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Cornell University Library 
PS 2376.M7K2 1900 

Kalooah.The adventures of Jonathan Rome 

3 1924 022 219 400 

Cornell University 

The original of tiiis bool< is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

I e 



W. S. MAYO, M.D. 






ttbe Iknfcfserbijcfeerr press 


^''^9 9 f^ I 




Press of 

G. P. PutmaSj's Sons 

New York 



Madam : 

There are, I presume, a few " good-natured " people in the world who 
will be ready to attribute this dedication to a desire merely of connecting 
my name, however remotely or indirectly, with that of your illustrious 
husband — the Hero of Niagara and Mexico. There are some, also, who, 
deceived by the identity of our family names, may kindly give me credit, 
unless I put in this disclaimer, for a disposition to parade a relationship 
that does not exist. All, however, who have the honor of your friend- 
ship, will do my motives justice, inasmuch as they can readily compre- 
hend the inducements to pay a compliment, where the highest terms of 
compliment are but the words of soberness and truth. They, at least, 
will find no difficulty in believing that I avail myself of your permission 
to inscribe to you the following pages, solely because it affords me an 
opportunity of expressing my appreciation of your many high qualities — 
your literary tast'e, cultivated conversational talent, happy grace of man- 
ner, and kindness of heart. 

Your obedient servant. 

The Editor. 


The following letter will best explain the way in which these pages 
came into the editor's hands, and the degree of credit that may be fairly 
given to them as an authentic record of the travels and adventures of a 
young American : " 

Dear Doctor : 

You must know that I have recently come into the possession of a 
manuscript, purporting to be the travels and adventures of a young 
American, in various parts of the world, but mainly in the deserts of 
Africa, and in the unknown, and hitherto unvisited countries south of the 
Soudan. The manuscript strikes me as being curious, interesting, and 
apparently authentic ; but I have so little confidence in my own judg- 
ment, in such matters, that after a deal of patient and painful cogitation 
upon the subject, I find myself utterly unable to decide two questions 
that present themselves, to wit : Is it worth publishing ? and if so, what 
will be the best manner of giving it to the world ? 

But first let me explain how the manuscript came into my possession. 
You have heard of Salee, I suppose ; or rather, of the Salee Rovers, who 
not many years since swept the Atlantic from Tercera to Teneriffe, and 
(with a degree of boldness that made them the bug-a-boos of crying babies 
for miles inland) carried their bloody swallow-tail pendants up the Eng- 
lish Channel, and even through the intricate passages of the Skagerrack 
and Cattegat. You have heard of these rascals, and of their town ; but 
perhaps you would have to refer to your geography or to a gazetteer ; 
for the fact that it is situated at the mouth of the Buregreb, exactly 
opposite the flourishing town of Rabat, and precisely one hundred and 
twenty miles from the Straits of Hercules, down the Atlantic coast of the 
dominions of Muley Abderrahman. Now in this particular, to wit, the 
aspect and topography of Salee and its environs, I have the advantage of 
you ; for it so happens that, once upon a time, I was under its walls, and 
in momentary expectation of entering its gates, when I was advised that. 


owing to the fanaticism and ferocity of the inhabitants of the dilapidated 
town, it would be unsafe to enter, and that we must make a detour by 
the walls to reach the ferry and cross to Rabat. Passing the lofty arches 
of an ancient aqueduct, my guides hurried me along a road at the bottom 
of the ditch, with the crumbling walls on one hand, and the crest of the 
cactus-covered glacis on the other, until we debouched upon a broad 
reach of sand, which has filled up the port of the once famous town, and 
diverted the channel of the river to its rival Rabat. 

The liberalizing influences of commerce are nowhere better to be seen 
than in its effect upon the character and manners of the people of Rabat. 
In the one — a flourishing town, where reside many Moorish and Jewish 
merchants who have intimate relations with the Rock of Gibraltar, Mar- 
seilles, and Leghorn, — a Christian can pass through the streets under the 
protection of a Moorish guide, without any great danger of violence from 
the manifestations of holy hatred with which the pious people look upon 
the dog of an unbeliever ; in the other — a dilapidated town, whose inhab- 
itants have nothing (spinning haicks and tanning goat-skins excepted) to 
do but to nurse their prejudices and dream of the glorious days when a 
hundred plunder-laden feluccas and polaccas crowded the now sand- 
choked harbor, and the groans of ten thousand cursed Kaffir captives 
resounded through the capacious vaults of the water wall and bastions, — 
any thing in cravat, coat, and pantaloons runs an imminent risk of life. 
In the one, the booted and beavered stranger has thrown at him dark 
scowls and sinister grins ; in the other, he is sure to be pelted with stones ; 
in the one he is spit at, in the other he is spit upon ; in the one he gets 
merely curses, in the other he is sure to get kicks ; in the one a single 
guard protects him from personal violence ; in the other it may be ques- 
tioned whether the Sultan's crack regiment, said to be composed wholly 
of his own sons, would be able to preserve an inch of Christian skin 
intact. Strange that there should be such a difference between the in- 
habitants of two places, situated not more than five or six hundred yards 

Arriving at Rabat, I found an order from the court requiring me to 
stop until I could explain more satisfactorily the object of my journey. 
As I afterwards found, commercial jealousy had been aroused, and repre- 
sentations made to the emperor that under the pretence of travelling for 
amusement, I in reality concealed some deep political designs. The sus- 
picion of the most suspicious, ignorant, and bigoted court in the world 
once excited, there was an end to my visions of a gilt-edged, Morocco, 
bound volume, entitled, " Itineratings in the Atlas," or some other fanci- 


ful and taking title. Tiie recollection of the Spanish impostor, who, about 
forty years since, under the name of Ali Bey, and disguised (Christian dog 
that he was) in the garb of the faithful, made his way to the capital, and 
afterwards perpetrated a book of travels, is still fresh in the minds of the 
Moors ; and next to a spy of the French government, the last person 
they would like to see perambulating the country would be a gentleman 
suspected of paper-spoiling propensities, in search of the novel and the 
picturesque. At an audience with the governor of the town, I found 
that my return was equally impossible — not that I was positively prohib- 
ited from going back, but it was respectfully intimated that could I per, 
suade my guards and muleteers to accompany me, they would have every 
particle of skin cut from their backs with thongs of bull's hide. There 
was no resource but to send a courier to the court and quietly await an 
answer, which I did with somewhat of the feeling of the worthy nephew 
of Gil Perez, when he found himself caught in the cave, like a rat in 
a trap. 

A walk through the town, and a visit to the towers and battlements 
of the Kassbah, sufficed to pass the first day. A ride in the environs, 
and an examination of Sma Hassan, a superb square tower, said to have 
been built by the architect of the Giralda of Seville, answered for the 
second. The third day I amused myself mainly with an examination of 
the town of Salee, through my pocket telescope ; the distance was so 
small that I could see every stone of the towers, matchicolated with 
stork's nests, and every crevice of the dilapidated curtains connecting 
them. Was it fancy, or did the breeze really waft to my ears a faint echo 
of the million sighs and groans that years past were borne upon every 
blast of the sea-breeze around those cruel walls ? I could hardly tell, but 
one thing, at least, I made sure of, and that was that on the beach, be- 
tween the river and the water gate, there was any quantity of long-legged 
biped, of the snipe genus — tall fellows, standing a foot high, at least, 
without counting the depth of their tracks. So on the fourth day I shoul- 
dered my gun, hired a boat, and had myself rowed across to a retired 
spot some distance below the ferry. I expected sport, but I must say 
that I was wholly unprepared for such kind of sport. It was almost im- 
possible to get a shot at them, they were so tame. No sooner would I 
succeed in raising a fellow by poking him up with the muzzle of my gun, 
than, before I could draw trigger, down he would pop right at my feet, 
with an air as much as to say, wring my neck, if you please, but don't fire. 
At the first shot all Salee was alive, and a hundred vagabonds poked their 
dirty noses from the arches of the water gate. Before they could reach me, 

viii PREFACE. 

I picked up my birds, stepped into the boat, and paddled back to Rabat. 
When all was quiet I ventured across again, took another shot, stirred up 
the old pirates' nest, bagged my bird, and made a similar retreat. This 
interesting operation I repeated half a dozen times in the course of the 
day, the game improving each time in shyness, and promising great sport 
in a day or two, when its caution, so long in abeyance, should have be- 
come thoroughly aroused. But an end was put to my sporting calcu- 
lations when, upon displaying my spoils at night, I found that my 
worthy Jewish host, who was a strict constructionist of the law, would 
have nothing to do with them, and that he would not even permit the 
desecration of his only stew-pan by the blood of birds that had not been 
slaughtered, /fr forinam theologicam. 

The resources of the place thus completely exhausted, the fifth day 
hung heavy. I could do nothing but pace up and down the narrow pre- 
cincts of the paved court-yard ; the Bashaw having sent me, with a present 
of grapes and figs, an intimation that I had better not expose myself so 
much on the roof and in the streets, lest some kief-smoking, hasheesh- 
eating believer should, in his delirium, take it into his head to make of my 
person a target for ball practice, and thus win heaven for himself by send- 
ing me to the devil. 

" Have n't you a book of any kind ? " I inquired of my host, Isaac 

" Not one ; Rabbi Yacob Benolile, however, has several ; I will go 
down to the Millah, or Jews' Quarter, and borrow them for you." 

" Do so. If he has n't any Spanish or Latin books, bring any thing 
that he has; Syriac, Coptic, any thing. I feel as if I could read an 
Egyptian papyrus or a Runic tombstone." 

The worthy representative of the two great commercial powers, Eng- 
land and America, started off on his errand ; but in a moment he returned, 
and putting his head in at the door, exclaimed, " Manuscritos, seiiorf" 

" Certainly, manuscripts or printed books ; any thing to read," I 

"Well, then, seilor, I now bethink me that I have two manuscripts" ; 
and drawing aside a curtain from a dark recess, Isaac produced from a 
dusty shelf a large bundle, enveloped in a fragment of an old Moorish haick. 
Upon examination it was found to contain two stout rolls of paper : one of 
these, with a very ancient appearance and fish-like smell, proved to be the 
log-book of a Portuguese mistico, and besides the usual notices of courses 
and winds, contained several accounts current with the crew for oil, gar- 
lic, salt fish, and Jew brandy, with frequent memorandums of cargo, 


custom-house payments, and port charges. The other was a much cleaner 
and newer piece of writing, in a character that I at once concluded to be be- 
yond my skill to decipher. I could not even conjecture, with confidence, the 
language. It clearly was not Arabic or Hebrew, and, therefore, it might 
be Tuaric or Shellock, and if so, I could pore over it a week, and be none 
the wiser : but still my eyes were rivettedon the pages ; there was a familiar 
look in the turn of some of the letters that quite fascinated me. The 
writing was in a very fine and compact hand ; it was divided into chapters, 
and what was the most curious thing about it, each chapter was numbered 
in Roman numerals. Upon questioning Isaac, he informed me that the 
manuscript had been in his possession about a year ; that it had been 
brought to him by a Moor from Tafilet, who said that it had been left in 
his charge by a sick man who had arrived with the last caravan from the 
desert, and who had requested him to bring it with him, and give it to 
any of the commercial agents of Christian countries he should meet on 
the coast. At first Isaac had felt some curiosity in relation to it, and had 
shown it to a French wool-dealer, and to several learned rabbins, all 
of whom could make nothing of it. He then thought of sending it to 
the English consul-general, but business interfering, he had put it aside, 
and thus it had remained undisturbed ever since. 

I was about closing the book in despair, when, upon the margin of one 
of the pages I saw, in parallel columns, the English alphabet, and the 
corresponding characters of the manuscript, which it was easy to perceive, 
when thus in juxtaposition, were nothing more or less than Roman letters, 
with the consonants trimmed down and condensed, and the vowels 
expressed by a single dot. Imagine my astonishment and delight, to 
find upon applying this key, and deciphering a few words, that the manu- 
script was written in English; After a few hours' practice I found that I 
could read this cypher quite easily, so that, at the end of five days I had 
read and re-read the whole of it. Permission now arriving from the court 
to resume my journey, I bade adieu to Rabat, and to the worthy Benshe- 
mole, who readily consented to my taking the manuscript with me. 

It is a transcription of this manuscript that I now send you for your 
opinion. Is it worth publishing? as for me, I have sometimes had my 
doubts about it, although I have been, and am now, deeply interested in 
it ; but then I am fond of any thing in the shape of travels and adven- 
tures, and my judgment may not be sufficiently discriminating. Should 
your opinion coincide with mine, I have to request that you will take the 
editorial charge of the matter, and prepare it for the press, with such cor- 
rections and emendations as may seem to you proper. I have the utmost 


confidence in your literary judgment, and besides, the work, written as it 
is by a medical student, and containing frequent allusions to medical 
matters, should have a medical editor. I entrust the affair, therefore, 
wholly to you. 

There is still another point, in relation to which I must beg your 
opinion. It is now, according to the best estimate that I can make, about 
five years since the manuscript was written. Mr. Romer has been all this 
time in the interior of Central Africa, and if he is alive, and has at 
all prospered in his plans, he must have extended the boundaries of the 
kingdom of Framazugda far down towards the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. 
Don't you think that it would be well that all consular agents, and com- 
manders of national vessels should be apprised of the fact, and officially 
required to keep a sharp look-out for any intimations of his advent, and 
especially for any letters or manuscripts he will most probably send to 
the coast in the hopes of their falling into civilized hands. 

Hoping that you may find the manuscript worthy of the labor of pre- 
paring it for the press, 

I am 

Your obedient servant, etc., etc. 





A Life of Adventure Hereditary — Nantucket Whalemen — Thoughts in a Whale's Mouth — 

A Ship Struck by a Whale and Destroyed ......... i 


School Life — Boyish Adventures — A Revival — School Broken Up — Wanderings and Re- 
flections in the Woods — Joe Downs, the Trapper — An Indian Killed with a Ramrod 
— Arrangements for an Expedition into the Wilderness — A Letter from the Writer's 
Mother lo 


A Hunting Expedition — Meeting with the Indians — A Secret Cavern — Mr. Downs' Opinions 
of the Indians — Indians Suing for Assault and Battery — Encampment in the Pine 
Barrens — One Way to Cook Fish — Deer-Shooting by Torch-Light .... 19 


A Friendly Warning — A Night Visit from Indians — Downs Dangerously Wounded — Re- 
treat to the Secret Cavern — Jonathan's Medical and Culinary Skill — Life in a Cave in 
the Woods — Recovery of Joe ........... 27 


An Opportune Arrival — Return to the Village — Bad News — Jonathan Hurries Home — 
His Mother's Death — A Spiritual Visitation 



Commences the Study of Medicine — Medicine and its Professors — The Doctors in Doubt 
— A Grave Incident — Flight of Jonathan — Arrival in New York — Meets an Old 
Friend — A Youngster on the Main-Gaff — An Opportune Offer — Sailing of the Lively 
Anne 43 




At Sea — Motions and Emotions — A Boat Afloat — Jonathan's Verses and the Captain's Pun 
— A Critique on Lycidas — Corvo and Flores — Arrival at Fayal — ^The Town o£ Orta — 
Sailors and Discipline — Marine Tartars — A Last Look at the Peak — A White Squall, 
or a Water-Spout — A Capsize ........... 53 


The Schooner on Her Beam Ends — State of the Wreck — Jonathan Alone — Cuts Away the 
Main-Mast — Pumps Out the Wreck — The Water Casks Swept Overboard — Jonathan's 
Expedient — A Successful Experiment . .... . . 60 


Preparing Signals — Overhauling the Lockers — A Sail in Sight — Fresh Provisions — Hooking 
a Turtle — More Ships in Sight — Moonlight on the Ocean — The Salvages — Dr. 
Johnson's Prayer ...... ...... 67 


Land Ho !— A Weatherly Craft— The Peak of Teneriffe— Oratavo— A Dark Night— Shore 
Lights — Hailing a Fisherman — Beauties of Quarantine — A Disappointment — A Storm 
— Dining Like a Gentleman — A Ship in Sight — Visit from Her Captain — Leaving the 
Lively Anne .............. 74 


£.1 Bonito — Her Officers and Crew — The Cape de Verde Islands — Peak of Fuego — 
Captain Roberts' Account — The Horse-Latitudes — Rains that are Rains — Flying 
Fish and Their Enemies — The Bonito a Slave Ship — The Misfortunes of Monte — The 
African Coast — A Visit from the Blacks — An Accomplished Linguist — The Fashions 
of Cacongo — The Mafooka — Anchor in Moenza Enzadda — A Slave Station — A White 
Girl — The Gerboo Blanda ........... 82 


Cetting the Ship Ready for Slaves — A Congo Apollo — Visit to a Slave Pen — The Gerboo 
Girl — An Assault and Battery — Caddee M'Pemba — A Compromise — An Offer for a 
Fetish — Purchase of the Gerboo — Visit to Banza Embenda — Kaloolah's Brother — 
Purchase of Enphadde — Return to Lembee — The Bonito Driven to Sea by a British 
Cruiser — Meeting of Kaloolah and Enphadde — House Hunting by Torch-light . . 93 


An Invasion of Ants — Burnt Out — A New House — A Visit from the Slave-Dealer — A Des- 
perate Race — A Judicial Indulgence — An Apt Pupil — Framazugda — Enphadde's Story 
— A Warning — Kaloolah's English — The Tultul and the River — An Attempt to Kill 
Kaloolah — A Sleepless Night .......... loi 


A Congo Custom — A Funeral — A Compliment to the Corpse — A Feast — A Public Speech 
— Making a Hit, or Shooting a Fetish — Kaloolah's Conquest — A Musical Entertain- 
ment — The Malaria — An Attack of Fever — Kaloolah as Nurse — Attentions of the 
Negroes — Return of the Bonito — Danger from Kaloolah's Good Looks — Expedient lo 
Get Rid of Her Beauty ....... .... no 





Captain Garbez' Return — A Hard Blow — A Promise to the Virgin — Sufferings in the 
Barracoons — Preparations for Loading — Packing the Slaves — Loose Packing and 
Tight Packing — Arrangements for Kaloolah and her Brother— A Timely Fit of the 
Rheumatism— Getting to Sea— Effects of. Sea-Sickness among the Slaves— The 
Captain's Argument — Jonathan's Proteges — Talk about Framazugda — Jonathan's In- 


Condition of the Slaves — Throwing Overboard the Sick — A Row with Monte — War to the 
Knife— A Gale — Bearing Away^Opening the Hatches — ^^Picking out the Dead- 
Ophthalmia — A British Cruiser — A Chase — A Dense Fog — A Curious Phenomenon — 
Throwing Overboard the Blind — The Giant of the Diamond Rock— The Lifting of the 
Fog — A Stern Chase— Kaloolah Struck by Monte — Monte Felled to the Deck — 
Jonathan and his Proteges Jump Overboard — Picked up by the Brig .... 127 


Boarding the Brig — Reception by the Captain — Monte in Irons — The D I's Nephew — 

The Doctor a Philologist — Quarter-Deck Wit — Politeness of tlie Officers — Kaloolah's 
Recovery — Captain Halsey , . . . . . . . . . .139 


Sierra Leone — Situation of Freetown — Exuberant Vegetation — Malaria — Its Cause and 
Essence — An Original Suggestion — The Population of Freetown — Politeness of the 
Whites — Anxious Consultations — Enphadde's Plans — A Koollah Guide — Jonathan's 
Resolutions — Takes Passage for Liverpool — A Scene with Kaloolah — The ParcEe at 
Work .....'... 145 


The Duke of Wellington — Jack Thompson — The Ship's Reckoning — A New Rule in 
Navigation — The Captain's Notion of Lunars — A Curious Phenomenon — Breakers 
on the Weather-Bow — Missing Stays — Wearing Ship — The Ship Ashore — Getting 
out the Boat — An Anxious Consultation — Jonathan's Plan — Preparations for 
Landing ,.......,.,.... IS4 


Situation of the Ship — Swimming Ashore — Landing Provisions — Thompson Reaches the 
Reef — Provision Depots in the Sand — A Passage up the Bank — A Hiding-Place — 
Climbing the Cliff — The Desert — A Mounted Arab— The Wreck Discovered— A 
Discourse on Cannibals — Return to the Beach 161 


The Bedouins in Force — A Storm at Night — Breaking Up of the Ship— Collecting the 
Plunder — An Admiralty Judge — The Hiding-Place Discovered — Meeting the Bedouins 
— A Warm Reception — A Council — A Gentle Intimation — A March to the Hills — 
Feminine Curiosity — Jonathan's Plans — Thompson's Despair . . . ' . 168 




A Scanty Breakfast — Watering the Camels — A Change of Humor — Plaguing the Women 
— Judicious Flattery — A Pigeon-Wing in the Desert — Working the Pumps — Starting 
for the Interior — Suffering by the Way — Character of the Country — InStinct of the 
Camelb— The Wells of Ageda 176 


Bedouin Salutations — Encampment at the Wells — Cooscoosoo — An Arrival — "Wind 
Drinkers" — A Change of Masters — Parting with Jack — A Ride in the Desert — Sidi 
Mohammed's Douah — Life in the Douah — Amulets — A Timely Warning — A Delicate 
Hint 183 


A Prize — A Depot of Provisions — A Heirie — The Talayeh, the Sebay, and the Tasay- — An 
Arrival at the Douah — A Search for the Heirie — A Ride with Soonshoo — Secreted 
Stores — Milking the Camels — The Devil's Month — Stretching out into the Desert — 
Soonshoo's Alarm — A Man Overboard — Assisting Soonshoo to Remount — Good-by to 
the Oasis — A Message to Fatimah — Soonshoo Sets Off for Home — A Change of Course 
— Heirie Riding Bedouin Boast ........... i8q 


Sunrise in the Desert — A Sand Wind — A Dead Camel — Sunset — A Good Day's Travel — 
Character of the Country — Encamping for the Night — Electrical Phenomena — Position 
of the Traveller — -Threatening Appearances — A Sand Storm — A Runaway Heirie — 
Finding a Well — A Loaded Camel Buried in the Sand — Examination of his Load — 
A Complete Outfit ............. igj 


Emerging from the Sand-Hills — Burying Treasure — A Beautiful View — A Douah — Arabic 
Greetings — A Sharife and a Hadji — Indications of Danger — A Watchful Night — A 
Startling Warning — An ID-Timed Compliment — The Muezzin's Morning Call — An 
Effective Speech — Setting Off for the Buried Caravan 205 


The Buried Caravan — Moving a Douah — A Feast — A Conversazione — The Wells of 
Boulag — Schools and Scholars — Arts and Artisans — A Tibib — Epaoedopathy — Story- 
Telling — Music — The Song of the Bedouin — Fears and Doubts .... 2H 


The Timbuctoo Kafiila — The Camp in Arms — Sheikh Mahmoud Eben Doud Skein — A 
Display of Horsemanship — Preparations to Attack the Kaffila — The Lab el Barode — 
The Ambuscade — Debouching from the Sand-Hills — The Attack — The Bivouac — 
Astrology and its Truths — A Happy Rencontre — Kaloolah's Story — Jennie — Tim- 






Kaloolah and Jonathan en route — A Dissatisfied Arab — Reasons for Flight — Unrequited 
Affection — Buried Stores — Hurrah ! for Framazugda — Pillars of Sand — The Mirage — 
The Fata Morgana — A Party of Travellers — A Cup of Tea — Hahnemann and 
Homoeopathy 227 


El Garwan — A Bedouin Adage — Sal-gem — Hiring a House — Rumors of a White Slave 
— A Beggar — An Irish Soliloquy — A Manifestation — Hugh Doyle's Slory — Hope 
for the Regenade ............. 234 


Departure from El Garwan — Arrival at Marbash — A Recognition — Jack Thompson-r-A 
Party of Tuarics — A Complete Equipment — Establishing a Watch — The Moral In- 
fluence of Food 241 


The Limit of the Desert — Hugh's System of Fortification — A Herd of Gazelles — Character 
of the Country — Encamping in the Shade — Gazelle Stalking — A Pleasant Meal' — Jack's 
Song — Hyena Music — A Fresh-Water Lake — Bathing — A Visit from a Crocodile — A 
Characteristic Proposition — Leeching a Camel — A Negro Ploughman — A Chase and a 
Capture — Hassan and the Tuarics — A Supply of Provisions — An Addition to the Party, 247 


Forest Sights and Sounds — Kaloolah 's Feelings— The Great River — A Fine Prospect — 
The Froulbell — A Strong Camp — Constructing a Raft — A Stroll in the Forest — A Lion 
in the Path — The Boa — Crossing the Yah'nil Nebbe 260 


Beyond the Yah'nil Nebbe — An Alarmed Town — An Expressive Pantomime — A Friendly 
Reception— The Matcham — Habit Versus Principles— A Kyptily Breakfast — The 
Town of Soconale — The Matcham's Foreign Relations — Departure from Soconale . 270 


The Djebel el Kumri— Slave-Hunters Abroad— The Footas and Their Guns — Jack's Opin- 
ion of the Footas — A Plundered Village — Military Precautions — A Kimboo Scout — 
An Accession of Strength — Midnight Musings— Planning an Ambuscade — Caught in 
Our Own Trap — A Charge and Repulse — The Kimboos' Revenge .... 277 


A Sight for the Reader— Hospitality of the Kyptiles— A Volcano— A Wakeful Night — 
Kaloolah in Tears— Stories of the Guides— Origin of the Framazugs— The Jiggers— 
The Jouaks— The Serpent-Men— The Jalla— The Footas— A Snail-Field- A Rhi- 
noceros — The Nourwall — Garazha — The Captain of the Port — Whamba Donga's 
Town — A Message to the Governor — Crossing the Nourwall — A Triumphal Recep- 
tion — The Dagash — A New View of Kaloolah 288 




Garazha — A Ride— Supping in a Cavern — New Notions of Noses — A Sumptuous Repast 
— A Hunt — Rousing a Lion^A Desperate Ride — The Cha Donga-troll — Death of 
the Lion — Large Birds' Nests — The Semper-sough — Waiting for News — The Change 
in the Princess ..........•••• ^99 


Arrival of Enphadde— The Prince's Story— Setting Out for Kiloam— A Buffalo and His 

Trappings — A Weatherly Craft — Jack jn th? Howdah ...... 307 


Character of the Country — Houses — Monuments — Fountains — A Touch of Politics — 
First Sight of Kiloam — Kaloolah's Emotion — Reception at Jellalob — A Separation — 
An Entertainment — Feats of Jugglers 3I3 


Departure from Jellalob— Pholdefoos — Approach to Kiloam — Entrance into the City — 
Novel Pavement — The Acropolis — The Palace — A Bouquet from the Princess — The 
Hall of the Fountains— The Throne Room — Audience of the Sultan— The Great 
Shounse— A Royal Feast 321 


Apartments of the Princess — An Embarrassing Position — A View from the Balcony — A 
Lovers' Interview — A Spiritual Visitation — Ambitious Reveries — Lightning-Fish — 
Gogo — A Novel Musical Instrument — The Ristum-Kitherum — A Morning Walk — 
Verses for the Princess 333 


Royal Festivities — Latitude of Kiloam — A Transit Circle— Situation of the City — Houses 
— Flower-Garden Roofs — Streets — Municipal Hygiene Sewers — New Mode of Cooling 
Houses — Markets — Bath-Houses — Public Squares — Rate of Mortality — Temples — Re- 
ligious Notions — The Government — Social Distinctions — The Origin of the Framazugs, 343 


A Marriage — Public Curiosity — The Hall of Doubt — A Chorus — An Idle Ceremony — Queer 
Notions of Marriage — The Princess' Toilet — A Curious Veil — A Marriage Procession 
—^Sculptured Nondescripts — The Mound Temple — The Marriage Ceremony — Buried 
Alive 353 


The Honeymoon — News from the Borders — Ravages of the Jalla — Alkafuz — A Night's 
Reconnoissance — Riding a Boa — A Battle — Marching into the Jalla Country — A Novel 
Battering-Ram — Jebha — A Strong Position — Enphadde's Plans — Capitulation of Jebha 
The Grand Shocco — The Source of the Nile — Origin of the Jalla — Queer People — 
Gourd Huts — A Country of'Snakes — Return to Kiloam ..... 359 





Preparations for War — Organizing an Army — The March — Crossing the Queal — A Grand 

Battle — Siege of Goolah — A New Melhod of Scaling Walls 376 


Return from the Wars — Hammed Benshoolo — Message from Kaloolah — Mysterious In- 
dications — Gogo in Chains — An Infant Phenomenon — Conclusion .... 385 


A Desperate Ride Frontispiece 

" He fell into the whale's mouth, and the teeth of the animal closed upon 

his leg " . . 3 

I looked up and saw his comical phiz above the snowbank " . . . 7 
" Dead as Julius Caesar " ....... . . 17 

" A canoe with a single Indian glided alongside " 29 

" Much shattered and contained no one " .... -53 

" The first thing was to give the schooner a chance to right itself " . .61 

You have had rough work here,' he continued, stepping upon deck". . 79 

The Slave Pen — an Assault and Battery 94 

" And drawing my knife I was proceeding to sever the bonds that con- 
fined his arms "..... .... 97 

" And briaging up my gun to bear upon it, fired both barrels in immediate 

succession" . . 113 

"' Stir one step,' I exclaimed, ' and you die !' " . ... 129 

" Sprang into my arms and buried her face in my bosom " . . -151 
" I pointed it out to my companion " ..... 162 

"Crouching low, and near the edge throwing himself on his face " -165 

The Hiding-Place Discovered ......... 172 

" Seizing the hump of one of the tallest camels, drew myself on to his 

back" ....... . . . 179 

" Good-by, my dear Soonshoo " . . . . 193 

A Loaded Camel Buried in the Sand . . . . 202 

" Salam Ailekom ! " . . . . . 207 

Story-Telling . . . . . . . . . . . .214 

" The reclining figure raised itself from the ground, and, stretching forth 
both arms, whispered low but distinctly : ' It is I — Kaloolah, Oh ! 
Jon'than ! '" . . . . . . . . . . . 222 

" Her chief employment was to bring water in a calabash "... 225 

" Mounting so as to overlook the wall " 235 

" Hurrah for Framazugda ! " — Tailpiece ... ... 246 

A Visit from a Crocodile ...... . 252 


'He suddenly stopped, and poising a light spear, expressed, by his ges- 
tures, a very decided disposition to assume the offensive " . . 255 

' You are silent, Kaloolah "....... . 260 

' Over and over rolled the struggling beast "...... 268 

'The stranger repeatedly putting his hand upon his head and bowing " . 271 

' The great volcano, that, rising far above its compeers, served as a beacon 

to the country for a hundred miles around " . . . . 288 

' I wheeled my horse among the bushes, and fired at the monster " . . 293 

' Straight and swift as an arrow he sped along the cracked and jagged 

wall " 3°2 

' Presenting a. figure tha:t would have furnished ah artist with a good life 

model of Neptune on the couch of Amphitrite " . . . -311 

' Enphadde and myself ascended, aiid crossed the tufted carpet, to the 

foot of the throne " ... 330 

' As I entered, the officer who had conducted me threw his feet up into 

the air " • ■ 335 

' He is sentenced to a douche bath, and to be publicly scrubbed from 

head to foot "...... .... 347 

' A deep pit, into which there was a descent by a few stone steps, yawned 

at our feet " . 358 

'You will sometimes see twenty of these houses hanging from one tree," 373 



A Life of Adventure Hereditary — Nantucket Whalemen — Thoughts in a Whale's Mouth — A 
Ship Struck by aW'hale and Destroyed. 

LIFE of adventure may be justly considered my birthright. 
Descended, on both sides of the house, from some of the earli- 
est settlers of Nantucket, and more or less intimately related 
to the Coffins, the Folgers, the Macys, and the Starbucks of 
that adventurous population, it would seem that I have had a natural 
right to a roving disposition, and to a life of peril, privation, and vicissitude. 
Nearly all the male members of my family, for several generations, have 
been "followers of the sea": some of them in the calm and peaceful 
employment of the merchant-service ; . others, and by far the greater 
number, in the more dangerous pursuit of the ocean monster. 

Whaling, it is well known, has been, almost from the first settlement 
of this country, the chief employment of the inhabitants of " the Island." 
All were directly or indirectly mterested in it. By it were bounded the 
hopes of the young and the memories of the old. In it alone could the 
highest honors be won, and good blows and true with harpoon and lance 
were not of less effect in winning the regard of the fair and the respect 
of the men, than the most trenchant sword-cuts of- gallant knights in the 
best days of chivalry. It was, consequently, pursued with an ardor and 
an enthusiasm that penetrated the remotest, wildest, ice-bound retreats, 
of the flying cetacea, and which has served to associate with the charac- 
ter of a Nantucket whaler the idea of dauntless bravery, enduring forti- 
tude, determined energy, industry, and skill. 

In such a pursuit, the most thrilling adventures are the common inci- 
dents of life ; and the traditions of my family abound with stories of 
shipwreck and death, and of " hair-breadth 'scapes " from the imminent 


dangers of the sea. One relative was wrecked upon a desert island of the 
Pacific, and supported life for months upon the eggs of the penguin. 
Another — a Macy — was found floating upon a spar three days after his 
ship had foundered with all her crew. Still another was an officer of a 
ship which was struck and destroyed by an infuriated cachelot, whether by 
accident or design remains a disputed point amongst whalers. 

The boats of the ship were out in pursuit of a " school " of whales, 
when the officer in charge of the deck perceived an enormous animal 
coming down, in the direction on which the vessel was standing, with 
fearful rapidity. It was apparent that, unless the ship's course was 
changed, in an instant more a collision would take place ; and the steers- 
man was directed to put the helm up, in order to give her a sheer out of 
the way, — but it was too late. Her bows had fallen off but a point or 
two when the whale struck her, " head on," with tremendous force. Re- 
covering from their astonishment, the crew proceeded to examine into 
the injury which the ship had suffered. It was soon ascertained that no 
very serious damage had been sustained, when one of the look-outs ap- 
palled them with the shout " Here she comes again ! " and down came 
the whale with renewed fury, — a broad-sheet of white foam attesting the 
rapidity of her progress. Again she struck the ill-fated vessel in nearly 
the same place — just forward of the fore chains. It was now evident 
that the ship was materially injured. Signals were made for the boats to 
return ; they came alongside, and as the vessel was beginning to settle 
rapidly by the head, provisions and instruments were put into them. In a 
few hours she went down, and her crew in three boats were left in the 
middle of the vast Pacific. Only one of the three, after tossing months 
upon the ocean, and enduring the extremes of hunger and thirst, succeed- 
ed in reaching land. 

Another member of my family was the identical boat-steerer of whom 
an anecdote has been often told, illustrative of the characteristic coolness 
of the Yankee whaler. The boat to which he belonged was once knocked 
several feet into the air by a blow from the tail of a fish to which it was fast. 
Upon coming down he fell into the whale's mouth, and the teeth of the 
animal closed upon his leg. After being in this terrible position for some 
time, he was released, picked up by another boat and carried on board, 
where, while preparations were making to amputate his crushed limb, he 
was asked " what he thought of while in the whale's mouth." With the 
utmost sangfroid and simplicity, he replied : " Why, I thought she would 
yield about sixty barrels ! " 

But it is not my intention to detain the reader with anecdotes, of 


which I could relate enough to fill a volume. I mention a few here, only 
to illustrate my hereditary claims to a life of adventure. 

It is a curious fact — one which I believe to be well established — that 
not only are physical and intellectual qualities communicated from 
parents to children, but also many of those mental habitudes and modes 
of thought which are stamped upon our minds by the circumstances in 
which we live. We are impressed from our earliest existence, with the 
spirit of the age or the community, and our mental and moral constitu- 
tions are modified by the influence of that spirit upon the generations 
immediately preceding us. In the days of chivalry, for instance, youths 

"He fell into the whale's mouth, and the teeth of the animal closed vpon his leg." 

were not only educated into gallant and courteous knights, but they were 
also born with a natural predisposition to what were then esteemed 
knightly qualities, accomplishments, and vices. They were born with the 
chivalric idiosyncrasy. 

My parents, both natives of this famous little sandy sea-girt isle, were 
induced, by considerations I need not detail, to take up their residence 
very early in the present century, on the then wilderness of the banks of 
the St. Lawrence. 

The village of O is beautifully situated at the confluence of a 

small stream with the St. Lawrence, and. unlike most of the towns of our 


new country, it is not wholly destitute of romantic associations and his- 
torical remains. Upon a point of land across the affluent of the St. Law- 
rence, and opposite the village, stood the ruins of an old French trading 
house and fort ; one of the chain of posts which the first masters of Can- 
ada undertook to establish from Montreal to Fort Duquesne. It consisted 
of four square buildings, erected upon the angles of a parallelogram, and 
connected by a curtain or wall of twelve or fourteen feet in height. 
Slightly constructed as a defence merely against musketry, or the arrows 
of the Indians, it was illy calculated to resist the ravages of time. Its 
crumbling walls, however, were the scenes of authentic tradition and ro- 
mantic story. To me they furnished the richest food for the imagination, 
and more than one glorious castle in the air was raised while seated upon 
the fallen stones of that dilapidated pile. To me they supplied the place 
of the broken arches and moss-covered relics of the ancient abbey, or the 
ivy-crowned towers of the feudal castle. They were the birthplace and 
school of my ardent and excited fancy ; and as such I shall always recol- 
lect them with more reverence and respect than I could feel now in look- 
ing upon the proudest monuments of the long-since-mighty dead. 

The death of my father, when I was but eight years old, freeing me 
from a good deal of that salutary parental restraint which a father only 
can exercise, my adventurous disposition rapidly developed itself, and 
with it the physical capacities and energies best adapted to that constitu- 
tion of mind. Even when quite a boy I had achieved no inconsiderable 
fame as a wrestler, jumper, swimmer, and marksman. At school, although 
far from industrious or attentive, I acquired a respectable standing, with 
the reputation of being " smart enough, if I would only apply myself," 
but out of school my supremacy was universally acknowledged. No one 
could run faster, swim farther, send a rifle or pistol bullet with surer aim, 
or was more expert at boyish mechanical contrivances. Even at some 
exercises which are not generally practised by boys in the country, such 
as fencing, I became quite a proficient. A deserter from the Canadian 
garrison, on the other side of the river, who had at one time of his life 
acted as a kind of maitre d'armes of a ship of war, gave me my first 

But, although enjoying the practice of all gymnastic sports, and prid- 
ing myself not a little upon my victories and successes, they were far from 
being my only amusement or occupation ; an insatiable thirst for reading 
soon exhausted the scanty libraries of the village, and could only be grati- 
fied by reperusal, until many books were gotten almost by heart. Buried 
in the depths of the sombre forest, or floating upon the broad St. Law- 


rence on a raft of my own construction, or seated amid the ruins of the 
old trading house I have mentioned ; tales, travels, plays, poetry, and 
history, were swallowed indiscriminately with the most comprehensive 
avidity. All came alike to me, and were believed alike. I knew that 
many people looked upon certain books as fictions. I could only wonder 
at such scepticism. Were there not kings and princes and beautiful 
ladies in the world ? Then there must be dragons, griffons, and enchanted 
castles. The evidence was the same for both. I knew that the Seven Cham- 
pions once flourished, each one \x\ propria persona, and that some of their 
relations were still left in the world. I knew that Robinson Crusoe was a 
veritable personage ; no imaginary amplification of a commonplace Scotch, 
man, but a true bona-fide fellow, who had no more to do with Alexander 
Selkirk than I had. Even Jack the Giant Killer — if any boy had dared 
to doubt, in my presence, his bodily existence, that boy would have been 
flogged. At length this mania, for it amounted to that, reached its crisis. 
A copy of Don Quixote fell in my way. The pleasure — the excitement, 
as I read, amounted to agony. There was nothing ludicrous in any of 
the Don's adventures. Taking windmills for giants, was a mistake, no 
doubt, but then the windmills themselves were worthy opponents. I 
longed to attack a windmill. I had a perfectly clear conviction, that, if I 
could once fairly charge a windmill, I should overthrow it and compel it 
to resume its true shape, that of some gigantic magician. Unfortunately 
the only windmill in the neighborhood was one with wings that moved 
horizontally, and at some distance from the ground. The tallest knight 
that ever bestrode a charger of sixteen hands could not have touched the 
lower edge of them with the point of his lance. The windmill was safe, 
but I could not help feeling something like contempt for the great cow- 
ardly whirligig, that, confiding in its secure elevation, seemed to mock my 
ambition. The excitement of my mind continued to increase. My brain 
became as full of absurd conceits as the old Don's. I could not sleep, 
lost my appetite, grew pale and emaciated, and in fact was on the verge 
of settled insanity. 

My mother, justly alarmed, resolved upon change of scene for me, 
and it was decided that I should be sent to the principal academy of the 
county, situated in a pleasant village, about thirty miles from my birth- 

The day after my fourteenth birthday I started upon the journey. I 
have since wandered amid the most dreary wilds of the African conti- 
nent, I have crossed the Sahara, have encountered its arid sands and its 
poisonous simoon, its desolate rocks and its remorseless robbers ; but all 


can never efface the remembrance of that first going forth from home. 
Never as yet had I been a day from beneath my mother's eye. Never 
for a day had I lacked the consciousness of her watchful anxiety, or the 
efficacy of her blessing. Wild, wayward, self-willed, and often utterly 
reckless of her wishes or commands, I yet loved her with the intensest 
affection. The parting was hard, although the crotchets of Don Quixote 
running through my head very much blunted my sense of its pangs. 

" Jonathan," said my mother, at the conclusion of a long conference, 
" I have packed your trunk with every thing that I can think necessary. 
If any thing- is wanting, why the distance is really short, although it 
seems so long, and I can easily send it to you. You will find in one cor- 
ner your Bible. Don't forget it, Jonathan. You say you like the Old 
Testament best, with its battles and sieges. Well, that 's a boy's taste. 
Read the Old Testament then, and perhaps some day you will learn to 
prefer the New. And by the Bible, Jonathan, you will find a small purse ; 
I made it many years ago. It contains a gold coin, the first which your 
father earned, and sent to his mother as a testimony of his success and 
his filial remembrance. He was then, you know, several years younger 
than you are. Keep it carefully, it is a true talisman of more efficacy 
than ever fairy bestowed upon any of your favorite knights, and — and — 
Jonathan " 

My mother's voice faltered, and the tears again filled her eyes. 

" What? dearest mother," I exclaimed, throwing my arms around her 

"You will find," she continued, composing herself with an effort, 
" you will find at the bottom of your trunk a garment different from your 
other linen, which might puzzle you to understand the use of. You are 
going far from me, Jonathan, among strangers. If you are sick I shall 
come to you — but then — many accidents may happen, you are so ventu- 
rous, Jonathan, you may get thrown from a horse, or drowned " 

" Oh, no, mother, that 's impossible : did n't I break Jem. Smith's colt 
after he had killed the circus-rider, and nobody else would mount him ; 

and can't I swim four times across the O , and that 's more than a 


" Yes, I know, every one says that you are the best rider and swimmer 
in the village, but you are also the boldest, and you run great risks. You 
have promised me to be cautious for my sake, but accidents, as I have 
said, may happen to any one, and I have thought proper to make you a — 
a " 

" Shroud, mother ! " 


" Why, no, not exactly a shroud, but something that will answer as a 
grave dress. God save you, my son, from requiring the use of it ! " 

Was ever maternal consideration carried farther? I might die among 
strangers, and be buried carelessly, without proper grave-clothes ! Cot- 
ton, even tow cloth, might have answered for the living body, but noth- 
ing but the finest linen comported with the sanctity of the dead ! For 
years I carried that garment at the bottom of my trunk. Somehow, it 
became known to my schoolmates, and at first was a source of consider- 
able ridicule, but I soon contrived to flog them all into a proper apprecia- 
tion of my mother's forethought and care. As the reader may perhaps 

" Drawing down my head, I was co?nfiletely concealed. ^^ 

think with them, and as I have neither the inclination nor opportunity to 
correct his or her opinion in the same way, I can only say that my moth- 
er was from Nantucket, and they are all queer people there. 

It was in the depth of winter that I left home, under the particular 

charge of a careful and respectable teamster, who was going to P 

with a sleigh-load of salt. It was just after a heavy fall of snow, and the 
narrow track, imperfectly broken, was bounded by immense banks of 
snow, almost as high as our heads, as we were seated on the front and 
only seat of the long, low, open sleigh. On either side stretched the in- 
terminable forest, its leafless branches loaded with icy crystals, and glit- 
tering in the struggling sunbeams as brilliantly as the gemmed trees in 


the cavern of Aladdin. Here and there, at the distance apart, sometimes 
of several miles, would be seen the small clearing surrounding the solitary 
log-house of some enterprising settler. Covered by unvarying carpet of 
Tvhite, through which peeped the unpicturesque stumps, they were far 
from presenting a very cheerful appearance, — they served, like the slight 
breaks sometimes in a firmament of storm clouds, to reveal — -not relieve 
— the surrounding sternness and gloom. 

For several miles after leaving the village we rode along in perfect 
silence, my companion occasionally eying me with a curious look, and 
evidently making preparations for opening a conversation. To several 
remarks upon the state of the weather, the road, etc., I made no answer; 
my mind was filled with too many contending emotions for speech. 

" I say, sonny," he at length exclaimed, evidently determined to come 
to the point at once with the moody boy at his side, " I say, sonny, you 
don't seem to like leaving home for the first time. Well, well, nobody 
does. I did n't. I was the homesickest fellow once, you ever did see, 
and I was a good deal older than you are too." And then he went on to 
give me a long account of his first journey, to all of which I made no 
reply. I was indignant at being called sonny. I was indignant at being 
addressed at all — at having my confused meditations interrupted, — and 
each moment I grew more and more provoked. 

"Come, come, why don't you talk a little? it will do you good. 
Well," after a pause, " they say that you are a queer fellow, and I really 
believe they 're right. I 've heard tell some curious stories about you. 
They say that you knocked old Clark, the schoolmaster, off his chair, 
with the broomstick, because you thought that you was St. George, and 
that he was a dragon going to eat up a little boy. How was that, was 
that so? Come, tell us the story. Some thinks you was cracked, but I 
guess old Clark's head was the most cracked in that affair." And then 
followed a long and hearty laugh at his own wit. 

I could stand it no longer, — so, putting my foot upon the edge of the 
sleigh, and exerting that agility which, a little later, has often enabled 
me, with one running-jump, to clear nearly twenty-two feet of ground, I 
gave a spring entirely over the perpendicular snow-bank, and landed 
nearly up to my neck in the roadside ditch. By drawing down my head 
I was completely concealed for a while from the astonished teamster. 
He checked his horses, stretched himself up in his sleigh, and looked 
around with a countenance irresistibly ludicrous, from amazement and 

" Soh ! whow ! " to his restive horses. " Whow ! I tell you. — Where has 


he gone to ? Good Lord ! what shall I do ? Dear me ! where on airth is 
he ? Whoa ! I tell you. Darnation ! Whoa ! darn your skins ! — Jona- 
than ! " I looked up and saw his comical phiz above the snowbank. The 
spirit of fun revived. After some little parley I made my way through 
the snow and took my seat in the sleigh, heartily enjoying both his fright 
and his satisfaction in recovering part of his load, for the safe arrival of 
which he knew that he should be held responsible. I could not retain 
ill feelings against the honest man any longer, and we chatted and 
laughed, at first with some little reserve on his part, but on overturning 
in getting out of the road for the mail, I assisted him in righting his sleigh, 
and restoring its load with so much activity, strength, and good-will, that 
I quite won his heart. " Good-bye, sonny," he exclaimed, as he landed 
me at the door of the house to which I had been consigned, "Good-bye; 
if I can do any thing for you, just let me know, for — a — for you 're not 
such a darned fool as they say you are." 

_, ' l^^i^j^A-^Ti^g^^iljii?'^ 





















School Life — Boyish Adventures — A Revival — School Broken Up — Wanderings and Reflections 
in the Woods — Joe Downs, the Trapper — An Indian Killed vifith a Ramrod — Arrange- 
ments for an Expedition into the Wilderness — A Letter From the Writer's Mother. 

»T would be a waste of time and space to give all the little 
adventures and incidents of my academic course of four years. 
With but little exertion I continued to maintain a respectable 
standing in my classes, at the same time that I acquired, by a 
desultory and extensive course of reading, a great deal of knowledge 
which frequently gave me many advantages over my more industrious 
and regular schoolmates. It was often a wonder how I knew so much 
upon the most recondite and out-of-the-way subjects, when I was seldom 
seen to study, and devoted so much of my time to fishing, gunning, and 
gymnastic sports. 

As in all small towns where academic institutions are situated, there 
was a good deal of jealousy, rivalry, and sometimes downright ill-feeling 
between the students and the youths of the village, occasionally display- 
ing itself in serious and even dangerous battles, but most generally in the 
more harmless, but not less exciting trials of activity and skill. On 
fourths of July, training days, and other occasions, young men from the 
country around, at a distance of ten or fifteen miles, would come for the 
purpose of competing for the championship in these contests, in which, as 
the leader of the school, I soon became conspicuous. Was there a game 
at cricket or base-ball to be played, my name headed the list of the 
athletae. Was some foot-race or leaping-match to be contested, I was the 
academic champion. Did some burly wrestler from a neighboring village 
want the " conceit " taken out of him, either at back-hold, side-hold, or 
arms-end, I "was the one to do it ; or if I could not do it, it was pretty 
clear that no one else could. With my pistol, at fifteen paces, I could drill 
a mark the size of a half dollar at every shot, and with the rifle it was 


universally concluded by all the getters-up of turkey-shooting matches, 
that it would never do to put the birds up for me at twenty rods, for a 
shilling a shot. I dwell upon these qualities, not so much from the pride 
that I took in them, as from the service that they have since rendered 
me, in situations where nothing but a quick eye, practised hand, and agile 
foot could have saved me. I say not so much from the pride that I took in 
them, but why pride, and a pretty good share of it too, is not allowable, I 
cannot understand. Formerly, merely animal strength was held in the 
greatest repute ; but since, in modern days, the intellectual, as a source of 
power, has been gaining so much upon the physical, that the latter seems 
to me to have been unnecessarily and unjustly decried, and its proper 
cultivation neglected. The physical powers are as much the gift of 
God — in all situations their highest development is serviceable, and in 
some cases essential, and even by a happy relation the health and strength 
of the intellectual qualities are dependent upon it. Fortunately, our 
boys, particularly those who have the advantage of a country life, educate, 
to some extent, their physique for themselves. Future generations will 
undoubtedly enjoy the advantage of having gymnastics' taught as a 
science, and the highest development given to the. body as well as to 
the mind. 

I am far from wishing to convey the idea that I was free from the 
faults incident to youth. A perfect character may read very well in fic- 
tions, but would at once appear improbable and out of place in a plain 
and simple autobiography of a real personage. Rousseau, I recollect, in 
his confessions, draws rather a dark picture of his early character, and hon- 
estly allows that he was a liar, a thief, and given to a variety of boyish 
evil practices. I can hardly admit that I was as bad as the sentimental 
Frenchman. Although I had in the abstract no very great regard for the 
truth, yet a certain boldness and recklessness of character saved me from 
being much of a liar ; a good share of generosity kept me from those 
vices which result from selfishness ; but if robbing hens' nests, cornfields, 
orchards, and melon grounds, be stealing, we were all thieves, and I was 
one of the greatest and most inveterate. 

Upon my first arrival at the school this kind of robbery was carried 
on in a small way ; there was nothing dignified and grand enough about 
it to suit my notions. I soon reformed the system, made it much more 
comprehensive, and organized a band, which became a perfect nuisance 
to the whole country round, particularly to -those who had a reputation 
for stinginess, or who, too incautiously boasted of their watch and ward. 
If a farmer was heard to threaten the unknown depredators with his gun 


or dogs if they dared to visit his grounds, he was sure to be the subject 
of a desolating nocturnal foray, or if too strict a watch was kept up at 
night, the day-time would be selected, when the men were away from 
home. Upon a signal given, a dozen boys disguised, who had been lying 
perdu perhaps for two or three hours, would jump his fences, each one 
with a large bag, and rapidly collecting the fruit, make off amid the 
screams of the women and the barking of dogs, and vanish with the 
plunder in the most mysterious manner in the neighboring wood. In a 
short time some of the gang would perhaps saunter back to the same 
house, and with the most innocent air ask the enraged women for a cup 
of buttermilk, or a draught from the well. 

A revival of religion, as it was called, at last put an end to my aca- 
demic course ; in fact it came pretty near putting an end to the academy 
itself. It was simultaneously manifest in each of the three chtrrches into 
which the town was divided, the Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians, 
and gradually included the members of our own school, as well as the in- 
habitants of the village. It spread itself like an epidemic, and seemed to 
be governed by similar laws. Rapidly increasing in violence as it ad- 
vanced, it attacked all classes, but evinced particular power over the very 
young, the very aged, and the very vicious. No revival in that section of 
country had ever been more complete, or had been more stronly charac- 
terized by enthusiastic zeal and intense, wild, passionate excitement ; and 
none, I may say, supposing it to have been at first the true spirit of God 
stirring up the apathetic consciences of men, was ever more thoroughh- 
perverted from its proper ends, or marked by more disgusting scenes of 
intemperance or fanaticism, or followed by a more complete and striking 

In a short time, out of one hundred and eighty scholars, male and 
female, but five remained " unconverted." The school was entirely 
broken up, all recitations and studies were neglected. Every one went 
and came as he pleased ; teachers and pupils were all too busy with the 
concerns of the soul to heed the duties of the school, with the exception 
of our venerable president, who was also the pastor of the Presbyterian 
church. He had set himself sternly and strongly against what his good- 
sense led him to pronounce an unhealthy if not an unholy excitement. 
He predicted that much evil would come of it, and endeavored to moder- 
ate the inflammatory zeal of his flock ; but in vain. He could not with- 
stand the overwhelming and impetuous tide of public opinion. A highly 
cultivated mind, refined taste, gentle manners, and undoubted piety served 
not to save him from contumely and insult. Excited zealots prayed for 



him even in his own church as a bHnd leader, a weak brother, an agent of 
the Devil, while he, finding that he could not repress or divert the storm, 
calmly awaited its subsidence, knowing that with the return of reason 
would return the influence of his character and his counsels. 

At this time most of my hours were spent in the woods, either fishing, 
reading, or perchance dreaming. Often stretched at length upon the 
sunny bank of the most beautiful trout stream in the world, or seated 
upon some prostrate giant of the forest, I have turned with shuddering 
and loathing from the sight and sounds of the distant village, and have 
felt borne to my innermost soul the conviction that cant and rant are 
utterly inconsistent with the true worship of God. How soft, and low, 
and calm, yet deep and full of meaning and power are the hymns sung to 
His praise in the great temple of nature. How varied too ! How infi- 
nitely expressive ! Listen to the hot sunbeams striking upon the thick 
pendent foliage, to the soft sighing of the million leaves, as, disturbed by 
the fitful breeze, thej' twist and wriggle themselves back to stillness and 
rest. Listen to the low hum of the lazy insects ; the hesitating twitter 
of the sleepy birds, or to the occasional sullen sluggish plash of some 
trout, who has been lured from his siesta by the temptation of a careless 
fly. The blended whole makes music — it speaks of life, health, vigor; 
but of life, health, vigor, doomed to decay. It is prophetic in its tones ; 
the deepest well-springs of the soul are stirred, gently, sadly, but not un- 
pleasantly, as the foreboding notes rise, and swell, and fall. Anon, the 
tempest comes, the majestic clouds speak tq each other and to earth in 
the deep voices of the pealing thunder ; the sturdy woods re-echo, and 
prolong the crashing sounds ; the wind sweeps through the foliage with a 
hollow rushing, as if a myriad viewless spirits were flapping their pinions 
and careering before it ; the big drops fall with leaden sound upon the 
leaves. Does not the whole make the wildest, sublimest harmony? There 
is nothing dismal or gloomy in it ; it is sternly joyous ; it speaks of 
power — of might ; but it speaks too in solemn and majestic tones — no 
ranting or canting — of a power above and beyond mere drooping and 
decaying nature. Stand forth, and enjoy it ! Quail not ! Bare your 
brow to the storm — look with a steady eye upon the lightning's flash — 
listen to the awful chorus and feel alike the infinity of God and the great- 
ness of the soul. 

The storm has passed — the moistened foliage rustles in the breeze, 
but with a different tone — a tone of pure gladness ; the insects beat the 
air with their tiny wings to a more joyful measure ; the birds sing freely, 
blithely; the trout spring actively from the placid lake, and dash the 


sparkling circles with a sound of merriment and glee. The harmony is of 
nature revived, restored. It speaks of hope and confidence — it presages 
immortality. But how easy, natural, and quiet ! How deep and strong, 
and heart-pervading in that very naturalness and quiet ! Ah ! in all that 
infinite variety of praise, and prayer, and thanksgiving, }'ou can discover 
nothing like rant or cant. 

It was with such thoughts in my head that, early one beautiful morn- 
ing, I was ranging the woods, gun in hand, occasionally stopping to listen 
for the drumming of the partridge, or the cooing of the wild pigeon. The 
peculiar sound of the former struck upon my ear ; I took aim — fired, and 
was reloading my rifle, when a loud and hearty salutation rang through 
the trees. 

" Hallo ! Mr. Jonathan, good morning. How are you?" exclaimed the 
stranger, picking up the partridge as he advanced towards me. " That 's 
a capital shot of yours — a first-rate shot ; ten rods at least, and head taken 
off as clean as a whistle." 

The speaker was old Joe Downs, well known as an expert trapper and 
hunter ; and as generally liked as he was known. There was nothing 
rough or outr6 in his appearance or style of conversation ; none of the 
half-horse and half-alligator characteristics generally attributed to the 
woodsman of the south and west. Nothing could be more simple or 
respectable than his air and looks ; so much so that more than once Joe 
had been taken for a country parson. His ostensible home was in the 
village, but his real home was in the woods, the greater part of his time 
being spent in expeditions up to the sources of the Rackett and Grass 
Rivers, in the dense and perfectly uninhabited wilderness in the northern 
part of the State of New York, known as John Brown's tract. A few 
beaver yet lingered round their old favorite haunts on the numerous 
beautiful little lakes, which, like dimples here and there, lighted up the face 
of nature with smiles, and relieved the stern solitude of the woods. They 
were, however, nof in sufficient numbers to attract the hunter, who found 
more profitable enjoyment in trapping the muskrat, or in killing deer for 
their skins. Even in these pursuits but very few whites were engaged, 
the most of the hunters being Indians, of the St. Regis nation, or from 
some Canadian tribes, who, once a year, made an excursion up the Rac- 
kett for two or three months, and then returned with their spoils to their 
home on the St. Lawrence. 

Joe had frequently proposed to me to accompany him on one of his 
expeditions ; and circumstances now seemed to favor the plan. 

" I '11 tell you what it is now," he exclaimed, as we took our seats upon 


the trunk of a fallen tree. " 1 '11 tell you what it is, you can't do nothing 
here. There 's no decent game within ten miles of us. The psalm-sing- 
ing and praising the Lord has knocked all business in the head, and broke 
up the Academy ; so you haint no school to go to ; well, you wont pray, 
you can't study, and you can't hunt ; so what 's the use of staying here. 
No, go along with me for three or four weeks, and I '11 show you some 
sport that would even make that tarnal old scoundrel, Deacon Zeb, stop 
his snuffle, and haw-haw right out like a decent white man. What do 
you say to a wolf ! Pooh ! they are not worth the powder and shot, un- 
less you can shoot two at a time. But what do you say to a bear or two ; 
real old fellows, that will take half a dozen balls in the body and still 
make a respectable fight ! Why, I '11 do still better by you than that ; if 
I don't put you right alongside of the biggest catamount you ever heard 
tell of, my name aint Joe. I will, 'pon my word. You .shall stand right 
under the tree, and take him in the eye just as he is about to spring upon 
you. There 's nothing better for the nerves. It kind of braces them 
up, and you feel always afterwards just as though you could shoot 
the Devil." 

"But, Joe! " 

"Oh, there 's no but about it. If you don't kill him dead, I '11 just 
stand one side and wont say a word, and you can take it out — fair play — 
with hatchet and knife. 'Pon my word you shall have a chance to kill a 
catamount, if you can't stir for three weeks afterwards." 

Joe's promises were too tempting to be resisted. There were no 
studies, or recitations; and vacation, when I was to return home, would 
take place in about a month ; giving me just time enough for the 

" When shall we start ? " I demanded. 

" Oh, to-morrow or next day if you 're a mind to. I 've got my old 
bark-canoe all nicely patched up, and my rat-traps all fixed. You just 
get a couple of blankets and your shooting and fishing fixings all in order, 
and mind and bring along a strong pickerel Hne. I '11 show you a pond 
up there where the youngest infants of a genteel pickerel's family weigh at 
least three pounds." 

" Shall we have any company ? " I inquired. 

" No, not a white face within forty miles of us. There '11 be plenty of 
red-skins — half a dozen canoes went up the river yesterday, but they aint 
of no account. They are a poor, lying, cheating, stealing set of vaga- 
bonds. There is n't one of them that I 'd trust within a mile of my 


" But don't you ever have any difficulty with them ? " 

"Why, no, not what you may call real downright difficulty. We 
used to a good many years ago, but now, although they '11 murder you 
if they get a chance for a pack of skins, they don't vally a scalp. No — 
since I finished off one of the biggest scoundrels in the whole St. Regis 
nation, I haint been troubled." 

" How was that ? " 

" Why, I '11 tell you : you see it was way towards Tupper's Lake. There 
had been a light fall of snow, and I was scouting round, when I happened 
to make a circumbendibus, and came across my own tract, and there I 
saw the marks of an Indian's foot right on my trail. Thinks I, that is 
kind of queer ; the fellow must have been following me ; howsomever, 
I '11 try him and make sure ; so I made another large circle, and again 
struck my own track, and there was the tarnal Indian's foot again. Says 
I, this wont do ; I must find out what this customer wants, and how he '11 
have it. So I stopped short, and soon got sight of him ; he knew that I 
saw him, so he came along up in the most friendly manner you can think. 
But I did n't like his looks, he was altogether too darned glad to see me. 
He had no gun, but he had an almighty long-handled tomahawk, and a 
lot of skins and rat-traps. Thinks I, may be, old fellow your gun has burst 
or you 've pawned it for rum, and you can't raise skins enough to redeem 
it, and you want mine, and perhaps you '11 get it. 

" At last I grew kind of nervous ; I knew the fellow would hatchet me 
if I gave him a chance, and yet I did n't want to shoot him right down just 
on suspicion. But I thought, if I let him cut my throat first, it would be 
too late to shoot him afterwards. So I concluded that the best way 
would be to give him a chance to play his hand ; and, if it so be, he 'd 
lead the wrong card, why I should have a right to take the trick. Just 
then at the right time a partridge flew into a clump that stood five or six 
rods off. So I kind of 'nceuvred round a little. I drew out my ramrod 
as if to feel whether the ball in my rifle was well down, but instead of re- 
turning it again, I kept it in my hand, and without letting the vagabond 
see me, I got out a handful of powder. I then sauntered off to the bush, 
shot the partridge, and in an instant passed my hand over the muzzle of 
my rifle, and dropped the powder in. I picked up the bird, and then just 
took and run my ramrod right down upon the powder. Now he thought 
was his chance before I loaded my gun again. He came towards me with 
his hatchet in his hand. I saw that he was determined to act wicked, 
and began to back off ; he still came on. I lowered my rifle and told him 
to keep away. He raised his tomahawk, gave one yell, and bounded 



right at me. When he was just about three or four feet from the muzzle, 
I fired. You never see a fellow jump so. He kicked his heels up in the 
air and came down plump on his head." 

" Dead ? " 

"Dead as J uliar Caesar. He never winked; the ramrod — a good 
hard, tough piece of hickory — had gone clean through him, and stuck out 
about two feet from his back. Sarved him right, did n't it ?" 

"Certainly. I don't see what else you could have done." 

" Nor I, nother. But I am sorry I took his traps. Howsomever, I 

" Dead as Julius deiar. 

did n't keep them long. I gave them away to a half-drowned redskin, 
who had lost his in trying to cross the river, right at the head of the big 
wolf chute. There 's a story about that too ; but we 'II put it off till we 
get up to our camp. So, what do you say ? shall we go .'' " 

"Agreed," said I. And in a few words our plans were all laid, and 
we returned to town to make arrangements for carrying them out. 

Arrived at my room, I found a long letter from my mother. How 
well I recollect its contents, although years have elapsed since I have 
read it. There was nothing in it that struck me at the moment as 


very important, but it afterwards acquired a peculiar interest — it was 
her last. 

* * * -X- * * ■;:- * 

It is now one month," she wrote, "to your vacation, but I have just 
heard some reports which make me somewhat curious to know what you are 
doing. You have alluded to the revival, in one of your letters, but I had 
no idea that it had gone so far as they say it has, or that there was any 
thing strikingly or strongly opposed to a proper cultivated Christian taste. 
You know how deeply and ardently I have wished to impress you with 
a proper sense of religion, but I have no sympathy with the passionate 
enthusiasm — the mere animal excitement which has recently been so 
common in this neighborhood. I think that I can trust your taste and 
good sense; however, you might better come home without waiting for 
your vacation. Upon the whole, I think that you might better come 

I wrote a hasty answer to my mother's letter, expressing my assent to 
her proposition, and informing her that the remainder of the term I had 
determined to devote to an expedition into the woods, which I thought 
would have a very beneficial effect upon my health, and enable me to 
commence the study of medicine with much greater vigor. The letter 
was dispatched, and in a few hours all my arrangements were made to 
join the old trapper upon my first grand hunt. 


A Hunting Expedition — Meeting with Indians — A Secret Cavern — Mr. Downs' Opinions of thfi 
Indians — Indians Suing for Assault and Battery — Encampment in the Pine Barrens — One 
Way to Cook Fish — Deer Shooting by Torch-Light. 

'UR outfit was simple enough. I took with me a rifle and a 
double-barrelled fowling-piece, with plenty of powder, ball, and 
shot, etc., together with an ample assortment of fishing tackle, 
a pocket telescope, two blankets, a pouch of pepper and salt, 
and a bag of crackers. Joe brought with him his rifle, axe, blanket, and 
traps, an iron jack to hold a light of pine knots in the bow of our boat, 
and a bag of wheat and Indian meal. 

Thus supplied we launched our light birchen canoe upon the river at 
daybreak, and were soon gliding rapidly along the winding and narrow 
channel formed by the numerous little islands which intervene between 
the village and the foot of the first rapid or falls. 

Arrived at the rapids, we were compelled to unload our canoe and 
carry it and our baggage around some distance to reach the smooth water 
above — a performance which we found occasion to repeat not unfre- 
quently in the course of our voyage. The labor, however, though rather 
arduous, was far from distressing ; our baggage being divided into parcels 
of light weight, with the exception of our canoe. This, however, though 
rather large and heavy for its kind, was not too much for Joe alone, who 
would " catch " his shoulder under the " gunnel " and trot off with it for 
a mile or so without stopping. Of course I could not allow myself to feel 
unequal to any exertion which the old man (who was also my inferior in 
size and weight) was capable of making. Working " with a will," the 
portages seemed short, and when launched again, paddling the canoe was 
merely an agreeable exercise. 

It was on the second- morning of our voyage that I was aroused from 
the sweetest and most profound sleep that I had ever enjoyed, by the 
voice of Joe : " Come, come, Mr. Jonathan, it 's time to start. Don't 
you hear the black-birds, and they aint very early risers. Come let 's 


bundle our traps into the canoe and you shall crack two or three of the 
darkies over, as we go by the willow islands. They are as fat as butter, 
and will make a first-rate breakfast when we get up to ' Blue Ledge 
Point.' " 

I awoke and gazed around ; I could at first scarcely comprehend my 
position. Our canoe had been hauled up on land and turned over our 
baggage to protect it from the rain or dew. At my feet, as I lay wrapped 
in my blanket, were the smouldering embers of our evening fire ; the dark 
overshadowing masses of trees on one side, and the bluish sheen of the 
rippling river on the other, were just veiled by the purple light which be- 
gan to appear in the east. I started up — opened my eyes — rubbed them 
— stared at Joe, the woods, the stream, the clouds, and felt the exciting 
conviction rush upon my mind, that at last I was engaged in a veritable 

In ten minutes our canoe was launched and loaded, and we were again 
afloat. It grew momentarily lighter, until at last the lagging sun popped 
up suddenly his full-orbed face above the horizon, shedding a flood of 
glory upon forest, glade, and stream. 

" Take your gun now," said Joe, " while I '11 paddle along close by the 
willows of that island — just see how thick they are — you can get three or 
four at a shot." 

" Not at them ! not at them ! " exclaimed Joe, as I was taking aim, 
" they are too far in — we shall have to wade in the mud for them. Wait 
till you can catch 'em on the edge of the water. But — hush 1 I hear 

We listened, and could distinctly hear some low guttural sounds, and 
the occasional plash of the water on the other side of the long narrow 
mud island. Resuming my paddle, we soon shot ahead, so as to com- 
mand a view of the opposite channel. At the instant that we reached the 
head of the island, a canoe, manned by three Indians, came in sight close 
alongside of us, and followed by several others a little farther down. 

" Sago — sago neeckie," shouted Joe. " Good morning — how do you 

The savage wielding the stern paddle of the foremost canoe turned 
upon us a countenance, the natural diabolical expression of which was not 
diminished by a few patches of black paint. A scowl of intense hatred 
and malice was his only reply to our salutation, as with a sweep of his 
paddle he turned the bow of his boat from us, and with a few vigorous 
strokes shot it ahead. 

" Oh ! I know you, you sneaking scoundrel ! " growled Joe, between his 


clenched teeth ; " I know you, and I 'II make you know me if you don't 
look out. But here comes Captain Pete, he 's almost the only decent 
chap in the whole tribe." 

The other boats now came up to us. Their crews returned our salu- 
tations with apparent good-will. We even rested upon our oars, and had 
quite a long chat about the weather, the game, and the prices of powder, 
shot, and muskrat skins. 

" Who was that polite fellow in the first canoe ? " I demanded, as we 
turned off and resumed our course. 

" His name," replied Joe, " is Blacksnake, and a darned good name it 
is for him. He 's black enough as you see, and he 's a regular snake at 
heart. I 'm afraid I shall have to put stones on his tail one of these days, 
as the boys do when they catch his namesake." 

" But what 's the difficulty ? " I inquired. " He did n't seem to look 
at you in the most loving temper." 

" Why, no ; and I must allow he has n't any very great reason. You 
see he 's the brother of that fellow I was telling you about — the one that 
I pinned with the ramrod ; and there 's a whole lot of relations. They 
don't know exactly that I did it, but they kind of conceit that I did, and 
that 's just about as bad." 

" And have they never sought to revenge his death ? " 

" Certainly ! I was leaning out of the second-story door-way of Jone's 
shop one day, looking across the river, when, whiz, a rifle bullet came and 
buried itself in the doorpost. I haint the least doubt that that very iden- 
tical Blacksnake sent it. Thank God, his aim was not as good as his will ! 
He 's a bad chap. Why, I really believe it was he who murdered my old 
friend Dan White, the trapper. If I only knew it was the fact, I wish I may 
be stuck forked end uppermost in a coon hole, if I would n't send a ball 
through his painted old brain-case this ere very identical minute. Darn 
your skin ! " energetically growled Joe, shaking his fist at the distant canoe. 

" But how is it that you have escaped until this time ? " I inquired. 
" Blacksnake and his friends must have had opportunities enough of set- 
tling your business for you, if they had sought them. How long is it 
since you killed that fellow ? " 

" Why, about three years," replied Joe ; " but then you see they are 
such thundering cowards. They would like to fix me, but they dares n't. 
They know it is n't so easy to catch me asleep ; and besides that, they 
are kind o' fraid of the law ever since the Indian was hung for killing a 
white man up in Brown's settlement. They don't like hanging, and they '11 
take pretty good care how they do any thing to bring their necks into 


the noose. No, the fellows know the law just as well as white men. 
Why, I once cleared away the ground in a little open piece of woods, 
about a mile out of town, and thought I 'd make a melon-patch. Well, I 
planted some, and they came on to grow very nice, and I calculated that 
being as how they were all open, and no fence around them, that nobody 
would be so mean as to steal them. But one day I found that somebody 
had been at 'em, and had picked all the ripe ones, and had trod down the 
vines, and done a monstrous sight of damage. I saw that there had been 
a good many fellows at work, and they had left a pretty broad trail ; so I 
just started off upon it, and about a quarter of a mile I found six great 
red devils squatted down, and a grunting, and a giggling, and a sucking 
my water melons, just as though they had bought and paid for them. I 
tell you I was almighty mad, and there happened to be lying just right, a 
broken hoop that had been pretty well straightened by the rain. I seized 
that, and jumped right into the midst of them, and the way I did lather 
them fellows was really ridiculous. The hoop was tough and limber, and 
every time I 'd strike it would double clear round their bodies. Such a 
dancing and screaming and capering you never did see ! They soon scat- 
tered themselves, I tell you — the fat lazy old war chief last. He made a 
spring at a rail fence, and I believe would have gone over it at the first 
jump, although he carried weight with his two pounds of pewter and brass 
rings in his ears, but just as he cleared the ground I wollopped the hoop 
around him and snaked him back, head over heels ; he gathered himself 
like a frightened deer, and cleared the fence next jump easy. And what 
do you think these fellows did ? 

" What on 'arth do you think they did? " demanded Joe. 

" I can't imagine, I 'm sure," I replied. 

" No ! I know you can't ! You could n't guess if you should try a 
week. They went and took the law of me — 'pon my word they did ! 
The justice said they deserved the licking, but he must fine me five -dol- 
lars. I told him I thought that was very reasonable, and if I caught them 
at my melon-patch again, I 'd take ten dollars worth at the same rate." 

Our conversation did not interrupt the continued and vigorous strokes 
of our paddles, which forced our light canoe along the surface of the water 
with a rapidity which gave one hardly time to observe the striking nat- 
ural features of the scenery by which we were surrounded. In some 
places the river contracted its banks until it was almost overshadowed by 
the densely wooded height ; at others, expanded itself into little silvery 
lakes, dotted with islands, crowded with ducks of several species, and 
alive with fish. The shores varied at each instant in their colors and 


forms, verdant flats, low marshes, overhanging with willows ; rolling hil- 
locks, and lofty ledges of red freestone succeeded each other with a per- 
fect prodigality of picturesqueness ; while at every few miles, some tribu- 
tary creek would open up such a vista of inviting beauty, that at times I 
could with difficulty resist an inclination to arrest the progress of the 
canoe and propose an exploration. My companion, however, would 
hardly have consented to such a waste of time ; and I was therefore com- 
pelled to suffer the painful sentiment of a sense of beauty lost forever, as 
we glided so rapidly by. 

" Here 's something that I want to show you," said Joe, as he turned 
our canoe into a narrow channel not more than ten feet wide, that ran 
between a little islet and the lofty bank of rock, which rose almost per- 
pendicularly directly from the water to a height of some seventy feet. 
" You would n't think," continued Joe, " that five hundred men might be 
stowed within ten feet of us, and without the least danger that the most 
thorough search could discover them ? " 

I looked all around — at the little island, which barely concealed our 
canoe from the main channel, and at the solid wall of smooth rock that 
towered overhead. 

" You don't believe it ! " said Joe. 

I shook my head. 

" Well, I '11 show you. Do you see that little ledge jutting out from 
the face of the rock, about ten feet above there ? Well, you 'd think that 
it was no more than two feet broad, and that it was close to the bank, but 
you 'd make a great mistake ; it stands out clear three feet at least, and 
right behind it is a large hole that leads to one of the nicest caves you 
ever did see. It 's as dry as a bone, and I don't believe that anybody 
without wings ever looked into it except myself." 

"You see I was coming along here one day, three or four years ago, 
when all of a sudden I heard a noise on the top of the cliff ; I looked up, 
and there I saw a young catamount, scrambling up that little old oak ; he 
stretched himself out on that branch and looked down upon me so kind 
of impudent, I thought I 'd take a crack at him. I raised my rifle and 
fired ; and down he came — ker-chunk — right on the edge of the precipice. 
He gave a jump or two, but it was the wrong way, and down he came 
right along the face of the wall, and right on that ledge. I thonght he 'd 
bound off, and perhaps tumble aboard of me ; but he did n't ; he stopped 
short, and went right out of sight. Thinks I, that 's queer. I must see 
about that. So I pushed right in here, between these two stones, and 
fastened my canoe to this bush." 


Suiting the action to the word, Joe stopped and fastened our boat, 
and we both commenced climbing the face of the rock, by means of two 
or three jutting points, that could hardly have been observed from the 
river, until we had reached the ledge. 

" Here ! " said Joe, " I found the critter, right behind this. I pulled 
him out, and then I thought I 'd see where this opening went to. — Come 
in, come in ! " 

We entered and found ourselves in an irregular but roomy apartment.- 
The dim light, as we had no torches with us, enabled me to form but a 
very indefinite idea of its size, but I could not but think what a palace it 
would have been thought by the Troglodytes, of whom I had just been 
reading in Herodotus. Several large cracks and orifices led off to other 
parts of the cavern ; but as we had no light, and Joe was anxious to get 
to the camping ground, which he had selected some six or eight miles 
above, I had no opportunity of examining it very closely at the time, al- 
though afterwards I had good cause to know it better. 

" I 've shown this to you," said Joe, " but I would n't have it known 
to any one else for a good deal of money. It has served me often to hide 
my traps or a bundle of skins in. There 's no danger of a skulking In- 
dian finding them there. It can't be seen from above, and no one would 
begin to think of it from below unless they happen to tumble a panther 
into it as I did." 

Two or three miles farther brought us to the largest lake, or expan- 
sion of the river, that we had yet seen. It burst upon us as we rounded 
the rocky promontory, which had hidden it from our view, like some 
scene of enchantment, and I thought at the time that were I the master 
of all the genii of the Arabian Nights I could not have commanded for 
my own especial admiration and enjoyment a more delicious and pictur- 
esque scene. But neither space nor time will permit me to undertake a 

" Beautiful ! beautiful ! " I exclaimed, dropping my paddle, and gazing 
with delight. 

" Yes, it 's first rate," replied my companion. " There 's lots of deer 
all along here for ten miles, up to the head of the lake, and muskrats are 
as plenty as blackberries on them islands, and around them flats. But do 
you see them pine woods yonder? that 's our place. It 's just a.bout half 
way up the lake, and a capital spot for a camp — dry as a bone — plenty of 
wood, and no mosquitoes." And Joe industriously plied his paddle in the 
direction he pointed. 

We soon reached the spot indicated — the edge of an extensive pine 


barren ; no underwood obstructed the view through the gigantic trees, 
which towered their lofty heads to the clouds ; and in some places not 
even the scantiest vegetation held the movable sand, that whirled in the 
gusts of -wind around the sturdy trees with the uncontrolled freedom of 
the desert. 

Our baggage was soon landed, a place selected, and preparations made 
for erecting our hut. A few saplings and bushes from the edge of the river 
were all that were required, and in a few hours we had a comfortable wig- 
wam — completely sheltered from the weather on three sides, and a huge 
log fire blazing in front. An hour more, and a couple of black squirrels 
hung dangling from the ends of sticks implanted in the ground, and in- 
clined at an angle towards the fire, while a magnificent trout was broiling 
upon the glowing embers, and diffusing a most savory odor, which soon 
brought numerous lupine and vulpine visitors, who, by their howling, 
snufifing, and scampering around our camp, seemed to envy us our lux- 
urious repast. A thin cake of Indian meal, skilfully mixed by the old 
trapper, and baked upon a heated stone, completed the materials for our 
supper. — And such a supper! I thought of thepeitis soupers of Aspasia, 
and of Alcibiades, and of Lucullus and the purple chamber, with feelings 
of the most perfect contempt. 

" Yes, as you say," exclaimed the old man, " this fish is first rate, but 
it aint a circumstance to what can be done in the cooking way. I '11 tell 
you how you can cook a fish to make it taste just as you please. We '11 
try it some day. You take some nice clean clay and work it up a little, 
then catch your trout — or any other kind of fish, — and don't scale or dress 
him, but just plaster him all over with the clay about an inch thick, and 
put him right into the hot ashes. When he 's done, the clay and scales 
will all peel off, and you '11 have a dish that would bring to life any 
starved man, if he had n't been dead more nor a week. That 's the 
natural way " — au naturel, Joe would have said, had he been acquainted 
with the technicalities of the cuisine, — " but if you want an extra touch, 
cut a hole in him, and stick in a piece of salt pork or bear's feet, and a 
few beechnuts, or the meat of walnuts or butternuts, and. Lord, bless you, 
you 'd think you was eating a water angel." 

" But come ! " continued Joe, " we 've got through supper, let 's stir 
round and do something. It 's too late to set the traps, but we can take 
a shot at the deer." 

Our boat was soon prepared. The jack, or light iron grate, was erected 
upon a stake in the bow, at the height of six or seven feet. Soon from it 
flamed a blazing fire of pine knots, throwing its light far around and be- 


neath the surface of the calm clear water, and illuminating the giant trees 
and wild rocks of the shores with the most curious effects of light and 
shade. The trapper stationed himself directly beneath the light, rifle in 
hand, while I cautiously and silently plied the paddle. A plashing in the 
water along the bank of the lake, where the deer had come down to drink 
and refresh themselves with a standing bath in the cool water, betrayed 
the game to Joe's practised ear. Our canoe slowly approached them. 
The simple animals, startled, but fascinated by the mysterious light, stood 
stupidly gazing at the flaming jack, and allowed us to approach within 
two or three rods. The spell that held them was broken by the crack of 
the rifle, and one of their number fell instantly dead with a ball through 
the brain. 

We obtained five the first night. The next day was spent in looking 
up muskrat tracks, and setting our traps, and in the evening the deer-shoot- 
ing was resumed with equal success. In this way several days glided by, 
with nothing to disturb the perfect enjoyment of the scene, except an 
occasional doubt as to how my mother would like my escapade. 


A Friendly Warning — A Night Visit from Indians — Downs Dangerously Wounded — Retreat to 
the Secret Cavern — ^Jonathan's Medical and Culinary Skill — Life in a Cave in the Woods — 
Recovery of Joe. 

WEEK had passed — a week that, tested by the home associa- 
tions which would once in a while intrude themselves, seemed 
long, but which, measured by the current feelings of the moment, 
seemed but as an hour. It is thus the flight of time is ever 
noted : brooding over the reminiscences of the past, or the hopes of the 
future, time seems a laggard, and we are tempted to direct all the offen- 
sive weapons we can muster, against the lazy fellow as he floats on slug- 
gish pinions by ; absorbed in the engagements, the thoughts, or the duties 
of the present, with what fearful and relentless velocity he passes ; we no 
longer think of " killing " him any more than we should think of killing 
the eagle as he stoops in the very majesty of speed with a wild startling 
rush and whir from his lofty perch upon the finny prey that his appear- 
ance has frightened from the clutches of some .straggling hawk. 

A week had passed, and as yet we had met with no very extraordinary 
or thrilling adventure. I had not even seen a panther or a bear. The 
ordinary routine of deer-shooting and muskrat-catching employed us so 
fully, that we had not had time to look for them, but the interest and 
excitement of that occupation was beginning to flag. I began to long for 
something more piquant. 

It was just at the close of a laborious day that I took the canoe and 
pushed out into the lake for the purpose of procuring the piscatory por- 
tion of our evening meal ; no difficult job, as may be supposed, where the 
fish were so plentiful and so unsophisticated — so utterly unaccustomed to 
the specious illusions of the baited hook. I had captured enough for the 
appetites of any two ordinary ichthyophagi, and was debating with my- 
self the exceeding impropriety of continuing the sport merely as sport, 
when a gruff, guttural salutation struck my ear, and a canoe with a single 
Indian, who I immediately recognized as Captain Pete, glided alongside. 
" The general — where is him?" demanded the captain. 



The general was a title in which I knew that Joe sometimes luxuri- 
ated, especially with his Indian friends, although I was ignorant of the 
source, or the manner in which it had been acquired. I replied that the 
general was ashore at the camp, and would be glad to see a friend that he 
thought so much of, as I knew that he did of Captain Pete. 

" No," said the captain, " no stay — you tell him lookout — Blacksnake 
bad man — he mean bad — I know him — tell general to sleep with one eye — 
take plenty care. You tell him ? " 

" Certainly, I '11 tell him- " 

" Good ! " and the captain dropped his paddle into the water and urged 
his light birchen bark towards the opposite side of the lake. 

There was something in the captain's voice and manner that conveyed 
far more meaning than his words. I saw that he was in earnest, and that 
he, at least, entertained the conviction that Joe was in some danger. My 
suspicions, and I must confess to some little extent my fears, were thor- 
oughly aroused. I had heard so much of Indian revenge, that notwith- 
standing Joe's contempt for the semi-civilized and wholly demoralized 
red-skins that were about us, I was disposed to believe them still equal to 
those daring and bloody deeds that authentic history, as well as doubtful 
tradition, has so often described. I was sorry I had not questioned 
Captain Pete a little, but he had started away so abruptly, having evident- 
ly wished to convey his warning without being seen lingering in the 
neighborhood of our camp, that I had not time to fairly recover myself 
before he was out of hearing. However, Joe will be able to form some 
judgment of the extent and character of the danger that threatens us, 
thought I, as I pulled up my anchor and made all haste to the shore. 

" Pooh ! pooh ! " said Joe, as I finished my story, " 't aint nothing 
worth thinking of. Captain Pete is a good old fellow, and he 's always 
been a warm friend, as he ought to be, since I have done him some goodl 
turns in my time ; but he don't know over much. He 's afraid of 
Blacksnake himself, and he thinks he 's doing a service by trying to 
frighten me." 

Joe's assurances were far from satisfying me. I could easily perceive* 
that Captain Pete's message had made a much greater impression upon 
him than he was willing to allow. While I was telling my story he had 
looked around for his rifle, had taken it up, examined the flint and prim- 
ing, and passed the ramrod down to be sure that it was loaded, all the 
time listening with evident interest, and asking questions that betrayed 
not quite so much recklessness as he endeavored to assume. 

" Pooh ! pooh ! " said Joe, as he turned off and rested his rifle against 



the corner of our hut ; but I was far from being assured either by his 
tone or his words. 

" You seem," said I, at the conclusion of quite a long and hot argu- 
ment, in which I defended the received notions of Indian character, — 
" you seem, Mr. Downs, to have a poor opinion of red-skin courage." 

" That I have, and with good reason too. I don't know what they 
might have been once, but I know that rum and civilization have made 
them a poor, sneaking, cowardly set. Now off to the west they are a 
little better ; but even there, they 're no great shakes. Why, I was out 
there with Harrison, in Tecumseh's time, and I know that a deuced sight 
of nonsense has been written and talked about the ' lords of the forest ' 

' ' A Canoe with a single Indian glided alongside. '' 

as you call 'em. There was not a scout in the army that valued a single 
Indian more nor the snap of his thumb. They can't shoot — can't run — 
can't row — can't swim — can't do any thing with a white man, unless it is 
to starve longer, and that they have been brought up to. You see I 'm a 
small man, and an old man, but if I can't lick, in fair fight, any single 
Indian you can pick up between here and the Rocky Mountains, my 
name aint Downs, and I aint given to bragging much neither. They are 
just like them wolves," and Joe pointed to a lot of lupine attendants, 
that, as usual, were howling about at a respectful distance from our camp. 
"They are just like them wolves; they 11 hang around just as though 


they would eat you, and if you move a step towards them, they '11 rua 
hke so many sheep." 

" Well, well," said I, " it may be as you say ; we won't argue the sub- 
ject any further — but I must say that if Blacksnake feels towards you as 
you think he does, he has got no Indian blood in him if, sooner or later, 
he does not contrive to get a shot at you. Why, I should n't wonder if 
he was prowling round here this very night." 

Joe laughed. 

"You laugh," said I, "but, tell me, what is there to prevent him ?" 

"Nothing on earth," replied Joe, " excepting that he 's afraid. I tell 
you he no more dares to come within speaking distance of this old tool," 
touching his rifle, " than one of them wolves dares to come in here and 
help himself to fat out of that stewpan." 

"Well," said I, "if there is no more danger than that, we 're safe 
enough. There 's no wolf yonder fool enough to give us a fair sight of 
his countenance ; so as I want a wolf-skin badly, I 'II just step out and 
try once more if I can't get a shot at these noisy cowards that you liken 
the ' lords of the forest ' so contemptuously to." Taking up my double- 
barrelled gun, I carefully loaded it with a full charge of heavy buck-shot. 

"Go round b}' the right," replied Joe, "and you '11 hem 'em in be- 
tween the lake and our fire ; and perhaps }'ou '11 get a chance to take one 
of the fellows as they rush by you." 

Following his directions I started off, making a small detour, and 
leaving the trapper seated before the fire industriously platting a deer- 
skin rope. Long after I had passed out of sight of the camp into the 
shade of the tall woods I could see his figure fully revealed in the flash- 
ing light of the pine-log fire. 

The night was an impressive one ; there was something heavy and 
threatening in the air, although there were no decided indications of a 
storm. The wind came sluggishly across the bosom of the lake, slightly 
wrinkling its surface, and sighing with gentle but exceedingly mournful 
tones among the tops of the lofty trees. It is curious what different 
sounds are produced by winds of equal force at different times in the 
same place. It is true the phenomenon can be explained by reference to 
the comparative temperature, moisture, and density of the atmosphere; 
but the difference of those tones has a meaning to many ears that cannot 
be explained away with the explanation of the physical cause. In this in- 
stance the wind had perhaps additional significance from its harmony with 
my feelings — it was a foreboding wind. The moon, too, seemed triste as 
she worked her way through the masses of fleecy clouds, occasionally 



darting upon the surface of the ruffled lake a beam that was instantly 
broken into a thousand sparkling gems of light, and anon hiding behind 
some jealous cloud, as if glad for a moment to fly the sight of a bad 
earth. It was altogether such an evening as the Huntsman of the Hartz 
would have selected for a pleasant moonlight ride. 

But although as sensible to the spiritual influences of the weather as I 
have ever been impassive to its physical effects, I had but a short time 
to indulge in the mere sentiment of the time and scene. The wolves are 
much the most interesting objects of the moment, and fully occupied my 
attention. I had succeeded in approaching a party of them without 
being perceived. I could not see them ; but I could distinguish the spot, 
from their noises, at which they were congregated, and was slowly and 
cautiously closing in upon them. I had arrived within about fifty yards 
of the lake, and some three or four hundred yards below our camp, the 
light of which I could clearly see, when a sudden rush took place, and the 
gaunt forms of half a dozen of the famished wretches flitted by me. I 
raised my gun, and with finger on the trigger fairly covered one of them 
as he bounded by at a distance of not more than three or four rods ; but 
I did not fire. Why or for what reason it is impossible to say. It seemed 
as though there was something providential in it, although it was prob- 
ably nothing but one of those moments of indecision which the keenest 
sportsman will recollect to have felt. It was but an instant ; but that in- 
stant was enough. The next, or to speak more correctly, the very same 
moment a tall shadowy figure glided from behind the tnmk of a mighty 
pine. I dropped my gun from its level, and stared with pure unthinking 
and unreflective wonder at the strange apparition. In a moment another 
figure glided out, and again another, and there were clearly revealed the 
forms of three stalwart Indians, creeping along from tree to tree in the 
direction of our fire. Without a moment's thought I turned in nearly 
upon their rear, and followed them with a step as noiseless as ever trod 
an Indian Uvarpath. I was not afraid — in fact, I never was more perfectly 
cool ; but I had that intense concentration of feeling which, while it 
leaves the physical powers in full play, prevents thought ; or perhaps the 
mind in such cases is so lightning-like in its action that we do not perceive 
its processes. At any rate, it seemed to me as if I only felt. I acted by 
a kind of instinct ; my mind appeared to be diffused through my whole 
body, and my legs and arms to know as much as my head. 

Slowly and cautiously the Indians drew towards our camp, and slowly 
and cautiously I followed them. I have since frequently thought of a 
dozen plans that I might have adopted. I might, by firing my gun, have 


frightened the Indians from their purpose, and perhaps put Joe on his 
guard, or I might, by swiftly making a detour, have reached the camp, 
when by taking to the trees we could have had a fair fight, and had there 
been six Indians, instead of three, we should undoubtedly have had the 
best of it. But I did not know what objects the Indians had in view, 
and these are thoughts that came afterwards, or that can only be made 
advantageous at the moment by great natural courage, thoroughly edu- 
cated in the school of danger. I had a fair share of the first, but the 
education was wanting, and, as I have said, I felt rather than thought. 

The Indians had arrived within ten or fifteen rods of .our hut when 
they stopped, and appeared to me to be holding a consultation, while 
grouped for a moment in the deep shadow of the trees. They had evi- 
dently not the slightest suspicion that any one was in their rear. They 
were altogether too much occupied with the sight in front of them to 
think of suspecting danger from any other quarter. Cautiously closing 
up, I had advanced to within twenty or thirty paces of them, and could 
distinctly see their figures well defined in all their outlines, especially as I 
now had got them nearly in a line with our fire, which was blazing away 
right merrily, and throwing a prodigious volume of light to the tops of 
the loftiest trees. Joe was seated in precisely the same position in which 
I had left him. His face was turned nearly towards us, and his body 
slightly bent downwards, as he held on to the thongs of deer-skin at- 
tached to a peg driven into the ground. The firelight shone full upon 
his person, making a fair and easy target. 

A slight movement was made by the group. I had hardly time to 
see and comprehend it, when two rifles flashed almost simultaneously, 
and the echoes of their sharp reports rolled through the woods. I saw 
the trapper jump to his feet, raise his hand above his head and totter 
backwards, and at the same instant the third Indian levelled his rifle at 
him, but the skulking murderer was too slow in his motions ; with a kind 
of sigh and a grunt he jumped a step or two forwards, his gun going 
off at random, and fell dead with a charge of buck-shot through his body. 
In the thousandth part of a second, and with an aim as calm and as sure 
as ever pointed gun against whirring partridge or flitting quail, I gave 
one of the other two the contents of my remaining barrel — he never 
knew what killed him. Without pausing for a moment, I dashed forward 
at the third fellow. He turned, jumped back a few feet, and clubbed his 
unloaded rifle to receive me. Without making at first a downright blow, 
against which, perhaps, he would have been upon his guard, and which, 
from the imperfect light, might have exposed myself, had he too been 


making a blow at the same time, I made a straight forward thrust, and 
struck him a severe blow in the face. He staggered back, and before he 
could recover himself, with an overhand slashing cut, I brought the heavy 
barrels down upon his bare skull. He fell like a log. There was no need 
of any questions. I knew that he was dead. I felt the bones crack and 
crumble beneath the force of my blow. Without stopping a moment I 
bounded on to our hut, there I saw a sight that for a moment completely 
stupefied me. Joe had fallen backwards, his head resting, slightly raised, 
against the upright of our hut, where leaned his rifle, and, to first appearance, 
dead. A large portion of the left eyebrow was cut away and hung down 
over the eye, and from the dangerous-looking wound the dark blood 
slowly dribbled down over his face. A slight movement showed that there 
was still some life left in him. I raised his head, and placed it in an easy 
position, and felt his pulse, which was beating with wonderful rapidity, 
but so faintly as to be almost imperceptible. In a moment he opened 
his eyes, or rather eye, which gradually lightened with returning con- 
sciousness. His lips moved — I put my ear close to his mouth — " Water," 
he murmured. 

In an instant I was myself again. I felt that it was no time for doubt 
and indecision. The little medical knowledge that I had picked up by 
stray reading, and visiting " doctor shops," was instantly available, and I 
thought of' all the curious cases that I had heard of, where people had 
been shot all to pieces and survived. " Never say die," thought I, and 
with that vulgar but encouraging maxim almost on my lips, I jumped to 
the lake and returned with a can of the fresh water. Joe took a draught 
which revived him a little, while I set to and washed his face. Upon clean- 
ing the wound, I found it did not present so formidable an appearance. 
By passing my finger along through it, I found that the ball had glanced 
obliquely above and through the eyebrow, but that the bone was not in- 
jured, although the concussion had at first stunned him. I was preparing 
to restore the flap and bind it up, when I became sensible that the old 
man, who had again become unconscious, was lying in a pool of blood, 
which had completely staturated his clothes on one side, and the ground 
around him. The true cause of his exhaustion was revealed. The wound 
in the head, as I had thought, was of no great consequence. He was d}'- 
ing from loss of blood. There was no time to lose — I threw a few pine- 
knots on the fire, turned Joe over on one side, and cut and tore the bloody 
part of his clothes from him, in less time than it takes to tell of it. A 
small wound, corresponding nearly to the intercostal space of the fifth and 
sixth ribs, was slowly pouring forth the tide of life, already reduced to its 


lowest ebb. I had no means of probing it, but I could feel, upon pressure, 
the crepitation of the broken rib. Some indefinite ideas of internal bleed- 
ing flashed through my mind, but, thought I, he may as well die from in- 
ternal as external bleeding — the only thing that I can do is to plug the 
wound. Tearing off a square piece of linen, I placed it over the wound 
and forced the centre of it into the surface between the two ribs with the 
point of my ramrod, making a kind of pouch, into which I continued to 
cram small pieces of linen until I had distended it into a good and effi- 
cient plug. This finished, I commenced clearing away the coagulated 
clots, when, as I was passing my hand over his side, imagine my joy at 
feeling a hard round substance, directly beneath the skin, and in a line 
some six or eight inches backwards from the wound. I felt it again ; it 
was clearly and decidedly a rifle ball. The case was now cleir ; it needed 
no surgeon to make a correct diagnosis. The ball had not entered the 
body, it had touched the lower end of the rib, fracturing it and rupturing 
the intercostal artery, and glancing a little upwards, had slipped round 
upon the bone, directly beneath the skin. " He '11 live ! I know he '11 
live ! " I exclaimed, and as if in confirmation of my opinion, the old 
trapper opened his eyes and exhibited signs of returning consciousness. 
But much remained to be done. There, at a little distance, lay three 
savages dead ! — killed by my own hand ! It seemed like a dream. I 
could hardly believe it possible, and yet there was no room to doubt. 
There were too many proofs of a fact, which, if I had read it in any of my 
favorite romances, I should have thought improbable and exaggerated. 
One, or at most two Indians would have been enough for any ordinary 
hero of a novel. But three ! What a complete verification of the old 
adage, that " truth is strange, stranger than fiction." I took a torch and 
went to where they lay. Their contorted and stiffening forms, and con- 
vulsed features, were far more fearful to look upon than they could have 
been when alive and armed with the powers and energies of determined 
malice. They looked as though they yet meditated revenge, and revenged 
they assuredly would be as soon as their fate became known to their 
friends in the neighborhood, unless something was done to baffle detection 
or pursuit. Without Joe's assistance I could hardly expect to make 
much resistance ; without his advice, I knew not what to do. I thought 
of changing our camp ; but where could we go ? I thought of putting 
my companion into the canoe and starting for home — but could he stand 
so long a voyage ; and how could I get him round the rapids ? It would 
kill him to carry him on my shoulders in his present state. I tried to 
talk with him and get his opinion of the probable danger of attack from 


other Indians, and as to the course we should pursue, but he was too ex- 
hausted with loss of blood to comprehend even what I said, much less reply. 
I was in a perfect quandary. It seemed as if every moment lost was as 
much as our lives were worth, and I could not but look around upon the 
tall shadowy trees, and fancy that I could almost hear the yells of a dozen 
savages, leaping with brandished tomahawks from behind them. In such 
a case I might perhaps escape by taking to the bush, but poor Joe ! his 
little spark of life would be readily extinguished. 

At this moment of my greatest perplexity, a thought of the cave Joe 
had pointed out to me flashed upon my mind. It came like an inspiration 
from Deity. I did not wait to think twice, and in less than twenty 
minutes I had all our essential goods and chattels in the canoe. A few 
leaves in the bottom of the boat, and our blankets folded on them, made 
as comfortable a bed as any invalid could wish, and taking up Joe in my 
arms, who really seemed light from loss of blood, I laid him so gently 
upon it as hardly to extort a sigh. 

Not a little relieved in my mind did I feel when I had pushed out 
fairly into the lake. Steering as direct a course as I could, two hours' 
paddling brought us to where the expanded water again contracted itself 
to the narrow boundaries of the river. The range of tall black cliffs in 
which I knew the cave to be, here commenced, but as it ran a distance of 
several miles, I began to be afraid that I might have some difficulty in 
finding the exact spot. Fortune, however, favored me, and I had not 
gone much farther when my canoe ran almost bow-on the little island 
lying before the cave. Gliding into the narrow and shallow channel 
between the two, I soon succeeded in fastening the canoe to a small bush 
directly beneath the ledge that concealed the entrance. Taking a pine- 
knot and a tinder-box, I commenced climbing up to it, which, as the 
moon was exceedingly fitful in her light, and as I could not recollect pre- 
cisely the steps we had taken in the daytime, was more difficult than I 
expected. Once up, I crept inside and struck a light. A few small bats 
were at first a little startled by the intrusion, but besides these all was 
quiet. The aspect of the place was eminently comfortable ; it was so dry 
and clean, while the windings of the long, nearly level, and lofty saloon 
put at rest all fear of the possibility of a light being seen from the 

But the next question was how to get Joe into it. However, I felt so 
inspired by my success so far, that I considered that a minor difficulty, 
which I was determined should not trouble me. I knew I could haul him 
in easy enough, but my great care was to do it so as not to give him pain. 


or again start the hemorrhage of his wound. This I contrived to accom- 
pHsh by pulUng the corners of the blanket from beneath him, leaving him 
in the middle of it, and bringing them up over him and tying them in a 
firm knot. To this knot I attached a cord of deer-skin, and taking the 
other end up to the ledge, with a good strong steady pull 1 brought the 
blanket, with Joe in it, up to the ledge. A few low groans, which I heard 
with almost positive pleasure, inasmuch as they showed there was still life 
in him, a fact which I had more than once doubted as we were coming 
down, were the only evidences of suffering in his rough ascent. Stretch- 
ing him temporarily upon the softest-looking stone I could find, in a few 
minutes I had a bed rigged for him, which, as Joe afterwards acknowl- 
ledged, was " good enough for the president or the queen of England." 
A few moments more I had all our goods hauled up, our canoe stowed 
away in the bushes of the little island, and a good fire throwing around 
its mellow light and sending up its smoke among the arches and crevices 
of the cavern, disturbing no one but the bats, who soon found themselves 
compelled to evacuate the premises. 


An Opportune Arrival — Return to the Village — Bad News — Jonathan Hurries Home — His 
Mother's Death — A Spiritual Visitation. 

[ OR three weeks we lived in these comfortable and secure quar- 
ters, the old man gradually gaining strength, but still incapable 
of any exertion. He had been so nearly exsanguinated that 
his recovery was necessarily slow, although it isprobable that 
but for the loss of blood inflammatory symptoms might have developed 
themselves, that would have severely taxed my little stock of medical 
science to treat. For three weeks we thus lived, and yet time did not 
pass tardily. I had so much responsibility, so much to do, and so much 
to think of, that the hours glided by with the greatest rapidity. 

In the daytime I mostly stayed at home, except during two or three cau- 
tious excursions for partridges and other small game, amusing myself as I 
best might, preparing our meals, talking with Joe, or rather to him, for I 
would not allow him to say much for fear of the wound in his side, and 
walking up and down, building castles in the air, in every one of which 
there was precisely such a nice, cozy, comfortable and secret cavern as ours- 
In the night I sallied out for fuel and fish : on the other side of the little 
island, in the main channel, there were plenty of rock-bass, perch, and 
sunfish ; and towards some marshy ground on the opposite side of the 
river, with an hour's bobbing I could half fill the canoe with eels. 

The cooking afforded much occupation and amusement, and exercised 
my ingenuity not a little. I took it into my head that Joe must have 
soups of some kind, and boiled meats instead of roast ; but unfortunately 
our tin can had become leaky, and our only other vessel was a small 
wooden pail ; but by unstocking my rifle-barrel, closing up the vent, and 
inserting the muzzle into an orifice cut into the side of the pail a little 
above the level of the bottom, I contrived to make a machine that 
answered every purpose. By inserting the gun-barrel, and putting the 
other end in the fire, I had a capital soup pot ; on plugging up the orifice, I 
had a water pail or a live-bait bucket. The best materials for soup I 



found, after several trials, were thin pieces of fish dried in the sun and 
pounded up with a cracker. " How do you like that?" said I, as I fed the 
first mess of it to Joe, with a piece of birch bark folded up for a spoon. 

" Good ! " whispered Joe, " it goes right into my veins." 

And then such a variety of soups as we had ! There was bass-soup — 
pickerel-soup — mullet-soup — and eel-soup, with partridge and blackbird 
broths, and I even attempted a number of experiments at flavoring them 
with wintergreen, birch-bark, and sassafrass, some of which, I could not 
but think were tolerably successful, although Joe allowed that he " rather 
liked the plain soup the best." 

It was the last evening of our third week that I was seated before the 
fire busily engaged stringing worms for an eel-bob : Joe was stretched 
upon his bed on the opposite side, and, as I supposed, in a sound sleep, 
but upon looking up from my work I found his eyes fixed upon me with 
the greatest intentness, and with a peculiar expression that induced me 
to ask him if he wanted any thing. 

" My God ! Mr. Jonathan," exclaimed Joe, " how can I ever repay 
you ? " 

" Repay me ! what for ? what do you mean ? " 

" For all that you have done for me. Here, you have saved my life, 
and have nursed and tended me just like a mother, and have fed me, and 
what 's more have stayed here shut up in this old den, without a single 
impatient look or gesture. I 've watched you all the time. But if I can't 
repay you perhaps God will, and that 's some comfort." 

" Pshaw ! Joe, don't talk foolish." 

"There 's no foolishness about it. It must be tiresome. This aint 
no place for a fellow as young and strong as you are, and 't is n't what I 
bargained you should have, and I 'm not going to stand it any longer. 
I 've been thinking of something. We may have to stay here three 
weeks more before I shall be strong enough to walk round the long por- 
tage, and you see my ribs want a little tinkering up by the doctors, and 
that ball cut out of my back ; and besides that, our meal is all out, and 
our crackers must be nearly gone, for I have noticed that you have not 
eaten one for several days. Now, I can move about a little here and help 
myself, and I think that the best plan is for you to lay in a pretty good 
stock of wood and fish, and then take the canoe and start for the village. 
We 've got a good moon now, and if you start just at sundown, and 
paddle all night, you '11 be in the morning at the first rapids, and from 
there you can easily get in town by three or four o'clock in the afternoon,' 
and then you go right to Dan Wright who keeps the red wooden grocery 



store, and tell him all about it, and he '11 get somebody with him and 
start in ten minutes. He '11 be up here in two days, and then I can be 
carried round the falls and reach home before the week is out." 

Joe's proposition was debated pro and con, but, as it really appeared 
the only feasible plan, and as he was perfectly confident of being able to 
do his part, I at last, although with some reluctance, consented to it. 
Fortunately, however, we were not compelled to put it into execution, 
as the very next morning the means of escape from our confinement were 
presented to us. 

I had risen rather late, having been employed according to Joe's sug- 
gestion during most of the night in laying in a good stock of wood and 
eels, when, stepping to the mouth of the cave to take a look out, I saw a 
canoe with two persons in it coming up the stream, I ran for my pocket 
spy-glass, and soon ascertained that they were white men. 

" Then they must be old Simmons and his son," said Joe, " there 's 
no one else that would be coming up this way." 

Satisfied that the old man was right, I got our canoe out from its 
hiding-place, and paddled out into the main channel to meet them. They 
were somewhat surprised at seeing me, and listened with not a little 
interest and even uneasiness to my story. 

"Well, I declare now, that 's monstrous bad," exclaimed old Simmons, 
" why, the ugly critters might take a notion to have a shot at us." 

" I should n't wonder," said I. " It would be far the safest plan for 
you to turn round, and help me to get Mr. Downs down the river." 

" Well, perhaps so, but where is he ? let 's see him, and see what he 

We ascended to the cave, when, after a little conversation with Joe, 
the matter was arranged. A slight touch of anxiety as to the notions of 
revenge the " ugly critters " might take into their heads quickening the 
really kind and benevolent feelings of the new-comers, all was soon ready. 
Joe was lowered into the canoe, and we started off. Arrived at the rapids, 
we easily made a litter of two poles and a blanket, and carried him round. 
In the afternoon of the third day we reached the village. Joe was at 
once put in the -doctor's hands, who assured him that "he could n't have 
been better treated, and that a few weeks more would make him as sound 
and strong as ever. I, however, could not look after him any further, as 
I found an urgent letter, which had been awaiting me for three or four 
days, requiring me to come home immediately. " My mother," it stated, 
" had suddenly been taken quite ill, very ill, indeed dangerously ill " ; and 
I " must lose no time." 


Early the next morning I had taken my seat on the mail-stage, and 
was hurrying home as fast as the nature of the roads would admit, but at 
a pace that seemed to me the very antithesis of speed. Going over the 
ground as often as I,had at the commencement and end of our quarterly 
vacations, I had formed quite an intimate acquaintance with the coach- 
man ; so, seating myself on the box, I plied him with all manner of per- 
suasives, not forgetting the brandy and water at the stopping-places, and 
thus made out to get a mile or two an hour more out of his straining team. 

Notwithstanding our haste we did not arrive at my native village until 
quite late in the afternoon. As the coach had a number of passengers to 
set down, I knew that I could reach home sooner on foot ; so jumping 
from the box, I rushed onward with the speed of fear and hope. As I 
came within sight of the house, a good many strange and unusual circum- 
stances attracted my attention. The windows were all open, and I could 
perceive that a number of people were moving about within. At the 
•door and in the long low porch, where in early infancy I had so often 
played bo-peep with my mother, through the foliage of the thick wood- 
bine, and where later she so often sat and listened, with half a smile and 
half a tear, to the legends I was so fond of reading to her, were several 
persons silent and motionless, or if moving at all, with evidently cautious 
steps. In the broad esplanade of green in front of the dwelling, or lean- 
ing on the white paling, lined with the lilac, the rose, and the honey- 
suckle, were several quiet groups gazing at the house with a subdued and 
serious air that sent an icy chill through my beating heart. Some of 
these were miserably clad — in rags — and had the wo-begone look that 
poverty, superadded to ill-health, cannot fail to produce, but they were 
the only natural or cheering part of the sight, for my mother I had been 
accustomed to see surrounded, more than half her time, by the sick and 
the poor. 

I strode on across the green, and ascended the porch. An old friend 
of my mother advanced and took my hand. I could not speak, but must 
have looked the question, for he instantly replied, " She is living yet." 

I passed on, and entered the sick room ; the doctor, nurse, and attend- 
ing friends made way for me, and I stood by her side. My mother must 
have heard and recognized my footstep, for her glazed eyes had been 
already dimmed by the touch of death. Her hand extended itself 
to greet me. I took it, and felt the feeble pressure of her small fingers 
upon mine. A faint but happy smile played upon her lips ; they parted, 
and gently, but distinctly, she murmured, " My son ! " The next moment 
her features were fixed in the cold, hard rigidity of death. 


Dead ! impossible ! It could not be ! It could not be that the 
pleasant and beautiful world had been thus instantaneously palsied at a 
single stroke— that the sun was for ever darkened, and that the moon 
would no longer give her cheerful light— that the trees were withered, 
and the grass faded, and all nature tinged with a black funereal hue of 
grief and death ! 

It could not be that life, to me so full of happiness and joy, had, at 
one blow, been converted into a dismal and dreary blank — a voyage with- 
out a haven — a pilgrimage without a shrine ! It could not be ! and yet it 
was. There lay the remains of all that made the world a pleasure, life an 
object, and even heaven a hope. 

Oh ! the agony of that first night ! The darkness of my chamber was 
comparative light to the intense thick blackness that seemed to fill my 
brain, and to clog the pulses of my heart. I buried my head in the folds 
of the pillow, compressed my beating temples with my hands, and strug- 
gled, as if with a mighty and fearful demon, who, with a grasp upon my 
throat, was crushing me to the ground. 

The long night had nearly passed, when I was startled by a slight 
noise in my apartment. It sounded like the passage of some light body 
through the air, or like the gentle rustling of a leaf. I raised my head 
from the bed on which I had thrown myself without undressing, and 
listened. It came again. There was a low, slight murmur, and then my 
mother's voice distinctly pronounced the words : 

" My son ! my son ! " 

The words seemed for a time to float upon the air, and then die away 
with a cadence so reproachful, yet so sweet and mild, as to pierce the 
deepest recesses of my heart. They ceased ! I raised myself from the 
bed, and stretching forth my arms, exclaimed, " Mother ! mother ! speak 
to me ! " But no answer was returned. All was silent, save the occa- 
sional foot-fall of the watchers of the dead. 

I know that all this can be easily and naturally explained as the effect 
of imagination — as the mere fancy of a distempered and excited brain. 
But, if dubiQUs about accepting such an explanation even now, I should 
have scorned it at the time. The words^ — the tones, were too distinct — 
too real. They fell upon my soul like oil upon the troubled waters ; or 
like the voice of Him upon the billows of Gennesareth. 

I rose and stood by the side of my mother's remains. I could gaze 
upon them without feeling longer that utter prostration of soul, that in- 
tense and desperate anguish. I knew that that lifeless clay was not my 
mother; it was something that once appertained to her, and therefore 



sacred — something that she had used and had discarded, while she her- 
self was still with me and around me. I felt perfectly calm — almost 
happy in the thought, and I acted as I felt ; so much so as to excite 
remark. On the day of the funeral I overheard one of the spectators say, 

" Well, he seems to take it mighty easy." 

What answer, if I had wished to answer it, could I have made to such 
an observation ? Have told them, as I then firmly believed, that that was 
not my mother they were bearing to the tomb, that she still remained in 
the old home, had visited me in my chamber, had spoken to me ; I should 
have been met with an almost universal smile of derision and contempt. 
Fools ! fools who thus dare to dogmatize upon the awful and mysterious 
possibilities of the spiritual world. 



























Commences the Study of Medicine — Medicine and its Professors — The Doctors in Doubt — A 
Grave Incident — Flight of Jonathan — Arrival in ^ew York — Meets an Old Friend — A 
Youngster on the Main-Gaff — An Opportune Offer — Sailing of the Lively Anne. 

[OW aptly has time been termed " The Consoler." " The De- 
stroyer " is hardly more appropriate, for surely he relieves as 
much distress as he causes ; cures as many wounds as he inflicts. 
I could not but continue to mourn my mother's death, but time, 
in his rapid flight, had brought so many new scenes, and thoughts, and 
feelings, that in a few short weeks I found, much to my surprise, that the 
keen edge of grief had become materially blunted. I was not only sur- 
prised, but ashamed — ashamed that I could not keep up the strong sense 
of woe — ashamed that I could allow any of the objects or interests of life 
to drive her image, for a moment, from my mind. I thought there must 
be something wrong in my moral constitution, and that I deserved to be 
looked upon by all with that contempt that I felt for myself. 

She was so much more than a mere mother to me — a friend and com- 
panion : one who took, or with the most delicate tact affected to take, an 
interest in all my boyish sports and occupations — seldom directly oppos- 
ing my wishes and inclinations, but adroitly curbing and directing them. 
How well I could recollect numberless instances of that kind of gentle 
leading and guiding, which, at the time, I did not perceive or understand ! 
How many instances, too, of the sacrifice of her feelings and taste to a 
jealous anxiety for my safety and welfare. 

Alas for my sensibility and feeling ! it was but a very few weeks after 
her decease that I began, as I have said, to take a renewed interest in the 
affairs of life. In this, however, respect for her expressed wishes actuated 
me, and, when joined to the solicitations of my guardian and friends, and 
the desire for sonie kind of agreeable and useful occupation, induced me to 
enter upon a course of medical study. I had but little idea that I should 
ever carry my professional knowledge into practice, but the study itself 
was sufficiently enticing, and soon it absorbed every faculty of my mind. 

There is so much in the science of medicine and its collateral branches 



to gratify the noblest, as well as the meanest and most prurient curiosity, 
that it is no wonder that young men take to it with an avidity and en- 
thusiasm that the students of other professions seldom feel. There is 
none of the aridity complained of in the law^ — none of the dulness and 
formality of theology. Every thing is new, fresh, and interesting. The 
most fertile portion of the broad field of nature is thrown open, wherein 
lie hidden the most recondite secrets — the most curious mysteries. Anat- 
omy reveals the structure of that wonderful machine, which, in point of 
complexity, yet perfect adjustment and adaptation of parts, so infinitely 
surpasses the most ingenious products of the mechanician's skill ; Physi- 
ology, the vital functions and the intricate laws of life ; and Pathology, 
the organic lesions — the changes of structure — the wear and tear of the 
animal machine. Chemistry and Materia Medica are broad paths to the 
very arcana of nature ; a little rough, perhaps, at first, but paved with the 
gems of science and strewn with the flowers of truth. As the student 
advances, the path grows more and more pleasant and picturesque, dis- 
closing, at each step, new scenes to stimulate curiosity or reward toil. 
The Institutes and History of Medicine furnish themes for the profoundest 
reflections, subjects for the most refined philosophic analysis, and incite- 
ments to the most engrossing application. The student, as he advances, 
ascends ; his views grow more and more comprehensive ; his mental vision 
takes in the vast materials of a long-continued and copious induction. 
He finds that there is much truth mingled with much error, but he learns 
to distinguish between the two ; he learns to separate the logical deduc- 
tions from the vagaries of theory, the prejudices of ignorance, or the 
perversions of craft. He learns to estimate at their proper value the pre- 
tensions of charlatans and the crudities of professional humbugs, who take 
advantage of that quality of the human mind that disposes it to believe 
any thing, if it is sufficiently improbable, to foist upon the world some 
miserable but fortunately short-lived delusion. He sees that there always 
have been, and probably always will be, such pretenders, and that they 
always have had, and always will have their dupes, who greedily swallow 
as new and important discoveries what are oftentimes nothing more than 
the exploded quackeries of ignorant antiquity. But amid all, he sees the 
pure stream of science welling from its fountain in Cos — for centuries 
after the time of Hippocrates, receiving scarce an addition, — now gradu- 
ally and slowly enlarging its current, steadily winding its way in despite 
of all obstacles, and mirroring in its waters the very image of truth — 
truth often indemonstrable from the nature of its essence, and often 
incommunicable to the vulgar from its form, but still truth. He feels a 


pride in his profession, the ground of which the uninitiated cannot appre- 
ciate or understand. He feels a confidence, too, that, although the 
creduHty of a portion of the pubhc, like the stomach of the ostrich, rejects 
nothing, however crude, the majority of the intelligent classes will ever 
believe, that a man of clear head and thorough education, who practises 
the received principles of his profession, and combines with his personal 
observation the experience of ages, is full as likely to form correct opinions 
and give correct advice, as any seventh son of a seventh son, however 
ignorant ; or any crotchety German enthusiast, however wild. 

The time for the commencement of the winter course of lectures 
approaching, I repaired to the medical college, at New York, where I at 
first found that every thing did not appear invested with the rose-tints in 
which my imagination had luxuriated — that there was much in the study 
of medicine that was disagreeable, much that was downright disgusting. 
This however was, in the main, but a transient impression. It soon van- 
ished after a little familiarity with the subject. It could not long co-exist 
with that intense professional curiosity which induces men, intended by 
nature for physicians, to fight with the worms of the charnel-house, their 
way to knowledge, through the most disgusting masses of putrefying 
humanity. It could not withstand the contagious recklessness of a medi- 
cal class. 

At the close of the lectures I returned to the village, bringing with 
me some little experience in metropolitan life, and an increased enthusi- 
asm for professional study. 

" How is Smith's child ? " inquired Doctor H , the younger part- 
ner of Doctor S , as the latter entered the office. 

" Dead. He died about half an hour since." 

" I thought so," was the reply. " I knew last night that he could n't 
live twenty-four hours." 

The child spoken of was a boy of ten or twelve years of age, and the 
son of quite an influential, but ignorant and bigoted man, who was noted 
for his illiberal opposition to any and every one whom he suspected of 
having pretensions to more knowledge or influence than himself. The 
boy had been sick some time with a curious and novel form of dis- 
ease, which had sorely taxed the skill and science of our preceptors. The 
indications had been investigated and the pathognomic circumstances 
watched and compared, with a degree of care and anxiety common 
enough in medical practice, but for which the profession seldom receive 
any credit, but from the peculiar difficulties of the case, no positive con- 
clusion, as to the exact seat and nature of the complaint, had been arrived 


at. The symptoms were almost wholly referable to an anomalous lesion 
of the brain, but the physicians were strongly of opinion that the original 
cause was some irritation of the digestive organs, which had contrived to 
mask itself and simulate an affection of the head. 

" I suppose they will let us examine him " said Dr. H . 

" That they will not," replied Doctor S " I have had a talk with 

them about it, and strongly urged the necessity of an autopsy. The 
mother is quite willing, in fact she wishes it, but the stupid old fool of a 
father politely informed me that he 'd see me and all the profession 
further first." 

" That 's very unfortunate." 

" Provoking is n't it ? " 

" Too bad ! too bad ! Can't something be done ? " and the two doctors 
looked each other full in the eyes for some time with a peculiar wistful 
inquiring expression, which struck me as rather comical. 

" No, no," said Doctor S , as he turned off with a sigh and a shake 

of the head. " I 've done every thing I could — the father won't give his 
consent — if I was thirty years younger that would n't make much differ- 
ence — but now — I 'm too old. I wish I was a medical student ! " 

" I 'd give a hundred dollars for a chance at a post-mortem of that 
case," said Doctor H . " When is the child to be buried ? " 

" To-morrow afternoon." 

"A hundred dollars," muttered Dr. H again, unconsciously. 

" And I 'd give twice the sum," replied Doctor S . 

" You need n't give yourselves any trouble about it," said I to myself. 
" I '11 see what I can do for you," and beckoning to the only one of the 
students in whose energy and courage 1 had any confidence, I left the 

"What do you think?" said I, as soon as we were outside of the 

" We can't have a better chance." 

" You 're right, and we must improve it ; but we can't trust any of our 
fellow-students till after it is over. If we should say any thing to them 
about it, the whole town would know what an astonishing feat was con- 
templated ; if they did not tell it, they would look so frightened that 
every one would see there was something in the wind." 

Punctual to the hour, we took up our line of march for the graveyard, 
which was almost a mile distant, and completely buried in the woods. 
The moon had gone down, leaving a somewhat cloudy sky ; but still 
there was sufficient starlight to reveal the masses of thick foliage, with 


black, giant-looking trunks, and the uncouth shadowy branches of the 
trees. But why enter into a minute account of an adventure which, with 
many, will excite disagreeable associations, and which I should not allude 
to at all were it not for the lasting influence it has had upon my destiny. 
Suffice it to say, that in silence, save a few whispered sentences, we made 
our way to the grave, which had been previously examined and marked, 
so that we could readil}- find it in the dark, when we should come to 
restore the little one to his resting-place. 

Arrived at the ofifice, of which we had taken the precaution to secure 
a key, we stealthily entered, and secreted our prize in a little unoccupied 
attic. This done, the door carefully secured, we betook ourselves each 
to his home and to bed. 

To bed, but not to sleep. I was altogether too inexperienced in the 
art of body-snatching for that. I tossed and tumbled about as wakeful 
and as restless as if I had been dining with a party of ghouls, and the 
charnel-house viands had produced a fit of indigestion. I felt not so 
much remorse, but the dread of detection came strong upon me. I had 
an overwhelming presentiment that the result of the affair would be ex- 
ceedingly disagreeable. 

The morning came ; but it brought no relief. It seemed as though 
the night's exploit must be already publicly known ; and as I sneaked 
along to the office I fancied that every one whom I encountered looked 
at me with a peculiarly inquisitive and suspicious glance. I would have 
given worlds that the deed had been left undone, especially as the worst 
of it was still to come, and that was to make it known to the principals 
of the ofifice. How would they receive the news? What would they 
say ? What would they do ? I began to have strong doubts of the mean- 
ing that I had attributed to their remark of the day before ; and my fel- 
low-student I found in an equal degree of perplexity. Several times I 

attempted to broach the subject to Dr. H , as the one least likely to 

find fault with our performance, but as often the slightest word or cir- 
cumstance would be sufificient to turn me from the point, and the day 
passed in doubt and indecision. The next day came, and with it a firm 
determination to know the worst ; but before I could get a chance to 
talk about it with either of our preceptors, circumstances transpired which 
saved me the trouble, and put an end for ever to my professional career. 

It was just as Dr. S was getting into his gig to visit a distant 

patient, whose case I knew to be urgent, that I saw Squire D- , one of 

the justices of the peace, come up to him and speak a few words, which 
seemed strongly to excite the doctor's attention. A feeling of apprehen- 


sion came over me, which was still further increased, when after a short 
conversation, the doctor refastened his horse, and the two entered the 
office, retiring to a private room, and carefully shutting the door. At 
any other time the circumstance would have excited no remark ; but just 
then it had a most portentous aspect, and I awaited the result of the con- 
ference with the profoundest conviction that the subject of it was the 
cold and silent tenant that we had introduced to the attic room. 

In a few minutes I had confirmation strong — the door opened, and the 
doctor called me in. 

" Do you know any thing about these articles ? " said he, pointing to a 
splinter of mahogany and a small piece of linen that were lying on the table. 

I shook my head. 

" Come, come ! — be quick ! A nice scrape you 've got yourself into, 
and, if you want to get out of it, there 's no time to lose. John told me 
that you came into the office night before last with a bundle in your arms, 
and old Jackson, coming through the graveyard, picked up these things 
alongside of the grave of Smith's child. He handed them to our friend 
here ; but several other persons know of it, and a good deal of suspicion 
is excited. As soon as it comes to Smith's ears the grave will be exam- 
ined, a formal complaint made, and a search-warrant issued, and then we 
shall be in a devilish pretty mess." 

I saw that the game was all up, and that I might as well tell the whole 

story. Doctor H was called in, my guardian and the friends of my 

companion sent for, and a consultation held as to the best means of 
escaping the consequences of our ill-advised and ill-conducted perform- 
ance. It was decided that, to exonerate themselves, the doctors should 
lay a regular information before the justice of the peace, who would be 
in no hurry t© act upon it, and that towards evening, two young men, 
carefully disguised, should be rowed with an appearance of mystery to 
the Canada side of the St. Lawrence, while my fellow-student should be 
despatched to some distant relatives, and I should start for New York. 
This would lead to the belief that we had gone to Canada, and, in a short 
time, it was expected, some compromise could be made, and the affair 
entirely blow over. 

Acting upon this plan, I made my way, by a circuitous route to the 
high road, at a point some distance from the town, and awaited the 
arrival of Dr. H , who came along in his gig, and taking me up, car- 
ried me on to the next village, where I was to take a seat in the mail- 
stage as it past through. 

I took my seat in the coach in no pleasant frame of mind; but the nil 


desperafidum principle, which was constitutionally a favorite with me, soon 
regained its influence, and I began to think that a trip to the great city, 
under any circumstances, could hardly fail to be agreeable. In four days' 
staging, canalling, and steaming, during which I had ample time to reflect 
upon the prominent events of my life, which in less than a year had fol- 
lowed each other with so much rapidity, I arrived in New York ; but 
until I had fairly set foot upon Cortlandt Street quay, I could hardly be- 
lieve that I had not been all the time in a dream. I found the utmost 
difficulty in impressing myself with a " realizing sense" of my position and 
prospects. Events so important, and apparently so improbable, had hap- 
pened so easily and so naturally, that I was almost inclined to think that 
they had not happened at all. I pondered over my adventure with Joe 
— from whom, by-the-by, I had received a letter, informing me that he 
had recovered from his wound, and that the Indians having returned to 
their homes in Canada without saying any thing about our adventure, it 
had ceased to be talked of, and would in a short time be forgotten ; and 
I thought of the death of my mother, of my medical course and of my 
body-snatching performance, until I had almost thought myself into 
quite a distressing state of dubitation as to my personal identity. 

The first two days after my arrival were passed in calling upon a few 
friends, looking up some college acquaintances who resided in the city, and 
visiting my former haunts, the infirmaries, hospitals, and museums. On the 
third, at an early hour, I repaired to the post-office, and received, as I 

expected, several letters — one from Dr. H , one from my guardian, 

and one from my fellow-students. But what was my disappointment and 
consternation at their contents ! They were ail of the same tenor and to 
the effect that the affair had become public, and had produced infinitely 
more excitement than had been anticipated ; that the father and family 
were perfectly implacable ; that old Smith, enraged at what he considered 
a gross insult to his standing and position in society, was determined to 
pursue the case to the utmost ; that he had, somehow, got information 
that I had not gone to Canada, and that he was about to offer a large 
reward for my apprehension ; that this would stimulate the activity of the 
city police, and I would certainly be arrested unless I got out of the 
country immediately. For this purpose a draft was enclosed by my 
guardian, which I was directed to get turned into a bill upon Liverpool, 
London, or Havre, or any place to which the first packet should sail. It 
was particularly and repeatedly urged that I should be quick in my 
movements, as my enemies were in earnest, and their operations would 
be pushed with vigor and decision. 


I had turned into the large and splendid refectory in the neighborhood 
of the post-office, and seated myself in a corner to read my letters. The 
room began gradually to fill with hungry and thirsty customers, and to 
resound with a confused babble of sounds, many of which would have 
puzzled any one but an American, however well acquainted with the 
English language, to understand. From one side came loud and frequent 
calls for certain familiar eatables, such as sandwiches, buckwheat cakes, 
mince pie, and cranberry tarts ; while from the other proceeded certain 
cabalistic exclamations, quite unintelligible to me, such as " dodger," 
" smasher," " whiskey-skin," and " gin-doodle," with an occasional sten- 
torian invitation "to take something," and the kind inquiry "what '11 
you have?" The confusion, however, disturbed me but little, as I sat 
abstracted, pondering upon the contents of my letters and the course of 
conduct marked out for me. 

My revery was interrupted by a heavy hand upon my shoulder. I 
started and turned, expecting to meet nothing less than the visage of 
that renowned impersonation of prehensile acuteness — the Vidocq of New 
York — old Hays. But I was agreeably surprised to find only the rough, 
but good-natured face of an old acquaintance, Captain Coffin, who had 
formerly commanded, in my father's service, a schooner upon Lake 
Ontario, and who had several times visited the St. Lawrence, since his 
death. The captain was a short, thick-set man, with a dark sunburnt 
countenance, but with a heart big enough for a giant, and as pure and as 
soft as a child's. A thorough seaman, with a good deal of general infor- 
mation, and as generous as that often-quoted model of generosity, " a 
prince," he was one of the class of men who have done so much honor 
to our mercantile marine ; having elevated the character of the merchant- 
captain to a level with that of the officers of our national service. 

" Jonathan Romer, as I 'm alive ! " he exclaimed. " How do you do? 
How long have you been in town ? What is the news ? Here, Captain 
Folger," speaking to his companion, " I '11 make you acquainted with 
Jonathan Romer, son of your old master, Seth Romer. Captain Folger, 

" Chip of the old block, aint he, captain ? My stars, how he has 
grown ! When I first knew him he was n't more than so high, and now 
just see what a tall fellow, full six feet in the clear, and as tough and as 
withy as a young hickory. Do you recollect, Jonathan, your ride upon 
the main-gaff? I '11 tell you how it was, Captain Folger. The schooner 
that I commanded had just got in from her trip up the lake, when Captain 
Romer, my owner, came on board, bringing this youngster, then not 


much over three years old, with him. The fore- and main-sails had been 
hauled up ; the crew had most of them strolled ashore, and the captain 
and I went down into the cabin to look over some papers. In a few min- 
utes his father missed Jonathan, and we ran up on deck but could n't see 
any thing of him. ' Jonathan ! ' sung out the captain, as if he was hailing 
to windward in a hurricane. ' Here I am, father,' squeaked a voice right 
overhead. We looked up, and there was the young monkey astride of 
the main-gaff, and holding on to the peak halHards. The vangs had n't 
been hauled taut, and the gaff was swinging about, and every now and 
then bringing up with a jerk that would have sent a cat with ten claws 
flying. I '11 tell you what, if no one ever saw Seth Romer turn pale or 
tremble before, they might have seen him then. He could n't speak, and 
I was glad of it, for I did n't want to startle or frighten the boy. I jumped 
and took in the slack of the vangs. ' Hold on tight,' said I, ' until I come 
up and help you down.' ' No,' said he, ' I '11 come down myself,' and 
before I could say a word he slewed himself under the gaff, got hold of 
the vang, and came down by the run as neatly as ever you saw a fellow 
slide down a backstay. ' How on earth did you get up there ? ' said I, for 
I was puzzled. We had n't missed him more than five minutes. There 
were no ratlines to our main rigging, and there was an uncommon hoist 
to the main-sail ; besides, the throat halliards had been slackened a little, 
and the gaff peaked up considerably more than half-way between nothing 
at all and a church steeple. ' How on earth did you get up there? ' 'Oh, 
I creeped up them ropes, and then I creeped down them ropes, and I 
creeped out on that big stick ' 

" ' Yes, and I '11 teach you how to creep out of my sight next time,' 
said his father, untwisting a nice nettle from a piece of inch-and-half. 

" ' No, no,' said I, ' you must pardon him this time ; he won't do so 
again. Why, captain,' said I to him aside, ' you might flog him for a week, 
you could n't flog it out of him — it 's in his blood; he '11 know the ropes 
yet.' ' God forbid,' said the captain ; ' but was n't it beautiful ? ' 

" But come, Jonathan. What 's the news? " 

Captain Folger taking his leave, we drew our chairs to one side, and 
entered into a long and circumstantial conversation, in the course of which 
I explained to Captain Cofifin the business that had brought me to New 
York, and showed him the letters which I had just received. 

" Well, I declare now," said he, as he finished reading them, " it 's the 
luckiest thing in the world." 

"What is the luckiest thing?" I demanded, somewhat surprised at 
his tone and words. 


" Why, that I happened to meet you," he replied. " I 've got one of 
the finest foretopsail schooners you ever saw, and she 's all ready loaded 
with staves and a few boards for the Western Islands. I did not intend 
to sail until day after to-morrow ; but I guess I can make my arrange- 
ments to get off to-morrow morning. You shall go along with me. It 
will be just fifty chances to one that we shall have to go on to Malaga to 
dispose of our cargo and take in a load of dried fruit and wine. You '11 
have a first-rate chance to practise your Spanish with the Malaga sefloras." 

Nothing of course could have been more agreeable or better timed 
than the captain's proposition, and I at once addressed- myself withactivi-. 
ty to the required preparations. The rest of the day was just sufificient 
to finish several letters, and make the necessary purchases of clothing, 
nautical charts, quadrant, spy-glass, etc., with some fifty volumes of 
miscellaneous books, consisting principally of old voyages and travels 
from the shelves of the street book-stands. Early the next morning I 
\>ci'a.x^&6.Xh& Lively Anne, just as she had commenced pulling out from 
the dock. The sails were soon hoisted and shifted well aft, and we 
commenced working down the bay against a wind that compelled us to 
make several tacks. Upon rounding fairly into the ofifing the wind 
became more free, and the Lively Anne bounded off at a rate that soon 
sank the highlands of Jersey below the edge of the distant horizon, 
leaving me for the first time shut in by the blue concave, upon the foam 
flecked expanse of the restless, heaving sea. Who that has ever ventured 
forth upon the great deep but will recollect, if he cannot describe, the 
whirl of contending emotions with which for the first time he has seen 
the blue vault of ether resting in uninterrupted union upon that 

" Glorious mirror, where tli' Almighty's form 
Glasses itself in tempests," 

or listened to the deep tones of 

" The strongest of creation's sons. 
That rolls the wild, profound, eternal bass 
In nature's anthem," 




'*^^7' ^**®-^*aV^ 




At Sea — Motions and Emotions — A Boat Afloat — Jonathan's Verses and the Captain's Pun — A 
Critique on Lycidas — Corvo and Floras — Arrival at Fayal — The Town of Orta — Sailors and 
Discipline — Marine Tartars — A Last Look at the Peak — A White Sqnall, or a Water-Spout 
— A Capsize. 

'Y emotions were cut short by certain queer feelings in the epi- 
gastric region, which warned me of a very common circumstance 
in a first voyage, that I had left out entirely in all my calcula- 
tions of the pleasures of the sea. Although I had inherited a 
taste for the bounding billows, I had by no means inherited an immunity 

" Much shattered and contained no one." 

from their nauseating influence. Disappointed and indignant, I had to 
take to my berth with such a distressing gyration of the brain, such a 
combination of disgusting tastes in my mouth, and such a complete pros- 
tration of all mental and physical power, that I would have given worlds 
for the use of the smallest possible portion of terra firma for an hour. 



Early in the morning of the sixth day out, it was announced that there 
was something hke a boat in sight. We altered our course a little and, 
when near enough, discovered, as it inclined upon the side of a wave, that 
it was much shattered and that it contained no one. We stood on, how- 
ever, and picked it up for firewood. When hauled out of the water a 
" school " of little rudder fish, which had been playing in and about the 
boat, took up their quarters directly beneath the stern of the schooner, 
whence I amused myself in transferring them to the " doctor's "' 
frying-pan. Conjecture was of course busy in my brain, as to how and 
why this boat was abroad in the middle of the Atlantic, and I persisted 
in boring Captain Cofifin with all manner of supposable cases. 

" Oh, no, there is no ground for your conclusions," said the captain, 
quite unconscious of the fact that he had perpetrated a very tolerable 

But I would n't give it up so. In fancy, I saw a distressing shipwreck, 
with all the attending circumstances ; and, returning to my berth, I com- 
posed some verses, in which largely figured a young husband — who, from 
having forgotten the name I then chose, I will now call John Smith — and 
his interesting wife and children. John was hastening home after a long 
absence, with feelings of unabated affection, and Mrs. Smith was expecting 
his return with tears of hope and fear. But Smith is dead, " dead ere his 
prime! young John Smith!" Oh, Smith ! 

" It was that fated and perfidious bark, 
Built ill the eclipse, and rigged with curses dark, 
That sunk so low that sacred head of thine." 

" There," said I to the captain, " what do you think of that ? " show- 
ing him my elegiac attempt. 

" Why, I think," he replied, carefully conning over the lines, " think 
that Mrs. Smith's tears are all in my eye, and that her children, like beg- 
gars' babies, are borrowed for the occasion. That boat shipped a little 
water, and broke from her davits ; and that 's all about it. Such things 
happen every day. But what is the meaning of this motto you 'vegot 
here at the head — ' rigged with curses dark ' ? I don't understand that. 
If it was ' loaded with curses dark ' there would be some sense in it. I 
recollect a case in point. It was said that old Commodore Ben Swain 
never required any ballast, because he could curse his ship's hold full of 
oaths, and bring her down to her heavy-load line in less than five min- 
utes ; but rigging a ship with curses is a different matter. To be sure, 
you can rattle 'em 07it fast enough ; but how can you rattle 'em down f " 


" Land ho ! " cut short the captain's criticism upon Milton's famous 
■elegy. It proved to be the islands of Corvo and Floras, the most west- 
erly of the Azores, or Western Islands. Corvo, a smalf rocky island, so 
named from its resemblance to a crow, and on which it is said was 
found by the first visitors, some time before the discovery of America, 
an equestrian statue, with a hand pointing to the west, was too far to 
the north of us for a distinct view. Flores we saw more distinctly. 
Passing within a few miles of it we could plainly perceive the masses of 
volcanic rock of which it is composed. As far inland as the eye could 
reach along the verdant ravines and gorges the land appeared to be in 
the highest state of cultivation. Every foot of the meagre soil seemed 
to have been wrested by the hand of industry from the dominion of 
nature, and made to subserve the interests of a poor, ignorant, super- 
stitious, but honest and hard-working, population. We all concluded 
from the distant, but tolerably distinct view that we had of it, that Flores 
must be worthy of its name — the island of flowers. 

Passing by Flores we saw the next morning in the distance the island 
of Fayal, and about four in the afternoon we rounded the high point 
which juts out on one side of the harbor or roadstead of Orta, and came 
all at once in full view of the town. Orta, with its white-washed stone 
buildings, and, interspersed, the towers and steeples of churches and con- 
vents, presents a brilliant and interesting aspect from the sea; but upon 
landing the illusion is soon dissipated, as is generally the case with all 
Spanish, Portuguese, or African towns. Dilapidated buildings, narrow, 
dirty streets, and a forlorn-looking population give token of ignorance, 
superstition, and misgovernment. The situation of the town is exceed- 
ingly beautiful, lying along the base of a steep range of volcanic hills, 
which rise from the shore to the height of a thousand feet, and enclose it on 
three sides ; it has spread before it the roadstead, in which are frequently 
displayed the flags of our American whalers, who visit it for vegetable 
supplies ; and across the harbor, at the distance of five or six miles, the 
island of Pico, from which shoots up, to the height of seven or eight thou- 
sand feet, one of the most beautiful natural objects in the world. It is a 
perfectly symmetrical, conical mountain, called the " Peak," occupying 
nearly the whole of the small island to which it gives its name ; and rising, 
as it were, directly from the sea, the eye commands every foot of the ac- 
clivity, and takes in at one glance the whole of its beautiful proportions. 
Frequently a great part of the scenic effect of a lofty mountain is lost 
from the irregularity of the base and the difificulty of determining at 
what point the mountain commences. In this case there is no uncer- 


tainty, and the whole elevation is at once attributed to the magnificent 
cone, which rears its lofty apex far into the region of the clouds, which in 
a thousand fantastic and ever-varying shapes wreath their vapory forms 
around it. 

Upon landing we were politely welcomed by the American consul, and 
conducted to his house, where I was received with unexpected kindness 
and attention, and invited to take up my quarters while I remained, an 
invitation which I was unfortunately able to avail myself of for only one 
night, as Captain Coffin soon ascertained that his staves, which were in- 
tended for the Pico wine — large quantities of which are obtained from 
the vineyards on the slopes of the Peak, and exported from Fayal to the 
United States, — were not in demand, and that he must seek a market in 
some other port. 

Sound and sweet was the first night's sleep in a foreign land. Once in 
the night the loud bray of a donkey directly beneath my window broke 
in on my slumbers, but the interruption was far from being unpleasant. 
I had never heard a donkey's voice before, and I was somewhat startled 
and astonished, and quite delighted. It was really spirit-stirring. It 
spoke in deep and, as I thought, melodious tones of a thousand things 
new, strange, foreign, and exciting. I longed to hear it again, but the 
stupid beast, with the perversity of his nature, refused to gratify me. 
Perhaps, however, in this I do him, as the world has ever done his kind, 
injustice. Could he have known how much I wished to hear his tuneful 
voice once more, it may be that he would have pitched his pipes to their 
most sonorous key. But he was ignorant of my feelings, and, vainly 
waiting and wishing, I sunk again to sleep. 

Taking a hint from the sun, I arose, and in company with some mem- 
bers of the consular family descended to the gardens and extensive 
orangeries, devoted to the supply of a good portion of the fruit of 
the English market. Coming from the cold latitudes of the St. Law- 
rence, where nature's feeble hortulan efforts had received but little 
assistance from the ingenuity of man, I enjoyed to ecstasy the colors, 
perfumes, and motions of the affluent vegetation. The garden of 
what was the old American consulate I was prepared to admire, from 
the descriptions of several travellers, who had particularly noticed it 
in their accounts of the Western Islands. I found it small, consisting 
of several terraces upon the side of a hill, but well laid out and beautifully 
cultivated. There, in friendly contiguity, were growing the fruits 
and flowers of almost every clime — the camphor, coffee, ginger, cinna- 
mon ; the orange, lime, lemon, banana, and dragon tree, with the aloe. 


peach, plum, fig, and the passion-flower, with its delicious pendulous 
fruit ; and a hundred others were all grouped in this delightful spot. 
Of flowers there was a great variety of the most magnificent kinds — 
roses', dahKas, hydrangias, heliotropes, honeysuckles, japonicas, and 
some splendid specimens of the cactus. I have since seen many of those 
trees and flowers in their native climes, and under skies more con- 
genial to their habits and constitutions, but never in the profusest 
luxuriance of their favorite abodes have they seemed to me as beau- 
tiful as then. For a blissful hour I revelled in their morning sweets, 
forgetful of the past, and happily unconscious of the dreary doom 
impending over my head. 

" Hurrah for Malaga! " exclaimed Captain Coffin, jumping upon the 
deck of the Lively Anne. " Up with the anchor, Mr. Sims — we '11 get 
under weigh immediately ! " 

" Aye ! aye, sir ! " responded the mate. " Is the cargo of fruit 
coming on board ? " pointing to a boat-load of apricots, figs, 
plums, and melons that I had brought off with me. " Very well, sir," 
he continued, receiving an affirmative reply. " If it will only keep till it 
is all eaten, there would be no fear of scurvy for one six months, but I 
should n't like to insure the ship against cholera morbus. Come ! bustle 
about, men. Hitch on the boat falls, and rouse her in. Do you hear? 

stir, your d d lazy stumps. Ship the windlass bars — heave away — 

heave with a will ! What, in the devil's name are you at there you 

d d lubberly monkey, with a blue skin stuck in your mouth as big as 

a frigate's dead-eye ? can't you work first and eat afterwards ? " 

This polite inquiry was addressed to a youngster, who, loath to lose a 
fine blue fig, had seized it with his teeth, while with both hands he took 
a pull at the topping lift. 

"Softly! softly! Mr. Sims," interposed the captain. "You know I 
don't like to have the men damned, unless it is absolutely necessary. 
There never was a crew that needed it less than ours." 

" You 'd a sworn too, I guess," retorted Mr. Sims, " if you 'd seen the 
fellow. Apples of gold in pictures of silver are said to be beautiful, but 

blue figs in such a d d mahogany frame as that, aint the thing at 

sea, when work is to be done." 

" A good fellow is Sims," said the captain to me, as the mate turned 
off to his duty, " and a capital officer, if he would only give up his habit 
of grumbling and cursing. He 's got a notion that it is necessary to find 
fault, and swear freely, in order to command the attention and respect of 
the crew, and I can't convince him how wonderfully he is mistaken. Your 


regular tartar is often respected by sailors ; but it is generally for other 
qualities than tartness and severity, and, least of all, for injustice and 
inhumanity. Sailors never liked to be cursed and hectored about, how- 
ever much they be used to it. Why, I '11 bet, with a right kind of a first 
ofificer, I can take an American crew and go around the world, without a 
high word spoken after the first three days." 

Captain Coffin paused in his discourse, and we both turned to take a 
parting look of the Peak, which was rapidly growing bluer and smaller, 
with the wind abeam, we gradually sunk it over our starboard quarter. 

The breeze veered two or three points by the stern. " You may, Mr. 
Sims, set the fore-topmast studding-sails, this wind is too good to last 
long, and we 'd better make the most of it," saying which, the captain 
descended to the cabin, leaving me to promenade the deck, and watch 
the stars emerging from the last beams of the purple twilight, that 
with unwonted pertinacity, of such a low latitude, continued to 
struggle against advancing night for the mastery of the water and the 

In conformance to our wishes, rather than our expectations, the wind 
continued all night full and free, and we bowled along before it at a rate 
which, by morning, left nothing of the isles behind us in sight. As the 
day advanced the wind gradually decreased, until about noon it nearly 
ceased, coming only in gentle cat's paws, with hardly strength enough to 
wrinkle the surface of the water, or steady the flapping sails, and followed 
by intervals of dead calm. The intense heat of the sun, despite of my 
broad-brimmed Panama hat, had driven me below, where I found the 
captain quietly seated at his desk, and busy with a voluminous manu- 
script, which he intended as a letter to his wife, to be sent by the first 
homeward-bound vessel we should encounter. Ten chances to one we 
should have no such opportunity, but then it was a labor of love which, 
even if the captain had to deliver the letter himself, would not be entire- 
ly thrown away. The example had its influence, and I also got out my 
writing materials, and was soon absorbed in the labor of turning sentences 
and rounding periods, which, although addressed to one, my vanity 

intended for the admiration of all of my friends in the village of O . 

Scratch, scratch went our pens over the paper, interrupted by no sound 
except an occasional flap of the huge main-sail, or the creaking, now and 
then, of a block or a bulkhead, as the schooner lazily rolled, and rose and 
fell upon the long smooth seas. 

Suddenly the loud, stern voice of Mr. Sims, in tones of the highest 
excitement, burst upon us like a clap of thunder in a cloudless sky. 



" Luff ! luff ! " he exclaimed with startling energy. " Down with your 
helm ! hard down ! Let go the head sheets ! Let go every thing ! " 

At the first order Captain Coffin sprang up the companion-way, and I 
followed directly behind him. As my head fairly emerged above deck I 
heard the captain shriek out the order to let go the halliards. At this 
instant the schooner was knocked clear over, and a portion of spray, 
driven with a rapidity that gave it a force almost as great as that of 
grape-shot, struck me on the side of the head and dashed me against the 
side of the hatchway, when I must have rolled back down the cabin stairs 
perfectly senseless. 

















The Schooner on Her Beam Ends — State of the Wreck — Jonathan Alone — Cuts Away the 
Main-Mast — Pumps Out the Wreck — The Water Casks Swept Overboard — Jonathan's 
Expedient — A Successful Experiment. 

[OW long I remained in that condition I know not, but I sup- 
pose it could not have been more than ten or fifteen minutes. 
Upon recovering I found myself stretched out alongside the 
starboard lockers beneath a pile of chairs, tables, writing-desks, 
books, etc., and the cabin floor standing up almost perpendicularly, like 
a wall, down which every thing movable had rolled to leeward. The 
schooner was on her beam ends. A good deal bruised, I contrived to 
extricate myself with some difficulty, and clamber by the inclined stair- 
way to the deck. There a scene of destruction and desolation broke 
upon me, to which I feel myself perfectly incapable of doing full justice; 
still less can I expect to convey any thing like a true impression of the 
emotions which it excited. The short time that I had been insensible 
had sufficed for the furious squall to do its worst ; and sailing off, per- 
haps in search of other objects, on which to vent its mighty wrath, 
it had left its shattered prey a wreck upon the bosom of the quiet, 
gently undulating sea. Not the slightest commotion indicated the 
recent passage of the storm-fiend, and hardly a breath of air ruffled 
the surface of the sluggish swell that slowly rolled its slumbering 
length beneath the fierce brightness of the unclouded sky. Yet there 
lay the Lively Anne, a few minutes before so trim and buoyant, 
now capsized and hampered with the wreck of spars and sails, and 
shorn of the graceful gear, wherein had lain the greater portion of 
her beauty and her speed. The jib-boom and fore-mast were gone 
by the board ; the main-mast, however, remained, and that, with the 
heavy sail and gaff top-sail, which had got loaded with water, held 
the schooner down and prevented her from righting herself. Portions 
of the weather bulwarks were shattered, and the whole of the starboard 
bulwarks stove fore and aft, leaving only three or four stanchions stand- 
ing. The long boat, cook's galley, water casks, harness casks, tool 




chest, and all the fixtures of the deck, except the windlass, were gone. 
Not a vestige of any thing movable remained, save the axe, which hung 
in a becket by the main-mast, and a few splinters of the shattered wheel 
binnacle and booby hatch. 

But the most distressing part of the affair was that not the slightest in- 
dication of a living being presented itself. I crept forward and shouted 
down the forecastle. No voice answered. I was alone upon the waste 
of waters, " sole monarch " not, alas ! of a " peopled deck," but of a soli- 
tary and dismantled wreck. Of all our company, consisting of captain, 
mate, cook, and five seamen, not one remained to explain the how and 
wherefore of our sad mishap. Whether it was a white squall or a water- 

" The first thing was to give the schooner a chance to right itself." 

spout ; whether the destruction had been principally effected by the wind 
or water, and whether proper care might not have saved us, are questions 
which must forever remain unanswered. I would have asked them, but 
alas ! there was no one to reply. The conviction of the sad fate of my 
companions, and of the awful solitariness of my situation, which for some 
time I was loath to admit, completely unmanned me. Seating myself 
upon the stump of the broken mast, I freely paid the tribute of my bitter 
tears to the cruel and deceitful sea. But mine, as I have said, was not a 
temperament given to weeping ; in fact, it needed but a little more age, 
and a little more seasoning in the rough school of active life, to dry up 
the fountains of grief for ever. I soon had my "cry out," and, drying 
my eyes, took a long look around the horizon for sails. Not one was ifli 


sight. Satisfied that it was in vain to hope for assistance from any quar- 
ter, at least for the present, my regards naturally returned to the wreck. 
Something must be done, and, as I was the only living thing, it was 
pretty evident that, if it was done at all, it must be done by myself. 

The first thing was to give the schooner a chance to right itself, which 
I saw she would readily do if relieved of the mainmast and heavy sails. 
I thought that perhaps it might be useful to leave a portion of the mast 
standing for the purpose of hoisting a signal if I should be so fortunate 
as to fall in with any vessels. So, taking the axe, I crept out upon the 
inclined spar about ten or twelve feet, and made a deep cut, where I pro- 
posed the fracture should take place. Returning on board, a few blows 
upon the lanyards of the tautened rigging released from its supports 
the mast, which instantly, with a loud crack, broke off short at the point 
which I had scored. The schooner, relieved from the powerful leverage 
of the heavy water-logged top hamper, righted herself at once, with a 
violent surge, and as none of the cargo had shifted, resumed a perfectly 
upright and stable position. I was not much of a practical seaman, as 
the reader may judge from the little experience I had had ; but I was 
tolerably familar with many of the expedients resorted to in various 
cases, and as I knew not how long I might have to remain on the wreck, 
I concluded that the safest way would be to make at once the best dis- 
position I could against a storm. With this view I got up the end of a 
small hawser from the fore-hatch, passed it out the hawse-hole, and made 
it fast to the rigging of the main-mast, fore-mast, and jib-boom, which 
were still alongside, and attached to the hull by portions of the lee- 
shrouds and running rigging. I then cut away every thing, and veered 
out the hawser, making the inner end fast to the windlass and the splin- 
ters of the fore-mast. A light breeze had now sprung up, and, as I ex- 
pected, the comparatively high hull of the schooner floated before it 
faster than the mass of spars, which, lagging behind, dragged upon the 
hawser, and kept the schooner head to the wind. In a hard blow the 
force exerted by the spars would be very great ; they would also serve to 
break the force of the sea, and if, in addition to them, I could contrive 
to rig a tarpaulin or some rag of canvas upon the remnant of the main- 
mast, I had no doubt of being able to keep my vessel in a very comfort- 
able and weatherly position. The correctness of these calculations I 
afterwards found repeatedly verified. 

My next movement, after clearing the wreck, was to examine the 
pumps. To my great delight, I found upon sounding, but two feet of 
water in the hold, which I concluded must have come in, the greater 


portion of it, at least, through the strained seams of her upper works 
while the schooner was on her beam ends. Not that there was much im- 
mediate danger, the nature of her cargo considered, even if she leaked 
freely, but it would be so much more agreeable to have a dry, tight, and 
buoyant vessel, although shorn of her fair proportions and left an un- 
manageable float upon the surface of the ocean. A few vigorous strokes 
by lessening the depth of water confirmed my conclusion. Satisfied that 
there was no dangerous or permanent leak, I continued under the excite- 
ment of hope the exertion of pumping until I had nearly exhausted both 
the water and my own strength. I paused, wiped away the perspiration 
rolling in torrents down my face, and took another long, steady look 
around the horizon. A flock of Mother Carey's chickens and a few 
fleecy clouds in the sky were the only moving objects in sight. 

It was now nearly four o'clock in the afternoon, and certain cravings 
of the stomach reminded me that my usual dinner hour had long since 
passed. It may seem strange that under the circumstances I could think 
of eating ; but in a hearty youth of twenty, the physical appetites do not 
give place so readily to mental emotions, however strong the latter may 
be. I felt thirsty too, and I looked around for some means of satisfying 
the desire. At this moment the awful truth burst upon me, that not a 
drop of fresh water remained. I knew that our whole stock was upon 
deck, in casks, lashed to the booms and the stanchions of the bulwarks. 
The whole had been swept away. I ran up and down the deck, 
and looked under and over the remaining bulwarks in perfect 
dismay. I thought that there must be a small cask left some- 
where, although there was no place on the open and clear deck 
where could have been concealed an ordinary drinking can. I no 
longer thought of eating, but my thirst increased with wonderful rapidity. 
A few minutes before, a glass of water would have sufficed, now I felt as 
though I could drain a hogshead. " Good Lord ! " I exclaimed, with that 
curious mingling of the ridiculous and the serious, common to some 
minds : " if I were only the highlands of the Hudson, with the North 
River running right through me ! " 

I rushed down into the cabin, with the poor hope of finding a little 
water in the pitcher, that might serve to avert, at least for a few hours, 
the approach of death in his most horrible form ; it had been overturned 
and broken ! The steward's pantry hardly better repaid my anxious 
search. About half a glass of cold coffee, the remains of our last com- 
fortable and social breakfast, was all the fluid that I could find. My thirst 
increased, my mouth grew parched and feverish, my pulses throbbed, 


and my whole frame trembled with excitement, as the conviction of the 
ultimate certainty of death, by the pangs of thirst, came stronger and 
stronger upon me. All that I had ever heard or read of suffering from 
thirst, by sea or land, rushed, thronging to my recollection. Brissot, 
Adams, Paddoc, Riley, with his horrible expedient of double and treble 
refiltrations, and a dozen more, whose records of hardships, endured upon 
the Sahara and other desert coasts, had been my favorite reading, started 
up all at once, in high relief upon the surface of memory. Could it be that 
I had been saved from the comparatively mild fate of my companions, 
only to suffer the lingering agonies which these voyagers had sp strongly 
depicted ? Amid the vast ocean of water, was there not one drop of 
hope — one sweet draught, with which to dilute the cup of despair ? " O 
God ! save me ! " I ejaculated, as I fell, rather than seated myself, upon 
the transom. I bowed my head to my knees, and prayed with that 
fervor resulting from an aroused and all-pervading sense of dependence 
upon the Supreme Being for the simplest and most common elements of 
life. Let him who looks upon the choicest gifts of Providence, the air, 
the water, or the light, as his natural and indefeasable right, as something 
valueless, from the profusion with which they have been bestowed, and 
as demanding no thankful acknowledgments like the more immediate 
personal and particular evidences of God's merciful care — let such a one 
be placed in my situation, and he will feel, what is often enough admitted 
in general terms, that gratitude is due as much, or more, for the gifts 
which administer to the necessities of our physical being, than for the 
luxuries of appetite, the gratification of intellect, or the pleasures of 

I arose, calm, collected, and confiding. My prayers had been heard, 
and, somehow, I felt confident would be answered. A ship would heave 
in sight, or genial showers would be sent to my relief ! something ! any 
thing ! I knew not what or how, but at any rate, I was not to be aban- 
doned to perish. At this moment, my eye happened to be directed to 
the captain's state-room, in one corner of which were standing, fastened 
to a rack, a couple of old muskets, with a long leather shot pouch 
dangling between them. The means and mode of my salvation were re- 
vealed. With these and the coffee-pot, I felt confident of making an 
apparatus with which sea water might be distilled in sufificient quantities. 
The reaction of mind and body, upon this discovery, was astonishing. I 
no longer felt thirsty or fatigued ; relieved from the apprehension of the 
greater evil, all that had passed seemed light in comparison. The sad 
fate of my companions, cut off, as they had been, so suddenly, in the 


bloom of health and happiness, was almost forgotten. Even the dreary 
solitude and uncertainty of my situation gave me no further trouble. 
Every thing was for the best ! God was above me, and around me, and I 
should not die of thirst ! 

Some cold Indian cake, a biscuit, with a slice of pork, and the dregs 
of the coffee-pot, made a capital meal ; after which I set myself actively 
to work upon my proposed distilling apparatus. The two muskets were 
soon unstocked and unbreeched and cleaned : the two ends of the 
barrels were notched with a file, approximated to each other, and inserted 
into a short tube of leather, cut from the shot pouch, which was after- 
wards sewed all around, and firmly secured, with tarred twine. A long 
pipe, conveniently flexible at the leather joint, was thus formed, and the 
whole of it afterwards wrapped from end to end with strips of blanket, 
for the purpose of keeping it wet with the cool sea water. A small block 
of pine, hewn from the stump of the fore-mast, was bored through by 
means of the file and jack-knife, to a size that on one side would tightly fit 
the end of my musket barrel worm, and on the other, closely cap the 
spout of the coffee-pot. By turning and grinding it upon the ends of the 
pipe and the spout, and carefully working it with a round file, the joints 
were made sufficiently close and accurate. The lid of the vessel not fit- 
ting very perfectly, it took some time to adapt a cover of wood, which, 
upon trial, was found to answer the purpose exactly, as the slight swelling 
of the wood, from the effects of the steam, made the joint completely air- 

It remained now to rig some kind of a furnace, by which heat could 
be applied to my rude apparatus. It had become quite dark, but I had 
no disposition to give over work until the experiment had been tried, and 
my sanguine hopes either dissipated or realized. The cook's galley, with 
the other fixtures of the deck had been swept away, and not a fragment 
of stove, stew-pans, or any articles of kitchen furniture remained, but, in 
the cabin pantry I found a large earthen baking dish, from which the un- 
fortunate " Doctor " had not unfrequently regaled us with divers pleasing 
compounds of pastry, with rice, apples, eggs, chickens, and pork. He 
little dreamed to what last uses his pudding dish would come to be 
applied ! An empty flour barrel, firmly fastened down to the deck 
with a number of spikes driven into the upper head, served as a stand 
for the dish, across which a few pieces of wire were arranged as a grate. 
Upon this I placed the coffee-pot filled up to the spout with sea water, 
and joined to it the pipe, which led down to a tin can placed upon the 
deck. A fire of splinters of dry staves was soon kindled, and I had noth- 


ing left to do but to feed it occasionally and anxiously await the result. 
Never did alchemist watch his crucible for the moment of projection 
with a more curious eye than did I for the ebullition of my still. At last 
the water boiled, and the strong firelight streaming up in the calmness 
of the dark night, and illuminating the deck of the desolate wreck, showed 
the big drops slowly falling into the vessel below. I continued to feed 
the fire, and to apply cold water to the tube, and soon had the satisfaction 
of seeing the condensed fluid trickle down in an almost continuous 
stream. By nine o'clock I had collected nearly a pint : it was warm, flat, 
and bitter, and had a taste of the wood, the iron, and the leather, but a 
cup of nectar from the hand of Ganymede himself was never more 

The success of the experiment established, and the excitement of 
conflicting hope and anxiety abated, my body began to be sensible of its 
bruises and its fatigue. Another slice of pork and a biscuit, with the 
result of my distillation, satisfied all the cravings of appetite, and carefully 
securing my still below, for fear of accidents during the night, I retired 
to my berth with the profoundest feelings of gratitude to Him, in whose 
hands are the issues of life and death, for my happy preservation. 


Preparing Signals — Overhauling the Lockers-^A Sail in Sight^Fresh Provisions — Hoolting a 
Turtle — More Ships in Sight — Moonlight on the Ocean — The Salvages — Dr. Johnson's 

'INGULARLY enough, the most pleasant and profound repose 
soothed my bodily ailings and rewarded my toils. Not a dream 
of past or future calamity disturbed the serene and pleasant 
reveries of the night ; the which I attribute solely, to the relief 
of my mind from the stronger and overwhelming apprehensions of a lin- 
gering death. As, when on the sea-shore, the largest wave effaces the 
ripple marks of its smaller predecessors, and retiring, leaves the beach 
level and smooth ; so the last tide of threatened affliction, in rolling back, 
had carried with it the otherwise strong and permanent impressions of 
inferior grief. 

The morning was calm and beautiful. One distant sail showed itself, 
like a dark spot, upon the farthest verge of the horizon, and suggested 
the idea of preparing some signals, to be used in case of a nearer 
approach. The distilling machine put in operation, with some little im- 
provements in its mounting and fixtures, which daylight enabled me 
better to make, I descended to the cabin, and commenced overhauling the 
lockers and drawers. In one of these I found the schooner's flag ; 
attaching a loop to one end of a gunstock, I climbed to the top of the 
broken main-mast, and firmly lashed the other end of the stock to the 
head of the stump. This gave a hoist of about fifteen feet, and by reeving 
the halliards through the loop, the flag was ready to be run up, union 
down, at a moment, when required. I also got ready a quantity of oakum 
and chopped staves, for the purpose of making a smoke, as being calcu- 
lated to attract attention from a distance at which the flag might not be 
seen. By the time these preparations were completed, the vessel, at the 
instigation of whose top-gallant sails they had been undertaken, was no 
longer in sight. But happy are they who expect nothing, for they are 
seldom disappointed ; and as I had not calculated upon her coming near 
enough to notice me, I saw the last speck of her royals disappear without 
any regret. 



My next operation, was an examination into the state of the bread 
pantry, and the provision-room, in the run of the schooner, beneath the 
cabin floor. In the first was a bag of rice, half a bag of coffee, a large 
canister of tea, about half a barrel of brown sugar, and a large cheese ; in 
the latter, among other articles, were three barrels of pork and beef, as 
many more of ship-bread, two barrels of potatoes, four hams, and a keg 
of molasses. As may be supposed, I was somewhat interested in the 
account of stock — much more so, perhaps, it may be thought, than the 
reader can possibly be — and the inventory made a permanent impression 
on my memory. Satisfied that the schooner was provisioned for at least 
a year's cruise, reduced as she was in hands, or rather mouths, I grew 
quite contented with my lot, which, in reality presented a disagreeable 
aspect only when I thought of the friends and companions I had lost. It 
would be, I thought, impossible to float about the ocean for many weeks, 
in the track of so many ships, without being picked up ; and in the mean- 
time, I had a strong and safe vessel beneath me ; plenty of room for exer- 
cise ; plenty of books ; plenty to eat and drink, and plenty of occupation 
in preparing my meals, feeding my distillery, catching fish, and looking 
out for sails. My only apprehension was that the current might set me 
down toward the African coast, and land me upon the inhospitable shores 
of the Sahara. There was no means of accurately determining longi- 
tude that I was familiar with, but my observations for latitude, which I 
took regularly every day, showed that a strong current was setting the 
schooner to the south. 

A week of unclouded weather imperceptibly glided by, when upon 
coming upon deck shortly before sunrise, I found upon different points 
of the horizon five sail of vessels in sight, one of which appeared to be 
standing on a course which would bring her quite close to me. My sig- 
nals were immediately prepared ; the flag was run up to the gun-stock, 
and a tall column of smoke arose from the forecastle, and sailed off to 
leeward before the light northerly breeze. On came the stately ship, 
until, with the glass, I could just see her quarter rails, but not the slight- 
est notice did she appear disposed to take of me ; so far from it, she 
availed herself of a slight change in the direction of the wind, to hold up 
and pass me some distance to the north. Her stupid crew could hardly 
have failed to see the smoke, and most probably when arrived in port, had 
a wondrous story to tell of a volcanic eruption, or some curious meteoric 
phenomenon, which, with the uninquiring, unenterprising, money-getting 
stolidity too common in the merchant service, they could not afford time 
to investigate. My heart somewhat failed me, when I found the ill- 


success of my effort to attract attention, but with the consoling motto 
" better luck next time," and a continued reliance upon the mercy of an 
immediate superintending Providence, I made out to resign myself to my 
fate, and resume with cheerfulness my usual avocations. 

The distillery worked to perfection — a good day's run yielding me 
fully a pint more of the water than I consumed. The surplus was care- 
fully bottled and put away against bad weather, when it might not be 
quite so easy to keep the steam a-going. The earthen pan had given 
way, but in the meantime, while it lasted, a large quantity of ashes had 
been accumulated, and by wetting these with sea water, and pressing 
them down upon a bed of boards, a kind of hearth, impervious to the 
heat, was formed, which supported the fire. 

Nor was the luxury of fresh provisions wanting. In rummaging the 
unfortunate mate's stock of sail, needles, palms, fish-hooks, etc., a small 
pair of grains, for spearing fish, were discovered. This instrument, con- 
sisting of a bunch of barbed points on a socket of iron, when attached to 
a staff, formed by splicing together pieces of staves, proved an invaluable 
instrument. By means of it, any quantity of the rudder fish that 
thronged round the schooner, and now and then a dolphin or bonito, 
were transferred from the water to the broiling coals of my distillery fire. 
It also served to fish up the bunches of sea-weed that floated by. From 
these, when thrown upon deck, would creep out hundreds of small crabs, 
not one larger than the end of my little finger ; lively, active, healthy 
fellows, with the shells perfectly formed, and of various colors. Whether 
they were a distinct species by themselves, or the young of a larger kind, 
I could not decide ; from the uniformity, however, in size, of those that 
came under my observation, I should thjnk it probable that the first was 
the case. They were so numerous, that when the sea-weed was plenty I 
could collect a pint of them in a couple of hours. If upon them was 
poured some boiling vinegar, or a handful of them distributed into the 
pork fat that hissed and bubbled over the fire in the bent and battered up 
bottom of an old tin canister, they made a dish, that, swallowed shell and 
all, more than rivalled in delicacy and piquant crispness the delicious 
shedders and soft shells of the New York restaurants. 

Neither was the range of my appetite necessarily confined to such 
small game. It was one calm afternoon, that a large turtle, weighing at 
least sixty pounds, made his appearance at the distance of a few yards 
from the schooner. His shellship had come to the surface for a siesta, 
and was quietly floating, unconscious of impending danger, in a sound 
sleep. A longing to appropriate the delicate steaks and green fat of the 


lethargic monster, who seemed to have been expressly sent for my use, 
took possession of me ; but how to accomplish it was a question. There 
was no harpoon with which to pierce his defensive armor, and even if 
there had been, there was no boat with which to get at him— ^the stern 
boat, with my load of fruit, having followed the way of the long boat, 
and all the other furniture of the deck. The only means of reaching him 
that presented itself, was by swimming. Fortunately, a piece of whale 
line, of sufificient length, had been stowed away in the run of the vessel, 
with a large shark hook attached to it. Fastening, at intervals of ten or 
twelve feet, some pieces of staves to act as floats, and securing the other 
end to a stanchion, I slipped off my clothes, dropped into the water, and 
taking the hook in my teeth, carefully stretched out towards my prey. 
By taking him a little in the rear, the slumbering animal was undisturbed 
by my noiseless approach, and he suffered me to gently take his extended 
flipper, and with a sudden thrust pass the large hook through it. For an 
instant the astonished sleeper lashed the water with head, tail, and paws, 
and the next disappeared with a rapidity which I had not supposed him 
capable of, while I swam back to the schooner. When within a few yards 
of the main chains, a large black moving object appeared above the water, 
at about the same distance from the vessel's side towards the bow. It 
was plainly a shark's fin, and, from the size of it, belonged to no small 
fellow. How, or by what means I reached the deck I could not recollect 
precisely in five minutes afterwards, but I knew that the process had not 
taken much time. Upon trying the tautened whale line, the prize, for 
which I had run the risk of being dined upon, instead of dining, was found 
secure, and a good deal of hard tugging brought him alongside. A com- 
bination of slip nooses were now passed round him, and he was soon fliat 
on his back upon the deck. 

The poor fellow lay so quiet and looked so resigned that my heart mis- 
gave me as to the propriety of his capture. I did not much like the idea 
that one in my situation — one who was living only by the special mercy 
of the Almighty, and who could not offer the plea of necessity, should, for 
the gratification of the mere caprice of appetite, sacrifice the life of a 
breathing, sentient, warm-blooded animal. As to the fish, they were in a 
different category; their cold blood and want of lungs and limbs put them 
too far beyond the pale of humanity ; their natural destiny was, to be 
caught, cooked, and eaten ; and, besides, I destroyed no more of them 
than I actually required and consumed. With the turtle, the case was 
different ; four fifths, at least, of his flesh would spoil before I could use 
it. This last consideration prevailed, so filing off the barb and extracting 


the hook, the fellow was bundled overboard, when he instantly made 
off, heedless, probably, of his slight wound, in the joy of his recovered 

" Go," said I, thinking of Uncle Toby and his fly, " go ! the ocean is 
wide enough for us both, and if I am destined to test its depth also, I 
hope that you, at least, will have gratitude enough to refrain from nib- 
bling my bones ! " 

I felt better, as any one always does after a humane and kindly act to 
any of God's creatures ; although the deed was, perhaps, much less merito- 
rious as an act of self-denial on my part, than it would have been in an 
aldermanic disciple of Apicius, whose taste had been formed in the festal 
schools of Guildhall or Bellevue. I felt better, but I am afraid that had 
a harpoon been at hand, my overstrained humanity would have reacted 
with cruel violence upon the body of " Johnny Shark," who, with the 
impudence of his tribe, when feeling secure from attack, continued fof 
several days to rub his huge carcass against the sides of the schooner, and 
to interfere in the comfort of my daily bath. 

For several days now in succession, numerous .ships appeared in sight. 
but none came near enough to notice my signals. They were, most of 
them, standing east, and, as I supposed, bound up the Straits of Gibraltar. 
It was about a week after the capture and liberation of the turtle, making 
four weeks from the time of the capsize, that a small dark bank appeared 
in the east, which presented very much the aspect of land. As my lati- 
tude, by observation, was nearly that of Madeira, and as the light winds 
had been blowing most of the time from the northwest, I concluded that 
it was that island that was in sight. But if my course was so much east 
of south, when and what would be the end of my cruise ? The answer to 
the question involved some alarming conclusions. The chart was atten- 
tively studied, and presented, in every view of it, confirmation of the fact, 
that if my present course should be persisted in for any length of time, the 
shores of the African desert would bring me up. Africa had ever been to 
me the land in which, more than any other, my imagination had delighted 
to wander. I had even conceived the design of attempting, in emulation 
of my gallant countryman, Ledyard, the exploration of the unknown in- 
terior; but I had no idea of making my entrance into the country byway 
of the coasts of the Sahara. Yet such clearly threatened to be the termi- 
nation of my voyage. 

Time passed on ; the moon again poured, in bountiful effulgence, her 
silver light upon the bosom of the deep, which, with the exception of 
two days out of the six weeks, had been as placid as a lake. The nights 


were delicious, and the greater portion of each was spent in walking the 
deck, gazing into the clear blue sky, or down into the dark unfathomable 
sea. Emotions, which to coldly analyze, would be to deprive of half 
their beauty and sublimity, would, at such times, rush upon the mind 
and overwhelm it in the vain attempt to grasp the great mysteries of 
nature. Drunk with the glory of the scene, the soul, not unfrequently, 
felt an almost irresistible longing to plunge into the deep, and seek in its 
profundity the Infinite, the Eternal. Shuddering like him who looks 
from tower or precipice, I was often compelled to draw back and rush be- 
low to escape from the delirious whirl of feelings, common enough, per- 
haps, to all, but felt in their full intensity and force, only in solitude upon 
the calm and moonlight sea. At other times, again, the mind could 
study the same scenes in a more quiet spirit — perhaps a better — in 

** That serene and blessed mood, 
In which the affections gently led us on, 
Until the breath of this corporeal frame. 
And even the motion of our human blood, 
Almost suspended, we are laid asleep, 
In body, and become a living soul ; 
While with a heart made quiet by the power 
Of harmony, and the deep sense of joy. 
We see into the life of things." 

Then it was that with the eye of fancy I could see each one of the 
myriad, silver-tipped ripples between me and the Jersey shore, the long 
reach of the noble Hudson, and the rough roads and rocky hills that 
stretched to the St. Lawrence, without a repining or impatient thought 
— with hardly a sigh for the comforts of home, or the companionship of 

It was one night, when the moon was just at the full, that I was upon 
deck, later than usual, enjoying the flood of rich and mellow light. The 
day had been exceedingly hazy, and the boundary of vision much con- 
tracted ; but shortly after sunset the mists had dispersed, and the full orb 
looked down through an unclouded sky. The surface of the long, slow 
swell ever agitating the bosom of the Oceania token of the resistless 
energies slumbering within — was slightly furrowed by the wind, and each 
beam, as it fell, paved with fragments of gems the broad pathway of 
light. All at once a lofty and somewhat indistinct object upon the water, 
apparently at but a short distance off, attracted my attention. " Sail, 
ho ! " I shouted in ecstasy of delight ; although what appeared to be the 
gleaming canvas of a large ship was evidently a mile beyond the reach 


of my voice. A signal, by fire, might, perhaps, serve the purpose, and 
soon a bright flame sent forth its imploring light. No answer followed, 
and what was much more mysterious, the relative position of the schooner 
and the object had hardly altered in the course of an hour's attentive 
watching, or, at least, had altered so slightly as to be utterly inconsistent 
with the idea of the latter beirig a ship under full sail. At length my ear 
caught the sound of water dashing against some solid body. The idea of 
the Salvages, a group of naked rocks, which rear their tall forms, in soli- 
tary dignity, from the middle of the ocean, about half-way between 
Madeira and the Canaries, occurred to me. More than one mariner, it is 
asserted, has been deceived in the same way, from their resemblance to 
the sails of a ship, and, perhaps too, more than one ship has been lost 
upon them, while ploughing her way heedless of danger in the darkness 
of the night. Uninhabited and uninhabitable, they are visited only at 
certain seasons by a few Portuguese from Madeira, for the purpose of col- 
lecting the feathers of the sea fowl, who, in great numbers, have made 
them their home. An examination of the chart and a comparison of my 
latitude, and the probable influence of the winds which had prevailed for 
several days, confirmed the conjecture which was fully established the 
next day, during the whole of which, their ragged points continued plain- 
ly in sight. 

Thus again, for nearly the twentieth time, had my hopes of succor 
been excited only to be depressed. But I had got pretty well inured to 
that kind of disappointment, and my confidence in my ultimate preser- 
vation, through the mercy of Providence, continued unabated. Satisfied 
by a close watch of a couple of hours, that the schooner was increasing 
her distance from the rocks, I retired to rest, after praying, as usual, for 
the merciful protection of the Almighty, and especially for the continued 
influence of my mother's spiritual presence and affection. " O Lord ! " 
prayed the great Doctor Johnson, " if Thou hast ordained the souls of the 
dead to minister to the living, grant that I may enjoy the good effects of 
my departed wife's attention and ministration, whether exercised by ap- 
pearances, impulses, dreams, or in any other manner agreeable to Thy 
government ! " If Doctor Johnson could so pray, why might not I ? 


Land Ho !— A Weatherly Craft— The Peak of Teneriffe— Oratavo— A Dark Night— Shore 
Lights — Hailing a Fisherman — Beauties of Quarantine — A Disappointment — A Storm — 
Dining Like a Gentleman — A Ship in Sight — Visit from Her Captain — Leaving the Lively 

?AND ho ! " The famous Peak of Teneriffe was in sight. This 
was on the tenth of September, or a Httle more than eight 
weeks since my visit to the Azores. It really seemed, that 
in my solitary fioatings I was destined to have a glimpse, 
in succession, of the principal insular curiosities of the Atlantic, and I be- 
gan to speculate upon the prospect of the Cape de Verde, St. Helena, 
and Ascension ; or, with greater probability, of getting into the trade 
winds, and turning up, along the great western current, among the West 

After leaving the Salvages, a succession of gales and squalls from al- 
most every point of the compass, for nearly a week, completely upset all 
calculations of longitude ; and it was no little satisfaction to have a fresh 
landmark, even if it was but to prove, in common as well as technical 
meaning, a " point of departure." It was in these gales that the schooner 
demonstrated her possession of very excellent weatherly qualities for a 
dismasted wreck. Unsteadied by any top hamper, her rolling was rather 
sharp and uncomfortable, but her pitching was beautiful. The float of 
spars kept her pretty well " head on," and she craned and ducked to the 
heavy sea as gracefully as a boarding-school miss in the preparatory back- 
ing and filling of her first public quadrille — each time slowly bowing her 
nose to it, and then lifting herself as buoyant as a cork, and " as dry as a 

For nearly three days the schooner remained in full view of the port 
of Oratavo, on the northern side of the island, at a distance of not more 
than ten or fifteen miles. Palma was in view in the northwest, and with 
the glass large objects could be distinctly seen on the shore of Teneriffe. 
I amused myself for some time in trying to pick out, but without the 
most remote idea of being able to do so, the big dragon tree of Oratavo, 



celebrated by Humboldt and other travellers. The distance was of 
course too great. A more satisfactory subject of examinatiqn was the 
cinder-covered summit of the famous Peak, from which arose from time 
to time light puffs of vapor, apparently smoke. I kept my glass upon it 
by the hour, but no one seemqd disposed to return the compliment, or 
even so much as glance seaward long enough to fix in their eye the black 
speck that bore me and my hopes. Certain it is, at least, that they made 
no demonstration of aid in answer to all my signals, and it is perhaps 
more charitable to attribute the fact to their blindness than to their lazi- 
ness or inhumanity. Had the schooner been within the same distance of 
the shores of Cape Cod, Nantucket, or Long Island, the case would have 
been different. Some sharp-eyed, wide-awake Yankee would have been 
sure to make the discovery, and half a dozen whale-boats would have run 
a race for the prize. 

Slowly the schooner drew towards the east end of the island, until, at 
sunset of the third day, she was not more than three miles from the per- 
pendicular wall of basaltic rock. The current evidently set round the 
point, and along the southern side of the island, which was now just be- 
ginning to open. The schooner might perhaps go ashore in the night, 
which, considering the abrupt and rocky nature of the coast, against which 
I could hear the surf dashing, was not particularly desirable, or what was 
much better, she might be swept along into, or off, the roadstead of Santa 
Cruz, whence, as being the chief town and seaport of Teneriffe, she would 
stand a greater chance of being seen. I prepared myself for either event. 
The night set in exceedingly dark, but I could perceive that the schooner 
slowly followed the line of the coast, and that she kept gradually edging 
in nearer to it. On the shore, close to the water's edge, were numerous 
large lights, as from fires, which it was evident were kindled for the pur- 
pose of fishing. The sight was cheering. How pleasant it would be to 
plump right ashore at a fishing station, amid a set of honest, generous 
Pescadores ! The idea of it was so absorbing that I most unaccountably 
forgot to make my own signal fire. Some of the lights were stationary, 
and by them I could compare the changes in the schooner's position. 
Other lights appeared to move, as if carried in boats along beneath the 
base of the cliffs. Up to twelve o'clock they continued to increase in 
number. New ones were lighted, and others were brought into view as 
the schooner fully opened the whole reach of the southern side of the 
island, until at least fifty or sixty were in sight at once. 

About three o'clock in the morning dense masses of black clouds, 
which had been gradually accumulating, spread themselves over the 


whole face of the heavens, leaving no loop-hole from which a solitary- 
star could look out upon the surface of the benighted deep. A few 
flashes of lightning in the north, dimly lighting at considerable intervals 
the black line of the coast, betokened a collection of electric materials on 
the opposite side of the island. One by one the lights on land began to 
disappear, and those' in the boats to steal along homeward between the 
schooner and the shore. I tried my voice, but without effect — the surf 
perhaps prevented it from being heard. Several times the idea occurred 
to me of trusting myself to the water, and swimming to the land ; but, 
although the distance was not more than a mile, the intense dark- 
ness, and my utter ignorance of the character of the beach, together 
with a desire to save if possible my money, papers, etc., prevented the 

Suddenly there was a sound of oars — it grew louder and louder. The 
boat, from which it proceeded, was evidently moving in a direction that 
would bring her past the schooner at no great distance — some fisherman, 
perhaps, who was returning with his load to the market of Santa Cruz. I 
strained both eyes and ears — a few low sounds, as if of voices, occasionally 
floated upon the water, but not a glimpse of any object could be had in 
the thick, pitchy darkness. Waiting until the boat, to judge from the 
sound of the oars in the rowlocks, had got nearly abreast of me, and as 
close, as from the indications of her course, she would be likely to come, 
I nerved myself for a tremendous vocal effort. " El Bote ! Bote de pescar, 
ahoy ! " I shouted at the top of as stout a pair of lungs as ever served a boat- 
swain's mate in a storm, " Hola ! Seiiores Tente ! Venga V. por aqui ! " 

The noise of the oars ceased, and, after apparently a moment's con- 
sultation, an answer was returned to my hail, " A/'o tengo ningun pescado" 
was all that could be distinguished. 

" No, no, seflor. I don't want any fish. I want to get ashore. Come, 
come, venga, venga, acd ! " 

"■No, es imposible ! " and then followed something, of which I could 
only catch the vf ords prdctico and hacer cuarentena. The oars again com- 
menced moving in the rowlocks. 

" Maldita sea vuestra cuarentena / " I ejaculated, " and all the quaran- 
tines that were ever invented for no earthly good, except to 'hamper 
commerce and fatten a few prejudiced officials ! " But it was no time to 
stand anathematizing a system of humbug, from which my own enlight- 
ened country is not yet wholly free. 

" Por el amor de Dios, seiiores, come to me. I 'm alone, upon a wreck 
— un naufragio ! " and I shrieked the last word with redoubled energy. 


" No, no, es imposible. Your ship must get practique first, and besides 
it 's coming on to blow, we must hurry ashore." 

" Oh, seizor, pare V. el barco ! Estese quiet o p or un momenta! Stop 
the boat ! Stop for one moment ! I '11 come to you ! I '11 swim to 
you ! Wait for me, for God's sake ! " But the vigorous and continued 
strokes of the oar showed that my hospitable and generous Pescadores 
were fully determined not to risk a scrape with the practique ofifice, or 
custom-house, by having any thing to do with me. 

And thus again did a chance of escape vanish from my excited vision. 
My hopes at once fell below zero. It was not despair, but a Jiind oi 
dogged indifference to the frowns of fate, that took possession of me. 
It was the contentment of contempt for any and all of the ills of my 
destiny, and a determination never again to humbug myself with the 
delusions of hope. With a blow-away-and-do-your-worst kind of feeling, 
I listened to the roar of the wind, as it swept down the steep cliffs and 
deep gorges of the mountains, and striking the schooner, bore her away 
from the land to the southwest. Such a mood of mind, however, cannot 
long withstand the influence of prayer. The direct appeal to Deity 
necessarily induces a mental state utterly incompatible with either the 
rebellious promptings of the haughty and self-relying spirit,the indifference 
of mere stoicism, or the self-abandonment of despair. I prayed and slept. 

As the wind came off the land in a direction about northeast by north, 
there could be no danger of running foul of the Grand Canary, or any 
other of the islands, so, without hesitation or concern, I surrendered my- 
self to the somniferous influences of the tempest's tones until eight 
o'clock the next morning. Upon getting upon deck at that hour, no 
land could be seen — a regular northeast storm, with a driving rain, shut 
out every thing from view except a narrow circle of the tossing and hiss- 
ing sea. All day and most of the next night the wind continued to 
blow a gale — veering occasionally a point or two to the east, but always 
pufifing away with unflinching vigor. It was cheerless and comfortless 
enough, but there was consolation in the thought that it was slanting me 
off from the African shore. Had it been from the northwest, it would 
have puzzled the most inveterate optimist to have extracted from it a 
particle of comfort. Towards morning it began gradually to abate, but 
still continued to blow a pretty stiff breeze until about three o'clock in 
the afternoon, when it suddenly moderated ; the sea subsided, the clouds 
dispersed, and the sun shone out with unwonted brilliancy, chasing the 
lingering mists, and pouring his serene and soothing light upon the 
fretted sea. 


I set about my employments with something like my usual spirit and 
vigor. The schooner had made a good deal of water, and it took a hard 
hoLir's " spell " at the pump to relieve her of it. The cabin floor, too, 
was all afloat with what had rained in, or been dashed in, from the tops 
of the sea, which had, once in awhile, tumbled aboard, and it was neces- 
sary to swab it up. The culinary department had been much neglected, 
having contented myself during the storm with a piece of salt pork and 
a biscuit. Now it was necessary to have something " good." But what 
should it be ? After much consultation and debate, it was decided nem. 
con. that it should be hot johnny-cake and molasses, with a few raisins 
in it. There was a good deal of philosophy in the choice. First, there 
were the pleasant home associations hanging around a hot johnny- 
cake ; second, its intrinsic palatableness, especially with molasses, which 
none but some recreant to the true principles of taste can deny ; third, 
the raisins were my own invention — a gratifying exercise of ingenuity — 
a hopeful attempt to combine the merits of a johnny-cake and an Indian 
plum-pudding ; fourth, the making and baking would take some trouble 
and time, and afford an interesting and diverting employment — a " some- 
thing to do." Ay, there 's wonderful virtue in that same " something to 
do " in this world. Fortunately, most people have enough of it, and 
have therefore never been made to feel, in its full force, the admitted 
truth, that without it time would prove no better than a curse, and life 
a cheat. 

Acting upon this principle, I resolved to reform my mode of eating 
altogether. Before, I had taken my meals as I could get them — at all 
times — without any regularity — sitting or standing — with or without 
plates — in the cabin or on the deck. Henceforth, I should set out a table 
with the remnants of crockery, cook my dinners after a more elaborate 
fashion, serve them in proper style, and then dine like a gentleman- 
Thus, in the threefold capacity of cook, waiter, and master, I should 
occupy more of my superabundant time, which, as I had pretty much 
read up my books, began to drag rather heavily. I could, at least, pelt 
away at the old gentleman of the scythe with some of the proprieties of 
society, if I could not kill him with its luxuries and its pleasures. 

My solitary dreams were, however, destined to have an end. As the 
third I sat longer at the table than usual, in the enjoyment of imaginary , 
hob-nobbings, with divers dignitaries of the earth. I had ever the faculty 
of surrendering myself, body and soul, to the fancy of the moment, how- 
ever ridiculous or improbable. In fact, the impossible was no let or 
hindrance. I fought, when a boy, as readily upon the banks of the 



Scamander, or the plains of Arbela, as at Warsaw or Missolonghi ; built 
castles in the air as easily in the moon as upon earth. Coming upon 
deck with my guests, Wellington, General Jackson, and Mehemet Ali, 
three of the greatest men, as I thought, that the world had produced, I 
was too much absorbed in them to notice, at first, a ship on the starboard 
tack, close-hauled to the wind — which was changed to the south, — and 
heading up in a direct line for the schooner. If she kept on without 
tacking she could not fail to notice me. The duke, general, and pacha 
taking their leave, I hoisted my flag and awaited the event. 

As she came on I had full time to note all her beautiful proportions. 

" ' You have had rough work here ! ' he continued, stepping upon deck." 

She was small, apparently not above three hundred tons, and had a pecul- 
iarly trim and clipper-like look. Her bright copper, flashing occasionally 
in the sunlight, showed that she was in light sailing trim ; while from the 
cut of her sails, the symmetrical arrangement of her spars and rigging, 
and her quarter boats, I concluded that she must be a man-of-war. Pass- 
ing me about half a mile astern, she stood on for a little distance, then 
hoisting the bilious-looking flag of Spain, she tacked and ran for me, 
backing her main top-sail within twenty rods of my larboard beam. Her 
quarter-boat was immediately lowered, and half a dozen fellows, in red 
caps and flannel shirts, jumped into it, followed by an officer in a blue 
velvet jacket, with a strip of gold lace upon his shoulders, and a broad- 


brimmed straw hat upon his head. I ran below, stuffed all the money 
that I had in gold — about a thousand dollars — into my pockets, and got 
upon deck again just as the boat touched the side. 

" Welcome, sefior," I exclaimed in Spanish, " I am exceedingly glad 
to see you." 

" I should think so," returned the stranger in very good English, but 
with a marked Spanish accent. " I should think so ; you have had rough 
work here," he continued, stepping upon deck, and turning a glance upon 
the shattered bulwarks and splintered stanchions and masts. " Rough 
work ! but where is your crew ? " 

By this time, the boat's crew were on deck, running about, asking 
questions all at once, and addressing their velvet-coated companion with a 
degree of familiarity that I was unaccustomed to see between an officer and 
his men. Some of them had made their way to the cabin ; and I congratu- 
lated myself, not a little, upon my forethought in securing the gold upon 
my person, as I heard them rummaging about and overhauling every thing 
they could lay their hands on. Velvet Jacket himself seemed disposed to 
have a finger in the pie, and led the way below without any ceremony. 

He was a large stout-looking man, with a face strongly marked with the 
small-pox, and deeply scarred, upon the chin and cheek, by a cut, which 
was only partially concealed amid a black forest of moustache and whisk- 
er. With a low projecting forehead, piercing black eyes, rendered pecul- 
iarly sinister by a whitish speck in one of them, and coarse grisly hair, 
it must be allowed that he was not much of a beauty, and his men, if 
possible, were still less prepossessing ; they all had a kind of cut-throat 
expression, that suggested the idea of pirates. The chief reason for not 
thinking them so, was that their vessel was square-rigged, a long low 
rakish schooner seeming to be the only natural craft for a pirate. But 
why might they not have chosen the unusual rig of the ship, for the very 
purpose of better deceiving their prey or their foes ? I must own that 
the idea gave me some little pleasure. I had no objection to a practical 
acquaintance with piratical life, if it was forced upon me. I might, per- 
haps, be the means of doing much good and preventing much evil — 
perhaps save some lovely damsel and her doting father, and be rewarded 
with a heart and a fortune ; nothing more natural, and, if the novelists 
could be depended upon, nothing more common. Physically, I felt 
myself a match for any half-dozen pirates ; and mentally, what youth^ 
almost twenty-one, ever felt any doubt about his ingenuity, his courage, 
his resources, or his knowledge of men and the world ? If I had had, 
however, a little more of the latter quality, I might have saved my specu- 


lations as to the chances and turn-ups of the piratical profession, and 
have made a shrewder guess at the character and employment of my new- 
acquaintances. Not even when Velvet Jacket told me that she was bound 
from Cuba to the coast of Africa, did I begin to suspect that that beauti- 
ful craft was, if any thing, worse than a pirate — a slaver. 

" What is the name of your vessel ? " said I, after telling my story, as 
we were all huddled about a bottle of Pico wine, in the small cabin. 

" El Bonito, and mine, Captain Pedro Garbez, at your service." 

" And to what port in Africa are you going? " 

" I don't know, exactly, yet," he rephed, in a hesitating manner; "it 
will depend upon circumstances and the state of trade." 

" You are going for dye-woods and palm oil, I suppose," said I. 

" Si, senor, por palo de tinte y aceite de Senegal" he replied, repeating 
my words in Spanish, and looking round upon his men with an impres- 
sive glance. 

In the course of conversation it came out that I was a medico, which 
fact seemed to give general satisfaction. The men, when they heard it, 
repeated it to each other with many expressions of pleasure, while the 
captain, taking my hand, warmly welcomed me to his ship. 

" We are lucky in falling in with you," said he. " The doctor that 
was to have accompanied us was taken sick just before we sailed, and we 
could not get another. We have already three or four men on the sick 
list — one of them with a dislocation of the shoulder joint ; we 've nearly 
all of us taken a pull in turn at him, but we can't get the arm back again 
— so, you see, you 're just the man we want ; you will tinker up our 
short sick-list now, and in a few weeks we '11 have plenty of other work 
for you ; but I '11 explain all about that another time. Come, now, let 
us get on board." 

Securing my trunk, clothing, papers, and nautical and surgical instru- 
ments, while the men did the like service for the captain's and mate's 
personal property, we pushed off, and in a few strokes of the oar were 
alongside the ship. The captain and I mounted to the deck, while the 
boat was ordered back for another load of cabin furniture, bedding, and 
provisions. In about an hour she returned, when the ship immediately 
filled her main top-sail, and stretched off to the southeast. 

I could not but part from the old wreck with feelings of regret — she 
had borne me in solitude so long and so gallantly — she seemed so much 
like home ! I gazed at her until she dwindled to the smallest speck, and 
after she had disappeared from the deck, stepped into the mizzen-top to 
take one last lingering look. 


El Bonilo — Iler Officers and Crew — The Cape de Verde Islands — Peak of Fuego — -Captain 
Roberts' Account — The Horse Latitudes — Rains that are Rains — Flying Fish and Their 
Enemies — The Bonito a Slave Ship — The Misfortunes of Monte — The African Coast — 
A Visit from the Blacks — An Accomplished Linguist — The Fashions of Cacongo — The 
Mafooka — Anchor in Moenza Enzadda — A Slave Station — A White Girl — The Gerboo 

[ESERVING of her name was El Bonito — as much so as the 
well-known fish after which she had been baptized, and which 
have acquired their name in an adjectival expression for 
beauty and grace. Of great breadth of beam, but sharp for- 
ward and very lean aft, and heavily sparred, she gave indications of speed, 
which, one could not be long on board without perceiving, were abun- 
dantly realized. Six small pieces of ordnance piercing her high and com- 
fortable bulwarks, and a long twenty-four pound pivot-gun constituted 
her armament. Her crew consisted of about thirty men, among whom 
were several Portuguese, most of them rather hard-looking fellows, and 
all of them dressed in the characteristic red cap, striped woollen shirt and 
worsted sash. Beside these there were several ofificers of various grades, 
contramaestres, carpinteros, pilotos, and capitanes. Between these and the 
men there was a degree of familiarity that in an American ship would 
have been destructive of all discipline. There seemed to be no idea of 
subordination, except in matters immediately pertaining to the duties of 
the ship, but still, the work was performed with a degree of regularity, 
the ship kept quite trim, and, for a Spanish ship, tolerably clean. 

The second officer was, if possible, a more truculent-looking fellow 
than the captain. He had a peculiarly savage and morose expression — a 
kind of look that spoke of murdering, in all its tenses, past, present, and 
future. He spoke but little, except in occasional bursts of the most out- 
rageous blasphemy, when any thing crossed his wishes. I never knew to 
what extent profanity could be carried, until one day he gave me an in- 
stance. We had been bothered for several days with a calm, common 
enough in those latitudes, and the sailors had placed an image of St. 


Anthony against the main-mast, with a prayer to send them wind, and a 
threat that his saintship should remain in his uncomfortable position 
until he did. Either the saint was unable or unwilling to comply, and no 
wind came. El segundo capitan began to mutter and to curse. At last 
his rage broke all bounds ; his eyes glowed like the flues of a steam boiler, 
and his face became as bloated and speckled as a toad's back. He stamped 
upon the deck, tore his hair, and shrieked out volleys of curses upon the 
air, the sea, the sky, the God that made them, and the whole Holy Trinity. 
He anathematized the Virgin Mary, called her all manner of names, and 
cursed all the saints in the calendar, with an affluence of objurgatory pro- 
fanity, rivalled only by the denunciatory anathema-maranathas of Rome, 
and jumping forward to the main-mast, he gave St. Anthony a kick that 
almost sent him overboard. I was inexpressibly shocked, but I could 
not help laughing until my sides ached. With this worthy I had but little 
to do. We had conceived a dislike of each other from the moment that 
we first met. 

I could easily spin out a chapter or two in the description of the ship 
and my companions, and in the recital of the interesting but comparatively 
trivial occurrences of our voyage, but the space I have already occupied 
warns me that I must hasten the more important incidents of my story. 

The tenth day of baffling winds, squalls, and calms saw us floating 
motionless upon the quiet sea, directly beneath the frowning cliffs of 
Fuego, one of the Cape de Verdes. I had been gratified with the sight 
of the Peak of Pico, afterwards with the Peak of Teneriffe, and now with 
the Peak of Fuego. The first was the most beautiful, the second the 
loftiest ; indeed, struck with its majestic and imposing appearance, there 
have not been wanting visitors who have claimed for it the credit of being 
the far-famed Atlas of the ancients. The claim vanishes, however, before 
the better-founded pretensions of the Mauritanian giant, and the Peak of 
Teneriffe must content itself with its modern fame and the classic associ- 
ations of the Fortunate Isles, of which it is the pride. 

Both Pico and Teneriffe are smouldering volcanoes — sleeping giants, 
who, as if tired out with their exertions in past ages, had composed them- 
selves to rest ; an occasional groan — a sighing sulphurous expiration — a 
deep but transient shivering alone giving evidence of the vitality — the 
raging life — the restless energies within. The Peak of Fuego, on the con- 
trary, has been almost always, since its discovery, in a state of active erup- 
tion. From the accounts of the earliest voyagers, however, it would 
seem that they were much more violent formerly, than in the present 
day. " It is most horrible to behold, especially in the night," says Beek- 


man. " What prodigious flames and vast clouds of smoke it vomits up 
continually, which we could perceive afterwards in a clear day, though 
we were above sixty miles distant." Captain Roberts, who in 1721 was 
captured by pirates, and landed at the Cape de Verdes, says, in his 
account of his remarkable adventures : " It is almost incredible what huge 
rocks are cast out, and to what a great height, the noise of which, in fall- 
ing again, breaking and rolling down, may very easily be heard eight or 
nine leagues off in a still air, and in the night be seen rolling down the 
Peak all in a flame." 

It is a curious fact that at the time of the discovery of the islands the 
Peak of Fuego did not exist ; that is, if we may believe the traditions of 
the inhabitants. Certain it is, that Cada Mosto, an adventurous Genoese 
— in the service of the Portuguese — who discovered them, makes no men- 
tion of it ; and it was some time after his day that the name he gave it, 
St. Felipe, was superseded by that of Fuego, or island of fire. It seems 
that shortly after Cada Mosto's visit the whole island was enveloped in 
flames, and that, in consequence, no efforts were made to people it for 
many years. At length the fire having subsided, excepting at what is 
now the Peak, the king of Portugal issued an edict, granting the lands to 
whoever would settle upon them, and a scanty population was soon drawn 
from St. Jago, Mayo, and the other islands, partly allured by the hope of 
finding some of the gold, which, according to tradition, was the cause 
of the fire. 

Among our crew, as I have said, were several Portuguese, two or three 
of whom were natives of the Cape de Verdes — black, curly-headed fel- 
lows, with marks of the strong infusion of negro blood, common to all the 
inhabitants of the islands. It was of these, and surrounded by a group 
of other sailors, that I was making some inquiries in relation to Fonta de 
Villa and the little town oiLa Ghate, off which we were becalmed. All at 
once a broad glare of light shot up from the dark mountain, illuminating its 
rugged sides, and streaming in the darkness of thenight far out to seaward. 

" El Pico ! El Pico ! " exclaimed a dozen voices. 

Two tall columns flashed upwards from the mountain — at one mo- 
ment steady and erect — the next, quivering and swaying to and fro in the 
currents of the wind ; now seeming to repel each other, now bowing, 
crouching, and turning, like wary combatants preparing for a struggle 
for life or death, they would rush at each other, close, and writhe for an 
instant in the fierce embrace. 

" Los Padres ! " shouted one fellow. " Los Mdgicos 1 " exclaimed a 
second. "Los Alquimistas ! " bellowed a third. 


" Priests, magicians, and alchemists ! What do you mean ? " I de- 

" Oh, ask Pedro Vosalo," replied one of the crew, " he was born just 
round the point, where you see so many sea-v/eed fires in the little 
bay of Nossa Senora, and he knows all about it. Pedro, Pedro ! come 
here, and tell sehor elmidico the story of the magicians." 

Nothing loath, Master Pedro, a little, round-shouldered, bandy-legged 
mulatto, came forward, and throwing aside the stump of his paper segar, 
commenced his story, which, fortunately for the reader, I am not dis- 
posed to attempt giving in the execrable patois, half Spanish and half 
Portuguese, in which it was told. 

For nearly a week we were struggling along in that part of the ocean, 
in the neighborhood of the Cape de Verdes, which seems to have been des- 
tined to an eternal alternation of squalls and calms. Since the days of 
the early Spanish voyagers, who frequently suffered terrible hardships in 
these latitudes, no piece of navigation has been found more trying to the 
temper and patience of mariners, and el segundo capitan,'as, might be sup- 
posed, profited not a little by the opportunity for the continued exercise 
of his peculiar gifts. His oaths, however, did not seem to do much 
good, though were it possible for a captain to take his ship through the 
horse -latitudes, as is frequently done through the custom-house, by 
dint of hard swearing, he was the man to do it. 

The regular wind came mostly from the south, compelling us to stand 
east, toward the African continent, while that accompanying the squalls 
blew in all manner of ways, but not with sufficient force to raise much 
of a sea. Indeed, that would have been impossible, for any wind under 
the depressing influence of the torrents of water that poured from the 
sky. If a person will imagine all the thunder showers of a summer sea- 
son in New York, concentrated into one thunder shower, and the whole 
poured upon him at once, in drops, somewhat less in size than common 
billiard balls ; or, if anxious for a more particular illustration, he will put 
his head directly beneath the Catskill Falls, where an extra quantity of 
water has been turned on for the amusement of visitors, he will begin to 
have some idea of the way in which it rained. For my part, I almost 
questioned, several times, whether the story of the creation was intended 
to apply to this part of the world ; whether the waters under thg firmament 
ever had been separated from the waters above the firmament — they 
seemed to be all one. In the intervals of the squalls the sky was gen- 
erally clear overhead, but loaded with dense black banks of vapor in the 
eastern horizon, through which continually played the most vivid light- 


ning ; while in the west invariably gathered groups of bashful clouds, 
which, when blushing beneath the kisses of the setting sun, glowed with 
far deeper and richer hues than I had ever seen among their more brazen- 
faced sisters of the north. 

In twenty days after leaving Fuego we had reached the meridian of 
Cape Palmas, and standing close-hauled on the larboard tack, steered 
across the Gulf of Guinea. As we advanced, the sea became literally 
alive with fish. Myriads of albicore — a kind of tunny-fish, weighing from 
one to two hundred pounds, continually surrounded the ship ; while all 
around us could be seen, almost at any moment, thousands of flying-fish 
upon the wing. The faculty of flying, however, seemed to avail them 
but little as a means of escape from their numerous enemies. What with 
the dolphins, bonitos, and albicores in the water, and the tropic and man- 
of-war birds in the air, their life appeared to be any thing but a charmed 
or a charming one. Rising with a few quick flaps of their wings or fins, 
if against the wind, they almost immediately dropped into the voracious 
jaws below ; if before it, they sailed off some distance, exposed to the re- 
morseless claws and beaks above. The hunted fish were not safe from 
this latter danger, even when in their proper element. Flying low, and 
skimming the water like a gull, the tropic-bird picked them up from the 
surface ; while hovering on the wing, the man-of-war taking aim, and de- 
scending like a hawk, seized them in the depths. 

Numerous boobies, a bird well known to sailors, now visited us, 
skimming the surface of the water in pairs, with outstretched necks and 
expanded tails, and sometimes settling upon the spars in the dusk of 
the evening, when they allowed themselves to be easily caught. 

On the twenty-fifth of October we crossed the line, with the thickly- 
wooded island of St. Thomas in sight. Through the open space that 
separates a rock called the Mono Cacada, from the north end of the island, 
we could see a large brig standing to the south. As el capitan had no 
disposition to come upon a British cruiser at the southern end, we hauled 
to the wind, as close as possible, and stood to the southwest. 

I had, long before this, ascertained the character of our ship and the 
object of her voyage ; and, as may be supposed, I would gladly have em- 
braced any opportunity of leaving her ; but with her superior sailing 
qualities, and the indisposition of her officers to hold any communication 
with the ships that we occasionally saw, it appeared not at all likely that 
any such chance would offer. The prospect would have appeared infinite- 
ly more gloomy, had I had a more definite idea of all the horrors of such 
a voyage. True, I had been accustomed to hear the detestable traffic in 


human flesh spoken of in terms of the utmost abhorrence, and had some- 
thing of a general notion of the cruehies of the " middle passage," but it 
was too vague and imperfect to excite much apprehensionon the score of 
mere physical suffering, when I looked at the clean decks and roomy pro- 
portions of El Bonito. I had the utmost confidence in the capacity for 
any thing diabolical of both officers and crew ; but the ship herself was 
such a beauty, such nice between-decks — no mere temporary slave deck, 
with a space between it and a spar deck of only two or three feet in height, 
into which to cram hundreds of human beings, where half of them die 
from suffocation ; but a permanent berth-deck, with more than five feet 
in the clear. She might be an agent in great moral guilt, but certainly 
not in the production of death, disease, and physical pain. So I then 
thought. And it was not a little satisfaction to think, that if compelled 
to make the whole voyage, I should not be shocked by the usual horrors, 
and might perhaps do much towards relieving the ills to which, under 
the best of circumstances a cargo of human flesh must be exposed. 

I had already acquired considerable influence with the captain. A 
violent bilious attack had readily yielded to my active treatment, and 
although he was not very profuse in his expressions of gratitude, I could 
see that he felt that I had been the means of saving his life. This feel- 
ing was evinced, most to my satisfaction, by turning the mulatto steward 
out of my state-room, or rather, perhaps, his state-room, as he had the 
right of priority, leaving me all the room to myself. I was also on pretty 
good terms with most of the other officers and crew, with the exception 
of el scgundo capitan, who, for some reason that I could not comprehend, 
continually looked daggers at me, and had there been a good opportunity, 
would, ro doubt, have used them. His enmity, I afterwards found, was 
not wholly personal ; it comprehended within its limits my country and 
my countrymen, and with good reason too, if the story told me in confi- 
dence by the fellow whose dislocation I had reduced, was true. ''El 
segundo capitan" said he, " was formerly a pirate, and conducted a very 
flourishing business on the coast of Cuba, in a little brigantine which he 
owned ; but one day the boats of an American man-of-war chased him on 
shore, captured his vessel, and landing, destroyed his boat, stores, and a 
good many of his men, and completely broke up his establishment. 
Pobre hombre ! he was ruined ! 

Holding in our southwest course long enough to clear the vessel that 
we had seen, we bore away again for the coast, in the direction of Cabenda, 
the port for which we were destined. A steady run of ten days brought 
us in sight of the reddish-gray cliffs which extend along from Loango 
Bay to between Cabenda and the mouth of the Congo. 


In the course of the evening several canoes, paddled by naked blacks, 
came alongside. Their crews were invited on board to take a drink of 
brandy, and give us any information as to the state of the slave-market, 
and the probabilities of interference from the British cruisers. The invi- 
tation seemed to give them great pleasure, particularly that part of it 
respecting the brandy. Several of them spoke Spanish and French, and 
one or two a little English. To one of these, after some conversation in 
English, I gave a strong glass of New England rum. " I can speak Eng- 
lish too," said one of his companions, addressing me in Spanish. 

" Indeed ! let us hear you speak it." 

"■ Dame un poco de aguardiente. Den me speak." 

Respect for his polyglot pretensions would not allow me to refuse. He 
took the glass, turned it off, and smacking his lips, exclaimed with 
marked emphasis: 

" Good ! d n good ! c est tout — Yo no savey mas ? " 

If the fellow had exhausted the English vocabulary, he could n't have 
marched off with a more dignified swagger. 

They were all fine-looking men, tall, well made, and with features more 
■nearly resembling the European than is usual in the negro. Of their 
forms, we had a good opportunity of judging, as they were quite naked, 
except two or three who had strips of palm-leaf matting around their 
waists, and red woollen caps upon their heads. Indurated ridges — the 
cicatrices of repeated scarifications adorned their breasts ; rings of copper 
encircled their wrists and arms ; and fetishes or charms, consisting of 
bunches of rags, feathers or fur, with oyster-shells, iron spikes, alligators' 
teeth, and snakes' tails, dangled from their necks, and protected their per- 
son from all evil influences. 

From them we learned that there were no slaves at Cabenda, a state- 
ment which was confirmed the next morning by the Mafooka himself, 
who came off to visit the ship. This ofificer, who is the head of the 
custom-house, or rather the chief of the board of trade, for his mas- 
ter, the Chenoo, was attended with quite a retinue of persons of dis- 
tinction, who had plainly much higher pretentions to the genteel, in 
dress, than our first visitors. Their picturesque variety of costume 
would have made them admirable subjects for a Broadway lounge. 
The Mafooka was habited in a red cloth cloak, and a round embroid- 
ered cap, the symbol of his office. The three next in rank had 
made a partnership affair of some European officer's uniform — one 
wore the coat and epaulets, another the vest buttoned up to the chin, 
but without a particle of other clothing, while the third indemnified 


himself for the nakedness of the upper-half of his person, by encasing 
his long muscular nether limbs in the short tight-fitting pantaloons. Two 
or three others had on sailors' jackets and red woollen shirts ; but the 
most remarkable swell was cut by a huge fellow in an old cocked-hat ; 
a flashy, but somewhat dilapidated silk gown, which looked as though 
it might once have belonged to the wardrobe of a dowager of quality, 
and a pair of jack boots without soles. The peculiar elegance of this 
distinguished-looking gentleman's equipments was still further enhanced 
by a monstrous fetish encircling his neck, consisting of the brim of an 
old hat, covered with grease and filth, and loaded with scraps of tin, 
copper, and iron, and pieces of twine and rope yarn, with bunches of rags 
and hair. It was, as the owner asserted, esteemed the most powerful 
fetish in the country — "a perfect life-preserver ; no beast,, however wild, 
dared look at it ; if he did he became blind." 

Upon ascertaining that there were no slaves at Cabenda, it was re- 
solved, much to my regret, to run round into the mouth of the Congo or 
Zaire. I was anxious to visit Cabenda, which, from its fine port and 
fertile country, has been called the paradise of the coast, partly from 
curiosity, and partly in the hope that I might find it possible to leave the 
ship, and await the arrival of some trading vessel or man-of-war. Once 
in the Congo, the chances of escape, as far as I could judge from the 
slight information I obtained, would be but small. The strong current 
of the river, in the rainy season, and the peculiar unhealthiness of its 
banks, rendered it very unlikely that any ships engaged in an honest 
trade would be found, in which case the only alternative would be to re- 
main among the negroes an indefinite time, or make the voyage with El 
Bonito. As the last would, perhaps, be inevitable, I felt the necessity of 
keeping on good terms with the captain, and of not exciting his suspicions 
beforehand by too minute inquiries. With Mont6, the first mate, my re- 
lations had rapidly come to be those of avowed hostility ; and it was evi- 
dent that, through his representations, I had grown into great disfavor 
with the majority of the crew, who, however, seemed to consider it a 
settled thing, that I was to remain with them. I could not doubt that, 
to secure my services, they would have no hesitation in restraining my 
personal freedom. 

Weighing anchor, with a light sea breeze from the west, we stood 
down the coast, which, a little below Cabenda Bay, becomes flat and 
marshy, and covered with a thick growth of mangroves. About noon. 
Cape Padron, on the further side of the river's mouth, was in sight. In- 
stead of crossing the current and rounding Cape Padron and Shark's 


Point from the southward, as is usually done, Captain Garbez determined 
to anchor on the edge of the Moena Moesa bank, just outside of Fathom- 
less Point, on the north, and await a more favorable turn of tide. In 
three or four hours we got under weigh again, and by the aid of the 
tide and the strong sea breeze which had freshened considerably, made 
out to stem the current, which here ran at the rate of five or six miles in 
the hour, and at night we again dropped anchor some distance within 
Fathomless Point. Here the Mafooka of Boolembemda came off to the 
ship, and informed us that there were plenty of slaves at Embomma, the 
chief town, some forty miles up the Aloensa Enzadda, or great river, as 
the natives call the Congo, and that there were no vessels of any kind to 
interfere in the trade. 

We at length reached Lombee, and anchored off the town, which is 
the chief market or slave depot for Embomma. It consists of about a 
hundred huts of palm leaves, with t\\o or three block houses, where the 
slaves are confined. About two hundred slaves were already collected 
and more were on their way down the river, and from different towns in the 
interior. After presents for the king of Embomma, and to the Mafooka, 
and other officials had been made, and a deal of brandy drank, we landed, 
and in company with several Fukas, or native merchants, and two or 
three Portuguese, went to take a look at the slaves. Each dealer paraded 
his gang for inspection, and loudly dilated upon their respective qualities. 
They were all entirely naked, and of all ages, sexes, and conditions, and 
all had an air of stolid indifference, varied only in some of them by an 
expression of surprise and fear at the sight of the white men. I had 
the satisfaction of perceiving that my appearance produced a stronger 
sensation of dread, astonishment, and disgust, than that of either of 
my companions. 

After looking at them for some time, and making some inquiries about 
the places they had been brought from, I was turning off, leaving Captain 
Garbez to finish his examination, when my attention was attracted to a 
shrinking figure that I had not before noticed. It was that of a young 
girl, apparently twelve or thirteen years old, which, as is well known, 
corresponds in warm countries to the sixteen of colder climes. Her 
features were not at all of the usual African stamp. Her forehead was 
moderately high, but very broad, clear, and perpendicular — the facial 
angle being as great as is ever seen in the finest European heads. Her 
eyebrows were arched, eyes large, dark and fringed with the longest and 
blackest lashes I had ever seen. Her nose was straight and well formed ; 
lips full, but not thick ; teeth as white as snow, and chin beautifully 


rounded and dimpled. Her complexion would not have been deemed at 
all too dark for a brunette. Her hair was curly, but not crisp, nor woolly, 
while her figure, slight and finely framed, contrasted curiously with the 
fat forms and ebony skins behind which she was trying to hide herself from 
sight. A sentiment of modesty was pleasingly evinced by a tattered waist 
cloth of palm leaves, the only attempt at clothing in the whole group. 

It will be supposed from this description that she was beautiful, and so 
she was, but it was beauty under an eclipse. The sunken eye and hollow 
cheek, and attenuated frame, spoke of long weeks and months of mental 
anguish and physical pain. Her hair, that once curled ^Yaccfully as the 
tendrils of the vine, was matted into one dense and unsightly mass. Her 
skin, begrimed with dirt, was marked with the lash, which had urged on 
her weary steps in her long and dreadful journeyings. Several recent 
wounds, aggravated by exposure to the sun, disfigured her limbs, and her 
whole form and face had that expression of spirits crushed, hopes blighted, 
feelings outraged, and strength prostrated seen only in the slave. For 
some time I could not take my eyes from her. She was dreadfully inter- 
esting ! disgustingly attractive ! 

I looked at her long and steadily: compassion must have beamed from 
my face, for I felt it like a mountain at my heart, and as she met my gaze, 
her eye lighted, and a mournful smile parted her lips, and showed her snowy 
teeth — the only feature that had not been affected by suffering and pain. 

"Who is this?" said I, speaking through an interpreter to a slave- 
dealer, a great burly negro wielding a long thong of plaited buffalo hide. 

" Who is this? Why, she is about as worthless a piece of goods as I 
have got in my stock. She is hardly worth the crack of my whip. I am 
sorry I bought her, for she has given me more trouble than all the rest 
put together." 

" Where did she come from ?" I inquired, arresting the fellow's arm, 
as he whirled his whip round the heads of the crouching and shrinking 

" A great way off in that direction," he replied, pointing a little north 
of east. I bought her two moons from this, and she had then come a great 
journey. She comes from what the Youga Jagas call the Gerboo Blanda, 
or white nation. I 've got another one of them — a young man ; I beheve 
her brother. He 's at a Banza, about a quarter of a day from this." 

" Do you often get people of her nation ? " 

" No, I never saw one before, and I never saw any one who had seen 
them ; but I have heard the slaves that I have bought from the eastern 
Jagas talk about them." 


" And what do the slaves you have seen say about this Gerboo Blanda ? " 

" Oh, they know but little about it, except that it is a great nation of 
white people — living in big stone houses, on a great plain on the top of 
a mouatain." 

" Can any one here speak this girl's language ? " 

" I believe not. There is a slave who can talk with her in his own 
language, of which she understands a little, and she has also picked up a 
few words of Congo, but not much." 

Our conversation was here interrupted by preparations for a grand 
palaver, at which all hands were to assist, and where the price of slaves 
was to be settled, the dues of the Chenoo, Mafooka, and other officers 
arranged, and as much brandy drank as would serve to elucidate any points 
in dispute, and bind the bargains. Making an engagement with the slave- 
dealer to visit the Banza where the brother of the girl was confined, in the 
afternoon, I returned to the ship. 


Getting the Ship Ready for Slaves — A Congo Apollo — Visit to a Slave Pen — The Gerboo Girl — 
An Assault and Battery — Caddee M'Pemba — A Compromise — An Offer for a Fetish — Pur- 
chase of the Gerboo — ^Visit to Banza Embemda — Kaloolah's Brother — Purchase oi En- 
phadde — Return to Lembee — The Bonito Driven to Sea by a British Cruiser — Meeting of 
Kaloolah and Enphadde — House Hunting by Torch-light. 

JN board every one was busy in preparations for the reception 
of the slaves, which were to be all sent off the next day. 
Some were engaged in filling the water-casks, while others 
were taking in stores of Indian corn, plantains, and potatoes. 
Crowds of Fukas with their linguistas, or interpreters, were on board, or 
around the ship in their canoes ; most of them half dressed and invariably 
with some piece of European clothing. 

I tried to make some minutes in my journal, but the noise and con- 
fusion were too great, and besides the face of the Gerboo girl haunted me 
so as to preclude thought of any other subject. I felt the deepest com-, 
passion for her ; but how could I lighten her hard fate ? I longed to do 
something, but what ? The question recurred again and again. Should 
I purchase her, and thus, however innocently, become a participant in a 
trade denounced by my government as piracy, and punished with death ? 
Or, should I leave her to the mercies of her negro masters, and to all the 
horrors of African slavery ? I was certain that in her present weak and 
exhausted state, she would not be purchased as a part of our regular 
cargo, and merely to give her her freedom, and leave her behind, would 
not at all better her condition. 

Without being able to come to any settled resolution, I picked out 
from my store of money a few Spanish pillar dollars, the only current 
coin, and, stepping into a native canoe, returned to the shore. Making 
my way among the scattered and irregularly arranged huts, composed of 
stakes covered with a matting of palm leaves, I arrived at the stockade, 
or picketed enclosure, in which she was confined. Here I found a partner 
or assistant of the slave-dealer with whom I had spoken. He was a stout 
muscular man, with a peculiarly malignant expression of face. The skin 



of his breast and body was raised in the most frightful ridges by the 
process of repeated scarification ; his front teeth projected far from his 
mouth, and were filed down to sharp points — a custom which prevails ex- 
tensively among different nations of Africa — and his thick bushy hair 
was shaved so as to leave it in tufts, like bunches of bog-grass, standing 
ont from different parts of his head. 

We entered and found within the enclosure an open area, without any 
shelter from the sun or rains. Here and there were pools of stagnant 
water, and, all around, the ground was covered with a thick black mud, 
into which, in the driest part, we sank ankle deep at every step. In this 
place, that was more than equalled in comfort by any ordinary pig-sty, 
were about thirty females, most of them sitting or lying, half-buried, in 
the abominable reeking compost. 

The Gerboo girl was not, at first, in sight. The slave-dealer called 
for her two or three times, in tones that gave indication of the treatrpent 
to which she must have been subjected. " Kaloolah ! Kaloolah ! " he 
shouted, and at last espying her crouching behind a picket that projected 
from the side of the entrance, he sprang towards her with every mark of 
fury in his face, and, before I could prevent him, struck hter a heavy blow 
with his whip of raw hide. I saw the quivering flesh, where fell the lash, 
marked with a long streak of blood, and I saw the whip half raised, as if 
for a second bIo\\'. It was altogether too much for my share of human 
nature to bear. I have said that I had never yet met my match for muscu- 
lar power, and twice my usual strength was in my arm as with my left hand 
I grasped his brawny throat, and dashed his head against the wall with a 
force that, if it had been a white man's, would have seriously endangered 
the continuity of its bones. I drew back my right hand to strike, and, 
had the blow been given under the energetic impulse of the moment, I 
verily believe it would have killed him. Fortunately, a thought of the 
consequences restrained me, and the blow was arrested in time. I loos- 
ened my grasp, and the big brute sank to the ground, apparently as life- 
less as a log. What with the concussion of the brain, and the compression 
of the wind-pipe, he was decidedly in a bad way. 

In an instant there was a tremendous hubbub and uproar. The counte- 
nances of the poor slaves expressed the height of astonishment and ter- 
ror, while the spectators, who had accompanied us in, drew back, scream- 
ing and gesticulating, and loudly asserting that I must be Caddee M' Pcmba, 
or the devil, to dare thus attack one of the stoutest and most desperate lion 
hunters and jaga killers in the country. Soon a large crowd collected, 
and among them the Mafooka and the principal slave-owner. I was, of 



course, exceedingly anxious to settle matters, not at all on my own ac- 
count, but for fear the slaves, and particularly the Gerboo girl, might 
have to suffer for my doings. The unbounded influence of money favored 
me, and a few dollars, judiciously distributed, soon brought about a most 
amicable understanding. Not that there was much ill-feeling evinced tow- 
ards me, my opponent being pretty generally hated and feared, but a 
natural sense of justice told them that a man ought to be paid for mal- 
treatment administered without the slightest (to them) provocation. So, 
after a deal of talk, it was settled that I should pay the plaintiff in the 
suit, who was beginning to recover his breath, the sum of four dollars, 
and also the costs of court, in the shape of a five-gallon keg of rum, to 
be shared by all hands, judges and jurors, witnesses and spectators. 

Taking me aside with a very mysterious air, the principal slave-dealer 
informed me that he was confident that I must have in my possession a 
very powerful fetish, that had enabled me to handle so easily his assist- 
ant, who was notorious for his strength and courage, and who had killed 
with his one hand more than fifty men ; that if I would sell him my fetish, 
he would give me any two slaves for it, and that he would guarantee me 
against injury from my late antagonist, who, notwithstanding the award 
of four dollars, would most assuredly seek revenge. 

I replied that I could not think of selling my fetish, but that I would 
give him ten dollars for the girl, and as to his man, I was not afraid of 
him or any of his friends, and that he had better be careful how he med- 
itated any evil to me, for if I had occasion to put hands on him again, he 
would not escape so easily. 

Finding me inexorable in relation to the fetish, my offer was accepted 
after much chaffering, and Kaloolah was delivered over to me. Never 
did a poor creature's countenance brighten from the darkest shades of 
despair to the full light of hope more rapidly than hers, when she found, 
that she was to accompany me. Strength seemed almost instantly re- 
stored to her limbs, and even health and beauty to her face. 

Taking her into one of the huts, I put her in charge of some Congo 
women, who, for the consideration of a small coin, readily undertook to 
obey my directions. I gave her to understand, as well as it was possible 
without a common language, that she should be well treated, have plenty 
to eat, and that after bathing in the river she must dress herself in a piece 
of cotton long cloth, which I had purchased of a fooka, or native mer- 
chant ; that I was going to see her brother, and would perhaps purchase 
him ; and that when I came back I would attend to dressing her wounds and 
excoriations. She listened with the greatest interest, apparently compre- 


hending with intuitive rapidity every word and gesture, and expressing 
her apprehension of my meaning by a few exclamations in Congo and in 
her own language, which last struck me as being peculiarly mellifluous. 
When the cotton was produced, her eyes sparkled with delight, and when 
she understood that she would see her brother, the tears rolled down her 
cheeks ; she clasped her hands, and, overcome with joy and gratitude, 
threw herself upon the ground and tried to embrace my feet. Her mo- 
tions were so perfectly natural, graceful, and expressive, that I found it 
difficult to keep from crying myself. 

The road to Banza Embemda led directly back from the banks of the 
river, through a fertile and tolerably well-cultivated country. Groups of 
the wine palm and the gigantic baobab occurred at intervals, and between 
them, fields of manioc, corn, beans, and cabbages, and groves of limes, 
papaws, and plantains. Numerous huts, generally grouped in twos or 
threes within a fence of canes, and invariably dignified by the name of 
" town," sheltered the lazy husbandmen ; and several fields of tall grass, 
as high as a man's head, performed the like office for immense quantities 
of birds, reptiles, and wild beasts. When dry, these covers are frequently 
set on fire by the natives, and their dangerous inhabitants either roasted 
to death or expelled. 

A three hours' walk brought us to Embemda, a small town of some 
thirty or forty huts, situated upon the slope of a rocky hill, to which it ap- 
peared the town had been recently removed from the low ground for safety 
and comfort during the season of the rains. Here we found about twenty 
slaves secured, as at Lembee, in an enclosure of pickets, with the addition 
of stout cords upon the legs and arms of several of them who were most 
restive. Most of them were of the Modongo nation, and quite a number 
had gun-shot wounds, inflicted by the slave hunters, who are in the habit 
of waylaying their prey, shooting it down like wild game, and then se- 
curing their wounded captives with cords. 

Among others, tied neck and heels, which the slave-merchant said was 
as much to prevent them from killing themselves as to guard against 
their running away, was the Gerboo. A single glance at him was sufficient 
to put his relationship to Kaloolah beyond a doubt. He had the same 
characteristics of form, face, and expression, except that his skin was' a 
little darker — a clear nut-brown, and his look, one of fierce, dogged de- 
fiance, rather than hopeless despair. His body was much emaciated, and He, 
too, bore the marks of the lash, and the deep ulcerations caused by the 
tightened cords. But, although worn down with suffering and confine- 
ment, his eye quailed not, and the lines of his well-formed mouth seemed 



curved to the concentrated expression of regal scorn and pride. He was 
tall, but rather delicately framed, and, as near as could be judged from his 
looks, about nineteen or twenty years of age. 

The sum of twenty dollars, after the usual chaffering characteristic of 
Congo trade, even in the meanest trifles, made him my property ; and 
drawing my knife I was proceeding to sever the bonds that confined his 
arms, when the slave-merchant arrested me. 

" Don't do that," said he, ," you can't think what a bad fellow he is. 
Leave the cords on his arms and loosen those on his legs a little, so that 
he can just walk. If you take them all off, he will certainly kill himself 
or run away. I ve had more difficulty with this fellow and the girl than 

" And drawing my knife I was proceeding to sever the bonds that confined his arms'' 

I 've had with all the other slaves. They tried to drown themselves 
in every river we had to cross. One day we came to a ford and had got 
almost over, when an enormous lion came bounding out of the reeds upon 
the bank behind us. We all rushed on, but this fellow turned round and 
walked back towards the lion on purpose to be killed. The lion was so 
astonished that he ran away faster than he came. At last I found a way 
to manage him. I bought his sister from another gang who were going 
to Malemba, and kept her a little before him, and when he tried any of 
his tricks I made my men flog her. He did n't like that. But don't untie 
him, if you do you will lose him." 


Paying no attention to his remonstrances, I put the slave-merchant aside 
and passed my knife through the cords. The young man started from 
the ground, stretched himself up, and held out his hands as if to assure 
himself that they were free. He seemed, for a few moments, to think 
himself in a dream — that compassion must be a mockery — freedom an 

Taking ofT a white worsted sash, that in imitation of my Spanish com- 
panions, was wound round me, I signified to him that he should spread it 
open, and gird it about his loins. He readily complied, with a look of 
surprise, which was, however, more than equalled by the utter astonish- 
ment of the surrounding slaves and spectators. Their wonder was still 
further increased when an offer was made for a cap and a kind of capote 
of fine grass work, and the articles bought and presented to him. 

I now put my hand upon the slave-merchant, pronouncing his name, 
then upon my breast, repeating my own, and pointing to the Gerboo, 
awaited his answer. 

" Enphadde Ban Shounse," he instantly replied, or Enphadde the son 
of Shounse, the " Ban," having clearly the same force as " Ben" in the 
Arabic and Hebrew. 

It was nearly sunset when we started upon our return to Lembee, with 
several blacks in company, who tried to act as interpreters between En- 
phadde and myself, but his knowledge of the Mandongo and Congo 
dialects was too limited to admit of much communication, and I had to 
content myself with taking a lesson in his own language, by pointing to 
the different objects that we passed, and making him repeat their names. 
This he did with evident marks of quickness and general intelligence, and 
with great apparent interest in the correctness of my pronunciation. 

Upon arriving at Lembee, the sun had set, still enough of the short 
twilight remained to render objects upon the river distinctly visible, but, 
to my astonishment. El Bonito was nowhere to be seen. Hurrying on to 
ascertain the cause of her disappearance, we found the town in the utmost 
confusion, and so many anxious to make explanations all at once, that it 
was some time before the real truth could be arrived at, but, at last one 
of the most expert linguistas obtained the floor. 

" King of English he come," said he, "catchee ship. Ship no like him 
— no stay. He pull em up anchor, an' run away. Man-of-war big — plen- 
ty boats — plenty guns — plenty men — but no habee ship. When he gone, 
ship come back." 

It appeared that about an hour before, news had arrived that an Eng- 
lish cruiser had entered the river, and made her way up as high as Loo- 


bondi Island, where she had come to anchor. In ten minutes Captain 
Garbez got under way, preferring to slip by her at night, in another 
channel, and stand out to sea, rather than to run the chance of an attack. 
He left word that in a week he should return, when the merchants were 
to have slaves enough ready to complete his loading at once. 

It would be hard to tell whether I was most pleased or displeased with 
the news.- The former feeling .would have, undoubtedly-predominated, 
could I have sent word to the captain of the man-of-war, but I observed 
that the bare mention of it excited surprise and distrust, and that the 
safest way would be to wait the turn of events. If the English should 
visit Embomma, communication could be had with them in person, if not, 
it was hardly possible that they would remain long enough at their un- 
healthy anchorage to receive my message, even should the Mafooka allow 
me to forward it. 

This point satisfactorily settled in my mind, my attention naturally 
recurred to my interesting proteges, and to the means of disposing, in the 
meanwhile, of them and myself. 

Kaloolah we found settled upon a mat in a corner of the hut where 
she had been left, but so metamorphized in appearance, that it was 
difficult to recognize in her the dispirited, dirty, and naked slave of the 
morning. The bath and a full meal had worked wonders for her, and the 
cotton, which with true feminine taste she had contrived to dispose about 
her person in the most graceful folds, something after the manner of the 
Moorish haik, concealed the marks of suffering, and the painful emaciation 
of her figure. As Enphadde entered the hut, she gazed at him a moment 
in the glare of the torch-light, uttered a shrill cry of delight, and bounded 
into his arms. Never was the intensity of fraternal affection more strong- 
ly evinced than by him as he pressed her to his bosom. Even the negroes 
of the hut had their sympathies aroused, and evinced quite a pleasurable 
interest in the scene. 

The first exclamations of endearment past, Kaloolah, in the most 
animated and excited manner, poured forth a flood of melodious words, 
which, from her glances, evidently had reference to me. Enphadde lis- 
tened for a moment, and then, without saying a word, stepped towards me, 
dropped upon his knees, and seizing my hand placed it upon the back of 
his bended neck. Raising him, I took each of them by the hand, looked 
at them as benignly as features not naturally very stern would permit, and 
putting their hands together left the hut to look up a house of my own. 

" House hunting by torch-light in a negro Banza " would make a good 
title for a full chapter, but I must forbear ; suffice it to say that after a 



good deal of trouble and a monstrous expenditure of words, I succeeded 
in purchasing a house in tolerably good repair. The owner, a Formio of 
distinction, was seated before his hut, a large fire burning in front, and 
" turn tumming " on a kind of gourd banjo an accompaniment to the 
monotonous and drawling cadences of a song. Several spectators soon 
assembled to assist in the bargain, and every possible advantage, except 
that of its being a " corner lot," was urged to enhance the price. At last 
it was settled that I should have the house for the sum of five dollars, 
cash down, and two jugs of brandy, to be paid when the ship returned. 
This was just double its fair value, but the terms were agreed to upon 
condition of immediate possession, and that a piece of palm matting, large 
enough for several partitions, should be thrown in. A few minutes suf- 
ficed to remove the noble owner's furniture and family to other quarters, 
when, with Kaloolah and Enphadde, I was duly installed as master, in fee, 
of the slight but not uncomfortable domicile. 


An Invasion of Ants — Burnt Out— A New House — A Visit from the Slave-Dealer — A Desperate 
Race — A Judicial Indulgence — An Apt Pupil — Framazugda — Enphadde's Story— A Warn- 
ing— Kaloolah's English— The Tultul and the River— An Attempt to Kill Kaloolah— A 
Sleepless Night. 

'E were not destined to a long enjoyment, in quiet, of our new 
habitation. It was the second night of our possession that 
Enphadde and myself were startled by a scream from Kaloolah, 
as she rushed from the door of the hut. Jumping up on the 
instant, before we could get out we were covered with a swarm of small 
black ants, which, in countless myriads, had broken into our hut like a 
perfect torrent. The noise soon brought some of our neighbors, who 
commenced throwing fire-brands into the mass, that by this time covered 
the ground in the rooms to the depth of four or five inches. There had 
been no rain for two or three days, and the palm-leaf matting was quite 
dry, so that, one of the brands coming in contact with it, we had the satis- 
faction of seeing the ants well roasted, but at the expense of our house, 
which was utterly destroyed in about fifteen minutes. Fortunately my 
clothes, gun, etc., were saved. This accident involved the necessity of 
purchasing another hut, which, at last, with a great deal of trouble was 
obtained. It was situated a little out of the village, amid a grove of 
palms, and consequently more exposed to the attacks of wild beasts, par- 
ticularly the lion, which is sometimes known to enter the centre of a town, 
but, as some compensation for its isolation, it was surrounded by a high 
fence of reeds. 

But it was not so much the wild beasts that we had to dread, as it was 
our enemies in human form, who had already commenced their machina- 
tions. Seeing the interest I took in my companions, and instigated, no 
doubt, by his brutal assistant, the slave-merchant from whom I had 
purchased them, paid me a visit, and demanded that the bargain should 
be rescinded, upon the ground that a leaf or blade of grass had not been 
broken between us, and that without such ceremony no contract was 
valid. He had even the impudence to lay hands on Kaloolah, as if to 


drag her off with him. With every mark of horror and disgust she shrank 
from his grasp, and fled into the hut. Indignant at such an outrageous 
attempt at imposition, I saw that no deprecatory measures would answer, 
and that the only way to prevent further difificulty, was to meet the 
fellow half way, and frighten him out of his wits by a prompt and ener- 
getic resistance : so, giving way, all of a sudden, to an expression of the 
fiercest rage, I drew a pistol, fired it towards him, taking good care not 
to hit him. He bounded out of the gate-way with surprising agility, and, 
as I was close upon his heels, necessarily had to take a path that led away 
from the town. It would have been easy at any moment to have over- 
taken him, but such was not my object; so, following him just close 
enough to keep him up to his full speed, away we went through the mud, 
and over the jagged slate-beds, and around the trees at a perfectly killing 
pace for a distance of at least two miles. He had rather too much flesh 
for a long heat, and, before he had gone far, his wind began to fail him. 
His breath came short, hard, and wheezy, like the asthmatic puffings of a 
high-pressure steamboat. His eyes protruded from their sockets, his 
thick bloodless lips were flecked with foam, and the ebony of his com- 
plexion fairly terrified into a spotted and dirty drab. Whenever he 
turned his glances behind him at the " white devil " on his track, the 
loudest yells that my lungs were capable of, aroused his flagging energies, 
and urged him on in his supposed race for life. 

Just as my own powers were nearly exhausted, we came to a slate 
bed, upon the edge of a narrow muddy bayou. Down this the fellow 
rushed with unabated speed, and, taking to the water, stretched out for 
the other side, while I stopped short, and employed myself in quickening 
his motions by the aid of several large stones, thrown into the water 
around him. Scrambling up the other bank, he had just strength 
enough left to throw himself prostrate at the edge of a thicket of tall 
grass, and creep on hands and knees into the friendly cover. 

Upon returning to the town I sought the Mafooka, and slipping a 
dollar into his hand, to sharpen his eyesight, told him that he must 
clearly see that the demand of the slave-merchant was unjust, that the 
bargain had been fairly made, and that however imperative the custom of 
breaking a leaf might be, between natives, it was not at all necessary 
between a native and a white man, who could not be supposed to know 
any thing about it. The Mafooka allowed that my view of the case 
was the only one consistent with equity, good conscience, and his own 
interest, and that any degree of force in resisting such preposterous 
pretensions would be perfectly justifiable. 


" Kill him ! kill him ! " continued the worthy official, in very intelligible 
English ; " you give me two five dollar you shall kill him by G — d. Knock 
him head — break him bones — cut him throat — so, — " and here the speaker 
gave a spirited pantomimic representation of the different processes he 

Promising to give him the ten dollars, whenever I should conclude to 
do the deed, I took my leave, but not without repeated cautions from 
him to beware of the fetish. More than once the same warning was 
repeated by friendly natives, who either could not, or would not give me 
any precise information of the nature or extent of the danger. The 
most that I could learn was, that Bergamme, the Jaga killer, had em- 
ployed some of the most renowned gangams, or priests, to make him a 
fetish of wonderful power, that was to be employed in some way against 
me. The earnestness of the natives, and the vagueness of the danger, 
produced a feeling of apprehension that was far from comfortable. I had 
no fears for myself, but I felt much solicitude for the safety of Kaloolah 
and Enphadde. 

The more I had seen of this young couple, the more had my sympa- 
thies become interested in their favor, and the better satisfied did I feel 
with the relation I had assumed towards them. On their part, every look 
and action evinced the profoundest sense of gratitude and obligation ; 
and their whole deportment continually astonished me with evidences of 
delicacy, refinement, and mental cultivation far beyond what I had been 
prepared to expect. Kaloolah, in particular, evinced the most surprising 
quickness of comprehension — mastering a large number of English phrases 
with a readiness and tenacity of memory that very far surpassed my most 
strenuous efforts in the acquisition of her own tongue. My progress, how- 
ever, was not slow, and I knew not which to admire most, her tact as a 
teacher, or her quickness as a pupil. Both she and her brother wrote 
their language with apparent ease, in characters somewhat resembling the 
Hebrew, but arranged after the style called Bousirophedon, or alternately 
from left to right and from right to left. I regretted exceedingly, that 
my knowledge of the Hebrew extended only to the letters of the 
language, and that I was unable to compare the words and grammatical 

With the aid of their language, the Congo, a few words of English, 
and Kaloolah's expressive pantomime, I was soon able to understand the 
main points of their interesting story. 

The Gerboo Blanda, I found, was a name given to their country by 
the Jagas, that its true name was Framazugda, and that the people were 


called Framazugs. That it was situated at a great distance in the in- 
terior, in a direction west by north, and that it was surrounded by negro 
and savage nations, through whom a trade was carried on with people at 
the northwest and east, none of whom, however, were ever seen at 
Framazugda, as the trade had to pass through a number of hands. 
Enphadde represented the country to be of considerable extent, con- 
sisting mostly of a lofty plateau or elevated plain, and exceedingly popu- 
lous, containing numerous large cities, surrounded by high walls, and 
filled with houses of stone. Several large streams and lakes watered the 
soil, which, according to his account, was closely cultivated, and produced 
in abundance the greatest variety of trees, fruits, flowers, and grain. Over 
this country ruled Selha Shounse, the father of Enphadde and Kaloolah, 
as king. 

It was in going from the capital to one of the royal gardens that their 
escort was attacked by a party of blacks from the lowlands, the attendants 
killed or dispersed, and the young prince and princess carried off. The 
blacks belonging to a powerful nation that had, within a few years, con- 
quered their way to the borders of Framazugda, and who had even made 
frequent inroads upon the Framazugs themselves, retreated in haste, 
dragging with them their victims, and depriving, at one audacious blow, 
the bereaved monarch of his only son and daughter. Enphadde and his 
sister were tied hand and foot, and thrown across horses, which, at full 
speed, soon carried them beyond reach of assistance. Once in the country 
of their captors, there was no chance of rescue, as the Framazugs had re- 
peatedly found the impossibility of contending successfully against an 
enemy who had a numerous cavalry, and an immense superiority in the 
knowledge and possession of fire-arms. 

At first the youthful captives were carried towards the northwest, for 
three or four days' journey, until they arrived at a small walled town, 
where they were sold for a piece of red cloth and some beads to a kaffila 
of slave-merchants, travelling in a southwesterly direction. On this course 
they continued about thirty days, crossing several rivers and steep ranges 
of hills, and passing numerous villages, until they came to a large town, 
composed of reed huts and tents of skins, which was situated upon the 
borders of a sandy desert. Here they were bought by a party of Jagas, 
and journeyed with them for ten days over a dreary, barren waste, where 
not a particle of vegetation was to be seen. In this journey they suffered 
the greatest hardships, having to walk barefoot over a surface of hard 
flints, with their arms tied behind them, in the hot, tropical sun, and with 
but a single sip of brackish water in the twenty-four hours. Twice they 


were separated and conducted off in different directions, but at last were 
reunited at a town of the Yonga Jagas, on a branch of the Congo. Here 
they were again sold, placed in boats, and carried down to the main 
stream, where they were bought by their Congo master. Leaving the 
banks of the stream, they journeyed for sixty days, including stoppages, 
through a country of lofty forests, prairies, and swamps, constantly ex- 
posed to the attacks of serpents, elephants, lions, and tigers. Several 
times the kafifila were compelled to take to the trees, or set fire to the 
tall, dry grass, to save themselves from the wild beasts, and several times 
they were attacked at night by the still wilder bushmen, who were said, 
by the slave-merchants, to be inveterate cannibals. Enphadde seemed 
to have a good idea of the course they had pursued, and made con- 
tinual reference to the cardinal points of the compass, as indicated by the 
stars. He even explained the position of his country, by showing the 
difference in the length of his shadow, at times when the sun had the 
greatest northern and southern declination. He showed me that when 
the sun, at noon, was over the tropic of Capricorn, his shadow, falling 
towards the north, was about one thirteenth part longer than when the 
sun was in the opposite solstice, and the shadow was projected to the 
south. From this fact, I deduced the position of the capital of Frama- 
zugda, in about one degree of north latitude, and from Enphadde's courses 
and dead-reckoning it could not be far from about thirteen hundred miles 
in a direct line from the north of the Congo. I was gratified in being 
able to obtain so accurate an idea of its position, but it was still more 
gratifying to find in Enphadde such an evidence of education, and so 
much knowledge of the principles of astronomical science. No native pf 
Cpngo would have dreamed of conveying an idea of the latitude of places 
by the comparative length of shadows, and I was so unprepared for such a 
thing, even in him, that I could not at first comprehend his meaning, 
which he illustrated in a variety of ways, by pointing to his own shadow, 
and to the sun's movements in declination along the meridian, and by 
setting up perpendicular sticks, and measuring on the ground their sup- 
posed northern and southern shadows. Of course it was only the com- 
parative length of the shadows, and not the positive length, as indicated 
by any actual system of measure. This rendered the problem of the lati- 
tude rather complex. The solution required the finding of two angles, 
the sum of which should amount to 26° 56', whose tangents should be 
to each other as twelve to thirteen. I had no table of tangents, and my 
only resource was a series of rough projections and approximations, which 
served to pass the time, and to demonstrate that the capital of Framazugda 


was situated within a few miles of the Hne, and, of course, within a region 
wholly unknown to the civilized world. 

Although so near the equator, Enphadde and Kaloolah represented 
the climate to be delightfully temperate, which it might well be, from the 
great elevation of the country, and from the influence of the snow eternally 
covering the lofty peaks of a mountainous chain, stretching off to the south 
tind east. An abundance of delicious fruits, for many of which Enphadde 
could point out no parallel in Congo, were found growing wild in bound- 
less profusion. A vast variety of flowers enamelled the fields, or were 
cultivated in regular gardens, which were also adorned with works of art. 
Such as hot-houses, fountains, and statuary. Interminable fields of grain, 
pasturage, and orchards covered the plains and the valleys, except where 
groves of umbrageous trees afforded shelter to tribes of monkeys, and 
arhall quadrupeds of different species, and innumerable birds, with every 
possible variety of magnificent plumage. The architectural structures 
Enphadde represented to be on a scale commensurate with the splendid 
natural features of the country, and worthy of a nation which had reached 
a high point in civilization and refinement. 

My imagination was so excited by Enphadde's accounts, that I con- 
ceived the design of starting with him, and endeavoring to reach his 
country by the same route by which he had come. Upon proposing it to 
them, Kaloolah clapped her hands with delight, and Enphadde's eyes 
sparkled for a moment with eager joy, but his glances soon fell, as the 
conviction of the utter impossibility of accomplishing such a journey 
came upon him. He explained, by a rough chart drawn upon the ground, 
that the nations to the north of Framazugda were much less savage, and 
that were we to approach his country in that direction it would be dififi- 
Gult, but still possible to reach it ; but in going east-by-north from the 
Congo there would be no hope. Even were we alone, there would not be 
the slightest probability of success — with Kaloolah it would be impos- 
sible. Leaving out the formidable difficulties and dangers of the route, 
the desert of Srah, would be an obstacle impassable, except by the con- 
sent and assistance of the cruel and ferocious beings who inhabit it. 

Kaloolah was by no means disposed to submit to the reasoning of her 
brother. She persisted in asserting her willingness and ability to en- 
counter and endure any hardships and dangers ; and to all his objections, 
made answer by pointing, sometimes to me, and sometimes to my gun, 
as if, with that in hand, I alone could ensure their safety against wild 
beasts, cannibals, and bushmen. Poor Kaloolah ! woman-like, she followed 
the dictates of her heart rather than her head ; and danger, suffering, even 


death itself, had no power to stay her in the route affection pointed out. 
Forgetting fear, in the excess of hope, she would joyfully, had we con- 
sented, have commenced the long and fearful pilgrimage, though a thou- 
sand deaths had stared her in the face. 

We were debating the point, when our conversation was interrupted by 
the protrusion of a black shining face through the open wicket. Glan- 
cing carefully round, and making sundry grimaces, to indicate caution^ 
pur friendly visitor delivered himself of the same warning that had been 
so often repeated. 

" Prenez garde," said he, " Bergamme make fetish, muy grande. Prenez 
garde" and before I had time to question him, the speaker had dis- 

There was something exceedingly annoying in this threatening of an- 
indefinite danger, the nature of which it was impossible to ascertain, and 
against which it was, of course, impossible to guard. Although there was 
nothing to apprehend, from the fetish itself, it was quite probable that, 
encouraged by the supposed power of the charm, Bergamme, and his 
partner the slave-merchant, might undertake something, which, from the 
wholesome fear I had instilled into them, they would not otherwise dare 
to attempt. 

In company with Enphadde I made a thorough search of the neigh-i 
borhood around our hut, but nothing of a suspicious character could be 
found. Not a single native was in sight, and no unusual sights or sounds 
indicated danger from the distant village. 

It was quite dark when we re-entered the hut, where we found Kaloo- 
lah, who had taken upon herself, with true feminine spirit, the duties of 
house-keeping, busy in preparing supper. Within the court a small fire 
of mangrove branches was blazing brightly, upon which was cooking, in 
an earthen pot, a hodge-podge of chicken, rice, peppers, and potatoes. I 
threw myself upon a mat in one corner of the large room, or hall, while 
Enphaddt seated himself in the other. The cheerful light streamed in at 
the open door-way, and occasionally a puff of savory steam diffused its ex- 
citing odor through the apartment. Kaloolah was seated upon the 
ground just without the door, but in full view from the outside, and in 
such a position that, by leaning back a little, she could listen to, and join 
in, our conversation. Nothing could be more admirable than the un- 
studied grace of her attitudes, or the good-humored archness of her face, 
as revealed in the flashes of the strong firelight. Her body was constantly 
in motion: sometimes bending forward to feed the fire with dry leaves, 
and singing, the while, snatches of a plaintive song, and then stretching 


her gracefully turned head and neck into the hut, repeating English 
words and phrases, and laughing at their oddness in those dulcet tones 
that make the gushing, gurgling laugh of a pretty woman the most deli- 
cious sound in nature. 

" Oh !- J&n'than, now fire burn — make supper very quick. Sheeken 
supper very good — supper, dinner, breakfast — one — two — three," and 
then, as if there was something irresistibly comic in the sounds, she would 
laugh heartily, while her bright black eyes danced, and her whole face 
beamed with a matchless expression of mingled archness and nawetL 

" Sing a song, Kaloolah," I exclaimed. 

She hesitated. " I will sing," said I ; and I sang a verse of Inkle and 
Yarico. It was an old song of my mother's, but it struck me as singular 
that, at that moment it should have occurred to me ; I took it as a 

" Now, Kaloolah, you sing," said I, as I finished. 

" Oh, yes — I sing — much — very good," she replied, and pausing for an 
instant, commenced a love ditty. The Tul-tul, I afterwards found was a 
species of sweet-scented lily, growing upon the banks of the mountain 
streams of Framazugda, and the following is a literal translation of the 
words, which a better acquaintance with the language than I then had 
has since enabled me to make. There is not much, ia the words^ but the 
sentiment indicates a greater refinement in love, than would be found in 
a savage and debased state of society, while the air was exceedingly 
plaintive and sweet, reminding me very much of some of the simple but 
touching melodies of the Irish school of composers. 


By Streamlet's brink a Tul-tul grew, 

And from her leaflets, moist with dew, 

Enchanting fragrance far she threw. 

Ah ! Tul, beware the fickle Stream ! 

Love's life is but a giddy dream, 

'V\^lere shadows flit, and false lights gleam. 

The Streamlet saw the blooming flower ; 

" Ah, Tul," he cried, " 't is now love's hour, 

Come, yield thee, sweet one, to his power." 

Ah ! Tul, beware ! if thy heart owns 

The melody of his low tones, 

Thou 'It answer yet with sighs and moans. 

By blushing Tul the strain is heard : 

She smiles, and drinks the honeyed word ; 


With half-formed hopes her breast is stirred. 
Ah ! Tul, beware ! His quiet mien, 
His gentle tones, his glittering sheen, 
Are naught but lures, I sadly ween. 

Sweet Tul-tul's feet his rijjples lave ; 

She sees her image in his wave ; 

Can naught be done poor Tul to save ? 

Ah ! Tul, beware ! The fickle Tide 

Will well around thee deep and wide, 

But soon love's claims he will deride. 

The dew has failed, the ground is dry. 
The air is hot, the sun is high. 
Sweet Tul now sees her lover fly. 

Ah ! Tul, sweet Tul ! She hangs her head ; 

The blight of love is o'er her shed ; 

The faithless stream afar has fled. 

From noontide heats in shady dell. 
The Streamlet seeks his rocky cell. 
Ah ! who poor Tul-tul's grief can tell ? 

Poor Tul ! Her fragrant breath has flown ; 

Her withered leaves around are strown ; 

Rustling with saddening sigh and moan. 

As the last words of the song died upon the air, we were startled by 
the loud report of a musket, and the crashing of the bullet through the 
slight reed fence and the palm-leaf matting. It had evidently been aimed 
at Kaloolah, through the interstices of the canes, but, deviating slightly 
from its course in its passage, it just missed her person, and striking a 
brand, knocked the fire about in all directions, and passed in at the door- 
way and out through the matting at the farther side, a little above 
Enphadde's head. I seized my gun and rushed out of the wicket, fol- 
lowed by Enphadde, but it was so dark that it was impossible to see any 
object, not in motion, at ten paces distant. We listened intently, and 
fancied that we could hear retreating feet ; it was useless, however, to 
pursue them, and we were compelled to return no wiser than we went. 
Kaloolah was very much frightened, and I must confess that my own 
fears were thoroughly aroused ; but the only thing that could be done 
was to put out our fire and keep a good look-out for any further attack. 
In the morning I was determined to see Bergamme, and take such action 
in the case as the occasion might require. We passed a sleepless night, 
but nothing more occurred to excite particular attention or alarm. 






B) i^^S^k^S*^^^^ 




^^^^^^HiKlli^C. ^'w 






S« ^^b^Sfe^s*^ i 




A Congo Custom — A Funeral — A Compliment to the Corpse — A Feast — A Public Speech — 
Making a Hit, or Shooting a Fetish — Kaloolah's Conquest — A Musical Entertainment — The 
Malaria — An Attack of Fever — Kaloolah as Nurse — Attentions of the Negroes — Return of 
the Boniio — Danger from Kaloolah's Good Looks — Expedient to Get Rid of Her Beauty. 

\T is the custom in Congo to suffer an interval of time to elapse 
between the decease and burial of members of the higher 
classes, proportioned to the rank of the subject and the wealth 
of surviving friends. In the meantime the body is enveloped 
in voluminous folds of cotton cloth, pieces of which are weekly and 
almost daily added, so as to conceal any signs of decomposition. This 
process goes on until the corpse attains an enormous size. When too 
large for the house in which it is contained, the building is taken down and 
a larger one erected in its place. In the case of very distinguished indi- 
viduals, this is frequently done two or three times ; and a fellow who, in 
his lifetime, never had clothing enough to cover his nakedness, is, after 
death, swathed into a capital illustration of the principle of compensa- 
tion — clothing himself then (or rather his friends doing so for him) in all 
the cloth which he was formerly entitled to but did not have. 

The day after the night which closes the last chapter was appointed 
for the burial of a distinguished personage who had been dead seven or 
eight years. During the whole of this long period, the body had been 
undergoing this epidemic accretion. Every rag of cotton that could be 
bought, begged, or stolen, had been added by mourning relatives, until a 
bulk sufficient to satisfy the pride of affection had been attained. 

The grave was at some little distance from the village, and consisted of 
a large pit, ten feet wide and at least twenty feet deep. To it the corpse 
was borne on a bier of poles by a procession of all the inhabitants of the 
town, accompanied by bands of musicians, some of them blowing conch 
shells, others rattling strings of gourds, and others beating with the open 
hand large drums made of skins stretched across the mouths of hollow 
logs. A kind of guitar or banjo aided the harmony with its tinkling 
sounds, while tones, not unlike in quality to those of a small organ, were 



produced from a row of gourds fastened to a board, and across the open 
mouths of which were placed three slips of reeds. These were struck 
with small sticks, precisely in the same way as are the pieces of glass in a 
musical instrument common enough in Christian countries, but of which 
I do not now recollect the name. 

Surrounding the corpse were bands of mourning females, who made 
the air additionally vocal with cries, groans, and ejaculations — keeping up 
a continuous torrent of questions addressed to the dead man, or shrieking 
his praises at the utmost pitch of their voices. 

" Oh, why did youdie ? Why did you go away ? Will you ever come 
back ? Are you happy ? Do you forget us all ? Oh ! hoo ! oh ! hoo \ 
He was such a good man ! He kept all his wives so fat ! He gave them 
so much to eat ! And he gave them so much rum to drink ! Oh ! hoo ! 
He was such a good man ! Oh ! hoo ! Oh ! hoo ! " 

Numerous gangams (priests) added to the clamor of the women the 
most frantic and diabolical yells. They ran, leaped, and danced about 
the corpse with uncouth gestures and horrid grimaces, and practised vari- 
ous ceremonies of incantation which it would be tedious to particularize. 

It was intimated that it would be considered a compliment to the 
family, and a favor to the whole town, if my gun was discharged a few 
times — a request with which I very readily complied. After the burial, a 
grand feast, open to all, finished the services of the day. All signs of 
grief were now thrown by. Those who could get it, inspirited themselves 
with rum and brandy, while those who could not continued to reach an 
equally glorious degree of elevation by means of old and strong palm 
wine. The festivity was kept up with music, obscene songs, and lascivi- 
ous dances until a late hour in the night. 

About sunset I walked down to the village to see the ceremonies of 
the feast, which had commenced an hour or two before I arrived. A 
large group of the principal men, surrounded by inferior parties, were 
squatted on the ground in an open space in front of the widow's house. 
I was quite warmly received, and invited to take a seat upon the leopard 
skins of the Mafooka and his ofificers, which invitation I was about to 
accept, when I spied Bergamme and his partner seated together, at a little 
distance off. I had been on the watch for him during the whole day, but, 
conscious of guilt, and dreading to meet me, the fellow had not thought 
proper to show himself. I determined, on the instant, not to let slip the 
opportunity of making a decided impression. 

He was seated about twenty feet from the Mafooka, with half a dozen 
blacks immediately about him, and in such a position as to be in full view 


of all upon the ground. By his side lay an old Spanish musket, and 
around his neck hung his famous fetish. It consisted of an uncouth hol- 
low figure of dried clay, the upper part of which was fashioned somewhat 
into the resemblance of the human face. The body of it was studded 
with parrot feathers of different colors, every one of which had been par- 
ticularly blessed by the gangam, and inserted into the clay with magical 
ceremonies and incantations. For every feather a fowl had been sacri- 
ficed by the priests, and the point dipped into the blood. No expense 
had been spared by Bergamme to make it as perfect as possible, and the 
gangams had exerted their utmost skill. With the credulous faith of his 
superstitious countrymen in the power of these ignorant but exceedingly 
cunning impostors, he believed that he had got a charm that would pre- 
serve him from any danger ; even a musket-ball would be diverted from 
his own person, and turned back against the breast of the sacrilegious 
wretch by whom it had been fired. 

Declining the invitation to be seated, I strode up to Bergamme, and 
stopped directly in front of him. He quailed a little at my presence, but 
kept his position, while his companion scrambled backwards some yards 
in the greatest affright. 

" Listen," said I, looking around and over the reclining audience, and 
directing a friendly linguista, who spoke excellent Spanish, to interpret 
my words. 

" Listen ! Last night a musket was fired into my house. It came 
very near killing one of my slaves. I charge this man with the deed ! " 

All eyes were now directed towards us, but not a word was spoken ; 
even Bergamme, although he looked utterly confounded, retained his 
position without stirring. 

" This man," I continued, " fired that shot. I know it. He dare not 
deny it ; he wishes to take my life ! Will you allow such a crime ? Shall 
he not be punished ? I came among you as a friend. I have been re- 
ceived as a friend. How would the Chenoo, your master at Emboma, 
receive the news, that a friendly white man, who came to ' make trade,' 
had been killed or maltreated ? " 

" He shall drink the kisha water," said the Mafooka. " If he is inno- 
cent it will do him no harm ; if he is guilty it will kill him." 

" No, no," I replied, " I don't wish to compel him to drink the kisha. 
He knows that he is guilty, and that if it is a true test he would die." 

The proposition by no means suited me, as I knew that if he was sub- 
jected to the ordeal, his friends, the gangams, who administer it, would 
give him some harmlesss potion, and the fellow would have all the advan- 
tage of an honorable acquittal. 



" No I wont subject him to the test of guilt ; I want only to warn him 
against any further crime. If he attacks me again he must look out; the 
consequences will be bad for him ; he can't hurt me, but he may hurt 
himself. He puts his trust in this thing," and here, with a sudden grasp, 
I seized the fetish, and tore it from his neck. My motions were so quick 
and unexpected, that he could offer no resistance, even had he been dis- 
posed, which he was not ; he fairly shivered with astonishment at the 
audacity of the act. 

" He puts his trust in this- thing," said I, holding it up. " It can't 
protect him if I resolve to punish him. It may be the most powerful 

' And bringing up my gun to bear upon it, fired both barrels in immediate succession. " 

fetish in the country, but I care nothing for it. What can it do to me? 
Look ! " 

Every eye was upon me as I spat contemptuously in the face of the 
grinning figure. A general groan of terror expressed the apprehensions 
of the audience. If the earth had yawned and swallowed me up, or the 
Evil One had caught me up bodily in his clutches, they would not have 
been at all surprised. 

" Look! " I continued, "you see it has no power to harm me. I am 
too strong for it. I fear it not ; I despise it — that for his fetish ! " and 


I tossed the figure into the air, and bringing up my gun to bear upon it, 
fired both barrels in immediate succession. They were heavily loaded 
with duck-shot, and both charges took effect. The clay figure was broken 
into a thousand pieces, and the feathers cut and scattered in every 

" Do you see that ? " said I, addressing Bergamme. " Well, if ever you 
or that fellow there come around my house again, with evil intent, by the 
great and ever-living Zamba Em Pounga, I will serve you in the same way. 
The darkness of the darkest night won't Save you." 

Wonder, admiration, and fear were variously depicted upon the faces of 
my audience, and, as their tongues became loosened, were expressed in 
all kinds of curious exclamations. Never did actor on the stage feel better 
assured of having made a decided hit than did I, when I looked at the 
powerless and prostrate form of the killer, shivering as if with an ague 
fit. There was no further harm to be apprehended from him. 

Stepping up to the Mafooka, I took a sup from his brandy jug. 

" You did not get this from El Bonito ? " said I. 

" No ! it is Portuguese," he replied. 

" I thought so. It is very good ; but we have some much better on 
board. When she comes back I will send you a couple of bottles." 

" And won't you give me one ? " demanded a Formio of distinction. 

" With the greatest pleasure." 

" And me ? " said another. 

" Certainly." 

" And me ? and me ? and me ? " shouted the crowd. 

In a moment I had promised a dozen bottles, and, fearful of committing 
myself further, I made a rapid but dignified retreat. 

Kaloolah was on the watch for me. I saw her intently peering from 
the entrance to the court in the direction of the village. As I came in 
sight she suddenly started, and withdrew within the gate-way. In a moment 
she re-appeared, and came bounding towards me with a handful of the 
sweet-scented wild flowers that grew in endless variety on the uncultivated 
land along the margin of the river. Upon entering the house I found a 
large bouquet of the same flowers arranged in an earthen jug at the side 
of my palm-leaf bed. This delicate and considerate attention delighted 
but did not surprise me. I was prepared to receive any evidence of 
refined sensibility and feminine taste in Kaloolah as a matter of course. 
Thanking her warmly for her kindness, I assured her that I was very fond 
of flowers, and that those she had selected were very beautiful and very 


"Very sweet flowers," she replied, repeating my words. "Ah, yes, 
very sweet! " 

She raised the flowers to inhale their fragrance, and as she did so her 
smile died away to a most touching sadness, and the tears started to her 

"What is the matter, Kaloolah ? " said I, taking her hand; "what 
makes you sad?" 

She understood the import of my question, if not the exact meaning 
of each word. 

" Ah ! " she replied, " flowers very much sweet in Framazugda ! " 

The mysterious chain of association had been struck, and vibrated in 
every link, responsive to the blow. The delicate perfume had aroused 
the slumbering recollections of fair gardens and fragrant bowers, and with 
them the thoughts of home and friends — the sacred memories of the 
heart. Who could wonder at her tears? 

In a moment her smiles returned, and aided by Enphadde she set 
about preparing for the evening meal. In these household affairs I care- 
fully abstained from offering any assistance, feeling that it was best to 
leave to them the only means they had of showing their overflowing 
gratitude and respect. The supper over, the remainder of the evening 
was passed in conversation and song. Kaloolah sang several simple and 
pleasing melodies, accompanying herself with small pieces of reed of dif- 
ferent lengths and sizes, that, twirled by the fingers with wonderful rapid- 
ity, gave a few low, buzzing notes that harmonized with her voice, and 
produced a very agreeable effect. Enphadde had also contrived an in- 
strument, consisting of a sounding-board, into which were inserted slips 
of reed which were supported by a bridge. The instrument was held by 
the left hand, at an angle of inclination sufficient to bring the row of 
reeds into a horizontal position, which were then snapped by the fingers 
of the right hand with a degree of dexterity that must have required 
much practice to attain. The tones were pleasant, and the divisions of 
the musical scale perfectly accurate. Both Kaloolah and her brother 
evinced the possession of a very fine and accurate ear, and a quick and 
tenacious musical memory. Several English airs Kaloolah could repeat 
after hearing them once, without missing a note. 

Our entertainment was kept up until a late hour in the evening, and, 
although I may not say that it would have fully satisfied the fastidious 
ears of a critical bravurist, it gave us as much pleasure as ever was 
derived from the loftiest harmonies of Beethoven, or the sprightliest 
melodies of Rossini. Time, place, and circumstance ever powerfully in- 


fluence the effect that music produces upon the mind ; and our music 
must have been indeed execrable, if in a negro hut, far from home, in 
the wilds of Congo, it had not power to excite agreeable associations, 
and gently, perhaps sadly, but withal not unpleasantly, arouse emotion, 
and stir the heart. 

Upon retiring to rest I resigned myself to slumber, with a sense of 
security, as far as the former masters of Kaloolah were concerned, which 
for several previous nights it had been impossible to feel. Still my sleep 
was broken and disturbed. A vague impression of coming evil took pos- 
session of me. Shadowy, half-formed fancies — the gaunt, gloaming 
ghosts of horrible ideas stalked through my mind, and kept me tossing 
and tumbling on my bed of leaves until nearly daylight. A few hours' 
unquiet sleep, and I awoke with a slight headache, a feeling of general 
lassitude, and chillness and dull pains in my back and lower extremities. 
Then it was that I first suspected that I was ill. Kaloolah's expressive 
face was a mirror in which I could see that I looked fully as unwell as I 
felt, and, if further confirmation were wanted, it was present in the furred 
tongue and the yellow tinge with which all objects appeared invested. 

The grasp of the malaria — that curse of the African coast — was upon 
me. Brooding in darkness and in damp over the low alluviums of the 
intertropical shores, that mysterious power, innocuous to the negro, 
but a deadly foe to the Caucasian constitution, presents a barrier which 
the white man has not yet been able to pass. I was to prove no exception, 
and I shuddered as well at the thought as beneath the direct chilling 
touch of this relentless agent of death. 

My headache gradually increased, accompanied with nausea and a 
sensation of weight in the region of the stomach, and all my symptoms 
began to be aggravated, except perhaps the feeling of chilliness. The 
rapidity with which in many cases the African fever develops itself is 
well known. There was no time to lose, if any preparatory remedial 
measures were to be adapted. Fortunately, I had a small paper of medi- 
cines in the pocket of my instrument-case, and as there was not much 
doubt in my mind of the propriety of emetics in the forming stage of all 
fevers, it was not difficult to decide upon a full dose of the tartrate of 

By night reaction had taken place, and the fever was fully developed. 
Strong cerebral symptoms convinced me that it would not answer much 
longer to confide in my medical judgment, even should my senses be pre- 
served, and that the best way would be to make sure of one good dose 
of calomel and jalap, and then trusting to a good constitution, leave the 
disease to its course. The powder was prepared, and swallowing it, with 



somewhat of the feeling with which the mariner casts his last anchor to 
windward on a lee-shore, I resigned myself to my fate. 

Delirium soon supervened; but amid the wanderings of reason and 
the vagaries of maddened fancy, I was still conscious of the soothing in- 
fluences of woman's gentle attentions. The figure of Kaloolah, multiplied 
by diseased sensation into a dozen angelic forms, was ever around me. Flit- 
ting spirits, bearing her face and form, constantly hovered over me, fan- 
ning my hot cheek with their gentle wings, or, with light fingers, parting 
my hair, and bathing my throbbing temples— at each moment smoothing 
the rumpled palm leaves, chasing the buzzing insects, and refreshing my 
parched mouth with draughts of cool water or the pleasant juice of the 
sweet lemon. I knew not all the time that it was she ; but still, even 
when most bewildered, there remained a distinct consciousness of some 
power without that kept down the raging demon, who roared and strug- 
gled for mastery within. 

On the ninth day the fever reached its crisis, and, thanks to a good 
constitution and kind nursing, the crisis was safely passed. From that 
day recovery was no longer doubtful, and in three or four days more I 
was able to sit up, and indulge with a good appetite in the convalescent's 
luxury — a bowel of chicken broth. It would require weeks, however, to 
regain my full strength. Although the disease had manifested itself in a 
comparatively mild and simple form, and had not been complicated by 
any severe local congestions, and had in consequence lasted hardly a 
quarter of its usual time, it had nevertheless left marks of its power 
behind, which it would require time to remove. 

I learned from Enphadde that during my illness the inhabitants of the 
village had in general evinced a great deal of good feeling ; the women 
in particular frequently visiting the hut and' offering assistance. The 
Mafooka had sent several times to inquire after my health, accompanying 
his messages with presents of fowls and eggs. A native physician had 
offered to perform the operation of cupping, but Enphadde did not dare 
give his consent. 

The favorable change in the disease was soon known, and brought a 
succession of visits of congratulation from the principal citizens of the 
town. Each one, as is sometimes the case in more civilized countries, 
had something to suggest in aid of my speedy recovery. One recom- 
mended lion's-tail soup ; another, a dish of alligator's eyes ; and a third, 
a fricassee of monkeys' tongues, and each one offered to provide his 
remedy for a proper consideration. The terms were too high, and if for 
no other reason, I was compelled to respectfully decline their assistance, 
and rely upon chicken broth and the culinary skill of Kaloolah. 


It was now more than three weeks since the departure of the slaver, 
and as yet nothing had been heard from her. It was known that she 
had succeeded in passing, without molestation, the English man-of-war, 
and that the latter, the next morning had also weighed her anchor 
and stood out of the river. Had she overtaken the Bonito? and if 
so, what was to become of me and my companions? It must be rec- 
ollected that I was sick — worn down in body, and depressed in mind, 
and it will not appear strange that a supposition of the slaver's having 
been captured, which, under other circumstances would have given me 
pleasure, now excited nothing but dismay. I brooded over the thought 
with the most melancholy anticipations. My money was nearly gone. 
When all was spent how were we to obtain the commonest necessities 
of life? When, and how should we find means to escape from a 
country and climate that desponding imagination began to invest with 
all the horrors of purgatory ? 

Feeling thus, it may be supposed that I was overjoyed when, at 
near the close of the fourth week, the news came that the Bonito had 
arrived in the river, and was at anchor about twenty miles below. My 
spirits, however, were far from undergoing an elation corresponding to their 
previous depression. Doubts and fears intruded themselves, and very 
much qualified the anticipated pleasures of freedom and pure ocean air. 

One great source of anxiety was the beauty of Kaloolah, which had 
been growing more and more striking as her face daily recovered some 
portion of its original fulness, and her figure its rounded and graceful 
proportions. I knew my own powerlessness on shipboard, especially in 
my then state of health ; and I knew well the lawlessness of the Bonito s 
crew. Fortunately, among my other medicines there was a stick of nitrate 
of silver, or lunar caustic, and the idea occurred to me that by means of it 
her dangerous beauty might be deprived for a time of its power. I at 
once proposed it to her, and after explaining that we were going among 
bad men, who might be rude to her, and that it would be perhaps much 
easier for me to protect her from insult if we could get rid of her 
good looks, she at once consented to the application of the caustic. In a 
few minutes her face was covered with black spots and blotches which 
completely altered its expression. There was the same lustrous eye, the 
same finely turned features, but a stranger would have turned from them 
with pity for the horrible disease with which they were overcast. The 
change was so great that Enphadde, who better than Kaloolah had com- 
prehended the object I had in view, looked quite shocked, and would 
hardly be satisfied with my repeated assurance that the spots would wear 
off, and his sister's skin resume its natural hue. 


fever ! 

Captain Garbez' Return — A Hard Blow — A Promise to the Virgin — Sufferings in the Barra- 
coons — Preparations for Loading — Packing the Slaves — Loose Packing and Tight Packing 
' — Arrangements for Kaloolah and her Brother — A Timely Fit of .the Rheumatism — Get- 
ting to Sea — Effects of Sea-Sickness among the Slaves — The Captain's Argument — 
Jonathan's Proteges — Talk about Framazugda — ^Jonathan's Intentions. 

UIEN ES v.?" exclaimed Captain Garbez, as I mounted the 

side of the slaver just as her anchor struck the ground ofT 

Lembee. " Madre de Dios ! how you have altered ! One 

would hardly know you, you have changed so ! Ah, the rascally 

I know it well, for I 've had it myself. But, what is the news? 

what has happened during the last month ? " 

" Nothing," I replied, " but what you can see for yourself. The 
fever has pulled me down, as you perceive. It was sharp, but short, and 
I am recovering now as fast as I could reasonably expect. It is but five 
days since I was confined to the bed. But what has kept you so long ? I 
had begun to think that perhaps you were figuring before your friends of 
the mixed commission." 

" No, they don't catch me so easy," replied the captain. " The 
Bonito has broad wings, and you might as well send a turkey-cock after a 
sea-gull as to chase her with any English craft that I know of. It is the 
cursed calms that have kept us so long. See, I 've lost half the hair on 
my head. Caramba ! I would n't mind having my whole scalp blown 
off in a gale of wind, but to be compelled to tear my hair out, in a stupid 
calm, is too bad. We 've had but one capful of wind since we left, and 
that was a regular buttender right in our teeth. You see, just as we left 
the mouth of the river we came across the consort of the fellow we had 
left behind. As soon as he saw us he loosened and sheeted home every 
thing, and took after us, but it was of no use. We stretched off to the 
west, and soon dropped him ; but when we began to think about turning 
back, the wind came on to blow a perfect hurricane from the east. We 
were ,compelled to lie-to for eight and forty hours, and although the 
Bonito is a pretty weatherly craft, we drifted to leeward like the D 1 



in Lent. Since then we had nothing but calms and light head-winds. I 
promised our Holy Mother the price of a young negro in wax lights, but 
she did n't do us any good, and burn my eyes if she may n't find her own 
candles, or sit in the dark for aught I care." 

" How soon do you get under way again ? " said I, interrupting the 
captain, who was rapidly working himself into a passion about the 

" As soon as possible, but the Lord only knows when that will be. I 
shall try to be off in less than a week. It will depend upon the time it 
takes to bring all the slaves in. The negroes here are wretchedly slow in 
all their movements, and what is worse, there is not much use in trying 
to stir them up. Along the coast, from Cabenda up, they do business 
more promptly. When the barracoons are full, the shipping a cargo will 
not take more than an hour or two. The slaves suffer so much from their 
confinement and want of food in the barracoons, that when the gates are 
opened they frequently run and skip down to the canoes in their delight 
at being taken to ' the white man's country, where they will have plenty 
to eat.' But I must hurry ashore and see what can be done." 

The captain's boat was ready, and he stepped into it and shoved off, 
while I turned into the cabin to look after my personal property, which, 
including my money, I was happy to find had been undisturbed. 

Preparations were actively resumed for the reception of the slaves, 
and in a few hours after the captain's visit to the shore several boat-loads 
of unhappy wretches were sent on board. The first comers were taken 
below the berth-deck and arranged upon a temporary slave-deck placed 
over the water-casks, and at a distance of not more than three feet and a 
half from the deck overhead. Into the planks eye-bolts were inserted, 
and firmly secured at different intervals, in four rows, running fore and 
aft the ship. Through these bolts traversed iron shackle bars, which were 
prevented from slipping by a knob at one end and a padlock at the other. 
When the padlock was removed the bar could be shoved back, and the 
slaves strung upon it in gangs of five, six, or eight in number. The 
shackle was a stout piece of iron, curved like a horse-shoe, with holes in 
the ends for the bar to pass through. Each slave had one of these 
shackles placed over his ankle ; the long bar was drawn through the ends 
of it along the und^r side of his leg, and so on of each slave belonging 
to the gang ; the end of the bar was then passed through the eye-bolt 
and secured by the padlock. This arrangement made it very convenient 
to air the slaves on deck, when the weather would permit. All that was 
necessary was to remove the lock, slide the bar back, and slip the shackles 


off, when the limbs of the whole gang were at once unfettered. After 
their airing they could be strung along on the bar, and the end of it again 
secured with hardly more time or trouble. It was somewhat unusual, the 
captain informed me, to shackle slaves taken from the coast south of Cape 
Lopez, inasmuch as they are generally a mild and timid race, but for those 
obtained from any of the stations from Cape Lopez north to the Gambia 
shackles are essential. 

The slaves, as I have said, were arranged in four ranks. When lying 
down, the heads of the two outer ranks touched the sides of the ship ; 
their feet pointing inboard or athwart the vessel. They, of course, occu- 
pied a space fore and aft the ship of about six feet on either side, or 
twelve feet of the whole breadth. At the feet of the outside rank come 
the heads of the inner row. They took up a space of six feet more on 
either side, or together twelve feet. There was still left a space running 
up and down the centre of the deck, two or three feet in breadth ; along 
this were stretched single slaves, between the feet of the two inner rows, 
so that when all were lying down almost every square foot of the deck 
was covered with a mass of human flesh. Not the slightest space was 
allowed between the individuals of the ranks, but the whole were packed 
as closely as they could be, each slave having just room enough to stretch 
himself out flat upon his back, and no more. In this way about two hun- 
dred and fifty were crowded upon the slave-deck, and as many more upon 
the berth-deck. 

Horrible as this may seem, it was nothing compared to the " packing " 
generally practised by slavers. Captain Garbez boasted that he had tried 
both systems, tight packing and loose packing thoroughly, and ihat he had 
found the latter the best. 

" If you call this loose packing," I replied, " have the goodness to ex- 
plain what you mean by tight packing." 

" Why, tight packing consists in making a row sit with their legs 
stretched apart, and then another row is placed between their legs, and 
so on, until the whole deck is filled. In the one case each slave has as 
much room as he can cover lying ; in the other, only as much room as he 
can occupy sitting. With tight packing this craft ought to stow fifteen 
hundred." About fifty of the whole number were females, who were left 
unshackled, but were closely confined in a small space at the stern, which 
was cut off from the apartment of the males by a stout bulkhead. 

It was with a good deal of difficulty that I made arrangements for 
Kaloolah and Enphadde. The captain, at first, strongly objected to re- 
ceiving them at all. He could not spare the room ; but that difficulty 


was obviated by my offering to indemnify him for any loss, in a sum 
equal to the clear profit his owners would receive for the two slaves, that, 
as he asserted, would be displaced. 

" Besides," continued I, " they will not take up any of the room of the 
ship that could be otherwise occupied. I intend to take them both into 
my state-room." 

" Impossible ! " he exclaimed. 

" Not at all," said I, " it may be, perhaps, inconvenient for me, but they 
won't be in the way of any one else. Come, captain, you must consent. 
I assure you I will fully satisfy your owners. You can see for your- 
self that I have the means," and I showed to the captain a large purse 
of gold. 

The captain eyed me for some time in silence. 

" I '11 go still further than that," I continued ; " I '11 not only pay for 
their passage, but if you allow me to put them into the cabin, where they 
won't disturb any one but myself, there 's my chronometer — you have 
often admired it — it is yours." 

" Well, doctor, do as you please — but what the d- — 1 you see in those 
two slaves to like so much, I can't understand. They are not niggers, it 
is true, and that is the reason why they are not worth half so much as a 
pair of full-blooded blacks. We often get queer kinds of people, of all 
colors, shapes, and sizes, but they are good for nothing in the market. 
They can't stand heat or labor with the pure blacks. I once took a cargo 
to Brazil, of which about one half were real whites — some of them with 
blue eyes and light hair ; there was not as much negro blood in them as 
you see in the whitest slaves in New-Orleans or Havana. They went oft 
at half prices, and when put down to work they all died in less than a 
year. So if you expect to make a speculation with these you will find 
yourself much mistaken. The girl, perhaps, would bring a good price, if 
you can cure those spots on her face, but the boy is good for nothing in the 
field, and for house-work people like only slaves that have been trained." 

Most fortunately el segundo capitan was confined to his berth with a 
violent attack of inflammatory rheumatism, and incapable of making any 
opposition to my plans. 

In five days the Bonito's compliment of slaves was on board, and all 
ready for departure. At the last moment I joined the ship, with Kaloo- 
lah and Enphadde ; the anchor was weighed, and with a fair and stiff 
breeze we ran down the rapid current on the top of an ebbing tide. In a 
few hours, we were dancing upon the lively swell of the open ocean, and 
inhaling with delight the breeze which, although coming from the land. 


seemed to have lost its malevolent and oppressive character. As we in- 
creased our distance from the shore, my breath came deeper, freer : each 
draught seemed to penetrate farther and farther among the clogged air 
cells of the lungs, stirring the sluggish blood, and chasing the lingering 
remnants of disease. What an inestimable blessing is plenty of pure 
fresh air ! What exquisite pleasure in the free and easy performance of 
the .respirattDTy function ! Alas ! five hundred unhappy vi^retches were 
beneath my feet, who had been cruelly cut off from that pleasure — de- 
prived of that blessing ! Despite the refreshing influences of the breeze 
I sickened at the thought.- 

As night set in the wind freshened, with a short, quick head-sea, 
through which the ship, under full sail, ploughed her uneasy way. As 
the motion increased, the most heart-rending sounds began to issue from 
between her decks. It grew stronger and stronger — blending with and 
almost overpowering the creaking of spars and bulkheads, and the melan- 
choly wail of the breeze among the tautened cords of the weather- 
rigging. A deep, dull chorus of moans and sobs, and sighs, arose from 
the grated hatchways spread around upon the air, and enwrapped the 
cursed craft in all the harmonies of hell. It was the shrill cry of youth, 
and the sobbing voices of woman in the hour of fright and distress. It 
was the deep groans of manhood, wrung by pain from the panting breast. 
It was the choking sobs of oppressed respiration — the retchings of nausea 
the clanking of fetters, and the stertorous gaspings of wretches in the 
last agonies of death. 

The next morning five corpses were picked out from among the men, 
and two from among the women, and thrown overboard. 

" Only seven ! " exclaimed the captain, " well, that 's devilish good 
luck so far. I always calculate, with a full cargo, to lose from fifteen to 
twenty by the first touch of sea-sickness. Come, bear a-hand there, and 
give them an airing ! " 

From forty to fifty at a time were now brought upon deck. As they 
emerged from the hatchway they were manacled together in gangs of six 
or eight, as much to prevent individuals from jumping overboard as to 
guard against resistance. Each gang was then placed in turn on the fore- 
castle, the brakes of a forcing pump manned, and a powerful stream of 
water directed through a hose upon them. After being thoroughly 
drenched, they were allowed to walk about and dry themselves for fifteen 
or twenty minutes, and were then passed down to their shackles, to be 
succeeded by another set. 

Never but in a slaver were seen such groups of woe-begone wretches. 


Many were ill with previous disease, and all of them laboring under the 
distressing effects of sea-sickness; their naked bodies, begrimed with filth, 
shivered and shrunk in the cool fresh air and their quivering lips and 
rolling eyes expressed the height of bodily suffering, mental agony, and 
hopeless despair. There was none of that stolid indifference which had 
characterized the expression of their faces on shore. There, cruelty and 
hardship had assumed familiar forms, and a dogged endurance opposed 
itself to the frowns of fate. Here they were upon a new and fearful 
element — new terrors aroused their jaded and sluggish fears — new pangs 
developed the secret sensations of their benumbed and hardened frames. 
Alas ! they were only at the commencement of their fearful voyage — at 
the threshold merely of the horrors that were to multiply, in geometric 
ratio, the farther they advanced. 

I attempted to visit the slave-decks. The sights, sounds, and smells 
were intolerable ; and, with a death-like sickness at the heart, I was com- 
pelled to retire. " Good heavens ! " I exclaimed, " I had no idea of 

" Why, it is n't very pleasant," said the captain, " but what can you 
expect when they are all sea-sick ? Wait till they get over that, and we 
shall be able to keep them in better order ; and, besides, they '11 naturally 
thin out a little, and that will make them more comfortable." 

" But if such is the state of things in fair weather," I demanded, " how 
will it be if it should come on to blow ? " 

" If it is a downright regular gale, we shall have the d I's own time, 

of course," replied the captain. " When it comes to closing the hatches, 
it is all up with the voyage. You can hardly save enough to pay expenses. 
They die like leeches in a thunder-storm. I was once in a little schooner 
with three hundred on board, and we were compelled to lie-to for three 
days. It was the worst sea I ever saw, and came near swamping us 
several times. We lost two hundred and fifty slaves in that gale. We 
could n't get at the dead ones to throw them overboard very handily, and 
so those that did n't die from want of air were killed by the rolling and 
tumbling about of the corpses. Of the living ones, some had their limbs 
broken, and every one had the flesh of his leg worn to the bone by the 

" Good God ! and you still puruse the horrible trade ? " 

" Certainly : why not ? Despite of accidents the trade is profitable, 
and for the cruelty of it no one is to blame except the English. Were it 
not for them, large and roomy vessels would be employed, and it would 
be an object to bring the slaves over with every comfort, and in as good 


condition as possible. Now every consideration must be sacrificed to the 
one great object — escape from capture by the British cruisers." 

I had no wish to reply to the captain's argument. One might as well 
reply to a defence of blasphemy or murder. Giddy, faint, and sick, I turned 
with loathing from the fiends in human guise, and sought the more genial 
companionship of the inmates of my state-room. 

Kaloolah and Enphadde were suffering slightly from the effects of sea- 
sickness, but in every other respect they were as comfortable as could be 
wished. Enphadde was stretched upon the narrow floor, wrapped in a 
blanket, with a carpet-bag for a pillow. Kaloolah occupied the lower 
berth, while the upper berth was reserved for myself. We, were thus 
rather closely stowed, but I had only to think of the miserable beings 
between decks and the sense of constraint and discomfort vanished. 

In two or three days my interesting room-mates were so far recovered 
as to be able to take the air upon deck. Kaloolah, however, I kept closely 
confined in the daytime, and allowed her to come out only at night. I 
wished to prevent either her seeing or being seen ; and even Enphadde, 
according to my instructions, exposed himself as little as possible to the 
notice of the crew. As soon as it grew dark we would all three creep 
over the taffrail into the stern-boat, and enjoy several hours' unmolested 
and interesting conversation. I had already made so much progress in 
the Framazug tongue that I could already comprehend the minutest de- 
scriptions of the wonderful scenes of their native country ; and, in turn, 
astonish them with an account of the curious things that they were to see 
in mine. At such times it was impossible to resist the temptation to en- 
courage their hopes of returning through the northern negro countries to 
their home. 

" You will go with us, won't you, Jon'than ? " said Kaloolah, one even- 
ing, when I had been explaining how easy it would be to go from my 
country to some of the French or English ports south of the great desert, 
and that from thence it would be possible to reach the Niger or Quorah, 
of which river they had heard the name. Once upon the Quorah, 
Enphadde felt confident that he would be able to make his way to 

" You will go with us, won't you, Jon'than ? " 

" Perhaps so," I replied. 

" Ah, yes, you must go. You will see so many pleasant things in 
Framazugda. Your country is very grand and beautiful, but it can't 
equal ours. The trees, the flowers, the birds ! Ah, I 'm sure no country 
in the world can equal Framazugda." 


Poor girl ! I could not bear to disturb with a doubt her happy 
dreams, the realization of which seemed to her so certain — to me, so dis- 
tant and improbable. 

It may, perhaps, be asked what were my plans respecting her and her 
brother. The subject was one that I did not, at the time, wish to think 
about. I had paid the price of their freedom, because I had become in- 
terested in their appearance and manners, and because my sympathies 
had been aroused by their sufferings. I was bringing them to the United 
States simply because it would have been the height of cruelty to leave 
them behind. There was no alternative. Mere freedom would have 
been but an idle gift in the wilds of Congo. I could not doubt but that 
my motives would be appreciated, and the force of my reasons allowed ; 
but what was to be their ultimate fate was a question that I rather 
shrunk from entertaining. Certain crude ideas would occasionally in- 
trude themselves, but I generally contrived to banish them without 
allowing them to assume full shape. Trusting that time would develop 
nothing but favorable circumstances, I rested satisfied with the resolution 
that my best exertions should never be wanting to mitigate the hardships 
of their fate and insure, in future, the comfort and, if possible, the hap- 
piness of their lives. 

But however practicable were my resolutions for the future, my power 
was unequal to their protection from a good many present annoyances. 
Monte, the second captain, had got about again, and seemed more ma- 
liciously inclined than ever. Several times, when I was not by, he struck 
Enphadde with a rope's end, and one evening when I had left Kaloolah 
alone in the stern-boat for a few minutes she was roughly dragged out 
and pushed, or rather thrown, down from the poop-deck. My blood 
boiled at the outrage. I complained to Captain Garbez, but to no pur- 
pose ; to speak to Monte would be to subject myself to useless insult. 
I was compelled to keep my wrath to itself, but it lost nothing by 


Condition of the Slaves — Throwing Overboard the Sick — A Row with Monte — War to the Knife 
^A Gale — ^Bearing Away — Opening th« Hatches — Picking out the Dead — Ophthalmia — A 
British Cruiser — A Chase — A Dense Fog — A Curious Phenomena — Throwing Overboard the 
Blind — The Giant of the Diamond Rock — The Lifting of the Fog— A Stern Chase — Kaloo- 
lah Struck by Monte — Monte Felled to the Deck — Jonathan and his Proteges Jump Over- 
board — Picked up by the Brig. 

j^WO weeks of fine weather, but with rather unfavorable winds, 
brought us to the line, which was crossed in about five or 
six degrees of longitude west. 

The slaves had become by this time somewhat used to the 
motion of the ship, and the mortality had diminished from five or six to 
one or two in the twenty-four hours. They were regularly aired and 
washed every day, and had pretty good food, though rather a short 
allowance of it ; but although every care possible was taken to preserve 
their health, even to administering to them at regular intervals brimstone 
and molasses, and other slave-ship prescriptions of supposed efificacy, 
nothing could compensate for the injurious effects of confinement in a 
close and vitiated atmosphere. They grew weaker and weaker, and their 
bodies rapidly reached a state of distressing emaciation. Putrid sores 
and malignant eruptions broke out upon them: in some cases old wounds 
that had been healed for years reopened, asuming a peculiarly unhealthy 
aspect ; in others a virulent ophthalmia completely destroyed the tissues 
of the eye. Many became afiflicted with scrofula, developing itself in 
tubercular phthisis, or in swellings and ulcerations of the glandular sys- 
tem, and many were attacked with pneumonia, ternriinating, in th« case of 
one poor fellow, in that most loathsome form of disease, gangrene of the 
lungs. Nothing can equal the horrible odor of the expectorations in this 
disease ; and to get rid of the offensive smell which, with its kindred 
perfumes, seemed to permeate every pore of the ship, the sick man was 
brought up at night and coolly thrown overboard — alive. A happy re- 
lease ! the reader will think, for him. 

When told of his fate the next morning, indignation mastered pru- 



dence, and I freely expressed, in the most unqualified terms, my opinion 
of the deed. I was met with scowling looks and muttered imprecations. 

" Take care," exclaimed el segundo capitan, " or you '11 go the same 
way. Por la madre de Dios ! I will have no one to meddle or make on 
board this ship." 

" Murderer ! Coward ! " I shouted, completely carried away by rising 
passion. " Repeat that threat if you dare ! " 

His face grew purple with rage, and drawing a long Spanish bladed 
sheath knife, he darted towards me, but when within almost arm's reach, 
he was checked by the muzzle of a pistol, which, with a motion as quick 
as his own, I had pulled from my pocket, and levelled at his head. 

" Stir one step," I exclaimed, " and you die ! " 

He stopped motionless, but in the very attitude of springing upon me, 
a horrible convulsion of the muscles of his mouth drew aside his lips, 
and disclosed his jagged teeth. A grin, like that of an infuriated hyena, 
overspread his face, and his whole body worked and quivered with pas- 
sion ; but he stirred not, and fortunately for him, or rather for both, he 
did not. The least motion — and I sliould have scattered his brains, with- 
out the slightest regard to consequences.- 

We stood thus, both perfectly motionless, confronting each other for 
quite a space of time. The sailors who happened to be by were also 
taken by surprise, and offered no interference. Their feelings were 
against me, but I do not know that they would have taken any decided 
part ; at any rate the scene was got up so quickly that it reached its de- 
nouement before they had time to recover their thoughts. 

The captain was the first to come to his senses, and wildly shouting 
and gesticulating, he rushed between and motioned us apart. I dropped 
my pistol, and Captain Garbez grasping my antagonist's arm, compelled 
him to put up his knife. Slowly he returned it to its sheath, and drew 
himself off among the crew. The scowl of determined malice was on 
his face, and I felt that, from that moment, it was war to the knife be- 
tween us. 

The captain, seizing my arm, hurried me aft, beyond the hearing of 
the crew. 

" Good G-d, senor el medico,'' he exclaimed, " do you want your throat 
cut, or your heart's blood let out, that you thus quarrel with Monte? 
He '11 have your life — he never forgets nor forgives. You must be care- 
ful, or I can't protect you." 

" I am much obliged to you. Captain Garbez," said I, " but if you 
cannot protect me, I can protect myself." 



" You can't," replied he ; " let me beg of you not to provoke him 
again— he '11 surely have revenge. There is a bad feeling among some 
of the crew towards you. They overheard your foolish and improper re- 
marks about the ship and the trade, and they say that you will make 
difficulty for us yet. If they take it into their heads, they would make 
nothing of throwing you overboard." 

" Let them try it ! " I exclaimed, although secretly I allowed it would 
not be very prudent to provoke them to the attempt. " Let them try it ! 
but I have no fear that they will do so. I have not given, and shall not 
give, them any ca.use. But as to this Monte, he had better look to him- 

" Stir one step" I exclaimed, " and you die ! 

self. I 've borne enough from him. He threatens to turn Enphadde 
and his sister out of my stateroom, and send them below upon the slave- 
deck. Now, mark you, he '11 never live to see the sun set on the day 
that is done. I 've paid for their passage, and a good price too, as you 
know, and you 'd better see to it." 

" Well, for heaven's sake be careful," replied the captain ; " Monte and 
some of the crew are part owners of the ship, and he 's about as much 
captain as I am. I shall be sorry to have any thing happen to you." 

The day after this little fracas a violent gale sprang up from the south- 
west. The regular trades were compelled to succumb to the influence of 
thfe new-comer ; and between them both a tremendous irregular cross-sea 


was knocked up, which made the situation of the ship full as dangerous as 
it was uncomfortable. Each moment heavy masses of water tumbled aboard 
of us, shaking the ship throughout every fibre of her frame, and flooding 
her decks, so that the fore and main-hatches had to be closed, cutting off 
the supply of air for more than four hundred breathing beings, except what 
could find its way down the after-hatch. 

For nearly twenty-four hours we lay-to on the larboard tack, under the 
fore, main, and mizzen stay-sails ; but the sea becoming more and more 
dangerous, and the motion of the ship more and more distressing to her- 
self as well as to her cargo, it was resolved to bear away, and scud before 
the wind. We should thus lose a good deal of ground, and be running 
north and east towards the African coast, but there was no alternative. 

All hands being ready, the closed-reefed main-top-sail was loosed ancj 
sheeted home. The fore-sail loosed, the larboard tack got down, and the 
starboard sheet aft. The main and mizzen stay-sails were then hauled 
down ; the main and top-sail braces hauled in to shiver the top-sail, and 
the helm put hard-a-weather. The ship fell off rapidly, and, when before 
the wind, the yards were squared, the fore-sheets both hauled aft, and 
away we went under closed-reefed main-top-sail and reefed fore-sail. 

The motion of the ship was now much easier ; we flew before the sea 
in a way that prevented it from breaking on-board. Every few minutes 
a huge, hissing wave, with numerous little waves furrowing his surface, 
would come sweeping after us, apparently threatening inevitable destruc- 
tion, and as the gallant ship eluded his grasp, dash a portion of spray 
with resistless force over the stern, and roll on indignantly beneath us. 
But no swell succeeded in boarding us bodily, as when we were lying-to. 

The hatches were now opened, and more than thirty dead bodies 
picked out from among the mass of human flesh, and thrown overboard. 

In ten or twelve hours after the ship was got before the wind, the 
gale abated ; the wind shifted to the east, and the heavy sea gradually 
subsided. But, although without, the elements had ceased their strife for 
the dominion of nature, within, the effects of the contest were only be- 
ginning to develop themselves. Owing, undoubtedly, to their close 
confinement during the gale in the vitiated air between-decks, the eyes 
of nearly one half the slaves became affected simultaneously with acute 
and painful inflammation. It was purulent ophthalmia in its most virulent 
form. There had been a few cases previous to the storm, but the disease 
then was limited in its progress, and assumed a milder and less malignant 

It was wonderful, the rapidity with which it ran its course. In some 


cases not three days would elapse from the first symptoms, until the eye- 
lids would be swelled to an enormous extent — the lower one so much so 
as, to rest — a huge mass of disease — upon the cheek. Ulcerations of the 
cornea, and the utter disorganization of the ball of the eye, was, in most 
cases, the result. Fever, violent pains in the head, and, in many cases, the 
most excruciating pains in the eye, from the motion of the upper eyelid 
over the ulcerated^cprnea, ,\yhere the conjunctiva had been abraded or ab- 
sorbed, accompanied the disease. In three days one hundred slaves had 
lost an eye, and more than twenty, deprived of both eyes, were irrecover- 
ably blind. 

I exerted myself to the utmost to alleviate their sufferings ; but my 
best efforts were of little avail. No form of medical treatment seemed 
adapted to the case, and the disease only ran a more rapid race when any 
attempts were made to arrest it. I had nothing, however, to reproach 
myself with on that score ; for I felt the conviction that under all the at- 
tending circumstances the most powerful medicines in the most skilful 
hands would have been administered in vain. 

Emerging from the fore hatchway, after a useless visit to the unfortu- 
nates below, I observed some of the sailors engaged in slinging several 
twelve-pound shots to pieces of rope two or three feet in length. I stopped 
for a moment to inquire for what they were intended, when at the moment 
a shout of " Sail ho ! " came from the look-out at the mast-head. Upon 
-looking in the direction indicated a large brig was to be seen not more 
than five or six miles off, on our lee-beam. The weather, which had been 
thick and cloudy all day, had prevented her from being noticed sooner, 
and her sudden appearance now, about four o'clock in the afternoon, took 
us completely by surprise. Spy-glasses were produced and levelled at the 
stranger — the result of the examination was evidently far from satisfac- 
tory. The two vessels were standing on converging courses, which, if 
persisted in, would soon bring them within hailing distance. A hurried 
consultation between the captain and his officers took place in a low tone, 
at the conclusion of which Garbez and Monte, glass in hand, mounted into 
the main-rigging. A new hope sprang up in my breast at the evident 
- anxiety of all hands. " God send that she prove a British cruiser ! " In 
a minute this hope was strengthened by the voice of the captain as he 
descended from the top. 

" All hands make sail " ! he shouted. " Haul out the spanker- 
bonnet the jib, and set the flying jib. Ease off the weather-braces. Luff ! " 
■ These orders were executed with wonderful rapidity, and the ship, 
with all sail set, was hauled up close to the wind on the starboard tack. 


1 had a glass to my eye as the Bonito sprung to her luff. The brig 
was carrying single reefed top-sails, with top-gallant sails over them. What 
was my delight to see the reefs shaken out and the sails trimmed sharp 
on a wind. 

"Captain," said I, "that fellow is an Englishman." 

" To be sure he is," he replied, " but he '11 have to fly, caramba ! to 
catch us." 

For more than an hour I stood gazing at the pursuing vessel. I 
measured with my straining eye every foot of the intervening distance. 
One moment it seemed to diminish. She gains ! She gains ! No, no, 
't is only fancy, flattering hope. Another look ! She is as far from us as 
ever! For the love of Heaven and humanity, gentlemen, take another 
pull on your lee-braces, and steer small ! Alas! 't is all in vain. The 
Bonito is both too fast and too weatherly. What an honor and a re- 
proach to the perverted skill of her Yankee builders ! 

By nightfall we had gained three or four miles dead to windward, and 
the brig was left nearly hull down. At ten o'clock Captain Garbez gave 
orders to tack ship, expecting to stand on for two or three hours, and 
then bear away on his course with a free wind ; but shortly after execut- 
ing this manoeuvre the wind lulled, and by three o'clock in the morning 
it was perfectly calm. 

It was just at daybreak that while lying in my berth my attention was 
aroused by some sounds on the forward deck. I heard a confused noise 
— a number of voices speaking together in rather a low key, and then a 
shrill cry of pain and fright, followed by a plunge of some heavy body 
into the water. In a minute or two the sounds were repeated. Again 
and again they struck upon my ear. " What devil's work is going on 
now? " I exclaimed, jumping from my berth and stepping out upon deck. 

A dense fog brooded upon the surface of the ocean, and closely en- 
veloped the ship — standing up on either side, like huge perpendicular walls 
of granite, and leaving a comparatively clear space — the area of the deck 
and the height of the maintop-mast cross-trees. In-board the sight 
ranged nearly free fore-and-aft the ship ; but seaward no eye could pene- 
trate more than a yard or two the solid-looking barrier of vapor. A man 
standing at the taffrail might have seen the cat-heads the whole length of 
the deck, while at the same time behind him the end of the spanker- 
boom, projecting over the water, was lost in the mist. I looked up at 
the perpendicular walls, and the lofty arch overhead with feelings of awe, 
and, I may add, fear. Cursed indeed must be our craft, when the genius 
of the mist so carefully avoided the pollution of actual contact. His roll- 


ing legions were close around us ; but vapory horse and misty foot 
shrunk back affrighted from the horrors of our blood-stained decks. 

The cause of the phenomenon I concluded to be the hot air generated 
in the crowded space between decks, but I had not time for much specu- 
lation as to the precise manner of its action. The same shrill cry and 
heavy plunging sound was repeated, and turning in the direction from 
whence it came, I saw a sight that riveted every faculty. A slave was 
standing amid a group of sailors, one of whom was busy fastening to his 
leg one of the twelve-pound balls that I had noticed the day before. 
When this was done, four men standing upon a grating, raised a foot or 
two from the deck, seized him on either side, and elevating him with a 
dexterous jerk, pitched him head first over the bulwark. His wild shriek 
of fear, when he found himself going, was hardly commenced before it 
was stifled by the waters closing over his head. Another succeeded, and 
again another. 

"Are you sure that there are no more?" demanded Monte, who 
superintended the operation. 

" All at present," responded a sailor ; " there is a dozen more that will 
have to go to-morrow ; but we may as well let them have their chance out." 

And this was the fate of the blind ! Of what value is a slave who has 
lost his sight? None! He is worth less than nothing! He is an in- 
cumbrance — a useless expense — an unsalable article. Pitch him over- 
board ! twenty-five to-day, and " a dozen more to-morrow ! " 

There are a good many elements of the sublime in a cold-blooded, 
deliberate murder. The rush and roar of Niagara, the awful voices of 
the tempest, the wild heaving of the ocean, the death-dealing charge of 
the battle-field, even the judicial killings called capital punishments, are 
nothing in comparison. A cool, unimpassioned murder is certainly one 
of the most wonderful, the most incomprehensible, the most awful, and 
the most horrible sights that can be witnessed in this world — it is nothing 
less than the immediate and astounding revelation of the full majesty 
of hell. 

The sun was now some two hours and more above the horizon, and 
gathering power as he rose, began to make a sensible impression upon 
the gray banks of vapor. Gradually it resolved itself into detached 
masses, with deep caves and ravines between, into which the eye could 
penetrate for some distance, and slowly and gracefully the whole body of 
it lifted itself from the surface of the ocean, disclosing each instant some 
new expanse of the sheeny water, and some new effect of the struggling 

134 K A LOO LA H. 

Kaloolah and Enphadde were with me, upon the cabin deck, watching 
the evolution and dissolution of the myriad fantastic forms. 

" Look, look, Enphadde ! " exclaimed his sister ; " there 's the giant 
of the Diamond Rock, and see, there 's his famous dog with the two 
heads, following after him." 

" And who is the Giant of the Diamond Rock? " I demanded. 

" Oh, there 's a long story about him," replied KalooLah ; " too long 
to tell now. His home is in a high mountain peak in Framazugda, called 
the Diamond, but he wanders all about the world with his dog. When 
he is seen, and his dog makes no noise, it is considered a happy omen ; 
but if his dog growls it bodes bad luck for some one. Are you not glad, 
Jon'than," continued Kaloolah, playfully, " that the two-headed monster 
marches on so silently ? " 

The question had hardly passed her lips when a low, rumbling sound 
came over the water in the direction of the misty figure, which an active 
fancy might as well have likened to any thing else as to a giant and a 
dog. Kaloolah started and turned pale. Enphadde's ear had also caught 
the sound. 

We listened intently, and again heard the same sound, but more 
faintly than at first. It was evidently from a much farther distance than 
the column of mist, which had now almost melted into air. 

" It must be from some vessel ! " I exclaimed ; " would to God that 
we were on board of her ! Can you swim, Kaloolah ? " Enphadde, I 
knew, was accomplished in the art. 

" Like a fish," interrupted her brother ; " she is a real water-witch. 
I ve known her to sport for hours in the great lake of Wollo ; she can 
swim almost as fast and as far as I can." 

" Oh, yes, I can swim ! " exclaimed Kaloolah, raising both hands, 
while an expression of delighted energy beamed from her large lustrous 
eyes. " I could swim miles, to escape from this horrible ship. Come, 
come, let us go ! " 

" Where to ? " said I, pulling her back from the low rail, upon which 
she placed one foot, in the attitude for a plunge. 

" To the vessel yonder ; we surely can reach it." 

" Ah ! but we don't know that there is a vessel there ; and if there 
was, how could we find it in this fog ? A breeze might come before we 
could swim half the distance, and then we should be left in the middle of 
the Atlantic. No, if we can escape only by swimming, our chance is a 
poor one." 

While speaking, a slight ripple ran along the surface of the water, and 


in a moment the coiling wreatlis of vapor glided before it, and upwards, 
into the higher regions of the air. As they vanished, a flood of light 
poured upon the glassy slopes of the undulating water, and standing out 
clearly into view, was to be seen the hull and spars of a large, full-rigged 
brig. If it had suddenly popped up from the bosom of the deep, the 
effect could not have been more startling. It was the brig that had 
chased us the evening before. She must have tacked about the same 
time that we did, and by hugging the light wind, while we had been mov- 
ing slowly with it on a free course, had brought herself into a position 
about a mile and a quarter to windward. At any rate, there she lay, and 
the sight of her was any thing but agreeable to the officers and crew of 
El Bonito, although they had too much confidence in the speed of their 
ship off the wind as well as on it to feel any very serious alarm. 

At once, all was excitement and bustle — the wind freshened rapidly — 
the slaves, who had been brought up for their morning ablutions, were 
hurried below, and all hands called to make sail. The fore course was 
hauled down, royals loosened, and sheeted home, studding-sails got out, 
the yards braced square, and away we went, with the wind directly over 
the taffrail. In the meantifne, the stranger had not been idle. We had 
got a little the start of him, but almost as soon as ourselves, he was mov- 
ing through the water under every available rag of canvas. 

A stern chase is said to be a long one, even when the pursuer is the 
fleetest ; what hope then when the advantage of superior speed is on the 
side of the pursued. It was clearly so in this instance. In half an hour 
we had increased our distance almost half a mile. 

Monte bustled about with a smile, and a malicious scowl, alternately, 
upon his ugly countenance — at one moment chuckling with fiendish glee, 
and the next pouring forth a volley of profane imprecations. Several 
times he passed me, and always with a muttering curse. In this there 
was not much harm, but it was exceedingly annoying to live in continual 
dread of some treacherous attack — perhaps a pistol-shot, or a stab in the 
back. Happily it had been ordered that this state of suspense and fear 
should not be of much longer duration. 

Enphadde and myself were standing well aft upon the raised deck of 
the cabin, watching the progress of the chase, which had now lasted about 
an hour. Kaloolah was a little behind us, and Monte had just mounted 
the ladder, and was walking aft. Kaloolah made a step backwards, and 
slightly jostled against him. I heard a heavy blow — a groan of pain, and 
turning, saw her stretched upon the deck. With one bound I was upon 
him. He grasped the handle of his knife, but before he could draw it, my 


left hand reached his frontlet, followed by the right, strongly planted on 
his chin. The blows were given with an irresistible earnestness of pur- 
pose. Monte's body was projected before them, and thrown violently 
against the foot of the mizzen-mast, where he lay for a moment without 
sense or motion. 

Enphadde raised Kaloolah — she was perfectly sensible, but her breath, 
at first, came with difificultly and pain — Monte had stricken her down 
with a heavy blow on the breast. There was, however, no time to inquire 
into particulars. Monte was upon his feet again — knife in hand — his face 
streaming with blood, and his eyes glaring with maniacal r3,ge. Unfor-" 
tunately my pistol was below, and I had nothing to oppose to the deadly 
weapon, in the use of which all Spaniards are so well skilled. Superior 
coolness, quickness, and strength, were the only advantages upon which I 
had to rely against such fearful odds. 

Monte advanced swiftly, crouching low, and holding the point of his 
long knife slightly depressed. It was no time for hesitation ; my only 
hope was in the offensive. I rushed at him, and struck out with my left 
hand. He was on the point of making a thrust at the lower part of my 
body, but instinctively raising his hand in guard, the point of the knife 
entered my arm, inflicting a deep, but not a disabling wound. With the 
rapidity of light I seized his wrist with my right hand, and thrusting my 
left on the outside, grasped his face: applying, at the same moment, my 
left foot to the outside of his ankle, with a sudden and powerful effort I 
bore him backwards and sideways to the deck — falling upon him heavily 
with my whole weight. The point of the knife entered the deck, and the 
handle of it was wrenched from his grasp. He struggled to regain it, but 
I succeeded in rolling him over and beyond it. It was now within my 
reach, and my first impulse was to seize it, and drive it into his heart, but 
I had no wish to kill the fellow, although I knew that if he lived there 
was hardly a chance for my own life. 

It must be understood, that there was no one upon the cabin-deck ex- 
cept ourselves and Kaloolah and Enphadde, and that the whole affair 
took place in much less time than it takes to describe it. From the 
beginning to the end was hardly half a minute. 

By this time the noise had aroused the officers and crew, and they all 
came pouring aft, gesticulating and screaming as only Spaniards can ges- 
ticulate and scream. Two or three sprung upon the ladder, at once 
interfering with each other, and giving a practical illustration of the truth 
of the old saying, " the more haste the less speed." Already one or two 
had a footing upon the deck. Had I awaited the onset, ten chances to 



one my life would have been instantly sacrificed, or, at least, I should 
have been put in some way so completely hors de combat, that Monte 
would have been able to give me the finishing touch. The risk was tqo 
great ! 

" Overboard ! overboard ! " I shouted to Enphadde, who was support- 
ing the fainting form of his sister. " Jump overboard. I '11 follow you — 
quick! " 

I made an effort to tear myself from Monte's grasp, but he was far 
from being deficient in personal strength, and with one hand in my long 
hair, and the other on my throat, he clung to me with the tenacious 
clutch of a tiger. 

" Hands off ! You won't ? go too, then ! " and, clasping him With 

both arms, I raised him clear from the deck and dashed over the low 
quarter rail, head first into the water, just as half a dozen hands were ex- 
tended to grasp my person. 

Down, down into the depths of ocean, many feet, we sank ere our 
tense muscles relaxed, in the deadly fierceness of that close embrace. We 
talk of the dogged courage — the sullen persistence — the unyielding game 
of the Anglo-Saxon character — there is as much of the same quality in 
the Celtiberian blood. If the Englishman typifies himself in his own 
bull-dog, the Spaniard's " totem " may, with equal justice, be found in 
the indomitable mastiff of the Sierra de Cuenca. 

Upon coming to the surface, the first objects of interest were Kaloo- 
lah and Enphadde at a few feet distance, supporting themselves with ease 
amid the dancing foam of the ship's wake. The Bonito was twenty rods 
off, and flying from us at the rate of ten knots an hour. It was no time 
for her to heave to, with a fleet enemy not more than two miles astern. 
The brig was heading directly down upon us. She could hardly pass 
without seeing us, but it was an object to let her know our situation in 
good time. For this purpose I held Enphadde as high out of the water 
as possible, while he waved around his head a straw hat which luckily had 
accompanied him overboard. Satisfied that Monte could swim, I gave 
myself no further trouble about him. 

Down came the stately brig, her broad wings stretching far on either 
side over the glancing water, and towering in graceful symmetry to the 
sky. Nearer and yet nearer, until the smallest rope could be distinguished, 
as well as the sparkhng " bone in her teeth," as the sailors sometimes call 
the foam round a ship's bows. Nearer and yet nearer— still no sign of 
any preparation for picking us up. Can it be possible that she will pass 
us unnoticed ? No ! Hurrah ! hurrah !— there go the studding-sails. 



simultaneously alow and aloft ! the fore course rises. " Port ! port your 
helm ! " cries a clear voice. " Royal and top-gallant halliards ! Starboard 
fore-brace — larboard main-brace ! haul out the try-sail ! " 

Gracefully she sweeps round to the wind, and heaves to with her fore- 
top-sail aback. Men in the larboard chains stand ready as she sags down 
upon us. A few strokes of the arm and we are alongside. The ropes 
are thrown — grasped — and we mount the bulwarks ! We stand safe and 
sound upon the snow-white decks of the British brig ! 

" Fill away, my hearties ! brail up the try-sail — shiver the main and 
mizzen — brace round the fore-yard — down with your fore-course — right 
your helm and away, away again, after yonder ' hell afloat.' If you can't 
close with her, you can, at least, show your good will. So mind your 
helm, my fine fellow, and keep your jib-boom end-on to her stern-post ! " 


Boarding the Brig — Reception by the Captain— Monte in Irons— The D I's Nephew— The 

Doctor a Philologist — Quarter-Deck Wit — Politeness of the Officers — Kaloolah's Recovery 
— Captain Halsey. 

(ATHER an unceremonious way of boarding your ship, gen- 
tlemen," said I, bowing to a group of ofificers, " but I hope 
you '11 pardon us ; necessity can't always stop to ask leave." 
" No excuses — you are heartily welcome," replied a short, 
portly middle-aged man with a rubicund but good-natured face. " But I 

should like to know who the d 1 you are, where you come from, and 

what you come for." 

" My name, sir, is Romer — passenger on board of an American vessel, 
I was wrecked at sea, and picked up by a slaver : These two are Africans, 
brother and sister, and that pleasant-looking chap yonder is first ofificer of 
the ship ahead. We left her about fifteen minutes since, and we have 
come on board you simply because we could n't help it." 

Several questions were propounded by the officer, who proved to be 
the commander of the brig, to which I replied in a few words, succinctly 
detailing the most important circumstances of our adventure. As I pro- 
ceeded, his quarter-deckish air and tone changed to a decided expression 
of frank and sailor-like affability. Putting out his hand, he exclaimed : 
" Well, sir, I 'm glad to see you. Come, walk below, we '11 see if we 
can't find some dry clothes for you and your proteges. I 've got an old 
dressing gown that will just fit Mademoiselle Kaloolah, especially about 
the wais):." The other ofificers were equally hberal in their expressions of 
interest and offers of service, and it was no little satisfaction to find that 
getting on board of her majesty's brig Fly-away, we had got among as 
pohte and gentlemanly a set of fellows as ever walked a quarter-deck. 

" Mr. Crawford," said the captain, addressing tlie ofificer of the deck, 
" see that that Spanish rascal has, a dry suit, and then clap him in irons. 
Put a sentry over him, for when the story of the twenty-five blind men 
gets forward the crew may not treat him very politely." 



" Why not run him up to the yard-arm at once?" replied Mr. Craw- 

" I wish I could," said the captain ; " if you '11 find law for it, I 'm sure 
I '11 find rope." 

" Hanging is too good for him. I should like to cut his liver out 
with the double cats," muttered Mr. Crawford, as he turned away to 
his duty. 

Instinctively Monte had drawn himself forward and away from the 
quarter-deck. He knew that his case was one that would excite for him 
but little sympathy ; in fact, that nothing but a want of jurisdiction saved 
him from instant and condign punishment. The only thing that could be 
done to him, was to put him in irons, which, as a kind of compromise to 
the public opinion of the forecastle, was essential to his comfort and per- 
haps to his safety. He had no fear, therefore, as to the ultimate result; 
but, in the meantime, he had to endure the pangs of baffled revenge. His 
countenance betrayed the emotions of his fiendish heart, the scowl of un- 
dying hate, the sullen glare of settled malice, the lines of desperate resolve 
for evil drove from his truculent visage the last remnant of a humanizing 

In the cabin we found the breakfast-table waiting for the captain to 
finish his meal ; and, on changing our clothes, we were politely invited to 
take a seat at it ; an invitation which our salt-water bath had disposed us 
with good appetites to accept. Enphadde and myself did full justice to 
the good sea fare, but Kaloolah was still suffering from the blow ; and 
to the polite persuasions of the captain could only return a faint smile 
of denial. 

" Poor thing! " said Captain Halsey ; " you say she 's a princess. Well, 
I don't doubt it. She looks like one. My old velvet becomes her admira- 
bly. What magnificent eyes ! — pity she 's got those spots on her face. 
She does n't understand English ? " he continued, observing a blush mant- 
ling her face. 

"A little," I replied, "just enough to know that you are talking 
about her." 

"Ah, clever too as well as handsome ; but I suppose you have, taken 
particular pains in her instruction, notwithstanding her spotted skin." 

" No, I have been rather anxious to learn her language than to teach 
her English; and as to the spots that you regret so much, they are only 
temporary ; I made them myself with caustic. As we were going among 
rather a lawless set, I thought it -would be wise to counteract as far as 
possible the force of her personal attractions." 


" Good ! A capital idea ! A kind of quarantine flag, ha ! painted 
ports to frighten off the pirates! I took them for indications of the black 
blood ; but, if these were made with caustic, she must be of a pure white 
•breed.' I have seen a number of Africans that were called white, but they 
always had some of the negro characteristics of form or feature. How- 
ever, I have never had any doubts that there were white nations far in 
the interior. I have heard many negroes assert the fact, and the remove 
between some of the Fellatah tribes and a white race is not so great as 
between them and a full-blooded black." 

" I agree with you," said the surgeon, who had just entered the cabin. 
" What can be more probable than that in the vast central regions of 
Africa, about which we know literally nothing, there should be tribes as 
purely white as the Tuarics of the Sahara, or the Shillocs and Berbers of 
the Atlas — descendants perhaps of the old Gaetulians or Garimantes. I 
have always thought so, and I 'm glad now to see it proved. There is no 
negro blood in these two." 

" If there is," replied the captain, " it must have been pretty well 
diluted. By George ! they are a good-looking couple. Give the young 
fellow a full-dress fit, and a small black mustache, and what a swell he 
could cut in a London drawing-room. He looks very much like some of 
those handsome Armenians you see up the Levant, but he 's got more 
' eye ' than an Armenian ever had." 

" What are their names ? " demanded the doctor. 

" Kaloolah and Enphadde — Enphadde ban Shounsi," I repHed ; " and 
their country they call Framazugda." 

" Framazugda! " exclaimed the doctor, " that is curious — I should n't 
wonder ! — it must be so — it is." 

" What ? " demanded Captain Halsey. 

" Why, almost proof positive of the truth of my suggestion about the 
Garimantes and Gaetulians. You see many of the tribes of Barbary and the 
Sahara, who are the undoubted aboriginal inhabitants, are known by the 
name of Amazergs. Now, what can be more clear than the derivation of 
Framazugda from the word Amazerg. The prefix fr, or fra, perhaps 
means from, and the afifix dah perhaps means people or nation — nation 
derived from the Amazergs ; or perhaps the dah may mean from, and the 
fra may mean people ; or perhaps the fra and the dah may both 
mean " 

" Bravo, doctor! " interrupted the captain, " you extract an etymology 
as dexterously as if it were a cataract, or an old double tooth. Get hold 
of the roots ! eh ! By George, I had no idea that you were so expert at 
reducing compound philological dislocations." 


A midshipman entered with a message from Mr. Crawford that the 
ship continued to gain upon the brig. 

" I suppose so," said the captain, " she 's too fast for us. Tell Mr. 
Crawford that we '11 hold on for an hour longer, to make assurance doubly 
sure, and then we 'II haul our wind, and stand on our old course." 
' And where may that take us to? " I inquired. 

" To Sierra Leone ! back again to Africa. How do you like that, my 
princess ? " 

I interpreted the question. 

"Can we reach the Quorra from thence?" demanded Enphadde. 

" Why, yes, but it will be rather a long and hard journey ; especially 
for your sister." 

" No matter," said Enphadde ; " there are no dangers or hardships 
that I will not dare." 

" And none that I would not share with you," interposed Kaloolah ; 
" oh, how willingly I would die, for even a distant sight of the towers of 
Kiloam ! " 

"And is there nothing, or nobody," inquired the captain, glancing at 
me, " that you care for out of Framazugda ? " 

" Jon'than, he go wid us," said Kaloolah, in English, when I had ex- 
plained the captain's question, the meaning of which she had already 
comprehended. " Jon'than hab no fadder, no modder, no brodder, no 
sister — he will get all — very much — in Framazugda." 

"And a wife, too, I suppose, if he wants one ? " said the doctor, with 
a meaning look. 

A deep blush crimsoned Kaloolah's cheek. " Come, come, doctor," 
interposed the captain, " you are probing the matter too closely. Rec- 
ollect that a young, unsophisticated female heart is rather more tender 
than a tough deltoid or gluteus. There is some difference between a 
puncture from one of Cupid's darts and a gun-shot wound." 

" You 're right," returned the doctor, " there is a difference ; one is 
always curable, the other is not." 

"Ah, doctor, you 're getting to be perfectly incorrigible! you talk 
treason, sir, rank treason. We shall have to arraign you before the judges 
of Cupidom, and have you bound over to court." 

"I 'm sure I should forfeit my bail." 

" Well, then, you will be declared an outlaw, and be doomed to wan- 
der round the world, a confirmed old bachelor." 

" Well, there are worse batches than a bach&\ox. What do you say to 
a batch of squalling children ? " 


" Horrible ! " exclaimed the captain ; " the most horrible attempt at a 
pun I 've heard this long time. Doctor, you deserve a round dozen." 

" Of children ? " said the doctor, opening the cabin door. 

" No, of the cats ; or rather, you ought to be kept at the mast-head, on 
the look-out for squalls. You seem to have as good a scent for them as 
you have for the roots. Don't forget \he. fra and the dah," shouted the 
captain, as the doctor ascended the stairs. 

This colloquial smartness was, of course, wholly lost upon my com- 
panions ; but the captain's good-natured face, jolly tones, and hearty 
laugh, had none the less an inspiriting effect. Kaloolah' and Enphadde 
watched him with a pleased and confiding expression, which, to judge 
from physiognomical indications, was fully deserved. 

"And now," said the captain, putting his hand familiarly on my shoul- 
der, "we must see about your sleeping arrangements. I 've one spare 
state-room here, which will just do for the princess ; and a hammock for 
you can be swung in the open cabin ; it can be put up at night, and taken 
down in the morning, so as not to be at all in our way. As for his royal 
highness, we '11 find a hammock for him in the steerage. You '11 all three 
mess at my table." 

I commenced expressing my sense of his kindness and politeness, but 
was cut short with a rough " Come, come, none of that — let us take a look 
on deck," and together we ascended to the open air. 

The brig had been hauled by the wind, and was steering nearly north- 
east. The ship was almost out of sight — her snow-white top-sails dotting 
the horizon, and gleaming as gaily in the sunshine as if they were not 
wafting a freight of misery, and sin. Press on, thou fearfully laden bark ! 
the ocean groaneth not beneath thy weight^ — the skies frown not on thy 
bloody decks — the breeze not urigently distends thy well-trimmed sails, 
but the eye of Almighty justice is upon thee! Press on ! 

A week of pleasant weather and pleasant company ! Time flew — so 
rapidly, that seemingly without an interval his glittering pinions reflec- 
ted the golden flood of morning, the deep azure of noon, the glory of 
sunset, and the sable of night ! 

Kaloolah had ei)tirely recovered from the effects of the blow, and to- 
gether we passed many pleasant hours, in walking the deck and discours- 
ing of the wonders of the deep, or of the curious and magnificent social, 
natural, or artificial features of her distant home. In these conversations 
the officers of the brig often took part, making the minutest inquiries, 
and listening, with marks of the strongest interest to her artless descrip- 
tions of strange scenes, and to her and her brother's details of a novel and 


peculiar civilization. It was especially gratifying to perceive the respect 
which both she and her brother excited, exhibiting itself in a degree of 
kind and courteous deference, in which not even my jealous and watchful 
anxiety could find the slightest ground of reproach. Captain Halsey was 
uniformly afTable and polite, and any one who knows anything of a man- 
of-war, knows what influence the character of the commander has upon 
his subordinates. It might, perhaps, be expected that I should be more 
particular in my description of him ; that I should attempt a portrait of 
his person, and draw more minutely the peculiarities of his manner and 
his mind ; that I should undertake to individualize him, like a character 
in a novel, but delicacy forbids. He is probably still alive (at least I 
hope so, and a post -captain too), and I know not how he would like to 
have himself paraded in print ; sufficient is it to say, that he was a gentle- 
man and a sailor. 


Sierra Leone — Situation of Freetown — Exuberant Vegetation — Malaria — Its Cause and Es- 
sence — An Original Suggestion — The Population of Freetown — Politeness of the Whites 
— Anxious Consultations — Erphadde's Plans — A KooUah Guide — Jonathan's Resolutions 
—Takes Passage for Liverpool— A Scene with Kaloolah— The Parcse at Work. 

JOWHERE in the world can be found a more admirable site for 
a city, in all the particulars of a magnificent and picturesque 
scenery, than on the broad estuary of Sierra Leone. Twenty 
miles in length, and varying in breadth from ten miles at its 
entrance, between Leopard's Island, on the north, and Cape Sierra 
Leone, on the south, to four miles at the Island of Tombo, where it 
terminates, it presents, on either shore, a variety of natural features, which 
at once rivets attention and excites a mixed and highly pleasing emotion 
of the beautiful and the sublime. 

In glowing terms, have travellers described the picturesque and Orien- 
tal character of the view — as rising from the water's edge, the town 
stretches up the surrounding hills, with its white dwellings and prolific 
gardens ; whilst in the distance, emerging from the high woods, appear 
the country mansions of the Europeans, with their projecting eaves and 
rows of green jalousies enclosing the shady verandas — affording the lux- 
ury of a mid-day walk in the open air. How is it possible for gloomy 
forebodings of disease and death to thrust themselves upon a stranger, 
who, for the first time, looks upon this enchanting s< ene — upon the glow- 
ing bosom of the estuary, scarcely rippled by th?. light airs and gentle 
tides of these latitudes, the quiet Bullom shore, the bold sweep of that 
amphitheatre of mountains, gaping with enormous ravines and dark val- 
leys, and clothed with never-fading forests ! Yet in this very excess of 
beauty germinates the seeds of the pestilence. So bountiful is nature, 
that the first showers of the wet season convert even the public ways into 
fields, and cover them with a rich mantk of herbage. From the decom- 
position of this exuberant vegetation is supposed to arise the deleterious 
miasma, so powerful in its influence upon the unacclimated constitution 
of the European visitor. If such is the case, what is its nature or essence ? 



Is it a gas ? The theory has many and able advocates, but if true, chem- 
ical analysis ought to be able to detect it. Is it an effluvia or odor? Pos- 
sibly, but how is it that in many cases it produces no effect upon the 
sense of smell? Is it animalcular? The speculation is as old as the 
times of Lucretius and Columella, and it certainly accords the best with 
what we know of the laws by which malaria is governed. But may it 
not be vegetable in its composition, as well as in its origin, and consist of 
the germs of the vast variety of fungi ! These germs, imperceptible to 
the sense, and inappreciable by the most delicate analysis, are known to 
pervade the air in the greatest abundance. Perhaps their quantity may 
regulate the intensity, and their specific character the form of disease. 
This suggestion is, as far as I know, original, and seems to me as plaus- 
ible as either of the others. It may pass for what it is worth.* 

The greater portion of the population of Freetown consists of liber- 
ated Africans, who have been rescued from Spanish and Portuguese 
slavers. The white residents are few in number — scarcely a hundred — • 
most of them the officials of the different colonial departments, such as 
the legislative council, the vice-admiralty court, and the mixed commis- 
sion for the adjudication of captured slave-ships. 

From a number of these gentlemen I received treatment that was but 
a continuation of the politeness and kindness of the officers of the brig, 
and my companions came in for their share of attention. Offers of ser- 
vice, advice, with invitations to breakfasts, dinners, and suppers were 
poured upon us. A bill upon a Liverpool house for one hundred and 
fifty pounds, which I luckily happened to have upon my person when 
leaving the slaver, furnished a highly satisfactory test of the sincerity of 
these proffers. The bill was readily cashed at the commissariat depart- 

But it is not my intention to detain the reader with all the little de- 
tails of my short sojourn in Sierra Leone, and I must hurry on to my 
departure, touching, by the way, only upon one event — my separation 
from Kaloolah and Enphadde. 

Long and anxious were the consultations before it was finally settled 
that we should part — I to return to home and friends in the far West ; 
Enphadde and his sister to seek, amid the dangers and difficulties of African 

* It is, perhaps, unnecessary to say that the writer could not, by any possibility, have 
heard of the speculations of Professor Mitchell upon the same subject. It does not, of course, 
diminish the credit due the Professor, for his recent able and conclusive exposition and develop- 
ment of this theory of malaria, that the idea should have occurred several years since to Mr. 
Homer, or that it should have been made the occasional subject of conversation and investiga- 
tion by the editor for ten years past. — Note by the Editor. 


barbarism, their native country in the East. The prospect for them, how- 
ever, wore not so gloomy an aspect as might at first be supposed. Enphadde, 
as I have said, seemed to have a very definite idea of the relative situation 
of the Quorrah and Framazugda, and he was confident that if he could 
reach the banks of that river in the kingdom of Bambara, of which country 
he had heard, he could make his way through Houssa to the great city of 
Sackatoo, from thence to Mandarra, where a short space of three or four 
hundred miles farther, in a southeasterly direction, would bring him to 
the confines of his own country. The journey was long, and filled with 
dangers, but it was some encouragement to reflect that Denman, Clapper- 
ton, Lang, etc., had found comparatively but little difficulty when once in 
the interior, and that chiefly arising from the jealousy of the white man, 
or the unfavorable influence of the climate upon the European constitution. 
To neither of these would Enphadde be exposed, especially if, as he pro- 
posed, he should darken his and his sister's skin with the juice of some of 
the various coloring nuts always at hand. 

Closely we pored over the map of Africa, until Enphadde had made 
himself master of all the geographical information it could afford. Much 
useful knowledge was also acquired by repeated conferences with some 
intelligent Mandingo traders. A kaffila of these people was expected to 
start in a short time for Bambara, and with them it was proposed that 
Enphadde should make the first and most dangerous part of his journe}' 
through the country of the Timmanees. It was considered essential that 
he should assume the character of a merchant, and for this purpose a stock 
of goods was necessary. These, thanks to my bill of exchange, were easily 
obtained. The assortment was principally composed of beads, rings, small 
mirrors, coral, paper, knives, linen, scarlet cloth, gold lace, and a variety of 
small wares. As an assistant in the business of the journey, we selected 
a native of Koollah, who, about a year before, had been brought into port 
in a slave-ship. The fellow had acquired a high character for honesty and 
industry, and, like many other liberated slaves, was accumulating money; 
but the desire of revisiting his distant home was too strong for him to 
withstand the temptation of company and protection the whole distance. 
He acceded, with apparent delight, to Enphadde's proposal, and in all his 
actions and words evinced so much openness and candor, that I felt satis- 
fied that my companions had made in him an important acquisition. 

Appropriate and comfortable clothing was purchased for them all, and 
to Enphadde's accoutrements I added a stout cutlass, a pair of double- 
barrelled pistols, and a portable compass. To Kaloolah's charge was 
entrusted a small spy-glass and a compact and convenient form of tinder- 


box. The first, perhaps, might be useful in discovering danger in time lo 
avoid it — the second would always secure a means of protection against 
the dangerous inhabitants of the forest. To the Koollah I made a present 
of a musket, with which he promised to perform wonders in the way of 
guarding Kaloolah from enemies of every kind. Nothing that I could 
think of, likely to facilitate their journey or insure their safety, was 
neglected. The whole plan of the expedition was thoroughly digested, 
and every conceivable combination of circumstances considered and, as far 
as possible, provided for. My directions, reiterated again and again to 
Enphadde, were that, as far as possible, he should conform to the manners 
and customs of the countries he had to pass ; that Kaloolah should travel 
with her face concealed as closely as could be done without exciting 
curiosity and suspicion ; that he himself should adhere strictly to the 
character of a merchant; and that while, on the one hand, he should not 
be too chary of his presents to the ofificials of the different countries on 
his route — on the other hand, he should avoid any thing like a careless 
prodigality, or an appearance of inattention to his mercantile interests. 
Enphadde was quick, shrewd, and bold, and I felt confident that he would 
act up strictly to my numerous suggestions; and that in any extraordinary 
cases he would find the necessary resources in his own wit and courage. 
Had he been unencumbered with his sister, I should hardly have felt a 
doubt of the successful termination of his journey. As it was, I had strong 
hopes that their safe return would, erelong, cause the hills of Kiloam to 
resound with the songs of joy and rejoicing. 

And why did not I accompany them ? That is precisely the question 
that was so often asked by Kaloolah. And a difficult question it was to 
answer — at least to her satisfaction — in fact, I could hardly answer it to 
my own. On the one hand was the strong temptation to enter upon the 
exploration of the mysterious regions of Central Africa — the curiosity to 
see and examine the productions, the scenery, and the manners and cus- 
toms of the country of which my companions were the representatives. 
The interest, even affection, which they had excited ; and, added to all, 
the natural promptings of an adventurous disposition. On the other 
hand was an almost irresistible longing to revisit once more the scenes of 
my youth. An indefinite, and therefore exaggerated, idea of the difficul- 
ties and dangers of the adventure — a little of that inexplainable but 
exceedingly natural and common irresolution so often felt, especially by 
the inexperienced, at the threshold of any important undertaking ; and a 
doubt as to the propriety of continuing my relations to Kaloolah, which 
it was beginning to be quite evident were fraught with trouble to her, if 



not to myself. But more than all in determining my course was the dis- 
couraging influence of ill health. The remnants of the Congo fever still 
hung about me, inducing a degree of mental and corporeal lassitude, and 
repressing that elasticity of spirit which, in full health, would have con- 
verted dangers into pleasures, and obstacles into arguments for pushing 
on. These sensations of depression and weakness grew daily stronger 
and stronger in the bright but pestilent air of Sierra Leone. I longed to 
escape to a colder and more congenial climate ; and, as it happened, a 
vessel for Liverpool was lying in port, almost ready to sail. Should I 
forego the opportunity, it would be some time before another would 
occur. Suddenly summoning resolution, I sought the captain, and made 
an agreement with him for the passage. 

The pallor of death overspread the features of Kaloolah when I an- 
nounced to her that I had made arrangements to sail in the next ship. 
She uttered no sound — not a sigh — not a tear ; but the fixed eye, the 
quivering lip, the bloodless cheek, and the shrunken rigidity of her whole 
frame indicated the intense emotion within. For a moment she stood 
thus, erect, and the next the spasm passing, my outstretched arm was 
hardly in time to save her from falling to the ground. Gently laying her 
upon the green sward at the foot of a waving palm, I knelt by her side. 
She did not faint — I was in hopes that she would. Shocked and fright- 
ened, I knew not what to say or do. I screamed to Enphadde, but he 
was far down the hill-side. I shouted to some negro women for water, 
but they paid no attention. I rubbed her hands, raised her head, and 
turned her face to the cool sea breeze that came up from the broad 
estuary below, and at last did what was the very best thing to do — I 
raised her in my arms, pressed her to my heart, and kissed her pallid 

For a few minutes she struggled with the tide of feeling that had 
been so suddenly thrown back upon her heart. She grew in years as I 
gazed. When I first saw her, she was a child — an artless, fascinating 
child — and now ! It seemed as if at one bound she had reached the 
verge of womanhood. 

She bent forward her head, covered her face with her hands, and 
burst into a passionate flood of tears. I felt reheved. Her tears were to 
me like the rain-drops to the mariner in a hurricane — the presage of a 
calm. " 'T is well," thought I, and I drew my breath more freely ; " 't is 
well the heavy night dews, dropping from the bended' flower, relieve it 
from the weight that endangers the stem." 

She raised her head. " Kaloolah ! " said L 


She sprang into my arms, and buried her face in my bosom. 

" Kaloolah, you love me ! " 

" As I love nought else in this world," she replied. 

" And I — I, Kaloolah ! " — I was about to add some protestation of 
affection, but would my feelings towards her warrant it ? — were they 
those of strong abiding love ? Were they other than fraternal ? Other 
than a sympathy for her misfortunes, an admiration of her simplicity — 
her innocence ? I knew not ; but even if they were, would it be right to 
express them ? I thought of my mother, and fancied that I could 
almost hear her words. My son ! my son ! amid the sighs of the gentle 
sea-breeze that swept through the rustling palm-tops. 

" And Enphadde ? " said I. 

" Will journey more easily without me — he will reach home in safety, 
and gladden the eyes that now weep for him. 

" And you, Kaloolah ? " 

" And I — I — ," passionately exclaimed Kaloolah, " am your slave — I 
follow you — where you go I will go — your country shall be my country." 

" Impossible ! Kaloolah. Enphadde will never go and leave you 
behind. Without you, how would he dare meet the eyes of that white- 
haired old man who sits mourning for his youngest child, his best be- 
loved daughter in the halls of Kiloam. Think of your cousins, Kaloolah. 
Think of the playmates, and friends, and servants who all loved you so 
much. Think of the hall of crj'stal, the court of the fountains, and the 
broad, shady gallery that looks down upon the joyous and magnificent 
city. Think of the pleasant walks in the royal gardens upon the banks 
of the Wollo. Think of your favorites, the flowers, the birds, the dia- 
mond fish, and Gogo, your golden-haired ape, who would mind no one 
but you, and who was so graceful and so sensible. Think of all the 
beautiful things that you have so often talked with me about. You can- 
not leave them all. You will return to them. Your sisters, Kaloolah, 
are sad ; your presence will change their tears into smiles. The streets of 
Kiloam are in gloom, for there is grief in the palace of Selha Shounsi, 
the father of his people ; your return will fill them with the voices of 
gladness. The hall of crystal will again glitter in the light of the festival 
— the water will again sparkle and play in the court of the fountains — 
the drooping flowers will raise their bended headS' — your silent pets, the 
birds, will resume their songs — the diamond fish will flash their silver 
light from the lowest depth of their marble pools ; and Gogo — sensible 
Gogo — will cease to pine when he gambols once more in the footsteps of 
his mistress." 



As I spoke, Kaloolah withdrew herself from my arms. Calmly she 
drew up her slight and graceful figure to its full height, while a sparkle 
of feminine pride beamed from her eye. 

" Enough," she said. " I understand you. You love me not. You 
would be burdened with me no longer. I forgot that I was to you but a 
useless slave. I fancied that I was a princess of the long line of Shounsi 
— forgive my foolishness " 

" Kaloolah ! " said I, reproachfully, taking her hand. 

Her countenance fell, she grasped my hand in both of hers, and 
tears again started to her eyes. 

^' She sprang hito my arms, and buried her face in my bosom*' 

" Forgive me," she sobbed, " you have been too kind to me. I obey 
you — I go with Enphadde, but — but — those pleasant scenes you have 
spoken of, Jon'than ' 

" What of them ? " I demanded. 

" I shall never see them ! " 

" Nay, nay, Kaloolah, think not so. Enphadde feels confident of re- 
visiting them." 

" He may— he will, but unless in company with you, Jon'than, I shall 
never see them. They are here, Jon'than, and here," pointing her hand 
to her head and heart ; " but we look upon the realities together, or I 
shall never see them." 


" A foolish fancy, Kaloolah. Why should you think so? " 

" I know not why, but so it is. Yet mention it not to Enphadde — 
I would not discourage him in the attempt." 

" Perhaps you will tell a different story when I visit you a year or two 
hence in Framazugda," said I. 

" How ! What mean you?" exclaimed Kaloolah. 

" That, perhaps, I will yet undertake to visit your country. It is pos- 
sible, I will even say probable ; but it would only be in hopes of finding 

" Oh, Jon'than, if that could be so ! but I cannot hope it." 

" It shall be so — I feel that such will be my destiny — be assured that 
I shall make no resistance to the march of fate." As I spoke the reso- 
lution, full-formed, sprang into life. I felt its invigorating influence. Why 
should I not give Kaloolah the full benefit of it. 

" I will certainly make the attempt to reach Framazugda," said I, 


" Ere the almond-trees have three times strown, with their silver 
leaves, the garden walks on the Wollo." 

" You promise?" 

"No circumstances that I can control shall prevent me from being 
there. I promise." 

"Oh, Enphadde! " exclaimed Kaloolah, throwing herself joyfully into 
the arms of her brother, who was advancing to join us. " Jon'than will 
come to us. We shall see him again — he has promised to join us erelong 
in Framazugda." 

" God grant it," replied Enphadde. " No stranger could bring such 
light and joy to thecourt of Selha Shounsi." 

We seated ourselves upon the sloping green sward, and for an hour 
discussed the pleasant and newly opened prospect of a future meeting. 
Uncontrolled by reason, hope revelled wild and free, indulging in the 
most delightful vagaries. An event really so improbable seemed to grow 
more and more simple and feasible the longer we considered it. Kaloolah, 
so far from dreading now the journey, was anxious to set out at once that 
she might be at home to receive me. 

Unfortunately, the kaflila of Mandingos would not be ready to start 
for two or three weeks, whereas, in a day or two at most the ship in which 
I was going would sail. This would be a lonely interval of time for 
them ; but there was some encouragement in the reflection that it was 
short, and would soon pass. 


Again and again had I to repeat tlie promise of coming to Framazugda. 
Kaioolah dwelt upon it every hour of the three days that elapsed before 
my departure, and at the last moment she exacted its solemn renewal. 

" I shall watch the fall of the almond's silver leaves," were her last 
words ; " the fourth time, and you come not, they fall on my grave. 
Farewell ! " 

" Farewell, Kaioolah ! " 

Gracious heaven ! I like not, even now, to think of the horrible chok- 
ing sensation with which those words were pronounced. Not ten miles 
from land, and I would have given the world to have returned and linked 
my fate indissolubly with hers. But it could not be, and well it could 
not. Mysterious agencies were weaving the threads of destiny far more 
skilfully than we could have done had we had complete control of warp 
and woof. 


TKe Duke of Wellington — Jack Thompson — The Ship's Reckoning — A New Rule in Naviga- 
tion — The Captain's Notion of I.unars — A Curious Phenomenon — Breakers on the Weather- 
Bow — Missing Stays — Wearing Ship — The Ship Ashore — Getting out the Boat — An Anxious 
Consultation — Jonathan's Plan — Preparations for Landing. 

'UR ship was old, leaky, a dull sailor, and heavily laden — quali- 
ties that illy accorded with the pretensions of her high-sounding 
name — the Duke of Wellington. The crew consisted of eight 
men and two boys, and a more lubberly set, with the exception 
of one fine white-headed old seaman, named Jack Thompson, were never 
berthed in a forecastle. Bad as they were, however, it m'jst be said in 
their favor that they were fully worthy of their ofificers. 

The latitude of Cape Verde was reached on the eighth day after leav- 
ing Freetown, but our course had been so far to the west that we did not 
get sight of the cape. In fact, according to the calculations of the cap- 
tain, we had been compelled to give it altogether too wide a berth, and 
he consequently gave orders to haul the ship's head more towards the 
African shore, as soon as the wind permitted. It was evident that, miss- 
ing a sight of the cape, he was all abroad as to his longitude, and well he 
might be, for he had nothing but a very loose, inaccurate dead-reckoning 
to depend upon. During his own watch, the log was never thrown — a 
drunken guess at the ship's way serving instead — and in the mate's watch, 
the reckoning was kept \i'ith hardly more accuracy. 

One evening, a few days after our departure, the ship was standing 
westerly, with the wind from the north, and the mate was heaving the 
log, when, as I came upon deck, I heard him say " Seven knots and a 
half," and immediately he proceeded , to note it down upon the log-slate. 
I looked aloft and around — the wind was light, the ship close-hauled, and 
apparently moving very sluggishly through the water. "Seven knots 
and a half !" I exclaimed. " It is impossible that she can be going so 

" Oh, yes, sir," replied the old sailor whom I have mentioned. " She 
is going that — here — " and he put his finger to his eye, and nodded his 



head towards the mate, who had stretched himself out for a doze upon 
the hen-coop. " Some craft sail very fast, sir, with three sheets in tJie 
wind. What they don't go ahead is made up in the spinning round." 

" Let us try a cast of the log," said I ; and calling one of the boys to 
relieve him at the wheel, the old man held- the reel for me. The marks 
upon the line indicated a rate of about four miles and a half. 

" Not so much out of the way as I thought," said the old man. " Only 
three miles ! that 's nothing to some of the captain's guesses. I should n't 
be at all surprised to see the skipper put her any time dead to windward 
at the rate of twenty miles an hour. According to the rule of mathe- 
matics that he uses sometimes, he could do it just as easy as he could say 
' How do you do ? ' to the bottom of an empty rum bottle." 

" And what rule may that be ? " I inquired. 

"A rule in compound addition and multiplication, sir. It 's simple 
enough, but 'taint every one who can work it like he can. He adds his 
own particular lee-way to the lee-way of this lubberly old tub ; throws in 
her way through the water, and multiplies the sum by the number of 
horns he took before breakfast. The product is the number of knots that 
we've cheated the wind out of." 

"And by such a rule, how long will it be before we reach Liverpool?" 

" The Lord knows, sir. If the skipper has many sober fits we may- 
box about the ocean a long time ; but, if by good luck, he should keep 
himself dead drunk the whole voyage, as he did coming out, we shall 
have a chance to hit our port and float in." 

Previous to this conversation I had paid but little attention to the' 
ship's reckoning, but from this time it began to be a subject of much in- 
terest. Its manifest inaccuracy could not but excite some little anxiety, 
which was not diminished by being shared with my new friend, Jack 
Thompson. With the captain, any kind of conversation in relation to it 
was perfectly impracticable. " He was satisfied as to the ship's position " ; 
" could attend to his own business " ; " did n't want the advice of any 
one." And when I proposed to adjust his quadrant, swore that adjust- 
ment was all fudge, and that he could take the sun near enough for his 
purposes without any such nonsense. 

For several days the ship had been heading to the northeast. Our 
latitude by observation was about 20° N. and our distance from the Afri- 
can coast, according to the captain's computation, a little over two 
hundred miles. I grew more and more uneasy. My mind was constantly 
haunted by vague ideas of the dangerous rocks and shoals, and the strong 
and irregular currents by which so many ships had been swept to destruc- 


tion ; and of the cruel fate of their crews — hurried into hopeless captivity 
among the Arabs of the desert. My fears compelled me to speak once 
more to the captain. 

" Blast my eyes ! " he exclaimed, " do you take me for a fool ? do you 
think that I don't know all about the Arguin bank, and the Blanco reef, 
and the currents, and all that ? You can't tell me any thing, sir, that I 
don't know." 

" Well — but captain," said I, as deprecatingly as possible, " suppose 
that we try a lunar observation. There is a good opportunity now, and 
if you and Mr. Brown will take the altitudes, I will measure the lunar dis- 
tance, and work the problem." 

" Blast your lunars ! " he replied ; " they are all humbug. I would n't 
give a rope's end for a bushel of them. I never knew a fellow that med- 
dled with lunars and chronometers, and such nonsense, who did n't run 
his ship ashore in the end." 

That evening I remained upon deck until a late hour, listening to 
some rather tough yarns of my forecastle friend. The mate, as usual, was 
asleep upon the hen-coop ; the captain was preparing himself for his watch 
on deck, and a fresh tour of duty at the brandy bottle in his berth below. 

My mind was busy with thoughts of Kaloolah. I thought of her as 
threading with weary steps the wild forests of Central Africa, — crossing 
the swollen streams, and ascending the pathless hills, — enduring fatigue, 
and encountering danger, — exposed to insult, and threatened each instant 
with slavery and perhaps with death. The unpleasant revery was inter- 
rupted by a low soughing sound, that appeared to come from directly 
overhead. I stopped short in my walk, listened intently, and again heard 
it, but it was so faint as to be scarcely perceptible. 

" Did you hear that? " said I, advancing to the old sailor at the wheel. 
" Listen ! " 

" lean hear nothing," he replied after a moment's pause, — and neither 
could I from where we stood, but by stepping a few feet forward, toward 
the starboard gangway, it came again. Entrusting the wheel to his com- 
panion, the old man joined me. 

" Well, I declare," he exclaimed, after listening for a few moments, 
" that is curious. If I did n't know that it is the wind eddying around in 
the belly of the sail, I would swear that there were breakers aloft, — it 
sounds just like the surf at a great distance." 

" Perhaps it is the sound of the surf which, striking against the sail, is 
reflected down to us ; such a thing may be. Had I not better speak to 
the mate ? " 


" No ; there 's no use in that ; it 's nothing but the wind — and, be- 
sides, you could never make him hear it." 

The sounds came fainter and fainter and less frequent, and at last died 
away entirely, which the old man explained by the wind's veering a point 
or so — not a very satisfactory explanation, for, as the vessel luffed in a 
corresponding degree, the wind must have struck the sail at the same 
angle ; whereas, were the sounds the reflected notes of a distant surf, they 
might well cease from the change in the relative position of the plain of 
the sail. However, there was but little use in expressing my apprehen- 
sions to either captain or mate. The idea of hearing breakers overhead 
would have been scouted as an absurdity, or laughed at as a capital joke, 
according to the captain's spiritual barometer — a dozen glasses above 
comfortable, it might be " devilish funny " ; a few glasses short of that 
mark, and it would be a " blasted humbug," and any one who believed it 
" a lubberly fool." 

I retired to my berth a little before twelve o'clock. At the expiration 
of the mate's watch he came below and awoke the captain, who turned 
out in rather a surly humor, to judge from the growling and muttering, 
at some undefined object of objurgation, that he kept up while putting 
on his clothes. As he mounted the companion-way the mate turned in, 
" all standing," or, in other words, with his clothes on ; and, resuming the 
slumber that had been interrupted merely by the change of the watch, 
the cabin was all quiet again, save the heavy tramp of the captain's feet 
overhead, as he lazily paced up and down the deck. 

Suddenly there came a loud shout from the forecastle, and the noise 
of many feet moving aft. 

" Breakers ! breakers ahead ! breakers on the weather-bow ! " shouted 
several voices, and all was in an instant hurry and confusion. 

Jumping from my berth, I rushed upon deck, closely followed by the 
mate. The night was dark, the wind moderate, and blowing about five 
points on shore. Ahead, and on the larboard bow, a line of light flashed 
through the gloom, and the roar of the surf rose and fell upon the fitful 
blasts of the breeze. 

Both officers and men were completely paralyzed by surprise and fear. 

" Wear ship ! " I shouted, seeing that it was apparently clear water 
on the lee-quarter. But the helm was already jammed hard down, and 
the ship was coming to the wind. A dozen contradictory orders were 
issued by captain and mate. The ship, never very active at the ma- 
noeuvre, now refused to come round, missed stays, fell off, and gathered 


" Wear her round," was now the word, but such confusion prevailed 
that hardly an order was given or obeyed in proper time. It was with 
difficulty that I could get the fore-top-mast stay-sail hoisted or the spanker 
brailed up. No one seemed to have any idea of what to do or how to do 
it, except Thompson, who jumped forward to obey my orders, reiterating 
them at the same time in a tone that began, at least, to command atten- 
tion and obedience — but attention and obedience were now too late. 

The after sails were shivering, and the. head yards were still sharp 
aback, when a heavy swell, subsiding beneath us, let the ship down upon 
the rocks with a shock that threatened dislocation to every bone in our 
bodies. The next wave knocked her stern quite round, and, raising us, 
threw us with another tremendous thump higher up, with our broadside 
to the sea. She heeled over towards the shore and settled down so solidly 
as to be hardly moved by the succeeding waves. With the exception of 
the main-top-mast, all our spars remained standing, and their weight, and 
the action of the wind upon the sails, which were still flying, served to 
hold the ship down in her inclined position. The captain proposed to cut 
away the masts, which would have lightened the ship and allowed her to roll 
off seaward, when she would have sunk, or thumped to pieces in a very few 
minutes. It was only bythe most authoritative interposition, in which I was 
warmly seconded by Jack, that the execution of the order was prevented. 

All that we could do or say, however, was insufficient to prevent 
active preparations for going ashore, which could be indistinctly seen, like 
a black line, at some thirty or forty rods' distance. I represented to the 
crew the almost certainty of being swamped if they attempted it in the 
darkness of the night — the little danger there was of the ship's breaking 
up before daylight, as the tide must be ebbing, and her position becoming 
more and more stable and secure ; and that, if the boat were lost, our 
only chance of escape from death or captivity among the merciless in- 
habitants of the desert, would be destroyed. 

" Get out the boat ! get out the boat ! we '11 go ashore," was echoed 
by all hands, and foremost by the captain and mate. 

The boat was soon under the lee of the ship, and the men crowded 
into her, all except my friend Thompson, who indicated his determination 
of sticking to the ship. We felt alike as to the stupidity and folly of the 
act, and the worse than stupidity that had brought us into our present 
situation. The captain was the last who entered the boat. 

" Will you come with us ? " he asked, while holding on in the main- 

"Never!" exclaimed Jack, with indignant energy: "I've followed 



you far enough ; I 've no disposition to go with you to the place where 
you are now going." 

" What place is that ? " demanded the captain. 

" To hell — in five minutes — with the blood of a dozen men on 
your drunken soul ! " 

The captain sank into the boat, which immediately pushed out from 
the lee of the ship into the raging and roaring waters. 

" There he goes, poor devil," muttered Jack. " It 's no time to bear ill 
will to any one, but I do wish that his owners at Liverpool were along 
with him. More than half the blame rests at their door for intrusting the 
ship to such a stupid sot." 

" You are right, Thompson," said I, " it 's no time to bear ill will or 
bitter feelings. Let him go ; we 've got enough to do to take care of 

ourselves " 

" Enough to do ! " interrupted Jack. " What can we do, but wait the 
breaking up of this old tub ? The stern boat is stove, and the long boat 
that they 've gone o£f in is by this time no better ! However, if you can 
propose any thing, I 'm agreeable. I see that you 're the chap to work out 
of a scrape, if any one can, and whatever you say I '11 lend a hand to do." 
" Well then, listen to me ? Do you know where we are ? " 
" Why, on the desert, somewhere about the middle of it, I suppose." 
" You are right ; we are somewhere near, if not directly upon Cape 
Barbas. The nearest places, where we could find any assistance from 
Christians, are Portendik, about three hundred miles to the south ; and 
Mogadore, more than five hundred miles to the north. The distance 
either way is a perfect desert, without vegetation, without water, at least 
that we could find, and inhabited by tribes of wandering Christian-hating 
savages. You see that our chance of reaching either place by land is 
rather small." 

"You may say that," said Thompson, "what with the heat, and the 
sand, and the thirst, and the merciless Arabs, we should stand no more 
chance than a short-tailed whale in the Norway whirlpool." 

" Our next chance is, that the captain and crew have got safe on shore, 
and if so, the boat will enable us to reach the Canaries." 

" Belay that," interrupted the old man, " there 's no use talking about 
it. There is n't the ghost of a chance. If you depend upon that, we had 
better make up our minds to give ourselves up to the Arabs at once." 

" I don't depend upon the poor chance of finding that the boat is safe. 
There is still another and a better chance. This coast from Cape Blanco 
to Cape Bojador is the resort of fishing-vessels from the Canaries. They 
are large polacca-rigged boats of from a hundred to a hundred and fifty 


tons, and they remain on the station for some time. They generally 
anchor close in-shore, and sometimes they land and carry on a small trade 
with the wandering natives. They don't go north of Bojador, because 
there the inhabitants have small boats in which the Moors would come off 
from the shore and attack them ; and they never go much south of Cape 
Blanco, or the bank of Arguin. A little north of the cape is their favorite 
ground. If we could get on board one of these fishermen, we should be safe." 

" Aye, if we could ; but without a boat, what can we do? " 

" We can try, at any rate," I replied. " In half an hour it will be day- 
light, when we shall be able to see our way to the shore. If we can con- 
trive to make a landing, and take with us water and provisions, we shall 
probably be able to find some place in the neighborhood where we can 
secrete ourselves until the Arabs have paid their visit to the ship. 
When the coast is clear again we can then watch for a fisherman, and 
perhaps attract his attention by some kind of signal. If we can find a safe 
hiding-place for a week or two, I am convinced that Providence will send 
us the means of escape. If not, when our water and provisions are 
exhausted, we can take the chance of pushing out to sea on some piece 
of a wreck, or give ourselves up to the Arabs." 

Jack approving my plan, without more words we addressed ourselves 
actively to the proposed preparations. The position of the ship favored 
our exertions ; she was careened towards the shore, with her stern some- 
what elevated, so that the sea was prevented from dashing over her deck, 
except just at the bow ; while the stern being raised, prevented the water, 
with which the ship was filled, from standing above the floor of the cabin, 
and enabled us to get at any thing we wished in the steward's pantry, and 
the bread-lockers. 

Our first care was to collect all the bottles, jugs, and demijohns that 
had withstood the shock of the ship's striking, and fill them with water 
from the casks that still remained safely lashed to the booms. A ten- 
gallon keg of brandy, which was the cause of all our misfortunes was 
emptied of its remaining contents, and devoted to the same purpose. 
The beef and pork, that happened to be in the harness casks on deck, we 
divided into two or three lots, which we wrapped in canvas covers. We 
did the same with a barrel of ship biscuit, and with several miscellaneous 
articles, such as clothing, instruments, a few nails and spikes, which we 
thought might perhaps come in play, and a few pieces of small cordage. 
My idea in taking these last-mentioned articles was, that in case we could 
do nothing better, we might perhaps construct a raft out of the spars 
and pieces of timber which would come ashore from the wreck. 


Situation of the Ship-^Swimming Ashore — Landing Provisions — Thompson Reaches the Reef 
— Provision Depots in the Sand— A Passage up the Bank — A Hiding-Place — Climbing the 
Cliff — The Desert — A Mounted Arab — The Wreck Discovered — A Discourse on Canni- 
bals — Return to the Beach. 

^Y the time we had finished our preparations it was quite hght, 
allowing us an opportunity in observing, with the desired dis- 
tinctness, the perils and horrors that environed us. We found 
that the ship had struck upon the rocks at the bottom of the 
little bay, or indentation in the line of breakers, and that consequently 
we were considerably nearer the shore than we should have been had she 
gone on a hundred yards farther, either above or below. Directly in front 
of us, and not more than thirty rods off, rose a perpendicular cliff of dark, 
ragged rock. At this point the base of the cliff was washed by the sea ; 
but we observed with pleasure that, at a short distance, in a northeasterly 
direction, the wall of rock withdrew itself, in an irregular curve, from the 
water, leaving a long beach of sand. Between the ship and the shore was 
a line of naked rocks, which, at high tide, were so situated as to be washed 
with the whole force of the surf. Beyond them the water, at low tide, 
was quite smooth, and apparently not of much depth. An opening at 
some distance to the right of the ship's position, afforded the only practi- 
cable passage for a boat to the shore. I pointed it out to my companion. 

" The fools," he exclaimed, bitterly, " if they had waited till daylight 
they need not have splintered their boat, and dashed their bodies 
upon those black-looking rocks. But some men are doomed — if God 
wont kill them, they will kill themselves." 

Fastening a line around my body, I jumped overboard, and stretched 
out for the reef. A minute or two sufficed to carry me within reach 
of a jagged point of rock, which I succeeded in grasping — retaining 
my hold while the following swell dashed over me ; upon its subsidence 
I gained a footing and reached, not without some severe bruises, a 
higher point of the reef. Pausing merely to haul taut the line and 
fasten it around a point of a rock, I stepped into the water on the other 



side, and found, as I expected, that it was possible to wade without 
much difficulty to the base of the cliff, and by diverging a little to 
the right, gain the narrow beach of sand. 

Making my way back to the reef, I found Jack ready with the 
line rove through a pulley at the end of the fore-top-sail yard to veer 
away the bundles that we had prepared. Hauling down the line on deck, 
he attached in turn a jug of water or a bag of bread, and hoisting it 
to the yard-arm, veered away ; as he veered I hauled, and in this way 
succeeded in bringing the various articles within reach without touch- 
ing the water. As they arrived I detached the bundles from the line, 
and wading with them ashore, deposited them safely upon the sand. 
There now remained only the old man. I made signs to him to lash him- 
self to the middle of the line, the same way as he had the keg of 
water, so that he could veer himself away, while I hauled him in. Sta- 
tioning myself as far out as I could, and yet retain a firm footing, I 
prepared to receive him. He was almost within my grasp, when the 
reflux of the wave tore him away, but the next moment a huge swell 
threw him into my arms, and rolled us over upon the jagged bed of 
rock. Happily no bones were broken, but the blood streamed from 
numerous cuts upon our hands and bodies. 

Casting off the line, so that the Arabs might have no reason to sup- 
pose that any one had had communication with the shore, we crossed 
the water to the main beach. Here we found ample evidence of the 
melancholy fate of our companions. Fragments of the boat were 
scattered along the sands, and just at the water's edge was a large" 
white object that sluggishly rolled up and down the inclined bank — 
one moment at rest upon the bare sand, and the next, sprawling and 
bobbing about in the returning water. — It was the mutilated corpse of 
one of the boat's crew. 

At a little distance above high-water mark we proceeded to make an 
excavation in the sand, in which we deposited a keg of water, with a 
package of pork and biscuit, and our bag of nails and cordage ; care- 
fully effacing our footprints, we returned to the edge of the water, 
where any tracks would soon be washed out by the rising tide, and 
loading ourselves with our remaining provisions, set out for a hiding- 
place for ourselves. We carried an earthen jug, half a dozen junk bottles 
and small copper tea-kettle filled with the precious element ; together 
with about twenty pounds of ship biscuit, a few pounds of pork, and a 
dozen or two of raw potatoes. In addition to my share of the burden, I 
also charged myself with a spy-glass, compass, and an old musket. 




The sun was now about three hours high', and peering ov&r the lofty 
banli, threw his burning rays upon us. The shade at the base of the cliff 
invited us, but we dared not quit the margin of the beach, for fear of 
leaving the impression of our feet in the sand. The heavy night-dew 
which had laid the dust on the heights above, had now evaporated, and a 
strong land-breeze springing up, clouds of silicious particles came eddying 
down from the top of the clifT. The volleys were composed of an almost 
impalpable powder, that filled our mouths, ears, and eyes, mingled some- 
times with small, round grains, that made the skin of our faces and hands 
•smart severely. The heat was intense ; the perspiration poured from 
our faces, and, catching the flying particles, rolled down our cheeks in 
arenulous ridges and streams. 

About a mile from the ship we came to a long ravine that opened up 
the bank for some distance. It was very rough and irregular, and we 
could not see its termination, but we concluded that it must afford a pas- 
sage to the top of the bank. Our first impulse was to ascend it, but, upon 
consultation, we decided that as it would probably be the passage by which 
the Arabs would descend to the ship, it would be better to push on beyond 
it to some broken rocks which we could see about half a mile off. 

We resumed our march, and soon arrived at a spot where the bank 
came down again, almost close to the water. Along the base were several 
huge pieces of rock, which had evidently been detached from the face of 
the cliff. One of these had fallen so as to leave a small triangular space, 
elevated about twenty feet, and exposed to observation only from the sea, 
while at the same time it was concealed from above by the projection of 
the overhanging cliff. With some difficulty we clambered over the frag- 
ments of rock, and deposited our burdens upon the small bed of sand 
which partly filled up the crevice. For some distance farther on, the nar- 
row space between the bank and water was so covered with heaps of 
large stones, that we had no fear of any one making the attempt to pass 
in front of our hiding-place. 

We had now appoint d'appui for our further operations; and after rest- 
ing ourselves, and examining with the glass the beach, and the crest of 
the cliff on either hand, as far as we could see, we concluded to set out 
again, and explore the country on top of the bank. To attempt the ascent 
along the ravine I have mentioned, would take us too far from our cover ; we 
were compelled, therefore, to seek a path nearer, but much more difficult. 
The bank that we had to clear was fully a hundred feet in height, and rose in 
some places perpendicularly, in others inclined, at an angle of several 
degrees towards the sea. The geological composition of the rock. 


however, favored us, consisting of strata of calcareous and silicious 
sandstone, separated by layers of quartz sand, which had become disinte- 
grated by the action of the sea air ; there were numerous horizontal 
crevices and ledges, by which we could gain a foothold on the face of the 
cliff. In the upper strata particularly, the calcareous prevailed over the 
silicious in the formation, and there were numerous holes which had for- 
merly been filled with some pure calcareous material, which, having been 
decomposed, had been forced out by the wind. These holes assisted us 
much in drawing ourselves up from ledge to ledge. It was trying work 
in the hot sun, but at last our exertions were rewarded with success, and 
we stood upon the top of the bank. 

What a sight met our eyes ! A boundless earth-ocean, with its rocky 
islets and billows of sand ! A dreary waste, with no green thing to re- 
lieve the dismal uniformity — no sight or sound of even the meanest 
specimen of organic life ! Overwhelmed with the terrible sublimity of 
the scene, we remained for some minutes mute, motionless, straining our 
eyes across the undulating lines of low hills, or watching the wild gambols 
of the whirling, clouds, " Bahar billah maia ! " well have thy savage in- 
habitants named thee, thou " arid sea of sand ! " 

Keeping our way as much as possible between the sandhills, we started 
•off for a rocky elevation about half a mile inland, which promised a more 
extended horizon. As we advanced, we found that in some places the 
ground was hard, and covered by a layer of silicious pebbles ; in others, 
the bare rock showed itself, with its upper surface worn as smooth as 
glass by the attrition of the moving sand. In some spots this rock was 
an agate-looking limestone, beautifully mottled and veined, and suscepti- 
ble of the highest polish. At the base of the crag which we proposed 
to ascend, we were gratified by the sight of several stunted thorn bushes, 
if a gratification that can be called which only served to impress more 
forcibly the idea of barrenness and sterility. 

I was stooping to examine their withered leaves and sturdy spines, 
when I was startled by an exclamation from my companion. The old 
man pointed to a dark object, moving among the sand hills on our right. 
Upon applying the glass to my eye I saw that it was a man mounted up- 
on a camel. He was moving slowly down to the edge of the bank. We 
watched him, keeping ourselves well concealed, and saw him make his 
way nearly to the crest of the beetling crag, when he dismounted and 
walked forward on foot. He soon caught sight of the ship, and running 
back, mounted his camel and came down towards us on a long swinging 
trot. When he had arrived at a point opposite the ship, he dismounted 



again, and advanced forward, but this time with more caution, crouching 
low, and near the edge throwing himself on his face and slowly drawing 
himself along the ground. For some time he remained, peering down 
upon the ship, then mounting his camel, he moved still farther towards 
us, and stopped at the head of the ravine; here he halted for a few 
minutes, as if in doubt ; but at last wheeling his beast, he urged him for- 
ward at a rapid rate, in an east-by-south direction. His course slanting 
inland from the coast, which here trended from west-southwest to east- 
northeast, carried him within a few rods of us, but throwing ourselves 
flat on the ground behind a hillock, we escaped his observation. 

Crouching low, and near the edge throwing himself on his face. ' 

We watched him until he was out of sight, when we mounted the crag, 
arid discovered that his course lay toward a distant range of black hills, 
which we concluded afforded a refuge to his family or tribe. 

" He 's a rum-looking bird, he is," was Jack's commentary upon the 
fellow's appearance, as we saw the fluttering rag that was bound round 
his head disappear in the distance. 

" Yes, a rum-looking bird indeed, and in an hour or two he '11 be 
down upon us with his whole flock ; we must be travelling back to our 

" Do you suppose,, Mr. Romer, that God made this country himself ? " 
inquired Thompson, as we struggled back through the sand. 

" Why not, as well as the rest of the world ? " 

" Because the Bible says that he looked at all he had made, and pro- 


nounced it good. Now He never could have said that of this country. 
A poorer piece of land I never laid eyes on. You don't need a mark of 
the cloven hoof to know it for the 'devil's own.' I 've heard tell," he' 
continued after a pause, " that the inhabitants here are man-eaters. What 
do you think, Mr. Romer?" 

" That there is no truth in the report. Their religion would keep 
them from cannibalism. They would no more touch a man's flesh than 
they would pork." 

" I don't know about that. If they don't eat each other, what else 
have they got to live on. I 've heard some folks say that there are no 
such thing as cannibals anywhere in the world ; but I know better. I 've 
been among the New Zealanders, and there they use each other for fresh 
grub, as regular as boiled 'duff' in a man-of-war's mess. They used to 
eat their fathers and mothers when they get too old to take care of them- 
selves ; but now they 've got to be more civilized, and so they eat only 
ricketty children, and slaves, and enemies taken in battle." 

" A decided instance of the progress of improvement and the march 
of mind," said I. 

" Well, I believe that is what the missionaries call it," replied Jack, 
"but it 's a bad thing for the old folks. They don't take to the new 
fashion — they are in favor of the good old custom. I never see'd the 
thing myself, but Bill Brown, a mess-mate of mine once, told me that when 
he was at the Bay of Islands he see'd a great many poor old souls going 
about with tears in their eyes trying to get somebody to eat them. One 
of them came off to the ship and told them that he could n't find rest in 
the stomachs of any of his kindred, and wanted to know if the crew 
would n't take him in. The skipper told him that he was on monstrous 
short allowance, but he could n't accommodate him. The poor old fel- 
low. Bill said, looked as though his heart would break. There were plenty 
of sharks around the ship, and the skipper advised him to jump overboard, 
but he could n't bear the idea of being eaten raw." 

We had reached the edge of the bank, and paused to take another look 
over the arid expanse. 

" This is a good moral, Mr. Romer," exclaimed Thompson. 

" How so?" I demanded. 

" Why, I never had any thing that made me feel so like a parson in a 
hurricane — ready to get right down on my knees, and say ' Good Lord, 
deliver us.' " 

" We may well pray for his help," I replied, "for without it we stand 
but a poor chance of deliverance from our present difHculties." 



" You 're right, Mr. Romer ; if a poor fellow needs a lift from Provi- 
dence anywhere, it is on such a piece of land as this. Afloat with plenty 
of sea-room, I always feel independent, and just as though I could veer 
and haul for myself ; but here, bless my soul ! unless God lend a hand, a 
fellow can neither tack ship, nor wear, heave-to, nor scud." 

With a good deal of difficulty we succeeded in descending the path 
that we had come up. We reached our retreat thoroughly exhausted by 
the heat and the exertion. Having arranged that we should keep watch 
and watch, Thompson stretched himself upon the ground to take what 
he called his watch below, while I stationed myself so as to command a 
view of the mouth of the ravine. 


The Bedouins in Force — A Storm at Night — Breaking Up of the Ship — Collecting the Plunder 
— An Admiralty Judge — The Hiding-Place Discovered — Meeting the Bedouins — A Warm 
Reception — A Council — A Gentle Intimation — A March to the Hills — Feminine Curiosity 
— Jonathan's Plans — Thompson's Despair. 

^H E sun was about an hour high, when two half-naked figures pre- 
sented themselves ans-ong the fragments of rock at the bottom of 
the gorge. One of them I instantly recognized as the fellow we 
had seen, by the rag around his head, which was so tied as to 
allow the end of it to fall down partly over his face. The other one had no 
head-gear, and his only protection from the rays of the sun was a thick mop 
of short grisly hair. Their only garments were ragged shirts of cotton, once, 
perhaps, white, but now of a dirty brown. Their complexions were swarthy, 
almost black, which, however, we had afterwards opportunities of observ- 
ing, was in a great measure, owing to a thick coating of dirt. Their 
forms were of the middle height, light, and exceedingly spare ; and they 
evinced wonderful agility in slipping from rock to rock down the declivity. 

As soon as they reached the sand they started off on a swift run 
towards the ship. In a few minutes they were followed by two more 
men, and these by several other parties, among whom five or six women 
made their appearance. As they came upon the level ground, each in 
turn stretched out at full speed, until at last more than forty ragged 
shirts were streaming along, at intervals, from the ravine to the wreck. 

They were soon all collected in a group, at the base of the cliff, where 
it came down to the water's edge, opposite the ship ; and from their 
rapid motions and vehement gestures, we concluded that they were dis- 
cussing the interesting question of the best means of getting at the prize. 
Parties of them continually waded from the shore to the reef, and back 
again, but without, apparently, being able to devise any plan for passing 
the barrier of breakers. 

" It 's plain enough," remarked my companion, " that there 's none of 
the Sandwich Islander breed about these fellows. Why, I 've seen women 
in the Pacific miles out to sea, swimming about with their young ones on 



their backs. These chaps are nothing but land crabs, and they 'II never 
lay claws on that ship until she breaks up, and comes ashore herself." 

The Arabs seemed to have come to the same conclusion ; for quitting 
the reef, they seated themselves in a circle upon the sand, while the 
women were employed in picking up the fragments of the boat, and 
branches of dried sea-weed, with which to make a fire. As the fire could 
not be needed for warmth, and as they most probably had no provisions 
that required cooking, we concluded that it was for the purpose of 
burning the splinters of the boat, so as to extract the iron nails. For 
two or three hours after the darkness of night had closed over sea and 
shore, the bright flashes of flame streamed upward from the wild bivouac, 
and, dying away, left us to our speculations for the morrow, or to such 
slumber as might be supposed would visit our eyes in the vicinage of 
such neighbors. 

About the middle of the night, the wind, which had been blowing for 
several hours a fresh breeze directly on shore, increased in violence, 
rolling the surf in with such force, that at high tide we were drenched 
with the spray. We comforted ourselves, however, with the reflection 
that the old ship must inevitably go to pieces, and that the sooner the 
Arabs got possession of her fragments, the sooner they would leave the 
coast clear for our operations. 

The morning dawned, and, agreeably to our expectation, the ship was 
no longer in sight. But, as the light grew stronger, we could perceive 
that the beach was covered with broken spars, pieces of timber, casks, 
cabin furniture, sails, and clothing, and we observed with dismay, that a 
large fragment of the rudder, with the iron pintles attached, was thrown 
upon the rocks, almost at our feet. 

The savages were actively at work, running up and down the sands, 
securing pieces of clothing, canvas, and cordage, and occasionally quar- 
relling, and even fighting among themselves for the possession of coveted 
articles. A seaman's chest had come ashore, at not a great distance from 
our hiding-place. It was discovered by one of the women, but before she 
could open it the crowd collected around from all quarters, and then such 
a scrambling for its contents ; every article had a dozen hands on it at 
once. Knives were drawn, and blows made, apparently with desperate 
determination. One fellow had succeeded in securing several check 
shirts, which he threw into the arms of one of the women, and flourishing 
his knife, energetically expressed by the most frantic gestures his resolu- 
tion to defend them to the death. At this moment the grisly-haired old 
fellow came up, running like the wind, and dashing him aside, struck the 


woman a blow on her breast, knocked her down, and seizing the shirts, 
thrust them into the arms of another woman. He then made a bound at 
a fellow who had got possession of a sailor's jacket, and compelled him to 
relinquish it, and was equally successful in an attempt upon a red woollen 
cap. I concluded that he must be the admiralty judge, for certainly no 
one could have made a more striking practical application of the laws of 
flotsam and jetsam. 

Next to pieces of sail-cloth and clothing, the article of most value to 
them was the iron, and to get at this, they had no other means than to 
haul fragments of the wreck into piles, and set them on fire. This was 
laborious and slow work, and the day passed before they had half finished 
it. All night the fires were kept burning, and in the morning the search 
was resumed for fresh material. Several times parties came within a few 
rods of us, but each time something attracted their attention, and pre- 
vented them from continuing their researches in our direction. We could 
not flatter ourselves, however, that we should long escape detection. 
From the moment that we first saw the rudder on the rocks below us we 
had given up all hope. 

In view of our inevitable fate, I occupied a portion of our time in im- 
pressing upon my companion certain rules for his conduct, and in giving 
him all the information that I thought might prove serviceable to him in 
case we were separated. I did not conceal from him the sufferings to 
which he would probably be subjected ; but at the same time I encour- 
aged him to hope that, like a good many other unfortunates, we might 
live to return to civilized life. I urged upon him that in no case, however 
strong the inducement, must he turn Mahometan — that, as a renegado, 
his life would be fully as uncomfortable, and that then all hope of redemp- 
tion would be destroyed. That he must steadily deny all knowledge of 
any mechanical employments, and persist, in spite of suffering and pun- 
ishment, in refusing to make himself of any value to the Arabs as a slave. 
I also told him that if he could persuade his masters to take him to 
Sweirah (the Arabic name for Mogadore), his ransom would be readily paid 
by Mr. Wiltshire, the English consul, with whose name all the inhabitants 
of the desert were perfectly familiar. Jack promised to remember and 
obey my injunctions, and — having agreed between us to say nothing of 
our buried provisions, for fear that our captors would suspect that we had 
also concealed money, and resort to torture to force us to disclose it — 
with as much resolution as we could command, we awaited our fate. 

We had not long to wait. The sun was not an hour above the horizon, 
when one of the stragglers of the party came down to within a few rods 


of us. He was a young man, apparently not more than twenty years of 
age, but he had the true truculent scowling look of the Bedouin, that at 
first sight made him appear about forty. He got sight of the rudder, and 
immediately ran towards it. While stooping to examine it he did not 
observe us, but upon raising his head, there we were seated upon the rock, 
a little elevated, not more than a dozen yards off, and looking down di- 
rectly upon him. Never was there presented a more striking picture of 
astonishment and terror. His eyes started from their sockets, his short 
stiff hair erected itself like steel-filings on a magnet, the blood forsook his 
swarthy skin, leaving it of a dirty yellow, and his lips curled themselves 
up in a rigid cataleptic grin. For some moments he stood still, unable to 
move, until I made a motion to rise, when he gave two or three convul- 
sive jumps among the rocks, reached the sand, and started up the beach, 
yelling as if he thought a legion of fiends were at his heels. 

" The game is up now," said Thompson. " What shall we do ? " 

" Make sure of one good drink of water," I replied, " and then march 
out and meet them." 

Taking the old musket in my hand I stepped forth, followed by 
Thompson, and gained the sands. The alarm had spread : the Arabs 
were running from all quarters. As we advanced, those nearest to us re- 
treated, evidently in so much consternation that, had we followed them 
up briskly, we should have been able to drive them from the field. 

When we had advanced a short distance, we stopped and waited a few 
minutes until the Bedouins, recovering from their surprise, moved down 
in a body towards us, halting in apparent doubt and hesitation, when 
within fifteen or twenty rods. I immediately moved forward alone, again 
stopped, and, bowing low in token of submission, exclaimed : " Salam 
Ailekom ! " This salutation in their own language seemed to puzzle them 
exceedingly. I happened to remember a few words of Arabic that I had 
seen in some old narratives of shipwrecks ; so after bowing once more, I 
exclaimed : " Fine Sheikh ? " — Where is the chief ? A movement in the 
group indicated that the old grisly-haired fellow was a man of authority. 
Making a signal for him to come towards me, I threw aside the gun, and 
again bowed. The gun seemed to have been the cause of their hesita- 
tion ; for the instant it was out of my hands they rushed up like so many 
tigers. Offering no resistance, I was at once borne to the ground by the 
force of numbers ; and it seemed for a few minutes as if the whole party 
were bent upon piling themselves upon my body. Their knives gleamed 
before my eyes, and grazed my skin in several places ; and each moment 
I expected was to be my last. The metal buttons of my pea-jacket were 


cut off in a trice, my pockets torn out, and my clothes rent in numerous 
places in their eagerness to find money. There was ' not much about me 
to gratify their cupidity, and, in a few minutes, I was allowed to rise and 
look around. Thompson, I saw, had been treated in like manner, or 
worse ; the remnants of his garments presenting a more dilapidated ap- 
pearance even than my own. 

A furious discussion now commenced, as to the right of ownership of 
our persons, in the course of which we were most unceremoniously 
hauled, and pulled about by the contending claimants, and several times 
threatened with instant death. For full half an hour the contest raged 
with unabated fury ; more than once I expected to see them come to 
blows, when most probably our lives would have been sacrificed in the 
melee by the jealous disputants. At last a kind of compromise was 
effected, and the war was ended without bloodshed. 

We were now seated together upon the sand, and the Bedouins hud- 
dling around began to question us about the ship. They soon found 
that my knowledge of Arabic extended only to a few words, but they 
could not conceal their expressions of wonder that I could speak even 
those. They first wanted to know if I was the " rats," or captain ; to 
which I replied "la," or no, and here our verbal conversation, for want 
or words, had to close. By signs I explained to them, that excepting 
Thompson and myself, the crew were all drowned ; that the ship had 
been to the negro country for wood and oil, and that she had no 
money on board. I mentioned Sweirah, and Mr. Wiltshire, and under- 
took to persuade them to take us there for ransom. But little attention 
was paid to my representations — our captors continually recurring to the 
subject of the ship and her cargo. It was with difficulty that I could 
satisfy them that she had not had money, and that we had not buried 
some of it in the sand. They tried my companion, but he had heard my 
answers, and an energetic " La ! Lawah ! " was all they could get out of 

At the conclusion of the consultation, which lasted two or three 
hours, the grisly-haired fellow, whose name I ascertained was Hamet As- 
keiff, intimated to me by a kick in the ribs that I was his property, and 
that I must rise, and prepare to ascend the bank. The preparation con- 
sisted in packing on my back about fifty weight of iron bolts. My com- 
panion received a like intimation, couched in similar terms, and his back 
was loaded with a similar burden. " Bomar ! bomar ! " shouted our mas- 
ters, at the same time giving us a few hearty thwacks with a large stick, 
and off we started, accompanied by five or six of the men and two or three 










women. The ascent through the ravine, under our heavy loads and in 
the hot sun, was laborious enough. Several times Thompson lost his 
footing and fell, when he was compelled to rise again amid a shower of 
execrations and blows-, and upon attempting to assist him my back came 
in for a liberal share of the same kind of compliments. Fortunately, I 
had been allowed to retain my pea-jacket, M^hich served as some protec- 
tion, but Thompson had been stripped of all except his canvas trousers 
and tarpaulin hat, and his naked body suffered not only from the blows, 
but from the intense heat of the sun. We were near the top of the bank, 
when Jack became utterly exhausted by the exertion. Our masters were 
a little distance behind. 

" Mr. Romer," he exclaimed, drawing with laborious effort his breath, 
" I can't stand this any longer." 

" We must, we can't help ourselves. Come on, hold out for a minute 
more and we shall be at the top." 

" No, no, let us dash these villains down the rocks, and then rush 
down upon their friends at the beach. Better die at once by their knives, 
than be murdered this way. I '11 carry my load no farther " ; and my 
companion threw his burden from his back to the ground. 

Without stopping to answer him, I seized his load, and staggered for- 
ward and upward as fast as I could under a hundred weight of iron. He 
started after me, calling out for me to stop and give him back his burden, 
but I persevered, and we reached the level ground together, and at the 
same moment with our masters. Here a shower of blows, equally distrib- 
uted, rewarded Jack for dropping his load, and me for picking it up. 

Five or six camels were standing at a little distance, each one with his 
fore-leg doubled up, and tied with a rope of hide, so as to prevent them 
from wandering. One of these was selected, the iron placed upon his 
back, and one of the Arabs mounting him, the word " bomar " was again 
sounded, and we all started off across the desert, in the direction of the 
hills that we had seen on the first day in the southeast. 

For three long hours we pursued our weary way in the broiling sun, 
over loose sand hills, into which our feet sank deep at every step, until 
we came to a small rocky plain, and beyond that to a range of rock hills, 
two or three hundred feet in height. At the foot of one of these we 
found several huts, constructed of stone piled up on three sides, about 
four feet high, and covered with a skin, or an awning of coarse dark cloth. 
Here we found a number of women and children, who gathered around 
us, at first in silent curiosity, but soon they got bolder, and began to an- 
noy us with their impertinent familiarities. They examined our skins ; 


felt our persons ; pulled our hair and ears, and closely investigated the 
mystery of our clothing. My pantaloons, in particular, excited their won- 
der, and the question was often asked how I got into them, and whether 
I had been put in, and then sewed up in them. Their attentions, how- 
ever, were not confined to these pleasantries. Several of the women 
amused themselves by spitting upon us, throwing sand in our faces, and 
cursing us in a profusion of unintelligible gutturals. 

" Sere ! sere ! " I exclaimed, jumping to my feet, and assuming as 
fierce a look as possible. 

At this Arabic exclamation, equivalent to " go away," or " clear out," 
our tormentors rushed from us, screaming with affright ; but in a few 
moments they returned, and became more abusive than ever. Our lives 
were even in danger from the stones with which they had armed them- 
selves, when Hamet fortunately made his appearance, and I called to 
him to come to our assistance. " Aghee ! aghee ! Hamet Askeiff ! " 

He ran up, laughing immoderately at my pronounciation of the 
words, and at our distresses ; but at last he condescended to interfere, 
and our tormentors were driven off. 

At sunset several loaded camels came in from the wreck, and with 
them most of the party that we had left behind on the beach. The 
camels were unloaded, and turned loose to browse upon a few stunted 
thorns. A mixture of water, camel's milk, and the meal of a kind 
of millet, was prepared by the women, and furnished the only re- 
freshment ; after which the Arabs disposed themselves for a regular 
council. A bright fire, made of splinters of the wreck, and dried thorn- 
bushes, threw up its light and illuminated the swarthy faces of about 
thirty Bedouins, who squatted in a circle around it. Pipes were pro- 
duced, filled, and passed about from mouth to mouth. The whole scene 
brought strongly to my mind certain descriptions of Indian councils in 
my own country, but there were many points of dissimilarity. There 
was a lack of that gravity and dignity so generally attributed to the con- 
duct and manners of the aborigines of America, and there was certainly 
but little resemblance between the blank desert waste, and the thickly 
wooded covers and green prairies of my own distant land. 

We were ordered to take our seats within the circle, and then com- 
menced a repetition of the same questions that had been put to us at 
the beach. As soon as an opportunity occurred, I brought forward 
the subject of taking us to Sweirah for ransom, but it was received with 
no better favor than in the morning. They seemed to be much sur- 
prised that I should know any thing about Sweirah, and could point out 
the direction in which it lay, but they gave us to understand, in the most 


decided manner, that there were insuperable obstacles to taking us there. 
Hamet, drawing his knife, placed the point of it against his breast, inti- 
mating that he would run upon it in going to Mogadore, from which I 
concluded that his band was at feud with some of the northern tribes. 
In the course of the conversation, the word Hoden was frequently men- 
tioned, and also the word Waladah. I knew that Hoden was supposed 
to be a town or station, and was generally put down, probably without 
much accuracy, to the southeast of us. I could form no idea of the 
position of Waladah, but it was not difficult to understand that it was a 
place where it was proposed to carry us for sale as slaves. In such a case 
all hope of redemption was at an end, and the only chance of ultimately 
regaining our freedom would be in making ourselves thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the language, so as to be able to avail ourselves of any 
favorable circum.stances to escape. To acquire the language perfectly, I 
at once resolved should be my chief object. Once master of it, so as to 
pass for an Arab, I could not see how my masters would be able to pre- 
vent me from regaining my freedom. The future was dark and indefinite, 
but not without a few feeble gleams of hope that forbade utter despair. 

I communicated my suspicions and plans to Thompson. The old 
man shook his head despondingly. 

" It may do all very well for you, Mr. Romer, but it wont answer 
for me." 

" Why not?" I replied, as encouragingly as possible. 

"Why, just look at the difference between us. You propose to make 
yourself a regular Arab. Well, you 're young, and with your spare figure, 
dark complexion, and black hair and eyes, in a short time you will look 
like an Arab, but what shall I do, with my light skin and blue eyes. 
Besides, I am too old to learn the language. I might, perhaps, learn to 
parly-voo-fransay through my nose, but I can never get the knack of pull- 
ing my words up by the roots, from the pit of my stomach. No, I feel 
that I shall kill two or three of these chaps before long, and that '11 be 
the end of me." 

I endeavored to comfort the old man, and to inspire him with a more 
hopeful idea of his future fate, but fatigue, hunger, thirst, and the pain 
of his cuts and bruises conspired to depress his spirits, and he refused to 
entertain the belief that he had any prospect of life, much less of liberty. 
We were stretched side by side upon the sand ; a heavy dew was falling, 
and the night wind grew quite chilly. My pea-jacket, which I had taken 
off, and stretched over us, afforded an inadequate protection ; but, notwith- 
standing all the disagreeable and painful circumstances of our situation, 
tired nature exacted from the "restorer" thetribute of her oblivious sweets. 


A Scanty Breakfast — Watering the Camels — A Change of Humor — Plaguing the Women — 
Judicious Flattery — A Pigeon -Wing in the Desert — Working the Pumps — Starting for the 
Interior — Suffering by the Way — Character of the Country— Instinct of the Camels — The 
Wells of Ageda. 

>T early dawn we were aroused, and about a pint of milk and 
water, in which had been mixed a handful of barley-meal, was 
given to us for our breakfast. We begged loudly for more, 
and at last succeeded in getting a part of one of our biscuits, 
which we shared between us. We found our palates not quite so dainty 
as the day before, and the ill flavor of the putrid water no longer excited 
so much disgust. 

Most of the Arabs immediately started for the beach, after giving us 
to understand that the next day we were to take up our line of march 
for the interior. One reason for moving so soon, we found to be the state 
of the wells, which were unusually low for the season, and which promised 
in a day or two to fail entirely. We were taken to these wells, and com- 
pelled to assist nearly the whole day in drawing water. They were situa- 
ted at a little distance from the camp, at the bottom of a cleft in the hills, 
and consisted of two or three natural holes of great depth. A stake was 
made fast across the mouth, with a rude kind of pulley attached to it ; 
through this a rope, with a goat-skin bucket at the end, was rove. By 
the aid of the rope, an Arab descended to the bottom, and filled the 
bucket with the water that slowly percolated through the chinks, from 
some hidden reservoir. When the bucket was filled we walked away with 
the other end of the rope, and drew the bucket to the top, where it was 
emptied into a large calabash by the women, and supplied to the camels. 
As soon as the first camels had been watered they were dispatched to 
the beach, and, with an appearance of haste, in the movements of their 
masters, that induced us to think that the scanty supply of water was not 
alone the cause of our departure. Besides their desire to get us at once to 
market, we concluded that they had fears of a visit from some of their ene- 
mies, or perhaps, friends, who might wish to come in for a share of the spoil. 



I had made up my mind to take my fate as easily z.z possible, and to 
waste no mental energy in useless repinings. Nothing that I could say, 
do, or think, could, for the time, alter my .destiny, and therefore why 
trouble myself with fears, hopes, and regrets, which could have no influ- 
ence in furthering my chief object. There were but two great facts in 
relation to my situation, worthy of serious thought— one, that I was a 
prisoner, and about to be sold into slavery, in which state I should be 
compelled to remain for a year, or perhaps two ; and the other, that I was 
bound to recover my freedom. That my master could not keep me for 
ever was a settled point— a fixed fact, that admitted of no dispute. How 
or by what means my escape was to be effected, it was impossible to say ; 
that was a question that time alone could determine, but, until time did 
so, I was resolved that I would not give myself any trouble, but take 
things easily, and bide the march of fate. Providence, and my own stout 
legs and arms, I felt to be a good dependence. 

As soon as I had formed this resolution, a kind of reckless jollity took 
possession of me, which, at first, excited my companion's surprise, but 
which, before long, exerted an infectious effect upon his feelings. The 
change in our humor at once made a decidedly favorable impression upon 
our masters, and before nightfall we had fairly gained an immunity from 
the wanton annoyances and insults which we had to endure the day be- 
fore. We might have tried to excite their sympathies for our distresses 
in vain, but as soon as they found that we were perfectly reckless, 
impudent, and independent, they began to entertain for us a degree of 

Acting up to the design I had formed of learning the language as soon 
as possible, I lost* no time, but at once commenced an energetic and 
thorough course of practice — asking the names of every thing I could see, 
repeating their phrases, and shouting out the words that I had mastered, 
right or wrong, to the utter astonishment and, at the same time, to the 
high amusement of our masters. I joked, laughed, and scolded with the 
women, ridiculing some and flattering others, and instantly retorting any 
abuse in their own terms, eked out with voluble English and Spanish. 
Several times I received some hard knocks from the enraged women, but, 
by skipping about here and there, and dodging around and under the 
camels, I generally contrived to elude them. There was one skinny old 
hag, with whom, in the course of the day, I had a good deal of amusement. 
She seemed at first to have taken a particular dislike to Jack, and was every 
moment attacking him with words and blows, until I contrived to draw 
her rage upon myself, and at last worry her into terms. I mimicked her 


motions and words, and retorted her curses, until, almost bursting with 
passion, she would rush at me with a heavy stick, when away I would 
skip, cutting up all kinds of queer antics amid the immoderate laughter of 
the other women and of the few men who were looking on. No one 
seemed to enjoy the fun more than the wife of Hamet, who, as it was 
easy to perceive, was as delighted at the old hag's disappointment and 
discomfiture, as at my capers. 

For the twentieth time the old lady came at me, with the kind inten- 
tion of knocking out my brains, expressed in every movement and feature. 
Exerting my agility, I sprung up, and seizing the hump of one of the tall- 
est camels, drew myself on to his back. The astonished animal hopped 
about upon his three legs, while I, vaulting from side to side as my pur- 
suer came round, looked down with the utmost complacency from my 
secure elevation. When the old lady's breath was pretty well exhausted 
I finished the performance by jumping down, and cutting a regular pigeon- 
wing in the sand. The most vigorous and graceful /zVij^^W^ of a Vestris 
or Taglioni never excited greater admiration and applause. The men 
laughed heartily, while the women and children fairly shrieked and yelled 
with delight, and when Jack Thompson capped the climax with a double- 
shuffle, I was really afraid that fat Mrs. Askeiff would go off in a convulsion. 
This would have been a sad misfortune, for, from the instant we had seen her 
round, fat, and comparatively good-humored face, we had marked her out 
for a patron and friend. Luckily an opportunity offered itself for a piece 
of judicious flattery, privately administered, which completed the favor- 
able impression that my saltatory exertions had commenced. Passing 
my hands up and down, at a little distance from my own person, to indi- 
cate her obesity, I bowed, smiled, and exclaimed " Beautiful ! very beau- 
tiful ! " If she had been brought up in an English boarding-school she 
could not have comprehended more readily my words. It would be hard 
to say which was swallowed with the greatest avidity, the delicate compli- 
ment or the bowl of milk and meal with which it was repaid. 

At sunset our master, Hamet, with the other men, returned from the 
beach. After conversing for a few moments with the women, and giving 
some directions about the camels, he beckoned me to follow him, and to- 
gether we moved out from the camp. Turning behind a rock that concealed 
us from view, he stopped, uttered a few words, and pointed to my feet. 
His words were worse than Greek — pure Arabic — and his motions per- 
fectly incomprehensible. He repeated his orders, and at last, with an 
expression of angry impatience, he began to move his own feet. The 
idea broke upon me ; he had heard of my pigeon-wing, and was deter- 



mined to have a private reliearsal for his own particular amusement. Was 
ever any thing more ridiculous ? A captive in the hands of barbarians, 
amid the sands of the great desert, to be taken out behind a rock and re- 
quired to cut a pigeon-wing for the amusement of an old surly Arab! 
Hamet waited until my risibles had composed themselves, when he again 
gave the signal, and the performance commenced. Once, twice, three 
times — and then gravely indicating his satisfaction, he signed me to fol- 
low him back to the huts. A rather large allowance of milk and a whole 
biscuit testified to the liberalizing influence of the pigeon-wing upon his 

-"* A./S 

^--2»-,„ -pSt-^ 

"Seizing the humf of one of the tallest camels , drew myself on to his back." 

" Well, if that is n't the rummest go I 've heard of," exclaimed 
Thompson, when I explained to him the cause of Hamet's unexpected 
liberality. " I 'm glad he did n't call on me for a double-shuffle, for my 
soles wont stand it many times ; and if we are to get our living by dancing, 
what are we to do when our shoes are gone ? I 've known fellows to keep 
themselves above water by working their pumps, but I had no idea that 
the same thing could be done on dry land, or I would have brought 
along an extra pair." 

Before daylight the next morning preparations were commenced for 
the journey. The skin and cloth coverings of the huts were taken off 
and packed away ; the cooking utensils secured, and the camels saddled 


and loaded. Three of these animals were furnished with panniers, in 
which rode the smaller children and two or three women, among whom, 
of course, was Mrs. Hamet Askeiff. The other women, like ourselves, 
were compelled to walk. 

The first day's journey, after leaving the hills, was over a flat pebbly 
plain, perfectly destitute of vegetation, except now and then a thorn-bush 
and a few roots of the salcornia. We passed the skeleton of a camel, and 
not far from it we observed the tracks of an animal of the cat kind. Our 
direction was about east-by-south, and we travelled at least twenty-five 
miles. My companion was exceedingly distressed, and with difficulty 
kept up with the body of the caravan. Not unfrequently his motions had 
to be quickened by applications of the stick. Being younger, and of a 
spare make, and, at the same time, more accustomed to pedestrian exer- 
tion, I did not suffer nearly as much. 

At sundown we encamped on the open plain, with nothing in view 
but the sky above and the vast expanse of low sand-hills around us. The 
camels were unloaded, two or three small tents erected, and, after evening 
prayers, every one received his allowance of meal and water. Thompson 
and myself got each about half a pint. We begged lustily for more, but 
received only an intimation that we had already had more than we de- 
served. Kind Mrs. Hamet, however, took compassion on us, and slily 
slipped into our hands a few dates, as dry and as hard as so many pebbles. 
We swallowed them whole upon a suggestion from Thompson, that " in 
that way they would last the longer, and our stomachs would have some- 
thing to gnaw upon for a week." 

After prayers, and their make-believe ablutions, our masters disposed 
themselves for a smoke and a talk. The tobacco-pouch was produced, 
and the pipe carefully filled, lighted, and passed round. Thompson suc- 
ceeded in begging a mouthful of the weed. The Arabs watched him as 
he rolled it up and thrust it into his mouth, when they burst out into an 
unanimous expression of disgust and contempt. 

" Look ! " they exclaimed, " at the Kaffirs ! see how they pervert God's 
gifts ! Tobacco was made to smoke and to snuff, and the infidel dogs 
(God's curse upon the whole race !) put it in their mouths and eat it. But 
what can you expect of fellows who never pray and who eat pork ! Faugh ! 
Manshallah ! Blessed be God, they '11 all roast yet ! " 

Before sunrise the next morning we were again en route. The charac- 
ter of the country differed but little from that of the day before, with the 
exception that there was a larger portion of rough and rocky surface. Our 
shoes suffered severely, and by the time we had reached our camping 


ground we were but little better than barefoot, and with a sad prospect 
of sore feet before us. In this particular the third day fully realized our 
expectations. The heat of the burning sand, and the sharp points of the 
jagged rocks, made it impossible for us to keep up with the caravan. We 
pointed out to our masters the cause of our loitering, but they only laugh- 
ed and urged us on with sticks and stones. At last my companion gave 
out entirely ; his feet were so lacerated and swollen that he swore he 
could n't and would n't move a step farther. The Arabs, finding that it 
was really impossible for him to move, made him mount on the hinder 
part of a camel, where he had to keepiimseif fromslipping ofT backwards 
by holding on by the tufts of hair on the hump. The rough skin, sharp 
bones, and heavy motion of the animal soon made this mode of travelling 
as distressing as walking. More than once he was about to throw himself 
off, upon the ground, to die ; and nothing but my encouraging exhorta- 
tions prevented him from obeying the dictates of pain and despair. 

At night there was a discussion among our masters concerHing us. 
My progress in the language enabled me to comprehend the general drift 
of the conversation, from which it appeared that we were bound for some 
place by the name of Quahlet, but whether it was the Walet of Mungo Park, 
or the Qualet of Callie, or, as was most probable, a different place from 
either, it was impossible to say. A few days, however, five or six at 
furthest, would, perhaps, elucidate the question ; so, dismissing the sub- 
ject, I composed myself, as tranquilly as possible, to sleep — to sleep, but 
not to dream ; the exigencies of exhausted nature frequently forbid an in- 
dulgence in such luxuries. Nowhere can I recollect that I enjoyed more 
profouud repose than during this first journey in the desert. Queen Mab, 
if she ever drives her team of atomies in that quarter of the world, never 
seemed disposed to pay me a visit, or if she did, found sense, feeling, and 
fancy all engaged, and was denied admission. 

The country, as we advanced, continued to present the same appear- 
ance, a vast plain of sand-hills, until the sixth day, when we entered upon 
a more rocky, and irregular tract. Large masses of a reddish granite were 
scattered about in all directions, sometimes so closely together as to leave 
room for not more than one loaded camel at a time to pass. 

Emerging from this sea of rock, we encamped upon the edge of a plain 
of yellow sand. The ground was hard, the sand-hills few and small, and 
the scene agreeably relieved by several patches of vegetation. A number 
of acacias were in sight, and close around our camp were numerous bush- 
es, upon which the camels were turned loose to graze. 

In the course of the next day we saw several gangs of camels, some 


with loads, moving under the guidance of their masters, and others quiet- 
ly browsing upon the thorn-bushes that grew at distant intervals. Tow- 
ards nightfall two horsemen were seen skirting the edge of the horizon. 
The air was so clear that we could see the slender shafts of their long 
spears, drawn like black lines upon the sky. Hamet pointed to them and 
exclaimed " Ostrich hunters ! " 

We resumed our march again early in the morning, and pressed on 
with rapidity during the greater part of the day. From the motions of the 
camels alone, it was easy to perceive that we were approaching water. 
They no longer straggled wide, or stopped to crop the stunted bushes, 
but with outstretched necks toiled on at a rate which made it extremely 
difScult for me to keep up with them. A ridge of low, whitish-looking 
hills indicated the position of the wells, which, even at the distance of 
ten or fifteen miles, had sent their grateful odors to the keen senses of our 
thirsty beasts. 

About three o'clock in the afternoon we came upon the brink of a 
steep precipice, about fifty feet in height, inclosing on three sides a small 
irregular basin, of perhaps twenty acres in extent. We halted and looked 
down upon the busy scene below. At the bottom of the basin were 
numerous pits, and around three or four of these were collected crowds 
of camels. There were at least three hundred in all, attended by fifty or 
sixty men and women. We noticed also several horses and mules. Hamet 
happening to be in very good humor, condescended to inform us that 
these were called the wells of Ageda, and that they were the only wells 
within five days' journey, and furnished all the water for the town of 
Quahlet, which was half a day farther to the east. 

By making a slight detour we reached a place where the shelving 
precipice allowed our camels to descend without going round to the head 
of the ravine, through which the camels below were ascending and de- 
scending in long strings. 

The path was difificult, and in several places the animals had to jump 
from rock to rock, a distance of six or eight feet, but, under the skilful 
guidance of our masters,, the descent was accomplished in safety, and we 
stood at the bottom of the basin amid the group around the wells. 


Bedouin Salutations— Encampment at the Wells— Cooscoosoo— An Arrival— "Wind Drinkers" 
— A Change of Masters— Parting with Jack— A Ride in the Desert— Sidi Mohammed's 
Douah — Life -in the Douah— Amulets— A Timely Warning — A Delicate Hint. 

^ALAM Ailekom ! Ailekom Salam ! " was reiterated a hundred 
times between our party and the strangers, accompanied with 
the almost interminable string of compliments, inquiries, and 
good wishes which Arab etiquette prescribes for a friendly 
greeting. The ceremony through, and the excitement created by our 
appearance somewhat abated, we were allowed to approach the wells and 
commence drawing water for our camels. 

When we ha-d finished, instead of keeping on to the town, our masters 
made preparations for spending the night upon the spot. A fire was 
kindled, and, after evening prayers, a large bowl of cooscoosoo prepared, 
of which we got a small portion, and found it delicious. It consisted of 
flour, rolled into small round grains, and was cooked by putting it into a 
kind of earthen colander, with holes pierced in the bottom. The colander 
was then fitted into the mouth of an earthen pot, which contained a little 
water, with part of a kid cut in small pieces. The steam, as it arose, 
ascended through the holes in the bottom of the colander, and made its 
way through the mass of cooscoosoo, which, whfen sufficiently cooked, 
was turned out into a large dish, a cavity made in the middle of the pile, 
and the contents of the pot poured into it. A dozen dirty hands were at 
once thrust into the dish, and, by a dexterous twist, the yellow grains 
were rolled into good-sized balls, and jerked into the mouth with wonder- 
ful rapidity. 

Fortunately, in the dish prepared for Hamet and his immediate 
friends, there were a few grains more than was necessary to distend their 
stomachs to within the smallest possible distance of the bursting point, 
so we were allowed to finish the dish, or, as Hamet facetiously expressed 
it, to swallow our " share." 

The night passed pleasantly ; the weather was serene, and the high 
banks on either side protected us from the wind. Several parties, with 



their camels, remained upon the ground, and numerous camp-fires threw 
their flickering lights upon the wild and uncouth groups of animals, and 
upon the rugged boulders and precipitous ridges of the deep basin. Until 
late at night the Arabs remained assembled in front of our tents, where 
they were amused by the performance of a professsional story-teller, who 
recited his tales with much spirit and energy — imitating the voices of the 
different speakers, gesticulating and grimacing with great freedom, and 
accompanying himself with frequent emphatical blows upon a tambourine. 
His longest story was a peculiar version of the " Forty Thieves." In the 
main, he adhered to the plot as we have it in the " Arabian Nights "; but 
there was an infinity of detail that the Eastern racontettr had not dreamed 
of, and which, perhaps, the more polished taste of Yeman would have 
rejected as puerile and tiresome, but which seemed to constitute the chief 
charm of the story to the unrefined auditors of the Sahara. 

The next morning, at sunrise, as we were getting ready to set out for 
Quahlet, three or four horsemen dashed up to the wells at full speed, 
shouting at the top of their voices, '^ Fine Nazarin?" "Where is the 
Christian ? " 

We were pointed out to them, when they galloped toward us, jumped 
to the ground, and, leaving their horses unattended, advanced close to us, 
and began a minute inspection of our persons. They were horrible- 
looking fellows, worse, even, than our masters, or any Arabs we had yet 
seen. Their forms were literally nothing but skin, sinew, and bone. 
Their eyes, deep sunk in their heads, emitted a lurid light, and a dark 
scowl was carved in permanent lines upon their sharp angular features. 
Each one wore a haick, and over it a jallabeali of coarse woollen, re- 
sembling, in shape, a shirt with a hood attached to it. Their horses had 
very much the look of their masters ; at first sight they would have been 
taken for broken-down hacks, but, upon closer examination, the clean 
limbs, small head, clear eye, and expanded nostril, would have indicated 
their descent from the famous SJirubah Errech, or " wind drinker " of the 
desert, so called, partly as a metaphor for speed, and partly because of a 
habit they universally have, of thrusting out their tongue, with a peculiar 
noise, when running. 

After the new-comers had examined us to their satisfaction, they 
withdrew with our masters, and commenced chaffering about our price. In 
an hour or two it was announced to us that I had been purchased by the 
strangers, but that Thompson must accompany his first masters to the 
town, where he would be sold to a Moor, who wanted to take him on to 
some place still farther in the interior. I heard the name Al Araiouan 


pronounced, but I could not make out distinctly whether that was the 
place where the Moor, whom the new-comers represented to be ready to 
purchase Thompson, resided or not. 

The news that we were to be separated occasioned us the greatest 
distress. There is nothing like a partnership in misfortune to originate 
and .strengthen a feeling of friendship; and nowhere, perhaps, could a 
slight acquaintance ripen into intimacy more readily than amid the deso- 
lation of the desert. The old man fairly wrung his hands in despair 
when informed of our doom. He urgently joined me in my entreaties to 
my new master, that he would also purchase him, but without success. 

" Never mind," said I, " we will meet yet, and that too under more 
favorable circumstances than at present. Keep up a good heart, as I 
shall, and trust in Providence. I feel perfectly confident that we shall 
together escape from these miserable wretches. And it will not be a 
great while either before we do so." 

" I hope so, but I must say that I don't see much chance of it. How- 
ever, God bless you, Mr. Romer, and I hope he '11 restore you to freedom, 
whatever he does with old Jack Thompson. When you get clear, if you 
will recollect to write, or send word to the old woman in Liverpool — you 
know the street, — you will do me a favor. But you wont forget it, I 
know. God bless you, my boy! Good-bye!" 

We held each other by the hand. Our masters made a movement of 
impatience. " God bless you ! Good-by ! " I exclaimed, and dropping 
his hand, turned to conceal my tears. Upon looking around, Thompson 
was at some distance, slowly following the camels of Hamet. He looked 
back, waved his hands in adieu, and then steadily plodded onward. 

Seldom has my heart felt more heavy than at that moment. It was 
not merely the peculiar circumstances of our position that made the part- 
ing so hard. There were points in the character of Jack that had served 
to create a strong feeling of attachment and respect. I should have 
parted with him, under any circumstances, with regret ; judge then of my 
feelings, when bidding him adieu, probably for ever, amid the wilds of the 

Leaving the hills, my new master, whose name I was informed was 
Sidi Mohammed ben Alum, turned off in a direction due north, accom- 
panied by one of his companions; the rest of the party setting off at 
full speed towards the southwest. 

My feet were in such a condition that, although I had bound them up in 
strips of clothing torn from the skirts and lining of my pea-jacket, I walked 
with pain, and with difficulty kept up with my master's horse, whose pace 


was restrained to the slowest rate. After moving along in this way for 
two or three hours, Mohammed began to get impatient, and finding that 
his curses had no effect in quickening my motions, he asked me if I could 
ride. His surprise was great when I replied in the affirmative. " How is 
it," said he, " that you who always live in houses upon the water, should 
know how to manage a horse ? " 

Nothing could be more admirable than the steadiness and ease with 
which the gaunt half-starved animals beneath us kept up their stride. 
Going ahead with a long swinging gait seemed positively more natural 
and less fatiguing to them than standing still ; and for four or five hours 
we kept under way at different rates of speed, according to the nature of 
the ground, but without once fully stopping to breathe. 

Our way lay over an extensive plain, covered in some places with 
loose flints, and scattered here and there with thorns. From this we 
passed through a long valley, overgrown with thistles, and again an open 
tract of moving sand, beyond which we came to a range of rocky emi- 
nences, at the base of which was situated a douah, or village, composed 
of about thirty tents, arranged in two parallel lines. For a distance of 
several miles around, the plain was covered with scattered thorns and 

As soon as we came in sight of the douah a number of black slaves 
ran forward to meet us. Taking hold of Mohammed's foot, as it was 
turned up along the horse's flank by the short stirrup, they applied their 
heads to the sole, and repeatedly kissing the hem of his kaick, welcomed 
him back with a profusion of compliments. The women and children 
too, came forward, and repeated in a very submissive tone their greetings. 
Mohammed's wives arranged themselves before him, crossed their arms 
upon their breasts, and bowed. He advanced towards them and held out 
his hand ; they all touched it and then applied their own hands to their 
mouths, heads, and breasts. The whole ceremony was well calculated to 
make an impression upon strangers, and, had I not already learned that 
appearances were not to be relied on, I should have gathered the idea 
that Mohammed was a good husband, kind father, and humane master ; 
and that his polite dependants were really ■ glad to see him back. My 
hesitation in admitting the evidence of this excessive ceremonial polite- 
ness saved me from a great mistake, for a more complete devil in human 
form, and one more generally hated and feared in all the relations of life, 
it would have been hard to find even among the inhuman fiends of the 

It would occupy too much space were I to note the course of my life 


from day to day from this time forward for several months. The time, 
although fertile in events of interest to me, would seem monotonous 
and tiresome to the reader if dwelt upon in all its details. It is suf- 
ficient to say that I was soon established in all the duties and privi- 
leges of a slave. The duties consisted mainly in watching the camels 
while feeding — driving- them to the hills, and collecting the roots of a 
kind of thorn for fuel. The privileges consisted in sleeping outside of 
the tents, exposed to the sand winds and the chilly dews, and supping 
once a day upon the refuse of the meals for the black slaves, who, be- 
ing believers, were entitled to, and received a degree of favor and con- 
sideration that no Kafifir could expect. 

Notwithstanding my sufferings and privations, my health continued 
good. Every ounce of superfluous flesh being gone, my frame rapidly 
became hardened to the sinewy consistence of a Bedouin's body, and 
soon acquired a wonderful power of enduring fatigue, hunger, and thirst. 
My progress in the language was rapid, so much so, that before the year 
was out I spoke it fluently. I felt that my capacities for action were 
nearly reaching their perfect development, and that in a short time it 
would be necessary to mould into some degree of form and consistency 
the vague plans which had been revolving in my head. As I frequently 
had to drive the camels a distance of two days' journey, and remain 
alone with my gang in the plain, sometimes four or five days, 1 had 
abundant opportunity for meditation, while, by close attention to the 
conversation of the Bedouins, I was able to pick up a great deal of in- 
formation in relation to the desert, without exciting their suspicion. 

One of the most serviceable accomplishments, I knew to be the art of 
writing charms for the cure of diseases, or for the protection of the wearer 
from all evil influences. These charms invariably consist of v^ses from 
the Koran, which are frequently written upon scraps of paper, and worn 
about the person, at other times written with chalk upon a board. The 
chalk marks are then washed off, and the water drunk by the patient with 
the usual reverential expressions of faith in the unity of God and the 
sanctity of his prophet. As it was impossible for me to learn to read and 
write the Arabic, I adopted the plan of copying repeatedly all the charms 
that came in my way, until I had fixed the turn of each letter in my 
mind. In this manner I accumulated quite a stock, which, without 
knowing the meaning of any of them, it was in my power to reproduce 
at any moment. 

I resolutely persisted in making myself of as little use to the Arabs as 
possible. I could do nothing well, except watch and drive the camels. 


There was some danger, however, of carrying the thing too far, and I took 
timely warning, from a remark that I accidentally overheard Mohammed 
make, to the effect that he had a great mind to sell me to the workers of 
the salt mines below Quahlet. This idea was warmly seconded by sev- 
eral of his friends, particularly by an old talb, or priest, who had been the 
most strenuous in his exertions to convert me to the true faith. 

" The Nazarin is good for nothing, why have him about. The sight 
of him is bad for the eyes." 

I took the hint. I had no idea of being sold into the salt mines, 
where my personal movements would be restrained so as to render escape 
perhaps impossible, and I at once resolved that the old priest's eyes should 
no longer be troubled with the sight of me. Fortunately events occurred 
a day or two after that enabled me to carry my long-cherished designs 
into execution. 


i_^— ^■^— 

































A Prize— A Depot of Provisions— A Heirie— The Talayeh, the Sebay, and the Tasay— An Ar- 
rival at the Douah — A Search for the Heirie — A Ride with Soonshoo— Secreted Stores — 
Milking the Camels — The Devil's Month — Stretching out into the Desert — Soonshoo's 
Alarm — A Man Overboard — Assisting Soonshoo to Remount— Good-by to the Oasis — A 
Message to Fatimah — Soonshoo Sets Off for Home — A Change of Course — Heirie Riding 
— Bedouin Boast. 

iT was one evening, at the close of the nineteenth month of my 
captivity, that, being at some distance from the camp, a dark 
speck appeared upon the distant horizon, which my keen and 
practised vision at once discovered to be a camel. I supposed, 
at first, that it had a rider, and that it was, perhaps, the avant-coureur of a 
party who were coming to visit us ; but upon watching the animal for 
awhile, it became evident that there were no others in company, and that 
he was without a master. Upon coming to this conclusion I started off 
for the animal with all speed. Could I have been seen streaming along, 
bare-foot and bare-legged, with a dirty piece of cotton around my head, 
and the rags and tags of a tattered haick fluttering in the wind, not one 
of my Christian friends would have dreamed that I was aught other than a 
genuine wild Arab. 

The last rays of the twilight lingering over the scene sufficed to satisfy 
me that no Arab was near, so making the camel kneel, I mounted him, 
and directed his course towards the camp. The animal was much fatigued 
and evidently in want of water ; but the readiness with which he stretched 
out at the word of command, into a long, rolling, jolting, but rapid pace, 
showed that he was of a better breed than the ordinary pack camel, and 
that he had, at least, some of the blood of the high-bred dromedary, so 
much valued for their extraordinary bottom and speed. 

Before coming in sight of the camp, I took the precaution of stopping 
and hiding a bag of dates that hung at the saddle-bow in a secret hiding- 
place, where I had already accumulated several articles that might some 
day come in play, such as a large water skin, a wooden bowl, and a small 
bag of meal. It must not be supposed that I had been able to obtain 



these articles without a good deal of difficulty. My stock of food, small 
as it was, required months of gradual accretion— every handful that I 
could save, or steal, being carefully added, until the bag acquired a 
weight, which, expressed in the equivalent of sustentation, might be 
safely put down as equal to at least a month above the point of actual 

It was quite dark when I rode up to the tents, and threw myself from 
the camel. Most of the men were away upon some expedition, but those 
who were at home, including my master Mohammed, immediately gath- 
ered around. 

"You have done well, Rooinah" said Mohammed. " He has lost his 
master. We must take care of him. What is one man's misfortune is 
another man's good luck. Blessed be the name of the Prophet ! Let us 
see what God's gift is worth." 

Torches were lighted, and the Arabs commenced an examination of 
the animal. At once several voices exclaimed, ''' A heirie ! a heirie ! " 
Sidi Mohammed evinced the highest exultation, and all the party mani- 
fested their satisfaction at what they unanimously pronounced to be a 
piece of good-fortune. The camel was examined with the closest atten- 
tion, and his points discussed with as much interest as were ever those of 
a race-horse by a party of turf-men. There seemed to be no doubt that 
the animal was a tasay heirie. For the first time in his life, Mohammed 
spoke pleasantly to me. 

It may be well to explain that a heirie is of a peculiar breed of camels, 
famous all over the desert for their great endurance and wonderful speed. 
They are to the common camel what the racer is to the cart-horse, and as 
much pains are taken to preserve the purity of their blood as are ever 
bestowed upon the thorough-bred champions of the turf. As in the case 
of the race-horse, there are certain points, consisting mainly in the greater 
fineness and compactness of the frame, by which the breed can be at once 
recognized. Of course there is a great deal of difference in the powers of 
different animals, depending upon some accidental peculiarity of structure, 
and perhaps upon a greater or less taint of common blood ; but it must 
be a very poor heirie that cannot far surpass, in the important qualities 
of wind and speed, the best of the ordinary camel. Inferior heiries, called 
talayeh, will perform three moderate days' journey in one, or about sixty 
miles a day ; and this they can do for several days in succession. A bet- 
ter class, denominated sebay, will go seven days' journey in one, or a hun- 
dred and twenty miles ; and the fleetest, called tasay, have been known to 
go at the rate of nine days' journey, or a hundred and sixty miles per day. 


A heirie of this last kind is of course rare, and exceedingly valuable, being 
worth three or four hundred times the usual price of a pack-camel. 

It was expected by my masters that so valuable an animal would not 
be long without some inquiries after him, and the best means of securing 
him from his owners were openly discussed. The third morning after- 
wards, I was directed to ride him to a distant well, that was but little 
used, and where we should be but little likely to meet any other families of 
the oasis. I had just ridden up on my return, when a couple of horse- 
men belonging to our family or douah, dashed into camp from the wells 
of Ageda. They looked at the camel with some surprise, asked a few 
questions, and then announced that his owner, with a large party of 
friends, was at no great distance behind — that they had met them in the 
basin af Ageda, where they made a great ado about their loss — that the 
animal had wandered from them while on their way from Hoden to their 
home in the oasis of Bahga, and that they were determined to search the 
whole length and breadth of the oasis of Quahlet to find him. 

" God send them good eyesight ; they will need it to find him," 
exclaimed Hamet. 

" Selme ! Fatimah ! " he continued, calling to his wives, " bring the 
dates ! bring some bread and a skin of water, quick ! hurry ! Here, Roomah, 
fasten these articles,' and now you and Soonshoo mount and take your 
course to the 'devil's mouth' ; when you get there, make the heirie lie 
down in just the spot where we found our stray camel the other day. 
You and Soonshoo will keep watch over him, and don't you stir until I 
come. I will be with you as soon as these people are gone." 

Obeying the order we mounted the kneeling heirie. As the director 
of his motions I occupied the front seat, with my legs closed upon his 
neck, while Soonshoo, a little bandy-legged black slave, was a-straddle 
behind the hump, and holding on by the long hair. 

In about an hour we came to the spot where I had concealed my 
stock of provisions. Little Soonshoo's eyes opened with astonishment 
when he saw the articles. " Ah, Roomah" he exclaimed, " what an 
admirable thief ! you beat us all. We steal only a little milk or a few 
dates, but you steal things by the bagful. But what are you going to 
do with all these articles ? " 

" I '11 show you, you little rascal," said I, attaching to the saddle my 
bag of meal, dates, and my goat-skin bottle. " Come, mount. Do you 
see those milch camels yonder ? The fellow in charge of them is stowed 
away under some thorn-bush, sound asleep, I '11 venture to say ; we '11 
have our fill of milk for once, if we never do again." 


In a few minutes we came up with the group of camels grazing, and, 
dismounting, we tied up the foreleg of our heirie and proceeded at once 
to milking the flock. I gave Soonshoo the wooden bowl, while I milked 
directly into the mouth of the skin. He imagined that we were only to 
help ourselves to a drink ; but when he had filled the bowl, I turned it 
into th« bottle, and, to his utter astonishment, directed him to fill it 

" But Mohammed ! What will he say ? He '11 break every bone in our 
bodies ! " 

" Never mind Mohammed," I replied. " I '11 take all tlie beating. Fill 
the bowl." 

" Well do our masters call you the son of Eblis" replied Soonshoo. 
" Where will your courage stop ? You will dare some day to steal the 
haick from Mohammed's back. But mind, if this is known, I shall put all 
the blame upon you." 

" Yes, and the first thing you do will be to tell of it, in order to have 
me flogged. I know you, you little black rascal ; but never mind, milk 
away, I '11 take all the blame." 

Two hours brought us to the " devil's mouth," where we were to 
secrete ourselves. The " mouth " consisted of a few low rocks at the 
commencement of an extensive reach of loose sand, which was utterly 
destitute of vegetation. 

The little black shouted, pointed to the rocks, and vehemently insisted 
that I was making a great mistake in altering my course. " Stop ! Roomah ! " 
he exclaimed, "there is the 'mouth.' Why don't you hold up? Son of 
Satan, you are going out into the open desert ! Stop, I tell you, Kaffir ! 
dog! I '11 have you flogged till there 's as many holes in your skin as 
there is in my cousad." 

Finding that his cries received no attention, and that I steadily per- 
sisted in pushing out into the desert, the fellow let go his hold, and, at no 
little risk to his bones, allowed himself to slip down from his elevated 
position and roll heels over head upon the sand. I immediately stopped 
the heirie and made him kneel, at the same time sternly ordering Soonshoo 
to remount. " Mount, mount, you little villain ! Do you hesitate? Look 
at this," and I flourished my camel goad around his ears, making him 
dodge and hop about with extraordinary agility for such a corpulent and 
sturdy subject. 

" Mohammed shall know this," he shouted, " you son of Shetan ! " 

" You are mistaken," I replied, " I 'm Shetan himself. Mount, mount 
quickly! You wont? Well, I must make you." Catching him by the 



back of the neck I shook him a few times, and then gave him a kick that 
lifted him fairly on to the back of the kneeling camel. " Now, be cautious, 
and keep your seat ; if you tumble off again I '11 put the evil eye on 
you, and change you into a baboon." 

At the end of about two hours, having, as near as I could judge, made 
some fifteen miles, from the "devil's mouth," I halted and dismounted. 
Making Soonshoo do the same, I untied the bottles of milk and water,, 
and poured out a portion of both, until the bowl, which held nearly a 
pint and a half, was filled to the brim. Into this I threw a handful of 
meal, and told Soonshoo, who was holding the bowl, to drink. Fear 

" Good-by, my dear Soonshoo ! ** 

checking his usual greediness, he obeyed with a timid air, and after a few 
swallows handed the bowl towards me. 

" Drink it up ! finish the whole of it ; you know that 's the way you 
have always done whenever our mistress gave you any thing to share with 
me. Drink it all, you '11 need it before you get home." 

" In the name of the Prophet, tell me, O Roomah, where you are 
going to take me. Let us go back ; there is nothing before us for forty 
days but the broad desert. If we go far into it we shall be lost ; I will 
say nothing to Mohammed about coming here, or about milking the cam- 
els, or about " 

" No lies, you little villain ! save your tongue until you get to camp. 


and then you may tell Mohammed what you please. Here, take these 
dates, and tie them up in a corner of your cousab." 

Securing all my bottles and bags, and tightening the girths of my sad- 
dle, I mounted my camel and made him rise, leaving the black standing 
upon the ground and looktng^ on with the strongest expression of aston- 
ishment depicted in his sable visage. 

" Good-by, my dear Soonshoo ; I sha'n't see you again, so take good 
care of yourself. You know your way , it 's a straight course back to the 
' devil's mouth.' By the time you get there it will be quite late, and 
your short legs will be very tired, so you will have to go into the sand- 
hollow between the rocks and take a good long sleep. The next day you 
can set out for the camp, which you will reach by sundown. If you are 
thirsty to-morrow you can milk the camels, you know, if you come across 
any, and put the blame all upon me. When you get in you must bid 
Mohammed adieu for me. Tell him that if he wants to see me again he 
must come to Sweirah — that if he had taken me there himself he should 
have had a large ransom in powder, cloth, and guns ; but that he would n't 
believe my word, and I must now look out for myself. Give my love to 
our mistresses, and if Fatimah inquires after me, tell her that I shall 
always think of her as one of the most ugly, loathsome animals that 
Allah ever suffered to creep about upon the face of the globe. Tell her that 
it I do go to hell, as she has so often predicted, it is some consolation to 
know that she has got no soul and can't come there too. Good-by, Soon- 
shoo ! You must ply your legs, my little friend^ or you wont get sight of 
the rocks before dark. Good-by ! " 

I waved my hand to the stupefied Soonshoo, and then adjusting my- 
self in the saddle, gave the word to my gallant heirie, who started off at 
a pace that would have tasked a good trotter on a smooth road, to keep 
way with, even for half an hour. On looking back, I could seethe black, 
standing, for some time, in the position that 1 left him in ; but, at last, 
apparently awaking to the reality of his situation, he turned, and with 
desperate energy commenced running in the direction of the "mouth." 
He soon tired of that gait, and the last that I could see of him he was 
trudging along more slowly, most probably pondering the wonderful 
story he had to tell of the son of Shetan, who had carried him off nearly 
two days' journey into the desert, and had left him to find his way back 
on foot. 

Instead of continuing my course to the north, as soon as Soonshoo 
was fairly out of sight I hauled my heirie's head around due east. My 
object had been to impress the black, and through him, his masters, with 


the idea that I had started for Sweirah or Mogadore, in the southern 
extremity of the kjngdom of Morocco, and thus throw them off my track, 
should they, as they most probably would, undertake to follow me. Mo- 
hammed would readily credit the idea ; in fact, had I been going that 
routC; it would have been impossible, by any doublings or maskings, to 
make him believe that I had taken any other, and this was one reason 
why I had deemed it best to merely make a feint at Sweirah, but, in 
reality, to plunge into the midst of the Sahara. Besides this, there were 
insuperable objections to continuing my course towards Mogadore ; it was 
in that direction that the owners of my camel resided ; there was, also, 
much risk of falling in with some of my old friends belonging to the 
family of my first master, Hamet Askeiff ; and there was the small chance 
of making my way alone, without suspicion, through the populous dis- 
tricts on the northern border. My true plan I concluded to be, to press 
on easterly until I reached some of the great caravan tracks, in the neigh- 
borhood of which I might find a residence, until an opportunity present- 
ed of joining a kafifila going north, and thus, as an obscure individual 
member of a great multitude, emerge from the desert at some point on 
the coast of Barbary, as Fez, Tunis, Tripoli, or, perhaps, Cairo. Such a 
course would be divested of all ground for suspicion, and would leave 
Mohammed and his friends completely at fault. 

It was with an indescribable rush of feeling- — a perfect whirlwind of 
emotion — that I wheeled my heirie short round, and shouted a few en- 
couraging words to the willing beast. There was something in the idea 
of unrestrained freedom — something in the all-pervading sense of de- 
pendence upon naught save the blessing of God, and my own strength 
and courage, that overbore fear, doubt, hesitation, and suppressed all con- 
temptible repinings and all the agitations, even of hope. There was no 
moving object in sight. Around lay the desert, and before me stretched 
its interminable wastes, where for hundreds of miles no green shrub grew, 
where the foot of no living thing, save that of the occasional wanderer, 
had ever printed its moving sands. I was alone, but I was free ! Once I 
was alone upon the sea, but how different this solitude of the desert. 
There I was the slave of circumstances, here their equal ; here was action, 
energy, volition. If conquered in a contest with fate, there was the 
pleasure of fighting, if not the joy of victory. One case required patience 
and fortitude, the other simply courage. Ah ! how much more pleasant 
to attack and repel, than to await and endure. 

The rapid motion of my heirie exhilarated me. To skim along on a 
dromedary, at a steady pace of ten miles an hour, produces a feeling as 


near to that of ubiquity as it is given to man to know. On horseback 
one may attain a greater speed, but it is for a short time, and there is the 
disagreeable sense of exhausted wind and tired muscles — a sympathetic 
feeling of the fallibility of horse-flesh. By steamer or rail-car one may 
travel much faster, but in straight lines, and on given courses. Stick to 
the track is the law of such motion, and a sense of confinement the re- 
sult. But with the lithe frame and indefatigable sinews of a thorough- 
bred dromedary beneath you, and the broad desert around you, there is, 
besides the full joy of rapid motion, a deep sense of freedom in azimuth 
that is perfectly enchanting, and a most refreshing feeling of reliance 
upon the inexhaustible energies and unfailing wind of the animal you 
bestride. You need not trouble yourself about your beast. Be assured 
that he can stand it as long as his rider. Be assured that he will almost 
jolt the heart out of you, make your chylopoietic viscera " chassez and 
cross over," and semi-luxate every bone in your body, before he will give 
out. " I 'm a man," gasconades a Bedouin. " I can back a heirie at full 
speed for a week ! " There is meaning in the boast. " It takes a man," 
thought I, as I tightened my sash, pulled a piece of haick around my face 
to keep off the sand wind, and took a steady strain upon the halter that 
served to support my heirie's outstretched neck and head — " It takes a 
man, and there is deep pleasure in feeling equal to the demand." 

For three hours we kept under way, until just at nightfall we arrived 
at a small hollow — where grew a few bushes — the extreme outposts of 
the oasis. Here I decided to stop for the night, and allow my heirie an 
opportunity of nibbling a few mouthfuls, the last that he would most 
probably get for many days. 




{' tf 'iK'^ --^ 






Sunrise in the Desert — A Sand Wind — A Dead Camel — Sunset — A Good Day's Travel — Char- 
acter of the Country — Encamping for the'Night — Electrical Phenomena — Position of the 
Traveller — Threatening Appearances — A Sand Storm — A Runaway Heirie — Finding . a 
Well — A Loaded Camel Buried in the Sand — Examination of his Load — A Complete 

j\HE first glimmeriugs of morning twilight found me mounted, 
and at least an hour's distance from my resting-place in the 
sand hollow, where I had halted my dromedary the night be- 
fore. The short-lived crepusculum was soon succeeded by the 
full light of the sun, who rose from his bed of sand with a remarkably 
lurid and bloated countenance, that seemed to indicate any thing rather 
than a pleasant night's repose. Instead of looking like a bridegroom, 
fresh from his chamber, he had much more the appearance of an old de- 
bauchee, who had been keeping late hours and bad company. 

As he rose the wind rose : the sharp, fine grains of sand flew with 
such force as to make the skin tingle severely where they impinged, but 
it was some comfort to reflect that the wind would have the effect of ob- 
literating our track. As we were travelling directly against it, some part 
of its force was due to the velocity with which we moved. More than 
once we were compelled to abate our speed, and even to stop and turn 
our backs to it, until the whirling gust had swept past. 

As the day advanced, the fierce red sun shot down his burning rays, heat- 
ing the naked plain and the dusty air almost to a furnace heat. In the 
intervals of the gusts the surface of the parched ground glimmered, and 
glowed through the refracting currents of the air, like objects seen through 
the waving vapor surrounding a hot stove-pipe, and suggested, more than 
once, the idea of the country schoolhouse in winter, the huge stove with 
its basin of water on top, its piles of green wood drying beneath it, and 
the shivering, red-cheeked, and red-nosed urchins arrayed in rows around 
it. But, as has been frequently observed, a man can't hold fire by think- 
ing of the frosty Caucasus ; so neither could my recollections of red noses 
and cold feet, or any of the " please-let-me-go-to-the-stove-and-warm-my- 



self " associations of boyhood modify the oppressive influences of the sun, 
wind, and dust. 

Something crackled beneath the feet of my dromedary ; it was the 
fieshless skeleton of a camel, half buried in the sand — some luckless way- 
farer, who had, at last, succumbed to the depressing power of heat, thirst, 
and fatigue ! 

Towards night the wind ceased entirely, but, although a perfect calm 
prevailed, the atmosphere remained filled with particles of dust, which 
seemed to have been so finely comminuted as to have lost the property 
of weight. The atmosphere overhead had a peculiarly hazy and purplish 
appearance ; huge currents of slow-moving air crept like monstrous ghosts, 
with grotesque forms, and with mysterious movements, along the surface. 
The sun sank down, but long before he reached the horizon his fiery 
face was merged in the glowing wall, that, like a great rim of red-hot 
copper, bounded the vision on every side. 

At dark we encamped on the open plain. I allowed myself not half 
a pint of milk and water, but I could not resist the temptation of washing 
the nostrils of my heirie, and squeezing a few drops of the precious fluid 
into his mouth. According to my reckoning we had made about ninety 
miles. It would not have been difficult, despite the wind, which is 
always a great drawback, to have made at least twenty-five miles more, 
but, after having obtained a good ofifing from the oasis, I had judged it 
best to husband the powers of my heirie, and, accordingly, had reduced 
his pace to one at which he would be the most likely to hold out the 

Early in the morning we were under way again. The weather was 
similar to that of the day before, with the exception that the wind did 
not blow quite so hard, and there were longer intervals of dead calm. 
The surface and soil were somewhat different, the sand hills were not so 
high, there was a greater proportion of pebbles and angular fragments 
of stone, and in some places a stratum of dark granite showed itself 
above ground, either running along in level plains, or shooting up in 
irregular and jagged pinnacles of from five to fifteen feet in height. At 
one spot these were so numerous and so uniform in size, as to put me in 
mind of a ploughed sandy clearing, with the dark stumps standing in it. 
Several fragments of skeletons were passed, and, moving rapidly among 
the rocks was an enormous serpent, full thirty feet in length. As I was 
wholly unarmed, prudence prevailed over curiosity, and the monster 
was allowed a wide berth, of which he gladly availed himself, to make his 


Encamped again at night on the open plain, having made about one 
hundred miles. The evening breeze came fitfully, and with a peculiar 
heaviness, that was attributable more to its electrical state than to any 
change in temperature. For several hours there was a succession of 
flashes of electricity, without thunder. Any one would have sworn that 
we were about to have a shower, but, before morning, all indications of it 
had disappeared. 

The third day passed with no unusUal occurrence. Nothing could be 
more disheartening than the baleful aspect of the sky, as the sun went 
down behind the sand-hills in the west. Words will not convey an idea 
of the scene, or of my sensations, or, at least, it would require too many of 
them to do so ; and if, therefore, the reader has any curiosity upon the 
subject, the best way of gratifying it is to imagine himself on a sandy plain, 
and, for firmament, a huge red-hot potash kettle inverted over him. My 
poor dromedary seemed to feel the depressing influences of the weather. 
When we stopped, which, we did after having achieved a distance of one 
hundred miles, he evinced a degree of restlessness and irritability, that 
alarmed me not a little for the state of his health 

According to the most accurate computation that the circumstances 
of the case would permit, we had travelled a distance of three hundred 
miles from the douah of Sidi Mohammed, and were now somewhere near 
the usual caravan route, from Timbuctoo to Taffalet, in Morocco ; and 
within at least three days' journey, or sixty miles of the town of Toude- 
ney, where is a great salt mine, and in the neighborhood of which are the 
wells of Teleg. To the south lay the town of El Arouan, five or six days' 
journey ; to the east, about the same distance, the oasis of Mabewah, in- 
habited by the Wolled sleni errife ; to the northwest, I supposed, was 
El Kabla, the oasis of the Wolled D'leime. It will be seen that I had a 
pretty general idea of the geography of the desert, as understood by the 
Arabs ; but, for more particular information respecting my position, and 
the exact bearing and distance of places, it would be necessary to seek 
information of some one better acquainted with the immediate locali- 
ties. This I hoped soon to be able to do, as I was confident that there 
were human beings within at least fifty miles of me. 

The morning of the fifth day dawned with a still more lurid and 
threatening aspect than had been worn by either of the preceding ones. 
Shortly after sunrise the wind increased in violence, lifting immense 
clouds of sand, and hurrying them with a gyratory motion across the 
plain. For some time we struggled on, but in a few hours the sun be- 
came hidden and the horizon completely shut out. The movements of 


my beast plainly indicated his desire to stop, and as the only object of 
moving now was the chance of falling in with travellers, I judged it best 
to obey the dictates of his instinct. No hill, rock, or bush was there to 
afford us a shelter, and as the wind momentarily increased in force, we 
were compelled to crouch, as best we might, before it on the open plain. 

Darker and darker grew the scene. Thicker and thicker came the 
clouds of sand. Fiercer and fiercer howled the sweeping blast. A few 
dim rays of yellowish light alone had power to penetrate the dense 
masses of dust that enveloped us. My heirie buried his nose in 
the sand, finding it easier to breathe beneath the surface than above it, 
and wrapping my face in my haick, I followed his example. The op- 
pression of the chest — the accumulation of sand in the lungs and air pas- 
sages — the heat — the thirst — were terrible. 

It required frequent exertion to keep from being buried alive. Every 
little while a solid sand-hill would be hurled upon us to a depth of three 
or four feet, when we would have to struggle up from it in utter dark- 
ness, and shaking it off, resume our prostrate position. I lay close by 
the side of my heirie, with the halter in my hand. Upon rising and 
giving his head a slight pull, he would surge forward and backward, and 
heave himself up like a ship after having been boarded by a heavy sea, 
and then immediately settle down again to his former place without 
stirring from his tracks. 

The feeble glimmerings of light died away, and it w'^s night ; but 
there was no moderation in the force of the gale. The light returned, 
and I concluded that it was again day ; but fiercer flew the sands, and 
louder howled the whistling blasts. I had tasted nothing now for nearly 
twenty-four hours, not even a drop of water. With my eyes shut, I felt 
for the skin, and untying its mouth took about half a pint. It was evi- 
dent that the water was evaporating beneath the extreme aridity of the 
air ! " O Thou, who boldest the wind in the hollow of thy hand, save 
me ! save me ! " 

Notwithstanding the sip of water, which was all that I could allow 
myself, the sensation of thirst grew in fierceness. Without the practice 
and the training that I had had un'der the privations and sufferings of 
the oasis, it would have been ungovernable. What reason, thought I, 
to thank God for all things ; even for the barbarities of Mohammed and 
the hatred of his wives ! Besides the sensation of thirst, there was the pros- 
tration of strength, the exhaustion and agony of obstructed respiration. 
An occasional low moan from my companion added to my own sufferings 
the awful apprehension of losing in him my only earthly dependence. 


Night again came and passed, and no change in the force of the wind, al- 
though it had varied in direction, until about the middle of the forenoon, 
when suddenly it fell to a light breeze, and in a few minutes to a perfect 
calm. The reader may imagine my physical exhaustion, upon rising and 
looking around once more upon the open day. But after clearing out 
my air-passages, eyes, and ears, getting a good drink of milk and water, 
and inhaling a few mouthfuls of the comparatively clear air, my strength 
began to return. My friend and companion was also much weakened, 
but after performing the same kind offices for him that I had for myself, 
and giving him about a pint of water, he recovered rapidly, and in two or 
three hours was quite ready for a start. 

At the north there was something that appeared like a range of small 
hills, and towards them I directed my course, but my heirie seemed to be 
of a different opinion, and resolutely persisted in turning his head to the 
southeast. Recolketing the wonderful stories told by the Arabs, of the 
camel's power of discovering water at a distance, I concluded that it 
would be best to let him have his own way. We moved off at a slow 
and steady pace for three hours, through an unvarying succession of sand- 
hills without seeing any thing to attract attention, except a few scattered 
twigs of thorns, which had been torn off by the wind. It was now about 
an hour to sunset, and, exhausted as I was, I felt it almost impossible to 
keep my seat any longer, so selecting a spot to stop, I halted my beast 
and dismounted. Imagine my consternation when while standing care- 
lessly by his side, he suddenly jerked his halter from my hand and started 
off at a sharp trot. Away he went at the top of his speed, and away 
went, with a startling whir, the flock of hopes that, through all difficul- 
ties and dangers, had hitherto nestled around my heart. I pressed after 
him with desperate energy, when suddenly he disappeared entirely from 
sight. The view was quite uninterrupted clear to the horizon, and it was 
not easy to imagine what had become of him, until upon arriving upon 
the brink of a deep hollow of some thirty feet in depth, and about ten 
acres in area, I saw him slowly moving about with his head close to the 
ground. To descend the declivity and secure the fellow was the work of 
an instant. Having tied up his foreleg, I had leisure to look around while 
seating myself upon the ground to recover my breath, and was at once 
convinced that the hollow contained water, the scent of which had led my 
heirie into his alarming but lucky escapade. The formation of the ground 
favored the idea, and if any further proof were wanting, there were signs 
around of its having been, not long since, visited by camels. 

Upon examination, it was not difficult to select from several indica^ 


tions, but principally from the dromedary's movements, a spot beneath a 
small ledge of rocks as the place where it was most likely that water 
would be found. The sun was still above the horizon, though, of course, 
his level beams could not reach the bottom of the pit. There was light 
enough, however, for the time, and by a little exertion perhaps something 
might be done before it was quite dark, so turning to with my wooden 
bowl for a shovel, I commenced throwing out the sand ftom beneath the 
ledge. At a depth of four or five feet a little moisture began to show 
itself, and upon penetrating a foot or two farther the water began to per- 
colate slowly through the bottom and sides of the pit. Helping myself 
to a good draught, and my heirie to about a dozen bowlsful, merely to 
take off the edge of his appetite, I secured him so that he could not get 
into the well, and stretched myself upon the ground, when my eyes were 
almost instantaneously closed in a sound sleep. 

In the morning, after making a thorough ablution of my person, and 
eating an unusual liberal breakfast of meal, dates, and sour milk, the im- 
portant and laborious operation of watering my heirie commenced. As 
the water ran but slowly, and there was nothing but a small bowl in 
which to deliver it, it was quite late in the forenoon by the time we 
had made a finish. There were, however, no reasons for hurry. One 
day's rest, after a sand-storm, was little enough to recruit exhausted 
nature, and it was not until the next day that we got underweigh. 

"And which way now, my friend?" said I, in accordance with the 
Arab's habit of continually talking or singing to his camel. "Which 
way now ? Oh, thou bird ! thou beauty ! Choose for thyself. Oh, thou 
who drinketh the wind ! who swalloweth the ground ! who killeth with 
the blows of thy feet both time and space ! choose for thyself, for if 
one course does not answer we will make another, returning in time 
upon our track to the cool well for a starting-point. The southeast ? 
Well, away ! — lu-bi ! lii-lu — away ! " 

Three hours' travel, with a good look-out all around the horizon, and 
no sign of a human being ! The re-appearance, however, of the desert- 
thistle in patches was a cheering indication, especially to my companion, 
who eagerly browsed upon the tough leaves and thorny branches. Upon 
remounting him, after having allowed him two or three hours for his 
meal, we altered our course a little more to the east. 

Shortly after, while winding along between the sand-hills, my atten- 
tion was attracted to a dark and motionless object projecting from the 
side of one of the hills. Upon approaching, it proved to be a camel with 
a heavy pack upon its back, and on looking around, at some little dis- 












tance, there were indications of several more. The animal had been dead 
not more than two or three days, for there was hardly a sign of putrefac- 
tion, and the ravens had not yet had time to pay the body a visit. The 
conclusion was irresistible, that it was one of a caravan which had been 
overwhelmed by the recent sand-storm. 

The load of the poor beast was composed of several bales, or packages, 
of a moderate size and light weight. Upon opening them, there appeared 
on one side a number of pieces of red and blue cloth ; a package of Fez 
caps, and several fine closely-woven haicks, in the manufacture of which 
the Moroccans excel. On the other side were packages of coral, glass, 
and amber beads — the latter exceedingly valuable for rosaries, — a dozen 
or two of small mirrors, and a case of long Spanish sheath-knives. But 
by far the most interesting objects to me were several pairs of pistols, 
single- and double-barrelled ; half a dozen canisters of best English pow- 
der, so highly valued by the Arabs for priming, and a mahogany case 
with the key attached to the lock. Let it be recollected that my chief 
trouble had been the want of arms, and the delight may be imagined 
with which, upon opening the case, my eyes fell upon a double-barrelled 
gun, of French manufacture. Had I needed any guaranty of the value 
of the article, after closely inspecting the elaborate and careful finish of 
all its parts, it was to be found in the name of " Le Page, Paris," engraved 
upon the locks. The gun was furnished with all its appurtenances, such 
as flints, flask, and bullet-moulds, and, in addition, a bag containing four or 
five pounds of leaden balls ; an exceedingly lucky circumstance, as with- 
out it the gun would have been comparatively useless. 

It was quite late before my examination of all the packages was 
finfshed, giving me good opportunity, during the night, of making my pla;">.s 
for a disposition of the treasure. In the morning, as soon as it was light 
enough, I commenced operations, by taking the gun from its case, putting 
its parts together, and laying it aside ; the case was buried deep in the 
sand, so that no Arab, finding it, might suspect that it belonged to my 
gun, and that, consequently, I had examined the camel's pack, and 
had secreted any of its contents. I then selected a pair of English double- 
barrelled pistols, and a long sheath-knife, filled the powder-flask, and made 
up a pouch of bullets from the large bag ; a few pieces of amber and 
coral, by way of ready money, completed my personal equipment. I had 
a strong disposition to rig myself out in an entire new suit, but prudence 
advised sticking to my old rags and tatters, for a while at least, or until it 
had been ascertained how much temptation to robbery and murder the 
virtue of my next friends could withstand. 


The remaining powder and ball, with two pair of pistols, three 
knives, four haicks, sashes, and caps, half a dozen small mirrors, and all 
the coral, amber, and glass beads, were made up into a secure and com- 
pact package. The remainder of the goods I re-arranged as they were 
before, leaving them half buried in the sand, for the benefit of the next 

Securing my pistols, powder-flask, and coral upon my person, and 
fastening the package upon my heirie, I mounted, gun in hand, and set 
out. Fortune, as if determined to smile her sweetest, conducted me, a 
little farther on, to another member of the unfortunate kafiSla, to whose 
saddle-bow was attached a large bag of dates. There was no use in stop- 
ping to examine the dead animal's load. My outfit was complete. I 
needed nothing else. I was richer than Crassus or Croesus — I had enough. 
There were but three articles besides those with which I was supplied, 
for which I could have found use — a compass, pocket-sextant and a spy- 
glass. As it was hardly probable that any one of these would be found in a 
camel's pack in the desert, I merely stopped to secure the dates, remounted, 
and went on, meditating, by the way, the truth of the old adage, " it is an ill 
wind that blows nobody any good," and deeply pondering the mysterious 
orderings of Providence, of which the misfortunes of the kafifila, and my 
consequent good luck, afforded such a striking example. 


Emerging from the Sand-Hills— Burying Treasure— A Beautiful View— A Douah— Arabic 
Greetings— A Sharife and a Hadji — Indications of Danger— A Watchful Night— A Start- 
ling Warning — An Ill-Timed Compliment— The Muezzin's Morning Call — An Effective 
Speech — Setting Off for the Buried Caravan. 

FTER a hard ride of several hours we emerged from the sand- 
hills, and arrived at the borders of an extensive plain that was 
covered with pebbles and flints of a large size, and which was 
traversed by a serrated chain of gentle elevations. Arrived at 
a suitable spot, a slight depression of the ground, screened from observa- 
tion at a distance, I dismounted, and using the wooden bowl, scooped out 
a hole in the ground large enough to contain the package of articles 
selected from the dead camel's pack. My object in doing this was to se- 
cure my treasure from the cupidity of the people I was approaching. I 
had fears that even my heirie and gun would prove a strong temptation 
to a violation of the laws of hospitality. Having deposited, therefore, 
the package, and with- it the bag of dates, the ground was filled in, the 
pebbles spread over it, and a careful note made, in my mind, of the ap- 
pearance of the spot and its bearing from the hills. 

Upon remounting my heirie and issuing from the hollow, I was not a 
little startled at the apparition of two moving figures at a very little dis- 
tance. It took a second look to convince me that they were ostriches, 
and not men. As soon as they caught sight of me they took to their 
heels, and by their watchfulness and timidity, afforded a still further proof 
that the neighboring country was inhabited. 

The rough, pebbly plain extended, on the side that we were approach- 
ing, quite up to the foot of the hills. Reaching these I dismounted, and 
ascended their acclivities on foot, for a reconnaissance of the country be- 
yond. Upon gaining the summit, one of the most charming views in the 
world burst upon my sight. Lying under the lee of the hills, and pro- 
tected by them from the blasting southeast sand-winds, there stretched a 
magnificent expanse of gently undulating stony surface, more than half 
of which was covered with a pleasing variety of thorns and brambles. 



Where the bushes could not grow, the naked granite rocks, or perchance 
a patch of dark sand, served to reHeve what would otherwise have been a 
monotony of beauty. A few scraggy acacias, with, two or three stunted 
date palms, materially added to the picturefequeness of the view. Several 
camels and a flock of goats were scattered over the plain. I stood en- 
tranced, so much so that it was some time before I observed at my feet 
a douah of a dozen tents. Apparently none of its inhabitants had yet 
got sight of me. 

Hastening at once to my heirie, and mounting him, we took our 
course throu-gh a hollow between the hills, and debouched on the other 
side, in full view of the douah. According to the etiquette in such cases, 
I moved up to within thirty or forty rods of the tents, and then dis- 
mounting, stood motionless until it pleased the sheikh of the douah to 
take some notice of my presence. I had not long to wait. In a few 
moments a white-bearded old fellow, in a greasy haick, stepped forth from 
one of the tents, and came towards me. When within half a dozen 
yards, he stopped, and after a moment's scrutiny saluted me with Salam 
Ailekom ! " 

" Ailekom Essalam" I replied. 

" Is it peace ? " he demanded. 

" It is peace," I replied. 

Upon this we advanced towards each other, touched our hands to- 
gether, and then applied them to our lips. This was repeated half a 
dozen times, each time both of us making an effort to kiss the other's 
hand, which was modestly withdrawn, as if the honor was considered too 
great to receive. The courteous contest would have lasted a long time, 
had I not at last cut it short by grasping a portion of his dirty haick, and 
applying it to my lips. All this time there was a rapid interchange of 
complimentary questions. 

" Are you well ? how are your friends ? How are all the people of the 
west ? How is our Lord Muley Abderrhaman ? " The last question is a 
compliment that an Arab of the western part of the desert seldom fails 
to pay to the emperor of Morocco. A compliment which he can well 
afford to pay, inasmuch as he never pays any thing else. 

Our greetings over. Sheikh Ali ben Hammadow conducted me to the 
douah, where I was introduced to his sons, and half a dozen other men, 
by the name of Ishmael El Drebbah, or Ishmael the marksman. My story 
was soon told. I represented that I belonged to the Beni Zebis, a tribe of 
Mongearts, in the neighborhood of Cape Bojador, and that I was almost 
the only one living of my immediate family, which had been nearly extir- 



pated in a death feud with a family of the Beni Zosh. That recently I 
had taken signal vengeance for the death of my relatives, by murdering 
my chief enemy, with two of his wives and three of his children, besides 
killing several camels and maiming a slave belonging to his brother, and 
firing several stacks of barley the property of his cousin ; and that to 
avoid the fury of his friends, I had taken my heirie and fled. 

Sheikh Ali complimented me upon the virtuous resolution and courage 
thus displayed, and invited me, with many protestations of undying friend- 
ship, to make his tent my home. He informed me that the country was 
called the Waddy Messir, and that it contained numerous douahs, inhabited 
by the members of his tribe — the Beni Hareb. I also gathered from the 

' Salam Ailekom !' 

conversation of those around, that my entertainer was both a sharife and 
a hadji — that is, one claiming descent from the Prophet, and one who had 
made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Upon the whole, I rather liked his ap- 
pearance, but there was something exceedingly repulsive and sinister in 
the manners and appearance of his sons and other relations. 

At night All's wives presented us with a large dish of cooscoosoo. 
With a " Bishmallah errachman errachman ! " — In the name of God, all 
powerful and merciful ! — I thrust in my hand and made a hearty meal. 
" Elhamed lilah ! " — God be praised ! — I exclaimed, finishing, and throw- 
ing myself upon the ground just within the edge of the tent, but in such 
a situation that I could command a good view outside. In a few minutes 


my eyes closed in a pretended sleep. A number of suspicious circum- 
stances, which it is needless to particularize, now occurred to convince me 
that some of the Arabs, with Hassan, the Sheikh's oldest son, at their 
head, were plotting mischief. Until late at night, my weary aqd anxious 
watch was kept up ; at last all was still, and slumber was about settling, 
with its heavy weight, upon my eyelids, when my attention was aroused 
by a slight rustling movement close to the edge of the curtain dividing 
the tent. It was so dark that the bodies of Ali and several of his sons, who 
were stretched in the same apartment, could not be distinguished ; but 
my ears were so close to the curtain that it was easy to perceive that it 
had been raised, and that somebody was creeping from beneath. Cautious- 
ly, and without the least noise, my knife was drawn from its sheath, and 
held in my right hand, while my left was outstretched upon the ground 
towards the raised curtain. Slowly the moving body drew itself towards 
me, stopping often ; and although.the distance from the curtain to me was 
not more than three or four feet, taking at least twenty minutes to creep 
it. Imagine my anxiety and suspense. At last a hand was laid upon my 
arm, and passing downwards, my hand was gently pressed by a set of 
small fat fingers, that, it was plain enough, belonged to no man, and 
which, upon second thought were clearly referable to no woman about the 
encampment, except to All's youngest wife. A prompt attack ! thought 
I, recollecting several amiable glances which the young Arab beauty had 
bestowed upon me. But I was doing the benevolent Mrs. Ali, in my 
thought, a great injustice. 

A gentle pressure of my hand, as if to see whether I were awake, was 
returned on my part, and was followed by a low " Hish ! " and my visitor 
reached forward, so as to bring her mouth close to my ear. 

" Listen," she said, " but don't speak. You are in great danger. 
Hassan and his brothers have resolved to murder you. There are but 
two ways in which you can escape ; take your choice. You must give 
your heirie to Ali, and your gun to Hassan, and all will be well. If you 
wont, you must stay by the tent until I get a chance to drive your droiri- 
edary up into the gorge of the hills, and when I give you the signal, you 
must wander towards him, and without losing an instant, mount and be 
off. Hish ! Don't speak." 

Forbidden to speak, it was yet necessary to make my visitor some ac- 
knowledgment of her kindness. Her lips were in tempting proximity — I 
recollected that they were smooth and pouting, and enclosed a row of 
pearly teeth — so turning my head, I brought my own lips smartly in con- 
tact with them. A stinging slap in the face, and then a sound like a 


suppressed laugh, and a parting squeeze of the hand, showed that Mrs, 
AH, ■while she could resent any thing of impertinence in the kiss, was not 
wholly insensible to its propriety as a token of gratitude, and an expres- 
sipn of my perfect comprehension of her plans. In the morning it was 
pleasant to find, from her good-natured smile, that the rather ill-timed 
compliment, upon the whole, had not been taken amiss. 

The loud voice of old Ali, in the muezzin's usual form of invocation, 
resounded through the douah, calling the faithful to morning prayer. 
After which I arose, stepped forward in front of the tent, and speaking to 
Ali in a loud tone, invited him and all within hearing to listen to me. I 
then commenced — addressing my discourse chiefly to Ali. I observed 
that " hospitality to the stranger was the great virtue of the Arab char- 
acter; that it was enjoined by the Koran, and universally practised and 
esteemed, except by unbelievers and idolaters. That the life and property 
of one to whom we were offering the rights of hospitality were, and ought 
to be, held sacred."' 

To this proposition Sheikh Ali audibly assented, while Hassan and his 
companions loerlced on, with increasing marks of surprise. 

" Now you must know that here, in your family, there has been formed 
a determination to violate my rights, and to disgrace the character of the 
true believer. You need not ask me how I know it, I am a learned man, 
a doctor — a Tibeb — El Hackem. I know the secrets of the earth and the 
air, and should I not know such a thing as this ? I do not accuse you, but 
I ask you how will Allah look upon the man who violates his law by the 
murder of a guest ? " 

" It shall not be," said the old man, jumping to his feet, and striking 
his staff violently on the ground. " It shall not be. Am I not master 
here ? I say it shall not be." 

" I know it," I replied. " It shall not be ; I have not spoken of it so 
much for my sake as for yours. I need not explain how the plot must 
have failed, but I will show you how Allah was prepared to punish the 
crime, had it been consummated. Listen to me, and mark how wonderful 
are the ways of God, and what risks we run when we deviate in the slight- 
est degree from the plain track of the law! Your best heirie is lame — I 
can cure him. If I had been murdered last night, you would never have 
ridden him again. Your brother is sick — I am Tibeb — with the blessing 
of Allah I can cure him — without my skill he will soon die But listen 
still furtTier! Listen, and open your eyes with wonder at your stupidity 
and God's goodness. My gun and camel, and this old haick, are all the 
property that could be got by taking my life, while with me would have 


perished the knowledge of the spot in the desert where lie, overwhelmed 
with the sands, the richly laden camels of a kaffila from Tefifilet. You 
would have robbed a poor man, and at the same time have destroyed the 
only guide to wealth that will make your family the richest in the desert." 

This announcement caused an immense sensation. The Arabs jumped 
to their feet, and crowded around me, each one protesting that I was the 
best fellow in the world — that I was their friend and guest, and that they 
never had an idea of harming a hair of my head. Old All embraced me 
several times, and even the truculent lout, Hassan, had the impudence to 
offer me his hand, and to swear by every hair in the tail of Mohammed's 
camel that my life, in his eyes, was more sacred than his own! It was 
not my policy to push matters too far, so I accepted Hassan's apologies 
and protestations, with an intimation of the possibility of having mistaken 
his intentions ; but to all questions as to the locality of the buried caravan, 
I refused to reply until all was ready for a start, when I would show them 
the way. The whole ordering of the business I at once took upon myself, 
with the purpose of establishing, as far as possible, habits of command 
and obedience, which might be available at some future time. A strong 
power is frequently built up on a series of small and opportune demands 
and submissions. The first links are so silently and smoothly forged as 
to excite no observation, until at last compliance becomes a stringent 
custom, and exaction, oppression, and tyranny, a right. 

At night, the camels having been watered, and every thing prepared, we 
set out — crossing through the hills, and striking out into the flinty plain 
on the other side. Our party consisted of twenty men, and ten or twelve 
camels. Ali, Hassan, and myself were mounted upon horses. They 
were truly gallant animals — not to the eye, for they were nothing but 
animated skeletons, — but their speed and bottom were wonderful, and 
they were even able to go two or three days without drink. Hadji Ali 
loudly vaunted their qualities, assuring me that they were of the pure 
blood of the Frafiye- — the best family of the Koheije in Yeman, — and that 
he could produce their pedigree for more than two thousand years. " But 
know, O my worthy friend Ishmael, that dear to me as is the animal you 
bestride, if thy report of the kaffila prove true, he is yours. I will pluck 
him from my eyes, I will tear him from my heart. Thou shalt have Ayoud." 


The Buried Caravan — Moving a Douah — A Feast — A Conversazione — The Wells of Boulag — 
Schools and Scholars — Arts and Artisans — A Tibib — Epacedopathy — Story-Telling — Music 
— The Song of the Bedouin — Fears and Doubts. 

NEED not dwell upon our expedition. Suffice it to say that 
it was quite successful. We found the camels as I had left 
them, and, upon a close search of the country, discovered half 
a dozen more, with their valuable loads, and in several instances 
the remains of their unfortunate masters. After an absence of twenty 
days, we returned to Waddi Messer, bearing with us an amount of wealth 
that more than realized the expectations my report had excited. 

Shortly after this, the water of the wells beginning to fail, it was re- 
solved to break up the douah, and remove to the well of Boulag, about 
forty miles to the northwest, and not far from Toudena, to which town 
the Arabs proposed to carry their goods for sale, to the salt traders going 
south. With wonderful despatch the tents were struck, and, with the 
household utensils, packed upon the camels. The goats were collected 
and driven ahead, preceded by Ali and myself on horses. A long train 
of camels, some of them piled up with women and children, followed the 
goats, and a party of five or six horsemen brought up the rear. We en- 
countered several douahs, by whose inhabitants we were politely greeted, 
and, in several instances, hospitably entertained. On the third night we 
fell in with a family, en route, like ourselves. We encamped together, and 
having purchased two kids and a sack of rice, I issued a general invitation 
to a feast. My wishes were admirably seconded in the department of the 
cuisme, by young Mrs. Ali, and in two or three hours after sunset, the 
senses of my dark, dirty, and hungry guests were delighted with several 
dishes of smoking pilaw. " Bishmalla ! " \ exclaimed, " in the name of 
God, fall to," and upon the word, at least forty hands were plunged simul- 
taneously into the smoking messes. An exhibition of manual and man- 
dible dexterity followed, which lasted about fifteen minutes, when repeated 
exclamations of '.' Thank God ! " and " Glory to his Prophet ! " indicated 
that there were limits to the capacity of even an Arab's stomach. Gen- 


erally, the Bedouin is extremely abstemious ; but occasionally, and 
especially when he can gratify his appetite at another man's expense, he 
will demonstrate the possession of a talent for goiirmandize that would 
eompo-rt with the umbiUcal expansion of a Samaied or an Esquimaux, 
but which one would hardly expect to find within that spare and attenu- 
ated frame, in which it lies, most of the time, in abeyance. 

After supper pipes were produced and passed around, and the conver- 
sation became general and animated. The subject of horses and camels 
was discussed — the state of the markets at Sweirah and Timbuctoo was 
introduced, with the rate of a camel's freight across the desert, and the 
prices paid for protection through the different tribes. Several stories of 
family feuds, and among them the one that I had invented, were told. 
These were received with applause in proportion to the atrociousness of 
the revenge. It being a subject of regret that there was no professed 
story-teller present, I volunteered to give them the story of Aladdin and 
his lamp. My offer was received with a round of compliments, which, 
upon the conclusion of the story, were renewed. " Bishmalla ! what a 
man he is ! what generosity — what courage — what wit ! He feasts our 
bodies and souls. He tickles our hearts as well as our stomachs. His 
story is fit sauce to his feast, and his feast was worthy of a king." 

It was five or six days before we reached the well of Boulag, which we 
found already surrounded by several families, but there was water enough 
for all, and our tents were erected without any objections from the first 
comers, who were all either relations or friends. We were now a large 
and formidable part}', consisting of at least two hundred men, and num- 
bering a hundred horses, full five hundred camels, and a goodly number 
of goats. The women and children were in fair proportion. For the 
latter there was a regular school, where they were taught to read the 
Koran. The plan of instruction consisted in practising, simultaneously, 
in their loudest voices, a portion of the sacred book, written on a board. 
It was not a little amusing to see fifty or sixty boys squatted upon the 
ground, each one with his board, and all of them violently working their 
bodies backwards and forwards, as if upon the industrious flexure of their 
vertebral articulations depended the proper articulation of their words. 

I was not a little surprised to see so many artisans in full employment. 
A number of weavers were daily engaged in turning into cloth the yarn of 
camels' and goats' hair spun by the women. Saddle- and bridle-makers 
were busy with harness for horses and camels. Blacksmiths had enough 
to do in furnishing bits and shoes. They were exceedingly skilful: 
with a small charcoal fire, and a bellows made of a couple of bladders. 


they contrived to do very difficult work, with neatness and despatch. 
There were even jewellers, who exhibited no small degree of taste and 
dexterity in the matra^a^ture of gold and silver rings, ornaments for the 
hair, and studs for headstalls and reins. 

It soon became known that I was a Tibeb, and the fame of the cure 
effected in the case of Hadji Ali's brother, brought me repeated applica- 
tions for medical advice. As the cases where my medical skill was invoked 
were mostly either imaginary or such as required time, the expectant plan, 
luckily, inasmuch as there were few or no medicines to be had, was the 
true plan ; but instead of the bread pills of the allopath, or, what is the 
same thing, the infinitesimal doses of the homoeopath, my usual prescrip- 
tion was a written charm. It was wonderful, the success that attended 
my practice. Pity it is that I have not preserved a record of my cures, 
and that I am unable now to present a detailed statement of all the 
pathognomonic signs, and therapeutic indications that were met and 
fulfilled by this one infallible specific. Science suffers — and, still more, 
bequacked Christendom suffers — for then had the medical quidnuncs rev- 
elled in a new system of practice with a hard name, and the credulous 
public had tickled itself for a time, at least, with the beauties of epacedo- 
pathy. A course of Koran would have become, perhaps, in time, the 
fashionable alternative, and the writings of the Arabian prophet, turned 
to their true account — that of an universal panacea, — have been swallowed 
throughout Christian lands without stirring the bile of a sound orthodox 

But it was as a raconteur, rather than as a physician, that my reputation 
attained its widest range. Fortunately, the Arabian Nights was a book 
that had been a favorite, and my memory was charged with the whole 
stock in trade of the beautiful Scheherazade. Every evening, when in 
camp, it was the custom to assemble in the centre of the douah, and 
there, squatted in a circle upon the ground, listen to the song or story, 
which, however often repeated, seemed never to tire. My stories were 
received with particular favor, for the reason that, in addition to all the 
fanciful embellishments of the Eastern authors, I did not hesitate to add 
a few grotesque inventions and ridiculous exaggerations of my own. The 
fame of our entertainments soon spread, and attracted visitors from the 
other douahs: so that, not unfrequently, there was an audience of two or 
three hundred. Among these were always three or four good singers, 
with a stock of songs that seemed perfectly inexhaustible. The singer 
generally accompanied himself upon a rude guitar, or a tambourine, and 
frequently several instruments would join in the chorus. The airs were, 


most of them, exceedingly monotonous, and the words and sentiments had 
hardly more variety. Nine tenths of all the songs were on the subject of 
love, in which were invariably introduced the horse, the heirie, or some allu- 
sion to the happy lot of the Bedouin. A few were exclusively patriotic, 
and devoted to celebrating the pleasures and comfort of the desert, and the 
courage and independence of its inhabitants. Of these latter, the follow- 
ing may serve as a fair specimen : — 


Like a star peering out tlirough the folds of thick night, 

An oasis gleams 'mid Sahara's drear wilds, 
Dispersing the gloom with its emerald light, 

And cheering the waste with its soft sunny smiles. 
Here the tent often folded, now firmly pitched stands. 

With the voices of childhood the green Waddy rings ; 
The pure water bubbles from 'neath the fierce sands, 

And, loudly exulting, the wild Arab sings : 

" What reck I of all the dull pleasures of town ; 

Of life's feeble jpys, crushed and cramped within walls ; ) 
Of the Mufti's weak laws, or the Kadi's stern frown ; 

The bazaars, and the baths, or the base traders' stalls ! 
No, alone in the desert, so boundless and wild. 

The pleasures of freedom the bold Bedouin finds. 
Fierce pleasures, and meet for Sahara's own child, 

Who roams o'er her sands as uncurbed as the winds. 

*' My camels are strong, and my heiries are fleet ; 

Ever saddled and ready my ' wind-drinker ' stands ; 
I call him — -he comes, and I vault to the seat. 

Now away, and away o'er the fierce burning sands ! 
With what thrilling delight do my quick pulses beat, 

As like to some wild flying demon in wrath. 
My gallant steed swallows the ground with his feet. 

And swift as a bird, through the air cleaves his path .' 

" Ha ! a dark moving object far distant I see ; 

Along the horizon it rushes with speed ; 
Come, come, my brave courser, my trust is in thee — 

That ostrich shall honor thy blood and thy breed. 
We near him ! We near him ! Ah, laggard, 't is vain 

That with rapid feet casting the dusty clouds back, 
In circles wide wheeling, thou securest the plain. 

For Ayoud, untiring, is close on thy track ! 

" We near him ! We near him ! — in vain all his speed. 
In vain all his strength, all his wiles, all his art : 






One more spring ! one more stride ! and the slender jeered 

Is brandished aloft, and flies straight to his heart. 
Stately bird of the desert, thy plumage so bright. 

So soft, and so graceful, and light as the air,. 
The markets of Sweirah shall iill with delight, 

And in far Kaffir lands wreathe the brows of the fair. 

"Why trembles my courser ? Why snuffs he the air ? 

Why pales the bright sun in the brightness of noon ? 
'T is the breath of Azrael — prepare, oh ! prepare. 

For the poisonous blast of the purple simoon ! 
Down, down in the dust, and hold tightly the breath. 

Till the dark desert demon has fiercely swept past — 
He has gone — he has gone — the dread angel of death 

Has flown on the wings of the hot scorching blast ! 

" To horse ! now, to horse ! Mount, mount, every man ! 

Send the word through the tribes with the speed of the light, 
The merchants of Houssa, Tombute, and Soudan, 

With their rich laden camels are heaving in sight. 
Behind the dark sand-hills we quietly sit ; 

Hush ! hush ! — not a whisper. — Now, now we 're away ! 
With the blood on our rowels, and foam on the bit. 

With a rush like the Siroc we dash on our prey. 

" At the gleam of our spear-points the battle is won ; 

The brave who resist are borne earthward and slain ; 
The cowards are scattered like mists by the sun, 

And their bales of rich merchandise cumber the plain. 
There are cottons of Nyffe, and cloths of Bornou, 

The jelib, the haick, the bornouse, and kaftan. 
Rings, anklets, and bracelets from famed Sackatoo, 

And jewels, and ingots from golden Soudan. 

' ' Now, glory to Allah ! who sends us the prize ; 

To Allah, unstinting, who loads us with spoil ; 
UntoHim, who each want of His children supplies. 

And rewards thus so freely their faith and their toil. 
And to Him, who is seated at Allah's right hand, 

To God's holy Prophet let all glory be : 
And glory, O glory, thou dear desert land ! 

For thy joys, though they 're few, are the joys of the free." 

My skill as a inarksman contributed not a little to the consideration 
and influence that I was acquiring ; with this disadvantage, however, that 
it excited more jealousy and envy than my other accomplishments, and 
gave me two or three strong personal enemies. Among these, the prin- 
cipal one was the truculent Hassan, son of Ali. 


A source of considerable anxiety was the constant apprehension of 
the appearance among us of some one of the family of my old masters, 
by whom my person might be recognized as that of the fugitive slave. 
The dread of such a misadventure compelled me to the precaution of 
scrutinizing any new-comers before showing myself, while it very much 
interfered with the pleasures and comforts of my situation, and very 
much strengthened my determination to avail myself of the first oppor- 
tunity of returning to civilized life. Sometimes, however, I had a mind 
to set out for the south and visit the negro countries, and even attempt 
penetrating the Djebel Kumri — the Arabic name for the Mountains of 
the Moon — and seeking, among the transmontane table-lands of that 
mysterious chain, the native land of Kaloolah. On the one side, there 
was the strong desire to revisit old friends and old haunts ; an intense 
curiosity as to what had taken place during my absence ; a wish to relieve 
the anxiety that I knew must be felt respecting me ; and a disposition to 
relate to sympathizing ears the curious adventures that I had encoun- 
tered : on the other hand, was the unquenched thirst for adventure ; the 
glittering allurements of a terra incognita; the ambition of being the 
means of solving some of the great geographical problems which had for 
so long a time excited the interest of the scientific world ; and, more than 
all, the hope of again seeing Kaloolah, whose image neither shipwreck, 
nor slavery, nor the fierce storms, nor the wild freedom and excitement of 
the desert, had banished from my mind. It was thus, halting between two 
opinions, that I remained three or four months at the well of Boulag, little 
dreaming that circumstances were maturing that would turn the scale in 
favor of the south, and leave country, home, and kindred dangling in the 
distant perspective. 


The Timbuctoo Kaffila — The Camp in Arms — Sheikh Mahmoud Eben Doud Sliein — A Display 
of Horsemanship — Preparations to Attack the Kaffila — The Lab el Barode — The Ambus- 
cade — Debouching from the Sand-Hills — The Attack — The Bivouac — Astrology and its 
Truths — A Happy Rencontre — Kaloolah's Story — Jennie — Timliuctoo. 

NE day the news arrived in camp that a caravan from Tim- 
buctoo was- attempting the direct northern route, without 
having made the usual terms with the leading men of our 
tribe. As this was the caravan that I had been so anxiously 
expecting, it was not a little disappointment to learn that owing to the 
foolhardiness of its conductors, who believed that the oasis of the Messer 
had been deserted for the valleys of Hareb and the plains of Tuat, the 
expedition would certainly fail ; and that, instead of having an oppor- 
tunity of joining the kaffila, I should probably see it attacked and 
plundered — a catastrophe that might have been easily prevented by the 
payment of the usual tolls to the wild masters of the country through 
which it had to pass. 

" To horse ! to horse ! " was the word that passed from one extremity 
of the oasis to the other with the rapidity of the wind. Each green 
waddy, from a distance around of a hundred miles, poured forth its 
horsemen ; all rushing, with the instinctive eagerness of the Ishmaelite, 
at the first intimation of spoil. The rendezvous was appointed at Boulag, 
and when all were collected we numbered over four hundred mounted 
men, the whole under the command of Sheikh Mahmoud Eben Doud 
Skein, the acknowledged senior chief of the whole tribe. 

The sheikh, a little withered fellow, was nearly ninety years of age, 
but he sat his horse with the grace and vigor of early manhood, and 
evinced an uncommon degree of vivacity and energy in all his movements. 
The first day of his arrival he dashed into the encampment, with a few 
followers, at full speed ; checked his horse instantaneously, bringing his 
haunches almost to the ground, and then forcing him to perform a num- 
ber of lofty croupades, marked upon his sides with the points of the 
heavy iron spur the initial letters of the Mohammedan confession of faith. 



Jumping from his horse, the old fellow seated himself upon the ground, 
and quietly enjoyed the expressions of admiration which his performance 
called forth. His orders were given with promptness and precision. 
Scouts were despatched to watch the movements of the kafifila ; which 
was struggling along at the slow pace of the loaded camel ; and, in the 
meantime, arrangements were made to meet our prey at the well of the 
Waddy el baltr nile, or the valley of the dry river, which was about three 
days' journey to the southwest. 

Besides Mahmoud, there were several other sheikhs of nearly equal 
authority ; the most active of whom was Kaid Hassen iben Salech el 
Achmer, Sidi Achmed iben Ali el Hammr el Sehare, and Hammed iben 
Omar el Busroche. The last was particularly celebrated in the Lab el 
Barode, a game of which the Arabs are extravagantly fond. It consists 
in several horsemen placing themselves in a line abreast, and dashing for- 
ward for a few rods, all the while twirling their muskets in the air, and 
sometimes throwing them up and catching them with great dexterity. 
At the end of the course the horses are instantaneously checked, the 
muskets brought down and fired over the head of the crouching steed, 
the animal recovered with a single demi-volte, wheeled and walked slowly 
back to the starting-point. 

At length all our preparations having been completed, and having ob- 
tained accurate information of the movements of the kafifila, we set out, 
and in three days, without any adventure of interest, reached the banks 
of the rocky ravine, where we proposed to conceal ourselves. Next day 
we remained quietly crouching among the sand-hills, bordering a flinty 
plain of several miles in extent — the hot sun beating down upon our un- 
sheltered heads, and occasional eddies of impalpable dust making respira- 
tion, which, in a pure air, is decidedly the most pleasing function of the 
body, a positive misery. A few dates, equally shared between man and 
steed, and a single sip of water, afforded the only refreshment that my 
hardened and abstemious companions required. For myself, anxiety for 
the doomed caravan wholly occupied my mind, but none of the numerous 
plans that occurred to me seemed to promise any hope of averting its fate. 
It had advanced so far that even a knowledge of its danger would come 
too late — too late to escape, but, perhaps, not too late to effect a com- 
promise, and prevent an attack. 

Seeing no other plan, I had almost made up my mind to jump upon 
Ayoud, and dash out at any and all risks, when messengers arrived with 
information that at once excited a commotion in our ranks. Orders were 
passed to mount, and taking up our line of march in an oblique direction 


towards the level plain we had crossed the day before, we slowly and 
cautiously wound among the low sand-drifts. The greatest care was taken 
to conceal our movements, not a man was allowed to ascend the rifts, 
which compelled us to make large detours to get round them, and in sev- 
eral places orders were passed for the men to dismount and lead their 
horses, until a higher cover had been attained. 

The sun was about three hours high when we reached a position just 
at the edge of the plain, and where we were protected from view by a 
long rift of sand and a few irregular rocky eminences. By stretching our 
necks a little, we had a good view of the plain, quite to the distant hori- 
zon. All eyes were at once directed to the left, where, emerging from the 
sand-hills, were to be seen numerous groups of men and camels. No 
order appeared to be preserved in their line of march, the different parties 
straggling over a space of a quarter of a mile in width and nearly two 
miles in length, with wide intervals between the groups. One after 
another, the heavily laden " ships of the desert " worked their way out 
from among the sand-hills on to the plains, until at last there appeared an 
almost interminable array of full fifteen hundred camels, accompanied by 
five hundred men and numerous slaves. Slowly the straggling trains 
toiled on towards us, in a course that would bring them past our cover at 
the distance of less than a quarter of a mile. Already the guides and 
foremost groups had passed by, and, from their motions, were evidently 
about to halt for the night, while from the advancing parties could be 
heard the monotonous chant with which the Arab encourages the foot- 
steps of his weary beast. At this moment the signal was given, and in 
a solid mass we rushed upon the plain, deploying at full speed, as soon as 
we had cleared the sand-hills, into a long line, two deep. This manoeuvre 
was executed with unexpected precision. 

About fifty of our men were armed with guns, and these occupied the 
front rank; the remainder were armed with spears, which, with wild shouts, 
were twirled high in the air above their heads. " Allah Ackbah ! Allah 
Ackbah ! Allah illah Allah ! Rasoul Mohammed Allah ! " was loudly shouted 
along the ranks, mingled with the strongly aspirated and encouraging 
" Hah-hah ! Hah-hah ! " of the Arabic horseman to his steed. It was 
easy to perceive, however, that, amid all the bustle and excitement, there 
was an intentional illustration of the adage, " the more haste the less 
speed," and that, notwithstanding our yelling and spurring, we were far 
from charging at our fastest pace. Our horses were forced into lofty and 
violent action, while in reality they covered the ground slowly, and by 
this plan the panic was allowed time to spread, and afforded to many an 


opportunity of flying, who would otherwise have fought in sheer despe- 

The instant our first shout broke upon the stillness of the plain, the 
whole kafifila halted in consternation. Shouts of fear and rage answered 
our battle-cry, mingled with the loud yells and curses of the camel-drivers, 
and the shrieks of the women and children, who formed part of the riches 
of the caravan. The few who were in the van goaded their weary beasts 
into a trot, and pressed onwards, regardless of those behind, while those 
in the rear collected their beasts and turned back among the sand-hills, 
from which they had just emerged. Others, who were tog far advanced 
to escape, deserted their property, and fled wildly on foot across the open 
country, while others stood their ground and made what preparations they 
could for resistance. These last, however, were few in number, and they 
had hardly time to uncover their long guns or to unsheath their scimitars 
before we were upon them. 

Without combination or order, they could make but little resistance, 
and in a few minutes they were all overpowered, disarmed, and compelled 
to seat themselves upon the ground, while the victors proceeded to collect 
the spoil. The last rays of the short twilight of southern latitudes were 
now illuminating the scene, showing with wonderful distinctness the wild 
groups of horsemen, as they galloped about after the fugitive camels. In 
a few moments the glowing red was succeeded by the cold gray of night, 
and the Bedouins began to gather in with the animals they had captured, 
leaving fully one half of the scattered caravan to make its escape under 
the friendly cover of the darkness. It was arranged to bivouac upon 
the spot, and await the light of day for an examination of our plunder. 
The slaves, most of them women and children, were placed in the centre, 
around these the loaded camels were made to kneel, while outside, and 
surrounding all, the victors stretched themselves upon the ground, each 
one beside his steed, and with his arms by his side ready for use. A 
guard was stationed over the prisoners, and sentinels were posted far out 
on the plain as a precaution against attack, although there was but little 
danger to apprehend from the scattered and flying fugitives. 

Gradually, one after the other, the chattering Bedouins had sunk back 
upon the ground, and wrapping their faces in the folds of their haicks, 
were resigning themselves to rest. The cries of the children and the 
moans of the women slowly subsided, when they found that their captors 
were not the desert demons with which their imaginations had been filled. 
A few low voices in conversation, in the liquid languages of the Soudan, 
rose and fell upon the gentle night wind, interrupted, perhaps, now and 


then, by the deep guttural exclamation of an Arab voice at a restive 
camel. One of these animals exhibited signs of restlessness, and, rising 
to his feet, evinced a disposition to press in upon the enclosed slaves. 
Leaving my horse at a little distance, securely picketed by a short cord 
and a strong wooden peg driven into the ground, I strode forward, and 
with some little difficulty reduced the animal to obedience ; but, as he 
still evinced symptoms of disquiet, instead of returning to my steed I 
threw myself upon the ground at the side of the camel, and between him 
and a closely hooded figure that I supposed to be some female slave of a 
higher class than the other half-naked blacks. 

The noises of the wild bivouac grew less and less ; the night wind 
swept by with a more gentle sigh ; the sky was cloudless, and the bright 
stars peered down like angels' eyes, with a peculiar earnestness and intent- 
ness, as if their wondering owners were trying to pry into the deep physi- 
cal and still deeper moral mysteries of this strange world. " Look on ! 
Look on ! " I muttered, half-aloud, imagination lending plausibility, for 
the moment, to the forced conceit. " Look on, ye host of sparklers ! your 
pure natures must ever find a puzzle in the changing and commingling 
threads of vice and virtue that make up the web of human life." I gazed 
upward, steadily, in a deep and absorbing revery, and as I gazed the stars 
seemed to grow brighter and larger, and to pour into my soul a flood of 
radiance that slowly etherialized each material portion of my frame. He 
who has ever drunk in the spiritualizing influences of nature in any of her 
highest moods, will understand the sensation with which I gazed, while 
almost a conviction sprang to my mind that some truth might yet be 
found lurking beneath the rubbish of rejected astrology. " Bright and 
beautiful beings ! " I exclaimed, " it cannot be that all the beliefs respect- 
ing your aspects and influences, once so firmly and so generally held, were 
utterly vain and untrue. Say, were all the dreams and dogmas of astrol- 
ogy, from the first, the offspring of ignorance and chicane, or were they 
the relics of a higher astronomy that flourished ere the world grew old ? 
Oh ! if the science were true, and I were but master of its arcana, how 
would I question you ! I would make you prophesy of the future, but 
not until you had satisfied me as to the present and the past. I would 
ask you of other scenes and fairer lands. I would ask you of friends — 
and above all, I would ask you of Kaloolah — sweet, gentle, artless 

At this instant I heard my own name pronounced in a low, soft tone, 
but with perfect distinctness. " Jon'than Romer! " were the words that 
seemed to float upon the air directly above me. I could not but smile at 


the intensity of imaginings that could thus so impudently attempt an im 
position upon my senses, but at the thought the words came again,:and 
with a clearness of enunciation that made me start almost with alarm 
lest my senses themselves might be joining in the league against my rea- 
son. " I like to give fancy fair play," said I to myself, " but this is carrying 
the joke a little too far," and sitting up I gave myself a shake, as if to 
arouse the sleepy understanding to a proper watch and ward over the 
portals of the mind. 

"Jon'than Romer ! " said the voice, and this, time in tones that could 
not be misunderstood for the delusions of fancy. " What mystery is 
this? " said I, starting and turning towards the figure that I had taken for 
a negro slave. " Can it be — Kaloolah ? Did you call me ? Kaloolah ! " 
The reclining figure raised itself from the ground, and stretching forth 
both arms, whispered low, but distinctly, " It is I — Kaloolah. Oh ! 
Jon'than ! " Fler further words were cut short by a choking inspiration, 
and she would have fallen, but I was at her side, and she buried her face 
in my bosom. 

For some moments we sat without speaking ; indeed words would have 
been inaudible amid the deafening reverberations of our beating hearts. 

I turned back the folds of her head-dress and exposed her face to the 
bright rays of Arcturus, who was peering down from the zenith. There 
could be no room for doubt. 'T was she ! Kaloolah ! I pressed her 
closely to my breast. For a moment she lay, unresisting, in my embrace, 
and then gently disengaging herself, she drew her hood over her face and 
sat erect. Still all was silence ; how long it might have lasted I know not, 
had it not been broken by a sob, followed by the least faint tinkle of a 
silvery laugh. I caught her hand, and drew her again towards me. It 
was necessary to sit very close, and whisper low, to avoid attracting atten^ 
tion from the drowsy slaves, or the more distant but wakeful Bedouins. 

" Tell me, Kaloolah, how is this ? How do I find you here — in this 
wild spot, and in such a guise ? " 

" I come, as you see — a slave. Such have I been almost from the time 
we parted ; but you, Jon'than, how came you here ? " 

"Ah, mine is a long story; tell me first how you came to recognize 
me, and to call my name ? " 

" The heart, the heart — Jon'than, has keen senses. I saw you as you 
stood over the wounded man, and turned aside the swords that were 
seeking his life. The idea that it was you was too improbable for belief, 
but the fancied resemblance made my heart give one bound, and then 
fall cold and dead as a stone. Again, when you came here to the 










camel, that voice roused every thought of you, but I could not, for a 
moment, really believe that it was you. After quieting the camel, you 
threw yourself upon the ground, and at last I heard you muttering words 
that sounded like English. How my heart struggled with its rushing 
tide. I pronounced your name — an Arab would not have noticed the 
sound — you started. I repeated your name ; you answered me, you 
called me Kaloolah. Ah, tell me, do I dream, or is it all true and real ? 
Tell me that you are Jon'than, that fancy does not deceive me." 

In answer to my questions, Kaloolah now related her adventures after 
leaving Sierra Leone. Her story was long and interesting, but for rea- 
sons, that perhaps the reader is fully prepared to appreciate, it must be 
condensed into the fewest possible words. 

Leaving Freetown, the Mandingo kafHla, with whom, it will be recol- 
lected, Kaloolah and Enphadde were to travel, made its way through the 
country of the Timanees. Beyond this the road became exceedingly 
rough and difficult, until they had reached Kissa, where the kafiSla halted 
for two or three weeks. Up to this time, Enphadde and his sister had 
travelled without much molestation, except from the occasional insolent 
curiosity of the fanatic Foulahs, who, however, when assured that the 
white people were not Christians, allowed them to pass without deten- 
tion. At Kissa, however, symptoms of difificulty began to show them- 
selves. For some time they were closely confined, while councils were 
held respecting them. The party of Mandingos, who had sworn to pro- 
tect them, now deserted them, carrying off a large portion of their prop- 
erty, and leaving them to the tender mercies of the rapacious king and 
nobles of Kissa. After much difificulty and trouble, Enphadde succeeded 
at last in procuring permission to set out on his journey for Tim^. Two 
surly Foulah guides were obtained, by whom the travellers were con- 
ducted to a small village nearly four day's journey beyond Kissa. The 
village was situated upon the banks of a pleasant stream, and consisted 
of about thirty mud huts, affording accommodation to a pastoral and 
inoffensive people. The appearance of the travellers excited no little 
surprise, but they were received with kindness and hospitality. A hut 
was assigned them on the banks of the river, and provisions supplied them 
in abundance. 

In the evening Enphadde was sent for, to visit the chief of the village. 
During his absence, Kaloolah, allured by the beauty of the night and the 
rippling of the water, stepped from the door of the hut to the edge of 
the stream. For some minutes she stood gazing in a deep revery upon 
the bosom of the star-lit water, when she was suddenly seized from 


behind — a cofiow paigne thrown over her head and twisted almost to suf- 
focation. Her hands and feet were then tied together, when she was 
lifted up, carried a short distance down the stream, and deposited in a 
canoe. In a short time the canoe stopped, the muffler was taken from 
her face, her limbs freed, and with a rough grasp upon her shoulder, she 
was forced forward at a rapid pace through a tortuous and tangled forest- 
path. About midnight they arrived within sight of a fire, kindled at the 
base of an impending rock. Here they found a party of four females, 
recently captured, and in course of the night were joined by two more of 
the slave-hunting gang, who brought with them a boy of about five 
years of age. 

Before daylight the whole party set out at a rapid pace in a direction 
nearly due north. For twenty days they continued their journey, barely 
stopping for sleep and meals, and carefully avoiding several villages, that 
Kaloolah could see in the distance on either hand. Several times they 
encountered bands of travellers and wild beasts, but met with no moles- 
tation from either. At last they reached a large and populous town, which 
proved to be an extensive slave-mart. Here the females were exposed 
for sale — the blacks readily finding purchasers ; but the whiteness of 
Kaloolah's skin, and her slender figure, worn down by her long and 
fatiguing journey, were deemed objections, and it was some time before 
a purchaser could be found. At last, however, she was bought by a 
Madengo merchant, who was about to start with a number of slaves for 
the great city of Jennie, on the Niger. 

In this large and flourishing city Kaloolah remained for about a year, 
as a slave in the house of Hamadow Kinka, a rich Foulah, a relative of 
King Sego Ahmadow, and a devout believer. Not content with perform- 
ing the duties enjoined by the Koran, this pious Mussulman, in his rever- 
ence for the words of the sacred book, had bowed in humble submission 
to its less stringent suggestions. With him, permissions were recom- 
mendations, recommendations commands ; and four wives in consequence 
rivalled each other in their attempts at his domestic felicity To one of 
these ladies Kaloolah was particularly assigned, but the repugnance she 
evinced to the duties proposed to her soon reduced her from the light 
but disgusting offices of lady's maid, to the more fatiguing but dignified 
labor of the household drudge. 

To assist at the toilet of civilized beauty; to adjust the graceful 
drapery ; to tint, with the hues of health, the delicate cheek ; or to braid 
the glossy ringlet ; is an employment that, in numberless instances which 
might be mentioned, fairies, and queens, and illustrious ladies of all ranks 



have condescended to, without derogation to their dignity and grace ; 
but to perform the like offices for an Ethiopian belle — to rub in the ran- 
cid mutton-tallow and palm-oil, with which her whole person has to be 
anointed ; to drape her reeking form in dingy and unctuous finery ; or to 
wield the fan for hours over her heavy post-prandial slumbers ; all this is a 
very different matter. The truth of this observation will explain the feel- 
ing of pleasure with which I ftiund that Kaloolah had chosen the hard lot 
of an out-door slave ; and excuse the particularity with which I take leave 
to state that her chief employment was to bring water in a calabash for 

" Her chief employment was to bring water in a calabash." 

domestic purposes from the river, and that she never assisted in anointing 
or abluting either of the obese beauties of Kkid Kinka's harem. 

It happened that in her visits to the river, Kaloolah's appearance 
attracted the attention of an old Moor from Morocco, who had crossed 
the desert to Timbuctoo on a trading speculation, and thence had pushed 
on up the Niger to Jennie. He was now about to return, and after 
making some inquiries, proposed to Kinka to purchase her with the inten- 
tion of taking her home with him, where her white skin would be no 
objection, and her peculiar beauty would be better appreciated. " Who 
knows," thought the old speculator, " but that she may find favor in the 


eyes of Muly Abderrhaman himself, and if so she will prove one- of the 
best bargains that I have yet made." 

In a few days after this change of masters Kaloolah and the Moor 
embarked in one of the large boats employed upon the river for the 
famed city of Timbuctoo. There were forty or fifty other slaves, with a 
dozen or more negro and Moorish traders, besides a crew of fifteen or 
twenty men, and a heavy cargo of rice, millet, butter, honey, onions, pis- 
tachios, colat-nuts, preserved fruits, and manufactured stuffs. 

Without incident, except the forcible exaction of tribute by a party 
of Tuarics, the travellers reached, after a voyage of a month, a small 
village, and landing, proceeded over fields of sand, about an hour's jour- 
ney to the great city of Timbuctoo. During her short residence in this 
city Kaloolah was closely housed, so that she had hardly an opportunity 
of making any observations as to the size or general appearance of the 
town. She noticed only that the streets were narrow ; the houses low, 
mostly of one story ; that the city appeared to stand in a plain of sand, 
and that it had no walls. Ten days after her arrival, her master announced 
that a caravan was ready to start, and that she must prepare for a jour- 
ney across the great desert. But little preparation on her part was 
necessary, her whole wardrobe consisting of a long, loose cotton robe, a 
cotton kerchief tied around the head, and falling over the face like a veil, 
and a thick woollen haick in which, at pleasure, she could wrap herself 
from the' fierce rays of the sun, or the keen airs of the night. ■ As her 
beauty was the chief subject of the speculation, it of course was for the 
interest of her master to treat her with kindness, and to afford her all 
possible comforts in her wearisome and fatiguing journey. A matting of 
coarse wool was provided for her repose at night, and the large pannier 
in which she rode was so stuffed and slung as to render comparatively 
easy the heavy paces of the camel. 

In six days the caravan halted at El Arouan, a town in the midst of 
the desert. Here it rested about a week, when it resumed its march, and 
toiling on from well to well, a weary journey of twenty days, had at last 
falletr into the ambuscade, which the attempt to avoid the usual tribute 
had provoked. For a second time, under circumstances of peculiar 
interest, at least to us, Kaloolah had been thrown, as it were, into my 


Kaloolah and Jonathan en route — A Dissatisfied Arab — Reasons for Flight — Unrequited Affec- 
tion — Buried Stores — Hurrah ! for Framazugda — Pillars of Sand — The Mirage — The Fata 
Morgana — A Party of Travellers — A Cup of Tea — Hahnemann and Homoeopathy. 

[T was about a week after the events described in the last chap- 
ter, that two travellers might have been seen en route across 
the yellow plain, billowed by arenulous waves, that, sun-tipped 
by the level light, glowed coppery and carbuncular as the noses 
of a bivouac of gigantic Bacchuses. Both were mounted upon camels. 
One, perched upon his high and narrow saddle, with his feet upon the 
animal's neck, after the usual manner of " camelestrians." The other 
seated in a pannier, which was balanced by a weight of provisions, water, 
and baggage. The difference in position would at once have indicated 
the difference of sex, and it needed not the gun, slung across his back, 
and only partially concealed by the folds of his haick — or the long, slen- 
der spear, serving also as a goad for his companion's beast — to enable 
any one to pronounce as to the respective gender of the parties. 

Of course, the reader understands that the two were no other than 
Kaloolah and myself ; and it is unnecessary, therefore, to stop longer than 
to explain that it was the enmity of Hassan, and the jealousy of Mrs. Ali, 
that had caused our precipitate flight. Upon the division of the spoil, 
on the morning after our attack upon the caravan, Kaloolah had been as- 
signed by lot, to an old Arab, who, satiated with the pleasures, yet hardly 
inured to the pains, of a well-stocked harem — and, withal, having certain 
notions of female loveliness, to which Kaloolah's classic features and 
slender figure did not conform — was exceedingly chagrined at the turn 
of fortune, which threatened to throw into the wrangling elements of 
his domestic felicity a feminine superfluity — or, as he expressed it, 
"another tongue in his tent." 

" Bishmallah ! " he exclaimed ; " God is great ! — but this is a small 
thing! She is not a man; she is not a black; she cannot work; but 
wont she eat and talk ! They all eat and talk ! I take a club sometimes 
and knock them down ; beat them ; break their bones ; but they still eat 



and talk ! God's will be done ; but it is too much ! To put such a 
thing upon me for my share ! She is good for nothing : I cannot sell 
her ! " 

" Yes, you can," said I. " I will give you these tobes," showing him 
three or four cotton garments, which had fallen to me as my share of the 

The old fellow eagerly accepted the offer ; and the bargain was con- 
cluded, with all legal forms, just as Hassan interfered with a higher offer : 
but he was too late. 

Upon returning to the douah at Boulag I purchased a small tent for 
Kaloolah, to which she closely confined herself, in order to escape the 
insult, and even violence, to which she was liable on account of her white 
skin, and her ignorance of the dogmas and forms of the Mohammedan 
religion. Nothing, however, could save her from a great deal of annoy- 
ance and discomfort. In addition to this there was the settled enmity 
of my old enemy, Hassan, with whom I had already had several alterca- 
tions ; and who, as was frequently intimated to me by several of his 
friends, and even by old Ali himself, only waited a convenient opportu- 
nity of carrying his designs against me into execution, without danger to 
himself. In my case — a stranger, without relations — there was no blood- 
avenger to fear, and nothing but a wholesome respect for my personal 
prowess held his hand from immediate attack. Such a state of things 
was far from pleasant : not that I had the least fear of the fellow — for a 
constant reliance upon my own personal resources had almost extin- 
guished the feeling — but the uncertainty as to the time of his intended 
attempt was exceedingly annoying. The necessity of keeping a vigilant 
watch was exhausting in the extreme. But little refreshing is sleep when 
the head is pillowed upon pistols, and the hand relaxes not its grasp upon 
the yataghan. Had it not been for Kaloolah, the temptation would have 
been almost irresistible to settle the doubt, by provoking a rencontre, 
and deciding the question, as to his life or mine, upon the spot. As it 
was, however, prudence dictated an immediate flight — a course that was 
still further indicated by the sudden and distressing development of love, 
and its common attendant, jealousy, in the bosom of the young wife of 
Ali. Truth, not vanity, induces me to mention my unintended conquest. 
Respect for the sex, however, and a sentiment of gentlemanly delicacy, 
which the reader will appreciate, prevents me from dwelling upon the 
story at length. It was wrong, undoubtedly, in Seffna to love any other 
than her old, rugose-faced, white-bearded husband ; but it is not for me 
to blame her. One thing, however, in her conduct can hardly be excused. 


True, I might have treated her affection with more tenderness ; I might 
have nursed the gentle flowers of passion, instead of turning away from 
their fragrance ; I might have responded to that " yearning of the soul 
for sympathy " — have relieved, with the food of love, " the mighty hunger 
of the heart " ; but all this and more that I might have done, but did not 
do, gave her \\<s> right to throw stones at Kaloolah. 

These last — the stones I mean — could be received only as an intima- 
tion that it was best to take our departure at once, and as I had made all 
preparations — having bartered Ayoude for a heirie, which although far 
inferior to my own, was still a good traveller, and having provided a store 
of provisions and water — we silently left the douah just after nightfall, 
and proceeding to where I had stationed the camels, mounted, and set 
out with our faces towards the south. 

The rising sun found us many miles from Boulag, and not far distant 
from the range of hills where I had first come upon the douah of Sidi 
Hadji Ali. It will be recollected that in a small hollow of the desert- 
plain, stretching oiT from the base of the hills, was deposited the greater 
portion of the treasure that I had selected from the lading of the dead 
camel, and a slight deviation from our true course brought us into the 
immediate neighborhood of the spot. Still it required a close observa- 
tion, and an attentive comparison of the salient points, if salient they 
could be called, when all but the distant hill-tops was nearly unvarying 
uniformity, to hit upon the exact place, and it was not until the sun was 
several hours high that we directed the steps of our camels down the 
sides of the familiar-looking depression. 

Making the camels kneel, so that we were secure from observation, 
while Kaloolah kept watch upon the edge of the hollow, I turned to, and 
with the blade, of my spear soon succeeded, much to my satisfaction, in 
disclosing the buried package. Upon examining the powder, pistols, and 
other articles, they were found uninjured by their temporary inhumation, 
and after replenishing my flask and pouch with.the munitions of war, I 
remade the package and placed it upon the back of my heirie with a sen- 
timent of confidence in fortune that was peculiarly refreshing. I knew 
that the fickle goddess had a strong liking for me, but should she attempt 
to play any of her coquettish tricks, had I not the means and the will to 
compel her favors ? " Yea, verily," thought I to myself, " I will woo her 
as the heroes of Valhalla wooed their brides, sword in hand, with the 
stern word and the strong arm ! Am I not rich and well armed, and 
ready to buy or fight my way through the darkest portions of the Ethio- 
pian world ? What more can I ask? Hurrah for Framazugda ! " 


" Hurrah for Framazugda ! " said Kaloolah, repeating the exclamation 
that had unconsciously escaped me, and at the same time thrusting her 
tiny hands from the folds of her haick, and waving it with inimitable 

There is nothing more fascinating in female manner to many tempera- 
ments than that compound expression of tenderness, interest, and mirth, 
expressed, though but poorly, by the term " archness." When founded 
on a delicate appreciation of the ludicrous, yet modified, and accompanied 
by a deep sympathy with the sentiments to which it is a response, it goes 
at once to the core of the heart. The proudest man bows without a mur- 
mur to the implied superiority ; the most sensitive man fears not the 
gentle smile, or laugh, when accompanied by the eager eye, or the 
blushing cheek. 

" You laugh at me, Kaloolah," said I, " but I will show you that mine 
is no idle boast. You shall once more see the flowers and the fields of 

" I am certain of it, Jon'than, or else I could not laugh." 

" And why are you certain? " 

" Because you promise it. What you undertake, you will accomplish. 
What you promise, you will undertake." 

" But it is a long road, and, as you well know by experience, it is filled 
with dangers. Have you no fear?" 

" None while I am with you, Jon'than. The noon-day sun suffers no 
shadows. You are my sun ; in the light of your eyes dangers draw off 
like the wild beasts from the traveller's fire ; they may threaten, and 
growl, but they dare not attack me." 

Nothing strengthens a man more than the confidence of others in his 
capacity to do, and it may be judged, therefore, that it was with a very 
comfortable share of determination that, placing Kaloolah in her pannier, 
I mounted my heirie, and gave to our camels the signal to set out. 

Our route for several hours lay over a hard pebbly plain, bounded to 
the south by a belt, or rather bed, of reddish sandstone, beyond which 
came again an interminable extent of shifting sand. At sundown we 
halted for the night. The camels were secured ; a small tent of goat- 
skins, as a bed-room for Kaloolah, was speedily pitched, into which I in- 
sisted she should retire as soon as we had partaken of our frugal supper 
of dates, sour milk, and barley meal. She protested that she was not 
sleepy; but it was easy to perceive that the heavy, jolting trot of the 
heirie had greatly fatigued her, and that repose was necessary if we 
wished to husband that essential element of success, her health and 


strength. I had but to throw myself on the ground and intimate my de- 
sire to sleep to secure obedience to my injunctions. Kaloolah withdrew 
to her tent, and I saw no more of her until the gray and purple coated 
avant-couriers of Apollo's chariot announced that it was time to be up and 

Six days passed, in which time, according to my calculations, we had 
measured off and marked with the broad, spongy feet of our camels a 
hundred and eighty miles of sand. A few trifling desert incidents alone 
served to vary the monotony of the way — the blanched skeleton of a 
camel — a flight of vultures — an ostrich — the tracks of a recent traveller, 
and a few straggling and struggling thorns. One of these latter, a stunted 
but sturdy little fellow, stood solitary, without a companion, directly in 
our path. I drew the rein of my heirie to allow him to crop its leaves. 

" No, No ! " exclaimed Kaloolah ; " do not harm it. 'T is but a mouth- 
ful, and existence must be sweet, or it would not cling to life so bravely. 
Let it live on. Why should we be more cruel than the winds and sands 
of Sahara? " 

" A very pretty sentiment, Kaloolah ; but like a good many pretty 
sentiments, it will hardly bear to be carried very extensively into practice. 
You think of the useless little bush, while you forget the poor heirie." 

On the morning of the fourth day we had a fine opportunity of viewing, 
in immediate succession, some of the most interesting phenomena of the 
desert. There first appeared on our left hand several gigantic pillars of 
sand. At one time we counted a dozen. Sometimes almost stationary, 
yet with a very evident rotary motion, at others trailing over the ground 
with an irregular pace, and swaying backwards and forwards, and gliding 
round and round each other in all possible curves, they could not but sug- 
gest the ideas of dancing giants and demons — thus taking the mind back 
through all the apocryphal histories of tall men, from Teutabochus to 
Polyphemus, unto those authentic times when " there were giants in 
those days," and revealing to fancy's vision a pretty fair glimpse of an 
antediluvian quadrille. 

As the sun rose in the heavens the whirling pillars slackened in their 
gyrations, and one after the other diappeared, to be succeeded by that 
most curious phenomenon, the mirage. Not a breath of air disturbed the 
profound calm of the plain, though in the upper regions of the atmos- 
phere there floated lazily a few vapory films, attenuated to the verge of 
impalpability. Around, all was still — the stillness of the desert — a still- 
ness which, if the reader will pardon the paradox, one can hear — when 
silence becomes audible — when the impact of the sunbeams upon the sand 


becomes a sound — when the auricular nerves, unsupported by their accus- 
tomed stimulus, vibrate without sound, producing a sensation as if one 
were listening to the very first beginning of a mighty, ever-threatening, 
never-coming noise — a noise that you can hear and cannot hear at the 
same time. Suddenly there was a glancing, gleaming, and quivering close 
to the surface of the plain, which increased as we advanced, until we were 
presented with a wavy and somewhat indistinct view of a large sheet of 
water. Gradually the scene became more clear and steady, until at last 
there lay stretched before us a beautiful lake, than which no lake ever 
seemed more inviting or more real. 

" Wollo, Wollo ! " exclaimed Kaloolah. " How beautiful. Let us hurry 
on. One bath in that clear water will give me strength for a thousand 
miles. Oh ! I wonder if we shall find in it the azure-leafed lotus that 
grows in the Wollo ? " 

Poor Kaloolah ! what a disappointment when she learned that the whole 
was an illusion, and saw in a few minutes the enchanting scene dissolving 
away. For some time we rode on in silence, with the veils of cotton cloth 
drawn over our faces to ward off the light and heat. Upon looking forth 
again not a vestige of the lake was left, but an exclamation from my com- 
panion attracted my attention to several dark specks in the sky. They 
were elevated at about an angle of forty-five degrees, and showed themselves 
a little to the west of the point whither we were tending. The spots were 
in motion relatively as to each other, and were also moving very slowly 
across our path. It was easy to perceive that they were the inverted and 
magnified images of camels, and that in number they were just sixteen. 

It was not until two or three hours had passed that the real causes of 
this desert Fata Morgana appeared on the verge of the horizon. Urging 
our beasts into a more rapid pace, in about an hour we came up with them, 
and found that they were traders coming from the northeast, and proceed- 
ing south like ourselves ; but that, disappointed in finding water where 
they had expected, they had been compelled to change their course to due 
west, in hopes of discovering an old neglected well. 

" Where are your companions? " I demanded. " There were sixteen 
of you." 

The travellers answered that a party, with the fastest camels, had been 
dispatched to look for the wells. My knowledge of their numbers excited 
the greatest astonishment, and at once elevated me in their estimation to 
the rank of a magician. 

The story that I was moving to the Negro country on account of a 
blood-feud, and m the expectation of trading advantageously a few 


rosaries of coral and glass, was readily received and credited, and it was 
at once settled that I should join their party, at least as far as El Garwan, 
a salt mine, about five or six days distant. The agreement was mutually 
advantageous. The travellers were not sorry to have their forces 
strengthened by the addition of one well armed man, especially as we 
were now coming into the immediate neighborhood of a tribe of Tuarics. 
These savages, bold, rapacious, and predatory, are afraid of nothing but 
fire-arms, and my gun added an effective fourth to the strength of our 
party. For my part, I cared but little for protection, but I wanted 
guides; and hence my willingness to accommodate my motions to the 
slow paces of a loaded camel. 

Two of the party returning and informing us that they had been 
successful in their search, we moved off in the direction indicated, and, 
about sundown, reached the well, which, when cleaned out, yielded a full 
supply of very pure and sweet water. Around this " gem of the desert " 
we encamped ; the camels were watered — a fire of dry brambles made — ■ 
some water boiled in an earthen jar, and into it infused, by the old chief, 
with an air of wonderful importance and gravity, about half a teaspoonful 
of green tea. 

" Taste this," said he, offering me some of the colorless infusion ; " it 
is the great medicine of the Nasarins. It comes from the other side of 
the earth, where the sun never shines ; and men find it only by creeping 
about on their hands and knees, with lanterns hung around their necks." 

" Oh, Hahnemann ! " thought I, "what a humbug is thy doctrine of 
infinitesimals ! It may do when the patient needs no medicine, but not 
when he is dying for a full, strong dose ! Oh ! for an honest Christian cup, 
big, black, and steaming with odors, consecrated to the worship of the Dii 
Penates, and suggestive of the sweetest associations of home ! " 








El Garwan — A Bedouin Adage — Sal-gem — Hiring a House — Rumors of a White Slave — A 
Beggar — An Irish Soliloquy — A Manifestation — Hugh Doyle's Slory — Hope for the 

L Garwan ! El Garwan,! " shouted my companions, as a col- 
lection of clay houses and low round huts broke upon our 
view. Situated in the open plain, with no green thing about 
it, nothing could be more dreary and unpicturesque. The 
movable douahs of the Bedouin seemed, in comparison, almost beautiful; 
yet here could be found men — some of them from the semi-civilized towns 
of the Mediterranean states — who, for the sake of money, were willing to 
spend their lives in this awful, miserable, hot, dry, dusty and dirty hole. 
" Drop a dollar into a potter's furnace, and you '11 burn a Barbary Moor 
to death," is an adage of the Bodouin, which, if any one believes to be an 
exaggeration, can be verified by a visit to El Garwan. 

The whole trade of the town consists in salt, which is dug up in large, 
hard lumps of pure sal-gem, from a depth of five or six feet below the 
surface. The work is wholly performed by slaves, who also cut the lumps 
into pieces of a uniform size, and generally ornament them with some 
rude, fanciful designs. So compact is the salt, and so dry the air, that 
houses are sometimes built of pieces of it, which are found to be as dura- 
ble as those constructed of rubble work, or of sun-burned brick. 

Having hired a house — consisting of only one apartment, about four 
feet wide, eight feet long, and as many high, into which Xaloolah with- 
drew from the heat of the sun, and the impertinent observation of a crowd 
of vagabonds — I went out to take a look at the slaves in the salt-pits, in 
the expectation that there might be some Christians among them, to 
whom I could afford relief. I had not forgotten Jack Thompson, and 
there was a bare possibility that he might be among them. A thorough 
search, however, dissipated the hope, and, in answer to my inquiries, I 
was assured that there were no slaves but the wooley-headed, ebony- 
skinned beings before me. ' 

"But are there no Christians?" I demanded. 




" None now," replied my informant ; " we often have them, but they 
are not good for much : they cannot stand the heat." 

" You are right," I repHed ; " they are worthless dogs for work, but 
they bring good ransoms at Sweirah. If I could come across any, I would 
purchase them for that purpose." 

"Well, I will tell you where you can find one. About three days' 
journey to the west is Marbash, and there I know that they have a Chris- 
tian slave, for I saw him working in a salt-pit, not one moon ago." 

" How old is he? " 

■, so as to overtook the wall" etc. 

" He is not young — his hair is gray ; but I should think that he has 
twenty years yel in his body." 

The description given me by my informant answered very well for 
Thompson ; but I knew that there were too many Christian prisoners in 
the desert, who were supposed by their friends to have been lost at sea, 
to feel much confidence in finding him in the slave at Marbash. Who- 
ever he was, however, he was evidently some one demanding my services, 


and I at once resolved to visit him, and, if possible, purchase him of his 
barbarous masters. 

Returning through the narrow and filthy streets, to the door that 
opened into the little court in front of my house, I was struck with the 
appearance of a ragged and squalid figure that accosted me for alms. A 
few woollen tatters hung about his person, which was thickly bestudded 
with sores ; a brown rag was tied around his black, bullet head, and the 
ends brought down so as partially to defend his eyes, which were disgust- 
ingly inflamed. His form was emaciated, and he walked with a feeble 
and tottering gait. His age was about thirty. Such figures are common 
enough in any Mohammedan town, but there was something in this 
fellow's appearance that at once arrested my attention. There was a 
familiar look about him, and there was a melanchol}' twinkle at the bottom 
of his dark gray eye, that spoke of a soul not yet broken down by the 
frowns of fortune, or driven into the Mussulman's usual refuge — a stupid 
indifference to life, with its miseries and its pains. 

He said he had not tasted food for several days. His looks were 
sufficient proof of the fact ; so slipping three or four feloos — a copper 
coin— into his hand, I told him to go and purchase bread. 

An hour or two afterwards, as I was standing in the little court, which 
was separated from the street by a low wall, I was startled by a voice, 
singing in a low tone a verse or two of the well-known Irish song, the 
" Exile of Erin." Mounting, so as to overlook the wall, I saw the beggar, 
seated on the ground beside the wicket, apparently awaiting my exit. In 
the meantime he was amusing himself with singing and talking to him- 
self, and in poking a pile of offal with his staff. There was no one but 
myself within hearing; but, even if there had been, he need hardly have 
feared to discover his secret thoughts and feelings, inasmuch as he was 
speaking a language that no citizen of El Garwan could have understood. 
My surprise may be imagined, when I heard the fellow talking in good, 
plain English, though with certain peculiarities of accent and pronuncia-. 
tion that spoke strongly of that gem of the ocean, the Emerald Isle. His 
words ran nearl}' as follows : 

" Sure, it 's in luck you are to-day, Mr. Hugh Doyle ! 'T aint every day 
that yer stomach has a chance to cry enough, in the face and eyes of a 
calabash of milk and meal. Will ye be aisy now, an' maybe I '11 get ye 
some more from the same place. Ah, Hugh Doyle ! Hugh Doyle ! do ye 
remember the time when ye 'd hardly say thank ye for a meal of parates 
and meat ? and now ye 're starving to death ! — And don't ye deserve it, 
ye vagabond ? Did n't ye desart yer country in anger, and have n't ye 


renounced your God in fear? — Are ye a true man, Hugh Doyle ? Divil 
the bit of it ! Ye 're a cowardly, lying, skulking thief of a renegado ! — 
Can you pray ? Yes, ye can, to Allah and Mahomet ! Allah, Allah, 
Allah ! Mohammed rasoul Allah ! And is that yer creed ? Ye 've sworn 
it, ye villain ! Holy Mother of God ! ye re damned, Hugh Doyle! All 
the praists in the world, with the Pope and his cardinals at the back of 
'em, could n't absolve ye ! And how have ye bettered yerself ? When 
a slave, ye were worked and baten, but ye were fed. Ye chose to make 
a hathen and a beggar of yerself, and now ye 're starving to death ! Ye 
have the lot of Lazarus in this world, without a chance of his fate in the 
next ; and all becase ye are not a true man. Ochone ! Ochone ! I mourn 
for ye, Hugh Doyle ! " 

The beggar bent his head in silence. A few low sobs came from his 
breast, which was evidently filled with emotions deeper and stronger 
than would seem to be indicated by his deliberate, audible self commun- 
ings. With his thin hand he passed a portion of his tattered garments 
across his eyes. 

In a few minutes he raised his head, and commenced singing : " ' There 
came to the bache — ' ah ! if I could only get to that same bache !— seems 
to me if I could see the ocean on'st more I could die content. Sure I 
could look across it as aisy as across the lake at Bournboy, and see the 
green hills of Erran and Derrymorn. Sure I could pick up its drops in 
my hand and ask them, did they know any thing of the water of Cavan ? 
Had they ever fallen in rain upon the Ballyneegeerah ? Had they ever 
hung in dew diamonds from roses of Eneskillen ? Had they ever been 
scattered from the daisies by the light steps of the ' Pride of the Borne?' 

Och, Bessy, mavourneen, why, why did ye smile on Teddy 

Moffat and frown black as night on Hugh Doyle? Could ye see me now, 
but little would ye drame that ye saw the boy ye drove to list in the 

marines 1 was mad Ye thought I would n't, but I 

did, and here now sits Hugh Doyle among haythens, himself as big a 
haythen as can be found in the four quarthers of Asia, Africa, and Amir- 

ica Och, Hugh, you vagabond (bad luck to ye, I would say 

but sure, ye 've enough of that same), ye 've desarted yer country, ye 've 
changed yer religion, ye 've sold yer soul for nothing at all. Small price, 
ye may say ; and so it would be for a dacent soul, but yer's is worth no 
more, and ye can't complain, for has n't the divil paid ye up like a jintle- 

man, and a man of his word ? Hugh, Hugh Doyle, ye '11 

starve in this world and roast in the next, ye poor, mane, unfortunate 
vagabond ! " 


" Hugh Doyle ! " I exclaimed in a loud voice from the top of the wall 
directly over his head, " Hugh Doyle, are you a true man ? " 

" Holy St. Patrick ! what is that ! " said Hugh, jumping to his feet 
with an agility hardly to be expected of his feeble frame. 

" Hugh Doyle ! " I repeated, sinking my head instantly behind the 
wall, " are you a true man ? " 

" Sure I am — Hivin presarve us, but this is a manifestash'un ! Maybe 
it is the saint himself — sure I am, your reverence. No, no, I was- — that 
is, I will be. Och, help, your reverence, a poor cratur who has drained 
the cup of misfortune, and has been living upon the dregs for the ten 
years past — a poor divil, your honor, who has had to keep a mortal long 
Lent without fish — whose tay has been nothing but adversi-^ay, with not 

the laste dash in the world of sugar or crame " 

" Come in," said I, pushing open the gate, and addressing him in 

He entered, and looked around with an air of bewilderment that was 
truly comical, and that served to heighten the tragic interest of his 
appearance by contrast. He could see no one but, as he supposed, a 
grave Mussulman, who commenced asking the particulars of his history, 
to which he at once replied in voluble and exceedingly pure Arabic. 

Divested of its unessential details, Hugh's story was short. He was 
born in the county of Cavan ; had received some education ; had got 
into some love difficulties ; had enlisted in the marines, and been sent to 
sea in an armed brig, which had been wrecked upon the coast of the 
Sahara. With a portion of the crew he reached the land ; was soon dis- 
covered by some of the tribes who wander up and down the coast in 
search of wrecks ; seized as a slave, carried into the interior, and sold.' 
In a short time the cruel treatment he was compelled to endure on the one 
hand, and the promises and persuasions of the Arabs on the other, induced 
him to renounce his relig-ious principles and profess a belief in the creed 
of Mohammed. For a little while he enjoyed a benefit in the change. 
The luxury of proselyting — one of the highest in the world, and one for 
which every sect has a taste — cannot be had every day, and the Arabs 
were willing to pay for it in charity to the convert. But with the novelty 
of his conversion abated their sympathy in his fate, and soon the con- 
tempt invariably felt for any one who changes his opinions or renounces 
his principles from the force of external circumstances, began to manifest 
itself in their conduct. They had saved his soul, why should they bother 
themselves about his body — they had put him into the path to paradise, 
he must pick out for himself his way in the world. He had no means of 


obtaining a living. Nominally free, he was yet jealously watched, at 
least until the deficient charities of a poor, selfish, and cruel people had 
allowed his health and strength to sink below the possibility of an attempt 
at escape. 

" You would like an opportunity of escaping from this horrible hole, 
would you not ? You 've had enongh of the Prophet and his followers. 
Nay, nay," I continued, speaking for the first time to him in English, 
" speak the truth, Hugh Doyle." 

The poor fellow, pale and trembling, sunk upon his knees. 

" You wonder who I am — no matter, you '11 know one of these days. 
I 've only time now to talk about your case. You would leave this place, 
and no wonder, for any change in your condition must be for the better. 
Listen then, obey my orders implicitly, and you shall go with me ; fail in 
any one particular, and I cast you off to die the death of a renegade." 

There was no danger that Hugh would intentionally disobey any of 
my directions, but there was much risk from the excitement of newly 
awakened hope, and the inconsiderate levity, sometimes an ingredient in 
Irish character. It was safest, therefore, to take advantage of the mys- 
tery in which, to his apprehension, I was enshrouded, to enforce obedi- 
ence, compel caution, and concentrate his attention to the object in view, 
and the means of attaining it. 

" You have been at Marbash ? " I demanded. 

"Sure I have," replied Hugh, "'twas there that I lived better nor 
three years. I remember it well. If I had now all the blood in my body 
that was drawn from my back, and buried in the salt-pits there, I should 
be a strong man." 

" Do you think that you could find your way back ? ' 

" As asy as point out the course of the sun in broad day. 'T is a wide 
path, and no turns in it." 

" Well, then, listen to my plan. I intend going to Marbash, and shall 
want a guide, and some one to look after the camels. We must contrive 
it so that you will be the man. I will go into the street just beforestart- 
ing, which will be in two or three days, and commence bargaining for a 
guide. Numbers will propose, but I shall offer so little that no one will 
accept the terms. In the midst of our wrangling you must come for- 
ward and offer your services, when I will at once strike a bargain with 
you, and we will mount and be off." 

Hugh seized the hem of my haick, and pressed it to his lips, while 
sobs prevented a reply. 

" Well, what do you say. Do you hesitate? " 


" Hesitation ! yer honor ; would a man hesitate to draw his hand from 
the fire ? Oh, no, 't is only the suddenness of it — like a flash of light- 
ning to a man who has lost his road in the night — t' is the unexpectedness 
of it." 

" We will start in two days," I continued. " This will give you some 
time to recruit your strength, which you will do rapidly upon full meals, 
as you are suffering wholly from want of food. But it will not do for 
you to be seen with money, and to avoid all suspicion, we must have but 
little communication with each other ; you will, therefore, come here at 
night, and you shall have a supply of cooscoosoo and milk. In the mean- 
time be careful that you do or say nothing that will attract attention ; 
follow your usual habits, and mind how you ever address me in 

Having reiterated my directions in the minutest manner, and enforced 
upon him the necessity of extreme caution, I opened the door of the 
court for him to pass into the street. Closing the gate, and stepping to 
the spot where I could overlook the wall, I saw Hugh stop for a moment, 
cross himself, clasp his hands together, and, raising his face, mutter some 
prayerful ejaculation. He then marched off with quite a firm, almost 
stately, step, down the street for a few paces, and then pausing, again 
looked back. I threw open the door, and beckoned to him. 

" Is this the way," I exclaimed, in a stern tone, "that. you obey my 
directions. Pray standing, cross yourself, and march off as if you were 
the kaid of the town ! " 

" Sure I forgot " 

" How dare you forget. Have you performed the part of a half- 
starved beggar for ten years, and yet you cannot continue to do so for 
two days longer ? Go, sir. I shall keep watch of you, and if you ven- 
ture to attract attention, by word or deed, or by any alteration in look, 
manner, gesture, or gait, I '11 leave your fleshless bones to be buried in 
the sands of El Garwan. No words ! be off, and thank God — secretly, 
mind you — that there was no Moor within sight when you chose to in- 
sult the Prophet with your Christian prayers in the streets of a Moham- 
medan town." 

Without a word Hugh slunk away, but it was easy to see, that, how- 
ever he might imitate it, his gait had no longer the natural and painful 
slouchness of one without hope. 


Departure from El Garwan — Arrival at Marbash — A Recognition — Jack Thompson — A Party 
of Tuarics — A Complete Equipment — Establishing a Watch — The Moral Influence of 

'OT ^^HE two days passed without any adventure of interest. By a 
liberal but judicious distribution of alms to the poor, presents 
to some of the chief men, with medical advice to all who 
asked it, I had thoroughly engratiated myself with the in- 
habitants of the town, none of whom offered any opposition to my taking 
Hugh with me to Marbash, or expressed any doubt of our return. In- 
deed, how could they, when we left behind, as security, an old camel and 
three or four loads of salt. 

These two days had done wonders for Hugh ; had afforded a neces- 
sary rest to Kaloolah, and had prepared our animals for a long stage of 
a hundred and fifty miles which we had yet to pass before reaching the 
southern borders of the desert. The two animals that I had added to 
my party were both heiries, and although hardly equal to the one ridden 
by Kaloolah, and far inferior to mine, were yet strong, active, and very 
fleet as compared with the common camel. Hugh mounted one, the 
other was laden, for the time, with an extra supply of provisions and 
water, and, as quietly as possible, at early dawn we set out for Marbash. 

It was not without some little emotion that at about sunset of the 
second day I saw a few dark spots in the distance, which Hugh asserted 
were the two or three dozen hovels that composed the town of Marbash. 
No one, who has not experienced the feeling, at a distance from home, 
and in barbarous lands, can understand the force with which a man is at- 
tracted towards one of his kind with whom he has any community of 
religion, language, or habit. The bands of human sympathy are strong 
and all-pervading ; but, unfortunately, nations have stretched them to a 
degree of tenuity which prevents them from always being seen or felt. 
When removed to a distance from the repelling forces, man finds himself 
attracted to man in a proportion compounded of his distance from old 


242 . KALOOLAH. 

stupid conventionalities and selfishisms, and his nearness to his sympa- 
thizing kind. 

The next morning we mounted and rode into the town. There were 
not more than a dozen inhabitants to be seen. Most of the houses were in 
ruins, or half buried in the sand. Once a place of some consequence by its 
trade in salt, it had been almost depopulated by the superior attractions 
of the mine at El Garwan, and by the frequent visits of a tribe of ma- 
rauding Tuarics. 

Without circumlocution I stated the object of my visit. The conse- 
quence was, as we have anticipated, that the master of the slave at Once 
made up his mind to demand four times as much as his market value. 
" He is a wonderful slave ! is he not ? " exclaimed the fellow, appealing to 
the bystanders, who answered with an assenting " Yea ! yea ! " 

" He has all the knowledge of the Christians. He is as strong as a 
lion. He is as " 

" Bah ! " I exclaimed, cutting short his list of good qualities ; " we 
understand all that. For work he is not worth the salt that he eats ; but 
I want him to take to Sweirah. If he is an Englishman I will give you a 
good price ; if not, he wont be worth taking as a gift ! " 

A short walk brought us into the salt-pits. At the first glance I recog- 
nized the familiar form and. face of Jack. He was working, together with 
half a dozen negroes, breaking up, with a kind of small spade, the sal-gem 
into large square pieces. In appearance, he had altered but little. If any 
thing he looked in rather better condition than when we parted at the 
well of Ageda. 

As we approached he looked up at me, and gave a sudden start ; but 
as I met his glance with a cold, steady, and unmoved look, his countenance 
fell, though still retaining traces of astonishment and dubitation. His 
master took no notice of his emotion, and in a few moments we walked 
off to conclude, if possible, our bargain. Expressing myself satisfied with 
his appearance, and with the Moor's assurance that he was an English- 
man, I made an offer which, after some chaffering, was accepted. Certain 
legal forms had to be gone through with — a talb or scribe was called to 
make out a bill of sale and a receipt. While waiting for this I directed 
Hugh to take the two camels and to mount Jack upon one of them, and 
set out from the town. In a few minutes I also got under way with 
Kaloolah, and followed at some distance behind, until we had got beyond 
the view of the inhabitants of Marbash. 

" Jack Thompson, ahoy ! " was my salutation as we rode up on a 
sharp trot beside him. " How are you, my old friend? Do you know me? 



Nay, Nay, hold on ; if you lurch so you '11 be overboard. Steady man. 
Mind your helm. If you yaw your craft about in that way you '11 broach 
to, or come by the lee, and have your decks swept before you know it ! " 

" Bless my eyes ! Mr. Romer ! Good heavens ! Oh, dear me, can it 
be ! " and the old man wrung my hand while tears started from his eyes 
and trickled down his weather-beaten face. 

His emotion was infectious. Kaloolah's eyes were distilling the 
diamonds of sympathy. Hugh's inflamed eyes were overflowing, and 
there was a very perceptible sense of moisture in my own. 

" 'T is only the last drops, yer honor ! " said Hugh, pointing to his eyes. 
" Sure, when the heart is filled with grief it overflows, and its waters are 
bitter ; but when ye put a big joy into it the grief is forced out, and its 
last drops are sweet. Oh, there 's all the difference in the world between 
the top and bottom of sorrow." 

" Don't think that I 'm astonished to see you, Mr. Romer," interposed 
Thompson. " I knew that you would come ; I have dreamed it a hundred 
times. If it had n't been for the thought of you I should have bilged and 
gone down long before this. I am flat aback with joy, but not with 

" Well, file away again, Jack, and let us know how you have got along 
since we parted. But come, while we are talking we may as well be 
moving. We must put thirty miles between us and this spot before 
night. Hugh Doyle, you will attend to this lady's camel. Forward ! " 

As we rode along, Jack and myself exchanged the histories of our 
adventures ; but, as the details of his desert life would be wholly without 
interest, it is needless to note the long, rambling conversation in which 
they were told. His had been the monotonous life of a slave in a salt 
mine, undisturbed by events of higher importance than occasional beat- 
ings, freq.uent attempts at proselyting, and once a change of masters, and 
a journey from the Waddy Sebah to Marbash. 

Our conversation was interrupted by the appearance of a company of 
Tuarics, who were mounted upon heiries, and armed with their usual 
weapon, a long lance. Handing my spear to Hugh, and my knife to Jack, 
I unslung my gun, and held it conspicuously, with the muzzle projecting 
above my head. The Tuarics upon sight of our party changed their 
course, and came towards us at a rapid pace. There were but six of them, 
and, armed as we were, there was but little to fear. Still, a battle was to 
be avoided, if possible, and as nothing invites an attack so much as an 
appearance of hurry and fear, we closed up our ranks in compact order, and 
moved on steadily, but with slow and deliberate steps. Something in our 


motions or equipment evidently had a discouraging effect ; for, after ad- 
vancing so closely that I was just beginning to entertain the question of 
emptying a couple of their saddles before allowing them to come any 
farther, they halted, and, after a brief consultation, wheeled their heiries 
and made off. 

" Perhaps," suggested Kaloolah, " they intend to follow us with a 
greater force." 

" No danger, yer ladyship, of that," said Hugh. " It is aisy to see that 
those fellows are a long way from home. Their beasts are leg-weary; 
and, do ye see, they are as gaunt as greyhounds ? They have n't tasted 
water for a week." 

We encamped a little before sunset, in order to have light for selecting 
an outfit for my companions from my stores. Each was furnished with a 
new suilJiam, cap and turban, a pair of pistols, with a supply of ammuni- 
tion, and a small quantity of coral, amber, and glass beads, which, as 
having a readily exchangeable value, would answer for money, in case 
any thing should happen to separate us. 

When the division was made, and our packages done up and stowed, 
I addressed my companions, explaining to them my determination to 
proceed due south, through the Negro countries of Africa ; that it was a 
long journey, filled with difficulties and dangers, and that I had no wish 
to take them with me against their will. I told them that, according to 
my calculations, we were not far from the southern borders of the desert, 
and about seven hundred miles from the Atlantic coast : that, if they 
chose to undertake the journey across the desert to Mogadore, it was very 
possible they would succeed ; and that, in such case, they were quite wel- 
come to the animals they were riding and to the articles that had just 
been distributed between them. 

" Bless my eyes, Mr. Romer, you ain't in earnest ! " exclaimed Jack. 

" Ye may say that ! " interposed Hugh. " Holy St. Patrick ! Lave ye, 
is it ? I '11 tell you, on'st for all, Mr. Romer, it can't be done ! Ye may 
say the word, and I '11 creep on my knees ; but, by jappers ! I 'II follow ye. 
A purty business we should make of it, to start for Mogadore, full fifteen 
hundred miles, and us not knowing a foot of the way ! To be sure, Mr. 
Thompson might tell the pints of the compass, and so could I, for that 
comes natural to all men ; but how could we get our latitude and 
longitude? — us, who have n't been university-bred, and don't understand 
fluxions and logarithms, and other mathematics ? " 

" And what do you say, Thompson ? " 

" Say ? What should I say, except that it will be a hard blow that 


makes us part company again ? I agree with Mr. Doyle, that it would be 
sheer nonsense for us to attempt to work a back traverse without you. 
No, no ; drive ahead, I say ! When a, ship gets oh a reef, it 's the best 
plan, sometimes, to crack on all sail, and force her over into deep water. 
Who knows but that we may come out at the Cape of Good Hope, yet ? 
But, at any rate, whether I 'm ever to see blue water again or not, I shall 
keep in your wake. You 've youth and strength, and wit and luck, on 
your side, and, in future, I sail under your orders." 

" Well, my friends ! " I exclaimed, " I am not sorry that you so readily 
make up your minds to go with me. In fact, it would be very foolish for you 
to do otherwise ; and I only made the proposal in order to give you a fair 
chance of choosing for yourselves. It might be possible for Hugh, speak- 
ing the language as he does, to get through ; but for you. Jack, the 
chances would be that you 'd run aground before the voyage was half over. 
For my own part, I am glad of your company. You will be able to render 
me the greatest assistance ; and, if this lady ever sees her country again, 
she and her friends will be under no small obligations to you." 

" Will she ? By the powers, I 'm thinking that it is just the revarse \ 
'T is we that are under obligation to her, for permission to tread in her 

" I 've been thinking, Mr. Romer," interrupted Thompson, " that, in 
our situation, a good look-out is one of the greatest of virtues. Now, 
you 're the captain of this crew, and it wont answer for you to keep 
watch ; or, rather, you are supposed to be on the watch all the time : so 
I think that Mr. Doyle and myself had better keep watch and watch. 
He 's been to sea, and knows what that is. If he '11 call himself the 
starboard watch, I '11 take the larboard; or vice varse , it 's all the same 
to me." 

To this proposal Hugh readily assented, and even warmly insisted 
upon it, when I suggested that his strength would hardly permit him to 
keep watch, for several days yet. It was astonishing what wonders five 
days of food and hope had done for him. He was no longer the same being. 
There began to be a degree of steadiness and strength in his gait, a cer- 
tain smile round his lips, and a pleasant light in his eye, that indicated the 
workings of a renewed spirit ; and, as well, the full and happy operations 
of the digestive organs. Even his sores had put off their indolent and 
malignant character, and were rapidly assuming a healthy appearance. 
So much for good food, and plenty of it ! It is a great thing, a plenty 
of good, plain, wholesome food in this world, and not without its influence 
in the next. If any one doubts, let him ask the starving millions, whu 



are suffering the pangs of hunger — who are dying of diseases engendered 
of famine — who are grovelling in the mental and moral debasement of 
deficient nutrition— and what will be the answer ? Why, that a starving 
stomach permits no moral sense, no religious sentiment — that you must 
fill that organ before you can touch the heart — before you can make the 
consolations of religion, the incitements of virtue, the hopes of heaven, 
any thing better than miserable and empty sounds, signifying nothing. 


The Limit of the Desert — Hugh's System of Fortification — A Herd of Gazelles — Character of 
the Country — Encamping in the Shade — Gazelle Stalking — A Pleasant Meal — Jack's Song 
— Hyena Music — A Fresh-Water Lake — Bathing — A Visit irom a Crocodile — A Character- 
istic Proposition — Leeching a Camel — A Negro Ploughman — A Chase and a Capture — 
Hassan and the Tuarics — A Supply of Provisions — An Addition to the Party. 

iIVE days of weary travelling, and the character of the country 
began to change. The sand-hills no longer lay so heavy nor 
so steep ; the desert-thistle began to appear in great abun- 
dance, and, farther on, numerous specimens of the acacia, and 
a tree bearing an agreeable red fruit, like the cranberry ; tracks of the 
jackal and panther were noticed, and several flocks of gazelles scoured 
the plain as we approached. 

" It will not be long, now, Mr. Romer," said Hugh, " before we come 
upon the inhabitants of these parts. God send us a safe deliverance from 
them, if they are Tuarics ! " 

" Amen ! " exclaimed Thompson. " If what the Moors and Arabs say 
of that people is true, we shall have good reason to call upon God for help." 

"No croaking, my men," I replied. "You ought to know the Moors 
too well to take their word for any thing. We know that they will lie; 
what the Tuarics will do, we have yet to learn. The Tuarics are no worse, 
I '11 answer for it, than fifty other nations that we shall have to pass before 
we reach the end of our journey." 

" Don't you think, yer honor," said Hugh, after a pause, " it might be 
as well to fortify ourselves a little, in case of accidents ? " 

" Fortify ourselves ! — with what ? " 

" With a full male. Do you see that ? " pointing to a herd of thirty 
or forty gazelles. " There 's not a jintleman's parkin Ireland, or England 
either, that has a finer taste of venison than this same country, and divil 
the game-keeper within twenty miles of us ! " 

"You seem to think of nothing but eating." 

"And with rason, yer honor. Is n't every man born to ate a sartain 
amount in this world ? and have n't I starved so long that I must make 



my jaws do double duty to make up for lost time ? Sure, I 've enough to 
answer for, without laving the world with a long account of unaten din- 
ners upon my conscience ! But it 's not for myself that I spake, yer honor ; 
it 's for her ladyship. The laste taste in the world of flesh would do her 
a power of good. Beauty can't live upon air, nor upon date-stones, baring 
the leather-skinned beauty we have left behind us. Sure, one Christian 
faste would give her ladyship a dale of strength, and put us all in good 
heart to meet any vagabonds of Tuarics that may cross our path. Look, 
yer honor, what a nice shade from the hot sun beneath this clump of trees ! 
and here, too, is green herbage for the poor bastes to moisten their mouths 
with ; and see, there is dry sticks enough for a bonfire ! Sure, if ye would 
move along to the back of that hillock, ye could get a shot at those 
beauties ! " 

The country presented somewhat the appearance of an open heath. 
The soil was thin, but sufficient to support an amount of vegetation that, 
after the perfect nakedness of the desert we had just left, struck us as being 
almost grandly rich and luxuriant. A dozen trees, at least, besides those 
by which we had stopped, dotted the extensive landscape ; hundreds of 
low bushes, with dark green foliage, enlivened the scene ; and here and 
there, over broad patches, a few gallant grasses and mosses held, in the 
chains of vegetation, the roving sands. 

We dismounted ; the camels were unladen, and turned out to graze. 
Kaloolah's tent was pitched, and Hugh and Jack set about collecting sticks 
for a fire. Giving them the strictest orders not to wander far from the 
camp, and to keep a good look-out around the horizon for visitors, I took 
my gun, and started off towards the herd of gazelles, who were quietly 
dozing beneath the shade of a group of acacias. Making first a large 
detour, in order to get to windward of them, I crept down slowly towards 
them, and, by taking advantage of all the little inequalities of the ground, 
was enabled to approach within shooting distance without exciting any 
alarm. For the last hundred yards I was compelled to crawl slowly along 
the ground. Upon rising to get a fair view of them, the whole herd 
started to their feet, and stood, for an instant, trembling with excitement 
at the unexpected apparition. I marked a fine fat fellow, and fired. On 
the instant, they bounded into the air, and upon descending again, com- 
menced kicking the ground from beneath them, in a succession of wonder- 
fully vigorous and spiteful jumps. Higher than all jumped the one that 
had been hit, but he did not cover so much ground, and, after a few bounds 
(the convulsive efforts of departing vitality), he fell lifeless upon the plain. 
Under Hugh's energetic superintendence, a large fire was awaiting the 


result of my expedition. It did not take long to dress the animal, por- 
tions of whose carcass were soon roasting, frying, and stewing before a 
fierce fire of dry sticks. When done, I served up a portion to Kaloolah, 
upon a platter of fresh leaves, and was exceedingly gratified to see her, 
although endowed with as much real delicacy as any heroine of romance, 
make a good, solid, sensible meal, like any other hungry traveller. 

We had, of course, no forks ; but despite the manipular necessities of 
the case, Kaloolah managed her meal with singular dexterity and grace. 
There is hardly a prettier sight, thought I, than to see a pretty woman 
eat. True, in the verdancy of youthful sentiment, many a one has shrunk 
from the profane association of ruby lips with the processes of mastica- 
tion and deglutition, but a little more experience, and there comes to a 
man the conviction that women, however angelic, are not wholly spiritual 
in their natures, and that food is essential to all of the sex, as well as to 
grandmothers and old maiden aunts. With this conviction, he learns to 
extract pleasure from what at first gave him pain. The prickle that 
pierced the tender papilla of his unsophisticated sensibility becomes a 
pleasant morsel to the hardened and practised camel's-tongue of true taste, 
and he no longer sympathizes with the pseudo-sentimentalists, who would 
wreathe, as it were, with cypress and yew the portico of the temple of 
Love — forbid the burnt-offerings and libations, and literally starve to 
death the enchanting beauties that minister at the altars. 

As the sun went down the air became quite cool, making our bright 
fire as pleasant to feel as it was to see. What with the refreshing cool- 
ness, the flashing fire, the full meal, and the fact of having arrived at the 
borders of vegetation, my party were all in high spirits — the animated 
conversation, and the loud laugh, indicating an elevation of feeling 
that was quite gratifying, knowing as I did the many dangers we had 
to encounter, and the necessity of a good morale to meet them success- 

Withdrawing a few yards into the shade of a clump of trees, I took a 
look at the scene. It was striking and picturesque. Kaloolah sat on a 
piece of carpet at the door of her goat-skin tent beneath the scanty 
branches of a scraggy acacia — on either hand at a respectful distance sat 
my two followers, dressed alike in their new Moorish garments, with the 
exception of the turban — Hugh having laid his aside ; and Jack's twist 
being a kind of ad libitum performance, it is impossible to describe. 

For some time Hugh entertained Kaloolah with a number of Irish 
melodies. They sounded curiously enough, those familiar airs, as they 
floated away on the night wind of the desert. Could they have caught 



the ear of some adventurous Clapperton, or Lang, how they would have 
excited his astonishment and stirred his heart. 

Hugh rose to his feet and made a low salaam — " May it plase yer 
ladyship," said he to Kaloolah, " to open that half-blown rose of a mouth 
of yers, and favor us with a song." 

As soon as she could make out his meaning, Kaloolah complied — 
singing several pleasant little songs in her own soft language. When 
she had finished she intimated a desire for Jack to give her a taste of his 
musical quality. Nothing loth, Jack struck an attitude and began. It 
was only a common sea song, and could be considered appropriate to 
time and place only by contrast ; but as I lay at some little distance in 
the shadow of the trees, his voice came over me like a nor'wester. He 
sang with unction, and his damp tones, redolent of spoon-drift, fairly 
brought the brine to my eyes. 


The mercury fell so far and fast, 

Our skipper's cheek grew pale, 
" Lay up ! Lay out ! " he sternly cried, 

" Furl every stitch of sail ; 
Pass double gaskets, fore and aft ; 

The hatches close secure ; 
Trice up the ports — the guns run in. 

And lash them firm and sure." 

Our skipper spake unto a crew 

Of joyous hearts, and free 
As ever, in a right trim ship. 

Sailed o'er a tropic sea. 
And while he spake, the sun his rays 

Poured down like melted gold. 
And lazily our gallant bark 

In noon-day calmness rolled. 

But as our crew sprang up the shrouds. 

They saw, with vague surprise. 
The yellow sun grow dim and red, 

And one dark cloud arise — 
That swiftly to the zenith swelled 

And spread around, o'er all 
Old Ocean's slowly heaving breast, 

A black and dismal pall. 

And then a moan crept o'er the sea, 
Beneath the breathless air. 

And came, as if from out the deep, 

The wailings of despair. 
While higher yet — and higher yet 

The long and placid swell. 
On which our bark had gently rolled. 

Now, surging, rose and fell. 

And tossed her wide — stripped to her spars 

Of every rag of sail, 
And all prepared, alow, aloft. 

To battle with the gale. 
One moment thus we silent lay, 

When sudden through the gloom 
We heard the whirlwind's awful roar. 

The crashing thunders boom. 

And at the soxmd the demon blast 

Leapt on our quivering bark, 
And bore her down till her yard-arms 

Bestirred the waters dark. 
" Hard up ! Hard up! Starboard your helm," 

Our skipper fiercely cried. 
" Hard up it is," the straining men 

In shrieking tones replied. 

But still on our broadside we lay. 

Amid the wild uproar. 
And buried deep in showers of drift 

That hurtled fiercely o'er. 



" Ho ! axes for the mizzen-mast,'' 

Ouf fiist lieutenant~cries. 
" Hold on ! hold on ! One moment hold ! " 

Our skipper brave replies. 

And then with trumpet to his lips, 

High rising o'er the gale, 
He sends along our anxious decks 

His steady, cheering hail : 
" Ho ! forward, there — the fore-shrouds 

And as his voice thus rung, 
Twice fifty true and gallant men 

Into the rigging sprung ; 
And there, 'mid driving foam and spray,' 

With desp'rate grasp they clung. 

Hurrah ! her head pays slowly off 

Before this added strain, 
" Hurrah ! Hurrah ! Ease down your 

She rights — she rights amain." 
And quick before the demon blast, 

Who, mad at loss of prey. 
Now louder howls — now fiercer chafes, 

Our good ship gathers way. 

And through a seething sea of foam, 

And 'mid the driving rack. 
She swiftly flies, with no sails set. 

To urge her on her track. 
With no sail set ! — but hark ! that sound 1 

It is the main-course driven 
From out the double gasket's gripe, 

And into fragments riven. 

With no sail set, but hark ! again, 

A top-sail breaks away. 
And whipt to ribbons, in a breath. 

Far out the streamers play. 
But still both brace and stay hold true, 

And still our spars stand strong, 
And still, amid the wild uproar. 

Our staunch bark bowls along. 

But swiftly now the raven clouds 

From the dark furrows rise. 
And fast before the struggling light 

The storm-king shrieking flies. 
And now, thank God, with stay-sails set, 

And helm held hard-a-lee, 
Our brave old ship — laid timely to. 

Safe heads the surging sea. 

Never, perhaps, were stomachs more thoroughly astonished than were 
ours at this sudden change from a hard, meagre, vegetable diet, to a full 
meal of animal food. They took it quietly, however, and a good night's 
rest showed that, if surprised, they were far from displeased. A solid 
breakfast, after the same fashion, completed Hugh's plan of fortification, 
and, mounting, we rnoved on, prepared for the worst, confident that only 
with life could we be deprived of the invigorating influences of a glorious 
"feed," and the pleasant reminiscences of a roasted gazelle. 

During the night, the hungry growl of the hyena rose several times 
upon the air, and, shortly after getting under way, a party of the gaunt, 
grinning beasts flitted across our path, in the purplish gray light of early 
dawn. Hyenas are not very interesting or companionable animals, and 
their voices are not generally considered musical ; but, under the circum- 
stances, we were pleased to meet with them — the silence and lifelessness 
of the desert had given us a fellow feeling for any and every form of 
animal life. 

We had been in the saddle but two or three hours, when our attention 
was aroused by the shouts and gestures of Jack, who had ridden on some 


distance in front. As we neared him his excitement appeared to increase ; 
he waved his hands for us, and eagerly pointed to some object ahead. 
A long way ofT, we could hear his stentorian shout of " Water ! water . " 
and, as we came up, a charming scene broke upon us, as suddenly as if 
created by the wave of an enchanter's wand. The main feature was an 
extensive sheet of water, that stretched away from our feet to the base of 
a range of low blue hills. The shores were, apparently, marshy, and the 
lake of no great depth, inasmuch as numerous sand-bars and mud-flats> 
showed themselves above the water. Countless flocks of aquatic fowl 
blackened its surface, and far out was a moving object, that we concluded 
to be a man in a canoe ; he was standing up, but whether paddling or 
poling his boat we could not decide. 

We soon stood upon the flat shore, and convinced ourselves, by copi- 
ous draughts, that it was no mirage. After satisfying our own appetites, 
and allowing our camels to drink their fill, it was resolved, unanimously," 
that we should indulge in the luxury of a bath. The propriety of ablu- 
tion, in our case, will hardly be disputed by any one who recollects the 
mode of life we had been leading ; the scarcity of water in the desert, and 
the complete exclusion of our skins, for so long a period, from its clarify- 
ing influences. 

Around a projecting point, covered with thick brushes, lay a beautiful 
little bay, which I selected as a bathing spot for Kaloolah. The beach 
was shelving and sandy, the water shallow, and a single broad-leaved palm 
tree threw its shade upon shore and lake. Leaving Kaloolah, with special- 
directions not to venture far out for fear of crocodiles, or hippopotami, I 
returned to a little knoll that commanded a view of all the approaches to 
the spot. Further down the beach, Hugh and Jack had selected a bath- 
ing-place, and were soon busily engaged in unearthing their long-buried 
cuticular strata. 

For some time I sat watching the movements of the distant boatman, 
who seemed, from his motions, to be spearing fish — or noting the ma- 
noeuvres of the vast squadrons of water-fowl — or gazing at the odorous, 
and infinitely varied beauties of the lotus fields, that lay basking in the 
full sun upon the surface of the water. Suddenly there came a shrill 
shriek from Kaloolah, and in an instant she darted into view, and ran 
rapidly along the shore. Her loose robe of cotton draped itself round 
her limbs, and somewhat impeded her movements, but still two to one 
on her would have been a fair bet, had even Atalanta, or swift Camilla 
been in the field. Without stopping, however, to admire her graceful 
paces, I rushed to the shore, and soon ascertained the cause of her alarm. 




As I came in sight, Kaloolah turned quickly, and finding herself, as the 
phrase is, " more frightened than hurt," she uttered a laugh, and pointed 
to a youngster of a crocodile who had come out of the water, and while 
she was dressing had advanced unperceived, until close enough to seize 
her haick as it lay upon the sand. The fellow was making off with his 
-prize, when I rushed at him, and succeeded in seizing him by the tail. 
The water was about knee deep, and as the thief was strong and active, 
though not more than six or seven feet long, the splashing that incon- 
tinently took place may be more easily imagined than described. Ka- 
loolah seemed to enjoy the terrors of this novel aquatic combat, ftar, al- 
though frequently exhorting me to let the fellow go, she laughed long 
and loudly at our grotesque struggles. At one moment I would drag the 
monster out, high and dry, when, like a very Antaeus, he would gather 
fresh strength from contact with the ground, and walk off into the water 
in spite of my best exertions, all the time retaining a firm hold of the 
haick. At last, however, finding that it was impossible for either of us 
to get the advantage, we concluded to compromise matters, and upon his 
surrendering the haick I gave him his tail, with which he industriously 
paddled himself off into deep water. The haick was of course somewhat 
injured in the contest, having numerous marks of the monster's teeth, but 
as Hugh observed, " It was such a blessing that Kaloolah's body was not 
wrapped in it when the marks were made," that the injury to the garment 
could hardly be considered a matter of regret. 

It was now my turn to bathe, so intrusting Kaloolah to the ward of 
Hugh and Jack, I sought a retired spot and plunged in. It was not 
advisable to venture far out, lest some saurian spes gregis should take it 
into his head to resent the insult that had been just offered to one of the 
youngsters of his flock. 

While preparing to remount. Jack made a characteristic proposition. 
It was neither more nor less than that we should give up travelling by 
land, and embark upon the lake. 

" Embark in what ? " I demanded. " What kind of a craft do you pro- 
pose ? " 

" Why, surely," he replied, " we shall be able to find something that 
we can make a raft of at least. Or, why could n't we make a signal to 
that fellow, and get him to take us on board ! " 

Thompson was really in earnest, and I had to explain to him that the 
lake was most certainly not the expansion of a navigable river, and that 
it could be nothing more than the marshy terminus of a few short water 
courses from the distant hills, to convince him that his proposition was 


impracticable. " The boat you see yonder," I continued, " is probably a 
small ' dug-out,' carrying only one man, and it is doubtful whether the 
water is deep enough to float a large craft. In fact, in a few days it is 
quite probable that the whole lake will disappear — " 

" In which case," interposed Hugh, " we shall cut a mighty quare 
figure, all illigantly wrecked upon the rocks of a mud-bank, and without 
the laste drop of water around us in which we could swim to the shore." 

We had proceeded but a few paces on our course when my heirie 
began to give symptoms of uneasiness. He turned his head about, and 
champed his teeth as if in pain, and at length blood was observed to issue 
from his mouth. Our alarm may be imagined ; a worse accident could 
hardly befall us than that one of our beasts should give out. We held an 
anxious consultation. At last I bethought me of making a close exam- 
ination, and endeavoring to ascertain the cause and nature of the com- 
plaint, and commencing with his mouth, our investigations were at once 
rewarded with success. 

" I see him ! I see him ! " exclaimed Hugh, and suiting the action to 
the word, he plucked from beneath the heirie's tongue a monstrous leech, 
which the poor beast had taken in with the water of the lake. The 
alarming symptoms exhibited by my heirie were at once removed. With 
a deep sense of joy and thankfulness, we speedily reformed our line of 
march — Jack leading, in what he called " the cat-head watch," while Hugh 
spread himself well out on our left flank ; our right being covered by the 
lake. This triangular disposition of our forces was the best we could 
adopt to guard against surprise, and to command an extensive view of 
the country, which, as we advanced, became more and more irregular in 
its surface, and more thickly dotted with trees. 

We moved on for about half an hour, when suddenly Jack stopped, 
and upon coming up to him, he pointed to the tracks of men and camels. 
The tracks were numerous, and of different ages, some of them appearing 
quite recent, and some of them several days old. 

We moved on again, but in a few minutes our motions were arrested 
by a signal from Hugh. He was near the crest of a low ridge of ground, 
about half a mile off on our right. We saw him dismount, and leaving 
his kneeling camel, creep cautiously along to the top of the ridge. In a 
moment he returned and made motions to us to join him. Upon com- 
ing up, Hugh informed us that he had been startled by the sounds of a 
human voice, and that upon creeping to the top of the hill he had dis- 
covered a black man ploughing in the field beyond. As he spoke a loud 
shout came over the crest of the ridge. I at once dismounted, and crept 



up high enough to obtain a view of the fellow. He was a stalwart black; 
quite naked, with the exception of a waist-cloth of blue cotton tied round 
his loins. He was engaged in lazily turning up the thin soil for a crop of 
some kind of grain. A crook stick of timber cut from the trunk, and one 
of the branches of a small tree, for a plough ; to this rude in- 
strument were harnessed a couple of small cows, by means of ropes of 
hide fastened to their horns. The furrows, or rather scratches, made by 
this machine, were not more than two or three inches deep. It was evi- 
dent that we had arrived in a country in which geoponics, as a science, 
had been stationary since the days of the first tiller of the earth. 

Having ascertained that the ploughman was alone, I directed Hugh 
and Jack to await my motions, and remounting my heirie, urged him 
across the rounded ridge at his best paces. The negro soon got sight of 
me, and instantly started off at full speed, but my beast was altogether 

"He suddenly stopped, and poising a light spear, expressed, by his gestures, a very decided 
disposition to assume the offensive." 

too fleet for him to escape. Finding that we were gaining upon him, he 
suddenly stopped, and poising a light spear, expressed, by his gestures, a 
very decided disposition to assume the offensive. 

It was impossible to persuade him that my intentions were not hostile, 
and it was only by pointing my gun at him that I could make him throw 
away his spear and go back with me. He could speak only a few words 
of Arabic, but when Hugh addressed him in Tuaric he answered readily, 
and upon assurance that we wanted nothing of him but a httle informa- 
tion in relation to the country, he laid aside his fears and became quite 

He informed us that we were about sixty days' journey east of Tim- 
buctoo, and that we were clear of the desert, and just upon the edge of a 
Country inhabited by Tuarics, but that at present most of the men were 


away, engaged in an attack upon a large negro town in the southwest, 
the inhabitants of which had refused to pay the customary tribute. We 
could not have arrived at a more fortunate moment. 

It was exceedingly gratifying to find from the man's replies that my 
calculations, as to our position, were not more than fifty miles in fault. 
We were a httle farther east from Timbuctoo than by my estimation, 
but that might be explained upon the ground of the strong probability 
that the city is situated at a less distance from the ocean than is generally 
indicated upon the maps. At any rate we were just where I wished to be, 
and so near to our estimated position, as to warrant a very comfortable 
degree of confidence in the correctness or my dead reckoning for the future. 

The negro informed us that Agades, a large caravan station, was due 
west of us, from whence a frequent communication was kept up with 
Sackatoo, the great capital of Houssa, and with the flourishing city of 
Kano, visited and described by Captain Clapperton. Our informant 
seemed to understand the country well. He told us that he belonged 
to a tribe of Kerdies, or Kafifirs, inhabiting a chain of hills in the south 
of Mandara ; that he had been captured, and taken from place to place 
until he reached Kano, where he lived for three or four years, until pur- 
chased by a party of slave-dealers to be taken across the desert. On 
their way from Kano to Agades they were attacked by the Tuarics, and 
he thus came into the hands of his present masters. 

Upon asking him the bearing of Sackatoo, he pointed to the south- 
east. He said that by taking this course we should get clear of the 
Tuaric country in three daj-s, and that when once among the negroes, 
travelling would be comparatively safe, and that it would be easy to fall 
into some of the Kafifila tracks leading to Sackatoo. In reply to ques- 
tions about a guide, he shook his head, and intimated pretty plainly that 
the less we had to do with his masters the better — that our best plan was 
to push on as rapidly as possible, giving a wide berth to any Tuaric vil- 
lage we might encounter, for, although the warriors were away, the 
women, children, and old men were not to be despised. There was but 
one objection to this plan, and that was, that our provisions were nearly 
exhausted. Upon mentioning this we were astonished by an offer from 
the negro to bring us a supply of meal. He took us to a rising ground 
and showed us a collection of mud and stone huts covering the slope of 
a hill about two miles off, promising that if we would encamp in th« 
hollow and keep out of sight, he would go and get some provision and 
return in the course of the night. As an earnest of his intention, he 
insisted upon milking his cows into our bowl and giving us a good draught 


all around. There was an air of openness and honesty in the fellow's 
face and manner that would perhaps have induced us to confide in him, 
even, had we not been so situated that it was impossible to do otherwise. 

The sun was just setting when we finished our conversation, and we 
at once commenced unlading our camels and preparing to encamp, while 
the negro, who gave his name as Hassan Haboo, unyoked his team, and 
driving them before him, set off for his village. As soon as he was out 
of sight we replaced the loads and led our camels to another hollow 
about a quarter of a mile off. Here I resolved to leave Hugh and Jack 
with Kaloolah, while I kept watch at the first place ; by this plan, if 
Hassan intended treachery, we should discover it in time to escape. 

Never was suspicion more unjust. It was near midnight that my 
anxious ear detected the sound of footsteps. By putting my ear close to 
the ground I could distinguish the dull heavy tread of a camel mingled 
with the lighter foot-falls of his master, and in a few minutes they 
appeared in sight upon the crest of the hill. Descending into the hollow 
the stranger halted, apparently in doubt at not finding the objects he 
sought. As he was alone there could be no doubt that it was our new 
friend Hassan ; so, without further hesitation, I rose from my cover and 
joined him. 

He had brought with him a camel well laden with barley-meal, rice, 
and a quantity of hard bread, unleavened and baked in cakes of a rhom- 
boidal shape. He had also a jar of honey, another of butter, and half a 
dozen strings of kabobs, which are small pieces of meat strung alternately, 
fat and lean, and roasted by twirling them before the fire, carefully baist- 
ing them the while with butter, and flavoring them with salt and the 
bruised seeds of a species of pungent pepper. 

Without giving us time to make any disposition of the provision, 
Hassan insisted that we should mount and set out ; and when it was ob- 
jected that we could not find our way in the dark, he announced his 
determination to act as a guide. To all our questions his replies were 
vague and indefinite ; but still there was something in his manner — an air 
of sincerity, and an unaffected expression of uneasiness and fear that com- 
pelled me to follow his advice. 

The loads were put upon our beasts, and, leading them by their 
halters, Hugh and Jack brought up the rear, while, with Kaloolah, I kept 
close to our guide in order to have an eye upon his movements. The 
night was cool and pleasant, though the stars twinkled but dimly to eyes 
accustomed to the eager lustre with which they look down upon the 
desert. A soft southern zephyr, laden with moisture and melancholy. 


came noiseless, but with a capacity and a longing for sound, until 
catching the echoes of our footsteps it bore them murmuring with joy 
away. There was something in the scene, the time, the weather, the 
stealthy pace of our little party, the silence enforced by our guide, and 
our ignorance of what we had to fear, that made me feel, to say the least 
of it, uncommonly queer. 

Hassan led the way, without once stopping or hesitating, and at the 
first blush of daylight he set us the example of mounting his camel, and 
still pressed on. It is singular, thought I, as the sun rose over a line of 
distant highlands, revealing a broad and smiling prospect of grass-covered, 
grove-besprinkled hill and plair. ; it is singular that the fellow evinces yet 
no disposition to leave us. At that moment the idea occurred to me that 
Hassan had joined us with the intention of escaping from his masters, the 
Tuarics, and that our chief danger was the danger of being pursued and 
caught with him in company. Calling Hugh to me, I rode up to Hassan, 
and questioned him, when he at once admitted that such was the case. 
He said that he had long resolved upon flight, and when he found that 
we were going in the direction of his country, he had made up his mind 
on the spot to go with us. That as for being pursued there were only a few 
old men and boys to pursue us, and that he had managed matters so that 
his flight would not be suspected for a day or two, when he would be 
beyond reach. 

" Do with me as you please," he continued, taking my hand and put- 
ing it on the back of his neck. " I am your slave, but I can never go back." 

The fellow, as a guide and as a stout addition to our little force, was 
worth running some risk for; so we determined, without much hesitation, 
to enlist him into our ranks, and to accept his supply of provisions with- 
out inquiring too curiously whether he had been fully justified in stealing 
thern or not. 


The editor here takes the liberty of condensing into a few words six 
long chapters of Mr. Romer's manuscript, which are devoted to a descrip- 
tion of the five months' journey through the negro countries that lie 
between the northern frontiers of Houssa and the extreme southern 
boundary of Mandara. 

Our travellers passed through the Tuaric country in safety, owing to 
the absence of the greater portion of the population. When they reached 
a little town called Dirkim, they exchanged their camels for four fine 


horses apd two pack mules. From this place they proceeded under a 
succession of guides to Sackatoo, the capital of the Fellatah dominions. 
Here Mr. Romer disposed of a portion of his goods at an advantageous 
rate, and purchased three Moorish muskets and a quantity of cowrie 
shells, which were the current coin of the more southern country. He 
also purchased a bright-eyed young negress to serve as an attendant to 
Kaloolah. Four months after leaving Sackatoo, they reached the Kerdie 
country to the south of Dah Koollah. Here they found an agreeable 
change in the character of the land. There was every indication that 
they were not more than three or four hundred miles from Framazugda, 
Kaloolah's home. From this point we must let our author speak for 


Torest Sights and Sounds — Kaloolah's Feelings — The Great River — A Fine Prospect — The 
Froulbell — A Strong Camp — Constructing a Raft — A Stroll in the Forest — A Lion in the 
Path — The Boa — Crossing the Yah'nil Nebbe. 

I OR a long time had we pursued our way through the sombre 
forest, all silent — subdued in spirit, and disposed to bow 
reverentially to receive the blessings which the religious old 
trees, with outstretched arms seemed invoking upon our 
heads. From all sides arose curious and horrid noises, that, like the 
grotesque grinning faces of Gothic architecture, served only to increase 
the pervading solemnity — the screeching of parrots, paroquets, and an 
infinite variety of birds unknown to naturalists even by name ; the chat- 
tering of myriads of monkeys ; the occasional laugh and growl of animals 
of the hyena family ; the wild rush and whir of startled deer, harts, roe- 
bucks, and the gliding, rustling sound of huge snakes, moving along the 
ground, or around the gigantic trunks, and among the verdure of the 
gnarled branches. 

" You are silent, Kaloolah ; what are you thinking of ? " I demanded. 

" I am not thinking," replied Kaloolah, " I am only feeling." 

" And how are you feeling, pray ? " 

" As I did once when I stood in the inner hall of the great mound 
temple of Kiloam. There, however, all was silence — with nothing to 
disturb the sense of God's presence and power — but here — this — oh, this 
is horrible ! " 

" What is horrible ? This shade — this gloom — " 

" No, no ; not the forest-; not this cool shade ; not this pleasing 
gloom, but these sounds that so mock and threaten as we go — these 
gibbering fiends, up there in the trees, that grin upon us so. Oh, how 
pleasant it would be to have this shade to ourselves — to be able to 
move beneath this umbrageous canopy without being annoyed and star- 
tled by such terrible sights and sounds — so strange, yet so familiar — 
familiar, yet none the less horrible. They do not frighten me so much 




since I know, Jon'than, you can protect me, but they somehow frighten 
my heart." 

" Indeed, Kaloolah, so young, so innocent, and yet thy heart has 
recollections of grinning faces, and mocking voices, that the noises 

around us revive ! Courage ! we shall soon be through this wood. 

Well, Hassan, what now ? " 

" The great river is in front of us," replied Hassan ; and in a few 
minutes we emerged from the dark forest, and stood upon its banks. 
There lay the broad stream, some fifty or sixty feet beneath us, and 
beyond it a vast expanse of open, rolling country, dotted with clumps of 
trees, and undulating with rounded hills, through which opened up long 
vistas of surpassing beauty. In the middle ground the hills grew more 
varied in their forms, and more abrupt, serving to link, by an easy transi- 
tion, the milder beauty of the river's bank with the lofty grandeur of a 
chain of towering mountains in the background. 

From the foot of the bank upon which we stood extended a wide 
beach of dark, gray pebbles and sand. It took us some time to find a 
spot at which our animals could descend. From the beach the view was 
much restricted of the country on the other side of'the river, but the loss 
was made up by the pleasing outline of the bank, and the magnificence of 
the masses of rock and verdure that towered above us behind, and ex- 
tended as far up and down as the eye could reach. Gigantic flowering 
creepers, splendid specimens of the rock-hugging ceres, and a magnificent 
flower, like the morning-glory, but as large as a man's hat, and of a bril- 
liant blue and gold, covered and concealed the angular points and rough 
projections of the cliffs. Among these, as in the forest we had passed, 
revelled a thousand different kinds of birds of the most glorious plumage : 
little paroquets, bedecked in all the prismatic colors ; humming-birds ; 
golden and purple wood-peckers, and a little bird that Kaloolah clapped 
her hands at the sight of, and called the kinkapal, or gem-bird. Around 
its head and neck were little tufts of plumage of different hues, that re- 
flected the sunlight as brightly as a brilliant of the first water. The wings 
and body were of a plain gray, while the head and neck were clothed as 
with a little casque and corselet of diamonds, rubies, and opals. Here, 
too, floated several specimens of the froulbell, a bird which may justly be 
pronounced one of the greatest ornithological curiosities in the world. Its 
body is about the size of a wren, and without wings, but from every point 
on its surface comes out the most delicate feather streamers, a foot or more 
in length. Wonderful is the delicacy and lightness of this large mass of 
plumage in which the little body of the bird is concealed. The finest 


feathers of the ostrich, or the bird of paradise, are coarse in comparison. 
The outer extremity of each feather is of a pure white, but towards the 
body glow the brightest hues of green, bkie, purple, and gold, so that the 
wind, parting the masses of graceful plumage as the bird floats slowly 
along, reveals each moment new combinations of color to the delighted 
eye. But not the least curious part of the froulbell's structure is the ma- 
chinery with which, in the absence of wings, it is furnished for locomo- 
tion. The bill is simply a tube, open at both ends, and extending 
directly through the head, so that one orifice is directly in front, the 
other behind. From the middle of this tube, or from the top of the 
head, rises a hollow, cartilaginous globe, capable of expansion and con- 
traction ; this communicates with the tube, in which are two valves, the 
one in front opening towards the globe, the one behind, away from it. 
When the globe is expanded a vacuum is produced, and the air rushes in 
through the valve in front. When the globe contracts, this valve closes, 
and the air is forced out through the other valve behind ; and thus, by an 
alternate action of suction and propulsion, the froulbell is able to move 
along slowly, when the wind is not too high. The flexibility of the neck 
enables the bird to direct the tube to any angle of elevation, and thus, 
aided by the legerity of its plumage, to ascend to any height, although it 
generally flies low in search or small insects and animaculse, which, when 
sucked into the globe, are retained in the convolution of a lining mucous 
membrane, and afterwards transmitted into the stomach. The passage of 
the air through the valves occasions a pleasant flute-like sound, which 
varies in tone and quality with the size of the bird and the rapidity of 
its motion. 

But it was no time for ecstasies over the beauties of the animal and 
vegetable kingdom, with a broad and rapid river in front of us, and with 
no means at hand of crossing it. Again and again I questioned our two 
guides, but they were firm in the assertion that we should have to travel 
several days before encountering a Kerdie village, and that then we might 
not find either ford or ferriage. The only plan was to make some kind of 
a boat or raft upon which we could carry our luggage, and to swim our 
horses across, despite the danger of attack from the crocodiles, with which 
the river appeared alive. As this would require some time, preparations 
were made for a more permanent encampment than usual. 

A little rocky peninsula jutted into the river, and was connected to 
the main land by a narrow isthmus. The sides were quite steep and jag- 
ged, rising about five or six feet in height, or enough to protect us from 
the visits of the river monsters, while a large fire upon the narrow neck 


afforded a full defence toward the land. The area of the peninsula 
was just sufficient to accommodate our party, beasts and all. Here we 
picketed our steeds, pitched Kaloolah's tent, and arranged our baggage. 
The rest of the day was consumed in building a shanty of bushes, cutting^ 
fodder for our horses, and collecting firewood. 

We passed a pleasant night, although, had not our ears been hardened 
by our long and intimate companionship with wild beasts of every de- 
scription, we should perhaps have been disturbed by the loud whining 
and plashing of the crocodile, the deep breathing and floundering of the 
hippopotamus, the bark of the jackal and hyena, or the thundering roar 
of the lion that occasionally reverberated along the cliffs, startling for a 
while to silence the inferior beasts. We slept, however, with an unusual 
feeling of security. Our position was a strong one, in fact perfectly im- 
pregnable — a real little Gibraltar of an encampnent to our prowling and 
growling foes. 

The next morning we started in search of some kind of material for a 
raft. We had not gone far up the stream when we came across a large 
hollow tree, about fifty feet in height, without branches, except near the 
top, where it put forth ten or twelve arms, somewhat resembling the 
sturdy and awkward-looking limbs of the dragon-tree. It was little more 
than two feet in diameter, and although decayed near the roots, so as to 
expose its hoUow-heartedness, is still seemed to enjoy a vigorous old age. 

" There," said Jack, " that would be just the thing if we had it down, 
and cut up into three or four lengths, with any way of stopping the ends." 

" The easiest thing in the world. You see to getting it down, and I 
will find something with which to cover the ends. Or, rather, as we shall 
need lashing to hold the pieces together, you shall manufacture the 
necessary rope out of the skins that I will furnish, and Hugh shall super- 
intend cutting the tree." 

Leaving Kaloolah and her maid in charge of Jack, and Hugh with 
the two guides hard at work upon the tree, I took Hassan with me, and 
moved into the woods in search of skins. Nothing of sufficient size could 
come amiss, and it took but a short time to shoot and flay more than 
twenty animals, among whom hardly two were of the same species. 

By sunset Hugh had the tree down, and Jack had twisted a large 
quantity of rope. The tree had now to be cut into three pieces of about 
twelve feet in length, the openings at the ends to be secured with skins, 
and the logs got into the water and firmly lashed together into a raft. 
Without any of the proper means and appliances, this was a work of time, 
and it was not until the fifth day that the raft was ready for its burden. 


It was early on the morning of the sixth, that, accompanied by 
Kaloolah, and the Hvely Clefenha, I ascended the bank for a final 
reconnoisance of the country on the other bank of the river. It was not 
my intention to wander far, but allured by the beauty of the scene, and 
the promise of a still better view from a higher crag, we moved along the 
edge of the bank until we had got nearly two miles from our camp. At 
this point the line of the bank curved towards the river so as to make a 
beetling promontory of a hundred feet perpendicular descent. The 
gigantic trees grew on the very brink, many of them throwing their long 
arms far over the shore below. The trees generally grew wide apart, and 
there was little or no underwood, but many of the trunks were wreathed 
with the verdure of parasites and creepers so that the forest vistas were 
often shut off by immense columns of green leaves and flowers. The 
stems of some of these creepers were truly wonderful : one, from which 
depended large bunches of scarlet berries, had, not unfrequently, stems 
as large as a man's body. In some cases one huge plant of this kind, 
ascending with an incalculable prodigality of lignin, by innumerable 
convolutions, would stretch itself out, and, embracing several trees in its 
folds, mat them together in one dense mass of vegetation. 

Suddenly we noticed that the usual sounds of the forest had almost 
ceased around us. Deep in the wood we could still hear the chattering 
of monkeys and the screeching of parrots. Never before had our presence 
created any alarm among the denizens of the tree-tops ; or, if it had, it 
had merely excited to fresh clamor, without putting them to flight. We 
looked around for the cause of this sudden retreat. 

" Perhaps," I replied to Kaloolah's inquiry, " there is a storm gather- 
ing, and they are gone to seek a shelter deeper in the wood." 

We advanced close to the edge of the bank, and looked out into the 
the broad daylight that poured down from above on flood and field. 
There was the same bright smile on the distant fields andhills ; the same 
clear sheen in the deep water ; the same lustrous stillness in the perfumed 
air; not a single prognostic of any commotion among the elements. 

I placed my gun against a tree, and took a seat upon an exposed 
portion of one of its roots. Countless herds of animals, composed of 
quaggas, zebras, gnus, antelopes, hart-beasts, roeboks, springboks, buffalos, 
wild boars, and a dozen other kinds, for which my recollection of African 
travels furnished no names, were roaming over the fields on the other 
side of the river, or quietly reposing in the shade of the scattered 
mimosas, or beneath the groups of lofty palms. A herd of thirty or forty 
tall ungainly figures came in sight, and took their way, with awkward 


but rapid pace, across the plain. I knew them at once to be giraffes, 
although they were the first that we had seen. I was straining my eyes 
to discover the animal that pursued them, when Kaloolah called to me to 
come to her. She was about fifty yards farther down the stream than 
where I was sitting. With an unaccountable degree of carelessness, I 
arose and went towards her, leaving my gun leaning against the tree. As 
I advanced, ,she ran out to the extreme point of the little promontory I 
have mentioned, where her maid was standing, and pointed to something 
over the edge of the cliff. 

" Oh, Jon'than ! " she exclaimed, " what a curious and beautiful 
flower? Come, and try if you can get it for me ! " 

Advancing to the crest of the cliff, we stood looking down its precipi- 
tous sides to a point some twenty feet below, where grew a bunch of wild 
honeysuckles. Suddenly a startling noise, like the roar of thunder, or 
like the boom of a thirty-two pounder, rolled through the wood, fairly 
shaking the sturdy trees, and literally making the ground quiver beneath 
our feet. Again it came, that appalling and indescribably awful sound ! 
and so close as to completely stun us. Roar upon roar, in quick succes- 
sion, now announced the coming of the king of beasts. " The lion ! the 
lion ! — Oh, God of mercy ! where is my gun ? " I started forward, but it 
was too late. Alighting, with a magnificent bound, into the open space 
in front of us, the monster stopped, as if somewhat taken aback by the 
novel appearance of his quarry, and crouching his huge carcass close to 
the ground, uttered a few deep snuffling sounds, not unlike the prelim- 
inary crankings and growlings of a heavy steam-engine, when it first feels 
the pressure of the steam. 

He was, indeed, a monster ! — fully twice as large as the largest speci- 
men of his kind that was. ever condemned, by gaping curiosity, to the 
confinement of the cage. His body was hardly less in size than that of a 
dray-horse ; his paw as large as the foot of an elephant ; while his head ! 
— what can be said of such a head ? Concentrate the fury, the power, 
the capacit}-, and the disposition for evil of a dozen thunder-storms 
into a round globe, about two feet in diameter, and one would then 
be able to get an idea of the terrible expression of that head and 
face, enveloped and set off as it was by the dark' frame-work of bristling 

The lower jaw rested upon the ground ; the mouth was slightly open, 
showing the rows of white teeth and the blood-red gums, from which the 
lips were retracted in a majestic and right kingly grin. The brows and 
the skin around the eyes were corrugated into a splendid glory of radiant 


wrinkles, in the centre of wiiich glowed two small globes, like opals, but 
with a dusky lustrousness that no opal ever yet attained. 

For a few moments he remained motionless, and then, as if satisfied 
with the result of his close scrutiny, he began to slide along the ground 
towards us; slowly one monstrous paw was protruded after the other; 
slowly the huge tufted tail waved to and fro, sometimes striking his 
hollow flanks, and occasionally coming down upon the ground with a 
sound like the falling of heavy clods upon a cofifin. There could be no 
doubt of his intention to charge us, when near enough for a spring. 

And was there no hope ? Not the slightest, at least for myself. It 
was barely possible that one victim would satisfy him, or that, in the con- 
test that was about to take place, I might, if he did not kill me at the 
first blow, so wound him as to indispose him for any further exercise of 
his power, and that thus Kaloolah would escape. As for me, I felt that 
my time had come. With no weapon but my long knife, what chance 
was there against such a monster ? I cast one look at the gun that was 
leaning so carelessly against the tree beyond him, and thought how easy 
it would be to send a bullet through one of those glowing eyes, into the 
depths of that savage brain. Never was there a fairer mark ! But, alas ! 
it was impossible to reach the gun ! Truly, " there was a lion in the path." 

I turned to Kaloolah, who was a little behind me. Her face expressed 
a variety of emotions ; she could not speak or move, but she stretclied 
out her hand, as if to pull me back. Behind her crouched the black, 
whose features were contracted into the awful grin of intense terror ; she 
was too much frightened to scream, but in her face a thousand yells of 
agony and fear were incarnated. 

I remember not precisely what I said, but, in the fewest words, I inti- 
mated to Kaloolah that the lion would, probably, be satisfied with attack- 
ing me ; that she must run by us as soon as he sprang upon me, and, 
returning to the camp, waste no time, but set out at once under the 
charge of Hugh and Jack. She made no reply, and I waited for none, 
but facing the monster, advanced slowly towards him — the knife was 
firmly grasped in my right hand, my left side a little turned towards 
him, and my left arm raised, to guard as much as possible against the first 
crushing blow of his paw. Further than this I had formed no plan of 
battle. In such a contest the mind has but little to do — all depends upon 
the instinct of the muscles; and well for a man if good training has 
developed that instinct to the highest. I felt that I could trust mine, and 
that my brain need not bother itself as to the manner my muscles were 
going to act. 


Within thirty feet of my huge foe I stopped — cool, calm as a statue ; 
not an emotion agitated me. No hope, no fear : death was too certain to 
permit either passion. There is something in the conviction of the im- 
mediate inevitableness of death that represses fear; we are then compelled 
to take a better look at the king of terrors, and we find that he is not so 
formidable as we imagined. Look at him with averted glances and half- 
closed eyes, and he has a most imposing, overawing presence ; but face 
him, eye to eye; grasp his proffered hand manfully, and he sinks, from a 
right royal personage, into a contemptible old gate-keeper on the turnpike 
of Hfe. 

I had time to think of many things, although it must not be supposed, 
from the leisurely way in which I here tell the story, that the whole affair 
. occupied much time. Like lightning flashing from link to link along a 
chain conductor, did memory illuminate, almost simultaneously, the chain 
of incidents that measured my path in life, and that connected the present 
with the past. I could see the whole of my back track " blazed," as clearly 
as ever was a forest path by a woodman's axe ; and ahead ! ah, there was 
not much to see ahead ! 'T was but a short view ; death hedged in the 
scene. In a few minutes my eyes would be opened to the pleasant sights 
beyond ; but, for the present, death commanded all attention. And such 
a death ! But why such a death ? What better death, except on the 
battle-field, in defence of one's country? To be killed by a lion! Surely, 
there is a spice of dignity about it, maugre the being eaten afterwards. 
Suddenly the monster stopped, and erected his tail, stiff and motionless, 
in the air. Strange as it may seem, the conceit occurred to me that the 
motion of his tail had acted as a safety-valve to the pent-up muscular 
energy within : " He has shut the steaim off from the 'scape-pipe, and now 
he turns it on to his locomotive machinery. God have mercy upon me ! 
— He comes! " 

But he did not come ! At the instant, the light figure of Kaloolah 
rushed past me: " Fly, fly, Jon'than ! " she wildly exclaimed, as she 
dashed forward directly towards the lion. Quick as thoAight, I divined 
her purpose, and sprang after her, grasping her dress, and pulling her 
forcibly back, almost from within those formidable jaws. The astonished 
animal gave several jumps sideways and backwards, and stopped, crouch- 
ing to the ground and growling and lashing his sides with renewed fury. 
He was clearly taken aback by our unexpected charge upon him, but it 
was evident that he was not to be frightened into abandoning his prey. 
His mouth was made up for us, and there could be no doubt, if his 
motions were a little slow, that he considered us as good as gorged. 


" Fly, fly, Jon'than ! " exclaimed Kaloolah, as she struggled to break 
from my grasp. " Leave me ! Leave me to die alone, but oh ! save 
yourself, quick ! along the bank. You can escape — fly ! " 

" Never, Kaloolah," I replied, fairly forcing her with quite an exertion 
of strength behind me. " Back, back ! Free my arm ! Quick, quick ! 
He comes ! " It was no time for gentlenesss. Roughly shaking her re- 
laxing grasp from my arm, she sunk powerless, yet not insensible, to the 
ground, while I had just time to face the monster and plant one foot 
forward to receive him. 

He was in the very act of springing ! His huge carcass was even 
rising under the impulsion of his contracting muscles, when his action 
was arrested in a way so unexpected, so wonderful, and so startling that 
my senses were for the moment thrown into perfect confusion. Could. 
I trust my sight, or was the whole affair the illusion of a horrid dream ? 
It seemed as if one of the gigantic creepers I have mentioned had sud- 
denly quitted the canopy above, and, endowed with life and a huge pair 
of widely distended jaws, had darted with the rapidity of lightning upon 
the crouching beast. There was a tremendous shaking of the tree-tops, 
and a confused wrestling, and jumping, and whirling over and about, 
amid a cloud of upturned roots, and earth, and leaves accompanied with 
the most terrific roars and groans. As I looked again, vision grew more 
distinct. An immense body, gleaming with purple, green, and gold ap- 
peared convoluted around the majestic branches overhead, and stretching 
down, was turned two or three times around the struggling lion, whose 
head and neck were almost concealed from sight within the cavity of a 
pair of jaws still more capacious than his own. 

Thus, then, was revealed the cause of the sudden silence throughout 
the woods. It was the presence of the boa that had frightened the 
monkey and feathered tribes into silence. How opportunely was his pres- 
ence manifested to us ! A moment more, and it would have been too late. 

Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy, 
whose grasp each instant grew more firm and secure, and most astounding 
were those frightful yells of rage and fear.- The huge body of the snake, 
fully two feet in diameter, where it depended from the trees, presented 
the most curious appearances, and in such quick succession that the eye 
could scarcely follow them. At one moment smooth and flexile, at the 
next rough and stiffened, or contracted into great knots — at one moment 
overspread with a thousand tints of reflected color, the next distended so 
as to transmit through the skin tbi golden gleams of the animal light- 
ning that coursed up and down within. 


■HJr A ,.l(l!U«,l„ 


*. •'*• 




A** - 




^ ) 




'^ V 









KALOOLAH. _ 269 

Over and over rolled the struggling beast ; but in vain all his strength, 
in vain all his efforts to free himself. Gradually his muscles relaxed in 
their exertions ; his roar subsided to a groan ; his tongue protruded 
from his mouth, and his fetid breath mingled with a strong sickly odor 
from the serpent, diffused itself through the air, producing a sense of 
oppression, and a feeling of weakness like that from breathing some 
deleterious gas. 

I looked around me. Kaloolah was on her knees, and the negress 
insensible upon the ground a few paces behind her. A sensation of 
giddiness warned me that it was time to retreat. Without a word I 
raised Kaloolah in my arms, ran towards the now almost motionless 
animals, and, turning along the bank, reached the tree against which my 
gun was leaning. 

Darting back, I seized the prostrate negress and bore her off in the 
same way. By this time both females had recovered their voices, 
Clefenha exercising hers in a succession of shrieks that compelled me to 
shake her somewhat rudely, while Kaloolah eagerly besought me to 
hurry back to the camp. There was now, however, no occasion for 
hurry. The recovery of my gun altered the state of the case, and my 
curiosity was excited to witness the progress of deglutition on a large 
scale; which the boa was probably about to exhibit. It was impossible, 
however, to resist Kaloolah's entreaties, and after stepping up closer to 
the animals for one good look, I reluctantly consented to turn back. 

The lion was quite dead, and, with a slow motion, the snake was un- 
coiling himself from his prey and from the tree above. As well as I 
could judge, without seeing him straightened out, he was between ninety 
and one hundred feet in length^not quite so long as the serpent with 
which the army af Regulus had its famous battle, or as many of the same 
animals that I have since seen ; but, as the reader will allow, a very 
respectable sized snake. I have often regretted that we did not stop 
until at least he had commenced his meal. Had I been alone I should 
have done so. At it was, curiosity had to yield to my own sense of pru- 
dence, and to Kaloolah's fears. 

We returned to our camp, where we found our raft all ready. The 
river was fully half a mile wide, and it was necessary to make two trips ; 
the first with the women and baggage, and the last with the horses. It is 
unnecessary to dwell in detail upon all the difficulties we encountered from 
the rapid currents and whirling eddies of the stream ; suffice it that we got 
across in time for supper and a good night's sleep, and early in the morn- 
ing resumed our march through the most enchanting country in the world. 


Beyond the Yah'nil Nebbe — An Alarmed Town — An Expressive Pantomime — A Friendly Re- 
ception — The Matcham — Habits Versus Principles — A Kyptily Breakfast — The Town of 
Soconale — The Matcham's Foreign Relations — Departure from Soconale. 

^HE first day there appeared no signs of human life. Countless 
herds of wild animals roamed over the plains. Sometimes we 
were completely surrounded, as far as the eye could extend, 
with herds of quagas, gnus, antelopes of five or six different 
species, buffalos, wild boars, giraffes, ostriches, and elephants. Each 
moment as we advanced we started from their lairs, in the crevices of the 
calcareous rocks, or from beneath the thick herbage, the leopard, the 
hyena, and the lion. The prestige, however, of the latter had departed — 
he was no longer the unconquerable, and, except at night, we had no fear 
of an attack. The elephants and wild buffalo were much more dangerous, 
and repeatedly we had to make large detours to avoid them. 

Several times we mistook a collection of lofty ant-hills for human 
habitations, and as often did we fancy the figures of the tall ourang- 
outangs, who stalked about upon the edges of the cliffs, to be those 
of men. 

On the second day we entered a valley, through which meandered a 
shallow tributary of the Yah'nil nebbe, the great river that we had just 
crossed. The scenery along its banks was singularly picturesque and im- 
posing. Sometimes the valley spread itself out so as to leave a space for 
fertile savannahs along the river's banks, where grew clumps of palms, 
with a peculiar variety of the baobab, and a tree that I took to be a spe- 
cies of the Indian banian. Numerous fruit-bearing trees were scattered 
about ; one of them producing a fruit like a large green-gage, but without 
a seed stone. The flavor was delicious. Another, producing a fruit about 
a foot long and an inch in diameter — it consisted of a brilliant scarlet 
rind, containing a transparent pinkish fluid, with the bouquet of Chateau 
Margeaux and a taste resembling champagne punch. It was precisely 
similar in its effects to the latter drink. Luckily we were cautioned in 



time by Kaloolah, and indulged no further than to a little pleasant eleva- 
tion of the spirits. 

The fifth day we got sight of several stone huts erected upon the jut- 
ting promontory of rock that overlooked the level savannah. The in- 
habitants did not await our arrival. I rode forward alone, and made signs 
to them. The men stopped, and poised their spears, while the women 
continued their retreat. Upon attempting to approach them they also 
took to flight, and disappeared in the deep gullies and dense jungles. 

As we advanced, clusters of huts became more frequent ; in fact the 
country seemed quite populous, but it was impossible to get speech with 
any of the people. The only conclusion we could come to was, that 
they took us for a party of slave-hunters, and that our guns excited 
their alarm. 

We were now thinking about encamping for the night when Hugh rode 
up and informed us that just beyond a thicket of acacias he had discov- 
ered a walled town upon the slope of a hill. We spurred forward, and 
upon emerging from the wood there lay an open plain about a mile 
broad, covered with tall grass, and beyond it a town of about fifty 

We had hardly entered the plain when we heard the sound of drums 
and wooden horns. Several horsemen appeared, galloping across the 
field, and men could be seen running about upon the slope of the hill and 
the tops of the houses and walls. 

We advanced steadily to the foot of the hill. A straight path led up 
to a wooden gate which was closed and defended by towers on either side. 
In these towers and along the walls were stationed men and women, 
armed with spears and bows, which they flourished over their heads with 
furious gestures and cries, intended to intimidate us and encourage them- 
selves. It is to be hoped that they succeeded better in doing the latter 
than they did in their attempts at the first. 

Halting at a proper distance, I directed Hassan to ride forward and 
make signals of friendship to them. He advanced until within a bow-shot, 
when he dismounted, and laying his gun upon the ground, pointed to it. 
He again advanced a few steps forward, bearing a staff with one of 
Kaloolah's linen garments tied to it for a flag. The shouts and gesticula- 
tions recommenced, and, the arrows beginning to fall about him, Hassan 
was compelled to make a rapid retreat. 

"It is clear enough they don't like a black skin," exclaimed Jack; 
" suppose I give them a look at the red and white paint of my figure-head. 
Perhaps they have a taste in colors." 


Dismounting and taking the emblem of peace in his hand, he went 
forward on foot. Arrived to within a proper distance, he commenced a 
long oration in the language of signs. There was a copiousness and pro- 
fusion of imagery in Jack's style that would have made his fortune in 
pantomime. It had its effects upon the inhabitants of the town. A man 
was lowered over the wall, which was not more than twelve feet high, by 
a rope. He came towards Jack, when the two saluted each other with a 
profusion of gestures — the stranger repeatedly putting his hand upon his 
head and bowing, while Jack, doffing his straw hat, grasped his fore-lock 
and scraped his foot in true quarter-deck style. 

We were growing a little impatient at the length of the colloquy, when 
Jack made a sign to us to advance. As we came up, the natives, who 
were now increased in numbers, by the addition of five or six from the 
walls, stood their ground and gazed at us with a peculiar expression of 
interest. At this moment Kaloolah threw back her veil. The movement 
quite delighted them, seeming to inspire them with confidence in the 
honesty of our intentions. " Framazug ! Framazug!" they exclaimed, 
and two or three running towards the gate, which was now partially 
open, returned with an old man, who at once addressed us in the Frama- 
zug tongue. 

Nothing could exceed the delight of Kaloolah when she heard his 
words. She pressed forward, and at once engaged the Kyptile in a most 
animated conversation. They talked so rapidly that it was with difficulty 
that I could follow them. 

It appeared that these were a people very friendly to the Framazugs, 
from the borders of whose country we were now distant only about ten 
days' journey, and that Kaloolah's father was still alive. As to any thing 
further in relation to the internal affairs of Framazugda, the speaker 
knew nothing. 

Two dignified personages, armed with whips of buU's-hide, with which 
they kept back the crowd, now invited us, in the name of the Matcham 
or king of the town, to enter and enjoy the hospitalities of Soconale. We 
found his majesty seated on a stone bench, just within the, gate. There 
was no attempt at royal display. Two or three elderly men, probably 
cabinet ministers, sat on either side of him ; and half a dozen tall fellows, 
with spears and large shields of bull's-hide, seemed to act as guards. The 
king was quite old, and, unlike many of his subjects, was very fat. Our 
conversation lasted until it was dark. Torches were then produced, and 
the old king waddled before us up a broad, straight street, until we came to 
an enclosure, surrounded with a picket fence, in the centre of which stood 



a large one-story stone house. Here the Matcham informed us we were 
to take up our quarters. 

In front of the entrance to the house a large fire was blazing. From 
several huge earthen pots issued clouds of promising odors. The stone 
floors were covered with matting, new and clean, and from the roof our beds 
were suspended with ropes — there was first a heavy .wooden frame, upon 
which was spread to the thickness of a foot a layer of the freshly hatchelled 
fibres of a kind of spartum or rush, and over this a fine flexible mat of the 
same material. Soft, yet cool, there were never beds more luxurious — 
too much so for us ; and for the first two or three nights we were com- 

** The stranger repeatedly putting his hand upon his head and bowing.^' 

pelled to give them up and sleep on the stone floor. So much for the 
power of habit ! Strange that such a power should be so much neg- 
lected, and that many sensible people, parents and teachers, should con- 
fine themselves to the prevention of bad habits, caring nothing for the 
inculcation of good, and imagine that they can make up for the latter by 
a stuffing of principles. " Good principles are very well ; but good, 
strong, positive habits are better," I exclaimed, throwing myself upon the 
stones, where in a few minutes we were all in a sound and refreshing sleep. 
In the morning we had a message from the king inquiring after our 


healths, and shortly he himself appeared, followed by two or three ser- 
vants bearing a fresh supply of provisions. The remains of our supper 
were removed, and a profusion of good things arranged for breakfast 
upon small wooden tables, standing about a foot high from the floor — 
fresh eggs, milk and honey, rice cakes, wheaten bread, with a great many 
dishes and fruits that no Christian ever heard of before. In the centre of 
the table was an immense egg-shell, about a foot in diameter, which, fur- 
nished with a rim and feet of gold, answered for a punch-bowl. Into this 
the Matcham emptied the contents of several of the red peduncles of 
the good and evil tree which I have mentioned. A servant now presented 
a bouquet of flowers, from which the Matcham, selecting three, gave us 
each one. They were in color of a deep orange varied with blue. The 
calyx was about the size and shape of a small tea-cup, and situated at a 
right angle to the hollow stem, which served as the handle of a dipper, 
and which, passing through the side of the flower down to the bottom, 
answered, also, the purpose of a straw in a tumbler of mint-julep. The 
dew was still on them, and an enchanting fragrance was exhaled from the 
little vermilion, lily-shaped anthers, that far surpassed the mingled per- 
fumes, while it excited the heart-filling memories, of musk, patchouli, 
and eau de cologne. Following the example of the Matcham, we dipped 
our flower-cup into the egg-shell and finished our breakfast by sucking up 
two or three draughts of nectar, such as was never offered by Ganymede 
to Jove. 

After breakfast we walked out to see the town. There was nothing, 
however, of much interest in the view. The houses were all of one story, 
generally surrounded by a stone fence, and scattered around without any 
regard to regularity, except on the borders of the large avenue which ran 
from gate to gate. 

The inhabitants were a different race from any that we had yet seen. 
They had none of the negro characteristics. Their skins were of a light 
copper color, their hair straight and flowing, and their noses aquiline. 
Their dress consisted mainly of a loose shirt of linen, confined to the 
waist with a woollen sash, Sandals of untanned skin protected their 
feet, and strips of feather-cloth adorned their heads and necks. 

After our walk we stopped at the palace and were invited to a seat 
beneath a shady arbor in front of the porch. Several dignitaries of the 
court here joined us, while the curious crowd stood around at a little 

The Matcham informed us that he was hereditary ruler, not only of 
Soconale, but of several other towns to the south. He represented the 


country, between his dominions and Framazugda, to be thinly inhabited 
by other tribes of the same people, who all lived in walled towns, and 
who were more or less dependants of the great Sultan Shounse, whose 
power, however, was inadequate to their protection from the attacks of a 
very barbarous white people who lived about ten days' journey east of 
his, the Matcham's towns. 

" And what is the name of this people ? " I inquired. 
"They call themselves the Jalla," repHed the king. "They are ex- 
ceedingly cruel and ferocious, but we don't dread them much, because 
they can't make thunder and lightning. It is the negroes from the north 
who are our worst enemies. Once upon a time my people, the Kyptiles, 
were very numerous, and inhabited the plains all along the Yah'nil Nebbe. 
But the negroes began to come across and seize our people, and carry 
them away. We couldn't stand before their guns ; and after fighting with 
them for a great many years, we were compelled to fly higher up, and 
build our towns with walls. Even now they frequently come in large 
parties and traverse our country quite to the borders of Framazugda. 

" To the southwest there used to live a very good people, who were 
negroes ; but other blacks, with fire-arms, came upon them, and have 
taken possession of their country, and have extended their conquests 
clear up the hills to Framazugda, so that we have now the Jallas on the 
east, the Manda and KooUa blacks on the north, and the Phollo and 
Foota Jal negroes on the west. Our only friends are the Framazugs on 
the south." 

After condoling with the poor old king upon the threatening aspect 
of his foreign relations, we took our leave, and retired to our quarters. 

It was nearly a week before the hospitable king and people of Soconale 
would consent to our departure. We were compelled to demand an au- 
dience of leave, at which I distributed a quantity of beads, coral and 
amber, to the different dignitaries of the court. To the king I gave a 
brass basin that I had purchased at Sackatoo, a silk tobe and cap, and 
a pistol with a few charges of powder. The latter was received with an 
expression of reverence and awe, that I felt sure would soon elevate it 
into an object of adoration. 

Outside the gate we found our escort drawn up for us. It consisted 
of a dozen men, well mounted upon small black horses, and armed with 
bows and long spears. Besides these there were two mounted guides, 
one of whom was the old fellow who had acted as our interpreter ; and 
three men, on foot, each leading a buffalo, by a rope through his nose. 
The huge packs of provisions that towered from the backs of these ani- 



mals, proved that the worthy Matcham did not intend that we should 
starve by the way. 

With the king at their head, the whole population of Soconale accom- 
panied us to the banks of a little stream ; here our fi»al adietrs- were-ex^ 
changed. Shall I confess it ? it was with moistened eyes, and a yearning 
at the heart that I waved my hand to the simple and affectionate Kyp- 
tiles, and spurred up the steep banks of the rippling brook. If Frama- 
zugda had not been before me, I could have accepted the king's urgent 
invitation to stay with them, and defend them against the Mandi and 
the Jalla. 


The Djebel el Kumri — Slave-Hunters Abroad — The Footas and Their Guns — Jack's Opinion of 
the Footas — A Plundered Village — Military Precautions — A Kimboo Scout — An Accession 
of Strength — Midnight Musings — Planning an Ambuscade — Caught in Our Own Trap — 
A Charge and Repulse — The Kimboos' Revenge. 

!iEN days brought us to the base of a lofty chain of mountains — 
a spur of the Djebel el Kumri, or Lutkb Monies — stretching to 
the southwest. On either hand the peaks shot up to a very 
great height, and were covered with snow ; but in front of us, 
to the south, they fell away, so as to withdraw their fir-covered summits 
from the region of perpetual congelation. Along the base of these lesser 
peaks our route lay on the fifth day after leaving Soconale. A beautiful 
plain extended as far as the eye could see to the west ; several rivers me- 
andered through it, and, away in the distance, a broad silver lake glittered 
in the noontide sun. This plain, once populous, was now, our guides in- 
formed us, almost uninhabited — the Foota Jals having nearly extermi- 
nated the Kerdie population. 

At the banks of a large river, flowing in a northerly course, our route 
turned, due south, into the mountains. A succession of beautiful valleys 
opened up an easy and pleasant path. As we advanced, we fell upon a 
broad trail of men and horses, going south. We followed it for several 
hours, until we came to the remains of a village, which had all the marks 
of a recent fire. The blackened stone walls were standing, but the wood- 
work and thatched roofs were gone. There were no living beings in sight, 
but, upon riding up to the top of the ' hill, ujjon which the village was 
built, we discovered half a dozen bodies, horribly mutilated, and within 
the huts, the half-roasted remains of several more. The bodies were 
neither Kyptiles nor negroes, but apparently mulattoes, or a mixed race. 
Thus, then, was confirmed the story which some herdsmen had told 
us the day before — that several parties of slave-hunters were abroad. 
Our Kyptiles were terribly frightened. " We shall all be captured and 
killed ! " exclaimed Sooloo Phar, the captain of our escort, in a very dole- 
ful tone. 



" Silence ! " I exclaimed, with a voice and look that made Sooloo al- 
most jump from his saddle. " Are you a man, and frightened before you 
see your enemy ? What are you afraid of ? Are we not twenty well- 
armed men ? " 

" But they are armed with guns ! " replied Sooloo. " If they were 
Kerdies, or even the fierce Jalla, I would show you what a Kyptile can 
do ! But these are Foota Jals, and who can stand before their guns ? " 

" That, for their guns ! " I exclaimed, snapping my fingers with as con- 
temptuous an expression as I could conveniently assume. " That, for 
their guns ! Have not we guns, too ? and, besides, your bows and spears 
are not such poor weapons in comparison. Charge a party of these Foota 
the same as you would a party of Jalla, and you will find that they will 
run like sheep. Come, move on ; as for hiding ourselves, or turning back, 
I would n't think of the thing if athou.sand Footas were in the way! Ask 
Mr. Thompson, there, he knows all about guns, what he thinks of turn- 
ing back, because there is a chance of meeting with a party of slave-hunt- 
ers, armed with their rusty old guns, and powder that wont send a bullet 
as far as you can throw a long spear ? " 

" My opinion ! " replied Jack, " my opinion is, the Footas may go to 
the devil ! If these gentlemen are afraid of their guns, suppose you let 
Hugh and myself ride ahead, and when we get sight of those land-sharks 
we '11 take their guns away, and put plugs in their muzzles, tie up their 
triggers, and empty their pans, and then our friends here can ride up, and 
have a fight upon equal terms." 

Jack's quizzical proposition, when translated, with all gravity, into the 
language of our friends, seemed to please them mightily, and, added to 
my own assurances, restored a degree of confidence that made them quite 
willing to push on. There could be no doubt of their natural courage, 
and their readiness to fight on even terms ; but it was difficult to shake 
off their overwhelming apprehension of fire-arms. Although somewhat 
accustomed to our guns, they could hardly be persuaded to touch them ; 
and when we rested them upon the ground, at our halting-places, our 
guards would place themselves at some distance, and eying them with an 
air of veneration, mutter charms and prayers. I almost wished for a brush 
with a party of slave-hunters, in order to disabuse them of their paralyz- 
ing prejudice. 

Upon dismounting, and closely examining the ruins, and the decaying 
bodies, it became evident that not more than three days had elapsed since 
the visit of the Footas ; and that, consequently, their parties had not yet 
returned from the south, in which direction a broad trail indicated that 



they had gone after firing the village. It was necessary to move with 
caution to guard against surprise. Jack, with one of the guides and two 
other Kyptiles, led the way ; Hugh and two Kyptiles brought up the 
rear ; while, with Hassan, Kaloolah, and the main body of the army, in- 
cluding the buffaloes and baggage, I occupied the centre. Nor were our 
flanks neglected. A scout moved along the river's bank, so as to com- 
mand a view of its rocky bed ; and another kept even pace with us, among 
the rocks and bushes of the hills on our left. 

A circumstance sqon occurred that proved the value of my precau- 
tions. It was gratifying, inasmuch as I was beginning to reproach myself 
with excess of prudence, and to fancy that I was humbugging myself, with 
an idea of danger and responsibility, into a very unnecessary and roman- 
tic display of strategic generalship, in a remarkably small way. Watching 
the motions of the scout, who was about a quarter of a mile from us, on 
the elevated ground to our left, and at the base of a steep range of rocky 
Ijills, we saw him stop, and, in a few minutes, make a signal, by stretching 
out his arms. Riding at full speed towards him, I perceived that, in front 
of him, and between us, was a deep rocky gully, and that he was pointing 
to a clump of palm-bushes, that grew on the side towards me. As my 
horse flew by the bushes I got sight of the object indicated, and wheeling 
my steed instaptly, was, in another jump, right over the crouching body 
of a man. The poor wretch expected nothing but instant death. 

He was a tall, well-made young mulatto, of a light yellow complexion, 
and with thin lips and prominent nose. His dress consisted of a ragged 
linen shirt, with the eternal red sash, and around his shoulders some tat- 
ters of a robe of bird-skins ; his thick bushy hair was cropped close behind 
and on the top of his head, but was allowed to grow long in front, and to 
project horizontally, like a shaggy pent-house, over his eyes — a style of 
head-dress- which, as may be supposed, was decidedly more of the useful 
than the ornamental. 

When assured that he was among friends, he readily told his story, in 
the Kyptile tongue, with which he seemed perfectly familiar. He said 
that he belonged to the village that we had seen in ruins ; that the Footas' 
surprised the town when many of the men were away, and had slaughtered 
all the males and infants, and driven off the women and children that 
could walk; that, upon the alarm being given, the men, who came run- 
ning to the town, were attacked by parties of Foota horsemen, and cut 
down, in every direction, in the fields ; not more than thirty, out of a 
village of three or four hundred, had made their escape. 

He could give no definite idea of the number of the Footas, but from 


his replies I gathered that they were about two hundred, mounted, one 
third of whom might be armed with guns. He said that, higher up the 
country, he had seen towns on fire, and that the Footas were burning and 
slaying in every direction. In answer to my inquiry, as to what he was 
hiding behind the bushes for, he repHed that he had been placed there by 
his comrades, to watch for the Footas, who, having gorged themselves 
with spoil, must now be upon their return. 

" And what to do ? " I demanded. " Would you attack them ? " 

For an instant the fellow's eye gleamed like a tiger's, and a convulsion 
of rage and anguish passed over his features, but his countenance fell, and 
a melancholy shake of his head was his only reply. 

"Have your countrymen no weapons?" I continued. "Have they no 
hearts — no courage ? Are you all cowards, that you thus suffer your wives 
and children to be carried off, without resistance ? " 

" We have weapons," he replied ; " bows and arrows, and shields, and 
spears, and we have got strong arms and stout hearts ; but what can we 
do against the lightning-irons of the Footas ? " 

" Have your people the will to do any thing, if I show them the 
way ? " 

'• My countrymen have no wish to live," he replied. " Give us thirty 
Foota lives, and take ours when you will." 

" Go, then, collect your countrymen, and bring them to me this even- 
ing. I will pitch my camp in that grove, and will wait for you. We '11 
see if we can't teach these Footas a lesson that they will remember ! 
Go, bring your friends, and let as many as possible come mounted, and all 
of them fully armed." 

The fellow started off upon his mission with alacrity, while we moved 
up into a small thick grove of trees, and prepared our camp for the night. 

Two or three hours after dark our outposts heard and answered the 
signals agreed upon. Our messenger had collected about forty of his 
countrymen, one third of whom were mounted. They were a dejected, 
miserable-looking set of men, and, at first, could hardly comprehend my 
intentions. But when made to understand that we would go with them 
against the Footas, and attempt the rescue of their wives and children, 
their spirits revived, and their countenances expressed a degree of 
animation that proved they wanted only a leader, and more confidence 
in themselves and their weapons, to become fully a match for their cruel 

In a rocky hollow our camp-fire burned brightly, and before it and 
upon the glowing coals roasted the carcass of a wild hog and several 


specimens of smaller game. It was a pleasure to see our half-starved 
visitors eat. After their appetites were satisfied, I took their leading men 
aside and held a long consultation. 

In reply to questions, they informed me that at about half a day's 
journey up the country, the hills came down nearly to the bank of the 
river, leaving a long, narrow defile, through which the Footas would have 
to pass upon their return. From their description I was convinced that 
it would be just the place for an ambuscade. The only question was, 
could we reach it before the Footas should have passed. The strangers 
assured me that they knew, from the smoke of the burning villages, that 
the enemy were now engaged in the valley, beyond the pass, and that if 
we pressed forward we should be in time to occupy it, as the Footas 
would, necessarily, move very slowly, laden, as they were, with spoil, and 
having to drive before them their numerous captives. 

"And you, Kaloolah, what do you say? Shall we go on and meet 
these Footas, or shall we try to hide ourselves until they have passed ? 
We cannot turn back, for there is a large party in our rear." 

" Oh, let us go on and meet them," replied Kaloolah — " think of the 
women and children — " 

" But suppose they should prove too strong for us. What would be 
our fate ? Have you no fear?" 

" Have you any fears, Jon'than? " demanded Kaloolah. 

" None, if we can cross the little prairie before they emerge from the 

"Let us on then — my heart knows no fear when you lead the way; 
but, Jon'than, if the Footas should prove too strong for us; they will 
never make you a slave. You will either escape or die, wont you, 

"Certainly, I shall never be taken alive." 

"And I," repHed Kaloolah, "I shall go with you. In either case, 
Jon'than, I go with you ! " 

Hugh and Jack expressed themselves in the most emphatic manner 
in favor of a brush, and even Sooloo Phar, when he found, as he did from 
our visitors, that another body of Footas were in our rear, so that there 
was no turning back, declared his readiness to fight. It was refreshing 
to find such a degree of unanimity, and so much spirit and confidence — 
thanks to our four guns. 

The chief of a hundred fights may sleep on the eve of a great battle, 
but I felt no disposition to close my eyes. I don't choose to dwell 
upon my anxieties and sense of responsibility ; but the reader will 


readily understand that, considering the disparity of force in men and 
weapons, and the important issues at stake, it is no reproach to my cool- 
ness or confidence that I felt rather wakeful. The great heroes of 
history have played the game of war upon a grander scale, but never with 
stronger feelings of interest in the result. " No ! " I exclaimed, as I was 
pacing up and down before the flickering fire, in an oratorical tone, 
that started Hugh and Jack from their slumbers, and which would have 
brought three rounds in Tammany Hall, — " No ! a prospect of the biggest 
empire that ever dazzled the vision of blood-stained ambition could add 
nothing to the interest of a contest when the issues are victory and 
liberty on the one hand, defeat and slavery on the other! " 

■'Was yer honor spakeing to us? " demanded Hugh. 

"Yes, yes! Up, up ! It is time to start. I see the first blush of 
daylight, and the sun, you know, gives short warning in these latitudes." 

The word was spread throughout the camp, and in ten minutes the 
whole army, now amounting to about sixty-five men, was ready to start. 
A scouting party of our new friends, the Kimboos, led the way. Close 
behind I followed with a small party of Kyptiles, and at a little distance 
in the rear came the three guns and the infantry, cavalry, and baggage in 
close Order. 

The sun had risen a couple of hours when we came to a great plain 
intersected by several streams, and encircled by bold and lofty hills. In 
shape it resembled an elipse, our path corresponding to the conjugate 
diameter, which might be about eight miles. The transverse diameter was 
fully twenty. The surface, which appeared quite smooth and level, though 
we afterwards found some considerable elevations, was covered with a 
rich clothing of grass. No trees, however, afforded a shelter from the sun 
or a cover from the enemy. 

For a few minutes I hesitated about committing my party to the open 
prairie, and proposed that we should skirt the circle of hills, where we 
could, if attacked, make a better defence against the enemy's cavalry ; but 
the Kimboos assured us that this was impossible by reason of several 
deep and impassable ravines which projected far out into the plain. Our 
only chance was -to take the direct route along the banks of the river, and 
to press on so as to reach the pass before the Footas. 

We stopped a few minutes for breakfast and to water our horses, and 
then, leaving the friendly cover of the trees and rocks, launched out into 
the open plain. 

While toiling on through the rank herbage, occasionally descending 
into water-gullies and crossing the beds of several small streams, my eyes 


were not idle, and I noted several places where the nature of the ground 
would have aided in a defence against cavalry. This was encouraging, as 
I had expected to find the plain a perfect fiat, and without shelter of any 

It was within about a mile of the rugged hills that rose abruptly from 
the further side of the plain to a height of a thousand feet that we 
passed a little peninsula of land, made by the confluence of a creek with 
the main river. I did not take much notice of it at the time, as we were 
so close to the mouth of the defile, and all e3'es were strained in the 
direction of the hills. In a few minutes more we should know our fate. 
There were yet no signs of the Footas. We pressed on, our hearts beat- 
ing high with a hope which was destined to a most cruel disappointment. 

Our advance guard of mounted Kimboos were observed to stop, and 
the next minute wheel their horses and gallop towards us. It was easy 
to see, at a long distance, that they were the bearers of bad news. Upon 
coming up they informed me that from the crest of a low ridge of ground 
about half a mile beyond, a large body of Footas might be seen reclining 
in the shade of the hills, and that another party were just debouching 
from the defile into the plain. While speaking, a party of two or three 
horsemen appeared in sight, and galloped down towards us. When within 
fifty rods they wheeled~tii«ij-Jiorses and went back at full speed. 

We were fairly caught in our own trap. In a few minutes the whole 
body of the enemy would be down upon us, and in the open plain, where 
my frightened troops could scatter and run, there was no chance for a 
successful resistance. The danger was imminent. Fortunately there was 
no time lost. My decision was made at once, and, riding back, I gave 
orders to retreat upon the peninsula already mentioned, which was a little 
dista«C€ in the rear and on our right hand. 

This tongue of land was made by a creek with a wide bed and steep 
banks, some twelve or fifteen feet high, which, running in a line perpen- 
dicular to the main river until within a hundred feet, suddenly turned at 
right angles, and, running parallel with the river, emptied into it three or 
four hundred feet below. The promontory was considerably elevated, so 
that when we reached it, which we did in about ten minutes, we could 
command a view of the hollow way in which the Footas were moving. 
We could perceive a large party, which was gradually increased in num- 
ber by flying horsemen, from the crowd in the rear. These were coming 
towards us. 

Dismounting my men at the entrance to the point of land, I sent 
Kaloolah and her maid in to its farther extremity, together with our bag- 


gage and our horses. By rolling down the banks a few loose stones, I 
shortened the breadth of the narrow isthmus from one hundred to eighty 
feet. This line I filled up with a rank of twenty-five men, making them 
kneel and present their spears, with the butts resting upon the ground, 
after the manner of the rows of an infantry square. Behind these I 
placed another rank of twenty-five men, with their long spears projecting 
over the heads of the first. 

As soon as my men caught the idea, they formed the lines as accu- 
rately and as quickly as if they had been veterans. The whole operation 
did not require five minutes. The Footas were now close by, and coming 
on at full speed ; but I knew the necessity of an appearance of coolness 
to encourage my men, and deliberately passing up and down in front of 
them, I adjusted the spear heads to their proper elevation. When all 
was arranged I made a brief address, to the effect that if they were per- 
fectly steady the Footas could do them no harm : " They cannot get upon 
our flanks, and you will soon see that they dare not attack us in front. 
Keep cool, and stir not, and we will give these Footas a reception they 
little dream of. But if you do not stand firm," I continued, going at 
once to the verj' foundation of discipline, "if you do not stand firm, you 
see this," showing them one of my pistols, "well, I shall keep it charged, 
and will blow the brains out of the first man that moves from his posi- 
tion ; so mind you, if the Footas are in front, recollect I 'm behind you, 
and I never miss my aim." 

Stepping within the ranks, I took my station in line with my three 
musketeers and a dozen archers, giving them the strictest orders not to 
•fire a shot or draw a bow until I gave the word. 

On came the Footas, whirling their guns and spears above their heads, 
and yelling like so many fiends. There were at least a hundred and fifty 
of them, and one third were armed with muskets. These came first, fol- 
lowed by the spearmen, the whole squadron moving without any other 
effort at order. As they came on, the nature of the ground compelled 
them to crowd together, and when within a few rods of us, they were so 
huddled up as to very much interfere with each other's movements ; but 
still they l;ept at full gallop, and for a few minutes I was apprehensive 
that, not knowing their danger, and ignorant that military etiquette re- 
quires that cavalry should check their horses in front of a square of 
infantry, they might spur on and ride us down before they could be made 
to understand their mistake. It was pleasant, therefore, to see the front 
rknk beginning to draw reins, while the rear ranks were closing up in 
great confusion, and forming a fine compact mass of human fiesh for my 


" Oh ! for a long eighteen," exclaimed Jack to his companion, " and a 
stand or two of grape-shot ! " 

" You may say that. There could n't be a more beautiful chance for 
mince-meat. But look, here comes their broadside ! I wonder when the 
, captain is going to give us the word ! " 

" Steady, men ! steady ! now," I exclaimed encouragingly to the 
kneeling ranks, " recollect, the first man whose spear-head wavers shall 
have a bullet through his head ! " 

The Footas were now five or six rods off, when they simultaneously 
brought the butts of their long guns against their breasts and fired, but 
with a very bad aim, or rather without any aim— many of them who were 
in the rear firing their guns into the air. The balls whistled over our 
heads, but not a man was struck. 

"See," I exclaimed, "their guns do you no harm. Steady there! 
keep in your places and hold your spears firmly! Recollect, the man 
who stirs from his position or whose spear-head wavers, I '11 shoot right 
through the head ! " 

It must not be supposed that, during this time, the Footas had come 
to a halt. They had merely slackened their speed to deliver their fire, 
and then, calculating upon the usual paralyzing effect of their volley, 
they spurred up, expecting us to give way. On they came until within 
ten feet of our spear heads, when the front ranks recoiled as suddenly as 
if they had breasted a rock. There was something in our motionless 
ranks that they could not comprehend, and they would willingly have 
turned back, but that was not so easy, as those in the rear came pressing 
on, yelling and flourishing their swords and spears, and crowding up in 
constantly increasing confusion. 

Our enemies were not a bad-looking set of men. They were well 
formed, good riders, and mounted upon small, active horses with the 
high-peaked Moorish saddle, which was generally furnished with red 
housings. Rings and plates of silver and gold hung from various parts 
of their half-naked bodies, and relieved the dense jet of their skins, while 
their faces were constantly lighted up by their white flashing teeth and 

" Back ! back ! " pressed the astonished leaders ; but still the move- 
ment of the whole mass vi^as towards us. 

" Are you all ready? take good steady aim ; and you, Jack Thompson, 
cover that fellow in front of you with the leopard skin ! " 

" Aye, aye, sir ? I 've been drawing a bead upon him for this last five 
minutes ! " 


" Fire, then ! " 

Bang ! went my three muskets simultaneously, and at the same in- 
stant twanged the bow-strings of Sooloo Phar and his Kyptiles. 

Not a shot was thrown away, which, as soon as I saw, I threw in my 
reserve fire, and knocked over a couple of prominent-looking individuals 
with ostrich plumes in their hair. 

Our guns were discharged now as fast as we could load and fire, while 
Sooloo Phar kept up an effective and continuous flight of arrows. 

The enemy were completely panic-stricken and thrown into the ut- 
most confusion. They fought and struggled with each other ; horses 
reared and plunged, and several were forced down the precipices on 
either side. For some minutes they seemed utterly incapable of making 
any properly directed efforts to escape, while we continued to pour in 
our fire with the utmost coolness and precision. At last they got their 
horses' heads round, and began to make off, many of them severely 
wounded, and leaving about thirty-five men, most of whom had muskets, 
dead upon the ground. 

At this instant the idea of charging the Footas in turn flashed upon 
me, and, without hesitating an instant, I gave the order to mount. A 
number of the Kimboos rushed out, and seized the riderless horses of the 
Footas, while the others, with the Kyptiles flew to our steeds, which we 
had turned loose behind us. In less time than it takes to tell of it, we 
were all mounted, and, spears in hand, ready to launch upon the flying 
and frightened foe. 

Giving Kaloolah and Clefenha in charge of Jack and Hassan, with 
strict orders to follow our motions, a little in the rear, I shouted the word 
to charge. 

"Forward, and keep close order! Ride together, men! Close up, 
close up ! Keep 'together ! Hold in there, in front, or I '11 send a pistol 
ball after you ! " 

There was no need for words of encouragement ; a complete reaction 
had taken place, from the extreme of fear to the extreme of confidence 
and courage ; and my men would have charged a thousand Footas, for 
whom they now felt almost as much scorn and contempt as they did 
hate. Vengeance ! vengeance ! almost streamed in a visible streak from 
the strained eyes and dilated nostrils of the Kimboos. 

" Ha, ha ! Ha, ha !" laughed the old Kyptile guide and interpreter, 
who rode by my side on the flank of the column ; " Ha, ha ! the spears 
are thirsty ; the bows and the guns have had a good drink of blood ; but 
the spears of the Kimboos are dry ; they '11 drink the Foota River up." 


; The Faotas had separated into several small parties, some of them 
flying back to their companions who were left in charge of the slaves, but 
the larger party, numbering perhaps fifty, drawing off along the banks of 
the creek, until we set out, when they too turned their horses' heads to 
the south, to regain their reserve body. It was our object to intercept 
them. Every nerve was strained for that purpose, and it was soon evident 
that we should succeed. 

We were close to thfem when they halted, some wheeling their horses 
to turn back, some proposing to go across the plain to the east, and some 
few, apparently, making indications of resistance. It was at this instant 
of hesitation that we drove in upon them at full speed. Heels over head 
went men and horses, and even several of our own men were dismounted 
by the shock. The Footas could make no resistance. In five minutes 
forty saddles were empty, and the light spears of the Kimboos were 
dripping with blood. 

Those who escaped took their way towards their camp, and at full 
speed we followed them. By the time we came to the ridge, beneath 
which was the Foota camp, I had succeeded in again forming my men 
into close order. Below us were our enemies, apparently in the greatest 
consternation. They had drawn themselves in front of their crowd of 
captives, to the number of seventy or eighty ; and as we came down upon 
them they fired an irregular volley, as much at the fugitives before us as 
at our ranks. Before they could load again we were upon them, and then 
commenced a similar scene of unresisting slaughter as that which had just 
been enacted. 

The Footas were flying like scud in a gale, and the Kimboos were 
pursuing and spearing them down without mercy. Satisfied that there 
was no danger of their rallying again in force, I drew off my Kyptiles and 
rode on to the Captives, when we dismounted and cut the bands that 
confined the limbs of the males. There were between two and three 
hundred prisoners, the greater number of whom were women and large 
children. The smaller children, tii« sick artd the aged, had all been 
slaughtered by the Footas. Who could wonder at the pertinacity with 
which the victorious Kimboos kept wheeling and circling in all parts of 
the plain, like kites o'er their quarry, and pouncing with relentless fury 
upon their unnerved and scattered foes. 


A Sight for the Reader — Hospitality of the Kyptiles — A Volcano — A Wakeful Night — Kaloolah 
in Tears — Stories of the Guides — Origin of the Framazugs — The Jiggers — The Jouaks — 
The Serpent-Men — The Jalla — The Footas — A Snail-Field — A Rhinoceros — The Nour- 
wall — Garazha — The Captain of the Port — Whamba Donga's Town — A Message to the 
Governor — Crossing the Nourwall — A Triumphal Reception — The Dagash — A New View 
of Kaloolah. 

j AD the reader, about ten days after the battle, been perched, 
with a good telescope in his hand, upon the snow-covered 
summit of the great volcano that, rising far above its com- 
peers, served as a beacon to the country for a hundred miles 
round, he might, perhaps, have seen a large party, some mounted and 
some on foot, winding its way upward and through a beautiful country 
of hill and dale, wood and open plain. But the reader, under such cir- 
cumstances, would have been, probably, profoundly ignorant of J:he char- 
acter and object of the travellers, whereas, now, it is hardly necessary to 
inform him that the party consisted of neither more nor less than myself 
and companions, accompanied by about a hundred guides and guards 
from the last town. 

We had got again into a district inhabited by Kyptiles, and had been, 
of course, well received by the Matcham and his people. From all the 
villages that we passed, the people came out with presents of melons, 
grapes, figs, small loaves of hot wheaten bread, smoking dishes of meat, 
fish, and vegetables, and that greatest of all luxuries, pure water, iced with 
snow from the hills. Invitation upon invitation poured in upon us to 
stop and refresh ourselves, but the nearer we approached the confines of 
Kaloolah's country, the more anxious was she to press on. The lofty 
peak of the flaming Kebbi was a familiar object to her, and recalled in 
their fullest force the associations of kindred and home. 

At night we encamped with the volcano in full view. About one 
third of the way up its rugged sides was spread a dark forest of cypress, 
fir, and pine. Between this and the region of snow was a brilliant zone of 
electric light. Through the night the lightning played in broad sheets of 

















w^ y 



flame over the rugged rocks, flashing far upward on the snows above, and 
illuminating the dark wooded slopes and ravines below ; while above all 
streamed upward the lurid flames of the peak. 

At length the morning dawned of the day which, before its close, was 
to bring us to the banks of the Nourwall, a stream separating the Kyp- 
tiles from Framazugda. No sleep had visited my eyes, an indescribable 
whirl of emotions had compelled me to pace away the midnight watch in 
front of our camp-fire. Hugh and Jack were alike wakeful, and till a late 
hour were anxiously listening to the stories told by our guides of the 
wonders that were in store for us. 

Kaloolah stepped from her tent, with her hood drawn closely around 
her face. Kebbi was flaming up at the moment famously, as if in rivalry 
of the blushing morn, that came bounding along the tops of the hills. I 
took Kaloolah's hand, and, bidding her good morning, pointed to the 
peak — but she averted her head and made no reply. Her steed was 
ready, and without further words I tossed her to the saddle. I could 
feel, however, that she was somewhat heavier than usual ; that her touch 
upon my shoulder was not so delicate — the pressure of her little foot not 
so light and springy. 

"Are you ill, Kaloolah ? " said I, resting my arm upon the high back 
of her saddle. 

She suddenly threw herself forward upon my shoulder and sobbed 

" Are you ill, Kaloolah ? Unhappy ? Tell me what disturbs you." 

" I don't know, Jon'than ; I have been dreaming of Enphadde, 
and " 

" Believe me, we shall find him safe. How happy he will be to meet 
you ! " 

" It may be, but even if I were sure of his safety, I think that I should 
weep this morning. Why ? I know not, unless it is because we were so 
gay yesterday." 

" And why not be gay to-day ? by night we shall have reached the 
end of our journey ; and are we not assured that there is no danger in the 
way ? " 

" Ah, that is what makes me sad. Our journey has been long and 
wearisome and dangerous, but still I do not wish it finished. I could 
think of nothing all night but the past, and there were moments when I 
almost wished that we were back in the desert. But here come the sun ; 
heed not my foolish tears, they will dry in his beams like dew on the 


But despite the enlivening influences of the sunlight, it was not until 
late in the day that Kaloolah's spirits recovered their usual joyous 

As we rode along our guides entertained us, as had been their custom, 
with stories of the land we were about to enter ; in which it was easy to 
perceive that there was no disposition to sacrifice the wonderful to pre- 
cision and truth. This, however, did not surprise me, as most of the 
stories, especially those relating to the capital, purported to be only at 
second-hand — not one of our escort having visited the great city of 

"And how is it," I demanded, "that none of you know much of 
Framazugda from personal observation ? Is there not a constant com- 
munication kept up between your countrymen and the Framazugs ? " 

" The Framazugs do not like the visits of strangers," was the reply. 
" 'T is true that we are now upon good terms, and our people even pay a 
trifling tribute to the Emperor Shouns6 as an acknowledgment for the 
protection that he has afforded us against the Jalla ; but for many cen- 
turies the Kyptiles and Framazugs were bitter enemies. 

" You must know that the Kyptiles came from the north many hun- 
dred years ago, but still long after the Framazugs, who, coming from 
the east, across a great water, had taken possession of the country. Our 
people displaced a portion of the Framazugs and drove them south into 
their present country, where the main portion of them had taken up 
their residence. From that time there was a constant succession of wars 
along the borders, which interrupted all communication." 

"But how is it," said I, "if the Framazugs are so rich, and learned, 
and numerous as you say they are, that your people were able to war 
with them upon equal terms for so long a time ? " 

" They had enemies on every side of them. Away to the southwest 
of them are deserts, inhabited by a wild people called Jiggers. They 
ride upon birds, like an ostrich only ten times as big. These birds can 
run like the wind, and they have wings with which, although they can- 
not fly, they can skip along over rocks twenty feet high, with a man 
on their backs. Beneath their bills they have a large bag, in which 
they carry water for a long journey ; and at night, when the Jigger 
encamps, he makes the bird brood upon the ground with outstretched 
wings and tail, beneath which he and his family find shelter. The Jiggers 
have always been terrible enemies to the Framazugs. 

" Besides these there are the Jouaks who inhabit the hills and moun- 
tains on the southeast. They are a wild race, who are covered all over 



with hair, go naked, and fight with clubs. These people often descend 
into the plains of the Framazugs, destroy the crops, and carry off the 
inhabitants, whom they are said to eat. The Jouaks are horrible-looking 
wretches — their under lips hang quite down to their breasts, and con- 
stantly drop blood ; their teeth project and are filed to a sharp point, 
and from the corners of their mouths stand out tusks as large as a 
wild boar's." 

" Next to these comes a country of swamps and marshes, inhabited 
by terrible animals, part man and part beast. They have the heads and 
breasts of men, and the bodies and tails of serpents, and when they come 
out from their swamps the breath of their armies poisons the air for miles 

" Then in the northeast, just beyond those hills, are the Jalla. For 
many years they pressed upon the Framazugs, until about five years ago, 
they made their way by exterminating whole tribes of Kerdie blacks, t'> 
the borders of the Kyptiles. 'T was then that we found it best to come 
to terms with the Framazugs, and make common cause with them against 
the enemy. In a few years we had additional reason to cultivate peace 
with our southern neighbors ; for the Kollah and Mendi negroes, armed 
with lightning sticks, came upon us from the north, and drove us from 
the banks of the Yah'nil Nebb6, killing the Kyptiles and carrying off the 
Kerdies who were living among us, and ravaging our country so that this 
portion which we are now traversing is the only part that has escaped 
their visitation ; and now the Flahhas and Foota Jals are enclosing us on 
the west ! " 

" High time," I observed, " that you and the Framazugs should make 
friends, when you are completely surrounded by such enemies." 

" So our people thought ; and, notwithstanding our many wars, the 
Framazugs were very willing to make peace with us, for although they 
are a brave people, they are not fond of war — they much prefer to build 
great houses, and plant gardens, and make fountains, and dance, and 
feast, and bathe. The Jalla and the Kqola made us peaceable, and then 
came the Footas and made us firm friends. Two or three times the Em- 
peror Shouns^ has sent armies to the assistance of the Kyptiles against the 
Jalla and Foota." 

"With what success?" 

" Perfect success against the Jalla : they have been defeated several 
times, and prevented from coming down from the passes of the mountain- 
ous country that you saw on your left after crossing the Yah'nil Nebbe. But 
against the Footas we could do nothing. They can bring large armies of 


twenty and thirty thousand men into the field, all armed with guns ; and 
before them the combined forces of the Framazugs and our people have 
always been compelled to fall back. The Footas have continued to advance, 
until, within a year or two, they have established themselves all along the 
banks of the Queal from Lake Tsamsa, which is in Framazugda, to the 
Yah'nil Nebbe. Ten days in that direction is the lake, and just where the 
Queal issues from it the Footas have built a large walled town, from whence 
they send out their plundering expeditions." 

For several hours we had t>een riding through a rough and rocky district, 
in many places almost bare of vegetation, and apparently destitute of 
inhabitants, when suddenly we came upon a wide plain that, at first sight, 
seemed one bed of the richest-hued flowers. What was our surprise 
when we found that the dazzling dyes were owing to myriads of stiails 
that covered the stocks of a species of coarse furze. Beyond the plain 
the ground became low and marshy, and covered with clumps of man- 
groves, canes, and large tufts of bog grass, that grew to the height of ten 
feet. We passed several deep pools, made, as our guides assured us, by 
a very large creature with one horn. We heard the noise of some animals 
floundering and wallowing in the mud among the reeds. I supposed them 
to be hippopotami, but was undeceived by the sudden appearance in our 
rear of a monstrous rhinoceros. The Kyptiles passed on, while I stopped 
to take a better look at him. In a few minutes half a dozen more made 
their appearance. Riding a little too close, one of them took offence, 
and instantly charged me. I wheeled my horse among the bushes, and 
fired at the monster, within a few feet of his tough hide, as he dashed by, 
but without apparently making the least impression. The fellow and his 
companions were about twice as large as the ordinary rhinoceros — their 
horns were fully six feet in length, and their hides thick in proportion. 
They were truly great game ; but, to enjoy the sport, one ought to hunt 
them with a battery of flying artillery. 

Overtaking my party, we debouched from the marsh, crossed a narrow 
strip of firm and open ground, and came upon the hard sandy beach of 
the river. A little rocky island, two or three rods from the shore, was 
covered with the stone huts of fishermen. Several canoes were drawn up 
on its banks, and the rocks were covered with large hand-nets. A number 
of tawny fellows, dressed in red cotton shirts, were basking in the sun, 
with the thorough poco curanie oi their profession. Our arrival excited 
some sensation, and in a few minutes the little island was alive with women 
and children. 

Across the stream (which was about three hundred yards broad) the 



bank rose abruptly, by a succession of steep terraces, and was crowned 
with several buildings, connected by crenelated curtains, and defended by 
several low battlemented towers. The terraced ascent was without trees, 
or an unevenness that could serve as a cover to an attacking party, and 
thus corresponded to the glacis of modern fortification. No part of the 
town was in view, as it occupied a slope of the hill that fell away from the 
river, and the road to it led along the base of the castle bank, and up 
around a ravine, through which ran a small stream into the Nourwall. 

Far down the river, on the same side on which we were, was a height 
of ground, upon which a shattered wall and falling towers indicated the 
position of a town, which, for some reason, had been abandoned. Two 

' / wheeled my horse among the bushes, and fired at the monster. '' 

or three boats were moving about on the water, with low, straight bows, 
and high arched and carved sterns, that came up and turned over forward, 
like the acrostolicon of the ancient trireme. These served for orna- 
ment, and also answered to suspend an awning of red cotton that was 
stretched on a framework of reeds. 

We soon opened a communication with the island. A boat was 
launched, and three fellows stepping into it, with one push sent it across 
to the beach. They evinced no little surprise when they saw Kaloolah 
and heard her speak ; but my appearance and manners seemed to puzzle 


them the most. It was curious to witness the respect with which they 
looked upon our guns — the first that they had seen. 

They offered, at once, to take our message to the governor of Garazha, 
requesting permission to enter the Framazug territory ; intimating, how- 
ever, that it was not customary to admit strangers without a good deal of 
delay, and that we should, probably, have to wait where we were until 
the next morning. The idea was not a pleasant one, inasmuch as we 
should have to encamp upon low flat ground, exposed to the visits of the 
crocodiles and hippopotami of the river on the one side, and the rhinoceri 
and elephants of the marsh on the other. A dozen large fires would 
be necessary, and there was no fallen timber anywhere near. 

We watched our three messengers (who refused to permit any one of 
my party to accompany them) until they landed, and, drawing up their 
boat, proceeded beneath the terraces, which began now to be covered 
with spectators, around by the ravine, and so out of sight. It was full an 
hour before they returned, when they came accompanied by forty or fifty 
people, and getting into their boat, pushed off. At the same instant, 
from the smaller stream, there shot out into the Nourwall a large wide 
barge. It was rowed, or rather paddled, by twenty men, in two rows, all 
of them in red shirts, and wide-brimmed, high-peaked, palm-leaf hats. In 
the stern-sheets, beneath the red cotton awning, reclined an elderly man, 
dressed in loose flowing robes of white and blue, and a cap of feathers 
that gleamed like a casque of burnished silver and gold. 

He landed, and, in quite a haughty manner, commenced making a few 
inquiries, and ended by informing us that the dagash, or governor, could 
not send his boats for us until the next morning, and, in the meantime, 
we must stop where we were. 

I was not a little provoked, both at the interruption and at the old fel- 
low's manner. There was an assumption of superiority that I felt strong 
disposition to put down on the first favorable opportunity, which was not 
decreased upon learning that he was nothing more than a kind of captain 
of the port. 

" Can we find a place to sleep among those ruins on our right? " I de- 

" Oh ! no, no ! — impossible ! " chorused the whole body of fishermen, 
in which they were joined by the Kyptiles. Even the old Framazug 
shook his head, and the faces of his crew showed that they agreed 
with him. 

" Why not ? " I demanded, somewhat astonished at the outbreak of 



" Why ? because that is the Whamba Donga's own town ! It is a 
thousand years ago that the people of Garazha wished to build a town, 
and they chose that spot ; but every night the tools with which they 
worked were carried over the river, to where Garazha now is, by spirits. 
They persisted, however, until they had got one of the towers done, when 
Whamba Donga took up his residence in it, and played so many diaboli- 
cal tricks upon the builders that, at last, they were compelled to give up, 
and leave the place to the demons, who have ever since had possession of 
it. Any one who ventures among those ruins after dark is strangled and 
eaten by Whamba Donga and his imps." 

"More likely by lions and leopards from the jungle," I replied. 
" Come ; I 'm not afraid of Whamba Donga. Let us go and find some 
snug corner where a single fire will protect us ! " But not a Kyptile 
would consent, and, to my utter astonishment, even Hugh and Jack 
seemed to think it better to run our chance with the rhinoceri and 
elephants in the open ground, than to provoke the devil by an invasion 
of premises which he had held in fee simple for a thousand years. 

" Well ! then we must cross to Garazha ! " 

" Impossible ! " replied the captain of the port ; " the governor says 
that you can't enter until to-morrow." 

" But how can we remain here, when these fishermen say that this 
bank at night is covered with wild animals, and that they dare not set 
foot upon it after dark. We have no wood, and we shall need several 
large fires, not so much to protect ourselves, as to secure our beasts ; and 
besides, we are in want of food. We must cross the river." 

" Impossible ! " replied again the captain. 

" No, sir ! " I exclaimed, striding up close to the astonished ofificial, 
and backing him with a number of majestic flourishes to his boat, " it is 
not impossible. We will cross ; back, sir, and tell the dagash that Dr. 
Jonathan Romer, one of the sovereigns of the great republic of the 
United States of America, demands immediate admittance. Tell 
him, too," said I, pointing to Kaloolah, " that his master's daughter, 
the most illustrious Princess Kaloolah Sem Shouns^, is here, and that 
she orders him to send boats for us without delay. Tell him that if he 
hesitates we will swim our horses across and push on to Kiloam in 
despite of him ! " 

The announcement of Kaloolah's birth and rank created no small sen- 
sation. Making a low salaam, the old Framazug jumped quite nimbly into 
his boat, and pushed off without saying a word. 

It was not long before he reappeared, followed by several large boats. 


Upon landing he informed us, in quite a subdued manner, that he had 
been directed to take us across. Our horses were first embarked in a 
large scow, and then we took our places beneath the awning of the cap- 
tain's barge. 

On the other side we found, quite a crowd, and were received by 
several officers, habited like the captain, in loose robes and feather caps. 
The common people were all dressed in red cotton shirts and palm hats. 
It will be recollected that, for almost everything curious and strange, I 
had been prepared by my long conversations with Kaloolah, her brother, 
and the Kyptiles ; and that, therefore, there was nothing in the universal 
red to surprise me, knowing, as I did, that that was the natural color of 
the Framazug cotton. 

Mounting our horses, we were conducted a few rods along the beach, 
and then, turning at right angles, were led up the bank of the small brook, 
that was fringed with alders, willows, and magnificent oleanders in full 
bloom. The road ran along between the bed of the stream and the wall 
of the town, until it stopped at a wide machicolated gateway. 

A company of horsemen were waiting to receive us. Within the gate 
a band of fifty musicians had been stationed ; and the instant we appeared 
trumpets sounded, drums were beaten, and cymbals clashed, and wild 
barbaric strains of harmony floated upon the air, startling our steeds, and 
producing in me a degree of " all-overishness" that was quite refreshing. 
I should be doing injustice to my feelings, to compare them to any thing 
else than those which must have agitated the breast of Alexander upon 
his triumphal entry into Babylon. I looked at Kaloolah, and fancied 
that she had grown two inches taller. A tear stood in her eye, her lip 
trembled, but her head was well back, her breast thrown forward, and she 
sat her horse with a graceful and dignified firmness that I had never be- 
fore noticed. 

Slowly we moved up a wide straight street, lined on either side with 
stone houses, which were generally of two stories, and furnished with 
deep receding balconies, and shaded with rows of majestic trees. The 
street was well paved and clean, but the cross streets were noticed to be 
small, unpaved, and dirty. Accustomed, as I had been, to the disgrace- 
fully paved and filthy streets of New York, and of various Portuguese, 
Moorish, and negro towns, it was not for me to deny any portion of 
credit due to the municipal government of Garazha, for keeping even one 
street in passable order. 

We arrived at the foot of the hill, upon which was the castle and resi- 
dence of the governor. A winding road led upward. As we ascended 


we had a fine view of the town below us, and of the rich valley beyond 
the walls, across which the setting sun was shooting his level beams. 

We passed through an arched passage and rode into a wide, open, 
elliptical court. A large fountain was playing in the centre. A row of 
copper brackets, all around the wall, a little higher than a man's head, 
supported earthen vases in which grew the richest flowers, new to me, and 
exhaling perfumes to which my olfactories were wholly unaccustomed. 
Several pairs of carved and painted folding doors opened on either side, 
and a row of lattices above the flower-pots looked down into the court 
from the second story. 

We were now requested to dismount, and were conducted across the 
court through a wide door, and domed hall or ante-room, into a large 
square apartment. The room was carpeted with a thick covering, which, 
as I afterwards learned, was made by first spreading the floor with melted 
asphaltum, and then dotting it with variously colored cotton and wool. 
Several round windows of rock crystals, set in copper frames, looked out 
upon the river, and admitted the last beams of the sun. At the upper 
end of the room, beneath the windows, were five or six figures of lions 
crouching. These were lion skins stuffed with wool, and intended for 
seats. In the corners were large flower stands, and depending from the 
ceiling was an immense bouquet. The walls and roof were richly orna- 
mented with what any one would have taken for fine gilding, but which 
was nothing more than a mosaic of pieces of the glittering skins of 

There was no one in the room when we entered, and the officers who 
ushered us in, instantly disappeared. Directing Hugh, Jack, Hassan, and 
Sooloo Phar to arrange themselves near the entrance, I led Kaloolah to 
the upper end of the room and looked out upon the river, where boats 
were now bringing the main body of my Kyptile guard. 

We stood thus, for a few minutes, when the wide doors were flung 
open — two ofificials entered, followed by a venerable, dignified man, with 
a long white beard and with no covering upon his head but a single 
plume of the froulbell gracefully interwoven with his gray locks. He was 
the dagash ! 

With Kaloolah upon my arm, I advanced towards him. He turned so as 
to bring the light full upon her fac«, looked steadily at her for a moment, 
;and then attempted to prostrate himself before her. But Kaloolah was 
too quick for him — she darted forward and seized his hand. 

" Rise," she exclaimed with a royal air, " rise, worthy Lord of Goul ; 
the old confidant and friend of Shouns^ must not kneel to his daughter." 


If the dagash had had any doubt before of the identity of Kaloolah, it 
was now removed, and he threw himself upon the floor in a perfect agony 
of loyal and affectionate respect. 

At last we got the old gentleman on his feet again, and Kaloolah, tak- 
ing his arm, made him conduct her to the lions. She seated herself upon 
the back of one of them, and, obeying the courtly wave of her hand, the 
dagash and myself followed her example. 

As Kaloolah sat thus, talking with the respectful official, there was 
surrounding her, and pervading every look and action, that maintien of 
high breeding — that certain indescribable something beyond what is ex- 
pressed by the mere term refinement — that air of lofty self-possession, of 
habitual repose in a serene social atmosphere, above the reeking fogs and 
fumes that envelop the struggling vulgar, little and great, which is, to men 
who can appreciate it, so overwhelmingly fascinating, and without which 
physical beauty and all feminine attractions are like jewels without gold, 
lacking in a finished and elegant setting. Hitherto Kaloolah had not had 
the advantage of having been seen through the magnifying glass of the 
imagination. She had been too near to admit of it, but now that there 
was evidently a distance growing between us, my fancy begun to have 
more scope. For the first time I took a look at her through my mental 
telescope, adjusting the focus for parallel rays, and putting on a high 
power, so as to fill the field of view with her manifold perfections. As I 
sat and watched her lithe figure, swaying with every emotion — one tiny 
hand half hidden in the lion's mane, the other gracefully moving, in ex- 
pressive gesture — her black eyes now beaming, now melting — her fruity 
mouth — her rich hair waving in clustered ringlets — and her laugh and 
voice, so eminently persuasive and thorough-bred in its simple and 
earnest abandon, — as I sat, and with sharpened senses drank in all this, a 
slight feeling of anxiety, for the first time, came over me. It was difficult 
to repel the idea, that perhaps this star, now culminating so brilliantly in 
the zenith of love, might turn out to be a comet moving in a path of such 
eccentricity and inclination as to put the chance of its intersecting my 
orbit again, out of the question entirely. 


Garazha — A Ride — Supping in a Cavern — New Notions of Noses — A Sumptuous Repast — A 
Hunt — Rousing a Lion — A Desperate Ride — Tlie Cha Donga-troll — Death of the Lion — 
Large Birds' Nests — The Semper-sough — Waiting for News — The Change in the Princess. 

fY means of posts at short intervals it was possible to convey a 
a letter from Garazha to Kiloam, and receive an answer in three 
days. It was settled, that, in the meantime, we should take up 
our residence in the castle and await the orders of the court. 
Every thing was done that the worthy dagash could do, that would 
minister to our comfort and pleasure. A fine suite of rooms, looking out 
upon the river were allotted to us. Those on one side of the central 
saloon were occupied by Kaloolah and Clefenha, the others by myself and 
attendants. Numerous servants were appointed to wait upon us, and we 
had but to express a wish and it was gratified. 

In the afternoon we took a ride beyond the walls. We passed through 
groves of banian, tallipot, and acacia, and cultivated fields enclosed by lofty 
hedges of cactus, and over meadows enamelled with the iris, daffodil, lotus, 
crocus, narcissus, and a dozen flowering bushes, trees, and' creepers that 
put my slight smattering of botany completely at fault. On our return 
we visited a magnificent limestone cave. Numberless large and lofty 
rooms, ornamented with stalactites of dazzling whiteness, were lighted up 
with lamps of hippopotamus oil. We passed through them until we came 
to a chamber three hundred feet long, about one hundred feet in 
breadth, and about sixty feet in height to the lower points of the stal- 
actites with which the roof was incrusted. Innumerable lamps, concealed 
in the crevices and angles of the roof, lighted up the place with the 
brilliancy of day. A small stream of cool water ran through the centre of 
the room ; and along its bank, as if growing from the marble beds, were 
arranged masses of fresh flowers. A band of music struck up as we 
entered — its wild strains roUing and reverberating among the arches and 
interstices of the fretted roof with wonderful effect. We were conducted 
to the upper end of the room, where a row of calcareous concretions 



slightly fashioned by the hand of man, served for tables and seats ; and 
here, again, were flowers 

" Truly, princess, your people have a taste for flowers ! " I exclaimed. 

" It is their passion," replied Kaloolah. "The dagash will tell you 
that it is universal, and that a Framazug could as well do without food as 
without flowers." 

" Ah ! yes," said I, " they are very beautiful, and afford great delight 
by their brilliant colors and graceful forms, but I cannot understand the 
expression of ecstatic pleasure with which your people seem to inhale 
their fragrance. Tell me," said I, turning to the dagash, "to. which of 
the senses, sight or smell, do flowers chiefly address themselves?" 

The dagash looked at me for a moment as if he thought the question 
a very simple one. 

"To the smell surely," was his reply. "To the sight, it is true, they 
give exquisite pleasure ; but the sight cannot be cultivated so highly as can 
the sense of smell. Numberless as are the combinations of form and 
color, and keen as may be the appreciation of visible beauties by an 
educated eye, they are as nothing to the rich melodies and infinite har- 
monies of scentdom — to the million correspondences and differences — 
chords and discords that address themselves to the exalted sensibility of a 
highly cultivated nose." 

" A cultivated nose ! " I exclaimed. " Do you mean to say that you 
have any systematic methods of training noses, and thus artificially de- 
veloping their natural capabilities?" 

The dagash gave me another look of astonishment, as much as to say, 
what on earth were noses in your country made for ? 

" Certainly," he replied ; " what sense more worthy of it ? What sense 
will better repay the labor ? What sense is capable of affording more 
exquisite delight ? Through what sense is the mind more ecstatically 
affected ? Can it be, that in your country its supremacy is not acknowl- 
edged ?" 

"In my country," I replied, "the sense of smell is thought to be a 
very useful sense ; but no one ever dreamed of undertaking by a course 
of training to develop its latent capacities." 

" How is that ? Do you not cultivate the eye, tlie ear ! why not the 
nose ? " 

"I don't know; unless it is that in our cities, particularly the great 
commercial capital that I came from, there are not unfrequently odors 
that would render the exercise of a delicate nasal sensibility any thing but 
agreeable. It may be that a secret conviction of expediency has held the 
higher and more refinable powers of the olfactories in abeyance." 


" Shocking! " exclaimed the dagash, rapidly running his nose over a 
large bouquet in zig-zag and irregular lines, like a dog when hunting a 
quail field. 

" The worthy dagash has not been far enough from home to learn 
that a bad smell is not the worst evil in the world," said Kaloolah, laugh- 
ing. " If his nose had been compelled to endure all that mine has, he 
would have got used to perfumes that the bare intimation of now makes 
him shudder ! " 

" Unfortunate daughter of the great Shouns6," exclaimed the dagash, 
" and did you encounter many bad smells ? " 

There was something in the old man's tone and look of respectful pity 
that made me, too, feel sorry for Kaloolah's nasal afflictions, and I rapidly 
ran over in my mind all of the principal stenches that we had been called 
upon to endure, to see if there were any that some exertion on my part 
might not have dispersed or neutralized. " No," said I, upon reflec- 
tion, " I am free from reproach. A gross of the best double distilled 
cologne could not have saved us; but, most illustrious princess, I can 
readily understand now what you must have suffered." 

A crowd of servants in the universal red cotton shirts and feather-cloth 
jackets now came bearing trays of roasted meats, fish, flesh, and fowl. To 
these succeeded veg.etables, most of which were new to me. Among 
others was the custard plant, belonging to the cucurbitaceous family, and 
numerous specimens of the solanum genus — one a magnificent variety of 
the lycopersicum, and another a large tuberosum growing above ground, 
that far surpassed the ordinary potato. A dessert of fruit, flowers, and 
conserves followed, with the delicious juice of the red pepper-looking 
• pendants of the champagne-punch tree. The fruit that most excited my 
admiration was a large purple gourd, something like an egg-plant. These 
were served up, embedded in snow. Upon slicing off the top there ap- 
peared a pink-colored fluid of the consistence of thick cream, which was 
scooped out, and eaten with spoons, fashioned from the dazzling white 
teeth of the hippopotamus. 

" How beautiful is nature in this country," thought I. " Delicacies 
that in poorer countries are the products of art, here grow spontaneously. 
Champagne and ice-cream ! Well, I should n't be surprised to be offered 
a finishing glass of natural maraschino." 

Our repast finished, we were conducted to our horses just as the last 
beams of the setting sun were gilding the silver snows of the distant moun- 
tains. As we came out I noticed that the long low entrance was plenti- 
fully encrusted with saltpetre — an observation that was afterwards to prove 
of the greatest utility. 

302 K A LOO L AH. 

On our way home the conversation turned upon fire-arms, and the da- 
gash and his officers expressing a wish to see an exhibition of their power, 
it was decided to make a hunting excursion to the other side of the river 
the next day. 

A hurried breakfast, al fresco, in the court of the fountain, and we de- 
scended by a steep path along the terraces to the shore of the Nourwall. 
We crossed in company with the dagash and his oflfiicers, and found assem- 
bled, on the other side, a body of two hundred men, all armed with bows 
and arrows and long spears. Suspended from different parts of their per- 
sons, each one wore what looked at first to be small wisps of straw, but, 
upon closer examination, they proved to be bunches of dry rushes, soaked 
in some very inflammable fluid. These were intended as a means of de- 
fence against the rhinoceros, and were to be used by attaching them to 
the end of the spears, lighting them by mean of a match, carried for that 
purpose, and presenting them, in full blaze, to the eyes and nose of the 
attacking animal. The rhinoceros, upon receiving such a salute, turns 
and runs, when the spear is instantly thrust into a tender place in the 
lower part of his body, and the animal, after running a few rods, and dash- 
ing, in his stupid rage, against trees and rocks, and sometimes giving with 
his monstrous horn a death-thrust to his nearest relatives, falls and ex- 
pires. The sport requires skill, activity, and nerve.. The hippopotamus 
is sometimes killed in the same way, when caught on shore in the day- 
time, but with the elephant the plan does not answer ; with his trunk he 
dashes aside the blazing fagot, and presses on to the charge. Fortu- 
nately his skin is not so thick as that of the rhinoceros, and poisoned 
arrows bring his stately carcass slowl}- but surely to the ground. 

We had not proceeded far down the river when we roused from his lair 
a huge lion, who, after looking at us contemptuously for a few minutes, 
bounded off and hid himself among the ruins of Whamba Donga's town. 
The Framazugs evinced no disposition to follow him, and for that very 
reason I was determined to see something more of his majesty. 

Putting spurs to my horse, I breasted him directly against a hill, over 
which the lion had disappeared. The dagash and all hands called and 
shouted after me, but supposing that they were expressing their fears of the 
lion, or of Whamba Donga, I drove the heavy Moorish spurs into my active 
little steed, and dashed with a wild Arabic yell up the hill at full speed. 
The top was reached, and there, yawning directly under my horse's nose, 
lay a ravine, two hundred feet wide, and sheer down fifty or sixty feet 
deep. There was no room, or time, to check or turn my horse, or throw 
myself from the saddle. The motion was too swift — our momentum too 



great. A yard farther, either to the left or the right, and we must have 
gone headlong over the precipice, but directly in front of us ran a ruined 
wall, less than three feet wide, across the ravine. It was broken away in 
several places, and divided by wide cracks, where the stones stood trem- 
bling for a fall. Without the slightest feeling of hesitation — without the 
smallest movement of restraint, I swerved my horse a little, and with a 
fresh touch of the spur, leaped him on to the crumbling and narrow path. 
Straight and swift as an arrow he sped along the cracked and jagged wall, 
dashing aside the loose stones, toppling over large masses of masonry, and, 
at the end, safely leaping a chasm of ten feet between the wall and the bank. 

I wheeled my steed, and looked back, but not without a shudder, and a 
feeling of thankfulness at my lucky escape. The Framazugs had reached 
the top just as my horse was climbing along the wall, and, upon seeing 
me rein up safe and sound upon the other side, they set up a great shout, 
and moved in a body down toward the river, where there was a path 
across the ravine. 

In the meantime I amused myself in examining the wall. It appeared 
to be very old, and to have been intended as a foot-way, or as a support 
to an aqueduct. Upon inquiring of the Framazugs, none of them knew 
any thing about it, except that it was built by the founders of Whamba 
Donga's town— and that it was known as Cha Donga-troll, or the Devil's 
bridge. His infernal majesty, it had always been supposed, possessed the 
exclusive right of way — a right which my safe passage across seemed to 
render somewhat questionable. 

While looking up the ravine, where the banks became more shelving, 
I saw a large animal lazily bounding over the loose stones of the bottom 
and slowly ascending the side on which I was standing. It was the lion. 
The few palmettos and tufts of flowery shrubs that grew in the crevices 
of the rocks were insufflcient to conceal him for more than a moment 
from sight, and I watched him until he reached a platform of rock, some 
ten or fifteen feet from the top of the bank. A small camphor-tree, with 
its pointed and warty leaves, that, waving in the breeze, reflected with 
varying effects the light from their green and yellow-tinted upper and 
under surfaces, grew upon the very edge, and threw a shade upon the 
rock below. The lion paused, snuffed the air, stretched himself like a 
cat, gave two or three tremendous yawns, and then leisurely laid himself 
down for a snooze, with his head towards the inclined bank. 

As soon as he had settled himself for his siesta, I dismounted, and 
crept along the bank, until within about three rods of him. Crouching 
low, I could see his whole carcass except his head, and, of course, without 


being seen myself. The question now was, whether upon raising my eyes 
so as to get a view of his, he might not start before a sure aim could be 
taken. There was no use in mentally revolving a point that could be 
settled only by experiment ; so, raising my person to its full height, I 
looked the monster in the face. He did not appear to notice me ; his 
eyes were open, but there was no " speculation," at least, as to the price 
and qualities of man's meat, in them. I raised the gun slowly to my shoul- 
der, and deliberately looked along the sights right into the monster's eye. 

Ha ! there goes a lurid flash across that yellow optic — wave upon wave 
of pinky light, like the vibratory flashings of the aurora borealis ; like the 
half-advancing, half-retreating colors of the dawn ; like the deepening 
blushes of beaut}' when awakening to the first consciousness of the heart; 
like the pulsatory gleamings of a puddling furnace on a foggy night ; or 
like the glowing light of a kettle of melted potash in the depths of a dark 
forest. He 's waking up. He begins to fancy that he sees something. It 
would not be safe to calculate upon that eye remaining where it is more 
than the thousandth part of a second longer. So, lightly on the trigger! 

The sharp report startled the sleepy rocks, and set them a-screaming 
and yelling, as if each one was bound to prove his descent from the iden- 
tical stone into which, according to Ovid, Juno turned her loquacious 
handmaiden. At the same instant the lion tore up the bank with a 
furious bound, and rolled over and over upon the level ground in the 
agonies of death. I jumped aside as he came up, and, with. my gun still 
to my shoulder, was about to give him the contents of the other barrel 
behind his forelegs, when it became evident that it was unnecessary. 
Tumbling about for a few moments without consciousness, and in the 
exercise of mere muscular contractility, he sank to the ground and died, 
about as soon, perhaps, as it was possible for such an enormous mass of 
tough vitality to die. 

At this moment the dagash and suite came up — admiration and 
astonishment depicted in their faces, and expressed both by gestures and 
words. " Balak lucn ! g'rJi sah Iioo-lwo ivaddcn ! " " What a man ! What 
courage, to attack a lion!" exclaimed the dagash, and ''Balak wen! 
grh'sah hoo-Iwo wadden ! " replied the officers and men, whose admiration 
seemed to be equally divided between my ride across the Donga-troll, and 
the death of an animal that they had never dared attack except in large 
parties, and even then at a great risk of life. As it was an object to 
acquire a reputation for hardihood, I affected to look upon the perform- 
ance as a matter of course, and, with a politic disingenuousness, did not 
explain that my ride had been involuntary, and that my attack upon the 
lion had been by stealth, and not an open, fair fight. 


While riding along upon the banks of the stream, my motions Were 
arrested by the voice of Hugh, who was floundering out of his path among 
the tall reeds of the marsh. " Come here, yer honor ! here 's something 
worth looking at ! Did yer honor ever see any thing the likes o' that ? " 
said Hugh, pointing to two birds' nests, built upon the ground, of canes 
and reeds, interwoven with dry grass and the fibres of the spartum. Each 
nest was about ten feet in diameter, and four feet deep. Upon inquiring 
of the natives, they were represented to belong to a monstrous bird with 
a body as large as an elephant, and standing almost twenty feet high. 
From the description it appeared that the animal must belong to the 
flamingo family — but as to the size, we could not but think that the 
Framazugs were exaggerating ; yet there were the nests, large enough to 
couch an elephant. I will only add, that all doubt has been since re- 
moved, and that I have had opportunities of verifying the existence of an 
animal, alongside of which the Arabian roc would sink into insignificance, 
and which is as large as, if not larger *"han, the monstrous bird of New 
Holland, whose existence has been put beyond a doubt, by the frequent 
discovery of nests, twenty-five and thirty feet in circumference. I need 
say nothing further here, inasmuch as a full description will form one of 
the most striking features of my proposed work upon the natural history 
of Framazugda. In that work, too, will figure to better advantage, in full 
detail, the many curious smaller animals that we encountered, not forget- 
ting various specimens of flying serpents, a large winged alligator, and an 
animal that I at once recognized as a dragon, from its correspondence to 
the descriptions in that standard work, " The Seven Champions." An- 
other animal will demand a prominent place, although here I may merely 
mention it. It is an amphibious polypus. If the reader will conceive a 
large cart-wheel, the hub will represent the body of the animal, and the 
spokes the long arms, about the size and shape of a full grown kangaroo's 
tail, and twenty in number, that project from it. When the animal moves 
upon land, it stiffens these radii, and rolls over upon the points like a 
wheel without a felloe. These arms have also the capability of a lateral 
prehensile contraction in curves, perpendicular to its plane of revolution, 
and enable the animal to grasp its prey, and draw it into its voracious 
mouth. It attacks the largest quadrupeds, and even man himself ; but if 
dangerous upon land, it is still more formidable in the water, where it has 
been known to attack and kill an alligator. This horrible monster is 
known by the name of the Semper-sough, or " snake-star," and is more 
dreaded than any other animal of Framazugda, inasmuch as the natives 
have no way of destroying it, except by catching it when young in cane 
traps sunk in the water, and baited with hippopotamus cubs. Fortu- 


nately it is not very prolific, and its increase is further prevented by the 
furious contests that these animals have among themselves. Sometimes 
twenty or thirty will grasp each other with their long arms, and twist 
themselves up into a hard and intricate knot. In this situation they re- 
main, hugging and gnawing each other to death, and never relaxing their 
grasp until their arms are so firmly intertwined that, when life is extinct and 
the huge mass floats, they cannot be separated. The natives then draw the 
ball ashore, cut it up with axes, and make it into a compost for their land. 

Crossing the river, we retired to the castle, where we waited with no 
little impatience until sundown, for the arrival of a messenger from 
Kiloam. None came, and even the dagash could not conceal his surprise 
and disappointment. 

" Perhaps he has been delayed by some accident," I observed. 

" No," replied the dagash, " it is hardly possible ; the runners go in 
pairs, and the day's journey is divided into twenty stages. The road is 
smooth, and there are never any accidents. I know not what to think." 

" Well, I do," exclaimed Kaloolah, jumping up and clapping her 
hands with girlish glee, in utter contempt of all regal dignity, and to the 
great astonishment of the worthy dagash. " I understand ; Enphadde is 
coming, and the runners are stayed that he may announce himself. How 
long will it take him to come after receiving the news of our arrival ? " 

" Four or five days ; depending upon the sharpness of his spurs." 

" Then I 'm sure we shall see him in three days more ; but that will 
be a long time ; suppose that we set out to meet him ? " 

Kaloolah's proposition was at once negatived by the dagash, much to 
my satisfaction. I was in no hurry, though, of course, full of curiosity ; 
for, somehow, there was something uncommonly pleasant in the view by 
moonlight, from the great terrace above the Nourwall ; and Kaloolah 
thought so too. 

There could be no doubt that, whatever had been my feelings up to 
this time, I was now getting pretty deeply in love. The humbug of 
" fatherly care," and " brotherly affection," was all gone, and in its place 
there had got to be a most indubitable, love-like feeling of sympathy, 
anxiety, and respect. The change in me was but a natural response to a 
change I have already mentioned in Kaloolah's appearance and manners. 

I remarked to Kaloolah how much she had altered ; how suddenly she 
had assumed the retenue of womanhood. She playfully denied the charge. 
" At least," said she, putting her hand to her heart, " I have not altered 
here. Feel it ; its pulses are the same as when you threw it from you on 
the banks of the Sierra Leone." 













ffi^S^ ^S 





















Arrival of Enphadde — The Prince's Story — Setting Out for Kiloam — A Buffalo and His Trap- 
pings — A Weatherly Craft — Jack in the Howdah. 

'ARAZHA wasa scene of excitement. The unusual detention 
of the royal messengers had aroused curiosity, and now it was 
announced from the battlements that a large cavalcade was in 
sight, and rapidly advancing to the southern gate. 

" It is Enphadde, I know it is Enphadde," whispered Kaloolah, pale 
and trembling. 

The door of the saloon opened, and there entered a tall, graceful 
figure, dressed in a blue shirt, and over it a closely fitting garment that 
came down to the knees, composed of fine feathers worked into a kind of 
cloth. The prominent color was a deep dazzling blue, bordered with a 
bright yellow. His legs were bare, except a garter of gold lace from 
which depended a heavy fringe like the bullion of an epaulette. Buskins 
of yellow morocco were laced to his feet, and on his head he wore a 
closely fitting green feather-cloth cap, with a fillet of gold and silver 
filigree, and a drooping plume of feathers of the froulbell. 

Uttering a scream of delight, Kaloolah threw herself into the stranger's 
arms. It took me somewhat longer to recognize, in the full, manly figure, 
the stripling Enphadde. Disengaging himself from his sister's arms he 
flew towards me and gave me a most cordial embrace. 

, We, shortly retired from the gaze of the crowd of ofificers, who filled 
the lower end of the long saloon, to the quiet of the terrace, where we 
■seated ourselves upon the sward just as the sun was bidding good-night 
to the blushing clouds that hung in silent admiration of their own beauti- 
ful images, gleaming far down in the depths of the purple Nourwall. 

As may be supposed, we had long stories to tell — many a question to 
ask — many a question to answer. Mine and Kaloolah's the reader under- 
stands. Enphadde's must be summed in three lines. 

Upon returning to the hut and finding his sister gone, he rushed back 
to the head man and alarmed the whole village with his complaints and 



lamentations. All hands turned out in search ; which was continued dur- 
ing the night. It was at last concluded that she had been killed and car- 
ried off by some wild beast ; in a day or two, however, it was known that 
a party of slave-hunters had been in the neighborhood and all doubts as 
to her fate were at once removed. 

Grief so weighed upon Enphadde that he was unable to go on with 
the Mandingos, and for two or three weeks he remained, wishing and in- 
viting death ; his misfortunes excited the sympathy of the humane vil- 
lagers, and he received the kindest nursing and attendance. 

When able to walk he joined a kafifila going east. For about a month 
they got on very well ; passing through several populous countries, until 
at last, while fording a broad stream, the kafifila was attacked by a party 
of armed negroes. The Mohammedan members of it were killed or dis- 
persed, and the KafRrs were seized as slaves. Great was Enphadde's joy 
when he found that his captors were marching him to the southeast. In 
fact, what seemed at first a misfortune, proved the safest and most direct 
means of his restoration to his own country. 

Three weeks' travel brought him and his masters to a large town. 
Here he was exposed in the socco and immediately purchased by a slave- 
dealer, who put him, with others, on board of a large canoe and ascended 
(five or six days' journey) a stream running from the east. They then 
landed, and striking off through a hilly country in a southerly course, 
arrived in fifteen days at a small walled town named Bemme. 

There happened to be, luckily, in this town a party of Shemba traders, 
who had visited the country of the Foota Jals, where they had heard of 
the Gerboo Blanda, or white people of Framazugda. Enphadde's com- 
plexion and features excited their curiosity, and upon questioning him, 
and finding that he was the son of the Gerboo king they offered to 
purchase him, and take him home for ransom. For a whole lunar month 
they journeyed to the east, until they reached the first towns of the 
Footas, where his masters, either doubtful of his ransom, or tired of the 
long journey, sold him to a Foota chief, who promised to take him to 
Framazugda, but who, in the meantime, put him to work in his rice and 
cotton fields. Enphadde endeavored by promises of a high ransom to 
induce some one else to purchase him, but his master refused all offers. 
Finding, at length, that the Foota lord was too avaricious to part with 
his hopes of a splendid ransom, and yet too indolent to set about obtain- 
ing it, Enphadde secured a small bundle of provisions and a spear, and 
boldly plunged into a wild rocky country to the southeast. 

For ten days he endured the extremes of hunger and fatigue, besides 



being several times attacked by wild animals. Once a lion bounded at 
him from the sergy margin of a small watercourse. Enphadde had barely 
time to scramble to the top of a high rock, when the lion gave a jump, 
just reaching with his forefeet the edge of the rock, and slipping back 
without getting a foothold. The animal turned back, and deliberately 
placing himself in the same spot from which he had sprung, tried it again, 
but with no better success. Twenty times the creature repeated the 
experiment before he could satisfy himself that it was beyond his power. 
Unfortunately Enphadde had dropped his spear, or he might have easily 
put an end to the monster's saltatory exertions, by thrusting him while 
clinging to the edge of the rock. Upon finding that his proposed dinner 
was beyond his grasp, the fellow had the impudence to stretch himself 
out upon the ground and keep Enphadde broiling in the hot sun upon 
the rock until sunset, when, with a deep roar of disappointment and im- 
patience that made the boulders in the bed of the river rattle like pebbles 
on the sea-shore, he bounded off in search of a less piquant but more 
come-at-able supper. Enphadde descended and secured his spear, but he 
thought it best to take up his lodging upon the rock for the night. 

On another occasion Enphadde had succeeded in spearing a monkey, 
and, taking his prize to the bank of a stream, was busily engaged in rubbing 
two dry sticks together, in hopes of getting a fire, and making a comforta- 
ble meal, when he was alarmed by a wild rushing through the forest, and 
turning, he beheld himself enclosed by a legion of monkeys armed with 
sticks and stones. Discharging their missiles with wonderful precision 
and force, these infuriated animals closed in upon him. Enphadde used 
his spear vigorously — killing numbers, but not in the least deterring the 
rest. They swarmed upon him like vermin, and in a minute more he 
must have been overborne and killed, had he not staggered to the water 
and plunged in, with about forty monkeys hanging to him by their claws, 
tails, and teeth. The ferocious little devils were compelled to let go their 
hold and scramble back to the land, while Enphadde swam across to the 
other side. Covered with bruises and bleeding from a hundred wounds, 
and faint from want of food, he could just draw himself ashore, where he 
must have perished had he not been discovered by a party of negroes, and 
taken to their village. 

He soon found that he was as much a slave as ever; but upon telling 
his story, they at once agreed to take him to the confines of his country 
and offer him for ransom. As soon as he was able to walk, they set out, 
and in ten days reached the river Queal. Ascending it to Lake Tsamsa, 
they arrived at the last town of the Foota Jals, named Goolah. From 


this place messengers were despatched across the lake to a Framazug 
town, and from thence word was sent to Kiloam, that the king's son, who 
had been mourned as dead, was alive, and to be ransomed for as many 
gold rings, of a certain thickness, as would cover to their tips the fingers 
of his master's hands. Commissioners were at once deputed to effect the 
ransom ; who, when they arrived at the appointed spot for the ratification 
of the bargain, were introduced to a gigantic negro of Goolah, as the 
master of Enphadde. A delay of two or three days now occurred, in con- 
sequence of the commissioners not having more than half the requisite 
number of rings for his monstrous fingers. But at last a supply was pro- 
cured — the giant's digits were sheathed in gold, and Enphadde was 
restored to the bosom of a doting father and to the affections of an 
admiring people. Great was the joy upon his return ; but it was qualified 
by the profound regrets for the supposed cruel fate of his beloved sister. 
" Could we have known," concluded Enphadde, " that God had sent 
Jonathan again to your protection, how happy we should have been ! " 

" Poor Enphadde ! " replied Kaloolah, " your fate has been the hardest ; 
you have had no hope of my safety to support you, while I have been 
almost ever confident of yours." 

" No," rejoined Enphadde, "we had no hope of ever seeing you again. 
Imagine our joy, then, upon hearing that you were here, alive and well, 
and that the preserver of both our lives was with you. ' Fly ! fly ! En- 
phadde,' said the great Shouns^, 'and bring her to my arms. And this 
noble stranger, conduct him in all honor, and quickly, too, for I long to 
testify my gratitude to the savior of my children.' " 

Enphadde's story was finished — the fog-laden breeze began to steal 
across the bosom of the river, and the old dagash made his appearance, 
with many apologies for the intrusion, to announce that supper was 
waiting in the great hall. We entered amid a blaze of light, a burst of 
delicious music, and a shower of ecstatic odors, shaken from ten thousand 

In his hurry to get back to Kiloam, the prince was anxious to obtain 
a remount of horses from Garazha, and set off the next morning. But 
the dagash told him that that was impossible. " There are hardly twenty 
horses in town, and to collect fifty from the country would take three or 
four days. In two days your own horses will have recovered from their 
fatigue, and, in the meantime, you will have to honor my poor quarters 
with your presence." 

Enphadde was thus compelled to submit to a delay of two days, 
which was little enough time for his exhausted horses to recruit their 



strength. The time, however, soon passed, arid on the morning of the 
third day we were all in the saddle, and, escorted by the dagash and most 
of the inhabitants of the town, we emerged from the heavy stone gate- 
way, and set out diagonally across the pleasant valley through which ran 
the little tributary to the Nourwall. 

A monstrous buffalo had been prepared for the use of the princess. 
To a ring in his nose was attached a rope, by which he was led, although 
he was so tame and well trained as to obey the slightest intimations of 
the voice. Upon his back was erected a framework of canes, and this 

" Presenting a figure that would have furnished an artist with u good life model of Neptune on 

the couch of Amfhitrite,^' 

was covered with curtains of the finest muslin, worked in a kind of ara- 
besque, with threads of gold, silver, and purple ; within were cushioned 
seats, upon which the rider might recline at any angle corresponding to 
his or her notions of comfort or grace. Bands of glittering snake-skin con- 
fined the structure upon the back of the buffalo, whose horns, neck, and 
tail were bedecked with garlands of flowers. The animal's gait was an 
easy but rather ungainly amble, which he could continue for any length 
of time, compelling his leaders and attendants, who ran by his sides 
with bushes of fragrant herbs to keep off the flies, to move at a sharp 

Notwithstanding, however, the fascinations of this bovine gestation, 
Kaloolah expressed her preference for the saddle, and, after parting with 



the dagash and his guards, she insisted upon mounting her horse and 
resigning the buffalo to Jack, who loudly expressed his delight at the 

"Talk of horses," exclaimed Jack, "they are nothing to this ere craft. 
Why, when astraddle of one of these narrow-backed things, I feel like a 
lubber on a yard-arm. I roll, and pitch, and toss like a badly stowed 
ship ; and every few minutes I fancy my ballast is about to shift, and that 
I shall be down upon my beam-ends. But here ! Lord bless the two 
prettiest black eyes that ever looked out from an angel's head — and those 
are your'n, marm ! I never see'd such a regular ship-shape ambulation 
on four legs afore. Why, I was once in an American brig out of New 
York — Mr. Romer's own city — and off the Horn we lay-to for two and 
thirty days in one steady gale. The wind blew so hard that it took six 
men and the cook to hold the captain's quadrant while he took the sun, 
and yet we never sprung a spar, opened a seam, strained a bulkhead, or 
shipped as much water as you could put in your eye and make anybody 
believe you had been crying. Now the motion of this craft is just 
like that brig, and if I had only a little sniff of tar and bilge water I 
could go to sleep and dream that I was in her, and once more fairly off 

It will not be supposed that Kaloolah's knowledge of English was 
sufficient to enable her to understand all the delicate shades of meaning 
in Jack's sea-talk, but, somehow, they got on very well together They 
had become great friends, and were very fond of holding long conversa- 
tions, when Jack would spin his yarns with a profusion of gestures and 
grimaces that never failed to please the princess much, and which, 
not un frequently, made it difficult for me to preserve a proper gravity 
of countenance. 

At first I objected to the manifest impropriety of Jack's mounting 
the buffalo, but Kaloolah insisted upon it, and afterwards rode by his 
side, enjoying the unaffected delight with which he resigned himself to 
the rolling motions of the beast. Kaloolah's slightest wish was attended 
to with an air of deference and respect by her brother and guards that 
alone would have prevented me from interposing any serious objections 
to her will, and I was, therefore, obliged to permit Jack to occupy his 
elevated position, where he stretched himself out with the most insouciant 
air imaginable — presenting a figure that would have furnished an artist 
with a good life model of Neptune on the couch of Amphitrite. 


Character of the Country — Houses — Monuments — Fountains — A Touch of Politics — First 
Sight of Kiloam — Kaloolah's Emotion — Reception at Jellalob — A Separation — An Enter- 
tainment — Feats of Jugglers. 

>UR road for five days lay through an undulating country, that 
grew more populous and more closely cultivated at every step. 
On either side it was lined with a double row of fruit-trees, a 
few only of which were familiar to me — such as the olive, the 
almond, the orange, th-e fig, and the cactus opuntia or prickly pear. These 
-were all public property, and afforded the traveller both refreshment and 
shade. The trees were very flourishing ; and, upon inquiry, I found that 
it was a matter of emulation among the owners of property along the 
road as to which should thus present strangers with the most tempting 
fruit. Between the trees were placed marble pillars, surmounted with 
vases filled with fresh flowers. No higher compliment can be paid to the 
owner's taste and horticultural skill than for the passing traveller to stop 
and select the most beautiful. 

The houses on either hand were mostly of stone — a yellow-tinted 
marble, — and, although low, had a peculiarly light appearance. Generally 
they were half buried in masses of rich verdure, which served to give 
them a degree of breadth and dignity, and to very much assist their 
architectural effects. Numerous aqueducts of freestone-work could be 
seen crossing the country in every direction ; and spanning the rivers and 
watercourses were bridges equal in solidity and symmetry to the best 
productions of Roman masonry. Lofty monuments, consisting of marble 
pillars, carved into a series of globes, gradually decreasing in size from 
the bottom to the top, and surmounted by a small plain cube of lava, 
peered up from above the loftiest trees; and immense buildings, which 
proved to be distributing reservoirs, into which the water is pumped for 
the purpose of giving it sufificient head, crowned the summits of the-hills 
and frowned in massive majesty, like the feudal castles of Christian coun- 
tries, upon the flowery dells and flowing streams below. Like feudal 
castles ? True, there was something suggestive of the association, but 
how unlike in all important points. Both are elevated upon heights, and 


generally upon the banks of rivers, but one is so elevated to afford a 
rapid descent to the pure water — to give force and pressure to the number- 
less refreshing jets and cooling cascades, and graceful fountains, the other to 
afford security to violence, vantage to rapine and slaughter — to give to 
human selfishness strongholds, from which, with irresistible momentum, 
it might descend and deluge the lower lands with blood. Suppose that 
all the dwellings of cruel, brutal, ignorant, short-sighted tyranny and 
superstition that dot the surface of Europe, had been for ages merely 
fountain-heads of water — prisons only for Undines and Nereids, who, 
when released from confinement, had danced and sung, ever and for ever 
appealing to the gradually deepening sense of the beautiful ; speaking 
with a refining power to the delighted heart, and persuading from lavish 
Ceres and Pomona their choicest gifts to man. Suppose, still further, that 
instead of being mere reservoirs of water, these old castles, and towers, 
and convents, had been reservoirs of virtue — strongholds of honest human 
sympathy, whence had flowed all fertilizing and elevating influences: 
suppose, in other words, that all government, political, social, and religious, 
had not been perverted from its plain and inviting ends — the good of the 
whole to the sordid advantage of a part, — and what would now be the 
condition of Europe ? — of the world ? The wildest imagination can 
hardly compass the then glories of Christendom, with its ten or twenty 
thousand millions of happy and comfortable people. 

And how has the world been thus cheated of its inheritance, and, 
possible, yet unborn, millions deprived of their rights in eternity, and the 
world overburdened with people, while yet not a thousandth part of its 
power of production has been developed ? Is it the result of necessary 
pre-existent causes — the natural and inevitable evolution of the germs of 
evil, implanted from the beginning in the human heart — something over 
which man, from the laws of his nature, could have exercised no control? 
Or, is it the result of false teaching and bad habits — of imperious fashion 
— of long-continued and assiduous experiments in evil — of an industrious 
training in vice — of a diabolical combination of selfish men to trample 
their fellow-citizens beneath them, to degrade and beggar them, and to 
crush, with the iron heel of power, their generous impulses, their few and 
feeble, because unstimulated, aspirations for a nobler, and always nobler 
civilization? If the first, adieu to all the glowing hopes of the political 
reformer; if the second, who can set bounds to the constantly accelerated 
rush of political and social improvement? 

But to return to my sheep, from which the water tanks have taken me 
a long way, and which were literally gambolling by my side. There were, 

KALOOLAH. ^ 315 

as I have mentioned, several varieties of them, but the most curious was 
a long-wooled animal, about the size of a small cow, and furnished with 
monstrous udders of rich milk. Their backs were broad and soft, and 
more than once we saw a long-legged Framazug astride of one of them, 
and industriously drumming on its sides with his heels. 

We passed through several villages and large towns, and saw others in 
the distance, and the places where we stopped for the night were substan- 
tial cities of twenty and thirty thousand inhabitants. From all these the 
people came out in crowds, saluting us with hearty shouts and a general 
waving of bouquets. 

It was in the afternoon of the fifth day, after leaving Garazha, that 
our road lay up the steep sides of a range of hills, which for a long time 
had been seen bounding our horizon to the south. We were within a few 
rods of the crest of the hill. " Prepare yourselves," said Enphadde, " for 
a fine view. In a moment more you will see Kiloam. We are on the 
very brink of the great valley of the Wollosab ! " 

At this instant our vanguard raised a great shout and flourished their 
spears over their heads. All stopped where the road made a sharp turn, 
and eagerly looked down at something on their left. Hugh stretched 
himself up in his stirrups, and gazed fixedly. Jack, finding the curtains 
df his howdah impede his view, jumped nimbly from the back of his buf- 
falo and ran out to the side of the road ; and Hassan, as was his custom 
whenever any thing particularly pleased him, threw up the muzzle of his 
musket and fired it in the air. The instant he had done so I could see 
his eyes roll round towards me, as deprecating the anger that he knew he 
had justly aroused. " You 've fired your last charge of powder, my good 
fellow ! " said I, looking and speaking somewhat sternly to the frightened 
culprit. But at this moment my attention was drawn to the princess, by 
an exclamation from Enphadde. , 

Kaloolah was deadly pale. I thought she was about to faint, and 
juniping from my horse, flew to her side and lifted her to the ground. 

" It will be over in a moment," said Kaloolah; "direct our train to 
move on. We can overtake them in a few minutes." 

"It is very foolish in me," said Kaloolah, "to feel' so ! But when 
Enphadde exclaimed that at yonder bend of the road we should see Ki- 
loam, and when I saw the guards toss their spears and shout, my heart 
began to beat as it never beat but once before " ; and the princess gave 
me a look that I at once interpreted to mean, on the evening of the 
attack upon the caravan among the sand-hills of the desert. 

" No, Kaloolah," I replied, "it is not foolish to feel as you do. Noth- 

3i6 ^ KALOOLAH. 

ing can be more natural. Were I in your situation, man as I am, I 'm 
afraid I should not be able to control my emotion as well as you. Even 
as it is, Enphadde's announcement made my pulses throb like a fright- 
ened child's." 

" Come, come," exclaimed Enphadde, after a pause, " lean upon our 
arms, and let us move up to this view that seems to frighten you so." 

" Are you sure that it is there ? " said Kaloolah. " It seems to me as 
though the whole might be a dream. Here, pinch my fingers," said^he, 
naively, throwing out her hands, " and see if I am awake." 

I took one hand, and was giving it a gentle squeeze, when she sud- 
denly pulled it away, and the color came into her face. " No, no," she 
exclaimed, " I don't wish to know ; if it 's a dream, it 's a pleasant one, 
and I wont be waked from it ; come, let us go " ; and putting her arms 
within ours, we slowly advanced to the crown of the hill. 

Despite her assumed vivacity and calmness, I could f«el her frame 
tremble, and could perceive the increasing pallor of her cheek. WitTi a 
sudden effort she hurried us forward, mounted the projecting ledge of 
rock, and gazed at the vast ocean of earth that lay beneath and be- 
fore us. 

" Loo, loo, bil sa Wollosab, bah loo, loo bil sa mahrah Kiloam ! " exclaimed 

Kaloolah raised her hands to her eyes, as if the sight was too much 
for her, and turning away, fell sobbing into her brother's arms. I felt 
that this was a situation in which even the most sympathizing lover 
would be de trop. There were thronging associations which I could not 
share — vibrating memories to which my voice was not attuned — bonds of 
affection, which all-powerful love might transcend, and even disrupt, but 
whose precise nature it could not assume. 

There are some lovers who are jealous of such things — fellows who 
like to wholly monopolize a woman — and who are constantly on the 
watch, seizing and appropriating her every look, thought, and feeling, 
with somewhat of the same notion of an exclusive right as that with 
which they pocket a tooth-pick ;— I am not of that turn. The female 
heart is as curiously and as variously stocked as a country dry-goods 
store. A man may be, perhaps, allowed to select out for his own exclu- 
sive use some of the heavier articles, such as sheetings, shirtings, flannels, 
trace-chains, hobby-horses, and goose-yokes, but that is no reason why 
the neighbors should be at once cut off from their accustomed supply of 
small wares. 

I withdrew a few yards, to a higher and more projecting crag, not to 


obtain a more extensive view, for the character of the scene by no means 
excited that desire to see farther and still farther beyond what at first 
breaks upon the sight, which is so often felt in viewing a landscape, or 
any object which depends for its effect upon extent or size. The beautiful 
or the sublime emotion arising from form, color, motion or any com- 
bination of these qualities, may be complete, entire, mind-filling and soul- 
satisfying, because the causes may be perfect, and incapable of improve- 
ment or augmentation. Their power cannot be increased by adding a 
little more form, a little more color, or a little more motion. But, when 
extension is the only or the predominant element of the view, the mind 
is at once dissatisfied, and demands more and more, bounding its desires 
not even by the limits of human reason. 

Now, in the view before me there was wonderful extension — an almost 
limitless expansion ; but it was subordinate to the magnificent combina- 
tion of form, color, and motion. 

Sheer down went the precipice a thousand feet, and from its base the 
country descended, by gentle slopes and wide terraces, a thousand feet 
farther, to the banks of the Wollosab, a distance of about fifteen miles. 
Far up to the left was the great lake of WoUo, forty miles long and ten 
broad, with numerous islands — all of them in sight. From the lower 
end of this lake, and nearly opposite to us, on the farther side, opened 
two immense valleys far up, in which couM be caught the glitter of 
smaller bodies of water. The mountain dividing the valleys ran boldly 
down to the lake, bearing upon its crest a stream, that, descending by 
two successive leaps, five hundred feet each, ran for a quarter of a mile, a 
broad sheet of milky foam, and again bounding over a lofty ledge, 
whitened, for a league, the surface of the Wollo. Ten miles below this 
and in front of us, where the river issued from the lake, was the great 
city of Kiloam, and more than fifty other cities could be seen at a 

Beyond the Wollosab, there stretched a plain fifty miles broad, tra- 
versed by numerous streams, and bordered by a sea of purple-bodied, 
white-headed mountains, that seemed as if in the very act of tossing 
themselves, in proud defiance, against the sky. Far away to the right this 
plain extended, to where the hazy cones closed in and left barely a passage 
for the majestic river. 

Back of us the scene was equally gorgeous. There lay the rich rolling 
country that we had passed, bordered by hills, which, in the northeast 
and east, grew into mountains, among which, proudly conspicuous, stood 
the ever-flaming Kebbi. 


The small chain of hills upon which we stood was thus the centre of 
a vast amphitheatre. The chain was not more than thirty miles in 
length, and was deeply serrated. We might have taken a more level 
road, through the deep passes, or escaped the hills altogether by a slight 
detour ; but Enphadde had chosen the path over the highest peak, in 
order to give us a more striking and comprehensive view of his country. 

There was a wonderful clearness and transparency of the air, that 
more than doubled the limits of ordinary vision. Cities, palaces, aque- 
ducts, bridges, monuments, stood forth, at a distance of leagues, with 
telescopic distinctness. I gazed as one entranced. 

My revery was broken by the voice of the princess, who called to me 
to come and take a seat by her side. 

Together we gazed, lost to all sense of time, in the deep emotions of 
the scene, until suddenly, far below us, the spear-points of our escort 
gleamed from the overarching trees — '' Come ! " exclaimed the prince, 
jumping to his feet ; " the sun is going down, and we must follow his 
example, or we shall have to find our way by starlight." 

Our attendants bringing up our horses, we mounted, and descended a 
steep, winding road, running through dense arbors of flowering trees, and 
crossing several times, by light wooden bridges, a tangled silvery thread 
of water. We overtook our escort when in sight of a large town, where 
we were to stop for the night. 

As usual, crowds of people were awaiting our arrival at some distance 
from the gates. Every one bore a bouquet in one hand, and a torch or 
paper lantern in the other. As darkness came on, the flambeaux were 
lighted, and from the walls, towers, and houses streamed the light of in- 
numerable lamps. 

From the gateway to the house appointed for our reception, a distance 
of full half a mile, we rode along under a continuous canopy of flowers. 
A netting of rope work had been stretched across from the tops of the 
houses, and into this the flowers had been interwoven, lea\"ing, at inter- 
vals, dependent garlands and wreaths. The balconies and porticos were 
also wreathed with flowers, and filled with beautiful women. Thousands 
of lamps, torches, and lanterns diffused as intense a light as the full bright- 
ness of day. In front of us danced a dozen girls, in picturesque costume, 
with musical instruments, like tambourines, with which they accompanied 
their voices ; and on each side moved a dense throng, from whose throats 
every few minutes came a wild chorus, that fairly lifted the canopy of 
flowers, and that thrilled through me like ten thousand bowie-knives. 

The good people of Jellalob had taken us quite by surprise. Orders 



having been issued tiiat our journey should be conducted with all privacy, 
we were not prepared for such a display. Enphadde, however, was the 
only one of the party displeased ; and he signified as much to the dagash 
and the authorities of the town. Kaloolah, however, interposed, and 
averted the storm of princely wrath ; and Enphadde was fain to receive 
the excuses of the frightened ofificials^ who represented that ever since the 
announcement that the princess was on the road, the people had been in 
the greatest ferment, and that it would have been impossible to prevent 
them from making some demonstration of their joy. 

Upon reaching the palace we alighted, and were conducted across an 
open courtyard paved in mosaic — in the centre of which played an il- 
luminated fountain — to a flight of low broad marble steps ; ascending 
these, we were conducted through a wide hall to a lofty saloon, hung in 
blue and gold, and furnished with curiously sculptured alabaster pedestals, 
containing lamps, and wreathed on the outside with flowers. In a few 
minutes we were shown to our sleeping rooms. Mine led from the 
farther end of a long marble saloon, and opened out into a balcony that 
overlooked a small court, where played a lively jet of sparkling water. A 
■ flight of narrow stone steps led to the court, and thence to a bathing 
room, where a bathing tub of fragrant cedar, studded with silver, and 
filled with warm rose-water, awaited me. 

I was preparing to enjoy the refreshing luxury, when a servant 
announced that Enphadde wished to see me. Upon repairing to the 
saloon I found him and his sister still in their travelling dresses, and 
apparently ready to resume their journey. They announced that word 
had just been received from the court that their father had gone to a 
; royal chateau upon the banks of the Wollo, about ten hours' ride from 
us, and that he expected his daughter to come on at once, while I was to 
remain for a day or two at Jellalob, and to have a presentation to his 
majesty at Kiloam. I had no right to object to this arrangement, but I 
could not refrain from expressiiig my regrets at parting. 

" 'T is only for a day," whispered Kaloolah, as I assisted her into a 
curtained palanquin. 

" True, 't is only for a day," said I, smiling, and waving my hand as 
the bearers lifted their lovely burden from the ground, but at heart I felt 
as forlorn as if it had been for a year, or a lifetime. 

" Pshaw ! " I mentally ejaculated, " this is too ridiculous, to let a little 
Congo slave-girl get the upper hand of my heart in this way ! " 

Upon entering my saloon I found my lords-in-waiting. Jack, Hugh, 
and Hassan, engaged with a host of servants in arranging and displaying 



several complete suits of dress. There were garments of fine linen, shawls 
like those of cashmere, figured muslins, and r&bes and surcoats of feather- 
cloth of the most gorgeous colors. 

After my bath I selected a cashmere for a turban, and throwing a 
feather robe over my shoulders, I descended, with my companions, all 
dressed in a similar style, to the banquet hall, where the dagash, and 
forty or fifty officers were waiting to receive me. 

After the feast came music, dancing, and a variety of juggling feats. 
The dancing girls were beautiful and very graceful in their movements, 
and their conjuring tricks were novel and performed with great skill. 
Some of them were truly wonderful, as, for instance, turning a man into 
a tree bearing fruit, and with monkeys skipping about in the branches ; 
and another case, where the chief juggler, apparently swallowed five men, 
ten boys, and a jackass, threw them all up again, turned himself inside 
out, blew himself up like a balloon, and, exploding with a loud report, 
disappeared in a puff of luminous vapor. My companions declared that 
we had got into a country of enchanters, and I could not but admire the 
skill with which the tricks were performed, although I was too much of a 
Yankee to be much astonished at any thing in the hey ! presto ! line. 


Departure from Jellalob — Pholdefoos — Approach to Kiloam — Entrance into the City — Novel 
Pavement — The Acropolis — The Palace — A Bouquet from the Princess — The Hall of the 
Fountains — The Throne Room — Audience of the Sultan — The Great Shounse — A Royal 

I E set out, the next day, with an escort, and were fol- 
lowed by large crowds of people from Jellalob and the neigh- 
boring cities. Buffaloes, richly caparisoned, were provided 
for us, and for most of the accompanying dignitaries ; but we 
preferred our horses ; and, in compliment to us, the dagash and several 
high officers from the court also took their seats in the saddle. 

On either side of us were footmen, who supported over our heads, by 
long slender poles, awnings of pure linen. These were bedecked with 
streamers of variously colored muslin, and with wreaths of fresh flowers. 
A little in the rear came a hand-barrow, in which were conspicuously 
placed our muskets and pistols. These seemed to attract the largest 
share of public attention, and the barrow was frequently raised aloft to 
afford the people an opportunity of seeing the wonderful machines, which, 
in the hands of the Footas, were beginning to threaten their existence as 
a nation. 

We passed several of the columns that I have mentioned, surmounted 
with the usual cube of lava. A very lofty one having attracted my at- 
tention, Seywad dal Gouk, one of the lords of the court, who rode by my 
side, volunteered an explanation. 

"You must know," said he, " that these columns are erected as me- 
mentos of the Pholdefoos, or the ' Seekers of Truth.' " 

"True," I replied, "the young prince, Enphadde, told me as much, 
but I do not understand, precisely, who these ' seekers of truth ' are." 

" They are," said the Seywad, " a class of pure, holy, and wise enthusi- 
asts, who withdraw from their fellow-men and the common concerns of 
life, and devote themselves solely to the search for the germs of moral, 
religious, and political truth, and to the inevitable fate that awaits them 
at the end of their search." 

"An exclusive caste or order? " I demanded. 


" No, any one can become a seeker, provided he gives evidence of the 
proper intellectual and moral qualities, and of those spiritual promptings 
which are necessary to carry him in triumph to the end. Such a one is 
permitted to take the vows of his order on his thirtieth birthday. From 
that time he devotes himself to meditation and study. A small stipend 
from the government barely supplies him with the necessaries of life. 
Part of the time he wanders about the country, studying human nature, 
investigating the laws of social organization, inquiring into the history, 
antiquities, and jurisprudence of past generations, and collecting from the 
monuments of departed ' seekers ' the germs of truth for which they had 
sacrificed their lives. The rest of the time he devotes to meditation in 
some retired spot, afar from the bustle and turmoil of the world. Here 
he prepares himself for his fate, and eliminates the apothegm upon which 
his reputation for wisdom and virtue is to depend. 

" A few days before his fortieth birthday, the announcement is made 
throughout the country, of the approaching sacrifice of a ' seeker.' Peo- 
ple collect from all parts — the seeker, attended by the proper officers, ap- 
pears, arrayed in white linen. Alone he mounts upon a lofty staging, 
erected over an immense pile of fagots. A chaplet of roses adorns his 
head — flowers bedeck the funeral pile beneath. A hundred virgins 
chant, to the music of sweet-toned instruments, the praises of Truth and 
her heroic ' seekers.' He now proclaims aloud the one single short apo- 
thegm or maxim, to the discovery or enforcement of which he has re- 
solved to devote his life. The phrase is taken up and repeated by thou- 
sands of voices. Shouts of applause and admiration rend the air, the pile 
is lighted — the volleying smoke and flames ascend, and envelop the 
* seeker,' who, waving his arms, triumphantly leaps into the glowing 
furnace below. 

" A mortument is at once erected to his memory, and ornamented, as 
you see, by a cube of lava — typical, in its shape, of the perfectly sym- 
metrical form of a fundamental truth, viewed in whatever aspects ; and in 
its composition, of the refining fiery influences under which the truth has 
been sought and obtained." 

"How is it?" I demanded, "that while most of these monuments 
are of the same size, there are a few that tower far above the usual 
height ? " 

" Those," replied my informant, " are erected in memory of some 
great truth that has withstood the test of ages. It is permitted to the 
people at the end of five hundred years after the death of the ' seeker 'to 
tear down his monument, if time has demonstrated the fallacy of his 



dogma, or to enlarge it, if public opinion so decrees. This high monu- 
ment was erected thousands of years ago ; since then it has received 
many additions, and more than a hundred other monuments have been 
erected in enforcement and elucidation of its truth-speech." 

" And what is its truth-speech ? " 

" Simply this : ' He loves himself the best who loves God the most ; 
and he loves God the most who loves with his whole heart his fellow- 
men.' Yonder you see a modern monument, with a similar sentiment in 
different words. It says : ' The earth would be God's flower-garden, did 
not human selfishness choke the paths so that the Devil only can walk 

" And do not these apothegms," I demanded, " furnish texts for dis- 
putation ; are all admitted, at once, as truth?" 

" Certainly not," replied Dal Gouk, " some are of questionable truth- 
fulness under any interpretation, and others give rise to sects. For 
instance, there is one expressing a moral correlative of the axiom I have 
mentioned. Its motto is, ' The love of their kind is a ladder by which 
men can climb to heaven.' This was considered plain enough, until, long 
after the ' seeker ' was dead, the question arose, ' whether a man, who, by 
cultivating a love of his kind to the complete uprooting of self-love, had 
attained the top of the ladder, would have reached heaven actually, or 
would have reached a height to ensure heaven after death.' At once two 
parties arose — the actualists and the super-actualists, — and the dispute 
between them is now at its height." 

"And how will it be decided? " 

" Why, as is usual in such cases, the people and authorities will have 
to tear down the monument, thus referring the truth to future seekers, 
who will develop it in a new form. But it is not alone moral and 
theological truths that furnish grounds for dispute — political and social 
maxims are equally prolific. Fortunately, the expounders and commen- 
tators and disputers stre held in the greatest contempt, and although some 
few may for awhile be led astray, the people ultimately put the polemics 
with their- dogmas, and half truths, and false facts wholly aside, and 
steadily adhere to the stately, strong, slow current of national opinion." 

" And whither is this current tending ? " 

" Onward, ever onward, if not always directly towards the true and 
the beautiful, at least away from the ugly and the false." 

" We sha,ll have Dal Gouk turning pholdefoo one of these days," 
interposed a young noble, shrugging his shoulders at the Seywad's rising 


Dal Gouk shook his head, bi*lrmade no reply, and for some time we 
rode on in silence. When conversation was resumed it took a wide 
range, and embraced a variety of subjects, which would be, perhaps, of 
interest to the reader, but which the extended space my manuscript has 
already reached warns me must be left for a separate work. 

As we advanced, the glittering towers and domes, and lofty battle- 
ments of the great city grew more distinct. A three hours' ride brought 
us to a long stone bridge of twenty arches, leading across the Wollosab. 
Crossing this, we wheeled along the river for a few rods to the left, and 
then traversing a small promontory, came to a broad, straight road, 
bounded by lofty walls, which put me in mind of the fxanpa rBiKt} by 
which Themistocles connected his famous city with its Piraeus. Enter- 
ing this road through a wide-arched gateway, we again turned to the left, 
and, riding along for about a mile, debouched into a large place, sur- 
rounded by massive stone buildings, and ornamented with marble 
columns and fountains. The square was crowded with people, who 
received us with shouts and a universal waving of bouquets. 

Several streets led off from the sides. Our escort took its course 
across the square and up a broad straight street, the pavement of which 
struck me as being considerably superior to the barbarous rubble work of 
Broadway. It was composed of large stones four and five feet square, 
and six or eight inches thick. Across the surface of each ran grooves 
half an inch in depth and width, and four inches apart, affording a foot- 
hold for horses, donke3-s, and buffaloes. It costs but little time or 
trouble to lay this pavement, the blocks of stone being simply placed so 
as to break joints upon a foundation made by levelling the ground, and 
then driving wooden pegs a foot or more long, or rather of a length and 
size proportioned to the nature of the ground. These little piles are 
driven at intervals of ten or twelve inches apart, and being completely 
covered by the earth, they never decay and never give way — thus forming 
a foundation cheap, efficient, and durable. 

This road runs directly with a slight ascent for a distance of two miles, 
up to the face of a precipice of rock three hundred feet high. Then di- 
viding, it turns at right angles, and runs, on either hand, entirely around 
this stately acropolis. The stone has been accurately scarped, and two 
deep stairways cut in it. Up these the people rushed, completely filling 
them from top to bottom, with a crowd which, slowly winding its way 
upwards, looked like two huge snakes of brilliant hues creeping along the 
face of the rock. 

A lofty archway opened before us into a tunnel, fifty feet wide, and 



eight hundred feet in length, cut out of the solid rock. We entered this, 
and at the end of it came to a circular shaft, or well, that extended to the 
top of the acropolis, a height of more than three hundred feet. Upon 
looking up, the clear sky could be, seen resting like a dome upon the 
mouth of the shaft. A broad, gently sloping road, making one of the 
most magnificent spiral staircases in the world, afforded an easy ascent to 
men and beasts. 

On emerging from the shaft we found ourselves in the centre of a large 
square, shaded with majestic trees, divided into walks, ornamented with 
fountains, columns, and flower-stands, and surrounded on three sides with 
a parapet, from which one could look down on the city and its beautiful 
environs, and upon the vast expanse of country beyond. The fourth side 
was bounded by a range of buildings connected by terraces and balconies, 
the whole presenting one of those confused, irregular architectural masses, 
of not much pretension or promise externally, but which at once sug- 
gests the idea of long winding corridors, interminable halls, countless 
courts, private staircases and secret passages, and excites a longing to ex- 
plore the presumed labyrinthian mysteries. 

Passing from the gaze of the countless multitudes crowding the square, 
we were ushered through a low arched gateway into a small court, where, 
upon dismounting, I was met by Enphadde. He at once conducted us 
through several long passages to a fine suite of apartments overlooking 
the eastern side of the acropolis. 

My first inquiry, as the reader may suppose, was after Kaloolah. 

" She is well," replied the prince, " although still suffering from the 
agitation of meeting her father. Joy almost killed the great Shouns6. 
He has recovered now, but he still holds my sister to his heart. But see, 
she has not forgotten you — she sends you this," and Enphadde produced 
a tiny bouquet, not much larger than a rose-bud, and yet containing a 
dozen different flowers, each one of which conveyed some message, but 
which, as I was no adept in the language of flowers, I concluded it best 
not to puzzle my head by attempting to read. " No ! no matter," I re- 
plied to Enphadde, who off ered to explain ; " tell Kaloolah that the heart 
is an apt scholar in such cases, and that mine shall read her message for 

" I must leave you now," said Enphadde ; " and when the sun has de- 
scended half-way the western arch of heaven I will come and conduct you 
to my father." 

It was about three hours before Enphadde's return, and, in the mean- 
while we had time for a delicious bath and an elaborate toilet, in which 


we were assisted by numerous attendants, between whom and my three 
personal followers there was a good deal of discussion in relation to the 
esthetics of dress. Jack was much the most difficult to please, rejecting 
each garment offered him, and making his comments upon the " monkey- 
fied, sodger-looking " dresses with an expression of the highest disgust. 
At last I had to interfere, and actually order him into a picturesque-look- 
ing costume. 

" Well, if I must, I must ! " said Jack ; " but I 'm blessed if it aint a 
disappointment ! I 've navigated under all kinds of outlandish rigs, and it 
seems kind of natural to do so among the Bedouins and Blackamoors, and 
other savages ; but you have always said that we were coming among a 
civilized people. Well, here we are, and devil the thing that looks like a 
pea-jacket, or a pair of duck trowsers, have these fellows got in all this 
finifine toggery ! Civilized ! They don't know the rudiments ! I 'm 
blessed if I believe they could tell a piece of black ribbon a yard long, if 
they should see it. And as for a tarpaulin ! — just think of a fellow's haul- 
ing out the weather-earing in a sou'wester with one of these feather things 
on his head ! " 

We were all ready when Enphadde returned, and descending a broad 
flight of marble steps, we entered a paved hall a hundred feet in length, 
which conducted us to a large circular room, lighted by a dome, which 
was supported upon eight pillars of verd antique. The shafts of these 
pillars were fluted in spirals, and the capitals were elaborate imitations of 
bunches of flowers. The bases and entablature were nearly pure Corin- 
thian, and the general effect was very much the same as of that order. 

The room was filled with officials, in rich dresses, who received us in 
silence, with a series of profound genuflexions. We paused for a moment 
in the centre of the room, where a slender fountain was throwing a jet of 
perfumed water. Enphadde raised his hand, and a pair of folding-doors, 
of panelled boxwood, inlaid with silver and ivory, drew noiselessly aside. 
A burst of delicious music, from a hundred soft-toned instruments, 
greeted us as we stepped into the great hall of the fountains. 

As we stood at one end, the coup-d'oeil was magnificent. As far up 
almost as the eye could reach extended two rows of tall columns ; each 
column represented two convoluted serpents, their intertwined tails coiled 
up for a base, from which their huge helicoidal bodies sprang to a height 
of twenty-five feet. At this point the necks of the serpents separated, 
and each one, curving outwards and upwards, longitudinally, again ap- 
proached the other, describing a heart-shaped curve, and, bending down- 
wards, took a single twist, from which the heads diverged in every variety 


of action and expression. These columns were of carved cedar, inlaid,' or 
covered with the skins of serpents. Their surfaces had thus been made 
to gleam and glow, in the most natural manner, with all the rich and deep 
colors of the intertropical reptalia. A light entablature rested upon the 
curved necks of the serpents. Along the frieze ran a bas-relief of vines, 
with fruits aind flowers of burnished gold, silver, and precious stones ; and 
in the mouths of many of the serpents were branches of gilded fruit. 

The whole length of the hall was about four hundred feet ; its width 
between the rows of pillars, about fifty feet. Between th^ pillars and the 
walls, on either side, was a space of about fifteen feet, the floor of which 
was raised a foot or two above that of the centre, and strung the whole 
length with cushions, upon which were seated a double row of guards, 
habited in the most gorgeous uniforms. The floor of the centre, between 
the colonnades, was of the most elaborate mosaic, representing five large 
vines, with spreading tendrils and branches, among whose leaves played 
monkeys of every shape and size, some of them with wings ; and birds, 
rivalling in brilliancy of plumage their animate prototypes of the wood ; 
and all kinds of snakes and lizards, with glittering skins, and eyes of ruby, 
diamond, and opal. 

But where were the fountains from which the hall took its name ? 
Above, directly overhead, on either side from the galleries, supported by 
the pillars, arose a thousand jets, each one arching itself, in a parabolic 
curve, across the hall, and falling into the opposite gallery. These jets, 
arranged alternately, were so adjusted that the spread of the water in one, 
as it fell, would just fill the space between the concentrated fluid issuing 
from the opposite pipes ; and in this way, by the accurate interposition of 
corresponding streams, there was supported a continuous canopy of water 
the whole length of the hall. 

A flood of light was poured from myriads of unseen lamps upon the 
upper surface of this sparkling roof, while below, numberless hidden 
tapers were so arranged in tubes as to throw their rays against the under 
surface of the watery arch, from which they were returned, after count- 
less refractions and reflections, to the delighted eye. A wonderful variety 
of effects were produced by the continually changing color of the water; 
for a minute or two it would be of a pure white, and then, slowly assum- 
ing a prismatic tint, run on through all the colors of the rainbow. 

The low, hollow, rushing noise of the falling water filled the lofty hall, 
and floated in massive but most musical waves of sound upon the per- 
fumed air. The glowing pillars seemed animated, as the bright and 
flickering light played upon their burnished surfaces. The vines of the 


mosaic pavement, and the fruits and flowers of the frieze, waved as if in 
obedience to the breeze ; while the green, yellow, and scarlet monkeys 
gambolled among the branches, and diamond-eyed snakes and birds glided 
amid the quivering leaves. 

Enphadde paused at the foot of the hall, and, for ten minutes, we 
stood silently gazing up the interminable vista. Hugh, Jack, and Hassan 
stood a few feet behind us, but so close that I could occasionally hear 
their remarks. Hugh was the first to find his tongue. 

" Jack, dear ! " he exclaimed, " do you think, those sarpents are alive ? " 

" To be sure ! Don't you see how they twist and wriggle about ? " 

" I do ; but I don't see how they can be made to stand so straight, and 
hould such a big weight on their necks." 

" Why, it 's their edication ! What makes a soldier so straight ? What 
takes the kinks out of the back of a corporal of marines? Is n't it edica- 
tion ? These sarpents have been devilish well trained ! Why, I 've seen, 
in the East Indies, a snake dance a hornpipe ! Now, if a snake can dance 
a hornpipe, I argues that a snake can be edicated to do anything; unless 
it may be, perhaps, to preach a sarmon, or cat and fish a frigate's best 

"What does the nigger say?" demanded Jack of Hugh, as Hassan 
interposed some observations in mingled Tuaric and Arabic. 

" He wants to know," replied Hugh, " if we sha'n't be aten up by these 
creatures ! Never you mind, honey ! it 's just follow the captain, that 's 
all. When he 's swallowed you may begin to look out for Jonah's lod- 
gings for yourself ; but — whist ! — whist ! — Holy Mary ! " 

A roar, louder than the united voices of a million whirlwinds, arose 
throughout the hall, that drowned all sounds, and seemed to shake the 
solid pavement beneath our feet. For a moment I thought that it was 
an earthquake, but Enphadde and the Framazug nobles behind us were 
perfectly composed. The next instant I perceived my mistake, and dis- 
covered the cause of the sounds. The double row of guards behind the 
pillars, upon some signal, had sprung simultaneously from their cushioned 
seats, each one with an enormous gong in his hand, upon which he pro- 
ceeded to drum as energetically as if announcing dinner to the hungry 
boarders of a New York hotel. Five hundred large gongs sounding to- 
gether! Can any one conceive of a more horrible tympanum-stretching, 
soul-benumbing concord ? Yes ! there is one thing, and one thing only, 
that can surpass it — a concert of a thousand gongs ! but who could sur 
vive to describe the effect ? 

The drum of my ear was just giving way, when the noise began to 


subside — it fell to the gentlest rumbling of distant thunder, and then rose, 
loud, fierce, furious, as the very " crack of doom." Again it subsided, 
and again it rose — three times — a royal salute, and an announcement that 
the great Shouns6 had taken his seat upon the throne. 

Slowly we moved up the gorgeous hall, which now seemed, by con- 
trast, as silent as death. The guards on either side presented their gongs, 
which proved to be shields, and stood with their heads bowed low, im- 
movable as statues. We reached the upper end, and, emerging through 
an arched doorway, hung With heavily embroidered curtains, entered a 
large circular room of at least a hundred feet diameter. The roof was 
curiously arched and groined, and appeared to be of white marble, and 
from it depended several large chandeliers of alabaster, rock crystal, and 
gold, wliich diffused a brilliant but mellow light around. A large carved 
-and gilded ring ran round the room for a cornice, and from this depended 
curtains or hangings of crimson and gold, which, at equal distances were 
pulled aside and looped up, disclosing the walls, empannelled in blue and 
silver. Two thirds of the floor was a rich arabesque mosaic, representing 
a variety of nondescript and fanciful vines, leaves, and fruits. This por- 
tion of the room was ornamented with vases of flowers, and was occupied 
by several groups of dignitaries, habited in flowing robes of gorgeous 
feather cloth, worked with gold and gems, and in crimson and blue head- 
dresses, from which waved the inimitable plumage of the froulbell. 

The other third of the room was elevated to the height of two broad 
steps, and covered with a richly figured carpet of asphaltum, with tufts 
of cotton and wool of the kind that I have before described. In the 
middle of this portion of the room was a small carved ivory platform 
about eight feet square, and approached on three sides by three low 
steps, running the whole length. From this platform arose a curiously- 
constructed wide cushioned chair. The legs and arms were made out of 
solid tusks of ivory, inlaid with gold and silver. The back was formed of 
an immense gold shield, which was held in the claws of two large silver 
lions rampant, at the sides of the chair. One broad step upon which, at 
either end, had been placed two cushions, led up to the throne, over the 
arms of which, somewhat hke a shawl thrown carelessly across a chair, 
was a purple cloth sparkling with gems. This drapery hung negligently 
in flowing folds — on one side, half hiding the lion supporting the shield, 
—and falling away to the right and left, in graceful amplitude, rested far 
out upon a carpet to which it was firmly anchored by tags of solid gold, 
-about the size and shape of a six-pound shot. 

From the ceiling depended a lustrous canopy, formed by eight winged 


serpents. Thdy were represented as twisting their tails around a golden 
ring at the 'roof, and after uniting their bodies, descending, until, at a 
proper distance over the chair, they diverged like the radiating serpents 
in a sky-rocket, and spreading their wings, formed a large spherical dome. 
The necks of the serpents continued off beyond the circumference of the 
canopy, and, twisted in all directions, served to. support long pendent 
necklets of precious stones. In the mouth of each serpent was a small 
bunch of natural flowers. 

It must not be supposed that I observed all these minute facts during 
this, my first interview with the majesty of Framazugda. I have' since 
had repeated opportunities of informing myself in relation to any circum- 
stances about which my curiosity has chosen to make an inquiry. At 
the time I am describing, I was too much excited to note distinctly such 
little architectural details. There was a general sense of splendor and 
wealth, and this perhaps would have been quite overwhelming, had it not 
been that amid so much that was grand and gorgeous, I could perceive 
some evidences of a barbaric taste. This quite reassured me. I braced 
myself at once with the pride of superior civilization ; and, although 
wholly unused to the glare of royalty, I felt my responsibilities as a rep- 
resentative of Christendom in general, and of the " greatest nation in all 
creation " in particular ; and my deportment, I can assure the anxious 
reader, was characterized by the requisite dignity and composure. 

As we entered the room the groups of dignitaries I have mentioned as 
occupying the paved portion of the floor, made way for us. Silently, and 
in obedience to the signals of an old fellow with a long white wand, they 
arranged themselves in three parallel rows on each side, between the arch 
by which we were entering and the steps leading to the elevated portion 
of the room. Another wave of the wand, and each noble put his hands 
to the floor, and with a very dexterous and graceful jerk, kicked his heels 
up in the air, and stood perfectly straight and motionless upon his hands, 
with his head downwards. As we passed on they successively resumed 
an upright position. I could not but admire this new mode of salutation 
— it was so graceful, such a pleasing exemplification of the line of beauty, 
such a combination of natural litheness with acquired dexterity, and so 
profoundly respectful ! 

Arrived at the steps that divided the room, I directed my three fol- 
lowers to halt, while Enphadde and myself ascended and crossed the 
tufted carpet to the foot of the throne. On this was seated a venerable 
man, with a long white beard, and a peculiarly benign countenance. He 
was attired, with striking plainness, in a loose flowing robe of white. His 










head was covered only by a few straggling locks, as colorless as snow, but 
his eyebrows were remarkably heavy and black. He was of middle size 
—his figure rather full,— his features large, but regular, and his whole face 
square and massive, with an expression that reminded me at once of the 
portraits of Washington. 

We reached the ivory steps where, pausing, Enphadde addressed the 
monarch, but in a voice so clear and distinct as to be heard by the listen- 
ing courtiers in every part of the room. H^e mentioned my name and 
the name of my country ; alluded to the hardships to be endured and 
the dangers to be encountered in coming from so distant a region ; spoke 
of the important services I had rendered to him and his sister ; and ended 
with a glowing eulogy of my transcendent wisdom, generosity, and valor. 
The prince was really eloquent, and had not my modesty been fully 
equal to my Other qualities, I should almost have believed that I merited 
his concluding laudation, he expressed himself with such a graceful 

As he finished, the great Shouns6 rose from his throne and stepped 
down upon the ivory platform. " The saviar of my children is wel- 
come ! " he exclaimed, stretching forth his hand, as I thought, for me to 
kiss. Instinctively I took a step upwards and forwards, and bowing my 
head, just touched his hand with my lips. Before I could recover myself, 
he threw his arms around my neck, and gave me a hearty embrace. 
" Welcome, my son ! " he exclaimed ; " I lost two children, and lo ! three 
have been returned to me. Who may dare question the wisdom and 
goodness of God ! Nobles, and wise men of Framazugda, behold in this 
stranger the son of your king." 

At these words the whole assembly flung their feet into the air, and 
the infernal noise of the gongs rolled adovvn the hall of the fountains. 
The king turned and ascended his throne, making the prince and myself 
take a seat upon the cushions at either side of the step by his feet. He 
now commenced asking questions about my country and the other nations 
of the world, and my own personal history, avoiding, as I could perceive, 
any allusion to the agitating subject of his daughter's adventures. 

A slight noise inducing me to look up, I saw behind the throne a long 
strip of gilt lattice work, through which came, occasionally, the bright 
sparkle of diamonds, or the still brighter flashes of female eyes. Was 
Kaloolah there? I judged that she was, or else why did my heart give a 
leap, as if it was coming out of my mouth ? 

After a conversation of half an hour the monarch rose from the throne, 
and my followers were called up and allowed to kiss hands, which they 


did in rather a bungling manner, although I had taken the precaution to 
school them as to almost every possible case of etiquette that could 
arise. Descending the ivory steps, the old man supported himself upon 
my arm, and followed by Enphadde, and a dozen dignitaries who were 
standing behind the throne, we left the room. We traversed a long cor- 
ridor that looked out from latticed arches into a tessellated court, and 
entered a saloon, where, amid the richest display of flowers, were spread 
the choicest viands of a royal feast. Not a lamp could be seen, but a 
flood of sparkling light was poured from the ceiling, which consisted of a 
sheet of rock crystal, set in burnished copper, and supported upon pilas- 
ters of carved ebony and cedar. There were music, and incense, and wine, 
and crowds of menials, and all and more than all of the conventional 
accompaniments and accessories of an ostentatious Oriental entertain- 
ment, but which I have not now space to describe. 

The monarch arose, and affectionately embracing me, bade me good 
night. Enphadde assisted his trembling steps. At this moment an offi- 
cer of the court presented me a little bouquet, which, in an instant, I saw 
was an exact counterpart of the one I had received from Kaloolah. He 
motioned towards a door at the lower end of the hall, and I at once 
sprang to my feet and followed him through a succession of passages and 
courts — a perfect labyrinth, to which, although I have since traversed it 
a thousand times, I have hardly yet learned the clew. 


Apartments of the Princess — An Embarrassing Position — A View from the Balcony — A Lovers' 
Interview — A Spiritual Visitation — Ambitious Reveries — Lightning-Fish — Gogo — A Novel 
Musical Insirument — The Ristum-Kitherum — A Morninsr Walk — Verses for the Princess. 

INHERE was a low, large irregular room, divided into several 
portions by groups of slender columns. It was carpeted with 
the softest stuffs, hung with rich crimson drapery, surrounded 
by a row of ottomans and sofas, and perfumed with the scent- 
laden breeze that came through the arches on one side, from a garden of 
flowers. A few lamps of alabaster illuminated the apartment, and lighted 
up several clusters of gayly dressed and beautiful damsels, who were 
reclining in all manner of easy and graceful attitudes upon the cushioned 

As I entered, the officer who had conducted me threw his feet up into 
the air, and then stepping backwards^ withdrew behind the drapery of the 
door. My appearance created quite a sensation among the beautiful 
occupants of the room. Several of them started to their feet, and for a 
moment I was apprehensive that I was about to be edified with a speci- 
men of feminine litheness and agility, after the fashion of the nobles in 
the throne room. It was, however, only the start of surprise. 

Rapidly running my eye over the charming groups, I saw that the 
princess was not among them. This compelled me to pause — for a mo- 
ment I knew not what to say or do, and no one seemed disposed to come 
to my relief. My position was becoming awkward and embarrassing, 
when I was happily reassured by the glimpse of a female figure through 
a curtained window in the farther end of the room ; with noiseless steps 
I crossed the tufted carpet, and passed into a balcony that on one side 
looked down into a little parterre of flowers, and on the other almost 
overhung the perpendicular side of the acropolis. Far down below was 
stretched out, for miles, a populous section of the great city. It was 
illuminated by a number of light towers, each two hundred feet high, and 
each surmounted by a large conical cap-like reflector, beneath which 
burned huge lamps, fed with prepared naphtha. The yellow light 



streamed down in heavy masses upon the flat-roofed houses, or poured in 
full radiance into the numerous open squares, or struggled from side to 
side of the balconied walls to the smooth pavements of the narrow streets. 
There was a breadth, and a strength of light and shade, a wonderfulness 
of chiaroscuro — a deep juicy jelliness of tone, that would have, probably, 
suggested the peculiar style of Rembrandt, had I ever had the pleasure of 
seeing the oft be-similied chefs-d'oeuvre of that great master, and had I 
not had my attention mainly engrossed by the female figure that, habited 
in a robe of white, was leaning upon the marble balustrade of the balcony. 

Kaloolah was lost in revery, and did not perceive my approach until I 
stood by her side. Without a word, I gently passed my arm around her, 
and drew her towards me. It was my first full, free, unmistakable lover's 
caress. Often had my arm been in the same place, but always with some 
reference to protection or support. My face was so close to hers that, 
although in the deep shade of the curtain, and with no light but that of 
the stars, I could see a liquid diamond trembling between the long black 
lashes of her eye. 

" How is this ? " I demanded. " I thought we had done with tears? 
What troubles )-ou ? What were you thinking of ? " 

" I was thinking," replied Kaloolah, " while looking down upon the 
scene below us, with its dark and bright spots, its illuminated roofs and 
walls, and its hidden chambers ; its lighted parks, and its numerous 
shaded and crooked avenues, how like it is to our hearts. In these we 
find bright spots and dark, open places, and secret passages, and half- 
shaded, half-illuminated avenues and hidden chambers, where lurk 
thoughts and feelings unknown to ourselves. I was thinking, too, that, 
as in that scene below, it is no easy thing to acquire a knowledge of the 
heart's secret ways, no, not even when that heart is our own. And that 
led me to think, Jon'than, that — that — after all, we might both be mis- 
taken in believing that you loved me." 

" You mean that the last thought came first, and that it led you to 
your comparison. But come, tell me, what first put the thought into 
your head ? " 

" I do not know, but it seems to me now, when I look back upon our 
long intercourse, that you have ever treated me with a degree of coldness 
inconsistent with love. True, you have been kind, oh ! how kind, but 
when I have felt that I could throw myself upon your bosom, weep and 
die — when I have felt that for an assurance from you of a love like mine, 
I would have sacrificed even the hope of home, you have treated me, I 
will not say coolly, distantly, but at least calmly, carelessly." 



" And can you think that I acted thus without design ? Can you 
think of no reason for restraining my communications to you within the 
bounds of the strictest decorum. Recollect all the peculiar circumstances 
of our relative positions." 

" Yes, Jon'than, I know what you would say ; think not that I do not 
understand your kindness, your generosity ; you were afraid that with 
the smallest encouragement I would forget myself, my sex, my birth, all, 
every thing, but you, as I did once beneath the palm grove on the banks 
of the Sierra Leone ; say, was it not so ?" 

"As I entered, the officer who had conducted ine threw his feet -up into the air." 

" I confess it, but, believe me, that which is sometimes a reproach to 
unbridled passion is ofttimes the highest compliment that man can pay 
to female simplicity and innocence. I was afraid for you, but not you 
alone. There was one for whom I had much more fear." 

" Indeed ! whom ? " 

" Myself ! " 

"You? Jon'than." 

" Yes, me ! Oh, believe me, Kaloolah, I have loved you with a love 


too passionate, yet too pure, to permit its expression in the circumstances 
in v/hich we were placed. I could not trust myself, and I did not like to 
run the risk of sullying the lustre of that sentiment, of which you were the 
object. Do you understand me, Kaloolah ? " 

" I do," whispered Kaloolah, " and oh ! — how foolish not to have 
understood you before ; but I am so weak and ignoraint, while you are so 
■wise and good ! " 

" I wish," I exclaimed, with a gentle tightening of my grasp upon her 
slender, but well rounded figure, " that I were a thousandth part as wise 
or as good as you are lovely." 

"And you really love me?" murmured Kaloolah, as soon as her lips 
were at liberty to speak, " with your whole heart, Jon'than?" 

" With my whole heart," I replied, and I spoke the truth ; and yet, at 
the instant, there came rolling in upon my heart, like a dark surf on a 
shining sea-beach, a flood of other feeling, and love was almost buried 
amid the mist and foam of memory. I thought of home, and all its as- 
sociations came thronging to my mind. Could I give them all up, and 
that, too, for ever? Could I link myself to Framazugda for life? Could 
I curb, always, the strong yearnings for country and kind by affection 
even for the peerless being by my side ? Could I live for love ? Alas, 
I knew that only woman's heart is capable of that ; men can merely die 
for the object of their affections — they cannot live on through all circum- 
stances solely for love. Man's vigorous, coarse, sensual, and selfish nature 
requires more solid and varied food. Love has been said to be an episode 
in the life of man, but to be woman's whole existence. I prefer to carry 
out my metaphor, and say that to men love is always a condiment — an 
cntremet — a kind of anti-prandial lemon and oysters ; but to woman it is, 
sometimes, the first, second, third course, and dessert. 

I felt and thought thus, although, perhaps, not precisely in these 
words. For a few moments I stood silent, abstracted, and irresolute. 
Kaloolah's heart, as she hung upon my arm, felt sympathetically the 
doubtful feeling of my own, and she looked up in my face with an anxious 
and inquiring look. And now what I am about to relate I hope no in- 
credulous readers will pronounce to be a pure invention, however much 
they think it the mere fiction of my fancy. 

There was a slight rustling sound, as of female garments trailed along 
the garden walk into which the balcony opened. Kaloolah started and 
listened. A white, misty, ill-defined figure swept past and around us, and 
in fact, for a moment, seemed to envelop us like a wreath of thin vapor. 
I felt myself gently compressed, as if in the embrace of some spiritual 



being, and at the same time forced closer to Kaloolah by some power, 
which, although almost imperceptible, was clearly external to us, and in- 
dependent of our own muscular volition. At this moment there was a 
voice — a low, sweet, and to my ear, familiar voice, and the words that it 
whispered were : " My son ! my son ! " The last sounds came from above. 
I looked up, and could see something white, quivering and gently waving 
to and fro, and ascending. A dimness came across my vision, and when 
it cleared away I found myself steadily gazing at a speck of shining cloud 
far up in the starry sky. * 

Enough for me, that whether fancy or reality, fiction or fact, that 
vision and voice drove all doubts from my heart. It was my mother's 
sanction to my feelings for Kaloolah ! And if she could thus visit me in 
the heart" of central Africa, why should not Framazugda become my 
country and my home ? It should ! and my best energies and talents 
should be devoted to the service of my adopted land. True, I would 
have no chance to play the part of a Menes, a Moses, or a Manco Capac. 
I could add nothing to the old and well-polished political, judicial, and 
social systems of a highly cultivated nation ; and it was questionable 
rwhether, in relation to the arts of peace, I should not find much more to 
learn than to teach ; but I could, at least, show the Framazugs some- 
thing in the-vi^ay of war. I could give them discipline, and a system 
of tactics that wauld enable them to meet the formidable barbarians who 
were pressing upon them. I could give them a knowledge of that great 
and happy discovery of the old alchemist — the art of manufacturing gun- 
powder ; an art which has been often anathematized, but which may 
justly be pronounced the best boor, of science to a combative world, the 
greatest blessing to humanity, the supporter and protector of civilization, 
the spreader of true religion ; an art, by the aid of which ignorance, 
superstitio-n, and idolatry have been in some countries utterly extirpated 
— by the aid of which the bloody rites of Huitzilopotchli have been 
swept from the plains of Anahuac — the Manito worship almost driven 
out of my own enlightened country — the barbarous darkness of Atlas 
pierced by the brilliant beams of French faith and politeness — the fero- 
cious Mohammedanism of the Caucasus compelled to give way to the 
blessing of the Greek Patriarch and the benign growls of the black bear 
of Russia; and last, though not least, a flood of Christianity rolled in 
upon the plains of heathen India, which, daily increasing, shall roll on 
until the British Lion, with his paw upon every inch of ground between 
the Euphrates and the Blue Sea, between the Indian Ocean and the peaks 
of the Altai, shall drown with his roar the groans of Gooroo, Brahma, and 


Fo, and wagging his tail in pious exultation, exclaim to the vanquished 
nations of Asia, " in the name of the Blessed Jesus, peace ! " I could 
give my new country this glorious art, and with it security from attack, 
and even the means of conquest. Dim ideas of civilizing barbarous tribes, 
reclaiming from rude nature a large and fertile portion of the globe, 
suppressing the vile traffic in human flesh, and extending the domain of 
Framazugda from the Indian Ocean to the Bight of Benin, floated through 
my mind. In a glow of love and ambition I pressed the princess to my 
heart, and anxiously inquired whether her father would have any objec- 
tions to our union ? " None ! none whatever ! " Kaloolah was positive" 
that it would be the very wish of his heart. 

At this moment Enphadde joined us, and he, too, expressed a like opin- 
ion, avowing, at the same time, his own satisfaction at the state of affairs 
between his sister and myself. 

After a few minutes' conversation in the balcony, Kaloolah proposed 
that we should descend the marble steps, and take a turn or two in the 
garden. I at once complied, and leaning upon her arms, she led us to a 
large marble tank of water, in which were swimming a number of light- 
ning-fish. They were of the shape and about the size of salmon-trout, and 
had the faculty of emitting, at intervals of a few seconds, a vivid flash of 
light from the surface of their bodies. 

As we stood gazing down into the illuminated depths of the tank, we 
were started by the cries of a domestic, who, flinging open a gate, rushed 
into the garden, calling, in a coaxing tone, to some animal which had 
scrambled over the trellised wall, and appeared to be escaping from its 
keeper. We had hardly time to turn around when the little creature 
bounded down the path, and, springing upon the marble curb of the tank, 
jumped thence into Kaloolah's arms. It was Gogo — yellow-haired Gogo 
— a diminutive specimen of the ourang-outang. He was, when standing 
perfectly erect, about six inches high, and covered with a long silky fur, 
of a bright golden hue, except about the shoulders and arms, where there 
was a delicate shade of purple. We took him to the light that streamed 
through an open window, and examined him. It would be difficult to 
find a more lovely creature, or one better calculated for a lady's pet. 
Nestling in Kaloolah's arms, he grinned and chattered his delight ; and 
when Enphadde endeavored to take him away and hand him to his 
keeper, he screamed and clung to his mistress with the most affectionate 
tenacity ; but when Kaloolah told him that it was time for him to go to 
bed, and that, if he would kiss her hand, say good-night, and go without 
making any noise, she would see him in the morning, he at once obeyed, 



and with an expression of human intelligence and sympathy, that would 
have gone far to convince the sternest opponent of Lord Monboddo, that, 

^ if men are not monkeys with their tails cut off, monkeys may be, perhaps, 

I degenerate caudalized specimens of humanity. 

We entered the saloon by way of the balcony, and took our seats 
upon a low sofa, the ends of which, curving upwards, supported a grace- 
ful canopy of feathers and artificial flowers. Small stands, bearing golden 
trays, were placed before us, and were served with confectionery, sweet- 
meats, and a variety of liqueurs and cordials. Of the liqueurs, one, in par- 
ticular, tickled my palate with an exquisite galvanic force, equal to the 
voltaic power of a dozen pewter pint-pots of porter. I was not, however, 
surprised at its thrilling flavor, when informed that it was made by digest- 

; ing the pollen of numerous aromatic herbs with the dew of violets, and a 
minute proportion of venom, expressed from the stings of the honey-bee. 
Upon a sign from the princess, a heavy curtain, concealing a deep al- 
cove, was drawn aside, displaying a musical instrument resembling a 
church-organ. It had a keyboard, and within contained, in place of 
strings, a series of drums, running from C in altissimo down to D, two 
and a half octaves in pitch below the G string of the violincello. A piece 
of mechanism, like the pedals of a pianoforte, enabled the composer to 
change the whole, or any number of the drums, from stringed to muffled, 
at pleasure. A performer now stepped from a side door, and placed him- 
self at the instrument. His first notes were electric, and fairly startled me 
from my seat in delight and surprise, at the astonishing fulness and rich- 
ness of tone. No stringed instrument every produced any thing like the 
effect. A few preliminary flourishes were followed by a grand piece, com- 
posed in honor of Kaloolah's return. The musical reader will, perhaps, 
regret that my ignorance of Ihe technicalities of the art prevents me from 
attempting to convey any very accurate idea of the qualities or merits of 
the composition. Suffice it to say, that it was spirited and expressive, and 

I that the execution, in some passages, was truly wonderful ; particularly in 
a number of brilliant runs, and in an occasional powerful and prolonged 
shake upon the big bass-drum, which was positively awful. It may, per- 
haps, be wondered how a performer can evolve, with his fingers merely, 
sufficient power. The explanation is easy: the keys do not communicate 
with the drums directly, but are used as a means simply of geering and 
ungeering, at the will of the player, a row of heavy drumsticks to a series 
of ratchet-wheels, which are kept in motion by a band running to a shaft, 
turned by a donkey in the court below ; so that it is the donkey that 
makes the music. Of course there is nothing very novel about this instru- 


ment, it being simply the application of well-known principles ; but I men- 
tion it because of its striking effects. 

At the conclusion of the piece the prince inquired whether I should 
not like to witness a performance upon the perfume-machine, which had 
often been the subject of conversation between us. I at once assented, 
and rising, we all repaired, by a short passage, to a low, narrow, but very 
long hall. It was destitute of furniture, except a couch in the centre, 
upon which we seated ourselves. At one end of the hall there were two 
large circular apertures, the open ends of pipes leading to a centrifugal 
blower, precisely like those in use in the Hudson River steamboats. 
Opening in at the centre of motion, around the axis of the revolving fan, 
the action of the blower was, of course, to suck the air out of the hall, 
through the pipe, in a steady current. The upper end wall of the hall 
was studded with the open mouths of very small tubes, the other ends of 
which communicated with reservoirs of perfume without the room. Below 
these projected from the wall a carved shelf, or rather box, supporting a 
row of keys, the extreme ends of which were attached by wires to valves 
in the tubes. Upon pressing the keys, corresponding valves were opened, 
and jets of scented air thus allowed to enter the hall. These odors, borne 
on the steady current, passed down the room, and out through the pipes 
leading to the blower. 

There were more than fifty distinct perfumes, that stood in the same 
relation to each other that tones and semi-tones do to the different parts 
of the scale in music. The harmonic combinations of these were infinite. 
There are also several fundamental and controlling odors, by which the 
whole scale can be modified at pleasure. The three principals of these 
are garlic, musk, and sulphuretted hydrogen. The garlic, which corre- 
sponds to the minor key in music, is exceedingly plaintive and affecting. 
Compositions in this key almost invariably excite the smeller to tears. 
Compositions in the musk key are very varied in their expression ; some- 
times grave and solemn, like church music; at other times gay, lively, and 
redolent of chalked floors and gaslights. Compositions in the sulphuretted- 
hydrogen key have invariably a spirit-stirring and martial expression. It 
is the proper key for odorate marches, battle-pieces, and storm-rondos. 

The Christian reader, with an uneducated sense of smell, may, per- 
haps, turn up his nose (in profound ignorance of his nose's capacities) at 
the instrument I am describing ; but if he should ever have an oppor- 
tunity of snuffing the melodious streams and harmonic accords evolved by 
a good performer, upon a properly constructed instrument, he will be 
compelled to admit that his nasal organ was given to him for a higher 


purpose than to take snuff, support spectacles, or express contempt. 
True, at first he may not appreciate the more recondite combinations 
and dehcate aperfumes, any more than a novice in music appreciates the 
scientific arrangement of notes in Italian or German opera, but he will at 
once be able to understand and admire the easy melodies — the natural 
succession of simple fragrances, and, in time, the cultivated sensibility of 
his nasal organ will enable him to comprehend the more elaborate har- 
monies — the most subtile and artificial odoriferous correspondences and 

The name of this instrument is the Ristum-Kitherum, which, if my' 
recollection of the Greek serves me, is very much like two words in that 
language signifying a nose and a harp. It was played upon the occasion 
of which I speak, by the same artist who had just performed upon the 
sheepskins, and, although hardly qualified to judge, I had no hesitation 
in setting him down as equally a master of both. 

For some time I sat, the complete verification, notwithstanding the 
presence of the princess, of an observation, I think by Hazlit, that odors, 
better than the subjects of the other senses, serve as links in the chain of 
association. A series of staccato passages amid bergamot, lemon, orange, 
cinnamon, and other famihar perfumes, quite entranced me, while a suc- 
cession of double shakes on the attar of rose made me fancy, for a moment, 
that the joyous breath of a bright spring morning was once more dashing 
the odors of that old sweet-brier bush into the open window of my chamber 
at . 

The night was well advanced when the performance concluded, and 
bidding Kaloolah good-night, I was conducted by the prince to my own 
apartments, where Hugh and Jack were waiting for me. In no mood for 
talking, I despatched them to bed, and withdrew to my own chamber, 
where, revolving in my mind the question whether odors, instead of being 
material emanations, may not be, like light or sound, mere vibrations 
; propagated in an elastic medium, I threw myself upon my couch, and was 
soon in a sound sleep, hardly dreaming even of Kaloolah. 

In the morning I arose early and strolled out into the garden. Nothing 
could be more magnificent than the fountains and arbors and grottos and 
broad gravel walks, but my mind was too busy with its own thoughts to 
heed them very closely. I plucked a cluster of roses and seated myself 
upon a marble slab beneath an umbrella tree, and beside a fountain com- 
posed of a dozen bronze monkeys, that were dashing water at each other in 
every variety of attitude and expression. As I knew nothing of the language 
of flowers, and could not, therefore, construct a bouquet according to rule 



I took out my writing materials, which, since my visit to the well-stocked 
markets of Sackatoo, I had always carried on my person, and composed 
a few verses, which, although in English, delighted Kaloolah very much. 
I give them here, because they really were expressive of my feelings for 
the princess, and because they indicate my notions of her style and char- 
acter. Elaborate versified sentiment requires a higher inspiration than 
mere good looks. Many a man's fancy is taken with nothing but a pretty 
face, or a fine figure ; but in all such cases the captive will, I take it, unless 
he is a professed poet, and running over with rhyme, do all his love-making 
in prose. 


Musing in deep and unmixed pleasure, 

O'er my heart's love — my prize — my treasure, 

I paced in slow, abstracted measure 

A garden round. 
I heeded not the flowerets springing. 
Nor yet the odors they were flinging. 
Nor yet the warblers that were singing, 

Nor sight, nor sound 
Of yEoIus, from the tree-tops crying. 
Or Zephyr, through the fresh blooms sighing, , 
Or lights or shadows ever flying 

Along the ground. 

'T was thus mechanically walking. 
Quite heedless whither I was stalking, 
That sudden a sound of voices talking 

Startled my ear — 
Arousing me from my fond dreaming. 
With tones like moonlight, fitful gleaming. 
O'er ruffled waters, ever seeming 

Distant, yet near. 
I turned me whence those tones were flowing, 
And, turning, turned where roses growing 
Their richest odors wild were throwing, 

And paused to hear ; 

I heard the roses softly telling 

Of hopes and fears, their bosoms swelling. 

Ah ! me, to find such feelings dwelling 

In things so fair. 
They told of the fickle south wind's sighing. 
Of dewdrops false their bosoms flying, 

Of drooping, fading, withering, dying 

Of chill despair. 
And as with many a modest token 
Their tales of hapless love were spoken. 
It made me feel almost heart-broken, 

I do declare. 

So piteous was their sighing, blushing, 
I could not hold myself from rushing 
And nearly in my hurry crushing 

Their tender weakness. 
To catch the perfumes they were weeping. 
To save the freshness their hearts' steeping. 
To rescue them from the rough keeping 

Of morn's chill bleakness. 
Come, come, cried I, ye beauteous creatures. 
Ye heavenly ministers, ye angel preachers. 
Ye man's most soft, persuasive teachers 

Of love and meekness — 

Come, come with me, your sad eyes drying, 
I '11 take you where, in her smiles lying. 
No more shall ye have cause for sighing, 

Or love-lorn tears. 
Beneath her soft and kindly smiling 
Ye '11 bloom a time, pale memories wiling 
With fondest hopes, and life beguiling 

Of doubts and fears — 
And death ! Ah ! what more pleasant feeling 
To die ! when Death, his form revealing 
'Mid floods of light from Her eyes stealing. 

All bright appears. 


Royal Festivities — Latitude of Kiloani — A Transit Circle — Situation of the City — Houses — 
Flower-Garden Roofs — Streets — Municipal Hygiene Sewers — New Mode of Cooling 
Houses — Markets — Bath-Houses — Public Squares — Rate of Mortality— Temples^Re- 
ligious Notions — The Government — Social Distinctions — The Origin of the Framazugs. 

'EVER was the oft-quoted adage about the course of true love 
more fully falsified than in the case of Kaloolah and myself. 
Not a breath of opposition ruffled the deep, calm current of 
affection ; not a cloud lowered in the horizon of love. The 
old king readily gave his consent to our union ; the court approved, and 
the people were well pleased. 

Three or four months glided by in a round of festivities and rejoicings. 
We visited the royal chateau. We made excursions into the country. 
We climbed the slopes of Toosh Gualabemba. We boated on the broad 
bosom of the Wollo. In this way I enjoyed not only opportunities of 
gratifying , curiosity, but also of collecting materials for my proposed 
work upon the political and natural history of the country. 

Several weeks of this time were given to sight-seeing alone, in the 
\great city, to which it will be, perhaps, thought pardonable if I devote a 
page or two of my present manuscript. 

Kiloam, according to the most accurate observations that I have been en- 
abled to make, is situated in 32' north latitude, and somewhere between 25" 
and 30° east longitude. My longitude is, of course, not much better than 
guess-work, as it is arrived at only by a comparison of my rate of travel, 
and the bearings of my course from Sackatoo. My latitude, however, is 
nearly exact, and was obtained by a series of meridian altitudes of the 
sun. The instrument employed is one that, notwithstanding its rudeness, 
I have great confidence in. It consists of a large circle, six feet in diam- 
eter, made of a very hard, dense, highly polished wood. A steel axis, like 
the arms of a transit telescope, supports the instrument upon two pillars 
of stone. Through this axis, and at right angles to it, passes a tube of 
brass eight feet in length and one inch in diameter. This tube crosses the 
face of the circle, in the line of a diameter, and, as near as possible,, like 


344 KALOOlAH. 

the telescope of a mural circle. On either side a curved bracket project- 
ing from the tube grasps the periphery of the wheel, and by turning a 
screw the tube and circle can be clamped or loosened at pleasure; another 
screw clamps the circle to one of the stone pillars. 

To get this instrument into the meridian was a job that puzzled me a 
good deal. I had no practical knowledge of astronomy; no nautical 
almanac or catalogue of the stars ; and, although happening to recollect the 
declination of two fixed stars, I had nothing like an accurate idea of the 
right ascensions of a single one, and I was too far south to avail myself of 
the upper and lower transits of the circumpolar stars. My only resource 
was in repeated observations upon the shadows of perpendiculars. 

It may be asked how I got along without a table of declination. For- 
tunately I recollected, from frequently referring to the tables in Bowditch, 
and the nautical almanac, the sun's declination for most days in the year, 
and there were two points — the solstices — about which there could be no 
mistake. Besides which, as I have said, there were two fixed stars whose 
declination I had in mind, namely, Arcturus and Alpha Lyra. Upon 
them I have made many observations ; sometimes for altitude, and some- 
times, after adjusting my tube perpendicularly by a plumb line passing 
through it, for zenith distances. 

I have been somewhat particular in the description of this instrument, 
in order that the reader may judge for himself as to the correctness of the 
data upon which I put down the latitude of the great city at 32' 31" 

Great city I call it, and well does it deserve that title. Few capitals 
in Europe compare with it, either in extent or the architectural elegance 
of its public and private edifices, the beauty of its parks, or the number of 
its population. Situated on a peninsula, formed by a bend of the Wol- 
losab, it is surrounded on three sides by water. The city proper, how- 
ever, does not come down to the water's edge, but is separated by a wall 
and a wide open piece of ground, across which runs several roads enclosed 
by high walls, and terminating at little ports, or at the entrances of long 
stone bridges stretching to the opposite shore. In the centre rises the 
acropolis I have mentioned, on three sides perpendicular, and on the 
fourth communicating by a narrow ridge of rock with the country beyond 
the isthmus joining the peninsula to the mainland. The top of this 
acropolis is about a quarter of a mile in breadth by three quarters of a 
mile in length, and nearly one half of it is occupied by the royal buildings 
and courts. From the base of this hill the houses stretch far away in 
every direction until they reach the lofty battlemented walls, within 



which, according to the official registers of the census, is contained a 
population of six hundred and twenty-three thousand souls. 

The houses are mostly built of a cream-colored freestone, although 
there are some of marble and granite, and even some of brick. They are 
invariably large quadrangular edifices, with massive walls, two stories 
high, and all of them have an open court in the centre, with a fountain. 
The roofs are flat, and formed of timbers of a species of cypress, which are 
almost proof against decay. They are placed close together, and covered 
with a plating of lead. Upon this is placed a layer of earth six or eight 
inches deep, which is laid out into walks and beds, and cultivated with 
flowers and fruits. High parapets of stone protect these aerial gardens on 
the outside, w-hile inside a light iron railing serves to keep the careless 
lounger or romping children from falling into the court below. Nothing 
can be more magnificent than the view of this boundless contiguity of 
flower gardens from the palace on the rock. 

Some of the public thoroughfares are very broad, but in general the 
streets are of a moderate width, paved, as I have mentioned, with large 
grooved stones, and kept scrupulously clean. Indeed, what would strike 
a visitor, from the Christian cities of Europe and America, and particularly 
if he should happen to be from New York, is the close attention paid to 
every thing relating to municipal hygiene. The general health of the city, 
the people of Kiloam consider to be the first great object of police regula- 
tions ; the protection of property and the facilitation of trade are of 
secondary importance. They look upon a great city, as something better 
than a mere collection of reckless money-getters, who, in the blind pursuit 
of wealth, are as willing to sacrifice their own and the general health, as 
they are to forego the pleasures of taste, the enjoyments of reason, the 
delights of the heart, and the hopes of heaven. They look upon the as- 
semblage of men in cities as an admirable modification of social life ; but 
admirable only as it affords an opportunity of attaining many of the higher 
objects of humanity. The elevation and polish of intellect- — the cultiva- 
tion of taste — the refinement of manners — the development of the social 
sympathies and philanthropic emotions of the heart, are the great objects 
among the Framazugs of city life. To these they add, as lying at the 
foundation of mental and moral as well as physical activity and power, 
the preservation of health. 

To secure this last great end, every means has been adopted. The 
streets are not only swept, but washed every day, a complete system of 
sewerage, serving to carry off the refuse water and materials. With re- 
gard to dust, the Framazugs are very particular. Never was the governor 


of Kiloam more astonished than when, in the course of conversation, one 
day, I told him tha:t three or four hundred people were annually killed in 
New York by dust alone. He would not believe it possible. " It is a fact," 
said I, " at least that number of fatal consumptions are owing to that one 
cause, but that is not the worst of it ; several hundred thousand dollars' 
worth of propert}' are also annually damaged or destroyed." He threw 
up his hands in astonishment and horror, and blessed his fate that he did 
not live in such a barbarous community. The sewers are large vaulted 
tunnels, in substantial masonry, into which leaden pipes lead from each 
house ; and they not only serve to drain the city, but for passages along 
which are laid the iron pipes that supply the city with water. There is 
room for workmen around these pipes ; so that in repairing or replacing 
them, it is not necessary to turn up the earth of the street, and if one 
happens to burst, as is sometimes the case, from the enormous pressure, 
the water runs off by the sewer, without overflowing the neighboring 
houses and saturating the soil for half a dozen blocks around. 

Besides the tubes conveying water into and from each house, there is 
an air tube which runs from the sewer to the mouth of a small centrifugal 
blower ; from around the centre of motion of this blower go two tubes, 
which, dividing into many small ones, penetrate every room and nook in 
the house. A small wheel, turned by a jet of water, communicates mo- 
tion by a band to the fan, which, in its revolutions, sucks into the blower 
all the foul air in the chambers, and forces it out through the main pipe 
into the sewer, leaving its place to be supplied by the pure air that draws 
down into the court from above. The whole apparatus occupies but a 
small space in the basement, and can be put in motion any moment by 
turning the faucet of a water-pipe. The openings to the sewer are air- 
tight, excepting at distant intervals, in the larger ones, where there are 
placed ventilating towers two hundred feet in height. These, with a 
liberal use of quick-lime in the tubes leading into the sewers, prevents the 
accumulation of foul air, so that when the stones stopping the ordinary 
street openings are removed, the eye and not the nose takes cognizance 
of the fact. The mode, too, of cooling apartments in hot weather, which is 
in general use, and which might unquestionably be advantageously adopted 
in all warm climates, contributes much to the purity of the air. By means 
of a condensing apparatus, air is forced into copper -reservoirs, capable of 
resisting a great pressure : in this way it is compelled to give up a large 
portion of its caloric. When this condensed air is suddenly turned into a 
room, it enters with a wonderful capacity for caloric that enables it in- 
stantly to reduce the temperature of all the air in the apartment. Besides 



its caloric, the air is compelled to part with some portion of its moisture 
which condenses at the bottom of the reservoir. With the moisture are 
precipitated all impurities, and the compressed air issues cold, dry, and 

The streets are furnished with sidewalks, and shaded by rows of trees, 
the foliage of which is clipped in the French style. No manufactories of 
any kind are allowed except in certain streets, and those which are offen- 
sive to the senses er dangerous to health are wholly excluded from within 
the walls. The slaughter-houses, for instance, are confined to the other 
banks of the river; and thus, beside the unhealthy effluvium and the dis- 
gusting associations, the danger of driving herds of cattle through the 
streets is wholly obviated. 

He is sentenced to a douche bath, and to be publicly scrubbed front head to foot." 

The same care is exhibited in the construction and management of 
the markets. These are immense squares with roofs, supported upon col- 
umns of marble, and with smooth stone pavements, laid in asphaltum. 
The fish, meat, and even fruit-stands are all of marble or granite, and not 
a particle of wood is to be seen, except in the cedar of the roof. Every 
article is closely examined by competent officers before it is admitted ; 
and unripe or decayed fruit and vegetables and unhealthy meats are 
rigidly excluded. Numerous fountains play in the broad lanes and pas- 
sages, and several little rivers, running in marble beds, intersect each 
other, mingling the sounds of moving water with the busy hum of trade. 

More than fifty free baths, for the poorer classes, attest the opinions 


of the magistrates of Kiloam, that personal cleanliness is essential to 
health. At these baths an artisan or laborer, after his day's work, can 
obtain a cold bath without charge, or a warm bath by paying a small 
copper coin — the estimated expense of heating the water. Besides these 
municipal baths, there are great numbers of public and private baths that 
invite to ablution, the practice of which is also rendered obligatory upon 
every citizen by law. If any one is accused of neglecting to bathe for 
one lunar month, he is brought up before the proper court, and, upon 
conviction, he is sentenced to a douche bath, and to be publicly scrubbed 
from head to foot by men appointed for that purpose. The penalty is, 
in reality, much more severe than might at first be supposed, inasmuch 
as the sufferer, however hard he may have been scrubbed, invariably 
comes out from his forced ablution with the reputation of a dirty fellow 
for life. 

The law may seem arbitrary, but it is founded upon the justifiable as- 
sumption, that personal cleanliness is a duty that every citizen owes to 
the community, as well as to himself — that no man has a right to clothe 
himself in filth — to encrust his carcass in its own vitiated and putrefying 
secretions — to turn his body into a generator of the miasms of typhus 
fever, plague, scrofula, and a host of cutaneous diseases — to perambulate 
the streets, a spreader of pestilence, an offence to the eyes and noses of 
all good citizens. 

Acting upon the same principle, the municipal authorities will not 
allow the over-crowding of houses by poor tenants ; and when there is 
more than one family in a house, the owner is made responsible for the 
cleanliness of the premises. In cases where there is a suspicion of dirt or 
bad ventilation, the police make sudden and unexpected domiciliary 
visits, and immediately order the necessary alterations, repairs, and ablu- 
tions, charging the owner with the expense. 

More than a hundred public squares and parks, of which at least half 
a dozen are of vast extent, each of several hundred acres, contribute an 
important part to the ventilation of the city. And, still more, they afford 
those opportunities and incentives to exercise, so essential to the health 
of metropolitan society. At the same time, they serve, with the statues, 
columns, fountains, and trees that adorn them, to cultivate the taste, to 
develop and elevate the sense of the beautiful, to soften rudeness, polish 
coarseness, reform vulgarity, and to administer to the proper and patriotic 
pride that a citizen ought to take in his country and his city. 

The success that attends this attention to municipal hygiene amply 
repays the labor and care. Formerly, before it was deemed a matter of 


so much importance, the city of Kiloam was hardly more healthy than 
many Christian cities — the deaths being annually one in forty-five, or 
about the same proportion as in London, the healthiest city in Europe. 
Now the proportion has been reduced to one in seventy-six, and each 
year shows a gradual improvement. There can be no doubt that similar 
means would produce like results in the cities of America, and it is in the 
hope of stirring up some of the New York readers to the importance of 
the subject, that I dwell upon it to the exclusion of more interesting 

In the number and splendor of its public edifices Kiloam probably 
surpasses any city in the world. Full fifty ventilating columns of the 
great sewers, and as many more lofty towers supporting fires lighting the 
city, and the monuments of distinguished Pholdefoos, are a peculiar and 
striking feature. Besides these, there are the royal buildings upon the 
acropolis ; the numerous public edifices for the accommodation of the 
officers of the city ; the fifty large baths; the markets, and innumerable 

These temples are large mounds of earth, terraced on the outside, and 
planted with flowers. The interior is excavated into intricate winding 
passages, leading to a central hall, in which is a slight tottering bridge 
spanning a deep pit. A solitary lamp throws its feeble light but a short 
distance into the black obscurity of the hall, faintly illuminating a few 
jutting points on the sides of the pit below, or of the lofty dark domes 
above. It is in vain that the eye is strained to discern either .the top or 
the bottom of the vast vacuity in which the trembling bridge is hung. At 
one moment a misty, lurid light, hke the vapory recollection of a dream, 
rolls far below, and the next instant all is blackness. At one moment a 
flickering beam glances athwart the gloom above, and the next, sight is 
lost in the thick darkness, and the devout gazer is conscious only of the 
narrow bridge upon which he stands, the single dim lamp, and the silent 
priest — his guide. 

But few worshippers visit the central hall. Most are content to stop 
in a large vaulted room near the portal, where they listen to discourses 
upon morality, and occasionally to an exposition of religious doctrine. 
They are taught that there is but one God, the creator of all things ; that 
in making man he implanted in him certain religious instincts, which he 
intended should be developed in a variety of ways, and that thus every 
religious system, including the idolatry of the Kyptiles, the Moham- 
medanism of the Footas, or the antiquated faiths of their ancestors, is 
from God. They are taught to believe in a future state, or rather states. 


there being an infinite ascending series of conditions, or modes of life, in 
each of which our happiness or misery depends upon our conduct in the 
one just preceding. That, in the state next beyond death, the mind, 
freed from the trammels of a material body, will recall every thought, 
feeling, and emotion by which it was ever agitated ; and that the slightest 
of our actions, the least hidden of our motives, the most trivial of our 
passing sentiments, will stand forth clear as day, in all their moral beauty 
or deformity, and that there will be no diverting the mind from the sight. 

At the end of one hundred thousand years the soul will be refurnished 
with a body, and again make its appearance upon the earth, where it will 
remain in the enjoyment of the highest happiness until the final destruc- 
tion and annihilation of all mundane things, both spiritual and material. 
The new body will be endowed with senses infinitely more acute, so as to 
bring the purified soul into relation with the mysterious worlds of life, 
and sound and motion, by which we are even now immediately sur- 
rounded, but from which we are cut off by the narrow limits bounding 
our hearing, reason, and feeling. As to the final destruction of the 
world, the Framazug divines do not, like some Christian theologians, 
attempt to settle the exact day and hour in which it is to take place — 
although they have quite definite ideas upon the subject. They believe 
that as human life has a fixed average duration, so has the life of races, of 
nations, and of worlds, and as the average life of the individual is meas- 
ured by years, that of the nation is by generations ; or, what amounts to 
the same thing, by social and political revolutions ; and that of the world 
by the astronomical cycles that are marked out by a complete retroces- 
sion of the equinoxes — making periods of twenty-five thousand years 
each. They believe that, as the duration of a generation is about forty 
years, the average existence of large and healthy nations is about forty 
generations ; that the duration of the race of man, as at present situated, 
is intended to be about forty times the lifetime of a nation, and that man 
is now in the twentieth term. As to the world itself, its course, it is esti- 
mated, will endure for one hundred complete retrocessions of the equinox, 
forty-six of which cycles have already been finished. As this puts off the 
final destruction of the world for more than a million of years, it is, per- 
haps, unnecessary to inquire minutely into the accuracy of the calculation. 

The enlightened Christian may, perhaps, say that in some particulars 
these views are unscriptural ; and that they are wholly insufficient to sal- 
vation, but he can hardly deny that if the doctrines of the Framazugs 
wont ensure them salvation in the next world, they offer strong incen- 
tives to virtue in this. 


The government of the city of Kiloam is administered by a dagash 
appointed by the king, and ten assistants selected by himself, from among 
the literary men of the city. Only those who have written a book, or 
perpetrated something in the literary way, are considered eligible to the 
office, for two reasons. The first is, that an opportunity is thus afforded 
the people of judging of the general capacity, the mental and moral tone 
of their rulers ; and the second is, that contrary to the opinion that ob- 
tains in some countries, literary men, particularly the poets, are consid- 
ered to be the best qualified for almost any kind of public business. 

The general government of the country is equally opposed to the re- 
ceived notions and definitions of Christian nations. It maj' be said to be 
an hereditary, elective, democratic, despotic monarchy. The king inher- 
its the throne, but at the end of every five years the votes of the people 
are taken upon the question whether he has properly performed the du- 
ties of his office. If two thirds vote in the negative, he is compelled to 
resign, and his heir takes his place. In every thing, except in relation to 
this one constitutional provision, the king has unlimited power, with the 
understanding, however, that it is derived solely from the consent of the. 
people, and that the great object of its exercise is the comfort and happi- 
ness of the great masses of his subjects. There is no hereditary aristoc- 
racy — the honors and dignities granted by the king being only for life. 

Such dignities, however, are merely political, and confer no social dis- 
tinction. The principle upon which all rank in society is founded, is the 
comparative degrees of refinement of manner and mind. All questions in 
relation to rank are settled by a capital institution, which may be called 
the Board of Commissioners of Position, and also by the suffrages of so- 
ciety as in Christian countries, only here the votes are actually taken by 
ballot. For instance, when a lady wishes to assume a certain position, 
the question is submitted to her friends, it being understood that if they 
will vote for her, her enemies will make no objection. If the vote is fa- 
vorable, the commissioners examine the candidate as to her social experi- 
ence and qualifications, and issue a patent of position, accompanied with 
a medal, made of the tanned hide of the hippopotamus, colored to corre- 
spond to the rank assigned. In case her social ambition prompts to a 
higher flight, she wears for some time a parti-colored medal, and again 
undergoes the ordeal. The advantages of this custom are apparent. The 
position of every one is, for the time, fixed, and there is consequently 
none of that jealous fear, lest it should be compromised, which obtains in 
some countries. -It allows much greater liberty of social intercourse, inas- 
much as a red medal can be seen talking to a green medal, or even smell- 


ing at the same bouquet, without any apprehension of losing caste. It 
strikes me that this custom might be advantageously transferred to Amer- 
ica, where in the absence of an hereditary aristocracy, birth and family go 
for but little — and where money, the great rank-giver, is so frequently 
unaccompanied by the social essentials, refinement and agreeability. The 
adoption of the medal would certainly give great relief to the muscles of 
many, who, although well up in the world, feel that their social pyramid 
is resting on its little end, and that it is necessary to stand bolt upright to 
preserve their equilibrium. There is one obstacle, however, in the way of 
introducing the use of the medal, and that is the difficulty, or, perhaps, 
impossibility of procuring, in sufficient quantities, the skins of the hippo- 
potami. But American enterprise is proverbial, and it would be well 
worth while to make the attempt. 

There are some things in the political system of the Framazugs as well 
as in their manners and customs, and their knowledge of the arts, that 
would lead to the idea of their being of Chinese descent. Moreover, 
tradition ascribes their origin to a country due-east, and across a great 
water. But there are so many points of difference that, upon fuller in- 
vestigation, the notion has to be given up. They have nothing of the 
Chinese physiognomy, nothing of the angular eyes and high cheek-bones 
of the Tartar races. Their style of dress, the general use of feather 
cloth, their knowledge of some arts that the Chinese have not, and their 
ignorance of others which the Chinese have, and their peculiar style of 
architecture, looking like a light and elegant modification, or rather devel- 
opment, of the Egyptian, prove them to be of a different race. 

Some circumstances would lead one to infer that they were a colony 
of Hindoos, who had migrated before the division of people into castes ; 
but their light complexions and vigorous frames, to say nothing of other 
points, belie the idea. 

Their aquiline features and fine Egyptian heads would indicate an origin 
from the banks of the Nile, did not tradition point so strongly to the east. 

The same circumstance militates still more strongly against the idea 
that they are a colony of Carthaginians ; and the conclusion that I have 
come to is, that they are from Yeman, or the coast of Hadramaut. The 
chief ground for the opinion is in certain granimatical affinities between 
the Framazug and the Arabic languages ; but I am reminded, by having 
reached the customary longitude of a chapter, that such speculations are 
forbidden at present, even had I the philological and ethnographical 
erudition and acumen necessary to make such speculations interesting or 
useful, and that I must confine myself, in the coming chapters, to the 
more pertinent details of personal adventure. 


A Marriage— Public Curiosity— The Hall of Doubt— A Chorus— An Idle Ceremony— Queer 
Notions of Marriage— The Princess' Toilet— A Curious Veil— A Marriage Procession- 
Sculptured Nondescripts — The Mound Temple— The Marriage Ceremony — Buried Alive. 

J IX months passed, when one day all Kiloam was in a fever 
of excitement. There was to be a marriage — a marriage 
in high life — a royal marriage. One of the sovereigns of 
the great Yankee nation was about to espouse a princess 
of Framazugda. If marriage in the upper circles of American society 
can create so much of a sensation, as they frequently do — if the question 
of three or four hundred dollars, more or less, in the cost of the 
bride's lace veil and dress can agitate a cultivated community for a 
week — if bridal presents, consisting of a few pieces of plate, a soli- 
tary cashmere at five hundred dollars, or a set of glazier's diamonds at a 
thousand or two, can be considered fit subjects for ostentatious display, 
and of the most profound admiration of the wealthy community gener- 
ally, — it cannot be considered strange that the elegant and refined but 
still barbarous quidnuncs of Kiloam found themselves in a perfect 
flutter of delighted curiosity over the magnificent " doings " and superb 
"fixings " of Kaloolah's wedding. 

For three days, according to custom, the princess had taken her seat 
in the Hall of Doubt — a dismal-looking chamber, hung with gray. Her 
sisters — not the children of the great Shouns^, but a band of maidens, 
who, having been born on the same day, had been selected, when infants, 
as her companions — were around her. In mournful garb, and with sad- 
dened faces, ever and anon they sang, with plaintive voices, a melancholy 
chorus, portions of which ran thus : 

Stay, sister, stay ! 

Why shouldst thou go away ? 
Why withdraw thy maiden hand 
From the warm claspings of thy sister 
band ? 

Stay, sister, stay ! 

Think, maiden, think ! 

While thy foot is on the brink ; 
Think, ere thou tak'st the final leap, 
Little thou know'st whither the swift waters 

Think, maiden, think ! 



Take heed, ah ! take heed ! Doubt, sister, doubt ! 

Thy step is in the flowery mead ; Oft the fire of love goeth out ; 

Why ? oh ! why should the happy maid Flames it now ? erewhile thou 'It find 

Seek the unknown paths amid the forest's shade ? Nothing but cinders 'and ashes are left behind. 

Take heed, ah ! take heed ! Doubt, sister, doubt ! 

But despite all that could be said or sung, Kaloolah persisted in her 
determination of becoming my wife. " It is an idle ceremony," said the 

" Not so," said her father, " the custom comes from the olden time, 
and it has ever been considered a good ceremonial enforcement of 
caution and dubitation." 

" True," replied Kaloolah, " the intention of the custom is well enough, 
but it fails in its effect from the peculiar qualities of the female heart. A 
woman who is thoroughly in love never doubts about the propriety of 
marrying the object of her affections ; if she is not in love she needs no 
solicitations to do so." 

" Ah ! " said I, " that sentiment would hardly go down in my country, 
particularly the latter part of it ; with us it is no uncommon thing- for a 
woman to rush as unhesitatingly into a marriage, in which her heart is 
not interested, as if she were desperately in love." 

" A strange idea your people must have of marriage," replied the 

" Not so, your majesty," said I ; " their ideas are very simple, and very 
natural. They look upon marriage as an alliance offensive and defensive 
between two naturally antagonistic powers — a contract between two co- 
equal sovereignties — a limited partnership for the common carr}dng on 
of some of the duties of life, in which special provisions are necessary to 
guard the respective independent rights of the parties — a convenient 
mode of assuring the paternity of children — a respectable mode of ob- 
taining a livelihood." 

" And is that all," interrupted the king. 

" All ! " said I, " what more would your majesty have? " 

" Ah ! " replied the king, " our notions are very different. We be- 
lieve that marriage is not a common contract, and that there can be no 
real marriage unless the parties are firmly drawn together by the cords of 
love. We believe that there are two great changes for the soul, inarriage 
and death, and that the first is by far the more important. At marriage, 
two single souls become one soul. This one soul is no longer like a 
single soul, but its component elements, united by the power of love, be- 
come a very different kind of spiritual entit}? ; and this union is so inti- 


mate as to admit between its parts only the relations of duty and privi- 
lege, not of right. No marriage is valid — no marriage is a marriage, with- 
out this fusion of the duality into unity." 

It was evident that the great Shouns^ was growing a little transcen- 
dental : luckily he stopped short, and I turned to the princess. 

" And you, Kaloolah, in view of such an idea of marriage, have you 
no doubts ? " 

" Not of the heart," said her father, putting his hand familiarly on my 
shoulder, " but of the head ; or, rather, I have for her." 

" And in what respect does your majesty doubt ? " I demanded. 

" Your age," replied the king. " You are either too young or too old ; 
j younger, you would more easily forget your country and early associa- 
tions, and more readily absorb the life and spirit of Framazugda ; older, 
you would have proved many things in your own country, against which 
your imagination will now chafe itself into restlessness and discontent. I 
foresee that you will long to revisit your native land ! " 

" But not more than I shall," replied the princess. " When Jon'than 
wishes to return to his country I shall wish to go too — I long, even now, 
to visit his great city of New York." 

" You forget the savages and wild beasts you would have to encounter 
in going," said one of her attendants. 

" And the bad smells," whispered another. 

" Yes, and the bad smells after you had arrived there," thought I to 
myself, but, it being no very pleasant subject, I said nothing, and the 
\ conversation was turned to the preparations for the wedding, which was 
to take place the coming day. 

The reader need not be afraid that I am going into a minute detail of 
all the circumstances and ceremonies, but I must dwell on Kaloolah's ap- 
pearance for a moment. Her full rounded figure was habited in a tight- 
fitting spencer of the richest feather-cloth, to which there was attached a 
' flowing skirt of the finest lace, worked in gold and silver filigree. Her 
bare arms were wreathed from shoulder to hand with spiral, serpent-like 
■ bracelets of rubies, emeralds, and opals— a gorget of amethysts encircled 
her throat. Her rich dark hair hung naturally in thick clusters down her 
l^neck. On her head she wore a golden crest, like a cock's-comb, or very 
much like the crest of the old Roman helmet. It ran along the centre of 
the head from the front backward, was in height about two inches, and 
was thickly encrusted with diamonds — the end over the forehead termi- 
nating in a slender crescent of gems, encircling a sun, the centre of which 
was a large brilliant yellow diamond. From the top of this crest arose a 


golden staff, or standard, three inches high, surmounted by a plume of 
froulbell. Around this staff was twisted the middle of a long veil of 
spider's web that fell down on either side to her feet. Nothing in the 
fabrics of Valenciennes or Brussels ever approached, in delicate legerity 
and exquisite workmanship, to this veil, which was made, not as has been 
frequently done in Christian countries by twisting the fibres of spider's 
web into thread, and then weaving them into tissue, but by making the 
spiders actually spin out the veil complete. The spider employed for 
this purpose is of a peculiar species — being very docile and easily governed 
by its master by means of a small twig of bamboo, so as to be made to 
work out any figure designed. The only difficulty is, that in working 
large articles, the spider is apt to spin himself out before his work is 
finished, and it is impossible to get another spider to carry out the same 
design. This enhances the cost enormously — I am sorry that I cannot 
give the exact expense of Kaloolah's veil in dollars and cents, but a rough 
estimate will, perhaps, do something towards satisfying the enlightened 
curiosity generally felt on such subjects. Taking the average price of 
wheat in New York at ninety cents a bushel, and estimating the bushel 
in Kiloam to be worth as much as the bushel in New York, the veil 
must have cost, say at fifteen thousand bushels, thirteen thousand five 
hundred dollars ! My estimate may be wrong as to the price of wheat, 
but if so, some of my female readers, whose fathers are in the iiour trade, 
can easily correct the mistake. 

The morning dawned brightly, as all the mornings in Framazugda do, 
not even excepting those of the two short rainy seasons. After an 
elaborate toilet, of which shawls, feather-cloth, and fine linen were the 
principal materials, but which I shall not stop to describe, I descended 
with my suite to the vestibule of the great central pavilion, where, in a 
short time, I was joined by the princess. After some little delay, Kaloolah 
and myself took our seats beneath a canopy of flowers, supported upon 
an immense gilt machine, like an ancient triumphal chariot. To this car 
were harnessed eight pairs of buffaloes by strips of burnished snake-skin. 
These buffaloes were of a spotless white ; their horns were wreathed with 
flowers, and each one bore on his back two trumpeters, who blew their 
instruments with almost as much vigor and perseverance as they could 
have done had they been educated in the American school of trumpeting. 
Behind us came a train of buffaloes, bearing howdahs containing Kaloo- 
lah's companions ; and on either side of our car paced a stately escort of 
young nobles, mounted upon giraffes. Farther in the rear came another 
magnificent chariot, bearing the great Shounse. 

A tremendous salvo of gongs, and a flourish of trumpets, drums, and 


cymbals, mingled with the shouts of the vast multitude, announced our 
arrival at the great Mound Temple. Parallel rows of colossal stone figures 
formed a long avenue leading to the portico. Each figure represented the 
body of an elephant, with a human head and face having a remarkably 
sagacious expression. The trunk of the elephant represented the head 
and superior portion of a large serpent ; the hind legs were formed by two 
crouching figures of men in chains, and the forelegs were precisely like 
those of the domestic cat. A long tail like a monkey, but terminating in 
a hard horny sting like a scorpion, completed the form of these stone 
nondescripts. I have seen nothing in all Framazugda more curious, and 
nothing that I should like better to send to America than one of these 
figures. If mounted upon a proper pedestal in front of the City Hall, or 
in Wall Street, before the Exchange, New York could boast a sculptured 
curiosity that would throw entirely into the shade the horses of St. Mark, 
the obelisk of the Place de la Concord, or the marbles of the British 
Museum — one that would have more beauty, more meaning, and more 
antiquity than the Memnon, the Sphynx, the bas-reliefs of Persepolis, or 
the grotesque carvings of Elephanta. 

Through this avenue we were conducted on foot byacompany of yellow- 
robed priests into the great central hall — avast gloomy apartment lighted 
by colorless flames, like those from burning alcohol. The contrast between 
the light, noisy joyousness that we had just left, and the dismal stillness 
of the temple was almost appalling. No one, with the exception of the 
king and his privy council, Kaloolah's sisters, and my immediate attend- 
ants, had entered with us ; and upon them and the long trains of priests 
fell the dubious light with a most ghostly effect. 

Led by two aged priests, whose tottering forms trembled beneath the 
weight of a hundred years, we advanced to the great altar. A deep pit, 
into which there was a descent by a few stone steps, yawned at our feet. 
A heavy marble slab rested by its side. Slowly, a long train of priests, 
looking more like spectres than living beings, wound round and round us 
and the altar, from which some burning material threw up its flickering 
and lugubrious light, and solemnly rolled the deep strains of a monotonous 
chant among the heavy stone columns and along the lofty arches. 

It was intimated that the princess and I were to descend into the 
tomb before us. Instinctively, and without thinking, so completely was 
my reason and imagination mastered by the dismal mummery going on 
around, I led Kaloolah down the steps. We seated ourselves upon a 
projecting ledge of rock, and in an instant the heavy marble slab was 
lowered upon the mouth of the pit, and we were shut in from the least 
ray of light. There were sounds as if of earth or mortar being filled in 


upon the marble covering — fainter and fainter came the choral wailing, 
and then all was still. We were buried alive. 

Buried alive ! And might it not be ? might it not be that we were 
the victims of some political or social jealousy, or of some priestly super- 
stition ? Might it not be that, despite the kindness with which I had 
been entertained, and the love which her family unquestionably bore to 
Kaloolah, that we were to be sacrificed to some supposed necessity ; to 
avert some omen, perhaps, or to fulfil some prediction ? I started at the 
thought — a thousand little circumstances flashed conviction to my mind 
— there could be no doubt of it. The perspiration stood upon my fore- 
head — my blood froze in my veins — a thrill of horror ran through my 
frame. I dashed Kaloolah' from my side and rushed up the steps. 
Madly, in tones of mingled rage and fear, I shrieked, " Of? ! off with the 
stone ! Let me out ! Priests ! villains ! dogs ! I 'II throttle the whole of 
ye ! Let me out ! " Madly I struggled to raise the stone. Ah ! confir- 
mation strong ! I could have thrown off a slab of twice its weight ; but, 
horror of horrors ! it was fastened down. Madly I exerted myself — 
madly I dashed my head against the immovable marble until, completely 
exhausted, 1 fell back to the floor. Kaloolah's arms were around me — 
she raised my head and pressed me to her bosom, and her soothing tones 
fell upon the ear — a revulsion of feeling took place — "At least," said I, 
throwing my arms around her, " we will die together." 

At this moment there came to our ears sounds, as if of blows struck 
by a heavy hammer, and, suddenly, the top and sides of the tomb flew 
apart in the most mysterious manner, leaving us exposed in the full glare 
of day, upon an elevated platform, outside the temple, to the eyes of the 
shouting multitudes crowding the vast court below. 

If attitude is graceful in proportion as it is unstudied, ours must have 
been the impersonation of Hogarth's spiral. The princess was seated on 
the floor supporting my head, which was still throbbing with its wild ex- 
citement, while I was stretched at length with my arms around her waist. 
For a moment I was somewhat stupefied by the glare, the crowd, and the 
noise — the next, a feeling of indignation at the barbarous ceremony and 
the ridiculous exposure to the eyes of the crowd, so strangely in contrast 
to the quiet privacy, the refined delicacy, the reserved dignity with which 
marriages are always conducted in Christian countries, nerved me for the 
finishing performance, which consisted simply of a procession to the gar- 
den of the Wollo, outside of the city, accompanied by the whole popula- 
tion of Kiloam ; and a grand feast, of which all partook, amid its shady 
avenues and around its gleaming fountains. 


The Honeymoon — News from the Borders — Ravages of the Jalla — Alkafuz — A Night's 
Reconnoissance — Riding a Boa — A Battle — Marching into the Jalla Country — A Novel 
Battering-Ram— Jebha— A Strong Position— Enphadde's Plans— Capitulation of Jebha— 
The Grand Shocco — The Source of the Nile — Origin of the Jalla — Queer People — Gourd 
Huts — A Country of Snakes — Return to Kiloam. 


)T was three or four days after our marriage, that the princess 
was seated upon a bank of turf in the great garden of the 
Wollo, engaged in the interesting employment of twisting my 
long hair and beard with the flowers that Gogo industriously 
The deep sounds of the great cataract were borne upon the 
scent-laden breeze, mingling, in luscious harmony, with the rustling of the 
leaves, the melodious strains of innumerable birds, the dreamy hum of 
bees, the tinkling plash of a tiny fountain, the chattering of Gogo, and the 
delicious notes of Kaloolah's laugh and voice. I looked up into the clear 
depths of the blue sky. I looked up into the still clearer depths of her 
large dark eyes, and a feeling of exquisite happiness came over me, 
marred, however, by the reflection that such foretastes of heaven are 
liable to many interruptions, and are, necessarily, of short duration in 
this mortal world. At the instant, as if in confirmation of the reflection, 
Enphadde made his appearance, with a command for my immediate 
attendance upon the king. 

We found his majesty, with his countenance troubled by news just 
brought from the eastern border of his domains, of an irruption of the 
fierce Jalla, who were desolating with fire and sword a fertile and popu- 
lous tract, not more than two hundred miles from Kiloam. We had 
hardly entered the council-room when another messenger was announced, 
with news from the northwest, of an expedition of Footas into the coun- 
try of the Kyptiles. The foreign relations of Framazugda were evidently 
getting into a bad way. 

In a short speech, I proposed a plan of operations which met with in- 
stant and unanimous approval. I explained that, as far as regards the 
Footas, we must meet them with their own weapons, and that some time 



would be required to make the necessary preparations, but that the Jalla 
required our immediate attention, and that we had ample means at hand 
to repress their ravages, and to compel them to observe, in future, a 
respectful distance from our borders. I therefore suggested that messen- 
gers should be despatched to the cave, near Garazha, to collect the salt- 
petre that I had observed incrusting the sides and floor of the entrance, 
and also to the slopes of the great volcano for sulphur, and that in the 
meantime Enphadde and myself should set out, and, making a rapid 
march to Alkafuz, put ourselves at the head of what few troops we could 
find at that frontier town, and proceed to chastise the Jalla. Upon our 
return I would commence the necessary preparations for carrying fire and 
sword into the heart of the Foota country. 

Early the next morning we left Kiloam, and took the road for Alka- 
fuz, which city we entered on the fourth day, with a body of eight hun- 
dred Framazugs and two hundred Kyptiles, whom we had picked up in 
our rapid march. 

We found Alkafuz a pleasant little town, of five or six thousand in- 
habitants, but containing for the time being, double that numberof people, 
who had been compelled to take refuge within the walls, from the attacks , 
of the Jalla. Situated at the edge of a lofty plateau, it looked off upon 
a beautiful rolling country towards the northeast, which, falling away to a 
much lower level until it reached a hilly district, made a kind of neutral 
ground between the Jalla and the Framazugs. 

According to the best information we could get from the frightened 
people of the country, there were two bodies of these savages, number- 
ing twelve or fifteen hundred men each, at no great distance from the 
city. The next day we got news of another small party of three or four 
hundred, and the day after, word was brought that one of the large par- 
ties, laden with spoil, had commenced a retreat, while the other was still 
advancing up the country, and was at the moment attacking a small town 
to the south of Alkafuz, which, however, being well defended by high 
walls, would probably be able to withstand a long siege. 

Leaving the besieged town for the time to defend itself as it best 
might, I drew out my forces from Alkafuz, on the morning of the third 
day after our arrival, and commenced a pursuit of the retreating party. 
Our army, amounting to about twelve hundred horse and a thousand 
foot, well armed with spears and bows, was in capital spirits, and animated 
with the highest confidence in the invincibility of its Christian allies, and 
in the gallantry of its youthful prince. 

At the close of the first day word was brought, by the scouting parties 


I had sent out, that three or four hundred of the enemy were close at 
hand in a small valley not more than five or six miles from our camp. 
The valley was a hollow way about two miles long, and a quarter of a 
mile broad, between two low but precipitous ledges of rock, and just the 
spot to trap the whole party, if we moved with sufficient celerity. 

Giving orders to Enphadde to march the main body of our forces, 
after they should have had a few hours' rest, to the mouth of the pass, 
and to take up such a position by early dawn as to prevent the escape of 
the Jalla, I selected six hundred of our best-mounted men, and set out at 
once for the head of the ravine. 

It was midnight when we entered it, and moving slowly down the 
grassy slope, in about two hours we came in sight of the smouldering 
fires of the unsuspicious Jalla. Halting my weary troop I made the men 
dismount, and each one, with the bridle of his horse in his hand, stretched 
himself on the thick herbage. Leaving them, with the strictest orders to 
Hugh and the officers in command of the battalion not to allow a man to 
move a foot, I went forward with our guide to employ the short hour 
until daylight, when Enphadde would be in his position, in a closer ex- 
amination of the Jalla camp. 

It was a clear, starlight night, and as there were no obstructions, we 
made our way without difficulty to within twenty rods of their fires. I 
could see the tall forms of the savages flitting about among the crowds 
of crouching captives, and the long lines of horses, picketed by ropes to 
pegs driven into the ground. Occasionally the guards would stir up the 
embers, and throw on an armful of dry grass to warm their nearly naked 
skins in the cool air of the morning, or to give light by which to reduce 
to quiet a restive and pugnacious steed, or drive back to the captive flocks 
and herds some fugitive sheep or cow. 

Anxious to obtain a more accurate idea of the number of horses, I 
whispered to my companion to remain in his position, while I crept a little 
closer to a small knoll, whence could be obtained a better view of the 

I had gone but a few yards when I fancied that there was a slight rus- 
tling, as if of some wild animal in the grass before me. I paused, and 
listened intently. My gun had been left behind, in charge of Hugh, but 
I had in my belt my doubled-barrelled pistols, one of which I drew, and 
carefully cocking both locks, held it in my left hand, while in my right 
was a short but heavy and serviceable sword, that by daylight would have 
been a very dangerous weapon for any animal, not even excepting a lion, 
to run upon. 


After waiting awhile, and finding that all was still, I concluded that 
my ears had deceived me, and although a perceptible tinge of light in the 
eastern sky warned me that it was time to hurry back and lead on my 
troops to the attack, I thought that I would venture a few yards farther, 
and finish my reconnoissance from the knoll. 

I had advanced, perhaps, a dozen steps, when I encountered what 
seemed to be a large log lying across my path. Without pausing to 
think of the improbability of the object being a log, when there was not 
a tree larger than a man's arm within ten miles, I jumped upon it, and 
stretched myself up for a good look. It gave a little to my weight, like 
many an old half-rotten trunk that my feet have pressed in the forests of 
the St. Lawrence. It seemed so much decayed as hardly to be able to 
bear me — as if it were about to break asunder and let me down into its 
spongy interior. My foot slipped upon the yielding surface — I recovered 
my balance, and on the instant felt myself elevated two or three feet. 
The whole log was alive beneath me, and — good heavens ! I knew the 
boa ! 

My feet went out from under me — and I fell with my back across the 
writhing monster. For the fraction of a second there might have been 
some question as to which way my body was going, but a twist of the 
animal soon settled the point by letting me down upon my head and 
shoulders, and leaving my feet elevated on his back in the air. 

I fell partly on my right side ; my sword flew from my hand, but I 
still kept hold of the pistol. I glanced upwards — a huge, black object 
was hovering over and rapidly descending upon me. It was the monster's 
enormous head with jaws outstretched wide enough to engulph an ele- 
phant ! Instinctively I stretched out my left hand. The pistol barrels 
rattled against some hard bony substance, and at the instant my fingers 
contracting upon the triggers, both charges exploded simultaneously with 
a loud report, and with a recoil that wrenched the weapon from my 

There was a snort of agony and instantly a flouncing as if, to use a 
common Yankeeism, " heaven and earth had come together," amid which 
my feet were thrown into the air, and sent flying over my head, my neck 
twisted almost to dislocation, and my body projected through an inde- 
terminate series of ground tumblings to the foot of the knoll. 

Jumping to my feet, and recalling my scattered senses, the first 
inquiry was whether the creature was pursuing me, and the second as to 
the state of my bones. A tremendous floundering about a hundred yards 
off, on my right, that made the ground tremble like the shocks of an 


earthquake, relieved me of all fear of the first, and a slight examination 
showed that no material damage had been done to the second. 

The Jalla camp was all alive, and our hopes of taking the enemy by 
surprise at an end ; so, following the example of my companion, I com- 
menced a retreat in double-quick time. 

My men had heard the alarm, and were all ready to mount. They 
sprang into their saddles just as a score of Apollo's outriders leaped the 
barrier of the horizon into the eastern sky. 

" Charge ! " was now the word, and away we rattled, as fast as our 
jaded steeds could get through the tall grass, down upon the foe. About 
half the distance was passed, when a party of three or four hundred Jalla 
drew out from the main body, and advanced towards us. It was evident 
that they were not so easily frightened, and that they were determined to 
fight, if necessary, to cover the retreat of the guards in charge of the cap- 
tives and spoils. 

Seeing them so well prepared and resolute, and knowing that they 
could not escape, prudence dictated that we should follow without 
attacking them, until we should hear something from Enphadde. It was 
apparent that the numbers of the enemy had been greatly underrated. 
Their whole force considerably exceeded mine, and they were all fresh 
and vigorous, while my men and their beasts were somewhat exhausted 
from fatigue and want of sleep. 

The enemy, on their side, had apparently no stomachs for any un- 
necessary fighting ; and finding that we were not about to charge them, 
they drew back, and followed slowly their main body. Occasionally they 
would face about when we closed up a little too near to them, and ride 
towards us, and, upon our halting or moving more slowly, they would 
wheel and retreat. 

Backing and filling in this way, we followed them for nearly an hour, 
until the sun was up, and pouring the full light of day into the lovely 
little valley. Suddenly there was a tremendous commotion in their 
ranks, their van recoiled upon their plunder-laden centre, and all was con- 
fusion. At this moment there came the report of a musket, and the next 
instant another which I knew must be from the guns of Hassan and 
Jack, who were with Enphadde. Soon the fierce sounds of strife came 
rolling towards us, and finding that Enphadde was fully engaged, and that 
a panic was extending through the ranks of our enemy, I led forward my 
men to the charge. 

It is needless to go into a minute detail of the battle, which lasted 
about an hour. The Jalla fought bravely, although the occasional dis- 


charge of our fire-arms deprived them of their usual confidence. About 
two hundred and fifty were left dead upon the field, two hundred were 
made prisoners, and two or three hundred, deserting their horses, 
clambered up the sides of the hollow, and made their escape across the 
level, country. On our side we lost a hundred and "fifty men, some of 
whom were killed by being ridden over by the charging squadrons, or 
knocked down and trampled to death by the herds of frightened cattle, 
who, hemmed into the narrow battle-ground, were soon mingled with the 
combatants in inextricable confusion. In this way a score of the women 
and children, captives of the Jalla, were killed. 

As soon as the fight was at an end, our prisoners secured, and order 
in some degree restored, my surgical skill was put in requisition, and for 
two or three hours I was employed in dressing wounds. It struck me at 
the time that were princes, prime-ministers, generals, and demagogues 
compelled to dress all the wounds that they caused, there would be but 
little fighting in the world. 

I was just finishing with a flesh wound in the shoulder of the prince, 
which he had refused to have touched until all the men were cared for, 
when Hugh came running up with the news that the dead body of a huge 
serpent had been found among the rocks at a little distance. We went 
to see it, and found that it was the very fellow who, resenting my famil- 
iarity, had compelled me to my involuntary somersault. My pistol had 
been fired into his open mouth, and the balls, penetrating diagonally up- 
wards and backwards, had passed through the palatal bones, and lodged 
in the brain. He was truly a monster, measuring fully one hundred feet 
in length, five feet in circumference, and with a head as large as a wine- 
cask. Great as was the veneration for our fire-arms, they rose to a still 
higher point in public estimations when it was understood that such a 
monster owed his death to one of our smallest weapons. 

It was not until next morning that our army was in a condition to 
resume its march, and in the meantime word had been brought that the 
large detachment of the enemy which we had set out to pursue had got 
so far the start of us that it would be useless to follow them with an ex- 
pectation of coming up with them before they reached the friendly shel- 
ter of their hills. Our plan, therefore, was to turn back and intercept the 
party, who, ignorant that there were Framazugs near them in such force, 
were still busy in attacking and sacking villages, and plundering and 
desolating the country. This done, I was determined to attempt inspir- 
ing the Jalla with wholesome terror by a vigorous, offensive war, carried 
into .their strongholds in the hills. 


It made it very inconvenient to us that they would not keep together 
in one body and allow us to defeat them in a lump. Enphadde and 
Thompson, however, succeeded in intercepting a party of five or six hun- 
dred, when a desperate fight ensued, in which we lost two hundred men, 
and Thompson was so severely wounded that we had to send him. into 
Alkafuz. More than half of the enemy were killed or captured, and the 
rest were glad to leave their plunder and escape with their lives. 

It was now our turn to assume the offensive. A week's rest recruited 
our forces and enabled us to assemble an army of five thousand men, 
with a train of buffaloes for our baggage and provisions. Unfortunately, 
Thompson's wound, much to his chagrin, compelled us to leave him at 
Alkafuz ; but his gun was entrusted to the charge of an officer of distin- 
guished bravery, so that its moral influence was not lost to the army. 

A march of three days to the northeast took us obliquely across a fine 
rolling country, which descended by a series of gentle inclinations from 
the plateau of Alkafuz to a level plain at the foot of the Jalla hills. We 
encountered several rivers ; but as it was the dry season there was no 
difficulty in fording them, except in one place where the creek expanding 
into a marsh made the clay soil so soft that our animals in attempting the 
passage sunk up to their knees at every step. Here we should have been 
compelled to stop had it not been for an ingenious expedient of the 
Kyptiles Collecting a species of tough dry grass, they twisted it into 
ropes of about an inch diameter. With these they wrapped the feet of 
their horses and cattle until they were encased in bundles of hay as large 
as was consistent with motion. The whole was firmly secured with an 
outside lacing of stout thongs of untanned skin. Equipped in mud shoes 
our animals skimmed the surface without any difficulty. 

Shortly after crossing the marsh we encountered, in succession, sev- 
eral untenanted villages, the Jalla having had notice of our approach ; but 
we found great stores of wheat, barley, rice, honey, and oil in caves in the 

Burning the villages, which were composed of reed houses, plastered 
with mud and thatched with straw, and destroying such stores as we did 
not want, we moved on until we came to a large town at the foot of a 
mountain pass, which was defended by a stone wall and a ditch. The 
wall was very slight and the ditch narrow ; but there was a formidable 
force within the defences of nearly a thousand men. Upon our appear- 
ance the enemy mounted the walls, and evinced, by words and gestures, 
their determination to make a vigorous resistance. 

It would not answer to penetrate into the mountains, leaving such a 


post in our rear, and yet, how to take it? We had nothing but a few 
light scaling ladders, and there was not a piece of timber large enough for 
a battering-ram within ten miles. The thought occurred to me of collect- 
ing some small trees, and making a catapult ; but there were two strong 
objections : the first was, that it would take too much time ; and the sec- 
ond, that I knew nothing about the construction of the machine. The 
last objection may seem to some insuperable, but it would be dishonoring 
my Yankee blood to allow that it alone prevented a catapult from being 
m.ade. A thoroughbred Yankee, I take it, can make any thing, upon a 
pinch, that he has ever heard the name and use of, even if he has never 
seen it, and has no idea of its form and structure. 

The enemy, confident in the strength of their position, were loud in 
their insulting bravadoes, refusing to listen to any terms, shooting at the 
heralds we sent to parley with them, and even exhibiting the heads of 
Framazug captives, stuck on pikes, upon the wall. Oh, for one single 
field-piece, of even the smallest calibre 1 

Something must be done, and that quickly, if we wished to press mat- 
ters home to the Jalla in the hills. ■ At last a plan occurred to me, which 
we at once proceeded to carry into execution. 

The town was of an elliptical shape, and covered an area of about one 
hundred acres. Two gates, opposite to each other, were the only means 
of entrance or egress. These were evidently old, and very weak, and in 
front of them the ditch, instead of continuing on, stopped short, on either 
side, leaving a broad, level path leading up to them. Our forces were di- 
vided into four divisions; two of these were stationed opposite the walls, 
at an equal distance from either gate. Each of these divisions was fur- 
nished with three or four ladders, and every man was armed with a large 
fascine of bushes, which, upon a given signal, he was to rush forward and 
throw into the muddy ditch, or with a bundle of dry grass, which was to 
be set on fire, and thrust over the wall, on long spars, to disorder the 
enemy while the assailants were planting their ladders. 

Had we had a few more ladders there could have been no doubt of 
carrying the place by escalade. As it was, I expected merely that they 
would answer for a powerful diversion in favor of the other two divisions 
that were destined to attack the gates. One of these divisions was under 
the immediate command of Enphadde, the other I took charge of myself. 
Each division was drawn up under cover of their bucklers, as close to the 
walls as the bows and slings of the enemy would permit. 

Our battering machines, two in number, were now prepared and lev- 
elled for the charge. They consisted of three horses each. The animals 


being first blindfolded, were harnessed together abreast, and laden with a 
heavy weight of stones in panniers. On either side rode a horseman, who 
was stuffed and padded with skins, until he was arrow-proof. Halters at- 
tached to the heads of the three doomed horses enabled the outriders to 
direct their course so as to strike at full speed the feeble gates. 

When my preparations were all finished, I rode round to the other 
gate, and found Enphadde, with his three-horse battering-ram, ready for 
the charge. The enemy had suddenly become very quiet ; they were be- 
ginning to feel a little dubious as to our intended movements. Returning 
by a circuit of the walls to my post at the northern gate, I gave a sign to 
Hugh, who fired his musket. It was answered by Hassan, from the other 
gate, and at the report the drums beat, the trumpets sounded, and all 
hands rushed to the walls. 

The three blind horses, guided by the riders at their side, and goaded 
by bunches of thorns, attached to thongs that flapped against their 
flanks, rushed at full speed upon the gates. When within thirty or forty 
feet, the two guides checked their horses, leaving the others to pursue 
their way. The feeble barrier yielded to the shock as if it had been 
made of paper, and the animals moving with irresistible momentum, 
dashed through the splintered bars as easily as a reckless steed through 
the painted canvas walls of the Corso in a Roman horse-race, and were 
precipitated dead or dying into the town. 

Charging at a full run, we reached the gates before the astonished 
Jalla had time to take any measures for defending the breach. On his 
side Enphadde was equally successful, and the panic created, allowed 
the other assailants, on either side, to plant their ladders and climb over 
the walls. 

The town was now carried in all quarters, and our four divisions 
came pouring in, driving the enemy before them, and slaughtering them 
without mercy. I rode forward and met the prince in the market-place, 
and together we tried to draw off our troops, and give the enemy an 
opportunity to ask and receive quarter. With much difficulty we suc- 
ceeded in saving about two hundred warriors, and a great number of 
women and children, who had taken refuge in a small enclosure of reeds 
surrounding the Shocco, or chief. All the rest were killed with the ex- 
ception of about fifty, who in the confusion of the melee had jumped the 
walls, and eluding our outposts, made their way to the hills. 

There remained now no obstacle to our march into the mountains, 
and it was decided to set out at once, and move rapidly upon Jebha, the 
chief town of the Shelwhuck tribe of Jalla, and take it, if possible, before 


assistance could be collected from the more distant tribes. If we could 
not succeed in taking it, we could at least desolate the environs, and 
perhaps frighten the Grand Shocco into a treaty of peace. 

At the first view of this stronghold of the Grand Shocco, I gave up 
all hopes of taking it by storm. Situated in the midst of a small slope 
about half a mile in length, and less than a quarter in breadth, upon the 
side of a steep rocky hill, that rose nearly perpendicular from the plain, 
it was approachable only by a narrow pathway that led directly up the 
face of the cliiT. Ten men could easily defend this road against ten 
thousand. The elevation of the village was about one hundred and fifty 
feet. There were no walls or other artificial defences, except a mound 
of large stones, that were ready to be rolled down the steep and narrow 
path. Where the road commenced to ascend, there was a conical hill 
about fifty feet high, and some three or four hundred yards distant from 
the face of the cliff. It would have made a beautiful spot for a mortar 
battery. From the upper part of the town rose a steep hollow way, 
which, at the end of five or six hundred yards was crowned with a beet- 
ling ledge of rocks. A mountain howitzer, had we had one, and could 
we have got it up there, would soon have rendered the town untenable. 

The first thing to do was to take possession of the small hill that 
commanded the commencement of the path — certain, that if we could 
not get up, the enemy could not get down. We were now in a position 
to starve them into submission ; the only difficulty was that we could 
not afford the time. The enemy seemed to think that was our only 
plan, for they appeared capering upon the edge of the cliff, with loaves 
of bread on the points of their swords and spears, to indicate that they 
had an abundant supply of provision for a siege. 

For several days we remained inactive. No plan of operations pre- 
sented itself. I had examined the whole circumference of the mountain 
without being able to find any point at which it could be climbed, and 
was about giving up in despair, when the prince rode into camp from a 
reconnoissance, and stated that he thought he had discovered a crag, 
from which, if it could be reached, the ascent would not be impossible 
to the top of the cliffs commanding the town. He proposed to take the 
ladders and splice them together, and, with a body of two hundred men, 
make the attempt. If he succeeded, he would detach some of the masses 
of rock that were, apparently, trembling to a fall. From the nature of 
the ground these would necessarily take their way down through the 
midst of the town. Or, if it was found impossible to loosen the rocks, 
he would guard the passage by which he had ascended, until I led up 

K A LOO L AH. 369 

our men in full force, when we could descend the ravine to a proper dis- 
tance, take up a position, and open our batteries of slings, arrows, and 
fire-arms from a commanding height. 

I gave my assent to this proposition. Taking with him the ladders 
and a large quantity of stout cords, made of braided skin, Enphadde set 
out at night-fall for the spot that he had noted, about four miles from 
our camp. There was not much danger that he would meet with any 
opposition from the enemy ; but in order to make a diversion in his 
favor and to occupy their attention, I ordered large fires to be built, and 
made some of the soldiers busy themselves around them, as_ if construct- 
ing monstrous machines. Others were employed in digging, under a full 
blaze of light, in a trench that had been commenced across the foot of 
the road to the town, while others amused themselves and the enemy, 
who crowded the ledges of their plateau, blowing horns, beating drums, 
and dancing, leaping, and yelling. 

As morning dawned all eyes were strained in the direction of the 
peak. A light cap of vapor for a time obscured the view ; but as the 
sun rose it suddenly lifted, disclosing, not more to my delight than sur- 
prise, a group of figures upon the highest rock. One of them came for- 
ward and waved a banner. The Framazugs knew their prince, and a loud 
shout went up from the camp in reply. 

Enphadde lost no time ; one half of his men were distributed out 
upon the jutting points, so as to command the approaches from the town, 
the others, divided into three parties, commenced their attacks upon as 
many masses of overhanging rock. Some plied the pickaxes at the 
crumbling bases, others adjusted levers and ropes to the crevices above. 
When all was ready, according to agreement, the prince made a signal 
by waving a flag. 

In the meantime the enemy had been invited to parley, but they 
would receive no proposition. We wavecj a white flag to them ; they 
answered with yells of defiance. Anxious to save bloodshed, I sent a 
single man to attempt the ascent ; he was repelled with stones and 
arrows. Although somewhat confounded by the appearance of our men 
on the peak, it was evident that they had no idea of the intended plan of 
attack. With a feeling, compounded of anger at their stupidity and ob- 
stinacy and sorrow for their impending fate, I was compelled to give the 
signal to Enphadde to let fall. 

Instantly his men threw their full strength upon the levers beneath 
the tottering masses, which, slowly yielding to the force, hung for a mo- 
ment as if trembling at the fearful leap, and the next, like the stone of 


Sisyphus " resulting with a bound," thundered impetuously down the 
precipitous ravine directly into the town. One of these masses in leap- 
ing from a projecting ledge was broken into a thousand pieces. A sec- 
ond was diverted somewhat from its course by the inequalities of the 
ground, so as to strike only a couple of houses at the side. But the third, 
a huge rock of ten tons, rolled straight through the town, carrying every 
thing before it ; prostrating twenty houses, killing and wounding more 
than fifty people, among the latter of whom was the Grand Shocco himself ; 
and leaping from the edge of the inclined plain with a force that pro- 
jected it a distance of forty yards on the ground below. 

The prince and his men sprang at once to work, preparing for another 
discharge, while from the town went up a chorus of sounds that almost 
sensibly aided in loosening the trembling rocks. 

'■'Oicheolu! Oic hi heo lu ! " yelled the frightened J alia. '^ Zi-lc — li- 
e — li-e-c ! " screamed the women and children at the top of their shrill 
voices. The men leaped about like so many monkeys, gesticulating furi- 
■ously, throwing themselves upon the ground and tearing their long hair, 
which, frizzled and stiffened with a composition of beeswax and mutton 
tallow, had very much the appearance of a grenadier's cap saturated with 
■Soap fat. The women ran about with their children in their arms or 
clinging to their garments ; while any number of dogs, partaking of the 
•general panic, scampered through the town, with their voices elevated in 
long-drawn howls (they were incapable of barking) to concert pitch. 

Making a signal to Enphadde to suspend his operations, I again ex- 
pressed to the enemy our desire to offer them terms. The sense of security 
in which they had hitherto contemned our proffers, was now gone, and 
they signified their disposition to treat for a surrender. Our messengers 
were despatched into the town, and in a few minutes they returned 
with a deputation from the Grand Shocco. As there were no compli- 
cated diplomatic forms to be gone through with, the business was soon 
settled. My ultimatum was stated without circumlocution. Immediate 
surrender, the Grand Shocco and twelve principal men to put themselves 
into my hands without conditions, and the lives and property (except 
provisions necessary for our army) of all the other inhabitants to be 
saved, were the terms to which they at first demurred, but which, as 
there was no alternative, they were compelled to accept. 

A great many people from the surrounding country had flocked into 
Jebha for security ; as soon as these had evacuated the narrow plateau 
we marched up and took possession of the place. We found it to con- 
sist of about three hundred dwelling-houses, and a dozen large stores 


filled with grain, honey, oil, wool, woollen cloths, dates, and weapons of 
war — the whole belonging to the Shocco, who ruled with despotic power 
this particular tribe, the Shelwhuck Jalla, who, far more than the other 
tribes of the same people, had molested the borders of Framazugda. 

Understanding that the chief was lying badly wounded, having been 
buried beneath the walls of his house, which unluckily stood in the 
way of Enphadde's irresistible messenger, I went to see him, and 
found him with a dislocated shoulder and two or three fractured; 
ribs. He could not conceal his astonishment, when he suddenly found, 
himself treated as a patient — his broken bones bandaged up, and his; 
luxation reduced. It was equally a matter of surprise, the attention that 
I paid to the wounds of his people. 

" I cannot understand," he exclaimed, "why you should take so much 
pains to cure what you have come so far to make ! " 

We explained to him that we had not come merely for revenge, but 
to recover the captives that he had sent his people to steal, and to com-, 
pel him to keep the peace. We told him that the Great Shouns^ bore him. 
no ill-will, and wished him no harm ; but that he was determined that 
his people should no longer suffer from the predatory excursions of the 
Jalla, even if he had to quarter a permanent army in their country, des- 
olate it with fire from one end to the other, and slay all who should be. 
caught — men, women, and children. I told him that, for my part, I felt 
very friendly towards him, but that I had undertaken the command of 
all the forces of the great king, and that, if I was compelled to return, 
into his country, I should bring with me great guns, fifty times larger, 
than our muskets, which would reach him, even if he built his town 
upon the apex of the peak, and that I should then have to exterminate 
him and all his people. 

Reinforcements of both Framazugs and Kyptiles, among which was 
my old friend Sooloo Phar, arriving, our force was swelled to ten thousand 
men. Leaving, therefore, a strong garrison at Jebha, we set out on an 
expedition to some other tribes. As we advanced, the chiefs cam^ for- 
ward, and submitted without opposition, pledging themselves to peace 
with both the Framazugs and Kyptiles. 

For ten days we continued our march, penetrating the country for 
more than a hundred miles. At last we came to a small stream, which 
we should hardly have noticed, had not the inhabitants called our atten- 
tion to it, asserting that it was the beginning of the greatest river in the 
world. That after running an immense distance, receiving streams from 
every direction, it joined itself to a great river farther to the east, and that 


both together ran on for several moons' journey, and emptied into a salt 
lake. Could it be that I stood at the sources of the Bahr el Abiad? that 
my feet pressed the spot which Bruce so longed to tread, and which, 
when standing by the fountains of the Blue River, he vainly fancied he 
had found ? It was possible, in fact probable. I stooped, and kissed 
the water where it rilled from the ground. Perhaps, thought I, the very 
drops/ touched by my lips, may course on their winding way, for thou- 
sands of miles, until, leaping the cataracts of Syene, and passing the pal- 
aces of Luxor and the pyramids of Geeza, they reach the Mediterranean, 
and lave the keel of some one of the many ships, bearing the stripes and 
stars, that proudly part its clear blue waters. 

I asked our guides if it would be possible to follow the stream to its 
mouth ; they held up their hands in amazement at the idea. 

" Why not ? " I demanded. 

" Oh ! because of the savage countries through which it runs. In 
some places through barren deserts, and dense forests, in others, through 
countries inhabited by wild men and cannibals." 

" How do you know, then, that this stream is the head of a great 
river, if no one has ever traced its course ? " 

" Our ancestors have told us so. They knew, because thirty thousand 
moons ago they lived upon its banks, where it was a broad stream. But 
they were compelled by their enemies to fly up into this high country ; 
and on their journey, which lasted a hundred moons, they were forced to 
fight their way through nations so fierce, that no Jalla have ever since 
attempted to return." 

" What kind of people are these that you speak of — white or 
black ? " 

" Oh ! of all colors," replied my informant, the Shocco of a Jalla 
town ; " white, black, red, blue, and green." 

Upon expressing some surprise at this statement, the Shocco appealed 
to several of his nobles for its truth, and even offered, if I would go with 
him, to lead nxe against a people who had their faces, arms, and breasts, 
all covered with blue lines, or, if we pleased, he would make an expedi- 
tion with us to the east, where lived a nation of a little people, covered 
with green hair, who lived in holes that they dug in the ground with 
their hands, " or among the branches of the trees." 

" In other words," I interrupted, " a nation of monkeys." 

" Not at all," replied the Shocco, " they are human beings, speak a 
language that sounds like the whistling of arrows, are governed by chiefs, 
and when caught, as they sometimes are by the D'jhas'r'huc Jalla, they 



make good slaves. But why should I talk when I can show you one of 
them. Here Syedge ! Galloom ! Miefrah ! " shouted the Shocco, calling 
to his slaves, " run up the mountain to the goats' valley, and tell Jicric 
that I want hini ! " 

In a few minutes Jicric stood before us, and a comical-looking little 
fellow he was. In height he was about four feet to the top of his shoul- 
ders, which were elevated to a level with the crown of his head. He had 
no neck, and his head was half buried in his chest, so that his mouth 
came just above the upper edge of his sternum, His arms were long, 
terminating in hands resembling claws. His body was thick and short, 

** You will sometimes see twenty of these houses hanging from one tree*' 

with a protuberant abdomen, and his lower limbs slender, but strong and 
sinewy. He had no clothing, but instead was covered with a thick coat- 
ing of long, coarse hair, of a light pea-green tint. What was my surprise 
to find such an animal speaking Jally fluently, and answering, through 
an interpreter, my questions with spirit and intelligence. 

He said that his people were divided into many tribes ; and that they 
inhabited a great marshy country intersected by rivers running to the 
east. That they lived upon the spontaneous productions of the soil ; 
such as nuts, wild fruits, and edible roots ; and also upon insects, locusts, 
and serpents. That their chief enemies were a white people on the east, 
with long hair, who annually made an incursion into their country 


for slaves ; and on the north, a nation of red men, who painted their 
faces, and lived in gourds. 

Not understanding what Jicric meant by a people living in gourds, I 
demanded an explanation. 

" You must know," said he, " that these red men live in a country that 
produces a vine that bears a gourd as large as a Jalla hut. The stalk of 
this vine is frequently more than two hands'-breadth in diameter, and 
the fruit that hangs from it is sometimes more than five paces through. 
These vines the red people train upon large trees ; and when the yellow 
hard-shelled gourds have attained their growth, they excavate them, and 
convert them into pendent dwellings, where they are secure from the at- 
tacks of the numerous serpents that infest their country. You will sonie- 
times see twenty of these houses hanging from one tree." 

" How do the inhabitants get in and out ? " 

" Why, by a hole in the bottom, to which they draw themselves up 
by ropes, or which they can reach by climbing the trunk of the tree and 
stepping down round the outside of the gourd." 

" Capital houses they must be for the rainy season ! " 

" Oh beautiful ! beautiful ! " exclaimed Jicric ; " and for snakes ! 
wonderful for snakes ! " 

" Why, are the snakes so numerous ? " 

" Numerous ? why, there is a country not twenty days' from here, 
where they are so thick that even the people who live in squashes are 
compelled to desert it. The snakes, in the morning, when they come out 
of their holes, erect themselves as high and as thick as trees. Some- 
times, when you look over this snake country you would think that you 
saw a leafless forest waving in a storm ! " 

Jicric's tones were beginning to assume an air of exaggeration, but 
they were abundantly corroborated by the loud assertions of the Shocco 
and his friends. 

I asked Jicric if he would accompany me ; and, upon his assenting, 
made a bargain for him with his master. The little fellow has been with 
me ever since, and has grown to be a great favorite with Kaloolah, al- 
though at first she could hardly bear him in her sight. 

Having now ventured as far from home as prudence would permit, 
with so small an army, we set out on our return to Jebha. Here we 
picked up the Grand Shocco, with his twelve principal men, and started 
for Alkafuz. 

At Alkafuz we left him to come on by litter, and the prince and my- 
self, mounting the fleetest horses, set out for the capital. In four days 


we reached the city, and such a time as we had in making our way 
through the crpwds in the streets, and into the great square into the pal- 
ace ! There was nothing Hke a regular procession, and no parade of cap- 
tives or spoils ; but our reception was a complete impromptu popular 
triumph. I thought of Bacchus on his return from his Indian expedi- 
tion ; but Bacchus, if I recollect aright, was acconipanied by all his 
women folks, and he could afford to dance and fiddle his way along 
leisurely, whereas mine I had not seen in some time, and I knew that she 
was waiting for me ; so, jumping from my horse, I dashed through the 
crowds on foot, leaving the prince to do the honors of the occasion, and 
crossing the court of monkeys, entered a room hung with feather-cloth 
and filled with flowers. A female, draped in flowing robes of white, was 
waiting to receive me, but she was so tall, so dignified, and had such an 
air of social and regal aplomb that, although she was my own wife, a de- 
cided sentiment of the reverential qualified the embrace with which I 
received her, as she threw herself into my arms. 


Preparations for War^Organizing an Army — The March — Crossing the Queal- 
tle — Siege of Goolah — A New Method of Scaling Walls. 

-A Grand Bat- 

kEVERAL months elapsed from the time of our triumphant 
return before all our preparations were completed for my 
proposed system of operations against the Footas. In the 
meantime, however, there had been a number of skirmishes 
and small battles, in which the Framazugs, and a few Kyptiles, under 
the command of Enphadde, and assisted by Hugh, Hassan, and Thomp- 
son, had conducted themselves with a good deal of spirit. In general, 
however, they were indisposed to attack an enemy armed as the Footas, 
and no affair of any moment, in consequence, took place. The enemy 
made continual incursions into the Kyptile and Kimboo countries, and, 
although they met with more opposition, and had to fight a little harder, 
they succeeded in making many slaves, and in some places in driving the 
Kyptiles quite into the Framazug lines. 

My preparations were pushed, under my own personal superintend- 
ence, with the utmost vigor. Every means in the kingdom was placed at 
my disposal, and the most stringent orders issued by the Great Shouns^, 
to the effect that the most implicit obedience was to be rendered to any 
directions that I might give. 

The first thing I set about was the manufacture of gunpowder. 
Fortunately, I recollected the proportionate numbers of the ingredients, 
but I knew not to which article each number applied. That is, I knew 
that there must be about seventy-five parts of one of the constituents of 
gunpowder to fifteen of the second, and ten of the third, but whether the 
seventy-five parts were to be of charcoal, sulphur, or saltpetre, was a point 
which had wholly escaped my memory. It did not, however, require a 
long course of experiment to determine the matter ; the powder was at 
last produced, and that, too, of a very excellent quality. A large manu- 
factory was now established, and a hundred hands set to work at the several 
processes ; some pulverized the materials, others mixed the paste in large 



wooden bowls, and others granulated it by passing it through sieves of 

The next thing was to make the machines in which the powder was 
to he used. As for casting solid cylinders of metal, and then boring them 
out into cannon — it was out of the question. The most that we could 
do was to cast a hoHow piece, and then work the bore' as smooth and as 
straight as possible. We tried this, but with many difficulties and acci- 
dents. The artists in my employ were unused to casting in such large 
masses, their bronze work, of even their largest statue, being all done in 
small pieces. We could not undertake, therefore, any thing larger than 
a four-pounder. In the course of our experiments we met with many 
accidents ; several times our moulds broke down while in the act of 
running the metal. At other times the guns came out crooked, full of 
flaws, and incapable of standing the most moderate proof. And once 
the liquid metal was poured into a damp mould ; the moisture was 
instantly converted into steam of a high expansive power. An explosion 
took place that threw the hot bronze in every direction ; killing two of 
the workmen, and severely wounding several others. 

After a great deal of trouble in this way, and having succeeded in 
making only three small pieces that were good for any thing, I concluded 
to adopt an entirely different plan, and to go back to first principles, or 
rather to first practices. It occurred to me that I had read somewhere of 
wooden guns being used in the infancy of artillery science, and even 
cannon made of leather. Acting upon this idea, I caused the trunk of a 
peculiar species of palm to be sawed into proper lengths ; the soft pith or 
heart of one of these was easily removed, leaving a smooth bore of about 
five inches and a half in diameter, surrounded by a shell three inches 
thick, of wood surpassing in hardness lignum vitae, or the still harder 
fibre of the cabbage tree. An iron breech, through which was bored a 
vent, was now adjusted into one end ; next a number of wrought-iron 
rings, each two inches thick and four inches wide, and a very little smaller 
in diameter than the external circumference of the wooden tube, was 
prepared. These were heated so as to expand them, and passed on in 
succession, until the whole length of the tube, from breech to muzzle, 
was encased. Each ring was so fashioned as to dovetail, or interlock, 
with the ones above and below it. The whole length of the guii was 
about four feet, and the bore, as I have said, a little more than five inches 
and a half, making it, as near as I have been able to form any notion on 
the subject, about the size of a twenty-four-pound howitzer. 

Great was our delight upon trying this piece to find that it fully an- 


swered our purposes. More than forty rounds of leaden grape-shot were 
fired from it before it was materially injured, and even then it was ser- 
viceable for thirty or forty charges more. The action of the powder 
upon the wood hardened it almost to the density of iron. Another piece 
stood more than thirty discharges of round shot, and we found that by 
taking the precaution of wrapping the ball in greased cloth more than a 
hundred rounds could be fired, and still leave the gun capable of service. 

Encouraged by this success, it was resolved to prepare twenty-five 
pieces, and five hundred of the best artisans were at once employed in pre- 
paring the palm trunks, making the ironwork, casting balls, making up 
stands of grape and canister, and constructing the carriages. These 
last were composed of a wooden shoe, into which the gun was fastened, 
and which was placed upon a stout, heavy plank, with grooves in it that 
allowed the shoe to slide back and forth about eighteen inches. The 
recoil, when it had reached its greatest limit, was checked by stout iron 
springs. Three wooden rollers of different sizes served to elevate to any 
required angle the forward end of the plank, and ropes attached to the 
other end served to give a horizontal motion. To rings in the plank 
were fastened two spars, each thirty-five feet in length, and by means of 
lanyards to these spars, forty men could lay hold of them, and carry off 
the guns with ease. When the gun was to be placed in battery these 
spars could be at once unlimbered and drawn to the rear. 

The organization oi\.h.& personnel ol my army was cov^AmlCX&A. pari passu 
with the preparation of the materiel. A hundred thousand men were 
anxious to serve ; but I was determined not to embarrass myself with a 
horde that it would be impossible to reduce to discipline, or to find any 
use for. I resolutely insisted on limiting the whole number to twenty- 
four thousand men. These I divided into eight brigades, each brigade 
into three regiments, and each regiment into ten companies of one hun- 
dred men each. They were all armed with bows and arrows ; the bows 
were carried at the back; each man was also furnished with a large sling 
to use in case his arrows gave out and stones could be got. Besides these, 
he carried a short strong spear or pike, about six feet and a half in 
length, and with a stout double-edged iron point. This shortening of 
the spears from twelve feet to six was the only thing in all my innova- 
tions that excited any question as to its propriety ; but my orders had to 
be obeyed, and twenty-four thousand broad-bladed, sharp-pointed weap- 
ons, having the well-balanced and agreeable hang of a ship's boarding 
pike, were made. 

It was fortunate, perhaps, that I knew nothing of military tactics be- 


yond what arty Yankee youngster obtains from reading of battles and 
seeing " general trainings." I might otherwise have been perplexed 
with knowledge, and anxious to communicate too much of it to 
my troops. As it was, I felt no inducement to indulge in any of the 
superfluities of drill. In the school of the soldier a simple system of 
manual exercise was the first thing that demanded my attention. The 
nature of it will be best understood, perhaps, from the words of com- 
mand. These were: "shoulder spears," "charge spears," "ground 
spears," which meant sticking the spears upright into the ground in front 
of the soldier; " unsling bows," " notch arrows," " draw arrows," " fire." 
Hugh, who undertook the entire superintendence of the manual exercise, 
wished to introduce several other commands, such as " carry arms," 
" present arms," etc. ; and had the men had any thing about them that 
could have been twisted by any effort of fancy into a resemblance to 
ramrods and cartridges, he would have insisted upon their drawing the 
one and handling the other. As it was, I had to compromise matters 
with him, and, in consideration of their utility in relieving the men upon 
a march, permit the use of " slope spears " and "trail spears." 

In the school of the company there were no very difficult or impor- 
tant points necessary for our purposes to be attended to. Marching by 
whole front or platoons, wheeling, changing face, and halting were all 
that we attempted, and these were not performed, as Hugh loudly pro- 
tested, secundein artcin ; but as he could not demonstrate that the prac- 
tice of the royal marines was any better, he was compelled to swallow 
his professional pride and follow the army regulations, as by myself and 
my respectable old father-in-law established. 

The school of the battalion was more difficult to arrange, and tasked 
my invention the most severely, inasmuch as neither Hugh nor myself 
knew any thing of battalion or regimental manoeuvres. But, although 
ignorant of the means, or rather the modus operandi, the indications to be 
fulfilled were evident enough. Of these, the two most important were, 
deploying from column, and forming squares. The latter, in particular, 
was of the highest consequence, inasmuch as upon it depended the entire 
success of our operations against an enemy whose whole force consisted 
in cavalry. 

After much consideration, I succeeded in arranging a series of evolu- 
tions, by which each regiment could be thrown into square, solid or hol- 
low, according to the exigencies of the case and the extent of the ground, 
at a moment's notice, either from column or line, and when marching or 
stationary. It would take too long to give all the details of the manoeu- 


vres, and, besides, I have no wish to shock the professional sensibilities 
of any of the accomplished tacticians and martinets of the New York mi- 
litia. Suffice it therefore to say that, upon my system, squares to resist 
a charge of cavalry can now be formed with all necessary rapidity and 

A system of tactics having been matured, it became necessary to apply 
it in practice, and to discipline twenty-four thousand men, to train them 
to new uses of their weapons, to qew combinations of movement — to 
teach them the more effective Christian mode of fighting. This was ac- 
complished in a wonderful short space of time, by collecting all the 
officers of the army into a battalion about eight hundred strong, and 
drilling them first. They were then dismissed to their respective corps, 
when each regimental staff exerted itself in emulation to communicate its 
knowledge to the men. To favor this emulation, the regiments were en- 
camped apart, and for three months the drills were conducted without 
any one but the members of the corps being present. Every day the 
battalion line of officers was formed, and either Hugh or myself put them 
through their, evolutions, but I carefully abstained from visiting the 
quarters of the different regiments when they were at their exercises. At 
the end of three months it was announced that the king and myself 
would make a tour of inspection, and that those regiments that best per- 
formed their exercises would receive marks of the royal bounty. It must 
be understood that the army was composed of picked men, men chosen 
for their intelligence and activity, and that the spirit of emulation had 
been carried to the highest pitch in order to comprehend the wonderful 
progress that they had made. The emperor was in raptures, and ordered 
that every man should receive a month's pay as a present, and that the 
officers should be rewarded with an increase of salary and with decora- 
tions and orders. Captains of companies were allowed to add a green 
parrot's feather to their caps, and the field officers were each presented 
with a stuffed monkey's paw, to be worn suspended from the neck by a 
blue ribbon. 

The army was now collected in one camp on the outskirts of the city, 
and the drilling went on under my own personal inspection. Particular 
pains were taken in the formation of the squares. The officers, when in 
the centre were taught to use a number of encouraging expressions to 
their men, and the firmness of the kneeling ranks was assured by the 
repeated charges of squadrons of cavalry up to the very spear-heads. No 
military manoeuvre, when well performed, can be more beautiful. Upon 
the word, each regiment rapidly closes into a solid mass ; the men, with 


their polished spears and their hght-red uniforms, and the officers in the 
centre with their dancing, many-colored plumes and rich uniforms of bril- 
liant feather-cloth. A second order, and the flashing spear-points are 
levelled and inclined outward, the front ranks drop to their knees with a 
movement that, to a spectator at a little distance, looks not unlike the 
bursting from bud to flower of a gigantic rose, or rather like the blowing- 
of a large red thistle. 

At length all was ready, and early one beautiful morning in the be- 
ginning of the dry season the army commenced its march for the Queal — 
which river was reached without any difficulty, the roads being good, and 
every thing having been prepared to facilitate our progress. It was my 
plan to cross the stream, and, pushing on down to the lake, lay siege to 
Goolah. Here it was thought that the Footas would make a vigorous 
defence, but it was not expected that they would meet us in full force in 
the field. We were, therefore, somewhat astonished, though far from 
displeased, to find the enemy in considerable numbers, occupying the 
opposite bank of the river. I at once decided, instead of depending 
upon our skin boats, to throw a bridge across the river, and to fortify it 
so as to secure a means of retreat, if necessary. For this purpose En- 
phadde was despatched across with a detachment to seize a position, which 
he did without opposition, the attention of the enemy being diverted by 
the main body of the army, and in a few hours had it strongly entrenched. 

In three days we had a fine wide bridge, consisting of a strong frame- 
work, covered with planks, floated by means of boats and inflated skins, 
and defended at either end by a stone tower. We crossed, and took up 
our line of march through a wild, open country — the Foota horsemen 
appearing in great numbers, but retreating as we advanced. 

It is unnecessary to detain the reader with all the details of marching^ 
bivouacking, and skirmishing. Suffice it to say we at length reached 
the banks of the lake, and within sight of the walls of Goolah. We 
found the enemy in full force, occupying a wide level piece of ground 
that stretched from the town along the lake, up to the mouth of the 
Queal. On the other side, this plain was bounded by a ridge of wooded 
hills. At one place these hills came down to within half a mile of the 
water, so as almost to cut the plain in two, and then fell away again, with 
a bold sweep around the town. A thorough reconnoissance satisfied us 
that the hills were uninhabited, and that it was possible, although diffi- 
cult, to pass along through them, and reach the narrowest part of the 
plain ; thus cutting the Footas off from their town, and compelling them 
to a general engagement at once. 


Leaving Dal Gouk at the head of half my disposable force of twenty 
thousand, in an entrenched camp, to occupy the Footas and to cover our 
detour, I set out, accompanied by the prince and my companions, with 
the remaining ten thousand, and three complete batteries of artillery. 
Luckily, our batteries were not composed of Christian cannon, or we 
should have found the way perfectly impracticable. As it was, it was 
very heavy work carrying our light guns up and down precipices, 
and over jagged rock3 ; but perseverance conquered all obstacles ; and at 
nightfall, after a terrible day's march, we reached a point still covered by ' 
the hills, but whence we could at once debouch upon the narrow portion 
of plain before mentioned. Little did the Footas, who were assembled 
some thirty thousand strong, at the upper part of the small prairie in 
front of Dal Gouk's lines — little did they dream that their flanks had 
been turned, and that their enemy, with a divided force, it is true, but 
still a sufificient one, had reached their rear. And just as little did they 
dream of the death-dealing properties of the formidable machines that 
they were soon about to encounter. 

Putting the army in motion at daybreak, in a few minutes we reached 
the level ground. A small rocky islet stood out a little distance in the 
plain ; upon this I placed three pieces of artillery in care of Jack, with 
orders not to fire a gun until the enemy's charge had been repulsed. 
When fully in position, our right flank, under Enphadde, rested upon the 
bank of the river, and was supported by three pieces in charge of Hugh. 
The remaining artillery, consisting of twelve pieces, I drew up under my 
own personal superintendence, upon our left flank, at the base of the 
hills, and three or four hundred yards in rear of Jack's masked demi- 

It was the middle of the forenoon when all our positions were taken, 
and by that time the enemy were fully informed of our movements. In 
fact, our operations had been conducted after daylight, directly under 
the supervision of bodies of horsemen, who, however, had offered no 
opposition. Large masses of cavalry began to accumulate in front of us ; 
until about noon the enemy's full force had moved down from Dal Gouk's 
camp to the barrier so suddenly raised in their rear. They were not long 
in coming to the conclusion to ride over us, a feat which they had no 
doubt about being able to perform on level ground. As soon as it was 
evident, from their motions, that there was to be a general charge, I 
threw my troops into squares, and passed up and down the whole length 
of the line, addressing to each battalion a few words of encouragement, 
which were received with the utmost enthusiasm. 

Grandly the whole mass moved down upon us. There was no effort 


at order, but for spirit, rapidity of pace, and numbers, there was never a 
cavalry charge of the French more magnificent. On they came, the ground 
trembling and groaning beneath the tramp of twenty thousand horses, 
twirling their muskets and spears high above their heads, and beating with 
might and main on their shields of buffalo hide. On they came, with their 
white teeth flashing, their scimitars gleaming, and their ornamented 
trappings rattling like pebbles amid the thundering of a heavy surf. On 
they came with trumpets sounding, cymbals clashing, and each voice 
shouting the famous battle-cry of the Saracens — that battle-cry which, 
however Christians may boast of their achievements, has been heard on 
more fields and has heralded more bloodshed than any Christian battle- 
cry ever uttered, not excepting the exciting oaths of the English soldiery, 
the blasphemies of the French, the obscene anathemas of the Spanish, 
or the elegant and encouraging " give 'em hell " of my own countrymen. 
On they came, but still my men stood as firm as did the English squares 
at Waterloo. Suddenly the roar of the batteries on our left was added to 
the tumult. It was answered by Hugh's three pieces, and by a general 
discharge of slings, arrows, and small-arms from our lines. The enemy 
immediately in front of the batteries were completely demolished by our 
first discharge, when, changing front to the right, I opened a tremendous 
flanking fire upon the dense masses, very much to the relief of the hard- 
pressed squares. As the enemy recoiled. Jack's gun came into play, and 
the rapid discharges of grape and canister, from eighteen pieces, carried 
death into every portion of their disordered ranks. 

At this moment a body of a thousand horse came creeping down on 
our left, under the shadow of the hills. They proved to be our Kyptilea 
and Kimboos, under Sooloo Phar, from Dal Gouk's camp. At a word 
they threw themselves upon the struggling and reeling masses, and the 
rout was complete. Five thousand were left dead on the field — while 
several hundreds were forced over the steep banks into the river, and 
many more were destroyed by the Seywad as they fled by his camp. 

The next day the whole army made a regular investment of the town, 
which had refused all offers for a capitulation. Our batteries were at 
once placed in position, but after a hard day's firing, we found that they 
were utterly inadequate to making any impression upon the massive walls, 
In addition to their want of size, our guns began to show signs of weak- 
ness, and it was evident that another day's cannonade would use them 
up entirely. 

For three weeks we lay before Goolah, suffering many inconveniences, 
especially from want of provisions, the remnants of the defeated Foota 
army occupying our rear, and cutting off our communications. And 


there we might have stayed until the present day, had I not thought of a 
plan for taking the town, which, if not as ingenious as that adopted by 
Cyrus for the capture of Babylon, was at least as novel and as successful. 

On the east side of the town, the wall, crossing between two eleva- 
tions of ground, had been carried the same height as upon the eminences ; 
the consequence was, that at this point it was more than sixty feet 
from top to bottom, and that this very height rendered it unlikely to be 
attempted by escalade, led to its being less vigilantly guarded than the 
more accessible portions. A close and continued watch satisfied us that 
at night the enemy wholly neglected it, while at the gates and walls 
generally they kept themselves pretty wide awake. 

My plan once formed, I instantly set about preparing the machinery 
for carrying it into execution. Two large strong concave disks of copper, 
about the size of soup plates, were first made. Around the edge of each 
was fixed a rim of leather, and into the back, or convex side, was firmly 
inserted, perpendicularly, a pistol barrel. A piston adapted to the barrel 
converted it into a pump, by which the air within, when the disk was 
pressed against a flat surface, could be exhausted. The pistol barrel 
projecting horizontally when the disk was placed against a perpendicular 
surface, served as a projection for the hand to grasp, while from each 
depended a loop or stirrup for the feet. The method of using this appa- 
ratus is simple enough ; all that is necessary is to place one disk against a 
smooth wall, as high as the arm can reach ; the piston is worked for a 
few seconds by means of the thumb forcing it in, and a spring driving it 
out — a partial vacuum, produced when the disk is held firmly against the 
wall, by the pressure of the external air. Upon standing up in the 
stirrup, the other disk is applied higher up, and fastened in the same 
manner, and so on alternately. In this way a person can creep along a 
smooth wall to any height or distance. 

Upon trying this apparatus, one dark night, on the lofty portion of 
wall that I have mentioned, I found it to answer my expectations perfectly. 
Reaching the top without any difficulty, and without exciting any alarm, 
I drew up, by means of a cord, a ladder of ropes. Up this quietly crept 
a body of two hundred men, headed by Jack. When all were assembled, 
and dawn sufficiently advanced to see our way, we passed swiftly along 
to one of the gates, and descending, took possession of it almost without 
opposition. The alarm had spread, but before the enemy could recover 
from their surprise, the gate was thrown open, and the prince, at the head 
of a battalion, with two or three guns, came rushing in. The other gates 
were soon secured, and the town was ours. 


Return from the Wars — Hammed Benshoolo — Message from Kaloolah — Mysterious Indications 
— Gogo in Chains — An Infant Phenomenon — Conclusion. 

iT was about three weeks after the capture of the city that, 
accompanied by Hammed Benshoolo, a Moorish trader from 
Morocco, whom we had found in Goolah, and a small escort, I 
started on my return to Kiloam. The main body of the army, 
under the command of the prince, was to remain for a while on the further 
banks of the Queal to enforce the terms of the treaty, the principal items 
of which were the suppression of all slave-hunting expeditions, the 
demolition of the walls of Goolah, and the payment of a tribute to the 
Great Shouns6. 

The lofty acropolis of Kiloam was in sight. I pointed it out to 
Hammed. " You little expected to find such a country as this, and such 
a city as that yonder," said I. 

" Not so populous and so large," replied the Moor; "but still I have 
often heard rumors at Jennee and Timbuctoo of a very rich white nation 
beyond the Djebel el Kumri. In truth, I should not have journeyed to 
Goolah, so much farther than any Moorish trader ever came before, if it 
had not been in hopes of seeing something of the great unknown land." 

" You are determined to return ? " I demanded. 

"With your permission," replied Hammed. " It will be a long and 
difficult journey, but, with the blessing of God, I shall get back as I came, 
in safety." 

A capital opportunity, thought I, of sending some news to my Chris- 
tian friends of my whereabouts and prospects. At this moment my at- 
tention was taken by the flutter of a royal banner- from the turret of a 
chateau we were approaching, and in a few moments we encountered mes- 
sengers, who had been despatched to inform me that the princess had 
come thus far to meet me. 

For more than a month I had heard no news from the court, and the 
anxiety with which I questioned the messages may be imagined ; but 
they had nothing to tell, except that the princess had been ill, but was 



own much better, and that she was awaiting me at the neighboring 
chateau. There was an air of constraint in their manner and answers that 
I thought a little singular, but which I suffered to pass without further 
question, hurrying my pace only, and riding down any bodements before 
they had time to form. 

We entered the gates of the chateau. Throwing the reins of my 
horse to an attendant, I strode across the court-yard to the great hall, at 
the entrance to which stood Clefenha, making all kinds of grimaces and 
gestures. She rolled her eyes, showed her white teeth, threw her arms 
about in all manner of ways, and, dancing up and down, muttered a 
string of unintelligible exclamations — " Oh, Wollo ! Wollo ! how big ! 
how fat ! how beautiful ! " At the same time, seizing my hand, she half 
devoured it with kisses. 

" The girl must be crazy," said I to the surrounding groups, who, 
however, made no reply. 

At this moment I noticed Gogo — yellow-haired Gogo — poor fellow ! — 
he was seated in a corner in a very desponding attitude ; but what was 
most singular, he was firmly secured by a stout wire chain around his neck. 

" And what can this mean ? " I exclaimed, advancing towards him, 
" Gogo in disgrace ! " 

But the negress intercepted me, sputtering out in broken sentences of 
Framazug her indignation at some offence Gogo had been committing. 
As she spluttered and shook her hand at him, he chattered and rattled 
his chain, until, at last, excited beyond all bounds, the negress flew at him 
and gave him a smart box on the ear. The explosion of rage on both 
sides was exceedingly comical, and wholly incomprehensible, except on 
the supposition that Gogo had become mad, and that Clefenha had been 
bitten by him. 

" I must ask Kaloolah what all this means," said I, as I ascended the 
stairs, followed by the negress, who, amid her objurgations of Gogo, con- 
trived to intersperse her indefinite admiratory exclamations of something 
that was " Wollo ! Wollo ! how beautiful ! and how fat ! " 

Kaloolah stood beneath a curtained archway to receive me. The 
passage was in shadow, but I could perceive that she was pale, and that 
she was holding on by the golden fringe of the drapery to support herself. 
I rushed forward to her, and she fell, sobbing, into my arms. , 

" Kaloolah ! Lolo Yarra ! Lolo Semali! My life ! my heart ! What 
is this ? What has happened ? Are you ill ? Has any accident befallen 
the Great Shouns6 ? And, Clefenha, what is the matter with her — has 
she gone crazy ? " 


The princess looked up, with a smile, in my eyes. 

" And Gogo — what is the matter with Gogo, that he is banished 
from your presence in chains ? " 

" Oh, the naughty little wretch ! " said Kaloolah, shuddering. "And 
yet, I ought not to say so. Poor fellow, I pity him." 

" Why so ? , What is the matter with him ? " 

" He is jealous." 

" Jealous ! of what ? " 

" I '11 show you," said Kaloolah, looking up in my face with an expres- 
sion of mingled pride and affection, and with a cunning smile, that, 
flashing through my memory, instantaneously lighted up each little spot 
and dot that marked the train of reminiscence from the princess of Fra- 
mazugda, back to the little slave girl on the banks of the Congo. 

" I '11 show you," said Kaloolah, and leading me along the passage, 
she pulled aside the curtain, and we entered a room in the centre of 
which stoo