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Full text of "Tallis's history and description of the Crystal Palace, and the Exhibition of the World's Industry in 1851;"

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY;.. 
LIBRARY 




Cornell University Library 
T 690.B1T14 



Tatlis's history anc 



Mis s history 




3 1924 021 897 255 *, 




<m 



S3 



Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924021897255 



DEDICATED TO HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS PRINCE ALBERT, KG., ETC. 



■fc-s*-„a. ^ij ii j j i riai 




DEDICATED TO H.E.H. PRINCE ALBERT, K.G-, etc, etc., etc. 



TALLIS'S 



HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION 



OF THE 



CRYSTAL PALACE, 



AND THE 



Cxtjitiitk of tip WmW% Mefq in i85i ; 



ILLUSTEATED BY 



FBOM OEIGIITAI, DEAWIWGS AND DAGUEEEEOTYFES, 



BY BEARD, MAYALL, ETC., ETC. 




PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY JOHN TALLIS AND CO., 

LONDON AND NEW YORK. 



TALLIS'S HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION 



OP 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE 



INTEODUCTION. 

The fame of the Crystal Palace has gone forth to the utmost bounds of the civilized 
world". The extent of its aim, as an Exhibition of the natural productions, the arts, 
sciences, manufactures, and fine arts of all nations, — the ingenuity of its plan, the vast- 
ness of its departments, its exactness in particular, its beauty as a whole, its success 
in all the objects for which it was undertaken, the feelings of amity and benevolence it 
called forth, the enlargement of mind it gave rise to, the practical benefits necessarily 
springing out of the scientific contemplation of its contents, the unceasing source of 
delight it afforded to the thousands upon thousands who flocked, day after day, to behold 
its treasures, the brilliancy of its opening, the harmony of its close, the thankfulness 
and gratitude inspired in every reflective mind, during months of peaceful and rational 
enjoyment, undisturbed by any painful accident or jarring feelings, — all these are 
chronicled in such variety of form and language, as to defy the power of oblivion, — and 
we may safely pronounce that the House of Glass will exist in the annals of history, 
long after the vaunted pyramids of Egypt, of which the builders and the object are 
already alike unknown, shall have crumbled into dust. 

In contributing yet another to the almost countless number of publications that have 
already appeared on this apparently inexhaustible subject, some statement of the 
grounds upon which the proprietors rest their hopes of success, in a field wherein they 
have to meet so many competitors, beforehand with them in the lists, may be reasonably 
expected. Those grounds, they flatter themselves, will be found, without any necessity 
of more laboured explanation on their part, in the superior excellence of the engravings, 
which they were unwilling to endanger by hurrying the execution of them ; and in 
the taste and acumen of the descriptions, which emanate from an artist equally skilled 
in the use of the pen as the pencil, and whose productions in both those departments 
have frequently elicited the admiration of the public. 

In order that the engravings should be faithful transcripts from the actual objects 
they profess to delineate, the proprietors have been at the expense of having all those 
objects taken on the spot by the Daguerreotype, with a patience and exactitude that 
would not pass over the smallest imperfection or deficiency, and whatever was not 
fortunate in the first instance was reproduced, till complete success was obtained. 
The labour of rendering upon steel facsimiles of these minute creations was immense, 



iv INTRODUCTION. 

as will be readily believed upon inspection of them : the expense was of course pro- 
portionate ; but tbis expense, great-=-dt may almost be said enormous— as it has been, 
the proprietor's have willingly taken upon themselves, in the full confidence that they 
shall ultimately be remunerated by the generosity of an enlightened Public, alike quick 
to discover excellence, and liberal in rewarding it ; and which they flatter themselves will 
regard these exquisite gems of Art with feelings somewhat akin to those inspired by the 
skilfully pourtrayed features of a valued friend, delighting equally from the truth of the 
resemblance, and the pleasing remembrances they call forth. 

With regard to the account of the rise and progress of the Crystal Palace itself} the 
ensuing pages will be found to present rather the. lively and graphic description that 
might be given in the course of social converse, thap, the detailed statistical statements 
which, however desirable they might be, while it was yet in its infancy, and advancing 
step by step towards the maturity to which the public so anxiously looked, watching its 
growth through every step of its intermediate stages, would now, on a retrospective 
view, appear unnecessarily minute, and even tedious to general readers. From the same 
consideration the objects selected for representation are chiefly such as. will always 
continue to gratify the lovers of beautiful forms and elegant designs j and of which the 
descriptions will be found permanently useful, in guiding the taste, and inciting to 
excellence in whatever branch of ingenuity or of the fine arts it may be sought. 

" A thing of beauty is a joy for ever !" 
says the poet ; and we fully agree with one of our contemporaries, who, in happy illus- 
tration of the sentiment says, " We would have every thing in a house touched by the 
divining rod of the poet. An inkstand, instead of being a literal glass bottle, or a fine piece 
of or-molu, or bronze, significant of nothing but costliness, might be fashioned to represent 
a fountain, with a Muse inspiring its flow ; our goblets might bubble over amongst hop- 
leaves, and stems of blossoms ; our decanters be composed of transparent vines, cluster- 
ing in wild confusion, or drqoping over trellis-work, as we see them in the sunny south ; 
our bell-ropes, that carry more messages than the electric wires, might be converted 
into hanging garlands '; pur water-jugs be made to flatter the palate with their look of 
coolness ; snow creaming over the edges, and harts drinking at brooks, in the shadows 
down the sides : lively colours, tastefully toned and harmonized, might be scattered over 
our rooms, under a thousand pretences of necessity ; and in every article of furniture the 
forms of a classical antiquity, which always possessed the charm of innate grace, delicacy, 
and refinement, might be successfully revived." 

There is no doubt that the Crystal Palace has done much already, to further so 
desirable an end, and as every effort to perpetuate the remembrance of its contents must 
be regarded as conducing to the general advancement of taste, and the promotion of the 
beautiful, the proprietprs trust that theirs will come in for its full share of the approba- 
tion which it will be their endeavour to deserve. 



CONTENTS.. 



VOL. I. 



PAGE 

Achilles Wounded (illustrated) .... 244 

Adam and Eve, by Jerichau 40 

Albert (H.R.H. Prince), Speech at the Lord Mayor's 

Banquet . . .13 

: — Speech at the Opening . 23 

— Equestrian Portrait of (il- 
lustrated) . . .31 

: — Model Houses . . . 206 

Amazon attacked by a Tigress, by Kiss (illustrated) 385 
American Grandeur ......' 161 

Apostrophe to the " Far West" . . . .161 

Arab Merchants, Centre-piece, by Nicholson ^illus- 
trated) 141 

Archbishop of Canterbury, Prayer at the Opening . 23 

Arethusa, by Thrupp 246 

Ariadne, by Kirk 124 

Artificial Light .133 

Australia, Contributions from . . . .53 

Austrian Carvings 75 

Babes in the Wood, by Bell 43 

Bacchus, Statue of 123 

Barberi, Chevalier, Mosaic Table . . . .94 

Barbetti, Carvings by 76 

Basins, Ewers, and Sherbet-Cups, from Turkey . 184 

Bavarian Lion ,169 

Bedstead, Austrian 75 

Bees 57 

Belgian Department ...... 64 

Belgian Smuggler's Dog 65 

Bertini, Window in Stained Glass . . . .193 

Blanqui, Letters, 1 and 2 195 

, 3, 4, and 5 234 

Boarding-school Visitors 157 

Bookbinding 220 

Book-Case, by Holland 73 

Boy attacked by Serpent, and Companion (illustrated) 40 

British Machinery 234 

British Amenity 147 

Bute, Marquess of, by Thomas .... 123 

Cain, by Jehotte . . . . . . .126 

Cain and his Family, by Etex (illustrated) . , 243 
Campbell and the Quarterly Review . . . 258 
Camp Equipage, from Turkey .... 184 

Canada, Contributions from 51 

Canadian Timber Trophy (illustrated) . . .52 

Cape of Good Hope 55 

Cardinal Wiseman at the Exhibition . . .66 
Carved Buffet, by Fourdronois . . . .72 
Carved Ivory Chair (illustrated) . . . .31 

Carved Panels, by Lienard 73 

Carvings in Bog Yew . ... . . .73 

Carvings in Ivory, Indian 33 

Carvings in Wood, Swiss 74 

Catalogue, compared to Chimborazo . . .38 
Cellini Benvenuto, Account of .... 72 



PAGE 

Ceylon, Contributions from 49 

Chance, Brothers, and Co., Stained Glass . . 98 

Charge of Admission 28 

Chaucer's Dream 43 

Chinese Nick-knacks . . . . . .118 

Church Ornaments 231 

Coat of a Sikh Chief . . . • . .31 

Colonial Departments 31 

Council Medals 241 

Couteau de Chasse . . . . . . . 170 

Cradle, Royal, by Rogers (illustrated) . . . 204 

Cruikshank's great Etching 255 

Crystal Palace by Moonlight 60 

Crystal Fountain 80 

Cupid, by Geefs 124 

by Jennings ...... 244 

and Psyche, by Benzoni . . . .43 

Daguerreotype 134 

application of, to Meteorological Science 136. 

of Clouds, Falls of Niagara, &c. . . 136 

adopted at Greenwich Royal Observatory 139 

Daily Number of Dinners calculated . . .26 
Dancing Faun, by Lechesne (illustrated) . .171 

Dante and his Thoughts (illustrated) . . . 193 

Davy, Sir Humphrey 135 

Debay, le premier Berceau ..... 243 
Deer-stalking in the Highlands .... 181 

Diamond from Lahore 32 

Mines 85 

Dorothea, by Bell 43 

Dreaming on the Thames, from St. Paul's to Chelsea 259 

Drunken Faun, by Hogan 244 

Duke of Wellington, Anecdote of . . . . 256 

Duvelleroy 63 

Eagle-Slayer, by Bell (illustrated) . . . .169 
Early Morning Visit to the Crystal Palace . . 99 

Earth, a Living Creature 117 

Ecclesiastical Robes ...... 66 

Elaborate Corkscrew 119 

Eldon and Stowell, Lords, group (illustrated) . .123 
Electric Telegraph in the Crystal Palace . . .157 
Elizabethan Contributions by Duchess of Sutherland 74 
England's Share of the Exhibition — " penitus toto 

divisos orbe Britannos" 149 

English Machinery ...... 159 

Engraving on Stones 89 

Eurydice 41 

Eve after her Fall 41 

Eve, T)y Du Bay ,62 

Exterior of Palace described 19 

Fairies, the, and' the Fair Ones of France . .159 

Fan, Royal, by Duvelleroy (illustrated) . . . 218 
Fans^ . . . ... . . .214 

Fidelity, by Benzoni (illustrated) .... 243 

Fine Arts Court 202 



u 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Fine Climate of England 148 

First of May 21 

Flaxman, Statue of 123 

Foreign and Colonial Departments . . . .48 
Foreign Countries sending their Contributions . .15 

Foreign Impressions 146 

(continued) . . . .61 

■ Ditto 67 

Ditto 105 

Ditto 127 

Ditto 183 

Foreigners, great Arrival of 18 

Fountain of Eau de Cologne of Maria Farina . . 150 
Four Grand Compartments of the Exhibition . . 28 

French Department 61 

and English Artists compared . . .144 

Silks 158 

Complacency 159 

Freedom and English Order . . .160 

Taste 235 

Future Fate of the Crystal Palace . . . .256 

Gems, Antique 90 

Gibbon Grirdin 75 

Gibson, Sculptor 189 

Life of St. Peter 98 

Girl Praying, M'Dowal 125 

Glass, Discovery of . . . . . . .76 

Blowing 78 

Bohemian (illustrated) 82 

various Specimens of 82 

Stained and Painted 95 

Glycera, by Wyatt (illustrated) . . . .43 
Godfrey of Bouillon . . . „ . .246 
" God save the Queen," great popularity of . . 148 

Golden Girdle 32 

Gold, Silver, and Precious Stones in the Russian 

Department 127 

Gratitude (illustrated) 243 

Great Exhibition compared to the Tower of Babel . 103 

Greek Hunter, by Gibson . ... 42 

Greek Slave (illustrated) 42 

Guildhall, Entertainment at 104 

Hagar and Ishmael, by Max 41 

Hampden, Statue of (illustrated) .... 122 

Happy Child and Unhappy Child (illustrated) . 42 

Harrison's Monster Lodging Establishment . . 27 

Hector Berlioz, early Visit of, to the Great Exhibition 259 
Highlands, Contributions from the . . .175 

Hints on Philanthropy and Economy . . . 1 65 
Hope's Collection of Precious Stones . . .85 

Horological Instrument ...... 248 

Hotel and Lodging-house Keepers on the alert . 18 
Hours leading the Horses of the Sun, Gibson ' . .42 

Hunt and Roskell 139 

Hunter and Panther, by Jerichau .... 244 

Immense Sheet of Paper 159 

India 31 

India-rubber and Caoutchouc 160 

Indian Armour 34 

Indian Moorchats 32 

Industry aided by Science 133 

Influx of Visitors 27 

Ingenious Absurdities 115 

Ino and Bacchus 48 

Innocence defended by Fidelity . . . .43 

Invalids 148 



PAOi 

Iowas Indians ....... 149 

Ishmael, by Strazzi 41 

Island of Laputa . . . . . . .115 

Jenner, Dr., Statue of, by Thomas (illustrated) . 123 
Jephthah's Daughter, by Theed . . . .41 

Jewelled Hawk ....... 88 

Jewellery, English . . . . . . .158 

Jonathan's Seven-League Boots . . • .160 
Kenilworth Buffet, by Cooke (illustrated) ■ .71 

Koh-i-Noor, Description of ^5 

imitated in Glass . . . ■ .81 

and worshipped Relics . . • .150 

the True and the False, or the Two Sosias 158 

its Value 240 

Laborious Trifles ....... 1^5 

Lace, Brussels and Belgian . . . • .65 

Lamps from Turkey 183 

Legislator, the gallant and eccentric . • .57 

Lemoine, Letter 1 1*6 

: Letter 2 157 

Letter 3 , 159 

Libusa, Queen of Bohemia ..... 169 
Lion in Love, by Geefs (illustrated). . • ■ 124 

Liverpool Docks, Model of 47 

Lord of the Isles 166 

Main Avenue (illustrated) ..... 168 
looking West (illustrated) . . .169 

looking West, No. 4 (illustrated) . .169 

Malachite Doors 127 

Mangals or Braziers from Turkey .... 183 
Man of Steel, by Count Dupin . . . .115 
Manufactures in Russian Department . . . 129 
Marble and Bronze compared . . . . .168 
Mazeppa, a Group ...... 40 

Mediaeval Court 227 

Medical Walking- Staff, by Dr. Gray . . .117 

Moldavian Sledge 186 

Monster Lodging Establishment . . . .27 

Mosaic Work, History of 92 

Mosaics, Ancient ....... 93 

Mourners, by Lough (illustrated) . . . .46 

Mutton Fat, Articles in . . . . .117 

Narcissus, by Theed ...... 42 

Nawal, Nizam of Bengal 32 

Notes of Preparation . . . . . .19 

Nymph, by Wyatt (illustrated) . . . .43 

Omnibuses 147 

Opening of the Exhibition (illustrated) . . .21 

Ophelia 40 

Opinions of the Building Committee ... 8 

Organs in the Crystal Palace 56 

Origin of the Exhibition 5 

Ostler, Glass, &c 80 

Psestum, Ruins of, in Mosaic .... 254 

Paolo and Francesca, by Munro . . . .124 

Paradoxes and Prejudices 146 

Pastoral Group, by Kirk 40 

Paxton, Plan chosen ...... 9 

Peaceful Crowds and pleasing admixture of Rank . 101 
Pearl, largest in the World . . . . ,85 

Pearls ......... 88 

Pellat, Glass 80 

Perfumery ........ 261 

known among the Egyptians . . . 261 

employed in ancient Greece and Rome . 262 

recorded in Holy Writ .... 262 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



VOL. I. 



Arms of all Nations. 

The Great Exhibition (Frontispiece.) 

Albert, H.R.H. Prince, Equestrian Statue of . 

— — Portrait of, after Win- 

terhalter . . . 
Amazon attacked by a Tigress . 
Apollo Belvidere 
Austrian Bedstead . 
Bashful Beggars (by Gondolfi) . 
Bookbinding, Specimens of 
Cabinet of "Walnut-wood . 
• Oain and his Family (by Etex) 
Carved Chessmen 
■ Ivory Chair 



Carvings in Bog-wood 
in Ivory 



Cradle, Royal 

Cupid and Psyqhe (by Benzoni) 

Dancing Faun .... 

Dante's Thoughts, Painted Window (by Bertini) 193 

Deer-Stalker 126 

Diadem and Ruby Stomacher . . . .87 

■ Dresden China 153 

Eagle-Slayer (by Bell) 169 

Eldon and Stowell, Group . . . .123 
Emperor of Russia's Jewel-Case . . .84 
Fan, Royal (by Duvelleroy) . . . .218 

Fidelity 243 

Follet, Sir William, Statue of . . . .122 

French Fan 218 

Gladiatorial Table 193 

Glass, Bohemian 82 

Glycera, Statue of (by Wyatt) . . . .43 

Gratitude 243 

Greek Slave 42 

Hampden, Statue of 122 

Happy and Unhappy Child . . . .42 
Jenner, Dr., Statue of 123 

. Jewel-Case of Her Majesty . . • .84 

Kenilworth Buffet 71 

Life of St. Peter, Painted Window . . .193 

Lion in Love 124 

Looking-glass and Console Table . . .75 

Mahogany Sideboard 71 

Main Avenue, looking West . . ■ .169 

Malachite Doors 127 

Malachite Vases . . . 127 



31 

152 

385 

169 
75 
41 

221 
75 

243 
33 
31 
73 
33 

204 
43 

171 



Monumental Cross . 
Mourners, the (by Lough) 
Nymph (by Wyatt) . 

preparing for Bathing 



Opening of the Great Exhibition 
Oriental Chair . 



Piano, by Brinsmead 

■, Cottage (by, Allison) 



Psyche calling on Cupid 
Queen, Her Majesty the, Equestrian Statue of . 
Portrait of, after Win- 



terhalter . 
Queen of Spain's Jewels 
Rinaldo and Armida 
Satan Vanquished . 
Sevres China . 

Shakespeare, Statue of (by Bell) 
Shield and Arms (by Lessage and Delacour) 
(by Gueyton) 



Sir Moses Montefiore, Testimonial to 
Sir Roger de Coverley with the Gypsies 
Slave in the Market (by Monti) 
■sledges, Canadian .... 
Spandril, Hereford Cathedral . 
Stag hunted by Dogs 
Testimonial to Lumley 
Theseus and Amazons (by Engel) 
The First Step . 
— - Hours' Clock 
— — Lawyer 

— Morning Walk . 
i — Schoolmaster 
Tea Party 

— Transept . 

— ~ ■ looking South 

Triumph of Arts and Science (by-Elkington) 
Vase (by Meurice) 



Veiled Vestal (by Monti) . 
Venus and Cupid .... 
■Virginius and his Daughter 
.Walnut-tree Bedstead 

■Western Nave 

Whittington, Lord Mayor of London 
•Wounded American Indian 
Youth at the Spring .... 

on the Sea-shore . 

. after the Chase 



PAGE 

227 
46 
71 

242 
21 
31 
57 
57 
41 
31 

-152 

81 

43 

126 

153 

122 

65 

65 

143 

142 

41 

52 

227 

248 

143 

39 

41 

142 

114 

114 

114 

114 

44 

124 

144 

141 

41 

39 

124 

75 

45 

40 

126 

125 

41 

242 



CONTENTS. 



Ill 



PAGE 

Perfumery and Artificial Essences .... 263 

Perfumes, their great Antiquity .... 261 

Petty Larcenies in the Crystal Palace . . . 254 

Philosophy in Sport made Science in Earnest . . 115 

Phryne, by Pradier 242 

Porcelain 150 

Porcelain Statuary 153 

Pottery, Staffordshire 152 

Precious Stones 84 

Prodigal Son, by Theed 42 

Progress of the Building described . . . .11 

Prometheus, by Theed 40 

Queen Elizabeth listening to the Reading of Shakes- 
peare 98 

Queen of Spain's Jewels (illustrated) . . .87 

Queen Victoria, Equestrian Portrait of (illustrated) . 31 

Radetsky, Statue of ' 41 

Raw Materials in the Russian Department . . 130 

Refreshments .26 

Richard Cour-de-Lion 242 

Rogers and Wallis, Wood-carving . . . .70 

Royal Procession at Opening 24 

Royal Visits 254 

Russian Department 127 

Display 159 

Sabrina 245 

Satan Vanquished by St. Michael, by Stephens (illus- 
trated) 126 

Sculpture 38 

■ , Remarks on 120 

Self-adjusting Railway 119 

Semibreve Guitar 117 

Seven in the Morning at the Great Exhibition . . 260 

Sevres and the Gobelins 158 

Shakespeare, by Bell (illustrated) .... 122 
Shield presented to the Prince of Wales by the King 

of Prussia 170 

Silk Trophy 45 

Silver Ornamented, vast profusion of 139 

Sir Roger de Coverley with the Gypsies (illustrated) 142 
Slave in the Market-place (illustrated) . . .41 

Smith's Yielding Breakwater 163 

Lighthouse 164 

Sonnet 267 

Spanish Court 131 

Startled Nymph, by Behnes . .... 43 

Stationery 224 

Stroll in the Crystal Palace at Noon-day . . . 100 

Sunday Visit to the Great Exhibition . . ■ 148 

Susannah at the Bath 41 



PAGE 

Sussex Peasantry, Visit of 255 

Sword of Changarnier 170 

Testimonial to Sir Moses Montefiore (illustrated) . 143 

The Bible in all Languages 160 

The Chinese and the solitary Sparrow . . . 260 

The Clergyman of Redruth 166 

The Liverpool Locomotive 167 

The Philosopher and the Philanthropist . . .162 
Theseus and the Amazons, by Engel (illustrated) . 39 
The Two Sosias, or the True and the False Koh-i- 

Noor 158 

Tomb of Rev. Dr. Walsh 228 

Transept, Description of (illustrated) . ■ 44 

looking South (illustrated) . . . 124 

Tunis, various Articles from 188 

Turkey, Contributions from 183 

Turkish Fire-arms 186 

Saddles, &c 188 

Van Diemen's Land, Contributions from. . . 54 

Varieties 253 

Variety of Nations at the Great Exhibition . .149 

Vast bustle 147 

Veiled Vestal, Monti (illustrated) . . . .41 

Violin-Piano 119 

Virginius and Daughter, by M'Dowell, R.A. (illus- 
trated) 124 

Visitors, Number of ...... 55 

Una and the Lion, by Bell 43 

United States' Department 67 

Walking-Sticks 208 

War of the Titans, by Vetche . . . .170 

Water-Plants in Silver 142 

Waterproof Paletots in a Cigar-Case . . . 1 59 

Western Nave (illustrated) 45 

Whewell on the Arte and Manufactures of barbarous 

and civilised Nations . " 36 

Whittington, Lord Mayor of London (illustrated) . 40 

Willow- wood Cottage 118 

Winterhalter's Portraits of the Queen and Prince 
Albert on Porcelain (illustrated, .... 152 

Wood-Carving 70 

Wolff, Albert, Account of bis Studio . . .247 
Wonderful Achievement with a Penknife . . .118 
Wonderful Knives and Scissors .... 121 
Wounded American Indian, by Stephenson (illus- 
trated) . . 126 

Youth on the Sea-shore (illustrated) . . .41 

at the Spring (illustrated) .... 125 

Zollverein Department 105 

Staffed Animals (illustrated) . . .114 



CHAPTER I. 

OEIGIN OB THE EXHIBITION — PEOPOSED SITE — WAYS AND MEANS — VAEIOTTS PLANS SUGGESTED — 

EINAL SELECTION. 

The English have always been renowned for improving on the inventions of others. The 
facetious Joe Miller, the father of impromptu jest-books, informs us that a Frenchman, 
boasting of his nation being the primary introducers of frills, at the bosom and wrists of 
male fashionables, the Englishman replied, "We will not dispute with you the honour 
of inventing the frill, we only claim the merit of having added the shirt to it." Now it 
must be acknowledged, that the merit of the first idea of a Public Exhibition of the 
choicest productions of a country, in art and science, an Exhibition undertaken solely 
for the display of excellence, and for encouragement of every effort towards the attain- 
ment of it, without any immediate thought of profit to the originators, beyond their share 
in the general good that might accrue from it to society at large, is decidedly due to the 
French. Exhibitions of goods, merely considered as marketable commodities, assumed 
to be the best of their kind, were indeed common enough in all countries pretending. to 
civilization, at the fairs which formed the annual meetings of our forefathers, with their 
relatives and friends ; but exhibitions in which the perfecting of the articles exhibited 
should be the primary object, and the commerce to be afterwards derjved from 
them merely secondary, have only taken place among us, during the latter half of the 
preceding century to the present time. And here we may claim priority over our 
neighbours, for it is now nearly a century ago since the Society of Arts, in London, first 
offered prizes for specimens of manufactures, in the various mechanical arts which are at 
once the evidence and the reward of a desire to increase the comforts and refinements of 
social existence. The Royal Academy, at the same time, took the loftier productions of 
the fine arts under its protection; organized exhibitions of paintings, sculptures, and 
engravings, and adjudged prizes among the exhibitors, according to the degrees of merit 
their productions were found to display. 

Gradually these examples were followed by each of the metropolitan cities, and 
the principal manufacturing towns of the United Kingdom began, one after another, to 
promote annual or triennial exhibitions among the manufacturers and artizans of the 
articles most worthy of notice. Of all these local exhibitions,, that of Birmingham, in the 
autumn of 1849, was the most comprehensive and important, so that it may be justly 
esteemed as a precursor of that wonder of the world which, less than two years after, was 
destined to " rise like an exhalation," and cast all its predecessors into the shade. 

Still those preceding exhibitions had all been of a private and local character, 
receiving neither sanction nor assistance in any way from government, or public money, 
save in the solitary instance of the exhibition of manufactures relative to the decoration 
of the Houses of Parliament, which was instituted by the Fine Arts Commissioners. 
Whilst in France, on the contrary, the very first exhibition of industrial products took 
place in 1798, expressly as a national institution; it was followed by a second in 1801, a 
third in 1802, and a fourth in 1806. A lapse of thirteen years then occurred, filled up 
with the successes and defeats, and defeats and successes of warfare; the dethroning 
and re-throning of monarchs, and every other "change, chance, and circumstance" 
of that war, " which, were their subjects wise," as Cowper justly observes, " kings would 

not play at." 

In 1819, however, the blessings of peace began to be felt in the tranquillity and 
security that ever are to be found in her train. The exhibitions of Freneh industry were 

c 



ti THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

then renewed, and systematically continued, and from that time the influence of them 
hegan to be decidedly felt throughout Europe. . 

Nevertheless it was not till the great success of the exhibition in Pans of 1844, 
awakened a general desire throughout the United Kingdom to give its industry the ad- 
vantage of a similar appeal to the public, as to the actual position it might hold in the 
scale of excellence, that the idea was entertained of organizing an exhibition on a still 
more extended scale in London. It is a well-known fact, that almost all the great works 
and important institutions of this country are the offspring of the wishes and exertions 
of the people at large; nor ought we, in fact, to quarrel with, or comment upon the 
reluctance that government always betrays towards aiding or bringing forth any new 
undertaking, until its value be tested and proved by individuals, when to that very 
reluctance we no doubt owe much of our national spirit of independence, which will not 
be driven off the ground it has once taken up ; and for which we are indebted, not only 
for all our most valuable acquisitions at home, but also for a great proportion of the 
respect and confidence with which we are. regarded abroad. 

In 1848, his Royal Highness Prince Albert, had, with that courtesy, benevolence, and 
enlargement of mind which have so justly endeared him to the English nation, readily 
consented to lay before the government a proposal submitted to him, for the establish- 
ment of a self-supporting exhibition of British industry, to be controlled and protected 
by a royal commission; but not even his approval of the scheme, and conviction of its 
eligibility, could conquer the accustomed apathy of the parties whom he had to 
address ; and the great mass of the people who were most interested in the measure, 
were, perhaps, not sorry to find that if they really meant to carry it into execution, it 
must be by their own exertions alone. The Society of Arts had made an attempt, 
though an'abortive one, in 1845, to establish an exhibition of national industry; in 
1847 they renewed it with more success; in 1848 with more still; insomuch that the 
council were encouraged to announce the intention of the society to hold annual exhibi- 
tions from that time, as the means of establishing a quinquennial exhibition of British 
industry, on an enlarged scale, to be held in 1851. 

His Royal Highness Prince Albert was of course informed of these proceedings, from 
time to time ; and immediately after the closing of the session of 1849, he took the sub- 
ject under his own personal superintendence. As President of the Society of Arts, he 
commissioned several of its members to proceed forthwith to the manufacturing districts, 
in order to ascertain the sentiments of the leading inhabitants : these commissioners 
visited sixty-five places, comprehending the most important cities and towns of the 
United Kingdom; public meetings were held in them, local committees formed, 
amounting to three hundred and thirty in number, and nearly five thousand influential 
individuals registered their names as supporters of the proposed Exhibition. With so 
favourable a commencement, the Queen willingly granted her royal commission for its 
organization and protection, to her " most dearly-beloved consort," and to all " the right 
trusty, and right entirely well-beloved cousins and councillors/* whose names are 
mentioned in the deed, in due succession, according to the dignity of their offices. 

The next point to be settled was the site on which the edifice was to be reared. 
Divers places were proposed ; Battersea Park, Victoria Park, Wormwood Scrubs, Wands- 
worth, Primrose Hill, even the Isle of Dogs; divers objections were raised to each. 
Government had offered the area of Somerset House for the purpose, or, if that situation 
were not deemed eligible, some other on the property of the Crown. Prince Albert 
pointed out the vacant space in Hyde Park, on the south side, parallel with, and 
between the Kensington drive and the ride famous for fashionable equestrians of both 
sexes, known by the somewhat inappropriate name of Rotten-row ; and the result proved 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 7 

that a more judicious choice could not have been made. The distance was sufficiently 
removed from the busiest parts of the capital, to prevent any interruption to its com- 
merce, yet not so far as to be inconvenient, or cause unnecessary loss of time to the 
crowds of visitors that were to be expected. The approach to it, through the most 
attractive parts of the metropolis, and the noble park so inestimable to the people, 
predisposed the mind to agreeable anticipations ; the allotted portion of ground com- 
prised upwards of twenty-six acres,' presenting a length of two thousand three hundred 
feet, and a breadth of five hundred, and here and there lofty elms extended their 
venerable branches, to be gradually enclosed within the Crystal Palace, of which they 
were destined to become one of the most interesting ornaments. There was also an 
additional advantage in this site ; an advantage which Prince Albert, with the goodness 
of heart that in him reveals itself on all occasions of public benefit, pointed out as 
deserving of particular attention, and that was, that it "admitted of equal good access to 
high and low, rich and poor ; and that those who went down in omnibuses, would have equal 
facilities of approach with those who went in their private carriages." "What a contrast did 
this generous consideration afford to the selfish murmurings of a throng of idle loungers 
in the fashionable world, who loudly exclaimed against the hardship and injustice 
of being obliged t<j» sport themselves and their steeds on one side of the Serpentine 
instead of the other ! 

The Royal Commission obtained, and the ground fixed upon, the next subject for con- 
sideration was the " Ways and Means ;" in other words, how to provide the money, 
which forms the sinews of all great undertakings, in peace as well as war. The Messrs. 
Munday had, at a very early period of the discussion on the subject, proposed, with a 
degree of Uberality and confidence, which, as the Royal Commissioners did them 
the justice to acknowledge, reflected the highest credit upon them, to deposit twenty 
thousand pounds as a sum for prizes; to advance whatever other sums might be neces- 
sary for preliminary expenses; to provide offices, to erect a suitable building, and to 
take upon themselves the whole risk of loss, on certain conditions, which conditions were 
equally declared by the Royal Commissioners, to be "strictly reasonable, and even 
favourable to the public." 

Nevertheless, the wishes of the people so evidently turned towards considering the 
Exhibition entirely as a . national and self-supporting institution, that it was judged 
expedient by the Royal Commissioners to set the contract of Messrs. Munday aside, on 
repaying them the sums they had advanced, with the interest accruing, and to organize an 
Executive Committee, with Lieutenant-Colonel D. Reid, R.E., at its head, as chairman, 
and to charge it with the duty, of arranging the financial operations. Accordingly, the 
first step of the new commissioners was, to appeal to all classes of the community, for 
subscriptions to carry out the object proposed : to point out to them that the scale on 
which the undertaking could be completed must depend entirely upon the amount of 
the sums received on its behalf; and to call upon them to make such liberal arrange- 
ments as would enable the Executive Committee to realize the plans proposed, in a 
manner worthy of the character and position of the country, and of the invitation 
it had sent forth to all nations, to compete with it in a spirit of generous and friendly 
emulation. 

It will be easily imagined that in our land of commerce, and of all the enlarged ideas 
to which commerce gives rise, a land wherein, very lately, we have seen, at a meeting on 
a. political question, subscriptions pouring forth at the astounding rate of a thousand 
pounds a minute, an appeal like this would be willingly responded to. Seventy-five 
thousand pounds were subscribed in the. different manufacturing towns and seaports of the 
United Kingdom ; of which sum nearly forty thousand were contributed by the city of 



8 THE GK.EAT EXHIBITION 

London alone. A guarantee fund of two hundred and thirty thousand pounds was 
formed by a limited number of persons, including most of the commissioners and other 
friends of the undertaking, one of them opening the list with the munificent subscription 
of fifty thousand pounds ; and upon the security of this fund the Bank of England con- 
sented to make such advances of money as might be requisite from time to time. 

Having now seen the " ways and means" provided for, we must proceed to lay the 
foundations of the palace itself with our readers, and request their accompanying us in 
the rapid survey of its rise and progress, which is all that our limits will allow for this 
portion of our remarks. 

The Building Committee having announced its desire to receive plans and suggestions 
respecting the edifice, from individuals of any country whatsoever that might be willing 
to offer them, they were speedily furnished with designs from no fewer than two 
hundred and thirty-three contributors: — viz. — one hundred and twenty-eight from 
residents in London and its environs ; fifty-one from provincial towns in England ; six 
from Scotland ; three from Ireland ; twenty-seven from France ; three from Holland ; 
two from Belgium ; two from Switzerland ; one from Naples ; one from Rhine-Prussia ; 
one from Hamburgh ; and seven anonymous. Of these plans the Building Committee 
reported, that a large proportion of them were remarkable for elaboration of thought and 
elegance of execution ; that every possible mode of accomplishing the object in view had 
been displayed by the respective contributors, regarding economy of structure and distri- 
bution, and uniting these qualities with various degrees of architectural symmetry : that 
our " illustrious Continental neighbours" had especially distinguished themselves " by 
compositions of the utmost taste and learning, worthy of enduring execution ; examples 
of what might be done in the architectural illustration of the subject, when viewed in its 
highest aspect; and, at all events, exhibiting features of grandeur, arrangement, and 
grace, which had not failed to be duly appreciated. Another class were praised for 
the " enthusiasm" with which, bearing in mind "the great occasion and object of the 
Exhibition," they had magnanimously "waived all considerations of expense," and 
indulged their imaginations, and employed the resources of their genius and learning, in 
the composition of arrangements presenting the utmost grandeur and beauty of architec- 
ture ; and reminding the architectural student of all the conditions of his art — " the 
Egyptian hypo-style, the Roman thermae, or of the Arabic or Saracenic inventions/' 

But, as Sancho Panza has wisely observed, " fine words butter no parsnips." Of all 
these elaborately-eulogised plans, not one was found alike fit, worthy, and possible for 
adoption; whilst the "faint praise" given to the "practical character" of the English, 
as " remarkably illustrated in some very striking and simple methods, suited to the 
temporary purposes of the building, due attention having been paid to the pecuniary means 
allotted to this part of the undertaking," and the disproportionate number of foreigners to 
whom "the highest honorary distinction" was awarded, being in the proportion of 
fifteen to eighteen among them, whilst amongst the English it was only three out of one 
hundred and eighty-five, together called forth a burst of indignation from the public, as 
well as from the number of candidates, who thought their claims had not been fairly dealt 
with. They complained that, whilst they had confined themselves strictly to the con- 
ditions specified, that only suggestions were to be given, that the plan or drawing was to 
be a mere outline-sketch upon a single sheet, and the written description or explanation 
of the plan to be comprised in a single sheet, their competitors had indulged in 
"elaborated designs, elegantly executed," many on a larger scale, and even with the 
advantage of colour. 

The design for the edifice which the Building Committee submitted to the Com- 
missioners, was no sooner made known to the public, than in the same manner another 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 9 

storm of disapprobation, plentifully intermixed with ridicule, Broke upon their heads ; 
and, truth to say, the idea was sufficiently open to objection. The realization of it would 
have brought forth a fabric four times the length of either Westminster Abbey, St. Paul's, 
or York Minster; in fact, two thousand two hundred feet long, and four hundred and 
fifty wide. The main building was to be sixty feet in height, the dome more than 
one hundred and fifty in height, and two hundred in diameter; making it eleven 
feet larger in diameter than that of St. Peter's at Rome, and forty-five more than that 
of St. Paul's; whilst fifteen million of bricks would have been used in the building, 
altogether ! Little did the - committee imagine at that moment, that the structure was 
finally destined to stand forth in all the combined advantages of lightness, strength, and 
security, without the aid of brick, stone, or mortar ! their places more efficiently and 
more eponomically filled by wood, iron, and glass. Yet so it was ; a self-taught genius 
waved the wand with which he had before effected wonders, and up rose - 

THE CRYSTAL PALACE. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that this genius, this magician was Mr. Paxton, or, as 
he will be known to future generations, Sir Joseph Paxton ; and truly his descendants 
may be justly proud of an honour which ought to be continued to them, as it was 
granted to him on the sole ground that can render honorary distinctions really honour- 
able, namely, that of merit. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE PAXTON PLAN — CONTEACT WITH EOX AND HENDERSON — VAST EXTENT OP ARRANGEMENTS — 

BAPID ADVANCEMENT OE THE BUILDING VISIT OE THE SOCIETY OF ARTS — ARRANGEMENT 

TOR THE DISTRIBUTION OE GOODS — COURTESY TO STRANGERS — PRINCE ALBERT'S SPEECH. 

Mr. Paxton had long been known to the public as the superintendent of the Duke of 
Devonshire's horticultural- departments, at Chatsworth and Chiswick, and for the 
improvements he had introduced into the buildings connected with them, particularly 
in the introduction of sheet glass for level roofs to conservatories. The idea was 
originally suggested to his mind by an attentive examination of the large umbrella- 
shaped leaf, and the longitudinal and transverse girders and supporters at the back of 
the gigantic and magnificent water-lily, known by the name of the Victoria Regia, 
imported into this country from South Africa, and which flowered for the first time in 
our clime, on the 9th of November, 1849, in a house expressly fitted 4 up for it in the 
gardens at Chatsworth, where the water wherein it was placed was kept in motion by a 
small water-wheel, invented for the purpose by Mr. Paxton. 

The account which Mr. Paxton gives of the considerations which first induced him 
to send in a design, the last in the field, to the Executive Committee, is admirable 
in its simplicity and truthfulness. It was not until one morning when he was present 
with his friend Mr. Ellis, at an early sitting in the House of Commons, that the idea 
presented itself to him, in consequence of a conversation that took place between them 
relative to the construction of the new House of Commons, in the course of which 
Mr Paxton observed that he was afraid they would be committing another blunder 
in the building for the Industrial Exhibition, adding, that he had a notion concerning 
it in bis own head, and that if his friend would accompany him to the Board of Trade, 



10 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

he would ascertain whether it was too late to send in a design. Upon inquiring of the 
Executive Committee whether they stood so far pledged to the plans already submitted 
to them, as to be precluded from receiving another, they replied certainly not; for 
though the specifications would be out in a fortnight, there was no reason why a clause 
should not be introduced allowing another design to come under consideration. 
" Then," said Mr. Paxton, " if you will introduce a clause to that effect, I will go 
home, and in nine days I will bring you my plans all complete." This was on Friday 
the 11th of June, 1850. 

He had, however, to go from London to the Menai Straits, to see the third tube of 
the Britannia Bridge placed, after which he returned to Derby, to attend to some 
business at the board-room; but his thoughts were fixed upon his design, and he 
sketched it on a large sheet of blotting-paper, whilst the conversation was going on 
all around him. This precious embodiment of his first ideas on so momentous a subject 
was taken possession of by his wife, as he stated at a subsequent meeting, in excuse 
for not producing it ; and the importance she annexed to its preservation, was a proof 
at once of her affectionate pride in her husband's talent, and of her judgment in appre- 
ciating the value of a proof of it, equally demonstrative of its readiness and precision. 
All that night he sat up to consider and correct it, and by the aid of his friend Mr. 
Barlow, he was enabled to finish all his plans hy the Saturday following, and to start 
with them that day for London. To the honour of Mr. Stephenson and Mr. Brunei, 
they no sooner were made acquainted with Mr. Paxton's plan, than they acknowledged 
its merit, though it interfered with their own previous views on the subject, particularly 
Mr. Brunei's, which had embraced the idea of the monster dome; but he had the 
generosity to help Mr. Paxton in his plan for covering in the tall trees which were so 
dear to the public, that their preservation was made a sine qua non, by taking their 
measurement himself the next morning, and communicating it to Mr. Paxton, saying 
to him with equal frankness and good feeling, " although I mean to try to win with my 
own plan, I will give you all the information I can." 

This is the true spirit in which men of science and genius should meet each other, 
and we may hope that instances of it will every day become more and more frequent, 
under the influence of that enlargement of sympathy and sentiment, which the increased 
facility of intercourse among nations with each other is the surest means of promoting. 

We have already said that it was on a Saturday that Mr. Paxton came up to town 
with his design, and encouraged by the gracious approbation he met with from Prince 
Albert, he went forthwith to Messrs. Fox and Henderson, to ask them if they would 
make a tender for the building on his plan, which they accordingly did, enabled to do 
so by wording it as " an improvement" on the design of the committee. The contract 
was finally taken by these gentlemen for the sum of £79,800, and the materials after 
the close of the Exhibition ; or for £150,000 if the building should be permanently 
retained. This was subsequently proved to be the lowest practicable tender that was 
submitted to the Building Committee; and not the least admirable thing connected 
with it, was the wonderful quickness and exactitude with which the necessary estimates 
were formed. It unfortunately happened that the next, day was the first Sunday on 
which the delivery of letters was forbidden by the new postal arrangement. Never- 
theless, by the aid of the electric telegraph and railway parcels, the great iron masters 
and glass manufacturers of the north were summoned to come up to town on the 
Monday, to contribute their several estimates to the tender for the whole ; and on the 
Monday, — 

" Punctual as lovers to the moment sworn," 
they presented themselves at the office of Messrs. Fox and Henderson in Spring- 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 11 

gardens. Within one week from this meeting, the coat of every pound of iron, every 
inch of glass, and every pound of wood required for the building was calculated, and 
every detailed working drawing prepared. 

" What was done in those few days ?" says an able writer, in that excellent periodical, 
Household Words. " Two parties in London, relying on the accuracy and good faith 
of certain iron-masters, glass-workers in the provinces, and of one master-carpenter in 
London, bound themselves for a certain sum of money, and in the course of some four 
months, to cover eighteen acres of ground, with a building upwards of a third of a mile 
long (1851 feet— the exact date of the year,) and some four hundred and fifty feet 
broad. In order to do this, the glass-maker promised to supply in the required time, 
nine hundred thousand square feet of glass (weighing more than four hundred tons,), 
in separate panes, and these the largest that ever were made of sheet glass ; each being 
forty-nine inches long. The iron-master passed his word in like manner, to cast in 
due time three thousand three hundred iron columns, varying from fourteen feet and- 
a-half to twenty feet in length; thirty-four miles of guttering tube, to join every 
individual column together, under the ground ; two thousand two hundred and twenty- 
four girders; besides eleven hundred and twenty-eight bearers for supporting galleries. 
The carpenter undertook to get ready within the specified period two hundred and five 
miles of sash-bar; flooring for an area of thirty-three millions of cubic feet; besides 
enormous quantities of wooden walling, louvre work, aud partition." 

It was on the 30th of July, 1850, that possession of the ground was obtained ; on the 
26th of the following September the first pillar was fixed. What a multiplicity of 
arrangements had to be formed in that short intervening period ; " Details of construc- 
tion had to be settled, elaborate* calculations as to the strength and proportion of 
the several constituent parts to be made, machinery for economising labour to be 
devised, contracts for the supply of materials to be entered into, and thousands of hands 
set actually to work." 

From the first moment of its commencement the interest of the public in the progress 
of the building was intense. Every day crowds of pedestrians were to be seen bending 
their steps towards the great attraction; fortunate did those think themselves that 
could obtain a peep, through the interstices of the wood-work, at the piles of materials 
withinside; more fortunate still those who by special interest, or some well imagined 
plea of business, could gain a short admittance among the operatives themselves — and in 
fact, to the eye of benevolence, not the Crystal Palace in all its finished glories, presented 
a spectacle more interesting, than that offered in its progress, by the united labours of 
the industrious classes who were to bring it to perfection. 

First, up went the boarding round the destined space — away went the green sward, 
untouched by the spade, yet soon cut up as if the artillery of an army, had passed over 
it. Then rose the wooden walls; then columns; then girders spanned across, first at 
formal and naked distances, but rapidly thickening like a forest of masts ; or rather, if 
we may be allowed the comparison, like huge webs, woven by beings who from below 
looked only like insects, ingeniously crossing the interstices— then galleries spread 
around, and stair-cases sprang up to meet them— and so onward went the work of a 
fabric, of the magnitude of which an idea may be formed more intelligible than any that 
can be communicated by mere figures, when it is stated to be four times the size of St. 
Peter's at Rome, and six times that of St. Paul's in London. 

The workmen seemed to find strength and energy in proportion to the vastness of the 
field in which thev were employed : 18,392 panes of glass were fixed in the roof in one 
week, by eighty men ; 108 panes, or 367 feet 6 inches of glazing being accomplished by 
one of the glaziers in a single day. 



12 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

It had been agreed upon by the contractors, that the members of the Society of Arts 
and their friends should be admitted, to examine the building previous to its being given 
up on a day specified, as sufficiently complete, to the authorities. 1 he day appointed 
for this purpose was only the preceding one, so closely now was the time calculated 
upon : but certainly, whatever might have been the anticipations of the visitors, eignt 
hundred in number, they found, immediately upon their entrance, those anticipations 
exceeded as far, in fact, as the interior of the edifice has ever been found to exceed m its 
beauty, and the harmony of its proportions, the expectations formed by its exterior. 
Even the most practised eyes, accustomed to the gigantic scale on wluch the mighty 
works of the present era are carried out, could recal nothing to compare it to ; in fact, 
there was nothing comparable with it. It was as the time-revealed skeleton of some 
enormous animal, the vastness of which could only be ascertained by its measurement 
with surrounding objects. 

It would be difficult to describe the effect produced upon the minds of the spectators, 
when they found themselves withinside the structure, of which every point was still m 
progress. All manner of operations seemed going on at once ; sawing, planing, glazing, 
painting, hammering, boarding. Here white vapours curled among the yet leafless 
branches of the imprisoned elms, from little steam-engines, each steadily fixed from day 
to day at its appointed duties. There clouds of dust covered the too curious spectator, 
from circular-saws, busily employed in cutting to equal lengths, the Paxton gutters. 
Then again were machines kindly guiding those same gutters, first through a trough of 
paint, and then through an aperture provided with brushes, which pressing closely upon 
them, in their passage, turned them out of it on the other side, all trimly coated. One 
vast apparatus was busying itself with the making of putty; another with manufacturing 
sash-bars — here were vast boilers to generate steam for the machinery — there pipes 
diverging east and west, to convey to the fountains, and various parts of the building, 
the three hundred thousand gallons of water supplied per diem, by the Chelsea Water- 
works Company, by contract, at fifty pounds per month. Massive cranes were relieving 
ponderous waggons of their loads, and wheels and pulleys were everywhere in motion. 

The din of voices and sounds amid the multitude of operatives, and the variety of 
operations may easily be imagined. Well might the overseers of different parties of 
workmen be obliged to communicate with them through a speaking-trumpet. Yet, 
amid all this seeming "confusion worse confounded," though in fact the perfection of 
well-organized regularity, Professor Cowper, with philosophic self-possession, delivered a 
lecture upon the construction of the building, and was surrounded, whilst delivering it, 
by an audience of the most distinguished and brilliant of both sexes, blended with the 
humbler, but potent classes, whose labours everywhere speaking for them, in the impos- 
ing spectacle around, proclaimed at once their industry, ■ and their power, and that 
without them nothing great or beneficial could ever be achieved. 

A portion of the western part of the building had been converted into a temporary 
saloon for the occasion, by being enclosed with sixteen large and splendid carpets, 
courteously lent for the occasion by Messrs. Jackson and Graham, and suspended from 
poles fastened to the girders : the space was entered by an opening of drapery at the 
east end, and within a platform was erected, whence the professor pointed out the 
scientific principles on which the building was constructed, and illustrated them by 
various diagrams and models, well calculated to allay the fears of the timid, and silence 
the doubts of the sceptical. He then proceeded to various parts of the building to 
explain the use of the different machines, and was followed by a vast crowd, plungino- 
through mud, scrambling over timber, balancing themselves on joists, and climbing up 
ladders, in despite of a heavy rain, all eager for information. 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 13 

The arrangements for the reception and placing of the articles to be sent to the 
Exhibition necessarily required much calculation. The commissioners, anxious to treat 
their foreign contributors with all the courtesy and hospitality due to invited guests, 
resolved to appropriate to their use one-half of the exhibiting space of the whole 
building; being more than the entire ground which France occupied for her own 
Exhibition in 1844 and 1845. Over the admission of British articles, the Commissioners 
reserved to themselves full power of control ; but the power of admitting foreign articles 
was confided absolutely to the authority of the country by which they might be sent : they 
were to be allowed to enter any of our ports free of examination or duties, and every- 
thing in the shape of gratuity or subscription, from any foreigner whatever, resident at 
home or abroad, was scrupulously discouraged and refused: in short, everything was 
done in harmony with the noble sentiments which Prince Albert had uttered at the 
splendid banquet given by the Lord Mayor of London, in honour of the projected 
Exhibition, to such of the chief magistrates of the various towns, cities and boroughs 
throughout the United Kingdom, as were enabled to avail themselves of his munificent 
invitation — sentiments which deserved to be written in letters of gold; and as they 
were not framed for that occasion only, but will apply equally to future ages, we will not 
deny ourselves the pleasure of laying a part of them before our readers : — 

" I conceive it to be the duty of every educated person closely to watch and study the time in which he 
lives, and, as far as in him lies, to add his humble mite of individual exertion, to further the accomplish- 
ment of what he believes Providence to have ordained. 

" Nobody, however, who has paid any attention to the particular features of our present era, will doubt 
for a moment that we are living at a period of most wonderful transition, which tends rapidly to accomplish 
that great end — to which indeed all history points — the realization of the unity of mankind : not a 
unity which "breaks down the limits and levels the peculiar characteristics of the different nations of the 
earth, but rather a unity, the results and product of those very national varieties and antagonistic qualities. 

" The distances which separated the different nations and parts of the globe, are gradually vanishing 
before the achievements of modern invention, and we can traverse them with incredible speed ,• the 
languages of all nations are known, and their acquirement placed within the reach of everbody ; thought 
is communicated with the rapidity, and even by the power of lightning. On the other hand, the great 
principle of the division of labour, which maybe called the moving power of civilization, is being extended 
to all branches of science, industry, and art. Whilst formerly the greatest mental energies strove at 
universal knowledge, and that knowledge was confined to few, now they are directed to specialities, and 
in these again even to the minutest points. Moreover, the knowledge now acquired becomes at once the 
property of the community at large : whilst, formerly, discovery was wrapt in secrecy, it results from the 
publicity of the present day, that no sooner is a discovery or invention made, than it is already improved 
upon and surpassed by competing efforts. The products of all quarters of the globe are placed at our 
disposal, and we have only to choose which is the best and cheapest for our purposes, and the powers of 
production are entrusted to the stimulus of competition and capital. _ _ 

" Thus man is approaching a more complete fulfilment of that great and sacred mission which he has to 
perform in this world. His reason being created after the image of God, he has to use it to discover the 
laws by which the Almighty governs his creation, and, by making these laws his standard of action, to 
conauer nature to his use— himself a divine instrument. Science discovers these laws of power, motion, 
and transformation ; industry applies them to the raw matter which the earth yields us in abundance, but 
which becomes valuable only by knowledge; art teaches us the immutable laws of beauty and symmetry, 
and gives to our productions forms in accordance with them. The Exhibition of 1851 is to give us a true 
test and a living picture of the point of development at which the whole of mankind has arrived in this 
ffreat task and a new starting-point, from which all nations will be able to direct their future exertions. 
I confidently hope that the first impression which the view of this vast collection will produce on the 
snectator mil be that of deep thankfulness to the Almighty, for the blessings which he has bestowed upon 
us alreadv here below ; and the second, the conviction that they can only be realized in proportion to the 
heh> which we are prepared to render to each other; therefore, only by peace, love, and ready assistance, 
not onlv between individuals, but between the nations of the earth. This being my conviction, I must be 
hio-hlv eratified to see here assembled the magistrates of aU important towns of this realm, sinking all 
their local and possibly political differences— the represertfctives of the different political opinions of this 
country and the representatives of the different foreign nations-to-day representing only one interest. 



14 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

CHAPTER III. 

APPROACH OP THE TIME FIXED FOE OPENING THE EXHIBITION — FOEEIGN COUNTEIES AND STATES 

SENDING THEIE CONTRIBUTIONS. 

The first of May was the day originally fixed upon for throwing open the world's 
wonder to the world's gaze; and the Commissioners felt themselves pledged to the 
world at large, to observe the punctuality which is one of the proudest boasts of an 
Englishman ; and one of the most important characteristics of British commerce, by 
which, in conjunction with integrity, that commerce stands highest in repute among 
nations. 

The prisoned elms had, despite their strange captivity, already put forth the tender 
green, with which they are foremost among the denizens of the woods, to greet the 
sweet though changeful April; the little birds began to chirrup about the glittering 
roof, and made sundry efforts, often successful, to penetrate into the interior, through 
the openings left for air, and to hop once more among the leafy boughs, familiar to them 
as their homes. Everything announced that spring was rapidly advancing — that May- 
day was, in fact, close at hand : but how much yet remained to be done, ere she was to 
be welcomed in the Crystal Palace ! 

Fifteen thousand contributors, from all parts of the civilized globe, had sent in their 
specifications, and their claims for space. Waggon after waggon-load of goods were 
thronging the entrances. Mass after mass of raw material, such, for instance, as a column 
of coal from North Wales, sixteen tons in weight ; a block of twenty-four tons, ditto 
material, from Derbyshire; obelisks and columns of granite ; slabs of Portland and other 
stones ; grind-stones, flag-stones, mill-stones, huge filters, gigantic cisterns, anchors, chim- 
ney-cans, drain-pipes, and similar productions, more useful than ornamental, were, one after 
another, taking their " patient stand," on the spots assigned them outside the building ; 
to the amazement of a crowd of spectators of the humbler classes, who stared, at them 
open-mouthed, wondering, like the Jack Tar, after he had been blown up at a pantomime, 
by an accidental explosion, and landed safely down again, " what would come next." Not 
that we mean to quarrel with the " raw material ;" on the contrary; we agree with the 
Athenaeum, " it was a happy decision of the Executive Committee to allow the exhibition 
of raw materials : it is most instructive to have under the same point of view, the manu- 
factured article, and the stuff from which it was made — the cotton pod, and the calico 
and muslin — the hempen fibre, and the ship's cable and sails — the elephant's tusk, and 
the marvellous Indian carvings in ivory — the iron ore, and the Sheffield blades. To us 
these raw materials, ranged side by side, just as they were picked from the lap of nature, 
are full of interest. That ' Greek Slave,' now so suggestive of life and beauty, was once 
a block of. marble — the Amazon, once metallic ore — those strings that utter delicious 
music, were parts of a living animal — the materials of those silken fabrics were all spun 
by caterpillars — the pearls on that diadem were formed by a shell-fish — those colours 
that dazzle on the fabrics of India and China are the produce of very humble plants. 
The distance between the raw material and the perfected work is the measure of the con- 
quest of man over the external world — the record of that victory, which the Crystal 
Palace first celebrates for the whole human family." 

Whilst the objects we have mentioned were attracting the attention of the multitude 
without, the multitude within were running to and fro, as busy, and almost as numerous 
as ants in an ant-hill. There were,- packages opening, goods examining, classing 
describing, numbering, ticketing, placing; scaffolds were disappearing, rubbish re- 
moving, outer packing cases clearing away, fittings of all kinds going on ; excavations 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 15 

for fountains, pedestals for statues, foundations for machines; and tables, counters, 
partitions, and glass cases rising rapidly around. The monster organ was beginning to 
try its pipes, sotto voce, from the western gallery. In the great central avenue was°the 
Amazon of Kiss, levelling her spear at the tiger, neck or nothing, who has seized upon 
her horse ; further on was a mailed Crusader, of colossal dimensions, about to charge 
upon his foes ; whilst, utterly guiltless of any such warlike propensities, Lord Eldon, and 
his brother Lord Stowell, were peaceably seated, in effigy, side by side, as if gazing in 
placid admiration upon the busy scene before them, within the operations of which 
assuredly Lord Elgin's favourite motto " Festina lente" had nothing to do. 

But still the work of the building was going on. Still the hammer and the chisel, the 
saw and the plane reverberated through the long aisles, and interminable galleries ; the 
pipes for the supply of water and gas had still to be finished ; the ventilation to be con- 
trolled; some acres of canvas to be spread over the roof; the chief of the internal 
arrangements and compartments to be made, and in short, to many it would have 
appeared as if there were the work of two years to do, instead of as many weeks. 

But masters and men were alike indefatigable. Mr. Pox was on the ground every 
day, from seven in the morning until ten at night. It was calculated that at this period 
not fewer than ten thousand persons were engaged, some way or other, in the service of 
the Exhibition. One week, two thousand two hundred and sixty workmen were actually 
employed in and about the building itself; and it was in keeping with all the rest of the 
business details, that the system of payment was so admirably arranged with regard to 
exactitude and celerity, that out of this number, two thousand received their wages at 
the close of the day, in one hour, without confusion, noise, or mistake of any kind. 

And now rapidly congregated on British ground the representatives of the different 
nations, with their respective productions and wares, who had been invited to take their 
place in the great industrial mart, one of the avowed objects of which was to draw all 
the famines of the civilized world together, in bonds of amity, for their mutual benefit 
and enlightenment. Thus were these families typified by an ingenious writer, with equal 
truth of discrimination and playfulness of fancy : — 

" First on the lists- were the kingdoms of Arabia and Persia ; with their caravans 
freighted with rich tissues, and the work of delicate looms from Mushed and Tehran ; 
with myrrh and frankincense from Hadramaut, c musk from Khoten/ pearls from the 
sea of Oman, and attar gul from the gardens of Shinar.. Then came ' small-eyed China ■' 
sending her fragile porcelain, her painted screens, her snow-white and crimson silks, her 
gold and silver stuffs, her paper made of rice, her ivory fans, so curiously carved, and 
her mother-of-pearl ornaments, so laboriously and exquisitely graven. Brazil and 
. Mexico were ready with diamonds and rich ores, and many-tinted flowers, whose hues 
were borrowed from the ruby throats and emerald wings of the colibri. Turkey held 
out her jewelled weapons, with their Damascus blades, her perfumed skins, gaudily dyed, 
and stamped with rare devices, her splendid caparisons, her fragrant and richly orna- 
mented pipes, her costly variegated carpets. Greece, no longer able to astonish the 
world with the sculpture of Phidias and Praxiteles, or the marvels of Appelles' art, could 
vie with her former rulers in the beauty and elegance of her mountain costumes, and 
the elaborate workmanship she bestowed on weapons now little suited to her hands. 
Egypt, under the impulse of a newly awakened industry, had drugs, and dyes, and per- 
fumes, soft cottons, and cloths of finest texture, the plumes of the ostrich, and raiments 
of the camel's hair. Italy was prepared to display her manufactures from the fertile 
plains of Lombardy to the sunny cliffs of Sorrento : Genoa, rich in velvets and embroi- 
dery ; Bologna, decked in the gayest silks and ribands ; Rome, proud of her cameos, her 
mosaics, her false pearls, and her hats ; Venice, stiL' famous for her glass, though its 



16 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

occult virtues are flown ; Leghorn, renowned for its everlasting straw-bonnets ; Fabnano, 
with a paper reputation, not yet torn to pieces, and Ancona, whose waxen images tempt 
the ' decoratives' to St. Peter's, and whose tapers light them on the way. Spain and 
Portugal came next, suggestive of every produce that the earth hides in its bosom, or 
spreads over its surface, though not of the means by which its wealth may be turned to 
account. Yet who could think of Spain without conjuring up the thousands of inter- 
esting objects with which the world's bazaar might be studded ? Who would not expect 
from Andalusia specimens of the fans and mantillas which the women use with so much 
dexterity, and wear with so much grace; the splendid dresses of the majos ; the guitars 
which are in every man's hand, and the castanets which are common to both sexes . 
From Valencia— that true paradise on earth — those curious silver-gilt combs which adorn 
the Valencian beauties ; those silks and bombasines which form part of their attire ; 
those beautiful azulejos, or coloured tiles, the art of making which was bequeathed, with 
so many other secrets, by the Moors ? Prom Granada, and throughout the southern 
, coast, the rich marbles and minerals susceptible of being wrought into every form of 
grace or purpose of utility ? From Murcia, the fatal cuchillo, and the gailey-striped 
silken manta? From Cordova, the silver filigree-work that still keeps its old renown? 
From Toledo, those wondrous blades, welded out of a steel whose temper has no equal? 
From Barcelona, those goods which (if they do not really come from Manchester), may 
shame the Manchester manufacturers ? In a word, who would not look from every 
province of Spain for some rich or rare production which might show, that where nature 
has been so bountiful, man has not been altogether idle ? 

" Nor could the mineral and vegetable wealth for which Portugal is famed, and which, 
despite of her poverty, she has the will to fabricate, pass unrepresented. Her marbles, 
her antique silks, heavy as armour, her cloths and carpets, even her curiously manu- 
factured snuffs, were all ready for exportation. Switzerland followed, with her muslins 
and gold watches, and her countless specimens of that ingenuity, with which every sum- 
mer-tourist returns laden, when he delights the family-circle by producing from the 
depths of his knapsack, now a chalet entire, anon a milking-pail ; then an egg-cup, a 
drinking vessel, a salad-spoon, or the costume of every canton, faithfully carved in cherry- 
tree and boxwood. France — but what does the skill of man create that is gorgeous in 
colour, graceful in form, rich in substance, delicate in texture, beautiful in pattern, 
ingenious in construction, or faultless in execution that Franoje might not send forth ? 
To name her chief towns, is to name a competitor for every great prize in the struggle 
for art's supremacy. The bronzes, the bijouterie, the mirrors, and the meubles of Paris — 
the silks, the satins, and the velvets of Lyons — the flaxen threads and linens of Lille — 
the lace of Valenciennes — the carpets of Beauvais and Aubusson — the prints and mus- 
lins of Mulhausen — the watches of Besancon — the porcelain of Sevres — the enamels of 
Limoges — the cottons of Amiens and Rouen — the gossamer scarfs of Bareges — the point 
of Alencon — the broad cloths of Elbceuf and Louviers — the soaps of Marseilles — the 
dyes and perfumes of Carcasonne, Montpelier, and Hyeres — to say nothing of the thou- 
sand creature comforts which find no place in the Exhibition itself, though truffled 
turkeys, Chartres, Perigueux, and Strasbourg pies, Orleans quinces, Tours plums, and 
many a delicacy besides, are not prohibited in the refreshment rooms ; while the vint- 
ages of Burgundy, Champagne, the Rhone, and the Garonne, are not to be had any 
nearer than Monsieur Soyer's monster restaurant ; all these things, whether to delight the 
eye or please the taste, might reach the Palace of Industry from all-producing France ! 

" Belgium, in many things the formidable rival of her southern neighbour, succeeded, 
decked like a bride, in Mechlin and Brussels lacei or richly arrayed, like a burgomaster's 
wife, in the ponderous silk of Antwerp, and beneath her feet the priceless carpets of 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 17 

Tcurnay, in whose soft fabric those feet were completely buried. She pointed to Ghent 
for her cotton manufactures, to Vender for her cloths, and gazed with pride on Liege, 
as the emporium of her cutlery and fire-arms, where the attributes of Sheffield and 
Birmingham are united. Holland, the elder sister of Flanders, moved onward with 
dignified, but measured pace, proud of her rich spices, strong waters, and rare cordials, 
and prouder still of the gorgeous tulips in her garden, for which her sedate money- 
making husband has given, in hard guilders, more than a king's ransom. 

" Germany next presented herself under three different aspects : — the northern 
division bearing her own name— a vast conglomerate called the Zollverein— and Austria, 
resolute in keeping aloof, unless she could cast her net over everything else, from the 
shores of the Baltic to the banks of the Po ; and dictate one universal law to Germans 
and Italians, Sclaves, Croats, Czeeks, and Hungarians. Manifold are the productions of 
the Teuton and Sclavonian races. 

" Berlin has wealth of iron, fit metal for a people so warlike; Eberfeld dresses half 
the world in its dyed cottons; Cologne displays her fiacon; Solingen balances the foil, 
and proves the well-tempered blade of the ' Schlager,' renowned in the 'renownings' of 
Germany's bellicose students ; Magdeburg modestly appeals to her various merchandise ; 
Bremen takes upon herself the task of preparing the tobacco which all the rest of 
Germany smokes ; and Dresden paints the bowls of all the German pipes ; Leipzig 
manufactures books which this year nobody will have time to read; Meissen gives birth 
to the shepherds and shepherdesses who exist only on consoles and chimney-pieces ; 
Frankfort has her own fair, but that attraction must cease for a time ; Nuremberg still 
vaunts her toys, though the marvellous works of Kraft, of Adam Vischer, and of 
Wentzel Jamitzer, belong to a past age ; Munich has sculpture, and bronze, and stained 
glass, and glowing frescoes, and bright mosaics ; and the simple Tyrolese rivals the 
Switzer's patient labour on the long winter nights, when all other occupation ceases. 
Surely the things we have spoken of, and more, the things we have left unnamed, were 
to be gathered in Germany. 

" There are yet more names on the list. Scientific Denmark, with her accurate 
instruments for measuring time and space. Learned Sweden, a hortus siccus in her 
hand, and a medallion of Linnaeus on her breast. Half-civilized Kussia, with a Paris 
bonnet on her head, a bearskin on her shoulders, in. the midst of which blazes a diamond 
star, and beneath whi^h shines a brazen cuirass, a long cut-and=thrust sword by her side, 
seven-league boots, well garnished with spurs, on her lower limbs, in either clutch grasp*- 
ing a knout and a pair of curling-irons, and her own person reflected in one of her own 
looking-glasses, before which she admiringly stands. She is rich in gold and platina, 
and malachite ; in furs, in tallow, and in hemp, and through one or other of these media, 
is prepared to contribute to the world's industry. 

" Of foreign lands America comes last. Follow the course of her rivers, examine her 
sea-board, track her footsteps across the prairies and rocky-mountains — follow her into 
the Far West, amidst falling forests and flying Indians, — cross her immense lakes, whirl 
with her through her swamps and savannahs, or pause amidst her rising and risen cities, 
and ask what variety of manufacture exists which the enterprise, and toil, and acuteness 
of the United States cannot supply, with little to fear from the result of universal com- 
petition. 

" To give the rest of the world its chance, the British colonies had their assigned space ; 
every zone of the earth, and every temperature beneath the sun, received the command 
to exhaust their riches and lay them at the feet of Queen Victoria." 

But whilst poetic minds were thus revelling in the anticipations of the probable, 
practical ones were no less busy with the actual. All London was to be "repaired 

F 



18 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

and beautified," according to the memorials of the churchwardens. The names i of 
streets were all to be repainted, with directions at the corners, and hands sigmncantiy 
pointing out. every finger stretched to the utmost of its powers of extension, to aenow 
leading here, leading there, for the peculiar edification of foreigners; le f tth %^°^?- 
become bewildered among the mazes of Leicester- square, or the more aristocratic, aim, 
to those who cling to old associations, dreadfully monotonous, and coldly genteel st "Y gI "; 
lines of Hyde Park Gardens. Nor ought we to lose sight of the truth, that tnese 
directions are just as much required for "country cousins," wandering about bt. ram s, 
in search of the Houses of Parliament; or honest gentlemen-farmers, threading, or 
trying to thread their way from Smithfield to the Bank, as for the numerous Host 01 
whiskered foreigners, who stare about them in the great city, divided between, admi- 
ration of its vastness, and disgust at the difficulties it presents to those unused to iJiie 
in London." ., , , 

"The plot, moreover," continues the lively narrator, "began to thicken. bnaDDy 
shop-fronts were removed, and bronze and plate-glass supplied the place of painted 
wood and dingy panes. The boot-makers made models of their customers' favourite legs, 
and paraded them in tops and buckskins, in gigantic wide-mouthed tubes that passed tor 
hunting-gear, and in delicate silk and French polish for evening parties. The tailors, 
who were very particular in stating that there they spoke every language under the sun 
Francais, Deutsch, Espanol, Italiano and Cherokee— got up the most bewildering dressing- 
gowns, the hairiest and most poodle-like paletots, the sportingest waistcoats, the tightest 
and most expansive ladies' habits, the most elaborate dress coats, and the most impos- 
sible waistcoats. They took it into their heads that the inhabitants of France and 
Germany were coming to London in the costumes which their ancestors wore when they 
fought with Cassar and Agricola, and filled the columns of the Times and Morning 
Chronicle with advertisements, setting forth, in elegant French, the fact that ' des 
commis, reunissant le tact et l'intelligence aux bonnes manieres, sont constamment a la 
disposition des visiteurs ;' or in less palatable German, the similar assurance, addressed 
to the 'Publicum und Fremde/ that f zu jeder zeit stchen hichtige und verstandige 
Assistenten bereit jede Auskunft fiber alle Geschaft betreffenden Gegengtande zu 
ertheilen/ to receive and execute the orders they might "be favoured with. 

"As a sign of the times, the H6tel d'ltalie, in Sherrard-street, painted its doors and 
window-sills sky-blue, and prepared for a most terrific gastronomic campaign; the 
Sahloniere announced its table d'hote at six o'clock, and inwardly resolved not to give a 
new coat of paint to anything; while the Provence Hotel gave out the startling intimation 
that ' restauration a la carte' was incessant in that establishment. Even the old-fashioned 
ghop-houses in the Strand and Haymarket began to look about them ; the ' Boars' and 
' Castles' whetted their tusks, and threw open their portals; the 'Belles Sauvages' looked 
amiable; the 'Queen's Arms' expanded hospitably; the ■ Blue Posts' declared them- 
selves fixtures; 'Williams/ who (perfidiously) came from 'Betsy's,' intimated his resolve 
to supply luncheons and dinners on his own account ; and ' Mrs. Robertson/ who has 
been residing for the. last century with 'Dr. Johnson/ in Fleet-street, abandoned the 
great lexicographer, and set up housekeeping for herself in Maiden-lane. Nor were the 
creaturercomforts alone considered. The head was cared for, and the feet also : for the 
sake of the former, the St. George's Chess Club announced ' a grand chess tournament ;' 
and for the behoof of the latter, a brigade of shoeblacks turned out from the ragged- 
school in Field-lane, in scarlet jackets of the most astonishing brilliancy. 

" The interpreters began to look up, and those who had lodgings to let, not only looked 
up, but also very considerably ahead. They were right in doing so, for John Bull's 
preparations were not without a cause. It was no longer the Quadrant and Leicester- 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 19 

square that exhibited signs of the friendly invasion, but, in all directions, foreigners 
surged up, affording convincing proof of their anxiety to see the latest wonder of the 
world, to applaud the design of Prince Albert, render homage to the genius of Paxton, 
and admire the unwearied industry and zeal of Messrs. Pox and Henderson. 

" Shoals of the ' Bruderschaft' also appeared ; fervid Italians, in bands like brigands 
or opera singers, from every part of their genius-favoured land, hurried to London ; and 
Switzerland emptied her valleys to inundate Regent-street. 

" The St. Lawrence frigate not only brought her overwhelming contribution of dry 
goods, but something dryer still,— in the person of the president of ' The everlasting 
Gold Bluff Sand Company/ who had taken a passage in her from New York, and came 
—like his compeers from Paris — to see whether ' a pretty smart spekilation in dust' was 
likely to answer in Britain ; and firmly resolved that it should'nt ' cave in/ if he could 
prevent it. Nor was his project by any means a solitary one; for whether he came from 
the ' diggings' on the Sacramento, was raised in pleasant Texas, or had served his time 
in the 'Tombs/ at New York, brother Jonathan helped himself on with his shiniest 
coat, and fetched across the Atlantic, to see whether he could'nt ' make a pile somehow' 
among the Britishers. Not a weekly steamer ran up the Mersey that did not bring a 
full cargo of strangers from every one of the unions waved over by the ' star-spangled 
banner/ not a packet showed its flag on the Southampton Water that was not crowded 
with a living freight of dusky Spaniards, and duskier Portuguese ; of swarthy Moors, and 
swarthier Egyptians ; of cane-coioured East Indians, and copper-coloured Tartars ; of 
Mulattos, with complexions of a lively brown, and of Haytians, with countenances — 
such as Solomon loved — of a lovely black. At Dover and Polkstone, and eke at the 
Tower-stairs, steamer after steamer arrived with the bearded civilization of Europe. 
There was ' your straw coloured beard/ representing Russia, Norway, Sweden, and the 
whole of the north of Germany ; ' your orange-tawny beard/ those who dwell on the 
Rhine and its tributaries; and your ' purple-in-grain beard/ our excellent democratic 
neighbours the French, who speak their own language so well, and every other tongue 
so badly. ; There was, in fact, an assortment of beards more than enough to satisfy the' 
cravings of a dozen monopolists like Bottom the weaver, and these were to f wag all' 
in the Crystal Palace, in the merry month of May." 

In the meanwhile the " note of preparation" was busily and incessantly going on at the 
principal scene of action ; " the sound of hammers closing rivets up" rang through the 
air "from morn till noon, from noon till dewy eve," startling the Dryads and Hamadryads 
among the venerable shades of Hyde Park and Kensington — the " busy hum of men" 
throughout the spacious interior of the rising wonder, was like the murmur of bees 
at their busiest season in their " waxen citadel ;" and the rapidity and precision with 
which the combined labour advanced, outstripped the most sanguine expectations. The 
astonishment and delight of the public were unbounded ; praises were lavished on ail 
sides — on the projectoi-s, the inventor, the architect, and the workmen employed; the 
name of Paxton was in everybody's mouth ; all the journals, daily, weekly, and monthly, 
were eloquent on the subject. The all-engrossing theme found its way, through their 
medium, to every corner of the empire, to the remotest quarters of the globe. An eloquent 
writer in The Times thus describes the sudden and brilliant apparition : — 

" The vast fabric may be seen, by any one who visits that part of town, in its full 
dimensions — an Arabian Night's structure, full of light, and with a certain airy unsub- 
stantial character about it, which belongs more to enchanted land than to this gross 
material world of ours. The eye, accustomed to the solid heavy details of stone and 
lime, or brick-and-mortar architecture, wanders along those extended and transparent 
aisles, with their terraced outlines, almost distrusting its own conclusions on the reality 



20 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

of what it sees, for the whole looks like a splendid phantasm, which the heat of the 
noon-day sun would dissolve, or a gust of wind scatter into fragments, or a London fog 
utterly extinguish. There, however, the Crystal Palace remains, a monument of the 
extent to which lightness of structure can be combined with permanence and strength 
a building remarkable not less for size than for the beauty of mathematical proportions and 
rectangular outlines. The varied dimensions and fantastic features of other edifices, there 
find no parallel. Everything is done by the. rule, and yet everything is graceful, and it 
might almost be said grand. "Wherever one stands no disagreeable effects present them- 
selves — nothing crooked, awkward, or out of place. The subordination of parts to the 
whole is complete, and an expression of order and exactitude reigns throughout, not 
unaptly typical of the progress which the mechanical sciences have made in this country. 
But for that progress the Crystal Palace could never have been constructed ; and it certainly 
is curious to reflect, now that the work has been accomplished, and the great result 
stands patent to the world, that, with the facilities we possessed, glass and iron have 
hitherto been so little employed by our architects. 

" Like many other structures which will readily suggest themselves to the mind of the 
reader, the Crystal Palace must be viewed from a distance to be appreciated, Whoever 
would see a great mountain to perfection, must not survey it immediately from its base, 
and on exactly the same principle the new edifice in Hyde Park cannot be well viewed 
from the Kensington-road. The drive along the Serpentine, and the bridge over it, are 
the best points for a spectator to select. There the ground rises, and the vacant space 
enables the eye to reach over a large proportion of the building. The trees partly shut 
out the prospect, but enough remains to astonish and to captivate. The vast extent 
of area covered, the transparent and brilliant character of the structure, the regular and 
terraced elevations, the light airy abutments, the huge transept, with its arohed and 
glittering roof shining above the great vitreous expanse around it, and reminding one of 
nothing that he has ever heard of before — all these things are worth seeing." 

As the time drew near for the opening of the " "World's "Wonder," and the various 
products of various climes, as we have already stated, were pouring into the vast em- 
porium, the bustle and activity of the neighbourhood, nay, of all London and its vicinity, 
increased in ten-fold proportion ; oarts, waggons, and trucks, loaded with every species 
of merchandise and manufacture, from the ponderous steam-engine, requiring sixteen 
horses to impel its course towards the park, to the most delicate manufacture of ornament 
or attire, thronged in apparently inextricable confusion all the avenues leading to the 
appointed place of rendezvous ; shoals of omnibuses, crammed to excess, inside and out, 
frequently got blocked up in immense masses, while the hapless drivers 

* * * * " hai-der beset 
And more endangered, than when Argo passed 
Through Bosporus, betwixt the justling rocks," 
in vain endeavoured, 

" Through the shook 
Of fighting elements," 

to win their way. So great was the occasional "hubbub wild," "the stunning sounds 
and voices all confused" that assaulted the ear, that many foreigners stood aghast, and 
were altogether unable to proceed, or even to understand in what direction to shape their 
course. An Italian lady of our acquaintance, witnessing a scene of this kind in the 
neighbourhood of the Mansionrhouse, compared our metropolis to six enormous cities all 
conglomerated into one, and of which all the inhabitants were, at the same point of time 
eagerly occupied in changing their lodgings. To attempt at these periods to cross the 
streets was a hazardous and a bewildering task for the pedestrian ; many were the 




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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 21 

"hairbreadth 'scapes" that we witnessed, and many the abortive attempts to "change 
sides" — relentlessly onward rolled the living tide, and waited not for individual accommo- 
dation. Forward! was the emphatic word that seemed to actuate the determination 
of every one in their pilgrimage westward ; and how greatly this desire increased, and 
how greatly the multitudes augmented their forces on the eventful day of opening, 
we shall have occasion to show in our next chapter, which we accordingly propose 
to dedicate to that memorable event. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE OPENING OF THE EXHIBITION. 



Thursday, the 1st of May, the auspicious day, at length arrived — the day originally 
fixed upon for the great event arose with unwonted brilliancy; the sun, "rejoicing 
as a giant to run his course," had scarcely shed his earliest beams upon the countless 
towers and spires of the mighty metropolis, ere its myriad population were afoot, all 
eager for the long-anticipated spectacle, the brilliant pageant, when England's queen, 
attended by the noblest and proudest of the land, should in her own person open to 
the admiring world a palace more glorious than the sumptuous abodes of royalty— a 
palace devoted to the combined industry and art of every various nation upon the 
face of the habitable globe. May-day has ever been memorable in our island, and 
many are the eulogiums bestowed upon it by our native poets, from the time of old 
Chaucer and Spenser to our bards of modern date ; but never did it witness a spectacle 
more imposing, a pageant more brilliant, or a multitude assembled in its honour more 
numerous and rejoicing. As early as six o'clock the whole town was in motion; from 
every portion of the suburbs, along every street and avenue leading westward, the count- 
less thousands pressed onwards, in orderly and continuous march ; every face was turned 
in one direction, and the incessant tramp of the joyous multitude, as they wended their 
way towards the spacious parks, was regular and unbroken. 

In the more immediate vicinity of the Crystal Palace, the grand centre of attraction, 
every space was occupied where human foot could be planted ; a sea of heads extended 
over the whole of St. James's Park, along Constitution-hill, through Knightsbridge, and 
Rotten-row, whose owners were all intent to catch a glimpse of royalty, and to testify 
their loyal feelings and their gratitude by repeated cheers and notes of gratulation. 
Every house that commanded a view of the procession was crowded with spectators ; 
the very roofs teemed with life, — 

" Each jutting frieze, and corner stone,'' 

supported its delighted gazer ; and when the procession emerged from the arch at the 
top of Constitution-hill, enthusiastic shouts and animated cheerings rent the very air, 
while on every side the waving of innumerable handkerchiefs and hats saluted the gor- 
geous pageant as it swept proudly onwards. 

At a quarter before twelve, the royal procession reached the northern entrance of the 
Crystal Palace, and was greeted with the national anthem of " God Save the Queen," 
from the band in attendance at the building. The scene at this moment became 
inexpressibly animated; the cannon stationed on the banks of the Serpentine, from 
their " brazen throats/' sent forth a thundering welcome; emulated by the joyous shouts 



22 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

of the applauding multitude; while "the merry bells rang round," the union-jack was 
displayed in triumphant exultation, from eyery elevated point, to greet the entrance of 
her Majesty within the precints of the glittering palace, and the royal standard was at 
the same time displayed floating proudly above the hundred-and-one flags of all nations, 
with which the building was decorated. 

A popular journal gives the following description of the admission of the public 
within the favoured precincts : — 

" The hour fixed for the opening of the various doors to the holders of season tickets was nine o'clock ; 
hut long before that time every possible point of access to the building was. thronged with well-dressed 
persons — a great proportion of them ladies — eagerly waiting for admission. Considering the immense 
number who eventually were admitted — some twenty-five thousand or thirty thousand at least — the 
proceeding was conducted with wonderful order and regularity, and with much less personal incon- 
venience than generally attends the congregating of large assemblies. The first coup d'ceil of the building 
en entering the nave was grand and gorgeous in the extreme : the vast dimensions of the building ; the 
breadth of light, partially subdued and agreeably mellowed in the nave by the calico coverings placed 
over the roof, whilst the arched transept soared boldly into the clear arch of heaven, courting, admitting, 
and distributing the full effulgence of the noonday sun ; the bright and striking colours and forms of 
the several articles in rich manufactured goods, works in sculpture, and other objects displayed by the 
exhibitors, dissimilar and almost incongruous in their variety, were blent into an harmonious, picture of 
immense grandeur, by the attendant circumstances of space and light to which we have just alluded; 
and the busy hum, and eager and excited movements of the assembled thousands, infused the breath of 
life into a picture which, at the period of the crowning incident of the day, became truly sublime. 

" The centre area of the intersection of the naves and transept was that set apart for the reception of 
her Majesty and her Court, and the other distinguished persons who were to take part in the interesting 
ceremonies of the day. At the northern portion of this area a dai's was erected, covered with a splendid 
carpet, worked by one hundred and fifty ladies for her Majesty, and graciously accepted by her ; and 
upon this was placed a magnificent chair of state, covered with a velvet robe or mantle of crimson and 
gold. High over head was suspended an octagon canopy, trimmed with blue satin and draperies of blue 
and white. Before the chair rose the beautiful glass fountain, glittering as a precious stone in the 
morning beams. Behind rose the stems of the Oriental plants and the stately elm, one of the most 
agreeable and refreshing parts of the whole view. Along the galleries of the main western avenue, the 
department for British goods, a succession of the most beautiful carpetry was suspended, like bannerets, 
only more splendid, in a knightly hall of old. Along the foreign avenue everything stood revealed in its 
best ; and the vista along the whole line was perhaps the most splendid and extensive, as a piece of 
art and human contrivance, ever presented to human view. 

" As eleven o'clock approached, the hour at which the admittance of the public terminated, the inward 
tide became very heavy, and some little struggling at one moment was given way to, but only for a 
moment. The immense mass of spectators were settled down into their places, the ladies having seats in 
front, the gentlemen standing behind them, along the principal avenues, and in the galleries. 

" The Duke of Wellington was early in attendance, arriving, with the Marchioness of Douro, about 
ten o'clock; and the knowledge that it was his grace's birthday, perhaps contributed to increase in 
volume and warmth the hearty cheering with which he was greeted as he passed to his place near the 
central area. Shortly afterwards, the members of the corps diplomatique and the foreign commissioners 
began to drop in, and after them the members of the Cabinet, a faint cheer being attempted for Lord 
John Russell, and another for Lord Palmerston ; the latter, with true statesmanlike policy thinking to 
ensure the harmony of his reception amongst the industrial representatives of the world, by walking up 
the transept under the portly wing of Lablache, who looked as good-humoured as ever. Nearly the latest 
of the arrivals at the north entrance were the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, with various civic authorities 
all decked forth in their robes of office. ' ' 

" By this time the honourable corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms, in their gay uniforms, had taken un their 
stations at the rear of the dais, whilst the time-honoured body of Beefeaters were ranged along the outer 
line of procession. The trumpeters and heralds stood ready to proclaim the arrival of the Queen of these 
isles, and the heralds to marshal the order of her coming. Meantime, Sir George Smart stood baton 
ra hand, perched up m a small rostrum, in front of the north transept organ gallery, ready to beat time 
to ' God save the Queen,' for the five-hundredth time in his life. Meantime the Lord Chamberlain and 
his subordinate officers glided about, looking very well satisfied with all their arrangements and Mr 
Commissioner Mayne was here, there, and everywhere, smiling so good-humouredly as for the moment to 
rob even police law of its terrors. Everybody was on the tip-toe of expectation for the arrival of the 
royal personages who were to grace the day with their attendance. 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 23 

"At half-past eleven the Duke of Cambridge arrived at the north door, but did not enter the area, 
awaiting the arrival of the duchess of Kent, who, accompanied by the Princess Mary of Cambridge, fol- 
lowed shortly after him. Their royal highnesses now entered the retiring-room, which had been prepared 
for her Majesty's reception, an elegant little apartment, covered with tapestry, and lined with silk, pale 
blue and white, fluted, with a crown overhead in the centre. The Commissioners and foreign ministers 
now made their way down to the entrance hall, ready to pay their respects to her Majesty on her arrival. 
Exactly at ten minutes to twelve, the Queen and her Royal Consort, accompanied by the Prince of Wales 
and the Princess Royal, alighted from their carriage ; and after repairing to the retiring-room, proceeded 
to enter the magnificent edifice, of the production of which his royal highness had been the chief promoter. 
The Queen wore a dress of pink satin, brocaded in gold ; Prince Albert, a field-marshal's uniform ; the 
Prince of Wales, a highland dress ; and the Princess Royal, a white lace dress, with a wreath of flowers 
round her head._ The royal party, especially the young Prince and Prineess, appeared much struck 
and delighted with the stately grandeur of the scene which burst upon their view. A tremendous burst 
of cheering, renewed and prolonged from all parts of the building, greeted the announcement of the 
near approach of the Queen. 

And, unquestionably, neither Eastern fairy tale, nor Arabian Night's wonder, could 
surpass, or even emulate the gorgeous reality that greeted the delighted gaze of the 
assembled spectators, as the royal party and brilliant cortig.e advanced through the 
bronzed and gilded gates that led into this hall of enchantment ; fragrant exotics bloomed 
and shed their soft perfume around, crystal fountains threw up their sparkling waters, 
the choicest statuary formed graceful avenues of approach, while the clarion and shrill 
trumpet " brayed forth" " the triumph" of the hour. And when the Queen was seated 
in her lofty chair of state, surrounded by " the pride of all the land," nobles, dignitaries 
of the church, heroes, and statesmen, and attended by the representatives of " princi- 
palities and powers" from every quarter of the globe, the national anthem, from " the 
full-voiced choir," swelled upon the ear, and accompanied by "the pealing organ/' 
floated in harmonious accord beneath the high vaulted and unrivalled dome. 

After a speech from Prince Albert, as the head of the Commission, addressed to the 
Queen, explaining the nature and purposes of the Exhibition, and stating that it was 
the heartfelt prayer of the Commissioners that the undertaking, which had for its end 
the promotion of all branches of human industry, and the strengthening of the bonds 
of peace and friendship among all the nations of the earth, might, by the blessing of 
Divine Providence, conduce to the welfare of her Majesty's people, and be long remem- 
bered among the brightest circumstances of her Majesty's peaceful and happy reign ; 
— and after the gracious reply from her Majesty, stating her entire satisfaction, and 
her increasing interest in their proceedings, together with her cordial sympathy in the 
good wishes they expressed, the Arohbishop of Canterbury read the following prayer, or 
benediction : — 

" Almighty and everlasting God, governor of all things, without whom nothing is 
strong, nothing holy, accept, we beseech Thee, the sacrifice of our praise and thanksgiving, 
receive our prayers which we offer up to Thee this day, in behalf of this kingdom and 
land. We acknowledge, O Lord, that Thou hast multiplied the blessings which Thou 
mightest most justly have withheld ; we acknowledge that it is not because of the works 
of righteousness which we have done, but of Thy great mercy, that we are permitted to 
come before Thee this day with the voice of thanksgiving. Instead of humbling us 
for our offences, Thou hast given us just cause to praise Thee for Thine abundant good- 
ness. And now, O Lord, we beseech Thee to bless the work which Thou hast enabled 
us to begin, and to regard with Thy favour our present purpose of uniting together 
in the bond of peace and concord the different nations of the earth ; for of Thee, O 
Lord, and not of the preparation of man, it cometh that violence is not heard in our 
land, nor contentions nor violence within our borders. It is of Thee, O Lord, that 
nation does not lift up sword against nation, nor learn war any more. It is of Thee 



24 



THE GREAT EXHIBITION 



that peace is within our walls, plenteousness within our palaces, and men go forth in 
safety, and that knowledge is increased throughout the world. Therefore, O Lord, 
not unto us, hut unto Thy name, he all praise. Whilst we survey the works of art and 
industry which surround us, let not our hearts be lifted up that we forget the Lord our 
God, or that it is not of our own power, or of the might of our hands, that we have 
gotten in this wealth. Teach us to remember that this store which we have prepared is 
all Thine own; in Thine hands it is to make great and give strength and honour. _We 
thank Thee, we praise Thee, we entreat Thee to overrule this assembly of many nations, 
that it may tend to the advancement of Thy glory, to the increase of our prosperity, 
and to the promotion of peace and good-will among the different races of mankind. 
Let the many mercies we have received dispose our hearts to serve Thee more and more, 
who art the author and giver of all good things. Teach us to use those earthly blessings 
that Thou hast given us so richly to enjoy, that they may not withdraw our affections 
from those heavenly things which Thou hast prepared for them that love Thee, through 
the merits and mediation of Thy son Jesus Christ, to whom, with Thee and the Holy- 
Ghost, be all honour and glory, world without end. Amen." 

At. the conclusion of this prayer, Handel's magnificent Hallelujah Chorus thundered 
its powerful harmonies to the gratified ear, and completed the solemn and religious 
character of the ceremony, which, to those who were gratified in witnessing it, will not 
readily be effaced from their memory. 

The Royal procession was then formed in the following order : — 

Heralds. 

Architect, Joseph Paxtoti, Esq. Contractor, Mr. Fox. 

Superintendents of the Works — C. H. Wild, Esq. ; Owen Jones, Esq. 

Financial Officer, F. H. Carpenter, Esq. 

Members of the Building Committee — I. K. Brunei, Esq. ; Charles Cockerel", Esq. ; Professor Donaldson, 

Members of the Finance Committee — Samuel Peto, Esq.'; Sir Alexander Spearman, Bart. 

Treasurers — Baron Lionel de Rothschild, William Cotton, Esq. ; Sir John William Lubbock, Bart. ; 

Arthur Kett Barclay, Esq. 

Secretary to the Executive Committee, Mathew Digby Wyatt, Esq. 

Executive Committee — -George Drew, Esq. ; Francis Fuller, Esq. ; Charles Wentworth Dilke, jun., Esq. ; 

Henry Cole, Esq. ; Lieut.-Colonel William Bead, Royal Engineers, C.B. 



Austria — M. C. Buschek, Chevalier de 

Burg. 
Bavaria — Professor Dr. Schafhault, 

M Theobald Boehm, M. Haindl. 
Belgium — M. Charles Caylits, M. de 

Broucken. 
Denmark — Regnar Westenholtz. 
France — M. Sallandronze de Lamor- 

naix. 
Grand Duchy of Hesse — M. Ross- 

ler 
Greece — M. Ralli. 
Hanse Towns — M. Piglheim. 



POBEIGN ACTING COMMISSIONERS. 

Holland— M. Goothens, M. J. P. 

Dudok van Hal. 
Northern Germany — M. Noback. 
Portugal — M. F. J. Vanzeller, M. 

Antonio Valdez. 
Prussia — Baron Hebeler. 
Rome — Signor Carlo Trebbi. 
Russia — M. Gabriel Kamensky. 
Sardinia — Chevalier Lencisa, 
Saxony— Dr. Seyffarth, L.L.D. ; M. 

Gustavus Dorstling. 
Spain — M. Man. de Ysasi, M. Ram. 



Sweden and Norway — M. Charles 

Tottie. 
Switzerland — Dr. Bolley, M. Eich- 

holzer. 
Tunis — Signor Hamda Elmkaddem, 

M. Santillana (interpreter and 

secretary). 
Turkey— M. Edward Zohrab. 
Tuscany — Dr. Corridi. 
United States— Mr. Edward Riddle, 

Mr. N. S. Dodge (secretary). 
Wurtemburg— Mr. C. Brand. 
Zollverein — M. Banrath Stein. 



de la Sagra, M. Ram. de Echivarria. 

Secretaries to the Royal Commission— Edgar A. Bowring, Esq. ; Sir Stafford H. Northcote, Bart. ; J. Scott Ru3sell, Esq. 
Special Commissioners — Dr. Lyon Playfair ; Lieut.-Colonel Lloyd. 

kee. majesty's commissioned. 
John Shepherd, Esq. Sir Charles Lyell. 

Philip Pusey, Esq. Sir R. Westmacott. 

Rt. Hon. H. Labouchere 

Lord Overstone. 

Earl Granville. 

Earl of Rosse. 



Mr. Alderman Thompson. 
R. Stephenson, Esq. 
ffm, Hopkins, Eso. 
T. F. Gibson, Esq.* 
Richard Cobden, Esq. 
Charles Barry, Esq. 



John Gott, Esq, 
Wm. Cubitt, Esq. 
Thomas Bazley, Esq. 
Thomas Baring, Esq. 

Her Majesty's Master of the Ceremonies. 

Foreign Ambassadors and Ministers. 

F. M. the Duke of Wellington, K.G., F. M. the Marquis of Anglesey, K.G., 

"hief. Master-General of the Ordnance. 

Her Majesty's Ministers. 

His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury. 



Sir. C. L. Eastlake. 

Rt. Hon W. E. Gladstone. 

Lord John Russell. 

Jjord Stanley. 

Earl of Ellesmero. 

Duke of Baccleuch. 



Commander-in- Chief. 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 25 

White Wands : vis., Comptroller of the Household. 

Treasurer of the Household. 

Vice Chamberlain. 

Lord Steward. Lord Chamberlain. 

Garter Principal King of Arms. 

His Royal Highness Prince Albert, leading Her Royal Highness the 

Princess Royal. 

The Queen, leading his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. 

His Royal Highness the Prince of Prussia. 

Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent. 

His Royal Highness Prince Henry of the Netherlands. 

Her Royal Highness the Princess of Prussia. 
His Royal Highness Prince Frederick William of Prussia 

Her Royal Highness Princess Mary of Cambridge. 

His Serene Highness Prince Edward of Saxe- Weimar. 

His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge. 

Mistress of the Robes. 

Lady of the Bedchamber, Marchioness of Douro. 

Lady of the Bedchamber in Waiting. 

Maid of Honour in Waiting. Maid of Honour in Waiting. 

Bedchamber Woman in Waiting. Lady Superintendent — Lady Caroline Barrington. 

Foreign Ladies, and Lady in attendance on H. R. H. the Duchess of Kent. 

Gold Stick in "Waiting. Master of the Horse. 

Groom of the Stole to H. R. H. Prince Albert. 

Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard. Captain of the Gentlemen-at-Arms. 

Master of the Buckhounds. 

Lord of the Bedchamber to H.R.H. Prince Albert in "Waiting. Lord in Waiting to the Queen. 

Groom of the Bedchamber to H.R.H. Prince Albert in Waiting. Groom in Waiting to the Queen. 

Clerk MarshaJ. 

Equerry to H.R.H. Prince Albert in Waiting. Equerry to the Queen in Waiting. 

Gentleman Usher. Gentleman Usher to the Sword of State: Gentleman Usher. 

Silver Stick in Waiting. Field. Officer in Brigade Waiting. 

The Gentlemen in attendance upon their Royal Highnesses the Duchess of Kent, the Duke of Cambridge, and 

the Prince and Princess of Prussia 

Heralds, &c. ' 

Our journalist continues as follows :— - 

" The royal procession went up to the west end of the nave by its north side, returning to the east end 
of the nave by its south side, including the south end of the transept ; and coming back to the centre 
along the north side of the nave, all present were thus excellently well enabled to see her Majesty and the 
procession. 

" During the procession, and at the Queen's approach, the organs in the British division, built by 
Messrs. Willis, Walker, and Hill, of London, and those by foreign importers, Du Croquet (Paris) and 
Schulze (Erfurt), were successively played. 

" On her Majesty's return to the platform, the Queen declared ' the Exhibition Qpehed !' which was 
announced to the public by a flourish of trumpets and the firing of a royal salute on the north of the Serpen- 
tine. The barriers, which had kept the naye clear, were then thrown open, and the public were allowed 
to circulate, which they by no means appeared disposed to do, as they were all crowding towards the 
glories of the transept. 

" Her Majesty then returned to Buckingham Palace by the route by which she came, and all the doors, 
which had been closed at half-past eleven o'clock, were again opened. 

" Throughout the whole of the Queen's traverse of the, building, her fape was wreathed with smiles 
and pleasant looks, and her Majesty evidently took a more than common interest in the brilliant spectacle 
which everywhere attracted her notice. The Queen wore a rich embroidered pink satin dress set with 
precious stones, and a tiara of diamonds on her head. Prince Albert wore a field-marshal's uniform. 

" The Duke of Wellington and Marquis of Anglesea attracted much attention, the duke supporting 
himself on his more aged companion, while both seemed highly gratified in their tour of inspection. We 
must also remember the droll Chinese mandarin amongst the foreign ambassadors and ministers, who 
swayed along from side to side, thpse before and those behind him, leaving a pretty full berth for his 

comical progress. .,„.,, , , „ i 

" Let our last words respecting this truly national festival be commendatory to those who originated 
and perfected it. No event— not even the coronation of our monarch— had ever more strongly called 
forth public expectation ; and none, we will at the same time, affirm, has ever more completely fulfilled it. 
"The ceremonial was one, it may be said, without precedent or rival. The homage paid, by the 
sovereign of the widest empire in the world to the industry and genius of both hemispheres, will not fill a 
page in history as a mean and unsubstantial pageant. While the race of man exists, this solemn and 
magnificent occasion will not readily fade away from his memory like the ' baseless fabric of a vision;' 

H 



26 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

it commences an era in which the sons of toil shall receive honour and reward; and, in accordance with 
the spirit of the day, it stimulates the energies of man to conquer 'fresh domains, and discover new 
faculties of nature and her products, for the well-being and use of his fellow-creatures. 

" Of itself, as a passing displav of state, pomp, and power, we cannot speak too highly; lor even "n^ia. 
gorgeousness fades in comparison with the glories of the unequalled temple which enshrines the Jixnituaon 
of all Nations in Hyde Park." 



CHAPTER V. 

PBEPAEATOEY. ABBANGEMENT — BEEBESHMENT BOOMS — " MON SXEe" LODGING HOUSE PBIOES 

OF ADMISSION — THE TOUR GBAND SECTIONS. 

Having accompanied our readers through all the pageantry we have described in the 
preceding chapter, and conducted them safely through the toils and glories of the day, we 
shall now take a more leisurely survey of the wondrous structure, and proceed to 
examine into the various accommodations and arrangements that were made, as well for 
its numerous visitors, as for the reception of the treasures of industry, art, manufacture, 
and native produce, that were destined to flow into its mighty reservoirs from every 
portion of the habitable globe. A 

As all the world received cards of invitation to " assist," as the fashionable phrase is, 
in the grand parties that diurnally were expected to assemble within the ample area of 
the Crystal Palace, and as every facility was afforded, even for the humblest classes, to 
travel up and down from all parts of the empire, to gratify their longings to participate 
in the view of the "World's Wonder," it became a point of necessity that sufficient 
accommodation should be prepared within its hospitable walls for rest and refreshment for 
all, and more particularly for those who had travelled far from their homes, and whose 
limited time, as well as means, would not permit them to wander backwards and for- 
wards in search of such necessary " creature comforts" as are indispensable for the sup- 
port of our natural bodies, even when we are engaged in the delightful toil of making a 
business of our pleasure. " Ample space, and verge enough," were therefore granted for 
extending, at a very moderate remuneration, the rites of hospitality towards those who 
either through necessity or choice, were inclined to participate in them. Moderation, 
however, was the motto that was adopted ; for the commissioners very properly thought 
that it would be inconsistent with the nature of the Exhibition, to allow the buildrug 
to assume the character of an hotel, tavern, or dining-room. Wine, spirits, beer, or 
intoxicating drinks, were expressly forbidden; but then tea, coffee, chocolate, cocoa, 
lemonade, ices, ginger-beer, seltzer and soda-water, were allowed to circulate in abun- 
dance ; and in more solid requirements, cold meats, sandwiches, patties, pastry, fruits, 
with humbler bread and cheese, were liberally provided. 

That these "dainties" were not expected to be unacceptable to the thirsty throats 
and keen appetites of the multitude, is evident from the tenders made for their supply. 
For the privilege of vending refreshments, together with soda-water, et hoc genus of 
potables, Messrs. Schweppe and Co. paid the sum of £5,500 ! Upwards of 2,000 dinners 
were daily calculated upon in the various spacious areas destined for the hungry guests 
whose fare, however, was limited to cold meat and steamed potatoes, as cooking was 
strictly prohibited in every part of the building. These areas were three in number : 
the central, the eastern, and the western ; the space occupied by the first of these divisions' 
including all the passages, lobbies, &c, was not less than 17,756 square feet. The 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 27 

eastern refreshment court contained 19,008 square feet, and the western 12,096 square 
feet. And yet, so small was the actual extent of these capacious halls, in comparison 
with the vast proportions of the whole edifice, that many parties frequently wandered 
about, "with fainting steps and slow," a considerable time before they could find, 
among the intricacies of the building, these festive courts, and often required the friendly 
aid of some kind policeman to guide their erring steps. 

Although the influx of visitors from all parts of the kingdom was expected to be 
enormous, and preparations were made accordingly, still the reality, contrary to usual 
experience in such cases, far outstripped the ideas of the most sanguine calculators. 
The millions that thronged to the banks of " Old Father Thames 5 ' were unheard of, 
undreamed of. Had the result been really made known beforehand, how would the 
danger of congregating so vast an assemblage in a metropolis like ours been pre- 
dicted and commented on ! As it was, many an old lady and timorous gentleman 
anticipated nothing but riot and disorder ; some spoke of famine, others of chartism, 
and perils of that kind ; but, to the wonder and almost consternation of all such evil- 
foreboders, the utmost tranquillity and harmony prevailed. Even the great Iron Duke, 
who snuffed mischief in the breeze, and talked of cannons and gunpowder, and encamp- 
ments in the park, was compelled to admit, with astonishment, and we are disposed to 
believe with pleasure also, that all the parade and display of " gun, blunderbuss, and 
thunder," would be very much out of place. A more peaceful "gathering" never 
mustered its forces beneath the broad light of the sun. Amity and brotherly love 
actuated not only those of a kindred tongue, but appeared to unite all nations — 

Embassies from regions far remote, 



In various habits ; some from farthest south, 
Syene, and where the shadow both way falls, 
Meroe, Nilotic isle j and, more to west, 
The realm of Bocchus to the Black-moor sea ; 

• •••••• 

From India and the golden Chersonese, 

And utmost Indian isle, Taprobane, 

Dusk faces with white silken turbans wreathed; 

From Gallia, Gades, and the British west; 

Germans and. Scythians, and Sarmatians, north 

Beyond Danubius to the Tauric pool, 

All nations * * * 
And London whose " great revenge had stomach for them all," received into her cordial 
embrace all these kindreds and people, and would have done so, had even twice the 
number demanded her hospitality ; aye, and given food and shelter to them all. The 
Commissioners were therefore wise in leaving the accommodation of the strangers to the 
care of the town itself, and innumerable were the various residences that opened their 
doors to those that sought a temporary abode. All found a fitting gite, from the 
luxurious noble to the humble peasant, the hardworking mechanic, whose scanty purse 
rarely sufficed to maintain its owner beyond a single night in his "unaccustomed lair." 

Among other accommodations that were provided, through the speculation of spirited 
individuals we may notice a " monster" establishment for the reception of the working- 
classes projected and registered by Mr. Thomas Harrison, of Ranelagh Road, Pimlico, 
which was really so gigantic that we cannot forbear presenting a description of it to our 
readers were it only to show the promptitude, and the effectual manner, in which the 
necessities of the public can be provided for in our wealthy and, flourishing land. 

The building we are about to describe, was in the immediate vicinity of Mr. Cubitt s 
Pimlico Pier to which steam-boats arrive from the city every ten minutes. It occupied 
a space of two acres, was bounded by roads on three sides, was airy, and well ventilated. 



28 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

It contained two sleeping-rooms, comprising an area of 25,000 feet, and two other 
dormitories of half the size. These four rooms were calculated to accommodate 1,000 
persons per night. Every lodger had his own bed-room, separated from the others by 
a partition seven feet high, ensuring perfect privacy to the occupant. Efficient warders 
were appointed to watch over the dormitories, which were well lighted with gas during 
the night. These rooms were open at the top, for the purpose of ventilation. In each 
room was a good bed, and the lodgers kept the keys of their own dormitories. Each of 
these rooms was five feet wide, and six and-a-half long. The dining-room, the reading- 
room, and the smoking-room, had each an area of 2,000 feet. The news-room was well 
supplied with newspapers, magazines, and all works relating to the Exhibition, and other 
sights of London, free of charge. A band of music enlivened the reveries of the smokers 
in their cloudy apartment. On the summit of the edifice was a lantern 1,500 feet square, 
from which visitors were enabled to enjoy an excellent view of the moving panorama of 
the river and the adjacent country. Hot rolls were baked upon the premises, and a 
good breakfast provided for 4d., and a dinner for 8d. The price of the lodging, with 
all the agremens and advantages, was Is. 3d. per night, which also included soap, towels, 
and every convenience for ablution. "Boots" performed his duty for a penny each, and 
a barber looked after the heads and chins of the guests. A surgeon was also in daily 
attendance at nine o'clock. A penny omnibus was attached to the service of the institu- 
tion, and every precaution was taken to ensure the comfort and welfare of every one, 
even to providing for the care of such as, in the joybusness of their hearts, and their 
unaccustomed liberty, should have indulged a little too far in their libations to the 
"jolly god." 

All were abundantly gratified, from the Queen herself, the mistress of the revels, to 
the meanest of her subjects who participated in them — revels, not of the senses merely, 
although great was the delight inspired by so many objects of beauty and of art, but of 
the understanding also, in the contemplation and admiration of the progress and 
advancements human knowledge and human industry. 

The charge for admission to the World's Grand Show, was not arranged without a 
good deal of discussion. It was proposed by Mr. Paxton, to " throw open the doors of 
the world's Exhibition to the world's citizens," but this visionary scheme was overruled, 
and the Commissioners finally determined that the charges for admission should be as 
follows : — 

Season Ticket for a Gentleman . . ,£330 
Season Ticket for a Lady . . ' . . 2 2 

These tickets were not to be transferable, but were to entitle the owner to admission 
•whenever the Exhibition should be open to the public. 

The Commissioners reserved to themselves the power of raising the price of the 
season tickets when the first issue should be exhausted, should it be deemed advisable. 

On the first day of Exhibition, it was determined that season tickets vnly should be 
available, and no money received at the doors that day. 

On the second and third days the admission price would be, each day . . £10 

On the fourth day of Exhibition . . . . . . . . . 5 

To be reduced on the twenty-second day to 10 

On Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, in each week . . 10 

On Fridays , 026 

On Saturdays 3 0, 

To avoid confusion and delay, no change was to be given at the doors. 
It was suggested by Prince Albert, in his first conference with the original projectors 
of the Exhibition, that there should be four grand compartments, which, as far as pos- 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 29 

sible, should be devoted to the reception of the following specimens. In the first, all 
raw materials; in the second, machinery and mechanical inventions; in the third, 
manufactures ; and in the fourth, sculpture and plastic art. 

With respect to the productions of Great Britain, this arrangement was strictly 
carried out. Various reasons rendered it advisable to allow each foreign nation to fill 
up its own space in its own manner. A strong argument in favour of this deviation 
from the original plan was found in the circumstance that without such concession the 
arrangement of the Exhibition would be indefinitely delayed until the last package from 
the most distant country had arrived. 

Nothing could more clearly prove how well his royal highness had studied the pro- 
blem he had undertaken to demonstrate than his suggested arrangement of raw material, 
mineral, vegetable, and animal, upon which the skill and industry of man is exerted to 
grow and manufacture ; machinery, by which, from raw material, the greatest results 
may be obtained, at the smallest cost of time and toil ; manufactured articles, in which 
the result of man's industry, applied to the gifts of a gracious Providence, may be seen 
and compared ; sculpture and plastic art, from which the manufacturer and the con- 
sumer may alike learn to value that perfection which can only be attained by the union 
of beauty and proportion with useful manufacture. 

Under one or other of these heads, an illustration of every material aid to the com- 
merce, the agriculture, the manufactures, the sustenance, and the education of civilized 
communities, will be found. No matter to what country, or pursuit a visitor may belong 
— peasant or peer, duchess or dairymaid— soldier, sailor, or man of science — miner or 
miller, farmer or engineer — under some one or other of the subdivisions of this classifi- 
cation we will undertake to find something which shall interest, amuse, instruct, and 
profit him. 

Each of these four principal compartments was divided into as many parts as were 
necessary for particular classification. The first, which included "raw materials," 
contained all ores, and non-metallic mineral products, and also what related to mining 
and quarrying operations, as well as geological maps, &c. The second had relation to 
all chemical and pharmaceutical products, and processes generally. The third, all sub- 
stances used as food, both vegetable and animal ; and the fourth had reference to all 
vegetable or animal substances, used in manufactures, or as implements or ornaments. 

The second grand compartment "machinery," was also variously subdivided into 
classes ; the first containing machines for direct use, such as steam-engines, water and 
windmills, and various other prime movers, together with railway carriages, objects of 
naval mechanism — and all carriages, public or private, carts, waggons, &c. ; the second, 
for manufacturing machines and tools, as well as the manufactured articles themselves. 
A third was dedicated to civil engineering and building contrivances; designs and 
models of bridges, tunnels, docks, harbours, lighthouses, and beacons ; plans of water- 
works, gas-works, sewerage, ventilation, &c, &c. A fourth comprised all relating to 
naval achitecture, and military engineering ; ordnance, armour, and accoutrements. A 
fifth had relation to the more peaceful labours of the husbandman, and displayed every 
variety of agricultural and horticultural machines and implements. A sixth led the 
philosophical inquirer to the contemplation of all instruments connected with science, 
as well as to every variety of musical, horological, and surgical instruments, adapted for 
the relief or cure of every malady of form or structure which " flesh is heir to." 

Then came the compartment " manufactures," which also had its numerous subdi- 
visions, for articles fabricated from cotton, silk, woollen, flax, hemp, from the mere 
simple thread, to the most elaborate dimities, cloths, gauzes, ribbons, fancy silks, velvets, 
cambrics, down to rough cordage, &c. &c. 

i 



30 THE GREAT EXHIBITION' 

" There is nothing like leather," was the motto of the fabricator of this article, as 
he exhibited the skill with which he had contrived to render his "raw material" sub- 
servient to the gilded chariot of the monarch, and the war-horse of the knight, m rich 
trappings and embossed furniture; . at tthe same time that he descended to the manufac- 
ture of the " clouted shoon" of the laborious peasant. In the same department with 
this worthy, were to be found the dresser of skins, the furrier, the feather-maker, and 
the hair- worker, who severally supplied their various stores for use or ornament. 

The paper manufacturer was not behind-hand in his contributions to this compart- 
ment, and had his appropriate division wherein to arrange the manifold proofs of his 
industry, ingenuity, and skill, from the material in its raw state as it leaves the mill, to 
all articles of stationary, specimens of cartonnerie, and the perfection of bookbinding. ^ 

The tapestry weaver also, and the embroiderer, claimed their allotted space, and rich 
was the display of elaborate hangings, variegated carpets, elegant fringes, and rare 
needlework ; while the unrivalled lace, and the unparalleled tamboured muslins, elicited 
unbounded admiration from the numerous groups of the fair sex, who thronged in 
delighted amazement, in the sphere of such irresistible attractions. They who dealt in 
clothing, too, from the renowned Moses to the gentle man-milliner, also made their 
inviting appeal to the lounging dandy and the fashionable belle, in every variety 
of tempting display fitted to distinguish and adorn. 

All these, however, were cast into the shade by the splendours of the gold and silver- 
smiths, and the jewellers,, whose department glittered like the sun with all " the wealth 
of Ormus and oflnd," and would have been unrivalled, had not the glass-manufacturer 
dazzled all eyes by the superior brilliancy of his workmanship. He eould boast, too, 
of the large share he had had in the construction of the Crystal Palace itself, to say 
nothing of the superb fountain that formed the chief ornament of the transept, and 
served as a trysting place "to many a youth and many a maid" who had wandered up 
from the country to enjoy a sight of the "World's Wonder," as well as a point of 
general rendezvous for those who were desirous to meet their friends at " the appointed 
hour." Moreover, in point of glitter, as far as that quality is valuable, the superb can- 
delabras he exhibited outshone the far-famed diamond of Runjeet Singh, the Koh-i- 
Noor, and all the sparkling treasures that 

• The gorgeous east, with richest hand 



Showers on her kings barbaric.' 

The porcelain division, in which the upholsterer, the house- decorator, and the japan- 
ner,. also exhibited their wares, was ,ffie]l worthy of attention ; as was that wherein the 
worker in wood, in straw, and in'iglfiss, together with the artificial flower-maker, and 
similar operatives, deposited the .proofs of their industry and skill. The marble -cutter, 
and the manufacturer of, artificial stones, had likewise their allotted space ; while, in the 
last division of this most comprehensive compartment, were amassed all the endless 
" contrivances," from caoutchouc and gutta percha, together with infinite examples of the 
utility of ivory, tortoiseshell, bone, horn, &c. &c. ; to say nothing of umbrellas, parasols, 
walking-sticks^fishing-tackle that would have enraptured " Old Izaac j" and, in short, 
every possible invention, " et quibusdam aliis," for the use and convenience of civilized 
man. 

The last, but by no means the least interesting, of the four grand compartments was 
devoted to " Sculpture, Models, and Plastic Art." A large proportion of the sculpture, 
however, was judiciously disposed in prominent positions throughout the naves and tran- 
septs of the building, and greatly conduced to the beauty and general effect of the whole. 
We shall not at present enter upon a description of the objects comprised under the 





HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS PRINCE ALBERT 




HER MOST "GRACIOUS MAJESTY THE QUEEN 



to' 



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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 31 

above head ;.. the subject would be too comprehensive for immediate consideration. We 
shall, however, from time to time, as we conduct our readers through the intricate 
mazes before us, select and criticise what we may. deem moist worthy of notice.* Many 
of the choicest specimens oF artistic excellence, the "gems" of the Exhibition, will also 
be presented to them through the medium of the daguerredtyper and engraver, the 
excellence and fidelity of whose -combined exertions have already enabled us to present 
to our subscribers, , in our first number,' besides the general view of the Exterior of the 
Crystal Palace, the Equestrian Statues of the Queen and Prince Albert, and the 
" Happy and Unhappy Child," which we trust will be found to unite the utmost delicacy 
of execution with the most perfect fidelity of resemblance. 



CHAPTER VI. 

COLONIAL DEPARTMENTS — INDIA. 



As the arrangements we have described in the foregoing chapter have solely reference 
to the British department, as connected with our own islands, we shall now proceed to 
offer a few details with respect to our colonial possessions, at the head of which "India" 
indisputably stands pre-eminent. The riches of the East have long been proverbial, and 
the contributions that were forwarded from our Indian possessions were well worthy of 
their renown in that respect. A large proportion was sent in by " the Company," some 
were exhibited by her Majesty, and not a few were tributes offered on the occasion by 
native princes and other magnates of. the East. They comprised natural products, native 
manufactures for domestic use, models, and a wondrous display of the richest articles 
of jewellery and luxury. 

A magnificent chair, or rather "throne of royal state," of carved ivory, elaborately 
and exquisitely finished, the back and "seat covered with green velvet, richly em- 
broidered with gold, was one of the chief objects of attraction among the treasures of 
this unrivalled department. It was sent as a present from the Rajah of Travancore, 
and at the closing of the Exhibition, was used by. Prince Albert as President of the 
Royal Commission. The next article of interest that awakened the curiosity of the 
spectator was contained in a glass case, enclosed within an iron railing, and attracted 
general attention, from the extraordinary richness and brilliancy of some large undefined 
object placed at the top, which, on examination, proved to be the gorgeous coat of a 
Sikh chief, presenting, to the astonished, gaze, a mass of gold embroidery covered with 
pearls, and loaded -with the finest; rubies and emeralds. Each epaulette alone, attached 
to this most extraordinary garment,' was valued at i£5,000 j other portions of military 
attire and trappings were laid about in rich confusion. All this lavishing of • wealth 
upon mere articles, of .dress, upon that of a soldier too, strikes us as a notable instance 
of "wasteful and ridiculous excess." What, a -.prize the wearer of it would have been 
to the fortunate wight, that should . be. lucky enough to capture him, with , the ransom 
of a kingdom on his. back ! Our Queen's state drawing-room, with, all its bevy of courtly 
dames and lords in waiting, might have been be-jewelled and bedizenned from the 
spoils of this single coat. What a proof of a barbarous state of society is this taste 
for inordinate decoration; and after all, the humming-bird, or the golden beetle, is more 
splendidly attired than was this doughty hero; and in point of glitter and show, a 



33 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

tinselled harlequin in a pantomime outshines him. Pope tells us of the vanity of the 
nobleman of his time, who because his dress-coat did not satisfy him — 

" His taylor turned away 

Who stitched a star that scarcely threw a ray." 

But what was his ambition to be fine, compared to that of this egregious Sikh? After 
all, there is but a poor satisfaction to the mind, that is gifted with a ray of intelligence, 
in the contemplation of these glittering toys, and more especially so, when they are too 
bulky or too precious for use. Witness the great Koh-i-Noor, imprisoned like a robber 
in his own iron cage ; the tribute of admiration bestowed upon which was not equal to 
that elicited by the most trivial piece of machinery, that was applicable to the use or 
service of man. We shall however continue our description of these priceless treasures, 
in a brief notice of the most prominent objects, among the most conspicuous of which 
were a pair of " moorchals," or emblems of dignity, used only by a few of the Indian 
potentates, when in the presence of the Governor-general. These emblems consisted 
of hollow cases, of about two and-a-half feet in length, and about six inches in diameter 
at the upper end, tapering down to a handle of two inches in diameter. The whole was 
formed of pieces of pure gold, most curiously fastened together by gold thread, and 
were intended for the reception of the feathers of the beautiful birds of paradise. Of 
the beauty of the tout ensemble, which this specimen of Eastern magnificence presented, 
it would be difficult to convey any adequate idea. 

,A princely girdle of gold, studded with nineteen emeralds, each an inch and-a-half 
square, and bordered with diamonds, next attracted our view, surpassed, however, by 
a pair of armlets, decorated with three enormous rubies, in comparison with which, the 
largest in the most celebrated jeweller's possession, would shrink into insignificance. 
Then we gazed on the famous Lahore diamond, the " Durria-i-Noor," or sea of light ; 
then on the splendid necklace containing two hundred and forty Oriental pearls. But 
we should never have done, were we to describe the number and variety of these 
valuable " gawds" — vases, cups, bowls, jewel boxes, and brilliants of every sort and 
description were displayed on every side, till the wearied spectator was ready to exclaim 
"jam satis !" and to turn his attention to objects less costly, but more satisfying to 
the intellect. 

Leaving therefore these jewels to repose in their own caskets, within their strictly 
guarded prison bars, we will make mention of specimens of Indian magnificence, in the 
shape of thrones, canopies, howdahs, trappings for elephants on state occasions, all which 
travelled across the desert, bound on their pilgrimage to the " world's fair," and were 
chiefly presented to her Majesty by the renowned Nawab Nizam of Bengal, a short ac- 
count of whom, as a magnificent contributor, may not be unacceptable to our readers, and 
which, in the language of a contemporary writer, we here present for their edification. 

" The present Nawab's ancestors ruled for several centuries as independent sovereigns 
over the districts of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, and their residence — at least for a con- 
siderable time previous to the British conquest of India — was the city of Moorshedabad, 
which is situated on the banks of the Hooghly, about 150 miles north of Calcutta. It 
occupies a perfectly level site, and is destitute of fortifications. Its streets are narrow, 
irregular, and dirty, and the houses, for the most part, are only one storey high, and 
of mean appearance. Of these the majority are built of earth mixed with chopped straw, 
and thatched with dried grass, and are called kutcha ; others are constructed of mud and 
bricks — a kind of masonry which is styled pukka kutcha — while some, called pukka, are 
built entirely of brick. The city contains many curious old mosques, but the only public 
edifices of any magnitude and architectural beauty, are the Emaumhara, or House of 
God — to the construction of which the British government contributed £15,000 — and 




CHESSM EN I N IVORY 

By STAIOHT OF WALBROOK. 




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,|! ' '■'"''"" ' ": ■! i ■ .■■:-i|:.!|- k- .: ! - Il'f'll rili'l-'li'lllii.!: 1 !! 1 !!!!!! 1 ' V'l 1 .!. 1 WW 

UU^H'Cll. UJ Uj.'4.UWUUI.-V imiU ajJIU.TU.LHJ iffJUlLBUl . 

MODEL OF AN INDIAN STATE BARGE 

EXHIBITED BY THE. HON* 1 FAST INDIA COMPANY . 



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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 33 

the new palace built for the late Nawab. The latter is a spacious edifice in the Doric 
style, and was erected from the plans and under the superintendence of General Duncan 
Macleod, at the cost of £66,000. There is a large modelof it in Hampton Court Palace, 
which occupies a pretty large room. The population may be estimated at about 150,000, 
the bulk of whom are employed in the cultivation of rice and indigo, and the various 
processes of silk manufacture. Of the numerous factories and filatures, those of Messrs. 
Lyall and Messrs. Watson are the most extensive, many thousands being daily employed 
by those houses in spinning and hand-loom weaving^ Moorshedabad is also an important 
mart for cotton, and many of its native merchants have acquired great wealth. 

The late Nawab, who died in 1837 or 1838, was the last person on whom the Guelphic 
order of knighthood was conferred. His successor, the present Nawab, attained his 
majority four or five years ago, and is now about twenty-three. He has a son by each of 
his three wives, with whom he lives in his harem, about a quarter of a mile from the new 
palace, which is only used on durbar, or levee days. Of these there are six or eight yearlyjji 
On such occasions he is generally borne by eight men in a palkee> or howdah, with poles, 
like that presented to her Majesty, and is escorted by the principal 'officers of his 
household on foot, while he is followed by a numerous train ; mounted on elephants, 
camels, and horses, all gorgeously caparisoned. Those who have seen the rich elephant-' 
trappings at the Exhibition, will be enabled to form some idea of the magnificent spectacle 
presented by fifty elephants in full state equipment, followed by about a score of camels, 
and a similar number of horses, with housings of corresponding splendour. The sumptuous" 
canopied couch in. which his highness reclines on receptiohrdays, was accurately repre- 
sented by that at the Exhibition, of which we have already given a detailed description. 
The natives who attend the durbar leave their shoes at the entrance of the reception-hall, 
and, with head covered, according to the Eastern custom, advance with a series of 
salaams to his highness, who is surrounded by his attendants and guards, and on whose 
left, the place of honour in the East, sits the agent for the governor-general. They then 
present him with a mohur — a gold coin £1 12s. in value — and if the person offering it 
enjoys his favour he accepts the coin, and pours a few drops of attar of roses on his 
handkerchief. After this ceremony it is the custom to retire backwards with a repetition 
of the salaams. Besides the respect and affection with which the present Nizam is 
regarded on account of his personal qualities, he is also held in great consideration as 
the head of the sect of Sheahs, who are much looked up to in Lower Bengal. 

We will now take a survey of another court or division appropriated to our East Indian 
Colony ; and here again were divers articles of state and luxury — superb couches, royal 
bedsteads with richly-embroidered curtains ; marble slabs and carved furniture, in wood 
and ivory ; together with a vast variety of ornaments ; fruit and flowers in wax; carved 
boxes and ornaments in sandal- wood from Mangalore ; embossed paper and illuminated 
writings, sent by the King of Oude; together with a large assortment of manufactured 
articles illustrative of the wonderfully-exact and patient industry of Hindoo workmanship. 
The most striking feature, however, in this collection, was an apartment completely 
furnished in the style of an Indian palace, in which was realised all that the Arabian 
Nights, and other romances, have detailed with respect to their gorgeous and- costly luxury. 

Around the exterior of this room were arranged a number of figures illustrating the 
various trades and castes of the Hindoos, together with a rich assortment of^shawls, 
carpets matting, &c. &c. Various objects, also, of natural produce from different parts of 
our vast Indian Empjre were distributed around this interesting compartment. 

Beautiful carvings in ivory were also to be seen, one representing the processipn pf 
a native Indian prince, another a state barge, with its bank of agile rowers. A* the 
same time, proofs of their attention to rural economy were to bp fpund W many 

K 



34 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

curious models of agricultural tools and implements, which appear to be precisely of 
the same form and description as were in use among the ancient Egyptians, as is evident 
from drawings and manuscripts that are still in existence. Hydraulic machines, on 
which tropical cultivation so greatly depends, were also exhibited, of various and original 
construction. The mode of manufacturing sugar was likewise exemplified, and a rude 
process it was — two grooved rollers of wood, placed face to face, were turned by two 
men with handspikes, while two or three sugar canes were thrust between them ; this 
imperfect force serves to extract but a small quantity of juice, and yet we receive a good 
quantity of sugar from our East Indian possessions. 

To turn from these peaceful occupations to the business of " grim-visaged war," we 
will now direct the attention of our readers to the " pride, pomp, and circumstance" of 
military operations, as carried on among the dusky tribes of our Eastern colonies. 

In one of the bays of the East Indian department the counters on each side were 
entirely occupied with a splendid assortment of arms and military equipments, com- 
prising magnificent matchlocks (inlaid in silver or mounted with gold), blunderbuss-like 
guns, used by our fierce enemies the Sikhs ; and brass-swivels, used by Malay prahus, 
with mortars from Lahore, and cannons from Mysore, swords and sabres, and spears, of 
all shapes and sorts — all keen, glittering, and sharp weapons — used by the Scindians and 
the Sikhs, the Mabrattas and the Burmese ; some with blades of dark steel, and others 
with light, inlaid with gold ; some with hilts entwined with pearls, or exquisitely enamel- 
led, or otherwise beautifully decorated. Nor was it only the weapons of modern warfare 
that were here, but those also which illustrate the mediaeval history of India, and which 
may have been wielded by the chivalry of the East amidst the gleaming battle-hosts of 
Nadir Shah or Genghis Khan. Here, in short, were to be seen the armouries alike of 
Tippoo and Tamerlane. Here hung the glittering scimitar and tapering lance. Here 
we found the small circular shields suited to a former age of warfare ; and here 
were suspended the fine chain-worked coats of armour, almost as flexible and light 
and yielding to the form as the beautiful coats of linen or silk of similar shape, 
exhibited in the cross avenue of the compartment opposite, reminding one of the chain 
armour of our ancient Norman chivalry. Here, again, were the bows and arrows, and 
the javelin (also recalling the ideas of our own early military history), arranged tastefully 
in circles, presenting all around a terrible close array of keen-looking points. Here 
likewise was the battle-axe — most beautifully inlaid — and a superb suit of steel armour 
inlaid with gold, together with a shield of deer-skin, transparent, and with enamelled 
bosses. And lastly, here were some curious specimens of most murderous ingenuity : 
such as a shield, with gold bosses, every boss concealing a pistol; a double sword 
dividing at pleasure into two longitudinal or lateral sections, each constituting a 
complete weapon; and strange conical caps, having round them sharp-edged discs 
of brass, hurled most dexterously and dangerously by some tribes as weapons of offence- 
little knives and daggers being very engagingly stuck all round, and giving an appearance 
to the whole far less graceful than grim. 

Many specimens of bows, those most ancient of weapons, were also exhibited in this 
department, some of extraordinary length, and rude enough, in comparison with the 
more modern implement ; others were short, carved, and curiously ornamented, probably 
the real Scythian bow which has for many long ages been in use among the Asiatic 
tribes, a bow of singular construction, deriving its chief elasticity from animal tendons 
bound tightly upon the wood. 

As we shall probably again have occasion to refer to the "East India compartment," 
we shall close our notices of it for the present ; not, however, without paying our respects 
to its great lion, the Koh-i-Noor. And in order to give it " honour due," and to 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 35 

impress our readers with a befitting sense of its high dignity and value, which perhaps 
from a mere inspection of the royal relic of Eastern grandeur they might be disposed to 
question, we shall give a few particulars with respect to its " ancient and modern history." 
The Koh-i-Noor, then, our readers must be informed, is one of the most valuable 
diamonds that are known to exist in any part of the globe ; two others only are supposed 
to be of greater value — the Russian sceptre-diamond, valued at the enormous sum of 
JS4,800,000 ! and one belonging to Portugal, uncut, but supposed to be of still greater 
value. The Koh-i-Noor, however, has been long celebrated both in Asia and in Europe, 
and lays claim to our respect for its traditionary, as well as its historic fame. Hindoo 
legends trace its existence back -some four or five thousand years, and mention is made 
of it in a very ancient heroic poem, called Mahabarata, a circumstance which gives us 
reason to suppose that it is the most ancient of precious stones that have come down 
to modern times. The poem states that it was discovered in the mines of the south of 
India, and that it was worn by Kama, the King of Anga, who was slain in the great 
Indian war, the date of which there is good evidence for believing to be in the year 3001 
before Christ, consequently nearly five thousand years ago. A long silence then takes 
place on the subject of this jewel, which is not again mentioned in fable or in history till 
fifty-six years before Christ, when it was stated to have been the property of the Rajah 
of Nijayin, from whom it descended to the Rajahs of Malwa, and was possessed by them 
until the Mahommedans overthrew their principality, and swept away this priceless gem, 
and other spoils of immense value from the subjugated territory. The Mahommedans, 
in their turn, were obliged to bow their necks to their fierce invaders, for we find that in 
the beginning of the fourteenth century, they were constrained to yield up the territory 
they had won, the noble diamond and all their spoil, to the victorious armies of Ala-adin, 
the Sultan of Delhi, in whose dynasty the diamond remained for a lengthened period. 

The modern history of this precious stone may be said to commence about two hun- 
dred years ago, when an eminent French traveller, skilled in diamond lore, visited India 
with the object of effecting purchases in those matters, and being favourably received at 
the court of Delhi, he was allowed to inspect the imperial jewels, and the account he 
gives of the one that surpassed all the rest in size and beauty, warrants the supposition 
that the diamond he describes was actually the great Koh-i-Noor. We next trace it to 
the possession of Baber, the Mogul emperor, through the right of conquest, and event- 
ually to that of the ruling family of Kabul. Nadir Shah, on his occupation of Delhi in 
1739 seized upon all that the imperial treasury contained, and also compelled his poor 
vanquished foe, Mahommed Shah, who wore this precious gem in the front of his head- 
dress to exchange turbans with him, pretending to do so in testimony of his exceeding 
friendship and regard. It was at this period that it obtained the name of the Koh-i-Noor. 
After Nadir's death, it is generally believed that Ahmed Shah, the founder of the Abdali 
dvnasty prevailed on the young son of Nadir Shah to show him the diamond, and then 
kept possession of it, the youth having no means to enforce its restoration. The sub- 
sequent history of this diamond is free from all doubt and mystery; it descended to the 
successors of Ahmed Shah, and when Mr. Elphinstone was at Peshawur, he saw it on 
the arm of Shah Shoojee, surrounded with emeralds. The fortune of war drove the 
unhappy Shah to seek the hospitality of Runjeet Singh, who treacherously made him 
his captive, and partly through importunity, and partly through menace, m the year 
1813 wrested from him his diamond, presenting the wronged monarch with a paltry 
sum in alleged consideration. So that after all, the gem has in it the greatest possible 
flaw, that of having been dishonestly obtained,— 

" Asleep and naked as an Indian lay, 
An ttonest factor stole his gem away ;" 



36 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

and were we disposed to play the part of Cassandra on the occasion, we should venture 
to predict that the enjoyment of it would not be without its corresponding alloy. O ! 
for those days of chivalry and honour, when the glittering bauble would be restored to 
its rightful owner, even at the expense of the paltry millions at which its worth might 
be estimated. 

But to return to our history. The traitorous Kunjeet, on the principle, we suppose, 
that " stolen waters are sweet," exhibited on all occasions, and with the greatest satis- 
faction, his ill-gotten gem, which he wore as an armlet on all state occasions. Death, 
however, who, as Sancho says, levels all distinctions, threatened him at last with the loss 
of his stolen jewel, and there were not wanting Hindoo Jesuits about him, who endea- 
voured to persuade him that he might quiet his conscience by bequeathing it to the 
great Indian idol Juggernaut. The sick monarch appeared to be struck with the idea, 
but he was too far gone to articulate, and could only signify his assent by nodding his 
head. As, however, no other warranty could he produced in favour of the grim idol, 
the king's successors kept fast hold of what they had got. With the ordinary quick 
transition of property in these countries, the gem next became the property of Rhurreuk 
and Shu Sing; and after the murder of the latter, also a frequent occurrence among 
Indian princes, the jewel remained in the Lahore treasury, until the annexation of the 
Punjab by the British government, when the East India Company contrived to get 
possession of it, on the plea that it was right and proper to seize upon all the property 
of the state, in part payment of the debt alleged to be due by the Lahore government, 
and also for the expenses of the war. It was then agreed that the Koh-i-Noor, being 
a state jewel, and not easily convertible into cash, should be presented to the Queen of 
England, which was accordingly done. Such is the history of this extraordinary jewel; 
but, besides these various acts of rapine and fraud, a more sanguinary deed, in cool 
blood, is connected with its history ; for it is related that the Italian lapidary by whom 
it was cut, having performed his task in a manner unsatisfactory to his employer, he was 
forthwith ordered to immediate execution. True it is that the facets of this diamond 
are cut in a very unartist-like manner. The situation, too, in which it was placed, and 
the crimson cloth with which it was surrounded, were very unfavourable for a full display 
of its beauty and splendour. 

In taking our leave of India for the present, which we do somewhat reluctantly, we 
shall close our remarks with a citation from the learned and eloquent discourse of Dr. 
Whewell, illustrative of the difference between the arts and manufactures of the 
countries called barbarous, and the productions of our own more civilized land. 

" We call these nations," says the talented lecturer, " rude and savage, and yet how 
much is there of ingenuity, of invention, of practical knowledge of the properties of 
branch and leaf, of vegetable texture and fibre, in the works of the rudest tribes ! How 
much, again, of manual dexterity, acquired by long and persevering practice, and even 
so, not easy ! And then, again, not only how well adapted are these works of art to 
the mere needs of life, but how much of neatness, of prettiness, even of beauty, do they 
often possess, even when the work of savage hands ! So that man is naturally, as I 
have said, not only an artificer, but an artist. Even we, while we look down from our 
lofty summit of civilized and mechanically- aided skill upon the infancy of art, may often 
learn from them lessons of taste. So wonderfully and effectually has Providence planted 
in man the impulse which urges him on to his destination — his destination, which is to 
mould the bounty of nature into such forms as utility demands, and to show at every 
step that with mere utility he cannot be content. And when we come to the higher 
stages of cultured art — to the works of nations Jong civilized, though inferior to our- 
selves, it may be, in progressive civilization, and mechanical power— how much do we 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 37 

find in their works which we must admire, which we might envy, which, indeed, might 
drive us to despair ! Even still, the tissues and ornamental works of Persia and of India 
have beauties which we, with all our appliances and means, cannot surpass. The gor- 
geous East showers its barbaric pearl and gold into its magnificent textures. But is 
there really anything barbaric in the skill and taste which they display? Does the 
Oriental prince or monarch, even if he confine his magnificence to native manufac- 
tures, present himself to the eyes of his slaves in a less splendid or less elegant attire 
than the nobles and the sovereigns of this our Western world, more highly civilized as 
we nevertheless deem it? Few persons, I think, would answer in the affirmative. The 
silks and shawls, the embroidery and jewellery, the moulding and carving, which those 
countries can produce, and which decorate their palaces and their dwellers in palaces, 
are even now such as we cannot excel. Oriental magnificence is still a proverbial mode 
of describing a degree of splendour and artistical richness which is not found among 
ourselves. 

" What, then, shall we say of ourselves ? Wherein is our superiority ? In what do we 
see the effect, the realization, of that more advanced stage of art which we conceive 
ourselves to have attained? What advantage do we derive from the immense accu- 
mulated resources of skill and capital — of mechanical ingenuity and mechanical power — 
which We possess ? Surely our imagined superiority is not all imaginary ; surely we 
really are more advanced than they, and this term ' advanced' has a meaning ; surely 
that mighty thought of a pkogkess in the life of nations is not an empty dream ; and 
surely our progress has carried us beyond them. Where, then, is the import of the idea 
in this case ? What is the leading and characteristic difference between them and us, 
as to this matter ? What is the broad and predominant distinction between the arts of 
nations, rich, but in a condition of nearly stationary civilization, like Oriental nations, 
and nations which have felt the full influence of progress like ourselves ? 

" If I am not mistaken, the difference may be briefly expressed thus : — That in those 
countries the arts are mainly exercised to gratify the tastes of the few; with us, to supply 
the wants of the many. There, the wealth of a province is absorbed in the dress of a 
mighty warrior ; here, the gigantic weapons of the peaceful potentate are used to pro- 
vide clothing for the world. For that which makes it suitable that machinery, con- 
structed on a vast scale, and embodying enormous capital, should be used in manufacture, 
is . that the wares produced should be very great in quantity, so that the smallest 
advantage in the power of working, being multiplied a million-fold, shall turn the scale 
of profit. And thus such machinery is applied when wares are manufactured for a vast 
population — when millions upon millions have to be clothed, or fed, or ornamented, or 
pleased, with the things so produced. I have heard one say, who had extensively and 
carefully studied the manufacturing establishments of this country, that when he began 
his survey he expected to find the most subtle and refined machinery applied to the 
most delicate and beautiful kind of work— to gold and silver, jewels, and embroidery : 
but that when he came to examine, he found that these works were mainly executed by 
hand, and that the most exquisite and the most expensive machinery was brought into 
play where operations on the most common materials were to be performed, because 
these were to be executed on the widest scale. And this is when coarse and ordinary 
wares are manufactured for the many. This, therefore, is the meaning of the vast and 
astonishing prevalence of machine-work in this country — that the machine with its 
million fingers works for millions of purchasers ; while in remote countries, where mag- 
nificence and savagery stand side by side, tens of thousands work for one. There Art 
labours for the rich alone; here she works for the poor no less. There the multitude 
produce only to give splendour and grace to the despot or the warrior, whose slaves they 



38 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 



are, and whom they enrich; here the man who is powerful in the weapons of peace, 
capital and machinery, uses them to give comfort and enjoyment to the public, whose 
servant he is, and thus becomes rich while he •.enriches others with his goods. If this 
be truly the relation between the condition of the arts of life in this country and m 
those others', may we not with reason and with gratitude say that we have, indeed, 
reached a point beyond theirs in the social progress of nations ?" 



CHAPTER VII. 

SCTLPTtrBE. 



It is not our intention, in threading our way through the inexhaustible variety of objects 
presented to our view in the Crystal Palace, to attempt any scientific or classified 
enumeration of its wonders. That herculean task has been already fully and ably executed 
in the vast and voluminous catalogue, of which we are told, " that if the whole of the 
earlier editions had been consigned, in one vertical column, to the bottom of' the Pacific 
Ocean (a computed depth of 6,000 feet), the present improved and corrected edition 
would still form a lonely peak rising to the height of Chimborazo or Cotopaxi, exactly 
18,000 feet above the level or the censure of the ordinary inhabitants of this earth." 
Our time and limits, indeed, would not permit us to examine a tithe of what was spread 
out before us ; we shall, therefore, confine our remarks to the consideration of the most 
useful, the most astonishing, the most ingenious, the most interesting, the most beau- 
tiful. And in our discursive flights, we shall not profess to be bound by any rigid plan 
of proceeding from first to last, as those unimpassioned visitors of an exhibition who 
begin at No. 1., and never suffer their eyes to wander till they have coldly examined 
every picture upon the walls, in the exact series and order in which they are enumerated 
in the catalogue. We, on the contrary, shall stray through the gay parterre, at our own 
free will, stopping only to examine and describe, as our captivated fancy may impel and 
direct; through the vast embarras de richesse, we shall pass from one subject of interest 
to another, "from grave to gay, from lively to severe," in the true spirit of liberty and 
unrestrained enjoyment. 

Having premised thus much, and feeling ourselves, for the present, somewhat over- 
powered by the contemplation of all the Oriental magnificence, the " barbaric pearl and 
gold," which formed the subject of our preceding chapter, we shall "let Euclid rest and 
Archimedes pause," and suddenly removing, as with the touch of an enchanter's wand, 
the scene we so lately beheld, transplant our readers to the halls of sculpture, and call 
their attention, * for a time, to the consideration of what the Plastic Art contributed 
towards the embellishment of the world's great emporium of industry and talent. 

It will be the business of our engraver, whose art has been put to its utmost stretch 
of excellence, to compete with the elaborate and exquisite detail of the daguerreotype, 
to present our readers, from time to time, besides the general views of the interior of 
the building, with such specimens of individual talent among the numerous sculptors, 
both British and foreign, who contributed their offerings', as our impartial judgment may 
select, and which we shall accordingly, forthwith proceed to describe. 

In compliment to our foreign contributors, we shall commence with the colossal 
group of the "Amazon attacked by a Tigress," by Kiss of Berlin, which was one of the 
marvels of the Great Exhibition, and received more tributes of unqualified praise than 



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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 39 

perhaps any other single object in the Crystal Palace. It was certainly a very masterly 
production, and in a style which was almost new to sculptors of our day; though at the 
same time, from the nature of the subject, not entitled to rank with works in the 
highest class of sculpture. It was more animal than spiritual ; the conception more 
startling than poetic. The Amazon was a figure of tremendous energy. The manner 
in which she was represented, as having thrown herself back out of her ordinary seat, in 
order to get beyond the reach of the tiger, whose claws were already deep dug in the 
neck and flanks of the horse, whilst she took deliberate aim for a single and critical 
blow at the head of the savage monster, was admirably conceived and carried out; the 
face, with its mixed expression of terror and determination, was of itself a study 
sufficient for an entire work in sculpture. The horse and tiger were both master-pieces 
in their way, but unfortunately they more than divided the interest with the human 
subject. This work was a copy in zinc, bronzed, from the original in bronze, erected in 
1839, at the foot of the steps before the Museum at Berlin; having been made a present 
to the King of Prussia by a society of amateurs. We should like to see this group in 
the place for which it was originally designed, as its position in the Exhibition, owing 
to its narrow limits, and its proximity to gaudy paraphernalia, considerably injured its 
effect as a whole. 

Another group, of Theseus and the Amazons, in the south transept, the production 
of Engel, an Hungarian, also attracted a good deal of attention, partly, perhaps, from 
its being the property of Prince Albert, as well as from its own intrinsic merit. We 
had frequent opportunities of seeing this work in progress in Rome, where it was executed 
during the troubles and commotions that agitated that most unfortunate and most 
injured city, at the period of its treacherous usurpation by Republican France. The 
artist, nevertheless, with unchecked application and. industry, achieved his laborious 
task sufficiently in time for its being conveyed to our hospitable shores for exhibition. 

More graceful than energetic, the composition of this group wanted a little of the 
fire that characterized the production of Kiss ; the story, moreover, was not very 
clearly told, and the draperies were deficient in smoothness and naturalness. At all 
times among ancient sculptors these lady-warriors were especial favourites, and their 
well-contested battles with the Athenians are to be seen among the terra-cottas in the 
British Museum, as well as on the friezes of the temples of Theseus at Athens, and of 
Apollo Epicurus on Mount Cosylion, near the ancient city of Phigaleia, in Arcadia. 

" Fine subjects do not always make fine pictures," was the remark of a sage acade- 
mician of our acquaintance ; neither do they always make fine groups in marble. Our 
Lord's charge to Peter, " Feed my Lambs," was deficient in dignity and expression, and 
too literally understood. Seldom, indeed, have scriptural subjects been adequately 
treated: rarely has the figure or the countenance of the Saviour, "full of grace 
and truth," been worthily delineated. Even Michael Angelo failed in his celebrated 
statue in the Church of the Minerva, at Rome, in representing the august majesty of 
" The Incarnate Deity." Before attempting such a task, the artist would do well to bear 
in mind the beautiful invocation of Milton, at the commencement of his noble poem : — 
" And chiefly Thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer 

Before all temples the upright heart and pure, 

Instruct me, for thou know st — * * * 

***** What in me is dark, 

Illumine j what is low, raise and support." — Paradise Lost. 

On pursuing our investigations among the crowded marbles that throng the sculpture 

court — 

" Thick as autumnal leaves that strew the brooks 
In Vallambrosa " 



40 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

we discovered a fine statue of the calm and philosophic Flaxman, by Watson ; a 
Prometheus, by Theed; and an Ino and Infant Bacchus, graceful and joyous. We next 
recognised our old acquaintance, Whittington, the runaway apprentice, and subsequent 
Lord- Mayor of London, apparently listening to the melodious bells that augured to his 
youthful fancy his future greatness. There was a great deal of truth and nature in this 
little figure; but perhaps we have been too much accustomed to see the sculptor's 
art employed on higher subjects, to relish its adoption in those of more humble and 
common life. Before we quit this department, we must not omit to cast a glance of 
admiration and pity upon the fair Ophelia, about to hang " her coronet weeds" upon 
the fatal willow. A pastoral group, too, by Kirk, was deserving of our notice — simple, 
natural, and illustrative of the golden age from which its happy subjects were selected. 
In the transept, setting aside the majestic elm, " star-proof," and the noble fountains, 
we confess we found no pre-eminent object to exclusively engage our attention, always, 
of course, excepting the personifications of our august Queen and her royal Consort, 
to whose intelligence England is indebted for the original idea of this mighty gathering 
of nations — these " embassies from regions far remote." The statuary was too much 
on a par to excite individual notice. 

We will next notice " The Boy attacked by a Serpent," and " The Deliverer," by 
Lechesne, a young Frenchman of great promise. The first of these groups represented 
a child attacked by a large serpent, and defended by a dog, which generously interposed 
between the reptile and its object of attack. The fear of the child, and the watchful 
and angry zeal of its four-footed protector, were exceedingly well given ; and in the 
companion group, in which the headless snake testifies to the victory of his canine 
antagonist, the gratitude of the boy, and the placid satisfaction of the noble animal, 
were equally well represented. We understand this pair of subjects was to be executed 
in marble for Prince Demidoff. 

As we sauntered down the nave, we next came upon a fine group by Pierotti, who 
gave us the " Binding of Mazeppa upon the back of the Wild Horse," from the vigorous 
verse of Byron. The action of the untamed animal, the fierce and remorseless bearing 
of the executioners of the tyrant's vengeance, and the hopeless resignation of the 
victim, were not unworthy of the poetic description of the noble bard himself. 

We wish next to direct the attention of our readers to a fine group by Jerichau, a 
Danish sculptor, and no unworthy successor to his great fellow-countryman, Thc-r- 
waldsen, whose style he appears to have followed. It represented " Adam and Eve after 
the Fall." Never were the different characteristics of the masculine and feminine 
nature, psychologically considered, depicted with more truth and feeling. The man 
appeared to suffer with all the force of his intellect; not only fully aware of his own 
altered and awful situation, but already beholding, by the clearness of his perceptions, 
all the dismal calamities to his descendants, in consequence of his transgression. Deeply 
were theeffects of his view, turned inwards upon himself, and his prescient glance into 
futurity, and what it had in store through him, for generations yet to come, marked in 
his countenance. No trait of merely human regret was to be found in it. He was 
astounded at his own state, but evidently submitted to it, from the conviction that his 
sentence was the decree of Almighty Justice, which cannot err, and that he had brought 
it upon himself; but it was the effect of it upon others, which roused all his powers of 
thought, all the extent of his comprehension; and it was the finding his utmost grasp of 
mind unequal to the fulness of the terrible reality, that imprinted despair upon his "fair 
large front." In the woman, the form and essence of love, we saw the suffering of the 
affections. Never was Milton's beautiful line— 

" He for God only, she for God in him," 




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more admirably illustrated. We saw slie was not thinking of the decree against herself, 
though, including all the trials most grievous to her nature : deep, indeed, and touching, 
was the penitence and grief with which her whole frame seemed penetrated; but we 
saw, we felt, that her penitence was for the act by which she had brought ruin uporL 
him she loved; and reverenced, her " glory," her "perfection:" her sorrow for the sa<!P 
reverse, of the boon Jby which she had thought to impart additional good to him; a 
good in which, though first to taste it, she yet found no relish until he could share 
it with her. It is this sweet womanhood in our " general mother," that Mr. Jerichau 
has expressed with a feeling worthy of Milton himself, to whom we are indebted for 
the most perfect portraiture of feminine excellence and loveliness that ever was depicted 
by the aid of words ; and the contemplation of this group will give rise to many a musing 
and many an aspiration, in the mind of the thoughtful beholder, pure and lofty as its 
theme. ,. , 

Not, however, to extend our remarks on this subject beyond its due limits, we will 
now turn our attention to the Austrian sculpture, as in its wonted spirit of usurpation, 
that government termed the productions of the Milanese chisel ; and at the very 
point of entrance to the apartment, doubtless much to the gratification of the artists 
whose works are arranged withinside, the stern Eadetzky was planted in full military 
display— the rugged serf elevated to the dignity of epaulettes and the marshal's baton. 
The equally celebrated Hainau might have formed a fit companion to this worthy, in the 
" sentinel watch" he appeared to hold over these unfortunate sons of genius ; but we do 
not think the British public would have rehshed the appearance of the hero of Breschia 
within those peaceful walls. For our own part, we will leave the par nobile fratrum, the 
tools of despotism, to their unenviable notoriety, and endeavour to forget the reminiscences 
attached to ''their names, in the contemplation of the lofty and poetic fancies which 
gentler minds and more amiable spirits spread around these favoured Hmits. 

" A veiled Vestal," and a " Slave in the Market-place," by Monti, were the great 
objects of attraction in this apartment. In both works the illusion, at a little distance, 
was very remarkable, and until the spectator came nearer and examined the figure, he 
did not discover what may be termed the ingenious trick, which pretended to represent 
two surfaces at once, the one under the other, in the untractable marble ; an impossible 
feat, however, as far as truth in the representation of either of the surfaces was regarded, 
as was evident on a close inspection. The latter of these pieces was purchased by the 
Duke of Devonshire. 

Leaving, however, these subjects with their ad captandum merit, we will draw our 
readers attention to a work of more sterling excellence by the same artist, "Eve after 
her Fall," a graceful and beautiful personification of our " original mother." "We did 
not, however, approve of the little Cupid peering up from a cluster of roses behind, a 
trivial and unworthy conceit. 

Three works by Antonio Galli, of Milan, were deserving of especial notice: " Jephthah's 
Daughter," simple, elegant, and full of expression — " A Youth on the Sea-shore," and 
" Susannah at the Bath," graceful and chastely voluptuous, in her surprise. Marchesi's 
" Eurydice" also demanded commendation ; but, unquestionably, the " Hagar and 
Ismael," by Max, of Prague, in this so-termed Austrian apartment, was the most 
impressive and touching, full of nature, dignity, and truth. We must not, however, 
deny its just tribute of praise to the " Ismael" by Signore Strazza, of Milan, a wonderful 
performance, and full of terrible pathos in its death-like agony. 

It is only of late years that sculpture has descended to the lower range of poetic 
imagining. Painting, indeed, had frequently illustrated incidents of domestic and 
ordinary life, and dealt largely in tableaux de genre, but sculpture rarely sought inspira* 

M 



43 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

tion beyond the page of holy writ, poetic fancies, or the graceful imagery of classic befal. 
Monumental tributes, indeed, she did not deem unworthy of her genius; but then the 
" storied urn and animated bust" were chiefly devoted to the memory of the great, to 
the hero, the poet, of the scholar. She has now, however, begun to trifle with her art, 
*nd adopt subjects of lesser importance, familiar or domestic. Roubilliac appears to 
,iave been one of the first who began to clothe his figures in the costume they usually 
wore, a practice we should like to. see generally adopted. It has been so arranged with 
respect to the drama, owing to the good taste of the late John Kemble ; for the time was 
when Cato wore a modish court-dress, bag-wig, ruffles and all; and Garrick performed the 
parts of Macbeth and Othello in a full suit of modern regimentals. " Reform it alto- 
gether," as Hamlet advised, and if our statesmen and orators must strut in marble, let 
them not figure in a Roman toga, with the incongruity of a shaven chm and military 
whiskers. We remember seeing in an artist's studio at Rome, to our great astonish- 
ment, a full length of Prince Albert as a Greek warrior ! Risu teneatis? But to 
return from this digression. The sculptor Gibber, the father of the poet, has shown, 
in his admirable statues of the two maniacs over the portico of Bethlehem Hospital, 
how much may be done in marble to illustrate passion and emotion in ordinary life ; 
and Thorn, in his Tam O'Shanter and Souter Johnnie, long afforded diversion to the 
town, and furnished an additional proof, that it is not alone in the stately, the solemn, 
or the classical, that the genius of .sculpture can display its excellence. 

We make these remarks, to introduce to the notice of our readers two subjects of 
this grotesque description, which attracted a good, deal of notice from the visitors to 
the Crystal Palace; more favourable, notice, indeed, than the gigantic Crusader by the 
same artist, who "towered above his sex" in the same locality. The subjects we 
allude to were known as the Happy and the Unhappy Child;" the first a little urchin, 
stretched at length and at his ease, was admiring the outre physiognomy of a pun hi 
nello with which he was playing; while the other was blubbering over the drum he had, 
probably through excessive energy in beating it, most unluckily broken. We will now 
pay our respects to the " Greek Slave," by Hiram Power, an American sculptor, of great 
talent, who has been for some years past a resident in Florence, where he has executed 
many admirable works, several of which have found their way to this country. The 
modest dignity expressed in this figure, its beauty, and the delicacy of its execution, are 
deserving of the highest praise. The talented Prederika Bremer bears the following 
testimony to the excellence of this piece of statuary : — " This so-called Greek Slave, this 
captive woman, with her fettered hands, I had seen many times on the other side of the 
Atlantic, in copies of the original — cold weak copies of that original which I saw here 
for the first time. The copies had left a cold impression on my mind. The original 
seized upon me with an unusual power, as no other statue in marble had done. This 
noble woman, with her bound-down hands, who so quietly turned her head with its 
unspeakably-deep expression of sorrow and indignations-scorn is not a sufficiently noble 
word— against the power which bound her ; that lip whieh is silent, but which seems to 
quiver with the tumult of wounded feeling, with the throbbing of her heart ; — I wonder 
whether Power himself comprehended the whole of its significance \" Gibson presented 
us with a " Greek Hunter," and a fine basso-relievo representing the " Hours leading 
forth the Horses of the Sun." Both of these were noble and spirited productions, and 
may fairly take their places among the most celebrated works of antiquity. Not far 
from these, we noticed a " Narcissus," by Theed, a graceful and classic figure. He was 
represented leaning upon a boar-spear, gazing upon the fountain which was supposed to 
reflect his beauteous image, while the flower which bears his name and perpetuates his 
memory, was springing up at his feet. A " Prodigal Son," by the same artist, was 




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remarkable for the tenderness of the sentiment it inspired, and for its just illustration of 
this beautiful and touching narrative in Holy Writ. Thrupp, in his charming figure 
of "Arethusa;" and Behnes, in his personification of a "Startled Nymph," were equally 
deserving of commendation. " Una, with her Lion," has always been a favourite subject 
with artists — the gentle Una, whose beauty, as Spenser tells us, when she was lost in the 
recesses of the forest, " made a sunshine in that shady' place." The sculptor represented 
her seated on the lion's back; but we cannot say that the effect was very happy: indeed, 
we overheard a country critic express his, opinion, that the Lady Godiva was before him. 
Mr. Bell succeeded better in his " Dorothea" — the beautiful vision by the brook that 
greeted the ravished eyes of the Knight of the Sorrowful Countenance and his com- 
panions, in the inijjttitable romance of Cervantes. This, too, is a subject that artists 
love to delineate.; as is also that'of the " Babes in the Wood," which was ably treated by 
the same h aQ d. We remember, many years ago, to have seen this simple story beauti- 
fully illustrated by Stodhart, whose magic pencil imparted to it a romantic grandeur 
and solemnity which, after a period of. full forty years, still, in vivid colours, is pre- 
sent to our imagination. 

In the Roman department there were but few evidences of the intelligence and genius 
which the Italians undoubtedly possess. Nor can we wonder at it, oppressed and 
enslaved as they are by their priests, through the unjust interference of France. More- 
over, passports were either altogether refused to many artists, or the hint was given to 
them, that if they left the country they might find it difficult to return. Nevertheless, 
a stray object or two found its way within the walls; but the sculptors of Rome were 
poorly represented, while the works of Tenerani and other magnates of the Eternal City 
withheld their contributions. Among those which did arrive, we particularly noticed a 
"Cupid and Psyche," by Bensoni, very beautifully treated ; also "Innocence defended 
by Fidelity," and " Gratitude," a young girl extracting a thorn from the foot of a dog, 
by the same artist, equally deserving attention. These are the property of Captain Ley- 
land a munificent patron of art, who was also fortunate enough to secure two admirable 
specimens from the chisel of the late lamented Richard Wyatt, entitled " The Nymph 
Glycera," and "A Nymph," executed with wonderful delicacy and grace. In the death 
of this artist, Rome has to deplore the loss of one of the most talented of her adopted 
sons • one, too, who would have risen to the highest walk in his profession, for, diligent 
and studious, he was ever improving in his art, as his later productions' sufficiently 
testify. We shall, perhaps, resume our remarks upon the sculpture exhibited in the 
Crystal Palace at a future opportunity. At present let us pause — 
" To-morrow to fresh fields and pastures new." 



CHAPTER VII. 



CnATTCEE'S DBEAM— THE TEANSEPT— THE WESTERN NAVE— CAN AD IAN TBOPHY— EUgSIAN STJS- 
PENSION BEIDGKE— MODEL OE LIVEBPOQli DOCKS. 

We invite such of our readers as, unfortunately, have not had an opportunity of inspect- 
ing the. "World's Emporium" in person, to take a glance at the elaborate view of " The 
Nave of the. Great Exhibition, looking west," which we presented to them in our first 
number preparatory to their following us in our description of that splendid avenue. 
Before we enter upon it, however, we must request leave to be allowed to make a short 
digression in honour of one of England's eldest and most renowned of bards, whose 



44 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

prescient muse appears to have had a sort of foreknowledge of what was to take place in 
our favoured isle, when Science, Industry, and Art, should combine their united efforts, 
throughout , the whole earth, to produce among us the unrivalled display of talent and 
advancement to which an admiring world has just borne witness ; for the vast variety 
that was contained in the wondrous House of Glass, as well as the building itself, 
wherein ©very nation found room to treasure up their stores, and to congregate their 
countless thousands, were, indeed, matters of admiration and astonishment to all the 
world. Sober-minded people, a few years ago, would have scouted the idea as absurd 
and visionary, and even ,the most enthusiastic would never have dared to hope in its 
realization. What judgment iand reason, however, never anticipated, it appears that, 
poetry imagined ; for we find in the writings of Chaucer, eldest of British bards, a sort 
of prophetic announcement of the future Wonder, in his* Introduction to the "House 
of Fame," which he describes as a vision, and speculates upon the causes of dreams, 
stating his inability to decide whether 

" Spirits have the might 
To make folks dream o' night, 
Or if the soul of proper kind 
Be so perfect as men find, 
That it wote what is to come. 
As I slept," * * * * 



he goes on to say, — 
" I dreamt I- was 
Within a temple made of glass, . 
In which there were more images' 
Of gold, standing in sundry stages, 
Iri more rich tabernacles, 
And with jewels, more pinnacles, 
And more curious portraitures, 
And quaint manner of figures . 
Of gold work, than I ever saw." 



" Then gan I look about and see 
That there came entering in the hall 
A right great company withal, 
And that of sundry regions, 
Of all kinds of conditions 
That dwell on earth beneath the moon, 
Poor and rich." 



" Such a great congregation 
Of folks as I saw roam about, 
Some within and some without, 
Was never seen nor shall be more." 



!' Then saw I stand on either side, 
Straight down to the doors wide, 
From the dais, many a pillar 
Of metal, that shone out full and clear." 

But to proceed. Passing through a pair of richly-gilded iron gates, the visitor entered 



THE TRANSEPT, 



when its full glories burst upon his view, heightened and magnified by the narrow dimen- 
sions of the external roof and vestibule. A vast hall was before him, lined on either hand 
with sculptured forms. In the centre arose, like some fantastic stalactite or splinter from 
an iceberg, a transparent crystal fountain, glittering with all the colours of the rainbow 
which, towering from a solid base up to a point, poured down upon an overflowing crystal 
basin an unceasing stream, with a delicious bubbling sound. Beyond the fountain stood 
the chair of state — a throne of crimson and gold; commanding the grand avenues both 
east and west. On the left of the throne, at the head of the eastern avenue, the great 
Indian diamond, the Koh-i-Noor, glittered in a golden cage or prison. Other statues 
another fountain of huge spouting stone' tritons, a mass of broad-leaved tropical plants' 
and lofty, smooth-barked palm-trees, another pair of gilded gates, and over all a mighty- 
elm, spreading its full-leaved branches far and wide, and touching the very summit of the 
lofty roof, completed his first impression of the scene — but not the scene itself, for every 
glance revealed some new effect, gorgeous or graceful. His eyes travelled at one moment 
to the semi-transparent roof,' with its delicate arches of blue and white, and spider- like 



w 



H 
e 



si 

55 



x*2 

ad 



H 





1=1 

m 



(5 



fe] 






OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 45 

aiag0n4.tracing.lmes J then they rested upon the pendant tapestry above the galleries, 
the rich carpets and brocades; or followed the crimson lines of the gallery rails, till they 
wearied with the luxuriance of colour, animate and inanimate; for all this time, silt, 
satm, ana velvet, plume*, and flowers, borne by gazers as curious as ourselves, were 
streaming all around. At length he reached the ground, and was recalled to the real 

E 1 ^ 08 !,, ^ 8 "J^y PaIace ^ the Word "India" at the head of the British, and 
Jigypf. at the head of the Foreign Avenue; both making a rich display of arms— the 
nrst manufacture of semi-barbarous nations, 

THE WESTERN NAVE, 

East and west, next challenged attention, and, as the Illustrated London Newsh&is 
aptly observed, "were it possible" to attain to that state of dual individualism which 
would have enabled one to visit two places at once, it is probable there would quickly 
have been a complete duplication '-of visitors, one half going east and the other west." 
We shall at present confine our notice to the western side, into which, with the aid of 
our daguerreotype, we shall forthwith penetrate. Proceeding then, from that crystal 
marvel, Osier's Glass Fountain, we must lead our visitor to the extreme west; the 
various objects arranged in the centre striking the eye in rapid succession, from the silk 
trophy of -Messrs. Keith and Co., to the great mirror at the end under "Willis's grand 
organ. This silk trophy was a novelty, and stood as the type of the textile fahrics of 
Great Britain and Ireland. It was originally intended that, as each trophy would Repre- 
sent a particular class or manufacture, exhibitors in those departments should unite to 
form a complete type of their trade. Thus, the silk trophy was intended to have been 
contributed to by the various manufacturers of Spitalfields, atld would thus have been a 
fitting representation of the silk trade in all its branches/ Practical and technical 
difficulties, however, had to be overcome, in bringing together products so varied as those 
of the loom, even in one material ; and Messrs. Keith and Co., as manufacturers of the 
largest kind of silk goods for furniture damasks, undertook the whole work, the construc- 
tion and arrangement of which was based on a suggestion and sketches made by the 
superintendent of textile fabrics, Mr. George Wallis, and subsequently improved upon 
and extended by Messrs. Laugher, Dwyer, and Co., of Poland-streetj to whom the merit 
•of the practical realization in its complete form was due. The whole was hung With the 
richest silk damasks, brocatelles, tabarets, &c, to the height of upwards of- fifty feet ; 
the sides of the base being filled in with mirrors of the largest dimensions, reflectingj at 
certain angles, the draped arrangement, and surmounted by flags arid a banner, the 
central one being emblazoned with the royal arms. In order to effect the regular re- 
arrangement of the whole at stated periods, the structure was so contrived, that, by 
ladders placed inside, the requisite work could be effected with comparatively little 
trouble in a short space of time. This trophy stood between two bronzes of very different 
character — the statue of the Duke of Rutland, by Davis, and a very clever group of a 
"Horse and Dragon," by Wyatt, intended, we presume, to typify the triumph; of the 
intellectual powers over the lower and more sensual propensities of our nature/ since the 
horse is the symbol of the one, and the traditional dragon that of the other. As, how- 
ever, notices of individual works belong to the future portion of our task, attention only 
is called to these objects. The Colonial orCanadiari trophy, which we shall more parti- 
cularly .notice hereafter, was the next object -of interest, and was formed of specimens of 
the timber with which our North American colonies supply us. These examples were 
cut into such- slabs as might at once show their wrought and unwrought character, one 
side of each being duly finished and varnished, or polished. Among these specimens 
were two contributions hy a- fugitive slave, settled in Ganada. This group of raw pro> 

N 



46 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

ducts was placed in the midst of the colonial department ; and the materials, though 
interesting from their utility, were certainly very unpromising ones for the formation of 
a trophy having any pretensions to symmetry or artistic effect ; but the difficulty was got 
over much better than might have been expected, and the whole was surmounted by a 
small canoe. 

Passing the large mirror, with its elaborately ornamented framing and gilding, the 
spandril from Hereford Cathedral, placed at the back, could not fail to attract the atten- 
tion of the lover of ecclesiastical decoration. Mr. Thomas's fountain, the subject of which 
is the story of Acis and Galatsea, stood next, and was a work of no mean excellence. 
To do it justice, however, a recurrence must be made to it in future notices. A beauti- 
fully carved mediaeval cross, designed by Pugin, came next in order. The subjects of 
the relievi were beautifully appropriate, and the whole was an excellent example of stone 
carving. The next object was a kindred one, being a Gothic screen executed by the 
Patent Machine Carving Company (Jordan's) ; and grouped at the sides were excellent 
examples of the results of the same process as applied to general decoration. The 
"Eldon and Stowell" group, two colossal portrait statues of those eminent brothers, the 
late Earl of Eldon and Lord Stowell, -was well placed in the central avenue, as the 
work was a bold and massive one. The draperies were grand in their arrangement, and 
there was a repose in the whole subject which was highly satisfactory. The artist, the 
late M. L. "Watson, was not known or appreciated to the extent which this work and 
another we shall take occasion to notice when visiting the sculpture, proves he ought to 
have been. This, alas ! is the old story ; and his talent is now fully recognised, when it 
is no longer available to us, or of any value to him. The specimen of Honduras mahog- 
any, several large pillars of alum, and some examples of chemical products, astonished 
the curious in those matters ; whilst Dent's turret clock, and the Sheffield trophy — a 
grand group of cutlery, &c, by the celebrated house of Rogers and Sons — formed 
.admirable contrasts to those huge productions of nature and science. The Coalbrook 
Dale dome — a conspicuous object from all parts of the building, commanding a view of 
the central avenue — as an example of constructive metal casting, was worthy of all 
-praise. We wish we could say as much for the design as a work of art, although in 
many parts there was much to admire. The statue of the " Eagle Slayer," by John 
3ell, was placed in the centre ; but as this is one of those works to which, as a whole, 
recurrence must be made at some future period, we pass on, after calling attention to 
Mr. Bell's ideal statue of Shakspere, which was placed on the eastern side of the dome 
— a pleasing work, but of more pretension than power. An equestrian group, repre- 
senting a " Dead Crusader, his Horse and Mistress," illustrated a painful episode of 
bygone times ; whilst the great telescope placed next to it as distinctly illustrated the 
glorious pursuits of modern science, her aims and triumphs. The glass cases containing 
splendid selections of furs by Nicolay, and feathers by Adcock, were attractive to 
thousands. The former was a remarkable example of ingenuity in arrangement, the 
case being supported round the base by preserved animals. At this point, too,' the 
magnificent furs suspended from the galleries attracted the attention of the visitor. 

The use of terra cotta as a decorative adjunct in building, was admirably displayed by 
the model of a church in the decorative style, the whole idea being well and thoroughly 
carried out, and the application of this material as a constructive agent very fully 
exemplified. Having seen and examined a church so constructed, near Bolton, Lanca- 
shire, built by the contributors of this model, Messrs. Willock, of the Lady Shore works 
we can bear testimony to its excellence in many respects, although, like all artificial 
materials, it has its disadvantages. For garden decorations, there is no material better 
^adapted for general use ; and with the progress made of late years, particularly by the 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 47 

enterprising firm to which we were indebted for this example of skill, it is wonderful 
that the many elegant decorations adapted to ornamental grounds are not more generally 
used than they are, since we find elegance combined with cheapness, and, under all cir- 
cumstances, with durability also. The next object, a model made by Mr. Jabez James, 
of Broadwall, of a suspension-bridge erected over the river Dnieper, at Kieff, in South 
Russia, designed by Mr. C. Vignolles, was the most perfect thing of the kind in the 
building. A similar model to the one exhibited was made for the Emperor of Russia, 
and cost upwards of £12,000. The scale ^was one-eighth of an inch; all the details 
were imitated with such nicety, even in the size of the nails and the threads of the 
screws, that from it a perfectf-copy of the original bridge might be executed on a full 
scale, without any written description. The abutments take to pieces, to show the 
construction of the masonry and the chambers for the chains. It contains 6,880 pieces 
of wood, and 87,097 pieces of metal. Before the construction of the suspension-bridge 
at Kieff, a bridge of boats was in use, the river being 1,200 feet wide. Mr. James, 
the modeller, received a ruby and diamond ring, valued at £200, from the Emperor, on 
the arrival of the first model, which is now set up in the Winter Palace at St. Peters- 
burgh. The model of the Britannia Bridge, although less elaborate, was equally exact 
in scale. Between the two stood a model of Mr. Brunei's bridge over the Wye at 
Chepstow. The large and massive fountain, by Seeley, constructed of artificial stone, 
astonished and delighted a large number of visitors. The whole work was at once an 
example of skill in construction and fitness of design. The model of the Lord Mayor's 
state barge, by Searle, had its admirers, particularly in those who delight in civic deco- 
rations. In this rapid sketch of the leading objects in the western side of the central 
avenue, the revolving lights have been overlooked. 

The very elaborate and costly model of the Liverpool Docks and the commercial part 
of that town, was a remarkable example of the extent to which the oeconomy of our 
great cities may be illustrated and permanently recorded. This admirable work origi- 
nated in a desire on the part of certain patriotic gentlemen of Liverpool, that this great 
port, the outlet of so large a portion of our trade, and the scene of so important a 
part of the commercial transactions of this country, should be fairly represented in the- 
Exhibition. As, however, Liverpool has no staple trade, properly so speaking, but 
exists and owes its importance to the diffusion of the products of other localities, rather 
than the productions of its own, the suggestion that the extent of its means for pro- 
moting the great purposes of international communication should be illustrated was a 
very happy one, and was most admirably carried out by its originator, and designer, Mr. 
John Grantham, C.E., a gentleman who acted as honorary secretary to the Exhibition 
committee at Liverpool, and spared no pains to do honour to this great occasion. 
Upon a scale of eight feet to a mile, we had, then, an accurate representation of the 
docks of Liverpool, and the most important commercial part of the town, including St. 
George's Hall and the Railway Station, the Town-hall, Custom-house, St. John's Market, 
and several of the churches ; the shipping lying in the docks, or floating, to all appear- 
ance, on the surface of the Mersey, which was represented by the silvering or coloured 
glass'. The model was supported on an appropriately designed base formed of elephants, 
cast in iron, from the backs of which the columnar supports of the roof arose ; pediments, 
filled with appropriate decorations in imitation of bas-reliefs, being at the ends and 
centre. Our limits will not allow us to describe more minutely this great and important 
contribution— a work which did honour to the merchant princes of Liverpool, and which 
was intended to be eventually deposited in St. George's Hall, as a record of this assem- 
blage of all which constitutes the basis of its greatness, its wealth, and practical utility. 
A specimen of plate glass of extraordinary size was placed against the columns support- 



48 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

ing the cross at this end, and the whole scene through which we have so far journeyed 
was reflected with great effect. 

Standing at this point the whole length of the huilding was seen, and the result was 
m the highest degree impressive and beautiful. It was to be regretted, however, that 
the sides of the central avenue were not kept more clear of projecting objects, as in 
many instances one or two of these projections interfered with the whole range, and 
were anything but sightly. As a whole, however, more was done in this direction than 
could have reasonably been expected, since each exhibitor endeavoured to display his 
own contributions in the very best possible position, and had as little regard to those 
around him as the regulations would permit. To our mind the British side was a 
wonderful exemplification of British character, and the notions each man entertained 
of his own freedom and independence of action. Like our street architects, each ran up 
his own erection in his own way, and it was only by a constant supervision, that any- 
thing like an ensemble was obtained. Bedposts and conservatories, glass cases, iron 
rods, and sign-boards, appear to have formed the stock notions of the best mode of con- 
struction, and these were only worked into a presentable form by a variety of modifica- 
tions. Again, the substantial character of many of these erections was evident at once. 
If the whole Exhibition was intended to remain en permanence, and the exhibitors con- 
templated that their great-grand-children would display their industry and their genius 
in the space assigned to themselves to-day, they could not have more effectually pro- 
vided for such a contingency. These fittings, therefore, formed a remarkable contrast to 
many of those on the foreign side, which were remarkable for lightness, elegance, and 
fitness for their purposes. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DEPARTMENTS— continued. 
CEYLON — CANADA — ATTSTBALIA — VAN BIEMEN's LAOT) — THE CAPE. 

It has been ably observed by a popular writer, that " the great social lessons suggested 
by the completion of the Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations, were not less 
valuable than the educational." Of all European countries, England certainly had 
been the least visited by foreigners : they admired our industry, they purchased our solid 
manufactures, they dreaded our prowess and ambition ; but the climate, the expenses of 
travelling, the absence of popular amusements, deterred them from visiting our shores 
or drove them away before they had an opportunity of fully appreciating those personal 
qualities, which, when known, inspire respect, confidence, and permanent good-will. But 
.they came at length; and before proceeding further, we shall do well, perhaps to 
enumerate the nations which co-operated with us, and filled with specimens of their 
industry, the eastern wing of the Crystal Palace. 

France and Austria stood first in the number of their contributions, although Prussia 
carried off the palm in sculpture, with Kiss's vigorous poetical Amazon, already de- 
scribed. We had also Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, Holland, and Belgium ; the Hanse 
lowns and Northern States of Germany; several of the minor states of the Zollverein 
Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemburg; the republics of Switzerland; the kingdoms of Piedmont 
and Sardinia; Tuscany; and the Papal States. The kingdom of Naples alone, to the 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 49 

eternal disgrace of her government, refused to have any share in contributing to the 
universal mart, and therefore tacitly declined to rank among civilized nations. Then 
came Russia, Spain, and Portugal; Mahommedan Turkey, Egypt, Persia, and Tunis; 
Pagan Western Africa, and the converted islanders of the Pacific. The American Con- 
tinent answered us from New Granada, Mexico, Peru, Brazil j and, although last, not 
leasts the United States aided us in this great work. In addition to our foreign friends, 
whom courtesy compels us to name first, our colonies and dependencies, of which many, 
although much talked of, are less known to us than foreign states, made up a gobdly 
array. Among these, Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, corn and timber-bearing, 
held a foremost rank, grouped with the barren sheep-'walks of the Cape ; the great 
emigration-fields of New South Wales, Port Phillip, and South Australia, famous, too, 
for minerals ; Van Diemen's Land, the alpine island of Australasia ; New Zealand, the 
most romantic, healthy, and unprofitable of all our settlements; Bermuda; where the 
name of the chairman of the Executive Committee will ever be revered as the re-intro- 
ducer of agriculture and horticulture. The Bahamas^ famed for pine-apples, turtle, and 
shells; many West Indian islands; and St. Helena, chiefly remembered as the prison- 
house of a great captive ; Ceylon, also, and the fortress of Malta, joined for that time 
together. Ceylon is prolific in fibrous materials, many of which may be well employed 
as substitutes for flax and hemp. Some of these were shown in the raw and manu- 
factured state. The earthenware of the Cingalese is more curious than valuable ; the 
art of pottery with them being, in all probability, not more advanced than in the time 
when Ptolemy and the Arabian navigators first visited 

" The utmost Indian isle, Taprobane." 

The same remark will apply with equal truth to their agricultural and manufacturing 
implements. The Cingalese women may still be seen grinding their corn, " two at one 
stone," as described in Scripture. The bows and arrows employed by the wild Veddahs 
of the Ouvah and Bintenne districts, in the hunting of deer and buffaloes, were 
remarkable for little beyond their simplicity and diminutiveness. The coffee, the cinna- 
mon, and the cocoa-nut of Ceylon, are articles well known in the commercial world ! 
they are equal, if not superior, to the production of any other country. There were also 
to be found models of the buildings, machinery, and implements employed in coffee 
plantations in Ceylon. Models of the Cingalese fishing-canoes, of very singular and 
beautiful construction, nnlike those of any other country, were displayed with their nets 
and gear on a proper scale. First, in value and importance, were specimens of cinnamon, 
a spice highly prized from long antiquity, and peculiar to the " utmost Indian isle." 
Java has in vain attempted to produce cinnamon that should rival the fine spice of Gey- 
Ion, and the rough coarse bark grown on the Malabar coast cannot be compared with it. 
Cinnamon is the bark of the Laurua cinnamomi, freed from its outer cuticle, and removed 
from the sticks in long narrow slips : these pieces of bark are rolled into pipes or gwiWs, 
in layers of three or four, and are dried gradually first in the shade, and then in the sun. 
A cinnamon plantation of 800 acres will produce annually 400 bales of spice, of lOOlbs. 
each. The present consumption of cinnamon of Ceylon growth is about 3,500 bales per 
annum, of which not more than the 500 are used in this country ; the remaining 8,000 
are taken chiefly by France, Spain, and South America. Of far more recent date, 
though equally important as an article of commerce, is coffee. Twenty years ago, the 
Caffea Arabica was scarcely known in Ceylon. It was not until the years 1833 and 
1834 that a very few Europeans commenced the cultivation of the coffee-bush. There 
are. now 300 estates, comprising 50,000 acres of land, all under coffee ; the shipments 
amounting to 350,000 cwt. annually. This article is all grown inland, at various alti- 

o 



50 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

tudes, the best being from the highest estates. Coir fibre and rope is made from the 
outer husk of the cocoa-nut : the kernel of the nut yielding a most useful oil by pres- 
sure, which is exported to Europe in large quantities. Paddy is rice with its natural 
skin upon it, and in this state is given to all sorts of cattle and poultry. The rice of 
Ceylon is not nearly so fine as that brought to this country from Carolina and Bengal, 
but it has very nutritious qualities, and the Cingalese and many Europeans prefer it to 
any other description. The woods of Ceylon are scarcely inferior to those of any other 
country, and exist in great variety. There are upwards of four hundred kinds, of which 
one-half are employed for a variety of purposes, the remainder being useless. The 
ornamental woods are ebony, calamander, satin, cocoa-nut, peyimbeya, teak, tamarind, 
jack, palmyra, &c. The most abundant of the woods used for house and ship-building, 
of which specimens were sent, were halmanilla, teak, morotto, dawete, mangoe, keena, 
hall, and horra. Besides coir, there are several fibrous substances in Ceylon, capable oi 
being turned to useful purposes. Amongst those forwarded to the Exhibition were 
fibres, both in their natural and prepared state, from the pine-apple, hibiscus plantain, 
S.anseveira zelonica, and Adam's needle. There were a number of gums and resins 
unknown in this country, most of which are employed medicinally by the native practi- 
tioners. Besides these, a collection of medicinal plants, roots, and seeds, in a dried state, 
were found. Many of them possess valuable properties, well known in Ceylon, in the 
removal of fever, dysentery, liver complaint, and cholera. The Dutch and Cingalese 
doctors seldom have recourse to any but vegetable medicines* and these are often found 
to succeed where European remedies have failed. The collection was forwarded by Mr. 
T. Piries, of Kandy. 

Under the head of Machinery, Implements, &c, we found three models of the various 
works and their fittings, as employed on coffee estates. First, there was the pulping- 
house, with its pulpers, cisterns, &c, for removing the outer red husk of the coffee berry, 
and afterwards washing the mucilage from it. Next was the stove, and moveable trays • 
running on wheeled platforms, whereon the washed coffee is exposed to the sun in its 
inner covering of parchment-skin. When thoroughly dried to a flinty hardness, the 
berries are removed to the adjoining building, the peeling-house, where a pair of 
copper-covered wheels are revolving in a circular trough, under which the parchment 
rapidly breaks, and becomes detached from the coffee beans. Near these we observed 
another model of a stove for curing coffee. This was of peculiar construction, and 
fitted up according to a process which had been patented by the ^ingenious inventor, 
Mr. Clershew, of the Rathongodde estate. It was formed on the principle of curing 
the coffee whilst in the parchment, by means of a current of hot air, to be used during 
weather when out-of-door drying would be impossible. 

The models of Cingalese palanquins might be regarded rather as curiosities than as 
specimens of fine work. Too much praise, however, can scarcely be accorded to the 
construction of the three Cingalese boats, which were unique, not only as specimens of 
handicraft, but as models of very singular and beautiful vessels. The long sailing canoe, 
to be fully admired, should be seen in full sail when going at a speed of fourteen miles 
the hour; which it frequently does. The flat-bottomed fishing dhoney, with its nets and 
accoutrements, was a very pretty thing. The large dhoney was such as is employed in 
the coasting trade of Ceylon, for the transport of rice, tobacco, salt, betel-nuts, &c. : they 
vary in size from 30 to 200 tons ; and not the least singular feature about them is, that 
not one iron nail is used in their build, nothing but wooden pegs and coir string 
holding the planks and beams together. The plough, harrow, and rake of the Cingalese 
agriculturist attested the little improvement effected in their operations, which have, 
no doubt, remained unchanged during the last 1,800 years. 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 51 

Amongst the manufactured articles, the most attractive was, undoubtedly, a table and 
stand of ebony, richly carved, and beautifully inlaid with the many-tinted woods of 
Ceylon. We also noticed a desk composed of porcupine quills, a carved ebony box, an 
ivory stand in imitation of a cocoa-nut blossom, and some other trifles. These formed 
but a tithe of what might have been exhibited, had time permitted. There were some 
rather grotesque specimens of native pottery, the only one worthy of notice being a 
painted teapot used by the King of Kandy. There were a number of specimens of 
cordage, &c, woven from the fibres previously named ; also a pretty Kandian mat, and 
several ornaments displayed by the Kandian kings on state occasions, made from fibres, 
and dyed with indigenous roots. The Veddah bows and arrows were such as are actually 
employed in the present day by a wild and almost unknown race of Cingalese, in the 
pursuit of deer, buffaloes, and wild boars. This singular caste of aborigines dwell entirely 
amongst rocks, or perched in trees like monkeys, living chiefly on roots, seed, and a little 
deer or buffalo flesh. The manufactured oils of Ceylon were numerous, though most 
of them are at present unknown in this country. They may be divided into medicinal 
and commercial. Many of the former are said to possess valuable properties, yet, with 
the exception of the castor oil, they are not known to any but native practitioners. 
These were forwarded by Mr. Piries, of Kandy. Of the oils of commerce, the cocoa- 
nut, cinnamon, lemon-grass, citronella, and kekuna are tolerably well known, the first 
being highly useful for burning in lamps ; the second is chiefly employed in medicine and 
confectionary. Arrack is a spirit distilled from the fermented juice of the cocoa-nut 
tree, called toddy, and has long been known in England as forming the chief ingredient 
of Vauxhall punch. The sample sent was very curious, having been upwards of thirty 
years in bottle, and coming originally from the cellar of the last Dutch governor of 
Ceylon. 

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM CANADA. 

By crossing the breadth of the avenue we travelled from Ceylon to Canada, and 
were within sight of the Cape of Good Hope, Van Diemen's Land, and the produce 
of the three Australian colonies of New South Wales, Port Phillip (or Victoria), and 
South Australia. Canada made the best display, as was to be expected from the 
energetic character of the people, the means they had of obtaining early intelligence, of 
conveying their goods to this country, and obtaining the cooperation of the governor, 
the earl of Elgin, and their local authorities. The Canadians held a preliminary exhibi- 
tion of native produce, and selected from that exhibition the best, as specimens of raw 
produce and manufactures. The most prominent object was a fire-engine from Montreal, 
which carried off the first prize at the Canadian exhibition of industry, and was sent, 
by subscription among a few patriotic Canadians, to show what the mechanics of that fine 
colony could do. As a carriage, it was extremely handsome. The panels were adorned 
with paintings of Canadian scenery, views of a great fire at Montreal, the principal 
churches, banks, and other public buildings, and figures of an Indian in snow shoes 
in winter costume, of a fireman, &c, executed with a spirit and feeling of reality which 
raised them above the class of ordinary coach-painting. The body was of copper, from 
the rich copper mines of Lake Superior, lined with wood. The tool-box was of mahogany. 
The mechanical arrangements seemed good, and the finish of both the wood and metal 
work was most creditable to Canadian workmen. It was followed by a hose-box on 
two wheels, to carry 300 feet of hose, and weighed altogether 25 cwt. It would pump 
up water from a depth of 27 feet; and according to the statement of the gentleman who 
manufactured it, would throw 170 feet high from 300 feet of hose. Fire-engines 
throughout both British and republican America are drawn by men, and not by horses. 



52 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

They are usually the property of young men associated into voluntary companies, who 
take great pride in adorning their respective engines. Hence the profusion of painting 
and other ornamental decorations. Over the fire-engine was suspended a canoe of white 
birch, which presented no espeeial difference from canoes we have seen a hundred 
times, except its size ; but this canoe was actually paddled 3,000 miles of lake and river 
navigation, with a crew of twenty, men, before being placed on board a steamer for 
England. It was the same description of canoe employed by the Hudson's Bay Com. 
pany in> their annual journeys to the vast preserves of fur-bearing 1 animals under their 
command. We should have been pleased if it had been accompanied by one of the 
voyageurSi whose gay costume, and songs, and semi-savage manners, have been described 
in the book of Sir George Simpson, late resident governor of Hudson's Bay, or as it 
is now officially named, Rupert's Land, and several North American travellers. A piano, 
a large French bedstead, a set of tables and chairs, all elaborately carved out of Canadian 
black walnut, next came under our notice, as remarkable specimens of a wood as yet little 
known in this country. In colour, size, beauty of grain, and polish, it was equal, if not 
superior to the best specimens of French and Italian walnut. A slab, which formed part 
of the Canadian trophy in the central avenue, was cut from a tree which made 2?,000 
feet of available timber. The workmanship of this furniture, although very fair, offered 
nothing remarkable for praise or blame. We liked the emblematic beavers carved found 
the edge of the table; but' not the Same animals crawling like rats on the cross bars of 
the legs. Among the chairs were a set unpolished, and fashioned after some introduced 
into America by the earliest settlers. It was reported that her majesty had condescended 
to accept them. One Canadian gentleman was under the impression that the originals 
had been imported from England in the sixteenth, century, by Sebastian Cabot ; but that 
is unlikely, because, although Cabot discovered Labrador, there is no evidence that he 
formed any settlement in Canada at all. The originals are probably of French origin, 
and not older than the time of Louis Quatorze. Around the fire-engine were arranged 
a set of Canadian sleighs. The white one was a cutter for one horse ; the next, an 
elegant long carriage of very graceful curves, was a tandem sleigh ; the largest was for a 
pair or four horses, and was made after the fashion approved by the Military Tandem 
Club. With the sleighs, we must notice a set of harness that hung on the wall, the 
saddles covered with bells, and adorned with pendent plumes of blue horse-hair : white 
plumes of the same material were arranged to wave from brass spikes between the ears 
of the prancing horses. On a bright winter's day we can imagine no prettier sight 
than the whole turn-out, with its blood horses, ringing bells, fair ladies wrapped in furs, 
and dashing fur-wrapped driver, careering across the hard snow or the sounding ice of 
a frozen river. Furs, skins, horns, and Indian curiosities filled up the interstices of the 
Canadian collection. The head and wide-spreading horns of a gigantic moose, or elk 
might be compared with the European variety of the same species, from the Lithuanian 
forests, exhibited in the Russian section. 

Before we quit Canada, however, we must not omit to make mention of the enormous 
Canadian timber-trophy, and of the importance of the timber trade in this valuable 
colony. The Canadas are almost entirely divided by the Ottawa or Grand river, which 
forms the great highway of the timber trade, on which from eight to ten thousand men 
are constantly employed ; an army waging continual war with the denizens of the 
forests. The white and red pine have as yet formed the chief timber exports of Canada 
which are floated on. immense rafts down the Ottawa and the St. Lawrence, a distance of 
from six to seven hundred miles, to Quebec. A single raft frequently has a surface of 
three acres, and appears at a distance like some landslip, or island, huts and all sailinsr 
down the river ; broad thm boards serve for sails. Some of the white pines yield planks 




SLEDGE FROM THE CANADIAN COURT 




SLEDGE FROM THE CANADIAN COURT 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 53 

five feet in breadth, and the largest red pine will give eighteen-inch square logs as much 
as forty feet long. Of the pine order was the hemlock, a ship's futtock of which was 
shown in the trophy ; and close by it was a thick plank of a beautifully-feathered and 
highly polished dark wood, from the fork of a black walnut. The tree from which this 
plank was obtained was a hero of the forest, probably of more than a thousand years' 
growth. Its circumference at the ground measured 37 feet. The whole tree was cut 
up into 23 logs, and yielded more than 10,000 feet of timber. Another furniture wood 
in the trophy was the curled maple, little inferior to satin wood. A bird's-eye maple 
veneer was also shown. The other timbers in the trophy were more generally known. 
The last however we noticed was a little log near the floor, with light edges and a dark 
centre, marked ironl wood, — of no earthly use, said our native informant, " It won't 
float, it's the contrariest wood in creation ; if you want a straight piece, and half break 
your heart with hard work to get it, it will twist itself crooked in no time, and if you 
mark out a crooked piece, as sure as sunshine it will stretch out as straight as a line ; 
it's as hard as iron and as heavy as lead, and as obstinate and cranky as an old mule, 
and never worth either letting grow or cutting down." We have a word of advice, in 
view of this timber trophy, to give our Canadian friends ; it is, that they begin to build 
ships of their better woods. Their firbuilt craft stand but four years A. 1. on Lloyd's 
list. They do right well to send a cargo of timber to England to help to pay their cost, 
but are not profitable afloat. We have to face the world now with our ships. Canada 
has no longer any advantage, and can only hold her place in ship-building, whether for 
sale or trade, by aiming to build as seaworthy and durable vessels as the Northern and 
United States. Cheap run-up ships are the dearest in the end ; try, therefore, your 
walnut, red oak, hemlock, and rock elm, and use the pine only where pine is best, and 
where first-class vessels- use it. 

The total value of the export of timber from Canada in 1849 was £1,327,532, of which 
not less than £1,000,000 worth came to England. 

AUSTRALIAN CONTRIBUTIONS. 

The colonies of Australia, although among the most important of our possessions as 
producers of raw materials required for our staple manufactures, as large consumers 
of our manufactures, and as great fields for emigration, had nothing very new or very 
showy to exhibit. New South Wales, Port Phillip, and South Australia, all sent barrels 
of fine wheat and flour, which were satisfactory as proving that the intending colonist 
might depend on cheap bread in those distant regions. Australian wool and tallow : are 
to be seen in such quantities in the warehouses of London and Liverpool, that we need 
not dwell on those great and annually increasing sources of wealth. The timber, 
although much of it was good, especially from Van Diemen's Land, and some specimens 
very ornamental, is not likely to become an article of commerce with this country. 
The distance is too great to enable it to stand the competition of countries nearer at 
hand. Van Diemen's Land sent the jaws of a sperm whale — another source of colonial 
wealth — often hunted down from the shores of that island. 

South Australia supplied specimens of the rich copper mine of Burra Burra, which 
restored the fortunes of that colony, and rendered it one of our most flourishing 
possessions, at a time when, under the ruinous results of an empirical system of land- 
jobbing and colonization, it had sunk into the lowest state of depression and stagnation : 
abandoned by men of enterprise or means, it was on the point of becoming a mere sheep 
walk. It is a curious fact, that although the copper exports of South Australia exceed 
a quarter of a million sterling per annum, no copper mine in that colony has paid a 
dividend except the Burra Burra, but that pays 1,500 per cent. On the walls of the 

r 



54 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

South Australian section hung a set of clever water-colours, representing the country 
round this Aladdin's lamp of a copper-mine, and various Australian scenes, bullocks in 
drays and stockmen riding after cattle, Qn the wall appropriated to New South Wales, 
was a beautiful view of Camden, where Macarthur first introduced the finerwoolled sheep, 
which has proved a living mine of wealth to the whole continent of Australia. Our 
colonial brethren, who know well how they are appreciated in the City, will excuse us 
from dwelling on sources of greatness which are more felt than seen : there is nothing 
picturesque in a sack of wheat, though the grain be " heavy and bright-coloured '," there 
is nothing interesting in a tin of preserved Australian beef, excellent though it be, unless 
to a hungry man ; little variety of " tone or colour" in a fleece fine enough to make 
the fortune of a Yorkshire manufacturer ; and, as for copper ore, the worst specimens are 
often the most sparkling. Bottles of Australian wine informed those who were before 
ignorant, that wine is as easily grown in that country as cider is here. 

There was a melancholy tribute paid in the Van Diemen's Land department to its. now 
extinct aborigines. In our forty-years' possession of that settlement we have utterly 
destroyed them, by as atrocious a series of oppressions as ever were perpetrated by the 
unscrupulous strong upon the defenceless feeble. Yet these poor people had tastes and 
industry too. Their bread appears to be worth reviving as a new trufBe fqr soup by the 
gourmands of Hobart Town. The specimens of the root exhibited weighed l4lbs. They 
obtained a brilliant shell neeklace by soaking and rubbing off the cuticle, and gained 
various tints by hot decoctions of herbs. They procured paint by burning iron ore, and 
reducing it to a powder by grindstones. They converted sear-shells and sea-weeds into 
convenient water- vessels ; they wove baskets, and they constructed boats with safe 
catamarans. All these things were exhibited, Surely, then, the men whom their 
greedy supplanters admit to have done this, and whom the least possible pains ever 
bestowed on them proved to be capable of much more, ought not to have been hunted 
down, as we know they were, and then almost inveigled to be shut up in an island 
too small for even the few remaining. 

The New South Wales contributions offered no sign of the aborigines' works, and 
probably the country contains no longer any trace of the people. As Newfoundland 
contributors do not pretend to an interest in the works of the lost people who onpe 
inhabited it, New Brunswick seemed to have nothing to show but the pretty models of an 
Indian family, the kindness of whose character was attested by having protected two 
maiden ladies, whose father emigrated from the United States after the American war 
and settled among the tribe some seventy years ago. The remnants of the Indians 
and the remains of the royalists must have had many subjects of sympathy, and many 
feelings in common, to have maintained so long a career of mutual respect, The whole 
amount of aboriginal articles exhibited was much smaller than it would certainly have 
been, but for circumstances deserving of notice. Of late years the political condition of 
the aborigines connected with various civilized nations, has been a subject more than 
usually interesting to the public. The emancipation of our negro slaves in 1834 havin°- 
in a great measure settled that question, the attention of puilanthropis,ts was free to 
be directed to the persecutions suffered by the aborigines of our colonies. This was an 
extensive inquiry, and some reforms took place, Then a reaction occurred j until at 
length the old laiv of force and oppression extensively recovered its influence In this 
state of things the Exhibition was planned, upon the principle pf an universal invitation 
pf the nations of the earth to bring specimens of their industry and art under a common 
inspection. The commissioners made no exceptions; but it was impossible that thev 
should grant a privilege, or any special advantage, even to the least favoured in actual 
condition. The collection of articles to be exhibited was necessarily left to the cost and 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. B3 

activity of the contributors and their various supporters. France was to take care of her 
people, Germany of hers, America of hers. The peculiar claims of the less advanced 
aborigip.es fpr aid were discussed; but all that could be done was carefully to make 
known in various quarters that the Exhibition would be open to them. The result has 
been, that the same circumstances which render them inferior to civilized men in 
accumulated property and in acquired knowledge, have operated to leave their show of 
industrial development in the Exhibition somewhat meagre, whatever equality of capacity 
may be conceded to them, and however acute their natural intelligence. 

The Cape of Good Hope sent one article deserving special notice — the ivory of an 
elephant's trunk, of 163 lbs., which must be a fine specimen. Ivory is chiefly bought of 
the natives ; and, from Mr. Gordon Cumming's account o| his own trading, its mystery 
may be interpreted to mean extraordinary hard dealing on our part. He had carried 
into the interior muskets, for twenty of which he had paid £l&, apd obtained ivory in 
exchange at a profit of 3,000 per cent., which, as be was informed by merchantmen, 
was " a very fair profit." To he surej the manner in which the blapk chief, of whom, he 
bought the ivory, had obtained it, by oppression inflicted pn the JJushmen vho killed 
the elephants, invites little consideration for that chief; but the whole story furnishes 
a fresh argument in favour of the civilization which we, consumers of this beautiful 
product of the desert, are bound to use all means to substitute for its existing barbarism. 
The South African assortment of karQS?e$, or cloaks made of the skins of wild animals 
skilfully dressed, ostriph feathers, and ivory, represented the aboriginal produce, for which 
the Cape traders carry intp the wilderness to the native tribes, beads of many colours 
and sizes, brass and copper wire, knives and hatchets, clothing, guns, ammunition, &e. 



CHAPTER IX. 

KTTMBEB 01 VISITOBS — SOLIDITY Or THE BUILDrarG^AMTJSEMEJTTS^OBGAlfS— PIANO EOBTES-?- 

BEES— MOONLIGHT EEEECT. 

We have promised our readers that, in the record of our retrospective visits to the Crystal 
Palace, we shpuld depart from the dull routine of ordinary description — the methodical 
precision of the pedant, who never leaves a subject till he has hunted it fairly down, till 
he has exhausted the patience of his listeners in never-ending disquisition on every 
possible variety, from class A to class %, that in all imaginable profusion, culled from 
every quarter "of the glphe, was crowded within the bounds of the fairy structure. We 
shall, for a short period, altogether leave the contemplation of these matters, and revert 
to a renewed admiration of the building itself; its extraordinary lightness, both aerial 
and architectural, it? matchless solidity and strength, and its wonderful adaptation for 
the reception of the selected treasures pf the whole earth, as well as of the congregated 
thousands of its inhabitants that erpwded, in dailyrincreasing numbers to gaze upon and 
enioy them. Indeed, the human tide that, from the very day of the opening of the 
jbullding— from the 1st of May, 1851,— an epoch that will be celebrated in every future 
age— flowed with increasing force into the interior of the palace, was greater than even 
the most sanguine expectation had anticipated; every week the numbers rose to a 
higher figure, every week the stream of wealth that flowed into its exchequer was more 
deep and copious. It was at one time proposed to limit the number of visitors to 60,000 
but the continual tramp of these 60,000 shopk not in the slightest degree the solidity oi 



86 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

the building; the galleries, the stairs, the floors, were all as buoyant, as elastic as ever; 
and, although full and free limit was finally afforded to as many thousands more as 
chose to enter, still there was " ample verge and space enough," and the fairy structure 
stood unshaken and unharmed. From the country the rural population, in many 
instances headed by their pastor, or their chief magistrates, came in admiring throngs, 
clad in their smock-frocks, "all lily-white," thronged the agricultural departments, 
and took their fill of wonder and delight; the population of our manufacturing towns 
besieged, en masse, the departments of mechanic art and invention, and greedily 
devoured the mental feast that was presented to their eager gaze. The very schoolboys, 
too, and youthful maidens, had their holiday trip within these precincts, which often 
resounded to their clamorous and innocent mirth, and re-echoed to the sound of 
castanets, and merry feet that beat the ground in jocund hilarity. 

In the meanwhile, to delight the more imaginative ear, at stated intervals the solemn 
organ, from various parts of the edifice, breathed its magnificent harmonies around, for 
there were several of these noble instruments within its walls. The most celebrated 
among them, the Leviathan, which reared its lofty structure at the western end of the 
gallery, was of the largest class of church organs, and its size and extent may be judged 
of from the synopsis which we shall give of its contents. It was built by Mr. Willis, 
a young London organ-builder, who doubtless sought to make his fame by this great 
effort; and he certainly deserved high praise fpr the boldness and spirit of his enterprise, 
by which the Exhibition was put in possession of a specimen of far greater magnitude 
and costliness than it would otherwise have boasted. The instrument referred to, which 
was constructed somewhat after the German model, had three rows of keys (or claviers) 
— the great organ, the choir organ, and the swell, the compass of each being from C C 
(in the bass) to G in alt., 56 notes. It had two octaves and-a-half of pedals ; and seven 
coupling stops, by means of. which the three rows of keys could be united in various ways, 
and the pedals brought to act on each of the three claviers at pleasure. The pedal 
organ contained 14 stops, the total number of pipes being 576. The great organ had 
20 stops, numbering in all 1,456 pipes. The choir organ, consisting of 14 stops, con- 
tained 760 pipes. The swell organ, with 22 stops, commanded 1,682 pipes. The total 
number of stops, including couplers, was 77 ; of pipes, 4,474. This organ had the 
application of the pneumatic valve, the invention of Mr. Barker, and first applied, we 
believe, by Mons. Cavaille, the French organ-builder. The effect of this movement was 
to lighten the touch, which, in instruments of great magnitude on the old system, was 
usually so deep and heavy as to fatigue and distress the player, and render difficult or 
impossible any passages "of rapid execution. With the pneumatic valve, however, the 
touch of the largest organ is rendered almost, as facile and agreeable as that of a piano- 
forte. The principle consists in connecting with the movement of each key a small reser- 
voir, into which, on the pressure of the key, the wind rushes from the main bellows of 
the instrument with such force as to relieve the finger of the performer from that effort 
which would otherwise be necessary. The same principle has been also applied by Mr. 
Willis to the mechanism for drawing the stops, which, in addition to the old method of 
registers placed on each side of the performer, he effects by means of little brass knobs 
placed over the keys, so that the player may, by an instantaneous touch of his thumb, 
while playing, effect the desired change. The organ was what is technically termed a 
32-feet instrument, which signifies that the deepest-toned pipe is nominally 32 feet in 
length— giving the note which the Germans distinguish as C C C C, in other wordsj two 
octaves lower than the fourth string of a violoncello. Besides the English organs, of 
which there were several remarkable specimens, there were two of foreign manufacture 
and of considerable magnitude, one from Germany, the other from Prance. The former 




Engraved "by G. GTcat'bach.iitHE aDrawmg TryTf. Tarnlmsan 



REGISTERED PIANOFORTE WITH IMPROVED JOINT 

MANUFACTURED BY J BRINSMEAD. 




WALNUT-TREE WOOD _ COTTAGE PIANOFORTE 

MANUFACTURED BY J ALLISON 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 57 

was the work of Herr Schulze, of Rudolstadt. It had 16 stops, two rows of keys and 
pedals, and was suitable for a church or chapel of moderate size. Some of the stops, par- 
ticularly the flutes and the labial metal stops, were of very good quality, having that 
peculiarly plaintive .tone which is scarcely ever, met with but in the German organs. 
The chorus or mixture stops, as in most .German instruments, were somewhat shrill and 
harsh to English ears. The French organ was well placed in the main avenue, and stood 
in an oak case, some 30 feet or more in height. It was the production of Monsieur 
Ducroquet, of Paris, and contained 20 stops, two rows of keys, and two octaves of pedals. 
Mr. Barker's pneumatic valves were also applied here, and the mechanism generally 
appeared to be exceedingly good. , The :quality of the instrument was also worthy of 
praise — being brilliant without harshness in its full ; power, and delicate but not feeble 
in its solo stops. The reeds (for which the French have long been' celebrated), were of 
excellent quality. In addition to the soul-entrancing symphonies that were poured forth 
by this king of instruments, the more brilliant notes of the piano, touched by a master- 
hand, failed not to draw a crowd of delighted listeners within the magic sphere of its 
influence, and imparted a sort of ; drawing-room festivity to the place,' graced as it was 
with the loveliest forms of beauty, arid . fashion, and adorned with' every object that the 
combined efforts of science, of industry, and of art, could lavish to enhance its perfection, 
and support its unrivalled claim to the admiration it elicited from all quarters of the 
globe. We will here pause awhile, and allow our readers to indulge their imagination 
in a retrospect of the pleasures they doubtless enjoyed in their visits to this renowned 
temple of industry and art; for who, save and except the gallant and eccentric legislator, 
whose sayings and whose doings the inimitable Punch has delighted to record and to 
celebrate — who, we ask, that could command " a splendid shilling," failed to pay their 
respects to the Crystal Palace. Distance, however remote, presented no obstacle to the 
adventurous traveller; perils by land and sea were disregarded, mountains were scaled, 
deserts passed over, and the unfathomable deep was crowded with sails. Even extreme 
old age, and crippled infirmity, found ways and means to enter and enjoy the sight. 
"Witness the marvellous old dame, from Cornwall, we believe, who, past her hundredth 
year, travelled up to town, and paced with willing feet through the various intricacies of 
the place, and gratified her aged eyes in beholding wonders, such as in her juvenile days 
had never been even dreamed of in the wildest flights of the most extravagant imagina- 
tion. Tender infants, too, in maternal arms, were carried about, that in after times they 
might be able to say that they, too, had been within the walls of the wonder of the 
world. The scene, however, was not altogether an idle one. Industry on an extensive 
scale in the midst of. all this mirth, bustle, and enjoyment, was steadily going on in 
more than one part of the immense fabric. Let not our readers be startled, when they 
are gravely assured, that an extensive manufactory of two of the most useful articles in 
domestic life was in full progress, -perfecting its produce Without hands, though not with- 
out living impulse— that more than 200,000. little animated beings were diligently 
engaged in their occupation, an occupation which man/with all his chymic lore, cannot 
imitate, uninterrupted by all the noise and confusion around them, and joining to the 
"busy hum of men," their own industrious murmur— that winged face, in short, which, 
as Milton beautifully relates — 

« when the sun with Taurus rides 

Pour forth their populous youth about the hive 
In clusters; they among fresh dewsand flowers 
• • Fly to and fro, or on the smoothed plank, 

The suburb of their ,straw-built' citadel, . 
New rubbed with balm, expatiate and confer 
Their state affairs :" *-:'*:. -.....:• 



58 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

There were indeed several interesting contributions of bees and beehives, and contri- 
vances for securing swarms, not only from various parts of the United Kingdom, but 
also from France, Germany, and the United States of America. Among the most 
interesting were those of Mr. Milton and Mr. Neighbour. The inhabitants of Mr. 
Milton's " mansion of industry," which, with his " Royal Alfred hive," and the " unicomb 
hive," occupied a large space close to the wall of the north transept gallery, the whole 
being enclosed in a large glass case, forming, in fact, a very fine apiary, consisted of four 
swarms of bees, the first of which was hived on the 20th of July, 1850; the second and 
third on the 23rd of the same month, and the fourth on the 31st. As hiving the bees 
after swarming is one of the operations which requires the greatest care and attention 
on the part of the bee-keeper, it may be as well to mention the mode adopted by Mr. 
Milton, of successively hiving the four swarms of bees within a few days of each other, 
and uniting the whole together, " without any trouble or fighting about queens/' the 
immense population, amounting, according to Mr. Milton, as we have before stated, to 
200,000 strong, continued to work harmoniously together, after a residence of nearly four 
months in their apparently close quarters. The first of these swarms came out about 
three o'clock on the 20th of July, as above, and was immediately secured or hived 
in a wooden box, which was left in' a shady place until eight o'clock in the evening, when 
it was removed to its intended position. The two swarms, which came out on the 23rd 
of July, were each hived in a common straw hive, and at eight o'clock at night a cloth 
was spread on the ground near to the box-hive, a brick being placed on the cloth, on 
which to rest one of the sides of the box, for the purpose of admitting the bees into 
the box. After being tumbled altogether into the cloth by a smart rap on the brick 
with one edge of the hive, the other swarm was treated precisely in a similar manner; 
both swarms were speedily underneath the box, which was left undisturbed till the 
following morning, when it was put back again to its proper position in the apiary. 
On the 31st of the same month the same process was performed with the fourth swarm. 
Contiguous to Milton's mansion of industry was the " Royal Alfred hive," named after 
his Royal Highness Prince Alfred, on whose birthday, the 6th of August, 1844, the first 
experiment of placing bees within this newly-formed hive was successfully made. The 
principal novelty in this hive appeared to be the inclined floors, by which the bees could 
easily ascend to any part of the hive, and the dead bees and other refuse, instead of 
remaining, as on level floors, necessarily fell to the bottom, and so were easily removed. 
There were, on the two upper sloping compartments, covered over with flaps hung with 
hinges, three bell glasses in each, which would hold altogether about eighteen pounds 
of honey. By means of windows, the whole of the interior could be inspected from 
time to time, without any risk or annoyance. The bees might be fed either at top or in 
front. Milton's revolving top hive, for which he received the Society of Arts' silver Ceres 
medal in 1846, consisted of a cylindrical case of straw, covered with two boards having 
corresponding holes in each, by turning the upper one of which the openings could be 
closed at pleasure. Bell-shaped glasses were placed on the top above the openings, 
which, when filled, might be readily removed, and fresh glasses substituted. Bees are 
easily hived by this arrangement, by placing the hive from which they are to be removed 
on the revolving board, taking care to leave only one opening, and the bees will severally 
descend into their new habitation without any trouble, the lower hive being prepared 
for their reception by washing its interior walls with a mixture of sugar and beer, or 
other suitable sweet liquor. Mr. Neighbour's apiary consisted of a large glass case, with 
parts of the sides covered with perforated zinc, for the sake of ventilation. This apiary 
also contained three hives : first, Neighbour's ventilating box-hive ; Neighbour's obser- 
vatory glass hive; and a two-storied square box-hive, with sloping roof. From this 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 59 

latter the bees decamped within a week after they had been hived, owing to some 
disturbance, or to the dislike taken by the bees to their new habitation. The ventila- 
ting box-hive was square, and had windows and shutters. The entrance was at the back, 
enabling the bees to go to Kensington-gardens, or other resort. In front, at bottom, 
was a long door hung with hinges, so that all dead bees and refuse could be easily cleared 
away. By means of a perforated metal slide in the floor, ventilation, which some apiarians 
contend for, was effected. Above the wooden box was placed a bell-glass, into which 
the bees ascended to work by means of a circular opening in the top of the square box. 
In the top of the bell-glass was an aperture through which was inserted a tubular trunk 
of perforated zinc, to take off the moisture from within. The observatory hive was of 
glass, with a superior crystal compartment, an opening being formed between the two. 
A straw cover was suspended over the upper compartment by a rope over a pulley, which 
cover was raised up by the attendant at pleasure. The larger or bottom compartment 
rested on a wooden floor, which had a circular sinking therein to receive the bell-glass. 
A landing-place, projecting, with sunken way, to enable the bees to pass in and out, 
completed the contrivance. These exceedingly curious little palaces of industry proved 
a great point of attraction to the labouring population, and drew many a group of 
honest rustics around them, not from England alone, but from other parts of the world 
as well, and much interest was exhibited with respect to the movements of their busy 
inmates. Her Majesty also, and Prince Albert, frequently bestowed their notice on the 
wonderful operations of the gifted little insects, whose undeviating attention to their 
own concerns, in the midst of all the various distraction of sound and sight that sur- 
rounded them, afforded an admirable lesson to those who suffer themselves to be led 
away from the more important concerns of life by petty and unavoidable annoyances. 

In the immense variety of all these different objects of interest that solicited the atten- 
tion of the curious spectator, whether scientific or otherwise, a lover of art, or a mere 
lounger, there was abundance of food to satisfy the appetite of all, and the daily increas- 
ing demand for it served at once to show how vast is the desire for information that 
influences all classes of the people ; and the order and tranquillity that pervaded the 
moving masses, evinced not only their gratitude for the feast that was provided, but the 
great improvement that has taken place in the morals and manners of the lower classes, 
and how easily they may be led to the consideration of topics that are too apt to be 
regarded as belonging exclusively to the privileged few, to whom, through their adven- 
titious advantages of hereditary rank or affluence, they are more readily accessible. The 
whole of every " live-long" day, then, within the walls of the Crystal Palace, was one 
continued scene of movement, bustle, and excitement, from the early dawn, when pre- 
parations were made for the reception of the innumerable guests that were expected to 
be in attendance — first and foremost amongst whom was our own gracious Queen, who 
in her repeated visits to the mighty emporium, may be considered to have gained as 
complete a knowledge of its various contents, as the most inquisitive among her subjects 
— from the hour, we repeat, when the gates were thrown open for the admission of the 
public, till the moment arrived for their final departure, when gradually as the linger- 
ing crowd retired, the continuous buzz arising from so many congregated thousands 
began to subside,— the Crystal Palace presented one unvaried aspect of delighted enjoy- 
ment and innocent festivity ; and when the shades of night at length stole over the 
scene, when the silence was complete, and the moon arose above the trees in the park, 
and shed her pale lustre upon the glittering roof of the building, another picture pre- 
sented itself to the contemplation of the curious spectator, which we shall gratify our 
readers with describing in the eloquent language of the Times, and with which descrip- 
tion we shall close our present chapter. 



60 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE BY MOONLIGHT. 



To those who had seen the interior during the daytime, filled with thousands of specta- 
tors, and agitated by all the bustle of sight-seeing, it was difficult to realize the aspect 
which the same presented when the crowds had departed, when the gates were closed, 
and the police had taken under their entire control that vast collection of the trophies 
of human industry. One could scarcely comprehend the strength of that confidence in 
the law and in the security of property which reconciled 15,000 exhibitors, gathered 
from every civilized country in the world, speaking different languages, and brought up 
under different forms of government, to trust the most valued evidences of their skill, 
their wealth, their enterprise, night after night, to a body of about fifty policemen, paid 
little above the ordinary wages of labour, and armed against dangers from without with 
no weapon more formidable than a baton. A Russian jeweller was the only person we 
heard of as showing any uneasiness in the exercise of this confidence. He wanted to be 
convinced that his diamonds were safe, and accordingly he applied for an order to visit 
them by night. His request was granted, and he soon had a practical test of the watchful 
care taken of his property. Standing in front of his glass case, and satisfying himself 
that all was safe, he happened to turn round, and there to his astonishment he found 
that he had a constable at either elbow, superintending his movements, and by no means 
disposed, from their looks, to take his honesty for granted. We visited the Crystal 
Palace ourselves, but in a less sceptical spirit than the Russian jeweller, and for a 
different purpose. We wished to see the aspect of the interior under the influence 
of a fine clear moonlight, to observe how each object of interest varied in expression 
when looked at through a new medium, to contrast with the bustle and thronging excite- 
ment of the day the effects of silence, solitude, and darkness. Let the reader accompany 
us in our survey, and share in the impressions which it produced. In the centre every- 
thing was plainly revealed ; the pinnacles of the crystal fountain appeared tipped with 
silver, and in the basin below, the ribs and sash-bars overhead and the sky beyond them, 
and portions of the adjacent galleries, and the occasional glimmer of gas-lights, were all 
reflected with marvellous distinctness. An air of solemn repose pervaded the vast area ; 
the very statues seemed to rest from the excitement of the day, and to slumber peaceably 
on their pedestals. Some were enveloped in white coverings, which in the doubtful 
light gaye them a ghostly appearance ; others remained unprotected from the night air, 
and braved exposure to cold as they had already done to criticism. At one point of 
intersection between the nave and transept, Virginius under the flare of a gas-lamp from 
the China compartment, brandished the knife with which he had sacrificed his daughter. 
At another corner, and under a similar dispensation of light from Persia, a cavalier 
leaned upon his sword, and appeared to be calculating the number of people that had 
passed him during the day. Of Turkey and Egypt we could see only at the entrance 
the faint glitter of Damascus blades and of brocaded muslins and trappings. All beyond 
was buried in darkness and mystery. The shades of night, too, fell heavily upon Greece, 
Spain, and Italy, though behind them, through the open girders, gleams of unexplained 
light were seen rising. The zinc statue of the queen rested in grateful obscurity, and 
Lemonniere's jewel-case had cautiously been stripped of its attractions. On the metal 
pipes of Ducroquet's organ some struggling moonbeams played, though without evoking 
any sound. The colossal group of " Cain and his Family" looked well in a gloom which 
seemed suited to his expression of guilt qualified by the traces of human affection. So it 
was all down the eastern nave. The shadows of night, which fell heavily on some 
points, were strangely relieved at intervals by gas, which carried the eye forward over 
intervening objects to those immediately around it. Instead of looking at those things 



OP THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 61 

which lay nearest, attention was directed to distant and out-of-the-way spots, brought 
into prominence by the light streaming upon them. Policemen in list slippers mifht 
occasionally be seen flitting noiselessly to a point whence the strangers might be 
reconnoitred, or suddenly emerging from behind some dark object where they had 
remained for a time cautiously stowed away. If a court was entered, or a divergence 
made to the right or to the left, the quick eyes and the scarcely discernible footfall of 
some member of the force' followed. Over the whole interior a profound silence reigned 
broken only at intervals as the clocks of the building rang out slowly the advancing 
hour Turning towards the western half of the interior, huge envelopes of calico con- 
cealed most of the objects facing the nave, but the large trophies in the centre remained 
uncovered, and looked solemn and grand in the dim neutral light which prevailed The 
Indian shirts of mail and the model prahus of the East were favoured by the beams of 
the moon. The chandeliers of Apsley Pellat and Co. caught the eye in passing and 
glistened as if anxious to have their illuminating properties tested. Glimpses \vere"again 
caught of remote galleries brought into prominence by gas-lamps. In some places light 
shone, though whence it came appeared a mystery. In others there was almost a Cim- 
merian darkness. The contributions to the carriage department were swathed in 
calico, while the gigantic locomotives disdained any covering, and rested in grim repose. 
The activity of mules, spinning-frames, and looms was hushed, the whirl of driving- 
wheels was silent, and amidst the whole of that usually noisy department dedicated to 
machinery in motion, the only sound we heard was that of a cricket chirruping away 
merrily amidst Whitworth's tools. 



CHAPTER X. 
FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DEPARTMENTS— continued. 

FBENCH DEPABTHENT — BAW ABTICLES — LYONS MANTTFACTUBES — SCTTLPTITBE AND FINE ABT 

DEC0BAT1YE ABT FANS — VASES, ETC. ABTIFICLAL FLOWEBS — BELGIAN DEPAETMENT — FUE- 

NITUBE — AEMS — LACE. 

Unquestionably the French collection, next to that of the United Kingdom, was one 
of the most attractive and extensive in the Exhibition. The lengthened and successful 
experience enjoyed by France in exhibitions of national industry, gave to the exhibitors 
an advantage not possessed by the majority of those contributing to the Exhibition, so 
far at least as concerned the arrangement and execution of necessary minor details. No 
class of the Exhibition was left unrepresented by our continental neighbours. The total 
number of exhibitors amounted to about 1,750, and the area they occupied was very 
extensive, both on the north and south sides of the main eastern avenue and in the 
galleries. In raw materials, the beautiful specimens of raw and thrown silk attracted 
universal admiration ; and an interesting specimen of cocoons in the frames, in which the 
silkworms are reared and spin, gave a good idea of the manner in which the culture of 
these insects is carried on. Hemp, wool, and other textile materials, were also interest- 
ing, as well as those more delicate chemical preparations in which the French more 
particularly excel other nations. Specimens also of metals were not wanting, and 
articles of food were largely exhibited. Machinery was likewise displayed in fair propor- 
tion, though here the superiority was decidedly in favour of the British collection of 



63 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

similar objects. Still considerable ingenuity was evinced in philosophical instruments, 
and in various kitchen contrivances; matters, indeed, in which our continental neigh- 
bours have been long accustomed to claim a fair right of precedence. 

Among the manufactures, we are bound to notice as the first in importance, the 
gorgeous productions of the silk-looms of Lyons, which were arranged in cases in the 
gallery. The cotton, wool, and linen manufactures were also interesting, and the skilful 
arrangement of these articles added greatly to their attractiveness. The splendid and 
justly celebrated tapestries of the Gobelins, and of the manufactory of Beauvais, certainly 
formed one of the most interesting features of the whole collection. The manufacture 
of Sevres too, in richness, rarity, and costliness, was unrivalled. Much talent was also 
displayed in the design and execution of useful and ornamental furniture, and a vast 
profusion of articles of bijouterie, virtd, &c, and jewellery were heaped around. Photo- 
graphs, both talbotype and daguerreotype, were exhibited, and various objects of sculp- 
ture and of the fine arts added to the interest of the collection. We would more 
particularly notice among the sculpture, a very masterly group of " Eve," by De Bay, 
exhibited in the Gobelins room, the idea of which struck us as both poetical and 
picturesque, and ably carried out. The first mother appeared to be lost in a reverie as 
to the future destinies of her offspring, the principal incidents of which were fore- 
shadowed to the spectator in the bas-relief sculpturings of the pedestal. All things 
considered, we should be inclined to pronounce this to be one of the finest works of 
sculpture that the Exhibition contained. Some have given it the fanciful title of the 
" First Cradle," or " Nature's Cradle ;" but as that does not do justice to the poetic 
mystery involved in the conception, we prefer the simpler title by which we have denoted 
it. We cannot bestow similar commendation on M. Le Seigneur's colossal group, in 
plaster, of " St. Michael overthrowing the Dragon," which stood in the east nave, a 
specimen of the more exaggerated school, which prevails to an alarming extent amongst 
our French neighbours. Vicious in composition, it disturbed the eye with innumerable 
angular projections. In fine, it had all the vice of ill-studied and incomplete action, 
whilst there was nothing in the character or expression of the principal figure (whose 
costume was absurd) to redeem the more glaring defects of the composition. 

Let us return, however, to the more graceful and lighter productions for which the 
French are so justly celebrated, and which reveal an activity of imagination indicative 
of a highly developed social and. political vitality — a universality of gracefulness in every 
article, for the use even of the poorest, demonstrating the spread of those sentiments 
which make taste a humble luxury for all, if not an indispensable accessory to the enjoy- 
ment of life. Throughout the French compartment no one could fail to notice the 
Protean shapes and styles in which the same objects presented themselves. One Sevres 
vase was oriental : another was antique ; a third recalled the breakfast-table of Mesdames 
Pompadour or Du Barri ; a fourth intimated the Majolica of Guid 5 Ubaldo of Urbino ; 
a fifth recalled the tazze of Jean Courtois or Liotard. One fragment of ornament 
was Pompeian, another pure Italian, another Louis Quinze ; and thus the flowers of all 
time were combined in the modern Parisian bouquet. All this variety of style — spring- 
ing rather from impressions and floating recollections than from any desire to copy 
with servility — bears testimony to the spread of a popular knowledge of the history of 
art ; and it could only become universal in a country in which models of art had been 
popularized through every imaginable variety of graphic reproduction. So long as France 
is likely to retain her title of " Queen of Fashion," so long must she continue to be the 
cleverest adapter and remodeller of old designs. The vivacity of her artists checks any 
approach to fac-simile copying ; and so skilfully are her revivals made, that, while they 
seldom fail to recal a pleasing original type, they yet possess all the freshness of novel 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 63 

and generally appropriate design. Thus, in the ebony cabinet exhibited by Ringuet le 
Prince, the mind was carried back to some of the charming pieces of furniture still to 
be met with here and there in the old palaces of Italy — and yet the whole was com- 
posed and modelled with so much taste and freshness, that no doubt was entertained 
as to the cleverness of the artist, or his merits as an original designer. Again, in Mar- 
celin's imitation of Indian inlaying in minute mosaic work, there was just sufficient 
departure from the original (principally in point of colour) to determine the work to be 
very clever French, instead of oriental. To cite examples of a similar nature would be 
an almost endless labour ; it may suffice generally to notice, as illustrative of the prin- 
ciple, the revivals of enamelling on copper in the Sevres collection — the reproduction of 
the processes of Florentine and Milanese mosaic work by Theret — the examples of 
quasi-Indian embroidery of Billecoq ; and the revivification of the spirit of Ghiberti and 
his Florentine successors in the " bronzes artistiques" of Barbedienne, and many others. 
It is a fact almost peculiar to France, of all the nations of the earth, that there appears 
to be scarcely a style or a process ever naturalized upon her soil which the Frenchman of 
to-day cannot produce in as great or greater perfection than that to which his ancestors 
were wont to carry it. In the stained glass of Gerente, Mareschal, Laurent G'sell, 
Hermanowska., and Lusson, the old glories of Suger and the Sainte Chapelle are still 
transmitted to us. In the productions of Ponssilgne Russand, Villemsens, and Rudolphi, 
the Limoges enamels, with which France supplied the world in the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, are still elaborated with a spirit equal to their prototypes. In the 
royal manufactory at Sevres every variety of preparing and painting enamel on copper, 
which was in use in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, by Leonard Limousin, Jean 
Courtois, Penicault, Luzanne Court, Nouailhier, &c, down to Toutin, and Petitot of 
Bordier, is still performed with a zeal and spirit worthy of the industry and talent of the 
great Limousin. The charming vases, dishes, and figures in " faience," with which the 
indomitable Bernard de Palissy was wont to gladden the eyes of his royal master, the 
great Francis, are reproduced in the highest perfection, by Avisseau. Many a frequenter 
of the old curiosity shops on the Quay Voltaire has been taken in by the modern 
ivory carvings of Normandy, which simulate the the mediaeval retables, triptics, and cars 
de chasse, with a spirit and exactitude calculated to deceive all but the most knowing in 
such matters. Again, in silks and ribbons, and in paper-hangings — while nature 
generally furnishes the base — flowers and other objects are indicated so gracefully, and 
relieved from one another with such delicacy in each case, as to convey no sensation 
of imperfection. It is in the almost universal exercise of a judicious taste, retaining for 
each object its peculiar and appropriate style of treatment, that the great strength of the 
French artist-manufacturers (for so they must be called) consists. Taking, for example, 
so common an object as the rose, how gracefully we shall find its treatment varied ! On 
a Sevres vase it was painted up to nature — or to Constantin (for they are nearly the 
same thing). On a paper-hanging of Mader's, or Delacourt's, a few bold touches of 
" chique" served, at a little distance, to convey almost as perfect an idea of the flower 
as was given by the elaboration of the China painting. The flower transferred to Lyons 
silk was the same in form, but changed in chiar'-oscuro— the dark was gone, and all was 
light and brilliant. On a ribbon of St. Etienne the form was simplified ; delicate white 
lines marked the separation of the rose leaves from each other, and the ultimatum of 
conventionality was attained : carried but one step further, the thing would become a 

meaningless red blot. . ,.,, „ 

To descend to still more graceful trivialities, Duvelleroy has made a specmlite ot tans, 
in the production of which he is perhaps without a rival. His fame extends not only 
over Europe, but has made its way to remote quarters of the globe. Even the Chinese, 



64 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

so famous for their fans, so unwilling to learn, and jealous of change, have copied his 
designs. It would be rather difficult to describe the truly gorgeous fan which this 
celebrated artist has made for the Emperor of Morocco. It is a fan of wonderful 
magnificence, and, to say nothing of the painting and general enrichment, the diamonds 
and jewels alone have cost more than j61,000. He exhibited also a set of fans illus- 
trating the stories of the " Arabian Nights," which had been made to order for the 
Sultan of Turkey. But our present business is with the dventail royal. In this little 
work of art, her Majesty and Prince Albert were represented sitting in the drawing- 
room at Buckingham Palace, surrounded by their royal children, after a picture by 
Winterhalter. The handle was of mother-of-pearl, and the medallions in carved gold. 
In the centre of the handle were the royal arms of England, carved in alto-relievo, in the 
thickness of the mother-of-pearl: the Hon and unicorn supported the 'scutcheon ; and 
the two mottoes, Honi soit qui mal y pense, and Dieu et mon droit, appeared in letters of 
mother-of-pearl on a ground of gold. Each of the radiating branches was terminated 
by a royal crown, and the two principal branches bore, chiselled in the mother-of- 
pearl, and richly gilded, portraits of the Queen and her Royal Consort. We understand 
that M. Duvelleroy employs upwards of two thousand men. This is easily accounted for, 
when we state that he makes fans ; as low as a half-penny each, and that even these have, 
every one of them, to pass through the hands of fifteen workmen. Before we quit the 
French department, which for the present we are about to do, and enter upon that of 
Belgium, we must not omit to notice the display of ornamental and sculptured silver 
by M. Froment-Meurice, which was, taken altogether, the handsomest on the foreign 
side of the Exhibition, some of the works displaying an amount of artistic feeling and 
executive power worthy of the days of Cellini. A very handsome vase was exhibited 
which had been presented by the city of Paris to M. Emmeny, an engineer of eminence, 
to whom the Parisians are largely indebted for their present water supply. The sculpture 
was by Klagmann, and was partly done en repousse, or by punching, and partly cast ; 
the whole richly chased and engraved. The little groups on either side were two out 
of twelve representing the months, or seasons— very elegant little works, about ten inches 
high, and all done en repousse. Another attractive and beautiful object in the French 
department was the case containing Constantin's artificial flowers. We wish we could, 
within our limits, do justice to the exquisite truth and delicacy exhibited by M Con- 
stantin in an art which he may fairly be said, if not to have created, at least to have 
brought to a point of excellence which it had never reached before. We may briefly 
observe, that these productions were hardly to be called artificial flowers, in the every- 
day sense, being in beauty and in almost everything but smell, identical with those of 
nature. Hoses, lilies, hot-house plants, ivies, and endless other varieties, were here before 
us, as it were, m proprid persond, and not always in full bloom, but occasionally repre- 
sented, with most truthful effect, in their way of declining and withering with ♦ he 
canker-worm at the core, and blight upon the face. AU these wonderful realizations 
were produced m one material— cambric ; and very high praise is due to the artist who 
has achieved what he has done with it. 

THE BELGIAN DEPARTMENT. 

In close conjunction with republican France we had the little constitutional kingdom 
of Belgium occupying the bays on both sides, and a portion of the northern galleries 
of the eastern nave, and its contributions included specimens of almost every branch of 
industrial occupation; agriculture, commerce, manufactures, mining, and fine arts were 
all creditably represented. For more than four centuries this flourishing state has 
maintained its manufacturing and agricultural position, notwithstanding the various con- 




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OF- : THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 65 

flicts of which it has 'been the battle-field, of revolutions and political changes which it 
was doomed to undergo, until its final establishment as a limited monarchy. As far 
back indeed as the days of imperial Rome, the Flemish cities were celebrated for their 
manufactured goods. In the' latter part of the fifteenth century, Brussels, 'Antwerp, 
Louvain, and Ghent, employed an immense population in woollen manufactures. Ghent 
alone- had .upwards of 30,000 looms; and the weavers of that city mustered 16,000 
men in arms. Mechlin and Brussels originated the thread lace of inimitable texture : 

" With eager beats his Mechlin cravat moves," 

sung the mellifluous Pope in his celebrated town pastorals, bearing testimony jp the 
undiminished value of that highly prized article in his own time; and the black silk of 
Antwerp still preserves its high renown among the votaries of fashion. With only forty 
miles of coast, and with only two indifferent ports, Belgium struggled through many 
difficulties to establish a foreign trade, which at length her net-work of railroads" 1 enabled 
her to accomplish, and to present to the world the varied exhibition we are about to 
describe. And here we may observe that the arrangement which rendered France and 
Belgium next door neighbours in the Crystal Palace, as they are when' at home, suggests 
a question which the minister of commerce would be-i^ather puzzled to answer. 

Between France and Belgium there is a war of custom-houses and an interchange of 
smugglers, chiefly in the shape of large dogs, which carry Belgian tobacco and lace into 
France, and bring back French silk or some such article. Every French douanier is 
provided with a thick volume of instructions on the art of stopping, seizing, detecting^ 
poisoning, and shooting Belgian smuggler dogs. Nevertheless, day and night — especially 
at, night — large packs of contraband hounds, heavily laden, rush past the bewildered 
officers. Now, when Belgium was part of the French empire, its manufactures, its coal, 
its cattle, its corn, were all freely admitted into France ; nothing was taxed, nothing was 

Srohibited; since the disjunction everything that is not taxed is prohibited, and yet the 
ne of division between the two countries is purely imaginary, and the people who, under 
Napoleon, were free to interchange their goods, must have had just the same wants 
the day after the custom-house division made it unlawful as the day before. Why, then, 
was interchange useful before Napoleon's last campaign, and baneful after his dethrone- 
ment ? But to begin our walk through the Belgian territory in the Crystal Palace. We 
first entered the southern bay, where we found a varied display of textiles of every 
kind, which seemed very little visited by the curious crowd, although, no doubt, our 
manufacturers in the same line gave them "a close examination. There we also found 
the cheap mixed fabrics of woollen and cotton,' the fine kerseymeres in which the Bel- 
gians can undersell our Gloucestershire and West of 'England men ; also capital stout 
canvass and damask linen from districts of Flanders which grew flax and wove linen 
long before Belfast was founded; printed silk handkerchiefs in praise' of, which nothing 
could be said, and woollen shawls of very dull, dowdy patterns.' In this department 
almost every kind of woollen and mixed woollen was to be found. The sides of the next 
section were hung with carpets from the Royal Belgian Manufactory of Tournai, which, 
like the French Gobelins and Beauvais manufactories, is carried on with government 
money. An imposing stand of arms next attracted our attention, evincing the warlike 
disposition of the people; then we passed through a vast collection of saddlery articles, 
of boots also and of shoes, and of sportsmanlike gaiters for the service of those who shoot 
in woodland districts. , The collection of arms was chiefly furnished by Liege, and pre- 
sented specimens of the commonest Brummagem, as well as of the most expensive and 
finished article, both military and sporting. Rifles, too, were there of ;the Swiss fashion, 
over which a paper was affixed, stating that one of the rifles, fired from a rest, at a mark 



66 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

four inches in diameter, at a distance of 110 yards, made 95 hits out of 100. Behind 
these engines of destruction were arranged those subservient to peaceful occupations, 
agricultural and mineral, in all their useful variety, to processes connected with the 
culture and weaving of flax, hemp, and silk, in all their various branches. 

Crossing the grand avenue, we observed several splendid carriages, and a profusion of 
furniture, carved and richly covered with velvet. Two oaken cabinets particularly struck 
us, of a grave and ecclesiastical character, ornamented with figures of angels. On ascend- 
ing to the galleries we found, at the top of the stairs, three figures, of life-size, in 
embroidered ecclesiastical robes, that far outrivalled all the glittering wardrobe to be 
seen at Madame Tussaud's. These represented the Archbishop of Paris, Affre, who was 
killed in the last revolution at the barricades ; St. Carlo Borommeo, an Italian saint 
and archbishop, whose embalmed body, enclosed in a glass-case, we have seen at 
Florence, in the costly chapel dedicated to his memory, enriched with gold and precious 
stones, which is annually opened on a particular day, that the benighted bigots of that 
city may worship at his shrine. Our English Thomas a Becket was the last of these 
worthies that greeted us on mounting the staircase. At a later period of the Exhibition, 
however, the French Archbishop Affre gave place to Fenelon, whose Telemaque was so 
familiar to our schoolboy days ; and the Italian saint, a good man, by the by, had also 
disappeared to make room for another French worthy, but the renowned St. Thomas 
a Becket stood his ground to the last. All these three lay figures, however, for some 
reason or other, wore white gloves, instead of the purple gloves of the archbishop, aud 
the bright scarlet of the cardinal. While examining the embroidery of these robes, 
which the maker warranted to wear a hundred years, and then clean, we found ourselves 
side by side with two gentlemen actually wearing, the one scarlet, and the other purple 
gloves; such were the strange coincidences of the Exhibition! They proved to be 
Cardinal Wiseman and one of his bishops examining the costume of Thomas a Becket ! 

In the same galleries were cases of medals, cameos, bronzes, a shield and dagger, and 
other ornaments richly chased in iron, all displaying very considerable taste and executive 
skill; but, to own the truth, neither statuary, nor lay figures of archbishops, nor the 
large display of Roman catholic works, nor any object connected with art, science, or 
literature, excited half the sensation among the ladies, as did the tempting outspread of 
delicate lace, from Brussels, Mechlin, and other districts, for ages celebrated for its 
production. It was curious to witness the enthusiastic admiration with which the various 
articles of dress, robes, flounces, veils, collars, &c, fabricated out of the fine spun thread 
with more than Arachnean delicacy, were regarded by the numerous female visitors who 
absolutely haunted the enchanted spot, devouring with their eager eyes the coveted spoil • 
while exclamations of the most enraptured delight burst from their ruby lips. This love 
of dress may be considered inherent in the sex; from the unenlightened savage to the 
courtly duchess, all are swayed by its influence. We remember an amusing story by 
Peter Pindar in evidence of its supremacy, in which he relates how on a visit of some 
country female cousins to the great metropolis, when he thought equally to astonish and 
delight them by a first sight of St. Paul's, which was breaking on their view as they 
paced up Lud;gate-hill, the eyes of his fair companions were suddenly attracted by a rich 
display of ribbons, laces, and shawls in a mercer's window, from which no argument or 
inducement held out by the disappointed bard, could for a long time prevail on them 
to withdraw their eager attention. 

The Belgian diapers and damasks, although somewhat coarse, were serviceable and 
of tolerably good design ; we cannot however commend those which had the human 
figure introduced in them; one in particular was intended to represent the king of the 
Belgians on horseback, the effect of which was exceedingly ugly and inappropriate. 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 67 

In the way of machinery, the great establishment at Seraing for the manufacture 
ot steam-engines, and all kinds of machinery, which was founded by Cockerell, under the 
patronage of Napoleon, and afterwards supported with capital by the father of the 
late king of Holland, sent several specimens of heavy work of a respectable character. 
The steadying pace approved of on the Belgian railroads, viz., fifteen miles an hour, 
with sundry stoppages, by no means demands the flying engines we impatient Englishmen 
require. M. Presmany, writing his opinion of England in the Paris journal La Patrie, 
says, " An Englishman never saunters, but always rushes forward like a mad dog." 
Probably the facetious journalist never in his younger days sauntered down Bond-street 
himself; had he done so he might have seen specimens of lounging and idle nonchalance 
quite equal to anything of the kind to be met with on the Boulevards or the Tuilleries 
of his own most delightful capital of fashion, and the dolcefar niente. 



CHAPTER XI. 
FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DEPARTMENTS— continued. 

THE UNITED STATES. 

The number of articles sent from the United States to the Exhibition was neither 
what was expected of them, nor, we believe, did it adequately represent their capabilities. 
There were, nevertheless, many things in their collection which presented features of 
peculiar interest, and which did credit to their industry, ingenuity, and skill. Foremost 
among the articles displayed in this division of the Exhibition were a coach, three or 
four waggons, "a buggy," technically so called, and a trotting "sulkey." We call 
these "foremost," because, both by the prominent place they occupied, and on account 
of the real merit of the vehicles themselves, they were really so. The coach — styled by 
the exhibitor a " carriola" — was a very creditable piece of workmanship, of good design, 
apparently most thoroughly well built, and finished with great regard to good taste. 
There was nothing of the gewgaw style about it. The colour, decorations, mountings, 
finish, and ornaments, were all rich and neat. The carvings upon it were admirably well 
executed, and for symmetry and good keeping in every part, from the step of the 
footman to the board of the driver, it deserved high commendation. The wheels were 
much lighter than in carriages of a similar kind in England. This is claimed as a 
decided improvement. Certainly the appearance of the vehicle is improved by the 
absence of that bulkiness which gives a lumbering aspect to many an English carriage j 
and if the roads of our transatlantic brethren are not too rough to deal fairly with 
such wheels, we know not why they should be considered unsafe upon English turnpike 
roads. The other vehicles exhibited were respectively entitled a York waggon, a Prince 
Albert waggon, a slide-top buggy, and a trotting sulkey. The chief characteristic of all 
these was their extreme lightness of weight, when compared with their size. They 
were richly finished within and without, and beautifully carved ; the upholstery being 
done in exceedingly good taste, with constant regard to the comfort of the rider, and 
exhibiting very considerable artistic merit in design. The wheels were made from 
carefully-chosen materials, the joints exactly fitted, the felloes (two in number, instead 
of the usual five or six, for greater strength), confined by a steel insertion and bolts, and 
the axletrees exceedingly neat and strong. It is claimed for these axletrees (an American 



68 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

invention), that, in loss of friction, strength, freedom from all noise in motion, and 
cleanliness, they are superior to any in England. Several of these lighter carriages are 
now in use in this country, and give great satisfaction ; and several more of a similar 
manufacture have been recently ordered from New York. Indeed, it is not difficult to 
understand why they should become favourites out of London ; nor how reluctantly a 
lover of quick driving would return to the heavier vehicles of city manufacture. There 
were several rich sets of harness which deserved notice, in particular that which was 
exhibited by Messrs. Lacy and Phillips. It was made from leather of the finest quality, 
and with perfect thoroughness of work. The mountings were of solid silver, with 
appropriate and graceful designs. In this, as in all the other harness shown, there was 
remarkable lightness and airiness, and an obvious endeavour to do away with all super- 
abundant weight. 

The great use of oil in the United States has necessarily led to many improvements in 
lamps, as was evident in those exhibited from the manufactory of Messrs. Cornelius and 
Co., in Philadelphia, especially in those upon the solar principle, as it is called, where 
increased draught is made to bear upon the combustion, which are unknown among us. 
Unpretending as these lamps appeared, it was stated that they would give an amount of 
light greater, by one-half, than any others in use. The chandeliers that hung above 
them were graceful, and of extreme purity of glass, and beautifully cast. The branches, 
formed by arabesque scrolls, profusely ornamented with birds and flowers, delicately 
sculptured, or in bold relief, with centres of richly-cut glass, claimed universal approval 
for their elegance and lightness of design. This manufacture is among the latest intro- 
duced in the United States, it being scarcely fifteen years since every chandelier, girandole, 
mantel-lamp, and candelabra used in that country was imported from Europe ; and it 
argued considerable enterprise and perseverance on the part of the manufacturers, that 
they attained so much excellence as to be willing to vie in the Exhibition with the oldest 
and most celebrated houses in the world. On the south side of their portion of the 
building, the contributors from the States exhibited, under the general classification of 
raw material, many very excellent specimens. There were among these a large variety 
of articles, such as Indian corn, ground, hulled, and in the ear ; rye, oats, barley, wheat, 
rice, cotton, tobacco, minerals, chemicals, woods, brooms, beef, pork, lard, hams, and 
almost everything else identified with the productions of that country. Next in order 
were to be seen daguerreotypes, paintings, herbaria, and prints, with some samples of 
stained glass suspended from the galleries, and cottons, carpetings, wrought quilts, calicoes 
and needlework, tastefully displayed around. Considering the distance from which these 
had to be conveyed, not only across 3,000 miles of ocean, but often from little short of 
that distance inland; and considering, too, that it is not in her manufactures that 
America makes her chief impression upon the world, we regard this portion of her 
exhibition with great interest. In pianofortes there was a show highly creditable to the 
manufacture of musical instruments in the United States. Pierson exhibited a seven- 
octave grand pianoforte; Chickering a semi-grand, and other instruments of less preten- 
sion but of much merit. There were two from the manufactory of Conrad Meyer of 
Philadelphia, in neat and very unpretending cases, combining all the best qualities of 
the highest rank of pianos. In breadth, freedom, and evenness of tone, in promptness 
and elasticity of action, and in a combination of everything that is rich and sweet in 
this description of instrument, he claims to be unsurpassed. 

Among cordage, boats, oars, and models of favourite ships, were exhibited two ship- 
ventilators, by Frederick Emerson, of Boston. These are intended to supersede the 
ordinary wind-sail now in use for sending pure air into the recesses of ships. The inventor 
has given much attention to the subject of ventilation, and his success has been honoured 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 69 

by several gold medals in the United States. How far this application of his invention 

Sli J UP ? 10r A° the . m f thods n ™ ^ use for the same purpose is uncertain. In the 

^?™ ji S°™ ? ^T an ob J ection t0 fix ^es above deck, which would be likely 

to impede their general introduction. ' 

Together with daguerreotypes, before alluded to, there were exhibited camera obscuras 
SLm - blamso ^. of 1 Ne 7 York, the results of which, in the pictures that hung above 
them were exceedingly favourable. There were shawls from the Bay State mills, of 
beautiful colour and a high perfection of manufacture; white cotton goods, which in 
bleaching finishing, and putting up, appeared equal to Manchester products; some very 
beautiful flannels single-milled doeskins and wool-black cassimeres of thorough fabric; 
tweeds, well mixed and of good colours ; a salamander safe, well made ; Newell's improved 
bank lock, ingenious and well constructed; a patent paying-machine for pitching the 
seams of vessels, the box being provided with a ventricle wheel, which receives the hot 
melted material, and applies it neatly, economically, and directly to the seam to be 
covered; an air-exhausted coffin, with glazed aperture at top, a most whimsical idea, but 
whether tor the benefit of the defunct to look out, or the survivors to look in, we were 
at a loss to determine. Next came a host of "notable things." Car wheels for railroads, 
wood and cork legs, clocks, watches, dentists' tools and works, India-rubber goods of 
various forms, mathematical and solar instruments, a self-determining variation compass, 
trunks, boots and shoes, hats, specimens of printing and binding, together with pistols, 
rifles, and other weapons of offence and defence. Of these rifles, manufactured by 
Bobbins and Lawrence, it is but just to say that they are among the best, if not the 
best, of any rifles manufactured in the world, the Americans claiming to excel in this 
species of manufacture. They are made from the best selected Copake cold-blast forge 
iron, and are of an unpretending style, but remarkable for a plain, substantial, and 
perfect finish; they are strong, simple, and thorough in their workmanship, and 
eminently adapted for real service. 

Two bell telegraphs, exhibited in the central avenue, very deservedly attracted much 
attention. The bell telegraph, otherwise called an "annunciator," is an invention 
made to supersede the awkward array of bells in houses and hotels. It is an extremely 
neat and beautiful article, and indicates whence the bell was rung, by uncovering a, 
number corresponding to the number of the room ; and this, too, for any length of time 
afterwards, until, by the touch of a spring, the number is re-covered. In the large 
hotels in the United States, and in many private residences, it is much used. 

In the moving machinery department, among other objects of interest from the United 
States, was a machine exhibited by Mr. Charles Morey, called a stone dressing machine. 
A machine for dressing stone by power has long been regarded as a great desideratum, 
and has been the object of many expensive, though unsuccessful experiments. One 
great difficulty has been found in making the cutting tools of a quality to stand the 
action of stone, unless at such cost as to render their use unprofitable. This difficulty 
is overcome by the present invention, which consists in the employment of chilled cast- 
iron burrs, or rolling cutters. Iron, as is now known, may, by a peculiar process of 
chiding in casting, be converted to a diamond hardness, that perfectly fits it for reducing, 
with great facility and economy, the surface of stone. The burrs made in this way 
retain a sufficient degree of sharpness for a long time, and can be maintained at a 
small cost, being wholly formed and finished in casting. In dressing circular forms, the 
stones are made to revolve, when the burrs, which are mounted in sliding rests, are 
brought into action. For straight surfaces, however, the stones are laid upon a trans- 
verse bed, and the cutters, mounted upon a revolving cylinder, are placed above them. 
The burrs or cutters are so arranged as to turn freely on their axis when brought in 



T 



70 THE GB.EAT EXHIBITION 

contact with the stone, and as they roll over it, they crush it away in the form of 
scales and dust. By varying the shape and arrangement of the burrs, ornamental sur- 
faces may be produced. 

Among the agricultural implements exhibited, which claimed the attention of agricul- 
turists particularly, were reaping machines, ploughs, cultivators, fan mills, and smut 
machines. The American reapers are worked by a single span of horses abreast, with 
a driver and a man to rake off the grain as it is cut down by moveable knives. On 
land free from obstructions, these reapers will cut from twelve to twenty acres of wheat 
in a day, depending somewhat upon the speed of the horses and the state of the grain. 

In taking our leave, for the present, of our transatlantic neighbours, we have the 
pleasure to inform our readers, that they have so far profited by the example we have set 
to them, as well as to other nations, as to contemplate an Exhibition of Industry at New 
York, which, indeed, it is publicly announced will take place in the ensuing year. A 
company, it appears, has been formed in America which is represented in this country by 
M. Charles Buschek, A us trian commissioner for the Exhibition of 1851, and Mr. 
Edward Riddle, commissioner for the United States, to whom the whole management 
of the design has been confided. A large building is about to be erected, which, when 
completed, will be considered as a bonded warehouse. The contributions from Eng- 
land are to be conveyed in first-class vessels, free of expense, and if they remain unsold, 
will be returned to the exhibitors without cost. This arrangement cannot but be con- 
sidered as extremely liberal. There can be no doubt of the success of such an enter- 
prise, if carried out by a body of trustworthy persons. We hear of several English 
firms as likely to accept the friendly invitation thus held out to them. 



CHAPTER XII. 

WOOD CABVTNG — EOTAL TROPHY — PEINCE OE WALES'S COT GROUP OE FLOWEBS — THE KENIL- 

WOETH BtTEEET— BTTEEET BT EOTTBDINOIS — PANEL BT LIENARD — HOLLAND'S BOOKCASE 

PALACE OE TABA — SWISS CARVING — ELIZABETHAN AGE — ATTSTBIAN CABVING, ETC., ETC. 

Amongst the decorative arts, wood carving has a distinct and legitimate position, and 
confined within due limits is always effective. Still its province is restricted, or ought 
to be, to the ornamentation of material when applied to a useful purpose ; it can never 
assume the dignity of art per se. To usurp the place of sculpture, it has hitherto 
been, and will always continue to be, utterly incompetent, inasmuch as the material upon 
which it employs its skill, is altogether, both in colour and texture, inferior to marble, 
and utterly inappropriate to represent the human figure or the human countenance. 
In corroboration of our assertion, we would recal to the recollection of our readers the 
extremely objectionable representation of the Crucifixion in the Fine Art Court, the head 
of Her Majesty, or the human lineaments in any work of wood carving in the Exhibition, 
and compare their relative truthfulness of effect as to contour and colour with that of 
.other objects, such as flowers, foliage, and fancy devices, and they will at once admit the 
principle for which we now contend. 

There were several very beautiful specimens of this class of subjects by Rogers and 
Wallis, closely approximating in elegance and delicacy of finish to" the celebrated pro- 
ductions of Grinlin Gibbon, that prince of carvers, whose works serve to decorate so 
many of our old ancestral halls and country residences. The first-mentioned of these 




Engfcaved Ty D Pound, ftom a. Jtegnerreatypo 



MAHOGANY SIDEBOARD 

MANUFACTURED BY M ESS"* JOH NSON * J EAN ES , BOND ST 




THE KENILWORTH OAK BUFFET 

DESIGNED * MANUFACTURED BY M ESS".' COOK E i * SON 



OP THE WORLD'S -INDUSTRY. 71 

ar i!- S ^ R0gerS ' besides a number of~ charming devices/ exhibited two larger subjects; on 
which he appeared to have lavished all his resources,— a royal trophy, carved inlime- 
t^ee, representing the crown as the chief power,' the- source of .all titles and dignities— 
the patron, and jpromoter of the_arts, sciences, &c, in ' illustration of which an 'elaborate 
group which occupied the centre, displayed all the insignia of rank, and every means and 
appliance of science and art. • In the .lower part were medallion portraits of royal 
personages. The whole was encircled with a border composed- of . groups of game, 
fruit, flowers, fish, and shells. ,A trophy emblematical of ; Folly\was.also:worthy of high 
praise. .The carved .boxwood cradle, moreover, by the same" artist, .. exhibited by her 
majesty, must not , be; passed unnoticed, although we 'by. no means participate: in the 
wild admiration . which it ^ excited amongst the numberless mothers and '..daughters of 
England, who gazed enviously at it. The shape itself was not elegant, being heavy? and 
more like a sarcophagus than a cradle; and the decoration, though doubtless appropriate 
as " symbolising the union of the.royal house of England with; that of Saxe-Coburg-and 
Gotha," was neither picturesque nor interesting; in a general point' of ,view, whilsfthe 
execution, -though exquisitely neat, was perhaps a tant soit peu tame. Wallis, likewise, 
exhibited some productions of surpassing merit in the same style. One/ a group of 
flowers, feci, emblematical of Spring, elicited general admiration; it was carved out of a 
solid piece of .lime-tree, five feet high by two-and-a-half wide, and projecting thirteen 
incheSi Spring was, allegorically represented by the grape-buds and ■ apple-blossoms, of 
which there were no less than 1,060 buds, and 47 varieties. A blue-cap titmouse was 
picking insects out of an apple-blossom; another was taking food to its young, which were 
partially concealed in their nest, and here and there caterpillars were dragging their slow 
length along. ^A shepherd's crook and lamb's head were added, symbolical of the 
season. The whole of this work was copied from nature, and executed expressly for 
the Great Exhibition. 

The most magnificent object, however, in this department of art, was unquestionably 
"The Kenilworth Buffet," by Cooke, of Warwick, and which we shall proceed to 
describe in an abridged account from that given by the makers themselves. The wood 
from which this buffet was made, we are informed, was obtained from a colossal oak-tree, 
which grew near Kenilworth Castle, and of which we believe a view was given in 
Strut? s Delicia Sylvarum, published some years ago. The tree measured ten feet in 
diameter, and contained about 600 cubic feet of timber, and was cut down in 1842, 
and afterwards purchased ; by the exhibitors. The subject of the design was the Kenil- 
worth Pageant of 1575, in honour of Queen Elizabeth's visit .to the Earl of Leicester, 
described by Laneham and Gascoigne, two attendants on the Queen in this "royal 
progress," and vividly reproduced, by Sir Walter Scott. The design of the centre panel, 
carved out of one solid block of oak, represented Queen Elizabeth entering Kenilworth 
Castle in all the pomp usually displayed on these occasions. The .cavalcade was seen 
crossing the tilt-yard, and approaching the base court "of the building- by Mortimer's 
tower. Leicester was bareheaded, and on foot, leading the horse 'upon which, his august 
mistress was seated, magnificently arrayed. The Queen, then .in her forty-second year; 
wore her crown, and had around her neck the enormous ruff in: which she is always: 
represented. Two. pages and a long train of attendants followed the: Queen and her 
host, composed of ladies, statesmen, knights, and warriors— some on foot, others on 
horseback. In the distance were soldiers and a mixed multitude of people. A portion 
of the castle was seen in the back-ground. At one end was Mortimer's tower, through 
which the cavalcade was about to pass;, the remains of this tower are'still. in existence," 
and considerably heighten the romantic beauty of the Kenilworth ruins. At the opposite 
end of the panel, the Earl of Essex, Leicester's.rival in the favour of Queen Elizabeth,- 



72 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

was conspicuously seen, mounted on a charger. On the table underneath the centre 
panel was displayed the Tudor rose, and surmounted by the royal crown, with the 
famous motto of Elizabeth, semper eadem, on a ribbon. On the spandrils, supported 
by water flowers and rock-work pendentives, were marine subjects taken from the 
" Pageant," namely, a triton on the mermaid, and Arion on the dolphin, connected with 
Mike Lambourne's mishap, in the novel of Kenilworth. The panel on the right or 
dexter side of the buffet, recalled the scene in the same work, where Elizabeth meets 
Amy Eobsart in the grotto, in the grounds of the castle. The subject of the left panel 
of the buffet represented the interview of Queen Elizabeth and Leicester, after the 
exposure of the deceit practised upon her by the latter, and his marriage with Amy 
Robsart. Leicester was shown in a kneeling position, with one hand on his breast, and 
the other extended towards Elizabeth, as if appealing to her sensibility. The four sta- 
tuettes at the corners were emblematical of the reign of Elizabeth. At the extreme 
corner of the right was Sir Philip Sydney, the nephew of the Earl of Leicester, whose 
character combined all the qualities of a great poet, warrior, and statesman. He died 
in 1586. The shape of Sir Philip's sword (which is still preserved at Penshurst) was 
singular, the handle being about sixteen inches long. On the opposite side of the same 
pedestal might be recognised Sir Walter Raleigh, who attained eminence in almost every 
branch of science and literature. He was arrayed in a courtier's dress, and the figure 
represented him in a thoughtful attitude, with a pen and scroll in his hand. Raleigh 
was beheaded on a charge of high treason, in 1618. On the left pedestal, at the inner 
side of the buffet, was a figure of Shakspere, who was shown in a reflective mood. The 
last figure was that of Sir Francis Drake, the first Englishman who circumnavigated the 
globe. An anchor was appropriately introduced, emblematic of his naval career ; and 
the costume chosen was that of a court dress. The ragged staff mouldings of the 
Kenilworth buffet were imitations of the best examples in the Beauchamp Chapel, War- 
wick, where the Earl of Leicester was interred. The supporters to the projecting shelves 
also represented the proud crest of this splendid noble, the bear and ragged staff, borne 
by the earls of Warwick from the most remote times. The small panels of the buffet, 
behind the Leicester cognizance, contained monograms of the date of Queen Elizabeth's 
visit to Kenilworth Castle, and the eventful year 1851, with the cipher of the reigning 
monarch, designed to record the era of the Great Exhibition of all Nations. Around 
the door-panels of the Kenilworth buffet were copies of architectural details still seen 
on. the gate-house. The upper part, above the shelf of each pedestal of the buffet, 
displayed the monogram of the Earl of Leicester, encircled by the insigna of the order 
of the Garter, and surmounted by his coronet. The decorations on each side were 
specimens of Elizabethan ornaments, designed by the proprietors. An important fea- 
ture in the production of this work was the introduction, by Mr. Walter Cooper, of 
pointing, the process adopted by sculptors in stone and marble, and by which greater 
accuracy is secured. 

Next in importance to the magnificent piece of workmanship we have just described, 
and equal to it in beauty of execution and finish, was the elaborate buffet by M. Fourdi- 
nois, of Paris ; and it is in such peaceful rivalry and friendly competition alone, that we 
wish to see the two nations opposed to each other ; a contest in which the advantages 
of victory, — for 

" Peace hath her victories no lesa than war — " 

are counterbalanced by no misery or deprivation on the part of the vanquished ; and it 
is to such a state of beneficial intercourse between nations, hitherto opposed to each 
other in hostile array, that such an exhibition as we have just witnessed must eminently 




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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 73 

tend to lead. Let us, how'ever, return from this digression, and describe .'the "stately 
sideboard^ of M. Fourdinois. The design of the French artist very judiciously aimed 
at rendering the ornamentation -of his work entirely subservient to its intended use. 
Consequently, in order to express the general temperament of the banquet, four female 
figures, representing the four quarters of the globe, were bearing in their hands every 
delicate variety of food, the produce of their several climes, whilst around them were 
heaped in rich profusion — 

"Meats of noblest sort 

And savour; beasts of chase, orfowl, or game, 

* * - * ■ .*,;., all fish from sea or sliore, 

Freshlet or purling brook, or shell or fin, 

And exqiiis'itest name, for which was drained - 

Pontus,;and Lucrine bay, and Afric coast, 

With fruits and flowers from Almathea's horn." 

At either end were.figures representative of hunting and fishing. Above was a female 
figure emblematic of Plenty, Supported by two charming groups .illustrative, of the corn- 
field and the vineyard. liven, the chained dogs, which have been censured by some, 
placed as supporters at the lower part of the sideboard, we consider as ■ appropriate — the 
chase was over, t the. .game ready for culinary operations, and for a time, 'at i least, the 
faithful animals were at rest;beneath the trophies of their prowess. The centre of the 
sideboard was occupied : by ; a painting in gay colours, representing a combination of 
various fruits and flowers, surmounted by a large American aloe. We cannot too 
highly commend the great fidelity with which the various objects in this elaborate 
performance were copied from nature, the graceful manner in which each part was 
made to blend with its neighbour, the taste, skill, and patience of the workman, the 
care bestowed upon the minutest details, or the originality of conception and beauty of 
finish in the whole work, — the tout ensemble was worthy of the country which produced 
it, and the occasion which called for its exhibition. 

Another work of Parisian manufacture, by M. Lienard, was also deserving of notice— 
a pair of large panels of exquisite workmanship, one of which, illustrative of the sports 
of the field, we shall forthwith describe. The first compartment represented a group of 
foxes in search of prey, the last a family of partridges in a corn-field, while in the 
centre, in 'all the serenity of safety, reposed a trio of deer, the noble old buck looking out 
upon the scene in the very luxury of idleness. But the choicest bits of carving were 
in the animals, birds/ and foliage which surrounded the frame, emblems of the noble 
sport. 

Of a totally different character from the preceding, was the massive book-case 
exhibited by Messrs. Holland, in the style of the Renaissance, with natural forms finely 
introduced. The design was furnished by Mr. Macquoid, architect. Regarded artistically, 
it might have been considered rather too architectural in; its style, but it was certainly a 
splendid piece of workmanship, and well suited for the library of a great castle or 
baronial mansion. _ 

We will now make mention of a contribution from " the Emerald Isle, in the form 
of a music temple, carved in bog-yew, by iUthur Jones, of Dublin. As in all periods of 
their history, the Irish Have been passionately fond of music, the decorative piece of 
furniture embodying this characteristic, was certain to acquire importance and promi- 
nence • and, therefore, the ancient Palace of Tara was selected as the proper theatre 
in which to display this subject, its halls having been celebrated by the .ancient Irish 
bards as the frequent scenes of music and festivity. A statuette of Cilamh Fouhdla, 
the founder of the Irish monarchy, and also of. the Palace of Tara, naturally surmounted 
the temple. He was represented in his capacity of monarch and lawgiver* deuvenng 



74 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

the laws to the Irish nation, holding forth the beechen boards, on which were inscribed 
passages from the Brehon laws, engraved in the ancient Irish character : — 

" Seven things bear witness to a king's improper conduct: 

" An unlawful opposition in the senate. 

" An overthrow of the law. 

" An overthrow in battle. 

" A dearth. 

" Barrenness in cows. 

" Blight of fruit. 

" Blight of seed in the ground. 
" These are the seven candles lighted to expose the misgovernment of a king." 

He was seated on the Lia Fail, or enchanted stone, said to be deposited in Westminster 
Abbey ; he sat in the centre of a platform, representing all Ireland mapped out under 
him. The panel in front represented, in relief, the opening of the triennial convention 
at Tara, in the reign of Cormac " Ufalda," or " Long Beard," in the early part of the 
third century, anterior to the introduction of Christianity into the island. Cormac sat 
in the centre of the hall, surrounded by ten principal officers of state, who always 
accompanied the monarch on state occasions. The opposite panel represented the 
harpers in Tara Hall performing before the monarch and his queen ; a canopy formed 
by the fossil antlers and skull of the giant deer, supported the drapery, an opening 
in which discovered the undulating hills of Tara. Four statues at the corners personified 
vocal music, warlike, pastoral, dramatic, and devotional — or, in other words, the camp, 
the field, the stage, and the sanctuary. The whole subject formed a sort of chrono- 
logical series, commencing 700 years B.C., the date of the foundation of the Irish 
monarchy — touching the flourishing state of the kingdom under Cormac — passing 
through the chivalrous age of the Crusaders — and ending with the present agricultural 
age of Ireland. 

The Swiss department contained several specimens of wood carving, in decorative 
furniture and otherwise, which were interesting for the great amount of executive skill 
displayed upon them, and for the truthful homeliness of the subjects represented in them. 
They were, indeed, for the most part, sculptured bucolics, exhibiting the pastoral life of 
happy Switzerland, in all its various phases; whilst a few illustrated other points of 
nationality, as the costumes of the twenty-two cantons, still kept remarkably distinct 
amongst the rural population; or some spot dear in the memories of Swiss men, as 
the chapel of William Tell, at Altdorft. There was something very charming in the 
simple devotedness to a beloved nationality thus evidenced by a brave, industrious, and 
primitive people, in their contributions to the world's great and glittering fair. The 
escritoire, by Wettli, of Berne, in white wood, and intended for the use of a lady, was 
well deserving attention ; it was so contrived that it could be used either in a sitting 
or a standing posture. The embellishments, as already stated, comprehended various 
passages in the industry, field sports, and amusements of Alpine life. The general style 
of this piece of furniture, considered as such,- was light, and by no means inelegant. 
The small table, by Sehild, of Berne, was also extremely pretty, and both were well 
suited for a lady's boudoir in the retirement of a rural hour. 

To return, however, to our native productions : we were reminded by the " Kestral 
Hawk" of Mr. Batsford, and the Elizabethan contributions by the Duchess of Suther- 
land, of that Augustan age of England, when poetry and the fine arts had arrived at their 
zenith — when carving in wood, a branch of the latter, profusely adorned the houses of 
the wealthy and the noble. The finer specimens of this class of art are scarce and 
in great demand among collectors, dealers, and antiquarians. In chapels and cathedrals 
what elaborate specimens are to be found of this somewhat neglected art ! witness the 




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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 75 

noble structures :of Westmirister Abbey, Lincoln, Durham, and. York. Nearer our own 
times, ,too, we:, have had some rare examples of excellence^ from the chisel of Grinliu 
gibbon already mentioned by us, and of whom Walpole- justly observes, "that -there 
is no instance of a man before Gibbon, who gave to wood the loose and airy lightness of 
nower^ and chained .together the various productions- of the elements,, with a free disorder 
natural to eadnspecies.". And so delicate was the workmanship , of Gibbon, according to 
the same. authority, that a carved pot of flowers in a room shook, as -though they were 
natural, by .the mere motion of the coaches in the street. The Chapel at Windsor, and 
the Choir of. St. Paul's, contain some foliage by Gibbon, executed in the most artistic 
manner. His heads of cherubs possess a sweetness of expression and an angelic loveliness 
which, as long as they exist, will render them the admiration of all lovers of ideal beauty; 
and his picture-frames, where dead game,' flowers, and foliage, almost deceive the eye 
into a belief of their reality, are equally marvels of the art. Many .other specimens of the 
taste and skill of our English carvers were to be found in the various recesses of the 
Crystal Palace. In the Mediaeval Court stood a massive oak sideboard, the production 
of Mr. Crace, of Wigmore-street, elaborately and richly carved, and intended for the new 
dimng-hall at Alton Towers, the seat of the Earl of Shrewsbury^ A sideboard by Snell 
and Co. also merited attention ; the design of the sculpture was given by Baron Marocheti, 
the workmanship of which was equal to the best examples in the Exhibition, find elicited 
universal approbation. An elegant commode or cabinet of walnut wood, was exhibited 
by Hanson and Sons, highly ornamented, for china, bronzes, &c, with oval carved frame 
for a mirror, representing a variety of British birds arranged in a pleasing manner 
around the glass. The carved work on the lower part of the commode represented stags 
in a recumbent "posture, and the pillars were ornamented with well executed heads of 
boars and deer. Two elaborately-carved brackets for flower-stands, served to complete 
this elegant and useful piece of furniture. 

We will now, however, take a look at the contributions in this department of art as 
supplied by Austria, the most conspicuous among which was the huge Beustead, with 
its pillars, its niches, its screens, its groups of angels, champions, sprites, and saints — 
cathedral-like in its design and decoration. Architectural in character, it appeared like 
a vast temple dedicated to sleep ; so grand in conception, so massive in proportion, so 
deeply rich in carved glories, so evident an invocation of the artist, and so resolute an 
abnegation of the mere upholsterer, it was a real triumph of the artificer, who must have 
been " sleepless himself to make his patrons sleep." Next in magnificence was the 
Gothic Bookcase, sent over as a present from the Emperor of Austria to her Majesty. 
The superbly-bound books whieh ornamented some of the shelves were also the gift of 
his Imperial Majesty. The material was oak. The design, which was Gothic, was by 
Bernardo de Bernardis, an architect of eminence, and J. Kraner, both of Vienna. It 
was rather too architectural in its arrangement, and the introduction of the statuettes in 
all directions, was not to be approved on the score of taste or propriety. The executive 
department was very creditably carried out; but at the time it was exhibited the joining 
business had not been completed, and we understand several workmen belonging to 
Messrs. Leistler's establishment are now engaged upon it, and will be so for some months, 
at Buckingham Palace. A Prie Dieu, also by Leistler, was worthy of notice; Gothic in 
its structure, like the bookcase, and very richly Carved. In the central panel was a 
painting of Christ bearing the cross; on either side were angels holding tablets, on which 
were inscribed the date, "Anno 1851." A set of tables, too, in another paftj awakened 
the especial admiration of the lovers of the' gastronomic art, which, in theitf- hospitable 
breadth . and expanse, spoke volumes in favour of the geniality of their designs. The 
wood of these was extremely beautiful.; the guests had only 4a look beyond their glasses 



76 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

to see their joyous countenances correctly mirrored, while the substantial legs and sup- 
ports, in buttresswise, entirely banished the idea that the tables they supported could 
ever groan under whatever weight of good cheer might be placed upon them. 

From Belgium the most important contribution in this style of art was in the shape of 
a Gothic Chair, an elegant and elaborate piece of aristocratic furniture executed in 
carved oak, entirely gilt, and cushioned with the finest crimson velvet. The ornamental 
portion of the chair gave it a very light and chaste appearance. The seat was supported 
by figures of griffins in a sitting posture, and the elbows and tracery work beneath the 
seat were in admirable keeping with its other decorations. The chair was modelled after 
the decorated Gothic style of architecture, and formed a portion of a finely-finished set 
of furniture in dark wood, consisting of a Gothic rosewood bookcase, bedstead, and 
etagere, and oak and rosewood tables and chairs, which were well worth the attention 
of the visitcjr. The whole had been designed by a very clever artist, A. F. Roule, of 
Antwerp, and numbered 419 in the Belgium department of the Great Exhibition. 

In concluding our present remarks on carved work, we must not omit to mention that 
Tuscany, that old field of classic art, exhibited several specimens of exquisite beauty by 
Barbetti and others. Greece also, amongst her sixty-one contributions, sent two works 
in the Byzantine style, executed by the Rev. Triandaphylos of Athens, namely, a carved 
cross, and a carved picture of the "Annunciation." These works were remarkable as 
specimens of a style of art now almost extinct, being a remnant of the Byzantine period, 
and which still lingers in some of the convents of Greece, and particularly at Mount 
Athos. The carving, which was done with graving instruments, was very minute, in 
slight relief, upon the plane of the wood — a boxwood which is abundant in Greece, and 
appears to be of a very fine grain. The crucifix, which did not measure more than a foot 
in its largest dimensions, was covered on both sides with scriptural subjects, fourteen on 
each side, so that each subject occupied only from an inch to a couple of inches of the 
surface. In the carving representing the " Annunciation," the figures were larger, and 
the form oval, the band being surrounded with twenty-five heads of saints. The govern- 
ment of Greece has of late years done a good deal to promote this style of illustration, in, 
a School of Arts established at the cathedral at Athens. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

BISCOVEBT OP GLASS — GLASS BLOWING — CETSTA1 FOUNTAIN — CANDELABBA THE GLASS KOH- 

I-NOOE — STJPEBB CHANDELIEB ETBUSCAN VASES DIOPTEIO APPABATIJS — BOHEMIAN GLASS 

ENGEAVING ON GLASS — PBESSED GLASS, ETC. 

The manufacture of glass is one of great and daily increasing importance in this country, 
the application of this material to many uses heretofore unthought of being dailv on the 
increase ; thanks to the liberal policy which a few years ago abolished those fiscal bur- 
thens which had operated as a bar to enterprise and progress. The subject is one of 
peculiar interest in connexion with the Great Exhibition of Industry of 1851, as but for 
the enfranchisement of the glass manufacturer, the building in which that unrivalled 
display was held could never have been constructed. 

The time at which glass was invented is very uncertain. The popular opinion upon 
this subject refers the discovery to accident. It is said (Plin., Nat. Hist., lib. xxxvi., c. 26), 
" that some mariners, who had a cargo of nitrum (salt, or, as some have supposed, soda) 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 77 

on board, having landed on the banks of the river Belus, a small stream at the base of 
Mount Carmel in Palestine, and finding no stones to rest their pots on, placed under 
them some masses of nitrum, which, being fused by the heat with the sand of the river, 
produced a liquid and transparent stream : such was the origin of glass." The ancient 
Egyptians were certainly acquainted with the art of glass-making. This subject is very 
fully discussed in a memoir by M. Boudet, in the " Description de VEgypt," vol. ix., 
Antiq. Memoires. The earthenware beads found in some mummies have an external coat 
of glass, coloured with a metallic oxide ; and among the ruins of Thebes pieces of blue 
glass have been discovered. The manufacture of glass was long carried on at Alex- 
andria, from which city the Romans were supplied with that material ; but before the 
time of Pliny, the manufacture had been introduced into Italy, Prance, and Spain (xxxvi., 
c. 26). Glass utensils have been found among the ruins of Herculaneum. 

The application of glass to the glazing of windows is of comparatively modern introduc- 
tion, at least in northern and western Europe. In 674 artists were brought to England 
from abroad to glaze the church windows at Weremouth, in Durham ; even in the year 
1567 this mode of excluding cold from dwellings was confined to large establishments, 
and by no means universal even in them. An entry then made in the minutes of a 
survey of Alnwick Castle, the residence of the Duke of Northumberland, informs us that 
the glass casements were taken down during the absence of the family, to preserve them 
from accident. A century after that time the use of window-glass was so small in Scot- 
land, that only the upper rooms in the royal palaces were furnished with it, the lower 
part having wooden shutters to admit or exclude the air. The earliest manufacture of 
flint-glass in England was begun in 1557, and the progress made in perfecting it was so 
slow, that it was not until near the close of the seventeenth century that this country was 
independent of foreigners for the supply of the common article of drinking-glasses. In 
1673 some plate-glass was made at Lambeth, in works supported by the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, but which were soon abandoned. It was exactly one century later that the first 
establishment of magnitude for the production of plate-glass was formed in this country, 
under the title of " The Governor and Company of British Cast Plate-Glass Manufac- 
turers." The members of this company subscribed an ample capital, and works upon a 
large scale were erected at Ravenhead, near Prescot, in Lancashire, which have been in 
constant and successful operation from that time to the present day. 

At an early period of its history in this country the glass manufacture became an 
object of taxation, and duties were imposed by the 6 and 7 William and Mary, which 
acted so injuriously, that in the second year after the act was passed, one-half of the 
duty was taken off, and in the following year the whole was repealed. In 1746, when 
the manufacture had taken firmer root, an excise duty was again imposed, at the rate of 
one penny per pound on the materials used for making crown, plate, and flint-glass, 
and of one farthing per pound on those used for making bottles. In 1778 these rates 
were increased 50 per cent, upon crown and bottle-glass, and were doubled on flint 
and plate-glass. These rates were further advanced from time to time, in common with 
the duties upon most other objects of taxation, and in 18Q6 stood as follows :— On plate 
and flint-glass, 49*. per cwt. ; on crown and German sheet-glass, 36s. Qd. per cwt. ; on 
broad glass, 12s. 3d., and on common bottle-glass, 4s. Id. per cwt. In 1813 those rates 
were doubled, and, with the exception of a modification in 1819 in favour of plate-glass, 
then reduced to £3 per cwt., were continued at that high rate until 1825. In that year 
a change was made in the mode of taking the duty on flint-glass, by charging it on 
the weight of the fluxed materials, instead of on the articles when made, a regulation 
which did not affect the rate of charge. In 1830, the rate on bottles was reduced 
from 8s. 2d. to 7s. per cwt. The only further alteration hitherto made m these duties 

x 



78 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

occurred in 1835, when, in consequence of the recommendation contained in the thir- 
teenth report of the Commissioners of Excise Inquiry, the rate upon flint-glass was 
reduced two-thirds, leaving it at 2d. per pound, a measure which was rendered necessary 
by the encouragement given under the high duty to the illicit manufacture, which was 
carried on to such an extent as ito oblige several regular manufacturers to relinquish the 
prosecution of their business. 

Since the alteration in the tariff, the manufacture of glass in this country has received 
an immense extension, and in several branches of the art we have outstripped the 
foreigner, who a few years since maintained against us a flourishing competition. In 
the preparation of the raw material, with one or two exceptions, we occupy the highest 
place, and have aqquired this advantage by our large capital, by our improved chemical 
knowledge, and by the indomitable energy of our character. Even the foreigner acknow- 
ledges our superiority in these respects, and in taste and colouring he also admits that we 
have made considerable progress. "For along time," says M. Stephane 'Flachet, "Eng- 
land has excelled us in the manufacture of glass, especially crystal glass. The precise 
cause is not known ; it does not appear in the mode of fusing the materials ; more 
probably it may be attributed to the purity of the lead which they use. We know how 
poor France is in this important respect, having imported, for several years past, from 
fifteen to sixteen millions of kilogrammes of that metal, principally from Spain. 
****** The French glass is inferior to 
the English in point of colour, and changes much sooner when exposed to the air. Our 
manufacturers declare that this difference does not arise from an inferiority of work- 
manship, but from the limited means which we possess of purchasing the article, and 
which in a great measure may be attributed to the minute division of the soil. In order 
to reduce the price of glass to the condition of the purchaser, our manufacturers have 
recourse to an extra infusion of alkali, which, being slowly absorbed by the atmosphere, 
causes the glass to lose its transparency." 

Glass may be regarded, generally speaking, as an admixture of three kinds of ingre- 
dients — silica, alkali, and a metallic oxide. The silica is the verifiable ingredient, the 
alkali is the flux, and the metallic oxide, besides acting as a flux, imparts certain qualities 
by which one kind of glass is distinguishable from another. If silica be exposed to the 
strongest heat it will resist fusion ; but if it be mixed with an alkali, such as potash or 
soda, and the mixture be then submitted to the same temperature, a combination will 
ensue which takes the form of a liquid, and when cooled becomes transparent. The 
quality of glass mainly depends on the proportions in which the silicious matter and 
the alkali are combined, on the temperature to which they are exposed, and on the skill 
with which the entire process is performed. When a perfect combination of the 
materials is not secured, the glass is covered with dark spots or particles, and other 

inequalities, which are called strife. There are three kinds of glass in ordinary use 

crown-glass, plate-glass, and flint-glass. The silicious sand, which forms the base of the 
manufacture of each, is principally derived from Alum Bay, in the Isle of Wight ; from 
Lynn, in Norfolk ; and from Aylesbury, in Buckinghamshire. The materials for flint- 
glass are nearly as follows : — One part of alkali, two parts of oxide of lead, three of sea- 
sand, and a small portion of the oxides of maganese and arsenic. The oxide of lead is 
employed as a powerful flux j it also imparts a great lustre to the metal, and causes it to 
be more ductile when in a semi-fluid state. The manganese renders the glass perfectly 
colourless. When these ingredients are mixed it is called the batch, and the mixture 
is generally of a salmon-coloured hue, the red tinge being given by the oxide of lead. 

" Who," says Dr. Johnson, " when he first saw the sand or ashes by a casual intense- 
ness of heat melted into a metalline form, rugged with excrescences and clouded with 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 79 

impurities, would have imagined that in this shapeless lump lay concealed so many 
conveniences of life as would, in time, constitute a great part of the happiness of the 
world ? Yet by some such fortuitous liquefaction was mankind taught to procure a 
body at once in a high degree solid and transparent j which might admit the light of the 
sun, and exclude the violence of the wind ; which might extend the sight of the philoso- 
pher to new ranges of existence, and charm him at one time with the unbounded extent 
of .material creation, and at another with the endless subordination of animal life; and, 
what is of yet more importance, might supply the decays of nature, and succour old age 
with subsidiary sight. Thus was the first artificer in glass employed, though without 
his knowledge or expectation. He was facilitating and prolonging the .enjoyment of 
light, enlarging the avenues of science, and conferring the highest and most lasting 
pleasures ; he was enabling the student to contemplate nature, and the beauty to behold 
herself.'' Owing to the injurious operation of the excise duty upon glass, as already 
stated — since happily abolished by Sir Robert Peel — the English manufacture was long 
inferior to the French for plate-glass, and to the Bohemians for coloured and orna- 
mental glass. . Since the exciseman was released from his attendance at the glass-house, 
the English have been gradually improving themselves in the manufacture of every 
variety of this beautiful article ; adopting processes new to England, but which had been 
long in. use in other countries, where the manufacturer was not impeded by the operation 
of impolitic laws. Among these new processes, that of the manufacture of plate-glass 
is oue of the most interesting. When the Messrs. Chance, of Spon-lane, near Bir- 
mingham, took the contract for the supply of the large quantity required for the Crystal 
Palace, amounting to nearly 400 tons, they found it necessary to import a few foreign 
workmen, in consequence of a scarcity of English hands sufficiently skilled and experi- 
enced to complete the order within the time specified. The process of production is 
very simple and beautiful, but requires a steady and practised hand. When the requisite 
weight of " metal" is taken from the furnace by the blower, it is blown into a spherical 
form in the ordinary manner. It is then, after having been reheated in the furnace, 
swung above the head and below the feet of the workman, until it assumes the form of 
a cylinder. The workman stands upon a stage opposite the mouth of the furnace, with 
a pit or well beneath his feet, six or seven feet in depth. He swings and balances the 
molten metal— firmly affixed to a knob of glass at the end of a long iron bar, or blowing- 
tube— first above and then beneath him, until it gradually expands to the size which 
the original quantity of metal was estimated to produce. The slightest miscalculation 
of his power of swinging it, or deviation from the proper course, might dash the hot 
glass either against the side or end of the pit or well, or against the wall of the furnace 
— or, worse than all, against the body of a fellow-workman or of a spectator. No such 
accidents ever happen, though the stranger unaccustomed to the sight is for a while m 
momentary dread of some such result. When swung to the proper length, the cylinder 
is about four feet long, and twelve inches in diameter.; The next operations are to 
convert it into a tube, by disconnecting it from the blowing-iron, and removing the 
bag-like extremity. These processes are performed by boys, with strings of red-hot 
glass, which easily cut through the yielding metal. The boys then take the tubes under 
their arms, and remove them to another part of the building, where they stand on end, 
like chimney-pots, to await the operation which shall convert them into flat sheets of 
glass. This is also very simple. The tube is cut down the middle, and m this state 
placed in the " flattening-kiln," where the moderate application of heat, aided by a gentle 
touch from the attendant workman, brings it flat upon a slab or stone. It is then gently 
rubbed or smoothed, with a wooden implement, and passed into a cooler part oi the 
kiln where it soon hardens. It is then tilted on edge, and the manufacture is complete. 



80 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

We offer no apology for the length to which we have extended the foregoing remarks. 
The subject to which they introduce us is unquestionably the most important of any 
connected with the history of the Great Exhibition, not only as respects the building 
itself, whose fairy structure owed its chief attraction to the surprising adaptation of so 
glittering and fragile a material to the combined purpose of lightness and solidity, but 
also in the vast variety of articles it contributed, useful alike to science, to the fine arts, 
and to domestic comfort and adornment. Indeed, it is quite certain that however we 
may be inclined to yield the palm to the foreigner for beauty of design and delicacy of 
workmanship in other branches of ornamental manufacture, the British workman need 
fear no competitor in the various applications of glass, that most beautiful of chemical 
combinations. The gallery devoted to the work of his hands glittered like a fairy palace, 
and was every day visited by increasing crowds, more particularly of strangers, who 
were all unqualified in their admiration. In noticing the articles in this class, the place 
of honour belonged of right to the Messrs Osier, whose far-famed Crystal Fountain 
was the gem of the transept, and won for itself a European celebrity. 

The basin of concrete in. which the fountain itself was placed, was some 24 feet in 
diameter, and afforded a goodly surface for the falling spray. The structure of glass 
stood 27 feet high, and was formed of columns of glass raised in tiers, the main tier 
supporting a basin from which jets of water could be made to project, in addition to 
the main jet at the top. As the structure arose it tapered upward in good propor- 
tion, the whole being firm and compact in appearance, and presenting almost a solidity 
of aspect unusual with glass structures. A central shaft with a slightly " lipped" orifice 
finished the whole, and from this the water issued in a broad well-spread jet, forming in 
its descent a lily-like flower before separating into a spray, which in the sun-light 
glittered and sparkled in harmony with the fountain itself. Altogether this was a 
unique and magnificent work, and many difficulties of construction had to be overcome 
before the structure presented itself in its perfect form. The principal shaft was 
strengthened by means of a rod of iron passing through it, but concealed from obser- 
vation by the refracting properties of the fans. Upwards of four tons of crystal glass 
were used in the construction of this fountain. The principal dish was upwards of 
eight feet in diameter, and weighed previous to cutting nearly a ton. The shafts round 
the base weighed nearly 50 lhs. each prevous to cutting. 

The same firm also exhibited a magnificent pair of candelabra, in richly cut glass, each 
to hold fifteen lights, and standing eight feet high. Her Majesty was the purchaser of 
these truly regal ornaments, and it was by her gracious permission they were exhibited. 
The other contents of Messrs. Osier's case were, a large crystal candelabrum, supported 
by three griffins in dead or frosted glass, the figures of which struck us as being well 
executed, considering the material ; some richly mounted lustres ; and several portraits 
in frosted glass, including those of her Majesty, Prince Albert, and some of the national 
literary and political celebrities. The collection was handsomely arranged in a large glass 
case, and afforded every facility for inspection. Next in rotation, but second to none in 
excellence or beauty, came the beautiful specimens of Mr. Apsley Pellatt. This gentle- 
man, not contented with carrying on his manufacture merely as a trade, has devoted 
much time and attention to vitreous chemistry, and to the history of glass from the time 
of its apocryphal origin on the coast of Syria down to the palmy period of Venetian 
art, and thence to the processes and discoveries of the present day. The results were 
the beautiful Anglo-Venetian services in gilt glass, which had all the fragile delicacy of 
form so much prized by connoisseurs — whether they have the imputed quality of detect- 
ing poison is a question which it is happily not necessary to discuss at the present day. 
Mr. Pellatt also made a bold attempt at restoring the lost Venetian art of frosting glass, 




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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 81 

and certainly the articles exhibited had a wonderful resemblance to ice, the thing 
intended to be represented. A curious feature in -, this collection was what the manu- 
facturer called the Koh-i-Noor," consisting of several lumps of the purest flint glass, cut 
diamond-wise, and quite rivalling in brilliancy the two million original down stairs. We 
are certain that if the largest of these specimens had been placed on the velvet cushion, 
surrounded by an iron railing, and attended by a reverential policeman, it would have 
received a much larger meed of public jronder and approbation than lihe real eastern 
gem. As a specimen, however, of the ; purest and most beautifully cut flint glass, it 
afforded an excellent opportunity for observing the difference between that material and 
the true diamond. It nad the advantage of the gem in entire absence of colour, and 
produced the prismatic changes with nearly equal effect. But it was deficient in specific 
gravity, and in that wondrous power of radiating light w^jch gives to the 'diamond 
its value, and is its unique peculiarity. The mode qf cutting these specimens proved 
the workmen to be first-rate lapidaries. The other prominent feature in this collection 
was a magnificent centre chandelier in highly refractive cut glass, which glittered like 
the valley of diamonds. It was of graceful and original design, and the purity of the 
gla«s might at once be detected by contrast with other specimens in the neighbour- 
hood. This magnificent ornament was 24 feet high, and adapted for 80 lights. It was 
a prominent feature in the Exhibition, being easily seen from the nave below, and reflect- 
ing the sun's rays (on fine days) with extraordinary brilliancy. There were other 
chandeliers in coloured .glass, in what the manufacturer pleased to call the Alham- 
braic style; but the taste of these was questionable, at least in our opinion, and 
rather marred the effect of the chandeliers, which were constructed solely with a view 
to prismatic effects. The remainder of the collection consisted of Etruscan vases 
ornamented with fine and delicate engraving, some carved incrustations, and numerous 
articles of lesser importance, but all affording ample reward for a lengthened inspection. 
Bacchus (Birmingham) appropriately employed himself in the fabrication of wine-cups, 
glasses, and decanters, in coloured and cased glass. The collection was not large, 
but well designed and executed. A flower-stand, with vase and cornucopia, had a very 
pretty effect. The delicate twisted stems of the champagne glasses were novel and 
chaste, but we fear for their continuity after the third "fire." Harris and Son, of 
Birmingham, exhibited a large collection of coloured glass, adapted to the various uses 
of the table. Fine effects of colour were here produced, and many of the shapes 
possessed novelty and grace. The articles exhibited by these and other manufacturers 
in coloured glass would seem to intimate that the Bohemians are not long to enjoy their 
monopoly. Specimens of the beautiful silvered glass lately become so .fashionable, and 
which has formed so ornamental a feature at various public banquets, were exhibited 
by Messrs. Varnish, of Beruers-street. The silvered globes, were already familiar to 
the public but there were various other articles, such as a chess- table, goblets, curtain- 
poles &c which showed the great adaptability of the material to ^ornamental purposes. 
Perry and Co. (New BondVstreet), had an immense chandelier, for 144 candles, of most 
elaborate workmanship. The design, however, is rather confused, and the quality of the 
glass does not appear so pure as is the case with Mr. Pellat's chandeliers. Perhaps it 
wanted cleaning, as the intricacy of the pattern afforded innumerable receptacles, for 
dust- but, whatever may be the cause, it. looked rather dull beside its more brdhant 
neizhbours. There were various smaller collections of glass, among whicn good taste 
and good workmanship were generally discernible. There was not, however, sufficient 
varied to require particular notice. Messrs. Chance and Co., who supplied the glass for 
[he Exhib2n building, were also exhibitors of an article which, until -the remova of 
he duty waTscarcely ever attempted in this country, One of the specimensot dioptric 



82 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

apparatus for light-houses, in the western nave, was from their manufactory ; the other 
was constructed by Mr. Wilkins, of Long-acre, for the Trinity Board. This optical 
apparatus was itself a distinguishing feature of our improvement in glass manufacture. 
Hitherto all the lenses of this order had been supplied from the Continent. The light- 
houses on our own shores could only be rendered effective by the use of French and 
German glass. . Here we had, however, the most interesting proof that we can make 
these beautifully arranged lenses and catadioptric zones for ourselves. Fresnel claims 
the merit of this last improvement, by which a total reflection of all the light is effected; 
but at the same time it must not be forgotten that the experiments and suggestions of 
Sir David Brewster, during the investigation of the commissioners appointed to report 
on the northern light-houses, were the starting point of the inductive process from 
which this- final deduction was derived. Messrs. Apsley Pellatt and Co. exhibited all 
the materials employed in the manufacture of flint glass, together with models of the 
glass-house furnaces, and examples of the purest crystal, particularly as employed for 
candelabra and chandeliers. '• 

The exhibition of these various objects sufficiently proved the perfection of this branch 
of manufacture. It is not merely in its transparency and in its freedom from colour 
that the beauty of flint glass,- or crystal, consists — it is in the diamond-like property 
of sending back the rays to the eye in greater brilliancy than it receives them ; and in 
this respect -much of that which was shown in the Exhibition was very perfect. The 
English were not formerly successful in giving colour to their glass; there was always 
a want of that brightness which distinguished the works of the Germans, and par- 
ticularly of the Bohemians. The colours are given in nearly all cases by metallic oxides, 
and these vary not merely in tint, but actually in colour, by the quantity of heat to 
which the fused mixture is exposed. In the Bohemian glass, a ruby, in particular, was 
produced of far greater beauty than anything which our manufacturers could accomplish. 
This colour is due to oxide of gold, although reds of much brilliancy can be produced 
by copper, and also by iron. Some examples of the reds produced by these metals 
were found amongst the productions of British exhibitors ; and upon examining the 
examples of Bohemian glass, it became apparent that we can now produce glass in 
every respect as brilliant and as intense in colour as that which has rendered our con- 
tinental friends so long celebrated. In the articles exhibited by Mr. Varnish and Mr. 
Mellish, these colours were well shown. Most of the glass exhibited by them was 
manufactured by Messrs. Powell and Co., Whitefriars, and this itself presented a 
noticeable peculiarity. All the glass was double, the object of this being to enable 
the patentees to fill the inside with a solution of nitrate of silver, to which grape sugar 
was added, when all the silver held in solution was deposited in a beautiful film of revived 
silver over every part of the glass. This silvering on the interior wall of the glass 
(globes, vases, and numerous other articles were shown to be susceptible of the process) 
has the property of reflecting back through the glass all "the light which falls on the 
surface — whereas ordinarily some is transmitted, and only a small portion reflected. 
This exalts many, of the colours in a striking manner, and not only does it exalt the 
colours, but the dichromism of the glass is curiously displayed. Much of the red and 
yellow glass thus assumes an opalescent tinge of blue, which, in some examples, is not 
unpleasing. We greatly admired some of the coloured examples of this process, but 

we cannot think that the pure white glass — the beauty of which is its transparency 

is in any respect improved by silvering. 

The illustrations of engraving on glass were numerous, and many of them exceedingly 
beautiful. We particularly admired "some of the specimens by Mr. Kidd of his hew 
process of illuminating, embroidering, and silvering flat surfaces. All the designs were 




JEngrscvedTjy G Qronthadi. iwrii a Da^tieEreoljjw 



GROUP OF BOHEMIAN GLASS VASES 

EXHIBITED IN THE AUSTRIAN DEPARTMENT 



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.™d lirGGrtatlvidiii-cra I'Dzgncrrectj-p 1 ■ 



CHANDELIERS IN COATED CLASS 

EXHIBITED IN THE AUSTRIAN DEPARTMENT 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 83 

cut on the under face of the glass, and then being silvered, were thrown up in a very 
pleasing manner, producing an optical deception of an interesting character. In many 
of the engraved specimens we had the very beautiful effect of cutting through several 
surfaces of coloured glass, down to the translucent body. The opaque glass coating, 
which may be produced either by mixing oxide of tin or arsenic with the glass, is first 
laid over the crystal ; then on this is applied the ruby glass, and where the ruby has 
been produced by gold the result is most satisfactory. These being cut through, present 
the three surfaces in any way which may be decided on by the artist. Rice Harris and 
Son's pressed glass was of the greatest interest. By pressing into moulds, this elegant 
material is produced to the public in useful and symmetrical forms, at prices consider- 
ably below those at which cut flint glass could possibly be offered. Many of the speci- 
mens of pressed glass exhibited, had a degree of sharpness in all the ornamental parts, 
which rendered it difficult, without a close examination, to say whether or not they had 
been subjected to the operation of the glass-cutter's wheel. Among other new applica- 
tions of this process of pressing glass into form, Messrs. Powell and Sons, of the White- 
friars Glass-works, exhibited their patent pressed glass for windows. There is much 
novelty and ingenuity in this. The pattern is pressed in the glass, and then, by a subse- 
quent process, glass of another colour is flowed into it j the whole is then ground down 
to a uniform surface, and the result is an inlaid pattern of glass of one colour, in glass 
of another. The windows formed in this manner were very effective ; and it appeared to 
us that they realized the results which in stained glass are only obtained by the long- 
comtinued action of the atmosphere and Hght. None of our modern church windows 
realised that " dim religious light" which is peculiar to those older fanes standing as 
memorials of the piety of our forefathers. The hght permeating the modern windows 
suffers ordinary chromatic analysis, and falls upon the floor in well-defined colour, and 
the outline of the design can be easily traced. In those of olden time the colours fall 
blended ; there is a general diffusion of tones, no one colour coming out more decidedly 
than another. Upon examining old glass windows it will be found that the utmost 
pains had been taken to secure this effect; the glass is often purposely roughened j 
frequently pieces of different colours are blended ; but still the action of time and the 
abrasion of the exposed surface is the important agent to which the harmonious effect 
is due. Messrs. Hardman and Co. have had glass manufactured purposely to endeavour 
to imitate the required condition of the mediaeval styles, and in many of their windows 
they have been eminently successful. The antiquity of pressed glass is very remarkable. 
The Assyrians, the. Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans, all adopted the process of 
pressing or squeezing the glass, when it was in a pasty state, into moulds. Some fine 
examples of this will be found amongst the glass series in the Museum of Practical 
Geology. The examples of plate-glass were exceedingly good. The Thames Plate Glass- 
works exhibited at the western end of the building the largest plate glass hitherto 
manufactured. The examples of British plate which were found in the Spitalfields trophy 
were beautiful specimens of this class of manufacture. On the whole, the glass manu- 
facture of the Exhibition — commencing with the sands, alkalies, and models, and termi- 
nating with the great Glass Palace itself, and its fancy fountain— was exceedingly com- 
plete, and of the highest interest. 



THE CHEAT EXHIBITION" 



CHAPTER XIV. 



pbeciows stones— -mb,: hope's collection — the diamond, sapphibe, emeba1d, gaenet, etc. 
• — queen of Spain's jewels — the jewelled hawk-kpeabls. 

/The, high estimation that in all ages has been bestowed upon jewels and precious 
■stones, is perhaps sufficiently to be accounted for, when we take into consideration their 
essential qualities of light, and . colour,' and durability ; and the correspondence which, 
in consequence of these valuable attributes, they possess with respect to the more elevated 
principles in the world of mind. Frequent mention is made of, them; in Holy Writ, 
from the breast-plate of Aaron described by Moses, to the sublime account ia the 
.Apocalypse, of the wonders of the Holy City, its shining courts, and its gates of pearl, 
.in all ( which description there is doubtless involved some mystic meaning connected with 
the.future, glorious destiny of the church, not obviously apparent to the merely superficial 
or general reader, In the . wprld of poetry, too, constant recurrence is made to the 
different qualities of precious stones, and their reference to various physical endowments. 
Mental acuteness, and brilliancy of imagination, are invariably likened to the radiance 
of the diamond, whilst constancy and truth are equally represented in its unchange- 
ableness and its durability. What can be more appropriate or beautiful than the lines 
of Collins, where, in illustration of the playfulness of wit and repartee, in one of the 
characters in his Ode to Music, he says — 

" The jewels in whose crisped hair 
Were placed each other's beams to share." 

And with respect to personal beauty, who among all the votaries of Apollo ever 
neglected, in speaking of the brilliancy of his mistress's eyes, to compare them to the 
lustre of the diamond, her teeth to orient pearl, or her lips or her cheeks to the glowing 
ruby ? The treasures of the secret mine have indeed been an inexhaustible source of 
comparison and metaphor, from the days of old Anaereon to those of his great rival 
and imitator, of Hibernian celebrity. Pliny, and other early writers on the subject of 
gems, attributed various occult qualities and miraculous powers to precious stones in 
general; they were also supposed to possess rare medicinal qualities, an opinion sanctioned 
by our own great philosopher Boyle,, in whose time were to be found in the Materia 
Medica such compositions as the Elecfuarium e Gemmis, Confectio de Hyacinthis, &c, 
with which the more opulent of our forefathers endeavoured to ward off the stroke of 
death. The diamond more particularly enjoyed a high repute for these and other hidden 
virtues ; it was considered as an infallible specific in many diseases, and a test of con- 
jugal fidelity, a reconciler of domestic strife, and. an amulet of highest power against 
poisons, insanity, witchcraft, incantations, nocturnal goblins/ and evil spirits. 

Never before in the history of the world was thereto daxge a collection of valuable 
gems and exquisite specimens of the lapidary's .art collected in. one building as was 
exhibited, in the Crystal Palace. The Exhibition contained the finest diamond, the finest 
ruby, and the finest emerald known to the world. For a sight of a single one of these 
stones an adventurous, voyager traversed enormous distances two centuries ago, and by 
dint of extraordinary influence, audacity, and fortune, was enabled to record himself as 
the only European who had ever succeeded in the attempt. That stone was lately placed 
in Hyde Park, and might have been seen by any working man in the country for a 
shilling. The richest collection of treasures ever known was formerly to be found at 
Dresden. Its existence was due to a singular succession of wealthy and acquisitive 



w WinprrV*1iW\*im'V^^1fWWimiFW»VWV*VVWW 




l&gr.irocL'brG'.UrMCt.'bich. teno jUraraig ~bj S 3futm 

THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA'S JEWEL CASKET 

IN EBONY, THE FRUITS, *c. IN PRECIOUS STONES. 




HER MAJESTY'S JEWEL CASE , 

IN THE CINQUE CENTO STYLE BY ELK1 NCTON . DE SICNE D BY CRU N E R . 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTEY. 85 

princes, in an age which favoured such fancies j its preservation, to an impregnable for- 
tress within a few miles of the capital. It was deposited with extreme care in the vaults 
of the royal palace, and was only to be seen on the payment of a considerable fee, and 
after compliance with stringent conditions. Travellers and travellers' guides were full of 
the magnificence of these « Green Vaults," of the matchless splendour of their contents, 
and the unparalleled cost of their ornaments. Yet, if the "Green Vaults" could have 
been transferred bodily to Hyde Park, they would not have constituted either the richest 
or the most curious of the hundred compartments of the Crystal Palace. In objects of 
historical interest they would, of course, surpass what professed to be an exhibition of 
modern industry alone ; but in singularity and value the collection would be altogether 
excelled by the contributions around it. Of the splendid and unpurchaseable diamond 
called the " Mountain of Light" we have spoken in a former chapter. 

A most valuable and interesting addition had been made to the department of gems 
and precious stones in the Exhibition, by Mr. A. J. B. Hope, M.P., who deposited therein 
a portion of his valuable collection. They were placed upon a pedestal firmly secured 
to the floor, and covered with a circular iron frame, made by Mr. Chubb, similar in form 
to that which contained the priceless Koh-i-Noor. In this collection of Mr. Hope was 
the largest known pearl in the world; its length was 2 inches, its circumference 4£ 
inches, and its weight 3 ounces, or 1,800 grains. Near this splendid specimen was 
placed a very beautiful Hungarian opal 1-j-g- inch in length, by 1^ in breadth. A 
third specimen was the handle of the favourite weapon of Murat's, "the handsome 
swordsman," the hilt of which was formed of a single beryl or aquamarine. A rough 
beryl deposited near it showed its original condition. " Le Saphir Merveilleux" — a 
sapphire of an amethystine colour by candle-light — was viewed with interest by every 
admirer of the delightful productions of Madame de Genlis, one of whose most charming 
tales is founded upon this very stone, which was formerly in the possession of Philippe 
Egalite ; with many other specimens of equal interest. 

Among the minerals employed for personal decoration, the diamond evidently occupies 
the most prominent position, both on account of the beauty of the gem itself, and also 
because of its immense commercial value. The diamond, like charcoal, is composed of 
carbon ; and, in a chemical point of view, differs from it only in being perfectly free 
from traces of the earthy and other impurities with which the latter substance, even 
when most carefully prepared, is to a considerable extent contaminated. This mineral, 
although principally used in ornamental jewellery, is likewise applicable to many other 
purposes ; in consequence of its extreme hardness it is now extensively employed for 
making the pivot-holes of the better description of watches ; it has also been used in 
the formation of holes through which very fine metallic wires are drawn, besides 
furnishing the only convenient tool which can be employed for cutting glass. 

The countries in which this gem has been as yet discovered are far from numerous, 
the only localities in which it is found being, the Indian peninsula, Brazil, the island of 
Borneo, and Siberia, on the western side of the Ural mountains. Its geological position 
appears to be among diluvial gravel and conglomerate rocks or pudding-stone, consisting 
chiefly of rolled flint pebbles and ferruginous sand. India has from the most remote 
ages been celebrated for the beauty and magnitude of its diamonds, the largest and 
most valuable of which are obtained from the mines in the provinces of Golconda and 
Visapoor. The tract of country producing these gems extends from Cape Comorin to, 
Bengal, and lies at the foot of a chain of mountains called the Orixa, which appear to 
belong' to the trap-rock formation. The diamonds obtained from even the richest 
localities are rarely procured by directly searching the strata in which they are found, 
since they are commonly so coated with an earthy crust on the outside, as not to be 



86 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

readily distinguishable from the various other substances with which they are associated. 
For this reason the stony matter is first broken into fragments, and then washed in 
basins for the purpose of separating the loose earth ; after which the residual gravel is 
spread out on a level piece of ground, where it is allowed to dry, and where the diamonds 
are recognised from their sparkling in the sun — thus enabling the miners readily to 
discriminate between them and the stony matters with which they are associated. 

Among the other minerals much prized by the jeweller, many specimens of which 
were found in the Crystal Palace, may be mentioned the sapphire, which, when per- 
fectly transparent and of a good colour, is as highly esteemed as the diamond. This 
gem is almost entirely composed of alumina, the various colours of different individual 
specimens being occasioned by extremely minute admixtures of the metallic oxides. 
Those having a blue colour are known as Oriental sapphires, whilst others not having 
the same oxides in combination are differently coloured, and consequently receive various 
distinctive names. When red, they are called Oriental rubies ; when yellow, Oriental 
topazes ; when violet, Oriental amethysts ; and when they are hair-brown, adamantine 
spar. The finest blue specimens of this gem have been procured from Ceylon. The 
most esteemed red varieties come from the Capelan mountains, in the kingdom of 
Ava ; and the smaller stones of the same kind are occasionally met with in Saxony, 
Bohemia, and Auvergne. Amethysts are principally brought from the Carnatic, on 
the Malabar coast, and elsewhere in the East Indies. 

The emerald is a precious stone of a beautiful green colour, valued next to the 
diamond, and in the same rank as the Oriental ruby and sapphire. It occurs crystallized 
in regular six-sided prisms, and has a specific gravity of 2'70. In composition this 
gem may be considered as a double silicate of alumina and glucina, mixed with variable 
small portions of iron and a little lime. 

The garnet is a vitreous mineral belonging to the cubic system, and of which the 
predominating form is the rhomboidal dodecahedron. Its constituents are silica, alumina, 
lime, and protoxide of iron. It is usually found disseminated in the primitive forma- 
tions, and frequently occurs in gneiss and clay-slate. Garnets are abundantly met 
with in many parts of Europe, particularly in Germany ; but those of Pegu are the most 
esteemed. Quartz, or silicic acid in a crystalline form, is also frequently cut for orna- 
mental purposes, and, when limpid and entirely free from flaws, is a very beautiful 
stone. When existing in the form of calcedony, and variously coloured by metallic 
oxides, the substance receives the name of cat's-eye, plasma, chrysoprase, onyx, sardonyx, 
&c. It has a vitreous lustre, a conchoidal fracture, and a specific gravity of 2-69. The 
chrysolite, called "peridot" by Haiiy, and the French mineralogists, is probably the 
topaz of the ancients. It is the softest of the precious stones, being scratched by the 
file or a fragment of quartz. Among the numerous examples of this mineral, as adapted 
for ornamental purposes, may be mentioned various very beautiful stones from Cairngo- 
ram, in Aberdeenshire, both cut and in the natural state. A case containing some 
specimens of peculiar briliancy was exhibited by Mr. Jamieson, of Aberdeen, near the 
western extremity of the space allotted to mineral productions. Some fine specimens 
in their natural state were to be seen in the Highland stall of Mr. M'Dougall, in the 
gallery on the south side of the transept. Opal, or uncleavable quartz, has a conchoidal 
fracture, with a resinous or vitreous lustre, accompanied by a strong play of colours. 
It occurs in kidney-shaped or stalactitic concretions, and has a specific gravity of 2091. 
Hungary was long the only locality of precious opal, where it occurs in connexion with 
common opal in a sort of porphyritic formation. Lately, however, some very fine 
specimens of this substance have been discovered in the Faroe Islands ; and most beau- 
tiful ones, sometimes quite transparent, are obtained near Gracias a Dias, in the province 




En£:aTOdlyG.Gr*atbacli,frmi aDrarrfing 1? S .Mason 

DIADEM, 

CONTAINING 1900 BR! LLIANTS , YJEICH INC 260 CARATS , AN D 1760 ROSE DIAMON DS . II OPALS , AN D 67 RU Bl ES , 

ALL THE STONES BEING SET EN GRIFFS , VALUE t4fi00 

MANUFAC? BY MESS H . S BALI N & AIN S T PETERSBURGH . 




Engla-vod lyOGxea.Lbofi^j^om.a.Dra.'vdiig'b^ 5-Maean 



DIAMOND AND RUBY STOMACHER, 

CONSTRUCTED TO SEPARATE INTO SEVERAL DISTINCT PIECES OF J EWELLERY, AS BOUQUETS, Sc . 
MANUI ACTURFD BY MOREL, LONDON 



OP THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY 87 

dZlnS ! q S been sold at. prices nearly equal to those obtained for 
diamonds of the same bulk. They are especially esteemed by the Turks and are 
usually cut into a convex shape. The value set on this stone by tL ancients appears to 

IZnz wkhS ST*?™^ a V^ ni ^ *e Roman senator/preferred banishment o 
parting with his favourite opal, which was coveted by Mark Antony 

vi 1 q *° 1S £°* Calai h is , . a , mauiTO mine ™l found only in the neighbourhood of 
Nichabour, in Persia and is highly prized as an ornamental stone in that country' 
Its colour is greemsh-blue, but those varieties are most esteemed in which the blue 
predominates. It is composed of alumina, oxide of copper, Oxide of iron, and phosphoric 
acid, and has a specific gravity varying from 2-83 to 3-00. There is also anoflier totally 
different variety of this substance, known by the name of bone turquoise, which appears 
a phosphate of lime more or less coloured with phosphate of copper. Malachite, or green 
carbonate of copper, is also frequently used for personal decoration ; numerous specimens 
were to be found m the Russian department, worked up into a variety of splendid 
objects. .Besides the Hope Jewels, already noticed, there was a magnificent display 
belonging to the Queen of Spain, exhibited by M. Lemonniere, of Paris, consisting 
principally of diamonds, pearls, rubies, and emeralds, the diamonds greatly preponder- 
ating. They were, perhaps, the best specimens of well-set gems that were exhibited. 
In point of radiance and gorgeousness, however, the " Diamond and Ruby Stomacher" 
by Morel, was a powerful rival to the most splendid of all these costly adornments— a 
truly sumptuous production, upon which the jewellery trade of England might be bold 
to stake its reputation in the face of the world. It was originally intended and designed 
as a bouquet, but was equally, perhaps more appropriately, available as a stomacher; 
moreover, it was so constructed as to separate into several distinct pieces of jewellery, 
according to requirement. The diamonds were all of the finest water, and the rubies 
were described as "a unique collection." The setting was contrived with springs, 
resulting in a waving or slightly oscillating motion when in use, which displayed to the 
fullest extent the brilliant colours of the stones. Messrs. Hunt and Roskell were large 
contributors to the splendours of this department. The principal and all-attractive 
object among the various treasures they exhibited was a magnificent diamond bouquet, 
a perfect specimen of the art of diamond setting. The flowers (comprising the anemone, 
rose, carnation, &c.) were all modelled from nature. This brilliant structure was divided 
into seven different sprigs, each perfect in design; and the complicated flowers, by 
mechanical contrivances, were so arranged as to separate for the purpose of effectual 
cleaning. In the production of this costly work nearly 6,000 diamonds were employed, 
the largest of which weighed upwards of ten carats, whilst some of the smallest, in the 
stamens of the flowers, did not exceed the thousandth part of a carat. We also 
observed from the same party an ornament for the head, composed of branch coral, orna- 
mented by leaves of enamel and gold, enriched with diamonds, a very elegant production, 
of chaste effect. There were also several brooches, bracelets, and other ornaments, 
enriched with diamonds and other precious stones, not the least curious amongst which 
were some specimens of ear-rings in emeralds, • diamonds, carbuncles, &c, after the 
sculptures from Nineveh. Messrs. Paravagna and Casella, from Genoa, also sent a 
variety of ornaments of the same material. We may here remark that red coral has, 
from time immemorial, been used in jewellery, in all parts of the world, in beads, brooches, 
drops, bracelets, charms, studsi and fancy contrivances. The price varies from one 
shilling up to £5 and. £20 per ounce. The best colours are considered a bright red 
or pale pink : the latter is most scarce, We must not confound with this substance 



88 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

the coral reefs found by mariners, as they are nothing but a spongy white rock, having 
no analogy whatever with the real red coral. The fishery of the real coral is carried on 
in the Mediterranean Sea. The largest samples are taken along the Barbary coast, but 
not the darkest colours. Along the coast of Spain a considerable quantity is taken 
annually, of a deep red colour, but sometimes rather wormy. The pink and deepest red, 
but in comparatively small branches, are taken in the Straits of Bonifacio, between 
Corsica and Sardinia. The amount annually taken varies from £100,000 to £200,000, 
the principal stations for the fishing-smacks being La Torre del Greco, near Naples ; 
Leghorn ; and Santa Margherita, near Genoa. This article is supposed to give employ- 
ment to from 10,000 to 20,000 hands. 

Not, however, to weary our readers with too lengthened an account of these " glittering 
gauds," we shall for the present close our caskets of diamonds with a brief notice of the 
Jewelled Hawk, the property of the Duke of Devonshire, in the Netherlands department, 
whose history is not without interest. It rejoiced in a name proper, being the " Knyp- 
hausen Hawk," and was made, many a long year ago, to commemorate the reconcili- 
ation of two noble Dutch families which had been long at variance. It contained within 
its gay plumage the identical gold drinking-cup which was used by the rival counts upon 
the auspicious day of their reconcilement, and which was discovered upon removing the 
head of the bird. The wings and body were chiefly covered with rubies ; turquoises, 
emeralds, and other precious stones, were displayed in other parts. The bird stood about 
a foot high, more or less, and had a very stately appearance. We must now be allowed 
to make a few remarks upon pearls, since, although they cannot exactly be classed 
among precious stones, they must still be included under the head of "jewels;" indeed 
without them the richest casket on the toilet of the duchess would be considered as 
incomplete. We shall on this head avail ourselves of the following observations of an 
able contemporary in the pages of the Westminster Review. And first, with respect to 
mother-of-pearl. " The brilliant lustre and gleaming irridescence of its shelly envelope 
are not always destined to remain hidden in the depths of the ocean, or immured within 
mountains of rock. The painted savage appreciates its pearly charms, and plunges 
beneath the waves to seek the living joints of his simple necklace and armlets, or to 
supply his civilized brother with highly-prized materials for more elaborate ornaments. 
Mother-of-pearl, as it is called, is the nacreous portion of the shells of certain molluscs 
belonging to very different orders. Its charming colouring is not due to pigments, but 
caused by the arrangements of the layers of membrane and solid matter of which it is 
composed. The nacreous shells which, furnish it are now sought for greedily wherever 
they can be obtained in sufficient quantity, and form articles of considerable import. 
From our own seas, or rather from the sea around the Channel Isles, we procure the 
Haliotis, or sea-ear, to use in the decorations of papier-mache work, and other and larger 
kinds of the same curious genus are brought from the shores and islands of the Pacific 
Ocean for the same purpose. They furnish the deep-coloured and richer-hued dark- 
green and purple mother-of-pearl; the brighter and paler kinds are derived from the 
shells of the pearl-oysters, almost all inhabitants of tropical regions. The nacre of pearls 
themselves is identical with the substance of these shells. These jewels of animal origin, 
so highly prized for their chaste beauty, are only the rejected or superabundant secretions 
of a shell-fish, consisting of concentrically-disposed layers of animal matter and car- 
bonate of lime. In most instances they are consequences of the attempts of irritated 
and uneasy molluscs to make the best of an unavoidable evil ; for, rendered uncomfort- 
able, their peace of mind and ease of body destroyed by some intruding and extraneous 
substance — a grain of sand perchance, or atom of splintered shell — the creature incloses 
its torturing annoyance in a smooth-coated sphere of gem-like beauty. Would that 



OP THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 89 

we bipeds could treat our troubles so philosophically, and convert our secret cankers 
into sparkling treasures !" 

Shakspere has observed that — 

" To gild refined gold, to paint the lily, 
To throw a perfume on the violet, 
Were wasteful and ridiculous excess," 

and we might equally suppose that any attempt to impart an additional value to the 
priceless commodities we have been describing in the present chapter would be just as 
hopeless and unavailing. Nevertheless the hand of Art has not laboured upon them 
in vain. Engraved gems are among the most valued treasures in royal and national 
museums. " Gems," says Hartley Coleridge, " always remind me of the enchanted rings 
and amulets of romances, of Gyges> and the Barmecides, and those marvellous crystals 
in whose translucent water necromancers beheld the face of things that are to be." 

The earliest mention of engraving upon stones, as of carved figures, is to be found 
in Holy Writ. We are told, in the Book of Genesis, that Judah gave his signet and 
his bracelets to Tamar, and that Pharoah took his signet-ring from off his own hand 
and put it on that of Joseph. We are also informed in Exodus, that Moses was com- 
manded to engrave the names of the children of Israel on two onyx stones, "with 
the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet." To the Egyptians, 
who loaded their obelisks, the columns and walls of their palaces, temples, and tombs, 
with figures and hieroglyphic characters, the transition from tracing them on metals 
and precious stones was natural and easy. Their favourite productions in their com- 
mencement of this branch of art were stones cut in the form of the scarabeus, an insect 
venerated by them as the symbol of the sun, the principle of reproduction of all things, 
with attributes of their gods or heroes engraved upon the back. They regarded these 
stones as preservatives against disease and mischance; ornamented them with the 
images of their divinities, and the garments of their priests ; bestowed them as marks 
of honour upon the living, and endeavoured to impart their beneficial influence even to 
the dead, by placing them upon their bodies in the tomb. After the Egyptians, we must 
look to the Etruscans for engraved gems ; in which, as in sculpture, their first efforts 
were rude and stiff, as those of their predecessors. It is not however with the early 
efforts of this exquisite branch of art that we wish to detain our readers ; we would 
rather introduce it at once to them as it existed in Greece at the same period when all 
the other arts attained their full perfection, that is to say, in the time of Alexander the 
Great. The Greeks paid equal attention to the minute as to the colossal. Size was 
no criterion to them, in their scale of excellence ; and, as in the world of nature, the 
wisdom and goodness of the Deity are as evident in the organization of an ant as in 
that of an elephant, so in the world of art they could display as much grandeur of 
thought and purity of design within the circlet of a ring, as in the decoration of their 
majestic temples, and stately porticoes. Hence it is that their engraved gems are still 
and ever will be considered as among the choicest treasures of antiquity. In them are 
presented to us every subject of god and hero, allegory, and emblem; religious, 
historical, poetical, or mystical, that comes within observation or tradition; to themthe 
most precious stones, the emerald, the ruby, the amethyst, the chalcedon, the cornelian, 
the topaz were consecrated; and in them, as Pliny admiringly says, "we see nature in 
all her majesty, condensed within narrow compass."— flic in unum coacta rerum natural 

m Were it possible to collect in one cabinet a complete series of ancient gems, we should 
nossess in fairy editions an entire and most comprehensive library of materials for the 
history of every thing connected with Greece and Rome, in their « most high and palmy 

2 A 



90 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

state ;" no wonder, then, that those which have actually come down to us should afford 
an incessant subject of inexhaustible gratification to the poet and the artist, the historian 
and the philosopher. 

The earliest Greek engraver of precious stones; whose name, has been recorded, is 
Theodorus of Samos, who flourished 750 b.c. He engraved for^ Polycrates, tyrant of 
Samos, a lyre for his signet ring, upon an emerald of such value that it was deemed by 
its owner a fit offering to the marine deities, to propitiate the evils that he feared might 
be in store for him, to counterbalance the unmixed good fortune of his life up to that 
period. Accordingly, he threw it into the sea, as we are told by Herodotus; but 
according to that same graphic historian, he was not to be deprived of any thing he 
possessed ; for lo ! on sitting down to table, when a fish of extraordinary size and 
superior quality was served up to him, he beheld again in its stomach his own identical 
ring, which it had caught from his hand upon the surface of the wave. The art of 
engraving upon gems was carried, as we have already remarked, to the highest perfection 
among the Greeks at the same time that they attained their utmost excellence in 
sculpture. The first devices upon them were simple, consisting of some single object, 
as the lyre, in the ring of Polycrates ; or an animal, as the lion, which was worn by 
Pompey in a ring, out of compliment to Hercules> with whom he loved to claim affinity. 
But they soon came into request for portraits, of which the Greeks, as well as the 
Romans, were passionately fond, insomuch that few families of note were without 
statues of their relatives and friends. Alexander the Great was so exclusive on this 
point, that he allowed only one sculptor, Lysippus, to mould his statue ; one painter, 
Apelles, to paint his portrait ; and one engraver, Pryrgotoles, to engrave his likeness. 
One of the most important features, however, connected with engraved gems, was the 
beautiful moral lessons inculcated in the mythological subjects they continually present 
— subjects in which modern eyes seldom discern anything beyond the mere outline of 
some fabulous incident, of which they retain an imperfect recollection from their school 
days' learning; but to the mental view of those who looked deeper into them, they 
revealed truths equally beneficial for practice as for meditation. How, for instance, 
could an exhortation to temperance be given more pleasingly than it is conveyed in a 
fine sardonyx in the Orleans collection, showing the youthful Bacchus dancing hand- 
in-hand with three water-nymphs, in illustration of the caution observed by the wiser 
Greeks, the anti-Anacreonites, to mix three parts water with their wine, prettily alluded 
to by Enenus in an epigram thus rendered by Merrivale : — 

" 'Tis young Bacchus' chiefest pleasure 

To move with Naiads three, in linked measure, 

'Tis then he is good company 

For sports, and loves* and decent jollity : 

But when alone, avoid his breath ! 

He breathes not love but sleep — a sleep like death.'' 

But it would far exceed our limits to enter upon even the briefest view of half the 
interesting subjects and their important meanings, that are to be found in the engraved 
gems of Greece. Such was the magnificence and taste of the ancients, that they not 
only employed engraved gems for seals, rings, bracelets, armlets, ear-riugs, necklaces, 
buckles, clasps and girdles, but ornamented their robes, and even their sandals with 
them. Nor did the warrior disdain to place them in his helmet, breast-plate, and 
buckler, the hilt and scabbard of his sword, nay, upon his saddle also and the trap- 
pings of his horse. Thousands and thousands of intaglios and cameos were set in the 
gold and silver cups, vases, and plates, which the rich and luxurious consecrated as orna- 
• ments of their sideboards, or which pride or bigotry deposited in the temples of their 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 91 

divinities. With a similar profusion, even large cups, goblets, vases, and urns were 
made of solid onyx, sardonyx, and rock crystal, externally ornamented with relievo 
work by great and eminent masters. Calculation is astounded at the enormous expense 
and the immense time and labour that must have been bestowed upon this branch of 
art. Some idea of it, though a very inadequate one, might have been formed, by the 
examination of a small cup of rock-crystal in the Crystal Palace, the setting of which, 
we were informed, had cost three hundred pounds ; though undoubtedly the materials 
of which that setting is composed fall far below in actual value that of many of the 
tazze, which may be seen in the British Museum. The art of engraving on precious 
stones gradually declined among the Romans from the time of Augustus to the beghv 
ning of the seventh century, when it disappeared entirely in the long night of barbarity 
and ignorance, justly designated by the appropriate term of the dark ages. 

Michael Angelo, Raphael, the Carraccis, Poussin, and other celebrated painters, have 
borrowed largely from the gems of Greece : the sculptors the same. Some of Gibson's 
finest productions — and where can finer be found ? — have originated in the ideas they 
have suggested to him. The Amazon defending her horse from the attack of a ferocious 
tiger, by Kiss, of Berlin, so much admired in the Crystal Palace, was taken from an 
antique gem ; and the veiled figures of Tuscan (we will not say Austrian) workmanship, 
which excited equal wonder and admiration, were probably suggested by the exquisite 
gem by Tryphon, of the marriage of Cupid and Psyche, wherein the bridal pair are 
represented linked together by a chain of pearls, and covered with the nuptial veil, 
through which their features are seen in all the beauty of youth and innocence — a 
masterpiece of art, of which no imitation is to be found, save in the half-veiled head 
of Ptolemy Autetes, on a gem in the Orleans collection, and that of the Empress Sabina 
on another, formerly in the Crispi collection, at Ferrara. The art began to revive, how- 
ever, in the fifteenth century, and its present state, in the skilful hands of such an artist 
as Girometti, of Rome, warrants us in the assertion that, although neglected for so long 
a period, it now bids fair to emulate the high and well-merited reputation it anciently 
enjoyed. The artist we have just mentioned, we are informed, had prepared a magni- 
ficent sample of his skill for the late Great Exhibition; the difficulty, however, of 
finding a safe conveyance for so precious a gem, and his being prevented from visiting 
our shores himself, proved, unfortunately for the lovers of art, insurmountable obstacles 
to his design. We have hitherto chiefly spoken of the art of cutting subjects on gems 
in intaglio, or indenting, a simpler and easier process than relieving the work from a 
ground ', we will now make a few remarks upon the more elaborate mode of relievo, or 
relief. There has been much unsatisfactory discussion respecting the origin and exact 
meaning of the word cameo, or camaieu, as it is sometimes written. In the language of 
art, it is usually applied to gems or stones, and latterly to shells, that are worked in 
relievo ; and strictly speaking, it refers to such stones only as have strata or grounds of 
different colours. It is impossible to describe works of this sort, containing so much fine 
detail, with sufficient accuracy to convey a just idea of their merits. They must be 
seen, and examined with care, to be properly appreciated; but it will not be amiss to 
notice a few of the most celebrated camei that are preserved in the museums of Europe, 
One of the finest is the Apotheosis of Augustus, in the collection at Vienna. It repre- 
sents Augustus, his wife Livia, as Rome, accompanied by her family, with Neptune and 
Cybele ; another ia of an Imperial Eagle ; also a Ptolemy and Arsinoe, &e. &c. In 
the French collection, the sardonyx or Tiberius is one of the best known : it exhibits 
the Apotheosis of Augustus, and the princes of the house of Tiberius ; a Jupiter 
iEgiochus is a very fine specimen : to which may be added the Apotheosis of Germa- 
nicus, and one of Agrippina and Germanicus; with others, particularly some portraits 



92 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

of great interest. We possess in this country some camei of first-rate excellence, but 
they are chiefly in private collections. The workers in cameo not only exercised their 
skill in the cutting or engraving, but also in so arranging their subject, and the com- 
position of its details, as to make the different colours or zones of the stones answer 
for parts of the design ; as, for example, in relieving fruit, flowers, or drapery in colour, 
while the other parts, as the flesh of a portrait or figure, were left white ; or, cutting the 
subject entirely in white, and working no deeper into the stone than the first layer of 
colour, thus making, or rather leaving, a natural dark back-ground for the design. These 
irregularities are sometimes taken advantage of so skilfully, that it is very difficult to 
decide whether the variety is the effect of art, or really the natural colour of the stone. 
The ancients so greatly admired this variously-coloured work, that they even imitated 
the material in glass, and we possess in this country a fine specimen of their skill in 
the Barberini or Portland Vase, in the British Museum, the execution of which is of 
the first quality. This celebrated vase was a few years ago purposely dashed to pieces 
by one of those lunatics who seek to gain notoriety by some great act of malevolent 
mischief. It has been, nevertheless, completely repaired, and restored to its original 
beauty. The practice of working camei on shells, conchylie, is of comparatively modern 
introduction in Italy. It is now, however, particularly in Rome, practised with con- 
siderable success, and we may be allowed to hope it will be more practised by our own 
gem engravers. The subject is worked in relievo in the white or outer portion of the 
shell, while the inner surface, which is of a "darkish hue, is left for the ground. In the 
Boman department we observed several very good specimens of these camei, by Saulini, 
one of the best workers in that line of art. 



CHAPTER XV. 

MOSAIC WOBK — ITS HISTOBY — ANCIENT MOSAICS — EOMAN MOSAICS — riOEENTINE MOSAICS 
— THE CHEVALIEE BAEBEEI — STAINED AND PAINTED GLASS — MAEECHAL AND GUGNON — 
CHANCE, BEOTHEES, ETC. ETC. 

Mosaics are a kind of picture, executed with small pieces of glass or wood, pebbles, 
enamel, &c, fixed upon any given surface by means of mastic. Although this branch 
of art was well known and much practised by the ancients, Pliny has spoken of no express 
style, nor has he particularized any of the artists who wrought in it. We can only 
judge, therefore, by the appearance of antique relics of this kind, and by comparing 
them with modern performances, the method of executing which is known to us. When 
an artist commences a work in mosaic, he cuts in a stone plate a certain space, which 
he encircles with bands of iron. This space is covered with thick mastic, on which 
are laid, conformably to the particular design, the various substances meant to be used. 
During the whole of his work, the artist must have his eye constantly fixed on the 
picture which it is his object to copy. The mastic, in time, acquires the consistency 
of stone; it is susceptible of a polish like crystal. However, as the brilliancy thus 
acquired is injurious to the effect of the design itself, which is not clearly perceived 
through it, those mosaics which are applied to the adornment of cupolas, ceilings, &c, 
are generally less elaborately polished, the distance from which they are viewed pre- 
venting the spectator from detecting the inequalities of surface, or the interstices 
between the pieces of which the work is composed. The means have been discovered 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 93 

of giving to the colour of glass so many different shades, that it has been found to serve 
the purposes of all the various descriptions of painting. The artist in mosaic has all his 
various materials ranged before him in compartments, according to their several tints, 
in much the same way as the printer arranges his different letters. To Pompeo Savini, 
of Urbino, has been attributed the art of executing mosaics in relievo. 

The origin of mosaic work must, apparently, be sought in the East, the rich carpets 
of which were imitated in hard stone. It is probable that the art was known to the 
Phoenicians, but to the Greeks its perfection and glory are to be attributed. From 
Greece it passed, with the other ornamental points of knowledge, into Rome, towards 
the end of the republic j the Italian conquerors of Greece transporting from that country 
into their own the most beautiful specimens in the shape of pavements, &c, which they 
could discover. Sylla was the first Roman who caused a piece of mosaic work of any 
magnitude to be executed for the temple of Fortune at Praeneste (now Palsestrina) ; which 
mosaic, at least a great portion of it, still exists. At first they ornamented in this man- 
ner the pavements of buildings merely, but after a while the walls and arched ceilings 
also. The tents of the generals, in time of war, were also paved thus, to keep off the 
humidity of the ground, as Suetonius reports of the tent of Julius Caesar. The invention 
of coloured glass was a great discovery for the purposes of mosaic work. When the 
dark ages had driven the elegant arts out of Italy, mosaic work, as well as painting and 
sculpture, was preserved a considerable time amongst the Byzanthian Greeks, who used 
it to adorn the altars of their churches. Towards the conclusion of the thirteenth 
century, an Italian of the name of Tan* learnt to work in mosaic of a Greek called 
Apollonius, who decorated the cathedral of St. Mark at Venice, where is still preserved 
an admirable pavement executed by him. But, in general, these works are wanting in 
design, are in bad taste, and equally bad in colouring. Since then the art has been 
brought in Italy to a very high degree of perfection. Pope Clement VIII., at the com- 
mencement of the seventeenth century, contributed much to this end by adorning in 
mosaic all the interior part of the dome of St. Peter's. Among the earliest artists 
employed thereon were Paul Rossetti and Francis Zucchi. One of the greatest advan- 
tages of mosaic is its power of resisting all those things which ordinarily affect the beauty 
of painting, and another the facility with which one can repolish it without at all 
hazarding the brightness and effect of the colouring. At the same time, as it can only 
be worked slowly, and requires great exertion, it can never come into such general use as 
painting : nor would it have attained the degree of perfection which it did at Rome 
and Florence, had not the respective governments of those two states made a point of 
encouraging it. Among the most beautiful mosaics preserved in the pavements or 
walls of ancient buildings, we may particularize that found in a chamber in Hadrian's 
villa, near Tivoli, and the Palsestrine mosaic, before alluded to, which is remarkable for 
the light which its delineations throw on the history, local and natural, of Egypt. In 
the villa Albani is also a beautiful mosaic discovered in the territory of Urbino, which 
represents a school of philosophers, and another depicting the history of Hesione, 
daughter of Priam. In 1763 was found, in a villa near Pompeii (probably that of the 
Emperor Claudius), a mosaic representing three females with comic masks, and playing 
on various instruments. The name of the artist (DiOscorides, of Samos), was engraven 
thereon in Greek letters. There are, besides, a very great number of others which 
have been at sundry times dug up, and which present a greater or less degree of beauty 
and of excellence in the art. 

Among the mosaics exhibited in the Crystal Palace was a magnificent table, _ by the 
Chevalier Barberi, executed for the Emperor of Russia. In that style of art it was a 
work of consummate excellence. The principal cities of Italy contributed to form its 

2 B 



94 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

border. Rome brought forward her glorious old Coliseum and her mighty dome of St. 
Peter's ; Florence her Palazzo Vecchio, the old feudal residence of her former princes ; 
Venice displayed her church of St. Mark ; Milan her magnificent cathedral, that splendid 
wonder of Northern Italy, rearing its beautiful marble pinnacles of purest white towards 
the azure vault of heaven ; Genoa, la Superba, gave her ample port and her noble a 
amphitheatre of hills ; Naples, its pezzo de cielo caduto sul terra, as its inhabitants term 
its glorious bay, over which Vesuvius reared its inauspicious head ; while Palermo, with 
her Duomo, completed the magic circle. The rich tone of colour, the accuracy, of 
delineation, and the perfect finish that were found in this admirable work, could not 
have been surpassed by the delicacy of miniature oil painting ; so great, indeed, was its 
perfection, that the spectator might almost have required a microscopic examination to 
satisfy himself that the work of art before him was not the production of pencil and 
pigments, but of materials widely different. 

There was another mosaic to which we would also direct attention, if it be not 
invidious to particularize where all were excellent of their kind ; but we mention it, 
partly because it was a copy of a chef-d'oeuvre of Italian art — Guercino's " John the 
Baptist" — and partly because it had been produced in the great parent school of Roman 
mosaic art, the studio of the Vatican. It was the work of Signor Raffaelle Castellini. 
Although the Studio de Mosaici in the Vatican, which is maintained at great expense by 
ihe Papal government, chiefly for the purpose of decorating churches with mosaic copies 
of the masterpieces of Italian art, must be regarded as the great parent school, which 
has developed to its present state of perfection the art and mystery of mosaic working, 
there are, nevertheless, private establishments which produce works of great beauty for 
the decoration of mansions and palatial residences, and of these the mosaics in the Exhi- 
bition were beautiful specimens. Besides those already referred to, there were two 
handsome tables by Signor Boschetti, and others by Luigi and Domenico Moglia, pre- 
senting views of the Roman Forum, the Coliseum, the temples of Paestum, &c, which 
stood the test of close inspection, being very admirable works. Although the table 
above referred to, by the Chevalier Barberi — a name of European celebrity — was a most 
exquisite specimen, and well worthy of his fame, it is very much to be regretted that he 
had not been allowed to exhibit to the admiring eyes of all nations in the Crystal 
Palace a chef-d'oeuvre which he had just completed for the Emperor of Russia, and which 
he had been obliged to transmit immediately to St. Petersburg ; viz., a large octagonal 
pavement, containing twenty-eight figures, the central piece being a colossal head of 
Medusa, and the whole being surrounded by a border of fruits and flowers. The design 
was copied on a reduced scale from an ancient pavement in one of the rooms of the 
Vatican museum; but it would be impossible for any one thing to surpass another to 
a greater degree than that to which Barberi 5 s copy excels ihe original in drawing, 
colouring, and style of execution generally. He was aided in his work by his Russian 
pupils, who were placed in his studio by the Czar for the purpose of learning the art of 
mosaic decoration, with a view to founding a school of mosaic at St. Petersburg. 

The improvements in the mechanical parts of the operation of mosaic painting which 
have been introduced by Barberi are so great, that a work which would require upwards 
of four years for its completion in the Vatican studio, can now be executed by him in 
less than a year and-a-half. A remarkable instance of this celerity of operation was 
recently manifested at his studio, where a copy in mosaic of the St. Nicholas in the 
church of St. Peter, was made in something less than two years, although a similar work 
at the Vatican occupied from four to five years. The pavement above referred to took 
three years and-a-half in its execution. But these are works on the grand scale, to 
which the mosaics in the Exhibition only bore the relation of miniatures to full-length 



OF THE "WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 95 

paintings. The latter, however, were well calculated to impress on a mind hitherto 
unacquainted with mosaic works, a correct idea of this peculiar and beautiful branch 
of art. 

The Florentine mosaics are very different in structure from the Roman, being com- 
posed of the most valuable marble, jasper, chalcedony, agate, lapis lazuli, &c, from 
which thin layers are cut out of such portions as can be made to represent leaves and 
flowers, in which form they are inlaid into a solid slab of Mack marble. This con- 
stitutes the ground ; the pattern generally consists of wreaths of lilies, roses, vine leaves, 
or any other graceful or beautiful objects which require soft shades and delicate tints of 
colour. "We have seen, at Florence, a tahle made in this manner, which was valued at 
several thousand pounds. And no wonder, for the pattern inlaid was of vine leaves 
exquisitely shaded, and the grapes were of rubies and amethysts. In the Pitti Palace, 
the residence of the Grand Duke, there are several of these splendid articles of furni- 
ture, fit adornments for so sumptuous and regal an abode. Its collection of pictures, 
too, is one of the most choice and faultless that is to be met with in all Italy. The 
finest specimens of Florentine mosaic were, in all probability, too costly and too easily 
injured to be sent for mere exhibition, for the specimens that were to be seen in an 
apartment adjoining to the Roman were very inferior to what we had seen in Florence, 
where we spent nearly a whole day in the manufactory, inspecting at our leisure the 
whole process of cutting the marble, and placing the thin pieces which formed the 
pattern in their appropriate places in the slab. The specimens in the Exhibition, 
however, showed very distinctly the plan of the work, and there was one sprig of 
roses in the centre of a round table, which might have been mistaken for the most 
exquisite painting, and which was more rich and mellow in its effects than any that 
could be produced by the mere laying on of colour. Great use is made in this work 
of a kind of green marble, the soft shades of which are often so managed in the cutting 
out, as to represent the folding over of the edge of a leaf, or the fight side of one resting 
upon the darker surface of another. The landscapes in this style of art, of which there 
were two or three exhibited of a rather large size, we do not altogether consider as 
very successful. The materials employed are too untractable and rigid to admit of a 
free or graceful pencilling ; neither in mosaic work, as in painting, can one hue be passed 
over another, to impart that rich transparency, or that aerial mistiness which is so 
beautiful in nature, and which the practised hand of a master, with all the appliances 
afforded him in a well-arranged palette, can alone hope to imitate. But in graceful 
and even elaborate representation of foliage, fruit, flowers, and ornamental work, such 
as may fitly adorn the chambers of royalty itself, it is that the art of the mosaicist 
displays its utmost beauty and perfection. ,,.-,•, i_. 

We will now for the present dismiss our mosaics, and take up the kindred subject ot 

STAINEU AND PAINTED GLASS, 

which in lengthened display extended its brilliant and kaleidoscope hues throughout the 
half of the upper gallery above the nave, and attracted a general and admiring notice. 
Few of those who visit either our own cathedrals, or inspect the interior of continental 
churches, ever think of investigating the merits, much less examining the subjects, of the 

<i Storied windows, richly dight, 

Casting a dim religious light," 
and which shed such a beautiful and mysterious glow over the structure. It was there- 
fore a rare satisfaction to be enabled to scan closely the merits of those productions, 
whose principal claim to our attention was. avowedly that of being an imitation of by- 
gone arts Although the art of staining glass is lost in antiquity, its adaptation to 



96 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

pictorial purposes is comparatively recent. Doubtless the mosaics of the Egyptians and 
Romans originally suggested the idea of transparent glass pictures; for, indeed, the 
earliest attempts were entirely composed of small pieces of glass of various colours, 
united by thin strips of lead, as may still be seen in old churches and cathedrals. The 
first records of pictorial glass work extant, date from about the year 800, in the days 
of Pope Leo III., when so many magnificent ecclesiastical edifices were erected, com- 
menced, and designed. 

Venice was chiefly famous for the manufacture of stained glass, the use of which wes 
brought to high perfection with the pointed style of architecture in England. Fine 
specimens of the art may be seen in York Minster, the collegiate halls and chapels, and 
especially in the chapel of King's College, Cambridge. It is evident that the art of 
painting on glass may be divided into two perfectly distinct operations : firstly, the 
artistic design with reference to the capacities of the materials ; secondly, the mechanical 
or rather chemical preparation and application of the materials themselves. Unlike 
most other descriptions of painting, in which vegetable as well as mineral colours are 
freely used, glass requires the exclusive use of mineral colours. The oxides of metals, 
such as gold, silver, cobalt, &c, are chiefly employed. These colours are, as it were, 
burnt into the glass. Some of them stain the whole substance, and are quite transparent ; 
others mix with a substance called flux, and vitrify on the surface. These last are more 
or less opaque or semi-transparent, according to the mode in which they are applied. 

Now, the ancients being more moderate in their demands on such a means, were 
more primitive, and perhaps more successful in their effects, whilst the moderns have 
progressed in an artistic point of view, but at the expense of the transparency, 
breadth, and simplicity of their ancestors. As a general rule, the modern paintings 
on glass are too much paintings in the strict sense of the word, too Opaque in their 
shadows, and, in fact, too much" shaded altogether. Whereas, painting on glass, to be 
really effective, should be almost entirely outline and colour, and as free from non- 
transparent, that is black shading as possible, for it must be remembered that all 
non-transparent colour becomes mere neutral tint when opposed to light in a window, 
and that the depth of the tint is mainly regulated by its transparency; hence the 
somewhat muddy character of the majority of modern paintings on glass. Where, 
however, the nature of the material is sacrificed to real excellence in the design, we 
are inclined to make great allowances ; but, unfortunately, either most manufacturers of 
stained glass grudge the expense of employing competent artists to draw for them, or 
artists of merit consider it beneath their dignity, or lastly, the patrons of the art them- 
selves regard it in too mean a light, and do not offer an adequate remuneration for the 
production of such painting on glass in their churches, &c, as we should desire to see, 
and seeing, to admire. Yet there are plenty of young artists who would be glad to make 
coloured designs for glass windows for a very moderate remuneration, and who are 
perfectly capable of good composition, correct drawing, and judgment in the arrange- 
ment and distribution of the colours". Upon those more especially, who, from the spur 
given to the art by the late Exhibition, may speedily be called on to fulfil the above 
requirements, we would impress the following suggestions, which we venture with all 
humility to advance for the guidance of adventurers in a new or revived domain of 
pictorial creation. In the first place it must be borne in mind that a stained glass 
window is not a mere painting, but a means of admitting light, modified and tempered, 
it is true, but still . light, into the building to which it pertains. Hence an additional 
reason for the all-importance of transparency in glass window-pictures. Secondly, it 
must be remembered that these pictures are generally seen at a considerable dis- 
tance ; therefore, the boldness breadth, and above all, the harmony of the effect is fax 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 97 

more vital to its success than any minuteness of detail. Thirdly, it must be invariably 
present to the mind of the artist that he is not producing a work for isolated exhibition, 
but is labouring in combination with the architect of the edifice which his design is to 
adorn, and with which it is expected to fall in and harmonize— not to jar and contrast 
by painful and violent uses of light and shadow, such as, we are sorry to say, the late 
collection very plentifully offered. Actual white and black (that is, opaque shadow) 
ought to be almost entirely excluded from works of this kind. In a word, the window 
ought never to lose for an instant its character as a window, that is, an admitter of light, 
which is its absolute and aesthetic relation to the walls, columns, and domes of the 
building it illuminates. It is certain that the practical art of staining glass, which 
flourished in such perfection during the thirteenth century, has been in a great measure 
lost, and, notwithstanding all the efforts of modern chemistry to equal and surpass it in 
purity and brilliancy of colour, it remains unrivalled. On the other hand, painting on 
glass, when carried out by artists such as form the exceptions to the strictures above 
made, is decidedly pushed much further than in former times, as far as mere pictorial 
excellence is concerned. Whether it has advanced in its legitimate mission, that of 
an harmonious adjunct to architectural effect, we doubt. A new era has, however, 
commenced in the art, and we must take it as we find it, merely considering its merits 
with reference to the object intended to be attained, and not criticising it according 
to any abstract causes of glass window-painting, which, right or wrong, may form a part 
of our artistic conscience. In proceeding to notice the works in this department dis- 
played in the Great Exhibition, we would premise that we are not amongst the devotees 
to this mode of decoration as a vehicle for high art ; and consequently, must be prepared 
to view the various candidates as copyists of the art as developed at the early period 
when it was in vogue. The following observations therefore will be considered to be 
written with a feeling for "mediaevalism." As a general fact, we have to admit, that 
the English glass-stainers did not take the first rank in this branch of national competi- 
tion. On taking a first and cursory view of the long range of stained glass windows and 
medallions in th& northern galleries of the Exhibition, our attention was forcibly arrested 
by the striking works of MM. Marechal and Gugnon, of Metz, which, in almost every 
requisite quality, artistic composition, harmony of colour, and mechanical execution, 
excelled all the productions of their competitors. In the " Portrait of a Bourgemestre/' 
the richness of the dark yet transparent • drapery was very remarkable. Perhaps the 
head was a little too bright a contrast to the deep background and dress. But in the 
large painting at its side no such defect was visible. "St. Charles Borromeo giving the 
Sacrament to the Victims of the Plague," was remarkable as a restoration of mediaeval 
life and sentiment. The drawing of the figures, rude and unsatisfactory, per se, was 
combined with a devotional sincerity in the expression and attitudes, and a local historical 
truth in the peculiar cast of feature, which denoted the revival of an obsolete art in a 
kindred spirit. The blue sky in the background admirably relieved the warm group of 
earnest figures in front, and the colouring was of a beauty which reminded one of the 
early Italian painters. Nor was it in pictorial effect and drawing only that Marechal of 
Metz excelled. His medallion of the thirteenth century style was an excellent specimen 
of colour and design. It harmonized with the rest of his paintings, and though simple 
in its outlines and its colours, it was rich both in chromatic harmony and general 
effect Marechal is, in fact, the one great glass painter and stainer of the present 
dav in Europe. His works have been long known and appreciated in France as the first 
in that line of art His paintings in the windows of the church of St. Paul, at Pans, 
which were furnished some years ago, raised him at once above all his competitors in 
France both as a glass stainer and an artist. Without dwelling on the minute grada.- 
' 2 c 



98 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

tions of merit in oiuev glass-stainers and painters, we now pass on to a general exami- 
nation of the works most worthy of attention in the late collection. 

Messrs. Chance, Brothers, of Birmingham, exhibited a variety of paintings, amongst 
which we noticed a Virgin in a green robe, well contrasted with some rich crimson 
drapery. There was much breadth and simplicity about this figure. We also observed 
a landscape, which would have been very well, but for the excess of green in the 
arrangement of its colour. And here we may pause to mention a very curious fact as 
to the glass paintings exhibited, viz., that each manufacturer or artist seemed to have 
a peculiar love for one particular colour, in the production of which he succeeded better 
than in others. Thus Messrs. Chance's greens were pre-eminent for brightness and 
transparency ; whilst, as we shall presently have occasion to remark, other glass-stainers 
excelled in other colours, and aifected them more exclusively. 

Mr. Edward Baillie exhibited a painting of " Queen Elizabeth listening to the reading 
of Shakspere," which surpassed all his rivals in the violent contrast of its lights and 
shadows, and in the impenetrable opacity of the latter. We cannot say much for the 
faces or drawing in this group. However, the Queen's white satin robe was very 
brilliant ; and the carpet was really so well executed, that we could have wished the 
remainder of the picture up to the same level. Mr. W. Wailes was enterprising in 
design, and displayed considerable brilliance of colour and transparency, but there was 
a rudeness and harshness about the paintings which were not pleasing. The St. Helen's 
Crown, Sheet, and Plate-glass Company sent a large painting of " St. Michael and 
Satan," in which the tail of the arch-enemy was prolonged to an indefinite degree. 
There was some spirit in the drawing, but the execution was lamentable in every respect. 
Some lions and unicorns by Tobay, the former yellow, and the latter white, were not very 
wonderful productions, nor in any respect likely to outshine the ordinary lions and 
unicorns of every-day life. 

Messrs. Hetley and Co., of Soho-square, sent a very fine painting of the " Ascension." 
In this work the rich colour in the foreground contrasted well with the lightly managed 
atmosphere, against which the figure of the Saviour was seen in a " glory" very spiritually 
conceived and executed. M. P. Lafaye was doubly unfortunate in being placed by the 
side of Marechal, to whose works his specimens served as a foil. They were muddy in 
-colour, and very inferior in design. Henri Pougue sent some curious specimens of 
mezzotinto transparencies, produced by glass or china, carved or modelled so as to 
.produce the different gradations of light, shade, and tone, in a manner remarkable 
.for its softness and purity of effect. M. Thibaut Dallet had a very brown monk, 
effectively drawn, but deficient in transparency. His " Judith and Holofernes" was a 
fierce piece, of strong expression, and somewhat crude but rich effect. Bed is evidently 
the predominating and favourite colour with this artist. The "Lord's Supper" was 
more transparent, but with little merit either in design or colour. Herr Geyling, of 
Vienna, had a female figure leaning on a window-sill, which resembled an oil-painting in 
effect. The flesh of the face and hands, and the white chemise, as well as the dress, 
were well executed ; but the opaque background was objectionable. As a work of art it 
reminded one, on the whole, of Jullien's coloured lithographs. We consider this a strong 
example of success in a line which ought never to be attempted by a glass-stainer. 

M. Thevenot was chiefly noticeable for a blue turn of mind in his colouring. He 
had, however, some very tolerable saints on pedestals, which were edged with gold, most 
effectively rendered by transparent yellow glazing. His " Badegona" was a severe figure, 
with much depth and richness, yet too opaque for real brilliancy of effect. The small 
Gothic window, by M. Martin of Troyes, was remarkable as a quaint imitation of the old 
style, as regards artistic treatment and brilliancy of colour. Upon these grounds, it was 



OP THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 99 

one of the most curious specimens in the Exhibition to lovers of the ancient glass- 
stainers and their peculiar characteristics. 

The painted window by Mr. Gibson, of Newcastle, contained subjects illustrative of 
various passages m the life of St. Peter. It was in the Norman style, and consisted of 
six geometrical forms upon a richly ornamented ruby background, embodying the prin^ 
cipal events from the apostle's life. The centre medallion was Christ's charge to Peter : 
the others respectively contained the Angel delivering Peter from prison; Peter denying 
Chnst; Christ calling Peter from the ship ; Peter's want of faith ; and in a small quatre- 
foil was the martyrdom of St. Peter; the whole surrounded by an elaborately worked and 
richly coloured border. The colours of the glass were rich and fall-toned, and judiciously 
combined. It is a subject for regret, however, that, in reviving this ancient art, as a 
medium, it should be considered necessary to imitate the barbarous style of drawing of 
the Gothic ages. We have thus glanced at a few of the most meritorious, or rather, to 
speak conscientiously, of the least sinning, amongst the exhibitors in the stained glass 
gallery. On a future occasion we shall return to the subject, when we shall give some 
account of Bertini's famous Dante window. Before taking leave of this subject, we would 
draw this general conclusion from the examples we have been examining. We would 
once more impress upon the improver and enterpriser in this branch of decoration, that 
simplicity, transparency, and moderation in light and shade, are the three great 
requisites after harmony of colour. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



3LN EABLY MOBNTNG VISIT — A NOON-DAY STEOLL — PEACEFUL CBOWDS — PLEASING- ADMIXTUEE 
OF BANK — A GEEAT DAT AT THE CETSTAL PALACE — BEITISH HOSPITALITY — ENTEBTAINMENT 
IN GUILDHALL TO THE QUEEN. 

We will now, for a short period, dismiss all particular criticism on the various produc- 
tions of human industry and genius, and indulge in a retrospect of one of those calm 
and quiet days, which were frequently devoted by the assiduous visitor, satiated with 
curious examination, to a general and leisurely observation of what was passing in the 
busy microcosm around him. Our readers must be informed that it was the privilege of 
the " writers for the press" to wander unrestricted through the avenues of the glorious 
Crystal Palace, long before the general public were admitted — a privilege shared only 
with industrious exhibitors' attendants, and sundry busy gentlemen in red coats, known 
as sappers and miners. From one of these favoured votaries of the quill we are indebted 
for the following graphic description of its appearance at " early dawn," and the feelings 
it was calculated to awaken in the reflective mind. " It is scarcely possible," observes 
pur writer, "for those who have not visited the wonderful Glass House, to conceive the 
curious effect its vast size and exquisite perspective have upon the mind. Its solitary 
grandeur at this hour can be likened to nothing of which we have hitherto had experience. 
It was like a forest in its stillness, but the songs of birds or hum of bees greeted not the 
listening ear — it was like a cathedral in its vastness and solemnity, but no masonic pillars, 
.or heavy sculptured walls were there to break the light, and give the 'dim religious' air, 
so potent in its grandeur— it was like a fairy palace, in which a hundred thousand sleepers 
might have dozed away their lives, but that we knew it to be filled with the works of 
men's hands— it was like a dream of beauty, and light, and power, but that a passing 



1Q0 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

footstep awakened us up to reality and life — it was like — like nothing but itself; 
unsurpassable, indescribable, unique, amazing, real ! The sun broke out, and added new- 
beauty to the painted line of girder and column stretching far away. We gazed 
upward in never- tiring wonder and admiration, and caught new glimpses of beauty in the 
glass roof of the beautiful transept, tinted with all the colours of the rainbow. We 
looked around, and found the light reflected in glass and silver and bubbling water — for 
the hour was passing, and the hitherto silent fountains had begun to play. * * * 
Day had fairly set in, and where a solitary visitor was erstwhile standing, little knots 
had gathered ; little knots, which, as the clock struck Ten, had become groups, which 
speedily swelled into assemblages, which presently became inconveniently close, and were 
at length a mass, a crowd, a mighty peace meeting. A throng, indeed j but there was 
wonder, and pleasure, and kindness on every face. We stood a minute in the corner 
of the gallery, beneath the ladies' carpet, and gazed upon the well-known spectacle. The 
sight of thousands in the Glass Palace was one worth seeing indeed, — for where the 
million is, there is love, and hope, and human passion. O, amazing thought \ The 
Great God was in the midst \" 

The interior of the Crystal Palace had now assumed that state of pictorial complete- 
ness in which it remained during the whole summer. Nothing more seemed wanting to it.' 
Each day had added something to its picture, as well as to its uses ; and we were never 
weary of repeating how in this wondrous edifice all had been so successfully contrived 
that every sense was satisfied. At every turn the eye was fed with beauty. In the fervid 
mid-day hours a delicious coolness filled the atmosphere. The low plash of falling 
fountains sent whisperings through the ears that were like sounds heard in a dream. 
Even the sounds which in ordinary buildings would produce discords, between the walls 
and under the roof of crystal combined into a strange and palpitating music. Few things 
in the mighty edifice were more remarkable than this effect. Great as was the daily 
concourse of people, the hum of voices seldom rose above the deep and- trembliag 
monotone produced by conversation in. the open air. The talk of the fountains and the 
tones of minor musical instruments died on the ear at the shortest distance. The organ 
notes rolled but faintly down the naves, as they would have done along a line of forest 
trees,-^— the high swell and cadence falling gently on the unresisting medium in which 
they passed away. Even the click and whizz and whirl of machinery did not strike the 
ear with that sharp and semi-painful effect produced by them in close brick buildings. 
There were no echoes, reverberations, arrested or broken sounds. The noises passed 
away through the glass roof as freely as the light and sunshine entered by it. 

Our holiday-makers from the country — the tens of thousands who poured into 
London from every great town of industrial England, were amongst the first to see the 
palace in its perfected beauty. The peasant's shilling in June returned him more than 
the peer's guinea did to him in May. Russia was then shut up in her frozen rivers, — 
Tunis had not quitted her burning sands,-^Hindustan was out at sea,^France in great 
measure lay in her packing-cases, — America had barely stretched her limbs in her vast 
spaces, — Turkey was but preparing to transport herself from the Bosphorus,— Persia; 
for aught that could be ascertained to the contrary, was still in the heart of Asia. All 
these guests subsequently arrived. From China to Peru, from Norway to Arabia, the 
products, the art, the genius of all civilized nations, were at length in London. One 
nationality only was here unknown by name : — Naples furnished nothing to the industry 
of the world but a band of spies and secret police. The contribution was characteristic. 
Henceforth Naples is blotted from the list of civilized states. 

The company assembled in the Crystal Palace day after day was scarcely less interesting 
than the collection of articles. During the whole of May the number of foreign visitors 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 101 

was comparatively low. Where were the Germans, Americans, French, Italians, and 
otter strangers !>— was a question on every lip. They were not there. The passenger 
traffic across the Channel did not visibly increase. The artistic fancies which in multi- 
plied prints had filled the parks and thoroughfares of the West-end with Spanish mantles, 
lurkish robes, Greek tunics, and other gorgeous dresses, seemed to have had no founda, 
tion m reality A few days, however, rapidly developed this picturesque feature. The 
wlet-raWTumsm was not the only wearer of a bright costume in the Crystal Palace, 
ihe Andalusian cloak, the French blouse, the slouched hat of the Rhine, the turban of 
the East, the scull-cap of the Morea, and several other varieties of human envelopment 
might be seen there. It was curious and interesting to notice the wonder and delight ot 
the wearers of these foreign garbs at all they saw and learned. Nothing, however, 
seemed to strike these strangers so much as the building itself,— so marvellously new, 
graceful, and imposing,— erected in a space of time so incredibly short, and with 
casualties so remarkably few for so vast a work. Next to this, the cotton and flax 
machinery seemed to fill them with most wonder. The rapid increase of provincial visitors 
was still more remarkable. Agricultural implements, during the first month of the 
Exhibition hardly glanced at, now obtained a large share of attention from scientific and 
practical men. The Essex or Devonshire farmer, somewhat impatient of mediteval courts, 
chiselled marbles, and Byzantine mosaics, might be seen diligently studying the last hints 
and improvements in ploughs, spades, harrows, carts, flails, threshers, clod-breakers^ 
and so on. The Lancashire mechanic might be found intently poring over some new 
contrivance of a London machinist, — the Yorkshire wool-grower busy with comparisons 
between the produce of the merinoes of Saxony and of Spain. A very visible change 
was observable in the aspect of the area. There "was a strong determination of visitors to 
the transept, — that being the centre and the point of intersection ; but a more general 
distribution of company over the galleries and recesses was obvious at a glance. The 
holders of season tickets were probably, for the most part, persons to whom the aesthetics, 
of the place, its artistic arrangement, its beauty and satisfaction to the outward sense, 
were the chief attractions. To these it was first and foremost a lounge and a panorama 
unequalled for comfort, splendour and variety. For the details which occurred beyond 
the first reach of the eye, and which did not form a striking part of the spectacle as seen 
from any favourite point of view, many of these visitors cared little. The naves, the 
transept, and the front galleries — the points from which the pictorial effects could be best 
taken, and the artist-sense most completely gratified — were the positions chiefly frequented 
by them. But visitors from the country towns and hamlets, from workshop and farm, 
seemed to have a different object in view. Less sensible perhaps to the grace and beauty 
which came out in gleams of light and gushes of melody at every turn, they appeared to 
set themselves more resolutely to study the particular construction and contrivances 
which had for them a practical interest. This was very noticeable with the artizan, both 
English and foreign. The blouses of Brussels and Paris seemed to examine with 
intense curiosity the work in precious metals exhibited by the great London houses. 

Education of eye and mind was going on at a thousand points at the same moment, 
directly and indirectly, — formally and informally — by example, suggestion, and illustra- 
tion. It did not seem to us that even what were called the "idlers" of the Crystal 
Palace were altogether idle there. If they did not appear to examine minerals, compare 
the merits of rival ploughs, or pay much attention to the wool and cotton fabrics of the 
western nave, it would be a great mistake to suppose that their time necessarily passed 
away unimproved. The morals of the Palace did not all lie in its details. There is an 
education of the taste, a cultivation of that love of beauty which every one possesses in a 
greater or less degree, which may be more important in some cases than the acquisition 

2d 



102 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

of special knowledge. The most listless lounger in the Exhibition was there at school. 
Consciously or unconsciously, he received at every sense lessons which cannot be altogether 
without effect in after life. The apparent idler might undervalue neither the edifice nor 
its contents; he might wish only to enjoy them both in his own way. Some minds 
cannot endure particulars. The poetic imagination loves to take in the whole at a glance 
—to embrace the grand synthesis by a single effort — not caring to stay its action until 
it may find time to analyze and separate the component elements of the picture. In 
such an edifice, Shakspere or Raffaelle, though a thousand things would have arrested 
them at last, would probably not have descended to the examination of details for 
many a day. 

Contrary to prognostication, the shilling people passed through the building without 
disorder. There was no crowd the first day, no 4meute in Hyde Park, no cry for soldiers 
and police. The Palace did not come down like a house of cards. The aristocracy did 
not cease their visits because the hard-workers chanced to come "between the wind and 
their nobility." It was in this respect a very satisfactory circumstance to find that, 
along with the royal family, eight or ten thousand season tickets went in every shilling 
day — to see so many coronetted vehicles making their way through crowds of omnibuses 
to the doors — to observe how completely all social distinctions were for the moment 
merged in the general feeling of pride and admiration at the wondrous result of science 
and labour exhibited in the Palace of Glass. Never before in England had there been so 
free and general a mixture of classes as under that roof, and good results of many kinds 
it is to be expected will grow out of it in the future. Another circumstance surprised 
the would-be prophets. . Instead of the artizans staying in the Crystal Palace all day 
long, as was expected, it was found that the shilling visitors remained on an average 
little more than half the time of the season-ticket visitors. Nor were the artizans, or the 
agricultural population, the only privileged persons among the lower orders who were 
gratified with a sight of the World's Pair. The Duke of Wellington having been from 
the first one of the most assiduous visitors of the Crystal Palace, bethought himself how 
the regiments under his command might enjoy the same satisfaction. For this purpose 
leave of absence was given by the commander-in-chief to all regiments at home, from 
the 1st of June to the 30th; one field-officer, half the captains, and half the subalterns 
to be allowed the indulgence each fortnight in the month. In the same spirit, the 
Admiralty gave leave to the officials of the royal dockyards to absent themselves under 
certain regulations ; and the orders in which this permission was conveyed, at the same 
time announced that the officers visiting the Great Exhibition were expected to report 
to their respective superintendents any new invention in machinery, or improvements in 
articles in general use, tools, &c, that might attract their attention, or anything that 
might strike them as useful or advantageous to the public service. The order issued 
to the workmen of Portsmouth Dockyard, gave notice that the period of leave to 
be granted to them for the purpose of visiting the Exhibition was to be extended to six 
days— the first half of the workmen to proceed to London on her Majesty's birthday, 
returning on the Friday following ; and the second half to proceed on the anniversary of 
her Majesty's coronation. The admiral intimated to the men, that in case the fares of 
the railway were not reduced to what might be considered a low figure, he would place 
a vessel at their disposal for the purpose of conveying them to the metropolis. 

As early as the 18th of June the human tide began steadily to increase in its mighty 
flow towards the Crystal Palace, an account of which day, although far inferior in point 
of accumulated masses to many that followed, we shall forthwith present to our readers. 
.Notwithstanding the fluctuating character of the weather, the visitors began to pour in at 
an early hour, so that at two o'clock the interior might be literally called the World's 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 103 

Fair. The great increase of country visitors was becoming quite noticeable; and the 
foreigners, who formed a large ingredient in the company, were no longer exclusively of 
the stronger sex. French and German might be heard resounding through the building 
with a volubility which bearded lips would in vain strive to arrive at. From the sub- 
joined figures it will be seen that the great body of visitors came between the hours of 
ten and two o'clock, and there was a fair presumption that those were the hours at 
which the provincial contingents would arrive. The three o'clock return gave the steady 
ticket-holders who came day by day, and examined the wonders, section by section, a 
task which was sadly interrupted ; while the later hours' returns might be supposed to 
indicate the mere loungers who promenaded the nave or sat about the crystal fountain ; 
and they, most of all, were incommoded by the myriads who came for the vulgar purpose 
of seeing and being instructed by the Exhibition. The numbers at the last return taken 
were 62^532, being nearly 5,000 less than the return of the previous day, but considerably 
beyond any preceding day's work, and the following was their order of arrival : — Eleven 
o'clock, 18,637; twelve o'clock, 17,715; one o'clock, -10,315; two o'clock, 5,918; three 
o'clock, 4,423 ; four o'clock, 3,366 ; five o'clock, 1,476 ; and six o'clock, 687 : total, 
62,532. At a quarter to seven the bell rang, and in an inconceivably short space of time 
the building was left to the tranquil possession of its nightly guardians. This process of 
clearing out was not the least remarkable feature of the Exhibition. Great military 
authorities had said that it would be easy to collect 60,000 people in Hyde Park, but not 
so easy to get them out again ; but at the Crystal Palace the problem was solved every 
day without any coercive means, save the inherent orderliness and good feeling of the 
people. There was no rushingj no noise, no confusion. The tide receded as gradually 
as it had advanced, and the only trouble the police had was to control the curiosity of 
the ladies about the diamonds, and to make abstruse arithmetical calculations touching 
the ingress and egress. This admirable order, too, it must be observed, was the spon- 
taneous result of an undertaking of which all manner of evil had been predicted, and, 
we may conclude, wished too, after the manner of prophets in general, according to the 
pithy remark of Dean Swift — 

" They'd rather far that you should die, 
Than their prediction prove a lie." 

Nay one wiseacre actually took the trouble to write a pamphlet under the title of 
To-morrow,— that the Great Industrial Exhibition was only the revival of its ante-type, 
the Tower of Babel, which was certain to realize in its effects the confusion of that 
never-finished structure, to which we owe so many different tongues, known and 
unknown, "the crash of Samson, the prostration of Dagon, the division of Solomons 
kingdom, the handwriting on the wall, visible to all eyes, but comprehended by only 
one mind"— that one of course the author's. 

In the meanwhile everything was done to do honour to the nation's guests by our 
willing countrymen. Besides a multitude of private hospitalities dispensed with a 
heSess that put the character for "pride and coldness" by which we have been 
generally known abroad, somewhat in peril. Concerts and receptions at the Palace 
SSrJt the rooms of the Society of Arts, entertaiments at the Guildhall dinners at 
Srer^Symposium, public breakfasts at the Inns of Court, evening parties at the 
boyer s W™ '^ d soc i e ties, followed each other in rapid succession. Peace 
meeting-places of the ^ ed ^ ™ 8 ' . To a degree that was scarcely conceivable 
was on e 7f. JP-^X jn^ukr Uf and became* cosmopolitan under the mighty 
before, we laid £ ^ ^^ Accomplished. Like Pygmalion, we were inspired by 
influence of the deed tha ™ * a « j ^^ That / hich broUg]lt courtes y to the 

Tangl? Z W°I cX fo thrhouse 7 Every unpleasant subject was kept down by 



104 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

the accumulating interest attached to the Festival of Industry. Politics were forgotten 
in the general excitement, and the demon of religious dissension, which had so long 
haunted with its presence so many firesides in the metropolis, seemed to have vanished 
into thin air. Sculptors and artists entertained their continental brethren, and sent them 
back to their own countries crowned with fresh laurels. Nor, while the manifestations 
of jubilee appeared in the higher circles of society, did the world of artizans allow the 
occasion to pass by without contributing its share to the general fund of hilarity. The 
overseers and chief workmen employed by the contractors of the Crystal Palace proposed 
to give a solid English dinner of roast beef and plum-pudding to the foreign artizans 
employed in arranging the contents of their several countries. The crowning act of 
demonstration, however, took place about the middle of the season, when a grand civic 
entertainment to celebrate the successful results of the Great Exhibition of the Industry 
of all Nations, was given in Guildhall to her Majesty, Prince Albert, and the Royal 
Commissioners, on the ninth of July. 

To say that the streets were crowded by loyal and enthusiastic thousands ; that the 
windows and the housetops all along the line of procession, from Buckingham palace to 
Cheapside, presented seas of pleasant faces ; that the illuminations in the city were grand, 
brilliant, and appropriate ; that gay flags and banners waved across the streets ; that her 
Majesty and the Prince were received by the multitude, as only a beloved queen could 
be ; that the carriages made their way through dense crowds of enthusiastic people — a 
body-guard, brave, loyal, and true — cheered and welcomed with true British fervour; 
that on the arrival at the ancient Gothic hall, the august party were received with all 
honour by the first man in the city; that the procession of the queen through living 
walls of loving subjects was the great event of the evening; that thousands bent the 
willing knee to royalty ; that the old crypt, made gay and beautiful for the occasion, was 
honoured for the first time by the presence of the queen ; that a ball afterwards took place 
in the Guildhall — one of the finest rooms in Europe unsupported by pillars; that the 
grand preparations which the citizens had made were worthy of their ancient fame for 
hospitality ; that in that noble hall stood the representatives of almost every civilized 
nation under heaven ; that the whole passed off with the greatest dclat ; and that loyal 
crowds waited in the streets till long past midnight to escort their queen home again 
when all was over : to say all this, was only to repeat what was already familiar to every 
man, woman, and child in the three kingdoms. 

But some other considerations arose out of this royal visit ; some other thoughts came 
uppermost on reviewing the events of that auspicious evening. Of themselves, the royal 
procession and the. civic entertainment were but gaudy pageants, in which soldiers and 
horses, and gaslights, and crowds, and well-dressed people, and notable foreigners took 
part ; but viewed in connexion with the purpose for which the fSte was held, it became a 
direct recognition of the claims of labour on the part of the highest personages in the 
realm, or indeed in the world. The royal visit to the city was an event of which we, as a 
nation, had reason to be proud ; for of all the thousands whose productions filled the 
great Industrial Bazaar in Hyde Park, there was not one who might not have been said 
to have been represented in the Guildhall on the ninth of July. In the principal city of 
the civilized world the queen and her husband acknowledged, by their presence, their 
infinite obligations to the industrious classes. Both within and without the noble hall 
there was much to teach and interest our foreign guests and neighbours. "In the 
spectacle of the day," said an eloquent writer,. " might be discovered a fair representation 
of that constitution and those institutions by the gradual growth of which Britain is what 
she is, while Prance and Germany are — what she is not. In the queenly yet domestic 
bearing of her Majesty, all might see what Britons love to see— that their sovereign ia 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 105 

not only their queen, but the first matron and lady of the land : in the crowded vet 
peaceful streets of our capital many a smaller city of the continent be taught that there 
are other safeguards for the sovereign and the public peace, than bayonets, and other 
vivats more hearty than the simulated plaudits of a people ruled by fear and force. And, 
above all, we trust it is in no sanctimonious or self-righteous spirit that we express some 
confidence that it will be long before, as a great city of trade, we forget that lesson which 
we have inscribed permanently on marble, and on that night in letters of fire, above the 
portals of the Royal Exchange—" The earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof." 



CHAPTER XVII. 
FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DEPARTMENTS— continued. 

THE ZOLLVEREIN — ARTICLES OF FOOD AND CLOTHING — ASMS, CUTLERY, ETC. — FURNITURE, 
WALKING STICKS — CROCKERY — MACHINERY — OBJECTS OF VIRTU — STUFFED ANIMALS. 

It is now, however, time that we should continue our examination of the " Foreign and 
Colonial Departments." We will accordingly direct our steps towards Germany ; and, in 
the first place, we beg pardon of our friends in that quarter for any apparent neglect they 
may imagine we have been guilty of, in not noticing them at an earlier period. In the 
selection of the objects to which we have invited the attention of our readers, we have 
not been solicitous to follow any rigid systematic arrangement ; fancy and freedom, as 
we believe we have already stated would be the case, have been our guides in our various 
wanderings through the interminable mazes of the Palace, and we shall still continue our 
researches under their immediate influence and direction. 

Our readers are probably aware that the Zollverein — a name which occupied a large 
portion of the foreign side of the Crystal Palace — is not that of any individual country. 
On the contrary, it designates a union of several states of Germany, under one common 
custom-house law, indicated in the term zoll {duty), verein (union) — a policy, not a 
country, which brings under one series of fiscal regulations, concerning import and export 
duties, the subjects of several states of Germany, having in other respects different laws, 
and lying widely apart. It embraces Prussia, Saxony, Wurtemberg, Bavaria, Baden, 
Nassau, the two Hesses, and all the minor states of the centre of Germany, and compre- 
hends altogether somewhere about 36,000,000 people. Hanover, Brunswick, Oldenburgh, 
Bremen, Lubeck, Mecklenburgh, on the north; Bohemia, Austria Proper and other 
German dominions of Austria, on the south, are not members of this union. Prior to 
its being formed, the thirty- seven states, large and small, into which Germany was divided, 
levied each its own duties and tolls on rivers and roads, and had its own custom-house 
officers to levy them. As the rule, no goods could be transmitted through any one of 
these states to another, or sent from one state to another, without being subject to all 
the vexatious delay of a custom-house examination at the boundaries of every state. 
The actual facts were still worse, for many noblemen and cities levied, till a very recent 
period, private tolls, and at their "bars" all goods were liable to a similar examination. 
The annoyance of this system, to say nothing of the accompanying annoyance of passports, 
which still continues, was immense, and far exceeded anything of which our people, long 
united under one government, and having amongst themselves internally a perfectly free 
communication, have ever practically had to form any conception of. To get rid of some 

2 E 



,106 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

of these vexations, the states above mentioned, under the influence of Prussia, united 
themselves commercially about twenty years ago into one body, abolishing all intermediate 
tolls and customs duties, and levying only duties common to all, at the one extreme 
boundary of the confederating states, and dividing the revenue accruing among the 
different states composing the union, in proportion to their size, population, consump- 
tion, previous revenue, &c. All states not comprised in the union, and preserving their 
own revenue laws, are, so far as trade and customs duties are concerned, considered 
foreigners. The reader will see, therefore, that the name Zollverein in the Exhibition 
was a mere political designation for a great part of Germany, separating it from Northern 
Germany on the one hand, and from the Austrian dominions on the other; and such 
products of the industry of the 26,000,000 people comprised in this Customs Union 
as they were pleased to exhibit, it is now our intention to describe. 

The department of the Zollverein was in the eastern part of the Crystal Palace, 
approximating towards the centre. It extended on both sides of the nave into the 
galleries, as well as on the ground-floor, having Russia on the east, and Austria on the 
west. Intermingled with it, however, was the space appropriated to Northern Germany, 
an arrangement justified by the geographical relations of the two, but at variance with 
the political designations, and which became the cause of some confusion. In truth, 
disorder in arrangement, singularly enough for the methodical Germans, seems to us to 
have characterised their part of the Exhibition. Although Wurtemberg, Saxony, and 
Bavaria, had distinct exhibition rooms on the south side of the nave, in which to display 
their cloths and shawls and stockings, in the grand centre hall of the Zollverein on the 
north, some of their most distinguished products, and the most distinguished products 
of the other states, were mingled with the products of Prussia, which disabled us from 
forming a just appreciation of the industry of the separate people, or of the whole 
Zollverein. In the medley, we could not compare and contrast what had been done by 
the lively, vain, egotistical, and royal Prussian, with the productions of the more solid and 
somewhat duller Hessian; nor. could we conveniently distinguish between the industry 
which is rooted on the Iser, and that which flourishes on the Elbe or the Rhine. For 
the above reasons the general remarks which follow will apply in a great measure to the 
industry of all the Germans, not excluding even the Austrians, though we shall describe 
separately the Austrian part of the Exhibition ; and we must, therefore, make our readers 
fully aware of the number of people to whom they apply. The Zollverein comprises 
about 26,000,000 ; Northern Germany, about 4,000,000 ; and Austrian Germany, about 
7,000,000. The tracts of land inhabited by these people extend from the Baltic to the 
Iser and the Rhine, from the German Ocean to the Carpathian Alps, and embraces a 
great variety of soil, surface, and climate. It is rich in minerals and raw products, and 
is traversed by numerous large rivers. It is the best and principal part of central 
Europe. Por such a country and such a people, the exhibition of their industry struck 
us as comparatively poor and comparatively uniform. There was a sameness in it 
throughout, not met with in any other part of the Exhibition, of equal pretensions. 
• In one great natural quality Germany is deficient, and the want of it has been much 
aggravated, instead of being relieved, by the policy of its governments. It has compara- 
tively a small extent of sea-coast. Denmark and Holland shut it out from a direct 
connexion and communication with two parts of the ocean. It has had, therefore in 
relation to other states, a small and not fast growing foreign trade. The many small states 
into which it was divided, and the absurd fiscal regulations in each, added to the want 
of ocean communication, till very modern times, limited and hampered its internal 
traffic. The consequence was, that the subjects of each state were pretty much confined 
to their own products for subsistence ; and comparatively little separation of employ- 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 107 

merits, or little division of labour ensued, and, as a consequence, little variety in the 
industry of the people. The Germans rather pride themselves on the circumstance, that 
division of labour is not extensive amongst them — that they are what they call many- 
handed j but that is only an approach to barbarism, when every individual provided by his 
own means for all his wants. To satisfy the common demands for food and clothing they 
all necessarily adopted the same or similar arts ; and the same causes continuing to 
prevent the separation of employments, they have continued the same or similar practices. 
In conjunction with this, too, the respective governments undertook to a degree unknown 
in England to guide the industry of their subjects ; and as they were generally actuated 
by a similar polioy, and had similar objects to attain, they generally directed the industry 
of the people in similar paths. After the wants of food and clothing were supplied, the 
great object of the different governments, besides the common desire of military power; 
was to have luxuries provided for courts, which for a long period borrowed their ideas 
of luxury from the French court as a common model. Accordingly, as you passed amidst 
apartments hung full of cloth and of damasked linen, with a profusion of swords and 
cutlery, walking-sticks, pipes, buttons, and common tools, models of old castles or modern 
residences, with some fine porcelain, some exquisitely carved ivory, some delicate bronzes, 
and some admirably stained glass, you found a great uniformity in the products of 
numerous distinct and different people, for which you were hardly prepared ; nor was 
the impression removed by the appearance of some well prepared leather for different 
purposes, some valuable mineral and other raw products, several specimens of wool, and 
some splendid crystals and colours, the result of chemical arts, and a little well-wrought 
furniture. What is called Berlin-wool, raised carpeting scarcely fit to walk on, models of 
castles, dried fruits, a multitude of ornaments in cast iron, an abundance of toys, playing 
cards, much ordinary jewellery, piles of stockings and suspenders, with a few printed 
books, completed the miscellaneous assortment. 

Many of the articles would excite surprise in any exhibition, but we were chiefly 
astonished to find them so many leagues away from the place where they were made. 
The Germans supposed they were to sell, as well as to exhibit ; they looked on the 
Exhibition as a market, and thought that the cheapness of their hose, their cutlery, 
their common tools, and their cloth, would ensure them numerous customers. In fact, 
many of their articles had been exhibited avowedly only on account of their cheapness, 
not on account of their excellence, their rarity, or their beauty; and the exhibitors 
prepared and published a catalogue, in which the prices were marked, for the very 
purpose of showing that they can undersell the English, particularly in hose, cutlery, and 
cloth. Till the quality of the articles can be brought to a test, this appears to be possible. 
They imitate our patterns, and try to sell their goods as English. We noticed, and to our 
surprise, in the Saxon department, and amongst the hose, one or two pair marked very 
distinctly in good English letters, " Merino patent," an inscription which used to be 
stamped on a favourite English production. We had our doubts of the propriety of 
allowing such contrefagons to appear in the Exhibition. They reminded us of what we 
saw on the Hartz mountains a great many years ago, where the shot cast at a celebrated 
lead manufactory were all packed up in bags, with the names and labels of English 
makers imprinted on them. We were, told by an American gentleman in the Exhibition, 
" It is quite true the Germans have improved very much in making cutlery within a few 
years I have had a great deal to do with them in the matter. They were anxious to 
sell their goods in our markets; but they were so clumsy, our people would not look at 
them I' then sent patterns of your best London and Sheffield makers to Solingen, and 
the Germans made their cutlery after these patterns, putting on them the name of Rodgers 
and Son or some other celebrated English maker. The German cutlery looked very well, 



108 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

and was sold cheap ; but, on being tried, it proved to be not half so good as that of the 
English, and I doubt whether the sale will increase." In various kinds of cutlery the 
Germans made a great show; but it is evident even here, that the bulk of their articles 
were made after English patterns. The display was intended, too, we believe, more for 
foreign markets, than for consumption here. If the Exhibition had been a mart, where 
the artizan could have bought a pair of pincers, the dandy a cravat, the housewife a jar of 
preserves or of potted larks, and parents Christmas presents for their children, it could 
scarcely have been richer in the supply of these and similar articles from Germany. With 
some exceptions, which it will be our business hereafter especially to notice, the products 
of German industry, taken as a whole, therefore, might be characterized as displaying 
little variety ; and many parts of it were trivial, neither adding to national wealth nor 
helping forward national greatness. Admitting the fact, but implying that the Germans 
have a richer and more varied industry than they have shown, which we doubt, a German 
writer in the Allgemeine Zeitung states " that Germany is here exhibited to foreigners as 
small change." Who, then, is culpable for having kept back the large coins and the 
more precious ingots, if they exist ? German industry is not only uniform ; it is obviously 
imitative. There is as complete a want of independent thought in their art as in their 
political reforms. 

■ France had its bijouterie, its exquisite ornaments, its unmistakeable graceful luxuries, 
its adornments for boudoirs and persons ; England had its solid and compact machinery, 
often as neat and elegant in form, though rigid, as it was useful ; the United States had 
their rocking and other chairs, their sewing machine, and their almost infinite application 
of caoutchouc ; Russia had its furs, its hemp, its malachite ; even Austria, with its Vienna 
furniture and its Bohemian glass, which are German, had something of its own. Nay, 
Tunis and India shone out conspicuous and peculiar. Only Germany, of all the nations 
of Europe, had nothing apparently in the Exhibition which could be said to be character- 
istic of it, but its toys, a few scull-caps, and some useful specimens of domestic wool 
manufacture. Borrowing its ornamental arts mainly from France, its useful arts from 
England, the things it exhibited were chiefly imitations, very often deficient in the grace, 
the lightness, the neatness, and convenience of the originals. Its productions were solid, 
substantial, sometimes cumbrous, and generally honestly made, but they were all in the 
main French or English, rather than peculiarly German. Perhaps those who had the 
ordering of the matter wished chiefly to exhibit the success of the Germans as rivalling 
other nations, and rather brought forward European than German productions. They 
exhibited no specimen of their durable but old fashioned furniture ; of their frachtwagen, 
with their loads packed and secured to resist the jolting of bad roads, like the cargoes of 
ships, which move not when tossed about by the waves ; no specimen of their multi- 
farious vegetable productions on which the bulk of the people live, or of the useful and 
comfortable garments that their domestic industry still provides for the great multitude 
all of which are at once peculiar and picturesque ; they are sometimes, too, convenient. 
Germany has many peculiarities, but they belong to a past age, and the Royal Commis- 
sioners who have presided over the German part of the Exhibition, were not desirous to 
exhibit them. " I cannot deny," says a celebrated writer, " that, in general the 
specimens of German, industry in the Exhibition (the fine arts not included) have no 
peculiar character, and give me the idea of its having been the intention to avoid 
exhibiting what is national. German industry appears in every department to lean on 
something foreign, or to be an imitation, and nowhere to stand on its own feet. At one 
place we see the hand of England, and at another that of France. I may be mistaken 
but this is my very distinct impression." If, indeed, we turned to the machinery 
exhibited we found it of little importance ; and the principal objects, such as the vacuum 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 109 

pan and the Jacquard loom, Very imperfectly improved, as compared with others in the 
building, were borrowed from England or France. The machinery exhibited, and 
generally, too, the tools and the cutlery, were imitations of those of England, and had 
nothing to recommend them but their cheapness. 

The nature of German industry in general was brought into a strong light by the varied 
industry of Hamburgh, and the taste displayed in the exhibition of the articles sent from 
that city. It furnished no less than 123 ; while the rest of North Germany, the kingdom 
of Hanover, Lubeck, the two Mecklenburghs, supplied only 35. They consisted chiefly 
of useful and ornamental furniture, such as sideboards, sofas, chairs, &c, of a very 
superior description, clocks, musical instruments, specimens of oil-cake and refined sugar, 
charts, pianofortes, saws, rocking-chairs, looking-glasses, bird-cages, and a large assort- 
ment of walking-sticks. Here, however, instead of being merely hung against the wall, 
they were displayed in a cheerful tasteful manner, so that the Hamburgh room had a 
light and elegant appearance, superior to that of the central room of the Zollverein, 
in which were heaped together all the best and richest of its contributions. On entering 
the apartment, the spectator was much struck by a representation of the sun sending 
his rays on all sides, placed against the opposite wall of the apartment. It was composed 
of walking-sticks, chiefly from the workshops of C. A. Meyer, who employs several 
hundred persons, and exports walking-sticks to all parts of the world. In Hamburgh, as 
in London, it is a considerable trade ; and, being a source of wealth, is not inaptly 
typified by the sun. Herr Meyer, the founder of the house, is a good specimen of what 
trade does for men in Germany as well as in England. He arrived in the city from 
Thuringia, with no other wealth than his skill in carving wood ; and, by care, frugality, 
and an opportunity of exerting his talents, he has created a large establishment, and 
become one of the princely merchants of the city. He is an individual example of the 
general opulence and general industry and skill of Hamburgh. It was, and yet is, 
practically and truly free — not merely nominally a free city; and the success of its 
industry as displayed in the Exhibition, in comparison with the industry of the many 
long-enthralled states of Germany, did honour to its freedom. As we have already 
adverted to the sculpture, and intend including that from Germany, we do not extend 
our present remarks to the latter. German sculpture took a high place in the Exhi- 
bition ;' but that art, though treated successfully by the Germans, we need scarcely 
remark, was not peculiarly German. 

With these first and general impressions, we now proceed to make a tour (trom recol- 
lection) of the Zollverein department, commencing with that on the north side. Our 
attention was arrested at the entrance by an object which forcibly reminded us of the 
military character of the principal state of the Verein, and indeed of all the German 
states Planted at the centre, as if to forbid entrance, or at least to allow it only on 
conditions, stood a remarkably well-mounted field-piece. The gun gave you an idea of 
solid and substantial work. At the same time it was highly pohshed; and the plain 
varnished carriage was a perfect model, on a small scale, like one of Maudslay s engines, 
of compactness and neatness, combined with great strength. The workmanship had the 
finish of a iewel, concealing in the instrument the power of a demon. Beneath it were 
nOlished cuirasses and other instruments or emblems of war, destruction, and death. 
This was the shape in which an invention of a new process for the manufacture of one of 
the most useful things shown in the whole department, cast-steel, was exhibited. We 
admire Herr H. Krupp's skill, but should have thought better of him and better of 
Germany had it been displayed in rollers such as are employed with great success at 
Munich for grinding corn; or surgical instruments, or something more appropriate to 
this peaceful age and to the Exhibition, than a model field-piece. 



110 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

Close by it, however, inviting j t ou to the confidence which the gun repelled, hung ah 
altar-piece, in which were worked and emblazoned the words, " Gott ist die Liebe ; und 
wer in der Liebe bleibt, der bleibt in Gott, und Gott in ihm" — (" God is love ; and who 
dwells in love, dwells in God, and God in him.") There was not much in the article to 
admire, but the sentiment is very expressive of the affectionate kindly character of the 
Germans. The care they take to provide amusement and employment, as well as 
instruction for their children, as exemplified in one of their chief manufactures, and 
which a rugged hard people would have neither patience to begin nor the kindliness to 
continue, was another illustration of the same characteristic. The more one traces their 
kindliness in their manners, the more it is to be regretted that a contrary principle presides 
over their affairs, as typified by the field-piece. The softness of their character seems to 
allow a long dominion to a harsh political system; and a little more rugged energy 
amongst them would keep better in check the violence against which they now only 
direct a few enigmatic sentences. 

Let us pass through the rows of arms, that were somewhat ostentatiously arranged in 
full display, and direct our attention to the various specimens of crockery, earthenware, 
or china, manufactured in the neighbourhood of Frankfort-on-the-Oder. It was clear, 
solid, and generally of pleasing forms, approximating more to our stoneware than to 
anything else that we are acquainted with, but was superior to that in its clear and 
uniform glaze. For neatness and utility, it was scarcely surpassed in the whole collection. 
The porcelain, both of Saxony and Prussia, was of course much more splendid ; some of 
that was very much to be admired, and seemed to find numerous customers, for several of 
the articles of the Berlin manufacture were very soon marked, " disposed of;" but the 
porcelain, with its admirable paintings, came within the reach of a few, while the elegant 
and clean-looking thonwaaren was attainable by the many, and must contribute to the 
pleasures of all who use it. This ware is largely exported to countries with which England 
trades ; and we are inclined, therefore, to suppose that it must be as cheap as our ordinary 
ware, and it is, generally speaking, more elegant, and appears less brittle. Combined with 
several other things which came from Frankfort-on-the-Oder, it gave us a much higher 
idea than we before had formed of that city as a place of manufacture. From the very 
circumstance that much of the cutlery, particularly that from Solingen, was made after 
English patterns, it appeared very good, and much superior to that which was formerly, 
and is still very much in use in Germany. Some of the surgical instruments, too, were 
very good— indeed they are said to be made better in Berlin than in any other part of the 
continent. Some of the common jewellery, the supply of which was large, was well set ; 
but the bulk of it, as was to be expected from the quantity, was common, and rather 
tasteless. Germany abounds in metals ; all the zinc in use comes from that country : but, 
with the exception of its being applied to roof a house, a model of which was exhibited, 
showing some very substantial workmanship, and for spouts, we noticed no other 
important application of this ductile, and now much used metal. Those who have 
visited Germany must be well aware that there are many uses to which it might be 
most advantageously applied : and it would unquestionably contribute to the health and 
comfort of the Germans, and the neatness of their houses. 

Passing to the west and north, opposite the room for the machinery of the Zollverein^ 
we observed two specimens of massive safes for money and papers. One was remarkable 
for the ease with which its heavy doors were moved, and the other for the impossibility 
of opening it without receiving instructions from the maker, and both for their many 
conveniences. Four of them, we have understood, have already been ordered from 
Germany, in consequence of their having been exhibited among us* The machine-room 
looked bare, and at least was quite spacious enough for the machinery the Zollverein chose 



OP THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. Ill 

w£U°?wS W 6 be !| ev " that Germai ? is rich <* m such contrivances than the Exhi- 
bition showed. We should pronounce it very backward, were we to judge solely of the 
specimens that were sent Cards for combing, made of imported materials, seemed to us 
very inferior to those made in Manchester. Engines for coining, punching, and milling 
were good, but nothing extraord nary Civilization and the power of man are dirertW 
proportion as he is enabled by skilful machinery to command the assistance of nature. 
As he makes the expansive power of steam, or the weight of the atmosphere, or the 
rushing of streams, work for him, he is strong and powerful. Machinery being generally 
private property, men cannot be constrained to display it when they fear that the secrets 
connected with it may be discovered; and hence the samples in the Zollverein were not 
specimens of the best machinery of Germany. If they were, we should form an unfavour- 
able opinion of the past, and a very unfavourable augury for the future of that country. 

Now coming back to the south, we enter the great centre room of the Zollverein, 
crammed full of the bijoux of German art, before describing which, let us direct the 
attention of our readers to a somewhat elegant pillar which stood on the western side. It 
represented a group of Amazons— they being apparently great favourites with the Berlin 
artists, the great Amazon in the nave being only one of many in the Exhibition— made of 
cast-iron, at the foundry of Berlin, but curiously inlaid with silver. It was remarkable 
for the simplicity of its form and the beauty of its workmanship. The striking character- 
istic, indeed, of most of the productions in the centre hall, where were collected the 
gems of the Verein, was, we think, beauty of form. The principal contents of the hall 
were statues, statuettes, painted glass ornaments, pictures, one or two cabinets or ladies' 
desks, porcelain, &c, all belonging to the fine arts, and all in general distinguished by 
this characteristic. Even the Berlin porcelain, which occupied a large space in the room, 
and part of which was copied from renowned works of antiquity, such as the Warwick 
vase, was as beautiful in form as it was in its ornament, and the designs on it, after 
Mieris, Vischer, and others, were as fine as art can produce, Less meretricious in orna- 
ment than the productions of Paris, and less encumbered with it than those of London, 
the artistic productions of Berlin, and indeed of all Germany, were chiefly agreeable from 
the beauty of their forms. Even the elaborate carvings in ivory from Darmstadt, par- 
ticularly the large goblet, on which the great victory of Hermann or Arminius, from a 
picture in the possession of the Grand Duke of Baden, was carved in alto relievo, were 
as remarkable for their graceful shape as for their admirahle execution. By crowding 
their finest room with almost innumerable articles of virtu, puzzling us to distinguish 
between them, and losing admiration for individual specimens in multiplicity, the Ger- 
mans informed us that they set a high value on these comparatively trivial things. The 
production of them is what the influential government have chiefly encouraged ; they 
have impelled the skill of the people in this direction, and we may expect therefore— or 
where shall we seek for the utility of royal or noble patronage ? — that the arts which 
spring from them or grow up under their encouragement, shall be marked by superior 
taste. Amongst the ancient Greeks, and amongst the inhabitants of India, a keen percep- 
tion of beauty of form seems to have been inherent, and is found almost equally in some 
of their earliest productions, which have descended to us, as in their latest. But, 
amongst the Saxon and Scandinavian tribes, judging from the rude figures of their old 
idols and earliest heroes yet extant, a perception of fine forms was not innate. It 
required cultivation, and has been cultivated by studying the examples of the people who 
were endowed with these perceptions. The highborn and well-educated, the opulent 
and the ruling classes, have been the means of extending that cultivation. They are 
conduits through which the old Greek perceptions have been conveyed to their unendowed 
and uncultivated countrymen. Thus we find their influence and the influence of courts 



112 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

more beneficial in these arts than in any others. Modern artists cannot boast of much 
novelty of conception. Their finest works, whether of sculpture, painting, or architec- 
ture, are generally imitations of the ancients. Nature is as pure and as free as in the 
times of the Greeks; but man's present perceptions are so mixed with ancient and 
derived knowledge, that they are confused ; and artists are often the most graceful when 
they return to the original forms. For many years, even for centuries, European artists 
and their patrons, have aimed at little more than at diffusing amongst the rude people of 
the North a knowledge of the forms that sprang up intuitively in the minds of the 
Greeks, and that they have only acquired by a laborious process. By the Exhibition this 
species of cultivation was rapidly extended ; and it seemed likely to do more, in a few , 
weeks or months, to diffuse amongst our people a knowledge of graceful and artistic 
forms, than had before been done in ages. For the first time almost in our history, the 
common people of England were brought familiarly into contact with, and derived 
instruction from, the clear, definite, and brilliant conceptions of the Greeks, embodied in 
forms that have been preserved and spread by the influence of artists and courts through 
all Europe. Of our people, too, we are happy to say that the females share largely in 
the enjoyment and improvement. By a curious, and yet easily traced connexion, 
establishing a moral relation between the most ancient and most modern nations, the 
keen powers of perception of the beautiful in nature with which the old Greeks were 
endowed, and which were denied to the ancestors of our race, causing a great moral 
difference between them, are now made to subserve to the improvement of the English. 
By the Exhibition the bulk of our people were made familiar with form derived from 
antiquity, and of which they could otherwise never have attained a conception. 

Among the articles of virtu exhibited by the Zollverein, the bronzes were well worthy 
of attention, particularly a statuette of Beethoven ; we may also notice a large collection 
of miniatures on ivory, painted in a bold style, by a new method, by Hilder, a Wurtem- 
burg artist. Amongst the articles of utility, the cloths, which were very abundant, took 
the first place in the Zollverein ; and remembering that the manufacture of fine cloth is 
rather modern in Germany, and that homespun woollens, till very recently, formed the 
staple dresses of the bulk of the peasantry, the progress of the Germans in making fine 
cloth does them great credit. For some of that they may thank our restrictive laws, which 
partly force their industry into that channel, and compel them to grow wool and weave it, 
instead of growing corn and exchanging it for woollens. The damasks of Saxony and 
the linens of Silesia, the latter now not so highly honoured as they were wont to be, also 
occupied a large space in the halls and in the galleries, and they are very old and very 
favourite productions of Germany. In damask linens they excel ; and the productions 
of Messrs. Proels, senior, and Sons, of Leipsic, in the Saxon department, may be men- 
tioned as an excellent example of the produce of the German looms. Many of the 
woollens that came from Prussia were as remarkable as the celebrated Berlin wool for the 
richness of their dyesj and there were some common enough cloths at the end of the 
gallery of the Zollverein, on the south side, worth notice on account of the boldness and 
distinctness, and the meaning — for many of our patterns are utterly destitute of any 
meaning — of the designs which ornament them. We discovered, on referring to the 
catalogue, that the designs were copies of wood-cuts after Albert Durer, and we do not 
see why such things should not generally be reproduced, rather than unmeaning scrolls. 
We need say nothing of the patterns and the wool which were profusely displayed 
throughout the Prussian department, which has acquired a world-wide reputation as 
Berlin work, the delight of our wives, daughters, and mothers, and very often of no little 
comfort to ourselves in its results, if we are occasionally annoyed by it in its progress. 
Patterns, as well as the materials for embodying them in the canvass, abounded in almost 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 113 

every part of the Zollverein, together with carpets, rugs, table-covers, &c. In fact, the two 
circumstances of the splendid dyes and the excellent designs, for which Prussian workmen 
and artists are famous, have combined to make Berlin work so general a favourite. In 
damask linens, in fine cloths of various kinds, and in woollens of every description and 
for every use, the Zollverein was particularly rich. Taken as a whole, woollens were not 
only the most useful, but the most conspicuous production of German industry, and 
that in which they have attained the greatest excellence, and are making the most rapid 
advances. Connected, too, with them, we must add that there were numerous specimens 
of very fine wool, the produce of the German provinces and other flocks. Berlin has 
been famous, at least since the time of Diesbach, 1710, when Prussian blue was discovered, 
for its chemical products ; and all through the eighteenth century, as well as before it 
commenced, some of the most distinguished names in the annals of chemistry were those 
of Germany. After the woollens, the chemical products of the Zollverein in the Exhi- 
bition ranked high. The specimens of beet-root sugar, which were perfect, and the 
product entirely of chemical art, the specimens of perfumery, of various salts and 
pigments, the crystals of several substances exhibited, all testified to the fact that the 
Germans continue on this point to deserve their well-acquired reputation. 

In the vast and very miscellaneous productions which they sent us, we can only 
particularize a few more. We observed numerous specimens of types and of books, 
ornamented and plain, which did honour to German typography and their skill in 
illustration. Contrasting some of the books displayed there by Decker and others, with 
the ordinary books and newspapers of Germany, it is impossible not to wish that in the 
matter of paper at least some of the substantiality of the books exhibited might be 
imparted to the common productions of the booksellers. But it is probable, after all 
that is said of the durability of books, that the most flimsy are the best adapted for 
our transition age, as not likely long to stand in the way, either on our bookshelves or in 
our minds, of the improved works of which they are to be the parents. Connected with 
books, were many maps, geological as well as geographical, with a large globe to show the 
comparative elevation of the mountains of the earth, and other helps to diffuse knowledge. 
The Germans are not behind in applying papier rnache, which will take any form, and 
which, though made from refuse, is one of the products of human skill best adapted, of 
all those yet acquired, to various figured ornaments, as well as to many useful instru- 
ments and utensils. The Germans exhibited many specimens of their success in papier 
mache, the name of which informs us that the art is neither of English nor of German 
invention. As we had specimens of our coal, so the Germans, -particularly in the Ham- 
burgh department, exhibited many specimens of their charcoals, of which they make 
great use, and which they apply in various forms to various purposes. They showed us, 
also, many of their mineral products, particularly from Nassau, from which little else had 
been brought than ores of lead, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, &c. Other things in which 
they excelled, or at least made a good show, were philosophical and musical instruments 

characteristic of their harmony and their devotion to science. In the Hamburgh 

department, we found not only some excellent furniture, but veneers fifty-four plates to 
the inch : or the mahogany was cut into planks, each of which was only the fifty-fourth 
part of an inch thick. Till a recent period, when Sir Robert Peel abolished the duties on 
furniture woods, the inhabitants of Hamburgh had a considerable advantage over our 
furniture makers", and they sent great quantities of furniture over to various parts of 
America. They still carry on this profitable and useful business ; but our people are now 
in a better condition to compete with them than they were, and, by the abolition of 
the duties, a valuable trade has been preserved to our country. 

Here we must stop. Though the productions of German industry were by no means 

2 G 



114 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

so numerous, so rich, nor so varied as those of French industry, with which, excluding 
Austria, they might be most appropriately compared — though the Germans were in the 
Exhibition remarkably deficient in machinery— their products were numerous and miscel- 
laneous. In general, except as to cast iron, bronzes, chemicals, dyes, and some woollens, 
German industry seemed a step below that of either France or England. It is, however, 
plain, that the Germans have a great aptitude for improvement : we regard them as only 
recently aroused to a due sense of their relative position in knowledge, skill, politics, and 
morals, to the rest of Europe. They occupy a noble country ; and as they become sensible 
of their wants, they cannot fail to achieve a commanding succcess. In them we have great 
reason to be interested, and them we must wish to see strong, prosperous, and united. 
They stand between European civilization and Cossack barbarity; and the hope we have 
that the latter will not be suffered to advance and prevail westward, rests on the Ger- 
mans, and rests on the improving people as contradistinguished from their interfering, 
and, we are afraid, sometimes retrograde rulers. .■**■■■ ■ 

Before we entirely take our departure from the Zollverein department, we must 
not omit to notice one very amusing and interesting feature it possessed; we allude to 
the collection of stuffed animals, whioh were indeed so admirably got up, that they 
were worthy of the attention of Waterton himself, the great Nimrod Gf South America, 
of whose prowess in the. savage wilderness, among the ferae naturae, his own ancestral halls 
in the heart of Yorkshire afford ample testimony, and whose redoubtable arm slew, in 
single combat, every grim specimen he has therein collected and so skilfully preserved. 
Judging from the crowd that was always collected around the stuffed animals in the 
Zollverein department, it would seem to have been the most popular group of objects 
in the Glass Palace. Doubtless, some part of its attractiveness was due to the pre- 
dominance of family parties in the collection. Quite independently of treatment, any 
artist who introduces the young of animals and the instincts of maternity in operation, 
is sure of attention. Here we had partridges and their young, hawks and their young, 
a hooded owl protecting her nestlings from the onslaught of weasels, a female fox and her 
cubs awaiting their sagacious sire, who is bringing them a partridge to feast upon. "There 
were also groups in caricature. Stoats and weasels, in sportsman-wise, pursued their 
game of young hares and rabbits. A party of kittens were enjoying the pleasures of the 
tea-table, and various other amusing groups were exhibited, in which the artist had 
succeeded in throwing a most whimsical air of sentimental gentility. The most attrac- 
tive portion, however, of this display, consisted of a series of tableaux from the old poem 
of Reynard the Fox, a great favourite with the German children, and which we remember 
to have seen powerfully illustrated in the dark mysterious etchings of Roland Roghman. 
The incidents that were selected for representation were, the Cock receiving Reynard's 
confession of sin — Reynard leading the Hare to Court as a witness — Reynard at Home, 
carelessly reposing on a sofa, his tail resting on his left arm, and equipped with sash and 
dagger, \ la brigand. Our hero was next seen attacking the hare on his way to court, 
after which he was represented giving the cat a letter of introduction to court. It was 
impossible to conceive anything better than the attitudes of all these animals, and they 
had just as much clothing put upon them as was necessary to produce a good effect. 



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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 115 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

1ABOBIOUS TBIELES — INGENIOUS ABSURDITIES — THE ISLAND OE LAPTJTA — DUNIN's IEON MAN — 
THE EAfiTH A LIVING CEEATUEE — THE MEDICAL "WALKING STAEE — AETICLES IN MUTTON 
EAT — WONDERFUL ACHIEVEMENT WITH A PENKNLEE — CHINESE NICK-KNACKS — WILLOW WOOD 
COTTAGE — ELABOEATE OOEKSCEEW — SELE-ADJUSTING BAILWAY— WONDEREUL KNIVES AND 
SCISSOES. 

As the whole world was invited to display their talent, their industry, and their inven- 
tions, and to contribute to the vast display of human genius in the great show of the 
World's Fair, it was to be concluded that the public would occasionally have to put up 
with the productions of dreaming insufficiency, as well as to be gratified with the 
elaborate creations of scientific usefulness, and which, indeed, might serve as a foil to the 
more predominant examples of opposite excellence. And this was singularly the case. 
We will accordingly proceed to enumerate a few of the absurdities, which, in amusing 
variety, were brought before the eyes of the curious and astonished observer in the 
Crystal Palace. 

" There are more things in heaven and earth 
Than are dreamt of in your philosophy, 
Horatio," 

was the shrewd observation of the sagacious Hamlet, but we feel assured that even his 
philosophy never indulged in such wild speculations as were put forth in the ever- 
memorable year of 1851, to an admiring world, in the far-famed precincts of the 
wondrous House of Glass. 

Philosophy in Sport made Science in Earnest, was the title of a little book which we 
recollect reading with very great.pleasure some years ago ; and, published at a time when 
the generality of the community had hardly begun to inquire "in earnest" into the 
important secrets of natural and physical science, now every day producing such useful 
practical results, the modest duodecimo in question did good service by awakening and 
inviting very many individuals to the pleasures and advantages of various branches of 
study, which they would otherwise never have dreamed of including within their province 
of intellectual observation. But " philosophy in sport" is not always " science in earnest," 
and industry, unguided by the unerring truths of philosophy and the essential demands 
of utility, is sometimes nothing better than industry " run mad." Industry is one 
thing, and caprice is another and a very different thing : in like manner, we may say 
that ingenuity is one thing, and whimsicality another; persevering good sense is one 
thing,, and persevering folly a very different thing : so of workmanship and the produc- 
tion of a useful article, when compared with a prolonged waste of human labour in 
concocting and finishing a trifle, a toy, or an absurdity. These things all involve a 
different species of effort and result, and call for a very different sort of estimate. Amidst 
the innumerable examples of well-applied labour in the Great Exhibition, it must, 
nevertheless, be confessed that there were also a considerable number, amounting, 
indeed, to a motley variety of articles, in the construction of which we are bound to 
say that much thought, and yet more labour, have been grievously misapplied. 

Foremost amongst these we must place Count Dunin's " Man of Steel," which is an 
invention of so singular and so puzzling a nature, that we feel convinced the author of it 
must have taken his degree in the academy of Laputa, among the celebrated professors 
there so admirably described by Swift. Indeed, as respects the utter inutility of his most 



116 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

elaborate production, he has gone far beyond the experimental philosophers of the Flying 
Island. The worthy experimentalist who ingeniously attempted to extract sunbeams out 
of cucumbers, had at least some pretence towards a useful purpose ; and the learned 
and literary world would have had reason to bless, had it but succeeded, the projector 
of the noble idea, far superior to the wonderful calculating machine, from the aid of 
which " the most ignorant person, at a reasonable charge, and with little bodily labour, 
might write books in philosophy, poetry, polities, laws, mathematics, and theology, 
without the least assistance from genius or study." We shall not attempt to enter into 
a description of this most desirable piece of machinery, but we think it might be 
worth the while of the ingenious inventor of " the great iron man" were he to carefully 
peruse the whole of the renowned Gulliver's account of the proceedings of these sub- 
lime philosophers of Laputa, nothing doubting that he would profit by many of the 
hints and descriptions he would there find detailed. This piece of mechanism was in the 
figure, of a man, and was constructed of seven thousand pieces of steel. Most of them 
appeared to be either springs or slides, and they were so put together and arranged 
as to be capable of a graduated movement, by means of which the proportions of the 
whole figure might be expanded from the standard size of the Apollo Belvidere to that 
of a Goliath. From these colossal proportions it might again be contracted at pleasure 
to any size between them and its original standard. The mechanism was composed of 
875 framing pieces, 48 grooved steel plates, 163 wheels, 202 slides, 476 metal washers, 
482 spiral springs, 704 sliding plates, 497 nuts, 8,500 fixing and adjusting screws, with 
numerous steadying pins, so that the number of pieces was upwards of 7,000. The 
only utility we ever heard suggested as derivable from this elaborate piece of mechanism, 
was its applicability to the various measurements of army clothiers or tailors, as it 
would serve for the figures of men of various sizes, We do not know whether this was 
the purpose assigned to it by the inventor, as it seems a very absurd one ; the same 
result being far more easily attainable by the incomparably more simple means of half, 
a-dozen dummies, or wooden lay-figures. . 

But hold ! it behoves us to speak with deference and humility in this matter, seeing 
that the Council of Chairmen of Juries, the supreme heads of wisdom, to whom the 
dispensation of the Exhibition honours was intrusted, thought proper to reward the 
constructor of this huge mechanical toy with a "Council Medal." Yes, hear it 
Troughton and Simms, who talk about novelties in astronomical instruments, to which a 
council medal was denied, though recommended by the jury ; hear it Claussen, whose 
newly-discovered, and nationally important processes in the preparation of flax received 
only a common medal ; hear it, Losely, whose compensating pendulum, one of the most 
ingenious and valuable improvements in horology in the whole Exhibition — hear it 
Applegarth, whose vertical printing machine — hear it all ye whose performances had 
to share the common fate of merit in "a certain degree;" — the Jury in Class X. (" that 
of philosophical instruments, and processes depending upon their use,") awarded, and the 
Council of Chairmen confirmed to Count E. Dunin a council medal — " For the extraor- 
dinary application of mechanism to his expanding figure of a man!" After reading this 
result, we began to be somewhat doubtful about all we set out with touching " philosophy 
in sport," and nice distinctions between " ingenuity" and " whimsicality" and so forth ; 
and in a moment of bewilderment and irritation, were almost upon the point of 
consigning the notes upon which the rest of this article will be composed to the fire. 
But fortunately, we were restrained from so doing, by an urgent application for " copy" 
from a quarter which is not used to be denied, and therefore we proceed with the task 
upon which we set out. Still in the philosophical instrument department, we come 
upon " an apparatus of a peculiar construction, showing the ebb and flow of the tides," 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 117 

exhibited by a Mr. Ryles, of Cobridge, Staffordshire Potteries, who thus describes the 
novel theory it is intended to illustrate : — " The article I sent to the Exhibition, is an 
apparatus to illustrate the idea of the earth being a living creature encased in a shell, 
as a snail-house or sea-shell, and by the action of the heart, causing the tide to ebb 
and flow ! Press down the blower, and the heart (as seen through the glass that is 
on the top of the shell), will contract, causing the tide to rise ; let out the air of the 
shell, and the heart will expand, causing the tide to fall." He adds, " I want a 
patron that would enable me to show how the tide causes the rotatory motion of the earth, 
which only poverty prevents my doing." Mr. Ryles has not received a council medal, 
nor a prize medal, nor even "honourable mention," which, considering the honours 
heaped upon the "expanding figure of a man," we consider hard. The least Count 
Dunin could have done, would have been to have shared his council medal with Ryles, 
and, thrusting the model of the " living creature" constituting the earth, into his " extra- 
ordinary application of mechanism," exhibit its expansibility by revealing " the action of 
the heart" of the encased monster. 

Dr. Grey invented a medical walking-staff, containing instruments, medicines, and 
other professional articles. Would not a small tin case have answered the same 
purpose far better, and far more conveniently, as it might be put into the pocket, where 
the " medicines," not being half so much " shaken" as in the walking-staff, would have 
less chance of fermentation or other injury? An "artificial silver nose" has been 
invented by Mr. Whitehouse. We will not pronounce rashly upon this ; but it strikes 
us, that all artificial noses, both in shape, size, and the amount of nose required, will 
depend upon the amount wanting by an individual, and the size and shape, in fact, 
suited to his particular case ; the material also of which the nose is manufactured would 
very often have to be regulated by the special circumstances. 

Art-manufactures in mutton fat are certainly a novelty, and Mr. W. E. Hall, of Bide- 
ford, exhibited " a socle, or kind of vase," made of a mixture of mutton fat and lard. 
We should fear that in a hot summer, or in a cold winter, when a good fire is needed in 
the room, these articles would be extremely liable to a change of form not at all 
contemplated by the inventor; nay, there might be occasions on which they would 
" run away" altogether. Mr. M'Clintock, of York, exhibited a chain in regular links, 
the whole of which, we are informed, had been cut out of a solid block of wood: 
to what purpose, except to the unnecessary length of time such a performance must 
occupy, we are totally at a loss to conceive. Mr. M'Clintock has, however, been sur- 
passed by a lieutenant of the navy, whose name has escaped us, and whieh we do 
not know where to look for in the Catalogue, who had achieved the same result from a 
block'of wood, with the help of no other tool than a penknife. Will anybody endeavour 
to surpass them both, we wonder, by doing the same thing with a pin ? We do not 
very well know what to say about the " ostracide," the instrument with a grand name 
for opening oysters, and bearing a close resemblance to a pair of sugar-nippers. It may 
be useful, or it may cut the oysters to rags in the operation; we hope not; but 
Messrs. Brown, of Newcastle, will excuse us if we hint, that, to avoid this, it may be 
necessary to practise opening oysters with the ostracide almost as much as with the old- 
fashioned oyster-knife. , Al , A , * 

" The semibreve guitar" of Mr. Dobrowsky was a good thought enough tor a new 
name, and for a fresh attempt to prolong the sound of the notes of the guitar ; but if 
the inventor would have us understand by the term "semibreve" that his instrument 
will sustain a note of any such duration, we must plead absolute scepticism to the pos- 
sibility of any instrument of this kind being made to accomplish such a result. The 
enharmonic guitar, manufactured by Panormo, of High-street, Bloomsbury, claims for 

3 H 



118 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

its original inventor and designer no less a personage than the ingenious Colonel 
Perronet Thompson, M.P., who some years ago invented a new kind of organ. Of the 
enharmonic guitar iately exhibited, it was announced that it was "capable of being 
arranged in the perfect ratios for upwards of twenty keys." We do not doubt this ; we 
accept it at once, not only from what we know of the scientific capabilities of a guitar, 
but of the great scientific attainments of Colonel Thompson : but after his enharmonic 
guitar has been " arranged" for any of these keys, what will be the effect of " playing" 
in them, amidst all this mechanical interference with the finger-board ? So much for 
the impediments to execution, to say nothing of tone. We must say, in justice to 
Mr. Panormo, the manufacturer, that, being convinced his own simple guitars on the 
Spanish model have more tone in them than any other, we regret he should have 
employed so much labour in the construction of this very ingenious, learned, and 
impracticable invention. 

Mr. Jones, of Lombard-street, exhibited " a silent alarum bedstead to turn any one 
out of bed at a given hour." This is certainly one of the most amusing inventions we 
ever heard of. It assumes a degree of density in the sleeper which no alarum can affect, 
or else a singular amount of luxurious weakness of purpose. The bed, therefore, acts the 
part of resolution for the sleeper; and having been " set" over night for a given hour in 
the morning, the said incorrigible sleeper finds the bed revolve so as to tilt him out ; 
and a bath being placed by the bed-side, he may at once be relieved of all need for 
summoning a resolution either to get up or to take a plunge. 

The Chinese have long been famous for their caprices of invention, and whimsicalities 
of workmanship, over each article of which the greater portion of the lives of several 
artizans appear to have been expended. They exhibited some of their celebrated ivory 
balls, richly carved outside, and containing another, a size less, inside, richly carved also, 
with open-work, to show you that there are balls within balls to the extent of twentv 
or more, each cut clear of the rest, and carved and capable of being turned round — the 
whole of these being produced by means of a variety of curious tools and instruments, 
out of the first solid ball. This, they assert, nobody else can do; and it may be true, for 
the Chinese are capable of wasting any amount of time upon any triviality. But the 
Chinese are not the only people who have a love for difficulties, for the sake of the 
unnecessary labour and time they involve, which give the articles so much additional 
value in their eyes. If Quang Sing, of Canton, carves and engraves upon peach-stones, 
and makes baskets and boxes with the stones of apricots and nectarines, Mr. Jacob, of 
Coventry*street, displays egg-shells with carvings and engravings upon them, and " views 
inside." If Shee-king, of Macao, delights in wasting his own life, and the lives of 
others whom he employs, in carving a nest of ivory balls out of one solid ball, instead 
of obtaining a similar result, (if the world must have these toys) by the regular tools and 
simple means of ivory workmanship, we find several of our own countrymen equally 
assiduous in substituting a common penknife in order to perform operations which proper 
tools would effect far more easily in a tenth, perhaps a hundredth part of the time. 
There seems, in fact, a sort of mania for this penknife-work. Mr. Aston, of Chelsea 
executed a model of St. James's Church, South, in cardboard, with a penknife; Mr. 
Scollick, of Birmingham, exhibited a model of St. Paul's Cathedral ; and Mr. Dickenson, 
of Waterloo-place, a model of York Minster, each in cardboard, and each employing no 
better instrument than a penknife. M. Schnitzer, of Jerusalem, exhibited two vases 
carved out of a species of sandstone found in Jerusalem, with a penknife, which the 
proprietor, Sir Moses Montefiore, gravely takes care to inform the world was "an 
ordinary penknife." 

In like manner, we found an exhibitor who displayed a model cottage composed of 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 119 

2,000 pieces of willow wood (these also were all carved with a penknife); and there was 
a table to be seen which was composed of 2,000,000 of separate morsels, all inlaid in 
mosaic-work. The practical philosophers and economists of modern times complain of 
the great waste of human labour in the construction of the Pyramids of Egypt — let them 
consider the same subject in reference to this table. Many of our readers were, doubt- 
less, like ourselves, much struck with the model of a ship, made with bottle-corks, and 
rigged in the same fashion. The object of this "caprice" we cannot fathom. Mr. 
Cossens, of Holborn, exhibited a model made in elder pith ; and Mr. Clifford, of Exeter, 
displayed models made "of the pith of the common green rush," which he carefully 
informed us was such as is " used in making rushlights." In one of Hogarth's prints 
there is a capital satire upon the expenditure of extraordinary means to produce a 
simple result. You see a pile of complicated machinery, which indicates that an 
operation requiring great power is about to be displayed. The skill of the artist in the 
design and the arrangement of light and shade causes the eye to travel about and 
examine the various parts of the machinery, in order to ascertain the work it is about 
to perform, when finally you discover, at the bottom of the great machine, an ordinary 
wine-bottle, the neck of which is corked, and the whole of this machinery is evidently 
employed in " drawing the cork." Of a similar kind of elaboration, in order to effect 
a very simple object, we fear we nrast class some of the new inventions in horns and 
flutes, to the former of which many complicated crooks and curves, and to the latter 
many scarcely practicable keys have been added, merely to enable the instrument to 
produce a certain note which might be omitted with no great loss, or produced by other 
means. Nothing injures toue more than a superabundance of mechanism. Vivier always 
plays on the 'old French horn, without any of the complicated improvements, and 
Nicholson used to play on a flute much simpler than many now exhibited, and we have 
never heard any performer who gave so much tone to the instrument. 

An American inventor, of the name of Wood, exhibited a combination of the pianoforte 
and violiu, with which he assumes that pieces can be played with the effect of these two 
instruments in concert. Something like this, no doubt, may be accomplished by giving 
an attachment to the piano, which shall produce a resemblance to the sound of a violin; 
but in the present instance the inventor has literally attached a violin, played upon by 
four bows, which are put in motion by a separate set of keys on a small upper finger- 
board, which cause the bows to " saw" (as we may truly say) upwards and downwards, 
with an effect which we frankly confess to be indescribable. One might see the whole 
operation, and a more ludicrous thing, both to see and hear, it has seldom been our 
lot to experience. Moreover, there was nothing new in the contrivance. The " Philo- 
sophical" Jury, Class Xa, however, discovered some peculiar merit in it, and awarded 
the maker "£50 for the expenses incurred in constructing his piano-violin ;" a slice of 
" solid pudding" (as Punch describes his imaginary award of £20,000 to Sir Joseph 
Paxton), far more acceptable than medal or "honourable mention." 

An inventor exhibited "a model of a carriage," which supplied its own railway, 
laying it down as it advanced, and taking it up after the wheels had passed over. This 
was no doubt extremely ingenious, but, unfortunately, it supposed the existence of a 
level line for the operation, so that its utility becomes rather questionable. A drinking- 
glass was exhibited, with a partition for soda and acid, to be mixed separately, the junction 
of the two streams effecting effervescence only at the moment of entering the mouth. 
Few people could " stand this," we should think. In the windows of most of the great 
cutlers of London may be seen knives with an extraordinary number of blades; and 
on the ground-floor of the Grand Exposition was exhibited a large glass-case, as big as 
a handsome summer-house, full of all sorts of fine cutlery and other workmanship in 



120 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

steel, the most prominent features of which were several of these preposterous knives. 
Some seemed to have 50 blades, of all sorts of shapes and sizes, others 150 blades, and 
one or two of them, we felt assured, could not display less than 400 or 500 blades. To 
accomplish this capricious feat, the inventors were always obliged to have recourse to a 
strangely thick handle of an utterly impracticable kind as to all handling : and in the 
glass-case referred to might be found one in the shape of a cross, thus combining four 
handles, each one crowded with blades ; another had the handle in the shape of a star 
or double cross, thus combining six handles, each one bristling with blades, and arranged 
at the end of each handle in the form of a fan of bright penknives and blades of 
instruments. But all these were surpassed in capricious ingenuity by a "knife," the 
handle of which, if we must call it so, is a combination of three handles, each in form 
of a cross, the largest being in the middle. The three crosses are combined by an 
upright shaft, and each of the three comprises four handles. Thus, we have twelve han- 
dles in one, and from each of the twelve there stuck out a shining fan-work of blades- 
and steel instruments of all conceivable shapes, and all real or - imaginary offices, not 
one of which could be put in operation amidst such a crowd. It was one of the most 
wonderfully useless things we ever saw. As to the number of blades and tools, they 
defied calculation. In the same case might be seen miniature knives, which were actually 
of the same kind, and presented numerous blades from a handle of an inch and-a-half 
in length. Also miniature knives and scissors of an inch long, of half an inch long, 
and of a quarter of an inch long ; and, by way of completing the wonder, twelve pairs 
of miniature scissors, placed in little brass scales, which showed that the whole twelve 
only weighed half a grain. They required a microscope to be seen properly, when it 
became manifest that they were perfectly formed scissors. We suppose Messrs. Rodgers 
would say, in explanation of all this fancy-work, that the use of it was to show the world 
what Sheffield could, do, not only in work, but in play. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

SCULPTURE— continued. 



JOHN HAMPDEN— SHAKSPEBE— FLAXMAN— THE ELDON GBOUP— DB. JENNER— THE MARQUIS OF 
BUTE-BAOCHUS-ABIADNE-VIBGINIUS-EABLY SOEEOW-ETE-XHE LION IN LOVE— CUPID 
— PAOLO AND FEANCESCA — YOUTH AT THE STEEAM. 

Of all the forms of the beautiful, perhaps none excite the admiration and sympathy of 
the public mind in a higher degree than the products of the sculptor's art. To the 
uneducated eye, the human form, modelled in clay or chiselled in pure white marble 
seems fraught with grace and vigour/ and an unconscious education^ tie £«££. S 
going on as it gazes on the wondrous symmetry of a Venus de Medicis, or behold! 
the agonmng throes of a Laocoon. To the- man of taste and refinement the process 
of thought and appreciation is different, though the ultimate effect is the same !£ both 
there is profit. While the ordinary mind is absorbed, spell-bound, entranced in a kind 
of admiring awe the educated man admires, criticises? appreciates. Though ^he S- 
education of both men has .been conducted on different principles, the St arrived 
at is precisely S1 m,lar, and both are equally informed and humanLd. 
The art of sculpture, w lt h the kindred arts of modelling, carving, and casting, are of 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 121 

very remote antiquity. The ancients availed themselves of almost every known sub- 
stance capable of being cut or moulded into form ; and we find the remains of figures, 
architectural ornaments, vases, lamps, and pedestals, in marbles, woods, metals, ivory, 
b° n e, granite, porphyry, basalt, alabaster, stucco," wax, clay, and terra cotta, or baked 
earth. There is no reason to doubt that the art of sculpture was known before the 
flood ; and we have certain evidence that it was practised in India and America by 
civilised races of men, known now only traditionally, and of whom no other traces 
remain. Indeed, the late discoveries of Mr. Layard in Nineveh, prove incontestably 
that the sculptor's art was practised, and arose to a remarkable degree of perfection, 
thousands of years ago. Universal as language, the art has risen from the rude forms 
of savage worship to the perfection in which we view it in our public buildings, our 
streets, and lately in the Crystal Palace. The productions in sculpture are either ' 
complete figures or groups, which may be viewed from all sides; or objects more or 
less raised, without being entirely detached from the back-ground with which they are 
connected. This is called relief, the kinds and degrees of which are defined by modern 
writers and artists by the words alto, or high relief, where the objects project so as to 
be nearly distinct ; basso, or low relief, where the figure is slightly raised from the back- 
ground; and mezzo, or half-relief, where not more than the face and half the figure is 
raised from the place on which it is sculptured. Examples of these we're to be seen 
in the Exhibition, and there are some also in the British Museum. Nothing can be 
more simple than the mechanical processes of sculpture. As soon as the artist has 
conceived his subject, and made his drawing upon paper, a model in clay, or some soft 
material, is executed in little. In the production of the model it is that the artist- 
mind js displayed ; if that be true and natural, its transference to stone or bronze is 
a matter of comparatively minor importance. Upon a frame of wood or iron, the 
figure is built up to the size it is to assume in the chosen material, and moulded by the 
hands and certain simple instruments in wood and ivory. Arrived at this stage, the 
drawing, or original idea of the future statue is reconsidered ; and by the assistance of 
the human figure, minutely studied, is carried to completion. Statues are frequently 
modelled nude, and afterwards draped ; and that accuracy of form', and gracefulness of 
outline may be obtained, draperies are commonly placed upon lay figures, the details of 
which are copied by the artist. When the' clay model has sufficiently dried and shrunk, 
a mould is made of it by covering it with gypsum or plaster of Paris. When this is 
sufficiently hardened, the clay within is carefully removed, and there remains an exact 
mould of the model. This being carefully washed, and the interior brushed over with a 
composition of oil . and soap, the mould is thoroughly filled in all its parts with a 
semi-liquid mixture of gypsum, which, in a few days, becomes sufficiently hard to allow 
the mould" to be removed, and thus a complete cast of the model is procured. Prom 
this short description of the method almost universally pursued, it will be seen how the 
plaster casts in the Crystal Palace have been produced. 

The model is to be executed in marble. The process of transference is a matter of 
mechanical rather than inventive skill. By means of a long steel needle, attached to a 
pole or standard, and capable of being withdrawn or extended, the exact situation of 
numerous points and cavities in the figure to be imitated are ascertained ; and the statue 
is rudely blocked out and pointed. A superior workman, called a carver, then takes the 
marble and copies the more minute portions of the work by means of chisels, files, and 
rasps ; and the statue being now in a sufficiently forward state, the final finishing touches 
are given by the sculptor himself. In the production of the model and harmony of 
effect, beauty of feature, variety of texture and surface, and consistency of detail in 
form and expression in the finished statue, the sculptor's skill is eminently displayed ; 



122 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

and while the ancients relied almost on the chisel for their effects, the modern artist 
in marble approaches the surface of his statue with extreme caution, and employs safer 
means of giving a perfect finish to what may, bring him both fame and fortune. With 
this preface, then, we shall now ..proceed with our remarks on the sculpture in the 
Grea,t Exhibition,; and, in doing so, begin with a noble name, dear to Englishmen, and 
to every lover of freedqm throughout the .whole ■ civilized world. We allude to the 
immortal Hampden, whose stalwart form in plaster cast, modelled for a statue in marble, 
which, .now is placed in the new palace at Westminster, formed a conspicuous and attrac- 
tive object in the Crystal Palace. And certainly, when we consider the part its original 
played in the history of his country, we can conceive no better site for it than among 
the senators of Great Britain " in Parliament,- assembled." " The contemplation of this 
fine statue failed not to recal to our minds the interesting actions of this noble man's 
life. Born in London, in, 1594, he entered at an early age as a commoner at Oxford, 
which seat of learning he left for the profession of the' law, studying for a short time in 
one of the inns of court. The death of his father, however, putting him in possession of 
an ample estate, he retired to Buckinghamshire, and for a while pursued his quiet career 
as a country gentleman. Events, however, arose, which called forth the natural energy 
of his mind. Cousin^german to Oliver Cromwell, he could not look calmly upon the 
usurpations, as they were considered, of Charles I. ; and, therefore, he soon attached 
himself to the popular party. In 1626 he entered the House of Commons, and soon 
after married a lady of the Foley family. In Parliament he uniformly opposed the 
arbitrary practices of the kingly prerogative, and the illegal impost of ship money ; and, 
being prosecuted for his adherence to the popular cause, and for the part he had taken 
in reference to a contemplated emigration to New England, he defended himself in 
person against the crown lawyers in the Court of Exchequer during a trial which lasted 
twelve days. Although he lost the cause, his defeat was looked upon as a triumph 
to the popular party. Henceforth he took a leading part in the contest between the 
Crown and the Parliament ; and when at last an appeal was made to arms, he accepted 
the command of a regiment in the Parliament army, under the Earl of Essex. His 
military career, however, was short ; but it was long enough to prove his courage and 
perseverance. Prince Rupert coming suddenly upon the Parliamentary troops, near 
Thame, in Oxfordshire, Hampden eagerly headed a few cavalry that were rallied in haste, 
and, in the skirmish that ensued, received a wound in the shoulder, which proved fatal. 
After lingering in much pain and suffering for six days, he died on the 24th of June, 
1643. His death was as great grief to his own party as it was a source of joy and 
congratulation to the adherents of the crown. Time, the great leveller, has enabled 
us, however, to look with cooler judgment and clearer sight upon the great transactions 
in which Hampden and Cromwell were engaged. Party feeling on the subject of 
prerogative has died out, and all parties are in this day agreed to call the original of this 
fine statue by his ancient cognomen — " the patriot Hampden." 

As we are now upon the subject of great men, we will advert to a name illustrative 
of all that is great- and excellent in the world of poetry, — " Sweetest Shakspeare, fancy's 
child," to whose worth, all writers in every succeeding period, from the grave and 
philosophic Milton to the incomparable author of Rasselas, have delighted to bear 
testimony. 

The former has. summed up his eulogium in the following vigorous sonnet : — 

" What needs my ijihakspeare for his honored boneq, 
The labour of an age in piled stones, 
Or that his hallowed relics should be hid 
Under a star-ypointed pyramid ? 



en 

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EnA:a"re<LTy J Moore ftuni aDagnerreotjpeTjT- Beard 

DP J EN N E R . 




Engra-viKl l*v l Moore t'xom *D«goerT*oTjptf"(yBoAra 

WILLIAM BARON STOWELL.AND JOHN FIRST LORD ELDON 

FROM THE UHU'.iNAL BY M. WATSON 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 123 

Dear son of memory, great heir of Fame, 
What need'st thou such weak witness of thy name P 
Thou in our wonder and astonishment 
Hast built thyself a live-lone monument, 
For whilst to the shame of slow-endeavouring art, 
Thy easy numbers flow, arid that each heart 
Hath from the. leaves of thy unvalued book, 
Those Delphic lines with deep impression took, 
Then thou bur fancy of itself bereaving, 
• Dost "make us marble with] too much conceiving, 
And so sepulchr'd in such pomp dost lie, 
That kings for such a tomb would wish to die," 

We have presented pur readers with an engraving of a statue of our immortal bard, 
by Bell, which, 'from its graceful and dignified character, attracted considerable notice 
among the lovers of the plastic art. ' 

Descending to more modern times, we must not forget to notice the statues of lords 
Eldon and Stowell, remarkable for the accuracy of the likenesses, and the calm dignity 
of the attitudes. .These nobl'g statues, executed by the late Musgrave Watson, were 
carved each "put of a single block of marble, the whole weighing upwards of twenty 
tons. ' The admirable group, representing the brothers, John, first Earl of Eldon, who 
was nearly twenty -five years Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, and William .Baron 
Stowell, twenty-nine years Judge of the High Court of Admiralty, is the property of 
the present Lord Eldon, for whom, it was executed' by the above-named eminent sculptor. 
Alas, for the fame of the gifted! Mr. Watson lived long enough to achieve but hot 
to enjoy fame. It is the old story over again ; genius lives in obscurity and dies in 
poverty ; and then all at once the world wakes up to the knowledge that a great 
spirit has gone from out its portals. Quite grieved and beside itself, the world of 
wealth wrings its hands in impotent regrets, and raises a monument to the memory of 
the genius which a little encouragement and a little sympathy would have kept alive, 
iet us pass on. Although we have already, in a former part of this work, paid the 
passing tribute of a word in favour of another statue by this lamented artist, which 
graced the sculpture court, — we again, to give him "honour due," bring the name of 
the illustrious Maxman to the recollection of our readers, in order that such of them 
as had not an opportunity of admiring the exceeding beauty and tranquillity exhibited 
in the features of the talented artist during the late Exposition, may now be informed 
that they may still enjoy that privilege, by paying a visit to the Elaxman Gallery at 
the London University, where, through the praiseworthy exertions of a friend of the 
great artist, and the generosity of his near relative, besides the statue itself, an interest* 
ing collection of bassi retievp, and finished pieces of sculpture from the same talented 
hand, are placed in a handsome apartment, in lasting memorial of his immortal genius. 

We next have to notice the fine models for statues of Dr. Jenner and the late 
Marquis of Bute, by Mr. J. Thomas. The names of both physician and peer are 
familiar to the public ear, the first as the discoverer of vaccine inoculation (a discovery 
of incalculable importance, considered in its proper light), and the last as being the 
descendant of the famous prime.minjster under" whom the peace of Eontainehleau, in 
1763, was concluded. 

In our description of the sculpture from. Tuscany, we omitted to make mention of 
several pieces of merit which we shall in the course of these strictures duly enumerate. 
And first we shall direct the attention of our readers, to a fine. recumbent figure of 

Bacchus — 

"Bacchus who first from out the purple grape 
Crushed the sweet poison of misused wirie^-" 



124 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

and a graceful and poetical representation it is of the joy-inspiring god, not the semi- 
Silenus of the drinking songs of our forefathers, but as he is invariably represented in 
the Grecian mythology, almost " severe in youthful beauty," and a fitting inamorato of 
the fair Ariadne whom he wooed and won. Even the grave and lofty Milton deemed 
him worthy of his muse in his poetical epistle to .Diodate — 

What but wine with roses crowned 



And why should revelry and wine 
Be shunned as foes to song divine ? 
Bacchus loves the power of verse, 
Bacchus oft the Nine rehearse ; 
Nor Phoebus' self disdains to wear 
His berries in his golden hair, 
And ivyrgreen with laurel twine ; 
And oft are seen the sisters nine 
Joining in mystic dance, along 
Aonia's hills, with Bacchus' throng. 
In frozen Scythia's barren plains' 
What dulness seized on Ovid's strains ; 
Their sweetness fled to climes alone 
To Ceres and Lyaeus known. 



Did the Teian lyre resound ? 
Bacchus with pleasing frenzy fired, 
The high Pindariti song inspired ; 
Each page is redolent of wine 
When, crashing loud, the car supine 
On- Elis' plains disjointed lies, 
And soiled with dust the courser flies. 
'Rapt with the god's all-pleasing Are, 
The Roman poet strikes the lyre, 
And in measure sweet addresses 
Ohloe fair with golden tresses ; 
Or 'his loved Glycera sings, 
Touching light th' immortal strings.* 



Whilst we are on this classic ground we must not forbear to notice the " Ariadne" by 
Kirk, who was represented sitting by the sea-shore, in melancholy-wise, after she had 
been deserted by the faithless god. Our readers will doubtless recollect the beautiful 
picture by Titian illustrative of .the same subject. 

" Virginius and Daughter," the production of P. Mac Dowell, R.A., next claims our 
attention. It was worthy of it ; we all recollect the story of the stern old Roman who 
preferred plunging a dagger into his daughter's heart rather than she should become 
the mistress of a tyrant. How exquisitely was the idea rendered! The indignant 
father, with his dead child on his knee, raised his hand to heaven and denounced the 
base Appjus Claudius, in a voice that was impressive enough to command for him 
sympathy and popular applause. Considered as an artistic performance this group might 
be pronounced first-rate. It stood in the squth transept. Mr. Mac Dowell' s "Early 
Sorrow," in the sculpture court, and his " Eve," in the south transept, were really fine, 
and second to, perhaps, no nude figure exhibited — not even excepting the famous 
Greek Slave. 

"The Lion in Love," was a group in plaster, by S. Geefs, of Schaerbeck, near 
Brussels, and its place in the Exhibition was in the main eastern avenue, immediately 
before Simonis' famous equestrian statue of Godfrey of Bouillon. A small figure in 
marble, by the same artist, of Cupid, the God of Love, was sufficiently demonstrative of 
the graceful and poetic character, of the sculptor's mind. With what. almost human 
feeling the "brute enthralled" looked up into the face of its fair enchantress, and 
with what tender care the beautiful maiden tended her leoline lover ! Really a fine con- 
ception, adequately worked out. Like Una, she had captivated the Lord of the Forest — 

■ r " With those suppliant looks, 

And voice more beautiful than poet's books." 

Another .group in plaster, "Paolo and Francesca," by Mr. A. Munro, next claims oar 
attention. Mr. Munro, in this little group, sought to realize the incident described 
by Dante, or rather by his heroine, Francesca, for she is supposed to relate her own sad 
story to him, in the following passage, as translated by Cary : — 

- ^ " One day 

For our delight, we read of Lancelot, 

* Milton's Latin and Italian' Poems. Translated by J. G. SlRUTT. 



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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 125 

How him love thralled. Alone we were, and no 
Suspicion near us. Oft-times by that reading 
Our eyes were drawn together, and the hue 
Fled from our alter'd cheek. But at one point 
Alone we fell. When of that smile we read, 
The wished smile, so rapturously kiss'd 
By one so deep in love, then he, who ne'er 
From me shall separate, at once my lips 
All trembling kiss'd. The book and writer both 
Were love's purveyors. In its leaves that day 
We read no more." 

We need hardly say a word to point out the difficulties which too obviously surround 
the treatment of such a subject in sculpture ; at least, if it be attempted to represent 
all that the poet conceived of it. One point referred to in the passage, " the hue fled 
from our alter'd cheek," it is impossible to render through the medium of marble, 
because it is never colourable, and even to express the idea of strong emotion as 
conveyed through the eyes, is a thing not to be attempted in the plastic art. Never- 
theless, Mr. Munro, who is a young artist of very considerable promise,, produced, a 
very pretty and graceful composition, though at the same time one which, costume, 
accessories, and all considered, would have been better adapted for a painting than a 
work in plaster. As regards expression, he certainly accomplished a great deal — much 
more than we should have been prepared to expect : the face of Paolo was earnest and 
impassioned in the extreme : it told of a devouring passion long pent up, first revealing 
itself ; that of Francesca confessed a reciprocity of feeling, but with a modest hesitating 
reserve, which was admirably true to the more delicate poetry of the situation. Since 
this group was exhibited, we are glad to understand that Mr. Gladstone has commis- 
sioned the artist to execute it in marble. 

" Girl Praying," by Mac Dowall. This very graceful production reflected the highest 
credit upon Mr. Mac Dowall' s talent. The expression was extremely charming, and 
the attitude simple and effective. It stood in the southern transept, where it was 
greatly admired. The "Youth at the Stream," a statue in marble, by J. H. Foley s 
A.R.A., was one of the most attractive in the Exhibition. It stood in the transept to 
the east of the Glass Fountain. As a work of art it was extremely successful in its 
graceful and poetic character, while for ease of posture and delicacy of execution it 
might be said to be perfect. It has been remarked that the statuary in the Crystal 
Palace attracted much more attention from the general public than was expected. This 
was not surprising. The higher classes were familiar with the kind of sights to be 
seen in the Crystal Palace ; but to the multitude they were new, rare, and surprising. 
The Exhibition was literally the greatest " sight" recorded in the history of the world, 
even if we attach to the phrase nothing but its commonplace import in the minds of 
idlers and " gadabouts." It was in this point of view that it supplied attraction, and, 
we should think, satiety to the wealthier or more listless class of visitors. Mechanics 
and operatives went naturally to the rival productions of their own competitors iri 
various parts of the globe. Their observations took a turn of their own ; nor would it 
have been easy, perhaps, to impress a man who had never travelled m search of ugh* 
with the prodigious magnitude of the specimen before him; but if our tourists and 
measure seekers will but reflect for a moment, they may discover that the capacities of 
an ordinary life have been just now concentrated into the experience of a forlmght 
Not five years' travel nor a thousand pounds could have enabled a man to see what 
one shilling brought before his eyes; and one of the most striking morals of the 
Exhibition was that suggested by the astonishing influence which must have been exer- 

2 K 



126 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 



cised in amassing the collection. The spectacle was intended to be little more than a 
magnified " exposition" on the original' .French pattern. It turned out to be such a 
wonder as the world never saw/ We read in ' Arabian fables that magicians could 
place before enchanted .'spectators, the- visible, treasures of the universe. These very 
treasures were laid bodily at our feet by no' other magic, than that of national power. 
Every visitor carried away, his own' impressions, more or less profound, correct, or 
serviceable", as the case might be, but still distinct and characteristic; nor would it 
be easy to find two pergorts; even of the same abilities and station, who would give the 
same account of their sentiments or the same description of the show. There is an 
education which is not taught by books. It was working out its mission in the Crystal 
Palace. . , , , . , ■ 

From these classical subjects we now turn to one of stern 'reality," The Wounded 
American' Indian," by ; Stephenson. Those who' have seen the inimitable representation 
of thB' Dying Gladiator, in 1 the gallery of the Capitol at Rome, will, we think, trace 
in 'this work a' remarkable similarity, ; both in character and ' attitude, , to ^hat m ost 
•wonderful statue, which rdight' indeed indupe a' belief \that Mr. Stephenson (had drawn 
his inspiration' from'that celebrated 'performance. ' Be ^that'as it may,he has unques- 
tionably produced 'a w6rk of great merit. " We were told the effort of the sculptor 
was : to' give a cor rect'^repfesentation of the Indian races of North America... The figure 
was represented woiihderf ahd ' fallen, thereby typifying the face.. '^Vhile in ,tjie act ojf 
stringing his bow, he 1 had' received -'the wound; the mo'nient ,the fatal arrow is felt, he 
relinquishes the effort and hurriedly pulls it from the wound. Jn ,the moment that 
succeeds', he realises his 1 dafager, and 'his left hand drops powerless, partially clinging 
to the fatal arrow, while l a faintness creeps over ^him. The right arm instinctively 
supports the body, and prevents its falling. Beneath "the right hand is his own arrow, 
in his ears are an' eagle's claw 1 ' and a small shell. Sufficient ornaments and implements 
only have been introduced to give character to the subject. It was the first statue 
ever executed ; in Anierican marble. ' It' stood to the north-east of Power's Greek 
Slave. Is it not suggestive ' that 'the Americans, proverbially a 'cute people, ^hould 
have so publicly drawn attention to ' slavery and the extinction of the aborigines of the 
Par West? ; ...:">■ 

' Mi*. E. B. Stephens' group of " Satan Vanquished by .St. jMTiobael," which stood on 
the left in the South Transept, 'was a Composition not without merit, though it certainly 
did not attain that high 'poetic character' which we look for in. works, of that class. The 
subject was Severely treated, without, however, its appropriate dignity ; the Archangel 
stood erect, without any atteihpt at attitudinising, whilst the Enemy of man, 'whom he 
had 'jUst overthrown, crouched in the dust beneath his feet; There ^ras a tptajL absence 
of huroah' passion in the expression of the face; a point in strict accordance, perhaps,, 
with the heavenly nature of the personage represented, but which, on ,the othe^r hantj., 
would impose upon' the artist the necessity of realising the supernatural dignity attaching 
to him — a task in which 'he was not at all' successful. A word with regard to accessorial 
details. 'It is' certaihly recorded that the Archangel brought <}own a chain from heaven 
to bind the Serpent; and in a' work of sculpture commemorative of the event, some 
reference might- properly be' made 'to'it, as being by no means, unimportant ; but, at the 
same timei'Ve could have wished that the said chain had. not been made quite so much 
of, &nd iii such hard angdlar outli'he as Mr. Stephens employed ; that it )iad been, at 
most, faintly indicated is, 'encompassing the prostrate EviL Spifijt, and no£ held up in 
triumph, 'in the hand of the ; Afchangel. All such, efforts at .perfectionising petty details 
are 'unworthy of art, &nd betray' a want' of confidence in 'its, higher resources. The 
" Cain," by Jehotte 1 , was a \spirited J attempt, in plaster, after the school' of* Michel 



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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY/ 127 

.Angelo,— but crudely wrought out. The catalogue stated that the first murderer was 
supposed to be exclaimiug, ."My punishments greater than I can bear ;'■'< but, for this', 
the attitude was • inappropriate. It would have suited better for the first impulse oi 
horror on seeing the dead body of his brother. "We shall resume bur remarks on -the 
,8Cu}ptore of the Gre,at Exhibition t at a future opportunity. 



i CHAPTER XX. 
FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DEPARTMENTS— continued- 

BUSSIA— GOLD, SILVER, AND PRECIOUS STONES -^RAW MATERIALS — MALACHITE DOORS, *ETC.—r 
WORKS OF ART — MANUFACTURES, ETC. — STAIN — BICH PLATE — TOLEDO BLADES — FURNITURE 
—MINERAL PRQDUOE, ETC. ETC. 

This immense empire, occupying nearly one-iseventhof the terrestrial part of the globe, 
and one twenty.^seventh of ,its entire surface, was represented at the* Exhibition by spe- 
cimens of her cbief agricultural and mineral produce, as well as .by the productions of 
her lopms and workshops. The magnificent .candelabra placed at the entrance of their 
principal department, and :*he splendid profusion of diamonds, rubies, emeralds, pearls, 
and turquoises therein .exhibited, attested to the wealth and showy magnificence of the 
Imperial Autocrat, the Emperor of all the Russias. In no country in Europe is there 
so large a quantity of jewels used as in Russia. The imperial family never travel 
without an abundant supply of tbem, : to distribute among those whom they deem worthy 
of their favour. It was not, however, in these gauds and trinkets that the mighty 
empire of Russia was chiefly represented at the Great Exhibition, but in her vases, her 
doors of malachite, her specimens of gold, platinum, and iron, the produce of her mines ; 
in the skins, furs, leather, bristles, and tallow, the produce of her numerous herds of 
cattle ; and, above ali, in the varied specimens of corn, flax, hemp, &c, the productions 
of her vast and wide-spreading plains. We shall offer a few remarks as we proceed on 
various points connected with these raw materials, but we will first describe that 
portion of .the Russian exhibition which was exclusively devoted to the display of the 
inost rare and costly articles, destined ' for £hose alone whose wealth enabled them to 
set no limit to the indulgence of their tastes. 

By the pillars at tjie entrance of this smctum. sanctorum of wealth and splendour, 
stood the "two great candelabra we have already alluded to. They were from the 
manufactory of Krumbigel, of Moscow, and .spoke well for, the taste and resources of the 
"frozen Muscovite." They were of richly- gilt .bronze, /each ten feet' in height, and 
made for fifteen' lights, and were valued at £500 a-piece. Looking, from the centre aisle 
into -the compartment, the most striking object was the folding doors of malachite, 
thirteen feet high, panelled and ornamented jn gilt bronze. Our readers have probably 
made acquaintance with, malachite as a precious stone, in brooches, jewel-boxes, and 
other small articles of ornament, but never dreamt of seeing it worked up into a pair 
of drawing-room doors. The effect was exceedingly beautiful; the brilliant green of the 
malachite, with its curled wayiness, like the pattern of watered silk, and its perfectly 
polished surface, was heightened ; by the dead and burnished* gold of the panellings and 
ornaments, and set one imagining in what sort. of fairy: palace, and: with what other 
furnishing ^nd decoration the. room must, be fitted, tp satisfy those who had made their 



128 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

entrance by such precious doors. They were valued at £6,000. The large vases on 
either side of the compartment were also, pedestals and all, in malachite like the 
doors, ornamented in gilt bronze, . and were valued at from £1,500 to £3,000 a-piece ; 
and to show that a whole suite of apartments might be decked out in the same bright 
precious stone, there stood to the left, and not far from the doors, a mantelpiece, in 
Louis Quatorze style, before it ran quite wild in confusion of ornamental form ; the 
fender, hearth, fire-back, and grate, in bronze gilt and burnished gold ; the mantelpiece 
in beautifully-shaded malachite, with just enough of ornament for contrast ; and on 
either side of this splendid fire-place were a table and chair of the same material. The 
chairs were valued at £120 each, the tables at £400. In the next compartment the 
malachite (carbonate of copper), was exhibited in the strange-shaped rough lumps in 
which it comes from the mine, and in every stage of preparation. It is found in 
the copper-mines of Siberia and the Ural Mountains, and has lately been met with in 
equally large pieces, and of not less beauty, in the Burra Burra mines,- in Australia'. 
That in the Exhibition was from the mines of Prince Demidoff. The manufacture' of 
articles of malachite is in itself a work of art; and, smooth as the surface seems, "it is 
made up of a multitude of variously-shaped little pieces carefully selected to produce 
particular patterns, and which in their fitting require the greatest exactitude. In the 
doors there might have been some 20,000 or 30,000 pieces imbedded in cement, made 
of the malachite itself. The doors were of wood covered with copper, the malachite 
being about a quarter of an inch thick. The vases were of three-quarter inch cast iron> 
and the malachite in the same way inlaid. Nor was this the only precious stone made 
to serve such large uses in this Russian compartment ; there were also upon the left- 
hand side, near the great candelabrum, three real jasper vases, one of them three feet six 
inches in height, which excited the admiration of those most skilled in such matters, by 
the exquisite cutting of its border of leaves, which, as the process is not explained, they 
have come to the conclusion must have been done by mounting the diamond, the only 
mineral of sufficient hardness to cut agate, in some specially contrived machine. The 
value of this vase was not stated, but the cost of the workmanship alone exceeded 
£700, and the vase could certainly not be under £2,000. These vases were the property 
of the emperor, and were made at his own manufactory at Katrinburg. The great vase 
in the centre front was in porcelain, from the imperial manufactory at St. Petersburgh, 
and was valued at £2,500. 

To the left and right in front were jewels valued at £40,000, and which were 
exhibited by M. Bolin and M. Kammerer, both crown jewellers at St. Petersburgh. 
Nothing could exceed their richness and splendour. The plate, which was on another 
table at the right, . and comprised a great variety of articles, was entirely from the 
workshop of M. Sizikoff, of Moscow, one candelabrum shown by whom contained two 
cwt. of silver, and set forth an incident memorable in Russian history. The Duke de 
Merti, Grand Duke of Muscovy, in a fierce battle with the Tartars, in 1380, fell severely 
wounded by a blow on the head with a hammer, a main weapon of warfare with the 
Tartars at that time. The duke, surrounded by his staff of knights in armour, lay under 
a fir-tree, faint, and, to all appearance, dying, when a soldier of his army galloped up and 
announced the battle won — the duke revived and recovered. The candelabrum repre- 
sented the fir-tree and the above incident. On the same side of the compartment was an 
ebony cabinet, designed by Baron Clott, one of the first artists in the Russian empire. 
On the top was a bunch of grapes, in amethyst, so modelled that, as the light fell 
upon them, they, seemed to show the very juice of the real fruit of the mountain ash 
in coral. In the background were seen specimens of inlaying in wood for floors ; a 
Warwick vase, in hammered iron ; from Warsaw ; a curious carpet, very bright in its 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 129 

colours and effect, made in squares of squirrel-skin, surrounded each by a border of 
needlework ; and near this stood a cabinet, made by M. Yanebs, of St. Petersburgh, in 
light wood, with porcelain medallions, from the imperial manufactory, valued at £500, 
and a second porcelain vase of azure and gold, from the same works. 

Almost all the articles exhibited in this Northern Bay were the produce of a system, 
almost universal among the monarchies of Europe, of carrying on royal or national 
manufactories, as a matter of luxury and as an example of taste. Such in France are the 
national manufactories of Gobelins tapestry, of Beauvais carpets, and Sevres china ; in 
Prussia, of iron-casting and porcelain; in Saxony, of porcelain; and in Tuscany, of 
mosaic in pietra dura. To several of these establishments, particularly in Russia, and in 
the Gobelins establishment in France, schools for instruction in drawing and painting, 
as applied to manufactures, are attached for the benefit and the due training of workmen. 
In England, it is with difficulty that money is obtained for schools of design; but 
although we wisely rely on private enterprise for manufacturing excellence, it would pay 
us to devote more money to cultivate taste. 

On leaving the splendid department dedicated to luxury and the fine arts, we found in 
the small avenue to the north some more real and utilitarian specimens of Russian 
industry, in a set of very handsome carriages, of a peculiar national form. These were 
the . Russian drosky, equally available on wheels, or in the winter on runners, and the 
favourite carriage of Russian gentlemen. They were on four wheels, very low, with a 
strong iron forked perch, and a double body, the first of which either held one or two 
persons abreast. There were specimens of both kinds. The other merely held a seat 
for the driver, who sits close upon his horse or horses ; when a pair are used, the 
correct thing is for a shaft-horse to trot, while the second, harnessed to an outrigger, 
gambols at a canter beside him. They were very stylish, and the workmanship deserved 
unqualified praise, except in the shafts, which were heavy and clumsy. The leather 
splash-boards round the wheels were particularly well arranged ; no stitching appeared, 
and they looked like pieces of solid japan; the lining and the varnishing were equally 
well finished. If the wood was sound and well seasoned, they were not dear at the 
price set upon them — £47. A set of harness in the large room was also of a fashion 
peculiar to Russia. It is difficult to explain, to those who have never seen them in use, 
the arrangement of a great birchwood bow, which is an indispensable ornament of 
Russian harness, and from which bells are suspended over the horse's neck. 

The staples which constitute the export trade of Russia were exhibited in great variety; 
one part of the walls was hung with leather, including choice specimens of the " Russia" 
dear to book collectors. Amongst the boots and shoes were a pair of dress-boots, made 
of the thinnest and best calf leather we ever remember to have seen. It was as soft and 
flexible as kid, but stronger. We were informed that the material is much used in 
Russia for full dress boots. If it can be delivered here at a reasonable price, a large 
demand is certain. On the same counter as the leather were a number of stockings, 
shoes, and other articles made of felt by the Russian peasantry. A very curious 
manufacture, indeed, well worth the examination of the trade. Each article seemed 
felted separately, and made solid yet soft. On the opposite table were basins, jugs, 
cups helmets of the same material japanned inside and out. They were light, tough, and 
not to be broken. A wash-hand jug and basin were rather dear (17s.), but they would 
be famous articles for sea voyages. Gutta percha has been tried for that purpose, but it 
melts in tropical climates. 

A trophy of sheafs of seed-bearing agricultural produce, very elegantly arranged, con- 
taining every kind of wheat, barley, oats, rye, buckwheat, flax, hemp, peas, and beans, 
grown in the Russian dominions, occupied the centre of a counter, round which were 



130 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

arranged in bowls the seed and flour of these articles. Among them our cooks may 
find it worth while to try a small kind of dried pea for winter use, in soups, of a very 
sweet taste. On the walls around were specimens of the famous Russian hemps, raw and 
manufactured, with canvass, and ropes, and twine, which, with grain and tallow, have 
been too well known to our merchants for this last hundred years to need further notice. 
The dried provisions included caviare, dried sturgeon, isinglass, a substance resembling 
isinglass made up in the shape of a rude whip, which is obtained from a fish called the 
Vesiga, and used in Russia to make pies. But, perhaps, the article most likely to become 
a new staple of commerce, was the glaze, then imported, as we were informed, for the 
first time. This article, so much used in this country for making sausages, and soups, in 
clubs, hotels, and great houses, is obtained in Russia by boiling down the flesh of 
horned cattle, which, on the plains of the interior, are only valuable for their hides and 
tallow. Anything that can be made out of concentrated meat or glaze is so much 
additional profit. But it is an operation which requires care — a little burning will spoil 
the whole boiling. Liebig gives directions for the operation in his last work : as com- 
monly conducted, the product affords very little nourishment. 

The specimens of iron and copper, in ore and in a manufactured, state, were numerous. 
The iron, some of which was of a very fine quality, is a matter of interest to us, because 
Russia, in conjunction with Spain and Sweden, supplied most of the iron consumed in 
this country for more than one hundred years, between the time that the timber for 
charcoal in Surrey, Sussex, Kent, Staffordshire, and Worcestershire, was exhausted; and 
the successful application of coal to smelting iron, by Abraham Darby, at the Cole- 
brook Dale Works, in 1713, and the application of the use of blowing cylinders, instead 
of bellows, at the Carron Works, set up by Smeaton in 1760. Our connexion with the 
Russian iron is of very ancient date. In 1569 the English obtained, by treaty, the right 
of seeking for and smelting iron ore, on condition that they should teach the Russians 
the art of smelting this metal, and pay, on the exportation of every pound, one halfpenny. 
Every branch of mining received great development under Peter the Great, who seems to 
have neglected no branch of material prosperity. It was under his reign and direct 
patronage that the Demidoff family rose to importance as miners, and obtained the 
property which has rendered them ever since one of the wealthiest families in Europe. 
Up to 1784, Great Britain imported a continually increasing quantity of iron from Russia, 
which in that year amounted to 40,000 tons; after that period, in consequence of 
improvements in machinery for smelting by coal, the importation gradually declined to 
about 5,000 tons in 1805, and continued at that figure up to 1837, and, probably, is 
about the same now, being all of one quality in the trade, called C. C. N. D. old sable 
iron, which is used for the manufacture of steel. 

The fire-arms and white-arms exhibited had all been made at one of the four crown 
manufactories, where the work is done, under the inspection of government officers, by 
serfs of the crown. The oldest manufactory is at Tula, where, besides muskets and 
side-arms, the iron-work of horse harness, iron bedsteads, files, chains, &c, are made. 
This establishment was burnt in 1834, according to the rumour of the day, by the 
workmen, who hoped to get rid of the forced labour imposed on them by the ceaseless 
wars of the emperor in Turkey, Persia, and the Caucasus. Under the Russian royal 
factory system, increased work does not give increased wages. But the Tula establish- 
ment was rebuilt. 

In the North Gallery, the emperor exhibited, with other furs, a black cloak made from 
the neck of the silver fox, which he valued at £3,500 ; this valuation brought out a 
letter from Mr. Nicholay, the well-known furrier, who offered to make a finer cloak 
for £1,000, and explained that black and silver fox skins, so much valued in Russia, and 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 131 

so little used here, are chiefly imported into, London from the territories of the Hud- 
son s nay Company, and then purchased up for the express purpose of " being smuggled 
as occasion may offer." What a commentary on the Russian protective system ! In the 
Dack ol the same case as the furs, were two splendid specimens of twilled shawls, by a 
Cossack woman, from white goats' hair, of wonderful fineness. One of these shawls 
was the property of the empress, and justly valued at the price of Brussels lace. 
Russian manufactures are for the most part inferior and dear; while mineral, vegetable, 
and animal produce could be supplied in unlimited quantities, at a profit, if roads were 
made and facilities given to trade. But Russia is essentially a military country, prepared 
to take advantage of events, and probably the emperor considers that a large trade 
might produce inconveniently pacific tendencies in his own land-owning nobles. 
w j WlU n ° W ' by a s P ecial P rivil ege granted to every one who visited the Palace of 
Wonders, of rapid transition even from the far east to the remote west, pass at once 
to a. different region of the globe ; and leaving the numerous tribes, civilized or 
barbarous, of the wide extended empire, enter upon the territories of the most Chris- 
tian king— the country so celebrated for love and war— the land of song, and of the 
chivalrous hidalgo,; and more than all, the land wherein the incomparable knight of 
La Mancha, and his no less incomparable squire, pursued their romantic adventures. 

The intelligent visitor to the Spanish court in the. Crystal Palace could hardly 
glance over its, scant collection without, some regretful reflections on the mutability of 
human greatness, and the liability to decadence: in all great and powerful states. When 
he thinks, that the comparatively unimportant objects that were there arranged, " few 
and far between," and which only served to reveal the nakedness of the land, were all 
that could be sent forth by the people who overthrew the great and gallant Moors, 
who colonized America, who received into their laps all the gold of Mexico, and all 
the silver of Peru, who equipped the world-famed armada, happily without success, 
to "fright this isle from its propriety;" the country of Ferdinand 1 and Isabella, the 
kingdom of Charles V., the birthplace of the Cid and of Gonsalvo de Cordova, and the 
foster-land of Columbus, — how cheap must he* not hold the result of mere military, 
glory, and the gains of conquest and rapine, as compared with the honest profits of 
legitimate commerce, and the. development of the industrial energies, as exemplified in 
the career of our own happy land. Yet there is hope for Spain. Nature, always young, 
is as bountiful to that country as when she fed the legions of imperial Rome, or tempted 
the invasion of the Saracens, — or when, at a later period) the invader himself, hanging 
up his sword and bucklej, and betaking himself to the arts of peace; converted the 
whole surface of the country into, one vast garden, glowing with the orange and the 
grape, and decorated its cities with, those light and graceful arabesques which have 
made the Alhambra one of the architectural wonders of the world. The wheat of Spain 
is as fine, her olives are as plentiful and well-flavoured, her timber is as abundant 
and valuable, as when she victualled vast fleets for discovery or for conquest; or built 
those leviathans of the, deep which gave Ferrol the foremost place among the naval 
arsenals of Europe. What is : better still, her men have not, in the main, deteriorated. 
Protracted political convulsions, always demoralizing, may have lowered the standard of 
patriotic feeling and of manly energy in her large cities, where also the strong infusion 
of Jewish blood has, no doubt, had its effect in making avarice take the place of 
nationality ; but her rural peasantry; her mountaineers, and her muleteers, are the same 
brown manly fellows as ever, living frugally, walking proudly, and ready at any moment 
to play over again the guerilla game of the Peninsular war; and to teach the invaders- 
that the spirit of old Gothic Spain is "not dead, but sleepeth," and as dangerous when 
aroused as at any former period of her history. 



132 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

Foremost in the Spanish Court stood the silver-gilt tabernacle from Madrid, a 
gorgeous specimen of ecclesiastical plate, showing the direction in which Peninsular art 
received its greatest stimulus. The world-famous blades of Toledo also held a con- 
spicuous place in the proud display of their vaunted armoury. There were several 
specimens of the black lace of the country, in robes and veils, with; which Byron was so 
enchanted, when worn "by an Andalusian girl going to mass," and some gold and 
silver stuffs used in the sacerdotal costumes of her innumerable priests. In the more 
substantial manufactures there were specimens of coarse woollen cloth, but not so many 
nor so good as one might have expected in a country where the most voluminous of cloaks 
is an almost universal article of costume. But we believe the fact to be that the best 
Spanish cloaks are made of French or English cloths ; indeed we know that in our own 
woollen districts there are particular descriptions made expressly for the Spanish and 
Italian markets. The priests of both countries affect a certain tinge of " blue black" in 
their ordinary costume, and our English manufacturers, with an expansive liberality that 
does them infinite credit, contrive to hit their reverences' taste to a shade. The only 
specimens of metal work in addition to the arms which came from Spain, were a few 
ornamental iron bedsteads, which were certainly very creditable specimens of Spanish 
workmanship, and might have taken their place beside some of the best articles of 
the kind made in this country. Another class of Spanish artificial productions that 
remains to be noticed was the inlaid cabinet work, of which the piece de resistance was 
the octagonal table sent by Perez of Barcelona. As a monument of patient industry it 
was certainly wonderful, containing, as we are told, three million of pieces, worked up 
into a design of which the most prominent feature was the shield with the arms of 
England in the centre. The general effect hardly justified the labour bestowed in the 
construction, the decoration being so minute as to require a powerful magnifying glass 
to show off its beauties. There were some other specimens of furniture, but they do not 
require any special notice. The centre of the court was devoted to a large case containing 
specimens of the minerals and cereals of Spain, in both of which that country is superla- 
tively rich, and in describing which we can hardly do better than quote M. Ramon de 
la Sagra, whose " Notes sur les Produits Espagnols," enter very fully into the subject. 
The writer commences by complaining that " Les echantillons envoyes par les diffferentes 
contrees de FEspagne et ses colonies a 1' exposition de Londres, ne peuvent donner qu'une 
faible idee de ses richesses naturelles," and affirms that, with the exception of some 
choice mineral specimens, the articles exhibited were insignificant and ill chosen. He 
instances the wonderful quicksilver mines of Almaden, of which the specimen sent over 
" semble plut6t faite pour la boite d'un eleve, que pour donner une idee approximative 
de ses merveilleuses galeries." The writer also complains that the exhibitors wanted 
variety in their specimens, and that they gave more importance to metallic minerals 
than to combustibles, in which the mineral wealth of Spain is most prominently developed. 
M. Ramon, in his classification, first calls attention to the vast beds of coal, which he 
states are to be found in the Asturias and various other parts of the kingdom, and gives 
tables of the expense at which the article can be delivered at Santander and other places 
on the coast. But it is to be regretted that his calculations are made in Spanish weights 
and Spanish money, and would, therefore, hardly be capable of comparison by the 
general English reader. He hopes for a glorious future for this trade when the railroads 
of Alar and Santander, and of Madrid and Valladolid, shall be opened to public traffic. 
Sulphur, he states, abounds in Murcia and in Salamanca; and that the recently- 
introduced article of commerce, asphalte, has been discovered in large quantities in the 
province of Loria, and is now worked by a company. Of the salts to be found in Spain, 
M. Ramon gives a long catalogue, and proceeds to the metals, in which he very properly 



OP THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 133 

gives the first place to iron, the most useful. Leon, he says, abounds with this metal 
of first necessity, where also is to be found kaolin, that indispensable ingredient in ceramic 
manufactures. Abundant mines exist also in Alava and Guipuscoa, and specimens of 
their produce were to be seen in the gallery of the Crystal Palace, in the shape of 
two pieces- of cannon manufactured by the Carlists, in the village of Onate, in the 
year 1837. The riches of Spain in lead are, according to our author, really surprising, 
there being hardly a province in which it may not be found in abundance. Copper, zinc, 
and tin, antimony, nickel, and cobalt, are also among the mineral treasures of Spain ; 
and, lastly, gold, which is beginning to be sought for in the beds of various rivers. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



INDUSTRY AIDED ET SCIENCE — ABTIFIOIAL LIGHT — PHOTOGBAPHY — DAGITEBBEOTYPES — CELES- 
TIAL OBJECTS — THE MOON — EALLS OE NIAGABA — APPLICATION TO METE0BOL0GI0AL SCIENCE 
— BOYAL OBSEBVATOBY — 00L0TJBED DAGITEBBEOTYPES. 

WtiEN, according to the ancient Greek fable, Prometheus drew down fire from heaven 
to inspire with the breath of life the image he had formed, the writer of that myth 
little imagined to what purposes the application of light from the all- vivifying rays of 
the sun would, in future ages, be employed in the world of science and of art — purposes 
which impart a vivifying principle and activity to operations which the utmost labour 
and ingenuity of man could in no other way accomplish. For the following remarks, 
which we have selected from some papers which appeared in one of our leading journals, 
we are indebted to the learned pen of the philosophic Dr. Lardner, and which we shall 
forthwith, without further apology, submit to the consideration of our readers. 

And, first, with respect to artificial light. — Marvellous are the uses, says the learned 
Doctor, to which science has rendered heat subservient ; those which have been obtained 
from light by the combination of the researches of the mechanical philosopher have not 
been less striking. Ready-made flame is fabricated in vast establishments, on an enor- 
mous scale, and transmitted in subterranean pipes through the streets and into the 
buildings and dwelling-houses, where, after the close of the natural day, an artificial 
day is thus created, guiding us in the pursuit of business or of pleasure, and adding to 
the sum of life by rendering hours pleasant and useful, which must, in the absence of 
artificial light, have been lost in torpor, or in sleep. It is supplied according to 
individual wants, in measured quantity, and at every door an automaton is stationed, 
by which a faithful register is kept of the quantity delivered from hour to hour. Flame, 
which is in most cases the source of artificial light, is gas rendered white hot. The 
gas, such as is prepared for the purposes of illumination, contains, in the latent state, 
the' heat which, in the process of combustion, renders it incandescent. The moment 
combustion commences, the gas entering into combination with the oxygen, which is 
one of the constituents of the atmosphere, the heat which was till then latent becomes 
sensible, and affecting the gas itself while combining with the oxygen, renders it white- 
hot. Lamps in which artificial light is produced by means of a liquid combustible, may 
be reduced to two classes : one in which the liquid is drawn to the wick by capillary 
attraction, and the other in which it is propelled by mechanic agency. It is evident 
that in the former the distance of the reservoir from the wick must be more limited than 

2 M 



134 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

in the latter. Hence we find that the mechanical lamps, known as Carcels and Modera- 
tors, are more elegant in their form than those which, depending on capillary action, 
have oil vessels of greater or less magnitude immediately under the flame, and which 
therefore cannot be sinumbral. Of the capillary lamps, in which oil or fatty liquids are 
burnt, the most simple is that called the solar lamp ; but by far the most brilliant in its 
illuminating power is one of recent introduction, called the camphine-lamp. 

Of the mechanical lamps exhibited, especially in the foreign department, the most 
efficient and the most elegant in its form was the Carcel lamp. The more scientific 
expedients, for the production of artificial light depend, in general, on imparting such an 
intense heat to a solid body as to render it vividly incandescent, without, however, 
liquefying it or causing its combustion. The expedient of this class which is best known 
is the oxy-hydrogen light, by which the microscope and lanterns for dissolving views, 
exhibited in the Polytechnic Institution, are illuminated, and which were found in 
various improved forms in the Exhibition. We refer more particularly to an apparatus 
improved by the Reverend Mr. Beechy, and exhibited by Messrs. Abraham and Co., 
Liverpool. 

The apparatus for the production of the electric light, which is still more intense 
than the oxy-hydrogen light, and produced under conditions which present greater 
probability of being ultimately adapted to economical uses, were exhibited in different 
forms by Messrs. Deleuil and Co., and by Messrs. Duboscq, of Paris. This light is of 
the most intense splendour, — so much so, that it cannot be looked at without protecting 
the eye with coloured glasses. The colour and quality of the light is similar to that of 
the sun, as is proved by the fact, that when it is analysed by the prism if gives the 
same component parts. It is only just here to state, that the merit of the first application 
of the electric light to the microscope, and to the general application of optical phe- 
nomena, is due to M. Leon Foucault, who has lately obtained a world-wide celebrity by 
his beautiful experimental test of the rotation of the earth. 

PHOTOGRAPHY. 

It resulted, from scientific researches on the properties of solar light, that certain metallic 
preparations were affected in a peculiar manner by being exposed to various degrees of 
light and shade. This hint was not lost. An individual, whose name has since become 
memorable, M. Daguerre, thought that as engraving consisted of nothing but the repre- 
sentation of objects by means of incisions on a metallic plate, corresponding to the 
lights and shadows of the objects represented, and as these same lights and shades 
were shown, by the discoveries of science, to produce on metals specific effects, in the 
exact proportion of their intensities, there could be no reason why the objects to be 
represented should not be made to engrave themselves on plates properly prepared ! 
Hence arose the beautiful art now become so universally useful, and called after its 
inventor, Daguerreotype. 

The object of which it is desired to produce a representation, is placed before an 
optical instrument, with which every one is familiar as the camera-obscura. An exact 
representation of it, on a scale reduced in any required proportion, is thus formed upon 
a plate of ground-glass, so that it may be viewed by the operator, who can thus adjust 
the instrument in such a manner as to obtain an exact picture of it. If it be desired 
to make a portrait, the effect of the posture of the sitter can thus be seen, and the 
most favourable position ascertained before the process is commenced. 

When the light is favourable, four or five seconds are sufficient to produce the desired 
effect by the processes which have been hitherto generally adopted. According as it is 
less intense, the necessary time may be greater but should never exceed a minute. One 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 135 

of the defects of Daguerreotype, as applied to portraiture, arises from the impossibility 
ot bringing the entire person of the sitter at once into focus. To render this possible, 
it would be necessary that every part of the person should be at precisely the same 
distance from the lens of the camera, a condition which obviously cannot be fulfilled. 
It happens, consequently, that those parts which are nearest to the lens, as may be 
particularly remarked with respect to the hands, will be represented on a scale a little 
greater than those which are most distant; and if the instrument be adjusted so as to 
bring the nearer into very exact focus, the more distant will be proportionably out of 
focus. These defects cannot be removed, but they may be so much mitigated as to be 
imperceptible. By using larger lenses the camera can be placed at a considerable distance 
from the sitter, without inconveniently diminishing the size of the picture. By this 
expedient the difference between the distances of different points of the sitter from the 
lens will bear so small a proportion to the whole distance, that the amount of distortion 
arising from the cause just mentioned may be rendered almost imperceptible. Large 
lenses, however, when good in quality, are expensive, and it is only the more extensively- 
employed practitioners in this business that can afford to employ them. 

The discovery of this beautiful application of the chemical properties of light is of 
very recent date. Efforts to fix illuminated images by means of the chemical agency of 
light, were made by Wedgwood and Davy as early as 1802, but without success, no 
preparation being discovered sufficiently sensitive to be affected by the subdued light 
of the camera. Sir H. Davy obtained a faint impression of the illuminated image 
produced in a solar microscope ; but being unacquainted with any method of suspending 
the further action of light on the picture, no permanently perfect effect resulted, and 
the subject was laid aside. In the fourteen years which elapsed between 1814 and 1828, 
the labours of M. Daguerre and M. Niepce were directed to the solution of the problem. 
In 1827, a memoir was presented by the latter to the Royal Society, accompanied by 
several specimens of heliographs, — sun-drawn pictures. These, which are still extant, 
show that M. Niepce was acquainted with a method of forming pictures, by which the 
lights and shadows are represented as in nature ; and when so formed, of rendering the 
picture proof against the further effects of light. M. Niepce, however, having concealed 
his processes, describing only the results, the society could not, according to its rules, 
admit his memoir into the Transactions. The surfaces upon which he produced his 
pictures were those of glass, copper plated with silver, and well polished tin. Those upon 
which M. Daguerre produced his first pictures, were paper impregnated with nitrate of 
silver. About six months before the disclosure of the processes of Daguerre and Niepce, 
Mr. Fox Talbot read before the Royal Society a memoir, in which he explained his 
photographic researches, and showed the manner in which he produced upon paper, 
rendered sensitive by chemical preparation, photographic pictures. 

The vast number of beautiful sun-drawn pictures, on various sorts of surfaces, which 
were presented in the Exhibition, demonstrate how great and how rapid has been the 
progress of the art from the date of its invention. These results are invariably denomi- 
nated either from the name of their inventor or discoverer, as daguerreotype and 
talbotype, or from the chemical principle by which the surface destined to receive the 
picture is rendered sensitive to light, as cyanotype, chrysotype, chromotype. Pictures 
produced by the photographic processes are of two kinds: first, positive pictures, in 
which the lights and shadows correspond with those of the object represented; and 
second, negative pictures, in which the lights and shadows are reversed; the lights 
being represented by shadows, and the shadows by lights. In the talbotype process, as 
it is sometimes called, the picture produced in the camera is usually negative. This 
picture being laid upon another paper, coated with chloride of silver, and then exposed 



136 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

in sunshine, a positive picture, corresponding exactly- with the negative^ one, is obtained. 
Mr. Samuel Butler, of Peterborough, obtained a council medal for a beautiful series of 
photographic pictures obtained by this process, called photographic printing. The 
pictures represented scenes in and near Peterborough and Bury St. Edmunds. The 
application of glass to photography has lately occupied many experimentalists, and more 
especially Sir J. Herschel. The surface of the glass is albumenised by a coating of a 
solution of the iodine of potassium and the white of egg. This having been carefully 
dried, is washed with a solution of the gallo nitrate of silver, previously to being placed 
in the camera, by which it is rendered highly sensitive to light. Messrs. Ross and 
Thompson obtained a council medal for this improvement. Among the numerous uses 
to which this invention is applicable, examples were presented in the Exhibition of its 
power in delineating, with incontestable accuracy, the lineaments of celestial objects. 
Thus, photographic images of the sun and moon were exhibited ; also images of the 
solar spectrum, produced by a prism on surfaces prepared with iodide and bromo-iodide 
of silver. The application of this process to produce permanent pictures of astronomical 
phenomena, so transitory in their appearance as to render any direct and accurate 
observation of them difficult or impracticable, such, for example, as certain appearances 
in the solar eclipses, would be highly advantageous. Among the most interesting objects 
presented, were daguerreotypes of the clouds, taken in boisterous weather, forming an 
instructive study, not only for the meteorologist, but the artist. In photography, the 
American department was peculiarly rich j and it is but just to state, that many important 
improvements in the details of photographic processes have been supplied by the skill and 
unwearied experimental research of our transatlantic cousins. Mr. J. Whipple, of Boston, 
exhibited several remarkable daguerreotypes, among which one of the moon was 
especially remarkable. In this picture, taken by means of a large equatoreal, the 
lineaments of the lunar surface were very beautifully displayed. Mr. Bond, another 
American, exhibited at one of the late meetings of the association, several daguerreo- 
types of the moon, taken with the twenty-three feet equatoreal of the Cambridge 
TJniversity (United States) Observatory, Mr. Bond, however, stated, that although very 
steady, the instrument Was not sufficiently so to give pictures with very high powers. 
Sir David Brewster stated, that if daguerreotypes of similar iBagnitude had been taken on 
transparent sheets of gelatine paper, and so placed before a telescope as to subtend an 
angle of half a degree, they would assume the same appearance as the moon itself. 
Mr. J. H. Whitehurst, of Baltimore, exhibited some beautiful daguerreotypes of the 
Falls of Niagara, The cloud of white spray which rises from the base of the fall, and 
the white sheets of foam on the water, contrasted with the trees and the surrounding 
scenery, produced a remarkable effect. It is generally imagined that the motion of the 
water ana of the spray would render a distinct picture by daguerreotype impracticable. 
In practice, however, this is not found to be attended with any injurious effect upon the 
result. 

One of the most striking, and we may add, unlooked for uses of the photographic 
art, is its application to the constructing of a self-registering apparatus for meteorological 
phenomena, an invention of Mr. Charles Brooke* of London, who has been most 
deservedly rewarded for it by the council medal. It is known to all who take an interest 
in physical science, that the most important laws which prevail in atmospherical and 
terrestrial phenomena, are intimately related to the horary and diurnal variations of the 
barometer, thermometer, hygrometer, the declination-needle, dipping-needle, and in 
fine, to the changes which continually affect all those delicate and sensitive instruments 
which the skill and genius of scientific men have contrived, to indicate the succession of 
meteorological phenomena manifested around us. To obtain a perfect record of the 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 137 

indications of these several instruments, it would be necessary that an observer should 
be stationed at each of them continually, night and day, in all seasons, to note down 
their changes, which are continual, and sometimes sudden, such as cannot be foreseen or 
anticipated. These changes, moreover, are in some cases so rapid and fleeting, as to 
be incapable of exact estimation or measurement, even by the most vigilant and practised 
observers. The object of the invention of Mr. Brooke is, to make the phenomena keep 
a constant and unerring record of themselves in photographic writing. Without attempt- 
ing a detailed description of this very beautiful automatic apparatus, which, besides, 
could not be made intelligible without several complicated drawings, the general prin- 
ciple by which its indications are made, may be briefly and clearly explained. A pencil 
of light brought to a focus by spherical or cylindrical lenses, or reflectors, is so governed, 
that its point or focus has motion identical with, or bearing a known proportion to, 
the motion of part of the instrument which affords the indications to be registered. 
Thus, if the instrument be a magnetic needle, the axis of the lens or speculum is made 
to coincide with, or make a known and constant angle with the needle, and therefore, to 
participate in its movements. The focus of the pencil, refracted or reflected, receives a 
corresponding motion. If it be a column of mercury, as in the case of a barometer or 
thermometer, the direction of the pencil of light is" varied, either by means of a float, 
which rises and falls with the mercurial column, or by transmitting the light through 
the tube, so as to produce the shadow of the column, in which case the movement of 
the shadow will be registered. The focus of the luminous pencil is made to fall upon a 
sheet of photographic paper ; and if both it and the paper' were stationary, a spot would 
be produced upon the paper at the place where the focus falls upon it. If, owing to the 
variation of the instrument, whose indications are to be recorded, the focus of the 
luminous paper moves, a line will be traced on the photographic paper, the length of 
which will bear a known relation to the variation of the instrument. Thus, if it be al 
magnetic needle, a variation of one degree east or west in its direction, may impart a 
motion of an inch right or left to the focus of the luminous pencil, and a line of cor- 
responding length would be traced upon the photographic papers But by this means 
nothing would be recorded, except the extreme variation of the needle, in a given time. 
An observer would still be necessary, and nothing would be accomplished more than 
is already attained by the self-registering thermometers, Which show the maximum and 
minimum temperatures indicated during a given interval. The apparatus is, however, 
rendered perfect by rolling the photographic paper on a cylinder, which is moved by 
clock-work so that a known length of the paper moves under the focus of the luminous 
pencil in a given time. "When the focus of the pencil is stationary, a straight line is 
traced on the paper, in a direction at right angles to the motion of the paper, and 
therefore parallel to the axis of the cylinder ; but When the focus moves, as usually 
happens, to the right and left alternately, an undulating curve is traced upon the paper, 
the distances of the points of which, from a known base line (also traced upon the 
paper ) show not only the particular minute and second at wliich each change took place, 
but the actual state of the instrument at that moment. In this way, the heights of the 
barometer and thermometer, the variations of the declination and dipping needles, the 
directions of the wind-vane, and, in fine, the indications of all other meteorological 
instruments, are faithfully and continually registered from minute to minute, and from 
hour to hour, by night and by day, in summer and winter, and in all positions which 
it may be necessary to give the instrument of observation, whether on the summits of 
loftv towers or mountains, in the caves of the observatory, or in the workings of mines, 
hundreds or thousands of feet above or below the common surface, in the absence, and 
independent of any other care or interference on the part of an observer save that which 



138 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

is necessary from time to time to supply this ever-wakeful and ever-active scribe with a 
fresh supply of paper. An apparatus, constructed in this manner, has been adopted for 
registering the meteorological indications of the instruments at the Royal Observatory 
at Greenwich, with the greatest advantage. Since its introduction, the staff of observers 
has been reduced in number, and the fatiguing process of nocturnal observation has 
been altogether superseded. Specimens of the registers obtained by this apparatus were 
exhibited in the Crystal Palace, including a lithographic fac-simile of one day's work 
of all the instruments. 

There is no question connected with photography which the public regards with so 
much interest, as that which refers to the possibility or probability of producing, sun- 
drawn pictures of objects in their natural colours. The fact which has been established, 
from a variety of experiments, that the rays by which photographic pictures are produced, 
are rays of dark light, and are distinct from colorific rays, are certainly unfavourable, 
prima facie, to this expectation. Nevertheless, it is certain that within the last two 
years Sir John Herschel succeeded in drawing a coloured picture of the prismatic spec- 
trum; and, in a recent letter addressed by him to Professor Hunt, he affirms that he 
had specimens of coloured pictures of the spectrum, in light colours upon a dark ground; 
and adds, at present he is not prepared to say that this will prove an available process 
for coloured photographs, though it brings the hope nearer. Professor Hunt himself 
says, that he has obtained beautiful coloured pictures of the spectrum upon daguer- 
reotype iodidated tablets, on which the colours had peculiar softness and brilliancy. 
M. Edmund Bequerel is stated to have obtained, recently, bright impressions in colours. 
Mr. Hill, of New York, affirms that he has obtained more than fifty pictures from 
nature, in all the tints of natural colouration. The process by which this is said to 
have been effected is not disclosed, but is said to be a modification of daguerreotype, one 
material, however, altogether new, having been introduced. It is said that the process 
will be made public so soon as the manipulatory details have been perfected. 

Although our limits exclude us from entering into the details of some other wondrous 
facts, which the untiring researches of scientific men have disclosed in this department 
of physics, we must not omit to mention that M. Moser, of Konigsberg, has shown that 
light constantly emanates from all bodies, even in complete darkness, and that when 
placed near each other, they receive upon their surfaces reciprocally pictures of each 
other. These photographic pictures, however, are invisible, and continue to be so until 
they are developed by the application of certain vapours, such as that of water, mercury, 
iodine, &c. These marvellous discoveries of M. Moser have been fully confirmed by 
other more recent enquirers. Attempts have been recently made, with more or less 
success, to remove the metallic or leaden hue, which has been found disagreeable in 
daguerreotype portraits. This is effected by colouring them, by means of dry colours 
rubbed into the incisions made by the action of the light. These coloured daguerreo- 
types, though more open to objection on artistical grounds, are, nevertheless, decidedly 
popular, when judiciously executed. Artists, and especially miniature painters, are 
naturally opposed to daguerreotypes. The artist can soften down defects, and present 
the sitter under the most favourable aspect. The sun, however, is no flatterer, and gives 
the lineaments as they exist, with the most inexorable fidelity, and the most cruel 
precision. Nevertheless, it is known that some of the most eminent portrait-painters, 
those whose productions have raised them above petty feelings, do avail themselves of the 
aid of daguerreotypes, where well-executed representations of that kind are attainable 
and they see in this no more degradation of their art, than a sculptor finds in using a 
cast of the subject which his chisel is about to reproduce. 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 139 



CHAPTER XXII. 

ORNAMENTAL SILVER — ITS EXTRAORDINARY PROFUSION — FRENCH AND ENGLISH ARTISTS — 
VARIETY OE SPECIMENS DESCRIBED — VINDICATION OE ENGLISH TASTE, ETO. ETC. 

Par down in the depths of Laxey Glen, in the Isle of Man, and overshadowed by the 
mountain of Snaefell, are some of the most valuable lead mines in the United Kingdom. 
Here, amid the green glory of nature, and with the solitude and stillness engendered 
by the constant contemplation of mountain scenery, clinging around them like a second 
nature, men work in bringing the ore from the bowels of the dark earth. This lead 
ore contains a large per centage of silver, which is extracted from the baser metal by 
a peculiar process, and specimens of which silver were to be found in the Exhibition. 
Other masses of silver ore, from Ireland, Cornwall, and countries far over sea, were also 
shown. A large proportion of the silver of commerce is obtained from the ores of other 
metals, and from these therefore proceeded the rich display of plate which was to be 
seen in various parts of the Exhibition. 

The brilliant array of wrought, chiselled, and embossed silver-work collected throughout 
the principal compartments of the Great Exhibition, seemed to indicate that this noble 
art has been shorn of none of its pristine lustre, since the days when kings and princes, 
popes and cardinals, were sole patrons of the handicraftsman. Precisely three centuries 
have elapsed since the art of chiselling silver was at its zenith. On looking round and 
seeing the prodigious number and beauty of the works exhibited, one almost fancied that 
the many hammers which beat in such unison at the command of Cellini in the " Petit 
Nesle," had never ceased to resound on the banks of the Seine. England, on her side, 
strove with the wondrous aid of science to keep up the illusion, particularly by the 
dazzling brightness with which she invests the precious metals. In both England 
and France were found tacit acknowledgments of the eminent fitness of the Renaissance 
style of workmanship over all others, especially the classical, which is just at present 
under a complete ban. If we inquire further into the possible cause from which has 
arisen the present taste for all that appertains to the sixteenth century, we find that, as 
has ever been the case, the minor arts are influenced by the prevalent taste in architec- 
ture ; as it is a fundamental principle of ornamentation that the component parts which 
serve to adorn any structure, even its furniture, should necessarily partake somewhat of 
its character. To Mr. Chenavard, patronised by the late Duke of Orleans, and an able 
architect, the French ascribe the honour of driving them out of the classical slough in 
which Gallic art was so long imbedded. The British silversmith, on the contrary, has 
seldom allowed himself to be influenced by the fluctuations of fashion, but has steadily, 
perhaps too steadily, adhered to time-honoured traditions and old sculptural forms. 
We fancy we recognise the hand of Flaxman even to this day, with its pure but some- 
what quaker-like conceptions. One cannot be too thankful that the animal and vegetable 
kingdom should have been the only source of inspiration ; or it is difficult to conceive all 
the vagaries and waste of metal which the straight lines of our perpendicular architecture 
and its Flamboyant traceries might have led us to. But if timidity has hitherto been 
the besetting sin, there is at present rather an opposite tendency, which is evinced in the 
somewhat audacious rejection of all wholesome rule. Silver is expanded over large 
surfaces, and made to branch in large chandeliers which would have made the old 
artificers stare at the lavish expenditure of the precious metal. We believe it is no 
exaggeration to say that the compartment of Messrs. Hunt and Roskell, late Storr and 
Mortimer, alone contained no less than three tons' weight of silver. 



140 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

It was almost a relief to turn from the precious stones, whose intrinsic value escapes 
mental evaluation, to the more tangible merits of human workmanship. Contrasted with 
the bright and finished groups in silver, two works, executed by A. Vechte, in mingled 
iron and silver, stood out prominently by their subdued tones. The first was a shield, 
which, though unfinished, promised to be a most exquisite piece of embossed workman- 
ship. It represented Shakspere, Milton, and Newton, surrounded by their embodied 
conceptions. The style of the figures was a singular medley of Raphael and Buonarroti's 
designs ; that is, rather calling to mind the conceptions of the great Italians than closely 
adhering to them. The same might be said of the " Vase of Etruscan form," also executed 
by the same artist, and representing Jupiter hurling thunder at the Titanic host. The 
anatomy was worked out in a manner which would bear extension on the largest scale. 
Vases, salvers, and centre ornaments, presentation cups, &c, filled up the remaining 
portion. Messrs. R. and S. Garrard shone in bellicose groups, executed mainly in entire 
relief by the able designer, Mr. Cotterill, who identified himself with bull fights, boar 
hunts, and hunting meetings. Ever full of spirit, his groups were sometimes marred by 
a want of finesse in detail- work. Mr. Cotterill was too much at the mercy of the polisher ; 
we need only point at the otherwise pleasant performance of the rider entrapping the 
wild horse by the lasso. A perforated chandelier attracted as much notice by its size and 
polish as the " Brassey testimonial" by its massive effect. In the assembled company of 
engineers whose portraits were here gracefully collected together, we fancied we saw 
the heroes of speed, which had its tardy counterpart in the progresses of Elizabeth, who 
was evidently a favourite with the silversmith. There were two effigies of her; the first 
had been somewhat modernized by B. Marochetti, for Mrs. Hancock, who had other 
meritorious productions on view. The next, of somewhat exorbitant dimensions for 
silver, had been worked under the direction of Mr. Morel, from the great seal of the 
time. The way in which the minutiae of dress had been worked showed how far 
embossed work may go. Those who were curious in technical peculiarities might notice 
with satisfaction that there was no trace of subsequent soldering, her majesty being 
daintily fitted, as beseemed her precious person, on the barb or state horse. Her 
weight was considerably above a thousand ounces. Mr. Morel also exhibited a centre- 
piece of Children Playing with a Panther, which displayed all the fancy of Poussin in 
the juvenile attendants of Bacchus. The frosted imitation of the flesh texture was novel 
and pleasing. Caps of agate and lapis-lazuli of unusual dimensions, and convivial 
weapons, showed combined taste and art. As defenders of the powers of electro- 
metallurgy, Messrs. Elkington and Mason, of course, reigned supreme. It is well known 
that in the ordinary methods of electro-plating it is usual to construct a plated article 
as far as possible from plated sheet metal, while the edges and ornamental parts are 
completed by soldering thereto parts either stamped in plated metal or in silver. By 
this method of manufacture the design must necessarily be limited, being confined to 
such ornamental forms as could be produced by stamping or otherwise fashioning sheets 
of metal. The pernicious process of gilding by an amalgam of mercury and gold is 
superseded by the voltaic reduction of gold; and the voltaic precipitation is effected 
with far greater economy than the mercurial process. Messrs. Elkington and Co., though 
their patent has received wide extension by the grant of licences even to French firms, 
maintained their supremacy, and sorely puzzled their imitators by the great brilliancy of 
their gold and silver work. But it may be doubted whether the merits of the voltaic 
precipitation of metals are not more conspicuous in the larger scope afforded in its 
application to sculpture. In this respect it is to be regretted that fitter models than 
the lively Cupids of Fiamingo or the dull effigies lately applied to the houses of 
parliament, were not selected to inaugurate the processes of electro-bronzing. In the 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 141 

nave was a horses head executed life-size by electro-deposit ; it was from the hand of 
Marochetti, and interesting by the variation of its tone. It has always been an acknow- 
ledged fact in electro-metallurgy that the cost of the reduction of iron far more than 
counterbalanced the original cheapness of the raw material : whether this was the case in 
the instance we have cited we had no means of ascertaining. The East Indians, who laid 
bare the gorgeous splendours of the kingdom of (Dude, displayed in the inlaid gold of 
their tents, crowns, and horse trappings, all that barbaric splendour which charms the 
eye by the natural and choice harmony with which colours are blended, regardless 
alike of the inroads of science on one hand, or calculations of novelty on the other. The 
sceptre and the fly-flap, as well as other accessories which filled their tent, showed that a 
spirit somewhat akin to that of the ancient Assyrians, is still abroad among these 
Indians. The transition from these vestiges of primitive splendour to the nicer dis- 
crimination of the present day is rather an abrupt one, but the same may be said of 
every stride taken in the Great Palace. 

It is singular to find our neighbours, the French, doing their utmost to extinguish the 
brightness of the metals which the English handicraftsman does his utmost to preserve. 
It is well known that not only a certain dulness of tone is the natural consequence of 
the continual hammering and oiling of the silver necessary to bring it to a completion ; 
but, not content with this, it has been the fashion, for the last year or two, of oxidising 
most part of the silver-work, which thereby acquires prematurely the sober and dusky 
veil which time has cast over all the brilliant sleights of hand bequeathed to us by the 
artists of the sixteenth century. Greater durability and a more permanent defence 
against the inroads of time, are also said to be secured by the present process. The 
system adopted consists in plunging the groups into acids, whence they emerge with their 
present sombre hue. Mr. Durand's " Theiere a grande reception" was the greatest com- 
pliment ever yet paid to England's favourite beverage. It consisted of seventeen pieces, 
which combined chiselling, gilding, niello, and even oxidising. Though Diane de Poitiers 
had made way for an allegorical figure of Charity and her Children, the whole work 
smacked of the gusto prevalent in the reign of Francois I., in the imitation of the 
Florentine architecture and its incrustation of small figures. The whole design, and its 
adaptation to its purpose, was exceedingly ingenious, and was, we believe, originally 
designed by Klagman. The Louis XV. style, which the French now designate as 
"rocaille," was splendidly represented. Mr. Durand exhibited a table-ornament of 
assembled cupids, with decorations in this style, which showed how far a skilful hand can 
reconcile one to the wildest vagaries of fancy. The firm of Rudolphi made oxidising 
their specialty, and seemed bent on proving that the process is equally well adapted 
for the largest or minutest proportions. They exhibited a circular table, or "gueridon," 
ornamented with cupids and slender leaves at the base, the top part consisting of an 
inverted shield, with the embossed head of Medusa. There was also a salver with one 
of those nymphs Jean Goujon has made us familiar with. M. Odiot made the purpose 
of his ornamental work at once plain by chiselling fish, flesh, or fruit, with perfect 
freedom, decking his richly worked specimens. 

Messrs. Smith and Nicholson exhibited a centre-piece representing a group of Arab 
merchants halting beneath the spreading leaves of one of those noble palm-trees, which 
affords them protection from the rays of their burning sun, and re-invigorates them by 
its refreshing shade. They were equipped in the usual travelling costume of Arabia, 
and were supposed to be in the midst of an oasis in the desert, watered by a solitary 
SDring The singular mode of life pursued by these nomadic tribes is forced upon 
them by the very nature of the country in which their lot is cast, and which necessarily 
imparts" to the character and countenance an apparent solemnity not inconsistent with 

* 2 o 



142 THE GfiEAT EXHIBITION 

the perils they so frequently encounter in crossing vast.'scenes of sandy desolation. The 
camel, the "ship of the desert," as he is poetically, termed, was looking round upon his 
ride? as if desirous he should dismount, so that he' should he free to piok the herbage 
and enjoy the repose which the situation affords. As a whole the performance was full 
of character, and the disposition of the group was as picturesque as its execution was 
chaste and expressive. 

The next subject we - have to notice was of a very different kind. It was so 
essentially English that it was impossible to , mistake- the costume for that of any other 
country. It was an exquisite performance, cpming home to the heart in all its fulness, 
and awakening associations with which every English reader is acquainted. It was 
an embodiment, of the humour of Addi^onin the scene of Sir Roger de Coverley with the 
Gypsies. The good old knight was in the attitude of hearing his fortune told through 
the dubious light of palmistry,, whilst the dark-seyed daughter of the East was wiling 
her way into his heart, and breaking down every barrier of prejudice that might arise to 
prevent the natural- generosity of Sir Roger from displaying itself in a sum sufficient to 
a jward her cabalistic knowledge. The spirit of the scene enabled us to fancy even 
her gradually experiencing emotions of kindness; towards the knight, whom everybody 
esteemed, and for whom the inmates of his household felt the tenderest regard. The 
figure in the background, leaning upon the horse, was intended to represent Addison 
himself, whq was evidently taking that brief interest in the scene which enabled him 
to realize it in a future Spectator. Messrs. Angell, of the Strand, were the exhibitors 
of this fine centre-piece. On the left foreground stood a sideboard bottle in the antique 
style, ornamented with Gothic oak leaves. This idea was suggested by the skins used 
in Spain for carrying wine down the mountains. The height of the object was twenty- 
four inches, and it was capable of containing eleven quarts. It was silver gilt, and 
made entirely out of one piece of metal. On the right we had a handsome claret jug, 
of a richly chased wine pattern. It was exhibited by Messrs. Lambert and Rawlings. 
We next noticed a magnificent ewer or race cup, from the establishment of Messrs. 
Garrard, of the Haymarket. It represented a group of Sioux Indians hunting the 
bison in one of the North American prairies. This was a work which deserved some- 
thing more than a passing notice. Its original was run for at the Doncaster races, 
and thp present was manufactured expressly for the Exhibition. In originality of 
conception, spirit of design, and elaborateness of finish, we think it will bear compa- 
rison with any production of the same class submitted for examination. The kindled 
rage of the infuriated bison, tossing his head as if to gore the horse and bring his foe 
to the ground, was striking and life-like, and, artistically speaking, formed an exquisite 
base to the column of the uplifted horse; whose position • carried the eye freely to the 
fop of the ewer. The strained attitude of the steed, too, was excellent, and the precision 
which was intended to be- conveyed in directing the lance of the rider, was exemplified 
in the position he maintained as he seemed to rivet himself to his -seat. On the. other 
side was another Indian in the act of discharging .an arrow. 

Messrs. Gass, of Regent-street, exhibited a brilliant collection of elaborate workman- 
ship, among which was a dessert service of an entirely novel character, consisting of four 
pieces, each representing different species of aquatic plants,: modelled from water-plants 
growing in Kew Gardens, the leaves forming dishes. One of the pieces represented the 
beautiful and graceful nymphcea thermalis, or Hungarian water-lily, in floweri springing 
from rock-work, on which were several rock plants. Thei second was the riehnympha 
ruhrea, or red water-lily of the East Indies. The third was modelled after the calladium, 
and the fourth after the dillirea speciosd. . Mr. Emmanuel, of Hanover-square, exhibited 
a splendid silver pendule, surmounted; by a figure of Apollo driving the chariot of the 



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Pwn. drawn .by four horses, and supported by the Four Seasons. In the frieze were 
represented r theJFour : Winds, and in the front 'of the dial the figure of Time recumbent; 
the whole designed and, modelled by Woodington. Messrs, Hunt arid Roskell, as we have 
before observed, made a grand and magnificent show. Their collection was worthy a 
palace, and was a source of great attraction in the central south gallery, where works in 
gold and .silver of enormous value were deposited. .There was placed the testimonial in 
silver, designed by Sir George Hayter, and modelled' under the direction of Mr. E. H. 
Baily,. R. A., presented a short time since to Sir Moses- Montefiore, by members of the 
Jewish persuasion, as a mark of respect for his exertions bn behalf, of the persecuted 
Jews of, pamascus. The group consisted of sphinxes — indicative of the captivity of 
Israel in Egypt— with a figure of Moses supporting the tables of the law, and of Ezra 
readings scroll, upon which was inscribed- the 22nd verse of the 8th chapter of his 
book. There were also two Jews of Damascus, one loaded with chains, and the other 
released, overshadowed by the vine .and the fig-tree. The group on the summit was a 
representation of David rescuing the lamb from the jaWs of the lion. In the bassi rilievi 
were pourtrayed, — the, Israelites crossing the Red Sea, and the destruction of Pharaoh's 
host ;. the landing of Sir Moses and Dady Montefiore at Alexandria ; Sir Moses obtaining 
the firman from the Sultan ; the persecuted Jews of Damascus returning thanks for 
their deliverance ; and $ie thanksgiving in the synagogue by Sir Moses on his return. 
TUnder the latter was inscribed the 124th Psalm. This firm has long been celebrated for 
the production of exquisite works of art known as race-plate ; and in their stand was 
exhibited the Emperor of Russia's Ascot prize for the year 1847. It was an elaborately- 
chased vase, representing in the base and upper part, " Peter the Great receiving the 
swords of the S»wedish generals after the battle of Pultowa, and an event which occurred 
shortly previous to his death :— Being near Cronstadt, he saw a boat full of men and 
officers upset by the violence of the waves. He ordered instant assistance, which being 
ineffectual, he then seized a small boat, waded through the surf, and succeeded in 
rescuing the sufferers, though it brought on the disease which terminated his life a week 
afterwards." On the base were relievi of the palaces of Peterhoff and Smolenski. 

Notwithstanding the inroads which the electro-metallurgic art has made upon the 
old-established manufacture of plating, this method has, nevertheless, partizans, who 
insist on its, special advantages over the new process. Mr. John Gray, of Billiter-square, 
exhibited a series of articles illustrative of the old method of plating, commencing with 
the ingot and terminating in the finished article. The ingot, as used in the old 
manufacture, is composed of copper alloyed with other metal, so as to impart to it the 
necessary toughness and rigidity. The plate of silver is tied upon its polished surface 
■with wire, and the combined metals are then heated in a furnace. When the temperature 
is raised to a certain point, their union takes place, and the ingot is then submitted to 
the-processes of manufacture. An ingot of copper previous to this process, with the plate 
of silver tied upon it with wire,., was shown by this gentleman. The next articles in 
the series were ingots of copper and white metal, after the silver plate has been united 
to them by an elevation of temperature only, and without the intervention of solder or 
any other substance. The next article was the sheet of plated metal, which is obtained 
by submitting the plated ingot to the rolling process. A table dish, made from the 
rolled metal, was the next in the series, with the silver mountings laid upon it, but not 
yet soldered. The steel dyes in which the silver mountings are struck, together with the 
mountings. produced by them, were also exhibited ; in fine, the table dish was exhibited 
in its finished state, as well as a specimen of a salver produced by the manufacturer as 

above described. ■•• . . 

" "Among the productions of " La Belle France," we must not omit to notice those ot 



144 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

Proment, of Meurice, which, taken altogether, formed one of the most attractive features 
in the Exhibition. His gorgeous silver centre-piece, representing the Pour Seasons, 
obtained, as it well deserved, the great medal. Numerous other evidences of bis taste, 
skill, and high perception of art, were to be seen in the case appropriated to his works. 
An agate cup, of extraordinary beauty of form and skilful workmanship, we particularly 
admired, the frame and stand being gold and silver, gracefully twisted in the form of 
a vine. ' '• •" 

Although in these and other exquisite productions of our continental neighbours, we 
fully appreciate their excellent invention and taste, still it must be 'allowed that British 
workers in precious metals have laboured successfully to place themselves in dignified 
contrast with their foreign rivals '; and to vindicate themselves from the vulgar charge 
that they lack the taste necessary for the perfection of objects in precious " metals 
designed for use. Our British exhibitors in plate, one hundred and twenty-eight in 
number; represented very fairly the manufacturing excellence of England in this 
department of industry j and their specimens, apart from their excellence as manufac- 
tures, included not a few curious and attractive objects. The collective value of this 
section it was hardly possible to estimate, but it must have been enormous. There were 
some fine specimens of chasing, which, before we conclude our present chapter, we shall 
endeavour to describe. The most conspicuous among them was a figure of " Death on 
the Pale Horse," after the well-known design by West. The silver on this figure was 
stated to be no more than -j^nd part of an inch in thickness. This specimen was 
contributed by Mr; T. Woodbridge; of Holloway. Messrs. Elkington and Mason exhibited 
a splendid display of electro-plated candelabra, tazzas, vases, table ware, &c. ; and in the 
collection of Messrs. Martin, Basket, and Martin, of Cheltenham, we noticed a handsome 
model of a Great Western steam-engine, and a highly wrought inkstand, called the 
Milton inkstand. Bracelets, guards, chatelaines, tea and coffee services, flower-stands, &c, 
were to be seen in almost endless variety. A fine vase in silver, after a marble antique, 
in the Capitoline Museum, was exhibited by Messrs. Payne and Sons, of Bath j and 
amid the brilliant collection were found a silver tea-pot, coffee-pot, and tea-kettle, 
weighing together only 140 grains. As a curious subject for chasing, Messrs. Connell's 
cupj carved with designs from scenes at Donnybrook Pair, may be remarked ; and the 
registered brooches, from the mineral products of Ireland, were interesting specimens 
of dawning industry. Effective specimens of industrial skill and taste were exhibited 
in some finely-chased silver mountings for a highland dress, richly studded with car- 
buncles, and exhibited by an Edinburgh firm. Passing by brilliant specimens of 
electro-plated articles^ exhibited by Messrs. Wilkinson and Go., of Birmingham, and 
others, and plate in all its varieties — forks, spoons, fish-knives, candlesticks, Etruscan 
jugs, .taper-stands, &c, we came to a solid silver table-top, 55 inches in diameter, 
weighing nearly 900 ounces, and manufactured for the Governor of Aleppo, by Mr. 
Gollis, of Birmingham.. Passing from this gorgeous and costly specimen of the silver- 
smith's skill, the next object which claimed particular notice, was an epergne and sculp- 
tured silver. candelabra, weighing about 750 ounces, and designed by V. Nicholson. This 
fine specimen of British taste" arid skill was the production of a Sheffield firm, Messrs. 
Dixon and Sons. Passing on, rapidly surveying the bright collections of tea-urns, 
tureens, plaret jugs, communion plate, candlesticks, coolers] plated articles with silver 
mountings, venison' dishes, rams'! heads mounted as cigar cases, snuffboxes, &c. dirks 
purses,'. ornaments of highland regiments, imitations of or-molu, we came to a fine 
embossed and chased salver, representing Aurora, or the Hours, after Guido, surrounded 
with a border after the Tredacna shell. This brought us to a gorgeously mounted meer- 
schaum pipe, exhibited by the celebrated Tnderwick, of Leicester-square. Not- far from 






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this luxurious tobacco bowl, sentimental young ladies in dense clusters might have 
been found admiring ingenious patterns, worked in hair by Mr. Cleal, of Poland-street, 
Uxtord-street, while not far distant,, thoughtful people of a "certain age," examined 
with painful attention, Mr. Mortimer's mechanism for rectifying irregularities in the 
growth of teeth. This class included also some ingenious specimens of imitation Cameos ; 
but the admirers of brilliants clustered eagerly about Mr. Hope's casket, containing a 
blue diamond, weighing 177 grains, mounted as a medallion, surrounded by brilliants, 
" and supposed, from its size and colour, to be unique." 

The dessert service, exhibited by Messrs. Gass, of Regent-street, we have already 
noticed. This firm also exhibited a dazzling silvered jewelled dessert service, in the 
Elizabethan style, and a bracelet, set with brilliants, and carbuncles, and including 
portraits of the Queen and the Prince of Wales, after Thornburn, executed in niello, and 
engraved by J. J. Crew ; also a silver gauntlet niello bracelet, designed by Maclise. In 
oxidised silver the English exhibited some fine specimens — among these the statuettes 
of Phillips, Brothers, of Cockspur-street, were particularly noticed. The progress of a 
lump of metal through its various stages till it is perfected in the shape of a bracelet, 
was illustrated by Messrs. Wheeler, of Bartlett's-buildings, Holborn. Rambling on in 
the vicinity of cases of gorgeous works in the precious metals, we came to a curious gold 
watch, invented by S. Boreham, to beat seconds and to strike at the minute. This watch 
attracted considerable attention, and was certainly a curiosity as a specimen of minute 
clock-work. Other attractions led us in various directions, and it would be impossible 
to carry a notice of the glittering display to any length. First, we were attracted by 
a fine drawing-room clock, designed by C. Grant, with subjects by G. Abbott. This 
composition was inclosed in an electrotyped case, and stood upon a base and pedestal of 
turquoise blue glass. Then we paused to notice a child's mug, upon which Wilkie's 
" Blind Man's Buff" was finely chased. Next our attention was attracted by the royal 
arms of England since the Conquest, engraved upon various metals. Then came the 
splendid cups, caskets, tazzas, centre-pieces, candelabras, vases, etc., exhibited by Messrs. 
Hunt and Roskell ; then a tea-tray, illustrative of the purposes of the Exhibition, finely 
engraved by Donalds j then, in melancholy mood, we paused over the last work of 
Wagner, of Paris, a silver rose-water dish, exhibited by Mr. Forrest, of the Strand ; then 
we endeavoured to picture to ourselves the delight of Staunton before the gorgeous 
chessmen, exhibited by Eady, of Clerkenwell ; and then we could not but notice the 
candelabrum, given as a testimonial to Mr. Macready. Designs in every variety appeared 
to be here assembled, from the rigid Elizabethan style to the familiar and homely 
illustrations of Donnybrook fair. Here was a chased shield, representing the battle of 
Alexander and Darius ; further on a salver, illustrating the labours of Hercules. Messrs. 
Armitage and Horsley's " Spirit of Religion," had been adapted to the dimensions of 
a silver tablet for a Bible binding; while the national pride had been fed with the 
Shakspere Cup, already described, chased with subjects from Lear, Julius Caesar, Othello, 
the Tempest, Macbeth, and Hamlet. Ohe jam satis ! we imagine our readers will be 
tempted to exclaim. We shall, therefore, conclude our remarks on the present subject, 
and commence a fresh chapter. 



2p 



146 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

LETTERS OE M. JOHN LEMOINNE — LETTER I. — EOBEIGN IMPEESSIONS — BEITISH AMENITY — 
VAST BUSTLE — OMNIBUSES — SUNDAY VISIT — EINE CLIMATE OE ENGLAND — INVALIDS — HEE 
MAJESTY VABIETY OE NATIONS. 

We shall now pause awhile in our own retrospective survey of the glories and the 
wonders of the Fairy Palace, and present our readers with the nawe remarks of a lively 
and talented French writer on the all-engrossing topic of the World's Fair, which evince 
in a remarkable manner, the admirable spirit of kindliness and good feeling that has 
already resulted from the amicable admixture of all nations in a cause devoted entirely 
to peace, order, good- will, and mutual benefit and improvement ; a cause of which the 
effects will, we doubt not, continue to extend themselves to the extremest points of 
social civilization. 

LETTER I. 

London, June, 1851. 
If I remember rightly, it is Jean Jacques Rousseau who affirmed that he would 
rather be accounted a man of paradoxes than a man of prejudices ; I hold the contrary 
opinion. There are amateurs. of paradoxes, who come to London not to go and see the 
Exhibition. I was so prejudiced as to go there on my arrival, and was still more 
■prejudiced, in common with many others, by being overwhelmed with admiration at the 
marvellous spectacle. This sentiment is universal. I hear it on all sides, and in all 
languages. There is no spirit so critical or sceptical as not to bend before this vast 
display. Independently of the difficulties opposed to the mere execution of the enter- 
prise, there was a certain feeling of hesitation in the public mind as to its result. The 
effect of its opening was regarded with a certain misgiving, and the first month pro- 
duced a degree of disappointment among the Londoners. The hotels were scarcely fuller 
than usual. The lodging houses exhibited their melancholy bills, and the innumerable 
preparations made to receive the whole world, seemed as though they had been made in 
vain. So much had been said in anticipation of the millions about to pour into the 
great metropolis from the first day, that vast numbers were alarmed rather than attracted, 
and paused to hear the result of the opening before venturing to come. It had been 
•imagined throughout Europe, that it would be impossible to move in the streets; that 
persons would be compelled to sleep in the open air, — not a very agreeable anticipation, 
■considering the opinion generally entertained of the climate and atmosphere. It soon 
appeared, however, that these were exaggerations. By degrees our fears were removed, 
and when it was discovered that everything went on in the most quiet and regular 
manner possible, the visitors commenced their journey; and now, from the shores of the 
most distant seas, numberless caravans come to plant their tents around this great mart 
of the universe. It is like the movement of an ocean, one wave following another. 
The tide has been slow, because its point of departure was distant ; but once in motion, 
it will not cease. This pacific invasion of all nations has changed the aspect of London. 
In this immense city, which has no barriers, still less fortifications, and which is an 
aggregation of small towns and villages which have grown into one another, and have at 
length coalesced, and formed the great metropolis, the presence of foreigners is, in 
general, rarely observable. At present, however, one's ears never cease to be struck with 
all dialects, known and unknown. From the Chinese, true and false, to the serfs of 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 147 

Russia, all races are represented, and are walking about in all costumes, to say nothing 
of the beards and moustaches, which here in England are still a foreign garbment. 

The English have on this occasion abandoned their usual habits. In very truth, I 
think they are becoming social and familiar. They have always been polite and hos- 
pitable to those who bring proper introductions to them, but now one actually meets 
some who enter into conversation without such preliminary condition. Decidedly, 
British manners are altered. This exceptional conduct arises, however, from an 
excellent sentiment,— the English are now offering hospitality to the whole world, 
and they pique themselves on receiving it graciously. They are desirous, too, that the 
highest idea should be formed of their national grandeur, and they question you with 
evident solicitude on the impression produced by the inspection of the Exhibition. This 
impression, it must be admitted, is very grand. You feel it even before you reach 
the Crystal Palace. As on a journey you recognise the approach to a great city by 
the perpetually increasing number of persons you encounter on the road, so in the 
movement which is accelerated and increased on the road to the Exhibition, you 
recognise the approach ' to a great centre of attraction. I here notice only the simple 
impressions of the spectator or the tourist, but I can easily conceive the effect which the 
sight of Piccadilly, Hyde Park, and that great road which leads to the Crystal Palace, 
must produce on strangers. It is an inconceivable bustle, which defies all description. 
The uninitiated traveller is absolutely bewildered. The passing and repassing of horses 
and carriages seem like the. crossing of several trains on a railway. It is indeed a milee, 
which, when seen for the first time, leads one to fear that the result will be collision, and 
a general upset. We. are, quite surprised to see nothing overthrown, nothing broken, 
and that all these carriages make their way out from one another, as if they were of 
gutta percha. The multiplication of omnibuses, especially, seems fabulous. They may 
be counted by hundreds in a quarter of an hour. The best method of seeing in this 
country, and at the same time the most democratic, is to mount the top of an omnibus. 
From thence you have a view of the whole route, and this astonishing palace of glass 
may be seen long before reaching it. 

Nothing can be more striking than the first view of the transept. Pacing you is a 
large tree, which has been placed, as it were, under a bell, like a plant. Advancing, you 
make the tour of this immense dome, amidst verdure and flowers, the murmur of waters, 
and encounter at the other extremity two other large trees, likewise enclosed in this 
prodigious glass case. Imagine, now, 50,000 men, women, and children, walking about 
in this vast green-house, without the least tumult or disorder. On the days on which 
the price of admission is one shilling, about 70,000 persons sometimes visit it. There 
are two days on which the price is higher ; on Friday half-a-crown is paid, and on 
Saturday five shillings. Saturday is the fashionable day, and as the palace is not 
closed until seven o'clock, Albion may be seen from four to six in all the Mat of her 
beauty. The shilling days are not less curious. These are the days for country people, 
who arrive in their rustic dresses, with their wives, their children, and provisions. The 
railways bring them to London at reduced fares, and at the station they take large 
waggons, which bring them to the Exhibition. Caravans full of them are thus encoun- 
tered in the streets. Whole parishes sometimes come, headed by their clergymen. The 
colonels of regiments send their soldiers, and the admirals their sailors. Not less worthy 
of observation are the hundreds of charity children, in their blue dress with yellow 
stockings, that are frequently met, marching in rank and file. About two or three 
o'clock every one eats, and takes his luncheon. There are several buffets, where there 
are all kinds of fearful pastry, and horrible creams that would be ices. The prices 
are fixed by the committee, and marked up. No wine, beer, or spirits are allowed, but 



148 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

of course there is tea. There are, besides, interspersed in the palace, several fountains 
of filtered water, ornamented with small drinking cups, at the disposal of the promenaders. 
Saturday morning, until twelve o'clock, is reserved for the infirm and the invalids, who 
are drawn in small carriages, and of these there are a great number. 

I have seen the Exhibition also under an aspect which is not void of picturesque, — 
I have seen it on a Sunday. I should have thought this undertaking impracticable, 
for here the earth is not permitted to turn on its axis on Sundays, whatever Foueault 
may think proper to assert. I did, however, 'succeed in entering, thanks to patronage 
which I will not betray. Silence reigned around ; the very clocks were still ; I believe 
there was but one going. The statues, enveloped in wrappers, resembled ghosts, and 
the most precious articles were also covered up. I was particularly struck at the sight 
of a policeman, quietly occupied with his Prayer-book, whom our desecration of the 
Sabbath must have somewhat scandalised. Sixty years were required for building St. 
Peter's, at Rome. The new Houses of Parliament, at London, were commenced fifteen 
years ago, and are not yet finished. The Palace of the Exhibition was begun and 
finished in three months. Will it live like the roses, only for a season? This is 
the question of the moment. For poetic imaginations, there would be a certain charm 
in the destruction of this magical work, which would only, as it were, have appeared on 
the stage as a passing scene. Cleopatra, indeed, caused the most costly pearl in the 
world to be dissolved in a cup, and gratified herself by drinking a million at a draught. 
Why may not a great nation indulge in caprices such as that of Cleopatra ? 

One of the greatest and rarest curiosities that England presents at this moment to 
foreigners, who come to see the Exhibition, is decidedly the sun. I am not speaking 
of the famous Mountain of Light, but the veritable sun in the sky, which diffuses light 
and heat. For some days London has had a factitious air of Naples. Piccadilly and 
Regent-street are as scorching as Santa Lucia and the Chiaja. There is, however, this 
difference, that in Italy the streets are -deserted during the whole day, and that here 
the movement of the population is never for one moment suspended. Some tourists, 
who have come with the idea that the sun is never to be seen in London, and that people 
walk about with torches in mid-day, feel actual disappointment in being able to dis- 
tinguish the dome of St. Paul's. Some there are, indeed, who wish to falsify the proverb, 
" Solem quis dicere falsum," and who are quite ready to believe that the English have 
invented some process to warm their climate for this particular occasion. And why not ? 
These Englishmen are so vain, and they have invented so many machines ! You may 
easily imagine that, in such weather, the Crystal Palace somewhat resembles a hot-house. 
One spends one's time in looking for seats as near as possible to the fountains and basons 
of filtered water, and in eating those eternal creams, which are something like iced 
pomatum. 

It is more in vogue than ever to go on Saturday morning. I have before said that the 
forenoons of Saturday are reserved for invalids, who are admitted in their wheeled 
chairs, in which they are drawn about. There are many real invalids, but there are also 
some false ones, who, so soon as they have obtained admission, like Sixtus Quintus, get 
rid of their crutches, a circumstance which gives the Crystal Palace a certain likeness 
to the Court of Miracles. On Saturdays, one meets regularly her Majesty and suite 
and then the organs play spontaneously, " God save the Queen." In this country, all 
instruments play this air; in the same way as everything is called " Waterloo/"— the 
streets, the bridges, the omnibuses, the paletots, the boots. Not to be behindhand with 
the public in politeness, let us leave the queen peaceably to her promenade and let us 
continue ours. It is a mere promenade of curiosity, only a little tortuous, that I ask 
permission to make. If we would proceed regularly, it would be difficult. We should 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 149 

lose ourselves. The police office is every day encumbered with objects that have been 
lost, from umbrellas to children. Yesterday, the policemen collected, along with sticks 
and parasols, half-a-dozen little girls, who had arrived by a " pleasure train." Happily, 
they were ticketed and numbered as bales of goods, and were marked from " Bristol.'* 
After having received lunch, they were taken back to the sheep-fold. 

England, as you are aware, reserved half the Crystal Palace for the exhibition of 
its own products — all the left-hand, on entering by the principal door. This is comprised 
under the name of the United Kingdom. Nothing can better represent "penitus totd 
divisos orbe Britannos." With England, Scotland, and Ireland, there are India, Jersey, 
Guernsey, the Ionian Islands, Africa, Malta, Canada, Nova Scotia, New Zealand, 
the Bermudas, the Bahamas, Trinidad, Ceylon. The United States of America no 
longer belong to the mother country* They walk alone, having attained their majority : 
they are at the extremity of the other nave. On the right side are all the nations who 
have flocked together to this great rendezvous. France is placed amidst Turkey, 
Egypt, Italy, Spain, Portugal, China, Switzerland, and the Brazils. To the name of Prance 
has been added that of Algiers, a sign that they do not endeavour, as heretofore, to 
contest our conquest, and that they now regard it as a "fait accompli." The middle 
of the great nave is occupied by objects of art, disposed with much skill and effect. 
On the first coup- d' ceil of this avenue, which is one-third of a mile in length, one may 
form a philosophic idea of the genius of the different nations who figure at the Exhibition. 
Thus, while the foreign nave is filled with objects of art, properly speaking, the English 
is principally occupied by objects of utility. As I cannot write a catalogue, I pass over 
the statues and the organs. The capital work of sculpture in this gallery is the Amazon, 
by Kiss, of Berlin. It is an Amazon, who strikes with her javelin a tiger, which has 
fastened on the neck of her horse, and is a masterly performance. Something less severe, 
but more pleasing, is the Greek Slave, by an American sculptor. It is not, perhaps, an 
ideal type, but is a copy of an admirable figure. The young slave is placed in a 
niche, in velvet, on a turning joint, and must be a little giddy by the end of the day. 

After indulging, contrary to her custom, in a work of art, America exhibits another 
work, which characterizes her much better. It is an enormous supply of articles in 
caouchouc! It is difficult to conceive anything more ugly, but possibly it is useful. 
I presume the United States were desirous, by this frightful edifice of india-rubber, 
to symbolize themselves, and typify the development to which they are destined. Beside 
this are two of those poor Indians (Iowas,) whom we formerly saw at Paris, and with 
whom I remembered to have breakfasted. I still remember their air of profound 
sorrow, which betrayed their nostalgia, and the delight which they exhibited when in a 
large garden. There is something cruel and ostentatious in the exhibition of these two 
poor red-skins. It is nothing but a trophy. They are the slaves chained to the car 
of the conqueror ; they are the shadow of the old races that the victorious and implacable 
civilization of the West crushes in its progress. The American exhibition is crowned, at 
the extremity of the nave, by an immense organ, the pipes of which are ornamented in 
such a manner, that they resemble great penny trumpets or gigantic sugar-sticks. From 
American to English art the transition is easy. Both are of the same character, 
generally prosaic. I should except a very graceful group in marble, representing Venus 
and Cupid, by Davies; but the rest of the objects which fill the English nave are 
composed, in general, of works in which the useful is more prominent than the agreeable. 
We now 'have before us a trophy, not in caouchouc, but in silk. It is the exhibition 
of home-made manufactures, at least so called ; but whei-eever you find very beautiful 
silks they probably are from Lyons. After this you see another trophy, in Canadian 
timber surmounted by a. skiff- then another in Sheffield cutlery, consisting of pen- 
' 2 Q 



150 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

knives with five or six hundred blades, two hundred and fifty pair of scissors of every 
kind, one of the triumphs of England. Then enormous glasses ; then light-houses and 
improved telescopes ; then a trophy in furs, exhibited by the Hudson's Bay Company; 
then models of every kind. 

After this excursion in the nave of the Crystal Palace, let us go, if you please, to 
see the adoration of the relics. On the right, and nearly at the entrance of the foreign 
nave, you observe a crowd, curious and eager, flocking about a great parrot-cage with 
gilded bars. Within that is placed on a cushion the Koh-i-Noor. This diamond 
supplies, in the history of Central Asia, the place of the golden fleece, and has occasioned 
more than one bloody war. It ultimately came into the hands of Runjeet Singh, and 
when, after his death, England annexed his kingdom to its Indian possessions, the 
" Mountain of Light" was sent to London, It is now, if not the most curious, at least 
the most attractive article in the Exhibition. It weighs 186 carats. As to its value, it 
is necessarily nominal ; it may be worth two millions, or nothing. To ordinary eyes it is 
nothing , more than an egg-shaped lump of glass. They may show us what they please, 
and call it Koh-i-Noor. On ordinary days, that is, the shilling days, it is exposed in its 
great cage, ornamented with a policeman, and they rely on the sun to cause it to sparkle ; 
but on the Friday and Saturday it puts on its best dress ; it is arrayed in a tent of red 
cloth, and the interior is supplied with a dozen little jets of gas, which throw their light 
on the god of the temple. Unhappily, the Koh-i-Noor does not sparkle even then. 
Thus the* most curious thing is not the divinity, but the worshippers. I have seen a 
pretty considerable number of relics adored, from the Bambino in wood of the Ara cceli 
at Some, to the blood of St. Januarius at Naples. The adoration of the Mountain of 
Light is quite of the same character. One places one's-self in the file to go in at one 
side of the niche, looks at the golden calf protected by the impassable policeman, and 
goes out on the other side. If the organs should chance to play at the same moment, 
the illusion is complete. There is another thing, also, which has the same effect. It is 
a fountain of Eau de Cologne of Maria Farina. This is also guarded by a policeman, 
who takes quietly your handkerchief, passes it across the jet d'eau, and returns it per- 
fumed. The Koh-i-Noor is well secured; it is placed on a machine which causes it, on 
the slightest touch, to enter an iron box. It is thus put to bed every evening, and 
does not get up till towards noon. The procession of the faithful then commences, and 
only finishes at seven o'clock. 

We shall here, for the present, take leave of our lively and intelligent correspondent, 
with the intention, however, of renewing our acquaintance with him at a fitting 
opportunity. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



THE POTTER'S AET— STAFFOBDSHIBE POTTEEIES — SEVRES PORCELAIN — DRESDEN PORCELAIN 

MEISSEN PORCELAIN — VIENNA PORCELAIN — EN&LISH PORCELAIN STATUARY PORCELAIN 

VARIOUS SPECIMENS OF STATUARY PORCELAIN — ORNAMENTAL PORCELAIN— NEW USES OF 
PORCELAIN. 

We shall again, in this chapter, occasionally avail ourselves of the assistance of our 
learned friend, Dr. Lardner, and present our readers with the substance of a portion of 
his lucubrations respecting " The Potter's Art," as connected with the Great Exhibition. 




Eng-iWKl from a- Daji^ierreatypo tyMaysdl 

FOUNTAIN- BY FREEM.ROE& HANSON 

NORTH TRANSEPT 




Engfavca from a JJspicr^poyip: oj-i-i-j^. 



ACfS AND GALATEA _._ FOUNTAIN 

BY J THOMAS 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 151 

No department of the great museum of industrial products presented to the attention of 
the intelligent visitor, attraction stronger and more peculiar than that which was devoted 
to the ceramic manufactures, including porcelain in all its varieties, Oriental and 
European, earthenware, stoneware, flintware, faience, delft, ironstoneware, terra-ootta, 
bricks, tiles, and in general every form of baked earth used in the arts and sciences. In 
no branch of the useful arts do the ultimate results differ so immeasurably from the 
original materials as in this. "What can more powerfully excite our wonder and admira- 
tion at the value which labour and art can confer on the basest materials, than to reflect 
that the beautiful portraits in Sevres porcelain of the Queen and Prince Albert, after 
Winterhalter, and the magnificent vases which were seen both in the British and 
foreign collections, are composed of nothing more than so many lumps of a whitish clay, 
and a collection of the rusts (oxides) of certain metals, all beyond this being the work 
of art ? Another circumstance which conferred peculiar interest on this section of the 
Exhibition was the extraordinary rivalry which it developed among different countries, 
and the unequal conditions under which British industry entered into this competition. 
Seven imperial and royal establishments for the manufacture of porcelain, supported by 
state subsidies, and encouraged by state patronage, sent their choicest productions to be 
displayed beside those of the unpatronised, unsubsidised enterprise of Staffordshire and 
Worcestershire. Thus we had, in the French department, a magnificent collection of 
the finest pieces of porcelain from the National (late Royal) manufactory of Sevres, A 
similar collection was sent from the celebrated Royal porcelain manufactory of Berlin, 
and the Imperial porcelain manufactory of Vienna also sent a rich collection of its 
productions. Besides these, the Royal manufactories of porcelain at Copenhagen and 
Nymphenburg, near Munich ; and, in fine, the Imperial porcelain works of St. Peters- 
burgh, severally unfurnished their museums, and transferred their richest treasures to the 
Crystal Palace. 

The fabrication of ornamental poroelain in these several national establishments is 
conducted irrespectively of commercial profit. If any expedient for the improvement of 
the art be proposed to the British manufacturer, he must necessarily consider the probable 
cost of trying it, and the probable loss in case of its failure. These considerations are, 
however, disregarded in establishments supported by the state, and every expedient for 
the improvement of the art, presenting the slightest probability of a successful result, is 
tried. All that is most eminent in science, in each of the countries above-mentioned, is 
brought to bear upon the improvement of the ceramic art. Besides pecuniary emolu- 
ment, personal honours and rewards are lavished on all who contribute to its advancement. 
Thus, we find at the head of each of these establishments, as well as at the head of 
each of their departments respectively, individuals who have attained the greatest 
eminence in those sciences which are more immediately oonnected with this branch of 
manufacture, and personal honours and distinctions, such as orders of knighthood, 
decorations, crosses, &c, lavished upon them as a farther stimulus to exertion. The 
antiquity of the ceramic art renders it an object of special interest. Everybody is 
familiar with the allusions to the potter's wheel in the Old Testament, and indications of 
the prevalence of the manufacture at an early epoch in the history of the human race 
are abundantly confirmed by the annals of Oriental nations, and by the material 
evidence of vases of baked earth which have been found in ancient tombs, and which 
are preserved in the national collections. 

Among the objects exhibited in the Chinese department was included a complete 
collection of the various materials employed at the great porcelain works of Kiang 
Tiht'Chin, as it was named in the catalogue ; otherwise, according to better authorities, 
King Te Tching. This collection consisted of specimens of the plastic clay of which the 



152 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

Chinese porcelain is formed, and of the various colouring matters with which it is 
decorated, The place from which these specimens were sent is the seat of a very ancient 
manufactory of porcelain. Father Entrecolles, a French missionary, resided there in 
the beginning of the last century, and he states in his letters, that there were in opera- 
tion at this place, in 1712, not less than 3,000 ovens, which gave the town, during the 
night, the aspect of a vast furnace with a multitude of chimneys. It is impossible, 
in reading his description, not to be reminded of the appearance of certain parts of 
Staffordshire at night. Ancient pottery, in his time, was in great demand in China, 
and extremely dear. Many vessels of great antiquity were obtained from tombs and 
other ruins. Vases were said to have been discovered of the times of the Emperors Yao 
and Chun, who flourished above two thousand years before the Christian era. In the 
ancient tombs at Thebes also several vases of Chinese origin were found, which, by 
their inscriptions, appeared to have been fabricated eighteen centuries before Christ. 
The fine porcelain, however, was not known before the year 900, a.d. In Europe the 
first collection of fine porcelain was imported in the year 1518, by the Portuguese, and 
for 200 years after that period Europe derived its entire supply of that article of luxury 
from China, About the middle of the seventeenth century, a small factory for the 
manufacture of pottery was established at Burslem, in Staffordshire, which, in the year 
1690, owed considerable improvements to the Messrs. Elers, who had immigrated there 
from Holland, and to their exertions may be ascribed the origin of the celebrated Stafford- 
shire Potteries, now an absolute hive of industry, employing 70,000 operatives. It is 
there we find the splendid establishments of Messrs. Copeland, Minton,. Wedgwood, 
Alcock, Pratt, and others, whose^ productions enriched the gallery of the northern 
transept of the Exhibition. Among amateurs in poroelain there prevails a notion, that 
the art of fabricating the tender porcelain of Sevres has been lost, and that, since it is 
impossible to reproduce the articles, they must necessarily have a high' value in the 
market. This is> however, erroneous. All the materials and processes for the fabrication 
of this description of artificial porcelain are preserved at Sevres, and the manufacture 
can be re-established whenever it is desirous to do so. Indeed, we are informed at this 
moment that the administration entertains an intention of recommencing the fabrieation- 
of this: description of porcelain for articles of ornament, such as vases, pictures, &c, the 
imperfections incidental to it not affecting such objects. All the Sevres porcelain sent to 
the Exhibition was of the kind called hard, that being the only description fabricated for 
the last fifty years. The portraits of the Queen and Prince Albert, in the great [aisle 
of the Crystal Palace, are fine specimens of the largest porcelain painting which has 
been produced at Sevres. These portraits, after Winterhalter, were executed by command 
of Louis Philippe, and presented to the Queen. They were commenced before the 
revolution of February, but not, finished till afterwards. Louis Philippe claimed them as 
his private property, and they were surrendered to him by the Republican Government ; 
but the portrait of Prince Albert had met with an accident by which it was broken. 
Louis Philippe desired to have another made, but the Queen would not hear of this 
expense being incurred, and the fracture being repaired at Sevres, the portraits were 
sent to England, and delivered to her Majesty. The portrait of her Majesty was by 
Ducluzeau, and that of Prince Albert by Bezanget. 

Among the most splendid collection of paintings and vases exhibited by the National 
manufactory of Sevres, the most valuable and most worthy of attention and examination; 
were the following :— The picture of the Virgin, known as the Vierffe au Voile, by Madame 
Ducluzeau, copied after Raffaelle in the Louvre. The poroelain was of the same size as 
the original, and was valued at £1,000. Another, after Tintoretto, by Madame Ducluzeau, 
at £880. A flower subject, 40 inches high, by M. Jacober, £800. A large cup' 




*•««) V D Pound. Erom a Dagae^ 00 ^ 









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I In- II Pound, from a DaS"" 1 





CROUP OF DRESDEN CHINA 

EXHIBITED IN THE SAXON DEPARTMENT 




CROUP OF .DRESDEN CHINA 

EXHIBITED IN THE SAXON DEPARTMENT. 



OP THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 153 

45 inches diameter and 34 inches high, porcelain biscuit; the three principal figures upon 
the cup represented Industry in the fields and the workshop, and Education; the three 
corresponding medallions represented Ceres, Vulcan, and Minerva; around the foot of 
the cup were grouped three figures representing the Fates. Several vases of rich design 
and elaborate execution ; a pair, in particular, with landscapes representing the Seasons, 
valued at £216. Various cups, also" of splendid workmanship, after Benvenuto, Cellini, 
and others. The style of the Dresden porcelain is familiar to all amateurs, and, 
whatever difference of opinion may prevail as to its taste, there can be none as to 
the admirable excellence of its execution. All who have visited the ' collection at 
Dresden, will be familiar with the series of animals,' represented on a scale approaching 
to the natural size,' including bears, rhinoceroses, vultures; peacocks, &c., made for the 
grand staircase which conducts to the -electoral library. - These were fabricated as early: 
as 1730. At a later period, when the manufacture had undergone improvements, large' 
ornamental- pieces of -porcelain were made, such as the slabs of consoles and tables, 
some of which measure from 45 to 50 incHes-by 25, and are richly decorated with flowers. 

Among the objects exhibited, the most conspicuous were two magnificent vases', one 
after a design by Semper, decorated with painted medallions and gilding, and another 
ornamented 1 with painted figures and flowers after Watteau. The frame of a mirror, 
richly decorated with coloured flowers in relief and girandoles, was also much admired. 
The grotesque ^figures and groups of Dresden- porcelain have always been admired for 
their execution/ if not for their style. ; The Costumes are especially admirable, and 
the representation of, fine work, such as lace, truly wonderful. Some specimens of this 
were seen in the Exhibition. One of the grotesque pieces which obtained most celebrity, 
and was familiar to all amateurs, was the famous tailor of the Count de Bruhl, a figure 
whch was remarkable for the difficulty of its execution, owing to the numerous accessories 
it included. The figure of the tailor was represented riding on a goat surrounded with 
all the implements and appendages of his trade, and was about 20 inches in height. 
A beautiful specimen of flowers was also exhibited, consisting of a camellia japonica, with 
leaves and white flowers in porcelain, in a gilt pot, on a stand of white and gold porcelain. 
This article was priced at £90. 

The Royal manufactory at Meissen exhibited two vases of light blue, with portraits of 
the Queen and Prince Albert, adorned with escutcheons filled with flowers and rich 
gilding; a girl playing on a guitar, with laces ; a fluteplayer ; an etagere with girandoles 
in flowers in relief; a picture of a lacemaker, after Slingeslandt, price 50 guineas ; a 
picture of a Ganymede, after Thorwaldson ; and statuary porcelain. Besides the orna- 
mental porcelain exhibited by the Royal manufactory, two collections of painting on 
China after classical pictures, were exhibited by the well-known artists of Dresden, 
Bucker and Walther. The former exhibited eleven paintings, in gilt frames, from Cor- 
regio, Carlo Dolce, Titian, Murillo, Gessi, Guido, Raffaelle, &c. ; also eighteen paintings 
of larger size, including specimens from Ruysdael, Claude Lorraine, &c. The latter 
also exhibited a variety of subjects. 

The Imperial porcelain manufactory of Vienna was established in the year 1744. 
One of the foremen of Meissen, named Stobzel, had deserted from that establishment 
about the year 1718, and escaped to Vienna, where; aided by a Belgian, named Pasquier, 
and favoured by a privilege, or a sort of monopoly for twenty-five years, granted to him 
by the Emperor Charles VI., he established, in 1720, a small porcelain manufactory. 
Not however, having sufficient capital to carry it on, it declined, and was -finally pur- 
chased by the Empress Maria Theresa, in 1744, and ereCted-into a, Royal manufactory. 
It was in like manner, by means of information brought by deserters and runaways from 
factory to factory, that the fabrication of porcelain, came to be established successively 



154 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

in the Royal manufactories of Louisberg, near Stuttgard, at Berlin, Copenhagen, 
Brunswick, and St. Petersburgh. 

The first English porcelain was manufactured at Bow and Chelsea, the paste being 
composed of a mixture of sand from Alum Bay, in the Isle of Wight, with a plastic 
clay and powdered flint glass ; this was covered with a leaden glaze. This manufactory 
had considerable success. In 1748, the manufactory was transferred to Derby; and in 
1751, Dr. Wale established at Worcester a manufacture of tender porcelain, called the 
" Worcester Porcelain Company," which still exists, though in other hands. If the British 
manufacturer have not attained the high excellence in the ornamental department of the 
manufacture of porcelain, and cannot produce paintings after the great masters, enamelled 
on large slabs of porcelain, to rival those of Sevres and Meissen, he has proved by the 
late Exhibition, that the day is not far distant when even those productions may be 
executed in Staffordshire, and that meanwhile, he has outstripped altogether, all rivals in 
the production of articles fitted for the common use, not only of the middle, but of the 
most affluent classes, at a price which sets all foreign competition at complete defiance. 
We must not omit, in recording these advances in ornamental pottery, to make 
honourable mention of the name of Josiah Wedgewood, who introduced into the 
Staffordshire potteries all the improvements of science, and the elegance of art, both 
with respect to form and material ; and the effect of his exertions has been, that the 
wares of that district are not only brought into general use in England, to the exclusion 
of all foreign manufactures of the same kind, but English earthenware is sought for and 
celebrated all over the world, and nowhere more than in those places where foreign 
porcelain has been previously in use. 

Many eminent foreigners have borne testimony of this, especially M. Faujas de St. 
Fond, who says: — "The excellent workmanship of English porcelain, its solidity, the 
advantage which it possesses of sustaining the action of fire, its fine glaze, impenetrable 
to acids, the beauty and convenience of its form, and the cheapness of its price, have 
given rise to a commerce so active and universal, that the traveller from Paris to 
St. Petersburgh, from Amsterdam to the farthest part of Sweden, or from Dunkirk to 
the extremity of the south of France, is served at every inn with English ware. Spain, 
Portugal, and Italy are supplied with it, and vessels are loaded with it for both the Indies, 
and the continent of America." One of the branches of the manufacture of porcelain, 
in which British industry and art has of late years had the start of the Continent, 
is statuary porcelain. This has been lately introduced by the Staffordshire manufac- 
turers, and numerous specimens of it were seen in the Exhibition. The Duchess of 
Sutherland, to whose munificent patronage the local manufacture of Staffordshire is 
so greatly indebted, was one of the first to perceive the capabilities of this material, and 
to encourage its extension and use. Gibson, the sculptor, having his attention attracted 
to it by her Grace, admitted that it was the next best material to marble, and was 
desirous to see some of his own works reproduced in it. By permission of the Council 
of the Royal Academy, a reduced copy of his " Narcissus" was accordingly made at 
the manufactory of Alderman Copeland. 

The process of producing this imitation of sculpture is extremely interesting. Since 
its first introduction it has undergone great changes and improvements ; it is now 
composed of one homogeneous mass of statuary porcelain, whereas at first a thin super- 
ficial coating was laid over a coarser material, which produced a far inferior article 
than the present mode. The process, however, is much more difficult and liable to 
fracture, in consequence of the great contraction it undergoes in the oven. The linear 
contraction in the process of baking is about one-fourth; a figure four feet high, on 
coming out of the oven, being only three feet. The actual contraction of bulk cor- 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 155 

responding to this linear contraction is more than one-half. When a figure or a group is 
to be cast, a considerable number of separate moulds are required, each separate part 
of the figure or group being separately and independently cast. Sometimes as many as 
fifty moulds are required for a single group. The cast taken from each of these moulds 
is first retouched, the seams produced by the junctions of the mould being cleaned off by 
scraping with a knife. The several parts are then united,— a difficult process, and 
requiring the most consummate dexterity in the operator. The parts are united by 
applying slips to the surfaces in contact, but the clay being in this state extremely 
tender and friable, the weight of the projecting parts would be more than the cement 
used in joining them is capable of resisting. After being well dried in the air, the 
figure is placed on " saggers," a name given to the props which are placed under every 
part, so that the whole is well and evenly sustained. 

The difficulties attending this fabrication may be imagined by following the several 
stages through which the article passes before the baking is completed. Assuming the 
height of the object to be 24 inches, the shrinkage in leaving the mould, before exposure 
to heat, will be an inch and-a-half. After the several parts, which, as we have just 
stated, are moulded separately, and are separately subject to a like shrinkage, have been 
put together, and the seams produced by their junction cleaned off by the "figure- 
maker," *he article is thoroughly dried in the air without exposure to heat. This process 
is necessary, because the quantity of moisture incorporated in this state is such that the 
expansion occasioned by exposure to an elevated temperature would produce fracture. 
In this process of air-drying, a further linear shrinkage of an inch and-a-half takes place ; 
so that, before being placed in the oven, the linear dimensions, from 24 inches are 
reduced to 21. And, lastly, when it is "fired" in the bisque oven, it is contracted to 18 
inches. In the entire process, therefore, it loses one-fourth of its linear dimensions, and 
consequently nearly one-half of its actual cubical bulk. The consummate skill, however, 
that is brought to bear upon this beautiful manufacture is such, that not the slightest 
defect of form or outline is to be discovered. Nothing, indeed, could be finer than many 
of the groups that were exhibited; such, for example, as the Ino and Bacchus, after 
Foley; or the Narcissus and Venus, after Gibson. Indeed the objects exhibited in 
this department were so numerous that it is difficult to specify such as were most 
worthy of notice. The figure of Sappho, three feet high, from the original marble of 
Theed, was entitled to attention, were it only for its extraordinary magnitude, a circum- 
stance which greatly enhanced the difficulties and hazards of its execution. The original 
statue is the property of Prince Albert. The following were also worthy of examination : — 
The Indian Girl and the Nubian, by Cumberworth ; the Prodigal's Beturn, and Rebecca, 
by Theed ; a Venus by Gibson ; a bust of Juno from the antique ; a Goat-herd by Hyatt ; 
Sabrina, by Marshall; Innocence, by Foley; and Narcissus, by Gibson; Godiva, by 
M'Bride, executed for the Art Union of Liverpool; an equestrian statuette of Emanuel 
Phillibert, Duke of Savoy, by the Baron Marochetti; her Royal Highness the Princess 
Alice as Spring, the Princess Royal as Summer, the Prince Alfred as Autumn, and the 
Prince of Wales as Winter, from the original models by Mrs. Thorneycroft, executed 
for her Majesty. It was impossible to contemplate this collection of imitation of statuary 
without being impressed with an idea of its utility in disseminating copies of the great 
works of ancient and modern art to an extent hitherto unknown, with a fidelity, too, as 
to colour and texture, unattainable by any other process. 

The British department of the Exhibition was extremely rich in ornamental porcelain. 
A dessert service was exhibited by Messrs. Minton and Co., original in its design, and 
novel in its principal features of ornamentation. The combination of statuary porcelain, 
which is the hard species, with the coloured and gilded porcelain, which is the tender 



156 OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 

species, was here attempted, and gilding on the statuary porcelain was also successfully 
accomplished. The turquoise ground on this service was scarcely inferior to that of 
the old Sevres, and it is capable of resisting the strongest vegetable and most of the 
mineral acids. It consisted of 116 pieces, the most remarkable of which were two 
flower-stands with figures representing the Pour Seasons, two wine coolers, with hunting 
groups, and two oval baskets, with oriental figures. Several of the pieces were sup- 
ported by figures with fanciful designs, and the plates, 72 in number, were perforated 
and richly ornamented. This service was purchased by Her Majesty, to be presented, 
it was said, to the Emperor of Austria. Many articles in statuary porcelain were 
purchased by Her Majesty in the Exhibition. Among others were the equestrian figures 
of the Amazon, after Faicheres, and Theseus, Elora, and Temperance, from bronzes in the 
collection of the Duchess of Sutherland, and Love restraining Wrath, an original group. 

The Parnassus Vase was another striking example of the combination of statuary 
with painted porcelain, the bas-relief illustrating Apollo and the Muses. Several vases 
in the Copeland collection were very beautiful and of novel design, in coloured enamel, 
with imitation of pearls and gems, inlaid in gold. A large copy of the Warwick vase 
was also well worthy of attention. One remarkable feature in the collection of porcelain 
exhibited by British industry, was the various and unexpected uses to which it had 
been applied — uses which will doubtless be more and more extended and various, as the 
art progresses. An example of this was presented in a chimney-piece of statuary por- 
celain by Messrs. Minton, an extremely advantageous application of the material, not 
being liable to stains from smoke, or other causes, to which marble is subject. There 
were also porcelain panels, plateaux, and slabs for the covings of fire-places, tops of 
consoles, toilet and chess tables, panels, of doors, and window shutters. We observed 
panels executed by order of Prince Albert for Osborne House; furniture panels and 
toilet table, with porcelain slab, and porcelain panels in the door and drawers, painted 
with wreaths of japonica on a rustic trellis, for the Duchess of Sutherland. 

A large variety of slabs for wash-stands and tables of every description were exhibited, 
displaying the admirable qualities of this durable material, which is capable of any style 
of decoration, easily kept clean, and in no ways affected either by the action of soap or 
acids. In Pugin's mediaeval court were exhibited specimens of porcelain tiles, slabs, and 
other objects illustrative of the variety of purposes to which this material may be 
applied, and the variety of ornamentation of which it is susceptible. 

In the basement were exhibited by Minton and Co., two of the largest terra-cotta 
vases ever made in this country in plastic material ; they were modelled by the Baron 
Marochetti. There were also two enormous garden pots in stoneware, with medallions 
in statuary porcelain, after the classic Thorwaldson, the first sculptor of his day 
representing the Four Seasons, and the four stages of human life. These attracted 
great attention. Specimens of encaustic Venetian, and other ornamental tiles for flooring, 
were also exhibited. This branch of earthenware manufacture has recently acquired 
great importance ; a large quantity is annually exported. The palace of the Sultan at 
Constantinople is paved with these porcelain tiles, as are also the House of Lords 
Osborne House, and St. George's Hall, Liverpool ; and they are getting into general 
use in churches, private houses, and conservatories, being equally durable as marble less 
liable to stains, and capable of being decorated. The largest piece of pottery ever 'pro- 
duced in a single piece, was a figure of Galatea, seven feet high. We understand that 
attempts are being made, and with likelihood of success, to execute it in statuary por- 
celain. Before we conclude our observations on the subject of " Pottery," we will take 
a glance at the estimated value of this branch of our manufactures, and see to what 
an extent the simple material of "clay" is rendered productive by the addition of 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 157 

human ingenuity and labour. At the potteries alone the value of the earthenware 
annually produced is about £1,700,000; and that of the manufactures of Worcester, 
Derby, and other parts of the country, about £750,000 ; making a total annual value of 
£2,450,000. s 

We shall now close our remarks on this beautiful and important branch of artistic 
manufacture, and in a fresh chapter, renew our acquaintance with our agreeable French 
correspondent. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

SECOND LETTER OP M. J. LEMOINNE : INCBEASING TIDE OF VISITORS — ELECTRIC TELEGEAPH — 
THE TWO SOSIAS, OB THE TBXJE AND THE FALSE K0H-I-N00B — THE GEEAT MASS 03? COAL, THE 
SEAL DIAMOND — ENGLISH JEWELLEBX — FRENCH SILKS — SEVBES AND THE GOBELINS — 
BTJSSIAN DISPLAY — THE ZOLLVEBEIN — A HINT TO TAILOBS. THIBD LETTEB: ERENCH COM- 
PLACENCY — PABISIAN BELLES — ENGLISH MACHINERY — ENGLISH INDUSTRY AND FRENCH 
TASTE — TRENCH FREEDOM AND ENGLISH OBDEB — AMEBICA — PRODUCTIONS IN INDIA-BUBBER 
AND CAOTJCHOUC — FASHIONS — CARRIAGES — GO A-HEAD — APOSTROPHE TO THE FAB WEST. 

Let us continue our ramble among the curiosities of the Exhibition. We go to the 
Crystal Palace on a common day, Monday, for example, at ten o'clock, when you will 
see the arrivals of the country folk and the schools. Four-horse coaches, such as were 
used before the establishment of railways, carrying four inside and about twenty outside 
"passengers, are again brought into requisition for this occasion. From these elevated 
vehicles descend multitudes of females in very gay toilettes. Being safely landed, they 
leisurely arrange their dresses, and readjust that prodigious development which betrays 
the use of " crinoline." It is much to be regretted that, in this instance, the efforts 01 
art should not be better directed than in spoiling nature. After these arrive large 
waggons, with a series of seats, bringing the young folks from the boarding or charity 
schools. I could never have conceived that so many living beings could be packed into so 
small a space without being suffocated. Out they come, fifty at a time, and when you 
imagine the vehicle has delivered all its load, out pours a new batch ; in sooth, this beats 
Robert Houdin. 

Rut let us enter. One of the principal advantages of the Crystal Palace is the great 
number of avenues ; there is no necessity of twice treading the same ground. If, by 
chance, you have left your carriage at one of the extremities, and you find yourself at 
another, don't be uneasy, you have at command a rapid and intelligent slave, more 
prompt than any footman. In passing along the galleries, you may have perceived several 
little boys twelve or fourteen years old. These are the keys which govern the wires 
of the electric telegraph. In a moment you may have your carriage called from one 
end of the building and sent to any entrance you may desire. The telegraph is, moreover, 
at your service for communication with all the principal railway stations, and thence with 
all the principal towns in the kingdom. From the Exhibition you may send any mes- 
sages you please to Dover, Bristol, Edinburgh— everywhere. The tariff is 1*. for twenty 
words, increasing, of course, in proportion to the distance. A despatch of twenty words 
sent to York or Edinburgh costs 8s. 6d. In addition to this, you may write your letters 
at the Exhibition, and in the transept you will find a branch post-office. 

We will not now stop at the Koh-i-Noor, which is still offered to the worship of the 
faithful. A very good imitation of this jewel, in pure crystal, has just been made. The 
original and the imitation resemble each other as closely as two drops of the clearest 

2 s 



] 58 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

water. The two Sosias were not more like. It is said that the Koh-i-Noor is only half 
its original size, the other half being in its native country, where it has been found 
in the possession of an honest " proletaire," who made use of it as a flint to strike a light. 
This anecdote, which was related the other day at a meeting of savans, appears to me 
full of philosophy. I am no less interested by a drawing which represents coalheaver3 
contemplating the huge block of coal which decorates one of the entrances to the 
Exhibition, and exclaiming, " This is the real diamond !" It is, in truth, the real diamond 
of England; and, after all, it seems that the other itself is but a species of coal. Never 
mind, however, all the philosophy in the world will not prevent the diamond being the 
loadstone of the fair sex. Wherever the ladies obstruct the circulation, and crowd one 
on the other, you may be sure there are jewels exhibited. It is the hardest service of 
the poor policeman, who dares not behave rudely to the fairer half of the creation, and 
who, from time to time, exclaims, in a voice somewhat severe, sometimes in despondency, 
" Pass on, ladies — pass on." I have told you that wherever there were jewels you would 
be sure to find a policeman ; he is the body-guard of the diamonds and pearls. There 
is one stationed near the blue diamond, for there is a blue diamond, as there must be, 
somewhere, a white blackbird. This curiosity forms part of the collection of Mr. Hope, 
and has no marketable value, being unique. M. Bapst, of Paris, has also a phenomenon 
of this kind, the black diamond. Mr. Hope shows, also, as an amateur, the largest known 
pearl in the world, which is in shape like a small pear. In valuables of this kind the 
Indian exhibition is unrivalled. It contains the Durria-i-Noor, or Sea of Light, a^ 
large diamond, estimated at £320,000 ; a girdle of superb emeralds, and necklaces of 
two hundred fine pearls, surpassing all that have heretofore been seen in Europe; a_ 
costume of an Indian prince, with two epaulettes in fine pearls ; thrones and palanquins 
in ivory; saddles, mounted with diamonds, rubies, and emeralds ; and sandals ornamented 
with precious stones. There are also some chefs-d'oeuvre of human industry, a collection 
of shawls, scarfs, and carpets of incomparable richness and beauty. Whole days may 
be spent in inspecting this division. It is a dangerous place for the rich — they may 
ruin themselves there. We should walk through it with the consciousness of an empty 
purse, and then there would be freedom from temptation. This East is still the country 
of the Arabian Nights, the region of Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp. 

The. English jewellery is very beautiful, although it cannot, I think, be properly said 
to be English, since it is principally the production of foreign workmen. The. great 
superiority in this division of English manufacture is found in the plate, and that 
description of ornaments which consists in silver vases and statuettes. These latter are, 
in England, peculiarly national. Testimonials are much in vogue here. They are given 
as racing and hunting cups, for speeches in parliament, the construction of a railway, or 
the building of a bridge. They are family furniture, the ornaments of the sideboard and 
the table ; they are a species of art and manufacture developed by the taste for horses, 
and the habit of horse exercise, hunting, and what is called sport. It is in works of taste 
that France excels, and in this category may be classed the silks and lace. The Lyons 
manufacturers have made a collective exhibition ; they have glass cases containing the 
choicest articles, and which are thus, of their kind, somewhat like the Tribune of 
Florence, or the "Salon Carre" in the Louvre, a collection of chefs-d'oeuvre. This 
comparison is induced by the magnificence of the design and of the colours ; they are 
real pictures ; and there are some silks in imitation of Chinese, which may be compared 
to beautiful landscapes. But here are Sevres and the Gobelins ! Here we are incontestably 
masters. This division is a little kingdom, of which no nation can dispute with us the 
sovereignty. Crowds of foreigners congregate here to admire and purchase our produc- 
tions, and almost everything here has been long since sold. 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 159 

Russia also has a sumptuous display. It would be necessary to build a palace expressly 
for the enormous doors and vast vases in malachite which fill this division. They are a 
little heavy, but still truly magnificent. Prince Demidoff exhibits pieces of malachite and 
gold from his mines. But here are again some policemen on guard; there must be some 
jewels. In fact, Russia exhibits the most beautiful diamond ornaments, very delicately 
mounted, and a jewel-case in black marble, with bunches of grapes in amethyst, and 
cherries in coral. In general there is, in this Russian division, a certain air of grandeur 
and rude luxury — riches, as it were, fresh wrested from nature, and torn from the bowels 
of the earth. 

Let us give our eyes a little repose, by going to see the stuffed animals in the depart- 
ment of the Zollverein ; they are among the most amusing and " spirituel" objects of the 
Exhibition. There is a series of scenes in caricature imitation of life, in which small 
animals are introduced with a most ludicrous fidelity. There is a rabbit-hunt by weasels ; 
a fox who seduces an innocent little cat ; a party of little* animals drinking tea ; others 
who are seated at the piano and singing ; and several other scenes, in which the perfect 
imitation prevents them from being caricatures. I prefer this imitation of animals to 
that of man, such as may be seen in the English division under the form of a mannikin. 
This is an Apollo Belvidere in mechanism, for the use of tailors, that may be lengthened 
or shortened at pleasure. It seems that the anatomy of this movable doll is very curious, 
and contains about 7,000 pieces. Whilst we are on the subject of tailors, I would direct 
your attention to the waterproof paletots, to which they have given the name of piuma, 
and which are so light, that they may be put in a small case, and carried in the pocket. 
I really think they might be enclosed in a cigar-case. As a contrast to this, go and look 
at the immense sheet of paper exhibited in the English nave, and which is not less than 
2,500 yards long. When we imagine that this endless paper may, perhaps, be filled with 
the prosaic effusion of some dull writer, we begin to feel some scruples, and find it 
necessary to allay the apprehensions of our readers, and close this letter. 

LETTER III. 

A Frenchman may, I think, look at the Crystal Palace with pride. In this festival of 
nations, in this pacific and glorious competition of human industry, France stands 
pre-eminent in the products of art, taste, and imagination. To her, as to her daughters, 
is accorded, in all times and in every clime, the palm of grace and elegance. We are 
told that when the fairies, in the dispensation of beauty, distributed their gifts to the 
women of the various nations of the world, they gave to one regularity of feature, to 
another symmetry of form, to this the lustre of! the eye or the luxurious richness of the 
hair, to that the complexion of the lily and the rose, but that it happened that in this 
distribution, the fair one of France, or rather the " Parisienne," was overlooked. The 
other daughters of the earth, to repair the injustice of chance, and to afford consolation 
to their sister, deprived themselves for her sake of a part of their attributes, and each 
plucked from her crown or her girdle a flower, wherewith to form for the neglected 
fair a bouquet. Thus the " Parisienne," instead of one gift, participated in all, and of 
these varying fragments she formed that inimitable and indefinable whole which bears 
her name. Like to this, it would seem, is the character of the products of France; the 
industry of France is now, as ever, that of art. Look at her silks, her carpets, her 
porcelain, her jewellery ; they are the work of the veritable artist, and their taste is 
always superior to their material. It may aptly be said that France produces the 
flowers, and England bears the fruits of civilization. 

The department where England shines in all her splendour, is that of machinery. It 
is indicated by its deep and heavy murmur, like the distant roar of the torrent. There 



160 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

the ebullition of the steam-boiler, the cataract of the centrifugal pump, the groan of 
the press, and the whirl of the spindle, combine in acknowledging the supremacy of 
science. Fire, air, water, steam, electricity, are all exerting their agency, and may, 
without much figure of speech, be said to be monsters of nature chained to the triumphal 
car of the human will, and venting their impotent rage in groans and imprecations. 
Beware how you approach them in their fury. Extend to them but a finger, they will 
seize the hand, and powerless in their grasp, you will become a victim to your imprudence. 
When unenlightened by practical science, as I confess myself to be, we are perhaps 
more forcibly struck by the mysterious grandeur, of this spectacle. Here thousands of 
threads, little sticks, and bits of steel, are engaged in incomprehensible warfare, and 
resemble so many demons under the influence of some occult power. A few delicate 
hands, the slight finger of a woman or child, can regulate and direct these myriads of 
movements. Machinery gradually supplies the place of handicraft, and we may venture 
to foresee &n epoch at which man will have no occupation, and may sit beside it, viewing 
its occupations with folded arms. And one may say with the poet : — " Thou art black 
but comely, O city of man ! Thou hast a soul, the fatal and glorious creation of our 
hands. Thy thousand intelligent arms leave us to inaction ; and man is left with nought 
to do but to think, and inebriate himself with thinking till death." 

There is in the Exhibition one thing which particularly attracted my attention, albeit 
though modestly placed in a retired position, — a small glass case, containing copies of 
the Bible in all languages, with this motto, " Mult<e terricolis linguae, ccelestibus una." 
This collection of Bibles forcibly exhibits the ardent propagandism of the English, one 
of the grandest and finest aspects in which this nation can be viewed. With steam and 
the Bible, the English traverse the globe. One of the great results of the Exhibition will 
be, that all nations will improve by means of mutual example and comparison. If the 
English give us lessons in industry, they may, on their part, learn from us to assign to 
art, properly speaking, a higher position. Taste is perfected in proportion as the level 
of equality ascends ; inferior products are no longer in demand, superfluities have 
become necessaries, and the beautiful is as requisite as the good. I have always thought, 
that if the English are not real artists, the reason is to be found in their indisposition to 
lose their time. Works of imagination are the offspring of repose and leisure. The 
poetic spirit is naturally free and spontaneous, and will not endure coercion. There are 
some people who seek all means of killing time. The English, on the contrary, seek all 
means of saving it. It is sometimes fatiguing. You must be always on the alert ; even 
the double knock of the postman, which warns you from the other end of the street not 
to keep him waiting, at last irritates you. This is a country in which it is impossible to 
be otherwise than punctual. And then everything in it is so well regulated. After 
observing that people walking in the same direction keep the same side of the foot- 
path, — after observing the polioeman, so well dressed, and so perfectly buttoned, walking 
before houses which resemble each other exactly, one feels occasionally the imperious 
necessity of irregularity. * * * 

Let us turn to America ; it is there we shall find works of art ! The Americans have 
invented, for instance, a piano which plays violin ; 'tis original, and economical to boot 
— it saves one man's time ; it is one artist the less in the republic, and Plato was opposed 
to having any. The anticipations of the Americans were more "grandiose" than their 
display. They complained that they had not had sufficient space assigned to them ; 
a concession was made of as much as they desired, and it was comparatively empty. To 
conceal the nakedness of their walls, they sent quantities of india-rubber. They 
exhibited gigantic boots in caouchouc — really seven-league boots — fitting emblems of 
Jonathan, who, when he walks a step, necessarily makes the stride of a giant. They 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 161 

were seized with a mania, too, for exhibiting ladies' bonnets ! 'Tis true, gentle reader : 
yes, actually, fashions from America! Now, what the "fashions" of England are to 

the modes of France, the " just the thing " of America is to the fashions of England. 
Carriages torm another curious specimen of American exhibition. There is one so 
light, it may be moved with the finger; you may imagine it to be made of paper, 
f n l» B * ™ n0t t,readtl1 of a quarter of an inch. It reminds me of the 

bailiff of Fcerrette, whose legs were so thin, that Talleyrand called him the most 
courageous man in the world for venturing to stand. With this break-neck affair, 
the American traverses space like an arrow. It is not idly he takes for device " Go 
ahead !" He is ever going, and he will go further still. A model is exhibited in this 
division of the large steamboats which descend the rivers of the New World, carrying 
whole houses, in which you may hire apartments ! * * * * * 

Oh, America! America! with thy "far west,"— thy prairies without limit,— thy 
forests, compared with which ours are but as clusters of trees,— thy rivers, near which 
ours would diminish to brooks, — thy lakes, vast as our seas, — thy cataracts and abysses 
— America ! with thy growing industry, with thy indomitable spirit of enterprise, and 
the superb and insolent daring of thy children — oh ! there is in thee, in thy new race, 
and thine adolescence of nature, something which attracts as the sun, as the future and 
the mysterious ! From the over-populated shores of the Old World, what thousands 
of desires are directed to thee, thou land boundless and free ! I picture thee, America, 
opening thine arms to the hungry, the outcast, the hopeless, and the wretched of all 
nations, and exclaiming — Come ye ! Come ye ! I have space for ye — I have land and 
sea, woods and rivers ! I have iron and lead ! I have work, I have bread, I have air, 
and ye may breathe ! I have gold, and ye may be enriched ! Cast off your shoes, 
shake off the dust of the Old World ; come and refresh yourselves in the living waters 
of nature ! " Ad nos, ad salutarem undam, venite, populi." 

Such are the remarks of our lively Gallic neighbour ; strongly tinctured with nation- 
ality, but not the less valuable on that account ; indeed rather more so, for what an 
interesting volume might have been formed of the various aspects under which the 
Crystal Palace and its contents were viewed by individuals of the countries that con- 
tributed to its treasures, could their impressions, as they wandered through its different 
departments, have been preserved by any process of mental daguerreotype, in all their 
genuineness and originality ! In what opposite lights should we find the same objects 
regarded by inhabitants of opposite latitudes ! Those who pant under the equator would 
cast an eye of indifference upon the furs of Russia and North America, however they 
might admire the " webs of woven air" produced by the Arachne like fingers of Hindoo 
women ; nor can we imagine the gallant Captain Ommaney, the Arctic voyager, and 
his Esquimaux attendant, envying the silken robes of the Orientals, glittering with 
gold and silver, though we may allow the possibility of their fixing their attention on 
the yarns and the woollens, the doe-skins and gutta perchas, all the impervious and im- 
permeable articles, in short, that bid defiance to St. Swithin and Cape Horn. Certainly, 

" The turban 'd Turk, with his alcoran, 
And the stately Don, with his whiskers on,'' 

would view very differently the same things ; the Eoman from the banks of the Tiber, 
the Croat from those of the Drave, the Hindoo from those of the Ganges, the Fleming 
from Brabant, the Walloon from Luxembourg and Hainault, the Prussian from West- 
phalia and the Rhenish provinces, the Swiss from his snow-capped mountains, the 
Austrian from a hundred regions, the hydra-headed Russians, the Swedes, the Danes, 
the bearded Poles, the smug Chinese, our brother Jonathan;— all, in short, of the vast 

2t 



162 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

family of the human race that sent their representatives to us at the call of peace and 
science, and brotherly love, must have seen the objects around them according to their 
own national tastes, habits, and associations. Then, again, in those national peculiari- 
ties how many individual peculiarities must also exist ! What two persons ever think 
exactly alike, or are equally interested by any one object whatsoever ! The sculptor 
gazes with delight upon the " storied urn, or animated bust," whilst he scarcely glances 
at the ponderous iron masses that represent the wonders of machinery ; and the engineer 
turns away from the breathing marble, to contemplate utility and strength in a rougher 
material, and luxuriates in images of power and steam. 

The philosopher exclaims, with Diogenes, " How many things are here that I do not 
want !" — the poor man, " how many things that I wish I could have I" — the rich one, 
" how many things that I have already ! how many more that I will have I" The mili- 
tary man handles the blades of Toledo, the sabres of Damascus, the Highland dirk and 
claymore, the guns, pistols, and rifles— single and double barrelled, self-priming, self- 
loading, revolving. The lover of peace turns to the pruning-hooks, the ploughs, the 
spades, the hoes, and the garden-rollers. The philanthropist looks round for sugges- 
tions that may benefit the human race ; the missionary for the means of evangelizing 
it, casting a longing eye towards the Holy Bible in its hundred and fifty different 
languages. Those who " go down to the sea in ships/ 5 examine the models of vessels, 
and life-boats, light-houses, harbours, and breakwaters^-but the ladies are all unanimous 
in their raptures with the treasures of dress and decoration expressly, framed for the 
heightening of their attractions, and consequent extension of the empire of their charms. 

What a variety of thoughts, sentiments, comparisons, and calculations, must have 
passed through the minds of the motley crowd that daily congregated under that crystal 
canopy ! numerous as the motes in the sunbeam, rapid as the movements of the gnat- 
fly's wings; — which wings, be it known to you, gentle reader, have been ingeniously 
ascertained to flap at the rate of fifteen thousand times per second. The Crystal 
Palace, with all its wonders, could never have produced a wonder like that little insect, 
even had it stood fpr a million of years. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE APPLICATION OE SCIENCE TO THE PURPOSES OE HUMANITY — SMITH'S YIELDING BREAK- 
WATER — NATURE'S SIMPLE BARRIER, THE TRUMPET-MOUTHED WEED — HINTS ON PHILAN- 
THROPY AND ECONOMY — LOCOMOTIVES — THE VILLAGE OE REDRUTH — THE LORD OF THE 
ISLES — THE CORNWALL — THE LIVERPOOL, ETC. ETC. 

"Paulo majora canamus," was the exclamation of the Mantuan bard, when he 
meditated a loftier theme than his bucolic muse was accustomed to inspire. "Paulo 
majora canamus," we repeat, as, somewhat reluctantly, we confess, we turn from the 
flowery fields of poesy, the beautiful and graceful forms, in ever-changing variety, that 
art, with lavish hand, so profusely scattered through the various mazes of the Crystal 
Paiace, " to please and sate the curious taste." But we feel we should not be doing 
justice to our subject, were we to confine our lucubrations solely to what relates to 
the gratification of taste, however pure and refined that taste may be. Other objects 
there were within those memorable walls, which tended to excite even loftier emotions 
than could be awakened by the proudest display of imitative art. Science unfolded her 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 163 

wonders before the astonished gaze of the bewildered spectator ; her gigantic powers, and 
almost illimitable resources, were exemplified in innumerable inventions, in the subjuga- 
tion of the elements of air, water, and fire, and in the adaptation of a vast variety of 
means, which even the Marquis of Worcester, in his celebrated Century of Inventions, 
never dreamed of, to advance the well-being and prosperity of mankind. 

It has been judiciously remarked by an able writer, that "the influence which 
machinery is destined to exert over the fortunes of mankind, is but little understood 
even by the most enlightened amongst us ; and though the day has past — or is quickly 
passing — when the operative looked with gloomy jealousy on the introduction of every 
new mechanical invention, as being likely to deprive him of a portion of his hard-earned 
bread ; though the majority of thinking men have long ago come to the conclusion that 
steam and iron ought to, and eventually will, do the positive labour of the world — the 
lifting, carrying, driving, and toiling — yet we have not altogether overcome our prejudice 
to whirring wheels and hissing boilers. If it be a good thing to get rid of some of 
these narrow notions ; if it be well to put off, not for a time, but for ever, something 
more of those popular feelings and nationalities which see danger in the increase of 
mechanical contrivances ; if we discover in the march of eduoation, a surer and a better 
road to greatness than we have been accustomed to travel — a road less dusty with the 
evidences of manual labour, and less crowded with old-world prejudices and exclusive 
ideas ; if we recognise the upward tendency which machinery has in the world — then 
is the peaceable reunion of the nations in Hyde Park a glorious thing to contemplate, 
and the iron and wood of giant enginery a sort of triumph of which this little island 
of ours may well be proud." It is, however, when the resources of science are more 
particularly directed to the purpose of benefiting mankind ; when her efforts are guided 
by the promptings of humanity, that they especially recommend themselves to our 
attention. And it is under this aspect that we propose, in our present chapter, to 
consider the subject. . 

On proceeding to the western end of the edifice, in the central nave, the visitor found 
himself surrounded by an infinity of models, and all the leviathan appliances of 
marine engineering. Bridges, harbours, docks, breakwaters, lighthouses, &c. &c, 
were on every side contending for superiority. And first and foremost among them 
was the Breakwater of Mr. "William Henry Smith, civil engineer, applying most happily 
to mechanical action, one of the most beautiful, and, we may add, if rightly under- 
stood instructive principles in nature, namely, the yielding one. A principle, indeed, 
the efficacy of which nature herself has beautifully illustrated in various situations on 
the coast of Africa, where, with the trumpet-mouthed weed of the Cape of Good Hope, 
the Laminaria buxinalis, growing to the height of twenty or thirty feet, she has 
formed an imperishable breakwater, which, alternately yielding to and opposing the 
force of the waves, serves as a complete barrier to their destructive fury; and likewise 
on our own canals and river-banks, where the pliant resistance of common reeds and 
bulrushes is found to be more effectual in protecting them from being undermined 
and washed away, than walls of solid masonry, exemphfymg the sagacity of the old 
Scottish motto, "You may bend me, but you cannot break me." The ingenious inventor 
of this most admirable means of promoting the security of commerce and the protection 
of human life, affords in his own character an encouraging illustration of his own sci- 
entific principles. To the conflicting opinions and interested oppositions with which he, 
Se all P men P of original genius, has had to contend, one anxious year after another 
n the crmmencemSt of his career, he knew how to bend j but he defied the power of 
any or alTtf these- opinions and oppositions, jointly or separately, to break his spirit 
of determination to go through with an object, which he felt to be as valuable to the 



164 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

interests of humanity as to his own, personally considered. For ten years he bowed 
before the waves of prejudice and interested opposition — opposition even from those 
high quarters which ought to have been the first to uphold his efforts, and, like Antaeus, 
rose with renewed strength after every hostile attack. What lover of science, what 
philanthropist, but must sympathize in such enduring, such noble perseverance, and wish 
it all the success it deserves ? It only remains with us to describe the principle on 
which the plan is founded. The harbour is formed of a series of independent frames or 
gratings, each about fifty feet long, and rising from the bed of the sea about ten feet 
above high water mark ; each, though separated, forming a continuous line, and being 
free to play beneath the roadway, which is, by a very simple means, rendered immoveable 
above. The frames are secured at the bottom of each extremity to pile-heads, and by 
braces with counterbalance weights and screw piles, or other holdfasts attached. As 
waves in succession strike, and, according to their size and force, drive forward the 
framework, the weights are uplifted. The greater the elevation of the weights, the 
greater is the resistance of the frame to the waves. But all is equable; no jerk or 
shock is suffered; for while the impetus of each wave exists, the frame still yields 
to it. After the wave has become disseminated through the gratings, the weights in 
turn prevail, and sinking, draw back the frame, again to yield before and subdue each 
wave in succession; for as there are no two hills without a valley, so there are no two 
waves without an interval ; and as every separate wave in a gale can only impel even 
a solid drifting body ten feet, it stands to reason that this open frame can never be 
driven that distance ; and even were it so, at ten feet the strain on the iron braces or 
other part of the fabric, would be only one-twelfth of what they can bear, for the elas- 
ticity may be produced to any length or degree. In all except actually stormy weather, 
the braces are sufficient to act as tension rods, and keep it perfectly taut and quiescent ; 
thus altogether avoiding the wear and tear to which the cables of lightships are subject, 
owing to the gravity of the counterbalance weights, which then rest upon the bottom. 
The moment any strain or pressure comes upon the frame-work, about one-tenth of its 
force must always press downwards, instead of having an upward tendency, as in all 
structures, giving rise to the term, uptearing gales. Exclusively, therefore, of the 
elasticity of the braces, it is stronger than piling, depending merely upon the water-tight 
nature or tenacity of the bottom. The framing being open, with a greater or less space 
beneath, admits of a free tidal current and scour of the sea ; and thus avoids bars and 
deposits, so invariable with stone structures, when the littoral currents are suspended. 
The durability of prepared timber in sea-water is very great ; that of wrought iron is 
an historical fact. In the event of the bottom deepening or filling up, or the harbour 
otherwise requiring improvement, the structure can, by the facilities afforded by the 
well-known screw pile, be readily fixed from the surface at any depth, or raised, lowered, 
or removed. 

The principle of Mr. Smith's Lighthouse and Asylum is the same as that of the break- 
water ; the yield, even in a gale of wind, will be almost imperceptible, like the springing 
of the trunk of a tree. There is no other way of erecting a lighthouse in deep water, or 
in bad and quicksand bottoms, as a safe and permanent structure. Lightships have 
therefore been employed at a considerable expense, with a number of men as a crew, 
sufficient to manage them when they go adrift. In case of accident, there is not the 
loss of the lightship and crew alone to be apprehended, but possibly of vessels in the same 
gale, misled by not seeing their accustomed beacons, and often in hazy weather from 
missing their fights, as nothing but a lighthouse will admit of the requisite size, height 
and power. This Lighthouse presents the greatest strength of wrought iron in the 
direction of the strain, that is the line of tension, and the minimum of surface resis- 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. ' 165 

tance to the wind, draft, and blow of the wave. The Lighthouse as well as the Break- 
water is thus not only applicable to every situation, but it is at the same time applicable 
with great economy and ample strength. The system has met with the medals and 
approbation of all the scientific boards and societies before whom it has been discussed, 
as well as the concurrent favourable notices of all the morning papers, and most of the 
scientific and general press; and in no one instance have such discussions and reviews,, 
shown otherwise than the great beauty and ec8nomy of the principle. Indeed, one great 
point in this invention is its cheapness ; in fact, a single year's interest of the cost of 
the breakwater at Plymouth would be amply sufficient for the construction of a harbour 
on the plan proposed by Mr. Smith. This, moreover, is a quality which would enable its 
advantages to be extended to all parts of our coasts ; and the time may not be far 
distant when the storm-tossed mariner shall no longer look with dread upon the shores 
of his own native land, which having long desired to revisit, now too frequently greet 
him only to be his grave. 

We offer no apology for dwelling upon this subject at some length, since, to a country 
like England, surrounded on all sides by the waves, commanding the commerce of the 
world, and boasting herself of her unconquered navy, there is scarcely a question pregnant 
with such important consequences as that of the best and simplest means of overcoming 
the impetuous and disastrous power of the ocean on our coasts, and affording harbours 
of refuge for the storm-tossed vessel. Every year adds a long list of shipwrecks, with 
an appalling sacrifice of human life, the greater portion of which could have been 
prevented had there existed harbours of refuge in sufficient number on our coasts. 
Many have been the plans proposed, and the experiments tried, to accomplish this 
desirable end, but, as yet, in every case failure to a greater or less degree has resulted. 
Some" have endeavoured to breast the roaring billow with a perpendicular wall, after 
nature's pattern on the rocky coasts, while others would use the more persuasive resis- 
tance of a gentle slope, or "incline, suggested by the beach of sand, or shingle. To 
imitate either, however, is a matter of no small difficulty, and is attended with enormous 
labour and expense, added to which, should the position chosen fail to effect its purpose 
properly, the huge mass of materials thrown together must remain, to the injury, if not 
the complete destruction, of the part it was intended to improve. 

We will now take our leave of Mr. Smith, and pursue our investigations among the 
important discoveries that human genius has achieved for the service of mankind. 
The genius of Great Britain is peculiarly mechanical, and the steam-engme and the looni 
divide between them the glory of her industrial triumphs; for, to relieve the sons of 
labour from their severest toil, and to substitute iron and steam for bone and muscle, 
is the peculiar office of machinery. Stand we in the department devoted to machines m 
motion Do the immense collection of contrivances to lighten toil convey no moral— 
the interesting objects there shown read us no lesson? "In the Crystal Palace we 
discover" says an eloquent writer, "how mechanism is extending her dominion over the 
whole empire of labour; how she rises in textile fabrics to the manufacture of the most 
delicate and intricate lace; how from wood she aspires to fashion iron into the most 
exact proportions; how, with steam as her handmaid, she works the printing-press and 
navigates the ocean, and outruns the swiftest animal in her course Turn into the agri- 
cultural implement department, and we find everything now done by machinery. By it 
the farmer not only sows and reaps, but he manures and hoes. By it he threshes out 
and Suds his corn, and prepares the food for his cattle. He can even drain by machinery, 
S C difficult now to fine! a branch of his business into which xt does not largely enter. 
Sour manufactures the mechanical genius of the country reigns supreme Those beau- 
tiful fabrics are nearly all the evidences of its power. Soft goods and hardware are 

3 u 



166 . THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

equally indebted to it, and in its presence the unaided efforts of handicraftsmen appear 
small and insignificant indeed. It travels everywhere, and invades every compartment, 
even that of the fine arts, in the court dedicated to which some of the most conspicuous 
contributions are specimens of printing in oil, and attempts to reproduce by mechanical 
means the sentiment and inspiration of the painter." 

But let us turn to another phase of the subject. A few years since — so few indeed as 
to come within the recollection of most living fathers — and the stage-coach was the 
swiftest vehicle we possessed ; now, the locomotive carries its hundreds of passengers at 
the rate of sixty miles an hour. Is there not cause for gratulation in this fact ? Our 
fathers were content to travel from London to Liverpool in twenty-four hours, and 
thought they had achieved wonders; we go the same distance in a fourth of the time, 
and grumble at the tedious length of the- journey. It is not our province to speak of 
the rise and progress of the railway system — other pens have been busy with that 
theme; but it may not be out of place to contrast the present with the past, in 
drawing the attention of our readers to the locomotives that were gathered together in 
the north-west angle. From generalities to particulars is an easy descent. Here we had 
a picture of the Loud of the Isles, one of the largest class of locomotive engines, a 
leviathan of the first class. This, it will be remembered, was one of the ordinary class 
of engines constructed by the Great Western Company since 1847. It is capable of taking 
a passenger train of 120 tons, at an average speed of sixty miles an hour upon easy 
gradients. The evaporation of the boiler, when in full work, is equal to 1,000-horse 
power. The weight of the engine, in working order, is 35 tons, which does not include 
the tender, which, under similar circumstances, weighs 17 tons 13 cvvts. The diameter 
of cylinder, 18 inches ; length of stroke, 24 inches ; diameter of driving-wheel, 8 feet ; 
and the maximum pressure of steam, 120 lbs. The stately proportions of this engine 
were seen to great advantage in the Crystal Palace, and, contrasted with the light 
locomotives of Messrs. Adams and England, seemed quite a giant of power and capability. 
To see this engine, however, in its full glory, the spectator should be at its side when it 
stops, after a heavy run at express speed — when the furnace is too white with heat for 
the naked eye to look upon without pain, and the steam, blowing off like thunder, 
shakes the very ground. One of these engines was nicknamed by the men, "The 
Emperor of Russia," on account of its extraordinary appetite for oil and tallow. In 
order to distribute the weight more equally over the rails, it will be observed that the 
engine alone has eight wheels^ The cylinders were laid horizontally under the front 
end of the boiler, and could in this case be very conveniently inspected, together with 
the rest of the working parts, by going down into the pit provided for that purpose 
under the engine. 

It may, perhaps, serve to amuse our readers,, if we describe at length the peculiarities 
of this giant example of the travelling propensities of modern Englishmen. One dark 
night, in the year 1784, the venerable clergyman of Redruth was taking an evening walk 
in a long and lonely lane leading to his church, when his ears were suddenly assailed by 
a most unearthly noise, and, to his horror, he beheld approaching him, at a furious speed, 
an indescribable creature of legs, arms, and wheels, whose body seemed glowing with 
internal fire, and whose rapid gasps for breath appeared to denote some deadly struggle 
within. His cries for help brought to his assistance a gentleman of the name of Murdoch, 
who, no doubt to his infinite relief, explained to him that this terrific apparition, which 
he had taken for the Evil One himself, was a runaway locomotive, which he, Mr. Murdoch, 
the inventor and proprietor, had incautiously allowed to escape from its leading strings. 
In this way was the First Locomotive, which was ultimately to exercise so important 
an influence on the progress of civilization, introduced into the world ; but the world 



OF THE "WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 167 

was not yet prepared to receive it, and for nearly twenty years nothing was done towards 
the practical application of Mr. Murdoch's idea. It was not until the year 1804, that 
Messrs. lrevithick and Vivian, of Camborne, near Redruth, patented and constructed 
tne first actually usetul locomotive. 

An extraordinary misconception for a long period ohstructed the use of locomotives. 
It was gravely alleged that the wheels would turn round without the engine advancing; 
and this notion having once got abroad, people would hardly be persuaded to the con- 
trary, even when they saw it with their own eyes. Much money and ingenuity were 
expended in making steam walking machines, in which legs and feet pushed the engine 
along. It was not till 1814, when the truly illustrious George Stephenson constructed a 
locomotive for the Killingworth Colliery, that all these crude ideas were swept away, and 
from that time we may date the introduction of the locomotive system. From that 
date to 1823, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway was projected, Mr. Stephenson 
and others spent large sums of money in improving the details of the engine ; so that 
on the opening of that railway, a very excellent perform'ance was at once attained, 
and the benefits of the railway system began to be appreciated. The great superiority 
of the engines used on this line over that just described, arose from the use of a boiler 
containing a number of tubes or small flues, through which the flame passed, and which 
generated steam much more rapidly than the former boiler with a large single tube 
through it. 

The specimens of the light locomotive carriage exhibited by Messrs. Adams and 
England, while possessing all the advantages which experience and skill have worked 
out in the heavy engines, are not more than one-third of the weight and half the cost. 
Mr. Adams' plan consists in combining the engine and carriage in one, so that there is 
no superfluous weight ; the stoker can act as guard and take the tickets. The boiler is 
a cylinder full of tubes placed vertically ; but this plan, in subsequent engines, has 
been given up in favour of the ordinary horizontal construction, as shown in the loco- 
motive carriage in the Exhibition. Mr. England, on the other hand, combines the 
engine and tender only in one frame, thus adapting it to carriages of the ordinary 
description. Both these plans have been satisfactorily tested in practice, and bear out 
the views of the projectors, carrying a moderate load at a high speed, with a small con- 
sumption of fuel, and a diminished destruction of the permanent way. In addition to 
these, we had specimens from numerous other eminent engineers. Mr. Trevithick, of the 
London and North Western Company, sent his express engine, the "Cornwall," in 
which the boiler is piaced very low, and the driving wheels are obtained of large size, 
by allowing the shaft on which they are fixed to pass through the boiler. Mr. Cramp- 
ton's patent narrow-gauge engine "Liverpool," is said to be the most powerful engine 
in the world, being equal to 11 40- horse power. The peculiarity of this engine consists 
in the position of the axle of the driving wheels, which is placed behind the fire-box. 
Mr. Pairbairn, of Manchester ; Messrs. Wilson, of Leeds ; and Messrs. Kitson, Thomp- 
son, and Hewitson, of the same town, exhibited specimens of the combined engine 
and tender variety, or " tank engines," as they are technically termed. We must not 
omit a very beautiful specimen of the first class engine by Messrs. Hawthorn and Co., 
of Newcastle. The visitor might assure himself, in dwelling on this collection of fire- 
steeds, that in this respect at least his country has no competitor to fear. A traveller 
tells, with pardonable exultation, how comforted and at home he felt at an Italian railway 
station by seeing on the name-plate of the engine the familiar words, " Sharp, Roberts, 
*nd Co., Atlas Works, Manchester," and hearing a genuine English "All right!" 
given, before the train was allowed to move from the platform. 



168 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



SCULPTURE continued.— FLORENCE. 

COMPARISON BETWEEN MARBLE AND BRONZE — GOLD AND SILVER — A PEEP INTO THE MAIN 

AVENUE — THE BAVARIAN LION — KING AND QUEEN OP BOHEMIA — THE EAGLE SLATER GROUP 

OF QUEEN MARGARET AND HER SON — SAPPHO WAR OF THE TITANS, BT VECHTE — MAGNIFI- 
CENT SHIELD BT THE SAME — SPLENDID OVALS — CHANGARNIER's SWORD — CONVERSION OF 

ST. HUBERT DANCING FAWN — GROUP OF TRENCH BRONZES PRINCE OF WALES'S SHIELD — 

DIFFICULTIES OF THE ART — BENVENUTO, CELLINI, ETC. ETC. 

In our former remarks on the Plastic Art, it was chiefly towards productions in marble 
that we directed the attention of our readers. We have still, for the field is by no 
means exhausted, many rare specimens of the same class to hold up to observation, but 
for the present we shall, for a while, quit the "breathing marble," and proceed to 
examine the no less imposing display of talent that was manifested in the Great Exhi- 
bition, in bronze, that imperishable material which, defying all the rigour of the 
elements, and the rude hand of time, has preserved to us such abundant proof of the 
talent and genius of former ages, in so many parts of the civilized world, and more 
especially on the classic shores of gifted Italy. In Florence, for example, we can scarcely 
stir a step without feeling ourselves accompanied by the shade of some illustrious one 
among the dead. The presence of Michael Angelo seems to haunt us as we wander 
among the battlemented palaces, and rare old Benvenuto comes athwart our " mind's 
eye" as we visit the precincts made glorious by his art. John of Bologna points to his 
living form of the Messenger of Jove; and the sculptured gates of the renowned 
Baptistry recall to us the times when wars were waged for their possession, and which 
still, in undiminished excellence, invite the admiration of the stranger as models of 
perfection in art. 

Before entering upon any individual examination of the objects we have selected for 
description in our present chapter, we shall lay before our readers a few judicious 
remarks by an eminent lecturer on the sculptor's art, as exemplified in the different 
materials in marble, metal, or bronze. " The peculiar refinements of form and texture 
which fall within the especial province of the sculptor to carry to their highest pitch of 
perfection, he constantly heightens by availing himself of the effect on the senses of 
the simultaneous contrast of form. Thus he exaggerates the roughness of the hair, and 
the coarse texture of every object coming in contact with his flesh, in order to give 
to it the exquisite smoothness of nature j he introduces straight lines, equally balanced 
folds, and angular breaks into his draperies, in order to bring out the tender sweeping 
curves of the outlines of the limbs he so gracefully disposes. His is, of a truth, the 
happy art which begins by collecting all that is most sweet and fresh, and then by one 
additional touch, one further artful contrast, he ' throws a perfume on the violet.' In 
sculpture, as in every other of the decorative arts, changing circumstances bring ever- 
changing conventionalities ; and, as supreme arbiters over the propriety of one and all, 
still preside our original great principles — variety, fitness, simplicity, and contrast. 

" In turning to those departments of practical art into which Sculpture enters as a 
predominant ingredient, metal-work first presents itself to our notice. Nothing can be 
more apparent than the variety of properties and qualities of the several metals, nothing 
more consistent than to prescribe a different mode of treatment to each. Sculpture in 
metal, partly on account of the much greater ductility and tenacity of the material, and 
partly on account of its peculiar colour and power of reflecting light, can rarely, 




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OE THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 169 

however highly its degree of finish may he carried/ be mistaken for that which it 
professes to imitate. Hence it arises that elaborate execution of details may, and indeed 
should, be, carried in metal to the most minute perfection. Works in gold or silver 
should, as\a general rule (except in instances where an overpowering display of wealth 
is intended, in which case art does not much signify), be confined to small dimensions, 
and those relatively correspondent to the associations of idea connected with > the rarity 
and value of each. It was from-inattention to these conditions that many of the largest 
pieces of .plate in the Exhibition failed to interest us, and that the eye dwelt with much 
greater complacency upon the. smaller than upon the larger objects. 5 ' Among the 
exhibitors of .specimens of gold work, Messrs. Morel, Watherston and Brogden, and 
Froment Meurice, held the most distinguished place in point of excellence and appro- 
priateness of design; among those who contributed silver work; Messrs. Hunt and 
Roskell, Wagner, Froment Meurice, Lebrun, Rudolphi, Garrard, Morel, fee, 

We will now proceed to examine some of the chief specimens in bronze and metal 
that in various parts of the building attracted the observation of the curious visitor. 
Of the group of the Amazon attacked by a Tiger, we have already made honourable 
mention. In our daguerreotype of the Main Avenue, looking west, our readers will find 
in the .immediate foreground its fac-simile in miniature, as it stood on its rocky base, 
surrounded by so many sculptured forms of grace and loveliness, and backed ■ by its 
long perspective, while the busy moving crowd of delighted spectators are represented 
thronging about each favourite object of attraction. Next in size and importance, about 
the middle of the nave, stood, open-mouthed on his pedestal, the Bavarian Lion, of 
colossal proportions, measuring 15 feet in length, by 9 in height, belonging, as we are 
told, to a group of four intended to be attached to a car, destined to adorn the triumphal 
arch at Munich. It is after the design of Halbig. It appeared in the same state as 
when it left the founders, being raw-cast in bronze, and, together with another of the 
group or " team" referred to, was cast at the same time out of one furnace, showing the 
possibility of executing casts in one piece of almost any weight and size. " It was 
exhibited also as a specimen of the new method of the founder to preserve the pure 
natural colour of the cast, without being obliged to use the chisel." This extensive 
production will long be. remembered by all frequenters of the Crystal Palace, as the 
veritable " lion" of the Great Exhibition. For the lion itself, apart from the mechanical 
difficulties which have been overcome in the casting, it is, after all, but a so-so affair, 
as lions go with us. We have many a lion of pure British metal before whom this 
foreign monster of the forest — coming all the way from Munich — is not fit to wag 
his tail. The noble beast at .the top of Northumberland House, for instance, and another, 
of minor growth, which stands, or stood, at the corner of Berners-street, are old familiar 
friends whom we would match against the world. 

Near to his lionship two noble figures in bronze reared their stately forms— Libusa, 
Queen of the Bohemians, anno 700; and George of Padiebrad, a king of the same 
people ; the latter in . armour, with ehain-mail shirt and fur-lined cloak. These statues 
were modelled by Schwanthaler, and .cast by Muller, of Munich, the artist of- the famous 
Lion. Separating them was a fine group of a Boy and Swan in bronze, by Th. Kalide, 
of Berlin, andthe property of his majesty the king of Prussia. Close at hand was an 
admirable work of art in a large font surrounded with semi-nude sculptured repre- 
senting domestic scenes, children playing, Sec., by Professor F. Drake, of Berlin'. 1 • • 

The Eagle Slayer, designed by John Bell, and cast in bronze by the Coalbrookdale 
Company, attracted much attention from its grand and imposing character. Two 
statuettes also, designed by the same hand, and executed in bronze by Messrs. Messen- 
ger and Sons, of Birmingham, were exceedingly admired. The first of these formed ! a 

2x 



170 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

most interesting group, representing Queen Margaret and her son interceding with the 
robbers after the disastrous battle of Hexham. She was presenting her infant boy to 
the daring robber, with the words, " My friend, to your care I commit the safety of 
your king's son;" and it is pleasant to recollect that poetical justice resulted from 
so romantic an incident ; the fierce man of blood was touched by her appeal, and 
not only defended the queen and her son from further insult, but concealed them m 
the forest till they were enabled to escape to Flanders. Of a truth, nobility of mind 
is not confined to the wearers of court dresses. The second of these statuettes, a figure 
of Sappho, was also exceedingly graceful and imaginative. Neither by any means second 
to them in elegance or beauty, was Foley's much admired "Boy at the Stream," 
executed in bronze by Hatfield. 

We will now, however, turn to our Gallic neighbours, and it is with equal delight 
and admiration that we do so. Among the numerous competitors for fame, who stood 
nobly forward in this department of art, first and foremost we place M. Vechte, whose 
rare talent was eminently displayed in the magnificent vase representing the War of 
the Titans against Jupiter, which, for its elegance, spirit, and pure classic taste, was truly 
unrivalled, and worthy of the most renowned master-pieces of antiquity. On the summit 
of the vase, seated on the wings of the imperial bird, the Thunderer, with frowning and 
awful aspect, was launching his destructive and irresistible bolt upon the heads of the 
rebellious crew, who, in their senseless fury "piling Pelion upon Ossa," were endeavour- 
ing to scale the celestial seats. At the base were lying, in the agonies of death, several 
of the bodies of the discomfited host. The drawing of the figures in this noble 
performance was equally correct and powerful, and altogether the whole composition 
breathed the true spirit of poetry and Homeric fire. By the same master-hand we also 
noticed an unfinished shield, worthy of the arm of the great Pelides himself, divided 
into various compartments, full of poetic fancy and graceful design. France also had to 
boast of a number of admirable designs from the hands of Collas, Barbedienne, Vittoz, 
Matifat, Susse, and other excellent artists ; some of them, indeed, produced works of 
such rare, beautiful, and minute details, as, in the words of our great poet, mutatis 
mutandis, 

" Would have made Cellini stare and gasp." 

We more particularly allude to two oval designs representing, in high and most intricate 
relief, military and gorgeous processions in some old Norman town, whose antique 
roofs and gable-ends aptly designate the locality of the scene. Among a variety of smaller 
articles, the sword of the redoubtable Changarnier, with which we suppose he intended to 
lay waste our peaceful shores, lay quietly sleeping in its scabbard, and gave us full 
leisure to examine its rich and elaborate workmanship. But the pride of all weapons 
was a superb couteau de chasse, or hunting-knife, which reminded us of the old stag and 
boar-hunts of the ancien regime, so charmingly illustrated in the time of Louis Quatorze 
by Vander Meulen. This magnificent knife was composed from the legend of St. 
Hubert, of Albert Durer celebrity. The figure, in ronde bosse, surrounded by the 
hounds, formed the handle. The mouth of the sheath was ornamented with a large 
bas-relief, representing the moment when the hunt was interrupted by the vision of St. 
Hubert ; that is, the apparition of the cross on the stag's head. The rich ornamentation 
and figures were first composed and modelled in wax, then sculptured in plaster, and 
finally moulded in metal and chiselled. The blade was of the finest steel, forged with 
steel hammers, and the moulding creased or hollowed by .the hand with a graver. This 
work, which was from the studio of Marrel Freres, was thus eulogized by the jury in 
their report: — "The jury would further mention a very beautiful silver hunting-knife, 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 171 

the hilt of which represents St. Hubert standing within a niche; the cross is orna- 
mented with a fox at bay, defending itself against several dogs. Upon the chape of 
the sheath is a handsome bas-relief, representing the conversion of St. Hubert, and lower 
down is a hunting trophy. The execution of this hunting-knife leaves nothing to be 
desired." 

M. Lequesne exhibited a Dancing Faun, which, for spirit and motion, was well 
deserving of praise. This subject has always been a favourite one both with painters 
and sculptors, and excited a good deal of attention. We shall lastly notice a remarkable 
group of French bronzes, taken from the contributions of MM. Vittoz and Matifat, both 
of which manufacturers also contributed various artistic ornaments, clocks, chandeliers, 
cups, lustres, vases, and different articles of virtu. The male figure of this group 
represented Benvenuto Cellini, the celebrated sculptor, and would seem to have been 
designed with a view to associate the grand with the beautiful. The attitude was not 
without spirit, whilst the expression of the countenance would seem to be that of a 
noble character conscious of the inherent power of his own genius. The vase he carried 
in his arm was, no doubt, intended to emblemize the profession he so successfully 
pursued. Cellini, as our readers are aware, was an eminent sculptor, jeweller, and 
goldsmith, contemporary with Michael Angelo and Julio Romano, and was employed by 
popes, kings, and other princely patrons of science and art, in the time of Leo X. and 
Charles V. His productions are exquisite in design and execution. He lived to a 
considerable age, and his life almost to the last was a series of adventures, persecutions, 
and misfortunes. He wrote the history of his own life, which has been well translated 
by Roscoe. The column and fountain in the same group were the productions of Matifat; 
the former was intended as a gas candelabrum, and the latter for a garden ornament. 
They were both beautiful specimens of art of that mixed kind, which aims at combining 
the fanciful with the useful. The female figure was one of those classic productions so 
frequently to be found emanating from the prolific ideality of our Gallic neighbours, 
possessing the usual pure and graceful outline which characterizes the beautiful in sculp- 
ture ; it was not, however, of that dignified beauty which marks so many of the produc- 
tions of the ancients, but rather of that subordinate kind, known as the attractive among 
the various styles. Altogether, this group may be said to have exhibited a useful 
combination of the artistic and the utilitarian — an end of no small importance in these 
iron times. 

We must not omit to notice a complimentary tribute from the King of Prussia to 
his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales,— a splendid shield, presented in commemoration 
of the baptism of the infant Prince, for whom his Majesty acted as sponsor. The 
pictorial embellishments of the shield were designed by Doctor Peter Von Cornelius, 
and the architectural ornaments by Counsellor Stuller. The execution of the goldsmith's 
work, enamel, &c., was performed by M. G. Hossauer; the modelling by M. A. Fischer; 
the chasing by M. A. Mertens; and the lapidary work by M. Calandrelli. In the 
centre of the shield was a head of our Saviour. The middle compartment, surrounded 
by a double line of ornamental work, was divided by a cross into four smaller com- 
partments, which contained emblematic representations of the two Sacraments, Baptism 
and the Lord's Sapper, with their Old Testament types— the opening of the rocky 
fountain by Moses, and the fall of manna. At the extremities of the arms of the cross 
were represented the Evangelists, noting down what they have seen and heard in the 
Gospels, which are to communicate to all futurity the plan of man's salvation. On the 
extreme points of the arabesque that rose above the Evangelists were representations of 
Faith, Hope, Charity, and Christian Righteousness. Around the entire centre stood 
the Twelve Apostles. Peter was seen under Faith,. represented in the arabesque; on the 



173 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

right arid left of him were Philip and Andrew ; under Hope was James ; on either side 
were Bartholomew and Simon ; John was placed beneath the figure of Charity ; on 
either side were James the younger and Thomas ; under Righteousness was Paul ; on the 
right and left were Matthew and Judas Thaddeus, going forth into the world to propagate 
the kingdom of the Redeemer. The relievo which surrounded the edge of the shield 
represented the Betrayal, the redeeming Atonement of Christ, and his Resurrection. 
Another portion represented our Lord's triumphant Entry into Jerusalem; a third 
portion the Descent of the Holy Ghost, the Preaching of the Gospel, and the For- 
mation of the Church. The fourth compartment contained an allegorical representation 
of the Birth of the Prince of Wales, and of the Visit of the King of Prussia, accompanied 
by Baron Humboldt, General Von Natzmer, and the Count Von Stolberg, welcomed by 
his Royal Highness Prince Albert and the Duke of Wellington : a Knight of St. George 
being represented on the beach, standing on the Dragon. The shield has been 
denominated the Buckler of Faith. The inscription on the shield ran thus : — 

" FRIDERICUS GULIELMUS REX BORTTSSORUM, 

ALBERTO EDUARDO, PRMCIPI WALLI.E, 

IN MEMORIAM DIEI BAFT. XXV. JAN. A. MDCCCXLII." 

Before we conclude our present chapter, it may not be uninteresting to our readers to 
be made acquainted with some of the difficulties that occasionally beset- an artist in the 
prosecution of his labours. We will therefore give in Benvenuto Cellini's own words, his 
account of the casting of his celebrated Perseus, which we have already alluded to. " As 
I had been particularly successful in casting my Medusa," says Cellini, " I made a model 
of my Perseus in wax, and flattered myself that I should have the same success in 
casting the latter in bronze, as I had had with the former. Upon its appearing to such 
advantage, and looking so beautiful in wax, the duke, whether somebody put it into his 
head, or whether it was a notion of his own, as he came to my house oftener than usual, 
once took occasion to say to me, ' Benvenuto, this statue cannot be cast in bronze ; it is 
not in the power of your art to compass it.' " Our gifted Florentine was naturally 
annoyed at this remark, and endeavoured to convince the duke that the affair, in spite 
of its exceeding difficulty, (which all those having any knowledge of the art, and who 
have seen the noble figure where it stands, before the ducal palace at Florence, must 
readily admit,) was not beyond his skill; but the self-opinionated prince refused to 
listen to him, and sceptically shaking his head, left the artist to his own inventions. But 
Benvenuto, whose courage always rose in proportion to the obstacles he had to encounter, 
after his vexation at losing his royal patronage had subsided, set about the work with a 
cheerful and undaunted spirit. " I still flattered myself," says he, " that if I could but 
finish my statue of Perseus, all my labours would be converted to delight, and meet 
with a glorious and happy reward. Thus, having recovered my vigour of mind, I, with 
the utmost strength of body and of purse (though, indeed, I had but little money left), 
began to purchase several loads of pine-waod from the pine-grove of the Serristori, 
hard by Mont Lupo; and whilst I was waiting for it, I covered my Perseus with the 
earth which I had prepared several months beforehand, that it might have its proper 
seasoning. After I had made its coat of earth, covered it well, and bound it properly with 
irons, I began by means of a slow fire to draw off the wax, which melted away by many 
vent-rholes — for the more of these are made the better the moulds are filled — and when I 
had entirely stripped off the wax, I made a sort of fence round my Perseus, that is, 
round the mould above-mentioned, of bricks, piling them one upon another, and leaving 
several vacuities for the fire to exhale at. I next began to put on the wood, and kept a 
constant fire for two days and two nights, till the wax being quite off, and the mould 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 173 

well baked, I began to dig a bole to bmy my mould in, and observed all tbose fine 
methods of proceeding wbich are prescribed by our art. When I had completely dug 
my hole I took my mould, and by means of levers and strong cables directed it with 
care, and suspended it a cubit above the level of the furnace, so that it hung exactly in 
the middle of the hole. I then let it gently down to the very bottom of the furnace, and 
placed it with all the care and exactness I possibly could. After I had finished this part 
of my task, I began to make a covering of the very earth I had taken off, and in pro- 
portion as 1 raised the earth I made vents for it, which are a sort of tubes of baked 
earth, generally used for conduits, and other things of a similar nature. As soon as I 
saw that I had placed it properly, and that this manner of covering it, by putting on 
these small tubes in their proper places, was likely to answer, as also that my journey- 
men thoroughly understood my plan, which was very different from that of all other 
masters, and I was sure that I could depend upon them, I turned my thoughts to the 
furnace. I had caused it to be filled with several pieces of brass and bronze, and heaped 
them one upon another, in the manner taught us by our art, taking particular care to 
leave a passage for the flames, that the metal might the sooner assume its colour and 
dissolve into a fluid. Thus I, with great alacrity, excited my men to lay on the pine- 
wood, which, because of the oiliness of the resinous matter that oozes from the pine- 
tree, and that my furnace was admirably well made, burned at such a rate, that I was 
continually obliged to run to and fro, which greatly fatigued me. I, however, bore the 
hardship j but, to add to my misfortune, the shop took fire, and we were all very much 
afraid that the roof would fall in and crush us ; from another quarter, that is, the garden, 
the sky poured in so much rain and wind that it cooled my furnace. 

" Thus did I continue to struggle with these cross accidents for several hours, and 
exerted myself to such a, degree, that my constitution, though robust, could no longer 
bear such severe hardship, and I was suddenly attacked by a most violent intermitting 
fever ; in short, I was so ill that I found myself under a necessity of lying down upon 
my bed. This gave me great concern, but it was unavoidable. I thereupon addressed 
myself to my assistants, who were about ten in number, consisting of masters who melted 
bronze, helpers, men from the country, and the journeymen that worked in the shop, 
among whom was Bernardino Manellini di Mugello, who had lived with me several 
years. After having recommended it to them all to take proper care of my business, I 
said to Bernardino, ' My friend, be careful to observe the method which I have shown 
you, and use all possible expedition, for the metal will soon be ready. You cannot 
mistake ; these two worthy men will quickly make the tubes ; with two such directors 
you can certainly contrive to pour out the hot metal, and I have no doubt my mould 
will be filled completely. I at present find myself extremely ill, and really believe that 
in a few hours this severe disorder will put an end to my life.' Thus I left them in great 
sorrow, and went to bed/' 

His fever, meanwhile, continued to increase, he could get no rest, his faithful house- 
keeper endeavoured in vain to console him, and in the midst of all this affliction a man 
suddenly entered the room, like him who 

" Waked Priam, in the dead of night, 
And would have told him half his Troy was burned." 

"This man," to resume Cellini's own language, "who in his person appeared to be as 
crooked as the letter S, began to express himself in these terms, with a tone of voice 
as dismal and melancholy as those who exhort and pray with persons who are going to 
be executed : 'Alas ! poor Benvenuto, your work is spoiled, and the misfortune admits of 
no remedy.' No sooner," continues our poor artist, "had I heard the words uttered by 

2y 



174 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

this messenger of evil, but I cried out so loud that my voice might be heard to the 
skies, and got out of bed." Dressing himself with all possible speed, and bestowing 
sundry cuffs and kicks on his surrounding attendants, he hastens to his workmen, who, 
one and all, confirm the evil report of the messenger. "Whereupon," continues the 
excited and irascible Benvenuto, " I turned round in such a passion, and seemed so bent 
on mischief, that they all cried out to me, ' Give your orders, and we will all second you 
in whatever you command ; we will assist you as long as we have breath in our bodies.' 
These kind and affectionate words they uttered, as I firmly believe, in a persuasion that 
I was upon the point of expiring." 

Rallying all his energies, increased no doubt by his fever, he now bent his ardent 
mind to the work. Fresh wood was procured, old dry oak in abundance was heaped upon 
the furnace, so that the concreted metal again began to brighten and glitter ; where the 
wind and rain entered a screen was constructed, and, encouraged by the example of their 
master, all his hands obeyed him with such zeal and alacrity, that every man did work 
enough for three. " Then," says he, to continue the spirited narrative, "I caused a 
mass of pewter, weighing about sixty pounds, to be thrown upon the metal in the furnace, 
which, with the other helps, as the brisk wood fire, and stirring it sometimes with 
iron, and sometimes with long poles, soon became completely dissolved. Finding that 
I had effected what seemed as difficult as to raise the dead, I recovered my vigour to 
such a degree, that I no longer perceived whether I had any fever, nor had I the least 
apprehension of death." But the climax had not yet arrived. " Suddenly a loud noise 
was heard, and a glittering of fire flashed before our eyes, as if it had been the darting 
of a thunderbolt. Upon the appearance of this phenomenon, terror seized on all present, 
and on none more than myself. This tremendous noise being over, we began to stare 
at each other, and perceived that the cover of the furnace had burst and flown off, so 
that the bronze began to run. I immediately caused the mouths of my mould to be 
opened, but finding that the metal did not run with its usual velocity, and apprehending 
that the cause of it was that the quality of the metal was consumed by the violence of 
the fire, I ordered all my dishes and porringers, which were in number about two 
hundred, to be placed one by one before my tubes, and part of them to be thrown into 
the furnace, so that all present perceiving that my bronze was completely dissolved, and 
that my mould was filling, with joy and alacrity assisted and obeyed me." Filled with 
gratitude and thankfulness at the success of his work, and with a piety that throws an 
additional lustre on his character, the first impulse of our hero, for he is worthy of the 
appellation, was to throw himself on his knees in the presence of all his workmen, 
and return thanks to Almighty God for his success. After which, his fever having 
completely left him, he ate and drank with a good appetite, and returned joyful and in 
good health to his bed. The duke, on learning the issue of the affair, received him 
in the most gracious manner, and took him into high favour, although his enemies 
endeavoured to persuade him that it was owing to infernal agency that success had 
been obtained, since he had compassed that which was not, according to their views, 
in the power of art to effect. 

Of the antiquity of the art of working in metal, and producing graven images, we 
have early testimony in Scripture. Profane writers also make mention of early spe- 
cimens of the same species of sculpture. Herodotus visited Babylon while it was in 
a state of tolerable preservation, and in describing the temple of Jupiter Belus, he says, 
" In a chapel which stands below, within the temple, is a large image of gold, representing 
Jupiter sitting upon a throne of gold, by a table of the same metal ;" he alludes also 
to another statue of solid gold, twelve cubits high, which, he says, was not seen by 
him but described to him by the Chaldeans. According to Diodorus Siculus, the 



OF THE "WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 175 

weight of the statues and decorations in and about the temple amounted to five thousand 
talents in gold; and their value has been estimated at about one hundred million of 
dollars. The vessels and ornaments are supposed to have been those which Nebuchad- 
nezzar had brought to Babylon from Jerusalem; for he. is said to have dedicated in this 
temple the spoils of that expedition. Semiramis, the wife of Ninus, finished the stu- 
pendous walls of Babylon, which were reckoned among the seven wonders of the world, 
and her palace is celebrated by historians for the emblematical sculptures with which 
the walls were covered, and for the colossal statues of bronze and gold of Jupiter Belus, 
of Nimrod, and of herself, with her principal warriors and officers of state. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 
CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE HIGHLANDS. 

GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE COUNTBY — MR. MACDOTJGALL — THE HIGHLAND STALL TARTAN 

PLAIDS HIGHLAND BONNETS WOOLLEN HOSE — HIGHLAND SHOES — HIGHLAND OBNAMENTS 

AND PRECIOUS STONES — DIRKS AND QUAIGHS — DEEB HOEN8 — DEER STALKING — CLOTH AND 
GLOVES EEOM ST. KILDA. 

When we take into consideration the state of the rude and thinly scattered population 
of the northern extremity of our island, and reflect upon the toil they have to undergo 
to win from an ungrateful soil their scanty means of subsistence ; when we look upon 
their barren mountains, their pathless moors, their lonely isles, " placed far amid the 
melancholy main," devoid in many instances of either " herb, tree, fruit, or flower" — ■ 
when we bring before our imagination the forlorn and desolate nature of their country, 
so beautifully summed up by Collins, when, speaking of those sterile districts, he says — 

" Nor ever vernal bee is heard to murmur there," 

when we see all this, and acknowledge the poverty of the neglected highlander, and his 
utter destitution of all the means and appliances which more fortunate England so 
abundantly enjoys, we are not surprised that he contributed so little towards the national 
display, but rather wonder that out of so slender and inappropriate means he should have 
been able to furnish the respectable quota, his stall, for he did not claim the honour of 
a department — in the Crystal Palace — presented before the eyes of the gratified spectators. . 
With the exception of the home manufacture of a few coarse articles of attire,: the 
industry of the Celt is confined to the rude and insufficient tillage bestowed upon his 
"croft" of stunted oats or barley; or, if he be located near the sea, to a clumsy and 
inefficient system of fishery, carried on without proper boats or tackle, and seldom or 
never succeeding in rearing really bold or skilful mariners. The Celt, indeed, seldom 
makes anything but at most a freshwater sailor. He is accustomed to set at nought the 
wildest wintry storms on the high hillside, searching with his faithful " colleys" for. the 
sheep smothering in the snow-drift, but the sea always daunts him. If anything can 
induce him to change his landward habits for a time, and fairly take to the brine, it is 
the herring; and those wondrous shoals of dainty fishes luckily come upon the coast 
during the summer and early autumnal season, when the weather is settled, and the 
harvest moon round and bright. Destitute then, in a great measure, of that pushing 
energy, and hard and keen spirit of industry and enterprise which have made England and 



176 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

the south of Scotland what they are, the poor highlanders of the north and west have 
very seldom any leaders or teachers who might pioneer the way to a better and a busier 
state of things. Capitalists pass them over, and their own lairds and native dignitaries 
are very much the same stuff as themselves. Good, hospitable, easy-going gentlemen, 
tolerably well skilled in black cattle and Cheviot wedders; hunters and fishers, to a 
man; great upholders of the bagpipes, and great connoisseurs of whiskey; they are still 
not the race of magnates who are the best suited to promote the true interests of the 
poor people among whom they dwell. They have been accustomed for ages to think of 
the poverty and idleness about them as the normal and natural state of things, and 
the poor cottar entertains precisely the same views. He has had nobody to put other 
ideas in his head. A little oatmeal, a herring in the season, a few potatoes, perhaps a 
little dairy produce, particularly goat's or ewe milk, and he is abundantly satisfied. His 
hut is chimneyless, sometimes windowless — a mere hovel of piled-up turf, with a smoul- 
dering peat fire in the centre, over which hangs the one pot which performs all culinary 
operations, and round which are tolerably sure to be stretched a ring of shaggy colleys ; 
but leave him this — leave him his native atmosphere of peat smoke, and he is ready 
cheerfully to rough out any of its incidental hardships as the merest matter of course. 
In these respects the Scotch Celt is very much akin to his Irish brother. Both of them 
appear lazy; rather, however, because they have been brought up in idleness, than 
because they have any natural horror of work. Connemara and the Isle of Mull both 
get capitally ahead when the muscles and sinews they send forth are used in conjunc- 
tion with those of England and Lowland Scotland. Donald and Pat trot cheerfully 
in the team, and pull with the rest of their compeers ; but leave them together with a 
couple of spades and a couple of wheelbarrows, and short and scanty will be the day's 
work achieved. A main point of difference between the two races, or rather the two 
branches of the same race, is the sober and serious-mindedness of the Scot, and his 
invincible respect for the sacredness of human life. No one ever heard of a highland 
evicting landlord or his agent being shot from behind a hedge. The Irishman always 
cries out when he is hurt, and in a score of ways lets the world know his grievances ; 
sometimes, indeed, he proclaims them through musket-barrels. Not so the Scotch 
highlander. In no part of the west of Scotland have the people suffered more than in 
some of the poorer islands of the Hebrides. There have been comparatively as many 
evictions, as many " fires quenched upon the hearth," in the wild islands and portions of 
the mainland of the west, as in Cork, or Roscommon, or Tipperary ; but not one-tenth so 
much noise has been made about them. There has been no tumult, no agrarian 
outrages, no private and cowardly assassinations. The people have died or gone away to 
America, and made no sign. Highland grievances are scarcely ever heard of, but they 
are not one whit behind the woes and the wrongs of Ireland in number or intensity. 

Life in the highlands, then, so far as national industry is concerned, is little better 
than passive vegetation. The yearly irruption of English tourists and sportsmen into 
the country furnishes, no doubt, a certain amount of employment, and distributes 
an important sum of money. The energies of no inconsiderable portion of the popula- 
tion are called into action as guides, boatmen, game-keepers, and the whole tribe of 
rural supernumeraries, who hang upon the skirts of a pleasure and sporting-seeking 
community who come abroad to spend money and amuse themselves. But the facilities 
thus afforded for labour can hardly be said to amount to a national industry. The 
working season extends only over three or four months, with, generally speaking, 
unnaturally exaggerated prices paid for the services performed. Holiday work, indeed, as 
it is rare and uncertain, ordinarily releases exceptional prices, a fact of which the popula- 
tion of watering-places, and bathing-places, for example, are amply aware. In the 




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OF- THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 177 

highlands, the* tha people are destitute of the faculty which carves out profitable 
employment for itself They are energetic to the utmost as sportsmen, l*Tt«ltewee 
as labourers; just, in fact, because sporting in some shape or other is the labour to Xch 

hey have been taught tq e Q ^de ? themselves devoted, *Above. the. class of the peaslSy 
th«*e is as htde enterprise or ^ire, for change as lower down; the only social revoluK 
favored by the lairds being the removal, either, to the south or across the Atlantic oX 
many poor and half-starved "crofters* as possible, in order that their vacant patches ol 

and may be ; flung together into, huge expanses of grazing ground for lowland sheep 
taimers Lnder these, circumstances, we repeat, we hardly expected to have seen th- 
h,ghfendsjepresented in the Crystal Palace at all; and we probably should not have been 
so %peably disappointed as we were, had it not been for the manful and single-handed 
exertions of one singularly enterprising, active, and indefatigable tradesman of Inverness. 
Ihe name of this individual, Mr. Maedougall, has now stained something like a 
Jiuropean reputation as a dealer in all textile and other productions manufactured in 
or characteristic of, the highlands, Erom Inverness, the capital of the highland an( { 
the centre, judicial and commercial, of a large district of interesting country, it was to 
be expected that a comparatively large and, characteristic collection— illustrative, not 
indeed, of a commercial industry— but of those domestic pursuits and household works 
which every people, however rud% must in some degree practise— would be sent. 
Nothing of the kind however.. The enlightened Invernessians declined to form any 
local committee, or to take the slightest trouble about the matter ; and Mr. Maedougall, 
after in vain-trying to inspire his townsmen with a spark of his own spirit and energy! 
was actually obliged to put himself in communication with a committee formed in the 
smaU and rising little town of Elgin, in order to have the means of forwarding to the 
Crystal Palace a collection of highland manufactured stuffs, in the original production of 
which he himself had no mean share. In the gallery above China stood the stall which 
alone represented the industrial condition of the, Scottish highlands. We shall select a 
few of the objects exhibited, and string them together by a slight thread of personal 
highland reminispences and remarks. 

The various tartans of the clans n^urally formed a conspicuous object among 
the textile stuffs exhibited.- The several cheeks; were stated to have been arranged 
upon the very highest authority ; for, be it known to our readers, there are formidable 
differences of opinion among the authorities relative to the-exaet and orthodox plan and 
colour, ,Qf the checks of more than one tartan. You shall have a couple of fiery highland 
antiquarians disputing the shade of a ?ed» or the proper breadth of a stripe of green, as 
if the fate of the world rested upon the issue. But if you wish tp see both gentlemen 
roused to, the pitch of the most appalling indignation, hint Dr. Johnson's theory, that the 
origin of tartan was rags, and that the different colours, are counterfeit presentments of 
the yariously hued shred? an,d patches with which the Doctor maintained that his high- 
land friends used to clothe themselves. Recent investigations, we b.elieve> ; however, give 
a higher antiauity tp the tartan fchan it is generally be&eved to possess. Down to the 
reign of the sixth James, tartan is now said to, have been a common wear, both in the 
lowlands and highlands ; and recent discoveries in ancient costume seem tp prove that 
a chequered species of garment, woven of many colours, was a favourite with a large 
body of semi-civilized men, the ancient stuffs disappearing from the more busy and 
changeful pasts of the world* but still lingering in such nooks and corners as the until 
recently almost inaccessible highland hills. The Scotch lowlanders never seem, however, 
to, have worn the kilt. At one time, no, doubt, the kilt and plftid were simply one piece 
of cloth, folded at once over the shoulders and the bins, The separation of the whole 
into two distinct garments was a decided improvement, as the plaid for mountain countries, 

jv Z 



178 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

and for the use of a pedestrian, is one of the handiest garments which can be conceived. 
He can use it as a scarf, or a cloak, or a hood ; rolled up and disposed round the body, it 
offers no impediment to walking ; in wet and stormy weather the wearer can wrap at 
least half a dozen folds around his person, from the throat to the thighs ; while, however 
the cloth may be disposed, the effect is almost uniformly picturesque. At the present 
day, the gorgeous clan colours formerly worn in the highlands are very generally super- 
seded by the dull uniform grey of the shepherd plaid, a species of stuff which Lord 
Brougham has fairly immortalized. Everybody who has seen his lordship for the last 
fifteen years or so, has seen the famous black and white trowsers in which he delights. 
The fact as to these monotonously succeeding garments, we believe, from good authority, 
to be this : when Lord Brougham, then holder of the Great Seal, was in Inverness, — 
when, indeed, he made the celebrated declaration at a public meeting, that he would write 
to the King by that night's post, he purchased from Mr. Macdougall cloth for no less 
than forty pairs of shepherd tartan trowsers, and in this ample supply he has been going 
on ever since. The tendency of greyish stuff, however, to take the place of the ancient 
clan colours, would not have been less marked had Lord Brougham never worn 
anything but broad-cloth. The simple web of uniform hue is more easily produced 
than the kaleidoscopic coat of many colours, and, in case of damage, is more easily and 
effectively repaired. It was, however, the mean sumptuary law, passed in 1747 by 
the legislature,- which gave the death-blow to the tartan, the kilt, and the plaid. , Upon 
the people being permitted, in 1782, to return to the garb of the Gael, the general 
use and wont of the country was found to have worked out for itself another channel ; 
and the philabeg is now, to all intents and purposes, a fancy costume. In Mr. Macdou- 
gall's stall, all the- adjuncts of this dress were shown, constructed after the most 
orthodox fashion. There were several bonnets characteristic of the highlands, all neat, 
small, and fitting close to the head. The dreadful monstrosity of ostrich feathers, 
which our unhappy highland regiments are obliged to wear as head-gear, and which 
look exactly as if the men had adorned themselves with the spoils of an undertaker's 
warehouse, have nothing to do with the original highland bonnet, and we should be glad 
to see them scouted from the army. Slaves as we are, in some way, to the tyranny of 
all sorts of abominable hats, there is nothing worse in Britain than" the heavy cylinder 
of feathers worn by the highland regiments. How much smarter all the men would 
look, each with a neat Glengarry bonnet, light and warm; jaunty and gay when worn 
with a cock over the front of the head, and. cosey and comfortable if pulled over the 
ears, and made to do duty for a nightcap. The broad blue bonnet is essentially lowland, 
as its common Scotch name, the "Tarn O'Shanter," testifies; but the mountain head- 
gear is infinitely the smartest and the most picturesque. There was a good show of hose, 
mostly woollen, in the stall, and in a great measure knitted by hand. These coverings 
for the feet, strong, elastic, firm of fabric, yet fleecy and warm, are capitally, adapted for 
hard pedestrian work upon the mountain side, preventing the skin from being chafed, 
and absorbing and removing the perspiration from the limb. The hose, according to 
old use and wont, are always manufactured on a pattern larger and simpler than 
ordinary tartans, but, of course, harmonizing with the general colour of the dress which 
they are intended to complete. 

Some interesting specimens of the old brogue were shown. The wondrous peculiarity 
to an English eye in the highland school of shoe-making, is that the upper leathers are 
pierced with rows and arches of holes arranged in fanciful combinations, and interspersed 
with little scolloped and jagged edges of leather, designed to ornament the shoe. " Well 
now, if I ever saw the like of that — making holes in their shoes to let the wet come 
through ! they must never be without colds in the head," was the purport of a not 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 179 

unnatural remark we heard made, in different words, more than once while examining 
Mr. Macdougall's stall. But the speaker was not aware that wet feet is a bugbear 
unknown in the highlands. Shoes without holes may do capitally well for the pave or 
the turnpike, but transfer the scene of operations to a mossy hill-side or a wild ravine, 
down which scores of tiny brooks come foaming to join the torrent at the bottom, and 
the wearer will shortly find that no holes are no protection against the water getting in, 
but a great hindrance to its getting out, and so will go hobbling along with an uncom- 
fortable quantity of fluid splashing between his toes ; while his brogued guide, on every 
diy bit of ground, squirts the superfluous moisture about with every step. Shoes 
intended for hard work among the heather are peculiarly made, in being double-toed. 
One or two strongly and firmly made specimens were exhibited. The stem of the heather 
plant is very rough, and nearly as hard as wire, so that the toes of the sportsman's 
shoes who forces his way amongst it, are speedily, unless they be thus doubly armed, 
reduced to a pitiful condition of thinness and whiteness. In these brogue-shoes, the 
nails which fortify the soles, are driven in diagonal lines across, the arrangement giving a 
surer footing to the wearer, when scrambling among slippery rocks, or making his way 
amid the green and slimy pebbles of a highland burn, with the fierce stream shaking him 
on his legs j for highland sporting, and especially highland fishing, requires that the 
adept shall be no more afraid of water than a kelpie or a merman. Mr. Briggs goes 
out a-fishing in the quiet southern streams with a pair of patent waterproof' india-rubber 
goloshes, to keep his precious feet dry j but if he adventures on a foaming, rattling high- 
land river, and essays the noble salmon instead of the contemptible pike, he must make 
up his mind to many a plunge, waist deep or deeper, in the stream, if he have the luck 
not to flounder over the slippery stones, and get carried off altogether by a current run- 
ning like a mill-sluice down into the next deep swirling pool. 

The highland ornaments displayed were few, but in correct taste, and of the orthodox 
old fashion. The principle of the ancient brooch, used either as an ornament, or for 
fastening the drapery of the plaid, is a very simple one. A number of silver spokes, 
springing more or less up from a circular rim, support a cairngorm pebble in the centre. 
Sometimes a set of small pins rise from the circumference of the ornament, each topped 
by a small cairngorm, arranged like moons around the centre stone. The cairngorm is 
indeed the national precious, or, at all events, ornamental, stone of Scotland: spe- 
cimens are not uncommon of as bright a sparkle and as pure a crystalline splendour 
as are to be found in emeralds. The search amongst the wildest Grampian hills for 
these beautiful rock crystals, has lately, we learn, been prosecuted with uncommon 
enterprise and perseverance, and a deposit of splintered and disintegrated rock has been 
discovered, in which abundant pebbles have been found, formed in six-sided prisms, 
terminated by six-sided pyramids, extending from one inch to six or eight in length. 
Some of these lumps have weighed as much as ten pounds, and they have been dis- 
covered of several colours. Mr. Macdougall furnished his stall with some remarkable 
specimens, of a dark port wine hue, fully six inches in length, and we should think 
double as many in circumference. The pyramidal tops had been wrought, and exhibited 
a lustrous polish. These stones, we believe, were part of the produce of the labours of a 
party of upwards of forty people, who a couple of years ago proceeded from various parts 
of the highlands, in a regular caravan, to the remote district in which the mineral wealth 
lies thickest, pitched their tents or erected bothies on the heath, and after a search 
extending over several weeks, returned to their homes loaded with the rough crystals 01 
the hills The remaining accoutrements of the highland dress were shown in specimens 
of the dirk, to be worn by the side ; the skean dhu, or "black knife," frequently carried 
in the garter; the naked blade resting against the leg, and which was used by the 



180 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

highland sportsmen to cut the throat of the wounded deer, and afterwards, in all 
probability, to carve and. help the smoking haunch;, the powder-horn, generally set 
jauntily off with cairngorm and silver mountings, and hung by a silver chain, although 
we suspect that in most of these little matters, a smjrking spirit of small dandyism has 
encroached upon the veritable simplicity of the garb of old Gael- A whiskey fla^k was 
seldom, however, left out of the list of the. mountaineer's equipments. We observed 
that the present fashion of disposing of the mountain dew for a djay's trudge among the 
hills, is to, plg.ce it in a miniature barrel, very much like that carried by Continental 
vivandieres, and certainly, to our minds, neither elegant nor likely to be convenient. 
The spirit, however, thus provided for, you imbibe by means of the quq&gji, or wooden 
drinking-cup, a handy little vessel, 'neatly scooped ou,t of a block of hard wood, and 
sometimes carved with taste and ingenuity round the rim,. The quaigh, is occasionally 
made very ornamental, and we have seen them with v,ery large and brilliant cairngorms 
let in at the bottom. The contents of an ordinary sized quaigh must be equal to at 
least two wine glasses and-a.-half; but hardy and strong-headed Donald will fill it to 
the brim with whiskey, perhaps eleven over proof, and turn it coolly over without a 
muscle wincing, or a pulse beating the faster for the exploit. In some of the more 
unfrequented parts of the country about the highland, line, where these wooden imple-r 
ments of festivity have found their way without bringing their Gaelic names along, with 
them, we have heard a quaigh called a tass, the word being, one of many hundreds of 
corrupted French expressions, which still live in old-fashione,d neighbpurhoods, to demon- 
strate the ancient social, as well as political alliance of Scotland and France against our 
" auld enemies of England." Above, the stall, and forming a. central top ornament,, was 
a magnificent red deer's head, with no less than fourteen tynes or branches, to his 
horns — an uncommon quantity, "a stag of ten" being generally reckoned to have a 
very liberal allowance of antlers. Beneath this was ganged a curious collection of very 
coarsely woven and peculiarly tinted stuffs, expressly intended for the use of the deer^ 
stalker, and dyed so as tjo resemble the most common patches of hue which prevail upon 
the dun mountain-side. Englishmen, who form their notion, of deer* from the delicate 
little creatures, no bigger than goats, but as graceful as Italian greyhounds, which gambol 
upon tjhe smooth shaven turf and the woodland vistas of our parks, have little idea of the, 
fierce,. powerful, majestic,, and thoroughly savage animal known as the red deer. It is but 
seldoni that the ordinary traveller in the highlands gets a glimpse of hjm. He must be 
sought, for in his own haunts. — in the wildest, most rugged, and inaccessible recesses 
of the. hills— and his vigilance must be evaded by the m©st careful and experienced 
manoeuvring. The red deer has an eye like an eagle's, and a nose like a bloodhound's, 
or even more delicate still, as a human being passing him to windward a mile off, com- 
municates a subtle taint to, the keen air, which hjis moist, and quivering nostrils — a 
perfect ball of acute nerves — cateh in a momen,t, and which is almost certain to produce 
a rapid flight, the animalj running perhaps a dozen of miles e?e it couches down again 
into the heather and fern. At some seasons, however, the red deer shows no such 
timidity or instinctive desire to take refuge in flight. Unwary wanderers in the hills 
have been suddenly startled at finding themselves confronted in a moment with a 
magnificent stag, who, emerging from £i,s cover, stands, all save his gleaming eyes and 
dilated nostrils, as rigid as, a stag of, bronze, gazing in grim silence upon the profaners of 
his temple of the wikierness. Occasionally we have, heard of large herds of deer, the 
hinds led by their magnificently antlered lords and masters, surrounding the astonished 
wayfarer, and after gazing for an. uncomfortably, number of very long minutes at the 
intruder, as if giving him to understand, by the silence and solemnity of the ceremony, 
the dreadful, sacrilege of which he had been guilty in penetrating their enchanted 



OP THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 181 

domains— in an instant, upon' a toss of the head of the ancient leader of the herd, 
leaping rounds and in a moment disappearing in the cover of the surrounding copse. 
Ibe reader can conceive the difference between these thoroughly wild creatures of the 
wilderness, as perfectly savage in their nature, as when the boar and the Caledonian bull 
were their compeers in the waste, and the half-tamed roes, which form picturesque groups 
in English parks; or the carted stag— Nelson or Billy— which is turned out of a waggon 
and chased like a hare across stubble and clover fields. All other game may be shot, but 
the red deer must be stalked. You walk coolly over the stubbles or over the heath, 
and bid the luncheon be ready by one o'clock, under such a tree or at the side of such 
a spring, and there you empty your bag and count the partridges or grouse, as the case 
may be. Not so with the red deer; you start rifle in hand and telescope slung across 
your back, upon an indeterminate expedition, perhaps of days; you walk as many miles 
over moss and moor, up vast sloping mountain sides, or down wild and rugged mountain 
ravines, as would suffice for many a tolerable pedestrian in the south over- a turnpike 
road; you examine, hour after hour, with the glass the great dun slope of the opposite 
side of the glen. Then perhaps you have to make half-a-score miles circuit to " wind" 
the game, or to get to a ford in a deep river, or a ferry over a narrow loch. Then, 
approaching the slumbering herd, perhaps you have to crawl a mile or so upon all-fours, 
painfully dragging your rifle with you, and hardly daring to breathe, far less to speak ; 
or you have to wade, waist-deep, double the distance down some roaring stream, or 
up it, which is worse; and after all it may chance, after fifteen good hours' work of 
walking, running, climbing, creeping, crawling, and wading, that some unexplained 
alarm is taken, and that, in thorough anguish of heart, you see the coveted antlers still 
beyond rifle reach, moving gaily off above the cover. No help for it — dash yourself 
down among the heather, execrate the whole race of stags, deers," roes, hinds, and does, 
but bid Donald prepare the "braxy" and the kebbuck; unsling your flask or little 
"anchor" of mountain dew; make your supper (it will be sure to be a good one) ; spe- 
culate with the faithful gillie about the likely- whereabouts of the herd to-morrow, 
and then, rolling yourself from head to foot in as many folds of the tartau plaid as the 
web will admit of, fix your eyes for a space upon the dark mountain tops cutting 
rounded or peaked slices out of the clear blue sky, all twinkling with stars, and bidding 
bold defiance to a distinct chilliness in the atmosphere, nay, perchance, even to a touch 
of early frost, go soundly to sleep amid the deer's-foot and the bracken, to be on foot 
next morning before the dew-drops, lit by the sun, are gemming with diamonds the 
purple of the heather. 

The proper style of costume for this class of sporting is peculiar. It is essential that 
it be very strong, very light, warm and fleecy ; not too easily soiled ; and that the colour 
or the prevailing colour harmonize with the most frequent shades of clustered vegeta- 
tion upon the mountain side. All these essentials were fulfilled by the specimens of 
fabrics exhibited in the highland stall, and all these fabrics were manufactured from 
the native productions of the hills — the wool, in some cases, undyed, the coat of the 
black-faced highland sheep; the tinctures in other cases applied to it, extracted from 
highland herbs, barks, and mosses, so as to impart to the stuff the exact hue of the 
original plant or lichen; the thread spun upon the distaff by old highland crones and 
buxom highland lasses ; the warp and the woof crossed by means of a hand-loom of 
the oldest fashion; the entire work, indeed, done in the hills from the productions of the 
hills, and by the natives of the hills. The cloth thus produced is well worthy. of atten- 
tion, from its stoutness, elasticity, evenness of fabric, and honesty of manufacture. 
You certainly might be looked at askance were you to sport the stuff in Regent-street 
or the Boulevards ; but for the hill, the loch, and the moor, it is the beau ideal of 

3 a 



182 THE GBEAT EXHIBITION 

apparel. The cloth was shown Of several colours, each produced by a native dye: 
some of these dyes have been long known in the highlands ; others were new, particularly 
one from a species of moss locally called " crotach," and the colouring matter extracted 
from deer's-foot, one of the most beautiful herbs of the North, Clad, then, in such 
garments, the sportsman has the best chance of escaping the vigilant eye of the red 
deer, which may range, over the hill-side without being able to separate him from the 
heather or the lichen in which he may be lying. The cloth, is of course, excellent for 
sporting and country purposes in general as well as for deer-stalking ; and as such we 
should be glad to see its use made a fashion by English sportsmen on their annual visit 
to the moors. Handloom weaving of coarse stuff is certainly not a very exalted or 
economically profitable industry for a country. But, at all events, it is better than no 
industry at all; and it may be very well combined with the small agricultural opera r 
tions to which the greater number of the weavers devote a portion of their time. We 
shall rejoice, then, to hear that the manufacture of home-made sporting stuffs flourishes 
in the North, convinced that it will bring along with it useful habits of industry, of" 
course accompanied by the produce of industry to many a humble highland home. 
Mr. Macdongajl has been attempting, not only to get up new native , dye& but new 
native materials for cloths. He exhibited two stuffs which were great curiosities in their 
way. One was a cloth made out of the down of the bog cotton, and the other a fabric 
manufactured from the fur of the white or alpine hare. Both of these products, how- 
ever, may be considered of a fancy nature, as it is out of the question, that the raw 
material, should ever be supplied, in sufficient, abundance to make its spinning and 
weaving a regular means of employment. Knitting is another species of textile industry 
which is being extensively introduced in the north by the proprietor of the, late highland 
stall, and also, we believe, by Mrs. Mackenzie, of Grairloch, who takes measures for the 
transmission of the domestic labours with the knitting-needle of the people over a vast; 
district of the north-westerly coast to Glasgow, where the stuffs, admirably warm, fleecy,' 
and honestly made, command good prices. Mr. Macdougall has 600 or 700 women 
employed in the production of similar articles, and copious specimens were exhibited 
in his stall. The fleecy hosiery of the Shetland Islands, entirely wrought by the hand, 
has long enjoyed a very well-merited pre-eminence, and. is known as an article of com- 
merce. The manufacture now appears likely to spread to the mainland, and the 
knitting-needle, in company with the hand-loom, will, no doubt, be found capable of 
materially increasing the. scanty comforts of many a smoky bothy. One very rough piece 
of woollen was stated to be from St. Kilda, the furthest from the shore of the British 
subsidiary isles, and t,Q have been worked in a rude machine constructed in the island ; 
and some mits and warm gloves were shown, which also came from that locality. 

Altogether, then, the highland stall was, to a great extent, satisfactory. It, presented 
us with favourable specimens of certain infant local industries, and; afforded samples 
not only of new materials of textile manufacture, but of new ways, of combining and 
colouring them. We could have wished for a collection pf highland agricultural and 
fishing implements, and of specimens of the ordinary furniture of the bothies, to show 
the low and degraded condition in which, as regards physical comfort, the people are 
living; but, in the absence throughout the North of that public, spirit which, in other, 
districts of the island, is, so strong, we can only so far congratulate ourselves, that a single 
individual came forward to exhibit; at least one phase of the industrial highlands, 
composed, indeed, almost wholly of infant efforts at production, but which were so 
excellent of their kind, and so promising for the, future, that we can only hope that 
an extensive and extending demand will reward the efforts of the promoter, and the 
labours of these work-people of the far north, in their new and experimental career. 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 183 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DEPARTMENTS-flonfoW. 

TTT ^™ EAS tx, LAMPS-liAN&ALS ° E BBAZI EES-BASrN S) EWEES, AND SHEEBET CUPS, CAOT 
f™ VT """-^"""-COmTBOOn-flOID embboideeed shibt-molbayia* 
SLEDGE— FIBE-ABMS, SILKS, ETC. ETO.— VABIOUS ABTIOLES EROM TUNIS. 

The contributions from Turkey were exhibited in a bay at the north-east angle of the 
transept where by their gorgeous variety of bright colours and embroidery, they 
produced a very ^ striking effect in the general coup-d'ceil on entering the building. 
Apart altogether irom its intrinsic worth, is, moreover, the interest naturally attaching to 
the industry and productions of an empire the condition of which must always be 
regarded by the Englishman as of vital importance. Turkey justly looks to Great 
Britain as one of the foremost, the sincerest, and the most potent of her allies and 
friends; while Great Britain cannot feel indifferent to all that illustrates the internal 
condition of an empire that fills up so much of the vast space intervening between our 
Indian dominions and the central countries of Europe — an empire which includes within 
her territory the mouths of the Euphrates and the shores of the Persian Gulf on the one 
hand, and on the other divides with Austria the kingdom of Croatia. 

In many of the products of Turkish industry we distinctly recognise a close analogy 
to what the ancients have left behind us of their domestic manners; much of the 
ancient forms found by the Moslems in the countries which they conquered have been 
left with little alteration. Of this no one can doubt who paid attention to the 
collection in question, from the brass lamp with its scissors, pincers, and bodkin, still 
used in many parts of Italy, to the arabesque plaster moulding and other slightly altered 
traditions of the world, of which the excavations of Pompeii have given us such inter- 
esting. glimpses. But it is not the conquerors of the empire of the East that entwine 
themselves with our modern sympathies. Gibbon, with all his rhetorical splendour, 
illumines, but does not vivify the Amrus, the Saladins, and the Amuraths. Uhland, 
in one of his most exquisite sonnets (" Kaiser und Dichter") contrasts the duration of the 
conquests of princes and bards; and all must agree with him, who visited this col- 
lection, and think less of those who trod over great monarchies than of those who 
depicted the manners and superstitions of the Orientals. Not one in a hundred of those 
who visited these interesting collections, remembers that three centuries ago all Europe 
quaked with terror at the name of the Grand Turk, and that Solyman the Magnificent 
was an even more powerful sovereign than Charles V. ; but all remember, and none 
ever will forget, the heroes and heroines of the "Arabian Nights Entertainments." 
The Ottoman empire is now an essential part of the "grand tour;" and, therefare, 
many who paced the Crystal Palace may have had comparatively little new to see in 
the Turkish department ; but these few form, after all, an insignificant portion of the 
hundreds of thousands who have never seen either the Black Sea or the White Sea, 
the desert, or the palm grove ; but are, nevertheless, familiar with the sayings and doings 
of the guarded city of Bagdad,, from the street porter with his weary burthen; to the 
caliph himself, attended by Jaifar the Barmecide and the redoubtable Mesroua-el-Siaf. 
It is, therefore, the latter portion of our fellow-countrymen that we invite to accompany 
us in a tour through the objects that appeared on the tables and in the stalls contributed 
by all parts of the Ottoman empire. 

Prominent in the centre of the tables stood a large machine of glittering brass and of 
elegant form, which looked like a huge tea-urn. This was a mangal or brazier, for 



184 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

charcoal, with which apartments are heated in winter. People in England may abuse 

our climate as they choose, but they may rest assured that in many respects it is not easy 

to find abetter, for we are neither roasted in summer, nor frozen in winter; and at 

Christmas time recommend us to the sun of WalTs-End or Newcastle-upon-Tyne, which 

blazes in every snugly carpeted English parlour, in preference to the charcoal of the 

most elegant mangal that ever was constructed. The mangal stands in the centre of the 

room, and a coverlet being thrown over it, the ladies of the harem sit around it in a circle, 

and thus warm themselves in a manner not the most healthy or improving to the 

complexion. Beside the mangals were the basins and ewers, such as are used for washing 

before and after food — the servant holding the former in his left hand, while the water 

is poured out with his right. Here, too, were sherbet cups, the Bohemian practice ot 

gilding stained glass having been originally borrowed from the East; and we need 

scarcely say that the European offspring excels by a long way the Oriental parent. But 

those shown at the Exhibition were creditable to the manufactory of Ingekyoi. _ It is 

climate that suggests the quality of diluents ; and while the North is cunning in the 

distillation of strong liquors, the South is equally remarkable for the ingenuity with 

which cooling drinks are compounded, from the choice lemonade and orgeat, to the 

delicious chopped-ice sherbet with the orange flower flavour. Let it not be supposed 

that it is only in idleness and in the arts of pleasing that the ladies of the East pass their 

time ; here, to be sure, were ingenious cosmetic boxes, with various compartments 

for the different dyes used in adornment : they are equally skilled in the useful and 

domestic arts, and the ladies of the highest rank are acquainted with the art of preparing 

such drinks. In that of preparing fruits they even excel our own housewives, and a 

very large mother-of-pearl frame for embroidery reminds us that the most beautiful 

dresses of the wealthier classes are the product not of the professed milliner, but of the 

domestic hareem. 

The military character of the Turks was sufficiently recognisable in the collection ; 
many objects showed them to be essentially a nation that mounts much on horse-back, 
lives much under tents, and has adapted its habits to military locomotion. It would 
take too much space to enumerate the articles illustrative of this part of our subject : 
their camp dishes fitting into each other and easily portable, their lanterns that shut 
up and open out like magic, and many other articles, showed that with the Orientals 
there is not, as with the Europeans, that broad line of distinction between the habits of 
residence and the habits of locomotion that exists in the West. It is not merely the 
aboriginal and nomade habits that account for this ; there is a political reason : the 
constant fear of the great dignitaries of the empire acquiring a formidable local influence, 
causes a perpetual circle of recalls and nominations in order to maintain in efficiency the 
functions of the central government ; this produces a great deal of movement from one 
end of the empire to the other on the part of those dignitaries, military and civil, 
who in the Ottoman empire stand in the place of a hereditary aristocracy. Thus, 
whatever is portable, whether diamonds, carpets, or shawls, is . prized ; hence, too, the 
expensive velvet, and gold embroidery bestowed on their saddles. And instead of such 
ponderous fixtures as the European writing desk, the pianoforte, and the organ, there is 
the diminutive cocoa-nut, or brass inkstand and pens for the hours of business ; or for 
the hours of diversion there is the light reed nay or flute, the lute, or the violin, of the 
most primitive construction, such as one sees in the productions of the very early Italian 
painters. But we are getting into a tangled web of philosophy, instead of proceeding 
with our catalogue raisonne of the different objects. An examination of the collection 
of beads repaid trouble — the habit of passing beads through the fingers being as inveterate 
with many Turks as the perpetual wood-whittling of a Kentucky man ; we have even 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 185 

known an individual who weaned himself from this practice, and who yet never met 
another person with heads without being unable to resist the old temptation, and beg 
for them to pass through his fingers. 

Fezes from Tunis and Egypt there were in abundance, and also plenty of stuffs for 
wrapping round them hanging in various parts of the collection, from simple cotton to 
fine shawl; but we saw no regularly wound and made up turban, such as is worn in the 
East, although we observed a not uninteresting substitute in one of stone or plaster, 
such as usually adorn the cemeteries of the Turks. The water-pipes were uncommonly 
beautiful ; we mean those in which Bagdad timback is smoked through snake-formed 
tubes, and which, from the noise produced by the passage of the air through the water 
is commonly called the hubble-bubble. In those vases and in the snakes were found a 
skilful attention to effects of colour ; and if we pass to other objects, such as dresses, 
shawls, scarfs, girdles, we may remark that the suitableness of very bright and contrasted 
colours to these warmer climates, springs from the semi-obscurity of apartments partially 
darkened to exclude the heat and light of the sun. It was the Venetians that most fully 
understood this phase of the beautiful. Hence, in consequence of the limpid depth of 
his shadows, the boldest colours of Paul Veronese never shock us, which is certainly more 
than can be said of Rubens, with all his genius and facility ; and this peculiar quality of 
the Venetian school could never be attained by northern painters living in climates 
where every effort is made to get as much of the sun as possible, nor by any set of men 
whose eyes are not educated to the effect of brilliant colours in every variety of sombre 
shadow. From tracing the connexion of Venice with the manufactures of the Levant, so 
frequently introduced into the Venetian pictures, the observation of the relation of the 
Levant to the arts of Italy cannot be considered as a baroque transition, and those who 
took an interest in the old potterv of Faenza might remark the prevalence of that 
Faenza-like green and yellow in the rude pottery of Tunis. 

Such observations are made for the many who paid their shilling, and not for the 
season-ticket holders, who have lounged up and down the Levant, and may have made 
such remarks for themselves ; but even to the homme blast, in relation to Oriental life, 
there was much to fix attention. A jar of dates is a jar of dates, but certainly a 
common jar of Barbary dates has not the same interest for us as one from Medina, grown 
under the aeronautical sarcophagus of the prophet himself. One jar of curdled milk 
is like another ; but when we know that the one before us is that of an African ostrich, 
it ceases to be common milk. " Would you like to give a guinea for one of those 
spoons ?" said a friend who conducted us through this portion of the Exhibition. " We 
should be very sorry." " Well, there is one that you cannot have for less than £30 
sterling." We saw that it was not of tortoise-shell nor of ivory, but something of 
excessively fine texture, between the two, and learned that it was a beak of the spoonbill 
heron a bird now so rare that it promises to become at no distant date as extinct as the 
Megatherium or the Ichthyosaurus. Even the specimens of ingenuity degenerating into 
the baroque were not without interest: here was a wooden chain, each link perfect without 
a ioining and cut out of one piece of wood, a piece of laborious handicraft. On seeing 
a shirt almost stiff with gold lace, we were reminded of the quaint pages of Southey s 
Doctor who on reading of some man who had a shirt of gold and a shirt of silver-thread, 
declared his preference for the perhaps unkingly but more comfortable nether garment of 
Flanders linen. And much as we have praised the Turkish aptitude for the portable, 
it was scarcely without a smile that we passed the odd combination of a chibouque and 

^BuHt^walTotTereiy the gratification of a fastidious curiosity that rendered a visit 
to the Turkish collection attractive; it was in fact the best and most interesting lesson 

3 B 



186 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

in physical and commercial geography, in, relation to so large a part of the world, that 
has hitherto been offered in this metropolis, Turkey has neither the scattered colonies, 
such as the British empire, nor has she the vast extent of territory possessed by Russia; 
but no state in the world is, to use a German phrase, so many-sided, or presents such 
contrasts of productions and manners in consequence of the diversities of her nations 
and climates; and her vast contiguous territory is rather ruled by Turks than quickly 
settled by them, for they are rather the conquerors than the colonists of the wide 
territories stretching from the Caucasus to Algeria, from the Adriatic to the Persian Gulf. 
Most travellers dilate very largely on the vices and corruptions of the Turkish adminis- 
tration of the various departments of government ; but it cannot be denied, that although 
the march of government is less regular than in Europe, the state itself is without the 
burthen of a national debt; that the internal taxation, although somewhat arbitrary in 
application, is, upon the whole, very light. The principal cause of this is the very large 
revenue which she derives from a scale of customs duties fixed upon solely with a view 
to revenue, and not adapted to produce an artificial scarcity favourable to the few who 
have to sell a particular commodity, and injurious to the general interests. 

We usually associate the Ottoman dominions with heat rather than with cold ; but 
there was exhibited an elegant sledge from Jassy, the capital, of Moldavia, which showed 
not only the love of luxury in the boyars of that principality, but reminded us that 
Russian vicinity has imprinted Russian manners on a part of the Ottoman empire, 
which, from its level plains and severe winter, in no way belongs to the East as sung 
by the Byrons, Goe'thes, and Moores, and which, if it has not the azure skies of summer 
climes, has, throughout the length and breadth of its territory, the thick rich alluvial 
soil which makes the plains of the north of the Black Sea a granary of all Europe, 
and procures for the boyars of those principalities incomes far exceeding those of 
the average of the impoverished noblesse of the continent of Europe. We therefore 
see that the manufactures of those parts spring from their economical circumstances; 
they have neither silks nor velvets, but their wax-lights, and other modifications of 
native productions, surprise by their cheapness. t 

On crossing, in imagination, the Danube into Turkey in Europe, we found in this 
exposition comparatively little to remind us that Ternovo, a city of Bulgaria, was, at 
the end of last century, one of the most active manufacturing towns in Europe. But 
in Turkey much the same phenomenon is to be found as in India — the immensity of 
British capital and machinery has swallowed up the smaller industries, as the large fishes 
eat the small, and the two thousand looms of Ternovo have fallen down to a mere 
remnant. The Turkish Exposition was, therefore, less remarkable for its manufac- 
tures than for those articles in which patient and ingenious handicraft was exercised upon 
manufactures, such as the embroidery of female articles of dress ; among which we may 
specify gold upon a light-blue ground, silk of various colours worked upon white muslin, 
and the winter dresses, remarkable for their elegance, the best combination of which was 
black silk upon a chocolate ground. In Albania, that land of mountain warfare, it were 
vain to expect the results of either capital or machinery. The turbulent character of the 
population was brought to observation by the excessive elaborateness of their rifles 
and pistols, which are as much an object with a wealthy Albanian as a horse to an Arab, 
or a carriage and a box at the French theatre to the boyar of the principalities. In the 
vast plains of Roumelia, we observed signs of a climate more genial than that of the prin- 
cipalities, and of a population less turbulent than that of Albania. The sight of the 
cotton and tobacco of Macedonia was pleasantly relieved by the fragant odour of otto of 
roses from Kasanlik. The heavy articles of export were not so much from the capital 
itself as from Salonika, Smyrna, and other ports. The camtal is the receptacle of a large 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 187 

mass of British, French, and Austrian manufactures, annually exported to Turkey, hut, it 
is at these other ports that vessels seek their return cargoes. As a place of manufacture, 
Constantinople itself is a sort of Paris to the eastern world, and productive rather of the 
diversified objects of luxuriant convenience adapted to eastern usages than of articles of 
first necessity, which recommend themselves by cheapness and general use. For instance, 
the cymbals of our military bands were originally introduced from the Bast, which is 
shown by the habit of the cymbal players in various European armies still wearing an 
oriental costume ; and we were amused on seeing an English inscription, rudely engraved 
on a pair, which runs as follows ;—" This sort of zieh was invented by Mr.Kevork, a.d. 
1730; and the present has been manufactured by his grandson's grandson, Mr. Kirkov, 
a.d. 1851. — Psamatia, Constantinople." 

After contemplating the very neat model of a Bosphorus kaik, and having taken our 
readers across the marvellous and beautiful river of salt-water, flowing between its 
umbrageous banks to the Sea of Marmora, let us occupy ourselves with the Asiatic portion 
of the Ottoman contributions, which is still more highly favoured by climate, richer in 
classical associations, not less remarkable for natural capabilities, having mineral and 
agricultural wealth — much of it, alas, too dormant considering its advantages ! — being 
bordered with most excellent ports from Trebizond and Samsoun round to Marmorice, 
and other ports on her southern coast, which everywhere present themselves to facilitate 
communication. Here was the copper of the mines of Tokat ; here was the excellent 
sword cutlery of Adana ; here was the wealth of the waters of the Archipelago, the 
sponge torn up from the depths of the Mediterranean by the boldness and ingenuity of 
the diver, with the still adhering oyster; here was the large black wheat of Konich, the 
ancient capital of Turkish power, long before the sons of Qrchan became the terror of 
Europe ; and here, too, were those large and excellent Turkey carpets, which stand their 
ground so successfully against the skill and capital of our own Kidderminster. 

Let us now make haste to cross the Taurus, and get into Syria, which has much to 
interest both in the way of natural productions and manufactures. Latakia exhibited 
tobacco, beyond all comparison the best either of the New or the Old World ; for no 
American tobacco is in delicacy of flavour equal to that grown in the mountains between 
Tripoli and this place. The silks of Mount Lebanon and of Broussa, in Asia Minor, 
were also put together, and were well worthy of an examination. The silk of Syria has 
been until lately unsuited for exportation to England, in consequence of its being long 
reel; but, latterly, by the exertions of M. Portalis, a French merchant in Bey.rout> and 
of the active and ingenious Messrs. Barker, of Aleppo, sons of our late well-known Con- 
sul-general in Egypt, manufactories, with improved machinery, have been established by 
the former firm in Mount Lebanon, and by the latter gentlemen at Suedia, near the 
mouths of the Orontes, with such results as to leave no doubt of the advantages likely 
to accrue from an extension of British capital in this direction. On passing from 
the coast to the interior, the great cities of Damascus and Aleppo arrested our attention 
by their manufactures of mixed silk, cotton, and gold thread, equally remarkable for their 
richness, their elegance, and their substantial strength, being universally used for the 
holiday dresses of the inhabitants of those countries ; the ingenuity and machinery of 
France and England having produced no successful imitation, these native manufac- 
tures, along with those of silk sashes for turbans and girdles at Tripoli (Syria), still 
continue to vegetate, although certainly in a decayed condition. Of other manufactures, 
the saddle from Damascus was characteristic of the country, but did not give a favourable 
idea of the ingenuity of the Damascenes. What a European most prizes is ,their 
excellent preserved fruit, the whole territory that surrounds the town being one vast 
orchard, intersected by the seven-armed Barrada; while the principal art and handicraft 



188 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

of the place — which is that of mosaic pavements, the beauty of which strikes all strangers 
— is not of a nature offering capability of being shown in an Exhibition such as we are 
describing. As for Arabia — that waterless land of stones, sand, camels, and starved 
shrubs — so lacking in corn, wine, and oil — so contrasting to Egypt with her flesh-pots, 
and fertile rather in rhymes and metaphysics than in the good things of this world — it 
certainly had very little to show ; but, as a natural production, the coffee of Mocha was 
not to be despised. 

In a department of the building near the south end of the transept were to be found 
the Tunisian contributions to the Exhibition, guarded by persons whose attire instantly 
recalled many a tale of Turkish or Corsair life, and almost rendered one dubious as to the 
reality of a scene in which such mentally and traditionally fearful individuals were playing 
the part of competitors in the peaceful arts. When a few glances had reassured the spec- 
tator, and he had time rapidly to draw a favourable comparison between the present and 
the still recent past, he might begin to examine some of the objects presented to his view. 
In a glass-case of huge dimensions were to be seen an assemblage of curious articles 
of dress, all heaped together in not unpicturesque confusion. Conspicuous amongst them 
were several riding-hats, circular in form, not very unlike a parasol, minus the handle, 
and of a girth which put to' shame the broadest brimmed straws seen in this country 
in the hottest summer; the materials of which they were composed were feathers, 
figured satin, &c. In the same case was a lady's dress of figured satin, of smock fashion, 
the breast decorated with rich gilt embroidery. A gentleman's Gloak was similarly 
adorned, and some striped figured bed-hangings also invited inspection. In ledges round 
this case were contained various ornaments for female use, consisting chiefly of gold and 
silver bracelets and necklaces, and of what, for want of a better term, we must call silver 
anklets — these last being silver ornaments for feminine ankles, yet of so massive a 
description, that it would be difficult for the uninitiated to conceive how they could be 
worn, except indeed in a state of complete repose. The little boxes which bordered the 
case contained also handkerchiefs and neckerchiefs, slippers, gilt pouches or wallets, and 
other slight articles of personal application. The steed of the wealthy inhabitant of 
northern Africa has often been pourtrayed as the object of lavish adornment ; and of 
this kind of display the people of Tunis afforded some interesting specimens. The 
most prominent equestrian article exhibited was a gorgeously gilt saddle, so large as to 
form what are commonly described as the trappings of the animal, as well as a seat for 
the rider. This article had an extremly rich appearance. The decorative work, if it did 
not appear particularly delicate on a minute inspection, produced a dazzling effect at a 
short distance. The back portion of the seat rose perpendicularly in front j a pistol 
holster was attached to either side of the fore part of the saddle, and the stirrups, of 
highly polished brass, were shaped like a shovel or flat scale. Every provision was made 
for the safety and ease of the rider. There was another saddle of blue velvet, destined 
for female use, richly embossed and gilt, having polished silver spurs. Amongst the per- 
sonal attire there was one article which, though small, deserves a brief notice. It was a 
cap of ordinary Turkish fashion, but of very rich materials, designed to be worn by 
either male or female in the juvenile period of life ; it had depending from it a rich 
sweep of gold fringe terminated or fastened at the extremity with small circular orna- 
ments. Amongst a mass of objects on one side of the department were morocco boots 
and slippers, in great variety and abundance ; knives in cases, straw hats of vast circum- 
ference ; and baskets of dates in such numbers as to justify a suspicion that they were 
brought by the exhibitors for use as well as display. There was also a lofty wooden gate, 
having two folds and several panels, the latter laced with bamboo. The productions of 
the country were deposited in glass jars. They were of a very miscellaneous character, 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 189 

comprising pomegranates, almonds, raisins, corn, butter, and many other equally familiar 
and equally useful articles. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

STAINED AND PAINTED GLASS— continued. 

GENEBAL ETTLES TO BE OBSEBVEB — COMPABISON OF BIEFEBENT STYLES — ANCIENT ANB MOBEEN 
WOBKS— EBBOBS IN MOBEEN IMITATOE8 — LARGE PAINTED WINDOW BZ BEETINI OF MILAN, 
"BANTE ANB HIS THOUGHTS" — CAPBONNIEE OF BBUSSELS. 

Of the glass paintings, displayed in the Exhibition, there were some whose subject was 
a picture, a pattern, an heraldic device, or an intermixture of these three ; and some of 
the pictures, and of the pattern glass paintings, appeared to have been designed and 
executed in a particular style of their own. The various works thus presented so many 
different points for consideration as to render it impossible to lay down any one general 
rule for deciding on their pretensions ; but by stating as concisely as we can the prin- 
ciples by which we have been guided in making the following observations, an opportunity 
is afforded of ascertaining their correctness or incorrectness ; and the exhibitors may be 
enabled to draw their own conclusions as to the opinions which we entertain of the merits 
of their works. 

It is hardly necessary to observe that glass painting must be judged by a different 
standard from that which is applied to other kinds of painting. The material employed 
imposes upon the artist an obedience to certain conditions in the design and execution 
of the work. His object should be, not to produce the best possible picture, but the best 
brilliant and transparent picture. Among the excellences which are equally essential to 
a good glass painting, and to an oil or fresco painting, may be mentioned, — a design 
which is pleasing in itself, and which is composed with reference to the effect sought to 
be produced at the distance from which it is intended to be viewed, correct drawing 
(which includes the course of the shadows as well as the outlines), and harmony of 
colour. But such a composition must be chosen, and such a mode of colouring must be 
adopted, as are calculated, among other things, to display to the best advantage the 
brilliancy and transparency of the material, and to accord best with the mechanical 
construction of glass painting, which, unless it is of very moderate dimensions, must 
necessarily consist of several pieces of glass, connected together with lead or other metal, 
and supported with iron bars. As a general rule, the best, because the most effective, 
composition for a glass painting (not being a mere pattern), is a single figure, or a 
group consisting of foreground figures, with either a landscape, an architectural, or a 
plain coloured background ; the landscape, if any, being treated as a mere accessory to 
the group. And the mode of execution, which appears to display to the best advantage 
the brilliancy and transparency of the material, is, where the colouring is chiefly produced 
by means of glass coloured in the manufacture ; where the shadows are transparent, but 
have hard and sharp edges ; and, above all, where a large proportion of the lights are 
left clear and unencumbered with enamel paint. 

Of the correctness of this view, so far as it relates to the sort of composition, and to the 
mode of colouring best suited for a glass window, we have less doubt, since nearly all the 
exhibitors have acted consistently with it ; but we also find that our opinion of hard- 
edged shadows and clear lights is opposed to the practice of nearly all the exhibitors, 

o C 



190 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

including those most distinguished Dy their works. To their authority we can only oppose 
that of the glass painters of the first half of the sixteenth century, when, owing to the 
similarity of the material, the conditions of glass painting very closely resembled thrt 
conditions of modern glass painting ; and we would invite a comparison of such works, as 
for instance, the window of the chapel of the Miraculous Sacrament, on the north side of 
the choir of St. Gudule's Cathedral, Brussels, and the two transept windows of that 
cathedral, with the windows of Gouda Church, Holland, and of Amsterdam Cathedral, 
both which are of the last half of the sixteenth century, with any of the works now 
exhibited ; and if it appears that the Brussels and Lichfield windows are more brilliant, 
more glass-like, and (allowance being made for modern improvements in drawing) as 
j pictorially effective as any of the other works to which we have referred, then we are 
' justified in considering that the limit to which the obscuration of the glass may be 
carried was reached at the end of the first half of the sixteenth century, and, consequently, 
in regarding the works of that period as standards of true glass painting by which other 
works of similar nature may be judged. The question, however, must ever be matter of 
opinion, and must ultimately resolve itself into a question of taste, which can only be 
determined by actually making the comparison suggested, and inspecting the windows 
themselves. In estimating, then, the merits of a glass painting, we have to consider, first, 
to what extent the conditions of the art have been observed ; secondly, its artistic merit 
as a picture or painting. According to these principles, a work in which the composition 
and drawing are indifferent, but which displays vivid and powerful colouring, or is brilliant " 
in effect, is preferable, as a glass painting, to one which is dark and dull, but in which 
the drawing and composition are good. Of this we have a striking example in the ante- 
chapel of New College, Oxford. Sir Joshua Reynolds' window, with all its excellencies 
of drawing and composition, is not to be compared in effect with the rude windows of 
Wykeham's time that surround it. Still, though a due regard to the conditions of the 
art is of such preponderating weight in the merits of a glass painting, other artistic qua- 
lities, as has been said before, are not to be overlooked; and, consequently, of two 
glass paintings in which the conditions of the art have been equally observed or equally 
violated, that is to preferred which displays the highest merit in composition, drawing, 
and other qualities of a good picture. 

But besides the two points of view just mentioned, in which a glass painting is to be 
considered, it is necessary, in order to estimate the quality of a work professing to be 
executed in imitation of any ancient style, to judge of it with reference to the standard 
which its author has himself chosen. To condemn it, on the one hand, if it falls short 
of the model which it professes to follow, and fails in the effect which it professes to 
produce ; and, on the other hand, perhaps to make some allowance for peculiarities which 
would be objected to as faults, if they were not excused by the necessity of adhering to 
some characteristic feature of the adopted style. On examining an original specimen of 
any ancient style of glass painting, we cannot fail to be struck with the general har- 
mony of its features. Not only does a strict consistency exist between the character of 
the figures and of the ornamental details, but these agree with the nature of the design 
and mode of execution, which again seem to be adopted and formed with reference to 
the nature and quality of the material used. The changes effected in process of time in 
the composition and texture of the glass appear to have involved, in the opinion of the 
ancient artists, corresponding changes in the very condition of glass painting. 

In all the glass paintings of earlier date than the last quarter of the fourteenth century 
— until which period the material commonly in use was not over clear, substantial in 
appearance, or intense in colour — the articles seem to have relied for effect principally on 
the richness and depth of the colouring. In these works the means of representation 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 191 

may be said to have been reduced almost to the lowest degree. Even the picture glass 
paintings are little else than exceedingly powerful and brilliant mosaics. The figures are 
hardly distinguishable from each other, nor from the back-ground of the composition, 
otherwise than by their outlines and local colouring. The style of the painting is simple, 
bold, and forcible, as if the artists apprehended that softness of finish and nice grada- 
tions of light and shade would be useless and ineffective, and deemed those qualities to 
be alike incompatible with the simplicity of the composition, the positive character of the 
colouring, and the general brilliancy of the work. The drawing is effected by thick 
black outlines, which always strengthen and sometimes even supply the place of broader 
shadows, and these shadows, when compared with those of later times, are weak, and are 
in great measure lost in the depth of the local colouring ; which circumstance, however, 
renders their hardness the less perceptible. The same style of execution is extended 
to patterns as well as to pictures. The design is traced on the glass with firm and strong 
outlines ; and it is hardly necessary to remark — for this is observable in every original 
work — that the harmony in form and character between the figures and the ornamental 
details, proclaims them to be the production of the same hand, and the conception of 
the same mind. In all subsequent glass paintings, until the revival of the more ancient 
styles, which took place about twenty-five years ago, we may observe that in. proportion 
as the glass became more pellucid, more flimsy in substance and appearance, and less 
powerful and intense in colour, a less mosaic and an increased pictorial effect was aimed 
at. The weakness of the individual colours was in a great measure compensated by their 
employment in larger masses, by judicious contrasts, and by harmonious arrangement. 
Their depth was increased by means of broader and more powerful shadowing, and a 
certain degree of richness was imparted by the more liberal use of diaper patterns and 
other minute embellishments. The drawing became more delicate, nicely graduated and 
highly- wrought shadows were t® a great extent substituted for stiff black outlines, and in 
many instances considerable attention was paid to perspective and to atmospheric effects. 
In short, it would seem that the artists considered that the more refined nature of the 
material demanded as well as favoured a more refined pictorial treatment, and sought to 
compensate for its comparative thinness and weakness by the introduction of beauties of 
another description. The new system, it is true, was hot fully developed until the middle 
of the sixteenth century ; but its commencement may be easily traced as far back as the 
end of the fourteenth, by which time the principal change in the nature of the material 
had taken place. 

Many persons, and among them some whose opinions are entitled to consideration, 
differ from the opinion that the material used previous to 1380 has not hitherto been 
successfully imitated ; but on a point of so much importance we are bound to retain our 
opinion until convinced of its fallacy. That there is a visible difference in the appearance 
of modern glass and of that belonging to these early periods is admitted; but it is 
attempted to be accounted for by the supposition that it is solely due to the effect of 
age and exposure to the weather, and that the ancient glass, when first put up, must 
have appeared as weak and flimsy as our own. But as it is evident, on breaking a 
piece of ancient glass, that the effect of antiquity is confined to its surface, the above 
supposition is destroyed by the observation, that modern glass whose surfaces have, 
by artificial means, been reduced as nearly as possible to the same condition as that of 
the old glass, fails, nevertheless, in its resemblance to the old. One of the most favour- 
able examples of the closeness to which imitation of the thirteenth century glass can be 
carried by splashing the glass with enamel brown and other expedients, is afforded by a 
window recently put up in Mans Cathedral (the third clerestory window from the west 
on the south side of the choir). We are unable to say by whom it was painted. But 



192 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

although the design, owing to the breadth of its colouring, is favourable to modern 
glass, the deception is decidedly incomplete. Equally unsuccessful are the admirable 
restorations of the earlier thirteenth century windows in some of the apsidal chapels of 
Bourges Cathedral, executed, we believe, by M. Lusson. The modern glass may here be 
easily distinguished from the old by its want of crispness and its thinness, although it has 
been obscured in imitation of the effect produced by age and long exposure to the 
atmosphere. We are strongly impressed with the opinion, that the difference in effect 
between such ancient and modem glass does not depend on the state of the surface, 
but on the composition of the material ; and this opinion has been much strengthened by 
the result of some chemical experiments recently made, by which the very great difference 
in the composition of modern glass, and that of glass of the thirteenth century, is clearly 
demonstrated. Assuming the truth of the foregoing observations, it is obvious how 
important a bearing they have on modern imitations of the ancient style of glass painting. 
Those of the periods earlier than the last quarter of the fourth century having 
to be worked out in a mode of execution adapted to, and formed with reference to, a 
material very different from that of the present day, and therefore labouring under a 
disadvantage which hardly any skill or ingenuity can overcome; whilst, on the other 
hand, the glass of the present day resembling that of the fourteenth, or still more closely 
that of the sixteenth century, there is proportionably less difficulty, as far as material is 
concerned, in the way of the successful execution of works in the style of these periods. 

The defects which appear to us to prevail the most generally are— First, the misappli- 
cation of the materials, so that works which would have possessed merits as enamel 
paintings on china or any other opaque body, are, as glass paintings, weak in colour and 
deficient in transparency. The ill effect of thus confounding the principles of painting 
on an opaque surface with principles of painting upon a transparent body, like glass, are 
strikingly exemplified by observing, in the works of this description in the Exhibition, the 
difficulties the artist has had to contend with in the management of his material, 
notwithstanding the dexterity of his handling. The vividness of effect produced is barely 
superior to that of an oil painting, and in tone, transparency of shadow, and general 
harmony, the glass is very inferior to a painting in oil. The metallic framework which, 
in every well-contrived glass painting, is conducive to the good effect of the work, is here 
an eyesore, imparting to those outlines which it follows a harshness which does not 
accord with the elaborate softness which many of our modern artists have adopted in lieu 
of the severer style of their predecessors. 

Secondly. Non-adherence to the style, which has been selected by an artist for imita- 
tion in any particular work. For instance, we have sometimes found associated together, 
in the same glass painting, borders in the style of the fourteenth century, canopies of 
the fifteenth, and figures of the sixteenth. In others, though the ornamentation is drawn 
and executed in the style of an early period, the figures are either wholly in the style 
of a later one, or else accord with the ornamentation only in the drawing or com- 
position; the elaborate softness of their execution having been borrowed from a 
considerably later period. Others, in which the drawing, mode of execution, and com- 
position of an early period are scrupulously observed, both in the figures and ornamental 
details, are executed in a material, which, owing to its greater pellucidness, is essentially 
different from that in use at the period chosen for imitation; so that sometimes the 
different portions of the design itself are incongruous ; sometimes the design is of such a 
character as to be unsuitable to the nature of the material in which it is worked ; and 
we may add that the various attempts which have been made to imitate the richness and 
depth of the ancient material, by coating the glass with enamel paint, have produced no 
other effect than that of depriving it of its brilliancy, and consequently the glass paintings. 




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OF -THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 193 

in which this expedient has been resorted to, of one of their chief and distinguishing 
merits. These observations apply, in our opinion, very generally to the modern style 
of imitating ancient glass paintings. Improvement in the style of drawing, and many: 
other beauties, were to be met with in the objects exhibited in Hyde Park, but these 
beauties were too often neutralised by the defects to which we have ventured to allude. 
The works were not original compositions, nor were they correct copies of the various 
styles which they professed to imitate. 

Bertini, of Milan. " Dante and his thoughts."— In point of size, harmony of design, 
and beauty of drawing, this window was certainly entitled to claim a first-rate place ; 
nor was there any work in the Exhibition, which, taken as a whole,- was so superior to it 
as a glass painting, as to prevent its merit as a work of art preponderating. Its defect 
was certainly the want of general brilliancy. Except in the Queen's glory, in letters 
of the inscription over Dante's head, in the shields below, and the wreath surrounding 
his name (all. which were true specimens of glass painting), and in the border of the 
windows, there were no sharp clear lights ; and although pot-metal or flashed glass' 
was used in 'places, as in Dante's robe, in the steps of the seat, in the sky to Domenico 
and Francisco, and in the robe of the figure in No. 4, it had been reduced to the same 
opacity as that of the enamel colouring employed in other parts of the window. The 
subjects taken from the infernal regions, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, were scarcely fitted for a 
glass painting, which is not suited for dark effects. The whole Work was executed with 
so much softness, and was so highly finished, that the metallic fastenings had a harsh 
effect, and formed black lines, which did not harmonize with the delicacy of the painting : 
and though in general they were concealed with wonderful skill, yet they appeared in 
places, and riveted the attention the more the window was looked at. It may seem pre- 
sumptuous thus to criticise one of the best works of the day ; but the admiration which 
we felt for it, has led us to compare it more rigidly with the windows at Brussels, and to 
arrive at the conclusion that it would suffer by comparison in point of general effect, 
though it would doubtless be superior to them in artistic refinement and drawing. Com- 
pared, however, with the more modern works, it appeared to advantage ; for the 
quantity of white light introduced in the upper part of the design, in the Madonna, and 
in the tracery above, the angels, the crockets, and above all, in the ornamental bands or 
fillets which served at once to connect together and to frame the different subjects, 
imparted to the window a silvery or glass-like effect, which none of the others pos- 
sessed, and which completely rescued the work from the imputation of being like a 
fresco' painting. The execution of the crockets and of the, foliaged ornaments round 
the shield was quite perfect; but perhaps the greatest display of skill is the manner 
in which Dante's head was made to stand free from the chair's back. The representa- 
tion of one of the ladies' silk dresses and of the lining of Dante's cloak^was a wonderful 
achievement in painted glass, and perhaps could not -be 'accomplished >in a- work in 
which clear lights were consideredindispensable. In conclusion, we have only further to 
observe; that the defects which we have ventured to' notice are those which ^preva^ very 
generally in the works of the present day; but the beauties exhibited by M.Bertinl in 

^^^f^SS^&^S^t^ -t.of glass .painting appeared to 
have fen compned with, on the wh6ki in this work more fullyHhan'itf any -tibm ^ of 
ln»lhr sunerior size in the Exhibition : for not only was the drawing good the corn- 
equal or ™FJ™« nd calculated for distinctness of effect at a distance, but the angular 
cTaS S'the "ra^S and A, fineness and decision of the. entire .execujon were 
.S^raMY suited to the nature of painted glass. The style principally- followed was hat 
ofXfiSt half of the sixteenth century The absence of clear light, and over-pamting 



194 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

of the head of the principal figure, were to be regretted as deviations from what we 
consider to be a correct observance of the style adopted. Still it is impossible to refuse 
to this composition a first-rate place. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

EDINBTJEGH EEVIEW — LETTEBS EEOM M. BLANQUI — EIBST IMPBESSIONS ^— CLASSIFICATION — 
WEALTH OF ENGLAND — ME. PAXTON^INAUGITEAL DAT, ETC. ETC. — LETTEE II., GBANDEUE OS 
THE EXHIBITION — ENGLISH HOSPITALITY — BEPBESHMENTS — PBENCH DISPLAY — ENGLI3U 
"MACHINEEY — BOHEMIAN GLASS, ETC. ETC. 

"With a prescient glance, savouring of vaticination, an able writer in the Edinburgh 
Review, descanting on the great theme of the day, the topic of all hearths, the 
chosen subject of Fame — after detailing the enormous extent of labour and research, 
the unheard-of expenditure of materials employed in the composition and printing of the 
mighty, catalogue, whose myriads of copies flowed in so vast a stream through all parts 
of the civilized world, — gives promise of future still more elaborate works on the 
inexhaustible treasures of the Great Exhibition. 

With the fact before our eyes, exclaims our writer, that the average number of 
volumes in ten of the largest libraries of the world* exceeds but by one half the vol- 
umes thus pushed into circulation, we cannot feel much surprise that this catalogue 
should, like Aaron's rod, have swallowed up the whole literary activity of the last twelve 
months, and that the ordinary book trade of the country should have been almost 
altogether suspended. Nor should it be forgotten that much of the knowledge and 
information — forming the staple of the book trade in ordinary times — has been forced 
into new and unaccustomed channels by the necessity for. its rapid dissemination 
within the limited period of the illustrations remaining accessible. In almost all of our 
Reading political journals the new facts of science and art, dressed up with all the attrac- 
tiveness of news, were related in a form that admitted of easy modification in their 
statement, and discussion in their bearing. That this lull is but the prelude to 
animated gales we feel confident. The past few months have been a period of patient 
suspense or critical examination. We have had the things themselves before us A 
knowledge of their qualities must precede any theoretic analysis. It is also a most 
important fact, which seems to have been little regarded, that the leading scientific 
minds of Europe have been hitherto in a measure bound to silence and secrecy, from 
being included iu the lists of the juries. But let this seal, be once removed — let the 

critical reports of thirty sections, and at least one hundred and twenty sub-sections 

giving the history of what has been, and is, and guesses at what ought and will be 
in every department of knowledge — and we have little doubt that a goodly array of 

commentaries, theories, systems, in the old established form of full developed tomes 

besides all the lighter skirmishing of pamphlets — will soon make their appearance. 
It is scarcely too much to predict that for every three lines in this catalogue (the average 
length of a description) we shall soon see at least one or two works issue from the press 

* Number of volumes in Bibliotheque du Roi, at Paris, 650,000; Munich, 500,000: Couenhairen 
400,000; St. Petersburgh, 400,000; Berlin, 320,000; Vienna, 300,000; British Museum 270 000- Dres- 
den, 250,000j Milan, 200,000; Gottingen, 200,000; Bodleian, 160,000; Trinity College, Dublin,' 100,000. 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 195 

either questioning or discussing the merits there claimed, or the abstract principles 
involved in their statement. The wrongs, hardships, and injustice which have been 
hitherto tamely endured, by all whose contributions have been placed by the jurors in 
any other than the highest category of merit, will find a vent when these violations of all 
truth and reason become known. To this prediction might have been added, with equal 
certainty, the foretelling of the appearance of a variety of works, on which all the 
industry and talent of our best artists would be employed to illustrate and perpetuate 
the recollection of the Great Wonder of the Age. Our spirited and liberal publishers have 
done their best to ensure a high station for the present work among the numerous com- 
petitors with which it is surrounded, and we trust, from the success and the praise it has 
already met with, as well as from our anticipations for the future, he will be able to 
exclaim with the poet — 

" Opus exegi sere perennius.'' 

Foremost among those writers, who rushed to the literary field to bear testimony to the 
grandeur and excellence of our magnificent Exhibition, were the French, who, with their 
usual generous and chivalrous feeling, accorded their full meed of praise to a rival 
nation. We have already noticed the observations of M. le Moinne, and now turn to 
those of M. Blanqui, a member of the Institute of France, which, from time to time, 
we propose to lay before our readers, and which we hope will equally serve for their 
instruction and gratification. 



LETTER I. 



The first impression created upon the mind of the spectator on beholding this Jmag- 
nificent structure, erected with almost miraculous rapidity, is that of marvel at its gran- 
deur, simplicity, and elegance. All the proportions are maintained with consummate 
art, and with mathematical precision. The horizontal measure of 24 English feet was 
taken as the unit of the building, every horizontal dimension of which is either a certain 
number of times or divisions of 24 feet.. For instance, were it required to elevate any 
part, two pieces of 24 feet were placed one on the other, and thus a height of 48 feet was 
obtained; and in the same manner a height of 72 feet is reached by the addition of 
another piece of 24 feet. The same as to length or breadth, which is always a multiple 
of 24. The result has been the formation of a symmetrical palace, constructed of 
pieces of cast-iron of equal length, fastened together with iron bolts, and nearly all cast 
after the same pattern, or, as we should say in political economy, of. the same standard. 
Should it be found necessary some day to pull down this edifice, it may be taken to 
pieces, and rebuilt elsewhere without any change. The building consists of an immense 
nave, transversely intersected by a shorter one, called the transept, of a height sufficient 
to enclose trees of venerable growth in perfect preservation, producing a most charming 
effect. An upper gallery, approached by numerous and commodious staircases, runs 
along the whole of the building. From this point I was enabled fully to enjoy the 
magnificent spectacle of the opening ceremony, at which there were present more than 
20,000 persons, most of whom were arrayed in the most elegant attire. The English 
papers will not fail to give you the details of this splendid solemnity, to the Mat of which 
our organs and organists greatly contributed. It was truly a noble and most imposing 

Previous to entering upon my feeble labours with regard to this great Exhibition, I 
must give you a general outline of the manner in which the different nations are classed 
in the respective places allotted to them. England has retained for herself half of the 
ground— the entire of the western part of the Crystal Palace; and it must be acknow- 



196 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

ledged that she has so well filled it that she cannot be blamed for having appropriated 
to herself the lion's share. The space in the eastern side is divided— it must be con- 
fessed somewhat unequally — among all the other nations, and in this portion France 
bears the palm. The transept is like the equator of this industrial world. China, 
Tunis, Brazil, Persia, Arabia, Turkey, and Egypt, are grouped near to it like a kind of 
torrid zone. Conspicuous among the colder regions stands Switzerland, whose exhibitors 
have distinguished themselves by their promptitude, and the happy arrangement of their 
contributions. There they are united like the children of one family, with exquisite 
taste and the most pleasing harmony. Be assured they will create an impression. 
Spain, and even Portugal, Italy and its different states, have sent products, doubtless 
insufficient to exhibit their agricultural and manufacturing position ; but these second- 
rate states have contributed works of art or raw materials of a somewhat original 
character. 

France was really not ready, and a few hours before the opening, a crowd of exhibitors, 
in their shirt- sleeves, might be seen hurriedly arranging their most beautiful wares. As 
regards taste, art, and elegance, nothing was wanting ; and I may say that the general 
impression was, that France was pre-eminent in its artistic superiority over all other 
nations. If I might venture to hazard an expression without wounding any one, I would 
add, that all the products, from whatever part they have come, have a common and 
provincial apppearance, when compared with those of France. The French articles alone 
bear that stamp of elegance which is due to the talent of our designers, and to the 
incomparable skill of our artists. To execute anything to equal them, other nations 
must deprive us of these, and, unfortunately, the revolution of February has lost us 
more than one. The United States, which occupy the eastern extremity of the large 
nave, and whose Eagle, with outstretched wings, soars over the whole Exhibition, have 
sent mostly raw materials, and few manufactures. It is said that they have sulked, and 
it would be unjust to judge of their industrial power from the specimens — moreover 
very remarkable — which they have exhibited. Austria and the Zollverein of Germany 
are the nations which, together with Belgium, occupy the most distinguished rank 
after France. 

Austria exhibits products sufficiently remarkable to astonish the most competent 
judges, and those best acquainted with the country, from having made it their especial 
study. Russia is still behindhand ; but it is generally understood that the contributions 
from that country, impatiently looked for, will manifest a progress not less astonishing 
than that of Austria. That which struck at the first glance the most practised judges, 
were the truly novel and curious raw materials from India, Australia, and the American 
colonies ; among the contributions of England, the carriages, the machinery, and above 
all, the chemical products, which are admirable — prodigious; in Austria the glass- w irks, 
shawls, and carved work; in Belgium, the lace and fire-arms; in Switzerland, the 
muslins and ribbons ; in France, the works in precious metals of Oudiot, the bronzes, the 
shawls, the carpets, the cloths, and the woven goods of Alsace. When you cast ^our 
eye upon this panorama of the industrial world, your attention is so much divided that 
the sense aches at it. But, be assured, that from henceforward the English have 
inaugurated a new era. The whole world will receive a lesson in that country, where 
the peaceful struggle of nations is proceeding with so much iclat. 

In order to draw as much instruction as possible from this inexhaustible field of 
study, it behoves us to omit nothing essential. Everything here is so different from 
what we are accustomed to see, and all has succeeded so well, that we may find plenty of 
matter of useful information, if we will lay aside, for the nonce, our nation 1 pride. Thus, 
first, to speak only of the idea itself, the mere enunciation of it was sufficient to excite the 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 197 

enthusiasm of ail the leading men of this country. They assembled; they calculated 

&£ ■ f T TTT w^' W °, rth y of the ™d«rtakingj they appealed to the most 
distinguished architectural talent of all countries; and when it became necessary to find 
the requisite pecuniary resources, the Bank of England opened its treasures, upon the 
sole condition of obtaining security for the sums it might advance. Immediately the 
highest and wealthiest of the land hastened to co-operate in this great national work by 
offering the guarantee of their fortunes. Noblemen came forward, some to become 
security for £8 000, some for £20,000, others for £40,000 pounds. One private indi- 
vidual is said to have subscribed to the guarantee fund for £50,000. Whilst this significant 
proot ot the confidence of the wealth of England was given, the subscribers for the 
season-tickets added their guarantee to that of their munificent countrymen, who so 
spiritedly had come forward to carry out this grand project, which originated in France, 
but, like many others, with such barren results for our country. It is now almost 
placed beyond doubt that the undertaking will not only be most advantageous to 
England, but that there will be a large pecuniary surplus. Mr. Paxton, the able designer 
of the Crystal Palace, itself unquestionably the most wonderful specimen of English 
industry, on the opening day headed the royal procession. It was at the express desire 
of Prince Albert that this public honour was paid to the . architect who had erected a 
marvel to enshrine so many other marvels. Thus England; after bringing to an auspicious 
termination the project of an universal Exhibition, did not forget worthily to honour 
those who so much contributed to its success. Gould there be a more popular sight, 
I would ask, than that of this humble architect, this builder of hot-houses, walking at 
the head of the royal procession of the Queen of England on such a day ? The interior 
order of arrangement of the building is also beyond all praise. The nations are 
arranged in order, according to the importance of their contributions, and are distin- 
guished from each other, either by having the names or the flags of their respective 
countries displayed over their compartments. The approach to all the stalls is perfectly 
easy, the circulation everywhere free and commodious. The articles are exhibited in 
classes^>machinery, carriages, and woven goods, of the same kind, being pretty generally 
placed together. Each nation has had perfect liberty to fit up and arrange, according 
to its own peculiar taste and fancy, the bays and glass cases for the display of its goods. 
Hence a diversity has resulted, not less interesting than the goods themselves, and which, 
in a somewhat original fashion, represents the characteristics of the various nations 
enlisted in peaceful struggle. England, which, as I have said before, has appropriated 
to itself one-half of the entire space, had to provide, besides, the best means of insuring 
the comfort of the visitors, and the embellishments which should make the great building 
worthy of its destination. These results have been most happily achieved by the dis- 
tribution in the middle of the principal nave of all the large casts or pieces of sculpture 
contributed by Prussia, France, and Belgium, but particularly Prussia. At intervals 
several gushing fountains, one of which is a magnificent crystal one, spread freshness 
and animation over this vast space; through which reverberate the sounds of three organs 
erected in the most original and picturesque fashion. Lastly, some venerable trees, pre- 
served as a kind of scale by the aid of which the height of the immense fabric may be 
measured without effort, add the charm of their rapid vegetation to this graceful and 
imposing ensemble. Such is, in its simple grandeur, the general aspect of the Exhibition 
of all Nations. On the inaugural day there were upwards of 25,000 persons present, 
and yet the extremes of the building appeared like a desert. The hum of these thousands 
of voices was hardly to be distinguished, and was really lost in this aerial fabric, from 
which an azure glimmer, like that of the firmament, was shed upon the multitude, pro- 
ducing a most singular and unexpected effect. Nothing, also, can be more striking than 

3 E 



198 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

this buzzing of so many different languages and the chequered array of the many gro- 
tesque costumes of all these foreigners. 

Each nation occupies an unequal space at the universal Exhibition ; and it is but just 
to remark, that several among them — foremost of which is our own — are only represented 
in a very imperfect manner. It is evident that the North Americans have only sent to 
this great gathering some indifferent goods, and they have had to give up to neighbouring 
exhibitors a portion of the space which was useless to them. A few ploughs, some 
canoes, some very inferior maps ; such is the actual stock of the North American portion 
of the Exhibition; but every one acquainted with the industrial skill and laborious 
energy of that great people must admit that its productive powers are not represented 
by these few sorry specimens. Spain has furnished little beyond raw materials, some 
wool, a few silks, and scarcely any woven goods. Catalonia, the last haunt of the pro- 
tectionists of that country, has not exhibited anything. It feared, not without reason, 
being crushed by the comparison of its wretched cotton cloths with those of the whole 
world, and being called to account by the Spanish people for the tribute which it levies 
upon them, almost without profit to itself. But the experience will not be the less 
decisive; and, by allowing judgment to go by default, the ashamed protectionists will not 
be the less condemned — some for their impotence, as in the case of Spain, others in 
consequence of their inferiority, denied by themselves, and from motives of cupidity, as 
in France. At every turn in this Exhibition the truth strikes every one. Only look at 
the Sheffield cutlery ! what admirable variety ! what richness ! what amazing cheapness ! 
as the English say, with pride and with reason. And we have also reason to say — 
" When our manufacturers shall have iron and steel at more reasonable prices, they will 
manufacture equally well." But our iron-masters will not have it thus. Look, again, 
at the English carriage department, exhibiting such variety, richness, and elegance ; yet 
the importation of carriages is prohibited in France, and France is thereby deprived of the 
means of comparison and imitation, which would greatly benefit the coachmakers them- 
selves. And so to the end of the chapter. We shall demonstrate, beyond the shadow of 
doubt, that there would be no want of superiority in our manufactures from the day 
when France, exempted from the tribute which is levied upon her under the guise of 
protection, shall, in the plenitude of her liberty, exert herself without undergoing or 
imposing the yoke of restriction. 

This fact is especially striking on examining the Swiss department of the Exhibition. 
Switzerland occupies in the building a limited space. It is a land of free trade, 
mountainous, and without facility of communication, and, nevertheless, it has acquired a 
very distinguished rank in European industry. It -is really wonderful to see the 
elegance of its Basle and Zurich ribbons, its embroidered muslins, its taffetas, and its 
velvets, worthy to vie with the school of Lyons, whence, doubtless, they derive their origin. 
Austria, although it leaves much to be desired on the score of taste, even in its Bohemian 
glass, and although exhibiting a great want of design in its exquisitely-carved furniture, 
still merits an honourable place by the side of the Zollverein and of Russia, which 
seem to exhibit more life and progress. 

I will not at this stage venture to hazard a premature judgment. It is only after an 
attentive and comparative study of all these innumerable products, that it will be possible 
to attempt expressing a serious and profound opinion on so many chefs- d'cmvre, and on 
the relative value of each country. Suffice it to say, that, as regards France, our manu- 
facturers of Lyons, of Mulhouse, of Tarare, and of Boubaix, had scarcely commenced the 
arrangement of their goods, notwithstanding the zeal and diligence of the commis- 
sioner-general, M. Sallandronze, whose attention and courtesy are above all praise. It 
certainly was not his fault that goods left at Dunkirk, or at the railway station at Paris, 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 199 

were not displayed sooner. But we shall have lost nothing by waiting: and I dare to 
assert that, in spite of numerous gaps, the French exhibition will ever be what it ever has 
been in our own country, as elsewhere, unique for good taste, gracefulness, and elegance 
in every department. ° 

LETTER II. 

Before giving any definite opinion upon the ultimate results of the Exhibition, I shall 
have much to say with regard to it as a whole, its grandeur seeming to increase the 
more minutely it is examined. The observer is, as it were, carried away by magic from 
country to country, from east to west, from iron to cotton, from silk to wool, from 
machines to manufactures, from implements to produce. You wander to and fro, your 
eyes perpetually dazzled by a kind of mirage, scarcely being able to cast even a glance at 
the visitors from all countries of the world, who are, nevertheless, not the least curious 
articles of the Exhibition ; for, if there is a vast quantity of goods in all the galleries, 
there is also a crowd of Englishmen, of Germans, of Frenchmen, of Turks, of Italians, 
of Spaniards, of Indians, whose motley costumes deserve the attention which is still 
withheld from them, in consequence of. its being diverted in a thousand directions by the 
all-powerful fascination produced by the magnificent spectacle of so many chefa-d'ceuvres 
of human industry. I cannot too strongly recommend to my fellow-countrymen to come 
and visit this marvellous Exhibition at all hazards. They may be assured that, during 
the course of their lives, they will not look upon its like again. But, first, we must 
warn them against the spirit of depreciation which has distorted the truth in several of 
the French papers. It is not true, as it has been unscrupulously asserted, that no 
exhibitor has been admitted without paying three guineas for a season ticket; all 
exhibitors, on the contrary, have free admission on presenting a ticket issued at the 
office of the commissary-general. Neither is it true that apartments are enormously 
dear ; they are not let higher than usual, and they are not all occupied. All classes in 
this country manifest eagerness to show hospitality to strangers. To whatever rank they 
may belong — for here there is rank — strangers are sure to find, among their equals in 
position, friendliness and cordiality. There is nothing talked about but friendly soirees. 
To commence with the scientific. The president of the Royal Society is this month 
to give three routs to the savans of all nations. Lord Granville has thrown open his 
mansion, and the queen will give several halls. All the corporations are making 
preparations worthily to entertain their guests. The lord mayor is to give a splendid 
entertainment at Guildhall, to the principal manufacturers who have contributed to 
the success of the great undertaking. Were I at liberty to quote names, besides those 
of official persons, I could furnish you with a really curious list of the most eminent 
men in various walks, who have deemed it a duty to do the honours of their country to 
the entire world summoned to this great federation. But, above all,, those whom 
I would desire to see arrive in crowds at the Universal Exposition, are the French 
artisans. Our great manufacturing towns and manufacturers cannot make too great 
sacrifices to send over the largest possible number. A special agency should have 
been established in London, with the view of facilitating to them the study of those 
questions which interest them most, and to initiate them into those marvels of art, the 
bare sight of which elevates the mind above our miserable pothouse politics. French 
workmen stir abroad too seldom, and even then rarely beyond France. In coming to 
London they would, with very little effort and at a trifling expense,, make the tour of 
the world — they would learn more in a week's visit to London than ever they learned — 
excuse me saying so — in clubs, when clubs were in existence. 

It is here, in fact, that we must come to learn what industrial trophies the spirit of 



200 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

order and the genius of man, bent to industrial discipline, can achieve. Only think 
that this immense Crystal Palace has been cast, piecemeal, and put together in less 
than six months ; cast is literally the word, for there was not so much as one piece of 
glass and iron of the myriads of pieces which compose it, in existence in the month of 
September last. And when within its precincts even now we observe the admirable 
order which reigns throughout, when we behold thousands of labourers assembled in 
silence in small groups at meal times, under the direction of their foreman, with an 
almost military discipline, afterwards leaving through the small exit-doors, without 
confusion or hindrance to the public, we can better understand this wisely-regulated 
power, master of itself, which forms so striking a contrast to what we behold in our 
country. Permit me to add some details which, I think, will not be without interest to 
the visitors from our country, and which may, perhaps, induce others to come to this 
great gathering. The arrangements for the disposal of the space have been so well made 
throughout the whole of the building, that even on the most crowded days there has never 
been the slightest obstruction. Sixty thousand persons can walk about with ease, and at 
the same time without being in the least incommoded. A large number of easy seats 
are distributed along the entire length of the galleries for those who are fatigued. 
Three large refreshment-rooms, where everything is sold at moderate prices, according 
to a tariff conspicuously displayed, afford visitors the opportunity of spending the whole 
day in the building without being obliged to leave to take their meals. The price of 
an immense catalogue, by the aid of which anything may be found with the greatest 
facility, is limited to one shilling. 

Nevertheless, our countrymen do not as yet arrive in large numbers, and notwith- 
standing the activity which they display, the French expositors are still behindhand, 
without a pretext for excuse like Russia, whose goods were detained by the ice of the 
Baltic, As these magnificent goods are opened to the view, and are displayed in the 
places allotted, to them, the influx of visitors commences. Already the English ladies 
may be seen gazing with rapt admiration at our gallery of shawls, at the jewellery 
of Froment Meurice, or the works in precious metal of Odiot. What will it be when 
Lyons and Mujhouse will have displayed their unrivalled productions ? Our cabinet- 
makers of the Faubourg St. Antoine have been greeted with a general burst of admira- 
tion. They alone, up to the present moment, are completely established in the gallery 
which has been apportioned to them, and their works immeasurably surpass anything 
that has hitherto been attempted in this branch. Oh, matchless workmen ! why do you 
not make more furniture and fewer revolutions. That great branch of English 
industry, machinery, is now also beginning to work. You know that the English have 
conceived the happy idea of erecting outside the building a steam-engine, conveying 
by means of subterranean pipes the motive power throughout the building. It has been 
so cold during the last few days that the steam, being condensed on its way, did not 
reach its destination; but since it has, a vast number of spinning, weaving, and other 
machines, may be seen at work side by side, directed by workmen in the costumes of their 
countries and calling. One of our men who had the charge of a spinning machine, having 
the other day tied a broken thread, "Bravo, Frenchman!" exclaimed a number of 
voices, and overwhelmed him with applause. Everywhere the principals exhibit their 
machinery to the public with the utmost readiness. Pumps, of which there are several, 
°u n( £ el v nd P°y erful effects > ^ow out veritable cataracts. It is in this department that 
the English shine and are pre-eminent above all other nations. Their immense display 
of machinery resembles an artillery park. There are engines for steamers, of 700 
horse-power, of incomparable perfection; gigantic eight-wheeled locomotives of novel 
construction, Crampton's patent, said to be capable of running seventy-two miles an 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 201 

hour with perfect ease. Their hydraulic presses surpass all proportions hitherto known. 
They have exhibited the one used in raising the Britannia Tubular-bridge, that vast tube 
suspended in the air through which runs a railway, and under which a ship of the line 
can pass at full sail. Besides these huge specimens of engineering art, there are on all 
sides hundreds of small machines, executing before the public the most ingenious tricks, 
from the manufacture of knife-handles to that of letter envelopes. In the different 
processes employed by the English, it is easy for an attentive observer to discover the 
distinctive character of the nation in point of political economy. They work particularly 
by means of their capital, and in everything they have recourse to mechanical means. 
Their Crystal Palace is composed of three or four different models of cast-metal, of which 
they have worked off some hundred thousand of copies, of which they might, in case of 
demand, immediately publish five or six editions. Their printed calicoes, which are 
not equal to ours in taste, surpass them in cheapness, thanks to their mechanical power, 
which enables them to produce millions of pieces, and thus almost reduces to nothing 
their general expenses. The bold reform which they have made in their tariff and 
navigation laws has been an actual increase in the wages of their workmen, the interests 
of whom the government takes to heart, and for whom it acts more efficaciously than 
our government, without a perpetually heaping of stale and fulsome compliments upon 
them. But it is, above all, in the lower qualities of the raw materials that the English 
shine. This department of the Exhibition will be visited with care by reflecting minds, 
who know the real source of national wealth, and where an enlightened people should 
go in search of it. The English Exhibition offers in this respect a spectacle worthy 
of the liveliest interest. They have exhibited with a proud simplicity, the most varied 
samples of their subterranean produce. Among these may be enumerated, within and 
even outside of the building, enormous masses of coal from all their mines, with small 
models of the works of the mineralogic sections, and all the accessories of this curious 
industry. They have likewise exhibited specimens of all their building-stone, their slates, 
their chalks, their plasters and their mill-stones. Their iron, coal, lead, tin, and copper 
mines, are represented by the richest collection of minerals, in every stage of preparation 
and on an immense scale. Everything is explained by drawings, models, tools, forges, 
and furnaces, and the whole is worked by little figures similar to children's toys. 

It is evident that few of the English producers have failed to answer the summons to 
the general gathering, and the more carefully the great gallery is visited— that is to say, 
half of the entire space occupied by the English— the more one is struck with the display 
of power and riches of this great people. The struggle, in fact, is only between them 
and us. Belgium and Germany, no doubt, deserve particular attention ; but the real 
competition is between Prance and England. All the other nations will only, in this 
strife for the palm, play the part of supernumeraries. They themselves admit the 
inimitable superiority of the two great industrial powers of our time. It by no means 
follows that therefore the efforts of Austria, Kussia, the Zollverein, and even of 
Switzerland, can be spoken lightly of; but all these united would be unable, for the 
present at least, to enter the lists with the two first manufacturing nations of Europe. 
It is by studying in detail the respective merits of all the people invited to concur in 
this great assemblage of nations, that we shall be able to award to each the degree of 
merit to which it is entitled. Saxony, for instance, has sent topographical maps ot such 
rare perfection, that, in point of engraving, they immeasurably outstrip the most 
wonderful things of the kind that have been attempted by Prance, England, or even 
the ordnance of Austria, so justly renowned in Europe. There is a map of the environs 
of Dresden, which is a real chef-d'oeuvre of its kind, and wel worthy the attention of 
our officers. The advancement of more than one art may be judged of by such specimens, 

3f 



202 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

which honour the nation capable of producing them. The glass work of Bohemia has 
upheld its old reputation, which our protectionist manufacturers have not dared to com- 
pete against. But protection, gentlemen, has had its day, and ere long, like feudalism, 
it will only be an insolence of the past. 

We shall at length penetrate the mysteries of the cost price system, and we shall know 
what tribute France pays to a few manufacturers who have hitherto levied a downright 
poor-rate upon her. Those who have refused to exhibit have impliedly acknowledged 
the futility and uselessness of the protective system. They feared the exposure in all 
its nakedness of a system which henceforth can have no other possible result than that 
of raising the price of things, and condemning France to dearth, whilst everywhere else 
nations labour to achieve cheapness. After international exhibitions, prohibition will 
become simply an absurdity. Is it to make us suffer the torments of Tantalus that 
we have been summoned to this grand spectacle ? What ! we shall not be able to receive 
at our domestic hearth a wadded sheepskin, a knife, a razor, a glass tumbler, a cast- 
metal chimney-piece, merely because there happen to be in France a few private 
individuals who imagine it to be to their interest that these things should be prohibited ! 

No, no ; this scandalous state of things cannot last long. France, I hope, will soon be 
tired of the reign of ignorant declaimers, and will profit by the unmistakable lessons 
which spring from the spectacle before our eyes. When the whole world shall know 
that the Almighty, and the genius of man, His noblest work, have created throughout the 
earth the elements of well-being by means of labour, and that a little commercial 
freedom would suffice to diffuse these blessings, it will no longer be possible to maintain 
the restrictions which lower us to the rank of nations still in their swaddling-clothes. 
All that we behold here cannot be a mere theatrical representation, calculated to 
amuse idlers, but a decisive inquest, at the issue of which the old Chinese brick-wall of 
the insulation of nations shall crumble away under the public scorn. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 



THE PINE AETS COTJET — AEMITAGE S STBIL OT PEACE — WOOD WHITTLING, ETC. — AMEER — 
ITALIAN PAPEE— WINSOB AND NEWTON — EOBEETSON, EOWNET, AND MILLEE— BAXTEE, AND 
KBONHEIM — ENAMELS BY ESSEX — WOOD CASTINGS — MECHl's PABM TESSEEAN AND EN- 
CAUSTIC TILES — LITHOGBAPHS — WXON's SEALS — PEINCE ALBEET'S MODEL LODGING HOUSES 
IOE FAMILIES. 

If, according to the philosophic axiom, " things are known by their opposites," then the 
pretentious title given to this portion of the Great Exhibition, of The Fine Auts Couet, 
was most wise and judicious, aptly illustrating the truth of the oft-repeated line of the 
poet, " Lucus a non lucendi." Every one more or less deeply versed in the cheerful 
subject of criminal statistics, has seen those strange foreign maps, in which the different 
degrees of moral culpability of a whole nation are rendered visible at a glance. Thus 
while some departments are made to assume an unenviable hue of black, others ap- 
pear on the contrary quite fair, with of course numberless shades between, denoting 
clearly the average depravity of these provinces. If an industrial map of this description 
had been made out of the contents of the Great Exhibition, we know of no compartment 
which would have come out of a more unmitigated black than the Fine Arts Court. 
It is quite incredible what an agglomeration of artistic delinquencies were there offered 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. g03 

to mortal vision, thinly scattered with perhaps a dozen works of real merit and sterling 
character. Foremost amongst the latter we would place Mr. Armitage's "Sybil of 
i-eace, whose attitude and expression seemed to indicate a doubtful sense of the 
honour or possibility of mixing in such company. Her glances seemed less directed to 
the smouldering implements of war at her feet, than at the dubious carvings, would-be 
new inventions, and the thousand knick-knacks, which would just have passed muster 
in some provincial museum. Perhaps one of the most deplorable symptoms to be met 
with m the Fine Arts Court was the boast of self-tuition ; and the egregious compla- 
cency with which this was announced, not to claim leniency for such efforts, but as it 
were calling for superior admiration at the results. Every man who could whittle at 
wood, who could handle card-board with a pen-knife, or design with a hot poker, at 
once fancied himself a prodigy; cork, elder-pith, bog-wood, and leather, were made 
to alternate in the abominable mimicry of nature. 

Before noticing more particularly the few good specimens of decorative manufacture, 
the raw materials of art collected here and elsewhere call for notice. At one of the 
nave entrances of the Zollverein department was an unpretending little box,, containing, 
besides numerous fragmentary specimens of amber, different solutions of this material, 
which have attracted the attention of the artistic community. In three small glass 
vials might be seen that problem to the ancients, the " magisterium succini" — a 
solution of amber, by means of alcohol or volatile oils. The " succinic acid" was here 
in a state as clear as it has hitherto been turbid. An ample account of this vehicle 
is to be found in Sir Charles Eastlake's able work. Merely indicating the subjects 
to those more immediately concerned therein, and pointing to the numerous specimens 
of amber, rough or ready, dug out of pits, or washed on the shores of the Baltic, we 
pass on. "Whilst every one must easily comprehend that Dantzic must always have 
the command of the amber trade, owing to natural or antediluvian laws, which 
cause the material to be blown on its coast, it becomes just as difficult to .under- 
stand why in Italy the manufacture of paper has remained stationary. Strange as it 
may seem, the drawing paper still in use is now made at the same place, and we 
believe by the descendants of the same firm which furnished Italy's greatest draughtsmen 
with materials ; the watermark clearly indicating Fabriano, between Ancona and Perugia. 
While thus seemingly digressing, we now arrive at the driven point. Both the northern 
amber-varnish and the southern paper are allowed to be the best for their several pur- 
poses ; and yet neither are to be had, except of course in the gross. Neither were to 
be found, for instance, in Winsor and Newton's splendidly got up case of artistic 
materials, in the gallery allotted to the chemical compounds. Here might be found 
in tempting array every vehicle from poppy to mastic, from copal to linseed, but no 
label pointed to the mixture exhibited by a Dantzic apothecary. Messrs. Winsor 
and Newton, of Rathbone-place, exhibited cobalts and cochineals, chromes and cinnabars, 
emeralds and ochres, canvasses and panels, brushes and badger tools, which even a 
Gerard Dow or a Mieris would in vain have called for. In the Fine Arts Court, Messrs. 
Robertson, Rowney, and Miller, erected stands of artistic manufacture. Whilst Messrs. 
Robertson had successfully solved the problem of blending copal and varnish into what 
is known as their medium, Mr. Miller had taken out a patent for having rendered 
colours verifiable, and in consequence more durable. Silica is the name of the substance, 
which is employed alike in oil and water colour. While, however, bearing ungrudging 
witness to the decided superiority manifested in the method of preparing and grinding 
colours, it is impossible not to perceive the glaring errors into which that very perfection 
may have led us ; and it is not going too far to assert, that all the schemes for producing 
paintings by mechanical processes, have ended in the utter discomfiture of the system. 



204 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

Messrs. Baxter and Khronheim can never be conceived to be even art's journeymen, as 
long as they imitate painting so abominably. Blocks, in the beads of these gentlemen, 
assume all the virtues of brains. If Mr. Baxter crams an incredible number of tones 
into a very limited space, Mr. Kronheim, on the other hand, offers some compensation, 
negativing his scale of harmony as far as possible. Both are supremely painful for two 
reasons — first, because they annihilate all sense of form and light and shade ; secondly, 
because the colours as put on are essentially false and inharmonious. This statement 
of plain fact is only warrantable by the strange infatuation with which these paintings 
are held up as miracles of power and invention ; they are as paltry in power as others by 
hand are the reverse. Nevertheless, as inducements to a more general love and study 
of art, they may be useful, inasmuch as to the uncultivated eye the display of crude and 
gaudy effects of colour, are more attractive than the sober and chaste realities of truth 
and nature. As a contrast to these puerilities, we need scarcely point to the enamels of 
Essex, in which surprising fidelity in reproduction is united to imperishable execution. 
Though Mr. Carrick does not lay much stress on intrinsic durability, it is but too evident 
that the relatives of those he has delineated on white marble, in preference to the usual 
ivory, will be anxious to combat with care, the effects of time on the too-fleeting colours. 
Other miniatures of royal ceremonies may possibly in time acquire that interest with 
which their execution as yet fails to invest them. By far the pleasantest features of 
this compartment were the wood-carvings executed by Wallis and Rogers. We shall, 
however, be brief in our notice of these objects, as we have already devoted a chapter to 
the subject in an earlier portion of this work. The first of these gentlemen, perhaps, 
followed a little too closely on the heels of Grinling Gibbons, in the way of composition, 
though perhaps he is superior in other respects. Mr. Rogers appeared to have nursed 
his reputation in his Cradle, — a most dainty and delicate piece of workmanship : he 
must, however, be on his guard against his finikin tendencies : the lime-tree and boxwood, 
doubtless, invite detail, but the British oak is not to be tickled with penknives. Larger 
tools were evidently employed on the Kenilworth buffet, exhibited by Cooke and Sons, 
of Warwick. It is massively constructed, and not over-elaborated with figures, and these 
skilfully executed; nevertheless, a more decidedly Elizabethan character would have 
been desirable. There was Elizabeth in one of her progresses ; there were courtiers and 
poets; and, more conspicuous still, dancing bears. Though sometimes, it is said, still to 
be met with on occasions of festivity, this animal has hitherto been confined, as a 
decorative member, to Bernese monuments. Pleasant associations, however, and difficul- 
ties vanquished, served to render the piece of furniture unusually interesting. The same 
could scarcely be said of the Irish bog-yew carving, which was made the medium of 
compositions of " Harpers in Tara Hall," Cormae and Brian Borohme. It is difficult 
to decide whether these, or the Edinburgh pier-table carvings, bid more defiance to an 
invisible foe than to the commonest rules of design. In comparison with these, the 
rough carpentry of the Victoria shiphead almost elicited admiration. One could fancy 
this figure already mounted on the prow of a vessel, and steering clear of the obstacles 
of an over-crowded harbour. The spectator might well wish to follow her example. 
Here to the right we fell foul of a three-decker, 120 guns ; to be sure, its substance was 
only cork, but cork of as inferior a description as the handicraft bestowed upon it. 
Turning away from this, and a little way off, you came in collision with the Dundee 
Anglo-Saxon arch, which manifestly bore off the palm of ugliness, only equalled by its 
originality. It would require the whole vocabulary of tracery to distinguish one after 
the other five orders superinduced. It would seem as if the architect was anxious to 
collect all the fragments of Saxon architecture into one composition, just as another 
gentleman thought fit to gather the valuable morsels of the shattered Portland Vase 




THE ROYAL CRADLE 

CARVED .BY ROCERS 




END VIEW OF THE ROYAL CRADLE 

CARVED BY ROOERS . 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 205 

Flying from the frigid ""Altar of Minerva" by Pidgley, one found pleasant shelter in 
Mr. Mechi's farm close by. While occupied with this charming model of rural agri- 
culture, the eye was insensibly attracted to certain azure combinations, tesserae and 
encaustic tiles; at once the mental vision wandered from the precincts of Tiptree Hall 
to the Hall of the Lateran. 

The lithographic ventures, as might have been expected, were highly creditable to us 
in the several branches of landscape, architecture, and their components. But it is 
lamentable to reflect that not the slightest hope was held out of mitigating that pictorial 
nuisance, the vast annual influx of foreign studies of heads and figures.' Admirable as 
are the productions of Hullmandel and -Walton; whose prints from Cattermple are only 
next best to originals: also the works of Haghe and D. Roberts, printed by Day and 
Son, &c, these either cannot or will not compete with Lemercier, Jullien, and Company. 
The fact is, that peculiar branch to- which attention is more' particularly directed on the 
continent, is with us entirely left to ticket embellishers. To the man through whose 
agency the world ; is made acquainted with certain incomparable pickles and pomade, 
sdap and salad oil, &c. (samples of which illuminated proclamations were most unaccoun- 
tably found -in the Fine Arts Court), to him, as the supreme arbiter of taste, was left the 
care of producing the most refined subjects. The consequence obviously served to 
deter the skilful artist from encountering his rough treatment. The seals executed by 
Wyon need no recommendation of ours. That proposed as a prize medal for the Great 
Exhibition promised to be a handsome reward, as well as a token of superiority. 

With these remarks, which we regret we cannot render more commendatory, we now 
dismiss the Fine Arts Court, and to refresh our readers by a complete change of scene 
and subject, invite them to a stroll outside the Crystal Palace, where, at the side of the 
drive, a little west of the barracks, stands a small block of neat, cheerful-looking, newly 
erected houses. These were the philanthropic work of the Prince Consort, who, in the 
midst of the splendid attractions of a court, and the pursuits of science and art in their 
higher branches, did not disdain to give a careful consideration to the condition of the 
hardworking artisan, in the humbler fields of industry. It was an intervention which 
was much wanted, which humanity had loudly called out for in vain, as all know who 
have inspected the abodes of the industrious and poorer classes, not only in the crowded 
city, but in the rural village ; for neglect for the sufferings of others, and a niggardly 
denial of the essentials of health, cleanliness, and comfort, have been equally mani- 
fested in the town and provincial districts throughout the country. This has long been 
a- crying evil, but too long only heard as the wail of the lowly and defenceless, and 
dependent classes, which found no way into the ears, much less into the hearts of those 
who should have heard their complaints, and solaced their rugged course of life by all 
means reasonably within their power. It was not until half-a-dozen years ago that the 
sanitary condition of the poorer classes was forced upon the attention of the legislature 
and the government, as a matter worthy of public consideration; and the pleadings of 
the humane and the warnings of the wise having been fearfully supported and confirmed 
by that providential scourge, the cholera, a board of health was appointed with certain 
powers, which have already been put in course of carrying into operation in nearly two 
hundred populous districts, with already very important and salutary results. Ihe dis- 
closures made by the inspectors appointed by this board, as to the wretched home accom- 
modation of the poorer classes, which existed' as a rule, with scarcely any exception, 
throughout the kingdom; the utter want of drainage,; of 'water supply, ,af the ordinary 
precautions for the means of personal cleanliness,- and the denial of the breath of life, 
through a wholesale and almost wilful neglect of ventilation, were such as to startle 
many even of those inhabitants of the very towns m which these -flagrant evils existed. 

O G 



206 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

The consequences upon the health of communities were also shown to be most serious, 
excessive mortality existing in some places to the extent of being two and three-fold 
what, with ordinary sanitary precaution, it might fairly be expected to be ; two and three- 
fold what it actually was in some other districts more happily circumstanced. Added to 
this, the charge upon the public purse in the cases of sickness, of widows and orphans 
left to burthen the parish, of labour lost by temporary incapacity during illness ; and a 
case was made out which convinced all cool and dispassionate individuals that it was 
the wealthy who had a direct pecuniary interest in the health of the poor ; and that 
as regarded health itself, they were not altogether exempt from participation in the 
sufferings of their fellows — the parting breath of the dying pauper not unfrequently 
poisoning the atmosphere of his richer neighbour. Upon this subject, also, contempo- 
raneously with the inspections of the board of health, the correspondents of some of 
the morning papers — more particularly the Morning Chronicle — lent their useful aid, and 
brought in a vast mass of corroborative evidence, thus giving increased publicity to facts 
already too well established in professional and official quarters. The journal last men- 
tioned states, in a recent article : — " A couple of years ago our correspondents in the 
metropolitan, agricultural, and manufacturing districts, painted a succession of the most 
melancholy pictures of the wretched and degrading tenements in which the poor are 
lodged, both in town and country — in London alleys and manufacturing suburbs, and 
in rural lanes. The dens of lodging-houses in the great towns — the cellars and garrets 
where thousands of unhappy creatures are penned, sometimes three and four in a bed, 
and very often without distinction of sex — have been amply described in letters pour- 
traying the east end of London and the huge and swarming towns of Lancashire; 
while the hovels and dilapidated cottages which stud the agricultural districts, par- 
ticularly in the south and west of England, have been sketched in colours just as 
dismal. Turning back to our files of a couple of seasons ago, we find column after 
column, and letter after letter, devoted to the exposition of the miserable, the worse 
than savage condition of the dwelling accommodation of a great portion of the peasantry 
of England. We read again and again of cottages crumbling into ruins — the cold 
wind blowing in at every chink and cranny — the rain sopping the mud flooring — the 
dunghill overflowing and sending its foetid juice in streams across the threshold. We 
read of bed-rooms immediately beneath the putrid and leaking thatch — of bed- rooms in 
which a whole family, father, mother, adult and infant children, young men and young 
women, all slept together like so many pigs in a sty ; of cottage accommodation, in fact, 
which made us wonder how there was any natural decency and feeling, or human restraint 
of behaviour left amidst a great proportion of our rural population. In many parts of 
England it is perfectly clear that the people are not better, perhaps they are worse 
lodged, than they were under the Plantagenets and the Tudors. No dwelling can by 
possibility be worse than a ricketty cottage, open to every wind of heaven, admitting 
rain through the roof and wall, a dunghill piled before the door, and men and women, 
children and parents, lying down to sleep together on ragged mattresses and straw 
in the same foetid, unventilated room. Indeed we suspect that in many cases the con- 
dition of our rural population is even worse than it was in the days of the most despotic 
of our early Norman kings, because a greater proportional amount of rent is squeezed 
out for accommodation in nowise better than that possessed by the ' villains' and the 
|varlets' of the good old times. Rents have risen, in fact, while cottages have not 
improved ; and, worse even than that, as our agricultural correspondents have proved, 
population has in many districts increased enormously, and cottages not at all. It is to 
be earnestly hoped that a change in this respect is now at hand, nay, that it has already 
begun. The conveniently arranged and substantially constructed model cottages in 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 207 

Hyde-park to say nothing of the model lodging-houses in various parts of London, prove 
that good houses can now be erected as cheaply as bad ones, and that the building of 
such dwellings may be made to form at once one of the safest, most profitable, and 
most philanthropic means of investing money. Those who would be inclined to sneer 
at the juxtaposition of philanthropy and profit in the same sentence, know very little 
of human motive. Men naturally like to get as much for their capital as they can- 
society would not hold together unless such were the case; and men also— the monetary 
advantages being equal— just as naturally prefer realising these advantages through sup- 
plying the means of comfort and contributing to the well-being, rather than through a 
bare and insufficient ministering to the actual physical requirements of their fellow- 
creatures. The new houses erected in Hyde-park are calculated to pay seven per cent. 
on the outlay— a very handsome return— and they are calculated, at the same time, to 
rear a population brought up in decent household comforts, adapted alike to their 
physical and moral well-being." 

The model house in Hyde-park consists of four dwellings, compactly put together- 
two on the ground, two on the first floor ; the latter attained by an outside staircase, 
which gives a feature of architectural beauty to the elevation. Each dwelling (they are 
all facsimiles) contains a general sitting-room and kitchen, entered by a lobby (an 
essential requisite), two small bed-rooms for the male and female branches of the family, 
a large bed-room for the parents and the younger children, a scullery, and a decent 
water-closet. The whole of the rooms are full of cupboards and such conveniences ; 
the building is fire-proof, there being no particle of wood in the whole structure ; water 
is laid on ; a passage to a general dust-hole communicates with all the sculleries ; the 
kitchen ranges are models of economical neatness ; ventilation has been carefully attended 
to on the most scientific principles ; the walls are built of a peculiar species of hollow 
bricks, which are cheaper than the old ones, and have another most important requisite, 
that of deadening sound— and altogether the cottages are models of the most ingenious 
compactness and simple comfort. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

COMPREHENSIVE NATURE OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION — WALKING STICKS — PILGRIMS* STAVES — 
SWORD, DIRK, AND SPEAR STICKS — ALPENSTOCKS— FERULAS — BA.MBOO AND ORIENTAL STICKS 
— STAVES OF OFFICE AND SCEPTRE STAVES — EARLY ENGLISH STAVES — STICKS OF THE TIME 
OF QUEEN ANNE — CLOUDED CANES, ETC. — GROTESQUE STICKS — PROCESS OF THE MANUFACTURE 
OF STICKS — CONTRIBUTIONS FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. 

One of the distinguishing characteristics of the Great Exhibition was its vast com- 
prehensiveness. Nothing was too stupendous, too rare, or too costly for its acquisition ; 
nothing too minute or apparently too insignificant for its consideration. Every possible 
invention and appliance for the service of man found a place within its all embracing 
limits ; every realization of human genius, every effort of human industry might be 
contemplated therein, from the most consummate elaboration of the profoundest intellect, 
to the simplest contrivance of uneducated thought. The philosopher and the savage 
stood side by side ; the accomplished artist and the rude boor alike were free to choose, 
" a local habitation," and might each with equal advantage, hope to acquire " a name •" 
from the wondrous calculating machine, down to the simplest toy, there was "ample 



208 THE GllEAT EXHIBITION 

space and verge enough" to display whatever might be deemed worthy of public atten- 
tion. All therefore might find abundant matter for wonder and delight. 

We were led into these reflections after contemplating one of those great master- 
pieces Of human genius with which the Crystal Palace abounded, by casually wandering 
into a department wherein was arranged every possible form, shape, and variety of 
"walking sticks;" yes, gentle reader, we repeat, of every specimen and description of walk- 
ing-sticks, from the plain and unadorned shepherd's staff, to that of gold and ivory, fit 
for the hand of royalty itself. We shall select for the amusement and gratification of our 
readers, a few remarks, on this apparently insignificant subject, from the "Juries' 
Reports." "Whensoever," they observe, "the heroic period may be supposed to have 
existed, the staff, as employed for the support of old age, was then well known, since 
it is referred to in the enigma, put forth by the Sphynx, and solved by CEdipus." 
" There is a Being," said the questioner, " which has four feet, and it has also three 
feet, with only one voice; but its feet vary, and when it has the most it is the weakest." 
" This is man," was the hero's answer, " who when he is an infant, crawls upon his 
hands and knees ; when he is a man, he walks uprightly, and when he is old he totters 
with a stick." The use of the staff for support in walking appears to be so natural and 
inartificial as not to require any illustration ; and yet the Pilgrim's staff of the middle 
ages, and the Alpenstock of the present time, have a certain amount of historical 
interest. The Bourdon, or Pilgrim's staff, was a strong and stout stick, apparently about 
five feet in length, armed at the lower end with an iron spike, and intended to supply a 
support and balance to the body, when the traveller was climbing up slippery paths, or 
steep acclivities. About a foot from the top of the staff was generally found a large 
protuberance, either artificially or naturally formed around the staff, on which the pil- 
grim's hand securely rested, without danger of sliding downwards. The lower jpart 
of the staff was altogether solid, but the upper joint was a hollow tube, capable of 
containing small articles, like a long hollow box. It is probable that these articles were 
originally reliques of saints, or the " signs," as those emblematical figures were usually 
termed, which were commonly sold at the shrines to which pilgrims travelled, as 
proofs that they had really visited those sacred parts. In the latter ages of pilgrimage, 
however, this part of the staff was sometimes converted into some kind of pipe or 
musical instrument, such as sticks have frequently contained in modern times. Above 
the tube, the staff was surmounted by a small hollow globe, and it was also furnished 
near the top, on the outside, with a kind of crook, for the purpose of safely sustaining 
a gourd-bottle of water. After the pilgrim had completed his votive journey, and 
returned from Palestine, he commonly brought with him a branch of palm, fastened 
into the top of his staff, as a proof of his travel into Palestine or Egypt. It is, however, 
unquestionable that the pilgrim's staff frequently became the receptacle of secular 
articles. It is recorded by Holinshed, that in the hollow part of a pilgrim's staff the 
first head of saffron, afterwards so successfully cultivated at Saffron Walden, was secretly 
brought over from Greece, at a period when it was death to take the living plant out of 
the country. The silkworm also found its way to Europe in the hollow of a pilgrim's 
staff. So late also as the time of Cervantes, certain Spanish pilgrims existed, who had 
collected upwards of an hundred crowns in alms, which, being changed into gold, they 
concealed in the hollow of their staves, or the patches of their clothing. It seems to 
be a natural observation in this place, that the ancient contrivance of making a reposi- 
tory in the hollow of a walking-stick, is not yet obsolete. In the Great Exhibition, 
Dr. Gray, of Perth, displayed a medical walking staff, containing a variety of instruments 
and medicines ; and the same principle has also been frequently employed for the por- 
table conveyance of telescopes, and other important articles. 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. ~~ 209 

Several varieties of sticks were also exhibited, inclosing in them swords, dirks, and 
spring-spears : the principle of the construction of the sticks last-mentioned being, that 
they required a heavy blow to be given with the armed end before the strong spring 
could be overcome which held back the spear-head. Sword-sticks, and dagger or tuck- 
sticks, are of a more recent period; but this kind of weapon walking-staves is not of later 
invention than the last century, though that which contained fire-arms existed in the early 
part of the reign of Henry VIII. The Alpenstock is another ordinary walking staff 
requiring to be noticed, of modern use, though of great antiquity. It is a stout pole of 
about six feet in length, provided with an iron spike at the lower end, and surmounted 
with a chamois' horn as an ornament. It is almost indispensable in mountain journeys, 
and may be procured for two francs throughout Switzerland. Another order of walking- 
sticks comprises those light wands to which the name is now exclusively attributed; 
and these also are descended from a time of considerable antiquity. The stem of the 
giant-fennel, the Ferula of Pliny, is the chief progenitor of this family, and he derives 
the origin of the name of the plant either from fero, from the stock being employed in 
walking, or from ferio, because schoolmasters used it for striking boys on the hand. It 
would seem as if the latter interpretation had become established at an early period, 
since Martial terms the ferula sceptrum pedagogorum >, and even down to the present day 
the word popularly conveys no other meaning. The tough lightness of the fennel-wood 
rendered it especially fitted for a support to aged persons, while the imposing length 01 
the staff gave an air of importance to those who carried it. Hence it became the 
prototype of those lighter wands, which have continued as a sign of seniority or gentility 
to the present time. 

In oriental countries the substitute of the ferula was naturally some kind of native 
reed ; and the employment of such a plant as a support, and also as an emblem of Egypt, 
is noticed, in probably a proverbial form, by the Assyrian general Eabshakeh, in his speech 
to the servants of Hezekiah, in the eighth century, B.C. "Now, behold," says he, "thou 
trustest upon the staff of this bruised reed, even upon Egypt ; on which if a man lean, it 
will go into his hand and pierce it." — 2 Kings, xviii. 21. The supposition that the 
ferula was supplied by some local plant, must be also equally true concerning other 
regions, and especially in those in which the bamboo was indigenous. This was pro- 
bably the first kind of the cane tube introduced into Europe, since the word cane, in all 
its original forms, appears intended to express a hollow tube or channel, for which purpose 
the bamboo is still extensively and constantly employed. Although the generic name of 
cane has long since supplanted all others for ordinary walking-sticks, yet at different 
periods they have been made of a great variety of materials. A slight glance may be 
taken at some of the substances employed, and some of the peculiarities of the common 
walking-sticks of other times. In the Egyptian sculptures, persons of importance or 
ofi&cial rank are represented walking with tall slender staves, having the lotus-flower on 
the top. Several ancient specimens of these sticks have been discovered in Egypt, made 
of cherry-wood and other substances, measuring from three to four feet in length, some 
being surmounted by a small knob, or a flower, and others having a curved projection 
standing out on one side, like the tusk of a boar, as if it had been intended for the hand to 
rest upon At a very early period of the sacred history, the distinctive character of the 
staff carried by an individual, is indicated from his immediate recognition simply by the 
production of it with his signet and his bracelets— Genesis, xxxviii. 18—25. Homer has 
commemorated the " sceptre-bearing princes" of the Greeks, and especially the sceptre- 
staff of Achilles, adorned with golden studs : " I will swear a great oath, says the hero, 
"even by this sceptre, which shall never again bear leaves or shoots, nor bud again 
from the time it left its trunk upon the mountains, when the axe stripped it of all its 

3 B 



210 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

leaves and bark." These sceptres, although they were indisputably the insignia of rank 
and authority, were also evidently the usual walking-sticks of persons of the highest class. 
Agamemnon, it is stated, never went forth without bearing with him his paternal staff of 
royalty. 

In the portraits of many of the noble personages of English history, painted in the 
sixteenth century, may be seen instances of the richness of the superior walking-sticks 
carried at that period, when they appear to have been tall, stout, and mounted and 
adorned with gold. In 1531 a cane-staff and a stones-bow were brought as- a present to 
Henry VIII., by a certain fletcher, or arrow-maker, whom the king rewarded with forty 
shillings. Some far more curious instances of canes belonging to the same sovereign 
are, however, described in the manuscript inventory of the contents of the royal palace at 
Greenwich, in the following entries : — "A cane garnished with sylver and gilte, with 
Astronomie upon it. A cane garnished with golde, having a perfume in the toppe; 
under that a diall, with a pair of twitchers, and a pair of compasses of golde ; and a 
foot-rule of golde, a knife and a file of golde, with a whetstone tipped with golde." 
From the middle of the seventeenth century, walking-sticks appear to have increased in 
luxury, both in regard of the- mountings, and also of the materials of which they were 
manufactured, the improvements being derived principally from Prance. In the early 
part of the following century, the most fashionable sorts were made of certain fine 
marbles and agates, exhibiting either a splendid variety of colour, or a rich semi-opaque 
plain tint, which was most expressively described by the English term "clouded." These 
wands were made of the most slender proportions, both on account of their specific 
gravity and the quality of the persons by whom they were to be carried ; and they were 
often richly mounted with silver, gold,, amber, or precious stones. Such were the 
" clouded canes" of the age of Pope and Gay, which were frequently so greatly valued, 
as to be preserved in cases of shagreen or sheaths of leather. Every reader of th© Rape 
of the Lock will remember — 

" Sir Plume, of amber snuff-box justly vain, 
And the nice conduct of a clouded cane," 

as well as Gay/s commemoration of the same kind of walking-stick in The Van — 

" Here clouded canes, 'midst heaps of toys are found, 
And inlaid tweezer-cases strew the ground." 

The most curious aceount of the walking-sticks of this period, is, however, contained 
in the Tatler, No. 103, written by Addison and Steele, and published on Thursday the 
6th of November, 1709. In that paper, Isaac Bickerstaff represents himself as issuing 
licences and regulations for the beaux of the time, as to the carrying of " canes, per- 
spective glasses,, orange^flower waters, and the like ornaments of life." The first part of 
the essay is intended to ridicule and: abolish the prevailing absurd, though fashionable 
practices connected with walking-sticks ; hence the respective parties were licensed to 
carry them, provided they did not walk with them under the arm, nor brandish them in 
the air, nor hang them on a button. One of the petitioners desires permission to retain 
his cane, because it had become as indispensable to him " as any other of his limbs," and 
because "the knocking of it on his shoe, leaning one leg upon it, or whistling upon it 
with his mouth, are such great reliefs to him in conversation, that he does not know how 
he could be good company without it." The cane of this person being produced^ it is 
described to be "very curiously clouded, with a transparent amber head, and a blue riband 
to hang it on his wrist !" In the second half of the last century, there was one .peculiar 
form of walking-stick prevailing, which was generally used by females advanced in life. 
The sticks referred to were between five and six feet in height, taper and slender in 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 211 

substance, turned over at the upper end, in the manner of a shepherd's crook, and twisted 
throughout the whole extent of the wand. The materials were either wood, ivory, or 
whalebone, mounted with silver or gold, and sometimes they were formed entirely of 
a clear pale green glass. The length, of the most fashionable walking-stick of this 
period, is noticed in a number of The London Chronicle, published in 1762, wherein 
the writer says» "Do not some of us strut about with walking-sticks as long as hickory 
poles, or else with a yard of varnished cane, scraped taper, and bound at one end with 
waxed thread, and the other tipped with a neat ivory head, as big as a silver penny." 
Towards the close of the eighteenth century, two peculiar forms of walking-sticks 
were commonly carried by the most gay of the young men of the period, one 
being a very short and strong bamboo-cane, bent over at the top, and the other a stout 
knotted stick, in which the grotesque natural growth of the wood was frequently 
regarded as its greatest excellence. 

Another kind of walking-sticks comprises those grotesque staves, which have been 
devised or adopted by individual fancy or eccentricity. It is possible that this peculiar 
humour may be of considerable antiquity, since the knotted walking-staff and wallet 
were the distinctive attributes of the Greek and Roman philosophers, and especially of 
the cynics. The chief peculiarity of this class of staves, however, consists in an ingenious 
adaptation of the excrescences of the wood of which they were made, into grotesque 
human heads and faces, of which the Exhibition contained many curious and remarkable 
instances. The old English form of these staves may perhaps be referred to the baubles 
carried by the fools and jesters, who were retained by sovereigns and noblemen of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The jester's bauble consisted of a short stout staff, 
surmounted by the carved figure of a puppet or a fool's head ; and the modern practice 
of carrying sticks decorated with humorous faces appears to have existed early in the 
eighteenth century. About 1730, The Universal Spectator states, that at the court end 
of the town, instead of swords, many polite young gentlemen " carry large oak sticks, 
with great heads and ugly faces carved thereon." Perhaps some of the most remarkable 
instances of these carved sticks ever exhibited, were those executed and carried about by 
James Robertson, of Kincraigie, otherwise called " the daft highland laird," of whom 
Kay published an etching in 1784. In the latter part of his life he adopted the 
amusement of carving, for which he had some talent, and sculptured in wood the 
effigies of such persons as attracted his imagination, whether friends or enemies; 
the latter, however, being executed in caricature. These small figures he mounted on 
the upper end of a walking-stick, sometimes one above another; and as it was reported 
that he produced a new one every day, he was commonly accosted with the inquiry, " wha 
hae ye up the day, laird ?" to which he would readily answer by naming the individual, 
and the reason for selecting him. 

It might be supposed that the manufacture of walking-sticks cbuld not form a large 
branch of commerce, and yet a vast quantity and great variety of materials are annually 
consumed in it. There is scarcely a grass or a tree of sufficient elasticity or strength, 
which has not at times furnished the material for a staff or walking-stick. The stick- 
maker, however, gives a decided preference to some few kinds out of the almost infinite 
variety offered to him by Nature. Amongst European woods-, the blackthorn, the crab, 
especially the warted-crab,, the maple, the ash, the oak, especially the young, or sapling 
oak, the beech, the orange tree, the cherry tree;, the furze bush, the cork tree, and the 
Spanish reed (a grass called Arundo donax), are those principally used ; and these woods 
are most generally cut towards the latter end of autumn, especially when it is wished to 
preserve the bark. The West Indies furnish a copious supply of the most approved 
materials for walking-sticks, in supple jacks (vine stems,) pimentos, cabbage stalks, orange 



212 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

and lemon-tree sticks, and the coffee shrub and Indian briars. Numberless canes; 
the product of climbing palms and gigantic grasses, are also largely used by the stick- 
maker. The principal of these are the following : — ratans, dragons, and Penang lawyers, 
which are the stems of a species of calamus, or climbing-palm, and are obtained from 
India, Singapore, Java, and China ; white and black bamboos, fluted bamboos, wamgees, 
jambees, and dog-head canes, which are the stems of various species of bambusa or 
grasses, attaining a height of from fifty to sixty feet, and are exported from China; 
ground ratans, large ground ratans, malaccas, and dragons from Singapore. There are 
also the bamboo and jungle-bamboo, imported from Calcutta; and lastly, canes from 
Manilla. It must not be supposed that these various materials in the unwrought state, 
present an appearance at all resembling the finished sticks. Indeed, the copious 
examples in the north-east gallery, fully confirmed this statement; but the truth is 
much more strongly impressed on the mind, after an inspection of the immense ware- 
houses of Mr. B. Meyers, who contributed them. Those repositories appear, at first 
sight, to contain stores of little vajue above that of fire-wood ; yet many thousands of 
pounds have thus to be locked up for a time, in order that the various woods may 
become properly seasoned. It is only, indeed, after having passed about twenty times 
through the hand, that even the commonest walking-stick assumes a saleable appearance : 
the better descriptions require more operations. The principal processes of this manufac- 
ture deserve to be described. 

1. Peeling off the bark. — From most of the forest- woods, the bark has to be removed 
before the separated boughs can be made into polished sticks ; but in some cases it is 
left on. One of the most difficult articles to manipulate is the warted-crab, the excres- 
cences of which are produced by an abnormal growth of the tree, resulting from the 
puncture of an insect. As a halfpenny is the payment for peeling one of the most 
complicated kind, it will be readily concluded that there must be some simple means of 
facilitating this operation ; and, accordingly, the sticks are boiled for a couple of hours ; 
the bark then yields to the incision of the finger nail, and may be stripped off without 
difficulty. 

2. Forming the crook and straightening the stick. — Few limbs of trees, or even canes, 
are sufficiently straight, in their natural condition, to answer the purpose of a walking* 
stick, and very few present those conformations which can be readily fashioned into 
handles; hence the necessity for these two operations, which claim our admiration for 
their ingenious simplicity. The handle is formed by softening the wood or cane in hot 
damp sand, when it becomes pliable and non-elastic, and readily assumes and retains 
any curvature or bend that may be given to it. Minute attention, however, is required 
with regard to the temperature for each description of wood ; hence the precise degree 
which is proper for each can only be learned by long experience; and in some cases, 
where a new variety of material is imported, some experimenting becomes necessary. 
The straightening is performed in a similar manner, excepting that the previous sof- 
tening is effected in dry sand, heated on an iron plate, that is, in the ordinarv sand-bath. 
When the stick has become sufficiently pliable, it is inserted into a deep notch cut in the 
edge of a strong plank, and is strained first in one direction and then in another, until it 
has become straight. The stick, when softened, takes any form, much as a piece of red- 
hot iron would do. The straightening-plank is three inches thick, about six feet long, 
and one foot wjde, and is inclined away from the workman at an angle of about thirty 
degrees from the perpendicular, it being firmly secured to the floor at the lower end. 

3 Fashioning the stick.— In this operation some sticks are wrought to assume a 
twisted or spiral form, and others the knotted appearance of a bamboo or whangee; 
these characteristics are imparted chiefly by rasping and filing. Heads or hoofs of 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 213 

various animals very commonly adorn stick heads, and grotesque human heads frequently 
display proofs of considerable skill and surprising humour in the artisans employed. 
Examples of this latter description were exhibited in Class xxix., by most of the German 
and Austrian exhibitors. 

4. Staining. — After straightening or carving, the sticks are in many instances brought 
to a very smooth surface, by means of emery or glass-paper, and finished off with 
fish-skin ; and they are then, previously to the varnishing, made to asssume so many 
different hues by means of dyes, that the uninitiated would conclude that each was a 
perfectly distinct variety. The surface is sometimes likewise charred, and the charred 
portions scraped off partially here and there, so as to produce a very ornamental 
appearance. Sticks are also embellished with b'thographic transfers, but not in England, 
as hand-labour is too expensive. Malacca canes, when not sufficiently long between the 
joints to form a straight stick, are made to appear continuous, by reducing the larger 
part to correspond to the smaller, and tapering it gradually from the point of juncture. 
It then becomes necessary to colour that portion which has been reduced in size, and this 
is done with so much skill, that the stained and natural surfaces are not distinguishable. 
Hitherto, mention has been chiefly made of sticks of vegetable origin. Of such as 
are made of animal substances may be instanced whalebone, tortoise-shell, ram's horn, 
rhinoceros' horn and hide, as commonly employed for sticks ; and occasionally the real 
bone of the whale, the spine of the shark, the horn of the narwhal, and ivory. The horns 
of animals, under particular treatment with heat, and by mechanical appliances, are 
drawn out into long cylinders ; and tortoise-shell raspings are easily conglomerated by 
heat and pressure, and in the soft state formed into elongated rods, applicable to the 
manufacture of sticks. The hide of the rhinoceros forms a very transparent horn-like 
substance, and is very elastic and tough. The feet of fawns, which are frequently used 
for stick-handles, are made to retain the required form by merely baking them. Ivory, 
horn, and bone, are also largely used for stick and umbrella handles, and give, in 
their preparation for these purposes, employment to a considerable number of workmen. 
Before proceeding with the review of the contributions of the several nations, attention 
is claimed to the fact that London, Hamburgh, Berlin, and Vienna, are the chief seats of 
the manufacture under consideration, and that by a curious coincidence the principal 
makers in three of those cities bear the name of Meyer or Meyers. Two of them, 
namely those residing in London and Hamburgh, were present by their works in the 
Great Exhibition, but the third of Vienna, did not exhibit. The manufacture of sticks 
in England is in an exceedingly flourishing condition. The principal London maker 
alone sells annually above 500,000 sticks of various descriptions. The specimens 
exhibited by English manufacturers comprised many instances of the employment of 
walking sticks for containing various implements alluded to in the introductory matter. 
Besides which, were to be found a walking stick which served the purpose of a miniature 
wine cellar and larder; one which contained a voltaic battery which continually subjects 
the owner to an electric current ; one to contain guide maps, and two or three others 
convertible into seats, umbrellas, and other instruments. The British colonies exhibited 
a vast variety of specimens. From Western Africa was a stick, or rather staff of honour 
usually carried before the African chiefs. The Indian courts displayed their accustomed 
profusion of gold, ivory, and ornamental work in every variety of decorated sticks sent 
by various rajahs, besides many beautiful articles that were purchased by the Company 
expressly for exhibition. The island of St. Vincent sent its supple-jacks; while Van 
Diemen's Land chiefly confined its contributions to specimens of sticks made with the 
hard portion of the bone of the whale, with heads carved out of the whale's tooth. 
France, as usual, exhibited her wonted elegance. The chief specimens sent from this 

3 i 



214 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

country consisted of articles made of elongated ram's horn, and conglomerated tortoise- 
shell. In 1847 there were in Paris one hundred and sixty-five manufacturers of walking 
sticks, and riding and driving whips, employing nine hundred and sixty-two workpeople, 
who produced goods valued at .£140,320. About nine-tenths of these articles are 
exported. The most important display of walking-sticks was, however, unquestionably 
that in the Hamburgh department, contributed by H. C. Meyer, jun., who it appears 
is the most extensive stick-maker in the world. His collection contained about five 
hundred varieties, comprising most of the known materials. The Austrian collection 
was also very extensive, and exceedingly good in point of workmanship. Belgium offered 
a small but neat display, as did also the Grand Duchy of Hesse, and Wurtemburg. 
Sardinia and Tuscany were also represented, as well as Switzerland, and Prussia; a few 
specimens of stick manufacture being supplied by each of these countries. China 
was more magnificent, contributing curiously carved bamboos, elaborate sceptres, and 
other ingeniously wrought specimens, exceedingly rare and interesting. But it is in 
the raw material that the commerce of the country is more particularly represented, 
large quantities of which are annually exported. From Canton alone 1,200,000 sticks 
of various kinds were exported in 1846, consisting chiefly of different kinds of canes 
and bamboos, but comprising also laurel-sticks, stems of the tea-plant, and the root of 
the fig-tree of the Pagodas. 

The United States were represented by one solitary contributor, who exhibited a 
gold-headed walking-stick, made from the curled hickory. We shall conclude with 
remarking, that though the Jury, with the impartiality which marked all their pro- 
ceedings, allowed that whalebone sticks are made cheaper and better in Germany, and 
that the continental makers were more proficient in making sticks from the hide of the 
rhinoceros, they pronounced England unrivalled with regard to the chased, gilt, and 
silver handles, and that its ferules and metal works, generally, were unsurpassed. Five 
prize medals were given, one being to Mr. Meyers, of Crutched-friars, and honourable 
mention made of three other candidates for fame in this apparently trifling, but really 
important department. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 



THE FAN— ITS HIGH ANTIQUITY— ITS VARIOUS USES, MILITARY, AGRICULTURAL, AND DOMESTIC- 
USED IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME — ITALIAN FANS — GENERAL USE OF THE FAN IN ENGLAND 
IN THE LAST CENTURY— CHINESE FANS— FRENCH FANS— FANS FROM THE BRITISH COLONIES 
— EGYPTIAN FANS — SPANISH FANS, ETC. ETC. 

As in our preceding chapter we have dwelt at some length upon that most important 
addition to the toilet of the beau, videlicet, the cane or walking-stick, so we feel ourselves 
called upon to devote a few pages to the description of a no less important appendage to 
that of the belle, in whose hands, as Addison playfully remarks, the Fan has perhaps 
achieved as many victories as the sword. We shall hasten therefore, to present to our 
*air readers, for their especial gratification, a full account of 

" That graceful toy, whose waving play 
With gentle gales relieves the sultry day." 

In short, to exhibit before their delighted vision, the gay and wondrous variety that in 
various parts of the Crystal Palace, the simple manufacture of the fan called forth 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 215 

from every quarter of the civilized globe. A display so bright and alluring, that we 
could almost fancy that Queensbury's favourite bard had penned his celebrated descrip- 
tion in anticipation of it — f 

" The Fan shall flutter in all female hands, 
And various fashions learn from various lands. 
For this shall elephants their ivory shed j 
And polished sticks the waving engine spread ; 
His clouded mail the tortoise shall resign, 
And round the rivet pearly circles shine. 
On this shall Indians all their art employ, 
And with bright colours stain the gaudy toy, 
Their paint shall here in wildest fancies flow, 
Their dress, their customs, their religions show : 
So shall the British Fair their minds improve, 
And on the Fan to distant climates rove." — Gay. 

"We shall now again take the liberty of turning to the pages of the " Juries' Reports," 
and select from their learned lucubrations, with all due acknowledgment, our materials 
for the present chapter. " Upwards of three thousand years ago," observes our classical 
investigator, " the artist of ancient Egypt painted the fan on the walls of the tombs at 
Thebes. There the Pharaoh sits surrounded by his fan-bearers, each in his due rank ; 
and there is seen an investiture of a fan-bearer, which realises the description in Genesis 
of the honours paid by Pharaoh to Joseph. The office of fan-bearer must have been 
honourable, and the insignia of office were long, slender, vividly-coloured fans on varie- 
gated or twisted handles. In war the same officers acted as generals, using their fans as 
standards ; and in peace they assisted in the temple, and waved their variegated fans, 
both to produce a cooling breeze, and to guard the sacred offerings from the contamination 
of noxious insects. The fan is mentioned by Euripides, and its origin from " barbarous 
countries j" its use in Greece was similar to that in Egypt, but its forme were far more 
beautiful. The wings of a bird joined laterally and attached to a slendervhandle, formed 
the simple yet graceful fan of the Priest of Isis, when Isis became a Grecian deity; but 
it had not this form alone, for the Greek vases of Sir William Hamilton show that feathers 
of different lengths were taken and spread out somewhat in the form of a semicircle, 
but pointed at the top ; a thread connected the feathers at the base, and another near 
their summit, and the fan thus made was fixed in a handle. This fan, the precise type of 
the state-fan of India and China of the present day, was waved by a female slave. 

The fan, according to Virgil and Apuleius, was sacred to Bacchus, and the " mystica 
Vannus Jacchi" was carried in procession in the feast of that deity, as well as in the 
Eleusinian Mysteries. Its appellations multiplied, though its office remained the same, 
and it was termed indifferently " Flabellum," or " Muscarium." The modern Greek 
church is careful to place a fan in the hands of its deacons, to guard the officiating priest 
and the elements from desecration. The Roman ladies certainly enjoyed the luxury of 
the fan, which, gorgeous with peacock's feathers, or delicate with the tinted plumes of 
the ostrich, could not yet be folded, and rendered the services of an attendant necessary. 

In the works of the middle ages references are made to the two forms of the fan : to 
that employed in winnowing the grain, and that used in the service of the church, 
alternately to court the breeze or wave away the flies, till we hear of the fan as brought 
to Prance by Catherine de Medicis, when it was no longer stiff and unyielding, but light 
and pliable. In the early part of the seventeenth century, it was so constructed that 
it could be folded in the manner of those used in the present day. Formed of paper and 
perfumed leather, it became the delight of the French court j and attracting the attention 
of artists, fans, in the luxurious reigns of Louis XIV. and Louis XV. (in the latter under 



216 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

the name of " Pompadours") shone with gilding and gems, and at length glowed with 
the pictures of Boucher and Watteau, until at length no toilet was esteemed complete 
without a fan, the cost of which was frequently in those days as high as from .£12 to 
£15 sterling. In Italy, on the contrary, in the early part of the seventeenth century, 
even painted fans were of a very moderate price, and of universal use. " The first fans," 
says Coryat, in his Travels in 1608, "that I saw in Italy, I did observe in this space 
between Pizighiton and Cremona; but afterwards I observed them common in most 
places where I travelled. These fans both men and women of the country do carry to 
cool themselves with in the time of heat by often fanning of their faces. Most of them 
are very elegant and pretty things. For whereas the frame consisteth of a painted 
piece of paper and a little wooden handle, the paper which is fastened into the tops is on 
both sides most curiously adorned with excellent pictures, either of amorous things, 
having some witty Italian verses or fine emblems written under them, or of some 
notable Italian city, with a brief description thereof added thereto. These fans are of a 
mean price, for a man may buy one of the fairest of them for so much money as coun- 
tervailed an English groat." England must have been a great buyer of fans in the last 
century, as a lady of that period would have felt as awkward without her fan as a 
gentleman without his sword. Indeed Addison makes the comparison, and in the 
Spectator he describes an academy where the use of the fan is taught. " In the flutter 
of the fan," he observes, " there is the angry flutter, the modest flutter, the timorous 
flutter, the confused flutter, the merry flutter, and the amorous flutter." He says, " I 
have seen a fan so very angry, that it would have been dangerous for the absent lover who 
provoked it to have come within the wind of it." Gay, again, gives the fan as a present 
from Venus to a despairing lover, in order to soften his mistress, and describes in verse 
the hint which the peacock's tail presents for its construction. 

CHINA. 

In fan-making the Chinese and French are the great rivals, and may be said to 
monopolise the supply of the whole world. In the lacquered fans the superiority of the 
natives of China is fully admitted. They are unrivalled, especially when price is taken 
into consideration, in the sculpturing and piercing of the wood, bone, ivory, or mother- 
of-pearl framework. Even their commonest fans are remarkable for boldness and 
originality of design, brilliancy of colouring, sharpness of drawing, and solidity and cor- 
rectness of workmanship. The manufacture of fans is carried on almost exclusively at 
Canton, Soutchou, Hangtchou, and Nankin. The fans of ivory and bone and of feathers, 
are made exclusively for exportation to Europe or America; those used by the Chinese 
are of bamboo polished or japanned, and covered with paper. They are sold at from 
lOrf. to 14*. Gd. per dozen, according to the quality of the frame and the design of the 
leaf. The examples which were in the Great Exhibition did not, however, come direct 
from any Chinese maker, but were contributed by three English exhibitors, viz. Messrs. 
C. T. Braine, J. Daniell, and Hewett and Co. The examples exhibited comprised fans 
of painted and embroidered feathers; a feather-fan painted with silver outlines, repre- 
senting groups of Chinese figures, the feathers being alternately blue and white ; an ivory 
fan elaborately carved and pierced, and, considering the amount of work, very cheap, its 
price being only 20s. There were also several very common paper-fans, ornamented 
either with rude delineations of landscapes, or besprinkled with gold-spangle. 

FRANCE. 

Fan-making has arrived at a high degree of perfection in France, and presents a 
remarkable instance of the subdivision of labour, as may be gleaned from the statement 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 217 

that about twenty different operations, performed by as many pairs of bands, are neces- 
sary to the production of a fan which sells for less than one halfpenny ; and that these 
various processes are not all carried on in a single manufactory, but, on the contrary, 
form four distinct branches of trade, directed by masters employing the various artisans, 
who, for the most part, work at their own homes, and who are frequently assisted by their 
wives and children. A fan consists of the frame of solid material, called a "pied," 
which is composed of the inner ribs, or " brim" and the two outer ribs, or "panaches," 
and likewise of the flexible leaf, or "feuille." The frame is made of wood, bone, ivory, 
tortoise-shell, or mother-of-pearl. The first operation is performed by sawing the 
material into the required form for the inner and outer ribs. These ribs then pass 
into the hands of another workman, who shapes them with a file, and they are then 
taken up successively by the polisher, the piercer, the sculptor, the gilder, and the 
workman who fixes on them the spangles and pins of gold, silver, and steel. The frame 
is now sent to the manufactory which furnishes the necessary drawings for the series of 
operations, where it is riveted, the rivet being frequently ornamented with a precious 
stone. The leaf, or feuille, is sometimes single, but more often double, and it is usually 
made of paper lined with silk or calico, but also of parchment, lamb's skin, satin, and 
silk gauze. The richer kinds of feuilles are painted in water-colours on vellum, by 
artists known as feuillistes; and the highest and most expensive class by artists of 
celebrity, since Boucher and Watteau, Camille Roqueplan, Gavari, Clement Boulanger, 
and Duprd, have affixed their signatures to fans which they have decorated. The devices 
on the more ordinary descriptions of fans are printed from copperplates, and coloured by 
hand, and the most common sorts are ornamented by the process of chromo-lithography. 
The feuille is folded in a mould of strong paper, and is then mounted on the frame and 
glued to the prolongations, or " bouts" of the inner ribs. The feuille of the best fans 
is after this painted on the edge with gold size, and gilt with leaf-gold ; but the feuille 
of the common fans is printed in Dutch metal previous to its being cemented on 
the frame. The decorator now ornaments the frame with gold or coloured ornaments, 
and the fan lastly passes into the hands of the overlooker, who attaches the tassels, and 
selects the proper sized sheath, into which she places it. The frame, or "pied" is made 
in the parishes of Andeville, the Deluge, Boisiere, Corbeil-Cerf, and St. Genevieve. In 
the district situated between Meru and Beauvais, in the department of the Oise, 2,000 
workpeople, men, women, and children, are employed in the fan-trade. The woods 
used are the beam-tree, the plum-tree, ebony, sandal, and the lime-tree. The dexterity 
and sureness of hand of the peasant workman are said to be quite wonderful. Con- 
sidering his want of knowledge of the principles of drawing, his facility in engraving, 
sculpturing, and gilding, is certainly remarkable. The piercing is performed by means 
of minute saws, which the workman makes for himself with pieces of watch-spring. 
A remarkable piece of saw-piercing, in the shape of a mother-of-pearl fan, was exhibited 
in the French Section, No. 149; it contained no less than 1,600 holes in the square inch. 
This tour-de-force was the production of one of these peasant artisans, named Desire 
Henry. The printing, the colouring, and the mounting of the feuille, and the final 
embellishment of the fan, are usually performed at Paris, under the direction of the fan- 
maker, called, par excellence, " Eventailliste," though he has really but little to do with 
the manufacture of the fan, and must be regarded rather as the collector into one focus, 
and arranger of the produce of others; yet his labours are not the less essential. The 
mounting of the feuille, its ornamentation with feathers, and final decoration, are the 
operations usually performed by a small number of work-people in his own establish- 
ment; besides which he furnishes the drawings to the peasant in the Oise; for the 
framework to suit the constant changes in fashion, he instructs his feuilhste as to 

3 K 



218 .•; THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

the style of : ornament ; he groups together the frames and feuilles; and, finally, he 
overlooks the whole, to see that the workmanship has been well executed. Except the 
mountings of the feuille, and the final adorning of the fan> the other operations are 
usually performed by workmen at their own houses. The number of fan-makers, or 
Eventatilistes, in Paris, in 1827, was 15, who employed 1,010 workpeople £344 men, 500 
women) and 166 children), and sold about £40,420 worth of fans. According; to the 
Statisque sur I' Industrie ct Paris, drawn up by our colleagues, M. Natalis Rondot and 
M. Say, it appears that in 1847 there were 122 fan-makers, comprising chamber- 
masters as mounters, feuillistes, painters, and colourers. The. value of the fans made 
was £110,000. These masters employed 575 workpeople (262 men, 264 women, 29 
youths, and 20 girls.) The workmen, on the average, earn 3s. and the women Is. 8d. 
per day. The men were, for the most part, copperplate engravers and printers, litho- 
graphic draughtsmen and printers, painters, colourers, and overlookers. Thus in twenty 
years it appears that the produce in fans had increased in value nearly threefold, whilst 
;fche- number of workpeople had diminished to one-half. This change is to be attributed 
to the, employment of machinery, especially of the fly-press in stamping out and embos- 
sing the ribs, and the extensive employment of ehromo-lithography, an art not practised 
at the former period. By these means the French have been enabled greatly to increase 
their exports by the production of cheap fans, to compete with those made by the Chinese. 
P. Duvelleroy exhibited some small fans, the price of which was as low as 5d. per dozen. 
The collection of fans in the French department was most complete, and contained 
several specially decorated in honour of the Exhibition, and of her Majesty and Prince 
Albert. Among these the " Royal Fan," by Duvelleroy, attracted general, admiration. 
It comprised a pleasing group of the whole of the royal family, with a rich emblazonment 
of the arms of England.. Besides these and others painted by first-rate artists, it also 
comprised most of the descriptions manufactured for exportation, and which possessed 
distinctive characters, according to the market for which they were destined. For 
instance, some displayed great differences in the length of the ribs and the portion of 
the circle occupied by the fan when open ; other fans, intended for Turkey and Morocco, 
were composed entirely of feathers, and, in conformity with the Mohammedan doctrine, 
no living object was painted on them. The principal foreign market for fans made in 
France are the South American States. In the decoration of such fans as were intended 
for Buenos Ayres, blue and green were carefully omitted, these colours having political 
significance, and being prohibited from use on pain of death. All the exhibitors were 
of the class called " Eventafflistes," as none of the manufacturers of the department of 
l'Oise sent their productions. 

BRITISH COLONIES. 

The colonial dependencies of Great Britain contributed many examples of fans, some 
of which were interesting on account of their simplicity, whilst, on the other hand, those 
from India presented most striking proofs of the luxurious splendour of the Indian 
princes. There were, for example, two fans contributed by H. H. the Rajah of Kota, one 
with an ivory handle, the other with, a gold handle; but as the names of the various 
manufacturers were unfortunately not ascertainable at the time the Jury examined these 
specimens, no prizes were awarded in their favour. The Indian fan differs from that of 
Europe and China in not. closing, and likewise in its form, and it is usually kept in 
motion by an attendant. Beside the fans affixed to central handles, all of which were 
most gorgeously enriched with embroidery and jewels, there were exhibited others 
resembling a curtain suspended from a. silver rod, which is held horizontally by'the 
attendant, and waved backwards and forwards over the head of the wealthy Hindoo > 




THE ROYAL FAN 

BY P. DUVELlEROV : PARIS. 




FRENCH FAN 

BY P. DUVE LLEBO Y, PARIS 



OF THE WOKLD'S INDUSTRY- 219 

and there was also the circular standard-fan ; the handle being a silver staff, crooked at 
the top, to which the fan is- attached on the opposite side to the crook. The attendant 
stands by the side of his master, and placing the end against his foot, inclines it away 
from his body, and slowly swings it to and fro. There was also a beautiful peacock- 
feather fan from Assam, and a fan, or punkah, composed of China beads and pearls, 
and made in the city of Delhi. The most simple, however, were those made of the entire 
or the divided leaf of the Borassus flabelliformis, manufactured at Calcutta, and commonly 
used both by natives and Europeans. The other examples comprised a punkah made of 
khuskhus grass (Andropogon muricatus) which, when wetted, emits a fragrant perfume ; 
fans made of sandal- wood, from Calcutta; a fan made of bamboo, from Moorshedabad, and 
several of a similar description, from other parts of India ; and lastly, from Bengal, large 
hand-fens, made of the palmyra-leaf. The inspection of these beautiful productions 
of Indian workmen, naturally suggested the idea that their skill and remarkable taste 
might be turned to profitable account, if directed to the production of fans suitable to the 
European and American markets. Nova Scotia sent an example of a very simple Indian 
fan. From Trinidad, Lord Harris, the governor, sent examples of fans for ladies. And 
from Western Africa, Mr. It. Jameson, of Liverpool, exhibited several fans from the banks 
of the Niger, one of which was made of a species of grass. A few specimens were 
exhibited in the collection from Egypt, to which much interest was attached, as coming 
from a country in which, possibly, the fan was first devised. 

SPAIN. 

There were two exhibitors of fans in the Spanish Court, one of whom contributed 
painted, and also printed " Feuilles " and the other both feuilles and complete fans, some 
of which were copies from French models. The examples, although they bore no 
comparison in point of taste or execution with the splendid fans from France, were good 
of their kind ; and it would appear that the attention of their exhibitors had been directed 
rather to the manufacture for an article of general sale, than to the production of works 
of art. But it is remarkable, that no finer specimens should have been sent from a 
country, in which the use of fans is so prevalent, that they are commonly offered for 
sale outside the arena of the bull-fights, and other places of amusement. The fans in 
the Tunisian Court were ten in number, and in some cases ornamented with rich 
embroidery. From Turkey, the only specimen was an embroidered fan, made at Con- 
stantinople. Wurtemberg contributed several bone and ivory fans, reasonable in price, 
but very inferior to the ivory fans exhibited by the French makers. The number of 
exhibitors of fans was twenty-three; of these two received a prize medal, and one 
obtained honourable mention. 

M. Duvelleroy and M. Felix, both of Paris, were the holders of the prize medals ; the 
former for a display of fans, ornamented with artistic paintings, and remarkable for the 
beauty of the inlaying and the pierced ivory and mother-of-pearl frames. The most 
elegant fan in this collection was one painted by Roqueplan ; the ribs were of richly- 
pierced, and sculptured, mother-of-pearl, inlaid with gold; it was valued at £40. 
Besides the above, others intended for foreign markets were exhibited, the prices of which 
varied from 5d. to 40s. per dozen. M. Felix obtained his for a collection of fans, for the 
most part copies of the best examples of ancient fens : these were such remarkably 
beautiful specimens of vellum-painting, that they fully entitled this manufacturer to the 
award, and were moreover the richest of any exhibited. 



220 » THE GREAT EXHIBITION 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

BOOKBINDING — BEITISH WORKMANSHIP — EEMNANT AND EDMONDS, BAEEITT AND CO., ■WEIGHT, 
MACOMIE AND CO., ETANS, BATTEN, OEE AND CO., LEIGHTON, CHTJETON, LEWIS, TAEEANT, 
EITIEEE, WESTLKY, EOGEES, ETC. ETC. — EOBEIGN BOOKBINDEES — M. GBTJEL, NIEDEEE, MAME 
AND CO., HANICQ, LEISTLEB, ETC. ETC. — STATIONERY — VARIOUS CONTEIBUTOES — GEEAT BEITAIN 
— EBANCE — SWITZEEIiAND — BELGIUM — ETC. ETC. 

The various specimens of bookbinding exhibited both on the British and foreign side, 
afforded evidence that an animated struggle is going on for pre-eminence in the 
ornamentation of the outer parts of books; and many ingenious and gaudy devices 
are the result. But upon the whole, we cannot approve of the taste which lavishes 
so much upon the externals of our literature ; it is neither in harmony with the calm 
spirit of intelligence which should preside over the hours of study, nor, to speak upon 
decorative points, do we think that so much laboured and far-fetched vanity, improves the 
appearance of the shelves of the library. Besides, where the exterior is so much cared 
for and attended to, it frequently happens that the interior is but slightly regarded. 
Pope, in one of his moral essays, has presented us with an amusing account of a book 
collector of this description, in Lord Timon : — 

" His Btudy ! with what authors is it stored ? 
In books, not authors, curious is my lord ; 
To all their dated backs he turns you round ; 
These Aldus printed, those Du Sue'l has bound ! 
Lo, some are vellum, and the rest as good, 
For all his lordship knows, but they are wood." 

Waiving, however, further discussion, let us proceed to examine some of the numerous 
specimens that were exhibited for public admiration ; and, first, we will enter the British 
department, in which Remnant and Edmonds contributed a good selection of bindings, 
including Owen Jones's stamped leather covers, and a pleasing specimen or two of 
" classic" books in calf. Barritt and Co. next showed the wonders of their workshop. 
Their huge bibles, with the sunk panels, gilt metal ornaments, and profuse embellish- 
ment, cannot please any one with good taste. Wright, of Noel-street, sent a copy 
of " Sylvestre," in morocco, very finely tooled ; and " Das Niebelungen Lied," in white 
vellum, inlaid with lines of orange and purple leathers, making a tasteful pattern. Let 
us here, once for all, protest against the absurdity of decorating the edges of books with 
pictures. Macomie and Co. contributed a large bible, bound in morocco, with a bronze 
ornament running round the side ; another bible, in buhl- work, and a " Boccacio," in 
white vellum, inlaid with colour. Mr. Macomie seems fond of the raised panels, a style 
we cannot admire. Evans, of Berwick-street, " the inventor of English illuminated 
binding," as he calls himself, filled a case with examples of this wonderful art, and of 
the "Victorian" style of binding. Here we had a copy of one of the book covers in the 
British Museum, very well executed in coloured leathers: the rest was mere "fancy 
stationers' work." BatteD, of Clapham, had a case containing some richly-tooled bindings 
for the "Song of the Bell," "Moore's Melodies," and a " Shakspeare ;" but Gothic 
church windows are not fit ornaments for the bookbinder's use, even on bibles and 
prayer-books. Orr and Co. showed books published and bound by them : some of them 
with good gilt ornaments. Josiah "Westley had a case chiefly filled with publishers' 
bindings, that are certainly a great advance in style on the productions of even two 
years since. Binns and Goodwin, of Bath, showed one specimen elaborate enough, but 




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OF THE. WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 221 

Hot to be praised beyond the execution; and then we come to the large show made by 
Leighton, of: Brewer-street. There was a great deal of pretence about this ease, which 
we cannot say was particularly: well carried out. In one compartment we noticed 
manuscript copies of old printing and old engravings marvellously executed, and/there 
were some unostentatious examples of excellent binding; but who will admire the 
decorations I of a bible, ; which, because it is called " King "William's Bible," mixes up 
things sacred with things profane, and. has the clasps formed of cables and anchors 
"in honour of the Sailor King?" Who cares to see "Burnet on Colour/' with a painter's 
palette on the side— mind, not a conventional ornament, but the verisimilitude of a 
palette, dabs of colour and all? Then there was " Rasselas," bound in oriental stripes; 
but this was .so richly arid well done, that we will not quarrel with it ; we protest^ however, 
against such barbarous wit in "binding," such clumsy punning, as "Bacon's works" in 
hog-skin! Nor can we admire -Vernit's "Life of Napoleon," bound in trr-coloured 
morocco/, the- edges -diaperedr with bees ascending and fleur-de-lis reversed, "typifying 
the rise of Napolebnand the fall of the Bourbons." Thomson's Seasons,", in somewhat 
better taste, was illustrated with the twelve signs of the Zodiac ; and "Horatius" and 
"Macaulay's Lays", appeared in classically ornamented calf. 

There were also some books with painting on the side on sunk panels — good enough 
as far as the painting is concerned — but is it not a poor idea thus to ornament a 
binding? But if Messrs. Leighton' s conceits are somewhat absurd (their workmanship is 
excellent) , what shall we say to Mr. Churtoh, who is blessed with " a plan for ornamenting 
books by era or subject?" A work on railways has what is meant to be a tunnel, 
elaborately worked on the side with gold lines. The Pirate and Three Cutters is 
decorated with cable ornament ; and Shakspeare with an Elizabethan architectural scroll. 
Surely these puerilities can hardly find patrons. Mrs. Lewis had a case of well-bound 
books — one on heraldry, appropriately enough ornamented with small coats of arms at 
the corners; Cundajl and Addy showed some examples of the morocco bindings of Mr. 
Hayday (who, unfortunately, did not himself exhibit), and an elaborate pierced metal 
cover, executed by Burtt and Sons, for choice examples of art workmanship. The 
design of this ornament— copied from an old Venetian binding of the seventeenth 
century — is very beautiful. Leighton and Son next exhibited some clever designs for 
bindings by Luke Limner ; two bibles very creditably bound, and an elaborate cover for 
a small bible in stamped gilt metal. One of the best and most honest-looking bindings 
in the show was contributed by Mr. Tarrant, a copy of Sir Thomas Lawrence's works in 
orange-coloured morocco, richly gilt, and with a little inlaying of other leathers. Clarke, 
of Frith-street, showed a variety of good, substantial volumes, in the old "tree-marbled" 
calf, and regular library bindings— his green and purple steinings were more curious than 
admirable. Mr. Bridden and Mr. Wiseman, from Cambridge, each exhibited large bibles, 
elaborate and creditable; and our Scotch friends sferitfnl abible bound in white morocco, 
inlaid with . coloured roses, and ornamented in the centre with a gilt fountain and 
flowers ! From other specimens from the north country we are only able to gather that 
good taste has not yet been introduced to the Scotch bookbinders. Mr. Parker, of 
Oxford, sent a case hardly commensurate with his reputation. Mr. Riviere, of Great 
Queen-street, had, perhaps, the choicest collection < of all. He contributed 'but four 
books,, and all were excellently well bound. Spenser's Worksy in moroceo,* elegantly 
tooled' with lines, somewhat in the Grolier. style, among wbieh the letters VrR. are just 
traceable. A Common Prayer, in morocco, of an old style; Virgil, in white.vellum/ rather 
too much inlaid with colours; and a good example of "tree-marbled" calf. " Bone and 
Son had a case containing some of the best -designs for cloth bindings, well carried out 
in all their detail. Westley and Go; bad a large display ; among - some *er>y- good cloth 

3l 



222 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

and morocco examples, we found a huge bible, ornamented on the inside of the cover 
(which was shown to the spectator) with a Gothic church window, elaborated with a 
profusion of detail, all tending to prove what excellent workmen, but what wretched 
artists, in this instance, Messrs. Westley have employed. In the Fine Arts Court was a 
bible, contributed by Messrs. Nisbet, but bound by Mr. Hayday, each side exquisitely 
ornamented with a richly carved panel, in boxwood, designed by Harry Rogers, and 
carved by his father, Mr. W. G. Rogers. This was the only binding worthy of great 
admiration contributed by English exhibitors. 

We will now take our readers to the Foreign side, and enter the division appropriated 
for the reception of the contributions of the French bookbinders. M. Gruel has the 
first claim on our attention, for his two large volumes bound in morocco, inlaid with 
coloured leathers, forming very bold and good designs; and for a missal in velvet, 
richly ornamented with gilt metal and jewels. But of still " more attractive metal" were 
some smaller books of " Hours," one in carved ebony, one in velvet covered with a tracery 
of ivory, another in bright velvet, with a beautiful design in carved boxwood. Two 
or three other volumes claimed admiration, in Russia and velvet, slightly ornamented with 
metal hinges and clasps of exceedingly graceful ecclesiastical design, very different from 
the ill-formed and heavy Gothic patterns to be found on our English bibles. In the 
adjoining case M. Niedree exhibited the perfection of workmanship in delicate gilding. 
There were two tiny volumes of this collection that might challenge the world for their 
superior. M. Niedree seems to prefer spending his chief talent on the inside of his 
covers ; and on one of these little volumes especially there was the most exquisite design 
most ably executed. For honest bookbinding, without the factitious aid of metal-work, 
carving, or inlaying, M. Niedree clearly, in our opinion, bears the palm ; and a refined 
taste would, perhaps, be better pleased with this little show of volumes, than with all 
the glories of their more magnificent-looking brethren. M. Simier sent a " Don Quixote" 
bound in light calf, with a good ornamental design darkened upon it, and as a centre the 
celebrated windmill ; and a " Moliere" decorated with a Grolier pattern : his other 
specimens were not to be praised. Mame and Co., the great publishers of Tours 
exhibited a variety of cloth and morocco bindings, which we are sorry we cannot com- 
mend. In general the ornamentation was gaudy and ill-designed. Parisian taste does 
not seem to extend much through the French provinces. 

In the Northern GaUery, over the courts appropriated to Belgium, M Hanicq of 
Mechlin, exhibited a trophy, as it were, of liturgies in various languages and all sizes 
some of them illustrated and illuminated, and nearly all bound in a showy way with 
stamped metal corners, clasps, and ornaments. The first impression promised something 
worthy of praise, but we were sorry to find that a closer inspection dispelled the illusion 
In the room m which MM. Leistler, of Vienna, displayed their beautiful bookcases, there 
were some marvellous examples of Austrian work by Habenicht and Girardet 

Commencing at the left-hand side of the Gothic bookcase, we first admired a folio 
volume, bound in blue velvet, ornamented with silver tracery of a rich Gothic desie-n 
In the centre was a figure of Christ, and at the four corners was the symbol of the 
Evangelists-an angel a lion, a bull, and an eagle-all in silver. The next was an album 
likewise in blue velvet, ornamented with gilt metal and tracery of ebony (beautiful in 
design); the centre was a bronze medallion, set round with a string of pearls The 
third was a. large volume in green morocco, inlaid with red and buff leather" oma 
men ed with gilt metal-work, enclosing ten medallions, painted like bas-reliefs in metat 
Next came a large and beautiful book, entitled « Landschaften," bound n rTrple 
velvet, exquisitely ornamented with pierced ivory of most elaborate pattern. Then there 
was a volume of "National Music," covered with metal-work and carved^ory In the 



OP THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 223 

centre were the arms of Austria ; and, surrounding them, fourteen little oil-paintings, 
mostly of rural costume, descriptive, we imagine, of the national songs. Next was a book 
in morocco, inlaid with ivory and a light blue enamel, beautifully ornamented with 
gold ; and, behind it, a volume bound in tortoise-shell, with gilt and silver ornaments of 
Gothic design, and three female allegorical figures in metal. These books claim admira- 
tion for the elaborate and costly ornament upon them. They were, with the Gothic 
bookcase that held them, a present from the Emperor of Austria to her Majesty. 
We have our doubts, however, as to whether all the credit is due to Vienna ; (with 
respect to sculpture, we have already seen how Austria has laid claim to the genius of 
Italy, as if it were her own ;) more especially as some plain morocco books in the same 
case did not exhibit the same amount of taste or excellence of workmanship. Among 
the minor volumes we noticed a peculiarity not unpleasing ; the titles of the books were 
lettered in raised metal letters, chased or burnished on the surface. 

Let us not, however, be dazzled with all this show — "Splendour in the binding of 
books," observes an able writer in the Juries' reports, " is a taste which dates back from 
remote times. The rarity of manuscripts, and the ornaments of every kind with which 
they were enriched, rendered them so precious, that they were exhibited upon desks for 
the purpose of gratifying the sight ana the pride of their possessors. Seneca said of 
them, ' Plerisque libri non studiorum instrumenta sunt, ad sedum ornamenta.' But if 
these rich bindings, some beautiful models of which still exist in public libraries, were 
suitable before or soon after the invention of printing, when books were almost as 
scarce as manuscripts, they are an anachronism, when we are compelled to heap them 
so closely in our libraries. These magnificent covers, executed for the greater part by 
jewellers, who enriched them with reliefs in gold, silver, steel, and ivory, with precious 
stones, ,with enamels, and with decorations of every kind, could only be suitable for the 
missals, and the antiphoners placed in churches. On seeing at the Exhibition, enclosed 
in the beautiful articles of furniture from Austria, the superb bindings in ivory, carved 
with so much art, or in gold and silver inlaid with gems, and enamels still more precious, 
it might be supposed that these were shrines enclosing sacred relics, or even the casket of 
Darius, in which Alexander deposited the poems of Homer. 

"Between simple bindings, and those in which costliness is carried to extreme, a 
medium may be found which lovers of books delight in, combining elegance with solidity 
and simplicity, qualities preferable to richness of gilding. At the period of the Renais- 
sance, artists of great taste executed admirable bindings for kings, princes, and a few 
rich and learned amateurs, whose names are preserved in the recollection of bibliopoles, 
who maintained in their houses, binders, whose taste they directed. Some chose the 
Byzantine style; but the greater portion adopted the style called the Renaissance. 
After them the binders confined themselves to imitation, applying this style of ornament 
indiscriminately to every species of book. Some attempts have been made to submit 
bookbinding to general principles, and to adopt the binding either to the period in which 
the books were written, or according to the subjects of which they treat ; and a variety 
of ornaments have been devised in consequence. The idea, though a happy one, is "not 
new, but has not generally been adopted. We have seen the cap of liberty, the owl, 
and the wand of iEsculapius applied to bindings with respect to the contents of the 
works. The Egyptian, Grecian, and Boman ornamental emblems have been resorted to, 
as well as the Gothic, borrowed from monuments. Others have thought it desirable that 
bookbinders, departing from the beaten track, should endeavour to give a more peculiar 
character which should mark our era ; and that thus the choice of colours, more or less 
sombre, or more or less bright — might always be in accordance with the nature of the 
subject treated of in the books. They contend that this system would at once afford, in 



224 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

a large library, the advantage of facilitating the search for books, by immediately striking 
the eye : that it is also to be desired that certain styles of ornament should indicate 
whether such a work, on Egypt for example, belonged to the Pharaonic, the Arabic, 
the French, or the Turkish era ; and that it should be the same with ancient Greece, 
Byzantine Greece, or modern Greece, the Rome of the Caesars, or the Rome of the Popes." 
These suggestions are not altogether to be disregarded. Whatever facilitates the ready 
attainment of the intellectual wealth that our libraries contain, is worth consideration. 
In concluding these observations, we may perhaps be allowed to remark, that books are 
made to be handled and to be read ; in providing them, therefore, with decent and 
respectable binding, if we avoid on the one hand the homely parsimony observed with 
respect to those neglected shelves, where, as the author of the Dunciad has recorded, — 

" Caxton sleeps, with "Wynkyn by his side, 

One clasped in wood, and one in strong cow-hide." 

So it is equally desirable that we should not clothe our books, our intellectual com- 
panions, in such gay and costly liveries, as to render them too fine for every-day use ; too 
splendid and pretentious for the philosopher and the student. 

STATIONERY. 

Prom bookbinding to stationery is a very natural transition. We shall, accordingly, 
before we conclude our chapter, present our readers with a few observations upon the 
subject, which we extract from the pages of an able contemporary. 

On the north side of the western nave, near the Pine Arts Court, was the modest 
space occupied by this important group of manufactures, which, but for the attractive 
folding-machine of Messrs. De la Rue and Co., placed at its portal, might have -escaped 
the scrutiny of all but the systematic visitor. Bookbinding occupied the lion's share of 
the allotted ground, and paper but a very small portion. It is to be regretted that our 
paper manufacturers did not contribute more generally, for, undoubtedly in many 
descriptions of paper we stand unrivalled. The number of contributors was in reality 
so small, that, had it not been for the energy of Messrs. Venables in collecting papers 
of many varieties, and from all sources, Great Britain would have made but little show 
in comparison with the productions of our continental neighbours. Whilst on this 
subject, we must advert to the advantage which would have resulted from the display 

a , pap fu-f ^ m i , °,°P erat i? n > ,™ th a11 ^e modern improvements, instead of the 
model exhibited by the Messrs. Donkm-a name, however, which must always be men 
tioned in honourable connexion with the paper-making automaton. Here our French 
brethren had the start of us, for, instead of a model, they exhibited the uaner nwE 

Had the Messrs. Donkin availed themselves of the opportunity of showing one of Their' 
paper machines m full work, the public would have better appreciated KJnJrf 
that art which transforms rags and refuse into a tablet on which all ffresX of 
iseTess. ^ ^ ' ^ ^ fOT Which the dependent art of Frirfkg woTd £ 

In Great Britain alone, about one hundred and thirty million pounds weight nf„, n „ 
are annually manufactured-estimated as worth upwards of three 2 I S a ° f P a P er 
and yielding to the revenue £870,000. Nine-teKs o ^ this miS T P ^ ^^ 
this country the exports not amounting to more than £000 000 ye /tS ST"? * 
represented by only some half dozen British exhibitors Syin of S -SlTo™ 
and the Messrs. Spicer, exhibited a roll of paper 2,500 yards In WV, li J °™ J > 
the perfection of the machinery which inverts the ^S^^ 5££f 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 225 

continuously at one end of the machine, into an unbroken sheet of well -sized writing 
paper, which comes out dried and ready for use at the other end. They also displayed 
a sheet of brown paper, 93 inches in width, and 420 feet in length, besides mill-boards of 
a new kind, and specimen reams of writing paper. Mr. Fourdrinier exhibited a sheet of 
pottery paper, two miles and-a-half in length. This paper is employed in the potteries 
as a vehicle to receive the impressions from the engraved plates, to be transferred there- 
from by the burnishers to the unglazed ware. This class of paper is of great strength, 
and, in illustration of this, we may mention an anecdote which occurs to us. With this 
paper, twisted into a rope, the proprietor of one of our potteries repaired, rapidly and 
efficiently, the broken traces of a carriage, which had conveyed a party of friends over 
the rough road leading to his works. Mr. Fourdrinier's name must not be passed 
without paying a tribute to the memory of his spirited and energetic relatives, to whom 
is mainly due the perfecting of the first crude thought of the continuous paper-making 
machine. There were likewise specimens of pottery paper exhibited by Mr. Lamb, in 
connexion with the rope used in its manufacture, and the pottery ware with the trans- 
ferred designs; and some were also contributed by Mr. Saunders, of Dartford, who 
illustrated the strength before alluded to, by suspending four half -hundred weights to a 
sheet only twenty inches in width. We here found Dewdney's well-known blue paper, 
which is used by the starch maker to wrap up his goods, and which must sustain the 
ordeal of a good baking in contact with the moist starch without losing its colour. 
Glazed boards, used in pressing cloths, were exhibited by Mr. Hamer, of Horseforth ; also 
by Messrs. Hastings and Miller, who likewise displayed gun-wadding and brown papers. 
There were also brown papers from E. Smith, of Fellingshore. We have now enumerated 
the principal objects in the plain paper section, with the exception of those sent by 
Messrs. Cowan, of Edinburgh, and the excellent and well-arranged selection of Messrs. 
Venables — which comprised, besides papers of their own make, most of the varieties 
manufactured in Great Britain, with the name of each maker prominently stated. 
Amongst them we noticed the universally-celebrated drawing papers of Mr. J. Whatman 
and those of Mr. George Wilmot. There were also brown papers, in which the most 
highly polished steel goods may be safely packed without fear of rust ; together with the 
unrivalled plate papers of Mr. Charles Venables, and the hand papers by his relative, 
George Venables. 

Of highly-glazed and tastefully packeted writing papers, Messrs. De La Rue and Co. 
were the principal exhibitors. Some of the novel papers with water-marks, invented by 
Mr. Oldham, and manufactured by Mr. Saunders, were placed against the glass partition 
which divides oflP the machinery, and they produced effects very similar to the cele- 
brated porcelain pictures, and received ample patronage from the public. Among the 
water-marks shown in the paper were some illustrations of sculpture from Nineveh, 
some Roman heads, the Madonna and Child, rural scenery, a medallion of her Majesty, 
the Exhibition building, with portraits of her Majesty and Prince Albert, a view of York 
Minster, and various others. The invention appears to be admirably adapted for paper 
for bank-notes, and other descriptions in which security from fraud or forgery is desired. 

Switzerland contributed well-made music-papers, writing papers of tolerable quality, 
and white and tinted tissues, which are very inferior to those made in England. Rome 
sent remarkably good drawing papers, made by M. Millani; and Tuscany, good machine 
writing papers, pelure of good quality, and laid papers, in which there is still room for 
improvement. France came out well in plain papers. The well-known Mongolfier sent 
excellent tinted drawing papers, tinted and white printed papers, and a very remarkable 
description called "parchemin animal," possessing surprising tenacity— so much so, that 
it is difficult to believe in its being only ordinary paper. Some of the specimens of 

3m 



226 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

this artificial skin are prepared with a kind of oil varnish, which adapts it for the preserva- 
tion of artillery, cartridges, especially during the long period of peace which it is our hap- 
piness to live in. The Societe Anonyme du Marais (Seine et Marne) sent specimens 01 
writing and printing papers, coarse, papers used for the manufacture of pasteboard, and 
likewise a -fine sort of millboard employed as a substitute for pasted cardboard, but not 
possessing : its strength and firmness. The Societe Anonyme Soucle (Vosges) sent 
tinted writing papers, and tinted tissues, which would bear comparison with the best of 
our .English manufactures — especially the pink, which surpassed in beauty of colour any 
other that we have seen. The French have always been famous for their tracing papers, 
especially those made transparent without the use of varnishes, and the examples here 
exhibited maintained their reputation. We now pause to examine more closely the 
splendid writing papers of Lacroix, whose thin post surpassed every thing which we had 
seen. The influence which looal circumstances, especially the postal arrangements ot 
different countries, have on this branch of art, cannot be more forcibly i exemplified 
than in the paper productions of France, as compared with our own. In England the 
aim is generally to produce a stout paper, that the writing' may not show through on the 
opposite side. We certainly surpass all other countries in the beautiful laid or ribbed 
papers, which the French are only now attempting; whilst, on the contrary, we are far 
behind them in their writing papers, as exemplified in M. Lacroix's beautiful and 
almost spotless pelure adapted to the postal laws of France. J : • ; 

Belgium sustained her reputation in this manufacture by a single, yet excellent, 
contribution from Godin and Son. It was most extensive, containing rolkv of packing 
and printing papers, machine-made drawing papers, and pelure writing papers, which 
are very excellent, but which do not equal the specimens of M. Lacroix. In the northern 
gallery, Russia exhibited some packing, printing, and writing papers, which show that that 
country is advancing, although their manufacture is still behind the western states of 
Europe. Holland sent laid papers for account books, and likewise writing papers by 
Honig and Son, all good of their various kinds ; and Van Gelder and Sons exhibited 
paper, blue on one side and white on the other, for the use of sugar refiners. There 
were several exhibitors from the different states of the Zollverein. We particularly 
noticed the productions of the mill of Dilligen, in Prussia. They contained, among 
other matters, specimens of the papers produced at these works from 1760 to 1850, 
showing at a glance the various improvements which have taken place; likewise a group 
of raw materials, and the papers produced from them. We also noticed straw papers 
of excellent quality. A short time back a miE was started in England for manu- 
facturing paper from straw, but the speculation does not appear to have answered 
commercially.. In the section of Sweden and .Norway we searched in vain for the 
filtering paper so valuable to the experimental chemist, which is made with the water 
resulting from the melting of the mountain snows, and is said to be the purest of 
all papers. Denmark sent some vellum post of good quality, and likewise machine 
drawing papers. India exhibited some curious specimens of native manufacture: that 
contributed from Nepaul being remarkable for its extreme thinness and lightness 




THE WOUNDED INDIAN. 

FROM THE ORICINAL BY STEPHENSON OF BOSTON , U NITED STATES 




Enfravod l>y llollia from aDajfntri-eotype ~Vj F>pa.rd 



A DEER STALKER , 

FROM THE ORIGINAL BY E . B . STE PH EN S 




Q 
O 



en 




o 



OF THE WOKLD'S INDUSTRY. 227 



CHAPTEK XXXVI. 



THE MEDIEVAL COURT, 

STOVE — OAK NICHE — GBEAT HOOD— STOKE CABVING-^THE NICHE — THe'tABEENACLE — TOHB OF 
DE. WALSH — HIGH ' AliTAE — CHIMNEY-PIECE — THE FONT — FAINTED GLASS — FTJBN1TITBE — 
OHUECH OENAMENTS— METAL WOBK, ETC. ETC. 

Among all the numerous attractions of the Great Exhibition, perhaps, on the whole, the 
Mediaeval Court, as a department, excited the most general interest. Its contents were 
of great variety, consisting of furniture, and church decorations after the fashion of the 
mediaeval, period, presenting a rich combination of stained glass, hardware, wood- 
carving, 'hangings, encaustic tiles, &c, perhaps a little too theatric in effect, but still 
harmonious and, suggestive. In making these remarks, and in proceeding to enter into a 
detailed account of this remarkable apartment, we by no means would wish to imply that 
we are among tile votaries of mediaeval models : far from it. We entirely agree with 
an acute and learned contemporary, f who says, " we consider that they have served their 
time, and in their time satisfied the general purposes of feeling and convenience then 
existing ; the attempt to revive them now, However, is a mistake; the sentiments which 
dictated many a pious, but often mistaken act of laborious decoration, exist no longer. 
Truer principles of art and rules of taste have begun : to influence society ; and the 
decorative fancies which in real mediaeval works become curious to us as matters of com- 
parative history, are lifeless, tame— not to say absurd — when copied in a more enlight- 
ened age. We object to all backward movements when once we have arrived at a, safe 
ground to stand upon ; and considering that the classic models, which reached us at 
the period of the revival, are to all intents and purposes preferable to the barbarism and 
clumsy contrivances of the middle ages, we object to abandon them until something 
better is offered to us in their stead. At" any rate, we -must strenuously 1 resist retracing 
our steps from the revival to the mediaeval; which, to speak plainly, we look upon as 
the culminating point of barbarism. Nevertheless, as we said before, the Mediaeval 
Court, tricked out in gaudy-coloured draperies, in coloured glass, and glittering brass, 
and cold monumental stone effigies, presented a striking coup-d'ceil, and deserves ana- 
lytical description. The credit of the general arrangements, we understand^ was due to 
the late Mr. Pugin, well known as a devotee to this style of art arid contrivance. The 
principal objects may 'be described as follows,— in the language, as will be perceived, of 
a veritable enthusiastic mediaevalism : — 

Stove. On the north side of the court was a large square stove of remarkable 

character : it was composed of glazed tiles in relief, of various colours, of which a con- 
siderable number were pierced to permit the exit of the hot air. These were .fixed in 
an iron frame, with angle shafts terminating in coronals, and small vanes of gilt metal 
painted with heraldic bearings/ The whole was 'enclosed with a wrought-iron grille of 
ingenious construction, all the enrichments being produced by hand, after the manner 
of the ancient Flemish "smiths, and' not cast. The'crockets and finlals were all bent up 
and twisted out of thin metail, and the general effect was most striking,; reminding the 
spectator of the ancient stoves in the castle of Nuremberg, and converting what is gene- 
rally an unsightly object into a highly decorative adjunct to an entrance hall or gallery. 
Oak Niche —Immediately over the south-east door was a wooden niche, containing a 
finely carved image of St. John the papti'st; the great peculiarity of this niche consisted 
in 'its' being designed after the old principle, to suit the material m which it was executed. 
AH' the enrichments were sunk out of the thickness of the stuff; there was neither 



. 228 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

mitering nor lateral projection: the cross pieces were terminated and keyed with 
wedges, which effectually held the work together without glue; the canopy was also 
carved out of three pieces, with sunk enrichments, and crocketed with continuous foliage. 

Great Rood.— In the south-east angle stood the Great Eood, intended for the loft of 
St. Edmund's College, near Ware. The whole was richly crocketed and foliated. At the 
four extremities were emblems of the Evangelists, surrounded by rich foliage-work, and 
on the reverse the Four Doctors. Attached to the lower portion of the framing were 
two pedestals for the images of the Blessed Virgin and St. John. The intermediate 
panels were filled with rich perforated tracing; and metal branches for lights were 
affixed to the stanchions. » 

Stone-Carving — Altar and Reredos — East Side. — This altar was intended for the lady 
chapel of a country church. The subject was that of the Annunciation. The whole 
reredos was divided into five compartments. The two outer ones contained images of 
the Virgin and the angel Gabriel ; and in the centre the pot of lilies, most delicately 
relieved in the carving, and interwoven with a label inscribed with the angelic salutation. 
The whole was surmounted by a very rich bratishing of quatrefoils and crocketed work. 

The Niche. — Adjoining the reredos was a niche, surmounted by a rich and lofty stone 
canopy, for the same chapel. This niche contained an image of the Virgin holding 
our Lord in her arms. The dignity of the Divinity was expressed in the countenance of 
the infant, and in his hand he bore the orb and cross. The Virgin was attired in a long 
tunic, and a mantle, with an enriched border, gathered gracefully into long folds; a 
silver parcel gilt crown, enriched with stones, was placed on the head. The image rested 
on a high pedestal, with highly relieved foliage, and the angle pinnacles of the canopy 
rested on two angle corbels issuing from the sides. 

TaSeraac/e.— Immediately opposite the high altar was a stone tabernacle intended for 
the reservation of the holy sacrament. It was quadrangular at bottom, with four 
crocketed gablets, three of which were filled with rich tracery> and the -fourth was the 
door, of perforated brass. From the four angles rose buttresses and pinnacles, terminated 
by angels with musical instruments. From this point the canopy became octagonal, 
and was connected to the square base by crocketed flying buttresses. It was terminated 
by a cluster of pinnacles, and niches filled with angels of most elaborate design and 
exquisite workmanship. Its entire height was upwards of twenty feet. 

Stone-Carving.— West Side.— Tomb of the late Rev. Dr. Walsh.— This monument, 
intended to be erected in St. Chad's Cathedral, Birmingham, in memory of the late 
Dr. Walsh, was designed in the third printed or decorated style, and executed in a very 
perfect manner. The effigy was recumbent, the head supported by two angels; it was 
attired m full episcopal vestments of the ancient graceful form, and the pastoral staff was 
borne in the right hand. The minutest details of the embroidery were most carefully 
carved in the stone, and the whole was a/ac simile of the actual vestments used by the 
deceased prelate. The effigy had a striking resemblance to those venerable and dig- 
nified effigies still remaining in our ancient churches. A richly crocketed canoov 
surmounted the recess, flanked by two buttresses and pinnacles; the back of the recess 
was diapered^ and the centre, within a quatrefoil, was a bas-relief, representing the Doctor 
attired as a Bishop, kneeling, and offering the church of which he was the founder The 
base of the tomb contained five quatrefoils, floriated and studded with wallflowers with 
enamelled shields of family and ecclesiastical bearings; and along the upper SeTas 
the following inscription, engraved in brass :— 8 VP ge was 

Orate pro anima illustrissimi Reverendissimi Dom. Thomae Walsh Vn r™l™«» j- * , ,. 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 229 

_ High Altar.— -The centre of the east side was occupied by a stone altar, intended for 
the chancel of a parish church; the front was supported by four marble pillars, with 
sculptured caps. These stood some distance in advance of the block part of the 
altar, which contained three deeply-mounted quatrefoils, surrounded by wallflowers, with 
three subjects in bas-relief— the " Agony in the Garden," " Our Lord bearing the Cross," 
and the Crucifixion :" these groups were sculptured with great severity and truth, and 
possessed a most devotional character. The space between the marble pillars and these 
sculptures will eventually contain reliquaries like small shrines. 

Chimney-piece.— On the west side of the court was a richly-carved fire-place, worked 
in Caen stone ; it was intended for the mansion of F. Barchard, Esq. The whole of the 
ornaments were heraldic, and the crockets were formed by birds encircled with foliage. 
The centre panel contained the Barchard arms, and the initials of the family filled the 
lateral quatrefoils. The recess for the grate was lined with tiles, charged with the crest 
and initials. F. B. alternately. The grate was solidly formed of wrought iron, standing 
on two dogs of the same material, surmounted by brass birds, and enriched with 
metal badges of- beaten work; a stone fender enclosed the hearth, which was composed 
of red and yellow tiles. The whole of the stone-work in this court was executed by Mr. 
Myers, of Belvidere-road, Lambeth, London, inventor of the machine for cutting Gothic 
tracery and mouldings : specimens of the work executed by it were deposited in the court, 
close to the bishop's tomb. There was a smaller fire-place at the north-east angle, also- 
executed in Caen stone: it was square-headed; the hollows of the mouldings were 
filled with running foliage ; the upper part was divided by beads into three panels, filled 
with Minton's tiles, chastely and elaborately painted with floral and geometrical patterns. 
The sides of the fire-place were lined by high tiles of a rich and original pattern, and the 
hearth was encircled by a stone fender. The whole fire-place had a rich and pleasing 
effect, produced by the combination of carved stone and the enamel painting of the 
tile- work. There was a small but appropriate grate, supported On dogs, in the fire-place. 

The Font. — In the centre of the court was a font and cover raised on octagonal steps, 
the risers of which were enriched with tracery. The bow was also octagonal, four sides 
being carved with the following subjects from sacred history : — " The Fall of Man," " St. 
John Preaching in the Wilderness," " The Baptism of our Lord," and the "Crucifixion." 
From the four other sides were projecting images of angels, which acted as corbels to 
support the four principal shafts of the canopy. Bound the pedestal were images of the 
Evangelists, the " Blessed Virgin," " St. John the Baptist," " St. Peter," and "St. Paul." 

The canopy, which was entirely of oak, and supported by the angle-shafts, was raised 
up to a considerable height by a succession of pinnacles and tabernacle-work, and was 
sufficiently lofty to receive the cover of the font, consisting of an octagonal top, sur- 
mounted by open tray panels, the whole of which rose up into the canopy by the action 
of counterweight when the font was used; and when lifted to its proper elevation, 
formed a ceiling, with the Holy Dove in the centre. This principle of uncovering the 
font was a considerable improvement on the old method of opening a compartment 
of the high covers, and was at once more elegant and convenient. 

Painted Glass. — The north side of the court was filled with painted glass. Over the 
entrance-door was a portion of the south window of the new dining-hall at Alton 
Towers. The centre light contained an effigy of the Grand Talbot, faithfully delineated 
from his tomb at Whitchurch. On either side were shields with his various quarterings, 
supported by Talbots, and intersected with foliage and branch-work on a quarry guard, 
surrounded by a neat border of T's and coronals. 

There were two long lights of the Decorated period, with compound niches and 
pinnacles, each containing an image ; one of St. Thomas the Apostle, the other St: 

3 N 



230 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

Thomas the Martyr, in rich costume, on diapered grounds. These were intended for the 
court windows of the chantry chapel of the late Dr. Griffiths, in the Collegiate Church 
of St. Edmunds, near Ware. Over the lower doorway were placed three lights, repre- 
senting two groups, from the life of St. Andrew, and an effigy of the saint, all under 
very elaborate canopies. This glass was designed in the style of the fifteenth century, as 
it is to be fixed in a parochial church of that period. Adjoining the centre pillar were 
two lights, forming the centre light for the great court window of the same church : the 
subjects represented were the Transfiguration and Crucifixion of our Lord. At the east 
end were four lights of grisaille work, each containing two quatrefoils, filled with subjects 
from the life of the Blessed Virgin. These groups were relieved on rich blue glass, 
diapered, and the grisaille was intersected with ruby and yellow bands, &c., upon floriated 
centres of varied colours, and each light was surrounded by a varied border. These 
windows were to be placed on the south side of the Lady Chapel of St. Augustine's 
Church, at Bamsgate. At the opposite end was another window of two lights, containing 
niches and canopies, with images of St. Ethelbert of Kent and his Queen, the blessed 
Bertha. The richness of the habits of the two principal figures was well relieved by a 
white ground ; and this style of glass, treated on the old principles, has all the advantages 
of producing a rich effect, without impeding the sufficiency of light from entering the 
edifice. This window was also for St. Augustine's, Bamsgate, and was presented to that 
church by J. Herbert, Esq., the celebrated painter and Academician. 
■ There was a very translucent image of the Virgin, in a blue mantle, of a rich, but 
subdued colour, precisely similar to that so frequently seen in the old windows, and 
which is most difficult to attain. A decorated canopy surmounted the light, and the 
groundwork was a white diaper. The whole of the glass was painted in the old manner, 
and without any attempt at antiquity, but left precisely in the same state as that of" 
the old glass, when originally executed. In all the designs a due proportion of white 
was introduced, without which it is impossible to attain a brilliant effect. 

Furniture. — The centre of the south side was occupied by a carved oak sideboard, of 
massive construction : the back was raised in panel- work to the height of several feet, 
and supported an overhanging canopy, richly carved, and divided into arched panels by 
moulded ribs; these panels were diapered in colour, on gold ground. The centre com- 
partment of the back was hung with scarlet cloth, and served as a background to 
several large ornamental dishes, parcel gilt, beat up and raised into heraldic devices and 
bearings, with rich and varied borders, containing crests and mottos, all referring to the 
house of Talbot, as they are intended for the new dining-haU at Alton Towers The 
constructive framing of this sideboard was richly ornamented by. carving of vine and hop 
foliage, boldly executed. The two extreme stanchions were carried up in an octagonal 
form, and terminated by two clusters of foliated brass branches, supporting fights The 
doors of the side recesses were elaborately carved, and fitted with pierced ornamental 
hinges and lock plates, m the style of those so skilfully made in the fifteenth century 
ine sideboard was the production of Mr. Crace, ofWigmore-street. The dishes were 
executed by Mr. Hardman, of Birmingham. Immediately in front of the sideboard was 
a large octagonal table executed in walnut-tree. The frame and stand was designed on 
the strongest constructional principles, and its enrichments were only adjuncts to the 
necessary framing. The top was elaborately inlaid with wood, of varLs Sours and 
fully proved the applicability of medieval designs and decorations to everv win* of rt» 
present age. The general effect had all the richness oft^JZI ? rms 
and a more pleasing combination of colours. P Iorms > 

The next most striking piece of furniture was a lone book-casp or nat™^ tv, 
centre doors were filled with open-wrought brass-work, of b^fiLSdSU and 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 231 

were intended to admit a view of costly objects preserved in this compartment; the two 
side-doors were panelled with rich flamboyant tracery. The spaces were divided by 
carved and moulted muntons, and the whole was surmounted by an elaborate foliated 
bratishing in oak, interspersed with shields, charged with various devices. The locks, 
fastenings, and hinges, were of brass, and perfectly carved out in character with piercing 
and chasing. 

Adjoining the cabinet was a praying-desk, surrounded by a triptych, intended for a 
bedchamber or private oratory. On either side of the desk were carved corbels, supporting 
a pair of gilt candlesticks, ornamented with fleurs-de-lis, and the monagram M.R. The 
panels of the triptych, when open, displayed two miniature paintings of St. Katherine 
and St. Margaret, and the centre recess was richly dispersed in gold and colours. This 
piece of furniture was executed by Mr. Crace, for C. R. Scott Murray, Esq., of Danesfield. 
On this side of the court were several pieces of furniture, such as tables, some inlaid at 
top, chairs, with gilt supporters and velvet coverings ; others, more simple in form, of 
oak, and covered with leather, but as commodious in shape as those of ordinary modern 
use. In the centre was a cheval screen, consisting of a richly-carved frame, decorated 
with the rose, shamrock, and thistle, supported by the lion and unicorn at either end, 
with the royal arms, — a combination, however, involving a glaring anachronism. The 
whole was filled with elaborate needlework, executed by a number of ladies, whose names 
were inscribed in scroll-work on the reverse. At either end of this side was placed a 
piano, the cases of which were designed in the same style as the rest of the furniture. A 
piano is so modern an invention, that it has hitherto been considered almost hopeless to 
combine its construction with old details suitable for the rooms of an ancient mansion ; 
but the present examples fully show that mediaeval detail and design are perfectly 
applicable to all the requirements and inventions of the day. One of these instruments 
was executed in oak, and was of simple character ; the other was most elaborately carved 
and gilt, the fall painted with flowing borders, and the keys inlaid. The pianos were 
made by Messrs. Burns and Lambert, of Portman-street. Interspersed with this furni- 
ture was a variety of brass candlesticks, sconces, and branches for lights, either standing 
or projecting from the wall. They were light in design, and well adapted for their 
purposes, yet most original in form and effect. In stuffs for hangings there were a great 
variety of elaborate and most effective old patterns, executed by Mr. Crace, some in 
tapestry, others in silk and woollen stuffs, which, by their design, perfectly recalled those 
gorgeous bandekins so often mentioned in the pages of the old historians, and depicted 
in the works of the ancient painters. There were also several carpets of the same 
character, full of rich colour and design, and without any attempt at false relief and 
shadow. Over the stone fire-place a large carpet was suspended, all the details of which, 
without a single architectural feature, or anything that would be commonly denominated 
Gothic, by the arrangements of its foliated enrichments and the combination of colours, 
possessed a most distinct and mediaeval character. 

Church Ornaments, Metal-work, $c— A very large portion of the contents of the 
Medieval Court came under this head. Immediately in front of the great sideboard 
hung a chandelier of striking appearance and considerable dimensions. It was constructed 
on the octagonal principle, and was composed of a number of shafts terminating in 
pinnacles passing through frames of pierced-work, fixed to a central shaft of tinted brass. 
From each pinnacle sprung a succession of light foliage in the form of branches, the 
stems of which terminated in coronals and sockets supporting the candles, bhields 
charged with the Talbot lion were interspersed among the branches, and by the colour 
heightened the general richness of effect. The first idea of this chandelier was taken 
from the celebrated one at Nuremberg; but it was larger in dimensions, and much 



232 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

lighter and stronger in construction. It was intended to be suspended in the centre of 
the new dining-hall at Alton Towers. Immediately opposite was a large brass cornice 
of an early style, executed for a church of Byzantine character. It was composed of 
segments of circles filled in by rich intersecting open-work, and supporting a deep rim 
and bratisliing. To these were attached the standards which carry the tapers, and were 
composed of chased stems, with crystal nobs and small coronals. The weight of the lower 
crown was partly carried by chains of a very ornamental character fastened to an upper 
crown; and the effect of the whole was extremely rich and striking. Kound the high 
altar on the east side, a set of six brass pillars, about twelve feet in height, was erected. 
These pillars were highly ornamented in their shafts, with moulded caps and bases, and 
sustained six angels, also in brass, with outspread wings, bearing standards with tapers : 
between every pillar was a brass rod with open-work bratishing, and rings from which 
silk curtains, wove with sacred emblems, were suspended. This kind of inclosure was 
formerly to be found in the majority of the foreign cathedrals, and occasionally in our 
own j but a more correct taste and revolutionary changes have completely stripped the 
ancient churches of these unnecessary arrangements, and they have been now revived for 
the first time for the chancel of St. Thomas's church at Erdirigton, for which the whole 
of this work was designed and executed. In front of the high altar hung a carved beam, 
similar to those described as having been suspended in Canterbury Cathedral and other 
churches. It was intended for chapels dedicated to the reservation of the holy sacra- 
ment. At the centre and extremities were quatrefoils filled with 1 foliage; and to these the 
iron-work, by which the whole was suspended, was attached. Along the upper edge was 
an open cresting of brass-work, supporting bowls and prickets for tapers. To the lower 
side of the beam were suspended seven silver lamps of the ancient form, several of which 
were enriched with enamels. The wick burns in a ruby glass dropped into a silver collar 
hung from the small chains attached to the larger ones, which sustain the chased basins 
hanging beneath to receive any drippings of oil. These were designed on the real 
principles of church lamps, and according to the most ancient customs, and they are 
perfectly consistent in form, and convenient for their purposes ; while modern church 
lamps are usually made like huge bowls full of emptiness, with a glass stuck in the top 
of them. The beam and its appurtenances are a most satisfactory revival of one of the 
most beautiful ornaments that formerly decorated the ancient churches. Kound the 
high altar were placed several high-standing candlesticks, terminating in branches and 
coronals for lights, intended for the elevation or benediction. There were also six silver 
candlesticks on the altar, of twisted and chased-work rising from octagonal bases orna- 
mented with crystals and knops. The flowing of this design is particularly well adapted 
to the metal, as they produce an infinite variety of bright and reflected lights 

The candles themselves are remarkable amongst the revivals of the present aee The 
large candle, which is called a "Paschal Candle," was intended as symbolical "of the 
glory of Christ s resurrection. It is lighted during the offices of the Romish Church from 
Easter to the Ascension. It was elaborately painted round the base with various inscrip- 
tions and devices. The triple candle, which is- composed of three equal parts twSed 
together, u used on Ho y Saturday for the "Lumen Christi," in the proc^sLn from the 
church porch. The twisted torch is a revival of those borne on various occasfons rn" the 
middle ages, especially at funeral processions and entertainments. The custom of enrich 
ing .candles for sacred purposes, by painting and gilding is very ancW n ^ If 
principle was formerly carried out with regafd to cLdJfor 35X^*^*5? 

eoclesiastical ornaments, and the o^t^M^ ^IT^S, ^£ 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 233 

In the former there were several richly enamelled chalices of the ancient form, with 
chased perforated knops of intricate design and hexagonal feet most richly chased, and 
decorated with enamel and precious stones. There were two monstrances of elegant 
design, but of very different character. The first was a circlet of rich tracery, like a 
crown supported by a high stem, and surrounded with enamelled quatrefoils representing 
cherubim in adoration. The second was like an open spire or canopy of octagonal form; 
springing from four pinnacled shafts, supporting images of angels with scrolls. The 
execution of this, even to the minutest details of the crockets and pinnacles, would bear 
comparison with some of the best works of the old silversmiths, and may be considered a 
great advance m the revival of this art. On one side of the same case was a pastoral staff 
tor a bishop, enamelled, crocketed, and containing several images in the crook under 
canopied-work. This case also contained some richly enameUed pyxes, candlesticks, 
crosses, bindings of missals, and a variety of church ornaments most elaborate in detail. 
The opposite case, devoted to secular plate, contained a variety of specimens of candle- 
sticks^ salt-cellars, dessert services, flagons, &c, of simple form, but designed in the 
metallic feeling which may be discerned in the productions of the ancient silversmiths. 
The effect is produced by beating-up and engraving. There were no cast ornamaments 
of heavy foliage, but the nature of the material is well-considered in the designs, and 
has a great effect in production at a comparatively small cost There were several trays 
of jewels, the setting of which was according to the old Venetian manner, the stones 
being almost detached, and held by points, by which a transparent effect is obtained. 
The specimens consisted of crosses, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, rings, and a girdle. 
The casket made to contain them was exceedingly elaborate, and of elegant design, 
with enamelled lock and heraldic devices. On the opposite side of the court were two 
other cases, containing church vestments, made after the ancient form, which has been 
recently revived, and presenting a pleasing contrast to the modern stiff and buckram 
chasuble of France. The laces which form the orphreys were adapted from ancient 
examples, and a great variety of these were exhibited on the sides of the cases. There 
was also an albe with the ancient apparel as seen in the habits of ecclesiastics on tombs 
and sepulchral brasses, and two copes, one of which was of white cloth of gold. There 
was also a variety of stoles, maniples, and chalice-veils, in the same case. Adjoining 
were three lecterns. The first was designed with two branches, separating from a solid 
stem (the base), and supporting two kneeling angels, who carry a perforated tracery 
panel to receive the book. The second was a large eagle, with outspread wings, resting 
on an orb supported by an hexagonal pedestal of open tracery- work, from whence sprung 
three flying buttresses, resting on pinnacled shafts, surmounted by half images of angels 
bearing scrolls. The base was very massive, and rested on three lions couchant. Two 
large foliated branches were attached to the shafts, and carried tapers, to afford light 
to the lector; these branches were moveable, and might be adjusted at pleasure. This 
noble lantern was presented to St. George's Church, Southwark, by the Rev. D. Haigh, 
of Erdington. The third lectern was designed from an ancient example at the Cathedral 
at Courtrais. The desk was perforated with a device of the holy name spread out into 
flamboyant tracery ; the shaft was terminated by an image of St. John the Evangelist. 
Opposite these, and in front of the niche, was placed an iron candlestick, of wrpught- 
work, which turned on a centre, and was intended to receive offerings of tapers for. the 
Lady Chapel of St. Augustin's Church. This was a most elaborate piece of iron-work, 
worthy of the ancient smiths, and was a striking proof that our operations, when under 
proper directions, are quite capable of representing the most beautiful works of mediaeval 
skill. Near this was a credence-table of wrought brass, with a marble inlaid top, and 
many other objects all from the workshops of Mr. J. Hardman, of Birmingham. 

3o 



234 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 
LETTERS FROM M. BLANQUI— continued. 

LETTEE III. BEITISH MACHINERY— IFBENCH TASTE, — AMEBICAN PEODTTOE — INDIA. — LETTER IT. 

— LYONS SILKS — SEYEES, BEAUYATS, AND GOBELINS FBENCH NATIONALITY BEITISH INDIA 

AND CHINA. — LETTEE Y. — BEITISH INDIA CONTINUED — ITS ANTIQUITY AND OEIGINAL CHA- 
EACTEE — ITS YAST COMPBEHENSIVENESS — CHINA. 

LETTEE III. 

The more we examine in the Crystal Palace, the portion devoted to English industry, 
the more we perceive that the English have neglected nothing to appear to the utmost 
advantage at this memorable tournament. They are completely equipped, armed at all 
points. They only, perhaps, amongst all the competitors, are in a position, to be judged 
without appeal, for they have unreservedly put forth all their strength. When the 
Exhibition, had once been determined upon, the fiercest protectionists, who had most 
strongly opposed it, made every effort to appear to the greatest advantage. They yielded 
with good grace, and not a manufacturer of any importance failed to respond to the 
summons : they were all ready on the opening day. They occupy, as we have already 
stated, one-,half of the entire space devoted to the Exhibition, and they have established 
themselves, methodically and in admirable order. All their machines are in operation 
in a series of bays, to which the steam required to put them in motion is conveyed under- 
ground in tubes. Whether from motives of economy, or for the purpose of avoiding the 
terrible din caused by so much machinery, each machine is only worked at intervals so 
that a portion of the machinery is at res.t while the other is at work. The overlookers 
everywhere explain the processes to, the public ; there is spinning, weaving, embroider- 
ing, stocking-weaving, lace, riband,, and cloth manufacturing. It is a veritable acting 
industrial encyclopaedia. The steam is conveyed, to machines of 20-horse power and 
to small models the size of a card-table. Have a care how you pass unheeded these 
innumerable instruments of production: not one of them, but which presents some novel 
amelioration or some improvement in the details. 

There is not an European nation, even among those which excel; in the construction 
of machinery, which offers so brilliant and complete a collection as England The Eng- 
lish are herein truth upon their natural ground: their hydraulic presses, their locomo 
tives, their maritime steam engines, exceed all known proportions. They exhibit rails 
of 20 metres long in one piece, cranks of, forged iron for machines of 800-horse Dowpr 
spinning frames with 1,200 spindles; that is to say, instruments of gigantic motion and 
production. Their cranes, their exhaustiug pumps, their waggons, their models of bridses 
are of remarkabk daring. The perfection of their agricultural implements, so varied and 
so different from our own, does not excite less admiration. Were there no other subiects 
for study, that of these instruments would suffice to prove how much their agricXre 

w/Tf- ^n T- J - T lllduSt f y - Their s «P eri °rity « still 'more striSlv 

manifested in all their iron works or cutlery. Iron and coal are the nrinrinVli! ■ 7 

of the wealth of the British people. Enter the smallesHnlage SS^SS^JTS 

English use iron or brass. The enlightened observer whoVxamines Ihe Sibltion ^ 

particularly struck with the admirable perfection and the variety of thefrtodk £? *? 

axe to the plane from the boring machines to the MieJ^^£^^^ 

smiths' work, of excellent workmanship, adapts itself with precision to *il aZ ■ S k ~ 

of fastening. Their knives, their scjors, tneir razors, iS^^t^ 1 ^ 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 235 

pensable instruments of everyday life, the imperfection of which in France causes us so 
many daily annoyances, are here of a solidity above all proof, and of exceedingly moderate 
price. Their hardware and edge-tools likewise exhibit the effects of the price of the raw 
material and of mechanical execution. Our superiority commences the moment when 
taste and objects of art are concerned, and this superiority, entirely French, shines pre- 
eminent, not only in our struggle with the English, but with all other nations. The form, 
the elegance, the grace, that indescribable something which gives life and soul to matter, 
perfume to flowers, colour to objects, this is the incontestable attribute of French genius. 
In this respect, I dare to say it without national vanity, our exhibition, though incomplete, 
is absolutely overwhelming. The question of prices, the question of labour, of political 
economy, will have to be considered hereafter, and we shall discuss it against all men ; 
but the question of art and taste, that great trial which might have been lost, is won 
without appeal by the avowal of all our rivals. Behold the Austrians, the Belgians, the 
Spaniards even, and the English, as regards the artistic working in wood in a great 
and beautiful branch of industry — that of furniture. Assuredly, they have exhibited 
serious works — tables, sofas, arm-chairs, bookcases; but what absence of taste, what sheer 
waste of talent and ability, for want of design, of art, and of sentiment. It is the same 
in respect to bronzes and works in precious metals ; although MM. Deniere and Thomire 
TT-doubtless content with their laurels — have let judgment go by default. They are 
wrong. Englishmen, Prussians,, Saxons, Austrians, all are rapt with, admiration before 
the works of our founders. There is in these works such an extraordinary vigour and 
spirit, that every one is struck. These are the great artists, the men of taste, the inven- 
tors, the men who are imbued with the sacred spark of art. I have visited repeatedly 
the entire Exhibition With several able foreign manufacturers, who expressed their 
sincerest admiration for so many ehefs-dfceuvre. 

i Everywhere we find this immortal fire of French genius', which is to us what the iron 
and coal mines are to the English, and more than that, an inexhaustible capital. No 
sooner have the manufacturers of Mulhouse displayed their printed jacconets, their 
printed calicoes, their chintzes, their mousselines-de-kine, than the victory is already 
assured to them. Look at the same articles in the English, Austrian> Belgian, Saxon, 
Swiss, or Russian eompartmentsj everywhere you will be compelled to admit, with the 
progress which has been made, the decisive superiority of the French goods. And this 
time the question of prices excites no doubts — nobody manufactures better and cheaper. 
Here we have for less than a shilling per yard fabrics for curtains, or rather real masses 
of roses, lilacs, camelias, which float in the air, on calico grounds, and which M. Jean 
Dolfus still considers too dear. Jean Dolfus is right. Jean Dolfus is an upright and 
able manufacturer, who has perfectly understood that cheapness is the great question of 
the day, and who has thrown himself into the conflict for the triumph of true principles. 
"What says he? A very simple thing. He says this: — "Since we are the first calico 
printers (and he has a right to say it, for he is one of the ablest) , we have only one thing 
to wish for: it is, that the manufacturers of calico shall furnish us the raw material 
for our prints at, the lowest possible price. Our superiority as printers is only weakened 
by our inferiority as weavers. Our weavers only sell us the calcoes at such high prices 
because the spinners are protected by prohibition below certain numbers. Let us abolish 
prohibition, which is absurd and impertinent in every respect, and the branch of industry 
of calico-printing will probably be trebled or increased tenfold. We shall purchase grey 
calico cheaper, and we shall resell it embellished with a thousand colours." Upon this 
there is a great outcry at Mulhouse, where there are, as elsewhere, many manufacturers 
ignorant on political economy, less' peremptory and intolerable, however, than M.M. 
Lebeuf, Mimerel, those great proficients in closing the ports and building China walls, 



236 THE GREAT EXHIBITION > 

and for whom the whole of France is Creil and Roubaix. These illustrious "represen- 
tatives of the people" exhibit nothing in London. They have dreaded the companson 
of their productsf Those who think as they do at Mulhouse, do not desire that our 
printers, who print so well, should print cheaper, that consequently they should employ 
more workpeople and create more national labour. This is the trial, be assured which 
will be judged at the Exhibition in London from the most irrefutable evidence. Oh I bir, 
how I lament to think that for more than twenty-five years my masters and myself have 
written and taught to demonstrate to this people, that it is better to have a good knife 
of thirty sous than a bad blade of three francs, and that to make steel, Swedish iron is 
better than ours. This is very unpatriotic, we are told, and you are the enemies ot 
national labour; as though national labour were not interested in the cheapness of raw 
materials, and as though there were not in France millions of men who use iron com- 
pared with a few thousands who produce it ! At this great gathering of the industry of 
all nations, it is easy to judge of the influence of low prices of the raw materials. The 
ascendant prosperity of the English is entirely owing to this. Every day they free their 
raw materials and articles of consumption. Bread, coffee, sugar, meat, tea, articles of 
food and of clothing, are all brought within reach of the greatest number, and increase 
at once the revenue of the state and the welfare of the people. When we consider, in 
this vast bazaar of the Universal Exhibition, what every nation wants, it is easy to see 
that it is principally the liberty to procure it to itself by the aid of that which it does 
not want. The United States exhibit varied raw materials in large numbers, and few and 
very mediocre manufactured articles. It is to their interest to sell us their raw materials 
and to purchase our products. 

Before concluding this rapid sketch of the general facts of the Exhibition, I may allude 
to the interest which is attached to the countries now behindhand, in times of yore 
prosperous, of the old civilised world. The products of India and of China represent 
with sufficient accuracy the state of industry as it was two thousand years ago, when 
France and England were covered with forests. The Great Exhibition, therefore, does not 
only present the different industries of nations, but that of centuries ; nor is it a spectacle 
devoid of interest to behold the spoils of animals from all parts of the globe — such as 
Bengal tigers, African lions, Russian bears, American beavers, and even hides of hippo- 
potami perfectly tanned and bullet-proof. 

LETTER IV. 

At length France has hoisted her flag amidst the applause of all Europe, and in a few 
days hence her arts and manufactures may be appreciated at their true value. The city 
of Lyons has been somewhat behindhand, as this will sometimes happen to ill-tempered 
potentates ; but nobody has lost anything in consequence. The Exhibition could scarcely 
be said to be opened as long as the marvels produced by that city were wanting. Now 
that Lyons and Mulhouse have completed their elegant, simple, and synoptical display, 
myriads of lookers-on crowd the brilliant galleries; it is a perpetual stream of visitors, 
who come to greet the queen city of our industry. On all hands nothing is heard but the 
exclamations — " Beautiful ! handsome ! very nice I" 

This is the fitting opportunity, Sir, to reassure our countrymen upon the subject of 
the reports which have been circulated in Paris relative to our inferiority at the Exhi- 
bition. There can only have been some foundation for these reports during the first 
days, when, m fact, we had scarcely anything unpacked, and when the public, very much 
astonished, passed by our empty glass cases and our packing cases filled with straw It 
was a lamentable spectacle, and the much more to be regretted since first impressions 
are enduring, and often outlive the reality which ought to modify them. But it was the 



OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 257 

fault of the exhibitors, who nearly all waited until the last moment, some to complete, 
others to send off their goods. Everything now has been set to rights ; and previous to 
entering upon the comparative examination between our various arts and manufactures 
and those of our rivals, I can confirm, without an overweening patriotism, everything 
that I had led you to foresee in my first letters, that our triumph is certain in nearly 
everything, brilliant above all in the department of Lyons. Not that I do not see appear- 
ing in the horizon threatening powers : until further information, I shall merely name 
them to you. Switzerland has ribands, Italy velvets, and Spain silk goods, worthy 01 
the greatest attention. China^ of which I will speak presently, has very remarkable 
crapes and shawls, even as regards the taste of the embroidery. But rest assured that 
we shall remain the incontestable masters of the initiative and of art. An Englishman, 
who understands these matters, said to me yesterday : " We have quantity, you have 
quality." The Englishman was right. It will be easy to prove that we might have both. 
To achieve this it will suffice to admit the raw materials of labour at the lowest prices 
in whatever part of the world they are found. That which most usually interferes with 
the sale of our articles, is their relative dearness ; and this clearness arises principally in 
consequence of the high price of the raw materials. As soon as it will be understood 
that the national genius gives to our works a greater value than other nations impart to 
theirs, the oflly means of not losing our superiority will be not to let the other nations 
be able to procure the elements of labour cheaper than ourselves. It is a question of 
customs; for as far as arts and taste are concerned, this is a sacred fire which cannot 
be purloined ; the Universal Exposition sufficiently proves this, and> to me, beyond my 
most sanguine hopes. It will be as easy to deprive us of this privilege as of the mild- 
ness of our climate or the grace of our women. I would ask you whether grace can be 
taught or purchased ? 

Thus, Sir, until we reconsider this grave subject, naturally reserved until the end of 
our studies, I may recapitulate in a few words the position which we occupy at the 
Universal Exhibition.- We are evidently without rivals as regards form, design, and 
colour in everything : precious metal-work, cabinet-work, bronzes, paper-hangings, printed 
calicoes, fancy articlesj philosophical instruments, guns, &c. We have made no show 
of pottery or glass. Saint Louis and Baccaret have deserted in the face of England and 
Bohemia. We have few machines, and it would be a great error to judge of the power 
Of France from what we have exhibited in this department, although what we have 
shown is very beautiful: Our former royal manufactures— Sevres, Beauvais, and Gobe- 
lins occupy a room by themselves, which is the admiration of all visitors. Our organs, 

our pianos, resound pre-eminently all over the Exhibition. Everywhere you behold a 
multitude of useful articles; you return at all times to the French department to find the 
real type of the beautiful. Even this morning I had the honour to accompany the 
duchess of Orleans over the Exhibition, who said to us, with visible satisfaction : " Deci- 
dedly gentlemen, France is ever France; and her greatness shines here anew by the 
light of comparison !" I shall now conduct your readers over the ground most favour- 
able to comparisons between our European industry and that of the old world. I allude 
to British India and China, which have displayed at the Universal Exhibition products 
which are really marvellous in point of make and variety. Manufacturers of every 
description, and of all countries, will do well to study the articles sent by China and 
India for in them they will find precious indications to renew or modify their designs, 
their 'forms, and even the arrangement of certain weaiving-looms/ The collection of 
products of British India is peculiarly interesting in this respect, inasmuch as it is more 
novel and less known than the Chinese articles. It is also more complete, and it is easy 
to see that the orders of the English government have not contributed a little to the 

3 p 



233 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

care with which it has been got together. Those who only know India through the 
medium of books— and there is not a better one on the subject than that of our unfor- 
tunate countryman, Jacquemont — may here see that country alive and stirring, without 
trouble or fatigue ; here it is entirely, the climate only is wanting ; and I venture to say 
that this collection of itself presents sufficient interest to attract thousands of visitors in 
England. 

The first thing which strikes the eye is a military and naval collection — that of all the 
weapons of the country, and of all the ships, large or small, which navigate these 
distant seas. What means of destruction, what curious shapes of guns, of heavy can- 
nons, of pistols, of arrows, of sabres, of daggers ornamented in every fashion, daggers 
with straight blades, with bent blades, gilt and enamelled poniards, yataghans — frightful 
and beautiful instruments of death, and very few of production. You would think 
that life is too long in that country, and that it is an evil of which you cannot get rid too 
soon. The ships, likewise, seem rather constructed for the purpose of piracy than for 
commerce. Behold those of Mindanao, with two rows of oars and square sails; the 
sampans of Singapore, with lateen sails ; the ship serpent of Cochin-China, with small 
shovels in the shape of oars ; and this whole fleet of sea-rovers, which the steam-frigates 
of England gradually sweep away from this archipelago of thieves ; — are not these the 
image of the old East, which yields every day before the ascendancy of the genius of 
Europe. The study of this collection is more easy, inasmuch as the English have omitted 
nothing. There is probably not a single profession which has not been represented by 
a statuette in the costume proper to it. These costumes are often somewhat light, 
giving an idea of the climate, and particularly of the condition of the people of that 
country. When you see these heavy palankins, carried by half-naked men with the 
gait of beasts of burden, and contrast these with the brilliancy of the trappings, em- 
broidered with gold, that of the golden fabrics inlaid with precious stones — all this 
Oriental magnificence created by so much indigence — you learn only too much of the lot 
of humanity in these old starting-points of civilisation. Here you may easily see that if 
socialism is a chimera, misery is a reality. The works of their industry are neverthe- 
less worthy of the liveliest interest. If our prohibitionists had condescended to appear 
at the Universal Exhibition, we would have taken the liberty to show them the collec- 
tion of Indian pottery, the forms of which are contemporaneous with the conquest of 
Alexander, and which, for their variety and originality, are deserving the attention of all 
those engaged m the ceramic art. This pottery, fine as well as coarse, forms a veritable 
museum, of a striking local colouring, and which must be of great value, as I noticed 
with regret that it was forbidden to take drawings of them without permission ; but it is 
not forbidden to carry away the idea. This exhibition is a mine of ideas. The two or 
tnr.ee charming little compartments devoted to the woven fabrics of India, from shawls 
down to.the slightest fancy neckerchiefs, appear to me capable of themselves of revolu- 
tionising the fashions. Let me entreat of you to send the largest possible number of 
workmen. Would they could all be sent here ! What creations, what riches, would be 
he fruits of this journey! What new fabrics might we not produce with the aid of 
these patterns three thousand years old! Besides, it appears to me that sincTtne 
republic of Plato is fashionable in Paris, we ought also to study the contempo^eous 
SffiS °' £»: ^r*^}\ *W ° f y°- c o^-red InL. There Tas a e ° 



indnstryin the EasHn the time ,of " *££, u^^ ™ e n Europe TS 



OF THE "WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 239 

The great value of this portion of the English Exhibition is, that it -is impossible to 
find it elsewhere, either on a large or small scale. The greater portions of the Indian 
articles, not being in conformity with European taste, very few are generally imported 
into Europe, and we cannot adapt to our use all which would be applicable to it by 
means of some unimportant modifications. Yesterday, for instance, I was admiring 
several oriental fabrics brocaded with gold and silver, which the slightest change would 
suffice to transform in the most original fashion, and render them appropriate to the 
refined and elegant taste of our ladies. A thread of white silk substituted for the silver, 
a thread of yellow silk for the gold, and all would be accomplished. Once more, send us 
workmen by hundreds. Preach this crusade. I dare to assert that not a single good 
workman can spend a fortnight here without trebling what we political economists call 
his moral capital — the capital that belongs to him, his intrinsic value, that is to say, 
without becoming richer. The Indian exposition has likewise its philosophical and 
political point of view for me. I may inform you of a discovery which is connected, 
through Calcutta, with the Indian exhibition, although the discovery is carried out in 
Scotland. It is the introduction of a new textile product, which is called here jute, 
which holds a medium between flax and hemp. Jute is a species of hemp, which grows 
abundantly in the plains of Bengal, and which, strange to say, possesses along with the 
properties of flax, those of cotton, that is to say, of being combed in parallel staple, and 
of being carded. A distinguished manufacturer, the Chevalier Clausen, has succeeded in 
bleaching it so perfectly, that there is no silk more glossy than jute, after being bleached 
by a new process, which constitutes the most curious application of chemistry which has 
ever been made to manufacture — a process, which might be called bleaching by means 
of distension. The jute can be made into parallel threads, like silk, or in wool, like 
cotton. It mixes equally well with silk, wool, yarn, and cotton. Its mixtures are as 
curious as its use is isolated. The English exhibit flannels, hosiery, and cloth of various 
kinds in which it has been introduced. I have found all competent persons much 
impressed with these important experiments upon a new textile fabric. 

LETTER V. 

I cannot refrain from bringing your readers back to the exhibition of the products of 
British India. This is an entire industrial world, new to us even from its antiquity, 
carrying us back to the heroic ages, and which, from its perfectly original character, 
resembles no other. The East India Company has expended upwards of £80,000 to 
appear worthily at this great federation of nations. It desired that its empire of fifty 
millions of subjects should be fittingly represented, and it has admirably succeeded in so 
doing. Since the commencement of the Exhibition new products have been added 
almost daily. Some of these are even more beautiful than those which have gone before, 
and attract in the highest • degree the attention of visitors. Indian art, in truth, is 
deserving of this preference — it resembles no other. It has not the whimsicalness of 
Chinese taste, nor Grecian or Roman regularity, nor modern vulgarity : it is a special 
art, more simple than is generally believed, even in its digressions, and which never 
appears to have varied nor borrowed anything elsewhere. Applied to ceramic man- 
ufacture, it is full of grace and simplicity. The curves are of an undulated kind, supple 
and flexible, like the forms of the serpent; and as rich and varied in the coarser as 
in the finer descriptions of earthenware. There are thousands of specimens in the 
Exhibition which cannot fail to be imitated in France, for the eyes of all manufac- 
turers are upon India. The art of weaving cloth has evidently attained a high degree 
of perfection in that country. Without mentioning the Cashmere shawls, which have 
become the beau-ideals of their kind, everything exhibited by the East India Company 



240 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

appears a collection of chefs-d'oeuvre. Muslins embroidered with gold, kerchiefs varie- 
gated with a thousand colours, gorgeous scarfs of the most exquisite taste, tablecloths 
enamelled with flowers woven fabrics of every description inlaid with emerald green, 
saddles, cloaks, stuffs for hangings, handkerchiefs for Odalisks, with small plaids of a 
delicate red embroidered with silver— every tint which nature has lavished on the wing 
of the butterfly is found in this Indian collection, which a company as powerful as 
that of the East Indies only could bring together by its sovereign commands. The 
entire East has hastened to obey its summons. 

Nothing is wanting. Every calling, of the land is here represented under the guise of 
those who follow it. Poor people ! unclad, fed with a little rice, habitually dwelling 
beneath the canopy of heaven or of trees^ paid none know how ! We see them in their 
attitudes of work, their implements in their hands, their miniature looms before them — 
they really live before us. The East India Company has not even forgotten the musical 
instruments which charm them, and which frighten me. Come and see these, my 
friends ; you will probably find some new acoustic resources in this kind of cymbal with 
twenty dirks strung together in the middle around a large circle a yard in diameter, in 
these small shrill tom-toms which pass so rapidly from lively to severe, and in these 
primitive mandolins with gilt copper cords. Behold these elephant saddles — the teams 
for men — the palanquins to carry you ! All this strange civilisation is admirably illus- 
trated by its works : luxury and indigence sum it up in two words. It is here that the 
ancient and modern history of India may be studied. It is completed by the picture of 
all the useful arts in which the Oriental mind seems to live its usual strange, heavy, 
and monotonous round. I do not talk to you of those diamonds before which the crowd 
of visitors are in rapt admiration. I leave you to guess what value is to be attached to 
the statements of the appraisers of the famous Koh-i-Noor who reason thus : the diamond 
cost £40,000 so many years ago ; if this sum had been accumulated with interest it would 
now represent J2,000,000— er^ the diamond is worth £2,000,000. We neither admit 
this arithmetic nor this political economy. Diamonds have always to me been the most 
foolish and useless things, although women are said to covet them as the superlative 
ornament; as far as I am concerned, I prefer the Spanish aphorism : "To youth, love; 
to age, respect." It is less costly. 

I insist greatly upon the particular merit of the Indio-Britannic collection. It has 
produced a great sensation amongst all connected with art and manufacture ; and in 
the period of transition in which we live it is deserving of the most serious attention. 
The interest which it excites; increases every day at the sight of those marvels which 
are like a veritable revelation of this ancient and original art. It is, however to be 
feared that our industry will not benefit by the samples which the East India Company 
has got together, for they are nowhere else to be procured. I will not say as much of 
China. China is more known and less worthy of being imitated. Its whimsical and 
fantastical taste does not merit so much esteem and attention as the industrial genius of 
the Indians, though perhaps it has never appeared to greater advantage than at this 
Exhibition. I have been particularly struck with the abundance of her raw materials 
and above ail, wrth the beauty of her silks. They shine in quantities, and with a 
brilliancy only equalled by that of her embroidered crape shawls, her classical pottery 
and her marvellous works in ivory, horn, and marqueterie. After all, the Chinese aTe 
a people very much advanced in industry, although stubborn and almost immovable 
All that they have is of ancient date, and they had what we have long befoTwThad 
conquered it They invented gunpowder before us; they knew the compass before we 

^ETTJm'' ?* w ^T ^ L ° nd0n P^ 8 the — ^C of which 
dates bacK 1,753 years before Chnst-that is to say, more than 3,500 years ago-and 




FIRE PLACE IN IRON AND ORMOULU. 

OF THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD _ MANUFACTURED BY MESS"' HOALE *« SHEFFIELD. 




EagVnwd ig D Pound, from nBramnftTyJMaoon 



MANTLE PIECE OF OAK CARVING, 

DESIGNED BY M" H.CRATTON, ARCH' « MANUFACTURED BY MESS" WYNNE & LUMSDFM 



OP THE "WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 241 

which are remarkable for their excellent workmanship. The Chinese, however, with all 
their antiquity, are a stationary people. ' ; : ; '■ \ ' ' •'■''■ 

The English could scarcely fail to' present us with several valuable collections of 
tea, and there are very fine ones at the Exhibition.' But this article presents to the 
Jinghsn, only, any serious object of interest. 

On taking a temporary leave of these agreeable effusions, we may remark that lively 
and original as they are, they are by no means deficient in that tone of self-complacency 
and self-esteem which is rarely wanting in our Gallic neighbour. To use his own phrase, 
" La France est toujours La France," and we have no doubt she will remain so while 
she exists as a nation. In the midst of their most reprehensible deeds they boast of 
their noble qualities. "La France genereuse comme elle est toujours" was the expres- 
sion we heard from the lips of a young French officer, at the'very time the soldiers 
under his command were bombarding the walls of unfortunate Rome. Proh pudor !. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII, 



COUNCIL MEDALS: KISS, MABOCHETTI, PBADIEB, WYATT, GIBSON — PBIZE MEDALS: BAILEY-, BELL, 
BENZONI, DEBAT, DBAKE, ETEX, EOLEY, EBACCABOLI, EEATKIN, GALLI, GEEES, HOGAN, JEN- 
NINGS, JEBICHAU, LAWLOR, LESCHESNE, MACDOWELL, MAESHALL, MONTI, BAMU8, EIETSCHEL, 
SHABP, SIMONIS, STBAZZA, THRUPP, TUEELINCKX, WATSON, WOLEE — ACCOUNT OE HIS STUDIO 
AT EOME — SCULPTTJEE IN BEONZE : JEAN DEBAT, EEATIN, LEQUESNE. 

In resuming our notices upon the Sculpture in the Great Exhibition, we must not 
neglect to draw the attention of our readers to such of the numerous candidates for 
fame in that department as received honorary distinction from the jury appointed to 
examine into their respective merits. At a meeting held on the 5th of June, long before . 
the question of individual rewards came under consideration, the jury agreedupon the 
following resolution : — 

"That it is not desirable to assign the council medal to every object of art pre r 
eminently beautiful or excellent in its kind, whether it be executed in an inferior section 
of the class or not, but that it should be rather limited to the highest works of the highest 
class." This resolution, consistent with the view of the Fine Arts taken throughout by 
this jury, precluded them from awarding the -highest honours to any but works of art 
of the highest class. Their awardsj therefore, must not be compared with those of 
other juries guided by different principles, but must be tested only by the rules which 
the jurors of Class XXX. have laid down for their own guidance. The holders of the 
several marks of approbation by which this jury have distinguished merit, ought to appre- 
ciate them according to the. high value set upon, these several marks of approbation 
by those who conferred them. In forming their judgment upon Works. in the highest 
branch of art coming within their jurisdiction, the !jury have principally looked for 
the embodiment of ideas, thought,' feeling 1 , and passion ;' not for the- mere imitation of 
nature, however true in detail, or admirable in execution. They have looked for origi- 
nality of invention, less or more happily expressed in that style which has for tweiity- 
three centuries been the wonder of every civilised people, and the standard of excellence 
to which artists of the highest order have endeavoured to attaint Wherever, indications 
of originality, chastened by a successful adaptation of this style, have been met with, the 

3 Q 



242 THE GREAT EXHIBITION ' 

jury have acknowledged a corresponding amount of merit; and it is this originality of 
conception, improved by such style, which the jury have recognised by the honours 
placed at their disposal. They have endeavoured to record, in the most emphatic man- 
ner, their anxious wish that artists should study to give their ideas that form and life 
which spiritualizes every-day nature, and elevates a work of art to the place of a. type 
of nature itself. The jury of Class XXX. would point to the remains of the Parthenon 
as embodying the result- of the great principles: which they have been anxious to 
inculcate, and which they desire to see universally adopted. The limited number of 
council medals awarded must not, therefore, be regarded as a proof of deficiency of 
talent in the bulk of the works exhibited, but as evidence of the severity with which 
the principles adopted by the jury 'have been applied. It was agreed to recommend that 
council medals should be awarded to the following works : — ■ 

To Professor A. Kiss, of Berlin, for his group cast in zinc, and bronzed by M: Geiss, 
representing an Amazon on horseback attacked by a Tiger. This work we have already 
noticed at some length, and shall not therefore offer any further remarks upon it. 

To Baron Mabochetti, of Turin, now of London, for his colossal equestrian statue, 
in plaster, of Richard Coaur de Lion. Our readers will recollect this statue, which was 
placed at some distance from the building at the western end, and looking towards 
Kensington-gardens. The grace and vigour it displayed were universally admired. The 
warrior- king bestrode his steed in true chivalric guise, and filled the mind with recollec- 
tions of many a tough encounter with Paynim knights and ruthless Saracens in the 
Holy Land, in days of romance and fanaticism long since passed away. 

To M. J. Pbabier, of Paris, member of the Institute, for his marble statue of Phryne. 
In this youthful female figure the beauty of feature, the subtle refinement of form, and 
the sprightly elegance of the attitude, alike corresponded with the name of the cele- 
brated Hetaira, which M. Pradier gave to his work. The premature death of this 
gentleman, which took place a few months ago, .has deprived Fiance of one of her ablest 
sculptors. 

The late Mr. Richard Wyatt, also, had he lived, would have received a council medal 
for his inimitable marble statue of Glycera, exhibited by Captain Leyland, and which 
•we have already eulogised ; his representatives, however, have been presented by the jury 
with this mark of their approbation and distinction of the deceased artist. 

It was. the unanimous impulse of the jury, on the awards being taken into con- 
sideration, to recommend that the same high distinction should be conferred on Mr. 
Gibson, for his marble group of a Hunter and Dog, exhibited by the Earl of Yar- 
borough. Their intention was defeated by Mr. Gibson himself, who, well knowing that 
should he accept the office of a juror of Class XXX., he could no longer receive a prize 

i£ hat J urv > PJ ei ; erred ^rving his brother artists, to his own individual gratification, 
and thus disqualified himself for receiving the honour which he so well deserved. 

The prize medals were more numerous^ and were distributed to the following artists, 
whom we shall proceed to notice alphabetically 

anfa^outl- restlgSSr te ChaT ^ "*"* * & **** ***** ** ™*°* 

To M. J. Bell, for his statue of the Eagle-Slayer; cast in bronze, and also in iron. 

This figure represented a powerful man, in very" strong action, at the moment aft£ 

ntoMl™;^* 6 T'- ^violence of the exertion had brought the muscles 

sSnt character of thl t^ ^S? S ? CCeeded ' in ex P re « the momentary and tran- 
sient character of the action, and the form was modelled with a knowledge and truth of 

executetfo^hTnewHn;/^fp in v the ^ Sch ° d - In his **? " **to£ 
executed tor the new Houses of Parliament, was displayed a mastery rarely attained in 



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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 243 

portraiture; the conception was spirited, the treatment throughout strictly plastic; the 
figure was remarkable for its noble presence, and its attitude of calm and dignified repose 1 . 
To Signor Gio Mario Benzoni, of Rome, for two groups of a Little Girl with a Dog. 
In one of these the child was represented drawing a thorn out of the dog's' foot; in the 
other the dog, after having killed a snake which was threatening an attack, sought to 
awaken the. child thus rescued. The motive of these works was attractive, and they were 
carefully executed in marble,, but they were by no means of sufficient importance to be 
considered adequate representations of the modern school of sculpture in such a city as 
Rome. It is to be regretted that the most distinguished artists of that city, and 
especially Tenerani, the greatest. living sculptor of Italy, sent no specimens of their works 
to the Exhibition. 

To M. Auguste Debay, of Pariij, for his group in marble representing Eve, with Cain 
and Abel asleep in her arms, and designated as " Le Premier Berceau." In the form 
and attitude of Eve there was great beauty, truth, and refinement of feeling, and the 
countenance admirably expressed, the tenderness of a mother. The treatment of the 
figure, however, was rather too picturesque in character, and the general motive some- 
what strained and violent ; the forms of the children were not happily composed, and there 
was a want of style in the hair of Eve, which was gathered together behind in a some- 
what clumsy mass. 

To Professor F. Drake, of Berlin, for a reduced cast of part of the marble pedestal to 
the monument of Frederic William III. of Prussia. The statue which this pedestal 
supports was erected by the inhabitants of Berlin, as a token of their gratitude for the 
embellishments which this monarch has bestowed on their Thiergarten (Zoological 
Gardens.) The work exhibited was in plaster, half the size of the original pedestal. 
In the reliefs with which it was ornamented, the sculptor selected subjects which con- 
tained allusions to the local destination, of his work. Thus he represented a number of 
figures, of every age and sex, enjoying themselves in the open air. We observed groups 
of children looking into a bird's nest or feeding the swans, young maidens weaving gar- 
lands, old people leading children to the scene of the sports, or contemplating their 
fouthful gambols with an air of calm enjoyment. There was much beautiful feeling in 
he treatment of this subject : the heads were full of expression, the movement of the 
figures very spirited, and the different groups were skilfully connected. The compo- 
sition was executed in a very good style of alto-relievo, the details finished with the 
greatest care. On the whole, this work was deserving- of the very great and general 
admiration that was, bestowed upon it. It may, however, be noted as a defect, that the' 
artist did not throughout preserve the relative -proportions of the figures.' 

To M\A. Etex, of Paris, for his various works of sculpture in plaster and marble. Of 
the three groups exhibited by this artist, the most agreeable is that in marble of Hero and 
Leander, standing mournfully beside each other. In the group of Cain and his Family, 
the characteristics .of a base K abandoned nature, were admirably expressed in the coun- 
tenance and coarseclumsy limbs of Cain, which were very carefuly stddied froni the life.' 
The allegorical group of the;City of Paris imploring'Heaven to. take away the Plague of 
the Cholera, was a less agreeable .work, on account of the manner in which the subject 
was treated. The city was represented as* a seated female figure, with an old man 
and a youth expiring of the pestilence, one. on each side. In these figures the moment 
of death wa3 expressed with wonderful truth. This work was a specimen of that class 
of art which, seeking to act on the feelings through the representation of mere physical 
suffering, may be called the revolting;, a style which appears to be little cultivated or 
admired except in France, notwithstanding her supreme excellence in point of refine- 
ment and taste, which M. Blanqui, in his letters on the Exhibition, so confidently asserts. 



g4t THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

To Mr J H. Foiey, of London, for his statue of a Youth at a Stream; also for 
his group representing Ino and Baechus. The former of these works we have already 
suffiden^noEd, as well as the statue of Hampden by the same artist. The , go™ .of 
Ino and the- infant Bacchus exhibited much grace and refinement of form, but altogether 
was not so generally attractive as the Youth at the Stream. 

To Signor M. J. Fraccakoli, of Verona, for his two statues in marble, representing 
Achilles wounded in the.heel, and David in the act of slinging the stone at Goliath. 
The design of this last-mentioned figure was very spirited, but a little strained; tne 
features had a noble expression. The youthful character of the head, however, did not 
altogether accord with the rest of the body, in which the muscles were too strongly 

^To^M C A. Fraielin, of Schterbeck, near Brussels, for a plaster group of Psyche carry- 
ing off Cupid. The motion of this figure was spirited, and the forms were expressed 
with great tenderness, and from several points of view the group was very attractive. 
The movement of the head of Psyche, however, struck us as rather affected, and in the 

style of Canova. • ,1 • /> 

To Signor A. Galli, of Milan, for his statue of Susanna. The forms in this figure 
were youthful and pleasing, the attitude agreeable, and the execution extremely careful ; 
but without the introduction of the two Elders, the subject would be difficult to recognise. 

To M. G. Geefs, of Schserbeck, near Brussels, we have already paid honour due, for 
his admirable group of the Lion in Love, and we shall therefore direct the attention of 
our readers to another work by this skilful artist — a bust of his Majesty the King of 
the Belgians, which was full of spirit, and very carefully executed. 

To Mr. J. Hogan, of London, for his reclining figure in plaster, representing a 
Drunken Fawn. This personification of the sylvan deity, "ripe with the purple grape," 
and reeling from excess, appeared to be making a last effort to save himself from falling. 
The work indicated careful study, but the attitude was rather violent and ungraceful. 

To Mr. Jennings, of London, for his marble statue of Cupid. Among the few poems 
of Sappho that have come down to us is her charming lyric of " The Rose," wherein 
Cupid asserts her right to be made the queen of the flowers. This subject has been 
treated by the late celebrated Thorwaldsen, -with his usual felicity, in a basso-relievo, 
where Cupid is represented bringing the rose to Jupiter and Juno, who are seated side 
by side, with the attendant eagle and peacock at their feet. Mr. Jennings presented us 
with an abridgment, as we may term it, of the story, in the person of Cupid alone. His 
attitude, as he extended the rose in one hand, and pointed exultingly to it with the other, 
as if claiming admiration of its beauty, showed to great advantage his finely formed 
limbs : an air of gaiety and enjoyment befitting the brightness of youth, pervaded the 
whole figure, which seemed to breathe of spring and blossoms. At his side the trunk 
of a tree, round which the rejected lily twined her delicate tendrils, along with the rose, 
showed that her modest charms had been cast into the shade by the glowing attrac- 
tions of her more brilliant sister. 

To M. J. A. Jerichau, of Copenhagen, for a group in plaster, representing a Hunter 
carrying off the Cub of a Panther. It was for Denmark that the great Thorwaldsen, 
unquestionably the finest sculptor that has appeared since the time of Phidias and 
Praxiteles, embodied his spiritual conceptions in such a number of masterpieces of sculp- 
ture ; and there are not wanting in Denmark at the present day, distinguished sculptors, 
who follow in his footsteps with greater or less success. Among these, M. Jerichau 
takes no inferior position. In this able group of a Hunter and Panther, he has exhibited 
great spirit and fine conception. The execution also is skilful, and the details well 
attended to. 




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OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. 245 

To Mr. J. Lawlor, of London, for his statue in marble of a Nymph Bathing, a work 
of considerable merit. ; 

To M. A. Leschesne, of -Paris, for his admirable groups in. plaster of Dogs and Children. 
As we have a}rQjady noticed the productions of this artist In <a former, chapter; we shall 
pass, on to Mr. Lawrence Macbonald, of Rome, whose studio is crowded with busts 
and portrait in marble and, plaster, of most of. thei celebrated personages ;who have 
passed a season within the waljfe of the Eternal City; The Iconic figure by this -sculptor, 
for which he received his prise -medal, executed in the manner and costume of classical 
antiquity, showed that the artist has a, just perception of style, and sound knowledge* 

To Mr. P. Macdowell, of London, for his plaster, statue .of Eve ; also for his statues of 
Cupid, and of a Girl at .Prayer, in marble. The most remarkable work of this sculptor 
was his Eve, which was modelled with great knowledge, the attitude also was. graceful, 
and the expression of longing curiosity well rendered. His Girl at Prayer was treated 
with simplicity and depth of feeling, and very carefully executed. His figure of Cupid 
had also great merit. 

To Mr. William Marshall,, of London, for his plaster figure of Sabrina. Sabrina 
is familiar to us fjrom> the beautiful invocation of Milton : — 

" Sabrina fair, 

Listen where thou art sitting 
Under the glassie cool translucent wave, 

In twisted braids of lilies knitting 
The loose train of thy amber-drooping hair, 

Listen for dear honour's sake 

Goddess of the silver lake, 
Listen and save." — Cqmus. 

The Sabrina of this artist was remarkable for its feminine grace ; the head had a fine 
character of individuality, and there was great beauty in the form, and in the general 
expression. 

Signer Raffaelle Monti, of Milan, and Mr. Hiram Powers, of the United States, 
bpth of whom received a prize medal, have already had their respective performances 
sufficiently commented on by us in a former part of this work : we shall therefore pass 
on to M. J. M. Ramus, of Paris, who received the same mark of distinction for his marble 
group of Cephalus and Procris. Cephalus was represented tenderly supporting in his 
arms the dying Procris. This group was, in its leading lines, very happily composed, and 
showed in the forms much knowledge of nature; but the modelling was not in a 
sufficiently large style, and was not sustained throughout. 

To Professor Ernst Rietschel, of Dresden, for his plaster group, designated as 
La Pietd, representing Mary kneeling at the dead body of our Saviour; and for his 
bas-reliefs in marble. This distinguished artist, one of the ablest pupils of Rauch, 
exhibited three works, the varied character of which showed the versatility of his talents. 
1 —A group of the Virgin weeping over the body of our Saviour, cast in plaster, from "a 
model executed for his Majesty the King of Prussia. In the figure of our Saviour, 
anatomical^ truth was combined with nobleness of form; the countenance wore a fine 
dignified character; its mild transfigured expression proclaimed the triumph over the 
agonies of death. Jn the Mary, the countenance and the clasped hands revealed the 
deepest, but most resigned sorrow of the soul. The drapery was fully worthy of the 
invention shown in the group. 2.— Angel of Christ, a very noble relief in marble. 
The Angel was represented in the form of a graceful youth, floating m the- air, with 
the infant Saviour in his arms; two infant: angels attended his course, This group had 
a peculiar charm, from the beauty of the heads- and figures, the grace of "the action, the 
suddenness of the movement impressed on the flying drapery, and the masterly, yet 

3 R 



246 THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

tender handling of the marble. 3.— Love riding on a Panther, whose course he tries 
to arrest, eagerly grasping his neck with both his hands. This beautiful conception 
was quite in the spirit of ancient art, and was expressed with great vigour of hand. 

To Mr. T. Sharp, of London, for his marble figure, representing a Boy frightened 
by a Lizard. This was a remarkable work — quite unlike in choice and treatment of 
subject any we have as yet noticed. The artist did not hesitate to express that dryness 
and meagreness of form which characterizes the particular stage of boyhood selected 
for representation ; but these details were executed with the utmost accuracy, and with 
an admirable feeling for nature. The eye of the ordinary observer, habitually ac- 
customed to the specious effect of mere smoothness of surface, may, in some degree, 
be repelled by this truthfulness of representation ; but, like all other truth, it will not 
the less be ultimately appreciated, and we may regard this figure as in itself a proof how 
great an effort the English school of sculpture is making in the right direction. 

To M. B. Simonis, of Brussels, for his equestrian statue of Godfrey of Bouillon, and 
other works. A colossal figure of Godfrey of Bouillon on horseback, raising the 
banner with which he led the crusaders to the Holy Land. Cast in plaster from the 
original in bronze, which is placed in the Place Royale, at Brussels. In this work the 
expression of the head is full of life and animation, the action very emphatic, the execu- 
tion very careful. To compensate for the optical diminution which causes statues placed 
in the open air to appear meagre and deficient in mass, the artist in this group exaggerated 
the forms both of the warrior and the horse. This departure from nature was perhaps 
carried too far. In his group representing Truth trampling on Falsehood, the same artist 
showed power in the representation of delicate female forms, and the work was carefully 
executed. Two figures of boys, one of whom is crying over his broken drum, prove 
that M. Simouis has been successful in that class of subjects called " genre," and which 
are altogether treated in a realistic manner. 

To Signor G. Strazza, of Milan, for his reclining figure in marble, representing 
Ishmael. We have already noticed this striking and admirable performance with due 
praise. Perhaps the truthfulness with which the dying youth is represented, renders 
the subject too painful a one for general approbation. In the treatment of this subject 
by painters, an angel bringing help to Ishmael is always introduced, and from the 
absence of this figure, the impression produced by the work of Signor Strazzi is 
unrelieved by any mitigating circumstance. 

To Mr. E. Thrupp, of London, for his statue of Arethusa, a recumbent figure 
gracefully enough designed, but rather deficient in life and individuality. A Boy 
catching a Butterfly, was a very carefully executed and attractive work. 

To M. J. Tuerlinckx, of Malines, for a figure in marble, representing the cele- 
brated Giotto when a boy, looking at his first attempt at drawing, with an expression of 
Scut Y PnSe ' conce P tion of this work was very spirited, and it was carefully 

A pr