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Full text of "A music primer for schools"

— ">?7 uSf< 



7 



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




MUSIC 



Cornell University Library 
MT 7.T86 1890 



A music primer 'flJ!,,,?,?,!?,?,?!!^ 




3 1924 021 801 075 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis bool< is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924021801075 



Clmnkn |ms Mm 



MUSIC PRIMER 



TROUTBECK AND DALE 



HENRY FROWDE 




Oxford University Press Warehouse 
Amen Corner, E.C. 



Clamtbmt ^«ss $nm 



A MUSIC PRIMER 



FOR SCHOOLS 



BY 



THE REV. JOHN TROUTBECK, D.D. 

HON. CHAPLAIN TO THE QUEEN 

AND MINOR CANON OF WESTMINSTER 

FORMERLY MUSIC MASTER IN WESTMINSTER SCHOOL 



AND 



THE REV. REGINALD F. DALE, M.A., B. Mus. 

RECTOR OF BLETCHINGDON, OXON. 
FORMERLY ASSISTANT MASTER IN WESTMINSTER SCHOOL 



#^f0rb 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1890 

[ AU rights rescrved'\ 



PREFACE. 

This Primer was written at the suggestion of the Rev. 
Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., Professor of Music in the 
University of Oxford, and has received his revision and 
approval. 

It is intended to be introductory to his Treatises on 
Harmony and Counterpoint. 

As its title implies, it has special reference to the re- 
quirements of Schools. 

Any remarks which may tend to improve future 
editions will be thankfully received and fully considered 
by the authors. 

Westminster School, 
July 1873. 

In the present edition a few corrections have been 
made, and an Appendix containing exercises has been 
added. 

Westminster School, 
January 1874. 



CONTENTS. 

FAQB 

Introduction i 

Chapter I. Notation . 8 

Chapter II. Pitch . 12 

Chapter III. Intervals and the Scale , . .18 

Chapter IV. Rhythm and Time ... 36 

Chapter V. Signs and Marks of Expression, <Scc. . . 43 

Appendix .......... 53 

Index 61 



INTRODUCTION. 



1. Sound is the effect on the ear of a wavelike (undulatory) 
motion of an elastic medium, caused by the vibrations of an elastic 
body. 

2. When the vibrations occur at regular intervals, and the waves 
are therefore of equal length, a musical sound is produced. 

3. Musical sounds diifer from each other (independently of their 
duration) in intensity, character, and pitch, — determined respectively 
by the extent, form, ^nd frequency of the vibrations. 

4. Intensity, which depends on the extent of the vibrations, 
regulates the loudness or softness of a sound. 

5. Character, which is also called quality or complexion (French 
timbre, ' stamp'; German klangfarbe, ' sound-tint'), has already been 
said to depend on the form of the vibrations. Difference in character 
enables us to distinguish between voices and instruments, different 
kinds of voices, and different kinds of instruments. 

6. The human voice may be divided into two classes, each of 
which may again be subdivided, as follows : — 

1. Female or high voices (including those of children of both 
sexes) : — 

1. Soprano or Treble, the highest ; 

2. Mezzo-soprano, the intermediate ; 

3. Contralto, the lowest. 

B 



a MUSIC PRIMER. 

2. Male or low voices : — 

1. Alio or Counkr tenor, an exceptionally high voice ; 

2. Tenor, the highest ordinary voice ; 

3. Barytone, the intermediate ; 

4. Bass, the lowest. 

The terms ' contralto,' ' alto," and ' countertenor,' are used somewhat vaguely, 
all three being applied to voices of the same range. • Contralto ' is generally 
used of a female voice, ' countertenor' of a male, 'alto' being sometimes inac- 
curately applied to either. 

The names of the voices are thus derived : — 

1 . Bass, Low Latin bassus, ' broad.' 

2. Barytone, Greek fiapis, ' heavy,' ' deep,' and t6vos, ' a tone.' 

3. Tenor, Latin feneo, ' I hold' : so called because it formerly held the prin- 

cipal melody when sung by men. This was called canlus, or canto, 
when sung by boys or women. 

4. Coimtertenor, Latin contra tenorem, answering to the tenor. 

5. Alto, Latin altus, ' high.' 

6. Contrailto, Latin contra altum, answering to the alto. 

7. Mezzo-soprano, Latin medius, 'middle,' and Low Latin superaitus, 

'high.' 

8. Soprano, Low Latin superantis, ' high.' 

9. Treble, Latin frif/e«, 'triple': so called, either as applied to the third 

(i. e. the highest) octave of the vocal register, or as being formerly the 
third (i.e. the highest) part in part-singing. 

7. Mitsical Instruments may be divided into three classes : — 

1. Stringed instruments ; 

2. Wind instruments ; 

3. Instruments of Percussion ; 
of which the principal are the following : — 

1. Stringed instruments. 

1. Violin. T 

2. Viola. Their vibration eflfected by the 

3. Violoncello. bow. 

4. Double Bass. 



INTRODUCTION. 

5. Harp. ■) 

6. Guitar. / ^'^^^^ ^^ ha"<^- 

7. Pianoforte. With keys. 

2. W%Z(f inslruimnts. 

(i) Of Wood:— 

1. Piccolo. ) 

2. Flute. ) Without reeds. 

3. Hautboy. 0B0£ • 

4. Clarinet. \ With reeds. 

5. Bassoon. 



(2) Of Metal:— 

1. Trumpet. 

2. Cornet. 

3. Horn. 

4. Trombone. 



With mouthpiece, and of brass. 



(3) Of Wood and Metal :— 
I. Organ. 



2. Harmonium. 



I With keys. 



3. Instruments of Percussion. 

1. Drum. 

2. Cymbal. 

3. Triangle. 

8. Pitch has been already said to depend on the frequency 
of the vibrations : a sound being higher or lower as the vibrations 
are more or less frequent. 

9. There must be at least sixteen complete (or double) vibrations 
in a second to produce a musical sound. 

10. The sound which is produced by twice as many complete 
vibrations as are required to produce any given sound is called the 

B 2 



MUSIC PRIMER. 



octave of that sound ; and on this principle, starting from the sound 
produced by sixteen vibrations, it has been shown that the human 



Vibrations 
per second. 

32768 



3 
4) 

B 



• c 







• c 






r 


- : 







3 


• c -^ 




§ 


H 




" 


s. 






■3 

u 




r • C 


'< 











!> 


i- 








M 


•c 


- 




L 


L : 





• cc 



'CCC 



• cccc 



16384 

8192 
4096 
2048 
1024 

256 

128 

64 

3» 
16 



ear can distinguish sounds extending through eleven octaves, — the 
upper limit being the sound produced by 32,768 vibrations in a 
second. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

11. An octave, as its name implies, is so called because it is the 
eighth of the series of sounds into which the interval between any 
sound and its octave is most commonly divided. It so perfectly 
coincides with the first sound of the series as to appear the same. 
Hence, excluding the octave, there are in this series seven distinct 
sounds, constantly recurring in the same order as we ascend in 
pitch, and forming what is called the Diatonic scale, 

12. This series is named after the first seven letters of the 
alphabet, or after the syllables Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si: of 
which Do corresponds to C ; thus— 

CDEFGABC 

Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Si Do. 

Of these. Do was substituted for Ut, for the sake of the better 

emission of sound ; the seven syllables originally used being the 

initial syllables of a verse in a hymn to St. John : — 

Ut queant laxis TJ^sonare fibris 

Mix2. gestorum i^amuli tuorum, 

Solve poUuti Zabii reatum ; 

.Sancte Johannes. 
These seven letters may be made to denote the absolute pitch of a note by- 
such a system as that used in the figures to §§ lo and 35, though other 
systems are found. 
In Germany B is called H ; and what we call BI' is called B. 
Experiments show that, Do being the first or lowest sound of the scale, 

for every 24 vibrations of Do there are 37 of Re 

„ .. » 3° °f ^^ 

„ „ .. 32 of Ta 

.. 36 of Sol 

„ >• 40 of La 

45 of Si 

.. 48 of Do. 

Thus, if we take Do to be the note of 256 vibrations, we get the series 

cdef gibe 

Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Si Do. 

256 288 320 341 384 426 480 512 

The ahsolute pitch of a note is fixed by the number of vibrations ; the relative 

pitch of two notes is found by comparing these : and just as the interval 



6 MUSIC PRIMER. 

between two notes is an octave if the ratio of their vibrations is as tw^ to one, 
so the interval between any two notes is measured by the ratio of their vibra- 
tions. 

So too the sum of any two intervals is found by multiplying the correspond- 
ing ratios : and the difference by dividing them. 

Hence the intervals from Do to each of the other notes of the scale in order 
are as follows : from 

Do to Re is called a second, and measured by fj = f 



„ Mi 


„ major third. 


„ < 




M = 4 


„ Fa 


fourth. 


», » 




lf = f 


„ Sol 


„ Mh. 


» > 




M = 5 


„ La 


„ major sixth, 


i» 




14 = 1 


„ Si 


„ major seventh. 


» > 




«=¥ 


„ Do 


„ eighth or octave. 


„ 




11=2- 


Besides these, we have the following intervals 


: from 






La to Do 


is called a minor third; 


measured by |^ 


= S 


Mi to Do 


„ minor sixth ; 


»» 


U 


= 1 



Hence the Diatonic major scale will be represented thus — 
Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Si Do. 
I I S f S I ¥ 2 
Forming the intervals between the successive notes of this scale, by dividing 
each ratio by the preceding, we get 

Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Si Do. 
I V if f ¥ f if 
Here there are three distinct intervals : f or the major tone ; '^ or the minor 
tone ; i^ or the major semitone. 

Besides these, the ioterval between a major and minor third, represented by 
s ->^=g^, is called a minor semitone ; and that between a major and minor tone, 
represented by |-i^ ^5° =tJ, is called a comma. 

Of these, two major semitones are greater than a major tone, since U x -J^ is 
greater than f ; while two minor semitones are less than a minor tone, since 
f^xf J is less than ^. A major and a minor semitone are equal to a minor 
tone, since T|xfJ= ^. 

In order to obtain perfect harmony the above ratios should be accurately 
maintained, whatever be the note we start from, or Key-note, as it is called. 
But a great number of key-notes are employed in music ; and it is practically 
impossible, at least in fixed-toned instruments, like the piano or organ, to 
maintain these ratios strictly for all of them. Only one scale in such an in- 
strument can be absolutely perfect. Compromise of some sort, therefore, 
becomes necessary; and different systems of compromise are called different 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

modes of temperament. The simplest mode of temperament, and the one most 
in favour now, is that which is called equal temperament. By this the octave is 
divided into twelve equal parts, called mean semitones. The difference between 
a major and minor tone (i.e. the comma) is ignored, and the mean semitone is 
exactly half of either. 
By this division of the octave we have the following 



Table of Intervals. 




The mean minor second 


= I mean 


semitone. 


„ major second 


= 2 mean 


semitones. 


„ minor third 


= 3 


„ 


major third 


= 4 


1* 


„ perfect fourth 


= '5 


„ 


perfect fifth 


= 7 


„ 


„ minor sixth 


= 8 


J, 


„ major sixth 


= 9 


„ 


„ minor seventh 


= 10 


„ 



„ major seventh = 1 1 „ 

The octave =12 „ 

The difference between the tempered and natural scale of C is shown by the 
following table, which gives the number of complete vibrations per second for 
each note of the middle octave of the ordinary piano. 





Tempered Scale. 


Natural Scale. 


I, Do 


256 


256 


d Re 


287-3 


288 


e Mi 


322.5 


320 


f Fa 


341.7 


341 


gSol 


383.6 


384 


i La 


430.S 


426 


b Si 


483.3 


480 


c Do 


SJ2 


512 . 


of the Paris Conservatoire is 


about 258.7. 


»i 


Concert-pitch 


269. 


„ 


Italian opera 


273. 


„ 


Society of Arts 


264. 


M 


Philharmonic Society 


268.5, 



The c of Handel is said to have been about 249.1. 

The number of vibrations corresponding to any given note may be counted 
by an instrument called the Siren, a full description of which is given in 
'Sound and Music,' by Sedley Taylor. 



CHAPTER I. 

Notation. 

13. The alphabet of music chiefly consists of characters called 
notes, which vary in form according to the relative duration of the 
sounds which they are used to represent. 

14. The number of notes in common use is six : viz. 

1. Semibreve a, an open or white note. 

2. Minim <sJ, a note with an open or white head and a stem. 

3. Crotchet J , a note with a close or black head and a stem. 

4. Quaver J^, a note with a close or black head, and a stem 

with one hook. 

5. Semiquaver ^, a note with a close or black head, and a 

stem with two hooks. 

6. Demisemiquaver J*, a note with a close or black head, and 

a stem with three hooks. 

15. Each of these notes is twice as long as the note after it 
thus — 

(S> Semibreve. 



2 


J 


Minim. 


4 


2 


J 


Crotchet. 


8 


4 


2 


.^ 


Quaver. 


16 


8 


4 


2 
4 


.^S 


32 


16 


8 


' 


i 



J* Demisemiquaver. 



NOTATION. 



16. Or the comparative value of these notes may be represented 
in the following way : — 

I semibreve iS is equal to 



I 



r 



4 crotchets T i* I* i* of 

8 quavers CuCCCCuC ""^ 

i6 semi- mffppfffpp fTm pTm ^^ iTm 
quavers ^tftf^^i^^Blgl^^btfl^^^ °'' 

32 demisemiquavers ( ji ) . 

17. Sometimes, three notes (called a /n)5/i?/) are performed 
in the time of two notes of the same value. Triplets generally 
have a curve and figure 3 placed over or under them, thus — 

fF^ ^ 

18. Other similar groups are found, also distinguished by a 
curve and figure indicating the number of notes to be played. 

19. To each note there corresponds a character called a Rest, 
to represent an equal duration of silence. 

Semibreve rest — ^ — - below the line. 
Minim rest — -■■■ — above the line. 

Crotchet rest I* or J* turned to the right. 

Quaver rest ^ turned to the left. 

Semiquaver rest i| turned to the left. 

Demisemiquaver rest 9 turned to the left. 

20. A dot placed after a note or rest makes it half as long 
again, thus — 



/-3 ' = /-J 






= - — p- 



&c., &c. &c., &c. 



lO MUSIC PRIMER. 

21. If a second dot is added, it lengthens the note or rest by 
half as much again as the first dot ; i. e. by three-fourths alto- 
gether, thus — 



<^ 



I 

r 




-F— 



- - r - 
■ — 1* "1 


1 1 



&c., &c. &c., &c. 



22. When a note or rest is to be lengthened indefinitely, this 
character its , called a pause, is placed over or under it. 

23. The stems of notes may be turned up or down : the stems 
of rests are always turned down. 

24. Hooked notes are frequently grouped or contracted, without 
alteration of their value, thus — 

JJCJ = ZIZI =-? 
S £ £ £ = £:^r ° ^ **=■' *'=• 

Rests are never grouped. 

The notes and corresponding rests formerly used were as follows : — 



I. Maxim (greatest) 


1 1 


2. Long 


1 

«— 1 


3. Breve (short) 


^ 


4. Semibreve (half-short) 





6. Minim (least) 


t 



The maxim and the long are out of use, although their corresponding rests, 
as well as the breve rest, are still found : the breve (now written thus ^ , or 
||o||) is rarely found except in ecclesiastical music; thus the semibreve (origin- 
ally the shortest note but one) is the longest in modem use. 



NOTATION. 



II 



To these notes was afterwards added the crotchet, originally a hooked 

minim (French crochet, 'a hook'). When the crotchet took its present form, 

the hook was transferred to the quaver — a name derived from the Spanish 

quiebro, and connected with our own quiver, referring to the short duration of 

the note. 

m 
Shorter notes than the demisemiquaver, i. e. the semidemisemiquaver k , and 

. . r - ^ 

the demisemidemisemiquaver g, are found in modem instrumental music. In 

vocal music even the demisemiquaver rarely occurs. 

The French name the modern notes after their forms : the Germans after their 
relative durations. 



FR. Ronde. 
Round. 

GER. Ganze note. 
Whole note. 



Blanche. 
White. 



Halbe note. 
Half-note. 



Noire. 
Black. 



Viertel. 
Fourth. 



Croche. 
Hook. 

Achtel. 
Eighth. 



Double croche. 
Double hook. 



Triple croche. 
Triple hook. 



Sechzehntel. Zwei-und-dreiszigstel. 
Sixteenth. Thirty-second. 



25. It would be much easier to learn and understand the series 
of modern notes, if they were named after their relative durations, 
according to the German system. It is absurd that what is now 
our longest note should still be called a semibreve, i. e. half-short, 
and our longest note but one a minim, i. e. the least note. There 
is also an absurdity in applying the name crotchet {hooked!) to a note 
which now has no hook. The table of notes would be as follows : — 

o Whole Note. 



2 c^ Half-Note. 



4 ! 2 J Quarter-Note, or Fourth. 
J* Eighth. 

^ Sixteenth. 



i6 



32 16 



Thirty-second. 



CHAPTER 11. 

Pitch. 

28. The relative pitch of musical sounds is represented to the 
eye by the position of notes on or between certain parallel and 
horizontal straight lines, drawn across the paper from margin to 
margin. These lines are called \!a.t Stave. 

27. Eleven lines are required to represent in a regular series 
the ordinary extent of the human voice, male and female. 
This stave is called the Great Stave of Eleven Lines. 



rsr 



'=^^ 



-^-zzi 



^^^ 



^^^^ 



ilSTi 



— ^Si— = 

28. As no one human voice can execute the whole of the 
twenty-three sounds here represented, the great stave is sub- 
divided into smaller staves of five lines each, which have been 
found practically sufficient for the average compass of each 
distinct species of voice. 

29. The stave in ordinary use thus consists of five lines and 
four spaces, both lines and spaces being reckoned upwards, the 
lowest being the first. 

Formerly the whole eleven lines were occasionally used; and sometimes 
eight, seven, six, four, or three. Sometimes the lines only, and not the spaces, 
were used. 



PITCH. 13 

30. But as the absolute pitch of a note cannot be determined' 
by its position on the stave, it is necessary to fix the pitch of 
one particular note, from which the others may be reckoned ; 
and to express it by a written character. 

31. The sound produced by 256 double vibrations of an elastic 
body in a second is the one which has been taken as the starting- 
point; and it is represented by the character K or H , called a, clef 
(French clef, a key), placed on the middle line of the great stave. 

32. The sound fixed by this clef is the ' middle C ' of the 
pianoforte. 

33. We have seen that five lines of the great stave are all that 
are generally required in writing for separate voices or instru- 
ments. It is obvious that in selecting the five adjacent lines to 
be used for the stave, we must be guided by a consideration of 
the place in the range of musical sounds of the notes we have 
to write. 

34. Thus, if we are writing for voices or instruments of the 
lowest range, we must select the five hues at the bottom of the 
great stave. 

These lines do not include the fixed sound C. It is therefore ne- 
cessary to fix the pitch of some sound within the limits of this stave. 
The sound which is five degrees (or a fifth) below the fixed sound 
C ij the one selected. It is called F, and is represented by the 
clef O* or ®' > falling on the fourth line of the great stave. 

35. So, if we are writing for voices or instruments of the highest 
range, we must select the five lines at the top of the great stave. 

These lines do not include either of the fixed sounds C or F. 
It is therefore necessary to fix the pitch of some sound within the 
limits of this new stave. The sound which is five degrees (or 
2l fifth) dbffve the fixed sound C is the one selected. It is called 

G, and is represented by the clef /k , placed so that the principal 



curl of it falls on the eighth line of the great stave, i.e. on the 
second of the five lines we are now using. 



14 MUSIC PRIMER. 



cdefgabcdefg 



^^-^^ 



Eighth ,.. cd) ~—a^^-' =g 



Middle lE ^^-?^ '. ^ 



Fourth TlZ^ g): "''-^■TS-^ 



■g-s.- ^ =F 



2Z 



cbaGFEDCB AGGFF 

36. If we are writing for voices or instruments of medium 
range, neither of the above staves will be found convenient, the 
one being below and the other above the required range. There- 
fore we must select some other set of five lines, from the middle 
part of the great stave, suitable to our purpose. 

37. Whichever set we select will include always two, and in 
one instance all three fixed sounds : and as we have already appro- 
priated the clefs representing the highest and lowest staves respect- 
ively, and as it is not usual to place more than one clef on the same 
stave of five lines, it will conduce to clearness if we use the clef 
of the fixed sound C to distinguish our medium staves. 

38. These clefs are called respectively 

F clef. C clef G clef. 



O: - © II7 



or 



from the names of the sounds of which they determine the pitch. 

39. And here let the student once for all remember that these 
three clefs never change from their positions on the fourth, sixth 
(or middle), and eighth lines respectively of the great stave. Any 
apparent change in their position is due to the selection of any 
particular set of five lines. 

40. The following diagram will serve for an illustration : — 



PITCH. 



15 



\t 



o- 
> 



a 
o 
U 



it 



I 



n 



:i^ 



\ 



% 



m 



L<? 



m 



u 



o 

> 






!3 J 



r-ico;xc-cuwo»*-t 



l6 MUSIC PRIMER. 

These seven different staves, of five lines each, are all that can be 
extracted out of the great stave. 

Of these staves, the first, third, fourth, and seventh are most 
commonly used in modern music. 

41. Should it be necessary to represent sounds higher or lower 
than the eleven which can be expressed on any stave of five lines, 
short lines, called Leger lines (French leger, 'light'), are added 
above or below the stave. These leger lines are in fact merely 
portions of the hnes outside the stave in use, cut short for the sake 
of clearness in writing, to prevent confusion to the eye, thus — 



rf-g^^ 



I ^"^" 1 



42. In writing for the pianoforte, or instruments of large com- 
pass, it is customary to use the whole stave of eleven lines, reducing 
the middle C to a leger line. Thus the great stave is reduced into 
two staves combined by a brace, thus — 



.1 



IE 



^ 



^ 



The forms of the clefs are perhaps corruptions of the old Gothic letters 



^ - P IK - IHI 

or of the old-fashioned F, C, and G, thus — 

^ or 9^ or 9^ 

< - \t - \^ - IHI 



^ or ^ 



PITCH. 17 

The (Igure @ has also been supposed to be a corruption of three notes, one 
placed on the line of F, and two others in the adjoining spaces, thus — 



The figure [HI has also been supposed to be a corruption of two notes, 
placed in the spaces above and below the line of C, thus — 



The figure (m has also been supposed to be a corruption of S (the initial 
letter of Sol) and G, combined, thus — 



Of the clefs enumerated in the diagram (§ 40), No. 2, called the Barytone, 
is found in old vocal music ; but is now practically obsolete. So too is No. 5, 
the Mezzo-soprano. 

Anciently No. 6, the Soprano or Canto clef, was used for the highest kind 
of voices only, the G clef being reserved for instrumental music. The Soprano 
clef is still regarded as one of the regular clefs for choral counterpoint. In 
Italy and Germany this clef is used for pianoforte music, the Treble clef being 
reserved for the violin. 



CHAPTER III. 

Intervals and the Scale. 

43. The difference in pitch between any two sounds is called 
the interval between them. 

44. Intervals are reckoned upwards, unless the contrary be 
specified. 

45. The interval between any two sounds is named from the 
number of degrees on the stave from the one to the other, in- 
cluding both. 

Thus the interval from any sound to the sound next above or 
below it is called a second, two degrees of the stave being involved : 
from any sound to the sound four degrees distant from it is called 
2, fifth ; from any sound to the sound seven degrees distant from 
it is called an eighth or octave, and so on ; there being theoretically 
no limit to this nomenclature. 

46. As was said in the introductory chapter, two sounds at the 
interval of an octave, heard together, coincide so perfectly as to 
appear but one sound, and are represented by the same letter. 

47. The intermediate sounds may be, and have been, arranged 
in various series called scales (Latin scala, ' a ladder'). 

48. Of the possible scales, only two forms are in modern use : 
the Diatonic (Greek 8ia, ' through,' and twos, ' a tone,' so called 
because it principally consists of tones), which divides the octave 
into eight sounds, or seven intervals; and the Chromatic (Greek 
XpSM") ' colour,' a word said to refer to the ink of different 
colour used to express altered notes, or to the different colours of 
the strings of the lyre), which divides the octave into thirteen 
sounds, or twelve intervals. 



INTERVALS AND THE SCALE. 1 9 

49. Each of the twelve intervals of the Chromatic Scale is called 
a semitone, which is the smallest unaltered interval recognised in 
modern music : and it is convenient to measure and compare all 
other intervals by the number of semitones they contain. 

50. Two semitones make a tone. 

It must be carefully borne in mind, that tones and semitones are 
intervals, and not isolated sounds, as their names imply. 

51. The seven intervals of the Diatonic Scale are either tones 
or semitones, and there are twelve semitones in the octave ; hence 
there must be five tones and two semitones in the Diatonic Scale. 

For the harmonic derivation of the scale, we refer the student to Ouseley's 
Treatise on Harmony, Chapters iv to vii. 

52. The first or lowest sound of the Diatonic Scale is called the 
key-note or tonic. Any note may be used as a tonic. 

The fifth degree, which is next in importance to the tonic, is 
called the dominant (Latin dominor, 'I rule'), because it exercises 
the most powerful influence on the harmony. 

The third degree is called the mediant (Latin medius, ' middle'), 
because it is half-way between the tonic and the dominant. 

The fourth degree (i. e. the fifth deloiv the octave), which is of 
almost equal importance with the dominant, is called the sui- 
dominant. 

The sixth degree (i. e. the third below the octave) is called the 
submediant, lying half-way between the subdominant and the octave. 

The seventh degree is called the leading note, as it naturally leads 
up to the octave. 

The second degree is called the supertonic, because it is next 
above the tonic. 

Thus, in ascending order, the degrees of the scale are — • 

1. Tonic, 5. Dominant, 

2. Supertonic, 6. Submediant, 

3. Mediant, 7. Leading-note. 

4. Subdominant, 

53. The modes of the Diatonic Scale vary according to the posi- 
tion of the semitones, which are always at least two tones apart. 

c 2 



20 



MUSIC PRIMER. 



54. The following table represents the thirteen sounds of the 
Chromatic Scale (equal to twelve semitones), and the relative 
position of the tones and semitones in the seven possible modes 
of the Diatonic Scale. 

1234567 
13 
12 



• • • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • • • 

• • • • 



7 
6 

6 
4 
3 
2 



A B C D E F G 

La Si Do Re Mi Fa Sol 

55. The following table represents the relative positions on the 
stave of the same seven modes of the Diatonic Scale : — 



i 



s 



3 



^ 



-»-*- 



i 



^^^ 



-y-*- 



It7t^-- ^ 



INTERVALS AND THE SCALE. 2,1 



1 ^^ 



iJ '^ IT 

7 



i 



These, the old Ecclesiastical Modes, were named as follows, ffom a false 
assumption of their identity with the ancient Greek Modes. 

1st mode, from A, the Aeolian. 

3rd „ C, the Ionian. 

4th „ D, the Dorian. 

jth „ E, the Phrygian. 

6th „ r, the Lydian. 

7th „ G( the Mixolydian. 

The 2nd mode, from B, has never been used. 

Of these modes only two are ordinarily used- in modern music, 
the first and third; the former^ however, withimodifications. 

56. The third mode is called the Diatonic Major- Scale, the 
intervals between the first and third degrees being a major third, 
containing four semitones, and between the first and sixth degrees 
a major sixth, containing nine semitones. 

57. Upon this model scale of C major are formed all other dia- 
tonic major scales in use, whatever be their tonic or keynote. 

58. It will be observed that this model: scale is divisible into two 
similar parts, each consisting of two tones and a semitone, and 
separated from each other by the interval of a tone. 

59. Each of these parts is called a tetrachord, because it consists 
of four notes. 

60. If the second or upper tetrachord of this scale of C be 
- taken to form the first or lower tetrachord of a new scale whose 

tonic is G, a fifth above C, it will be found, on completing the 
scale, that the upper tetrachord does not correspond to the lower, 
as regards the relative position of the semitones. 



I 



122^"-^= 



^^^=^ 



-S?- 



22 MUSTC PRIMER. 

61. In order to reduce this to the type form, it is necessary, 
to raise the seventh degree of the new scale by a semitone. To 
represent this effect to the eye, a character #, called a sAarp, is 
prefixed to the note, thus — 



i 



32 



62. By proceeding in this way, we shall find that in every new 
scale formed by beginning with the upper tetrachord of the pre- 
ceding one, it will be necessary to repeat the process of sharpen- 
ing the seventh degree, the sounds sharpened ascending by fifths. 
This process can be carried on indefinitely ; but in practice it is 
usual to stop at the seventh sharp. 

63. Similarly, if the first or lower tetrachord of this model scale 
of C be taken to form the second or upper tetrachord of a new 
scale, whose tonic is F, a fifth below C, it will be found, on com- 
pleting the scale, that the lower tetrachord does not correspond to 
the upper, as regards the relative position of the semitones. 



O tri 






64. In order to reduce this to the type form, it is necessary 
to lower the fourth degree of the new scale by a semitone. To 
represent this effect to the eye, a new character |7, called z. flal, 
is prefixed to the note, thus — 



i 



2=fe 



) ' ^i^! i^:2. 



■^^f^ — e- 



65. By proceeding in this way^ we shall find that in every new 
scale formed by beginning with the lower tetrachord of the pre- 
ceding one, it will be necessary to repeat the process of flattening 
the fourth degree, the sounds flattened descending by fifths. This 
process can be carried on indefinitely ; but in practice it is usual 
to stop at the seventh flat : thus — 



INTERyALS AND THE SCALE. 



23 





-i 

• 












1 

• 






-<^ 




4? 


1^ 




J. 


ii 


eq 


mi 
'II 

• 


a -^ 
















1 




rt - 


M 




l^ 


'1 




1 
1 


1 '^ 


< 


• 
1 


■ 

1 
1 




r *■ 






% 




1 


U 





ii 


? -' 




1 


1 
1 




t^ 


• 

• 

^- 






w 



o 







4fk 




Ik 




« 




l' 




J ^ 






ii 




-4^ 




¥ 




1 


» 






^ 


_p\ 


;i 







¥ 


J— ^ 




jT 


t 




u 


'l' 




- V. 
J 


1 




\ 


1 




\ 




_G. 


% 




< 




!■ ' 




-te 


.i\ 




U 


-i 




«. 


u 




.1 


ki 

1 

s 




1 






1 




pq 


;i 
i 


I — 




4. 


h 




* 


1 


1 

JFbT 4- 


1 




r— T 






1 






n 






<l 







• 
T 





o 






IJ< 



24 



MUSIC PRIMER. 



66. If we were to proceed one step further in each figure, it 
would be necessary to raise F and lower B by a second semitone, 
i. e. by a whole tone in each case. The characters used to denote 
this are x or JJ (called a double sharp), and b) (called a double 
flaf). 

If it is required to restore a sharpened or flattened note to its 
original position, a character t] (called a natural) is employed. 
(See Chap. V.) 

In old ^usic the sharp was counteracted by the flat, and the flat by the 
sharp. 

67. In order to avoid the. constant recurrence of the prefixes 
of sharps and flats, musicians have agreed to place all the sharps 
or flats required in the formation of a scale at the beginning of 
each stave, immediately after the clef, placing them in the order in 
which they have been introduced, on the line or in the space on 
or in which the note to which they belong is placed. 

This is called the key-signature. 

Table of Key-signatures. 



i 



IT 



^ 



% 



s 



i 



it 



ift 
^ 



^ 



tt 



G — I sharp 

•F# 

D — 2 sharps 

A — 3 sharps 

F#C#G# 

E — X sharps 

FJCJG#D# 

B — 5 sharps 

F]tC#GJtD#A# 



i 



3 



ii 



3 



i 






^ 



S 






F— I flat 
Bt» 

Bb— 2 flats 
Bb Eb 

Eb— 3 flats 

Bb Eb Ab 

Ab— 4 flats 

Bb Eb Ab Db 

Db— 5 flats 

BbEbAbDbGb 



INTERVALS AND THE SCALE. 



25 




FJ — 6 sharps 

F#C#GflD#A#E# 

CJf — 7 sharps 

r#C#GJtDJtA#E#BJ 



M 



:^ 



55 



^ 



Gb— 6 flats 

BbEbAbDfobcb 

Cb— 7 flats 

BbEbAbDbobcbFb 



68. A major key may be recognised from its signature by the 
following rules : — ■ 

1. The sharp last added marks the seventh or leading note. 

2. The flat last added marks the fourth or subdominant. 

69. On fixed-toned instruments the keys of F# and Gb are 
identical ; and also those of B and Cb ; and those of Cft and Db. 
Hence on such instruments the complete cycle of scales will be 
twelve ; whether we take six sharp keys, one natural, and five flat, 
or five sharp, one natural, and six flat. 

70. Their completeness is exhibited in the following a'rcie of 
fifths :— 

C 




If we class the key-notes according to their key-signatures, calling that one of 
two keys the sharpest which has the most sharps or fewest flats in its signature, 
we get the following list of notes : — 

(B(f Ed AJ DJ G«) Of FJ B E A D G C F Bb Eb Ab Di Gb Cb (Fb Bbb Ebb Abb Dbb). 
In this list any note is called sharper than all those to the right of it, and 
flatter than those to the left of it. 

Thus Cj is sharper than FJ, and flatter than GJ. 

Bb „ Gb, „ A. 

Also any accidental flat or sharp is said to be more or less remote from the 
key-note according to the order of its introduction. Thus the order from C is 
FdCJfGJDSAflEflBJ 
Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb Fb. 



36 MUSIC PRIMER. 

71. The other mode of the Diatonic Scale (the first Fig. of § 55) 
is called the Diatonic Minor Scale ; the interval between the first 
and third degrees being a minor third, containing three semitones ; 
and that between the first and sixth degrees a minor sixth, con- 
taining eight semitones. 



i 



72. In this mode it will be observed that the semitones occur 
between the second and third degrees, and between the fifth and 
sixth degrees : but the form of this scale is not invariable like that 
of the major ; the upper tetrachord being found in at least three 
different forms : — 



4-^ m * ' 4- * ^ tf * ^^ - ^^^^ 



73. In the first of these, which belongs to that which we 
shall call the normal minor scale, the seventh degree is a tone 
below the eighth ; but an ascending tetrachord, in which a semi- 
tone is not the last interval heard, leaves no impression of com- 
pleteness on the ear. 

74. In ascending, therefore, the last sound but one of the upper 
tetrachord is usually raised a semitone : this gives us form No. 2 ; 
in which is an interval greater than a tone between the sixth and 
seventh degrees, belonging therefore to the Chromatic scale, and 
not to the Diatonic, in which tones and semitones alone occur. 

75. To avoid this interval of three semitones, it is usual to 
sharpen the sixth as well as the seventh degree in ascending. 

76. In descending, on the contrary, no sense of incompleteness 
prevents a retiirn to the normal form of the minor scale. 






INTERVALS AND THE SCALE. 3/ 

77. It is not, however, improbable that the second or chromatic 
form is the natural form of the minor scale. (See Ouseley's 
Harmony, Chap, v, p. 66.) 



i 



^ ^ , j jfc^ 



It has these advantages over the others : — 

1. The form is unaltered in ascent and descent. 

2. It satisfies the modern ear by placing a semitone between 

the seventh and eighth degrees, and by making the third 
on the dominant major. 

3. It leaves a minor interval from the tonic to the sixth 

degree; on the quality of which the distinctive mode 
of a scale depends almost as much as upon that of 
its third. 

78. A major and a minor scale of the normal form, which consist 
of different arrangements of the same sounds (and which therefore 
require the same key-signature), are called relative. 

A minor key may be distinguished from its relative major by the early 
introduction of the leading note as an accidental, and by the final cadence. 

79. Thus A minor is the relative minor key to C major, its 
key-note A being on the sixth degree of the major scale of C ; 
and similarly the relative minor key of any major key is that 
minor key whose tonic is on the sixth degree, or submediant, of 
the major key. 

80. Conversely, C major is the relative major key to A minor, 
its key-note C being on the third degree of the minor scale of A ; 
and similarly the relative major key of any minor key is that major 
key whose tonic is on the third degree, or mediant, of the minor 
key. 

81. The following is a table of the relative major and minor 
keys, with their signatures. It will be seen that the minor key on 
any tonic has in its signature three sharps less, or three flats more, 
than the major key on the same tonic ; and conversely. 



a8 



MVSIC PRIMER. 



Major keys, with sharps. 



Minor keys, with sharps. 






mi 






^r! 



7 sharps 



Cff 



6 sharps . 



F# 



5 sharps 



7 sharps 



ft 






Irt. 



6 sharps . , . . DJ :^* 



5 sharps . . . . GJ -;=:. 



^ 



J** 






4 sharps 



4 sharps . 



c; 



^ 



3 sharps 



3 sharps 



• .F# 



*: 



2 sharps . . . . D 



2 sharps 



m 



T sharp . . 



I sharp 



Wr^ 



Major natural key . C 



Minor natural key A 



i 



Major keys, with fiats. 



m 



Major natural key . C 
. . . . F 



I flat 



2 flats 



3 flats 






4 flats 



A\> 



Minor keys, with flats. 



Minor natural key A 



T flat 



D 



m 



2 flats G 



3 flats . 



4 flats . 



{Jl 



m 






5 flats 



Db 



5 flats . 



b; 



^fl 



^. 



fl 



6 flats G? 



6 flats E> 



i 

^S^ 



7 flats 



C> 



7 flats . 



At> 



I: 



if 



INTERVALS AND THE SCALE. 39 

82. The term relative is applied equally, whether the normal 
(§ 71) or the natural (§ 77) form of the minor scale be taken. 

83. The relationship of keys depends partly upon the number, 
partly upon the importance (§ 52), of the sounds they have in 
common. 

84. There are three classes of relationship ; viz. — 

1. Between major keys and major keys. 

2. Between minor keys and minor keys. 

3. Between major keys and minor keys. 

85. A major key is said to be related in the first degree to the 
major keys on its most important sounds, its dominant and its 
subdominant. These differ from it by only one sound. 

86. A minor key is said to be related in the first degree to the 
minor keys on its most important sounds, its dominant and its 
subdominant. These differ from it by one or by three sounds, 
according as we take the normal or the natural form of the minor 
scale. 

87. A major or a minor key is said to be related in the first 
degree to its relative minor or major key (§ 78). These differ by 
no sounds or by one, according as we take the normal or the 
natural form of the minor scale. 

88. By applying these rules (§§ 78-87), the keys related in the 
second degree to any key may be found ; and so on. The degree 
of relationship between any two keys may be determined from the 
table on p. 28. 

89. The following table shows the keys related in the first and 
second degrees to the key of C major : — 

G 



G major A minor F major ist degree. 

I ' 1 I ' 1 I ' — -— 1 

D major E minor D minor B 17 major 2nd degree. 



30 MUSIC PRIMER. 

90. The following table shows the keys related in the first and 
second degrees to the key of A minor : — 

A minor 

r + n 

E minor C major D minor ist degree. 



I 1 I 1 I I 

B minor G major F major G minor 2nd degree. 

91. The Chromatic Scale has already been said to divide the 
octave into twelve semitones. 

It is usually written with sharps in ascending and flats in de- 
scending, with two exceptions, as shown in the following figure : — 



i 



^^SlS3Ei*i 



tr^s^i 



( 



\ « 



Here, in the Chromatic scale of C, Bb is preferred to Afi in 
ascending, and FJ to Gl? in descending, as being less remote 
from the key-note (§ 70). 

92. It has already been said (§ 49) that intervals are most conve- 
niently measured by the number of semitones which they contain. 

93. Intervals are divided into consonant and dissonant intervals ; 
or, as they are sometimes called, concords and discords ; according 
as they leave upon the ear a sense of completeness or incom- 
pleteness. 

94. Consonant intervals are of two kinds, perfect and imperfect; 
the perfection of an interval depending upon the simplicity of its 
ratio (§ 12). 

95. Imperfect consonant intervals are again subdivided into 
major and minor; the major containing one more semitone than 
the minor. 

Perfect consonances cannot be so subdivided. 

96. Dissonant intervals also, like the imperfect consonances, 
are either major or minor. 



INTERVALS AND THE SCALE. 



31 



97. An interval is said to be augmented when it is increased 
by a semitone, whether by the elevation of the upper note or the 
depression of the lower. 

98. An interval is said to be diminished when it is decreased by 
a semitone, whether by the depression of the upper note or the 
elevation of the lower. 

99. All intervals can be augmented or diminished, except that 
major intervals cannot be diminished, and that minor intervals 
cannot be augmented. 

100. Perfect consonances alone can be both augmented and 
diminished. 

101. All augmented or diminished intervals are called Chromatic 
Dissonances, and belong to the Chromatic Scale, except the two 
which occur in the Diatonic Scale, i. e. the augmented fourth or 
tritone (three tones) between the fourth and seventh degree, and 
the diminished fifth between the seventh degree and the fourth 
degree of the next octave. 

102. The dissonant intervals are the second and seventh. 
The imperfect consonant intervals are the third and sixth. 

The perfect consonant intervals are the fourth, fifth, and octave. 



Dissonaut 



mmor 



CJ 


d 


s 


B 


p 


p 


















n 


n> 


p. 


0. 



Intervals 



major 



3, 

3 



1 

Consonant 



I 

Imperfect 



major 



d 

3 



1 

Perfect 



3. s 



c 

3 



103. We here annex a table of the intervals in the Diatonic 
Scale in numerical order. 



32 



MUSIC PRIMER 








A minor second . . . . < 


:ontains 


I 


semitone. 


A major second .... 


» 


2 


semitones 


A minor third .... 


» 


.3 


7J 


A major third .... 


j» 


4 


n 


A perfect fourth .... 


» 


5 


»» 


An augmented fourth {"™'Ti,?s"JieT"'} 


)j 


6 


» 


A diminished fifth {'"""S"'|tf/ca'i=r'''} • 


t) 


6 


" 


A perfect fifth .... 


J) 


7 


J» 


A minor sixth .... 


)) 


8 


>> 


A major sixth .... 


» 


9 


»» 


A minor seventh .... 


tt 


10 


J» 


A major seventh .... 


)) 


II 


)J 


A perfect octave .... 


i> 


12 


>? 



104. In the Diatonic major scale there are, if we include the 
next octave, till the intervals repeat themselves, — 



Two minor seconds, 

- Five major seconds, 

Four minor thirds, 

- Three major thirds, 

Six perfect fourths, 
L One augmented fourth. 



i 



9 



isz 



i 



5 



^r- 



rss: 



i 



■S3" 



221 



i 



s 



:s2: 




















/ 










rj 


/ 








iTJ 






1? 


\ 




rj 




rzi 




^5:|y ,-3 












t> 


^- 


iSi 











■'fe= 



^ 



INTERVALS AND THE SCALE. 



Three minor sixths. 



33 



r One diminished fifth _^ 

f S 



■ m 



i- Six perfect fifths, ^v 



S^ 



i 



27" 



S2I 



Four major sixths, ^ v^ 



:22: 



Five minor sevenths, 



' m 



"S?" 



Z2I 



- Two major sevenths, ^Sy - 



105. All intervals that are not augmented or diminished are 
called Diatonic intervals, because they are found in the Diatonic 
Scale: but the augmented fourth on the fourth degree, and the 
diminished fifth on the seventh degree of the Diatonic Scale, are 
reckoned among the Diatonic intervals. 

106. Hence it will be seen that there are two kinds of semitone, 
Diatonic and Chromatic ; the Diatonic involving two degrees of 
the stave, and therefore notes of different names ; the Chromatic 
only one degree. 



Chromatic. 



Diatonic. 



ifr^^^^-^ii^ 



107. A full table of intervals is annexed ; in which, for the sake 
of symmetry, is included the unison (the simultaneous production 
of the same sound by different instruments or voices), though not 
strictly speaking an interval. 

D 



34 



MUSIC PRIMER. 



perfect 
diminished 



augmented 
major 



augmented 

major 

minor 

diminished 



augmented 

perfect 

diminished 



augmented 
perfect , 
diminished 



augmented 
major 



diminished 



augmented 
major 



■ augmented 



CO 
< 

o 

« 

o 

H 

O 
U 

H 

<J 

w 

H 



perfect 
diminished 



augmented 



diminished 



augmented 
major 



diminished 



augmented 

perfect 

diminished 



augmented 

perfect 

diminished 



augmented 



diminished 



augmented 
major 



diminished 



augmented 



INTERVALS AND THE SCALE. 



35 



108. An interval is said to be inverkd, when the under note 
is placed an octave higher, or the upper note an octave lower. 

An interval beyond an octave cannot be inverted. 

109. By inversion a different interval is produced by notes of 
the same name ; a second will become a seventh, a third a sixth, 
a fourth a fifth, and so on ; the sum of the degrees involved in any 
interval and its inversion always being nine. 

110. It will also be seen by the subjoined table that the inver- 
sions of perfect intervals are perfect, of major are minor, of minor 
are major, of augmented are diminished, and of diminished are 
augmented. 




D 2 



CHAPTER IV. 



Rhythm and Time. 



111. A SINGLE musical sound is in itself pleasing to the ear; but 
a succession of musical sounds (i. e. a melody) depends for its 
meaning and effect on what is called Rhythm. 

112. The primary element of Rhythm is the regular recurrence 
of accent. 

113. The space between accent and accent is called ■A.foot. 

114. Two kinds of feet are found in modern music ; consisting^ — 
I. Of two beats, the first accented and the second unaccented, 

2. Of three beats, the first accented and the second and third 
unaccented, (- u J) ; 
though sometimes by syncopation (§ 141) the accent is thrown on 
to the Weak part of the foot. 

115. The length of one or more feet is represented to the eye 
by perpendicular straight lines drawn across the stave, called bars, 
or bar lines, so placed that an accented beat always falls imme- 
diately after each bar line : thus — 



i 



E 



lie. The end of a movement, or section of a movement, is 
generally marked by a double bar, which however has no effect 
upon the time : — 

i 



RHrTHM AND TfMB. 37 

117. The notes between every pair of smgk bar lines make up 
what is called a measure, or sometimes also a bar- 

118. All measures in the same movement are of the same value, 
i. e. take the same time to perform. 

119. Time itself may be defined as the measurement of the 
spaces between accent and accent. 

120. Hence there are two principal kinds of time, corresponding . 
to the two kinds of feet ; — 

1. Duple, if there are two beats in a measure ; 

2. Triple, if there are three beats in a measure ; 

though very often two measures of duple time are joined together, 
thus giving us a third kind of time, called 

3. Quadruple, with four beats in a measure ; 

in which the second accent is subordinated to the first. 

121. Thus a measure is said to be in duple, triple, or quadruple 
time, according to the number of beats (two, three, or four) into 
which it may be divided. 

122. According to the subdivision (duple or triple) of each 
beat, a measure is said to be in 

1. Simple time, when each beat is a whole note, and there- 

fore divisible by two ; 

2. Compound time, when each beat is a dotted note, and 

therefore divisible by three. 

123. In a measure of simple time there is but one principal 
accent, viz. on the first beat : in a measure of compound time 
there often is, and always may be, a subordinate accent on the 
first note of the group belonging to each beat. 

124. The number and value of the notes contained in each 
measure of a movement are shown by a time-signature, which is 
placed at the beginning immediately after the key-signature. 

125. The unit of modern music being the semibreve (§ 14), the 
time-signature is usually expressed as a fraction of a semibreve ; 
the denominator showing the number of parts, or kind of notes. 



MUSIC PRIMER. 



into which the semibreve is divided ; the numerator showing how 
many of these are contained in each measure. 

126. A table of time-signatures is annexed : — 



!■ 

-a 


Duple, 


Triple. 


Quadruple. 


or 2 J J 




or * J J J J 

C or t J J J J 
4 J. J. J. J. 


6 J.J. 
8 • • 

16 * • 


• J.J.J. 


1| JJ.J.J. 
12 ;*./.J".J*. 



127, Of these, f , quadruple time, is so frequently found as to 
have acquired the name of common, and is denoted by the letter 
C- This, however, is not the initial letter of the word ' common,' 
but a corruption of the semicircle Q by which the old masters 
marked imperfect or duple time, as distinguished from perfect 
or triple time, which they marked by a circle Q. 

128. In ancient music ^ time was denoted by Q,; which in 
modem music denotes | time. A bar through the C) thus — ([}, 
indicated either that the measure, or that the value of the notes 
in the measure, marked by C> was to be halved. 



RHYTHM AND TIME. 



39 



I time, containing one breve in the measure, was called Alia 
Bretie (measured by the breve), a term now often applied to 
I time ; while | is often called doudle common. 

129. In ancient music, besides the above-mentioned time-signa- 
tures, the following are found : — 



Simple 
Compound 


Duple. 


Triple. 


Quadruple. 


\o a 


-^<z> o a 


4 

-yO a o G 


6 


2 a- a' a' 





Occasionally anomalous kinds of time are found, which divide 
the measure into five or seven notes of equal value. Thfe most 
usual of these is 

5 



o m » m m m 
4 11(1' 



130. If a measure contains not more than the value of a semi- 
breve, the semibreve rest is always used to denote silence during 
the measure, thus — 



m 



- 2 ' - 



^ 



'^W=^ 



a 



But if the measure contains more than the value of a semibreve, 
a breve rest is used : — 



i 



3= 



i 



S 



a 



40 MUSIC PRIMER. 

131. A rest of several measures is written thus : — 

I. If the measure contain not more than the value of a 
semibreve — 



Po .1 I Pp. ° -\ 



tf 



2. If the measure contain more than the value of a semibreve, 



will denote a rest of five measures. 4 

132. The time-signatures in general use are plainly unsatis- 
factory, especially in the signatures of the so-called compound 
time, which express merely the number of the notes in each 

measure, but not their rhythmical grouping. Thus "^ strictly 

states that there are twelve crotchets in a measure, but gives no 
idea how they are grouped. 

A very simple alteration of the time-signatures would remove 
this defect ; if, just as each note is dotted in any compound time, 
so a dot were placed after the denominator in the corresponding 
simple time. 



Thus, while | denotes ,• ,• p ,* 



let*. 



denote 



I I r I 



The table of time-signatures will, on this principle, be reduced 
to the following simple form : — 



RHYTHM AND TIME. 



41 



u 

p. 

C 


i 


Duple. 


Triple. 


Quadruple. 


1 J-J- 


1 J J J 
1 ^.V 


1 <=) J J <=> 

1 J J J J 
1 i*/^^ 


I. ^-^- 


i. J- J- J- 


t J. J.J.J. 



133. The regular recurrence of accent, however, is not the only 
element of rhythm. 

134. Just as the combination of beats forms the foot, so the 
combination of feet forms the phrase, a higher group than the 
foot, presenting a certain degree of deiiniteness in itself. 

135. Every phrase has as many accented parts as it has feet : 
but, m addition to these, it often has a special stress introduced 
upon a note or notes which by the rhythm may or may not be 
accented. 

136. This special stress is called emphasis, and is indicated by 
a mark of this form < or A , or the letters sf ox sfz {sforzato, 
' forced'), placed over or under the emphatic note or notes. 

137. A phrase cannot consist of less than one foot, and rarely 
consists of more than four, except by the accidental prolongation 
of an emphatic note ; and it may commence, and therefore end, 
on either the strong or the weak part of the measure. 



4« 



MUSIC PRIMER. 



138. Again, the combination of phrases forms a s/rai'n or period, 
which may be defined as the expression of a complete musical 
idea. 

139. As an illustration of these terms, let us take the National 
Anthem, ' God save the Queen.' It consists of two periods or 
strains ; the first consisting of three phrases, the second of four 
phrases. Each phrase consists of two measures, and each measure 
of three beats. 

Strain 



Phrase 



Phrase 



Phrase 



Foot 



Foot 



Foot 



Foot 



Foot 



Foot 




Beats 123 1 2 3 123 1 2 3 12312 

God save our gra-cious Queen, Long live our no • ble Queen, God save the Queen. 

The student should divide the second strain similarly. 



CHAPTER V. 



140. In music, beside notes, several characters and words 4re 
used as signs and abbreviations, or to mark expression, pace, 
intensity, and style, of which a complete list will be found in 
West's or Hamilton's Dictionaries. 

141. The following are some of the most important. 

Signs and Abbreviations. 

-&- G clef (§ 35) : probably a corruption of a capital G. ^ 

•u |U| C clef (§ 31) : originally an old-fashioned jJ ipi 
Irl °'" Inl square C. ^ '^ 

Q. F clef (§ 34) : probably distorted from an old- «• 
^ fashioned F. '^ 

# A sharp ; used to raise any sound by a semitone. 

b kflat; used to lower any sound by a semitone. 

B A natural; used after a # or [7 to restore a sound to its 
original position. 
X or Jftf A double sharp; used to raise any sound by two semi- 
tones. 

\)\) A double flat; used to lower any sound by two semitones. 

Cfi A double natural; used after a X or fb, to restore any 
sound to its original position. 



44 



MUSIC PRIMER. 



tl# A character used after a double sharp, to reduce it to a 
single sharp. 

Iqb A character used after a double flat, to reduce it to a single 
flat. 

Sharps and flats not contained in the key-signature are 
called accidentals; and an accidental in any measure is 
in theory supposed to affect the first note of the next 
measure, if it is the same. 

In Germany the syllables is and es aiExed to a letter show 
that the note is sharpened or flattened: thus Fis de- 
notes FJ, and DesJ)^. 

^ A dash placed over a note shows that the note so marked 
I is to be played shortly and crisply, or staccato (cut off). 

^ A dot placed over a note shows that it is to be played 
I somewhat less shortly, or mezzo-staccato. 

"^ ' The slur placed over or under two or more notes of 
different pitch shows that the passage is to be played 
smoothly, or legato (bound together), or to be sung to 
one syllable. 

^ The tie or bind, placed over or under two notes of the 
same pitch, shows that the sound of the first note is 
to be sustained during the time of both ; in other words, 
it binds two notes into one. The first is generally an 
unaccented note, and often the last note of a measure. 
The resulting disturbance of the accent is called synco- 
pation (cutting) from the old method of dividing the note 
by a bar. !f 



i 



fl> ^ f f I r r 



in old music 
written 



i 



_2 f2 czn^ 



S 



±: 



i 






^ 






-=!-p- 



SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS. 



45 



/7\ 



A pattse over or under a note or rest, shows that it may 
be prolonged ad libitum. 

vn The direct is generally used at the end of a line at the 
bottom of a page, to show what note is coming. 

SF ^ When a passage is to be repeated, it is enclosed 

at ZEi between dots, and sometimes also double bars ; or 

or Ms. sometimes the word his (twice) is placed over it. 

A double bar strictly denotes the end of a strain (as 

in ' God save the Queen,' § 139). 



^-cij-j-^^^a ^'^B 



^ 



I bis 



g or § The sign is another mode of showing the beginning 
of a passage to be repeated, and it is referred to at the 
end by the words Dal Segno, or D.S. (from the sign). 
When the repetition is to be made from the beginning 
of a movement, the words Da Capo, or D.C. (from the 
beginning) are used. 

This grouping of the stems of minims like 
those of quavers, or notes of smaller value, is 
an abbreviation for the following — 






^g 



3 This sign denotes that the last group of notes 
is to be repeated. 

This sign denotes that the whole preceding measure 
is to be repeated. The word simili is sometimes 



added. 



46 



MUSIC PRIMER. 



. I When on repetition any measures are 
e. ) to be left out, the words l""" volta are 



V" volta. First time. 
1^" volta. Second time. 

placed over them, and- 1^ volta over those to be played 

in their place. 

8^" This sign, placed over treble notes, shows that 

they are to be played an octave higher, till the word loco 
(place) occurs. 

8"'' sotto This sign, placed under bass notes, shows that 

they are to be played an octave lower, till the word loco 
occurs. 

8"'. ... or «» 8 ... . This sign, placed over or under notes, 
shows that they are to be played with the octave above 
or below them respectively. 



142. Graces. 

The chief graces are as follows : — 

The appoggiatura CItalian appoggiare, ' to lean upon') is a small 
note placed on the accented part of a measure, before another 
of greater, usually of double, value j from which it borrows the 
accent and the value which it represents. 

Written. 



^^ 



g 



3 



•<^=PZ 



f^ I ^ <s- 



Plqyed. 



Ui_j r I rf^ ^ 



The acciaccatura (Italian acciaccare, ' to hammer') consists of two 
stnall notes at an interval of not more than a minor third from 
each other, placed before another, and performed as quickly as 
possible. 



GRACES. 



47 



The ieai is a short acciaccatura, consisting of its first note only, 
a semitone below any note, to which it gives special force. 



^-^g^ 



The fwi'fcA is a short acciaccatura consisting of its lattfer note 
only, and is written thus — 






S 



-^-^-J: 



The iurn is a group of notes consisting of one principal note 
and the notes next above and below it. 

The dt'rec/ turn <>/ begins with the note above. 

The inverted turn X begins with the note below. 

A Jf or b above or below the turn shows that the note above 
or below the principal note is to be sharpened or flattened. 

The mode of performance of the turn varies according to its 
position over a note, or between two notes : thus — 

Written. 



I T tf ^ /J 



V 



122= 



Played. 



fl^C^P^^ 



^ 



ZSIZL 



Written. 



i^^ ^^=^ 



S 



3z: 



Played. 



4« 



MUSIC PRIMER. 



The sAaie, denoted by m (a contraction for Italian iri'Ho, ' a shake'), 
is a rapid alternation of the note over which it is placed, and the 
next note above, the accent being always placed on the upper 
note, thus — 

Wrt'i/en. 



i 



p^ 



1 



Played^ 




The shake, unless it be a very short one, ought to end with a turn. 
The trill, denoted by m placed over a note, is a very short shake. 



Written. 



Played. 



te^ 



^fe 



The arpeggio (Italian arpa, ' a harp'), denoted by ( or I placed 

before a chord, shows that the notes of the chord are to be played 
consecutively, beginning with the lowest, instead of siriiultaneously. 

143. Words relating to Face, Intensity, and Style. 

As it is impossible to give a complete list of these here, a few 
only of the most important are mentioned. 

144. I. Pace. 

I Grave, grave and solemn. 
Lento, slow. 
Largo, broad and majestic. 
Larghetto, not so slow as Largo. 
Adagio, leisurely. 

Andante, going at a moderate pace.. 
Andantino, not so slow as Andante. 



WORDS RELATING TO PACE. 49 

Allegretto, not so fast as Allegro. 
Allegro, merry and lively. 
Presto, quick. 
Prestissimo, very quick, 

N.B. Andantino being the diminutive of Andante, its relative 
meaning depends on the sense given to Andante. 

The words above are subject to modification by the addition 
of other terms, of which the following is a list : — 

Accelerando (acceP), accelerating the pace. 

Rallentando (rall°), slackening. 

Siringendo {strin°), pressing onwards. 

Pih mosso, more moved. 

Ritardando {ritar°), retarding. 

Ritenuto (riten°), holding back. 

A tempo, in time (after an accel° or rail'). 

In istesso tempo, in the same time (i. e. the beats to be 

the same, whatever the forms of the notes). 
Alia Breve, by the breve (i. e. the breve being regarded 

as the unit, each beat being a minim). 
Tempo Ordinario, in ordinary time ) neither too fast 
Tempo Commodo, in convenient time ) nor too slow. 

An exact measure of the time of notes is afforded by an instru- 
ment called Maelzel's Metronome. 

This consists of a pendulum, with a sliding regulator attached, 
swinging in front of an index graduated usually from 50 to 160. 
By placing the regulator against any number on the index, the 
pendulum can be made to oscillate that number of times in a 
minute. 

A composer, then, need only indicate at the beginning of each 
movement how many of the note which represents a beat are 
to go to the minute. Thus 

M.M. J = 60 

denotes that there are to be sixty crotchet beats to the minute, 
i. e. one to the second. 

E 



5° 



MUSIC PRIMER. 



145. 3. Intensity. 

Piano, pia., p, soft. 

Mezzo-piano, mp, rather soft. 

Pianissimo, pp, very soft. 
Forte, for.,/, loud. 

Mezzo-forte, mf, rather loud. 

Fortissimo, ff, very loud. 
Crescendo, cres., or -=:;::^ , increasing (in loudness). 
Decrescendo, decres., or 21111^^^=", decreasing (in loudness). 

To the above may be added — 

Forte piano, fp, loud and instantly soft. 
S/orzato, sf, forced (of single notes). 
Rinforzando, rf, forcing (of passages). 
Calando, descending 
Perdendosi, losing itself 
Diminuendo, diminishing 
Smorzando, extinguishing 
Dolce, soft. 



decreasing in speed, and 

generally also in 

intensity. 



146. 3. Style. 

Agitato, agitated. 

Animato, animated. 

A poco a poco, by degrees. 

Assai, sufficiently. 

Ben, well. 

Brillante, brilliant. 

Con, with. 

Con Brio, with mirth. 

Con Espressione, with expression. 

Con Fuoco, with fire. 

Con Moto, with motion. 

Con Tenerezza, with tenderness. 

Espressivo, expressive. 

Giusto, exact. 

Grazioso, graceful. 



WORDS RELATING TO STYLE. 51 

Legato, bound together. 

Ma, but ; e. g. ma non troppo, but not too mucli. 

Maestoso, majestic. 

Marcato, marked. 

Molto, much, very. 

Meno, less ; e. g. meno presto. 

Mezzo, half. 

Moderato, moderate. 

Non, not. 

Pitt, more ; e. g. pih animato. 

Poco, little. 

Quasi, as though. 

Segue, it follows. 

Sempre, always ; e. g. sempreff. 

Sostenuto, sustained. 

Staccato, cut off. 

Tenuto, held, sustained. 

Vivace, lively. 

Fb/A', turn. 



K 2 



APPENDIX. 



QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION. 

[Many of the Questions here given can be varied at discretion. The numbers 
in all cases refer to the Sections.] 

INTRODUCTION. 

1. What is the cause of sound ? 

2. Distinguish between musical and unmusical sounds, 

3. In what ways do musical sounds differ from each other? 

4. What is meant by the intensity of a sound.' Upon what does 
intensity depend ? 

5. What is meant by the character of a sound ? Upon what does 
character depend ? 

6. Give the names of the different kinds of, human voices, male and 
female. 

7. How may musical instruments be classified ? Give the names of 
some instruments in each class. 

8. What is meant by the pitch of a sound ? Upon what does pitch 
depend ? 

0. What is the lowest limit of musical sound ? 

10, 11. What is the octave of any given sound ? Why is it so called ? 

12. By what letters are the sounds of the Diatonic scale denoted ? 
Name the corresponding syllables that are used, and give their origin. 

CHAPTER I. 

13. Why do notes vary in form ? 

14. Give the number and names of the notes in common use. 
15, 16. Give a table of the relative durations of notes. 

17. What is a triplet ? How is it expressed ? 



54 APPENDIX. 

18. Give examples of other similar groups. 

19. What is meant by a rest ? Give a table of rests. 

20. What is the effect of a dot placed after a note, a rest, or another 
dot? 

20, 21. Express in other ways the value of ^* . , and Sf . J5 . . , 

22. What is a pause ? What effect has it upon a rest ? 

24. Group the following notes : — three quavers, three demisemi- 
quavers. 

25. What are the objections to the existing method of naming the 
series of notes .' Give a .table of notes arranged after the German 
system. 

CHAPTER II. 

26. What is a stave ? What is its use ? 

27. Why are there eleven lines in the great stave ? 

28. How many lines are there in the staves in ordinary use ? Give 
your reason. 

29. In what order are the lines and spaces reckoned .' How many 
sounds can be represented on staves of four, six, or eight lines ? 

30. 31, 32. What Is the use of clefs ? Whence is their name derived .' 
What sound is represented by the note on the middle hne of the great 
stave ? What clef is used to denote it ? 

33. On what principle are the staves in use selected from the great 
stave ? 

34, 35. Why are the F and G clefs introduced ? Where are they 
respectively placed ? 

Se, 37. Which of the three clefs is used on staves which are selected 
from the middle of the great stave ? Give your reason. 

38. Form the three clefs. How do they get their names ? 

39. Why do clefs sometimes appear to change their position on staves 
of five lines ? 

40. How many different staves of five lines can be extracted from 
the great stave ? Which of these are most commonly used ? 

Draw the stave, with its clef, which you would use in writing for a 
soprano voice, for a countertenor, or for a barytone. 

41. What is the use of leger lines ? What does their name mean .' 

42. In pianoforte music, what modification of the great stave is used? 



APPENDIX. 55 



CHAPTER III. 

43. Define an interval. 

44. In which direction are intervals reckoned ? 

45. On what principle are intervals named ? Give instances. 

47. What is a scale ? 

48. What is the diatonic scale ? What is the chromatic scale ? How 
may their names be derived ? Into how many intervals do they re- 
spectively divide the octave ? 

49. Define a semitone. 

50. Distinguish between a tone and a note. 

51. What is the necessary proportion of tones and semitones in the 
diatonic scale ? 

52. Give the names, with their meanings, of the sounds of the dia- 
tonic scale in ascending order. 

53. How is the relative position of the semitones limited in the 
diatonic scale ? 

54. How does this limitation affect the number of possible modes of 
the diatonic scale ? 

55. Which of these are ordinarily used in modern music without 
alteration ? 

56-59. What are the special characteristics of the diatonic major 
scale? 

Define a tetrachord. 
60-66. Show how the succession of scales leads to the introduction 
of sharps and flats. 

From the scale of D deduce those of A and G, from the scale 
of C# those of G# and F#, and from the scale of C? those of Fb and 
Gt*. 

67. What is meant by the key-signature ? Give the key-signatures of 
C,G#,Ct», Bands!?. 

68. How may a major key be recognised from its signature ? 

71. What are the special characteristics of the diatonic minor scale ? 

72. What variations are found in the upper tetrachord .? 

73-76. Why are the sixth and seventh degrees of the minor scale 
sharpened in ascending ? 

77. What are the advantages of the so-called natural form of the 
minor scale ? 

78-81. What is meant by the relative minor of any major key? 
What are the relative positions of their tonics ? What are the tonics of 



56 APPENDIX. 

the minor keys whose signatures are three sharps, one flat, and four flats ? 
Name their relative majors. 

83. On what does the relationship of keys depend ? 

84. What are the classes of relationship of keys ? 

85-87. To what keys is any major or minor key related in the first 
degree ? 

88. To what keys is any key related in the second degree ? 

89, 90. Make a table of the keys related in the first and second 
degrees to A major and C minor. 

91- On what principle is the chromatic scale usually written ? Write 
it ascending and descending in the key of A. 

92. How are intervals usually measured ? 

93. Distinguish between consonant and dissonant intervals. 

94. 95. How are consonant intervals divided ? 

96. How are dissonant intervals divided ? 

97, 98. Explain the terms ' augmented ' and ' diminished ' as applied 
to intervals. 

99, 100. What restrictions are there upon the augmentation and 
diminution of intervals ? 

101. Explain the term ' chromatic dissonances,' and give the reason 
for the name. Is the tritone a chromatic dissonance ? 

102. Give a table of intervals, consonant and dissonant. 

103. What intervals contain respectively three, six, and nine semi- 
tones ? 

104. Including the next octave, how many minor thirds, augmented 
fourths, perfect fifths, and major sixths, are there in the diatonic scale ? 

105. Distinguish between chromatic and diatonic intervals. Which 
of the diminished intervals belongs to the latter ? 

106. Write down two diatonic and two chromatic semitones, com- 
mencing with F. 

107. Commencing with G, write a diminished second, an augmented 
third, a perfect fourth, and a major seventh, both ascending and 
descending. 

108. What is meant by the inversion of intervals ? 

109, 110. What are the inversions of the augmented fourth, the 
perfect fifth, the major sixth, the minor third, and the diminished 
seventh ? 

CHAPTER IV. 

111. What is a melody ? On what do its meaning and effect chiefly 
depend ? 



APPENDIX. 57 

112. What is the primary element of rhythm ? 

113. What is a foot in music ? 

114. How many kinds of feet are found in music ? Name them. 
What is syncopation ? 

115. What is a bar ? What is its usual position with reference to 
the accent ? 

116. What is the meaning of a double bar ? 

117. Distinguish between a bar and a measure. 
119. How may time in music be defined ? 

120, 121. What are the principal kinds of time ? How many beats 
are there in a measure of each ? 

122. Distinguish between simple and compound time. 

123. When may there be more than one accent in a measure ? 

124. What is the meaning of the time-signature ? 

125. Explain the principle upon which the time-signatures are con- 
structed ? 

126. Group six quavers in a single measure of different kinds of time, 

giving their proper signatures. Distinguish between o and . time, 
4 and g . 

127. What is the meaning of the usual signature of what is called 
common time ? 

128. Distinguish between C time and $ time. Why is alia breve 
time so called ? 

129, 130. What rest would you use to denote silence during a whole 

3 5 9 

measure of ^ , ^ , and ^ time ? 

6 9 

131. How would you denote a rest of six measures in g and g time ? 

132. Suggest a simpler method of denoting compound time than that 
in common use. 

What time-signature would denote a measure containing two dotted 
crotchets ? 

134. What is a phrase in music ? 

135. What is the difference between accent and emphasis ? 

136. How is emphasis denoted ? 

137. What are the usual limits to the number of feet in a phrase ? 
Are these ever exceeded ? 

138. What is the name given to a combination of phrases ? 

139. Divide the second strain of ' God save the Queen ' into phrases 
and feet. 



58 APPENDIX. 

CHAPTER V. 

141. Give the forms, and probable origin, of the three clefs. 
Explain the following signs : — 

#, t», tl, X, I*', |», p", W. %■ 
What are the different marks for repetition of passages ? 
Distinguish between a slur and a tie. 
Distinguish between 8^* and S^i. 

142, Distinguish between the appoggiatura, the acciaccatura, the beat, 
and the twitch. 

Give the signs for a turn, direct and inverted. 
How would the following passage be played ? 
I 



i 






IS2I 



E 



Write it out at length. 

143. Distinguish between Andante and Andantino, Largo and Lar- 
ghetto. Allegro and Allegretto. 

Explain the use of the terms a tempo, in iitesso tempo. 

Which is the fastest of these three times — 

M.M. ^ = 6o, M.M. I* = loo, M.M. ,• • = 70 ? 

Explain accurately the meaning of these expressions. 

145. Explain the meaning of ^^,^, j/^ r/; -=:rdIZ !!^^^— ---^^ 

146. Explain the terms legato, staccato, assai, giusto, molto, meno, 
segue, -volti. 

MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 

[The numbers here used do not refer to the sections.] 

1. Why is F sharpened in the scale of G? and why is B flattened in 
the scale of F ? 

2. Write middle C with each clef. 

3. How many tones are there in the octave ? 

4. In what order are the sharps and the flats added in going the 
round of the keys ? 

6. What are the intervals, counting upwards, between G and E, 
C and G, F and B, F and B flat, B and F, B and E ? 



APPENDIX. 



59 



6. Group twenty-four semiquavers in three different ways, with 
proper time-signatures. 

7. Group sixteen dotted crotchets in two different ways, with proper 
time-signatures. 

8. Write, with the most convenient clef, CC, G, g, d, D, 5, a. 

9. Write with the treble clef, e, g, a, f, d, B, A, and also with the 
alto and tenor clefs. 

10. For the semibreve rest write down other three rests equivalent. 

11. Express the duration of two crotchets by five notes, and by three 
notes and a rest. 

12. Write the key-signatures of three of the scales with sharps, and 
of three of those with fiats, with the alto and the bass clefs. 

13. Transpose the example at the bottom of p. 44 into the key of G, 
and write it with three clefs. 

14. Write the melody of ' God save the Queen ' in the key of A fiat, 
using the tenor clef. 

15. Write all the minor intervals in the keys of G and E fiat, using 
accidentals. 

16. Name every interval in succession in the following passage, and 
the key, and insert the time-signature — 



=t^==;5=F 



^^J JJ7I2±^ 



± 



W 



tr ■ '^ 

17. Transpose this passage into a minor key related in first degree to 
the original key. 

18. What is the leading note of the key of C flat? What is its 
submediant ? 

19. Explain the terms , Allegro ma non troppo, Adagio asiai, and 
the meaning of the signs bb, P}f, Da Capo, D. S. 

20. In four-part songs for S. A. T. B., written with their proper clefs, 
how far do the four staves overlap each other ? 



INDEX. 



The numbers in all cases refer to the Sections. 



Abbreviation, marks of, 141. 
Accent, 112. 
Acciaccatura, 142. 
Accidentals, 141. 
Adagio, 144. 
Aeolian Mode, 55. 
Alia Breve, 128. 
Allegro, Allegretto, 144. 
Al Segno, 141. 
Alto clef, 40. 
Alto voice, 6. 
Ancient Modes, 55. 
Andante, 144. 
Appoggiatura, 142. 
Arpeggio, 142. 
Augmented intervals, 97. 
Authentic Modes, 55. 

Bars, 115. 

Barytone clef, 40, 42. 
Barytone voice, 6. 
Bass clef, 6, 42, 141. 
Bass voice, 34, 40. 
Beat, 142. 
Beats, 114. 
Bind' ~-, 141. 
Bis, or ^ , 141. 
Breve, t=( or Jrj, 24. 



Character, 5. 

Chromatic dissonances, loi. 
Chromatic Scale, 48, 91. 
Chromatic semitone, 106. 
Circle of Fifths, 70. 

Clefs. Ijljl, @, ^, 31-40. 

Comma, 12. 

Common time, 127. 

Compound time, 122. 

Concords, or Consonances, 93, 102. 

Contralto clef, 40. 

Contralto voice, 6. 

Countertenor, 6. 

Crescendo, ^:d! . 145- 

Crotchet, ^, 14. 

Da Capo, D.C., 141. 
Dal Segno, or g , 141. 
Decrescendo, ^:==» , 145- 
Demisemiquaver, B . I4- 
Diatonic Scale, 48 
Diatonic Semitone, 106. 
Diminished intervals, 98. 
Diminuendo, 145. 
Discords, or Dissonances, 93, 102. 
Dominant, 52. 
Dorian Mode, 55. 
Dots after notes, f, 20. 



63 



INDEX. 



Dots over notes, i", 141. 
Double bars, 116. 
Double flat, bb, 66, 141. 
Double sharp, X or ff , 66, 141. 
Duple time, 120. 

Embellishments, 142. 
Emphasis, 135, 136. 
Expression, marks of, 143-145. 

Fifth, diminished, 103. 
Fifth, perfect, 12, 103. 
Fine, 141. 
Flat, i, 64, 141. 
Foot, 113. 
Forte, or/,_^, 145. 
Fourth, 12, 103. 

Graces, 142, 
Grave, 144. 
Great Stave, 27. 
Grouping of notes, 24. 

H (modem B), 1 2. 

Imperfect consonances, 94, 102. 
Instruments, 7. 
Intensity, marks of, 145. 
Intervals, chromatic, loi, 106. 
Intervals, defined, 43. 
Intervals, diatonic, 103. 
Intervals, inversion of, 108-1 10. 
Inversion of intervals, 108-110. 
Ionian Mode, 55. 

Keysj relation of, 78-go. 
Key-note, 52. 
Key-signature, 67, 8t. 



Largo, Larghetto, 144. 

Leading note, £2. 

Leading note in Minor scale, 73-77. 

Legato, 141, 146. 

Leger lines, 41. 

Lento, 144. 

Loco, 141. 

Lydian Mode, 55. 

Major Mode, 56. 
Measures, 117. 
Mediant, 52. 
Melody, in. 
Metronome, 144. 
Mezzo-soprano clef, 40, 42. 
Mezzo-soprano voice, 6. 
Mezzo-staccato, 141. 
Minim, ^, 14, 24. 
Minor Mode, 71. 
Mixo-Lydian Mode, 55. 
Modes, 53-56. 
Musical sounds, 1-5. 

National Anthem, rhythm of, 139. 
Natural, Q, 66, 141. 
Notes, names, forms, and value of, 14, 
34. 25- 

Octave, 10, 12, 46. 

Pace, marks of, 144. 
Pause, '^, 22, 141. 
Percussion, Instruments of, 7. 
Perfect consonances, 94, 102. 
Period, 138. 
Phrase, 134. 
Phrygian Mode, £5. 
Piano, p or pp, 145. 



INDEX. 



63 



Pitch, 3,8-12. 

Presto, Prestissimo, 144. 

Quadruple time, 120. 
Quality of sounds, 5. 
Quaver, J*, 14. 

Relation of keys, 7 8 -go. 
Repeats, 141. 
Rests, 19, 24. 
Rhythm, 111-139. 
Rinforzando, or rf, 145. 

Scale, Chromatic, 91. 

Scale, Diatonic, 12, 48, 54. 

Scale, Diatonic major, 56. 

Scale, Diatonic minor, 71- 

Second, 103. 

Semibreve, o, 14, 24. 

Semidemisemiquaver, R , 24. 

Semiquaver, P, 14. 

Semitone, defined, 49. 

Semitone, Diatonicand Chromatic, 106. 

Seventh, 103. 

Sforzato, sf, or A or5>-, 136. 

Shalce, Ir, 142. 

Sliarp, $, 61, 141. 

Signature, key-, 67. 

Signature, time-, 136, 132. 

Simili, 141. 

Simple time, 122. 

Sixth, 103. 

Slur, -^ , 141. 

Soprano clef, 40, 42. 

Soprano voice, 6. 

Sound, I. 



t 

Staccato, P, 141. 

Stave, 26, 40. 
Strain, 138. 

Stringed instruments, 7. 
Style, marks of, 146. 
Subdominant, 52. 
Submediant, 52. 
Supertonic, 52. 
Syncopation, 114, 141. 

Temperament, 12. 

Tenor clef, 40. 

Tenor voice, 6. 

Tetrachord, 59. 

Third, 12, 103. 

Tie, 141. 

Timbre, 5. 

Time, 119. 

Time-signature, 126, 132. 

Tone, 12, 50. 

Tonic, 52. 

Treble clef, 40, 42. 

Treble voice, 6. 

Trill, w, 141. 

Triple time, 1 20. 

Triplet, 17. 

Tritone, 101. 

Turn, lA or S> 142. 

Twitch, 142. 

Unison, 107. 
Ut, 12. 

Vibrations, 1. 
Voices, 6. 

Wind instruments, 7.