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Full text of "Elementary hand-book of the Burmese language"

PL5933 
T23 



I ASIA 







ELEMENTARY HAND-BOOK 



^ir, 



OF THE 



BURMESE LANGUAGE 



BY 



TAW SEIN KO, M.R.A.S., f.a t., f.s.a., 

GOVEENMENT TKANSLATOR AND HONOKAIl¥ AHCHJJOLOQK'AI, OFFICEK, Bri:MA. 





RANGOON: 

PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRINTING, HURMA. 

1898. 



J^ 



-rc^-> 



[ Price,— Rs. 2-8-0. ] 



•^•1!?^ 



PL 3 f 33 

r^3 hdf 



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




DATE DUE 



AUG-iHb ig?O^H 




^'*'iiMliimiXii«»™°°'' °* "IS Burmese lana 




3 1924 022 058 931 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924022058931 



ELEMENTARY HANDBOOK 



OF THE 



BURMESE LANGUAGE 



BY 



TAW SEIN KO, M.E.A.S., f.a.i., f.s.a., 

GOVEENMENT TEANSLATOB AND HONOEAKY AECHaJOLOGlCAIi OFFICER, BUEMA. 




RANGOON: 

printed by the superintendent, government printing, burma. 

i8q8. 



PEEFACE. 



Ars longa, vita hrevis. This book is divided into two parts : 
the first deals with the colloquial form of the Burmese lan- 
guage, and the second with the literary form. Both are in- 
tended for hard- worked officials and busy men engaged in 
mercantile and other professions, to whom an elementary 
knowledge of Burmese may be essential ; and it is for this 
reason that an attempt is made to make the compilation as 
practical as possible. There is, however, no royal road to 
learning : a certain amount of drudgery must be faced and 
undergone if it is desired to acquire any kind ot knowledge ; 
and an acquaintance with the Burmese language does not 
form an exception to the universal rule. 

The compilation of this work is due to a suggestion made 
by Mr. St. John, Burmese Lecturer, Oxford University, who 
represented to the Local Government the need of a practi- 
cal colloquial course in Burmese for the Indian Civil Service 
candidates undergoing their probationary training in Eng- 
land. The original scope has, however, been extended to 
meet the gro-wing requirements of foreign residents in Burma. 

In the preparation of this volume, my acknowledgments 
are due to Maung Tun Nyein, Extra Assistant Commissioner, 
who has often acted as Government Translator during my 
absence on leave or deputation, for the valuable assistance 
given by him. 
Burma Secretariat: 7 TAW SEIN KO. 

1st October 1898. ) 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 



Pages, 

Introduction ... ... ... ... ,.. ... i vi 

Part I — Colloquial — ... ... ... ... ... 1 — 56 

Key to the pronunciation ... ... ... ... 1 — 3 

Numerical Notation ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Time ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Days of the week ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Names of the months ... ... ... ... ... ibid. 

The Heavens ... ... ... ... ... 6 — 7 

Points of the Compass ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Earth ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 — g 

Sea ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Seasons, weather, &e. ... ... .., ... ... 9 — ^10 

Persons, relationships, &e. ... ... ... ... 10 — 12 

Members of the body ... ... ... .., ... 12 — 14 

Movements of the body ... ... ... ... 14 — 16 

Ailments ... ... ... ... ... ... 16 — 17 

Wearing apparel ... ... ... ... ... 17 — 18 

Professions, Trades, &c. ... ... ... ... 18 — 19 

Servants ... ... ... ... ... ... 19 

Animals ... ... ... ... ... ... 19—20 

Beptiles ... ... ... ... ... ... 21 

Fishes ... ... ... ... ... ... ibid. 

Birds ... ... ... ... ... ... 21—22 

Insects ... ... ... ... ... ... 22—23 

Articles of Commerce ... ... ... ... ... 23 — 24 

Metals ... ... ... ... ... ... 24—25 

Food ... ... ... ... ... ... 25—26 

Fruits ... ... ... ... ... ... 26—27 

Vegetables ... ... ... ... ... ... 27 

Drink . ... - ... ••■ .■• •• ... 27—28 

Furniture ... ... ... ... ... ... 28—29 

Nationalities ... ... ... ... ... 29 

Colours ,., ... ... ... ... ... 30 

Money ... ... ... .•• ... ... 80—31 

Precious stones ... ... ... ... ... 31 

Weights and measures ... ... ... ... ... 31 — 32 

Army and Navy ... ... ... ... ... 32 

Weapons ... ... ... ... .■• ... 33 

Eoad ... ... ... ... ... ... 33—34 

Games, amusements, &o. ... ... ... ... 34 — 35 

Words and phrases in constant use ,,. ... ... 35—36 



( ii ) 



Pages. 

Miscellaneous questions and answers ... ... „. 37—38 

Weather ... ... ... ... ... ... 38 

Time of day... ... ... ... ... ... 39 — 40 

Salutations, &c. ... ... ... ... ... 40 — 42 

Dining-room ... ... ... ... ... 42 — 43 

Bed-room ... ... ... ... ... ... 43 — 44 

Boat ... ... ... ... ... ... 44—46 

Office ... ... ... ... ... ... 46—49 

Health and sickness ... ... ... ... ... 49 — 50 

Miscellaneous phrases ... ... ... ... ... 50 — 56 

Part 11— Literary— ... ... ... ... ... 57—121 

Chapter I. The Alphabet ... ... ... ... 57—60 

Chapter II. Homonyms ... ... ... ... 60 — 62 

Chapter III. The Noun ... ... ... ... 62—67 

Chapter IV. The Pronoun ... ... ... ... 68—71 

Chapter V. The Adjective ... ... ... ... 71—74 

Chapter VI. The Verb ... ... ... ... 74—78 

Chapter VII. The Adverb ... ... ... ... 78—79 

Chapter VIII. The Preposition ... ... ... ... 79—80 

Chapter IX. The Conjunction ... ... ... ... 80 

Chapter X. The Interjection ... ... ... ... ibid. 

Chapter XI. Syntax ... ... ... ... 81 

Appendices : — 

I. Extracts from J4takas ... ... ... ... 83 — 95 

II. Petitions ... ... ... ... ... 97 — 107 

III. Extracts from the " Selections from the Records of the Hhitdaw" 109 — 121 



INTRODUCTION. 

It is generally admitted that the Burmese language is difficult 
to study, and when there are few suitahle text-books and very few 
competent teachers, the difficulty to be encountered and overcome 
appears to be considerably enhanced. The method of teaching 
Burmese has yet to be systematised, and Burmese literature l^as 
yet to be worked up with that critical spirit which has been suc- 
cessfully applied to some of the classical and vernacular languages 
of India. But before this consummation is brought about, one 
must try his best to study Burmese according to his own lights. 

The Burmese language can be made interesting by studying it 
from a philological stand- point. Philology means, of course, the 
science which traces the origin and development of a language, 
and indicates its relationship to others. Burmese is a Turanian 
language as contradistinguished from an Aryan language, and 
belongs to that family of languages which has been described as 
Thibeto-Burman. A language, like an organism, grows, and dur- 
ing its long career of development many accretions cling to it. 
Some of these accretions are thoroughly assimilated and become 
part and parcel of the organic growth, while others still retain 
their nature of foreign excrescences. The following examples 
will illustrate this remark. The expression gjal^s is made up of 
two words, gj = (Chinese lu) to give, and alh = (PMi or Sanskrit 
3]^) giving or a gift. The expression means to give as a charitable 
offering or to exercise charity. Now the word al^s will ever re- 
main a foreign excrescence and refuse to get assimilated. Then 
take the common word 8|gQii This occurs as 8a5o in an old lithic 
inscription of the twelfth century A.P, It is made up of two 



( ii ) 
words 8$? = 8cS (Shan g§) a wife, + q = (Thibetaa o) a mother. 
Thus, woman in Burmese is conceived first in her capacity as wife 
and then in her capacity as mother. Both the constituent parts 
composing the word 8$ so are Turanian in their naturfe and they 
get thoroughly assimilated. It may be said that these are tauto- 
logical, as each of the component parts generally expresses the 
one and the same idea. But in a state of society composed of 
difPerent tribes, such a stratification of language was inevitable. 
Each section or tribe must have its peculiar dialect, and their 
living together must have the same tendency as the formation of 
well defined strata in geology. Other instances, namely, a^cooaS 
(a Tavoy localism) to bring, ^=S£ to look, godSo to assist, oo@g3 
fate, 33Gogcj>ig,D(yoco^D a question, all tend to cori'oborate the above 
view. 

Allusion has been made above to the existence of San skrit and 
Pali derivatives in the Burmose language. It is a moot qu estion 
whether priority should be accorded to one or the other. There 
is, however, reason to infer from the evidence available that San- 
skrit derivatives were introduced into the Burmese language long 
before Pali was known in Burma. This evidence also shows that 
the form of Buddhism first introduced into this country was that 
of the Northern School, which was subsequently absorbed and 
assimilated by the Southern School. 

Like the Chinese, Thibetan, and other languages, Burmese is a 
monosyllabic language, i.e., to say, every word in it is a root, and 
every root is a word, each word consisting of a single syllable or 
monosyllable to which a particle, and not an independent word 
may be prefixed as in oools a door ; oo^^s power or glory ; sood 
food. A sentence is but an allocation of words whose grammati- 
cal relationship is determined by their respective positions. 



( iii ) 

The grammatical apparatus being thus deficient, the vocabulary 
of the Burmese language may be divided into three groups. The 
first group would include nouns and pronouns ; the second, verbs ; 
and the remaining parts of speech, including particles, would be 
placed in the third group. The words in the first two groups are 
like brick or stone, and those in the third are like mortar which 
cements the building materials together. It is apparent that 
most of the words in the third group were independent words at 
one time, and that they have been ground down to their present 
form through years of attrition. An instance may be cited, 
namely, that of goo 5, a Burmese honorific affix. This should be 
transcribed as tS. Owing to Bengali influence, the vowel a was 
changed to o, and thus this td was originally ta. In Chinese ta 
means great, and the affix may be taken to mean that any action 
done by a great. personage is necessaxily a great action, 

In studying Burmese, one of the best ways is to adopt the ana- 
lytical method. Each expression should be analysed into its com- 
ponent parts; the relationship between these words, whether that 
of allocation or agglutination, should be determined, and the ori- 
gin o£ each word should be traced as far back as possible ; and its 
phonetic changes and gradual development should also be noted. 
If this method is followed, we can make some of the words tell us 
i,'tteresting tales. Max Miiller has proved conclusively that the 
English word daughter assumes in Sanskrit the form duliitCi, a 
milkmaid. When this word came into use, the people who used 
it must have been in a pastoral condition. They had large herds 
of cows or goats, which it was the duty of the daughter of each 
family to milk every morning. Similarly the derivation of the 
word " Mranmd," the national appellation of the Burmese race, 
can be made to tell an interesting tale, Burma is known to the 



( iv ) 
people of Bengal as Brahmodesh, which is th^" Bengali form of 
the Pali designation " Brahmadesa " or the region or country of 
Brahma, the Creator of the Hindu Triad. Now 6 and m are 
interchangeable in the Indo-Chinese languages, and Brahm&, 
became Mrahma ; and the letter h being, by assimilation, changed 
into m the word Mrahma assumed the form Mramma. Now, r 
and y are interchangeable, so we get the form Myammi. In the 
system of Chinese transliteration each word is cut up into mono- 
syllables to suit the genius of the language ; so we get the form 
Mien (= Myam) or myan + ma. In Burmese poetry Burma is 
always spoken of as (g|c^Ss = the couatry of the Myan, the 
national appellation by which the Burmese are known to their 
neighbours, the Chinese ; and in Burmese prose we get the f o rm 
g^oD = Mran-ma, while in works written in Pali the form @g 
C3CO = Mramma-desa invariably occurs. The derivation of the 
word g?oj is intimately connected with that of the word JProrne. 
This word should be spelt Prohm, because it is another form of 
the Talaing name Brohn. Again, Brohm is another form of 
Brahm {a and o being interchangeable). Therefore, Frome means 
the city of Brahma. The Burmese call it Pyi = g^ = pran = 
brail = Brahm. Both the Talaing and Burmese forms of the 
word are traceable to the same source ; and Burmese history tells 
VIS that at Prome a tribe called the Mranmds arose and attained 
political eminence. Prom the derivation of the above two words 
we may infer that Burma is the meeting-point of two civilizations, 
namely, that of India and of China ; that the Mongoloid tribes 
which were eventually amalgamated into a political society, Avere 
first brought under the influence of Hindu colonists who wor- 
shipped Brahma ; and that the centre of Brahmanical influence in 
Burma was Prome. 



( V ) 

In stiidyinn,' a language, tlie system of translating it into an- 
other is a very good practice. It makes ns think in two languages, 
and as the results obtained have had to he achieved by much la- 
bour and racking of brains, words, phrases, idioms, and the nice- 
ties of language are retained in otir memory. The great thing, 
however, to be borne in mind in translation is that one should try 
and place himself as much as possible in the same position as the 
writer of the original. In this way, the spirit and energy of 
expression of the original would be retained in the translation. 
Most students do not, however, try to do so, and generally en- 
deavour to make the required rendering as literally as possible; 
and the result is that the translation is not only tame, but hardly 
conveys the thoughts and ideas of the writer in an intelligible 
and felicitous manner. 

At the present time, there are two kinds of Burmese. One may 
be called Lower- Burma Burmese, and the other Upper-Burma Bur- 
mese. The Burmese of Lower Burma, in some places, would be 
something like the Prenoh patois in Jersey and the Channel 
Islands : it is corrupt, and is almost a jargon. The pure Bur- 
mese, however, is still preserved in Upper Burma in the larger 
towns. The chief characteristics of Upper-Burmese style are its 
conciseness, the absence of dispensable particles and affixes, and 
its comprehensive expressiveness, grace, energy, and elegance. 
The Lower- Burmese style is very diffuse : it abounds in useless 
particles, and differs from the other style in its laboured simplicity 
and want of brevity. Any one with a tolerably good knowledge 
of Burmese can readily distinguish the marked difference be- 
tween the two styles. 

The popular impression amongst foreigners is that the Burmese 
language is devoid of literature. This is not true. It has an ex- 



( vi ) 

icnsivc literature, and its poetry is exceedingly beautiful, and 
may be compared favourably with that of other nations. The 
cheerfulness of the people, their healthy and peaceful enjoyment 
of life, their loyalty to sovereign authority, their devotion to their 
religion and institutions, and the beautiful influence which Bud- 
dlii,sm has exercised over their mind and character, are faithfully 
pourtrayed in their literature, and especially in their poetry. And 
it is to be hoped that more prominence may' be given to Burmese 
literature in the curriculum of studies iii the province. 

To become a Burmese scholar, a knowledge of Pali is essential, 
for the connection between the literatures of these two languages 
is an intimate one. Burmese literature is to a large extent based 
on Pali literature, and, without an acquaintance with Pali, Bur- 
mese studies would not be of much interest. In fact, to study 
Burmese classics without a knowledge of Pali, wou.ld be like 
attempting to read and appreciate Milton without knowing much 
about the Bible and the mythology of Greece and Pome. 



PART I.-COLLOQUIAL. 



KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION. 






Vowels. 


33 


a 


as in what. 


333 


a 


as in father. 


n 


i 


as in police. 


s 


i 


as in machine. 


5 


u 


as in recruit. 




A 

U 


as in rule. 


a 


e 


as in grei/. 


sS) 


i: 


as the first e in never. 


as(£ 


1 


as the first e in everlasting. 


@ 


aw 


as in law. 


G@5 


aw 


as in dratvl. 


33II33§ * 


an 


as un in dun. 


33DI 


a: 


as in ah ! 


3^ 





as in holy. 


3^5ll3^cS 


ok 


as in yoke. 


3^113^? 


on 


as in cowe. 


,:£5ii33oB 


ei 


as a in ru/i;^, ra^e. 


33?ii33S 


ei 


as in vein. 


oaS 


it' 


as in pit. 


33S 


in 


as in ^m. 


335ll33o5 


at 


as in what. 


33 o5 


et 


as in jje^. 


3^05 


aik 


as ai in a^s^e. 


3^5 


aing 


as ine in Mhine. 


G33Da5 


auk 


as o«* in o«if. 


G3336 


aung 


as 0MJ^ in sound. 



/ci 



* This should be pronounced without letting the tip of the tongue touch the roof of the 
mouth. An Englishman would naturally ^ do so when pronouncing an as un in dnn ■ 
but it should be remembered that final consonaata are never articulated in Burmese ' 



( 2 ) 

Consonants. 

oo k Tinaspirated. 
£> 'k aspirated. 

o -) 

^ J g tard. 

c ng as in Za??^, English. 

o s unaspirated as in spirit. 

so 's aspirated as in saw, sea. 

)■ z as m zenith. 

go n as in semr, Corunha. 



00 

00 
3 



OD 



[ t unaspirated. 
[ 't aspirated. 



'■d as in dawn. 



(• n as in napkin. 

o p unaspirated. 

o 'p aspirated. 

> b as m SmZ^. 

o m as in mamma. 

oa y as in yes. 

Gi r as in rural. 

^1 as m lovely. 

o w as in weather. 

OD th as in thaw. 

oo ^/i as in thee. 

CO h as in heaven. 



( 3 ) 

Note. — There are no English equivalents for certain combinations in Burmese, They 
mayj however, be transliterated as follows : — 



rmesG. 


Enghsh. 


Burmese. 


English. 


^ 


hna 


cq]ii@ , 


kya* 


9 


hma 


f^i'S 


kywa 


eg 


Ua 


91"S 


hmya 



Tones. 
There are three tones in the Burmese language : — 

(1) the natural, 

(2) the abrupt, and 

(3) the heavy. 

The tones express difference in meaning, thus : 

aoS 'sin (pronounced with the natural tone) means an ele- 
phant. 

ooS 'sin (pronounced with the abrupt tone) means a step, a 
grade. 

oo8s 'sin: (pronounced with the heavy tone) means to descend. 

Correct intonation is essential, and the foreign student would 
do well to use the following table to accustom himself to the cor- 
rect utterance of the tonal inflections : 



oo 


OOD, 


OODS 


o8 


eg 


St 


cq 


"I 


cq% 


ka 


ka 


ka: 


ki 


kl 


ki: 


ku 


ku 


ku: 


Goo 


GOO 


GOOS 


00 oS 


^, 


c^ 


GCX)5 


Goio 


GOOD 


ke 


ke 


ke: 


CO 

kan 


ke 
kan 


003 

kan 


kaw 

• 


kaw 


kaw 



* In this combination the h should not be pronounced separately from the y, but both 
should be sounded together, care being taken that the h is not in the least aspirated. This 
may be accomplished by keeping the teeth together before attempting the pronunciation 
of the combination. Thus, the pronunciation of KyauJcse approximates more to Chauksfe 
than to K(a)-yaukse, which is generally heard amongst Europeans. 



( 4 ) 

NUMERICAL NOTATION. 





Cardinal 




English, 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


One 


... cx)8 or 00 


... Tit or ta 


Two 


... J>5 


... Unit 


Three 


... oqs 


... Thon: 


Pour 


... GCOS 


... Le: 


Pive 


... cls 


... Nga: 


Sis 


... cgDoS 


... Chauk 


Seven 


... s}?.S 


... 'Kun-nit 


Eight 


... gS 


... Shit 


Nine 


... c^s 


... Ko: 


Ten 


... aotS 


... 'Se 


Eleven 


... aoc^ooS 


... 'S5-tit 


Twenty- 


... J.830C35 


... Hna-se 


Thirty 


... oqsaocS 


... Th6n:ze 


One hundred 


... oocp 


... Ta-ya 


One thousand 


... OOGOOOS 


... Ta-'taung 


Ten thousand 


... oogoodSs 


... Ta-thaung: 


One hundred 


thou- ooo8?s 


... Ta-thein: 


sand. 






One million 


... CO00$S 


... Ta-than: 


Ten millions or one cocqQ<^ 


... Ta-ka-de 


crore. 


Ordinal. 




Eirst 


... ogQ * 


... Pa-'ta-ma 


Second 


... J^c8oD * 


... Du-ti-ya 


Third 


... oooScx) * 


... Ta-ti-ya 


Eourth 


... OOCJ^* 


... Sa-dok-'ta 


Eifth 


... ogo* 


... Pyin-sa-ma 


Sixth 


... sog * 


... 'Sa-'ta 


Seventh 


... oo^o* 


... That-ta-ma 


Eighth 


... 33S" * 


... A-'ta-ma 


Ninth 


... ^OB * 


... Na-wa-ma 


Tenth 


,.. 300» * 


... Da-^/ia-ma 



♦These are, strictly speaking, Pali words, the pure Burmese equivalents being — 
O0:jg(§Do5ii j>5sjG(goo5ll &c., OoSmgioSlI ^5339)0611 &c. The PaU forms are, how- 
ever, more commonly used. 



( s ) 



Time. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Day 


G% 


... Ne 


Month 


CO 


... La 


Year 


f^ 


... Hnit 


Hour 


^A 


... Na-yi 


Now 


ooq 


... Ya-'ku 


Then 


cocSibyl^ CO 


... 'To-a-'ka 


When? 


... Bfe-a-'ka 


Immediately 


JoSgSs ^ 
— ST^ < < 

33g CL >vv y 


... Chet-chin: 


Ever 


... A-mye: 


Sometimes 


' COG[00ol 


... Ta-yan-ta-'ka 


Daily 


G^„og or G%c^Ss 


... Ne-zin or Ne-daing: 


Dawn 


aa^oSoooS 


... A-yon-det <^ 


Morning 


4^o5 or o$o5 


... Nan- net or Ma-net 


Noon 


g|soD^ 


... Mun:de hn^ y; ' 


Afternoon 


g^sc^ or qg^godSs 


... Miin:lwe: or ]^a-ne 
zaung: 


Evening 


©G* 


... :^a-ne ^«^' 


Sunset 


G^o6 or ^8^S_ ^ 


... Ne-win or Mo:ch6k 


Night 


eoor e|__ 


. . . Na or Nin — - 


Midnight 


OO^SGolS 


... Tha-gaung .- r 


Past midnight 


oo^sGolSccqjS 


... Tha-gaung-gyaw 


Last night 


©"= , 


... ;Ka-ga n \t. 


Whole night 


oo^oqs 


... Ta-na-16n: 


Yesterday 


0G%C»--J1 
/■ OOG^OD 


... Ma-ne-ga 


Day before yesterday 


... Ta-ne-ga 


Today 


COG% or OG% 


... Ya-ne or Ga-ne 


Tomorrow 


^oSo^al K_ - 


... Net-'pan-ga 

... Tha-het-'ka ^"^''^ 


Day after tomorrow 


o^cooSo] 


Second day after to- 


8§s|ol 


... 'Pein-nw^:ga 


morrow 






The other day 


OOG^^OO 


... Ta-ne-ga 


Previously 


33 00 o5 00 


... A-'tet-ka 


Often 


3ag§@§ or oacociD A-kyein-gyein or 'Ka 






na-ka-na 





( 6 


) 




Days of the 


Week. 


English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Sunday 


... OD^i^^Gg. r jx if 


ji ;■"... Ta-nin:ga-nwe 


Monday 


... co^SshoD ^ ' 


... Ta-nin:la 


Tuesday 


... 3s5l KYI t be 


... In-ga 


W ednesday - 
Thursday ih'«^ ft 




d. i\... Bok-da-hii: 


... (cgDODOGOOS ^ 


^' ' ... Kya-tha-pa-de: 


Priday 


... good(^d •dao , 


... Thauk-kya 


Saturday 


... OG^ 


... Sa-De 




Names op the Months. 


April* 


... OO^Si^S 


... Ta-gu: 


May 


... coac^l 


... Ka-'s6n 


June 


... ^CXJ? 


... Na-yon 


July 


... ol^ 


... Wa-zo 


August 


... oIgoIS 


... Wa-gaung 


September 


... gcoSdtodSs 


... 'l'aw-/Aa-lin: 


October 


... GocoSsogoS 


... Tha-din:gyut 


November 


... co$Gao^6'.j|s 


... Ta-zaung-mon: 


December 


... ^oSgcoS 


... Na-daw 


January 


... 6==^^ 


... Pya-tho 


February 


... cc8(^ 


... Ta-bo-dwe: 


March 


... CCGolSs 


... Ta-baung: 




The Heavens. 


Heaven 


... goddSscoS 


... Kaung:gin 


Sun 


... G^ 


... Ne 


Moon 


... CO 


... La 


Star 


... @cS 


... Kyfe 


Planet 


... (5o5 or ^n^c& 


... Gyo or Net-'kat 


Sky 


...> 


... Mo: 


Full moon 


... ^M- 


... La-byi 


W axing moon 


... cocoas 


... La-zan: 


Waning moon 


... Cog^GCqS ■' ■ 


1^ Y«.*.^ La-byi-gyaw 



* The Burmese year commences about the middle of April. 



( 7 ) 
The Heavens — concluded. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteratioa. 


Dark moon 


... cocgc^ 


... La-gw6 


Eclipse of the 


sun... G^goSgSg 


... Ne-kyat-chin: 


Thunder 


... ^sqi^sgSs 


... Mo:ch6n:gyin: 


Lightning 


... cg)5o8 


... Shat-sit 


Thunderholt 


... m-'^^'- 


.., Mo:gyo:^^wa: 


Comet 


... goSoSg? 


... Kye-ta-gun 


Rainbow 


... 03o5(XI^„ 


... Thet-tan 


Cloud 


... ^scfiS 


... Mo:tein 


Meteor 


... ool 


... U-ba 


Hail 


... ^sd8s 


... Mo:^M: 


Snow 


... 5>5sb 


... Hnin:ge: 


Storm 


... GODi^^C^Sg 


... Le-mon-daing: 


Venus 


... GODDg^gc^ 


... Thauk-kya-gyo 


Pleiades 


... gQdoSsSS 


... 'Pyauk-'seik 


Milky-way 


... ^olsGg, 


... Na-ga-ngwe 




Points oe the 


Compass. 


East 


... 33Ga 


... A-she 


West 


... 33G$0o5 


... A-nauk 


South 


... goodS 


... Taung 


North 


... GgDoS 


... Myauk 


North-east 


... 33Gg[G(gDo5 


... A-she-myauk 


South-east 


... 33G^GCOd6 


... A-she- taung 


South-west 


... 33G^Do5g00dS 


... A-nauk-taung 


North-west 


... 33Gf.Do5GgDo5 

Earth 


... A-nauk-myauk 


Earth 


... eggs 


... Mye-gyi: 


World 


... GODDoo or oo^o 


... Law:ka or Ka-ba 


Continent 


... c^c£ 


... Talk 


Country 


... ISc 


... Naing-ngan 


Province 


... o§S 


... 'Ka-yaing 


Tract 


... ^oSGg 


... Nfe-mye 


Mountain 


... goodS^s 


... Taung-gyi: 



( 8 ) 



Earth— concluded . 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Hill 


... gcodScc^ 


... Taung-ngfe 


Valley 


... CCX)d8(^DS 


... Taung.gya: 


Plain 


... G@@S 


... Mye-hyin 


W atershed 


... GqGOGCqD 


... Ye-we-gyaw: 


Waterfall 


... GQCOg? 


... Ye-ta-gun 


River 


... 6s 


... Myit 


Defile 


... GO^Do5o2Ss 


... Kyauk-twin: 


Stream 


... GqjoSs 


... Chaung: 


Brook 


... gQsSs 


... Myaung: 


Source of river 


... §§330 


... Myit-a-sa 


Mouth of river 


... gSo 


... Myit-wa 


Branch of river 


... Q5oDoSooo5 


... Myit-let-tet 


Thalweg 


... gSoDC^Gcq|3 


... Myit-le-gyaw: 


Mid-stream 


... gSoDoS 


... Myit-le 


Eiver channel 


... gg^gQdSs 


... Ye-gyaung: 


Canal 


... O^JSGgoSs 


... Tu:myaung: 


Lake 


... saSs or 3^S 


... In: or ain2: 


Tank 


... QQ^CD% 


... Ye-gan 


Weir 


... £0^ 


... 'Se 


Channel 


... ce[G(^D8s 


... Ye-myaung: 


Bock 


... Gcq]Do5GaoD6 


... Kyauk-'saung 


Stone 


... GCqjooSb 


... Kyauk-'ke: 


Volcano 


... §SG003S 


... Mi:daung 


Sand 


... =£> 


... Th5: 


Gravel 


... GCX:|)Do5oG[S 


... Kyauk-sa-yit 


Clay 


... G[gGOS 


... Mye-zi: 


Tree 


, .. od8oS 


... Thit-pin 


Grass 


... gc^ 


... Myet 


Grazing-ground 


... ODSOJoScg 


... Sa-gyet-mye 


Porest 


... odSgodd 


... Thit-taw: 


Forest reserve 


... gs^SsGO^D 


... Kyo:waing:daw: 


Field 


... oDoSr^oS 


, f<' ■•• L6-gwet 


Garden 


... e«^§ 


... tr:Yin 


Plantation 


... oopoSs 


... Ya'-gin: 



( 9 ) 

Sea. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Ocean 


... cxj^gcp n 


- ... Tha-mok-da-ya 


Sea 


... oScooS 


... Pin-1& 


Bay 


... oScooSgssS 


' ... Pin-lfe-aw 


Gulf 


... oScqcSgc^ 


... Pin-le-gwe 


Strait 


... o6c»c6cQo5Qos 


... Pin-16-let-kya: 


Spring-tide 


... GS^ODcS 


... Ye-det 


Neap-tide 


... Gqcq] 


... Y"e-gya 


Light-house 


... §sg 


... Mi:bya 


Wave 


...;#s ^ 


... Hlaing: 


Sea- shore 


... oScxJoSroSs^Ds 


... Pin-le-kan:na: 


Ship 


... g^o5oOGC^D 


... Ywet-thin:baw: 


Steamer 


... §8c»go5d 


... Mi:thin:baw: 


Shoal 


... o^s 


... SI: 


Deep 


... ^o5gcx)d 


... Net-thaw: 


Shallow 


... cSSgcxid 


... Tein-^^aw 


Cargo -boat 


... OqOO&8 


... Ton-kin: 


Man-of-war 


... o^oScogoSd 


... Taik-thin:baw: 


Mast 


... fio5c§5 


... Ywet-taing 


Yard 


... g^raSoDoS 


... Ywet-let 


Rudder 


... oooSo 


... Tet-ma 


Anchor 


... GcqDoSajs 


... Kyauk-'su: 


Pilot 


... ggigj^dSsQ 


... Ye-gyaung:bya 


Deck 


... o^^gocS 


... K6n:bat 


Sails 


... a"5 


... Ywet 


Oar 


... oo5ooo5 


... 'Kat-tet 


Paddle 


... Gcg5ooo5 


... Hlaw-det 




Seasons, Weatheb, &c. 




rG§e°^ 


... Nwe-u-du 


Hot season 


} G§,Gpc8 


... Nwe-ya-#M 




(_G|33ol 


... Nwe-a-:ka 




rqsgcq 


... Mo:u-du 


Rainy season 


3 8s^:^ 


... Mo:ya-^M 




( 8S330) 


... Mo:a-'ka 





( 10 


) 




Seasons, Weather, 


&c. 


— concluded. 


English. 


Burmese. 




Transliteration, 




fGaoDSsgcy^ 




... 'Saung:u-dii 


Cold season 


} GOODSgCpdS 




... 'Saung:ya-^M 




(_G30dS8 330"1 




... 'Saung:a-'ka 


Eain-fall 


... ^sa^@^° 




... Mo:ywa-gyin: 


Pirst showers 


... §s3s 




... Mo:u: 


Intermediate showers §8cx)c:5 




... Mode 


Closing showers 


... ^sgj-dSs 




... Mo:hnaung: 


Hot 


... <^GO0D 




... TA-tha.w: 


Cold 


... GGODD or gSSGOOD 


... 'E-.thaw or chan:^Aaw: 


Warm 


... 3^o5g00D or (|^GCOD 


... Aik-thaw: or pA-^^aw: 


Pog 1 

Mist.) 


... S'.^Bt 




... Si:hnin: 


Dew 


... j-Ss 




... Hnin: 


Cloudy 


... ^S3^oGODD 




... Mo:6ri-^7jaw: 




Persons, Relationships, &c. 


Man 


... GODDO^OS 




... Yauk-kya: 


Woman 


... 8?so 




... Mein:ma 


Husband 


... co5 




... Lin 


Wife 


... OOODS 




... Ma-ya: 


Boy 


... GCODC^DSODGCOS 




... Yauk;-lcya:ga-le: 


Girl 


... S^sacoGcosor £ 


SJscoGoos Mein:ma-ga-le: or meii 








'ka-le: 


Son 


... ODDS 




... Tha: 


Daughter 


... co§s 




... Tha-mi: 


Sister 


... j>0 




... Hna-ma 


Child 


... 0DGC08 




... Ka-le: 


Children 


... COGC0S4]D? 




... Ka-le-mya: 


Twins 


... 33g3 




... A-hmwa 


Elder brother 


... 3380^ 




... A-ko 


Younger brother ... ^ 




... Nyi 


Cousin 


... ^3dSo^goo5 




... Nyi-a-ko-daw 


Son-in-law 


.,, CODSOoS 




... Tha-met 



( 11 ) 



Persons, Relationships, 


&c. — continued. 


English. Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Daugliter-in-law ... cgjgo 


... Chwe:ma 


Brother-in-law ... godooSoo 


... Yauk-'pa^ 


(A woman's) brother gooS 


... Maung 


(A woman's) elder 3380 


... A-ma 


sister. 




(A woman's) younger ^0 


... Nyi-ma 


sister. 




Elder sister-in-law... o^s 


... Ma-yi: 


Younger sister-in- ooSo 


... 'Kfe-ma 


law. 




(A woman's) elder SaE 


... 'Kfe:o 


brother-in-law. 




(A woman's) young- 008 


... Mat 


er brother-in-law. 




(A woman's) sister- gcodc^o 


... Yaung:ma 


in-law. 




Paternal uncle (elder) oogs 


... Ba-gyi: 


Patern a 1 uncle coGcgs 


... Ba-dwe: or Pa-'twe: 


(younger) or step- 




father. 




Mat ernal uncle §s@s 


... tJ:gyi: 


(elder). 




Mate rnal uncle gscoos 


... U:le: 


(younger). 




Aunt ■•• 33^2 or GscdT 


... A-yi: or A-daw 


Step- mother ... Soogs 


... Mi-dwe: 


Nephew ... cx^ 


... Tu 


Niece ■•■ °tI« 


... Tu-ma 


Grandfather ... sa^s 


... A-'po: 


Grandmother .:. soc^ds 


... A-'pwa: 


Grandchild ... cgs 


... Myi: 


Great grandchild ... @S 


... Myit 


Bride ••■ oScodgoosS cxjc^cx; 


iSs... Min-ga-M-zaung-tha 




do-tha-mi: 



( 12 ) 
Persons, Eelationships, &c 



English. 



Burmese. 



Bridegroom 


... BfioODGOODSoD( 


Bridesmaid 


... 33c|gi 


Married person 


... 3SSG00D5ODgS 


Bachelor 


- ^^1 


Old bachelor 


... 0^» 


Spinster 


... 33C| 


Old maid 


... OO'^^i 


Sweetheart 


... OO^SOOg 


Spouse 


... oSy^S 



•concluded. 

Transliteration. 

^oDDs ... Min-ga-la-zaung-tha- 
do-tha: 
... A-pyo-yan 
... 'Ein-da.ung-thh 
... Lu-byo 
... Lu-byo-gyi: 
... A-pyo 
■•• A-pyo-gyi: 
... Yi:za: 
... 'Kin-bun: 



Members oe the Body. 



Member of the body c^c^saSl 



Head 
Eye 

Nose 

Mouth 

Ear 

Hand 

Thigh 

Leg 

Eoot 

Eingers 

Toes 

Hair 

Eorehead 

Temple 

Cheek 

Chin 

Neck 

Back of neck 

Shoulder 



ssolS? 



GolSs or 

j>DGol5s 
oo5 

^38 or *3SglOr5 ' ' 
00 o5 

GOI? 

gQgoddoS 

eg 

cooSg^dSs 

, s6o& 

. GQSGO 

. co^ or oD^oSs 

. cqB 



Ko-in-ga 

Gaung: or Ok-'kaung: 

Myet-si 

Na-'kaung: 

Pa-zat 
, Na: or na-ywet 

Let 
, Paung 

. Che-dauk or chi-dauk 
. Che or ohi 
. Let-chauns;: 



Che-gyaung: 

gyaimg: 
'Sa-bin 
Na-'pu: 
Na-the 
Pa: 
Me:zi 

Le or le-bin: 
Gok 
Pa-'kon: 



or 



chl- 



( 13 ) 
Members op the Body — continued. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration, 


Shoulder-blade 


... coo5(y5 


... Let-pyin 


Spine 


... Ga5]D§s 


... Kyaw:yo: 


Hip 


... ooSols 


... Tin-ba: 


Chest 


... G^S or G|6oo5 


... Yin or yin-bat 


Navel 


... sjio5 


... Chet 


Wrist 


... coo5goodo5oo5 


... Let-kauk-wut 


Ankle 


f cgoijgsooS 
1 G§4io58 


... Chi-gyin:wut 
... Chi-myet-si 


Instep 


... G@^ 


... Chi-g6n 


Palm 


... COoScgDS 


... Let-'pwa: 


Sole 


... cgogDS 


... Chi-bwa: 


Muscle 


... goSoDDS 


... Kywet-tha: 


Tendon 


... 33g(^3 


... A-kyaw: 


Vein 


... GOggG[^D 


... Thwe:gyaw: 


Nostril 


... ^3Go1o5 


... Hna-bauk 


Eyebrow 


... 4lo5^s 


... Myet-'kon: 


Eyelid 


... ciJoSg 


... Myet-'kun 


Eyelashes 


... i;^o5goodS 


... Myet-taung 


Lip 


... jo8s5§s 


... Na-'kan: 


Tooth 


... OgDS 


... Thwa: 


Tongue 


... cgiD ' . ■> 


... Sha 


Gums 


... Og3S(^S 


... Tha-'p6n: 


Adam's apple 


... CO^GO 


... Lfe-zi 


Moustache 


... ^oSoSsGgg 


... Na-'kan:mwe: 


Beard 


... fejaScSG^s 


... Mok-'seik-mwe 


Whiskers 


... 04j|SGgS 


... Pa-m6n:mwe: 


Jaws 


... o1s§g 


... Pa:yo: 


Heart 


... ^o^s 


... Hna-lon: 


Liver 


... saoo^s 


... A-thfe: 


Eiitrails 


... Si 


... tr 


Blood 


... GC^8 


... Thwe: 


Tears 


' ... 41"5ci^ 


... Myet-ye 


Perspiration 


... cgs 


... Chwe: 



( 14 ) 
Members op the Bodt -concluded. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Joint 


... 3O0o8 


... A-'sit 


Arm 


. .. coo5godSs 


... Let-maun g: 


Arm (upper part) 


... cooS^s 


... Let-yon: 


Nails 


... COo500^SG§OD^S 


... Let-thfe:clii-^/te: 


Thumb 


,.. cooSo 


... Let-ma 


Index finger 


., cooS^s 


... Let-hnyo: 


Middle finger 


... coo5coc5 


... Let-lfe 


Ring finger 


... coo5aj(^o5 


... Let-tha-gywe 


Little finger 


... cooSoo^s 


... Let- than: 


Arm -pit 


-# 


... Gyaing: 


Elbow 


... cogcxddS 


... Ta-daung 


Pist 


... cooSoSs 


... Let-thi: 


Knee 


... ^s 


... Du: 


Heel 


... g§og4)dS 


... Chi-ba-naung 


Abdomen 


... oSs or oS§^c6 


... Wun: or wun:baik 


Breasts 


... 1 or |d8s 


... No or no-thi: 


Bone 


... 33§8 


... A-yo: 


Marrow 


... gSaS 


... Chin-zi 




Movements op the Body. 


Sit 


... c^5co^. 


... 'Taing-^i 


Stand 


... G[5oo^ or 00 co^ 


... Yat-tbi or 'Ta-fM 


Lie down 


... gojjdSsod^ or a^soqsG^ Lyaung:^/a or t6n:16n 




OD^n 


ne-thi 


Sleep 


... oSSoo^ 


... Eik-thi 


Wake 


... %°^^ 


... 'No-.thi 


Walk 


... co6gGcg]Do5oo^ 


... Lan:shauk-thi 


Run 


... GgsOO^ 


... Pye :^7u 


Kneel 


... qsGOODoSoOgS 


... Dri:'tauk-tlii 


Crawl 


... OgDSOOcS 


... Twa:^M 


Leap 


... ^%^^ 


... 'K6n-^M 


Get up 


... 0000^ 


... 'Ta-m 


Climb 


... ODoScX)^ 


... Tet-thi 


Dive 


... qhco^ 


... Ngok-thi 



( 15 ) 
Movements of the Body — continued. 



English. 



Burmese. 



Swim ... GqojsoD^ 

Moat ... o^cSgoIod^ 

To shoulder ... oo§so3^ 

To carry in the arms ^o5oo^ or c^oOd^ 

To carry on the head gioSco^ 

To carry on the back §ioo^ or ocj^g^soo^ 

Ride ... §soo^ 

Drive ... godSsoo^ 

To strike with the ogoSoo^ 

elbows sideways. 
To strike with the goodSsco^ 

elbows downwards. 
To strike (with the o^soo^ 

fist). 



Transliteration. 

... Ye-ku:^M 

... Ko-'paw-^M 

... 'Tan:^M 

... Paik-thi or pwe-#M 

... Ywet-thi 

... Po:^M or g6n:po:^M 

... Si:^M 

... Maung:^M 

... Twet-thi 



.. 'Taung:fM 



... 'To:^ 



Slap 


... CJoSco^ 


... Pok-thi 


Push 


... 02?SOD^ 


... Tun:^M 


Box 


... OToScg^c^oSoD^ 


... Let-'pwe-taik-thi 


Eight 


... cooScjoSoD^ 


... That-pok-tht 


Scratch 


... OCjSoD^ 


... Kok-thi 


Bub 


... g05DD^ 


... Put-thi 


Peel 


... oSsoaSco^ 


... San:that-th] 


Lean 


... §00^ 


... Hmi-^M 


Breathe 


... 3300o5jj^OD^ 


... A-thet-shii-^M 


Snore 


... GOTDo5cO^ 


... Hauk-thi 


Sneeze 


... G^jCO^ 


... CM-m 


Cough 


... Gq]DSs3^S00^ 


... Chaung:'so:^M 


Belch 


... G0Dg^C0o5oD^ 


... L6-gyin-tet-thi 


Hiccough 


... @.#OD^ 


,.. Gyo-'to:^M 


Expectorate 


.... GCgSOD^ 


... 'Twe:^M 


Swallow 


... ^ODg 


... Myo-^M 


Yawn 


... ooSsoogS 


... Than:^M 


Cry 


... ?=»^ 


... Ngo-thi 


Speak 


... OOODSG(yDC»^ 


.., Sa-ga:pyaw:^M 



( 16 ) 
Movements of the Body — concluded. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Blow 


... 5^c8oDg 


... Hmok-thi 


Eat 


... ODSDO^ 


... Sa:^//i 


Suck 


... it^oSco^ 


... Sok-thi 


Chew 


... olsDD^ 


... wk-.m 


Taste 


... @80D^ 


... Myi:^M 


Drink 


... GOODoSoO^ 


... Thauk-thi 


Write 


... GG^SOO^ 


... Ye:^7ii 


Paint 


... gcSoD^ 


... Ch^-^i 


Strike 


... §o5oo^ 


... Yaik-thi 


Stroke 


... oooSco^ 


... That-thi 


Lift 


... oSoD^ 

Ailments. 


... Tin-thi 


Illness 


... ucqi^so^gSs 


... Ma-kyan:ma-gyin: 


Disease 


... 33^DG£pol 


... A-na-yaw:ga 


Pever 


.... qi^s^o 


... 'Pya:na 


Dysentery- 


... o6sc^c5 


... VVun:gaik 


Diarrhoea 


... oSscq] 


... Wun:gya 


Smallpox 


... GOJjDoSgs 


... Kyauk-kyi: 


Measles 


... oo5oDo5 


... Wet-thet 


Chicken-pox 


... GCqjDoSg or G^GCtJ|D 


o5... Kyauk-'pyu 01^ Ye- 
gyauk 


Cholera 


... ODDODoSs 


... Ka-la-wun: 


Jungle fever 


... go5(j|DS 


... Hnget-'pya: 


Head-ache 


... GolSiC^cS 


... Gaung-.gaik 


Ear-ache 


... $Dgo^o5 


... Na:gaik 


Tooth-ache 


... OgDS^D 


... Thwa:na 


Stomach-ache 


... o6s|.D 


... Wun:na 


Sore- eyes 


... t^cSB^D 


... Myet-si-na 


Dyspepsia 


... G^ScOcS^D 


... Yin-bat-na 


Asthma 


... o^s^D or q5(^5 


... Pan:na or Yin-gyat 


Giddiness 


... ^"gSs 


... Mu:gyin: 


Eaintness 


... o^sgSs or GQDJgSs 


... Pan:gyin: orMaw:gyin 



( 17 ) 

Ailments — concluded. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Sea-sielcness 


.. 0§S8^8§S8 


... Hlaing:mu:gyin: 


Lameness 


.. Gg^gSs 


... Cbi-'sun-gyin: 


Blindness 


.. OOD^sgSi 


... Kan:gyin: 


Deafness 


.. ^DSO^SsgSs 


... .Na:'taing:gyin: 


Dumbness 


.. aagSs 


... A-gyin: 


Hoarseness 


„ 33o5g3g5s or 


33o5o5 A-than-pya-gyin: or A- 




gSi. 


than-win-gyin: 


Weakness 


.. asDg^^sgSs or 33D80:}? A:n5:gyin: or A:k6n- 




g58. 


gyin: 


Indisposition 


.. G^OGODoSggSs 


or oaSo Ne-ma-kaung:gyin: or 




ODD^gSs. 


Ma-i-ma - 1 h a - s h i - 
gyin: 


Cold (catarrh) 


.. j>0GO8gS8 


... llna-si:gyin: 


Cold (in the head) 


.. GolSsa^gSs 


... Gaung:6n-gyin: 


Cough 


... Gg^Ssa^s 


... Obaung:zo: 


Dry cough 


., cgoSssgDoS 


... Cbaungrgyauk 


Paralysis 


... GooooSq^s 


... Le-thin-d6n: 




Wearing Appabel. 


Turban 


... Gol68Go1Ss 


... Gaung:baung: 


Jacket 


.. 33fi^ 


... In:gyi 


Loin-cloth 


.. 9# 


... Pa-'so: 


Shoes 


.. G$Do58o5c8$S 


... Nauk-peik-'pa-nat 


Sandals 


.. 8§sco?s 


... Peinrdan: 


Boots 


... 2oSc£?5 


... But-'pa-nat 


Socks 


.. Ggg5 


... Cbi-zut 


Handkerchief 


.. coo5o^Soc)T 


... Let-kaing-ba-wa 


Button 


.. goSoSs 


... Kyfe-thi: 


Belt 


.. oTsooS 


... 'Ka-bat 


Ring 


.. coo5g5 


... Let-sut 


Hat 


., §socj5 


... Ck-'t6k 


Umbrella 


... C88 


... 'Ti: 


Walking-stick 


.. coo5o^5qc5 


... Let-kaing-d6k 


Watch ' . 


.. 33oSgXioS^3§[ 


... Eik-'saung-na-yl 
3 



( 18 ) 
Weaking Apparel — concluded. 



Eii<;lish. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


"Watch-cliain 


.. ^^S^^^ 


Na-yi-gyo: 


Watch-key 


.. .fiD^GODO 


'Na-ji-thsiW 


Comb 


.. cSs 


. Bi:* 


Tooth-brush 


.. ogDsyoSoD 


Tha-but-tan 


Ear-knob 


.. ^DSGslSs 


. Na-daung: 


Necklace 


.. oc8s 


, Pa-di: 


Bracelet 


.. coo5gcodo5 


. Let-kauk 


Pocket 


.. 33o5 


. Eik 


Spectacles 


.. 4lo5y^ 


. Myet-hman 


Trousers 


... Gao:>StS 


. Baung:bi 


Blanket 


... godS 


. Saung 


Towel 


... «^o5j.DoqoSoo1 


. Myet-hna-th6k-pa-wa 


]N"apkin 


.., o3o5cxjc^oo"| 


. Let-th6k-pa-wa 


Hair-pin (curved) 


... ao^S 


. 'Sa-hnyat 


Hair-pin (single) 


... 300^8 


. 'Sa-do: 


Comforter 


... co^oSso^s 


. Le-bin:zi: 


Shawl 


... c^oSgodS or gjjdgodS 


Taik-saung or shaw 
zaung 




Pkopessions, Trades, &c. 


Merchant 


... «??oo^@s 


. Kon-the-gyi: 


Trader 


... cqlco^ 


.. K6n-tli& 


Broker 


... ^ODS 


. Pwe:za: 


Contractor 


... (^cS(yo55o:j^ 


.. Pok-pyat-'kan-thvi 


Architect 


... SoOJOOD 


.. Peik-tha-ga 


Mason 


... O^SG^ 


.. ?a-yan 


Carpenter 


... ODoSoOQD? 


.. Let-tha-ma: 


Sculptor 


... GCqiDoSooSoDODS 


.. Kyauk-'sit-tha-ma: 


Wood-carTer 


... o?sc^ 


,. Pa-bu 


Goldsmith 


... G^o?sc8§ 


.. Shwe-pa-dein 


Silversmith 


... Ggo§sc85 


.. Ngwe-pa-dein 


Blacksmith 


... o5s±) 


.. Pa-be: 


Tinsmith 


... o?sco8s 


.. Pa-din: 



( 19 ) 



Professions, Trades, &c.- 


—concluded. 


Euglish. 


Burmese. 


TraDsliteration. 


Lapidary 


. GCqjDoSGOgSODODS 


Kyauk- th we : if /za -ma : 


Shoe-maker 


. c8^5c^3O0ODS 


'Pa-nat-'to:tha-ma: 


Painter 


.. o?s^ 


Pa-gyi 


Tailor 


.. 335q[5oDODS 


, AtTchok-tha-ma: 


Cultivator (rice) . 


. . oooSoooDs 

Servants. 


lie-tha-mk: 


Servant 


.. 33G0S) 


. A-se-gan 


Boy 


., CXJCOS or CXjfCDGCOS .. 


. Tha-nge or Lii-ga-le: 


Cook 


.. ooqSs:5)o5 or a^scxjgs 


'Ta-min:gyet or O-.tha, 

gyi: 


Coachman 


.. gjoj^sgodSs 


. Ya-'ta:maung: 


Groom 


.. @SsdB|8 


. Myin:dein: 


Sweeper 


.. oogc75c9^8 


. Ta-byet-hlfe: 


Companion 


.. c^sc^sgodS 


. To:do:baw 


Wet-nurse 


.. |o8$s 


. No-dein: 


Gate-keeper 


. . odoIsgodS 

Animals. 


. Ta-ga-zaung 


Animal 


•• c8Glg,3^ 


. Ta-yeik-'san 


Lion 


.. §£got 


. Chin-^Ae 


Tiger 


.. _oqiDS 


. Kjk: 


Elephant 


., oo5 


. 'Sin 


Pony 


.. @8s 


. Myin: 


Colt 


.. gSsoSsOOGCOS 


. Myin:di:ga-le: 


Mare 


.. (ySso 


Myin:ma 


Pilly 


.. (y6sOCX)GC08 


. Myin:ma-ga-le: 


Bear 


.. oo56 


. Wet-wun 


Camel 


.. cqoootsqo^ 


. Ka-la-6k 


Gelding 


,. gSsixiSs 


Myin:thin: 


Deer 


.. 3G|o5 


Da-ye 


Sambur 


.. ooo5 


'Sat 


Barking deer 


.. ^ 


Gyi 





( 20 


) 




Animals — concluded. 


English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Pig 


... Oo5 


... Wet 


Wild pig 


... GCODOoS 


... Taw: wet 


Sow 


... oo5o 


... Wet- ma 


BufEalo 


... eg 


... Kywe: ■ ' 


Cow 


... gDSO 


... Na-ma 


Bull 


... JDSO^S 


... Na-tho: 


Bullock 


... jdsojSs 


... Na-thin: 


Heifer 


... gDSOCX)GCOS 


... Na-ma-ga-le: 


Steer 


... ^DScSsODGOQS 


... Na-'tiiga-le: 


Calf 


... §DSODGO02 


... Nwa:ga-le: 


Stallion 


... (gSscODS 


... My in :1a: 


Ass 


." S^- 


... Mjh: 


Mule 


... CODS 


... La: 


Sheep 


... # 


... Tho: 


Goat 


... sSoS 


... 'Seik 


Kid 


... sSoSoDGCOS 


... 'Seik-'ka-le: 


Dog 


... '^y 


.., 'Kwe: 


Bitch 


... GgSO 


... 'Kwe:ma 


Pup 


... Gg?COGODS 


... 'Kwe:ga-le: 


Monkey 


... G^jDoS 


... Myauk 


Mongoose 


... Ggol 


... Mwe-ba 


Eat 


... §o5 


... Kywet 


Mouse 


... go5«i5 


... Kywet-s6k 


Cat 


... g@dS 


... Kyaung 


Kitten 


... g(^3£oDGCOS 


... Kyaung-ga-le: 


Squirrel 


.••5l§ 


... Shin 


Babbit 


... oq$ 


... Yon 


Leopard 


... ccjdscxdS 


... Kya-thit 


Jackal 


... GODDGgS 


... Taw:gwe: 


Otter 


... qi 


... 'Pyan 


Ehinoceros 


.•• 


... Kyan 


Orang-outang 


... CJ5 


... Lu-wun 


Ape 


... G(j)Oo5c^GOq|5 


... Myauk-hlw6:gyaw 



( 21 ) 





Eeptiles. 




English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Alligator 


... Sgo^dSs 


... Mi-gyaung: 


House lizard 


... !£§Gi4]dS 


... Ein-hmyaung 


Tree lizard 


... tJcS 


... 'Put 


Grass lizard 


... ODSscSScqiD 


... Kin:leik-chaw: 


Jungle lizard 


... ooooS 


... Pa-dat 


Chameleon 


... qcBooB 


... Pok-thin 


Snake 


... <^g 


... Mwe 


Cobra 


... GJgSCXJDoS 


... Mwe-hauk or Ma-hauk 


Boa- constrictor 


... oolggs 


... Sa-ba-gyi: 


Python 


... oolss^i 


... Sa-ba-6n: 


Scorpion 


... C»5sgsGOD3o5 


... Ein:mi:gauk 


Centipede 


... CX)SsGgcj|DS 


... Kin:chi-mya: 


Turtle 


... c85 


... Leik 


S' Dragon 


... *ol3 

Fishes. 


... Na-ga: 


Perch 


... ooooodS 


... Ka-ka-dit 


Hilsa 


... clsOOGCODoS 


... Nga-tha-lauk 


Gudgeon 


... clg^Ss 


... Nga-gyin: 


Carp 


... clso^Ss 


... Nga-thaing: 


Murrel or snake-head cIsg^I 


... Nga-yan 


Cat-fish 


... cTs^I1c1sg(§8 


... Nga-'ku, nga-gyi: 


Walking-fish 


... clsGgo 


... Nga-bye-ma 


Eel 


... cls5i6 


... Nga-shin 


Mango-fish 


... c1sCi®2S 


... Nga-p6n-n&: 


Shark 


... clso^s 

Birds. 


... Nga-man: 


* Bird 


... gc6 


... Hnget I' 


Peacock 


... G3168 


... Daung: 


Brahmin duck 


... oooSd 


... Hin:tha 


Eagle 


... coSscjql, 


... Lin:y6n 


Vulture 


... ooSsoo 


... La-da 


Goose 


... c$s 


... Ngan: 


Duck 


... o§gc^ 


... WuTi:b6: 



( 22 ) 
Birds — concluded. 



English. 




Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Fowl 




. (§c>5 


... Kyet 


Teal 




, o8oc8 


... Sit-sa-li 


Jay 




goSols 


... Hnget-'ka: 


Turkey 




(^o5ao5 


... Kyet-'sin 


Pheasant 




. G|^S 


... Yit 


Pi2;eon 




•? 


... 'Ko 


Dove 




.# 


... Gyo: 


Green pigeon 


• ? 


... Nffti 

* • • o 


Parrot 




• @^°isa° 


... Ivyet-tu-ywe: 


Swan 


• •< 


, GODDC?8 


... Taw:ngan: 


Crow 


• • 1 


, C^SCO^S 


... Kyi:gan: 


Owl 


.. 


. SiSC^oS 


... Zi:gwet 


Sparrow 


• • 


. O3COGC0S 


... Sa-ga-le: 


Mina 


• • ' 


. aDo5c[o5 


... Za-yet 


Raven 


, , 


. GCX)DO^SCX)?S 


... Taw:kyi:gan: 


Hawk 


^ , 


. o8Ss 


... Thein: 


Kite 




. s? 


... Sun 


Paddy-bird (egret) 


m 


... Byaing: 


Bat 


.. 


■ i^SsI 


... Lin -.no 


Plying-fox 




, coSsag 


... Linizwfe: 


.Adjutant 




. gc»5@gcqso5 


... IInget-kyi:d6n:zat 


Snipe 


.. 


. ^oSoDsgoS 


... Bo-za:hnget 


Cormorant 


(long- 


coBo^z 


... Din-gyi: 


necked). 








Cormorant 


( short- 


GsaScsp 


... Aw-yaw: 


necked). 








Wild duck 




. ccriDCX) 


... Taw:bfe: 


Stork 


•• 


Insects. 


... Gyo:gya 


Insect 




. {^sgoodS 


... Po:gaung 


Ant 




.. og^o5s8cS 


... Pa-ywet-'seik 


White- ant 




.. @ . 


... Cha 


Ked-ant (small) . 


.. cX)[gSs| 


... Ka-myin:ni 



( 23 ) 





Insects— 


-concluded. 


English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Red-ant (jungle) 


... olqg 


... 'Ka-gyin 


Spider 


• •• "§^ 


... Pin-gu 


Fly 


... C^S 


... Yin 


Cricket 


... OoSsG^Sc^ 


... Pa-zin:yin-gw6: 


Mosquito 


... qS 


... Chin 


Cockroach 


... ^SODOS 


... Po:hat 


Butterfly 


... c55@D 


... Leik-py4 


Grass-hopper 


... |.goddS 


... Hnan-gaung 


Louse 


... ca$s 


... Than: 


Bug 


... (§25^8 


... Kya-bo: 


Bee 


... qiDS 


.. . Pya: 


Elea 


... Ggscx)|s or G 


gsGODs ... 'Kwe:^^an: or 'kwe:le 


Earth-worm 


... c8gcxo5 


... Ti-gaung 


Beetle 


... oo^s 


... Pa-don: 


Firefly 


... ?S!j|sg 


... Po:z6n:byu 


Maggot 


... GCOOcS 


... Lauk 


Moth 


... QsooogoodS 


... Po:'pa-lan-gaung 


Wasp 


... ^o§go-jd5 


... Na-gyi-gaung 




Articles oe CoMMBrtCE. 


Paddy 


... ooTs 


... Sa-ba: 


Rice (uncleaned) 


... aD^C^SOD^S 


... 'SaTi-16n:di: 


Rice (cleaned) 


... SD^g 


... 'San-byn 


Broken rice 


... ao?f^ 


... 'Sa-gwe: 


Rice -meal 


- §f 


... 'Pw6:nu 


Teak 


... Og]$SOD5 


... Kyun:^7^it 


Ivory 


... aaSgc^ 


... 'Sin-zwe 


,Silk 


...^^ 


... Po: 


Cotton (unprepared) ol 


... Wa 


Cotton (prepared) 


... 25. 


... Gun: 


Tobacco 


... caos 


... 'Se: 


Cardamoms 


... olcODGO 


... 'Pa-la-zi 


Cloves 


... GCCg^SggS 


... Le:hnyin:bwin 


Nutmegs 


... 3)D8§[cSd8s 


... Za-deik-'po-^M: 



( 24 ) 
Articles ov Commerce — concluded. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Cinnamon 


Od5(^5s^8 


... Tbit-kya-bo: 


Stick-lac 


qS 


... Cheik 


Opium 


. o3^s 


... Bein: 


Tilseed 


. |s 


... Hnan: 


Tamarind 


, o?cq]^so8s 


... Ma-gyi:^M: 


Ginger 


qjSs 


... Gyin: 


Pepper 


c^SgoodSs 


... Nga-yok-kaung 


Hide 


O03SGG| 


... Tha-ye 


Chillies, or Cayenne 


cgSdSs 


... Nga-yok-thi: 


pepper. 






Betel-nut 


cgSsoSs 


... Kun:^M: 


Betel-leaf 


o2Ssa"5 


... Kunrywet 


Lime 


cqs 


... 'Ton: 


Turmeric 


I^Ss 


... 'Sa-nwin: 


Vermicelli 


(cgDco? 


... Kya-zan 


Onion 


go5c^? 


... Kyet-thun 


Garlic 


goSog^g 


... Kyet-thun-byu 


Groundnuts 


. Ggd 


... Mye-be: 


Peas 


ODiGOoSc) 


... Sa-daw-bfe: 


Beans 


6gs 


... Pe:gyi: 


Cutch 


^DSGOS 


... Sha:zi: 


Sago 


ooDcq 


... Tha-gu 


Salt 


, ODDS 


... 'Sa: 


Saltpetre 


odSsSSs 


... Yan:zein: 


Beeswax 


cogoddSs 

Metals. 


... 'Pa-yaung; 


Iron 


o5 


... Than 


Brass 


cgso) 


... Kyi:wa 


Tin 


^»la 


... 'K^:nga-'pyu 


Zinc 


■ 02^ 


... Thut 


Gold 


. SI 


... Shwe 


Silver 


Gg 


... Ngwe 


Copper 


Ggs| 


... Kyi:ni 





( 25 ) 






Metals— concluded. 


English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Lead 


... 2> 


... 'K5: 


Steel 


... ODOCtS 


... Tha-ma-ni 


Pinclibeck 


... ^8@S 

Food. 


... Mo:gyo: 


Cooked rice 


... oooSs 


... 'Ta-min: 


Bread 


... GolStj^^ 


... Paung-mon 


Curry 


... ooSs 


... Hin: 


Beef 


... 33&ODDS 


... A-m.h:thei: 


Mutton 


... O^SODDS 


... Tho:^^a: 


Pork 


... Oo5cXD32 


... Wet-tha: 


Venison 


... aooSoDDS 


... 'Sat-tha: 


Fowl 


... ^oSdods 


... Kyet-tha: 


Fish 


... els 


... Nga: 


Dried flsb 


... clsG§0o5 


... Nga-ehauk 


Boiled fish 


... clsgoS 


... Nga-byok 


Roast fish 


... cIsodS 


... Nga-gin 


Smoked fish 


... clsQSooS 


... Nga:kyat-tin 


Fried fish 


... clSG(gS 


... Nga-gyaw 


Salted fish 


... c1s8gc»d5 


... Nga-pi-gaung 


Fish paste 


... cl?8 


... Nga- pi 


Prawn 


... c^gi^sBoS 


... Pa-zun-zeik 


Lobster 


... 9^?ajcS 


... Pa-zun-dok 


Crab (sea) 


... 00$^8 


... Ka-nau: 


Crab (field) 


... cocScjg)?oqs 


... Lfe-ba-zun-16n: 


Egg 


... s 


... U 


Milk 


... p°l 


... Na-no 


Condensed milk 


... §so 


... No-zi" 


Butter 


... GOODOcS 


... 'Taw:bat 


Cheese 


... ap 


... Dein-gfe: 


Slice of bread 


... GolSt^|o05^5 


... Paung-m6n-ta-shat 


Toast 


... GolS^^^OoS 


... Paun£f-m6n-gin 


Jam 


...^ 


... Yo 



( 26 ) 
Food — concluded. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Pickle 


... 00^5 


... Tha-nat 


Glutinous rice 


... GC7DDo5^6s 


... Kauk-hnyin: 


Yinegar 


... C^$SG|^ 


... P6n:ye 


Sugar 


... O0[^DI 


... Tha-gya: 


Cane sugar (in 


cakes) {^odood 


... Kyan-tha-ga 


lee 


... tSG[2) 


... Ye-gfe: 


Honey 


... qosG^S 


... Pya:ye 


Vegetables 


... cr)6so88cx)Ssg[o5 


... Hin:thi:hin:ywet 


Treacle or molasses odood 


... Tha-ga 


Jaggery 


... oo^ScqoS 

Fbuit. 


... 'Ta-nyet 


Eruit 


... co5d8s or 33oSs 


... Thit-thi: or a-thi: 


Durian 


... qt^Bt 


... Du:yin:* 


Mangosteen 


... o5s<^5 


... Min:gut 


Mango 


... cog^-cjS 


... Tha-yet 


Jack 


... S| 


... Pein:nfe: 


Marian 


... oe[?s 


... Ma-yan: 


Orange 


... cSSgoS 


... Lein-maw 


Lime 


... oo^cp 


... Than-ba-ya 


Lemon 


... G^^DoS 


... Shauk 


Pommelo 


... C^-.COD 


... Eyvvfe:gaw: 


Oustard-apple 


... @G>)D 


... Aw:za 


Pine-apple 


... ^o^o5 


... Na-nat 


Plantain 


... goScc^D 


... Nga-pyaw: 


Bael-fruit 


... gjiS 


... 6k-sbit 


Cocoanut 


... 3^$S 


... On: 


Guava 


... ODDDCXID 


... Ma-la- ka 


Papaya 


... cxdgoSdoSi 


... Thin:baw:^/a: 


Pomegranate 


... CX)c£)oSs 


... Tha-le:^M: 


Almond 


... 0l3c8s 


... Bi-dan-i^M: 


Plum 


... s8sd8s 


... Zi-.thi: 



1= The names of fruit generally take the affix o3s tM: after them, 



( 27 ) 
Fetjit — concluded . 



Jinghsh. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration, 


rig 


... oogo5dodo$8oSs 


... Thin:baw:tha-'pan:^M: 


Grapes 


... ODgjSoSs 


... Tha-byit-thi: 


Walnut 


... OD5(gDS08s 


... Thit-kya:^M: 


Chestnut 


... CX)b33C^O§S 


... Thit-e-tJii: 


Apple 


... ooSgooSoSs 


... Thit-taw-^i: 


Pear 


... jisodSgodScSs 


... Shan-thit-taw-^Ai: 


Cashew nut 


... o8o^§ooc^o5dSs 

Vegetables, 


... TM-ho-tha-yet-thi: 


Potato 


... 33DOJS 


... i-lu: 


Sweet-potato 


... O0g>|8g 


... Ka-zun:u 


Yam 


... GC^DoSg 


... Myauk-u 


Tomato 


... OGi§sqi§o8s 


... 'Kayan:gyin-^Ai: 


Brinjal 


... oG|5sc8s 


... 'Kayan-.^Ai: 


Radish 


... tjScODg 


... M6n-la-u 


Cabhage 


... GooSSoqs 


... Kaw-pi-16n: 


Indian-corn 


... gQdSscjs 


... Pyaung:bu: 


Jo war 


... gQdSsoo? 


... Pyaung:zan 


Cucumber 


... ooglgcSs 


... Tha-'kwa:^Ai: 


Water-melon 


... o^o3s 


... 'Ta-jh-.tM: 


Pumpkin v^ 


^^^cqtSz 


... Biv.thi: 


Gourd ^ 


"-'-7^ o^dSs 


... 'Va-jon-thi: 


Snake gourd 


... c)oo5sogaSs 


... PMin:mwe-^Ai: 


Prencli beans 


... ^cSoDS'b 


... Bo-za:bfe: 


Mustard 


... t^feSs 


. . Mon-nyin: 


Beet 


... ^?O03fj| 


... M6n-la-u-ni 


Carrot 


... lijIcODgol 


... M6u-la-u--wa 


Asparagus 


... oo^oS 


... Ka-nyut 


Mushroom 


Deink. 


... Hmo 


Wine 


... osqiSc)^ 


... Tha-byit-ye 


Water 


... GGl 


... Ye 


Spirit 


... qo533G[o5 


... Chct-a-yet 



( 28 ) 
Drink —concluded. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Fer mented-liquo r 


... OOGo5e[^ 


... Ka-zaw-ye 


Milk (cow's) 


••• P'l 


... Na-no 

•* 


Cocoanut milk 


... 3^$5^ 


... On:no 

A 


Cocoanut water 


... S^l^G^^ 


... On:ye 


Toddy 


... cclss^gS 


... 'Tan:ye or 'Ta-; 


Lime-juice 


... OD^SpGltS 


... Than-ba-ya-ye 


Crated- waters 


... cSooSsq 


... Bi-lat-ye 


Sherbet 


... ^DS|OcSgG[ 


... Sha-ra-bat-ye 


Tea 


... coo5cxia5GG[ 


... La-'pet-ye 


Coffee 


... ODD§ 


... Ka-'pi 


Beer 


••• qi^cieS 


... Byit-ye 


Tumbler 


... o|gc6 


... 'Pan-gwet 


Goglet 


... GG|OOGCX)25s 


... Ye-da-gaung: 


Cork 


... Gtf] 


... 'Paw 


Cork-screw 


... oo53^ 


... Wet-u 


Bottle 


... ocoSs 


... Pa-lin: 


Medicine 


..c GOOS 


... 'Se: 


Castor-oil 


... o§8^aSc8 


... AVun:hn6k-'si 


W arm- water 


... GG|G§S 


... Ye-nwe: 


Ice-cream 


... GG^bt^l 

FrBNITUEE 


... Te-ge:m6n 


Carpet 


... godSgo>d 


... Kaw-zaw: 


Table 


... o3sa 


... Sa-bwfe: 


Chair 


... ajODDSO^S 


... Ka-la-'taing 


Stool 


... GgSsg 


... 'Kwe:chi 


Bench 


... q 


... 'Kon 


Punkah 


... ^od5 


... 'Swe:yat 


Tan 


... cx)5good6 


... Yat-taung 


Door 


... ooals 


... Ta-ga: 


Window 


... gcoSsGoloS 


... Pa-din:bauk 


Table-cloth 


... ODS^oSs 


... Sa-bw6:gin: 


Knife 


... 0038 


... Da: 


Fork 


... OG^bi 


... 'Ka-yin: 





( 29 ) 






Ptjknititre — concluded. 


English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Spoon 


... <^h 


... Zun: 


Tea-spoon 


.,, coo5ooo5'G[^g>§8 


... La-'pet-ye-zun: 


Table-spoon 


... OOo8sODSg)§8 


... 'Ta-min:za:zun: 


Electroplated-spoon Ggei^yc^g^s 


... Ngwe-ye-but-zun: 


Plate 


.., o$:oD§(y38 


... Pa-gati-bya: 


Cup 


... o|;sco§oq8 


... Pa-gan-16n: 


Lamp 


... §8335 


... Mi:ein 


Kocking-chair 


... C^So^CODSC^S 


... H16k-ka-la-'taing 


Long arm-chair 


... oo5oDn5ccjcoDoC^S 


... Pet-let-ka-la-'taing 




Nationalities. 


Nationality 


... ^'^^ 


... Lu-myo: 


Barman 


... g?03 


... Mya-mS, 


Englishman 


... 336c85 


... In:ga-leik 


Chinaman 


... cx)^5 


... Ta-yok 


Native of India 


... cqcooi 


... Ka-la: 


Siamese 


... C^S303DS 


... Yo:da-ya: 


Shan 


... SIS 


... Shan: '^ ' 


American 


... 33G0^c6 


... A-me-yi-kan 


German 


... q|3S 


... Gya-man 


Frenchman 


... gSooS 


... Pyin-thit 

... Ru-sha K !■ 


Russian 


... ?Sl 


Hindu 


... c8§|[ 


... H^ein-dti 


Mussulman 


... 008 


... Pa-thi 


Parsee 


... olsjcS 


... Pa-ya-thi 


Japanese 


... qi"? 


... Gya-pan 


Turk 


... cqs^S 


... Tu-ra-ki 


African 


... 00908 


... Kat-pa-li 


Andamanese 


... ODyo8og)$SODOS 


... Kat-pa-li-gyun:#M: 


Wild tribes 


... 33§S2aj^8 


... A-yaing:lu-myo: 


Malay 


... acgiis 


... Pa-shii: 


Arakanese 


... ^^s 


... Ya-'kaing 


Jew 


... GfqS 


.., Ya-hu-di 



( 30 ) 





COLOUES. 




English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteiation. 


Colour 


. 33GGpS 


... A-yaung 


White 


• ^S 


... A-'pyu 


Black 


. GSa or 33$o5 


... A-me: or a-net 


Eed 


. 33? 


... A-ni 


Blue 


. 33gD 


... A-pya 


Yellow 


. 330l 


... A-wa 


Green 


, 3385s 


... A-sein: 


Light-green 


. 338§§^ 


... A-sein:nu 


Emerald-green 


. g8SsGCp5 


... Mya-zein:yauDg 


Dark-green 


.. 3385sG[8 


... A-sein:yin 


Pink 


.. o|sGGpS 


... Paniyaung 


Scarlet 


.. (§c:5Gogs 


... Kyet-thwe: 


Burnt sienna 


.. GQiSBcGpS 


... Zaw-gyi-yaung 


Grey 


. . Ss^SGCpS 


... Mi:go:yaung 


Orange 


., cBSGoScGpS 


... Lein-maw-yaung 


Violet 


.. OG]^5sGSp6 


... 'Ka-yan:yaung 


Bay 


..m 


... Saing-nl . 


Light bay 


. ^Sol, 


..„ Saiug-wa 


Chestnut 


.. g§>,GGpS 


... Shwe-yaung 


Grey 


. GolSsocS 


... 'Paung-.wut 


Cream 


. 3^h^ 


... On:gun 


Brown 


.. ^5 or o^cxji^sGo 


... Gyeik or ma-gyi:zi 


Mouse 


Money. 


... Gyo:gya 


Money 


.. Gg 


... Ngwe 


Coin 


.. ofils 


... Din:ga: 


Sovereign 


•• s^i^si? 


... Sliwe-din:ga: 


Dollar 


.. afilsgs 


... Din:ga:gyi: 


Rupee 


•• f^5 


... Kyat 


Eight-anna bit 


. cls<ffSGO 


... Nga:mu:zi 


Eour-anna bit 


. . ocSgo 


... Mat-si 


Two-anna bit 


.. ^sso 


... Mu:zi 


Pice 


.. ^qSod 


... Paik-'san 



( 31 ) 
Monet — concluded. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Interest 


.. 33C^S 


... A-to: 


Cash 


,. 03o5cSl 


... Let-ngin: 


Credit 


.. 33G^S 


..„ A-kywe: 


Debt 


... cgs or G^sg 


... Kywe: or Kywe:myi 


Profit 


.. sagcS 


... A-myat 


Principal 


... 33G[Sg 


... A-yin: 


Currency note 


- G9«M 


... Ngwe-set-ku 


Cheque 


... q)o5ooo5gc8 


... Chet-let-hmat 


Money-order 


... Ggc^cooSyoS 


... Ngwe-hlwfe:let-hmat 


Promissory note 


... oDc8coo5go5 


... Ga-di-let-hmat 


Valuable security 


... 33C;§SO0?ODg[_5 


... A-'po:dan-sa-gy6k 


Deed 


... ODg[5oDCoSs 


... S&.-gy6k-sa-dan: 


Eund 


... <5Gg 


... Bon-ngwe 




Precious Stones. 


Precious stone 


... Gaq|Do5c^o5 


... Kyauk-myet 


Diamond 


...8^ 


... Sein 


Ruby 


... o88@3s 


... Pa-da-mya: 


Emerald 


... s 


... Mya 


Pearl 


... tfcS 


... Pa-lfe: 


Sapphire 


... foDD 


... Ni-la 


Oat's-eye 


... G[raDS 


... Kyaung 


Jasper 


... ?'r>"lsc§ 


... Na-ga-thwe 


Chalcedony 


... ocqsp 


... Ma-hu-ya 


Beryl 


... Slo5^ 


... Myet-yw6: 


Topaz 


... gOODCSGpg 


... Ok-tha-'pa-ya: 


Amethyst 


... GoT8o5 


... Gaw-meik 




Weights and 


Measures. 


Weight 


... 33GCOS^§ 


... A-le:gyein 


Basket 


... gcodSs 


... Taung: 


Basket (standard) 


... coSg 


... Tiu: 


Half basket 


... oog 


... Ta-'kwfe: 


Quarter-basket 


... od8oB 


... Ta-zeik 


Sixteenth basket 


... OD@^ 


... Ta-byi 



( 32 ) 
Weights and Mbasdiies — concluded. 



English. Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Thii'ty-seeond basket cogo5 


... Ta-'kwet 


Sixty-fourth basket cooodc^ 


... Ta-za-le 


Viss ... SccoD 


... Peik-tha 


Tical ... cq(5 


... Kyat 


Ten viss ... go5coaDcS 


... 'Kwet-ta-'s6 


Cart-load ... oDog^?c^o5 


... Ta-hle:daik 


Male porter's load... coco 5s 


... Ta-'tan: 


Female porter's load co§^o5 


... Ta-ywet 


Incli ... cocoo5o 


... Ta-let-ma 


Poot ... CCG'J 


... Ta-be 


Yard ... ooc^oS 


... Ta-gaik 


Mile (about 2 Eng- odc^S 


... Ta-daing 


lisb miles). 




Half mile ... cIscpcgSs 


... Nga:ya-dwin: 


Ten miles ... o^scogcodSs 


... 'Kayi:ta-thaung: 


, Army and 


Navt. 


Department of War ©8,^$ 


... Sit-'ta-na 


Army ... g^sooS or 09$ 


sco5... Kyi:dat or k6n:dat 


Navy ... GsiooS 


... Ye-dat 


Soldier ... o8oo^ 


... Sit-thi 


Infantry ... G§oq]Sco8 


... Che-lyin-dat 


Cavalry ... gSscoS 


... Myin:dat 


Elephanteers ... soSooS 


... 'Sin-dat 


Charioteers ... gicodsooS 


... Ya-'ta:dat 


Archers ... gcosc^S 


... Le:gaing 


Lancers ... cgc^S 


... Hlan-gaing 


Steersman or cox- o^5s 


... Pe-nin: 


swain. 




Commander-in-Chief ^cSo][S 


... Bo-gyok 


Commander ... gg^g^dSs^cS' 


... Ye-gyaung:bo 


Minister of War ...-^oS^so^gs 


... Bo-hmu-.wun-gyl: 


Officer ... oS^cS 


... Sit-bo 





( 33 ) 






Weapons 




English. 


Burmese, 


Transliteration. 


Weapon 


... coo5$o5 


... Let-net 


Cannon 


... QOG^OcS 


... A- my auk 


Gun 


... GOO^oB 


... Thin-nat 


Shell 


... oqs 


... Bon: 


Muzzle-loader 


... G§IC^? 


... She-do: 


Breech-loader 


... Gi^DoSc^s or ols^s 


... Nauk-'to: or 'ka:gyo 


Rifle 


... ^oSocSgod^oS 


... Yaik-'pat-thin-nafc 


Pistol 


... gSsGOO^cS 


... Myin:thin-nat 


Eeyolver 


... cgDoSo^slJjs 


... Chauk-16n:byvi: 


Double -barrel 


... i-Soq^S" 


... H:na-16n:byu: 


Bullet 


... egg 


... Kyi 


Ball 


... «3g» 


... Kyi- ma 


Slugs 


... c^so^soqjg 


... Ko:16n:gyi 


Shot 


... o^o5 


... Za-yeik 


Buck-shot 


... GolSsO^cS 


... Daung:za-yeik 


Cartridge 


... ooSsgoodS 


... Tan:daung 


Wad 


... O53005 


... Ka-bat 


Sword 


... oSoODSCgcS 


... Sit-da-lw6 


Sheath 


... C30DSa8§ 


... Da-ein 


Dagger 


... qo^sgQdS 


... Da-hmyaung 


Chopper 


... ooDsa 


... Da-ma 


Bow 


... GCOS 


... Le: 


Arrow 


..- @38- 


... Hmya: 


Lance 


... C5 

ROAT). 


... Hlan 


Highway 


... oSscoSso 


... Min:lan:ma 


Route 


... o^scoSso^ 


... 'Ka-yi:lan:zin 


Main road 


... ooSso 


... Lan:ma 


Street 


... CoSs'j^DI 


... Lan:gya: 


Branch road 


... coSsogcS 


... han-.thwh 


Cross road 


... QoScoSs 


... 'Pyat-lan: 


Embankment 


... OOOOOD^S 


... Ta-man-ta-yo: 





( 34 ) 






Road — concluded . 


English. 


Burmese. 


Transliteration. 


Bridge 


... COCODS 


... Ta-da: 


Culvert 


... GGlC§g^ 


... Ye-hlwfe:byun 


Railway 


... §gG[Cr>D8C»S8 


... Mi:ya-'ta:lan: 


Lamp-post 


... §s;£§o^5 


... Mi:ein-daing 


Telegrapli-post 


... G^S^^SCD^S 


... Kyi:nan:daing 


Telegraph-wire 


... Ggs^^sgs 


... Kyi:nan:gyo: 


Letter-Box 


... OD^GCOgQD 


... Sa-bo-thit-ta 


Rest-house 


... 0G[5 


... Za-yat 


House 


... 335 


... Ein 


Brick-house 


... c^o5 


... Talk 


Godown 


,.. cxj^gc^dS^ 


... Kon-hlaung-yon 


Railway station 


... §?e[cnDs|[ 


... Mi:ya-'ta:y6n 


School 


... GcqDSs 


.... Kyaung: 


Monastery 


... c3q^s(^sGoq|DSg 


... P6n:gyi:kyaung: 


Police station 


... c^cSSgD^D 


... Pa-leik-'ta-na 


Market place 


... G4^S 


... Ze: 


Boat 


... Gcg 


... Hie 


Bullock cart 


... C^f^S 


... mh: 


Dust 


... t^oS or <i 


... 'Pok or 'pon 


Mud 


... £ 


... Shun 


Stone 


... Qc^oaS 


... Kyauk 


Brick 


... 3^o5 


...Ok 


Gravel 


... Gccj|Do5oq5 


... Kyauk-sa-yit 


Laterite 


... OOGCgDoS 


... Ga-wun-gyauk 


Granite 


... |.sao5Gca}|Do5 


... Hnan:bat-kyauk 




Games, Amusements, &c. 


Play 


.... CXJODSCX)^ 


... Ka-za:tln 


Running 


... 33G(yg 


... A-pye: 


Jumping 


... 33Sj| 


... A-'kon 


High jump 


... 33gS^? 


... A-myin-g6n 


Long jump 


... t»02DS^$ 


... A-thwa:g6D 


Throwing 


... 5o8 


... G5:byit 


Hurdle-race 


... ooSs;? 


... Kat-'kon 



English. 

Lottery 

Dice 

Dominoes 

Cards 

Play at cards 

Squares 

Chess 

Checkmate 

Capture a piece .. 

Pootball (Burmese) 

Play football 

Cycling 

Hunting 

Shooting 

Picnic 



Yes 
No 

Very well 
This 
That 

Come here 
Go there 
Go away 
Come along 
Be quick 
Take care 
Take away 



( 35 ) 
Games, Amusements, &c 

Burmese. 

... 08 

... 33^03 
... O^SC^OO 



concluded. 

Transliteration. 

'Ti 
... An-za 
... Th6n:b6n-bfe: 
... T6: 

... 'Pfe:yaik-thi 
... Kya: 
... Sit-da-yin 
... 'Kwe-thi 
... Sa:thi 
... Chin:16n: 
... Chin:16n:'kat-thi 
... Set-bein:zi: 
... A-m5:laik 
... Thin-nat-pyit 
... Byaw-bwfe:za: 
Words and Phrases in constant use. 

... ocjoSra or o^oSoooS* ... Kok-ke or hok-te 



CO 

CtJ|DS 

ooScSsSs 

33^C^o5 

Goo§o5oS 



GOD3Ss(§ 
^03Gp;iCX>^ *<XlOll3l 

OgoSogDJGOOO * 

cod5 or c^o5ooDb 

OOc80OD8 



. Ma-hok-'pu: 
. Kaung:byi 

. 1-a-ya, or thi-ha, or da 
,. 'To-a-y4 or hb-ha 
. TM-go-la-ge 
. Ho-go-thwa: 
. 'Twet-thwa:daw 
La-ge or Laik-la-ge 
. Myan-myan-lok 
. Tha-di-'ta: 
. Yii-thwa: 



* Many colloquial words are but naodifications, generally in pronunciation, of the writ- 
ten terms. Thus : 00c5 := 00^ ; 00^ orS=z^; ^ = C^;39S=:88-§1 = 
(^ ; cxiDS = GC03 ; ooc^ii odg^-i = co^^g ; goooii gc[3 = GOOD ; ODD =°cocS 
33Gp ; on ocS = 0^; c^ = c^ ; ^o = J.S ; ODD or ol = oo^oacp j q5 = 
Gg|S ; goddS = c^SgssdS ; c^ = cx>^ii 



( 36 ) 

Words and Pheases in constant tse — concluded. 



English. Burmese. 




Transliteration. 


Nevermind ... cSgo^oqg 


• ■ ■ 


Keik-sa-ma-shi-bu: 


Give ... Gosol 


■ • • 


Pe:ba 


Give some more ... gosoI^s * 


■ • 1 


. Pe:ba-6n: 


Do you understand ? ^dscc^ddcods * 


or *33 


Na:le-/Z!a-la: or na:le- 


CO^I^ * CODSIl 




ye-la: 


Tell (him) that I am codoc^ * c^cg^c^oSdl 


La-me-lo-pTaAv:laik-pa 


coming. 







(I) understand ... $dsco^o1§| or ^dscx>^ Na:le-ba-ye orna-le-dfe 

(I) don't understand ^Dsoco^Oi^s ... Na:ma-R'-bu: 

(I) don't want any c»?j§iioc^^6o^s ... Tan-bi-ma-lo-gyin-bii: 
more — enough. 

What do you want ? ooDc^q8co(5» ... Ba-lo-gyin-;f7/a-lc: 

That will do ... cooSg or oo^gooo ... Taw-bi or tan-daw 

Call a carriage ... gioodsoo8sgdTc4o4 ... Ya-'ta:ta-zi:'kaAV-laik 

Drive on ... g^c§god8s3^s ... She-go-maung:6n: 

Stop for a moment octoG^Ssffs ... 'Ka-na-yat-6n: 

HoAv much is this ? 31oooSgcodo5c& ... Da-b5-lauk-15: 

What are (you) do- 0030^505.0360 ... Ba-16k-ne-i!//a-lc: 

ing ? 

Come sharp ... g^g^ooj ... Myan-myan-la 

Come back sharp ... 33g?g$5 ... A-myan-pyan-ge 

Where have (you) oooSo^dsg^odco ... Be-thwa:-ne-iJ/^a-le: 

been? 



Get up early 


... GOOGOOOO 


... Saw:zaw:'ta 


Let (me) see 


.., goSg 


... Pya-zan: 


Why 


... OODgSc^ 


... Ba-'pyit-lo 


Come in 


... oS5 


... Win-ge 


What do (you) 


call olooDGsToocb 


... Da-b&-'kaw- 


this ? 







* Miuiy colloquial words are but modifications, generally in pronunciatiiin, of the writ- 
ten terms. Thus : OOOS = ODgS ; 03^ or S = oj ; cB =r c8 ; 338 =: Bg • 5) =r 
(^; O008 = good; odcSii odo^s =: oo^^s ; GoooiigG[o = gods; odd = "odoS 
£»cp ; on ac£ == 9^ ; c^ = cxj ; ^, — 5,5 ; ^d or "3! = cvD^aacp ; g^6 = 
(^5 ; G0006 = o^ScoaoS ; ro = oo^ii 



( 37 ) 

Miscellaneous Questions and Answers. 

English. Burruese. Transliteration. 

Can (you) speak @?od ooods ooo5 cxdcq^s Mya-ma-sa-gaitat-t ha- 
Burmese ? or cxjodc^ cgDODcScx) la: or Ba-ma-lo-pyaw: 

coDsii dat-tha-la: 

Yes, a little ... ^'^oocSooc^ ... N5:nfe:tat-te 

What did he say ?... ajooDGgDcoco ... Thu-ha-pyaw:;(^a-lfe: 

(He) said (he) would cgDsac^db ... Thwa:me-de 

go. 

Do you understand ? ^dsoo^odcods ... Na:lfe-tha-la: 

(I) do, partly ... co^ooooS^dsod^oocS Ta-cho-ta-wet-na:-l^-d6 

Did you not hear?... og^sOi^scoDg ... Ma-kya:hu:la: 

No, sir, (I) did not ogDso^o5oloSc}|Di ... Ma-kya:laik-pa-'kin- 

bya: 

What can (I) do for ooc^^oog|^ocx) ... Bfe-p6n-ma-za-y a - m a- 

(you) ? Ife: 

(I) wish to serve the Gs^sqM^^GooSooSsgS A-so:ya-a-hmu-daw- 
Government. olcx)o6ii 'tan:gyin-ba-d5 

To whom does (this) cooSo^^Soocb .... Bfe-thu-paing-f/^a-lfe: 

belong ? 

Where are you go- ooc^ogDsoc^cx) ... B^-thwa:ma-lo-lfe: 

ing? 

(I) am going home gSSc^c^dsgoooocS ... Ein-go-thwaidaw-me 
now. 

How many times ooc^j>8£)lG(y3G|ocb ... Be-hna-'ka-pyaw:ya-ma 

must (I)tell (you)? \h: 

Don't be angry, sir, 8cSos^gol^^o6<5|Ds go Seik-ma-'so:-ba-ne-'kin- 

for I am forgetful. ooc^c^olii bya:-me-dat-lo-ba 

How far is he ojcooSaacS ogDso eg Thii-be-a-'ti-thwa:ma- 

going ? CO" \q-\h: 

As far as Mandalay o^gcos Gspo5 gs^dS Man:da-le:-yauk-aung- 

ogDsocgii thwa:ma-lo 

When did he arrive? cxjoooSccooGcpoSoDco Thu-be-daw-yauk-tha- 

1^: 

(He) arrived just ^aSoocxjcspoScooS ... Gu-din-ga-bfe:yauk-t^ 

now. 

Who says so ? ... ac^ooajcgsoora ... Da-lo-ba-lu-pyaw:^Aa- 



( 38 ) 
Miscellaneous Questions and Answers— concluded. 



English. 

They all say so 

How deep is it ? ... 
Eour fathoms 
Whose pony is this ? 
My pony, sir 



(It) is very warm.., 
(It) is very close .. 
(It) is very windy... 
(It) is very rainy .. 
(It) is cloudy 
(It) is raining hea- 
vily. 
(It) is drizzling 



Burmese. 
aj{c^33:)8oqs3C^G(yD[^ 

ODDCXJII 
C30GOODo5^ dScOCO 
GCOgCQ^oSoDcS 

c^^gcodQSsoIoScjIds ,, 

Weather. 

coc6gcx)c8o5odo5 
cooSgcoc^o5cooS 

cooS^sg^DODc6 

i^SCO^gG^COoS 



Transliteration. 

Tliu-do-a:16n:-da-lo- 
pyaw:gya-da-b^: 

Ba-lauk-net-tha-le: 

Le:lan-net-te 

Da-ba-lu-myin:le: 

Kyun-daw-m y i n : b a - 
'kin-bya: 

Te-aik-te 

Te-le-teik-te 

Te-ie-taik-te 

Te-mo:ywa-de 

Mo:-6n-de 

Mo:the:ue-de 



oooSii 



(It) has stopped rain- ^sc8o5g or ^sbg 



(It) is cold 

A cold breeze is 
blowing. 

(It) is beginning to 
rain. 

The rains have com- 
menced. 

The rainy weather is 
over. 

(It) is hot today ... 

(It) thunders 

(It) hails 

(It) is foggy 

(It) was fair yester- 
day. 



^s Gg3o5 G^orS 2.0Q^ Mo:'pyauk-'pyauk-ywa- 

ne-dh 
Mo:teik-pi o)' mo: si: 

bi 
Chan:de 
Le-e:taik-ne-de 



qSsoooS 

GODg33SC^o5g^00cS 



OG^„C|JO0cS 

^goSs;(c200oS 

j>SgGOO0c5 

Q G ^„OD G ^ CODCOt5 



^Io:ywa-za-pyu-bi 

Mo:kya-bi 

Mo:u-du-k6n-bi 

Ga-ne-pu-dfe 

Mo:ch6n:d5 

Mo:tl)i:kyv,e-de 

IIuin:we-de 

Ma-ne-ga-ne-tha-de 



( 39 ) 



English. 

The day is breaking 
Just at sunrise 
Early in the morning 
What time was it ? 
What o'clock is it ? 
It is eight o'clock ... 
It is half -past six ... 
It is early 
It is late (forenoon) 
It is late (afternoon) 
It is late (night) ... 
It is noon 

It is about midnight 
It is past midnight 

Come in the fore- 
noon. 

Is it in the forenoon ? 

It was only in the 
afternoon. 



Time oe Day. 

Bui'mese. 
^scoSsogg 

O0oS33^$CXIcb 

coo5j>S^D^^ora 

G@0o5^D^§^@ 
GODOOCS 
G^gSg 
G^?.^g§ 

cx)5sg315gcodo5^§ ,,, 
oo^SGolScoqjSg 

g^gc^g §8cooS or ^G$ 
GODSsyjgScooS or §$s 
c8§gg^Socio5ii 



It has struck nine... c^s^o^c^sg 

It is nearly four ... Gco8->:D^c^soq(§ 

It is already dark,,, g^dSQ 

It will take half a c^oooo^gDcSSooS .. 

day. 

(I) will stay here the ooc^^oqsS^DG^o^ 

whole day. 

He will be back at o?.o5coqS?o3s^^o;j@$ 

breakfast time. G^poScSSocSn 

He is coming in time qod^g33d8 oijcoocSS 
for dinner. ocoii 

He was up at dawn aa^coS odoSoo oj cxjg^ 

cooSii 



Transliteration. 

Mo:lin:za-pyu-bi 

Ne-'twet-sa-ga 

Ma-net-saw:zaw: 

Bfe-a-chein-ga-lfe: 

Be-hna-na-yi-shi-ba-le: 

Shit-na-yi-shi-bi 

Chauk-na-yi-gwfe:shi-bi 

Saw:-d& 

Ne-myin-bi 

'Ne-nh-.hi 

;^in-net-pi 

Mun:te-bi 

Tha-gaung-lauk-shi-bi 

Tha-gaung-kyaw-bi 

Mun:ma-te-gin-la 

Mun:-ma-te-gin-la: 
Mun:lw5:hma-'pyit-te 
or na-ne-saung:hma- 
'pyit-t5 or mun:tein: 
hma-'pyit-te 

Ko:na-yi-'to:bi 
Le:na-yi-'to:lu-bi 
Hmaung-bi 
Ne-ta-wet-kya-lein-me 

Ta-ne- 16n:di-ma-ne-m& 

Ma-net-'ta-min: sa: 
gyei n-thu-pyan- 
yauk-lein-m5 

]^a-za-hmi-aun g - 1 h u- 
la-lein-m5 

A-yon-det-ka-t h ti - 'ta- 
ne-d5 



( 40 ) 
Time of Day— concluded. 

English. Burmese. Transliteration. 

He came before dawn 33^aS ococSaSzqoDD A-yon-ma-tet-'kin-tM- 

oocSii Irt-de 

Will he come again sj^g^cxjcod^socods ... Gu-iia-ne-th u - 1 a - 6 n : 

this evening ? ma-la: 

Did he say he was £;gG.?,a;[coDo6bco3s ... Gu-fia-ne-thu -la -ma - 

coming this even- de-la: 

ing ? 

He said he was com- g^oS^^ oodocSc^ ajj Ne-win-gyein-la-mfe-lo- 

ing at sunset. cgDcoc^ii thu-pyaw: de 

Age. 

What is (your) age ? 33odoSodoS GcoDo5^odb A-tliet-ba-lauk-shi-ba- 

le: 

When were you oooSo^sooGgsoora ... Be-don: ga-mwe: tha- 

born ? Ih: 

(I) shall be twenty G^g)$co oq)S|S33ooo5 She - zun-la-kya-yin-a- 

next June. j>5coo5g^ooSii thet-hna-'se-pye-mfe 

He is now but in the cxjsjgoag^cSGooDSso^s ... Thu - gu -ma- a-ywe- 

prime of life. kaung: d6n: 

How old is (your) ooDsoocSGcaDoSgsoc^ Tha:ba-lauk-kyi: ba-le: 
son ? , 

(He) is only ten ... ooc6|iScoDgcxiD ^gods 'Se-linit-tha:iM-shi-the: 

cooSii dh 

He appears young oj^co^cxxtS cc£(^ g[ Thii-//ii-det-n g fe-b 6 n- 

for his age. cooSii ya-dfe 

He has a very youth- cxjcooSa^g^oScoSoooS... Thu-te-a-ywe-tin-de 

ful appearance. 

Is your father very oSscracoos^cgooDDs ... Min-a-'pe-o-hla-ba-la: 

a2;ed ? 

(He ) is about seventy q^SaooSicoDnS^g ... 'Kun-hna-s5-lauk-s h i- 

bi 

The old man is still aac^slc^sooDcqi^so^i^soD A-'po:gyi:ha-kyan:gyan: 

very hale and odcSo^gcosooc^ii ma-ma-b5:shi-i/ie:dfe 

strong. 

Salutations, &o. 

Are you well? od&^co^s ... Ma-ye-la: 

Are you quite well sjgoodSs goodSs odo G u-ka ung:gaung:m4- 

now ? 02^211 ba-la: 



( 41 ) 



Salutation, &o. — continued. 



English. Burmese. 

How is your family ? oDD8aooDsaD§[co3s 

(They) are all well 333soqsoD@ol|^ 

Has your younger oSg^cqjDr^ocooi 

brother recovered ? 

(He) is improving... c»nSoDDo1g 

What ailment is it ? oooScepolcS 

(He) had fever after cSic^ijiasoooS 

a fall. 

(He) is suffe ring pGoicpSsd^s @8g$ 

from cold and cooSn 

cough. 

It is a long time since oGcgqoobgDcgg 

I have seen (you). 

I saw (him) in good oDODgjDqDocgbooc^i .. 

health. 

Sit down ... o^Sol 

My compliments to aSsScoi^Dgc^ ^cBso::^ 

your parents. c^o5o| ii 

Have you breakfast- o^o5odods§8oco3s 

ed? 

Not yet ... ooDsqGcxDgoqs 

(You) have arrived ^odcds^^j-SosgooSc^ 

just in time for GGpoSoDDcocSn 

dinner. 

What will (you) cododsoco 

take ? 



Transliteration. 

Tha:ma-ya:ma-ye-la: 
A:16n:ma-gya-ba-ye 
Min-ni-pyauk -pa-la: 

Thet-tha-ba-bi 

B6-yaw:ga-lfe: 

L5:lo-'pya:dfe 

Hna-zi:chaung:zo:'pyit- 

ne-d^ 

Ma-twe-ya-da-kya-hla- 

bi 

Ma-ma-cha-gyk-t w e- 
ge-de 

'Taing-ba 

M i n - m i - b a-mya:go- 
hn6k-'set-laik-pa 

Ma-net- sa-sa:pi:ba-la: 

Ma-sa:ya-if^e:bu: 

]!? a - z a-s a: gyein-ne-a- 
taw-b^: yauk-la-d^" 

Ba-sa:ma-15: 
'Se:leik-thauk-pa 



Have a cigar .... gso%S8goooc56\ 

Will you take tea ? coo5ooo5q^GcoDo5oo3D! La-'pet-ye-thauk-ma-la: 

Have some more oogDso^ol^gooDS ... Tha-gya:yu-ba-6n:la: 
sugar. 

I don't like my tea oooSoooS g^^^ ^4 "®^ I'a-'pet-ye-cho-gyo-ma- 

sweet. =q° kyaik-'pu: 

This tea is very SodcS ooo5 g^^ cocS cq Di-la-'pet-ye-te-kya-de 

strong. cooS 

It is late (forenoon), G^gScgguogDjcia^socS Ne-myin-hla-bi-tliwa: 

I must take leave ya-6n:me 

of you. 

6 



( 42 ) 
Salutation, &c. — concluded. 



English. Burmese. 

Go (as a polite reply ogDSola^sGooo 

to foregoing). 

P lease send for a car- Gfo:> % oa g oI^ S s c^o5o S 8 

riage. oln 

(I) wish daily for qjSscxo oIgoc^g^c^Si 

(your) prosperity. go^d^oIoocSii 

(I) shall come again G^DoSooolcoDsfjsQcS .. 

DiNING-BOOM. 



Transliteration. 

Thwa:ba-6n:daw 

Y a - 't a: a -'iaw-kaing: 

laik-san:ba 
Chan: tha-ba-ze-lo-ne- 

daing: myit-ta-po-ba- 

de 
Nauk-ta-'ka-la-6n:me 



Set the table 


ODS^gSc^o5 


X. 

... Sa-bwe: pyin-laik 


Is dinner ready ? 


QOD(yS(§SOCOD8 


..> Na-z^-pyin-pyi:ba-la: 


Pull the punkah ... 


ooSog 


... Yat-'swe: 


Bring some bread ... 


GolStjI'^^ajfb 


... Paung-m6n-nfe: ne: yu 



This bread is n o t 8g618«j|goodSsgood8so 
properly baked. ^Scqsw 



Di-paung-mon-kaung: 
gaung: ma-nat-'pu: 



How many loaves are G6lS^|^ooc^j;.8oqi^oocx) Paung-m6n-be-hna-16n: 

there ? 

Give (me) some rice oooSi^^gosoSs 

Who cooked (it) this SojoSooajqioScaca 



morning .'' 



Where is the curry ? odSsooc^qoo 

Hand me the spoon g>?soo§sc^o5o§sol 

please 

Are there no prawns? cjgi^sSoBo^ojs cxjog 



What kind of fish is 8c1scodc1si^8c5 

this? 
This fish is fresh ... ScIscocSodoS 
That fish is bad ... c^clsooooSotjjs 
Is this ch i c k e n 31(§o5oodsooSscod; 

curry ? 
Who broke the plate ? o^soo^gosc^cocxjgoSoo Pa-gan-bya:go-ba-lu- 

'kwe:pyit-tha-le: 



shi-^Aa-le: 

'Ta-min: ne: n6:pe: zan: 

Di-ma-net-ba-lu-chet- 
tha-le: 

Hin: be-ma-lfe: 

Zun: kan: laik san: ba 



Pa-zun-zeik-ma-shi-bu: 
la: 

Di-nga: ba-nga: mvo: 
Ik 



Di-nga: lat-te 
Ho-nga: ma-lat-'pu: 
Da-kyet-tha: hin: la: 



C^ll 



English, 



( 43 ) 
Dining -eoom — concluded 

Burmese. 



Transliteration, 



Pour (me) a cup of cooSoooSq^cogoSoo^ La-'pet-ye-ta-'kwet-'t§ 

tea c^oSoSsii laik-san: 

Bring me a boiled egg goSggoSooo^soqb ... Kyet-u-by6k-ta-16n:yu- 

Take this egg away SgoSgojogDs ... Di-kyet-u-yu-thwa: 

Where is the salt- ooosgoSoooSara ... 'Sa:gwet-b5-ma-16: 
cellar ? 

Change this plate ... 8o§8co?(g3scSc^o5 ... Di-pa-gan-bya:le:laik 

Bring another plate olgoa^gDsooqSooSoflb Pa-gan-bya: t a - c h a t - 

'tat-yu-ge 

Bring a fork and oG[S§).ooD8o;;[b 
knife 



'Ka-yin:ne-da:yu-ge 



This cup is not clean So?8od|o^;cx3dooSo38,.. Di-pa-gan-16n:ha-ma- 

sin-bu: 
Wash it properly ... gcodSsgcodSsgoosc^oS Kaung:gaung:'se:laik 
This table-cloth is Soos^oSsgoSg ... Di-sa-bw&:gin:nit-pi 

soiled 

Take out that bottle c^c^asSsojoScQoS 
Bring (me) a cigar G3osc8Sooc8Sa;|b 

Where is the match- ^§8q]ScxioSocx) 

box ? 
Strike a match , .. SsqSo^oSoSs 

Bed- ROOM. 



Ho-pa-lin:'t6k-laik 

'Se:leik-ta-leik-yu-ge 

Ml:gyit-b5-ma-15: 

Mi:chit-laik-san: 



Where is the blanket? godSodcSscS 

This bedroom is not S^Ss^soojioScgojs 

very roomy 

Take off (my shoes) c84,5gjo5c^o5o'Ss 

Put the footstool G@cx35qc§oo5c^o5 

aside 

Hang up tjiis coat... Ssaf^c^^coDsc^oS 



Saung-be-ma-16: 

Di-eik-' kan:ma-kyfe-hla 
bu: 

'Pa-nat-chut-laik-san: 

Chi-din-gon-go-'pfe-laik 

Di-in:gyi-go- 'sw^:'ta: 
laik 



Put it in the drawer tsagdb^D og5scoDsc§o5 An-zwe: d5:ma-thwin: 

'ta:laik 
Take out a clean ^joSj-DoqcSoolsaccScxjcS Myet-hna-thok-pa-wa- 
towel a-thit-'tok 



( U ) 
Bed-room — con eluded. 



English. 

Hang it out to dry 

Open the door 

Shut the door 

Leave (it) a jar ... 

Open the window ... 

Keep the Venetians 
shut 

Light the candle . . . 

Light the lamps ... 

Trim the wick 

Turn up the light... 

Turn the light down 
a little. 

Where is the chim- 
ney ? 

The chimney is 
smoking 

Extinguish the light 

Put down the mos- 
quito curtain 

(I) am going to bed 

Wake (me) early to- 
morrow. 

Where do (you)sleep? 

Are you a light 
sleeper ? 

Do you snore ? 

Let (him) come in... 



Let us go by boat... 

Get the oar-boat 
ready 



Burmese. 

a^o5cg5scQr>5 

coolgcgSo^oS 

c6o1s8oSc^o5 

ODoooso^oS 

(yooSgcoloScgS 

CD^5oo58o5oODS 



Transliteration. 

'T6k-hlan:laik 

Ta-ga:'pwin-laik 

Ta-ga:peik-laik 

Ha-'ta:laik 

Pa-din:bauk-'pwin 

Ta-yok-kat-peik-'ta: 



ooGooD6sc^6cg$8o^o5... 'Pa-yaung:daing-'tun: 

laik 



GQo5scx)o5oro 



Mi:ein-mya:go-'tun:laik 
Mi:za-hnyat-laik 
Mi:hmyin-laik 
Mi:ne:n6:hmein-laik 

Pvaun£;:be-ma-le: 



■:;(yDSsoo8g^gcgo5G|,cooS PYaung:ga-mi:go:'twet 

ue-de 
§s§58c§o5 or SsgoSc^oS Mi: nein: laik or mi: 

hmok-laik 
gScooDSqc^oS ... Chin-daung-cha-laik 

aSScpoScoooQcS ... Eik-ya-win-daw-me 
4>o5cs^cilGO3G0D003|sra. Net-'pan-gH" saw:zaw:la 

hno:hle 
cx3oSyD335oDcb ... Pe-ma-eik-tha-lfe: 

oSso85coo5c^coDg ... Min:eik-'sat-ke-la: 



eSsGcoDoScocScocoDS .. 

oScODoGCOGO 

Boat. 

Gcg^.CgD|(^§ 

soSccyc^gSc^oS 



Min:hauk-tat-tha-la: 
Win-la-ba-le-zi 



H]e-ue-thAva:gya-zo 
'Kat-]ile-go-pyin-laik 



English. . 

Where is the paddle- 
boat ? 

Have (you) brought 
the oars ? 

Can (you) sail the 

boat? 
Bring the steering 

paddle 

Have you brought a 
rudder ? 

Let us start 

Get on the bow ... 

Put it on the stern 

Go up the river . . . 

Go down the river... 

Cross to the other 

bank 
Stop at this landing 
Row hard 
Paddle fast 
Enter this creek ... 
There is a sandbank 

ahead 
Is the tide running 

up or down ? 
Get alongside the 

bank 
Is this boat steady ? 
(It) is leaky 
What wood is this 

boat made of ? 
Can you go out to 

sea? 
Will it not sink? ... 
Can you sv\rira ? ... 



( 45 ) 
Boat — continued . 

Burmese. 
GC^SgoJCO oSgDtX) 

OcSoOo5(^ DSO^OjjSloCODS 

Gojc^ §^o5c^o5ooc8cocoDS 
oooo5a^5> 

O3o5»olc300DDS • 

ogoSgg 
SsGoTc^oooS 

OGoTyOODDSC^oS 

g^g^GogS 
Sg^dSsc^oS 

Gg^^DGOODSgSoOSJ^OOoS 

§GQODo5 G^OOCOOSII CqjG^ 
ODCOD8II 

GG^C^CXlcS 

SccgcoscoDScx) 

GC[og5o:||?CX)D8 

GC|«jsooo5o:coDS 



Transliteration. 

Hlaw-hle-b5-ma-lo: 

'Kat-tet-mya:go-yu-ge 

ba-la: 
Hle-go -ywet-taik- 

tat-tha-la: 
Pe-det-yu-ge 

Tet- mSb-fa-tha-lk: 

'Twet-kya-zo 

C:baw-go-tet 

Pe-baw-ma-'ta:laik 

Myit-ko-'san-thwa: 

Myit-ko-s6n-laik 

Ho-bet-kan:go-ku: 

Di-'seik-ma-'saik 
Kyat-kyat-'kat 
Myan-myan-hlaw 
Di- chaung : go- win 
Sbe-ma-thaung- b y i n - 
ta-'ku-shi-dS 

Di-ye-te fc-ne-^fe-la :kya- 
ne-^Aa-la: - 

Kan:na:kat 

Di-hle-nein-ye-M : 

Ye-yo-d6 

Di-hle-ba-tha:le: 

Pin-lfe-go-'twet-hnaing 
tha-la: 

Ye-ma-my6k-'pu:la: 

Ye-ku:dat-tha-la: 



( 46 ) 
B OAT — concluded . 

English. Burmese. Transliteration, 

Unfurl tlie sail ... §|o5g|c^o5 ... Ywet-'pyan-laik 

Sail along midstream g:;ioooSc^o2Sc^o5 ... Te-le-go-'pwin-taik 

Have yoti brought ccgDoSajsols^ccDs ... Kyauk-'su:pa-ye-la: 

an anchor ? 

I have brought two, j^SraoSololaoSaScjjDs... Hna-let-pa-ba-de-'kin- 

sir by a: 

Is that rope strong c^(^scod^Sooo3ds ... Ho-kyo: ha-'kaing-ba- 

enough ? ma-la: 

When shall we get §i3c^ oooSgcoo GcpoSoo Ywa-go-b^-daw-yauk 

to the village ? con pa-ma-lfe: 

Ophce. 

Bring a lead pencil S)c6ajS> ... 'Kfe:dan-yii-ge 

Sharpen this quill... §go5GoDD5g|^c^o5 ... Di-hnget-taung-chun- 

laik 

Where is my pen- c1odgcod5c6ooc5qco ... Nga-ka-laung-dan- b fe- 

holder ? ma-le: 

Bring a pen also ... oDGODDSoo^sc^b ... Ka-laung-lfe:yu-ge 

This pen is too blunt, §oDGoo36o^scg?gcooSg)$ Di-ka-laung-t6n:lun:de 

change it for a sharp gi$oDsj33oDsa^&ii Chun-gyun-ta-'ku-asa: 

pointed one yu-ge 

Sharpen the desk- ^soo^sooGcosGogsc^oS Y6n:da:ga-le:thwe:laik 
knife 

rill these ink bottles 8o£ qooSs <^ otc^ «S@f^ Di-hmin-ba-lintmya-.o-o- 

•-^-"j5!i hmin-'pye-laik 

Put ink in both the oSo^s fh oqs ooqic^ oS I[min-o:-hna-16n: za- 

pots co^ii 16n:go-hmin-'te 

Is there no red ink ? oS?a^o:;j2coDs ... Hmin-ni-ma-shi-buda: 

The black ink is bad o6^o5o3Do^o5oqs ... H mi n-n e t- h a - m a- 

net-'pu: 

Bring a sheet of blot- o6|oo^[[OD9]5a^S> ... Hmin-hneik-set-ku-ta- 

ting paper chat-yu-ge 

Wash this inkpot §q63^so^ oS gssdS goos Di-hmin-o:go-sin-aunff- 

clean c^o5 'se:laik 

Take out the ruler ... tjjgsooa^cxc^oS ... Myin:dan-'t6k-laik 



English. 

Who has taken (it) 
away ? 

Go and search for (it) 

Put (it) near that 

book 
Take it away now..j» 
Put it down on the 

floor 

Copy this letter ... 

Give him a copy of 
the letter 

Did he apply for it ? 

"Where is the appli- 
cation ? 

Draft a reply 

ileject this applica- 
tion 

Who is the appli- 
cant? 

Did he ever apply 
before ? 

Would he be suit- 
able? 

Does he know the 
work ? 

Where did he serve 
previously ? 

Why did he leave ? 
What pay did (he) 

get? 
Post this letter 

Put a stamp on it... 
Go and buy two re- 
ceipt stamps 



( 4.7 ) 
Ofpicb — continued. 

Burmese. 
ododoSdoogodSocJoO^gos 

ajGcgDoSc OOOS S0DC03 s 

QcgpcSi^DcocSocx) 

f^§OD33(^5sGG1^80^o5 ... 
§GC^Do5c5DO^OC^O^o5 

Gc^Do5a;jooojci) 

CODS 
O^GOoScJOOODS 

CODS 

33oocSco oooSyaJogooSs 
ooD(^Sc^ogo5oora 

O0OO0GOD0o5£|O0d& 

§ooc^oo^o^o5cbgD °°^ 

oosBSgoISsooSc^oS ... 
GQoDooaSScol&SjtScjcgos 

OC^G^II 



Transliteration. 

Ba-lu-yu-thwa:^Aa-lfe: 

Thwa:sha-gyi 
Ho-sa-6k-na:hma-'ta: 

laik 
Yu-thwa:daw 
Kyan:baw-hma-cha-'ta: 

laik 
Di-sa-go-kii:laik 
Sa-let-'kan-ta- z a u n g- 

thu-go-pe:laik 
Thu-shauk-taung: tha- 

la: 

Shauk-hlwa-bfe-ma'l^: 

Pyan-za-a-kyan:ye:laik 
Di-shauk-hlwa-go - pfe 

laik 
Shauk-thu-ba-lu-le: 

Thu-a-yin-ga- s h a u k - 
'pu:^Aa-la: 

Thu-taw-ba-ma-la: 

Di-a-16k-ko-thu- n a : 1 6 
^7?a-la: 

A-'tet-ka-be-m&-a-hmu- 

'tan:^Aa-lfe: 

Ba-'pyit-lo-'twet-tha-15: 

La-ga-ba-lauk-y a - # A a 
le: 

Dl-sa-go- sa-bo-daik-'t6- 
hma-'te-laik 

Ta-zeik-gaung:kat-laik 

Pye-za-ta-zeik-gaung: 

hna-'ku-thwa:w6-gyi 



( ^8 ) 



Oppicb — continued . 

Burmese. TraDsliteration. 

^•SJ5dsoo?od§c6q85gs)16s Hna-pya:dan-s;i-b o - ta 
GgooSsjoo^sooS^ii zeik-gaung:cliauk-'ku 

lc:\vc-ge 
Gq]ooDKgDgGGpc6coDocx3D§ Chaw :za-mya:yauk-la- 

ba-la: 
oD§c^o5c^:^Ds ... Sa-bo-daik-ko-thwa: 

(^DBG^Go^o ... Kya-ma-ne-zi-ne 

g^ODGODSc* ... Pyan-za-saung-ne 

oD§x)Gc5Doo'^Gcooago5 Sa-bo-thin:baw:be-daw- 

ocxiii 'twet-ma-le: 

ogDSGosG^ ... Th\va:me:gyi 

cgs^^s^c^c^Ds ... Kyi:rian:y6n-go-tliwa: 



English. 

Buy six lialf-anna 
postage stamps 
also 

Has the mail arriv- 
ed? 
Go to the post office 
Don't be away long 
AVait for an answer 

When does the mail- 
steamer leave ? 

Go and enquire 

Go to the telegraph 

office 
Read that telegram c^gQs^^sodc^odoSoSs Ho-kyi:nan:za-go-'pat 



Has the Deputy 
Commissioner left 
office? 

When is (he) com- 
ing back ? 

Why are you so slow ? 

Go to the treasury 
and cash this note 

Put this money into 
the bag 

Count it before do- 
ing so 

How much is it ? ... 

How many bad ru- 
pees are there ? 

What do you want ? 

(I) am very busy ... 

(I) have no leisure 

Who is there ? 



san: 
33GG|gL^So68(g§ao6sogDSo A-ye: baing-min: yon: 
coD% 'sin:thwa:ba-la: 

ooc5Goo?g§coDocb ... Be-daw-pyan-l^-ma-le: 

ODD G[cgDS QGODDoS GODS Ba-gyauug-da-lauk - le: 
OD^ODC^II gan-ya-^/?a-le: 

§Ggogg|[c^G5c^o5gDDgDs Di-uwge- s e t - k u - g 0- 
cS^ii ngwe-daik-hma-thwa: 

le:ge 

Scgc^^Sc^c&gDca^c^oS Di-ngwe-go - e i k - 't e: 

ma-'te-laik 
oc»^35gg|o^o5.3^? ... Ma-'te-giu-yi-laik-6n: 

o3GooDo5cx) ... Ba-lauk-le: 

Gg33coo5GcoD^^olcoco Ng we-a-ba-lauk-pa-^/(a 

le: 



CODC^9)ScOCb 

OD o5 33 0:^5 1^ D S OD c6 

033D8aj?. 



Ba-lo-gyin-^7«a-le: 
T5-a-16k-mya:de 
Ma-a:bu: 
Ba-lu-16: 



( 49 ) 
Oppice — concluded, 

, English. Burmese. Transliteration. 

Sign here ... SG^spoacooS^cSo^s ... Di-no-ya-ma-let-hmat- 

'to: 

Don't come and SoG^kcln^ooDQcpScgoS Di-ga-ne-nga-go-la-ma- 

botlier me to-day >. Imaung-shet-ne 

Bring the office-box ^8GcoggD9o^a;{5 ... Y6n:tit-t'a-di-go-yn-ge 
here 

Is there no empty ccogRDc^oSy^cxjjscoDs... Tit-ta-lut-ma-shi-bu:la: 
box ? 

Gather up these pa- §ojg|[4jDsc^o8S8c^o5 ... Dl-set -ku- my a -.g o 

pers thein:laik 

Bring an envelope... od33o5coc8c5oC|}^ ... Sa-eik-ta-eik-yii-ge 

Let (him) come to- ^oSo^oIcxjdogcogos^s Net-'pan-ga-la-ba-le-zi- 

morrow on: 

(I) shall reply in due 33^^cq]GC!oooI oDg^c^oS A-chein-kya-da w - g a - 

course ocS sa-pyan-laik-mfe 

Health and Sickness. 

I am not very well... cq\8 gx-dSsgcodSs obd Kya-n6k-kaung:gaung: 

cqs raa-ma-bu: 

Go and call a doctor gsos socp oogoddc5 ogDs 'Se:'sa-ya- 1 a - y a u k - 

GoTS> thwa:'kaw-ge 

Take this letter to §oD3ospo$o8c^a;[ogDs... Di-sa-'sa-ya--wun-'si-go- 

the Civil Surgeon yii-thwa: 

What did the Assist- aoGpo$ cogcoico ol g^d 'Sa-ya-wun-ga-le:ga-ba- 

ant Surgeon say ? c§o5c»co pyaw:laik-tha-lfe: 

Did you get to the oj$Doo|so^G3po55i|[coDs Lu-na-dan:go-yauk-'ke 

hospital? ye-la: 

Show (me) the pre- caosoDgoSs ... 'Se:za-pya-zan: 

scription 

Where is the com- goosgooSosodsooc^oc^ 'Se;'paw-tha-ma:bfe-ma- 

pounder ? Ih: 

Ask for a renewal of §G308Gi^t|soo5GOODSs^ Di-'se: y e - m y o : 't a t- 

this mixture ta.ung:ge 

You are very pale .. . oSascoosaaQGi^cooSGcjio Min-a -tha: a -y e-tfe- 

oooS 'pyaw-d6 

What is the matter ? ooD@5ood& ... Ba-'pyit-tha-16: 

7 



( 50 ) 
Health and Sickness — concluded. 

English, Burmese. Transliteration. 

Are (you) taking any goosodsg^ooodds ... 'Se:sa:ne-tha-la: 
medicine ? 

Are (you) all right sjGqiDo5ooD3s ... Gu-pyauk-pa-la: 

now ? 

« 

I am a little better og^, gooSgcoS oooSodd Ga-ne-taw-da w - thet 

to-day oooSii tlia-de 

Is your house well oSsSSood GcooSccccgoS Min-ein-ha-le-win-le- 

ventilated ? Goo^SsS^coDgu dwet-kaung:ye-la: 

Is (it) in a sanitary oo^^ooljiSs^Ss^s^coos... Than-^/iari-shin:shin: 

condition ? shi-ye-la: 

Is this quarter §30G^5^fDGcpolooSs|[raDs Di-a-yat-ma-yaw: - ga - 

healthy ? kin:ye-la: 

I am suffering from g.->5q|Ds cjjosg^cocS ... B[nget-'pya:'pya:ne-de 
an attack of jun- 
gle fever 

Is it intermittent ? 33Qoo533cq]^cx)coDs ... A-tet-a-kya-shi-^^a-la: 

Take this febrifuge §33(j|3§go5G^osc^Gcx)Do5 Di-a-'pya:byat-'se:go- 

thauk 

Is your appetite im- oogSsqioSoooDDs or 33 'Ka-dwin:pyet-tha-la: 

paired ? oD?q|o5cooDDg or a-sa:pyet-tha-la: 

Try this tonic ... 8 oaDsc^s goos c^ goodoS Di-a:do:ze:go-thauk- 

(ggSoSs kyi-zan: 

These pills do not SGaosoqs^.oco^o^s ... Di-'se:-16n:ne-ma-te-bu: 

agree with (me) 

(I) am troubled with goc^Ssc^:^ ciSgS^D 00 ^a-daing:lo-b5:yin- 

asthma almost odoS gyat-na-'ta-de 

every night 

Why don't (you) go oddg^dS godg@d6s gco Ba-gyaung-le-byaung: 

somewhere for a c^GaciSoDoliaog^sraii le-hlwfe:a-yat-ta-ba: 

cliange. ma-thwa:15: 

MlCELLANEOTJS PhEASES. 

What is the market oolsccys oogcodoS go1o5 Sa-ba:ze:ba-lauk-pauk- 

price of paddy ? oocou tha-15: 

The prices run very Sj.SoooSG'qjSGooDSsoooS Di-hnit-t5-ze:kaung:d5 
high this year 

He trades in paddy ojoolsajsoooS ... Thu-sa-b4:ku:d6 



( 51 ) 
MiscELLAKBOus Phrasbs — Continued. 

English. Burmesfi. Transliteration. 

I 

Is that man a tim- c^c^oodooSgsISscods ... Ho-lti-ha-thit-gaung: 

ber-trader ? te: 

(I) do not know for oaoooSocSo^s ... A-tat-ma-thi-bii: 

a certainty 

(I) am not sure ... og@ococ5o:;^s ... Ma-pyaw:dat-'pu: 

(I) cannot say ... os^^Sojs ... . Ma-'so-hnaing-bti: 

Looks like an as- GcoSsoGp^ojjoocS .., Be-din-'sa-y4-ne-tu-d^ 

trologer 

Have you a horo- oS^ocaoood^s^odds ... Min-ma-za-da-sbi-ye- 

scope ? la: 

Wby don't (you) cx3Dg8c^O)DcoD«^ooc2) Ba-'pyit-lo-za-da-ma- 

bave one cast ? 'pwe-^Aa-16: 

' Tbis fruit is poison- Ssa c8s cod goodoS odcjS Di-a-tbi:lia-tauk-tat-t5 

ous oocS 

Tbis is not poison ... GloasBcSaocfcSoqs ... Da-a-'seik-ma-bok-'pti: 

Durians are cbeap Sj.6g2G|£s^sGoloooS ... Di-bnit-du:yin:!^^i: paw: 

tbis year de 

He bad (it) cheap... cxjjgoIgoIsiscS ... Tb1i-paw:baw:ya-de 

He arrived while odg[o5o8§ c§6o^so:jGGpo5 Tba-yet-tlii:blaing-d6n: 

mangoes were ab- cooS thu-yauk-t5 

undant 

Mangosteens are oSgcgoSoSs^^Dsooc^ ... Min:gut-tbi:sba:d5 

scarce and dear 

Bring that water- c^^sooDssfi^ajjb ... Ho-mo:ga-in:gyi-yu-ge 

proof coat 

Does it rain daily ? G?.c§Ssq8aDa>oDDs ... Ne-daing:mo:ywa-^Aa- 

la: 

When will they start oogSgooooI ooc^oog^^ Be-daw-ga-15-sa-'tun- 

ploughing ? «^ gya-ma-le: 

How many pairs of ajg^ ccoSog^DS ooo5j.5 Thu-ma-16-dun-nwa: 

plough oxen has cggs^oora be-hna-shm:sbi-if/^a- 

be ? ' ^^'■ 

Look out for a milch .^ods^dsq oogodoS ^looSs No-za:na-ma-ta-gaung- 

co^ ol sba-zan:ba 

This pony is very Sg5§c»oSco5ooo5 ... Di-myin:t^-nge-d5 

small 



( 52 ) 
Miscellaneous Phrases — continued. 

Englisb, Burmese. Trausliteratiou. 

Does he trot well ? gcos odoS gcodSs goddSs Le:bet-kaung:gaung: 

ogDsli^coDg thwa:ye-la: 

(His) head is mean go16s as cocS ... Ga\ing:a-d5 

The ears are inclined ^oscgD^^GoqjooocS ... Na-gya\v:ne:nfe:yaw-de 
to droop 

The eyes are fairly 4]o5o^sgco5gc»5^|[ .., Myet-16n:taw-da\v-shi- 

good ° ye 

Does he shy ? ... cogcocSoocoD; ... Thwe-dat-tha-la: 

His quarters are cc&cqGcooB%aD(£ ... Tin-gya-kaung-.de 
good 

He is also thick-set ocjoocSco^sgcwoSsodgS Du-de-le:kaung:de 

Has he been raced ? [^Soj^sodcods ... Pyaing-bd:^/ta-la: 

He doesn't look a (§5gSs^,oa|jcz^s ... Pyaing-myin:ne-ma-tu- 

racer bu: 

What paces does he oooSsacgDs^scooBoDoi Ee-a-th\va:myo:tat-tha- 

know ? le: 

Swinging walk, trot, |co§sq^3ii gcososoSii cqt Hnwc: Ian: do:, le: bet, 

canter, ambling, Gq]DSsGooDo5ii33 0Doq|ii thon: gyaung: dauk, 

gallop ccj^gii a-tha-gya, don: 

What will you sell coGcoDo5^.GGp68ocx) ... Ba-lauk-ne-yaung:ma- 

(him) for ? 1^: 

Has he a high action? coo5good6sg|otds ... Let-kaung:ye-la: 

Of what breed is this olooDGgstHsco ... Da-ba-'k\ve:myo:16: 

dog? 

^He) is a cross be- GgscSojs^. 5^s osoc^oS 'Kwe:ba-lu:ne-pa-go:-a- 

tweeu ahull and GgsoSoqiooDobii me:laik- ' k we : s a t- 

a Pegu hound kya-d-i-be 

Kill that pariah dog c^ GgsoS odsc^ odo5 66 Ho-'kwe: win - z a : g o - 

c^o5 that-pyit-laik 

Are (you) a dog- Ggsoloo^D^cocoDt ... 'Kwe:wa-t]ia-na-slii-^/?a 

fancier ? la: 

You can liave that c^GgsooGcosoj^Gcoo ... Ho-'kwe: ga-le : yu-daw 

pup 

It has good points... cgsoGoooSscooS ... 'K\ve:za-kaung:de 

A.re big game abnud- §GcoDgD33&@8Gc"| snoods Di-taw: ma-a-me: gyi: 

ant in this jungle ? paw:ye-la: 



( 63 ) 

Miscellaneous Phrases — continued. 

English. Burmese. Translitevation. 

How many beaters 33£> g^doSoood? cooSjjiS A-mfe: cliauk- tha-ma: 
are there ? gc»do5§c»cSii bfe-hna-yauk-slii-^Aa- 

Let the men on the ooo5$dsto oj ^ds goodSs Let-na : ga -lu-mya: 
outskirts beat well GooaSssqiDoScpGon kaung: gaung: chauk 

pe-zi 

Are you not tired oSsoGODcc»so:;j?coDg ... Min: nia-maw: the: bu: 
yet ? la: 

He is tired and pant- cxjGODc§c^o5G^g ... Thu-maw: lo-haik-ne-bi 



mg 



(I) am feeling very GcicoSogg ... Ye-ngat-hla-bi 

thirsty. 

Let us rest a little oaD^Ds|§i o^,coc^od ods 'Ka-na-na: pi: n^-15-z&,- 

and take tiffin (33^°§ sa: gya-6n: zo 

Is'nt there a well SsoIsos^ds^d Gq<^Sso^ Di-a-ni: a-na: ma-ye- 

somewhere near ? ccjjsco^g dwin: ma-shi-bu: la: 

This is a very shady §odSo5 ooo53o^5goodSs D i - 1 h it-pin-te-a-yeik- 

tree oocS kaung: dh 

Are there any jungle 8yDGooD(a9o5^|[coDS ... Di-ma-taw: gyet-shi-ye- 

fowl here ? la: 

What foot-print is alcoDcgspcS ... Da-ba-chi-ya-lfe: 

this? 

To whom does this ScgcgoSc^cxioj^ScDora Di-mye-gwet-ko-ba-lu- 

■ piece of land be- paing-^Aa-15: 

Ions'? 



^o 



Can (you) show (me) Gg^c£?3o5ci]3Sc^ g^6| Mye-ne-na-meik-mya: 

its boundaries ? ooos go-pya-hnaing-ye-la: 

Is the landholder a Ggj^SoDDoocSooaDscoDs Mye-shin-ba-l^-^/jd-ma: 
cultivator? 1^- 

Has he sublet it ? cgc^cMsoSgl sodsodoods My e-go-ta-'sin - h n g a: 

sa: fha-la,: 

What is the outturn ScooSoo ool? ca gcodoS Di-lfe-ga-sa-ba: ba-lauk- 

of this paddy field ? cgoSoocg) 'twet-tha-le: 

What is (its) sowing i^sools odo5j^5cq5s gc^ Myo: sa-ba: be-hna-tin: 

capacity ? ^d^ kyi: ya-i^^a-lfe: 

Go and call the gSscS^sc^ogDscoTt" ... Myin: dein: go-thwa: 
groom 'kaw-ge 



( 54 ) 

Miscellaneous Phrases— continued. 



English. 



Get the carriage 
ready 

Is tliere room in the 

stable ? 
Has the pony been 

given his feed ? 

Do not water him yet 
Harness him now ... 

Drive to the post 

office 
Turn to the right ... 
Turn to the left ... 
Drive straight on ... 
Put out the saddle in 

the sun 
Bring the reins and 

girths also 
Burnish the stirrups 

Where is the mart- 
ingale ? 

The tail strap (crup- 
per) has snapped. 

Put the bridle on ... 

B/emove the head- 
stall 

Do not go to law 
merely for this 

(I) shall sue him in 
court 

(I) shall prosecute 
him 

What is the charge ? 
Who is the complain- 
ant? 



Burmese. 
G[CODS[y8c^o5 

CODS 
gSsC^330DG^s(§SOCODS 

GqOC^o5^o3^S 
OD^gaD^SOODSoScOOO 

odi^cSoSc^godSs 

OD o5 b 00 06 c^ c» 0^ 
ooj^oq^godSs 
ocj§s|sc^G^cg§gc^o5 ... 

0)o5(c^so68ccSc^DSol (X^ 

^5s C^DSC^ gQdS G33d5 

gqsodoocSqcx) 

§sci^5sgcSogD8(§ 

335oo5oo^ 
olsq8c^g)c^c^o5 

3lGCODo5^og80COc5^o ... 

/ 
cxjcO^cocpsgoc^ 

cx^oO^sa^joqSooS or aj- 
o8Gp(>iOcSooocS 

^sjjoScxioSc^ CO 

COGpJO^OOCCjJCX) 



Transliteration. 

la-'ta: pyin-laik 

Myin:zaung: ma-ne-ya- 

shi-the:ye-la: 

Myin: go-a-sa-kywe:pi: 
ba-la: 

Ye-ma-taik-ne-6n: 

Ka-gyo: ta-za-sin-daw 

Sa-bo-daik-ko-maung: 

Let-ya-bet-ko-hle 

Let-we: bet-ko-hle 

Te-de-maung: 

Kou: hni: go-ne-hlan: 
laik 

Zet-kyo: wun: bat-mya: 

ba-yu-ge 

Nin: mya: go-pyaung- 

aung- talk -laik 
Me: dwa-be-ma-le: 

Mi: ifAaing: pyat-thwa: 
bi 

6k-'ket-'te 

Pa-chat-ko-chut-laik 

Da-lauk-ne-yon: ma- 
tet-ne 

Thu-go-ta-ya: swe: me 

T h u -go-a-hmu-lok-m^ 
or thu-go-ya-za-wut- 
hmu-sw6: me 

S\Ye:gyet-be-lo-le: 

Ta-ya-lo-ba-lu-le: 



( 55 ) 
Miscellaneous Phrases — continued. 

English. Burmese. Transliteration. 

The accused has ab- coGpsSogoScgs^ ... Ta-ya-'kan-'twet-pye: 

sconded M 

Attach his property cxj.og^?c^ole|§soo5 ... Thu-pyit-si: go-wa-yan: 

kat 

Issue a warrant for oqoC§oo§sc^olG[S8cxjcS Thu- go - 'pan: ho-wa- 

his arrest yan: 'tok 

Issue a summons for ^st^^cxjo cspoSsj^ o^oooS Yon: go-la-yauk- y a n - 

the attendance of cooc^oogD^oDg ho-thet-the-go-tha'n - 

that witness han,-za-cha 

Is this man a revenue ScxjcoDsag^cooS og^odS Di-lu-ha-a-'kun- d a w- 

defaulter ? qjoSogcSojcoDg ma-'saung-pyet-kwet- 

thu-la: 

Show me the tax re- sag^cooScgoDc^goSg A-'kun-daw^-pye-za -go 

ceipt pya-zan: 

He has come to apply 33g|Gcx)S ogcS g&g qjSs A-'kun-daw-lut-n e i n : 

for a remission of coDgScajDoSc^ cxjood chan:tha-g win- 

revenue cocS shauk-'po-thu-la-d5 

On what grounds ooi^sagr^Syjasc^ 33G§g Be-a-c h e t-mya-go- a - 

does he apply ? Gcg]3o5cocd che-pyu-shauk-tha-lfe: 

What evidence is c»c5c^oon5GOD^coc2) ... B6-lo-thet-the-shi-^ ^ a - 

there ? 16: 

The evidence is in- oDo5GOD5q]o5 oo^goodoS Thet-the-'kan-gyet-ma- 

sufficient oqs lon-lauk-'pti: 

(He) will be brought (^oodsodoSgosq^^'^o sago Hmu-^Aa-thet-the-'kan- 

up for perjury e^cSSaoS hmu-ne-a-swe: 'k a n- 

ya-lein-m6 

Is not this dacoited alcxjDsgc^oSGpol og^so Da-da-mya-taik-ya,-b a - 

property ? ot^oSo^scods pyit-si: ma-hok-'pu: 

la: 

Were the dacoits ooDsgc^osgooooS^oSoloo Da-mya-mya-m a - 1 e t - 

armed ? °=>^' ' net-pa-^Aa-la 

This opium-eater is §c8|soDsooD^s£pologgS5 Di-bein: za: ha-'ko: jk- 

a receiver of stolen coo55cx;}@8cooS ha-pyit-si: let-'kan- 

property thu-'pyit-t6 

Is he a bad eharac- cxjcxjs^scods ... Thu-lu-zo: la: 
ter? 



( 56 ) 

Miscellaneous Phrases — concluded. 

English. Burmese. Transliteration. 

Hand liim over to aj.c^c^cSS odoh^ds coo5 TLu-go-pa- lei k-th ii: 
tbe police saSd^oS raya: let-at-laik 

Do you know the G§£p!, gooac^ ^dsco^Ii Chi-ya-gan-u-pa-de- go- 
track law ? CODS na: le-ye-la: 

^V ho is the headman S§[Dcogi3ocjgsoDc(;{c& ... Di-ywa-^a-ywa-tha-gyi: 
of this village ? ba-lii-16: 



PART II -LITERARY. 



CHAPTER I. 

The Alphabet. 

The following are the letters in the Burmese alphabet : 

Vowels. 
Short : — 33 a g^ * g u ^ . ^ _ 

Long : — 333 6t ^ I g zt 



c e 33 e: ^ or gi^d aw: 
g[^5 aw (long) 3^ 



iV.5. — 33DS (with the heavy accent) is but a modified form of 
33D ; and 33, being a niggaliita or nasal breathing is, strictly speak- 
ing, not a vowel. The symbols of the vowels are- 
Short ' 



I 



Long .. 



.3 or 

G....3 



...y 



Gutturals : — 00 o o 



Palatals : 


k 

c 

— 


'k 

30 


9 




S 


's 


z 


Cerebrals . 


t 


S 
't 


d 


Dentals :— 


- OCI 


00 


3 



.S or G....T...°....3s or ....1 
Consonants. 

Labials : — ■ 



H d 



o 
'd 

o 
'd 



c 
ng 

G9 
n 

CIO 

n 
n, 



Liquids : — 
Semi-vowel 
Sibilant : — 



O C3 O 00 O 

p 'p b 'b m 

OD G^ OD g 

y r I I 
-o 

w 

oo (pronounced as 
til in thirst). 



Aspirate :- 



CO 

h 



Note. — It will be noticed that, of the classified consonants, the 
second is the aspirated form of the first, the fourth that of the 
third, and that the fifth is the na^al of each class. As a matter of 
fact, the third and fourth consonants of each class, — with the ex- 



* This symbol is used with the following letters : O II O 
to prevent their assuming the form of other letters. 



C II 3 II o II O II in order 



CO 



( 68 ) 



ception of 3 in gcolSsii a peacock, of od which has superseded o in 
most eases, of o. in ooicS {cassia floridci) and of «jj used in g«^s * a 
bazaar, as well as the cerehral letters and the liquid g — are not 
used in words of purely Burmese origin. The pronunciation of 
the classified consonants needs some explanation. When a word 
is preceded hy another which ends with the first letter of any of 
the classes of classified consonants, that word retains its normal 

pronunciation, f 

Examples. 



( (go5ooos kyet tha : 
(. 33£)CX)Ds ame : thk : 
rj^Ss} shit 'ku 
(c^ss{ ko : gu 
r oooBoof^ tat thi 
( oSoD^ 'kin thi 
rs^Bq^B 6k chok 
l^qiS myo gyok 



{normal.) 

[abnormal.) 

[normal.) 

[abnormal. ) 

(normal.) 

[abnormal). 

[normal.) 

[abnormal.) 



The following tables show the combination of consonants with 
vowels, and of consonants with consonants : — 
Consonant with Vowel. 



Consonant. 


Combining vowel. 


Combination. 


How pronounced. 


CO 


33 


CO 


ka 


CO 


333 


ODD 


ka 


00 


^ 


cfi 


ki 


00 


S 


eg 


ki 


00 


s 


09 


ku 


CO 




"5 


ku 


CO 


c 


GOO 


ke 


00 


£& 


cb 


kk 


CO 


@ or G(gD 


GCOD 


kaw: 


oo 


cgS 


GOOS 


kaw (long) 


oo 


At 


^t 


ko 



* Pronounoed correctly GCOS by the people of Tavoy and Mergui, who speak a peculiar 

dialect of their own. 

t The exchange of tenuis and media letters is a noticeable feature in most languages. 
Cp. ' Grot ' in old" High German and ' God ' in English. 

t These are found written 3^5 and C^O respectively in ancient native works. 



( 69 ) 



The combinations with 36 and coot are formed as follows : — 
00 + 33 = GO kan 
00 + 33Dg = cooi ka: 

The forms oo 08 cxj good may take consonantal finals : — 
oDo5 ket c85 keik ocj5 k6k goo^S kaung 

When 3^ is combined with any consonant it is pronounced ai. 
3^o5 = aik. 
3^5 = aing. 

Consonant with Consonant. 



Consonant. 


Oombining 
consonant. 


Combination. 


How fironouneed. 




00 


oo^ 




00 o5 


ket* 




00 


c 




ooS 


kin 




oo 







008 


kit 




CO 
CO 


00 




co^ 
00 c8 


ti 

tat 




00 


* 


f^ 


OD$ 


kan 




oo 







oo5 


kat 




OD 







oo5 


kan 




OD 


°^^ 




oooS 


kfe 




00 
OO 

00 


00"^ 







«3 
"2 


kya 

kya (pronounced kra 

Arakanese). 
kwa 


by the 


00 


CO 


1— 1 


eg 


hla 





Compound Consonants. 
These can easily be resolved into their component parts. The 
word g is made up of 00+ G^+o;c^ofoo + oo + o;ogofoo + oD 
+ 0; 9]ofo + oo + cx);gofo + o + co;gofo + Gi + o+oo 

Note — Burmese spelling is considered by foreigners as well as 
by some natives to be most arbitrary in its nature. The final con- 
sonants being silent and the letters ya and ra being pronounced 
alike, except by the Arakanese who accord the normal pronun- 

* The final consonants are not pronounced in Burmese. 



( 60 ) 

ciation to them, the difficulty in understanding Burmese or- 
thography is greatly enhanced. The words, whose spelling is con- 
sidered doubtful, are those having for their final consonants oo 4. o o. 
An intelligible differentiation can, however, be made by bearing in 
mind that the idea of contact or contiguity runs through all Bur- 
mese verhs ending in 5 and S,* and that the rest of the verhs in 
which this idea is not involved take the final o5 or ?. 



CHAPTER II. 

Homonyms. 

The borrowed alphabet of Aryan origin is inadequate to repre- 
sent phonetically the sounds of a tonal non- Aryan tongue and has 
probably reduced the number of tones in the Burmese language. 
This reduction mu.st have affected the homonyms which are com- 
mon to the Indo-Chinese family. 

ooSs =: A small unripe fruit. 

ooSs = A scorpion. 

coSs = To be free. 

0%% = A flower. 

o^s = To be fatigued. 

Phonetic Changes. 

The literary form of the Burmese language is slightly different 
from the colloquial. Certain words are not pronounced as they 
are written, and there are laws which regulate such phonetic 
changes. 

("aj When a final consonant is followed by a nasal it is nasal- 
ized by assimilation : 

335qo5 = gBSooS ... To di^eam. 

G330pS(2a = G330SSGO .... To lOUO foV. 

$S*3 = ^S^D ... To be aiigrkccd. 

* o5 to join. OdSs or og6? to stretch out (so as to be in close contact). 



( 61 ) 

(b) Somet-imes the inherent vowel u or u is elided— 

c^G^^oS = oG[^o5 ...A native book. 

o:jC[6 = ooG^S ...A king. 

Scqcps = Scoqps ...A queen. 

cjd^g = oc^s ...A pagoda, 

cx^ = o3§i ...A soldier. 

ajsc^ =: coc^ ...A ferry. 

(c) The aspirate in g) sha is omitted and the letter is pronounced 

as G| ya. 

38SGg\oSg= ^Scs^oSs ... A cr 01071 prince. 

33Gp^ = s3GpS[ ... An official. 

(d) The letters co ba ot o pa and o* ma are interchangeable — 

cncS = 008 (pronounced oo8§)... 4 sA;«'W. 
ooDsg = QODsg ... ^ dacoit. 

(e) The initial consonants are aspirated — 

8 = § ... before. 

^c6 = 3^o5 ...To draw. 

^S = |5 ... To 6e able. 

oB = 5S ... Ink. 

(/) cg)(=cQ + oo + c»)is pronounced jis/ia. 

Gcg|Do5 = GjjDoS ... To petition. 

c^go5 =: ^go5 ... To conceal. 

oac^Ss = 33^Ss ... ^< all. 

(g) In words beginning with u or ii the initial vowel takes 
for its final the initial consonant of the following syllable and u is 
changed into u : — 

go8 — g^S = g^S ...A cave. 

SsGSDoS = B<2|3o5 ... The brain. 

gsGolSs = gGcgoSs t ... The head. 

* In the dialect of the people of Tavoy and Mersui O is invariably changed into e 
^Bs = igSi A pony. @5 = @5 Tosee. 

t In the case of gGC^oSsil the final consonant of g is the unaspirated form of o i. e., 
0011 



( 62 ) 

(h) The initial consonant is sometimes softened — 

08 = gS ... To throio. 

Qcq<^% = Gc^g? ... To he thorough, 

{i) The inherent nasal of an initial syllable is dropped— 

0606 = aoo5 = sooS ... Hair. 

cools = oddTs = cools ... A door. 

o?sco$(g3s = ooo§@D8 =: oo>^(§?s ... A plate. 

{j ) Various phonetic values are assigned to ^. 

^ = / as Gi^ yi ... To allude to. 

^ = ^>^ as q^pyiii •■• A plank. 

^ = e as 30^ se ... A weir. 

Punctuation. 

Three marks are used in Burmese punctuation, namely, — 
I , II and II II . 

The first corresponds to the English comma, the second to the 
period at the end of a sentence, and the third to the period at the 
end of a paragraph. A paragraph may also begin with 11 " . The 
first mark is falling out of use, the seccnd being substituted for it. 
In separating the constituent elements of a compound, however, 
the mark 1 is still used. 



CHAPTER III. 

The Noun. 

Nouns may be divided into abstract and concrete, according to 
their meauing, or into simple and compound, according to their 
form. Abstract nouns are formed by prefixing aa or affixing q|o5 or 
gSs to a verb : 

g to do, becomes sag or (3§Ss or §^o5 deed, action, e.g., — 

o:S(^33gj.533Gg30DgSo^ = His dccd and word do not 

correspond. 
=»^^=§§@Ss o^ogSsaa^js = If there were no such action, 
^o^oojoSu there would be no results. 

d°§§^"^^^'^^§" — Such an action is improper. 



( 63 ) 

The prefix 3d does not always convey an abstract idea, as for 
instance : 33god833(^5 = a watchman. 

Nouns are simple, ascqa man, oSS a house. Compound nouns 
may he formed — 

(a) by uniting t-wo nouns : 

§[D a village -\- oods a son = A villager. 
O0D3 a sword + aSS a house = A scabbard, e.g., — • 
g]^Dap^§I^DooDgc^c^o5coD@co^ii= The villagers came out. 
oDDSsSSgoS^cqioD^ii = The scabbard slipped down. 

(6) by uniting a noun and a verb : 

od6s a road -j- (q to show = A guide. 

[§ a debt + ods to eat = A debtor. 

G^ the sun + oS to enter = Sunset, e.g., — 

coSsgooGcaDoSglgGjo^ii = (You) must engage a 

guide. 
(§5y6j>S(§oDgc:^ooG(x>Dooj = The creditor and the 
|5^ii debtor cannot come to 

an agreement. 

G^oS^^ocjGGpoSoDDoo^ii = He arrived at sunset. 
(<?) by uniting a verb and a noun : 

G^ to dwell + sSS a house = A dwelling-house. 
c^5 to sit + '^ a place = A seat, e.g., — 

c^cjc^G^cSSoqS^ooDgco^ii = That cave has been con- 
verted into a dwelling- 
house. 

G^Do5cqigoq3Gpo5oo3^iic8S = Hc Came late and had to 

GpoG|§[G$oo^ii go without a seat. 

(d) by uniting a noun, a verb, and a noun or a word signifying 
an agent or doer : 

gSs a horse + §8 to ride + oq^ a soldier = A cavalry 

man ; 
3^s a pot + o8|§ ^0 watch + ^^ signifying an agent 

or doer = A potter, e.g., — 
(gSs8saj5l jooj.833qo5odS = (He) came opportunely 

GGpoScoDOD^ii with 200 cavalrymen. 

cxjjc^GaoqSsao^Sgoa^scS^s = He is a potter by profes- 

cjopSgSoo^ii sion. 



( 64 ) 

Number. 
The plural is formed by adding i^osii or c§ii many, to the sin- 
gular. 4iDsi: is generally used in connection with inanimate things, 
and c^ii in connection with persons or animate things. Tlie com- 
bination of the two affixes as in c^^jdsc^ii men is admissible in the 
colloquial form of the language. 



Singular. 


Pluba 


L. 


aSS ...A house. 


33SCJ)3S 


... Houses. 


ccj ...A man. 


cxjj^lDSiiajc^ 


... Men. 


335^ ...A suit. 


3Q5^41DS 


... Suits. 


33^co^ ...A suitor. 


s35^oD^<^Ds or 


335^ 




copS,c§ 


... Suitors, 



Plurality in the sense of universality is expressed by the redu- 
plication of the noun and by prefixing 33 to the reduplicated form '• 
O3^c5^o5 all nats ; sac^Sic^Ss or sag^.Q^ all countries; 33^|§ M 
toivns ; oaa^a^ all villages. When the noun consists of two words 
or syllables either of them may be reduplicated : 

(33) -)- ^8c + ^Sc = 33^5|8cii All kimjdoms. 
(33) + gcgD + @"g3 = 3a(gogooii All Brahmus. 

Gender. 

Living beings either rational or irrational are capable of having 
a distinction of sex. There is no grammatical gender in the 
Burmese language. 

o a female, is the sign of the feminine gender. 

"When birds are spoken of = 0011 or ^ = o^ii is generally used to 
express the masculine. 

go5oo ...A cock. 

ooc^ ...A cock sparroiv. 

Eor animals S% or c^sii is used to express the same gender. 

o8o5c8s ...A he-goat. 
(gSioSs ... A horse. 
gSso^s ... An entire horse. 



( 65 ) 



In the case of rational beings different words may be used, to 
express the masculine and feminiae genders, or the afl&x o may 
be joined to the masculine form in order to denote the feminiae 
gender. 



Masculine. 




Feminine. 


S3O0 ... Father. 


t»8 


... Mother. 


Go^S ... Brother. 


^Q 


... Sister. 


oo6 ... Hushand. 
ccjG^S ... King. 


WOODS 

oqG|8o or 
8cqGp8 


... Wife. 
... Queen. 


G[co?8 ... Ascetic. 


G^OO^SO 


... Female ascetic. 


oj^s ... Village head- 
man. 


o^@8o or 

COGCoSll 


ojjl^s Female, or toife 
of, village 
headman. 



It will be observed that in the case of oqciSon and ocjgsQu the 
functions of a sovereign and of a thugyi respectively are independ- 
ently exercised by the lady herself and not by her husband. The 
wife of a man of official or social rank is honoured with the affix 
ooGooSii Thus ocjgsooGooSii and ^odsodgcxiSii (shortened to ^odgodSh) 
mean the wife of a thugyi and that of a broker respectively. 

Case. 

The following are the affixes of the cases in the singular : — 



Nominative 

Accusative 

Oenitive 

Dative 

Ablative 

Instrumentative 

Locative 



OD^II001I3DIIC105D1ICX)DSII(JJC»DSH 

C^llo5llo6c§ll33DSII 

0011 ^Dll 

J>SllgSll33D5§SllGQDSll 

O25ii§iigoiioc5ii 



EEMARKS ON THE CASE AFFIXES. 

The Nominative Case. 
The affixes of the Nominative Case are sometimes dispensed, with, 
9.lid the Case itself is determined by the context, oo^ is the true 

9 



( 66 ) 

affix of the nominative case : godSgodSoo^codoo^h Maung Maung 
comes. 

The affix may he omitted : god6god6coooo^ii 
OD is also one of the affixes of the Ablative Case. It denotes 
that an action issues from an agent and also indicates narration. 
aj(X)S§DODf5ii ... Se speahs. 

ojcocoDolccjiGoTco^ii ... He calls : "please come." 
^D is generally used in an explanatory sense, and should he dis- 
tinguished from the Locative affix yon 

cxjjgDogDSG^o^ii As regards him, he must go. 
cogD HOODS II (^ooD 811 dcuotc contradistlnction. 

{OD^DII ") 
COD8II > CODC^O^u 
(j^CODSII J 

As regards Maung Maimg, he must come. 
The Accusative Case. 
c^ needs no explanation : 

c]c§Gosolii ... Give (it) to me. 

The natural tone of a noun or pronoixn which takes this affix is 
always changed to an abrupt one. 

The Genitive Case. 

(^ the affix of the Genitive Case may sometimes be dispensed 
with, and the noun or pronoun standing in that case is always pro- 
nounced with an abrupt tone : 

oSscogt^Dii ... Hoy al property, 

clog^sii ... My property, 

ajj.0D3;j5ii ... Sis book. 

The Dative Case. 
Of the affixes of the Dative Case 332? is generally used to express 
the Pali dative. 

ajo33DSG08olii ... Give (it) to him. 
The natural tone of a noun or pronoun which takes the affixes 
of the genitive case is always changed to an abrupt one. But this 



( 67 ) 

change as well as the other in the case of the accusative affix c^ 
is not generally indicated in the literary form of the language. 
o§ signifies motion towards a place ; 

@^§^c^DsoogSii ... [Se) goes to Prome. 
CO signifies motion towards si, person : 

33GG[S^5Q0335qo^ii ... Must be delivered to the Deputy 

Commissioner. 

The Ablative Case. 

0011 5 indicate motion from a place, person or object : 

G|$a:|$^ooooDoo^ii ... (Se) comes from Rangoon. 

^33G|5gogDSG[o^ii ... Must go from here. 

The Instrumentative Case. 

j>S or §8 denotes an instrument with which an action is per- 
formed : 

CXDDS 1 pc [• ODOSOO^II 

(Se) kills ivith a sword. 
39D8gSii g(§35 denote the cause of an effect : 

Maung Pyu dies on account of him. 
The tone of a noun or pronoun which takes gQdS as its affix is 
changed to an abrupt one in the colloquial form of the language : 
ocjJoG^dS ... By him. 

The Locative Case. "t 

Strictly speaking, the affixes of the Locative Case are Prepositions 

of place. 

-ojS 

j^S -l ° I' in a house. 




( 68 ) 

CHAPTER IV. 

The Pronoun. 

Personal Pronouns. 
The Burmese language is prolific iu Personal Pronouns ; but 
they are generally dispensed with in polite speech and official writ- 
ings. In writing or conversation they vary according to the social 
or official status of the addressee. 

Personal Pronouns of the First Person. 
cl is the primitive foi'm. It is used by superiors to inferiors. 
It frequently occurs in royal orders and religious works. 

og]|^5 or o^ll^ means a little slave. This form may be con- 
tracted into cq]^5ii The modern tendency being to hide the origin 
of the word, Upper Burmans now write cq]^5 (masculine) and 
cq)o (feminine) for ogj|5 and ogjio respectively. 

og$Gco5 means the slave of a Mgh personage, not necessarily 
royal ; and ogj^cooSt^s means of the family of such slates. 

oqcpsii * the word used in addressing a high personage may be 
prefixed to o^jfccoS or cg?GooSi^sii 

cg§Gco5c^3s in the singular is intermediate between ogj^cxS and 
og]^Gco5<^8ii 33og]^ J, both in the masculine and feminine, is in use 
in Arakan and some of the rural parts of Burma Proper. c^cSn 
meaning " self," is used for " 7 " in both genders, c^ii a contrac- 
tion of clc§ we, is sometimes used both in tlio colloquial and 
literary forms of the language. 

Personal Pronouns of the Second Person. 

odS is the general form in use. ^5 is used to children or to 
inferiors who are low in the social scale. o5s or godSoSs is a 
polite form of ^Sii n g^§ and ac^aSs are the feminine forms of 



* This is a degeneratecl form of q|oi top, pinnacle. A Buddha (oqepg) is the highe.st 
of all sentient beings; a king (oaj^ScqGps) and queen (osj^SSoCjGps) are the 
highest male and female personages rtspeetively in a kingdom ; oSo^Gpgll which is tlie 
shortened form of CXDoSoqGpSU (written oS(yos and pron.mnced oScjjDs) is UM/d to 
an addressee, placed in a higher position I'.y the rui|uiremeuts of etiquette and convention- 
ality. 



( 69 ) 

oSs and god6o6s respectively. In the colloquial form of the 
language c^oSii with the plural ogoSc^ii (also pronounced ro^J, and 
cocSii with its plural c»c6c§ii (also pronounced os^o), are used in 
both genders : the first to denote familiarity with, and the second 
inferiority of, the addressee. 

c^oSii with its plural c^oScg or c^o5,§oii is used colloquially mostly 
among women. 

5[5 a novice, with the prefix god6 or c^ii according to the senior- 
ity or otherwise of the speaker, is used by women in addressing 
men. (^f^S (pronounced '^<^) is used colloquially among men 
without any distinction as to the age of the speakers. 

5^8 or godS'I * a lord, master, owner, is used as a polite form of 
address by women to men as well as among themselves, while gS 
a is used only by husbands to wives. gooS is, however, now con- 
sidered to be inferior to <^W "cljiSii is used as a literary form of 
address among monks. 

oocoDii contracted from qIodcod a giver, with its feminine form 
oocoDoii is used by p6ngyis in addressing the laity. 

In addressing superiors or equals oS(yDs=:oSciqqps (masculine), 
and 5^5 (feminine), f are used. c^gSgcoSsd^iSii c^oScooSssj^SgoSii os 
5^So::^spsii 335|5gcSoqGpsii are reserved for pongyis, members of royal 
families, and officials of high rank. 

Personal Pronouns of the Third Person. 

(xi is used either in the masculine or feminine. Eor ocjc^ they, 
qSscg and ooSsc^ may be used when a deprecatory meaning is in- 
tended to be conveyed. The enemy in the field is always spoken 
of as ooSscgii 88 is used in the Possessive Case Eor ccjc^ii There 
is no Pronoun in Burmese to express the Neuter Pronoun it, 
which is always indicated by the repetition of the noun with the 
word qSsii prefixed to it. 

Pronouns op Cotjiitest. 

Burmans address people of oflBcial or social standing by the name 
of the trade or profession followed by them. They seldom use 

* A Burmese kiog would sign himself as GCoS or GOoS^SII 

t 335[S4]DSll in the singular, is higher than SSj^Sll A minister of high standing is 
always addressed as GCq|8<J)S5^Soqspjll 



( 70 ) 

oSgDSii or 5[Sii sir, but say sacqs^SoSs in addressing a Deputy 
Commissioner, cosp in speaking to a teacher, doctor, or master 
mechanic. In speaking to monks they describe themselves as ooo^ 
GooS or ooo^godSq your disviple. It is polite to call a respect- 
able elderly man a cxjcpsooooD tlie builder of a pagoda, gojidSsododd 
the builder of a lajanng or monastery, oqScoooo the builder of a 
zayat, cogoodSscocxjd the builder of a tazaung ; and to use the corre- 
sponding feminine forms oqspssaaii Gaj]D£s33oii os|5330ii oDGaoDSssaon 
in speaking to a respectable elderly lady. Besides these, terms 
signifying blood relationship are used to express intimacy, endear- 
ment, or politeness; as oao^s grandfather; ssa^oi grandmother ; 
33QCO father ; 33go mother ; osSc^ elder brother ; ssSo elder sister ; 
^ younger brother ; ^q younger sister ; odds son; od§s daughter ; 
gQs grandchild, Sfc, Sfc. 

The Relative Pronoun. 
The Relative Pronoun is expressed by godd and co^ii which are, 
strictly speaking, adjectival and verbal affixes respectively, as, — 

( GOOD ^ 

odod5 < ^e ^ aj ... He who teaches. 

The Reelexive Pronoun. 

c^cSc^S or simply o^c^ self, is the sign of the Reflexive Pronoun ; 
c1>-:^oS myself ; s^.c^cS himself. 

The Interrogative Pronoun. 

ooc^o^jii o^o^ wliO ; oocS or o^od^ which or what. 

The following pailicles are used in connection with Interro- 
gative Pronouns as well as Verbs : — 

GODD or ODGODDii ...In written language. 

ODDS or ojoDDSii ... In spoken, language. 

^^s or oD^^sii ...In written language. 

CO or oDC&ii 
o^s or oDo^s 

The use of ccds or ododdsn and cb or oocoii may be differentiated 
thus : the former is used when the reply is a simple affirmation or 
negation, and the latter when it is otherwise : 



„^ i ... 2n spoken language. 



( 71 )- ■ 

OD^33G(^DS8y$ODCOD8 ... Is tMs tvue? 

cxio5ooco3cx)OT ... Where do you come from ? 

The Demonstrative Pbonoun. 

The Demonstrative Pronouns are — 

oD^ii^iiqSs this, and o^ (Coll. c^)ii odSs that. 

The Compound Relative Peonoun. 

Compound Relative Pronouns are formed by preiixing o^ to a 
Pronoun and adding «3^ not say, to the combination thus farmed : 
B^cx^os^ ... whosoever. 

o^oD^33Gpo3^ ... whatsoever. 

The Distribtitive Pronoun. 

The Distributive Pronouns are — 

cf^Ss every, c^o5§iic^oScii33o8s3oo8s each. 

The Indeeinitb Pronoun. 
The Indefinite Pronouns are — 

dSoSSsH OoSsiI 330qgll 330^8^ H pOO^U 333618sil ODOODII OOC^DS all; 33^ 

some ; 33(93511 co§dsii oo61§ h odojs other ; 3d(^S whatever ; 
c^o^GcDD this, such ; g^fc^cooD of this sort ; o^cx^good of 
that sort ; o^c^goodii ssc^goodii 33cx)c^c§goo3ii oooSo^good of 
what sort; co^^w coi^coQ^ anything ; odi^cogoddoSii cogoo3o5 

GCJODoSlI cogsgsil OoJlSoTsil 03gs03GC»3o5ll 33[gScCj^ ally OUC. 



CHAPTER V. 

The Adjective. 

The sign of the Adjective is co^ or gcodh as goddSs godo good. 
Comparison denotes the gradation of increase or decrease to be 
observed in the employment of the Adjective. The degrees of 
comparison are expressed by — 

Comparative — o:>o§ surpassing or excelling, as, ood^'goodSsgood 

better ; 
Superlative — aqs extremity, as sogc^dSss^s best. 

Sometimes to denote the comparative degree, 33ooo5 over, above, 
or 933?o5 below, m&j be used according as the standard of com- 



( 72 ) 

parison is lesser or greater in quantity or quality tlian the thing 
eompared with : aDo5qn5ooo5t^GO(^o^ shall be more than ten days ; 
ooc6g[o5g330o5go5]ogog[q^ shall he less than ten days. 

The suffix — isli in English, as in yellowish or reddish, is ex- 
pressed in Burmese by the particle oo oo Avhose vocalic component 
is assimilated to that of the word to which it is attached : 

ol -|- coco ^ olcoDooD ... Yellowish. 

^ + coco =: |c8cB ... Reddish. 

^ + coco = |5|o:jcq ... Whitish. 

& + coco = iobcb ... SlacTiish. 

The particle o5ii is of the same signification ; but its mode of 
coalescence with a word is different. When o5 is prefixed to a 
word the latter is reduplicated as ^5^^ sweetish. These two 
particles are used in the colloquial form of the language only. 

Quantitative Adjectives. 

The Quantitatives Adjectives are — 

33cqs tohole, all; ss^^snsa^^scoSii S^so^Jn feio, little; ssq^dsh 
many ; oa^ssooSii some. 

Ntjmeeatives. 

In the use of Cardinal Numeral Adjectives one peculiarity is to 
be noticed. When the number expresses twenty or more the 
Adjective is preceded by the noun, and the ])article 33 is inserted 
before the numerative of the class to which the noun belongs. 
qco$s3Dolsj.Ssoc6 ... Tioenty pongyis. 

Sometimes the particle sd is omitted and the word gg| inimber, 
is placed after the numerative : 

cjgsGG[ JO or 5.80^5* ... Tioenty men. 
gSs 8sGS| JO ... Twenty ponies. 

Sometimes goISs or {^'E^go'ISs is used to denote the aggregate 
number — 

ojcolSg |.8cooS ... Twenty men. 

c(jjgsGC|{j«^Gol5s JO ... Total number of men : 20. 

* ODO^S = Ten. 



( 73 ) 

In expressing Ordinal Numbers, Pali words are generally used, 
as — 

og» ... First. 

qc8oo ... Second. 

ooc8oo ... Third, 8fG.,8i-c. 
Sometimes cgDoS may be used to express an Ordinal Number : 

^8s{G(gDo5 ... Second. 

In connection with Numeral Adjectives the nature of what has 
been conveniently termed numeratives may be explained. These 
numeratives are a peculiar feature of the Chinese and Indo-Chinese 
languages. They express the nature of the object denoted and 
connote its physical attributes. The following numeratives are in 
common use : — 

§8 head : cxjcgsooSs... A rich man. 
GooDoSu in speaking of human beings— 

GooDoSoqjos jGooDoS ... Two men. 
8^so 9 Gcx)Do5 ... Three women. 

olsii In speaking of rulers, pongyis, and persons of high social 
or official rank, this particle is used : 
oSsoools ...A ruler. 
G|co^soools ... A pongyi. 
aospoools ...A teacher. 
^ is used in speaking of inaaimate objects which, have no other 
numerative : 

oDs^clssj ... Five tables. 

§s to ride. Vehicles and riding animals take this numerative : 
G^ooDSj§s ... Two carriages. 
gSscnSs ... One pony. 

3CJI1 Buddhas, pagodas, images, and parahaihs (native books) 
take tbis numerative : 

ajsps 9acj ... Four Buddhas, pagodas, or images. 

c{G|^o5jaj ... Two parahaihs . 

Numeratives explain the physical attributes of the objects they 

qualify : 

10 



( 74 ) 

a 

i§oi flat ; ^o5a6oD(yDg one pice. 

q^flrit and thin; tjgcoqS one plank ; o^\[coqS one sheet 

of p)cip)er. 
o^s round or cylindrical; t^s^'H' five pots ; ^%c\icxi% five 

]}ipes. 
o5§ elongated ; coyoooSs a hoat- 

cjoDScooSs » sword ; c^odoSs a spear. 
g^dSs long and stiff; afGSoocqDSs « s^^'c^. 
g30d8 building; gSSoogcodS a house; gojidSsoogoodS a 

oS ft ^r^e or any tiling long, as thread, hair, &c. 

co^sdsoS five palmyra trees; cooS')oE: five hairs; 
qi^ goS ^»e threads. 
In the absence of specific numeratives the noun itself is used 
as such : 

gjDo^sQD ... Three villages. 
[go^sg . . . Three towns. 



CHAPTER VI. 
The Verb. 

The Verb is modified by mood, tense, and voice. 
There are two moods : the Indicative and the Imperative ; and 
three tenses : the Present, the Past, and the Future. 

THE INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 



cqj^SogDSco^ ... I go. 
ooSogDjoo^. ... You go. 
cQDg^soo^ ... Se goes. 



cgs^Scgc^DggoD^ ... TFe go. 
coScgogDsgoD^ ... You go. 
^^W°®^^ ...They go. 



Note.— C^ is the plural affix of the Pronoun, and g is that of the Verb. 



( 75 ) 

The Past tense is expressed by §ii* ^iif o^sii and the Future by 
o^ii oSSa^ii 3311 G033II or 8Sll COgg.ll 

The bare Verb without any affix is used to indicate the Imper- 
ative Mood, as coSogDs you go ; or godo (Coll. godo) maybe affixed 
to the Verb, as coSogDsccoo or ooSogDSGooon 

The other moods are expressed by affixes signifying power, 
permission, conditionality, &c. 

The Potential Mood is expressed by |8 denoting power or 
ability, and the Conditional by cgjS if. 

There is no difference between a Substantive and a Substantive 
Infinitive. 

Bathing (or to bathe) is good ... GG|^s(gSsGoo3S8oo^ii 
Voice. 
Strictly speaking, there is no Passive Voice in the Burmese 
language. The particles 5ii c^ii og^h however, express passivity and 
may be construed as signs of the Passive Voice. 'J he absence of 
this Voice is compensated by the peculiar way of forming Active 
Verbs from Passive and vice versa. The Active form of a Verb 
is expressed by the aspirated initial consonant; and this form 
may be modified into a Passive one by dropping the aspirate — 
thus, q| to let fall (Active) ; og to he fallen (Passive). This rule 
holds good throughout the whole range of the Burmese languao'e, 
except in the single instance of ^cS to draw out, which retains the 
same form both in the Active and Passive. There are two other 
words in which usage has permitted some deviation from the 
general rule, in that the conjunct consonant ya {oo) in the Active 
form is changed into ra (g[) in the Passive. 

cqooS I cgooS 

To frighten. To be frightened. 

To crush or pulverise. To be crushed or pulverised. 



* The Past tense is sometimes expressed by CX)^ and (^ which may l,e called the 
signs of the " aorist " or-" historical teuse." 

t Or strictly speaking, 2) and cq% express the Pluperfect Tense and ^sf§ the 
Perfect tense. These lenses, however, are not recognized by the Bvirmese 

These two Verbs are pronounced by the Arakanese with the sound of Gl (ra). 



( 76 ) 

Verbal Appixes. 

§s (pronounced 3^s in the colloquial) signifies repetition : 
cqj |5ogDsgso^ii I shall go again ; otherwise, it is a/orm of entreaty : 
ooDol§sii please come. 



ooo 



c^ 



Gp 

ooS 

GOOoSs 
Cp 

oo5 
GcooBs J 



' Signify suitability or expediency. 



Should not be killed. 



oq?n (^11 «j5(^ii cocogSgii oq?cx!co^sii goii goc^ii oo^ are all assertive 
afl&xes denoting the conclusion of a sentence. 

Gqjii GC0911 gsGoooii Gcoii Gcooii coS signify a command : 



jSc^o 



L 



Gq) 

GODO 

BsGCXJO 

_, o 

GCO 
GODO 

coS 



^ 



■ You go. 



j>S signifies prohibition or priority : 

oaps^S ... Do not go. 

ooBapt^B ... J)o you go before. 
oil) 08 signify an entreaty or command couched in polite lan- 
guage : 

Gos < ^ [ Give or please give. 

GO is the sign of causation, and is used in official orders : 

GoiGoii Give, or l6t (him) be given. 

bii c^oSii GODO or GG|o are used colloquially in an imperative 
sense ; as 

oDob ... Come. 

cqcS^cS ... Take. 

;^osGco3 or GS|o ... Go, 



( 77 ) 



ttjjoJii G^oa^ii ogii 'o^sii (Coll.) abu cod signify the continuance of 
an act, and are the signs of the Progressive tense : 



r 



OgDS ^ 



CCJjoS 



3b 

003 



J 



Going. 



G[ signifies obligation : ogosqo^ must go. 
cx) is always used in a negative sense : 

o3S5a)ogD2oDgS ... {Se) goes without sleeping. 
8 signifies that a fault or offence is admitted or implied : 

o3oS8c»^ ... (J) killed. 

§1D denotes commiseration, : 

o^ajo3GoogGco^3(§ ... That poor boy is dead. 

@8 denotes ^^a^ a /ac^ ^as passed from a state of contingency 
to that of reality : 

cgDsgSoo^ ... (2) did go. 

coc6 or oojoSii signifies ^^/Jess, suitability : 

oDsogoS ... datable. 

oDs^SocgoS ... Tempting food. 
ro)5ii godS^i GpDGooSii coo5god5 are gerundial affixes : as — 

GCX)5ll 

gcogodSii 



r, 



o5s@s^o5(y^6Goo5ijj 



or 

C53o5gOd5|1 



After the king had died. 



|5 can: c^ds^Sco^u 

oooS (1) habit: odsodoSco^ ... 

(2) natural propensity : 

goSqjcocSoD^ 

(3) ndtural q^uality : 

8§GCODo5<X>o5cX)^ ... 



(iZe) Congo. 
(Se) eats. 

(A) bird flies. 

Arsenic is poisonous. 



( 78 ) 

GOGODD or oIgogodd (also written gcsodS or gocdddSh to indicate 
prolonged articulation) olcocoos and goxicd^sh are imprecative 
affixes expressing a desire for an event to happen, and are used at 
the end of oaths, introductions, prefaces, &c. — 

goooIgogodd or gcxioIgocxjds .., May (i) die ! 

Vehbs op Courtsey. 
The polite nature of the Burmese language admits of the use of 
a variety of expressions to denote the same act done by persons 
of different social or ofQcial rank, as — 
ODSOD^ ... To eat. 

^6oqG^5-^Gcx3Soo^GooSijji-oo^ ... A Mng eats. 
qaD$s-o:j[^sGosGoo5«i^-cx)^ ... A pongyi eats. 

Gcocx)^ ... To die — 

5|Sa:^cS-^cSgiDCGoo5i^-oD^... A king dies : (literally — enjoys 

the pleasures of the nat 
country.) 
G[oD$s-cjj*Gco5(^-OD^ ... A 2)d'iigi/i dies : (literally flies 

away.) 
gc6gDorjGp8-o^§gD|oa:j ...A BtiddJia dies (enters nir- 
GcoSi^-oD^ii H^ana.) 

cgDScx)^ ... Togo — 

5[6o:^si6-s§,oo5Goo5g^^^Gco5(;j^- A king goes (moves tlie 

oD^ii golden feet.) 

qcx)^s-(§Gco5i^-0D^ ... A pdiui'ji goes. 

gcSg^oqeps-GaoDODlJcxji^cog ,4 BiiddJia goes (on. a mis- 
GcoS^-oD^ii sionary tour.) 

aSSoo^ ... To sleep — 

5[6QrjG[8-or£GcoBGoT-oo^ ...A Icliig sleeps. 
g^cx)$s-c8$§god5i^-co^ ... Apxjngyi sleeps. 

When the three classes of personages, namely, the king or anv 
member of his family, the monk and the Buddlia are spoken of, 
the honorific affix qco%<^ must be invariably used. 



CHAPTEll VII. 

The Adverb. 

§3 is the Adverbial affix. Sometimes an Adjective or a Verb 
may be changed into an Adverb by reduplication : 

* ^^.iw -enerally wiiltbi. [q| tu return. 



( 79 ) 



Adjectiv 


e. 


Adverb. 




goddSsgodd .. 


. Good. 


goddSsgcodSs 


.. M/ell. 


Verb. 








GOD^DOO^ ., 


. To be careful. 


GOOGODqjDSJD 


.. Carefully 


G>8DD^ 


. To be slow. 


Gj>§Gj.S 


.. Slowly. 



Sometimes, that a word or phrase is used adverbially has to be 
determined from the context : 

ogj$Goo5oo6spGcogDao8 ... I do not hnow exactly. 
The Adverb of Time is expressed by codoo or oaol ... when : 

GSpoSocDooii Gepc5oD^33Dl or GcpoSGooDsaol . . . When arrived. 
The Adverbs of Time in common use are — 



ooG% today ; 
coo$G% yesterday ; 
^oSg$ to-morrow ; 
33(§? quickly ; 



sDoqjS before ; 
oo^ now ; 



o§ while ; 
og^G^ooS ago; 
oogScgooS once ; 
j.6g§G@Do5 twice. 



qo5§Ss immediately ; 
G^ocS^after ; 

The Adverb of Degree is formed by affixing gD to the sign of 
adjectival comparison : 

cg^gD or sscgl very. \ i^^ggD or os^^ds much. 
Phonetic couplets of onomatopoetic origin are also used in an 
adverbial sense : 

3:jo53^oScq|o5cqjo5 ... TP'ith Commotion. 

goddSs GooDS§dbd5ii 3:j$s 3^^s or ojcS ... Noisily. 
The particle od is sometimes placed before each of tlie couplets. 
co3;;o53;jo5 oooq|o5o:j]o5ii 
oogoodSsgcodSs oD;S)cbii 



CHAPTER VIII. 
The Preposition. 

The Prepositions of direction are — 

ooii yii ooojii <joo^ from. 
0811 c^Sii 330811 c^ii c^ii coil GGpo5 to. 
That of time ars — 

c^5g33d§ till, ogiiogc^S during. 



( 80 ) 

Those of place are — 

ogSii |ii ^311 ooS at, in, on; 33%i\\ sa^Ds about, near ; 3o*"5 or 

ogS among, out of ; 
coGog^ooS along ; g§[ before; g^doS behind; sacooSn fxsGuT over, 

above; g33do5 below; aaogSsn cgS among, loitUn ; ooSoo^ 

around ; aagDSii o5g3g betioeen, betwixt ; sacg? beyond ; 

33@S or 330 without ; obc§ into ; oocooS amidst ; cScod 

across. 



CHAPTER IX. 
The Conjunction. 

Copulative : j-Sii^ and ; ocdooo not only — but also. 

Disjunctive : yoaolsii qSsgSn @S besides; gSoo eithe) — or, neither 
— nor ; c^oojcS or. 

Adversative: GooSoo^siic^GooSoogSgii ::§opo2Sii od8ooo3s * but, al' 
though, 

lUatire : cggS^n c^g^dS therefore. 

Telic : liSsa^ii co^Shod^ssc^Ssii g(c^dSiigoddgQd8ii g^odds * Because. 



CHAPTEU X. 
The Interjection. 

Interjections express sudden emotions which may find utterance 
in expressions differing according as tlie feeling is one of admir- 
ation, delight, pity, dislike, astonishment, or desire. 

0DCO38 Indeed! ^ Oh! aac^coDsn sacooSii @S3iGOo§Sg Alas! 
ssooSg^s Oh mother! gsoogoos Oh father ! oodi^ii Well 
done ! Good ! 
g denotes a sudden feeling of delight : 
^SsoDDg ... Oh happiness! 
Interjections are used more frequently in the colloquial than in 
the literary form of the Burmese language. 

* Are archaic forma. 



( 81 ) 

CHAPTER XI. 

Syntax. 

In a Burmese sentence the subject is followed by the object, 
and the predicate is placed last. For the sake of emphasis, the 
object may precede the subject. 

cyoo^cgc^§o5co^ii or cgc^c&oo§o5oo^ ... Nga Me heats Nga 
Fyu. 
Either of these sentences may be expanded by adding an at- 
tribute or adjunct to each of the nouns and to the verb, thus — 

GooD5sGcoDc6cx>gSscxD^g3^o5oo^ ... The good Nga Me beats 
the bad Nga Fyu severely. 
Adverbial clauses may be further added : 

Cl^C^3^(§S0g)Sll GCX)3SsG00DC&a>^a^gGCX)DC^0^ CoS8COoSog5o^SG|>O^QSs 

oolgo^oSoo^ii After having said so, the good Nga Me 
beats the bad Nga Pyu severely, while seated in the 
middle of the road. 
The following rales of Syntax may be deduced from the above 
arrangement of words — 

(i) The adverbial clause of time is placed at the head of a 

sentence, 
(ii) The subject or object (as stated above) precedes the 

predicate, 
(iii) The nominal or verbal adjunct immediately precedes 

the noun or verb to which it relates, 
(iv) The adverb precedes the verb or another adverb, 
(v) The verb or predicate comes last. 
Additional examples : — 

o^oo^saolgi c^c(j j.Sgoodo5 (^DgSgD §§ ' ^gogSoG^ii 
Ever that man two long apart this town in 

not live. 
Those two men never reside long apart in this town. 

, G$Do5oOG%OD3^ GCOdSsS^^ OjjocBSsgSs J GCOdS Cq) ^5g^G08C^o5oD^II 

Subsequent ask only bim riding pony my presence give. 
day come two 

It was only on a subsequent day that, at his request, two riding 

ponies were given him in my presence. 

11 



APPENDIX I. 



The grammatical principles explained in the foregoing chapters 
will be best illustrated by the analyses of passages taken from some 
of the o=3c5 (Jatakas) which are widely read by the Burmese peo- 
ple. 

I. 

G5|8Cg|GCo(§8GOOD333lllODGpCtDo8g^^li [g0g3c8oSsODgSoSs§00O3o5ll C^tOjTIll 
O0DSGCo533@§33DS33§G^33GpO^GOSGO0S(jj^ll 0^£;8SGg[oSs(^33g33I^O^§8591§8 
OOD QlylsOO^C^il qSs^J (g8&OD5<^C5)Sll o8s^§l(^ 33^^GpoSo^ ^§^§GCo5 (jJGODD 
GQD6i:q|SoO?SIIOoSoO^(y^50go5^ j>5oOo5Gp3SG[5§G^GCOGOOOIlclog^4J|i33'^8<^ 
ggDII cl(^^33Gg§SGODDCg|o8sG§)^|sC^ ^sg^SG^ScXJ Q38|GCo5^cgSlloSs0038CO^g 

as8^,Gco5gc5c^g8c8S goS^ii (y^yoDGcxjDoSoo^sogoSGCOGOoSiisao^aac^Ssiioosj 

^D[3ScDOl^gGpc8<^3S)COoSil ODSJGO03GCODS(^D8|llG^GpO05§88G[6^llG^G0Li33m6@6 

GC03CX)&d8§ooScjc^a^GcoD5aja^8G£D3Sajjo5 G^GCoc^u ii(ajj^3o5 aocSGOoS^i 

1. Ggs = Old, ancient. 

2. cg^Gcoggn cg^ = To pass ; ccogs = sign of the past tense. 

(Cp. Pali: 33cgGoo). 

3. Goooii Sign of the Adjective. 

4. 3so\ = Time ; used also as the sign of the Adverb. Op. 

ODD CO II 

In times past. 

5. oDGpcoDcS = Baranasi, Benares. 

6. §^ = The capital of a kingdom. Isia.i 
7 ill Sio'n of the Locative Case. 

8. (gcgaoB = Brahmadat (Pali: Brahmadatta.) 

9. oSs = A ruler, king. 

10. oD^ = Sign of the Nominative Case. 

11. 6 = To make ; o6«g" to rule. Cp. Pali : G[^ oddgg^cSh 

12. oDODoSii This form is obsolete. It is the equivalent of 

oooD^sii which is the same as cS" an assertive affix denoting 
the conclusion of a sentence, 



( 84 ) 

King Brahmadat ruled the kingdom of Benares. 

13. c^ = Demonstrative Pronoun that. 

14. 33ol =: Time. See 4. 

15. CODS = A child, son. 

16. GooSii An honorific afl&x used in speaking of Buddhas, saints, 

royal, and other personages of high rank. oddsgcoB = A 
king's son. 

17. 3s(§8 — ao is the nominal particle, by prefixing which, an 

adjective is changed into a noun. 
33 + @8 (good) = Big, great, eldest. Op. 33goodSs = sa 
+ goodSs (good) good. 

18. 33Di:i Sign of the Dative Case. 

19. 33§G^=literally means the " house -front ; " an heir-appa- 

rent, erown prince, stib-king. 

20. 33Gp ^= An appointment. 

21. c^ii Sign of the Accusative Case. 

22. Gos = To give. 

23. Goo5(j{i; An honorific afiix always affixed to verbs denoting 

the action of those described in 16. 

24. ^11 An abbreviation of q,^\ a connective particle corre- 

sponding to the Copulative Conjunction «kc? in English. 
Sometimes it has an illative force. 
At that time, (he) conferred tlie appointment of heir-apparent 
on his eldest son. 

25. c^ii See 13. 

26. ^Sg^:i See 19. 

27. oSs = See 9. aSScgj and aSs are to be construed as one 

word meaning an heir-apparent. q6s implies the exer- 
cise of delegated sovereign authority. 

28. (^ji Sign of the Genitive Case. 

29. 33@t33G^ = 33g + 33G|ii Hcre 33 excrclses a function simi- 

lar to that descrbed in 17, i.e., to say, by its being pre- 
fixed to a verb, that verb is changed into a noun. @ 
cx)^ or G^oD^ means to surround ; s3@33G| means a retinue, 
following. 

30. o^s8S = Enjoyment, 



( 85 ) 

31. qSsoDD = Happiness ; o^sSSqSsooo means, in the present 

story, the prosperity derived from one's position. 

32. §^.gl3 is made up of two vevhal roots : (y^„ = to be scatter- 

ed, and yls = to increase. QIgTs means, therefore; an 
increase of a pervading nature. 

33. oo^ii A verbal sign denoting the present or the past tense. 

34. 0^11 See 21. 

35. oSsgs = The king. See 9 and 17. (Pali: ocoDGpO)D). 

36. @6 = To see, notice, observe. 

37. GooS^ii See 23. 

38. cgjSii The gerundial sign, having an adverbial force ; it 

should be distinguished from ogiSii a sign of condition- 
ality. 
When the king observed the increasing influence and prosperity 
enjoyed by the heir-apparent. 

39. c6s$?gii literally o8§ = an umbrella, Sf%% = a throne; S%Sf%% 

= kingship. A white umbrella is here referred to. It 
is one of the regalia of Burmese royalty. 

40. c^ji See 28. 

41. cra^cpoS = danger (Pali: aa^cpco). 

42. d^ii See 21. 

43. ^8S|5 — to be apprehensive of. 

44. GQoSij^ii See 23. 

45. GooDGg^S = a Telic Conjunction denoting a cause. 

He became anxious about the security of his kingship. 

46. qSooDs = ^i8 (to love) -f odds (a child, son) : Beloved son ! 

Note that besides 3^ there is no special sign of the Vocative 
Case. The bare form of the noun, if it is in the singular, 
or with the plural sign, c^n if it is in the plural, is used 
to express this Case. 

47. 035 = Thou, you. 

48. oo^ii See 10. 

49. g^ii See 6. 

50. 9" Sign of the Ablative Case. 

51. ooo5 = To go out of, leave, depart from, 



( 86 ) 

52. |ii See 24. 

53. j.8coo5 = To be pleased. 

54. Gp = A place; here used in the sense of a E,elative Pro- 

noun : ^5ooo5Gp33G^5 = j>8cco5oDgS33G[5ii Gp has the force of 
indefiniteness. 

55. 33G|5 = A place. 

56. §11 See 7. 

57. G^ = To live, reside, remain. 

58. GcoGODo — GOD + GODoii Either of these particles has the 

force of an order or command. 
My beloved son ! do you leave the kingdom and reside at any 
place with which you may be pleased. 

59. c\ = First Personal Pronoun I. 

60. cglii See 2. cg$ also means to die, i.e., to pass from one 

form of existence to another ; to pass away. 

61. 911 This particle has the same force as cgSn co^oodco or 

oD^saol when ; but it is more intensive than either of 
these. 

62. 33^ J = Pamily, race. 

63. ^\ See 28. 

64. ggo = Property. 

65. chi See 59. 

66. (^ji See 28. 

67. 33Gg = Patrimony, inheritance. 

68. @S = The verb to be ; is. 

69. GODDii See 3. 

70. ^c8s^,v?§ — Ggi means gold. See 39. Cp. ^pocScocB dur- 

ing the reign of a king. 

71. c^ii See 21, 

72. %(g^§ = To govern, rule. The root g?3 occurs also in 

c8S§@?sii and conveys the idea of permanency. 

73. G^Sii This particle denotes that an action is to be per- 

formed in the absence of the speaker. 
When I am dead, take possession of the kingship, which is the 
patrimony (left to you) by me and your ancestors. 



( 87 ) 

74. cq denotes the conclusion of a direct narration, and cor- 

responds to the last set of inverted commas in English. 

75. 338| = order 1 

76. GooSa See 16 j A royal order or rescript. 

77. ^ = To exist. 338|goo5^oo^ = (a king) speaks. 

78. cgiSii See 38. 

79. oSsoDDs = A prince. See 9 and 15. Note the absence of 

the Genitive sign in oSsoodsh the son of a king. 

80. oD^s = The Copulative Conjunction and. This word 

is used after the second of the two persons mentioned 
especially in judicial writings. 

81. 338|god5ii See 75 and 76. 

82. (gc5 = excellent. This word is always used to qualify an 

sn8|Goo5ii 

83. 0^11 See 21. 

84. gsc85g^o5 — §2 the head; o85 the top; g^o5 to carry on the 

head. To bear a royal mandate on the head means to 
obey it. The modern form of the expression is gso85 
00 o53o6§\o5c»^:i 

"When (the king) spoke thus, the prince bearing the royal 
mandate on his head. 

85. §1! See 24. 

86. gggii See 49 and 50. 

87. coGcxiDoS — 00 is equivalent to ooS one ; goodoS is the numer- 

ative always used when human beings are spoken of. 

88. oo^s = alone, solitary. 

89. ogcSii See 51. 

90. GODGooSii The gerundial sign used in an Adverbial sense. 

Departed from the kingdom alone. 

91. 33og33C^5sii See 29 for the force of the particle saii 

ogoD^ = To arrange, to put in order; c^Ssoo^ = to 

measure. 
33o5'33c^5sii in due course. Pali; sa^c^Gg^iiaaamgo^i 

92. ootj^D = The river Jamna (Pali.) 

93. @S = A river. 



( 88 ) 

94. oD(^g£p=rAn ocean, sea, river ; Pali : oDt^gu Sanskrit : oot^gii 

Tlie Burmese form of the word is derived directly from 
the Sanskrit. 

95. c^ii Sign of the Plural number. 

96. <^ji See 28. 

97. 33cocS= middle. The sign of the Locative Case |ii ogSii ^dh 

or ooS is omitted after sacocSii 

98. oDii See 87. 

99. sjii A numerative used when no specific attribute is indi- 

cated. 

100. Gcoou See 3. 

101. gcod6(^ds- gcodS motmtain or hill ; ^:)S space between : 

gcx)d6(^di a valley. ogccpoSJ' (after reaching) is omit- 
ted after goddS^dsii 

102. §11 See 7. 

103. G$sp2o55s — G^Gp a place ; od&Ss a dwelling. 

104. 8g^8=To prepare, make, form, construct. 

105. f II See 24. 

In due course, (he arrived) at a valley surrounded by the Jam- 
na and other rivers, and having prepared a dwelling-place. 

106. cjGOD=A hermit, anchorite, rishi. Pali: moSii Sanskrit: 

qc^ii 

107. 33og5 = Appearance, condition, estate. 

108. §6ii Sign of the Instrumentative Case. 

109. GooD=A forest; here used in an adjectival sense. 

110. co8o8s=: A fruit : co8 a tree ; o8s a fruit. 

111. cd6cj — c^ means a swelling ; odSi^ denotes the tuberous roots 

of certain herbs. 

112. c^i" See 95- 
118. c^ii See 21. 

114. gsodSc^^To carry; procure. goodSo^ is a phonetic coup- 

let in which gsodS is an obsolete member. gsodS how- 
ever, in the sense of to bring is still used in Arakan, 
Tavoy, and Mergui. 

115. a^sG30DS=to eat; to subsist, d^i to use; goddS to carry. 

116. cqjoSii Sign of the Progressive Tense. 



( 89 ) 

117. G§" See 57. 

118. Goo(^ii (i and ccoci are assertive affixes denoting the con- 

clusion of a sentence as well as the past tense. 
Eemained there as a hermit, procuring forest fruit and herbs 
and subsisting on them. 

{Translation of the above passage.) 

In times past, King Brahmadat ruled the kingdom of Benares. 
At the time, (he) conferred the appointment of heir-apparent on 
his eldest son. When the king observed the increasing influence 
and prosperity enjoyed by the heir -apparent, he became anxious 
about the security of his kingship, and said : " My beloved son ! 
do you leave the kingdom and reside wherever you please ; but, 
when I have passed away, take possession of the kingship, which 
is the patrimony (left to you) by me and your ancestors." When 
the king had spoken thus, the prince, in obedience to the royal 
behest, departed from the kingdom alone. In due course, (he 
arrived) at a valley surrounded by the Jamna and other rivers ; 
and having prepared a dwelling-place remained there as a, hermit, 
procuring forest fruit and herbs and subsisting on them. 



II. 

d^ocoDsc^ii o3oc8G38oSsco8s@DscgSii gJoSgooDSGcooc^DsgcSc^t^ j.oqscgSs 
(g5s^Sg^iqGC(^c^(§oqio5ii cocc§c^q5ssj|Ssc^oSii GoTcsnggc^Goc^oSglc^ii ^c§ 

(SOOD^^SfSSlI cqgj^§C^5G33D8G0^il OCODOo5gCo5«^o53COOSI1 330g|c)q|s^GODO 
GCOdo5|DJGOOQ^81I clcS^OjJOcSSsil 0:joS6gyclolGlG;j]O^OOCX)DSa^330C|{^GOO(illO:j 
GpSGCODSg OCX)DC3)^ODq6sCX)^iI ^SQo5o£|aODo5c^^S OOODSG(yDGCX33^§8G„gGCoSi^ 
G(X)D33oloil33c8GO0533GCq]3o5ll[3o0GCOGCODO2Dg(gSs(gSl|£^CJ0c8oScODGa3DQGoSo 

ySsra:^" coo5(^^s|G[6gSs5>6(^^gDii Gccjj3SsGco5§sgii o5soo§s^gp$§iqgsodS 

C§CX)o5(§G00Sl^G O0(^ll 

(OO0DO)^C»O)Dc5gCo5QsO^[) 

1. o^=that. See I, 13. 

2. oco3s=a word ; also used in the plural number. 

3. 0^11 See I, 21. 

4. ;^oc8g98 = Sivalidevi. 

5. Gcs=A ruler, king. See I, 79. 

12 



( 90 ) 

6. co8s = A daughter; also written c§siioSsc»as a Princess. See 

1,79. 

7. @Dg=To hear. 

8. cgiSii See I, 38. 

When Princess Sivalidevi heard those words. 

9. ^11 Demonstrative Pronoun this. See I, 85. 

10. oSsii See I, 5. 

11. ODDS — coDSii oD^oDDgii i^coDSii co^p are all contradistmctive 

affixes. 

12. GCX)DO§)DS=:GODDo5cq|DSII a UiaU. 

13. go5=Superior, excellent. See I, 82. 

14. c^u Sign of the Nominative Plural. 

15. i See I, 118. 

16. 5.cqgog6?gSs = ^.oqs (the heart) + ogSs (to put inside) + 

§6gii (sign of the Verbal substantive) ; character, dis- 
position. 

17. 5.5= Sign of the Instrumentative loith. 

18. %^\ — (gG§ (to ^6 filled) + ({ (to be in pair, complete) ; re- 

plete with, endowed with, possessed of. 

19. Goii Affix denoting the admission of, or the acquiescence in, 

a statement. 

20. 411 See I, 118. 

21. ojii See I, 74. This affix also denotes the self- communing 

of a person as in this case. (Pali : gJcBii) 
"This king is endowed with the disposition of excellent men." 

22. (^=To intend ; to bear in mind. 

23. ccjjoSii See I, 116. 

Bearing (this) in mind. 

24. oooo§= Again. 

25. c^=that. See I, 13. 

26. oSsqjSs= An attendant on a royal personage ; a page. 

27. 0^11 Sign of the Accusative Case. See I, 21. 

28. o5=Even, very, same. c^oSscgSsoSu that very page. 

29. GoT=To call. The object of the verb is understood. 

30. cqgs— GqiiiGcoDiiggu are signs of order or command ; §s in 

this instance signifies repetition. 



( 91 ) 

31. aji. See I, 24. 

32. Go=:To send, commission, depute. 

33. o^o5u Signifies an action whose object is projected as it 

were, from the actor. Cp. odgos c^oSoo^ii to send a 

letter. 
84. (q§ii When used as a verb means to return ; and when used 

as an affix means to repeat. 
35. (^ji See I, 118. 
The same attendant was again sent (with the order) " call him 



agam. 



36. ^c§GooD — ^ this ; o§ like ; godd adjectival sign ; like this, 

such. 

37. *^s=:Means, way, manner. 

38. g8» See 1, 108. 

89. oDs= three ■) 

Ar\ roc i.- t three times. Three is a sacred number. 

40. (cgS=time ) 

41. c^6G33DS=:till (Preposition). 

42. Goii See II, 32. 

43. §11 See I, 24. 

44. o=Sign of negation or prohibition. Op. Pali : odii 

45. coD=To come. 

46. cooSgodS.) same as ^ooSn godgod5ii See I, 90. 

When he did not come, though sent for, in this manner, for the 
third time. 

47. ^i: See II, 36. 

48. oSs,! See II, 5. 

49. ooDsii See II, 11. 

50. sscgl — 3311 a particle ; og^ to pass,, exceed, surpass : very, 

exceedingly. 

51. a^§s— Glory, power. 

52. ^11 See I, 77. 

53. GC30DII See II, 3. 

54. GcoDo^^sii See II, 12. 

55. Goii See II, 19. 

56. oD^sii This particle is assertive and denotes the conclusion 

of a sentence. It differs from (iiiGco^" ^<^, or gcocx^^c^h 



( 92 ) 

in that the idea of a sudden emotion, wish, or acquies- 
cence is involved in it. 

57. cl = I. 

58. cS = sg to draw. 

59. ^11 See I, 24. The particle here has an illative force. 

60. cq\\ Third Personal rronoun; may be used either in the 

Masculine or Peminine gender. 

61. oil See II, 44. 

62. c8Ss = To incline. 

63. a;{ii See II, 60. 

64. o8Ss = To take possession of. Cp. c8s^5so8Ssg$sii 

65. 5 = When. See I, 61. It has the force of contradis- 

tinction also and may he construed as the adversative 
conjunction hut. 

66. cl = I. 

67. "1 = To go with, to be drawn towards. 

68. -G[ii Literally means to obtain ; sign of obligation, compul- 

sion. 

69. Gqjii Euphonic particle having the same force as goh See 

II, 19. 

70. o^ii Sign of the Euture Tense. 

71. coodds = Indeed. 

72. a^ii See 11, 21. 

73. 330^ = 33 (nominal particle) -j- cx^j (to take) ; belief, view, 

opinion. 

74. ^11 See I, 77. 

75. Goac^ii See I, 118. 

(The princess) was of opinion (and said to herself) : " This 
king is indeed possessed of great glory. When I (tried to) draw 
him, he would not be drawn ; but if he takes possession of me, I 
shall have to go -with (him)." 

76. c^cpjGcoDSs = o^sps a Buddha; gcosSs an embryo : a Bo- 

dhisatta. 
Cp. oSsgcodSs =^ A pretender. 

oSsocjjD =z A claimant to a throne. 
4.§8cxj|D = An heir to a throne. 



( 93 ) 

77. ooDDOi^oo = Mahajanaka. 

78. oSsii See II, 5. 

79. 00^11 See I, 10. 

80. j^8«c^ — <^i (as in gsoD^ii j^sod^i or gs^googS to control, 

supervise) ; oo5 (from Pali : ?»»© or sawg a noble, 
minister) ; a hybrid denoting a minister. 

81. o£|c»Do5 = An assembly. Pali: o£|oodi Sanskrit: o^cgSii 

As the word is derived directly from the Sanskrit its 
etymological form should be o^ooSii 

82. c^ii See II, 14. 

83. ^-S — Copulative Conjunction with. 

84. oooDSu See II, 2. 

85. gQd = To speak, converse. 

86. GcoD = To speak in a formal manner as in delivering a dis- 

course, sermon, or lecture. 

87. f " See I, 24. 

88. (§SG§ = To be tired of or cloyed with. 

89. GooS/j^ii See I, 23. 

90. GooDii See I, 3. 

91. S3sl II See I, 4. 

It was only when the embryo Buddha, King Mahajanaka, had 
tired of conversing with the ministers and the assembly (of 
people). 

92. 03 c^ = Wish, desire, free-will. 

93. GooSii See I, 16. 

94. 33GC(5i3o5 = According to ; uninfluenced by any external 

agency. Cp. sdgcxjjdoSoddoodii of one's own will or accord. 
That he, according to his own will. 

95. gcoGco = natural. Pali : ooo^n Sanskrit : goD^ii The vo- 

calic element in goo is an instance of gunation. 

96. GODDii See I, 3. 

97. ogDsgSs = apt (to go) + §Ss (sign of the Verbal sub- 

stantive) ; gait, manner of walking. 

98. gSn ;S'eeI, 108. 

and, with his own natural gait. 

99. Ggi = Gold. See II, 70. 



( 94. ) 

100. 9 = a cave. Pali : c^codh The word is pronounced cq and 

is apparently of purely Burmese origin ; but in order 
to impart to it a classic appearance this form has been 
adopted by the Burmans. Cp. 33c^§ top, from QC9q;ii 
cjs a gourd, from sscoDtjn 

101. o = Entrance. 

102. o§ = To, towards ; Preposition of direction. 

103. o6 = To enter. 

104. COD = To come. 

105. GooDii Adjectival sign. See I, 3. 

106. §Gc^= = A lion. Pali : oScxdii Sanskrit : Sinha. 

107. oSs = A king. See II, 5. 

108. c^o§ = Like, as. 

109. oo^(og^ =: Pirm, steadfast. 

110. §iG|8 = Brave, courageous. 

111. gSsii Sign of the Verbal substantive. 

112. j>5ii Sign of the Instrumentative Case. 

113. 4^§3 == 4 (^0 b® i^ pair, complete) + ^ (to be even) 

+ g3ii (adverbial sign) ; replete or endowed with ; pos- 
sessed of. 

114. Go^DSsGooSgs r= gccjjdSs (to rccline) + gcoS (honorific 

affix) + §s (first, foremost) : the audience-hall in an 
oriental palace, which occupies the foremost and most 
prominent position. 

115. 911 Sign of the Ablative Case ; from. 

116. o5soo8s = A princess. 

117. ^ = To be, to exist, to be present. See II, 52. 

118. Gp = A place. See I, 54. 

119. ^^sogoodS = Sf^t (a palace) + o (main, chief, central) -f 

gsodS (a building, apartment) ; the main or central 
apartment of a palace. 

120. c§ii See II, 103. 

121. oooSg = ooo5 (to go up, ascend) + g (to lift up) ; to 

ascend. 

122. GcoS^ii See II, 89. 

123. ocDciii See I, 118. 



( 95 ) 

Like a lion-king entering tlie entrance of its golden cave, he was 
possessed of firmness and courage in going from the audience- 
hall to the central apartment of the palace, where the Princess 
was. 

{Translation of above passage). 

When Princess Sivalidevi heard those words, she surmised that 
the king, was endowed with the disposition of an excellent man, 
and again sent the same attendant for him. When he did not 
come, though sent for three times in this manner, the Princess 
said to herself : " This king is, indeed, a prince of great might and 
power. When I tried to draw him, he would not be drawn ; but 
if he takes possession of me, I shall have to submit to him." It 
was only when the embryo Buddha, King Mahajanaka, had tired 
of conversing with the ministers and the assembly (of people) that 
he, of his own free will, and with the firmness and courage of a 
lion-king entering its golden cave, left the audience-hall and 
went to the central apartment of the palace, where the Princess 
was. 



APPENDIX II. 



PETITIONS. 

Petition (i). 
33GG|SGCo5^Soa3DO$5[SG(X)So6ǤSOgc5GOo53300$Ds5ogD|lS 

• coGpso c(y|ii 

0qGpSC^|GCoBcOSpg3cQ$ODll0g)?GCX>5l^S33GoTc^SGp0-COo5c{59-9O0-33G[ll 
G(gcb|§ ^c5^6o|g0ODo5oSs ^SGCoSoO g|GOSGCX5D 8G[6g[o5o^ OOGOODOOJ^II oSs 

°tI°I1 o^j^SccoSoSs^t ^SGooS^oSaoajjoGpii qSsOODOqolGCODG^DSlI G33Do5ol 

33q|o5^DS33G[ll33(ySgq]§8O0DC|533O0$D3O05GGpo5dlcO^0:{GpSII 

Oil l|Ogj$GODS(^SCOo5ooSG02^GCOD |D20O^|l CO^gll C^SC^OOIISSO^SGg 98 

j;>6oo5o^G[Gcx)D |3s(g5dloD^ii ^so^GcpSsoDSoD^ ooGpgc^^S g^DigSoo^ c^oo8 

GODOG(^DSllgJDO;j(^SGgj^ll0^o5cD^GODD330^SjSooSa;[OloO^II 

J II n^saj^G^DSs oS^qjoSjiSii ogj|Gco5oo5a^oD^ajj^ii cocpso^cwcxj^so 
G^DoaS^Sdlii oo8^oo58^^|.Sii ODSjq]GOSGooDGcoDS 30600^11 gSscx)|cgolGOOD 

G^DSliq]§8C03G^$33D3?iDSDoSGGpo5oloO^CCqi8(JiSGCo55[ScX)3So^€pSll 

g^oD = Burma. 

|6c = A pronnce. 

33gg[sgodS^Socodo$5)Sgco5oSs(^s = The Chief Commissioner; 33gg^s 
= affairs (political) ; gtoSii an honorific affix ; QS = to possess, 
to be empowered ; oood = Pali maha = great ; o§ = a bur- 
den ; 5^5 = a possessor ; oSs = an administrator, a ruler, 
a king; gs = great; o^ScooSoSsgi =; a Commissioner., 

(^(£god5 =: The Supreme Court. 

33oo^D85ii — oo^Ds§5? = Pity, compassion ; hence sacxa^DsS = pray- 
ing for clemency. 

(^3 or aac^D = a paper, petition. 

ooGpsc^ = a plaintiff, complainant ; oocps = justice, oQ = to de- 
mand. 

13 



( 98 ) 

cDqDjS = A defendant ; cocpg = justice ; 5 = to suffer, to receive. 

co3^ = Feminine of cooepS) (Pali ekaraja) = an empress. 

oc^'^^Sa =z Feminine of cxjsiS = a queen. 

c^cpj = An honorific a&x used in addressing high personages. 

cg^ =z Name of a man. 

fg? = A slave. 

og^GcoS^s (<^) = My. 

33GoTcg5 = On. 

GpQjooc^ = The Penal Code. 

c^So = A section (of the Code). 

33G| = Under, according to. • 

cgobii Name of a town in the Thayetmyo district. 

^ = A town, 

^c^ii A territorial division. 

Q5 = Having jurisdiction. 

o$GCD3o5oSs = Assistant Commissioner ; o$ := a burden, gosdoS 

= to support, to assist, oSs = an administrator. 
^oS^So^GooDoSoSs 1= A Subdivisional Officer. 
^s = A Court. 
CO = From. 

q]G08 = Given, passed ; g = down, go§ = to give. 
GOOD = 00^ = The relative pronoun which. 
Sg^S^oS = A decision, judgment, 
c^ = To (sign of the accusative case). 
ooGODDocxj = To disagree, to disapprove, to be dissatisfied with ; 

oDGooo = Wish, will, o = a negative prefix, cxj = to be equal 

to. 
^11 The causative as. 

oSsoj^sii The headquarters of the Minbu district or division. 
|d5 = In. 
saojjo = To appeal. 

Gp = When ; an adverb of place used as an adverb of time. 
qSsooD = Happiness, redress. 
(^ = To obtain. 

ol 11 An affix of courtesy or of polite request. 
cc»oG(raD§ = Because. 



( 99 ) 

633DoS = Below. 

61 = To be mentioned, written, included. 

309jo5 = Point. 

cj]3Sii Plural affix. 

oagSii Here stands for QSacoSu punishment. 

9 = Prom. 

ql = In order to. 

oS = To enter. 

GGpoS = To arriye. 

oooS = The hand. 

otS = In. 

Gcg = To meet, to find. 

^ = To exist. 

§.D8 = A bullock. 

cG^siic^sii Names of men. 

c^ii Plural affix. 

0011 A preposition of direction. 

33o^s = Price, value. 

eg = Silver. 

Gg 98 = 40 rupees. 

J.S = With. 

oc5 = To buy- 

a;} = To obtain. 

ooScx^ = To buy. 

Gi = To obtain (here by purchase). 

§8 = To steal. 

GcpSi = To sell. 

CDS = To eat. 

GGpSsoDg = To sell (and enjoy the proceeds of the sale). 

08 = To know. 

g^Docj^gs = Village headman : a^ = village, oj = 03 = man, 

= great. 
Ggi = Before. 
o^c5oo?GooD = Adequate. 

m<^ = crjii Denotes the termination of an oratio obliqua. 
• co^8 = Also. 



( 100 ) 

cgDd^ = Say. 

8 = A verbal affix implying inadvertence, misadventure, or the 

admission of a fault or crime. 
^g = Merely. 
oDJ} = Now. 

GOODSaoS = Prison punishment = imprisonment. 
gSioo^ = Severe, 
eg = Very. 

Gaj]scj>iSGODS5i5 = JSenef actor. 
oDoS = Lord. 

Translation of Petition (i). 

To 

The Chief Commissioner or Burma. 

The humble petition of Nga Pyan. 

Being dissatisfied Tvith the judgment passed on him under sec- 
tion 411 of the Indian Penal Code, by the Subdivisional Magistrate, 
Myedfe, he preferred an appeal in the Court of the Commissioner 
of Minbu, but failed to obtain any redress. Petitioner, therefore, 
approaches the Chief Commissioner for clemency. 

The bullock found in petitioner's possession was purchased by 
him from Nga Po and Nga Mo for Rs. 40. Not knowing that it 
was stolen property he bought the animal in the presence of the 
village headman giving an adequate price for it. 

The complainant could not say that, petitioner purchased the 
animal with the knowledge that it was stolen property. Petitioner 
submits that for merely buying it unwittingly the present sentence 
of imprisonment passed on him is very severe. Petitioner, where- 
fore, prays for clemency. 

(Signed) Nga Pyan. 



( 101 ) 

Petition (2). 

GgD5g@g^c6^So§GOODo5GOo5«6s^8GOD5coglDo5c2Dll 
OOgSs}ll i^OOOOGpi^|,olo5 gll 

coGpsa co^sgodS cgoSsgl^ qSiii 



Oq^O^SGg J908 C^G^C^J^Il 

oqcpsogj^GODScjoSSj^G^cxj^cxj^co^SoqcS^^saaSi^SGooB 
60I cx>^a:jGpsii 
on ii33ooo5330^olooGpgo cc^sgodSod^ii o jgSqu^cx^^cooo^g 2 '°l"^s% 

Og8llOgj?GOQ5o6llc8llOgSsoSg||G008CXj5(^DSC^IIGg OOoSo^g Oo5aj^gsG$3o5ll^|sG[oS 

cqjGGpoScxD^saoliiog ao8 GosGqii Gg 908 a5j.|l^o|GQD5sii qSsG^DoS clsGJqDoS 
clso^8sa^$4jDS|>5 qj[oo"lsm3Sc^Gg joo8 G^gooSoooSo^g^Gpii qSsCXJ^C^SGgODS 
joo8^6« 330oo5oq?c^s cq^cg ;5o8ol(i j>SG|5Gg j?o8 c^oocolSsoo^s ^oqSii 

GCOdSsS^00^3331iI GOSGq)&^§ll OCJ^GGpSg g(§59o6 ODSJ[533GOO 33Sj)0 q^Ss^OOoS 

yoSGqgc^sSo^olGf^DSsu 

Jll llCjSsG43o5G|o5o033GOD5(^3(gSll 023gGGpo5GODDSsG[5sGpllOG080Gq]c8§S 
G^jdS 8g^o1oO^J>S|I OOS^ OJ^OKJll ola^CO CqjGGpCTSgil C33[^533CO^g O^DgGGpoS 
G0035sq§gepliq5gOq$0^gGg(^DgC^OGOSOGg^£3^gjll33CX)£g^OGgDd^olG(^D6fll 

c^(c^Sol^ii 330oo533s^o1cc^sgod6c^ii ooSGoToBcaog gcdSijjoI^n a^^oSgGg 

J9o8(jjDgC^G|^olG33D5ll 3o8^„9cO^ OOoSoCO^DSGOoSl^olo^ 33g(^dSs^^S338g|S 

GooS 6oloogSoqep8ii 

gbdSc^sojoSii 



GgDSsgll 


The headquarters of the Myaungmya district, 


^00 


= Original (Palij. 


COGpS^ 


= A civil suit. 


09? 


= Goods. 


^ 


= To obtain,' to recover. 


^ 


= To wish. 


OjloDgS 


= A trader. 


co^sajc8ii 


Name of a person. 


§i^^ 


= To worship. 



( 102 ) 



3d8(^SgO0Bo 


= To receive a decision. 


^oq^ii Name of a montli corresponding to June. 


ODOO^S 


= Waxing moon. 


S 


= Oil. 


ogSsoSs 


= An areca or betel-nut. 


Gajs 


= Tobacco. 


(XfS 


= A bundle. 


G^DoS 


= After. 


q^iGfS 


— An appointed day. 


cqjGGpoS 


= To arrive, to fall. 


330l 


= When. 


eg 


= To settle, to satisfy a demand. 


cq]^ 


= To remain. 


C1SC§DC£ 


— Dried fish. 


clso^Ss 


= A species of carp (here smoked fish of that va 




riety is meant). 


m. 


= Wheat. 


ools 


= Grain ; paddy, unhusked rice. 


ooSo 


:= In addition to ; again. 


§^ 


= A verbal aflEix denoting repetition. 


cp 


= When. 


qSs or co^! 


sgoddSs = This. 


GgOoS 


= Amount of money due. 


ol 


= Including. 


ciS 


= Item. 


j.Sg|5 


= Two items. 


CDGolSsOD^S 


= Together. 


goqS 


= To make. 


goddSss^ 


= To ask, to demand. 


gQSSoS" 


Transliteration of " On demand." 


oDq|[S 


= A deed, instrument. 



G(35SoSoDg|^5 = A promissory note. 
33GOD33qD = Duly, propcrly, in order. 
q||5a^ = To execute (a document). 

C006505 = A signature. 
Gqsc^s = To sign. 



( 103 ) 

po$ = To undertake. 

33GooS = Considerable. 

(33@S = Lapse of time. 

GcosSsG^Ss = To demand. 

c8§8G5^d8 = To shun, avoid. 

j.6 = odQS = goodg^dS = As. 
33(cg533oo^i= Stringently. 

saooSj = Wilfully, forcibly, 

sjs) = To resist. 

c§@8ol§ = Therefore. 

sx)6goT = To summon. 

oSgsos = To examine. 

g33dS = In order to. 

33% = Order. 
§00^11 Transliteration of "decree." 

oDoSo = To help, to assist. 

oo^DS = To pity. 



Translation of Petition (2); 

IN THE COUET OP THE SUBDIVISIONAL OEEIOER, 

MYAUNGMYA. 

Civil ■R^bgtjlab No. 9 op 1896. 

Nga Po Tok, trader, Bassein . . . Plaintiff. 

Nga Po Maung, trader, Myaungmya ... Defendant. 

Suit for the recovery of Es. 2,800, being the amount dae for the value of goods sold. 

The humble petition of Nga Po T6kj trader, Bassein. 

Respectptjllt showeth — 

1. That on the 7th waxing of Nayon 1256, B.E., the above- 
mentioned Nga Po Maung bought of petitioner oil, betel-nut, and 
bundles of tobacco to the value of Rs. 1,000, but paid Ss. 700 only 
on the day appointed for payment. Subsequently he further pur- 
chased Rs. 2,000 worth of dried-fish, smoked-fish, and wheat, and 
when petitioner demanded payment of this sum and the balance 



( 104 ) 

of Es. 300 preyioTisly remaining, or a total of E-s. 2,300 in all, he 
duly executed a promissory note undertaking to pay the amount 
on demand. 

2. After the lapse of a considerable time, payment was demand- 
ed, when the said Nga Po Maung avoided meeting the demand, 
and on making a stringent demand last Wazo, he stubbornly re- 
fused to pay the money. 

Petitioner, wherefore, humbly prays that Nga Po Maung may 
be summoned and examined, and that a decree for the said Es. 
2,300 may be passed in petitioner's favour. 

(Signed) Maung Po T6k. 



Petition (3). 

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Sll 



( 105 ) 

Translation of Petition (3). 

To 

The Chief Commissioner of Burma. 

The humble petition of Maung Pet, Ma Thet, and 
Nga San Hla, of Kamathi-ashe kioin village, 
Martaban (Amherst district). 

Respectftjllt showeth — 

That in 1255 B.E., Goolam Mahomed, a native of India, resid- 
ing in Kadaing village, Martaban, sued petitioners for the re- 
covery of 300 baskets of paddy, valued at E.s. 405, and a debt of 
E,s. 5, or a total of Rs, 410, in the Court of the Myook, Paung. 
The Myook accordingly ordered the delivery of the 300 baskets, 
and, in compliance therewith, petitioners repeatedly offered to 
deliver the paddy in instalments. The plaintiff, however, refused 
to take delivery, and petitioners twice represented his conduct to 
the Township Officer. The Township Officer thereupon passed 
orders to the effect that, if the plaintiff failed to take delivery of 
the paddy by the 7th waxing of Nayon of the same year, the 
decree should be deemed to have become null and void. About 
four months after this, on the arrival of a new Township Officer, 
the plaintiff sued petitioners de novo and obtained a similar 
decree. Being thus aggrieved petitioners preferred an appeal in 
the Court of the Deputy Commissioner, Moulmein, but the 
Deputy Commissioner confirmed the Township Officer's judgment. 
Petitioners, wherefore, pray that the proceedings of the lower 
Courts may be called for and perused, and that justice may be 
shown to them. 



Petition (4). 

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14 



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( 106 ) 

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Translation of Petition (4). 

IN THE COURT OF THE FINANCIAL COMMISSIONER, 

RANGOON. 

Revenue Appeal No. 9 op 1896. 
Nga So, cultivator of Sinbut village, — Appellant. 

Subject .-—Praying that the orders of the Commissioner of Sagaing, in Bevenue Appeal 
No. 3 of 1896, may either be cancelled or modified. 

Appellant most humbly prays that the proceedings in his case 
may be called for and perused, and that the orders of the Commis- 
sioner of Sagaing passed on the 20th of January 1896, as well as 
those of the lower Court, may either be cancelled or modified. 

Geounds op Appeai/. 

1. The kaing * land in dispute is State land. He has been 
cultivating it and paying revenue thereon for the last five years 
and up to the year 1256 B.E., and holds receipts for the same. 

* Alluvial land on which vegetables are generally cultivated. 



( 107 ) 

* 

It was only when the pea and bean crops he has sown this year, 
had grown and matured, that the lower Courts withdrew and 
allotted the land with the standing crops to others. This is con- 
trary to the provisions of section 25 of the (Upper Burma Land 
and Revenue) Regulation No. Ill, and of Rule 30, section (v) of 
the rules thereunder. He is, therefore, aggrieved. 

2. If it was considered proper to allot the land to others, he 
should have been ejected before he had sown his crops. He 
represented to the lower Courts that a regular revenue -payer like 
him did not deserve being put to such a loss. But no notice was 
taken of his representation. The orders passed by them should, 
therefore, be cancelled. 

Appellant, wherefore, prays that the proceedings of the lower 
Courts may be called for and perused, and that their orders may 
either be cancelled or modified. 

(Signed) Mating So. 



APPENDIX III. 



Extracts from the " Selections from the Kecords of the 

Hlutdaw." 

(a) 

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( 110 ) 



(a) 
CHAPTER II, 7, page 40. 

Mules for the guidance of Ministers and other Officials acting as 

Judges. 

1. No Judge appointed for tlie administration of civil or 
criminal justice shall take cognizance of, or deal with, any case 
not belonging to the department under his control. 

2. While a case is pending in the Hlutdaw or Yondaws, the 
Judge shall not visit or send men to the houses of the parties. 

3. The Judge shall not, during his incumbency, receive bribes 
from litigants, in the shape of gold, silver, cloth, or other property 
animate or inanimate. 

4. The Judge shall have no business transactions with litigants 
{lit. buy and sell, lend and borrow gold, silver, precious stones, 
cloth, horses, cattle, and other property animate and inanimate). 

5. Besides the duly licensed advocates, only such law-agents 
shall be allowed to practise in the Courts as are conversant with 
the Dhammathats, and are selected and appointed by the Heads of 
departments. 

6. The licensed advocates and law-agents shall not, when en- 
gaged by one party, act for the other party. 

7. The Judge shall see that the clerks and peons receive no 
more than the fees prescribed in the table of costs. (Chap. II, 5.) 



(b) 

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( 111 ) 

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( 112 ) 

(b) 
CHAPTER TVfaJ, 1, page 92. 
Petition of Nga Myat Yo, Nga So Pe, Nga Ta Yb, and Nga 
Chit Tun, Kyedangyis * of the Pyinzigaung, Seinban, 
Kanzi, and Kyegan villages, respectively, of the Shwe- 
pyiyanaung,t Anauklet township, — 

E,ESPECTPTJLLY SHOWliXH — 

That Nga Nyan Baw, the Kyegan Ywathugyi,* has abused his 
position, and, in violation of his oath of allegiance to His IMajesty, 
has mortgaged his thugyiship for a sum of Pts. 300 odd, levied over 
Es. 1,000 in excess of the laAvful demands ; and that Xga. Than, 
the mortgagee, who is an outsider, has oppressed the people. 
Petitioners, therefore, pray that the said Nga- Nyan Baw and Nga 
Than may be legally proceeded against. 

Order recorded by the Moda Wundauk. 

Institute an enquiry. 

(Sd.) KiNWUN MiNGYI. 

Taunggwin Mingyi. 
Hlttdaw : A 

The 7th loanl'tifj Wagaunrj 1345. > 
(25th August 1883.) J 



Deposition of Theikdi Ponnaka, the Shwepyiyanaung Myin- 
w^un, dated 9th Avaning Tazaungni6n 1245 (25th Novem- 
ber 1883). 

With reference to the above petition, I sent for the Thugyi as 
directed by the Hlutdaw. I find that he has absconded. Nga 
Than, the mortgagee, who has taken the Thugyi's place, is not ap- 
proved by the people. They are insubordinate to him and do not 
perform their duties satisfactorily. The thathameda and other 
matters connected with Kyega,n village ^vill, therefore, be placed 
in the hands of the Kyedan^^yi and Ywathugyis. The village 
elders recommend for the appointment one Nga Thaw, who is re- 

* The Kyedangyi is the headman of a village. The Ywathugyi is the headman of an 
important Tillage or a group. of villages. 
f Name of a cavalry regiment. 



( 113 ) 

presented as a true hereditary claimaBt and a Shwepyiyanaung 
abmudan. 



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15 



( 114 ) 

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( 115 ) 

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(c) 
CHAPTER V, 3, page 153. 

Petition of ahmudan Nga Yan Lin, of the Yweletya regiment, 
and his sister-in-law Mi Ket. 

States on oath that Nga Shwe Bein, of the said regiment, and 
hushand of Mi Ket, served with the Monfe column under Nga Set, 
ea-'-Myook oE Tantahin. While so serving the ea;-Myo6k seized 
Nga Shwe Bein's property and murdered him. Petitioners, where- 
fore, pray that the said e.i-Myook Nga Set may he legally pro- 
ceeded against in the Hlutdaw. 



Examination of accused, dated 11th waning 1st Wazo 1245 
(20th June 1883). 
I DO not know whether the man, Nga Shwe Bein, mentioned in 
the petition of Nga Yan Lin and Mi Ket was a Yweletya ahmu- 
dan or not. When I was ordered to serve with the Mone column, 



( 116 ) 

I bought Mm for Rs. 70 as a personal slave under a bond and 
took him away with me to Mone. Arrived there, Nga Yan, 
a Natsuletwfe ahmudan, who Avas in charge of the transport bul- 
locks, complained to me that Nga Shwe Bein had stolen some of 
the animals. Nga Shwe Bein was accordingly sent for and ex- 
amined. He admitted the complaint and added that he had sold 
them. Over 10 bullocks were stolen and a few had already been 
recovered, when, while demanding * the recovery of the re- 
mainder, Nga Shwe Bein unfortunately succumbed. I did not 
take any property belonging to him. 

Okdbr eecobded by the Nyatjngwun Wtjndal'e:. 

In order to ascertain whether the deceased Nga Shwe Bein met 
his death at the hands of the e^-Myo6k while he was forcibly 
demanding the recovery of the bullocks stolen from the hands 
of Nga Yan, the Natsuletwe ahmudan, let Nga Yan and the 
Thenat Saye, who was with the Mone column, be summoned and 
examined, and resubmit with their depositions. 

(Sd.) KiNWUN MiNGTI. 

Taunggwin Mingyi. 
Taingda Mingyi. 
Hlutdaw : -N 

Dated 4ih waning 1st Wazo 1345. > 
C23rd June 1883.) J 



Deposition of Nemyothurakyawthu, Natsuletwe Thenat Saye, 
dated 12th waning 1st Wazo 1245 (1st July 1883). 

The Shwehlan Bo, who was commanded to march against 
the ex-^ionh Sawbwa, ordered that each amhudan should be 
supplied with three baskets of rice, and that each thwethauk 
should have a bullock to carry the rice. The c.i--Myo6k of Tan- 
tabin, who was the Tatbo, supplied the bullocks and gave them in 
charge of Nga Yan. When the e^^-Myook's man Nga Bein sold 
some of the animals, Nga Yan came and made a report to me 
first, and, because Nga Bein was not an ahmudan, I directed Nga 

* Accompanied of course with blows. 



( 117 ) 

Yan to go and complain to the ex-Mjook, his master. I heard 
from the ahmudans afterwards that when Nga Yan made his com- 
plaint, the ex-Mjo6k punished his man with death. 



Deposition of Nga Yan, Natsuletwfe ahmudan (same date). 
I WAS entrusted by the Tatbo, Thenat Saye, Tathmu, and thwe- 
thauks, with the keeping of 10 bullocks. Eight of these were taken 
and sold by Nga Bein and I reported the matter to the Thenat 
Saye. I was directed to complain to Nga Bein's master and I did 
so. 



Bond executed by Nga Bein and Mi Ket, produced by the 
eo^-Myook of Tantabin. 

On the 3rd waxing day of Tliadingyut 1244 (14th September 
1882), Nga Bein and his wife Mi Ket came and offered to become 
the slaves of the Tantabin Myook and his wife for Us. 70, as they 
wanted to pay two debts of Es. 35 each, which they owed to Me 
Unit, wife of the Theinni Sitkfe. The Tantabin Myook and his 
wife accordingly paid Es. 70 and kept Nga Bein and his wife Mi 
Ket as their personal slaves. 

Witnesses — ^ Writer 

(Sd.) Mating Saw. I Nga Po Thin. 

(Sd.) Nga Shwe At. ) 

Judgment recorded by the Bind alb Wtjndatjk. 
In this case, it is clear that the deceased died of the injuries he 
received at the hands of the ex-M.jobk, who had occasion to punish 
his slave while on duty with the Eoyal troops. Mi Ket, one of 
the complainants, states that her husband, the deceased, served with 
the troops of his own accord and that he was not the ea?-Myo6k's 
slave. But the bond produced by the e^-Myo6k is sufficient 
documentary evidence against her. We, however, consider that 
no master has the right to cause the death of a slave. The ex- 
Myook shall forego the sum of Es. 70 mentioned in the said bond 
which shall be cancelled, and he shall pay to the complainant, 



( 118 ) 

Mi Ket, the sum of Rs. 160 as compensation * for the death of her 
husband, Nga Bein. 

(Sd.) KiNWUN MiNGTI. 

Taunggwin Mingyi. 
Taingba Mingyi. 
Hlutdaw : ~j 

Bated 9th waning Wazo 1246. C 
fl6th Julij 1884.J ) 



(d) 



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( 119 ) 

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(d) 
CHAPTER VII, 15, page 179. 

From the Malunlemyo Wun, dated 1st waning Tazaungm6n 
1246 (19th Octoher 1884), presented by Myogan Nga 
Po Tu. 

In compliance with the instructions issued by Government, I 
beg to report that I have issued orders to the myothugyis, ywa- 
thugyis, and taikbmus within my wunship, direetinL,"- them to pre- 
serve the peace vA'ithin their respecti^'e jurisdictions, to establish 
patrols night and day along the trade routes, to prevent bribery 
and corruption, and generally to see to the welfare and prosperity 
of the people. My clerks and myself conform to the first 9 para- 
graphs of the instructions, and do not receive any illegal gratifi- 
cation from the people. We do not harbour bad characters and 
have not appointed any thugyi other than those duly appointed 
by Government. The clerks are not jiermitted to issue summons 
at will. These documents are formally drawn up in open Court 



( 120 ) 

and served. Court-fees are demanded according to the provisions 
of paragraphs 16, 17, and 18. Prisoners are committed to jail 
always with the previous sanction of the Kayaing Wun. Under 
paragraphs 10 to 25, the thugyis and taikhmus are always direct- 
ed to execute their bonds at the Myoyon and copies of these are 
always submitted. By virtue of His Majesty's power and glory, 
there is peace and prosperity throughout my jurisdiction. The 
price of paddy is Rs. 110 per hundred baskets, rice Rs. 250 per 
hundred baskets, fegya beans Es. 130 per hundred baskets, oil 
Rs. 70 per hundred viss, cutch Rs. 30 per hundred viss, crude cot- 
ton Rs. 10 per hundred viss, prepared cotton Rs. 50 per hundred 
viss, wheat Rs. 160 per hundi'ed baskets, pegyi beans Rs. 150 per 
hundred baskets, sessamuta Rs. 280 per hundred baskets, gram 
Rs. 130 per hundred baskets, jaggery Rs. 17 per hundred viss, 
pounded ngapi (fish-paste) Rs. 13 per hundred viss, salt Rs. 6 per 
hundred viss, and dried murrel or snakehead (fish) Rs. 60 per 
hundred viss. A list of irrigation works within my jurisdiction 
is being prepared and will be submitted when ready. 



(e) 
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( 121 ) 

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(e) 
CHAPTER VII, 21, page ISi. 

Erom the Sagaing Kayaing Wun, Maingkaing Myoza, dated 
10th waxing Thadingyut 1216 (29th September 1884), 
submitted by Royal Messenger, Nga Kaing. 

In order to properly assess and collect the thathameda-tax, I 
went personally to Konbet village, Ye-u township, Tabayin district, 
and, to avoid causing hardship, issued orders directing the people 
to pay in the tax in two instalments. The people, however, pre- 
ferred to pay it in full at once, and I acceded to their request. I 
have accordingly been collecting the tax, and, to ensure the safe 
arrival of remittances, have appointad a guard consisting of 30 
armed men at the mango-grove, a mile south of my camp, another 
of the same strength at Wettogyaw, a mile to the west of it, and 
a third consisting of the same number of men at Natyegan-sakan 
a mile north of it. The collections in camp are guarded by a body 
of P6ndawdo ahmudans, and sentries are placed at each guard 
night and day. Besides these, my subordinates have with them 
40 armed men to act as guards and sentries. I have now collected 
over a lakh of rupees and shall remit all collections in full within 
the month of Thadingyut (October). There are no cases of da- 
coity within the Tabayin district. The people enjoy peace, the 
rainfall is good, and the agricultural operations are extensive. 



G. B. C. P. O.— No. 3018, B. S., 29-9-98—2,000. 

16 



PARAGON ^ 
jm GALLERY 

{"The Ofitntal Boehslon] 

of Amtrica" 

||14I) CAST 5»tli SmCETl 

NEW YORK 23, H. V. 



mfm 





■'^' 



ELEMENTARY HANDBOOK 



^^ 



OF THE 



BURMESE LANGUAGE 



BY 



TAW SEIN KO, M.R.V.S., f.a.i., f.s.a., 

(iOVEBNMENT T]lANSLAT(jn A.;D HONOKAUY AKCHAJOLOGICAJ^ OFFICE!,, BURMA. 







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U- 



RANGOON: 

PRINTKD BY THE SUPKRI JTENUENT, GOVERNMENT PRINTING, BURMA. 

1898. 




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I Price,— Rs. 2-8-0. ] 



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