (ai, 2), sleep. 

ja^ = i/o, 

iS,^ io, ie. 

ia, and io in adjectives ; iS in nouns : ex-im-id, 
ex-im-io, Nom. ex-imr4it-s, ex^im-ia, ex-im- 
Umth, select; fae-ie, Nom. faeries, appear- 

ja« = 8rffl, 

e, i, io, iu, 

in verb,': cav-e, take thou; cap-e-re, to take; 
cap-i^e, you take ; cap-i-mus, we take ; cap- 
io, I take ; cap-iu-nt, they take. 

jaiis' = 

ios, ior, ius, 
jor, 6r, 

in ooraparatives : mag-ids, mag-wr, ma-jor, Uom. 
ma^jor fai, 2), greater; mm-or, rmn-or (81, 
2), smaller ; see 168, 165. 


cl, CO, 

rare : « pau-cS,, pau-oo, pavr-oue, a, «m, small ; 
lo-co, locus, place. 


la, Io, U, 

see ra. 


ml, mo, 

fSr^ma, form ; pri-mo, pri^nms, first ; sup-mo, 
aum^mo (34, 3), sum-mus, highest; al-mo, 
al-mus, cherishing. 

1 This suffix seems to be used in formtng the Latin Infinitive, In origrin the Dative of 
a verbal noun : reg-es-e, reg-ere (31, 1), 'to rule'— lit,, /or ruling; e is the Dative end- 
ing (6'S', note); see Schleicher, p. 472. See also page 81, foot-note 2. 

2 With variable vowel (57, 2); in early Latin o, in classical Latin « in Nominative 
Singular, e in other cases. We thus have in early Latin oa in gen-oa^ and in classical 
Latin us in g&n-ns, and en changed to er (31, 1) in g&n-er-is, gen-er-l, etc. Words of 
this class take no Noraioatlve ending. 

3 With variable vowel— o, u. We thus have corp-u8, corp-or-is, with a changed to , 
r (31, 1). S final is also changed to r in rohur ; see 31, 2. 

* Doubtless a pronominal stem. It is common as a secondary suffix (page 154, foot- 
note 4) : pater-io^ patr-io, Nora, patr-ius, paternal; -vlctor-ia^ victory; luaiur-4a, lux- 
ur-ies^ luxury; see 335. 

6 Originally long in Latin, see 31, 2, 1). 

• Probably the verbal root^a, identical with i in ?re, to go. So explained by CurtiuB, 
Yerbom, I., pp. 290-295. Jc^ was also used as a secondary suffix, appended to the stems 
of nouns and adjectives, in forming denominative verbs; see 335, foot-note. 

T This suffix is generally secondary: alt-ior^ alt4u8^ higher; aapi&tit-ior^ wiser; 
see 163. 

^ It seems to appear without its final vowel in some nouns in cc .* ape-c-a, ape<6^ point, 
top. It is common as a secondary suffix: cwi-co, cwi-cua^ civic (330); and ia also 
used in compound suffixes, as cw-^, ci-no, U-co : flda-cvr-his^ a small flower; vdU-d-'mta^ 
prophetic. See Schleicher, p. 478; Corssen, II., pp. 206, 806, SOT. 

^ This is also an element in U-mS^ ti-mo^ ai-mS, si-mo^ is-H-md^ ia-ai-Tno: op-H' 
m/uSy a, um^ best; alt-is-ai-mua, highest. 



Primakt Suffixes. — {Cordimted.) 





men,' min,' 

denoting the means of the action, Bometimos 
the AOT itself, or its besdlt : tegi-mm, or tig- 
men,' a covering ; nS-men," name ; certd-men, 
contest ; ser^non, sir-mi* discourse. 


nl, no. 

1. in adjectives with the force of perfect parti- 
ciples : » pUna, pli-no, pli-nus, a, «m, filled, 
full; rig-no, rig-nmn, kingdom, that which 
is ruled. 

2. in nouns and adjectives with various mean- 
ings : « sop-no, aomr-no (33, 3, note), som-nus, 


ni,' 1 Ty-n«, ig-nU, fire ; pd-ni,pa-nis, bread. 

nil, 1 nu, 1 very rare : ma-nu, ma-nus, hand. 


ri, ro, 11, 

ag-ro (agrm), ager, field ; sac-ro {me-rm), sacer, 
aac-ra, eac-i-utn, sacred ; sed-li, sel-la (34, 2), 
seat; canife-?^, alight; ti-lo, te-lum, weapon; 
doei-U, doci-lis, docile. 



1. in perfect participles : '» amd-to, amd-tm, a, 
rnn, loved ; plaud-to, plau-to (35, S), plau- 
sns, applauded ; cond-tm, having tried ; prdn- 
ms, having taken lunch. 

2. in a few adjectives : sex-to, aex-tus^ sixth. 

1 This is an element in m-en-tOy mon-id^ and mon-io: nvtri-m en-turn^ rutriment; 
qtteri-mdn-ia, complaint; te^yti-mrn-ium (secondaiy suffix), testimony. 

* With variable vowel (57. 2). The suffix mati is weakened to men in the Nomina- 
tive SiLgoJar, and to min in the other cases. 

* For ffnd-men, ' name,"* the means by which one is known. 
< J^ is dropped; see 36, 5, S). 

' liTearlj eqalvalent to ia. In some languages it forms passive participles like ia. 

* Often secondary : pater-no^ pater-nuA, paternal ; sometimes preceded by J, 7, or e : 
/ont-d-nus^ of a fountain; can-l-nu3y canine; ali-e~7vus, belonging to another; see 327, 
3S9, and 330. 

7 As to and na are closely related in meaning and use, so are fi and ni. They are 
eometlmes united in the same suffix : (i-o-n i (326). 

B £a and Ja are only different forms of the same suffix. In Latin and Greek this 
suffix often forms verbal adjectives which sometimes pass into nouns : gnd-rm^ 'know- 
ing,' firom ffnaiartd-scd^ 'to know*; £u-pov, 'gift,' ' something given,' from So in SiStottt^ 
'to give.* 

9 In the form of U It is the first element in H-mus, a, um : op-ti-m^t&, best ; and the 
second element in ia-ai-mua^ a, um : alt-is-ai-mttSy highest. In the form of ^ it is the 
first element in td-ti, shortened to tdt: dUji-tda = dwi-tdt-A, state. 

1" Often becoming a4iiectives or nouns: al-tOy al-iua, high ; nd-tut^ son. 


Primajit Suitixes. — ( Continued.) 





ter, t8r. 

see tra. 


ti,» si, 

in verbal noims : vea-U, vet-tie, garment ; met-H, 
met-Us, messis (36, 3), reaping, harvest. 



in verbal nouns, including supines : stor-tm, sta- 
ins, standing; i-tu, i-tus, going; dic-tw (su- 
pine), in telling, to tell. 


ter, tor, tro, 

ter 6 and t5r denoting agency ; tro, MEAifs : 
pa-ter, father; mdr-ter, mother; vic-tor, con- 
queror ; aud/ir-tor, hearer ; ard^trum, plough. 


vo, uo. 

in nouns and adjectives : ar-nOjar^um, ploughed 
field ; vac-uo, vao-mis, empty. 




I. From the Stems of Other Nouns. 

321 . DzMTNUTivEs generally end in — 

lus, la, Imn; ulus, ula, ulum; cuius, cula, culum:' 

1 75 is the first element in fi-4, ^-o, U-e, ti-d-nd, ti-on (i dropped) ; jusH-U<L, jus- 
tice; 8&rvi-Uo^ eerm-Uimi^ service; dwri-iie^ duri-Hes, hardness; sta-tion^ eta-tid (n 
dropped), station. 

3 /often disappears '. men-U, men-Ua^ men-ts^ mens (36, 2), mind. 

^ 7^ is the first elenaent in the suffixes, tu-d, tu-o ; tu-U^ tut^ and tu-don : eta-ttta. 
atatne; mor-tmis, dead; aervi-iiiti, servi-tvt (^erm-tuts), serfi-tus, servitude; turpi- 
tudon, twrpi-tudo (n dropped), turpitude. 

* Perhaps of verhal origin (330, foot-note 1). This suffix seems to be the hasls of 
several compound suffixes : tor-ia^ tor-io^ turd., turo., trie for tdr-l-c, etc. ; see examples, 
324, 326, 330. 

* TTw is used in names denoUng family relationsMp, originally asenot: pa-ter^ 
lit, protector, from the root pa, to protect. 

* For the convenience of the learner the suffixes are given in the Nominative form, 
1. e., with the Nominative ending and the modified stem-vowel. Observe that the stem 
suffix in Iu-8 and l-Ur-m is lo. The endings, ulu8, ula, ulum, were developed irregularly 
after the analogy of u-lus, u-la, u-lum in such words as ?iortu-lu8, 'vh^gu-hie^ oppidu- 
hi/m, where the u is the modified stem-vowel. Thus the u in reg-u-lus and capit-v-lum 
is an Irregularity introduced from the Diminutives of a and o stems. Zu8, la, lum wo 
formed from the suffix la or ra, often used in forming Primary Stems (320). OuZv«, 
cula, eulum are compound suffixes in which the first part, cw, is formed from the suffix, 
orlginiUly Jca^ modified in Latin to <^, cu, seen in lo-co-8^ locus, place ; see 320, ka, foot-aoto. 



a little son, from 




a little daughter, " 
a small haU, " 







a small cavily, " 




a small garden, " 
a small bi-anch, " 







a small town, " 




a petty king. 




a small head, " 




a small Jlower, " 




a small part, " 




a small present, " 




1. Lus, la, lum, are appended to a and o stems ; uluB, ula, iilum, to 
Detital and Chdturai stems ; cuius, cula, culum, to e, i, and a stems, ana 
to lAquid and s stems ; see examples. 

2. Before lus, la, lum, the stem-rowels i and o take the form of o 
after e or i, and the form of u in other situations: /ilio4us,filio-la for 
filiA-la, horta-his for horto-bts. 

8. Before cuius, cula, culum, stems in u change u into i, and stems 
in on change o into u: versi-cidus, 'a little verse,' from versMs; homiun- 
cuius, ' n small man,' from hona. Like nouns in on, a few other words 
form diminutives in urtrculus, un-cula : av-uncubts, ' maternal uncle,' from 
avus, ' grandfather,' ' 

4. EI-lus, el-la, el-lum, il-lus, il-la, il-lum,' are used when the stem 
of the primitive ends in i or o, preceded by 1, n, or r : oceUus,* ' small 
eye.' from oculus ; fahd-la, ' short fable,' from fabula ; vU-lum,' ' a small 
wine,' from vinum. 

KoTB.— The endings leas and ciS occur: ecu-leue,^ *a small horse,' from eqvna; 
hmnun-ciS, ^a small man,^ from homJa. 

322. Patbonymics, or names of Descbnt, generally end in — 

des, stem-suffix da, masculine; s for ds, stem-suffix d, feminine. 

Tantali-des, son of Taniahis ; Tantali-s, daughter of Tanbdus.* 

ThSsI-des, son of Theseus ; Th6sei-3, daughter of Theseus. 

Thestia-des, son of T/iesHus ; Thestift-s, daughter of Thestius. 

NoTK.— The suffix n^, preceded by i or d, is sometimes used In forming feminine Pat- 
ronymics: ^«p<"»i-nf, daughter of Neptune; ^or»mo-»e, daughter of Acrislus. 

* Nuhl-cula, pUbi-eula. and mUpe-eiUa are formed as If from e-stems. 

* The syllables «2 and {2 do not belong to the ending, but are produced by a slight change 
in the stem. The qaantity of the rowel e or { is therefore determined by the primltlre 
thus, oeuhts, o&ulu-tus — ocul-lus = ooel-lus ; vlnitm. vinu-lwn = vvn^lum = vU-lwm. 

* Also written equuleus^ but eouleus la the approved form. 

< The rowel preceding the suffix Is ninally {, as in Tantali-des, Tantali-s, modified 
from the stem-rowel o. Primitives In eus generally change eu to i or ei, aa in TTiesl- 
dis, Thesei-s; and primitives in ius change stem-vowel o to a, as in ITiesHa-dee^ 
Other nouns sometimes form Patronymics after the analogy of nouns In ius : ZderHadee^ 
•on of Laertes. Aeneas has AeTieadis, maicuUne, and AmMs, feminine. 



823. Designations of Place are often formed with the endlngs- 

arium, etum, turn, ile.' 

columb-arium, a dovecot, from columba, dove. 

quero-§tum, a forest of oaks, " quercus, oajc. 

salic-tum, a thicket of willows, " salix, wiUous. 

oT-ile, a sheepfold, " ovis, sluep. 

1. Arium designates the place where anything is kept, a receptacle: 
aerdrium, ' treasury,' from aes, money. 

2. Etum, turn, used with names of trees and plants, designate the plaoi 
where they flourish : ollvetum, ' an oliye-grove,' from oliva, ' olive-tree.' 

3. Be, used with names of animals, designates their stall or fold : 
bovile, ' stall for cattle,' from bos, stem bov. 

i. Other Examples are — 

Aestu-arium, 'tidal bay,' from aestus, 'tide'; avi-Anmn, 'aviaiy,' {rom avis, 
' bird ' ; ddn-driwn, ' place for offerings,' from dormm, ' gift ' ; pSm^arium, 
' orchard,' from pomum, ' fruit ' ; aescwl-itum, ' forest of oaks,' from aesmlvs, 
' oak ' ; pin-Uum, ' pine-forest,' from plnus, ' pine ' ; ros-etvm, ' rose-bed,' 
from rasa, ' rose ' ; vln-Uum, ' vineyard,' from viniim,, ' vine ' ; virgulrtum, 
' a thicket,' from virgula, ' bush ' ; capr-ile, ' goat-stall,' from caper, ' goat.' 

324. Dbkivatives are also formed with several other endings, 
especially with — 

alius, id, ium, itium, ina, imoniiun, itas, tiis, atus.* 


a statuary. 






































1, Arius and io generally designate persons by their occupations. * 

2. Ium and itium denote office, condition, or collection : servittumy 

Bervitude, sometimes a collection of servants, 

^ Ari/U'.-n and ile are the endings of neuter adjectives used substantiTely (330). The 
vowels d and I were probably developed out of the stem-vowel of the primitive, but they 
were afterward treated as a part of the suffix. For an explanation of such vowels, see 330, 
foot-noto. Many derivative endings were thus formed originally by the union of certain 
suffixes with the stem-vowel of the primitive; accordingly, when added to vowel stems, 
they generally take the place of the stem-vowel : co2t«n&-5, columb-&rimn ; querc-Oj 

^ Ar%u8 ih identical In origin with the adjective ending driua (330), and atua with 
SiuH in participles. In each the initial 0, was originally the stem-vowel of the primitive. 
Ina is the same formation as the adjective ending Iwiis (330). On i-tium^ i-monMi/m,, 
i-tds^ and tus, see ti, ta^ ht, man^ mon^ with foot-notes, 330 ; remember that the inltiAj 
i was developed from che stem-vowel of the primitive. 

jsrouifs. 161 

3. Ina and imonium are used with some variety of signification ; see 
examples under 7 below. 

4. Itas and tus designate some ohahaoteristio or condition : htred-i. 
tds, 'heirship,' from htrls, 'heir'; mrtus, 'manliness,' 'virtue,' from vir. 

5. Atus denotes rank, office, collection : constUCUus, ' consulship,' 
from consul; senutux, ' senate,' 'collection of old men,' from Senear. 

6. For Patrial or Gentile Nobns, see SSI, note 1. 

NoTB.— The endings dgH, igd, and OgS ' also occur : vir-Sgi, ' heroic maiden,' from 
ijir, 'hero' ^ferr-UgS^ 'iron-rust,' fiom/etTumi 'Iron.' 

7. Other Examples are — 

Libr-drius, ' transcriber of books,' from liber, ' book '; l^/n-arms, ' joiner,' 
from lignum, ' wood ' ; quadrig-arius, ' driver of a four-horse chariot,' from 
quadi'iga, ' four-horse chariot ' ; arbitr-ium, ' decision,' from arbiter, 'arbiter '; 
conjag-ium, ' wedlock,' from conjUnx, ' spouse ' ; magis-ier-ium, ' presidency,' 
from niagis-ter, 'president'; 6s-iium, 'door,' from os, 'mouth'; gall-ina, 
' hen,' tromgaUus, ' cock ' ; doctr-lna, for doctsr-ina, ' doctrine,' from doctor, 
' learned man,' ' doctor ' ; motr-imonium, ' matrimony,' from mater, ' moth- 
er ' ; aedH-itas, ' ofiBce of edile,' from (udllis, ' edile ' ; auctor-itds, ' authority,' 
fromoMCior, 'founder,' 'author' •,senec-tils, 'oldage,' fromsenea;, 'old man'; 
tribun^^us,' 'office of tribune,' from triMtnus, 'tribune.' 

n. NotTNS FROM Adjectives. 

325. From Adjectives are formed various Abstract NotFNS 
with the endings — 

ia, itia, ta, tas, itas, tus, edo, itiids, imonia,' 

diligent-ia, diligence, from diligens, diligent. 

superb-ia, haughtiness, " superbus, haughty. 

amic-itia, friendship, " amicus, friendly. 

juven-ta, youth, " juvenis, young. 

liber-tas, freedom, " liber, ^ee. 

bon-itas, goodness, " bonus, good. 

pi-etas,* piety, " pins, pious. 

juven-tus, youth, " juvenis, young. 

dulo-edo, sweetness, " dulcis, 

sol-itiido, solitude, " solus, alone. 

acr-imOnia, sharpness, " acer, sharp. 

' These endings were formed, according to Coresen, by appending the BuiSx an to 
ag, the root of agd, to put in motion, make, do ; see Corssen, I,, p. ffiTT. 

' As If formed from a verb, tribuni, dre, like eguit-atus, ' cavalry,' from eguitb, 
3re, • to ride,' from egues, ' a horseman.' 

• When appended to vowel stems, these endings take the place of the final vowel. 
Orlghially the initial i In i-iia, i-tSs, i-tadH, and i-^mdnia formed no part of the suffix, 
but represented the stem-vowel of the primitive. On ia, tia, and ia, eeeja, ti, and ta, 
SaO ; on i-tds and iOs, see page 160, foot-note 2 ; on i-tOdS and i-mdnia, see tu and 
man, 390. The original of i-d^, d-din is obscure. 

< For pi-iiSs by dissimilation (26). 



Note 1. — Instead of ia and iUa^ ies and ifies occur: paup&; pauper-ies^ poverty; 
iwriM, dur-itia or dur-iUea, hardness. 

Note 2.— Before tag the stem of the adjective is sometimes slightly changed : faciUii, 
/aculid6^ faculty; diffUiilis^ difficultua^ difficulty; potene^ potestds, power. 

Note 8. — A few adjectives form abstracts with both itds and iMdO : Jirmus^ firm/' 
itaa, frmitudo, firmness. Polysyllabic adjectives in tm often suffer contraction before 
these endings: Jionestas for Jwnest-itds, 'honesty,' from honishts; aollici^udD^ for sul- 
Hoit-itudd, 'solicitude,' from solUdius. 

1. Otheb Examples are — 

Auddc-ia, ' boldness,' from audSix, ' bold ' ; Jiist-itia, 'justice,' from justm. 
just'; laev-iHa, 'cruelty,' from saevus, 'cruel'; senec-ta, 'old age,' froD. 
senex, ' old ' ; aequal-itds, ' equality,' from aeqiidlis, ' equal ' ; cdr-itds, ' dear. 
ness,' from earns, ' dear ' ; Onm-etds, ' anxiety,' from Unaykn, ' anxious ' ; al^ 
itudi, 'height,' hovaalPus, ^ high.' ; /ort-ituds, 'bravery,' from fortis, 'brave'; 
magn-4tud6, 'greatness,' fyom mdgmis, 'great.' 


326. From the Stems of Verbs and from Roots are formed nu- 
merous nouns with the suffixes — ' 

ter, tor,° trix, trum, tura, tus, tid, id.' 
father, from the root 
















leg-io, ^ 










to protect. 

bhra, fra, 

to support. 


to love. 


to hear. 


to defend 


to himt. 


to direct. 


to plough. 


to gnaw. 


to paint, 


to use. 


to hear. 


to see. 


to hear. 


to advise. 


to see. 


to select. 


to slay. 

1 These endings appear to be true euffixes, as they do not contain the stem-vowel c^ 
the primitive. 

3 For the phonetic change by which t in for, tura, etc., unites with a preceding d oi 
tand produces S8 or s, as in c^fend-tor^ defensor., see 35, 8, 2). 

* On ter, tor^ trlx^ and tura^ see tar, tra; on tua and tiS^ see Pu and H; ind Cflt in 
•ee ja, 3S0. 

* For rdd-trvm. ; 666 35,8,1). 

* For ut-iura, vid-tus, vid-iid; se* 95 9* S) 

* From fltem morvi^ seen In 7notvi-Ubm 

juroirj^s. 163 

1. Ter, tor, and trlz designate the aqent or doer ; trum, the means 
of the action; and tura, tus, tid, and id, the act itself; see examples. 
But nouns in tus and io sometimes become concrete, and denote the result 
of the action : quaes-ltts, ' gain,' from quaes-ere, ' to gain ' ; kff-id, ' a select- 
ing ' and then ' a legion ' (the men selected), from leg-ere, ' to select ' ; ex- 
srci-tus, ' exercise,' ' drill,' and then ' an army ' (a collection of trained 
nen), from exerci-re,.' to exercise.' 

2. Us, a, 6 ' sometimes designate the agent of the action : eogu-us == 
ooguits, cook, from cogit-ere, to cook ; scr»6-a, writer, from scrib-ere ; eiT-S, 
wanderer, from err-are. 

Note 1. — Tor, Mcc, tura, and tus are sometimes added to nous stems with or with- 
out chaDge : vid-tor, 'traveler,' from ma, 'way'; sen&-tor, 'senator,' from aenen (Geni- 
tive 8&nis, stem sen), 'old m&n ^ ; jdni-ior, 'janitor,' and Jdni-irub, 'janitrix,' from jdn- 
ua, 'gate'; litterd-tura, 'writing,' from Httera, 'letter'; Gdnsul-d'*i£s, 'consulship,' 
from consul, 'consul.' 

KoTS 2. — For nouns in iO from the stems of other nouns, see 3!S4, with 1. 

3. Othsb Exaufles are — 

Ace&sa-tor, ' accuser,' from acoiisd-re, ' to accuse ' ; o&ra-ior, ' keeper.' 
from c6ra-re, ' to take care of ; da-ior, '"giver,' from da-re, ' to give ' ; me- 
tor, ' victor,' ftx)m vinc-ere,^ ' to conquer' ; miien-trix, ' a female discuverer,' 
from invea-ire, 'to discover'; mOnstrum = mon^ea-trum,^ 'prodigy,' from 
mon-ire, ' to admonish ' ; rdi-trum, ' rake,' from rad-ere, ' to rake,' ' scrape ' ; 
ormd-iara, ' arming,' ' aquipment,' ft'om annate, ' to arm ' ; rM^ura, ' birth,' 
'nature,' from nor-sa,,* 'to be born'; scrlp-tura, for serib-tura,^ 'writing,' 
from scrib-ere, ' to write ' ; ac-tus, for ag-tus,> ' driving,' ' act,' from ag-ere, ' to 
drive,' ' act ' ; do-tis, for ag-tiS, ' action,' from ag-ere, 'to act ' ; moni-tio, ' act 
of admonishing,' from inone-re, 'to admonish' ; mon-itus, 'admonition,' from 
tnorO-re, 'to admonish'; opin-ii, 'opinion,' from opin-ari, 'to think'; (^i- 
ii, ' choice,' fix)m opt-dre, ' to choose.' 

327. From the Stems of Verbs and from Roots are formed 
nouns with the suffixes — 

or, us, es, ies, ium, en, men, mentum, mSnia, monium, bulmn, 
cnlum, brum,' cram, num.' 

• O and li, the stems of us and a, are only different forms of the sufSx a ; and on, tht 
:;tem otS, onis, is from the snfBx an; see 3%0. 

' Bootxto. 

' With the compound sufSz es-trum, from as-ira; sea as and tra, 3S0. 

• Boot na. 
' See 33, 1. 

• Observe change in quantity: ag-ere, Be-tiis\ see Gelllus, IX., 6. 
T On the forms bulum, brum, culum, crUTrC, see 36, 2, foot-note S. 

8 On or (for os), its, and es, see as; on Us and ium, see ja : on en, see an ; on men, 
mentum,mStiia,miimdntum,6eeman; on «a»!,see«<i— alUn 380; oa bulmn, brum, 
aUum, orum, see Corssen, II., p. 40. 






am -ire, 







gen in gign-ere, 










make, foice. 








zeal, study. 




a mmh. 




a stream. 



































to love, 
to fear, 
to bear, 
to be cold, 
to sit. 
to make, 
to rejoice, 
to be zealow^ 
to comh. 
to flow, 
to adorn, 
to complain, 
to nourish, 
to call. 
to carry, 
to cleanse, 
to represent, 
to rule. 

1. Or, us, es, ies, and ium generally designate the action or statk 
denoted by the verb, but es, ies, and ium sometimes designate the result 
of the action : aedifldum, ' edifice,' from aedific-are, ' to build.' 

2. Men, mentum, monia, monium, and num generally designate the 
MEANS of the action, or its involuntary subject, sometimes the act itself, 
or its RESULT: flu-men, 'a stream,' 'something which flows,' frora flu-ere ; 
ag-men, ' an army in motion,' from ag-ere. 

Note.— The stem or root is Bometimes ehortenad or changed : nw-menttimi, * moving 
force,' from mov-ere. 

3. Buliim, culum, brum, and crum designate the instrument or the 
PLACE of the action : vehi-culum, ' vehicle ' (instrument of the action), 
from vehe-re ; sta-iulum, ' stall ' (place of the action), from sta-re. 

Note. — The vowel of the stem is sometiineB changed : a6];mi^<yrwm, ^eepnlchre,' from 
aepel-lre, 'to bury'; Bee 24, 8. 

4. In culum, c is dropped after c and g: vinc-ulum, 'a bond,' from 
vinc-%re ; reg-vla, ' rule,' from reg-ere. 

Note. — D6. la, dgd, Iffd,^ and a few other endings also occur : torpe-do, 'numbness,' 
A-om iorpe-re 'to be numb'; eupl-do, 'desire,' from cupe-re, 'to deslM'; cande-la, 
'candle,' from ccmde-re, 'to shine'; vor-ago, 'whirlpool,' fromvor-dre, 'to swallow up? 
xert•^gb, 'a turn,' from vert-ere, 'to turn.' 

5. Other Exahples are — 

i^lend-or, orightness,' from splend-ere, 'to be bright'; op-^ue, 'work,' 
tiom the roM op for ap, ' work ' ; dec-us, ' ornament,' from root dec, in dec-et, 

* In several oi these examples the noun Is not strictly derived from the verb, but 
both noun and verb are formed from one common root, as fr%g-vs and frtg-ure from the 
root frig. 

2 Sed-ere and eid-es show a variable root- vowel— fl, e; see ZO. note 2. 

> S*e Gorsseu, I., p. ST7; II.. pp 802, 803. 



it is beooming ' ; «aJ-8«, ' doud,' from the root mfli in mah-ere, ' to veil ' ; 
upee-ita, ' look,' from speo-ere, ' to look ' ; efug-4um, ' escape,' from efug-ere, 
' to escape ' ; imper^um, ' command,' fi^m imper-dre, ' to command ' ; certd- 
men,, ' contest,' from certdri'e, ' to contend ' ; dom-mentum,'- ' lesson,' ' docu- 
ment,' from doce-re, ' to teach ' ; »«Mri-/re«Mit«m, ' nourishment,' from nvtri-re^ 
' to nourish ; pd-btiliwi, ' fodder,' from th§ root pd in pd-scere, ' to feed ' . 
spectd-eulum, ' sight,' from spectd-re, ' to behold ' ; hi-erum, ' gain,' from 
lu-«re, ' to pay ' ; do-num,' ' gift,' from the root da in da-re, ' to give.' 


I. Adjectives from Nouns. 

328. FuLUSTESS. — ^Adjectives denoting fullness, dbundcmce, sup^ 
y, generally end in — 

Isns, lentus, tus.' 












osus, oosus, 

full of courage, 



full of wine, 




spirit, cowraff' 



















IToTi!.— Before asm the stem-vowel is generallf dropped, buttt Is retained: anime 
daua, anim-osus, butjruciu-dsus. 

1. Other Examples are — 

Ann-Bsus, 'full of years,' from ann'us, 'year*; hxsuriSsus, 'luxurious,' 
from hiamria, ' luxury ' ; pericul-dsus, ' dangerous,' from periculum, ' danger ' j 
tenebrSsus and tenebri-cosus, ' gloomy,' from tenebrae, ' gloom ' ; turlvrlentus, 
' riotous,' from turta, ' riot ' ; Jo» ba-tus, ' bearded,' from barba, ' beard ' ; 
auri-tvs, 'long eared,' from auW«, 'ear'; onus-tus, 'burdened,' from onus, 
' burden.' 

329. Mateeiai,. — Adjectives designating the material of which 
anything is made generally end in — 

1 With modified stem or root: doce, docu; da, do. 

' On osus, see Schleicher, p. 408; Gorsseo, I., p. 62; II., p. 688. Corns is from co 
and osus; thus fVom icUum. *war,' is formed belli-cus, 'belonging to war'; and iVom 
beUi'Oas is formed betUco-osus, belU-cosus, ' warlike.' On lens^ tentvs^ see fa^ la, SSO. 
The vowel before lens, lentus — generally «, sometimes o or t — was originally the stem- 
vowel of the primitive, as in vino-lentus, pesti-lfns. pesti-lentus, but it was sometimes 
treated as a part of the snffix: ri-ol&Uus, 'violent.' from «ls, ' force.' Tits is identical 
with ius in the passive participle, and ^'hen added to vowel-stems is preceded by a, *, 
or u: dld-tus. iurri-tus. comu-ttts, like affnd-tuSy a-udl-tus. aau-tus ('sharpened,' Stom 
oou-o, ' to sharpen '). It may, however, be added to consonant-stems ' Jus'iu*. 












eu8, nu8, neuB, SceuB, icius. 

of silver, 

of poplar, 

of papyrus, 
of brick. 






a beeih. 




Note. — ^These endings sometimes denote cha/racterUtic or possession : lArgiae/u^ 
* belonging to a maiden.^ 

330. CHABACTBaisTic. — Adjectives signifying leUmging to, de- 
rived from, generally end in — 

cus, icus, alls, ills, anus, inus, aris, arius, ius, ensia.* 



rdahng to a citizen. 










relating to a citizen. 


of the town. 


of the city. 




of, pertaining to a horse, 









of an orator. 























1 On 6«B, Btem eo, see Corssen, II., pp. 842~346; Bopp, TIL, p. 429; on ima^ see 
na, 3S0. N&ua adds ens to no., seen In mis; &ceu8 adds eua to oc, seen in &x (333, 
foot-note 2); and ic-iits adds ius to ic or ico; see^'a, 3JJ0, and icws, 330. 

^ Stem -vowel changed to i before nus and neua. 

8 Stem-vowel dropped before nua and n&m. 

* On CMS, see ka^ 320. In i-ct^fi, i was originally the stem-vowel of the primitive, but 
wa& finally treated as a part of the suffix, as in patr-icuB. In the same way the vowels 
■1 and I in &Us^ llis^ aria, drius., d/nus, and ^nua were developed frpm the stem-vowels 
of the primitives; thus in snch words as doc-i-Hs^ 'docile,'' fi*om doo-e-re^ the snflix 
seems to have been originally lis., but at length the preceding i was treated as a part of 
the Buflix, making iUa. If now iUa be added to hosti, the stem of 7io8tia, we shall have 
hoati-ilia = host-ilia ; or, with Corssen, we may suppose that fh>m Tiostia was formed 
the verb hostl-re, and that the ending lis was added directly to kostl, making 7iosPi-lU. 
The long initial vowel in other endings is supposed to have had a similar origin. AlU^ 
lUa^ and aria are virtually the same suffix, as I and r are interchangeable ; see ra, la^ 
foot-note, 330. Arius — dri-ius. On anus., Inus, and iita. Bee Ja and na^ 380; <hi 
maia, see Corssen, I., pp. 62, 254; II., pp. 6S8, 719. 

* But ord-tor is formed i^om drd-re by adding tor to the stem ; see 336. 



1. Ester or estiis,' timus, itimus, ticus,' cinus, and a few other end 
togs occur : terr-ester or terr-estris, ' terrestrial,' from tora, ' earth ' ; mari- 
tbnus, ' maritime,' from mare, ' sea ' ; leg-itimus, ' lawful,' from lex, legis, 
'law'; ras4i(!us, 'rustic,' from j-fls, 'country'; vdti-cinus, 'prophetic, 
from vOUs, ' prophet.' 

2. Othbh Examples are — 

Domini-cus, ' of a master,' from dominus, ' master ' ; eerv-ilis, ' slavish,' 
fiom servus, ' slave ' ; i>ir-Uis, ' manly,' from vir, ' man ' ; capit-aiU, ' of the 
head,' 'capital,' from caput, 'head'; reg-alis, 'kingly,' from rac, 'king'; 
oSnsul-dns, 'consular,' from consul, 'consul'; rmlU-aris, 'military,' from 
miles, 'soldier'; agr-drius, 'of or relating to land,' from ager, 'field'; ar- 
geni-drius, ' of silver,' from argentum, 'silver ' ; can-inus, ' of a dog,' from 
eanis, 'dog'; lup-inus, 'of a wolf,' from lupus, 'wolf; mont-anus, 'of a 
mountain," from ming, ' mountain ' ; nox-ius, ' injurious,' from noxa, ' in- 
jury ' ; patr-ius, ' of a father,' from pater, ' father ' ; imperdtor-ius, ' of a com- 
mander,' fix)m isnperator, ' commander.' 

331. Adjectives from proper noiins generally end in — 

Snus, ianua, Inus ; ius, iacus, icus ; ensis, iensis ; as, aeus, eus.* 















1. Anus and iSnus are the endings generally used in derivatives from 
Names of Persons ; but others also occur. 

Note 1. — Many of these adjectives from Dames of places are also used substantively 
18 Patrial or Gentile Nouns to designate the citizens of the place : CorirUhii, the Co- 
rinthians; Atkenieng^ the Athenians. 

NoTB 2. — ^Thfl Roman Gentis or olana were all designated by adjectives In ius. ae 
gins OomeUa, gins Julia. 

• The ending ester or estris may be formed by adding ter or tris to M from the suffix 
as (3S0) ; bnt see Corssen, II., p. 549. 

• On K-m«*, i-H-mus. and U-ens, see ia. vw, ca, 380. 

• When appended to vowel stems, these endings take the place of the stem-vowel: 
9tUl~anu8. In fiict, dntw Is formed by the union ot the stoni-vowel with the suffix. So 
In Mari-anus, but in examples like this the i befora Cinu^ was finally treated as a part 
of the Bufflx, making idnus, as seen in Ciceron-^nus. Inus In Lat-inus contains io, 
from Lat-io, the stem of Latium. 

of Sulla, f H 

>m Sulla, 


' Roma, 


of Marius, 












' Corinthus, 



' Britannus, 

a Briion. 

of Cannae, 

' Cannae, 





of Fidenae, 




' Smyrna, 



' Pythagoras, 




Note 8.— An s^ective In iiM, nsed substantively, formed a part of the name of eyerj 
aiBtin^oislied Boman, and designated tlie gms to \rhicli be belonged ; see Bomcm Namai^ 

n. Adjbctiveb fkom Adjectives. 
332. DiMDruTrvES from other adjectives generally end like 
diminutive nouns (321) in — 

lus, ulus, cuius.' 
tmnewhai dnmlcen,, from ebriuB, dnmhen. 



rather long, 

rather poor, " pauper, poor. 

Note 1.— The endings ellus and UIms also occur as in nouns (381, 4) : rwv-eltm, 
new,' from novuB, 'new.' 

Note 2. — Oiilus is sometimes added to comparatives: d/urius-ctuhu, ^somewhat 
kard,' fxcfsa d-urior^ dwriua, 'harder/ 

in. Adjectives fbom Verbs and pbom Eoots. 
333. Verbal adjectives generally end in — 

bundus, cundus, dus; bilis, tills, sills, lis; az.* 












worthy of love. 



fleo-silis,» ) 
flesilis, y 









to wonder. 


to die. 


to fear. 


to be warm. 


to fear. 


to love. 


to lead. 


to turn. 


to teach. 




to dare. 

1. Bundus and cundus have nearly the force of the present participle ; 
but bvmdiis is somewhat more expressive than the participle : laeta-himdus, 
rejoicing greatly ; and amdiis generally denotes some characteristic rather 
than a single act or feeling : verd-cundtis, diffident. 

2. Dus retains the simple meaning of the verb. 

3. Bilis, tills, silis, and lis denote capability, generally in a passive 
•ense : amdbilis, capable or worthy of being loved ; sometimes in an active 
sense ; terribilis, terrible, capable of producing terror. 

> See p. 168. foot-note 6. 

^ Bundus is explained by Corssen and others as formed by appending undue, endue, 
the Gerundive suilix, to l)u=fu^ as seen in/wi; cimdus^ by adding the same sufiOx to 
(K (lea, saO); see Corssen, II., pp. 810-312. On dus, see Corssen, II., pp. 802, 80S; on 
lie. see ra, la, 330; and on MHh, 330, foot-note 1 ; also Corssen, I., pp. 166-169; on tiUt 
and 6ili8, Corssen, II., pp. 41, 826. The ending dx = d-c-8 is for d-eo-s, in which a waf 
originally the stem-vowel of an d^erb ■* thus pilffn-d-oo-e becomes puffnd-ce, pUffTidOB. 

• Flee-HUa =Jlect-HUa ,' see 35, S, 8X 

VERBS. 169 

4. iz denotes inclination, generally a faulty one: loguOx, loquacious. 
6. Cus, Xcus, ucus, vus, uus, Ivus, tlvus, tioius, ius, and ulus' also 

Medi-eut, ' healing,' ' medloal,' from medi-ri, ' to heal ' ; am-ieua, ' friend- 
ly,' from am-dre, ' to love ' ; cad-ucm, ' falling,' ' inclined to fall,' from cad- 
ere, ' to fall ' ; sa(-vue, ' safe,' from root sal, ' whole,' ' sound ' ; twc-uus and 
noo-ijms, ' hurtful,' from noc-lre, ' to hurt ' ; cap-tiviis, ' captive,' from cap-ere, 
Ho take ' ; /icticius, foi Jig-Ucius, ' feigned,' from^, the root oifing-ere, ' to 
form,' 'fiishion,' 'feign'; exMn-ius, 'select,' 'choice,' from exim-ere, 'to 
select out ' ; crid-uVus, ' credulous,' from crdd-ere, ' to believe.' 

6. Otheb Ezauples are — 

I/Udi-iundtis, ' sportive,' ' playful,' from lude-re, ' to play ' ; rldi-hmdnt, 
' laughing,' from j*te-re, ' to laugh ' ; fd-eundiis, ' eloquent,' from fd-rl, ' to 
speak ' ; ju-cundus, for juv-cunduSy ' pleasant,' from jwo-dre, ' to aid,' ' de- 
light'; a/iA-d-us, 'greedy,' from o»3-r«, 'to long for'; eupi-dma, 'desirous,' 
from cupe-re, ' to desire ' ; timi-diit, ' timid,' from timi-re, ' to fear' ; faci-Hs, 
' easy,' ' capable of being done,' from /ace-re, 'to do ' ; tiubi-lis, ' marriage- 
able,' from tiMe-re, ' to marry ' ; ati-lis, ' useftil,' from ati, ' to use ' ; eridi- 
bHis, ' credible,' from crede-re, ' to believe ' ; terri-biUs, ' terrible,' from terri- 
re, ' to terrify ' ; laudd-biUs, ' praiseworthy,' from lauda-re, ' to praise ' ; /e^- 
tilis, ' fertile,' from fer-re, ' to bear ' ; cap-ax, ' capacious,' from cap-ere, ' to 
take ' ; ten-dx, ' tenacious,' from ten-ire, ' to bold.' 

rV. ADJECTrvEs FROM Adtekbs aud Prepositioks. 

334. A few adjectives are formed from adverbs and prepoa- 

tions :" 

crSs-tinus, of to-morrvm, from crJs, to-morrow, 

contra-rius, eoniraru, " contrS, offainst. 

inter-nus, internal, " inter, among, witlam. 

super-bus, haughty, " super, above. 

Buper-nus, vpper, a a a 

I. Vbhbb from Nouns akd Adjectivbs. 

335. Verbs formed from noims and adjectives are called De- 
soMmATiVES. They end in — 

OoNJ. I. CoNj. II. Coiij. in. C!o»J. IT. 

6, a-re, eO, e-re, uo, ue-re,' io, I-re.* 

1 Vus. uua. and x-vua are only different forms of the same sufSz; uua was formed by 
vocaliziDg V in- vu^; l-mtA, by adding mis to tbe stem-vowel j ; «oo-?-B?«, as if from ■ 
'Wis noc-^re ^ noo-ere. The other endings are composed of elements already expl^ned. 

■ But adverbs and prepositions are in origin case-fbrms; see 304; 307, note L 

3 GoajagatioD III. contains primitive verbs with a ibw derivatives. 

* According to Cnrtius and others, the sufl^ which was added to the stems of nooni 
•ad adlectlves to form Tertu wm originally >a. pronounced v<>, probacy identioal with i 













































to care for. 



to put to flight, 






to carry on, war. 



to give. 



to make firm. 



to labor. 



to liberate, 



to name. 



to be white. 



to make bright, 



to be bright. 



to bloom, 



to shine, 



to fear. 



to place, 



to finish. 



to soften, 



to clothe, 



to serve. 



to guard. 











Note 1.— DenomlBatiTes of the second coi^ugation are intranBitive, bnt most of the 
others are transitire. 

NoTB 2. — Derivatives, like other verbs, may of course be deponent: domA/nor^&H^^Xo 
domineer,' from dominus, * master ' ; Tniror, dri^ ' to wonder at,' from mtruay *■ wonder- 
ful ' ; prniior, IH, ' to part,' ' divide,' from pars^ partis^ ' part.' 

1. Otheb Examples are — 

Ou2p-wrej * to find fault,' from culp-(Xy ' fault ' ; gldri-g/ri^ ' to boast,' * glory,' 
from glori-a, * glory ' ; nov-are^ *• to make new,' from noviia^ ' new * ; rdgn-drej 
*to reign,' from rdgn/um, 'royal power'; lev-wre, 'to lighten,' from le7}vt, 
' liglit ' ; hondr-a/re^ ' to honor,' from honor, ' honor ' ; laud-are^ ' to praise,' 
from lmi8 = lcmd-8j ' praise ' ; saev-^e^ ' to be fierce,' from saevuSy ' fierce.* 

the root of l-rs^ * to go.^ This suffix added to a, the orl^nal stem-vowel of most nouns 
and adjectives, formed a-ja, stlU preserved in the ending ajd-mi in a large class of San- 
skrit verbs. From this compound suffix (0a are derived in Latin, in the first conjuga- 
tion, (1) a£J, contracted to 0,* cur-0 ~ cur-ajo for cur-ao for cur-a^a; (2) &: cur-d-e. 
shortened to a In cur-a-i for cuT'd-t ;—\ti the second conjugation, (1) eO : Ivo-eO for liio 
e^o for 1/UG-aja; (2) &: luc-e-8, shortened to e in Mc-e-t for luc-e-t; and in the fourth 
conjugation, (1) io and iii: serv-io for ser^-ija for serv-€0a^ sero-i/u-nt for aerv-i^tt-nt 
for serv-aju-nt; and (2) t: serv-l-s, shortened to i in ser^-i-t for serv-i-t; see Bopp, I., 
pp. 207-229; Curtius, Verbum, I^ pp. 292, 826-S48; Schleicher, pp. 858-861. For an ob- 
jection to this explanation of the a-verba, see Corssen, II., pp. 738-786.— On final of the 
first person, see 347, 1, foot-note 5.— The suffix ^a, added to original i-ateme, formed ija 
and gave rise to i-verbs : flTdo =/in-i-jo =/i/n-ija ; and added to u-ateme, It formed 
Vrja and gave rise to u-ijerba: met-iio = jnet-u-jo = met-vga.—ln general^ a-efenw give 
rise to a-verbs: eur-a, cur-d-re; o-etema^ sometimes to a-verba^ sometimes to e-verbs^ 
and sometimes to i-verbs : Jimma, ^iam Jirmo^ Ji/rm-d-re ; albua^ stem alb-o^ alb-e-re; 
aervua., stem serv-o, aerv-l-re ; consonant stems, to a-'verba, e-verba, or i-verba, after the 
analogy of vowel stems: lahor tor Idbdr^ labor-d-re ; Jloa^ Jldr-e-re tor Jlds-e-re {ZX^ 3),* 
cmtda^ Bt«m mstod^ cuatod-i-re. 

VERBS. 171 

II. Vbbbs fbom Verbs.' 

336. Frequentativbs or Intbnsives denote repeated, am- 
tinued, or intense action. They are generally of the first conjuga- 
tion, and are formed — 

I. From the stem of the participle ' in tus or sus : 

cant-o, are, to sing, from oantus from cano, to siruf.^ 

capt-o, are, to snatch, " captus " capio, to take. 

dat-o, are, to give often, " datus " do, to give. 

habit-S, are, to inhabit, " habitus " habeo, io have. 

quass-o, are, to shake violently, " quassus " quatio, to shake. 

territ-o, are, to frig/Uen often, " territus " terreo, to frighten. 

II. From the present stem, by adding to and changing the preceding 
vowel to i, if not already in that form : * 

agi-to, are, to shake, from ago, to move, lead. 

clami-to, are, to shout often, " clamo, to shout. 

rogi-to, are, to ask eagerly, " rogo, to ask. 

Toci-to, are, to call often, " voco, to call. 

voli-t5, are, to flit about, " volo, to fly. 

NoTB 1. — Fnquentatives are sometimes formed from other frequentatives : » cantito, 
*to sinff often,^ from canto from canO; dicMto, 'to say often,^ from dicto from dico. 

KoTE 2.— A few derivatives in esso and isao also occur. They are intensive in force, 
denotlDf; earnest rather than repeated action, and are of the third conjugation ; fadOt 
/aoiasO,* to do earnestly'; iTicipiO, incipiasO, 'to hegin eagerly.' 

1. Other Examples are — 

Diets, ' to say often,' from dies, ' to say ' ; specto, ' to behold,' from y>eais, 
'to look at' ; factits, 'to do often,' from faois, 'to do,' 'make'; imperils, 
' to command often,' from imperS, ' to command ' ; raptS, ' to snatch,' from 
rapis, ' to seize.' 

337. iNCEPTnrES or Inchoatites denote the beginning of the 
action. They are of the third conjugation, and end in sco : 

' Either directly or through the medium of nouns, adjectives, or participles. 

' They are thus strictly denominaUvea (336). Intransitive verbs, though without 
the participles in tus or sua, may form frequentatives after the analogy of transitive 
verbs: eurso, are, 'to run about,' formed as if from euraua from curro, 'to run'; ven' 
tUo, are, ' to come often,' formed as if from ventua, from renio^ ' to come.' 

3 Bemember that the stem of the participle ends in o ; thus cantus = canto-a. Ob- 
serve, therefore, that the verb canto, ' I sing,' is in form like the stem of the participle. 
Canto was, however, originally produced by adding ja to oanta, the original stem of 
cantus. making cant(i-/a, canta^O, cantaO, cants; see also 335, foot-note. 

* The formation from the participle was doubtless the original method, but at length 
ts was regarded as the suffix, and was accordingly added to present stems, and as in many 
coses i preceded, the stem-vowel finally took this form befbre the suffix to ; see Gorssen, 
II., p. 297. 

' Sometimes from frequentatives no longer in use : dcHto, ' to act often,' as if from 
Sets, not in use, from ago; saHptitO, 'to write often,' as if flrom aarlpts, not in use, 
from icrlbo. 


gel-a-sco, to begin to freeze, from gel-o, S-re, to freeze. 

cal-e-sco, to become warm, " cal-eo, e-re, to be warm, 

rub-e-sco, to grow red, " rub-eo, §-re, to be red. 

Tir-6-sco, to grow green, " vir-eo, e-re, to be green. 

trem-i-Bc6, to begin to tremble, " trem-o, e-re, to tremble. 

obdonn-I-sc5, to fall asleep, " obdorm-io, I-re, to sleep. 

338. Desidbratives denote a desire to perform the action. 
They are of the fourth conjugation, and end in tvirio or surio : 

par-turio. Ire, to strive to bring forth, from pario, to bring forth. 
6-3urio, Ire, to desire to eat, " edo, to eat. ' 

339. DnmnjTrvES denote a,feMe action.' They are of the first 
conjugation, and end in illo : 

cant-illo, to sing feebly, from canto, to sing. 

conscrlb-illo, to scribble, " conscrtbo, to write. 

Worn — For the Debit atioh of Adtebbs, Bee 304. 



340. New words may be formed — 

I. By the union of two or more words under one principal accent, 
without change of meaning: 

Bea puOdcay reapubUca, republic ; agri cuUura, agricultural agrictOture ; 
juris cdnsultus^ juri8Cm»uUus^ lawyer, one skilled in the law ; quem ad mO' 
d/um^ guemadmodiim, in what way — Ut., to what meaeure. 

Note. — These are compounds only in form. The separate words retain In a great 
meaBure theh* identity both in form and in meaning', and may in fact be written separately. 
Jies publica is the approved form. Other examples of this class are : legi8-ldtor^ law- 
giver; patm'-famiHds^ father of & family; sendtus-ednsultum^iecTee of tbeBensAe; hdc- 
tenua^ thus for ; eaepe-mtmero^ often in number ; bene-faeio^ to do well, benefit ; male- , 
<f^c^^, to revile ; aa^/ac«5, to satisiy, do enough for; animwn-ad-verto^anim-ad-verto^ 
to notice, turn the mind to. 

II. By prefixing an indeclinable particle to an inflecfed word, 
generally with some change of meaning : 

Ad-mm^ to be present ; ds-pd7U>^ to lay down ; re-pond, to replace ; %-d4sGd, 
to learn by heart ; mi-mmhm\ unmindful ; per-faaiUa^ very easy ; pro-consul^ 

> These are the only desideratives in common use, but a few others occur : cend-tuHO^ 
*to desire to dine,' from e&n^^ 'to dine"*; emp-tu/rio^ 'to desire to purchase,' from em5, 
'to purchase ' ; nup-turiOy ' to desire to marry,' fi*om ■n-wfto, ' to marry.' They were prob- 
ably formed originally through the medium of a verbal noun in tor or sor (326, foot-note 
2) : thus, ceno, cend-tor, ' one who dines ' ; cind-tor-i-re = dnd-tur-^-re (p changed to 
u), 'to desire to dine'; emo, imp-tor^ 'a purchaser'; imp-tor-lre = imp-tur-i-re, 'tff 
desire to purchase.' 

3 Probably denominativea formed from Terb-stems through diminutive verbal nounfr 

NOUNS. 173 

prooonBul, one acting for a oonsul; inter-rlffnum, interregnum, an interval 
between two reigns. 

ni. By vmiting two or more simple stems or roots, and adding 
appropriate inflectional sufBxes when needed : ' 

Tgni-coloi;^ fire-colored ; grandi-aevo-s,^ grand-aetms, a, um, of great age ; 
omni-potent-s, omnipotins, omnipotent ; mdgno-animo-s, mdgnanimvs, <i, irni, 
great-souledf ; tuH-cen, trumpeter ; arti-fec-s, artifex, artifloer ; alio-qiii, aU- 
quit,' any one. 

1. In the first element of the compound obserye — 

1) That the stem-vowel generally takes the "ox:^ of i : capro-como-&, 
capri-comus ; tuba-cm, tvii-cen. 

2) That consonant stems sometimes assume i : honOr-i-ficos, honorificus^ 
a, um, honorable. 

3) That the stem-vowel disappears before another vowel : mdgno-animm^ 

2. The stem-ending and the inflectional ending of the second element 
generally remain unchanged in the compound ; see examples above. But 
observe — 

1) That they are sometimes slightly changed : aequo-nocti,aequi-noctio-m,' 
aeqwinoctium, equinox ; multa-fSrma, mwUir-fSrmis, with many forms. 

2) That a verbal root or stem may be the second element in a compound 
noun or adjective : tubi-cen {cen = can, the root of canO, to sing), trumpeter ; 
IMi-fer [fer, root of/erd, to bear), death-bearing. 

Note. — The words classed under II. and III. are regarded as real compounds, but 
those under III. best illustrate the distinctive characteristics of genuine compounds, as 
they are formed from compound stems and hare a meaning which could not he expressef 
by the separate words. Thus, magnus arvimua means a great soul, but magna iimu8 
means having a great soul.* 

341. In CoMPOimD Nouns, the first part is generally the stem 
of a noun or adjective, sometimes an adverb or preposition; and 
the second part is the stem of a noun, or a stem from a verbal root : 

arti-fex, artist, from arti-fac in ars and facio. 

capri-comus, Capricorn, " capro-cornu " caper " cornu. 

aequi-noctium, equinox, " aequo-nocti " p.equus " noi. 

ne-mo, nobody, " ne-homon " ne " homo. 

pro-n6men, prronoun, " pro-nomen " prO " nomen. 

' Thus igni-color is formed by the union of two stems without Inflectional suffix; 
but in grand-aevu-8, the suffix 8 Is added to the stem grandaevo, componnded ofgrandi 
and aeiid. 

^ Literally, any other one. 

' T%, the stem-ending of nox, becomes <id, to which is added the nominatlTe-ending m. 

* Glass II. occupies a position Intermediate between I. and III. Some compounds 
of particles with verbs, for example, have developed a meaning quite distinct from that 
denoted by the separate parts, while others have simply retained the ordinary meaning 
of those parts. 


1. Compounds in ex, dez, fez, cen, cida, and cola, deserve special 
notice : 

Simo-ex, remex,^ oarsman ; JUs-dex, jTtdex^ judge ; arti-fex, artist ; Wm,- 
cen, tibi-cen,'' fiute-player ; homon-ada, homi-cida,^ manslayer; agri^cola,' 
liosbandman, one who tUls the soil. 

Note.— Jit (fop ag-e) Is from the root ag In ago, to drive, Impel; dea (for dies), 
from die in dicO, to make known ; /ex (for /ac-s\ ftom /ac in /ado, to ma^e ; cen, from 
eon in cano, to sing ; cida (for eaed-a), from caed in caedo, to cut, slay ; coto (for col^a), 
from co2 in coUf, to cnltivate. 

343. In CoMPOTOO) Adjectives, the first part is generally the 
stem of a noun or adjective, sometimes an adverb or preposition; 
and the second is the stem of a nomi or adjective, or a stem from 
a verbal root : 

leti-fer, death-hearing, from ISti-fer in IStum and fero. 

magn-animus, magnanimmi»f " magno-animo " mfignus " animus, 
per-facilis, very easy, " per-facili " per " f acilis. 

1. Compounds in ceps, fer, ger, dicus, ficns, and voliis deserve 
notice : 

Hird-ceps, taking part ; aw,i-/er, gold-bearing ; armi-ger, oanying arms ; 
fdti-dieus, predicting fate ; rmmrfieua, causing wonder ; bene-voVm, well- 

Note.— <7«ps (for cop-g) is ftom the root cap in capio, to take; /er, from /w In /erO, 
to hear; ger, from ger in gero, to carry ; dicua (for dia-o-a), from die In ddco, to make 
known ; /Ume (for /ac-o-a), from /ae in /ooio, to make ; 'eolua (for Tol-o-a), ftom ml ia 
void, to wish. 

843. CoMPOTiND Notws and Adjectives are divided according 
to signification into three classes: 

I. Determinative Comfohnds, in which the second part is qualified b; 
the first : 

Inter-^ex, interrex; meriSiis,^ midday; iene-voim, well-wishing; per- 
mctgmts, very great ; m-dUgmus, unworthy. 

II. Objective GoMFOnNDS, in which the second part is limited by the 
first as object : 

Rrm-ceps, taking the first place ; belli-gier, waj^g war ; jO-dex, judge. 
one who dispenses (makes known) justice ; Tiomi-dda, one who slays a man ; 
agri-cola, one who tills the field. See other examples iii 34!i, 1. 

III. Possessive Compocnds, in origin mostly adjectives. They desig 

' iB dropped in rlmea, and « \ii}udea ; see 87 ; 36, 8, noto 8. 
3 A, weakened to i, miites with the preceding i, forming i. 
> i\r dropped, and o weakened to i ; see 36, 8, note 8. 

* The stem-vowel o ofagro is weakened to i. agri; see JSJS. 

* From medi/m and diea. 


hate qualities or attributes as possessed by some person or tiling, and an 
often best rendered by supplying having or possessing : 

jl<»j-^8s, having bronze feet ; 1 celeri-pSs, svnft-iooiei; aK^pSs, wing-foot- 
ed, having wings for feet ; mdgn-animus, having a great soul ; un-animutj 
having one mind ; hng-aeiius, of great age, having a long life. 

844. CoMPOtJND Vbkbs. — Verbs in general are compounded 
only with prepositions, originally adverbs : ' 

Ah-eo, to go away ; ra-es, to go out ; prid-eO, to go forth ; con-vooS, to call 
ogether ; di-cide, to fall off; prae-dicO, to foretell ; re-ducO, to lead back j 
••e-ficii), to repair, to make anew.' 

1. Jliicio and jfiS may also unite with verbal stems in e : 

Cale-faciS, to make warm ; cale-fio, to be made warm, become warm ; 
Ifhe-faciO, to cause to totter ; paie-fads, to open, cause to be open. 

2. Verbs are often united with other words in writing without strictly 
forming compounds : 

Manu mitto or mati/li-mitts, to emancipate, let go from the hand; satii 
/acis or satis-faeio, to satisfy, do enough for ; animum ad-vertd or ani7n-ad- 
verto, to notice, turn the mind to. 

3. Verbs in JteS and factd, like the following, are best explained not 
as compounds but as denominatives : * 

AedirficD, to build, from aed\fex ; ampli-ficS^* to enlarge ; oaU-fado, to 
make warm, from caU-faetus. 

4. Verbs compounded with prepositions often undergo certain vowel- 
obanges : 

1) Short a and e generally become i: habeO, ad-hibeo; tcMO^ coO'tineO, But a 
•ometlineB becomes eoru: carpO, de^cerpO; calco^ con-ouloO, 

2) Ae becomes i : caedo^ in-tAdo, 

S) Au generally become* d or u .* plattdB, em-plodo; clouds, tn-cli2dO. 

6. Form akd Meaning of Preposihoiis in Cohfosiiion. — The following 
facts are added for reference : 

A, ab, abs. — 1. Foku ; a before m and «, and sometimes before f;abi 
before e,' y, t, and, with the loss of i, also before p^; au in au-fers and ait- 
fugi6 ; ab before the other consonants, and before vowels. — 2. Heanins; 
(1) ' away,' ' off' : irmMli, to send away ; aibt-conds, to hide away ; as-porta. 

I Obaerve the force of the compound. Aenua pis means a braeen/oot, bnt aeiU-pii 
"neanB having brazen feet ; see also 340, III., note. 

' The -wotAb thus formed are strictly compoonds of verbs with adverbs, as the origi- 
nal type of these compoands was formed before the adverb became a preposition. 

' Observe In these examples the strict adverbial nse of the particles ab, ecK. etc., awa^ 
ovi, etc FrepositioDS, on the other hand, always denote relations, and are aiatiliart 
to the case- endings ; see 307, foot-note. 

* In some of these the primitive la not found In actual use. 

* Ai abi-pello, as-pelUs. to drive vnj. 


to carry off; wur-fugid, to flee away ; db-mmi, to be away ; ah-»6, to go away, 
ab-jieii or ab-ido,^ to throw away ; (2) iu adjectives, generally negative : 
d-7nins, without mind, frantic ; ai-simiUs, unlike. 

Ad. — 1. FoBM : ad before vowels, and before J, d, /, h, J, m, n, q, and », 
■ometimes before g, I, r, and s, rarely before p and t ; d assimilated before 
«, generally before p and t, and sometimes before g, I, g, r, and i ; gener- 
illy dropped before gn, so, sp, and st.'—2. Meaning : ' to,' ' toward,' ' to 
one's self'; 'on,' 'at,' 'near,' 'by'; 'besides': ad-duc9, to lead to \ ae-oiM, 
to fall to, happen ; adnnoveB, to move toward ; ac-dpio, to receive, take to 
one's self; ao-oingS, to gird on; ad-lStrO or ai-lsiro, to bark at; ad-stim, 
to be present or near ; ad-etd or a-etd, to stand near, to stand by ; ad-diaeO, 
to learn besides. 

Ante. — 1. Foem: unchanged except in anti-cipB, 'to take beforehand,' 
and in composition with tto ; ante-stS or anti-sto, to stand before. — 2. Mean- 
INO : ' before,' ' beforehand ' ; ante-currO, to run before ; ante-habeS, to prefer 
~-lit., to have or hold before. 

Circum. — 1. Fobm : generally unchanged, but m is sometimes dropped 
in compounds of ei>, to go: drcmn-eD or drc/u^eO, to go around. — 2. Mean- 
ing : ' around,' ' about ' : cireum-miito, to send around. 

Com.' — 1. Fobm: coot before i, m, ^ y co before vowels,* A, and j'» , ' con 
or ool before // cor before r ; con, before the other consonants. — 2. Mean- 
ing : (1) ' together,' ' with,' iu various senses : com-MbO, to drink together ; 
eomHmittd, to let go together ; co-ed, to go together ; colr-loquor, to talk with ; 
eUn-fiigd, to contend with; (2) 'completely,' 'thoroughly' : corir-Jicid, to com- 
plete, make completely; con-eiid, to rouse thoroughly; con-sUmi), to con- 
sume, take wholly ; conr-denms, very dense. 

E, ex. — 1. Fokm: ex before vowels and before c, h, p,' q, «,' t, and with 
assimilation before // « g before the other consonants.' — 2. Meanimg : (1) 
* out,' ' forth,' ' without,' implying ' freedom from ' : eayeS, to go out, go forth ; 
esc-ddn. to fall out ; e-do, to put forth ; eac-sanguis, without blood, bloodless ; 
eau-oners, to unload, disburden ; (2) ' thoroughly,' ' completely,' ' successful- 
ly ' : ex-iirO, to bum up ; ^discs, to learn by heart ; ef-fici^, to effect, do suc- 
cessfully ; e-dii/rm, very hard. 

In.— 1. FoBM : n sometimes assimilated before I, often before bi'" and r} 

' See foot-note 1, p. 20. 

s Sometimes retained : od-ffTidsaO or d-gnSeco; ad-€tO or a-ato. 

• An earlier form for c«m. 

• A contraction often takes place : co-agS, co-go. Com is sometimes retained befoN 
6 or i, and co or con is used before i=ji: com-edo, eom-itor, co-icio or con^iciOa 
eon-iicio or con-jicio; see foot-note 1, p. 20. 

• Co also appears in cd-necto^ co-mveO, co-nltor, and co-nUbitim. 

• But 6-pdto and e-potus; eai-aoendo or e-8cendo. 

• ;51s sometimes dropped after x: exapecto or e(D-pecfo, 

• Cbefbre/ is not recommended; ^• Id better than tc-fero. 

• Bnt ex-Ua. 

>* Im is the approved focm be&re &,.«, and «ik tfan^rlallv in im-perdtor, im-perO, 9Bi 


often changed to m before J and^ / in other Bituations unchanged. — 2. A{ian- 
nf6 : ' in,' ' into,' ' on,' ' at,' ' against ' : in-cold, to dwell in ; in-eO, to go 
into ; im-migi-o, to move into ; in.-iiUor, to lean on ; iii-tueor, to look at ; 
ir-rideO, to laugh at ; im-pugnd, to fight against. 

Inter. — 1. Form: unchanged, except in intel-lego, to understand. — 2. 
MsANiNa ; ' between,' sometimes involving interruption,'- ' together ' : inter- 
vDfiio, to come between, intervene ; inter-dici, to forbid, interdict ; intet^ 
Tiecto, to tie together. 

Ob. — ^1. Foem: b assimilated before ;■, /, g, and p; dropped in o-^mitte^ 
to omit, and in operic, to cover ; in other situations generally unchanged." — 
2. Meaotno : (1) ' before,' ' in the way,' ' toward,' ' against,' especially of an 
obstruction or opposition ; of-/$r6, to bring before ; obstd, to stand in the way ; 
oo-currO, to run toward, run to meet ; op-pugnS, to attack, fight against ; (2) 
' down,' ' completely ' : oe-ddo, to out down, kill ; op-primo, to press down, 
to overwhelm. 

Per. — 1. Form: generally unchanged, but r is sometimes assimilated be- 
fore l,> and is dropped before j in compounds of jure, as pe-Jer6,* to swear 
falsely. — 2. Meaning : ' through,' ' thoroughly,' sometimes in a bad sense with 
the idea of breaiing throvgh, disregarding : per-hgs, to read through; per^ 
discs, to leam thoroughly ; per-Jidus, perfidious, breaking faith. 

Post. — 1. Form: unchanged, except in po-menum, the open space on 
either side of the city- wall, and pos-merul idnus,^ of the afternoon. — 2. Msan- 
\so : ' after,' ' behind ' : post-habed, to place after, have after, esteem less. 

Pro, prod. — 1. Form : pro is the usual form, both before vowels and 
before consonants ; prSd, the original form, is retained in a few words before 
vowels." — 2. MEANma: 'forth,' 'forward,' 'before,' 'for': prod-e6, to go 
forth or forward ; pro-eurrO, to run forward ; pro-pugnS, to fight in front of, 
fight tot; pro-hibe6, to hold aloof, i. o., out of one's reach, hence to prohibit; 
pro-mitts, to send forth, to hold out as a promise, to promise. 

Sub. — 1. Form : b assimilated before c, f, g, and p, and often before m 
and r / dropped before «p / in other situations unchanged. The form mbs, 
shortened to sus, occurs in a few words : sm-cipii), sus-pends. — 2. Meaniho : 
' under,' ' down,' ' from under,' ' up ' ; 'in place of,' ' secretly ' ; ' somewhat. 
' slightly ' : ' sub-eO, to go under ; mii-ldbor, to slip down ; sub-dOcS, to draw 
from under, withdraw ; su^cipis, to undertake ; sus-cits, to lift np, arouse , 

' It is used In several compomidB ref^iringr to death; inter-eo, to die; inter-Jicio 

s Obs seems to occur in a few words : obs-oUscO, os-tendo for obs-tends (6 dropped) 
thoug-h these words are sometimes otherwise explained; thus ob-aolescS, as a compound 
otsoleacB from soleB. 

' Aa per-le{il!, ptl-lego ; per-liciB, pel-lido ; but per Is preferable. 

* For per-juro. 

' Post-merididnus is also used; pS-merJdidnui Is not approved, though It ooonrt 

• As in prld-eo, prod-igB, prSd-iffut, and before < in the compound of eum : pridi 
e9, prod-eat, etc. 

' Mostly in adjectives : auit-abeurdus, somewhat absurd ; eub-dolue, somewhat oraftj 
aui-impudim, somewhat impndent; eub-ititltue, somewhat odloua. 


mb-stHtie, to put in place of, to Bubstitute ; mi^ripiS, to take away secretly , 
mb-rided, to smUe, laugh slightly ; suh-diffidUa, somewhat difficult. 

Trans. — 1. Fokm: it generally drops » before s, and it often drops m 
before d, j,^ I, m, n ; it is otherwise unchanged. — 2. Meanino : ' across,' 
'through,' ' completely ' : trdns-curro, to run across ; tra^diico, to lead across ; 
trdn-siUo, to leap across ; trans-igo, to transact ; to finish, do completely a* 
thoroughly — Ut.., to drive through. 

8. Form and Meaning of the Inseparable Peepositions. — The follow 
ng facts are added for reference : 

Ambi, amb.' — 1. Foem : amh before vowels ; ambi, aim, or o»,' before 
consonants. — 2. Meaning : ' around,' ' on both sides,' ' in two directions ' : 
ami-ifl,* to go round ; amb-igo, to act in two ways, move in different direc- 
tions, to hesitate ; am-puto, to cut around or off; an-quirO, to search round. 

Dis, di. — 1. Foem : dia beforec, p, q, t, before s followed by a vowel, and, 
with assimilation, before/ / but da-_ for dis before a vowel or A / dH, in most 
other situations ; but both (Ks and dl occur before/.* — 2. Meaning: 'apart,' 
' asunder,' « ' between,' sometimes negative ' and sometimes intensive : dif^ 
tines, to hold apart ; di-ducS, to lead apart, divide ; dif-fugio, to flee asunder, 
or in different directions ; dir-imd, to take in pieces, destroy ; dis-sentis, to 
think differently, dissent; dv-judicD, to judge between; dis-pUceo, to dis- 
please, not to please ; dif-ficiUs, difdcult, not easy ; d^laudd, to praise highly. 

In. — 1. Foem: n dropped before gn; otherwise like the preposition in. 
— 2. Mbajtikg : ' not,' ' un ' : i-gnoeco, not to know, not to recollect, to par- 
don ; im-m.em,or, unmindful ; in^4miciis, unfriendly. 

Por, for port.^ — 1. Form: r assimilated before I and s,' in other situa- 
tions, por. — 2. Meaning : ' forth,' ' forward,' ' near ' : pol-Uceor, to hold forth, 
offer, promise ; pos-sided, to possess ; ' por-rig5, to hold out or forth, to offer. 

Bed, re. —1. Foem : red before vowels, before 7i, and in red^do ; re in 
other situations. — 2. Meaning ; ' back,' ' again,' ' in return ' : " red-eO, to go 
back ; re-fido, to repair, make again ; red-am6, to love in return. 

Scd," se. — 1. Foem : sed before vowels ; si before consonants. — 2. Mban- 
ing : ' apart,' ' aside' : se-cedo, to go apart, secede ; se-ponO, to put aside or apart.* 

Note. — For the Compositiou of Adverbs, see 304, 1., 2; 304, II., 1, note; 
804, IV., note 2. 

' Or before i =^ or^; Bee foot-note 1, p. 20. 
2 Compare ambo, both, and a/x0t, around, on both sidea. 
^ An before c, q, /, tnd t. 
' For amb-60. 
« IHs-jwngo^ di-jucUcS, 

' Both literally ' apaH' In respect to place or position, and JigwraUmil/y ' apart'la 
entiment or opinion. 

^ Especially In adjectives : dis-par, unequal ; dU-simiUs, unlike. 
* Greek nopTi. wport, irpds, to, toward , see CurtluB, 381. 
" To »it near and so to control. 

10 Sometimes negative, not, vm-s r&'alffno, to unseal; re-cludo, to open. 
^' Probably an old ablative of »wl and Identical with »fi^, >}ut. 


s T :n^ T A X. 



S45. Stntax treats of the construction of sentences. 

846. A sentence is a combination of words expressing either a 
jingle thought or two or more thoughts. 

347. A Simple Sentence expresses a single thought? 

Deus mundiim aedr&o&vit, God made {built) the world, Cio. 

S48. A Complex Sentence expresses one leading thought with 
one or more dependonc thoughts : 

JOUM uris fellx, multss numeTiLl)is amlcOs, so long as you sAaH ie prosper- 
ovs, you wiU number many friends, Ovid. 

NoTB 1.— In this example two simple sentences— (1) 'jroa vAU 6« ^osperotw,' and 
(2) * ymi will number matvy friends ' — are so united tliat the first only specifies the timt 
of the second: You will nvmber rnany friends (whenf\ so long as you shall bs pros^ 
perons. The parts thns united are called Clauses or Members. 

NoTB 2.— The part of the complex sentence which makes complete sense of Itself— 
multba numerdbis am in — miscalled the Principal or Independent Clause; and the 
part which is dependent upon it — ddn£0 eris fel^ — ^is called the Subordinate or J)e 
pendent Clause. 

349. A CoMPOUin) Seintencb expresses two or more independ- 
ent thoughts : 

Sol ruit et montsa mnbrantoi', ih4 wn haulms to its setting and the moun- 
tains are shaded. Terg. 

350. A Dbclabatite Sentence has the form of an assertion : 
MiltiadSs accQsStus est, Miltiadss was accused: Kep. 

351. An Inteerogative Sentence has the form of a ques- 

Quia lo'iuitur, who speahs? Ter. Quis n6n paupertatem extim6Bcit 
teho does not fear sovertuf Cio. Quid aia, what do you say/ Ter. Eo 


quid ' anlmadvertis silentium, ch you, not notice </J« silenotf Cio. QuSlis est 
omtii, what kind of an oration is it ? Cic. Qfioi smA, howmany are there? 
Plaut. Ubl sunt, where are they ? Cio. Ubiuam gentium sumus, where in 
the world are we ? Cio. Visne fortunam experirl meam, do you wish to try 
my fortune ? Cio. Nonne nobil itarl Volunt, do they not wish to be rcTiowned f 
Cio. Num igitur pecoamus, are we then ai fault ? Cio. 

1. Inteekogatite Words. — Interrogative sentences generally oontain some 
interrogative word— either an interrogative pronoun, adjeotive, or adverb, or 
Dne of the interrogative particles : ' -ne, nonne, num ; see examples above. 

Note 1.— Questions with -ne ask for information: Sarliitne, 'is he wrltingf ' JV« 
is sometimes appended to ^^trum^ n/um^ or an, without affecting their meaning, and some- 
times inserted in the clause after u6rum : 

Numne ferre arma debuerunt, ought they to have borne arms f Oic. Utmm tace- 
amne. on praedlcem, shaU I be silent, or shall I speah f Ter. 

Note 2. — Questions with nmine expect the answer yea; Nmvne eoriW^, *ifl he not 

Note 8.— Questions with nwm expect the answer too; J?«m sct'ZW/,* is he writing?' 

Note 4. — For questions with an, see 363, note 4. 

2. The particle -ne is always appended to some other word, generally to 
the emphatio word of the sentence, i. e., to the word upon which the ques- 
tion especially turns ; appended to nm, it forms nonne : 

Visne experirl, do you wish to try f Cic. Tune id veritus es, did tof fewr fli4a f 
Oic. Omnisne peciinia soluta est, has all the money been paidf Cic. Hbcinesi 
(=liocine est''; ofBcinm patris, is this tlieduty of afath&rl Ter. Unqua/mne'^^i&\X 
have you ^YEB. seen ? Cic. 2^ volunt, do they not wish f Cic. 

3. Sometimes no interrogative word is used, especially in impassioned 
discourse : 

Creditis, do you believe T Terg. Ego ndn poterO, shall I not be ablet Oic 

4. An emphatio tandem, meaning indeed, pray, then, often occurs in inter 
rogative sentences : 

Quod genus tandem est istud gloriae, what hind of glory is that, pray f Qc. 
Note 1. — Nam, appended to an interrogative, also adds empliasis; 
Numnam haec audivit, did he liear this, pray ? Ter. 

Note 2. — For Two InterrogabiGes in the same clause, and for an Interrogative with 
tantus, see 464, 3 and 4. 

352. Answers. — Instead of replying to a question of fact with 
a simple particle meaning yes or no, the Latin usually repeats the 
verb or some emphatic word, often with prorsus, vero, and the like, 
or if negative, with non : 

DTxitne cauaam, did he ttate the cause? TJixit, he stated it. Cic. Pos- 
Bumusne tati esse, can we be safe f Non possumus, we can not. Cio. 

' Ecquid^ though the neuter iiccusative of an interrogative pronoun, has become ii 
effect a mere particle with the force of nbrne. 
° See 311, 8, foot-note. 
■ See 87. note 


Note 1.— Somatlmes the simple particle 1b used— aflarmatlvely, aanl, ettam^iia^ vSro 
flerte^ etc. ; negatively, non^ minime^ etc 

Y&aitaQy has he come f Nun, no. Plaut. 

Note 2.— Sometimes, without an actual repetition of the emphatic word, some eqv^ 
ralent expression is used : 

Tuam vostem dotraxit tlbi, did he strip off yov/r coat t Factum, 7ie did—VA.^ aane 
for it waa dons. Ter. 

353. DouBLB or DisjUNCTivB Questions offer a cJioice or alter 
native^ and generally take one of the following forms : 

1. The first clause has utrum or -ne, and the second an : 

Utrum ea vestra an nostra culpa est, is that your fault or ours? Cic 
«Oinamue venlO an hlo maneO, do I go to Jhme, or do I remain heref Cio. 

2. The first clause omits the particle, and the second has an, or anne : 
Eloquar an sileam, slmll I utter U^ or Tce&p silence? Yerg. Gablnio dicara 

anne PompeiO, to Gabinius, shall I say^ or to Pompey? Cio. 

Note 1. — Other forms are rare.* 

Note 2.— Utru7n sometimes stands before a disjunotlTe question with -ne in the flrsi 
clause and an in the second : 

Dtrum, taceamne, an praedicem, wMoh^ shall J he Hlent^ or shall I speak? Ter. 

Notes. — When the second clause is negative, the particle generally unites with the 
negative, giving annon or necne : 

Sunt haec tua verba necne, are these your words or nott Cic. 

Note 4.— By the omission of the first clause, tlie second often stands alone with an. 
In the sense of w, implying a negative answer : 

An h(Sc timemuB, or do we fear this T Liv. 

Note S,— Disjunctive queationa sometimes have three or more members : ^ 

Gabiniu anne Pompeio an utrique. to Gahinius, or Pompey, or bothf Cic. 

Note (S.—Di^unctive questions inquire which alternative is true. These must be 

1) From such single questions as inquire whether either alternatvve is true : 
351em dicam aut liinam deum, sfiall I call Pie sun or the moon a god t ^ Cic. 

2) From two separate questions, introduced respectively by num^ implying a negative 
answer, and by an, implying an aflBrmative answer ; 

Num ftiria ? au ludis me ? are you mad f or do you not rather mock me f Hor. 

354. An Imperative Sentence has the form of a command, 
exhortation, or entreaty : 

Jtlstitiam cole, culti-vate Justice. Cic. 

365» An Exclamatory Sentence has the form of an exclama- 

Eellquit quOs virfls, wTuit men he has left / Cic. 

1 Thus, in Vergil, -7ie occurs in both clauses, also -»e 'in the first with seu in the 
Hecond. In Horace, -ne occurs in the second clause \vith no particle in the first. 

* Cicero, in his oration Pro Domb^ xxil., 57, has a question of this kind extended to 
eight clauses, the first introduced by utrum and each of the others by oi\. 

3 Observe that in this sense aut, not a7t, is used. 


NoTR 1.— Many sentences introduced by Interrogative pronouns, adJectiTea, or *A 
verbs may be so spoken as to become exclamatory : 

Quibus gaudiis exsuitabis, in what joys will you enMlt/ Cic. 

Note 2. — Some declarative and imperative sentences readily become exclamatory. 

NfysE S.— Exclamatory sentences are often eliipticaL 


356. The Simple Sbntbnce in its most simple form coii»iste 
(f two distiact parts, expressed or implied: 

1. The Subject, or that of which it speaks; 

2. The Pebdicate, or that which is said of the subject: 
Clullius moritur, Cltdlms dies.* Liv, 

357. The SiMPLB Sentence in its most expanded fokm con- 
sists only of these same parts with their various modifiers: 

In his oastria Clullius, Albanus rex, moritur, CVuilius, the Alian king 
iita in this camp.^ Liv. 

1. The subject and predicate of a sentence are called the JHneipal oi 
Essential elements ; their modifiers, the Subordinate elements. 

2. The elements, whether principal or subordinate, may be either simple 
or complex : 

1) Simple, when not modified by other words ; see 358. 

2) Complex, when thus modified ; see 359. 

358. The Simple Subject of a sentence must be a noun, a pro- 
Qoun, or some word or words used as a noun : ' 

Sex dScrevit, tie king decreed. Nep. Ego scrlbo, / write. Cio. Ibam, 
/ was walMng, Hor. Vicimus, we Timie conquered. Cio. Video idem valet, 
(he word video has the same meani/ng. Quint. 

359. The Complex Subject consists of the simple subject with 
Its modifiers : 

Populus Bomam/M d6or6vit, the Eoman people decreed. Cio. Clullius rex 
tnoritur, Chiilius the KDfo dies. Liv. E6x Rutulorwm, the ii/ng or the 
EuTULi. Liv. Liber de offiaiu, the ioole ok dtities. Cio. 

Note 1. — ^Tbe subject is thus modified— 

1) By an adjkcttvb : Populus Romdnus. 

2) By a notjit in appobitton : Cluilins r&a, 
8) By a genitive; ESx RuiuVyrwm. 

4) By a Norw with a peeposition : Liber dS ofhUa. 

> Here Olmliua is the subject, and moriiwr the predicate. 

* Here OhmliiLS^ Albdrme rex, is the subject in its enlarged or modified form, »nd in 
ins casbria moritur is the predicate in its enlarged or modified form. 

8 A pronominal subject is always contained or implied in the personal ending. Thus 
m in I'bOrm is a pronominal stem = ego, and is the true original subject of the verb. Se4 
ilso 847; 368. 2, foot-note. 


NoTB 2. — A noun or pronoun used to etxfplain or id&nMfy another noun or pny 
poun denoting the same person or thing, is called an Appositwie; as OluUius r&c, ^Clul- 
(u9 the king.' 

NOTH 3. — Any noun may be modified like the subject. 

NoTK 4. — Sometimes adverbs occur as modifiers of noons : 

Non Ignarl sumus antt malormn, wt are not ignorant qf past md^orttaiea 

360. The SiMPLB Prbdicatb must be either a verb, or the 
copula sum with a noun or adjective : 

Miltiades eet aceugStus, MilUadea was aoovsed. Kep. Til ea tesHa, you abf a 
WTTNiss. Cio. Forliina caeca eat, fortune is blind. Cio. 

Note 1. — Like sum, several other verbs sometimes unite with a noun or an adjective 
to form the predicate ; see 363, 2, A noun or an adjective thus used is called a Predi- 
cote N&un or Predicate Adjective. 

Note 2. — Sum with an adverb sometimes forms the predicate ; 

Omnia recti aunt, all things are riqht. Gic. 

361. The CoMPiiBX Pbedicate consists of the simple predicate 
with its modifiers: 

HiltiadSg Mhinda hberavit, MilUadea Uberaied Atheits, Nep. Zabdri 
student, <A«y denote ihemaehes to labor. Caes. Ml rogavit seTitentiam, Tie 
ashed me mt opinion. Cio. Pons iter hostibua dedit, the bridg* fumiahed 
A PASSASE to the ENEMY. Liv. Bella fiUciter gessit, he waged wars bdo- 
OESSFHiLT. Cio. In Ms castris moritur, he dies (where 3) nr teis oamp. Ijv, 
Vera oonvSnSre, they assembled (when 1) in the spbino. Liv. 

1. The Predicate, when a verb, is thus modified— 

1) By an AoonsATivE: Athinas llberavit. 

2) By a Bative : Labori student. 

3) By two AootrsATivES : Mi rogavit aentenMam, 

i) By an Aoousative and a Dative : Iter hoatibua dedit. 

5) By an Adverb : FiUcUer gesait. 

6) By an Adverbial Phrase : In his castris moritur. 

• NoTB 1. — Still other modifiers occur with special predicates; see 406, 409, 41Q, 

Note 2.— No one predicate admits all the modifiers here given. Thus only tramH- 
iive verba admit an Accusative (371); only intransitive vorha, a Dative alone (384,1.): 
and only apecial verbs, two Accusatives (374). 

2. A Predicate Noun is modified like the subject : 

Haec virtas omnimn est rSgSna virtutum, this virtue is the queen OT AU 
virtues. Cio. See also 3S9, notes 1 and S. 

3. A Predicate Adjective is modified — 

1) By an Adverb : Satis humilis est, 7i^ ts suefioientlt humble. Liv. 

2) By an Oblique Case : Avidl lawdis fugrunt, tluiy were desirous oe praisk 
Cio. Omni aetdti mors est oommflnis, death is common to evert aoe. Cip 
Dignl sunt amicitid, tliey are worthy of friendship. Cio. 

Note. — Any adjective may be modified like the predicate adjective : 

Eqnes BSmJuius satis litterStus, a Soman ImigtU sn^Heiently literary. Gic. 




RUIiE I.— Predicate Nouns.' 

362. A noun predicated of another noun denoting the 

same person or thing agrees with it in Case : ' 

Bratua matda' llbertatis fuit, Brutus was the ouAitDiAif of Ulertg, Li v. 
Servius j-Sb est declaratus, Senmit was declared king. Liv. Oresfem sS esse 
dTxit, Ae said that he was Obestes. Cio. See 360, note 1. 

Note. — ^This rule applies also to nouns predicated of pronouns: * 

'E,^&ma7mntm&, I am a messenger. Liy. 

1. A Predicate Noun with different forms for different genders must 
agree in Gender as well as in Case : 

tjsus magister ' est, esperience is an isstetictoii. Cio. . Historia est mar 
^i^a* (»o<magister), totopy is AN iNSTKUOTKEss. Cio. 

2. Pkedicate Nouns are most frequent with the following verbs : 

1) With sum and a few intransitive verbs— ?8»S(fe, exsisto, appSreO, and 
the like : 

Bomi mdgnwe Svaserat, he had teoome (turned out) a obeat man. Ota 
Exstitit mndex llbertatis, he became (stood forth) the DErENBEB qf Ubertif, 
Cio. See also examples under the rule. 

2) With Passive Verbs of appointing, maMnff, naming, regarding, es 
teeming, and the like : 

Servius rex est dselaratus, Servius wot declared kino. Liv. Mundus d^i- 
ida existimatur, the world is regarded as A state. Cio. 

NoTB 1. — In the poets, Predicate ^Nouns are used with great freedom after verbs of a 
great variety of significations. Thus with audio =: appellor ; 

Bex audisti, you have been called eing ; 1. e., have heard yourself so called. Hot. 
Ego div&m incedo reglna, I walk as qxteen of t?vi gods, Verg. 

' For convenience of reference, the Rules will be presented in a body on page 824. 
2 For Predicate Genitive^ see 401, 

* In these examples custos, rex, and Oreste^m are all predicate nouns, and agree In 
case respectively with Briltus, Servius, and sS (536). 

-* As all substantive pronouns have the construction of nouns ; see 18!2. 

* Observe that in usus maffister est, the masculine form, magister, is used to agrea 
In gender with ijaus ; while in Mstoria est maffistrct, the feminine form, magistra, U 
used to agree in gender with Mstoria. 


WoTB 3, — Tat Predicate Aceiisative^ see 373, 1. 

NoTB 8.— The Dative of the object for which (390), pro with the Ablative, and load 
or numwo (or «n numero) with the Genitive, are often kindred in force to Predicate 
Nouns : hoeil^ pro Jioate^ loco hoaUSy nwmero (or in nvmero) hoatium^ ' for an enemy,* 
or 'aaan enemy*; 

Fuit omnibus bon6, il was a benefit (lit., foe a benefit) to alt. Clo. Bicilia 
iiSbis pro aerdrio fttit, Sioil}/ «j(M a trkasitet (fob a tsbasuet) /or us. Clc Qnaes- 
t5n parentis iocd fait, Ae was a paeent (lit., in the place of a pabent) to the guestor. 
Cic la tibl parenHa numsro fUit, /le was a pasknt to you. Clo. See alao Predi' 
eate Genitive^ 401. 

3. Predicate Nouns are used not only with finite verba, but also with 
Inhnitives and Participles, and sometimes without verb or participle : 

Declar£ltus rix Numa, A'tima having been declared ethq. Liv. Canlmo 
edngule, Camnius Bsoia consul. Cio. See 431, also Orestem under the rule. 

Note 1. — For a Peedioatb Nominatite after the TsFiNrnvB esse, see 536, 2, 1). 
NoTB 2. — ^Foran Infinitive or a Clause instead of a Predlc-*>eNonn; see 539; 501. 

BUIjE H.— Appositives. 

363. An Appositive agrees in Case with the noun oi 
proboiin whiph it qualifies : 

Clullius rix moritur, Cluilius the kins dies. Liv. Frb§s KarihOgi 
atque Nwmantia, tlie cities Carthage and Numantia. Cic. Saguntum, 
foederatam civiUUem., expQgnavit, he took SagurUram, an allied town. Liv. 
See 359, note 2. 

1. An Appositive with different forms for different gendeis must agree 
in Gender as well as in Case : 

Clullius raa;,' Cliulius the euto. Liv. Venus rigina,^ Venm the queem. 

2. An Appositive often agrees with the pronoun implied in the ending 
of the verb : 

Hostis " hostem oeoldere volnl, /, an enkmt, icished to slay an enemy. Liv. 

3. Appositives are kindred in force — 

1) Generally to Relative clauses : 

Clullius rac, Cluilius (who was) the kdjo. liv. 

2) Sometimes to other Subordibate clauses,' as Temporal, Concessivb, etc. : 
Fttrius pu^ didicit, Furius learned when he was a boy or as a boy. Cio. 

Junius aedem dictator dedio&vit, Junius dedicated the temple when diotatoBi 

i. By Stnesis* — a Construction according to Sense: 

> See 36%, 1, foot-note. 

• JBostis agreea with ego. Implied in voluj, '■I wished*; see 358, foot-notab 

• This construction Is sometimes called Adverbial Apposition. 

• See Siffures (^Speech, 636, IT,. 4 


1) Posaeadves admit a Genitive in apposition witE the Genitive of tlie pro- 
noun implied in tliem : 

Tua ip«M« ' amioitia, yowr o-ws friendsMp. Cic. Meum soUm pecoatum, 
my fault alonb. Cic. Nomen meum atsentis, my name in mt absence. Cio. 

2) Locatives admit as an Appoaitive a Locative Ablative (411, 485), with 
or without a preposition : 

Albae oonstiterunt in urbe oppoHunaf they halted at Alba, a oohteniknt 
oiTT. Cic. Corinthi, Achaiae v/rbe, at Gorinth, a c(itt of Achaia. Tac. 

6. Clauses. — A noun or pronoun may be in apposition with a clause, 
or a clause in apposition with a noun or pronoun : 

Nos, id ' quod dshet, patria delectat, our country deligMs us, as U ougM. 
Cio. Omnes interfioi jusait, mummentum ' ad praesens, lie ordered them all 
to be put to death, a means of protection for the present. Tao. For clauses 
in apposition with nouns or pronouns, see 499, 3 ; 501, III. 

364. Partitivb Apposition. — The parts maybe in apposition 
with the whole, or the whole in apposition with the parts : 

Duo regEs, ille bellO, Mc pace, olvitatem auxerunt, two Icings ad/canced the 
state, THE FOBMEB by war, the latter by peace. Liv. Ptolemaeus et Cleopatra, 
regis * AegyptI, Ftolemy and Cleopatra, rulers of Egypt. Liv. 



365. Cases, in accordance with their general force, may be ar- 
ranged and characterized as follows : 

I. Nominative, Case of the Subject. 

n. Vocative, Case of Address, 

ni. Accusative, Case of Direct Object. 

IV. Dative, Case of Indirect Object. 

V. Genitive, Case of Adjective Eelations. 

VI. Ablative, Case of Adverbial Relations.* 

1 Ip^us agrees with tu^ (of you) involved in tua ; soliua and abaenUs, with mei 
involved in meum. The Genitive of ipse, solus, Uv/ua, and omnia is often thus used. 

2 As a Locative Ablative is a genuine Locate in sense, there is no special irregu- 
larity here, and in wrbe opportilnd may he explained as a separate modifier of the verh: 
' They halted at Alba, at a con/Benient dty* Thus explained, it is not an appositive at all. 

" Id quod dshet, lit., that wMch it owes. Id and mUn^mentwrn are in apposition 
respectively with nos delectat and omnea i/nterflcl, and are best explained as Accusatives. 
A Nominative apparently in apposition with a clause is generally best explained either as 
sn appoaitive to some Nominative, or as the subject of a separate clause. 

* In the first example, ille and hie, the parts, are In apposition with reges, the whole ; 
but in the second example, reges, the whole, is in apposition with the parts, Ptolema&us 
and Cleopatra. 

B This arrangement is adopted in the discussion of the cases, because, it is thought, 
it will best present the force of the several cases and their relation to each other. 


366. The Nominatim, Qenitim, Dative, Accusative, and Vocative 
have probably retained with very slight modiflcations their original 
force as developed in the mother tongue from which the Latin was 

367. The Ablative combines within itself the separate offices 
of three cases which were originally distinct : ' 

1. The Ablative proper, denoting the relation from — the place 
FROM which. 

3. The Locative, denoting the relation m, at — th^ place m or at 

3. The Instrumental, denoting the relation with, by — the instru- 
ment or means with or by which. 



I. Nominative. 
BUIiE m.— Subject Nominative. 

368. The subject of a finite verb is put in tbe Nomina- 
tive : ' 

Servitis rSgnftvit, Sektios reigned. Liv. Patent portae, the gates are 
open. Cic. Hex vlcit, the king conquered. Liv. Mgo reges Bjeca, »5s 
tyrannos iutroducitis, I have batiished kings. Ton introduce tyrants. Cic. 

1. The subject is always a substantive, a pronoun, or some word or 
clause used substantively ; * see examples under the rule. 

2. A pronominal subject is always expressed or implied in the ending 
of the verb : ' 

^ That is. In the primitive Indo-Eiiropean tongne, fh)m which have heen derived, 
dither directly or indirectly, not only the Latin, Greel;, and Sanskrit, but also the English, 
French, German, and indeed nearly all the languages of modern Europe. Upon the gen- 
eral subject of ClMe#, their original formation and meaning, see Bopp, I., pp. 242-519; 
Merguet, pp. 17-117; Penka, HGbschmann, Holzweipsig, Delbruck, and, among the earlier 
writers, Hartung, ' Ueber die Casus,' etc., and Rumpel, ' Casuslehre.' 

' See Delbruck, ' Ablativ, Localis. Instrumentslis.' 

' For the Subject of the Infinitive, see 536. For the Agreement of the verb with 
its subject, see 460. 

* For clauses used substantively, see 540. 

' See S47. Thus moneo means I (not you, lie, or we, but /) imtnict. Indeed, 
every verb contains a pronominal subject In itself, and in genera] it is necessary to add 
a separate subject only when it would otherwise be doubtfnl to whom the implied pro- 
noun ref)9rs. Thus rffm'ivit, 'he reigned,' is complet« of itself, if the context shows to 


Discipulds moneO* ut studia ame«^, I instruct pupils to love (that thb-j 
may love) thdr studies. Quint. Nou scholae, sed vitae disciwiws, wb learn 
not for the school, hut for Hfe. Sen. 

Note. — A separate pronominal subject may, however, be added for the sake of clear- 
ness, emphasis, or contrast, aa in the fourth example under the rule. 

3. The verb is sometimes omitted, when it can be readily supplied, es- 
pecially if it is est or sunt : 

Ecce tuae litterae, lo your letter (comes), Cic. Tot sententiae, there are 
'swat) 80 many opinions. Ter. ConsxH^rofectvis (est) , the consul set out Liv. 

Note l.^The verb facio is often omitted in short sentences and clauses: 

Melius hi, quam vos, these ha/oe done better than you. Cic. Eecte ille, he does 
rightly. Cic. Cotta finem, Cotta closed^ lit., made an end. Cic. So also in Livy 
after nihil aliud {ampUus^ nvinus, etc.) quam^ ' nothing oth'er (more, less, etc.) than ' = 
-'merely'; nihil praeterguam^ 'nothing except' = ' merely ' : Nihil aliud quam stete- 
runt, they merely stood (did nothing other than). Liv. 

Note 2. — Certain forms of expression often dispense with the verb: 

Qtdd, what ? qm,d &nim, what indeed ? quid ergo., what then ? quid quod, what oj 
the fact that ? quid plura, why more, or why shall I say more ? ne plwra, not to say 
more ; ne multa, not to say rouch ; quid hoe ad 7ne, what is this to me ? ndhil ad rem, 
nothing to the subject. 

Note S. — For the Predicate ^ominaOve^ see 363. 

Note 4. — For the I^ominati/oe as an Appositt'oe, see 363. 

Note 5. — For the Nomvnative\ii Exclamations, see 381, note 3. 

II. Vocative. 
RULE rV.— Case of Address, 

369. The name of the person or thing addressed is put 
in the Vocative : 

Perge, Laell^ proceed, Laelius. Cic. Quid est, Catilmay why is it, Cati- 
line? Cic. Tuum est, Serin, regnum, the kingdom is yours, Servius. Liv 
dil immortales, immortal gods. Cic. 

1. An Interjection may or may not accompany the Vocative. 

2. In poetry, and sometimes in prose, the Nominative in apposition with 
the subject occurs where we should expect the Vocative : 

Audi tu, popuVua Albanus, hear ye., Alban fbople. Liv. 

3. Conversely, the Vocative by attraction sometimes occurs in poetry where 
we should expect the Nominative ; 

Quibus, Hector, ab oris exapectdte vents, from what shores^ Hector^ do you akx- 
IOIJ8LT AWAITED come ? Verg. Made nova virtute, puer, u, blessing on your ne/v) 
valor, boy (lit., be enlarged by ; supply esto'). Verg. 

whom the pronoun he refers ; if not, the noun must be added : Servius regndvit^ lit., lu, 
Servius, reigned, or S&rvivs^ he reigned. In the fourth example under the rule, ego and 
t>ds, though already implied in the form of the verb, are expressed for &m.p7ia»iti. In 
impersonal verbs the subject '• it.^ in English, is implied in the personal ending t. 
1 See preceding foot-note. 




870. The Accusative is used ' — 
I. As the Direct Object of an Action; 
II. In an Adverbial Sense — with or without Prepositions: 
III. In Exclamations — with or without Interjections. 

Note 1.— For the Predicate Accusative, see 368 and 373, 1. 

NoTB 2. — For the Accnsatim in Apposition, see 363. 

Note 3. — For the Accit^aUve with Prepositions, see 433. 

Note 4. — For the Aoov^ative as the Subject qfan Iti/initive, see 536. 


"RXXLE v.— Direct Object. 

371. The Direct Object of an action is put in thb 
Accusative : 

Deus mundum aedificfivit, God made (built) the world. Cic. Libera 
rem pUblicam, free the bepubuc. Cic. Populi Komanl salntem defendite, 
defend the safety of llie Roman people. Cic. 

I. The Direct Object may be — 

1. An Mctemal Object, the person or thing on which the action of the 
verb is directly exerted, as salutem, above. 

2. An Internal Object; i. e., one already contained or implied in the 
action itself. This embraces two varieties : 

1) In a STRICT SENSE, the Cognate Accusative, an object having a mean- 
ing cognate or kindred to that of the verb : 

Senilutem servire,' to serve in bondage (lit., to serve a skryitudb). Ter. 

2) In a FREER SENSE, the Accusative of Effect, the object produced by 
the action : 

Zibriim soribere, to write a book. Cic. 

Note. — Participles in dtis, verbal adjectives in bundus, and in Plautus a 
i'.iw verbal nouns, occur with the accusative : 

Vltabundus castra, amiding the camp. Liv. Quid tibl hano odratiOst 
(ouratiS est) ' rem = cur banc rem cOrfts, wTuit care have you of this.f Plaut. 

> The Accusative is probahty the oldest of all the oblique cases known to our fiunily 
of languages, and was therefore originally the sole modifier of the verb, expressing in « 
vague and general way several relations now recognized as distinct This theory ac- 
counts for the great variety of constructions in which the Accusative is used in Latin. 
See Ctirtiua, ' Zur Chronologic,' pp. 71-74 ; Holzweissig, pp. 84-SS. 

^ The pupil will observe that the idea of servittitem, ' servitude,* ' service,' is ooa- 
tained in the verb servlre, ' to serve,* ' to be a slave or servant.* 

> See 87, note. 


II. The Cognate Accusative is generally — (1) a noun with an adjective 
or other modifier, or (2) a neuter pronoun or adjective. It is used quite 
freely both with transitive and with intransitive verbs, and sometimes ever 
with verbs in the passive voice : 

Earn mtam vivere, to live that life. Cio. Mirum somniare eormwmn, tc 
dream a wonderful dbeam. Plant. Eadem peccat, he makes the same ma- 
TAKEs.i Cio. Hoc studet unum, he studies this one thing (this one study). 
Hor. Perjidum ridens Venus, Venus smiling a pbrmdiods smile. Hor. Id 
assentior, / assent to this (I give this assent). Cie. Idem gloriarl, to mdhe 
THE SAME boast. Cio. Quid possuut, HOW powcrful are they, or wbat power 
have they? Caes. Ea monemur, we are admonished of these thihgs.' Cio. 
Nihil m6ti sunt, they were not at all moved. Liv. 

Note, — Here may be mentioned the following kindred constructions : 

Vox hfyminem souat, the v&ice sounds human. Verg. Saltare Oj/clopa, to damet 

THE Cyclops. Hor. Longam viam Ire, to go i. long way. Verg. Belhan pjignare, to 

fight A battle. Verg. 

III. Special Veebs. — Many verbs of Feeling or Emotion, of Taste and 
Smell, admit the Accusative : 

Hondris d6sp6rat, he despairs of hohors. Cic. Haec gemebant, they wen 
eighi/ng over these things. Cio. Detrimenta ridet, h,e laughs at losses. Hor. 
Olet unguenta, he has the odor of pEKrnMES. Ter. Gratis redolet anttquUatem^ 
the oration smaehs of antiquity. Cic. 

Note 1.— Snch verbs are: despero, to despair of; dolea, to grieve for; gemo, to slgk 
over; horreo. to shudder at; tacriino^ to weep over; maereO, to mourn over; T/iiror^ 
to wonder at; rideo, to laugh at; sitio^ to thirst for, etc.; oleo^ to have the odor -of; 
eapio. to savor of, whether used literally or figuratively.* 

Note 2.— Many verbs in Latin, as in English, are sometimes transitive and some- 
times intransitive ; see augeo, dwro^ vncipio, laxo. mo, suppedito, tit/r'to, etc., in the 

Note 8. — Many verbs which are usually rendered by transitive verbs In Engllsb 
are intransitwe in Latin, and thus admit only an indirect object or some special con 
struction ; see 385. 

Note 4. — The object of a transitive verb is often omitted, when it can be easily sup- 
plied : moveo = moveo me, * I move (myself) ' ; vertit = verUt ee, ' he turns (himself) ' : 

Castrls nou movit, he did not move from hds camp. Liv. Jam verterat fortuna^ 
fortoine had already changed. Liv. 

Note 5. — For the Passive Construction, see 464. 

IV. An Infinitive or a Clause may be used as Direct Object : 

Imperare cupiunt, they desire to eule. Just. OptO ut id awdidtis, Idesi/ri 
that tou mat heae this. Cic. 

* Peccat, 'he makes a mistake^; idem peccat, *he makes the same mistake,^ where 
idem represents idsTn peccdtwm. 

" Literally, ue are admonished these things, i. c, these admonitions. 

' Observe that with the Accusative despero means not 'to despair,' but ' to despair 
of and is accordingly transitive; doleo, not 'to grieve,' but 'to grieve for,' etc. Witb 
lome of the verbs here given the object Is properly a Cognate Accusative. 


872. Many Compounds of intransitive verbs with prepositions, 
especially compounds of verbs of motion with drewm, per, praeter, 
trans, and super, take the Accusative : 

Murmur contwnem pervasit, a murmur went through the assembly. Liv. 
EMnum transigrunt, they crossed (went across) the RHiifE. Caes. Ciroum- 
stant seiidtum, they stand around the senate. Cio. SirSditdtem oblre, to 
snter wpon the ufHESiTANCE. Cio. ' EiSs natiorm adire, to go to those nations. 
Caes. Vndam innatere, to float upon the wave. Verg. Tela exlre,' to avoid 
THE WEAPONS. Vsrg. Gallos praeoSdunt, th^ surpass the Gatjls. Caes. 

RTTLE VI.— Two Accusatives— Same Person. 

373. Verbs of making, chooslng, calling, regarding, 
SHOWING, and the like, admit two Accusatives of the same 
peisoa or thing : 

Hamilcarem imperaiBrem fSc6runt, thei/ made JIamUcar commandbr. 
Nep. Anoum repetn populus creavit, the people elected Ancus king. Liv. 
Summum consilium appellirunt Sendium, they called their highest coundl 
Senate. Cic. Se praestitit prdpUgnatorem llbei-tatis, /w showed himself 
the CHAMPION of liberty. Cic. Flaccum habuit eollegam, he had Flaccas as 
COLLEAQVE. Nep. SScratSs totius mundl se <nvem arbitrabatur, Socrates 
considered himself a citizen of the whole world. Cio. 

1. Pkedioate Aoousative. — One of the two Accusatives is the Direct Object, 
and the other an essential part of the Predicate. The latter may be called a 
Predicate Aocusatiiie ; see 368. 

NoTB 1. — ffabeo, ' to have,' admits two Accusatives, but when it means ' to regard,' 
It usually takes, instead of the Predicate Accusative, the Dative of the object for which 
(384), the Ablative with in or pro, op the Genitive with loco, nwnero or in numero: 
lodibrio habere, *to regord as an object of ridicuie'; pro hoste habere, in hostibue 
habere, loco hoetium habere, nitmern or in numero hosiium /tabere, *to regard as an 
enemy.' These constructions also occur with other verbs meaning to regard : 

Ea honorl habent, they regard tfi&ie things as an honor. Sail. Ilium prb hoste 
habere, to regard him as an knbmt. Caes. Jam pro facto habere, to regard it as 
already done. Glc. In hostium numero habuit, he regarded them as bneuies (lit., in 
the numbfir of, etc.). Caes. Me pro derldiculb putat, A6 regards fne ab an object oi" 
BiDiCTTiE. Ter. 

Note 2.— The Predicate Accusative is sometimes an adjective; 

Homines caecos reddlt avaritia, ai)arice renders men blind. Cic. Templa de&rum 
mncta habobat, he regarded the temples qfthe gods as sacred. Nep. 

2. In the Passive these verbs take two Nominatives — a Subject and a Fi-edi- 
late — corresponding to the two Accusatives of the Active : 

Servius r«r est declarStus, Servius was declared kino. Liv. See also 368, 2. 

* Observe that an intransitive verb may become transitive by being oompounded 
(vith a preposltioD which does not take the Accusative. 


RUI£ VII.— Two Accusatives— Person and Things* 

374, Some verbs of asking, demanding, teaching, and 
CONCEALING, admit two Accusatives — one of the person 
and the other of the thing : 

Ms senteniiam rogavit, he asked me mt opinion. Cic. Philosophia nos 
rSs omnes docuit, philosophy has taught us all things. Cic. Auxilia regem 
orSbant, they asked auxiliaries from the king, Liv. Pdcem te poscimuSj 
we demand peace of you, Verg. Non te cel§,vl sermonem, I did not conceal 
from you the conversation. Cic. 

1. In the Passive the Person becomes the subject, and the Accusative oi 
the thing is retained : 

Me sententiam rogavit, he asked me my opinion. Cic. Ego sententiam ro- 
gatus sum, / was asked mt opinion. Cic, Artes edoctus fuerat, he had been 
taught THE ARTS. Liv. 

2. Ttto Accusatives are generally used with celo^ doceO^ edoced ; often with 
rogO^ poscdy reposed; sometimes with dedoceo, exposed^ Jlagitd^ orO^ etc., cdrf 
sulo, interrogdj percontor ; rarely with moneO, admo/ied, axidpostuld. 

NoTB 1. — Celo, 'to conceal,'' takes— (1) in the Active generally two Accusatites^ ati 
under the rule, but sometimes the Accusative of the person and the Ablaime of the 
thing with de ; (2) in the Passive, the Accusative of a neuter pronoun or the Ablative 
with de : 

Me de hoc Hbro celavit, he kept me ignorant op this book. Cic. Id cOlari, to be 
kept ignorant of this. Nep. Celarl de consHid, to be kept ignorant of the plan. 

Note 2. — DoceO and edoceo generally follow the rule,* but sometimes they take the 
Accusative of the person and the Ablative of the thing with or without de,^ and some- 
times the Accusative ^ of the person with the lnJinit/i/o& or a o uojunctive Clause : 

De sua re mo docet, he informs me in regard to his case. Cic. Litt&ris Graecis 
doctus, instructed in Greek LiTEEATtrEE. Sail. ^ocvsLtera Jtdibus^ docuit, he taught 
Socrates (with) the lyre. Cic. Te sapere docet, he teaehea you to be wise. Cic. 

Note 8. — Most verbs of asking and demanding sometimes take two Accusatives,* 
but verbs of asking, questioning^ generally take the Accusatire of the person* and 
the Ablative of the thing* with df, and verbs of imploring, demanding, generally the 
AocusaU've of the thing * and the AblaO/oe of the person * with u or ab : 

Te his de rebus interrogO, / ask you in regard to these thinos. Cic. VTctoriam 
ab dils exposcere, to implore victory from the gods. Caes, Id ab eo flagitare, to de- 
mand this FROM HIM. Caes. 

1 Other verbs of teaching— eftti^io, Insiituo, informo, instruo, etc.— generally tak« 
the Ablative of the thing with or without a preposition, as in or de; see Dictionary. 

2 DoceO, in the sense of inform, takes de with the Ablative. 

8 The AeeuaaMve may he omitted. "With^dibus supply canere. 

< The Acmcsative or Ablative of the person is often omitted, and a clause oflen takefl 
the place of the Accusative or Ablatdve of the t?mig. For examples and for special con- 
Btructions, see, in the Dictionary, consulo^ i/fhterrogb^ rogo; aXmJlagitd^ orb, posco^ €a> 
poiod^ and reposed. 


NoTK 4.-^*0 «nd poatule generally take the Aeeuaative of the things and the 
dilatim of the person with a or ab ; guaerO, the Aceusative of the <Ainj > and the 
/i&2aM«e of the person with e or ex, a, a&, or e2« : 

Facem ab Boma/nis petierunt, t/iey ashed peace prom the Bomanb. Caes. Aliquid 
06 am'icli postulare, to demand something from friends. Cic. Qnaerit ex solo ea, etc., 
he asks of him in pbitats (ftom him alone) those question^ etc. Caes. 

375. A Neuter Pronoun or Adjective as a Cognate ' Accusative oc 
curs in connection with a Direct Object with many verbs which do not 
otherwise take two Accusatives : 

SSc t& hoitoi, I exhort you to TBis, I give ^ou lais exhortation. Cio. JSa' 
(.oonemur, we are admonished of these things. Cio. So with mile., Caes., B. 
G. I., 84. 

376. A few Compounds of trans, eircum, and ad admit two Accusa- 
tives, dependent the one upon the verb, the other upon the preposition : 

Ibirum oopifis trSjSoit, Jie led Ids forces across the Ebro. Liv. Animum 
hdverti columeUam, I noticed (turned my mind to) a small ooldmn. Cic. 

fToTB.— In the Passive these compounds and some othera admit an Accusative de- 
pending upon the preposition : • 

Praetervehor ostia Pantagiae, lam carried by the mouth of the Pantagias. Verg. 
JjMium sum praetervectus, / Aoiie beeii carried by the place. Cic. 

377. In Poetry, rarely in prose, verbs of clothing, unclothing — indua, 
exuB, cingO, accingO, indued, etc — are sometimes used refiexivelj/ in the Pas- 
sive, like the Greek Middle, and thus admit an Accusative : 

ffaleam induitur, he puts on ms helmet. Verg. Inutile ferrum oingitur, 
he girds on his useless swobd. Verg. VirginSs longam indQtae vestem, maid- 
ens attired in long robes. Liv. 

Note. — A fsw other verbs sometimes admit a similar construction in the poets : 
Antiquum saturata dolorem. having satiejied her old resentment. Yerg. SuspSnd 

toculoa lacerto. wi^ satchels huTig upon the arm (having hung, etc.X Hor. Pasountur 

ailods. they browse on the forests. Yerg. 

n. Accusative in an Adverbial Sense. 
RULE V J-U.— Accusative of Specification. 

878. A verb or an adjective may take an Accusative 
to define its application : * 

> The Ablative of the person Is often omitted, and, instead of the Accusative of the 
thing, a clause is often used. With postulo and quaero the Ablative with de occurs. 
For examples and for other special constructions, see Dictionary. 

« See 371, II. 

' As a rare exception, moneo admits a noun as the Accusative of the thing; see 
Plant, Stlch., 1, 2, 1. 

* The Accusative of Specification Is closely related to the Cognate Accusative and to 
the Poetic Aocusatite after Passive verbs used reflexively, both of which readily pasi 
Into an adverbial construction. Thus capita In capita veldmur and ga/jiam In gateam 



Capita rSlimur, we have our heads veiled (are veiled as to ocR heads, or 
have veiled our heads). Verg. Niibe Immeros amictus, with his shoulders 
mveloped in a cloud. Hor. Miles fractus membra labore, the soldier with 
LIMES slmttered with labor (broken as to his limbs). Hor. AenSas os deO 
similis, Aeneas like a god in appearance. Verg. 

1. In a strict sense, the Accusative of Specification generally specifies the 
ipart to which the action or quality particularly belongs. In this sense, it is 
nostly poetic, but occurs also in prose. See Ablative of SpeeificaUon, 434. 

2. In a freer sense, this Accusative includes the adverbial use of partem, 
vicem, nihil, of id and genne in id temporis, id aetdtis (at this time, age), id 
genus, ^ omne gentis, quod germs (for e/«« generis, eto.1, etc. ; also of secus, res, 
and of many neuter pronouns and adjectives — h^c, illud, id, quid (454, 2), 
muUum, summum, cetera, riliqua, etc. In this sense, it is common in prose : 

Maximam partem lacte vivunt, they live mostly (as to the largest part) 
upon milh. Caes. Locus id temporis vacuus erat, the place was at this time 
vacant. Cic. Aliquid id genus ' scribere, to write something of this kotd. 
Cio. Alias res est improbus, ik other things (as to the rest) he is unprinci- 
pled. Plant. Quaerit, quid possint, he inquires noyi powerful they are. Caes. 
Quid vSnlstl, why have you come ? Plaut. 

RUIiE IX.— Accusative of Time and Space. 

379. DuEATTON OF TiME and Extent of Space are ex- 
pressed by the Accusative : 

Romulus septem et triginta regnavit annSs, Romulus reigned thirty^seven, 
TEARS. Liv. Cyrus quadraginta annos natus regnare coepit, Cyrus began 
to rej^re (when) /orty TEARS oZd (having been born forty tears). Cic. Quln- 
que milia passuum ambulare, to walk jive miles. Cic. Pedes octOginta, to be eighty lY.^T distant. Caes. Nix quattuor^edSs alta, wjoio^/bwr 
FEET deep. Liv. But — 

1. Duration op Time is sometimes expressed by the Ablative, or by the* 
Accusative with a preposition : 

Pilgnatum est horis quinque, the battle was fought five hours, Caes, Per 
annos viginti certatum est, the war was waged for twenty tears. Liv. 

2. Distance is sometimes expressed by the Ablative : 

MiUbus passuum sex a Caesaris castrls consedit, he encamped at thr dis- 
tance OF six MiLEs/rom Caesar's eainp. Caes. 

Note. — Al> used adverbially, meaning off, sometimes accompanies the Ablative : 
Ah milibus passuum duubus castra posuerunt, tb.^ pitched their camp two miles 
OFF. Caes. 

induifur are similar constructions, wbile quid in quaerit quid possint may be explained 
either as a Cognate Accusative (371, 1., 2) or as an Adverbial Accusative. 

' Some grammarians treat genus in all such cases as an Appo»iU/oe: atiqiUd, id 
t/enus, something, this kind ; see Draeger, I., p. 2. 


RUXjE X. — Accusative of Ijiiiilta 

380, The place to which is designated by the Accusa- 
tive : ' 

I. Generally with a preposition — ad or in : 

LegiOnSs ad urbem addfloit, he is leading the legions to or toward thi 
CITY. Cic. Ad nis scribunt, they are writing to me. Cio. In Asiam redit, 
he returm into Asia. Nep. COnfugit in Oram, hefied to the altab. Nep. 

II. In names of towns without a preposition : 

Nuntius RSmam redit, the messenger returns to Rome. Liv. PlatS To- 
rentum vSnit, Plato came TO Tarentdm. Cio. Fugit TarquiniSs, he Jled to 
Tarquinh. Cic. But — 

Note. — Verb» meanlD^ to coUeciy to come togethar^ etc. — convenio, cdgo^ con/socO^ 
etc. — are nsnally treated as verbs otmoUon, and thus take the Accusative, generaUy with 
a preposition ; but verbs meaning to place — toco, coUoco, pono, etc. — are usually treated 
as verbs of rest, and thus take the Ablative (435), generaUy with a preposition: 

Unnm in locum convenire, to meet in one place. Gaes. Copias in unum toeum 
oogere, to collect forces in one place. Caes. In alterlus manu vitam p5nere, tc 
place one^e I^e im the hand ofanoiKeir. Cic. 

1. In the names of towns the Atemaiive with ad occurs — (1) to denote 
(0, toward, in the direction of, inio the vicinitg of, and (2) in contrast with 
a or ab ; 

TrSs sunt viae ad Mutitiam, there are three roads to Motina. Cio. Ad 
Zamam pervSnit, he came to the viciirrr; of Zama. Sail. A DiSniO ad 
Sinopen, from Dianium to Sinope. Cio. 

2. Like names op towns are used — 

1) The Accusatives domum, domos, ros : 

Solpid domum reduotus est, Scipio was conducted home. Cio. Bomds ab- 
duotl, led to theib homes. Liv. Has evolare, to hasten nrro the oochtbi. 
Cio. Domum reditiO, a return home. Caes. 

2) Sometimes the Accusative of names of islands and peninsulas : 
L&tOna cOnftlgit Dilum, Latona fled to Delos. Cio. PervSnit Cherson^ • 

sum, he went to the Chersonesus. Nep. 

S) Rarely a few other Accusatives, as exsequiOs, infitiSs, etc : ' 
Hie ipjitids Ibit, ?ie will deny (will proceed to a denial). Ter. 

3. The preposition is sometimes omitted before names of countries, 
and, in the poets, before names of nations and even before common nouns : 

^ Originally the place to which was uniformly designated by the Accusative withoiU 
a preposition. Names of towns have retained the original construction, wliile most oUia* 
names of places have assumed a preposition. 

^ See also the Supine in um, 546. 


Aegyptum profugit, he fled to Kgtpt. Cio. ItaUam vSnit, he came to 
Itait. Verg. Ibimus Afros, we shall go to the Afbioahs. Verg. Lavlnia 
T6mt lltora, he came to the Lavinian shokes. Verg. 

4. A PoETiCAi Datite ocoura for the Accusative, with or without a 
preposition : 

It clamor caeld (for ad caelum), the shout ascends to heaven. Verg. Faci- 
Bb descensus Avemo, easy is the descent to Hades. Verg. See 386, 4. 

in. Accusative m Exclamations. 
RULE XI.— Accusative in Exclamations. 

381, The Accusative, either with or without an inter- 
jection, may be used in exclamations : 

Heu me miserum, ah me unhappy! Cic. Me miserum, me miserable/* 
Cic. fallacem spem, deceptive hope! Oic. Md caecum, blind thai 
I ami Oic. fro deorum Jidem, m the name of the gods ! Cic. Hanc- 
cine awdadam, this addaoitt ? " Cic. But — 

Note 1.— An adjective or Genitive generally accompanieB this Accusative, as in the 

Note 2. — O, eheu^ and heu are the interjections most frequently used with the Ac- 
jusative, thougo others occur. 

Note 8. — Ocher cases also occur in exclamations: 

1) Tb6 ybcative — when an address as well as an exclamation is Intended : 

Pro asmete Juppiter, holy JvriTBH. Cic. iitfe)i\x Btdn, miJiappy limo. Verg. 

2) fhe 2^omi7iativ6—vrhen the exclamation approaches the form of a statement; 

En detefy-a, lg the right hand (there is, or that is the right hand) I Verg. Eec* 
tuae Utterae, lo your letter (comes) 1 Cic. 

8) The Daifi/se — to designate the person after eU vae, and sometimes after ecce^ &n^ 

M mihU woe to me. Verg. Vae Ub% woe to yotj. Ter. Bcce U1>% lo to tou 
(lo here is to you — observe). Oic. En tibt, this fob tou (lo I do this for you). Liv. 



382. The Dative is the case of the Indirect Object, and 
designates the Person to or for whom,' or the Thing to 
or for which, anything is o^ is done." 

* Bee Milton, ' Paradise Lost,' IT., 78. 

3 The exclamation may of course be interrogative in chancter. 
' This is an Ethical Datioe ; see .389. 

* The Indirect Object is generally a person, or something persont/ted. TTGllke the 
Direct Object, it is never contained in the action or produced by It, but is in most iu* 
stances the interested recipient of it. 

* Whether this was the original meaning of the Dative it o«t known. Delbrucl' 

DATIVE. 197 

S83. The Datiye is used— 
I. With a large class of Verbs and Adjectives ; 
II. With a few special Nouns and AdTerbs. 

RUU; XH.— Dative with Verbs. 

384. The Indirect Object of an action is put in the 
Dative. It is used^ — 

I. With Intransitive and Passive Verbs : 

TilA servio, / am devoted to you. Plaut. Serviunt populB, they are de- 
voted TO THE PEOPLE. Cio. Impend pargbant, they were obedient to (obeyed) 
AUTHORITY. Caes. Temporl cedit, he yields to the time. Cic. LabSri stu- 
dent, they devote themselves to labor. Caes. Mundus deO paret, tlie world 
obeys Ood.^ Cic. Caesar! supplicfibS, / will supplicate Caesar.'^ Cic. Nobis 
vita data eat, life has been granted to us. Cic. Numitorl deditur. Tie is 
delivered to Numitor. Liv. 

II. With Transitive Verbs, in connection with the 
Direct Object : 

Agros plebi dedit, he gave lands to the common people. Cic. Tibl gra- 
tias ago, / give thanks to you. Cic. Natura hominem conciliat homini, 
Nature reconciles man to man. Cio. Pons iter hostibus dedit, tlie bridge 
gave a passage to tlie enemy. Liv. Leges civitatibus sius scilpserunt, they 
prepared laws for tlieir states. Cic. 

1. The Indirect Object may be — 

1) The Dative of Influence," designating the person to whom some- 
thing is or is done : 

Serviunt joqp«to, they are devoted to the people. Cio. Agr5s pfeii dedit, 
he gave lands to the common people. Cio. 

2) The Dative of Interest,*^ designating the person for whom something 
is or is done : 

Sibi MegargnsEs vicit, he conquered the Megarians fob himself. Just. 
8) The Dative of Purpose or End,' designating the object or end for 
which something is or is done : 

Hecyitul cecinit, he gave the signal fob a betbeat. Liv. 

thinks that this case originally designated. the place or objeoi toward which the action 
tended. See Kuhn's ' Zeltschrlft,' vol. xvili., p. 81. 

* Js^subjeci to God; will make suppUeation to Caesar. 

^ Observe that the Dative of Influence is very closely connected with the verb, and 
Id, in feet, es.sential to the completeness of the sentence ; while the Dative of Interest and 
the Dative of Purpose are merely added to sentences which wonld be complete without 
them. Thus Megarenses vlcit is complete in itself. 

198 DATIVE. 

2. Double CoNSTEUOTi. j. — A few verbs admit — (1) the Dative of the 
person and the Accusative of the thing, or (2) the Accusative of the per. 
son and the Ablative of the thing : alieui rem donare, ' to present a thing 
to any one,' or aliquem re donare, ' to present any one with a thing ' ; ' 

Praedam rmUtihis donat, he gives the booty to the soldiers. Caes. AthS- 
meTiS&afrtmiento donavit, he presented the Athenians with QBAor. Nep. 

Note.— This construction may also be used of objeeta which are in a measure per- 
sonified,, or which involve persons : 

Miirum urbl circumdedit, lie hwilt a wall arov/tid the oitt. Nep. Deus animum 
cireumdedit corpore, God has encompassed ike soul with a body. Cic. 

3. To and for are not always signs of the Dative. Thus — 

1) To, denoting mere motion or direction, is generally expressed by the 
Accusative with or without a preposition (380): 

VenI ad urbem, I came to the oitt. Cic. Dihim vSnimus, we came to 
Delos. Cic. 

Note 1. — But the Dative occurs in the poets; see 380, 4, and 385, 4. 

Note 2.— Jfi^, 'to send,' and scribo, 'to write,' take the Dative, or the Accusative 
with arf, to denote the person to whom : 

Scribit Labieno, he writes to Labienub. Oaes. Scnbes ad me, you wiU write to 
UB. Cic. 

2) For, in defence of, in behalf of, is expressed by the Ablative with 
pro ; for the sake of, for the purpose of, sometimes by the Accusative 
with in : 

Pro patria mori, to die eob one's ootoitiit. Hor. Dimioare pri libertdte, 
to fight FOE LiBEETT. Clo. Satis in uswm, enough foe use. Liv. 

4. The Dative sometimes depends, not upon the verb alone, but upon 
the Predicate as a whole : 

Tegimenta galels ' mllites facers jubet, he orders the soldiers to mahe cov- 
erings FOE THEiK helmets. Caes. Ziberls divites esse volumus, we wish 
to be rich for the sake of oue ohildeen. Cic. Quia huio rU testis est, 
who testifies to this (lit., is a witness foe this thuto). Cic. 

Note 1.— The Dative is used with verbs modified by saUs, bene, and Tnale, whether 
written as compounds or not : 

nils satis facere (also written satis/acere), to satisfy thbm.s Caes. Cm bene dixit 
unquam, foe whom has he ever spoken a good word ? Cic. Optimo viro maledlcere, 
to revile a most excellent man. Cic. 

Note 2.— A Datwe is sometimes thus added to the predicate when the English idiom 
would lead us- to expect a Genitive depending upon a noim : 

In conspectum venerat hostibus, * he had come in sight of the enbmt (lit., to the 

1 This double construction occurs chiefly with aspergo, lyircwmdo, drov/mfundo^ 
dnno, exuo, impertio, induo, inspergo, intercludo, 

2 Galels is best explained as depending upon tegimenta facere^ rather than upon 
facere alone ; liberie, as depending upon divites esse vohmms, and rH upon testis esft. 

8 Literally, to do enough for them. 

4 Hostibus does not depend at all upon conspectum, but upon the entire predicate, 
in cimspedutn venerat. 

DATIVE. 199 

imsmt). Cla Catsarl ad pedss prSicen, to coat at the feet of Oaesab (lit., to Caesab, 
at thtfett). Caes. Mihi horror membra quatit, a shudder shakes my limbs. Verg. 
Urbl IbndSmenta jacere, to lay Vie foundations <)f(fi)i) the eity. Llv. 

Note S.— The Dattye is sometimes very loosely connected with the predicate, merely 
designating the person with rtferenee to whom the statement is true : 

Hailll pater es, you are a father to him. Tao. Tridiii iter expedltTs erat, it was 
a journey qf three days fob LionT-ABMSD bolsixbs. Liv. Est urbe egressis tuma 
lus, there is a mound as you go out qf t/ie city.^ Verg. 

5. With Impersonal Passive. — Verbs which admit only an Indirect 
Object in the Active are Impersonal in the Passive, but they may retain 
the Dative : 

Eostibus resistunt, fhey resist the eneiit. Caes. His sententiis resisti- 
tur, resistance is offered to these opinions. Caes. Ns miU, nooeant, that they 
may not injure me. Cio. Mihi nihil nocSrI potest, no injury can be done to 
ME (lit., injury can be done to me not at all). Cio. 

385. "With Special Vbkbs. — The Dative of the In- 
direct Oij'ect is used with many verbs which require special 
mention. Thus — 

I. With verbs signifying to leneflt or iryure, please or diy>leage, 
command or obey, serve or resist, and the like : 

SiM prSsunt, the;/ benefit themselves. Cic. Nocere atterl, to injure 
ANOTHER. Cio. Zenoni placuit, it pleased Zend. Cic. Displicet Thllo, it 
displeases Tullus. Liv. CupiditStibus imperSre, to command desires. Cic. 
DeO pSrere, to obey God. Cic. R§^ servlre, to serve the king. Cic. Hosti- 
bus resistere, to resist the enemy. Caes. 

n. With verbs signifying to indulge, spa/re, pan-don, threaten, 
lelieve, persuade, and the like : 

Sibi indulgere, to indulge one's self. Cic Vttae parcere, to spare life. 
Nep. MiM tgnoscere, to pardon me. Cic Minitans patriae, threatening 
his country. Liv. IrascI amicus, to be angry with friends. Cic. Mihi crSdCj 
believe me. Gic. lis persuSdere, to persuade them. Caes. 

NoTB 1. — Some verbs of this class take the Aconsative : delecto^ juvo, laedo, qfendo^ 

Marium Jilvit, he Jielped Mariua. Nep. Non m6 ^ma delectat, fame does not 
delight m*. Cio. 

NoTB 2.— For/irfa and ooupdo with the Ablative, see 425, 1, 1), note. 

NoTR 8.— The force of the Dative is often fonnd only by attending to the strict mean- 

' Other examples are: A Pylls eunti loco alt6 siti sunt, they are xituated in an ele- 
vated place as you come (lit., to one coming) from Pylae. Liv. Descendentibns 
inter duSs liicos, as you descend (\\\.,. to those dt'scendinif) between the two groves. 
Liv. Exscendentibus ad templum maceria erat, there was an enclosure as you as- 
cended to the temple. Liv. In univeramn aestimanta plus penes peditem roboris est, 
te make a general estimate (Ut, to one Tnakiti^, etcX there is more strength in the 
i»^!aMlry. Tao. 

200 DATIVE. 

Ing of the verb : nubo, ' to marry ' (strictly, to veil o»«'» Mlf, as the bride for the bride' 
groom); Tnodeor, 'to cure' (to administer a remedy to)', aaii^adOj 'to satisQr'^to do 
enough /or\ etc. 

1. Some verbs admit either the AccuecUive or the Dative, but with 8 
difference of meaning : 

Cavere aliquem, to ward off some one ; cavere alicui, to care fob sotnt one. 

COnsulere aliquem, to consult, etc. ; alicui, to consult fob, etc, 

Metuere, timere aliquem, to f car ; alicui, to fear fob. 

Prospicere, providere aliquld, to foresee ; alicui, to provide fob. 

Temperare, moderarl aliquid, to govern, direct ; alicui (of things), to re- 
strain., put a cfuck UPON ; temperare alicui (of persons), to spare : ' 

Hunc ta cavStO, be on your guard against this one (lit., ward him off), 
Hon Ei cavere volO, I wish to care foe him (i. e., to protect hitn). Cio. Per- 
fidiam timemus, we fear pebfidt. Cio. Sibl timuerant, they had feared fob 


Note. —Dare Htterds ad aliquem means to address a letter to some one ; but dare 
lltterds alicui generally means to deliver a letter to one as a caebibr or ubssengeb: 

Litterae mihi ad Catillnam datae sunt, a letter addressed to Catiline was deliv- 
ered to me. Cic. 

2. A Dative rendered from occurs with a few verbs of differing, 3is- 
senling, repelling, talcing away, etc. : 

Diiferre cmvls, to differ feom ant one. Nep. SiM dissentire, to disstnt 
FEOM HIMSELF. Cio. Somnum mi/ti adimere, to take sle^ from me. Cio. 

Note. — For the Poetical Dative, see 4, below ^ and for the Ablative with verbs of 
Separation or Difference, see 413. 

3. A Dative rendered with occurs with misceO, admiseeO, etc., and 
sometimes with faciS: 

SevSritatem miscBre comitSM, to unite severity with affability. Liv. Quid 
huic Aomfel facias, M)7(ffl<or«yo« to (io with (to) this MAN? Cic. See 4 below. 

4. Dative in Poetry. — In the poets and in late prose-writers, the Dative 
is used much more freely than in classical prose. Thus it occurs with 
more or less frequency with the following classes of verbs : 

1) With verbs denoting Motion or Direction — for the Accusative with ad 
or in : 

Multos dgmittimus Oreo (for ad or in Orcum), we send many down to Obous. 
Verg. Caeln (for ad caelum) palmas tetendlt, he extended his hands toward heaven. 
Verg. It cl&mor caelo, the shout goes to heaven. Verg. See also 393, 1. 

2) With verbs denoting Separation or Difference ' — instead of the Ablative 
with ah or de, or the Accusative with inter : 

Solstltium pecori (for a pecore) defendite, keep off the heat feom tbb fiook. Verg, 
Scurrae distabit amicus, a friend will differ from a jester. Hor. Serta capiti dfi- 
lapsa, garlands fallen from his head. Verg. 

' Many other verbs take different constructions with different meanings ; see cedo, 
oonvendo, cupi^, dejido, doleo, maneo, parco, peto, solvO, and void in the Dictionary, 
s Thus with arceo. abswm. differo. diasentio. diesideo, ditto, etc. ; see Dictionary. 

DATIVE. 201 

8) With verbs denoting Union, Oomparison, OmtenUon, and the like' — 
instead of the Ablative with eum, or the Accusative with inter ; 

Mlscet ' viria, lie mingles with thb men. Verg. Cononrrere hostl (for cum hosie), to 
meet thb enbmt. Ot, Solus tibi certat, he almie amtende with you, Yerg. Placit6n« 
pugB&bis am5ri, will you contend with acceptable love T Yerg. 

i) In still other instances, especially in expressions of Place ,• 
Haeret laieH (for in latere) arund6, the arrow sticks in bbb side. Yerg. Ardet 
tpei capiti, the helmet gleams upon his hbad. Yerg. 

386. Dative with Compounds. — The Dative is used 
with maaiy verhs compounded with — 

ad, ante, con, de, in. Inter, 

Ob, post, prae, pro, sub, super: 

Adsum amidis, I am present with mt friends. Cic. Omnibus antest&re, 
to surpass all. Cic. Ten-is cohaeret, it cleaves to the eartb. Sen. Hoe 
Caesari dSfuit, this /ailed (was wanting to) Caesar. Caes. Yolupt&ti in- 
haerSre, to be connected with pleasure. Cic. Interfuit pQgnae, he partici- 
pated in the battle. Nep. CSnsilils obsta,re, to oppose plans. Xep. Liber- 
tatl opSs postferre, to sacri/ee wealth to liberty. Lir. Populo praesunt, 
they rule the people. Cic. Tibi prosunt, th^ are profitable to you. Cic. 
Succumbere dolOribus, to yield to sorrows. Cic. Superfuit patrl, he sur- 
vived his father. Liv. 

1. Transitive Verbs thus compounded admit both the Accusative and 
the Dative : 

Se opposult hoatibua, he opposed himself to the bnemt. Cic. Capiti snbduzerat 
Snsem, *ihe had removed my sioord from my head. Yerg. See also Zlbertdtl opes 
postferre, above. 

2. CoMPonuDS OF other Prepositions, especially of ab, ex, and circum, 
sometimes admit the Dative ; while several of the compounds specified under 
the rule admit the Ablative with or without a preposition : ' 

Sihi libertStem abjudicat, he deprives himself (sentences himself to the loss) of lib- 
erty. Cic. Mihl timorem eripe, free me /ram fear (lit, snatch away fear fob me). 
etc PSgnS assuiscere, to be accustomed 1o (trained in) battle. Liv. Dicta cum factis 
componere, to compare tcords with deed*. Sail. 

3. Motion ok Direction. — Compounds expressing mere motion or direc- 
tion generally take the Accusative with or without a preposition : * 

' Thus, with copulo, jrnigo, miaceO, admisceo, permisceo, necUS, todo, etc. ; oerto, 
contends, luator, pvgne, etc. 

^ MisceO, as a transitive verb, occurs with the Accusative and Dative even in olassioal 
prose; see 386, 3; also 371, III., note 2. 

^ See asBti^^sco, assu^aoio, acguiesco, coeo, cokaereo, colluds, commftnicO, com- 
pnno, concordo, cnnferO, dyt\fligO, congruO, coT{}ungo, consentio, consto, insisto, in- 
Hde/>, intum, and interdlcB, in the Dictionary. See also Draeger, I., pp. 406-426 

' See accido, accido, adds, adfera, adhaerieco, adhibeB, adjungo, adnltor, ad- 
sOrXbO. adsum. UludO. inddo, iTwumho, incurro, if^erO. offero. oppono. iB the Dictionary. 

302 DATIVE, 

Adire J^as^ to apjtroach the altabb. Cio, Ad eonsules adire, to go to the ooit 
suLB. Cic. In bellum insistit, he devotes himself to the war. Caes. Ad omne pericu' 
lam opponitur, he is exposed to every peril, Cic. 

4 Several compounds admit either the Accusative or the Dative without 
any special difference of meaning : i 

Munitioividiis adjacent, they are near the foetifi cations. Tac. Mare illud ad- 
jacent, they are near that sea. Nep. Quibus timor incesserat, whom fear had seized. 
Sail. Timor patres incessit, feat^seized the fathers. Liv. 

5. Many compounds which usually take the Accusative or the Ablative 
witn a preposition in classical prose, admit a Dative in poetry : 

Quid contendat hirundd cyenls (for cum cycnis), why should the swallow contend 
WITH ewANB? Lucr. Contendis Bomero^ you contend with Homer. Prop. Aninais 
lllabi nostris (for in animos nostrds\ to sink into our minds. Verg. 

Note.— Instead of the compounds of ad^ ante^ etc., the poets sometimes use in the 
same sense the simple verbs ^ with the Dative: 

Qui haeserat (= adhaes&rat) Evandro^ who had Joined himself to Evaitdee. Vergr. 
POnis (= appoms) mihl porcum, you offer me (place before me) svyin^s flesh. Mar- 

387. The Dative of the Possessor is used with the 
verb sum : 

Mihl est noverca, I have (there is to me) « stepmother,^ Verg. FonU 
nomen Arethtisa est, the fountain Aos (there is to the fountain) the name 

AreOmsa. Cic. But — 

Note 1.— The Dative of the Name as well ap of the possessor Is common in expres* 
sions of naming : wmien eat, nomen datur, etc. ; 

Sc/pinm Africdno cognomen fuit, Scipro 7iad the surname Afeioanus. Sail, Here 
Ifricwnn^ instead of being in apposition with cognom&n^ is put by attraction in appo- 
sition with Scipinnl. 

Note 2.— The Genitive of the Name dependent upon n^men occurs : 

Nomen Mercwri est mih!, I have the name of Mercury. Plaut. 

Note 8.— By a Greek Idiom, vol^ns, cupiens^ or invitus sometimes accompanies the 
Dative of the possessor : 

Quibus bellum volentibus erat, who hked the war (lit., to whom wishiho ths war 
was). Tac. 

388, The Dative of the Apparent Agent is used 
with the Gerundive, and with the Passive Periphrastic 
Conjugation : 

^ Such are adjaeef), advlor^ antecedo^ anteeo, conUor^ despero (also with de), ilVii' 
do^ incido, insulto^ invddo^ praecurro^ praesto^ praestolor. 

^ Thus fero for adfero^ prof&ro ; kaereo for adhaereo ; pono for appona, depono. 
impcno, etc. 

3 The Datvoe with est usually expresses simple possession or ownership^ like the 
English have. ITaheo Is sometimes used in the same sense, but it more commonly ex- 
presses some of the shades of meaning denoted by hold., keep, regard^ and the like : 
i/rce/m habere^ 'to hold the citadel'; aUquem in obsidione habere^ ""to hold or keep 
me in siege ' ; pro hoste habere, ' to regard as an enemy.' 

DATIVE. 203 

Proelia eonjugibus loquenda, batdes for women to talk about.' Hor. 
Suum euigiie incommodum ferendum est, every one has his own trouble to 
bearjor must bear Ais own trouble. Cic. 

NoTB,— iDStead of the Dative of the Apparent Agent, the Ahlatiye with d or ab is 
sometimes usod : 

Quibus est d vobU ^ c^nsulendum, for ioltom measures must be taken bt tou. Cic. 

1. The Dative of the Apparent Agent is sometimes used with the com- 
pound tenses of passive verbs : 

Mihi consilium captum jam did est, I have apian long since formed.^ Cic. 

Note. — Habbo with the Perfect Participle has the same ibrce as est mihT with the 
Participle : 

Beilum habuit indictum, he Itad a war (already) declared. Oic. 

2. The Real Agent, with Passive verbs, is in classical prose denoted by 
the Ablative with a or ab ; ' see 416, 1. 

3. The Dative is used with the tenses for incomplete action, to designate 
the person who is at once Agent and Indirect Object, the person by whom and 
FOR (to) whom the action is performed : 

Honesta bonis I'irls quaeruntur, honorable things are sought by good men 
(i. e., for themselves). Cic. 

4. In the Poets, the Dative is often used for the Ablative with a or ab, to 
designate simply the agent of the action : 

Nsn intellegor fi//f, lam not understood by any one. Ovid. RSgn&ta arva 
Satwno, lands ruled by Saturn. Verg, 

389. The Ethical Dative, denoting the person to 
whom the thought is of special interest, is often introduced 
into the Latin sentence : * 

At tibi venit ad m§, but lo, he comes to me. Cie. Ad ilia miM intendat 
animum, let him, I pray, direct his attention to those things. Liv. Qu5 mihi 
abis, whitlter are you goin^, pray ? Verg. Quid mihi Celsus agit, what is 
MY Celsus doing ! Hor. 

* The Dative with the Gerundive, whether alone or in the PeripJirastia Conjuga- 
tion, designates the person who has the work to do ; while with the compound tenses 
of passive verbs it designates the person who has Vie work already done. 

* Here d vobU is necessary, to distinguish the Agent from the Tndii-ect Object, qui- 
bus ; bttt the Ablative with d or a& ie sometimes used when this necessity does not 

5 The Dative with the Gerundive is best explained as the DatUe cf Possessor or 
qf Indirect Object. Thus, suutn cuiqus incommodum est means 'every one has his 
trouble' {cuique. Dative of Possessor); and suum cuiqve incommodum ferendum est, 
'every one has his trouble to bear.' So too, milii consilium eat, 'I have a plan'; mihi 
oonsUium captum est, ' I have a plan (already) formed.' 

* Compare the following from Shakespeare: 'He plucked me ope his doublet and 
ofi^red them his throat to cut' Julius Caesar, Act I., Scene II. ^It ascends me into 
the br^n.' Henry IV.. Part II., Act IV., Scene III. 'He presently steps me a Uttle 
Ugher.' Henry IV., Part I., Act IV., Scene III. 

204 DATIVE. 

Note 1.— The Ethioal Datitk is always a personal pronoun. 

NoTB 2.— The Ethical Dative occurs with volS and with iNTEEJEOTioKa : 

Quid mbls vultis^ what do you wiah, intend, mean T Liv. Avaritia quid »iM vult, 

what does avarice mean f or wJiat object can it Jiwoet Cic. Ei nvih% ah mbI Ter^, 

Vae tib\ woe to toit. Ter. See 381, note 8, 8). 

RUIiE ZIU.— Two Datives— To which and For which. 

390. Two Datives — the object to which and the ob- 
ject or END FOB WHICH — occur with a few verbs : 

I. With lNTKA2!fSiTivB and Passive verbs : 

Mal6 eat hominibus avaritia, avarice is an etil to men (lit., is to men 
FOR an evil). Cic. Est mihi curae, it is a cake to me. Cic. Domus 
dedecorl domino fit, the home becomes A disgrace to its owner. Cic, 
Venit Attieis auxilio, he came to the assistance of the Athenians. Nep. 
Hoc illl tribuebatur ignSviae, this was imputed to him as cowardice (for 
cowardice). Cic. Els subsidio missus est, Jie was sent to them as aid. Nep. 

II. With Teansitivb verbs in connection with the Ac- 
cusative : 

Qulnque cohortes castris praesidid rellquit, he left Jive cohorts FOR the 


agros suos dono til publicae dedit, Pericles gav* his lands to ilie republic 
as a present (lit., for a present). Just. 

Note 1. — The verbs which take two Datives are — 

1) Intransitive verbs signifying to be, become, go, and the like: swm, fio, etc. 

2) Transitive verbs signifying to give, send, leave, impute, regard, choose, and the 
like : do, dons, ducO, habeO, mitto, relinquo, tribuo, v&rto, etc. These take in the 
Active two Datives with an Accusative; but in the Passive two Datives only, as the 
direct object of the Active becomes the subject of the Passive; see 464. 

Note 2.— One of the Datives is often omitted, or its place supplied by a predicate noun : 
Ea sunt usv^, these things are of use (for ttsb). Caes. Tu illi pater es, you are 

A FATHER TO HIM. ToC. ScO 363, 2, UOtO 3. 

Note 8. — With audiens two Datives sometimes occur, dicto dependent upon au' 
diens, and a personal Dative dependent upon dicto audiens, and sometimes dicto obo& 
diens is used like dicto audims : 

Dicto sum audiens, I am listening to the word. Plant. Nobis dicto audl€ns eat 
he is obedient to us. Cic. Magistro dicto oboediens, obedi&nt to his master. Plaut. 

RUIiE XTV.— Dative with Adjectives. 

391. With adjectives the object to which the quality 
is directed is put in the Dative : 

Patriae solum omnibus cSrum est, the soil of their country is dear to all. 
Cic. Id aptum est tempori, this is adapted to the time. Cic. Omni aetdtx 
mors est commiinis, death is common to every age. Cic Cauis similis lupS 


est, o doff M similar to a laolf. Cia Natflrae accommodatum, adapted tt 
nature. Cic. Graeciae tltile, useful to Greece. Nep. 

I. Adjkotites which take the Dative are chiefly those signifying 

Agreeable, east/, friendly, like, near, necessary, suitable, subject, useful, ',o- 

gether with others of a similar or opposite meaning,' and verbals in biUs. 

II. Othbb CoNSTRnoTioNs sometimes occur where the learner would ex- 
pect the Dative : 

1. The Aceusatise with a Preposition : (1) in, ergA, adversus, with ad- 
jectives eigaitymg friendl;/, hostile, etc., and (2) ad, to denote the obfect or 
end for which, with adjectives signifying useful, suitable, incliTied, etc. ; 

Perindulgens in patrem, very kind to his father. Cic. Multfts ad ris 
perQtilis, very ue^ul fob many things. Cic. PrOnus ad Itlctum, inclined to 
monming. Cic. 

2. The Accusative without a Preposition with propior, prdxirmts : 
Propior montem, nearer the mountain. Sail. Prdximus mare, nea/reet to 

the sea. Caes. See 433 and 437. 

8. The Ablative with or without a Preposition : 

Alienum a vita mea, foreign to my life. Ter. Homine alisnissimura, 
most foreign to or from aAN. Cio. El cum EosciO communis, common to 
him and Soscius (with Koscius). Cio. 

4. The Genitive ; (1) with adjectives used substantively ; (2) with adjeo- 
•ives meaning like,' unlike,' near, belonging to, and a few others : ' 

Amlcissimus hominum, the best friend of the men (i. e., the most friendly 
to them). Cio. ylferaredri similis, Mi« Alexander (i. e., in character). Cic. 
Dispar sui, unlike ftself. Cic Ctljus parSs, like whom. Cic. Popull E6- 
mftni eat propria libertas, liberty is characteristic of the Roman people, Cio. 

Note 1. — Idem, occurs with the Dative, especially in the poets : 

Idem foci . 0C4AdeTtt\^ he does the same as to kill, or as hb who kills. Hor. 

Note 2. — For the Genitive and Dative with an adjective, see 399, 1., note 1. 

RUIiB. XV.— Dative with Nouns and Adverbs. 

392. Tae Dative is used with a few special nouns and 
id verbs : 
I. With a few nouns from rerbs which take the Dative : 

JOstitia est obtemperatiS< hff&nta, justice is obedience to laws. Cic. 

' Such .—9 accommodatus, aegudlis, alienus, amlous, inimtcits, aptus, cdru*, 
fadUs, diffidlis, JideJAs, Infidelis, /initimus, ffrdtus, ingrdtua, idoneus, jHound/M, 
in^Heundus. molestus, necessdriue. iwtus, Ignotus, nofHus. pdr, dispar, pemiciosus, 
propinquiM, proprius, aalvtdria, similis, dissimiUt, dlversus, otowiim, etc. 

' The Oenitlve is used especially otUieness and unlikeness in ohasaotbb. 

' \» similis, dissimilie, assimilis, odnsimilis, par, dispar ; adftnis, /inttifflv*, 
^iropinquus; proprius, aaeer, communis; aUemus, contrdrius, insuetus, eta 

* From ol^tempero. which takes the Dative. 


Sibt respSnsio, a reply to himself. Cic. OpulentO homini servitus dflra 
est, serving (servitude to) a rich man is hard. Plaut. Facilia descensus ' 
Avemo, easy is the descent to Avernus. Verg. 

II. With a few adverbs from adjectiTes which take the 
Dative : 

Congruenter " nCttUrae Tlvere, to live in accordance with natube. Cic. 
SUA convenienter dioere, to speak consistently with himself. Cic. PrSxi 
me hostium castris, next to the camp of the enemy. Caes. 

Note 1. — In rare instances the Dative occurs with a few nouns and adverbs not in. 
oluded in the rule ; 

Tribumcia potestas, munimentum llbertatl^ tribundcia/n power, a def&nee fob liSi 
BBTT. Liv. Huic una = una cum hoe, with this one. Verg. 

NoTB 2.— For the Dative of Genmdvoes with official names, see 644, note 8. 

KoTE 8.— For the Dative with interjections, see 381, note 8 ; 389, note 3. 



398. The Genitive in its ordinary use corresponds to the 
EngUsh possessive, or the objective with of, and expresses 
various adjective relations.' 

Note.— But the Genitive, especially when objective (396, III.), is sometlnies best 
rendered to, for, from, in, on account of, etc : 

Benejicil gratia, gratitude for a favor. Cic. LdboruTn fliga, escape from labors. 
Cic. Ereptae virginis ira, angm" on accov/nt of the rescue of the maiden. Verg. 

394. The Genitive is used chiefly to qualify or limit nouns 
«nd adjectives/ though it also occurs with verbs and adverbs. 

RUIiE XVI.— Genitive with Nouns. ^ 

395. Any noun, not an appositive, qualifying the 
meaning of another noun, is put in the Genitive : 

CaiSnis 5ration§3, Cato's orations. Cic. Castra hostium, the camp of 
THE ENEMY. Liv. Mors Hamilcaris, the death op Hamilcar. Liv. Devim 
metus, the fear oftlie gods. Liv. Vir consilil magni, a man of great pru- 
dence. Caes. Pars popull, a part of the people. Cic. 

1 From dese&ndo, which admits the Dative in poetry; see 385, 4, 1). 

2 From congrums, which takes the Dative. 

" The Genitive has nearly the force of an adjective," and means simply o^or belonging 
to. T!has,regi8, eqmY&leut to rigiue, meauB of or belonging to a king. On the origin 
*nd iiae of the Genitive, see Hiibschmann, p. 106; Merguet, p. 69; Holzweissig, pp. 26 
md 18; Draeger, I., pp. 447-498; Eoby, XL, pp. 116-187. 

* Doubtless originally it limited only nouns and adjectives 


NoTB 1.— For the ApposiUvt^ eoe 363. 

KoTE 2, — An Adjective is sometimes used for the Genitive; 

Bollicn gl5rla = belli glOrlit, tte glory of war. Cic. Coi^ddz Hectorea = con^iiDx 
Hectoris, the tmfe qf Hector. Verg. Pttgna Marathonla, the battle qf Marathon, Cic. 
Difina Ephesia, Diana (ff Ephesns. Cic. Bee 393, foot-note. 

Note 8.— For the Predicate Oenitive, see 401. 

Note 4.— For special usee of the Dative, see 384, 4, note 2. 

396. The qualifying Genitive may be — 

I. A Possessive Genitive,' designating the autlior and the possessor : 

Xenophontia librl, <A« boohs of Xenophon. Cio. Fanum Nepttlnl, thi 
temple of JVeptune. Nep. 

II. A Subjective Genitive, designating the siibject or affenl of the ac- 
tion, feeling, etc. : 

ReTpentia moisua, the bite of tJte serpent. Cio. Pavor Numidarum, <A</'«<w 
of the .Nvmidians. Liv. 

Note.— The Possessive Pronoun Is regularly used for the SubjeMoe Genitive ol 
Personal pronouns : 

\i.tiiiom\}LS, my house. Cio. Tama tua, yow/ome. Cio. 

III. An Objective Genitive, designating the object toward which the 
action or feeling is directed : 

Amor gloriae, the love of glory. Cio. Memoria malOrum, the recollection 
ofsufferingsx Cic. "DeATCi m^toa, the fear of tlie gods. Liv. 

Note 1. — For the Objective Genitive, the Accusative with in, erga, or adver- 
sus is sometimes used : 

Odium in hominnm genus, hatred of or toward the race qt men. Cic. ErgS Vos 
amor, love toward you. Cic. 

Note 2.— Tho Possessive occurs, though rarely, for the Objective OeniUve of Per- 
sonal pronouns : 

Tua fidilcia, reliance on you. Cic. 

IV. A Paktitive Genitive, designating the whole of which a part ia 
taken : 

Quia vestnim, whdch of youf Cio. Vltae pars, o part of life. Cio. 
Omnium sapientissimus, the wisest of all men. Cic. 

V. A Descriptive Genitive, also called a Genitive op Characteristic, 
designating character or quality, including valtie, price, size, weiglU, age, etc. 

Vir mftximi oCnsilil, a man of very great prudence. Nep. Mitis ingenii 
l^xveu\a, a youth of mild disposition. Liv. Vestis magni pretil, a ^ormsrat o^ 
great value. Cic. Exsilium decern annSrum, an e.rile of ten years. Nep. 
Corona parvl ponderis, a crown ofsm/ill weight. Liv. See 404. 

> It will be found convenient thus to characterize the different uses of the Genitive 
by the relation actually existing between the words united by it, though that special re- 
lation is not expressed by the case itseli^ but merely suggested by the meaning of th' 
words tnus united. 


Note 1 .—The Descriptive Genitvee must be accompanied by an sdJectlTe or Bomt 
other modifier, unless it be a compound containing a modifier; as Ai<;t«imo(ii = ftt^iM 
tnodl; trldui, from tres dies; Mdvi, from duo (pie) dies. 

NoTB 2.— For id genus = ejus generis, omne genus = ommU generis, see S78, 2. 

Note 8.— For the Seseriptive Ablatme, see 419, II., with note. 

VI. An Appositional Genitive, having the general force of an Apposi- 
Ave (363): 

VirtuB continentiae, the virtue of self-control. Cio. Oppidum Antioohlao, 
&IS eity of Antiooh. Cio. Tellus Ausoniae, the land of Ausonia. Verg. 

397. The Pabtitivb Genitive designates the whole of which 
a part is taken. It is used — 

1. With pars, ramO, nihil; with nouns of quantity, number, weight, 
etc., as modiiis, legio, ialenium ; and with any nouns used partitively : 

Squorwm pars, a part of the hoebeb. Liv. Nihil novl (441, 2), nothing 
NEW (or new). Cio. Nihil rSliquI (441, 2), nothing left (lit., off the rest). 
Sail. Medimnum tritici, a bushel of wheat. Cio. Peoiiniae talentum, a talent 
ofnianey. Nep. Quorum Gaius, q/' wAowi tf aw. Cio. 

2. With Numerah used substantively : ' 

Quorum quattuor, four of whom,. Liv. Equitum centum, a hundred of 
the cawal/ry. Curt. Sapientum ootavus, the eighth of the wise men. Hor. 
UnuB pontium, one of the bridges. Caes. 

Note.— In good prose the Genitive is not used when the two words refer to the »am.( 
number of objects, even though of be used In English : 

Qui (not quSrum) duo supersunt, qf whom two survive. Cic. OmnSs homln€B, all 
nwn. Cic. But see p. 209, note 4, with foot-note. 

3. With Fronouns and Adjectives used substantively, especially with 
comparatives, superlatives, and neuters : ' 

Quis vestrum, which of you? Cic. Num quidnam novl, is there anything 
new (of new) ? Cic. COnsulum alter, one of the consuls. Liv. Prior hOrum, 
the former of these. Nep. Gallorum fortiasimi, the bravest of the Gauls. Caes, 
litempoTm, that {of ) time. Cic. 'ULtAiam of erne, much {of ) service. Cic. 

Note 1. — Fronouns and adjectives, except neuters, when used with the Partitive 
Genitive, take the gender of the Genitive, unless they agree directly with some other 
word; see consuVum alter, above. 

Note %—Uierque, 'each,' 'both,' is generally used as an adjective; but when it is 
combined In the singular number with another pronoun, it usually takes that pronoun in 
the Genitive: 

Uterque exercitus, each army. Caes. Quae utraque, l>otK of which. Sail. TJtrique 
noBtriim^ grStum, acceptable to each of us. Cic. 

' Numerals used adjectively agree with their nouns: mllle hrnnines, 'a thousand 
men'; mille hominum, 'a thousand of men'; multi homines, 'many men'; muUi 
homirmm, 'many of the men.' 

' As hSc, id, illud, quid; multum, plus, pWrimmn, minus, mimimwm, tantmiy 
gvanfiwm, etc. 

■ A Partitive Genitive, because a prorumn. 


KoTE 8.— For the Partitviit Genitive, the AcousstiTe with inter or antOi or the 
Ablative with ex, de, or in, is aometlmes used; 

later rQgHBopMlentissimMa, the moat wealthy qfi-&xnong) kings. Sen. UnuBezvlnB, 
OTieqf the heroes. Cic. Vnua^ AqI^blGs, one qfth,elieutenant3. Clc. 

Note 4. — Poets and late prose writers make a very free use of the Partitive GenlMve 
after a(jyectives : 

Sancta dearom, holy goddess. £nn. Sancte deomm, holy god. Yerg. Feste^ 
dieruoi, festal days. Hor. LevSs cohortlum, the light-armed cohorts. Tac. Inclutru 
philoBophdruin, ilie rentnoned philosopher. Just. BSliquum diSi, the rest qf the day, 
Liv. Multum dlei, mucA ^^6 (2a^. liv. B,iliqaum nQctia, the rest of the night Tac. 
Strata viarum = stratae viae, pa/oed streets. Verg. Vana rerum = vanae r6s, vain 
things. Hor. Hominum cuncti, all qf ths men.^ Ovid. Ciincta terrarum, all lands. 
Hor. See also 438, 6. 

Note 6. — The Neuter of pronouns and adjectives with the Partitive Genitive is some- 
times used of persons : 

Quid hoc est hmninis^ what kind of a uan is this f Plaut. Quidquid erat pa- 
trum reos dlcerus, you would have said that all the sekators (lit., whatever there 
was OF fathers) were accused. Liv. Quid hue tantum hominum lnc€dunt, wh/y are 
so MAHY MEH (SO MUCH OF MEN) Coming hWier t Plant. 

4. The Partitive Genitive also occurs with a few adverbs, especially when 
they are used substantively : ' 

A.rmbr\xva&d£&t\\a,ahundanceofarms. Liv. 'L\ia\sviaaB,too7MtcK{of)ligM. 
Ovid. Sapientiae parum, ?i<W« (o/') icistfoTO. Sail. Fartlm copiarum, a /lor^n 
of ihe forces. Liv. Quod ejus faoere potest, as far as (what of it) lie is able to 
do. Cio. Nusquam gentium, nowhere in the world, Cic. Hue arrogantiae, 
to this degree of indolence, '^ao. Maximg omnium, most of all. Cio. 

398. Genitive m Special Constructions. — Note the fol- 

1. The Governing Word is often omitted. Thus — 

Aedis, temphim, discipulus, homo, juvenis, puer, etc. ; eausa, gratia, and 
mdeed any word when it can be readily supplied : 

Ad Jovis (sc. aedem), near the temple of Jupiter, Liv. Hannibal ann5- 
rum novem (sc. puer), Hannibal, a boy nine years of age. Liv. Aberant 
bidul (sc. viam or spatium), tTiey were two days' journey distant. Cio. Con- 
ferre vitam TrebonI cum Dolabellae (ac, vita), to compare the life of Trebonim 
with that of Bolabella. Cio. 

Note 1, — The governing word is generaUy omitted when it has been expressed befor* 
another Genitive, as in the last example; and then the second Genitive is sometimee 
attracted into the case of the governing word ; 

' Cnus is generally followed by the Ablative with e<» or de, but sometimes by the 

^ Observe that in this case the partitive Idea has entirely disappeared, and tliat the 
construction is partitive in form, but not in sense. 

* As with adverbs of Qhantitt — abunde, ad/atim,nimis, parum, partim, quoad, 
satis, etc.; of Place — hic, hue, nusguam, ubi, etc.; of Extent, Deobeb, etc. — eo, hUt^ 
fud; and with superlatives. As adverbs are substantives or adjectives in origin, it if 
not strange Utat they are thus used with the Genitive. 


Natura hominlB bSIula (for ieluarwm naturae) anteoSdit, tht nature of man tur- 
passes (that of) the brutes. Cic. 

NoTB 2.— In many cases where we supply son, daughter, husband, w^e, the ellipsii 
ts only apparent, the Genitive depending directly on the proper noun expressed : 

Hasdrubal Gisconis, Giseo^s Hasdnibal, or Hasdrubal the son of Giseo. Liv. Hec 
toris Andromache, Rector's Andromache, or Andromache the wife of Hector. Verg. 

"2. Two Genitives are sometimes used with the same noun. One is 
generally subjective, the other either objective or descriptive: 

Memml odium potentiae, Memmius's Mtred of power. Sail. Helvetiorum 
injiiriae popull Eomani, the wongs done by the HeUeHi to the Roman people. 
Caes. Superierum dierum Sablni cunctati6, the delay of Sabinus during (lit., 
of ) the preceding days. Caes. 

3. A Genitive sometimes accompanies a Possessive, especially the 
Genitive of ipse, sslus, Unus, or omnis : 

Tua ipslus amieitia,' your own friendship. Cio. Meum sollus peccatum, 
my fault alone. Cic. Nomen meum absentia, my name in my absence. Cio. 

4. The Genitive is used with Imtar, ' likeness,' ' image,' in the sense of 
as large as, of the size of, equal to : 

Inatar montia equus, a horse of the size of a mountain. Verg. 

5. The Genitive is used -with pi-ldig, postridie, ergo, and temis:' 
Pridie ejus diSI, on the day before that day. Caes. Postrldie ejus digl, on 

the day after thM day. Caea. \'vriM\& ergb, on account of virtue. Cic. Lnm- 
'borum tenus, as far as the loins. Cio. For tenus with the Ablative, see 434. 

RUIiE XVll.— Genitive with Adjectives. 

399. Many adjectives take a Genitive to complete 
their meaning : 

Avidua laudis, desirous op praise. Cic. dtii cupidus, desirous or leis- 
ORE. Liv. Conscius conjiirationis, cognizant of the conspiracy. Sail* 
Amans sul virtiis, virtue fond of itself. Cio. EfficiSns voluptatis, produc- 
tive of pleasure. Cic. Gloriae memor, mindful of glory. Liv. 

Note. — This Genitive corresponds to the Objective G&nitive with nouns : 
Amor gloriae, the love of glory. Cic. Appeteas gloriae, desirous qf (eager for) 
glory. Qc. 

I. The Genitive is used with adjectives denoting — 
1. Desire or Aversion : ' 

1 Ip^us may be explained as agreeing with tui (of you). Involved in tua, and 8bliv4 
and absffnUs as agreeing with mei (of me), involved in meum. 

2 These words are strictly nouns, and, as such, govern the Genitive. Prldii and 
postrldie are Locatives; ergo Is an Ablative, and t»nus, an Accusative; see 304; 307, 
note 1. 

8 Such are — (1) a/Hdus, cupidus, studidsus; fastidiosus, etc. ; (2) gndrus, Ignorus, 
odnsultus, conscius, inscius, nescvus, certue, incertus; prbvidus, prud^ns, impru 

aSNITIVM. 211 

ContentiOnisoupidus, (Jssiro««q/'con<«««»o». Cio. Sapientiae BtudiOsus, sto- 
iiws of (etoiA&i>.toi) wisdom. Cio. 'SeriB.ei&eXlildsas, weary of the land. Hor. 

2. Knowlepge, Skill, Kecollection, with their contraries : ' 

E^I gnarus, acquainted with the thing. Cio. PrfldSns rll mllitaris, shiUed 
in military science. Nep. Perltus belli, skilled in war. Nep. Insuetus 
labOris, vnaccustomed to labor. Caes. GlOriae memor, min^ul of glory. 
Liv. lTiimemoT\>&iie&(al, forgetful of kindness. Cio, 

3. Participation, Guilt, Fulness, Mastery, with their contraries : ' 
Adflnis oulpae, sharing the fault. Cio. EatiOnia partioeps, endowed with 

(sharing) reason. Cio. KatiOnis expers, destitute of reason. Cio. Manifestus 
r6rum oapitalium, convicted of capitol crimes. Sail. Vita metus plena, a lift 
full of fear. Cio. Mel potgns sum, / om moafor ^ mysej/'. Liv. Virtutia 
compos, capable of virtue. Cio. 

Note 1. — The Genitive and Dative sometimes occur with the same adjective: 

Mens sibl cSnscla recti, a mind conscious to ttse^ qf rectitude. Verg. 8ibl conscil 
culpae, conscious to themselves of fault. Cio. 

NoTB 3. — For the GenitiTe with adjectives used substantivelyy and with at^jectivet 
meaning like, unlike, near, belonging to, etc, see 391, II., 4. 

NoTK 8.— For the Genitive with dignus and indlgnus, see 481, note 3. 

II. The Genitive is used with Verbals in az, and with Present Par- 
TiciPLES used adjectively : 

Virtutum ferax, productive of virtues. Liv. Tenax propositi, tenacious 
(steadfast) of purpose. Hor. Amins patriae, fond of his country.^ Cio. 
Fugiens laboris. shunning labor. Caes. 

III. In the/wefe and in lai« prose writers, especially in Tacitus, the Gen- 
itive is nsed — 

1. With adjectives of almost every variety of signification, simply to 
define their application : * 

AevI matarus, mature in age. Verg. Inggns virimn, mighty in strength. 
Sail. Ssn studiOrum, late in studies. Hot. Integer aevi, unimpaired in age 
(i.e., in the bloom of youth). Verg. Aeger animl,*aj^»c<erf in. qoiri*. Liv. Anx- 
ius animl,* anxious in mind. Sail. Fldgns animi, confident in spirU. Veig. 

2. With a few adjectives, to denote cause: 

Laetus laborum, pleased with the labors. Veig. Notns animI patemi, dis- 
tinguished for paternal affection. Hor. 

dens; perltus, imperitus, rudis, insuitus; memor, immemor, etc ; (3) at(finis, con- 
sore, exsors, expers, particeps, man^estu*, noaius; plernu, fertilis, rtfertus, egenus, 
inops, vacuus; potens, impothis, compos, etc. 
■ See foot-note 8, page 210. 

* Amans patriae, ' fond of bis country,^ represents the affection as permanent and 
constant; whereas the participial constructdon, amdns patriam. Moving his country,* 
designates a particular instance or act. 

' Like the Ablative of Specification; see 424. For votl reus, 'bound to fulfil > 
vow,' see 410, III., note i. 

* Probably a Locative in origin, as animit is nsed in similar Instances Id the ploxaL 

212 aENiTrvE. 

400. Adjectives which usually take the Genitive, sometimes 
admit other constructions: 

1. The Dative : 

Manus subitis avidae, %and^ rmd/yfor tudden events. Tac. Insuetus m6ri- 
hvis'B.bma.nls, unaccustomed to Soman manners. Liv. Facinorl mens oSnsoia, 
a Tmnd conscious of orime, Cio. See 391. 

2. The AccDSATivE with a preposition : 

Insuetus ad pugnam, %maccustomed to iattle. Liv. Fertilis ad omnia, ^ro- 
ductivefor all tMngs. Plin. Avidus in novas res, eager for new things. Liv. 

3. The Ablative with or without a preposition : 

Prudens in jure cIvSlI, learned in civil law. Cio. His d6 rfibus cOnseius, 
aware of these tMngs. Cio. Vacuus de defensoribus, destitute of defenders. 
Caes. Curls vacuus, /r««/TO»«. car«s. Cio. 'Refertui\)omB,ryoletewithlltss- 
inga. Cio. See 414, lU. 

RUIiE X V 111.— Predicate Genitive. 

401, A noun predicated of another noun denoting a 
different person or thing is put in the Genitive : 

Omnia hosiium erant, all things helonged to the enemy.' Liv. Sen&tus 
ffannibalis erat, the senate was Hannibal's (i. e., in his interest). Liv. 
Judieis est verum sequi, to follow the truth is the duty of a judge.' Cic. 
Parvi pretir est, it is of small value. Cic. Tyrus mare suae diciOnis ' fecit, 
Tyre brought the sea under (lit., made the sea of) her sway. Curt. 

Note 1.— For a noun predicated of another noun denoting the aam.6 person or thing, 
9ee36S; 373,1. 

Note 2. — A Peedioate Genitive is often nearly or quite equivalent to a Predicate 
adjective (360, note 1): hominis e8t = hvmdn'tmi est, 'it is the mark of a man,' 'is 
human'; stulii est = stultwni est, 'it is foolish.' The Genitive is the regular construc- 
tion in adjectives of one ending : sa^dentis est (for sapiens eat), 'it is the part of a wift 
man,' ' is wise.' 

Note 8. — Possessive pronouns in agreement with the subject supply the place of the 
Predicate Genitive * of personal pronouns : 

Est tuum (not tui) vidSre, it is yov/r duty to see. Cic. 

Note 4. — Aeqwi, howi, and rtlAqvA occur as Predicate Genitives in such expressions 
as aeqm facere, aegul bontque facere, honl consulere, 'to take in good part,' and 
rsM^ul facere, 'to leave' ; 

AequI bonique facio, / take it in good part. Ter. MflitSs nihil rSliqui victis fScere, 
the soldiers left nothing to the vanquMlied. Ball 

* Literally, were of the enemy, or we/re the enemy's. 

^ Literally, is of a judge. 

2 Here dicionis, denoting a different thing ^om mare, of which it Is predicated, it 
put in the Genitive. 

^ This is another illustration of the close relationship between a Predicate Genitive 
and a Predicate Adjective; see also note %. 

&ENIT1VE. 213 

402. The Predicate Gbnitivk is generally Possemve or Se- 
acriptive, rarely Partitive : 

Haeo hoetium erant, these things were of (belonged to) the ekemt. Lit. 
£st imperdtoris super&re, it is the duty of a commander to conquer. Caes. 
Summae faoult&tds est, he is (a maa) of the highest ability. Cio. Opera 
vai^nl tmt, the assistance was of great eahie, Nep. Fl6a nObilium fontium," 
you will become one of the noble fountains. Hor. 

403. The Predicate Genitive occurs most frequently with 
Bum and fouAo, but sometimes also with verbs of seeming, rega/ri- 
ing, etc. : 

Oram BOm&nae dicifinis f%cit, he brought tlie coast under (made Ihe coast 
of) Roman rule. Liv. Hominis vid6tur, it seems to be the mark of a man. 
Cio. See also examples under 401. 

N'OTS. — Transitive verbs of this class admit in the active an Accusative with the 
Genitive, as in the first example. 

404. The Predicate Genitive of price or value is xised with 
mm and with verbs of valuing : 

Mdgni sunt tuae lltterae, yovr liters are of great value. Cic Pluris 
esse, to he of greater value. Cio. Parvl pendere, to think lighUy of. Sail. 
AuotOritatem tuam magnl aestimO, J prist your authority highly. Cio. 

NoTS 1.— With these verbs the Oenitise of price or value is generally an aoljeetitoe? 
as in the examples, h\Apretil is sometimes used : 

Parvi pretir est, it is qfUtUe value. Cic. 

NoTK 2, — ^iAtZI and, in femiliar discourse, a few other Genitives ^ occur: 

NihiE fecere, to take no account qf. Cic Non flocci pendere, not to care a strata 
(lock of wool) /or. Plant. 

405. Tanfi, quantl, plUris, and minoria are also used as Geni- 
tives OF price with verbs of buying and selling : ' 

Emit hortOs tanil, he purchased the gardens at so great a pbioe. Cio. 
VendO frilmentum j)?ftm, Isell grain at a higher frige. Cia 
JfoTB.— For the Ablaiint (tf price, see 428. 

BUIiE XIX.— Crenitive with Special Verbs. 

406. The Genitive is used — 

I. With misereor and miserescO : 

MiserSre labCrum, pUj/ the labors. Verg. Misergscite r§gis, pity tht 
king. Verg. ^__ 

' FaouttdtU and mdgni are DescHptire, but .^nMum is Partitire. 

' The following adjectives are so used : magnu, parvl, tanti, guanH ; plurit, mi- 
noris; plUrimi, muxinn, and minimi. 

' As assis, .fiocci, tiaucl, aDipiii. 

* Observe that verba of buying and selling admit the Oenitire qf price only whan 
one of these adjectives is used. In other cases they take the Ablative qfpriat. 


n. With recorder, memini, reminlscor, and obllvlscor : ' 

Meminit praeteritorum, he remembers the past. Cic. Oblltus sum mei; 
/ have forgotten myself. Ter. FlagitiOrum reoordarl, to recollect base deeds. 
Cic. ReminlscI yirtutis, to remember virtue. Caes. 

III. With ref ert and interest : 

Illorum r§fert, it concerns them. Sail. Interest omnium, it is the inter- 
est of all. Cic. 

Note, — The exprcBBion, Vendt in mentem, *it occurs to mtnd,^ is Bometimes con- 
0trued with the Genitive and sometimes with the Nominative : 

Venit mihi Platonia in mentem,^ the recoUecUon of Plato comes to nvy miTid, or 2 
recollect Plato. Cic. Non venit in mentem pugna, does iwt the battle occur to yowr 
mdmdt Llv. 

407. Verbs of rembmbering and forgetting often take the 
Accusative instead of the Genitive : 

Memiueram PauUum, / remembered Paulhis. Cic. Triumph5s recorder!, 
to recall triwmphs. Cic. Ea reminisoere, remember those things. Cic. 

Note 1. — ^The Accusati/ve is the common construction (1) with recordor and (2) 
with the other verbs, if it is a neuter pronoun or adjective, or designates an object re- 
membered by a contemporary or an eye-witness. 

Note 2. — The Ablative with de is rare : 

Becordare de ceteris, bethink yowrself of the others. Cio. 

408. The Constrtjction with ref ert and interest is as follows; 
I. The Pebsoit or Thing interested is denoted — 

1. By fhe^'Genitive, as under the rule. 

2. By the Ablative Feminine of the Possessi/De.' This takes the place of the 
Gemtive qf personal pronouns : 

Mea refert, it concerns me. Ter. Interest mea, it interests me. Cio. 

3. By the Dative, or Accusative with or without Ad; but rarely, and 
chiefly with refert, which moreover often omits the person : 

Quid rSfert viventi, what does it concern one living? Hor. Ad mS refert^ 
it concerns ?re«. Plant. 

II. The Subject of Importance, or that which involves the interest, is 
expressed by an Infinitive or Clause, or by a Neuter Pronoun : 

* The Genitive with verbs of pitying, remembering, and forgetting probably de- 
pends upon the substantive idea contained in the verbs themselves ; see Internal Object, 
371, 1., 2. Thus, memdnA with the Accusative means Ir&member distinctly and fully, 
generaUy used of an eye-witness or of a contemporary ; but with a Genitive, it means io 
ha/ce some recollection of. With refert the Genitive depends upon re, the Ablative ol 
res, contained in the verb, and with interest it may be a Predicate Genitive, or may sim- 
ply follow the analogy ot refert. 

3 With venit in mentem. the Genitive Platonis supplies the place of subject. It 
probably limits the pronominal subject ah'eady contained in vewit, as in every Latin verl]^ 
it or that of Plato, the recollection of Plato. 

' See foot-note 1, above. 


Interest omnium r6ot« fiioere, to do right is fha interest of all. Cio. Veatra 
h6o interest, this interests you. Oio. 

III. The Degree of Interest is exoressed by an Adverb, by a Neutei 
used adverbially, or by a Genitive of Value (404) : 

Vestra maxims interest, it especially/ interests you. Cio. Quid nostra re-' 
t'ert, what does it concern, us f Cio. Magnl interest mei, it greatly interesti 
vie. Cio. 

IV. The Object or Ekd for which it is important is expressed by the 
Accusative with ad, rarely by the Dative : 

Ad honorem nostrum interest, it is important for owr honor. Cio. 

RUIjE XX.— Accusative and Genitive. 

409. The Accusative of the Pebson and the Geni- 
nvE of the Thing axe used with a few transitive verbs : 

I. With verbs of reminding, admonishing : ' 

Te amlcUiae commonefacit, he reminds you op friendship. Cio. MllitSs 
necessitatis monet, he reminds the soldiers of the necessity. Ter. 

II. With verbs of accusing, convicting, acquitting : ' 
Virfls sceleris arguis, you accuse men of crime. Gic. Levit&tis eum con- 

vincere, to convict him of levity. Cic. Absolvere injQriae eum, to acquit 
him of injustice. Cic 

III. With miser et, paenifet, pudet, taedet, and piget:' 
ESrum n5s miseret, we pity them (it moves our pity op theh). Cic. 

COnsilil mS paenitet, / repent of my purpose. Cic. Ms stultitiae meae 
pudet, / am ashamed of my folly. Cic. 

Note 1.— The Genitive of the Thing designates, with verbs of reminding, etc., that 
to which the attentioD is called; with verbs of accusing, etc, the crime, charge; and 
with miseret, paenitet, etc., the object which produces the feeling; see examples. 

Note 2.— The personal verbs Included under this rule retain the Genitive In the 
Paxsire : 

AccilsfitaB est prodiHonis, he loas accused of tbeabon. Nep. 

> The Genitive with verbs of reminding and admonishing may be explained like 
that with verbs oi pitying, re^nembering, enA forgetting ; see foot-note 1, page 214. 
With verbs of accttsing, etc, the Genitive may also be explained in the same way, or 
may depend npon nomine, crimiiie, or jUdicin, understood. Sometimes one of these 
noims is expressed ; see 410, II., 1. 

2 The Genitive with paenitet, pudet, etc, like that with venit in meniem (see 406, 
note, with foot-note), depends upon the impersonal subject contained in the verb. Thus, 
te haec pudent means these things shame yon, and me stultitiae meae pudet, literally 
rendered, means of my folly (1. e., the thought of it, or something about it), shames me. 
The Genitive with miseret may be explained either in the same way, or like ibat with 
miseireor; see fbot-note 1, page 214. 


NoTi 8.— la juOlotal Isnguage s few verts not otherwlBe so used are treated ai 
verts of amusing. Thus eondleo occurs with the Genitive in Livy, I., 82. 

410. SpbciaI/ Constkuctions. — The following deserve notice: 
I. Verbs of Kemihdino and Admonishing sometimes take, instead of 
the Genitive — 

1. The Acemative of a neuter pronoun or adjective, rarely of a suhstan- 
tive, thus admitting two accusatives : 

Illnd me admones, you admonish me of that. Cic. 

2. The Ablative with de-^moned and its compounds generally so: 
Deproelio vOs admonul, Ihave reminded you of the battle. Cio. 

II. Verbs of Accusing, Convicting, sometimes take, Instead of the 
Genitive of the crime, etc. — 

1. The Genitive with nlknine, crimine, JUdiciS, or some similar word; 
Nomine conjurationis damnati sunt, they were condemned on the charge of 

conspiracy. Cic. Innocentem judicio capitis arcessere, to arraign an inno- 
cent man on a capital charge. Cic. 

2. The Acemative of a neuter pronoun or adjective, rarely: 
Id me accusas, you accuse me of that. Plant. 

3. The Ablative alone or with a preposition, generally dl: 

De pecflnils repetundis damnatus est, he was convicted of extortion. Cio. 

III. With verbs of Condemning, the Penalty is generally expressed by 
the Ablative,' or by the Accusative with a preposition, usually ad: 

Tertia parte damnarl, to be condemned to forfeit a third of onSs land. Liv. 
Capite damnare, to condemn to death. Cic. Morte multare, to punish with 
death. Cio. Ad bestias condemnare, to condemn to the wild beasts. Suet. 

Note 1.— In the poets the penalty is sometimes expressed by the Dative: 

Morti damnatus, condemned to death. Lucr. 

NoTB 2. — ^The Genitive occurs in such special expressions as capitis condemnare, 
'to condemn to death^; votl damndri,^ to be condemned to fulfil a vow' = ' to obtain 
a wish ^; damnarl longl laboris,^ to be condemned to long labor'; votl reus^ = vdtl 
dOTTwwiitM, 'condemned to ftilfil a vow' : *■ 

Aliquem capitis condemnare, to condemm, one to death. Cic Damnatus longi laboris, 
cond&mned to long labor. Hor. 

IV. With MiSEKET, Paenitet, Pudet, Taedet, and Piget, an Infinitive 
or Clause is sometimes used, rarely a neuter pronoun or nihil : 

M5 paenitet vixisse, / repent having lived. Cic. Te haec pudent, these 
things shame you. Ter. 

Note 1.— Like miseret are sometimes used miserescit, comirdserescit, mis&retur, 
commisereiur. Like taedet are used periaedet, pertaeswm est. 

Note 2. — Pudet sometimes takes the Genitive of the person before whom one Is 
ashamed : 

Me tai pudet, I am asliamed in your presence. Ter. Pudet hominum, tt ts a 
tkame in tlte sight of men. Liv. 

> Begnlariy so when the penalty is a definite sum of money. 
^ Best explained as a sQbstantive. 


Hon t.—Pertat»a» admits the AcoosatlTe of the object : 
Fertaeius IgDftTiam aaam, disgusted with his own inaction. Suet 

V. Many other verbs sometimes take the Genitive.' Thus — 

1. Some verbs of plenty and waiU, aa compled^^ impleo,^ eged, iruUgei, like 
edjectlves of the same meaning (399, 1., 8) : 

Virtfls exercit&tiSnis indiget, virtue requires exercise. Cic. Auxilil eg6re, 
to need aid. Caes. Multitudinem rsligionis implevit," he inured (filled) the 
mruUitude with religion. Liv. Serum satagere, to be occupied with (to do 
enough of) business. Ter. 

2. Some verbs of desire, emotion., or feeling, like adjectives of the same 
meaning (399, 1., 1) : 

Cupiunt tul, they desire you, Plaut. Tul testimonil veritus, fearing your 
testimony. Cic. AnimI ^ pendeO, / am uncertain in mind. Cic. Disoruoior 
animi, I am, troubled in spirit. Plaut. Te angis animi, you make yowself 
anxious in mind. Plaut. Dgsipere mentis, to be foolish in mind, or mistahen 
in opinion, Plaut. 

S. A few verbs denoting m,astery or participation, like acljectives of the 
same meaning (399, 1., S), potior,* adiplscor, regnd: 

Siciliae potltus est, he became master of Sicily. Nep. Eerum adeptus est, he 
obtained the power. Tao. ^i^a,\'\t'piyp\Af>r\an,he was king of the peoples. Hor. 

4. In the poets, a few verbs ' take the Genitive, instead of the Ablative of 
Separation or Cause (413) : 

Abstinfire IrSrum, to abstain from anger. Hor. Laborum decipitur, ?ie is 
beguiled of his labors. Hor. Desine querelarum, cease from complaints. Hor, 
Dfesistere pQgnae, to desist from the battle. Verg. Eum culpae llberare, to 
free him from blame (i. e., to acquit him). Liv. Mirarl laborum, to admire 
because of toils. Verg. DamnI Infecti promittere, to give surety in vieu) of 
expelled damage. Cic. 

Note. — For the Gai/iMve of Oerunde and Gerundives, am 648, 1. ; 544. 



411. The Latik Ablative performs the duties of three 
cases originally distinct : * 
I. The Ablative Pkoper, denoting the relation from : 

Expnisus est patria, he was banished from his country. Cic. 

' Tnnsltives of this class of course admit the Accusative with the Genitive. 
' See 4S1, II. 

' Animi In such instances is probably a Locatire in origin, as animU Is used to the 
same way in the plural. See foot-note on animi, 399, III., 1. 

* Potior takes the Genitive regularly when it means to reduce to subjection. 
' As aistineli, dccipio, desins, desisto, letO, literB, etc ; mlror, etc 

* These three cases, stiU recognized In the Sanskrit, originally had distinct fbrms 
bat in the I^Uli, under the influence of phonetic change and decay, these forme have 

218 ABLA1IVB. 

II. The Ikstkumental, denoting the relation with, bt; 
Sol omnia luce coUastrat, the mn illumines all things with its light. Cic, 

III. The Locative, denoting the relation IN, at: 
So eppids tenet, he keeps himself in the town. Cic. 

I. Ablative Proper. 
RUIiE XXI.— Place firom which. 

412. The Place from which is denoted by the Ablative: 

I. Generally with a preposition — a, ab, de, or ex : 

Ab urbe proficiaoitur, he sets out from the citt. Caes. De forS, from 
the forum. Cic. Ex iirica, /rom (out of ) 4/"<'<'- Jji^- 

II. In of Towns without a preposition : ' 

Platonem Alhenis arcessivit, he summoned Plato from Athens. Nep. 
Fugit Corintho, he fled from Corinth. Cic. 

1. Many names of islands, and the Ablatives domO and rUre, are used 
like names of towns : 

Dona profflgit, he fled from -jome. Cio. Dili profioisoitur, he proceeds 
FROM Delos. Cic. 

2. The Ablative of places not towns is sometimes used without a prqia- 
tition, especially in poetry : 

Cadere n^ahibus, to fall from the olotos. Veig. Labi equo, to fall from a 
HORSE. Hot. 

3. The preposition is sometimes used with names of towns, especially 
for emphasis or contrast : 

Ab Arded Bcmam venerunt, tt«y came from Ardea to Some. Liv. 
Note. — The preposition is generally used when the vicinity, rather than tTi« town 
(taelf, is meant : 

DisccBsit a Brundisio, he departed from Bnmdisiwm (i. e., from the port). Caes. 

RULE XXn.— Separation, Source, Cause. 

413. Separation, Source, and Cause are denoted by the 
Ablative with or without a preposition : 

Separation. — Caedem a vobis d§pell5, / ward off slaughter from Ton. 
Cic. Hunc d tuis dris arcebis, you will keep this one from tour altars. 

become identical, and their uses have been blended in a single case called the Ablative. 
On the general subject of the Ablative and its use, see Merguet, pp. 109-117; Delbriick' 
Hubschmann, pp. 82-106; Holzweiaslg, pp. 28 and 75; Draeger, I., pp. 494-571; Eoby 
U., pp. 68-115. 

1 This was the originat construction for all places alika 


Cio. Expulsus est patria, he was banished from his eauntry. CSo. Urbero 
commeatu prlvSvit, he deprived the city of supplies. Nep. COnatu desti- 
tSrunt, thei/ desisted from the attempt. Caes. Vagina eripe ferrum, dram 
your sword from its scabbard, Verg. 

Source. — Koc andlvl de parenie mets, I heard this from my father. Cic. 
Oriundl ab Sabinis, deseended from the Sabines. Liv. Statua ex aer? 
facta, a statue made of bronze. Cic. Abiete puppis, i/ie stem made of fr 
Verg. Jove n&tns, son of Jupiter. Cic 

CAUSK.^Ars Militate laudatur, an art is praised because of its useful- 
ness. Cic. Laci'imO gaudis, I weep for (on account of) jor. Ter. Vestra 
hoc causa Tolebam, / desired this on yottr account. Cic. Rogatii veneram, / 
had come by request. Cic. Ex vulnere aeger, ill in consequence of his wound. 
Cic. Aeger erat vulneribus, he was ill in consequence of his wounds. Nep. 

NoTB 1. — TVanmtive Verbs admit an Accusative with the Ablative; see esamples. 

NoTK 2.— The preposWona most frequently used with the Ablative of Separation 
and Scarce tire d, ab, di, i, tie, and with the Ablative of Cause, de, e, ot, 

KoTR 8. — With the Ablative qf Separation the preposition is more freely used when 
the separation is tocal and literal than when it is fifftiraiive : de ford, * ft-om the forum ^; 
M9 Asia, *ont of Asia^; but l&odre meiu^^to relieve from fear'; c&ndtii desistere.^ta 
desist from the undertaking.* 

Note 4.— For the OeniHve Instead of the Ablative qf Separation, see 410, T^ 4; 
and for the Dative similarly used, see 385, S. 

414. The Ablative of Separation designates that from which 
anything is separated, or of which it is deprived, and is generally 
used witfiout a preposition in the following situations : 

I. With verbs meaning to relieve, deprive, need, be without: ' 

Leva me hoe onere, relieve me of this burden. Cic. Vindis exsolvero, to 
release from chains. Plaut. Molestia expedire, to relieve of trouble. Cio. 
MUitem praedft fraudSre, to defraud the soldiery of booty. Liv. Non egeO 
medicina, J do not need a remedy. Gio. Vaoare culpa, to be free from fault. 
Cic. See also examples under 413. 

II. With moveO in special expressions : ' 

Signum movSre loeH, to move the standard from the plaob. Cia 
in. With adjectives meaning free from, destitute of: ' 
Animus liber curd, a mnc{/r«e from OARS. Cic Expeis m«{u, rr«« Fsoie 
fear. Cic XJibn n\ida i>Taea\dw, a city destitute of defetice. Cic 
NOTX.— For a similar use of the 6enitlve,< see 399, 1., 8. 
lY. With opus and iisus, meaning need: 

> As eapedia, exonero, Imo, retetoo, libero, relaasB, solvo, dbsolvo, exsohi ; exuo, 
frawU, nftdo, orbs, spolio, prlvB, etc. 

* Aa In movere locH. movere senatfi, movere tribH, movere vestigib. 

' Aor abiB generally used with names of persons and sometimes with other words. 

< Sffenus, indigut, sterilis, and aome others are freely used with the Genitiv*: Me 
899, 1., & 


AudSrUdte tud n6bl8 opus est, we need (there is to us 4 need of) Totw 
4TJTH0EITT. Cio. Usus sst tuS mihl opera, I need your aid. Plant. 

Note 1.— In most other instances a preposition accompanies the Ablative of Separa- 
tion, though often omitted in poetry and in late prose. 

Note i.—Opus eat and usus est admit the Dative of the person vfith the Ablative o( 
the thing; see examples. 

Note 3.— With opMS and usv,s, the Ablative is sometimes a perfect participle, or, 
nrith opus^ a noun and a participle : ' 

Consults opus est, thm-e Is need of deUberaUon. Sail. Opus fuit Hirtio convento 
Ihffre was need o/meeUng HirUus. Cic 

Note 4.— With opus est, rarely with Usus est, the thing needed may be denoted— 

1) By the Nominative, rarely by the Genitive or Accusative : 

Dux nobis opus est, we need a leader, or a leader is necessary (a necessity) /<»■ us 
Cic. Temporis opus est, the^e is need of time. lav. Opus est cibum, titere is need qf 
food. Plant. 

2) By an Infinitive, a Clause, or a Supine ; 

Opus est to valere, it is necessary that you he well. Cic. Opus est ut lavem, it is 
necessary for me to hathe (that I bathe). Flaut Dictu est opus, it is necessary to be 
told. Ter. 

415. The Ablativb of Soukcb more commonly takes a prepo- 
sition ; see examples under 413. It includes agency, parentage, 
material, etc. 

I. The agent or author of an action is designated by the Ablative with 
a or ab : 

Occlsus est a Thsbanis, he was slain by the Thebans. Nep. Ocoidit a forti 
Achilla, he was slain (lit., fell) by brave Achilles. Ov. 

1. The Ablative without a preposition may be used of a person, regarded 
not as the author of the action, but as the means by which it is effected : 

Cornua NwmidJis ' firmat, he strengthens the wings with Numidians. Liv. 

Note 1. — The Accusative with p&r may be used of the person through whose ag&ncy 
the action is effected ; 

Ab Oppianico per Fabricins^ f^tum est, it was acconvpUshed by Oppiandeus 


Note 2.— For the Dative of Agent, see 388. 

2. When anything is personified as agent, the Ablative with Hot ab may 
be used as in the names of persons : 

Vinel fl voluptate, to be conquered by pleasure. Cic. A fortilna datam oo- 
casionem, an opportunity furnished by fortune. Nep. 

II. Pebfect Participles denoting parentage or birth — genitus, ndtiu, 
ortus, etc. — generally take the Ablative without a preposition : 

Jove natus, son of Jupiter. Cio. TantalO prOgnatus, descended from Tan- 
talus. Cio. Purentibua n&tl hmniMhuB, born of humb'^ parents. Cio. 

> Here not« the distinction between the Ablative with ab (ab Oppianico), denoting 
the author of the action, the Accusative with per (per FabriciSs), the person throngb 
whose agency the action was performed, and the Ablative alone (Nvrnddis), the meani 
•f the action. 


Note.— In designating Remote Akoebtbt, a or ab la generally used; but after nahu 
»nd ortus, the Ablatives /ami2ia, genere, locd, and stirpe, when modified by an adjeo " 
tive, omit the preposition : 

Oriundl ab dablnis, descended from the Sabines, Liv. Orti ab GermiinTs, ttprvng 
finm. tht Germans. Caes. NOblll genere nfitus, bam qfa noble family. SalL 

III. With the Ablative op Material, e or ex is generally used, though 
often omitted, especially in poetry : 

Statua ex aere facta, u statue made qf bronze. Cio. Pooula ex auro, cups 
of gold. Cio. Aere cav6 clipeus, a shield of concave broiuse, Verg. Abiete 
puppis, the stern made of fir. Verg. 

Note 1.— A special use of the Ablative, kindred to the above, Is seen with faeio, /IB, 
and sum In such expressions as the following: 

Quid h6c homhie facias, what are yon to do with this man t Ote. Quid 1118 fixt, 
iohat will become qf him f Cio. Quid tStaturam est, what toill become of you t Oic, 

Note 2. — The Dative or the Ablative with di occurs in nearly the same sense : 

Quid hulc homini facias, what are you to do with (or to) this man t Cio. Quid dS 
tS flitilrum est, whatwiU become qfyont Oic 

416. The Ablative of Cause is generally used without a prepo- 
sition.' It designates that ly reason of which, because of which, in 
accordance with which anything is or is done, and is used both with 
tierba Etnd with adjectives; ' see examples under 413. 

I. Cause is sometimes denoted — 

1) By the Ablative with a. ab, de, e, ex, prae: 

Ab e&dem superbi& * nOn venire, not to come becauat of the same haughti- 
tiess. Liv. Ex vulnere ' aeger, ill in, consequence of his wound. Cio. Ex 
invldifi laborare, to safer from unpopularity. Cic Non prae laorimls scri- 
bere, not to write in eomequence of tears. Cio. 

2) By the Accusative with ob, per, propter: 

Per aetfitem inOtiUs, useless because of (lit., through) their age. Caes. In 
oppidum propter timOrem sesS recipiunt, they betake themselves into the cUy 
on account of their fear. Caes. 

Note 1.— With transitive verbs the motive which prompts the action is often ex 
pressed by \iiB Ablative with a perfect passive participle: 

Begn! cupidltSte * Inductns coi^&rStiSnem tii^ influenced by the desire ijf ruling^ 
he formed a conspiracy. Caes. 

Note 2. — That in accordance with which anything is done is often denoted by the 
Ablative with iorex: 

* The Ablative of Cause is very (hr removed from the original meaning of the Abla- 
tive, and Indeed in some of its uses was probably derived iW>m the Instrumental Abla- 
tive ; see 418. 

^ This includes such Ablatives as med Jvdicio, in accordance with my opinion ; med 
senientid, Jussj'f, imp^UsH, monitH^ etc.; causd, gratia; also the Ablative with de- 
9^ai0, doles, exsilio, eoKu/tO, gaudeO, laborO, lacrimO, laetor, triumpho. etc 

* See note 2, fbot-note. 

* Here cupiditate must b* condtmed with induetue, yet It really expresses the cause 
ttOatetion, fecit. 

222 ABLAT/VB. 

RS8 ea /oedere repetuntur, resHtution is demanded in aocoedaitoe with thb 
TEEATT. Liv. Dies €X praecepiU tula fictus, a day passed in acoobdanoe with toub 
PBEOBPTS. Cic. Ex veritate aestimare, to estimate in accordam^e witk the truth Oia 
Ex auctoritiite * senatiis coufinnare, to ratify on the am4hority <tf the senate, Liv. 

BUIjE XXm.— Ablative with Comparatives. 

417. Comparatives without quam are followed by the 
Ablative : " 

Nihil est amabilius virtute* nothing is more lovely than virtue. Cic 
Quid est melius bonitate^^ what is better than goodness ? Cic. Sclmus sO- 
lem maj6rem esse terra,^ we know that the sun is larger than the earth, Cic. 
Amieitia, qua nihil melius habemus, friendship^ than which we liave nothing 
better, Cic. Lacrima nihil citius arescit, nx>thhig dries sooner than a tear, 
Cic. Potiorem ira salutem habet^ he regards safety as belter than anger. Liv. 

1. Comparatives with Quam are followed by the Nominative, or by the 
case of the corresponding noun before them : 

Hibemia minor quam Britannia exietimatur, Ireland is considered smalUf 
than Britain. Caes. Agris quam ui'bl terribilior, more terrible to the country 
than TO THE CITY. Liv. 

Note 1. — The construction with qiiam is the fUIl form for which the Ablative is an 
abbreviation. The Ablative is freely used for quam with a Sul^ect Ifoniinati/De or Sub- 
ject Accusative— regnlarly so for gu^m with the Nominative or Accusative of a rela- 
te/Be pronoun, as in the fourth example under the rule. In other cases quam is retained 
in the best prose, thoug:h sometimes omitted in poetry. 

NoTK 2. — AJter plus, minus, ampHu,s, or I^ngius^ in expressioDS of number and 
quantity, quam Is often omitted without influence upon the construction ; * sometimes 
also after mdjor^ minor^ etc. : 

Tecum plus annum vixit, he lived with you more than a year, Cic Minus dw 
milia, less than two thousand. Liv. 

Note 3,— Instead of the Ablative after a comparative, a preposition with its case, as 
a/nte, prae^ praeter, or suprd^ is sometimes used : 

Ante alios immanior, more monstrotts than (before) the others. Verg. 

Note 4. — Anus, involving a comparison, other than, is sometimes used with the 
Ablative . 

* These and similar Ablatives with prepositions show the transition from source to 
caitse, and illustrate the manner in which the latter was developed from the former. The 
Ablative with the preposition seems in general to retain something of the idea of source. 

a This Ablative furnishes the standard of comparison — that from ichich one starts. 
Thus, if virtue is taken as the standard of what is lovely, nothing is more so. This Abla- 
tive is sometimes explained as Instrumental (418), but that view is controverted by 8 
Bimilar use of the Greek Genitive, which does not contain the instrumental Ablative, and 
of the Sanskrit Ablative, which is often distinct ftom the instrumental. 

' Virtute = qtt-am virtus ; bonitdte = quam bonitds ; terra = quam t&rra/m '«« 

* So in expressions of age : ndttcs plUs trlgintd a/nn/m, '• having been bom more than 
thirty years. The same meaning is also expressed by major trlgintd amide nd^us, 
mujor trlgintd annis^ mdjor quam trlgintd a/mi6rum, or ma^or trigimtd ammJbrwnv, 


Qoaerlt aUa his, hi »ttk» oOter things them these. Plant Aliui saplests, other than 
» VJise man, Hor. 

Note 5. — Qttaan pro denotes disproportion, and many Ablatives- y>pi}^dn«, spe^ 
aequo, juaiOy solitn, etc.— are often beat rendered by clauses ; 

Minor caedos quam pro victoria, leas slaughter than was proportionate to the vic- 
tory. Liv, Serins spG venit, A« caTne later than was hoped (than hope). Liv. Plus 
aequ6, more thtm is fair. Cic 

2. With Comparatives, the Measors op Difference,' the amount bj 
which one thing surpasses another, is denoted by the Ablative : 

Hibernia dinddio minor quam Britannia, Ireland smaller by one half than 
Britain. Caes. 


418. The Instrumental Ablative denotes both Accom- 
paniment and Means* 

RULE XXIV.— Ablative of Accompaniment. 

419. The Ablative is used — 

I. To denote Accompaniment, It then takes the prepo- 
sition cum : 

Vivjt cum Salho, he lives with Balbus. Cic. Cum gladils stant, iheg 
stand with swords (i. e., armed y/UH swords). Cie. 

II. To denote CHAKAriTTTRisTic or Quality. It is then 
modified by an adjective or by a Genitive : 

Summa virtate adulescSns, a youth of the highest viRTnE. Caes. Qui- 
dam mSgno capite, ore rubicundo, mSgnis pedibus, a certaiti one with a 
large Jiead, with a red face, and with large feet. Plant. Catillna ingenio 
malo fuit, Catiline was a man of a bad spirit. Sail. UrI sunt specie taurl, 
the urus is (lit., the uri art) of the appearance of a bull. Caes. 

NoTB. — The Ablative, when used to denote dtaracteristic or quaiUy, may be called 
either the Descriptive Ablative or the Ablative qf Characteristic 

III. To denote Manner.' It then takes the preposition 
cum, or is modified by an adjective or by a Genitive : 

> See 4S3. 

^ The idea of meana was probably developed from that of accompaniment, as seen 
tn snch expressions as crnn omnibus copils sequitiir, ' he pursues with all his forces^ — 
accompaniment, which readily suggests means, as he employs h\i forces as meana; 
eguU ivenint, 'they went with horses^ — accompaniment and means. Some scholars 
have conjectured that originally accompaniment and mea-ns were expressed by separate 
case-forms, but of this there seems to be little proof 

* Note the close connection between these three uses of the Ablative — the first desig- 
nating an attendant person or thing — with Balhus, with swords ; the second, an at* 
t&ndant qaality — a youth with (attended by) the hdghest virtue; the third, an attendi 


Cum virtaie vlxit, he lived virtuously. Cic. Summa vl proelium con. 
miserunt, tkey joined battle with the greatest violence. Nep. Duobut 
modis fit, it is done in two ways. Cic. 

NoTB 1.— The Ablative of marvn&r sometimes takes cwm even when modified by an 
a(^ective : 

Magtm cwm curd scnpsit, Ite wrote with great oabb. Cic 

Note 2. — But the Ablative of a few words is sometimes used without cwm^ eveB 
iten unattended by an adjective, abjure^ * rightly'; ivjiirid, 'unjustly'; ordine, Mn 
an orderly manner ' ; raHone, ' systematically ' ; silmtio^ ' in silence,' etc* 

Note 8. — Per, with the Accusative, sometimes denotes manner : per vim^ * violent 
!y'; per 2Md?w», ' sportively.' 

1. On the Ablative of Accompaniment, observe — 

1) That cum is often omitted — (1) especially when the Ablative is qualiflei] 
by an adjective, and (2) sStei Jungd, miaeeS, and their compounds : 

Ingenti exercitu profectus est, lie set out with a large army. Liv. Im- 
probitas scelere jQncta, dyiravity Joined with crime. Cic. 

2) That the Ablative with mm is often used of hostile encounters ; 

Cum Gallis certare, to fight with the Gauls. Sail. Ncbiscum bostSs con- 
tenderunt, the enemy contended with us, Cic. 

Note. — For the Dative with verbs denoting vmdon or contention^ see 385, 4, 8). 

2. On the Descriptive Ablative, as compared with the Descriptive 
fiiNiTivE, observe — 

1) That in descriptions involving size and number, the Genitive is used ; 
see examples under 396, V. 

2) That in most descriptions involvina external charaderistics, parts of the 
body, and the Hhe, the Ablative is used, as in the second and fourth examples 
under 419, II. 

3) That in other instances either case may be used. 

4) That the Ablative, like the Genitive, may be used either with nouns, 
as in the first and second examples under 419, II., or with verbs in the predi- 
cate, as in the other examples, 

RITIiE XXV.— Ablative of Means. 

420. Instedment and Means are denoted by the Abla- 

Cornibus taurl s§ tutantur, bulls defend themselves with their horns. 
Cic. Oloria diicitur, lie is led by glory. Cic. Sol omnia luce coUustrat, 
the smi illumines all things with its light. Cic. Lacte vivunt, they live upon 
milk. Caes Tellus saucia/vomeribus, <Ae «ar<A teTOe(i( wounded) m<A <A< 
ploughshare. Ovid. 

ant circumstance — to live with virtue, virtuously. Compare cum Balbd »^ere and 
vwm virtuie vivere, 

> But perhaps most Ablatives which never take cwm are best explained ae the Abla- 
tive of cause — as lege, 'according to law'; coneuetHdine, 'according to coatom'; coM' 
HUd, 'on purpose.' etc. 


Nora.— This AblatlTe la of frequent ooourrence, and is used both with verba and with 

1. The following expressions deserve notice : 

1) Quadraginti hostiis saoriticare, to sacrifice with forty victims. Liv. 
Faoere vitulft, to make a sacrifice of (lit., with) a female calf. Verg. 

2) Fidibus cantilre, to play upon a stringed instrument. Cio. Pila ladere, 
to play at ball (lit., with the ball). Hor. 

S) Aurelia via proficasoi, to set out by the Aurelian way. Clc. Esdem 
itinere Ire, to go by the same road. Liv. EsquUlna porta ingredl, to enter by 
'.he MgwiUne gate. Liv. 

4) VirtQte praedttas, possessed qf virtue. Cio. LegionSs pulohrls armla 
praediUSi legions furnished with beautiful arms. Plant. 

2. Ac^icie with the Ablative forms a very common circumlocution : honbfV 
aificere = honOrare, to honor ; admirdtioTie adficere = adnuiarl, to admire ; poe- 
na adjicere = ptlnire, to punish, etc ; 

Omnes laetitia adfioit, he gladdens all. Cio. 

RUIiE XXVI.— Ablative in Special Constracttoii8>* 

421. The Ablative is used — 

I. With fitor, fruor, fungor, potior, vescor, and their compounds : 
PlVtrimls ribus fruimar et utimur, we enjoy and use vert man? things. 

Cic Magna est praedd potitus, he obtained great booty. Nep. Lacte ct 
came vescebantur, they lived upon milk and flesh, SaU. 

II. With Verbs and Adjectives op Plenty: 

Villa abundat la<^e, cSseB, mette ; the villa abounds in milk, cheese, and 
HONET. Cic. Urbs referta copiis, a city filled with supplies. Cic Virtilte 
praeditus, endowed with virtue. Cic. Deus bonis explSvit mundum, Ood 
has filled the world with blessings. Cic. 

III. With dlgnns, indlgnus,' and contentos : 

Dlgnl sunt amicitia, they are worthy of friendship. CSc Vir patrt 
dignus, a man worthy or his father. Cic. HonSre Indlgnissimus, most un- 
worthy of lumor. Cic. Natura parvo contenta, TKrfure cojifen/ wi/A Kitfe Cic. 

Note 1. — Transitive verbs of Plenty ' take the Accusative and Ablative: 

Armis n&ves onerat, he loads the ships with arms. Sail. See also the last 
example under 4iil, II. 

Note 2. — JHgnor, as a Ihseive verb meaning 'to be deemed worthy,' 

' This Ablative Is readily explained as the AblaUve of meam : thus, utor, ' I use,' ' I 
serve myaeV by means <^\' fi'wtr, 'I enjoy,' 'I delight myielt with' ; vescor,'! kei 
npon,' ' I ibed myself icUV etc. 

' The nature of the AblaUve with dtgnus and indiffnus is somewhat uncertain. On 
atymolo^cal grounds it is explained as instrumental; see Delhriick, p. T8; Corssen, 
•Krit Beitr.,' p. 4T. 

' Transitive verbs ot plenty mean 'to fill,' 'to ftamishwith,' sto., as emmilB, oeim 
jleo, impleO, imbuo, InstruO, onerO, dmo, ete. 

226 ABLATIV3. 

takes the Ablative ; but as a JJeponait verb meaning ' to deem wortihy,' used 
only in poetry and late prose, it takes the Accusative and Ablative : 

HonOre dlgnati sunt, (hei/ have been deemed worthy of honor. Cio. Me 
dlgnor honOre, I deem myself worthy of honor. Verg. 

Note 8. — JHgnus and indlgnus occur with the Genitive : 

Dlgnns Baiatia, worthy <f safety. Plaut IndlgnuB avorum, vrnworOi/y qf their an- 
cestors. Verg. 

NoTB i.—t}tor, fmor, fwngor, potior, and vescor, originally transitiye, are ocoa- 
Dlonally so used in classic authors. Their participle in dus is passive in sense. Vtor 
admits two Ablatives of the same person or thing : 

M6 Qtetor patre, he will find (use) me a faiher. Ter. 

Note 5.— B'or the OerdlMie with potior, see 410, V., 8. For the OemAtme with verba 
and adjectives of plemty, and for the Aaymatim and Genitme with tranMi/ve verbs 
of plmty, see 410, Y., 1, with foot-note, and 399, 1., 3. 

RXTIJQ XXVn.— Ablative or Price. 

422. Peice is generally denoted by the Ablative : 

Vendidita«r5patriam,AcsoHAis<!OM7i/j'^ FOR GOLD. Verg. Condiixitm^. 
n5 domum, he hired a house at a high price. Cic. Multo sanguine Poems 
victoria stetit, the victory cost ike Carthaginians (stood to the Carthaginians 
at) rmich blood. Liv. Quinquaginta talentis aestimarl, to be valued at fftj, 
talents. Nep. Vile est viginti minis, U is clieap at twenty minae. Plant. 

Note 1.— The Ablattvx of Peict Is nsed (1) with verbs of buying, aelUng, hiring., 
leMng ; (2) qf costing, of being cJieap or dear; • (3) of valuing; (4) with adjectives ol 

Note 2.— With verbs of EsoHANGma — mUto, commmto, etc — (1) the thing recelvea, 
to generally treated as the priee, as with verbs of selUng, but (2) sometimes the thing 
gicen is treated as the price, as with verbs of bwying, or is put In the Ablative with ernn : 

PSce bellum m&t^vit, he exchtm^ed war foe peace. Sail. Exsilium patrid. m&tfi- 
vit, he eaxhanged his countbt/ot esHle. Curt. Gum patriae .^tSte glOriam commQ- 
tivit, M exehamged love ofamntryfor glory. Cic. 

Note 3.— For the OsiirnvE of Fbiob, see 405. 

RUIii; XXVm.— Abla^ve of Diilicrence. 

423. The Measitke of Dbffeeence is denoted by the 
Ablative : 

Uno dii longiSrem mensem faciunt, they make the month one dat longer 
(longer by one day). Cic BiduS me antecessit, he preceded me by two 
DATS. Cic. S51 multlB partibus major est quam terra, the sun is very much 
(lit., BY UANY parts) larger than the earth, Cic. 

Note 1. — The Ablative Is thus used with all words involving a comparison, but ad' 
verbs often supply its place; TmiZt/wm rdbuatior, *much more robust.' 

Note 2.— The Ablative of difference includes the Ablative of distance (370, 2), ani 
Ae Ablative with ante, post, and dbMnAi in expressions of time (430). 

> As etd, consto, HceO, *wm, etc ; c&rus, vmdUs eto 


RTTLE ZZXS SpeciJBcation. 

424. A noun, adjective, or verb may take an Ablative 
to define its application : 

AgSsilBus" nBmine, nOn potesiate fuit r6x, Affesilaus was Hng in name, 
noiiNPOWEK. Nep. Claudus oMero pede, lame in one foot. Nep. M5ri 
bus similes, similar in character. Cio. ReliquOs GallSs virtute praecfidunt, 
Aey surpass the other Oaiils in courage. Caes. 

Note 1. — This Ablative shows in wJiat respect or parUcular anything u true: 
thus, bing (in what respect?) in name. 

NoTB 2.— For the Aooitsative of Speoifioattoh, see 378. 

ni. LocATiVB Ablative. 
RUIiE XXX.— Place in which. 

425. The Place in which is denoted — 

I. Generally by the Locative Ablative ' with the preposi- 
tion in : 

Hannibal in lialid fuit, HannHxd was in Italy. Nep, In nostrls castrts, 
in our camp. Caes. In Appia via, on the Appian way. Cic 

II. In Names of Towns by the Locative* if such a 
form exists, otherwise by the Locative Ablative : 

Rdmae fuit, he was at Romk. Cic. Corinthi pueros doc§bat, h£ taugla 
hoys AT Corinth. Cic. Athenis fuit, he was at Athens. Cio. Hoc facis 
Argis, you do this al Argos. Hor. KarthSgine reges creabantur, kings 
were elected (created) at Carthage. Nep. Gadibus visit, lie lived at Gades. 

Note.— For the construction with verhs meaning to collect, to come together^ and 
with those meaning to place, see 380, note, 

1. In the names of places which are not towns, the Locative Ablative 
is often used without a preposition : 

1) When ^he idea of means, manner, or cause is combined with that oi 

CaHris si tenuit, he kept himself in oamp, Caes. Aliquem tictS recipere, 
to receive any one m one's own HonsE. Cio. Rvelio cadere, tofaU in battle. 
Caes. Adulgscentibus dslectfirl, to take pleasure in the young. Cio. SuS 

' The learner will remember that the Locative Ablative does not differ in form from 
■ny other Ablative; see 411. 

' See 48, 4; 61, S; 66, 4. The Locative was the original construction In all names 
•f places. 

' In some cases place and means are so combined that it Is difficult to determlae 
which Is the original conception. 


victftria gloriantur, they glory in iheir victory. Caes. Nulla officio assuefaoH, 

lirainei in no duty. Caes. 

No™. — ^The Ablative is generally used with fldo^ cojifldo^ nltor^ inmtof^anA frStuai 
l?gm6 fortunae stabilitute confiditf no one trusts (confides in) the stability offor> 

time, Gic. Salua veritate oltitur, safety rests v^on truth. Cic. Fretus amicis, retying 

upon Ms friends. Liv. 

2) When the Idea of place la figurative rather than literal: 

Nova pectore versat consilia, she devises (turns over) new plans is heb 
BREAST. Verg. Stare judiaiis, to abide by (stand in) the deoisions.' Clo. 
PromissiB manere, to remain true to promises (lit., remain m). Verg. Pen- 
dere animts,* to bif perplexed in mind, Cic. Intimis sSnsibus aifgl, to be 
troubled in one's inmost feelings. Cic. Fer6x bells, valiant in war. Hor. 
Jilre peritus, skilled in law. Jie. 

2. The Ablatives loco, loeis, parte, partibus, dextrd, laeva, and sinistra 
are often used without the preposition. Terra and marl and Ablatives 
with totus are generally so used. 

Aliqmd loco fonere, to put anything ut ITS Fi.jLai:. Cio. Terra manque, on 
land and sea. Liv. Tota Graeoia, in all Greece. Nep. 

Note I. — ^The Ablative M6ro, 'book,* generally takes tlie preposition when used of a 
portion of a work, but umits it when used of an entire treatise : 

In eu libro, in this book (referring to a portion of the work). Cic. Alio Ubro, in an- 
other work. Cic. 

Note 2. — Other Ablatives sometimes occur without the preposition, especially wheu 
qualified by om/nis, medius, orjiniv&rsus ; 

Omnibus oppidis, in alt the towns, Caes. 

Note 8.— In poetry the Locative Ablative is often used without the preposition : 

Lucis opacis, in shady groves. Verg. Silvis agrisque, in the forests and fields. Ov, 
Tbeatrls, in the theatres. Hor. Ferre umero, to bear upon the sJumlder. Verg. 

3. Ablative for the Locative. — Instead of the Locative in names of 
towns the Ablative is used, with or without a preposition — 

1) When the proper name is qualified by an adjective or adjective pronoun : 
In ipsa Alexandria," in Alexandria itself. Cic. Longa Alba, at Atbi 

Longa. Verg. 

2) Sometimes when not thus modified : 

In monte Albano Lavinioque, on the Alban mouni and at Lavinimn. Liv. 
In Alexandria," at Alexandria. Liv. 

Note. — The following special con^trucUons deserve notice : 

In oppido Oitio,' im the town Citiwm. Nep. Albae,* In urbe opportunii, at Alba, a 
eonv&nient city. Cic. 

> In the singular anirtvl is generally used, a Locative probably both in form and in 
signification; see p. 211, foot-note 4. 

» At Alexandria would regularly be expressud by the Locative, Alewamdriae. 

a Here Citin is in apposition with oppido, the usual construction in such cases, though 
a Genitive limiting oppido occurs: In oppido Antiochiae, in tlie city of Antioch. Cic. 

* A Locative may thus be followed by in wrbe, or in oppidn, modified by an a4jec- 
tive; but see 363, 4. 2). The preposition in is sometimes omitted. 


426. Like Names of Towks are used — 

1. Many Names of Islands: 

Lesbl vlxit, he lived in Ltsbos. Nep. ConOn CyprI vixit, Conon lived in 
Oi/prus. Nep. 

2. The Locatives domi, turi, huml, militiae, and belli : 

DomI mllitiaeque, at home and in the field. Cic. Rurl agere vltam, to 
spend life in the country. Liv. 

NoTB. — A few other Locatives also occur : 

KSmae Numidlaeque, at Some and in Nwnidia. Sail. Domum GhersonesI habnit 
h» had a liome in the Cherson^siM. Nep. Truncum reliquit arenae,! A« l^ the body 
in the aa9ul. Yerg. 

427. Stjmmary. — The Names of Places not towns are gen- 
arally put — 

I. In the Accusative with ad or in, to denote the place to which : 
In Asiam redit, he reiums to (into) Asia. Nep. 

II. In the Ablative with ab, de, or ex, to denote the place feom which : 
Ab urbe proflelscitur, he sets out from the eity. Caea. 

III. In the Locative Ablative with in, to denote the place at or in which : 
Hannibal in Italia fuit, Hannibal was in Italy. Nep. 

NoTK.— For qualifications and eaceptions, see 380, S and 4: 418, 2; 485, 1 and 8. 

428. Summary. — The Names of Towns are put'— 
I. In the Acmsative, to denote the place to which : 
Ntotins EOmam redit, the messenger returns to Some. Liv. 

V. In the Ablative, to denote the place from which : 

Fflgit Corintho, hejUdfrom Corinth. Cic. 

III. In the Locative, or in the Locative Ablative,* to denote the place at 
or IN which : 

CorinthI puerOs docSbat, he taught boys at Corinth. Cic. G&dibus visit, 
ie lived at Cades. Cic. 

NoTK. — For qttal\flcationa and eaceptions, see 380, 1 ; 418, S; 485, 8. 


429. The Time of an Action is denoted by the Ablative : 

Octogesimd annS est mortuus, he died in his eightieth tear. Cic. Vere 
:!onvenSre, they assembled m the spring. Liv. K&tili die suo, on his birth- 

• So also terrae and vtclniae. 

' This, the original cODatniction for all names of places, haa been retained onchanged 
mly in the names of towns and in a fbw other words. Most names of places have as- 
lumed h preposition with the Accusatire and Ablatice, and have sub^titnted the Loca- 
tive Ablative with ^preposition in place of the Locatire ; see 411, III. 

> That is, the Loeathoe is osed If any such form exists; if not, the Locative AblaUvl 
Applies its place. 


day, Nep. ^leme (A assts.te, in wirUer and summer. Cic. Solis occ3su, al 
sunset. Caes. Adrentu Caesaris, mi the arrival of Caesar, Caes. Liidls, 
at the time of the games. Clc. Vix decern annls, scarceli/ in ten years. Nep. 
His vlgintl annls, within these twenty years. Cic. 

1. Certain relations of Time are denoted by the Ablative with in or do: 
In tali tempore,' at such a time (i. e., under such oircumstanoes). Liv." In 

diebus proximls decern,' in the next ten days. Sail. De media noote, i?i. (lit., 
from,, out of ) the middle of the night. Caes. 

2. Certain relations of Time are denoted by the Accusative with ad, in, 
inter, intra, sub, etc. -. 

Ad constitutam diem, at the appointed day. Cic. Ad cenam invltare in 
posterum diem, to invite to dinner for the next day. Cic. Intra viginti dies, 
within twenty days. Plant. Inter tot annos, within so many years. Cic. 
Sub noctem, toward night. Caes. 

430. The Intbbtal between two events may be denoted by 
the Accusative or Ablative with ante or post : " 

Aliquot post menses ' ocolsus est, he was put to death same months after, 
Cic. Post dies paucos v6nit, he came after a few days. Liv. Panels ante 
diebus,' a few days before. Cic. Homerus annls multis fuit ante Rsmulum, 
Homer lived many years before Hamulus. Cic. Pauols diebus post ejus mor- 
tem, a few days after his death. Cic. Annls quingentis post,/j)e hundred 
years after. Cic. Quartum post annum quam redierat, four years after he 
had returned. Nep. Nono anno postquam, nine years after. Nep. Sexto 
anno quam erat expulsus, six years after he had been banished. Nep. 

Note 1. — In these examples observe — 

1) That the numeral may be either cardinal, as in the sixth example, or ordinal, as in 
the last three,^ 

2) That with the Accusative amte and post either precede the numeral and the noun, 
or stand between them; but that with the Ablative they either follow both, or stand 
between them.^ 

8) That quam may follow ante and post, as in the seventh example; may be uniteA 
with them, as in the eighth, or may be used for postqunm, as in the ninth. 
Note 2.— The Ablative of the Relative may be used for postquam : 
Quatriduo, quo occlsus est, four days after he was killed. Cic. 

' The Ablative with in is used to denote (1) the circumstances of the time, and (2) 
the time in or witliin which. In the second sense it is used especially after numeral 
Adverbs and in designating the periods of life : bis in die, ' twice in the day ' ; in pueri- 
tid, ' in boyhood,* etc. 

2 In two instances the Ablative with abhinc Is used like the Ablative with ante: 
Abhinc triginta diebus, thirty days before. Cic. 

* The Accusative after ante and post depends upon the preposition, but the Ablative 
is explained as the measure of diff&re/nce (433). 

* Thus, *five yearsafter' = gwMigMe «7m?8j?o8^, or gw??tte fiwinfl _pofi^,* orpostquln- 
que ammds., or post qulntu/m anmum ; or with post between the numeral and the noon, 
qwinque post annls, etc. 

tt Any other arrangement is rare. 


Ncm S. — The time Hnee an event may be denoted by the AocantiTe iritb ailUnc M 
int&, or by the Ablative with ant6:^ 

Abhinc annos trecentSs fait, lie Imed three hwndred years ago. Cio. Fanoli antt 
ilfbus eriipit ex urbe, he broke out qftfte eUya/ew days ago. Cio, 

RUUQ XXXn.— Ablative Absolute.* 

431. A noun and a participle may be put in the Abla- 
tive to add to the predicate an attendant circumstance : 

Servia rSgnante viguerunt, tliey jUmrished in the reign of Senmts (Ser- 
vias reigning).* Cic RSgibus exSctls, consuISs creStl sunt, after the ban- 
ishment of the kings,* consul's were appointed. Liv, EquitStil praemisso, 
BubsequSb&tur, having sent /orioard his cavcdry, he foUmced, Caes. Reg> 
num baud satis prOsperum neglectft r^ligiSne, a reign not suffidenUg pros- 
perous beeawse religion was neglected. Liv. Perditis rebus omnibus tamen 
virtQs sS sustentSre potest, though all ihbigs are lost, stUl virtue is able to 
tustain itself. Cic Obsidibus imperatis, hos Aeduls trSdit,' having de- 
manded hostages, he delivers them to the Aedui. Caes. 

1. The Ablative Absolute, much more common than the English Nomiiia- 
dve Absolute, generally expresses the time, cause, or some atteadant dreum- 
iance of an action. 

8. This Ablative is generally best rendered — (1) by a noun with ^prepo- 
tiUon — in, during, after, hy, with, through, etc. ; (2) by an atHvt participle 
with its object ; or (3) by a clause with when, while, because, if, though, eto. i" 
see examples above. 

3. A connective sometimes accompanies the Ablative : 

Nisi milnltls oastris, unless the camp should heforUJied. Caes. 

4. A noun and an a^edive, or even two nouns, may he in the Ablativ* 

' The Accusative is explained as duraUon qf Ume (379), the Ablative as 7ji4aswt 
cf difarence (4S3). 

2 This Ablative Is called absolute, because it is not directly dependent for its con* 
structioQ upon any other word In the senteDce. Originally Zocative, it was first used to 
denote situation or time, a uieaning from which its later uses may be readily derived. 
Thus, while the force of a Locative Ablative is apparent in Servio regnante and in regi 
bus exdctu, it is recognized without difflcnity in n^fectd rUigione as indicating the 
situation or itate of things in which the reign was not prosperous. In some instances, 
however, the Ablative Absolute may be instrumental or causal, 

' Or, while Servius was reigning or was king. 

* Or, ajler th^ kings were banished- 

* In this example obsidiius and his refer to the same persons. This Is nnnsnsl, sa 
Id this construction the Ablative generally refBrs to some person or thing not otherwise 
mentioned in the danse to which it belongs. 

8 The first method of translation comes nearer the original Latin concftption, but the 
other methods generally accord better with the English idiom. 

' This construction is peculiar to the Latin. In the corresponding constructions to 
Banskrit, Greek, and English, the present participle of the verb *to fee'lsuied. 


SerSnO caelo, when the ahyii clear. Sen. Canlnio oOnaule, in the mtuul 
f^4p of Carmdus. Cio. 

Note 1, — An inftnMve m etamae may b« In the AblatlTe Absolnte with a nentei 
participle or adjective : 

Audits Dfirium mdvlsse, pCi^t, hwving heard that Darius had withdrawn (thai 
Darius had, etc., having been heard), he achiameed. Curt. Multi, incerto quid vitarent, 
Interi^runt, mamy, uncertain what they should a/eoid (vrhat they, etc., being uncertain), 
perished. Li v. 

NoTB 2.— A participle or a<^ecUve may Btand alone in the Ablative Absolute : 

Multum certat5, pervlcit, he coTiqu&red after a hard struggle.^ Tac. 

NoTB S. — Qwisque or ipse In the Nommaime may accompany the Ablative Absolute : 

Multis sibi qulBque petentibus, while mamjy sought^ each for himself. Sail. CausS 
Ipse pr5 sS dicta damnStur, ha/oing Tuimself advocated Ms own cause^ he is con- 
denrned. LIT. 

NoTB 4.— For the use of dbsmite and praeeente In the Ablative Absolnte with a 
plnnlnouo or prononn, see 438, 6, not& 


BTTLE XXXin.— Cases with Prepositions. 

432. The AccuBative and Ablative may be used with 
prepositions : * 

Ad amicum scrlpsi, I have written, to a friend. Cic. In cQriam, into the 
lenate-house. Lir. In Italia, in Italy, Nep. FrS castrls, hefore the camp, 

433. The AccusATivB is used with — 

Ad, adyersus (adversum), ante, apud, circS, circum, drciter, cis, citrS, 
contra, erga, extra, Infra, inter, intra, juxta, ob, penes, per, pOne, post, 
praeter, prope, propter, secundum, supra, trans, Ultra, versus : 

Ad urbem, to the city. Cio. Adversus deOs, toward the gods, Cio. Ante 
\fiia&m,hef ore light. Cio. A^yxAoonaWmaijinthepresenceof the council. Cio.' 
Ciroa forum, around the forum, Cio. Citra fltlmen, on this tide of the river, 
Cic. Contra naturam, contrary to nature. Cio. Intra murOs, within tM 
walls, Cio. Post oastra, behind the camp. Caes. Secundum natflram, ao- 
aording to nature. Cic Trans Alpes, across the Alps, Cio. 

Note \.~~E!E<id/ver«us {uni) also occurs with the Accusative ; 

Exadverfius eum locum, over against that place. Cic. See also 437. 

Note 2.— Versus (um) and usque, as adverbs, often accompany prepositions, ei. 
praially ad and m .* 

Ad ficeanum versus, toward the ocean. Caes. Ad meridiem versus, toward thi 
eouth. Liv. Usque ad castra hoBtium, even to the camp of the enemy. Caes. 

> Literally, it ha/Bing teen much contested. The participle is used impersonally. 
* On the general subject of Prepositions and their Use, see Roby, II., pp. 861-4S$; 
Oneger, L, pp. eT4^6r.6; Klihnw IL, pK SS5-4SJ 


ITon 8.— For proptv^, proaiml, propior, and proxlmua, with the AccusatlT*, Ke 
prope, note 2, under I., below, 

Satx 4.— For eompowndt of prepoHUom, see 378 and 376. 

I. The following uses of prepositions with the Accusative deserve notice : 
Ad, TO, the opposite of oi, tbom — (1) to, toward, till ; (2) heab, at, on: 
td ms, ' to me,' ' near me,' ' at my house ' ; ad urbem, ' to the city,' ' near the 
city ' ; ad dextram, ' on the right ' ; orf multam noctem,^ till late in the night ' ; 
ad fecem, 'tUl daybreak'; ad Asc, ' besides this,' 'moreover'; ad verbum, 
•word for word'; ad hunc modum, ^ after this manner'; ad uUim/mn, 'at 
last' ; ad nnwm omnet, ' all to a man,' ' all without exception.' 

Apud, NEAB, AT, BEFOBE, m THE FBEsBNOE OF : apud oppidum, ' near or 
before the town ' ; apud mi, ' at my house ' ; eum apud me, ' I am at home ' 
or ' I am in my right mind ' ; apud Platonem, ' in the works of Plato.' 


'before his time,' 'too early' ; ante iempm, 'before the proper time'; ante 
annum, ' a year before ' ; ante urbem conditam, ' before the founding of the 
tity' ; ante aU6s pulcherrimus omrOs, 'the most beautiful above all others.' 

Circum, circ3;, circiter,' bound, abound, about: cireum forum, 
' around the forum ' ; Hrcd si, ' around or with himself ; oirca eandem hOram, 
'about the same hour' ; circiter meridiem, 'shout midday.' 

Note. — Oiroam, the oldest of these forms, Is used only of place,' drod, both ol 
place and of time ; circiter^ rare as a preposition, chiefly of tiTne, They are all freely 
used as adverbs: circum conmnlr&, 'to gather around'; circa esse, 'to be around '^ 
circiter pars quarta, ' about the fourth part.' 

Cis, citra,^ on this side — cie opposed to trctns, aoboss, on the otheb 
BIDE ; <»trd opposed to ultra, beyond : dsfMneM, ' on this side of the stream ' ; 
ds paucds dila, ' within a few days ' ; citrd veritdtem, ' short of the truth ' ; 
citrd audoritflian, ' without authority.' 

Contra,,' OPPOSITE to, ovee against, aoainst, oohtbaet to : contrS, e&a 
regidnii, ' opposite to those regions' ; contra populmn, ' against the people ' ; 
eorUrd naturam, ' contrary to nature.' 

Erg9.,< TOWARD, TO, against: ergd parentit, 'toward parents'; odium 
ergd BomdnSs, ' hatred to the Eomans ' ; ergd regem, ' against the king.' 

Extra, OUTSIDE, without, free feom, except : extra portam, ' outside 
the gate'; extra eulpam, 'without fault,' 'free from fault'; extra ducem, 
' except the leader,' * besides the leader.' 

Infra,' BELOW, under, beneath, less than, afteb, LATER THAN, opposed 
to supra, above : mfrd lunam, ' beneath the moon ' ; itifrd me, ' below me ' ; 
in/rd ires pedes, ' less than three feet' ; Infra I/yeHrgvnn, ' after Lycurgus.' 

' For the fwm and meardng of prepositions In composition, see 344, 5, 
> These three forms are all derived from &i/rcus, 'a circle' (I. e., fi-om Its stem) ; R0« 
804; 307, note 1. 

' These are often adverbs. 

* According to Yanicek, fh)m I and the root reg In regii\ 'In the direction of (lit., 
from the direction of). In Tacltns, eomeUmes lie belatioh to : erga domwm snam, 
'4n nlation to his own household.' 

• /«t/*"a = inferapartk. 'to the lower part' 


Inter," between, among, in the iiiosr of : inter uriem, et Tiberim, ' be- 
tween the city and the Tiber' ; inter bonds, 'among the good ' ; inter manOt, 
' in the hands,' ' within reach,' ' tangible ' ; inter im, ' between us,' ' in con- 
fidence ' ; inter se amare, ' to love one another ' ; inter se differre, ' to diffeJ 
from one another' ; inter paucds, inter panea, ' especially,' ' preeminently ' ; 
inter paucSs diserttn, ' preEminently eloquent' ; i?iter pmjmram aiqueawrum, 
' in the miast of purple and gold.' 

Intra, within, less than, below, opposed to esctra, on the outside, 
iriTHouT: intra contra, 'within the camp'; intra me, ' within-me' ;' intri 
se, ' in his mind ' or ' in their minds ' ; ' imlrd centwm, ' less than one hundred ' 
intrd modum, ' within the limit ' ; intrd/dmam, ' below his reputation.' 


one's eyes' ; oh etuUitiam tuam, ' in view of your folly,' or ' in regard to your 
folly ' ; ob hano rem, ' in view of this thing,' ' for this reason,' ' on this ao> 
aount' ; qwam ob rem, ' in view of which thing,' ' wherefore.' 

Per,* THROUGH, bt the aid of : per forum, ' through the forum ' ; per alida, 
'through others,' 'by the aid of others' ; per si, 'by his own efforts,' also 
' in himself,' ' in itself ; per metum, ' through fear ' ; per aetdtem, ' in conse- 
quence of age ' ; per Uid%im, ' sportively ' ; per vim, ' violently ' ; per mi licet, 
' it is allowable as far as I am concerned ' (i. e., I make no opposition). 

Post, BEHIND, after, sinoe : post mMitem,, ' behind the mountain ' ; po^ 
iidicdtiSnem templl, ' after the dedication of the temple ' ; po^ iominum 
memoriam, ' since the memory of man.' 

Praeter,= before, along, past, bt, betono, besides, except, oontrart 
ro: praeter oculos, 'before their eyea^ ; praeter oram, 'along the coast'; 
praeter i^terSe, ' beyond others,' ' more than others ' ; praeter haee = praeter-ed, 
' besides these things,' ' moreover* ; praeter mis, ' except me ' ; praeter spem, 
•.contrary to expectation.' 

Prope, propter, near, near bt. Prope, near ; propter =pTope- 
<er, a strengthened form ot prope,' vert near, alongside of, also in view of, 
ON aooount of : prope Tiostes, • near the enemy ' ; prope metum, ' near to fear,' 
• almost fearful ' ; propter mare, ' near the sea ' ; propter (imSrem, ' on acoonni 
of fear' ; propter ee, ' on his own account,' ' on their own account.' 

!NoTS l.—Prope^ as an adverb. Is sometimes combined with d, ab, or ad; propt 
a Sicilia, ' near Sicily,' ' not far from Sicily ' ; prope ad portde, ' near to the gates.' 

Note 2. — Like prope^ the derivatives propius and proxime, and sometimes evei 
propior and proximus, admit the Accasatlve : ' 

Froplus perlcnium, nearer to danger. Liv. PrSxlme deSs, verj/ near to the godt. 

1 Formed from in by the ending ter, Hke prae-ter ftom pnte (434, L), prcp-ter 
bom prope (433, 1.), and mb-ter from mb (435, 1.). 

• Often equivalent to in meo andmd, *ln my mind.' 

• Sometimes, in Me country, or i/n their covntry, 
' In origin kindred to the Greek wapi. 

» Tormed from prae (434, 1.), like tn-ter tnm im; see Inter, with lbot-not« 

• See iTiter. with foot-note. 

' Perhaps by a construction according to sense, following the analogy at prope, thoogt 
Id most cases a preposition may readily be supplied. 


Cfcj. Proplor montem, ntarer to the mountain Sail. PrSzimus mare, nearett to Ut* 
ftea. Caes. 

Secundum,' followdtg, next after, bext BEBnrD, aiongside of, con- 
forming TO, AoooRDrvo TO, IN FATOB OF ; Secundum aram, ' behind the altar' ; 
teeundum deis, 'next after the gods' j secundum ludos, 'after the games'. 
Hcundum fiuinen, ' along the river ' ; secundum ndturam, ' according to na- 
ture,' ' following nature ' ; secundum causam nostram, ' in favor of our cause.' » 

Supra.,* ON THE TOP, ABOVE, BEFORE, TOO HIGH FOB ; OppOsed tO infra, 

jisLow : supra lUnam, ' above the moon ' ; suprH hanc memoriam, ' before 
our time ' ; • supra hominem, ' too high for a man.' 

Trans, across, on the other bide, opposed to eis, on this side : trdna 
Rhinum, 'across the Ehine'; trans Alpis, 'on the other side of the Alps.' 


AFTER, opposed to ciira, on this side : Ultrd eum locum, ' beyond that place ' ; 
mtrd eum, ' beyond him' ; iHird pignut, ' more than a pledge ' ; uUa-dfidem,, 
' beyond belief,' ' inoiedible • ; fiftnl puerilia annSs, ' after (beyond) the years 
of boyhood.' 

434. The ABiiATm: is used with— 

A or ab (absX absque, cOram, cum, dB, 

fi w e3[» prae, priS, sice, tenus, 

Ab nrbe, from ih$ city. Caes. Coram oonventQ, in Oie presence of the 
Msemhly. Nep. Cum AntiochS, with Antiochus. Cio. Ds forO, from the 
*onim. Cio. Ex Asia, out of Asia. Nep. Sine corde, without a heart. Cic. 

ITnni i.— Many verbs componnded with ab, de, ex, or super admit the Ablative 
Aepeodent upon the preposition, but the preposition is often repeated,^ or some other 
preposition of kindred meaning Is nsed : 

Abire maglfltritu, to retire from office. Tao. PBgnS excSdmit, they retire from the 
tattle. Caes. SS vftS dScSdeie, to depart from life. Cic. Decedere ex AsiS, to depart 
outofAHa. (3e. 

KOTB %-^A and S are nsed only before consonants, ab and esa before either vowels or 
consonants. Abs is antiquated, except before te. 

KoTR 8. — For cum appended to the Ablative of a personal pronoon orot A relaijve, 
Bee 184, 6, and 187, 2. 

Note 4. — Tenus fbllows Its case. In Its origin It Is the Accusative of a noun,' and 
as anch It often takes the Genitive : 

CoUd tenus, up to the neck. Ov. LnmbSmm teLus, as far as the loins. Cto. 

• Properly the neuter of secundus, 'fbllowtog," second'; but secwndus is a gemnd- 
tve from sequor. formed like dlcundus from dlco (239). For the change of $u to o 
before u In sec-undus for segu-undus, see 36, foot-note. 

' Like the adjective secundus in venius secundus, ' a ibvoring wind ' — one that follows 
Ks on our course; Jlnmine secwndo, ' with a fevoring current' (1. e., down the stream), 

• Suprd = superd parte, ' on the top.' 

• Literally, b^ore this memory. For hie meaning my or our, see 450, 4, note 1. 

^ Though in such cases the first element of the compound is not strictly a preposi- 
tion, hut an adverb (344, with foot-note). Thus, in de mid decSdere, de in the vert 
retains its adverbial force, so that, strictly speaking, the preposition is nsed only ooce. 

• From the not tan, teru, seen in ten-da, te»-eO, and in the Greek rtiy-v. 


NoTi 5.— For the Ablatlre with or wlthoDt di, as nied with faeUs, fit, and mim, Kt 
tl5, III., note. 

I. The following uses of prepositions with the Ablative deaerTs notice : 

Jl, ab,' abs, fkom, bt, dt, on, on thp side or. 1. Of Place ; fkom, on, 
ON THE SIDE OF i & GalUct, ' from Gaul ' ; ab ortw, ' from the east' ; dfronte, 
' in front ' (lit., from the front) ; a, tm-gd, ' in the rear ' ; ab Siquanis, ' on the 
side toward the Sequani.' 8. Of Time ; from, after : ab hori tertia, ' from 
the third hour'; a puerO, 'from boyhood'; ab cohortdUone, 'after exhort- 
ing.' 3. In other relations / from, by, in, against : a poena liber, ' free from 
punishment ' ; missus ah Syracusis, ' sent by the Syracusans ' ; ah equUaM 
firmus, ' strong in (yit.,from) cavalry' ; ab animo aeger, 'diseased in mind ' ; 
ah els difendere, ' to defend against {from) them ' ; esse ab aliquS, ' to be on 
one's side ' ; a, ndbif, ' in our interest ' ; servtis a pedihns^ ' a footman.' 

'Sam.— Absque, rare in classical prose, is found chiefly In Plautus and Terence. 

Cum,> WITH, in most of its English meanings : cum patre habitdre, ' to 
live with one's father ' ; Caesar cum qtiingue legionibue, ' Caesar with five 
legions ' ; cSnsul cum, sumTnS imperio, ' the consul with supreme command ' ; 
eervm cum ield, ' a slave with a weapon,' ' an armed slave ' ; cum prima luce, 
' with the early dawn,' ' at the early dawn ' ; comentvre cum aliquo,- ' to agree 
with any one ' ; cum Caesare agere, ' to treat with Caesar ' ; cum aliqud ditn/i' 
care, ' to contend with any one ' ; mulUs cum lacrimls, ' with many tears ' ; 
etmi virtute, ' virtuously ' ; cum ed ut, or cum eS quod, * with this condition 
that,' ' on condition that.' See also 419, III, 

De, DOWN FROM, FROM, OF. 1. Of Placc ; down from, from: di caeli, 
' down from heaven ' ; de ford, ' from the forum ' ; di mdjdrihtis atidwe, ' to 
hear from one's elders.' 2. Of Time; from, out of, during, in, at, after: 
diprandiO, * from breakfast ' ; de dH, ' by day,' ' in the course of the day ' ; di 
tertid vigilid, ' during the third watch ' ; de media node, ' at about midnight' 
8. In other relations; from, of, fob, on, oonoerning, aooobdino to: <fe 
eum/mO genere, 'of the highest rarsk.^ ; factwn di marmore signum, 'a bust 
made of marble'; homS di plebe, 'a man of plebeian rank,' 'a plebeian'; 
triumphus de GalUd, ' a triumph over {concerning) Gaul ' ; gravl de causa, 
' for a grave reason ' ; dl mdre vctusfo, ' according to ancient custom ' ; de in' 
dustrid, ' on purpose' ; di inttgrS, ' anew.' See also 415, III., note 2. 

£, ex,' out of, from. 1. Of Place ; our of, from, in, on : ex urbe, ' from 
the city,' ' out of the city ' ; ex equSpHgnare, ' to fight on horseback ' ; ex vin~ 
mUs, 'in chains' (lit., out of or from chains); ex itinere, 'on the march.' 
i. Of Time ; from, directly after, sdioe : ex ed tempore, ' from that time ' ; 
ex tempore dicere, ' to speak extemporaneously ' ; diem ex dii, ' from day to 
day.' 3. In other relations; from, out of, of, acoording to, on account of, 
THROUGH : ex vulnerihus perlre, 'to perish of (because of) wounds' ; fmm I 
filiis, ' one of the sons ' ; ex convmutdtiine, ' on account of the change ' ; ex 
conguetadine, ' according to custom ' ; ? veatigio, ' on the spot ' ; ex part* 
mdgnd, ' in great part ' ; ex imprbviso, ' unexpectedly.' 

I Onck itr6. " Oomnare Gnek (^y, avv, with. > Comnue Oraek it, out of 

OJill£!S WITH PMMI'UiHTWJfm. 237 

Prae, before, in oompasison with, in consequence of, because of : 1 
prm mana esse, ' to be at hand ' ; prae manu habdre, ' to have at hand ' ; prae 
ei/erre, ' to show, display, exhibit ' ; prae nobis teains, ' happy in oomparisoi 
with us ' ; nonprae lat-rimis ^ posse, ' not to be able because of tears.' 

Pp5, before; in behalf of, in defence of, foe; instead of, as; in 
RETURN FOR, FOR ; ACCORDING TO, IN PROPORTION TO ; pro castrU, ' before the 
camp ' ; pro llbertdte, ' in defence of liberty ' ; pro putrid, ' for the country ' ; 
pro consule = proconsul, 'a proconsul' (one acting /or a consul) ; pro certo 
habere, ' to regard as certain ' ; pro eo, quod, ' for the reason that,' ' because ' ; 
pro tua prudentia, ' in accordance with your prudence ' ; pro imperio, ' im- 
periously ' ; pro si quisque, ' each according to his ability.' 

435. The AccTJSATrvB or Ablatfvb is used with — 
In, sub, subter, super : 

In Asiam profagit, he fled into Asia. Cio. Hannibal in Italia fuit, Han- 
nibal was in Italy. Nep. Sub montem, toward the mountain. Caes. Sub 
monte, at the foot of the mountain. Liv. Subter togam, under the toga. Liv. 
Subter testudine, under a tortoise or shed. Verg. Super Numidiam, beyond 
Numidia. Sail. Hftc super rS seribam, J shall write on this subject. Cic. 

Note t. — In and svib take the Aocusatire after verbs implying motion^ the Ablative 
after those implying rest; see examples. 

Note 2. — Subter and super generally take the Accusative ; but super, when it means 
concerning, qf, on (of a subject of discourse), takes the Ablative; see examples. 

I. The following uses of in, s^li, sMiiw, and super deserve notice : 
In, with the Aeeusdtive, into, to, toward, till. 1. Of Place ; into, to, 
TOWARD, AQAiNST, IN : irc in urbem, 'to go into the city'; in Persas, 'into 
the country of the Persians ' ; in dram, ' to the altar ' ; unum in locum con- 
venire, ' to meet in one place ' (380, with note). 2. Of Time ; into, to, for, 
TILL : in Tioctem,, ' into the night ' ; in muUam noctem, ' until late at night ' ; 
in diem, ' into the day,' also ' for the day ' ; in dies, ' from day to day,' ' daily ' ; 
invitdre inposterum diem, 'to invite for the following day.' 3. In other rela- 
tions / INTO, AGAINST, TOWARD, ON, FOR, AS, IN I divlsa in partes trSs, ' divided 
into three parts ' ; in hostem, ' against the enemy ''; in id certdmen, ' for this 
contest ' ; in m^emoriam patris, ' in memory of his father ' ; in spem pads, ' in 
the hope of peace ' ; in rem esse, ' to be useful,' ' to be to the purpose.' 

In, with the Ablative, in, on, at. 1. Of Place ; \s, at, within, among, 
UPON : in urbe, ' in the city ' ; in Persis, ' among the Persians ' ; eapientis- 
simus in s^tem, ' the wisest among or of the seven.' 2. Of Titne ; in, at, 
DURING, IN THE COURSE OF : in. tdU tempore, ' at such a time ' ; in tempore, ' in 
time.' 8. In other relations ; in, on, upon, in the case of : esse in armis, ' to 
be in arms ' ; in summo Umore, ' in the greatest fear ' ; in h5c Aomine, ' in the 
case of this man." 

Sub, with the Accusative, under, beneath, toward, up to, about, direct- 

' This causal meaning Is developed ttom the loca/. The noun in the Ablative is 
thought of as an obstacle or hindrance : non prae lacriinls posse, ' not to be able b^ 
fort, ^ thtpresMvie qf, because ^such a hindrance as tears.' 


LT ATTBR : sut jugwm mittere, ' to send under the yoke ' ; sub nostram aciem,^ 
' toward our line ' ; mi astra, ' up to the stars ' ; sub veeperum, ' toward even- 
ing ' ; sub eds lUteras, ' directly after that letter ' ; mb impermm reddctus, 
' brought under one's sway.' 

Sub, with the Ablative^ undeb, at, at the foot of, in, about : tfub terra, 
' under the earth ' ; sub pelUbus, ' in tents ' ; ' srib brwma, ' at the time of the 
winter solstice ' ; sub Uboe, ' at dawn ' ; sub Mc verba, ' under this word ' ; tub 
iuMce, ' in the hands of the judge ' (i. e., not yet decided). 

Note. — Subter, a. streDgthened form '^ of sub, meaning under, generally takes the 
Accfusative, though It admits the Ablative in poetry; subter mare, 'under the sea'; 
subt^r togwm, 'under the toga'; subter densd testudine, 'under a compact testudo.' 

Super, with, the Acciisatine, ovee, upon, above : sedens super arma, ' sit- 
ting upon the arms ' ; super NumMiam, ' beyond Numidia ' ; super sexagwtd 
rraUa, ' upward of sixty thousand ' ; super ndluram, ' supernatural ' ; svp^ 
omnia, ' above all.' 

Super, with the Ablative, tjpoit, at, DUHEsra, oonoekninq, of, on : itrdto 
super astro, 'upon purple couches '(lit., upon the spread purple) \ node super 
media, ' at midnight ' ; hdc super re smhere, ' to write upon this subject ' ; 
mmlta super Priamo rogitdns, ' asking many questions ahout Priam.' 

Note. — The Ablative is rare with sfuper, except when it means concem/^g. about, on 
(of the subject of discourse). It is then the regular construction, 

436. Prepositions were originally adverbs (307, note 1), and many of 
the words generally classed as prepositions are often used as adverbs ^ in 
classical authors : 

Ad mllibus quattuor, about four thousand. Gaes. Omnia contra circ&que, 
all thmgs opposite and around. Liv. Prope a Sieilla, not far from Sieiilf. 
Cic. Juxta positus, placed near by. Nep. Supra, Infra esse, to be above, be- 
low. Cio. Neo citra nee ultra, neitTter on this dde nor on that side. Ov. 

437. Conversely, several words generally classed as adverbs are some- 
times used as preppsitions. Such are — , 

1. With the AoousATivE, propius, prOnMiH, vridiS, postridie, usque, di- 

Propius perloulum, nearer to danger. Liv. Pridie Idfls, the day before 
the Ides. Cio. Usque pedes, even to the feet. Curt. 

2. With the Ablative, intus, palam, procul, simul (poetic) : 

Tall intus templS, within such a temple. Verg. Palam popule, in the 
presence of the people. Liv. ProtxlaaeXtiB, at a distance from the camp. Tao. 
Simul his, with these. Hor. 

8. With the Aoousativb or Ablative, clam, msuper : 

Clam patrem, without the father'' s hnowledge. Plant. Clam votis, wiihffiA 
your hnowledge. Caes. 

' That is, in cwmp (lit., under skins). 

^ Formed from Biib, like i/rtr-ter from in; see 433, 1., i/nter, foot-note. 

^ They are, in fact, sometimes adverbs and sometimes prepositions. 



RUIiE XXXTV.— Agreement of Adjectives. 

438. An adjective agrees with its noun in gender, 
NTJMBEE, and case: 

Fortona caeca est, fortune is blind. Cic. Verae amicitiae, true friend- 
sMps. Cic. Maglster optimus, the best teacher. Cic. Qua in r§ privStfis 
injuriaa ultus est, in which thing he avenged private wrongs. Caes. Sol 
oriSns diem cSnficit, the sun rising makes the day. Cic 

1. A^eoHve Pronouns and Participlei are Adjectives in construction, and 
accordingly conform to this rule, as in qua in rS, sol oriins. 

2. When an adjective unites with the verb (generally mm) to form the 
predicate, as in caeca est, ' is blind,' it is called a Peedioate Adjective (360, 
note 1) ; but when it simply qualifies a noun, as in verae amicitiae, ' true 
Mendships,' it is called an AiTRiBUTrvE Adjective. 

8. AsBEEUEBT WITH Clause, ETC. — An adjootivc may agree with any word 
or words used substantively, as apronoun, clause, infinitive, etc. : 

Quis olSrior, who is more illustrious ? Cic. Certum est llberos aman, it 
is certain thai children are loved. Quint. See 4a, note. 

Note. — An adjective agreeing with a clause Is sometimes plm:al, as In Greek : 

irt Aen€aB jactetnr nota tibl, how Aeneas is tossed about is known to you. Yerg. 

i. A Neuter Adjective used as a substantive sometimes supplies the place 
of a Predicate Adjective : ' 

Mors est extrSmum, death is the last thing. Cic. Triste lupus stabulls, 
a wolf is a sad thing for thefiochs. Verg. 

5. A Nedteb Adjective with a Genptive is often used instead of an ad- 
jective with its noun, especially In the Nominative and Accusative : 

Multum operae, Tnuch service.' Cic. Id temporis, that time.' Cic. Vana 
Tiram, vain t 'ungs.' Hor. Op&B& viS,T\mi, dark streets. Verg. Strata viarum, 
paved streets. Verg. See also 397, S, note 4. 

6. Syitesis.' — Sometimes the adjective or participle conforms to the real 
meaning of its noun, without regard to grammatical gender or number : 

Pars oertfire parftti,* a part (some), prepared to contend. Verg. Inspe- 
Tantl ' nobis, to us (me) not expecting it. Catul. Demosthenes cum ceteris 
erant expulsl,' DemMthenes with the others had been banished. Nep. 

' ^ As In Greek : ovk ayaBhv, the rule cf ^ Tnam/ ia not a good ffwig. 
' MuUum operae = multa opera or multam operam ; id temporis = id tmvpus ; 
vdna rerum = vdnae res or vanas res. 

' A oonstraction according to sense; see 636, lY., 4. 

* ParaM is plural, to conform to the meaning of ^ar«, 'part,' 'some,' ploral in tease ; 


Note.— In the Ablative Absolute (431) absm-U and praeaenU occur in early Latin 
with & plural noun or pronoun : * 

Praesente > ibus (ms),' in their presence (lit., tTiey being present). Plant. Prae- 
seute testibuB, in tJie pres&nce of witnesses. Plaut. 

7. Agreement "with one Noun fok anotheb. — When a noun governs an- 
other in the Genitive, an adjective belonging in sense to one of the two nouns, 
sometimes agrees with the other : 

Majora (for majorvm) rerum initia, tJie beginnings of greater things. Liv. 
Cursus justi {Justus') amnis, the regular course of the river. Liv. 

Note 1.— In the passive forms of verbs the participle sometimes agrees with a 
predicate nown or with an apposit'ive ; see 463. 

Note 2. — ^An adjective or participle predicated of an Accusative is sometimes attracted 
into the I^ominative to agree with the subject : 

Ostendit se dextra (for dextram), she shows h&rself fa/oorable. Verg, 

439. An adjective or participle, belonging to two ob moke 
NOUNS, may agree with them all conjointly', or may agree with one 
and be understood with the others: 

Castor et Pollux vM sunt, Oastor and Pollux were seen. Cio. DubitSre 
visus est Sulpicius et Cotta, Sulpidus and Cotta seemed to doubt. Cio. Temeri- 
tas Ignoratioque vitiosa est, rashness and ignorance are lad. Cio. 

1. The Attributive Adjective generally agrees with the nearest noun : 
AgrI omnes et maria, all lands and seas. Cio. Cilnota maria terraeque, 

all seas and lands. Sail* 

2. A plural adjective or participle, agreeing with two or more nouns o» 
DIFFERENT GENDERS, IS generally masculine when the nouns denote persons 
or sentient beings, and in other oases generally neuter : 

Pater et mater mortui sunt, father and mother are dead. Ter. Honores, 
Tictoriae fortuita sunt, honors and victories are accidental things. Cic. Laoor 
Toluptasque inter se sunt jUncta, labor and pleasure are joined together. Liv. 

Note. — When noans denoting s&ntient beings are combined with those denoting 
things., the plural adjective or participle in agreement with them sometimes takes the 
gender of the former and sometimes of the latter,, and sometimes is n,eiit&r Irrespective 
of the gender of the nouns ; 

Kex regiaque classis profecH sunt, the Mng and the royal fleet set out. Liv. Begem 
regnumque sua futura sciunt, they hnow that the Mng a/nd the kingdom will be theirs. 
Liv. Inimica ^ inter s6 sunt libera ci vitas et rSx, a free state and a hi/ng are hostile to 
each other. Liv. 

3. With nouns denoting inanimate objects, the adjective or participle is 
often neuter, irrespective of the gender of the nouns : 

Labor et dolor sunt finitima, lahor and pain are hindred (things). Cic 

i/nsperanti Is singular, because ndb%s is here applied to one person, the speaker (446, 
note 2) ; expulsi is plural, because Demosthenes cum ceteris iieans D&mosthenes anb 
the oth&rs. 

1 In this construction absente and praesente appear to be treated as adverbs. 

' Bee p. 73, foot-note 2. 

* Perhaps best explained substantive^ — ihings hostile; see 438, 4. 


N<>x atque praeda hostia remorata sunt, night and plunder detained the enemy- 

4. Two OR MORE ADJECTIVES in the singular may belong to a plural noun; 

Prima et vIcSsima Iegi0n6s, thefirst and the twentieth legions. Tae. 

Note. — In the same way two or more praenomina * in the slnguJar may be com- 
bined with a &mily name in the plural : 

Gnaeus et Pnblius SoIplonSs, Onamia and PubUua Seipio. Oic. Piiblius et Servius 
Sullae, PubHu8 and Sermua SaPa. Sail. 

Use of Adjectites. 
440, The adjective in Latin corresponds in its general use to 
the adjective in English. 

1. In Latin, as in English, an adjective may qualify the complex idea 
formed by a noun and another acyeotive : 

Duae potentissimae gentes, two very powerful races. Liv. Magnum aes 
alienum, a large debt. Cio. Naves longSs triginta veteres, thArty old vessels 
df war. Liv.« 

Note. — In general no connective is used when adjectives are combined, as in duae 
potentiaaimae gentle, etc.; but if the first adjective is multl or pluriml, the connective 
is usually inserted: 

Multae et magnae cogitationes, many great tlioughie. Cic. Mnlts et piaeclara fa- 
cinora, many illustrious deeds. Sail. 

2. Pbolepsis or Anticipation. — An adjective is sometimes applied to a 
noun to denote the result of the action expressed by the verb : 

Submersas^ obrue puppes, overwhelm and sirik the ships (lit., overwhelm 
the sunhen ships). Verg. Scuta latentia ' condunt, they conceal their hidden 
shields. Verg. 

Note 1.— Certain a4jectiveB often designate a pabtioiti.ab pabt of an object: prima 
nox, the first part of the night ; m edid aestdte. in the middle of summer ; summus mona, 
the top (highest part) of the mountain. 

NoTB 2. — ^The a^ectives thus used are primus, tnedius, alfimus, extremus, postre- 
m/us, litmus, sttmmus, vnf/mus, imus, supremus, reliqv/us, cetera, etc. 

Note S. — In the poets, in Livy, and in late prose writers, the neuter of these aijjec- 
iives with a Genitive sometimes occurs : 

Libyae eztrSma, Hie frontiers of Libya. Verg. Ad iiltimum inopiae {for ad ultlmam 
inopiam), to extreme destitution. Liv. 

Note 4.— Adjectives are often combined with eSs: res ad^ersae, adversity; resse- 
ewidae, prosperity; res novae, revolution ; respHbUca, republic 

' For Roman names, see 649. 

' Here duae qualifies not simply gentes, but potentissimae genfis; mdgnuni quali- 
fies aes alienum, 'debt' (lit., money belonging to an-otfier); veteres qualifies naves 
longds, 'vessels of war' (lit., 'long vessels'), while triginta qualifies the still more com- 
plex expression, ndvSs longds veteres. 

^ Observe that aubmersds gives the of the action denoted by ohru^, and is not 
applicable to puppes until that action is performed ; latentia likewise gives the resuU 


441. Adjectives and participles are often used substantively :' 

Bom^ the good ; mortdleSj mortals ; docii, the learned ; sapientes, the wise ; 
mulU^ many persons ; muUa^ many things ; praefectus^ a prefect ; ^ nMus^ a son.*. 

1. In the plural, maBculine adjectiyes and participles often designate persons, and 
neuter adjectives thfngs: foriea^ the brave; dlmtes^ the rich; pauperis, the poor; 
TnulM, many; pauci, few; om/nes^ all; me*, my friends; diecentes^ learners; spectantes, 
spectators ; ^i«ra, ftiture events; uUUa^ useful things; mea^ nostra^ td-j things, our 
things; omnia, all things; haec, ilia, these things, those things. 

2. In the singular, adjectives and participles are occasionally used bttbstantiveli^ 
fispecially in the Genitive, or in the Accusative or Ablative with a preposition : dochcs^ 
a learned man; adulesceufi, a young man; vevum, a true thing, the truth; falsum, a 
falsehood; mhil sinceri, nothing of sincerity, nothing sincere; niliAl 1mma/n% nothing 
human ; nihM rsliqui, nothing left ; ^ aliqvdd novi, something new ; d prvmo^ from the 
beginning; ad ecctremum, to the end; ad summum, to the highest point; de vntegrb^ 
afresh; de vmprovlad, unexpectedly; ex aequo, in like manner; in praeaenti, at pres- 
ent ; m /utHrum, for the future ; pro cei^to, as certain."* 

Note 1. — For the neuter participle with opus and wsws, see 414, IV., note S. 
Note 2.— For the use of adjectives instead of nouns in the Genitive,, see 396, note 2. 

3. A few substantives are sometimes used as adjectives, especially verbal nouns in 
tor and trva : " motor ess&rciiitSy a victorious army ; Tiomd gladiator, a gladiator, a gladi- 
atorial man; vlctrices AtJimae, victorious (Gonqu&riTig) Athens; populus late rex, a 
people of extensive sway.® 

442. Equivalent to a Clause. — Adjectives, like nouns in ap- 
position, are sometinaes equivalent to clauses : 

NSmo saltat sObrius, no one da/tices when Tie is eoher^ or when sober. Cio. 

Hortensium vivum oxa^wl^ Iloved BbrteTisms, while he was alive. Cio. Hom& 

ntinquam sohrius, a man who is never sober. Cic. 

Note. — Prior, primus, i2ltimu8,po8irenvus, are often best rendered by a relative clause: 
Primus morem solvit, he was the Jirst wTio lyroke the euatom.'' Jay. 

443. Adjectives and Adverbs. — Adjectives are sometimes 
used where our idiom employs adverbs : 

Socrates ven&num laetus hausit, Socrates cheerfully d/ra/nk the poison,^ 
Sen. SenatuB frequens convenit, the senate assembled in geeat numbebb. Cic. 
KOBcius erat Eomae frequens, JRosdus was frequently/ at Borne, Cic. 

> That is, words which were originally a^ectives or participles sometimes become 
substantives; indeed, many substantives were originally adjectives; see 383, foot-note; 
S!34, foot-note. 

2 PraefectuSf from praeJicdG (lit., one appointed ov6r)\ ndtus, from nHscor (lit, 
#n« l)om). 

* See 397, 1. For niMl rSliqui facere, see 401, note 4. 

* Numerous adverbial expressions are thus formed by combining the neuter of adjec- 
tives with prepositions. 

* That Ifl, these words are generally substantives, but sometimes adjectives. 

* Bee Verg., Aen., I., 21. 

' With the adverb prlmwm the thought would be, he first "brake the custom (L e., 
before doing anything else). Compare the corresponding distinction between tbo Greefc 
adjective irpwros and the adverb irparov. 


Note 1.— The acyectives chiefly thus used are— (1) Those eipresslve of Joy, htK/wU 

tfige^ and their opposites ; laetvs^ libma^ inmtaa, triatia^ sciena, inscime^ pt'udena, im- 

prudens, etc. (2) Nullus, sohts^ idius^ wmis; prior, primus, propior, proaeff.mus, etc. 

Note 2. — la the poets a few a^ectires of time and place are used in the same manner: 

DomesticuB otior, I idle about home^ Hor. Yespertinns pete tectum, at evendng 

•te^k your abode. Hor. 

Note 8. — In rare instances adverhs seem to supply the place of adjectives: 
Omnia rede sunt, all things are right. Cic. Non Ignar! sumus ante mal6rum,> wt 
i/re not igTwrant of past misfortune, Verg. Nwnc hominum > mdr€s, the cka/ra^^^ 
'fmm OF the pkesbnt day. Flaut. 

Note 4. — ^Numeral adverbs often occur with titles of office : * 

Flaminius, consul iterum, Flaminitts^ when consul for the second time. CSic. 

444. A COMPARISON between two objects requires the com- 
parative degree ; between more than two, the superlative ; 

Prior hOrum, the former of these (two). Nep. GallOrum fortissiml, the 
bravest of the Gauls. Caes. 

1. The comparative Bometimes has the force of too,, some- 
what, and the superlative, the force of veky : doctioTy too learned, or some- 
what learned ; docUssvrmts^ very learned. 

Note. — Certain superlatives are common as titles of honor : cldriesimuSy ndMlissl* 
mus, and summus—eBpeciaily applicable to men of consular or senatorial rank ; fortisal- 
mus, honestissimus, illustrissimus, and splendidissimua—espec^lj applicable to those 
of the equestrian order. 

2. Comparative after Quam. — When an object is said to possess ono 
quality in a higher degree than another, the two adjectives thus used either 
may be connected by magis quam ^ or may both be put in the comparative:* 

DisertUB mag;is quam sapiens, more fluent than wise,^ Cic. Praeolftrum magli 
quam difficile, more noble than difficulty or noble rather than difficult. Cic. DltldrSo 
quam fortiores, more itealthy than brave.* Llv. Clfirior quam gr&tior, mww'fl illustrl 
ou^ than pleasing. Llv. 

Note 1.— In a similar manner two adverbs maybe comiected by m^agis guam, <v 
may both be put in the comparative : 

Magls audacter quam paratS, with more audacity than preparation. Ola Bellnm 
fortius quam fullcius gerere, to wage war with more 'color thwn success. Llv. 

Note 2. — The form with magis, both In adjectives and in adverbs, may sometimes 
be best rendered rather than : 

Ars ma^s magna qiiam dlfficllls, an art extensive rather than difficult. Oo. See 
also the second example under 2, above. 

Note S.— In the later Latin the posiUve sometimes follows qutmi^ even when the 
regular comparative precedes, and sometimes two positives are used : 

Tehementius quam cautS appetere, to seek more eag&rVy tha/n cavMouslif. Tac. 
Claris quam vetusGs, illustrioits rather than a/ncient Tac. 

Note 4 —For the use of comparatives before guam prd, see 41 7, 1 , note &, 

1 Like the Greek riov irpiv kokIov and rue vvv avOpairiovt 

3 The want of a present participle in the verb svm brings these adverbs Into closs 
connection with nouns. 

' As in English, more fluent than wise. This is the usual method in Cicero. 

* As in Greek, trktiove^ ^ jSeA.Ttofeff, more numerous than good. This method, eoan 
non in Llvy, is rare in the earlier writers. 


8. Stbbngthening Words. — Comparatives and superlatives are often 
itrengtiiened by a preposition with its case, as by ante, prae, praeter, tupra 
(41 y, 1, note 3). Comparatives are also often strengthened by etiam, even, 
still ; mulio, much ; and superlatives by long'e, multo, by far, much ;• ml, even ; 
unua, amus mrnmi/m,, alone, alone of all, without exception, far, by far ; guam, 
quam or quantua with the verb possum, as possible ; tcrni quam qui, vt qui, 
as possible (lit., as he who) : 

Majores etiam varietatss, men greater varieties. Cic. Mult5 etlam gravluB querl- 
tur, he complOMis &ven much more bitterly. Caes. Multo maxima pars, 6y /or the 
largest part. Cic. Quam saepissimS, as often as possible. Cic. Uhub omnium doctis- 
tiimuB, without exception the most learned of men. Cic. KeB Qna omnium difScillima, 
a thing by far the most difficult cf all. Cic. Quam maximae copiae, /oto«s as large 
as possible. Sail. Quantam maximam potest vastitatem ostendit, Ae eicMbits Oie grtaif 
tat possible desolatloti (lit, as great as the greatest he can), liv. 


RUIiE XXXV.— A^eement of Pronouns. 
445. A pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gendeb, 


Animal quoa sanguinem habet, an animal which has hlooa. Cic. Ego, 
qui t§ confirms, T who encourage you. Cic. Vis est in virtutibus, eS/i 
excita, there is strength in virtues, arouse them. Cic. 

Note. — ^The antecedent Is the word or words to which the pronoun refers, and whose 
place it supplies. Thus, in the examples under the rule, animal is the antecedent of « 
guod; ego, ot qui; mii virtutibus, oieSs 

1. This rule applies to all pronounc when used as nouns. Pronouns used 
as adjectives conform to the rule for adjectives ; see 438. 

2. When the antecedent is a demonstrative in agreement with a personal 
pronoun, the relative agrees with the latter : 

Tu es is qui me Omftsti, you are the one who commendea me. Cic. 

8. When a relative, or other pronoun, i-sfers to two or more AifTEOEDEirrs, 
it generally agrees with them coigointly, but it sometimes agrees with the 
nearest or the most important : 

Pietas, virtus, fides, qua/rum • Eomae templa sunt, piety, virtue, and faith, 
WHOSE temples a/re at Rome. Cic. Pecoatum ac culpa, qnae,^ error a/nd fault, 
WHICH. Cic. 

1 Qiiarum, a^ees with pietas, tyvrtus, and fides conjointly, and is accordingly In the 
plural ; hut quae agrees Bimply with cul^a. 


NoTB 1. — With Antecedents of d^eremt genders^ the pronoun conforma in gender te 
the rule for adjectives (439, 2 and S) : 

Puerl mulieresque j»l,' ioya and women wuo. Cues. Inconstantia et temeritie, 
tWM ' digna n'3n aunt deo, inconManciy and raslmeaa which are not worthy qf a 
god. Gic. 

Note 2. — With antecedenta of d-iff&rent persons^ the pronoun prefera the first persor 
to the second, and the second to the third, conforming to the rule for verba (463, 1) : 

Ego ac ta inter tws^ loquimur, yov and I converse together. Tae. Et til et collegae 
to, qui ' apgrastla, both yov, ami your colleagves, who hoped. Cic 

4. By Attraction, a pronoun sometimes agrees with a Predioatb Norar 
w an ApposrrivE instead of the antecedent : 

Animal quem (for quod) vooSmus hominem, the animal ■waion we call 
man.' Clo. Thebae, quod {quae) caput est, Thebes, which is the capital. Liv. 
Ea (id) erat cOnfessiO, that (i. e., the action referred to) was a confession. 
Lit. FlQmen Ehenus, qui, the river Shine, which. Caes. 

6. By STKEsia, the pronoun is sometimes construed according to the real 
meaning of the antecedent, without regard to grammatical form ; and some- 
times it refers to the class of objects to which the antecedent belongs : 

Quia tbssum militem habebat, his quietem dedit, as he had an exhausted 
toldtery, he gave them (these) a rest. Liv. EquitatUB, qui viderunt, tJie cav- 
alry WHO saw, Caes. De alia rS, quod ad me attinet, in regard to another 
thing which pertains to me, Plaut. Earum rerum utrumque, each of these 
things. Cio. Democritum omitt&mus ; apud istos ; let us omit Democritus ; 
with saoH (i. e., as he). Cic. 

6. Antecedent Omitted. — The antecedent of the relative is often omitted 
when it is indefinite, is a demonstrative pronoun, or is implied in a posses- 
dve pronoun, or in an adjective : 

Sunt qui oSnseant, there are some who think. Cio. Terra reddit quod ao- 
oSpit, the earth returns what it has received, Cio. VestrS, qui cum integri- 
tate vlxlstis, hoc interest, tJiis interests you who have lived with integrity. Cio. 
Servilis tumultus quos, the revolt of the slaves whom. Caes. 

7. Clause as Antecedent. — When the antecedent is a sentence or clause, 
the pronoun, unless attracted (446, 4), is in the Neuter Singular, but the 
relative generally adds id as an appositive to such antecedent : 

Nos, id quod debet, patria dsleetat, our country delights us, as it ought 
(lit., that which it owes). Cio. Eegem, quod nunquam antea acciderat, neoa- 
vBrunt, they put their king to death, which had never before happened. Cic. 

8. Relative Attkaoted. — The relative is sometimes attracted into the 
case of the antecedent, and sometimes agrees with the antecedent repeated : 

Jtkdice quo (for quem,) nosti, the judge whom you know. Hor. Diss Instat, 

> Qui agrees wlthp««ri and mulierls conjointly, and Is In the maseuUne, according 
to 439, 2; but quae is in the neuter, according to 439, 3. 

* Jfoa, referring to ego dc is, is in the first person ; while qui, referring to tu et cot- 
ilgat, Is In the second person, as is shown by the verb sperdstis. 

' In these examples, the pronouns $uem, qwtd, and ea are aitrctcted, to agree with 
their predicate nouns, hominem, caput, and confeasiS; but qui agrees with the app«al' 

346 ^^^ OF PRONOUNS. 

qu6 die, the day is at hand, on which day, Caes. Cilmae, quam urDem tene 
bant, Gumae^ which dty they held. Liv. 

9. Antecedent Atteacted. — In poetry, rarely in prose, tlie antecedent ia 
sometimes attracted into the case of the relative •, and sometimes incorporated 
in the relative clause with the relative in agreement with it : 

Urbem, quam status, vestra est, the city which I am hmld^ng is yours. 
Verg.i MaUrum, quas amor curas habet, obllvisci (for malamim curm'um 
guds), to forget the wretched cares which love has. Hor.i Quos vos implorare 
debetis, ut, quam urbem pulcherrimam esse voluerunt, hanc^ defendant, these 
(lit., whom) you ought to implore to defend this city, wMch they wished to he 
most beautiful, Cic. 

Use op Pronouns. 

446. PersonaIj Pronoxjns. — The Nominative of Personal Pro- 
nouns is used only for emphasis or contrast : ' 

Significamus quid sentiamus, we show what we think, Cic. Ego rgges 
ejeoi, vos tyrannoa introdticitis, I have banished kings, you introduce tyrants. 

KoTE 1.— With giddem the pronouD is usually expressed, but not with egiHdem: 

Facis amlee tu quidem, you act indeed in a friendly maivner, Cic NOn dubltS- 
jam equidem, / did not doubt indeed. Cic. 

Note 2.— A writer sometimes speaks of himself in the plural, using nos for ego, noft- 
*dr for m6U4, and the plural verb for the singular ; 

Vidfis nos (for mi) multa conarT, you see that wh (for I) are attemptpng many 
things. Cic. Sermo explicablt nostraTn (for meam) sententiam, the coTwersation will 
wt^old CUB (mt) opinion. Cic. Dbdmus (for dtxi) multa, / have said maruy things. 
- Cic* 

Note 3. — Nostrl and vestrl are generally used in an ohjectvne sense; noatrum and 
ventrmn in a partitive sense : 

Hahetis ducem memorem vestri^ you ha/ve a leader mindful op tour interests (op 
Totr). Cic Minus habeO virium quam vesirum utervTs, I have less strengtJh than either 
OF Yoir. Cic Quis nosirimi^ who of us? Cic 

Note 4, — With o&, ad^ or apud^ a personal pronoun may designate the residence ox 
abode of a person ; ^ 

A nobis ggreditur, he is coming from oxte hoitsb. Ter. Veni ad me, I came to mv 
HOUSE. Cic. Eamus ad mS, let us go to my house. Ter. Apud te est, he is at yow 
house. Cic. Biiri apud se est, he is at Ids residence in the country, Cic. See also 
433, 1., ad, apttd, etc. 

447, Possessive Pronouns, when not emphatic, are seldom 
expressed, if they can be supplied from the context : 

Mantis lava, wasJt your hands. Cic. Mihl mea vita cara est, my Ufe is 
dear to me,^ Plaut. 

* For other examples, see Verg., Aen., T., 28-80; Hor., Sat, I., 10, 16. 
=* Quam urbem, hanc = hanc urbem, quam. 

' The learner will remember that a pronominal subject ts actually contained ii Om 
ending of the verb; see 368, 2, foot-note. 

* For other examples, see Hor., Bat., I., 9, 7, and Car., I., 82. 

* In this example mea is expressed for emphasis. 


NoTB 1.— PossesBWe Proiioana eometimea mean favorable, propttwiM,m aUinus 
often means unfavorable : 

Tempore tuo pugnSsH, you fought at a famorable time. Liv. Fernnt sua flamlna 
cJassem./otioroftie imniU hear the fleet. Verg. AliSnB loco proelium commlttunt, they 
engage in battle in an unfavorable place. Caes. 

NoTR 2.— B^op the PosBeseive Pronoun in combination with a Oenltlre, see 398, 8. 
For certain other uses of Posaessives, see 396, 11., If.; III., N. 2. 

448. Reflexive Use op Pronouns. — Sul and sum have a re- 
flexive sense ; ' sometimes also the other personal and possessive 
pronouns : 

Miles se ipsum interfScit, the soldier hilled Jmaeelf. Tao, TelO sS de- 
fendit, he defends himself with a weapon. Cio. Sua vl movgtur, he is moved 
by his own power. Cic. M.i QbnaoloT, I console myself . Clc. YOs vestra tScta 
dSfendite, defend your houses. Cio. 

Note. — Inter nns. inter voa, inter se, have a reciprocal force, each other, one on- 
other, together; but instead of inter se, the noun may be repeated in an oblique case: 

CoDoquimor inter noB, ue converse together. Cia Amant inter se, they love one 
arot/ur. Cic. HominSs bomlnibus Utiles sunt, men are useful to men (i. e., to each 
other). Cic. 

449. Sul and suus generally refer to the Subject of the clause 
in which they stand : 

Se dlligit, he loves himself, Cic, Jtistitia propter bSbS colenda eat,J'usMce 
should be cultivated for its own sake. Cio. Anuulum suum dedit, he gave his 
*ing. Nep. Per se sib! quisque ofirus est, every one is in hit very nature 
through or in himself) dear to himself. Cio. 

1. In Subordinate Clauses expressing the sentiment of the principal 
subject, sui and suus generally refer to that subject : 

Sentit animus a6 vf sua movgrT, the mind perceives that it is moved by its own 
power. Cic. A m3 petlvit ut s€cum essem, he asked (from) me to be with him. (that I 
would be). Cic PervesGgat quid aul civ6s cogltent, he tries to ascertain what his 
feUmc-dtixens think. Cic. 

1) As sul and suus thus refer to subjects, the demonstratives, is, Ule, etc., generally 
refer either to other (irords, or to subjecta which do not admit sui and suuS : 

Deum agnoBcis ex ejus operibus, you recognize a god by (from) his works. Cic 
Obligat ctvitatem nihil eos mQtatilroa, he binds the state not to change an/yfhing (that 
they will). Just, 

2) In some subordinate clauses the writer may at pleasure use either the reflexive or 
the demonBtrative, according as be wishes to present the thought as that of the principal 
Bul^ject, or as bis own : 

Persuadent Tulingis atl cum lia ' proflrascantur, they persuade the Tulingi to de- 
part with them. Caes. 

6) Sometimes reflexives and demonstratives are used without any apparent distinction ; 

' Sul, of himself; Hbi, fbr himself; sf, bimsell. 

' Here cum iis is the proper language for the ijpriier without reference to the sentl- 
ment of the principal subject; secum, which would be equally proper, would preient the 
ttiought as the sentiment of that subject. 


Caesar Fabliiin cum legione sua ^ remittit, Caeatw sends back FoMus and (with) 
his legion. Caes. Omittd Isocratem discipulosque ejnB,i I omit lacerates and his (Us- 
dpUs. Glc. 

2. Sens, in the sense of His own, Fitting, etc., may refer to subject oi 
object : 

JQstitia suum ouique txWtvat^ Rustics gwes to every ma/n his due (his own). Cic. 

3. Synesis. — When the subject of the verb is not the real agent of the 
action, sul and suus refer to the agent : 

A Gaesare inritor sib! ut Bim legatus, / am invited lyy Caesar (real agent) to be his 
lieutenant. Glc. 

4. The Plural of Stjus, meaning His Fkiends, Their Friends, Their 
Possessions, etc., is used with great freedom, often referring to oblique 

Fuit h6e luctudsum suis, this was a^icUng to his friends.^ Cic. 
6. Sni and Suns sometimes refer to an omitted subject : 
DSforme est dS se praedicare, to boast ofon^s self is disgusting. Cic. 
6. Two Reflexives. — Sometimes a clause has one reflexive referring to 
the principal subject, and another referring to the subordinate subject : 

BespoDdit ngminem secum sine, sna pemicie contendisse, he replied that no one had 
eontended with him toithout (his) destruction.^ Caes. 

450. DBMONSTKATrvE Pkonodns. — -HIc, iste, ille, are often 
called respectively demonstratives of the First, Second, and Third 
Persons, as hX,c designates that which is near the speaker ; iste, that 
which is near the person addressed ; and ille, that which is remote 
from both : 

CiistSs hujusurbis, M« j'Marcfe'orao^<A«» ciiy (i. e.,of our city). Cic. Mttta 
istam mentem, change that purpose of yours. Cic. Ista quae sunt i. te dicta, 
(hose thmgs which were spohen by you. Cic. Si illos, quos videre nOn pos- 
Bumus, neglegis, if you disregard, those (far away, yonder) whom we can not 
eee. Cic. 

1. Hlc designates an object conceived as near, and ille as remote, whether 
in space, time, ol thought ; 

Non antiqu5 iII5 mdre, sed hoc nostro fUit eraditus, hs was educated, not in that 
ancient, tut in this ovr modern way. Cic. H6c illud fuit, was it (that) this 1 Verg. 

Note. — The idea of contempt often implied in clauses with iste is not strictly con- 
tained in the pronoun itself, but derived from the jontext : * 

Anim! est ista mollitigs, non virtiis, that is an effeminate spirit, not valor. Caes. 

' Observe that the reflexi/oe is used in the first example, and the demonslratme in 
the SACond, though the cases are entirely alike. 

5 Here svAs refers to an oblique case in the preceding sentence. 

' Here se refers to the subject of respoTidit, and sua to Tteminem, the subject of the 
subordinate clause, 

* The idea of contempt is readily explained by the fact that iste Is often applied to 
the Tltws of an opponent, to a defendant before a court of justice, and the like. 


2. FoBMKB AMD Latter. — In reference to two objects previously mentioned, 
(1) Mc generally follows ills and refers to the UOter object, while ille refers 
to the/orawr / but (2) Mc may precede and may refer to the former^ and Hit 
refer to the latter : 

Inlmlol, smic!; illl, h!, enemies, frimda ; the former, th» lattm; Clo. Carta pax, 
spSrata victoria; haec (jp^fc) in tua, ilia in deoram potestate est, sure peace^ hoped-for 
victory; the former is in your power, the latter in the power of the gods, Liv. 

NoTX. — Bio refers to the former object, when that object Is conceived of as n6at-er 
m thought, either because of its importance, or because of its dose connection with the 
subject under discussion.' 

S. Hie and ille are often used of what immediately follows in discourse : 
His verbis epistulam misit, he sent a letter in these words (i. e., in the following 

words). Nep. lllud Intellegd, omDium ora in mS conversa esse, thi," I understand, that 

the eyes qfall are tamed upon me. Sail. 

4. Ille is often used of what is well knows, samocs ; 

Med^ ilia, that weU-Jmown Medea. Cic. Ego, ille feroz, tacul, I, that haughty ont, 
wassiteTit. Ovid. 

NoTB 1. — JSic is sometimes equivalent to meus or noster, rarely to ego, and hTa 
homo to ego: 

Supra banc memorlam, b^ore our time (lit., b^ore this memory). Cic His meli 
litteris, tcith this letter of mine (from me). Cic Hie homdst omnium hominum, etc., 
qfall men lam, etc (lit, thds man is). Plaut. 

KoTB 2. — ffUi, ille, and is are sometimes redundant, especially with qwidem: 

Sc!pl6 non multum ille dicebat, Sdpio did not indeed say much. Cic. Graecl vo- 
lant ill! quldem, the Greeks indeed desire it, Cic Ista tranquilhtas ea ipsa est beftta 
vita, that tranquillity is itseifa happy life.^ Cic. 

Note 8. — A demonstrative or relative is sometimes equivalent to a Genitive, or to a 
preposition with its case : Aio amor = amor h'^jus rei, ' the love of this ' ; haee ciira = 
eura de hoe, * care concerning thls.^ 

KoTR 4. — ^Adverbs derived ih)m demonstrative pronouns share the distinctive mean- 
ings of the pronouns themselves : 

Hie pliis mall est, quam illic boni, there is more qfevU here, tham, qfgood there. Tcr. 
Bee also 304; 305. 

451. Is and idem refer to preceding nouns, or are the antece- 
dents of relatives : 

Dionysius aufOgit, is est in provinoiS, Monysius hat Jled, he is in tin 
province. Cio. Is qui satis habet, he who has enough. Cio. Eadem audire 
mSlunt, thej/ prefer to hear the same things. Liv. 

1. The pronoun is, the weakest of the demonstratives, is often understood, especially 
before a relative or a Genitive: 

Flebat pater dS filii morte, de patris fillus, Ui^ father wept over the death qfthe son, 
the son over (that) qf the father. Cic See also 446, 6. 

' Thus, in the last example, ha,eG refers to certa pax as the more prominent object 
in the mind of the speaker, as he is setting forth the advantages of a sure peace over a 
hoped-for victory. 

> For other examples, see Terg., Aen., I., 8 ; III., 490; and XI., 809. For the use of 
personal pronouns with quidem-, see 446, note 1. 

250 ^^^ OF PROKOUNS: 

fl. /9, wWi a conJuneUon^ Is often used for emphasis, like the English, cmd Viat too, 
a/nd that indeed : 

Unam rem explicabO, eamque maximam, one thing I will explain^ and that too a 
moat important one. Cic. Audire Cratippum, idque Athenis, to hear OraUpput, and 
that too at Athens.^ Cic. 

3. Idem is sometimes best rendered also^ at the same time^ at once^ both, yet: 
Nihil Qtile, quod non idem honestum, nothing vseful^ which is not also honorable. 

Cic. Cum dicat, negat Idem, though he asserts^ he yet denies (the same denies). Cic, 
RSx Anius, rux idem hominum Phoebique sacerdos, King Anius^ both Mng of mem a/nd 
priest of Apollo. Verg. 

4. Is—qui. means he—who^ &uch — a«, sitch — that: 

li sumus, qui esse debemus, we are such as we ought to he, Cic Ea est gfins quae 
nesclat, the race is such that it knows not. Liv. 

5. Id&m—qm means the same—who^ the same — as; ldem~dc {atque^ et, que\ idem 
— ut, Idem—cuTn with the Ablative, the same— as: 

Eidem mores, qui, the samie manners which or as. Cic. Est idem ac ftiit, he is the 
same as he was. Ter, Eodem mecum patre genitus, the son of the same fath&r as I 
(with me). Tac. 

6. For the distihction between is and bui in subordinate clauses, see 449, 1, 2), 

452. Jpse adds emphasis, generally rendered self: 

Ipse Pater fulmina molitur, the Father himself (Jupiter) hurls the thunder' 
bolts. Verg. Ipee^ dixit, he himself said it. Cic. Ipse Caesar, Caesar Mtti' 
self. Cic. Fac ut te ipsum custodias, see that you guard yourself Cic. 

1. Ipse belongs to the emphatic word, whether subject or object, but with a prefer- 
ence for the subject : 

Me ipse consolor, / myself (not another) console myself. Cic. Ipse se quisque dili- 
git, e^ery one (himself) loves himself. Cic. Se ipsum interfecit, he killed himself , Tac. 

Note. — Ipse is sometimes accompanied by secu/m^ ' with himself,' * alone,' or by per 
fie, 'by himself,' 'unaided,' 'in and of himself,' etc.: 

Aliud genitor secum i^se volutat, the father (Jupiter) himself alone ponders an' 
other plan. Yerg. Quod est rectum ipsumque per s§ laudabile, wTvich is rights amd in 
and of itself praiffmoorihy. Cic. 

2. Ipse is often best rendered by very : 
Ipse ille Gorgias, that very Gorgias. Cic. 

8. With numerals, ipse means just so many^ just; so also in mmo ipsum, 'just at 
this time'; turn ipsirni, 'just at that time': 

Trlginta dies ipsi, just thirty days. Cic. Nunc ipsum sine t6 esse n5n possum^ jvM 
at this time I canTWt be without you. Cic. 

4. Ipse in the Genitive with possessives has the force of own, oae'fi own; 
Nostra ipsorum amicitia, ou/r oion friendsJdp. Cic. See 398, 8. 

5. Ipse In a subordinate clause sometimes refers to the principal subject, like an em- 
phatic sul or SUU8 : 

LegatoB misit qui ipsi vitam peterent, he sent messengers to ask Ufe for Mmself, SaH. 

6. Et ipse and ipse quoque may often be rendered also^ likewise, men he : ^ 

Alius Achilles natus et ipse dea, another AcMlles likewise (lit., himself also) bom 
of a goddess. Yerg. 

> Id, thus used, nf^icn r<«Cers to a clause, or to the general thought, as in this example. 
* Applied to P7thag«fft« by his disciples. Ipse is often thus used of s superior, as 
Qi a master, teacher, etc 

■ Compare the Greets Kal aOrds. 


T. For the use of the Nominative ipse in connection with the Ablative Absolute, see 
A31, note 3. 

453. Relative Pronouns. — The relative is often used where 
the English idiom requires a demonstrative or personal pronoun ; 
sometimes even at the beginning of a sentence : 

Res loquitur ipsa, quae semper valet^ tlie fact itself speaks^ and this 
(which) ever has weight. Cio, Qui proelium committunt, tJie^ engage in bat- 
tle. Caes. Quae cum ita sint, since these things are so. Cic. 

1. Eelatives and Demonstratives are often correlatives to each other. 
hie — qui^ iste — qu%^ etc. These combinations generally retain the ordinary 
force of the separate words, but see is — qui^ idem — qui^ 451, 4 and 5. 

Note.— The neuter quidquid^^ accompanied by an adjective, a participle, or a Geni- 
tive, may be used of persons : 

Matr§8 et qoidquid tecum invalldum est delige, select the mothers and whatever 
f^t^le pers&ns there are with you (Ut, uhaterer tkere is with you feeble). Verg. 
Quidquid erat patrum, whatever fathers there were. Liv. See also 397, 8, note 6. 

2. In Two Successive Clauses, the relative may be — (1) expressed in 
both, (2) expressed in the first and omitted in the second, (3) expressed in 
the first and followed by a demonstrative in the second . 

Nob qui sermon! non interfUissemus et quibns Cotta sententias tradidisset, we who 
had not been present at Oie conversation^ and to icTiom Cotta had reported the opin- 
ions. Cic. Dumnorix qui principatum obtinebat ac plubi accepcus erat, Dumnorix^ who 
held the chi^ a%Uhority, and who was acceptable to the common people. Caes. Quae 
aec hab^remua nee his uteremur, whidi we should neither have nor use, Cic. 

NoTB 1. — Several relatives may appear in successive clauses : 

Omn€8 qui vestitum, qui tecta, qui cultum vitae, qui praesidia contra feras inven€- 
tunt, all who introduced (invented) clothing^ houses^ the refinements of life, protec- 
Hon against tvild oeasts. Cic. 

KoTE 2.— A relative clause with is is often equivalent to a Bubstantlve : ii qtii au- 
difunt = auditoreSy * hearers.* 

3. Two Relatives sometimes occur in the same clause : 

Art€s quas qui tenent, arts, whose possessors (which who possess). Cio. 

4. A Relative Clause is sometimes equivalent to the Ablative vfith.pr6: 
SpSrO, quae tua prudentia est, te valere, / h^e you are well, such is your prudence 

(which IB, etc.). Cic. 

Note.— Quae tua prudentia est = qua es prudentia = pro tua priidentla, means such 
is your prudence^ or you are of such prudence^ or in accordance tcith your pru- 
dAnee, etc 

5. Relative with Adjective. — Adjectives belonging in sense to the ante- 
cedent, especially comparatives, superlatives, and numerals, sometimes stand 
in the relative clause in agreement with the relative : 

Vasa, quae pulcherrima viderat, th^ most beautiful ■vessels which he had seen (ves- 
sels, which the most beautiAiI he had seen). Cic. De servis suis, quera habuit fldSlissi- 
Bium, miait. he sent the most faithful <tf the sla/ves that he had. Nep. 

C The neuter^ quod^ used as an adverbial Accusative, often stands at the beginning 

1 Of the general or Indefinite relative quisguis. 


of a Bentence or clause, especially before H^ n/i^ rUsi, etsl, and sometimes before quia, 
quoniam^ uUnam^ etc., to indicate a close connection with what precedes. In trans* 
lating it is sometimes best omitted, and sometimes best rendered by now^ in/act^ hut^ 

Quod 8i ceciderint, but if th&y sliould faU.^ Cic. Quod si ego resclvissem id prius, 
now if I had learned thia sooner.^ Ter. 

7. Qu^ dicitur, qm vocdtur^ or the corresponding active, quern cUcunt, quern vocant. 
are often used in the sense of so-called^ the so-called^ what they or you call^ etc. : 

Vestra quae dicitur vita, mors est, yov/^ so-called life (lit., yov/r^ wJdch is called 
Hfe) is death. Cic. Lex ista quam vocas non est lex, that law^ as you call it^ is not a 
law. Cic. 

454. Interrogative Pronouns. — The Interrogative quU is 
used substantively ; qu% adjectively : 

Quis ego sum, who am I? Cic. Quid faclet, wliat will Tie do? Cic Qui 
vir fuit, wTiat kind of a man was he ? Cic, 

1. Occasionally qvA% is used adjectively and qui substantively : 

Qais rex unquam fait, wh^t king was there ever f Cic. Qui sis, considers, consider 
w7to you are. Cic. 

Note.— The neuter^ quid, is sometimes used of persons; see 397, 8, note 5. 

2. Quid, why^ h,ow is it that, etc., is often used adverbially (378, 2), or stands ap- 
parently unconnected : ^ gudd, 'why?* *what?'gwitf &ni?n, 'why then?' *whatthen?' 
* what indeed ? ■• quid ita, * why so ? ' qidd quod., * what of the fact that ? ' qidd si, 
' what if? ' : 

Quid venisti, why have you come? Plant, Quid enlm? metusne conturbet, wJiat 
then T would fear distv/rh us ? Cic. Quid quod deloctantur, what of the fact that they 
are delighted f Cic. 

8. Two Intesbooatives sometimes occur in the same clause : 

Quis quern fraudavit, wTio defrauded, a/nd whom did he defraud ^it., wAo de- 
frauded whom) ? Cic. 

4, Tcmtus sometimes accompanies the interrogative pronoun : 

Quae fuit unquam in illlo homine tanta constantia, waa there ever so great constanoy 
in a/my man t Cic. 

455. Indefinite Pronouns.' — AliquiSf quis, qui, and qui^iam, 
are all indefinite — some one, any one : 

Est aliquis, there is some one. Liv. Sensus aliquis ease potest, there may 
be some sensation. Cic. Dixit quis, some one sadd. Cic. Si quis rex, if any 
king. Cic. Alia res quaepiam, any other thing. Cic. 

1. Qwia and qvA are used chiefly after sz, nisi, ne, and mi/m. AUquis and qids are 
:5renerally used substantively, aliqul and qui adjectively. Aliqida and aliqu^ after a?^ 
Tviai, etc., are emphatic: 

ST est aliqul sensus in morte, if there is any sensation wTiatever in death. Cic. 

2. Nesdo quia and nescio qui often supply the place of indefinite pronouns : 

1 Here quod refers to something that precedes, and- means in reference to wMch, i/n 
reference to thia, in tMa connection^ etc. For other examples, see Caesar, B. G., I,, 14, 
and VII., 88. 

2 In Bome instances quid is readily explained by the elUpsia of some form of dlcS 
jr of aujn. 

> For a fbll illustration of the use of indefinite pronouns, see Draeger, I., pp. 87-108. 


NeBcl6 quia loquitur, »otm one speahe (lit., / hrww not who apeakt, or on* tpealu, 
J know n-ot who). Plaut. KesclO quid mihi animuB praesSglt mali, my mind /oreboda 
eome evil (191, note). Ter. 

456. Quldanhf 'a certain one,' is less indefinite than aliquia: 

Quidam rhetor antlquus, a certain ancient rhetorician. Cio. Aoourrit qul- 
dam, a certain one runs up. Hor. 

1, Quidam with an adjective is sometimes used to qualify or soften the statement; 
Jdstltia miriflca quaedam vid6tur,/ZM^c« aeems somewhat wonderful. Cic. 

2. Quidam, with qua»l^ and sometimes without it, has the force of a eeria/i/n^ a Jdnd 
of, as it were: 

Quasi alumna quaedam, a certain foater-ohild, as it were. Oio. 

457. Quiaguam and uUvs are used chiefly in negative and con- 
ditional sentences, and in interrogative sentences implying a nega< 
tive : 

Neque me qulsquam agnOvit, nor did amy one recognize me. Glo. Si quis- 
quam, if any one. Cic. Num censes allum animal esse, do you think there it 
any animal f Cic. 

1. Semi is the negative of quisKpuvm, and like quisquam is generally used subatan- 
tively, rarely adJeotlTely : 

Neminem laesit, he harmed no one. Glo. ITemd po@ta, no poet. Glo. 

2. Nulius is the negative of iilhts^ and is generally used adjectively, but it aometimM 
supplies the Genitive and Ablative of nemSy which generally wants those cases : 

N&llum animal, no animal. Cic. Nailius aures, the ears o/no one. Cic 

8. Nullus and nihil are sometimes used for an emphatic non: 

NQUusTSnit, he did not come. Cic. MortuI nuUi aunt, the dead are not. Cio. 

458. Quvdis, qulUbet, 'any one whatever,' and quisque, 'every 
one,' ' each one,' are general indefinites (190): 

Quaelibet res, anything. Cic. TuOrum quisque necessiriorum, each one 
of your friends. Cic. 

1. Quisque with superlatives and ordinals is generally best rendered by all, or by 
ever, always ; with primus by very, possible : 

Epicureos doctissimus quisque contemnit, all the most learned despiee Vie Epicw. 
reans, or the most learned ever despise, etc. Cic. Primo quGque diS, the earliest da/y 
possible, the very first. Glo. 

2. nt quisque-^ta with the superlative In both clauses is often best rendered, the 
more — the more : 

Ut quisque albi plEirimum cSnfidit, ita mSxImS excellit, the more one confida in 
on^s se^, the more one excels. Cic. 

459. Alivs means 'another, other' ; alter, 'the one,' 'the other' 
(of two), ' the second,' ' a second.^ They are often repeated : alivA 
— alms, one — another ; aln — alii, some — others ; alter — alter, the 
one — the other ; alteri — alteri, the one party — the other : 

Legates alium ab alio aggreditur, he tampers with the ambassadors one after 
another. Sail. Alii gloriae serviunt, alii peoOniae, some are slaves to glory, 
tthers to money. Cio. Quidquid negat alter, et alter, whaittvp- one demet> *ht 


other denies. Hor. Alter erit Tiphya, tJiere will he a second Tiphys. Vergi 
Tu nunc eris alter ab illo, you will now be next after Mm. Verg. Alterl 
dimicant, alter! timent, one party contends^ the other fears. Cic. 

1. AHua or alter repeated in different cases, or combined with aUde or aliter, often 
involreB an ellipsis : 

Alius alia via civitatem auxerunt, they advanced the state, one in one wa/y, another 
in a/notker. Liv. Aliter alii yivunt, some live in one way^ others in another. Cic. 

2. After alius^ aliter, and the like, atque, dc, and et often mean tha^ : 
Non alius esaem atque sum, / would not be other than I am. Cic. 

8. When alter— alter refer to objects previously mentioned, the first alter usually 
refers to the latter object, but may refer to either : 

Inimlcus, competitor, cum altero— cum altero, an enemy, a ri/val, with the latter^ 
with the former. Cic. 

4. Uterque means both, each of two. In the plural it generally means both, each of 
two parties, but sometimes both, each of t/ivo persons or th/ings ; regularly so with nouns 
which are plural in form but singular in sense: 

TJtiique victoriam crudeliter exercebant, both parties made a ertiel use qf victory 
StU. Palmas utrasque tetendit, ^ eoatended both Tvis ha/nds. YerfT' 




BTTIiE XXXVI.— Agreement of Verb with Subject. 

460. A finite verb agrees with its subject in numbee 
and PEESON : 

Deus raundum aedificSvit, Ood made (built) the world. Cic. Ego regSa 
§jeol, vos tyrannos introducitis, / have banished Icings, you introduce ty- 
rants. Cic. 

1. Participles in Compoitnd Tenses agree with the subject according 
to 438. See also 301, 1 and 2 : 

Thebanl acouBatl Bunt, <A« Thebans were aceused. Cic. 

NoTK 1. — In the compound forms of the Infinitive, the participle in um sometimes 
sccurs without any reference to the gender or number of the subject: 

Diffldentia fliturum quae imperavlsset, from doubt that those things which he had 
commanded would take place. Sail. 

Note 2.— A General or Indefinite subject is often denoted — 

1) By the First or Third Person Plural, and in the Subjunctive by the Second Person 


Singular: (Jio*mi«, 'we (psopJe) say'; dlowi*, 'they say'; dSo<!«, 'you {anyoru)mB.y 

SI befttJ esse Tolumns, ifiJ06 wish to be happy. Cio. Agere quod ogaa considerate 
decet, !/<m (one) should do considerately whatever you do (one does). Cie. 

2) By an Impersonal Passive: 

Ad ^num concurritur, they rush to tJte temple. Cic. Nisi cum virtute vivatur, un- 
less they live (unless one lives) virtuously. Cic 

Note 8. — For the Pronominal Subject contained in the verlj, see 368, 2. 

NoTB 4.— For the Omission or the Vekb, see 368, 8. 

461. Synesis. — Sometimes the predicate is construed accord 
ing to the real meaning of the subject without regard to grammat- 
ical gender or number. Thus — 

1. With collective nouns, pars, multiindo, and the like : 

Multitado abeunt, tTie multitude depart. Liv. Pars per agrOs dllapal, a 
part (some) dispersed through the fields. Liv. 

Note 1. — Here multitudd and pars, though singular and feoiinlne in form, are plu- 
ral .ind masculine in sense; see also 438, 6. Conversely, the Imperative singular may be 
oaed in addressing a multitude individually: 

Adde dcfectionera Sictliae, add (to this, soldiers) the revolt (^Sicily. Liv. 

Note 2. — Of two verbs with the same collective noun, the former is often singular 
and the latter _p/(/ra^.* 

Juventus ruit certantque, the youth rush forth and contend. Yerg. 

2. With mllia, often masculine in sense : 

Caesi sunt tria mllia, three thousand men were slain. Liv. 

3. With guisque, uterque, alius — alium, alter — alteittm, and the like : 
Uterque ediicunt, they each lead out. Caes. Alter alteram vldemus, we 

see each other. Cic. 

4. With singular subjects accompanied by an Ablative with turn : 
Dux cum principibus capiuntur, the leader with his chiefs is taken. Liv. 

Quid hilo tantum hominum (=tot hominis) ineedunt, why are so many meii 
coming hither .' Plant. See also 438, 6. 

5. With ^or/im — ■partim in the- sense of pars — -pars: 

Bonorum partim necessSjia, partim non necess&ria sunt, o/ good thinos 
some are necessary, others are not necessary. Cic. 

462. Sometimes the verb agrees, not witli its subject, but with 
an ApposrrrvE or with a Predicate Noxjn: 

Volsinil, oppidum TuseOrura, concremStum est, Folsinii, a town of the 
Tuscans, was burned. Plin. NOn omnia error stultitia est dicenda, not every 
error should he called foUy. Cio. Puerl TrojAnum dicitur agmen, the boys are 
called the Trojan band. Verg. 

Note 1. — The verb regularly agrees with the appositive when that is urbs, oppidum, 
or c^^oitds, in apposition with plural names of places, as in the first example. 

Note S. — The verb agrees with the predicate nous when that is nearer or mor« eo» 
phatic than the 8u1)iect, as in the «i)cond exampls. 


NoTS 8. — The verb sometimes agrees with a nonn In a subordinate clause after qmbn^ 
nisi, etc. : 

Nihil aliad nisi pax quaesita est, Twthing but peace was sought. Gic. 

463. With TWO OR MOKE SUBJECTS the verb agrees — 

I. With one subject, and is understood with the others : 

Aut morgs speotart aut fortuna solet, dfher character or fortune is wont to 
be regarded. Cio. HomgruB fuit et Hesiodus ante Eomam oonditam, Homer 
and Hesiod lived (were) before the founding of Home. Cio. 

II. With all the subjects conjointly, and is accordingly in the plural 
number : 

LentuluB, Solpio perigrunt, Lentul/us and Scipio perished. Cio. Ego et 
Cicero valemus, Cicero and I are well. Cio. Tu et TuUia valetis, you and 
TulUa are well. Cic. 

1. With SUBJECTS DiFFEKiNG IN PERSON, the Verb takes the first person 
rather than the second, and the second rather than the third ; see examples. 

2. For Participles in Compound Tenses, see 439. 

3. Two Subjects as a Unit. — Two singular subjects forming in sense & 
unit or whole, admit a singular verb : 

Senatus populusque intellegit, the senate and people (i. e., the state as a 
unit) understand. Cic. Tempus necessitasque postulat, time and neceasUy 
(i. e., the crisis) demand. Cic. 

4. With Aut or Neo. — When the subjects connected by o«<, ml, nee, 
neque or seu, differ in person, the verb is usually in the plural ; but when they 
are of the same person, the verb usually agrees with the nearest subject : 

Haec neque ego neque td ftcimus, neUher you «oc 7 have done these things, 
Ter. Aut Brutus aut Cassius judioavit, either Brutus or Cassius judged. Cic. 

464. Voices. — W ith transitive verbs, a thought may at the pleas- 
ure of the writer be expressed either actively or passively. But — 

I. That which in the active construction would be the object must be 
the subject in the passive ; and — » 

II. That which in the active would be the subject must be put in the Abla- 
tive with a or ab for persons, and in the Ablative alone for things (415, 1. ; 420); 

Deus omnia constituit, God ordained all things. A Deo omnia cSnstitiita 
sunt, all things were ordained by God. Cio. Dei prOvidentia mundum ad- 
ministrat, the providence of God rules the world. Del prOvidentia mundus 
administratur, the world is ruled by the providence of God. Cio. 

465. The Passive Voice, like the Greek Middle,' is sometimes 
equivalent to the Active with a reflexive pronoun : . 

Lavantur in ilflminibus, they bathe (wash themselves) in the rivers. Caes. 

^ Most Passive forms once had both a Middle and a Passive meaning, as In Greek; 
bnt In Latin Ihe Middle or Refiexi/oe meaning has nearly disappeared, though retained 
to a certain extent in special verbt. 


Non hlo viotoria vertitur, not upon this point (here) does victory turn (turn 
itself). Verg. 

1. Intbaksitive Verbs (193) have regularly only the active voice, but 
Ihey are sometimes used impersonally in the passive : 

Ciirritur ad praet5rium, t7tei/ run to the praetorium (it is run to). Cio. 
Mihi cum lis vivendum est, I must live with them. Cic. 

Note. — Verbs which are usually intransitive are occaBionally used transitively^ «B- 
pedally in poetry : 

Ego cur invideor, why am I envied f Her. 

2. Deponent Vekbs, though passive in form, are in signification transitive 
or intransitive : 

lUud mirabar, / admired that. Cio. Ab urbe profloisol, to set out from 
the city. Caes. 

NoTB 1.— Originally many deponent verbs seem to have had the force of the Greek 
Middle voice ; gtcrior, ' I boast myself/ ' I boast^ ; vese&r, ' I feed myself.* 

Note 2. — Semi-Deponents have some of the active forms and some of the pasiive, 
without change of meaning; see !i68, 3. 



I. Present Indicative. 

466. The Present Indicative represents the action of the veA 
da taking place at the present time : 

Ego et Cicero valSmus, Cicero and I are well. Cio. H6c t6 rogO, I ask you 
for this. Cio. 

Note.— The Present of the Active Periphrastic Copjngation denotes an intended oi 
future action; that of the Passive, & present necessity or duty: 

Bellnm scripturus sum, I intend to write the history cftke war.^ Sail. Legendoii 
est hie orator, this orator ought to be read.^ Cic. 

467. Hence the Present Tense is used— 

I. Of actions and events which are actually taking place at the present 
time, as in the above examples. 

II. Of actions and events which, as belonging to all time, belong of 
course to the present, as genei-al truths and customs: 

Nihil est amabilius virtilte, nothing is more lovely than virtue. Cio. 
Fortes fortOna adjavat, fortune helps the brave. Ter. 

III. Of past actions and events which the writer wishes, for effect, to 
picture before the reader as present. The Present, when so used, is called 
the Historical Present : 

' Scripturus sum may be variously rendered, /intend to write, am about to write, 
am. to write, am destined to write, etc. ; legendus est means lie ought to be read, dt 
serves to be read, must be read. et& 


Jugvirtha vall6 moenia circumdat, Jugurtha swrownded (he citjf wii\ t 
rampart. Sail. 

1. The HiSTOBiOAL Pbesent is used much more freely in Latin than in 
English. It is therefore generally best rendered by a past tense. 

2. The Present is often used of a present action which has been going on 
for some time, especially after ^amiiiM, ja/mdrndum, etc. : 

Jamdiu IgnOrO quid agas, Ihave not hnown for a long time what you have 
teen doing, Cio. 

3. The Present in Latin, as in English, may he used of authors whose 
works are extant : 

Xenophon facit SOcratem disputantem, Xeruyphon refpretents Soeratea dis- 
cussing. Cic. 

4. With dmn, ' whUe,' the Present is generally used, whether the aotion 
is present, past, or future : 

Dum ea parant,' Saguntum oppQgnabatur, while they were (are) making 
these preparations, Saguntum was attacked. Liv. Dum haeo geruntur, Ca». 
sari nUnti&tum est, while these things were taking place, it was armcnmced t» 
Caesar. Caea. 

I70TB. — But with dvm.^ meaniDg as long. as, the Present can be used only of present 

5. The Present is sometimes used of an aotion really future, especially in 
animated discourse and in conditions : 

Quam prendimus aroem, what stronghold do we seize, or are we to seise f Vei)j. 
Si vinoimuB, omnia tuta erunt, if we conquer, all things will be safe. Sail. 

6. The Present is sometimes used of an attempted or intended action : 
Virtatem accendit, he tries to kindle ihei/r valor. Verg. Quid mS terrSt 

why do you try to terrify me ? Verg, 

n. Imperfect Indicativb. 

468. The Imperfect Indicative represents the action as taking 
place in past time : 

Stabant nobilissimi juvenSs, there stood (were standing) most noble youths 
Liv. Coll6s oppidum cingSbant, hills encompassed the town. Caes. Motflrus 
exercitum erat, he was intending to move his army. Liv. 

Note.— For the Imperfect of the Periphrastic Conjugations In conditional senteneea, 
see 511, 2 

469. Hence the Imperfect is used especially — 
I. In lively description, whether of scenes or events : 

Ante oppidum planities patebat, before the town extended a plain. Caes. 
Fulgentes gladios videbant, they saw (were seeing) tin gleammg gwards. Cic. 

IL Of customary or repeated actions and events, often rendered was 
wont, etc. : 

' Here the time denoted hjparwrU Is present relattvely to oppugnObdtur, and then 
fore really past 


Pnoaaniis epulabatur more Persarum, Faiuama* wat wont to hanqu4t in 
ifu Psrfian style. Nep. 

1, Thtf Imperfect is sometimeu used of an (Utempted or intended action : ' 
Sedabant tumultas, they attempted to quell the sediUona. Liv. 

2. The Imperfect is often used of a past action which. had been going on 
for some time, especially 'wi\hjamdm,jamdiidum, etc. : ' 

Domicilium Eomae multOs jam annos habebat, he had already for many 
years had his residence at Some. Cic. 

S. The Latin sometimes uses the Imperfect where the English requires the 
Present : " 

Pastum animantibus nattlra eum qui cuique aptus erat, eomparavit, nature 
has prepared for animals that food which is adapted to each. Cic. 

Note 1.— For the Imperfect in Lettees, see 473, 1. 

Note 8.— For the Descriptioe Imperfect in Nabeatioh, see 471, «. 

Note S. — For the Bistorieat Tenses in expressions of Duty, Peopeibtt, NsasesiTT, 
•to., tee 476, 4. 


470. The Fiiture Indicative represents the action as one which 
will take place in future time : 

Sonbam ad ts, /shall write to you. Cio. Nilnquam aberrabimus, we shaU 
never go astray. Cio. 

1. In Latin, as in English, the ITuture Indicative sometimes has the force of 
an Imperative : 

Ctlrabis et scribes, you will take care and write. Cio. 

2. Actions which really belong to future time are almost invariably ex- 
pressed by the Future tense, though sometimes put in the Present in Engliiih: 

N&tilram s! sequemur, nunquam aberrabimus, if we follow nature, we shall 
ntver go astray. Cic. 

rV. Perfect Ihdicativb. 

471. The Perfect Indicative has two distinct uses: 

I. As the Present Pbkpect or Perfect Definitb, it represents 
the action as at present completed, and is rendered by our Perfect 
with Juive : 

Oe genere belli dizl, I have spoten of tie character of the war. Cio. 

n. As the HisTOKicAL Perfect or Perfect Indefinite, it rep- 
resents the action simply as an historical fact : 

> Obterre that tlie peculiarities of the Present reappear in the Imperfect. This arises 
lh>m the ftict that these two tenses are precisely alike in representing the action in its 
progress^ and that they differ only in time. The one views the action in the present, the 
Other transfers it to the past. 

> This occurs occasionally in the statement of general truths and in the description 
•f natural scenes, but In such oases the tmth or the scene is viewed not frt>m the pres«t4 
bat from the past. 


Miltiadei est accusatus, MiMades was accused. Nep. Quid factan fhlgtis, 
what did you intend to do, or what would you haDe done? Cic. 

Note.— For the Perfect of the F ariphrastic Conjugations in conditional sentences, see 
476, 1. 

1. The Perfect is sometimes used — 

1) Instead of the Present to denote the suddenness of the action : 

Terra tremit, mortalia corda stravit pavor, the earth trembles, fearr over- 
whelms (has overwhelmed) the hearts of mortals. Verg. 

2) To contrast the past with the present, implying that what was true then 
is not true now : 

Habuit, non habet, he had, but has not. Cic. Fuit Ilium, Ilium was. Verg. 

2. The Perfect Indicative with paene, prope, may often be rendered by 
might, would, or by the Pluperfect Indicative : 

BrQtum non minus amo, paene d/ixl, quam tc, / love Brutus not less, I 
might almost say, or / had almost said, than I love you. Cic. 

3. The Latin sometimes employs the Perfect and Pluperfect where the 
English uses the Present and Imperfect, especially in repeated actions, and 
in verbs which want the Present (397) : 

Meminit praeteritorum, he remembers ' the past, Cic. Cum ad vlUam veni, 
hoc me delectat, when I come (have come) to a villa, this pleases me. Cic. 
Memineram PauUum, / remembered Paullus. Cic. 

4. Conjunctions meaning as soon as^ are usually followed by the Perfect; 
sometimes by the Imperfect or Historical Present. But the Pluperfect is 
sometimes used, especially to denote the result of a completed action : 

Postquam ceoidit Ilium, after (as soon as) lUumfell, or had fallen. Verg. 
His ubi natum prosequitur ' dictis, when he had addressed his son with these 
words, Verg. Posteiquam consul fuerat, after he had been consul.* Cic. 
Anno tertio postquam profugerat, in the third year after he had fled. Nep. 

5. In Subordinate Clauses after cum (quura), si, etc., the Perfect is some- 
times used of Repeated Actions, General Truths, and Costoms : ^ 

Cum ad vlllam venl, hoc m6 delectat, whenever I come (have come) to a 
villa, this delights me. Cic. « 

Note. — In such cases the principal clause generally retains the Present, as in the 
example just given, but in jpoetry and in late prose it sometimes admits the Perfect: 

Tulit pUnctum qui miscuit iitile dulcl, he wins (has won)/(M3or wJlo combines (haB 
eombined) the us0il with tfie agreeable. Hor. 

6. In Afl-iMATED Narrative, the Perfect usually narrates the leading events, 
and the Imperfect describes the attendant circumstances : 

Cultum mntavit, veste Medica utebatur, epulabatur more Peraarum, he 
changed his mode of Ufe, used the Median dress, feasted in the Persian style. 

* Literally, Aa« recalled, and so remembers, as the result of the act. The Latin pp«. 
MBtfi the completed act, the English the result 

^ Ab postquam, ubi, ublprimum. ut, utprwnwm, simulatque {do), etc. 

* Hifltorical present; lit., when he attends. 

* And so was then a man of consular rank. 

* This use of the Latin Perfect corresponds to the Gn^miic Aorist in Greek- 


Nep. S§ in oppida recepSrunt marisque b6 tenebant, thei/ hetooh thtmteku 
into their towns and kept themselves within their walls. Liv. 

Note 1. — The Comp(nind Tenses in the Passive often denote the resuU of the action. 
Thus, doctus est may mean either lie has been instructed^ or he is a teamed man (lit, 
an i7isfructed man) : 

Fuit doctus ex discipUna Stoicorum, he was instructed in (lit., out of) the learning 
ftf the Stoics. Cio, Navi3 parata fait, tlis vessel was ready (lit., was prepare^. Liv. 

NoTB 2. — For the Perfect in Lkttkes, see 473, 1. 

NoTB 8. — For the Historical Tenses in expressions of Dtitt, Pbopeiktt, NEOESsOTf 
'ia., see 476, 1. 

V. Plupebfect Indicatite. 

472. The Pluperfect Indicative represents the action as com- 
pleted at some past time : 

Pyrrhl temporibus Jam Apollo versiis faoere dSsierat, in the times of Pyr- 
rhus Apollo had already ceased to Tnake verses.^ Cio. Copias quas pro castrls 
oollocaverat, reduxit, he led back the forces which he had stationed before ths 
camp. Caes. Cum easet Demosthenes, multi oratores clarl fti6runt et aote& 
fuerant^ when Demosthenes lilted there were many iMustrious orators, and there 
had been, before. Cio. 

1. In Letters, the writer often adapts the tense to the time of the reader, 
using the Imperfect or Perfect of present actions and events, and the Pluper- 
fect of those which are past : " 

Nihil habebam quod scriberem ; ad tuas omnSs epistul&s rescripseram 
pridie,' / have (had) nothing to write ; I replied to all your letters yesterday. 
Cio. Prldie Idus haeo sorlpsi ; eO die ' apud Pomponium eram cenaturus,* 
I write this on the day before the Ides ; lam going to dine to-day with Rnn- 
ponius. Cie. 

2. The Plupekfeot after cum, si, etc., is often used of Repeated Aotiohb, 
Gehebal Tedths, and Customs : = 

Si hoBtes deterrere nequiverant oiroumveniebant, \f they were (had been) 
unable ' to deter the enemy, they surrounded them. Sail. 

ITote 1. — For the Pluperfect in the sense of the English Imperfect, see 471, 8. 
Note 2.— For the EistoriccU Tenses in expressions of Dutt, Propeiett, Neoissity. 
etc, see 476, 4. 

> Observe that disierat represents the action as already completed at the time desig- 

3 Tills change is by no means uniformly made, but is sulgect to the pleasure of the 
writer. It is most common near the beginning and the end of letters. 

3 Observe that the adverbs and the adverbial expressions are also adapted to the tim« 
of the reader. Eferi, ^yesterday,' becomes to the reader jjrirfifi, 'the day before' — L e., 
the day before the writing of the letter. In the same way Jiodie, '■ to-day,* ' this day,' be- 
comes to the reader eo die^ *tuat day.' 

* The Imperfect of the Periphrastic Conjugation is sometimes thus used of future 
•vents which are expected to happen before the receipt of the letter. Events which wll 
be ftature to the reader as well as to the writer must be expressed by the Faturou 

ft See the similar use of the Perfect, 471, &. 

* Thftt is, whe7teBer they were wndble. 


YI. FxjTTJBE Pekpbct Ihdicatitb. 

473. The Future Perfect Indicative represents the action as 
one which will be completed at some future time : 

Bomam omn venerO, sorlbam ad te, when I shall have reached, Some, I will 
write to you. Cio. Duin tu haeo leges, ego ilium fortasse oonvSnerO, when 
you read this, I shall perhaps have already met him. Cio. 

1. The FnTTJisB Pebfeot is sometimes used to denote tlie complete accom- 
plishment of the work : 

Ego meum offtcium praeatiterO, I shall discharge m/y chdy. Caes. 

2. The Fdtdbe Perfect is sometimes found in conditional clauses where 
we use the Present : 

Si interpretarl potuero, his verbis iltitur, if I can (shall have been able 
to) tmderstamd him, he uses these words. Cio. 

VII. Use of the Indioativi!. 
RUIiE XXXVII.— Indicative. 

474. The Indicative is used in treating of facts : 

Deus muudum aedificSvit, Ood made (built) the world. Cic. Nonne 
expulaus est patria, wa^ lie not banished from Ids country I Cic. H5c f 6cI 
dum licuit, / did this as long as it was permitted, Cic 

475. The Indicative is thus used in treating of facts— 

L In Principal Clauses,^ whether Declarative as in the first example 
or Interrogative as in the second. 
II. In Subordinate Clauses. Thus— 

1. In Relatiiie Clauses : 

Dixit id quod dlgnissimum re publioa fuit, he stated that which was most 
worthy of the republic. Cic. Quicquam bonum est, quod n6n eum qui id 
possidet meliorem facit, is an/ything good which does not make him better whi 
possesses it ? Cic. 

Nora.— For the Sultjimotive In Eelatiye Clauses, see 497; 600; 603; 607, 2, eta 

2. In Conditional Clauses: 

Si haeo olvitas est, civis sum ego, if this is a state, I am a dtiaen. Cio. 
Note 1. — For the special uses of the Indicative In Conditional Sentences, see 608. 
KoTE 2.— For the Subjimeiive In Conditional Sentences, see 509; 510. 

3.. In Concessive Clauses: 

Quamquam intellegunt, tamen nUnquam diount, although they wnderitai^ 
they never speak. Cio. 

Notbl — For the SuttjwnctvDC In Conceislve Clauses, see 515. 
^ Including, of coarse, all simple sentences. 


4. b CoMsal Clauses: 

Quoniam supplic&ti6 dSorSta est, sinee a thanixgwing has teen decreed. Cio. 
Quia honOre dignl habentur, becaiese they are deemed worthy of honor. Curt. 
NoTB. — For the Subjumeivve in Oausal GlanseB, see 616; 517. 
6. In Temporal Clauses: 

Cum quiescunt, probant, whMe they are silent they approve. Cio. Pri\u- 
lluam laoet, adsunt, they are present lefore it is Ught. Cio. 

NoTX.— For the Subjimctive In Temporal Clauses, see 619; 5S0; 681. 

476. Special Uses. — The Indicative is sometimes used where 
our idiom would suggest the Subjunctive : 

1. The Indicative of the Periphrastic Conjugations ia often so used in 
the historical tenses, especially in conditional sentences (511, 2): 

Haeo condicifi nOu aooipienda fuit, this condition, should not have been ac- 
cepted. Cio. 

2. The Historical Tenses of the Indicative, particularly the Pluperfect, 
are sometimes used for effect, to represent as an actual fact something 
which is shown by the context never to have become fully so : 

Vicerflmus, nisi recepisset AntSnium, vie should have (lit., had) conquered, 
iad he not received Antony. Cio. See Sll, 1. 

3. Pronmms and Relative Adverbs, made general by being doubled or by 
assuming the suffix cumque (187, 3), take the Indicative: 

Quisquis est, is est sapiens, wTioever he is, he is wise. Cio. H6o Ultimum, 
utounque initum est, proelium fiiit, this, however it was commenced, was the 
last baitle. Liv. Quidquid oritur, qualeoumquo est, oausam habet, whatever 
comes into being, of whatever character it may be (lit., is), it has a cause. Cio. 

4. In expressions of Dviy, Propriety, NecessUy, Ability, and the like, 
the Latin often uses the Indicative, chiefly in the historical tenses, in a 
manner somewhat at variance with the English idiom : 

Non suscipl helium oportuit, the war should not have been imdertaien.' 
Liv. Eum contumelils onerastl, quem colere debebas, you have loaded with 
intuits one whom you should have (ought to have) revered. Cio. MultOs pos- 
BUHQ honOs virOs nOminare, I might name (lit., / am, able to name) many good 
men. Cio. Hano meoum poteras requiesoere nootem, you might rest (might 
have rested) with me this night. Verg. 

8. The Indicative of the verb turn is often used with longiim, aequum, 
aequius, difficile, Justum, melius, pdr, utilius, etc., in such expressions as 
Irnigum est, ' it would be tedious,' melius erat, ' it would have been better ' ; 

Longum est persequi utilitatgs, it would be tedious (is a long task) to re- 
want the uses. Cio. Melius fuerat, prOmissum nOn esse servatum, it would 
%a/i)e been better that the promise should not have been kept. Cic. 

■ Literally, it wasjttti/ng or proper that the war should not be undertaken. 




477 The Latin Subjunctive ' has two principal uses— 

I. It may represent an action as willed or desikbd : 
AtHenma patriam, let us love our coumtry. Cic. 

II. It may represent an action as peobablb or possible; 
Quaerat quispiam, some one mat inquike, Cio. 

478. Tenses in the Sdbjunctivb do not designate the time of 
the action so definitely as in the Indicative. 

479. The Present Subjunctive in principal clauses " embraces 
in a vague and general manner both present and. future time : ° 

AmemuB patriam, let tis love our country (now and ever). Cio. Quaerat 
quispiam, some one iruiy (or will) mqidre (at any time). Cio. 

480. The Impbbi'ect Subjunctive in principal clauses relates 
sometimes to the past and sometimes to the present : 

Crederes viotos, vanquisTied you would ham thought them. Liv. Utinam 
poBSem, would that I were able (now). Cic. 

481. The Pekpbot Subjunctive in principal clauses relates 
sometimes to the past, but more frequently to the present or fu- 

' The Latin Subjunctive, it will be remembered (p. 117, foot-note i), contains the 
forms and the meaning of two kindred moods, the Subjunctive proper, and the Opiaii'oe. 
In Latin, the forms characteristic of these two moods, used without any difference of mean' 
ing, are made to supplement each other. Thus, in the Present, the Optative forms 
ara found in the First Conjugation, and the Subjunctive forms in the Second, Tliird, and 
Fourth. In their origin they are only special developments of certain forms of the Pres- 
ent Indicative, denoting continued and attempted action. From this iAea of attempted 
action was readily developed on the one hand desire., mill, as we attempt only what we 
desire, and on the other hand pro'ba'bility, possibiUty, as we shall very lifeely accomplish 
what we are already attempting. These two meanings, united in one word, lie at the 
basis of all Subjunctive constructions in Latin. On the origin, Mstory, and use of the 
Subjunctive, see Delbruck, ' Oonjunctiv xuid Optativ ' ; Curtius, * Verbum,' II., pp. 55-95; 
Draeger, II., pp. 489-743 ; Eoby, II-, pp. 202-848 ; also a paper by the author on ' The 
Development of the Latin Subjunctive in Principal Clauses,* Transactions Am. Phil. 
Assoc, 1879. 

* For the tenses of the Subjunctive in Subordinate clauses, see 490. 

• The Present Subjunctive in its origin is closely related both in form and in meaning 
to the Future Indicative, Thus, in the Third and Fourth Conjugations, no future forma 
for the Indicative have been developed, but Subjunctive and Optative forms supply their 
place, as regain, tmtdia/m (Subjunctive), and reges^ reget, etc., and audies, a/uttietj eto< 


Fuerit malus olvis, he may heme been (admit that he was) a bad dtieen. Cio. 
Ns transleris ' Iberum, do not cross the Ebro (now or at any time). Liv. 

482. The Plupekfbct Subjunctivb in principal clauses re- 
lates to the past : 

ntinam potuiesem, would that I had been able, Cio. 



BTTIjE XXXVXEI.— Subjunctive of Desire, Command. 

483. The Subjunctive is used to represent the action 


Valeant elves, may tfie citizens be well. Cic. Amemtis patriam, let us 
LOTE our couniri/. Cic. A nobis ckligOtur, let him be loved by us. Cic. 
Scnbere n§ pigrire, do not neglect to wnte. Cic. 

1. The SiibJuncHve of Desire is often accompanied by utinam, and some- 
times, especially in the poets, by «<, si, o si: 

Utinam conata efficere possim, may I be able to accmwpUsh my endeavors. 
Cio. Ut iUum dl perdant, would that the gods would destroy him. Ter. 

2. FoBOB or Tenses. — The Present and Perfect Imply that the wish may 
be fulfilled ; the Imperfect and Pluperfect, that it can not be fulfilled: 

Sint beati, may they be happy. Cio. Ne transleris Iberum, do not cross the 
Ebro. Liv. Utinam possem, utinam potuissem, would that I were able, would 
that I had been able. Cic. 

Note.— The Imperi^ct and Flnperibct may often be best rendered should, should 
luMe, ought to have : 

H8c diceret, Aa should have said this. Cic Mortem oppetiissSB, you should haive 
met death. Cic. 

8. Neoatpvbs. — With the Subjunctive of Desire, the negative is ni, rarely 
n5ra / with a connective, nive, neu, rarely n-egue : 

Ns audeant, let them not dare. Cic. Non recsdamus, let us not recede. Cic. 
Am68 dlol pater, neu slnas, etc., may you love to be called father, and may you 
not permit, etc. Hor. Neve minor neu sit produotior, let it be neither shorter 
nor longer. Hor. 

NoTB. — Nedum, ' not to Bay,' 'much less,' is used with the Subjimctive ; 

Vix in tgctis frlsruB vTtatur, nedura in man sit fecile abesse ab iiyuria, the cold is 
avoided with di^ulty in our hoiisex, m-ucJt h'sii in it easy to escape (to be absent ii-om) 
injury on the sea. Cic. 

4. The first person of the Subjunctive is often found in earnest or solemn 
Atfikmations : 

' Observe that the Perfect thus used does not at all differ in time froia the Present^ 
but that it calls attentioD to the completion of the action. 


yLonB,r,si.^\Aa,may I (Ue,if ItMnk. Cio. Ne sim salvus, si sorlbo, moy J 
not he mfey if I write. Cio. Sollioitat, ita vlvam, a« / Wd«, i< fo-ojiJte me." Cio. 

5. The Subjunctive of Desire is aomotimes used in Eblatite Clauses : 
Quod fauatuin sit, regem create, elect a king, and may it be an auepteious 

event (may whioh be auspioious). Liv. Seneotus, ad quam utinam pervenia- 
tis, old age, to which may you attain. Cio. 

Note.— For the Sul^v/ncime of Desire in Subordinate Clauses, see 486, III., note, 
with foot-note. 

6. Modo, modo ne, may accompany the Subjunctive of Desire : 

Modo Juppiter adsit, only let Jwpiier be present. Verg. Modo nS laudent, 
onVy let theim not praise. Cic. 

484, The Sut^unctwe of Desire may be in meaning — 

I. Optative, as in prayers and whites : 

Sint beati, may they be happy. Cio. Dl bene vertant, m^ty the gods cause 
it to turn out well, Plaut. 

II. Hortative, as in exhortations and entreaties : 
Consulamus bonis, Ut us consult for the good. Cio. 

III. Concessive, as in admissions and concessions : 

Fuerint pertinaces, grant (or admit) that they were obstinate. Cic. 

IV. Imperative, as in mild commands, admonitions, warnings, etc., used 
cliiefly in prohibitions : 

Ilium jooum nS sis aspematus, do not despise that jest. Cic. Scrtberc nS 
pigrere, do not neglect to write. Cio. 

Note 1. — In proMbitions, the Perfect tense is generally used : 

Ne transierls Iberum, di) not cross the Ebro. Liv. 

Note 2.— Except in prohibitions, the Second Person Singular in the best prose is 
nsed almost exclusively of an indejvmte you, meaning on^ arjy one: 

Isto bono utare, you should use (1. e., one should use) that advantage. Cic. 

V. Deliberative, as in deliberative questions, to asls what should be : , 

Huic cedamuB, hnjus condioiones audiamus, shall we yield* to him, shall 
we listen to his terms f Cio. Quid faoerem, what was I to do?' Verg. 

RUIjE XXXIX.— Potential SubjunctiTe. 

485. The Subjunctiye is used to represent the action 


Hic quaerat quispiam, here some one mat inquibe. Cic. Ita laudem in- 
venids, thus you will (or mat) obtain praise. Ter. Tta amlcSs paris, thus 
Tou will make friends. Ter. Vix dicere ausim, 1 should scarcely dabe to 

'■ Here ita vlvam means, may I so Hvc (i. e., may I live only in ease this is true). 
2 Or, ought we to yield, is it your wish that we sTuyiUd. yield f 
* Or, what should I have done f 


tay. Liv. OrSderSs victSs, vanquished you would have thougJd them. Liv. 
Forsitan quaevitia,' perhaps you may inquire. Cic. Hoc nemo dixerit, no 
one would say tiiis. Cic. Quia dubitet {= nSmo dubitat), wJui would doubt 
(or who doubts = no one doubts) ? CHc. Hoc quis f erre posait, w/io would 
be able to endure this ? CSc. 

NoTi 1.— In the Potential Subjnnotive, the Perfect often has nearly the same force as 
the Present, and the Imperfect la often used where we should expect the Pluperfect: 
diatres, 'yon wonid have said'; credere^, putares, ' you would have thought': videres, 
ctmeria, ' you would have seen ' : 

Ta Platonem laiiddcerU, you would praisk Plato. Cic. Maeati, crederes viotos, 
redeunt in castra, sad, vanguis/ud you would have thousht Otrnn, they returned to 
the camp. Liv. 

Note S.— On Tmses, see also 478-483. 

Nora 8.— The Second Person Singular, especially of the Imperfect, is often used of an 
indefinite you, meaning ont, amy one: orederes, 'you would have thought,' 'anyone 
would have thought.' 

486. In the Potential sense, the Subjunctive is used — 

I. In Dedarative Sentences, to express an affirmation modesHy, dovhtfiMy, 
or conditionally ; aee examples. 

NOTB 1.— Thus, in the language of politeness and modesty, the Potential Subjunctive 
IS often used in verbs of wishing and tMnking : velim, ' I should wish,' for vole, ' I 
'vish ' ; TuyUm, ' I should be unwilhng ' ; maUm, ' I should prefer ' : 

Ego c£naeam, I should think, or / am inclined to think. Liv. Mihi dan velim, 1 
should Wee to have it given to me. Cic. 

NoTB i. — The Potential Subjonctlve is used in the conclusion of conditional sen- 
'^ces; see 607, 1, with foot-note. 

II. In Interrogative Sentences, to ask not what is, but what is likely to 
ie, what may be or would be, generally implying a, negative answer, as in 
the last two examples under the rule. 

NoTB.— The Subjunctive with ut, with or without the Interrogative ne, occurs in ques- 
tions expressive of impatience or surprise : ^ 

T6 ttt ulla res frangat, how should anything subdue you 1 Cic Egone ut mentiar, 
Vuxt Tshould speak falsely f Plant. 

III. In Subordinate Clauses, whatever the connective, to represent the 
action a.s possible rather thaji real: 

Quamquam epulis careat senectus, though old age may le without its/easts. 
Cio. Quoniam non possent, lince they would not be able. Caes. UbI r6s pos- 
oeret, whenever the case might demand. Liv. 

Note. — From the Subjunctive of Desire and the Potential Subjunctive in principal 
clauses have been developed the various uses of the Subjunctive in subordinate clauses.^ 

1 After Jbrsitan^/ors sit a7j, 'the chance may be whether,' 'perhaps,' the Sub- 
junctive was originally in an Indirect question (6S9), but it may be best treated as Poten- 
tial. Bo also with forsan saifortasse. 

s Some grammarians assume an ellipsis of apredicate,ascre^i&/^«^«^,7£eH^o^^, etc 

> Thus, the Suigvmctive qf Desire is used In JinaZ, conditional^ and conctssive 

oUuses; the Poitntial Su^uncti^e in clauses of ^isuU. and in various others denoting 




RUIii: XIi.— Imperative. 

487. The Imperative is used in commands, exhobta 
nosrs, and enteeaties : 

Justitiam cole, practice justice. Cic. Tu n§ cede malis, do not yield to 
misfortunes. Verg. Si quid in te peccavl, ignosce, if I have sinned against 
you, pardon me. Cic. 

1. The Present Imperative corresponds to the Imperative in English : 
Justitism cole, practice Justice. Cic. Perge, Catillna, ^o, Coi»Mn«. Cic. 

2. The Ftjtuke Imperative corresponds to the imperative use of the Eng- 
lish Future with shall, or to the Imperative let, and is used — 

1) In COMMANDS wyolvmg futwre rather than present action : 

Eem penditote, you shall consider the subject. Cic. Cras petitO, dabitur, 
Oik to-morrow, it shall he granted. Plant. 

2) In LAWS, OEDEES, PRECEPTS, ctc., especially in prohibitions: 
COnsules nCminl parento, the consuls shall he subject to no one. Cic. Salus 

populi suprema lex esto, the safetij of the people shall he the supreme law. Cic. 

Note.— The general distinction between the Present Imperative and the Futmrt is 
often disregarded, especially in poetry : i 

Ubi aciem videris, turn Ordines dissipa, whmi you shall see the Une of tattle, Hi&n 
scatter the ranks. Liv. Quoniam supplicatiS decreta est, celebratote illos diSa, since a 
ihanksgiHng has b^en decreed, celebrate those days. Cic. 

3. An Imperative clause may be used instead of a Conditional clause : 
Lacesse, jam videbis furentem, provoke him (i. e., if you provoke Mm), 

you will at once see him frantic. Cic. 

4. The place of the Imperative may be supplied by the Subjunctive of De- 
sire (483), or by the Future Indicative : 

Ne audeant, let them not dare. Cic. Quod optimum vidsbitur, faciBs, you '■ 
will do what shall seem best. Cic. 

488. In prohibitions or negative commands, the negative ni, rarely 
non, •accompanies the Imperative, and if a connective is required, nive or 
neu. is generally used, rarely neque : 

Tu ne cede malls, do not yield to misfortujbes, Verg. Hominem mortuum 
in urbe ne sepelito, neve urito, thou shaM not bury nor hum a dead hod/y in the 
city. Cic. 

what is Mhely to be. Moreover, firom these two leading uses was developed the Idea of a 
conceived or assumed action, which probably lies at the foundation of all the other uses 
of this mood, as in causal and temporal clauses, in indirect questions, and in th« 
subordinate clauses of the indirect discourse. 

1 Thus the Future is especially common in certain verbs; and, indeed, in tome verbfi^ 
as acid, mem^ma, etc., it is the only form in common use. 


489. Instead of n« with the Present Imperative, the best prose writers 
generally use — 

1) Noti and nsUte with the Infinitive : 

Nollte putare, do not tMnh (he unwilling to think). Cio. 

2) Fac ra or cavi, with the Subjunctive : 

Fao n6 quid aliud cures hoo tempore, do not attend to anything else at tTds 
Ume, Cio. Cava facias, 6« are of doing it, or see tTiat you do not do it. Cic. 

3) Ne with the Perfect Subjunctive, rarely with the Present ; see 484, 
rv., note 1. 



I. Tenses of the SuBjimcTivE in Stxboedinatb Clauses. 

490. In subordinate clauses the tenses of the Subjunctive con- 
form to the following rule : 

BUIiE XU.— Sequence of Tenses. 

491. Principal tenses depend upon principal tenses; 
historical upon historical : 

Nrtitur ut vincat, he strives to conguer.^ Cic. Nemo erit qui ceneeat, 
tlie}'e wUl he no one io/io wiU thinks Cic, Quaesier&s nonne putarem, ymt 
had asked whether I did not think. Cic. TJt honore dignus essem labOrfivI, 
I atrove to be worthy of honor. Cic. 

492. In accordance with this rule, the Subjunctive dependent upon 
a principal tense,' present, future, future perfect, is put — 

1. In the Present, to denote incomplete action: 

QuaerituT cur dissentiant, the question, is asked why they disagree. Cio. 
NgmO erit qui cSnseat, there will be no one who will think. Cio. 

NoTB. — Observe that id these examples the action denoted by the Subjunctive belongs 
either to the present time or to ih&futitre. 

2. In the Perfect, to denote completed action : 

Quaer&mus quae vitia fuerint, let ns inquire what faults there were. Cio. 
Bogitabit m6 uh! fuerim, ?ie will ask me where I hate been. Ter. 

NoTB 1. — In the sequence of tenses, the Perfect is occasionally treated as a priH' 
sipal tense : ^ 

ObStos es quid dixerim, you ha re/orgotten what I said. Cic. 

NoTB 2.— For farther iUastrations of the sequence of tenses, see 493, 2, note 2. 

* The Present Subjunctive generally denotes present time in relation to the principal 
nrb. Accordingly, vincat depending upon the present, nUitur, denotes pi'eseni time, 
^hile cmseat depending upon the,/%e/ure, erit, denotes/fr^urtf time. 

s For the treatment of the Perfect in the sequence of tenses, see 495. 


493. The Subjunctive dependent upon an historical tense, imperfedy 
historical perfect^ pluperfecty is put — 

1. In the Imperfect, to denote incomplete action : 

Timeham ne evenirent ea, I was fearing that those things would' tahe plaee 
(i. e., at some future time). Cic. Quaesieras nonne putarem, you had in- 
quired whether I did not thdnk (i. e., at that time). Cic. 

Note.— Observe that in these examples thfe time of the action denoted by the Sub- 
3unctiTe is either the same as that of the principal verb o subsequent to it. 

' 2. In the Pluperfect, to denote completed acttmi : 

Themistocles, cum Graeciam liberasset, expulsus est, Themistocles was 
banished^ though he had liberated Greece. Cic. 

NoTB 1.— The Pluperfect after an historical tense, like the Perfect after a principal 
tense, may represent the action as coTnpleted infutwre time; see 496, II. 

Note 2. — The seqv^Tice oft&mes may be further illustrated as follows : > 

Nescit quid facias, He knows not what you are doing. 

Nesciet quid facias, ffe will not Jatiow what you wUl do,^ 

NesclTerit quid facias, Se ivill not h^ave known what you will do. 

Neseit quid feceris, Se knows not what you have done, or what you did* 

Nesciet quid feeerls. Be will not k/now what you wiU have done.* 

Nesciverit quid feceris, Se will not ha/ve known what you will hwoe done. 

Nesciebat quid facerfis, Se did not know lohat you were dovrvg.^ 

Nescivit quid faceres, Se did not know what you were dovng,^ 

Nesclverat quid faceres, Se had not knoum what you were doing. 

Nesciebat quid i^cisses, Se did not know what you hxid done. 

Nesravit quid fecisses, Se d4^ not know what you had done. 

Nesciverat quid fScissea, Se had not knoum what you had done. 

494. The periphrastic forms in rus and diis conform to the genera* 
rule for the sequence of tenses : 

Incertum est quam longa vita futura sit, it is 'uneertam how long Ufe will 
conUnue, Cic. Incertum erat quo missilrl ol&Bsem forent, U was uncertain 
whither they would send the fleet. Liv, 

495. Peculiarities in Sequence.— The following peculiarities' 
in the sequence of tenses deserve notice : 

I. In the sequence of tenses the Latin Perfect is generally treated as 
an historical tense, even when rendered with kave^ and thus admits the 
Imperfect or Pluperfect : 

Quoniam quae Buhsidia hah&rfiB expOBuI,* nunc dicam, since I have shown 

^ It is not intended to g;iTe all the possible meanings of the Subjanctlve clauses here 
used, but simply to illustrate the sequence of tenses. 

2 Or, he loill not know what you a/re doing. Thus, qu/id Jttcida may represent the 
direct question, qmd fades, ' what shall you do ? * or qwidfa&fyy ' what are you doing? ' 

3 Or, what you w&re doing. 

* On, what you have done, or what you did. 

" Or, what you would do. Nescivit may sometimes be rendered, he has not knoum. 

* Exposudf though best rendered by our Perfect Definite with have, is in the Latip 


wh(U aidt, you have, I will now ^eak. Cio. Haeo nCn ut v68 exoitSrem looi- 
tus sum, Ihave not spohen this to arome (that I might arouse) you. Cio. 
NoTB.— For the Per/eet as iprinoipal tense, see 498, 2, note 1. 

II. The Historical Present {46T, III.) is generally treated as an historical 
tense, but sometimes as a prinidpal tense : 

Persuadet CastioO ut rSgnum ocoupSret, he persuaded Casticus to seize the 
government. Caes. Ubil Orant ut sibi paroat, the UUi implore him to spare 
them. Caes. 

NoTK.— The HUtorical Present includes the Present nsed of authors (467, 8), the 
Present with <2«m» (467, 4), the Historical Infinitive (536, 1), etc. : 

Ghrysippns dlsputat Aethera esse euin qnem homines Jovem appellaient, Chrysippus 
contends thai Tie whom men call Jupiter is Aether. Cio. 

III. The Imperfect Subjunctive, even when it refers to present time, as 
in conditional sentences, is generally treated as an historical tense, though 
sometimes as a principal tense : 

Nisi ineptum putftrem, jararem m6 ea sentire quae dioerem, if J did not 
think it improper, 1 would tahe an oath that I believe those things which I say. 
Cio. Memorare possem quibus in lools hostes populus Eomanus faderit, / 
might state in what places the Bom/m people routed the enemy. Sail. 

IV. The Perfect Infinitive is generally treated as an historical tense, but 
the Present and the thture Infinitive, the Present and the Future Participle, 
as also Gerunds and Supines, share the tense of the verb on which they 
depend, as they express only relative time (53T, 550) : 

Satis videor docuisse, hominis natura quanto antelret animantSs, I think I 
have sufficiently shown how m,uch the nature of man surpasses that of the other 
animals Qit., surpassed animals). Cio. SperOforeiut contingat, /^o^ei^wiZt 
happen. Cic. Non speraverat fore ut ad se defleerent, he had not hoped that 
they would revolt to him. Liv. Miserunt Delphos consultum quidnam faoe- 
rent, they sent to Delphi to ask what they should do. Hep. 

V. Clauses containing a general truth usually conform to the law for 
the sequence of tenses, at variance with the English idiom : 

Quanta oOnsdientiae vis esset, ostendit, he shewed how great is the power of 
conscience. Cio. 

VI. Clauses denoting consequence or result generally express absolute 
time, and are thus independent of the law of sequence.' They thus ad-nlt 
the Present or Perfed after historical tenses : 

EpamlnOndas flds slo tlsus est, ut possit jiidioarl,* Epaminondas used such 

treated as the Historical Perfect. The thought is as ibllows : Since in the precedieig 
topics I set forth the aids which you have, I will iww speak, etc. 

' LiteTftlly, / h^pe it will be that it may happen. Mere fore shares the tense of 
epSrS, and is accoidingly followed hy the Present, contin^at ; but below it shares the 
tense of speraverat, and Is accordingly followed by the Imperfect, deficerent. 

^ This peculiarity arises from the fact that the result of a past action may itself be 


fideUf/y that it may he judged, Nep. AdeO excellebat Aristldes abstinentia, 
ut Justus sit appellatus, ArisUdes so excelled in self-control^ that he has been 
called the Just. Nep. 

VII. For the sequence of tenses in the indirect discourse, see 525. 

496. Future Time in the Subjunctive. — When the Future is used in 
the principal clause, the Future and Future Perfect tenses, wanting in the 
Latin Subjunctive, are supplied in the subordinate clauses as follows: 

I. The Future is supplied — (1) after a principal tense by the Pkesent, 
and (2) after an historical tense by the Imperfect: 

Omnia sic agentur ut bellum sedetur,^ all things shall he so managed that 
the war will be brought to a close. Cic. Loquebantur, etiam cum vellet * Caesar, 
sese non esse pugnaturos, they were saying that they would not fight ev&n when 
Caemr should wish it. Caes. 

II. The Future Feifect is supplied — (1) after a principal tense by the 
Perfect, and (2) after an historical tense by the Pluperfect : 

Eespondet si id sit factum, se nociturum nemini, he replies that if this 
should he done (shall have been done) he will harmi no one. Caes. Apparebat 
rtgnaturum, qui vicisset, it was evident that he would be king who should con- 
quer. Liv. 

Note 1.— The Futv/re and the Future Perfect tenses are often supplied in the same 
way, even when the Future does not occur in the principal clause, pruvided the idea oi 
future time can be easily inferred from the context : 

Vereor ne laborem augeam, I fear that I shall vncrease the labor. Cic. Quid dies 
ferat incertum est, ■loAai a daywill hri/ng forth is wnc^tain. Oic. Quid hostSs c6n- 
silii caperent, exspectabant, ffiey waited to see what plan the &n,mvy would adopt. 
Caes. DelituT, dum vela dedissent, //(/wZ m/yself vmMl they should h^tve set sail. Verg. 

Note 2.— When the idea of future time must be especially emphasized in the sub- 
ordinate clause, the periphrastic forms in rus are used : ^ 

Incertum est quam longa vita fntura sit, it is wneertain how long life toill continue. 
Cic. Incertum erat quo missuri classem forent, it teas uncertain whither they would 
send the fleet. Liv. 

KoTB 8.— The Future Perfect \& sometimes supplied in the Paflaive by/tt^Mrws svm * 
sia^futurus essem with the Perfect Participle : ^ 

Non dubito quin confecta jam res ftitura sit, I do not doubt that the thing wiU have 
been already accomplished. Oc. 

present, and may thus he expressed by a principal tense. When the result belongs to 
the present time, the Present is used : possit judicdr% ' may be judged now ' ; when it 
is represented as completed, the Perfect is used : sit appellatus, * has been called * (i. e., 
even to the present day); but when it is represented as sirmtltaneous with the action 
on which it depends, the Imperfect is used in accordance with the general rule (491). 

1 Sidetv>r, referring to the same time as agentur, and vellet, referring to the same 
time as esse ptlgndtiiros, both denote future time. 

2 Other traditional periphrastic forms, rarely used in either voice, are— for the Tu- 
Tun7.,futurum sit ut with the Present Subjunctive, and futurum. esset ut with the Im- 
perfect; and for the Futuhe Fbbfsot, futwrwm sit ut with the Perfect, and^tuntm 
esset ut with the Pluperfect 



KUIiE XliQ.— Purpose. 

497. The Subjunctive is used to denote Puepose : ' 

[. With the relative qui, and with relative adverbs, as ubi, imde, etc. : 
MissI sunt qui (=«< it) consulerent Apollinem, they were sent lo consuli 
Apollo (who should, or that they should). Nep. MissI sunt delect! qui 
Thermopylas occupareiU, picked men were sent to take possession op Ther- 
mopylae. Nep. Domum, ubi habitaret, legit, lie selected a house where he 
might dweU (that he might dwell in it). Cic. Locum petit, unde {=vt 
inde) hostem invSdat, he seeks a position from which he may (that from it 
he may) attack the enemy. Liv. 

n. With ut, no, qu5, qu5minus, quo minus : 

Enltitur ut wincoi, Ae s<H««f Ma< HE MAT CONQUER. Cio. Pflnit ne^eecetor, 
he punishes that crime mat not be committed. Sen. Legum idcirco servl 
sumus, ut liberl esse posslmus, we are servants of the law for this reason, 
tJuU we may be free. Cic. Medico dare quo sit studiosior, to give to the phy- 
sician, that (by this means) he may be more attentive. Cic. NOn recusavit 
quominus poenam sublret, he did not refuse to siubmit to punishment. Nep. 

1. IM oTuti and nS are the usual conjunctions in clauses denoting purpose. 
A correlative, idea, ideircd, ed, etc., sometimes precedes, as in the third ex- 
ample under II. 

Note.— With a connective nS becomes neve, neu, rarely neque; see 483, 8 : 
Legem tullt n6 quis accusaretur neve moltaretur, he proposed a lam that no one 
^iould be accused or punished. Nep. 

2. Quo, ' by which,' ' that,' is sometimes used in clauses denoting purpose, 
especially with comparatives, as in the fourth example under II. Quominus, 
' by which the less,' ' that thus the less,' ' that not,' is simply quo with the 
comparative minus. It is sometimes used after verbs of hindering, opposing, 
and the like, as in the last example under II. 

Note. — Quo setius also occurs in the sense otguom^nas; see 01c. Inv., II., 45. 

498. Clauses of Pdbpose readily pass into Object Clauses,' 

' The Subjunctive of Purpose is doubtless In origin a Subjunctive ot Desire, express' 
ing the desire or command implied In the action of the principal verb : Te rogO ut eum 
juves, / ask you to aid him (I ask you, so aid him). Here the second clause, originally 
Independent, contains the desire, vyiah, involved In rogO. Vereor ne labSrem augeam. 
J fear that I shall ijicrease the labor (I fear, let me not increase the labor). Piaesto 
erit pontifex, qui comitia habeat, the pontiff' will be present to hold the oomifia (the 
pontiff will be present, let him hold the comltla). Llv. See Delbrilck, ' Ooijunctlv und 
Optativ,' pp. 69-62. 

' An Object Cboee ig one which has become virtually the ol^eet of a verb. Thus, in 
•opto ut id aud:idtis^ the clause ut id audidtis has become the object of opto, * 1 desiifti* 


but they still retain the Subjunctive. Thus the Subjunctive is 
used — 

I. With verba signifying Desire and its Expression; hence deasion, 
decree, etc. : ' 

Opto ut id audiatis, I desire (pray) ihat you may Tiear this. Cio. Ut mihi 
aedes aliquas conduoas volO, / wisJi that you would hire a house for me. Plaut. 
SeuatuB censuerat, utl Aeduos defenderet, the senate had decreed ihat he should 
defend the Aedm. Caes. Servis imperat ut f Iliam defendant, he commands 
his servants to defend his daughter. Cio. Te hortor ut legas, I exhort you to 
read. Cio. Te rogo ut eum juves, / ash you to aid him. Cio. A rege petx- 
verunt ne inimicissimum Buum secum haberet, they asked from the hing that 
he would not keq> his worst enmiy with hi/m. Nep. 

Note.— Verbs of determining, deciding — status, ccnsUtuO, decemo, etc. — generally 
take the Subjune^e when a Dew subject i» Introduced, otherwise the InjkiA^e (533, 

Oonstitaerat, ut tribiinus quereretur, Ac TiaA arrange that the tribwne should enter 
the complaint. Sail. Senatus decrevit, darent operam consules, the senate decreed thai 
the consuls should att&nd to it. Sail. Manere decrevitf he decided to reTnain. Nep. 

II. With verbs and expressions denoting Effort {striving for a pur- 
pose^ aUaining a purpose) or Impulse (urging to effort) : * 

Contendit ut vincat, he strwes to conquer, Cio. Curavi ut "bene viverem, 
I took co/re to lead a good life. Sen. Effecit ut imperator mitter&tur, lie caused 
a commander to he sent (attained his purpose). Nep. Movgmur ut boni 
simus, we are i/njkteneed to he good. Cic. 

jiOTE 1. — Some verbs of endeavoeing, STHrviNa, as conor^ contendo^ iVltor^ studeo^ 
and tento, generally take the Infinitive when no new subject Is introduced ; see 533 : 

Locum oppug^nare contendit, /le proceeds to storm thd dty. Caes. TentabO ds hOo 
dicere, IvMl attempt to apeak of tJUs. Quint. 

Note 2.— Ut with the Subjunctive sometimes forms witli,/iKJi5 or ago^ rarely with est, 
% circumlocution for the Indicative : fa<ylO ut dicam = diciJ ; /a&io ut scrlhamv = scribo ; 

Invitus facio ut recorder, / unwillingVy recall. Cic. 

III. With verbs and expressions denoting Fear, Anxiety, Danger : ' 
TimeO, ut labores sustineas, I fear tTw^ you will not endm'e the labors* 

Cic. Timebam ne evenirent ea, I feared tTiat those things would happen. Cio. 
Vereor n6 laborera augeam, I fear that I shall increase the labor.* Cic. Pencu- 
ium est ne ille te verbis obruat, there is danger that he will overwhelm you 
with words. Cic. 

Note 1. — By a diflFerence of idiom, ut must here be rendered by ^at not, and ni by 
ffiat or lest. The Latin treats the clause as a toish or purpose,* 

' As opto, poetulo; eenseO, dScemo, statuo, cdn8titti0.t etc.; -oolS, mdlo; odmonM, 
moneo, hortor ; oro, rogo ; impero, praedpio, etc. 

9 As enitor, contendo, studeO; cHrO, id ago, operam do, etc.; fado, ^icio, im- 
petro, consequor, etc. ; cogo, impelld, moveo, etc. 

^ As metuo, UmeO, vereor; per^cuVwm est, cwra est, etc. 

*■ The Subjwncti/ve of Desire Is manifest if we make the subordinate clause lnd« 


NoTB a.— After verbs of PKi.Biin>, nS «on is sometimes used for ««— regularly so after 
negative clauses ■ 

Vereor no n6n posslt, I fear that hi v>iU not be able. Oic. 

NoTi 8.— Verbs of FKAEufG admit the InfindUve in the same sense as In English : 

Vereor laudare, I fear (hesitate) to praise.^ Cio. 

499. PECuiiABiTrES. — Expressions of Purpose present the fol- 
lowing peculiarities : 

1. Ut ne, rarely ut n5n, is sometimes used for n§ : 

Praedbdt, ut n6 ISgatOs dimitterent, he charged them not to (that they 
should not) release the delegates. Nep. Ut plura non dicam, not to my more 
(i. e., that I may not). Cio. 

2. Ut is sometimes omitted, especially after volS, ndlB, mdlo, fads, and 
after verbs of direotinq, urging, etc. Ne is often omitted after cave: 

Ta velim sis, J desire that you may he. Cio. Fao habeas, see (make) that 
you have. Cio. Senatus deorevit darent operam oSnsules, the senate decreed 
that the consuls should see to it. Sail. Cavl facias, beware of doing it, or see 
thai you do not do it. Cic. 

NoTH. — Glauses with lUwne ax6 sometimes inserted parenthetically in sentences : 
Amicos, optimam vitae, ut ita dicam,^ suppellectilem, jVienrfs, the best treasure (itami- 
toie), so to speak, qf life. Clc. 

8. Clauses of Purpose sometimes pass into Substantive Clauses, which, 
like indeclinable nouns, are used in a variety of constructions : 

Per eum stetit quOminus dimioarstur,' it was owing to him (stood through 
him) tJioi the battle was not fought. Caes. V0I6 ut mihl respoudeas,' I wish 
that you would answer me. Cio. FSoit paoem his oondicionibus, ne qui ad- 
flcerentur exsilio,' A« made peace on these terms, that none should he punished 
with exHe. Nep. 

Sons 1. — For the Dtferemt Forms qf Substantive Clauses, see 540. 

Note 3. — Glauses with qubminus sometimes lose the original idea of Purpose and 
denote Result:* 

Non d€terret saptentem mors quomlnns r^ piibltcae consulat, death does not deter 
a wise man from deliberating for the republic Cio. 

pendent, as it was originally : I fear, so may you endure the labors, an affirmative wish; 
I few, may I not increase the labor, a negative wish; hence ne. 

* Compare vereor laudare, * I fear to praise,' with rereor ne laudem, ' I fear that 


3 The Subjunctive in this and similar clauses may be explained either as a Subjunc- 
tive of Purpose dependent upon a verb understood, or as a Subjunctive of Desire; see 

1 In the first example, the clause qubminus dimicdretur has become apparently the 
subject of stetit ; in the second, ut miM respondeas, the object of void ; and in the third, 
ne qu^ adficerentur exsUib, an apposltlve to condicidniMis. 

* Such a transition from Purpose, denoting an Intended Result, to a Simple ResuU 
is easy and natural. 


ni. SuBJtrfrcTrvB m Clauses of Rbshlt. 
RULE XUn.— Result. 

500. The Subjunctive is used to denote Ebsplt' — 

I. With the relative qui, and with relative adverbs, as ubi, unde, ci5r, 
etc. : 

Non is sum qui (= vt ego) his utar, I am, not such a one as to use ih^i 
things. Cio. Innocentia est adfeotiO talis animi, quae (= ut ea) noceat nemini, 
innocence is such a state of mind as injures noone^or as to injube no one. Cic. 
Neque quisquam fuit uW nostrum jus obtineremus, nor was tTiere amy one 
with whom (where) we could obtain owr right. Cio. Est vero cur quis Juno- 
nem laedere nolit, there is indeed a reason why (so that) one would he umwill- 
ing to offend Juno. Ovid. 

II. With ut, ut non, quin : 

Ita vixit ut AthSniensibus esset carissimus, he so Uved that he was very 
dear to the Athenians. Nep. Ita laudO, ut non pertirMscam, J so praise as not 
TO FEAB. Cic. Ego inpubliolscausis ita sumversatus ut defenderim multOs, 
I have been so occupied in public suits that I hM>e defended many . Cic. Nihil 
est tarn diflScile quIn (ut non) investlgarl possit, nothing is so di^ouU that it 
may not be investigated. Ter. 

Note 1. — Qui is often preceded by is. tdlis^ tantus, or some .similar word; and ut, 
by ita, sie, ta/m, adeo, tantopere, or some similar particle ; see examples. 

Note 2. — In Plautus and Terence i£t sometimes accompanies gvz : 

Ita ut qui neget, so that he refuses. Ter. 

Note 8. — For the Sub^unctvoe denoting a result after qtwminus. see 499, 8, note 2. 

501. Clauses of Besult readily pass into Substamtive Olmtses, 
but they still retain the Subjunctive. Thus the Subjunctive is used — 

I. In Subject Clauses. Thus — 

1. With impersonal verbs signifying it happens, remains, follows, is law- 
ful, is allowed, is distant, is, etc. : * 

Fit ut quisque dsleotstur, it happens that every one is delighted. Cic. 
Sequitur ut falsum sit, it follows that it is false. Cio. Bestat ut dooeam, it 
remains that I should show. Cio. Ex quo efiBcitur ut voluptas non sit Bum- 
mum honarci,from which ii follows that pleasure is not the highest good. Cio. 

2. With predicate nouns and adjectives : 

MOs est ut nOlint, it is their custom, not to be wilUng (that they are un- 
willing). Cio. Proximum est, ut doceam, the next point is, that 1 show. Cic. 
N5n est dubium quIn benefleium sit, that it is a benefit, is not doubtful. Sen. 

1 The Sabjunctlve of Jiesult is doubtless In origin a Potential Subjunctive : J?dn is 
turn, qv/i Ms utar, ' I am not one who would use (or is liJcely to u/ie) these things.' 
Hence this Subjunctive takes the negative non i^t non) like the Potential Subjunctivet 
while the Bubjimctive of Pwrpose takes the negative Tie like the Subjunctive of Desire. 

s Ab aeoHM, contingit, i/cenM,Jit, restat, sequitur, Hcet, dbest, eat, etc. 


NOTH.— For the Subjunctive with M«,with or without «e. In questioDB eipresriveoJ 
immanence or surprise^ see 486, II., note. 

II. In Objeci Clauses. Thus — 

1. In clauses introduced by ut after facio, efficio, of the action of irra- 
tional forces : 

Sol efiloit ut omnia floreant, the mn cmtses all things to bloom (i. e., pro- 
duces that result). Cio. Splendor vester faoit ut peooire sine perioiUs non 
possltis, yonr conspiououa position, causes this result, that you cannot err with- 
out peril. Cio. See 498, II. 

2. In clauses introduced by quin after verbs of Doubting : 

NOn dubitabls quIn sint beat!, you will not dovht that theey are hAjppy. Cio. 

III. In Clauses in Apposition with nouns or pronouns : 

Habet hoc virtus ut deleotet, virtue has tliAs advantage, that it delights. 
Cic. Est hso vitium, ut invidia glsriae comes sit, <A«r« is thisfa/utt, that emoy 
is the companion of glory. Nep. 

Note. — For the different forms of substantive clauses, see 540. 

502. Peculiabitiks. — Expressions of Result present the fol- 
lowing peculiai-ities : _ 

1. Ut is sometimes omitted — regularly with opoiiet, generally with opiu 

est and necesse est : 

Ts oportet virtils trahat, it is necessary that virtue should attract yoiu. Cio. 
Causam babeat necesse est, it is necessary that it should have a cause. Cio. 

2. The Subjunctive occurs with quam — with or without ut : 
Liberalius quam ut posset, too freely to he aile (more freely than so as to 

be able). Nep. Imponebat amplius quam ferre possent, Jte imposed more 
than they were aile to bear. 

3. After tantum abest ut, denoting result, a second ut of result some- 
times occurs : 

Philosophia, tantum abest ut laudgtur, ut etiam vituperstur, so far is it 
from the truth (so much is wanting) that philosophy is praised, that it is even- 
censured. Cio. 

603. In Relative Clauses, the Subjunctive of Result 
shows the following Special Construction's : 

I. The Subjunctive is used in relative clauses to charaeteriee an 
Indefinite or Oeneral Antecedent : ' 

Quid est quod tS deleotare possit, what is there which can delight you f 
Cio. Nunc dieis aliquid quod ad rem pertineat, now you state something which 
belongs to the subject. Cio. Sunt qui putent, th^e are some who think. Cio, 
NSm6 est qui non cupiat, there is no one who does not desire. Cio. 

1 Here tarn, taUs, or some such word, Is often understood. 


Note 1.— Bestrictive clauses with quod^ as qttod soiam, 'as far as I know,^ qtiod 
meminerim^ ' as far as I remember,' etc. , take the Subjunctive : 

Non ego te, quod sciam, unquam ante hunc diem vidi, as fab as I know, I have 
nev&r seen you be/ore this day. Plaut. 

Note 2. — Qitod^ or a relative particle, ubl, unde^ quo, cur^ etc., with the Sult^iMctiee^ 
is used after est, there is reason ' ; non est, nihil est, ' there is no reason ' ; quid eat, ' what 
reason is there ? ' non haheo, nihil hab^, * I have no reason ' : 

Est, quod gaudeas, th&re is reason why you should r^oice, or so that you may. 
Plaut. Non est quod credas, th^e is no reason why you should beH&oe. Sen. Nihil 
habeO, quod inciisem seneetutem, / ha/se no reason why I should accuse old aQ%. 01c. 
Quid est cur virtus ipsa non efficiat beatos, what reason is there why virtue Ose^ 
ihovM not rtmke nwn happy f Cic. 

Note 3. —The Indicative is freely used in relative clauses after Indefinite antecedents : 

1) In poetry * and late prose : 

Sunt quoB juvat, there are some wlvom it delights. Hor. 

2) Even in the best prose, when the fact itself is to be made prominent: 

Sunt qui non audent dicere, there are some wTio do not da/re to speak, Cic. Mnlta 
sunt, quae dici possunt, tJi&re a/re matvy things whAch ma/y be said. Cic. 

n. The Subjunctive is used in relative clauses — 
1. After unus, solus^ and the like : 

Sapientia est una, quae maestitiam pellat, wisdom is the only tMng which 
dispels sadness (which would dispel). Cic. Soli centum erant qui creari pos- 
sent, there were only one hurod/red who could he appointed (such that they could 
be). Liv. 

3. After Mgrvm^ iTtdA^ntts, idoneicSj and apttia : 

Fabulae dignae sunt, quae legantur, the fables are worthy _ to be read (that 
they should be read). Cic. Eufum Caesar idoneum judicaverat quern mit- 
teret, Caesar had judged Bufus w suitable person to smd (whom he might 
send). Caes. 

3. After comparatives "with qvxi/m : 

Damna majora sunt quam quae (= ut ea) aestimS,!! possint, the losses are 
too great to be estvmated (greater than so that they can be). Liv. v 

504. Quln^ 'who not/ ^that not,' etc., is often used 
to introduce a result after negatives and interrogatiyes 
implying a negative. * Thus — 

* Especially in early poetry, as in Flautas and Terence. 

3 Qwi/n is a compound of the relative qm, and 'm, and appears to be osed both as an 
indeclinable relative pronoun, who not, and as a relative particle, by wJdch not^ how not, 
etc. Some clauses with quln may perhaps be best explained as indirect questions 
(629, 1.). Quln, meaning; why notf often used in independent clauses, Is a compound 
of the interrogative g'?m or (?M7, and «e ; Quln til li^facis^ ' why do you not do It?' Uv. 

3 As nemo^ nUlhie, nihil, quis t non dubito^ non dubium est ; Twn multmn abeet^ 
pauium abest, nihil abeat, quid- aheett non^ vioi, aegri absti/neO; TJiihi non twnperO; 
non retineor; non, nihil praetermMtO ; facere non possum, fi^rl n&n potest; wu/n^ 
quam, with a large class of verbt. 


1. Quin is often used in the sense of qui non, quae non, etc., as 
after nemS, nullus, nihil, quia ? 

Adest ngmd, quin videat, there ia no one present who does not see. Cio. 
Nemo est quin audierit, there is no one who has not heard. Cio. Quia est 
quIn oernat, who is there wlio does not perceive f Cio. Nulla fuit olvitas quin 
mltteret, there was no state which did not se^d. Caes. Nulla piotOra fuit 
quin (=quam ndn) InspSKerit, there was no painting which he did not inspect, 
Cio. Nollum intermlai diem, quin (= quo non or ut ei non) aliquid darem, 
I allowed no day to past without giving something (on which I would not give 
something). Cic. 

NoTB. — Quin can often be best rendered by but or by wiihoui or from with a parti- 
cipial noan In -ing ; Bee the last example under 1 ; also the last under 2. 

2. Quin is often used in tlie ordinary sense of ut non : 

NfimO est tam fortis quin perturbetur, no one is so brave as not to be dis- 

twrbed. Caes. Nihil est tam difficile quin investlgarl possit, nothing is so 

difficult that it may not be investigated. Ter. Betiaeri nOn poterant quin 

t6la oftioerent,' they could not be restrained from hurling their weapons. Caes. 

NoTB. — le or id Is sometimes expressed after quin : 

Nihil est quin id intereat, there ia nothing which does not perish. Cic. 

3. Quin is used in the sense of ut non or of ut in subject and 
object clauses (501) : 

1) With/ocere non possum, fieri ndn potest, etc., in the sense of vt non: 
Facere nOn possum quln lltterSs mittam, / can not hit send a letter. Cic. 

Efflci non potest quin e6s Sderim, it can not be (be effected) thai Ishmbld not 
hate them. Cic 

2) With negative expressions implying doubt and uncertainty, in the 
sense of vt : 

Agamemnon n&n dubitat quin Troja sit peritQra, Agamemnon does not 
doubt that Troy will fall (perish). Cic. Non dubitan debet quln fiierint 
poetae, a ought not to be doubted that there were poets. Cio. Quia ignOrat 
quin trie genera sint, who is ignorant thai there are three races ? Cio. 

4. Qtim is sometimes used in the sense of quominus : '' 

Quln loquar haeo, nunquam mS potes dsterrgre, you can never deter me 
from saying this. Plaut. NSn deterret sapientem mors quOrainus rcl piibli- 
cae conaulat, death does not deter a ivise man from deliberating for the repub- 
lic. Cic. Non reouaavit, quOminus ppenam sublret, he did not refuse to sub- 
mit to pumishmient. Nep. Neque reousare quln armis contendant, and thai 
they do not refuse to contend in arms. Caes. 

NoTB. — For non quln in Causa] Clauses, see 516, 2. 

* Pronounced as if written oojicerenf; see 36, 4, with foot-note 1. 

* As alter verbs of hindering, refusing, and the like. Observe that in the examples 
dSt&rreo and recusO are used both with quln and with quoTninuc, They also admit thf 
Babjnnctlve with n^or the Infinitive; see SOS, IL 


505. CoNSTKUCTiON OP SPECIAL Vbrbs. — Some verbs admit 
two or more difEerent constructions. Thus — 

I. Dviiio admits — 

1. Quin, WITH THE SuBjnNCTiTE, if it stanSa in a negative sentence; 
see 504, 8, 2). 

2. An Indirect Question (529, I.): 

Non dubite quid putgs, / do not doubt what you think. Olo. DubitO an 
ponam, Idouit whether I should notplace.^ Nep. 

3. The Accusative with the Infinitive : 

Quis dubitat patSre Europam, who doubts that Europe is encased? Curt. 

4. Tiie simple Infinitive, when it means to hesitate.' 
'Sbn&atiiifsra.dKXTe, I should not hesitate to say. Cio. Dubitamua virtutem 

extendere factis, do we hesitate to extend our glory (valor) by our deeds? Verg. 

IL Verba of hindering, opposing, refusing, and the like, admit — 

1. The Subjunctive with ne, quin, or quominus : ' 

Impedior ne plilra dicam, / am prevented from saying (that I may not Bay) 
more. Cio. Sententiam nS diceret recusavit, he refused to give an opinion. 
Cio. Neque reoQsare quin armls oontendant, and that they do not refuse to 
contend in arms. Oaes. InterolQdor dolore quominus plura acrlbam, / am 
prevented by sorrow from writing more. Cio. 

2. The Accusative with the Infinitive, or the simple Infinitive : 
Num ignobilitas aapientem beatum esse prohibebit, will obscurity prevent 

a wise man from being happy f Cio. Quae faoere reoOsem, which I should 
refuse to do, Hor. 

IV. Moods ik Conditional Sbntencbs. 

506. Every conditional sentence consists of two distinct parts, 
expressed or understood — the Condition the Conclmion: 

Si negem, mentiar, if I should deny it, I should speak falsely.' Cic. 

BXTIiE ZlilV.— Conditional Sentences with sit nisif ni, sin. 

507. Conditional sentences with si, nisi, ni, sin, take — 
I. The Indicative in both clauses to assume the sup- 
posed case : 

' That 1b, / (wi inclmtd to think that I should place. Observe that dubito an 
meanB 'I doubt whether not'=*l am inclined to think,' and dubiUi n/wm, *I donbt 
whether' : IhMto num. debeam, ' I doubt whether I ought.' Plin. 

3 For the use of gu^, see 504. 2^e and qmmAmm may follow either a^fiitmci^en 
•r negaUves. 

' Here «{ negem. is the coudition, and menUar, the conclusion. 

CONDITIONJlL sentences. 281 

Slsplritum dflcit, vivit, t/A^irea^Aes, A« is oZiiie. Cio. Si tot exempla 
virtutis nSn movent, nihil unquam movebit, if so many examples of valor 
do not move (you), nothing will ever move (you). Liv. 

II. The Pbesent or Perfect Subjunctive in both 
clauses to represent the supposed case as possible: 

Diss dSficiat, si velim causam defendere, the day would fail me, if 1 
thould wish to defend the cause. Cic. Improbe f ecens, nisi monueris, you 
would do wrottff, if you should not give warning. Cie. 

III, The Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive in 
both clauses to represent the supposed case as contrary to 

Plflribus verbis ad te scilberem, sT res verba desIderSret, / should write 
to you more fully (with more words), if the case required words. Cic. Si 
Toluisset, dimic&sset, if lie had wished, he would have fought. Nep. 

1. Two clauses without any conjunction sometimes have the force of a 
conditional sentence : 

Negat quis, negO, does any one deny, I deny. Ter. Eoggs me, nihil re- 
Bpondeam, ask me, I shall make no reply. Cio. Tu mSgnam partem, sineret 
dolor, haheres, you would have had a large share, had grief permitted.^ Verg. 
LacSsse ; jam vidsbis fiirentem, provoke him (i. e., if you provoke him), you 
will at once see him frantic. Cic' 

2. A condition is sometimes introduced by the relative qui, quae, etc, 
= a is, si gvis, si qui, etc. : 

Qui s§cum loqul poterit, sermonem alterius nOn requlret, if any one (lit., 
he who) shall be able to converse with himself, he will not need the conversation 

> See 610, note 2. 

' From these examples it is manifest that a conditional particle is not an essential part 
of a conditional sentence. Originally the two clauses, the condition and the conclusion, 
were independent, and the mood in each was determined by the ordinary principles 
which regulate the use of moods in principal clauses ; see 483 ; 485. Hence the Indica- 
tive was used in treating of facts, and the Subjunctive or Imperative in all other cases. 
31, probably the Locative case of a pronoun, meaning (1) at thai tim^ or in that manner. 
and (2) ai any time or in any manner, has nothing whatever to do with the mood, but 
merely denotes that the conclusion is connected with the condition. Thus : negat, negO, 
^he denies (i. e., assume that he denlesX I deny^; si negat, ne^d, *he denies at some 
time, then I deny * ; dies dejiciat, si velim., etc., ' let me wish (Subjunctive of Desire) at 
any time, etc., then the day would fail me.* The Subjuactive in conditions is a Subjunc- 
tive of Desire with nearly the force of the Imperative, which may indeed be used for it 
when 8% is omitted, as lacSsse, ' provolie him (i. e,, if you provoke him),' In conclusiooa 
the Subjunctive is generally potential, as dies difidat, 'the day would fail' but some- 
times it is the Subjunctive of Desire, for which the Imperative may be substituted; as, 
peream, si potarant, ' may I perish if they shall be able ' ; «! peccavl, ignosce, ' If I have 
eired, pardon me.' Bee Pelbriick;, ' Conjunctiv nnd Optativ,' pp, 70-74; 171-188. 


vf another, Cie. Errat longS, qui credat, etc., "he greatly errs who supp&set^ 
etc. (i. e., if any one supposes^ he greatly errs). Ter. Haeo qui videat, 
nOnne cdgS.tur cOnfiteri, etc., if any one should see these things^ would he not 
be compelled to admit^ etc. ? Oic. 

3. A condition is sometimes introduced by cum: 

Ea cum dlxissent, quid respondSres, \f (when) they had said that^ what 
thould you reply f Cic. 

Note 1.— The condition is Bometimes ironical, eepecially with Tw'ai vera, rUai forte^ 
with the Indicative, and with quasi, quasi vero, with the Present or Perfect Bubjunctire: 

Nisi forte insanit, unleea perhaps he is inaa^ne. Gic. Quasi vero necesse sit, as i/ 
indeed it were necessary, Oaes. 

Note 2.—Ita — tz, * so— if,^ means on^ — if. Si qttddem, * if indeed,'* eometimes has 
nearly the force of aince : 

Hoc ita jilstum est, sT est voluntarium, t^iis i^just only if (on condition that) it ih 
vohi/ntary. Gic. AnUquissimum est genus poetarom, si quidem Homerus fiiit ant« 
Romam conditam, the class of poets is very ancient^ since Homer U/ced b^ore ih€ 
/ovm,ding of Rome. Cic. 

Note S.—N'isi ornf, Mf not,* Is sometimes best rendered hvtoT eeocept: 

NeBci6, nisi h6c video, T know not, but (except that) /observe ^ftis. Ote. 

Note 4. — Mai si means except if^ unless perhaps^ wrUeas : 

Nisi si qui scnpsit, unless some one Tias writt&n. Oic. 

Note 0.— For ai to be rendered to aee if to aee whether^ etc., see 539, 1, note 1. 

Note 6. — For quod, si, quod nl^ quod ivisi^ see 453, 6. 

Note 7.— The condition may be variously supplied, as by a participle, by the ablatira 
absolute, or by the oblique case of a noun : 

Non potestis, voluptate omnia dTrigent68 (=a? dlrigiUs), retinSre rlrt&tem, you 
can not retain yov/r manhood, if you a/rra/nge all things vyith r^^&nce to pleaszire. 
Cic. Becte facto ( = s? recti factum erit), laua proponitur, if it is (shall be) well done, 
praise is o^&red. Cic. N3md sine sp6 (= nisi «pem haberet) s6 offerret ad mortem, 
no one without a hope (if he had not a hope) would expose hmnself to death. Cic. 

Note 8.— For Conditional Sentences in the Indibeot Discoubbe, see 527. 

608. First Form. — Conditional sentences with the In 
dicative in both clauses, assuming the supposed case as real, 
may base upon it any statement which would be admissible ^ 
if the supposed case were a known fact : 

Si haec oiYitas est, civis sum ego, if this is a state, lam a citisen, Cic. Si 
nOn licebat, nOn necesse erat, if it was not lawful^ it was not necessary, Cic. 
Si vis, dabo tibi testes, i/'^ow wish^ I will furnish you witnesses. Cic. Plum 
scribam, si plus otil habuerO, / will writt more if I shall have (shall have 
had) inore leisure. Cic. Dolorem si non poterO frangere, occultabo, if I shall 
not be able to overcome sorrow, I shall conceal it. Cic. Parvi sunt foils anna, 
nisi est consilium domi, arms are of little value abroad, unless there is wisdom 
at home. Cic. Si domi sum, etc. ; sin i foils sum, etc., if I am at horns, et<5. ; 
but if 1 am abroad, etc. Plaut. Nl put6, if I do not tMnk, Cic. 

* Sin from si ni, 'if not,' 'if on the contrary,' 'but if,' properly Introduces a condi- 
tion in contrast with another condition expressed or Implied. Thus, «^ forls i« in oon 
trast with ai domi, and means but if abroad. 


1. The CoHBiTiON it generally introduced, when affirmative, by s5, with or without 
^ther particles, as qvidem., modo^ etc., and when negative, by si twn^ nisi^ ni. 

8. The TiMK may \n present., past, or future^ but it need not be the same in both 
olmnses. Thus the Present or the Future Perfect in the condition is often followed by 
the Fttture, as in the third and fourth examples.^ 

8. Si Twn and niH are often used without any perceptible difference of meaning; but 
strictly in non introduces the negative condition on which the conclusion depends, while 
nisi introduces a quaHfioation or an exception. Thus, in the 6< cond example above, the 
meaning is, if it was not lawful., it follows that it was not necesoary ; while in the fourth 
the meaning la, arms are qf Uttle value abroad, except when, there is wisdom at home. 

4. The Conclusion irrespective of the condition may assume a considerable variety 
of form, Thns ; 

Redargue me si mentior, refute me {f I speak falsely. Cic. Moriar, nl putd, may 
Idie, ^Ido not think, Cic Quid timeam, si beatus fnturus sum, why should I fear 
if I am going to 1)6 happy T Cic. SI quid habes certius, velim '^ scire, i/" yow A<M)a fimy 
information (anything more certain), I should like to know it. Cic 

5. Obnebal Truths may be expressed conditionally — 

1) By the InMcativc in both clauses, as in the sixth example under 608. 

2) By the Second Person of the SiiHtjimeti/oe nsed of an indefinite you (= any one) In 
the condition, with the Indicative in the conclusion : 

Memoria minnitor, nisi earn exerceas, the memory is impaired, if you do not (one 
does not) exercise it. Cic Niilla est exciisatid peccati, si amici causa peccaveris, it is 
iw eaxiusefur a fault, that you have committed it for the sake qf a friend. Cic. 

509. Second Form. — Conditional sentences with the 
Present or Perfect Subjunctive in both clauses represent 
the condition as possible : 

Haeo SI tecum patria loquatur, nOnne impetrare debeat, if yowr country 
should ^eak thus with you, ought she not to obtain her request ? Cic. ImprobS 
{%ceris, nisi monuerls, you would do wrong, if you should not give warning. 
Cic. See also 607, 11. 

NOTB 1.— The Time denoted by these tenses, the Presemi and the Perfect,ia generally 
either present or fhtnre, and the difference between the two is that the former regards 
the action in Its pnvress, the latter in its completion. Thus, logudtur, 'should speak' 
(now or at any ftature time) ; so of debeat ; but fecens, though referring to the same 
time OS logudtur, regards the action as completed.^ 

NoTK 2. — The Present Sutijunctive is occasionally used in conditional sentences, even 
when the condition is in ItseW contrary to fact: 

> A conditional sentence with the Future Perfect in the condition and the Future in 
the conclusion, as plvra scrlbam, »5 pMs otil habuero, corresponds to the Greek with 
iiv or av with the Aorist Subjunctive in the condition, and the Future Indicative in the 
conclusion; as, vim av iroi-^irjit, yipat ifeis eiSoAft, if you tci/l laborwhile young, you 
toittha/ve a prosperous old age. 

' Observe that in each of these examples the mood in the conclusion is enth'ely in- 
dependent of the condition. Thus, redargue is a command ; moriar, a prayer, Subjunc- 
tive of Desire; iruid timeam, a deliberative question (484, V.); and velim, a Potential 
Subjunctive (486, note 1). 

» As the Present Subjunctive in point of time is very closely related to the Future 
Indicative in conditional sentences, so the Perfect Subjunctive is very closely relatwl t« 
the Future Perfect Indicative, though it may refer to past time. 


Tu K h!c bTs, allter sentiaB, if you were I (if you were in my place), you would thirtk 
differ&nWy. Ter. 

Note 3. — When dependent upon an historical tense, the Present and Perfect are of 
course generally changed to the Imperfect and Pluperfect, by the law for Sequence 0/ 
Tenses (490) : 

Metuit nS, si iret, retraherStur, ftt feared lest, if he should go, he would be brought 
back. Liv. 

510. Third Poem. — Conditional sentences with the Im- 
perfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive in loth clauses represent 
the supposed case as contrary to fact, and simply state 
what would have been the result if the condition had been 
fulfilled : 

Sapientia nOn expeterStur, si nihil effieeret, wisdom would not he sought (as 
it is), if it accomplished nothing. Cio. Si optima ten6re possSmus, baud 
BSiie consilio eg6r6mus, if we were able to secure the highest good, we should 
not indeed need counsel. Cio. Si voluisset, dimioasset, if he had wished, he 
would Tiave fought. Nep. Nunquam atlaset, nisi sibi viam mdnlvisset, he 
would never have gone, if he had not prepared for himself a way. Cio. See 
also S07, III. 

Note 1. — Here the Imperfect generally relates to present * time, as in the first and 
second examples ; the Pluperfect to past time, as in the third and fourth examples. 

Note 2.— The Imperfect sometimes relates to past time, especially when it expresses 
a continued action, or is accompanied by any word denoting past time : 

Nee, si cuperes, tibi id facere licuisset, nor would you ha/se been permitted to do if, 
if you had desired. Gic. Num Opimlum, si turn esstSs, temerarium civem putares, 
would you ha/oe thought Opimius an audacious ciUa&n if you had H/oed at that Imne f 

5 1 1 . A Conclusion of the First Fobm is sometimes combined 
with a Condition of the Second or Thied Form. Thus — 

1. The Indicative is often thus used in the conclusion (1) to denote a 
general truth, and (2) to emphasize a fact, especially with a condition in-* 
troduced by nisi or m:' 

Turpis excusatio est, si quis fateatur, etc., it is a base excuse, if one admits, 
etc. Cio. Intrare, si possim, oastrahostium V0I6, 7 wmA to «»fer<A« camp ^ 
the enemy, if I am able. Liv. Certamen aderat, nl Fabius rem expedlsset, u 
contest was at hand, but Fabius (lit., if Fabius had not) adjusted the affair.^ 
Liv. Neo veni, nisi fata locum dedisaent, nor should I have com^, had not 
the fates assigned the place.' Verg. 

1 This use of the Imperfect to denote present time was developed from the ordinary 
force of the Subjunctive tenses. Thus the Present denotes that which is likely to be, 
the Imperfect that which was likely to be, and so by implication that which is 7u>t 
Compare /iwY in the sense of was, but is not, 471, 1, 2), 

3 Here the condition merely introduces a qudHflcaUon or an except/ion ; sea 608, & 

^ The force of the Indicative can not be easily shown in a translation, but the Latin 

conception is, / hoAie -not come toithout the dieine gvidance f exnressed in the condition). 


KoTB 1. — ^The Futwe IndieaMve Ib BometlmeB used in the conclusion beoanse of lU 
near relationship in force to the Present Subjunctive : * 

Si mlttat, quid respondSbis, {f he ahoiUd ^end, what answer sTiall you gi/oet Lucr. 
Neo s! oupias, licebit, v-or^ if you should desire it^ will it he allowed. Cic. 

NoTB 2. — In a negative conclusion with a negative condition, the verb posmrni \% 
generally in the Indicative : ^ 

Neque amicltiam tuen posBnmns, nisi amicoB dlligamus, nor should we he able to 
preserce friendship, if we should not love our friends. Cic. 

Note 3.— The Historical T&nses of verbs denoting Duty^ Propriety, Necessity^ 
Ability^ and the like, in the conclusion of conditional sentences, are generally in the In- 
dlcatlTe : 

Quern, SI iilla in te pietas esset, colere dcbebJls, whom you ought to ha/ve Tumored 
(and would have honored), if there were any fUal affection in you. Cic. Vix castra, 
SI oppiignaretur, tutari poterat he was ha/rdly able to d^end the eamp^ if lie sTtould 
be attacked. lAv. Deleri exercitus potuit, si persecuti victores essent, the army might 
have been destroyed (and would have beeo), ^ the victors Imd pursued. Liv. 

Note 4. — The Historical Tenses of the Indicative of still other verba are soraettmes 
similarly used when accompanied hy paene or prope : 

Pons iter paene hostibua dedit, ni unus vlr fliisset, the bridge almost furnished a 
passage to the enemy (and would have Airnished itX had there not been one man.. Liv. 

2. The Periphrastic Forms in rus and dus in the conclusion of condi- 
tional sentences are generally in the Indicative : ^ 

Quid 8l hostes veniant, facturl estis, wliat shall you do \fthe enemy should 
tome ? Liv. Si quaeratur, indicandum est, if inquiry should he made, in- 
formation must be given. Cic. Eellcturl agros erant, nisi lltter3,s mlsisset, 
they would have left * their lands^ had he not sent a leUer. Cic. Quid futuruin 
fuit, si plebs agitai^ coepta esset, what would have been the result^ if the pie- 
beian^ had begun to be agitated f Liv. Si verum respond&re velles, haec erat 
dicenda, if you wished to answer truly ^ this should have been said. Cic Si 
mor&t! essetis, moriendum omnibus iiiit, if you had delayed^ you must all 
have perished. Liv. 

Note.— When the Perfect Indicative in the conclnsion with the Subjunctive in the 
condition is brought into a construction which requires the Subjunctive, the tense remaina 
unchanged, irrespective of the tense of the principal verb : 

Adeo est inopia coactus ut, nisi timaisset, Galliam repetJtums fherit,^ he was so 

1 See 479, with foot-note 3. A conditional sentence with the Present Subjunctive 
in the condition, and the Future Indicative in the conclusioo, corresponds to the Greek 
tai' with the Present Subjunctive in the condition, and the Future Indicative in the con- 
clusion: TovTO eav (TKoir^Te, evpjjireTe, if you eatamine this^ you willfind. 

^ Here, too, the use of the Indicative grows out of the relationship between the mean 
ing of possum^ denoting ability^ and that of the Poten fial Subjunctive denoting pos- 

* Th« Indicative is here explained by the close relationship between the ordinary 
mMning of the Subjunctive,and that of the forms in rus and dus denoting that something 
is about to be done or ought to be done. 

* Lit., were about to leave^ an^ so would have l^t^ had he not, etc 

' Here repetiturus fuerit is in the Subjunctive, not because it is in a conditional sen* 
tence, but because It is the Subjunctive of Besult with ut ; but it is in the Perfect, b» 
cause, if it were not dependent, the Perfect Indicative would have been used. 


pressed by want that, if he had not /eared, he would have returned to 6anl. Ut. 
Haud dnbium fuit, quin nisi flrmata extrema agminiB fnissent, ingSns accipienda cladet 
fuerit, there was no doubt that, had not the rear of the line been made strong, a great 
disaster rn/ust have been sustained. Liv. Quaeris quid potueiit ampUas assequl, bT 
Scipionis fuisset flliuB, you ask what more he could have attained, if he had been the 
son of Scipio. Cic. 

512. A Conclusion of the Third Form (510) is sometimes combined 
with a Condition of the Second Form (509): 

Si tecum loquantur, quid respondsres, ^ they should speak with you, what 
lanswer would you give t Cio. 

RUIiE 2CLV.— Conditional Clauses with dum, mode, ac A, 
ut sl> etc. 

613. Conditional clauses take the Subjunctive — 

I. With dum, modo, dummodo,' 'if only,' 'provided that'; dum 
ne, modo ne, dummodo ne, ' if only not,' ' provided that not ' : ^ 

Manent ingenia, modo permaneat industria, mental powers remain, if only 
industry remains. Cio. Dum rSs maneant, verba iingant, let them ntake 
words, if only the facts remain. Cic. Dummodo repellat perioulum, provided 
he may avert danger. Cio. Dum n6 tibi videarjnon laboro, p?'<w)»<ie(i/do mo< 
seem so to you, I do not care. Cio. 

II. With So si, ut si, quam si, quasi, tanquam, tanquam si, velut, 
▼elut SI, ' as if,' ' than if,' involving an ellipsis of the real conclusion : 

Perinde habebO, ftc bI soripsisses, / shall regard it just as if (i. o., as I 
should if) you had written. Cio. Jaoent, tanquam omnino sine animO sint, 
they He as if (i. e., as they would lie if) they were entirely without mind. Cic 
Quam si vixerit tecum, as if he had lived with you. Cio. Miserior es, quam 
Bl oculos non haberes, you are more unhappy than (you would be) if -you had 
not eyes. Cio. CrudSlitatem, velut 81 ades&et, horrSbant, they shuddered at 
his cruelty as (they would) if he were present. Caee. Ut s! in suam rem ' 
allSna oonvertant, as if they should appropriate others' possessions to their own 
use. Cio. Tanquam audiant, as if they may hear. Sen. 

Note 1. — In this form of conditional sentences, the Present ^ or Imperfect Is nsed of 
present time, and the Perfect^ or Pluperfect of past time; see examples above. 

1 When not used in conditions, these conjunctions often admit the Indicative : Dum 
leges vigebant, while the laws were in force. Cic. 

^ This Subjunctive is best explained o&ihb Sub^uncti/oe of Desire, as indicated by the 
negative ne (4S3, 3). Thus, modo permaneat industria, 'only let industry remain*; 
dum ne tibi videar, * let me not meanwhile seem so to you.' After dum and dummodo 
the Subjunctive may perhaps be explained as Potential, but the negative ne renders such 
an explanation very doubtful. 

^ The English idiom would lead us to expect only the Imperfect and Pluperfect, an 
under 510; but the Latin often regards the oonditloD as possible, and thus uses the 
Present and Perfect, as under 609- 

IfoTii 2.— C«u and HcaH are sometimes aged like dc 8?, ut ai, etc : 
Cea bella forent, a« ^(Aere w«re W(ir«. Yerg. Sicuti aadmposBent,a«^tA«ycou{d 
i4 Keard. SalL 

V. Moods m Concessivb Clauses. 

514, A concessive clause is one which concedes or admits some- 
thing, generally introduced in English by though or although : ' 

Quamquam itinere fessi erant, tamen prOoedunt, althouffh they were weary 
with thejonrney, they still (yet) advanced. Sail. 

NoTB.^^Tlie concessive particle is sometimes omitted : 

Sed habeat, tamen, etc, hitt grant that he hoe it^ yet, etc Gic 

RUUEi XliVI. — Moods in Concessive Clauses. 
615. Concessive clauses take — 

I. Generally the Indicative in the best prose, when 
introduced by cjuamquam : 

Quamquam intellegunt, tamen nunquam dieunt, though they understand, 
they never speak. Cic. Quamquam festlnas, non est mora longa, though 
you are in haste, the delay is not long. Hor. 

II. The Indicative or Subjunctvoe, when introduced 
by etsl, etiam^, tametsi, or «*, like conditional clauses 
with s?. Thus — 

1. The Indicative is used to represent the supposed case as Sifaet: 
Gaudeo, etsi nihil scio quod gaudeam, I rejoice, though Ihnow no reason 

why I should rejoice. Plant. 

2. The Present or Perfect Subjunctive, to represent the supposed case 
as possible: 

Etsi nihil habeat in se gloria, tamen virtiitem sequitur, though glory 
may not possess anything in itself, yet UfoUows virtue. Cic 

3. The Imperfect or Pluperfed Subjunctive, to represent the supposed 
case as contrary to fact: 

Etiamst mors oppetenda esset, domi m£llem, even if death ought to be 
met, I shmdd prefer to meet it at home. Cic. 

III. The Subjunctive, when introduced by Uoet,' qua^n- 
ms, ut, ne, cum, or the relative qui : 

1 Gimcessive clauses bear a close resemblance to conditional claoses both in form 
ind in use. Si optimum est, ' if it is best,' is a condition ; etsl optimum est, ' even if (or 
though) it is best,' is a concession ; the one aaswmes a supposed case, the other admits 
It "The SnbjnnctiTe in concessive clauses is in general best explained in the same way 
aA In conditional clauses ; see 507, 1, foot-note 2. 

1 In origin licet ia «imply the Impersonal verb of the same form, and the Sul^lnnotiTe 


Licet irrldeat, plus tamen ratio valebit, though he may deride^ reason 
will yet avail more. Cic. Non tu possis, quamvls excellas, vou would not 
be ahle^ although you excel. Cic. Ut desint vires, tamen est laudanda 
voluntas, iJiough the strength fails, still the will should he approved. Ovid. 
Ne sit summum malum dolor, malum certe est, though pain may not be the 
greatest evil, it is certainly an evil. Cic. Cum domi divitiae adfluerent, 
fuere tamen cTves, etc., though wealth abounded at home, there were yet 
diizenSj etc. Sail. Absolvite Verrem, qui (cum is) sS fateatur pecuniaa 
c6pisse, acquit Verres, tlvough he confesses (who may confess) that he has 
accepted money. Cic. 

Note 1. — Quamquam takes the Subjunctive— 

1) WheD the thought, irrespective of the concessive character of the clause, requires 
that mood ; 

Quamquam epulis careat senectiia, though old age ma/y be icithout its feasts. Cic 

2) Sometimes, even in the best prose, apparently without any special reason : 
Quamquam ne id quidem suspicionem habuerit, tJiough not ev&n. that gave rise to 

any suspicion. Cic. 

3) In poetry and in late prose, the Subjunctive with quamquam is not uncommon. 
In Tacitus it is the prevailing construction : 

Quamquam invicti assent, although th&y were invincible. Verg. Quamquam pleri- 
que ad senectam pervenlrent, although very many reached old age. Tac. 

Note 2. — Quamquam and etsl sometimes have the force of yet^ but yet, a/nd yet : 

Quamquam quid loquor, and yet why do I speak f Cic. Etsl tibi assentior, mtd yet 
I assent to you. Cic. 

Note 8. — Quam/vls in the best prose takes the Subjunctive almost without exception, 
ganeraWy also in Livy and Nepos ; but In poetry and in late prose it often admits the 
Indicative : 

Erat dignitate regia, quamvls carebat nomine, he was of royal dignity, thmtgh ke 
was without the name. Nep. 

NoTB 4:.— Qui and eum, used concessively, generally take the Indicative In PlautUB 
and Terence, and sometimes even in classical prose : 

Andes praedicare id, doml t6 esse nunc qui hie ades, do you dare to assert fhis^ that 
you are now at h,o7ne^ alfhougJi you are here present f Plant. Cum tabulas emunt, 
tamen nequeunt, though they purchase paintings, they are yet unable. Sail. Cum'^ 
Sicilia vexata est, tamen, though Sicily was disturbed, yet. Cic. 

Note 5. — Wt—^c, or ut—ita, * though — yet' (lit., 'as— so"*), Involving comparison 
rather than concession, does not require the Subjunctive : 

Ut a proeliis quietem habuerant, ita non cessaverant ab opera, though Olt-i as) tfiey 
liad had restf^om battles, yet (lit., so) they had not ceased from work. Liv. 

Note 6. — Qtiarrwla and quantumvis, meaning 'as much as you please,^ 'however 
much,'' may accompany licet with the Subjunctive: 

N6n possis tu, quantumvis licet excellas, you would not be able, however much you 
ma/y excel. Cic. 

clause which follows, developed from Sesult (501, 1.), is its subject. Thus, In licet 
irrldeat (lit., ' that he may deride is allowed '), irrldeat Is according to the Latin con- 
ception the subject of licet Quam.-vi8, compounded of quam, ' as,' and vis, ' you wish,' 
means as you wish; thus, quamvls e^scellds means literally excel as you wish (i. e., m 
CQUch as you please). The Subjunctive with quamvls, ut, ne, and quiy la the Subjwuy 
fi^e of Desire; that with cwn was developed iVom the temporal clause; see 6!81. 


VI. Moods in Caubai Clauses. 

RTTIiE ZIiVU. — Moods \7ith quodi quiai quoniam, quandS/ 

516. Causal clauses with quod, quia, quoniam, 
quando, generally take — 

I. The Indicative to assign a re&son positively, on onis 
own authority : 

Quoniam supplicatio decreta est, celebratGte illds digs, since a thankt- 
ffivinff has been decreed, celebrate tlwse days. Cic. Gaude quod spectant tS, 
ryoiee that (because) they behold you, Hor. 

II. The Subjunctive to assign a reason doubtfully, or 

on (mother's authority : * 

Socrates accusatus est, quod corrumperet juventutem, Socrates was ac- 
cused, because (on the alleged ground that) he corrupted the youth. Quint. 
Aristldes nSnne expulsus est patriS, quod Justus esset, was not Aristides 
banished because (on the alleged ground that) he was just? Cic. 

1. By a special construction, the verb introducing a reason on another's 
authority is sometimes put in the Infinitive, depending upon a verb ot saying 
or thinking in the Subjunctive : 

Quod se bellum gestures dlcerent (= quod bellum gestQrl essent, ut dlc6- 
bant), because they were about, as they said, to wage war. Caes. 

Note. — In the same way the SuhjunctiTe of a verb of saying ov {Hnking may be 
QBed in a relative clause to introduce the sentiment of another person : 

Ementiendo quae se audiase dlcerent, by reporting falsely what th&y had heard 
(what they said they had heard). Sail. 

2. NoN Qno ETC. — Non quo, ndn quod, ndn quln, rarely nSn quia, also 
quam quod, etc. , are used with the Subjunctive to denote an alleged reason in 
distinction from the true reason : 

Non quo haberem quod scrlberem, not because (that) / had anything to 
write. Cic. Non quod doleant, not because they are pained. Cic. Quia ne- 

1 Quod and qvda are in origin relative pronouns In the neuter. Thus : gaude quod 
epectant ti, ' rejoice that (as to that) they behold you.' Quoniam = gwom-jam, ' when 
now,' and quando = guam-do (dd = die), ' on which day,' * when.' Do is probably from 
the same root as dum ; see p. 145, foot-note 1. 

^ Observe that causal clauses with the Indicative state a fact, and at the same time 
present that fact as a reason or cause, as in the first example, but that causal clauses 
with the Subjunctive simply assign a reason vtithout asserting any fact. Thus, in the 
examples under II., quod corrumperet jus&ntutem does not state that Socrates cor- 
rupied the youth, but simply Indicates the charge made against htm ; nor does qu<td 
Justus esset state that Aristides was just, but simply indicates the alleged ground of 
Us banishment For the development of the Subjnnctive in causal clauses, see p. SOi; 
foot-note 8. 


quiverat quam quod Ignoraret, because he had' heen, unable, rather than became 
he did not know. Liv. 

NoTB. — Glauses with quod sometimea stand at the beginning of sentences to an- 
nounce the subject of remark : 

Quod me Agamemnonem aemulari putas, falleris, in thinMng (as to the fact that 
you think) that 2 emulate AffaTnemnon, you are mietaken. Nep. 

RUIiE XLVIU. — Causal Clauses with cum and qui. 

617. Causal clauses with cum and qui generally take 

the Subjunctive, in writers of the best period : 

Necesse est, cum sint dil, animantes esse, since there are gods, it is neces- 
sary that tliere should he living beings. Cic. Cum vita metas plena sit, 
wncc life is full of fear. Cic. Quae cum ita sint, pSrge, since these things 
are so, proceed. Cic. vis veritatis, quae {cum ea) se defendat, O the 
force of truth, since it defends itself. Cic. fortunate adulSscens, qui 
{cum tu) tuae virtiitis Homerum praeoonem inveneris, fortunate youth, 
since you (lit., who) have obtained Homer as tlie herald of your valor. Cic. 

1. Tn early Latin, especially in Plautus and Terence, the Indicative is tiie 
prevailing mood in causal clauses with cum and qui, though the Subjunctive 
is not uncommon with qui : ' 

Quom" facere ofBcium scis tuum, since you know how to do your duty. 
Plant. Quom hoc non possum, since 1 have not this power. Ter. Qui ad- 
venistl, since you have come. Plant. Tuas qui virtutes sciam, since 1 know 
your virtue. Plant. Qui neminem videam, since 1 see no one. Ter. 

2. Clauses wjth either cwm or qm admit the Indicative in all writers, 
when the statement is viewed as a/aci .■ 

HabeO senectuti gratiam, quae mihi sermonis avidit£item auxit, 1 cherish 
gratitude to old age, which has increased my love of conversation. Cic. Gratu- 

> Clauses with ctwn, whether causal or temporal, illustrate the gradual extension of 
the use of the Subjunctive in subordinate clauses. Originally they took the Indicative, 
unless the thought irrespective of the causal or temporal character of the clause required 
the Subjunctive. Thus the Ciceronian sentence, N'ecesse eat. cum sint dii, animantes 
esse, ' since there are gods, it is necessary that there should be living beings,* would in 
early Latin have been, Necesse est. cum sunt dil, ani/mantes esse, and would have con- 
tained two distinct statements, viz., there are gods, and it is necessary that there slumld 
ie liA^ing beings. But in time the causal clause lost so much of its original force as a 
separate statement, and became so entirely dependent upon the principal clause, as to be 
little more than an adverbial modifier of the latter, like the Ablative of Cause (413) in a 
simple sentence. The causal clause then took the Subjunctive, and the sentence as a 
whole made but one distinct statement, which may be approximately rendered, in view 
qf (because of) the existence of the gods, it is necessary that there should be liring 
beings. In the same way, temporal clauses with ewwi sometimes became little more 
than adverbial modifiers of the principal verb; see 531, 11., 1, with foot-note, and 531j 
II., 2, with foot-note. For a special treatment of these clauses, see Hoffmann, ' Die Con 
Umction der lateinischen Zeitpartikeln,* and Liibbert, ' Die Syntax von Quom.* 

* See 311, 1, with foot-note 4. 


tor tibi, cum tantum vales, I amgratulate you (hat (in view of the fact that) 
you fuive so great influence. Cio. 

8. When a conjunction acoompanies the relative, the mood varies with the 
oonjunotion. Thus — 

1) The Subjunctive is generally used with cum, quippe, ut, ntpote : 

Quae cum ita sint, since these things- are so. Cic. Quippe qui blandiatur, 
since he flatters (as one who flatters). Cio. Ut qui colOnI essent, since the^ 
were colonists. Cio. 

NoTB. — But the Indicative is sometimes used to give prominence to the /act Ir 
Salinst the Indicative is the regular construction after guippe .' 

Quippe qui regnum invSserat, as he had laid hold cfthe kingdom. Sail. 

2) The Indicative is generally used with qma, quoniam : 

Quae quia certa esse non possunt, since these things can not he sure. Cio. 
QiU quoniam intellegl noluit, since he did not wish to be undereiood, Cio. 

Vii. Moods in Tempobal Clauses.' 
RXTIiE XTiTX.— Temporal Clauses with posttjuam, etc 

518. In temporal clauses with postquam,, postedquam,* 
ubl, ut, simvl atque, etc., ' after,' ' when,' ' as soon as,' 
the Indicative is used : 

Postquam vidit, etc., castra posuit, he pitehed his camp, after he saw, 
etc. Caes. Ubi certiores faetl sunt, when they were informed. Caes. Id 
ut audlvit, as he heard this. Nep. Postquam vident, after they saw.' SalL 
Postquam nox aderat, w!ien night was at hand. Sail. 

NoTB 1. — ^The t&nse in these clauses is generally the Perfect or the Historical Free- 
ent, but sometimes the Descriptive Imperfect; * see examples above; also 471. 4. 
NoTB 2.— The Pluperfect Indicative is sometimes used— 

1) Especially to denote the result of & completed action : 

Posteaquam consul flierat, after he Iiad been consul.^ Cic. AnuO terti6 postquam 
profiigerat. in the iMrd year after he had fled. Nep. 

2) To denote repeated action : ^ 

nt quisqne venerat. soISbat, etc.. as each one came (Ut., Tuid come), he was wont, 
etc. Cic. 

Note Z.—Postridds quam Is used like postguami ; 

Postridie quam tu es profectus, on the day after you started. Cic. 

1. In Livy and the late historians, the Pluperfect or Imperfect Subjunctiv* 
IS often used to denote repeated action : ' 

' On Temporal Clauses, see Hoffinann, * Die Construction der lateinischen Zeitparti* 
kein,* and Lubbert, ' Die Syntax von Quom.* 
^ Or post quam and posted quam, 
' See 467, III, with 1. 
< See 469. I. 

* And icas accordingly at the time a man of consular rank. 

* Id this case the Imperfect Indicative Is generally used in the prliudpal elauM, at V 
the example here given. 


Id ubi dixisset, hastam mittebat, whenever he had said that, he hwled (wat 
ffont to hurl) a spear, Liv. 

Note.— As a rare eaxepUem, the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive occur aftof 
poatgwim or poetedquam : ^ 

Posteaquam aedificasset classes, a/ter he had hvjiU fleets, Gic 

2. When the verb is in the second person singular to denote an indefinite 
subject, ymi = any one, one, the Subjunctive is generally used in temporal 
clauses : 

Nolunt ubi veils, ubl nOlis cupiunt, they are unwilling when you wish it (when 
one wishes it), when you are unwilling tluy desire it, Ter. Priusquam in- 
eipi&B, consulto opus est, before you begin, there is need of deliberation. Sail. 

RULE Ii. — ^Temporal Clauses with dum, etc.' 
519. I. Temporal clauses with dum, donee, and quoad, 
in the sense of while, as long as, take the Indioatwe : 

Haec feci, dum licuit, I did thU white it was allowed. Cio. Quoad vixit, 
as long as he lived, Nep. Dum leges vigebant, as long as the laws were in 
force. Cic. Donee eris felix, as long as you shall be prosperous. Ov. 
Quamdili in pro vincia f uerunt, as long as they were in the province Cic. 

II. Temporal clauses with dum, donee, and quoad, ia 
the sense of until, take — 

1. The Indicative, when the action is viewed as an 


Dellbera hoc, dum ego redeo, consider this until I retutm. Ter. DSneo 
rediit, until he returned. Liv. Quoad renuntiatum est, until it was (actual- 
ly) anmmnced. Nep. 

2. The Subjunctive, when the action is viewed as some- 

Differant, dum defervgscat Ira, let them defer it till their anger cools 
(i. e., that it may cool). Cic. Exspectas dum dicat, you are waiting till he 
tpealcs (i. e., that he may speak). Cic. Ea continSbis quoad te videam, 
you will keep them till I see you. Cic. 

Note 1. — In the poets and the historians, du/m ts sometimes used with the Imperfect 
Subjunctive, and donee with the Imperfect and Pluperfect, like cum in narration : ^ 

Dum ea gererentur, bellum concitur, wMle these things were in progress (were 
done), a war was commenoed. Liv. Nihil trepidabant donee ponte agerentur, they did 
not fear at all wMle they were driven on the bridge. Liv. Donee missi essent, v/ntU 
they had been sent. Liv. 

HOTB i. — Donee, in Tacitus, generally takes the Subjunctive : 

. ^ — . 

3 But the text in these cases Is somewhat uncertain. 

• Bee p. 291, foot-note 1. ■ Bee p. 295, foot-note 1. 


Boeoas aervat rlolentiam corsfis, donee UoeanS miscefitnr, th» BMna presemee Me 
IV-piddiy qfits current tiU it mingles with Vie ocean. Tu. 

RUIiE U.— Temporal Clauses with antequam and prius- 


620. In temporal clauses with cmtequam and prius- 
quam ' — 

I. Any tense except the Imperfect and the Pluperfect 
is put — 

1. In the Indicative, when the action is viewed as an 


Priusquam lucet, adsunt, they are present be/ore it is light. Cio. Ante- 
quam in Siciliam vSnl, before I came into Sicily. Cie. Antequam cOgnO- 
vero,' before I shall have ascertained. Cic. Nee prius respexl quam veni- 
mus, Tior did I look back until we arrived. Terg. 

2. In the Subjunctive,' when the action is viewed as 


Antequam de t§ public^ dicam, exponam consilium, / will set forth my 
plan before I (can) speak of the republic (i. e., preparatory to speaking of 
the republic).* Cic. Non prius duces dimittunt, quam ' sit concessum, tliey 
did not dismiss tfte leaders till it was granted. Caes. Priusquam incipias, 
consults opus est, before you begin there is need of deliberation (i. e., as 
preparatory to beginning).' Sail. Tempestas minatur, antequam surgat, 
the tempest threatens, before it rises. Sen. CoUem, priusquam sentiatur, 
commiinit, he fortified the hill before it was (could be) pei-ceived." Caes. 

II. The Imperfect and the Pluperfect are put in the 
Suhjv/ncti/v6 : ' 

> Often written ante guam and prius guoTn, Bometimes with intervening wotdft 
between ante or pritta and quam. See also p. 291, foot-note 1. 

3 The Futnre is used only In early Latin, as in Plautus and Gate. 

' Bemember that the Future is supplied in the Subjunctive by the Present; see 496. 

* Here the temporal clause involves purpose as well as time. Antequam dlcam is 
nearly equivalent to ut posted dicam: * I will set forth my views, tluU I m^y q/ter- 
ward speak of the' republic' 

^ Remember also that in temporal clauses the second person singular with an indefi- 
nite subject, you = any one, one, is generally in the Subjunctive ; see 618, 2. 

« potential Subjunctive ; see 486, III. 

' The Subjunctive in the Imperfect and Pluperfect tenses is not always to be refer- 
red to the same principle. Sometimes, like the Subjunctive after dum, it is best ex- 
plained as the Suhjmictive of Purpose, as in the first example., and sometimes like the 
Subjunctive of the historical tenses after cewn; Bee p. 295, foot-note 1. 


N5n prius Bgressus eat quam rex eum in fidem reoiperet, hx did not 
withdraw until the king took him under his protection. Nep. Priusquam 
peteret consulatum, insanit, he was insane before lie sought the consulship. 
Liv. Prius vlsus est Caesar, quam fama perferrfitur, Caesar appeared 
before any tidings were brought. Caes. Antequam urbem caperent, before 
they took the dty. Liv. Priusquam de _meo adventu au(Ure potuissent, in 
Macedoniam perrexi, before they were able to hear of my approach, I went 
into Macedonia. Cic. Paucis ante diebus, quam Syracusae caperentur, a 
few days before Syracuse was taken. Liv. 

Note 1. — "When the principal clause is negative and contains an historical tense, the 
temporal clause generally takes the Perfect Indicative, as in the last example under I., Ij 
but it sometimes takes the Subjunctive, as in the first example under II. 

Note 2 — Pr'idie quam takes the same moods as priusquam : 

Pridio quam scripsi, th.e day hefoi-6 I wrote. Cic. Pridie quam penret, somniavifc, 
Ae had a dream on the day before he died. Suet. 

Note 8. — For the Subjunctive of the second person with an indefinite Butgect, flee 
618, 2. 

RULE liU.— Temporal Clauses -with cum. 

521. Iq temporal clauses with oum' — 

I. Any tense except the Imperfect and the Pluperfect 
is put in the Indioati/oe : 

Cum verba faciunt, majores suoa extollunt, 't(iAe» they speak, they extol 
their ancestors. Sail. Cum quiSacunt, probant, while they are silent they 
approve. Cic. Libros, cum eat otium, legere soleo, when there is idsure, 
I am ■wont to read books. Cic. Ad te scribam, cum plus otii naotus ero, / 
shaU write to you when J shall have obtained more leisure. Cic. Omnia aunt 
incerta cum a jiire discessum est, all things are uncertain when one has de- 
parted from the right.' Cic. 

II. The Imperfect and the Pluperfect are put — 

1. In the Indicative, when the temporal clause asserts 


Paruit cum necesse erat, he obeyed when it was necessary.^ Cic. Non- 
dum profectua erat, eum haec gerebantur, he had not yet started when these 
things took place. Liv. Turn cum res magnSa permulti amiserant, Romae 
fides concidit, then, when many had lost great fortunes, credit fell at Rome. 
Cic. Cum quaepiam cohora impetum fecerat, hostes refugiebant, whenever 
any cohort made (had made) an attack, the enemy retreated. Caes. 

> See p. 290, foot-note 1, with the works of Hofimann and LQbbert there mentioned. 

" Discessimi est is an Impersonal Passive, a departure has been made ; see 301, 1. 

^ Here the temporal clause not only defines the time of paruit, but also makes a 
distinct and separate statement, viz., it was necessary ; see p. 295, foot-note 1 ; alM^ 
p. 200, foot-note 1. 


2. In tlie Subjuncti/oe, when the temporal clause sim- 
ply DEFINES THE TIME of the principal action : ' 

Cum epistulam complicarem, tabellarii venerunt, while I was folding the 
fciter (i. e., during the act), iA«jDostocj4 came.' Cic. Cum ex Aegypto rever- 
teretur, decessit, he died while he was retumiiig (during his return) from 
Egypt. Nep. Cum dlmicSret, occlsus eat, when he engaged in baMe, he was 
slain. Nep. Zenonem, cum Athenis essem, audiebam frequenter, I often 
beard Zeno when I was at Athens. Cic Cum trldui viam perf eciaset, niin- 
tiatum est, etc, when he had accomplished a journey of three days, it was an- 
nounced, etc. Caes. Caesari cum id nuntiatum esset, maturat ab urbe 
proficlsci, when this was (had been) announced to Caesar, he hastened to set 
owl from the city. Caes. 

1) Cum with the force of a relative after tempus, aetas, and the like, takes— 

(1) Sometimes the Indicative, to state a fact: 

Fuit tempus, cum homines vag2,bantur, there was a time when men led a 
wandering life. Cic. 

NoTB. — Oum is BometimeB thus uBed without t&mpus, etc. : 

Fuit cum hoc dici poterat, there was a time when this could be said. LiT. 

(2) Generally the Subjunctive, to characterize the period : > 

Id saeculum cum plena Graecia poctarum esset, that age when (such that) 
Greece was full of poets, Cic. Erit tempus, cum desideres, the time wilt come, 
when you will desire. Cic. 

Note 1. — Oum 1b sometimes thus used without tempus, etc. : 

Fuit cum arbitrarer, Piere was a time when I thought. Cic. 

Note 2. — Memim cam, ' I remember when,^ generally takes the IndicaHve, but au- 
dio cum, video cum, and animad-oerto cum, generally the Suitywncti/ve : 

Memiul cum mih! desipere videbare, / remember when you seemed to me to be wii- 
wise. Cic. AudiTi cum diceret, I heard him. say (lit., whtn. he said). Cic. 

2) Oum, meaningyroira the time when, since, takes the Indicative ; 
Centum annl sunt, cimi dictator fuit, it is one hundred years since he was 

dictator. Cic. 

Note 1. — Ou7n . , . twm,, in the senae of 'not only . . . but alBO,* 'both . . . and,' 
generally takes the Indicative in both clauses, but in the sense of * Viough . . . yet^ the 
Siibjimi^we in the first clause and the Indicate in the second : 

Cum antea distinebar, turn hoe tempore distineor, not only was I occupied b^ore, 

^ In the Imperfect and Pluperfect tenses the choice of mood often depends not so 
much upon the nature of the thought, as upon the intention and feeling of the writer at 
the moment. If he wishes to assert that the action of the temporal clause is an histori- 
cal fact, he uses the Indicative ; but if he introduces it for the sole purpose of defining 
the Kme of (he prinjCfipal ticHon, he uses the Subjunctive. Thus, cum epistulam com- 
pliedrem does not assert that I folded the letter, but, assuming that as admitted, it 
makes use of it in defining the time of oenerunt. See also foot-note under 1 above; also 
p. 290, foot-note 1. 

' Like the Subjunctive in relative clauses after indefinite antecedents; see 603* L 


but I am aliooceiifpUd nmo. 01c. Quae cam slnt gravia,tiim illad acerblssimnir es^ 
though these OiAnga a/reaenere^ that is the most grievous. Cic 

NoTB 2. — For cum In Causal clauses, see 617. 

Note 8. — For cum in Concessive clauses, see 615, III. 

Vin. Indibbct Discourse — OrdUS OhUqua. 
Moods and Tenses in Indirect Diseourse, 

532. When a writer or speaker expresses thoughts, whether hit 
own or those of another, in any other form than in the original 
words of the author, he is said to use the Indirect Discourse — OrA- 
US ObUqua:^ 

Platonem ferunt in Italiam venisae, thej/ say that Plato came into Italy. 
Cio. Eespondeo te dolorem ferre moderatS, I reply that you hear the aJUction 
with moderation. Cio. Utilem arbitror esse aolentiam, / think that hnowUdgf 
is useful. Cio. 

1. In distinction from the Indirect Disoouese — OrdUS ObUqua, the original 
words of the author are said to be in the Direct Discoubse — OratiO Recta. 

2. Words quoted without change belong to the Direct Diboocbse : 

ESx ' duumviros ' inquit ' secundum legem facio,' the king said, * I anoint 
dwmnvirs according to law.'' Liv. 

RUIiE un.— Moods in Principal Clauses. 

523. The principal clauses of tlie Dieect Disoouese 
on becoming Indikeot take tlie Injmiti/ve or Sul^unotive 
as follows : 

I. When Deolaeattve, they take the Infiniti/ve with a 
Shibjeoi Accusative. 

Dioebat animos esse dlvlnos, he was wont to say that souls are divine. 
Cic. Platonem Tarentum venisse reperio, IJmd that Plato came to Taren- 
tiim. Cic. Cato mlrari se aiebat, Oato was wont to say that he wondered. 
Cic. Hippias gloriatus est, annulum se sua manii confecisse,' Ilippiai 
boasted that he had made the ring with his own hand. Cic. 

NOTK.— The verb on which the Infinitive depends is often omitted, or only implied in 
Bome preceding verb or expression ; especially af^r the Subjunctive of Purpose : 

* Thus, In the first example, Plat&rwm ««. JtaUam venisse is in the indirect dis- 
course ; in the direct, i. e., in the original .words of those who made the statement, it 
would be : J'latd im, Italia/m vejvit. 

2 In the direct discourse these examples would read — (1) am^mi sunt divvtVi^ (2) 
Platd Ta/r&ntwm vetUt, (8) mlror, and (4) annuhmi med manu cdnfed. Observe thai 
the pronominal subjects impUed in m^rOr and cdnfScl are expressed with the Infinitive, 
i> jTOrarl se, se eorificisse. But the subject is sometimes omitted when It can be res4' 
Uy supplied ; see second exampl* under II., 2, below. 


I^thls praec^plt ut MilHadem Imperitorem sftmerent; inoepta prSsperft flitura, 
Pyfftda commanded that they should take Miliiades as ih&ir corrnnand&r^ CtoUlng 
them) that their ^orts would be successful, Nep^ 

II. When Inteeeogative, they take— 

1. Generally the Suhjunctme: 

Ad postulata Caesaris respondit, quid sibi vellet, cur venlret,' to ih$ 
lemands of Caesar he replied, what did he wish, why did he come? Caes. 

TffoTB.— Deliberative qnestions retain the Subjunctive from the direct discourse; 

In spem vSnerat se posse, etc ; cQr fortunam periclitaretur,i he hoped (liad come 
into hope) t^t he was able, etc. ; why should he try fortune f Caes. 

2. Sometimes the Infinitive with a Subject Accusative, 
as in rhetorical questions : ' 

Docebant rem esse testimOniO, etc. ; quid esse levius, etc., they showed 
that the fact was a proof (for a proof), etc. ; whai was more inconsiderate, 
etc. ? Caes. Respondit, num memoriam deponere posse,^ he t'eplied, could 
he lay aside the recoUection I Caes. 

III. When Impeeative,' they take the Subjunctive : 

Scribit LabienO cum legiSue veniat, he writes to Labienvs to come (that 
he should, come) with a legion. Caes. Redditur responsum, castrTs se 
tenerent, the rt^ly was returned that they should keep themselves in camp. 
Liv. Mllites certiores facit, sS reficerenf , he directed the soldiers to refresh 
themselves. Caes, Orabant ut sibi auxilium ferret, they prayed thai he 
wo^d bring them help. Caes. Kuntius venit, nS dubitaret, a message came 
that he should not hesitate. Nep. CohortS,tus est, ne perturbarentur,' he 
exhorted them not to he alarmed. Caes- 

NoTz.— An affirmative command takes the Subjunctive without ut, except after verbs 
oi wishing and ashing, but a negative command takes the Subjunctive with ne; see ex- 

1 In the direct diseourae these examples would read— (1) gtUd Ub% vUt eB/r vemUst 
and (2) curperlcliterf 

' A question used for rhetorical effect in place of an assertion is called a Rhetorieal 
Qitesiion, as num potest, * can he ? * = Twn potest, ^ he can not ''; quid est turpius, * what 
is baser? * = ndhdl est turpius, ^ nothing is baser.^ Here belong many questions which in 
the direct form have the verb in the first or in the third person. As such questions are 
equivalent to declarative sentences, they take the same construction, the Infinitive with 
its subject. 

' Direct discourse — (1) quid est levius = nihil est levius, and (2) num memoriam 
dUpon&re possum = Tn&moriaTn deponere non possum. 

* Imperative sentences include those sentences which take the Subjunc^e qf De- 
tire; see 484. 

* In the direct discourse these examples would read — (1) cum legibne veni, (2) cas- 
Iris vos t&nMe, (8) vos refieite. (4) nUbU a/uaeiUum /er, (6) noH ditbitdre, and (6) •< 
verturbati Htis. 


RTIXiE UV.— Moods in Subordinate Clauses. 

524. The subordinate clauses of the Dieeot Disooubse 
on becoming Indieect take the Subjunctive : 

Respondit se id quod in Nerviis fecisset faoturum,' lie ry>Hed that he 
would do wJiat lie liad done in tlie case of the Nervii. Caes. Hippias glori5> 
tus est, annulum quem haberet se sua manu confeoisse,^ Hippias boasted 
that he had made with his own hand the ring which he wore. Cic. 

1. The Infimtive with Suhject Accusative is sometimes used. Thus — 

1) In clauses introduced by the relative pronoun, or by relative adverbs, 
ubl, imde, quare, etc., when they have the force of principal clauses (453) : 

Ad eum defertur, esse olvem Eomanum qui quereretur, quem (= et eum) 
asservatum esse, it was reported to Mm that there was a Roman citizen who ., 
made a complaint, and that he had been placed under guard. Cic. Te Buspi- 
oor elsdem, quibua me ipsum, commovSrI, I suspect thai you wre m^med by the 
same things as I. Cic. 

2) In clauses introduced by cum, qua/m, quamquam, quia, and some other 
conjunctions, especially in Livy and Tacitus : 

Num putatis, dlxisse Antonium minaoius quam faoturum fuisae, do you 
tTnnk Antony spoke m,ore threateningly than he would have acted f Cic. Di- 
cit, se moenibus inolusos tenere e5a, quia per agros vagari, he says that he 
keeps them shut up within the walls, because (otherwise) they would wander 
through the fields. Liv. See also 535, 1., 5 and 6. 

2. The Indicative is used — 

1) In parenthetical and explanatory clauses introduced into the Indirect 
Discourse without strictly forming a part of it : 

Eeferunt silvam esse, quae appellatur BacSnis," they rqport that there is a 
forest which is called Bacenis, Caes. Audio GeUium phUosophOs qui tunc 
erant' convocasse, I hear that Gellius called together tJte philosophers of that 
day (lit., who then were). Cie. 

2) Sometimes in clauses not parenthetical, to give prominence to the fact 
stated, especially in relative and temporal clauses : 

Cerlaor factus est ex ea parte vicl, quam Gallls concesserat, omnes disces- 
sisse, he was informed that all had withdrawn from that part of the village 
which he had assigned to the Gauls. Caes. Dicunt ilium diem clarissimum 
fuisse cum domnm reduotus est a patribus, they say that the day when he was 
londucted home by the fathers was the most illustrious, Cic. 

525. Tenses in the Indibbct Discouesb generally conform 
to the ordinary rules for the use of tenses in the Subjunctive and 
[nfinitive ; * but notice the following special points : 

1 Direct, faaiam, id guod in Ne^vvisfeeH. 

2 Direct, ammlum quem habeo med mcmu cdnifi^ 

* TheBe clauses, quae appellatwr BacSnis and qm ttma erant, are not strictly puti 
of the general report, but eoiplanaHoTis added by the narrator. 
< See 490-496 and 537. 


1. The Present and Perfect may be used even after an historical tense, 
» impart a more lively effect to the narrative : 

Caesar respondit, si obsides sibi deutur, sese pftoem esse factarum, Caesar 
relied, that if Twstagei shovld be given him, he would make peace. Caes. Ex- 
itus fait OratiOnis, neque iillos vaoare agros, qui darl possint, the close of the 
oration, was, that there were (are) not any lands unoccupied which could (canj 
ie given, Caes. 

2. The Future Perfect in a subordinaie ;lause of the direct discourse 
^s changed in the indirect into the Perfect Subjunctive after a principal 
tense, and into the Pluperfect Subjunctive after an historical tense : 

Aguut ut dimieent ; ibl imperium fore, unde victoria fuerit, they arrange 
that they shall fight ; that the sovereignty shall be on the side which shall win 
the victory (whence the victory may have been). Liv. Apparebat regnaturum 
qui vicisset,' it was evident that he would be king who should conquer. Liv. 

Note. — For Temses in OondiMonal Sentences in Indirect Discourse, see 5/87. 

Pronouns and Persons in Indirect Discourse. 

526. In passing from the Dibbct Discourse to the Indikect, 
pronouns of the first and second persons are generally changed to 
pronouns of the third person,' and the first and second persons of 
verbs are generally changed to the thii'd person : 

Gloriatus est, annulum se sua manii conftcisse,^ he boasted that he had Tnade 
the ring uiith his own hand. Cio. Eedditur responsum, castrls se tenerent,* 
the reply was relmmed that they should keep themselves in camp. Liv. Se- 
spondit, 81 obsides ab its sibi dentur, sese cum ils pacem esse facturum," ht 
r^Ued that tf hosta^ges should be given to him by them, he would make peace 
with them. Caes. 

Conditional Sentences in Indirect Discourse. 

527. Conditional sentences, in passing from the Dieect Dis- 
course to the Indirect, undergo the following changes : 

> In tlie direct discourse — (1) ibi imperium erit, UTide victoria fuerit, and (2) riff- 
Tidbit gwi vtcerit. 

* Thns — (1) ego is changed to sui, si^ etc, or to ipse ; mens and noster to situs ; (2) 
tu to is or ille, sometimes to sul, etc. ; tuus and vester to suus or to the Genitive of *«; 
Ind (.8) hie and iste to ille. But the pronoun of the first person may of course be used 
In the indirect discourse in reference to the reporter or author, and the pronoun of the 
second person in reference to the person addressed : Adfirmavi quidvis me perpessu- 
rum, / asserted that I would endure amyihimg. Cic. Responded t^ dolorem ferre mode- 
rate, I reply thai you bear the a^Hction with moderation. Cic. 

5 Direct, annulum ego med ^nanu ebnfecx. Ego becomes se. and mea, eud. 

* Direct, castrls vos tenete. Vos becomes Sfl, and tenete. tenerent. 

* Direct, si obsides d vobw mihi dabvntur. voblsaum pdcem faciam. A v6h%8 
becomes ab ifis; mihi becomes sibt; vobiscum, eum iu; and the implied subject o/ 
fadam, becomes sese, the subject of esse facturwTi. 

500 rNDTR^VT nistJOUltSK 

I. In the First Form, the Indicative is changed to the JSuhjimeHve in tna 
sondition and to the Infinitive in the conclusion : 

Kespondit, si quid Caesar se velit, ilium ad se venire oportero,^ he replied^ 
if Caesar wished anytMng of hdm, he ought to come to him. Caes. 

Note. — In all forma of conditional eentoDces the conclusion, when imperative^ and 
generally when interrogative, takes the Subjv/nctive according to 533 : 

Responderunt. si non aequum exislimaret, etc., cur postularet,^ etc., thei/ relied, ij 
\e did not think it fair^ etc., why did he demand, etc. Caes. Eum certiorem fgco- 
?iint, sa suas res manere vellet, Alcibiadem persequeretur,^ they informed him tJiatif 
Tie wished Ma i/nstiiuHons to he p&rmanent, he should take measures against Aid- 
biades. Nep. Die quidnam facturus fueris, si censor fliisses,* scry what you would 
ha/ve done, if you had hem, censor. liv. 

II. In the Second Form, the Present or Perfect Subjunctive in the con- 
dition remains unchanged after a principal tense, but may be changed * to 
the Imperfect or Pluperfect after an historical tense, and in the conclu- 
sion it is changed to the Fktture Infinitive : 

Kespondit, si stipendium remittatur, llbenter s&se recusattirum popuh 
Eomani araicitiam,* he replied thai if the tribute should he renntted, he would 
gladly renounce the friendship of the Boman people, Caes. 

Note. — See note under I. 

III. In the Third Form, the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive remains 
unchanged in the condition, regardless of the tense of the principal verb, 
but in the conclusion it is changed to the Periphrastic Infinitive in -rua 
fuissej rarely to that in -ncs esse : 

Respondit, si quid ipsi a Caesare opus esset, sesS ad eum venturum fiiisse,' 
he replied that if he wanted anything of Caesar, he would have come to him, 
Caes. Clamitabat, si ille adesset, venturSs esse,^ he cried out that they would 
come if he were present, Caes. 

Note 1, — In the conclusion, the periphrastic form futv/rwn fuisse ut with the Bub' 
ftmctwe is used in the Passive voice, and sometimes in the Active; 

Nisi nuntii essent allai^, existimabant futurum fuisse ut oppidum amitteretur,^ the^ 
th<ytight that the town would ha'oe been lost, if Udings had not been brought. Caes. 

Note 2.— In conditional sentences with the Imperfect or Phi^perfect Bubjunctiveia 
the condition, and with an Tdstorical tense of the Indicative in the conclusion— 

> Direct, si qvid Caesar me ■vuli, ilium ad me verwre oportet. For change of pro- 
nowns see 536, and for the t&nse ot'veUt see 635, 1. 

" Direct, si nbn aequum eailsti/rnds, curpostuMs t 

^ Direct, s* tu&s res manere vzs^ Alcibiadem persequere. Notice change In the 
pronoun and in the person of the verb; see 536. 

* Direct, quidnam feoisaes (or facturus fuAsti\ al censor fuissis. 
B But is often retained unchanged according to 535, 1. 

* Direct, al stipendium r&mMtdtv/r, Ub&nter recHsem popuU RoTnOm/l amleiUam, 
or si stipendvum remittitur, Hb&nter recHsdbo popuU Bbmwm amiMtiam, Observt 
that these two forms become identical in the indirect discourse. 

7 Direct— (1) 8% qmd mAhi & Caesare opus eaaet, ad eum mnissem ; (2) ^ iUi 
i$dea8et, tennr&nt; and (8) TUsi mrntH essent alldtiy oppidum dm4aauan eeset. 


1) The Indicative ts generally changed to the Perfect InJtmUme ; 

Memento istam dignitatem tS non potuisse oonsequi, nisi meia conBiliis parniasSs,' 
remamier that you would not heme teen able to attain that dignity, if you had, not 
fitUowed my counsels. Cic. 

2) The Indicative is changed to the Perfect Suiijunetme if the context requires that 

Quis dabitat quln si Sagunttnis tnlisssmns operam, aversiW bellnm fterimus,' who 
imibts Ouit we should have averted the war, if we had ca'ned aid to the Sagun- 
Hnea f Liy. Sramos quid, si Tudsset, facturus ftierit,' we hnow wJuit he would home 
done, if Tie had lived. Liv. 

Itidireci Clauses. 

528. The indirect discourse in its widest application includes — 

1. Subordinate clauses containing statements made on the authority of 
any other person than the writer ; see 516 : 

Omnes librSs quos frater suus rellquisset miU dsnavit, he gave tomeM 
the hooks which his brother had left.^ Oio. 

2. Indirect questions ; see 529, I. 

NOTB. — A. clause which involTes a qaestion without directly asking it is called an In- 
direct or Dependent Question : 

Qoaesivit salvusne esset cUpeus, Ke asked whether his shield was sc^e.^ Clc. 

3. Many subordinate clauses dependent upon an Infinitire or upon a 
Subjunctive ; see 529, IL 

KXTIjI: liV.— Moods in Indirect Clauses. 
629. The Subjunctive is used — 
I. In indirect questions : 

Quaeritur, ciir doctissimi homines dissentiant, it is a question, why the 
most learned men disagree. Cic. Quaesieras, nonne putSrem, ytya had asked 
vihMher I did not think. CSc. Qualis sit animus, animus nescit, the soul 
hnows not what tlie soul is. Cic. Quid dies ferat incertum est, what a day 
wiU brin^ forth is uncertain. CSc. Quaeritur quid futtirum sit, wliat will 
be, is the guesHon. Cic. Quaerit quinam erentus, si f oret bellatum, futiirus 
faerit, he asks what v«/uld have been the result if war had been waged. Liv. 
Dubito num debeam, I davht whether I ought. Plin. Incerta feror si Jup- 
piter velit, / am rendered uncertain whether JujMer wishes. Verg. tJt te 
oblectes scire cupio, / viish to know how you amuse yourself. Cic. Difficile 

1 Direct — (1) istam dignitatem consegm nonpotu^ti, nisi meis cfnsiliia pdruis- 
ees; (2) si Sagunt'nus tulissemus operam, bellwm dversurl fuimus ; (3) quid, si 
t^imisset, faetarus fuit t 

' That Is, which he said h is brother had left. 

^ Here no question Is directly asked. We have simply the statement, 'he asked 
whether his shield was safe,^ but this statement inrolves the question, tahmsne eil 
^Upe/us, ^Is my shield safe?* 


dictu est utrum timuerint an dilSxerint, it is d^cuU to zay whecher th^ 
feared or loved. Cic. 

II. Often in clauses dependent upon an Infinitive oi 
upon another Subjunctive : 

Nihil indignius est quam eum qui culpa, careat suppliciS n6ii carere, 
nothing is more shmneful than that he who is free from fault should not he 
exempt from punishment, Cic. Utrum difficilius esset negSre tibi an ef- 
ficere id quod rogdres diu dubitavi, wheth&F it would he more difficult to re- 
fuse your request or to do that which tou ask, / have long doubted. Cic. 
Recordatione nostrae amicitiae sic fruor ut beate vixiese videar quia cum 
Scipione vixerim^ I so enjoy the recollection of our friendship t/iat I seem to 
have lived happily because I have lived with Sdpio. Cic. Naevium rogat 
ut curet quod d^xisset^ he asked Naeviits to attend to that which he had men- 
tioned. Cic. Vereor ne, dum minuere velim laborem, augeam, I fear that^ 
while I WISH to diminish the labor ^ I shall increase it. Cic. 

Note 1. — Id clanfles dependent upon an Infinitive or upon a Sabjanctive, observe— 

1) That the Subjuncti've is used when the clauses are ess&ntial to the gwierai 
thought of the sentence, as in the examples just giveB. 

3) That the Indieati'oe is used when the clauses are in a measure parenthetical, and 
■when they give special prominence to the/aei stated : 

Milites misit, ut eos qui t'ugerant persequerentur, he s&nt soldiers to pursue those 
who hadfied (i. e., the fagitives). Caes. Tanta vis probltatis est, ut earn, vel in iis quos 
niinquam vidimus, diligamuB, ««cA is the force of integrity that we love it mem, in those 
iphoTn we have never seen. Cic. 

Note 2.~In clauses introduced by dum^ the Indicative is very common, especially in 
the poets and historians : 

Fuere qui, dum dubitat Scaevinus, hortarentur FiBonem, there were those who «aj- 
horted Piso^ wMle Scaevinus hesitated. Tac. See also 467, 4. 

1. Indn/rect or dependent questions^ like those not dependent (351, 1), are 
introduced by interrogative pronouns or other interrogative words, as quis^ 
qm^ qudUsj etc. ; quid, eicr, ?ig, rwnne^ 7mm ; rarely by «*, 'whether,' and ut^ 
* how ' ; see examples above. 

Note 1. — Si is sometimes best rendered to see whether., to see if, to try if^ etc . 
Te adeunt, si quid velis, th&y come to you to see whether yo^t, wish anything. Cic 
Note 2. — In the poets si is sometimes similarly used with the Indicative : 
Inspice si possum donata reponere, eicamdne me to see wheth&r J am. able to restore 

your gifts. Hor. 

Note 8.— In indirect questions num. does not necessarily imply negatlor. 

Note 4.— An indirect question may readily be changed to a direct or independ" 

&nt question.^ 

2. An Accusativvj, referring to the same person or thing as the subject of the 
question, is sometimes, especially in poetry, inserted after the principal verb: 

1 Thus the direct question involved in the first example is, cur doctissimi homi'nM 
d/issentiwnt, '■ why do the most learned men disagree P In the second, nonne putds, 
'do you not think f * 


Ego ilium nesoiS qvU fuerit, / do not hnow (him) wlio )u was. Ter. Die 
bominem qui sit, tell who the man, is. Plaut. 

S. Indirect double questions are generally introduced by the same inter- 
•ogative particles as those which are direct (363). Thus— 

1) They generally take utrum or -ne in the first member and an in the 
second : 

Quaeritur virtus suamne propter dignitatem an propter fructus aliquos ex- 
petatur, it is asked whether virtue is sought /or its own worth, or for certain ad 
vantages. Cio. 

2) But they sometimes omit the particle in the first member, and take in 
the second an or -ne in the sense of or, scadnecne or an non in the sense of 

Quaeritur natura an doctrina possit efflcl virtus, U is ashed whether virtue 
can be secured by nature, or by edmcaMon. Cio. Sapientia beatos effioiat neone 
quaestiO est, whether or not wisdom makes men happy is a question. Cio. 

Note 1. — Other fotms, as -ne . . . -ne, an . . . an, are rare or poetic: 

Qui teneant, hominesne feraene, quaerere, to ascertain who i/nhaMt them, whether 
men or beasts. Verg. 

Note 2. — An, in the sense oSwh^ether not, implying an affirmative, is used after verbs 
and expressions of doubt and uncertainty : dubito an, nescid an, haud seid an, ' I doubt 
whether not,' 'I know not whether not' = '1 am inclined to think'; dubium est an, i/n- 
eertum est an,, * it is uncertain whether not ' = ' it is probable ' ; 

Dubito an Thraaybulum primum omnium ponam, I doubt whether I should TWt 
place Thrasybulms first of all (i. e., I am inclined to think I should). Nep. 

Note S. — An sometimes seems to have the force of aut: 

Cum Simonldes, an quia alius,' polliceretur, wTien SimonAdes or some other one 
promised. Cic. 

4. The Subjunctive is put in the periphrastic form In the indirect ques- 
tion (1) when it represents a periphrastic form in the direct question, an^ 
(2) generally, not always, when it represents a Future Indieative; see the 
fifth and sixth examples under 589, 1. 

5. Indirect Qtiestiohs must be carefully distinguished — 

1) From clauses introduced by relative pronouns or relative adverbs. 
These always have an antecedent or correlative expressed or understood, and 
are never, as a whole, the subject or object of a verb, while indirect ques- 
tions are generally so used : 

Dicam quod sentio {relative clause), I will tell thai which (id quod) IthAnk:- 
Cie. Dioam quid intellegam (i»rfir«(i y«««<«>»), /wi?? <e?? wAoi/ifflow. Cic. 
Quaeramus ubi maleficium est, let us seek there (ib!) where the ari/me is. Cic. 

2) From direct questions and exclamations : 

' Some critics treat an quis alius as a direct question inserted parenthetically ; or 
was it some other one T 

3 In the first and third examples, quod sentio and udi . . . est are not questions, but 
relative clauses; id is understood as the antecedent of quod, and ibi as the antecedent 
or correlative otubi; but in the second example, quid intellegam is an indirect ques- 
tion and the object of dicam. : I vnll tell (wbat i) what I know (L e., will answer that 


Quid agendum est? neseio, what is to he done? I know not.' Cio. VidS 
quam conversa res est, see / how changed is the case. Cia 

3) From clauses introduced by nesoid quia = qmiam^ ' some one,' ««soj^ 
qvamodo = quodammodo, ' in some way,' mii-um quantum, ' wonderfully 
much,' ' wonderfully,' etc. These take the Indicative : 

Nesoid quid animus praesSgit,' the mind forebodes, I know not what. Ter. 
Id mirum quantum profuit, this profited, it is wonderful how much (1. e., it 
wonderfully profited). Liv. 

6. Personal Construction. — Instead of an impersonal verb with an indirect 
question as subject, the personal construction is sometimes used, as follows : 

Perspiciuntur quam sint leves,^ it is seen how inconstant they are ! Cio. 

7. The Indioative in Indirect Questions is sometimes used in early 
Latin and in the poets, especially in Plautus and Terence : 

Si memorare velim, quam fldell animo ful, possum, if I should wish to 
mention how much fideUty I showed, lam able. Ter. 

530. The directions already given for conTerting the Direct Dis- 
course, Oratio Recta, into the Indirect, OratiO Obllgua, are further illus- 
trated in the following passage from Caesar : 


Caesarem obseorare coepit : ' Ne Caesarem obsecrare ooepit, ne quid 

quid gravius in fratrem statueris ; soi5 gravius in fritrem statueret ; scire si 

ilia esse v6ra, neo qwisquam ex eo ilia esse vera, neo quemquam ex e9 

plus quam ego dolpris ca;pit, propterea plus quam se doloris capere, propterea 

quod cum ipse gratia plurimum domi quod cum ipse gratia plurimum dom! 

atque in rSliqua Gallia, ille minimum atque in rSliqua Gallia, ille minimum 

propter adulSscentiam poterat, per m« propter adulescentiam posset, per si 

creiiit ; quibus opibus ao nervis non erivissd ; quibus opibus ae nervis 

solum ad minuendam gratiam, sed non solum ad minuendam gratiam, 

paene ad perniciem meam. iititur ; Sed paeue ad pernioiem sworn Meri- 

ego tamen et amore fratemo et exis- tnir ; slsl tamen et amore fratemo et 

timatione vulgl commoneor. Quod si existimatione vulgl comMwveri. Quod 

quid 8l a ^ gravius acdderit, cum si quid el a Gaesare gravius acddissetf 

ipse hmnc locum amioitiae apud te cum ipse eum locum amioitiae apnd 

teneam, nemi existimabit, non mea eum teneret, neminem existimdturum, 

voluntate factum ; qua ex re totlus non sua voluntate factum ; qua ex r6 

Galliae animi a ms avertenttir.' fut&rum uti totius Galliae animi a si 

mierterentur. Caes., B. G., I., 20. 

> Qwid agendum sit nes&id, ^I know not what is to be done,' would be on Indirect 

' See 191, note. 

' Praesdgit does not depend upon nescid, but Is entirely independent. J^etdS qvM 
amimue praesdgiat would be an indirect qaeBtion, and would mean, / hnoui not wTiai 
Vie mind forebodes. 

* Lit., they are seen. Observe that this personal construction corresponds to th« 
Active, p&repiciwif eds quam emt le/uea, * they perceive (them) how inconstant they art.' 
Be* also ego iijnjm- n-escid qui fuerit. B?.9. 2 


lifoTE. — In this illustration observe the following points: 

1) Tliat tlie IndieaUve in the principal clauses of the direct dlseonrse Is changed to 
the corresponding tense of the Infwiitive in the indirect,^ and that the Subjtmctwe, 6ta- 
fiueris^ denoting incomplete action, is changed to the Imperfect Suib^wncHve after the 
historical tense, coepit. 

2) That in the subordinate clauses the verbs denoting in-complete action are changed 
to the Imp&r/eot Subjunctive, while those denoting completed action are changed to the 
Plwperfect Subjunctive.' 

8) That aaUi becomes «cir« ae (I. •., that the subject of the Infinitive is generally ez- 

4) That the pronouns of the jWst person are changed to r^eames; and that those of 
the aecOTid person are changed to is.^ 

531. The process by which the Indirect Discourse, OrcUio Ohliqita, 
is changed to the Direct, OrcUii BScta, is illustrated in the following pas 
sages from Caesar : 


Bespondit, trdnmsee Ehenum i?s5 Bespondit : ' Tra/n«i/l Ehenum non 

non suSf spoute, sed rogSium et arcis- mea sponte, Bed rogdtus et arcemPus 

tUvim a Gallls. Si prius in Galliam a Gallls. Ugo prius in GalUam veni 

venisse quam populum Bdma/rvwrn, quam popvlus B&md'ma, Quid W^ 

(^xaA sila vellet ? Cilr in stJO* posses- via? Cur in meds possessiones ve- 

siones vema-et? Caes., B. G., I., 44. niaf' 

Ita respondit, eo sibi minus dubi- Ita respondit : ' Eo nUM minus 

tationis dari quod eas res quas legStl dubitatiSnis datur quod eas rSs qnas 

Helvetii commemordssent memoria te- «o«, legatl HelvStil, corrnnemoravisHt, 

n^et. Quod si veteris oontumeliae ob- memoria teneo. Quod si veteris con- 

Uvisol vellet, num etiam reoentium in- tumeliae oblivlsol void, num etiam re- 

jilriarum memoriam deponere posse? centium injiiiiarum memoriam de- 

Cum ea ita sint, tamen, si obsides ab ponere possum ? Cum haee ita sint, 

MS sibi dentwr., sese cum iis pacem esse taraen, si obsides a voiis miM dabim- 

faeturum. Caes., B. G., I., 14. tur, TOJiscum pacem/osiom.' 

NoTB.— In these illustrations observe the following points : 

1) That in the principal clauses (1) the Inftniti/oes with se or sese, expressed or unr 
derstood, are changed to the first person of tM ItuUcative ; * (2) other Infinitives are 
also changed to the Indicative, but the person is determined by the context; » and (8) 

' Thus said becomes scire; eapit, capere; commoveor, commtneri; exutimabit, 
eayistimatunmi (esse) ; and merientm', fatHrum uti d/verter&ntur. This last form, 
futurwn uti d/oerterentwr, is the Periphrastic Future Infinitive Passive; see 537, 8. 

■ Thus poteratyiecomes posset ; atitur, Utereiur; ten-earn^ tenSret; h\itcrevit be- 
comes crevissety' acciderit, aoddisset, 

' Thus (1) ego is changed to «6; me to se; meam to suam; mea to sud; and (2) 
te to eum ; hwnc to eiwi. 

* Thus trdn^isse sese Is changed to trdnsil; sS venisse to ego vSMf 9ise esse foe- 
turum to fadam ; posse, with se understood, to possum. 

* Tims minus dari hecovaeBTninus datnr; but if the subject of the Infinitive Is of 
the second person, the Indicative will also be of that person. SespondeB te dolorem 
/erre moderate thus becomes respondeO, 'dolorem moderate fere;' see p. 299, Ibot 


SuijimcHvea are changed to the IndicaUve after Interrogatire words,' and to the im 
perat^/ve in other situations. ^ 

2) That in the subordinate clauses the Subjimctwe, unless required by the thought 
Irrespective of the indirect discourse, is changed to the Indicative.^ 

8) That the reflexive pronouns sm, aiH, etc., and aims ai-e changed (1) generally to 
pronouns of the first person, but (2) sometimes to those of the second person.* 

4) That is and ille are (1) generally changed to tu or Aio, but (2) sometimes retained.'' 

5) That a noun referring to the person or persons addressed may be put in the 
Vocative preceded by iu or voa,^ 



I, IiirFiNiTrvE. 

532. The Infinitive is a verbal noun with special character- 
istics. Like verbs, it has voice and tense, takes adverbial modi- 
fiers, and governs oblique cases.' 

RULE li VI.— Infinitive. 

533. Many verbs admit an Infinitive to complete or 
qualify their meaning : 

Audeo dicere, I dare say (I venture to say). Cic Haec vltSre cupimus, 
we desire to avoid t/iese things. Cic. Constituit non progredi, he decided 

' Thus quid vellet is changed to qtdd xrls f Gwr v&n/lret to cHr vmis f Vellet and 
veMret are in the Imperfect simply because dependent upon an historical tense, and are 
therefore changed to the Present in the direct discourse. In deliberative questions 
(484, V.) the Subjunctive is retained in the direct discourst. 

3 Thus mi/m Ugione veniat, under 533, III., becomes cum Zegionev&n/i. The Sub- 
junctive may of course be retained in the direct discourse whenever the thought requires 
that mood. 

3 Thus commemordsaent^ pluperfect after an historical tense, is changed to com- \ 
memormiaiis; ten-eret to teneo; vellet to 'volo; d&ntwr to dabuntwr, Si/nt is retained 
unchanged because required in a causal clause with cum; see 517. 

* Thus (1) troTisUae aeae is changed to trd/nsil, with subject implied in the ending? 
ntdUtmed; ae vSrdase to ego venl^ with emphatic subject; audstomeda; aibitomihi; 
§eae eaae factumm \Xifaeiam ; (2) aihl to tiVi^ in quid aibi vellet. As the subject of an 
bfinitive (536), ae or aeae often corresponds to the pronominal subject impUedin the 
tnding of a finite verb ; see p. 187, foot-note 6. 

* Thus (1) db iia is changed to d xiobia ; cum its to 'ooblaomn ; ea ita 6i/rU to haee 
ita aint; (S) eda rea is retained. 

' Thus legdtl SelvetVl, the subject of comm&mordaa&ntt is changed to vda, UgdM 

'' Originally the Latin Infinitive appears to have been the Dative case of an abstract 
verbal noun, and to have been used to denote the pwrpoae or mA (384, 1, 8) for which 
anything is or is done. Being thus only loosely connected with the verb of the sentence. 
It readfiy lost its special force as a case and soon began to be employed with considerable 
freedom In a variety of constructions. In this respect the histoiy of the IrkfimiiDe resem" 


Tiot to advance. Caes. CrSdulI esse coepernnt, tTuy began to he ereduUms. 
Cio. Vincere scis, yav, know how to conquer (you know to conquer). Liv. 
Victoria utJ nescis, you do not know how to use victory. Liv. Latine loqui 
didicerat, /le liad learned to speak Latin. Sail. D§bes hoc rescrtbere, ymi 
ougJif to vrrite this in reply. Hor. Nemo mortem effugere potest, no one is 
able to escape death. CSo. Solent cOgitare, they are cuxustomed to think. Clc. 
I. The Infinitive is thus used — 

1. With Tkansitivb Vbbes meaning to dare, desire, determine; to begin, 
continue, and ; to know, learn ; to owe, etc. ; see examples above. 

Note 1.— For the SuJ^wiwIme with some of these verbs, see 498, 1., note. 
Note 2.— See also 498, II., note 1. 

a. With IsTBANsiTivB Vebbs meaning to be able ; to be wont, be aoeustomed, 
etc. ; see examples above. 

n. In special constructions the Infinitive has nearly the force of » 
Dative op Purpose or End—' 

1. With IiiTEAifsiTrvE Veebs : 

Non populSre penates venimus, we have not come to lay waste your hornet. 
Verg. Conjuravere patriam incendere, they centred to destroy Omr country 
wUhflre. Sail. 

2. With Tbahsittve Vebbs in connection with the Accusative : 

Pecus egit altos visere montSs, he drove his herd to visit the lofty moun- 
tains. Hor. Quid babes dicere, what have you to say f Cic. Dederat comam 
dififimdere ventis, she had given her hair to the winds to scatter. Verg.' 

3. With Adjectives : 

Est parltus auJlre, he is prepared to hear (for hearing). Cic. Avidi com- 
Boittere pugnam, eager to engage (for engaging) in battle. Ovid. Fons Hva 
dare nomen idoneus, a fountain fit to give a name to the river. Hor. 

NoTB 1.— This use of the Infinitive is mostly poetical. 

Note 2. — With adjectives and with participles used as adjectives the Infinitive in 
rare in prose, but Is freely ased in poetry in a variety of constructions : 

Cantare peritos, skilled in singing. Verg. Pelldes cedere nescius, Pelides not 
bnowing how to yield. Hor. Certa mori, determined- to die. Verg, Dignus descnbl, 
worthy to be described. Hor, Vitulus niveus vidgii,^ a calf snow-white to view. Hor. 

bles that of adverbs from the oblique cases of nouns. As such adverbs are often used 
with greater freedom than the cases which they represent, so the Latin Infinitive often 
appears in connections where, as a Dative, it would not have been at all admissible. 
Upon the Origin and History of the IjuZo-^uropean Infnitive, see Jolly, ' Geschichte 
ies Inflnitivs.' 

> In these constructions the Infinitive retains Its original force and use; see 63%, 

'' In these examples with transldve verbs observe that the Aceusatij;6 and InflnAr 
tvve eorrespond to the Accusative and Dative under 384, II., and that the Aocueati^e 
Dative, and In^TViHve correspond to the Accusative and two Datives under 300, XL 

' Jfvoeu4 viderl, like the Greek AevKbs lidtrSau 


Plger acnboDdi ferre laborentf rtVuMcmi to "bear the labor of loriting. Hw. Snum M 
ficium facere immemor est, he forgets (is forgetAil) to do his duty. Plant. 

KoTB 3. — The Infioitive also occurs, especially in poetry, with verbal DOtms and wttk 
Bach expressions as tempus est^ copia est^ etc. : 

GupTd6 Stygios innare lacus, a desire to sail upon the Stygian lakes. Verg. Qui 
bus moUiter Tivere copia erat, who had the mea/nsfor H/ving at ease. Sail. Tempus esf 
dieere, it is time to speak. Gic. 

NoTB 4. — The Infinitive is sometinaes used with prepositions: 

Multum interest inter dare et accipere, th^e is a great difference between gvoinf^ 
and receiving. Sen. 

RITIiE LVXI.— Accusative and Infinitive. 

534. Many transitive verbs admit both an Accusative 
and an Infinitive : 

Te sapere docet, he teaches you to be wise. Cic. Eos suum adventum 
exspectare jussit, he ordered them to await his approach, Caes. Pontem 
jubet rescind!, he orders (he bridge to he broken down. Caes. Te tua fruT 
virtute cupimus, we wish you to enjoy your virtue. Cic. Sentimus calere 
Tgnem, we perceive that fire is hot (we perceive fire to be hot). Cic. Regem 
tradunt se abdidisse, ihey relate thai the king concealed himself} Liv. 

I^OTE. — In the compound forms or the Infinitive, esse is often omitted, especially in 
the future : 

Audivi solitum Fabricium, I have heard that Fabricius was wont, Cic. Speramus 
vobis profuturos, we hope to benefit you. Cic. 

1. The corresponding Passive is sometimes personal and sometimes 
impersonal : * 

Pebsonal. — Aristldes justissimus fuisse trSditur, ArisUdes is said (is re- 
ported by tradition) to have been most just. Cic. Solem g mundo toUere vi- 
dentur, they seem to remove the sun from the world. Cic. Platonem audivisse 
dicitur, he is said to have heard Plato. Cic, Dii beat! ease intellegmitur, the 
gods are understood to be happy. Cic. 

L11PER8OWAL. — Traditum est Homgrum caecum fuisse, U has been reported 

* Observe that in the first three examples the Accusatives te^ eoe, and pontem, are 
the direct ol^ecta of the finite verbs, while in the other examples the Accusatives te^ Ig- 
nem, and regmZy may be explained either as the direct objects of the finite verbs, or as 
the subjects of the Infinitives. The former was doubtless the original construction, but 
in time the object of the principal verb came to be regarded in many cases as the subject 
of the Infinitive. Thus was developed the Subject Accusative of the Infinitive. 

' Those two constructions correspond to tlje two Interpretations of the Active men- 
tioned in foot-note 1 above. Thus, in the sentence, Aristtdem pistissimum fuisse trd- 
dunt, if Aristld&m is regarded as the object of tradunt^ according to the original concep- 
tion, the corresponding Passive will be personal ; Arist^-des jristissimun fuisse trddiMr; 
but it Ariatlde^n is regarded as the subject of fuisse, and the clause Aristtdem jiistissi- 
mum fuisse as the object of tradunt, then the same clause will become the subject of th< 
Passive, and the construction will be impe^^sonal: AristidemjUstissimum fuisse irddv 
tur, ' it is reported by tradition that Aristides was most jast.^ 


by iradiUon that Homer was blind. Cio. Unam partem Gallos obtinere dic- 
tum est, it has been stated that the Gauls occupy one part. Caes. Nuntiatnr 
esse naves in portu, it is announced that the vessels are in port. Cio. 

Note 1.— The Personal Construction is UBed— (1) regularly in jubeor, vetor, and 
videor ; (2) generally in the simple tenses ' of most verbs of sating, thinkiko, and the 
like, as dicor, trddor, /eror, nUntior, credor, eautimor, putor, per/i/ibear,etc.; (8) 
sometimes in other verbs ; see examples above. 

Note 2.— The Impersonal Construction is especially common in the compound 
tenses} though also used in the simple tenses ; see examples above. 

■ 535. The Accusative and an Infinitive are used with a great 
variety of verbs. Thus — 

I. With verbs of Perceiving and Declaring : 

SentJmus oalere ignem, we perceive that fire is hot. Cio. Mihi narrSvit t6 
sollioitura esse, he told me that you were troubled. Cio. Soripserunt Themis- 
toclem in Asiam transisse, they wrote that Themistocles had gone over to 
Asia. Nep. 

1. Verbs of Perceiving include those which involve (1) the exercise of 
the senses : audio, video, sentio, etc., and (2) the exercise of the mind — think- 
ing, BELIEVING, knowing : cogito, puts, existimo, credo, spero — intellego, sciS, etc. 

2. Verbs of BECLARQia are such as state or communicate facts or thoughts : 
dico, rvarro, nuntio, doeeO, ostendO, promitto, etc. 

3. Expressions equivalent to verbs of perceiving and of declaring, as fama 
,fert, 'report says,' testis sum, 'I am a witness' =' I testify,' conscim miht 
sum, ' I am conscious,' ' I know,' also admit an Accusative with an Infinitive : 

NuUam mihi relatam esse gratiam, tii es testis, you are a witness (can 
testify) tjtat no grateful return has been made to me. Cio. 

4. Participle for Infinitive. — Verbs of perceiving take the Accusative 
with the present participle, when the object is to be represented as actually 
seen, heard, etc., while engaged in a given action : 

Catonem vldi in bibliothsca sedentem, / saw Cato sitting m the library 

5. Sdbjects Compared. — When two sub.jects with the same predicate are 
compared, and the Accusative with the Infinitive is used in the first clause, 
the Infinitive may be understood in tlie second : 

Platonem ferunt idem sensisse quod Fythagoram, they say that Plato hdd 
the same opinion as Pythagoras. Cic. 

6. Predicates Compared. — When two predicates with the same subject 
are compared, and the Accusative with the Infinitive is used in the first 
dausej the Accusative may be understood in the second : 

Kum putatis, dixisse Antonium minacius quam facturum fiiisse, do you 
think Antony spoJce more threattningly than he would have acted? Cio. 
NoTB. — But the second clause may take the Subjunctive, with or without uj; 

> The learner will remember that the simple tenses are formed simply by inflexional 
endings, as dloitvr, dicibdtur, but that the compound tenses are formed by th« union 
of the perfect participle with the verb sum, as dictum est, dictum erat, etc. 


AudoS dicere IpsBa poHus oultores agrSrum fore qnam ut coB prohibeant, I dart soj 
fliat they vyiU themselnet become Ullers of the fields rather than prevent them from 
being Hlled. Liv. ' 

II. With Terbs of Wishing, Desirino, Commanding, and their op. 
poaites : ' 

Te tua frul virtute oupimus, we desire that you should enjoy your virtue. 
Cio. Pontem jubet resoindl, he orders the bridge to he brohen down (that the 
bridge should be broken down). Caes. Lex eum neearl vetuit, the law for- 
bade that he should he put to death, Liv. 

Note.— Several verbs involving a wish or eommaml admit the Subjiinotive when a 
new subject is introduced, generally with ut or ne; see 498, 1 ." 

Opto ut id audiatis, / desire that you may hear this. Cic. Tola ut respondoiis, 1 
wish you would reply. Cio. MalS te hostis metuat, / prefer that the enemy slwuld 
fear you. Cic. Concedo ut haec apta sint, I admit that these thdngs are suitable. Cic. 

III. With verbs of Emotion and Feeling : ' 

Gaudeo t6 mihl suadere, / r^oice that you advise me. Cio. Miramur tS 
laetSxI, we wonder that you rejoice. Cio. 

Note. — Verbs of emotion and feeling often take clauses with quod (540, IV.) to 
give prominence to Vug fact stated, or to emphasize the ground or reason for the feeling ; 

Gaudeo quod tc interpellavi, I rejoice that (or because) //iowje interrupted you. Cic. 
Dolebam quod socium amiseram, I was grieving beca/use Iliad lost a companion. Cic 

IV. Sometimes, especially in Poetry and in Late Pkose, with verbs 
which usually take the Subjunctive : " 

Gentem hortor amare fooos, / exhort the race to love their liomes. Verg. 
Cfincti suaserunt Italiam petere, all advised to seeh Italy. Verg. Soror mnnet 
Buccedere Lausd Tumum, the sister warns Turnus to take the place of Lausm. 


BTTLE LVm.— Subject of Infinitive. 

536. The Infinitive sometimes takes an Accusative as 

its subject : * 

Sentimus calere ignem, we perceive that fire is hot. Cic. Platonem 
Tarentum venisse reperio, I find that Plato came to Tarentum. Cio. 

1 As ewpio., opto., void., noW^ jnalo, etc.; potior, smO; imp&ro, jubeO; prohibeo^ 
veto, etc. 

' As gaudeo, doleO, miror, queror, etc. ; also aegreferO, graviterfero, etc. 

8 Many verbs in Latin thus admit two or more different constructions ; see in the 
dictionary adigo, eenseo, concedo, cogo, ebnstituo, contend/}, cupio, euro, jieeemo, 
dlco, doceo, elaboro, enUor,facio, impedio, impero, jubeo, laboro, malo, mand!>, mo- 
Uor, moneo, nolo, opto, nro, patior, permitto, persuAldeO, postulo, praecipio, prae- 
dlco, prohdbeO, sin^, atatuo, studeo, suddeo, veto, video. See also Draeger, II., pp. 

* Remember that the Infinitive, as a verbal noun, originally had no subject, but that 
subsequently in special constructions a subject Accusative was developed out of the ob- 
ject of the principal verb; see 534, foot-note 1. In classical Latin many Infinitives have 
no subjects, either expressed or understood. 


1. Historical iNrrniTivE.— In lively descriptions the Presmi Injimitice ia 
Bomotimes used for the Imperfect or the Perfect IndicaHve. It is then called 
the Historical Infinitive, and, like a finite verb, has its subject in the Nomina- 
tive : 

Catillna in prima aoie versarl, omnia prOvidere, multum ipse pugnare, 
saepe hostem ferire, Catiline was Tmaij in the front line ; he aUmdei to every- 
thing, fought much in person, and often smote down the enemy .''^ Sail. 

Note. — The Historical Infinitive sometimes denotes oastomary or repeated action l 
Omnia in pejus mere ao retro referri, aU things change rapidly for ths worse anul 
are borne backward. Yerg. 

2, A Pbedioatb Noun or a Peedioate Ad jeotivb after an Infinitive agrees 
with the noun or pronoun of which it is predicated, according to the general 
rule (368). It is thus — 

1) In the Nominative, when predicated of the principal subject: 

Nolo ease 'iaud&toi, lam unwilUng to be a etilogist. Cio. Beatus esse sine 
virtute nemo potest, no one can he happy without virtue. Cic. Parens diol 
potest, he can be called aparent. Cio. 

Note. — Participles in the compound tenses a^ee like predicate a^ectives : 

Pollicitus esse dicitur, he is said to have promised. Cic. 

2) In the Accusative, when predicated of a noun or pronoun in the Accusa- 

Ego m6 Phldiam esse mallem, / should prefer to he Phidias. Cic. TrSdi- 
tum est, Homerum caecum fiiisse,' U has been handed down by tradition that 
Homer was blind. Cic. 

3) In the Dative, when predicated of a noun or pronoun in the Dative : 
Patricio tribilnO plebis fieri non lioebat, it was not lawful for a patrician 

to he made triiune of the people. Cic. Mihl neglegenti esse non liouit,' i< wjim 
not permitted m£ to be negligent. Cic. 

Note. — ^A noun or adjective predicated of a noun or pronoun in the Dative is some- 
times put in the Accusative : 

£i consulem fieri licet, it is Iwufvitfor him to be made consul. Gaes. 

537. The Tenses op the Inpiuitive — Present, Perfect, and 
Future — denote only relative time. They accordingly represent the 
time respectively as present, past, or future, relatively to that of 
the principal verb : 

Peeseitt. — CupiO me esse clementem, I desire to he mild. Cic. Msluit s8 
dlligl quam metui, he preferred to he loved rather than feared. Nep. 

Pebfeot. — Platonem ferunt in Italiam venisse, they say that Plato came 
into Italy. Cic. Consoius mihi eram, nihil a me commissum esse, I wen corv- 
scions to myself that no offence had been commiitted by me. Cic. 

Fdtdee. — Brutum visum Irl a me put6, / think Brwtus will he seen by m^. 

^ Historical Infinitives are generally used in groups, seldom singly. 
^ Here Phldiam is predicated of me (lit, me to be Phidias), and caecum oi ff^. 

s TYibuno is predicated of pafrioid, and negleffenfi of mifA. 


Cio. Oraoulum datum erat vietrleea AthSnSs fore, an oracle had been ffiven^ 
that Athens would be victorious. Cio. 

Note. — In general, the Present Infinitive represents the action as taking place at the 
thne denoted by the principal verb, the Perfect as then completed or past, and the Fu- 
ture as then aiout to take place; but tense is so imperfectly developed in the Infinitive 
that even relative time is not marked with much exactness. Hence — 

1) The Present is sometimes used of future actions, and sometimes with little or no 
reference to time ; 

Cras argentum dare dixit, he said that he would give the silver to-morrow. Ter, 

2) The Fe/tfect is sometimes used oipresem^t actions, though chiefly in the poets : 
Tetigisse timent poetam, th&yfea/r to touch (to have touched) the poet. Hor. 

1. After the past tenses of d^eli, oporto., possum, and the like, the Pbes- 
EHT IiTFnjrnvB is used where our idiom would lead us to expect the Perfect ; 
sometimes also after memim, and the like ; regularly in recalling what we 
have ourselves experienced : 

Debuit officiosior.esse, he ought to have been more attentive. Cio. Id potuit 
faoere, he might home done this. Cio. Me Athenis audire memini, I remember 
to have heard (hearing) in Athens, Cic. 

2. The Perfect Passime Infinitive sometimes denotes the resuU .of the ac- 
tion. Thus, doctus esse may mean either to ha/ve been instructed or to be a 
learned man (lit., an instructed man). If the result thus denoted belongs to 
past time, /««8se must take the place of esse : 

Populum alloquitur, sOpItum foisse regem ictH, she addresses the people, 
saying that the king was stunned by the blow. Liv. See also 471, 6, note 1. 

3. Instead of the regular Future Infinitive, the Peeipheastio Foem, futv,- 
rum esse ut, or fore ut, with the Subjunctive, Present or Imperfect, is fre- 
quently used : 

Spers fore ut oontingat id nobis, I hope this will fall to our lot (I hope it 
will come to pass that this may happen to us). Cio. Non speraverat Hanni- 
bal, fore ut ad s6 deficerent, Ha/nnibal had not hoped that they would revolt 
to him. Liv. 

NoTB 1. — This circumlocution Is common in the Passive, and is moreover necessary 
in both voices in all verbs which want the Supine and the participle in rue. 

Note 2. — Sometimes fore wf with the Subjunctive, Perfect or Pluperfect, is used with 
the force of a Future Perfect ; and in passive and deponent verbs, fore with the perfect 
participle may be need with the same force: 

DicO mg satis adeptum fore, Isa/y that I shall have ohtadned enough. Cic. 

538. The Inflnitive, with or without a subject, is often used as 
the subject of a verb :' 

WrrH ScBJEOT. — CaesaH nuntiatum est equites aocSdere, it was announced 
to Caesar that the cawaVry was approaching. Caes. Facinus est vinclrl civem 
Eemanum, that a Soman citizen should be bound is a crime. Cio. Certum 

1 This use of the Inflnitive as subject was readily developed out of its use as object^ 
see 534, 1, foot-note. Thus the Inflnitive, with or without a subject, finally came to be 
regarded as an indeclinable noun, and was accordingly used not only as subject and 
ol^eot, but also as preMcate and apposiOve (539, 1. and II.), and sometimes even in 
tbe Ablative Abtokite (539, lY.), and in dependence upon prepositions (533, 8, Bote 4^. 


•Bt IlberOB am&Tl, it is certain that children are loved. Quint. Legem brevem 
esse opoTtet, U is necessary that a law he brief. Sen. 

WiTHOTjT SuBtTEOT. — ^Deorfituin est non dare slgnum, it was decided not to 
give ths signal. Liv. Ars est dlfficilis rem publioam regere, to rule a state is 
a diffieuU art. Cio. Carum ■ esse jucundum est, it is pleasant to he held dear. 
Cio. Haec scire juvat, to know these things affords pleasure. Sen. Pecoirc 
licet nemini, to sin is law/ul/or no one. Cio. 

1. When the subject is an Infinitive, the predicate is either (1) a noun or 
adjective with simi, or (2) a verb used impersonally ; see the examples above. 

2. The Infinitive, with or without a subject, may be the subject of another 
Infinitive : 

Intellegl necesse est esse deOs,' it miisl he understood that there are gods. 

3. The Infinitive sometimes takes a demonstrative as an attributive in 
agreement with it : 

Quibusdam hoc displicet phjlosophart, this philosophizing (this to philos- 
ophize) displeases some persons. Cio. Vivere ipsum turpe est nobis, to live 
is itself ignoble for us. Cio. 

539. Spbciai. Constihjctions. — The Infinitive with a subject " 
is sometimes used — 

I. As a Fbedicaie ; see 363 : 

Exitus fuit orationis sibi nullam cum his amioitiam esse,' the close of his 
oration was that he had no friendship with these. Caes. 

NoTB. — An Infinitive without a subject may be used as a Predicate Nominative: 

"Vtvere est cogitSre, to Uve is to thdnJc. Clc. 

n. As an Appositive ; see 363 : 

Oraculum datum erat vlctrlces Athgnfis fore, an oracle had been given, 
thai Athens would be vietorimis. Cic. Ulud soleO mirail, non me aooipere 
tuas lltteras,' / am accustomed to wonder at this, that I do not receive your 
letter^ Cic. 

m. In Exclamations ; see 381 : 

Te sic vexSil, that you should be thus troubled! Cio. Mene incepto d6- 
Bistere victam, that /, vanquished, should abandon my undertaking I * Verg. 

IV. In the Ablative Absolute : see 431, note 1 : 

Audita Darlum movisse pergit, having heard that Darius had withdramn 
(that Darius had withdrawn having been heard), he advanced. Curt. 

' Esse debs is tlie subject oiinteUegl^ and intellegl esse deos of est. 

' Including the modifiers of each. Thus in the example the whole clause, »i6f mil- 
lam aum Ms amteitiam esse, is used as a Predicate Nominative in agreement with the 
subject escitus; see 362. 

' In the examples, the clause vMrids Aihends/ore is in apposition with oraculum, 
and the clause nm me aceipere tuas Htterds, in apposition with Ulud. 

* This use of the Infinitive conforms, it will be observed, to the use of the Accusative 
■nd Nominative in exclamations (381, with note S). 


n. SoBSTANTivE Clauses. 

540. In Latin, clauses which are used as sttbstanti'Des take one ol 
four forms. They may be — 

I. Indirect Questions: 

Quaeritur, our dissentiant, U is ashed why fhey disagree. Cio. Quid agen- 
dum sit, nescio, I do not know what ought to be done. Cio. 
KoTB. — For the use of iTiMred Questions, see 5S9, 1. 

II. Infinitive Clauses : 

Anteoellere oontigit, it was his good foHime to exeel (to exoel happened). 
Cio. Magna negotia voluit agere, he wished to achieve great undertakings. Cio. 
Note. — For the use of Injvmiive Clauses^ see 534 ; 535. 

III. Subjunctive Clauses, generally introduced by ut, ne, etc. : , 
Contigit ut patriam vindioaret, U was Ms good fortune to save Ms eouniry. 

Nop. Vol6 ut mihi respondeas, I wish you would answer me. Cio. 
NoTB.— For the use of such Subjunctive Clauses, see 498; 499, 8; 501. 

IV. Clauses introduced by guod: 

Benefloium est quod neoesse est morl, it is a blessing that it is necessary to 
die. Sen. GaudeO quod te interpellavl, / rejoice that (because) / have inter- 
rupted you. Cio. 

Note. — Quod-clauses, used substantively, either give prominence to the fact stated, 
or present it as a grov/nd or reason. They may bo used as the siitgects of impersonal 
verbs, as the ol)j$ot8 ot transitive verbs, especially of such as denote emotion at/eti^fttg^ 
•nd as appositi/vejs : > 

Hiic accgdebat quod exercitum luxuriose habuerat, to this was added the fact that 
he had kept the army in luxitry. Ball. Adde quod ingenuas didicisse artSs emollit 
mores, add the/act tltat to learn liberal arts refmes marvners. Ovid. Bene facis quod 
me adjuvas, you do well that you assist me. Cic. Dolebam quod socium amlseram, 1 
was grieving because J had lost a companion. Cic. See also 535, 111., note. 



I. Gbbunds. 

541. The Gerund is a verbal noun which shares so largely the 
character of a verb that it governs oblique cases, and takes ad- 
verbial modifiers : 

' Quod-clauses occur — (1) as the subject of accedit, accidit, a/pparet, eoe/nit, ^W, 
nocet, ohest, oceurrit, prodest, etc. ; also of est with a noun or adjective, as causa est, 
vitium est, etc., grdtum, est, indlgnum est, mvrum est, etc. ; and (2) as dependent upoo 
etttH^b, addo, adiced (p. 30, foot-note 1), admlror, a/ntmadc&rto, angor, bone facto, 
detector, doled, ea!ousd,facld, gaudeo^ glorior, laetor, mlror, mitto, omitto, praetereo, 
gueror, etc. They are sometimes used like the Accusative of Specification. Bee 616, 
I; note. 
\ ' The tferwTid and the Gerundive were oricrlually identical. The former is the new 


JUb vooandi J senatum, the right of sfwmmoning the senate. Liv, Beate 

Vivendi * cupiditas, the desire of living happily, Cic. 

Note. — In a few instances the Gerund has apparently a passive meaning: 

Neque hahent propriam percipiendi notam, nor have ih&y any prop&r ma/rJe qf diS' 

ti/ncOon (i. c, to distinguish them). Cic. 

542. The Gerund has four cases — the Genitive, Dative, Aantsa- 
~tivej and Ablative — used in general like the same cases of nouns. 

I. The Genitive of the Gerund is used with nouns and adjectives : ' 
Ars Vivendi, the art of living. Cic. Studiosus erat audiendl, he was de- 

siroits of heari/ng. Nep. Cupidus te audiendl, desirous of hearing you. Cic. 
Artem vera ac falsa dijudicandl, the art of distinguishing true things from 
false, Cio. 

Note 1.— The Gerund usually governs the same case as the verb, but sometimes, by 
virtue of its substantive nature^ it governs the Genitive^ especially the Genitive of per- 
sonal pronouns— me^, nost7% tu^ vesiri, svA : 

Copia placandi tui {of a womo/n), am, opportunity of appeasing you. Ov. Sul con- 
servandi causa, /or the purpose off pres&rviTig themselves. Cic Vestri adhortandl 
causa, for thepv/rposs oj eaihorting you. Liv. Eeiciendi ^ judicum potestas, tlie power 
tf challenging (of) the Judges. Cic. LiiciB tuendl copia, the privilege qf behaldAm.g the 
light. Flaut. 

Note 2. — The Genitive of the Gerund is sometimes used to denote purpose or ten.' 

LegSs pellendl claros vlros, lams for (lit., of) dri/Ung away illustrious men. Tac. 

II. The Dative op the Gerfnd is used with a few verbs and adjectives 
which regularly govern the Dative : 

Cum Bolvendo non essent, si^ee they were not able to pay. Cic. Aqua 
titilis est bihendO, water is 'useful for drinking, Plin. 

Note. — The Dative of the Gerund Is rare ; * with an object it occurs only in. Plantus. 

III. The AccnsATivE of the Gerund is used after a few prepositions : * 
Ad discendum propensi sumus, we are inclined to learn (to learning). Cic. 

Inter liidendum, in or during play. Quint. 

ter of a participle used substantively^ while the latter is that same participle used adjeo- 
tively. Moreover, from this participle the Gerund developed an active meaning and the 
Gerundive a passive. On the Origin and Use of Gerunds and Gerundives, see Jolly, 
*Geschiehte des Inflnitivs,' pp. 198-200- Draeger, II., pp. 789-828. 

' Voca/ndi as a Genitive is governed by^ws, and yet it governs the Accusative sena- 
tum ; Vivendi is governed by cupiditds, and yet it tafees the adverbial modifier bedte. 

^ The adjectives which take the Genitive of the Gerund are chiefly those denoting 
DBSiRE, KNOWLEDGE, SKILL, RECOLLECTION, and th^jr opposites ! avidus, cupidus, StUr- 
diosus ; conseius^ gndnis, igndrus ; peritus^ imperitus^ insuHus^ etc. 

3 Pronounced as if written regiciendi ; see p. 20, foot-note 1 . 

* According to Jolly, 'Geschichte des Inflnitivs,' p. 200, the Gerund originally had 
only one case, the Dative, and was virtually an Inflnitive. 

B Most frequently after ad ; sometimes after i/nter and oh ; very rarely after ants, 
oircd, and in. 


NoTB 1. — ^The Accusative of the Gerund with & direct object is rare : 
Ad placandum deos pertinet, it tends to appease the gods. Clc 
Note 2.— The Gerund with ad often denotes ^wrpos^ ; 

Ad imitandum mihl propositum est exemplar illud, that model has been set b^on 
me for imitation. Cic. 

IV. The Ablative of the Gerund is used (1) as Ablative of Means, 
and (2) with ^>-«posJft'<m« .• ' 

Msns disoendo alitur, tAe mind is nourished by learning. Cic. Salutem 
hominibus dando, hy giving safety to men. Cic. Virtiites cemuntur in 
agendo, virtues are seen in action. Cio. Deterrere a scribendo, to deter from 
writing. Cic. 

NoTH 1. — After prepositions, the Ablative of the Gerund with a direct object is ex- 
ceedingly rare : 

In tribuendo suum cuique, in giDi/tig every one his ovm. Cic. 

Note 2. — Without a preposition, the Ablative of the Gerund denotes in a few In- 
stances some other relation than that of means, as t/ime, separation, etc. : 

Incipiendo refugi, 1 drew bach in the very beginrdng. Cic. 


548. The Gerundive, like other participles, agrees with nouns 
and pronouns : 

Inita sunt consilia nrbis dslendae, plans have been formed for destroying the 
city (of the city to be destroyed). Cic. Numa sacerdotibus creandls animum 
adjScit, Numa gave his attention to the appointment of priests. Liv. 

Note.— A noun (or pronoun) and a Gerundive in agreement with it form the Qe- 
rwndive Construction. 

544. The Gebtjndive Construction may be used — 

1. In place of a Oerund with a direct object. It then takes the case 
of the Gerund whose place it supplies : 

Libido ejus videndl (= libido eum videndl), the desire of seeing Mm (lit., 
of hmn to be seen). Cic. Platonis audiendl (= PlatOnem audiendl) studiosus, " 
fond of hearing Plato. Cic. Legendls Oratoribus (= legends oratOres), bjl 
reading the orators. Cic. 

Note.— The Gerundive Construction should not be used for the Gerund with a nen 
ter pronoun or adjective as object, as it could not distinguish the gender : 

Artem vera ac falsa dijudicandi, the art of distinguishing true things from false 

2. In the Dative and in the Ablative with a preposition : 

Locum oppido condendo cepfirunt, th£y selected a place for founding a ciiy 
Liv. Tempera dEmetendls fructibus aoeommodata, seasons smtabUfor gath 
ering fruits. Cio. Brutus in llberanda patria est interfectus, Brutus was »W»« 
in liberating his country. Cio. 

» The Ablative of the Gerund is used most fi^equently after d (»b), <Je, ea> (S), ini 
rarely after cum, pro, and super. 

SUPm^s. 317 

NoTB 1,— The learner will remember that in the Dative (542, II., note) and in the 
Ablative toith a preposition (543, lY., note 1) the Germid with a direct object is ex- 
ceedingly rare. The Gerundive Construction supplies its place. 

Note 2.— The Gerundive Construction sometimes denotes purpose or t&nden&y^ es- 
pecially in the Accusative after verbs of giving^ p&mtitting, taking, etc. ; 

Attribuit f tiiliam vastandam (for ad vastandum) Catilinae, /te asidgned Italy to Cat- 
iline to ravage ( to be ravaged). Cic. Firmandae valetudini in Campaniam concessit, 
he toithdrew into Campania to confirm Jiia health. Tac. Haec tradendae Hannibal! 
Tictoriae sunt, these things are for t/ie purpose of gwing victory to Hannibal. Liv. 
ProficTBCltur cognoscendae antiquitatis, he sets out for the purpose qf studying antiq- 
ttity. Tac. 

Note S.— The Gerundive Construction in the Dative occurs after certain official 
names, as decemviri, trimm/ovn,, comitia : * 

Decemvirds legibus scnbendis creavimus, we Tume appovnted a conmdttee of tan to 
prepare laws. Liv. 

Note 4. — The Gerundive Construction in the Ablative occurs after comparataves : 

Nullum officiom referenda grStia magis necessarium est, no duty is more necessary 
than Giat qf returning a f amor. Cic. 

Note 5.— The Gerundive Construction is in general admissible only In transitive 
verbs, but it occurs in utor,fruor.,fwngor, potior, etc., originaDy transitive : 

Ad munus ftingendmn, for discharging ffie duty. Cic. Spes potiondorom castro- 
rom, the hope qf getting possession of the ca/}np. Caes. 

m. Supines. 

545. The StJPiNB, like the Gerund, is a verbal noun. It has a 
form in um and a form in u. 

Note 1. — The Supine in um is an Accusative; that in u is generally an Ablative, 
though sometimes perhaps a Dative.^ 

Note 2. — ^The Supine in um governs the same case as the verb : 

LggatoB mittoot rogatom auxilium, they s&nd ambassadors to ash aid. Caes. 

BUIiE LIX«— Supine in Um. 

546. The Supine in vmi is used with verbs of motion 
to express pukpose : 

LegatI v6n5runt r6s repetitum, depviiea came to demand restitution. Ilv, 
Ad Caesarem congratutetum convenerunt, tkey came to Caesar to congrai- 
iUate him. Caes. 

1. The Supine in um occurs in a few instances after verbs which do not directly ex- 
press motion : 

Illiam Agrippae nQptnm dedit, he gave Ms datighter in TnarHage to Agrippa. 

2. The Sapine in um with the verb eO is equivalent to the forms of the first Periphras- 
tic Conjugation, and may often be rendered literally : 

Bonos onmes perdltum eunt, they are going to destroy all ^ good. SalL 

^ But in most instances the Dative may be explained as dependent eitb6r upon the 
verb or upon the predicate as- a whole; see 384^ 4. 

3 See Hubschmann, p. 223; Draeger, II., p. 838; Jolly, p. 201, 


NoTB But Id sabordinate clauBes the Supine In um with the verb 60 Is often used 

for the simple verb : 

Ultum Ire (= ulclaoi) injiirias festinat, M Tiastens to a/Denge the injuries. Ball. 

8. The Supine in um with %r% the Infinitive Passive of 60, forms, it will be remem- 
bered (833, III., 1), the Future Passive Infinitive: 

Bratum visum in a me puto, / ^t/ink Brutus will he se&n by me. Cic. 

4. The Supine in um is not very common; ^ but purpose may be denoted by other 
constructions i 

1) By ut or qv^ with the Subjtmctvve ; see 497. 

2) By Gerunds or Geru/ndi/ves ; see 543, 1., note 2, and III., note 2 ; 544, 2, note 3. 
8) By Participles; see 549, 8. 

RUIiE liX.— Supine in u, 

547. The Supine in u is generally used as an Ablative 
of Specification (424) : 

Quid eat tarn jQcundum auditu, what is so agreeable to hear (in hearing) ? 
Cic. Difficile dictQ est, it is difficult to tell. Cic. De genere mortis difficile 
dictti est, it is difficult to speak of the kin^of death. Cic. Civitaa incredi- 
bile memoratu est quantum creveritj it is incredible to relate how much the 
state increased. Sail. Pudet dictii, it is a shame to tell. Tac. 

U'oTK. — The Supine in u never governs an oblique case, but it may take an Ablative 
with a preposition, as in the third example above. 

1. The Supine in u is used chiefiy with jucundus, optirnims; faciUe, proclivis, dif' 
jUdUs; incredibilis. m&m,ordMli8 ; honestus, turpia; dignus^indtgnusj/ds^nefda, 
opus, and scehis ; rarely with verbs. 

2. The Supine in « is very rare. The most common examples are cvud/ltu^ dictu^ 
fa^tUy ndtu, msu; less common, <^gnMu^ intellectH^ in/ventu^ memordtu^, reldtut 
scUdf tractdta, vicM.^ 

TV. Participles. 

548. The Participle is a verbal adjective which governs the 
same cases as the verb : 

Animus 8§ non vidSns alia cemit, the mdnd^ though it does not see itself * 
(lit., not seeing itself)^ discerns other things. Cic. 

Note l.-^For Participle* used substantively^ see 441, 

Note 2.— Participles used substantively sometimes retain the (Uiverbiai modifiers 
which belonged to them as participles, and sometimes take adt^ecUve modifiers: 

Non tam praemia seqiu recte factorum quam ipsa recte facta, not to seek tJie r&wards 
of good deeds (things rightly done) so rrmch as good deeds themselves. Cio. Praecla 
mm atque di^num factum, a/n excell&nt and divine deed. Cic, 

649. Participles are often used — 

1. To denote Time, Cause, Manner, Means: 

' According to Draeger, II., p. 829, the Supine in wn is found In only two hundred 
and thirty-six verbs, mostly of the First and Third Conjugations. 

3 According to Draeger, II., p. 88S, the Supine in i^ is found in one hundred and nin'' 


Plato sortbena mortuus est, Plato died while writing. Cio. Iturl in proe- 
lium o&mmt, they sing when about to go into battle. Tac. S6l oriens diem 
oOnfloit, tlie sun by its rising causes the day. Cio. Militea renuntiant, sS per- 
fidiam veritos revertisse, the soldiers report that they returned because they 
/eared perfidy (having feared). Caes. 

2. To denote Condition or Concession : 

Mendaol homini ne verum quidein dloenti credere n6n solSmns, we are 
not wont to believe a lia/r, eoen if he speaks the truth. Cio. Eeliiotaute naturfi, 
irritus labor est, if nature opposes., effort is vain. "Sen. Sortpta tua jam diU 
exspectans, nou audeo tamen flagitare, though I have been long expecting your 
worh, yet I do not dare to ask for it. Cic. 

3. To denote Purpose : 

Perseus rediit, belli casum tentaturus, Perseus returned to Imj (about to 
try) the fortune of war. Liv. Attribuit noB trucldandos CetbegS, he assigned 
us to Cethegua to slaughter. Cio. 

4. To supply tbe place of Relative Clauses : 

Omnes aliud agentes, aliud simiUantes, improbi sunt, aU who do one thing 
and pretend another are dishonest. Cio. 

5. To supply tbe place of Principal Clauses : 

Classem devlctam oepit, he conquered and took the fleet (took the fleet con- 
quered). Nep. Ee consentientes, vooabulls differebant, they agreed in fad, 
but differed in words. Cio. 

NoTB 1.— A participle with a negative is often best rendered by a participial noun 
and the prepoeitlon icithout: 

Miserom est, nihil proficientem an^, it is sad to be troubled wi^umt accomplieh' 
ing anything. Cic. Non erubescens, without blushing. Cic. 

Note 2. — The perfect participle is often best rendered by a partirapial or 
verbal noun with of : 

Homerus ftiit ante Eomam conditam. Homer Uiied (was) before the foundr- 
ing of Borne (before Eome founded). Cio. 

550. The Tenses or the Pabticiple — Present, Perfect, and 
Fulmre — denote only relatme time. They accordingly represent 
the time respectively as present, past, and futmre relatively to that 
of the principal verb : 

Oculus se non videns' alia cemit, the eye, though it does not see itself (not 
seeing itself), discerns other tMngs. Cio. Plato scribens mortuus est, Hato 
died while writing. Cio. tjva maturata duloesoit, th^ grape, when it hat 
ripened (having ripened), becomes sweet. Cio. Sapiens bona semper placitQra 
laudat, the wise man praises blessings wMch will always please (being about to 
please). Sen. 

NoTB 1. — The perfect participle, l)oth in deponent and in passive verbs, is Bometlmes 
used uf present time, and sometimes in passive verbs it loses in a great degree its force 
M a tense, and is best rendered by a verbal noon: 


Elsdem ducibus fiaua Numidas mittit, employi/ng the same persona as guides, he 
sent the Mimidians. Oaes. Incensas perfert naves, he reports the bunUng qf tJi4 
shdps (the ships set on fire). Verg. See also 644. 

Note 2.— In the eompoimd tenses the perfect participle often becomes Tirtually a 
predicate adjective expressing the result of the action : 

Causae sunt cognitae, tJie causes are hnovm. Caea. See also 471, 6, note 1, 

Note 3.— For the P&rfeei Participle with ?iabeO^ see 388, 1, note. 

Note 4.— The want of a perfect active participle is sometimes supplied by a temporal 
clause^ and sometimes by a perfect passive participle in the Ablative Absolute : 

Caesar, postquam venit, Ehenum transire conatituit, Caesar^ ?uM}ing arrvoed, de- 
cided to cross the Rhine. Caea. Equitatu praemisso subaequebatur, having sent for- 
ward Ms ca/oalry^ Tie followed. Caes. See also 431; 619. 

Note 6. — The want of a present passive participle is generally supplied by a tem^ 
poral clause : 

Omn a Catone laudabar, reprehend! me a cetens patiobar, hei^g praised by Ckito, 1 
allowed m/yaelf to be censured by the others. Oic. 


RULE liXI.— Use of Adverbs. 
651. Adverbs qualify veebs, adjectives, and other 


SapientSs fSUciter vTvunt, the wise live happily, Cic. Facile dOctissimu&, 
tmquestionaUy the most learned. Cie. Haud aliter, not otherwise. Verg. 

Note 1.— For predicate adverbs with swrn, see 360, note 2 ; for adverbs with 
nouns used adjectively, see 441, 3; for adverbs in place of adjectives, sec 443, notes 
8 and 4; for adverbs with participles used substantively, see 548, note 2. % 

Note 2. — Sic and ita mean ' bo,' '■ thus.'* Ita has also a limiting- sense, ' In so far,' as 
in ita—si (507, 8, note 2). Adeo means 'to such a degree or result' ; fcMW, taniopere^ 
' so much ■' — tarn used mostly with adjectives and adverbs, and tantop&re with verbs. 

552. The common negative particles are non, we, hand. 

1. JN'dfi is the usual negative; tis is used in prohibitions, wishes, and purposes (483, 
8 ; 488; 497), and haud^ in Jiaud sdo an^ and with adjectives and adverbs : Ao«m? m^ 
rdbile^ not wonderful ; haud aliter, not otherwise, N% for ne is rare. -STe non after 
itide is often best rendered whether. 

2. In ndn modo non and in non solum non the second non is generally omitted be- 
fore sed or ■werwm, followed by ni—quddem or viai (rarely etiam), when the verb of tha 
second clause belongs also to the first*. 

AssentfltiO n5n modo amico, sed nS liberO qnidem ^gna est, flattery is not only not 
wor&by ofafHend, but not even of a free man. Cic. 

8. Mi/n/us often has nearly the force of non ; si minus = t^ nbn. Sin aliter has 
nearly the same force as al mdn/ics. Minimi often means ^not at all,' *bf no means.' 


553. Two Negatives are generally equivalent to an affirma- 
tive, as in English : 

Nihil nOn arroget, let Mm claim everytMng. Hor. Neque h8o Z6n8 nOn 
vidit, nor did Zeno overlook this. Cic. 

1. JJon before a general negative gives it the force of an indefinite affirmatiTe, but 
after sndi negative tlie force of a general affirmative : 

"SonnQTab^ some one ; iiQm:aM[^ eamethin^ ; nSnnilnqnam, some^'mM,* 

'S&'mb uoD.^ every on6 ; aiiiMTibii^&oerythmig; nunqnam non, a^a^«. 

2. After a general negative, ne—qwidem gives empliasis to the negation, ^d nequt 
^fiflffwe, neye — neve^ and the like, repeat the negation distributively : 

Non praetereondam est ne id quidem, we must not pass by even tMs. Cic. Nemo 
nnquam neque poeta neque orator fait, no one was ever either a poet or an orator. Cic, 
NoTB. — For the Use of Prepositions, see 432-435. 

554. CooKDiNATB CONJUNCTIONS tmite similar constructions 
(309, 1). They comprise five classes. 


Castor et PoUiix, Castor and Folhtx. Cio. SenStus populusque, the senate 
and people. Cio. Neo erat diffloile, nor loiM it dijioult. Liv. 

1. For list, see 310, 1. 

2. ^simply connects; $ud implies a more intimate relationship; a^ue and ^gen- 
erally give prominence to what follows. Neque and nee have the force of et non. Et 
and etiam sometimes mean even. ' 

Note. — Aigiie and do generally mean aa, than., after adjectives and adverbs of like- 
ness and unlikeness: tdlisde 'suchas^; aegue ac, * equally as'; aMter a^j««, 'other- 
wise than.' See also 451, 5. 

8. ^ue is an enclitic, and dc in the best prose is used only before consonants. 

4. Eiiam^ gvogue^ adeo, and the like, are sometimes associated with ei^ atqtte. dc, 
and que, and sometimes even supply their place. Quoque follows the word which it 
connects: is quoque, 'he also.* EHam, 'also,* 'further,* 'even,* often adds a new cir- 

6. Sometimes two copniaflves are used : et—et, que—que,^ et—que, que—et, que — 
atque,^ turn — imn, cwm — twm, * both — and * ; but cum — twm gives prominence to the sec- 
ond word or clause; nbn solum (non modo, or non tantum) — sed etiam (verum etiam), 
'notonly— but also*; ntque (nee)— reegoe (nee), 'neither— nor'; neque (nee)— e< (que), 
'not — ^but(amtf)*; et — n6gw6(nec), 'and not.* 

6. Between two words connected copulatively the conjunction is generally expressed, 
though sometimes omitted, especially between the names of two colleagues. Between 
several words it is In the best prose generally repeated or omitted altogether, though 
que may be used with the last even when the conjunction is omitted between the others : 
pSa et tranqwilUtds el Concordia, orpoaj, tranqvilUtas, concordia, oi paa, tranquil- 
Utde, concordiaque. 

NoTK l.—Et is often omitted between conditional clauses, except before nan. 

NoTii 2.— A series may begin with primum or prima, may be continned by deindt 
followed by turn, posted, praetered, or some similar word, and may close with denigui 

, 1 Que— que is rare, except in poetry; que—aigue, rare even in poetry; •«• Verg, 
Aen.,1,,18; Geor,, I., 188. 


or p08t!-^imd.^ I>&inde may be repeated seyeral timeB between prlmum and dmiqvs o» 

II. Disjunctive Conjunctions denote separation : 

Aut vestra aut sua culpa, either yowr fault or Ma own. Liv. Duftbus tii- 
busve horis, m two or three hours. Cio. 

1. For list, see 310, 2. 

2. Aut denotes a Btronger antithesis than «eZ,and must be used if the one sapposition 
exclndes the other: aut vem/m autfalsum^ ' either true or false/ Vel implies a diflFer- 
ence in the expression rather than in the thing. It is generally corrective, and is often 
followed by poUua^ etimn, or dicam: la/uddtitr^ vet eUam amatwr^ 'he is praised, or 
even (rather) loved.' It sometimes means 6©e«, and sometimes for ^icampU. Velut 
often means/or example. Ve for vel is appended as an enclitic. 

Note.— In negative clauses aut and ve often continue the negation : non honor aut 
virtus^ • neither (not) honor nor virtue.* 

8. Sive (8l — ve) does not imply any real difference or opposition; it often connectf 
different names of the same object : Pallae mme Minerva, ' Pallas or Minerva' (anothe* 
name of the same goddess). 

Note.— Disjunctive conjunctions are often combined as correlatives: a^t—aut^ vo, 
— vel, etc., * either— or.* 

III. Adversative Conjunctions denote opposition or contrast : 

CupiO me esse clementem, sed mS inertiae condemnCi, / wish to he rmld^ 
but Icondmnn myself for inaction. Cio. Magnes ferrum ad se trahit, ratio' 
nera autem adferre non possumus, the magnet attracts irony but we can no^ 
assign a reason. Cio. 

1. Foi list, see 310, S. 

2. Sed and verum mark, a direct opposition ; a/utem and vero only a transition ; a* 
emphasizes the opposition ; atqui often introduces an objection ; cetermn means ' bu' 
fftili,' 'as to the rest ' ; ta7aen% *yeV 

Note. — Sed and -oemtm are sometimes resumptive ; see IV., 8, bolow : 
Sed age, responde, but come^ repVy. Plant, 

3. Attamen^ sedtatnen^ 'oeruntamen, 'but yet,' are compounds ottaffn&n» 

4. Autem and v&ro are postposiU'ce^ \. e., they are placed after one or more Wwrds 
in their clauses. 

IV. Illative Conjunctions denote inference : 

In umbra igitur pugnabimus, we shall therefore fight in the shade. Cic. 

1, For Ust, see 310, 4. 

3. Certain other words, sometimes classed with adverbs and sometimes with conjunc- 
tions, are also illatives, aa eo, ideo, ideirco, propt&rea^ qua/mobrem, qudpropter^ gudre, 

8. Igitwr generally follows the word which it connects : hie igitur, *this one there- 
fore,' After a digression, igiPwr^ sed, sed tamen, verwrn, verum tamen, etc., are often 
used to resume an interrupted thought or constructioD. They may often be rendered ' I 
say ' : Sed si qtiia^ ' if any one, 1 say.' 

» For examples, see Cic, Fam,, XV., 14; Div., II., 86, 

° Ctcero, Inv., II., 49, has a series of ten members in which pr^rnvm, Introduces th<^ 
first member, poatrerro the last, and dednde each of the other eight.. 


v. Sacsal Conjunctions denote cause : 

Drffi<sle est cdnsUium, sum enim solus, counsel it difficulty for I am alone. 
Cio. Etenim jus amant,/or they love the rigM. Cic. 

1. For list, see 310, 5. 

2, Etenim and 7ia7nque denote a closer connection than e/nim and tia/ni. 
8. Enim is poatpositive ; see 554, III., 4. 

555. SuBOKDiNATB CONJUNCTIONS connect subordinate with 
principal constructions (309, 3). They comprise eight classes. 

I. Temporal Conjunctions denote time : 

PSTuit cum necesse erat, he obeyed when it was necessary. Cio. Dum ego 
inSicilia sum, MjAife/amin Sicily. Cio. See also 311, 1 ; 518-581. 

I. Dum added to a negative means yet ; nondum, ' not yet ' ; mxdwm^ ' scarcely yet.^ 

II. Compakative Conjunctions denote compakison : 

Ut optasH, ita est, it is as you desired. Cio. Velut si adesset, as if he were 
present. Caes. See also 311, 2; 513, IT. 

1. CoBBBLATiTES are often used : Tarn — quanta ' as,' ' so — as,* ' as much — as ' ; tarn — 
quam quod mdasime, * as much as possible ' ; non minus — quam^ ^ not less than ' ; noii. 
magis — qua/m^ *"a<A more than.' 

Ta^m — quam, and ut — ita with a superlative are sometimes best rendered by t^ witL 
the comparative : ut mdaime — ita Tnajxime^ * the more— the more.' 

III. Conditional Conjunctions denote condition : 

Si pecoavl, Ignosoe, if I have erred, pardon me. Cio. Nisi est oOnsUium 
domi, unless there is wisdom at hom^. Cio. See also 311, 3 ; 506-513. 

1. Nisiy 'if not,' in negative sentences often means 'except' ; and nisi quod., 'excepc 
that,' may be used even in affirmative sentences. -S'm may mean 'than.' ITihilaUudn^^ 
= ' nothing further ' (more, except) ; nihil aliud quam = ' nothing else ' (other than). 

IV. Concessive Conjunctions denote concession : 

Quamquam inteUegunt, though they understand. Cio. Etsi nihil habeat, 
although he hag nothing. Cio. See silso 311, 4; 514; 515. 

V. Final Conjunctions denote purpose ; 

Esse oportet, ut vivas, it is necessary to eat, thai you may Woe. Cio. See 
also 311, 5 ; 497-499. 

VI. Consecutive Conjunctions denote consequence or result : 
Attious ita vixit, ut AtheniSnsibus esset oarissimus, Atticus so lived thai 

he was very dear to the Athenians. Nep. See also 311, 6 ; 500-504. 

VII. Causal Conjunctions denote cause : 

Qaae earn ita sint, since these things are so. Cic. See also 311, 7; 516; 617. 

Vin. Interrogative Conjunctions or Particles denote inquirt or ques- 

Quaesieras, n5nne putarem, you had asked whether I did not think. Cia 
See also 311. 8; 351-353; 6S9. 


556. Intbbjbctions are sometimes used entirely alone, as eheu^ 
' alas I ' and sometimes with certain cases of nouns; see 381, with 
note 3. 

557. Various parts of speech, and even oaths and imprecations, 
sometimes have the force of interjections : 

Pax {peace), he still! miserum, miserSbile, sad, lamentable! 6r0, pray! 
age, agite, come, well! melieroulss, by Hercules! per deum Mem, in 1M 
iwme of the gods ! sodes = si audes {for audies), ^ you will hear/ 


558. For convenience of reference, the principal Rules of Syn- 
tax are here introduced in a body. 

Agbbbmbnt of Nouhs. 

I. A noun predicated of another noun denoting the same person 
or thing agrees with it in cash (362) : 

Brutus custos llbertatis fuit, Brutus was the guardian of liberty. 

n. An Appositive agrees in case with the noun or pronoun 
which it qualiQes (363) : 

ClulUus rex moritur, CluiUus the Jcing dies. 


ni. The Subject of a Finite verb is put in the Nominative (368) ; 
Servius regnavit, Servims reigned. 

rv. The Name of the person or thing addressed is put in the 
Vocative (369) : 
Pirge, Laell, proceed, LatUas. 


V. The Direct OSjbct of an action is put in the Accusative 

DeuB mundum aedifioavit, God made (built) the world. 

Yl. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, regarding, show- 
ing, and the like, admit two Accusatives of the same person ol 
thing (3T3) : 

Hamiloarem imperatSrem feoenmt, they made Samilcar convmander. 


VII. borne verbs of asking, dbmakding, teaching, and con- 
OBAiiiNG admit two Accusatives — one of the person and the other 
of the thing (374) : 

Me sententiam rogavit, 7ie asked me my opinion, 

VIII. A verb or an adjective may take an Accusative to define 
its application (3T8) : 

Capita vslamur, we Ttave owr heads veiled. 

IX. DuKATioN or Time and Extent of Space are expressed by 
the Accusative (379) : 

Septem et triginta regnavit annOs, he reigned thirty-seven years. Quinque 
milia passuum ambulare, to walkjime mile:. 

X. The Place to which is designated by the Accusative (380) : 
I. Generally with a preposition — ad or in : 

Legiones ad urhem adducit, he is leading the legions to or toward the city. . 
n. In names of towns without a preposition : 
Nuntius Eamam redit, th^ messenger returns to Some. 

XI. The Accusative, either with or without an interjection, may 
be used in Exclamations (381) : 

Heu me miserum, ah. me unhappy ! 

Xn. The Indirect Object of an action is put in the Dative. 
It is used (384)— 

I. With Intransitive and Passive verbs : 
Tibi serviO, lam devoted to you. 

II. With Transitive verbs, in connection with the Direct Object : 
Agros plebl dedit, hf gave lands to the com/mon people. 

Xm. Two Datives — the object to which and the object or 
END for which — occur with a few verbs (390) : 

I. With Intransitive and Passive verbs : 

MalO est hominibus avaritia, avarice is an evil to men. 

II. With Transitive verbs in connection with the Accusative : 
Quinque eohortes castrls praesidia rehquit, he left five cohorts for the de- 
fence of the cam/p. 

XIV. With adjectives, the object to ^vhich the quality is di- 
rected is put in the Dative (391) : 
Omnibus oarum est, it is dear to all. 


XV. The Dative is used with a few special nouns and adverbs 
(393) : 

I. With a few nouns from verbs which take the Dative : 
Justitia est ohtemperatio legihus, justice is obedience to laws. 
JI. With a few adverbs from adjectives which take the Dative; 
Congruenter nS.turae vivere, to live in accordance with nature. 


XVI. Any noun, not an Appositive, qualifying the meaning of 
another noun, is put in the Genitive (395) : 

Catonis Orationea, Caio's orations. 

XVII. Many adjectives take a Genitive to complete their mean- 
ing (399) : 

Avidus laudis, desirous of praise. 

XVIII. A noun predicated of another noun denoting a different 
person or thing is put in the Genitive (401) : 

Omnia hostium erant, all things belonged to the enemy. 

XIX. The Genitive is used (406)— 

I. With mlsereor and miseresco : 
Miserere laborum, pity the labors. 

II. With recorder, memini, reminiBCor, and obUviscor : 
Meminit praeteritorum, he remembers the past. 

III. With refert and interest : 
Interest omuium, it is the interest of all. 

XX. The Accusative of the Person and the Gbnitivb of the 
Thing are used with a few transitive verbs (109) : 

I. With verbs of reminding, admonishing : 

Te amicitiae oommonefaoit, he reminds you of friendship. 

II. With verbs of accusing, convicting, acquitting: 
VirSs scelerls arguis, you accuse men of crime. 

III. With miseret, paenitet, pudet, taedet, and piget : 
Eorum noa miseret, we pity them. 

Ablative Propbk. 

XXI. The Place fbom which is denoted by the Ablative (418); 
I. Generally with a preposition — a, ab, do, or ex : 

Ab urbe profioisoitur, he sets out from the dty. 


II. In Names of Towns withcmt a preposition : 

Platenem AthfinlB aroSssIvit, he summoned Plato from Athens. 

XXTT . Separation. Source, and Cause are denoted by the Abla- 
tive with or without a preposition (413) : 

Caedem & vobis dSpellO, / ward off slaugMer from you. HOo audlvi d6 
parente meo, / heard this from my father. Ars utilitate laudatur, an. art is 
praised because of its usefulness. 

XXIII. Comparatives without quam are followed by the Abla- 
tive (41T) : 

Nihil est amabilius virtute, nothing is more lovely than virtue. 

Instrumbntai Ablativb. 

XXIV. The Ablative is used (419)— 

I. To denote Accompaniment. It then takes the preposition cum : 
Vivit cum BalbO, he lives with £alius. 

II. To denote Characteristic or Quality. It is then modified by an 
idjective or by a Genitive : 

Summa virtQte adolfisoens, a youth of the highest virtue. 
m. To denote Manner. It then takes the preposition cum, or is mod- 
ified by an Adjective or by a Genitive : 
Cum virtute vixit, i« lived virtuously. 

XXV. Instrument and Means are denoted by the Ablative (420) : 
Comibus tauri se tutantur, bulls defend themselves with their horns. 

XXVI. The Ablative is used (421)— 

I. With utor, finior, fiingor, potior, vescor, and their compounds : 
Flurimis rebus fruimur et utlmur, we enjoy and use very many things. 

II. With Verbs and Adjectives of Plenty : 

Villa abundat lacte, caseo, melle, the villa abounds in mili, cheese, and Jioney. 

III. With (Ugnus, in(Ugnus, and contentus : 
Dignl sunt amlcitia, they are worthy of friendship. 

XXVn. Price is generally denoted by the Ablative (422) : 

Vendidit aura patriam, he sold his country for gold. 

X X yii] The Mbasubb op Difference is denoted by the Ab- 
lative (423) : 

Uno die longidrem mensem faciunt, th^ make the month one day longer. 

XXTX . A noun, adjective, or verb may take an Ablative to de- 
fine its application (424) : 

Nsmine, non potestate, ftiit r6x, he was king in name., not in power. 


Locative Ablatitb. 

XXX , The Place in which is denoted (425)- ■ 

I. Generally by the Locative Ablative with the preposition m : 
Hannibal in Italia fuit, Hanmbal was in Italy. 

II. In Names of Towns by the Locative, if such a fonn exists, other- 
wise by the Locaiive Ablative : 

Bomae fuit, he was at Borne. 

XXXI. The Time of an action is denoted by the Ablative 

OctOgesimo anno est mortuus, he died in his eightieth year. 
XXXn. A noun and a participle may be put in the Ablative to 
add to the predicate an attendant circumstance (431): 
Servio regnante viguerunt, they flourished in the reign of Servma. 

Cases with Pkkpositionb. 

TTXynr . The Accusative and Ablative may be used with prepo- 
aitions (432) : 

Ad amioum, to a friend. In Italia, in Italy. 

Agreement of Adjectives, Pkonotjnb, and Verbs. 

XXXIV. An adjective agrees with its noun in gbndbb, num- 
ber, and CASE (438) : 

Portflna caeca eat, fortune is blind. 

XXXV. A pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender, nhm- 
BBR, and PERSON (445) : 

Animal, quod sanguinem habet, an animal which has blood. 

XXXVI. A finite verb agrees with its subject in ndmbeb and 
PERSON (460) : 

Ego r6g69 6jeoI, I have banished kings. 

Use of the Indicativb. 
^XX Vil. The Indicative is used in treating of facts (4T4) : 
DeuB mnndum aedificavit, Ood made (built) the world. 

Moods and Tenses in Principal Clatjsbb. 
XXXVIII. The Subjunctive is used to represent the action not 

A8 REAL, but AS DESIRED (483) : 
Yaleant olves, rruiy the cititens be well. 


XXXTX . The Subjunctive is used to represent the action not as 

REAI,, but AS POSSIBLE (485) : 

Hlo quaerat quispiam, here some one may inqvire. 

XL. The Imperative is used in comhandb, exhortations, and 

ENTBBATrBS (487) : 

Jilstitiam cole, practice juttice. 

Moods and Tbnbbs in Sttbordinatb Clauses. 

XLI. Principal tenses depend upon principal tenses ; historical 
upon historical (491) : 

Enltitur ut vincat, Tbe strives to conquer, 

XLn. The Subjunctive is used to denote Pukpose (497) — 

I. With the relative qia, and with relative adverbs, as ubi, undo, etc. : 

Missi sunt qui (= nt U) oOnsulereut ApoUinem, thei/ were sent to consult 

II. With ut, ne, quo, quominus : 

Enltitur ut vinoat, he strives that he may conquer. 

XLTTT. The Subjunctive is used to denote Result (500) — 
I. With the relative qui, and with relative adverbs, as ubi, unde, cf!r, 

Non is sum qui (= vt ego) his Qtar, / am not smch a one ai to use these 

II. With nt, ut non, quin : 

Ita vizit ut Atheniensibus esBet cirissimus, h^ so lined thai he was very 
dear to the Athenians. 

XLIV. Conditional sentences with si, nisi, ni, gin, take (507) — 

I. The Indicative in both clauses to assume the supposed case : 
Si spiritum ducit, vivit, if he breathe, he is aUve. 

II. The Present or Perfect Subjunctive in both clauses to represent 
the supposed case as possible : 

Dies defloiat, si velim causam d&feniete, the day would/ail me, if I should 
wish to defend the cause. 

III. The Imperfect or Plcperpect Subjunctive in both clauses to rep- 
resent the supposed case as contrary to fael : 

Pluribus verbis ad te scrlberem, si res verba deslderaret, I should write tc 
you more fully (with more words), if the case required words. 

XLV. Conditional clauses take the Subjunctive (518) — 


I. With dum, modo, dummodo, ' if only,' ' provided tliat ' ; dum nS, 
modo n§, dummodo ne, ' if only not,' ' provided that not ' : 

Manent ingenia, modo permaneat industria, mental powers remain, if onlg 

II. With ac si, lit si, quam si, quasi, tanquam, tanquam si, velut, 
velut Bi, ' as if,' ' than if,' involving an ellipsis of the real conclusion : 

Perinde habebo, ac si sorlpsisBes, / skall regard it just as if (i. e., as I 
should if) vou had written. 

XL VI. Concessive clauses take (515) — 

I. Generally the Indicative in the best prose, when Introduced by 
({uamguam : 

Quamquam intelleg^ont, though they understand, 

II. The Indicative or Subjunctive when introduced by efei, elianwl, 
iametsl, or si, like conditional clauses with si : 

Etai nihil scio quod gaudeam, though I know no reason why I should r^'oice. 

III. The Subjunctive when introduced by licet, guamvls, ut, ne, cum, or 
the relative qui.- 

Licet irrldeat, though he may deride. 

XLVn. Causal clauses with quod, quia, quoniam, quandS, gen- 
erally take (516) — 

I. The Indicative to assign a reason positively on one's own authority : 
Quoniam supplicati6 deoreta est, since a thanksgiving has been decreed. 

II. The Subjunctive to assign a reason doubtfully, or on another's au- 

SecratSs aocilsatus est, quod oorrumperet juventutem, Socrates was aceused, 
because Tie corrupted the youth. 

XLVni. Causal clauses with cum and qui generally take the 
Subjunctive in writers of the best period (517) : 

Cum vita metus plgna sit, since life is full of fear. 

XLIX. In temporal clauses with postquami, poatedquam,, vM, ut, 
simul atque, etc., 'after,' 'when,' 'as soon as,' the Indicative is 
used (518): 

Postquam vidit, etc., oastra posuit, he pitched his camp, after he saw, etc. 

L. I. Temporal clauses with dum, donee, and quoad, in the sense 
of WHULB, AS LONG AS, take the Indicative (519) : 

Eaeo feci, dum liouit, I did this while it was allowed, 

n. Temporal clauses with dum, donee, and quoad, in the sens« 
of tTNTiL, take — ■ 


1. The Inmcatite, when the action is viewed as an actual pact : 
Dellbera hoe, dum ego redeo, consider this until Iraum. 

2. The ScBJONCTiTE, when the action is viewed as something DEaiRED, 


Differant, dum defervesoat Ira, let them defer it till their anger coolt. 
LI. In temporal clauses with anteguam and priiisquam (520) — 
I. Any tense except the Imperfect and Pluperfect is put — 

1. In the Indicative, when the action is viewed as an AcinAL fact : 
Priusquam lucet, adsunt, they are present lefore it is Ught. 

2. In the Subjunctive, when the action is viewed as somethino de- 


Antequam de re puhlica dieam, before /(can) speak of the republic. 
II. The Imperfect and Pluperfect are put in the Subjunctive : 
Antequam urbem caperent, before they tooTc the eity. 
Ln. In temporal clauses with eum (581) — 

I. Any tense except the Imperfect and the Pluperfect is put in the 
Indicative : 

Cum quiescunt, probant, while they are silent, they approve. 
n. The Imperfect and Pluperfect are put — 

1. In the Indicative, when the temporal clause asserts an historical 

Paruit cum necesse erat, he obeyed when it was necessary. 

2. In the Subjunctive, when the temporal clause simply defines the 
time of the principal action : 

Cum epistulam complicarem, while I was folding the letter. 
Lm. The principal clauses of the Direct Discoitrsb on becom- 
ing Indirect take the iNFiNiTivK or SuBjxiNCTrvB as follows (523) : 

I. When Declarative, they take the Infinitive with a Subject Accusative : 
Bicebat animOs esse dlvinos, he was wont to say that souls are divine. 

II. When Interrogative, they take — 

1, Generally the Subjunctive: 

Ad postulata Caesaris respondit, quid siW vellet, cur venlret, to the de- 
mands of Caesar he replied, what did he wish, why did he come? 

2. Sometimes the Infinitive with u Subject Accusative, as in rhetorical 
questions : 

Docebant rem esse testimonio, etc. ; quid esse levius, they showed that the 
fact was a proof, etc. ; what was more inconsiderate ? 


III. When Imperative, they take the Subjunctive: 
Sorlhit Labieno cum legione veniat, he writes to Labienus to vnrie (that he 
should come) with a legion. 

LIV. The subordinate clauses of- the Direct Discouksb, on be- 
coming Indirect, take the Subjunctwe (524) : 

Eespondit se id quod in Nervils fecisset faotilrum, Ae relied that he wouM 
io what he had done in the ease of the NervU. 

LV. The Subjunctive is used (529)— 

I. In indirect questions : 

Quaeritur, ctlr doctissimi homines dissentiant, it is a question, why thi 
most learned men disagree. 

II. Often in clauses dependent upon an Infinitive or upon another Sub- 
junctive : 

Nihil indignius est quam eum qui culpa careat supplioio nOn cargre, noth- 
ing is more shameful than that he who is free from fault should not be est- 
fmpt from punishment. 


LVI. Many verbs admit an Infinitive to complete or qualify theii 
meaning (533) : 

Haeo vltSlre cupimus, we desvre to avoid these things. 

LVII. Many transitive verbs admit both an Accusative and an 
Infinitive (534): 

Te sapere docet, he teaches you to be wise. 

LVIII. The Infinitive sometimes takes an Accusative as its sub- 
ject (536) : 

PlatOnem Tarentum vSnisse reperio, I find that Plato came to Taremtwm. 

LIX. The Supine in um is used with verbs of motion to express 
PURPOSE (546) : 

LSgatl venerunt res repetltum, deputies came to demand restitution. 

LX. The Supine in it is generally used as an Ablative of Speci- 
fication (547) : 

Quid est tam juoundum audita, what is so agreeable to hear (in hearing) ? 

LXI. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectivbs, and other astbrbb 

Sapientes f^llciter virunt, the wise Hue hagpilg. 




559. The Latin admits of great variety in the arrangement of 
the different parts of the sentence, thus affording peculiar facilities 
both for securing proper emphasis, and for imparting to its periods 
that harmonious flow which characterizes the Latin classics. But 
with all this freedom and variety, there are certain general laws of 
arrangement which it vsdll be useful to notice. 

L Abbamgbment of Woeds. 
OenercU Rides. 

560. The Subject followed by its modifiers occupies the first 
place in the sentence, and the Predicate preceded by its modifiers 
the last place : 

Sol oriens diem cOnficit, the sun rising Tnahes the day. Cio. Animus aeger 
semper errat, a diseased mind always errs, Cic. MiltiadSs Athgnas libera vit, 
Miltiades liberated Athens. Nep. 

561. Emphasis and Euphony affect the arrangement of words. 
I. Any word, except the subject, may be made emphaie by being placed 

at the BEGINNING of the sentence : 

Silent leges inter arma, laws are silent in war. Cio. NumitOrl Bemua 
diditur, Remus is delivered to Ndmitob. Liv. 

IL Any word, except the predicate, may be made emphalie by being 
placed at the enu of the sentence : 

Nobis non satisfacit ipse Dim^henes, even Demosthenes does net satisfy 
B*. Cic. Consulatum petlvit nunquam, he neves sought the consulship. Cio. 

III. Two words naturally connected, as a. noun and its adjective, or a 
noun and its Genitive, are sometimes made emphatic by Separation : 

ObivirgSMonis nOnnunquam incidunt necessdriae, sometimes necessary re- 
proofs occur. Cic. Jtistitiae fungatur officiis, let him discharge the duties of 
iwtice. Cic. 

Note. — A word may be mode emphatic by being placed betwecD the parta of a com- 
pound tense : 

Magna adbibita cora est, great care has been tahen. Cie. 

562. Chiasmus.' — When two groups of words are contrasted, 
the order of the first is often reversed in the second : 

> So called from the Greek letter X. 


Fragile corpus aDimus sempitemus movet, the imperishable soid moves tht 
perishable body. Cio. 

563, Kindred Words. — Different forms of the same word, oi 
different words of the same derivation, are generally placed near 
each other: 

Ad senem senex de senectute scripsi, /, an old man, wrote to an old man 
in the subject of old age. Clc. Inter s6 alils alU prosunt, they benefit each 
'tier. Cio. 

564. A word which has a common relation to two other words 
connected by conjunctions, is placed— 

I. Generally before or after both : 

Pacis et artes et gloria, both the arts and the glory of peace. Liv. Belli 
pflcisque artes, the arts of war and of peace. Liv. 

KoTE.— A Genitive or an adjective following two nouns may qualify both, but It 
more frequently qualifies only the latter : 

Haec percunctatlo ac dgnuntiatio belli, tMs inquiry and this declaration of war. Liv. 

II. Sometimes directly after the first before the conjunction : 
Honoris certamen et glorias, a struggle for honor and glory. Cic Agil 

omnes et maria, all lands and seas. Cio. 

565. The Modifiers of a Noun generally follow it. Thej 
may be either adjectives or nouns : 

Populus Eomanus dsorevit, the Roman people decreed. Cic Herodotus, 
pater hiatoriae, Herodotus, the father of history. Cio. Liber d6 offlcils, th/ 
\ook on duties. Cic. 

1. Modifiers, when emphatic, are placed before their nouns ; 

Tuscus ager Romano adjacet tJte Tuscan territory borders on the Roman. Liv. 

2. When a noun is modified both by an Adjective and by a Genitive, the usual order 
ie, Adjective — Genitive — noun: * 

Magna civium penuria, a great scarcity q^ citizens. Cic. 

8. An adjective is often separated irom its noun by a monosyllabic preposition ; 

MagDo cum periculo esse, to be attended with great peril. Cic. 

4. In the poets an adjective is often separated &om its noun by the modifier of another 

InspSrata tuae veniet pliima auperbiae, the unexpected down shall come v/pon yowr 
pride. Hor. 

566. The Modifiers of an Adjective generally precede it, 
Out, if not adverbs, they may follow it : 

Facile doctissimus, -unquestionably tJie most learned. Cio. Omni aetati 
oommilnia, common to every age. Cio. Avidus laudis, desirous of praise 

667. The Modifiers of a Verb generally precede it: 


Oldria virtvltem seqiritur, glory follows virtue. Cic Mundua de5 piret, 
(he world is subject to God. Cio. Vehementer dijdt, Tie spoke vehemenUy. Cic. 

1. When the verb is placed at the beginning of the sentence, the modifiers, of coarse, 
follow; see the first example under 561, 1. 

2. An emphatic modifier may of course stand at the beginning or at the end of the 
sentence (661): 

FacillimS cSgnoscuntur adulescent^B, most easily are the young men reoognieed. Cio. 

8. Of two or more modifiers belonging to the same verb, that which in thought is 
most intimately connected with the verb stands next to it, while the others ar« arranged 
as emphasis and euphony may require: 

Mors propter brevitatem vltae nunqoam longe abest, death is never far ctistant, in 
eomequence 0/ the shortness qf Hfe. Cic 

568. The MoDiFiEKS of aij Adverb generally precede it, but 
a Dative often follows it : 

ValdS vehementer dixit, he spoke very vehemently, Cio. Congruenter 
natirae vivit, he lives agreeably to natmre. Cio. 

569. Special Wohds. — Some words have a favorite place in 
the sentence, which they seldom leave. Thus — 

I. The Demonstrative generally precedes its noun : 
COstos hujus urbia, tJie guardian of this city. Cio. 

1. IHe in the sense of well-known (4S0, 4) generally follows its noun, if not acooi». 
panied by an adjective: 

Mgdga ilia, that well-known Medea. Cic. 

2. Pronouns are often brought together, especially guisgue with smis or sin: 
Justitia suum cuiqae tribuit,,^^ic4 gives to every man hw <2u6 (hlsown). Cic Qtf 

s€se student praestarc, etc., who are eager to excel, etc Sail 

II. Prepositions generally stand directly before their cases, but tenus 
and versus follow their cases : 

In Asiam profilgit, he fled info Asia. Cio. Collo tenus, up to the neck. Or. 

1. The preposition frequently follows the relative, sometimes other pronouns, and 
sometimes even nouns, especially in poetry : 

Ess qua de agitur, the subject of which we are treating. Cic. Italiam contr&, over 
against Italy. Yerg. Corpus in Aeacidtke^ into the dody of Aeacides. Yerg. 

2, For eum appended to an Ablative, see 184, 6; 187, 2. 

8. Genitives, adverbs, and a few other words sometimes stand between the preposi- 
tion and its case. In adjurations per is usually separated from its case by the Accusa- 
tive of the object adjured, or by some other word ; and sometimes the verb oro is omitted : 

Post Alexandri magni mortem, a/ter the death of Aleaiander the Great. Cic. Ad 
bene vlvendum, /or Uvin.g well. Cic Per ego has lacrimas te oro, I implore you hy 
these tears. Yerg. Per ego vos deos (= per dpos ego vos orO), I pray you in the Tiame 
of the gods. Cart. 

in. Conjunctions and Relatives, when they introduce clauses, generally 
stand at the beginning of such clauses ; but autem, enim, guidem, quoque, 
vers, and generally igiiur, follow some other word : 

Si pecoavl, IgnOsce, if I have errea, pardon me. Cic II qui luperiOrts 


sunt, thotit wh> are »wpenor. Cio. Ipse aviem omnia videbat, hit %t Tamudj 
ta/m all tMrigs. Cic. 

1. A conjunction may follow a relative or an emphatic word, and a relatlTe may follow 
an emphatic word ; 

Id ut audlTit, as he heard thds. Nep. Quae cum ita Bint, Hnce iheee things are eo. 
Cic. Trojae qui primus ab Oris vSnit, who came first from the shores <tf Troy. Verg. 

Note. — Certain conjunctions), as et^ neo^ sed^ and even aut and ^«Z, are more ftequentl" 
removed ftom the beginning of the clause in poetry than in prose : 
■ GompressuB et omnis impetus, and all violence was checked. Terg. 

8. Jife — qmdem takes the emphatic word or words between the two parts: 

Ne in oppidis quidem, not even m the towns. Cic. 

8. Quidem often follows j?r(mot«i8, superlatives, and ordinals: 

Ex mS quidem nihil audiet, from me indeed he will hear nothing. Cic. 

4. Que, ve, ne, introducing a clause or phrase, are generally appended to the firn 
word I but if that word is a preposition, they are often appended to the next word : 

Inforoque, o?^^ ^^/orz£m. Cic. Inter nosque, auf? amon^ 7W. Cic. 

IV. Nan, when it qualifies some single word, stands directly before that 
word ; but when it is particularly emphatic, or qualifies the entire clause, 
it sometimes stands at the beginning of the clause, and sometimes before 
the finite verb or before the auxiliary of a compound tense : 

Hac villa carere non possunt, tliey are not able to do without this villa. Cic. 
Non fuit Juppiter metuendus, Jupiter was not to be feared. Cio. Ffts non 
putant, the^ do not think it rigjit. Cio. PecUnia soluta non est, the money 
has not been paid. Cio. 

1. In general, in negative clauses the negative word, whether particle, verb, or noun. 
Is made prominent: 

Negat quemquam posse, he denies that avjy one is able. Cic. Nihil est melius, 
jiolMng is better. Cic. 

T. Inguam, sometimes Bis, introducing a quotation, follows one or more 
of the words quoted. The subject, if expressed, generally follows its verb: 

Nihil, inquit Brfltus, quod dioam, nothing which J shall state, said Brutus. 

VI. The Vocative rarely stands at the beginning of a sentence. It 
usually follows an emphatic word : 

PSrge, Laell, proceed, Laelms. Cie. 

n. Abkangembnt op Clauses. 

670. Clauses connected by coordinate conjunctions (554) fol- 
low each other in the natural order of the thought, as in English : 

Sol ruit et montgs umhrantur, th^ sun hastens to its setting, and the moun- 
tains are shaded. Verg. G^g§s a nilllo vidgbatur, ipse autem omnia videbat, 
Ghygei was seen by no one, but he himself saw all things. Cio. 

571. A clause used as the Subject of a complex sentence (848) 
generally stands at the beginning ef the sentence, and a clause used 
as the Predicate at the end : 


Quid diss ferat inoertum est, what a day may bring forth is uncertain, Cio. 
Eidtua fait orationis, sibi nilllam cum his amloitiam esse, the close of the orof 
tion was, that he had no friendship with these men. Caes. 

1. This arrangement is the same as that of the simple Bentence; see 560. 

2. Emphasis and euphony often have the same effect upon the arrangement of clanses 
as upon the arrangement of words; see 561. 

572. Clauses used as the StJBORDiNATB Elements of complex 
sentences admit three different arrangements: 

I. They are generally inserted within the principal clause, like the sub- 
ordinate elements of a simple sentence : 

HostSs, ubi primum nostros equites oonspSxSrunt, celeriter nostrSs per- 
turbavSrunt, the enemy, as soon as they saw our cavalry, qwichly put owr «w» 
to rout. Caes. Sententia, quae tutissima videbatur, vioit, the opinion which 
seemed the safest prevailed. Li v. 

II. They are often placed before the principal clause : 

Cum quiesount, probant, while they are quiet, they approve. Cio. Qualis 
Bit animus, animus nes^cit, the soul hnows not what the soul is. Cic. 

Note, — ^This arrangement is generally used when the subordinate clause either refers 
back to the preceding sentence, or is preparatory to the thought of the principal clause. 
Hence temporal, conditional^ and concessive clauses often precede the principal clause. 
Hence also, in sentences composed of correlative clauses with is — gwi, toMs — qudlie, 
tantus — quantus, twm — cwm, ita — ut, etc., the relative member, i e., the clause with 
QU^ ^udHs, quantus, cum, ut, etc, generally precedes. 

m. They sometimes follow the principal clause : 

Snltitor ut vincat, he strives that he may conquer. Cio. Sol efficit ut omnia 
flOreant, the swn causes all things to hloom. Cio. 

N'OTE. — This arrangement is generally used when the subordinate clause is either 
intimately connected in thought with the following sentence, or explanatory of the prin- 
cipal claose. Hence, clauses of Purpose and Result generally follow the principal clause, 
as in the examples. 

673. Latin Pebiods. — A complex sentence in which two or 
more subordinate clauses are inserted within the principal clause is 
called a Pbbiod in the strict sense of the term. 

NoTB 1.— The examples given under 57)8, 1, are short and simple examples ot Latin 

NoTB 2. — Many Latin periods consist of several carefully constructed clauses so united 
as to form one complete harmonious whole. For examples, see Cicero's Third Oration 
against Catiline, XII., 'Bed quoniam . . . providere'; also Livy, I., 6, 'Numitor, inter 
primum . . . ostendit.* 

Note 8. — In a freer sense the term Period is sometimes applied to all complex sen- 
tences which end with principal clauses. In this sense the examples given under 573, 
il., are Periods. Many carefully elaborated Latin sentences are constructed in this way ; 
see Cicero's Oration for the Poet Archias, I., ' Quod si haec . . . dSbSmua'; also the First 
Oration against Catiline, XIIL, 'Ut saepe homines . . . ingravSsoet' 


P E O S O D T. 

574, Prosody treats of Quantity and Versification. 



575. The time occupied in pronouncing a syllable in poetry 
is called its quantity.' Syllables are accordingly characterized as 
long, short, or common.^ 

I. Genbbal RmBS or Quantity. 

576. A syllable is Long in Quantity — 

I. If it contains a Diphthong or a Long Vowel, or is 
the result of Contkaotion : 

haeo, foedus ; duoo ; oOgO (for ooiga), oooldO {for oocaedo), nil {for nihil). 

I. Prae in composition is usually short before a vowel: praeaciitus. 

II. If its vowel is followed by X or Z, or any Two Con- 
sonants except a mute and a liquid : ' 

mSjoT, dux, Bervus, sunt, regunt, rfignum, Sgmen. 

1. But one or both of the consonants must belong to the same word as th» 
vowel : db * side, per * aaxa. 

Note 1. — B has no tendency in combination with any consonant to lengthen a pre- 
ceding syUable. Hence in such words as Achaeua^ Athenae^ the first syllable Is short. 

Note 2. — In the early poots a short final syllable ending in s remained short before 
a word beginning with a consonant ; sometimes also short final syllables ending in other 
oonBonants : imdginiaformam^ &mm Doro, erat diato.^ 

> In many cases the quantity of syllables may be best learned iVom the Dictionary, 
hat in others the student may be greatly aided by certain general statements or rules. 

3 That is, sometimes long and sometimes short. 

' Here the syllable is long by nature if the vowel Is long, but lon^ only by poai^Um 
If the vowel is short. For the quantity ot vowels before two consonants or a double cou* 
•osant, see 651. 

* Here ab becomes long before a in aede, and per before « In aaaia. 

* Here the syllables ia, im, and at remain short. 


NoTK S.— In the early poets many syllables lonsr by position in the Augustan poets 
are sometimes short, as the first syllable of eece, ergo, ille, inter, omnis, uncle, wror. 

Note 4.— A final syllable ending in a vowel is occasionally, though rarely, lengthened 
by consonants at the beginning of the followmg word. 

Note 5.— In Greek words a syllable with a vowel before a mute and a nasal is some- 
times short : cyonus, Tectneaaa. 

2. A syllable before ^ Is long, except in bijugus, is, miadrijugus, u: see 
16, N. 2. 

577. A syllable is Shoet in Quantity if its vowel is 
followed in the same word by another Vowel, by a Diph- 
THONG, or by the aspirate H : 

diss, doceo, viae, nihil. 

I. The following vowels, with the syllables which contain them, are 
long by Exception : 

1. A — (1) in the Genitive ending cK of Dec. I. : aidM : (2) in proper 
names in aius: Gaim (Gajus); (3) before ia, ie, io, iu, in the verb ais. 

2. E — (1) in the ending ei of Dec. V. when preceded by a vowel : diil ; 
and sometimes when preceded by a consonant : Jid^, rei ; often in the Da- 
tive Singular of the pronoun is: el; (2) In proper names in eius : Pom- 
peius ; (3) in eheu, and in Rhea} 

3. I — (1) in the verb fio, when not followed by er: fiam, fubam, but 
fieri ;' (2) in dius, a, um (for dXvus, a, urn) ; (3) generally in the Genitive 
ending lus : ahus, iUius ; (4) sometimes in Dlama. 

4. O — sometimes iu ihe. 

6. In Greek words vowels are often long before a vowel, because long 
in the original : Oer, AerieSs, Bnseis, Meneldus, Troes. 

Note.— This often occurs in proper names in ea, la. Sue, lue, ddn, ion, dia, dia, 
oiua.' Medea, Alexandria, Peneua, Ddri-ua, Orwn. 

578. A syllable is Common in Quantity if its vowel, 
naturally short, is followed by a mute and a liquid : 

ager, agrl ; pater, patris ; duplex, triplex. 

Note 1. — A syllable ending in a mate in the first part of a compound before a b'qnld 
Bt the beginning of the second part is long ; db-rwmpd, ob-rogd. 

Note 2. — In Flautus and Terence a syllable with a short vowel before a mute and a 
liquid is short. 

n. Qtjantitt op FiNAi. Byllablbb. 

579. Monosyllables are long : 

a, da, te, se, dS, si, qui, dS, pr8, tQ, dOs, pes, sis, b6s, sfls, par, B6l. 

> The name of the daughter of Numitor, and of a priestess in VergiL In Jihed, anotlt 
sr name for Uybele, the e is short. 

> Sometimes fieri in Flantus and Terence. 


L The foUowiug are short by Exception ; 

1. Enclitics : qu*, ve, ne, ce, te, pse, pte. 

2. Monosyllables in b, d, 1, m, t : ab, ad,fel, sum, el; except «<!?, sflj. 

3. An, bin, cis, cor, es, fac, jer, in, is, nee, os (ossis), per, ter, qua (indef- 
inite), quis, vir, vas (vadis), and soaietiines Ale and hSc in the Nominative 
and Accusative. 

680. In words of more than one syllable — 

I. The final Towels i, o, and u are long; a, e, and y, 
short : ' 

mari, audi, servo, omDino, fructu, cornu ; via, maria, mare, misy, 

II. Pinal syllables in c are long ; in d, 1, m, n, r, t, short : 

alec, illuc ; illud, consul, amem, carmen, amor, caput. 
Note l.—D5nec and Kin are exceptions. 

Note 3. — Final syllables in n and r are long in many Greek words which end long 
in the original : as Titan, Anchisin, Hymhi, Ddpliln, air, aethir, cratir. 

III. The final syllables as, es, and os are long ; is, us, 
ys, short : 

amas, raSnsas, mongs, ndbfis, servos ; avis, urbis, bonus, chlamys. 

NoTte 1.— The learner will remember that short final syllables like is, us, etc., may 
be lengthened by being placed before a word beginning with a consonant ; see 576, II. 

Note 3.— Plautus retains the original quantity of many final syllables usually short 
in the Augustan age. Thus the endings a, 3, al, dr, or. Is, Us, at, et, it, often stand in 
placeof the later endings a, e,al, ar,or,is, us, at, et, itiHl). Some of these early forms 
are retained by Terence, and some of them occasionally occur in the Augustan poets. 

NoTB 3.— Plautus and Terence, in consequence of the colloquial character of com- 
edy, often shorten unaccented final syllables after an accented short syllable : ama, 
obi, dedi, domi, donu), viro, pedes. 

Note 4. — In Plautus and Terence the doubling of a letter does not usually affect 
the quantity of the syllable : II in ille, mm in immS, pp in opportUni. 

581. Numerous exceptions to the general rule for the 
quantity of final syllables occur even in classical Latin : 
L I final, usually long, is sometimes short or common — 

1. Short in nisi, quasi, cui (when a dissyllable), and in the Greek ending 
si of the Dative and Ablative Plural. 

2. Common in mihi, Wfti, sSA, itn, m6|, and in the Dative and Vocative 
Singular of some Greek words. 

II. O final, usually long, is short — 

1. In duo, ego, octo, eho, in the adverbs etlo, ilico, mode, and its compounds, 
dummodo, qiwmodo, etc., in cedo, and in the old form endo. 

2 Uia short \aindu and n%nu. Contracted syllables are long, according to 5 76, 1. 


3. Sometimes (1) in nouns of Dee. III. and (2) In verbs, though very 
rarely in the best poets. 

III. £i. final, usually short, is lono — 
1. In the Ablative ; mSnsd, bona, illd. 

3. In the Vocative of Greek nouns In as ! AenM, Fliaa.^ 
3. In Verbs and Particles: ama, curd; circa, juxta, antea, frOstra. Ex- 
cept ita, gpiia, ga, heja, and puta used adverbially. 

IV. E fined, usually shoet, is long — 

1. In Dee. I. and V.,' and in Greek plurals of Dec. HI. : epUona; rS, diS; 
temps, mele. 

2. Generally in the Dative ending S of Dec. III. : aerS = oerS. 

3. In the Singular Imperative Active of Conj. II.: mons, docS. But e is 
sometimes short in cavS, trid^, etc' 

4. In ferSjferme, She, and in adverbs from adjectives of Dec. II.: docti, 
rlctS. Except bene, male, Infeme, interne, iuperne. 

V. As final, usually long, is short — 

1. In anas and in a few Greek nouns in as : Areas, 

2. In Greek Accusatives of Dec. III. ; Arcadas, Tieroaa. 

VL Es firud, usually long, is short — 

1. In Nominatives Singular of Dec. III. with short increment (588) in 
the Genitive : mUes (itis), obses (idis), interpret (etis). Except ahiee, ariee, 
paries, Ceres, and compounds of ^Ss, as bipes, tripes, etc. 

2. In penes and the compounds ofes, as ades,potes. 

3. In Greek words — (1) in the plural of those which increase in the Geni- 
tive: Arcades, Troades ; (2) in a few neuters in es: Eippommes; (3) in a 
few Vocatives Singular : Demosthenes. 

Vn. Os final, usually long, is short — 

1. In compos, impos, ems. 

2. In Greek words with the ending short in the Greek : JMos, melos. 

VIII. Is final, usually short, is long — 

1. In plural cases : Tnensis, semis, vdbis. Hence /oris, gratis, ingrSMs. 

2. In Nominatives of Deo. III. increasing long in the Genitive : Quiril 
Otis), Salamis (Inis). 

3. In the Singular Present Indie. Act. of Conj. IV. : aiidis. 

Note. — Mwds, qtimlB, tUervla, follow the quantity of isls. 

i. In the Singular Present Subj. Act. : possls, veUs, ndUs, mSMs. 

1 Sometimes in the Vocative of G-reek nouns in as and &s. 
3 Hence, in the compounds, hotUe, prldie, postridie, gua/re. 

' In the comic poets many dissyllabic Imperatives with a short penult shorten thfl 
ultimate: as Tidbe, jube, vume, nwue^ taoe, tene, etc. * 


5. Sometimes in the Singular of tlie Future Perfect and of the Perfect 
Subjunctive : ammens, docueris. 

IX. Ua Jinal, usually short, is lono — 

1. In NominatiTes of Dec. III. increasing long in the Genitive: virtut 
(litis), tdlus (llris). 

^OTX.—Bnt palut (u short) occurs in Horace, Ars PoStica, 66. 

2. In Deo. IV., in the Genitive Singular, and in the Nominative, Aoousa- 
live, and Vocative Plural : fructua. 

3. In Greek words ending long in the original : Pavthmg, Sa^hUs, tripue, 
NoTB. — But we have Oedipus and. polypus. 

in. Quantity in Incebmbnts. 

582. A word is said to inarease in declension, when it has in 
any case more syllables than in the Nominative Singular, and to 
have as many increments of declermon as it has additional syllables : 
aermS, sermonis, sermonibus.' 

583. A verb is said to increase in conjugation, when it has in 
any part more syllables than in the second person singular of the 
Present Indicative Active, and to have as many increments of conju- 
gation as it has additional syllables : amds, amdtis, amdbdtis.' 

584. If there is but one increment, it is uniformly the penult ; 
if there are more than one, they are the penult with the requisite 
number of syllables before it. The increment nearest the begin- 
ning of the word is called the Jirst increment, and those following 
this are called successively the second, third, and fourth increments.' 

Increments of Declension. 

585. In the Increments of Declension, a and o are long ; 

e, i, u, and y, short : ' * 

aet9,s, aetatis, aet9.tibus ; sermS, sermonis ; puer, puerl, puerorum ; fulgur, 
fulguris ; ohlamys, chlamydia ; bonus, bonarum, bonorum ; ille, iUarum, il- 
lorum ; miser, miserl ; supplex, suppliois ; satur, saturl. 

I. A, usually lono in the increments of declension, is short in the first 
Increment — ' 

* Strmdnds. having one syllable more tlian a&rmd, has one increment, wlille sermoni' 
hu9 has two increments. 

3 AmdtU has one increment, rnnabdHe two. 

12 13 8 

' In aer-mon-i-bns., the first increment is mSn, the second i ; and in nMMWt-4-riJ-mtM, 
the first is u, the second &, the third rd. 

* T occurs only in Greek words, and is long in the increments of nooDS in yn and ol 
a few others. 

■ Observe that the exceptions belong to the first increment. 


1. Of masculines in a2 and ar •■ Hannibal, HanmbaUs ; Caesar, Caesaris. 

2. Of nouns in s preceded by a consonant : daps, dapis , Arabs, Arabis ; 
hiems, hiemis. 

3. Of Greek nouns in a and as ; poena, pOematis ; Pallas, FallaMs. 

4. Of (1) haccar, hepar, jvhar, Idr, nectar, par, and its compounds ; (2) 
anas, mas, vas (vadis) ; (3) edl,/ax, and a few rare Greek words in ax. 

II. O, usually long in the increments of declension, is short in the first 
increment — ' 

1. Of Neuters in Declension III. : aegtwr, aequoris; tempos, temporis. 
Except OS (oris), odor (adoris), and comparatives. 

2. Of words in s preceded by a consonant : inops, mopis. Except Cyclops 
and hydrops. 

3. Of arbor, bos, lepus/ compos, impos, m^mor, immemor ; Allobrox, Cap- 
padox, praecox, 

i. Of most Patrials: MacedS, Macedonis. 

5. Of many Greek nouns — ■(!) those in <!»■.■ rJiMSr, Hector; (2) many in a 
and on increasing short in Greek : aedon, aedonis; (3) in Greek compounds 
iapus 01 pus : tripus (odis), Oedipus. 

III. E, usually shokt in the increments of declension, is lonq in the 
first increment — 

1. Of Declension V. : diM, dierum, dMms, rebus. But in the Genitive and 
Dative Singular sometimes short after a consonant : fidii, spH. 

2. Of nouns in en, mostly Greek <«e», Uemis; Sirln, Sirenis. So AnH, 

3. Of Celtiber, Iber, ver, Aerls, loeuplis, merdes, qmis, ir nines, reqmls,pW)t, 
Isx, rex, dice, dlex, vervex, 

4. Of a few Greek words in es and 8r .• lebes, lebetis; crdtir, erdterit. Ex- 
cept der and aethXr. 

IV. I, usually short in the increments of declension, is long in the 
first increment — 

1. Of most words in ii .• radXx, radHeis ; fitAsc,fiUcis? 

2. Of dAs, gUi, lis, vis, Quiris, Samnis. 

3. Of del/pham,, and a few rare Greek words. 
Note.— For quantity of i in the ending ?i«, see 577, 8. 

y. n, usually SHORT in the increments of declension, is loks in thC 
first increment — 

1. Of nouns in us with the Genitive in uris, atis, Odis.' i^, Juris, • satv& 
salatis ; paMs, paUidis.^ 

2. Of fur, /r&x, lua:,pl&s, IbUOx. 

> Bee p. 342, foot-note 5. 

' Bnt short in appendia, caMm, OiUm, JlUa, /ormlw, nto, pia, aaHa, Htria. and » 
few others, chiefly proper nsmes. 

' But short in int&rr-wt. lAgus. peGUA 


Jneremenit of Conjugaiian. 

686. In the Increments of Conjugation (583), a, e, and 
O are long ; i and u short : 

am&mus, amSmns, amatste ; regimus, sumus. 

NoTB 1. — In ascertaining the increments of the irregular verbB,/ar5, i)oZ^, and theii 
oompounds, the Aitl form of the second person, f&rw^ volM^ etc., must be used. Thus 
In/^re&om and '^oWja/m^ the increments are re and U. 

Note 2. — In ascertaining the increments of reduplicated forms (!i65, I.), the re- 
duplication is not counted. Thus dedvmus has but one increment, di. 

I. A, usually lono in the increments of conjugation, is short in the 
first increment of do : dare, dabam, circumdabam, 

II. E, usually lono in the increments of conjugation, is short before r — 

1. In the tenses in ram, rim, rd: amctveram, amWoerim, ama/serO; rixerat, 

2. In the first increment of the Present and Imperfect of Coqjugatlon III. : 
regere, regeris, regerem, regerer, 

3. In the Future ending heris, here : amdberis or -ere, moniheris. 

i. Barely in the Perfect ending erunt : stderuni for steterunt ; see a36, 
note ; also Systole, 608, VI. 

III. I, usually SHORT in the increments of conjugation, is 1.0M0, except 
before a vowel — 

1. In the first increment of Conjugation IV., except imus of the Perfect; 
aud^e, audml, auditum ; sentire, sentimus ; eensmms (Perfect). 

2. In Conjugation III., in the first increment of Perfects and Supines in 
ivi and Uwm (878), and of the parts derived from them (except mtts of 
the Perfect: trivimus) ; cvpivi, eupwerat, eupUus ; petwl, petUus; captmvi, 
capDtUwrus. Gamsm from gaudeO follows the same analogy. 

3. In the endings imm and iMs of the Present Subjunctive : svmmt, aUit ; 
velimus, vdiUa {9iO, 3). 

4. In noUte, nOlitd, ndUtote, and in the different persons of iham, iis, from , 
ei (295). 

5. Sometimes in the endings rimus and rUia of the Future Perfect an() 
Perfect Subjunctive ; amdiienmus, am&veMs. 

IV. U, usually short in the increments of conjugation, is lono in the 
Supine and the parts formed from it : volutum, volutUrus, amMurus. 


687. The most important derivative endings may be classified 
according to quantity as follows : 

I. Derivative endings with a Lono Penult j 
1. Sbrum, Scrum, atrum: 
flibrum, simulacrum, aratrum. 


5. SdS, Idd, ndS; agS, Igd, ug6: 

dulcedo, cupldo, solitudo ; vorago, oiigo, aertigo. 

8. ais, Sis, ois, otia, Ine, one — inpatront/mics:^ 

Ptolemais, Chryseis, MinOis, Icariotis, Nerine, AcriaiSn6, 

4. Sla, lie ; alls, elis, oils : 

querela, ovile ; mortalis, fidelis, curuUs. 

6. anus, enus, onus, unus ; ana, ena, ona, fina : 

urbanus, egSnus, patrSnus, tribunus; membrana, habSna, annOna, la- 

6. aris, arus ; orus, osus ; avus, ivus : 

salutaris, avarus ; canOrus, animusus ; octaTus, aestivus. 

7. atus, etus, itos, otus, utus ; atim, itim, utim ; etum, eta : * 
alatus, f acetus, turntus, aegrotus, cornutus ; singulatim, Tiritim, tribQ- 

dm ; quercStum, moaeta. 

8. enl, inl, oid — in distrihttivesi 
septSnl, qulni, octODl. 

n. Derivative endings with a Short Penult— 

1. ades, iades, idea — in patronymics '* 
Aeneades, Laertiades, Tantalidea. 

2. iacna, icus, idua :* 
Corinthiacus, modicus, cupidus. 

3. olua, ola, oltun ; ulus, ula, ulum ; culua, oula, oulmn — in dimitm- 

flliolus, flliola, atriolum ; hortulus, virgula, oppidulum ; flosculus, par- 
ticula, munusculum. 

4. etas, itas — in nowis ; iter, itus — in adverbs: 
pietas, Veritas ; f ortiter, divinitus. 

6. atilia, ilis, bilia — in verbals; inus — in adjectives denoting materuA 
or time:* 

versatilis, docilis, amabilis ; adamantinus, cedrinus, crSstinus, diutinus. 

Note 1. — ^Ilis in adjectives from nouns usually has the penult long : Hvllis, AostiMa, 
puerUie, rnnUa. 

NoTB 2.— Inns denoting charadeHatic (330) usually has the penult long : co»otm«, 
epi^us, martnue. 

> Except Dcmaia, Phooaie, Thebaie, MrHa. 

» Except (1) anJtilitua, /ortuUua, grdtuitus, hAlitua, hoapitus, splritua; (2) a<^a- 
Um, statim, and adverbs in itut, as dlvinitiis; and (8) participles provided for by 58a 

> Except (1) those in idea from noons in eua and es : as, PeRdia (PSleus), Nto- 
tttdia (Neocles) ; and (2) AmpMaraidea, AmycRdea, Mlidea, Ooronldea, Lyewrgldia. 

4 Except amicaa, aatlcua, apncua,mendleiia, poa^eua, pudiaua, 
* Sxcept mdHUinuat rfipentim/iM, vefperilnua. 


III. Derivative endings with a LoNO Antepenult : 

1. aceus, uoeus, aneus, arius, arium, 5rius : 

rosaceus, pannuceus, subitaneus, cibarius, columbarium, censSriuB. 

2. abundus, acundus ; abilis; atilis, aticus : 
mirabundus, Iracundus ; amabilis, versatilis, aquStious. 

3. aginta, iginti, esimus — in numerals : 
nSnEginta, vlginti, centesimus. 

4. imonia, imonium ; tqrius, sorius ; toria, tSriiiin : 
querimonia, alimonium ; amatorius, censorius ; Victoria, audltSrium. 
lY. Derivative endings with a Short Antepenult t 

1. ibilis, itudo, olentus, ulentus : 
credibilis, solitudo, vinolentus, opulentuB. 

2. iirio — in desideratives : 
esuriO, empturio, parturiO. 

V. Qtjahtity of Stbm-Stllablbs. 

588. All simple verbs in io of the Third Conjugation (21T) 
have the stem-syllable' short: 

capio, ouplo, facia, fodis, fugio. 

589. Most verbs which form the Perfect in m have the stem- 
syllable short: 

domO, Beoo habeO, moneO, alo, oolO. 

Note. — Pdw\ dMed,,fidreo,pdred^ and several inceptive verbs, are exceptions. 

590. DissjUabic Perfects and Supines have the first syllabi* 
long, unless short by position: 

juv5, javl, jutum; foveO, fbvl, fotum. 

1. Eight l-erfeot3 and ten Supines have the first syllable short : » 

bibl, dedi, fidi, liqm,' sddi, stetl, sHU, tuU ; cUwm, datwm, Hum, litwm, 
jmtwn, ratuin,, tiitmn, eatum, sitimi, sttd/wm? 

591. Trisyllabic Reduplicated Perfects have the first two syl- 
^bles short : 

oado, ceoidl; oanO, oeoini; discs, didiol. 

Note 1. — Caedo has ce&idl in distinction from eeeidi from oadd. 

Note 2. — Tlie second syllable may be made long by position ; cmcmtH, momtfrd^ 

692. In general, inflected forms retain the quantity of stem-syl- 
lables unchanged : ° 

> That is, the syllable preceding the characteristic. 

s Mqm from ligueo ; Unquo has Hqwl. Statmn from aistQ ; sto has etStwnt 

■ Bnt see DiatyUaMc Per/ecte and Swpmee, S90. 



avis, avem ; nUbSs, nAbium ; levis, levior, levissimus ; moneO, mongbam 

NoiB 1.— Position maj, however, affect tlie qnantity: ager, agri; poasum, potulj 

Note 2. — Gigrto gives genuly gemitwm,^ and ^ono, posul., poaitwm. 
593. Derivatives generally retain the quantity of the stem-syl- 
nbles of their primitives : 

bonus, bonitas ; timeo, timer ; animus, animosus ; civis, olvious ; oura, ottro. 

1. Words formed from the same root sometimes show a variation in the 
quantity of stem-syllables : 


dux, duois, 














lex, legiB, 







rex, regis, rSgula, 


Bedes, sedulus. 






vox. voois. 

Note 1. — ^This change of quantity in some instances is the result of contraction, as 
moviHlia^ Tn&tMlis, mobilis, and in others it serves to distinguish words of the same 
•rthography, as the verbs legis, leges, regis, reges, sedes, from the nouns Ugis, leget, 
regis, reges, sedes, or the verbs ducis, duces,/ides, from the nouns ducis, duces,JldG6. 

UToTX 2.— A few derivatives shorten the long vowel of the primitive : de&r, aoerlms; 
^niced, lueema; indies, molestus. 

694. Compounds generally retain the quantity of their elements : 
ante-fero, de-fero, dB-diico, in-aequsJis, pro-duoo. 

1. Tbe change of a vowel or diphthong does not affect the quantity : 
de-lig6 (lego), oc-cido (cadd), oo-oldo (caedo). 

2. The Inseparable Prepositions (U, se, and «5 are long, re short ; ne some- 
times long and sometimes short : 

dlduco, seduoo, vecors, reduod ; nedimi, nefS.s : 

NoTB 1. — JH is short in dirimo and disertus. 

•NoTB 2. — Ne is long in iiedv/m, nemo, nequtmi, n^udguam, niqwiquam,, negwiHa, 
and n&ve. In other words it is short. 

Note 3. — Be is sometimes lengthened in a few words ; religio, rsliqudae, rBperit 
'^pvlit, rUulit, etc. 

3. In a few words the quantity of the second element is changed. Thus 
Jurd gives -jerO; notus, -nitue ; nubS, -nuia : de-jero, cOg-nitus, pro-nuba. 

4. iVo« in composition is usually short before a vowel : praeacutm, prae- 

5. iVa is short in the following words : 

> Here the first syllable is short in ager, but common in agri (S7S); Ion; tn pos 
!u>n, tohio, volvo (576, II.), but short Ui potu/l, solutum, and volutum^_ 



procdla, proewl, profdmis, prqfan, pro/ecto, pro/eatus, prqfieiseot; proJUeor^ 
profugio, profugw, profundus, pronqids, prony,tia, vrotenus, and in most 
Greek words, as prophUa ; generaDy also in vr^'^undB, prSpdgd, pr^dgi, 
pripino, rarely ia prdcars, prbpello. 

6. At the end of a verbal stem compounded with fads or y»8, « is gener- 
ally short : 

calefacio, calef lo, l9.befaciS, patefacio. 

7. / is usually long in the first part of the compounds of dUs i 
meiidiBs, pridis, postfldie, ootldie, triduum. 

8. is long in contro-, intrS-, retrd-, and quandS- in composition : 
eonirdversia, iniroducd, retroverto, quandoque ; but quandSqmdem. 

9. The quantity of the final i in ibi, ubi, and uti is often changed in com- 
position : 

ibidem, ibique ; ubiqiie, libinam, ubivis, uUmmque, necubi, ^cuM ,■ uHnam, 
vtique, stouti, 

10. Sodie, quasi, quoque, and dquidem have the first syllable short. 

595. The Quantity of Stem-Syllables in cases not provided for 
by any rules now given will be best learned from the Dictionary. 
By far the larger number of such syllables will be found to be 
short. For convenience of reference, a list of the most important 
primitives with long stem-syllables is added : • 






dloo (ere) 





































































06d5 (ere) 



fort una 





liber (era, erum) 





furor (art) 





























labor (I) 







latus (a, nm) 


l6g6 (are) 


' Including a few derivatirea and compounds. 














pal or 







































nitor (i) 





















' pone 














































596. Latin Versification is based upon Quantity. Syllables 
are combined into certain metrical groups called Feet, and feet, 
singly or in pairs, are combined into Verses.' 

1. In quantity or time the unit of measure is the short syllable, indicated 
either by a curve w or by an eighth note in music, ^ . A long syllable 

* Modem versification is based npon Accent. An English verse i^ a regular com- 
bination of accented and unaccented syllables, but a Latin verse is a similar combina- 
tion of long and short syllables. The rhythmic accent or ictns (5 9 9) in Latin depends 
entirely npon quantity. Compare the following lines : 

Tell' me I not', in I mourn '-fal I nnm'-bers, 

Life' is I bat' an | emp'-ty | dream'. 

Trfl'-di- I tur' di- I Ss' di- I S'. 

At' fl- I dSs' et I in'-ge- | nl'. 

Obsei-ve that in the English lines the accent or ictus falls npon the same syllables as 
in prose, while in the Latin it falls uniformly upon long syllables. On Laiin Versifi- 
cation, see Ramsay's ' Latin Prosody '; Schmidt's ' Khythmlk und Metrik.' translated 
by Professor White ; Christ's ' Metrik." 


has in general twice the value of a short syllable,' and is indicated either 
by the sign — , or by a quarter note in music, J. This unit of measure is 
also called a tiine or mora. 

Note 1. — A long syllable is sometimes prolonged so as to have the value 
(1) of three short syllables, indicated by the sign i-, orJ_ ; or (2) of four 
short syllables, indicated by '-' , or J . 

Note 2. — A long syllable is sometimes shortened so as to have the value 
of a short syllable, indicated by the sign >, or J". A syllable thus used 
is said to have irrational time. 

597. The feet of most frequent occurrence in the best Latin 
poets are — 

I. Feet of Four Times op Four Morae. 
Dactyl, one long and two short, — v-^ v^ J J* J* carmina. 
Spondee, two long syUohles, J J leges. 

II. Feet of 'Jhreb Times or Three Morab. 

Trochee,* owe long and one shm't, — ^- J J* legis. 

Iambus, one short and one long, ^ — ^ J parens. 

Tribrach, three short syllables, >.^^>^ J^J^J* dominus. 

Note 1. — To these may be added the following : 

Pyrrhic, — ^^ pater. Ditrochee, — *^ — ^^ civitatis. 

Dispoudee, praeceptores. 

Greater Ionic, — sententia. 

Lesser Ionic, ^ -^ adolescens. 

Choriambus, impatiens.3 

Note 2. — A Dipody is a group of two feet ; a Tripody, of three feet ; a Tetrapody of 
four, etc. A TriMmimeris is a group of three half feet, i. c, a foot and a half ; a Pen- 
themimeHs, of two and a half ; a HephthemiToeris, of three and a half, etc. 

698. Meteical Equivalents. — A long syllable may be re- 
solved into two short syllables, as equivalent to it in quantity, or 
two short syllables may be contracted into a long syllable. The 
forms thus produced are metrical equivalents of the original feet. 

Note, — Thus the Dactyl becomes a Spondee by contracting the two slioi-t syllables 
into one long sylla Die ; the Spondee becomes a Dactyl by resolving the second syllable, 
or an Anapaest by resolving the first. Accordingly, the Dactyl, the Spondee, and the 
Anapaest are metrical equivalents. In like manner the Iambus, the Trochee, and the 
Tribrach are metrical equivalents. 

1 See foot-note 1, p. 349. 

2 Sometimes called Clioree. 

3 The feet here mentioned as having four syllables are only compounds of disyllabic 
feet. Thus the Diimnhus is a double Iambus ; the Ditrocliee, a double Trochee ; the 
BUpondee, a double Spondee ; the Greater Ionic, a Spondee and a Pyrrhic ; the Lesser 
Ionic, a Pyrrhic and a Spondee ; the Ghorianibus, a Trochee (Choree) and an Iambus. 

Anapaest, -.^ ^^ — bonitas. 

Bacchius, — dolores. 

Cretic, — '-^ — milites. 

Diiambus, ■ — amoenitas. 


1. In certain kinds of verse admitting irrational time (596, 1, note 2), 
Spondees, Dactyls, and Anapaests are shortened to the time of a Trochee 01 
of an Iambus, and thus become metrical equivalents of each of these feet. 

1) A Spondee used for a Trochee is called an Irrational Teoohee, and is 
marked — >. 

2) A Spondee used for an Iambus is called an Irrational Iambus, and is 
marked > — . 

3) A Dactyl used for a Trochee is called a CrcLio Daottl, and is marked 
— ^ ^^. 

4) An Anapaest used for an Iambus is called a Ctolic Anapaest, and is 
marked ^ w— . 

599. Ictus or Rhythmic Accent. — As in the pronunciation of 
a word one or more syllables receive a special stress of voice called 
accent, so in the pronunciation of a metrical foot one or more syl- 
lables receive a special stress of voice called Rhythmic Accent or 

1. Feet consisting of both long and short syllables have the ictus uniform- 
ly on the long syllables, unless used as equivalents for other feet 

Nora,— Thus the Dactyl and the Trochee have the ictus on the first syllable; the 
Anapaest and the Iambus on the last. 

2. Eotivalents take the ictus of the feet for which they are used. 

Note 1.— Thus the Spondee, when used for the Dactyl, takes the ictus of the Dacty) 
•-i. e., on the first syllable; but when used for the Anapaest, it takes the ictus of the 
Anapaest— i. e., on the last syllable. 

Note 2. — Feet consisting: entirely of long or entirely of short syllables are generally 
med as equivalents, and are accented accordingly. 

Note 8.— When two short syllables of an equivalent take the place of an accented 
«ong syllable of the original foot, the ictns properly belongs to both of these syllables, but 
'J marked upon the first. Thus a Tribrach used for an Iambus is marked ^ \Sf \^. 

600. Absis AND Thesis. — The accented part of each foot is 
called the Arsis (raising), and the unaccented part, the Thesis 

601. Veeses. — A verse is a line of poetry (596). It has one 
characteristic or fundamental foot, vyhich determines the ictus foi 
the whole verse. 

Note 1.— Thus every dactylic verse has the ictus on the first syllable of each foot, 
because the Dactyl has the ictns on that syllable. 

' Greek writers on versification originally used the' terms apo-i? and Wo-i! of rwiaing 
and pvMng down the foot in marching or in beating time. Thus the Thesis was the 
Jccented part of the foot, and th^ Arsis the unaccented part. The Romans, however, ap- 
plied the terms to raising and hncering the voice in reading. Thus Arsis came to 
mean the accented part of the foot, and Thesis the unaccented part. The terms have 
now been so long and so generally used in this sense that it is not deemed advisable t« 
Ittempt to restore them to their original signiJIoAtloB. 

352 HjlMES of verses. 

KoTE 2, — Two verses sometimes unite and form a compound Terse ; see 638, X. 
Note S. — Metre means Tneaawre^ and is variously used, sometimes designating the 
neasv/re or quanHty of syllables, and sometimes the/oo^ or measure * of a verae. 

602. Caesura or CAESxniAii Pause. — Most Latin verses are 
divided metrically into two nearly equal parts, each of which 
forms a rhythmic series. The pause, however slight, which nat- 
urally separates these parts is called — 

1. A Oaestira,' or a Gaesural Pause, when it occurs within a foot ; 
see 611. 

2. A JHaerem, when it occurs at the end of a foot ; see 611, % 
and 3. 

Note. — Some verses consist of three parts thus separated by caesura or diaeresis, 
while some consist of a single rhythmic series.* 

603. The full metrical name of a verse consists of three parts. . 
The first designates the characteristic foot, the second gives the 
number of feet or measures, and the third shows whether the verse 
is complete or incomplete. Thus — 

1. A Dactylic Hemmeltf Acatalectic is a dactylic verso of six feet (Mexa- 
m-eter), all of which are complete {Acatalectic). 

2. A Trochaic Dimeter Catalectic Is a trochaic verse of two measures 
(Dimeter), the last of which is incomplete ( Catalectic). 

Note 1. — ^A verse with a Dactyl as its characteristic foot Is called DactylUi ; with a 
Trochee, Trochaic; with an Iambus, Iambic, etc 

Note 2. — A verse consisting of one measure Is called Monometer ; of two. Dimeter ; 
of three, Trimeter; of four. Tetrameter; ot &ve. Pentameter ; of six, Hexameter. 

Note 8.— A verse which closes with a complete measure is called Acatalectic ; • with 
ftn vncomplete measure, Catalectic; * with an excess of syllables, Ryperm^trioal.* 

Note 4.— The term Acatalectic is often omitted, as a verse may be assumed to be 
complete unless the opposite is stated. 

Note 6. — A Catalectic verse is said to be catalectic in »yllabamt in d/isyllabwm, oi 
in trieyUdbwm, according as the incomplete foot has one, two, or three syllables. 

Note 6. — Verses are sometimes briefly designated by the number of feet or measurer 
which they contain. Thus JITexamster (six measures) sometimes designates the Dactylic 
Bexameteir Acatalectic, and Senariut (six feet), the Iambic Trimeter AcatcUecHc. 

604. Versfes are often designated by names derived from cele- 
brated poets. 

Note 1.— Thus Alcaic is derived from Alcaeus; ArcMlochian, from ArcMlockut ; 
Sapphic, ftom Sappho ; Glyconie, from Ol/ycim, etc 

> In dactylic verses a meami/re is a single foot, but in trochaic and iambic verses it 
la a dipody or a pair of feet. 

* Caes&ra (from oaedo, to cut) means a catting; It cuts or divides the foot and (he 
verse into parts. 

' A verse consisting of a single series it called JUonocoton; of two, IHeolon; •! 
tlu«0, Tricolon. 

* From the Greek dKari£Ai}KTOf, ieara\t|icrw^, and vwi^ntrat. 


KoTi i.—Veraes somettmes receive a name from the kind of mbjecta to wUoh they 
were applied : as Beroic, applied to berolo subjects; Paroemicu), to proverbs, etc. 

605. The Fm AL Syllable of a verse may generally be either 
long or short at the pleasure of the poet. 

606. A Stahza is a combination of two or more verses of dif- 
ferent metres into one metrical whole ; see 631. 

Note. — A stanza of two lines or verses Is called a DisMch; of three, a THMck; of 
our, a TetrasUeh. 

607. Rhythmical Readikq. — ^In reading Latin verse care must 

be taken to preserve the words unbroken, to show the quantity of 

the syllables, and to mark the poetical ictus. 

TSom. — Scanning consists tn separating a poem or verse Into the feet of which it ii 

608. Figures op Pkosody. — The ancient poets sometimes al- 
lowed themselves, in the use of letters and syllables, certain liber- 
ties generally termed Figures of Prosody. 

I. Elision. — ^A final vowel, a final diphthong, or a final m with the pre- 
ceding vowel, is generally elided ' before a word beginning with a vowel 
or with h : 

Monstr™ horTend°°> InfSrm' inggns, /or Monstnun horrendom Inf&ima 
ingens. Verg. 

Note 1. — For Exceptions, see Blatug, II., below. 

NoTB 2. — Final e in the interrogative ne is sometimes dropped beibre A oonaonint : 

Pyrrhln' connabia servasf /or Pyrrhine conn&bia servasf Verg, 

NoTX 8.— In the early poets final s is often dropped before consonant*; 

Ex omnibu* r€bas,/or ex omnibos rebos. Z/ucr. 

KoTS 4. — The elision of a final m with the preceding vowel U lometlmet called 

Note 5.— The elision of a final vowel or diphthong, or of a final m with the preceding 
rowel, la sometimes called Synaloepha,^ or, if at the end of a Une, i^napheia.* 

II. Hiatus. — A final vowel or diphthong is sometimes retained before 
a. word beginning with a voweL Thus — 

1. The inteijections d, hea, and prS are not elided ; sea Vei^g., Aen., X., 
18; Geor., II., 486. 

2. Long vowels and diphthongs are sometimes retamed, especially in the 
■irsis of a foot ; see Verg., Ec, III., 6; VII., 62. 

> In school this is sometimes done in a purely mechanical way, sacrificing wordt to 
feet; but even this mechanical process is often nsefhl to the beginner, as it makes him 
fimiliftr with the poetical ictus, 

* That is, partially evppretaed. In reading, it should be lightly anS tL;3i(tlmetl| 
KOBded, and blended with the following syllable, as In English poetry: 
" Th": eternal years of God are hers." 


KoTE 1. — This 1b most common in proper names. 

Note 2.— Yergil employs this form of hiatus more A'eely than the other Latin ^ets, 
and yet the entire Aeneid furnishes only a short list of examples. 

Note 8. — In the thesis a final long vowel or diphthong is sometimes shortened before 
a short vowel instead of being ehded ; see Terg., Aen., III., 211 ; VI., 607. 

KoiE 4.— Hiatus with a short final vowel is rare, but occurs even in 7ergll ; see Aen. 
I.,405; Ec., II.,68. 

III. Stnaeresis. — Two syllables are sometimes contracted into one : 
aurea, delude, dStnceps, lidem, nsdem, Saedem, prohibeat (pronounced 


Note 1. — In the different parts of deawm.^ ee is generally pronounced as one syllable; 
deeaae, deest, dm'ot^ deerit, etc. ; so e« in the verb anteed : antevret a/ntffurem.^ antmaf 

KoTE 2. — /and u before vowels are sometimes used as consonants with the sound of 
y and w. Thus ahiete and ariete become aibyete and aryete; genua and t&n/u£9 be- 
eome g&n/wa and tan/wes. 

Note 8, — In Plautus and Terence, Syna&resia is used with great freedom, 
Note 4.— 'The contraction of two syllables into one is sometimes called Synieeeta. 

IV. Diaeresis. — In poetry, two syllables usually contracted into one 
are sometimes retained distinct : 

ttaiM/or aurae, Orpheils /or Orpheus, soluendus/tw solvendus, silua/w 

Note. — Diaeresis properly means the resoVution of one syllable into two, but the 
Latin poets seldom, if ever, actually make two syllables out of one. The examples gen* 
erally explained by diaeresis are only ancient forms, used for effect or convenience, 

V. Diastole. — ^A syllable usually short is sometimes long, especially 
in the arsis of a foot : 

PfiamidSs/or Priamides. 

Note 1. — This poetic license occurs chiefly in proper names and in final syllables. 
Note 2. — Yergil uses this license quite freely. He lengthens que in sixteen instances. 

VI. Systole. — A syllable usually long is sometimes short : 

tulerunt for tulerunt, steteruut fvr stetSrunt (836, note), vide'n /05 

Note.— This poetic Ucense occurs most frequently In final vowels and diphthongs. 

VII. Syncope. — An entire foot is sometimes occupied by a single long 
syllable; see 614. 



I. Dactylic Hbxametbk. 

609. All Dactylic Verses consist of Dactyls and their metrical 
equivalents, Spondees. The ictus is on the first syllable of ererj 


610. The Dactylic Hexameter' consists of six feet. The first 
four are either Dactyls or Spondees, the fifth a Dactyl, and the 
sixth a Spondee (605)." The scale is,' 

•i 00 I -t. OO 1 J. 00 I J. Ca3 I -i ^ w I JLi=i* 

Quadrupe- 1 dante pu- | trem soni- | tu quatit | ungula ] campum. Verg. 
Arma vi- | rumque ca- | no TrS- | jae qui I primus ab | oris. Verg. 
Infan- | dum re- | ^a ju- | bes reno- | vare do- | lorem. Verg. 
IIU' in- I ter se- | se mag- j nS vl | bracchia | toUunt. Vergfi 

1. The scale of dactylic hexameters admits sixteen varieties, produced by 
varying the relative number and arrangement of Dactyls and Spondees. Thus 
« verse may contain — 

1) Five Dactyls and one Spondee, as in the first example above. 

2) Four Dactyls and two Spondees, admitting four different arrangements. 

5) Tluree Dactyls and three Spondees, admitting six different arrangements. 
4) Two Dactyls and four Spondees, admitting four different arrangements. 

6) One Dactyl and five Spondees, as in the fourth example. 

2. Effect of Daotyls. — Dactyls produce a rapid movement, and are 
adapted to lively subjects. Spondees produce a slow movement, and are 
adapted to grave subjects. But generally the best effect is produced in suc- 
cessive lines by variety in the number and arrangement of Daotyls and Spon- 

3. SpoimAio LcTB. — The Hexameter sometimes takes a Spondee in the 

I This is at once the most important and the most ancient of all the Greek and Bo- 
man metres. In Greece It attained Its perfection in the poems of Homer. It was intro- 
duced into Italy in a somewhat Imperfect form by the poet Ennius about the middle of 
the second century before Christ; but it was improved by Lucretius, Catullus, and oth- 
ers, until It attained great excellence in the works of the Augustan poets. The most 
beautUU and finished Latin Hexameters are found in the works of Ovid and Vergil. 

3 The Dactylic Hexameter in Latin is here treated as Acatal6c6ic^ as the Latin poets 
leem to have regarded the last foot as a genuine Spondee, thus making the measure 
complete. See Christ, ^Metrik der Grlechen und Eomer,^ pp. 110, 164. 

3 In this scale the sign ' marks the ictus (699), and — cto denotes that the original 

Dactyl, marked — ^."-^, may become by contraction a Spondee, marked-^ , i •., that a 

Spondee may be nsed for a Dactyl (598). 

• Expressed in musical characters, this acale Is as foUoira ; 

The notation J Jm means that, iiuteul of tha original measure J Jj, tko (qnlv- 

ident J J may be nsed. 

• Th* final I of Ml is elided; see 608, 1. 

• With these lines of TergU compare the following Hexameters firom the Evugelln* 
4 Longfellow : 

"lluB Is the fbrest primeval ; but where are the hearts that beneath it 
Lamped like the roe, when he hears in the woodland the voice of the huntsmant* 


fifth place. It ia then called Spondaic, and generally has a Dactyl as its 
fourth foot : 

Cara de- | um sobo- | ISs mag- | num Jovis | incre- | mentiim. Verg. 
Note. — In Vergil, spondaic lines are used much more sparingly than in the earlier 
poets, 1 and generally end in words of three or four syllables, as in incrSmentum above. 2 

611. Caestjka, ok Cabsural Pause. - -The favorite caesural 
pause of the Hexameter is cifter the a/rns, or in the thesis, of the 
third foot : ' 

Anna- | tl ten- | dunt ; || it | clamor et | agmine | facto. Verg. 

Infan- | dum, re- | gina, || jn- | bes reno- | vare do- | lorem. Verg. 

NoTB. — ^In the first line, the caesural pause, marked II , is after tendimU after the 
arsis of the third foot ; and in the second line after rlg\na, in the thesis (naju) of 
the third foot. The former is called the Masculine Caesura, the latter the Feminim 

1. The Caesubal Pause is sometimes in the fourth foot, and then an ad- 
ditional pause is often introduced in the second : 

Credide- | rim; II vSr | illud e- | rat, II ver | magnus a- | gebat. Verg. 

2. BuooLiO DiABRESis. — A pause called the Bucolic Diaeresis,^ because 
originally used in the pastoral poetry of the Greeks, sometimes occurs at the 
end of the fourth foot : 

Ingen- | tem eae- | lo soni- | turn dedit ; II inde se- | cUtus. Verg. 

Note.— The Bucolic Diaeresis was avoided by the best Latin poets, even in treat- 
ing pastoral subjects. Vergil, even in his Bucolics, uses it very sparingly. 

3. A Diaeresis at the end of the third foot without any proper caesural 
pause is regarded as a blemish in the verse : 

Pulveru- 1 lentus e- | quis furit ; II omnes | arma re- 1 quirunt. Verg. 

1 A single poem of Catullus, about half as long ae a book of the Aeneid, contains 
\nore spondaic lines than all the works of Vergil. 

' But Vergil has two spondaic lines ending et magnls cUs ; see Aen., ni., 12, and 
Vni., 679. 

' That is, the first rhythmic series ends at this point. This pause is always at the 
sndof a word, and may besovery slight as inmost cases not to interfere with the 
sense, even if no mark of punctuation is required ; but the best verses are so con- 
structed that the caesural pause coincides with a pause in the sense ; see Christ, 
' Metrik,' p. 184. According to some writers, the Dactylic Hexameter had its origin 
in the union of two earlier dactylic verses, and the caesural pause now marks the 
point of union ; see Christ, p. 173. 

* The Maecnline Caesura is also called the Strong, or the Syllabic, Caesura, the 
Feminine the Weak, or the Trochaic, Caesura. Caesuras are often named from the 
place which they occupy in the line. Thus a caesura after the arsis of the second 
foot is called Trihemimerai ; after the arsis of the third, Penthemimeral ; after the 
arsis of the fourth, Bephthemimeral. 

' Also called the Bucolic Caemra, as the term caesura is often made to include 


i. The endiDg of a word within a foot always produces a caesura. A line 
may therefore have several caesuras, but generally only one of these is 
marked by any perceptible pause : 

Arma vi- 1 rumque oa- | no, II Tro- | jae qui | primus ab | oris. Verg. 

Note. — Here there la a caesura in every foot except the last, bnt only one of these, 
that after cano^ in the third foot, has the caesnral pause. ^ 

5. The caesura, with or without the pause, is an important feature in 
every hexameter. A line without it is prosaic in the extreme : 

Eomae \ moenia | terruit | impiger | Hannibal | armis. Mi7i. 
Note 1. — The Penthemimeral ' caesura has great power to impart melody to the 
verse, but the best effect is produced when it is aided by other caesuras, as above. 
Note 2. — A happy effect is often produced— 

1) By combining the/eminine caesura in the third foot with the hepM/iemimerat 
and the triAemimeral ; 

Donee e- 1 ris fe- 1 llx, || mnl- 1 tos nume- 1 rSbis a- 1 mlcDs. Verg. 
Z) By combining the hephthemimerai with the trihemimeral : 

Inde to- 1 rO pater | AenS- 1 Ss etc | Orsus ab | altO. Verg. 
Note 3. — The union of the feminine caesura with the trihemimeral, common in 
Gree]£, is somewhat rare in Latin, but it sometimes produces an harmonious verse ; 
Praecipi- 1 tat, sua- 1 dentque ca- [ dentia 1 sidera [ soinnOs. Verg. 
Note 4. — In the last two feet of the verse there should in general be no caesura 
whatever, unless it falls in the thesis of the fifth foot ; but when that foot contains 
two entire words, a caesura is admissible after the arsis. 

612. Ttie ictus often falls upon unaccented syllables. Thus — 

1. In the first, second, and fourth feet of the verse it falls some- 
timea upon accented and sometimes upon unaccented syllables ; see 
examples under 610. 

2. In the third foot it generally falls upon an unaccented sylla- 
ble ; see examples under 610. 

3. In the fifth and sixth feet it generally falls upon accemted syl- 
lables ; see examples under 610. 

613. The Last Word of the Hexameter is generally either 
a dissyllable or a trisyllable ; see examples under 610 and 611.' 

1 The caesura with the pause 1» variously called the chief caeeura, the caesura of 
the verse, the caesura of the rhythm, etc. In distinction from this any other caesura 
may be called a caesura, a caesura of the foot, or a minor caesura. 

' See p. 356, foot-note 4. 

' The learner should be informed that the niceties of structure which belong to fin- 
ished Latin hexameters must be sought only in the poems of Vergil and Ovid. The 
happiest disposition of caesuras, the best adjustment of the poetical ictus to the prose 
accent, and the most approved structure in theclosing measures of the verse, can not be 
expected in the rude numbers of Gnnius, in the scientific discussions of Lucretius, or 
even in the familiar Satires of Horace. Those interested in the peculiarities of Latin 
hexameters in different writers will find a discussion of the subject in Luciau Mflllcr'a 
work,' DS rg metrics poBtSrnm LatlnOrum praeter Plautum ct Terentium librl septem.' 


Note 1. — Spondaic lines are exceptions; see 610, 8, note. 

Note 2.— Two monosyllables at the end of a line are not particularly objectionably 
ADd sometimes eren produce a liappy effect: 

Praecipi- ) tant cii- | rae, || tur- | bataque | fiinere | mSns est. /erg. 

Note 3. — Est^ even wlien not preceded by another monosyllable, may stand at the 
ODd of a line. 

Note 4.— A single monosyllable, except eat, is not often used at the end of the line, 
^cept for the purpose of emphasis or humor; 

Pf.rturi- I unt mon- 1 tea, 1 1 nas- 1 cetur | ridicu- 1 lus mtis. Hor. 

Note 6. — In Vergil, twenty-one lines, apparently hypermetrical (603, note 8), are 
supposed to elide a final vowel or a final mi or wm before the initial vowel of the next 
Kne; see Aen., L, 832: Oeor., I., 295. See also 60S, I., note 6. 

n. Othbb DACTYiiic Verses. 

614. Dactylic Pentameter.* — The Dactylic Pentameter con- 
sists of two parts separated by a diaeresis. Eacli part consists of 
two Dactyls and a long syllable. The Spondee may take the place 
of the Dactyl in the first part, but not in the second : 

Admoni- | tu ooe- | pi 1 1 fortior | esse tu- | 0. Ovid. 

615. Elegiac Distich. — The Elegiac Distich consists of the 
Hexameter followed by the Pentameter : 

Sfimise | pulta vi- | rum 1 1 cur- | vis feri- | untur a- | ratfls 
Ossa, ru- | ino- | sas 1 1 ocoulit | herba do- | mtlB. Ovid. 

Note 1. — In reading the Elegiac Distich, the Pentameter, including pauses, should 
of course occupy the same time as the Hexameter. 

Note 2. — Elegaic composition erould be characterized by grace and elegance. Beth 
members of the distich should be constructed in^ accordance with the most rigid rules of 
metre. The sense should be complete at the end of the couplet. Ovid fiirnishes us the 
best specimens of this style of composition. ^ 

616. The Dactylic Tbteambtbb is identical with the last foui 
feet of the Hexameter : 

Ibimus I sod- 1 1, comi-.| tesque. Bar, 

" The name Pentameter is founded on the ancient division of the line into five feet, 
consisting of two Dactyls, or Spondees, a Spondee and two Anapaests, 

= Thus in reading, a pause may be introduced after the long syllable in the third foot, 
or that syllable maybe prolonged to fl!l out the measure. A pause or rest equal to a 
short syllable is marlted A ; a pause equal to a long syllable. A'. 

In musical characters the scale of this verse is as follows : 



ir\ia JJ3 Jr, 



J iJ2 JJ3|J. 


Nora.— In compound verses, as In the Greater ArdUheMtm, the tetrameter in 
Oompoaitlon with other metres has a Dactyl in the fourth place; see 6SS, X. 

617. The Dactylic Tbimbter Cataibctic is identical with 
the second half of the Dactylic Pentameter : 

Arbori- | busque co- | mae. Bbr. 
Not*.— The DtctyUo Trimeter Catalectic ia also known as the Leaer JrMlooMem. 

HI. Trochaic Versb. 

618. The Trochaic Dipody, the measure in Trochaic verse,' 
consists of two Trochees, the second of which is sometimes irra- 
tional (598, 1, 1) ) — i. e., it has the form of a Spondee with the timg 
of a Trochee : ^ i k. i ». 

KoTK 1.— By the ordinary law of equivalents (598), a Tribrach v4< ^ w may take the 
place of the Trochee -^ ^, and an apparent Anapaest ^ ^^ > the place of the Irrational 
Trochee -^ > .' In proper names a cyclic Dactyl -^-s^ \^ (59S, 1, 3) ) may occur in either 

Note 2, — In the Trochaic Dipody, the first foot has a heavier ictus than the second. 

Note 8. — A syllable is sometimes prefixed to a Trochaic verse. A syllable thus used 
la called Anaeruaia (upward beatX and is separated from the following measure by the 
mark ■ . 

619. The Trochaic Dimeter Catalectic consists of two Tro- 
chaic Dipodies with the last foot incomplete. In Horace it admits 
no equivalents, and has the following scale : 

Aula divi- { tern inanet. Bbr. 
NOTB.— A J\vohaie THpody occurs in the Greater Archilochian ; tee 628, X. 
1. The Alcaic Euneasyllabic verse which forms the third line in the Al- 
caic stanza is a Trochaic Dimeter with Anacrusis : 

> -.^ £,|-^-o 

Pu- • er quia ex au- | la capilUs. Sor. 

620. The Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic consists of four 
Trochaic Dipodies with the last foot incomplete. There is a diae- 
resis (602, 3) at the end of the fourth foot, and the incomplete dipody 
admits no equivalents : 

Prunus ad oi- | bum vocatur, 1 1 primO pulmen- | turn datur. Plant. 

' See 601, note 8, with foot-note. 

• Thus in the second foot of a Trochaic Dipody the poet may u se a Trochee, a Tribrach, 
• Spondee, or an Anapaest ; but the Spondee and the Anapaest are pronounced in tbe 
same time as tbe Trochee or the Tribrach— 1. e., they have irrational time. 

* Only the leading ictus of each dipody is here marked. 


NoTB 1.— This It simply the nnlon of two Trochaic Dimeters, the first acataieotlt 
snd the second oatalecMc, separated by diaeresis.^ 

Note 2.— In Latin this verse is used cliiefly in comedy, and accordingly admits great 
licence in the use of feet. The Irrational Trochee (598, 1, 1) ) and its equivalents may 
occur In any foot except in the last dipody. 

Note 8. — The Tr&chaic Teiramieter Acatalectie also occurs in the earlier poets ; 
IpM fommls I saxis fizus || asperls i- 1 visceratus. £>im. 

rV. Iambic Vbbsb. 

621. The Iambic Dipody, the measiire of Iambic verse, consists 
of two Iambi, the first of which is sometimes irrational (598, 1, 3) ) 
— i. e., it has t\xeform of a Spondee with the time of an Iambus ; 

i,J-^J. or J'J J'J 

NoTB 1.— The Tribrach fcr the Iambus, and the Dactyl ' or Anapaest > for the Irra- 
tional Iambus, are rare, except in comedy. 

NOTB 2. — Id the Ionic Dipody, the first foot has a heavier Ictus than the second. 

622. The Iambic Tbimetbk, also called Senarms, consists oi 
three Iambic Dipodies. The Caesm^ is usually in the third foot 
but may be in the fourth : 

Quid obserar | tis || auribuB | fundis preossj Sor. 
Neptanus al- | to II tundit hi- | bemus sal6. Hor, 
E&B inter epu- | Us 1 1 at juvat | pastas oves. Eor.* 

1. In Pbopee Names, a Cyclic Anapaest is admissible in any foot excep* 
the last, but must be in a single word. 

2. In HoBAOE the only feet freely admitted are the Iambus and the Spon 
dee ; their equivalents, the Tribrach, the Dactyl, and the Anapaest, are used 
very sparingly. The Tribrach never occurs in the fifth foot and only once 
in the first. The Anapaest occurs only twice in all. 

8. In CoMEDT great liberty is taken, and the Spondee and its equivalents 
are freely admitted in any foot except the last. 

> Compare the corresponding EngUsh measure, in which the two parts appear as 
jeparate lines : „ -^^i ^f g^^^^ ^^^^ | j,,, jg^jn j „, 

We' can make our | lives' sublime. 
And', departing, | leave' behind us 
Foot'prints on the | sands' of time." 

* The Dactyl thus used has the time of an Iambus and Is marked > v2> <^; the Ana- 
paest is cyclic (598, 1, 4), marked ^ v.^. 

■ This same scale, divided thus, w ; -^^> — Za \ -^ ^ — ^|-^v^— A, repre- 
sents Trochaic Trimeter Catalectlc with Anacrusis. Thus all Iambic verses may h4 
Sreated as Trochaic verses with Anacrusis. 

* Compare the English Alexandrine, the last line of the Spenserian stanza : 

When Phoe'bus lifts I his head' oat of 1 the win'ter^s wave 

lOmC VERSE. 361 

4. The Chouambits is a variety of Iambic THmeter with a Trochee fai the 
sixth foot:' 

Miser Catul- | le dSsinas | ineptlre. Catul. 

623. The Iambic Tkimeteb Catalectic occurs in Horace with 
the folloTmig scale : 

Vooatus at- 1 que non vooa- | tus audit. Bar. 

Note.— The Dactyl and the Anapaest are not admlasible ; the Tribrach occurs only 
In the second foot. 

624. The Iambic Dimeter consists of two Iambic Dipodies : 

Quemntnr in | silvls aves. Hor. 
Imbres nives- | que comparat. Sor. 
Ast ego vicis- | sim risero. Sor. 

Note 1 — ^Horace admits the Dactyl only in the firstfoot, the Tribrach only In the 
second, the Anapaest not at all. 

NoTB 2. — ^Iambic Dimeter is sometimes catalectic. 

625. The Iambic Teteametbr consists of four Iambic Dipo- 
dies. It belongs chiefly to comedy : 

Quantum intellex- | I mode senis 1 1 sententiam | de nuptilB. Ter. 
S(yix. — Iambic Tetrameter is sometimes catalectic : 

Quot commodas | res attoli ? || qnot antem tdS | ml oiirSs. Ter. 

v. Ionic Vbbse. 

626. The Ionic Verse in Horace consists entirely of Lesser 
Ionics. It may be either Trimeter or Dimeter : 

Neqne ptignO | neqne segnl | pede ylctos; 
Catus Idem | per apertum. Mor. 

IToTB 1. — In this verse the last syllable is not common, but Is often long only ^ 
poHUon (p, 838, foot-note 8). Thus u8 in mctus is long before c in catue. 

NoTB 2. — The Ionic Tetrameter Cataleetio, also called Sotadean V&rai, occutb 
ehjefiy in comedy. It consist* in general of Greater Ionics, but in Martial it has a Ditr»- 
chee OS the third foot : 

Has cum gemi- ) nft compede | dedicat ca- ] tenSs. Mart 

' ChoUanibus, or Scaeon^ means loffnt at Umping Iambus, and is so called from 
(ts limping movement. It Is explained as a Trochaic Trimeter Acatalectic with Anacra- 
sis, and with syncope (608, YII.) in the fifth foot. The example here given may be rep- 
iKiented tho* r^ ■ .^w — ^l-^v.< — wIlz. — o 


VI. LooAOEDic Ybrbb. 

627. Logaoedic " Verse is a special variety of 'Trochaic Verse, 
The Irrational Trochee j. >, the Cyclic Dactyl A^ ■^, and the Syn- 
copated Trochee i— (608, VII.) are freely admitted. It has an ap- 
parently light ictus.' 

Note. — Logaoedic verses show great variety of form, but a few general types will In- 
dicate the character of the whole. 

628. The following Logaoedic verses appear in Horace : 
I. The Adonic : 

Montis i- | mag6. Bor, 
n. The First Phbrbcratic ' or the Aristophanio : 

Ctir neque | mill- | tSris. Sor. 

NoTB. — Pherecratlc is the technical term applied to the regular Logaoedic Tripody 
It Is called the First or Second Pherecratlc according as its Dactyl occupies the first or 
the second place in the verse. In each form it may be acatalectic or catalecUc : 

1) -K^ ^ I -^ ^ I -^ ^ or catalectic: -^v^ ^^\^^•^\^ h 
9) -6. > I -i^ ^ I -i. o or catalectic. -^> | -^^ •^\^ ^ 

In Lof^aoedic verse the term boMs or &a£6, marked x , is sometimes applied to the foot or 
feet which precede the Gyolic Dactyl. Thus, in the Second Pherecratlc, the first foot _> 
is the base. 

m. The Second Glyconic * Catalectic : 

^> I^^I^^I^A or J.N|j:3J^IJJ^|Jn 
Doneo I gratus e- | ram ti- | W. Bw. 

NoTZ 1. — G-lyconic is the technical term applied to the regular Logaoedic Tetrapody. 
It is called the First, Second, or Third Glyconic according as its Dactyl occupies the first, * 
second, or third place in the verse. In each form it may be either acatalectic or catalectic. 

Note 2.— The Second Glyconic sometimes has a Syncope (60S, Til.) in the third foot 

IV. The Lesser Asclbpiadean • consists of two Catalectic Phe- 
reeratics, a Second and a First : 

Maece- I nas ata | vis || fidite | rfi^- | bus. Bor, 

1 From Adyo?, prose, and aoifi^, song, applied to verses which resemble prose. 

* The free use of long syllables In the thesis causes the poetical ictus on the arsii tfl 
appear less prominent 

* Pherecratlc, Glyconic, and AsclepiadSan verses may be explained as Ghorlambto : 

Pherecratlc, -^v^w-^lv^-^lOA 
First Glyconic, -^ ^ ^ -i- \ ^ -£- \ s^i£i 
Attclepiadgan, -£. > i-«-ww-^|-*-ww-t|wSi 


V. The Greater Abclepiadean consists of three catalectic 
verses, a Second Phereoratic, an Adonic, and a Mrxt Phereeratic : 

■^> |-^w|i_||.^^|l_ \\.^^\^^\^ /^ 
Sen pin- I rSs hie- | mes, || seu tribu- | it II Juppiter | alti- | mam. Bor. 

VI. The Lesser Sapphic consists of a Trochaic Dipody and a 
Mrst Pherearatic : 

Namque | m8 ail- | va lupus | in Sa- ; Dina. Bor. 

Vn. The Greater Sapphic consists of two Catalectic Glyconics, 
a Third and a First with Syncope ; 

■^^\-^> |-^v^|i_II-^..|-£-„|l.|!&A 
Inter | aequft- | Ub equi- | tat, 1 1 Gallioa | nee lu- | pft- | tls. Bor. 

VIII. The Lesser Aicaic consists of two Cydie Daetyla and 
two Trochee*: 

Purpure- | van- | us oo- | lore. Bor. 

IX. The Greater Alcaic consists of a Trochaic Dipody with 
Anacrusis and a Catalectic First Ph&rearatic: 

Vi- ; dSs ut I alta I etet nive | eandi- | dum. Bor. 

X. The Greater Archilochian ' consists of a Dactylic Tetra- 
meter (616) followed by a Trochaic Tripody. The first three feet 
are either Dactyls or Spondees ; the fourth, a Dactyl ; and the last 
three. Trochees : 

-tea I -too I -too |.4.v^v^||.iv^|.t,_,|j.o 

Vltae I summa bre- | vis spem | nos vetat, 1 1 incho- | are | longam. Bor. 

KoTE. — This Terse may be explained either as Logaoedic or as Compoand. With the 
first ezplanatioD, the Dactyls are cyclic and the Spondees have irrational time; with the 
second explanation, the first member of the verse has the Dactyl as its cliaracteristic foot 
and the second member the Trochee ; see 601, note 3. 

629. The following Logaoedic verses not used in Horace de- 
serve mention : 

I. The Phalaecian is a Logaoedic Pentapody: ' 

N6n est | vivere, \ sed va- | l6re | vita. Mart. 

' For the Lesser ArKAUocMan, see 617, note. 

2 This verse differs from the Lssser SappJtic in having the Dactyl in the second foo^ 
vrhile the latter hat the Dactyl in the third. 


n. The Second Pkiapean consists of two Cataleetic 
Olyconica with Syncope : 

^Z,\-^ |^^|i_ll-i£.|-^w|i_|i&A 

Queicus I firida | ruBti- | eft II cOnfor- 1 mata se | otl- | tL C<Uml. 



630. Vergil and Juvenal use the Dactylic Hexameter ; Ovid, 
the Hexameter in his Metamorphoses and the Elegiac Distich in his 
Epistles and other works ; Horace, the Hexameter in his Epistles 
and Satires, and a variety of metres in his Odes and Epodes. 

Lyric Metres op Hokacb. 

631. For convenience of reference, an outline of the lyric 
metres of Horace is here inserted. 

Slaraca of Four Verses or Lines. 

I. Alcaic Stanza. — First and second lines, Greater Alcaics (628, IX.) ; 
third, Trochaic Dimeter with Anacrusis (619, 1); fourth. Lesser Alcaic 
(628, VIII.): , 

8. > :-^-^\-^-^ 

4. — v^ -^ I —^ v^ I — w I — a 

In thirty-seven Odes : I., 9, 16, 17, 26, 27, 29, 31, 34, 85, 37 ; 11., 1, 3, 6, 
7, 9, II, 13, 14, IB, 17, 19, 20; III., 1, 2, 8, 4, 5, 6, 17, 21, 23, 26, 29; FV., 
4, 9, 14, IB. 

II. Sapphic Stanza. — The first three lines. Lesser Sapphics (628, VI.) }» 
the fourth, Adonic (628, 1.) : 

2.[ _^|->| — ,»^|-w|-0 

4. -^ w I — o 
In twenty-six Odes: I., 2, 10, 12, 20, 22, 2B, SO, 32, 88; H., 2, 4, 6, 8, 
10, 16 ; III., 8, 11, 14, 18, 20, 22, 27 ; IV., 2, 6, 11 ; and Secular Hymn. 

III. Greater Sapphic Stanza. — First and third lines. First Glyconioa 
Cataleetic with Syncope in the third foot (608, VII.) ; second and fourth 
lines. Greater Sapphics : 



!;! — i->i-^n. 

In Ode 1., 8. 

IV. First Asclepiadean Gltconic Stanza.— The first three lines, 
Lesser Asclepiadeans (628, IV.) ; the fourth, Second Glyconic Catalectic 
(028, III.) ; J , 

-> I -^^ |L_l|-^.w I _w 1^ A 

4. _> 1^^ I -^ |i=^A 
In nine Odes : I., 6, 15, 24, 33 ; II., 12 ; III., lo', 16; IV., 5, 12 

V. Second Asclepiadean Glyconic Stanza. — The first two lines, 
Lesser Asclepiadeans (628, IV.) ; the third. Second Glyconic Catalectic with 
Syncope in the third foot (628, III., note 2) ; the fourth, Second Glyconic 
Catalectic (628, III.) : 

*^[ -> 1--.^ |l_l|-«w. I -v^ |"A 

3. - > I -v.* I 1_ I ^ A 

4. - > I -^^ I -w I ^ A 

In seven Odes : I., 5, 14, 21, 23 ; IIL, 7, 13 ; IV., 13 

VI. Glyconic AsclepiadBan Stanza. — First and third lines. Second 
Glyconics Catalectic (628, III.) ; second and fourtli, Lesser Asclepiadeans 
(628, IV.): , 

••[ _>|-.v.|-v.|"A 


^•\ - > I ^^ |L_l|-v^ I -^ I' 
4. ' 

In twelve Odes : L, 3, 13, 19, 36; IIL, 9, 15, 19, 24, 25, 28 ; IV., 1,3. 
VII. Lesser Asclepiadean Stanza. — Four Lesser Asclepiadeans : 

- > I -uv- I l_ II -v^ I -w. I " A 

In three Odes : I., 1 ; III., 30; IV., 8. 

Vin. Greater Asclepiadean Stanza. — Four Greater Asclepiadeans 
(628, v.): 




In three Odes : I., 11, 18 ; IV., 10. 


IX. Double Alcmanian Stanza. — First and third lines, Dactylic Hexa- 
meters (610); second and fourth, Dactylic Tetrameters '616): 

'^■l -co I -co I -co I -o=>| ->^o.| -« 


In two Odes : I., 7, 28. 

Note.— Ttaia stanza is form«d by the union of two Alcmanian stanzas ; see XIX. below. 

X. Trochaic Stanza. — First and third lines. Trochaic Dimeter Catalec- 
tic (619); second' and fourth, Iambic Trimeter Gatalectic (623): 

8.1 ' 

In Ode II., 18. 

XI. Daottlio Archilochian Stanza. — First and third lines. Dactylic 
Hexameters ; second and fourth, Gatalectic Dactylic Trimeters (617, note) : 

^- l _530 I — OO I — CO I — v3C5 I — ^ w I — i^ 

In Ode IV., 1 

XII. Greater Archilochian Stanza. — First and third lines, Greater Ar. 
chilochians (638, X.) ; second and fourth. Iambic Trimeter Gatalectic (623): 

^•K — OO I — CO I — OO I — wx../ II — w I — ..^ I — o 

In Ode I., 4. 

Note.— The second and fourth lines are sometimes read with syncope, as follow! : 
> I -^_> |-^->^| L_ 1^ A 

Xni. Ionic Stanza. — First and second lines, Ionic Dimeters (626); 
third and fourth, Ionic Trimeters (626) : 


4. f 

In Ode III., 12. 

NoTK This ode Is variously arranged in dilTerent editions, sometimei in stanzas of 

three lines and sometimes of four. 


Slaraas of Three lines. 
XIV. FiBST Archilochian Stanza. — First line, Hexameter; second, 
Iambic Dimeter; third, Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic: 

1. — CO I — cc I — OC5 I — ^a I — «^ ^ I — w 

2. \^ — %../.— I v-" — ^-/^^ 

3. ^\^^^|— ^^»^|^/\ 
In Epode IS. 

Note. — In some editions, the second and tliird lines are onited. 
XY. Second Archilochian Stanza. — First line, Iambic Trimetar ; lee- 
ond, Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic ; third, Iambic Dimeter : 

1. b-v^-|S,-w-|i-y^W 

In Epode 11. 

IToTB.— In some editions, the second and third lines are united. 

Staraas of Two Idnes. 
XYI. Iaubio Stanza. — ^First line. Iambic Trimeter; second, Iambic 
Dimeter: i. g^_^_ , > _^_ , > ^ 

2. > -v^-|£,_^s- 
In the first ten Epodes. 

XYn. FiBST Pytbiahbic Stanza. — First line, Dactylic Hexameter; 
second, Iambic Dimeter (634) : 

1. — V3C I — C53 |— oo I — CO I — ^ ^ I — b< 

In Epodes 14 and 16. 

XVni. Second Ptthiahbic Stanza. — First line. Dactylic Hexameter; 
second. Iambic Trimeter : 

1. — oo I — CO I — oo I — oo I — w s^ I — M 

2. £. — .../— |& — w— |b — ^^ 
In Epode 16. 

XIX. Alchanian Stanza. — ^First line, Dactylic Hexameter; second, 
Dactylic Tetrameter : 

1. — OC I — C^3 I — «73 I — v^ I —^...^ I >M 

2. — oo |— oo I —^^ I — w 
In Epode 12. 

Not granpid into Stanxat. 

XX. Iambic Tbihxtek: 


Ib Ipode IT. 



632. Index to the Lteio Metres of Horace. 

The Roman numerals refer to articles in the preceding outline, 631. 

Book I. 




4 . 




1 . 


6 . 




2 . 





6 . 

1 . 

8 . 

9 . 






8 . 




4 . 


6 . 


6 , 


10 . 


Book IV 

Y . 



n . 

12 . 





8 . 



9 . 


IS . 




10 . 


14 . 




11 . 


15 . 




12 . 


16 . 




13 . 


17 . 




14 . 


18 . 

19 . 




16 . 






20 . 




11 . 






1 . 

2 . 






19 . 



20 . 



21 . 




3 . 

4 . 
6 . 





22 . 


23 . 


24 . 


6 . 



25 . 



7 . 

8 . 

9 . 
10 . 







26 .. 






28 . 



29 . 




11 . 

12 . 

13 . 

14 . 










31 . 



32 .. 



33 . 




16 . 

16 . 

17 . 

18 . 







34 . 






36 .. 





19 . 

20 . 

21 . 

22 . 







38 . 




Book U. 




1 .. 


28 . 




2 .. 


24 . 


S .. 


25 . 


Secular Hymn. 


633. The metres of the following poets must be briefly men- 
tioned : 

1 Oaiullus uses <shiefly (1) the Elegiac Distich (615)j (2) Phalaecian 


Terse (629, 1.) ; (8) Choliambus or Scazou (628, 4) ; (4) Iambic Trimeter 
(622) ; (5) Priapean (629, II.). 

II. Martial uses largely the Choliambus or Scazon and the Phalaecian 

Note 1.— Martial also uses Iambic and Dactylic measures. 

Note 2.— Seneca in his choral odes imitates tlie lyric metres of Horace. He uses 
Sapphics very freely, and often combines them into systems closing with the Adonic. 

Note 8.— Seneca also uses Anapaestic ' verse with Spondees and Dactyls as equiv- 
alents. This consists of one ' or more dipodies : 

Yenient annis | saecula s€ris. 

m. Plautus and Terence use chiefly various Iambic and Trochaic me. 
tres, but they also use — 

1. Bacchiac' Metres, generally Tetrameter or Dimeter: 

Multas' res | siml'tu in | meo' cor- | de vor'so. Plaut. 
At ta'men ubi | fides' ? si | roges', nil | pendent' hio. Ter. 

NoTB.— The Molossus, , may take the place of the Bacchius, as in multda ris, 

«nd the long syllables may be resolved, as in at tamen ubi. 

2. Cretic ' Metres, generally Tetrameter or Dimeter : 

Nam' doll | non' doll | sunt', nisi as- | tu' colas. Plaut. 
Dt' malls I gau'deant | at'que ex in- | com'modls. Ter. 

KoTE 1. — Plautus also uses Anapaestic metres, especially Dimeters : 
Quod ago' subit, ad- 1 secue' sequitur. Plaut. 
This measure admits Dactyls and Spondees, rarely Proceleusmaticfl, v^ ^.^ ^^ v^ 

Note 2.— For Troehaic and lamiie Metres in Comed/y, see 680, note 2; esS, 8. 
Note 8. — For Special Peculiarities in the prosody of Plautus and Terence, see 
676, notes 2 and 3; 578, note 2; 580, notes 2, 3, and i.' 

Note 4. — On the free use of Synaeresis in Comedy, see 608, III., note 8. 

' See 603, note 1; 597, note 1. 

" For a full account of the metres of Plautus and Terence, see editions of those poets ; 
as the edition of Plautus by Ritschl, of a part of Plautus by Harrington, the edition of 
Terence by Wagner, and the edition by C^well; also Sp«Qg*l, 'Plautus : Kritik, Pro- 
sodie, Metrih.' 



L FieiTBES OF Sfebch. 

Q3^ A Figure is a deTiatiou from the ordinary /onn, eongtrtK^on, «r 

Hgnifieation of words. 

Note.— Deviattons from the ordinary Ibrms are called Mgiwes of Elyrmlogy; fron 
the ordmary coostractions, Mgwrea qf Syntax; and iiom the ordlnaiy elgniflcations, 

635. The principal FiGtJEES op Btymolost are— 

1, Afhaeeesis, the taking of one or more letters ftom the beginning ot • word s 'it 
for eat. 

9. Btnoope, the taking of one or more letters ftom the middle of ■ word ; dltee for 

8. Apocope, the taking of one or more letters from the end of a word : tun? for tiim&. 

4. Epbkthesis, the Insertion of one or more letters In a word ; Alemneiui tot Ala 

B. METATHEsm, the transposition of letters! ^sii^ tat prists 
6. See also TiorEES oe Pbosody, 608. 

636. The principal Figures of Syntax are— 

I. Ellipsis, the omission of one or more words of a sentence ; 

Habitahat ad Jovis {so. templwm\ lis dwelt nea/r the temple of Jwpiter. liv. 

Hio ilUus arma {fiOnint), hie currus ftdt, here were her anna, here her ehaiiot. 


1. AsTHDEToir Is an ellipsis of s conjunction : > 

VSnl, vidl, vici, I came, I saw, I eonquered. Suet See also 654, 1., 8, wifli note 1. 

2. For the Ellipsis of /a«i8,(?l(!a,«r5, see 368, 3,noteI; 6a3,I^note; e69,IL,A 
8. For APOSioFESts or Bbtiobhtia, see 637, XI., a 

II. Bbachtlogt, a concise and abridged form of expression: 

Nostn Graecs nesoiunt neo Graeol Latins,' our people do not hnow Greet 
and the Greeks (do) not (know) Latin. Cio, NatOra hominis belnis anteoS- 
dit,' the natwe of mrm embosses (that of) the brutes. Cio. 

1. Zeugma employs a word in two or more connections, ttiough strictly 
applicable only in one : 

Pacem an bellnm gerSns,' whether at peace or wagmg war. Sail. DuoSs 
pictasque exHre carinas, slay the leaden ami burn the painted sMps. Verg. 

> Asyndeton is sometimes distinguished according to its use, as AdversaUve^ S^ 
plioati^e, Enwmeratvoe^ etc.; see NSgelsbach, 'StUistik,* % 200. 

' Here nesdvmi suggests acmmty and hSl/u^ in the second example is equiTftlentto 
iS^uS/rwm ndturae. 

' OerSne, applicable only to belhan, to her* used also of vdMrn- 


9. Syii^au is (ihe use of an ac^jeotlve with tvro or more noons, or <^ • veii 
with two or more subjects : 

Pater et mater mortui sunt, father and mother art dead (439). Ter. Tt 
It Tullia valetis, you and Tullia are well. Cio. 

lU. Pleonasm is a full, redundant, or emphatic form of expression : ' 
Erant itinera dno, quibus itiuerlbua exire possent, there were two waye ^ 

•shich ways they might depart. Caes. Eurusque Notusque ruunt, both Munu 

md Xfotiui ruah/orth. Veig. 

1. FoLtSTiTDBTOK ts a pleonasm In tbe use ofeonjmictloin, as In the last exampISi 

2. HiissiADTS Is the ose of two noiuu with a conjunction, instead of a noon with aa 
■Elective or genitive : 

Armis Tirisqne /or virls armStlS, viith armed men. Too. 

5. Abaphoba is the repetition of a woid at the beginning of successive daases: 

Mfi cfincta Italia, mS {Iniversa <avlt&s odnsulem declaravit, vie all Itaiy^ me the 
whole state declared consul. Cic. 

4. E«PHOBA is the repetition of a word at the end of successive dsnse* ; 

Jjielius nivus erat, doctus eiat, Laeliua woe diUgent, was learned. Qe, 

El Efizeuxis Is the emphatic repetition of a word : 

Fait, fbit quondam in bac re pilblica virt&s, iliere was, there waeformmiy virtue 
ta Oiie republic. Cio. 

6. Monosyllabio piepoeltians are often repeated before successive nonss, legolarly so 
with et — et: 

Et in beillds et In dvllibns offldis, both in milUary and in eMl <(ffioes. C3a 
Note. — Other prepositions are sometimes repeated. 

7. A demonstrative pronoun or adverb — id, Adc, iXiad, »lc, <to— is often used some- 
what redundantly to represent a subsequent clause. So also qvAd, In qidd censes with 
a clause: 

Hind te OrS ut dUIgSns as, T ask t/oa iOiSt thing) to be (that yon be) diligent, do. 

6. Pronouns are often redundant with guidem ; see 460, 4, note 2. 

9. Pleonasm often occurs with Meet: 

Vt Uceat permlttitnr = Hcet, it ie Iwafid (Is permitted that It is, ets.). Ole. 

1#. (Srcomlocutions with res, genus, modus, and ratio ate common. 

IV. Enallage is the substitution of one part of speech for aootber, m 
of one grammatical form for another : 

Popnlns lats r6x (for ngndns), a people of esOenaive emay (roling extensive- 
ly). Verg. SSms («8rfl) in caelum redeas, may you return late to heaven. Hor. 
Vina cais {lAnHs cadoe) onerare, to fit the fiaskt with wine. Verg. Cursui 
jOsa {fOsha) amnis, the regular course of the river. Liv. 

1. AhtimsbTa is the use of one part of speech for Another, as In the first two examples 

2. Htpaixaqe Is the use of one case for another, as In the last two examples. 

8. PBOLiiFSis or AHTiorPATioir la the application of an epithet in anticipation of th« 
wUonofthe verb: 

Scfita latenda condnnt, OMy conceal their hidden shields. Verg. See also 440, 1. 
4. SnrBsts is a construction according to sense, irlthont regard to grammatical forma 

IWexamp1es,see438, 6; 44S, 5; 461. 

. . i ■ ■ 

! IHeonasm, a fUD or emphatic expntsloB, dllTers widely fkom Tautology, wUek ii 
a needless repetitioD of the same meaning in different worda- 


5. Attraction nnites In constrnction words not united in senee : 

Animal qnem (for quoct) vocamus homlnem, the animal which we call man. Cic. 
See also 4:4:5, 4, 8, and 9. 

6. Anacoluthon is a want of liarmony in tlie construction of the different parts 
of a sentence : 

SI, ut dicunt, omnSs QraiOs esse ( Grail, sunt), if, as they say, att are Greeks. Cic. 

V. HrPERBATON is a transposition of words or clauses : 

Praeter avma niliil erat super {supererat), nothing remained, except their 

arms. Nep. Valet atque vivit (mvit atque valet), he is alive and well. Ter. 

Subeunt lueo, fluviumque relinquunt, tJiey enter the grove and leave the river. 

Verg. ' 

1. Anastbophb is the transposition of words only, as in the first example. 

2. Htstbbon Protebon is a transposition of clauses, as in the last example. 

3. Tmesis is the separation of the parts of a compound word : 

Nee prius respgxl quam vSnimus, nor did Hook back btfore (sooner than) we ar- 
rived. Verg. 

4. Chiasmus is an inverted arrangement of words in contrasted groups ; see 563. 

637. Figures of Rhetoric comprise several varieties. The follow- 
ing are the most important : ' 

I. A Simile is a direct comparison : 

Manus eflugit lmag8 par leyibua ventis volucrique simillima somno, fht 
image, like the swift winds, and very like a fleeting dream, escaped my hands. 

II. Metaphor is an implied comparison, and assigns to one object the 
appropriate name, epithet, or action of another : 

R^i publicae vulnus {for damnum), the mound of the republic. Cic. Nau- 
fragium fortunae, the wreck of fortune. Cic. Aurga yeritati clausae sunt, 
his ears are closed against the truth. Cic. 

1. Allegory is an extended metaphor, or a series of metaphors. For an 
example, see Horace, I., Ode 14: 6 navis . . . oecupa portum, etc.2 

III. Mbtontmt is the use of one name for another naturally suggested ^ 
by it: 

Aequo Marte (for proelio) pugnatum est, they fowght in an equal contest, 
Liv. Furit Vulcanus (ignis), the fire rages. Verg. Proximus ardet Ucale- 
gon (damns Ucalegontis), Ucalegon burns next. Verg. 

NOTB.— By this figure the cause is often put for the effect, and the effect for the 
cause ; the property for the possessor, the place or a^e for the people, the sign for the 
thing signified, the material for the manufactured article, etc. : Mars for bellum, 
Vulcanus for ignis, Bacchus for vlnum, twbllitds for nSbills, Graecia for Graeei, 
laurea for victdria, argentum for vdsa argentea, etc. 

1 On Figurative Language', see the eighth and ninth books of Quintilian, ' DS Insti- 
ttltione OratOria,' and the fourth book of ' Auctor ad Herennium ' in Cicero's works. 

' In this beautiful allegory the poet represents the vessel of state as having been 
well-nigh wreclied in the storms of the civil war, but as now approaching the haven 
of pMwe, 


1. Autonomasia designates a person by some title or office, as eaeraar 
KarthOginis for Sclp^, SBmanae eloquentiae princeps for OkerS. 

IV. Stnecdoohe is the use of a part for the whole, or of the whole for 
a part; of the special for the general, or of the general for the special : 

StatlO male fida carlnis (nS/vSnis), a station, unsafe fcrr ships. Verg. 

V. Irony is the use of a word for its opposite : 

LSgatoB bonus (for malus) imperator vester non admisit, your good com' 
mander did not admit the ambassadors. Llv. See also 507, 3, note 1. 
IXOTS.— Metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony are often called Tropes. 

VI. Climax [ladder) is a steady ascent or advance in interest : 
Africans indnstria virtutem, virtus gloriam, gloria aemulas comparSvlt, 

industry procured virtue for Africanus, virtue glory, glory rivals, Cic 

VII. Htpehbolb is an exaggeration : 

Ventis et fulminis ocior alls, swifter than the winds and the wings of the 
lightning. Verg. 

Ann. Litotes denies something instead of affirming the opposite : 
Non opus est = perniciosum est, it is not necessary. Cic. 

IX. Personification or Pkosopopeia represents inanimate objects as 
living beings : 

Cujus latus ille mOcrS petebat ? whose side did that weapon seek ? Cie.« 

X. Apostrophe is an address to inanimate objects or to absent persons ; 
Vos, Albanl tumuli, vos implSrO, / implore you, ye Alban Mils. Cic 

XI. The following figures deserve brief mention : 

1. Alliteration, a repetition of the same letter at the beginning of 
successive words : 

Vl victa via eat, force was conquered by force. Cie. Fortisslml virl ^rtus, 
tke virtue of a most brave man. Cic. 

2. Apophasis or Pabaleipsis, a pretended omission:* 

Non dico te pecunias acsSpisse ; raplnas tuas omnSs omitto, I do not stats 
that you accepted money ; I omM all your acts of rapine. Cic. 

3. Aposiopesis or Reticentia, an ellipsis which for rhetorical effect 
leaves the sentence unfinished : 

QuOs ego— sed mOtos praestat compOnere flaottls, wJum, I— but it is better 
to calm the troubled waves. Verg. 

4. Euphemism, the use of mild or agreeable language on unpleasant 
subjects : 

Si quid mihi humanitus aofeidisset, if an^hing common to the lot of mam 
HumU befall me—\. e., if 1 should die. Cio. ^ 

• See also First Oration against CatUlnetVII. : QuM tScum . . . taolto kxpiltup, «to 

* Sometimes called ooci^oMjf. 



B. Onohatopoeu, the use of a word in imitation of a special sound' 
Bov&a mfigiunt, the cattle low. lAv. Murmurat unda, the wane tmirmun 

6. Oxymoron, an apparent contradiction r 

AbsentSs adsunt et egentSa abundant, the absent are pretmt and ti* nodi 
have an abundance. Cic. 

7. Paronomasia or Agnomination, a play upon words : 

Hnuo avium dulcgdd dacit ad &vium,> the attraction qf birds lead* Mm it 
the paihleea wood. Cic. 

n. Latin Language and LrrERATiniE. 

638, The Latin derives its name from the Latini or Laiina, the ancient 
inhabitants of Latium in Italy. It belongs to the Indo-European or Aryan 
family, which embraces seven groups of tongues known as the Indian, or 
Sanskrit, the Persian or Zend, the Greek, the Italian, the Celtic, the Slavonic, 
and the Teittonic or Germanic. The Latin is the leading member of the 
Italian group, which also embraces the Uinbrian and the Oscan. All these lan- 
guages have one common system of inflection, and in various respects strik- 
ingly resemble each other. They are the descendants of one common speech 
spoken by a single race of men untold centuries before the dawn of history. 

Note 1.— In illastration of the relationship between the BanBkrit, Sreek, Latin, and 
JCngUsh, compare the following paradigms of declension : ^ 






stem, pad. 








Gen. padtts. 




Dat. pade, 



to a foot. 

Ace. padam. 




Abl, padas, 


from a foot 

Ina. pada. 

with a fbot 

ioe. padl, 


Is a foot 

Oen. pad&m, 






of feet 

Dat. padbhyas, 



to feet 

.400. padas, 




Abl. padbhyas, 


from feet 

Jns. padbhls. 

with feet 

Loe. patsu. 

in feet 

> The pun, lost In English, Is Id the use of S^iitm^ « remote or pathless place, with 
dWJ^iww, of birds. 

» See also p. 71, foot-note 2; p. 83^ foot-note 8, 

' The Ahlati/oe, the Instrumental^ and the Locative are lost In Greek, but thMi 
places are supplied by the Geniti/oe and the Dative. 

* The final consonant, probably i, of the original Ablative ending Is changed to « In 
padas aud dropped in pede. The Instrv^mental and the Locative are lost In LatlSi 
bat their places are supplied by the AhktPt/ve. 



Note S.— In these paradigms observe that the Initial p in pad, mS, ped, become* J 
iTi/ooU and that the final d becomes t. This change is in accordance with Grimm's 
Imw (ffilie Rotation of Mutes in the Germanic languages. This law is as follows : 

The Primitive Mutes, which generally remain unchanged in Sanskrit, Greek, and 
Latin, are changed in passing into the Germanic languages, to which the English belongs. 
Thus the Sonants, d, g, in passing into Enghsh, become Smos, t, k; the SrEDs, c *, 
p. t, become Aspirates, A, w?i, f (for pli), th ; the Aspieates, ftA,' dh} (rA,> becom« 
Sonant:-, &, rf, g.^ 

Note S. — The relationship between the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and English may bi 
ibundantly illustrated by comparing the forms of famihar words in these different laU' 

639. The earliest specimens of Latin whose date can be determined are 
found in ancient inscriptions, and belong to the latter part of the fourth cen- 
tury before Christ or to the beginning of the third. Fragments, however, 
of laws, hymns, and sacred formulas, doubtless of an earlier though uncer- 
tain date, have been preserved in Cato, Livy, Cicero, and other Latin writers.' 

' Bh generally is represented in Latin by b or/; dh^yy J or /, and gh by g h, or /; 
see Schleicher, pp 244-251. 

3 For an account of Grimm's Law, with its applications, see Max Muller, ' Scienc« 
of Language,' Second Series, Lecture V.; PapUon, pp. 8&-91. 

» Compare the following: 






!*' , 



























* Such are the andent forms of prayer found in Cato and other writers, the fragments 
>f Salian hymns, of the formulas of the Fetial priests, and of ancient laws, especially o! 
.he laws of the Twelve Tables. The following inscription on the tomb of the ScipiM 
ihows some of the peculiarities of early Latin : 


In ordinary Latin : 

HuBC Qnum plurimi conseutlunt 'B.dmWl 
bonflrum optimum ftilsse Tirum tdrorwrn^ 
Liiclum Scipionem. FTlius BarbfitJ 
consul, censor, aedilis hie fuit ajwcf v^8. 
H5c cfipit Corsicam Aleriamque urbem pugnandd ; 
dedit tempestatibus aedem merit5 votamu 
•m Wordsworth, ^Early Latin,' Part IL; P. D. Allen, 'Early Latin'; Eoby, I., p. 418- 


.640. The history of Roman literature begins with Livius Andronicna, 
a writer of p^ays, and the earliest Roman author known to us. It em. 
braces about eight centuries, from 260 B. o. to 660 a. d., and has been 
divided by Dr. Freund into three principal periods. These periods, with 
their principal authors, are as follows : 

I. The Ante-Classical Period, from 250 to 81 B. o. : 

Ennius, Flautus, Terence, Lucretius. 

n The Classical Period, embracing — 

1. The Golden Age, from 81 B. c. to 14 A. D. : 

Cicero, Kepos, Horace, TibuUut, 

Caesar, Livy, Ovid, Propertiut. 

Sallust, Vergil, CatoUus, 

8. The Silver Age, from U to 180 a. d. : 

Phaedrus, The Flinies, Quintilian, Perstns, 

Velleius, Tacitus, Suetonius, Lucan, 

The Senecas, Curtius, Juvenal, Martin. 

in. The Post-Classical Period, embracing— 

1. The Brcaeri Age, from 180 to 476 a. d.: 

Justin, Eutropius, Lactantius, Claodian, 

Victor, MacrobiuB, Ausonius, Terentian. 

a. The Iron Age, from 476 to 550 a. d. ; 

BoSthius, Cassiodorus, Justiidan, Piisotan. 

HE. Thb Roman Oalejndab. 

641. The Julian Calendar of the Romans is the basis of onr own, and 
is identical with it in the number of months in the year and in the num. 
ber of days in the months. 

642. Peculiarities. — The Roman calendar has the following pecu< 
liarities : 

I. The days were not numbered from the beginning of the month, as with 
ns, but from three different points in the month ; 

1. The Calends, l^e first of each month. 

2. The Nones, the fifth — ^but the seventh in March, May, July, and 

8. The Ides, the thirteenth— hxA the fifteenth In March, May, July, and 

11. From these three points the days were numbered, not forward, but 

ITOTE.— Hence, after the Idee of each month, the days were niunbered from the 
Catende of the following month. 

m. In numbering backward from each of these points, the day befort 



each was denoted hj pHd4>^ KaUndds^ I^dnds^ etc. ; the second before each by 
(iia terUo (not seoundO) ante Kalendds, etc. ; the third, by ddS qiidrto^ etc. ; and 
80 on through the month. 

1. This poouliarity la the use of the numerals, deslgnatlDg the secoiid day before the 
Calends, etc., as the iMrd^ and the third as Wi&fov/rth, etc., arises from the fact that the 
Calends, etc., were themselves counted as the fii-st. Thus prldi& Kalendds^ the day 
before the Calends; (2i3 tertio cmte Kal&ndds, the second day before the Culenda. 

3. In dates the name of the month la added In the fbrm of an acyecUTe in agreement 
with Kaldndd%^ 2^nds, etc., |ts, die qicdrto ante Ifonde Janudrids^ often shortened to 
quarto o/nte ^Tonds Jdn.^ or IV.ante Nonde Jdn^, or without ante^ as, IV, Nonas Jdrn^ 
the second of January. 

8. AtitA diem is common, instead of die — an^te^ as, ante diem qudrtwm ITdnda Jdnu 
for die qudrtH ante ITonde Jd/n, 

4. The expressions ante di&m, KaZ.^ etc., pr%diS Kal.^ etc^ are often used as inde- 
clinable nouns with a preposition, as, ex ante diem V. Idus Oct.^ from the llth of Oct 
Z^. Adpridie Ndnde Maide, till the 6th of May. do, 

643. Calendak fob the Year, 


Maidi, Ma;, July, 

Jauiury, August, 

April, Jan., 




September, November. 







TI. NonSB." 

IT. Nonas. 

IT. Nonas. 

IT. Nonas. 







IT. " 

PridiS NSnas. 

PridiS Nonas. 

PridiS Nonas. 


III. " 





PridiS NdJiSa. 

Till. IdilB. 

Tin. Idas. 

TIIL Idas. 


NOhIs. . 





TUI. Hdo. 


TL » 

TL » , 









IT. » 









PridiS IdOB. 

PridiS idfls. 

FHdlS IdOs. 


III. " 





PridiS Idas. 

XIX. Kalend.' 

XTIIL Kalend.« 

XTL Kalend.' 







XTII. Kalend.» 












XIT. " 





XIIL •* 



XIII. •* 


XIL » 




XIL " 

XI. " 

IX. " 


XL " 





X. " 





IX " 

IX. " 


TL " • 


Tin. " 

Tin. » 

TIL " 

T. (TI.)' " 



TI. » 

TIL " 
TL » 



IT. (TO » 
IIL (IT.) " 


T. " 



(Prid. Kal.) 


IT. " 


III. " 


III. « 


PridiS Ealend. 


PridiS Kalend. 

PridiS TTalmd. 

' To the Calends, Nones, etc., the name of the month must of course be added. Be- 
fore Nonas, Idas, etc., ante is sometimes used and sometimes omitted (642, III., 2). 

» The Caiends of the following month are of course meant; the luth of March, for 
instance, is XVJI. Kalendas Aprilet. 

• The inclosed forms apply to leap-year. 

378 APPEimiX. 

644. Enqlish and Latik Dates. — The table (643) will famish thi 

learner with the English expression for any Latin date, or the Latin ex- 
pression for any English date ; but it may be convenient also to tiare the 
following rule : 

I. If the day is nmnbered &om the Nones or Ides, subtract the number 
dimimshed bj ^ae from the number of the day on which the Nones or Idea 

Vin. ante Idus Jan. ^ 18 —(8 — 1) = 13 — 7 = 6th of January. 

IL If the day is numbered from the Calends of the following month, sub- 
tract the number diminished by two ftom the niunber of days in the current 
month : 

XVUL ante Kal. Feb. = 31 — (18 — 8) = 31 - 16 = 15th of January. 

If OTB.— In leap-year the 24th and the 25th Febmaty are both called the sixth before 
the Calends of March, YI, Kal. Mart. The days before the 24th are numbered as i) 
the month contained only 28 days, bat the days after the 25th are numbered regularly 
for a month of 29 days : h,IV., III. Kal. Mart., and pndie Kal. Mart. 

645. The Soman day, from sunrise to sunset, and the night, from 
sunset to sunrise, were each divided at all seasons of the year into twelve 

1. The night was also divided into four watches of three Boman hours 

2. The hour, being uniformly >/ia of the day or of the night, of course varied 
in length with the length of the day or night at different seasons of the year. 

rV. Roman Money, 'Wbiohts, and Measubeb. 

646. The principal Roman coins were the ds, of copper; the (wferfius, 
^Indriiis, dlndriiis, of silver ; and the aureus, of gold. Their value in the 
Jassical period may be approximately ^ven as follows : 

la 1 to 2 cents. 

Sistertins 6 " 

Qmnarius 10 " 

Denarius 20 " • 

Aureus = 26 denaiil $5.00 

1. The ds, the unit of the Boman currency, contained originally a pound 
3f copper, but it was diminished from time to time tiU at last it contained 
only Vs4 0f apound. 

Nora.— An da, whatever Its weight, was divided Into twelve Snelae. 

2. The sittertius contained originally 2}^ asses, the qvUmM/u* 8, and th« 
denarius 10 ; but as the ds depreciated in value, the number of asm in these 
noins was increased. 

8. The da is also used as a gereral unit of measure. Thus — 

1) In WeigTit, the da is a pound, and the fSnoia an ounce. 

2) In Ifeasvre, the a» is a foot or a jllgerum (648, IV. and Y.\ and th« 
9iitia is Via of a foot or of a jllgerum. 

8) In IfUerest, the (2« is the unit of interest— L o., 1 per cent, a month, 


or 12 per cent, a year ; the unHa is '/,a per cent, u month, or 1 per cent. « 
year; and the simis is '/la per cent, a month, or 6 per cent, a year, etc. 

4) In Inheritance, the as is the whole estate, and the wnda Vi, of it : liirit 
ex asse, heir of the whole estate ; Ji^es ex dodraate, heir of »/,j. 

647. CoMPniATiON OP Monet. — In all sums of money the common unit 
of computation was the sestertius, also called nummus ; but four special 
points deserve notice : 

I. In all sums of money, the units, tens, and hundreds are denoted by 
^terta with the proper cardinals : 

Quinque sSstertil, 5 sesterces; vlgintl s6stertil, 20 sesterces; ducenti ses- 
tertii, 200 sesterces. 

II. One thousand sesterces are denoted by mille sistertU, or mille iMer- 

in. In sums less than 1,000,000 sesterces, the thousands are denoted either 
(1) by milia sistertiOm, (gen. plur.), or (2) by sestertia : 

Duo milia s6stertium, or duo sestertia, 2,000 sesterces ; quinque milia s6s- 
tertiam, or quinque sestertia, 6,000 sesterces. 

KOTB. — With sestertia the distributives are generally used, as, b^ma sestertia. 

IV. In sums containing one or more millions of sesterces, sestertium with 
the value of 100,000 sesterces is used with the proper numeral adverb, deoies, 
vicies, etc. Thus — 

Deoies sestertium, 1,000,000 (10 " 100,000) sesterces ; vloiSs sestertium, 
2,000,000 (20 X 100,000) sesterces. 

1. Sebtebtitjm. — In the examples under lY., sestertium is treated as a neuter noun 
In the singular, though originally it was probably the genitive plural of eestartius, and the 
full expression for 1,000,000 sesterces was Deoies centena m^Ha aesterti'um. Cent&na 
milia was afterward generally omitted, and finally sestertivm lost its force as a genitive 
plural, and became a neuter noun in the singular, capable of declension. 

3. Sometimes sestertium is omitted, leaving only the numeral adverb : as, decUs, 
1,000,000 sesterces. 

8. The sign HS is often used for sestertii, and sometimes for sestertia, or sestertium : 

Decern HS = 10 sesterces (HS = sSstertii). DSna HS = 10,000 sesterces (H8 = sSs- 
tertia). Decies HS = 1,000,000 sesterces (HS = sSstertinm). 

648. Weights and Measitrbs.— The following weights and measures 
deserve mention : 

I. The Zara, also called Is or I\mdd, equal to about UK ounces avoij> 
dupois, is the basis of Eoman weights. 

1. The Libra, like the as in money, is divided into 12 parts. 
n. The Modivs, equal to about a peck, is the basis of dry measure. 
- III. The Amphora, containing a Koman cubic foot, equivalent to about 
seven gallons, is a convenient basis of liquid measure. 

■ IV. The Eoman Pis or Foot, equivalent to about 11.6 inches, is the basis 
of long measure. 

'Sms.—<Mntus is equivalent to \}i Soman feet, passus to 6, and stadium to 626. 



V. The JUgerum, containing 28,800 Roman square feet, equivalent to 
about six tenths of an ncre, is the basis of square measure. 

v. Roman Names. 

649. A Roman citizen usually had three names. The first, or prae- 
nomen, i\esigna.teA the individual ; the second, or nomen, the gens or tribe; 
and the third, or cognomen, the family. Thus, Pidiius' Cornelius Sctpil 
was POUius of the ScipiS family of the Cornelian gens, and Gains Julius 
Caesar was Gains of the Caesar family of the Julian gens. 

1. The praenomen was often abbreviated : 

S. (Sex.) = Sextus. 

Ser. = Servius. 

8p. = Spurius. 

T. = Titus, 

Ti. (Tib.) = Tiberius. 

A. = Aulus. M. = Marcus. 

Ap. = Appius. M'. = Manius. 

C. = Gaius. Mam. = Mamercus. 
Cn. = GnaeuB. N. = Numerius. 

D. = Decimus. P. = Publius. 
L. = Lucius. Q. (Qu.) = Quintns. 

2. Sometimes an OgnBmen or surtiame was added. Thus (Scjpjs received 
the surname Africamisirom his victories in Africa : Publius OomSUus SmpiS 

3. An adopted son took (1) the full name of his adoptive father, and (2) 
an Sgnomen in anus formed from the name of his own gens. Thus Oeldvius 
when adopted by Caesar became Gdius Julius Caesar Octaviarms. After- 
ward the title of Augustus was conferred upon him, making his full name 
OSius Julius Caesar Octdvianus Augustus. 

4. Women were generally known by the name of their gens. Thus the 
daughter of Julius Caesar was simply .Julia; of Tullius CicerS, Tidlia; of 
Cornelius Sciplo, CorrtHia. Three daughters in any family of the Cornelian 
gens would be known as OomMia, Cornglia Secimda or Minor, and Cornelia 

650 Various abbreviations occur in classical authors : 

A. D. = ante diem. 

Aed. = aedllis. 

A. U. C. = anno urbis 

Cos. = consul. 
Cobs. = consulSs. 
D. = divus. 
D. D. = dono dedit. 
Des. = dSsignatus. 
D. M. = diis manibus. 
D. S. = dS suo. 
D. S. P. P. = dS sua 

peciinia posuit. 
Eq. Rom. = eques Ro- 

F. = filius. 

F. C. = faciendum cu- 

Id. = Idus. 
Imp. = imperStor. 
K. (Kal.) = Kalendae. 
Leg. = legatus. 
Non. = N5nae. 
O. M. = optimus max- 

P. C. = patrSs conscrip- 

Pont. Max. = pontifex 

P. R. = populus Ro- 

Pr. = praetor. 

Praef. = praefeetus. 

Proc. = proconsul. 

Q. B. ,F. F. Q. S. = quod 

bonum, fiSlIx, fans- 

tumque sit. 
Quir. = QuiritSs. 
Besp. = res publica. 
8. = senatus. 
S. C. = senatus cOnsul- 

S. D. P. = salutemdieit 

S. P. Q. R. = senatus 

popul usque Romanus. 
Tr. PI. = tribunus pl6- 



VT. Vowels before two Consonants or a Double Consonant. 

651. On the natural quantity ' of vowels before two consonants, or a 
double consonant, observe — ■ 

I. That vowels are long before ns, nf, gn, gm, and generally before j : 
conseius, consensus, consul, inscribo, Insequor, instaus, insula, amans, 

monens, regens, audiens ; eonfero, conficio, Inf6Iix,infensuB, infero; benlg- 
nus, magnus, regnum, signutn, agmen, segmentum, hujus. 

II. That all vowels which represent diphthongs, or are the result of 
contraction, are long : '■' 

existimo, amasse, audissem, introrsum,' intr6rsus,proisus,quorsum, rur- 
sum, Bursum, malle, mallem, nolle, nollem, nullus, uUus,' Mars,' Martis. 

III. That the long vowels of Primitives are retained in Derivatives — 

1. In asco, esco, and isco in Inceptives : 

gelasco, labasco, acesco, aresco, floreseo, latesco, patesco, stlescO, 
viresco, edormlsco, obdormlseo, sclsco, conscisco. 

2. In large classes of words of which the following are examples : 
cras-tinus, duc-tilis, fas-tus, ne-fas-lus, flos-culus, jQs-tus, iii-jus-tus, 

juB-tissimus, jQs-titia, matr-imonium, osculum, os-culor, 6s-tiura, palus- 
ter, ras-trum, ros-trum, rus-ticus, sallc-tum. 

IV. That vowels are long in the ending of the Nominative Singular of 
nouns and adjectives with long increments in the Genitive : 

frux, lex, lux, pax, plebs, rex, thorax, vox. 

V. That e is long before x in the Perfect Active in exi : 

r6xl, rSxit ; texi, texerunt ; vexi, veximus ; dilexit, dllexerunt. 

1 Itls often difficult, and sometimes absolutely impossible, to determine the natural 
quantity of vowels before two consonants, but thu subject has of late received special 
attention from German orthoepists. An attempt has been made in this article to collect 
the most important results of these labors. The chief sources of information upon this 
subject are (1) ancient inscriptions, (2) Greek transcriptions of Latin words, (3) the tes- 
timony of ancient grammarians, (4) the modem languages, (5) the comic poets, and (6) 
etymology. SeeBrugmann,'Gmndris8derVergleichendenGrammatik'; Oetlioff,'Zur 
Geschichtedes Perfects imlndo-germanischen'; Seelmunn, 'Die Ausspracbe desLa- 
tein' ; Stolz, * Lateinische Grammatik' ; Vanicek, ' Etymoloirisches W6rterbuch der la- 
teinischenSprache'; Bonterwek nnd Tegge, 'Die altsprachliche Orthoepie'; Biinger, 
' Die lateinische QnantitSt in positionslangen Silben ' ; Wiggert, ' Zur lateinischen Or- 
thoepie' ; Marx, 'Die Ausspracbe di-r lateinischen Vocale in positionslangen Silben ' ; 
Schmitz, 'Beitrage'; Ritschl, 'Rlieinisches Museum,' vol. xxxi, pp. 481-492 ; SchOU, • 
' Acta SocietatisPhilologaeLipsiSnsis,' vol. ^i., pp. 71-215; MOller, 'Orthographiaeet 
ProsOdiae Latlnae Snmmarinm' ; Foerster, 'Rheinisches Museum,' xxxiii., pp. 291 -299. 

^ Though, like other long vowels, they were probably sometimes shortened before 
certain cimsonante: duOrum, duam, duum ; nostrorum, nostrflui, nostrum ; see Vll. 
below, also 580, n. 

' IntrSrsum from intrOversum ; CUus from Untilus ; Mars from Maeort. 



VI. That long vowels occur in the following words and in their deriv» 
tsves : 



























































































































VII. That vowels are probably short before nt and nd : 

amant, amantis, monentis, prudentis, prudentia, amandus, regendus 

VIII. That the short vowels of Primitives are retained in Derivati'^S' 
inter-nus, juven-tus, llber-tas, munus-culum, super-bus, vir-tus. 

IX That vowels are generally short in the ending of the Nominativ* 
Singular of nouns and adjectives with short increments in the Genitive; 
adeps, calix, dux, grex, hiems, jildex, nex, nux. 
Note. — YowelB before final iw are of course excepted. 

X. That the first vowel in the following endings is short; 

1. emuB, ernius, endnus ; umus, urnius, uminuB : 

maternus, LltemiuB, Litemlnus, taoitumus, Satumius, Satumlnus. 

2. UBtus, eatua, ester, eatia, esticus, estlnua, eatria : 

robustus, venustus, vetustus, honestus, modestus, campester, silvesier, 
agrestis, caelestis, domesticus, clandestinus, terrestris. 

XI. That all vowels are to be treated as short unless there are good 
reasons for believing them to be long, 



Tms Index contains an alphabetical list, not only of all the simplu 
Terba in common use which involve any important irregularities, but also 
of such compounds as seem to require special mention. In regard to 
compounds of prepositions (344) observe — 

1. That the elements — preposition and verb^often appear in the com- 
pound in a changed form ; see 844, 4-6. 

2. That the stem-vowel is often changed in the Perfect and Supine ; 
eee 221. 

Al-liciO, ere, lezi, lectum, 217, 2 ; a 

130, foot-note 8. 
Aid, ere, alul, alitum, altum, 27S. 
Amb-igo ; see iag6, 271, 2. 
Amb-iO, 295, N. 2. 
Amicio, Ire, ui (xi), turn, 285. 
AmO, 205. 

Amplector, I, amplezus sum, 288. 
Ango, ere, Snxl, — , 272, N. 1. 
An-nu6, ere, I, -^, 272, N. 1. 
Ante-capio, p. 128, foot-note 14 
Apage, def., 297, III. 
Aperi6, ire, Oi, tum, 286. 
AplBCor, !, aptus sum, 283. 
Ap-pareo; see /lareo, 262; 801. 
Ap-petO ; see peto, 278. 
Ap-pllco; see;/><!0, 258. 
Ap-p6nd; seepino, 273. 
ArcSssd, ere, Ivl, itum, 278. 
ArdeO, ere, arsi, arsum, 265. 
Arescf), ere, ami, — , 281. 
ArguO, ere, ui, utum, 279. 
Ar-ripio ; see rapid, 274. 
A-scendo ; see scando, 272, 3. 
A-spergo ; see spargo, 270. 
A-spicio, ere, spexl, spectum, 217, 3 
As-sentior, !rl, sensus sum, 288, i 
As-sided ; see sedeo, 267, 2. 
At-texc ; see texo, 274. 
At -tineo ; see teneo, 263. 
At-tingo ; see tatigo, 271. 
At-tolld ; see Mlo, 271. 
Audeo, ere, ausus sum, 268, 8. 
Audio, 211. 
Au-ferd, 292, 2. 
AugeO, ere, auxi, auctum, 264. 
Ave, aef. ; see none, 297, III. 

Ab-do,> ere, didi^ ditmn, 271. 

Ab-ioio; seejocjo, 271, 2. 

Ab-igo ; see ago, 271, 2. 

Aboleo, ere, evi, itum, p. 124, foot- 
note 2. 

Abolfesoo, ere, olSvi, olitnm, 277. 

Ab-ripio ; see rapid, 274. 

Abs-condo ; see abtid, 271. 

Ab-Bum, 290, 1. 

Ac-cendo, ere, i, censum, 272, 8. 

Ao-cido ; see coda, 272; 301. 

Ac-cino ; see cand, 271. 

Ao-cipi6 ; se^ rapid, 271, 2. 

Ao-colO ; see com, 274. 

Ac-cumbo, ere, cubul, cubitum, 273. 

Acesco, ere, aoul, — , 281. 

Ac-qulro ; see guaero, 278. 

Acuo, ere, ui, atum, 279. 

Ad-do ; see abdo, 271 ; 255, 1., 4. 

Ad-fari, p. 142, foot-note 5. 

Ad-fer6, 292, 2. 

Ad-imo ; see emd, 271, 2. 

Ad-iplBcor, i, adeptus sum, 283, foot- 
note 1. 

Ad-olesco ; see aioleaco, 277. 

Ad-orior ; see orior, 288, 2. 

Ad-spicio ; see aepicio, 217, 2. 

Ad-sto, 259, N. 2. 

Ad-sum, 290, 1. 

Ag-gredior ; see gradior, 281 

A-gn6sc6 ; see nosco, 278. 

Ago, ere, egl, actum, 271, 2. 

Aio, de/., 297, 11. 

AlbeO, ere, — , 262, N. 2. 

Algeo, ere, alsi, — , 265. 

1 Final d in verbs is lometinieft shortened, Uioo^h larely in tlie best writen^ 




BalbHtiS, Ire, — , 284, N. 8. 
BatuO, ere, 1, — , 272, N. 1. 
Bibo, ere, I, — , 272, N. 1. 
Blandior, !ri, Itus sum, 288. 

CadSj ere, oeeidi, casnin, 272. 
Caecutio, ire, — , 284, N. 2. 
Caedo, ere, oeeJdl, oaesum, 272. 
Calesce, ere, oalul, — , 281. 
Calves, ere, — , 262, N. 2. 
Caudeo, ere, ui, 262, N. 1. 
Cando, p. 129, root-note 14. 
Caneo, ere, — , 262, N. 2. 
Cano, ere, eeoini, cantuin, 271. 
CapOsso, ere, Ivl, itum, 278. 
Capio, ere, cSpl, oaptum, 217 ; 218 ; 

271, 2. 
Carpo, ere, si, turn, 269. 
Caveo, ere; cavl, cautum, 266. 
Ced6, ere, oessl, oessum, 270. 
Cedo, def., 297, III. 
Cello, oba. ; see excello, 273, N. 
Ceno, 257, N. 2. 
Censeo, 6re, ui, o6nsum, 263. 
Cemo, ere, crevl, orgtum, 277. 
Cieo, ere, olvl, citum, 265, N. 
Cings, ere, oinxi, oinctum, 269. 
CiO, 265, N. 

Ciroum-agO, p. 128, foot-note 13. 
Ciroum-dO, 255, 1., 4; 259, N. 1. 
Ciroum-sistO ; see sisto, 271. 
Circum-sto, 255, I., 4. 
Clango, ere, — , 272, N, 2. 
ClaudO, ere, clausi, elausum, 270. 
Clauds, ere, — {to be lame), 272, N. 2. 
Co-argu6 ; see arguo, 279. 
Co-emo, p. 128, foot-note 15. 
Coepi, def., 297. 
Co-gno8o6 ; see nosco, 278. 
Csgo, ere, coegl, ooactum; see ago, 

271, 2. 
Col-lids ; see laedo, 270. 
Col-ligS ; see lego, 271, 2. 
Col-luoeo ; see lueeo, 266. 
Cols, ere, ul, cultum, 274. 
Com-ed6, 291, N. 3. 
Com-mvniscor, !, commentus sum, 288. 
Com-moveS ; see moved, 266. 
Com-paroS (perco); see pares, 272. 
Comperis, ire, peri, pertum, 287, N. 
Compsses, ere, pesoui, — , 278, N. 
Com-pingo ; see pango, 271. 
Com-pleotor, i, plexus sum. 
Com-pleS, 6rc, 6vl, «tum- 261. 
Com-prims ; see premo, ilO. 
Com-pungS, ere, pilnxl, pOiictum; 

Mapungo, ill. 

Con-cidS ; see cadi, 278. 
Con-cldo ; see caedd, 272, 
Con-oino ; see cano, 271. 
Con-olilds ; see claudo, 270. 
Con-cnpisco, ere, ouplvi, cupltun^ 

281, N. • 
Con-outiS ; see quaUo, 270. 
Con-dS ; see abao, 271. 
Con-feroiS ; aee/areid, 286. 
Con-ferS, 292, 2. 
Csn-ficio ; see facio, 271, 2. 
CoD-flt, de/., 297, III. 
Con-fiteor; seefateor, 268, 2. 
Con-fringS ; sea/miigo, 271, 2. 
Con-gruS, ere, I, — , 272, N. 1. 
ConiveS, ere, nivl, nixi, — , 265,' 

267, 3. 
Conor, 260. 

Con-sero ; see sero, 277, N. 
Con-sistS; see eislo, 271. 
Con-spioiS, ere,spexi,Bpeotum,217,2. 
CSn-stituo ; see slatuo, 279. 
Con-Bto, 301 ; see sto, 259. 
Consuls, ere, ui, turn, 274. 
Con-temno ; see iemno, 272, N. 2. 
Con-tex6 ; see texo, 274. 
Con-tingo ; see tango, 271 ; 301. 
ConvalesoS, ere,valui, valltum,281,N, 
Coquo, ere, eoxl, eootum. 
Cor-ripiO ; see rapiO, 274. 
Cor-ruS ; see rud, 279. 
CrebrSsoo, ere, crSbrui, — , 282, N. 
Credo, ere, crCdidl, crcditum, 271. 
Crepo, are, ui, Hum, 258. 
CreseS, ere, orevi, cretum, 277. 
Cubs, are, ul, itum, 258. 
Cuds, ere, ovidl, eflsum, 272, 3. 
Cumbs ; see accumbo, 273. 
CupiS, ere, ivl, itum, 217, 1 ; 278. 
Curro, ere, cuourri, eursum, 272. 

Debeo, 262. 

De-cerps, ere, si, turn, p. 127, foot 

note 2. 
Deoet, impers., 299. 
De-do ; see abd6, 271. 
De-fendo, ere, I, fensum, 272, 8. 
De-fetlsoor ; Beefatzieor, 288. 
De-fit, de/., 297, 111. 
DegS, ere, degi ; see ago, 271, S. 
Delects, impei'S., 301. 
Deles, ere, evl, etum, 261. 
De-IigO ; see lego, 271, 2. 
De-mico ; see rrdcS, 258. 
DemS, ere, dempsi, demptum. 
De-pangS ; see pango, 271. 
De-primO ; see premd, 270. 
DepsS, ere, ui, itum, turn, 27S. 
Dii-Bcends ; !>«>> ii,<mi6, 278, t. 



Ds-silio ; see saUS, 285, 

De-sipio ; see sapid, 278. 

De-sum, 290, 1. 

De-tendo ; see tendi, 271. 

De-tineO ; see teneo. 2A9, 

De-vertor; see verid, 272, 8. 

Cico, ere, dix!, dictum, 233. 

Dif-fer6, 292, 2. 

Di-gnoBoo ; see ndtco, 278. 

Dl-RgO ; see lego, 271, 2. 

Di-micO ; see mico, 258. 

P!-rig6, ere, rexi, rectum, p. 127, 

foot-note 2. 
Disco, ere, didici, — , 271. 
Dis-crepo ; see crepo, 258. 
Dis-oumbo ; see accumto, 273. 
Dis-pertior ; see partior, 288. 
Dis-pliceo; &^ placed, 262. 
Dis-sideo ; see sedeo, 267, 2. 
Di-stinguo ; see exstingm, 269. 
Di-stO, 259, N. 2. 
Ditesoo, ere, — , 282. 
Divido, ere, visl, visum, 270. 
Do, dare, dedi, datum, 259. 
Doceo, ere, ul, doctum, 263, 
Dolet, impers., 301. 
Domo, are, ui, itum, 258. 
Dono, 259. 

Dues, ere, dad, ductum, 269 ; 238. 
Puloesco, ere, — , 282. 
Puplico, p. 128, foot-note 6. 
DuresoO, ere, dOrui, — , 282, N. 

fido, ere, Sdl, esum, 272, 2 ; 291. 
Pf-fari, p. 142, foot-note 5. 
ggeo, ere, ul, — , 262, N. 1. 
E-licio, ere, ui, itum, 273. 
E-)ig6; see lego, 271, 2. 
£-micd ; see mico, 258. 
Emineo, ere, ui, — , 262, N. 1. 
Emo, ere, emi, emptum, 271, 2. 
£-hecd, &re, ui, tum, 258. 
Ko, ire, ivf, itum, 295. 
Esurio, Ire, — , itum, 284, N. 2. 
E-vado, ere, vasi, vaeum, 270. 
Ex-ardesc6, ere, arsi, arsum, 281, N. 
Excello, ere, ui (rare), — , 273, N. 
Ex-cludo ; see clavdo, 270. 
Ex-curro ; see curro, 272. 
Ex-olesoo ; see abolisco, 277. 
Exper^BCor, i, experrectuB sum, 283. 
Ex-perior, In, pertus sum, 288, 2. 
Ex-pleO ; see compleo, 261. 
Ex-plicO ; see phco, 258. 
Ex-plodo; Beeplaudo, 270. 
Ex-stinguo, ere, stinxl, stinctum, 269. 
Ex-sto, 259, N. 2. 
Ex-tendo ; see tendo, 271. 
liz-toUo ; see tollo, 271. 

FaoSsso, ere. Ivl, 1, Itum, 278. 
Faeio, ere, feci, factum, 217, 1 1 288; 
271 2. » » * 1 

Falls, ere, fefelll, falsum, 272. 
Farcio, Ire, farsl, fartum, farctum, 286, 
Fan, de/., 297, II. 
Fateor, en, fassus sum, 268, 2. 
Fatisoo, ere, — , 272, N. 2. 
Fatisoor, I, — , 283. 
Faveo, 6re, favi, fautum, 266. 
Fendo, obs. ; see defends, 278, 8. 
Ferio, Ire, — , 284, N. 2. 
Fero, ferre, tull, latum, 292. 
FerooiO, Ire, — , 284, N. 2. 
Ferveo, ere, fervi, ferbul, — , 267, & 
FidO, ere, fisus sum, 283. 
Flgo, ere, fixi, fixum, 270. 
Findo, ere, fidi, flssum, 272, 8. 
Fingo, ere, finxl, fiotum. 
Finio, 284. 

Flo, fieri, faotus sum, 294. 
Flaveo, ere, — , 262, N. 2. 
Flecto, ere, fl6xl, flexum, 270. 
Fleo, ere, evi, etum, 261. 
FloreO, ere, ul, — , 262, N. 1. 
Fl6r6sco, ere, fiorui, — , 281. 
Fluo, ere, fluxl, floxum, 279, N. 
Fodio, ere, f OdI, fossum, 217, 1 ; 272, 2 
Forem, de/., 204, 2; 297, III, 2. 
Fovea, ere, fovi, fotum, 266. 
Frango, ere, fr6gl, fractum, 271, 2. 
Fremo, ere, ul, itum, 273. 
Frendo, ere, — , fressum, fresum, 270l 
Frioo, are, ui, atum, tum, 258. 
Frigeo, ere, frixl (rare), — , 265. 
Frondeo, ere, ui, — , 262, N. 1. 
Fruor, I, fruotus, iruitus sum, 288. 
Fugio, ere, fugl, fugitum, 217, 1: 

271, 2. 
Fulcio, Ire, fulsl, fiUtum, 286. 
Fulgeo, ere, fulsi, — , 265. 
Fulgo, 265, foot-note 5. 
Fulminat, impers., 300. 
Funds, ere, fudi, fusum, 272, 2. 
Fungor, i, mnctus sum, 283. 
Furs, ere, ul, — , 273, N. 


GanniS, Ire, — , 284, N. 2. 
Gaudeo, ere, gavlsus sum, 268, S. 
Gems, ere, u , itum, 273. 
GerS, ere, gessi, gestum, 269. 
GignS, ere, genui, genitum, 278. 
GllseS, ere, — , 272, N. 2. 
GradioT, i, gressus sum, 217, 8 ; 283 
GrandSsco, ere, — , 282. 
Grandinat, impers., 300. 
Grav5B,cS, ere, — . 




Habe5, 262. 

UaereS, Sre, baesi, haesum, 265. 

HauriO, Ire, hausi, haustum, haustH- 

ru3, nausariis, 286. 
Have, def., 297, III. 
HebeO, ere, — , 262, N. 2. 
HI805, ere, — , 272, N. 2. 
HonOrO, 257. 

HorreO, ere, ul, — , 262, N. 1. 
Hortor, 232; 260. 
HflmeO, ere, — , 262, N. 2. 


loO, ere, Joi, iotura, 272, 3. 
l-enOsoo'; see nosco, 278. 
Il-lioi6, ere, ISxl, leotum, 217, 2. 
Il-lld6 ; see laedo, 270. 
ImbuO, ere, ul, iitum, 279. 
ImmineO, ere, — , 262, N. 2. 
Im-paroo; s&a pared, 272. 
Im-pertior; se&partior, 288. 
Im-pinga; see^aw^o, 271. 
Im-pleO, p. 124, foot-note 1. 
In-cendO ; see accendo,- 272, 3. 
Ino6B86, ere, IvI, I, — , 278. 
In-oidO ; see eadS, 272. 
In-oId6 ; see eaedo, 272. 
In-orep6 ; see a-epo, 258. 
In-or8so6 ; see cresco, 277. 
In-oumbo ; see aecwmio, 273. 
Iu-outi8 ; see quatio, 270. 
Ind-ige6, 6re, ui, — ; see eged, 262, N. 1. 
Ind-iplBOor ; see apiacor, 283. 
In-do ; see abdo, 271. 
IndulgeO, ere, dulsl, dultum, 264. 
IneptiO, Ire, — , 284, N. 2. 
In-ferS, 292, 2. 
Inflt, de/., 297, III. 
IngruS, ere, I, — , 272, N. 1. 
In-n6tesc6, ere, notui, 282, N. 
In-ol6sco : see aboUsco, 277. 
Inquam, def., 297, II. 
In-sideo ; see sedeo, 267, 2. 
In-spioi5, ere, spSxl, speotum. 
In-stO ; see ato, 259. 
Intel-lego ; see lego, 271, 2. 
Interest, vmpen., 801. 
Inter-n0so3 ; see noaco, 278. 
In-veterasoa, ere, ravl, rfttum, 281, N. 
Irasoor, I, — , 283. 
Ir-ruO ; see ruo, 279. 

JaoiO, ere, jScI, jaotum, 217, 1 ; 271, 2. 

JubeO, are, iussi, jussum, 265. 

JOrS, 257, N. 2. 

Juven6so6, ere, — . 

Juv6, are, jttvl, jatum, 259, 2 ; 301. 

Labor, I, lapsus sum, 283. 

Laoesso, ere, IvI, Itum, 278. 

LaciO, obs. ; see allicio, p. 130, foot- 
note 8 ; 217, 2. 

LacteO, ere, — , 262, N. 1. 

Laedo, ere, laesl, laesum, 270. 

Lambs, ere, I, — , 272, N. 1. 

Langue5, 6re, I, — , 267, 3. 

Largior, Iri, Itus sum, 288. 

LateO, ere, ul, — , 262, N. 1. 

Lave, are, lavl, lautum, lotum, lava- 
turn, 269, 2. 

LegO, ere, Iggl, ISctum, 271, 2. 

LemO, 284. 

LlberO, 257. 

Libet, impers., 299. 

Liceor, 6rl, itus sum, 268. 

Licet, impers., 299. 

LinS, ere, llvl, levi, Iitum, 278. 

LinquO, ere, llqui, — , 271, 2. 

LiqueO, Sre, liqul (lioul), 267. 

Liquet, impers., 299. 

Liquor, I, — , 288. 

Loquor, I, looutus sum, 283. 

Luoeo, ere, lllxl, — , 265. 

Lflc6scit, impers., 300. 

Lido, ere, lusl, lusum, 270. 

Lugeo, 6re, Iflxl, — , 265. 

LuO, ere, lui, — . 


MaorSscO, ere, maorul, — , 282, N. 
Madeo, 6re, ui, — , 262, N. 1. 
MadSscO, ere, madul, — . 
Maereo, 6re, — , 262, N. 2. 
MalO, malle, malul, — , 298. 
Mando, ere, I, mansum, 272, 3. 
ManeO, ere, mansi, mansum, 265. 
Maturgsco, ere, maturul, — , 282, N. 
Medeor, Srt, — , 268, 2. , 

Memini, deJF., 297, 1. 
Mentior, ui, Itus sum, 288. • 
Mereor, Sri, itus sum, 268. 
Merge, ere, mersi, mersum, 270. 
MBtior, 111, mgnsus sum, 288, 2. 
Mete, ere, messul, messum, 276. 
MetuO, ere, ul, — , 272, N. 1. 
Mice, are, ul, — , 268. 
MinlBoor, obs. ; see commimacor, 283. 
MinuO, ere, ul, Htum, 279. 
Miror, 260. 
MlsoeO, Sre, miscul, mistum, mixtum, 

Misereor, sn, itus or tus sum, 268, 2. 
Miseret, impers., 299. 
MitesoO, ere, — , 282. 
MittO, ere, misl, missum, 270. 
Molior, Irl, Itus sum, 288. 



Hol1e806, ere, — , 282. 
Molo, ere, ul, Uum, 273. 
Mone6, ere, ul, itam, 207 ; 262. 
Mordeo, 6re, momordi, morsum, 267. 
Morior, i (in), mortuus sum, 217, 3; 

Moves, ere, mOvI, mOtum, 266. 
Mulceo, ere, mulsi, mulsum, 265. 
Uul^eo, ere, mills!, mulsum, 26S. 
Uultiphce, p. 123, foot-note 6. 
Munio, 284. 

NancTscor, I, naotus (nanctus) sum, 

Nascor, I, nitus sum, 283. 
Neco, p. 123, foot-note i. 
Necto, ere, nSxI, nexul, nexum, 270 ; 

Neg-leg6, ere, lexl, tectum ; see lego, 

271, 2. 
Neo, ere, n6vl, netum, 261. 
Ne-queo, Ire, ivi, itum, 296. 
NigrSBCo, ere, nigrul, — . 
Ningo, ere, nJnxl, — , 272, N. 1. 
Niteo, ere, ui, — , 262, N. 1. 
Nitor, i, nisus, nixus sum, 283. 
Noceo, 262. 

Nolo, nolle, nOluI, — , 293. 
Mommo, 257. 

Noseo, ere, novl, notum, 278. 
Nubo, ere, nups!; nuptum, 269. 
HupturiO, Ire, Ivl, — , 284, N. 2. 

Ob-do; see abdo, 271. 

Ob-dormisco, ere, dormlvl, dormltum, 

281, N. 
Obllvlsoor, I, oblitus sum, 283. 
Ob-mt)tSsod, ere, mutui, — , 282, N. 
Ob-sldeo ; see sedeo, 267, 2. 
Ob-Bolesco ; see abolesco, 211. 
Ob-sto ; see sto, 259. 
Ob-surd8sc6, ere, surdul, — . 
Ob-tineo ; see leneo, 263. 
Oc-cido ; see cado, 272. 
Oe-cidO ; see caedo, 272. 
Oo-cino ; see cemo, 271. 
Oe-eipio ; see capzo, ill, 2. 
Ooeulo, ere, ul, tum, 274. 
Odl, de/., 297, 1. 
Of-fendO ; see defendo, 272, 8. 
Of-fero, 292, 2. 
Oleo, ere, ul, — , 262, N. 1. 
Olesco, obsoute ; see aboleid, ill. 
OperiO, Ire, ul, tum, 285. 
Oportet, impera., 299. 
Op-perior, in, pertus, peiltus sum, 

288, 2. 
Oidior, III, 5tsub sum, 288, 2. 

Orior, M, ortus sum, 288, 8. 
Os-tendo ; see Undo, 271. 
Ovat, def., 297, III. 

Pacfscor, 1, pactus sum, 288. 
Paenitet, impers., 299. 
PalleO, 6re, ul, — , 262, N. 1. 
Pando, ere, I, pinsum, passum, 272, 8, 
Pango, ere, pepigi, pactum, 271. 
Pango, ere, panxl, p6gi, panctum, 

pactum, 271. 
Parco, ere, peperei (parel), parsum, 

PareO, 6re, ui, itum, 262. 
Pario, ere, peperl, partum, 217, 1: 

Partior, Irl, Itus sum, 288. 
Parturio, Ifc, Ivl, — , 284, N. 2. 
Pasco, ere, pavl, pastum, 276. 
PateO, 6re, ul, — , 262, N. 1. 
Patior, I, pasBus sum, 217, 8 ; 283. 
Paveo, ere, pavl, — , 266. 
Peet6, ere, pexl, pexum, 270. 
Pel-licio, ere, l6xl, lectum, 217, 2. 
Pello, ere, pepull, pulsum, 272. 
PendeO, ere, pependl, pensura, 267. 
Pendo, ere, pependl, pgnsum, 272. 
Per-ago, p. 128, foot-note 13. 
Per-cello ; see excelld, 273, N. 
Per-censee ; see censeo, 263. 
Per-do, ere, didi, ditum: see abd» 

PeTgo (for per-rig6), ere, perrsa. 

perrectum ; see rego, 269. 
Per-petior ; see patior, 283. 
Per-sto : sec sto, 259. 
Per-taedet, p. 143; foot-nota 8. 
Per-tineo ; see tetied, 263. 
Pessum-dO, 259, N. 1. 
Peto, ere, ivi, itum, 278. 
Piget, impers., 299. 
Pingu, ere, pinxl, pictum. 
Pinsn (pls(i), ere, I, ul, plnsitum, 

pistum, pineum, 272, 3; 273. 
Placeo, 262; 301. 
Plaudo, ere, si, sura, 270. 
Plecto, ere, plexi, plexum, 270. 
Plector ; see amplector, 283. 
Plea, obsolete ; see campled, 261. 
Flic6, are, &vl, ul, atum, itum, 258. 
PluO, ere, I or pluvl, — , 272, ll. 1 . 

Pollea, ere, — , 262, N. 2. 
PoUiceor, Sri, itus sum, 268. 
PonO, ere, posui, positum, 278. 
Posoe, ere, poposol, — , 272. 
Pos-sided ; see seded, 267, 2. 
Possum, posse, potui, — , 290, IL 
Potior, in, Itus sum, 288. 



Poto, ai'e, avi, atum, um, 357, N. 1. 
Prae-oino ; see cano, 371. 
Prae-curro ; see curro, 273. . 
Prae-sldeo ; see sedeo, 367, 3. 
Prae-sto ; see sto, 259 ; 301. 
Prae-sum, 290, I. 
Prae-vertor ; see verts, 373, 3. 
Prandeo, ere, i, pransum, 367, 3, 
Prehendo, ere, i, hensum, 273, 8. 
Premo, ere, pressi, pressum, 370. 
PrSndo, p. 130, foot-note 1. 
Prod-igo ; see ago, 371. 
Pro-do ; see abM, 371. 
Proflciscor, i, profeotus sum, 283. 
Pro-fiteor; seefateor, 368, 3. 
Promo, ere, prompsl, proinptum. 
Pro-Bum, prodesse, profui, — , 290, 

Pro-tendo ; see tends, 371. 
Psallo, ere, I, — , 373, N. 1. 
Pudet, impers., 299. 
Puerasco, ere, — , 283. 
Pugno, 257. 

Puago, ere, pupugl, punctum, 371. 
Punio, 284. 

Quaero,ere, quaesIvi,quaeBitum,378. 

Quaeso, drf., 397, III 

Quatio, erej quassi, quassum, 317, 1 ; 

Queo, Ire, IvI, itum, 396. 
Queror, i, questus sum, 283. 
QuiSsco, ere, quievl, quietum, 277. 

Bads, ere, rasJ, rasum, 370. 
Kapio, ere, rapui, raptum, 317, 1 ; 274. 
Eaucio, ire, rausi, rausum, 387. 
Re-censeo ; see censeo, 363. 
Eecido ; see cads, 378. 
Be-cldo ; see caedS, 373. 
Ee-erudSsco, ere, crudul, 383, N. 
Ked-arguo ; see arguo, 279. 
Eed-do ; see aids, 371. 
Re-fello ; seefaOd, 373. 
Re-fero ; seeferS, 293. 
Refert, impers., 301. 
Rego, ere, rexi, rectum, 309 ; 269. 
Re-Iinquo ; see linquo, 371, 2. 
Re-miniBCor, I, — , 383. 
Eenldeo, ere, — , 363, N. 3. 
Reor, rSrl, ratus sum, 368, 2. 
Re-pango ; see pangS, 271. 
Re-parc6 ; see pares, ^72. 
Re-perio, Ire, perl, pertum, 387, N. 
Ee-i3lico, p. 133, foot-note 6. 
Besides ; see sedeS, 367, 3. 
^•psipeo ; see sapw, 378. 

Re-Bono ; see sons, 258. 
Re-spergo ; see spargS, 370. 
Ee-spondeo, 255, I., 4. 
Re-tendo ; see tends, 271. 
Re-tineo ; see teneS, 263. 
Ee-vertor ; see verio, 373, 3. 
Ee-vivlBoo, ere, vixl, victum, 381, N. 
Eldeo, ere, risi, risum, 265. 
Ringor, i, rictus sum, 283. 
Rodo, ere, rosi, rosum, 270. 
Rorat, impers., 300. 
Eubeo, ere, ui, — , 363, N. 1. 
Rudo, ere, IvI, Itum, 378. 
Rumpo, ere, rupl, ruptum, 371, 3. 
Ruo, ere, rul, rutum, ruiturns, 379. 


Saepio, Ire, psi, ptum, 386. 
Sagio, Ire, — , 284, N. 3. 
Salio, Ire, ul (ii), turn, 385. 
Salve, def., 297, III. 
Sancio,Ire,sanxI,sancItum, sanctum, 

Sapio, ere, ivl, ul, — , 217, 1 ; 278. 
Sarcio, Ire, sarsi, sartum, 286. 
Sat-ago ; see agS, 271, 2. 
Satis-do, 259, N. 1. 
Satis-facio, p. 139, foot-note 1. 
Scabo, ere, scclbl, — , 371, 3. 
Scando, ere, dl, scansum, 373, 3. 
Seindo, ere, scidi, BCissnm, 373, 3. 
Scio, 384. 

Selsco, ere, selvi, scltum, 281, N. 
Seco, are, ul, turn, 258. 
Sedeo, ere, sedl, sessum, 267. 
SS-ligo ; see %o, 371, 3. 
Sentio, Ire, sensi, sensum, 287. 
Sepelio, Ire, ivl, sepultnm, 384. 
Sequor, I, secutus sum, 283. 
Sero, ere, sevi, satum, 277, N. 
Sero, ere, serul, sertum, 274. ^ 
SIdo, ere, I, — , 272, N. 1. 
Sileo, ere', ul, — , 262, N. 1. 
Sino, ere, sivl, situm, 278. 
Sisto, ere, stiti, statum, 371. 
Sitio, Ire, IvI, — , 284. 
Soleo, ere, solitus sum, 368, 8. 
Solvo, ere, solvi, Bolutum, 272, S. 
Sono, are, ul, itum, 358. 
Sorbeo, Sre, ul, — , 363, N. 1. 
Sortior, Irl, Itiis sum, 388. 
Spargo, ere, sparsi, sparsuin 370. 
Specio, ois., 317, 3. 
Sperno, ere, sprevi, spretum, 277. 
Spero, 357. 

Splendeo, ere, ul, — , 262, N. 1. 
SpoDdeo, ere, spopoudi, sponsuip 

SqualeO, ere, — , 263, N. 2. 



Status, ere, ui, utum, 279. 
Sterno, ere, stravl, stratum, 276. 
Sternuo, ere, i, — , 272, N. 1. 
Sterto, ere, ul, — , 273, N. 
Stinguo, ere, — , p. 127, foot-note 3. 
Sto, are, steti, statum, 259. 
Strepo, ere, ui, itum, 273. 
Strides, ere, sti-idi, — , 267, 8. 
Stiido, ere, i, — , 272, N. 1. 
StruS, ere, struxi, structum, 879, N. 
Studeo, ere, ul, — , 262, N. 1. 
Stupeo, ere, ul, — , 266. 
Suadeo, ere, si, sum, 265. 
Sub-do, ere, didi, ditum : see abdo, 

Sub-igS ; see ago, 271, 2. 
Sub-siliS ; see salis, 285. 
Suc-cedo ; see cedo, 270. 
Suc-cendS ; see accendo, 272, 3. 
Suc-eenseS ; see censeo, 263. 
Suc-cidS ; see eado, 272. 
Suc-cldo ; see caedo, 272. 
Sac-cr6se6 ; see cresco, 277. 
Suesco, ere, suevi, suetum, 277. 
Suf-fero, 293, 2. 
Sut-flcio ; Bee/oci5, 271, 2. 
Suf-fodio ; eeefodio, 272, 2. ' 
Suggero ; see gero, 269. 
Sum, esse, f ui, — , 203, 1 ; 204. 
Sumo, ere, psi, ptum, 269. 
Superbio, Ire, — , 284, N. 2. 
Super-jacio, p. 129, foot-note 2. 
Supplies, 258, foot-note. 
Sup-pSnS ; see pons, 273. 
Surgo (for sur-rigS), ere, surrexl, 

surrectum ; see rego, 269. 

Taceo, 262. 

Taedet, impers., 299. 

TangS, ere, tetigi, tactum, 271. 

Temno, ere, — , 272, N. 2. 

TendOg-ere, tetendl, tentum, tensum, 

TeneS, ere, ui, turn, 263. 
TepSsco, ere, tepui, — , 281. 
Tergeo, ere, tersi, tersum, 265 ; p. 

1&, foot-note 3. 
TergS, ere, tersi, tersum, 270. 
TerS, ere, tnvi, tritum, 278. 
Texo, ere, ui, tum, 274. 
Times, ere, ui, — , 262, N. 1. 
Tolls, ere, sustull, sublatum, 271. 

Tondeo, gre, totondi, tSnsum, 267. 
Tons, are, ui (itum), 258 : 300. 
TorpeS, ere, ui, — , 262, N. 1. 
Torques, Sre, torsi, tortum, 264. 
Torres, gre, torrui, tostum, 263. 
Tra-dS ; see abdo, 271. 
Traho, ere, traxi, tractum, 269. 
Tremo, ere, ui, ^, 273, N. 
TribuS, ere, ui, utum, 279. 
Trudo, ere, trusi, trusum, 270. 
Tueor, eri, tuitus, tutus sum, 268. 
TuiidS, ere, tutudi, tunsum, tusum, 

TurgeS, ere, tursi {ran), — , 265. 
TussiS, ire, 284, N. 2. 


Ulciscor, I, ultus sum, 283. 
Urges, ere, ursl, — , 265. 
OrS, ere, ussi, iistum, 269. 
0tor, I, usus sum, 283. 

VadS, ere, — , 272, N. 2. 
VagiS, ire, ivi, — , 284. 
Velio, ere, vexi, Tectum, 269. 
Vends, ere, didI, ditum, 271. 
Ven-eS, 295, 3. 

VeniS, ire, veni, ventum, 287, N. 
Venum-do, 259, N. 1. 
Vereor, eri, veritus sum, 268. 
VergS, ere, — , 272, N. 2. 
VerrS, ere, verri, versum, 272, 8. 
Verts, ere, ti, sum, 272, 3. 
Vertor ; see veriS, 272, 3. 
Vescor, I, — , 283. 
VeterascS, ere, ravl, — , 276. 
Vets, are, ul, itum, 258. 
VideS, ere, vidi, visum, 267, 2. 
VilescS, ere, vilui, — , 282, N. 
Vincio, Ire, vinxi, vinetum, 286. 
Vines, ere, vici, victum, 271, 2. 
VireS, ere, ui, — , 262, N. 1. 
Viresco, ere, virui, — , 281. 
Viso, ere, I, um, 272, 3. 
Vivo, ere, vixl, victum, 269. 
VocS, 257. 

Volo, velle, volul, — , 293. 
VolvS, ere, volvi, volul um, 272, 3. 
VomS, ere, ui, itum, 273. 
VoveS, ere, vovl, vStum, 266. 




Note. — ^The numbers refer to articles, not to pages. Ace or accnis, = accusative ; 
«^5. = adjectives ; comp, = composition ; aympds. =: compounds ; conj, = coqjugation ; 
«jnju7iA. = conjunction ; coTistr^ = construction ; /. = and the following ; gen. or genit. 
t= genitive ; getid. = gender ; ger, = gerund ; Zoc . or locat. — locative ; preps, = prepo- 
sitions ; VJ, = with. 

It has not been thought advisable to overload this index with such separate words as 
may be readily referred to classes, or to general rules, or even with such exceptions as 
may be readily found under their respective heads. Accordingly, the numerous excep- 
tions in Dec. III. are not inserted, as they may be best found under the respective end- 
ings, 69-1 IS. 

A, &, sound, 5 ; 10 ff. j£ final short- 
ened, 21, 2. -A in nom,, accus., and 
Toc. pL, 46, 2, 1). .il-nouns, Decl. 
L, 48 ; o-Terbs, 205. Nouns in -a, 
Decl. ni., 69; quant, of increm., 
585, 1., 3 ; gender, 111. -A, adverbs 
in, 304, 1., 3. -A, prepositions in, p. 
145, foot-note 11 ; p. 149, foot-note 
2; adverbs in, 304, n., 2. -A,-d, 
suffix, 320. -A, derivatives in, 326, 
2, A, changed in oompds., 344, 4, 
N. 1. A or a, final, 580, I. ; 580, 
in., N. 2 ; 581, III. ; in increm. of 
.decl., 585; 585, 1.; conj., 586; 586, 1. 

A, db, abs, in compds., 344, 5; in 
oompds., w. dat., 386, 2; w. abl., 
434, li. 1. Ab, as adverb, 379, 2, 
N. A, ab, abs, with abl., 434 ; 434, 
I.; of agent, 388, 2.; 415, 1. A, ab, 
abs, 434, N. 2. A, ah, abs, desig- 
nating abode, 446, N. 4. A, ab, w. 
ger., p. 316, foot-note I, 

Abbreviations, 649, 1 ; 650. 

Abhino, denoting interval, p. 230, 
foot-note 2 ; 430, N. 3. 

Abies, es in, 581, VI., 1. 

-alilis, a, in, 587, in., 2. 

.\blativi}, sing., original ending of, 
p. 20, foot-note 5. Abl. sing, in 
Decl. III., 62, n. fl. ; 63, 2 ; 64, N. 
3 ; in adjs., 154, notes 1 and 2; 157, 
N. Abl. plur., Decl. I., 49, 4: 
Decl. ni., 68, 5 ; Decl. IV., 117. 

Ablative, translation of, 48, w. foot- 
note 4. Belations denoted, 367. 
Syntax, 411 ff. Abl. w. locat., 363, 
^ 2); w. adjs., 391, n., 3; 400, 3; 

w. revert, 408, I., 2: w. verbs of 
accusing, etc., 410, II.j3 ; w. verbs 
of condemniog, 410, Ul. Abl. of 
place, 412 ; 425, ff. ; separation, 
source, cause, 413 ff. Abl. w. com- 
parat. , 417. Instrumental abl., 418 
n. Abl. of accompaniment, 419; 
means, 420. Abl. in special con- 
structions, 421. Abl. of price, 422 ; 
difference, 423 ; specification, 424. 
Locative abl., 425 ff. Abl. of time, 
429. Abl. abs., 431. Abl. w. preps.. 
432; 434; 435; w. compds., 434) 
N. 1 ; w. adverbs, 437. Infin, in 
abl. abs., 439, IV. 

Ablative sing, in d, 581, ni., 1. 

-abnun. a in, 587, 1., 1. 

Abs, in compds., 344, 5. Abs w. abl., 
434 ; 434, N. 2. 

Absente, constr., 438, 6, N. , 

Absolute Abl., 431. 

Absolvo, conste., p. 219, footnote 1. 

Absque, w. alb., ^4. 

AbsUneo, constr., p. 211, foot-note 5 

Abstract nouns, 39, 2, 2) ; plur., 130, 
2 and 3. Abstract nouns from adjs., 

Absvm, w. dat, p. 200, foot-note 2. 
Abest, constr., p. 276, foot-note 2. 

Abwnde, w. gen., p. 209, foot-note 3. 

-ainmdus, a in, 587, III., 2. 

-abus for -is, Decl. I., 49, 4. 

Ac, 310, 1 ; 554, I. ; meaning as, 451, 
5 ; tJmn, 459, 2 ; 554, I., 2, N. Ac 
si, 311, 2; w. subi. in conditions, 

Acatalectic, 603, N. 3. 

Accent, rhythmic, 599. 

Accentuation, 17 ff. 



fceidlt, eonstr., p. 276, foot-note 2. 

Aeeingi, eonstr., 877. 

Aeeommoddtus w. dat., p. 205, foot- 
note 1. 

Accompaniment, abl. of, 418 ff. 

AocnsATivE, formation of, Deol. II., 
51, 2, 6) ; Decl. III., 58, 1, 5}; 62, 
II. ff. ; 63, 1 ; 64, N. 2 ; 67, N. 2 ; 
68, 2 and 6; in ac(J8., 154, N. 1: 
158, 1. 
\coosATivE, syntax of, 370 ff. Direct 
object, 371 ff.j cognate, 371, 1, and 
II. ; ace. of effect, 371, 1., 2, 2) ; w. 
verbal adis. and nouns, 371, 1., N. ; 
w.. compos., 372. Two aces., 878 
ff. Predicate ace, 373, 1, Poetic 
800., 377. Adverbial ace., 378 ff. 
Ace. of speoiflcation, 378 ; of time 
and space, 379 ; of limit, 380 ; poet- 
ical dat. for, 380, 4. Ace. in ezclam., 
381. Aec. for gen., 407. Ace. w. 
rifert and interest, 408, I., 3 ; vr. 
preps., 432; 433; 485; w. adverbs, 
487 ; as object, w. infin., 534. Ace. 
as subj. of infin., 536. Aec. of ger., 
542, III. 

Accusative, Greek, in -a», 581, V., 2. 
Aec. plur. in -««, 681, IX., 2. 

Accusing, eonstr. w. verbs of, 409, 
_II. ; flO, II. 

Acer, decl., 163. 

-ficeiis,a(,829; aiii,687,nL,l. 

Jeiet^ decl., 122, 2. 

Acquitting, eonstr. w. verbs of, 409, II. 
Scrum, d in, 687, 1., 1. 

Action, repeated, m temp, clauses, 
518, N. 2, 2) ; 518, 1. 

Active voice, 195. Active and passive 
eonstr., 464. 

•Scundus, a in, 687, III., 2. 

Aeui^ decl., 117, 1 ; send., 118. 

Ad in compds., 844, 6; in compds. 
w. two aces., 876; w. dat., 386. 
Jd w. ace., 438 ; 483, I. ; aiter 
adjs., 391, II., 1 ; w. r^ert and iii- 
terest, 408, I., 3. Ad designating 
abode, 446, N. 4. Ad vr. ger., p. 
315, foot-note 6 ; denoting purpose, 
542, III., N. 2. 

.4rfeo,551, N. 2; 654, 1.,4. 

-ades, a in, 687, II., 1. 

Adfatim w. gen., p. 209, foot-note 8 ; 
quant, of pen., p. 345, foot-note 2. 

Aimeid w. abl., 420, 2. 

Adfinis w. gen., p. 205, foot-note 8 ; 
p. 210, foot-note 3. 

Aaipiseor w. gen., 410, V., 8. 

Adjaeei w. ace. or dat., p. 202, foot- 
note 1. 

Adjective, 146 ; deel. of, 147 ff. ; ir- 

regular, 151 ; 159. Compar., 166 
ff. Numerals, 172 ff. ; decl. of, 175 
ff. Demon., 186, 4. Eel., 187, 4. 
Inter., 188, 4. Derivation, 828 ff. 
CompositiOQ, 342. W. dat., 391 ; 
400, 1; w. gen., 397, 8; 399: o\ 
gerund, p. 815, foot-note 2. Adj. 
for gen., 395, N. 2. Ac^. w. abl., 
400, 3; 414, III.: 416; 420; 421. 
Agreement, 438 S. Use, 440. W.