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Full text of "Hand gymnastics : for the scientific development of the muscles used in playing the pianoforte"

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jVovello, Ewer & Co.'s Music Primers 

Edited by Dr. Stainer. 



PRICE TWO SHILLINGS. 



THE PIANOFORTE 

BY 

ERNST PAUER 

PRINCIPAL PROFESSOR OP THE PIANOFORTE AT 

THE NATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL FOR MUSIC. 



BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME 
FROM THE 

SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND 

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11. On Reading at Sight - - - - - - 70 

12. Exercises; Studies'^ ....... yi 

13. The Order in which the Sonatas of our Classical Masters 

should be studied - - ■ " 73 

14. Classification of Composers ; their Styles and Schools - 74 

15. Concluding Remarks 75 

Appendix. — The Pianoforte and its Predecessors - 77 

Vocabulary of Technical Terms and Expressiom connected 

with the Pianoforte -..«.. yg 
Chronological Table of Composers. 



Cornell University Library 
WT 221.P92 



Hand aymnastics :for the scientific deve 



Novello, Ewen^^ u 




3 1924 021 634 252 



Edited by Dr. Stamer. 



PRICE TWO SHILLINGS. 

HARMONY 

D r. SOTUNE B, 

CONTENTS. : . 

Subjects included in the study of Harmony : Scales, Intervals, 
Chords, Progressions — The different kinds of Scales : Diatonic, 
Chromatic, Enharmonic — Variety of forms of Minor Scale — 
Relation of Scales — Diagram of Division of Scales — Key — 
Relation of Keys — Cycle of Keys — Method of reckoning and 
naming Intervals — Major, Minor, and Diminished Intervals — 
Table of Diminished Sevenths — Simple and Compound Intervals 
■ — Diagram of threefold Division of Intervals — The Construction 
of Chords — Common Chords — Rules governing the Succession of 
Common Chords — Examples and Exercises. — Inversion of Chords 
— Figuring of Chords — Distribution of Parts — Treatment of 
Leading-Note — Examples and Exercises. — Different kinds of 
Motion^— Rules governing the filling in of Bass Parts — Examples 
and Exercises. — Analysis of Simple Harmony — Chorals to be 
Analysed — Chord of the Dominant Sevenths-Its inversions — 
Their figuring and treatment — False relation — Examples and 
Exercises. — Suspefisions — Suspension of nine to Mght — Inversions 
of nine to eight — Examples and Exercises. — Chord of Dominant 
Ninth — Its inversions, treatment, and figuring-'^Examples, and 
Exercises. — Suspension of four to three — Its resolutions ' and 
inversions — Dominant Eleventh — Its inversions and resolutions — 
Suspended Leading-Note — Its resolutions and inversions — Exam- 
ples and Exercises. — Double Suspensions — Triple Suspensions — 
Examples and Exercises. — Different Triads — Their nature and 
treatment — Chords of the Augmented Sixth — Suspension six-four 
to five-three on the Tonic — Six to five on Dominant — Neapolitan 
Sixth — Passing-Notes, Diatonic and Chromatic — Cadences — 
Attendant or Relative Keys^Modulation — Exercises. — Conclu- 
sion. 



Novello, Ewer & Co.'s Music Primers 

Edited by Dr. STAINER. 



THE VIOLIN 



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NOVELLO, EWER AND CO.'S MUSIC PRIMERS. 
Edited, bic Sir JOHN STAINER. 



HAND 
GYMNASTICS 

For the Scientific Development of the Muscles used 
in playing- the Pianoforte 



BY 



RIDLEY PRENTICE 

Author of " The Musician," S-c. 



PRICE ONE SHILLING AND SIXPENCE. 

In Paper Boards, Two Shillings. 






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FRINTERi;. 



PREFACE. 



The aim in this little book has been to sketch out a course of 
gymnastics suitable for use in schools and classes. I have tried, 
on the one hand, to render it so complete that the vtirious sets 
of muscles in the wrist, the hand, the fingers, and to a certain 
extent in the arm also, should receive due development. On 
the other hand, I have kept constantly in view the necessity 
of avoiding any exercise in which there could be the slightest 
chance of danger owing to carelessness or misunderstanding of 
the directions given. 

Several schemes for gymnastic training of the hand have 
been already put forward, the chief being Miss Lefifler Arnim's 
" Wrist and Finger Gymnastics " and Mr. Ward Jackson's 
" Gymnastics for the Fingers and Wrist." Miss Arnim gives 
three classes of exercises : Active, Duplicate and Passive. 
In the Duplicate exercises the fingers of one hand have not 
merely to perform certain motions, but have, in addition, to 
overcome the resistance of the other hand. This seems to me 
decidedly dangerous, because it is impossible to ensure that 
pupils should sufficiently modify the opposing force. 

Mr. W^ard Jackson gives, besides the free exercises for hand 
and fingers,- a series to be performed whilst holding cork 
cylinders between the fingers, and another series in which the - 
finger-tips are to be placed upon a notched stick. These 
exercises are very ingenious, but his system is based upon the 
idea that the chief source of stiffness is in the transverse 
ligaments lying at the back of the hand, and he does not, 
I think, sufficiently insist on the importance of training the 
extensor muscles. 

In using the present manual in schools and classes the 
exercises can of course be directed by any one of the teachers, 
as no musical capacity is needed ; but 1 would strongly insist 
on the necessity of a thorough comprehension of the elementary 
principles of muscular action as described in the second chapter, 
so that the directions given may be clear, and any deviation 
from the proper performance of the exercises at once detected. 

The illustrations are drawn from photographs taken by 
Messrs. Window & Grove, Baker Street. 

R. P. 




The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924021634252 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Preface ,., 5 

-CHAPTER 1 7 

Increasing demands upon technique — Danger of excessive 
practice — The remedy — Objectors to purely technical work — 
Necessity for regular and scientific gymnastic training — This 
must be intelligent, not mechanical — Should begin with, or 
before, the first attempts at playing. 

CHAPTER II lo 

Processes involved in playing — Balance of opposing muscles — 
Brief description of muscles — The keyboard unsuitable as a 
gymnastic apparatus — Danger of mechanical practice — Mr. 
Walter Pye on hammerman's and writer's cramp — Control the 
chief object of muscular training. 

CHAPTER III 14 

Classification of exercises — Value of gymnastics in the intervals 
of practice — Selected series of exercises — Cautions. 

CHAPTER IV 17 

Exercises for the arm. 

CHAPTER V • 20 

Exercises for the wrist. 

CHAPTER VI 25 

Exercises for stretching the hand. 

CHi^PTER VII zg 

Exercises for the fingers — Knuckle joints, middle joints, end joints. 

CHAPTER VIII 37 

Exercises for the thumb. 

CHAPTER IX 39 

The Technicon recommended for further development. 



CHAPTER I. 

INCREASING DEMANDS UPON TECHNIQUE— DXt^GER' OF EXCESSIVE 

PRACTICE THE REMEDY — OBJECTORS TO PURELY TECHNICAL 

WORK NECESSITY FOR REGULAR AND SCIENTIFIC GYMNASTIC 

'TRAINING ^THIS MUST BE INTELLIGENT, NOT MECHANICAL 

SHOULD BEGIN WITH, OR BEFORE, THE FIRST ATTEMPTS AT 
PLAYING. 

The demands made by composers upon the executive abilities 
of players constitute an ever-increasing quantity. Of this fact 
three representative names^Beethoven, Chopin, Liszt — furnish 
sufficient proof. Students are accordingly obliged to devote 
more and more attention to mere technical study, to the 
training of the implement they are to work with. This would 
be a most serious matter had we only to consider the loss of 
time involved ; for to the student every moment is precious, 
and the day far too short for the work to be done. . Still moi-e 
lamentable is the muscular and nervous strain which is the 
inevitable result, a strain leading often' to a complete break- 
down, or to a deadening of the artistic perceptions and faculties ; 
the latter being perhaps a greater, because a less recognised, 
dknger. One of our cleverest young pianoforte professors has 
told me that he used to devote regularly four or five hours a 
day to mere technical study, with the result that in the 
evening his muscles were in a state of collapse and refused 
altogether to do their work. I am bound to say he has by this 
means attained a very fine technique, but not without serious 
apparent loss in other respects. 

One hears more and more of students who have developed 
some weakness in finger, hand or arm, owing to excessive 
practice at the keyboa,rd, and have consequently been com- 
.pelled to take three or six months' rest. Now this means, not 
only the loss of so much precious time, which can never be 
made up, but also a probable return of the weakness at some 
critical moment of strain and effort, when, as a consequence, 
it is not unlikely tliat the opportunity of becoming distin- 
guished as a performer will be lost for ever. 



8 HAND GYMNASTICS. 

The question for us is : " Is there no remedy for this state 
of things ? " The remedy, I venture to say, lies ready to our 
hand, if we will only take it. 

In order to perform the varied and intricate movements 
needed in pianoforte-playing, the fingers and hand must be in a 
state of perfect development and training. Hitherto, as ex- 
plained in the following chapter, we have endeavoured to secure 
this training solely by exercise at the keyboard ; in many cases 
with fatal results, owing to the undoubted fact that this was 
never intended to serve the purpose of a gymnastic apparatus. 
The consequence has been a vast waste of time, and, in 
countless instances, severe injury to the delicate mechanism 
with which we work. 

A well-known English musician has declared that " All these 
ugly things are a mistake " (referring to technical studies), and 
in one sense he was right in his opinion. Madame Schumann 
says that technical exercises are used to the extent of dragging 
all the music out of the pupil's brain. Von Biilow maintains 
that the flexibility gained by the practice of monotonous five- 
finger exercises is acquired at the cost of a loss of musicai 
intelligence. " Involuntarily," he says, " the performer loses 
all thought of what he is playing. Tfie lack of charm and 
interest in the task produces absent-mindedness, and, finally, 
utter thoughtlessness. The player becomes a mere machine." 

If, however, we are to abandon the bad method, and 
lessen the amount of time devoted to these exercises, we 
must find a good method to take its place. The hand 
should undoubtedlj' be subjected to a simple, yet scientific, 
course of gymnastic exercises before any attempt is made at 
playing, and this training should be persevered in afterwards, 
during the years of musical study, accompanying and supple- 
menting technical exercises on the keyboard. In the ordinary 
employments of life the fingers receive remarkably little training, 
except in the simple action of grasping ; and even in thB best 
developed hands there is generally a lack of controlling power 
over the various sets of muscles, so that it is almost impossible 
to make them act singly. 

A simple experiment will prove this. Take a class of a dozen 
girls and make them try Exercise 22, holding the hand 
straight out with fingers close together, and then opening 
between the middle and ring lingers ; probably half of them 
will be unable to do it freely. If that is the case with such a 
simple motion, how can we expect Ihat the intricate motions 
required at the keyboard can be executed except as the result 
of incessant labour accompanied by a quite unnecessary amount 
of friction and consequently of danger ? 



HAND GYMNASTICS. 9 

In our gymnasiums this fact of the lack of training for 
the hand seems, curiously enough, to have been overlooked ; 
though provision is made for the development of all 
other parts of the body, the fingers have received no 
attention. In only one instance have I found an apparatus 
for their use, and that was merely a set of keys, resembling 
those of the pianoforte, with weights attached. 

It must always be borne in mind that full benefit can only be 
derived from these exercises if they are performed intelligently 
and thoughtfully. Mere mechanical motion of hand or of finger 
will effect nothing ; the. attention must be firmly and un- 
waveringly directed towards the accomplishment of the action 
exactly in, the prescribed way — e.g., in Exercise 17, towards 
preventing the slightest motion or^even trembling of the fingers 
not intended to be moved. 



CHAPTER II. 

PROCESSES INVOLVED IN PLAYING — BALANCE OF OPPOSING MUSCLES 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MUSCLES THE KEYBOARD UNSUIT- 

- ABLE AS A- GYMNASTIC APPARATUS DANGER OF MECHANICAL 

PRACTICE MR. WALTER PYE ON HAMMERMAN's AND WRITER'S 

CRAMP CONTROL THE CHIEF OBJECT OF MUSCULAR TRAINING. 

The art of pianoforte playing, like all other arts, has to depend 
"for the accomplishment of its intellectual ends on physical 
means. 

Without using any technical terms we may describe the 
process of playing as follows : The brain receives certain 
impressions and wills that certain motions shall take place. 
A message is conveyed by the motor nerves from the brain to 
the muscles, whereupon these contract or relax themselves 
(as the case may be) and produce the blows upon the keys. 
The ear acts as a gauge or tell-tale as to whether the muscles 
have done their work properly and carried out the intentions 
of the brain. Thus the motor nerves and the muscles together 
constitute a delicate and sensitive instrument essential to 
our purpose. If this instrument is defective or untrained the 
result must be bad, no matter how finely organised may be the 
brain and the sense of hearing. 

This is surely an unanswerable reply to objectors who say 
that no mechanical training is of any use, that all exercise must 
be artistic. Formed as we are we can work only through 
mechanical means. A great conductor studies a score and 
hears the music perfectly in his mind, but he cannot express 
it on the keyboard, owing to a lack of mechanical muscular 
training. His brain is trained to originate, his ear to act as 
a tell-tale, but nerves and muscles are undeveloped in the 
particular direction needed.. So with an untrained, or im- 
perfectly trained, pianist : his ear is perpetually informing his 
brain that its messages have not been properly delivered and 
acted upon. This irritates and confuses the brain, so that it 



HAND GYMNASTICS. II 

in turn becomes unable to act with the requisite decision and 
delicacy ; and thus the whole artistic nature of the player 
suffers, owing entirely to a lack of scientific mechanical training. 

Now, it will be readily admitted that the keyboard has no 
pretensions to be a gymnastic apparatus suitable for this 
scientific training ; if was not invented for any such purpose. 
The player's hand and arm remain practically always in the 
same position, subject of course to innumerable slight changes, 
which do not however affect the argument. The set of muscles 
exercised is always the same. Here is at once a source of 
weakness. 411 motions of the limbs, all positions of the limbs, 
even in a. state of rest, are the result of a balance between two 
opposing sets of muscles. If one set is strengthened unduly, the 
other set becomes too weak for its work, and gives way. In the 
great majority of cases where weakness is due to excessive 
practice it shows itself at the back of the hand and just above 
the wrist. To Understand the reason of this, let us glance 
briefly at the muscles employed. 

For our present purpose those of the upper arm need 
not be separately considered. Taking the muscles of the fore- 
arm and hand we find two* broad divisions — the flexors and 
extensors. As the reader probably knows, the flexors lie on the 
front of the fore- arm, taking their rise, some from the elbow and 
some from the bones of the fore-arm. They connect with 
tendons, some of which pass through the wrist and are attached 
to the front surfaces of the finger bones, while others are 
attached at the wrist itself. When these flexor muscles contract 
they bend the wrist and fingers. The extensors lie at the back 
of the fore-arm, their tendons being similarly attached to the 
back surfaces of the wrist and finger-bones. Their office is to 
straighten the wrist and fii^gers. It is evident therefore that 
any motion, any position even, of the hand is the result of a 
balstnce between these two opposing sets of muscles, the flexors 
and the extensors. If ,the extensors were absent the hand 
would remain firmly closed ; we should have no power of opening 
it. On the other hand, if the flexors were absent we should 
have no power of closing it. It is easy to perceive the vital 
importance to a pianist of an equal development of each set of 
muscles. 

The numerous muscles in the hand need not be particularised, 
if we bear in mind that this same principle of opposing forces 
applies in every case. They are briefly — muscles which move 
. the fingers sideways (these lie between tfie bones of the hand) ; 
small muscles which connect the extensors and flexors and 
serve to steady the fingers ; muscles for.' moving the thumb 
freely in all directions alid for enabling it to grasp (these lie in the 



12 HAND GYMNASTICS. 

fleshy part at the base of the thumb) ; muscles which act on the 
little finger (these lie in the fleshy mass at the inside of the 
hand). 

All exercise at the keyboard develops the flexors more than 
the extensors ;. for the flexors have not merely to bend the wrist 
and fingers, but also to resist the blow upon the key. This fact 
condemns the keyboard as a gymnastic and muscle-training 
apparatus. It is not merely that the flexors have more work to 
do, but that more attention is devoted to their action in striking 
the note than is given to that of the extensors in lifting the 
fingers. 

This brings us to the important principle of muscular action, 
which must form the foundation of all successful physical 
training. Each exercise must be intelligently and thoughtfully 
performed, with the attention firmly fixed upon the desired end ; 
otherwise the muscles will waste instead of continuing to grow. 
Thi§ point is brought out clearly by Mr. Walter Pye, surgeon 
to St. Mary's Hospital, whom I may be allowed to quote as 
speaking on such a subject with authority beyond that of any 
musician. At a meeting of the Musical Association he said : — 

" Directly the will and intelligence are separated from 
the muscular performance we find at first an increased 
mechanical efficiency, and then,* if the movement is persevered 
in, we get a gradual inefficiency, which ends frequently in 
absolute loss of power. Hammerman's cramp is a striking 
example of this. The manipulation of nails and bolts involves 
hundreds of separate, extremely rapid, movements of the wrist 
and arm.- A good hammerman will go on improving for some 
time, and then gradually will find his power of performing these 
movements become ill-regulated, ill-directed, until at last he 
loses the capacity of guiding his blows at all. On investigation 
it is found that the contraction of these muscles, acting purely 
as they have got to do by long course of habit without the 
intervention and control of the will, instead of being done with 
the head, is done mechanically with the hand and wrist, and 
this has had a degenerating influence upon the muscles until 
they actually waste." Mr. Pye then refers to the case of 
writer's cramp, and to a method of curing it by means of certain 
carefully-devised movements of the muscles affected, performed 
intelligently and thoughtfully, and sums up as follows : " If we 
are to use our muscles properly we must use them with our 
heads." 

The object of muscular training of the hand is threefold, viz. : 
the gaining (i) of strength, (2) of flexibility, and (3) o£ control. 
It is in the third of these that finger-board training is so defective ; 
the reason being that ,perfect control can only be secured by an 



HAND GYMNASTICS. 1 3 

equal and thorough development of all the different sets of 
muscles, which we have already shown to be impossible on the 
keyboard. In the performance of the following exercises, then, 
two things should be constantly remembered : — 

1. All movements must be intelligently and thoughtfully 
performed. 

2. The main o'bject is the gaining of control over the various 
sets of muscles. 

Suppose a pupil has hitherto devoted an hour a day to purely 
technical work at the keyboard ; and that, in place of that, half- 
an-hour is spent at the keyboard and ten minutes, twice a day, 
at gymnastic exercises, at least double the amount of progress 
will be manifest ; while results will be gained as regards 
muscular control which no amount of work at the keyboard 
would ever give. Speaking generally, gymnastics and keyboard 
exercise combined will give more than double the results 
obtainable frorn keyboard exercise alone. 



CHAPTER III. 

CLASSIFICATION OF EXERCISES — VALUE OF GYMNASTICS IN THE 

INTERVALS OF PRACTICE — SELECTED SERIES OF EXERCISES 

CAUTIONS. 

The exercises described in the following chapters are classed 
under five heads : those for developing the muscles of the 
arm, wrist, hand, fingers, and thumb. The division is to 
a certain extent arbitrary, because the action of the various 
sets of muscles is not altogether independent ; the bending and 
straightening of the fingers, for example, being mainly accom- 
plished by muscles which lie in the |ore-arm ; and it will be 
seen that finger exercises are united with the arm exercises. 
Still, this classification is essential as conducing to simplicity, 
and as a help to the student in keeping ever in mind the 
paramount importance of a concentration of all the powers of 
the intelligence upon the particular object in view. Every- 
thing depends upon the way in which the various exercises are 
performed ; a single thoughtful performance being of more 
avail than innumerable careless mechanical repetitions. 

It will be found advantageous to go through a few gymnastic 
exercises in the intervals of practice, where the time devoted to 
it is long. For this purpose Exercise i has special value as 
tending to open the chest and make the lungs act more 
vigorously. The practice of simple breathing is also very 
useful; drawing in the breath with moderate quickness and 
letting it out again as slowly and gently as possible. The 
three methods of distending the lungs must be carefully distin- 
guished. The greatest capacity of the lungs is at their lowest 
part, as they are here broadest ; consequently the best method 
of breathing is the abdominal, in which the diaphragm, a 
membrane lying just under the lungs, is lowered, drawing the 
bottom of the lungs with it. This method causes a slight 
swelling at the pit of the stomach at the moment of inhaling. 



HAND GYMNASTICS. I'S 

The costal method, depending upon a stretching of the elastic 
tissues connecting the ribs, is useful as an auxiliary to the 
abdominal. The scapular method, consisting of a raising of 
the shoulder-blades, should never be used, as it inflates only 
the top or smallest part of the lungs. 

Where only a short time is available for the lesson, care must 
be taken by the teacher to make suitable selections from the 
exercises so as to secure variety and, at the same time, to 
prevent anj' exercises from being altogether omitted. 

The following may serve as a model for six Short lessons, in 
the course of which all the exercises are introduced, the more 
important ones being given twice. The teacher should, of 
course, devote extra time to' any exercise presenting special 
difficulty either to a class or to an individual pupil. 

First Lesson. 

Exercises for the arm ... Nos. i and 2. 

» " wrist ... Nos. 5 II 9. 

" " hand ... No. 11. 

" fingers ... Nos. 16, 19, 22, and 25. 

" II thumb . . No. 31. 

Second Lesson. 

Exercises for the arm ... Nos. i and 2 (variation). 

" " wrist ... Nos. 6 « '8. 

'/ " ■ hand No. 12. 

" " fingers ... Nos. 17, 23, 26, and 29. 

II II thumb ... No. 32. 

Third Lesson. 

Exercises for the arm ... Nos. i and 3. 

" " wrist ... Nos. 7 H 9. 

" " hand ... No. 15. 

II II fingers ... Nos. 18, 21, 24, and 27. 

i> II thumb ... No. 33. 

Fourth Lesson. 

Exercises for the arm ,... Nos. i and 2 (variation). 

II II wrist ... Nos, 4 " 6. 

" " hand ... No. 14. 

II II fingers ... Nos. 16, 25, 26, and 28, 

II II thumb ... No. 34. 



l6 HAND GYMNASTICS. 

Fifth Lesson. 

Exercises for the arm ... Nos, i and 3. 

" n wrist .„ Nos. 9 w 10. 

n II hand .,. No. 13. 

II " fingers ... Nos. 17,- 20, 22, and 24. 

I' thumb- ... No.. 32. 

Sixth: Lesson^ 

Exercises for the arm .„ Nos. i and 2, 

II It wrist ... Nos. 6 « 10. 

II II hand ... No. 15. 

ir II fingers ... Nos. i6r 18, 29, and 3cr, 

I' 1 thumb- ... No. 33. 

The importance of an- intelligent performance of the various 
exercises is so great,, and the necessity of impressing it on the 
pupil's mind so imperative, that it may be well to sum up 
briefly, in the shape of a series of cautions, the conditions 
of success : — 

1. Each exercise has a definite object. 

2. All exercises must be performed thoughtfully and most of 

them slowly. 

3. They must be performed exactly the prescribed number of 

times, 

4. They should produce a feeling of warmth and of slight 

fatigue in the muscles exercised.- 

5. If the least aching or pain is felt it is a sign that the 

exercise has been too vigorously performed. 

6. The exercises must be performed by one hand at a time 

except where the contrary is expressly stated. 

7. The object being to thoroughly train all the muscles and 

to render the hand a perfect instrument, a great variety 
of exercises is essential. 

8. For the same reason the movements which differ most 

from those performed at the keyboard will probably be 
found to be of greatest value. 

9. The mouth must be kept shut and the head erect. 

10. The best results are obtained by the oft-repeated per- 
formance of easy exercises, not by any strain or efibrt. 
These cautions must be constantly borne in mind both by 
teacher and pupil. 



CHAPTER IV. 

exercises for the arm. 

First Exercise. 




Fig. I, a. 



Fig. I, b. 



(a.) Stand upright, with the heels together and the toes 
turned outwards. Stretch out the arms in front of the body, 
with the palms of the hands facing one another; at the same 
moment let the hands be stretched and fingers separated 
as widely as possible. See that the distances between each 
pair of fingers are equal. As the arms and hands are thrust 
forward count one; retain the position while counting two, 
three, if possible increasing the stretch (Fig. i, a.) 

(b.) Bring the elbows back to the side of the body, bend 
them, close the fist tightly and bring it in front of the shoulder 
so that the knuckles touch the body. As the motion is 



iH HAND GYMNASTICS. 

performed count one; retain the position while counting two, 
three, pressing the fingers always more and more tightly into the 
palm of the hand (Fig. i , 6). ' 

(c.) From this position stretch the arms out sideways level 
with the shoulder, opening and stretching the hands and 
fingers as in the first position, keeping the palms in front. 
Count as before. 

(d.) Return to the second position (6), still counting. 

The actual motions should be rapid, but the rate of counting 
should be slow, about sixty to the minute, so that the whole 
exercise may be performed thoughtfully. 

Repeat the four movements, a, b, c, d, first with the palms 
downwards, then with the palms upwards, and, finally, with 
the backs of the hands together. 



Second Exercise. 




Fig. 2. 



{a.) Stretch the right arm out sideways, as in the third 
position of Exercise i, palms in front (Fig. i, a). 

(b.) Keeping the upper arm fixed, bend the elbow, half close 
the hand and bring it up level with the ear, letting it droop a 
little from the wrist (Fig. 2). 

(c.) Stretch out the right arm three times, with the palm first 
up, then down, and finally behind ; return after each movement 
of position b. 

Go thtough the same motions with the left arm. 



HAND GYMNASTICS. Ig 

In every case count one at the moment of performing the 
exercise, and count two at the moment of rest. Should the 
exercise be carelessly or incorrectly performed, the period of 
rest must be doubled by counting three, as in Exercise i. If 
performed properly this Exercise is somewhat tiring ; it will be 
well therefore to practise the arms separately, as recommended 
above. 

Variation of Second Exercise. 

As a useful variation of this exercise, close the fist when the 
arm is stretched out, knuckles downwards, and open it when 
the arm is bent ; but in this case the hand must not be 
stretched out tightly, but hang loosely from the wrist. 

Third Exercise. 
Stretch the right arm out sideways, palm upwards. Keeping 
the upper arm still, let the hand describe a circle, horizontally, 
with the elbow as centre, all the muscles being as relaxed 
as possible. When the hand is farthest from the body the 
palm will be upwards, when nearest, the palm will be down^ 
wards. Repeat four times, and then reverse the motion. Go 
through the same motions with the left arm. 



B 2 



CHAPTER V, 

exercises for the wrist. 

Fourth Exercise. 




Fig 3, a. 

{a.) Bend the hands up from the wrist, keeping the fingers 
curved (Fig. 3, a). Straighten the fingers, stretching out the 
whole hand; then relax again and return to the original 
position. 




Fig. 3, h. 



HAND GYMNASTICS. 



!2I 



(6.) Drop the hands so that they hang down loosely from the 
wrist, with the fingers curved (Fig. 3, b). Straighten the 
fingers, stretching out the whole hand ; then relax again and 
return to the bent position of the fingers. Repeat these 
motions four times. Care should be taken, when straightening 
the fingers, to keep the wrist bent. 

Fifth Exercise. 




Fig. 4, b. 

Turn the hands from side to side at the wrist, so that they 
may point first upwards (Fig. 4, a), then downwards (Fie 4, 6). 
Repeat twelve times with moderate quickness, counting otie at 
the movement, and two when the hands are at rest at either side. 

After the muscles are developed this exercise may with 
advantage be done rapidly. 

Sixth Exercise. 

Keeping the fingers curved and the whole hand relaxed, bend 
the hands round slowly from the wrist, so that they may 
describe a circle, first from right to left eight times, then from 
left to right eight times. 



22 



hand gymnastics. 
Seventh Exercise. 




Fig. 5, b. 



Hold the hands quite loosely, palm upwards, with fingers and 
thumb bent so as to form a hollow (.Fig. 5, a). Turn the hands 
round on the wrists, so that they come palm downwards and 
with the thumbs together (Fig. 5, b). 

Repeat four times slowly and eight times quickly. 

••* 

Eighth Exercise. 




HAND GYMNASTICS. 



23 




Fig. 6, b. 

Clasp the hands loosely together with the fingers interlaced 
and the right-hand thumb outside the left ; approach and retire 
the wrists (Fig. 6, a and 6) twelve times. 

Repeat exercise with left-hand thumb outside. 

Ninth Exercise. 




Fig. 7, b. 



24 



HAND GYMNASTICS. 



Hold the left hand straight out -vvith the thumb at the top. 
With the right hand palm downwards, place the end of the 
middle finger against the centre of the palm of the left hand, 
then keeping the left hand and consequently the end of the 
finger against it still, and also the right elbow still, alternately 
raise and depress the right wrist (Fig. 7,; a and b), four times 
very slowly and eight times quickly. 

Repeat, reversing the hands — i.e., bending the left wrist. 

Where convenient this exercise may be done even more 
easily by resting the finger-tips on a table ; care being taken 
that the table is at the same height as the elbow. 



Tenth Exercise. 




Fig. 8, 6. 



The motion hfere is similar to that in Exercise g, but the 
hand is held sideways, and the wrist bent upwards and down- 
wards in that position. 



CHAPTER VI. 

exercises for stretching the hand. 

Eleventh Exercise. 




Close the left hand tightly. Clasp it with the right hand ; 
placing the right thumb over the' left thumb, and letting the 
riglit-hand fingers lie upon the fingefs of the left hand, the 
small joints being bent round between the knuckles of the left 



26 



HAND GYMNASTICS. 



hand. The right wrist will now be pressed forward against the 
left fingers (Fig. 9, a). Relax the grasp, without letting 
go, and raise the right wrist. Repeat ten times, rather 
^juickly, taking care that the second-joint knuckles of the left 
hand press info the palm of the right. 
Repeat with the hands reversed. 

Twelfth Exercise. 

Clasp the hands tightly, in the same way as in Fig. 6, a, 
having the right thumb outside. Let the finger-tips press 
firmly into the back of the opposing hand. Straighten out the 
fingers, still keeping them interlaced, and the thumbs bent. 
Alternately bend and straighten the fingers six times, taking 
special care that, during both motions, the fingers press one 
another firmly at their roots (close to the large knuckles ) ; this 
last is a very important point. 

Repeat the motions with the left thumb outside. 

Thirteenth Exercise. 

Clasp the hands tightly as in Fig. 6, a, right thumb outside. 
Relax the grasp and throw the hands apart to a distance of 
about a foot. Alternately grasp and relax eight times, but let 
the grasp always be firm, pressing the fingers at the roots. 

Repeat with left thumb outside. 

Fourteenth Exercise. 




Stretch the hands out perfectly flat, making the" fingers even 
bend backwards a little, if possible. Widen the distance 



HAND GYMNASTICS. 



27 



between the tip of the thumb and that of the little finger to the 
utmost extent, keeping the other fingers at equal distances one 
from another (Fig. 10). 

Repeat, fixing the attention upon the stretch — first between 
the ring finger and thumb (the ring and little fingers will 
then be close together) ; next between the middle finger and 
thumb (the middle, ring, and little fingers close together) ; 
and, lastly, between the index finger and thumb. 

Fifteenth Exercise. 




28 HAND GYMNASTICS. 

Stretch both hands out flat, with the fingers bent slightly 
backwards, left hand palm upwards, right hand palm 
downwards. Press the lump formed by the muscles at 
the root of the right "thumb into the hollow of the left 
palm (Fig. ii, a). Keeping the hands rather bent back at 
the wrist, twist them round, in opposite directions, through a 
quarter of a circle (Fig. ii, b), and then back again. 

Repeat six times. 

The same, with the position of the hands reversed. 



CHAPTER VII. 
exercises for the fingers. 

Sixteenth Exercise. 





Fig. 12, a. 



Fig. 12, b. 



Hold the right hand upright with the fingers close together 
and bent a little backwards so as to exercise the extensor 
muscles (Fig. 12, a). Bring the fingers forward at right angles 
to their former position, bending only the knuckle joints 
(Fig. 12, b). The thumb must retain, throughout, a slightly 
bent position, so as to avoid any involuntary motion in 
sympathy with the fingers. ^ 

Repeat four times slowly. 

The same with the left hand. 



Seventeenth Exercise. 




Fig. 13. 



30 



HAND GYMNASTICS. 



Hold the right hand upright as in the preceding exercise, but 
with the fingers not quite touching one another, and bend one 
finger at a time forward from the knuckle joint ; the motion will 
now only be through about an eighth of a circle (Fig. 13). Be 
careful to avoid any sympathetic movement of the other fingers 
or of the thumb. Move each finger six times. 

The same with the left hand. 

Eighteenth Exercise. 




Fig. 14. 

■ Again holding the hand upright, as in Fig. 12, a, bend the 
fingers forward from the middle joints (Fig. 14). It is 
impossible to avoid bending also the end joints, but the 
exercise must be done very slowly and thoughtfully so as to 
reduce the motion of these to a minimum. 

Repeat four times. The large knuckle-joints must be kept 
straight. 

The same with the left hand. 

Nineteenth Exercise. 




Fig. 15. 



HAND GYMNASTICS. 



31 



Holding the hand as in Fig. 12, a, bend the index finger 
forward from the middle joint, taking care the other fingers and 
the thumb remain unmoved. 

Repeat four times, and then do the same with the other 
fingers in succession. The ring finger will probably move 
only half as far as the others. 

The same with the left hand. 



Twentieth Exercise. 





Fig. 16, a. 



Fig. 16, 6. 



Place the hands as ib Fig. 16, a, the left-hand fingers pro- 
jecting about an inch beyond those of the right hand. Very 
slowly bend the left-hand finger tips, using only the end joints 
(Fig. 16, b). 

Repeat six times; then reverse the hands. 



Twenty-first Exercise. 



This is the same as Exercise 20, but each finger is to be 
moved separately, from the end joint, six times backwards and 
forwards. 



32 



hand gymnastics. 
Twenty-second Exercise. 




Fig. 17. 

Stretch the hand out flat as in Fig. 12, a. Separate as 
widely as possible the index and middle fingers, keeping the 
middle, ring, and little fingers close together. 

Repeat six times. 

Do the same, having the space first between the middle and 
ring fingers (Fig. 17), the most difficult position ; and then 
between the rjng and httle finger. 

Separate simultaneously the index and middle fingers, and the 
ring and little fingers, keeping the middle and ring fingers 
close together. 

Twenty-third Exercise, 




Fig. 18. 



HAND GYMNASTICS. 



33 



Hold the right hand with the fingers separated and bent at 
the middle and end joints (Fig. i8). ^ove the middle finger 
slowly firom side to side six times so that it touches alternately 
the index and ring fingers. Then move the ring finger in the 
same way so that it touches the middle and little fingers 
alternately. The ' knuckle-joints must be kept straight, the 
thumb muscles relaxed, and all sympathetic motion of the 
thumb and of the index and little fingers avoided. 

The same with the left hand. 



Twenty-fourth Exercise. 




Fig. 19. 



Place the hands with the palms, fingers, and thumbs firmly 
pressed together. Bend the end joints of the fingers, keeping 
the palms together and the thumbs straight (Fig. 19). 

Repeat six times. 

c 



34 



hand gymkastics. 
Twenty-fifth Exercise. 




Fig. 20, a. 




Fig. 20, b. 

Hold the right hand open but with the muscles slightly 
relaxed (Fig. 20, a). Stretch out so that fingers - and thumb 
project slightly backward from the line of the hand (Fig. 20, b) ; 
the fingers not quite close together. 

Repeat six times. 

The same with the left hand. 

Where it is convenient this exercise should be done at a table ; 
the palm of the hand being pressed firmly down, and then the 
fingers and thumb raised above the level of the table. 



Twenty-sixth Exercise. 

The same as Exercise 25, but with each finger straightened 
separately. Special care is needed in order to keep the whole 
of the palm, and the whole length of the fingers not being 
exercised, pressed flat upon the table. 



hand gymnastics. 
Twenty-seventh Exercise. 



35 




Fig. 21, a. 




Fig. 21, b. 



Stretch the little finger of the right hand so that it touches 
the palm, as near the wrist as' possible (Fig. 21, a) ; the other 
fingers will be more or less bent, but their tips must .not touch 
the palm. Draw the little finger tip along the hand until it is 
as close as possible to the root (Fig. 21, b). 

Repeat six times. 

Treat the other fingers similarly ; but the tips of these will 
not approach their roots so closely as did the tip of the little 
finger. 

The same with the left hand. 



Twenty-eighth Exercise. 




Fig 22. 

Hold the right hand as in Fig. 12, a, but with the fingers 
slightly separated. Keeping the index finger straight, bend the 

c 2 



36 HAND GYMNASTICS. 

other fingers from the second joints, and also bend the thumb 
(Fig. 22). 

Repeat six times. 

Then keep straight the middle, ring, and little fingers in 
succession ; when the ring finger is kept straight, the others 
must be only slightly bent. 

The same with the left hand. 



Twenty-ninth EJxercise. 




Fig 23. 

Hold the right hand out so that the arm and the back of the 
hand form a straight line as far as the knuckle joints, the fingers 
separated and hanging loosely. Raise the fingers so that the 
second joints are higher thari the knuckle joints (Fig. 23), 

Repeat six tirnes. 

The same with th§, left hand. 



Thirtieth Exercise. 
The same as Exercise 29, but each finger lifted separately. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

exercises for the thumb. 
Thirty-first Exercise. 




Fig. 24. 



Place the tip of the right-hand thumb and that of the Httle 
finger together (Fig. 24). Move the former slowly backwards 
and forwards six time's from the tip of the little finger to its 
root. Repeat with each finger in succession ; but in the case 
of the index and middle fingers, the tip of the thumb must be 
brought down only as far as the second joint. 

The same with the left hand. 



Thirty-second Exercise. 




Fig. 25, a. 




Fig. 25, b. 



38 



HAND GYMNASTICS. 



Hold the right hand flat, palm in front (Fig. 25, a). 
Keeping the fingers and the palm straight, move the mass of 
muscle which lies at the root of the thumb so . that it may be 
completely over the palm (Fig. 25, b): Repeat six times, 
stretching this mass of muscle so that it increases the breadth 
of the hand as much as possible (Fig. 25, a). 

The same with the left hand. 



Thirty-third Exercise. 




Fig. 26. 

Hold the right hand as in Fig. 25, a. Then move the mass 
of thumb muscle forwards, and slightly inwards, so that it 
projects' as much as possible (Fig. 26). 

Repeat six times. 

The same with the left hand. 



Thirty-fourth Exercise. 

Let the mass of thumb muscle assume successively the 
positions shown in Figures 25, a; 25, 6 ; 26. After doing this six 
times, reverse the order. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE TECHNICON. 

The foregoing chapters contain a complete course of exercises 
for the systematic training of the arm, the wrist, the hand and 
lingers. If, instead of devoting (say) half-an-hour a day to 
technical work at the keyboard, half that time is spent at the 
keyboard and half in the performance of gymnastic exercises, 
not only will at least double the result be obtained, but there 
will be an immense saving of time, because all these exercises 
can be performed in class. Selections from those given must of 
course be made, longer or shorter according to circumstances, 
and carefully varied _so that no exercises may be neglected 
(see Chap. III., p. 15). Regularity is one great element of 
success : half-an-hour twice a week will not have the same 
effect as ten minutes daily in developing nerves and muscles, 
and so forming an instrument as fit as possible for the work it is 
called to perform. 

With pupils of fifteen years old and upwards still more 
valuable results may be obtained by the use of the Technicon, 
an instrument invented by Mr. J. Brotherhood, of New York, 
for the scientific development of the muscles of the hand and 
arm. It would be foreign to the purpose of the present little 
book to go into detail on the subject of the Technicon, but in its 
construction two fnain principles have been observed — (a) that 
special training must be provided for the extensors ; (6) that 
each individual muscle, or set of muscles, must be exercised 
separately, with the attention firmly fixed on the end desired, 
the result being the training at once of the muscle and the motor 
nerve which acts upon it. The chief effect of a regular course 
of gymnastic exercises on the Technicon is an increased power 
of control over the motions of the fingers, and thus a greater 
command of the finer gradations of tone. There also results 
more strength •gf finger, which in these days of thick strings and 
ever-increasing tension is a not unimportant consideration. 
As a frequent objection to the use of gymnastic exercises is that 



40 HAND GYMNASTICS. 

they merely strengthen the muscles, it is necessary to emphasise 
this statement, that the most valuable result is an increase 
of control such as cannot possibly be gained at the' keyboard. 

Proofs are constantly accumulating that in the majority of 
cases inability to play quick passages arises, not from stiffness 
of muscles and joints, but simply from a lack of this pojver of 
control. What is needed is the ability to use one muscle, or set 
of muscles, while all the others are kept at rest and under 
control. I have discussed the matter with many medical men, 
to whom I have shown the Technicon, and they are all of 
opinion that it is a most valuable invention, doing what it 
professes to do — i.e., developing and training each set of muscles 
individually and scientifically. They think further that it will 
be extensively used, and prove of immense service, in cases 
where there has been a partial loss of muscular and nervous 
energy. 



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GLUCK. 

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H. HEALE. 

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C. SWINNERTON HEAP. 

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Eric the Dane 3 ^ 

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Communion Service, ditto 

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Communion Service, ditto 

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H. H. HUSS. 
Ave Maria (Female Voices) 

F. ILIFFE. 
St. John the Divine 

JOHN WILLIAM JACKSON. 
I cried unto God 

W. JACKSON, 
The Year 

D. JENKINS. 
David and Saul (Sol-fa, 2s.) 

A. JENSEN. 
The Feast op Adonis „ 

W. JOHNSON. 
Ecce Homo 

C. WARWICK JORDAN. 
Blow ye the trumpet in Zion 

N. KILBURN. 
The Silver Star (Female Voices) , 

ALFRED KING. 
The Epiphany 

OLIVER KING. 
By the waters of Babylon (Psalm 137) 
The Naiads (Female Voices) 

J. KINROSS. 
Songs in a Vineyard (Female Voices) 

Ditto, Sol-fa 

H. LAHEE. 
The Sleeping Beauty (Female Voices) 

Ditto, Sol-fa 

LEONARDO LEO. 
Dixit Dominus 

H. LESLIE. 
The First Christmas Morn 

F. LISZT. 

The Legend of St. Elizabeth 

Thirteenth Psalm 

C. H. LLOYD. 

Alcestis 

Andromeda 

Hero and Leander 

The Song of Balder 

The Longbeards' Saga (Male Voices) 
The Gleaners' Harvest (Female Voices) .. 
A Song of Judgment 

W. H. LONGHURST. 
The Village Fair 

HAMISH MACCUNN. 
Lay of the Last Minstrel (Sol-fa, zs.6d.).. 
Lord Ullin's Daughter (Sol-fa, 8d.) 

G. A. MACFARREN. 
SoHOS in a Cornfield (Female Voices) ..< 

May Day (Sol-fa, 6d.) 

The Soldier's Legacy (Operetta) ... 
Outward Bound 



s. d. 

z o 

2 O 

1 O 

2 

1 O 

2 O 
O 4 
O 4 



3 

Z 

X o 

I 6 

a o 

3 

1 o 

2 o 
X 6 
z 6 

3 o 



1 6 

2 6 



2 6 
o 6 



2 6 

6 



3 6 



3 o 

3 O 



3 6 



3 6 
X o 
6 o 



ORATORIOS, 8cc.— Continued. 



A. C. MACKENZIE. s. d. 

The Dream OF JuBAL 2 6 

The Story of Sayid 3 o 

Jason 2 6 

The Bride (Sol-fa, 8d.) ; i o 

The Rose of Sharon (Sol-fa, 2s.) 5 o 

Jubilee Ode 2 6 

The Cotter's Saturday Night 2 o 

The New Covenant i 6 

Veni, Creator Spiritus ... a 

F. W. MARKULL. 

Roland's Horn 2 6 

F. E. MARSHALL. 

Prince Sprite (Female Voices) 2 6 

J. B. McEWEN. 

The Vision OF Jacob 2 o 

J. H. MEE. 

HoRATius (Male Voices) i 

MENDELSSOHN. 

Elijah (Sol-fa, is.) 3 o 

Elijah (Pocket Edition) i o 

As the Hart pants (Psalm 42) i 

Come, LET us sing (Psalm 95) i 

When Israel out of Egypt came (Sol-fa, gd.) i 

Not unto us, O Lord (Psalm 115) i 

St. Paul (Sol-fa, is.) 2 

St. Paul (Pocket Edition) i 

Hymn of Praise (Lobgesang) (Sol-fa, is.) ... i 

Lord, how long wilt Thou forget me ... i 

Ditto, Sol-fa o 

Hear my prayer (s. solo and chorus) ... i 

Ditto ditto o 

Ditto, Sol-fa 

Lauda Sion (Praise Jehovah) (Sol-fa, gd.) ... 2 

The First Walpurgis Night (Sol-fa, is.) ... i 

Midsummer Night's Dream (Female Voices) i 

Athalie (Sol-fa, is.) 2 

Antigone (Male Voices) (Sol-fa, is.) ... 4 

Man is Mortal (Eight Voices) i 

Festgesang (Hymns of Praise) i 

Ditto (Male Voices) i 

Christus (Sol-fa, 6d.) i 

Three Motets for Female Voices i 

Son and Stranger (Operetta) 4 

Loreley (Sol-fa, 6d.) i 

CEdipus at Colonos (Male Voices) 3 

To the Sons of Art (Ditto) i 

Ditto, Sol-fa 

Judge me, O God (Psalm 43) (Sol-fa, ijd.) 

Why rage fiercely the Heathen o 

My God, why, O why hast Thou forsaken 

me (Psalm 22) o 

Sing to the Lord (Psalm 98) o 

Six Anthems for the Cathedral at Berlin. 

For 8 voices, arranged in 4 parts 
Ave Maria (Saviour of Sinners). 8 voices 

MEYERBEER. 

Ninety-first Psalm (Latin) i o 

Ditto (English) 1 o 

B. MOLIQUE. 

Abraham 3 o 

MOZART. 

King Thamos i 

First Mass (Latin and English) i 

Seventh Mass in B flat i 

Communion Service in B flat, Ditto ... t 6 

Twelfth Mass (Latin) i o 

Ditto (Latin and English) (Sol-fa, gd.) i 

Requiem Mass i o 

Ditto (Latin and English) 1 

Ditto Ditto, Sol~fa ... i o 

Litania de Venebabih Altaris {in E flat) I 6 
LiTANiA de-Venerabilt Sacramento (in B 

FLAT) I 6 

Splendente te, Deus. First Motet ... 3 

O God, when Thou appearest. Ditto ... 3 

Have mercy, O Lord. Second Motet ... o 3 

Glory, Honour, Praise. Third Motet ... 3 



o 8 



E. MUNDELLA. 

Victory of Song (Female Voices) 

DR. JOHN NAYLOR. 
Jeremiah ,„ 

J. NESVERA. 

De Profundis . ,., 

HERBERT OAKELEY. 

Selection from a Jubilee Lyric 

REV. SIR FREDK. OUSELEY. 

The Martyrdom of St. Polycarp 

R. P. PAINE. 

The Lord Reigneth (Psalm 93) 

The Prodigal Son 

Great is the Lord 

PALESTRINA. 

Missa Assumpta est Maria 

Missa Pap^ Marcelli 

Missa Brevis 

Missa "O Admirabile Commercium" 

H. W. PARKER. 

The Kobolds 

C. H. H. PARRY. 

De Profundis (Psalm 130) 

Ode on St. Cecilia's Day (Sol-fa, is.) 

Blest Pair of Sirens (Sol-pa, 8d.) 

Funeral Ode (Shirley) ..^ ,. 

Prometheus Unbound 

Judith 

L' Allegro (Sol-fa, is. 6d.) 

Eton 

The Lotus-Eaters (The Choric Song) 

Job 

DR. JOSEPH PARRY. 
Nebuchadnezzar (Sol-fa, is. Gd.) 

B. PARSONS. 

The Crusader 

T. M. PATTISON. 

May Day (Sol-fa, 6d.} 

The Miracles of Christ (Sol-fa, gd.) 

The Ancient Mariner 

The Lay of the Last Minstrel 

A. L. PEACE. 

St. John the Baptist 

PERGOLESI. 
Stabat Mater (Female Voices) (Sol-fa, 6d.) 
GIRO PINSUTI. 

Phantoms— Fantasmi nell' ombra 

A. H. D. PRENDERGAST. 

The Second Advent 

E. PROUT. 

Damon and Phintias (Male Voices) 

The Red Cross Knight (Sol-fa, 2s,} 

The Hundredth Psalm 

Freedom 

Hereward 

Queen Aim^e (Female Voices). 

PURCELL. 

Dido and ^neas 

Te Deum and Jubilate in D ,.. 

J. F. H. READ. 

Harold 

Bartimeus 

Caractacus 

The Consecration of the Banner 

In the Forest (Male Voices) 

Psyche 

J. V. ROBERTS. 
Jonah 

W. S. ROCKSTRO. 
The Good Shepherd 

ROLAND ROGERS. 
Prayer and Praise 



s. d. 

1 

3 

2 6 

1 o 

2 6 



2 6 

3 
3 6 

1 6 

2 O 

2 6 

2 6 

2 6 



E 6 



2 6 



1 6 

2 6 

I 6 

I 

5 o 

3 
1 6 

4 o 



ORATORIOS, Sec—Continued. 



ROMBERG. a. a. 
Thb Lay of the Bell (New Edition, trans- 
lated BY the Rev. J. Troutbeck, D.D.) i o 

Ditto, Sol-fa o 6 

The Transient and the Eternal (Sol-pa, 4d.) i o 

ROSSINI. 

Stabat Mater (Sol-fa, is.) i o 

Moses in Egypt 6 o 

CHARLES B. RUTENBER, 

Divine Love a 6 

C. SAINTON-DOLBY. 

Florimel (Female Voices) 2 6 

CAMILLE SAINT-SAENS. 
The Heavens declare — Cceli enarrant 

(Psalm 19) i 6 

FRANK J. SAWYER, 

The Star in the East x 6 

SCHUBERT. 

Mass in A flat z o 

Communion Service, ditto 2 o 

Mass in E flat 2 o 

Communion Service, ditto 2 o 

Mass in B flat z o 

Communion Service, ditto 2 o 

Mass in C z o 

Communion Service, ditto a o 

Mass in G z o 

Communion Service, ditto 2 o 

"Mass in F i o 

Communion Service, ditto 2 o 

Song of Miriam (Sol-fa 6d.) z o 

SCHUMANN. 

The Minstrel's Curse i 6 

The King's Son i o 

Mignon's Requiem i o 

Paradise and the Peri (Sol-fa, zs. 6d.) ... a 6 

Pilgrimage of the Rose i o 

Manfred i 

Faust 3 

Advent Hymn, "In Lowly Guise" i o 

New Year's Song (Sol-fa, 6d.) x o 

H. SCHUTZ. 

The Passion of our Lord i 

BERTRAM LUARD SELBY. 
Choruses and Incidental Music to 

"Helena in Troas" 3 6 

J. SHORT. 

Mass (S. George) S ^ 

Mass (S.Ioseph) s o 

E. SILAS. 

Mass in C i 

Communion Service in C x € 

Joash 4 o 

R. SLOMAN. 

Supplication and Praise 5 o 

HENRY SMART. 

King Rent's Daughter (Female Voices) ..26 

The Bride of Donkerron (Sol-fa, is. 6d.) 2 o 

J. M. SMIETON. 

King Arthur (Sol-fa, is.) 2 6 

Ariadne (Sol-fa, gd.) a o 

ALICE MARY SMITH. 

The Red King (Men's Voices) i o 

Thb Song of the Little Baltong (ditto) i o 

Ditto, Sol-fa o 8 

Ode to the North-East Wind i 

Ode to the Passions « o 

A. SOMERVELL. 

Mass in C minor * ^ 

CHARLTON T. SPEER. 

The Day Dream * ° 

SPOHR. 

Mass (Five Solo Voices and Double Choir) 2 

Hymn to St. Cecilia i o 



SFOHR.— continued, s d. 

Calvary 2 6 

Fall of Babylon 3 o 

Last Judgment (Soi^fa, is.) ... i 

The Christian's Prayer z o 

God, Thou art great (Sol-fa, 6d.) i o 

How lovely are Thy dwellings fair ... o 8 

Jehovah, Lord OF Hosts o 4 

JOHN STAINER. 

The Crucifixion (Sol-fa, gd.) i 6 

St. Mary Magdalen (Sol-fa, is.) a o 

The Daughter OF Jairus (Sol-fa, gd.) ... i 6 

C. VILLIERS STANFORD. 

Eden 5 o 

The Voyage of Maeldune 2 6 

Carmen S/ecularb ... i 6 

The Revenge (Sol-fa, gd.) i 6 

God is our Hope (Psalm 46) 2 o 

CEdipus Rex (Male Voices) 3 o 

The Battle of the Baltic i 6 

H. W. STEWARDSON. 

Gideon ..40 

J. STORER. 

The Tournament 2 o 

E. C. SUCH. 

Narcissus and Echo ..30 

God is our Refuge (Psalm 46) i 

ARTHUR SULLIVAN. 

The Golden Legend (Sol-fa, as.) 3 6 

Odefor the Colonialand Indian Exhibition i o 

Festival Te Deum i o 

W. TAYLOR. 

St. John the Baptist 4 o 

A. GORING THOMAS. 

The Sun-Worshippers i o 

E. H. THORNE. 

Be merciful unto me i o 

FERRIS TOZER. 

King Neptune's Daughter (Female Voices) 2 6 

VAN BREE. 

St. Cecilia's Day (Sol-fa, gd.) 1 o 

CHARLES VINCENT. 

The Village Queen (Female Voices) ... 2 6 

The Little Mermaid (ditto) ... 2 6 

W. M. WAIT. 

The Good Samaritan 2 u 

R. H. WALKER. 

Jerusalem 3 ^ 

WEBER. 

In Constant Order (Hymn) ■ x 6 

Mass in G (Latin and English) i o^ 

Mass in E flat (ditto) x o 

Communion Service in E flat i 6 

Jubilee Cantata i o 

Preciosa I o 

Three Seasons x o 

S. WESLEY. 

In exitu Israel o 4 

Dixit Dominus i o 

S. S. WESLEY. 

O Lord, Thou art my God i o 

C. LEE WILLIAMS. 

The Last Night at Bethany (Sol-fa, is.) ... 3 o 

Gethsemane 3 o 

THOMAS WINGHAM. 

Mass in D 3 o 

Te Deum (Latin) i 6 

CHAS. WOOD. 

Ode to the West Wind „. i o 

J. M. W. YOUNG. 

The Return of Israel to Palestine „. 2 6 



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SIX TWO - PART SONGS. 

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EIGHTEEN TWO - PART 
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NINE SACRED DUETS (Sop. 
and Cont.) 2/6 — 

SCHUMANN. 

THIRTY - FIVE VOCAL 
DUETS (German and Eng- 
lish words) 2/6 — 

CHARLES WOOD, 

SIX TWO-PART SONGS. 
For Solo Voices (or Female 
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LIFE OF MOZART 

BY 

OTTO JAHN. 

Translated from the German by Pauline D. Townsend. 

With five Portraits, and Preface by George Grove, D.G.L. 

Three Volumes, Cloth, price £i iis. 6d. 

" Mr. Grove, in his brief and able preface, calls the publication in an English 
dress of Otto Jahn's iamous biography of Mozart ' an event in our musical history,' 
and his statement cannot be considered an exaggeration. . . . The English public 
is to be congratulated upon a translation of his monumental effort which may 
vrithout exaggeration be called excellent. Miss Tovirnsend has done her work writh 
skill and conscientiousness, and we doubt whether a much more careful comparison 
with the original than we have thought it necessary to undertake would discover 
many, or any, serious blunders." — The Times. 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

HIS WORK AND INFLUENCE ON THE MUSIC OF GERMANY, 1685-1750 



BY 



PHILIPP SPITTA 

translated from the GERMAN BY 

CLARA BELL AND J. A. FULLER-MAITLAND. 
Three Volumes, price £2 2S. 



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have compared it, very faithful to the original, but it is thoroughly readable. . . . 
Nevertheless, his book is a sterling work which ought to be on Ae shelves of every 
musician; and we congratulate the translators and the publishers on having 
successfiilly completed the arduous task of presenting it in an English dress." — 
The Athenaum. 



FREDERICK CHOPIN 

AS A MAN AND MUSICIAN 

BY 

FREDERICK NIECKS. 

With a Portrait, etched by H. R. Roeertsok, and Fac-siuiles op the Composer's MS. 

Two Volumes, Cloth, price £1 5s. 



" Mr. Niecks's work at once takes its place among standard biographies. Great 
Musicians — the first complete and wholly satisfactory life of Chopin that has been 
written. Mr. Niecks may be assured that its successiiil achievements places him in 
the front rank of musical biographers ; while, at the same time, the production of 
so able and adequate a work adds one more to the laurels earned by the distinguished 
firm that has already given us in English form Otto Jahn's ' Mozart ' and Spitta's 
' Bach.' " — Sunday Times. 

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ORATORIOS, CANTATAS, &c. 



PRICE ONE SHILLING EACH. 



And6rton, T. — The Norman Baron. 

The Wreck of the Hesperus. 

Aspa, E. — The Gipsies. 

Astorga — Stabat Mater. 

Bach — God so loved the World. 

God qoeth up with shouting. 

-^ — God's time is the best. 

My spirit was in heaviness. 

O Light everimsting. 

Bide with us. 

A stronghold sure. 

Magnificat. 

Thou Guide of Israel. 

— - Jesu, priceless Treasure. 

Jesus, now will we praise Thee. 

When will God recall mv spirit. 

Barnby, J, — Rebekah. 

Beethoven — The Choral Fantasia. 

The Choral Symphony (the Vocal 

portion). 

Engedi. 

Mount of Olives. 

Mass, in C (Latin Words). 

'Mass, IN C. 

Ruins of Athens. 

Bendly Karel. — Water -Sprite's Re- 
venge (Female Voices). 

Bennett, Sir W. S. — Exhibition Ode, 
1862. 

Betjemann, &. R. — The Sonq of the 

Western Men. 

Brahms, J. — a Song op Destiny. 

Bridge, J. F. — •Rock of Ages. 

Bunnett, E. — Out of the deep (Ps. 130). 

Carissimi— Jephthah. 

Cherubini — •Requiem Mass, in C minor. 

Third Mass, in A (Coronation). 

Fourth Mass, in C. 

Costa, Sir M. — The Dream. 

ElliCOtt, Rosalind F.— Elysium. 

Franz, Robert. — Praise yb the Lord 
(117th Psalm). 



Gade, Niels W.— Zion. 

Spring's Message. 8d, 

Christmas Eve. 

The Erl-King's Daughter. 

Garrett, G. — Harvest Cantata. 
Gluck — Orpheus (Act U.) 

Goetz, Hermann. — by the Waters of 

Babylon. 

NCENIA. 

Goodheart, A. M. — earl Haldan's 

Daughter. 

Gounod, Ch. — De Profundis(Ps. 130). 

Ditto (Out of Darkness). 

Messe Solennelle (Latin Words), 

The Seven Words of our Saviour on 

the' Cross. 

Daughters of Jerusalem. 

* Gallia. 

Grimm, J. 0. — The Soul's Aspiration. 

Hecht, E. — O may I join the Choir In- 
visible. 

Handel. — Chandos Te Deum. 

Ode on St. Cecilia's Day. 

The Ways of Zion. 

Messiah (Pocket Edition). 

Israel in Egypt (Ditto). 

Judas Maccabjeus (Ditto). 

Dettingen Te Deum. 

Utrecht Jubilate. 

O Praise the Lord. 

Acis AND Galatea. 

Acis AND Galatea. Edited by J. 

Barnby. 

Haydn. — The Creation (Pocket Edition). 

Spring. Summer. Autumn. Winter. 

~- — *First Mass, in B flat. 

First Mass, in B flat (Latin). 

Second Mass, in C (Latin). 

Third Mass (Imperial). (Latin). 

*Third Mass (Imperial). 

•Te Deum. 

Hiller, Dr. — a Song of Victory. 

Hofmann, H. — Song of the Norns 
(Female Voices). 

Hummel. — First Mass, in B flat, 

- Second Mass, in E flat. 
Third Mass, in D. 



DATE DUE 




May I- 

Mackenzi 
Mee, J. H~ 
Mendelss- 

Elija: 

LOREI— 

HVMN 

As TH_ 

Come, 

WHE^_ 

Not t 

Lord, 

Hear^- 

The I 

MiDSt— 

Man j 

Festc_ 

Festc 

ChRI! 

To T^"" 



'2'li 1 



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-♦Thre*- 



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MAR 1 i 1996 



Meyerbe 

giST x~aAi<ai ^i^ugiisu tiwiuo/. 

Mozart. — Kino Thamos. 

*FiRST Mass. 

Seventh Mass (Latin). 

Twelfth Mass (Latin), 

*Twelfth Mass. 

Keijuiem Mass (Latin). 

^•Requiem Mass. 

Uundella, E. — victory of Sonq (Female 
Voices). 

Paine, K.'P. — The Lord Reigneth(Ps.93). 

Great is the Lord. 

Parker, H. W. — The Kobolds. 

Parry, C. H. H. — Blest Pair of Sirens. 

Ode from the Contention of Ajax 

AND Ulysses. 

Pergolesi. — Stabat Mater (Female V.). 

Pinsuti, C. — Phantoms. 



im 



2^m^ 



r Lord. 



-G OF the 
Dices). 



GAYLORD PRINTED INU.S. A. 

^ ,Psalm46). 

Sulliyan, A, — Exhibition Odk. 
Festival Te Deum. 

Thomas, A. Goring. — The Suh Wor. 

shippers. 

Thome, E. H. — Be Merciful unto me. 

Yajl Bree. — St. Cecilia's Day. 

Waller, Hilda. — The Singers (Female 
Voices). 

Weber, C. M. Yon. — Preciosa. 

*Mass, in G. 

'Mass, in E flat. 

Jubilee Cantata. 

Three Seasons. 

Wesley, S. — Dixit Dohinus. 

Wesley, S. S. — O Lord, Thou art my God. 

Wood, C. — Ode to the West Wind. 

The Works marked • have Latin and English Words. 



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